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Full text of "India rubber world"



ilip w . J 

xr .A/y 


The India Rubber World 

October, 1920, to March, 1921 

April, 1921, to September, 1921 

New York. N. Y. 

Vol. LXV 

OCTOBER 1, 1921 

No. 1 

Accelerating Action of Different Compounds 
of Lead in the Vulcanizing of Rubber, 

O. M- Grave) 663 
Acceleration in Vulcanization, Theory of.... 17-4 
Acceleration of Vulcanization — II 

(D. F. Twiss and C. W. Howson—Craphs) .'2S\ 

Accelerator, "Aksel" 896 

Patents, Vulcanization 741, 780 

Service Laboratories, Rubber *730 

Accelerators, Certain, Effect of. Upon the 
Properties of Vulcanized Rubber (G. D. 

Kratz and A. H. Flower — Graphs) '9i 

Notes on 73 

Organic, The Action of, in the \'ulcaniza- 
t.on of Rubber— III (G. D. Kratz, A. H. 

Flower and B. J . Shapiro) 744 

Reactions of. During Vulcanization 

(.Wintield Scott and C. «'. Bedford) 572 

Syringa Vulcanine 26 

Vulcanization, Reduction Products of Para- 
nitraniline Red as. The {Andr6 Dubosc) 338 

"Vulcazol" 253 

"XLO" 740 

Acceptance Bank, International 753 

Acid, Sulphuric, .\ction of, on Caoutchouc 

(F. Kirchhcf) 741 
Acids, Effect of, in Retarding the Rate of Cure 

(H. P. Stevens) 660 
Action of Certain Organic .Accelerators in the 
X'ulcanization of Rubber — II and III 
(C. D. Krat:, A. H. Flower and B. J. 

Shapiro) 664, 744 

Light on Rubber (B. D. Porritt) 336 

Sulphuric Acid on Caoutchouc, 

(F. Kirchhof) 741 

Adjudicated Patents 509, 606 

Advantages of Water Vulcanizatit n. The. 

(.Arthur E. FrisweU) 662 
Aging of Certain Rubber Compounds, The. 

(/. R. Ruby and Harlan A. Depew) 246 
of Vulcanized Plantation Rubber. 

(Dr. H. P. Stevens) 338 
Tests, Ten Years' Experience with (William 
C. Geer and Walter W. Evans — Plan, 

Graphs) •887 

Air-Bags. See Machines, etc 

AirBag Problem, The 204 

Compressor for Garages and Vulcanizing 

Shops 'ees 

for Giant Tires i *340 

Air Moisture Separator '257 

Aircraft Production. Bureau of. United Slates 

Army Specifications 577 

Airplane Shock Absorbers, Elastic Cord for, , *6 

Airship h'abrics. New Rubberized 25 

Akron Rubber Industry Approaching Normal 

Conditions *842 

Alum as a Coagulant. ... (Henry P. Stevens) 684 
American — 

Chemical Society Meetings 7, 515, 657, 898 

Physical Testing Committee Appointed. .. . 658 
Rubber Division, Meetings of the.. 7, 657, 898 

"Chemistry" (Book Review) 834 

Chewing Gum Industry, The "558 

Overseas Plantations hEditorial) 314 

Railway Association. See Specifications. 
Rubber Trade, News, Notes and Personals. 39, 
117, 189, 271, 351, 441, 513, 591, 677, 759, 

837, 917 

Society For Testing Materials 737,922 

",\nnual Meeting" (Book Review) 349 

Tractors on Rubber Plantations *324 

vs European Practice in the Rubber Tire 

Industry (Albert H. Myers) "689 

Ames Holden Tire Company, Limited, The.. '451 
Amsterdam Rubber Market.. 64, 139, 220, 299, 384, 
463, 542, 620, 702, 783, 865, 943 
Analysis, Rubber, Interpretation of. The 

(John B. Tutlte) 430 
Analysis of the Preliminary Summary of the 
Manufacture of Rubber Goods, An . 

(Richard Hoadley Tingley— Charts, Graph)'809 
of \'ulcanized Rubber, Methods for the.... 657 

Antimony, Crimson (John M. Bierer) 17 

Sulphide, Chemical Examination of 337 

Sulphuret, Its Manufacture and Use. 

(D. A. Shirk) 638 

Antwerp Rubber Arrivals 140, 222,300 

Antwerp Rubber Market. .64, 220, 384, 463, 540, 
542, 620, 702, 783, 865, 943 

"Artificial Fur," Rubbert-Set Fur '900 

Artificial Lighting in The Rubber Industry. 
(E. Leavenworth Elliott — Charts, Dia- 
grams) *239, "329, 412, "483. "640 

Ashcroft, Ralph W (Portrait and Sketch)'203 

Austria, Rubber Trade in 209 

"Automobile Drivers, Safety Lessons For" 

(Book Rei-iew) 506 

Show. National 350 

Automotive Engineers, Society of 

Specifications for Insulated Cables 829 


Balata Belting:, Manufacture of "236 

Production in Dutch Guiana Declining. . . . 215 

Ball. See New Goods and Specialties. 

Balloons, Toy, Casting for "861 

See also New Goods and Specialties. 

Balls, Sponge Rubber 907 

"Bamber's Rubber Calculator Book" 

(Book Review) 267 

Bank, International Acceptance 753 

Basic Causes for Stickiness in Crude Rubber 

(Andr^ Dubosc) 897 

Bedford, C. W., and Winfiei.d Scott — 
Reactions of Accelerators During Vulcani- 
zation 572 

Belting, Balata, Manufacture of "236 

Rubber, Applying and Repairing "802 

Benzol Poisoning In Rubber Factories 573 

Bierer, John M. — 

Crimson .Antimony 17 

Birkenstein & Son, Inc., New Home of "192 

Bitterlich, Walter J. — - 

Steam Requirements for \'ulcanizing. 

(Charts) "22 

Blcndin, P. E., Hon (Portrait)'i\7 

Boerstler, Elton S (Portrait) "47 

Bolivian Rubber Industry, The 292 

Kcots and Shoes. 

See New Goods and Specialties, Footwear. 
Foreign Import Duties on 574 

Boynton, Nehemiah, Rev., D. D. . . (Por(ra!l)*318 

Brain Workers' Union, -A (Editorial) 634 

Brazil Rubber Statistics 62, 141, 302, 388, 466 

Brazil Rubber Trade in 210 

Brief Analysis of Tire Fabric Manufacture, A 

(H. R. lVhitehead)'8\'i 

British Export Efficiency (Editorial) 75 

Industries, Export Register of Federation of 

(Book Review) 267 

Method of Tube Splicing * 1 12 

Rubber Industry (Editorial) 154 

Rubber Industry Since The Armistice 610 

Rubber Men Very Much Awake. .(Editorial) 475 

View of the Rubber Situation, A 132 

West Indies, Rubber Situation in.... 694 

Broughton, J. S (PortrotO*321 

"Brown Bast" (Book Review) 915 

Brunt, G. — 

Reagents for Vulcanization 895 

Brush, Tire Tube Splicing *258 

Brushes in Tire Making and Rubber Manufac- 
ture *836 

Buckeye Rubber Products Company, The.... '926 

Buffing Cone, Simple "656 

Building Men to Build Rubber Goods. 

(Editorial) 396 

Bureau of Aircraft Production, LTnited States 
Army, See Specifications, 
of Standards. See Specifications. 

Bt'RNHAM, Chester C. — 

Making Rubber Heels for a Hundred Mil- 
lion People *12 

Business Records, Moving Pictures of 82 

Cable Systems, The Importance of (Editorial) 313 
"Calculator Book, Bamber's Rubber" 

(Book Review) 267 

Caldwell, R. J (Portrait and Sketeh)'S\6 

CaleTider and Mill Lubrication, Rubber "646 

Cameron Slitting and Rewinding Machine. ... "243 

Canada Rubber Statistics— 67, 147, 226, 303, 387, 

467, 545, 708, 790, 871, 941 

Canadian Market For Rubber Goods 51 

Canadian Notes. .50, 127, 203, 285, 364, 451, 526, 

602, 688, '770 
Caoutchouc Considered as a Colloid. 

(D. F. Tzoiss) 429 

M, lecule, The (G. .Stafford Whitby) 659 

Relative Activity of Various .Allotropic 
Forms of Sulphur Towards, The 

(D. F. Twiss and F. Thomas) 579 

Caoutchoucine 530 

"Capital Strike" Claim, The Absurd 

(Editorial) 634 

Carbcrry, John D (Portrait and Sketch) 443 

Carbon Black Industry 337 

Carbons and Hydrocarbons Used in the Rub- 
ber Iiulustry Frederic Dannerth) 742 

Carroll, J. M. S (Portrait and Sketch)'364 

Catalpo 367 

"Ceylon Green Book, 1921, Times Of" 

(Book Review) 506 
Rubber Statistics. . 138, 220, 299, 382, 540, 621 

784, 866, 944 

Rubber Trade 59 

Chase CaterpilL-ir Tr.ick, The '848 

"CHiemical Engineering Catalog, 1920" 

(Book Review) 128 
Industries, Sixth and Seventh National Ex- 
positions of 16, 220 

"Lab* ratcrv. How to Make and LTse a Small" 

(Book Review) 38 

Patents.. 29, 105, 172, 253, 339, 431, 497, 580, 

660, 740, 819, 896 

Other.. 173, 254, 339, 497, 581, 661, 820, 897 

Society, American, Meetings. .. .7, 515, 657, 898 

Physical Testing Committee Appointed.. 658 

Rubber Division, Meetings of the.. 7, 657, 898 

"Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats and 

Waxes" (Book Rc-.-iew) 915 

"lerms, A Dictionary ol". .(Book Review) 440 
Chemicals and Compounding Ingredients, Mar- 
ket for.. 71, 150, 230, 309, 390, 472, 550, 630, 
712, 794, 874, 953 

Chemistry, American" (Book Review) 834 

"Creative" (Boo* Review) 439 

"Chemists, A French-English Dictionary for'' 

(Book Review) 736 

Chemists, Rubber, What They Are Doing.. 27, 103. 

171, 251, 336, 429, 495, 579, 659, 739, 817, 894 

Chewing Gum Industry, The American *SS8 

Chewing Gum, Manufacture of '635 

Chimney Losses, Controlling, to Save Fuel...*247 
Coagulant, Alum as z.. (Henry P. Stevens) 684 
Coagulants, Investigations on Different 
^ , . (O. de Fries) 27 

Coagulation, Spontaneous 

(O. de Fries and W. Spoon) 659 
Coefficient of Vulcanization in Vulcanized Rub- 
ber, The Determination of True Free 
Sulphur and the True... (IF. /. Kelly) 175 

Collective Responsibility (Editorial)'lSi 

Colt, Colonel Samuel P., The Passing of a 

Great Man (Editorial) 877 

Combs, Hard Rubber, Manufacture of 

(IVilliam Roberts)'649 
Commerce, National Chamber of. Readjust- 
ment Policies of The 675 

"Commercial Register of the United States, 

Hendrick's" (Book Review) 267 

Compounding Ingredients, Effect of, on the 
Physical Properties of Rubber 

(C. Olin North— Tables and Charts) "98 

Contract Cancellation, As to (Editorial) 395 

Controlling Chimney Losses to Save Fuel 

(F. F. Uehling — Diagram)'2A7 
Correspondence.. 38, 105, 186, 267, 428, 507, 605, 
648, 730, 808, 916 
Cost Accounting Control for the Members of 
the Rubber Proofers" Division of The Rub- 
ber Association of America, Inc., Recom- 
mended Plan of" (Book Review) 348 

Cost Accounting in the Rubber Industry 

(Ferd G. Kirby— Chart and Form .k) 'IBS, '241 

Cotton Acreage for 1921 (Editorial) 634 

Fabrics Market 69, 148, 228. 307, 388, 470, 

548, 628, 710, 792, 872, 951 
Mill for Tire Fabrics, The Planning of a 

(G. Joseph Mord~Plans)'750 
Mill Practice and Equipment, Standard 

(Book Review) 916 

Prices, As to (Editorial) 553 

Production, Long-Staple, United St.Ttes 570 

Rubber Men and (Editorial) 1 

Shortage of. Imminent (Editorial) 877 

Statistics 64 

Cox, William C (For(r<ii()^321 

"Credits; flow to Avoid Commercial Losses 
(Including Cancellations and Returns!" 

(Book Review) 736 
Crimp in Yarns and Fabrics, Measurement of 
(A. N.Gadsby and E. D. Walen — Diagram 

and Graphs) '11 
Crude Rubber, Basic Causes of Stickiness in 

(Andrl Dubosc) 897 
Crude Rubber Is Milled and Marketed In 

.Malaya. Movi . .(Richard Hoadley 7ingley)'406 
Crude Rubber Market.. 53, 138, 219, 298, 380, 462, 
541, 619, 701, 782, 864, 942 
Gulp. George K., Evolves Novel Flan 

Cure, Rate of. Effect of Acids in Retarding 

(H. P. Stevens) 660 
Curtailment of Rubber Production Progresses 215 

Customs Appraisers' Decisions 835 

Cutting Out Non-Essentlal Lines '921 

Dannerth, Frederic — 

Carbons anrl Hydrocarbons Used in the Rub- 
ber Industry 742 

Oils. Fats and Waxes Used in the Rubber 

Industry 563 

Pitch Hydrocarbons Used in the Rubber 

Industry 821 

Solvents and Thinners Used in the Rubber 

Industry 487 

Darrow, Bcroess — 

Data on Pneumatic Tires and Rims Used 

on Trucks "84 

Davidson, S. C. — 

Manufacture of Rubber from the Latex.... 896 

Decisions, Customs Appraisers' 835 

Judicial 38, 268, 509, 606, 835, 893 

Treasury 606, 676 



De I.isscr, Horace (PortroiO*321 

Denmnrk and Scandinavin, Rubber Trade io 55 

Denmark Rubber Statistics 791 

Dental Rubber. The Manufacture of 

t Arthur C. Squires) '24 
Detew, Hablan a., and I. R. Ruby— 
The Aging of Certain Rubber Compounds.. 246 
Some .Microsections Cut from \'ulcanizcd 

Rubber Articles '244 

Designs.. '62. 'Ue. '218. '296. M78. •461. '537, 
•618. '700. '850. •862, •941 
Determination of Antimunv in Rubber Goods 
(.S. Collier, it. tfitn and J. A. Scherrer) 580 

of Carbonates in Rubber .MixinK 580 

of Lead Dioxide in Litharge. Coloriractric 253 
of Rubber by Niirosite Method, Direct.... 431 

of Sulphur, Total, in Rubber 580 

of True Krcc Sulphur and the True Co- 
efficient of Vulcanization in Vulcanized 

Rublwr (W. J. Kelly) 175 

Determining Factors for the Life of a Pneu- 
matic Tire, The (U'illiam C. Nelson) 806 

m VniES, O. — 

Estate Rubber 817 

Investigations on Different Coagulants.... 27 
Keeping Qualities of Plantation Rubber.... 739 
Latex and Rubber from Individual Trees. . 741 
Properties and Valuation of Plantation Rub- 
ber 894 

■"Slope" or "Type" of the Rubber Stress- 
Strain Curve, The 171 

DE Vries, O., and W. Spoon — 

Spontaneous Coagulation 659 

"Developments in Industrial Technology" 

(Book Review) 916 

Diato 34 

Die Blocks for Rubber Factories, Dogwood.. 180 
Dipped Goods, Manufacture of. The 

(John Hadfield)'717 
Diseases and Pests of the Rubber Tree 

(Book Re-Acw) 91 S 
Dividends, Rubber Company. .39, 117. 189, 271. 
351, 442, 514, 592, 677, 759, 838, 917 
Dryness of Plantation Rubber, On the 

(Henry P. Stevens) 659 


Basic Causes for Stickiness in Crude Rub- 
ber 897 

Reduction Products of Paranitraniline Red 

as Vulcanization Accelerators, The 338 

Dunlop Went to Buffalo, Why *118 

Dunn, H^rry T (Portra;()*321 

Dunslan. Professor Wyndham R. (Portrait) . .'931 
Dutch Guiana, Balata Production in. Declining 215 
Dynamic Balance and Construction of the 
Pneumatic Tire 

(William Roberts— Diagrams)'f.n 
Dynamite, Rubber in the Manufacture of 'IH 

East, Far.. 56. 213, 290, 372, 456, 532. 613, 694, 

775, 855, 936 
Eastern and Southern Notes. .41, 120, 193, 274, 
•354, '443, 516. ^593, 679, 760, •838, 919 
Economics of Truckportation, The 

(Richard Hcadley Tingley) *3 

Absurd "Capital Strike" Claim, The 634 

.Accurate Tire Statistics Imperative 233 

American Overseas Plantations 314 

Rubber Trust 313 

Are We Overindustrialized? 153 

As to Contract Cancellation 395 

Cotton Prices 553 

the "Gyp" 798 

Brain Workers' Union, A 634 

British Export Efficiency 75 

Rubber Industry, The 154 

Men Very Much Awake 475 

Building Men to Build Rubber Goods 396 

"Capital Strike" Claim, The Absurd 634 

Collective Responsibility 154 

Contract Cancellations, .^s to 395 

Cotttn .\creagc for 1921 634 

Prices, As to 553 

Detecting the Industrially Unfit 798 

Engineering Foundation and Rubber, The.. 633 

Expensive Hoarding 798 

Factory Organs i 76 

financing for Export 715 

yordncv Tariff Bill, The 797 

Forty-Three Million Tires? 475 

Trench Progress 476 

Good Goods and Export 553 

"Gyp," As to the 798 

Ilith Wage Propag.-tnda 154 

Higher Rubber and Soon? 878 

How About Idle American Spindles? 476 

Importance of Cable Systems. The 313 

Iniern-ntional Rubber Association, An 153 

Lighter Cars and More Tires 395 

Small Tires 76 

flaking Machinery Do It 396 

Minor 2, 76, 154, 234, 396, 554, 

634, 716, 798, 87!s 

"Nation's Highways. The 878 

New Year, The 233 

Not Hevea Only 76 

Over Eighty Million Tires 75 

Overindustrialized? Are We 15i 

Passing of a Great Leader, The 877 

Profit Rather than Volume 716 

Keligif n in Reconstruction 553 

I\ubber and Fireproof Lumber 476 

Whiskey 234 

Association's Educational Plan, The 475 

New President. The 314 

Exhibition, The Next 75 






Grows Old, When 153 

Men and Cotton 1 

Plantation Conservation 314 

Roses in Sight 396 

Shoe Salvage 395 

Trust, The .Vmerlcan 313 

Science In Rubber Plantations 797 

Seasonal Rubber Goods 233 

Seiberling X'aledictory, The 633 

Selecting Workmen by Psychiatry 554 

Shortage of Cotton ' Imminent 877 

Solvent Natihtha from Oil Shale 2 

Spindles, Idle American, How .About?.... 476 

Standardization and Simplification 797 

Statistics, Standardizing and Saving 715 

Tire. Accurate. Imperative 233 

Straight-Side Winning, The 878 

Tire Values Vastly Increased 234 

Tires Not a Luxury — 633 

Tropical College for Trinidad, A 76 

Truckportation and Truck Tires 1 

When Rubber Grows Old . . . ; 153 

Will $3 Rubber Come Again ? 234 

Editor's Book Table — 

"American Chemistry: A Record of Achieve 

ment the Basis for Future Progress".. 

"Society for Testing Materials, Proceed 

ings of the Twenty-third Annual Meet 

ing of" 

"Bamber's Rubber Calculator Book" 267 

"Brown Bast — .An Investigation into Its 

Causes and Methods of Treatment" 915 

"Ceylon Green Book, 1921, Times Of" 506 

"Chemical Engineering Catalog, 1920" 128 

"Laboratory, A Small. How to Make 

and L^se" 38 

"Technology and Analysis of Oils, Fats 

and Waves" ,. 915 

"Complete Guide to Tyre Repairing, The" 128 
"Cost .Accounting Control for the Members 
of the Rubber Proofers' Division of 
The Rubber Association of America, 

Inc., Recommended Plan of" 348 

"System Should do for You, What 
"Grain's Market Data Book and Directory 
of Class, Trade and Technical Publica 


"Creative Chemistry" 439 

"Credits: How to Avoid Commercial Losses 

(Including Cancellations and Returns)".. 736 
"Pevelopments in Industrial Technology".. 916 
"Dictionary of Chemical Terms, .A"....... 440 

"Diseases and Pests of the Rubber Tree, 

The" 915 

"Estate Rubber, Its Preparation, Properties 

and Testing" 506 

"Export Register of the Federation of Brit- 
ish Industries" 267 

"Financier Rubber Share Handbook" 666 

"French-English Dictionary for Chemists, A" 736 

"(General Commoility Sales Tax" 666 

"Hand-book of Fire Protection" 38 

"Hendrick's Commercial Register of The 
United States For Buyers and Sellers".. 267 

"India Rubber" 666 

"Industrial Democracy and the Better Boss" 834 

"Invention Records, How to Keep" 440 

"List of the Fungi of the Malay Peninsula" 666 

"Motor Truck Terminal, The" 736 

"Motorist's Handbook on Vulcanization, 

The" 188 

"Nederlandschlndisch Rubber jaarboek (Neth- 
erlands East Indies India Rubber Year- 

Book)" 348 

"Netherland Indies, Statistics of Rubber Es- 
tates (Nominatieve Statistiek der Rubber- 
onderncmingen in Nederlandsch-Indie) 


"Netherlands East Indies, Yearbook of the 

Edition 1920" 

"Nominatieve Statistiek der Rubberonder- 
nemingen in Nederlandsch-Indie (Statis- 
tics of Rubber Estates in Netherland In- 
dies), 1920" 

"Personnel .Administration, Its Principles 

and Practice" 187 

"Plantation Rubber and the Testing of Rub- 
ber" 187 

"Planting Engineer, The" 605 

"Pocket Directory of Shoe Manufacturers, 

1921" 440 

"Priestley in America" 605 

"Rubber Goods Manufacture" 439 

"Rubber Manufacture" 506 

"Rubber Planting" (For the Prospective Es- 
tate .Assistant in British Malaya) 188 

"Rubber Resins, Paints and Varnishes".... 666 
"Safety Lessons for Automobile Drivers".. 506 
"Standard Cotton Mill Practice and Equip- 
ment" 916 

"Times of Ceylon Green Book. 1921" 506 

"Trade Tests, The Scientific Measurement 

of Trade Proficiency" 834 

"What a Cost System Should Do for You" 506 
"Yearbook of the Netherlands East Indies, 

1920" 348 

Edwards, J. D., and S. F. Pickerinc — 

Permeability of Rubber to Gases 28 

Effect of Limited Hours for Women Rubber 

Workers 908 

of Mould on Rubber Quality 

(H. P. Stevens) 739 
Elastic Cord for Airplane Flexible Gun 

Mounts. .Specifications 577 

Elastic Cord for Airplane Shock Absorbers. . . '6 
for Holt Flare Bracket Tension Strap, Speci- 

ficatii ns 577 

Elasticity Test for Soft Rubber Goods 

(Alfred Schob)'i&S 

Electrical Show. New York, The 41, 89 

Elrerson, B. W. — 

Rubber Shoe Soling 486 




Elliott. E. Lewes wr>RTn — 

.Artificial Lighting in the Rubber Industry 
(Charts. Diagrams) "239, "329, -412, '483, '640 
Embossing Machines Used in Rubber Manu- 
facture •643 

Engineering Foundation and Rubber, The 

(Editorial) 633 

English Method of Tube Splicing •I 12 

Estate Rubber (O. de Vries) 817 

"Estate Rubber, Its Preparation. Properties 

and Testing" (Book Review) 506 

Europe, Rubber Trade in. 209, 287, 369, 455. 531, 
611, 692, 773, 852, 934 
European Practice in the Rubber Tire Indus- 
try, -American vs (Albert H. Myers)'6i9 

Evans, Walter W., and William C. Geer— 
Ten Years' Experience With Aging Tests 

(Plan. Craphs>'887 
Exhibition of Rubber. Other Tropical Products 
and Allied Industries, Fifth International.. 75, 
206, 368, 454, 610, 771, 772, ^849, ^931 
International Rubber, The 

(George M. Naylor)'9il 

Rubber, The Next (Editorial) 75 

Export and Good Roads (Editortal) 553 

Efficiency, British (Editorial) 75 

Financing for (Editorial) 715 

Expositions of Chemical Industries, Sixth and 
Seventh National 16, 220 

Fabrics, Measurement of Crimp in Yarns and 
(A. N. Gadsby and E. D. IValen — Diagram 

and Graphs) •lO 

Tubular, Circular Looms for Weaving ^902 

Factory Organs (Editorial) 76 

Falor. Shelby -A (Porlr(iit)-925 

Far East.. 56, 213, 290, 372, 456, 532, 613, 694, 

775, 855, 936 

Federated Malay States Rubber Statistics. .64, 138, 

220, 299, 384, 463, 547, 621, 702, 784, 866, 944 

Fess, Simeon D., Hon (Portrait) "315 

Fifth International Exhibition of Rubber, 
Other Tropical Products and Allied Indus- 
tries.. 75, 206, 368, 454. 610, 771, 772, '849, '931 
Financial Notes.. 39, 117, 189, 271, 351, 441, 513, 
591, 677. 759, 837, 917 
"Financier Rubber Share Handbook" 

(Book Review) 666 

Financing for Export ....(Editorial) 715 

"Fire Protection, Handbook of" 

(Book Review) 38 

Fireproofing Airship Fabric 103 

Flower. A. H.. and G. D. Kratz — 

■The Effect of Certain .Accelerators Upon the 
Properties of Vulcanized Rubber — !I 

(Charts) *9S 
Flower, A. H., G. D. Kratz and B. J. Shapiro — 
The Action of Certain Organic Accelerators 
in the Vulcanization of Rubber — II and 

III 664, 744 

Fluid Heat Transmission 

(Ale.mnder B. McKechnie)'i62 

Foljambe, E. S (Portrait) '48 

Footwear. See New Goods and Specialties. 

Rubber, Repairing *397, •477, '567 

Fordney Tariff Bill, The (Editorial) 797 

Foreign Import Duties on Boots and Shoes.. 574 

on Rubber Tires 575 

Notes. Miscellaneous 53 

Rubber News.. 52, 131, 205, 286, •367, 453. 530, 
609, 691, 771, '849, 929 

Tariff Notes 370, 612, 693. 774, 853, 932 

Trade Convention, Eighth National, Final 

Declaration of The 754 

France. Rubber Statistics 792 

Rubber Trade In 208, 772 

French Disapprove Straight-Side Tires 608 

Progress (Editorial) 476 

Friswell, .Arthur E. — 

Advantages of Water Vulcanization, the. . 662 
Fuel Controlling Chimney Losses to Save 

(F. F. LV/id'iig— diagram) -247 
Fur. "Artificial," Rubber-Set Fur or "900 


Gadsbv. A. N.. and E. D. Walen— 

The Measurement of Crimp in Yarns and 

Fabrics (Diagram and Graphs) *11 

Gammcter, John R (Portrait and Sketch) 'A3 

Gas Containers. New Use for '249 

Gaskets, Rubber, for Gasoline Tank Fittings.. 578 

Gasoline Industrial Tractor "179 

Geer. William C, and Walter W. Evans — 
Ten Years' Experience with Aging Tests 

(Plan, Graph ^)'8»7 

Gcier, Richard H (Portrait and Sketch) 525 

"CJencral Ccmmoditv Sales Tax" 

(Book Review) 666 
German Rubber Market.. 384, 463, 542, 620, 702, 

865. 943 

Germany, Rubber Trade in 54, 132, 209 

Glossary of Words and Terms Used in the 

Rubber Industry, .A (Henrv C. Pearson) 235, 
325. 404, 481, 561, 723, 882 

Comments and Suggestions 562 

Gloves and Mittens, Rubber, Repairing. . ^647, ^731 

Good Roads Essav Contest 764, 926 

Goodrich. B. F., Dr "361 

B. I''.. International Corporation, The 752 

Golden .Anniversary "361 

Honors Twenty- Year Service Men 


Goodyear Company, History of the *510 

Refinancing Plan . 441 

Great Britain Rubber Statistics. .69, 226, 307, 388, 

470. 547, 625, 709, 789. 872, 950 

Great Britain, Rubber Trade in,. 52, 131, 205, 286, 

"367, 453, 530, 609, 691, 771, 851. 929 

Gregory Tire & Rubber Company. Limited, The*848 

Grosvenor, Oliver (Portrait) *46 

(jROVE. J. M. — 

Relative Accelerating Action of Different 



Compounds of Lead in the Vulcanizing 

of Rubber, The 663 

Guiana, Dutch, Balata Production in, Declin- 
ing . . • 215 

Gummed Sealing Tape on Wrapped Tires, 

"Liberty" 527 

Gunn, J. Newton (Portrait)' 321 

Gustafson. V. E (Portrait)*202 

Gutta Percha Cultivation Solved, The Prob- 
lem of *263 

Gutta, River of *722 

"Gyp." As to the {Editorial) 798 


Halowax OH 

"Handy" Tire Shipping Case *670 

Hard Rubber Combs, Manufacture of 

(William Robcrts)'649 
Hard Rubber Dust. An Explosion of 

{David J. Price and Hvltott R. Brown — 

P/o«j) "805 

Harrison, Clark W (Portrait and Sketch) 593 

Heat Transmission, Fluid 

{Alexander B. McKechnie)*162 
Heels and Soles. See New Goods and Special- 
ties, Footwear. 
Rubber, Making, for a Hundred Million 

People {Chester C. Biirtiham) *\2 

Hendrick, George B {Portrain*924 

Hess. John D., Jr {Portrait)* 7 67 

Hevea Onlv. Not {Editorial) 76 

Highway, The Nation's {Editorial) ^72, 

Transpor'.ation Show, First Annual 328 

Hoarding. Expensive {Editorial) 798 

Holiday Greetings, Calendars and Souvenirs. 347 
Hose. See New Goods and Specialties, and 

Hose, Whale Inflation '676 

HowsoN, C. W.. and D. F. Twiss— 

Acceleration of Vulcanization — II {Graphs)*2S\ 
Hydrocarbons, Pitch, Used in the Rubber In- 
dustry {Frederick Dannerth) 821 

Incorporations, New.. 40, 118, 190. 271, 351, 442, 
515, 592, 677, 759. 837, 917 

"India Rubber" {Book Review) 666 

Indies, British West, Rubber Situation in 694 

^'Industrial Democracy and the Better Boss" 

{Book Review) 834 
Industrial Engineering in Rubber Factories 

{Malcolm C. IV. Tomlinson) 165 
"Industrial Technology, Developments in" 

{Book Review) 916 
Industrially Unfit, Detecting the. .{Editorial) 798 
Industry, Rubber, Cost Accounting in the 

(Ferd G. Kirby— Chart, Forms)'lS5, *241 
Glossary of Words and Terms LTsed in the, A 
{Henry C. Pearson) 235, 325, 404. 481. 561, 

723, 882 
Lighting. Artificial, in the 

{E. Leavemvorth Ellittt — Charts, Dxa^ 

grams) "239, *329, *412, *483, *640 
Ten- Year Financial Survey of the 

{Richard ■ Hoadley Tingley — Graphs)*333 
Insulated Cables. See Specifications. 
Insulation on Ignition Cables, Rubber. Crack- 
ing of '904 

Interesting Letters from Our Readers. 38. 105, 186, 
267, 428. 507, 605, 648, 730. 808, 916 

International Acceptance Bank. The 753 

Chamber of Commerce Organized, Paris.... 79 

B. F. Goodrich Corporation 752 

Rubber Association. An {Editorial) 153 

Exhibition, The.. 75, 206, 368, 454, 610, 771, 
772. ^849, "931 
Interpretation of Rubber Analyses, The 

{John B. Titttle) 430 
"Invention Records, How To Keep" 

(Book Rez'iew)440 

Italy Rubber Statistics. .148, 227, 228. 306, 548, 

628, 710, 791, 872, 950 

Java Rubber Statistics. .64, 138, 221, 299, 384. 540, 
621, 702, 789. 866, 944 

Save" 204 

..{Pcrtrait and Skctch)*'[97 
..{Portrait and Sketch)*603 
38, 268, 509, 606. 835. 893 

"Jifoid" and "Tire 
Jones. Frederick H. 

toubert, W. A 

Judicial Decisions. . . 

Kearns. J. C (Portrait)' 599 

Keeping Qualities of Plantation Rubber 

(O. de Vries) 739 
Kelley, Robert C. A. B. — | 

Rubber Shoe Designing and Pattern Making*164 
Kei.i.v. W. T.— 

The Determination of True Free Sulphur 
and the True Coefficient of Vulcaniza- 
tion in Vulcanized Rubber 175 


Cost Accounting in the Rubber Industry 

{Chart, Forms)*\$5, *241 


Action of Sulphuric Acid on Caoutchouc. 741 
Koch. Felix J.— 

Casting for Tov Balloons *86I 

Kratz, G. D., and A. H. Flower — 

The Effect of Certain Accelerators Upon 
the Properties of Vulcanized Rubber — II 

{Charts) '95 
Kratz, G. D., A. H. Flower and B. J. Shapiro— 
The Action of Certain Organic Accelerators 
in the Vulcanization of Rubber — II and 
III 664, 744 


Laboratories, Rubber Accelerator Service. . . .*730 

Laboratobv Apparatus — 

Absorption Tube. Mercurv-Sealed, Fleming. '497 

Alundum for Filtration. Use of 897 

Automatic Measuring Flask. Lorenz '173 

Balances. Vibration. Preventing 581 


Bath, Water, Electric, Sargent's *661 

Small '741 

Buchner Funnels, Improved "30 

Bulb, Potash 254 

Burner, Gas, Tirritl '820 

Cones. Paper Filter 820 

Container for .Mkaline Substances 173 

t'oors Porcelain Funnel *30 

Crucible, Platinum, with Capsule Cover. .. .*254 

"Dreadnaughi" Gasoline Torch '661 

Electric Disk Four-Heal Stove *431 

Water Hath, Sargent's *66l 

Small '741 

Filler Cones. Paper 820 

Flask, Measuring, Automatic. Lorenz *173 

Shaking Device '104 

Flexible Arm for Lighting Unit *581 

Enamel ■ 431 

Gas Burner, Tirrill *820 

Gasoline Torch, "Dreadnaught" *661 

Heater for Laboratory, Immersion, Electric* 104 
Hydrogen Sulphide Generator, Parsons. . . . •173 

l-crcnz .'\utamatic Measuring Flask *173 

Mills, Experimental *498 

Paper Filter Ci.nes 820 

Platinum Crucible with Capsule Cover — .*254 

Policeman. Home-Made 897 

Potash Bulb '254 

Sargent's Electric Water Bath *661 

Stove. Electric "431, "497 

Test-Tube Holder '431 

Tirrill Gas Burner '820 

Torch. Gasoline, "Dreadnaught" *661 

\'entilation 339 

Water Bath, Electric, Sargent's *661 

Latex and Rubber from Individual Trees 

(O. de Vries) 741 

Latin .\merican Rubber Markets, Some 212 

Leader, The Passing of a Great. .{Editorial) 877 

Lee Tire & Rubber Company, The '276 

Letters. Interesting, From Our Readers.. 38, 105, 
267. 42S, 507, 605, 648, 730, 808, 916 

Lewis, Seneca G {Portrait)*32\ 

Light, Absorption of, bv Caoutchouc, The 

(S. Judd Lewis and H. D. Porriti— Graph)* A96 

Action of, on Rubber {B, D. Porritt) 336 

and Heat on Vulcanized Rubber 

{John B. Tutlle) 495 
Lighting, Artificial, in the Rubber Industry 
(E. Leavenworth Elliott — Charts, Diagrams) 

*239. '329. '412, *483, *640 
Litharge, Colorimetric Determination of Lead 

Dioxide in 253 

Lithopone 253, 495, 897 

Analysis of, Technical (/. A. IVyler) 29 

Detection of Natural Barytes in, Etc 29 

London Rubber Exhibition. Fifth International 75. 
206, 368, 454. 610. 771. 772. "849. *931 

Low, Clarence H (Portrait and Sketch) 443 

Lowman, J. S (Portrait)*32\ 

Lumber, Fireproof, and Rubber. .. (Erfi/oriaO 476 

Machinery Do It. Making (Editorial) 396 

MAciiiNERy Patents — 

Ball Mold. Tennis *669 

Balloon. Toy, Machine for Forming Beads "34 

Balls. Covering Tennis *669 

Sponge Rubber 907 

Banding and Plaiting Machine. Sheet Rubber*828 
Battery Jars, Machine for Forming. .. ,*33, *342 
Machines for Making — Boyer, Willard. . . . •2.S8 
Biscuit Hcllow Rubber, Apparatus for Pro- 
ducing *180 

Boeder Dipping and Solvent Recovery Ma- 
chine "907 

Boots Cured Under Diflferential Pressure.. 827 

Calender for Making Blown Goods *180 

Modified *434 

Spreader *34 

Carbon Black, Machine for Compacting. .. .*669 

Clamp, Pipe. Yarway "Holtite" *178 

("Uaninp Plastic Materials. Machine for....*837 
Cord Fabric, Loom Element for Making. .. .*342 
Curing Boots Under Differential Pressure.. 827 
Dipping and Solvent Recovery Machine, 

Boeder ". *907 

Fabric. Cord, T^om Element for Making.. *342 
Tubular. Multiply, Apparatus for Weaving 502 

Farreli Masticator and Mixer "669 

Foxing, Machine for Producing and Apply- 
ing 343 

Inner Tube Deflator, Schrader "343 

Tubes, Molding by the Pneumatic Process '32 

Masticator and Mixer, Farrel *5^^ 

Mixing Machine, Automatic '748 

Molding Hollow Rubber Goods, Vacuum 

Process '501 

Multiply Tubular Fabrics, Apparatus for 

Weaving 502 

Nipple. Rubber. Swiss 828 

Other 34. 108. 181, 259, 343. 435, 502. 585, 669, 

749. 828, 907 
Plaiting and Banding Machine. Sheet Rubber'828 
Plastic Materials. Machine for Cleaning. .. "827 

Press, Carbon Black *669 

Pressure, Differential, for Curing Boots 827 

Ramsdell Tire Inspection Machine *826 

Refining Rubber, Machine for '434 

Rings and Washers from Tubing. Machine 

for Cutting *180 

Roberts Tube Molding and Vulcanizing Ap- 
paratus *33 

Rubber, Machine for Refining *434 

Solvent Recovery Apparatus, Volatile 749 

and Dippincr Machine. Boeder '907 

Sponge Rubber Balls 907 

Spreading Machine. Novel Calender "35 

Swiss Rubber Nipple 828 

Tennis Balls, Covering i.*669 

Tire Building Machine *906 

Casings. \Tachine for Making *748 

Machines- Internal Pressure *584 

Mold Conveying System *107 

Removing Apparatus, Pneumatic 180 

Shaping Machine '584 

Tread Making Machine '434 

Tires, Rubber, Vulcanizing by Electricity.. 180 
Vacuum Process of Molding Hollow Rubber 

Goods 'SOI 

Volatile Solvents, Apparatus for Recovering 749 

V\ilcanizer, Tire, Continuous '258 

V'ulcanizing Apparatus, Tube. Roberts •33 

Washers from Tubing, Machine for Cutting 

Rings and * 180 

Machines, Mill Appliances and Devices— 
Air-Bag, Healing, Fredd '826 

Hermetic, Cupples '736, 826 

Metallic, Expansible, Iluetter '433 

Air Bags, Machine for Inserting and Re- 
moving, Finch '255 

Shop-Made for Giant Tire Repair '494 

Air Compressor for Garages and Vulcanizing 

Shops *668 

for Giant Tires, "Globe Victory" *340 

Rotary, Without Motor, for Inflating Toy 
Balloons *500 

Moisture Separators *257, "501 

Akron Rubbcrmold Truck-Tire Vulcanizer.*747 

Bead Culling Machine. "Progressive" "433 

Belt Lacing Machine, "Clipper" "179 

Bias Vertical Cutter, Bolton, Take-Off for 257 

Bicycle Tire Trimming Machine "432 

Bolton Vertical Bias Cutter, Take-Off for.. 257 
Brush for Inner Tube Splicing '258 

Steel Wire, for Buffing, "Sampson" *32 

Bufling and Roughing Machine, Tire *178 

Cone, Simple "656 

Builder, Tire, Improved, Hermann "256 

Calender Cluide, Perfected "583 

Roll Adjuster, Electrically Driven, \'aughn"747 
Cement Churn, Electric, Superior "341 

Chewing-<7um Machinery '635 

Circular Mandrel and Stand "906 

Clamp, Pipe, Varway "Holtite" "178 

"Clipper" Belt Lacer "179 

CO2 Recording Instrument, New "434 

Comb Machinery "649 

Compressor, Air, "Globe Victory" *340 

Rotary, Without Motor, for Inflating Toy 

Balloons "500 

Conveyor, Apron, Wood, and Bucket "499 

Hose Pole *50O 

Conveying System, Overhead, for Rubber 

Factories "256 

Cord Fabric Impregnator "106 

Machine, Hourdin "747 

Cotton-Picking Machine, Novel, Captain 

Hand 365 

Coupling, Flexible Compensating, for Mill 

Lines "256 

Cutter, Rubber Stock, Guillotine "669 

\'ertical Bias, Bolton, Take-Off for 257 

Die Blocks for Rubber Factories, Dogwood 180 
Drier for Compounding Ingredients, L«wis*584 
Electric Churn, Cement, Superior "341 

Tools for Rubber Factories, Small. Wodack"668 

Tractor. Factory *34l 

Truck, Industrial "257 

Liftins, Sieubing •906 

Electrically Heated Glue-Pot '257 

Elevator Controllers 256 

Embossing Machines Used in Rubber Manu- 
facture "643 

Eno "Exso" Vulcanizer for Vulcanizing 

Wholesoles to Old Tires "257 

Ensink Vulcanizer Head with Quick-Lock- 
ing Door "583 

Experimental Laboratory Washer and Mixing 

Mill "498 

Fabric Knife for Tire Repair, Safety *500 

Skiving Machine, Wide Blade '31 

Finch Machine for Opening Tires and In- 
serting or Removing Air-Bags "255 

Firestone Blowout Patch "909 

Grooving Machine for Solid Tires "582 

Footwear Repair Vulcanizers •341, "397, 

•477, "567 
Forcing Machine, Simplex, Single Roller 

Feed "179 

Fredd Air-Bag with Inside Heating Device*826 

G-R Oil Strainer "31 

Glove Machinery "648, "731 

Gloves and Mittens. Rubber, Repairing"647, "731 

Glue-Pot, Klectricallv Heated *2S6 

Grinder, Mill-Stone. Buhr ^257 

Grinding Mill, "Kck" Universal '178 

Heel Attaching Machine "106 

and Sole Punching Machine "667 

\'ulcanizing Press, Shaw "825 

Hose Pole Conveyor •500 

Trimming Machine "255 

Hvdraulic Press for Applying Solid Tires, 

S. L "825 

for Vulcanizing Heels and Soles, Shaw*825 

"Ideal" Tumbling Barrel "748 

Impregnator, Cord Fabric "106 

Induslrial Truck, Electric "257 

to Carry Tire Mohls and Cores *825 

Inner Tube Steam Splicer, Pneumatic "498 

Poles, Machine for P<>lishing and 


Splicing, Brush for '258 

Wrapping Machine, Banner "826 

Insulated Staples, Blake "906 

"KeHawKe" Tire Spreader "583 

*'Kek" Universal Grinding Mill for Rubber 

Manufacturers ^IJS 

Knife, Fabric. Tire Repair, Safety *500 

Laboratory Experimental Wash and Mixing 

Mill "498 

Landis Sole-Stitching Machine '31 

Lewis Drier for Compounding Ingredients. "584 

Lifting Truck, Sieubing "905 

Mill-Stone Grinder. Buhr "257 

Mills, Experimental, Laboratory '498 



Mixer, Ccmcni '341 

KuWwr '748 

Mullen Tcjier for Tire Uundling Paper '906 

Niphiha and Cement Beni% Caiu *31 

Oil Strainer, G-R '31 

CS-erheail Conveying System for Kubber 

I'actoriej *256 

r^pcr, Tire-Bundling, Machine for Testing, 

Mull.n '906 

Pipe Clamp, Novel. Yarwa]r-"Holiile" '178 

I*rc*», Toggle, Sal'cly Device for "I?/ 

\'ulcaiii2in|;, tor Soles and IlecU *825 

Pulveriser, Kublicr Scrap ^eb/ 

Punching Machine, Sole and Heel *667 

Recoriling ln>trument. New COi '434 

Thermcmetcr •668 

Time I'linch for '584 

Relrcader, Tire. One-Operation, Harris. ... '340 
Retn-adiiiK and Regrooving Solid Tires, 

.Machines for '582 

Reynolds tjlant Truck-Tire Building SUnd.*432 
Rotcx Sifter for Compounding Materials. .*177 
Schopper Machine for Testing Elasticity of 

Soft Rubber Goods '188 

Scrap Rubber Washer, Plantation *342 

Separators, Air Moisture, Vertical and Angle 

•257, •501 

Shaft-Buffer '424 

Shaw Solid-Tire Building Machine '499 

\'ulcanizing Press for HeeU and Soles.. •825 
Shoc-\'ariii$hing Machine, Erickson and 

Wahl • 167 

Sifter for Compounding Materials, Rotex..^l77 
Sifting Reel for l>ry Compounding Ingredi- 
ents ^748 

Skiving .Machine. Fabric, Widc-Bladc *3l 

Sole and llcci Punching Machine '667 

Stitching .M:ichinc, Landis '31 

V'ulcaiiizinK Press ^825 

Solid-Tire Building Machine. Shaw '499 

Retreading and Regrooving .Machines *582 

Solvent Recovery .Apparatus *25S 

Staples. Insulated, Ulake '906 

St(-ani-Bap f< r Tire Kerair- - 

.Metallic, Expansible, iluelter ^433 

"Perpetual" •SeS 

Steam Turbine, Curtis ^499 

Steel Platens for Hydraulic Presses "31 

Stitching .Machine, Sole, Landis *31 

Strainer. Oil. (i-R '31 

Take-Off for Bolton Vertical Bias Cutter.. 257 

Temperature Regulator, "Sylphon" '906 

Time Punch for Recording Thermometer, 

S. & B -584 

Tire Bead Cutting Machine, *"Progresive'*.*433 

Bead Spreader, Giant *424 

BufBnir .Machine '178 

Builder, Improved, Hermann 256 

Building Core. Giant, "Time-Saver" ^825 

Stand, Giant Truck, Reynolds ^432 

Bundling Paper, Testing Machine £or....*906 

Calenders, Standard '746 

Changer ^827 

Conveyor •433 

Crane, Pneumatic *32 

Cutter •106 

Cutting Machine •667 

Fabric Machine, Cord ^747 

Grinder •826 

Inspection Machine ^826 

Molds, Lubricating 749 

Opener for Air Bag Insertion and Removal*25S 

Press, Hydraulic "825 

Repair. Giant Pneumatic ^422, *651 

Shop-Made Air- Bag for '494 

Vulcanizcrs *340, *341, ^905 

Roughing and Buffing Machine *178 

Sample Cutting .Machine *106 

Skiving Machine '668 

Spreader, "KeHawKe" ^583 

R. & D. Adjustable '905 

Weaver •827 

Tube Denator '343 

Molding and Vulcanizing .Apparatus.... "32 

Polishing and Finishing Machine "906 

Steam Splicer • 498 

Wrapping Machine *826 

Tubing Machine, English '433 

Vulcanizcr and Retreader '340 

"Exso" "257 

Wrapping Machines 178, "905 

Toggle Press, Safety Device for Seybold. .•177 
Tools, Electric. (or Rubber Factories, 

Wodack ; -668 

Toy Balloon Inflating IJevice "."iOO 

Tractor, Electric Factory ^341 

Gasoline-Operated •179 

Truck, Electric Industrial, Tier-Lift, "Lake- 
wood" ^257 

for Carrying Tire Molds *825 

Lifting. Steubing •905 

Sclf-Lijading Electric. Cowan •SOO 

Tumbling Barrel. "Ideal" •748 

N'alve. Scatless Hlow-OtT. Yarwa'y 498 

Varnishing Machine. Carriage Cloth, Bir- 
mingham •168 

Fabric ,. ...^168 

Shoe. Erirk.ion and W.-ihl ^167 

Ventilator. Rubber Factory •lO? 


.\kron Rubbermold Truck-Tire ^747 

Akron-WllUams Truck Tire Equipment. .^651 

Arthur, for Boot and Shoe Repair ^400. 

•479, "480 

Bacon, for Giant Truck Tire Repair '654 

Bast, for Boot and Shoe Repair '480 

Boot and Shoe Repair. .•341. •398. '400, ^402 
•477, ^479, ^480, ^568, '569 
Bowley Cold-Cure Press for Repairing 
Footwear ^569 

•Illustrated. I 

Brackelt, for Boot and Shoe Repair '402 

Brown, for Pneumatic Truck-Tire Repair, 

Sectional '654 

Dilks Rubber Boot Repair '479 

Door, Self-Sealing, .Adamson ^499 

"Dri-Kure" Truck-Tire Repair ^653 

Dry Heat ^568 

Duncan Truck-Tire Repair ^653 

Eno "Exso," for Vulcanizing Wholesoles 

to Old Tires '257 

Ensink, with Qoick-Locking Door ^583 

Ferguson, for Resoling "480 

Fisher Truck-Tire Repair '653 

Fredd Truck-Tire Repair ^652 

Haywood Giant Truck-Tire Repair ^654 

Inside Patch '651 

Lowell Truck-Tire ^654 

Miller, .Adjustable, for Pneumatic Truck- 
Tire Repair '652 

for Tennis Soles *398 

New Model '479 

Press, Cold-Cure, to Repair Footwear. 

Bowley • "569 

for Heels and Soles '825 

Pressure Cure ^568 

Retread, Tire, Sectional, One-Operation, 

Harris '340 

Side-Wall ^65 1 

Tire Repair, "All-in-One," Miller '340 

Truck '341 

Giant Pneumatic ^422, •631, "747 

"Western" and "Western Super". ^651, *905 

Zwebell •65 1 

Washer. Plantation Bark and Scrap Rubber'342 
Wheels. Steel Wire, for Buffing, "Sampson" ^32 

Wire Wrapping Machine *498 

Wrapping Machine for Tires, New Pierce.. ^178 

Wire, Pierce '498 

Varwav Hrltite Pipe Clamp *178 

Seatlcss Blow-Off Valve 498 

Maguire, J. A (Fortrail) "321 

Making Rubber Heels for a Hundred Mil- 
lion People (.Chesler C. Burnham) *12 

Malay Peninsula, A List of the Fungi of, _ 

(Book Review) 666 
Malaya Cannot Understand .America's Posi- 
tion (R. //, Tingley) 457 

How Crude Rubber Is Milled and Marketed 

in (R. H. TinghyVWe 

Rubber Crisis in 913 

Statistics 138, 220, 621, 702, 784, 865, 943 

Trade in 58 

Malayan Rubber Restriction Movement, Pro- 
gress of the 725 

Manufacture of Dijiped Goods ^71 7 

Rubber from the Latex. . . . (5. C. Davidson) 896 

Market, Amsterdam Rubber.. 64, 139, 220. 299, 

3,<f4, 46.1, 5-42. 620. 702, 783, 865, 943 

Antwerp Rubber.. 64, 220, 384. 463, 540. 542. 

620, 702. 783. 865, 943 

Chemicals and Compounding Ingredients, 

71, 150, 230, 309, 390. 472, 550, 630, 712, 794. 

874, 953 

Cotton Fabrics.. 69, 148, 228, 307, 388, 470, 

548, 628, 710, 792, 872, 951 

Crude Rubber. . 53, 138, 219, 298, 380, 462, 541. 

619. 701, 782, 864, 942 

Data Book and Directory of Class. Trade and 

Technical Publications, Grain's 

(Book Review) 506 

German Rubber 384, 463, 542, 620, 702, 865. 


Prices, Highest and Lowest. . 64, 139, 220, 299, 

382, 384, 463. 542, 620, 702. 783, 865, 943 

Quotations.. 39. 118, 189. 271, 351. 442, 514, 

592, 677, 759, 837,917 

Reclaimed Rubber.. 63, 138. 219, 298, 383, 462, 

541, 620, 701, 782, 865, 943 

Rubber Scrap.. 73. 148, 228, 307, 393, 472, 548, 

628, 710, 792, 863, 951 

Singapore Rubber. .64. 139, 220, 299, 384, 463 

542, 620, 702, 783, 865, 943 

Marshall. C. L. — 

Onazote — Expanded Vulcanized Rubber.... 819 

Masks and Faces. Rubber •571 

Mason, Dudley M {Portrait and Sketch) 361 

Owen M (Portrait and Sketch) 600 

Tires, Record of ^362 

Massachusetts Rubber Trade.. 42. 121, 195 277 
•356, '446. 519. 596, 681, 763, 841. ^923 
Master Car Builders and Master Mechanics. 

.See Specifications. 
Matthews, James P (Portrait and Sketch) 525 

McKEriiNiE, Alexander B. — 

Fluid Heat Transmission ^162 

Meade. James (Portrait and Skctchy4*7 

Mechanical Division, A. R. A., Specifications 

cl Standard Steam (lose *639 

Rubber Goods. War Department Specifica- 
tions for. — IV 

Meredith. Mark — 

Post-War Developments in British Motor 

Tires 207 

Methods of Analysis — 

Accelerators. Reactions During Vulcaniza- 
tion — Carbo-Sulphydryl Accelerators and 
the Action of Zinc Oxide. 

(C. Jf. Bedford and L. B. Sebrell) 658 
Analysis of Rubber Goods Containing -Anti- 
mony Pigments. The, 

(S. Collier and Michael Levin) 657 
Antimony in Rubber Goods. Determination of 
J5. Collier M. Levin, and /. A. Sherrer) 580 
Pigments, Analysis of Rubber Goods Con- 
taining, The 

(S Collier and Michael Levin) 657 

Sulphides, Chemical Examination of 337 

Carbo-Sulphydryl Accelerators and the Ac- 
tion of Zinc Oxide— Reactions During Vul- 

(C. W. Bedford and L. B. Setrelt) 658 


Chemical Examination of Antimony Sul- 
phides 337 

Coiorimetric Determination of Lead Dioxide 

in Litharge 253 

Contribution to the Knowledge of the Resins 
of Hevca Rubber, 

(G. Stafford Whitby and J. Dolid) 657 
Direct Determination of the Sulphur of Vul- 
canization, The 

(S. Collier and Michael Levin) 657 
Influence of Piperidine-Piperidyl-Dithiocar- 
bamate on Vulcanization, 

(G. Stafford Whitby and O. J. Walker) 657 
Lead Dioxide in Litharge, Coiorimetric De- 
termination of 253 

Lithoponc, Technical Analysis of, 

(/. A. Wyler) 29 
Piperidine-Piperidyl-Dithiocarbamate, Influ- 
ence of, on Vulcanization, The. 
(C. Stafford Whitby and O. J. Walker) 657 
Rapid Bomb Method for Determining Sul- 
phur in Rubber Compounds, 

(W. W. Evans and Ruth Merling) 6S8 
Reactions of .Accelerators During Vulcaniza- 
zation — Carbo-Sulphydryl Accelerators and 
the Action of Zinc Oxide 

(C. W. Bedford and L. B. Sebrell) 658 
Relative Thermal Conductivities of Some 

Rubber Compounds.. (A. A. Somerville) 657 
Resins of Hevea Rubber, Contribution of the 
Knowledge of the 

(G. Staffc.-rd Whitbv and J. Dolid) 657 
Solubility of Gases in Rubber as Affecting 
Their Permeability 

(Charles S. Venable and Tyler Fuwa) 657 
Sulphur in Rubber, Total, Determination 

„ of (..(. K. Pearscn ) 580 

Co*ipounds, Rapid Bomb Method for De- 

(W. W. Evans and Ruth Merling) 658 
of Vulcanization. Direct Determination 
of the (S. Collier and Michael Levin) 657 
Technical Analysis of Lithopone 

rhermal Conductivities of Some Rubber 
Comp.iunds, Relative, 

(A. A. Somerville) 657 
\ olume Increase of Comp<uinded Rubber 

Under Strain (Henry Green) 658 

Zmc Oxide, Action of. and Carbo-Sulphydryl 
Accelerators — Reactions During Vulcani- 
zation. (C. W. Bedford and L. B. Sebrell) 658 

"Micromex," Compounding Ingredient 581 

Microsections Cut from Vulcanized Rubber 

Articles, Some 
,.-j,.T (Harlan A. Dcpcw and /. R. Ru6y)^244 
Mid-West Rubber Manufacturers' Association 

Annual Banquet and Meeting ^281 

Rubber Trade. . '47, 125, 201, 280, 362, 449,^523, 
600, 685, 767, 845, 927 

Mill and Calender Lubrication, Rubber ^646 

Minor Editorials.. 2, 76, 154, 234, 396, 554, 634, 
,, ^ „ 716, 798, 878 


Safety and Sanitation for Rubber Mills and 
Calendars 'gg 

Molecule, Caoutchouc. . (G. Stafford Whitby) 659 
Motor and Accessory Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion 353 

Tires, British, Post-War Developments in ' 
_ , _ , „ (Mark Meredith) 207 
truck Development Experiences, Pneumatic- 
Tire and (M. D. Scott) 87 

Termina •.-..... (Book Review) 73fi 

Trucks, Why Use Pneumatic Tires for 

M J. c , T, ((''•£- Shively) 83 

Weed to Supplement Pneumatic-Tire Equip- 

.. ,."'5^'' What (£. W. Temptin) '85 

Mould, Effect of, on Rubber Quality 

„ „, . , (H- P- Stevens) 739 
On Plantation Rubber 857 

Moving Pictures of Business Records 82 

Mowe, John V (Portrait and Sketch) 760 

MuNRo, A. M. — 

The Viscosity of Rubber •159 

MvEKs. Albert H. — 

American vs. European Practice in the Rub- 
ber Tire Industry ^689 

Naphtha Solvent from Oil Shale.. (Editorial) 2 
National .Association of Waste Material Deal- 
ers •jj^ 

Automobile Show 350 

Chamber of Commerce, Readjustment Pol- 
icies of the 575 

Expositions of Chemical Industries, Sixth 

and Seventh. 16, 820 

i'orcign Trade Convention, Eighth, Final 

Declaration of the 754 

-Safety Council. Ninth Annual Congress..!! 49 

Rubber Division Meetings 764, 842 

Navlor George M. — 

The International Rubber Exhibition.. ^931 

"Ncdcrlandsch-I n d i s c h Rubberjaarbock 
(Netherlands East Indies India Rubber 

Year-Book)" (Book Review) 348 

Nelson, William G. — 

Determining Factors for the Life of a Pneu- 
matic Tire, The 807 

Netherlands Annual Rubber Statistics. !!.!! 950 
Netherlands East Indies. See Far East and 

Rubber Trade in.. 56, 214, 291, 372 456 533 
614, 695, 776, 856, 937 

"Year Book, 1920" (Book Review) 348 

"Indies. See Far East and Statistics. 

Stalistics of Rubber, Estates in (Nomina- 
tieve Statistiek der Rubberondernemin- 
gcir in Nederlandschlndie)" 

(Book Review) 348 


Neuburger, Dr. Albert — 

Synthetic Rubber 660 

New (Ioods and Specialties — 

Accelerator Pedal Pad, "Neverslip" •438 

Acid Bucket •110 

Carboy, Hard Rubber '671 

Addresserpress Ink Roll Ill 

Air Cushion, Semi-Stuffed "35 

(lliders to Launch Toy Airplanes *756 

Springs for Cushion Vehicle Seats, Seibel*345 

"Mastic' Tire Filler '3A5 

"American" Bottle Stopper '344 

American-LaFrance Sponge Filter Hood 

Respirator '503 

Ammonia Fumes, (las-Mask for. Burrell. . . .•909 
Anti-Splasher and Dish-Protector, "Perfec- 
tion" '344 

Apron." ".^proneet" and "Fishbrand," 

•105, "586 

".-\rCar" Belting 378 

Arch Brace, "Miracle" and "XXX," Jung.^184 

"Autco-Koik" Safely Tire Boot *831 

"Auto Scope" Windshield Wiper ^909 

Auto Toi>. -'Alhor' 494 

"Faultless" •ill 

"roiitop" R'.ihber and Fabric 186 

Automobile Back Cushion •346 

Pedal r;id With Heel Rest '438 

RuWer-Tired, for Little Fclks *503 

"Scoolamobile," Martin •SS? 

Baby Pants. "Everychild" '503 

"Quickslip" '110 

Bag. Beach *183 

"Dorothy" Holdall "588 

Bagpipe, Toy, "Eagle Brand" "586 

Ball, Tenuis. "KlayKort" "831 

Ball, Golf, "Black Diamond" "673 

Cleaner, Munro ..."673 

"Colonel 1.62" "673 

"Clincher Cross" ^35 

Substitute for Practice *505 

"U. S. Royal 30-.X" "673 

Tennis, Taylor "182 

"KiHaler," Taylor "182 

Toy. with Features and Projective Tongue*671 

Balloons. " and Jeff" "672 

and Toys in Sanitary Packages 285 

Valve tor, "Anchor" ._ "514 

ilarkint; Hrp Toy, "Le Roquet" "672 

Bath Spray, Shower, "Simplex" *344 

Bathing Caps "260,'831 

('■-stume Novelties 672 

Battery Storage, Glass-Jar, ".^u-Seal" "503 

Tester, "Break-Not" "813 

Beach Bag *183 

"Bearfoot" Non-Skid Tire 366 

Belt. K'lastic. Fastener for. "Hold-/.it" "437 

Fiber and Rubber, "Marathon" and "Flex- 

vde" '673 

Rubber-Lined, for Money 755 

Belting. "ArCar," "FlexCar," and "VelCar" 378 

"Copper Queen" 349 

"Elcvay," "Grainvey," and "Kohinoor". . 263 

"Miracle," for Automobile Fans 355 

"Silvertown," for .\utomobile Fans 349 

Billiard Cue. Jointed, with Vulcanite Butt. "345 

"Black Hawk Chief" Cord Tire "833 

Bloomers. "Protecto" 110 

"Quickslip" "110 

Blowout Boot. Fowler "Spear-Lock" "505 

Patch. Firestone "909 

"Bobs Family, The," Sponge Rubber Dolls. "436 
Boots and Shoes. See Footwear. 

Bottle Cap, Safety. "Kork-N-Seal" "36 

Container, Rubber "833 

Hot-Water, "Cuddle-Up" Doll _184 

Stopper, "American" "344 

Box for Inner Tubes. "Efficient" 110 

"Break-Not" Battery Tester "813 

Brief Case. "Naugahyde" "Ill 

"Brite Mawnin" Jar-Rings "586 

"Brogue" Rubber, Th: "671 

Brush. Fountain Stencil "184 

Shaving, Folding, "Ever-Ready" "261 

"Budd Motor Visor" "110 

"BullDog" Inner Tire 191 

"Bull' Grip" Inner Tulie Patch 738 

"Burg-La-Proof" Window Catch "438 

Burrdl Gas-Mask for Ammonia Fumes ^909 

Burrs, Improved, for Rubber Heels.. 489, 571 

Buttons. Rubber 904 

Cable, Solid Rubber Trailing ^755 

Cables, Portable, "Spiralweave" 831 

Can Spout. Sanitary, "Easy-.Serve" ^587 

Carboy for .'Vcids. Hard Rubber ^671 

Cement, "Jem" Rubber Repair and 259 

"Challenger" Inner Tube., Puncture-Sealing 588 

Chanticleer from France '436 

Children's Overshoe and Shoe, "Nature- 
Last" ^909 

Cigar Moistener, "Hum'dyzor" "36 

Clark "Pedmobile." Rubber-Tired Skates. .. ^757 
Cleaner for Rubber Stamps and Pads. 

"Scientific" *910 

"Cleopatra" Bathing Cap "831 

"Clincher Cross" Golf Ball "35 

Clipper, Hair, Electric, Coffman "671 

Clothing — 

Baby Pants "503 

Coat. Fishing "36 

Hunting Equipment "36 

Rancoats. German ^756 

Reducing Suit for Jockeys ^673 

Rubber Bloomers, "Protecto." "Quick- 
slip" "110 

Waders for Children "831 

Cock, Inflatable Whistling •436 

Coffman Electric Hair Clipper •671 

Collar Bag, "Naugahyde" "Ill 

Swimming ■. , . .•910 

"Columbia" Heel "Ill 

Conant Heel ■ "346 

"Conqueror" (lardcn Hose "832 


"Copper Queen" Belting for General Use.. 349 

Copyholder, "Error-No" "504 

Cord Tires "260, "437, "833 

"Crescent" Sanitary Napkin Holder "832 

Cue, Billiard, Jointed, with Vulcanite Butl*345 

Cup, Lather and Shaving "671 

Cushion, Back, Automobile, Pneumatic "346 

Fiber-SlulTed, Inflated "35 

Dish-Protector and .\nti-Splasher, "Perfec- 
tion" -344 

Disk Wheels "HI, "438 

Doll, "Cuddle-Up" Hot-Water Bottle 184 

Repair Elastics, "Dolly Dimples" "672 

Dolls. Sponge Rubber. "The Bobs Family". ."436 

"Dolly Dimples" Dell. Repair Elastics *672 

•'Drniinion Nurser" Nipple "833 

Dress Shield, "Shirlastic" "183 

Dual Tread Cord Tire, "Lancaster" '262 

"Dunn-Pen" Fountain I'en "438 

"Duplex" Revolving Heel, Cavity, Rogers. "262 
Dust Cap for Tire Valves, "Nu-Way".... "35 

"Dustile" Respirator, Soderling "182 

"Duxfut" Webbed Swimming Glove ^586 

Dye Stick, Rubber Covered '35 

"Eagle Brand" Toy Bagpipe "586 

Ear-Drum Protector. "Gem" '345 

"Easy-Serve" Can Spout '587 

"Easy-Way" and "Easy-Way Tri-Socket" 

Wrenches "183 

"Eflicient" Inner Tube Box ; 110 

Elastic Bands, Fastener for, "Holdzit". . . . "437 

Shoelace "436 

Electric Hair Clipper, Coffman -671 

Ellis Ventriloquial Head with Rubber Face"182 

Emory Heel and Sole I'ails "262 

Envelope Sealer, Standard "344 

Erasers "261, '344 

"Error-No" Copyholder • "504 

"Everlaster Twin-Grip" Tire Casings, Ko- 

komo 709 

"Ever-Ready" Folding Shaving Brush "261 

"E.\so" tire *36 

"Fabri-Cord" Tire, Terrell '184 

Face, Rubber, \'entriloquial Head witli, 

Ellis "182 

Fat .'\nkle Boot with Rubber Heel, "Lady 

Dongola" "911 

Faucet .\ccessory. Rubber "Perfection .'inti- 

Splasher" '344 

"Faultless" Auto Top "Ill 

Feet. Rubber, en the "Kleradesk" 283 

"Fenway" Cross-Strap Sandal "755 

"Fishbrand" Apron "105 

"Fleetfoot" Sandal "833 

"Flex-I-Pac" Miner's Shoe '35 

"Flexyde" Marathon Washable Body Belt.. '673 

Floating Toys, "Rubbadubdub" "504 

Folberth .\utoinalic Windshield Cleaner. ... "437 
Football Shoe, Rubber-Solcd "911 

Shoulder Protector ' 1 09 

Footwear — 

Boot, Fat .Ankle, with Rubber Heel, 

"Lady Df neola" '911 

Outing, Ladies' ', •35 

Slicker, "Excel Bullseye," and Rubber 

Container "910 

Short, Red Rubber *262 

Shoe. "Flex-I-Pae" Miner's "35 

For tball. with Rubber Sole and Calks. "911 

Golf, "Tom Logan" "109 

Rubber-Soled -Advocated 505 

"Steady Man" "832 

and Overshoe, Children's. "Nature-" "909 

Boots and Shoes, "Natural Tread" "104 

Heels and Soles — ■ 
Burrs, Improved 489, 571 

"Cameo Duplex" '909 

"Columbia" "m 

Conant, Leatberboard and Rubber '346 

"Duplex," Cavity Revolving, Rogers. "262 
Ground Gripper "Rotor" Heel with Rub- 
ber Insert '587 

Interchangeable "504 

Leather Base, Panther "588 

"Maltese Cross Scoop" "35 

Pads, Emory "262 

Panther Leather Base "588 

"Rotor," Grcund Gripi)er "587 

"Steady .Man" '832 

"X'elvet Neverslip Friction Plug" .... "183 

"Wids" Interchangeable "504 

Soles, "Cameo Duplex" "909 

Kantzler Protector, German •369 

Pads, Emory •262 

Kantzler, German 369 

'•bitiirs' Military, or Rubbers 369 

"St«ady Man" ♦832 

Miners Slioe. "Flex-I-Pac" "35 

Rubber, "Brogue" "671 

Sandal, Cross-Strap, "Fenway" "755 

2-Strap, Fleetfoot Line, "Romper" '833 

Shoelace, Elastic '436 

Skates, Pneumatic-Tired, Clark "Pedmo- 
bile" •757 

Tennis Ball, "KlayKort" "831 

Fountain Brush. Stencil. Garvey "184 

Pen, "Dunn-Pen," Self-Filling, without 

Ink Sac •438 

"Master," Self-Filling "184 

" Willard" 685 

"Garbonite" Hard Rubber Wheel 845 

Garter Button, "Natty-Pad" and Oblong "184 

Garvey Fountain Stencil-Brush *184 

Gas-Mask for .Ammonia Fumes, Burrell. .. ."909 

r.autier .Armored Tire *7S6 

"Gem" Ear Drum Protector "345 

"General" Cord Truck Tire *260 

Gauticr Armored Tire •756 

Globe "Herringbone" Tire "588 

Glove, Webbed for Swimming, "Duxfut". ."586 

Gf :lf_ llall Cleaners, Munro "673 

"Clincher Cross" * *. *35 

Substitute ! '. .' "505 

Balls .Meeting New Requirements. -!!!.! ."673 

Shoes. _ See Footwear "109 

"Grayline" Toilet Cases for 'Tourists 938 

Hair Clipper, Electric •571 

Hammer, Rubber-Cushioned '.'. •261 

V,"^",;?'-''^^'^''" '"■"='' Tube Repair Outfit.'! 393 

Hat Elastic, Detachable, "Tigbt-On" "60 

Protector, Waterproof, for Men.. "'832 

Shield, "Stop-A-Drop," for Women. !!!! ;"104 

Hats, Rubber, English "588 

"Hawaii" Bathing Cap .03? 

Heels and Soles. See Footwear.' 

"fJ''M"-'." ;'^''''<^*"s Tunctureless" Inner Tube" 104 

Holdzit 1-astener for Elastic Bands •437 

Hose, Garden, "Conqueror".. .g,o 

Supporler, "Keys Komfort". ...'.' .' 259 

Hot-Water Bottle Doll, "Cuddle-Up".. '" 184 
Humidyzor Cigar Moistener. . ' •!« 

Hunting Equipment tVi 

"Hydrc- United" Toronizcd fire.' .' .' ,' .' .' .' .' .' .' .'•505 

"Indestructible" Double Disk Wheel •41R 

Inner Tire, "Bull Dog" To? 

"Rubber Ace," New .Hi 

lube Box, "Eflicient".... ffn 

Tube "Challenger" Puncture'-Seaiin'g. ! ! ! ! 588 
Hercules Airless Punclureless". 'IM 

-NoCeem .,^7 

Patch, "Bull Grip" '. '. ??i 

"Pressurelastic" .... .'Al 

"Puncture-Proofed" .. ,^; 

Repair Outfit, "Han-De-Pach'' iaK 

Sealtyte" Self-IIealing .„, 

?,"sulaiing Tape, "2-Plcx".. 033 

■'■ V',~"o?' ,^"'=""'^'''= Spring for'Au't'o'- 
mob.Ie Shock Absorber ...... .° .jgj 

Jar-Rings, "Brite Mawnin".. crk 

Jem Rubber Repair and Cement!:; 259 

Jewel Bathins Ca|i ,0,, 

jockey Reducing Suit .?,; 

■•■tioi^yii: "^"'""" -•'■i^-' Grip^ * 

"Jon-Con" Tire Prolec.or. '.'.■.■. .,;5 

Jung "Miracle" and "XXX" Arch ' B'race.' ! .'"184 

"Kantbreak" Knife Sharpener -uj 

Kelson" Toys .it: 

!.'}>?>■?. 'SV'nfo't" Hose Supporter! '.!! ! 259 

Kiddie-Kar Special" with Rubber-fired 

Vv licels *'nc 

.!ii'>'"°-)'- , Tire-Valve, ' Sc'h'rkder! ! ! ! ! ! ! ' " ' -910 
Kleradesk" with Rubber Feet ' «Y 

Knee and Handle-Bar Grips ior ' ' Mot'or- 

cyclists, "John Bull" •346 

Knife Sharpener Protected by " Rubber! 

Kantbreak '344 

''"'in°"° "Everlaster Twiii-Grip''' Fabri'c' 'Ca's" 

I'Kork-N-Seal'"' ' Bottle' 'Cap! ■.!'.!'; J?? 

Lady Dongola" Fat-Ankle Boot with 'Ru'b- 
"" Heel ,jjj 

Lamp, Hand, Portable .671 

;;Lasta»vl" Fibrous Rubber Soliilg!!!! 250 

Locktite' Tobacco Pouch .75^ 

•Logan, Tom," Golf Shoe. . . .!.'."! .104 

Lox-on" .Air Chuck !!!!!!! ''^60 

Mailing Machine, Rubber in the. . ! '144 

Maltese Cross Scoop" Heel '•35 

.Mamcuring Instrument, Hard Rubber.'." "'755 
Marathon 'Flexyde" Washable Body Belt "•673 

Marquette" Tire Tool "'34? 

Martin "Scootamobile" Automobile! !'!" "•587 
„•; •?5,'<!i'. Fountain-Pen, Self-Filling. ...! "•184 

Michelin Mastic" 494 

Microphone Transmitter, Throat! "fi'r"fcl'e- 

phones ' •436 

.Micro-Telepbotie with'Har'd "Rubber ■Handie.!"504 

.Milking Machine, "Universal". . -36 

mI','"'"'^, S''" P^"^' Rubber, "FIcx-I-Pic''"" •35 

Fan Belt""'^ "XXX" Arch Brace, Jung ^184 

.Money Belt.' 'Rubber-Li'n'c-d !!!!!! •75s 

Morand Cushion Wheel for Motor ■Trucks.'.!"346 

w'"'', 1 ,,';'"■' ""''''." for .Automobile 
Windshield , j]Q 

Motorcycle Handle-Bar 'and' ' Kiiee ' 'Gri'p's', Bull •i4« 

"-Mullidisc" Wheel .,,? 

Link Belt .iii 

Nasal Syphon, "Nichols" .900 

■National .Airless" Tire '''"183 

;;NattyPad" Button for Garters'.'.!! •184 

_Natur,-il Tread" Boots and Shoes. ..!!" ""104 

Naugahyde Brief Cnse and Collar Bag.!"lll 

Newman Hat Protector. •xto 

"Neverslip" Pedal ....!!!! .TiS 

■Nichols" Nasal Syphon !!!!!!!"909 

Nipple, "Dominion Nurser" •833 

■■Sanitate" •03, 

"NoCeem" Inner Tube!!!!!!!! •261 

"No-C-Mcnt" Tire Puncture Plug '35 

"m" ■;"',';"''.'. 9'''^'--'" Storage Battery ..!!!! "503 
Nu-Way" Dust Cap i35 

Oblong Rubber Button for Garters "184 

Packing, "Volunteer" osj 

Pants, B.iby ;:. ::-.' • -.'i-io ■-503 

t. 1'"-!^', '°'' ^'""'""K ""rt Fishing '. "se 

n >"■„ Theraphonc" Telephone Attachment. ..*183 

Parallel Suspension Wheel, Robertson "184 

latch. Blowout. Firestone •ono 

Inner Tulie. "Bull Grip".. 710 

"Ilan-De-Pach" ....... ,0? 

Pedal Pad, "Neverslip" .. .430 

■■Pedmobile," Rubber-Tired Skates, ■a'a'r'k.'.'."757 

Pencil Erasers •251 .344 

Perfect" Window Washer and Duster.. ''755 
Perfection Anti-Splasher and Dish-Pro- 
<««"• •344 



"Perpclual" Tirc-Rera"'' Slcam-Bag ' 

"Phillips' Rubbers." Sole anil Heel Pads... 
Pncumalic .'Viitt'inobile Hack Cushion ' 

Shock .\bsorber, ".t. 11.— .\R" ] 

Bat hint: Cap ' 

Pneumonia ^l.ickel, "Vil-O-Ncl" 

Police Club, KubbcrCovcrc^l, Norwegian...' 
*'Pcniop" for Collapsible Automobile Tops.. 

"Pressurclaslic" Inner Tube 

Protector, Hat. for .Men ' 

"Puncture-Proofed" Inner Tubes 

Plugs. ".N'oC-.Mcnt" 

"Quaker*" Cord Tire 



"T. T. T." Fabric and Cord Tires 

"Quickslip" ItK omers 

Raincoats, (.ierman 

Red Rubber Short Blo.s for Service 

Reducing Suit for lockeys 

"Reflator," Tennis Ball, Taylor 

Repair, "Jtm" Rubber, and Cement 

Respirator with Sponge-Kilter and Hood, 

"nusltle," Sodcrling .^ 

Robertson Parallel Suspension Wheel 

"R.ckey Roller, The," Combined Teeter and 

Hobby Horse .' 

"Romper," Fleetfoot Line, 2-Strap Sandal. 
"Roiiuel, 1 e." Barking Dog Toy, French.. 
"Rubba-Float" Inflatable Swimming Device 

"Rubbad'ibtlub" Floating Toys 

Rubber Boots. Sec Footwear. 

"Brogue," The 


Covered Police Club, Norwegian 

Cushioned Hammer 

Ear-Drum Protector. "Gem" 

Feet on the "Kleradesk" 

Heels. See Footwear. 

Mend, "Superfix" 

Overshoes and Rubbers. See Footwear. 

Pencil Tip, "Rubv" 


Sandals. See Fcotwear. 

Soles, See Footwear. 

Sponge, "Topaz" 

Stamp and Pad Cleaner, "Scientific" 

Tea-Pot Spouts in England 

Top Mouth for Tobacco Bags 

"Ruby" Pencil Tip 

Rug Liner. Non-Slip, "Worcester" 

Sandal, Cross Strap 

Sanitary Napkin Cover, Rubber, "Crescent". 

"Sanitate" Nipple 

"Scientific" Rubber Stamp and Pad Cleaner.. 

"Scootamobile," Martin 

"Sealtyte" Sclf-Healing Inner Tube 

Seibel Air-Springs 

Self-Healing Inner Tube, "Sealtyte" 

"Semi-Natural Tread" Boot..._ 

Sharpener, Knife, "Kantbreak" 

Shaving and Lather Cups, Rubber.. 

Brush, "Ever-Ready" Folding 

Shield, Dress, "Shirlastic" 

Hat, "Stop-.^-Drop" 

Shoes. See Footwear. 

Shopping Bags, Rubber, "Dorothy" Holdall.. 

"Silvertown" Fan Belt 

"Simplex" Shower-Bath Spray 

"Simplicity" Phonograph Motor 

Sivyer Steel Truck Wheel for Pneumatics. . 
Skates, Rubber-Tired, Clark "Pedmobile". . . 

Soderling "Dustite" Respirator 

Soles and Heels. See Footwear. 

"Spenlo" Sugar Server with Rubber Foot.. 

**Spiralweave" Portable Cables 

Sponge Rubber Dolls, "The Bobs Family".. 


Sports .Shoes. See Footwear. 

Spray, Shower-Ba'h, "Simplex" 

Staggered Block Tire Tread 

"Stanrlard" Envelope Sealer 

"Steady Man" Sole and Heel 

Steel Truck Wheel for Pneumatics, Sivyer. . 

Stencil-Brush. I-'ountain, Garvey 

Stop-A-Drop" Hat Shield 

Storage Battery. "Nu-.Seal" Glass Jar 

Sugar Server with Rubber Foot 

Swimming Collar 

Device, Inflatable, "Rubba-Float" 

Glove. Webbed 

Taylor Tennis Ball anil "Reflator" 

Telephone Attachment, Pape "Theraphone".. 

Receiver Pad, Pneumatic 

Throat Microphone 

Tennis B.all and "Rellator," Taylor 

"Test-O-Cap" Dust Cap and Tire Cage Com- 

"Theraphone." Telephone Attachment, Pape. 

"Tight-On" Ilat Elastic 

Tips, Pencil, "Ruby" and "Wedge". . .*261, 
Tire, "Autocrat" 

Boot, Safetv, "Auteo-Keck" 

"Black Hawk Chief" Cord 

Blowout Patches ^. . 

CSsings. Kokomo "Everlaster Twin-Grip". 

Core, "Triangle" 

Desipn, Canadian, "Guard" and "Tour- 

Dual Tread Cord 

Eno "Exso" 

"Fabric-Cord," Terrell 

Filler, "Alastic" 

Gage and Dust Cap Combined 

Gautier Armored 

"General" Truck Cord, Pneumatic 

Globe "Herringbone" 

"Guard," V. D. I 










"Holyoke," New England 
"Hydro-t. nited" Toronizet 































Knox '757 

"Lancaster" Cord '262 

"National Airless" "183 

Pneumatic, Baby Cab ^757 

Cord Truck ^260 

Protector, "Jon-Con" ^346 

Puncture Plug, "No-C-Ment" '35 

"Ooaker" Cord ^437 

RMkA '586 

"T. T. T." Fabric and Cord 586 

Repair Outfit, "Han-I)e-Pach" 393 

Steam-Bag, "Perpetual" ^366 

"Ribbed" and "Roughshod," Wayne. ...•! 10 

"Savage," Spreckcls ^757 

Star '757 

Tool, ■■.Marquette" ..: ^345 

Toronized, "Hvdro.L'nited" '505 

"Touring," V. 'D. L '262 

"Traveler" ^686 

Tread, Staggered Block ^832 











. 110 


. 262 


Dreyfus, Dr. L. A 

Everson. Charles . . . . 

Grace, .M. P 

Greene, Warren A.... 
Hasslacher, Jacob .... 
Henderson, Frank B. 

Holt, A. T 

Hunter, C. A. 






(Porfruil)* 187 

(PorJroiO •43« 


Truck Cord, Pneuma ic, "General' 
Tube, British. "Pressurelaslic". . . . 

Corruga.ed. ".Vo-Cecm" .^^ 

"Punctureless, .\irltss" 

Ouake- "-Multi Tube" 

"Rubber .\ce" - 

"Self-Se.l ng" 

Tiroine cr for 

Tubes Packed in The "Eflieient' 
\'. I). L. "Guard" an-l "Touring 

\'alve taps Boxed in Sets 

Dust (.'an for. '"Xu-Wav". . . . 

Kit Box.' Schradcr ' '910 

"Tirtineter." on Heavy Inner Tube. . . . '*4;/ 

Wayne "Ribbed" and "Roughshod" •110 

Wholesole, Eno "Exso" '36 

"Tirometer" -Air \'alve and Pressure Gage 

on Heavy Inner Tube "437 

Tf ilet Cases, "Gravline" 938 

"Tom Logan" Golf Shoe *104 

Tobacco Bag, "Rubber-Top" •832 

Pouch, Ideal Fastening for, "Locktite". . .'756 
Toy -Mrplanes, Launching Device for, "Air 

Glider" ^756 

Bagpipe, Rubber •586 

Rail. See Ball. 

Balloons, "Mutt and Jeff" *672 

Ci;ck, Whistling *436 

Dog. Barking. "Le Roquet" "672 

Ruliber Whistling ♦587 

Tovs for Nursery Rhymes, Inflatable, "Rub- 

■ badubdub" *S04 

Washable, Unbreakable, "Ketson" *586 

"Traveler" Tire of Unique Construction. . .'686 

"'Triangle" 'Tire Core ♦438 

Twirler, Whistling "587 

"2-Plex" Insulating Tape 833 

"\'elvet Neverslip Friction Plug" Heel....*lS3 
Ventriloquial Head with Rubber Face. Ellis*182 

\'ibrator. Electrical Beauty. "La Vida" *755 

"■Vit-O-Net" Pneumonia Jacket ^345 

Wader for Children, Waterproof, English. .♦831 

Wagon. Book, Rubber-Tired 328 

Wafer Bottle. Doll-Shaped. "Cuddle-Up". . .♦184 
Vessel with Rubber Socket for Fruit or 

Flowers ^261 

Waterproof Hat Protector for Men, New- 
man "832 

H.nt Shield. "Stop-A-Drop" ^104 

Waders, Children's *831 

"Wedge" Pencil Eraser ♦261 

"Weeping" Doll ^910 

Wheel. Cu.shion, Morand *346 

Double Disk, with Firestone Tire Rim...^438 

Hard Rubber, "Garbonite" 845 

"Indestructible" Double Disk ^438 

"Multidisc" *1I1 

Parallel Suspension. Robertson "184 

"Willard" Fountain Pen 685 

Window Catch, "Burg-La-Proof" ^438 

Washer and Duster, Combination, '*Per- 

fect" *755 

Windshield Cleaner, Automatic, Folberth. . .^437 

Wiper. ".Auto Scope" *909 

"Worcester" Non-Slip Rug Liner •911 

Wrench, "Easy-Way" and "Easy-Way Tri- 

Socket" "1 83 

".XXX" and "Miracle" Arch Brace, Jung..*184 

New Incorporations... 40, 118. 190, 271. 351. 442, 

515, 592, 677, 759, 837, 917 

Jersey Rubber Trade. .42, 121, 194, 275, 355, 445, 

518, 595. 680, 761, "839, 919 

Trade Publications. . .38, 128, 188, 267, 349, 440, 

506, 605, 622, 736, 834 

Year, The (Editorial) 233 

-- -— ■ - — 89 




542, 620, 702, 783, 865, 943 

NoRD, G. Joseph — 

Planning of a Cotton Mill for Tire Fabrics, 
The (Plans) 750 

North, C. Olin — 

The Effect of Compounding Ingredients on 
the Physical Properties of Rubber 

(Tables and Charts) '9S 

Norway Rubber Statistics 791 

Trade in 53 



Benedict. Commodore E. C. (Portrait) 187, '265 

Candee, W. L 735 

Chamberlain. T. W (Portrait) 509, ^607 

Colt. Colonel 'Samuel P (ror/rain'914 

Converse. Colonel Harry E (Porlrait)'265 

York Electrical Show, The 

Ocean Rates from, on Tires, Tubes, Me- 
chanical Goods, Etc 781, 863, 

Spot Rubber Prices, Average. . .382, 619, 

702, 7R3, 865, 

Comparative,,.. 64, 138, 220, 299. 384. 

Knowles, Lucius J 266 

Ledcrle, E. 1 509 

Lewis, T. S". (Portrail)'606 

.Maclaren, W. F. De Bois 834 

McCarthy. T. F 37 

McGrew, Elvin L (P<ir(r(ii/)*187 

.Measure. C 834 

Morgan. F. W (Por(rai()^735 

Morrison. B. T 439 

Oaklev, R. E 735 

Openshaw, E. H (Portrait) '37 

Pusinelli, F, C. J (PorlroiO*266 

Raw. I. D 187 

Ro:bling, K. C 735 

Sayen. W. H 735 

Schneider. C, 266 

Shattuck, D 675 

Stein, A 129 

Stout, E 675 

Warden, W. F 439 

Warren, D T 439 

Williams, Colonel W. R 607 

Elisha S (Pcrlrait)'129 

Ocean Rates from New York on Tires, Tubes, 
Mechanical Goods, .Clothing, etc... 781, 863, 955 

Ocotillo .Again to the Fron: ^9 

Ohio Rubber Trade... '44, 123, 199, 278, 358, 448, 
•520. 597, 683, '765, '843. ^924 
Oils. Fats and Resins Used in the Rubber 

Industry (Frederic Datuterth) 563 

Oldest Piece of Rubber in the World, The *244 

Onazote — Expanded Vulcanized Rubber 

(C. L. Marshall) 819 

Opportunities and Inquiries, Trade.. 37, 129. 1S6. 

297. 366, 416, 508. 607, 674, 753, 835, 916 

Organs, Factory (Editorial) 76 

Other Machinery Patents. .. 34, 108. 181, 259, 343, 
435. 502. 585, 670, 748, 828, 906 

Overindustrialized? Ar^- \Ve (Editorial) 153 

Overseas Plantation. American (Editorial) 314 

Overton, Frank C (f orlrin()*517 

Pacific Balloon Company, The •768 

Coast Rubber Trade— '48, 126, 202, 284, 363. 
450. 525. 601, 686, 769, 846, 927 

Paints and Rubber Pigments 490 

Paranitraniline Red, Re;luction Products of, 
as Vulcanization Accelerators 

(Aitdre Dubosc) 
Paras, Fine Hard, and Plantation Rubber, 

Variation in (Henry P. Stevens) 

Patents — 

Adjudicated 268, 509, 

Chemical .. 29, 105, 172. 253, 339, 431, 497, 

660, 740, 819, 

Other Chemical... 173, 254, 339, 497, 581, 

Designs.. *62, *136, 218, '296, '378, ^379, ' 

♦537, *618, *700, *860, ^862, 

Machinery... '32, *107, "180, ^255, •342. • 

•501, *584, •669, '748, ♦827, 

Other Machinery.. 34. 108, 182, 259, 343, 

502, 585, 669, 749, 828, 

Process.. ..34, 108. 181, 259. 343, 435, 502, 

670, 749, 828, 

Recent, Relating to Rubber... 60, 134, 216, 

374, 459, 535, 615, 696, 777, 858, 

Trade Marks... 61, 135, 217, 375, 460, 536, 

698, 778, 859, 

Vulcanization .Accelerator 

Peachey Process Demonstration Plant ' 

Priority Questioned, Dubosc's Claim and 

Peachey's Reply 

Vulcanization Process 7, 52. 128, 408, 

Pearson. A. R. — ■ 

Determination of Total Sulphur in Rubber. . 
Pearson. Henry C. — 

A Glossary of the Words and Terms Used 

in the Rubber Industry 235, 325, 404, 

561, 723, 
Penang Rubber Statistics. .138, 220, 299, 385, 

621, 703, 
Permeability of Rubber to Gases 

(J. D. Edwards and 5. F. Pickering) 
"Personnel Administration, Its Principles and 

Pract ice" (Book Rcz-icw) 


Pickering. S. F., and J. D. Edwards — 

Permeability of Rubber to Gases 

Pigments. Rubber, and Paints 

Specific Gravity of. Determining the 

Pitch Hydrocarbons L^sed in the Rubber In- 
dustry (Frederic Dannerth) 

Planning of a Cotton Mill for Tire I'abrics, 
Plantation Rubber — 

Crisis. The (G. Joseph Nord — Plans') 

Defects in 

Dryness of. On the. (H. P. Stevens) 

and Fine Hard Paras. \'ariation in 

(H. P. Stevens) 

and the Testing of Rubber. . (Booh Rezriezt') 

Plantations. Rubber, .Science in. ... (Editorial) 

"Planting Engineer. The" ..... (Bool: RevicTv) 

Planting Notes.... 56, 213, 290, 372, 456, 532, 

694. 775. 855, 

"Planting Rubber" (Book Review) 

Plasters, Rubber, The Manufacture of 

Platens. Steel, for Hydraulic Presses 

Pnisonine. Benzol, in Rubber Factories 

Porritt, B. D. — 

The Action of Light on Rubber 

Porritt. B. D.. and S. Tudd Lewis — 

The .Absorption of Light bv Caoutchouc 





























Preliminary Summary ol tlR- Manufactures of 
Rubber Goods, An Analysis of the 

(.Richard Hoadtey Tinglcy — Charts, Grop/ii)*S09 
Prices, Average, Highest and Lowest, New 
York Spot Rubber.. 64, 138. 230, 299, 382, 384, 
463, 54.', 620, 702, 783, 865, 943 

"Priestley in .'\merica" (Book Review) 605 

Joseph (Portrait and Sketch)'608 

Problem of Uutia Percha Cultivation Solved, 

The *263 

Process Patents. . .34, 108, 181, 259, 343, 435. 502, 
585, 670, 749, 828, 907 

Profit Rather Than Volume (Editorial) 716 

Propaganda, High Wage {Editorial) 154 

Psychiatry, Selecting Workmen By (Editorial) 554 

Publications, New Trade.. 38, 128, 188, 267, 349, 

440, 506, 605, 622, 736, 834 


Quotations, Rubber Company Share.. 39, 118, 189, 
271, 351, 442, 514, 592, 677, 759, 837, 917 
Railroad Transportation, Modern, Importance 

of Rubber in *113 

Raincoat Fabrics, Meeting of Rubberizers and 

Dyers of 353 

Rate of Cure, Effect of Acids in Retarding 

(Henry P. Stevens) 660 
Rates, Ocean, From New York On Tires, 
Tubes, Mechanical Goods, Qothing, Etc. .781, 

863, 955 
Raymond, Charles B.. .(Portrait and Sl!etch)'S20 
Readjustment Policies of the National Cham- 
ber of Commerce 675 

Reagents for Vulcanization (G. Brttni) 895 

Reclaimed Rubber Market.. 63, 138, 219, 298, 383, 
462, 541, 620, 701, 782, 865, 943 

Reconstruction, Religion in (Editorial) 553 

Repair \'ulcanizer. Pneumatic Truck-Tire. .. .*65 1 

Repairing Rubber Footwear '397, *477, '567 

Giant Pneumatic Tires *422 

GIove.« and Miltens *647, "731 

Rhode Island Rubber Trade.. 122, 197, 278, 358, 
446, 527, 596, 680, 762, 840, 922 

Richards, Thomas G (Portrait and Sketch)'6Sl 

Roberts, William — 

Dynamic Balance and Construction of the 

Pneumatic Tire *811 

Manufacture of Hard Rubber Combs *649 

Roses, Rubber, in Sight (Editorial) 396 

Ross. Donald — • 

Lilhopcne 495 

Rubber Accelerator Service Laboratories *730 

and Fireproof Lumber (Editorial) 476 

and Whiskey (Editorial) 234 

Association, An International .... (fdiforia/) 153 

of America, Inc., The.. 16, 116, 185, *269, 314, 

•315, 320, 322, 348, 452. 475, 528, 597, 604, 

605, 662, 674, 758, 824 

Manufacturers', Mid-West. .*47, 125. 201, *281, 

362. 449, 523, 600, 685, 767, 845 

of Canada. The 272, 285 

of Phil.adelphia 444, 445 

Association's Educational Plan, The 

(Editorial) 475 

New President (Editorial) 314 

Bag for Gasoline Tanks 577 

Belting. Repairing and Applying *802 

Come Again ?— Will $3 (Editorial) 234 

Comranv Dividends. .39. 117, 189, 271, 351, 442, 

514, 592, 677, 759. 838, 917 

Company Share Quotations. .39, 118, 189, 271, 

351, 442, 514, 592, 677, 759, 837, 917 

Compounds. Aging of Certain 

(7. K. Ruby and Harlan A. Depew) 246 

Crisis in Malaya 913 

Crude, How It Is Milled and Marketed in 

Malaya (Richard Hoadley Tingley)'^A06 

Division, American Chemical Society, Meet- 
ings 7, 657 

Executives Predict Early Business Recovery 529 

Exhibition of. Other Tropical Products and 

.Mlied Industries. Fifth International. .75, 206, 

368. 454, 610, 771, 772. •849. *931 

International, The . . . (Ccorge M. A''av/T)"931 

Next, The (Editorial) 75 

Footwear. Repairing *397, *477, *567 

Gaskets for Gasoline Tank Fittings 578 

Gloves and Mittens, Repairing *647, *731 

Goods, Manufactures of. An Analysis of the 
Preliminary Summary of the (Richard 

Hoadley Tingley— Charts, Graph)'SQ9 
1919 and 1914, Summary for the Manu- 
facture of 721 

M.inufacttirc" (Bock Reticw) 439 

Seasonal (Editorial) 233 

Grows Old, When (Editorial) 153 

Higher and Snon' (Editorial) 878 

in the Manufacture of Dynamite 'IH 

Industry. British (Editorial) 154 

Glo»isarv of Words and Terms Used in 
the. A (Henry C. Pearson) . .23S. 325. 404. 
481, 561, 723, 882 
Oils, Fats and Waxes Used in the 

(Frederic Dannerth) 487 
Pitch Hydrocarbons ITsed in the 

(Frederic Dannerth) 821 
Solvents and Thinners Vsed in the 

(Frederic Dannerth) 487 
Ten-Year Financial Survey of the. -^ 

(Richard Hoadley Tini^ley — Crat^hs)'^3i 

Manufacture" (Book Rcviezv) 506 

Embossing Machines Used in "643 

Masks and Faces *571 

Mill an'1 Calender Lubrication '646 

Oldest Piece in The World "244 

Plantation Conservation (Editorial) 314 

Dryness of. On the (Henry P. .'ttercns) 659 

Plantations. Science in (Editorial) 797 

Planting (Book Review) 188 


Notes.. 56, 213, 290, 372, 456, 532, 613, 694, 

775, 855, 936 

Plasters, The Manufacture of *80 

Production, Curtailment of. Progresses.... 215 
Ouality, Effect of Mould on 

(0. de Fries) 739 
Resins, Paints and Varnishes (Book Review) 666 
Restricticn Movement, Progress of the Mala- 
yan (K. H. Tingley) 725 

Roses in Sight (Editorial) 396 

Scrap Market.. 73, 148, 228, 307, 393, 472, 548, 
628, 710. 792. 863, 951 

Set Fur, "Artificial Fur" '900 

Shoe Designing and Pattern Making 

(Robert C. Kellev)'l64 

Salvage (Editorial) 395 

Soling (B. W. Elberson) 485 

Slab (H. P. Stevens) 895 

Sole Turn Shoe Perfected, The *879 

Up to D.ite. The *799 

Stamps, The Manufacture of "899 

Surplus and Its Relation to Future Tire 
Production, The 

(Richard Hoadtey Tingley — Graphs)''iSli 

Synthetic "555 

Tents in Tree Fumigation *555 

■Tire Industry, American vs. European Prac- 
tice in the (Albert H. Myers) '689 

Tree, Diseases and Pests of The 

(Book Review) 915 

Trust, Am:rican (Editorial) 313 

Vulcanized, Articles, Some Microsections 
Cut from 

(Harlan A. Depew and I. R. Ruby)'244 
Vulcanizing of. The Relative .\ccelerating 
Action of Different Compounds of Lead 

in the (/. A/. Grove) 663 

Workers, Women, Effect of Limited Hours 

for 908 

Rubberized Airship Fabrics, New 25 

Ruhherizers and Dyers of Raincoat Fabrics, 

Meeting of 353 

Ruby, I. R., and Harlan A. Depew— 

The Aging of Certain Rubber Compounds. 246 
Some Microsections Cut from Vulcanized 

Rubber Articles "244 

Rutherford, W. O (Por(roiO*321 


, 572 

Safety Congress, Ninth Annual, of the Na- 
tional Safety Council 49 

in the Rubber Factory. Greater 645 

and Sanitation for Rubber Mills and Cal- 
enders (C. B. Mitchclla) *90 

with Vulcanization Apparatus 674 

Sand Suction Hose *845 

Sanitation in Rubber Mills 249 

Scandinavia and Denmark, Rubber Trade in 55 
ScHERRER. J. A., S. Collier, and M. Levin — 
Determination of .\ntimony in Rubber Goods 580 

Schippel. H. F., Work of 21 

SciioB, Alfred — 

Elasticity Test for Soft Rubber Goods. .. .*188 
SroTT, M. D. — 

Pneumatic-Tire and Motor-Truck Develop 

ment Experiences 

Scott, Winfield. and C. W. Bedford — - 
Reactions of Accelerators During Vulcani 


Scrap Rubber Market.. 73. 148. 228. 307. 

472. 548, 628, 710, 792, 863, 951 
Sealing Tane for Wrapped Tires, Gummed, 

"Liberty" 527 

Seaman, Frederick A. — 

(Portrait and Sketch)'SlS 
Sebrell, L. B. and C. W. Bedford — 

Reactions of Accelerators During Vulcani- 
zation — Carbo-Sulphydryl Accelerators and 

the .Action of Zinc Oxide 658 

Seiherling. Frank A... (Portrait and Sketch)'6»2 

Valedictory. The (Editorial) 633 

Shapiro. H, J., G. D. Kratz, and A. H. Flower — 
The Action of Certain Organic Accelerators 
in the Vulcanization of Rubber — II and 

III 664 

Shirk, D. A.— 

.Antimony Sulphuret Its Manufacture and 


Shivelv, W. E — 

Why Use Pneumatic Tires for Motor 


"Shoe Manufacturers, 1921 Pocket Dire9tory 

of" (Book Re-Acw) 440 

Solinir. Rubber (B. W. Elberson) 486 

Show. First Annual Highway Transportation. 328 

National .Automobile 350 

Shugart, George S (Portrait and Sltetcli)'92\ 

Singapore Rubber Market.. 64, 139, 220, 299. 384, 

463. 542. 620, 702, "83. 865, 943 

Societv. .American Chemical, Meetings. . 7, 515, 657 

Rubber Division, Meetings of 7, 656 

Society of .Automotive Engineers — 

Officers and Committees 50 

Specifications for Insulated Cables 829 

Sole. Rubber, Up to Date, The .*799 

Soles and Heels. See New Goods and Special- 
tics, Footwear. 

Soling, Rubber Shoe (B. W. Elberson) 486 

Solvent Naphtha from Oil Shale.. (Editorial) 2 
Solvents and Thinners LTsed in the Rubber 

Industry (Frederic Dannerth) 487 

Some Aspects of the Stress-Strain Curve 

(IVilliam B. Wiegand— Charts) *18 


Relative Thermal Conductivities of Some 

Rublter Compounds 657 

South American Notes 938 

Southern and Eastern Notes.. 41, 120, 193. 274, 
•354, '443. 516, "593, 679, 760, ^838, 919 

Spain. Rubber S>alistics 791 

Speaks, Charles E (Portrait and Skelch)'&i2 

Specifications — 

American Railway Association, Mechanical 
Division, Master Car Builders and Master 




Mechanics — 

Air-Brake and .Air-Signal Hose; Steam 

Heat Hose ^427, ^639 

Bags and Gaskets. Rubber, for Gasoline 

•Tanks and Fittings 577, 578 

Bumpers, Automobile 264 

Bureau of Aircraft Production, United States 
Army — ■ 
Elastic Cord for Holt Flare Bracket Ten- 
sion Strap 577 

Exerciser, for .Airplane Gun Mounts... 577 

Rubber Bags for Gasoline Tanks 577 

Gaskets for Gasoline Tank Fittings. . 578 
Bureau of Standards — • 

Batteries, Storage, for Military Automo- 
bile and Truck Service, Starting and 

Lighting 327 

Cables, Insulated, Society of Automotive 

Engineers 829 

Hose, Air-Brake and .Air-Signal *42? 

Flexible Metallic, Rubber Tips for 264 

Steam-Heat *639 

Mechanical Rubber Goods, War Department 264 
Society of Automotive Engineers — 

Insulated Cables 829 

Tubing 264 

War Department — 

Mechanical Rubber Goods, Tubing, Hose 

Tips, Bumpers 264 

Spindles? How About Idle American 

(Editorial) 476 
Spontaneous Coagulation 

(O. de I'ries and W. Spoon) 659 
Spoon, W., and O. de Vries — 

Spontaneous Coaj^ulation 659 

Squires, Arthur C. — 

The Manufacture of Dental Rubber '24 

Stamps, Rubber, The Manufacture of ...•899 

Standardization and Simplification. (Editorial) 797 


Antwerp Rubber Arrivals 140, 222, 300, 540 

Brazil Rubber Exports and Imports. . 62, 141, 

302, 388, 466 

Canada Rubber Exports and Imports. . 67, 147, 

226, 303, 387, 467, 545, 708, 790, 871, 949 

Ceylon Rubber Exports and Imports.. 138, 220, 

299, 382, 540, 621, 784, 866, 944 

Cotton E-xports, Egyptian 71 

Denmark Rubber Exports and Imports .... 791 
Federated Malay States Rubber Exports and 
Imports .. 64, 138, 220, 299, 384, 463, 547, 
621, 702, 784, S66, 944 

France Rubber Exports and Imports 792 

Great Britain Rubber Exports and Imports, 

See United Kingdom. 

Italy Rubber Exports and Imports.. 148, 227, 228, 

306, 548, 628, 710, 791, 872, 951 

Java Rubber Exports and Imports.. 64, 138, 221, 

299, 384^ 540, 621, 702, 784, 866, 944 

Malaya Rubber Exports and Imports. .138, 220, 

621. 702, 784, 865. 943 

Netherlands Rubber Exports and Imports.. 950 

Norway Rubber Exports and Imports 791 

Penang Rubber Exports and Imports. . 138, 220, 
299, 385, 540, 621, 703, 784, 789 

Singapore Rubber and (lUtla Exports 467 

Spain, Rubber Exports and Imports 791 

Straits Settlements Rubber Exports and Im- 
ports.. 64, 138, 220, 299, 384, 463, 621, 702, 
784, 866, 944 

.Sweden Rubber E.xports and Imports 791 

United Kingdom Rubber Exports and Im- 
ports.. 69, 226, 307, 388, 470, 547, 625, 709, 
I 789, 872, 950 

I States Crude Rubber Arrivals. .64, 139, 221, 

I 30O, 385, 463, 542, 621, 703, 784, 866, 944 

Custom House Statistics. .66, 140, 222, 301. 
386, 465, 544, 623, 704, 788, 870, 948 
Rubber Expi rts and Iniports.68, 70, 142, 143, 
144, 147, 224, 225, 226, 303, 304, 305, 381, 
386, 387, 467, 468, 469, 470, 540, 546, 625, 
626, 627, 705, 706, 707, 786, 787, 788. 868. 
869. 870, 871, 944, 946. 947, 949 
Statistics, Standardizing and Saving 

(Editorial) 715 
Steam Requirements for Vulcanizing 

(Walter J. Bilterlich— Charts) ^22 
Sterling Again Wins R. I. A. L. Pennant. . .'1 19 
Stevens. Dr. Henry P. — 

Aging of Vulcanized Plantation Rubber.... 338 

Alum as a Coagulant 684 

Dryness of Plantation Rubber, On the.... 659 
Eflect of -Acids in Retarding the Rate of 

Cure 660 

Mould on Rubber Quality 739 

Storage of Plantation Rubber 740 

Variation of Fine Hard Paras and Planta- 
tion Rubber 660 

Stickiness in Crude Rubber, Basic Causes of 

(Andre Dtibosc) 897 

Stone, Joseph E (Portrait and Sketch) 40 

Storage Batteries for Military Automobile and 

Truck Service, Si)ecification for 327 

of Plantation Rubber (H. P. Stevens) 740 

Straight Side Winning. The (Editorial) 878 

Straits Settlements Rubber Statistics. .64, 138. 220, 
299, 384, 463, 621, 702, 784, 866, 944 

Trade 57 

Stress-Strain Curve. Rubber, The "Slope" 

or "Type" of the.. (Dr. O. de Vr,es) 171 
Some Aspects of the 

(H'illiam B. IViegand— Graph;) '18 
"Strike. Capital." The Absurd Claim (Editorial) 634 

Sub.stitutcs for Rubber Tires '417 

.Sulphur, Relative Activity of Various AUo- 
tropic Forms of Towards Caoutchouc, The 

(D. F. Twiss and F. Thomas) 579 
True Free, The Determination of, and the 
True Coefficient of Vulcanization In Vul- 
canized Rubber (W. I. Kelly) 175 

Summary, Preliminary, of the Manufactures 
of Rubber Goods, An Analysis of the 
(Richard Hoadley Tingley— Charts. 

Graph) 'S09 



Swrden — Rubber Slalistics 791 

Syntliclic Rubber (Albrrt Ntuburger) 660 

... _ . . . 26 

Syringa \*ulcanine. 



Organic Accelerator. . . 

Tariff Bill, the Fordney (Editorial) 

Notes, Foreign 370, 612, 693, 774, 853, 

Templin, E. W. — 

What .Motor Trucks Need to Supplement 

Pneumalic-Tire Equipment 

Ten Years' Experience with Aging Tests 
OyHliam C. Gter and Waiter W. Evans- 
Plan, Graphs)'887 

Tennis Balls Canned for Export 560 

Tents, Rubber, in Tree Fumigation '555 

Terms and Words Used in the Rubber In- 
dustry, A Glossary of {Hi-nry C. Pearson), 

235. 325, ■!04, 481, 561, 723, 882 
Test, Elasticity, for Soft Rubber Goods 

(.Alfred Sehob)'l88 

Testing Materials, .Xmcrican Society for 737 

Tests, .Aging, Ten Years' Experience with 

{Hilliam C. Geer and IV alter W. £taiM)*887 

Tctralin 369 

Thermoid Rubber Company, History of The.. '194 
Thomas. F.. and D. F. Twiss— 

The Relative -Xclivity of Various Allotropic 
Forms of Sulphur Towards Caoutchouc. 579 

Thornton. .\. U (Por(rai()*321 

Three Dollar Rubber Come Again? — Will 

(Editorial) 234 

T1NCI.EY, Richard Hoadley — 

An Analysis of the Preliminary Summary of 

the Manufactures of Rubber Goods 

(Charts, Craph)'809 
Crude Rubber is Milled and Marketed in 

Malaya, How *406 

Economics tf Truckportatir.n • 3 

Malaya Cannot Understand America's Posi- 
tion 457 

Progress of the Malayan Rubber Restriction 

Movement 725 

The Rubber Surplus and Its Relation to 

Future Tire Production (Graphs)'\%& 

A Ten-Year Financial Survey of the Rubber 

Industry (Graphs) '333 

Tire — See also Designs, Machinery Patents, 
Machines, and New Goods. 

"Autocrat" *757 

Blowout Patches "909 

"Black Hawk Chief" Cord '833 

Buffing Cone or Finishing Drum *656 

Slachine 178 

Builder, Improved 256 

Building Core *825 

.Machine *906 

British *499 

Stand, Giant Truck *432 

Bundling Paper, Testing Machine For *906 

Calenders, Standard ]|746 

Casing Machine *748 

Casings, Kokomo "Everlaster Twin-Grip".. 709 

Changer *827 

Conveyor *433 

Cord. "Black Hawk ChieP" *833 

Fabric Impregnator * 106 

Core, "Triangle;' *438 

Crane, Pneumatic 31 

Cutter ;i06 

Cutting Machine .*667 

Designs, Canadian, "Guard" and "Tourmg *262 

Dual Tread Cord *262 

Eno "Exso" *36 

"Fabri-Cord," Terrell *I84 

Fabric Machine, Cord *747 

Fabric Manufacture, A Brief Analysis Of..*814 
Fabrics, Planning of a Cotton Mill for 

(C. Joseph i\ord—Plans)'7S0 

Factory Repair School '848 

Filler, "Alastic" *345 

Flaps, Manufacture Of *243 

French Disapprove Straight-Side 608 

8 age and Dust Cap Combined, "Test-0-Cap"*833 
autier Armored 756 

Globe "Herringbone" '588 

Grinding Machine *826 

"Guard" and "Touring," V. D. L 262 

"Holyoke," New F.ngland *757 

"Hydro-United," Toronized *505 

Industry, Rubber, American vs. European 

Practice in (Albert H. Myers)^689 

Inspection Machine 826 

Knox *757 

"Lancaster" Cord 262 

Making and Rubber Manufacture, Brushes 

in . '836 

Mold Conveyor *107 

Molds, Lubricating 749 

"National Airless" *183 

Opener *255 

Pneumatic. Babv Cab *757 

Cord Truck ' '260 

Determining Factors for the Life of a 

(IVilliam G. Kelson) 806 
Equipment, What Motor Trucks Need to 

Supplement (E. IV. Temflin) *85 

and Motor-Truck Development Experiences 

(M. S. Scott) 87 
for Motor Trucks, Why Use 

(IV. E, Shively) 83 
and Rims Used on Trucks, Data on 

(Burgess Darrow) "84 

Giant, Repairing (Roy R. Reid)'MZ 

Truck-Tire Repair Vulcanizers *651 

vs. Solid Truck, Discussion 88 

Dynamic Balance and Construction of 

(iVilliam Roberts)'8\\ 

Press, Hydraulic *825 

Price Reductions 678 

Prices Reduced 176 


Production In Tlie United States •728 

Protector, "Jon-Con" '346 

Puncture Plug, "No-C-Menl" '35 

"Quaker" Cord '437 

Ribbed Cord '586 

"T. T. T. Fabric and Cord" 586 

Removing .Apparatus, Pneumatic 180 

Repair Fabric Kniie *500 

Outfit, "Han-De Pach" 393 

.Steam-Bag, "Perpetual" '366 

V'ulcanizers '340, 905 

Truck ^651 

"Repairing, Complete Guide to" 

(Book Review) 128 

"Ribbed" and "Roughshod" Wayne '110 

Rims. Demountable, of New Design '421 

Sample Cutting Machine *106 

"Savage," Spreckcls '757 

Shaping Machine •584 

Skiving Machine •668 

Spreader, Adjustable ^ ^905 

Spreader, New '583 

Spreading Machine •827 

Star .•75/ 

Statistics, .Accurate, Imperative (Editorial) 233 

Tool, ".Marquette" •345 

Toronized, "Hydro-United" •SOS 

Tread Designs, Pneumatic ^862 

Staggered Block ^832 

Making Machine ^434 

Trimming Machine, Bicycle *432 

Truck Cord, Pneumatic, "General" ^260 

Tube, British, "Pressurelastic" *438 

Corrugated, "NoCeem" *261 

Deflator *343 

Molding and Vulcanizing Apparatus * 32 

Packed in The "Efficient" Box 110 

Polishing and Finishing Machine '906 

"Punctureless. .Airless" *109 

"Rubber Ace" *588 

"Self-Sealing" 672 

Splicing Brush *258 

Steam Splicer ^498 

Tirometer for ^437 

Wrapping Machine *826 

Tubing Machine, English *433 

\'alues \'astly Increased (Editorial) 234 

Valve Caps Boxed in Sets 262 

Kit Box, Schrader ^910 

Vulcanizer and Retreader *340 

Continuous '258 

"Exso" *257 

Truck ^747 

Wayne "Ribbed" and "Roughshod" •IIO 

Wholesole, Eno "Exso" '36 

Wrapping Machine *178, *90S 

Tires — See also Designs, Machinery Patents, 

Machines, New Goods, and Patents. 
Tires, Automobile, Consumption of, in 1920.. 410 
British Motor, Post War Development in 

(Mark Meredith) 207 

Curing, in Melted Metal Molds *^5^ 

Foreign Import Duties On Rubber 575 

Fortv-Three Million (Editorial) 475 

From The Coast. Cord ^757 

Middle West *110 

Giant, Air Compressor for _. . '340 

Pneumatic. Repairing (Roy Reid)*A22 

Lighter Cars and Small (Editorial) 7b 

Mason, Record of _. ... ..*362 

More, and Lighter Cars (Editorial) 395 

Not A Luxury (Editorial) 633 

Over Eighty Million (Editorial) 75 

Pneumatic. Criticised ._ •250 

Rubber, Vulcanizing, By Electricity....... ISO 

Small, Lighter Cars and (Editorial) 76 

Truck and Road Damage (Graph.'i)'6SS 

and Tr'-ckportation (Editorial) 1 

Tubes and Belting, Processing 688 

Mechanical Goods, Clothing, Etc., Ocean 

Rates from New York 781, 863. 955 

ToMLiNSON. Malcolm C. W. — ^756 

Industrial Engineering in Rubber Factories. 165 

Toron Patents and Products ^26 

Trade, .\nierican Rubber, News. Notes and 

Personals ..39, 117, 189, 271, 351, 441, 513, 591. 

677, 759, 837, 917 

Marks.. 61, 135, 217, 295, 376. 460. 536. 616, 

697, 778, 859, 940 

Opportunities and Inquiries.. 37. 129. 186, 297. 

366, 416, 508, 607, 674. 753, 835, 916 

Publications, New.. 38, 128, 188. 267. 349, 440. 

506, 605. 662. 736. 834 

Tests. The Scientific Measurement of Trade 

Proficiency (Book Rcz'ieto) 834 

Transmission, Fluid Heat 

(Ale.vander B. McKcchnic)*162 
Transportation, Railroad, Importance of Rub- 
ber in "113 

"Treado" to Repair Rubber Goods 2.50 

Treasury Decisions 606, 676 

Tree Fumigation, Rubber Tents in "555 

Trinidad. .A Tropical College for.. (Editorial) 76 
"Truck Tires and Road Damage 

(Diagrams, Graphs)*65S 
Pneumatic, and Tire Equipment, Develop- 
ment of ^83 

Truckportation and Truck Tires. .. (Editorio/) 1 
Economics of. The 

(Richard Hoadley Tingley) 'i 
Trucks, Motor, Pneumatic Tires and Rims 

Used on. Data on (Burgess Darrow) *84 

What "Thty Need to Supplement Pneumatic- 
Tire Equipment (E. W. Templin) '86 

Why Use Pneumatic Tires for? 

(W. E. Shively) 83 

Tube Splicing, English Method of *I12 

Tubular Fabrics, Circular Looms for Weaving.*902 
"TtJTTLE, John B. — 

Action of Heat and Light on Vulcanized 

Rubber 495 

Interpretation of Rubber Analyses, The.. 430 

Variability of Crude Rubber, The 818 

(Portrait and Sketch) 273 

Twiss, D. F.— 

Caoutchouc Considered as a Colloid 429 

Twiss, D. F., and C. W. Howsok — 

Acceleration of Vulcanization... (Graphs)*2^\ 
Twiss, D. F., and F. Thomas— 

The Relative Activity of Various Allotropic 
Forms of Sulphur Towards Caoutchouc. 579 


Ubhling, F. F. — 
Controlling Chimney Losses to Save Fuel 


Uganda, Rubber Industry in 215 

United Kingdom Rubber Statistics. .69, 226, 307, 

388, 470, 547, 625, 709, 789, 872, 950 

States Crude Rubber Arrivals.. 64, 139, 221, 

300, 385, 463, 542, 621, 703, 784, 866, 944 

Custom House Statistics.. 66, 140. 222, 301, 

386, 465, 544, 623, 704, 788, 870, 948 

Import Duties on Rubber Goods 332 

Long-Staple Cotton Production 570 

Rubber Company, Annual Report of 589 

Statistics.. 68. 70, 142, 144, 147. 224, 303 

381, 386, 467, 546, 626, 705, 787, 868, 946 

Tire Production in The '728 

Variability of Crude Rubber, The 

(John B. Tutlle) 818 
\'arnishes, Dry Heat, and Their Manufacture. *167 
Venable, Charles S., and Fowa — 
Solubility of Gases in Rubber as Affecting 

Their Permeability 657 

Viles, A. L (Por(rai()^321 

\iscosity of Rubber, The... (A. M. Munroe)'l69 

Solutions 104 

Volume, Profit Rather Than (Editorial) 716 

Vulcanization, Acceleration of 

(D. F. Twiss and C. W. Howson — Graphs)''2S\ 

Accelerator Patents 780 

Depolymerization and 370 

Motorist's Handbook On.... (Book Review) 188 

Peachey Process 7, 52, 128, 408, 849 

Uemonstraticn Plant 771,*850 

Priority Questioned 409 

Reactions of Accelerators During. 572 

of Rubber, Action of Certain Organic Ac- 
celerators in the 572, 664, 744 

Theory of Acceleration in 174 

True Coefficient < f, in Vulcanized Rubber, 
The Determination of True Free Sulphur 

and the (IV. J. Kelly) 175 

Water, The Advantages of 

(Arthur E. Friswcll) 662 

Vulcanized Plantation Rubber, Aging of 338 

Vulcanized Rubber, Determination of True 
Free Sulphur and the True Coefficient of 

Vulcanization in. The (IV. J. Kelly) 175 

Articles, Some Microsections Cut From....^244 
Effect of Certain Accelerators Upon the 

Properties of. The— II (Charts) 

(C. D. Krat: and A. H. Flower) '95 

Energy (W. B. If ifgand)^425,^491 

Preservation of. The 103 

Vulcanizers, See Machines, Mill Appliances 
and Devices 

Vulcanizing, Apparatus. Safety With 674 

of Rubber, The Relative Accelerating Action 
of Different Compounds of Lead in the 

(/. M. Grove) 663 
Steam Requirements for 

(IVaitcr J. Bitterlich).. (Chart) '22 
"Vulcazol," Accelerator 253 


Wage Propaganda, High (Editorial) 154 

Waldo, E. M (Portrait and Sketch) 679 

War Department Specifications for Mechanical 

Rubber Goods— IV 264 

Waste Material Dealers, National Association 

of ^517 

Water Vulcanization, The Advantages of 

(Arthur E. Friswell) 662 

Weaver Wheel Alinement Indicator ^204 

West Indies. British. Rubber Situation in.... 694 

Whale Inflation Hose •676 

Wheel .Alinement Indicator. Weaver *204 

Double Disk, with Firestone Tire Rim *438 

Whiskey, Rubber and (Editorial) 234 

Whitby. Ur. (i. .Stafford — 

Caoutchouc Molecule, The 659 

WnJTBV. (_i. Stafford, and I. Dolid — 

Contribution to the Knowledge of the Resins 

of Hevea Rubber 657 

Whitby, G. Stafford, and O. J. Walker — 

Influence of Piperidine-Piperidyl-Dithiocar- 
bamate on Vulcanization 657 

U'llITFUEAD, H. R. — 

Brief Analysis of Tire Fabric Manufacture, 

A •SM 

WiEGAND, William B. — 

Some Aspects of the Stress-Strain Curve 

(Graphs) •IS 
Vulcanized Rubber Energy 

(Diagrams. Graphs)'425,'A91 

(Portrait and Skclch)'688 

Wildman Rubber Company, Model Plant of the^283 

Wilmer, Edward G (Portrait and Sketch)'76S 

Wilson. Fred J (Portrait and Sketch)*597 

Women Rubber Workers, Effect of Limited 

Hours for 908 

Words and Terms Used in the Rubber In- 
dustry. A Glossary of 
(Ilenrv C. Pearson) . .235, 325, 404, 481, 561, 723 

Work, B. G (Por(raiQ«361 

Workmen. Selecting. By Psychiatry (Editorial) 554 
Wyler, W. a.— 

Technical Analysis of Lithopone 29 

"XLO" Accelerator 740 

Yarns and Fabrics, Measurement of Crimp in 
(A. N. Gadsby and E. D. Walen — Diagram) \t 





so EAST 42nd STREET 



I have helped others to solve theirs; 

no doubt I cjui help you too. Practical 

experience and chemical knowledere go 
hand in h2uid. 


Rubber Chemist 


Analyses, TesU, Experimental Work 


Incorporated 1900 ATLANTIC. MASS. Founded 183, 

Reliable Rubber Goods 




Reg U. S. Pat. Off. 

Vol. LXIII. No. 1 



Reg. United Kingdom 

OCTOBER I, 1920 

35 CENTS |3°° P" Year. 

$3.50 Abroad. 

Avoid Oxidation and Overheating by Using "Buflovak" Vacuum Dryers 

The high vacuum and low temperature of "Buflovak" Dryers absolutely prevent over-heat- 
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Profit by the experience of others and get all the facts before de- 
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Chemical Appa- 


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0. > 



^tered a. .econd-cla.. matter Octob^ 4. 18W, .. the p..t office at New York, N V ..,.., ,U. >.. -. u-ynZ- 

I ^-.t— 


[October 1, 1920. 


Executive Offices: MONTREAL. CANADA 

CHARLES B. SEGER, President, 
W. A. EDEN, Vice-President, 

R. E. JAMIESON, Director in Charge of Sales, 
W. BINMORE, Secretary-Treasurer. 


12 Large Manufacturing Plants 

28 "Service" Branches throughout Canada 


Whitehead Brothers 
Rubber Co. 


High Grad* Mechanical Rubber Goods 
"Long Life" Steam Hose 

Suction Hose for all purposes 
Water Hose, Belting, Packings 
Springs, Valves, etc. 


Japfiuined, Bronzed, Solid BnMS, 

Nickel, Brass or Cop par 




Footwear and Clothing. 
THE SHOE HARDV^^ARE CO , AVaterbury, Conn. 




''MILL „ „ 






For Steam, Air and High Pressure Hose 



Iron Pipe 






Every Rubber Manufacturer and Jobber should know this coupling 
and have our prices. 



New York 






Cable Address 

"Feinco" Chelsea 

Liebers and A B C, 4 & 5 edition 

October 1, 1920.] 



Naw V()«ic 




Reg. United States Pat. Off. Reg. United Kingdom. 

Published on the 1st of each month by 


No. 2S West 45th Street, New York. 
Telephone — Bryant 2576. 


Vol. 63 

OCTOBER 1, 1920 

No. 1 

Subscription: $3.00 per year, $1.75 for six months, postpaid, for the 
United Stales and dependencies and Mexico. To the Dominion 
of Canada and all other countries, $3.50 (or equivalent funds) 
per year, postpaid. 

Advertising: Rates will be made known on application. 

Remittances: Should always be madp by bank draft. Post Office or 
Express money order on New York, payable to The India Rubber 
Publishing Co.mpany. Remittances for foreign subscriptions should 
be sent by International Postal Order, payable as above. 

Discontinuances: Yearly orders for subscriptions and advertising are 
regarded as permanent, and after the first twelve months they will 
be discontinued only at the request of the subscriber or advertiser. 
Bills are rendered promptly at the beginning of each period, and 
thereby our patrons have due notice of continuance. 



WHILE the public imagination has been profoundly 
stirred by the wonderful development of the 
passenger automobile industry, the less spectacular pro- 
duction of motor trucks is just as remarkable. So 
valuable have motor trucks proved themselves that their 
manufacture rose from 25,375 in 1914 to 316,364 in 
1919. Indeed, it is stated that the total registry of 
motor trucks in the United States for 1919 was 750,000, 
and that fully 600 auto truck transportation companies 
are now operating in the country. To the rubber in- 
dustry this rapid and considerable expansion in the 
motor truck trade has direct and pecuniary interest. It 
means greatly increased tire production as the advan- 
tages of truckportation fto use a newly-coined and 
rather suitable term) become better appreciated. 

It has been well said that never yet has a crisis 

loomed in our national history but that a great leader 

has always providentially appeared to meet and cope 

^ successfully with the impending difificulty. So, too, just 

■^ as it was generally feared that our industrial cstablish- 

' ments, reviving from the severe dislocation due to the 

Great War, would be acutely handicapped in the dis- 
tribution of their products and perhaps forced to curtail 
their output at great loss to employers and employed 
because of the palpably inadequate service given by the 
railroads of the country, tire and motor truck manu- 
facturers, by their alertness in providing supplemental 
transportation, actually averted an imminent peril to in- 
terurban and interstate commerce. Not only have they 
aided the seriously embarrassed railroads, but they have 
developed on a huge scale a new hauling business, a 
boon to all classes of producers and consumers. 

That freight and express automobile service is here 
to stay, and that it is destined to have a far-reaching field 
of usefulness is forecasted in an article in this issue on 
"The Economics of Truckportation," in which the 
writer, with impressive statistics, deduces the conclusion 
that for comparatively short hauls (now averaging up 
to fifty miles, and which may soon be much more) the 
ra'lroad cannot function as efficiently as the motor 
truck. For instance, while railroads would require 20 
cents for terminal charges and 30 cents for delivery on 
100 pounds carried fifty miles (apart from the freight 
rate), auto trucks collect, carry, and deliver the same 
weight of goods quite as swiftly, and with none of the 
rail line delays, over the same distance for a total of 
50 cents, or an average of one cent per hundredweight 
for each mile. Indeed, a motor rate of $0,008 a mile on 
100 pounds is quoted on a 100-mile run between New 
York and Philadelphia, in contrast with the $0.0115 rail 
express rate, with a 200-pound limit on packages. 

While it is self-evident that the old rail freight and 
express lines will long continue immensely helpful, it 
requires no second sight to see that the lusty infant, 
"Truckportation," is bound to develop into a vigorous 
auxiliary, if not a powerful rival, of the old rail lines. 
Wasteful methods will be corrected by efficiency experts 
and rational cooperation encouraged among the carriers; 
legislation will be framed to standardize rates on a fair 
basis as in railroad practice; and measures will be taken 
to check destructive competition. As truckportation thus 
gains in stability it will attract even greater volume of 
trade and ample financial support for its expansion, 
— all of which also spells largely increased business for 
the rubber mills, which must provide tires for the 
mighty fleets of motor vans ceaselessly coursing the ever- 
improving commercial arteries of the nation. 


SECRET.VKY OF AGRICULTURE Mereditii in a recent ad- 
dress predicted a great future for American Pima 
long-staple cotton grown on the irrigated deserts of 
southern California, Arizona and Mexico. This cotton, 
developed by careful breeding and selection, is regarded 
by the Secretary as the best in the world. Even during 
the war, as he pointed out, when it was discovered that 
the Germans had practically cornered the world's supply 



[October 1, 1920. 

of flax, an excellent substitute for linen was woven from 
it and with it nearly all American and a great number 
of Allied airplanes flew to victory. 

The value of the Southwest long-staple crop last year 
was over $20,000,(XX). For this year the gross returns 
are estimated at fully $100,000,000. The industry is 
but eight years old, and so far has not had to contend 
with the boll-weevil, which for years has ravaged the 
cotton plantations along the Atlantic seaboard and the 
Gulf of Mexico. The development of this great plant- 
ing industry is largely due to the foresight and enter- 
prise of a niunber of the big manufacturers who 
financed planters, erected gins and themselves planted 
thousands of acres. If given a fair chance they would 
do the same in Cuba, in the Philippines, for example. 


THE United States is facing a crisis in its oil sup- 
ply. Already we are importing petroleum. Nearly 
40,000,000 barrels came from abroad during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1919, and these importations must 
increase year by year as we invent and build more ma- 
chines which depend upon crude oil or its derivatives as 
fuel. Motor vehicles continue to multiply and so do 
ships, locomotives and factory pwwer plants burning oil 
instead of coal. Industrial uses of gasoline, notably as 
the principal rubber solvent, call for larger quantities 
every year. 

Geologists, engineers and economists are agreed that if 
a new demand for petroleum should develop, amounting 
to 100,000,000 barrels a year, it could not be met from 
domestic sources of supply. A permanent governmental 
jjetroleum administration to assist and participate in the 
commercial development of foreign and Philippine oils 
would be necessary. Already the limited supply and in- 
creasing demand, together with greater production costs, 
are being reflected in a rapidly increasing price, which is 
now more than double the pre-war average. 

The situation calls for a prompt, determined national 
policy looking many years ahead. Either we must take 
positive steps to secure our share of the supply from the 
fields of the world, or else we must develop and use shale 
oil for all purposes to which it is adaptable — probably 

Shale naphtha is an excellent solvent of rubber, hav- 
ing physical properties analogous to the solvent naphtha 
obtained from coal tar, of which more might well be used 
for spreading in America. While shale naphtha has 
found very little application in America, it is used ex- 
tensively in Scotland and Germany for purposes where 
the odor does not matter, especially with asphaltum in 
certain insulating compounds. In America its wider ap- 
plication to various lines of rubber manufacture should 
help to meet a national emergency. 

The time has come when the American supply of oil 
shale must be utilized. The position of the shale indus- 

try has changed materially in recent years with the ad- 
vance in petroleum. At present prices it is possible for 
oil from shale to compete profitably with oil from wells. 
Crude oil can be produced from shale at $1.85 a barrel 
in Colorado and Utah. Crude petroleum oil is selling 
at $3.10 a barrel in Wyoming, while Pennsylvania oil is 
quoted at $6.10. The Scottish shale industry has been 
profitable for many years, and its record should be bet- 
tered in this country because of the greater richness of 
shale strata and their more easilj- workable surface loca- 

President Alderson, of the Colorado School of Mines, 
states that the American oil shale supply is practically 
unlimited. He points to the fact that the petroleiun pro- 
duction from wells in this country to date has been ob- 
tained from 4,109 square miles with an estimated yield 
of 2,280,000 barrels per square mile, and asserts that 
one ten-foot seam of shale, yielding one barrel of oil per 
ton, will give 15,488,000 barrels of oil, or seven times 
the square mile output from wells. The 5,500 square 
miles of oil shale in Colorado and Utah will produce 
255,000,000,000 barrels. 

An oil shale refining plant can be put in successful 
operation for an investment of $500,000 on which there 
would be a substantial return. Some of the large and 
progressive rubber companies are producing their own 
crude rubber and long-staple cotton. \\'hy not their sol- 
vents also ? 


arbitration is urged on local business men by the Chicago 
Association of Commerce. The association has arranged 
for commercial arbitration under the State law and has 
designated a committee to promote it. 

Commercial arbitration combines an ideal method of 
determining questions of fact with a standard procedure 
for deciding points of law. It does not involve any sur- 
render or impairment of legal rights, but provides for 
the determination of facts before an arbitrator having 
ample power and confidence, and if points of law arise 
in the evidence these alone are submitted to a court. 
That necessity seldom arises. 

Purchasing agents in buying rubber goods at 
first are prone to outline minutely the kind and per- 
centage of rubber, the character and quantity of com- 
pounding ingredients, and even the time of cure. In 
time they learn that the use of hard and fast specifica- 
tion is the exception rather than the rule, a much safer 
guide being found in the representations of reliable 
rubber manufacturers. This is because compounds and 
processes vary widely, so that a buyer's carefully de- 
tailed specifications of today may be much out of date 
tomorrow. Moreover, research workers and experts 
are bringing about daily changes in the rubber industry, 
that result not merely in increased production birt in de- 
cided betterment in the quality of the output. 

October 1, 1920.] 


The Economics of Truckportation 

By Richard Hoadiey Tingtcy 

THE ADVENT of the motor truck to the business of transport- 
ing freight and express matter in competition with such 
old-time carriers as the railroads and express companies 
isn't expected to bankrupt the business of either, nor is it ex- 
pected to embarrass them in any way. The rapid manner in 
which the country's growth exceeds every system of transporta- 
tion almost as soon as inaugurated, and the congestion one meets 
with on all hands where transportation of any kind ligures, clearly 
indicates that there is a held of service for all — that the motor 
truck has its own well-defined sphere of usefulness, and that, in- 
stead of being a competitor to the older-established methods of 
transportation, it is a feeder to them — an adjunct to their busi- 
ness. This fact is emphasized by the present predicament of the 
railroads with a shortage amounting to three-quarters of a 
million freight cars, and a locomotive efficiency of scarcely more 
than fifty per cent of normal quota. .Add to this the woeful lack 
of terminal facilities at all points and it will be evident that the 
rail carriers should welcome any relief that will enable them to 
pr.operly function in their field. 


It is the short haul business that puzzles the railroads, par- 
ticularly when moving in less than car lots. It is generally con- 
ceded that this class of business is unprofitable to handle. It 
has been considered by railroad operators for years that there 
was no money in freight haulage until a distance of forty miles 
had been covered. Today, the modern generation of operators 
place the limit at double that distance. 

It will be seen, then, that the motor truck in the handling of 
freights — "Truckportation," as the new business is called — should 
not interfere with the business of the rail carriers even though 

proximately fifteen cents. It will be seen therefore that a cost 
to the shipper of fifty cents is reached, which is exclusive of the 
line haul charge made by the railway company, and that a 
truckporlation company that can make money at fifty cents per 
liundredweight on a fifty-mile haul is in a fair way to get busi- 
ness. This rate figures out just a cent a hundredweight a mile. 
.An added advantage to the truck man, also, is that his delivery 
is made within a few hours, or over night, while it may take 
freight in less-lhan-car lots days and often weeks to reach its 

In competition with the railway express, some of the same 
conditions obtain, though the disparity of the comparison is much 
less marked. Being dependent upon railway service and ui>on 
railway cars for a portion of its usefulness, delays are sure to 
creep in to such service that will not be applicable in the case of 
merchandise hauled all the way by truck. But the express busi- 
ness of the country is now, practically, in the hands of one 
organization, the American Railway Express Company, to which 
I shall refer later. 

It would not be fair to truckportation as a business to com- 
pare its rates of charge for service with either rail freight or 
express rales without taking into account many modifying fac- 
tors. In the first place the freight trucking business is so new 
that it has not yet found itself. There is little cooperation 
among the carriers of such freight, although the National Auto- 
mobile Chamber of Commerce, through the secretary of the 
Motor Truck Committee, F. W. Fenn, is working hard to bring 
order and standardization into the ranks. Although occupying 
the public highways in the conduct of their business, these com- 
panies have been brought under the supervision of state or mu- 
nicipal regulation in but a few instances. Nebraska is the only 
state, so far as 1 am now informed, where the Public Service 

I'.SH;.M.\1 IC TlKLD .MtJluR TkLcI-S Willi IhjUlU.l. UlcK lluDlt-S, llrtll.VltD DV lilt l.\ JLUL ki;.\.\ ,M(J10U l£.\fUESS OVI uF Sl"l'X C'llV, IiJU-\, TllKU 

Western Iowa and Eastern Nebraska, Have Made an Enviable Record in the Haulage of Livestock. Thev Serve 150 Farms, 
IIaulinc. Their Product to the Stockyards and Bringing Back Goods from the City 

operating in parallel lines, for the average truck line is less than 
eighty miles, although many now doing a good business operate 
over much greater distances. 

Let us take the case of a wholesale merchant in a large city 
shipping goods by freight to a retail merchant in a town, say, 
fifty miles away. From the best figures I am able to obtain, the 
terminal charges of such a shipment amount to ten cents per one 
hundred pounds at each end. These charges include switching 
and placing the car, loading and unloading, and clerical work. 
The tw-enly cents does not cover the rail haul. The average 
charge per hundredweight for truck delivery at each end is ap- 

Commission has taken a hand in the rc.^julatioii of rates of charges 
for such service. There are other states which, I believe, are 
soon to follow. Each truckportation company charges a rate it 
sees fit, always higher on a straight comparative basis than the 
rail freight between given points, and often somewhat lower 
than the rail express rate : often higher, too, for, with the 
prompt delivery guaranteed as against an often uncertain de- 
livery of the railway express, it is considered that a charge for 
a "super-service" is reasonable. Motor truck companies claim 
that shippers want service first and are willing to pay for it, 
even at a slight advance over something less dependable. 


[October 1, 1920. 

It has often been stated that the charges for truckportation 
service amounts, on an average, to a cent a hundredweight a 
mile. This, although true in some cases, is but a figure of 
speech, even as an average, as will be seen. 


Take the case of the American Motor Freight Corporation 
operating a through daily over-night express service with 
twenty-two or more trucks between New York and Philadelphia. 
The distance travelled is almost exactly 100 miles by the high- 
ways and its schedule of charges is as follows : 

1 to 25 pounds $0.50 

25 to 50 pounds 0.70 

SO to 75 pounds 0.90 

75 to 100 pounds 1.00 per hundred 

100 to 2,000 pounds 0.90 per hundred 

4,000 to 8,000 pounds 0.85 per hundred 

8,000 to 10,000 pounds 0.80 per hundred 

From this it will be seen that for merchandise weighing from 
seventy-five to one hundred pounds the rate of charge is exactly 
a cent ($0.01) a mile a hundred pounds, but for a consignment 
weighing 2,000 pounds the rate figures but nine-tenths of a cent, 
($.009) a hundred pounds a mile, and a consignment weighing 

A friend of mine has recently contracted with a truckportation 
company to move his household furniture from New York to 
Boston. The rate quoted is 75 cents a 100 pounds, and, as the 
distance to Boston is practically 250 miles, the rate per 100 
pounds per mile is three-tenths of a cent ($0,003). 


In calculating the comparative cost of a shipment of mer- 
chandise by one method or another, it is proper to take into 
consideration all items of expense involved in the delivery of 
the goods from the door of the consignor to that of the con- 
signee. If, by one method of transportation, additional expense 
is made necessary by boxing or crating requirements, this should 
be taken into consideration. If, by such boxing or crating, addi- 
tional weight is given to the consignment, this, also, should be 
noted. W. J. L. Bauham, traffic manager of the Otis Elevator 
Co., has made some interesting studies of rate comparisons, on 
merchandise moving by rail freight and by motor truck, after 
taking these items into account. I shall quote some of his find- 
ings in substance. He includes in the freight cost the first- 
class rate, plus fifteen cents per 100 pounds teaming charges from 
shipper's warehouse to freight house, plus fifteen cents per 100 

The American Railway Express Company Uses Many Electric Trucks on Solid Tires for Short Urban Business 

10,000 pounds (a full load) would cost $80, or eight-tenths of 
a cent, ($0,008) per 100 pounds per mile. 

Placed in contrast with the first-class railway freight service 
between these points, the rate, as of March 1, 1920, was 33 cents 
per 100 pounds, which was increased by the recent rulings of 
the Interstate Commerce Commission to 46 cents, (or $0.0046) 
per 100 pounds per mile, assuming the same distance is travelled 
by the railway freight car as by the motor truck. 

Again, by comparison with a similar service by the American 
Railway Express Company, the first-class express rate was 
raised from ninety cents per hundredweight to $1.15 by order 
of the Interstate Commerce Commission, which amounts to 
$0.0115 per 100 pounds per mile, which practically equals the 
conventional average quoted for truck service. It must be 
remembered, however, that there is pending before the Interstate 
Commerce Commission an application by the American Railway 
Express Company for an additional increase in rates which may, 
indeed, be granted before this article is published. In that event 
the disparity in rates will be still more marked. 

Owing to the general shortage in railway equipment and con- 
gestion at terminals, the American Railway Express is now 
declining to accept matter weighing more than 200 pounds per 
package. This, however, is considered as a temporary measure 
only but, since the motor truck companies are prepared to accept 
shipments up to two tons, it gives them, for the present at least, 
an advantage they are not slow to follow up. 

pounds against teaming charges from freight house to re- 
ceiver's warehouse, plus 24 cents per 100 pounds increased cost 
of boxing to cover shipment made via rail freight, plus 17 cents 
per 100 pounds increased weight caused by increased boxing. 
The rate via motor truck he figures out covers delivery from 
shipper's warehouse to receiver's warehouse ; and he tabulates his 
results as follows : 

Rate Comparisons^Per 100 Pounds 

Rail Motor 

From New York, to — Freight Truck 

Newark, New Jersey $0.91 $0.15 

Paterson, New Jersey 0.91 0.20 

New Brunswick. New Jersey 0.91 O.40 

Trenton, New Jersey 0.98 0.60 

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1.02 0.80 

Wilmington, Delaware 1.13 1.20 

Bridgeport, Connecticut 1.10 0.70 

New Haven, Connecticut 1.13 0.73 

Waterbury, Connecticut 1.16 0.75 

Hartford, Connecticut .'.. 1.21 0.9O 

Springfield, Massachusetts 1.25 1.00 

Worcester, Massachusetts 1.31 1.50 

Providence. Rhode Island 1.32 1.10 

Boston, Massachusetts 1.36 1.50 

It will be noted from the above that the motor rate between 
New York and Boston is double that which I previously quoted 
in the case of transporting household furniture. It will be 
further noted that the motor rate between New York and sev- 

October 1, 1920.] 


eral of the points mentioned, as to Newark, Paterson, New 
Haven, etc., practically amounts to the conventional and oft- 
quoted average of a cent a hundredweight a mile, while the 
rate to Providence is little more than a half this theoretical 



The Rural Motor Truck Terminals, Inc., of Minneapolis, 
whose motto is "Safe Speed Service with Every Shipment In- 
sured," operates seventeen lines out of that city and St. Paul in 
all directions. Its published schedule throws some light on 
motor freight rates in the Middle West. 

Rural Motor Truck Termi.vals, Inc. 

1 to 501 to Over 

Distance from 500 lbs. 1,500 lbs. 1,501 lbs. 

Minneapolis, I'irst Second Third 

Miles Class Class Class 

1 to 15 $0.34 $0.29 $0.24 

16 to 20 40 .34 .28 

21 to 25 46 .39 .32 

26 to 30 53 .45 .37 

31 to ?5 59 .50 .41 

36 to 40 65 .55 .46 

41 to 45 71 .61 .50 

46 to ."^O 78 .66 .55 

51 to 55 84 .72 .59 

56 to 60 90 .73 .63 

6! to 65 96 .82 .67 

66 to 70 1.03 .88 .72 

71 to 75 1.09 .93 .77 

76 to 80 1.15 .98 .81 

81 to 85 1.21 1.03 .85 

86 to 90 1.28 1.09 .90 

91 to 95 1.34 1.14 .94 

96 to 125 1.40 1.19 .98 

126 to 130 1.45 1.23 1.02 

131 to 135 1.50 1.28 1.05 

136 to 140 1.55 1.32 1.09 

141 to 145; 1.60 1.36 1.12 

146 to 150 1.65 1.4» 1.16 

151 to 171 1.86 1.58 1.30 

It will be noted from these schedules that for first-class ship- 
ments of 1 to 500 pounds the rate per hundred miles of haul 
amounts to one and four-tenths of a cent a mile ($0,014), for 
second-class $0,012, and for third class $0.0098. 


The Interurban Motor Express Company operates a daily 
service over five routes out of Sioux City, Iowa, to small towns 
in that state and publishes a schedule of freight rates in four 
classes in which merchandise is rated according to the Official 
Western Classification : The figures below represent rates in cents 
per 100 pounds, for classes 1, 2, 3 and 4: 

From Sioux City to — Miles 12 3 4 

James City 6 30 28 23 20 

Henton 11 30 28 23 20 

Merrill 18 30 28 23 20 

Lemars 25 30 28 23 20 

Lawton II 30 28 23 20 

Moville 17 30 28 23 20 

Kingslcy 27 30 28 23 20 

Bronson 11 30 28 23 20 

Clumbing Hill 15 30 28 23 20 

Holly Springs 16 30 18 23 20 

Horlick 26 30 28 23 20 

Sargent's Bluff 8 30 28 23 20 

Salix 16 30 28 23 20 

Sloan 21 30 28 23 20 

Neptune 20 35 30 28 23 

. O'Leary 24 37 32 29 24 

I have reproduced this schedule as a whole in order to illus- 
trate the fact that rates of charge by truckportation companies 
do not always follow the mileage basis. This company makes 
the same charge for hauling 100 pounds 6 miles to James City 
as to Kingsley, which is 27 miles away. But for some reason 
not known, perhaps owing to highway conditions, its charges are 

increased on all classes of goods for hauling the 20 and 24 miles 
to Neptune and O'Leary. Taking the first-class rate from Sioux 
City to James City, 6 miles, the rate per 100 pounds per mile is 
five cents, while the 100-pound mile rate to Kingsley, 27 miles, is 
1.11 cents. The Iowa company makes special rates on cream, 
eggs and live stock which I will not quote. Its minimum charge 
for any shipment is SO cents, which rule is generally adopted by 
all truckportation companies. 


On the other hand, the Nebraska State Railway Commission, 
the only state that has so far prescribed rates of charge that 
motor freight companies shall use, has followed strict railroad 
practice and adhered closely to the graduated mileage basis. Its 
published schedules cover from one to 150 miles of haul, taking 
the four classifications into account. Its rate on first-class mat- 
ter carries an initial charge of 20 cents, plus one and one-half 
cents a mile for second-class, 85 per cent of the first-class rate. 
Taking the first-class rate on a 25-mile haul, this amounts to 57J4 
cents per 100 pounds, or 2.3 cents a mile; for a 100-mile haul, 
$1.70, or 1.7 cents, and for a 150-mile haul, $2.45, or 1.64 cents 
a hundredweight a mile. 


It is stated by some authorities that there are 600 different 
truckportation companies now in operation as common carriers. 
It is impossible, however, to accurately estimate their number. 
Statistics of this kind are difficult to obtain and the business is 
growing so rapidly that they would be worthless in a short time 
if available. We do know, however, that there were 316,364 
commercial trucks manufactured in the United States in 1919, 
as against 25,375 in 1914 and that there were 750,000 such 
vehicles registered in this country last year. There are twenty 
dififerent motor freight lines running out of Baltimore and 
Washington to nearby and distant Maryland towns covering 500 
miles of highways and making a daily average of 1,500 miles. 
California is said to have 150 separate lines. There are no less 
than 138 trucking companies doing business in and around New 
York, if the advertisements in the motor magazines may be 
credited. In ten months, motor trucks carried from Council 
Bluffs to Omaha 18,498 head of cattle, 158,019 hogs and 37,130 
sheep. In Cincinnati, much the same thing is happening. A line 
from Adrian to Detroit carries everything from butter to buttons 
and from castings to calves. There are lines all over Ohio, 
Missouri and Kansas. A trucking company that operates from 
Deadwood, South Dakota to Sundance, Wyoming, 45 miles, 
makes delivery of goods in six hours, where it is claimed the 
railroads take four or five days. From Chattanooga, Tennessee, 
to Atlanta, Georgia, is a long haul, but the motor truck is doing 
it regularly, serving the farming communities on the way. 

Perhaps the best-known people in long-distance trucking is 
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio. This company 
has five trucks that operate between Akron and Boston. The 
distance is figured at 1,500 miles and the round trip is made in 
five and a half days. It also operates six 3^^ to 5-ton trucks be- 
tween Akron and Cleveland. The Goodyear company, however, 
does not operate as a common carrier but confines itself to trans- 
porting its own finished products to the Eastern markets, re- 
turning with raw materials and supplies. 


What is the future of truckportation? It is more than evident 
that, as an adjunct and feeder to the railroad, it has a distinct 
field of operation. In paralleling a railroad for short hauls it 
can, no doubt, successfully compete with it even at much highsr 
rates of charge because its service is so markedly superior. 
What will happen at some future time when the railroads have 
emerged from the difficulties and embarrassments that have io 


[October 1, 1920. 

long hampered their activities and are once more on a properly 
functioning basis, is a matter that time only can decide. It is 
fair to presume, however, that, in the meantime, the business of 
truckportation will have become a recognized, standardized in- 
stitution, fulfilling a field of usefulness from which it will be 
difficult to dislodge it. 


The status of truckportation with respect to the .\mericaii 
Railway E.xprcss is a different matter. This company, by reason 
of the forced consolidation of all the express companies of the 
country into its one organization in 1918, operates on every rail- 
road in the country. It handles a million shipments a day. It 
has a working force of 135,000 people. It is equipped to do a big 
business, and it is going to do it, truckportation or no. It has 
fleets upon fleets of motor trucks of its own operation at 
terminals for delivery of goods to its express cars. 

Competing with itself, and in order to try out the possibilities 
of all motor express transportation, the .\merican Railway Ex- 
press Company has been experimenting with a line of its own 
between New York and Passaic and Paterson, New Jersey, re- 
spectively 16 and 22 miles away. A fleet of 10 new 3>2-'o" 
trucks with "Van" bodies was assigned to this service; and, 
when operations have been conducted for a sufficiently long 
period this organization will know something about truck- 
poi^ation, its costs and its usefulness. 


ANVO.NE who has experienced the thrill of landing in an air- 
plane recalls the swift upward rush of the earth to meet the 
craft and the disproportionately slight shock of the actual con- 
tact of earth and plane. One invariably feels braced for a more 

racking shock 

and the absence 
of jolting is a 
matter of won- 
der. Almost the 
first conclusion 
reached about 
the science of 
aviation was that 
the safety of an 
aviator depends 
in great measure 
on the landing. 
This fact was 
unscientifi c a 1 1 y 
stated long ago 
by the small boy 
who observed 
that falling did 
not hurt him but 
it hurt when he 
stopped, and in 
order that Un- 
cle Sam's avia- 
tors shall not be 
hurt when they 
"stop," much 
careful study has 

been given by manufacturers of aircraft to the problem of lessen- 
ing the shock of landing. The result has been the rubber shock 
absorbers with which the landing wheels of all Government air- 
planes are now fitted. Ordinary automobile springs and shock 
absorbers were out of the question because of their weight, and 
an ingenious contrivance utili/int; nibber cord was used instead. 

It is due to the remarkable <|uality of India rubber that spe- 
cially constructed elastic cords are successful in heavy airplane 
construction to secure the cushioning effect when landing. The 
wheel supports, at both front and rear of the machine, are pro- 
vided with steel tubes that slide within each other. The rubber 
cords supply the necessary tension to the sliding supports, so that 
when the machine is on the ground the weight is cushioned 
by the tension of the rubber cords, and when flying they are 
relaxed. Sixteen of these cords to a machine are generally used, 
but that depends, however, on the weight and style of the air- 

Great care is given to the quality of the rubber cords used in 
shock absorbers on all government planes. The rubber used 
is a compound containing at least 90 per cent by weight of the 
best quality wild or plantation rubber. This gives a very 
"lively" compound, which is also free from ingredients known 
as "oil sub.stitute." The organic acetone extract does not exceed 
S'/i per cent of the weight of the rubber and the free sulphur 
content does not exceed one-half per cent of the total compound. 
The weight of the non-volatile ash does not exceed 5 per cent 
of the compound. 

The elastic cord varies in width according to its use, but the 
appearance and construction are the same for all sizes. It is 
composed of multiple strands of rubber tightly encased within 
two layers of cotton braid. The rubber strands are square, of 
equal size (0.05 — 0.035-inch), and are thoroughly treated with 
soapstone or talc to prevent them from adhering to each other 
Ml the finished cord. The number of strands varies according 
10 the diameter specified, which always means the over-all diam- 
eter of the braid with rubber strands enclosed. A tolerance of 
plus J^:(-inch is allowed in the over-all diameter but there must 
be no minus variation. The double covering of braid is very 
strong, each thread of it having a tensile strength of from 4 to 
5]4 pounds by test. Both the inner and outer braids are wrapped 

over and under 
with three or 
four threads. 

In consequence 
of the care used 
in material and 
manufacture an 
elastic cord of 
great durability 
and tensile 
strength is pro- 
duced, which is 
well fitted to en- 
dure the strain of 
use in airplane 
shock absorbers. 
Two inches of 
the rubber cord 
used by the Gov- 
e rn m e n t will 
stretch to 16 
inches before 
breaking, over 
700 per cent ex- 
tension. After 
aging in dry 
heat for seven 
days at a tem- 
perature of 160 degrees F., a two-inch specimen will still stretch 
to 9 inches, an extension of 350 per cent. 

In order to test its fitness a 6-inch sample of cord is stretched 
to double its normal length and the weight of the load measured. 
To give this 100 per cent extension in a cord of J/^-inch diameter 
a load of from 145 to 180 pounds should be required. If the 

Airplane Kquu'pf.d with Rubber Shock Aii.^okuKu.^ 

October 1, 1920.] 


cord cannot stand the minimum pull it is not fit for Uncle Sam's 

In (jnlcr to test tlie cord tlioroughly, samples are cut from 
each 500 feet of the product unless the inspector judges that the 
uniformity of the cord can be ascertained with fewer samples. 

.^s almost all resilient material deteriorates with age, great care 
is taken to use new elastic cord, no ct)r(l licinc used if more than 



^^l^^^^m^ \ „^ 

Elastic Coru for .'KiRrL.xxEs 

six months from the factory. To eliminate any old material, 
each factory making elastic cord for Government airplanes is re- 
quired to use an identification system by means of two colored 
threads woven in the entire length of the cord. These colors are 
designated by the Government for use in a specified period. For 
instance, all clastic cord w'oven for the Government in January, 
February, and March, 1920, contained threads of black and ma- 
roon in its outer covering. 

In addition to this color system each roll of finished cord is 
plainly marked with the date of manufacture on a tag of perrna- 
nent nature fixed to the cord. 

The Air Service reserves the right of free access to all parts 
of the plants in which elastic cord is manufactured for the Gov- 
ernment, and also the right to inspect all materials entering into 
its construction. 

We are indebted for the information used in this article to the 
Specifications and Standards Section, Engineering Division, Air 
Service. United States Army, Dayton, Ohio. 


AT the recent Chicago convention of the American Chemical 
Society, held September 7-10, the Rubber Division had a 
inost interesting meeting. The various divisional meetings con- 
vened at the University of Chicago and were very well attended, 
attendance varying between 75 and 100. The following is an 
outline of the proceedings. 


Concerning accelerators, the secretary reported that following 
the discussion at the spring meeting in St. Louis he had given 
the announcement to the trade journals that the division did 
not object to the proper use of trade names for accelerators, but 
that it did most strenuously object to the marketing of unknown 
products which are sold under trade names and whose true con- 
stituents are supposed to be kept secret. This objection is two- 
fold; the Division believes that the advancement of the industry 
is retarded by the use of unknown materials and that the public 
often suflfers by the indiscreet use of unknown accelerators. 

Discussion followed as to the best means of ridding the mar- 
ket of vague accelerators, and a committee was appointed con- 
sisting of J. B. Tuttle, VV. F. Zimmerli, C. W. Bedford and A. H. 
Smith to index all available information concerning the analysis 
of accelerators on the market and to keep this file complete as 
new accelerators appear. The information in this file will be 
available to members of the Division. 


Professor H. E. Simmons reported that the committee on phys- 
ical testing was endeavoring to obtain specifications for the phys- 
ical testing of rubber which would be satisfactory to all of the 
various interested societies and organizations. 

Two papers were read by Mr. De Pew, presented by the re- 
search laboratories of the New Jersey Zinc Co. The abstracts 
follow : 

The Aging of Some Rubrer Compounds. — Comparative re- 
sults on accelerated aging tests on zinc oxide stocks as com- 
pared with some carbon black stocks. Considerable checking 
and cracking was observed on the surface of the stocks, 
the zinc oxide stock showing up by far the more favorable of 
the two. It was pointed out by Mr. North that the high per- 
centage of hexamcthylene tetramine would cause very bad aging 
and might he lield accountable for some of the bad aging of the 
black stock. 

Some Micro-Sections Cut From Vulcanized Rubber Ar- 
ticles. — Mr. De Pew gave a very interesting description of the 
difficulties encountered in making microphotographs of rubber 
articles and told of the methods with which they had been most 
successful. He had prepared slides from a good many sections, 
which proved quite instructive on the screen. 

peachey's vulcanization process 

The round table discussion largely concerned the method of 
vulcanization recently proposed by Mr. Peachey. Samples were 
shown of various types of rubber goods vulcanized by the new 
process. The discussion brought out the following points : 

Scientifically the method is correct; the action of hydrogen- 
sulphide and sulphur dioxide in the rubber reacting' to produce 
active sulphur, which in turn vulcanizes the rubber almost in- 
stantaneously at ordinary temperatures. This vulcanization per- 
mits the use in rubber goods of many dyes which will not stand 
the present conditions of manufacture. 

The reaction between hydrogen sulphide and sulphur dioxide 
does not produce all active sulphur, however, a considerable por- 
tion of sulphur mu being formed. Extraction of goods cured by 
this process will often show more uncombined than combined 
sulphur and the free sulphur content is usually as high as in 
goods cured in the ordinary way. 

The practical operation of the method is the insurmountable 
difficulty of the process. The degree of vulcanization must be 
regulated by a very careful measure of the quantity of gases ab- 
sorbed, the production of a uniform state of vulcanization 
through an article of appreciable thickness being impossible. 

Because of the impossibility of obtaining a uniform state of 
vulcanization and of the difficulty of controlling the quantity of 
the different gases, American chemists have not grown enthusi- 
astic over the process as have their English brothers. 


W. B. Wiegand brought out many interesting facts concerning 
the resultant energy storage capacity of rubber compounds, their 
hysteresis losses and other physical properties due to the intro- 
duction of different fillers into the compound. The particle sizes 
of ordinary compounding ingredients were shown by slides and 
the properties they impart to rubber were shown by stress-strain 

The quality of the tire which enables it to stand the rough 
usage of thousands of miles of travel, as Dr. Wiegand outlined, 
is due to the fact that well-vulcanized rubber has several hun- 
dred times greater energy storage capacity than any other struc- 
tural material. This property renders it of the greatest value 
in the absorption of the shocks of the main traveled road. Its 
energy can be changed into frictional heat, and it can also be 
increased by adding to it certain substances. 

"In a pncmnatic tire," said Dr. Wiegand, "the most important 
energy losses are those due to fabric chafing. For the measure- 
ment of these and also for the analysis of the casing from the 
standpoint of determining the effect of various physical changes 
upon the subs'ance, the tire pendulum is described. It shows 
that the lessening of energy by the complete tread and breaker of 
a pneumatic tire is no greater than that caused by a single ply 


[OcTeBER 1, 1920. 

of carcass fabric. The tire pendulum also shows that cord fabric 
is three times as efficient as square woven fabric from the stand- 
point of energy dissipation." 

Dr. Wiegand maintained that cnergj' storage capacity was the 
only accurate measure of the ability of a tire to withstand the 
grinding wear of the highway. He told of the effect of various 
pigments used in the coloring of the rubber, and classified them 
as active, or inert, in accordance with their influence in in- 
creasing or decreasing the total energy capacity of the com- 
pounds employed. 

The speaker also made brief reference to the probable special 
arrangement of ingredients, when added in various proportions 
to the elastic gum. 


The symposium on rubber analysis was primarily intended to 
review the work that has been done and to correlate it with any 
work that might be attempted by the Division. W. W. Evans 
has prepared a compilation of the literature on rubber analysis 
which is undoubtedly as complete as anjthing published. Not 
only are the references given but comprehensive abstracts are 
included. The members of the Division received these before 
the meeting so that they could be reviewed. 

Discussion on various determinations was led largely by men 
who have been active in developing or improving these methods. 
The various direct methods for the determination of rubber were 
discussed and also the methods for the determination of the 
various extracts, free and total sulphur, fillers, etc. The point 
was brought out very clearly that since compounded rubber 
goods contain almost anything, the production of a uniform pro- 
cedure for the analysis of all goods was out of question. After. 
all, the important part of rubber analysis is not to get the an- 
alytical results, but to interpret properly the figures obtained, 
taking into consideration the methods that were employed. The 
division decided that for the present no work on analysis should 
be undertaken by the Division. 


The election of officers for the coming year resulted as follows : 
W. W. Evans, chairman; C. W. Sanderson, vice chairman; Ar- 
nold H. Smith, secretary, the Research Laboratory, Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio. 

Executive Committee— G. D. Kratz, J. B. Tuttle, C. W. Bed- 
ford, J. R. MacGregor and H. E. Simmons. 


A Theory of Vulcamzation, Based on the Formation of Polysulphides 

During Vulcanization 

All organic accelerators and a number of inorganic accelera- 
tors function as catalysts of vulcanization through the formation 
of polysulphides. These accelerators may be placed in two 
classes : 

1. Hydrogen sulphide polysulphide accelerators. 

Organic bases are believed to form polysulphides by the 
aid of hydrogen sulphide. Examples are piperidene and 
dimethylamine, which form polysulphides in the presence 
of hydrogen sulphide and sulphur. Inorganic bases such 
as sodium hydroxide, calcium hydrate, magnesium oxide 
and basic magnesium carbonate function in the same man- 
ner as the above. 

2. Carbo-sulpb-hydrol polysulphide accelerators. 

Thioureas and dithiocarbamates are believed to form 
some type of polysulphides thrc'igh the grouping C-SH. 

Differentiated from the above two classes of accelerators are 
such accelerators as zinc oxide and litharge, which do not form 
polysulphides. These arc termed "secondary accelerators" owing 
to the fact that they decompose polysulphides to give active 
sulphur.— Winfield Scott and C. W. Bedford. 

The Action of Heat and Light on Vulcanized Rubber 

The action of heat and light on vulcanized rubber is frequently 
spoken of as being identical, and oxidation is said to be the 
cause of the deterioration. From published and unpublished 
tests it is shown thai the action of heat is one of change in the 
rate of the chemical reaction between rubber and sulphur and 
goes on throughout the entire mass, whereas the action of light 
is one of oxidation, taking place on the surface. Heat produces 
no change in the solubility of tne rubber substance in solvents 
such as acetone and alcohol, whereas light breaks up the rubber 
molecule, forming decomposition pioducts which are readily solu- 
ble in acetone. — J. B. Tuttle. 

The Action of Certain Organic Accelerators in the Vulcanization 
of Rubber (II)> 

The activities of certain synthetic, nitrogenous organic accele- 
rators, in a mixture of rubber and sulphur, were compared with 
the dissociation constants of the original substances. With the 
exception of members of a closely related series, no definite rela- 
tion was found to exist between the activities of the substances 
as accelerators and their dissociation constants. Substances 
which decompose or react with other components of the mixture 
to form substances of acid character do not accelerate unless a 
neutralizing base or salt is present. The results obtained and 
the conclusions drawn from them, compare favorably with other 
results obtained with ammonium salts. — G. D. Kratz, A. H. 
Flower and B. J. Shapiro. 

The Action of Certain Organic Accelerators in the Vulcanization 
of Rubber (III)i 

The relative activities of molecularly equivalent amounts of 
aniline and diphcnylthiourea in the acceleration of vulcanization 
were compared in rubber-sulphur mixtures and in mixtures 
which contained zinc oxide. In a rubber-sulphur mixture, the 
activity of aniline was found to be much greater than that of 
diphcnylthiourea. In mixtures which contained zinc oxide, the 
reverse was true. With aniline as the accelerator, either in the 
presence or absence of zinc oxide, the same maximum tensile 
strength was obtained, accompanied by a higher sulphur coef- 
ficient in the absence of zinc oxide than when this substance 
was present. The mixture which contained zinc oxide attained 
the same maximum tensile strengths at approximately the same 
sulphur coefiicients, irrespective of whether aniline or diphenyl- 
thiourea was employed as the accelerator. It is evident that 
there is apparently no general relation between the physical 
properties and sulphur coefficients of accelerated mixtures. — G. 
D. Kratz, A. H. Flower and. B. J. Shapiro. 

The Organization of an Informatian Service in Connection With Industrial 
Research Organizations 

The expansion of industrial research justifies a study of its 
organization and its relation to the parent corporation. It is 
developed that about 2 per cent of the total turnover of a cor- 
poration may profitably be spent for development, and that 
about 2 per cent of this development fund may be applied to in- 
formation service. 

This department should have as large a library as is justified, 
and, through weekly bulletins and monographs, should keep the 
workers informed of the progress of knowledge as developed in 
the literature and from experimental work. All the informa- 
tion available should be indexed in such a way that it may be 
readily searched. It seems desirable that this department should 
edit technical reports, in order that the relation between new 
work and old may be brought out. This department should be 
able to prepare reports which are intelligible to business execu- 

The technical details of the establishment and operation of 
such a division are discussed. — R. P. Rose and J. H. Reel. 

'Part I, see The India Rubber World. October 1. 1919, page 21. 
»lso The India Rubber World, June 1, 1919, pages 485-6. 


October 1. 1920.] 


Ocotillo Again to the Front 

IN November, 1916, The India Rubber World chronicled the 
experimental ■work being done in extracting gum from 
ocotillo in Arizona. The first work was not apparently 
'Successful but that success is now assured is the assertion of 
Daniel M. Bechtel, president of the Ocotillo Products Co., of 
Indianapolis, which has just completed a large addition to its 
works at Salome, Yuma County, Arizona. The plant was 
started several years ago in an experimental way to obtain a 
chicle-like gum from the ocotillo to use in a waterproofing 
compound. A process of gasoline solvent-distillation was first 
employed lor recovering the gum from the bark of the plant, but 
this method left in the gum so much resinous substance that 
a perfectly satisfactory cure could not be effected. So, too, 
the process was rather crude and wasteful ; and, discouraged 
by the small output and the relatively inferior product, the 
projectors were often tempted to quit. 

At the outbreak of the World War, however. Dr. E. Cornelius 
Weisgerber. a noted chemist, who had been put in charge of 
the research and development division of the United States 
Army and Navy, and who helped to originate valuable "smoke 
screen," explosive, and pyrotechnic preparations, was directed 

periments at the desert works, he discarded the solvent-recovery 
process and substituted that of destructive-distillation with sub- 

1 ut Ulijiillu i.N Its Ijksert Home 

to prepare a waterproof composition for painting concrete ships, 
for coating concrete piling, and for lining the insides of hand 
grenades. His attention was attracted to the possibilities of 
ocotillo gum; and, taking up the earlier and incomplete ex- 


sequent refinements. The result was the production of a rubber- 
cellulose base preparation, which, after being sprayed on dry 
concrete not only stopped all seepage but also overcame one 
of the worst troubles of concrete ship builders, electrolytic 
decomposition of the steel reinforcing. Concrete piling was 
coated on the part most liable to disintegration, between high 
and low water mark, and after a two years' test government 
experts declared that neither sun, air, nor sea water had per- 
ceptibly deteriorated the piling thus treated. 

The company is now equipped to take 100 tons a day of 
ocotillo, which is gathered by Mexican laborers, who get $6 
a ton for the shrubs delivered at the mill. The entire plant, 
except a short root, is used. From the loading platform the 
plants are hoisted to a chute, whence they are fed to a "hog," 
which grinds them into small chips. The chips are then put 
in a retort and decomposed by oil heat, and the volatile 
pyroligneous acid passes like steam through pipes to condensing 
vats underground, leaving the gums and tars in the closed vessel. 
The gums are separated from the tars with suitable solvents, 
and are sent to separate factories, while the liquor is shipped 
to a third factory. The Arizona plant makes no finished 

One ton of ocotillo yields 306 pounds of charcoal, 206 pounds 
of tars, 130 gallons of pyroligneous liquor, and 173 pounds of 
Kums. While the charcoal is said to be superior to willov: 
or poplar charcoal for sugar-making, powder compounding, or 
absorbing emanations from radio-active water ; while the 
pyroligneous liquor is said to be rich in acetic and carbolic 
acids, as well as wood alcohol, a synthetic oil rivalling linseed, 
and other substances useful in the arts ; while the tars contain 
a high percentage of creosote and have in the laboratories 
yielded 104 fractions, including most of the dyes, drugs, and 
synthetic preparations hitherto imported from Gennany; it is 
from the gums that there is extracted, after supplying material 
for lacquers, a substance said to equal first-class crude rubber, 
identical with it chemically, and capable of perfect compound- 
ing and vulcanization. This rubber content is 5 per cent of 
the whole plant. 

A material practically akin to hard rubber or ebonite, it is 
said, has been made from the residue of the tars and has 
shown dielectric or insulating qualities equal to gutta pcrcha. 
From this product the coinpany intends to produce a compound 
for unbreakable talking machine records. The investigators 
have also discovered a cellulose from which may be made non- 



[October 1, 1920. 

inflammable motion picture films. All tlie processes so far 
perfected have been protected with patents. Incidentally it has 
been found that ocoiillo fiber is even stronger than ramie. Dr. 
Weisgcrbcr has had two tires made of such fabric, well fric- 
tioned witli gum, and which are still good after 22,000 miles' 
use on a heavy sedan run mostly in a rough country. 

Ocotillo, diminutive of "ocote," a kind of Mexican pine, and 
which is one of the candlewoods of the great arid region of 
the Southwest, known botanically as Fouquieria splendens, is a 
shrub with naked, wandlikc, thorny branches, which, usually in 
February, after a brief rainy season, puts forth foliage and 
clusters of bright scarlet flowers. The stems have long been 
used for poles and wired for fencing. The plant is usually 
ten feet tall. The supply is practically inexhaustible. Soon 
after it is chopped ofT close to the root it starts to sprout again. 
While lying in heaps in the yard, even three months after cut- 
ting, it often puts forth its flowers. The Mexicans say that it 
has more lives than a cat, and that the only way to kill it is 
to burn it, root and branch. Officials of the company say that 
there is enough ocotillo within a fifteen-mile radius to keep their 
plant running at full capacity for fifty years. 

Nor is the company satisfied with its present achievements. 
It is also experimenting with the species of cactus known as 
the "saguaro" (Cereus gigaiiteus), from which it is predicted a 
yield of 11 to 12 per cent of rubber will be readily obtained. 
The saguaro, the largest of the cacti family, often attaining 
a height of sixty -feet, is an arborescent plant growing abun- 
dantly in Arizona and New Mexico, with sparse, candelabrum- 
like branches, bearing yellow flowers and edible fruit. 

The company's plant is located in a plain, which for heat 
and aridity during the long summer is said to be rivalled only 
by Death Valley, California. A temperature of 132 degrees F. 
is often reached. Water is to be had only from deep-driven 
wells. It is described as a country of almost endles's sunshine, 
burning alkali sand, rank thorny growths, vipers, lizards, Gila 
monsters, scorpions, rattlesnakes, tarantulas, stinging flies and 
poisonous beetles. Yet the workers manage to adapt themselves 
fairly well to the unfavorable natural surroundings, and the com- 
pany considerately makes the hours of labor as few as possible 
in the more torrid season. 


The United States Civil Service Commission announces open 
competitive examinations for the positions of associate tech- 
nologist in rubber, textiles and other subjects, salary $2,000 to 
$2,800 a year, and assistant technologist $1,400 to $1,800 a year. 
Vacancies in Washington and elsewhere are filled from these 

The Bureau of Standards covers a wide field of work in phys- 
ics, chemistry, engineering and industrial technology, including 
research and standardization, and offers valuable experience in 
these professions, combining as it does theoretical, experimental, 
and practical work. The duties of the appointee will be in con- 
nection with original investigations in some field of the Bureau's 
work. The chances for advancement arc good. Experience in 
the Bureau is considered an admirable training for scientific 
work, and its close connection with the industries makes it par- 
ticularly valuable as a training in industrial research. 

Competitors will not be required to report for examination at 
any place, but will be rated on the required subjects, such ratings 
being based upon the competitors' sworn statements in their ap- 
plications and upon corroborative evidence adduced by the Com- 
mission. Papers will be rated promptly and certification made 
as the needs of the service require. 

Applicants should apply for Form 1312, stating the title of the 
examination desired, to the Civil Service Commission, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 


By .1. N. Gadsby and E. D. IValcn- 

IN THE PROCESS of Weaving any fabric the raising and lowering 
of warp threads causes them to bend around the filling 
threads and assume a wavy shape. The filling threads are also 
bent out of their natural straightness by the pressure of the 
warp threads. The relative amount of waviness in warp and 
filling depends upon the nature of the threads, the method of 
interlicing and the subsequent treatment of the woven material. 

In fabrics used for structural purposes, such as tire fabrics, 
the absolute and relative amounts of the waviness in two sys- 
tems of threads becomes a consideration of much practical im- 
portance. The elastic properties of the fabric depend not only 
upon the yarns used, but also upon their interrelation. The 
purpose to be constantly kept in mind is to attain the condition 
that all parts of the material shall be affected by the stress of 
working conditions in proportion to their ability to withstand 
that stress. The relative elasticity of the fabric in warp and 
fining directions tends to determine the distribution of the 

There seems to be some lack of clearness as to the meaning 
of the term "crimp," owing to confusion with the shortening of 
yarns during weaving, commonly called "take-up." The stresses 
of weaving, the retention of the yarns in a distorted position, 
and the treatment wliich they may receive while in that position, 
all help to alter the yarn permanently ; so that, from the point 
of view of the fabric, the original properties of the yarn are not 
those which need be considered. 

As applied to tire fabrics, crimp should be considered as the 
difference in distance between any two points on a yarn in a 
fabric and between the same two points after the yarn has been 
removed and straightened. The diflference between crimp and 
take-up consists of the permanent elongation of the yarns inci- 
dent to the processes of weaving and finishing. It is impossible 
to make a determination of take-up from an examination of the 
finished material. This term should only be used in connection 
with calculations involving the length of yarn required for a 
piece of cloth, the yarn being as received from the spinning or 
twisting machinery. 

The determination of crimp involves making two measure- 
ments, first, in the fabric, and then after removing and straight- 
ening. The only difficulty met in making this determination, is 
that of producing straightness without also producing elonga- 
tion due to the use of tension. The method commonly used is 
the crude one of holding the yarn fast at one end and passing 
the thumb over it toward the other end. This method is so 
obviously inexact and dependent upon the identity of the oper- 
ator that it requires no further comment. 

Another method suggested and frequently used is to apply 
a definite tension on one end, by the use of a spring, a weight, 
or other means, holding the other end fast. The objection to 
this method is that the load is arbitrarily selected and that it is 
by no means certain whether the crimp has been completely re- 
moved and whether no elongation has taken place. As no two 
yarns stretch the same amount when subjected to the same load 
under like hygroscopic conditions, crimp determinations upon 
different yarns, using a constant load method, are not compar- 

Since it seemed likely that a yarn would stretch under any 
tension, it was decided to make a study of its behavior under 
various tensions and to deduce from this the length of the yarn 
when straight and under no tension. .Accordingly the instrument 
shown in Fig. 1, was constructed. 

In using this instrument the yarn is securely clamped in a jaw 

* Publistied by courtesy of the American Society for Testing Materials. 
Paper rend at the annual meeting of the Society at Asbury Park. New 
Jersey, June 22-2-1, 1920. 

- Formerly assistant i>hysicist and laboratory assistant, respectively, of 
the Bureau of Standards. Washington, D. C. 

October 1, 1920.] 



at one end and a weight pan is suspended from the other end. 
A crossbar attached to the scale pan and resting against guides 
prevents the untwisting of the yarn. The small amount of fric- 
tion between cross bar and guides may be reduced to a negli- 
gible quantity by causing the latter to vibrate. 

The insert in Fig. 1 shows the method used for making read- 
ings. A spring brass clamp carrying an index mark is fastened 
to the yarn. The movement of the index mark over the scale 
may be observed directly as the weight on the scale pan is in- 
creased. The scale is graduated in half-millimeter divisions and 
readings may be made to quarter-millimeters easily and to 
smaller sub-divisions with a liltle practice. The weight of the 
lower clamp, crossarm, weight pan, and yarn below the clamp 
are included in each statement of the tension applied. 

To make a determination of straight length, the yarn is fast- 
ened in the upper clamp of the instrument, a load of 2.S grams 
is applied, and the spring brass clamp is fastened at a point 400 
milHmcters below the upper clamp. After allowing one-half 

sion at the point (a), it intersects the curve at the point (b), the 
distance (ab) indicating the load it is necessary to apply to the 
yarn to obtain this theoretical length directly. It is, however, 
advisable, in order to expedite the determination, to use a great- 
er load capable of producing the same length in a shorter time. 
This load may then be applied to all yarn of the same kind for 
the proper length of time, and the full straight length determin- 
ation need be made only when greater precision is required. 

To make crimp determinations the marks are placed on the 
yarn while in the fabric, the yarn is removed and the straight 
length determined as above. The total crimp in this case con- 
sists of the sum of the additional length caused by waviness of 
the yam in the fabric and that caused by looseness and waviness 
of fiber and single yarn elements. Fig. 3 shows the results ob- 
tained from determinations made on warp and filling yams 
taken from a tire fabric. It is evident that the warp yams con- 
tain much more crimp than the filling yarns. 

Having determined the straight length (oa), the percentage 

Scale ■■ 

Detail of Reading 
Device and Clamp 



on of Yarn 










Elongation of Warp and Filling Yarns 
taken from JOOmm Length of Fabric B 

Crimp Measuring 

400 ^ 500 
Length -millimeters- 

510 ajjo }40 350 

Length - millimeters 



Fig. 1. Crimp Measur- 
ing Apparatus. In- 
sert. Detail of Read- 
ing Device 

Fig. 2. Elongation of 
Tire Fabric Yarn Be- 
fore Weaving 

Fig. 3. Elongation of Tire Fabric W.\rp and Filling Yarns 

hour for the yarn to adjust itself to this condition, the reading 
is taken opposite the index mark on the scale. Additional loads 
are then applied up to 340 grams, one-half hour being allowed 
before each reading. It has been found by experiment that, 
after this time has elapsed, the unit elongation per unit of time 
is very small. 

The stress-strain curve obtained from plotting loads and 
length readings is shown in Fig. 2 for a tj'pical sample of yarn 
used in making tire fabrics. It may be observed that this curve 
tends to become a straight line after a load of about 150 grams 
has been applied. By extending this line to cut the line of zero 
tension a point (a) is obtained which shows the length that 
the yarn would have had initially if there had not been present 
waviness in the fiber and other conditions tending to prevent 
the constant unit increase in length for unit increase in load. 
This length may properly be considered as the straight length 
of the yarn under no tension. 

It is evident that, before weaving, yarns contain crimp as un- 
derstood in this paper, this crimp consisting of various elements 
having to do with the nature and interrelation of the fiber and 
the strands in the yarn. 

If a line (ab) is erected perpendicular to the line of zero ten- 

of crimp is obtained from direct comparison with the length 
measured in the fabric. If we designate this length as L, the 

formula may be written : 

Crimp = oa — L 

oa — L 

Percentage crimp =: 


This formula is based on the length in the fabric, which would 
appear to be the logical basis because the determination used 
the fabric as a starting point. If, for any reason, it is desired 
to use the straight length as a basis, the formula : 

oa — L 

Percentage crimp = 


may be used, provided that it is expressed or understood that 
the straight length basis is being used. 

All determinations were made upon yarns which had been 
previously, and during the experiments, exposed to an atmos- 
phere constantly maintained at approximately 65 per cent rela- 
tive humidity and 21 degrees C. temperature. 



[October 1, 1920. 

Making Rubber Heels for a Hundred Million People 

£xplainin<: Interesting Developments That Have Increased Demand and Discussing Modern Production Prob- 
lems That Confront Manufacturers of Rubber Heels 

By Chester C. Burnham 

rE DEMAND for rubber heels is increasing by leaps and bounds. 
If you doubt the correctness of this statement, a survey of 
the prominent shoe windows in your city will oflfer partial 
proof of its veracity and a visit to several shoe repair shops will 
complete your education. For further proof, a letter to any well- 
known shoe manufacturer should establish the fact that a vast 
number of shoe retailers now insist on complete lines with rubber 
heels as original equipment, and also the further fact that a 
rubber-heeled line will very often outsell its leather-heeled du- 
plicate. It is easy to understand that with rubber heels furnished 
as a matter of original equipment the resale proposition is doubly 
easy and when it comes to replacing these worn down heels, it is 
usual for the customer to ask for the same kind of heels. A 
careful observer will note that a man or woman rarely enters a 
cobbler's shop to have rubber heels applied, without a definite 
idea of just what kind of a heel they prefer. It's a matter of 
education and the first lesson was given when they bought the 
shoes with the rubber heels attached. 

With all this proof available there are some rubber manufac- 
turers who have spent considerable money in trying to put a rub- 
ber heel on the market and have finally given it up as undesirable 
or unprofitable business. Undoubtedly there are good and logical 
reasons for their failure to put their plans across, but the fact 
remains that there is still a shortage of rubber heels as will be 
shown by the figures herein. 

Rubber heels have been more readily accepted than were rubber 
soles, but their introduction and increased sale has not been a 
bed of roses for the persistent sales and advertising managers 
who have believed they were right and have forged ahead. 
Twenty years ago, the rubber heel enjoyed only a limited demand. 
Only a very few manufacturers of walking boots and women's 
house shoes ventured to offer rubber heels attached to their reg- 
ular lines. More often the purchaser was obliged to have them 
applied as an "extra" and very often indeed the customer decided 
to wear down the leather heels before having rubber heels at- 
tached. Perhaps it was a spirit of thrift that prompted this 
course, but certainly very few persons were then impressed with 
the comfort and ease to be had with rubber-shod heels. Of course 
there were not miles of concrete sidewalks and yards of hardwood 
floors to walk upon in those days. The dirt sidewalks and car- 
peted floors did not seem to require heels protected with rubber. 
Here and there one would encounter an ardent admirer of rubber 
heels but it was the exception and not the rule. The change in 
living conditions and environments certainly played an important 
part in the changed demands for rubber heels, and with mosaic 
floors in public buildings, hardwood floors in homes, concrete 
sidewalks and a general use of composition and stone floorings 
in all newer buildings, the public began to incline more favorably 
toward the idea of cushioning its heels with rubber. Those who 
disliked that "creepy" feeling which rubber heels gave, were later 
inclined to overrule this objection when the matter of greater 
comfort was concerned. Those who were afraid of slipping on 
rubber heels, found that this idea was largely bugaboo and that 
the greater comfort of rubber heels warranted their wearing them 
and exercising greater care where there seemed any likelihood 
of slipping. 


I have said that some manufacturers tried to manufacture rub- 
ber heels and gave it up as unprofitable and I believe that in 
some of these cases the unprofitable venture was due to the fact 

that they manufactured rubber heels without a strong dominating 
feature to recommend them to the public. Not all people look 
for the same qualities in clothes. Some demand style at the 
expense of wear, others expect silk linings even if the cloth itself 
is low grade. So it is with rubber heels ; no one heel seems to 
carry all the honor points, but each successfully marketed one 
has definite points of merit which are the fundamental points upon 
which a large business has been established. To illustrate my 
point more clearly let me call your attention to the illustrations 
herewith. Fig. 4 shows the common or "garden" variety of 
rubber heel, manufactured in large quantities, sold without brand 
or guarantee, made out of an almost unlimited variety of com- 
pounds and varying in wearing qualities from good to very poor. 
Heels of this type are often found on cheaper shoes, in fact, the 
quality of this heel usually lines up pretty well with the quality 
of the shoe to which it is applied. There is no reason why a heel 
of this shape and appearance may not be made to wear and be as 
good as the best, but somehow the lack of a brand or maker's 
name seems to invite adulteration and inferior compounds. 
Among the illustrations you will note many familiar heels and 
you will also note that each heel has had a definite reason for its 
success. That is a strong point to be considered in the further 
development of the rubber heel business. It is not enough to 
merely decide that you can produce a few thousand rubber heels 
per day and start in using any old compound or any old molds 
available. On the other hand it is fairly certain that a good heel, 
properly exploited, can build up a profitable business in a remark- 
ably short time. 


No definite figures are available regarding the present-day rub- 
ber heel production, but it is a known fact that there are several 
manufacturers who are producing somewhere near 100,000 pairs 
of heels daily, several others who have reached a production of 
around 50,000 pairs daily and a dozen more who can easily rate 
their output at from 5.000 to 15,000 pairs per day. In addition , 
there are many specialty manufacturers who have steady but 
somewhat limited outputs. With all this production in mind, I 
do not believe I would be overestimating the combined production 
if I ^et the figure at around 500,000 pairs per day. 

For the sake of comparison, let us consider these figures along 
with the shoe production figures. The latest directory of shoe 
manufacturers records approximately 1.000 shoe maiuifacturers 
in this country and sets their daily output at around 2,059,400 
pairs. It is entirely fair to discount these figures considerably 
when estimating on a yearly basis, because it is a known fact 
that the shoe trade is not regularly employed at capacity output 
for more than 200 working days in the year. Using this as a 
basis, we find that there is a tidy little total of 411,880.000 pairs 
of shoes produced each year of which a large percentage might 
well carry a pair of rubber heels as original equipment and re- 
quire another pair or two for replacements. Thus we perceive 
that our rubber heel production, large though it may appear to 
be, would equip about 25 per cent of the manufactured shoes if 
the factories produced rubber heels 200 days per year. These 
figures do not include the demands of the repair trade. Possibly 
these figures may present the matter in the most glowing fashion, 
but the comparisons throughout are fairly relative. 

.^s we have intimated in the foregoing, the greatest demand for 
rubber heels of the early type was for women's, house shoes. 
There are several trademarked lines of footwear now on the mar- 
ket that owe much of their present-day popularity to the foresight 

October 1, 1920.] 



of their manufacturers in affixing rubber heels to them as original 
equipment. In those early days, the "pneumatic" idea predomi- 
nated in rubber heel construction. Nearly even' rubber manufac- 
turer further tried in some way to get a cushion of air underneath 
the rubber heel or between the rubber heel and the shoe. Perhaps 
they were a bit skeptical about the cushioning powers of tlieir 
rubber heel compounds in those days. However, it is a fact that 
numerous rubber heels appeared on the market which were built 
especially for "nurses'" shoes (this term clung tenaciously to all 
classes of footwear designed for indoor wear by women) and 
which had little to recommend them in the way of quality or 
wear. Such heels were sold remarkably cheap ; often as low as 
four cents and at an average of around six cents per pair. 

When leather was cheap, it is doubtful if a pair of good leather 
toplifts for a ladies' house shoe could be bought for four cents 
per pair. And even if bought for less, the shoe manufacturer 
had many special operations of finishing that were not necessary 
with a rubber toplift, as the half-rubber heel came to be called. 
With leather, there was the brass wire slugging to be done around 
the edges and numerous waxings, brushings and wheelings to be 
carried on, but with the rubber heels, they need only be nailed on, 
given a quick drying dose of heel ink and a quicker brushing out 
with a revolving brush. Production was speeded up, costs were 
about equal or slightly less and sales were soon found to be in 
favor of the rubber-heeled shoes when compared with their less 
resilient, more noisy, leather-heeled sisters. The women came to 
like rubber-heeled shoes around the home, for they were quiet 
and restful. 

With these facts evident during the normal leather markets, 
imagine the state of the shoe manufacturer's mind when leather 
began to advance by leaps and bounds. No sole leather was cheap 
and all of it was so valuable that even the trimmings were be- 
grudged for toplift use. Conservation of sole leather was preached 

when nailed to the underlifting it developed a tendency to spring 
away at the edges and left an unsightly looking edge. They cor- 
rected this by cupping it, but they easily went too far the other 
way and the heels had a sunken look after nailing. So they tried 
again and found the happy medium degree of cupping that pro- 
duced the best results. At the same time, they learned that the 
appearance of the rubber heel had a great deal to do with the 
sale of the shoes and they accordingly gave the matter of mold 
making more attention. 

Up to this time no one had given any thought to the quantity 
application of rubber heels, but the increased demand and the 
changing needs soon found the heeling rooms crowded with racks 
of shoes because they could not attach them fast enough by hand 
to keep up with the other machine processes of production. This 
quickly brought about a demand for a machine nailing method of 
attaching rubber heels. Those who lacked vision said it could 
not be done, and in truth there were many who scoffed at such 
an idea, but after a great amount of constructive and research 
work on the part of a prominent shoe machinery company that 
manufactures most of the heeling machines in the shoe world, cer- 
tain definite and constructive steps were taken with the rubber 
manufacturers and "machine nailing" got its start. 


Heretofore, there had been no standard for setting the nail 
holes in rubber heels. One rubber manufacturer built heels ac- 
cording to his ideas, and another with varying ideas built his 
heels differently. Many were guided by economy and put in as 
few nail holes as possible, for nail holes meant washers and added 
labor in handling, and others, believing that the more nails the 
better the heel would stay on, insisted on plenty of them. Some 
placed them near the edge of the heel and others placed them too 
far inside the edge. A few decided to omit the metal washers 
entirely and make the compound tough enough to hold the nail- 
head, while others had a special plate that took the place of the 

Tite-Edge Spring Step Non-Slip S.^fetv Cushion Air Heel Suction Sh.\pe 

Successful Rubber Heels Have Strong Dominating Features That Recommend Them to the Public 

through the trade press and by word of mouth from every leather 
merchant, and soon many materials other than leather began to 
creep into shoes at such places as insoles, outsoles, counters, box 
toes, tips, tops and heels. Then came the great incentive to use 
rubber heels in quantities hitherto undreamed of. Urged by neces- 
sity, it was soon found that rublier heels satisacd the bulk of the 
trade far better than the poor quality leather heels and it was 
found also, that they could be applied much more cheaply and 
with less trouble than leather heels. 

About time the rubber heel business began to look itself 
over. The manufacturers discovered that they had overlooked 
points which when corrected would unquestionably improve sales. 
They found tliat there were definite needs in the shoe manufac- 
turing field to be considered ; that rubber half heels were better 
sellers than rubber whole heels, and consequently they began to 
balance their equipment accordingly. They learned that the idea 
of making a half heel with a fiat back was entirely wrong because 

many washers. Various patents were obtained at that time and 
many are in use to-day. 

Progress required that there should be some unanimity of opin- 
ion on all these matters and some standard of nailing established. 
So, despite the apparent hopelessness of the task, a well-known 
machinery company finally presented to the rubber heel manu- 
facturers a composite template of nail-hole layouts that would 
leave each manufacturer free to decide how many nail-holes his 
heels might have, how near the edge they might be placed, and 
permitted him to follow almost identically all of his former prac- 
tices and only required agreement to a few minor points which 
did not antagonize and really mattered very little. It really was 
a wonderful piece of diplomacy and design that was offered to 
the rubber trade and it readily found favor because of its fairness. 
No sooner was this standard template plan outlined to the rubber 
manufaciurcrs than there was a mad scramble to get heels on 
the market made according to this new standard. Unfortunately, 
there did not seem to be much time to do much experimenting 



[October 1, 1920. 

and the market was soon in a strongly competitive condition and 
flooded with rubber heels made after the new ideas. 

There were a number of enterprising shoe manufacturers who 
at once installed these nailing attachments for their regular heel- 
ing machines and tried out the new process. It was soon dem- 
onstrated that the greater driving and clinching force of the 
machine driver aggravated the defects in the flat-backed heels and 
that whereas some manufacturers had continued to use them by 
adopting careful hand nailing methods, they were now impos- 
sible. Those who had not already changed their molds in this 
respect found that it was necessary to do so and so they remade 
their back plates so as to give the heel a slight concavity. The 
real aim, of course, was to give the heel enough concavity to 
make it offset the spring at the edge. 

Hardly had this been done before an avalanche of reports poured 
in that the rubber heel nail-holes did not fit the driving fingers 
of the driving head. Careful measurements and comparisons were 
made with the key template and mold but no variations appeared. 
It was evident that the mold makers had done their work well, 
for almost no variation was found in thousands of cavities, but 
all had overlooked the fact that when the rubber heel was re- 
moved from the molds while hot, it shrunk when cool. This 
shrinkage varied with different compounds but it was found to be 
sufficient in most cases to pull the nail-holes out of line although 
the molds had originally conformed with the template measure- 


It must be understood that a modern shoe factory is a most 
sensitive organization and a single rack of shoes that does not 
proceed in its orderly and regular manner through the various 
rooms may cause no end of trouble and actual productive loss. 
The machine operations are so swift that a single heel jamming 
in a nailing machine may easily tie up a macjiine for a number 
of hours. Or the shoe itself may be spoiled, causing a loss quite 
out of proportion with the loss of the heel itself. This misaline- 
ment of nail-holes called for quick action on both sides and it 
was soon discovered that the only way to remedy this defect was 
to correctly determine the amount of shrinkage in a given stock 
and allow that much variation when placing the nail-hole posts or 
studs in the molds. A wide range of heel stocks had been the 
fashion, but this discovery resulted in cutting down the number 
of different compounds considerably and rubber manufacturers 
who had been making their compounds in a more or less hit-or- 
miss fashion out of every available kind of scrap now came to 
realize the desirability of standardization in compound as far as 
possible. The matter of stock shrinkage now became another 
definite factor to be reckoned with when compounding heel stocks, 
as also did the different properties of black, tan and white com- 
pounds. Some of these compound problems might have been very 
much more difficult had if not been for the invention of the conical 
washer or burr. 


Undoubtedly, the success of the machine nailing process for 
rubber heels would have I)een considcraibly delayed had it not been 
for the introduction of the conical washer. It was found that 
with the flat washer, a very slight variation was sufficient to jam 
the heel in the machine, and even though the driving fingers were 
purposely made of long springy steel wire construction to adjust 
themselves slightly to inequalities in the positions of the nail holes 
they very often did not function properly if the nail holes were 
the least bit out of line. On the contrary, it was found that with 
the conical washer some inequalities might exist and still fail to 
interrupt the successful operation of the nailing machine. The 
theory of this conical washer was that its sloping sides served as 
a guide for the driving fingers and that by taking advantage of 
the spring in these driving fingers, the conical washers permitted 
the nailing of heels which would be impossible were they con- 
structed with flat washers. This theory proved entirely sound in 

practice and the conical washers were soon adopted as standard 
by the leading manufacturers of rubber heels. 

Production was somewhat disturbed by the discovery that while 
an operator might rapidly place the flat washers on the studs or 
washer pins without any particular care or attention, the same 
operator must proceed much more slowly if he were to apply 
conical washers, as they all had to be applied right side up. A 
single conical washer inverted meant the undoing of all that had 
been done in a constructive way, as it made a heap of trouble in 
the shoe factory even though it was not discoverable after the 
heels were molded. This operation of molding heels was mostly 
a piece-work operation and the price scale was necessarily ad- 
justed to suit the new requirements. In spite of the increased 
wage schedule, the production figures were lower and in some 
places the work was handled by two men working together, or a 
man and a girl. The one applied the washers to the washer-pins 
and dusted the molds, and the other handled the presses and re- 
moved the contents ready for the refill. This plan resulted in 
more contented workers but did not bring the production figures 
back to where they were under the flat washer plan. 

Some idea of the number of washers handled in a single day 
may be gained from the following. A single workman often han- 
dled five presses, molding twenty heats a day on each, and carry- 
ing three 20-cavity molds to each heat for each press. Theoret- 
ically, this meant a grand total of 3,000 pairs of heels per day 
for one man and a total of 30,000 washers to be placed right side 
up with care, counting five washers to a heel. Some accuracy 
was required to have every one of them properly placed. There 
were those who thought to divide their production by using coni- 
cal washers on heels for the shoe manufacturing trade and flat 
washers for the shoe repair trade. This was possible but hardly 
practical, as the slightest mix-up meant an endless amount of 
trouble. If the wrong kind should happen to get to the machine 
nailer, a tie-up might result that would cost many dollars in lost 
production. Thus it remained pretty near standard practice that 
conical washers should be molded into all standard heels. There 
are those who still believe that the flat washers can be satisfac- 
torily used with the machine nailing attachments, but they are in 
the minority and their product suffers by comparison on this point, 
if in no other, when viewed by a cautious and far-seeing purchas- 
ing agent. Even if the purchasing agent should procure heels 
with flat washers, there are few heeling machine operators who 
would take chances to tie up their day's earnings at piece-work 
rates by using the flat washers, and you will see many an 
operator starting to use a new heel for the day's run cut one open 
with a knife in order to ascertain what style wa.sher has been 


While it is in every sense true that the jiublic have become 
more kindly inclined towards rubber heels, it is true that they 
have been quietly if unconsciously aided in changing their minds 
by some rather interesting and unusual trade conditions. As we 
have said in the foregoing, only the cheaper grades of leather 
went into foplifts and heeling, and of course only the poorest kind 
of wear resulted. This did not satisfy purchasers of footwear and 
they soon learned that a good rubber heel would outwear several 
pairs of poor leather or paper heels. .'Xbout this same time the 
shoe manufacturer awakened to the fact that with his factory 
properly organized and his heeling gang working harmoniously 
by the machine nailing method, it was less costly to make shoes 
with rubber heels. To appreciate this statement properly one 
must understand the several processes and parts that go to make 
up the heeling operation and the heels. 

A complete leather heel consists of several separate and distinct 
parts known as a rand or "dutchman" (Fig. 1), a base (Fig. 2). 
which goes on top of the rand, and a toplift (Fig. 3), which is 
the topmost lift of the heel. Shoe manufacturers formerly made 
their heels complete in their own factory but now they buy these 
.several parts from as many different specialty manufacturers be- 

October 1, 1920.] 



cause the matter of heels has become a highly specialized business. 
Sometimes the rand and the base are combined in one unit and 
especially is tliis true of paper or fiber heels. At other times the 
rand is first tacked to the heel seat of the shoe, then the base is 
nailed on by the heeling machine, and finally the toplift is nailed 
on top of all and is slugged with brass or zinc finishing nails for 
appearance. After that, the heel is rough trimmed by a special 
cutter, breasted or trimmed evenly on the front side of the heel 
and is then sanded and scoured on the breast and outside. Next 
comes a coat or two of wax heel ink and then a brushing and 
burnishing for finish. It is quite the thing in some lines of shoes 
to add to all this effort a fancy wheeling effect produced with a 
hot wheeling iron. 

A whole rubber heel comes all shaped up to fit on the heel seat 
of the shoe (Figs. 5 and 6) and is first cemented and then nailed 
to the shoe with one machine-nailing operation. There is no top- 
lift to bother with, no breasting, no rough trimming, no burnish- 
ing wax, no fancy slugging with brass or zinc wire, no wheeling 
and no assembling of the various parts as in leather heels. After 
it is nailed on, the heel is scoured on a sandpaper wheel and is 
then treated with one coat of special rubber heel ink and brushed 
out with a revolving brush. 

Even to the layman the comparison of processes reveals the 
fact that the whole rubber heel certainly requires less labor, to 
say nothing of the number of parts that must be kept in stock 
and assembled when leather heels are required. 

about the effect that one gets in wearing such a shoe. The specific 
gravity of compounds for whole heels should be less. The im- 
portance of perfecting this detail is apparent after comparing the 
figures above and estimating the saving to be effected in a year's 
output of shoes equipped with whole rubber heels. It is indeed 
strange that no rubber manufacturer has successfully marketed a 
whole rubber heel as light in weight as a leather heel. 


I could go on telling of the changes in design and methods 
which have had a goodly effect upon the sales of rubber heels 
and more particularly upon the public acceptance of them. What 
we now need is a closer study of the demand and the plan for 
merchandising them. Let the farmhand and laborer know that a 
whole rubber heel will outwear several pairs of leather heels such 
as he habitually gets on working shoes. Call his attention to the 
reason why his last pair of farm slioes lost their heels because the 
iron nails that held them corroded off after constant contact with 
ammonia and lime. Tell the railroad man why the undcrlifting on 
his heels squashed out because he was standing on the wet floor 
of the firebox area. Tell the public in general how much more 
wear they can get out of a rubber heel. Tell the parents how 
desirable it is for their children to wear rubber heels. It reduces 
the jar on their sensitive nerve centers just as it does on grown- 
ups, it's as quiet in the home and in the schoolroom as your own 
rubber heels would be. Would walking hold the same pleasures 
for the elderly if rubber heels were denied? Are they less afraid 
of walking on rugs and polished floors when rubber shod? Do 




RAND. Beveled 
Strip of Leather 
Intended+o build 
Heel Seat Level. 

Roughly made 
Shapcof Heel 
consisting of "Lifts" 
or piecesof Leather 
or Paper. 

TOP LIFT. The Piece 
of Lea+her that 
shows on+heTop 
of a finished Heel. 


Whole Rubber Heelall reody 

to be attached at one nailing 



Reverse Side of whole 
Rubber Heel showing 
Cupping. No Rand or Base 
is necessary. 


Rubber Top-L if +s are usually 
^/i€>" Thick and thus serve the 
Purpose of Two Leather or 
Poper Lifts in Heel Building 
besides costing less. 

Complete Heels for Shoes may be 
made of the following Combinations 
Figures 1,2 and 5 
f iguresl.Zand 4 
Figures 5 is Complete. 

The Whole Rubber Heel Requires Less Labor and Fewer Parts Than the Leather Heel 

I said in a previous paragraph that the whole heel had not sold 
as well as the half heel and apparently because of its excessive 
weight and improper shape. Unfortunately, most whole rubber 
heels have the appearance of rubber boot heels and no amount of 
sanding and trimming have converted them into anything satis- 
factory in appearance. The greater volume of rubber of a whole 
heel makes the weight more apparent, and you will get the effect 
I am trying to describe if you will take a finished boot that has 
been heeled with a whole rubber heel and lift it by the top. In- 
stead of the toe pointing down as it should, the added weight of 
the rubber heel will make the heel point down and that is 

you appreciate it when your office force dons rubber heels and 
yet you allow your children to play around home with stccl-shod 
leather heels? 

Even a little study of the rubber heel market shows unlimited 
possibilities. Whether you wish to manufacture a high grade 
heel or a low grade one your interest can be stimulated if you 
will visit a high class shoe store for information concerning the 
high class demand and question the manager of your local 5 and 
10 cent store as to the size of his orders for the lower grade 
article. If you go further and call on a jobber of shoe findings 
you will l)e amazed at the traffic in that direction. The pos^i- 



[October 1, 1920. 

bililics in manufacturing liccls lor 110,0CX),tXK) people are not 
to be compared to the fiy-by-night charlatans who peddle their 
wares to the unsuspecting public. The field is so fertile that it 
throws out a challenge to the best manufacturing talent of the 
rubber industry, and at a time when other lines of your business 
may be dull it offers a lucrative departure for those who will 
engage in it seriously. 


rVLUjwiNX the usual quiet period prevalent during August 
* of each year in the work of the Association, which conditions 
may be explained by reason of the custom to omit all meetings 
during that month and the vacation season, this organization's 
activities have taken new life during the current month, and 
from all indications seem to point toward a very successful 


The Executive Committee of the Rubber Sundries Manufac- 
turers' Division met in New York on September 14. and a 
most interesting discussion was held, not only with respect to 
those subjects presented in the docket, but general trade con- 
ditions as well. 

There was a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Tire 
Manufacturers' Division held in the Association rooms on Sep- 
tember 22, at which some questions of paramount interest to all 
tire manufacturers were considered. There was also present 
at the meeting a committee representing the Federal Highway 
Coimcil, composed of S. M. Williams, chairman of that organ- 
ization, Mr. Dahl, vice-president of the White Co. ; Mr. 
Brosse?u, president of the International Motors, and Mr. Blod- 
gett of the Autocar Co., and these gentlemen explained the work 
of the Council in its relation to "good roads" throughout the 


The report with regard to responses received under question- 
naire \o. 102 recently sent out by the Association which has 
been submitted to the Association by the Guaranty Trust Co., 
which is acting as its statistical agent in the matter of question- 
naires, is very gratifying, and it is hoped that Questionnaire 
Xo. 103, which is to cover the period from January 1 to j'une 30, 
1920, will shortly be promulgated. 


The Railroad Freight Classification Committee held hearings 
during the month of August concerning two subjects which 
are of a great deal of importance to the rubber industry. One 
of these subjects was with respect to the application of the Trafific 
Committee for a reduction in the rates applicable to pneumatic 
tires in carloads to points west of the Mississippi River, gener- 
ally known as western classification territory. Proposal of the 
Traffic Committee was for a reduction in ratings on pneumatic 
tires in carloads from second class to third class with a mini- 
mum carload loading weight of 20,000 pounds, the same as applies 
in Eastern and Southern territories. As a counter-proposal, the 
Classification Committees proposed third class rates uniformly 
throughout the country with minimum carload loading weight 
of 24,000 pounds. The Traffic Committee appeared at this hear- 
ing and submitted statistics and other facts which it is felt con- 
clusively upheld its contentions that third class rates are proper 
for this class of traffic, with a minimum carload loading weight 
not to exceed 20,000 pounds. 

The other subject before the Classification Committees was 
■with respect to a revision of the specifications for railroad con- 
tainers for shipments of rubber footwear. It was proposed by 
the Classification Committees that all containers for rubber foot- 
wear 'be protected against losses through pilferage and other 

causes by additional metal straps, and analysis of this proposal 
developed that the expense that would be placed upon the foot- 
wear manufacturers would result in greatly increased costs 
totaling several hundred thousand dollars annually. Statement 
was made by the Railroad Classification Committees that this 
investigation had brought out so much additional information, a 
great deal of which is submitted by the Traftic Committee, that 
a further investigation will be made by the carriers before any 
definite action is taken by them. With respect to this matter, it 
is also confidently felt that the facts submitted have convinced 
the Classification Committees that no change should be made 
in the present regulations of the carriers. 


The regular monthlj- meeting of the Traffic Committee was 
held in Cumberland, Maryland, at the Fort Cumberland Hotel. 
This meeting was a very interesting one, a large number of 
subjects that had been docketed for consideration having been 
disposed of. One of the most important matters given con- 
sideration is the proposal of the carriers for a freight classi- 
fication that shall be uniform as to ratings throughout the 
country. This proposal has not yet reached development where 
concrete proposals have been made to the shipping public, but 
is one that is already receiving the active consideration of the 
Traffic Committee. 


THE Sixth National Exposition of Chemical Industries was 
held September 20-25, 1920, at Grand Central Palace, New 

The exhibits were more numerous than at any previous show 
and included a wide range of industry. Daily conferences were 
held during the exposition, at which many chemical and economic 
problems were discussed by leading experts and many important 
manufacturing operations were illustrated by moving pictures. 

Of the exhibits of special interest to rubber men the following 
are cited : 

The American Hard Rubber Co. showed practical commercial 
applications of acid-resisting hard rubber. A hard rubber cen- 
trifugal pump was shown in operation, in connection with lines 
of hard rubber pipe and fittings. Two columns of hard rubber, 
10 inches in diameter, mark the furthest step that has been made 
in the manufacture of large pieces in this material. .-\ single 
acting pump, tanks, pails, dippers, etc., were also on display. A 
collection of samples of hard rubber which have been subjected 
to the action of forty representative cliemicals for a period of a 
year demonstrated the actual resistance which this material offers 
to the commoner corrosive solutions. 

The Barber Asphalt Paving Co. exhibited products manufac- 
tured from Trinidad Lake asphalt, including Genasco mineral 
rubber. A brochure was distributed describing and illustrating 
the operations of mining and refining Trinidad asphalt from 
Bermudez Lake. 

The Bristol Co. displayed their well known recording instru- 
ments for pressure, vacuum, temperature, electricity, speed, etc. 

The Buffalo Foundry & Machine Co. had an extensive dis- 
play of full-size apparatus for vacuum drying, evaporating, sugar 
bag filtration, etc., exemplifying the latest developments in these 

J. P. Devine & Co. showed full-size vacuum drum dryers, cham- 
ber dryers and other apparatus in process of construction. This 
company holds a leading place in the chemical industries due to 
its success in designing important apparatus for the manufacture 
of explosives and other chemical products demanded by the 
war emergency. 

Eagle-Piciier Lead Co. Model of a sublimed white lead plant 
illustrating the manufacture of this pigment was shown, together 

October 1, 1920.] 



with samples of many lead products for paint, rubber and other 
manufacturing uses. 

The Hunter Dry Kiln Co. exhibited a model of their hu- 
midity dryer for crude rubber and other material, and a varied 
line of samples of products dried by their process. 

Innis, Speiden & Co. showed samples of industrial chemicals, 
colors which the company manufacture, also samples of a variety 
of waxes some of which find use in rubber manufacturing 

A. Klipstein & Co. exhibited a variety of chemicals, colors, 
dyestuffs, gums, waxes, oils, etc., of which they are dealers. 
Their classified catalog of these ^oods shows an extended list 
of compounding ingredients adapted for the rubber trade. 

The Morse Chain Co. had on view samples of their silent 
driving chains, which operate at uniform speed and run quietly 
without jar or slip. 

National Aniline & Chemical Co. This exhibit was devoted 
to showing an extensive line of dyes and intermediates manufac- 
tured by the company, displayed to advantage in a stage setting 
of life-like figures costumed in up-to-date fashions. 

The New Jersey Zinc Co. featured the route of manufacture 
of their various zinc products from the ore. These products 
were all displayed, including zinc oxide, liihopone, albolith, a 
new light-resisting pigment, besides many manufactured forms 
of metallic zinc. 

Salmon Falls Manufactiiring Co. Fabric for automobile 
tire building was shown, impregnated with the sulphur-terpene 
product known as Toron, which not only increases the tensile 
strength of the treated fabric but increases the adhesion of rubber 
to both fabric and rubber, besides producing other important 
effects. A line of automobiles tires and solid tires was shown 
in demonstration of these claims. 

Schaeffer & Budenberg Manufacturing Co., manufacturer of 
recording thermometers and gages, exhibited a new type of ther- 
mometer and a new watchman's recording attachment- applied to 
their recording gage. 

Henry L. Scott & Co. Two testing machines were shown, one 
electrical, for fabrics, with recording chart device, and one hand- 
power for paper testing. 

C. J. Tacli.\bue Manuf-vcturing Co., maker of ihermomoters, 
gages and control apparatus for many manufacturing purposes, 
featured the Witham system of automatic temperature control. 

Taylor Instrument Co.'s interesting feature of the exhibit 
was that showing the development of indicating, recording and 
regulating instruments. 

Westinchouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. One feature 
of the display was the arc furnace regulating and control panels. 
The electric furnace has been an important factor in the suc- 
cessful expansion of the chemical and metallurgical industries, 
and the Westinghouse company has been closely identified with 
the development of electric furnaces since their inception. 

Whitall Tatum Co. A very complete line of its "Nonsol" 
chemical glassware constituted the larger part of this company's 
display. It was supplemented by an exhibit of rubber corks and 
tubing for chemical purposes, made by the company. 


Crimson antimony has been the most generally satisfac- 
torj- red pigment used in coloring rubber compounds. It has 
good coloring power, is fairly stable, especially in press cures. In 
open cures, however, everyone using this pigment has expe- 
rienced difficulties, on account of its tendency to change from 
the unstable oxysulphide to the stable black sulphide. This 
reaction takes place at times only to a slight extent, but suffi- 
ciently to ruin the value of crimson antimony as a coloring in- 
gredient, and it is most pronounced on the surface of the rubber 

'By John M. P.ierer. Toston Woven Ho«e & Rubber Co., Cambridge, 

compound where it comes in direct contact with the live steam. 
Such a variety of possibilities may cause this change, that 
many explanations are possible. If crimson antimony is not 
manufaciurcd under proper conditions, it will not cure satis- 
factorily in open steam, and so far as known there is no 
chemical test that will detect the difficulty except trial. The 
presence of too great a quantity of alkaline substances in a 
compound will always cause trouble ; sulphurous acid when 
present to the extent of 0.2 of one per cent will cause trouble 
and is positive proof that the crimson antimony has not been 
properly made. Any crimson antimony will darken if vul- 
canized in open steam at an excessive temperature. A tem- 
perature corresponding to SO pounds is the limit. 


Prior to 1914, no satisfactory crimson antimony was made 
in this country and at least 10 per cent of that imported was 
not satisfactory for open steam cures. .\t the outbreak of the 
war, we realized that it was necessary to find a substitute for 
crimson antimony, or manufacture it ourselves. The manu- 
facture of crimson antimony, as outlined in the literature, led 
us to believe that it was easier to manufacture this pigment 
than to find a substitute. We started to develop a method of 
manufacturing this pigment by these methods, but soon learned 
that while the methods outlined in the literature might be satis- 
factory foe manufacturing crimson antimony for calico print- 
ing, they were far from giving a product that would vulcanize 
in open steam, even under ten pounds, steam pressure. We had 
little success in finding a substitute, so we continued our efforts 
to manufacture a satisfactory product. 

The manufacture of crimson antimony, like that of many other 
chemical substances, can frequently be carried out in labora- 
tory batches and give satisfaction, but when the same method 
is tried on a commercial scale it will not be successful. We 
have developed processes which on a small scale apparently 
were satisfactory, but on trial in large batches they would in- 
variably darken, the cause of this darkening not always being 
apparent. We began by trjHng to obtain antimony trichloride 
by treating the metal, oxide, and sulphide of antimony with 
hydrochloric acid. But we were unable to obtain uniformly 
good results. We eventually discovered that we were not ob- 
taining pure antimony trichloride and that unless this is done 
a satisfactory crimson antimony cannot be obtained. 

If antimony trichloride made by the above methods be dis- 
tilled, it will invariably be found that water and hydrochloric 
acid will come from the still, then, antimony trichloride, but 
before distillation is complete, the material in the flask will 
change in appearance and the distillation will leave a large 
amount of antimony tri-oxide. This antimony oxide, when 
boiled with sodium thiosulphate, does not change to oxysul- 
phide, but to antimony trisulphide. 

We tried making antimony trichloride by treating antimony 
metal with sulphur chloride, the action taking place in an Iron 
retort, and then distilling the antimony trichloride. This gave 
antimony trichloride, from which we are able to make satis- 
factory crimson antimony, but the reaction was so violent 
that it was difficult to control. The retort was short-lived, and 
we were at a loss to find one which would, for any great time, 
withstand the action of antimony trichloride, at the tempera- 
ture at which this reaction takes place. 

Graphite retorts were quite satisfactory for a few distilla- 
tions, but the walls of the retort soon absorbed so much anti- 
mony trichloride that they would invariably break when the 
third or fourth distillations were attempted. Stoneware retorts 
would probably have been quite satisfactory, but we changed 
our method before making a trial. 

We next made antimony trichloride by passing chlorine over 
metallic antimony in a water-cooled receptacle from which the 



[October 1, 1920. 

antimony trichloride was siphoned from the bottom. To this 
we added sufficient water to prevent crystallization. Tlie sub- 
stance is antimony trichloride with one molecule of water. 
This is a deliniie chemical compound, fairly stable; and does not 
change to antimony tri-o.xide. This material, when added to 
an excess of water, is precipitated as antimony oxychlorlde, 
which is the most satisfactory substance to convert to oxysul- 
phide with sodium thiosulpliate. If precipitation is carrica out 
properly crimson antimony will result, which will cure satis- 


The following procedure will give good results on a com- 
mercial scale : 

To 135 pounds of antimony trichloride add 15 pounds of 
water to keep it in a liquid and stable form while it is being 
manufactured. This is poured into a large tank containing 
about 60 cubic feet of water, where it is slightly mixed by 
wooden paddles and converted to antimony oxychloride. At 
this point add 21 pounds of wliiting to reduce the acid con- 

centration so that the formation of antimony oxysulphide is 
not hindered when the thiosulphate is added. This step in 
the procedure is important; for if the reaction is attempted at 
too high an ,icid concentration, side reactions take place. Four 
hundred eighty pounds of commercial sodium thiosulphate are 
now poured into the lank, and the whole immediately agitated 
by four steam jets. The steam, serves the double purpose of 
agitating and heating the solution. The heating is continued 
for approximately ten minutes, or until the desired color is 
obtained. The steam is then shut off and approximately 250 
cubic feet of water quickly run into the tank to stop the reaction. 
(The time of heating depends on local conditions.) 

The material is now allowed to settle and is washed tliree 
times by decaniation. It is then washed free of sulphurous 
acid in a filter press, and dried at a low temperature. 

We have been continuously manufacturing crimson antimony 
by this method since the spring of 1915, and during that time 
have had only 250 pounds of unsatisfactory material, and this 
was due tu carelessness. 

Some Aspects of the Stress-Strain Curve 

By IVilliam B. IViegaiid' 

MUCH of practical value will be found in the following 
excerpts from Mr. Wiegand's interesting paper, read he- 
fore the Rubber Section of the Toronto Branch of the 
Society of Chemical Industry, February 27, 1920. 


Among the many interesting physical properties of rubber, 
perhaps the most extraordinary is its stress-strain relationship. 
The general characteristics of the rubber stress-strain curve are 
familiar to everyone. They were first described in detail by 
Yillari in 1869. Hooke's Law of proportionality of stress to 
strain, which is universally true of most of the structural mate- 
rials within their elastic limits is, of course, not valid. The ratio 
of stress to strain is constantly changing. In other words. 
Young's modulus of elasticity is in the case of rubber not a con- 
stant but a rate. Nevertheless, rubber is the only substance for 
which Young's modulus is an>-thing else than a mathematical 
calculation. You can actually measure Young's modulus in the 
case of rubber, because you can stretch it to twice its length and 
measure the stress required to do so. 

Rubber is the only substance for which the elastic limit ex- 
tends out as far as the actual rupture point. Whereas, in the 
case of metals, the first part of the curve is stiff and the latter 
parts show a yielding region, vulcanized rubber is yielding at 
first but stiffens or tightens up later on. These extraordinary 
stress-strain relationships of rubber attracted the attention of 
some of the most brilliant physicists of the 19th century. 

The most exhaustive and masterly studies of the elastic prop- 
erties of vulcanized rubber were carried out by Professor H. 
Bouasse of the University of Toulouse, who published his 
memoirs in 1904. Bouasse had carried out extensive work on the 
elastic properties of other materials and was attracted to rubber 
by the unequalled large scale of its properties of extension. He 
saw an opportunity of, as it were, magnifying the ordinary 
elastic constants and being able to study the phenomena of hys- 
teresis and of the effect of temperature on these properties to 
better advantage. Bouasse worked in the main with pure gum 
mixings containing only rubber and sulphur. 

The following are examples of Bouasse's well-established gen- 
eralizations. They are valid both for pure gum and for heavily 
compounded mixings. 

•Director of Manufarturing. .^mcs-^olclcn•McCready, Limited, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada. 

1. The elastic modulus decreases with increasing elon- 
gation, passes through a minimum and then increases 
rapidly up to the breaking point. 

2. As the cycles are repeated the modulus correspond- 
ing to any given elongation decreases, first, very 
quickly, then slowly, finally reaching a practically 
constant value. Thus, in arbitrary units, a series of 
values for the first three cycles (at a given elonga- 
tion) were 816, 535, and 460. 

3. The hysteresis in the moduli is also very great after 
the first cycle, but is already small in the third cycle, 
and after five cycles is almost gone. 

Perhaps Bouasse's broadest generalization, and one which has 
profound technical significance, is the following: 

Every stretching of vulcanized rubber, every re- 
duction in length, in general every change of form, 
tends to diminish the value of the modulus corre- 
sponding to any given elongation. Also every rest 
tends to augment it and this augmentation increases 
in proportion as the position of rest is nearer to zero 

Practical illustrations of this will occur to all. A stiff rubber 
band can be "softened" by a few preliminary stretchings. A 
laboratory test piece which slips out of the jaws of the testing 
machine before rupture gives, on retesting, quite abnormal 
values. In short, the physical properties of vulcanized rubber 
(as of course those of crude rubber) are a function of its pre- 
vious life history. 


Let us turn to the question of the retraction curve, which dif- 
fers markedly from the extension curve. The area contained 
between the two curves is called the hysteresis loop. There 
is no more important quantity in the whole rubber technology 
than the area of this hysteresis loop. Boileau, in 1856; Villari, 
in 1869, and, above all, Bouasse and Carriere, in 1903, have, along 
with others, been pioneers in the study of hysteresis. These 
workers found that the hysteresis diminished as the number of 
cycles increased, and finally reached an approximately fixed value. 
The difference between the first two cycles was greater than 
that between any other two. Schwartz found, in 1910, that the 
area of the loop became fixed sooner in a high grade than in a 
low grade of rubber. He also found that when cycles were gen- 
erated to a constant final load, the increasing extension at the 

October 1, 19-'0.] 



end of each cycle was proportional to the logarithm of the num- 
ber of the cycle in question. Also, and naturally, these workers 
found that the shorter the extension the narrower was the 
hysteresis loop. 

Another general rule laid down by Bouasse and confirmed by 
Schwartz is that the greater the speed of generation of the cycle 
the greater will be its area. You will at once appreciate the 
significance of this in regard to the internal heating of solid 
tires. Not only do excessive driving speeds multiply the num- 
ber of hysteresis loops per second and, therefore also the heat 
liberated, but they also actually increase the calories of heat 
generated per revolution of the wheel 

One aspect of hysteresis is at least encouraging, namely, that 
the area of the loop diminishes with increased temperature. We 
may be thoroughly thankful that the converse is not the case. 
Solid tires and tlie breaker strips in pneumatic casings would 
go to pieces in no time if there were not this compensating law. 
Incidentally this temperature relationship strongly suggests the 

effect is now generally known as the Joule effect. Interestingly 
enough, the very first stages of extension are accpmpanied 
by a slight cooling effect. The corresponding cooling which 
accomparjies retraction of the stretched rubber is definitely less 
than the heating effect on the extension. This difference repre- 
senting the net increase in thermal content of the sample is the 
exact equivalent of the hysteresis loop, to which I have already 
referred. This heat must be attributed to internal friction in 
the rubber. 

It may be of interest to compare the thermodynamical behavior 
of vulcanized rubber with that of better understood systems. 
Gases when expanded or compressed isothermally develop pro- 
nounced thermal effects. In fact, the energy expanded during 
compression, for example, is all turned into heat. Steel springs, 
on the other hand, are examples of systems which develop 
practically no thermal effects when deformed. All of the work 
done on the system appears as potential energy of strain. 

Vulcanized rubber is intermediate between a gas and a steel 








^ . 
















1 1 










100. ^ 


























400 800 IZOO 1600 ?00O 2400 
Load Grams per5q. MM. 





— ' 















n 400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 


400 800 ItOO 1600 2000 2400 2800 

ai iu^ 






[■■lO 1 10 







?-4l50 1 


400 800 1200 

1600 2000 2400 
■ Base 

400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 


800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 






















800 1200 1600 2000 2400 









■ " 

! 50 








800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 

400 800 1200 1600 2000 2400 2800 















50 100 150 

Volume Percentages of Pigment 















































— >i 

















stress Strain Curves 
Elonqafion percentages plotted 
against load m qrams per 
square MM. (Numbers adjacent 
to circles indicate volume per- 
centages of pigment.) 

Energy Absorption Curves 
_^ Foot pounds per cubic incti plofled 
^0 against volume percentages of 
pigment added io ttie base. 

resemblance in many respects of rubber to a viscous liquid. In 
fact, Shcdd and Ingcrsoll use the term "viscosity loop" rather 
than hysteresis loop for this reason. 

In the year 1805, Gough recorded in the memoirs of the Man- 
chester Literary and Philosophical Society, that when he stretched 
a strip of rubber and held it to his lips it felt warmer than 
before stretching. Page, in 1847, made the same observation. 
Finally Joule also recorded the fact that while metals and other 
materials cooled on stretching, rubber, on the contrary, warmed. 
Lord Kelvin applied Le Chatelier's principle of equilibrium and 
predicted that if this was so, stretched rubber must contract on 
.heating. Joule confirmed this by actual experiment, and the 

spring. When rubber is stretched the work done turns partly 
into potential energy of strain and partly into heat. In the case 
of an ideal rubber or compound (that is, one which shows com- 
plete reversibility), all of the heat liberated during extension 
will be reabsorbed during retraction and likewise all of the 
work done will be regenerated, thus leaving the sample in the 
same thermal as well as meclianical state as it was before 
stretching. Such a rubber would not heat up in a casing or solid 
tire any more than would a perfect gas, when alternately ex- 
panded and compressed. There would be no hysteresis. Actually, 
of course, the heat is not completely reabsorbed and the energy 
is correspondingly reduced. It is thus convenient to keep in 
mind the two thermal values involved in any cycle of extension 



[October 1, 1920. 

and retraction, namely, QR or reversible heat and QF or fric- 
tional heat, which is non-reversible and which accumulates when 
a rubber article is subjected to repeated strains. 

The production of rubber compounds and cures for which 
QF is a minimum should be one of the focal researches for us 
all. The profound eflfcct of mineral additions upon this quantity 
is already a part of technical knowledge. The fundamental 
reasons for this inter-relationship are deserving of our best 
thought. They lead us into the arcana of rubber structure. 

In 1898 Lundal discovered that if a given load was applied 
to a rubber sample under gradually increasing temperatures, 
there was one temperature at which the addition of the load in 
question would cause no heating, and in fact above which it 
would produce cooling. Conversely at any given temperature 
he found that there was a critical load at which there would 
be no thermal effect. The lower the temperature the lower was 
the value of this critical load. Thus in a particular example 
raising tlie temperature from 18 degrees C. to 58 degrees C. in- 
creased the critical load from 44 to 102 grams. 

The technical importance of these points of inversion in the 
Joule effect is manifestly very great. Suppose, for example, 
we could so adjust the thickness of the friction and skim coat 
between the plies of fabric in our casings as to bring the actual 
strains on the gum stock in actual service on the road to the 
critical point of inversion. Under such conditions there would 
be no thermal effect, no heating up of the stock, no perishing, 
no ply separation. Obviously it will be worth millions of dollars 
to our industry to conduct a successful research along the lines 
of determining the situation of these critical or neutral points 
as the state of cure and composition of the various mixings are 
systematically varied." 


Reference is made to the method of Schidrowitz which will 
be found in detail in The India Rubber World, December 1, 
1919, page 149. Briefly, Schidrowitz first notes that the stress- 
strain curves for the same mixing, but with advancing cures, 
come regularly down the paper and never intersect. The stiff 
parts of the curves are, moreover, parallel to each other. 

Second, the inclination or s'.ope of the final part of the curve 
is an index of the quality of the crude rubber under test. The 
flatter the curve, that is, the less the slope, the better the crude 
as ordinarily estimated. 

Joule, Kelvin, Bouasse, Rontgen and the other master physi- 
cists were interested mainly in the correlation of the properties 
of rubber, as rubber, with those of other materials. We, on the 
other hand, are vitally interested in knowing how one rubber 
and one compound differs from another in its physical proper- 
ties. Reference will therefore now be made to some of our own 
experiments designed to bring out the comparative behavior of 
a few of the more generally used inorganic compounding in- 
gredients. These included carbon and lampblack, china clay, red 
oxide, zinc oxide, glue, whiting, fossil flour, and barytes. 

In order to avoid the tedium of doing a series of cures for 

each mi.\ing, a base mix was developed containing. 

Parts by weight 
Fine Para lOO 

Litharge 30 

Sulphur 5 

By volume this is : 

Rubber 100 

Litharge 3 

Sulphur 2'/! 

In this mixing the accelerator and sulphur are so balanced 
as to preserve a practically flat curing condition over a range 

^For a discussion of the cause of Joule effect and many other matters. 
reference is made to a forthcoming volume by Professor G. S. Whilby •{ 
McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 

of cure from IS to 45 minutes at 40 pounds of steam. To this 
base mi.xing increasing amounts of each pigment were added 
on the volume basis. The additions were continued until the 
stock grew so dry and leathery on the mill as to be unworkable. 
The cures were made in an ordinary laboratory press and the 
test pieces stretched on a Scott machine. 

X"ote the unchanged curvature of the base mixing curve. In- 
creasing additions of this pigment have merely the effect of 
shortening the curve. Barj-tes is nothing but a diluent. It 
adds no useful property to any compound, but on the other hand 
detracts from both the tensile strength and elongation. For 
this very reason very large proportions (up to 150 volumes) 
could be incorporated into the hundred volumes of rubber before 
the stock became unmanageable. 


This pigment shows signs of disturbing the basic stress-strain 
curve. There is less curvature. The curve has moved toward 
the "load" axis. A compound containing fossil flour is definitely 
stiffer than one containing barytes. However, after 30 volumes 
have been added there is no more rotation of the curve, which 
merely shortens, as in the case of barytes. The fossil flour parti- 
cle is smaller than the barytes particle, and, in our opinion, the 
change in behavior after 30 volumes is most simply explained 
by assuming an agglomeration of the fossil flour particles, at 
this stage, into larger complexes, generating less rubber surface. 
The total quantity absorbed by the gum was in this case only 
75 volumes. 


Here again the curve shows some displacement (stiffening) 
up to an addition of 20 volumes of the pigment. Thirty volumes 
adds nothing to the effect, and we assume that between these 
two volumes agglomeration has set in. The ma.ximum absorp- 
tion of pigment was in this case 125 volumes. Those who use 
more than 20 volumes of whiting in a compound must disclaim 
any beneficial effects on the physical properties. 


This was added in the jelly state. Up to 20 volumes there 
was a definite displacement of the curve indicating that glue is 
not a mere diluent, like barytes, but exerts a definite stiffening 
or toughening action in a compound. The tensile at break is, 
however, lowered. 


This pigment shows a marked reinforcing or stiffening effect 
on the compound. The tensile strength at rupture is maintained 
undiminished up to a volume addition of 20 volumes. 

Beyond this the curve recedes, as in the case of barytes. Ag- 
glomeration of particles has set in. Up to 20 volumes zinc im- 
proves wearing power. Beyond this it partakes more and more 
of the characteristics of a diluent. The best white treads 
contain not much more than 20 volumes of zinc to 1(X) of rubber. 

The maximum absorption was in this case about 125 volumes. 

This useful (and sometimes treacherous) pigment shows a. 
reinforcing action up to 15 volumes. Beyond this is agglomera- 
tion. The tensile docs not hold up so well as with zinc. 

China clay vies with zinc oxide as a re-inforcing agent. The 
rotation of the curve is even more marked than with zinc, 
although the breaking tensile is less well maintained. Twenty 
volumes again represents the maximum loading without detract- 
ing from the physical properties. Naturally, clays differ marked- 
ly according to their origin and colloidal condition. The above 
result must be regarded as only an individual finding. 


We now approach royalty in the pigment realm. Note the 
steady, clear-cut, downward progression of the curves toward 

October 1, 1920.] 



the load axis, indicating greater and greater toughness. And 
yet the breaking tensile holds up splendidly. A stock containing 
20 volumes of lampblack possesses stress-strain properties re- 
sembling in type those of steel and other rigid bodies; the 
curve is practically linear, that is, Hooke's Law applies. There 
is none of the usual flabbiness at low elongations. It is no 
wonder such a stock wears better as a tire tread than one 
made up even of zinc oxide or the finest grade of china clay. 

Beyond 20 volumes, however, aggregation again supervenes 
and the pigment reverts to the barytes class. 


We come now to the king of pigments. The re-inforcing 
qualities of lampblack are here displayed in superlative degree. 
Instead of being diminished or at best maintained, the breaking 
tensile is markedly improved. Linear (Hooke's Law) stress- 
strain conditions begin early and continue unabated up to 40 

Particle aggregation, with resultant collapse of the reinforcing 
effect is postponed to 40 volumes, which is, of course, un- 
approached by any other pigment, 


The question now arose as to a suitable quantitative means of 
assessing the toughening effect of these various pigments on 
compounds containing them in varying amounts. One method 
consisted in measuring the rotation or displacement of the curve 
toward the load axis by simply taking the height (or elongation) 
at a definite load, say of 16,000 grams per square millimeter. 
The trouble with this method was, of course, that it took no 
account of the lowering of the tensile at rupture, which property 
varies greatly with different pigments. 

The method finally chosen was developed by a consideration 
of the conditions governing the phenomenon of abrasive wear. 
Take for example an automobile casing tread. "Wear" here 
consists in the gouging or tearing out of small masses of gum, 
due to impact upon the road surface. Now a numerical meas- 
ure of impact is the work done on each little mass of rubber. 
If this work can be stored up without stressing the rubber sub- 
stance past its rupture point the mass will stay in place. The 
less energy it can so absorb, the easier it will be torn from its 

Now the energy absorption is in each case represented by the 
area contained between the .stress-strain curve and the elonga- 
tion axis. This area was therefore measured by a planimeter 
and the results calculated to foQt-pounds per cubic inch of 
original stock. 

The curves in the graphs show the remarkable results obtained. 
Foot-pounds per cubic inch are plotted against volume percen- 
tages of pigment added to the base. 

The base mix stored up 450 foot-pounds. The addition of 
barytes continuously diminished the energy content. Fossil flour, 
glue, whiting and red oxide all behave in essentially the same 
manner. China clay, however, is capable of slightly increasing 
the energy content. Zinc oxide and lampblack run neck and 
neck, showing marked increases. Carbon black is again the 
winner, and if not added in excess of 25 volumes may increase 
the energy content up to nearly 150 per cent of its original value. 


These facts point at once to the conclusion that the presence 
within the rubber matrix of a disperse phase, such as carbon 
black, which must be regarded as chemically inert, may never- 
theless profoundly alter the characteristics of the system. The 
subjoined table indicates almost beyond a doubt that these effects 
run parallel with the specific surfaces developed by the various 
pigment phases. 

The particle diameters here shown were determined micro- 
scopically and are of course only approximate, particularly in the 
case of the finer pigments. The surface developed per cubic 

inch of pigment was in each case calculated from the observed 
average diameter of the particles. The values range from 30,000 
(barytes) to 2,000.000 (carbon black), and if, for simplicity, 
we assume that the adhesive force between the rubber sub- 
stance and the pigment is the same in all classes, the enormous 
differences in the area of contact are alone sufficient to account 
for the striking differences in physical properties. 

As a matter of fact zinc oxide increases the energy absorption 
of a compound to a greater degree than would be accounted 
for by its specific surface, and it is safe to assume that in this 
case there is also an exceptional surface tension behavior. 


'llic fundamentally important work done by my colleague, 
Mr. SchippeP, showed that, contrary to general assumptions, com- 
pounded rubber under strain undergoes relatively large volume 
increases which must be attributed to a separation of each pig- 
ment particle from its rubber matrix, doubtless forming a 
vacuum at each pole. He found increases, at, for example, 200 
per cent elongation, ranging from 1.5 per cent for carbon black 
to over 13 per cent for barytes. The volume increases ran 
roughly parallel with the size of the pigment particles, zinc 
oxide again occupying an anomalous position. 

Schippel's results throw a clear light on the mechanism of 
the reinforcing action of the finer pigments. These resist the 
increase of the free surface energy necessary to separate them 
from their rubber matrix. When a carbon black stock is stressed 
to rupture, the work done on the rubber phase must be increased 
by an amount representing the increase in surface energy re- 
quired to separate each particle of carbon from its surrounding 
bed of rubber. In the case of a coarse pigment, such as barytes, 
this increase in surface energy is negligible. 

The fact that with the finer pigments the rubber remains 
nearly uniformly anchored, instead of pulling free along the 
poles of each particle, must also result in a more uniform 
stress on the pure rubber phase and so contribute materially 
to the enhanced tensile properties and "energy capacity" of the 

Displace- Total Volume 

Apparent ment of Energy of Increase 

Surface Stress-strain Resilience & 200% EI. 
Pigment. per Curve Foot-pounds Percentage 

Carbon blacli 1.905.000 

Lamp black L524,000 

China clay 304,800 

Red oxide 152.400 

Zinc oxide 152.400 

Glue 152,400 

Lithopone 101,600 

Whiting 60,950 

Fossil flour 50,800 

Barytes 30.480 

In the above table are brought together for convenience the 
various properties already referred to, for mixings containing 
in each case 20 volumes of pigment. 

Taken in conjunction with the well-known wearing properties 
of the various compounds, this table will bring out the funda- 
mental casual connection between toughness or abrasive power, 
capacity for storing work, and bond between particle and rubber 
matrix ; all three of these being, in the main, functions of the 
degree of dispersion of the rigid pigment phase. 

One interesting deduction from this work is that perhaps the 
most direct and accurate way of determining the average fine- 
ness of an unknown pigment is to take its stress-strain curve 
in a standard mixing, measure its area with a planimeter, and 
compare the energy content with that of a known pigment. 
The application of this method to a glue compound gave u 
particle diameter, which was later confirmed by direct micro- 
scopic examination after staining. 









• . < 

















4. SO 


'The India Rubber World. January 1. 1920, 



[OCTODER 1, 1920. 

By IVallcr J. Biltcrlich 
'T'liE most important requirements in vulcanizing rubber prod- 
•*• nets are even temperatures. Different products require 
varying time durations of cure and some require a steady rise 
in temperature, whereas others require a quick rise and then a 
constant tempcratnrc. The steam distribution should be de- 
signed to meet the different requirements. 

Engineers who are not familiar with vulcanizing processes 
believe that rubber plants are great wasters of steam ; how- 
ever, until there is a perfect trap on the market that will 
allow a steady instead of a fluctuating circulation, steam-traps 
will be by-passed that a continuous flow of steam may be ob- 
tained to insure even temperatures. 


In this method the steam comes in direct contact with the 
product and the cure is accomplished in a shell vulcanizer where 
pressures between 20 and 70 pounds are used, depending on 
goods to be vulcanized. The essentials for this method are 
dry steam, ample supply, and quick discharge. The former may 
be obtained by supplying boiler pressure up to ISO pounds, super- 
heated at the boiler, directly to vulcanizer and reducing the 

^ ^imc^ £b^/-^ Til 

SO » /e'O ~H>^tr^/xa/r 

dSooD^ ,arf<j^n /fvfrr -^tkA^ ^^b tX ff. 

yve /V&/ 

Piping for 5 by 16-Foot Jacketed He.mer 

pressure by means of a diaphragm valve close to vulcanizer. 
This has a superheating effect on the reduced pressure entering 
the vulcanizer, due to the high temperature of the higher pressure 
in the main supply. 

A superheating effect of from 3 to 4 degrees F. is sufficient and 
if superheated steam of higher temperature is in the main supply 
pipe, its temperature cannot be controlled evenly by automatic 
vulcanizer control. To overcome this efifectivcly it is necessary 
to install a saturator which is a commercial temperature control 
that automatically sprays water into the main steam supply, 
thereby lowering the steam temperature to within 3 to 4 degrees 
F. of its saturated value. 

Should the steam be wet or condense as it enters the vul- 
canizer, the goods will l)e stained, causing a defective product. 
To avoid this the vulcanizer is warmed up first. This may be 
accomplished in several ways, namely: (1) by jacketing the shell 
vulcanizer and supplying it with steam at higher pressure. The 
jacket, however, is expensive in first cost but some goods can- 
not be cured otherwise with good results. The temperature of 
the steam should be about 10 degrees F. higher than the steam 
entering the vulcanizer; (2) by installing coils in the interior of 
the vulcanizer at bottom and sides and supplying steam at higher 
pressure; (3) by using compressed air, superheated to high tem- 

peratures; (4) by using a combination of two or all three of the 
above methods, depending on the quality of goods to be cured 
and quality of steam available. 
Fig. 1 shows a typical piping system for a S by 16-foot jacketed 

*'>»J»*..w ^ t ) %r ^ 

/ys A/o2. 

Superheating Coils and Heated Compressed Air System 

vulcanizer. Fig. 2 shows the warming-up' feature with super- 
heating coils and the heated compressed air system. 

Referring to Fig. 1, the steam supplied through perforated 
pipes inside the heater near the bottom is to insure hot steam 
at the bottom. If the supply entered near the top the hot steam 
would remain near the top and the bottom would be lower in 
temperature. The total area of all the perforations should be 
at least 10 per cent less than the area of the pipe to create an 
equal velocity through each perforation. 

The several bottom outlets serve two purposes, one of which 
is to drive out all the air which is heavier than steam and which 
if mixed with steam during vulcanization has a powerful oxidiz- 
ing effect on the product. Particular care should be taken to 
locate the outlets as close to each end of the vulcanizer as pos- 
sible as this is where the air is most likely to pocket. The other 
purpose is for quickly discharging the steam at the end of 

T^f^ -^foh ^irmr ^<T 0*4«- 


tvtji .5VVW-T Sm^^ 

• *" J 



Typical Square Heater 

the cure to prevent overcuring and to allow immediate removal 
of the goods. 

In this respect the main return pipe should be amply large 
with no back-pressure valve on the exhaust riser. In pit vul- 
canizers for tires, overcuring is prevented by flooding the vul- 

October 1, 1920.] 



canizer with cold water at the end of the cure. A source of 
trouble encountered with return pipes is the eating avva3' of 
the pipe, fittings and valves, due to the action of a weak solu- 
tion of sulphurous acid formed after vulcanization from the 

ffAts^ &T^ ^b^ Z3'J< 

^a-* .,4Ao^ 

Vto.<3 £>T drm-nra 

/ye, /Uj-s* 

Mechanical Air Circul.\tion 

sulphur dioxide, the effect of which is worse than a strong 

Lead-lined pipes and fittings have been used but even they are 
attacked by the acid especially at the joints. Extra heavy cast- 
iron flanged or wrought-iron welded flanged pipe with extra 
heavy cast-iron flanged fittings will give best and longest serv- 
ice. Steel pipe should never be used. When monel metal 
diaphragm disks become pitted they may be replaced at con- 
siderably less expense with an alio}' of 90 per cent aluminum 
and 10 per cent copper which gives equally good service. 

A tremendous amount of steam goes to waste, owing to the 
fact that a steady circulation is required, and because an un- 
obstructed exhaust is required. The only possible re-use may 
be obtained by the installation of a specially constructed water 
heater built of very heavy copper coils or tubes and cast iron 
shell, allowing free passage of the e.xhaust steam. Even this 


^£ft^i>//f -^cvJWev^ 

, , i,mTM ~^ ^!>1m^. 

Circulation Without Mechanical Means 

cannot be guaranteed to withstand the acid fumes more than 
several years. 

The importance of automatic control of the steam supply and 
exhaust to maint.iin even temperature can hardly be overesti- 

mated and a liberal installation of thermometer recorders in 
different sections of the vulcanizer will be well repaid in the 
perfection of the product, if the steam supply and exhaust are 
regulated to make them record alike. This can best be accom- 
plished by having a central control room with all recorders 
mounted on a panel in front of an operator who can control the 
diaphragm valves with aid of compressed-air needle valves. 
One operator can take care of two or more vulcanizers. The 
thermometer bulbs become pitted by the action of sulphurous 
acid and can be renewed by an alloy consisting of 75 per cent 
lead, 15 per cent antimony and 10 per cent tin. 
In the closed-cure method the product is cured through the 
medium of air heated from the radiation of steam coils, and is 
accomplished in a box-type heater where no pressure occurs. 
They are usually built of the following materials: (1) wood, 
sheet iron, asbesto-cel and magnesia; (2) tile, sil-o-cel or burnt 
cork and magnesia; (3) structural sheet iron, asbcsto-cel and 
magnesia. All depending on cost, insulating qualities, and fire 
hazard. No. 2 and 3 being the preferred class. Broken up air 
space gives the best insulating qualities and can be obtained 
with asbesto-cel. 

^^t*-- ,#?a*^«™5**-V-J5^j Or^ 1 

.c^otvcw .^^.^.C:A£> 


7 ' ' 



*' ' ' 



^^ • 


/ \ / ■■ 1 

" o 



/ \, 



\ / 

\ /''\ 






/ \ 

/ \ 

^f ■ 


/^fc«*- .--^— 

AAlCA^-XB' -*,- 

< i^'t.Mr^f^ J^,^,^ 

/y<s AbS 

The Use of Mechanically Operated Shutters 

Fig. 3 shows a typical heater absolutely square for better 
distribution of its piping arrangement. With good insulation 
a ratio of one square foot of pipe surface to five cubic feet of 
contents will produce temperatures up to 300 degrees F. with 
steam at 100 pounds pressure. The number of supplies is de- 
termined by size of the heater. A heater about 20 feot square 
should have at least four supplies, each of which should be con- 
trolled automatically by temperature control equipment. 

Ideal vulcanizing conditions are obtained in absolutely still 
air with even temperatures but the latter cannot be accomplished 
in still air and therefore a minimum of circulation should be 
striven for in order to obtain even temperature throughout the 
heater. The following methods may be used for accomplishing 
this purpose: (1) use of a slow-moving paddle directly over the 
steam coils; (2) use of a blower with perforated galvanized 
iroa pipes, drawing the hot air over the coils and discharging 
it at the top of the heater, as shown in Fig. 4. The capacity in 
cubic feet per minute of blower should be 25 per cent of the 
volume of the heater; (31 use of galvanized iron air ducts 
without mechanical means of circulation, as shown in Fig. S; 
(4) use of shutters in combination with any one of the above 
methods as shown in Fig. 6. Automatic controls and tempera- 
ture recorders should be provided liberally as mentioned under 
the open-cure method. 



[October 1, 1920. 


Experimenis have been made in using electric current in place 
of steam for closed heaters, with good results. Its operating 
cost, however, with cost of current per K. W. and steam per 
boiler horsepower being equal is more than 100 per cent greater 
than the steam. Its advantages arc as follows: (1) flexibility, 
allowing heaters to be placed anywhere in the plant requiring 
wiring only and no expensive steam mains and returns; (2) 
lower maintenance expense; (3) better control either hand or 
automatic. When current is cheaper it would not surprise the 
writer to sec more electrical heaters used for the closed type. 

For hydraulic presses steam is the better agent because of the 
ease in maintaining an even temperature in the platens. This is 
because of the fact that the cast iron platens are small and of 
uniform thickness and only require a steady circulation of 
steam at a given pressure. 


Where goods are cured with acid fumes generated from air 
heated by steam coils, the temperatures are under ISO degrees 
F. and '.he same general design of closed-type heater can be 
followed but no mechanical means of air circulation is required 
because the heaters are generally built considerably smaller. 
Acid-resisting materials such as asbestos and magnesia should 
be used on the interior, and if any wood or metal is used it 
should be thoroughly painted with asphaltum. 

In conclusion it should be borne in mind that since all rubber 
goods must be cured the importance of vulcanization can hardly 
be overestimated, and time and money spent for its improvement 
to insure uniform product will be well repaid by increased orders. 


By Arthur C. Squires 

THE MANUFACTURE of dental rubber is a highly specialized 
branch of the rubber manufacturing industry. This material 
is supplied to the dental trade in unvulcanized sheets for the 
purpose of making individual dental plates. Dental rubber must 
be absolutely pure and free from all foreign matter. It should 
possess strength, light gravity, permanent color, the quality of 
packing easily in the vulcanizing molds, and cure in 55 minutes 
at a temperature of 320 degrees F. It must finally take a high 

A variety of colors are made for the dental trade including 
pink, maroon, orange, and jet black in plain and mottled finish. 

Glass Top Cutting Table 

Jet black dental rubber is the strongest and lightest in gravity. 
Dark orange is the strongest of the colored rubbers, and maroon, 
comes next. 

Pink dental rubber is used only as a facing to match thei 
natural gums of the individual wearer. Owing to the amount 

of white pigment used in combination with other colors in pro- 
ducing a natural pink gum color, the strength of pink dental 
rubber is not equal to that of the lighter gravity rubbers. A 
plate would not be strong enough if made entirely of pink rubber 
and therefore it is utilized only in gum facings. 

The following list shows the great variety of colors used in 
the dental trade : 



Light orange 
Medium orange 
Dark oranue 
Mottled lisht red 
Mottled dark red 
Plain maroon red 
Jet black 
Coal black 
Light pink 



Medium pink 
Kosc pink 
Snow white 
Red palate 
Black palate 
Sunset orange 
Mottled maroon 

(1) Weighted 

(2) Weighted 

Numbers 3. 6, 7, 9 and 17 dental rubbers are most used; 
however, the greater number of colors are made under special 
brands for the dental depots and sold exclusively by them. 

As a matter of history it is interesting to note that prior to 
1897. the Imperial Rubber Works of New York City imported 
a white vulcanite base to which color was added and milled at 
the works of this company. After many unsuccessful experi- 
ments the writer succeeded in producing a pink dental rubber, 
mention of which was made in The India Rubber World, 
January 1, 1897. Practically the same recipe is now used in this 
country in the manufacture of standard pink dental vulcanite. 

The following is a brief description of the processes used in 
the manufacture of dental rubber : 

Bolivian rubber is considered to be the strongest and best 
rubber for this purpose, and after a thorough washing on a 

Sheet Stock Smoothing Table 

cracker-washer, the thin sheets of rubber are then rewashed 
on a smooth-roll mixer equipped with water connections for 
constantly spraying the stock. During this operation the mill 
rolls are closed as tightly as possible, for the thinner the sheets 
the better the result. After washing, the thin sheets of raw 
gum are thoroughly dried in a vacuum drier. 

The washed and dried rubber is then broken down on a 
regular mixing mill, this operation requiring at least three hour^ 
time, as the stock must be extremely soft before adding the 
compounding ingredients in order to insure their perfect distri- 
bution throughout the batch. 

Two grades of sulphur are generally used in compounding 
dental rubber, ordinary flour of sulphur for all inottled vul- 
canite, and lac sulphur for plain colors, such as pink, maroon, 
light, medium and dark orange rubbers. There are three colors 
of specially manufactured vermilion, Nos. 2, 3, and G. O., which 
may be combined to produce certain required colors. In combin- 
ing sulphur with vermilion it is necessary to sift the mixture in 
a rotary sifting machine. 

Particular attention sliould be given to the mixing and milling 
operation which is performed on an ordinary two-roll mixer. 
The front roll should be coated with the soft, broken down 
stock, one to two inches thick. In adding the ingredients care 
must be taken not to allow the rubber to break or the surface 
of the rolls to be exposed. Nor should the compound be added 
to the batch faster than the soft milled rubber can absorb it. 

The following typical dental rubber compounds, taken from 
"Crude Rubber and ConipoHnding Ingredients." are interesting in 

October 1, 1920.] 



showing the various ingredients and the proportions used in 

Dental — Light Pink Dental — Red Palate 

Fine Para 16.0 Fine Para 62.S 

Lithopone (green seal) 56.0 Lac sulphur 12.5 

Lac sulphur 6.0 Dark vermilion 22.0 

Lime 2.0 Lime 3.0 

Pale vermilion 20.0 ^ „ ,,^ 

Ultramarine blue Trace Dentai^-Black Weighted 

Dental— Black Palate F'"e Para 20.5 

Lac sulphur 15.5 

Fine Para 77.0 Lime 1.0 

Lac sulphur 15.0 Pure tin foil 615 

Lampblack 4.0 Raw linseed oil 1.5 

Lime 4.0 

After the mixing operation is complete, the rubber is trans- 
ferred to a refining mill, the rolls of which are set closely 


^ /~\ 





LP- ■ \3^ ' 

Method of Equally Dividing Glazed Hollands by Tearing 

together and between which the rubber is passed seven times 
in order to attain the desired results. 

Calendering dental rubber differs from ordinary practice in 
that absolute smoothness is not required in the soft calendered 
sheets, as they are piled on a special smoothing table where any 
unevenness is removed. Another difference is the use of glazed 
Hollands, running 85 yards to the roll, on which the dental rubber 
is calendered. The selvage of the hollands is removed by tear- 
ing, and the width of the sheet divided, also by tearing, into equal 
widths of 18 or 20 inches. It is not practical to sheet dental 
rubber on full width goods. 

The calendering operation consists in feeding the rubber stock 
in small quantities from the warming mill to the calender, the 
thickness of the calendered sheet being regulated by the adjust- 
ment between the center and top rolls, while the width is gov- 
erned by two cutting knives. An average batch of dental rubber 
is 60 pounds. 

As the sheet of hollands passes between the center and bottom 
rolls, the rubber sheet is laid continuously on the fabric by pres- 
sure of the middle roll, and wound up on the stock shell. As 
soon as possible after calendering, the roll is removed to the 
cutting room and eight-foot lengths are cut from it and piled 
one upon the other on the smoothing table where any unevenness 
in the sheets will disappear, due to the softness of the calendered 

This special table for cutting dental rubber is provided with a 
plate-glass top, 10 feet long, 18 inches wide, and .^j^-inch thick. 
A 10-foot straight-edge, a T-square, a cutting knife, and dividers 
complete the equipment. Two sheets of rubber are then removed 
from the smoothing table and placed rubber side down on the 
cutting table. The width and length of cuts to be made are laid 
off on the sheet with the dividers and the cutting is done with 
the hand knife guided by the straight-edge in the longitudinal 
cuts and the T-square in the cross-cuts. 

When the two-ply sheet has been cut into the required sizes 
they are removed from the cutting table and a sheet of hollands 
is placed on the exposed rubber surface of each sheet for pro- 
tection. The sheets of dental rubber are then stamped, weighed, 
boxed, and delivered to the shipping room. 

Fabrics for the gas envelopes of lighter-than-air craft usually 
consist of cotton cloth coated with rubber. The requirements 
are high strength, light weight, low diffusion, water resistance 
and durability. The most important of all is durability, and ex- 
tended observations show that the intensity and time of exposure 
to sunlight varies the life of rubberized fabric to a great extent. 
Dirigibles operating off the Florida peninsula and using envelopes 
made with a fabric that a year ago was considered to be of 
standard quality have had a useful period of not over thirty days. 
At the end of that time replacement of gas is necessary, which 
reduces the operating period. Envelopes made of the same fabric 
and operated off waters adjacent to Long Island have shown an 
average useful life of fifty days before deflation was necessary. 

The Manufacturers Aircraft Association has learned that a 
study of British and other foreign practice in fabric manufac- 
ture, combined with the results of extended exposure tests car- 
ried out under various climatic conditions with fabric made 
experimentally in this country, has led to the formulation and 
adoption of what are believed to be improved rubberized fabrics 
that withstand the sun's action. 

The cloths that are used to the greatest extent are known as 
AA, BB and DD, respectively 2-ounce, 2.5-ounce and 4.5-ounce. 
All are of long-staple Sea Island, Egyptian or Arizona-Egyptian 
cotton, 40.5 inches wide when finished, with a tolerance of ^- 
inch. The other specifications follow : 
Cloth AA. 

Weight: 2.1 ounces, maximum per square yard. 

Tensile strength; 30 pounds minimum for either the warp or filling 

Count: 118 threads minimum per inch either way, finished. 
Cloth BB. 

Weight: 2.65 ounces maximum per square yard, finished. 

Tensile strength: 45 pounds minimum for cither warp or filling, 

Count; 128 threads minimum per inch either way, finished. 
Cloth DD. 

Weight: 4.6 ounces maximum per square yard, finished. 

Tensile strength; 65 pounds minimum for either warp or filling, fin- 

Count: 95 threads minimum per inch in the warp and 105 threads 
minimum per inch in the filling finished. 

After weaving, a careful inspection is made of the cloth, both 
before and after desizing and washing. All slubs and imperfect 
spots are marked so that they may be cut out before rubberizing. 
The cloth is then passed through spreaders which apply thin 
coats of Para rubber solution containing only a very minor per- 
centage of sulphur and litharge without the usual organic cure 
accelerators previously used. This thin rubber solution fills up 
the interstices of the weave. Much heavier rubber dough is then 
applied as the process proceeds. 

After twenty to twenty-five coats are spread and dried, a con- 
tinuous, gas-tight film is produced. High count cloth and heavy 
proofing give the minimum diffusion. For instance, with a 2-ply 
BB cloth having a gas film of 3H to 4 ounces there is obtained 
very low diffusion, .^dded weights of proofing applied to higher 
count cloth would probably induce but slightly better results 
than are obtained with the above construction. Two plies of the 
treated cloth are stuck together by means of roll ply machines. 
The fabric is then wound on drums, wrapped and steam cured 
at carefully controlled temperatures, pressures and periods of 
time. Colored proofing is then added which, it is believed, con- 
stitutes an important factor in reducing tlie action of light. The 
exterior of the fabric is faced with an aluminum coat which acts 
as a continuous light reflecting coat. 

The inner or gas side of the fabric is coated with one-half to 
one ounce of pure rubber per square yard which helps to keep 
the cloth moistureproof, reduces diffusion and makes a good 
sticking coat for successful taping. The tape is applied both 
to the exterior and interior. 

Declared exports of rubber to the United States from Lis- 
bon, Portugal, totaled $194,825 for the quarter ended June 30, 

Replete with information for rubber manufacturers — H. C. 
Pearson's "Crude Rubber and Compounding Ingredients." 



[October 1, 1920. 

Toron Patents and Products' 

ALL rubber manufacturers will be interested in securing the 
practical results claimed for the use of the patented sul- 
phur-terpene compound known as Toron. Chief among 
these is the increase of strength imparted by the material to 
fiber and increased adhesion of friction to fabric treated with the 
material; also its ability to bond firmly together metal and 

The nature and method of production of this material are 
quoted below from the patent application. 


It is possible to treat terpenes and certain of their derivatives 
with sulphur to produce useful sulphur-terpene compounds. 
When treatment is completed the product is a hard mass, soluble 
alone or with other substances, and useful for coating surfaces 
or impregnating and coating the fibers of absorbent materials. If 
the chemical reaction is moderated or stopped short of com- 
pletion, the product is more or less viscous or semi-solid, and 
is available for use alone or in solution or in admixture with 
other materials. 


One process, by wliich this sulphur-terpene compound can be 
produced is thus described : 

Equal parts by weight of oil of turpentine and sulphur are 
placed in a suitable converter, in the neck of which is fixed a 
condenser suitably arranged to pass back into the converter the 
products of condensation. An outlet is also provided for re- 
moval of the gases generated during the reaction without loss of 
the volatile constituents. The contents of the converter are 
heated to melt the sulphur. The reaction is well determined by 
the time a temperature of ISO degrees C. is reached. 

During the ensuing period of one hour, the temperature is 
raised to 175 degrees C, the mass being agitated preferably with 
air, and, during the next two hours, the temperature is raised 12.5 
degrees C. each hour, with lessened or no agitation. During the 
reaction, which appears to be progressive, the sulphur reacts with 
the turpentine, partly to combine with it and partly to set hydro- 
gen free from the turpentine in the form of hydrogen sulphide. 
Also secondary reactions take place, resulting in removal of the 
sulphur introduced into the terpene residue with the hydrogen of 
the latter in the form of hydrogen sulphide, and the production of 
char. It is because of these facts that the temperature is mod- 


The product thus produced, when cooled to ordinary tempera- 
tures, is a hard, brittle mass resembling mineral rubber. It 
breaks with a fracture, showing curved surfaces presenting a 
glassy luster. When manipulated between the fingers the ma- 
terial becomes plastic. It is insoluble in water, partly soluble in 
acetone, soluble in turpentine with reaction, and soluble in toluol 
and xylol. When in solution it will pass through parchment and, 
according to this test, is non-colloidal. 

Analysis has shown that certain of these hard sulphur-terpene 
compounds, produced from equal parts of sulphur and turpentine, 
as described, contain from 30 to 50 per cent of sulphur. 

When the reaction has reached the stage when free sulphur is 
no longer present in the mass, the latter, on cooling, is a black, 
viscous liquid. During the reaction which follows that stage, if 
the heating is continued, the evolution of hydrogen sulphide con- 
tinues, with increasing viscosity of the mass until charring occurs. 
The reaction therefore may be interrupted at will, and sulphur- 
terpene products of various characteristics and properties pro- 
duced as desired. 

lUnitcd States patents Nos. 1.349,909 to 1,349,914, inclusive. 

The semi-solid products produced may be employed for coating 
or impregnating various materials. For most practical purposes 
in order to provide a quick-drying coating or impregnating 
material it is found preferable to dissolve the hard compound in 
loluol, xylol or their equivalent. For many purposes other sub- 
stances may be added to the solution, such as pigments and dis- 
solved crude or vulcanized rubber. 


The practical utility of a material possessing the properties 
exhibited by this product will be very important in the rubber 
industry. The practical applications are covered by a series of 

Referring briefly to the principal functions of this material 
in rubber goods manufacture, it has been found that cotton 
falirics impregnated with this product are not only preserved from 

Sections of Toron Pneumatic and Solid Tires 

deteriorations but gain very markedly in tensile strength. When 
such impregnated fabrics are friction-coated the penetration and 
adhesion of the rubber composition are much superior to those 
obtained without the chemical impregnation. This is due to the 
lact that the sulphur-terpene compound by vulcanization unites 
with rubber so that contiguous layers of rubber and fabric 
cannot be stripped apart at their juncture. 

This feature constitutes a distinct advantage over present prac- 
tice in the manufacture of every variety of rubber goods con- 
taining fabric such as tires, hose, belting, boots, shoes, etc. 

As a bonding material to unite rubber to iron it is particularly 
effective for the manufacture of rubber-covered press rolls or 
solid tires. The metal is first surfaced with a solution of the 
sulphur-terpene material, upon which are built several plies of 
toronized, frictional fabric and the tread composition. The sul- 
phur-terpene compound and the rubber-sulphur compound react 
and vulcanize together and bond solidly to the metal. 

In explanation of the union of rubber to metal the theory is 
offered that the sulphur-terpene compound in contact with the 
iron, excludes the possibility of surface oxidation, and that the 
sulphur-terpene compound interacts with the iron to form a 
sulphur-iron compound, which not only furnishes a protective 
coating on the iron surface, but also acts as a bond between the 
iron and the .siilplnir-rubber compound. 


A new organic accelerator known as Syringa Vulcanine is 
being supplied to the rubber trade of Great Britain and conti- 
nental countries by the English manufacturers. It is a special 
drug which enhances toughness and durability without decreas- 
ing the resiliency of the cured product. It has been proved of 
especial benefit in the manufacture of tire treads, rubber heels, 
etc. It is claimed also as an equalizer of vulcanization, requiring 
less sulphur and obtaining more uniform results. 

October 1, 1920.] 



What the Rubber Chemists Are Doing 


THE FOLLOWING SUMMARY of results is taken from the paper 
by Dr. O. de Vries, publislitd in Archief I'oor dc Rubbcr- 
ctiUuur, May, 1920. 


Sulphuric acid has been used on several estates during the war. 
It is a strong coagulant which partly or wholly replaces the 
anti-oxidant, sodium bisulphite. Small quantities used for coag- 
ulation do not give large deviations' in properties of the rubber, 
but by the use of large quantities the rate of cure and viscosity 
of the rubber are markedly decreased and more rapidly than 
when corresponding amounts of acetic acid are used. Uni- 
formity in rate of cure of the product is more difficult to pre- 
serve when using sulphuric acid as coagulant because variations 
in the amount used may always occur in practice. 

Many manufacturers do not like the use of sulphuric acid, 
as they fear a harmful action of traces left in the rubber. Aging 
experiments have not shown this effect. The properties of 
the raw or vulcanized product, on aging, changed in exactly the 
same way as after acetic acid coagulation. The slow rate of 
cure caused by sulphuric acid changed more rapidly than with 
acetic, and the abnormal values recovered to normal ones, as 
if some retarding substance had gradually disappeared. 


Alum as a coagulant is very largely used by native planters. 
Coagulation proceeds best with undiluted latex, in which three 
to four grams per liter would be sufficient, while eight to 12 
grams give rapid coagulation. Small quantities of alum cause 
a marked decrease in rate of cure and viscosity, while large 
doses, such as are often used to obtain rapid coagulation, give 
abnormally slow-curing rubber with a low viscosity. The tensile 
strength shows no marked deterioration, no greater than might 
be expected from the much longer time of cure. The slope of 
the stress-strain curve decreases somewhat by larger doses. 

Acetic acid obtained by wood distillation has the drawback 
that the tarry substances are difficult to remove completely, so 
that crepe cannot be prepared with it and the color of the sheet 
becomes too dark. Acetic acid prepared by fermentation of 
alcohol is cheap and a good coagulant. Commercial acetic acid, 
if cheap enough, is preferred. The crude acid gives rubber 
of practically the same properties as the pure commercial acid. 


The juice from coconuts, on fermentation, gives an acid that 
proved satisfactory as a coagulant. Transport of this dilute 
acid fluid is too expensive, so that it can be used only on 
estates growing both rubber and coconuts. Large series of coag- 
ulation experiinents proved that these acids gave rubber of 
exactly the same properties as commercial acetic acid, which 
are uniform over just as long periods. 


The acid juice obtained when fresh red coffee berries are 
allowed to ferment for some days in water was tried as a 
coagulant, but as it has a dark red color, crepe cannot be pre- 
pared with it, and sheet also takes a darker red than usual. 
The properties of the rubber from some experiments seemed 
to be injured somewhat. This coagulant would be available 
only during the few months of the coffee harvest and is not 
likely to gain any importance except in emergencies. 


Acid water from a crater lake in the volcano Idjen in East 
Java was tried as a coagulant. It has a strong coagulating 

power, containing alum, sulphuric and hydrochloric acids. Its 
composition varies with the depth from which it is taken and, 
as might be expected, it proved injurious to the properties of 
the rubber, especially when used in large quantities. Aging 
tests on ruHbtr coagulated by this acid crater water showed 
marked deterioration in tensile strength and viscosity. 

Alcohol and denatured spirits were tried as coagulants. Coag- 
ulation is quite different from ordinary acid coagulation, as it 
is instantaneous. Wlierc alcohol mixes with the latex it forms 
a clot and no further coagulation of the remaining latex occurs. 
Only strong alcohol and undiluted latex can be used, else 
the quantities of alcohol become much too large. The cost of 
this coagulant is ten times that of acetic acid even when using 
denatured spirits free from duty. .-Mcohol has some advantages 
for trial coagulations and experimental purposes, as it gives 
rapid and complete coagulation. Coagulation by alcohol was 
found to leave the rate of cure unchanged, while the slope 
of the stress-strain curve was always steeper and the viscosity 
mostly lower. The tensile strength remains unchanged or be- 
comes somewhat less (by denatured spirit). 

Considering the price and coagulating power, formic acid 
might be a good substitute for acetic acid, but it seems to be 
irregular in composition, perhaps sometimes containing for- 
maldehyde, and gives irregular results, notably sometimes a 
marked decrease in rate of cure. 


Lactic acid has no importance as a coagulant in practice, 
as it is too expensive. Since this acid is found in most fer- 
mentation processes and plays a role in spontaneous coagula- 
tion, and in different fermented saps, such as coconut water, 
some experiments were made with it. The properties of the 
rubber were found to be unaltered, except for a sinall decrease 
in rate of cure. 


An experiment with liydrochloric acid showed that a strong 
dose retarded the cure very much, although somewhat less than 
an equivalent dose of sulphuric acid, while viscosity and tensile 
strength deteriorated markedly and the slope became some- 
what better. .Xfter two years the sample became tacky and 
could not be vulcanized, while the viscosity decreased to a very 
low figure. The samples prepared with strong doses of acetic 
and sulphuric acid remained unchanged in appearance, though 
the viscositv decreased. 


The black spots which sometimes appear on the surface of 
rubber goods, and also the blackening of the interior during 
vulcanization, are most likely due to the interference of iron. This 
may be obviated to a great extent by taking special precautions 
to prevent the direct contact with either condensed water con- 
taining traces of iron in solution or suspension, or the sulphiding 
and subsequent reducing action of the iron surface of the mandrel 
acting on the red antimony in the red rubber goods. Probably 
the actual blackening is not caused directly by the formation of 
ferrous sulphide, but rather that the iron, in conjunction with the 
water vapor present, tends to act in such a way as to form a tem- 
porary solution of a small part of the antimony. This results in 
the ultimate reprecipitation of the antimony sulphide in the black 
variety on the part affected. 

"From The Rubber Age, London. June, 1920, page 152. 



[October 1, 1920. 

Regarding the condition wherein the complete blackening of 
the whole mass of rubber occurs, this may be due to the composi- 
tion of the rubber mixing (which should not contain accelerators 
that have as the principal part of their composition alkali hydrox- 
ide or sulphide), as these would act on the antimony in a similar 
way to the iron salts mentioned, causing solution and subsequent 
precipitation of the antimony as black sulphides. It should be 
possible with a good antimony and the right kind of iron oxide 
(if it is desired to use these two pigments in conjunction) to 
produce a good red tube, although not of as light a color as with 
antimony alone. In cases, therefore, where these two materials 
are used in conjunction, and where blackening has occurred, a 
blank should be tried out, using the antimony alone. It will be 
generally found, if the vulcanizing conditions are comparable 
to that of bulk, that the antimony is at fault because of its insta- 
bility under the vulcanizing conditions. 

Where crimson antimony has been found to be unstable, if a 
little magnesium oxide is added to the mixing and it is cured in 
a mold, the antimony color is preserved in its rich bright shade. 

Similarly, when the same mixing is cured in open steam, the 
outside only becomes darkened. This varies from brown to coal 
black, according to the excess of magnesium oxide used and with 
the degree of instability of the antimony, while under the surface 
the color will be found equal in shade to that of the press-cured 
result. It has been demonstrated that a good red color for open 
steam articles with an unstable antimony may be obtained if care 
is taken to determine by trial the exact amount of magnesium 
oxide to use in the mixing rather than to use an excess. 

With regard to the suggestion that red iron oxides are prone 
under vulcanization to blacken with the formation of ferrous 
sulphide, our experience is that those oxides of brick red, > on- 
sisting chiefly of Fe^Os, do not change color except for a slight 
darkening toward a chocolate shade on the surface of open 
steam cured goods, while the purple oxides and brown umbers 
keep their color with very little change. In colored rubber work 
generally, it should be borne in mind that open steam cured re- 
sults must not be confounded with the results obtained from 
molded or press-cured, as the conditions are entirely different as 
regards the effect on the pigments used in the mixings. 

The cause of the antimony blackening when cured either with 
or without the admixture of iron oxides does not seem to arise 
from the small trace of acid that is generally present in the anti- 
mony pigment, though anything in the nature of a real acid excess 
would tend to have a blackening effect, as explained in the previ- 
ous cases, by the ultimate solution and reprecipitation of a small 
part of the antimony. Even with a mixing wherein an acid sub- 
stitute was used, this would practically be neutralized by such 
materials as whiting, magnesium carbonate, lime, or calcined 
magnesia that are generally present in such mixings where white 
substitutes are used. 

It must be remembered that it is the nature of all red sulphides 
of antimony to revert to the black tri-sulphide when subjected to 
sufficient heat. In the inert atmosphere of a gas such as carbon 
dioxide, the temperature at which such blackening is complete is 
155 degrees C, the change of color at this temperature being prac- 
tically spontaneous. Longer periods at lower temperatures (145- 
150 degrees C.) will ultimately produce the same effect. It is 
therefore advisable to cure red goods at as low a temperature 
as possible if the best results as regards color are desired. In 
this connection it is well to point out that although an antimony 
may be found to blacken when heated alone in steam at the tem- 
perature to which it is to be subjected during the ultimate vulcani- 
zation when compounded, it does not necessarily follow that it 
will give bad results, because it has been proved in practice that 
the rubber acts to a large degree as a protective coating to the 
red antimony particles and so prevents the discoloration taking 

In conclusion, to prevent the blackening of all red goods con- 
taining antimony, (1) see that the mixing is correct, (2) select 

the quality of the materials in direct regard to the specific pur- 
pose for which they are intended, (3) make trial mixings com- 
pounded and cured under conditions comparable to those used 
in the factory. 


By J. D. Edzixirds' and S. h'. Pickering 


One object of this investigation was to establish, if possible, 
a quantitative relationship between the permeability of a film 
of rubber to any particular gas and the various factors on which 
it is dependent. Only a portion of the program was completed, 
however, before it became necessary to discontinue the work. 

A simple and satisfactory picture of the process is one of 
dynamic equilibrium in which the gas is dissolved at one side 
of the rubber at a rate proportional to its solubility and partial 
pressure, and diffuses through the rubber where it evaporates 
from the other side. The same process takes place in the op- 
posite direction so that the net transference of gas is proportional 
to the difference in the partial pressures at the two faces of the 
rubber. Because of the lack of data it is not feasible to analyze 
the relations between solubility and rate of diffusion through 
the rubber. The permeability in every case investigated increases 
rapidly with increase of temperature. According to Kayser' 
the solubility of both carbon dioxide and hydrogen decreases 
with increase of temperature. If this be true there must be a 
rapid decrease in the internal resistance of the rubber to the 
passage of the gas, because the ordinary temperature coefficient 
of gaseous diffusion is unable alone to account for the facts. 

A rough parallel, with notable exceptions, may be drawn be- 
tween the permeability of rubber to different gases and to the 
boiling points of the gases. In general, the higher the boiling 
point of the gas the greater the rate at which it penetrates rub- 
ber. The specific chemical characteristics of the gas and of the 
rubber colloid determine, however, the solubility, rale of pene- 
tration, etc., and not enough is known of them at the present 
time to warrant further speculation. There are, however, many 
interesting fields of investigation opened by this work, and the 
results should be extremely useful in the many cases where the 
behavior of rubber in contact with gases is concerned. 


1. The permeability of rubber compounds varies with the com- 
position as would be expected. The aging of rubber films is 
accompanied by a decrease in permeability ; a similar decrease 
may be effected by overvulcanization. The rubber, which shows 
a very low permeability for these reasons, is usually very much 
deteriorated and frequently brittle, so that it is a disadvantage 
from the standpoint of gas-tightness. 

2. The permeability to any gas is found to be directly propor- 
tional to its partial pressure provided the total pressure is con- 
stant. The variation of permeability with total pressure de- 
pends on the thickness of the rubber, the way in which it is 
supported, etc. 

3. The permeability to hydrogen is inversely proportional to 
the thickness of the rubber. No other gas was tested in this 

4. The specific permeability to hydrogen at 25 degrees C. of 
vulcanized rubber similar to the grade known as dental dam 
is about 20 X 10"° cc. per minute. This value varies somewhat 
with the age and chemical characteristics of the rubber. 

5. The temperature coefficient of permeability is quite high. 
For example, in the tests at 100 degrees C. the permeability to 

'Condensation of a comprehensive report to be issued by the United 
States Bureau of Standards. 

^Physical chemist. .Mumirmm Co. of America. Formerly with United 
States liurcaii of Stand.ird«. 

"Associate Chemist, United Slates Bureau of Standards. 

*Wied. Ann., volume 43, page 544, 1891. 

October 1, 1920.] 



carbon dioxide or helium was about seventeen times the rate at 
degrees C. The permeability to hydrogen was about twenty- 
two times as great at 100 degrees as at degrees C. 

6. The relative permeability of rubber to some common gases 
is shown in the following summary: 

Gas Hydrogen = 1 

Nitrogen 0.16 

Air 0.22 

Argon 0.26 

Oxygen 0.45 

Helium 0.65 

Hydrogen 1.00 

Carbon dioxide 2.9 

Ammonia 8.0 

Methyl chloride 18.5 

Ethyl chloride 200.O 

7. The permeability of rubber to water vapor is high — approxi- 
mately fifty times the permeability to hydrogen. This value, not 
having been determined with any precision, is not included in the 
table above. 


THE FOLLOWING METHOD has been in use for 22 years in the 
laboratory of Michael Nairn & Co., Limited, Kirkcaldy, 
Scotland. It is given as reported by S. Stewart, F. I. C, in the 
Jountal of the Society of Chemical Induslry, July IS, 1920, 
page 188t. 

Lithopone, Orr's zinc white, and other pigments composed 
essentially of zinc sulphide and barium sulphate should contain 
the latter only in the precipitated form. Inferior qualities some- 
times contain natural barytes, to the detriment of their covering 
power, owing to the large size of the particles of barytes as 
contrasted with those of the precipitated sulphate. Its opacity 
is less, and although, when used as an ingredient in ordinary 
paints, this is perhaps of secondary importance, it becomes a 
matter of serious consideration when used for some other pur- 
poses ; for example, in making white inlaid linoleum the use 
of lithopone containing natural barytes leads to the production 
of a yellowish white. 

The microscope affords a convenient means for differentiating 
between natural and precipitated barium sulphate. The test is 
carried out as follows: A minute portion of the sample is 
spread on a microscope slide with a drop of water, dried, and 
examined with a !4-inch or V^-inch objective, the diaphragm 
being closed .so as to give a dark background. If only preci- 
pitated barium sulphate be present, it appears as a very fine 
powder composed of minute crystals of uniform size, whereas 
if there is an admixture of natural barj-tes, even when very 
finely ground, transparent irregular pieces of greater size will 
appear. The certainty of the method is enhanced if the zinc 
sulphide present in the lithopone be first removed by treatment 
with dilute hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate and the 
insoluble residue examined as above. 



Weigh two grams of lithopone into 600 cc. beaker, add a little 
waier to moisten, and then 20 cc. 1-1 hydrochloric acid. Take 
to dryness on steam plate, take up in 75 cc. of water, add five 
cc. of concentrated hydrochloric acid, and seven grams of am- 
monium chloride, dilute to 350 cc. with hot water, heat to 180 
degrees F. on steam plate and titrate slowly with potassium 
ferrocyanide, one cc. of which equals 0.01 gram of zinc, using 
uranium acetate as externa! indicator. 


Weigh 20 grams lithopone into 400-cc. beaker, add 100 cc. of 
five per cent acetic acid and let stand on the steam plate for two 
hours, with occasional stirring. Filter into 600 cc. beaker, wash 
with water, boil to small volume, transfer to porcelain dish and 
evaporate to dryness. Add 20 cc. 1-1 hydrochloric acid and 
evaporate again. Take up in water, add five cc. concentrated 
hydrochloric acid and seven grams ammonium chloride, dilute to 
350 cc, heat to 180 degrees F. and titrate with potassium ferro- 
cyanide. Calculate to zinc oxide. 


From the total zinc substract the zinc found as zinc oxide and 
calculate difference to zinc sulphide. Total barium as barium 

Weigh three grams sample into 250 cc. pyrex beaker, add ten 
cc. water and ten cc concentrated hydrochloric acid. Take to 
dryness on steam plate, add 75 cc. water, few drops methyl 
orange and if not acid add a few drops hydrochloric acid. Boil, 
filter and wash. Return filter plus precipitate to original beaker, 
add ten cc. water and five cc. nitric acid. Take to dryness on 
steam bath, add 30 cc. concentrated sulphuric acid and fume 
strongly. In case acid is dark in color add crystals of potassium 
nitrate until colorless. Fume until only a trace of insoluble 
matter (silica) remains. Cool, dilute to 200 cc, boil, let stand in 
warm place to settle, filter, wash, ignite and weigh as barium 
sulphate. Calculate to percentage barium sulphate. 


Ten grams lithopone are weighed off into a covered 400-cc. 
beaker, 200 cc. water added, mixture stirred and heated on the 
steam bath for one to two hours to effect solution of soluble 
salts. Filter on four-inch Buchner, wash with hot water and 
evaporate filtrate in porcelain dish. When down to 50 cc. filter 
through a blue ribbon paper and wash with water. Receive 
filtrate in a weighed platinum dish, evaporate to dryness on steam 
bath and then dry at 110 degrees C. for one-half hour. Cool, 
desiccate and weigh. 

Weigh 20 grams into 400-cc. beaker and moisten with about 
15 cc. of water, then add SO cc. concentrated hydrochloric acid 
slowly and with stirring. Let it stand over night, filter, wash 
with hot water containing hydrochloric acid, oxidize the filtrate 
vnlh. bromine and precipitate the iron by using a slight excess 
of ammonia water and allowing to settle several hours. Filter, 
dissolve and reprecipitate the iron three times. The iron precipi- 
tate is now ignited and weighed as ferric oxide. 


Boil five grams lithopone with 50 cc. 1-1 nitric acid, filter, 
wash and dilute filtrate to 150 cc. with cold water. Then add a 
little sodium bismuthate and allow to stand in the cold for 
twenty minutes. Filter through asbestos pad and compare with 

^J. A. Wyler in the Cliemist- Analyst, 


Q PONCE Rubber. Articles such as balls having cells therein, 
*^ largest at the central portion of the article and decreasing in 
size toward the surface of the article, may be formed from a 
mixture of rubber 70, sulphur 6, ammonium carbonate 8, zinc 
oxide 12, and magnesium oxide 4 parts. (James B. Wishart, 
Trenton, New Jersey, United States patent No. 1,345,904.) 

Sulphur-Terpene Compound. A sulphur compound which ex- 
hibits the following characteristics; neutral, amorphous, non- 
colloidal, insoluble in water, soluble in toluol and xylol and ca- 
pable of reacting with rubber. (William Beach Pratt, Welleslcy, 
Massachusetts, assignor to E. H. Clapp Rubber Co., Boston, Mas- 
sachusetts, United States patent No. 1,349,909.) 



[October 1, 1920. 

Waterproofed Fabric consisting of a fibrous foundation im- 
pregnated with a non-colloidal sulphur-terpene compound. (Wil- 
liam Beach Pratt, Wellcsley, Mass., assignor to E. H. Clapp 
Rubber Co., Boston, Massachusetts. United States patent No. 

VlTLCANizED ARTICLE AND PROCESS. A new manufacture com- 
prising a fibrous bodj-, and a non-colloidal sulphur-terpene com- 
pound bonding the rubber and fibrous body, all vulcanized 
together. (William Beach Pratt, Wellesley, Massachusetts, as- 
signor to K. H. Clapp Rubber Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 
United States patent Xo. 1.349,911.) 

Article and Process of Bonding Metal and Vulcanized 
rubber which comprises coating the surface of the metal with a 
non-colloidal sulphur-terpene compound, placing thercagainst a 
material to be bonded to such surface, and subjecting the struc- 
ture to heat and pressure. (William Beach Pratt, Wellesley, 
Massachusetts, assignor to E. H. Clapp Rubber Co., Boston, 
Massachusetts. United States patent No. 1,349,912.) 

Pneumatic Tire and Process which consists in treating a 
fibrous material with a non-colloidal sulphur-terpene compound, 
forming the tire structure of rubber and the treated fibrous ma- 
terial, and vulcanizing said structure. (William Beach Pratt, 
Wellesley, Massachusetts, assignor to E. H. Clapp Rubber Co., 
Boston, Massachusetts. United States patent No. 1,349,913.) 

Solid Tire and Method of Manufacture. A tire comprising 
a rim, a solid rubber tread, and a layer of non-colloidal sulphur- 
terpene compound uniting the tread to the rim. (William Beach 
Pratt. Wellesley, Massachusetts, assignor to E. H. Clapp Rubber 
Co., Boston, Massachusetts. United States patent No. 1,349,914.) 

Process for Vulcanizing Rubber which comprises applying an 
inert gas as a vulcanizing medium to a vulcanizable plastic ma- 
terial in a chamber communicating with the atmosphere and 
vulcanizing the plastic material by said inert gas while preventing 
the passage of air into the chamber by a counter-passage of gas. 
(Willis A. Gibbons, Flushing, New York., assignor to American 
Rubber Co., Boston, Massachusetts. United States patent No. 

Process for Vulc.'VNIzing Rubber comprising the addition of 
a small quantity of a concentrated solution of a caustic alkali. 
(Edwin E. A. G. Meyer, assignor to Morgan & Wright, both of 
Detroit, Michigan. United States patent No. 1,350,824.) 

Tire Filler and Method of Manufacture, consisting of the 
following ingredients in the proportions stated; 152 pounds sun- 
flower seed oil, 32 pounds of sulphur chloride; 5 pounds of cal- 
cium hydroxide, 4 ounces of soluble dyes, and 8 pounds of soap 
oil. (Franc D. Mayer. Chicago, Illinois. United States patent 
Xo. 1,351,670.) 


Varnish, Adhesive, and Waterproofing. A composition for 
waterproofing of all kinds, and fabrics which may also be used 
as an adhesive, comprises the following preparation: dissolve 
20 parts of caoutchouc and 60 parts of cellulose acetate in 60 
parts of tetrachlorethane. Sulphur may be incorporated in the 
mixture to enable the coating to be vulcanized either by steam 
or hot air, or cold, by means of chloride of sulphur. Other 
substances may be added, such as organic or inorganic loading 
or coloring materials, and a softening agent for the cellulose 
acetate. (Etablissemcnts Hutchinson, 124 Avenue des Champs 
Elysees, Paris. British patent 129,630.) 

Recovery of Volatile Solvents. In recovering volatile 
solvents evaporating during the drying of India rubber articles 
and the like, an absorption agent is placed in the drying cham- 
ber, and uniformly distributed over it. The agent is preferably 
made to flow through the chamber, and may be conducted by 
means of rods, threads, wires, textile fabrics. The solvent is 
subsequently recovered by distillation or other means. (H. 
Schmidt, Cologne, Germany. British patent No. 141,739.) 

Process for Rubber Boot and Shoe Manufacture. "Am- 
monia powder" is placed inside a cloth bag coated with gum arable 
and shaped like a shoe. A rubber bag of similar shape is coated 
internally with gum arable and the first bag inserted therein. 
The two bags are sealed and placed in a shoe-shaped metal 
mold which is then heated, when gas generated from the powder 
by the heat causes the rubber and cloth to adhere and take the 
shape of the mold. After removal from the mold an openmg 
is cut for the introduction of the foot. (Y. Ose, 1 Majima-Qio, 
Shitayu-ku, Tokio, Japan. British patent No. 142,801.) 

Treating Bark from Rubber Trees. Bark shavings are 
ground and masticated between rollers heated to about 275 de- 
grees F. so as to knead the rubber with the bark and convert 
the whole into a plastic mass. The product, after mixture with 
a vulcanizing agent and vulcanization, is suitable for the manu- 
facture of tapping-cups, coagulating-dishes, floor matting, etc. 
If the vulcanizing agent be added prior to" grinding, the raw 
material may be treated in a scrap washer and creping machine 
as for the extraction of raw rubber. (R. T. Smith, 89 Chancery 
Lane, London. British patent Xo. 142,946.) 

India Rubber Composition. In compositions containing a 
large proportion of caoutchouc, one or more of the compound- 
ing ingredients is or are dispersed through a carrier liquid be- 
fore compounding, and the liquid removed before vulcaniza- 
tion. The liquid must be volatilizable and is preferably water. 
The compounding ingredients may be dissolved, or in colloidal 
solution, or suspended in the liquid. Suitable ingredients for 
compounding are sugar, .glue, aluminum hydroxide, and barium 
sulphate. A protective colloid such as glue may be added to 
maintain a solid ingredient in dispersion. (H. Wade, 111 Hat- 
ton Garden, London. [The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, 
Ohio, U. S. A.] British patent No. 143,610. Same as United 
States patent No. 1,301,639.) 

Wheel Tires. Air tubes for tires are reinforced by fabric im- 
pregnated with a solution of Turkish birdlime. A lining of Turk- 
ish birdlime may be applied to the inner surface of the tube. 
(C. W. Bradley, 107, Kenilworth Court, Putney, London, Eng- 
land. British patent No. 144.102.) 

Heavy Composition to enhance the flight of golf balls con- 
sists of a non-rigid and elastic composition either of rubber 
or a gelatinous compound loaded with litharge, a chemical com- 
pound, or powdered heavy metal. In weight the material is from 
20 to 40 per cent of the weight of the whole ball. (R. F. Hutchi- 
son and W. Patton, Murano Works, Albert Street, Edinburgh. 
British patent No. 144,126.) 


AN improved and standardized 
Buchner funnel is shown in the 
illustration which embodies the sug- 
gestions of numerous chemists. 
Standardization has been effected in 
the distance of plate from rim, filter 
paper from inside wall of funnel, and 
perforated area from edge of filter 
paper. The result is that funnels may 
be obtained in which standard filter 
papers will fit without unnecessary 
folding or loss of time in cutting. 

Filter papers may be made to lit 
this form of funnel by shaping them 

around a wooden disk, which will se- ,-. „ „ n „ ^ 

. , . . . . . CooRS Porcelain Funnel 
cure very quick filtration of precipi- 
tates for quantitative work and their efficient washing. (The 
Herold China & Pottery Co., Golden, Colorado.) 

October 1, 1920.] 



New Machines and Appliances 


ATTACHING composition soles to leather shoes by sewing 
has become the general practice in this country and has re- 
sulted in the successful adaptation of leather sole stitching 
machines for this purpose in the shoe factory and repair shop. 

A machine of this type, shown 
herewith, possesses a stitch ad- 
justment from 12 to three and 
one-half inches per stitch. The 
heating sj'stem is self-contained, 
being attached directly to the 
pedestal of the machine. It op- 
erates with a small quantity of 
water and at a steam pressure of 
not over five pounds. All parts 
of the machine may be brought to 
the desired heat at the same time, 
and in the proper condition for 
sewing in 25 minutes. The take- 
up and thread-measuring mechan- 
ism are completely inclosed, there- 
by preventing the thread from ex- 
posure lo cold air and becommg 
cold and stiff, and which results 
in thread economy. The wax 
pot holds a small quantity to 
insure fresh wax, while the gal- 
vanized pot and attached parts, 
and the copper steam coil, prevent 
the wax from being discolored. 

The complete machine is only furnished on a power stand. The 
heating may be accomplished with gas, gasoline or electricity. 
(Landis Machine Co., St. Louis, Missouri.) 



new fabric-skiving 

L.\Nnis Sole Stitcher 


Strainers are required on the suction and discharge lines of 
lubricating oil. fuel oil and quenching oil systems, for the re- 
moval of solid foreign material in suspension. Also power plants 

which secure their water 
f^lS' ^^^^^^mbiii^-' ^J 3 supply from such sources 

I ^^^^^^^ mtlm^^^K^ ''^ rivers or lakes, re- 
I ^^V ^^^1 ~^ B^^niL^^B^^ strainers to prevent 

" — -V IBi-^ — vW/r}^'' WK fl weeds, sticks, marine 

plants and small fish 
from entering pipe lines. 
For this purpose the 
strainer shown in the ac- 
companying illustration 
is recommended to rub- 
ber plant engineers. The body is con- 
structed of cast iron and the strainer 
basket of perforated sheet steel and 
lined with wire mesh when strainer is 
to be used on an oil line. 

This strainer is of the single type 
and may be installed either as a single 
unit or as the G-R strainer set. This 
set consists of two of these strainers 
connected, complete, including two 
three-way valves and necessary con- 
necting elbows, iniions and nipple. 
This set permits the cleaning of either of the two units without 
interruption of the service, (The Griscom-Russell Co., 90 Wtst 
street, New York City.) 

Single Strainer 

txmk wioii 

nonow odounoj 


machine that finds ready 
utility in tire rebuilding 
and repairing is shown in 
the accompanying illus- 
tration. It is particularly 
adaptable for skiving 
down the plies of pulled 
fabric in making rcliners, 
blow-out patches, and in 
general repair work. 

The makers claim that 
the machine will do the 
work in one-tenth of the 
lime required in han'l 
work, and that it will 
skive two-ply reliners 
successfully. The ma- 
chine is adjustable to 
skive up to five-ply fab- 
ric. (R. T. Sales Co., Green Bay, Wisconsin.) 




;her coct SKivcAll Plies 


Wide Blade Fabric Skiver 


An innovation in the construction of vulcanizing presses is 
the substitution of rolled steel steam platens for those of cast 
iron. The steel platens are made from tlie best grade of rolled 

Rolled Steel Platen- 

steel boiler plate and the surfaces are planed, polished, drilled 
and connected for steam circulation. The advantages claimed 




Sectional \'iew 

over their cast-iron prototype are : better finish because of hard, 
smooth surfaces ; saving of time by reason of quicker heating 
and chilling ; saving of steam on account of greatly reduced 



[October 1, 1920. 

radiation surfaces of the platen edges; greater comfort for the 
workers because of less heat in the curing room ; saving of 
space, as generally twice as many steel platens as cast iron can 
be installed in the same press. The thickness of the steel platen 
is usually IK- inches as against Ayi inches of the cast iron; 
doubling of output on the same number of presses; greater dura- 
bility. The steel platen is practically indestructible. It will not 
crack nor explode from alternate heating and chilling. The 
greater hardness of the surfaces prevents pitting. ( South wark 
Foundrv & Machine Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.) 


A novel type of cement can and an improved dispensing can 
for inflammable liquids are among the most interesting of the 
new products supplied to the rubber trade and especially to 

rubber footwear manufacturers. 
The cement can is made on 
up-to-date non-explosive lines. 
It has a shut-off gate which 
regulates the flow. The sup- 
ply trough is fitted with a 
spring-closed cover. It is filled 
through the opening at the top 
over which is fitted a remov- 
able cover. This opening is 
large enough to make cleaning 
easy. The fusible latch which 
closes the cover when it melts 
prevents explosion and confines 
the fire to one spot. The can 
cannot explode and s c a 1 1 e r 
burning cement over a large 
area. It is made in one size 
o n 1 y, holding approximately 
one-half gallon. 

The improved naphtha dis- 
pensing can is designed for the 
safe and economical use of in- 
flammable liquids, and its con- 
struction is such that in case of fire its contents will blow off 
and burn slowly rather than explode and scatter. 

It consists of a large, air-tight 
chamber or reservoir which is con- 
nected with an open, spring-pres.sed 
cup by means of a spout and a ball 
valve. A slight pressure on the cup 
allows the ball to drop from its seat 
and the liquid flows freely into the 
open cup which, when released, re- 
seats the ball, thus stopping the 
flow. The vacuum principle controls 
the feed, and makes overflow impos- 
sible. All necessary parts 
are manufactured of non- 
corrosive metal. The rest is 
cast iron. It is made in one 
size only, holding approxi- Naphtha Bench Cax 

mately one quart. (The 

United Shoe Machinery Corporation, .\lbany Building, Boston, 

Cement Bench Can 


With the increase in size and added weight of giant pneumatic 
tires comes the need of a device for conveniently handling motor 
truck tires and wheels. With the crane here shown, it is 
claimed that one man can handle any size of wheel or solid 

tire, special grab hooks being furnished for use with pneumatic 
tires. The crane works in small clearance between tire and 

Atlas Wheel Crane 

fender or body. To provide for variation in wheel diameters, 
the crane arm may be pivoted at two different heights, thereby 
permitting two different ranges of vertical lift. Moreover, the 
crane will pick up wheels which are standing on the floor. (The 
Thompson Auto Specialties Co., Columbus, Ohio.) 


Steel wire buffing wheels are _ 

indispensable in tire making 
and repairing. The old-type 
solid wire brush has long 
since been displaced by wheels 
made up of sections that tit 
on a permanent hub. When 
the sections wear out new 
ones are replaced on the old 
hub and the brush is as good 
as new. A recent type of 
steel wire brush is called 
the "Sampson," section of 
which is shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. 
(Chas. E. Miller, Anderson Rubber Works, .Anderson, Indiana.) 

Sampson Brush Section 


TWO-PART HOLLOW RunBER .\RTICLES, such as inner tubes, are 
made by this process, whereby the parts are first cut from 
a sheet, formed in a mold which causes the edges to adhere, 
and then removed to a vulcanizing mold in which they are 
seated by internal pressure. 

In carrying out this process a square sheet of raw rubber is 
laid on the upper surface of the plate A and a similar sheet is 
laid on the table B, shown in Fig. 1. The vacuum plate is then 
brought to a position directly over the table, the pedal C oper- 
ated to raise the table, bringing the rubber sheet thereon into 
contact with the under side of the plate, whereupon the valve D 
is operated to apply vacuum to this plate, thus drawing both 

October 1, 19J0. 



the rubber sheets closely into contact therewith. The table is 
then lowered, leaving its sheet held to the under side of the 
vacuum plate, which is moved to the position shown in Fig. 1, 
directly between the forming molds. 

.\ valve is operated to apply hydraulic pressure to the plunger, 
raising the lower forming mold E into contact with the rubber 







F.G 1 

Fig. 2 

Fig 4 

Roberts' Tube Molding .^nd Vulcanizinc .\pp.\ratus 

at the under side of the plate .\, and the raising movement is 
continued, carrying the plate upwardly, bringing the upper sheet 
into contact with the upper mold F. Here the movement of 
the platen is stopped, the valve D is operated to relieve the 
vacuum in the plate, and a valve controlling the vacuum tubes 
G is opened, drawing the air from the mold cavities and from 
the groove H shown in Fig. 2, securely holding the sheets to 
the mold members. 

The platen is then lowered and the vacuum plate withdrawn, 
leaving the sheets held to the molds by vacuum. This plate 
is then moved to the position shown in Fig. 3, and the rubber 
sheets are again placed upon this plate on the table B while the 
forming operation is continued in the press. 

The application of vacuum to the mold is continued until the 
rubber sheets are stretched tightly into the cavities, when the 
platens are brought together until the cutting edges meet, sever- 
ing the rubber within the mold cavities thus forming a sub- 
stantially flat ring comprising two annular members having 
their edges pinched together by the bevel surfaces of the cutting 
edges, and thus caused to adhere. Upon separating the forming 
molds the tube is then removed and placed in a vulcanizing 

In making inner tubes for pneumatic tires, it is desirable to 
secure the valve stem between the meeting edges of the rubber 
ring severed from the sheets, so that when a tube thus formed 
is vulcanized it may be complete. Accordingly the cutting edge is 
looped inwardly as indicated at I in Fig. 3 and within this loop 
a cavity is provided into which the rubber is drawn by the 
suction, so that before bringing the forming molds together to 
sever the sheets the valve stem may be laid on rubber in the 
lower mold in this cavity, with its head in the concave portion 
of the trough. When the mold members are brought together 
and severed, the rubber is caused to lie closely about the shank 
of the valve stem and the sheets are severed entirely around the 
stem by the edges. 

Tlic vulcanizing mold illustrated in Fig. 4 preferably comprises 
two trough-shaped members formed of pressed metal having 
convex portions complementary to the convex portions of the 
tube, while at the sides the cavity extends inwardly in concave 
form, fitting the concave sides of the tube. Flanges provide for 
securiim the mold members together by bolts or clamps. .Xt 

one point these flanges are bowed outwardly to surround the 
valve stem and press the rubber into contact therewith, while 
the remaining portion of the rubber surrounding the shank may 
be trimmed off at the inner sides of the flanges before vulcaniza- 
tion. A considerable number of tubes carried in such molds are 
inflated therein, pressing the walls of the tube tightly to the 
inner surfaces of the mold. These are then placed in a vul- 
canizing chamber and cured. (Fred T. Roberts, Cleveland Heights, 
Ohio, assignor to Paramount Rubber Consolidated, Inc., Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. United States patent No. 1,346,848). 


The operation of this apparatus is started with the wrapping 
box A opened out flat, as shown in Fig. 2 and the mandrel 
liijldcr B ti'.rned up from the posilii.n represented in the draw- 
1 igs, so that a core C will occupy an inverled vertical position. 
In this position, the 
pieces of raw stock 
for forming t h e 
lugs may be in- 
serted in their 
grooves, and t h e 
bottom - forming 
sheet accurately 
laid on the end of 
t h e mandrel. A 
side-forming sheet 
cut to the proper 
size is laid on the 
opened-out box and 
properly registered 
with the edges 
thereof, its bottom 
edge being slightly 
overlapped upon the 
edge-turning plates. 
The holder and 
mandrel are then 
swung down into 

horizontal operative „ 

, ., Battery jar Machine 

position, and the ■' 

plunger D is advanced until its presser-plate rests against the 
work to hold the bottom sheet in place as shown in Fig. 1, the 
weight of the lever E keeping the parts in this position while 
the side wrapping is performed. Then the free sections of the 
wrapping box, carrying with them the super-imposed portions 
of the side-forming sheet, are closed upon the mandrel. First, 
the two wider side sections are swung ujiwardly into position, 
and then the third section is turned over on the upper side 
of the mandrel and clamped by a cam lever which produces 
pressure on the work. The final step in the side-folding opera- 
tion consists in turning the fourth folder section and its cor- 
responding sheet portion over on the upper face of the mandrel 
by means of the handle F and applying pressure to the side 
seam formed by the overlapping skived edges of the rubber 
sheet. The wrapping action is progressive and avoids the en- 
trapping of air. The final closing movement of the fourth section 
causes a shearing action which trims off the excess of material 
on the outer side of the seam. 

By pressure on the hand-lever £ the plunger compresses and 
embosses the bottom sheet and consolidates it witli the lugs while 
the seam-pressing plates on the plunger compress the in- 
wardly-turned edges of the side sheet and perfect the bottom 
seams. The wrapping box is then undamped and opened out, 
and the mandrel with the formed jar thereon, is swung upwardly 
into vertical position. It may then be removed by sliding it from 
the holder and the jar vulcanized in the usual manner while 
still on the mandrel, .\nnthcr mandrel is then substituted and 



[October 1, 1920. 

the foregoing operations repeated. (James H. Wagenhorst, 
Akron, Ohio. I'nitod Stato< patent No. l..\?8.4;0 ) 


Ar.\R.\i.i.EL SERIES of forms arc secured to the form boards 
adapted to support the balloons. .A rectangular frame is se- 
cured to the base of the machine, allowing the form boards to be 
moved through the frame. Horizontal shafts arranged in pairs are 

! I^'i i ^_^^jl!i^ 

Bead-Roi.uxg M.vchime . ,.,. , 

bracketed and geared so that they turn in the opposite direction. 
On each shaft A,, a rotary brush B, covered with chamois or 
other flexible material, provides a yielding friction surface to rub 
against the ends of the balloons. 

As the form board is slid in and out of the guide formed by 
the base, the forms will bring the balloons into contact with the 
covered brushes, and the rolls or beads will be quickly and uni- 
formly made. (Harry B. Gill, Ashland, Ohio. United States 

patent Xo. 1,346.706.) 


This invention employs a roller for applying the rubber solu- 
tion to the fabric instead of the usual spreading knife or "doctor." 

The dope is placed in the hopper A and a web of uncoated 
fabric drawn from the roll B over the guide roller C beneath the 
spreading cylinder D, over the guide roller E, thence over the 
heating pipes and drum cylinder to the take-up roller G. Power 
is then applied, rotating the cylinder so that its lower portion 

A Calender Spreader 

moves in the direction of the travel of the fabric. Tlie web of 
fabric is driven by the cloth covered drum F, through gearing, 
at the desired rate of speed relatively to the speed of the spread- 
ing cylinder. 

The gate // is adjusted to deliver a sheet of dope of a pre- 
determined thickness upon the surface of the roller which spreads 
it upon the fabric, condenses the coating and smoothes it by its 
wiping contact so that a desirable fniish is produced. 

The coated fabric thereupon passes over the drying coils with 
the back or uncoated side of the fabric toward the coils so that 
the heat is applied through the fabric and back of the coating. 
(Andrew Thoma, Cambridge, assignor to Abraham Sydeman, 
Boston — ^l)0th in Massachusetts, United States patent, Xo. 1,- 

Hood Rubber Co 

Louis, Mo 

-both of 

assiKiior to 


Ni' 1,340,776.' Apparatus for ncIaimir.K rubber. F, L. Krydcr. Akron, 
O., and E. W. Snyder. Indianapolis. Ind. 
1.34S,228. Apparatus and method for electrically vulcanizing tires. 

). I-edwinka, assignor to Kihvani ti. Itudii Manufacturing 

Co. — both of Philadelphia. Pa. (Renewed January R. 19J0.) 
Apparatus for cutting rings and washers from rubber tubing. 

I. E. Pcrranll. assign" r to He ' " ' ' ^ ' ' 

Water town. Mass. 
Tire-building stand. K. Sterns. St, 

Surety Tire & Rubber Co., a Uelaware corfKjratioii. 
Separal)Ic sectional ci>re for tires. (J. U. Willis, assignor to 

■ .., ■^-. The Miller Rubber Co.— both of Akron. O. 

1. 349 ,03?r"' Repair vulcanizer. A. A. Bitter. Los .Xn^eles, Calif., assignor 

by mesne assignments to Western Vulcanizer Manufacturing 
' ■ Co., Chicago, 111., a copartnership. 

Tire abrader. F. N. Corrlell. St. I-ouis, Mo. (See The India 

RrBBFR WoKLO. February 1. 1920, i)age 297.) 
Apjiaratus and prcre?? for the manufacture of tires. J. 

Swinehart. Akrc;i. (). 
Apparatus for the manufacture of pneumatic-tire casings. 

Hcpkinson, New ^'nrk City. 
Apparatus and .pr,-cess for prrxlucing a hollow rubber bisciitt 

II Z. Cobb, New ^'ork City, assignor to The Mechanical 

Rubber Co., a New Jersey Cnrporation. 
Tire and tuiie vulctnizer. (>. Nichols. McAind Valley. Kans. 
Repair vulcanizing apparatus. \V. S. Rolnnett, Oakland, Calif. 
Apparatus for use iti vulcanizing pneumatic-tire casings. E. 

Hopkinson, New- Vcrk City. 
Apparatus for recovering rubber frctm armored hcse, etc. C. F. 

Erb, Voung'Stown, C 
Wilcanizing mold for boots and shoes. D, F. Wilhelmi, iJoor- 

werth, Netherlands. 
Mold for rubber heels. H. F. Maranville. assignor to the 

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. — both of Akron, (). 
Bead-forming ring for molding pneumatic tires. J. Schmidt. 

assignor by mesne a.s.^ignments to Howe Rubber Corporation 

— both of New Prunswick, N. J. 

1. 348. 316. 


!, 340,424. 








"Omitted from our issue of July 1. 1920. 

202,260 Tire dressing wheel 
Cai., U. S. A. 


ISSUED JULY 27. 1920 

M. Taber and P. E. Taber, Berkeley, 


203,007 Repair vulcanizing api)aratus. W. H. Miles, Stafford. England. 
203,099 Apparatus for placing tires in molds. The Dunlop Rubber Co., 

Ltd., Westminster. Co. of London, assignee of C. Macbeth 

and E, Sullivan, both of Birmingham, Co. of Warwick — all 

in England. 
203.105 Pneumatic tire building machine. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber 

Co., assignee of J. D. Thompson, both of Akron, O., U. S. A. 


143,927 Tipping-apparatus inr kneading -machines, etc. Canstatter Misch- 
und Kretmaschinen-Fabrik, Canstatter Dampf-Backofen- 
Fabrik Werner Ci Pfleiderer, Pragstrasse, Canstatt. Stuttgart, 
Germany. ( Not yet accepted. ) 

144,779 Repair vulcanizer. 11. Frost & Co., 148 Great Portland street, 
London, and W. H. Welch, 182 Ashley Down road, 
Bishopstcne, Bristol. 

144,822 Apparatus for making cord tires. Vickers. Ltd., Vickers House, 
Broadway, Westminster, Sir J. McKechnie. Naval Construc- 
tion works. B;.rrow-in-Furness, and A. Ryan, 43 Cranbrook 
street. Oldham. 

1 44,041 Apparatus for making hollow rubber articles. Paramount Rub- 
ber Consolidated, 5232 Germantown avenue, Philadelphia. Pa,, 
assignee of I'. T. Roberts. 1051 Power avenue, Cleveland, 
Ohio — both in t'. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 



N(>. 1,348,164. Putting beads on tire carcasses. W. G. Fording, assignor 
to J. T. Lister— both of Cleveland. O. 
1.348,755. Manufacture of clutch facings. S. Simpson, assignor to 
The Raybestos Co.— both of Bridgeport, Conn. 
1.349.423. Manufacture of pneumatic tires. E. Hopkinson, New York City. 


144,809 Making hollow rubber .-irticlcs such as valve balls. F. T. Roberts, 
1105 Lakeview road, and R. H. Rosenfeld, 1895 East 71st 
street — both in Cleveland, Ohio, U. S. A. 


Pure dialomaccou.s earth from an extensive fresh water de- 
posit located in Oregon is being introduced lo the rubber manu- 
facturing industry. Analysis and microscopic examination shows 
Diato to be practically free from lime, entirely free from grit, 
and contains only two types of diatoms. These are in the form 
of hollow cylinders possessing relatively larger cavities than 
is the case with the discoid forms which are so often the domi- 
nating types in diatomaceous deposits. 

October 1, 1920.) 



New Goods and Specialties 

'N'o-C-Ment'' Plug 


THE perfect central balance of the ideal golf ball is obtained by 
building evenly around a heavy core. A ball that is tested 
by X-ray for core imperfections would seem a help towards 
avoiding an erratic game. The "Clincher Cross" golf ball is 
X-rayed before leaving the factory, to make 
sure that the core has not become displaced 
during the building and molding operations. 
(North British Rubber Co., Limited, London, 
England. .-Xmerican representative, James Peck- 
ham, 17 Hattery Place, 
New York City.) 

"Clincher C'ros.s"' 



A handy little repairing device fui 
punctures is the "No-C-Ment" puncture 
plug, which, the maker claims, will re- 
pair any puncture in less than ten sec- 
onds without using cement. The plug is made of soft rubber, 
mushroom-shaped, with a hollow "stem" into which a small lead 

ball is inserted, and works on a 
pneumatic principle automatic- 
ally to close the puncture. "No- 
C-Ment" puncture plugs are 
made in two sizes. (H. & K. 
Accessory Co., 4005 West North 
avenue. Chicago. Illinois.) 


The "Nu-Way" dust cap for 
pneumatic tires is a combined 
dust cap and nut which can be 
instantly removed and attached. 
The maker claims it will do 
away with tedious waits while 
filling tires. "Nu-Way" caps are 
made of high-grade materials 
and will add to the appearance 
of any car. (A. L. Just Manu- 
facturing Co., Syracuse, New 

Dust Cap 


Pneumatic cushions are almost 
indispensable to motorists and canoeists, but their extreme resil- 
iency often makes them a dangerously unsteady seat. .'\n air cush- 
ion that fur- 
nishes a sub- 
stantially firm 
seat when in- 
flated, and a 
able support 
even if partial- 
ly or wholly 
deflated, is a 
recent patent. 
It is preferably 
oblong in shape, 
of rubberized 
fabric enclosing 

a layer of fibrous material. Bolts pass through the cushion, 
forming tufts to hold the fibrous filling in place, .An inner par- 
tition divider the cushion into two parts, and a valve at one end 


is used for inflating. (Edwin S. Sylvester, West New Brighton, 
New York, assignor to Rubber Regenerating Co., Naugatuck, 
Connecticut. Ignited States patent No. 1,332,933.) 


.\n improved dye stick that will not lie affectcil by heat, mois- 
ture, or chemicals while in use is coinposed of a thin tube of 


Smooth-Surfaced Dye Stii k 

metal (1) enclosed in a close-fitting, smooth-surfaced tube of 
liard rubber, (2) lapping over the metal tube at the ends, (3) or 
cut flush. Secured in each end of the tube may be a soft rubber 
plug (4) which will prevent injury to the tube if accidentally 
dropped endwise. In dyeing cloth or yarn the dye stick must 

not catch in the ma- 
terial while changing 
its position in the vat 
of dye. Wooden dye 
sticks quickly splinter 
and injure the fabric. 
(W. F. Foley, assign- 
or to India Rubber 
Co., New Brunswick, 
New Jersey. United 
States patent No. 


HouD Miner's "Flex-I-Pac'' 


The new Hood 
'l''le.\-I-Pac" has been 
designed especially to 
obviate the uncomfortable features of the old-style miner's pac. 
Its extreme flexibility is attained, the maker says, without in any 
way lessening its wearing qualities. The shoe is made without 
a flap. The girth at the top is just large enough to admit the 
toot and can be tightened to the leg by means of the tie-strap. 
This excludes dust and dirt to a minimum and eliminates painful 
irritations that lessen production. 
The "Flex-I-Pac" is made of the 
highest quality materials. The 
turned edge tire tread outsole uses 
20 per cent more rubber than usual. 
The double sole runs all the way 
under the heel and the entire boot 
is cured by the Hood tire process. 
The tnaker claims for the shoe ex- 
tra long wear and absolute com- 
fort. (Hood Rubber Products Co., 
Inc., Watertown, Mass.) 

" Cross Scooi" Heel 


.\ new design of the old stand- 
ard "Maltese Cross" rubber heel is illustrated here, called the 
"Scoop." It is of the concave type that is now so popular 
because of its added springiness and gripping qualities. The 
finish and workmanship of the "Scoop" rubber heel are of the 
highest standard of "Maltese Cross" quality. (Gutta Percha ft 
Rubber Co., Limited, 47 Yoiige street, Toronto, Ontario.) 



[October 1. 1920. 


A bottle cap developed from the point of view of the bottle 
niser, that can be opened easily without an opener or corkscrew, 
ihat closes securely and stays closed, is called the "Kork-N-Seal." 

It consists of a metal 
cap. cork-lined, fitting 
closely over a rubber 
j^asket. and having a 
wire ring uithin the out- 
wardly rolled edge, con- 
tracted by a slight pres- 
sure of the linger on a 
small wire lever at- 
tached to the ends of the 
ring. This closes the cap tightly over the rubber gasket and 
hermetically seals the l)ottle. (The Williams Sealing Corpora- 
tion. r)ecatur, Illinois.) 

Of the new host of articles brought out yearly, intended to 
add to the comfort of the hunter and deplete his pocketbook, the 
most comfortable to be had at reasonable cost sell best. 

The "Kobk-N-Seal"* for Bottles 


A mechanical milking machine that beats the old-time hired 
man in speed and cleanliness and 
rivals him in action is the ''Uni- 
versal Natural Milker." 
which has been careful- 
ly constructed so that it 
cannot injure the udder 
of the cow. It 
has few parts, in- 
cluding, besides 
the necessary 
vacuum outfit, 
one pipe line 
through the barn 
connecting t h e 
vacuum pump to 
the milk pail, and 
on top of the 
pail a vacuum 
pulsator with two 
rubber tubes extending to a cluster of four teat cups, each lined 
with the best soft rubber. At the top of each cup is a solid rub- 
ber ring— soft, like the calf's 
nose, leaving no cold metal to 
touch the cow. The vacuum 
action in the rubber air tubes 
attached to the teat cups makes 
possible the alternating action 
which the manufacturer asserts 
is the nearest approach to the 
natural feeding method of the 
calf. The rubber lining of the 
teat cups permits a massaging 
action similar to that of the 
sucking calf. It is claimed the 
machine will save money for 
any farmer milking six cows or 
more. (The Universal Milking 
Machine Co., 2(K) West Mound 
street, Columbus, Ohio.) 

Milking Machine: Teat Cup and Its 
Ri'BBER Liner 


.\ new type of repair-tire is 
the Eno "Exso" tire, a whole- 
sole which is vulcanized from 
the outside and produces a tire 
that looks like new. The "Exso" 
tire is made of the best tire fabric, breaker, cushion, and tread 
stock, and is said to have the wearing qualities of a new tire at 
half the cost. (George W. Eno Rubber Co., 1026 South Los .An- 
geles street, Los Angeles, California.) 

The Kno *'Exso" Tire 


Ladies* Outing r.ooTS 

Under Pants 

The fishing coat shown has five pockets, one rubber-lined and 
reversible for bait, and a fish or game bag of double-coated 
washable material, conveniently attached to the back but out of 
the way when walking through brush. 

The woman's outing moccasin is sporty-looking and most prac- 
tical and comfortable for fall hunting. Ten inches high, it has 
waterproof, flexible rubber sole and soft, smoked elk upper. 

Convenient and economical, too, are the waterproof and wind- 
proof under-pants for men to be worn under regular trousers in 
rain or snow. The legs and seat are of light-weight rubber- 
coated material, the waist and body not rubberized. (L. L. Bean, 
Trceport, Maine.) 


This new "Humidyzor" is made of fine while biscuit porcelain 
encased in a moisture-proof and mar-proof rubber tray that is 
odorless and eliminates all possibilities of damaging the cigars 

Pearson's CiGAR-rox "IIumidvzor" 

with cither moisture or marring. Pearson's cigar "Humidyzor" 
is said to keep a box of cigars conditioned from two to ten days. 
(Pearson Products Co., 725 Broadway, New York City.) 

October 1, 1920.] 





EuwAKii H. ()i'KN.^HA\v, general suiHriiitt'iuknt of tlic Hewitt 
RulihcT Co.. Buffalo, New York, died on September 10. 
Altlioufjh he had lieeii in poor health during the past few years 

and had failed perceptibly in the 
last two months, yet his passing 
away was sudden and quite unex- 
pected. His declining health was 
caused by hardening of the arteries, 
which brought about slight strokes 
which caused his death. 

Mr. Openshaw was born in Oss- 
wald Twistle, England, September 
7, 1863, and arrived in Philadelphia 
on his nineteenth birthday in 1882. 
He started his rubber career with 
the Home Rubber Co., Trenton, 
-Mew Jersey, and was connected 
there for a period of twenty-five 
years. From 1908 to 1914 he was 
with the Cincinnati Rubber Manu- 
facturing Co. and the United 
& Globe Rubber Cos. as general 
superintendent. In 1914 he accepted the position of general super- 
intendent with the Hewitt Rubber Co., with which company he 
was active until his death. 

Mr. Openshaw was well known throughout the rubber industry, 
particularly in the mechanical goods line, with which he was so 
long and successfully connected. He invented many new manu- 
facturing methods which are still in use, having never been im- 
proved upon, and incidentally was the first to succeed in vulcaniz- 
ing rubber to horseshoes. 

Mr. Openshaw was a man with a loyal and upright character, 
who easily made and retained a host of friends. He was a mem- 
ber of the Ashler Lodge, Free and Accepted Masons, and Zuleika 
Grotto No. 10. 

He is survived by his widow, daughter and two sons, Frank 
and Edward, both of whom are connected with the rubber in- 
dustry, the former with the Cincinnati Rubber Manufacturing Co., 
and the latter with the Hewitt Rubber Co. 

Edw.vhd H. OrENSH.\W 


The Clifton Manufacturing Co., Boston, Massachusetts, an- 
nounces, with great regret, the death of T. Frank McCarthy on 
September 10, 1920. Mr. McCarthy has been the New York repre- 
sentative for the rubber surface clothing department and had a 
host of friends in the rubber clothing trade. He was respected 
and esteemed for his honorable dealings as well as for his genial 
disposition, unfailing kindness and helpfulness to all his acquaint- 
ances in that business. 

His death will be sincerely mourned by his customers, and his 
loss will be deeply deplored by the company with which he was so 
long connected, and by whom his services were greatly valued. 


Michael P. Grace, chairman of the board of directors of William 
R. Grace & Co., the large shipping organization, died September 
20 in Ixjndon. England, aged 78. Mr. Grace was also head of 
Grace Brothers & Co.. Limited, of London, and a brother of the 
late William R. Grace, a former mayor of New York City. 

Michael P. Grace was born in Qucenstown, County Cork, Ire- 
land, and at an early age went tn Peru, where his father, James 
Grace, had sought to establish an Irish agricultural colony, and 
where his brother, W. R. Grace, had become a partner in the 
trading firm of Bryce, Grace & Co. 

W. R. Grace came to the United States and established the 
house of W. R. Grace & Co., Michael P. Grace remaining in 

Peru, building the business into the largest in the country and 
operating a vast fleet of ships which carried much of the South 
.•\merican rubber to New York and London. 

.•\ftcr the Chile-Peruvian war of 1877-1881 Michael P. Grace, 
who had become an .•Xmerican citizen and had assumed charge of 
the parent house in New York, went to Peru to further develop 
the business and to extend it to Chile. Later he resided for some 
years in England, making his home in the famous Battle Abbey 
at Hastings. 

Mr. Grace is survived by his widow, who lives in London, and 
three daughters, Mrs. J. S. Phipps of New York City, the Coun- 
tess of Donoughmore and Mrs. Joseph Benskin of London. 


nnHE inquiries that follow have already been ansivered ; never- 
•* thclcss they arc of interest not only in shoisfing the needs 
of the trade, hut because of the possibility that additional in- 
formation may be furnished by those who read them. The editor 
is therefore glad to have those interested communicate zcith him. 

(826) A subscriber desires the name and address of the present 
manufacturer of the Bachmann hose-wrapping machine, formerly 
made by a company now gone out of business. 

(827) A reader desires the address of the manufacturer of 
"Nitre.x," used for painting tires to protect from sun and atmos- 

(828) A manufacturer desires to know the average tensile 
strength of rolled brrwn crepe. 


.Iddresses may be obtained from the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce, Washington. D. C, or from the following 
district or coopcratiz'e offices. Requests for each address should 
bi on a separate sheet, and state number. 

District Offices 
New Yort<: 734 Customhouse. 
Boston: 1801 Customhouse. 
Chicago: 504 Federal Building. 
St. Louis: 402 Third National Bank 

New Orleans: 1030 Hibernia Bank 

San Francisco: 307 Customhouse. 
Seattle: 848 Henry Building. 

CooPF-RATivE Offices 
Cleveland: Chamber of Commerce. 
Cincinnati: Chamber of Commerce; 
General Freight .\gent. Southern 
Railway, 96 Ingalls Building. 
I.os Angeles: Chamber of Commerce, 
Philadelphia: Chamber of Commerce. 
Portland, Oregon: Chamber of Com- 
Dayton, Ohio; Dayton Chamber of 

(33,598) .\ cooperative mercantile company in Australia de- 
sires to purchase and secure an agency for the sale of tires and 

(33,(504') .V merchant in Canada desires to correspond with 
manufacturers in position to export rubber horse-shoe pads. 
Cash on delivery. Quote f. o. b. port of shipment. 

(33,(506) A commercial agent in Turkey desires to represent 
firms for the sale of rubber overshoes. Quote c. i. f. Constanti- 
nople. Payment in United States currency, 20 to 25 per cent 
with order, balance against documents. 

(33,620) .\ manufacturer in South Africa desires to secure 
an agency for the sale of rul)ber soles and heels, canvas tennis 
boots and shoes, uppers for sewing soles on same (not for 
vulcanizing), molds for making rubber soles, stitching machines 
for attaching rubber soles, motor tires and tubes, mechanical 
rubber goods, rubber compound for tire repair work and re- 
treading, also reclaimed rubber for mold work, of which samples 
;iiid prices are renuired. 

(33,633) .X tire and rubber agency company in New Zealand 
desires to secure the sole agency for the sale of good tires and 
tubes that can be guaranteed for use on the roads of that coun- 
try. Quote c. i. f. New Zealand port. 

(33,656) A commercial agency firm in Portugal desires to 
secure an agency for the sale of automobile tires. Correspondence 
may be in English. Catalogs and price lists requested. 



lOCTOBKR 1, 1920. 

(33,674.) A mercantile firm in Mexico Jisirts to purchase 
erasers, fountain pens, and rublK-r stamp material. Quote c. i. f. 
El Paso, Texas. Correspondence may be in I-'nplish. 

(33,676.) A firm of selling representatives in the British West 
Indies desires to obtain illustrated catalogs and prices of rubber 
boots and shoes. 

(33,678.) A firm of merchants in one of ihe Baltic provinces 
desires to represent a manufacUircr oi rubber shoes. Corre- 
spondence may be in English. 

(33.718) A merchant in Spain desires lo secure an agency 
for the sale of rubber goods. Quote c. i. f. Spanish port. Cor- 
respondence should be in Spanish. 

(33.733) .A merchant in .\ustria desires to establish relations 
with manufacturers with a view to securing an agency for tl^e 
sale of .-\merican tires. 

3i.7i7) An agency is desired by an inquirer in Italy l'>r 
the sale of belting and rubber goods. Correspondence should be 
in Italian, though English may be used. 

(33,739) .\ firm of mainifacturcrs in" .•\ustria desires to secure 
an agency for the sale of automobile tires. 


By Raymond Francis Yates. The Norman W. Henley Publishing Com- 
pany, New York, 1920. (Paper, 102 pages, 5 by 7>i inches.) 
THE .AUTHOR has successfully accomplished the task of preparing 
a book for those who wisli to become acquainted with the great 
fundamentals of chemistry. The author has not followed the 
usual method of treatment but beghis at once by explaining in 
non-technical language the nature and relations of molecules, 
atoms and electrons. Since chemistry is discussed to-day in 
terms of the Electron Theory, familiarity with its outstanding 
features is essential at the beginning of its study. The second 
part of the book is occupied by instructions to the amateur chem- 
ist on the construction of a home laljoratory, while a third section 
is devoted to experiments illustrating the broad aspects of chem- 
ical science and to methods of constructing necessary apparatus. 

Ilenrv A. Fiskc and H. Walter Foster. Sixth Edition, 1920. D. Van 
Nostrand Co., New York City. (Clnlh, 757 pages, 4"/j by iVt inches.) 
This volume is the standard compilation on the fundamental 
principles of fire protection. Its several distinct divisions cover: 
(1) general, giving an understanding of the magnitude of fire 
prevention and fire protection, its relation to accident prevention, 
the oppoi 'unities and responsibilities of the lire protection engi- 
neer, and the functions and interrelations of the National Kirc 
Protection Association, the National Board of 'Fire Underwriters, 
and the Underwriters Laboratories; (2) causes of fire; (3) 
spread of fire; (4) construction for special occupancies; (5) ex- 
tinguishment of fire; (6) miscellaneous, relating to egress, self- 
inspection and protection of records and valuables; (7) tables of 
data; (8) index, .^s a reference book it is invalualile to en- 
gineers, architects and plant managers. 


7 HE Tire Surgcnii. Voi.rMF. I, Ni-mber 1, has m.ade its 
appearance, dated September 10, 1920. It is a 12-page illus- 
trated monthly especially for the tire repair man, part trade 
paper and part house organ, published by the Hayward Tire & 
Equipment Co., Indianapolis, Indiana. 

"Trade with the Orient"' is the title of one ok a series of 
attractive 32-pape pamphlets on foreign and domestic trade pub- 
lished by the Bank of Pittsburgh National .Association, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, for free distribution. It presents in con- 
(kiised and graphic form some of the more salient facts and data 
bearing upon the resources and trade of the leading transpacific 

countries, and serves to acquaint .\merican manufacturers, ex- 
porlers and importers with the possibilities of foreign trade in 
ibi: near and far l-".ast. 



n'KDKRAi. Traue .\i I ssiii\ s VS. TuE Great Repcblic Tire & 
^ Manuf.uturing Co. 

The respondent, a corporation organized and doing business 
under the laws of the .State of Delaware, and having its office 
and place of business in Muskogee, Oklahoma, engaged in the 
sale of automobile tires and inner tubes branded and advertised 
as "Great Republic" tires and tubes, notwithstanding a full 
kiiowledae of the cvistencf nt ihe Reoiiblir Rubber Co.. of 
Voungstown, Ohio, engaged in the manufacture and sale of tires 
and tubes under the brand name "Republic." 

The respondent is forbidden to use the brand name "Great 
Republic," any phrase including the word "Republic" or sugges- 
tion of it. The company is also forbidden to use the corporate 
name, "The Great Republic Tire & Rubber Manufacturing Co.," 
e.xcept in connection with ihe words, "of Muskogee, Oklahoma," 
and unless there is substituted in place of the brand name "Great 
Republic" another brand name equally conspicuous but in no 
wise similar. (Federal Trade Commission, Docket No. 492, 
Washington, D. C, August 10. 1920.) 


To the Editor : 
^^F.AR SIR:— 

'■^ In The India Rubber World, July 1. 1919, you kindly 
published an article showing my novelty ball. In consequence 
of the world-wide publicity, I had letters from the Dutch traders 
in Holland and many from the United States. I have made every 
effort to get them made, but the factories are all "too busy." 

Will you be kind enough to tell mc if there are any books 
for beginners in rubber work, or where could I get information 
on the subject of making rubber balls; also the apparatus and 
material for making in an experimental way, after which I shall 
organize a company for making on a larger scale. It is surely 
an improvement on what is recorded as the inost salable toy 
ever placed on the market. 

Thanking you greatly for any infoimaticm you can give, I 

C. Otis Griffin. 

Box 184. New Bern, North Carolina. 


F. Kirchoff in a recent article' claims ihat he discovered and 
aiuiounced before Harries the physical-chemical principle of 
vulcanization by heat, granting to Harries the credit of having 
established by experiment the difference between primary and 
after- vulcanization. 

The chemical interpretation of vulcanization has undergone 
various modifications through the development of our knowl- 
edge of the constitution of rubber, due to Harries and to the 
investigations of Schmitz on the action of bromine or dcpolym- 
erized rubber. 

The United States Postal Bulletin for Septe.mber 3, 1920, 
announces that among the articles that may be imported into Ger- 
many by parcel post without special authorization are balata, 
raw or cleaned or the refuse of balata; gutta percha, raw or 
cleaned, or the refuse of gutta percha ; and rubber, raw or cleaned 
or the refuse of rubber. 

'Kolloid Zcitschrift, 1920, 26, 168-173. 

October 1. 1920.] 



News of the American Rubber Industry 


THE American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co., Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, and St. Louis, Missouri, has declared its regular 
quarterly dividend of $1.50 per share, payable November 1 
on preferred stook of record October 15, 1920. 

Ames-Holden-McCready, Limited, Montreal, Quebec, has 
declared its quarterly dividend of 154 per cent, payable 
October 1 on preferred stock of record September 17, 1920. 

The Boston Woven Hose & Rubber Co., Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, declared its quarterly dividend of $3 per share, pay- 
able September IS on stock of record September 1, 1920. 

The Corn Products Refining Co., New York City, has de- 
clared a quarterly dividend of $1 and an extra dividend of 
fifty cents per share, both payable October 20 on common 
stock, and a quarterly dividend of $1.75 per share payable 
October IS on preferred stock, all on stock of record Oc- 
tober 4, 1920. 

The Driver-Harris Co., Harrison, New Jersey, has declared 
quarterly dividends of one and three-quarters and two per 
cent on preferred and common stock, respectively, both pay- 
able October 1 on stock of record September 20, 1920. 

The E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (incorporated), Wil- 
mington, Delaware, has declared a dividend oi lyi per cent 
on its debenture stock, payable October 25 on stock of record 
October 9, 1920; also a quarterly dividend of $2 cash and 
$2.50 stock per sliare, payable September IS on common stock of 
record August 31, 1920. 

Tlie Harbirshaw Electric Cable Company, Inc., Yonkers, 
N. Y., has declared its regular quarterly dividend of il'/z 
cents per share, payable October 1, on stock of record Sep- 
tember 20, 1920. 

The Kelly-Springfield Tire Co., New York City, has de- 
clared a quarterly dividend of $1.50 per share on its six per 
cent preferred stock, payable October 1 on stock of record 
September 20, 1920. 

The Keystone Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., New York City, 
has declared a quarterly dividend of 5 per cent, payable 
October 1 on preferred stock of record September IS, 1920. 

The McGraw Tire & Rubber Co., Cleveland and East 
Palestine. Ohio, has declared its regular quarterly dividend 
of one and three-quarters per cent. 

The National Aniline & Chemical Co., New York City, has 
declared a dividend of 1J4 per cent on preferred stock of 
record September 13, payable October 1, 1920; also a stock 
dividend of four-tenths of one share of common stock, pay- 
able October 9 on common stock of record October 1, 1920. 

The Salmon Falls Manufacturing Co., Boston, Massachu- 
setts, declared a regular quarterly dividend of 2j/2 per cent, 
payable September 1 to stockholders of record .August 25, 1920. 

The United Shoe Machinery Corporation, Boston, Massachu- 
setts, has declared dividends of one and one-half per cent on 
preferred stock and of 50 cents per share on common stock, both 
payable October 5 on stock of record September 20, 1920. 


The president of the First National Bank of Philadelphia issues 
a statement which says, in part : "The country is making excel- 
lent progress in cashing in its high price inventories, and, slowly 
but surely, the nation is adopting a more reasonable price level. 
The situation must be handled with great care, however, as 

transition is no easy task because of the extraordinarily high level 
attained by general prices throughout the list of commodities." 

Net earnings of The Mason Tire & Rubber Co. for the third 
quarter ended July 31, were $152,011.16. This makes total net 
earnings for the first nine months of the present fiscal year of 
$}yH,490.18, before deduction of taxes, bait after deduction of de- 
preciation. Net earnings for the first nine months of last year 
amounted to $195,000, so that current earnings are running at the 
rate of four times larger than the preceding year. 

The following is a statement of earnings of the United States 
Rubber Co. for the six months ended June 30, 1920: Total sales, 
$129,588,986; net income before interest, but after provision for 
depreciation and for Federal, Canadian and British taxes, $15,- 
596,831; interest, $1,905,907; net income, $13,690,924; dividends 
first preferred stock, $2,600,000; dividends to minority stockhold- 
ers of sub-companies, $9,359; total dividends, $2,609,359; balance, 
$11,081,565; dividends common stock, including provision quar- 
terly dividend payable July 31, 1920, $3,240,000: surplus, $7,841,- 
565; previous surplus, $52,310,162; total surplus, $60,151,727: less 
12'-^ per cent common stock dividend, $9,000,000; total surplus, 
$51,151,727; additions to surplus account, $338,308; final surplus, 

The consolidated general balance sheet as of June 30, last, 
.'hows : 

Assets— Cash, $14,333,748; accounts receivable, $50,938,776; 
notes and loans receivable, $2,953,238; United States Liberty 
Bonds, etc., $44,876; notes receivable of employes given for pur- 
chase, of capital stock, $7,758,564; manufactured goods and mate- 
rial, $127,846,245; securities owned and held in insurance fund, 
$2,331,778; securities owned, including stock of United States 
Rubber Co. held by subsidiary companies, $5,098,096; plants, 
properties and investments including rubber plantations, $161,243,- 
873; prepaid and deferred'as.sets, $3,371,649; total, $375,920,847. 

Liabilities: Total capital stock. $146,277,400; accounts payable 
and accrued liabilities. $24,113,347; acceptances payable for im- 
portation of crude rubber. $1,644,485; notes and loans payable, 
$41,255,000; L^nitcd States Rubber first and refunding mortgage 
bonds, etc., $67,026,800; general reserves, $16,021,666; insurance 
fund reserve, etc., $2,705,367 ; reserve for depreciation of property, 
$15,757,469; reserve for preferred dividend payable July 31, 1920, 
$1,300,000; reserve for dividend on common stock payable hily 
31, 192t), $1,620,000; fixed surpluses subsidiary companies, $6,709,- 
275; surplus, $51,490,035; total, $375,920,847. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.'s sales for .\ugust exceeded 
$19,000,000, according to announcement by the company. This 
is $2,000,000 more than sales of July, which totaled $17,185,000, 
and brings the total sales for the first ten months of the fiscal 
year to more than $180,000,000 or $13,000,000 in excess of total 
business for the entire fiscal year of 1919. 


The following quol.itinns on the rievcl.lnil .Stock Exchan(?e, September 
20. of stock of the principal rubber companies were supplied by Otis & Co 
Cuyahoga Building, Cleveland, Ohio. ' 


17 . T t r, r- ^^^^ B""" Asked 

Firestone T. & R. Co 117 

Firestone T. & R. Co., I st pfd 93 

Firestone T. & R. Co., 2d pfd iSU 'hsVi '..'. 

Ceneral T. & R. Co , pfd 102 ... 102V4 

The R. F r;.iodrich Co szy. " 

The R. F. Gofxlrich Co.. pfd 87 '87 

The GiKidyear T. & R. Co 10054 99 100 

The Coodvcar T. S: R, Co.. 1st pfd 83 82'/< 83',^ 

Kelly-.Soringfield T. & R. (^o 156"^ 

Kelly-Sprini-fieM T. & R. Co., pfd 120 

The Miller Rubber Co 120 118 

Portage Rubber Co S9'/i 50 58 

Portat'e Rubber Co., pfd 60 70 

•Star Rubber Co 350W . . 

Swinchart T. & R. Co SO 

V'ictor Rubber Co 29 25 29 



[OCT.-BER 1. 1920. 


Ski-temhi-r 2}. \')20 

High Low 

Ajax Rubber Co., Inc 46 45 V^ 

The Fisk Rubber Co : 2AH 23'» 

The B. F. tKodricli Co 53 51 ^i 

The li. F. Coodrkh Co.. pfd StH 86^i 

KcIly-Springfield Tire Co 66 61/- 

KclIySpringtield Tire Co., pfd 8?^^ 82J^ 

Keystone T & R. Co.. Inc 15^ IS 

Lee R. & T. Corp 21% 2V/i 

I'nitcd States Rubber Co 85^ 82^ 

L'nited States Rubber Co.. pfd 106^1 106!^ 


Alastic Tire Cushion Co.. l-Vbruary 11 '.Missouri). $-'5.0(0. (",. C. 
Gie«c, president ^nd treasurer; K. IC. Lee, vice-president; I. Slayer, sec- 
retary. Principal office. 141 9- J 1 Locust street. St. Louis, Missouri. To 
manufacture and distribute puncturcless tire cushicns and auto special- 

Allen Tire & Rubber Sales Co.. August 30 (Delaware), $25,000. S. IL 
Baynard. Jr.; .\. S. Uishop; K. IL Ochleiree — all of Wilmington, Del. 

Arrowstar Tire & Supply Co., Inc.. September 11 (New York). $IU.()Oil. 
H. Aronson, 15 West lJ3rd >treet ; S. Starkman. 22 Convent avenue; 
IL r.ernett. 197 Lenox avenue — all of New York City. To deal in auto 

Commonwealth Rubber Ci rp.. The. September 4 (Massachusetts). $150.- 
000. M. S. Donahue, president. Ayer; C. M. Riddock, treasurer and clerk, 
Haverhill; (;. ,-\. Loud, director. 24 Milk street. Hoston — all in Massa- 
chusetts. Principal office, Boston. Massachusetts. To buy. sell and deal 
in ail kinds of rubber and rubber ^oods. 

Condon Tire Co.. Inc.. September 10 (New York), $2,000. O. Pershitz; 
L Rothitein; K. Lenitz— all of 834 Eighth avenue. New York City. T" 
deal in tires and tubes. 

Cumberland Tire and Rubber Co., August 18 (Kentucky), $3.0(X),000. 
F. W. O'Brien, Elyria, Ohio; A. L. Henry. Indianapolis. Indiana; S. J. 
Dant. Louisville, Kentucky. Principal office. Louisville, Kentucky. To 
buy, sell and manufacture all kind> of rubber goods. 

E. L. M. Tire & Rubher Co.. July 17 (Wisconsin). $200,000. Lawrence 
E. and Marion McKimm. both of 1725 Center street; O. E. Ahrens, 504 
Main street — both in Racine, Wisccnsin. f'rincipal office. Racine, Wis- 
consin. To manufacture and sell tires and inner tubes, also rubber 
heels, cement, etc. 

Eastern Tire Supply Co.. August 20 (Ma^ssachusetts). $50,000. IL K. 
Whitcomb. North Brt-okfield; C. F. Peters. 4 Dix street; IL D. Whitcomb, 
8 Harvard street both of Worcester — both in Massachusetts. Principal 
office. Worcester, Massachusetts. To manufacture, repair and deal in 
aulomrbiles and accessories, 

_ Fiberlock Leather Co.. The. August 17 (Delaware). $1,100,000. L. L. 
Slorrs. president; G. Hammond, vice-president; F. A. Jolinson, secretary ; 
W. O. St o well, Jr., treasurer; 1". R. Hendry x, assistant treasurer. To 
manufacture artificial leather. 

Hannibal Kuhhei Co., April 24 (Missouri), $1,000,000. W. J. Richards, 
president; H, M. Still, vice-president; A. E. (iibson, secretary, general 
sales manat;er and advertising manager; S. O. Osterhout. treasurer. Prin- 
cipal office. 305-306 Hannibal Trust Company Building. Hannibal. Mis- 
souri. To manufacture tires, inner tubes and other rubber products. 
^ Harrington Tire Corp., September 8 (Massachusetts), $100,000. M. II. 
Fincrty. president. 19 Vine street, Roxbury; A. H. Harrington, treasurer. 
17 Fayette street. Cambridge; H. B. Roberts, clerk, 176 River Road. Win- 
thro j> — all in Massachusetts. Principal office. Boston. Massachusetts. To 
manufacture and deal in automobile and truck tires. 

Kokumo Rubber Co., Sept. 15 (Delaware). $6,500,000. A. L. Ream; 
J. Simons; H. C. Kebe — all nf Omaha. Nebraska. 

La Chappelle Cf-.. .\upust 13 (Massachusetts), $30,000. 1. N. McDonald. 
39 Richards street. Brighten; C. .M. Supple. 409 Marlboro street: V. A. 
McDonald. 11^^ Bel\idere street, both of Boston — both in Massachusetts. 
Principal office. Boston, Massachusetts. Tii manufacture and sell hose 
supporters, etc. 

McNaulI Tire vS: Rubber Co., September 14 (Delaware). $3.(>00.000. T. L. 
Crottau; S. K. Dill; .\. M. Hooven — all of Wilmington. Delaware. 

National Tiie ^: Uubber Co.. .\ugust 11 ( Mnssachusetts). $75,000. .\. 
Palder. 144 Ruthven street. Roxbury: H. M. Clifford. 51 Palmer street, 
Arlington; L E. Crowley. 86 Dean Road. Brotkline — all in Massachusetts. 
Principal office. Boston. Massachusetts. To manufacture and deal in au 
tomobile tires and accessories, etc. 

New Standard Kuf)ber Co.. Julv 15 (California). $100000. C". L, 
Lar/elere, 404 Merchants Trust Building, Los Angeles, ("alifornia. I'riii 
cipat office. 404 Merchants Trus-t Building, Los Angeles, California. Tu 
manufacture rubber >.'oods. 

Paul Tire & Rubber Co.. May 28 (North Carolina), $1,000,000. IL 
Clement; W. E. McWhirter; E. C Bramard — all of Salisbury, North 
Carolina. Principal office, Salisbury. North Carolina. To manufacture 

Rubber Sufjplies Company of Dayton, Inc.. Aucust 26 (New Yrrk), 
$10,000. p. M. Hooven. 117 West 46th street. New York City; J. .\. 
MacMillan. Dayton; C. E. Hocven, Hamilton — both in Ohio. To deal in 
tires. et(;. 

Simplex Pneumatic Tire Co., September 8 (Massachusetts). $100,000. 
W. IL Emrno. nrcsident, ^2 Tudor street, Chelsea; C. P». Sherwood, treas- 
urer; E. Worthineton. clerk, both of 43 Tremont street. Room 305, 
Boston — both in Massachusetts. Principal office, Bost<:n, Massachusetts. 
To manufacture and deal in tires, automoliile accessories, etc. 

Sox Lox Co . September 7 (New York). $10,000. C. W. Egerton : 
L W. Hauf; IL A. Gill, Jr.— all of 1<M Halsey street, Brooklyn. New 
York. To make hose supiiorters. 

Siandnrn Tire \- Tube Works. Inc.. .\ugust 28 (New York), $25,000. 
S. A. Lifshutz, 2061 Berget street ; M. Sherman. 277 Glen street : V.. 
Lifshut:^. 147 Saratoga avenvic — all of Brooklyn. New Y'ork. Principal 
office. Brooklyn. New York. 

Stuart Bell Corp.. September 14 (New York). $40,000. D. Stein; I. 
Baurmash. botli of 1076 Brvant avenue; .\. Joseph. 92 William street — 
both in New York City. To manufacture tires and automobile accessa- 
ries . 

U-Wanta-Tirc & Rubber Co., July 17 (California). $250,000. B. Vale. 
57 Post street, San Francisco. Principal office, San Francisco, California. 
To manufacture tires. 

\ etter Kubber Company of Philadelphia, Charles L., September 8 
(Delaware). $150,000. C. L. \ctter; H. B. Fox; W. B. Zern— all of Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 

West Coast Rubber Co., January 24 (California). $100,000. H. K. 
.■\shcrm, 1 10 Sutter street, San I'rancisco, California. Principal office, 
.San Francisco. California. To do a general rubber business. 


JOSEPH Everett Stone, treasurer and one of the principal mov- 
ing spirits of the newly organized Kleistonc Rubber Co., War- 
ren, Rhode Island, is well fitted for his new undertaking by long 

experience in the footwear and 
rulilier business. 

Born at Marblehead, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1876, he was educated 
in the public schools of that town 
and began his business career in 
a general store, where he remained 
two years. He then entered the 
shoe jobbing and findings busi- 
ness in Boston and became cash- 
ier. After five years he joined 
the Hood Rubber Co., Water- 
town, as cashier and assistant 
ircasurer. Fourteen years with 
this progressive firm gave him 
;in intimate knowledge of rubber 
footwear manufacture, which was 
further augmented by seven years 
as treasurer and a director of the 
Plymouth Rubber Co., Canton, 
.Massachusetts, where proofed fabrics, artificial leather and rubber 
heels were the principal products. 

Early this year Mr. Stone resigned to organize the Kleistonc 
Rubber Co. in association with M. S. Klein, E. H. Bell and Robert 
J. Holmes. The modern, well-equipped factory of the Lynn 
Rubber Co. at Warren, Rhode Island, was taken over and the 
Spri-Foot rubber heel, the well-known Lynco arch support and 
sponge rubber heel cushion are bcMig successfully manufactured. 
The Lynco foot appliances have been on the market for some 
time and their high standing in the trade will help materially in 
merchandising the new heel. Output has increased 600 per cent 
in four weeks and order> are coming in ahead of production. 

Mr. Stone enjoys a wide acquaintance in the rubber and shoe 
trades and has made many friends through his membership in 
numerous clubs, associations and fraternal organizations, which 
include the Boston City Club, Boston Chamber of Commerce, 
Rubber Association of America, and several Masonic bodies and 
'lubs in Boston, Marblehead, Lynn, Swampscott and Belmont 

Pierce. Buslon 

Joseph E. Stone 


Ralph Starr Butler has been appointed advertising mana,i;er of 
the United States Rubber Co., New \ ork City, succeeding R. W. 
.^shcroft, who resigned some months ago. Mr. Butler has been 
connected with the United States Rubber Co., for three years, 
having been first identified witli the development department to 
gather and collate data on market conditions. Previous to this, 
Mr. Butler was professor of a<lvertisini; and marketing at New 
York University. 

Harry F. Masman, formerly in charge of the Charleston Traf- 
fic Bureau maintained liy the city of Oiarlcston, South t'aro- 
lina, and the Cliarlcston Chainbcr of Commerce, has taken charge 
n( tlie traffic work of the National .-\ssociation of Waste Ma- 
terial Dealers, Inc., whose headquarters are at New York City. 

H. Deuster has lieen appointed manager of the traffic depart- 
ment of the Motor & .\ccessory Manufacturers' .Association. 
M--. Deuster brings to his new work eighteen years of railroad 
e\perience, twelve with the Erie and six with the Ontario & 
Western, b'or four years he was chief clerk of the general 

October 1, 1920.] 



freight department of the last-mentioned railroad and since 
1918, chief of the tariff bureau with headquarters in New York 

John I). Carberry, assistant secretary and assistant treasurer 
of the United States Rubber Co., has returned from a month's 
vacation spent at his farm in Vermont and at various points in 
New England. 

Dr. M. L. Axelrod, rubber technologist of the Synthetic Prod- 
ucts Co., Cleveland, Ohio, called on the eastern rubber trade last 

John Young, chief chemist of the h'irestone Tire & Rubber 
Co., Akron, Ohio, was in London, England, last month mi a 
business and pleasure trip. 


By Our Regular Corrcsl'ondt-nt 


THE ANNU.-kL Electric.m. Shovv will be held in Grand Cen- 
tal Palace, New York City, October 6-16. George F. Parker, 
who is manager, is confident this year's exposition will surpass 
any of previous years. 

The Compression Tube & Tire Corporation, 31.S West 39tli 
street, is the New York City branch of the U. S. Compression 
Tube & Tire Co., of Tulsa, Oklahoma. 

The Auto Pedal Pad Co., Inc., has removed its offices 
from 794 Seventh avenue. New York City, to 318-20 West S2d 
street. At a recent meeting, Daniel Sinclair was elected presi- 
dent; Charles Willsmore, vice-president: James Lovegrovc,' 
treasurer ; and Jessie J. Sinclair, secretary. 

The Mesta Machine Co., West Homestead, Pennsylvania, has 
opened an office in the Singer building. New York City, from 
which point all its foreign business will be handled. ."Ml foreign 
correspondence should be addressed to the company at the New 
York office, which will also be the sales office for the New York 
and Eastern States territory. M. M. Moore, the export sales 
manager, who has just returned from a several months' Euro- 
pean trip, will be in charge. 

Dtmlop America Limited, Buffalo, New York, has changed 
its name to Dunlop Tire & Rubber Corporation of .America. 

The officers of the County Seat Tire Co., Inc.. 174 Mar- 
tine avenue. White Plains, New York, are Fletcher Brush, pres- 
ident and secretary, and Charles Rosenberg, treasurer. During 
the past ten years Mr. Brush has been tire salesman with the 
Michclin Tire Co. Ajax Rubljer Co., Inc., and Pennsylvania 
Rubber Co. Mr. Rosenberg is proprietor of the Standard Guar- 
antee Tire Co.'s store at Mt. Vernon, New York. 

The Regent Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., 8 Stuyvesanl street. 
New York City, is officered by Henry O. Kahan. president and 
treasurer; Joseph M. Saunders, secretary; Irving L. Jacobson, 
vice-president. The company deals in tires, tubes and accessories. 

Only the approval of stockholders and completion of the organ- 
ization work is now required to make effective the merger of the 
General Chemical, Solvay Process, Semet-Solvay, Barrett and 
National .Aniline & Chemical Companies, live of the country's 
largest chemical concerns, under the name of the .Mlied Chemical 
& Dj'e Corporation. The outstanding capitalization of the new 
company is estimated at $175,000,000. 

F"rench & Handy, Inc., becomes estalilished October 1 in the 
business of crude rubber brokers at 347 Madison avenue, New- 
York City, with a branch office at 513 Second National Building. 
Akron, Ohio. The members of the company are Harold W. 
French and John L. Handy. 

Gove & Co., Inc., will be established October 1 as a brokerage 
concern dealing in crude rubber, at 25 Beaver street, New York 

City, by Frederick G. Gove, William Liddell, Jr., and Frank L. 

The former partnership of Duffy & Sears, crude rublx^r brok- 
ers, 133 Front street. New York City, has been dissolved, S. H. 
Sears withdrawing from the i)artnership September 20, 1920. 
The bu.'incss will be carried on by Louis A. Duffy under the 
name of L. A. I>uffy, Inc., at the saine address. Officers of the 
new company are I^uis A. Duffy, president and treasurer ; Fer- 
dinand A. Bonstedt, .Xkron, Ohio, vice-president; Guy (.'. Par- 
sons, Greenwich, Connecticut, secretary. 

An attractive and useful desk ruler showing the calendar 
for 1920 and 1921 on one side and the name of the donor on 
tlie other is supplied to the trade by George W. Kavanaugh, 
Inc., 346 Broadway, New York City, dealer in cotton goods 
for rubber manufacturers. 


The B. F. Goodrich Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, has promoted 
C. D. Robinson, former manager of tire accessory sales at the 
Philadelphia branch, to the position of manager of tire sales of 
the Philadelphia branch territory, covering part of New Jersey, 
Pcmisylvania and Delaware. Mr. Robinson has been connected 
with the tire industry since 1912, when he became tire salesman 
with the Diamond Rubber Co. He was successively district 
representative for the Southern States, the New England terri- 
tory, and in 1919 took over the position which he relinquished at 
his recent promotion. 

Charles S. Smith, Inc.. Philadelphia, Pa., has been appointed 
distributer for the Amazon Rubber Co., .^kron, Ohio. 

TIic 1"". J. Stokes Machine Co., Seventeenth and Cambria streets, 
Philadelphia, maiuifacturcr of therapeutical and chemical ma- 
chinery, was incorporated in July with a capital of $200,000. .\ 
new shop, 90 by 300 feet, independent of the original plant, has 
been erected at Cedar Grove near Philadelphia and soon will 
begin manufacturing heavy machinery. 

The H. H. Robertson Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has elect- 
ed C. D. Mercer, vice-president in charge of sales. W. S. Tall- 
man vice-president in charge of operations, and D. W. j'aspcr 
])urchasing agent to succeed William E. Coe, who has resigned 
to enter the railroad supply business with the Biick-llill Cor- 
poration, of New York City. 

To facilitate the handling of its business, the Fawcus Machine 
Co., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, has consolidated all departments 
in its new office building at 2818 Stnallman street, adjoining the 
Pittsburgh works. A downtown office for meetings by appoint- 
ment will be maintained in suite 1501, Peoples Savings Bank 
building, where its allied company, the Schaffer Engineering & 
Equipment Co., is located. 

The new officers of the New Castle Rubber Co., New Castle, 
Pennsylvania, are: W. ]■'.. Ducrsten, president and general 
manager; H. H. Crosby, secretary; II. W. Smith, treasurer; 
L. C. Sturgis, general superintendent; W. J. Russel, comptroller. 
The Lehigh Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., of the same place, operates 
as sales organization of the New Ca.stle Rubber Co. 

Willson Goggles, Inc., fonnerly named T. A. Willson & Co., 
Inc., Reading, Pennsylvania, has recently acquired the patents, 
good will, etc., of Walter Soderling Inc., which manufactured the 
"Dustte" respirator. This will now be manufactured at the 
Willson company's plant at Reading under the personal charge 
of Mr. Soderling. 


The Du Bois Rul)l)cr & Tube Co., Chattanooga, Tennessee, has 
increased its capital stock to $2,000,000. The directorate was in- 
creased to 15 members to allow stockholders outside the city 
more direct representation. Plans for the erection of a nmilcru 
plant are being furthered rapidly. 



(October 1. 1920. 


By Our Regular Correspondent 


WHILE the tire industry in Trenton is suffering to some extent, 
as is the case in other sections of the country, manufac- 
turers are hopeful that conditions will soon reach normal again. 
The Ajax Rubber Co., Inc., one of the largest tire manufacturing 
concerns in this section, has laid off nearly 500 hands during the 

The United & Globe Rubber Co. felt the slump in its tire 
branch, but placed the majority of its lire makers at work m the 
various mechanical departments. The hose, belting and packing 
departments are very busy at this time and the tire makers were 
needed to help out. John S. Broughton, president of the com- 
pany, says conditions are getting brighter and that he beheves 
business will reach normal late in the fall or in the early winter. 
The Zee Zee Rubber Co., Yardville, laid off about one-third of 
its working force a few weeks ago. Conditions have begun to 
improve and the company is gradually taking the tire makers 
back again. Officials of the company say they do not fear any 
further lay off from now on. 

The Luzerne Rubber Co. will shortly begin work on the erection 
of the first unit of a new rubber plant adjoining the present works 
on Muirhead avenue. Trenton. The new unit will be one-story, 
60 by 60 feet, of steel, brick, timber and concrete. Plans for the 
other units will be drawn later. The Luzerne company some time 
ago purchased a parcel of land adjoining the present plant meas- 
uring 200 by 208 feet. The growth of the business has prompted 
the owners to decide upon additions. 

Trenton dealers announce a twenty per cent increase in the 
prices of all motorcycle and bicycle tires. Motorcycle tires took a 
jump a few weeks ago and the prices of bicycle tires were recently 
advanced. The demand for bicycle and motorcycle tires has been 
greatly increased during the latter part of summer. 

The Trenton School of Industrial Art will establish a depart- 
ment of rubber technology. For many years through its course 
in chemistry and mechanics the school has served the rubber 
industry indirectly, but as the rubber industry in Trenton has 
grown to such large proportions it was decided that a course more 
closely allied with the industry should be offered. J. B. Wishart, 
a chemist employed by the United & Globe Rubber Manufacturing 
Co., has been appointed instructor of elementary chemistry. This 
action on the part of the school authorities has met with the hearty 
approval of the rubber manufacturers, who contend that rubber 
workers can gain a thorough knowledge of the business at little 
expense at the Trenton school and not have to attend institutions 
in other cities. 


The Michelin Tire Co., Milltown, New Jersey, has awarded a 
contract for the erection of a two-story reinforced concrete fac- 
tory building, 60 by 125 feet. 

The Watson-Stillman Co., 190 Fulton street. New York City, 
manufacturer of pumping machinery, brass and other metal cast- 
ings, etc., has awarded a contract to H. VVilhelmcs & Son, Eliza- 
beth, New Jersey, for a one-story addition at .'Kldine, New 
Jersey, to be used as a pattern storage building. The structure 
will cost about $12,000. 

The Howe Rubber Corporation, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 
which has been cutting down production somewhat for several 
weeks past, is resuming its normal output and more employes are 
being placed at work. It is said that the factory will be ruiming 
on a maximum basis shortly. 

The United States Rubber Co. is making a number of improve- 
r-~'ts to its plant on Little Burney street. New Brunswick, New 
Jc sey. A new plant for refrigeration and circulation of drinking 

water is being installed. .\ new sixty-inch, electrically driven, 
three-roll lining calender is being set up in the mill. .\ big 
switchboard is being installed to control the electric power and 
lighting system, and there will also be a large steam turbine driven 
generator to produce current for light and power at 550 volts. 
The power-house equipment will also include a series of trans- 
formers. When the work is finished the production capacity of 
the plant will be about doubled. 

The J. Claude English Rubber Co., .Xsbury Park, New Jersey, 
suffered a serious loss by lire recently, estimated at more than 
$15,000 in automobile tires, tubes, etc., which was partially covered 
by insurance. The upper floor was divided into three store rooms 
and two other rooms we."e used as offices. Valuable records and 
papers were lost. The origin of the blaze is unknown. 

The Tru-Matis Tul)e & Tire Co. has leased the building at 484 
Central avenue, Newark, New Jersey, for a term of several years 
and will use it for showrooms and storage purposes. 


By Our Regular Correspondent 

IN THE I'RESENCE of 1,000 Or more persons, a new movement 
in education was both launched and dedicated with impressive 
and picturesque ceremonies at Plymouth Rock, September 17, by 
the State Department of Education and the Associated Indus- 
tries of Massachusetts. 

Following these ceremonies there occurred in the Hotel 
Pilgrim the first serious conference on the problem of edu- 
cating non-English-speaking adult immigrants who are em- 
ployed in the industries of Massachusetts, .\bout 350 representa- 
tives of educational institutions and various industries were 
present to hear addresses by prominent educators in schools and 
factories. Among those who read papers at the morning session 
were Mortimer H. Millen, educational director of the General 
Electric Co. at West Lynn, and A. G. Warren, director of educa- 
tion of the American Steel and Wire Corporation at Worcester. 
These papers and the discussion which followed showed that the 
industrial representatives were fully as enthusiastic regarding 
the movement as the educators and indicated with what encourag- 
ing results many big industrial establishments have already 
begun this educational work. All of the speakers maintained 
that the education of the adult immigrant was not a one-sided 
affair by any means, and that much was to be learned from the 

The industrial representatives had a separate conference in the 
afternoon at which Cyrus S. Cling, in charge of industrial rela- 
tions for the United States Rubber Co., presided. The speakers 
included T. J. Dwyer, superintendent of labor for The Fisk Rub- 
ber Co., Chicopee Falls, and Harold L. Robinson, manager of 
the service department of the Crompton & Knowles Loom Works, 

John J. Mahoncy, State .Su]iervisiir of .\mericanization, sub- 
mitted a list of propositions from the educators to the industrial 
leaders for discussion. The educators were also asked to con- 
sider eight propositions which embodied what industry expects 
from the public schools. There was much discussion as to the 
time to be devoted to the educational work and the cost. Most 
of the industries seemed willing to allow the workers the neces- 
sary time without loss of pay if it was deemed best to conduct 
the schools in the plants during working hours. 

Despite adverse manufacturing conditions common to all New 
England the close of the factory output of the Boston Woven 
Hose & Rubber Co., Cambridge, for the fiscal year 1919-20, re- 
cently ended, reached a greater volume than ever before. The 
total poundage reached something over 37.000,000 pounds, as com- 
pared with 22.000,000 pounds for the previous year. The best 
previous mark was 30.000.000 pounds in the year 1917-18. 

October 1, 1920.] 



To encourage employes in production departments not holding 
executive positions to suggest changes in working methods, equip- 
ment, or working conditions that will result in time saving, labor 
saving, or in improving quality, the Converse Rubber Shoe Co., 
Maiden, is offering cash awards ranging from $5 to $200 for 
acceptable ideas. Decisions and awards are promptly made by 
the operating board and rejections are accompanied by the reason 
why the suggestion cannot be adopted. It is a plan that makes 
for greater efficiency, more interest and a better spirit of co- 

The Mechanical Rubber Manufacturing Co., Andover, is now 
in production on a small scale and will specialize in the manu- 
facture of small rubber covered rolls for the textile trade. The 
company was organized in June with the following operating 
personnel: E. Reed, president, formerly of the United States 
Rubber Co., New York City ; and M. F. Foxon, assistant treasurer 
and general manager, formerly of the United States Rubber Co., 

The executives and foremen of the Tyer Rubber Co., .Andover 
Massachusetts, held a very successful outing at Marblehcad 
Saturday, August 28, making the trip by automobiles imme- 
diately after the factory closing hours. Upon arrival huicheon 
was served, followed by athletic contests, for which prizes were 
awarded, and an interesting game of baseball between teams 
representing the foremen and the oihce executives was won by 
the latter team. The outing closed with an uld-fashioned clam- 

The Alfred Hale Rubber Co., .Atlantic, Massachusetts, has 
increased its capital stock to 100,000 shares of no par value. 
Irving M. McQuiston was recently elected vice-president and 
appointed general manager, effective September 1. 

J. W. Hood has succeeded M. S. Connelly as advertising man- 
ager of the Hood Rubber Co., Watertown. Mr. Hood is not new 
to the company, having previously been associated with Mr. Con- 
nelly in charge of the firm's tire advertising. 

As in other parts of the country tire production is being cur- 
tailed in Massachusetts and several hundred tire builders have 
been temporarily laid off or transferred to other departments. 
Footwear output is normal, and the demand for mechanicals is 
reported good. 


Frank A. Vanderlip, one of the directors of the United States 
Rubber Co., former president of the National City Bank of New 
York, and one of the nation's leading financial authorities, has 
consented to conduct a question-box and round-table discussion 
of financial matters at the Banking and Credit Section conference 
in connection with the fifth annual meeting of the Associated 
Industries of Massachusetts at the CopIey-PIaza Hotel. Boston. 
October 29. There will be no set speeches. Mr. Vanderlip will 
sit down with the meiubers, answer their questions and discuss 
with them informally tlie various problems of banking, finance 
and credit with which they are faced as managers of industrial 

W. 0. Rutherford, vice-president in charge of sales, was a 
recent visitor at the Boston branch of The B. F. Goodrich Rubber 
Co. and gave the staff a helpful business talk in wliich he painted 
an optimistic picture of the future of the automobile industry. 

The Boston office of Charles T. Wilson Co., Inc., crude rubber 
broker, 516 Winthrop Building, has been closed and the New 
England business of the firm will be conducted froiri the main 
office, 56 Wall street. New York City. 

The Davidson Rubber Co., Boston, in order to concentrate and 
standardize its work, has eliminated certain numbers among its 
former products and, contrary to report, has to dispose of com- 
plete equipment for the manufacture of the discontinued items, 
especially a dipped goods plant for the manufacture of rubber 
gloves, including all the necessary outfittings.' 

The Uehling Instrument Co., New York City, is now being 
represented in New England by the Smith Engineering & Supply 
Co., 89 State street, Boston, specializing in power plant equip- 
ment. S. W. Smith is president of the concern. 


EVERYBODY who Studies rubber machinery through the medium 
of patent specilicatinns is familiar with the name of John R. 
Gammeter, engineer in charge of mechanical inventions for 

The B. F. Goodrich Rubber Co., 
Akron, Ohio. An exceptionally 
ingenious and prolific designer of 
labor-saving devices for most 
branches of the rubber industry, 
his remarPable career in his. 
chosen lield has been that of a 
self-made man possessed of alert- 
ness, initiative, ample capacity 
for hard work and the determina- 
tion to succeed. 

Mr. Gammeter is a native of 
.\kron, where he was born May 
19, 1876. Following a common 
school education, he first engaged 
in the plumbing and heating busi- 
ness. When about twenty years 
Jdiix R. G.\MMKTi£R "^<^- liowever, he returned to 

Akron and obtained employment 
with tlie Goodrich company, with which he has since been 
identified except for some nine montlis spent witli the Penn- 
sylvania Rubber Co. about 1900. 

Dropping off a freight train with only fifty cents in his pocket, 
the best job he could obtain was pushing a truck at ten cents, 
an hour. But right away he began to search for opportunity. 
Noticing a number of girls trimming the overflow from rubber 
stoppers at about $1.50 a day, he set to work making a small 
machine trimmer. While experimenting with this he carried 
untrimmed stoppers home in his dinner basket. When alighting 
from an express wagon one day he slipped and spilled them 
on the street. The expressman reported the supposed theft 
to Mr. Gammeter's foreman, who at once began to make in- 
quiries. Mr. Gammeter's reply was an invitation to look at 
his machine, wliich was brought to the plant and put in successful 

Since then Mr. Gammeter has devoted himself to the im- 
provement of mechanical methods and devices in rubber manu- 
facture. He has invented dozens of important machines, and 
now has associated with him a large corps of engineers who 
constitute what is known as the Goodrich experimental de- 
partment. While in recent years tire machines have had much 
attention, Mr. Gammeter early became interested in aviation, 
and during the war invented a balloon valve which was adopted 
by the United States Army and Navy. He is an enthusiast re- 
garding the future of aviation and was recently named by the 
Governor of Ohio to serve as a member of tlie State Aviation 

An ardent sportsman, Mr. Gammeter has a game preserve of 
two thousand acres near Akron. He is also very much interested 
in amusement parks and is the owner of the largest tile-lined 
outdoor swimming pool in the world. He is a keen business 
man, a good reader of character, and has exceptional control 
of labor. 

His meml)ership in clnl)S and societies includes the Engineer- 
ing Society of .Xkron. American Society of Automotive Engi- 
neers. .-\kron Flying Club, Masonic Club, Fairlawn Heights 
Golf Club, Portage Fish and Game Association, and the Asso- 
ciated Aviation Clubs of Ohio, of which he is president. 



[October 1, 1920. 


By Our /\'r,^'i(/iir CKncsfoinlciil 

AKRON rubber industries have gone back to the sohd business 
of producing merchantable goods without any frills or inter- 
esting accompaniments. The industrial slowing up throughout the 
United States, which in time made itself felt in .Akron to some 
extent, has made industrial heads look closely over the books 
and compare overhead charges during the past few years in the 
rubl>cr industry as compared with similar charges in other in- 

The resull has been that when it was found necessary to curtail 
to meet the demands of bankers, a large part of the men and 
■women on the payrolls of the factories were doing non-essentials 
as far as actually producing merchandise to be placed in freight 
cars was concerned. Business had been so good that men were 
added to the payrolls whenever they could be found, and in time, 
systems became bulky and heady, and several men were doing 
work which could have been done by one man. 

During the rush, when it was impossible to get half of the work 
done which was needed to fill the demands of a strong market, 
there was no time to talk of getting rid of overhead. The demands 
of business made it necessary to get out goods at any cost. Then 
came the demands from the bankers that an era of conservation 
be inaugurated, and as the factory heads went over the books, it 
was found that thousands of men and women in the factories and 
offices were non-producing. The factory heads decided that 
they must either produce or leave. 

Many of the men who intended to leave .•\kron during the 
periods when the factories were culling were offered positions in 
the mills. Some of the wiser ones, knowing that in time industry 
would return to its former level, took advantage of the offers 
and are to-day working in overalls, awaiting the day when they 
will again return to their former places. Others decided that the 
work of producing goods was not to their liking, and they left 
the city with the stories that have become current in almost all 
parts of the United States, that the slump was killing Akron. 

The culling process has added materially to the efficiency of 
the factories in Akron. Many factory managers in the city have 
told the correspondent of The India Rubber World that efficiency 
has increased from IS to 20 per cent in the production depart- 
ments and the percentage is even higher in non-production de- 
partments. The men now at work in the Akron factories realize 
that they must produce a fair day's work for a fair day's pay, 
and the result has been a general speeding up all along the line. 
The stories that wages have been cut in the factories can be 
branded as untrue. The fact is, men who were working in the 
high wage tire departments have been transferred to other depart- 
ments and there they have been started at the beginner's wage. 
In a short time they will reach the highest prices paid in these 
departments, which of course are not as high as in the tire de- 
partments, where the work is heavier. 

Strange to say, factory heads reported recently that the sun- 
dries, heel, sole and belting business took a remarkable spurt 
forward at the time the tire industry slackened, and as a result 
many of the workers were transferred. This is believed by fac- 
tory heads to have resulted in the stories that wages have been 
materially cut in the city. 

Manufacturers assert that business for the year will show a 
large increase over business last year when the fiscal year reports 
are published in November. 

Goodyear sales for August amounted to $liS,962,009, and for 
the first eight months of the year totaled $181,1 l.S,964, which is 
more than $12,000,000 in excess of the business done during the 
same period last year. The sales for the month of August were 
more than $1,000,000 than in August of last year, when they were 
$17,925,193. Predictions are made by Goodyear officials that the 
total business for the year will amount to more than $200,000,000. 

The business of Akron's rubber factories is well reflected by 
other industries in the city. Men in Akron know conditions and 
would not invest money in building unless they believed the con- 
dition of the basic industry of the city to be sound. Building 
reports at the city hall show that permits have been issued this 
year to the amount of appro.ximately $17,000,000, as compared 
with appro.ximately $14,000,000 last year. In these totals are 
commercial and factory buildings amounting to $3,123,620 for the 
first eight months as compared with $1,443,435 during the same 
period last year. 

Steam ^hovels are excavating for two hotels to cost close to 
$10,000,0(X). One new hotel has l>een opened in the city with 175 
rooms. The building undertaken last year is going forward. The 
city state employment bureau finds difficulty in obtaining men for 
construction work for the city and the county. More than 
$3,000,000 wKrth of high-class apartment houses have been 
financed and are under construction in the residential district 
and several terraces are being completed for small-salaried people. 
These things merely indicate what business men in .-Xkron think 
of Akron's industries, and it is well known that men with money 
do not invest good dollars to create sentiment. 

The new ten-acre athletic field wliich The B. F. GoodricI". 
Company is constructing as a playground for its employes 
ranks with the finest in the country. It is equipped for all 
leading sports, including trap shooting, canoeing, two baseball 
diamonds, cricket and soccer fields, 10 tennis courts, hand ball 
courts, modern running tracks and other features. A concrete 
stadium is projected, to seat 3,300, with bleacher accommoda- 
tions for 3,000 more, overlooking the new baseball diamond, 
which is graded down to professional lines that rival the big- 
league greens. 

The running track encircles the field and has a 2S-foot width 
on the straight-away with 15-foot curves and measures three 
laps to the mile. Scientific construction enables the track to 
drain fit for use almost instantaneously after a pouring rain. 

Plans include a canoe clubhouse to be built along the adjoin- 
ing canal. The field will probably be completed in the fall 
of 1921. 

The fifth annual Labor Day outing of The B. F. Goodrich 
Co. at Goodrich Field, Akron, was attended by fully 15,000 en- 
thusiastic picnickers, the largest attendance so far recorded. 
Concerts morning and afternoon by the Goodrich band, directed 
by Clark Miller, were an enjoyable feature of the picnic and 
much fun was aroused by the efforts of three amateur clowns 
to mimic the entrants in the various events. Prizes of money 
and merchandise certificates were awarded the winners in the 
contests, which included foot races of all kinds, shot put, broad 
and high jumps, horseshoe tournament, boxing contest, tug-of- 
war, greased pig chase, and girls' baseball game. Chick Mears 
captured prizes in seven events and also drew the lucky entry 
number, wiiuiing a $50 inerchandise certificate. 

Statisticians of The B. F. Gtwdrich Rubber Co. have esti- 
mated that Goodrich tires today cost 25 per cent less and 
give approximately 100 per cent greater average mileage than 
they did ten years ago. This good news to tire users is based 
on comparative price lists and an adjustment basis of 8,000 
miles for Goodrich cord and 6,000 miles for their fabric tires. In 
1910 a 30 by 3-inch fabric cased tire cost $25.45. Today that 
size can be bought for $19.10. The 32 by 4-inch tire of 1910 
cost $48.65 as against $36.80 in 1920. The 35 by 5-inch tire that 
sells today at $65.33 cost the user $82.75 in 1910. 

More than 50 events with about 1,000 entries made up the 
Labor Day outing program of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber 
Co. at Seiberling Field, Akron. A picnic dinner and supper 
were the main features of the day, with band concerts and com- 
munity singing in the evening, followed by a dance in Good- 
year gymnasium. 

October 1, 1920.] 



The Akron Seamless Rubber Tul)e Co., 126 West South 
street, Akron, was incorporated November 7, 1917, under the 
laws of Ohio, with a capital of $250,000, to manufacture rubber 
inner tubes for tires. Its present officers are : G. C. March, 
president; T. E. Barry, secretary; R. B. McReady, treasurer. 
The board of directors includes also J. VV. Hassenflue, Carl 
Myers and John Hausch. 

Recreation at the Miller Rubber Co., .^kron, will not slow up 
during the winter months as plans are being made for a record- 
breaking bowling season. In addition to having a team in the 
Akron Industrial Bowling League and the company's Inter- 
Dcpartment League of eight teams, a plan is on foot to organize 
a second "Class -A" league throughout the factory, so that anyone 
who likes bowling may have a chance to enjoy the game. 

John R, Gammeter, head of the experimental department of 
The B. F. Goodrich Co., who spent the summer in Europe, has 
returned to Akron. After going through Germany and the other 
Central Powers he expressed the opinion that it will take many 
years for these countries to recover from the effects of the 
world war. 

The average .American working man is far better off than a 
millionaire in Germany and the members of the so-called middle 
classes in France and England, he said in telling of the food 
shortage which confronts the European nations this winter. In 
Germany the rationing system is in full force. 

There is a better feeling in Germany towards the United States 
than any of the other .Allied nations. This he attributed to the 
work being done by the Red Cross and other relief agencies. 
There will be no coal in German homes this winter. All of the 
fuel is being shipped to France and England, while German 
business men are in this country buying coal to run their indus- 
tries at $.35 a ton. 

Of all the countries he visited, Spain is the best situated eco- 
nomically. There is an abundance of foodstuffs in that country 
and little industrial trouble. Switzerland is in bad shape, due to 
its inability to obtain imports. Holland is much better off, while 
Italy, due to the falling down of her financial structure, is in an 
even worse situation. 

Industrial disputes in France and England are retarding re- 
adjustment in those countries. The crops in England are prac- 
tically all failures, due to excessive rainfall. France will have 
a bountiful harvest, nearly all of the devastated war regions being 

F'rank Busbey, formerly in the publicity department of The 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., has resigned his position to take 
charge of the "Cleveland Plain Dealer'' bureau in .^kron. 

H. S. Firestone, president of the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., 
.■\kron, who spent the larger part of the spring and summer in 
Europe, has returned to his office. He insisted upon coming 
home when the depression in business felt throughout the country 
affected Akron, although a number of bankers in New York 
assured him his presence at the factory was not imperatively 

The aeronautical department of Tlic Cmodycar Tire & Rubber 
Co., .\kron, recently launched "The Navy," a balloon built for 
the United States Government. It is one of the largest lighter- 
than-air craft of its kind built liy the company here since enter- 
ing the air field. 

Reports from Detroit received in ."\kron, showing that the auto- 
mobile manufacturers in that city will produce more automobiles 
the coming year than have been produced in any year for the past 
three years, is looked upon by Akron business men as an indica- 
tion that a revival of the automobile and tire industries is at hand. 

Ground has been broken for the new $1.01X),000 Wellman- 
Seavcr-Morgan Tractor Co. plant west of .Akron near Copley. 
The company is a subsidiary of the Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co.. 
manufacturers of boilers and heavy machinery. It will manufac- 
ture the "Akron Tractor," according to present plans. .Approxi- 

mately 10,000 men will be employed when the plant is placed in 

That thousands of men are not leaving .Akron weekly and filing 
forwarding address, the Akron, post office records show. Only 
3,784 forwarding addresses to other cities have been fdcd with 
the Akron pos't office since July 1. This number is no higher than 
during preceding months, and does not exceed the average of 
about SO a day. 

The .Akron Chamber of Commerce has been successful in hav- 
ing the Interstate Commerce Commission modify its rule com- 
pelling shipment of all coal available for northern Ohio to the 
Great Lakes and then to the Northwest, and will receive 40 cars 
of coal a day for emergency purposes until lake navigation closes. 
Akron homes were faced by a coal shortage worse than any 
winter since before the war. 

Registration for entrance to the University of .Akron took 
place September 18. Courses for teachers, working people and 
citizens in general are offered. 

The Americanization' School of The B. F. Goodrich Co., .Akron, 
opened September 13. All non-English-speaking employes of 
the company are encouraged to take advantage of its classes. 

The structural en.ginecring and architectural work on ibe 
new tire plant of the Phoenix Rubber Co., at East Akron, Oliio, 
has recently been completed under the direction of R. G. Brown, 
structural engineer of The Associated Engineers Co., Cleveland, 


The new plant of the Denman-Myers Cord Tire Co., Warren, 
Ohio, i< now complete and fully equipped. In construction, ar- 
rangement and machinery it is one of the most modern tire facr 
tories in the country. It will be devoted exclusively to the 
manufacture of Denman cord tires, and increased production was 
started September IS. Walter R. Denman is secretary and gen- 
eral manager and Walter E. Myers is president of the company. 

Dwighl P. Robinson & Co., Inc., New York City, with which 
Westinghouse. Church, Kerr & Co., Inc., was recently consoli- 
dated, has established a branch office in the Home Savings & 
Loan Building, Youngstown, Ohio, in charge of C. I. Crippen. 
The company recently moved its Cleveland office from the 
Leader-News Building to the Citizens Building, in charge of 
H. P. Clawson who was transferred from Chicago for tlie pur- 
pose. , ! 

The Canton Rim Company, Canton, Ohio, which was incor- 
porated for $100,000 on April 27, 1917, increased its capital to 
$.S00,000 in March of the present year. The officers are F. G. 
Graber, president; J. J. Litsinger, vice-president; Grover C. 
Allison, treasurer; Charles Doerschuk, general manager. The 
:ompany has just completed an addition, 88 by 120 feet, to its 
factory at Louisville. 

The amiual sales convention of the Mason Tire & Rubber Co., 
Kent, Ohio, was held at the company's home office September 
9th and 10th. Several hundred branch managers and salesmen 
were entertained at a banquet in the new Franklin Hotel. The 
conference took place in the new addition to the administration 
offices into which the company is about to move. The new type 
of cord tire, the "Mason Junior," was introduced to the sales- 
men, who followed its construction in the factory from raw 
materials to finished product. This included inspection of the 
textile division, which now produces from the raw cotton all 
the cord used in Mason cord tires. 

The Mason Tire & Rubber Co., Kent, Oliio, has a large tract 
of land in the southern part of the city which will be developed 
by the Mason Housing Co. within the next few years with the 
building of homes for company employes. The Mason Housing 
Co. is under the direction of Mason Tire & Rubber Co. officials. 



[October 1. 1920. 

and all the luimos built arc owned and occupied by Mason em- 
ployes. The houses are of the most modern type with every 
convenience. Besides detached houses the Mason Housing Co. 
has recently overseen the construction of a large 23 apartment 
terrace located near the te.xtile plant, which will be completed 
early in the fall. 

C. W. McCone has been appointed consulting engineer for the 
Columbia Tire & Rubber Company's plant at Mansfield, Ohio. 
Mr. McCone was formerly with The B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron. 

The Greenwich Rubber Co., Greenwich, Ohio, maintains a 
sales office at 27 High street, Akron. This company was in- 
corporated October 29, 1919, under the laws of Ohio, with $250,- 
000 capital, to manufacture Greenwich green tubes, men's and 
women's belts, and imitation leather. The officers of the com- 
pany are: C. E. Foutts, president; \V. I. Foutts, vice-president; 
H. H. Taylor, secretary and treasurer. F. M. Ncwall is general 
sales manager, and G. E. Whalon, superintendent. \V. \V Fire- 
stone is one of the directors. 

The Hercules Rubber Corporation. Cincinnati, Ohio, manu 
facturcr of the "Hercules Airless Punctureless'' inner tube men- 
tioned elsewhere in this issue, was incorporated May 27, 1919, 
with a capital of $1,000,000, to manufacture, compound, sell and 
purchase rubber products, make tires and tubes, etc. Its present 
officers are : Edward H. L. Haefner, president ; Theodore Heck, 
first vice-president ; Gordon L. Heck, second vice-president ; 
Charles H. Adams, secretary; Elmer W. Vossler, treasurer. 


The McElrath Tire & Rubber Co., Cleveland. Ohio, has made 
application to increase its capital stock from $515,000 to $3,500,000. 
The Synthetic Products Co., Cleveland, Ohio, dealer in raw 
materials for the rubber trade, is prepared to supply standard 
mineral rubbers in pulverized form to its customers and to 
give unprejudiced technical advice as to the best hydro carbon 
to use for. a particular purpose. 

The Associated Engineers Co., Cleveland, Ohio, announces the 
opening of a new consulting department intended to serve tire 
and rubber manufacturers having limited engineering organiza- 
tions, or those who feel the need of 
supplementing the work of their own 
staff with that of specialists of wide ac- 
quaintance with current practice. 

The new department will be under 
the direction of Oliver Grosvenor who 
brings to the company the results of 
many years' experience as a rubber 
technologist and engineer. He is a 
graduate in chemical engineering of the 
University of Michigan and has served 
in the capacity of technologist and en- 
gineer with the United States Rubber 
Co., general laboratories. New York 
City; Morgan & Wright, Detroit, Michi- 
gan ; Mechanical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, and the Miller 
Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio. Mr. Grosvenor is the inventor of a 
method of curing cord tires and of several devices for use in 
tire manufacture. 

Widely circulated reports that the I'cdcral Reserve Board had 
classed automobiles with "non-essentials" and ordered member 
banks to restrict the financing of automobile accounts were 
emphatically denied by Governor William P. G. Harding at the 
meeting in Cleveland of credit and advertising sections of the 
Motor and Accessory Manufacturers Association. 

"Nothing has been done by the Federal Reserve Board," said 
Governor Harding, "that reflects in any manner upon one of 
the greatest industries in the coimtry. It would be a serious 
thing for any body of men to attack or attempt to destroy a 

business as lirmly rooted and having as many elements of 
essentiality as the automotive industry. So far as the Federal 
Reserve Board is concerned, no such attempts have been or will 
be made." 

Oliver Grosvenor 


The Buckeye Rubber Products Co., Willoughby, Ohio, in- 
corporated last November, has purchased the entire business of 
the Polack Tyre & Rubber Co., New York and Bridgeport, 

The Polack Tyre & Rubber Co. manufactured exclusively 
Polack solid truck tires which have been favorably known to 
truck users since 1899. The manufacture of Polack tires will 
be continued at the factory in Bridgeport until arrangements 
are completed to move the equipment to the Buckeye plant at 
Willoughby, Ohio, where good progress is being made in the 
installation of equipment for the manufacture of heavy mechani- 
cal rubber goods and molded specialties in addition to solid 

Charles H. Roth, formerly of the Federal Tire & Rubber 
Co. and sales manager for The Mason Tire & Rubber Co., is 
president and general manager. The officers and directors of 
the company were formerly with The United States Rubber 
Co., The Racine Rubber Co. and other well-known companies 
in the rubber industry. 

Edwin L. Stimson is general superintendent of the Buckeye 
plant, coming to the company from the United States Rubber 
Co., where he spent over 20 years — 11 of them as general 


The Columbia Tire & Rubber Co., Columbiana, Ohio, has grown' 
beyond the capacity of its building in that city, and recently re- 
capitalized and increased its capital stock to build a plant at 
Mansfield, Ohio, for the construction of cord tires exclusively. 

The Mansfield plant is constructed according to the newest and 
most approved design for factories of its type. It is built "U" 
shaped with open court in the center covered by a dormer roof, 
this lofty space being used as a mill and calender room. A 
IS-ton traveling crane here installed handles all heavy material 
from this department to any one of the three adjacent floors 
without resorting to the use of the elevator, which will be used 
only in emergency. The plant is so designed that raw material 
entering the storeroom on the first floor will pass through the 
manufacturing process without confusion or crossed operation. 
Throughout the plant especial attention has been given to health- 
ful working conditions. This is especially noticeable in the curing 
department, which in many factories is unbearably hot for the 
workers. This unpleasant feature has been overcome in the 
Mansfield plant. The power plant is equipped with the latest 
steam and electric devices to secure economy, and is so arranged 

October 1, 1920.] 



that the engineer in charge has a view of the entire mechanism 
from any point in the plant. 

The new building is located on the main line of the Baltimore 
& Ohio railroad and has access by industrial switching arrange- 
ment to the main lines of the Erie and Pennsylvania railroads, 
thus giving three main arteries for the shipment of its product. 
The Columbia Tire & Rubber Co. expects to move its general 
offices from Columbiana to Mansfield as soon as the new plant 
starts operations, which will be about November 1. The plant 
at Columbiana has been in existence for five years and will now 
be known as Plant No. 2, while the Mansfield plant will be Plant 

THt Lui.L.\iui.\ Tike & Rubber Co.'s Plant No. I, 
Mansfield, Ohio 

No. 1. The Columbiana plant has been building 700 tires and 
1,000 tubes daily. The new plant will add 500 to 1,000 cord tires 
and 3,000 tubes to the company's daily production. 



THE September meeting of the Mid-West Rubber Manufac- 
turers' Association, held at the Chicago Athletic Association 
September 14, was attended by 42 members. From the standpoint 
of discussion it was one of the most interesting meetings held by 
this association. 

The feeling expressed by most of the tire manufacturers wa.s 
that the worst had already been experienced in the depression in 
the tire business, that conditions had already improved somewhat 
and that they would gradually improve u.itil the first of the coming 
year when normal business was again looked for. President 
Christie called for expressions of opinion from tire manufacturers 
representing all parts of the country, and all of them in general 
agreed with this view. The opinion was also expressed that real 
salesmanship was again to play a part in the tire business and 
that hard work would be the solution of selling problems. The 

Group of Rubber Men at the Miii-VVest Outing, held at 
Cedar Point During August 

opinion was also expressed that tire prices were soon due for a 
radical revision downward, although there was considerable dif- 
ference of opinion on this point, as some manufacturers felt that 

the manufacturing trade at large would not reduce prices on ac- 
count of their raw material having been purchased at such high 
price levels. 

New associate members were elected as follows : The Electric 
Motor & Repair Co., Akron, Ohio, and The India Rubber World, 
New York City. 


The annual convention of the National Association of Pur- 
chasing Agents will be held at Chicago, October 11-13. A con- 
ference of the Standardization Committee of the Association, of 
which C. H. Money of the Federal Rubber Co., Cudahy, Wiscon- 
sin, is a regional chairman, will meet the day preceding the 
opening of the convention to pass finally upon the recommenda- 
tion to be made to the association regarding a standardized 
invoice form. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 258 Milwaukee street, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin, is authorized to do business in that state 
as a branch of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, 
apitalized at $200,000,000. J. C. Sears is manager of the Mil- 
waukee branch. 

Briggs & Stratton Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin, manufacturers. 
nf the Briggs & Stratton motor-wheel for attachment to bicy- 
cles, etc., has issued $300,000 additional 8 per cent preferred cu- 
mulative participating stock par value $100 per share, free from 
normal Federal tax and entirely free from the state income 

Elton S. Boerstler, consultins,- rubber engineer, Denver, Colo- 
rado, was born at Loyal Oak, Ohio, March 27, 1889. Upon 
graduatiiig from the Barberton High School in 1908, he entered 
the Ohio State University, from which 
in 1912 he received a degree of bachelor 
of science in chemical engineering. 

Immediately he joined the technical 
staff of The B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron, 
Ohio, and was presently in charge of the 
chemical and physical testing laboratories 
under the supervision of Dr. William C. 
i ""fcc ""Wy Geer. From 1914 to 1917 he was asso- 

^^^ ^^^^^k. ciatcd with Edwin C. Shaw, works man- 

^^^^ I ^^^ ager, in solving efficiency problems, then 
1^^^^^^-^ ^^^1 followed a year in the cord tire manu- 
facturing and experimental departments. 
In May, 1918, he resigned to become 
technical engineer in charge of compounding and development 
work of the boot and shoe plant of the Firestone Tire & Rub- 
ber Co., Akron, Ohio. The following year, while sojourning 
in Colorado, he saw an opportunity there for the services of a 
lonsulting rubber engineer and opened an office in Denver, 
where he is now associated with rubber experts from Akron. 

He is a member of the American Qiemical Society, Alpha Chi 
.'-igma Fraternity, and was a member of the University Club 
while ill Akron. 

The Ocotillo Products Co. has its main office at 1016 
Merchants' Bank Building, Indianapolis, Indiana, and, besides 
D. M. Bcchtel, president, is officered by William M. Jones, vice- 
iiresident; Charles J. Murjihy, secretary-treasurer; and James 
R. Fleming, counsel. 

The .\merican Auto Top Co.. Inc., Delphi. Indiana, has 
hecn incorporated, with a capital of $200,000, to manufacture 
glass-enclosed, demountable winter tops for automobiles. The 
officers are: F. C. Martin, president and manager: J. C. Smock, 
vice-president; II. B, Wilson, treasurer; W. O. Hefleng, secre- 
tary The factory, which is equipped with modern machinery, 
has a capacity of about 5,000 tops a year. 

Curtis Gray of Muskegon, Michigan, originally appointed re- 
ceiver for the Palmer Tire & Rubber Co. of St. Joseph, was 

]'-i-T(jn S. Boerstler 



[October 1, 1920. 

appointed trustee of the bankrupt concern at the first meeting 
of the creditors of the company. 

The Ford Motor Co.. Detroit, Michigan, are now making all 
the hard rubber parts used on Ford cars from a compound known 
as Fordite. 

Harry Kessinger Co., Joplin, Missouri, importing and manu- 
facturing chemist aiid manufacturer of toy balloons, has re- 
moved from Si.Kth and Kentucky avenue to Main street at 12th. 

The Marion Insulated Wire & Rubber Co., Marion, Indiana, 
is erecting a three-siory-and-basement plant addition, 35 by 
60 feet, to accommodate additional equipment recently purchased. 
The officers of the company are: Robert J. Spencer, Sr., presi- 
dent: C. A. Michaels, vice-president: Robert J. Spencer, Jr., 
treasurer, and L. .\. Lillard, secretary. J. F. .'Vuten is general 
manager. This company manufactures rubber-covered wires 
and cables and maintains a Chicago office and warehouse at 541 
West Washington Boulevard, Chicago. Illinois. 


By Our Regular Correspondent 

DECIDEDLY IMPROVED coN'DiTEO.vs in the rubber trade, particularly 
in the automobile tire line, are reported by general sales 
agents who have recently toured the section betwen the Rocky 
Mountains and the Pacific Coast. After three successive years 
of pour crop conditions, farmers have been successful this year. 
and their good fortune will be shared by automobile tire dealers 
and manufacturers. A slight business depression in Portland, 
Seattle, and Spokane districts, due largely to gasoline shortage, 
has now been quite cleared up; apd tire dealers anticipate a 
great rush of tourists to the Coast this fall, which will mean 
a large demand for tires. All the Pacific tire branches arc 
very optimistic over the trade outlook. 


The pony blimp of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company of 
California made two notable trips recently. It delivered to 
Douglas Fairbanks at Beverly Hills the first four cord tires 
made at the new Los .Angeles factory, and also conveyed Mr. 
and Mrs. Philip Wrigley twenty-five miles overseas from Cata- 
lina Island to Los Angeles. Mr. Wrigley is the son of William 
W^rigley, Jr., the chewing gum magnate and chief owner of 
the island. The Goodyear cord tire production is now over 
200 a day and will be soon increased. 

Football and basket-ball teams have been picked by the em- 
ployes of the big Goodyear works in Los .Angeles, and intensive 
training was begun last month on the new athletic field north 
of the factory. of the increased volume of business in aeronautics 
and the need of increased supervision in the work, the Goodyear 
Tire & Rul)ber Company of California has established an aero- 
nautics department with P. K. Coe as manager. Simultaneously a 
government sales department has been established and will also 
be under Mr. Coe's supervision. The new manager of Good- 
year's Pacific Coast aeronautic activities has had a wide ex- 
perience in similar lines with the .Akron organization. In addi- 
tion he was in the navy aviation service during the war and 
holds a pilot's certificate from the .\ero Club of America. Since 
his arrival in Los .Angeles in .April, he has staged many unique 
exhibition flights and has greatly stimulated aviation along the 
Pacific Coast. 

The Lap-Lock Tire Co., with an authorized capital of $1,- 
000,000, has been incorporated in Los .Angeles by H. L. Averill, 
Dr. Ross Moore, H. O. .Averill, Harry J. McLean and L. A. 
Cadwalader. The concern plans to build a factory soon in the 
San IPedro harbor section of Los Angeles and to make rubber 
tires and tubes. Later it expects also to manufacture other 
«ror>Hc ni rubber and gutta percha. The company's temporary 

office is that of its attorney, Mr. McLean, 602 Merchants' Na- 
tional Bank Building, Los Angeles. 

What is regarded as a long step taken toward making Los 
.Angeles a great concentration center for cotton is the city's 
compliance with the Federal Government's requirement that a 
bond be furnished for the privilege of issuing standardized 
municipal warehouse cotton receipts Not only arc local bankers 
thus relieved of the responsibility of supplying funds for the 
cotton trade on an ordinary mercantile credit basis, but, by the 
use of bank acceptances under a Federal guarantee that the 
goods are securely in bond, the credit facilities available for 
cotton marketing become country-wide rather than local. This 
is an advantage, it is pointed out, to growers, merchants, ex- 
porters and mill men, and will particularly encourage planters 
of the staple to extend the scope of their operations. 

An index of the extent of tlie rubber tire sales and needs in 
California is afforded by the latest registration figures issued 
by the motor vehicle department, showing 450,155 passenger 
cars, 31,195 trucks and 17,750 motorcycles listed. 

E. S. Foljambe, widely known throughout the automotive in- 
dustry, has joined the forces of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber 
Company of California, Los Angeles, 
as a special representative of the motor 
truck tire department. He will devote 
liimself to educational speech making 
ill "motorize the farm campaigns" and 
to special sales promotion work. Mr. 
Foljambe was recently directing edi- 
/■"•fin*^ ' . tor of the Chelton publications, in- 

^^L ^'*s». / eluding the Automobile Trade Journal 

^^^k . ^^^^ and the Comnwrcial Car Journal. A 
^^^^^#L^^^H member of the Society of .Automotive 
|^^^^Bfl|nt ^^^1 Engineers since inception, he be- 

came vice-president and a member of 
the council in 1916, and also holds 
many honorary memberships in various automobile and trade 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company of California has 
just opened at its new factory in Los .Angeles a free school 
of tire repairing, in charge of J. R. Wells, manager of the 
repair materials department, and G. H. Irwin, chief instructor. 
.A complete practical three weeks' course with shop work, 
lectures and instruction in business methods will be given. 
.Any Far Westerner is eligible to enter the school, which is 
modeled somewhat after the big Goodyear tire repair school 
in Akron. 

The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company of California has 
increased the working force at its Los Angeles plant to 
over 2,500, working si.x days a week and twenty-four hours a 
day in three shifts, and production now runs over 1,500 tires 
and 2,500 tubes a day. Officials say that by January 1, the 
plant will be turning out 3,000 tires and 5,000 tubes daily. 
Construction work on the mills is nearly complete, and the 
company expects to have installed within a very short time 
all the machinery ordered from the East. The general offices, 
which had been for the past ten months on the eighth floor 
of the Washington Building, Third and South Spring streets, 
have been moved to the new factory, where the third floor 
of the warehouse building had been set apart for the corps 
of 750 workers. 

The George W. Eno Rubber Co., of 1026 South Los .Angeles 
street, Los .Angeles, is now making red inner tubes in all 
sizes. The company also makes continuous liners known as 
Eno Inso tires, and Eno E.xso tires to completely cover casings 
by being vulcanized over treads and sidewalls. The Eno Exso 
tire-vulcanizing machine is also distributed by the company for 
applying the "cover-all" to worn casings. 

October 1, 1920.] 




At the recent convention of the National Traffic Officers' 
Association in San Francisco, Fred S. Wilson, Pacific Coast 
branch manager of the Thermoid Rubber Co., Trenton, New 
Jersey, urged the importance of properly-lined brakes and 
regular compulsory inspection in order to reduce the number 
of automobile accidents. 

The Dutch ship "Arakan," bringing from Batavia a cargo of 
Far Eastern products inohiding rultbcr valued at over $200,000, 
all consigned to tlie Spreckels Importing Co., went upon a 
sandspit in a fog off the Point Reyes beach near San Francisco 
on August 29. The greater part of the rubber was jettisoned, 
but salvage of the vessel had to be abandoned, as the pounding 
seas buckled the vessel amidships. 

T. H. Wilkinson, manager of the San Francisco branch of 
ihe United States Rublier Co., returned early last month from 
a national conference of the company's branch managers at a 
New Hampshire summer resort. On his return he attended 
a conference here of the company's branch managers from 
Seattle, Portland, Spokane, Salt Lake City, and Los Angeles. 
Much satisfaction with the present state of the trade in manu- 
factured rubber goods in the West Coast territory was ex- 
pressed by the sales heads. 

The Pioneer Rubber Mills, Pittsburg, California, is e.xtremely 
busy trying to fill the domestic and foreign detiiand for its 
mechanical rubber goods. It has been operating at full capacity 
twenty- four hours a day for the past three years, and has just 
completed another large extension to its plant. 


"Indian" Miller, a full-blooded Apache, veteran of the 
Spanish-American war, artist and historian of the Southwest, 
has joined the advertising department of the Spreckels "Savage" 
Tire Co., of San Diego, California. 

.'\ Boston concern took the first lot of Pima long-staple cotton 
grown in 1920, paying 85 cents a pound for 200 bales at a 
recent sale in Phoenix, Arizona. The Arizona crop, which 
has been almost wholly harvested, had been largely contracted 
for long in advance by leading automobile tire manufacturers. 
When cotton was tried out first in Arizona in 1912, only 400 
acres were grown. Last year the acreage increased to 87,000, 
and this year the cotton acreage is 230,000, much more attention 
being given to Anglo-Egyptian than to short-staple cotton. The 
average lint cotton yield for the past eight years has been 242 
pounds per acre, or a trifle less than half a bale. 

That the Southwest cotton-growing district is not immune 
from the attacks of the boll-weevil and the boll-worm was the 
warning given by W. H. Robison, secretary of the .\rizona 
Agriculture and Plorticulture Commission at a recent conference 
of such commissions of Arizona and California held in Los 
.\ngeles. Mr. Robison, in urging vigilance, said that, contrary 
to many claims, there is no good reason for believing that the 
pests which came from Mexico in 1893 and have caused such 
havoc since in southern plantations may not attack the cotton 
plants in the reclaimed desert sections of the Southwest. As 
a result of the conference an active organization will be formed 
to .standardize plant pest prevention and eliinination in Cali- 
fornia, Arizona and New Mexico, as well as to promote the 
extension of cotton and other areas. 

A Phoenix, Arizona, branch has been established, with C. W. 
McKinlcy in charge, by the Pacific Rubber Co., of Los Angeles, 
one of the largest tire distributors on the west coast. 

The Spreckels "Savage" Tire Corporation, of San Diego, reports 
a steady increase in sales, as well as the establishment of several 
new agencies in the West and Southwest during the past few 
weeks. The employes of the big rubber concern made a notable 
record in baseball games during the summer, and the company 
is planning to aid its workers in a campaign of winter sports. 



THE Ninth Annual Safety Congress of the National Safety 
Council was held at Milwaukee, Wisconsin, September 27 
to October 1, 1920, at which waj's and means for promoting 
sanitation and freedom from accident, particularly to industrial 
workers, were considered along many lines, through the medium 
of sectional meetings devoted to individual branches of industry. 
The Rubber Section, under the chairmanship of Sidney M. 
Schott, held three sessions. Several interesting papers were pre- 
sented Iiy the safety engineers of several leading rubber manu- 
facturing companies containing much practical information 
evolved from first-hand study and application of safety methods 
and devices in actual factory practice. Brief abstracts of certain 
of the papers are given in the following paragraphs. 

Present and Future of SaSety in the Rubber Industry 

The author summarized the work of the Rubber Section as 
developing along the following lines: (1) Standardization of 
accident statistics; (2) education of workmen by means of bul- 
letins; (3) formulation of standard safety rules; (4) engineering 
standards to ensure safety through construction of plant and 
machinery; (5) interest and ideas resulting from good programs 
to be presented at future meetings of the Rubber Section. — Sidney 
M. Schott, chairman. Morgan & Wright, Detroit, Michigan. 

Safety and Sanitation for Rubber Mills and Calenders 

In addition to a valuable code of rules for the instruction of 
mill and calender operatives the paper discussed the most ap- 
proved practice in the 'matter of mechanical safeguards, such as 
quick-stop devices, non-slip floors, proper lighting, ventilation 
and cleanliness of machines and surroundings. — C. B. Mitchella, 
The B. F. Goodrich Co., .\kron, Ohio. 

Vulcanizing Apparatus 

The importance of using only vulcanizers of approved modern 
construction and setting was emphasized. The best practices in 
their equipment and operation were referred to in detail, also the 
importance of frequent inspection of all pressure vulcanizers. 
Proper precautions were given relative to safe handling of car- 
bonic acid gas when employed in the vulcanization process. — 
F. Scott, superintendent of inspections, Hamlin & Co., New York 

Industrial Sanitation 

The author discussed methods of securing light and pure air 
as the prime essentials in efficient plant operation. Reference was 
made in detail to drinking water, cuspidors, toilets, wash room, 
showers, locker facilities and lunch room accommodations, — W. 
N. Fitch. Department of Safety and Hygiene, The B. 'F. Goodrich 
Co., .Akron, Ohio. 

SellinfT Safety in the Factory 

In this paper stress was laid on the value of safety to tlie in- 
dividual, and the necessity for its consistent adoption through the 
leadership of the plant manager, assisted by personal work on 
the part of his department heads and foremen. Eflfective methods 
of advertising the importance and value of safety to the indi- 
vidual worker were treated at length. These include bulletins, 
moving pictures, foremen's meetings, "No Accident" days, safety 
contests and a court of inquiry on all accidents conducted by 
the factory mana.ger. — H. T. Martin, manager. Health and Safety 
Department, The Fisk Rubber Co., Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts. 

A Broader Field for Safety Work 

The effective agencies for covering the field for safety work in 
factoi-y operation include (1) the institution of good industrial 
relations between the management and the employes, (2) main- 
taining a clean plant, (3) a plant layout department for the stand- 
ardization of plan, equipment, and internal transportation, (4) 
industrial engineering department for the control of production 



[October i, 1920. 

standards and methods ot remuneration, such as piece-work rates, 
bonus plans, etc., (5) employment department, (6) health and 
safety department in charge of safety campaigns and training 
operatives in use of safety methods.— A. A. Frank, factory man- 
ager. Federal Rubber Co., Cudahy, Wisconsin. 

Other papers presented were : Address by J. Newton Gunn, 
vice-president. United States Rubber Co., New York City, cover- 
ing the importance and general features of safety in modern rub- 
ber manufacturing practice ; "Health Hazards in the Rubber In- 
dustry," by C. F. Horan, Hood Rubber Co., Watertown, Massa- 
chusetts; "Safe Methods of Handling Material," by P. B. Mar- 
tens, manager. Safety Department, Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., 
Akron, Ohio. 


The personnel of the Tire and Rim Division of the Society of 
Automotive Engineers for the current year, of which S. P. 
Thacher is chairman, is given herewith : 

Pneumatic Tires for P.\ssenger Cars Subdivision : S. P. 
Thacher, chairman; W. H. Allen, C. I. Bradley, E. G. Hulse, 
J. C. Tuttle, W. S. Wolfe. 

Pneumatic Tires for Commercial Vehicles Subdivision : 
W. S. Wolfe, chairman; W. H. Allen, C. I. Bradley. L. R. Davis, 
E. G. Hulse, J. C. Tuttle. 

Pneumatic Tires for Airplanes Subdivision: W. H. .Mien, 
chairman; C. I. Bradley, A. H. Petersen, S. M. Schott, J. C. 
Tuttle, W. S. Wolfe. 

Solid Tires Subdivision: A. Hargraves, chairman; W. H. 
Allen, C. I. Bradley, L. R. Davis, Hugo Hoflfstaedter, A. H. 

Pneumatic Tire Rims Subdivision: C. C. Carlton, chairman; 
W. H. Allen, E. K. Baker, W. N. Booth, Lewis Fine, J. E. 
Hale, J. W. Holt, S. :M. Schott, J. G. Swain, J. H. Wagenhorst. 

Solid Tire Bands and Rims Subdivision : W. N. Booth, chair- 
man ; W. H. Allen, E. K. Baker, C. C. Carlton, L. R. Davis, Lewis 
Fine, J. E. Hale, A. Hargraves, j'. W. Holt. 


Electric motor vehicles as applied to army use are a compara- 
tively new development of transportation. During the war elec- 
trically driven motor trucks were used in this country by the 
Government for special purposes. That they survived the severe 
tests to which they were subjected was due in great measure to 
the rigid specifications under which all their parts were built. 

The Government specifications for storage batteries for trucks 
and industrial tractors call for dependable storage batteries, of 
the lead-acid type, with normal capacity or service rating of each 
battery not less than 220 ampere-hours at the five-hour discharge 
rate. For tractors each battery must consist of 24 lead-acid cells; 
for trucks, one-half that number. The battery jars are made of 
hard rubber, nominal thickness 3/16-inch (minimum, 0.175 inch), 
of compound having a nominal tensile strength of 5,000 pounds 
per square inch, with an elongation of 6 per cent. The minimum 
tensile strength permitted is 4,000 pounds per square inch, with 
an elongation of 7'A per cent. Minimum elongation 5 per cent 
with a tensile strength of not less than 6,000 pounds per square 
inch. (For intermediate values of tensile strength, the product 
of the figures of tensile strength and per cent elongation shall be 
not less than 30,000.) Covers of jars are of the same hard rub- 
ber compound, with molded flat top, not recessed and not below 
the top of the jar, and are provided with combination filling aper- 
ture and gas vent. A minimum amount of scaling wa.x is u.sed 
to make the cover gas tight. It is necessary that this wax shall 
not be ignited easily and shall not flow when heated to 120 de- 
grees F. 

Leads from end cells to tray terminals are of No. 0, B. & S. 
gage, extra flexible rubber-covered cable. The connections be- 
tween individual cells are burned onto terminals and must be 

capable of carrying continuously 125 amperes without injury. 
Bolted intercell connections may be furnished at the option of the 
purchaser. Tray terminals or connectors when used are of the- 
wing nut type. 

The electrolyte is sulphuric acid of 1.275 to L290 specific gravity 
at 80 degrees F. when fully charged. The cells are assembled in 
trays, each of four cells arranged end to end, with a single tie 
partition across the center. The trays are of hard wood, painted 
with two coats of protective paint, fitted with one chest handle 
on each end and with four lifting irons. 

Eagh battery must be capable of giving not less than either 
250 cycles of charge and discharge, or one year of life to not less- 
than 80 per cent of its rated ampere-hour capacity, when operated 
under service conditions and maintained in accordance with in- 
structions from the manufacturer. 


.An urgent appeal to manufacturers and business men to join 
in making better use of existing railroad equipment as a means- 
of providing an immediate improved transportation service has 
been issued by the Railroad Committee of the Chamber of Com- 
merce of the United States. The committee points out that 
shippers can add 535,000 freight cars to the available car supply 
by loading cars more heavily and loading and unloading thenr 

As a rule the railroads allow 48 hours free time to load cars 
and 48 hours to unload them before making any charge for 
demurrage. If receivers of freight will use only one-half of 
this time, thus releasing cars in one day instead of two, and in 
addition will order according to loading capacity, restrict car 
orders to today's program, avoid the duplication of car orders, 
and avoid the use of cars for storage purposes, the time that 
the average freight car spends in the hands of shippers and 
receivers should be reduced from the present 37 per cent to 22 
per cent of its total time, and thus add 360,000 cars to the 
available car supply. 

In 1919 the average load per car was 27.8 tons — only 67 per 
cent of capacity. If shippers will cooperate with the railroads- 
to attain an average of 30 tons per car, nearly 175,000 cars will 
be added to the available car supply. 


The Joseph Stokes Rubber Co., Trenton, New Jersey, has pur- 
chased a site at Welland, Ontario, Canada, having a frontage of 
651 feet on the Grand Trunk Railway, upon which a new factory- 
will be located. The contract for the building has been awarded,, 
and the 'first building is now under roof. The first unit of the- 
new factory will be 120 by 160 feet with a separate power house 
and office. A spur track will be laid the entire length of the prop- 
erty to serve additional buildings wliich will be erected as required. 
The power plant will be 50 by 50 feet, one story brick and timber,, 
and will contain 4 150-horsepower boilers, water heater, two 
pumps, air compressor and iron tank. There will also he a 
transformer room and three-story tower, 20 by 22 feet. The- 
products of the company will be hard rubber goods, cells and 
plates for batteries. It is expected that manufacturing operations- 
will be started by December 1, of this year, at which time 75 
people will be placed at work. This number will be increased 
to 150 by February, 1921. The first unit of the factory will cost 
SIOO.OOO and it is the intention of the company to erect a big 
plant later. An Ontario charter has been taken out. The first 
shipment of machinery is now en route. 

iMifiRTs into Malaga. Spain, fro.m the United States dur- 
ing 1919 included 25 kilos of oil and rubber cloth (kiln 2.2046' 
pounds), .\mcrican manufactured goods are favorably consid- 
ered in Spain. The main dilficulty to their increased sale in 
that market is the lack of proper sales agencies and delays in the- 
ocean freight service between the United States and Scain. 

October 1, 1920.] 





THERE is only one firm interested in the manufacture of rubber 
goods and this is situated at Coquitlan, British Columbia. 
It has a fully equipped plant and intended to commence opera- 
tions September 1. The firm has received orders aggregating 
$1,000,000 in value, largely for shipment to New Zealand. While 
principally interested in the manufacture of automobile tires, 
•certain side line> will also be made. 


There are no manufacturers of rubber goods in the Halifax 
■consular district, and, as far as can be ascertained, no raw, scrap, 
"waste, or reclaimed rubber is imported for manufacture. The 
market for rubber tires in Nova Scotia, where there are some 
12,000 automobiles and trucks, is good, as the poor roads call 
for frequent replacements. The tires used are almost wholly of 
Canadian manufacture. The size most generally used is 30 by 
3'/2 iHches, clincher type. Terms of payment are 25 per cent off 
for cash, net 30 days. 

The market for rubber boots and shoes, on account of climatic 
-conditions and such industries as the fisheries and lumbering, 
is most e.Kcellent. This class of goods has, in the past, been 
■obtained from two sources, American and Canadian, but the 
present tendency, on account of unfavorable exchange, is to place 
.all possible orders with Canadian manufacturers. Rubber boots 
and shoes are ordered from traveling salesmen, or purchased 
direct. No statistics of imports or exports are available, but it is 
known that at present very few rubber boots or shoes are im- 
ported. The terms of payment usually given are 30 days, with 2 
per cent discount for cash. 

There is also, an excellent market for belting, and a fair market 
for other rubber goods used for industrial purposes. Credit is 
given by the manufacturers for 30 or 60 days, depending on the 
size of the order and the credit standing of the purchaser. 
The larger industrial plants buy direct from the manufacturer. 


In the Kingston district in 1920 there will be a great demand 
for automobile tires. The prosperity enjoyed by the farmers 
■during the past five years enables them to have a car or two 
and in consequence the demand for small-sized tires is large. 
Sizes in demand are 30 by 3K>, 31 by 4, 32 by 4, 34 by 4J<2, 35 by 
5 and 37 by 5 inches. Clincher 30 by Syi and 31 by 4 inches are 
inost popular, while the straight side comes next. 

Over; two-thirds of the tires sold in this district are made in 
Canada and those of American make are sold through distribut- 
ing houses in Toronto. Terms of payment are cash 30 days, 
varying from 2 to 5 per cent. 

The demand for rubber boots and shoes is in the spring and 
fall of the year. Shipments arc made to the retail trade in July 
and August and i)ayments met in November, when a discount 
■of 2]/2 per cent is allowed. Owing to the duty and unfavorable 
■exchange American goods are practically shut out of the Can- 
adian market, the only source of supply being Canadian goods. 
The rubber boots sold are in the following sizes: Men's, 6 to 11 ; 
l5oys', 1 to 5; youths', 11 to 13; and children's, 6 to lOj^. Heavy 
rubber shoes find a sale only in the agricultural sections of the 


The rubber industrial centers in Canada are Monlreal and 
Quebec. Adverse exchange conditions have practically closed 
the market to rubber goods from the United States, but there 
are many kinds of goods that must be imported because Canadian 
manufacturers are not so far advanced in the making of insulated 
rubber, scientific apparatus, and miscellaneous rubber goods in- 
cluded under druggists' sundries, but the list is narrowing down 
and may before long exclude these also. 

^Consular reports to the nei>artnient of Commerce. No. 215, 1920. 

The market for rubber tires is considerable. Over 50 per cent 
of the tires sold in this district are of the 30 by 3^2-inch size. 
Other sizes of tires range from 32 by 4 to 35 by 5 inches, fabric 
and cord, straight side and clinchers. The usual terms are 30 
days and 2 per cent for cash. 

It is the general opinion among dealers that rubber clothing of 
American manufacture is superior to the domestic articles, and 
that there will be a demand for this class of goods in spite of 
the added cost on account of duty and adverse exchange. There 
is a stable market here for American-made rubber packing and 
fruit-jar rings, because of superiority. 


No rubber goods of any description are manufactured in the 
Province of Manitoba, the source of supply being the rubber- 
manufacturing centers of eastern Canada and the United States. 
The bulk of the tire business consists of Canadian manufactured 
goods from Ontario factories operated by both American and 
British capital. Factory branches ind warehouses maintained in 
Winnipeg by the manufacturers handle the retail and jobbing 
trade and maintain accounting and selling organizations, and a 
stock of tires. The Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and 
Alberta are controlled by the branches at Winnipeg, as a rule, 
jobbers being found in the larger cities. Terms of payment 
generally quoted to retail dealers are 2 per cent on the 10th of 
the following month, or 30 days, net, with the same terms to 
jobbers, who, in addition, receive a jobber's discount. 

The retail price in Manitoba of a Canadian-made tire is ap- 
proximately 20 per cent higher than the retail price in the 
United States of an Americait tire of equal quality. However, 
American tires are subject to an import duty of 35 per cent, a 2 
per cent sales tax recently imposed, and an adverse rate of ex- 
change. A number of well-known American tires are on the 
market, selling for about 45 per cent higher than in the United 
States. However, due to increased cost of production, all 
Canadian tires advanced in price about 20 per cent during the 
last year. 

The most popular sizes in general use are 30 by 3^ clincher, 
32 by 4 straight side, the first-named size comprising about 60 
per cent of the number sold. In conformity with the action of 
the Rubber Association of America, the Canadian manufacturers 
will at once reduce the number of odd and oversize tires now 
being made and concentrate on three or four standard sizes. 
The tire market in the province is reported to be very good, but 
factory branches say there is no unprecedented growth in the 
volume of sales. 

The rubber boot -and shoe trade in this province is locally con- 
trolled. There was a time when American rubber footwear 
found a market here, due to distinction and variety of style, but 
the improvement of Canadian manufactures has resulted in 
swinging the trade balance. In some lines of footwear Canadian 
products excel American manufactures in points of workmanship 
and finish. The market for rubber footwear in this locality is 
said to be unlimited, some factories being unable to meet the 
demands of trade, and an ever-increasing dcinand is expected, 
particularly for overshoes and rubbers, as many residents of the 
British Isles now coming to Canada, unused to rubber footwear, 
will follow the custom of the country, as have thousands of labor- 
ing classes from Central Europe. 

Rubber goods for industrial purposes are manufactured in 
eastern Canada and distributed by factory branches and sales 
managers in Manitoba. Terms of payment are similar to those 
given jobbers in other rubber lines, and the market is reported 
as being good. 

It is estimated that about one-third of the druggists' sundries 
made of rubber is imported from the United States. This class 
of goods includes hot-water bags, air cushions and mattresses, 
bathing caps, toys, and some surgical bandages. Rubber cement 
and elastic are also received from the United States. 


[October 1, 1920. 

The Rubber Trade in Great Britain 

/)'_v Our Rt-^iilar Correspondi'iil 

IN REi'LY to inquiries from America regarding the use of the 
Ptachey cold cure process commercially I now refer to the 
formation of the Peachey Process Co., Limited. The company, 
which has the nominal capital of £250,000, acquires the patent 
rights, which cover all important countries of the world, from 
a syndicate consisting of \V. T. Bartholomew, of London; A. 
H. Shaw, of Blackpool, and J. Higginbotham, of Manchester, 
who some months ago obtained an option from the patentee to 
take it up in a specified time. There are eight directors, in- 
clusive of the three above-named, the chairman being Sir John 
P. Hewett, G. C. S. L, K. B. E., C. L E. For £20,000 in cash 
the syndicate sells to the company 27,000 shares of £1 cumula- 
tive participating preference shares, credited as fully paid ; 43,- 
000 shares of one-pound ordinary shares credited as fully paid ; 
and 100.000 shares of fully paid one-shilling deferred shares. It 
is stated that the new company is not at present making any 
public issue of shares and the first work to be undertaken is to 
enter into negotiations with rubber manufacturers as well as 
manufacturers of linoleum, leather substitutes, imitation leather 
goods, upholstery, wall coverings, etc., with respect to their 
adoption of the new process. 

A prominent feature of the company's initial procedure is 
the acquisition of a suitable building where a demonstration 
plant will be operated and an experimental laboratory fitted up. 
Here the patentee, whose exclusive services have been engaged 
by the company, will carry on the research work which will 
naturally for some time be necessitated. Sir Arthur Colefa.x, 
K. C, on whom the mantle of Lord Moulton seems to have 
fallen in regard to patent work, has expressed the opinion that 
the patent is valid. The temporary address of the company 
is given as at W. J. Bartholomew's offices. 40 Gerrard street, 
London, W. 1, and no doubt any communications from across 
the water will receive attention and be passed on to the perma- 
nent offices which, it has been stated, will be in the Manchester 


The illustrated description of the Lewis solvent recovery 
system in the June number of The Indi.\ Rubber World has 
no doubt interested many readers, as the subject is one which 
is attracting a good deal of attention at the present time. The 
percentage recovery of solvent is not stated, though a refer- 
ence is made to maximum recovery. Of course in the develop- 
ment of the impregnated canvas business for cord tires a re- 
covery plant is essential for safety in working, whether it really 
pays to recover the naphtha or not, but the case is different 
in, say, a small prooling works. The various systems of re- 
covery now on the market fall into two classes : the first, where 
the solvent vapors are condensed by compression, and the sec- 
ond, where they are absorljed in creosote or other heavy oil and 
recovered by distillation. 

The main novelty about the Lewis system, which is one of 
compression, is that the work takes place in an atmosphere 
which will not support combustion, and therefore all risks of 
fire or explosion are eliminated. This inert atmosphere con- 
sists of flue gas from the boilers, which is stated to consist al- 
most entirely of nitrogen and carbon dioxide. I am afraid that 
the average flue gas contains mors oxygen, carbon monoxide 
and unburned hydrocarbons than the above statement would 
lead the uninformed to imagine, but this is not an important 
matter as regards naphtha recovery, as the nitrogen will always 
be sufficiently in excess to prevent the formation of an ex- 
plosive atmosphere. It is not often that any serious accident 
occurs with naphtha vapors in England, but the sad affair at 
the Dunlop works in Birmingham last May has brought home 
to manufacturers the necessity for constant care and supervision. 


The position which the Rubber Division of the American 
Chemical Society has taken with regard to the use of trade 
names for accelerators and compounding ingredients is one 
which is of considerable import to both sellers and buyers, and 
it may be taken for granted that divergent views will be ex- 
pressed as to its tenahleness. In selling an article it is, of 
course, a great pull to be able to say that it cannot be obtaitied 
elsewhere, and presumably this is the reason why a special 
name is adopted for a similar article sold by competitors. 
Merely to use a short name for a long one when the correct 
composition of the substance is at the same time disclosed will 
not appeal to the astute seller who seeks to dispose of an ordi- 
nary article at a special price. There always have been special- 
ties on sale to the rubber trade, but the business in these has 
been by no means of late as in former days because now that 
chemists are so common in the industry the simple nature of 
many presumed complicated chemical mixtures or compounds 
has been easily brought to light. The advent of the organic ac- 
celerators with their very long names has, it appears, caused 
a revival of the proprietary article nomenclature and if, as 
it has been stated, thiocarbanilide has been offered for sale 
under six different names and presumably by each seller as a 
specialty distinct from what could be obtained elsewhere, it 
certainly seems a course of procedure against the best interests 
of the rubber industry. At the same time it is not easy to see 
how any drastic action can be taken. 

The invitation to manufacturers and jobbers of proprietary 
articles to make statements to the Rubber Division on the sub- 
ject seems unlikely to meet with a ready response, unless it 
is an expression of opinion that no alteration in existing pro- 
cedure is desirable. With regard to the invitation to rubber 
cliemists to submit results of their analyses to the secretary of 
the Division, it may be objected that many of such analyses have 
been made professionally and that the figures were not intended 
for the information of all and sundry, though this would not 
apply to information given by works chemists. The analysis 
of some proprietary articles sold to the rubber trade is a matter 
(if extreme difficulty, perhaps designedly so. 

The American Chemical Society has been discussing the pos- 
sibility of increasing the consumption of selenium and tellurium, 
two erstwhile rare elements whose chemical characteristics 
closely follow those of sulphur. According to Victor Lenher the 
United States in existing plants can produce over 300,000 
pounds of selenium and about 12.S,000 pounds of tellurium an- 
nually, figures far beyond the annual consumption, hence the 
desirability of new markets. One is reminded in this conneclioii 
(if other more or less rare elements, uranium for instance, 
when it was proposed to open a mine which would produce ten 
times the amount used in the whole world. .\t the moment it 
docs not seem as if the rubber trade would remedy the over- 
production of selenium, although interesting experiment.-^ have 
been recorded which seem to indicate the similarity of the action 
of this element to that of sulphur. It is pointed out in the 
.American Chemical Society discussion that much remains to 
be done, especially along the lines of the use of the chlorides or 
bromides of selenium and tellurium as accelerators. So far, 
tellurium does not seem to have received serious attention in 
the rubber industry, -^t first sight the harassed rubber manu- 
facturer, seeing selenium quoted at al)oul 12 shillings per pound 
and tellurium at about 90 shillings per pound, may not wax 
enthusiastic at the suggestion that he should help in absorbing 
the surplus production, but in these days of research associations 
it would be premature to assume that the matter is at an end. 

October 1, 1920.] 




This amalgamation, effected towards tlie close of the war 
between the various hitherto competitive companies making 
explosives, has invested its surplus capital amounting to aliout 
60 per cent of the whole, in such a variety of undertakings 
that its title is incongruous and to some extent misleading. 
Therefore it is shortly to be changed. Substantial holdings 
have been acquired in the Dunlop Rubber Co., Limited, and 
its subsidiaries, in the Rotax Motor Accessories Co., Limited, 
and the business of John Marston, Limited, two makers of tlio 
Sunbeam cycles, has been bought outright. .\ large sum has 
also been invested in the General Motors Corporation, Inc., 
of America. Substantial holdings have also been taken in the 
British DycstufFs Corporation and the British Cellulose Co., 
Limited. The latest inove is the acquisition of the whole of 
the shares of the British Pluviusin Co., Limited. This concern 
was founded about fifteen years ago, if my memory is correct, 
to make artificial leather at Monton Green, seven miles from 
Manchester, and the business has made continuous progress. 
The works are situated close to those of the important Winter- 
bottom Book Cloth Co., Limited, the two, it is understood, 
having joint financial interest. 


Following an article appearing in the .August issue of our 
new trade periodical Tlic Rubber Age (London), I under- 
stand that the suggestion to form a rubber club on the lines of 
that which has now been established some years in ..\merica 
has met with a good response from the trade. .\ Manchester 
rubber manufacturer has promised a gift of £100 towards the 
necessary expenses, to which The Rubber Age will add 100 
guineas. It is proposed to hold a preliminary meeting during 
September, either in London or Manchester, and to appoint 
an executive committee to formulate the scheme which will 
afterwards be submitted to the trade, .\lthough names of sup- 
porters of the scheme are now being enrolled, no one sending 
his name in will be considered bound thereby in any way until 
the full scheme is laid before him. I do not know how long 
the process of formation of the -American club took, but I 
rather imagine that the many matters whicli are boimd to 
come up for consideration in such a move connected with an 
old established and withal conservative industry will necessitate 
an adjournment of the first meeting if the attendance is large 
and representative as it promises to be. 


Among works which have been established in the last few 
years is that of the Chorley Rubber Co., Limited, of Wildbank 
Works, Chorley, Lancashire. The promoter was Mr. Bolton, 
late of the Leyland & Birmingham Rubber Co., Limited, and 
he is the moving spirit in the enterprise which is concerned 
with the manufacture of mechanicals, molded and surgical rubber 
goods. Lcndon offices have recently Ijeen opened at 103 Cannon 
street, E. C, under the management of G. E. Watson, late of 
the North British Rubber Co., Limited. 

H. S. Firestone, of Akmn, Ohio, recently spent three months 
in England, occupying a furnished mansion near East Oind- 
stead. Sussex. He has been also a guest of Marshall 
Stevens, M. P., at Bowdon, Cheshire. Mr. Stevens is chairman 
of the Trafiford Park Estates Co., Limited, and the Xylos Rub- 
ber Co., Limited, and his guest has had good opportunities of 
seeing the great industrial developments which have taken place 
in the Trafford Park suburli of Manchester. 

W. A. Williams, prcsumal)ly he of the Xorth British Rubber 
Co., Limited, Edinburgh, contributed an interesting and impor- 
tant article- to the "Journal of the Society of Chemical Indus- 
try" for August 16, pointing out that for the immediate re- 

quirements of the trade ihere are undoubtedly sufficient supplies 
of crude rubber, despite the great development of the inotor 
trade. Further with regard to the next few years, he does 
not predict any real shortage, though there will be a tendency 
for demand to overtake supply. He deals authoritatively with 
the cotton position, pointing out the important eflfect the Arizona 
output of long-staple cotton will have in steadying the market in 
Egyptian cotton. He thinks that lire manufacturers will be 
forced to the new departure of using a proportion of short- 
staple cotton in these fabrics and any reduction in the life of 
the tires could be compensated for by a corresponding decrease 
in the selling price. Naturally the influx of American tires 
comes up for consideration, and he foresees that the time will 
shortly come when the American surplus output will be sent over 
here if our markets are still open, producing a condition of 
affairs outside the control of the British manufacturer, who 
will have to depend upon governirient assistance against this 
class of competition. 


A ccoRniNG to The Financial Times, London, the British Plu- 
^^ viusin Company (1920), Ltd., was registered as a private 
company on -August 27, with a capital of £1,250,(X), in ,£l-shares. 
The company is to enter into an agreement with Explosives 
Trades, and to carry on the business of waterproofers, manufac- 
turers of imitation leather, leather cloth, linoleum, paper and 
cloth combined, tarpaulins, surgical bandages, waterproof cloth, 
mackintoshes, etc. The registered office is at 12 Xewton street, 

Declared exports of crude rubber from the consular district 
of Liverpool, England, lo the I'nited States for the month of 
June, 1920, were valued at $74,H4,S. 

The British Industries Fair will be held in London from Feb- 
ruary 21 to March 4, 1921. The Birmingham and Glasgow or- 
ganizations are cooperating and exhibits will be on view at the 
former place during the same time as in London. In Glas- 
gow the dates will be from February 28 to March 11. Of the 
sections interesting to the rubber trade may be noted those of 
mechanical rubber goods, macliinery belting and accessories for 
motor vehicles, bicycles and airplanes, all in Birmingham. 

Reexports of rubber from Great Britain during the first six 
months of 1920 advanced to £11,237.476, or gains of £5,X73,697 
over the corresponding period in 1919 and £2,725,377 in 1913. 

The decided rise in prices of articles is responsible for the 
greatly enhanced values of reexports to the United States, in- 
cluding rubber, of which 177,031 centals, valued £2,789,477 
were reexported in the first six months of 1913, and 499,088 
centals, valued £6,236,086, in the corresponding period of 1920. 

Trade between Great Britain and Germany in the first six 
months of 1913 included exports of rubber totaling 125,899 
centals, valued £2,144,704; in the corresponding jieriod of 1920 
the quantity was 50,175 centals, valued .£541,584. 

India rubber goods, not including tires, to the value of 
$166,381 were imported into New Zealand during the first six 
months of 1920, as against $112,450 in the corresponding period 
(if 1919, and $177,554 during the first half of 1918. 

Walter .\. Robinson, general sales manager of the Skipper 
Rubber Co., Calcutta, India, recently visited an .Akron rubber 
factory. His company is now one of the largest Goodrich dis- 
tributers in India. 

The B. F. Goodrich Co. will operate in Japan under the name 
of The Yokohama Rubber Co., producing belting, tires, tubes, 
hose and packing. Belting is already being manufactured, O, K. 
Butler supervising the work. 



[October 1, \920. 

The Oummi-Zcituiig reports from Riga that the rubber industiy 
ill that city is still very quiet. It is proposed to resume work in 
the well-known Prowodnik plant ai Riga with the aid of French 
capital, and the activity of French and Fnglish tinanciers in Let- 
via indicates a considerable influx of French and English cap- 
ital in that country. The English tinancial group of F"ortington 
dctnanded concessions as to the supply of hemp and wood as 
security for its credits. The negotiations, however, have not been 
settled and proposals are now made by a French group which 
offers better terms, but no agreement has been reached in either 

During the first live months of 1920 I'rancc imported rubber 
goods valued at 100.000.000 francs; England supplied 55,000,000, 
.-\merica 33.(XX).000, Italy and Belgium the rest. 


As REii)KTKU by C. I.. Pans, Commercial .Secretary to the British 
Legation, Christiania, Norway, in Tluc India-Rubber Journal, 
London, Norwegian stocks of raw rubber, balata and gutta percha 
were very scanty at the commencement of the war. .A.s fresh sup- 
plies were very difficult to obtain, Norwegian factories were at 
various times compelled to reduce their production and even to 
cease operations. After the conclusion of the Norwegian-Ameri- 
can .\greement in 1918 the position gradually improved and the 
manufacturers were once more able to operate upon normal lines. 
Estimations place Norway's annual requirements at about ISO 
tons of rubber and 200 to 250 tons of balata and gutta percha, 
practically all of which is purchased from firms in the United 
Kingdom. At the end of 1919 there was reported to be little 
demand for new supplies, as the factories were subsisting on old 
stocks. One reason for the diminishing demand is the fact that 
Norwegian production of insulated cable is restricted because of 
competition from British and American cable manufacturers. 


Prior to the war, Norway imported motor cars from all Euro- 
pean countries in which they were made, and also from the 
L'nited States of .'\merica, which even then held the largest por- 
tion of the trade. During 1919 the bulk of the cars imported 
were supplied by America. On December 31, 1919, the number of 
motor cars registered in Norway totaled 5.390, in addition to 2,703 
motor cycles. 

Before the war Norway imported tires mainly from America, 
Germany, France, Russia and the United Kingdom. It is reported 
that the British trade was smaller than that of France, Germany 
and America, and that the .\merican trade was largest. Germany 
and Russia disappeared from the market early in the war, and 
supplies were drawn chiefly from France and the United King- 
<lom. Later, when shipments from France and the United King- 
dom became more difficult, the bulk of the trade went to .America, 
which now occupies the leading position. The demand for tires 
has naturally increased "in proportion to the number of motor 
vehicles in the country, and most of these vehicles were American 
and therefore equipped with .\merican tires. 

Germany supplied most of the bicycle tires imported by Norway 
prior to the war. A fairly large number were also received from 
the United Kingdom, while smaller quantities came from France 
and Denmark. Owing to the increased demand for bicycles Nor- 
way's importations of bicycle tires and inner tubes at the end of 
1919 is estimated to have been 300,000 of each. Of these the bulk 
came from the United Kingdom with large shipments also from 
France. Imports from the LInited States were not so large. 


On the outbreak of the war, Norway had one galosh factory, 
namely. Den Norske Galoge og Gummifabrik, A/S., of Mjondalen, 
near Drammen. This factory was able to maintain a limited 
production during the war, but it was burned down last April, 
■and Norway is now dependent entirely upon imported galoshes. 
It is reported, however, tliat a new galosh factory, .'\/S .\skim 

Gummifabrik, has recently been established and will probably 
begin to produce in 1920. 

Norway's total annual consumption of galoshes is estimated to 
be 800,000 to 1,000,000 pairs. During 1919 imports took place 
chielly from America, for neither the United Kingdom, Sweden 
or Russia has been in a position to export. Imports from Eng- 
land arc reported to amount to a few thousand pairs only, as com- 
pared with 500,000 or 600,000 pairs from .America, while for 1920 
large orders have been placed in Sweden and .\mcrica. It is 
estimated that owing to the high prices of leather the con- 
suniption of galoshes in 1920 will increase very markedly. 


The production of the two Norwegian belting factories is suffi- 
cient to supply Norway with balata and leather belting, and with 
the exception of a British-made balata belting which is said to 
have an old market in Norway, it is not anticipated that leather 
and balata belting will be imported to any large extent. Beltings 
of hair, cotton and india rubber are not produced in Norway, and 
it is considered probable that there will be a good demand for 
such goods. 


The onh- diving materials manufactured in Norway are canvas 
overalls, hose couplings and submarine telephone outfits. Com- 
plete sets of diving materials of very high quality are staled to be 
supplied by .\merica, and as quality is of primary importance, 
price being a secondary consideration, American goods are in 


By a Special Correspondent 

THE German rubber industry begins to be dissatisfied with 
the restrictions controlling foreign trade in Germany, and 
with the necessity of appealing to trading bureaus before articles 
can be exported, as some of the regulations are entirely out of 
date and made obsolete by the rapidly changing situation. Ger- 
man rubber manufacturers object to billing goods in foreign 
money values. This was an advantage while the price of the 
mark was low but is now a decided disadvantage when mark 
prices are improving. The bureaucratic control of foreign trad- 
ing is an impediment to the enterprise of German maimfacturers 
who desire to compete with the other manufacturers of the world. 
Attempts, therefore, are being made to remove these restrictions 
and to return to the German manufacturer full liberty of trading 


One of the reforms brought about by the recent revolution 
is the privilege of interrogating ministers which adds so 
much to the interest of parliamentary proceedings in England. 
Delegates to the Reichstag are permitted to ask ministers any 
questions whatever, but it is left to the Secretary of State if a 
difticult situation should result. The German rubber industry has 
been concerned for several months over the alleged large imports 
of rubber tires into Germany, and is now employing ministerial 
interrogation as a vent to its grievances. It is argued by the 
manufacturers who are supported in this matter by the factory 
workers that the wholesale importation of tires creates serious 
competition, with the result that tire factories have been com- 
pelled to curtail production, and for that reason the German 
rubber industry deinands the embargo of tire imports. The 
representative of the German Department of Commerce, in an- 
swering this question, said that the conditions were not serious 
and that few tires were imported in the ordinary manner while 
steps had been taken to prevent the illicit trading in smuggled 
tires. The Government would not place an embargo on the im- 
portation of tires unless the German rubber manufacturers would 
reduce the present price for tires. The hint was taken by the 
manufacturers and a considerable cut has been made in the 

October 1, 1920.1 



price of tires. As the various reductions that were made in the 
past have invariably le<l lo a general disorganization of the 
market, the tire manufacturers decided to bring German tire 
prices down to the level of the world's markets and thereby avoid 
the necessity of further reductions in the near future. 


The rubber industry has suffered together with other industries 
from the transportation strike which was started with a view 
to prevent the shipment of military material to the Poles by way 
of Germany. The strike has spread all over Germany and has 
compelled the postponement of the merchandise fair in Kocnigs- 
berg, Prussia, which was scheduled for the middle of August. 
This will be held at the end of September provided the transport 
strike is settled by then. The strike has caused considerable loss 
to many rubber manufacturers who have not been able to make 
shipments of goods, the delay and declining prices constituting an 
inducement for the dealer to cancel his orders. 


The general strike of the consumer which has been employed 
as a weapon to bring down the cost of living all over Germany 
has been most effective, being supported by the increased value 
of the mark which has given the purchaser better value for his 
money. While the rubber industry is still comparatively busy 
there are signs of a general decline in the size of the orders and 
manufacturers see great difficulties ahead to keep their factories 
going. Some branches of the industry are still working with 
full time, especially the jar ring manufacturers and those making 
goods for the electrical industry. To bring the consumer again 
in the market a reduction of prices has been made by various 
branches of the industry. The tire prices have been reduced 
as reported elsewhere in this article and now the hemp 
hose manufacturers have followed suit. The new reduction 
brings the cost of this article to a level where it can withstand 
the competition of the rubber hose which had seriously en- 
croached upon the hemp hose field. 


The lu.xury ta.x is affecting the rubber industry as various 
articles are subjected to this tax. Pneumatic tires, tire covers and 
inner tubes for the use of private automobiles are subject to the 
tax, while tires for airplanes, motorcycles, and bicycles are free 
from taxation. .\n exception is made for tires which are used 
for racing cycles, exhibition cycles and covers and inner tubes 
executed in colors. Bathing caps, sponge bags, tobacco bags, 
rubber mats, impregnated cloth, are subject to ta.xation if made 
entirely or partly of rubber. Fountain pens are free of taxation 
if for ordinary use. Ornamented fountain pens and those with 
gold nibs are taxed. The tax is supposed to be applied without 
giving special trouble to the taxpayer, and the keeping of or- 
dinary books is regarded as sufficient evidence for the purpose. 

The Hamburg rubber market which has been very active dur- 
ing the last few weeks is suffering severely from the irregularity 
of the exchange values of the mark. When the mark falls in 
value, up goes the price of rubber; if it should increase, down 
go rubber prices. As the price differences are spmetimes as 
much as 15 per cent from one week to the other it may easily be 
understood that rubber importers are not bedded upon roses and 
the desire is expressed for an early rectification of the German 
exchanges. All prices are quoted practically upon the basis of 
immediate payment and delivery of tlie goods to the buyer. 

The Leipziger Gummiwarcn Fabrik, formerly Julius Marx, 
Heine & Co., has distributed a 6 per cent dividend as the result 
■»( last j'ear's trading. The annual report states that the factory 
■vas busy during the largest part of the year, and there was suf- 
ficient raw material available but the coal supplies were insuffi- 
:ient. The export demand has been satisfactory. The directors 
exnect an improvement during the present year. 


By a Sfcfidl t tirrcsfonident 

THE RuisnER i.NiirsTRV in .Sweden, Dciiniark. and Norway has 
been very active all through the war and many new lac- 
tones were added to those already in existence. With few ex- 
ceptions the rubber industry of northern Europe is mostly car- 
ried on in comparatively small establishments. The necessities 
of the war and the complete separation from the usual sources 
of supplies, however, have forced considerable expansion of the 
existing plants, with the result that the industry has added largely 
to its productive capacity. Both foreign and domestic capital are 
employed in these factories. .'Mthough foreign competition has 
increased since the coming of peace the domestic factories find 
it comparatively easy to hold their own against imports, especially 
since the market was practically stripped of many articles when 
peace was declared. This was due less lo the lack of manufac- 
turing facilities than to the difficulty of obtaining raw materials, 
including coal. Sufficient rubber was obtainable during 1919 
and the factories succeeded in covering their requirements even in 
excess of their immediate needs, leading in some cases to re- 
ductions in this year's orders. 

The first half of the present year shows, for instance, a decline 
in the imports of raw rubber into Denmark from 367 tons to 
273 tons. An increase is reported in the import of most other 
articles. So the import of pneumatic covers rose from 451 tons 
to 959 tons ; 71 tons of rubber shoes were imported against 40 
tons during the first six months of 1919. General all-rubber 
goods show an increase from 92 tons to 139 tons. 

.\merican rubber goods are now in evidence in all three coun- 
tries, American tires especially being in demand. German rub- 
ber goods are being sold again ; but not in the same volume as 
before the war. 

The firm of H. Asfrup & Co., in Christiania, Denmark, has 
been sold to a corporation and will be continued under the same 
name. This firm was formed during the year 1914 to deal in auto- 
mobile tires and other rubber goods. 

The Amerikanska Gummiaktiebolaget, dealer in rubber goods, 
has increased its capital to 8(K).(XX) kroner. 

Swedish rubber manufacturers are rejoicing over the discon- 
tinuation of the private postal stamps used until now by govern- 
ment offices for franking governmental mail. It appears that in 
the future postal stamps will be replaced by an imprint of the 
various offices, made with a rubber stamp. This should bring 
many new orders lo the Swedish rubber stamp manufacturers. 



AN .\CT to amend the special war revenue act, 1915, passed 
June 30. 1920, includes a tax on wholesalers of 1 per cent on 
all parts sold for repairs of automobiles, accessories, tires or 
repair |)arts, etc.. purchased from Canadian manufacturers or 
from importers and sold to the ultimate consumer or sululealcr 
or garage. 


.\ new Argentine tariff law (No. 11022) was promulgated by 
executive decree on July 6 and went into effect on July 7, 1920. 
This law provides for important changes in Law No. 49.S3 and 
its supplements, the most important being that included under 
article 4, which increases by 20 per cent the old official valua- 
tions (appraisements), the rates of duty remaining the same. 
This horizontal increase, which is equivalent to an increase of 
20 per cent in duty, docs not apply to the articles included in 
the table below, for which higher increases are specified. Ir» 
the case of articles for which no appraisement or official valua- 


(October 1, 1920. 

lii>ii IS given, llie ad valorem duty being assessed on invoice 
value, as automobiles, for instance, the increase does not apply. 
Nor would it apply in the case of goods subject to specific duty. 
The following table shows the articles for which changes ni 
rate of duty, as well as in official valuation, are provided for by 
the new law. The previous rates and valuations arc given for 
purposes of comparison, .\ttciition should be invited to the fact 
that while the rates are ad valorem in form, they are really 
specific, in view of the fi.xed character of the valuations, which 
are not affected by market fluctuations. 


alenis.—Ftso, $0,965; kilo, 2.20A6 

poiinds; liter, 1.05668 U. S. liquid 

Old Tariff 

New Tariff 














.\rticle in Pesos 

Per Kiln. 
Pipes, tubes, hose, elbow.c, and jcints: 
Of rubber, not combined with cloth, 
except those of English sheets and 

the like l.OU 

The same, combined with clotli. 

with or witliout wire ... 60 

Of rubber, in pieces. esi)ecially for 

the manufacture of match bo.\es. . 1.50 

Cushions for billiard tables 1.50 

Soft, in sheets, valves, belting, cords. 

and mats 1 .00 

The same, combined with cloth or 

metal 60 

Horseshoes. rings. carriage and 

wagon tires, saw bands, and others 1..^0 

Tires for automobiles 2.00 

Toys, of soft or vujcanized rubber. . 1.20 
Rubber : 

Refined or soft ; 1.20 

Vulcanized (English sheets and the 
like, black or red) in the frrm of 
bags, belts, cloth, bandages, nip- 
ples, trusses, pumps, single or 
double bulbs for atomizers, sponges, 
tubes less than 5 millimeters in 
diameter, and all other unspecified 
articles used for medicinal use.. 5.00 


Urethralsounds 0. 10 

Tubes, 5 millimeters and upward in Per kilo, 
diameter, stoppers, teething rings. 

syringes, etc 3.00 

Lined or combined with cotton, linen, 
or wool, in the form of belts, hosiery, 
bandages, and other articles for sur- 
gical use 5.00 

Lined or combined with silk or mixed 

silk fabric $7.00 

Rubberised cloth, such as raincoat silk, 

etc 2.00 

Hard febonite and the like) ill the 
shape of surgical tubes, syringes, 
pessaries, or any other article for 
surgical use 3.50 





P. Ct. 




in Pesos 

Per Kilo. 























'er kilo. 












A bill to modify certain headings in the Greek customs tariff has been 
introduced. According to the new law, No. 2152, the duties on rubber 
goods will be as follows: 

Equiraleittx. — Drachma, 19.2 cents (nominal value); oke, 2.8 pound? 
avoirdupois; dramion, 0.111 ounce. 

General tional 
Tariff, Tariff. 
Drachmas Drachmas 

72b. Metal 

wires covered with rubber or gutta 

percha per 100 okcs 10.00 5.00 

325f. Pieces, sheets, bands, bars, pipes, etc., of rubber 
and gutta percha, mixed or not with other 
materials, and hat riin of cotton steeped in 

gum per 100 ohes 280.00 140.00 

In addition to the above amendments, the law provides for a municipal 
tax to be levied and collected on imported goods at the same time as the 
customs import duty. Imported goods, having once paid municipal (octroi) 
tax, are not again subject to such tax when transported to other munici- 

The municipal tax on goods subiecl to import duty (the above, therefore, 
too) is fixed at 25 per cent of the State import duty. 

Below is a I'st of rubber goods exempt from import duty, but liable to 
municipal taxes at the specified rates: 

Tariff Drachmas, 

No. P" 100 okes 

221<f. Packing of asbestos mixed with other substances 20.00 

325o. Rubber and gutta percha. raw and refined 50.00 

h. Threads of rubber and gutta percha 75.00 

(/. Diving suits 1000 


Among the articles classed as "luxury" goods, of which importation is 
prohibited, are mentioned waterproof and rubbered garments, caps, over- 
coats, mantles, etc. 


.\ German law of July 21 authorizes the German Government 
to apply the conventional tariff rates to goods of any origin. A 
government proclamation issued under the above law, dated July 
28, and ctTective .Kugust 6, provides that where the customs 
treatment of imported goods is established by a treaty or 
convention, this conventional treatment is to be applied to simi- 
lar goods from whatever country they may be imported. 


liy i; S/'ccuil Con-cspoiHlcnl 
nPHE Archiff z-oor ile Kubbcniiltunr of December, 1919, pub- 
■*• lishes a comparison of production costs in West Java and 
the Federated Malay States. .Although the figures in the first 
case are for 1917 and in the latter for the first half of 1918, they 
may prove interesting particularly as the conclusions give food 
for thought at a time when Malayan planters are fighting for 
higher prices for their rubber. 

Data for the Federated Malay States cover 193 estates : the 
average cost price lor 107 was about fl. 1.06 ( rtorin=$0.-40 
United States currency), ami for 86, fl. 1.61 per kilo of rubber. 

Placed side by side the average costs for West Java and the 
Federated Malay States are as follows (one bouw equals 1.75 
acres ; one kilo equals 2.2 pounds) : 

West Java F. M. S. 

(1) Average yield per bouw per annum kiloi 302 225 

(2) .\verage costs |ier kilo of rubber for upkeep of 

bearing area fl. 0.1388 fl. 0.2942 

(3) Tapping, preparation, packing, transportation per 

kilo of rubber 0.5477 0.5902 

(4) C'cneral expenses 0.2537 0.4222 

.'^ver.age cost per kilo of rubber fl. 0.940^ fl. 1.3066 

Special taxes due to circumstances have not been included in 
the above figures. The cost given above is the f. o. b. price to the 
nearest port and does not include insurance, freight and office 

In the above costs, the points to be noted are : general estate 
labor is cheaper in Java; tappers in Java will tap only and not 
do e.xtra work as the contract workers in the Federated Malay 
States do. On the other hand, the planter in Java has no 
recruiting costs, while salaries for the European staflf arc higher 
in the Federated Malay States and, last but not least, the yields 
in Java appear to be higher than in Malaya. 

Now the number of West Java estates considered was only 26. 
and then there was about a year's difference in time. .\s, pro- 
duction increases each year, the figures for West Java would 
have been still more favorable if they had been given for 1918 as 
was the case in the Federated Malay States. 

The writer ot the article concludes with the significant remark 
that since costs are much lower in Java, the rubber industry 
is on a firmer economic basis than is the case in Malaya ; conse- 
quently if prices should decline, Java estates would still have a 
martiin of profit, whereas the Malayan estates would not. 


The Planters' Union here has asked for a general increase in 
salaries amo.unting to 100 per cent. The employers have sug- 
gested that since a good many estates have already raised salaries, 
and as it is difficult to lump estates varying greatly in situation, 
climate, etc., where conditions consequently difTer .greatly, tniiii- 
mum salaries should be fixed. 


Of late, much attention has been given to selection in order to 
increase the production. Highest producers have been selected as 
sources of seed or budded stock for new plantings. However, it 
has been found that a good many of the best yielding trees de- 
velop brown bast, and their offspring would naturally inherit the 
saine tendency. In this connection Dr. R. D. Rands read a pajer 
before the annual meeting of the Union of Experiment Station 
Personnel, held at P.uitenzorg, Java. 

October 1, 1920.1 



To eliminate such susceptible trees. Dr. Rands proposes tap- 
ping superior trees as often as 5 to 6 times a day. This severe 
■overlapping would naturally induce brown bast in the susceptible 
trees, and those trees remaining healthy would serve as a source 
of resistant propagating stock. E.xperimcnts were carried out 
which resulted in the isolation of a high-yielding tree resistant to 
brown bast. A section of the Economic Garden has 1)cen planted 
with ofTspring from this tree for the purpose of future study. 


The 1919 report of the above concern shows that the company 
has not had a very favorable year. The capital has been in- 
creased from fl. 750,000 to fl. 2,500,000, in order to permit of ex- 
pansion, as at present the general ex])ense is too high for the 
amount of goods produced. 

Conditions brought about I)y the armistice were responsible for 
fewer sales, while prices had to be lowered in order to permit 
competition with imported articles, of which there were large 
tiuantities in the Netherland East Indies. Further, large sums 
had to be turned over to buyers of automobile tires and tubes, 
as it was shown that factory defects developed. In fact, the 
manufacture of automobile tires had to be temporarily stopped 
from January 1, 1919. .Mthough many defects were found in 
solid tires, it has been found that the quality is improving and 
therefore the manufacture of these will continue. 


The following figures show the quantities of automobile and 
bicycle tires imported into Java and Madura, 

Al'tomobile Tibe-s 

Four Months 
.Vpril Ended April 

From— 1919 1920 1919 1920 

Ni-lhcrlands ixiiinbcr) 300 253 325 454 

Oreat Britain 614 2,152 1,269 4,237 

France 9,437 4.154 17,426 6,326 

Canada 1,022 

Unitfd States 6,910 3,217 15,505 13,705 

Sinkapore 389 578 3,150 3.761 

lapan 270 3,616 17,477 14,195 

Elsewhere 728 9.626 4.232 6,699 

Totals 18,648 23,596 59,384 50,399 

HicvcLE Tires 

Four Months 
April Fnded April 
X .^ A ^ 

From— 1919 1920 1919 1920 

Vethcrlands fiiiilnbcr) 948 948 6,495 

Oreat Britain 588 441 1,673 

United States 650 215 1,004 736 

Singapore 200 50 20O 5,207 

[span 295 30,504 15,058 158,701 

Elsewhere 8.000 208 8,110 208 

Totals 10,093 31,565 25,761 173,020 


ACCORDING to the report of Consul Edwin N. Gunsaulus, 
Singapore, the steadily increasing foreign trade of the 
Straits Settlements, both in imports and exports, during recent 
years is to a large degree traceable to the remarkable industrial 
development that has been taking place in Malaya, especially in 
the cultivation and sale of rubber, which now far outrivals tin 
as one of the two basic industries of this country. 

The great bulk of the rubber production originates in the 
Malay Peninsula. The Straits Settlements derives its importance 
as a market for plantation rubber from the fact that practically 
the entire rubber trade of the Federated and Non-Federated 
Malay States is conducted through its ports, Singapore and 
Penang, and is included on this account in the trade statistics of 
the colony. 

As illustrating the development of the rubber industry, it only 
needs to be mentioned that the Malayan exports of this product 
increased from 430 tons in 1906 to 108,305 tons in 1918, and the 

value from $1,200,000 to $87,758,729. Imports into and exports 
Irom the Straits Settlements of Para rubber in 1917 and I91S 
were (1 pictil = 133'/j pounds) : 



Imports from — 





Malay States 

Dutch Fast Indies,... 
All >)tlier countries... 

. . 928,000 

., 124.000 


. . 1,092.000 










FxiKjrts to — 


United Kingdom 

United States 

All other countries.... 

.. 251,000 
.. 1,162.000 
.. 210.000 






Totals 1,623,000 $118,470,334 1,841,000 $87,758,729 

The following table gives the values of raw and manufactured 
rubber imporied into the Straits Settlements in 1917 and 1918; 



Article Quantity Value 
Raw Materials 

Gutta, inferior founds 7,258 $692,342 

Rubber, Para 57,483 68,859,205 

Manufactured Articles 

India rubber goods ". 121,551 



4,901 $533,156 

91,496 69,443,015 


By countries, imports of india rubber manufactures were as 
follows : 

Articles .ind Countries 1917 1918 
India rubber goods, including tires: 

United Kingdom $304,164 $348,414 

.Tapan 181.616 399.854 

Siam and Siamese States 1,56! 5,365 

United States 69,534 298,627 

France 252,750 154,941 

Italy 201,538 78,209 

In imports from the United States appreciable gains appear in 
rubber tires. 

The outstanding feature of the export trade of the Straits 
Settlements as concerns the buying .countries is the premier 
position held by the United States as a purchaser of Straits 
products and shipments for 1917 and 1918. This is due to a 
large extent to the extensive buying of crude rubber by .American 

The qainitities and values of raw rubber and gutta percha 
exported during 1917 and 1918 are given below: 



Tons Value 

3,140 $2,610,073 

1.178 124.960 

108,305 87.758,729 

Articles Tons Value 

Gutta pc-rcha 3,875 $1,557,328 

Gutta, inferior 5,148 432,767 

Ruljber, Para 95,476 118,470,176 

.•\ large advance in value is found in gutla percha, while 
there is a decrease in rubber. In the instance of gutta percha 
the e.xport value has increased while the quantity exported shows 
material decrease. 

The following table shows the value of rubber and gutta 
percha exported during 1917 and 1918 and the principal countries 
to which these products were shipped : 

Articles and Countries 
Gutta percha: 

United Kingdom 





United Slates 

Gutta, inferior: 
United Kingdom 



United States . . . 








Rubber, Para; 

United Kingdom 18.201,000 

Canada ' 6,554,000 


France 1,034,000 

Italy 1,236,000 

Japan 3,610,000 

United States 84,000,000 








[October 1, IVAJ. 

Declared exports of nilyber and gutta to the L'nited States 
from Singapore for the years 1917 and 1918 were as follows: 

1917 1918 

X -^ -^ 

Articles Quantity Value Quantity Value 

Gutta. ilongkong./'ouiidi *'•!*' ^'I'^'i'! 

Gutta Jangicar.. 45,733 $5,398 1,598 9,861 

Ciutla Jelutong 10,108,209 871,959 4,043,625 338,916 

Guttapercha 2,212,719 281,940 848,506 173,446 

Gutta. reboilcj 304,659 30,008 19,661 4,648 

Gutta, sialc 2,346,405 314,286 1,429,397 201,912 

Gutta, untreated 764.169 51,950 „i;Vi;>;, 

Rubber. Para 167,742.830 87,232.774 173,968,167 62.372.809 

The United States was the largest purchaser of rubber from 
the Straits Settlements, whilt tlie l'nited Kingdom led in the 
purchase of gutta pcrcha. 

Exports of rubber to the L'nited States as declared at Penang, 
were 25,474.672 pounds valued $14,103,936 in 1917, and 21,472,640 
pounds valued $5,479,827 in 1918. The decrease in export values 
was largely due to the sharp slump in the price of rubber dur- 
ing the year. 


/>y (J Spiuial Concspondrnt 

THERE is a general feeling of soreness here among rubber 
producers over the fact that w'hereas most articles have 
risen in price, rubber is a great exception. The opinion is that 
tins has been caused by outside control of the market, many 
openly saying that America is controlling the market and is 
refraining from buying until prices suit her. 

Various remedies have been offered by those that feel most 
strongly about the matter. .■Ml clamor for some kind of com- 
bination. One suggests that "the Rubber Growers' Associations 
obtain the combination of all members of their association to fix 
a minimum price of 2s. 6d. per pound for the lowest grade of 
rubber." Another wants to fix the price at 4s. per pound, yet 
another calls in the help of the Government which is to buy up 
all rubber at a fixed price, ranging from 80 cents (Straits) 
downwards and is to refuse to let a single pound out of the 
country under 5j-. per pound. This latter scheme reminds 
us somewhat of the famous Brazilian rubber valorization scheme, 
which cost the government a mint of money and was such a 
ghastly failure. 

After all this feverish agitation, the ^thoughtful editorial in 
the issue of July 31 of the Malayan Tin and Rnhbcr Journal is 
particularly gratifying. The editor points out that if the two- 
thirds of Malayan planters belonging to the Rubber Growers' 
Association formed a combine, an equally strong combine of 
Iniyers. watching proceedings, would buy up as much rubber as 
possible before the planters' combine had a chance to operate. 
and would be able to go on for several months with these pur- 
chases. Meanwhile, the producers' combine would not find a 
market for their high priced rubbers; the planters would have 
on hand an increasing stock of rubber — an article extremely 
liable to deterioration. Thus after four or five months, they 
would he only too glad to sell at any price. 

Of course, all producers are not joining the alarm; the follow- 
ing extract from a recent company report is further proof that 
there are still people capable of seeing things as they are : 

The really remarkable thing is that, with the world in its 
unsettled state, the demand for rubber should have kept pace 
with the greatly increased production. Here, I think, the low 
prices have been an aid to the industry ; at least they have scotched 

the synthetic bogey Low prices have led to the most 

careful thought being given to working expenditure, until today 
well-managed estates can produce at a price never thought of in 
the good old days of 5-shilling rubber. 


The Selangor Rubber Co., Ltd., has just celebrated its 21st 
birthday. Begun in 1899, it claims to be the first British company 
formed to cultivate Para rubber on a commercial scale. It 
bought 3.927 acres of land in Malaya, approximately 200 acres 

of which had been planted by the former (iwners in 1898. At 
present the company owns 2.631 ^^ acres, of which all that could 
be used for rubber, 2,51 lj<i acres, has now been planted. 

The first rubber sold was a small consignment of 342 pounds, 
which brought 6s. \]4d. per pound. The costs and yields of so 
old a company are undoubtedly interesting. The total yield 
was 888.830 pounds of dry rubber during 1919; the cost of pro- 
duction alone was just over 6]4d. per pound, against 6%^. per 
pound the year before. As for yields per acre, some of the 21 
year old rubber gave up to 500 pounds an acre, and none of it 
gave less than 350 pounds. Some of the newer rubber fields 
yielded well over 650 pounds per acre. 

Against these figures it is interesting to put those of another 
well-known company — the Seafield Rubber Co. Here the pro- 
duction costs, including export duties, was about 8d. per pound, 
against 8ygd. the year before. The older portion of the estate 
covering about 826 acres yielded 634 pounds per acre, one field 
giving 816 pounds per acre. The new portion with an acreage 
of 1,248 averages 501 pounds per acre. 

Production on most estates in Malaya ranges from about 450 
]iounds to 250 pounds, while all-in costs are generally around 
I.J. per pound. On some of the new'er estates all-in costs run 
as high as \s. 5d. per pound. 


Together with prices, the labor shortage and alternate daily 
tapping are being discussed a good deal at present. The number 
of planters using the alternate method is far greater than 
many have thought. Their reasons for favoring the method 
coincide pretty well ; the general opinion is that by this system 
the amount of labor required is reduced, while tlie percentage of 
first late.x rubber is considerably higher, one planter giving his 
percentage of first latex as over 87.6. Then there is a reduction! 
in costs, while it is further pointed out that lighter tapping favors 
the health of the trees. 


.\ new solid fiber telescopic chest for packing rubber is l'>eing 
introduced into the Far East by the Zellerbach Paper Co.. of San 
Francisco, California. These chests are sent out in the shape of 
sheets and are riveted, packed, wired, and made ready for ship- 
ment at the plantation. 

At a demonstration held in Singapore. 250 poinids of sheet 
rubber were packed in such a chest without much pressure. Iir 
a Borneo. Momi or Venesta chest but 200 to 250 pounds can be 
packed. To show the durability and resistance to breakage of 
these packages two fully packed chests were thrown to the 
ground from a height of 21 feet. They proved to he resilient 
as a rubber ball, and except for a small clip flying off. showed no 
damage. The same test applied to a Borneo chest resulted in the 
chest being smashed to pieces. Two Venesta cases thus- 
tested were also badly datnaged. Although the new case, which 
is made of a composition of fiber and jute, is somewhat more 
expensive than the other cases, it is felt that its advantages out- 
weigh this objection. 


According to the reports of Consul Edwin N. Gunsaulus. 
Singapore. Straits Settlements, while the import and export 
trade figures of the Straits Settlements embrace practically all 
the foreign trade transactions of . the Federated Malay States 
and the entire Malay Peninsula, as well by reason of the fact 
that essentially all of the incoming and outgoing products hav- 
ing to do with the Malay States pass through Singapore. Penang, 
and Malakka, the commercial and trade importance of the Straits 
Settlements depends to a great extent upon the development 
and progress of the hinterland, known as the Malay Peninsula. 
The development of the Malay Peninsula, particularly that por- 
tion included in the Federated Malay States, is well known and 

October 1, 1920.] 



for several years the Peninsula has led' all other countries in 
the production of crude rubber. 

The exports of rubber from the Federated Malay States 
were as follows for the last five years : 


1914 30,697 

1915 44,533 

1916 62,764 

1917 79.83 1 

1918 78.283 

Stocks in the Federated Malay States at the end of the year 
were still somewhat heavy. 

An outstanding feature of the year was the success attending 
the extraction of gutta percha by native methods from taban 


At this recently held agricultural and horticultural show, 
planters of the Kalutara district lent their aid. Among the ex- 
hibits were rubber sheets. The gold medal for unsmoked dia- 
mond sheet was won by the superintendent of Millekanda. 


Special Correspondence 

THE CAMPAIGN begun by F. S. Elson to organize some kind of 
union of planters to improve the lot of the working planter 
has given the Planters' Association of Ceylon a much-needed 
jolt. Once fully aroused to the real need of reforms, this 
association has lost no time in getting into immediate and sympa- 
thetic touch with Mr. Elson and his associates. As a result it 
is gratifying to learn that discussions to reconstitute the Planters' 
Association have been under way, and that the need for a 
separate organization to fight for the working planters' interests 
has practically vanished. 

It has been proposed to divide the interests at present repre- 
sented by the General Committee of Planters' Association of 
Ceylon into four heads: (1) The interests of the companies; (2) 
interests of private proprietors; (3) interests of working planters, 
including assistant superintendents; (4) a general committee to 
watch over, as at present, politics in its widest sense. 

Furthermore, resolutions have been passed with regard to 
salaries, pensions and furloughs. With reference to the latter, 
the opinion was that all planters should be entitled to six months' 
leave with full pay after five years' service in an up-country 
district, or four years' service in a low-country district; em- 
ployers should be asked to pay annually to the Ceylon Planters' 
Association a sum equal to one-fifth, in the case of art up- 
country planter, and one-fourth in the case of a low-country 
planter, of the six months' furlough full pay ; that a similar 
method should be adopted for payinent of the cost of passages 
to England. 


Graham McPhillips, Limited, of Singapore, which, during the 
latter part of 1919 had a branch office at Colombo, sued the 
General Rubber Co., also having a branch office at Colombo, 
for the recovery of 32,340 rupees as damages suffered by plain- 
tiff in consequence of an alleged breach of the terms of a contract 
dated September 12, 1919, for the sale of rubber. By the terms 
of this contract the General Rubber Co. was to supply 75 tons 
of rubber, to be delivered in October, November and December, 
1919, at the rate of 25 tons per month. Payment was to be 
made by bank demand drafts on London. Any alteration in 
method of payment which might come into force during the 
period of contract would be applicable to the contract. 

The plaintiff company claimed that, for the delivery of the SO 
tons during November and December, defendants insisted on 
payment in rupees and refused to accept demand drafts on 
London. Plaintiffs paid in rupees under protest and were com- 
pelled to cancel the cross-exchange contract with the bank, 
thereby suffering a loss of 32,340 rupees. 

Judgment was that after October, under the altered condi- 
tions of payment at [)ublic sales, the option of payment in 
sterling draft was no longer in force. Consequently, the de- 
fendants were entitled to payment in rupees, and plaintiffs could 
not claim damages.' Plaintiffs' action was dismissed with costs. 



THE spots that are sometimes noticed on plantation sheet ap- 
pear as clear, transparent and rather darker places on the 
slieets, varying greatly in size, form and number, but distinctly 
visible, particularly when held up to the light. With a few 
exceptions, both sides of the sheet are similarly spotted, show- 
ing that the defect extends through the sheet. 

Experiments show that these spots occur when sulphite or 
bisulphite or a combination of both is used. Small amounts of 
these chemicals do not affect the appearance of the sheet ; but 
when larger amounts are employed, the spots become evident. 
When a greater amount of curdling or coagulation of the latex 
lakes place, more of the sheets are spotted and the spots are 
larger and darker. 

The use of anti-coagulants other than sulphite and reduction 
or avoidance of bisulphite prevent spots from appearing. 


.\ damp atmosphere is particularly favorable to the develop- 
ment of rustiness, which is indeed most prevalent during wet 
weather. The degree of moisture in which sheets hang shortly 
after rolling is of the greatest importance. In wet weather, sheets 
taken immediately after rolling into a drying room at a tem- 
perature of 104 to 140 degrees F. never become rusty, while air 
drying (at room temperature) sometimes produces rustiness. 
It is also increased by rolling the sheet a longer time after 
coagulation. An increase in rustiness was caused in several 
experiments by rolling sheets twenty-four hours after coagula- 
tion instead of directly. 

One experimenter recommends soaking the sheets in water 
to prevent rustiness. However, another finds that this pro- 
motes rustiness. Even on sheets soaked in water for seven 
days rustiness can be produced. Rapid surface drying is re- 
garded as the best method to prevent rustiness caused by the 
decomposition of serum substances. 


Of late there has been considerable complaint about rubber 
that has left the estate quite dry and arrives in a mouldy con- 
dition or covered with colored spots. A few years ago, the 
lemedy was sought in oversmoking. .At present, however, with 
an overstocked market, buyers have been able to pick and 
choose and oversmoking means losses, .so that a new remedy 
must be found. 

Mouldiness is caused by damp conditions of packing or damp- 
ness during transportation. Thorough smoking and care in keep- 
ing the rubber dry afterward is the best method for preventing 
mould. Cases should never stand on a cement floor, but be 
placed at least three or four inches off the floor. Other remedial 
suggestions are : the .separation of factory and packing room ; pack- 
ing rubber in lead-lined cases : redrying the rubber at the coast ; 
the making of black rulibcr instead of sheet and baling this. 
It is said that soaking unsmoked sheet for 48 hours will pre- 
vent mould. In the case of smoked sheets, soaking 5 to 20 hours 
before smoking is advised. 


Dominican Republic during 1918 from the United Slates to the 
value of $137,804; from the United Kingdom, $116; from 
France, $60; from Porto Rico, $5,904; and from all other coun- 
tries, $92, a total of $143,976 for the year. 



1 October 1. I'lJO 

Recent Patents Relating to Rubber 



ISSUED APRIL 13, 1920 

O. 1,337,009* Hard rubber dye stick with soft rubber plugs for ends. 
W. V. Kolcy, assignor to India Rubber Co., — both of New 
Hrunswick. N*. J. 

1,350,205 Hose reel. J. E. Andersi n, Jamestown, N. D. 
1,350,211 Sea dirisible. I). Corson, Jr., Mount L^nion, Pa. 
1,350,216 Shoe heel with rubber plug. G. F. Fischer. Rochester, -N. 





















1.349.572 Higli 









Rubber outer sole for shoe, with heel rest intended to be con- 
cealed wlien heel is attached. G. Ferguson. WoUaston, Mass., 
assignor to L'nited Shoe Machinery Co.. Paterson, N. J. 

Cushion wheel. . F. A. Frommann, Chicago. HI. 

Tire composed of rubber of different degrees of hardness for 
the main portion and f r r the edges of the tread, integrally 
combined. W. VV. Beaumont. London. F^ngland. 

Fountain-pen-filling device for bottles, with rubber bull). A. T. 
Cross. Providence. R. I. 

Water reservoir to be used in tidal movemeni power system, 
having tubular connection ti outside motor. V. Pacsano, 
Isola Siri Superiore, Italy, assignor of one-half to P, Hi 
Milla, Boston, Mass. 

Rubber udder attachment for milking-machines. P. A. Frimand, 
Wilmette, assignor to the Burton Page Ca, Chicago — both 
in llliiiLis. 

Syringe nozzle tip. G. \'. Harriman. New York City. 

Tire-patch. W. C. Wood, Minneapolis. Minn. 

Inflatable hand cushion for plasterers' hawks. K. J. Peck, Port- 
land, Ore. 

Spring-tire. M. O. Sweiven. Olivia, Minn. 

Resilient tire. L. W. Wood. Fontanelle. Iowa. 

Flexible and resilient shoe sole with intermediate layer of rubber. 
J. B. Frechette. Valparaiso. Ind. 

Pessary. L. Martocci-Pisculli. New York City. 

Elastic dress-shield supprrter. K. Schrader. Salina, Kansas. 

Syringe. C. E. A. Gronbech, New Y'ork City, assignor to Charles 
T. Tagliabue Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn — both in New 

One-piece waterproof garment. D. L. MacCallum. t ambridge. 

Gas mask. E. W. Miller. Washington, D. C. 


.\viator's helmet with similarly shaped outer container for water 

or air. A. Kaminski, Unionttwn, Pa. 
Cushion tire. C. D. Macropoulos, New York City. 
Toy airplane operated by rubber band. A. F. Thurnau, assignor 

to Lawrence Airplane Model & Supply Co. — both of Chicago, 

Vehicle-wheel with demountable rim. L. V. Annable, assignor. 

b^ mesne assignments, to The Standard Parts Co. — both of 

Cleveland, Ohio. 
Tire tread. W. N. Forbes, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada. 
Tire carcass. G. F. Fisher, Plainfield, N. J., assignor to Revere 

Rubber Co. 
Resilient cushion tire. C. LaCour, Dixon, 111. 
Bathing cap. O. R. Jeffers. assignor to Cieneral Patent Manu- 
facturing Co. — both of Chicago, 111. 
Gum and mint case. L. W. Buchenau, Stockton. Calif. 
Metal-studded fabric band antiskid for tires. W. Rcinl. Secau- 

cus. N. J. 
Rubber footwear and method of manufacture. J. M. Uice. 

F. A. Joseph, and .\. I). Rnpp — all of New Haven, Conn. 
Balloon valve. J. R. ('.ammeter. .Akron. Ohio, assignor to The 

B. F. Goodrich Co., New York City. (See The India Rub- 
ber World, August 1. 1919, page 637.) 
Spring wheel. H. M. Hi.rne. assignor of one-half to W. J. 

Sudderth — both of Sulphur Springs. Tex. 
Tire abrader. 1-". J. Cordell. St. Louis, Mo. fSee The lNDr.\ 

Rubber World, February 1. 1920. page 297.) 
Milking machine with rubber teat-cup linings. W. .\. Shippcrt. 

Chicago. 111. 
Dust cap fur pneumatic tire valves. J. W. Laird. Pasadena, 

Syringe. O. (). R. Schwidetzkv, 

to Beckton. Dickinson & Co, 

Parachute. X. Koza, .\kron, Ohio. 
I'ountain brush. J. Lukaszewski. Chicago. 111. 


ubber boot with laced foot portion. C. W. Hubbell. 

assignor to The Goodyear's India Rubber Glove Manufac- 
turing Co. — both of Naugatuck, Conn. 
.\pparatus for mooring dirigibles and the like. K. S. Ullmann, 

New York C'ity. 
Rubber-soled canvas shoe. IT. Westling, assignor to Apsley 

Rubber Co. — both of Hudson. Mass. 
Rubbcr-solcd slioe. H. Wtstling. assignor to Apsley Rubber 

Co. — both of Hudson, Mass. 
Rubber-dam clamp forceps. I. W. Ivory. Philadelphia, Pa 
Recoil pad f.^r firearms. W. L. Marble. Gladstone. Mich. 
Tire bead. T. Midgley, Springfield, assignor to The Fisk Rubber 

Co., Chicopec Falls— both in Massachusetts. 
Tire valve cap. R. H. Simpson, Berkeley, Calif. 
Low-pressure signal for subnormal tires. C. T. Kwing and 

A. ICwing — both of Los Angeles. Calif. 
Car hose-coupling. E. A. Schreiber, assignor to \ apor Car 

Heating Company, Inc. — both of Chicago, 111. 
Non-slip heel for footwear. G. W. Watson, Boston, Mass. 
Dress shield. H. Weeks, assignor of one-half to S. K. Durant — 

both of New York City. 

Ilasbrouck Heights, 
. Rutherford — both 

in New 

A. L. Runyan, 
H. Wagenhorst. 
H. Wagenhorst. 

assignor of C. R. 

•Omitted from our issue of June 1, 1920. 

Chemical Patents will be found on pages 29, 


ISSUED JULY 27, 1920 

202,146 Tire casing. H. E. Grabau and .-V. C. Schwartz, coinventors, 

both of New Y'ork City, U. S. .\. 
202,222 Overshoe retainer. \'. E. Langhardt, Fresno, Calif., U. S. A. 
202,251 Demountable rim for tires. S. M. Saltzman, Brooklyn, N. Y., 

U. S. A. 
202,288 Tire casing. The Canadian Consolidated Rubber Co., Limited, 

Montreal, (Quebec, Canada, assignee of DeC. Neal, Charlotte, 

X. C, V. S. A. 
202,303 Rubber heel with atUching device. Tlie Hill Rubber Heel Co., 

assignee r.f K. I. Hill— bcth of Elyria. Ohio. V. S. .\. 
202.325 Rubber glove with constricted finger portions to take up slack. 

The Sterling Rubber Co.. assignee of J. B. Abler — -both of 

Guelph. Out. 
202.339 Composition cord fabric and rubber sole for boots and shoes. 

J. E. Grosjean, assignor, and F. L. Maire, assignee of a 

half-interest — both of Lima. ')hio. U. S. .;\- (See The 1sdi.\ 

Rubber World, June 1, 1920, page 590.) 


202,363 Sanitary mattress cover pad with rubber insert. J. V\'. and 
M. E. Callahan, coinventors — both of EJ Paso, Texas, 
U. S. A. 

202.368 Breast pump. A. E. Anderson, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. 

202.438 Adjustable skirt with ela.'itic belt. T. La Maida, New York 

City. U. S. A. 

202.439 Celluloid ftnintain nen with rubber washer. F. La Bocuf, 

Belleville. N. J , U. S. A. 
202.447 Pneumatic tire. C. I.. Marshall. London. E. C. 4. Flngland. 

202.482 Spring wheel with cushioij tire. T. Rozankovich, Galveston, 

Texas. LT. S. A. 

202.483 Wheel cushion and means for mounting same. 

Omaha, Nebraska. U. S. A. 

202.510 Tire carrying rim for automobile wheels. J. 

Jackson, Michigan, U. S. A. 

202.511 Tire carrying rim lor automobile wheels. J. 

Jackson. Michigan. V. S. .\. 

202,526 F'onntain pen. The Autoiwint Pencil Ci., 

Keeran, both of Chicago, Illinois, C. S. A. 

202,539 Radio operator's helmet. The International Western Electric 
Co.. Inc.. New York City, U. S. A., assignee tf The 
Western Electric Company, Montreal. Que., assignee of 
F. D. Waldron, Brooklyn, N. Y.. U. S. A. 

202,551 Apparatus for transmitting selected sounds and excluding 
others, for nse of aviators. The .Stentor Electric Manufac- 
turing Co., Inc . assignee of J. L. Spence — both of Long 
Island City. N. V.. U. S. A. 

202,568. Bottle closure or cover with two ojienings and inside gasket. 
E. Deighton anrl K Islip. assignee of a half interest— bcth 
of Toronto. Out. 


202,659 Reinforced resilient tire. J. H. Douglas, Norfield, Mississippi, 

V. S. A. 
202,688 Undergarment having an outside elastic band adjacent to the 

waist portion. K. Heitler. New York City, U. S. A. 
202,698 Life preserver. S. Kelso, Toronto. Ont. 

202.703 Reinforced tire. F. W. Kremer. New York City. U. S. A. 
202,742 Resilient tire filler. .\. L. Runyan. Omaha. Neb., V. S. A. 
202.753 Hose coupling. W. K. Smith, (iainesville. Ga.. U. .S. A. 
202,833 Demountable split tire rim .-S. O. Vanzandt and A. J. Sperber, 

each an assignee of a half interest — both of Toledo. C, 

V. S. A. 


Rubber tobacco iioucli. L. T. .\delman, LaKemp, Okla., U. S. A. 

Cusliicii tire. M. E. Baxter, East Liverpool. O.. U. S. A. 

Child's comforter with sponge rubber inside rubber teat. R. 
Briggs. St. Kilda. Victoria, Australia. 

Pneumatic tire with armor having pieces of vulcanite reinforced 
with metal plates embedded in its layers. J. E. Dysart, 
Cadiz, O., V. S. A. 

C. L. Marshall. London, E. C. 4, England. 

M. Starmer. Newport News, Va.. U. S. A. 
head with countersink for valve. II. B. 
is. Mo.. U S. A. 

Submarine sound-detecting device having unstretched and un- 
strained soft rubber diaphragm. The Canadian (.eneral 
Electric Co.. Limited, Toronto. Ont., assignee of W. D. 
Coolidge, Schenectady, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Submarine sounil-receiving device with an enclosed chamber for 
microphone having at least one wall of soft rubber i he 
Canadian General Electric Co.. Limited, Toronto. Ontario. 
Canada, assignee of C. VV. Rice. Schenectady. N. \ .. C. S. A. 

Submarine sound-detecting device with rubber diaphragm and 
microphone attached. The Canadian General Klectnc Co., 
Limited. Toronto, Ont., assignee of I. I.angmuir, Schenectady, 
N. Y., U. S. A. , ■ ,. . 

Kite balloon with ballonct separate from envelope W'lth auto- 
matic inlet and outlet valves. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber 
Co.. assignee of R. Ilpsrn- both of Akron, O.. U. S. A. 

Tire pressure gage. A. Schrader's Son, Inc.. New York City, 
assignee of 11. Kcvton. North Bereen, N. J.— both in V. S. A. 

Tire pressur- <age. A. Schrader's Son. Inc.. New York City, 
assignee of T. A. Bowden. Los Angeles. Calif —both in U. S. A. 








Pneumatic tire 
(iarment siljiportcr. 
Inner tube havine 
Wallace, St. I.o' 

30. Machinery Patents on pases S3. 34. 

October 1, 1920.] 



203,127 Dirigible mooring device. Vickers, Ltd., Westminster. London, 
assignee of Sir. J. McKechnie, K. B. E.^ of Barrow-in-Kur- 
ness, and H. N. \\'allis, of Crange-over-bands, both of Lan- 
caster^ — all in Knglami. 





























Pneumatic tire reinforced by overlapping nielal plates between 
casing and tube. J. E. Wilkes, 24 Horseley road, Tipton, 

Games employing rubber bulbs. J. L. Palmer and H. M. Smith — 
btrth of 16 tireat (Ici-rgf street, Westminster. 

Tire valve T. A, Low, Renfrew, Ontario. Canada. 

Safety feet for ladders, j. Paterson, Laurel Bank, P.urneside, 
near Kendal, Westminster. 

Safety inner pocket closed by a broad band of elastic. G. 
Dickson, 21 Cedar street, Chcetbam, Manchester. 

I'arachute. A. Merchant. Bobbin Works. Korrcs, Morayshire. 

Rubber lined tobacco pouch. R. Lyons, 60 City Road. Manchester. 

Tank for coagulating rubber. T. Burney, Holland House, Bury 
street. London. 

netacbahle ndjber heels. W. J. Sellars, 213 Tinakori road, 
Wellington. New Zealar.d 

Boot pi I. lectors consisting of three rubber pads of special shape. 
T. W. Green, 1/9 Forest road, Waltliamstow, London. 

Suction denture. A. L. Davis, 2 Devonshire street, Chester- 
field, DerbyslTire. 

Pocket respirator. C. Rosling and R. IL Davis — both of 187 
Westminster Bridge road, London. 

Artificial legs vkith rubber cords. P. A. Ingold, 8 Jt lianiivorstatt. 
Bale. Switzerland. 

Moustache trainer with rubber band. L. Doubnikoff'. 65 Hatlam 
street. I oiidon. 

Resilient wheel with intermediate pneumatic chamber. A. A. 
A. Darche, Edith Cavell road, Alger, Algeria. (Not yet 

Kabric-covered nutallie patch for rei)airing tires. E. M. Steel, 
Washington. I'. S, A. (Xot yet accepted.) 

Reinforced pneuiratic tire. P. A. Sawyer. 78 North Main street, 
and W'. C. I'urton- -both in Memphis, Tennessee. (Not yet 

Rubberized tobacco poncbe.=. L B. Kleinert Rubber Co., as- 
signee of v. Guinsburg — both of 725 Broadway. New York 
City. C S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

I'neumatic suppt i ts. II. Seibel. 572 Foisc m street, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif nrnia. l\ S. A. ( Xot yet accei)ted.) 

Sound detecting and lorating apparatus fcr hydro] )lione5, aero- 
phones, etc., of wliich the complete receiver may be fitted 
within a rubber sphere. D. N, Browning. 4 Clayton terrace, 
Dennistoun, Glasgow , Scotland. 


useil in sprinii wht-els. 
(.'. Reuse. 18 Quai au 

Stoi)^iers for hot -water bcittlcs. etc. 
Works. Anriesland, Glasgow, z 

Ueturmabie blocks uf rubber, etc. 

couplings and vibration-dampeis, 

Charbon. Halle, Belgium. 

loco Proofing Co., Xethcrton 
and H. i). Watt. Drumchapel, 

Device for securing heel pads. K. ^L Ilamilti-n. 10 Chester 

Crescent, Newcastle-nn- Tyne. 
Resilient tire. F. W. Kremer, 116 West 39th street. New York 

City, U. S. A. (Xot yet accepted.) 
Tire valves. Payne \'alvf Corporation, assignee of M. j. Payne 

— both of Witz Building, Staunton. Virginia, U. S. A. (Not 

yet accepted. ) 
I^nt-nmatir tire. M. 1.. Ochs. 1520 Grand avenue, Kansas, 

Missouri, I*. S. A. ( Not yet accepted.) 


.Submarine souml ti Iters or lesunators. J. A. Burgess, (irand 
place. Washingtcn, and G. B. Hutchings, Box 10, Richmond, 
\'irginia — b^th in L'. S. A. 

D' cans for tire valves. D. H. Webster, New York City, 
U. S. A. 

Spring tire with rim enclosing air lultc. G. Negri, 31 via XX 
Scptembrc. Genoa. Italy. 

Knee pads containing insert of rubl)er, gutta percba, etc., to' 
provide warmth. R. Walsh, 5 Clifford street, Nelson, 

Reinforced tire filler with inflatable and non-infiatable chambers. 
R. Blakoe. 46 Bryanston street. Marble Arch. London. 

Rubber sole with upstandirg rubber pads secured to )n;i\ by ad- 
justable nieces of leather. B. A. Thornhill, Single Tree, 
Newera Eliya, Ceylon. 

Pneumatic milking-machine. De Laval Separator Co., 165 
Broadway, New York City, assignee of M. Leitch, Kingwood 
Park. Pfiughkeepsie, N. Y. — both in U. S. A. (Not yet 


Land wheels with rul)l>cr springs for deadening shock of landing 
in a seaplane. F"airey Aviation Co. and C. R. Fairey — both 
of Clayton road. Hayes, Middlesex. 

Repair vulcani^.er. W. Frost and H. Frost & Co. — both of 148 
Great Portland street. London. 

Demountable rim for tires. C. F. Rubsam, 233 Broadway, New 
York City, U. S A. 

Apparatus for reclaiming rubber, etc.. from waste. E. C. 

Marks, 57 Linc'>ln's Inn Fields, London. (Acnshnet Process 
Co., 52 Vanderbilt avenue. New York City. U. S. A.) 

Automatic valve for kite balloons. J. D. Mackworth. 17 Devon- 
shire street. Portland Place. L^mdon. and A. P. Starkey, 
Dunsniore. South Hill avenue, Harrow. 

Mine breathing-appliances. C. L. Brown, 159 Yorke street, 
Mansfield Wnodhousc, Nottinghamshire. 

Return balls of cork with elastic cord. H. C. Wood, 5 
Bromfield terrace. Tadcaster, Yorkshire. 

Wheel tires. C. L. Marshall. 27 Queen \'ictoria street, London. 



Combined cushion and pneumatic tire. R. Blakoe. 46 Bryanston 

street. Marble Afch. I^ndon. 
Pneumatic tire having rubber security-band to seat on rim. 

F. L. Rapson. Cbildwall Hall, London. 
Portable respiraiory apparatus. A. B. Drager. trading as 

Dragerwerk H. .^ H. Drager, Finkenberg, Lubeck, Germany. 

(Not yet accepted.! 




ni a section of hose — rubber or rubber 
N'oorhces Manufacturing Co., Jersey City, 
















0,636. Reiircsentatiuti 

comiKjsiti'in hose 

N J. 
. Ihe words Snap Lux — dust caps for pneumatic tire valves. 

(See The India R'Bber World. April 1, 1920, page 434.) 

Newson Valve (_'o., St. Louis, Mo. 
The word liARCo— composition asbestos and rubber gaskets, etc., 

liarco Manufact:iring Co., Chicago. Ill, 
The words McRae's Made Right worked into representation 

of a Elencil. the initials M and R serving for both sets of 

words — inner tubes. McRae Wholesale Hardware Co., 

Helena, Ark. 
Conventionalized representation of a bird with outspread wings 

standing on a tire acrcss which is superimposed the v.ord 

JenCKEs, having large letters at l>oth ends^tire fabrics in 

the piece. Jenckes Spinning Co., Pawtucket, R. I. 
Representation of label bearing picture of a courtier and the 

words Dui.uTH Standaki* — armbands, garters and suspenders. 

Slonim llrotliers, I^uUitli. Minn. 
The words Ne-Pac— rubber and balata belting and packing, 

pneumatic and solid rubber tires, rubber and fabric gaskets, 

rubber comi>ositi<>n and fabric valves, and modelrubbcr 

ammonia rings. Capen Belting ^V- Kiibber Co., St. L(;nis, Mo. 
Representation of au inner tube ■an<l the word KANTKHMuir in 

white against a rectangular background — rubber patches for 

repairing rubber or fabric articles. Stearns Rubber Products 

Co., Chicago, 111. 
The word Gasmask — rubbet sheeting in the piece or roll. J{. 

L. Kaufmann, Louisville, Ky. 
Representation of an eagle carrying arrows in his talons and 

in his beak a scroll bearing the word Rui^berweld — cement 

for patching rubber, leather and fabric articles. Albert J. 

Tomlinscn. W'icl'ita, Kansas. 
The word Heath erstone — fabric and rubber carriage cloth. 

United Stales Rubber Co., New Krunswick, N. J., and New 

York City. 
The word Vf.nteel — fabric and rubber carriage cloth. United 

States Rubber Co., New Brunswick. N. J., and New York 

The word \ahnte\ — fabric and rubber carriage cloth. United 

States Rubber Cc, New Hrunswick. N. J,, and New York 

The word Millhvde — fabric and rubber carriage cloth. United 

States Rubber Co., New Ilrunswick. N. J., and New Y'ork 

Representation of u lire encircling map of the State of Ohio 

and bearing the words The Ohio .State Rubber Tire I o., 

Port Clinton. Ohh^ — pneumatic tires and inner tubes. The 

Ohio State Rubber Tire Co., Port Clinton, Ohio. 
The word Navgatop — fabric and rubber carriage clolh. United 

States Rubber Co., New lirunswick, N. J., and New York 

The word Raynbar — fabric and rubber carriage cloth. United 

States Rubber Co., New Rrunswick. N. J., and New York 

The word Shpertex — fabric and rubber carriage cloth. United 

States Rubber Co.. New Brunswick. N. J., and New York 

The word Prudential — tires and tubes. The Prudential Rubber 

Co., Akron, Ohio. 
The words Red Raven Rubber Comi'any within a shaded oval 

— tires ant! tubes. J. H. Dwork, Newark. N. J. 
The word Picher within a conventional line border — storage 

batteries and parts. The EaglePicher Lead Co., (Tincinnati, 

The word "Macgregor" quoted — golf balls, etc. The Crawford, 

Macgregor & Caiiby Co., Dayton, Ohio. 
The wordi^ C,old Seal — rubber tires and inner tubes. I'rydcn 

Rubber Co.. Cliicago, HI. 
The word .SoxLox — hose supporters. C. W. Egerton, 191 Hal- 

sey street, P.rooklyn, N. V. 
The word Atlantic — rubber tires. The tTiaries William Stores, 

Inc.. Brorjklyn, \. Y. 
Conventionalized representation of a tire surrounding a bust 

portrDit of I.iuci.ln and bearing the words Honest Abe — 

rubber tires, casings and tubes. Lincoln Tire & Rubber Co., 

Youngstown, 'loledo, Piqua and Troy. Ohio, and Miami, 

Representation of a bulldog — dental rubber, dam and bulbs. 

Atlantic Rubber Manufacturing Corjioration, New Y'ork City. 
The word Leathereign — men's, women's and children's rain- 
coats, etc. C. Kenyon Co., Brooklyn. N. Y. 
Representation of a label bearing a silhouette of fir trees and 

the words CouNTRi Mufti— men's and women's raincoats 

and rubber gloves. John Lurie. Inc.. New York City. 
The words Pony Blimp separated by a Representation of 

\\inged horse — motrr-driven balloons. 

& Rubber Co.. ,\kron. Ohio. 
The word I'rotecto — sanitary bicomers. 

iS: Specialty Co., Inc., New York City. 
The word Leathereign — waterproof fabrics in the piece. 

Kenyon Co., Firooklyn, N. Y. 
The words Teddy Pants — rubber babv-jrants and diaper covers. 

Tlie Miller Rubber Co., Akron. Ohio. 
The words Pony Blimp— motor-driven balloons. The Goodyear 

Tire it Rubl)er Co., Akron. Ohio. 
The word Kdison — fountain pens and pen points. Edisi>n Pen 

Co., Inc., Petersburg, \'a. 

The Goodyear Tire 
Rubberized Sheeting 



[October 1, 1920. 
























The words PowKt Px,ut with eke loop of the initial P cooUin- 

inii llic rciiumnicr ol the word i owcr in ^laKKf ' f'i Ifltcrs, 
.»nii helow the hn \> the wt.rci IMus. also in Htaggercd letters — 
rrpair patclu-s loi tires and tulies. Darling, Miller & Co., 
New York City. 

The word Hu&kie — rubber vehicle tire casings and tubes. 
The United Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. 

Conventional representation of two thistle blossoms on a stem 
between two leaves, above the words Steau CuRED^dress 
shields. J. J. Beyerle Manufacturing Co., New -i'ork City. 

The word Irene — dress shields. 1. J, Beyerle, New York City. 

The word Kxcello — rubber! zi-d mackinaws, mackintoshes, etc. 
Excello Clothing Company, Inc.. Passaic, N. J. 

The facsimile autographic signature I>orothy Dodd — men's, 
women's and children's hoots, shoes and slippers cf leather, 
rubber and fabric. Dorothy Dodd Shoe Co., Boston, Mass. 

The words Queen Quality — men's, women's and children's 
boots, shoes and ^ slippers of leather, rubber and fabric 
Thomas G. Plant Co.. Buston, Mass. 

The letter H within two concentric circles — tires and tubes. 
The United Rubber Co.. Akron, Ohio. 

The word Dit vertically placed within convcntioaal arrangement 
of lines — rubber boots. George F. Dittmann Boot & Shoe Co., 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Representation of a seal bearing figure of an eagle perched on 
several rolls of belting, beneath the words Original Manu- 
facturers OF Mechanical Rubber Goods, Established 1828. 
all within a border bearing the words Boston Belting Com- 
TANY, Boston. Mass. — roller covers. Boston Belting Co., 
Boston, Mass. 

Representation of a caravel beside the word Caravel — rubber 
elastic for garters and bands, notions, etc. Caravel Company, 
Inc., New York City. 

Conventionalized star design within a circle, with the letter 
W in the center of the star — ^silk elastic garter- web. silk 
cable elastic web. lisle elastic, silk elastic, etc. George 
Williams Co., New York City. 

The letter A within a spade spot outline — hard rubber knife 
and razor handles and hard rubber pumps. American Hard 
Rubber Co.. Hempstead and New York. N. Y. 


The words C. S. F. Shoe Findings and Novelties — rubber 

heels, foot appliances, etc. Canadian Shoe Findings Novelty 

Co., Toronto, Ont. 
The word V'alvene — washers fcr water taps. The Commercial 

India Rubber Manufacturing & Supply Co., Limited, 585 

Commercial Road. London, Eng. 
The words Natty Pad in fancy type with flourishes — garters. 

George Frost Co., Boston. Mass.. V. S. A. 
The word Tiromfter — combined tire and tube valve and gage. 

Tirometer Valve Corporation of America. Charlcstcn, W. Va., 

V. S. A. (See The India Rubber World. April 1, 1920, 

page 434.) 
The word Premier — erasers, etc. Twigg & Beeson, 6-7 Ludgatc 

Hill, B-rmingham. England. 
The word Firestone — pneumatic and solid tires. Firestone Tire 

& Rubl>er Co., Akron, O., i'. S. A. 
The words Twin and Wedge within a heel-shaped outline — 

rubber heels for men",';, women's and children's shoes. Barva 

Heel & Tire Factory. Inc.. Fort Wayne. Ind., U. S. A. 
The word Sorbo— rubber sp'jnges and other sponge rubber 

products, etc. S(irU> Riibber-Sponiie Products, Limited, Sorbo 

Works, Maybury Road. Woking. Surrey, Eng. 



Representation of head of an Indian within a tire upon which 
are inscribed the words The Savage Tire Company — tires. 
The Savage Tire Co., San Diego, Calif., U. S. A. 

The word Usco — hose and packing. 
Co., New York City. U S. A. 

United States Rubber 





55,947. Highway advcrtisiiiK and directing device formed by a reP' 

rescntation of a tire through which, an arrow passea from left 

to right. Patented .August 3. 1920. Term 7 years. F. A 

Horn, Denvr, (,'ol 
Tire tread. I'atenlcd August 3, 1920. Term 7 years. J. D. 

Tew. Akron, Ohio, assignor to The B. F. Goodrich Co., New 

York City. 
Air-pump nozzle. Patented August 10, 1920. Term 7 

C. .\1. Boyce, Westcliff-on-Sea, England. 
Non-skid tire. Patented -August 10, 1920. Term 14 

W. E. Duerstcn, New Castle, Pa. 
Rubber heel. I'atcntcd August 10, 1920. Term 14 years. 

Frederick, Detroit, Mich. 
Tire. Patented August 10 1920. Term 14 years. W. W 

S. B 

man. assignor to The VVildman 

Rubber Co.. — both of Detroit 













Two-faced double-sided doll. Patented August 10, 1920. Term 

14 years. F. Kaupmann, Tr., Brocklyn, N. Y., assignor to 

The Faultless Rubber Co., Ashland. Ohio. 
Tire cover. Patented August 10, 1920. Term 7 years. P. M. 

T.ockwood, Kansas City, Mo. 
Advertising and toy balloon in shape of a tire with balloon 

basket suspended below. Patented August 10, 1920. Term 

14 years. W. M. Madison. Cleveland, Ohio. 
Tire. Patented -August 17, 1920. Term 14 years. A. J. Pen. 

nington. assignor to U. S. Compression Inner Tube Co, — 

both of Tulsa. Okla. 
Tire. Patented August 17. 1920. Term 14 years. A. J. Pen- 
nington, assignor to U S. Compression Inner Tube Co. — both 

of tulsa, Okla. 
Tire. Patented August 17, 1920. Term 14 years. A. J. Pen- 

ninptcn. assigncT to U. S. Compression Inner Tube Co. — both 

of Tulsa, Okla. 


Badge, consisting of .i representation of an automobile wheel 
with tire and three big letters: A. O. .A., the letter O in 
the center of the wheel and an .A on each side; also the 
words Automobile Owners' Association on the tire. Patented 
August 3, 1920. Automobile Owners' Association, Montreal, 


747,957 (July 15, 1920) Suspender made of a strip of rubber. Georg 

Stange, Koethener Strasse 49, Leipzig-Gohlis. 
748.036 (July 15, 1920) Medical syringe. Robert E. Klett, Ridcefield 

748,150 (July 19, 1920) Toy made of soft rubber. Michael Hahn, 

Neuhauser Strasse 12, Muenchen. 
748,373 (June 15, 1920) Elastic bee! insert. Heinrich Dresing, Lut- 

748,375 (June 21, 1920) Exchangeable rubber heel. Gustav Milse, 




Exporters Fine. Medium. 

Stowell & Co kilos 83,153 3.216 

General Rubber Co. of Brazil Ul.ClS 20.064 

Tancredo. Porto & Co 43,130 7,763 

Higson & Fall 

268,101 31,043 
In transit from Iqi'itos 

Totals A:,7o,t 268,101 31.043 

Compiled by Stowell & Co., ^[anaos, Brazil. 































146,158 478,092 
198 198 

32,790 146,356 478,290 


















39,657 35,538 54.200 150,776 










J. Marquee 



' 23'.976 










" 5,197 




















' 24^426 







.Stowell & Co 



Ferreira. Costa & Co 


General Rubber Co 

Suarez, Filho & Co 

Alfredo Valle & Co 






From Manaos 


























Compiled by Stowell Sr Co., Pari, Brazil. 

October 1, 1920.] 



Review of the Crude Rubber Market 


SEi'TEMBER witnessed the lowest prices on standard plantation 
rubber ever recorded in the New York market. Spot first 
latex crepe sold for 24'/2 cents, smoked sheet ribbed 23'/2 
cents and uprivcr fine 27 cents. Futures likewise made low rec- 
ords of 30 cents for January-June, first late.x crepe, and 28 cents 
for ribbed snKiked sheet. 

With practically no demand from the large manufacturers, 
the only market sustaining features were small factory replace- 
ments and the limited business of dealers covering short sales. 
As the month progressed the market became weak, and, lacking 
the support of the dealers, who had withdrawn, fearing greater 
losses, values continued to fall. That the bottom of the market 
has been reached is believed in many quarters, however, until the 
banks resume credits, the production of rubber goods returns to 
normal, and buying is again resumed by the manufacturers, 
uncertainty will cloud the crude rubber situation. 

Arrivals of crude rubber during August were 13,564 tons, com- 
pared with 11,067 tons a year ago. Total arrivals for eight 
months ended August 31, 1920 were 181,337 tons, compared 
with 142,759 for the same period in 1919. It is estimated that 
26,000 tons are in store in New York at the present time, includ- 
ing a large amount of mouldy rubber that is being sold at Ziyi 
to 23 cents, according to quality. 

Spot and future quotations on standard plantation and Brazil- 
ian sorts at the first and last of the past month were as follows : 

Plantations. September 4, first latex crepe, 29 cents ; Octo- 
ber-December, 30J/2 cents ; January-June, 3Sj4 cents. 

September 27, first latex crepe, ZSyi to 26 cents ; October- 
December, 265^ to 27}^ cents ; January-June, 30 to 31 cents. 

September 4, ribbed smoked sheets, 27 cents ; October-Decem- 
ber, 29H cents ; January-June, 34^ cents. 

September 27, ribbed smoked sheets, 23J4 to 24J^ cents; Oc- 
tober-December, 25 cents ; January-June, 28 to 30 cents. 

September 4, No. 1 amber crepe, 29 cents. 

September 27, No. 1 amber crepe 21 to 23 cents. 

September 4, No. 1 rolled brown crepe, 25 cents. 

September 27, No. 1 rolled brown crepe, ITyi to 18 cents. 

South American Paras and Caucho. September 4, upriver, 
fine, 28}/$ cents; islands fine, 28 cents; upriver coarse, 21 cents; 
islands coarse, 19 cents; Cameta coarse, 17 cents; caucho ball, 
21 cents. 

September 27, upriver fine, 25 to 26 cents ; islands fine, 25 to 26 
cents; upriver coarse, ISyi to 17 cents; islands coarse, 15 cents; 
Cameta coarse. IS to ISyi cents; caucho ball, 14 to 19 cents. 

October 1, 

.\ssam crepe @ 

.\ssani onions @ 

Penang black scrap @ 


Ilanjermassin 12 @ 

Palembang €' 

Pressed block 24 @ 

Sarawak @ 


Uprivcr fine 54J^@ 

Upriver medium 52 @ 

Upriver coarse 33 @ 

Uprivcr weak, fine 41 @ 

Islands, fine 47J^@ 

Islands, medium 45 @ 

Islands, coarse 22 @ 

Cameta, coarse 22J^@ 

Madeira, fine 56 @ 

Acre Bolivian, fine 55 @.55>4 

Peruvian, fine 52 @ 

Tapajos, fine 53 @ 


Upper caucho ball 33 @ 

Lower caucho ball 31 H@ 


Ceara negro heads 38 @ 

Ceara scrap 28 @ 

Manicoba. 30% guarantee .35 @ 

Mangabeira thin sheet. . ,38 @ 


Corinto scrap 33 (3 

Esmeralda sausage 32 @ 

Central scrap 32 @ 

Central scrap and strip... .29 @.30 

Central wet sheet.- 23 @ 

Guayule, 20% guarantee.. .24 (ft) 

Guayule, washed and dried .35 @ 


Niger flake, prime @ 

Benguela, extra No. 1, 28% & 
Benguela, No. 2, 32;^%.. .25J^@ 

Conakry niggers @ 

Congo prime, black upper. .39 @ 

Congo, prime, red upper.. @ 

Kasai black @ 

red @ 

Massai sheets and strings. © 

Rio Nunez ball @ 

Rio Nunez sbeetsandstrings @ 


Gutta Siak 25 @ 

Red Macassar @ 


Block. Ciudad Bolivar 76 @ 

Colombia 56 (3i 

Panama 45 @ 

Surinam sheet @ 

amber @ 


September 1, 


September 27, 






.19 @ 






.31 @.30 



.29 @.30 





.27 @ 



.28 @ 



.26 @.28 



.19 @ 



.17 0) 



.35 @ 






.31 @ 



.30 @.31 









.23 @ 



.20 @ 



.25 @ 



.28 @ 



.18 @ 



.18 @ 



.18 @ 



.15 @ 



.13 @ 



.27 (g 



.37 @ 
















2.00 @2.95 

.67 @.68 

.47 @ 

.40 (3 

.75 @ 

.82 @ 

.19 (3.20 
3.50 @ 

.63 @ 

.48 @ 

.35 @ 

.69 @ 

.84 @ 


Following are tlie New York spot quotations, for one year 
ago, one month ago, and September 27, the current date: 


First latex crepe $0, 

Amber crepe No. 1 

Amber crepe No. 2 

Amber crepe No. 3 

Amber crepe No. 4 

Brown crepe, thick and thin 

Brown crepe, specky 

Brown crepe, rolled 

Smoked sheet, ribbed, 
standard quality 

Smoked sheet, plain stand- 
ard quality 

Unsmoked sheet, standard 

Colombo scrap No. 1 

Colombo scrap No. 2 

October 1, 

September 1, 


ber 27, 










.46 1/5 O 






























.37 @ 







.45 (a 





.42 @ 





.38 (S 





.36 @ 





Business in reclaimed rubber during September was of lesser 
volume than that for August. Owing to conditions in the auto- 
mobile manufacturing industry resulting in a marked lessening 
of demand for tires and topping material the manufacturers of 
these goods have very generally asked reclaimers for deferred 
shipments on their contracts from two to four months. Practi- 
cally no new business is being placed. Thus, reclaiming plants 
are operating at only fractional capacity. The long continued 
record low prices of crude rubber grades has affected the prices 
of reclaims generally, although it is stated as a matter of trade 
opinion that crude is not displacing reclaims in those goods for 
which the latter is specially suited. 

The demand for red reclaim has entirely disappeared from the 



1(Xtiibkk 1. 1920. 


SEPTEMlitK 27, I92U 

Prices subject to change without notice 

Floating $0.22 @$0.24 

Friction 25 @ .30 

Mechanical 11 @ .12 

Shoe 14)4® ASyj 

Tires, auto 14H@ .15 

truck 12"^@ .13J4 

White 20 @ .21 


In regard to the financial situation, Albert B. Beers, broker in crude 
rubber and commercial paper. No. 1 Liberty street, New York City, 
advises as follows: 

'•During September llu-re has been only a light demand for com- 
mercial paper, and almost entirely from out-of-town banks, rates ruling 
at S'A to S'/i per cent for the best rubber names, .ind 8fi to 9 per cent 
for those not so well known." 



, * ^ 

1920* 1919 1918 

First latex crepe. ..$0.30 (a$0.24J^ $0.55 ^5@ $0.45!^ $0.63 ©$0.60^5 

Smoked sheet ribbed .28;4@ .23!4 .54 @ .44K- -62 @ .59^2 


Uprivcr, fine 30 (9 .25 .55J4@ .54;^ .68 @ .68 

Upriver, coarse 21 @ .16^ .33 @ .32 .40 @ .40 

Islard, fine 28 @ .24 .48 @ .47 J^ .59 @ .59 

Islands, coarse 19 @ .15 .22 @ .21^ .27 @ .27 

Cameta 17 @ .15 .22 @ .21J4 .28 @ .28 

•Figured to Septenrher 27. 


GRIS.AR & CO.. Antwerp, report (September 3. 19-'UJ; 

We can report no change in the tone of the market, which continues weak. 
America is not yet buying and stocks are gradually accumulating. 

The market cksed with prices clightly lower than the preceding week. 
Spot, September, Is. 8;/-rf.; October-December, Is. IQd.; January-March, 
Is. Jl'Ad.; January-June, 2s. OJirf.; Para, Is. 9d. 

Statistics for the week were as follows: Arrivals. 2,022 tons; sales, 508 
tons; stock, 29,911 tons against 28,368 tons the year before. 

Statistics for the close of August: London — imports, 8,112 tons; sales, 
2,918 tons; stock, 30.548 tons against 28,368 tons in 1919. Stock on hand 
this day about 986 tons. 

The quiet tendency of the futures market becomes more accentuated, with 
business limited. Transactions amounted to 50,000 kilos. Closing quotations, 
each month: September-November, 10. 00 francs; December-May. 10.05 
francs: June-August, 10.10 francs. Tendency, quiet. 


TOOSTEN & JANSSEN, Amsterdam, report [September 3, 1920]: 

The market again was quiet and inactive, with only small fluctuations, 
but a rather sharp decline at the end. 

Business was only small in spot rubber, and the new arrivals are being 
reserved for the subscription sale of September 21st. 

The turnover on the terminal market was fairly satisfactory, but finally 
demand was extremely poor, and Hcz'cn crepe per December could be 
offered down to t.l.lZyi, and Tanuary-March to {.l.lSyi without finding 
buyers, while sheets bought at f.1.04 per October, and f.1.14 per January- 


An official report from Singapore states that the export of rubber 
from Straits Settlements ports in the month of July amounted to 10,773 
tons (transhipments, 2,355 tons), as compared with 11,663 tons in June 
and 7,818 tons in the corresponding month last year. The total export 
to the end of July was 90,208 tons, as against 90.543 tons in 1919 and 
44,158 tens in I9!8 for the corresponding period. 

Appended are the comp-jrative statistics: 

1918 1919 1920 

Januarv tms 4,302 14,404 13,125 

FebruaVy 2,334 15,661 17,379 

March 8,858 20,908 5,931 

April 6,584 10,848 15.720 

M&y 13,587 15,845 15,617 

June 6,515 5,059 11.663 

July 1,978 7,818 10,773 

Totals 44,158 90,543 90,208 


An official report from Kuala Lumpur slates that the exports of rubber 
from the Federated Malay States in the month of July amounted to 8,043 
tons, as compared with 9.049 tfins in June and 8.640 tons in the corre- 
sponding month of year. The total exiiorts for seven months amount 
to 63,518 tons, as against 59.357 tons last year and 46.263 tons in 1918. 
Appended arc the comparative statistics; 

1918 1919 1920 

January tons 7,588 7.163 11,119 

February 6,820 10.809 <).781 

March • 7,709 10.679 •>.524 

April 7,428 7,664 8.375 

May 5,851 7,308 7.627 

Tune 5,161 7,094 9.049 

July 5,706 8,640 8,043 

ToUls 46.263 59.357 63,518 


GUTHKIE \ CO,, Ll.MITLD, Singapore, report [August 12, 19JUJ : 

The weekly rubber auction held yesterday and to-day opened quietly, 
bidding being very slow, and. though demand improved as the sale went 
on, prices of the leading grades show a decline. .-Xt the commencement, 
ribbed smoked sheet sold up to 62 J^ cents, and later advanced to 63 '4 
cents, at which price it closed 1 cent down on the week. Fine pale crepe 
was a difficult market, buyers' and sellers' ideas being too far apart. Ttie 
top price of 69' 1. cents for this grade was exceptional, and not more than 
half a dozen lots sold at or near this figure, the average price being 67 
to 67 'A cents. There was a steady demand for off-quality lots of sheet. 
Browns were weaker, and dark and barky crepes showed a slight improve 

The quantity catalogued was 866 tons, of which 507 tons were sold. 

The following is the course of values: 

.Sterling Equivalent 
In Singapore per pound in 

per Pound ' London 

Sheet, fine ribbed smoked 62c @ 63^20 1/ 7Ji @ 1/ 854 

Sheet, good ribbed smoked 50 @ 61 J4 1/ 4M @ 1/ 7^ 

Crepe, fine pale 67 @ 69!^ 1/ 9H @ 1/lOK 

Crepe, good pale 53 @ 66)4 1/ 5)i @ 1/ 9J4 

Crepe, line brown SS'A @ 58 1/ 6H @ i/ 7% 

Crepe, good brown 40 @ 55 1/2 @ 1/ 65i 

Crepe,. dark 34'A @ 44J4 1/ OVi @ 1/ 3K 

Crepe, bark 32 (ffl 37^S — /UH @ 1/ iH 

' Quoted in Straits Settlements currency; $1 = $0,567 United Stales 



Six Months 
Knded June 30 


Netherlands kilos 

Creat Britain 




United States 




Other countries 




Totals 2,876,000 

1920 1919 

366,000 179,000 

1,059,000 3.815,000 

'.'.'.'.'.. 176,606 

1,085.666 10,106,666 

417,000 2,963,000 


3,000 • 

2,930,000 17.620,000 








Ports of origin: 

Tandjong Prirk 1,550,000 

Samarang 17,000 

Soerabaya 1,158,000 

*Not elsewhere specified. 




9,148,000 7,937,000 

260.000 246.000 

7.487.000 8,068.000 




Fine Medium Coarse Caucho 
Manchurian Prince, from Para, 





Gregory, from Man4os. 

'. '. '. '. '. '43,368 ; ; '. 




AicusT 21. By the S. S 

H. A. Astlett & Co 

Poel & Kelly 

August 26. By the S, S. Gregoni, from Para. 

Poel & Kelly 33,964 

Paul Bertuch 

Meyer & Brown, Inc 

H. A. Astlett & Co 

August 26. By the S. S 

H. A. Astlett & Co 

Paul Bertuch 

J. Aron & Co 


August 28. By the S. S. Portfield, from Para. 

September 9. By the S. S. Siddons, from Para 

G. .^msinck & Co.. inc 


September 10. By the S. S 

Poel & Kelly 

Meyer & llrown, Inc 

H. A. Astlett & Co 

J. H. Rosshach & Bros 

Paul Bertuch 

September 11. By the S. 

Neuss, Hesslein & Co 

Wm. Schall & Co 

G. Amsinck & Co., Inc 


September 11. By the S. S. Lake Ellithorpe, from Bolivia. 
Wm, Schall & Co 62.285 2.249 15.36 


(Figured 180 pounds to the bale or cast-^ 
Shipment Shipped 

Michael, from Para 




S. Lake Ellithorpe, 




16,566 '.'.'-'.'.'. 

'.'.'.'.'.'. 88,i84 

from Para. 


2,240 15.332 


.August 9. By the S. 
Thos. A. Desmond & Co. 

-August 19. Ry the S. 

Hood Rubber Co 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. 

-August 20. By the S. 
Firestone Tire & Rubber 



. Cross Keys, at SeattU. 
Singapore Seattle 

. Boveric, at New York and 
Colombo Watertown 

Colombo New York 

I. Amason, at San Francisco. 



p. 'iinds 






1 3.095 


















ocKBEk 1, ly-'o.; 



Shil'iinnl Sliippctl 

I'rom: tci: Pounds Totals 

August 21. By the S. S. Satinbi Mam, al New York and lioslon. 

Baring Brothers t'olomho New York 151,200 

Hood Rubber Co Colombo Watertown 9,360 

Meyer & Grown, Inc.. Colombo New York 280.000 440,560 

Ai-.;tsT 23. By the S. S. Cily of .Manila, at New York and Boston. 

Hood Rubber Co Colombo Watertown 16,631 

I.. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Colombo New York 403,200 419,831 

.■\uci-5T 26. By the S. S. Caronia, at New Y'ork. 

Various I^ivcrpool New York 1,800 1,800 

AuciST 27. By the S. S. Lvoiis Mam, at New York. 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Cokmbo New York 147,180 147.180 

AiGUST 28. By the S. S. Romeo, at New Y'ork and Boston. 

Hood Rubber Co Colombo Watertown 1.700 

Hadden & Co Cokmbo New Y< rk 22,320 

Frazar & Co Cokmbo New York 44,740 

Cha.s. T. Wilson Co., Inc. Colombo New York 32,400 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Colombo New York 180,800 

Various Cokmbo New York 536,900 818,860 

.Ai'cusT 28. By the S. S. West Coliimb, at New Y'ork. 

.Mdens' Successors. Inc. Singapore New York 107,640 

Wm. Brandt & Sons.... Singapore New York 75,780 

Coldman, Sachs & Co... Singapore New York 201,60(1 

Mitsubishi Goshi Kaisha. Singapore New York .-15,980 

William II. Stiles & Co. Singapore New York 50,000 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Singapore New Yi rk 649,800 

Meyer & Brown, Inc.. Singapore New ^'ork 302,400 

Various Singapore New Y'ork 990,160 

X. W. Obalski & Co., 

Inc Batavia New York 26,100 

Chas. T. Wilson Co., Inc. Batavia New York 72,720 

The Fisk Rubber Co Batavia Chicopee Falls 13,860 

Fred Stern & Co Batavia New York 167,040 

Winter, Ross Si Co Batavia New York 18,900 

Various Batavia New York 164,521) 

Various Soerabaya New York 133.200 

L. Littlejohn & Co.. Inc. Colombo -New York 147.060 

Various Colombo New York 231. 4S0 3,408,240 

August 30. By the S. S. Mandasai: Maru, at Seattle. 

Mitsui & Co., Ltd Kobe Seattle 162,000 162.000 

.September 1. By the S. S. Volinmiia. at New York. 
The ^joodyear Tire & 

Rubber Co London .\kron 585.900 

T. D. Downing & Co.. . London New Y'ork 57,960 

Fisk Rubber Co London Chicopee Falls 185,277 

Various London New York 168.673 997,810 

September 1. Bv the S. S. West Ira, at San Francisco. 

Various '. Kobe San Francisco 90.000 90,000 

September 2. By the S. S. Arakau, at San I-'rancisro. 
Spreckels "Savage" Tire 

Corp Batavia San Diego 43,920 43,920 

September 2. By the S. S. City of Colombo, at New Y'ork. 

Hood Rubber Co London Watertown 56,540 

Hood Rubber Co Singapore Watertown 89,700 146,240 

Sfptembfr 3. By the S. S. Hateric, at New Y'ork and Boston. 

Chas. T. Wilson Co., Inc. Colombo New York 3.780 ' 

Hoid Rubl)er Co Colombo Watertown 22,710 

I'arinp Brothers Colombo New >'ork 340,200 

Pocl & Kelly Colombo New York 200.160 

I.. Littlejohn & Co.. Inc. Colombo New York 22,400 

Meyer & Brown. Inc... Colombo .\'ew Y'ork 358,400 947,650 

September 2. By the S. S. Ryndam, at New Y'ork. 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Singapore New York 11,274 11.274 

September 3. By the S. S. City of Newcastle, at New York and Boston. 

Hood Rubber Co Colonilxi uateriown 9,720 

Chas. 'r. Wilson Co., Inc. Colombo .New York 35,640 

(teneral Rubber Co.... Colombo New ^'ork 180 

Thornett S: Fehr. Inc.. Colombo .New York 11,520 

L. Littlejohn \- Co., Inc. Colombo New York 44,800 

Edward Maurcr Co., Inc. Colombo New York 55,980 

E. S. Kuh & Valk Co... Colombo New York 51,300 
Meyer & Brown, Inc... Colombo New Y'ork 35.840 
Various Colombo New Y'rrk 110,50(1 355,480 

September 8. By the S. .S. Madioen. at New Y'ork. 

Aldens' Successors. Inc. Soerabaya New York 183,060 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. .Tava New York 403,200 
The United Malaysian 

Rubber Co., Ltd Bormo New York 11,200 

Various Belawan-Deli New Y'ork 76,680 

Manhattan Rubber Mfg. 

Co Batavia New York 27.000 

Robertson. Cole & Co.. Batavia New Y'ork 35,280 

Various Batavia New Y'ork 402,300 1,138,720 

September 8. By the S. S. Bolton Castle, at New York. 

Hood Rubber Co Singapore Watertown 56,100 56,100 

September 8. By the S. S. Telemachus. at New York. 

Hood Rubber Co London Watertown 19,956 

Hood Rubber Co Sincapore Watertown 112,000 

William H. Stiles & Co. Sincajiore New York 100,000 231,956 

September 9. By the S. S. Wheatland Montana, at Seattle. 

Thos. A. Desmond & Co. Singapore Seattle 90,720 90.720 

September 9. Bv the S. S. Peiiealion, at New Y'ork. 

Hood Rubber Co Singapore Watertown 218,700 

New York Overseas Co. .Singapore New Y'ork 55,800 

F. R. Henderson & Co.. Singapore New York 253,980 

T. Aron & Co .Singapore New Y'ork 32.400 

Thornett & Fehr, Inc.. Singapore New Y'ork 22,320 

W. R. Grace & Co Singapore New York 432.360 

Meyer S: Brown. Inc.. Singapore New York 291,200 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Singapore New York 448.000 

E. S. Kuh and Valk Co. Singapore New York 233.740 

Van Miel-Nordheim Corp. Singapore New Y'ork 22,500 

A. C. Fox & Co Sineapore New York 10,080 

Mitsui «,• Co.. Limited. . Sint-apore New York 100,800 

Pell S: Dumont, Inc... Singapore New York ,30.240 

Shipment .^hipped 

from: to; Poinuls Totals 

Eastern Rubber Co.... Singaiwre New Y'ork 80,640 

:has. T. Wilson Co., Inc. Singapore New York 167,40(1 

W. T. Sargent & Sons.. Singapore New York 20,520 

Poel & Kelly Singapore New Y'ork 197,46(1 

Fred Stern & Co Singapore New Y'ork 24,30(1 

The Fisk Rubber Co... Singapore Chicopee Falls 201,032 

William H. Stiles & Co. Singapore .New York 50,0(«i 

Various Sinpal>ore New N'ork 959, 26o 

F. R. Henderson & Co.. Port Dickson New Y.irk 24.12<l 

N'arious Port Dickson New ^'ork 14.5S(i 

Various Ft. Sw't'nh'mNew York 6(1,840 

I'lel S: Kelly Malacca New York 11,700 

N'arious Philippine lis. New York 10.98(1 

General Rubber Co Telok NaboengNew York 1,108,260 

1'. R. Henderson & Co.. Penang New Y'ork 209,520 

W. R. Grace & Co Penang New Y'ork 162,360 

The Goodvear Tire vt 

Rubber Co Penang Akron 66,800 

The B. F. Goodrich Co. I'enang .\krtm 153,000 

Edward Boustead & Co. . Penang New York 27,000 
Joosten & Janssen, a^ 

agents Penang New Y[ork 82,6CKt 

X'arious .-. ., Penang New Y'ork 18,720 

X'arious Teluk Anson .New Y'urk 25,020 

I'oel & Kelly Deli New York 14,400 

Aldcn's Succe.swrs, j}ic. Deli New Y'ork 37,080 
Irwin-Harrisons & Cros- 

fleld. Ihc Deli New Y'ork 268,38(1 

The Fisk Rubber Co Deli Chicopee Falls 57,240 

W. R. Grace & Co Deli New York 181.260 

East .Vsiatic Co., Inc.... Deli New Y'ork 59,040 

Various Deli New York 75,780 6,521,412 

September 10. By the S. S. Tenvo Maru, at San Francisco. 

Thos. A. Desmond & Co. Hongkong New Y'ork 10,080 10,080 

September 10. By the S. .S. Ubbeharspel, at New Y'ork. 
Toosten & Janssen, as 

agents Rotterdam New Y'ork 7,000 7,000 

September 13. Bv the S. S. John Roai'h, at New Y'ork. 

Fred Stern & Co Soerabaya New York 18,180 

Kuharah Trading Co.. 

Ltd Soer.-ibaya New York 38,880 

\'ariuus .Soerabaya New York 1 22.760 

F. R. Hendcr.'ion & Co.. Batavia New York 79.920 

L. Littlejohn Js: Co.. Inc .Singaitore New \'ork 336,000 

Gildman. Sachs & Co.. Batavia New York 9.(H)0 

Winter. Ross & Co Batavia New York 55,980 

Fred Stern & Co Batavia New Y'ork 11.520 

Poel & Kellv Batavia New Y'ork .W.24n 

William H. Stiles Sr Co. Singapore New Yrrk 40.000 

\'arious Batavia New Y'ork 47.880 

H. A. A.stlett it Co Singapore New York 56.000 

Mever & Brown, Inc.... Singapore New Y'ork 11.200 

\'arious Singapore New York 1,079,130 1,936,690 

.Septemper 14. By the S. S. Bessie Dollar, at New ^'ork. 

Thornett & Fehr. Inc... Singapore .Vcw York 154,80(1 

VVm P.randl & Sons.... .Singapore New York 123.840 

F. R. Henderson & Co.. Singapore New Y'ork 195.300 

Edward Maurer Co.. Inc. Singapore New ^*ork 29.8S0 

L. Littlejohn K' Co. Inc Singapore New ^'ork 179.200 

W. R. Grace & Co Singapore New York 139.140 

William H. Stiles & Co. Singapore New York 10.00(1 

Winter. R. ss &• Co Singapore . New York .50.4(10 

Baird Rubber & Trading 

Co Singapore New Y'ork 67.840 

Whittall & Co. of Cevlon. Singapore New York 27.200 

Various .' Singapore New Y'ork 412.500 1.390.100 

September 14. By the S. S. IVest Scquana, at San Francisco, 
Pioneer Rubber Co Singapore San b'rancisco 24,480 24,480 

September 17. By the S. S. .4la.tka Maru, at New Y'ork. 

Hood Rubber Co Singapore Waterttwn 326.428 326,428 

Septembfr 20. By the S. S. Amazon Maru, at New Y'c rk. 
Firestone Tire & Rubber 

Co Belawan Akron 1 l.>i.9K(l 

\'arious Helawan New York I3".3'() 

Hood Rubber Co Siiieanorc Watertown 1.737.90(1 

Chas. T. Wilsrn Co.. Inc. Sinpanore .New York 181.440 

L. Littlejohn & Co., Inc. Singaiiore New York 89.800 

W. R. Grace & Co Singapore New York 210.240 

Various Singapore New Y'ork 163.260 2.63S,960i 


August 27. By the S. S. Hebe, at New York. 

Wm. Schall & Co Dutch Guiana New Y..rk 12.22- 1 .'.225 

August 50. Bv the .S. S. Matnra. at New Y'ork. 

Thos. Scott & Co Trinidad New York 600 tOOi 

September 1. By the S. .S V'olunxnia, at New York. 

Earle Brothers London New York 22.500 22.500' 

Sei^tember 4. By the S. .S. General C. W. Goetlials, at New ^'o^k. 

P. R. Rincones, Jr., Co. Cristobal New York 6.150 6,150 

September 18. By the S. S. l.ahe View, at New Y'ork. 

Middleton & Co., Ltd... Paramaribo New York 3.307 3.307 

September 21. By the S. S. Crantiepark. al New Y'ork. 

Ultramares Corp Cristobal New- York 2,548 

T. S. Sembrada & Co... Cristobal New Y'ork 1.862 

American Trading Co.. Cristobal New- Y'ork 2,254 6.664 


August 22. By the S. .S. lisseqnibo, at New York. 

Mecke & Co Valparaiso New York 3,300 3.30O- 

August 28. By the S. S. Hebe, at New Y'ork. 

Arkell & Douglas, Inc. Paramaribo New York 15.000 15.000 

August 28. By the S. S. Cristobal, at New Y'ork. 

.\. M. Capcn's Sons, Inc. Cristobal ^'ew ^'ork 2,100 

Isaac Brandon X- Bros.. Cristobal New Nork 150 2,2SO 



[October 1, 1920. 

CENTRALS— Continued 

Shipment Shipped 

from : to : Pounds 

AicfST 30. By the S. S. Malura. at New York. 
G. Amsinck & Co., Inc.. Trinidad New York 36,7S0 

Southern Sales Corp... Trinidad New York 27,300 

South and Central 

America Com. Co.... Trinidad New York 19,350 

Various Trinidad New York 48,300 

Seftembes 7. By the S. S. Caldas, at New York. 
R. Kchavarria & Co. . . . Cartagena New York 3,000 

StrpTEMBER 8. By the S. S. .'tUianca, at New York. 
G. Amsinck & Co., Inc. Cristobal New York 1,050 

September 21. By the S. S. Grangepark, at New York. 
O. Amsinck & Co., Inc. Cristobal New York 2,550 

Cha«. E. Griffin Cristobal New York 6,000 

H. S. Wolff & Co Cristobal New York 1,650 

Various Cristobal New York 6,450 


September 7. By the S. S. Xicttw Amsterdam at New York. 
Pocl & Kelly Rotterdam New York 690 

Septe.mber 12. By the S. S. Carotiia, at New York. 
Meyer & Brown. Inc.. Liverpool New York 11,200 

September 13. By the S. S. Kroonland, at New York. 
Gillespie Bros. & Co Antwerp New York 103,845 

September IS. By the S. S. Burmese Prince, at New York. 
Pitt & Scott Havre New York 150.120 

September 20. By the S. S. Meissionier, at New York. 
Meadows, Wye & Co Havre New York 18,745 

September 20. By the S. S. Clan Buchanan, at New York. 
Various Mombasa New York 6, 120 


September 13. By the S. S. St. Michael, at New York. 
J. H. Rossbach & Bros. . Pernambuco New York 57,640 


September 20. By the S. S. Amacon Maru, at New York. 
L. Littlejobn & Co., Inc. Singapore New York 12,000 

September 8. By the S. S. Madioen, at New York. 
The United Malaysian 

Rubber Co., Ltd Borneo New York 145,207 

September 8. By the S. S. Madioen, at New York. 

The United Malaysian 

Rubber Co., Ltd Borneo New York 9,508 

September 9. By the S. S. Deucalion, at New York. 

Various Singapore New York 472,500 

September 13. By the S. S. Amasan Maru, at New York. 

Konig Bros. & Co Singapore New York 32,700 

Shawmut Corp. of Bos- 
ton Singapore New York 103,200 

Various Singapore New York 60,000 


AtJCt'ST 27. By rail at Eagle Pass, Texas. 
Continental Rubber Co. 

of New York Mexico Akron 70.000 

September 2. By rail at Eagle Pass, Texas. 
Continental Rubber Co. 

of New York Mexico New York 55,000 

Continental Rubber Co. f Akron ,» »„ 

of New York Mexico { Atlan"a ",000 




Unmanufactured — free: 
Crude rubber; 

From France 

Netherlands .... 


Turkish Europe. . 



Costa Rica 













British India. . . . 
Straits Settlements 
British E. Indies. 
Dutch E. Indies.. 




British S. Africa. 
















































































Unmanufactured — free: 
Crude rubber: 
Jclutong (Pontianak): 
From Netherlands .... 


Straits Settlements 
Dutch £. Indies. 





Totals 3,973,068 

r.iitta percha: 

From England 



Straits Settlements 
Dutch E. Indies. 
Philippines .... 














From England 




British Guiana. 
Dutch Guiana. 
\'enezuela . . . . 






















7 466 







' 7.65 s 

' 7,570 

Totals 105,432 

Reclaimed and scrap rubber 535,180 
Totals, unmanufac- 
tured 51,051.668 

Manufactures of rubber and 

gutta percha 

Chicle dutiable 511,576 











Automobile tires "1 

Inner tubes \ $1,377,128 

Solid tires J 

.Ml other tires 32,992 

Belting 1 

Hose V 272,318 

Packing J 

Rubber boots pairs 5,943 14,894 

Rubber shoes pairs 83,390 66,577 

Soles and heels 

Druggists' sundries 56,710 

Other mfrs. of rubber 247,806 

Totals manufactured. 89,333 $2,068,425 

Insulated wire $638,775 

Fountain pens. .. .number 35,296 43,981 

Suspenders and garters.. 149,262' 

Chewing gum 80,800 

Unmanufactured — free : 

Reclaimed and scrap rubber 687.531 90.683 



Crude rubber 


Jelutong (Pontianak).... 


Reclaimed and scrap rubber 


Rubber manufactures.... 








Unmanufacturei> — free: 
Crude rubber: 





Rubber manufactures, 



Automobile tires 

Inner tubes 

Solid tires 

All other tires 




Rubber boots pairs 

Rubber shoes pairs 

Soles and heels 

Drugpists' sundries 

Other rubber manufactures 


Insulated wire and cables 

Fountain pens 

Suspenders and garters. . 
Rubber scrap and reclaimed 
Chewing gum 














^Qtjlj 45,173,624 $18,403,162 42,638,299 $18,768,761 Crude rubber 












' 5,245 

' '2',33i 














































October 1, 1920. 





L-'nmanl-factufed — free: 
Crude rnhbt-r: 

l-'rcm England 

Straits Sctilt-mcnis 
British £. Indies. 


Rubber substitutes 

Rubber scrap and reclaimed 
Rubber manufactures, 


Automobile tires 

Inner tubes 

Solid tires 




Rubber boots pairs 

Rubber shoes pairs 

Soles and heels 

Druggists' sundries 

Dther rubber manufactures 


Insulated wire and cables. 

Fountain pens. . . .nximher 









Suspenders and garters.. 
Rubber scrap 











Crude rubber: 

From Canada 

Straits Settlements 
British E. Indies. 
Dutch E. Indies. 















.Telutoug (Pontianak) . . . 
Rubber manufactures. . . . 





Automobile tires 

Inner tubes 

Solid tires 



31 241 


All other tires 

Belting .... 




Rubber boots pairs 

Rubber shoes pairs 

DruRgists' sundries 

Other rubber manufactures 










Insuluated wire and cables 
Fourtain pens. . . .H»»i&er 



Rubber scrap and reclaimed 



Crude rubber 
































































Insulated wire and cables 
Fountain pens ...nuMifrer 


Chewing gum 

Unmanufacturld — free: 
Reclaimed and scrap rubber 

Rubber manufactures 



'2,9! i 

20,000 $800 








Unmanufactured — free: 
Rubber, gutta percha, etc.: 

From United Kinqdom . . . 209,000 

United States 321,887 

Belgian Congo 

Brazil 46.305 

British East Indies: 

Ceylon 315,104 


Straits Settlements 940,289 
Other, countries 





















1,832,585 $884,495 2,003,570 $1,003,424 


Rubber, recovered 

Rubber, powdered, and rubber 

or gutta percha scrap 

Rubber substitutes 









Totals, unmanufactured.. 2,134,589 $922,903 2,783.263 $1,106,532 

Partly Manufactured — 
Hard rubber sheets and rods. 110,138 

Hard rubber tubes 

Rubber thread, not covered.. 6,761 

Totals, partly manu- 
factured 1.16,899 

Manufactured — 




Boots and shoes 

Clothing, including water- 


Hot water bottles 

Tires, solid 

Tires, pneumatic 

Tires, inner tubes 

Other manufactures 

Totals, manufactured 

Totals, rubber imports 

Insulated wire and cables: 
Wire and cables covered 
with cotton, linen, silk, 

rubber, etc 

Copper, wire and cal>les, 

covered as above 

CTiicle 149,869 




































?1, 656,022 



Unmanvfacturei> — free: 
Crude rubber: 

From Straits Settlements 1,080,262 

British Oceania. . 

Dutch E. Indies. . 273,692 

Totals 1,353,954 

Jelutong (Pontianok) . . . 4,763 



Rubber manufactures. 









Automobile tires 

Inner tubes 

Solid tires 

AH other tires 




Rubber boots pairs 

Rubber shoes pairs 

Soles and heels 

Drui^gists' sundries 

Other rubber manufactures 



























ports of 


ports of 












22.528 $1,154,132 

Unmanufactubf.d — 

Crude and waste rubber $63,020 

Manufactured — ■ 


Hnsc $5,811 

Boots and shoes 31,460 

Clothing, including water- 

prooftd 3,568 

Tires, pnei'matic 407.084 

Tires, other kinds 6,264 

Other manufactures 23,370 

Totals, manufactured $477,557 

Total rubber exports $540,577 

Insulated wire and cables: 

Copper wire and cable $287,813 

Chicle 73,049 























[October 1, 1920. 



















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Crude rubber: 

From — 

Straits Settlements 





Federated Malav States.... 

4,660, liK) 




British India 





Ceylon and dependencies.. . 





Other Dutch possessions in 





Dutch East Indies (except 

other Dutch possessions in 

Indian seas) 





Other countries in the East 

Indies and Pacific not 

elsewhere specified 















South and Central America 

(except Brazil and Peru) 





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Gold Coast 


3 048 



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Totals 14,491,700 £1,400,017 

Waste and reclaimed rubber. 611,200 16,480 

21,450,400 £2,143,626 
710,400 12,069 

Totals, unmanufactured. 15,102,900 £1,416,498 

Gutta percha and balata. 
Rubber substitutes 


Borts and shoes, .doacn pairs 

Waterproof clothing 

Tires and lubes 

Other rubber manufactures... 
Insulated w ire 









22.160.800 £2,155,695 
860,900 139,604 

158,100 7,407 


Unmanufactured — 
Waste and reclaimed rubber. 1,192,400 
*Kubber substitutes 











Totals 1,192,400 

Manufactured — 
Roots and shoes, . .dose u pairs 6,565 

Waterjiroof clothing 

Insulated wire 

Submarine cables 

Tires and tubes 

Other rubber manufactures 

£31,650 1,707,300 £52,632 








Unmanufactured — 
Crude rubber: 

To Russia 22,400 

Sweden, Norway and 

Denmark 571,300 

Germany 108,500 

Belgium -. 772,600 

France 763,700 

Spain 45.100 

Italy 408.200 


Other European coun- 
tries 485,800 

United Slates 1.046,200 

Canada 528,100 

Other countries 117,900 









46,369 45.000 

78,449 2,454,900 

49,308 219,700 

14,323 416,400 










Totals, rubber 

Waste and reclaimed rubber 
Gutta percha and balata,... 

•Rubber substitutes 

Manufactured — 
Boots and shoes. . .(fore*? /"nf' 

Waterproofed clothing 

Tires and tubes 

Insulated wire 

Other manufactures 

4,869,800 £446,262 7,730,700 £810,332 















Totals, manufactured £14,279 

"Included in "Other Articles." Class III, T. prior to 1920. 



WITH MINOR FLr'CTL'.\TioNS, American cotton steadily declined 
last month, due to the general lack of demand and uncer- 
tain crop conditions. From 30.75 cents, the price quoted on Aug- 
ust 31. middling u|)lands spot cotton fell to 25.50 cents on Septem- 
ber 30. in a weak market. 

At this writing, a fine prospect for cotton is clouded and made 
I uncertain, both in Texas and Oklahoma, by too much precipitation 



[October 1, 1920. 

and consequent damage by boll weevil. This same condition 
prevails all across the southern portion of the cotton belt to the 
Atlantic ocean. The amount of the final cotton yield depends 
much upon the weather in the next three weeks. Only out in 
Arizona and California is there no question of a yield consider- 
ably larger than last year. Incidentally, New Mexico is getting 
into cotton raising by irrigation. Yet when all the sum of pos- 
sible disaster by too much rain and by early frost has been 
summed up there seems the strong likelihood of a crop which will 
be equal to all our needs with a liberal amount left for export. 

During the last week of September all the long staple cotton 
markets appeared to be weak and price declines were recorded 
in the entire list. 

Arizona Cotton. The new crop has not yet appeared in 
sufficient volume to indicate the actual market. Average extra 
was said to be around 65 to 70 cents. The only cotton ginned 
so far is that from volunteer plants and is, therefore, some- 
what shorter than the regular cotton. 

EcvPTi.\N Cotton has declined steadily since mid-summer 
and now good grade uppers can be bought for 45 cents. Sakel 
is offered at 75 cents for forward shipment. Crop prospects in 
Egypt continue favorable, although the outlook is not quite so 
bright as throughout the season and early receipts are not 
showing up well as regards staple. Fear is also being expressed 
by both .American and English spinners that the mixing of seed 
is causing the growths to deteriorate. Representations are being 
made to the proper authorities to seriously take up the matter 
of seed distribution and place it under the control of responsible 

Sea Islands appear to be firmly held, as $1 is still being 
asked for average extra choice. The present crop will, without 
doubt, be less than 5,000 bales all told. Reports from Savannah 
indicate that the boll weevil has not wrought such havoc this 
year as last, and that the few farmers who had the courage to 
plant Sea Islands seem to have carried their crops through the 
worst attacks. There is, therefore, talk of considerably in- 
creasing the acreage next season. 

Ducks, Drills and Osnaburgs. Other than a small demand 
for hose and belting duck from mechanical goods manufacturers, 
this market is practically dead as far as the rubber trade is 
concerned. Prices have materially declined since last month and 
the quotations here given are all nominal. 

Raincoat Fabrics. The gray goods market has apparently 
reached the low level and buyers are once more showing interest 
in the new fabrics. The actual demand, however, is far from 
normal. The only fabric that is being sold in volume is 64 by 60 
olive drab sheeting, commonly known as bombazine. 

Tire Fabrics. This market is for all practical purposes un- 
quotable and not represented by the sales of small distressed 
lots that do not indicate actual value based on today's cotton 

The fabric mills are curtailing and shutting down, resulting in 
disorganization that will require several months for a return to 
efficient production when the normal demand for tire fabrics 
is resumed. This will probably not materialize until January 1, 

or early Spring, due to the heavy stocks being carried by tire 


.StlPTEMUEt 27, 19-0 

Prices subject lo change without notice 

Brake lining, 2J^ lbs. sq. yd., brass or copper inser- 
tion ;b. '$1.00 @ 1.10 

2J4 lbs. sq. yd., brass or copper inser- 
tion /*. 'I.IO @ 1.15 


32 — 7-ounce 100 yards 7.25 @ 

32 — Sounce @ 

AO—7'/i-oaacc 8.25 @ 

40— Sounce 8.50 @ 

40— 10-ounce 10.50 @ 

40 — lOK-ounce 11.00 @ 

45— 7^ounce 10.00 @ 

45— 8-ounce 10.25 @ 

48 — 10-ounce 15.00 @ 


38inch 2.00-yard yard .40 @ 

40-inch 2.47-yard 35 @ 

52-inch 1.90-yard 44J4@ 

52-inch 1.95-yard 43J4@ 

60-inch 1.52-yard 56 @ 


38-inch 2.00 yard enameling duck yard .42J^@ 

48 inch I. "4-yard 48J^@ 

72-inch 16.66-ounce 99 Cw 

72-inch 17.21-ounce 1.03 @ 


Hose pound .70 @ 

Belting 68 @ 


Acme yard @ 

Endurance @ 

Per.n @ 


40-inch 2.35-yard yard @ 

40-inch 2.48-yard @ 

Sryi-inch 2.42-yard @ 


Bombazine 64 x 60 yard .20 @ 

60x48 18 @ 

Cashmeres, cotton and wool, 36-inch, tan 95 @ 

Twills 64 X 72 *.46 @ 

64x102 •.48 @ 

Twill, mercerized, 36-inch, blue and black 42'A@ 

tan and olive 40 @ 

Tweed '.80 @ 1.40 

printed •.27J^@ 

Plaids 60 X 48 19 @ 

56x44 18 @ 

Repp *.40 @ .45 

Prints 60 X 48 20 @ 

64x60 22 @ 


63-inch, 3^ to 7 'A ounces yard .90 @ 2.25 

36-inch, 2-H to 5 ounces 70 @ 1.84 


63-inch, 2 to 4 ounces yard .78 @ 1.64 

36-inch, 2 to 4 ounces 49 @ .94 


36-inch, 4'A to 8 ounces yard .70 (3 1.54 


36-inch, 3H to 5 ounces 22 @ .28 


.Manicoba Mis- 

1920 Plantations Paras Africans Centrals Guayule and Matto Balata cellaneous 

Grosso Gum 

January tons 17,799 2,620 821 111 

February 29,681 2.456 558 265 34 

March 28,533 2,463 514 23 114 3 113 983 

April 21,036 1,893 628 29 79 10 22 812 

May 24.443 2.025 662 95 !13 45 1.059 

rune 12,911 1,352 427 27 164 .... 7 552 

Tuly 14.695 1,115 34 40 S 1.283 

August 12,730 590 13 75 156 67 1,135 

Totals, 8 months, 1920. 161,828 14,514 3,657 665 660 13 262 5,824 

Totals, 8 months, 1919. 121,710 16,637 1,724 1,085 1,442 161 

{Compiled by The Rubber Association of America, Inc.) 





























October 1, 1920.] 




48 X 48, 2.;5yard yard 

48 X 48, 2.50yard 

48 X 48, 2.8Syard 

64 X 68, 3.l5-vard 

56 X 60, 3.60-yard 

48 X 44, 3.75yard 


Canton, 38-inch yard 

Schappe, 36-inch 



3J/a Peeler, carded pound 

4 y^ Peeler, carded 

6H Peeler, combed 


Zero Peeler, carded pound 

3'A Peeler, carded 

6J4 Peeler, combed 


1714-ounce Sakellarides, combed pound 

17J4-ource Egyptian, combed 

I7J4-ounce Egyptian, carded 

17 J4-ounce Peelers, combed 

17'4-ounce Peelers, carded 


Egyptian pound 

■ 2A'A@ 
.23 @ 
-19 @ 
.26 @ 
-19 @ 

.50 @ 
.70 @ 


American pound 



9 J4 -ounces Sea Island pound 

9^-ounce Egyptian, carded 

9^-ounce Peeler, carded 











cotton for the periods September 1. 

The exports of cotton for the periods September 1. 1918, to June 28, 
1919, and September 1. 1919. to .tune 26. 1920, as shown in the mt nthly 
agricultural statistics (June 30. 1920). published by the Statistical Depart- 
ment of the Ministry of Finance of Egypt, are as follows; 


Sept. 1. 1918. to 
June 28, 1919 

Belgium . 
France . 



44,964 331,222 


Italy 24.121 



Portugal . 
Spain .... 


United Kingdom 300,577 

Other countries 









Total 46-1,836 3,412,800 

Sept. 1, 

1919, to 

June 2 

6, 1920 





































• 1 bale of steam-pressed cotton weighs approximately 7.75 cantars; and 
1 bale of cotton pressed hydraulically, 8.50 cantars. 

t The cantar is equivalent to 99.0493 pounds avoirdupois. 

(.Compiled in the Near East Division, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic 


THE DEMAND of the rubber trade for such items as zinc oxide, 
lithopone and carbon black has been much less than usual 
during the past month, owing to the general curtailment in the 
manufacture of autoinobile tires, in the making of which these 
items are largely used. As they are also important ingredients in 
the manufacture of paint, prices are well maintained by the steady 
demand from that industry. 

Aniline. Trade demand has been only moderate in volume 
and spot stock prices have ranged from 27^ to 30 cents per 

Barytes. The scarcity of crude barytcs will continue to 
hamper the production of refined product for months to come 
until increased supplies and enlarged facilties can be developed. 

Blanc Fixe. This important product from barytes is in much 
demand and its supply is only limited by the resources of crude 

Benzol. The demand continues in excess of the supply. Spot 
stocks of the pure grade are steady at 35 cents per pound. 

Blacks. While blacks are in good demand by the paint trade, 
there is a marked falling off in the rubber trade requirements 
which will not again reach normal proportions until automobile 
tire manufacturers are able to resume capacity production. The 
present output is averaging approximately one-third of manu- 
facturing capacity only. 

China Clay. Receipts from abroad are liberal but as they 
have been bought to arrive they do not particularly affect the 
market, which holds steady in demand. 

Carbon Bisulphide. The demand holds steady at slight ad- 
vance in price. 

Carbon Tetrachloride. In sympathy with carbon bisulphide, 
from which it is manufactured, carbon tetrachloride holds steady 
in price and demand. 

Dry Colors. Market conditions register little change and none 
in anticipation. 

Litharge. This material is in steady demand and follows the 
same market influences as all other lead products. Production 
is not far in excess of demand. 

Lithopone. The supply falls considerably short of the demand 
due to the shortage of crude barytes necessary in its manufac- 
ture. Some of the makers of lithopone have advanced prices for 
the last quarter of 1920 one-half cent per pound during Sep- 
tember. To meet the demands of the paint trade a new grade 
of lithopone known as albalith has been placed on the market. 
This material has special light resistant properties. 







407 Peoples Savings & Trust 
Go. Building. 



[October 1, 1920. 

Sublimed Lead. Continues in good demand, much the same 
as hthargc. with which it compares as a standard rubber trade 

Sulphur. The market holds very steady in demand and price. 

Solvent Naphth.\. Supplies are scarce and firm in price with 
demand steady for all grades. 

Whiting. Improved supplies of chalk have helped the wliiting 
trade and relieved the situation for rubber manufacturers who 
prefer the native chalk whiting to the manufactured substitutes. 

Zinc Oxide. The effect of the reduction of tire production 
has been noted in the demand for zinc oxide although it has not 
embarrassed the production of this material, for which there is a 
good demand from the paint industry, which holds the price 


.^ErTEMBER 27. 19J0 

Prices subject to change without notice 


Accelercne (New York) lb. 

.\cccleinal /(j. 

Aldehyde ainincnia crystals lb. 

Aniline oil /fr. 

Exccllerex /fr. 

Hcxamethylene tetramine (powdered) lb. 

N. C. C lb. 

No. 999 lb. 

Paraphenylcnediamine lb, 

Thiocarb.inilide /&. 

Velosan lb 

Vul-KoCene lb. 

Virol lb. 


Lead, dry red (bbls.) lb. 

sublimed blue (bbls.) lb. 

sublimed white (bbls.) lb. 

white, basic carbonate (bbls.) lb. 

f.inie. flour lb. 

Litharge, domestic lb, 

imported lb. 

sublimed \b. 

Magnesium, carbonate, light lb. 

calcined extra light lb. 

calcined light lb. 

calcined medium light lb. 

calcined heavy lb. 

calcined commercial (magnesite) lb. 

oxide, e.xtra light lb. 

light technical lb. 

light, imported lb. 

imported lb. 


Acetic, 28 per cent (bbls.) czvi. 

glacial, 99 per cent (carboys) cwt. 

Cresylic (97% straw colnrl (l)lil.) gal 

(95% dark) (hbl.) gal. 

Muriatic. 30 degrees cvtt. 

Nitric. 36 degrees curt. 

Sulphuric. 66 degrees ton 


Caustic soda, 76 pev cent (bbls.) lb 

Sod.i ash (bbls.) lb. 


Bone, powdered lb. 

granulated lb. 

Carbon black (sacks, factory) lb. 

pressed ;/,, 

Drop lb. 

Ivory black lb. 

T-ampblack lb. 

Oil soluble aniline lb. 

Rubber black ;(,' 


Cobalt lb. 

Prussian - lb. 

Ultramarine \b. 

Rubber makers' blue lb. 


Iron oxide lb. 

Sienna, Italian, raw and burnt lb. 

Umber. Turkey, raw and burnt lb. 

Vandyke lb. 

Maroon oxide lb. 


Chrome, light \b. 

medium lb 

dark lb, 

commercial lb 

tile lb. 

Oxide T. R ;(,. 

Oxide of chromium (casks) . . . . , lb. 

Rubber makers' green lb. 

$4.75 @ 

.60 ® 


•2.70 (jD 



.65 @ 


2.25 (5. 


.50 @ 

.21 (3 

2.60 ® 


.57 ® 


3.70 @ 

.35 @ 

.80 @ 


.10 (S 


.10 @ 




. 1 1 V^ @ 



.12 @ 


.12 J^ 

.60 @ 


.30 @ 

.25 @ 



.04 @ 

.55 ® 


.35 (a 

.55 @ 

.55 @ 

3.75 @ 


15.95 @ 16.70 

1.30 IS 

1.10 @ 


2.25 @ 


6.25 @ 


20.00 @ 

.04 1 •. ,a 

■07 'A 

.05 @ 

.06 @ 


.11 & 


.15 la 


.20 (a) 


.08!/, (i* 




.18 @ 


1.00 @ 


.25 ffl 


.75 & 


.18 m 


3.50 @ 







.08 o 


.14 @ 


.42 @ 


.42 @ 


.50 @ 


.07 O 


.08 @ 


.85 la 


1.25 O 

3.50 @ 


Antimony, crimson, sulphurct of (casks) tk. 

crimson, "Mephisto" (casks) tb. 

crimson, "R. M. P." ib. 

Antimony, golden sulphuret of (casks) lb. 

golden sulphurct ( States) tb. 

golden, "Mcphisto" (casks) lb. 

golden. *'R. M. P." lb. 

red sulphuret (States) lb. 

vermilion sulphuret lb. 

Arsenic, red sulphide lb. 

Indian /fr. 

Para toner lb. 

Red excelsior tb. 

Toluidine toner lb. 

Iron oxide, reduced grades lb. 

pure bright lb. 

Maroon oxide lb. 

Spanish neutral lb. 

Venetian tb. 

Oil soluble aniline, red lb. 

orange lb. 

Oximony lb. 

Vermilion. Ameiican lb. 

permanent lb. 

English quicksilver lb. 

Rubber makers' red lb. 

purple lb. 


Albalith Ib. 

Aluminum bronze, extra brilliant tb. 

extra fine lb. 

Lithopone, domestic lb. 

Ponolith (carloads, factory) lb. 

Rubber-makers' white lb. 

Zinc oxide. American (factory): 

Special lb. 

XX red lb. 

French process (factory): 

White seal Ib. 

Green seal lb. 

Red seal tb. 

Azo factory: 

ZZZ (lead free) lb. 

ZZ (under 5% leaded) tb. 

Z (8-lC7o leaded) lb. 


Cadmium, sulphide, yellow, light, orange tb. 

red tb. 

Chrome, light and medium lb. 

Ochre, domestic lb. 

imported Ib. 

Oil, soluble aniline lb. 

Rubber makers' yellow lb. 

Zinc chromate tb. 


Aluminum flake (carload) ton 

silicate ton 

Ammonium carbonate (powdered) lb. 

Asbestine (carloads) ton 

Barium, carbonate, precipitated ton 

sulphide, precipitated Ib. 

dust ton 

Barytes, pure white (f. o. b. works) ton 

off color ton 

uniform floated ton 

Basofor Ib. 

Blanc fixe (dry, bbls.) lb. 

Bone ash lb. 

Carrara filler lb. 

Chalk, precipitated, extra light lb. 

heavy lb. 

China clay, Dixie ton 

Blue Ridge ton 

domestic ton 

imported ton 

Cotton linters, clean mill nm. f. o. b. factory lb. 

Fossil flour (powdered) ton 

(bolted) .*. . .ton 

Dint omit? tb. 

Glue, high grade lb. 

medium lb. 

\o\^ grade lb. 

Graphite, Hake (400-pound bbl.) lb. 

amorphous lb. 

Ground glass FF. (bbls.) Ib. 

Infusorial earth (powdered) ton 

(bolted) ton 

Liquid rubber lb. 

Mica, powdered lb. 

Pumice stons. powdered (hbl.) lb. 

Rotten stone, powderici tb. 

Rubber paste lb. 

Silica, gold bond ton 

silver bond ton 

Soapstone. ])owdered gray (carload) ton 

Starch, powdered corn cwt. 

Talc, powdered soapstone ton 

Terra blanche ton 

Tripoli earth, air-floated, cream or rose (factory ).. ./<>»r 

white (factory) ton 

Tyre-lith ton 

Whiting. Alba (carloads) cwt. 

Columbia cwt. 

commercial ciul. 

Danish ton 

English cliffstone cwt. 

gilders curt. 

Paris, vliite. American cvft. 

Quaker ton 

Super ton 

$0.45 @ 

.60 @ 

.65 @ 

.20 @ 


.35 @ 


.33 @ 

.33 @ 

.25 @ 


.55 @ 

.17/, @ 

.14 @ 


2.25 @ 

.19 @ 


4.25 @ 

.US @ 


.12 m 


.14 @ 


.05 «@ 

.03 (3 


1.75 @ 


1.65 @ 

.18 @ 

.25 @ 


.37 @ 

1.70 @ 


3.50 @ 

3.50 <» 



.65 @ 

.75 @ 





C. L. L 

. C. L. 



■ iO'A@ 


■ i3yi@ 















.04 W@ 
















@ 40.00 


C<ii 120.00 














.06 --i 
































































4.7 > 































October 1, 1920.] 



Wood pulp, imported lb. $0.03)4@ 

XXX Ion 65.00 @ 

X ton 60.00 @ 

Wood flour. .American /on "50.00 @ 


Elateron (c. 1. factory) Ion 60.00 @ 

(1. c. 1. factory) Ion 63.00 @ 

Gilsonite Ion 75.00 @ 

Gcnasco (c. 1. factory) Ion 69.00 @ 

(1. c. 1. factory) Ion 71.00 @ 

Hard hydrocarbon Ion 42.00 @ 

Soft hydrocarbon Ion 40.00 @ 

KX Ion @ 

K. M. R 'oil @ 

M. R. X toil @ 

Pioneer (c. 1. factory) Ion 60.00 @ 

(1. c. 1. factory) Ion 65.00 @ 

Raven M. R Ion 60.00 @65.00 

Refined Elaterite ton @ 

Richmond ton @ 

No. 64 ton (S) 

318/320 M. P. hydrocarbon (c. 1. factory) ton 50.00 @ 

(1. c. 1. factory) Ion 53.00 @70.C0 

300/310 M. P. hydrocarbon (c. 1. factory) (oh 47.50 @ 

(1. c. 1. factory) Ion 50.00 @ 

Robertson, M. R. pulverized (c. 1. factory) Ion 95.00 @ 

M. R. pulverized (1. c. 1. factory) Ion 97.50 @ 

M. R. (c. 1. factory) Ion 72.50 @ 

M. R. (I. c. 1. factory) ton 75.00 @ 

Rubrax (factory) Ion 50.00 @ 

Synpro, granulated ton 97.50 @ 

Walpole rubber flux (factory) lb. .05 @ 


Avoilas compound lb. .17 @ .19 

Castor, No. 1, U. S. P lb. .18 @ 

No. 3, U. S. P lb. .17 @ 

Corn ■. lb. .16 wi 

(Torn, refined Argo cwl. 17.25 @ 

Cotton lb. .15 @ 

Glycerine (98 per cent) /fc. .28 @ .29 

Linseed, raw (carloads) gal. 1.20 @ 

Linseed compound gal. @ 

Palmoline lb. .15 @ .17 

Palm niger lb. .11!^@ 

Palm "Lagos'* lb. .14 @ 

Palm special lb. .17 @ 

Peanut /*. .18 @ 

Petrolatum lb. .10 (8 .12 

Petrolatum, sticky lb. .12 ® .14 

Petroleum grease lb. .07 'A @ .09 

Pine, steam distilled ' gal. 1.85 @ 2.00 

Rapeseed, refined lb. .20 ((i) 

blown lb. .20 @ 

Rosin gal. .70 @ .95 

Synpro gal. .70 @ 1.00 

Soya bean lb. .14 (a) 

Tar gal. .36 @ .42 


Balsam, fir gal. 2.00 @ 

Cantella gum lb. .50 @ 

Cumar resin, hard lb. .16 @ 

soft lb. .13 @ 

Tar, retort bbl. 15.00 @1S.50 

kiln bbl. 14.50 @15.0O 

Pitch, Burgundy lb. .08^ @ 

coal tar lb. .02 @ 

pine tar lb. .04 @ 

ponto lb. .14 (3 

Rosin, K 6W. 13.75 © 

strained 6fc/. @ 

Shellac, fine orange lb, 1.30 @ 1.50 


Acetone (98.99 per cent drums) lb. .25 @ 

methyl (drums) gal. 1.50 @ 

Benzol (water white, 90%) gal. .33 @ .38)4 

Beta-naphthol lb. .80 m 

Carbon bisulphide (drums) lb. .OVyi&t .08)4 

tetrachloride (drums) lb. .13 Cd) .15 

Naphtha, motor gasoline (steel bbls.) gal. .31 @ 

73 @ 76 degrees (steel bbls.) gal. .41 (Ti) 

70@ 72 (steel bbls. ) gal. .39 ^ 

68 ® 70 degrees (steel bbls.) gal. .38 (3> 

V. M. & P. (steel bbls.) gol. .30 (3 

Toluol, pure go/. .35 (S> .40 1^ 

Turpentine, spirits gal. 1.46 @ 

wood gal. 1.40 @ 1.43 

Osmaco reducer gal. .65 @ 

Xylol, pure gai. .45 @ .50^4 

commercial gal. .30 @ .35)4 


Black lb. .10 (5) .20 

White ;*. .11 <Si .23 

Brown lb. .15 @ .21 

Brown factice lb. .10 @ .21 

White factice lb. .11 (7.' .24 

Paragol, soft and medium (carloads) cwl. 18,81 (5) 

hard cwt. 18.31 ^ 


Lead, black hyposulphite (Black Hypo) lb. .32 @ .39 

Orange mineral, domestic Ih. .15J4@ 

Sulphur chloride (jugs) lb. .20 @ 

(drums) lb. .08 (fb 

Sulphur, flour, Brooklyn brand (carloads) cwt. .^.40 (d) 

Bergenport, soft (c. I. factory) cwl. 3.85 @ 

Bergenport, soft (1. c. 1. factory) cwl. 4.15 @ 

superfine (carloads, factory) cwl. 2.00 @ 2.62 

(See also Colors — Antimony.) 


beeswax, white ^., $0.67 

ccresin, white i lb. .16 

carnauba lb. .35 

ozokerite, black lb. .65 

green lb. .65 

Montan lb. .20 

parafKne, refined 118/120 m. p. (cases) lb. 

123/125 m. p. (cases) lb. 

128/130 m. p. (cases) lb. 

Sweet wax lb. 



"T^HE PREVAILING INACTIVITY noted in the reclaimed rubber 
*■ market has brought the rubber scrap business well nigh 
to a full stop. Reclaimers are well stocked with the various 
grades of scrap and, according to the present outlook, will not 
be in the market in force for months to come, owing to the 
general demand of their customers for deferred shipment of 
goods on order. Such interest as exists is confined to the better 
grades of scrap, such as boots and shoes, inner tubes and tires. 


Prices .subject to change without notice 

September 27, 1920 

Arctic tops lb. "$0,075 @ 

Boots and shoes lb. *.06'/2@ 

Trimmed arctics lb. •.055<4@ 

t^ntrimmed arctics lb. ".0414 @ 


P.attery jars, black compound lb. ".01 @ 

No. 1, bright fracture lb. '.23 @ 


No. 1 lb. ■.\i'/2(S! 

Compounded lb. *.08VS@ 

Red lb. ".07 @ 


lilack scrap, mixed, No. 1 lb. ".03^® 

No. 2 lb. '.02yi @ 

Car springs lb. ".03J^@ 

Heels lb. ".03 @ 

Horseshoe pads lb. ".03 @ 

Hose, air brake lb. ".03^ @ 

fire, cotton lined lb. ".01^© 

garden lb. '.Oiyi@ 

Insulated wire stripping, free from fiber lb. *.03}4@ 

Matting lb. ".01 "4 @ 

Red packing lb. '.0S'/2@ 

Red scrap, No. 1 lb. ".09 @ 

No. 2 lb. ".06Ji@ 

White scrap No. 2 lb. ".08 @ 

No. 1 lb. *.10 @ 



Auto peelings lb. ".03^(3* 

Bicycle lb. '.02<A@ 

Standard wliite auto lb. ".03J4@ 

Mixed auto lb. '.OZ'A® 

Stripped, unguaranteed lb. *.01^@ 

White. G. & G,, M. & W., and U. S lb. *.04Ji@ 


Carriage lb. ".04 @ 

Irony lb. '.01 @ 

Truck lb. ".03^5® 









.01 J4 











In the article under the above caption by Dr. Henry F. 
Stevens, published in The India Rubber World, August 1, 1920, 
pages 719-720, the tabulation of figures quoted, although given 
by Seidl, were not from his own results, but based on experi- 
mental results of Gottlob. On this point the article should havt 
referred to the figures as "Some figures of Gottlob recently- 
quoted by Scidl" in order to be strictly in keeping with the facts. 


[OcTdBER I. 1920. 

\'ol. 63 

OCTOBER 1. 1920 

No. 1 


Editorials: Pages 

Truckportation and Truck Tires... •• 1 

Rubber Men and Cotton 1-2 

Solvent Naphtha from Oil Shale • ■ 2 

Minor Editorials ■ • 2 

The Economics of Truckportation. 

By Richard Hoadley Tingley — Illustrated 3-6 

Elastic Cord for Airplane Shock Absorbers. 

Illustrated 6-7 

Meeting of the Rubber Division of the American 

Chemical Society 7-8 

Ocotillo Again to the Front. Illustrated 9-10 

The Measurement of Crimp in Yarns and Fabrics. 

By A. X. Gadsby and E. C. Walen. Diagram 10-11 
Making Rubber Heels for a Hundred Million People. 

By Chester Burnham — Illustrated 12-16 

The Rubber Association of America — Activities of.. 16 

Sixth National Exposition of Chemical Industries.. 16-17 

Crimson Antimony 17-18 

Some Aspects of the Stress-Strain-Curve. By Wil- 
liam B. Wiegand— Charts 18-21 

Steam Requirements for Vulcanizing. 

By Walter J. Bitterlich— Charts 22-24 

The Manufacture of Dental Rubber. 

By Arthur C. Squires— Illustrated 24-25 

New Rubberized Airship Fabrics 25 

Toron Patents and Products Illustrated 26 

Chemistry : 

What the Rubber Chemists Are Doing 27-29 

Investigations on Different Coagulants. Black- 
ening of Red Rubber Tubes. Permeability of 
Rubber to Gases. 

Methods of Analysis 29 

The Defection of Natural Barytes in Litho- 
pone, etc. Technical .\nalysis of Lithopone. 

Chemical Patents ■ • 29-30 

Laboratory Apparatus ....•■ Illustrated 30 

Machines and Appliances Illustrated 31-32 

Composition Sole Stitching Machine. The G-R 
Strainer. A New Fabric-Skiving Machine. Steel 
Platens for Hydraulic Presses. Naphtha and 
Cement Bench Cans. Crane for Giant Pneumatic 
Tires. Steel Wire Buffing Wheels. 

Machinery Patents illustrated 32-34 

Molding Inner Tubes by the Pneumatic Proc- 
ess. Machine for Forming Battery Jars. Ma- 
chine for Forming Toy Balloon Beads. A Novel 
Spreading Machine. Other Machinery Patents. 

Process Patents 34 

New Goods and Specialties .•■ Illustrated 35-36 

An X-Raycd (iolf Ball. Quick Repair for Punc- 
tures. I'ncumatic-Tire Dust Cap. Semi-Stuffed 
.\ir Cushion. Kubbor-Covered Dye Stick. Miner's 
Rubber Shoe Pac. Canadian Rubber Heel. A 
Safety Bottle Cap. The Universal Natural Milker. 
A Tire Wholcsole. New Hunting Equipment. 
Moistening Device for Cigars. 

Obituary Record 37 

E. H. Openshaw (Portrait). T. F. McCarthy. 
M. P. Grace. 

Inquiries and Trade Opportunities , ■ • 

Editor's Book Table 

"How to Make and Use a Small Chemical 
Laboratory." "Hand- Book of Fire Protection." 

New Trade Publications 

Judicial Decisions • • 

Interesting Letters from Our Readers 

.About a Novi'l Toy Ball. 

American Rubber Trade — News Notes and Personals 


Financial Notes 

Rubber Stock Quotations 

New Incorporations 

Joseph £. Stone Portrait and Sketch 

East and South By Our Correspondent 

New Jersey By Our Correspondent 

Massachusetts By Our Correspondent 

John R. Gammeter Portrait and Sketch 

Ohio By Our Correspondent^Illustrated 

Mid-West. . .By Our Correspondent — Illustrated 
Pacific Coast. By Our Correspondent — Illustrated 

Ninth Annual Safety Congress of the National 

Safety Coimcil 

Canadian Market for Rubber Goods 

Foreign Rubber News: 

Great Britain By Our Correspondent 

Miscellaneous Foreign Notes 


Germany By Special Correspondent 

Scandinavia and Denmark. 

By Special Correspondent 

Tariff News 

Planting : 

Netherlands East Indies 

Straits Settlements 

Malaya By Special Correspondent 

Ceylon By Special Correspondent 

Defects in Plantation Rubber 

Patents Relating to Rubber 

United States. Canada. United Kingdom. Ger- 

. Illustrated 


United States. Canada. Australia. 


United States. Canada. 

Markets : 

Crude Rubber 

Highest and Lowest New York Prices 

Amsterdam Rubber Market 

Antwerp Rubber Market 

Singapore Rubber Market 

Reclaimed Rubber 

Rubber Scrap 

Cotton and Other Fabrics 

Chemicals and Other Ingredients 


Brazil, E.xports from Para, Manaos and Iquitos, 

July, 1920 

Canada, Statistics for, May, 1920 

Cotton Statistics: 

Federated Malay States Rubber Exports 

Java Rubber Exports 

Straits Settlements Rubber Exports 

LInited Kingdom, Statistics for July, 1920 

United .States: 

Crude Rubber Arrivals at Atlantic and Pacific 
Ports as Stated by Ships' Manifests 

Custom House Statistics 

Imports by Months for 1920 

Exports of India Rubber Manufactures During 
July, 1920 (By Countries) 



































October 1, 1920.] 






Mechanical Rubber Goods 

Automobile Tires 

Tubes and Accessories 

Rubber Footwear 

Rubber Heels 

"Tenax" Fibre Soles 

Special Attention to Export Trade 


Head Offices: 47 Yonge Street, Toronto, Canada 

CANADIAN BRANCHEIS: Halifax, Montreal, Ottawa, Ft. WUliam, Winnipeg, Retina, Saskatoon, EUlmonton, Calgary, Lethbridge, Vancouver, Victoria 
SEIXING AGENCIES IN: Australia. New Zealand, British West Indies, Newfoundland and South Africa 


A. Schrader's Son, ll: 



Schrader Universal Valves 


Schrader Stopple and Combination Syringe Connection for 

Hot Water Bottles. Schrader Pillow Valves for 

Pillows, Life Preservers and similar articles 






Contracted Ferrules for Garden Hose 
Brass Fittings for Rubber Goods of Every Description 


Furnishers of Diving Apparatus to United States Navy 


148 State St., Boston, Mass. 




Highest Qualities : Reasonable Prices 



CABLE ADDRESS r,^«^^^, ,,.„« 




[October 1, 1920. 


Established 1855 





Warerooms: Nos. 126-128 Duane St., NEW YORK 

301 West Randolph St. 71 Pearl Street 241 Chestnut Street 34 Fremont Street 









103 Park Avenue NEW YORK 


Molded and Hand Made Specialties 

Bathing Caps 

Spread and Calendered Fabrics 

Pure Gum Sheet, plain and in colors 

Diaper and Sanitary Apron Rubbers 

cut to pattern 

Dress Shield Rubbers 

Electrical Splice 

Uncured Stocks 

Mill and Calender Work 



113-117 Pearl Street, New York 



Tyer Rubber Co., Inc. 

Manufacturars of 



Automobile Tires and Inner Tubes 
Stationers' Rubber Bands 








5 O 




I have successfully handled 
ay cases in the past 20 years. 

What are YOIR troubles? 

Rubber Chemist 

Analyses, Tests, Experimental Work 


Incorporated 1900 ATLANTIC, MASS. Founded 1& 

Reliable Rubber Goods 




U. S. Pat. Off. 


Reg. United Kingdon 

Vol. LXIII. No. 2 

NOVEMBER 1, 1920 


$3.00 Per Year. 
$3.50 Abroad. 


Avoid Oxidation and Overheating by Using "Buflovak" Vacunm Dryers 

perature or 
labor cost. 

The high vacuum and lowr temperature of "Buflovak" Dryers absolutely prevent over-heat 
ing and oxidation, which are constant dangers to rubber when exposed to high tern 
oxygen while drying. Other advantages are economy of drying time and reduced 

"Buflovak" Vacuum Dryers dry all kinds of sheet rubber, rubber 
compounds, etc. 

Profit by the experience of others and get all the facts before de- 
ciding on your drying equipment. 

We build a com- 
plete line of Va- 
cuum Dryers, 
Evaporators and 
Chemical Appa- 


"Buflovak" Vacuum Shelf Dryer 

"Buflovak" Rotary Dryer 

Buffalo Foundry & Machine Co. 

1577 Fillmore Ave., Buffalo, N. Y. 

New York Office: 17 BATTERY PLACE 

yj JO 




November 1, 1920 


Executive Offices: MONTREAL, CANADA 

CHARLES B. SEGER, President, 
W. A. EDEN, Vice-President, 

R. E. JAMIESON, Director in Charge of Sales, 
W. BINMORE, Secretary-Treasurer. 


12 Large Manufacturing Plants 

28 "Service" Branches throughout Canada 


Whitehead Brothers 
Rubber Co. 


High Grado Mechanical Rubber Goods 
"Long Life" Steam Hose 

Suction Hose for all purposes 
Water Hose, Belting, Packings 
Springs, Valves, etc. 



Of Interest to Rubber Manufacturers 

Compressed and Uitcomin-essed 



Calcined and Uncalcined 


Highest Quality 


Highest Quality 



Highest Quality 


Specially Prepared for the Rubber 

H. N. Richards Co. 

Representatives : 
£. R. Smead Co. 

Dr. Clevelazul McCormack 


For Steam, Air and High Pressure Hose 



Iron Pipe 







Every Rubber Manufacturer and Jobber should lauyir this coupling 
and have our prices. 



New York 






Cable Address 

"Feinco" Chelsea 

Liebers and A B C, 4 & 5 edition 

November 1, 1920 





CA'P^ e" 


Reg. United States Pat. Off. Reg. United Kingdom. 

Published on the 1st of each month by 


No. 25 West 45th Street, New York. 

Telephone — Bryant 2576. 


Vol. 63 



No. 2 

SuBscniPTioN: $3.00 per year, $1.75 for six months, postpaid, for the 
United States and dependencies and Mexico. To the Dominion 
of Canada and all other countries, $3.50 (or equivalent funds) 
per year, postpaid. 

Advertising: Rates will be made known on application. 

Remittances: Should always be made by bank draft. Post Office or 
Express money order on New York, payable to The India Rubber 
FtJBLiSHiNG Company. Remittances for foreign subscriptions should 
be sent by International Postal Order, payable as above. 

Discontinuances: Yearly orders for subscriptions and advertising are 
regarded as permanent, and after the first twelve months they will 
be discontinued only at the request of the subscriber or advertiser. 
Bills are rendered promptly at the beginning of each period, and 
thereby our patrons have due notice of continuance. 



AMERICANS who enjoyed and were benefited by the 
Third International Rubber Exhibition in New 
York in 1912, and the fourth in London in 1914, will be 
interested to learn that plans are well under way for the 
fifth exhibition to be held in London in June, 1921. 
Many governments, important industrial associations, and 
leading rubber growers and manufacturers of rubber 
goods and machinery have already assured their hearty 
cooperation in making the affair surpass in magnitude 
and excel in helpfulness all the exhibitions held since 
their inception in 1908. Experience has shown that not 
only are such displays of high educational concern to 
the general public, but that they are of positive value to 
the entire rubber trade. The International Conference, 
which is held in connection with these exhibitions, is 
always a feature of outstanding interest. The essays 
submitted by the foremost specialists in the rubber 
world cover a wide range of subjects of vital import to 
the trade, and the practical discussions by men who 
fhrough their genius and industry have achieved real 
success are stimulating to an exceptional degree. It may 
seem early, but it is none too soon for the leaders in the 

rubber trade in this country to prepare for ample and 
creditable representation at the big exhibition. 


T C. Frederick in the Review of Reviews forecasts 
*' * the automobile business in a most interesting 
fashion. Indeed those tire men who fear immediate 
"saturation" may well read and take hope. Here are 
some of the figures. Present census of automobiles and 
trucks in the United States, 7,750,000. Saturation point 
based on Iowa per capita figures, 40,800,000 or on one- 
fourth of that, 10,200,000 plus 7,750,000, which equals 
17,950,000. This expressed in tire terms is 71,800,000 
tires and tubes. Europe's need Mr. Frederick puts at 
31,300,000 cars. He points out also that the American 
car is popular and that the supply does not ctjual the 
demand. Say Europe can use 10,000,000 tires on the 
above basis it would look as if some time within the 
next few years 81,800,000 new tires will be built in Amer- 
ican factories, and then there are the replacements. Not 
reallv a bad outlook. 


WHILE Americans have long realized the truth of 
the saying that British business men are the 
world's greatest overseas traders, and have appreciated 
the fact that the limited capacity of the home market for 
absorlMng manufactured products has been a powerful 
factor in impelling British business men to strive unceas- 
ingly to expand the volume of their foreign trade, but 
comparatively few in this country have had much knowl- 
edge of the ingenious methods employed by the British 
to gain their commanding position in the mercantile 
world. Nor is it surprising that Americans have known 
so little of the magnitude and the intricate ramifications 
of the machinery devised by the British, with and with- 
out government aid, for enlarging the scope of overseas 

Americans, for instance, have no counterpart for the 
British Trade Corporation, scarcely three vears old, with 
a fifth of its £10,000,000 capital paid up, and which has 
already helped large and small British manufacturers to 
sell many million pounds' worth of goods overseas. Nor 
have American manufacturers an organization which 
functions like the Federation of British Industries, a 
trade organization of 20,000 producing firms, all British. 
It is organized by trades and districts, is governed by a 
grand council of 211 members, conducts expositions at 
home and in foreign countries, compiles an export regis- 
ter, and, apart from the British Government, maintains 
trade commissions in ninnerous foreign and colonial 

Great Britain learned many valuable lessons from ag- 
gressive, commercial Germany : and so, too, America, 
which is steadily approaching the saturation point in its 



N'OVEMBER 1, 1920 

own great home market, and which must plan for a larger 
share of overseas commerce, may well study closely the 
intensive methods and far-reaching experiences of the 
big European nations in developing their foreign com- 


WORD comes that the long continued efforts of Sir 
Francis Watts have been successful in securing an 
Agricultural College for the West Indies. The location 
will be the tropical island of Trinidad which is ideal as 
to climate and soil and its contiguity to Central and South 
America and the United States. 

The experiment station at Port of Spain, Trinidad, has 
done much already in rubber, cotton, and the like, and 
the college will begin with a wealth of material right at 
its doors. A university so close to our borders, with a 
faculty made up of the best talent from the vast posses- 
sions of Great Britain is now to attract scholars from our 
universities who more and more are turning to tropical 


IT may be hard to convince Mr. Average Car-Owner 
that gasoline consumption is really exceeding produc- 
tion, and that the report is not a cunning canard put out 
by the great oil companies as a pretext for raising prices ; 
but it is a fact, nevertheless, and the most unbiased 
authorities say that there is no reason to believe that 
gasoline will ever be cheap again or that the output will 
ever keep pace with the demand. 

Limiting the number of cars or rationing gasoline 
might be suggested as alternatives ; but, inasmuch as 
neither course would be popular, and as no satisfactory 
substitute for "gas" is being marketed, the rational rem- 
edy for such a situation would seem to be the manufac- 
ture of motor vehicles which will not require nearly as 
much fuel as those now in vogue. In other words, cars 
must be made lighter; and, while having engines of 
ample power, the excess now provided and so often mis- 
used must be greatly lessened if not eliminated. 

Thus the heavy passenger car will gradually disappear, 
and a small, light motor vehicle appear. There are signs 
that in the near future such a car will be put on the mar- 
ket for as low a price as $250 and will use scarcely half 
the "gas" now ordinarily consumed, and the cost of 
which must rise in direct ratio to its increasing scarcity. 

Already the Germans, forced to deal with a serious 
"gas" shortage, are turning out a small, light, cheap car 
said to be quite efficient. Other European countries, 
also confronted with a scarcity of petrol, are planning to 
do away with cumbersome cars that are veritable locomo- 
tives consuming an inordinate amount of valuable fuel. 

In this country a famous electrical wizard announces 
the invention of a remarkably light, power-economizing 
motor car, and soon to be marketed. Evidently necessity. 

"invention's mother," is preparing us for a radical change 
in automobile construction and incidentally for a great 
output of light, low-priced, economical cars — perhaps for 
the millions, all of which must stimulate to a greater 
degree than ever the manufacture of rubber tires, the 
sitie qua non of the modern automobile. 


WITH the very commendable preparation that is going 
forward for study of and experiment upon Hevea 
trees no one can quarrel. It is not only wise, but 
necessary. Nevertheless, would it not be *the part 
of wisdom to bring both the Castilloa and the 
Manihot up to a greater productiveness also? In 
many instances individual trees have shown a surprising 
product. Furthermore, who knows that wound response 
cannot be brought about in these trees? If so, with their 
abundant flow of latex they might in time rival the Hevea. 
Then, too, there is the immunity to disease that Castilloa 
particularly enjoys. The Hevea has proved such a won- 
der that the others are for the time being about forgotten, 
which is a pity. 


THE House Organ, so-called, is quite likely to be 
shaped for the selling force, the dealer and some- 
times the ultimate consumer. The Factory Organ, how- 
ever, is the newspaper of the mill and, in its present de- 
velopment, is proving a power for good that it is hard 
to overestimate. It gives just the needed opportunity 
for the wise executive to talk to his employes in terms 
they understand and in a way that makes a permanent 
impression. The publication is the forum of the fac- 
tory. It chronicles the minor happenings, the pleasant 
personalities, corrects errors in thought and gives merit, 
even minor merit, a chance for appreciation. 

As a means of Americanization, of welfare work, or 
assistance to all of the right thinking, it is priceless. 
More power to it. 


a $300,000,000 merger of the General Chemical, Solvay 
Process, Semet-Solvay, Barrett, and the National Aniline 
and Chemical companies into what will be the largest 
concern in the world manufacturing and distributing 
chemical products, the rubber industry, one of the great- 
est users of chemicals, is pardonably curious to know 
how its interests will be affected by such a gigantic con- 
solidation. Assurance is given that the new corporation 
does not intend to increase its profits by raising prices, 
but rather by effecting numerous economies, by lessen- 
ing waste and "lost motion," by more efficient produc 
tion, and by wisely coordinating the forces of the hun- 
dred and one establishments that will pass under single* 

November 1, 1920 



India Rubber in the Oil Industry 

RUBBER figures as a considerable item, as it plays an indis- 
pensable part in the colossal petroleum industry of the 
United States, in which, according to the Geological Sur- 
vey, over 1^,000 companies and individuals operating wells are 
expected to produce in 1920 some 400,000,000 barrels of crude 
oil worth about $1,260,000,000. Estimates of the actual capital in- 
volved in the production, refining and distribution of petroleum, 
while varying greatly, give an approximate total of over two 
billion dollars for the entire country. 

Of this enormous total about one-third is accredited to the 
Southwest, where the recent development of petroleum fields has 
amazed the nation by its magnitude and rapid extension. From 
Texas to the Pacific Slope in a hundred territories thousands of 
wells are daily yielding hundreds of thousands of barrels of 
oil, and a multitude of prospectors are continually opening up 
new areas and drilling for new supplies of a commodity for which 
there is an ever-increasing demand. 

California, of whose oil industry more complete statistics are 
available than of some of the other southwestern states, produces 
fully one-fifth of the world's total supply of petroleum. On July 
1, 1920, there were nearly 800 concerns in the state operating 
9,311 wells and drilling 454 more, 261 having been started in the 
first six months of 1920, as compared with 182 in the same period 
of 1919. The state's total crude oil production for 1919 was 101.- 

made upon manufacturers of various rubber essentials for the oil 
fields. The general complaint among oil well drillers is that op- 
erations are greatly retarded by slow deliveries of machinery. 
Little fault, however, seems to be found with the execution of 
orders for rubber goods, the sales of which in the Southwest oil 
industry total several hundred thousand dollars annually. 

While most of the rubber used in drilling, pumping, conveying, 
etc., in the oil industry in this section is provided by Eastern and 
Mid-Western factories, a fairly large proportion of such goods 
is being furnished by makers of rubber specialties on the Pacific 


It may ncit be amiss here to touch briefly upon that most essen- 
tion operation in an oil field — drilling, and the apparatus with 
which it is carried on. While old-time oil men insist that for 
drilling there is nothing to rival the familiar standard, immov- 
able derrick, up-to-date prospectors rather favor compact portable 
drilling rigs, which are not only easily moved about and quickly 
erected, but with which, it is claimed, wells can also be drilled 
in a much shorter time than with the standard rig. Very deep 
drilling may be done with the former, but the latter has proved 
its value for shallower wells, and has been efficient even at depths 
of 2,500 feet or more. A fine type of drilling outfit is the com- 
bination derrick, about 80 feet high, so arranged that it can be 

Rubber Goods Are Indispensable to the Oh. Inliustkv in Drilling, Pu.mi'ing anu Co.nveving Crude Oil, Also i.n the Fin.-\l 

Distribution of the Refined Products 

221,000 barrels, according to reports kept liy the Standard Oil Co., 
and according to the state's own reports for 1919. three hundred 
twenty oil companies had $139,321,872 in cash and $222,244,897 in 

In Texas it is estimated that over 300 companies are producing 
oil, many of them in great quantities, and about 600 more are 
drilling. In New Mexico, it is said, that 70 oil companies are 
operating, 28 in Arizona, 26 in Utah, and 30 in Nevada. Attracted 
by the steadily-enhancing value of the crude product, many more 
concerns with ample capital are planning to go actively into the 
big "oil game," and consequently augment the demands being 

used for both cable and rotary drilling. In cable drilling the 
tools, which fairly chisel a hole through the solid earth, are al- 
ternately lifted within the derrick and then dropped through an 
ever-lengthening casing of iron pipe ; while in rotary drilling the 
boring is done by a low-set machine, the essential feature being a 
revolving horizontal steel table, in the center of which is fastened 
the drilling bit and through the center of which can also be 
slipped the sections of pipe casing. The table is geared to a bevel 
pinion on a shaft driven by a motor or gas engine. 

When oil is struck a long piston rod replaces the drilling 
"string" in the center of the derrick, the pumping jack is set over 



November 1, 1920 

the well, and the picturesque walking beam begins its task, one 
which every oil man always hopes will be a never-ending series 
of "ups and downs." 


When the stage is all set for an "oil drama," rubber is ushered 
in in an important role in the very first act ; that is, the operation 
of "spudding in" or drilling a well. It is needed primarily for 
belting. The big oil companies of the South\ve.';t have tried all 
kinds of belts for driving drills at high speed 24 hours a day in 
the fields, both by the rotary chiselling or "percussion" process, 
in which a 625-pound bit is lifted and dropped into the hole; and 
the boring method, in which a 100-pound bit with a serrated tip 
is revolved at the bottom of an 8 or 10-inch iron pipe to which 
additions are being constantly made ; but the one belt that the 
workers find stands the hardest kind of abuse and gives the great- 
est efficiency is that made of rubber. 

Rubber belting is preferred in the oil fields because it is tougher, 
more flexible, more cohesive and has greater tensile strength than 
leather; it hugs the pulleys closely, making anti-slip "dope" un- 
necessary; there is no stretch to it, hence no time lost in take- 
ups; it is uniform in its construction, joints being eliminated when 
measurements are sent to the factories for endless belts; there 
is no limit to the width, thickness, quality, or design in which 
it can be made up ; it is water-proof and can be made practically 
impervious to oils, acids, gases and steam; and it can withstand 
the roughest service in sandy sections and extreme variations in 
temperature. A fact of no little interest, too, is that rubber 
belting costs less than leather. 

A familiar type of rubber belt used on oil well drills is 12 to 
14 inches wide and made of 6-ply canvas duck with a good quality 
of friction. For a few special cases 8-ply belts are made to 
order. All such belts, drillers say, withstand the heavy, uneven 
jerks caused by the weight of the tools and the spring of the 
cable much better than leather. When a well has been set up 
and a gasoline or electric-driven pump has been installed, the 
transmission belt that is preferred to connect motor and pump is 
a 4 or 5-ply heavy duck well frictioncd with rubber and generally 
a foot wide. The durability of such belts often amazes the 
users, many giving five and six years of service despite oil, grit, 
slush and rough usage. It might be added that such belts are 
generally of the type having the plies stitched and the surface 
rubber-covered to make it moisture-proof. 


Another article of even greater utility in the oil industry is 
hose ; and many are the varieties used to meet exacting conditions. 
It is first employed in the primary or drilling operation, espe- 
cially where the rotary method is used, and with it water is con- 
stantly pumped down the slender hollow shaft to cool the drill 
and to keep it from getting clogged with sand and pulverized rock, 
as well as to flush out the bore-hole. The type of hose used 
ranges from 2 to lYi inches internal diameter, is made with a 
thick, tough inner wall, and generally has from five to eight plies, 
except at the ends of the 30 to 50-foot length, where it is rein- 
forced with one or two additional plies of fabric to withstand 
coupling strain. All such hose has a protective armor, being 
closely wrapped with either round or half-round wire, commonly 
No. 6 gage, for rough handling. Some types for pressures of 
250 pounds or more have fiat wire wound through the cores to 
safeguard the hose further from grit abrasion and to prevent 
bends from straining it too much. For compressed air needs, 
many use plain wrapped duck or braided hose, 5 to 9-ply, with the 
core made of an oil-resisting rubber; but the demand is increas- 
ing for hose with wire armor, which gives added strength and 
longer life for rough work. 

For conducting oil from tanks to barrels the hose most used 
has four or five plies of frictioned duck with the center 
lined with an oil-resisting rubber compound, and with a closely- 

set spiral flat wire extending through the core not only to protect 
the compound from possible corrosion but also to prevent the 
hose from kinking or collapsing through the high vacuum so 
often occurring in hose used for this purpose. For general oil 
conveying a hose is used that has four or five plies with a spe- 
cially-made canvas lining to protect the rubber, and also a round 
or flat wire helix in the core to check sharp bending. 

To draw oil from shore tanks to steamships or tankers, or 
to reverse the process, a suction and discharge hose of excep- 
tional strength and caliber is employed. It has to be made to 
witlistand the utmost extremes in weather, the harshest handling, 
continual contact with rapidly-growing masses of oil, and usually 
high pressure. Spun metal hose has been tried, but, while such 
hose may give fair service in selected cases, the big oil com- 
panies much prefer to put their trust in rubber. As they say, 
all transfers of oil cannot be made with ships moored to docks; 
often tlie big hose has to be stretched a long distance from the 
shore, and sometimes it has to be fastened to a string of floats 
in rough water when a ship cannot be brought near a wharf or 
where wharves are lacking. They must have a hose that will 
not break if it bends. If in using a spun metal hose in such 
cases the hose were to snap in two, as is always possible, such an 
accident would mean perhaps serious loss and delay to shippers 
and customers. 

One type of suction and discharge hose which is considerably 
used on the Pacific Coast ranges in internal diameter from si.x 
to eight inches and often lasts a year with steady use. It has 
a heavy, oil-resisting cover, under which are four plies of 32- 
ounce duck frictioned fabric. Under the latter is a braided steel 
cable wound spirally, then four plies more of fabric, next a 
heavy rubber lining, then two layers of canvas frictioned on the 
reverse side, and finally a heavy galvanized iron flat wire helix 
for the core and so pressed into the canvas as to give quite a 
smooth bore throughout. Surprise is sometimes expressed that 
external wire winding is seldom used on such hose. The reason 
given is that it is not safe, as friction of the metal covering with 
stones or on concrete docks might cause a spark that would 
mean a disastrous fire. A few concerns, however, have in use 
a type of hose which has all the features of that just described 
(except the cable) and with a flat wire or rope wound around 
the outside but protected with a specially-treated canvas covering. 

For oil discharge only, a 4 or 5-ply hose with a compact, 
smooth-bore rubber lining is ordinarily used. A more durable 
type is made of four plies of fabric, a heavy tubing compound, 
four plies more of fabric, and a heavy rubber lining. Some 
buyers require manufacturers to conform to the United States 
War Department specilications or to those of the Southern Pacific 
Railway, while many of the large oil companies buy only ac- 
cording to their own specifications. 


Some complaint has been made that gasoline sellers often use 
old or inferior hose in filling automobile tanks, with the result 
that particles of partly-dissolved or disintegrated rubber are drawn 
into the needle valves of carburetors, interfering with engine op- 
eration, and sometimes causing motor car owners much vexa- 
tion and expense. Investigation, however, has revealed but little 
basis for such complaint. In a few cases at out-of-the-way sta- 
tions some dealers may have used old garden hose temporarilv 
in filling tanks, and some dissolved rubber from worn lining or 
joints may have given a few motorists annoyance, but the amount 
of such trouble has really been negligible. An increasing number 
of gasoline sellers use a hose nozzle having a 60 to 80 wire mesh 
strainer to catch lint, dirt, etc., that may be in gasoline. Ex- 
perienced "gas" sellers say that if the nozzles arc fastened in 
the hose to prevent the fluid from reaching the fabric, there 
will be rarely any disintegration trouble. As an improvement, 
some stress the need of couplings that wlien inserted in hose 

November 1, 1920 



will not perceptibly lessen the caliber or impede the flow of 
gasoline as do many now in use. Something in spun metal is 
suggested as the desideratum. 

Most "gas" stations have very good rubber equipment, the op- 
erators having found that the best is the cheapest in the long 
run ; and the big oil companies on the Pacific Coast, which op- 
erate long chains of stations, have standardized with a gasoline 
hose having a strong duck lining that quite effectively keeps the 
gasoline from acting on the rubber. Within such 54 or 8-inch can- 
vas core is a helical flat wire further to safeguard the rubber, and 
surrounding the rubber are four plies of fabric, and finally a heavy 
spiral of flat wire to. keep the hose from bending sharply and 
to add to its wearing quality. This type of hose is exceptionally 
durable. The stations are also supjilied with 5 to 7-ply air hose, 
a strong tubing with a rubber covering, and with the further 
protection of a spiral flat, round, or half-round wire. 

For emergency fire needs the oil companies equip their sta- 
tions with a folding, unlined, linen duck hose that is easily packed 
away; but in their oil fields and at their refineries they always 
keep on hand a great amount of very flexible, double cotton- 
jacketed hose of from 2 to 2^4 inches in diameter to meet an 
ever-present danger of conflagration. Some concerns, however, 
use in their fields, instead of cotton -jacketed hose, a good grade 
of rubber-covered rubber-lined fire hose made in four plies, with 
a fifth ply at each coupling. 


In the slush pumps of the oil fields rubber gets its severest 
test ; and it is here that it is used quite exclusively for ready- 
made or wrapped-on sleeves for plungers. As these pumps must 
be used for cleaning out bore-holes after the sand in them has 
been flushed out with water, and must also do the hardest kind 
of service night and day in sucking up into the sump cisterns 
heavy oil often much mixed with grit, the rubber sleeves, vary- 
ing in diameter from five to six inches and in thickness from J/2 
to ^ of an inch, have to be made of specially compounded stock. 
Not only does the rubber sleeve aid in producing the requisite 
pumping vacuum, but to a considerable degree it also prevents 
the scoring of the pump cylinder by allowing the sand to work 
above the piston, which could scarcely happen if the plunger were 
wholly of steel, as plungers are at the refineries, where only 
strained oil is handled. 

Sometimes in the pumping of crude oil the sleeves are changed 
as often as twice a day, while in other cases they may last a month 
or two if but little abrasive substance is drawn up from the well. 
Hence the life of the rubber sleeve varies with the character of 
the oil field and the earth strata through which the well has 
been driven. One make of sleeve for light service is of very 
pliable stock, and, when worn on one side, may be twisted inside 
out and used on the reverse side, thus giving double service and 
effecting a saving. Instead of sleeves many workers still use 
sheet packing, which, if of good quality and snugly fitted, gives 
very good service. Many use such packing only when short of 

Many are the varieties of rubber valves used for oil pumps, 
each manufacturer endeavoring best to adapt goods to the special 
needs of customers. The softer compounds are used where the 
pressures are below 80 pounds, while the tough, high density 
valves are utilized where the pressures range up to 200 pounds 
and the temperature reaches up to 212 degrees F. 

Rubber packings for oil machinery range from the thin 2 
and 3-ply stock to be cut by hand as needed to the special pack- 
ing made to order and having a dozen or more layers of specially 
frictioned fabric cut transversely to the weave or on the bias, 
the advantages claimed for the diagonal cutting being that it 
wears longer, the fabric exposed thus is more compressible, and 
that it aids much in lubricating. .A spiral packing much used 

for rods running in oil is made of tightly-woven asbestos with 
a rubber core. 

A considerable amount of pipe rings, gaskets, casing cups, 
hose washers, split stufting-box rings, swab rubbers, and oil-well 
packers are also consumed in the oil industry, being supplied in 
a practically endless variety of sizes, forms, and qualities. A 
great deal of trouble used to be occasioned on natural gas lines, 
especially those near the oil fields, by gasoline condensate col- 
lecting at the rubber joints in the iron pipe lines, and which 
neither the gas well pressure nor the pumping suction could 
wholly remove. The result was the steady deterioration of the 
rubber couplings and clamp rings, with much expense for re- 
newals and loss in time and in gas delivery while repairs were 
being made. This difficulty has been quite overcome with cou- 
plings and clamp rings made of a special "gas" resisting com- 
pound, which, it is said, will remain unaffected by the condensate 
for five years or more. 

One article which is manufactured in large quantities is brake- 
shoes that are used on heavy oil drilling machinery. These are 
made of a particularly tough rubber compound, in which are 
inlaid several layers of woven brass wire and thick asbestos 
fabric. It is claimed these are practically indestructible. 

Nor does the foregoing enumeration of rubber needs in the 
oil fields take into account many other articles that are quite 
indispensable in the handling of oil from the time when the 
heavy, black fluid is drawn from the depths of the earth to the 
time when, highly-refined, it is finally delivered to the consumers. 
Such miscellaneous articles may include tires used on fleets of 
trucks, and the rubber boots and shoes, gloves and helmet hats 
worn by small armies of men working in rain and sunshine in 
fields fairly flooded with oil. 


The recent organization of the International Chamber of Com- 
merce at Paris is the fulfilment of plans launched at the inter- 
national trade conference at Atlantic City, New Jersey, a year ago, 
and further elaborated at the conference at Paris, France, in 
June. It is a voluntary body thoroughly representative of many 
nations ready to discuss and adjust such important questions as 
finance, raw material, production, shipping, unfair competition 
and numerous other phases of international trade. 

Like the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the con- 
stitution of the international body provides for submitting inter- 
national trade questions of general and immediate interest to the 
membership for a vote. The referenda will be taken in the 
associate countries and the result published by the International 

There are two classes of membership, organization and asso- 
ciate. The annual dues of each class are fixed at three hundred 
francs, except that in the case of organizations this fee is used as 
a basis, and is a minimum charge for organizations entitled to 
only one delegate. Organization members will comprise national 
and local commercial, financial and industrial organizations rep- 
resentative of the interests they embrace. Associate members will 
consist of individuals, firms and corporations. 

A board of three directors and three alternates is selected by 
each of the countries represented. The American directors are 
John H. Fahey, formerly president of the Chamber of Commerce 
of the United States, of Boston; Willis H. Booth, of New York, 
and Edward A. Filene, of Boston. The alternates are : Harry A. 
Wheeler, formerly president of the Chamber of Commerce of the 
United States, of Chicago; William Butterworth, of Moline, 
Illinois, and Owen D. Young, of New York. 

Temporary headquarters for the new organization have been 
established at 33 rue Jean-Goujon, Paris, France. The perma- 
nent headquarters, which will be determined by the Board of Di- 
rectors, will probably be located at the seat of the League of 



NOVEMBBB 1, 1920 

The Manufacture of Rubber Plasters 

IT will doubtless surprise many to know that certain very im- 
portant sections of the rubber industry have never been af- 
fected by the discovery of vulcanization. That Goodyear, 
Hancock, Parks or Peachey and their discoveries interest them 
not at all. They do not know sulphur, sulphuret, sulphur chloride, 
accelerators, vulcanizers, steam presses nor dry heaters. Never- 
theless, their rubber goods are found in the open market the 
world over, indeed are accepted as necessities everywhere. 

l»>g>» K 

Calendering and Reeling Porous Plaster Stock 

A Little Known Industry 

fluid. The heat is then withdrawn and the mass stirred while 
cooling until it becomes tirm. 

The lead oleate is prepared by taking 10 volumes of granular 
dried soap, dissolving it in 35 volumes of hot distilled water and 
straining the solution. To it is then added six volumes of lead 
acetate dissolved in 25 parts of hot distilled water and afterwar 1 
filtered. The solution is stirred thoroughly until a precipitate 
(lead oleate) has been formed. The water is drawn off and 
the lead oleate precipitate washed well with hot water and 
thoroughly kneaded on a warm tile to free it from water. The 
mass is then rolled Hat, wrapped in waxed paper and kept in 
sealed vessels until used in combination with the rubber-petrol- 
atum vehicle. 

The melted rubber plaster was never manufactured to any 
extent in the United .States. It had, however, quite a vogue in 
Europe. In manufacturing it, the only rubber machinery used was 
a washer and dryer, a kettle for melting the rubber, mixing slabs, 
for the other ingredients, and a spreader for applying the coat- 
ing. The perforating, cutting, backing and packing was all done 
by hand. 


In the United States, however, where mustard, belladonna, 
capsicum, menthol, and various other plasters are popular, fully 
equipped rubber mills exist, having regulation washers, dry rooms, 
compounding rooms, mixers, calenders and spreaders. Nor do 
they melt the rubber. Instead, they so compound it that it re- 
mains adhesive for years. 

The lines referred to are pharmaceutical preparations known 
as adhesive plasters. The plaster business operates fully equipped 
factories, employs standard washers, mixers, calenders and 
spreaders like any other rubber mill. There the Hkeness ends 
and special machines, adapted only for plaster work, are used. 

As in all lines of rubber work, the manufacture of plasters en- 
tails individual problems. Although thousands of tons of rub- 
ber have been employed, only the sweet smelling or non-odorous 
types are usable. Hence Para wild or plantation is the favorite. 
In preparing the plaster compound, not only must it be non- 
odorous, but a peculiar degree of adhesiveness is demanded. It 
must be sticky with the characteristic of remaining so and never 
drying out. Furthermore, the compound must contain drugs and 
medicaments in great variety and in definitely ascertained pro- 


So far nothing is more permanently adhesive than melted rub- 
ber. It is therefore not strange that in early plaster preparations 
it was used and most successfully. So sticky is it that cloth 
covered with thin films, although exposed to the sun for months, 
does not dry out at all. 

The "lead plaster." in which melted rubber is used, occupies 
an important place in the pharmacopceia of the leading nations 
In the process of compounding it the rubl:)er is dissolved in a 
fixed solvent, such as petrolatum, and then mixed with lead 
acetate (prepared as lead oleate)' and spread upon fabric. The 
ingredients are used in the following proportions: 

Rubber 2 volumes 

Petrolaium 2 volumes 

Lead oleate 96 volumes 

The rubber is first melted at a temperature of 302 degrees F., 
then the petrolatum is added and the same temperature main- 
tained until the ingredients form a plastic mass. The lead 
oleate is next added and the heat kept up until the mass is quite 

Automatic Perforator for Porous Plasters 

What is known as French plaster, consists simply of Par4 
rubber and essence of petroleum, with no medicament. This 
same compound serves as a base for mustard plasters, the mus- 

November 1, 1920 



tard fluur being dusted upon the surface of the plaster after it 
leaves the calender or spreader. 

For medicated plasters, various drugs, resins and waxes are 
employed. Thus, one formula for menthol plaster employs rub- 
ber, gum olibanum, orris root, menthol, Burgundy i)itch, resin. 
and beeswax. An English formula calls only for rubber, Bur- 
gundy pitch, and gum olibanum. Another recipe specifies Para 
rubber, Pontianak, liirdlime (gluten), belladonna and iiaraffine 


The preliminary operation in making plasters is preparing 
the gums, resins, and waxes. These ingredients are melted by a 
steam bath and strained for the purpose of removing all dirt 
and foreign matter. These arc then mixed in a kettle with the 
medicinal agents required and then incorporated with the sheet 
rubber on ordinary mixing inills. Each batch is made propor- 
tionately for 100-gross lots of the regular size porous plasters. 
The rubber compound is next calendered upon a sheet of fine 
cambric. This has been previously dried and as it is free from 
size, the pressure of the rolls sets it firmly into the meshes of 
the cloth. As the sheet of coated fabric issues from the calender, 
the coated side is passed under an idler roller onto an octagonal 


Blair's Surgical Bandage Machine 

handling reel, as it is necessary to keep the adhesive surface 
free from contacts. Separate individual maple dowels are used 
in winding upon the reel. The sheet is left upon the reel until 
the surface is thoroughly cool. When cool, it is run through a 
strip cutter and cut into strips usually five inches wide, each 
strip being wound on a separate spool. The spools, holding 100 
yards, are passed next to the perforating machines. These ma- 
chines are specially built and are considered trade secrets. The 
ordinary plaster is 5 by 7}^ inches, and in this area are some 
240 one-eighth-inch perforations. The perforating machine cuts 
this number at once, and not only that, but puts on the light 
double strips of face cloth, folding their centers, cuts the plaster 
to size, and passes it along for finishing. 

One machine handles about SO plasters a minute, and in spite 
of the fact that the product is sticky beyond description, it runs 
smoothly and steadily day in and day out. Finishing consists in 
lightly pasting a square of hacking cloth upon the reverse 
side of the plaster, and packing two dozen in a box for market. 

It should not be forgotten that non-porous plasters also find 
a ready market. There is for example the tiny "plasteret." 1 inch 
by 2 inches for size and sold by the dozen. This is used for 
burns, scratches, bruises and as a ready means of repair, taking 
the place of gutta percha tissue. 

The giant of all plasters, however, is the kidney plaster, more 
than a foot long, six inches wide and curved to fit over the kid- 
neys. In these the rubber compound is spread upon soft mole- 

skin, died out to shape, backed with a rectangle of cloth, when 
they are ready for market. The compound consists chiefly of 
rubber, capsicum and belladonna. 


Perhaps the neatest, if not the most valuable of all, is the 
surgeon's adhesive plaster. The base is rubber— and good 
quality rubber. The only adulterant, or rather medicament, is 
zinc oxide. With the addition of a non-drying oil, this is the 
whole compound. This tape comes upon the market wound on 
spools of various sizes so that almost any length or width can 
be found in the ordinary drug store. In manufacturing, the 
coated cloth is wound from the calender upon mandrels and cut 
into short rolls on an automatic lathe. These rolls are then 
fed into a machine similar to a gromniet setter, which forms a 
metal spool through and around the roll. It is then put in a 
tiny carton and is ready for market. 


In this connection a detailed description of Blair's machine for 
cutting and winding surgical bandages in any width is interest- 
ing. The sheet of rubber, wound on a roll .-/, passes over the 
measuring roller B, under a bar C and over the bar D which 
removes, the wrinkles, and keeps it taut edge- 
wise. It is then passed over a series of rotary 
cutters E. and the separate strips are wound on 
a pair of spindles F and over a loose wire laid 
alongside the spindles. These spindles are 
placed end to end and are drawn apart or sep- 
arated by the sliding pieces G, which are moved 
by levers // and / pivoted at /. The lower 
ends of these levers are attached to the right 
and left-handed screw K, which is operated by 
the main belt drive through the jaw-clutcb /.. 
In operating the machine, the spindles F 
wind up the cut bandages, until a notch M in 
the wheel N comes against the end of the rod 
O, causing the driving belt to be shifted to the 
loose pulley P. This engages the clutch L, 
causing the screw K to revolve and the levers 
H and / to separate the spindles F. The rolls 
of bandage then drop off and remain hanging on the wire. The 
lever / comes against the stop Q on the bar R, throwing the 
clutch L out of gear with the wheel 5" and engaging it with a 
■wheel T which revolves the screw K in the opposite direction, 
bringing together the spindles F. Another stop U on the bar R 
causes the clutch L to be moved midway between and out of gear 
with the wheels S and T. The finished bandages are cut oflf, 
another loose wire is laid against the free hanging ends of the 
cloth, which are placed on the spindles, and the machine is again 
set in motion. 


In speaking of adhesive plasters it would not do to ignore those 
that bring comfort to the pedal extremities. They are of ancient 
origin and have attracted the inventive genius of such notables as 
Sir Humphry Davy and Sir Astley Cooper. To be sure, their 
formulas, salt of sorrel and potash or yellow wax and verdigris, 
are no longer used, but they paved the way for the present sani- 
tary effective rubber corn plaster. 

The compounds used vary but little. A well known one 
follows : 

Per Cent 

Extract of cannabis indica 10 

Resin compound 70 

Salicylic acid 20 

The last named is the non-drying rubber base, practically the 
same that is used in porous plasters. The compounding is done 
as in other plaster work and so is the calendering and general 


-November 1, 1920 

handling. The rubber compound is spread upon a sheet of thick, 
soft felt The simpler forms, cut in a die press, are backed with 
protective cloth and are ready for market. They are in two 
shapes, round for corns and oval for bunions. A more modern 
type has as an addition a strip of fabric, coated on one side with 
rubber compound and placed over the toe in the felt plaster, 
where it, together with the backing cloth, protects the dab of 
paste that softens the corn, the rubber-coated circular felt pad 
acting simply as a guard. In the manufacture of this type an 
automatic machine cuts the strips, puts the dabs of paste in the 
right place, sticks the felt pad just where it belongs, and finishes 
by adding the strip of backing cloth. 


WH.\T we call the moving picture is not, properly speaking, 
a moving picture at all. It is merely a sreies of pictures 
each of which is seen at such a short interval after the pre- 
ceding one that the image of one does not fade from the vision 
before the next picture appears. It is this rapid succession that 
gives the appearance of continuity and motion. The same pic- 
tures when not seen in rapid succession do not give as vivid and 
clear an impression. 

In much the same manner, data from business records, ar- 
ranged in columns or tables and explained by text, does not 
give the clear impression that it would if reduced to picture 
form. If all the data can be connected in such a way as to give 
the appearance of continuity, showing the relation of one item 
to another, then practically the same result has been secured in 
regard to business records that the motion picture secures in 
regard to pictures. 

Various methods are now in -use for reducing business records 
to picture form. Some are simple and some complicated. Some 
serve their purpose admirably and some are deceptive. The 
best of them blend the different data together in much the same 
manner as the mo\-ing picture. They show exactly what is 
going on, and whether the business is going ahead or behind. 
A study of the pictured record shows what to do to increase 
profits. There are many features of the business that show 
up which would be overlooked without these records. 

These records serve their purpose in much the same manner 
that a motion picture of a growing plant shows plant growth. 
If one watches a flower grow, there are sure to be many details 
of that growth which he either does not notice or fails to re- 
member. However, suppose that at proper intervals a picture of 
that plant is taken, the exposures extending over a period of 
many weeks. When they have been completed and the picture 
projected upon a screen, every detail of growth is seen. It is 
the continuity that gives the motion picture its great value. 
It is the continuity of properly made graphic charts, curves, 
maps, etc., that gives them their value. 

Photographic moving pictures have served science and busi- 
ness in many ways. For example, pictures are taken showing 
the action of automobile and truck tires under various condi- 
tions of load and road conditions. These are taken at as rapid 
a rate as possible. They are then projected at a very much 
slower rate and every detail of the motion and the action of 
the tires at once becomes clear and vivid. 

Again, photographic records may be made of the motion of 
machines, workmen, factory operations, anything that it is de- 
sired to study. These can then be studied in far greater detail 
than would be the case if attention was confined to the machines, 
workmen, or factory operations. The motion picture gives a 
record that is superior, so far as research is concerned, to the 
actual thing or person studied. 

Curves, charts, etc., serve exactly the same purpose in the 

study of business records that the moving picture serves in study- 
ing all tj'pes and kinds of motion. These give a continuous- 
record of the growth of days, weeks, months or years in such, 
form that trends, effects, causes, everything that affects the 
business may be studied with detailed accuracy. Information is- 
gained that could not possibly be gained in any other way. No 
one could possibly study the same data in printed or writteni 
form and be able to see as clearly the cause and effect, tlie trend 
and the probable future results. 

The electric lighting business, which has grown from nothing 
to a very large and a very important industry during the last 
forty years, is an example of what picture records can accom- 
plish. In this business question of rates was an exceedingly 
important one. Unless the current could be sold at a suffi- 
ciently low price it would not be possible to sell it. Cost of 
production, market possibilities, and all other features bearing; 
upon the proposition were reduced to picture records. These 
were studied. New rates were established. Their effects were 
studied by means of ne\v picture records. Those companies which. 
made the greatest use of picture records have invariably been 
the ones which have enjoyed the greatest degree of prosperity. 

Moving pictures of business records, that is, charts, curves, 
maps, and the like, that show a continuity similar to that of the 
photographic motion picture serve the business man as nothing 
else can. They give accurate related data. Data that is unre- 
lated does not always convey the correct impression. For 
example, a table showing the cost of living and how it 
has increased during the past few years may be decidedly mis- 
leading Make a curve showing the change in the cost of living 
during the past half century and on the same sheet draw another 
curve showing average earnings of any particular class of people 
and the result is accurate related data that tells the truth. It is 
a moving picture that shows all the details in a manner that they 
could not be shown by tables and descriptions, any more than 
could the growth of a plant be pictured by tables and descrip- 
tions as accurately as it could be by the motion picture. 

There is no other way in which the relation of cause to effect 
can be shown with equal clearness. Make a graphic representa- 
tion of the effect and also one of the causes and the relation 
becomes transparently clear. As an example, make a picture of 
commodity prices over any given period. Suppose it is made 
from the period just preceding the Civil War up to the present 
time. Also on the same sheet make a graphic representation 
of the number of men killed in war, and the value of property 
destroyed, the percentage of population in arms and the like. 
The result is .\ perfectly clear representation of the relation of 
war to the variation in the cost of commodities. Such a moving 
picture will show what to expect during the coming years, as it 
reveals the relation between cause and effect and the basic cause 
of the present general price changes. 

Graphic records save an immense amount of time and make it 
possible to secure data at a glance which would otherwise re- 
•■juire wading through a great mass of statistics. They save 
time in exactly the same way that moving pictures save time in 
studying the growth of plant life. All this time saved is avail- 
able fur planning bigger and better things in the future. It does 
not have to be devoted to learning what has actually happened 
in the past or what is happening at the present time. A single 
glance gives most of this information. A few minutes of study 
gives more information than hours of concentration could pos- 
sibly give without these picture records, these graphic charts, 
curves, maps, etc., that give true motion picture continuity to 
business records. 

The Svensk.a Gai-oschforsaljnings Aktiebolaget, Stock- 
holm, Sweden, wholesale dealer in rubber shoes, has increased its 
capital to 180,000 kroner. 

November 1, 1920 



The Development of Pneumatic Truck Tires and Tire Equipment 

Why Use Pneumatic Tires for Motor Trucks?" 

By W. E. Shively' 

EVEKV DEVELOPMENT in the transportation industry has been to- The economy of operating trucks on pneumatic tires has been 

ward a faster, more reliable or cheaper method of trans- shown by the experience of many users. There is a considerable 

porting men and materials. No one will deny that the saving in gasoline, oil and upkeep. The saving in gasoline in the 

motor truck is a very significant development in the transporta- case of five truck operators is shown in Table I; also the saving 

tion system of the world. This was conclusively proved in the in oil consumption, probably due to the decreased vibration in 

w-orld war. Most of us are of the opinion that the motor truck all of the moving parts of the truck. 

is destined to become the most important factor of our trans- The upkeep or repair cost of a truck operated on pneumatic 

portation system, judging by the events of the past two years. is much less than when operated on solid tires. It can be at- 

The development of the motor truck has been limited by the tributed to the decreased amount of vibration and the absence 

solid tire. of severe shocks and jolts. The estimated saving is from 25 to 

At first, solid tires were used on all but light delivery trucks. SO per cent. Regarding depreciation charges, as a result of ex- 

On every other type of highway motor vehicle, the limitations perience, Goodyear solid-tired trucks are depreciated on the basis 

of the solid tires were soon discovered and the solid tire was °f 60,000 miles of service, while the pneumatic-tired trucks are 

replaced by the pneumatic tire. But the tire manufacturers had depreciated on a basis of 80,000 miles. In my opinion the 80,000 

not kept pace with the development of the motor truck, inasmuch "I'les is too low, because there have been Goodyear trucks on 

as they had not perfected a large enough pneumatic tire. Tire pneumatic tires which at the end of 250,000 miles were still in 

engineers, however, were among the first to recognize the short- g°od running condition. I believe that in the near future trucks 

comings, and proceeded to develop a large single pneumatic tire will be depreciated on the basis of 100,000 miles, 


Discussion of the relative merits of pneumatic and solid tires This is now considered by many to be one of the most im- 

must of necessity reduce itself to a comparison of the elasticity portant advantages. In hauling fragile materials such as bottled 

of compressed air with that of rubber. We think of rubber as goods and eggs, there is very little, if any, breakage. Then there 

a very elastic substance, but it cannot be compared to compressed is the easier riding made possible by the use of pneumatic tires, 

air in this respect. The reasons that motor trucks can be op- in the case of delivery trucks, the elimination of the vibration 

crated with any degree of success on solid tires are that they makes it possible for the truck driver and his helper to ride al- 

are operated at relatively low speeds and are built so heavy most continually without fatigue. This is of vital importance 

that they will endure the shocks and vibration to which they where it is necessary to drive for hours at a time. Easy riding 

are subjected. is absolutely essential in passenger buses, from the standpoint 

Two fundamental advantages result from the use of pneumatic of both comfort and speed. 

tires on trucks, increased cushioning and increased traction. In- Increased traction is made possible by the greater width of 

creased cushioning is the most important factor, because it has the pneumatic tires, their non-skid treads and their greater flex- 

a greater efifect on the performance of the truck. The cushioning ibility, which allow the surface of the tire to conform more nearly 

ability of a pneumatic tire is four times that of a solid tire of to the unevenness of the road, thereby getting a better grip. As 

the same carrying capacity. As a result of this six_ distinct ad- a result of this increased traction, we obtain reliability and safety. 

vantages are gained from the use of pneumatic truck tires: (1) By reliability is meant that it is ■possible for the truck to operate 

faster transportation, (2) economy of operation, (3) less deprecia- successfully over almost any kind or condition of road, and dur- 

tion of fragile load, (4) easier riding, (S) less depreciation of ing all seasons of the year. By safety is meant that, because of 

roads, (6) lighter weight trucks. the increased traction of the tires, the truck will hold the road 

-_...— „„™. -„„•., .»,.~ „„„„.—«., . „..,«.. .^„ better and the brakes will be more effective. This point has been 


T^ . , . .• ■ , II- u i- »i • thoroughly proved bv the experience of many users of pneumatic 

Faster transportation or quicker deliveries result from the in- , . ' " ■' 

. 1 •• ; „.■,!»■ u ■. ■ ■ui„ truck tires. In traveling over the mountains along the Lincoln 

creased cusluomng ot pneumatic truck tires because it is possible . .° ... 

. , , ■ » „ ■ J • • J AT r . highway during the winter, this increased traction has saved 

to obtain greater maximum and minimum speeds. Manufacturers ... 

, ,■,.■,. , ^, . . ., 1 r 11 both drivers and trucks from serious accidents on numerous 

of solid-tired trucks remove their guarantee if a speed of 11 or . 

12 m.p.h. is exceeded, while pneumatic-tired trucks are being op- 

erated at 20 to 35 m.p.h. „., . . *^°ST OF PNEUMATIC TIRE EQUIPMENT 

_ , , , . , ., . ^^ '"Ic 't IS true that the initial cost of truck pneumatic-tire 

Table I shows the increased mileage obtained with pneumatic „,,.:.„„.,» ;., „„. , .i »i . t rj •• . -^ i. . 

" ^ equipment is greater than that of solid-tire equipment, it has 

tires by four truck operators. ^^^^^ proved by experience that this difference is more than offset 

rp J by the greater earning power and the lower costs of operation. 

^ . It has usually been found that in from four to six months the 

Operators' . , , , . . . . . , 

Details , -^ , increased cost of the pneumatic-tire equipment is completely 

Truck capacity tons 2 314 2 2 vviped out. When specially designed pneumatic-tire trucks make 

Pericd, months .....•■. 6 1 5 4 their appearance, this increased cost of pneumatic-tire cquipmert 

Mileaee on pneumatic tires 6,414 1,995 5.510 7.014 .,, , ' 

Mileage on solid tires 4,476 675 2.223 4.677 Will be offset. 

Miles per gallon of .i>asoline on pneumatic tires 5.77 5.75 7.21 7.70 x ^ nnccihio lr,cc rln,. to inlnr.r n^ tKhco r,l tli„ time \t Uts 

Miles per gall, n of gasoline on solid tires 3.98 4.77 5.43 7.10 -^^ ^° poSSlUle loss (lUC to injury or abuse ot tile tires, it ha! 

Miles per gallon of cH on pneiim.iiic tires — 104.00 32.00 55.00 152.00 been found that this is not a serious objection. There are many 

Miles per Ballon of oil on solid lives 59.00 30.70 54.00 78.00 . , . , . , , ,.,„„., 

Cost per mile on pneumatic tires cents 45.00 31.30 21.50 27.70 instances where pneumatic truck tires have run from 12,000 to 

Cost per mile on solid tires cents 56.30 55.00 24.00 31.00 

^ .\bstractcd from Cleveland-Detroit Sections paper, The Journal o'f the 

■ With a 2-ton truck for a 9-inonth period, a fifth operator obtained 9.1 Society of .\utomotivc Engineers, October, 1920. 

cniles per gallon of gasoline on pneumatic, and 6.1 miles per gallon on solid 2 Development engineer. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.. Akron, 

lires. Ohio. 



November 1, 1920 

30,000 miles on the original air. Repair molds and retreading 
equipment are nou- in use in many parts of the country, and 
are being placed in other localities as rapidly as possible ; so, it 
will be no more difficult to have a pneumatic truck tire repaired 
than any other part of the truck. 


The practicability of pneumatic truck tires has been questioned 
probably more than anything else. The first thing to be dis- 
cussed under this subject is that of delays due to changing tires. 
In the case of detachable rims, where it is necessary to remove 
the tire from the rim, replace it and then inflate it, it does not 
require more than 30 minutes to perform the entire operation. 
In the case of a demountable rim, a change can easily be made 
in 15 minutes. The average truck driver is not required to make 
a tire change more than once in three months. 

Most garages and service stations carry sufficient air pressure 
to inflate tires up to the 42 by 9-inch size, and many can take 
care of the larger sizes. By the time the largest tires are in gen- 
eral use, there will be sufficient air pressure to keep the tires 
properly inflated. Trucks equipped with detachable rims, or op- 
erating in long-distance or inter-city service, are usually equipped 
with small air compressors. These trucks experience no difficulty 
in securing sufficient pressure. One objection, which is not men- 
tioned so much now as when pneumatic truck tires first made 

their appearance, is the danger of the high inflation pressures. 
Pneumatic truck tires are made to withstand three to four times 
the pressure carried in them, so that this objection must be 
passed to the rims. These are made to withstand many times the 
pressure carried in the tires. If the rims are properly assembled, 
there is small chance of accident. 

Regarding the rise in pressure caused by the heating up of 
the tire, we have operated these large tires under the most 
severe conditions possible and in no case have we found an in- 
crease in pressure of more than 35 pounds per square inch. If 
the tires are made to withstand three to four times the pressure 
at which they are operated, it is hardly possible that this addi- 
tional 3S-pound pressure will cause them to blow out. 

The large outside diameters of the tires are often objected to 
because they affect the truck ability and because they raise the 
center of gravity of the truck. In changing over a solid-tired 
truck to pneumatic tires, there is the possibility of reducing the 
ability of the truck. Our experience has shown that unless the 
truck is operated over a very hilly route, its ability has not been 
noticeably affected. Looking into the future, this question of 
truck ability and gear ratios will be taken care of by changes 
in design ; so, the question of change-overs is only temporary. 
Raising the center of gravity of the truck is not as serious as 
it might seem. 

Data on Pneumatic Tires and Rims Used on Trucks' 

By Burgess Darrow" 

THE OBJECT of this paper is to familiarize truck engineers, and 
others interested in truck design, with facts and opinions 
which will assist in providing correct pneumatic tire and 
rim equipment for trucks. The sizes which have been worked 
out during the past six years, and which are now standard, are 
as given in Table I. 

T.^BLE I. Sizes of Pneumatic Tires 


Maximum Allow- 





able Load per 

Pressure, Lb. 

Sizes, In. 

Tire, In.5 

Tire, In.' 

Tire (Cord), Lb. 

Per Sq. In. 

































* Original equipment on new trucks. 

* Not for original equipment: only for consumer's convenience. 

* Not yet standard witU S. A. E. practice. 

Table I also gives the rim sizes, normal tire sizes and the tires 
which can be fitted as oversize. It shows that there is no oversize 
possibility when 9, 10 and 12-inch sizes go out on new trucks, 
because the oversizing plan falls down above the 9-inch size, on 
account of the size and stiffness we are forced to build into the 
beads as designed at present. 


To the best of our knowledge tires give best average satisfac- 
tion in the way of plenty of cushioning and not too much flexing. 
Flexing breaks down a tire, when run under conditions which 
produce a deflection in the tire of from 12 to IS per cent of the 
section diameter, or the height above the rim. The deflection 
can be controlled by regulating the load or the pressure, or both. 
Table I also gives the standard maximum loads and the infla- 
tion pressures. These inflation pressures are practical to main- 
tain, the tires are built accordingly and we get satisfactory, 
practical results in first cost and mileage delivered if they are 

In reference to underinflation and overload, both evils result 
in an excessive deflection of the tire. This means that an ex- 
cessive shearing action is put on the rubber between the plies of 
the tire, and also on the cushion built into the tire between the 
tread and the plies, which in turn results in a separation of the 
parts and starts the tire on the road to failure. 

Table II. Weights of Tire Equipment 

lire Size Inches 

' ^ ., Weight, Remarks 

Front Rear Pounds 

6 6 72 Weights of tires alone, without wheels 

7 7 87 cr rims, but including tubes and flap. 

8 8 119 

9 9 174 
10 10 246 
12 12 398 


Tubes for pneumatic truck tires must be designed and com- 
pounded to retain as much of their original strength and shape 
as possible, after being subjected in service to more or less heat 
and to continued flexing. The tube has been one of the most 
difficult problems in connection with large tires, but has been 
solved partly in a mechanical way by building the tubes thick, 
shaped like the tire, and so they are stretched very little in the 
tire. The tube problem has been solved to a still greater extent 
by rubber compounding. Tubes are on a par with the casings 
hi development and render satisfactory service even in the larg- 
est sizes. 

Flaps assume considerable importance in tires inflated to the 
pressures we recommend for truck tires. It is important that the 
flap should fit well, so there will be no adjustment of the flap 
when the tire is inflated, causing a localized stretch in the tube 
at the edge of the flap. 

The valve question had to be approached first from the stand- 
point of holding air at pressures from 90 to 140 pounds per 
square inch and, second, from the standpoint of ease of tire 
change. The valve insides on all 6-inch and larger tubes is of 

• .\bstracted from Cleveland-Detroit Sections paper. The Journal of the 
Society of Automotive Engineers, October, 1920. 

= Development department. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, 

November 1, 1920 



a heavy-duty type, different from the ordinary valve insides in 
construction, but the two are interchangeable in any valve stem. 
On the 10 and 12-inch sizes, which inflate to 130 and 140 pounds 

U Shapec/ Hot 
for Valve. 

The Journal of the S. A. E. 

Fig. 1. Slotted Rim 

Offset Valve 

per square inch respectively, even the heavy-duty type is unsatis- 
factory when used alone; so, a combination is used in the form 
of a heavy-duty valve insides and a needle-valve operated by a 
hand screw. 

As to the relation of the valve to easy tire changing, it is cus- 
tomary in applying the small-size tires to insert the valve in the 
hole in the rim and tip the tire on the rim. This necessitates 
considerable clearance in diameter of the tire beads over the rim 

rim and then fish the valve through the valve hole. To avoid 
this difficulty some steel wheels are made with a U-shaped slot 
from the edge to the center of the rim, which permits the tire to 
go on the rim with no difficulty at the valve. (See Fig. 1.) We 
believe an oflFset valve with two right-angle bends in it, will even- 
tually be used. The offset valve requires only a depression in 
the rim from the edge to the center, and not a slot. The wheel 
is stronger than if slotted, and besides making application just 
as easy, the valve comes out at the edge of the rim and is more 
accessible to inflate. 


The arrangement of tires on the trucks presents three possibili- 
ties ; the ordinary truck with giant tires on four wheels, dual 
pneumatics on the rear, and trucks with six or more wheels. 
We look unfavorably only on the dual pneumatics, that is, two 
tires on the same wheel. Dual tires do not share the load 
equally because the inflation is seldom kept alike in both tires. 
Because of crowned roads, and more particularly rough roads, 
one tire takes more than its share of the load temporarily and 
this will injure the tire. An exaggeration of this condition is 
when one tire goes flat and the other takes all the load without 


•Proper Clearance 3ety/een 
Tire and Booly of Truck 


i?*:-?- cj: cj: 

5 <S 

.■-vTtcfble ^ 
.igc Rmg 


\- 'he Band 

. WiMjher 

Vblve Steam 
'' '^aWa Cap 

'.} c'-fOaoo'^ Pcmountabfe 

tfcadh Valve 

Section n-n g g 


' DnlO'arclU'rirti 



'0 000^ 
Section t-t 

■ *,jD>mOTll\ 



PIgn of VolvcSlot 

The Journal of the S. A. E. 

Fig. 2. Examples of the Application of Pneumatic Tires to Motor Trucks : 

From Left to Right Are Shown a Demountable Rim, a Demountable Rim and a Steel Wheel, a Detachable Rim on a Wood Wheel and *BE 

Pneumatic Tire Applied to a Cast Steel Wheel ( 

and, in 7-inch sizes and above, such design is impractical because 
the rims are wide and would necessitate too much clearance in 
bead diameter. 

It is therefore necessary if a straight valve and the usual valve 
hole is used, to push the valve up into the tire, fit the tire on the 

the knowledge of the driver. The tire which still holds air is 
so badly overloaded that it is sure to be injured, if not ruined. 
Changing an inside tire, in the case of dual tires, necessitates re- 
moving both. Dual tires are too easily abused and prove more 
expensive than either of the other possibilities. 

What Motor Trucks Need to Supplement Pneumatic-Tire Equipment' 

By E. W. TempHn= 


he introduction of the pneumatic tire for motor trucks 

would have a material bearing upon the design of the truck 

itself, to get the most good from the use of such a tire. 

Table I. Road Speeds 

.\verage Pneumatic 

Present Solid Tire Oear Governed Capacity, Tire Speed 

Ratios Speed, m. p. h. Tons m. p. h. 

7 to 8 17 1 to IJ^i 30 

9 to 10 15 2 to 2/, 30 

11 to 12 ,„ 13 3J4 25 

12 to 13 10 to 12 5 ^ 

14 to 16 9 7 20 

Tire Size, In. 

36 to 38 
40 to 42 

38 to 44 
40 to 48 
42 to 44 

Rear Wheel 
r. p. m, 

280.0 to 265.4 

252.1 to 240.1 
221.1 to 191.0 
210.1 to 175.0 
160.1 to 152.8 

r. p. m. 


Gear Reductions 
5.18 to 4.47 
5.26 to 5.52 
5.43 to 6.28 
5.72 to 6.86 
7.50 to 7.85 

The main factors bearing upon the problem of truck design for 
pneumatic tires are as follows: (1) speed, including road and 

'Abstracted from Cleveland-Detroit Sections paper. The Journal of the 
Society of Automotive Ensinecrs, October. 1920. 
» Motor-truck engineer. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Onic 



NOV-EMBER 1, 1920 

engine speeds, rear-axle gear reduction and air brakes ; (2) 
traction, including engine torque and transmission gear reductions ; 
(3) shock effects, including stresses introduced and the necessary 
factor of safety of sprung and unsprung parts; (4) emergency 
equipment, including tire pumps and spare tires. 

2 3 4 




5 6 7 8 3 \0 

Load in Thousand Pounds 
The Journal of the S. A. E. 

Fic. 1. For a Given Load the Pneumatic Tire Deflects Four 
Times as Much as a Solid Tire 

Table I shows road speeds that we consider satisfactory, to- 
gether with the usual rear-tire specifications for various sizes of 
trucks. The engine speeds are figured on the basis of 1,200 feet 
per minute piston speed, which can be considered a good aver- 
age. Higher speeds set up considerable vibration and add dis- 
comfort to driving. 


Fixing of allowable stress requires an investigation of the 
cushioning effect of pneumatic as compared with solid tires. 

Fig. 1 shows the rate of deflection of pneumatic tires anc 

Fig. 2. First Application of Four Small Tires to Rear Wheels 

corresponding solid tires, together with a curve showing how the 
solid tire depreciates in resilience with age and wear. It will 
be seen here that for a given load the pneumatic tire deflects 
four times as much as a solid tire. 


I believe it is possible to build a 5-ton motor-truck chassis 
equipped with pneumatic tires for only $200 to $300 more than 

a corresponding solid-tire truck, and that the net weight reduc- 
tion may be easily 1,000 pounds without resorting to aluminum 
where it is not yet considered commercially practical. 


On account of the large size and weight of the 48 by 12-inch 
pneumatic tire, we were brought to consider the application of 
four smaller tires to the rear of the truck, instead of two of the 
excessively large ones. Our first attempt at an arrangement foj 
applying four small tires to the rear without using dual tires, 
which is considered out of the question, is shown in Fig. 2. Il 

Fig. 3. Further Developments of the Tandem Axle 

Construction ^t 

consisted of a more-or-less standard rear axle with a walking 
beam adapted to each end and the wheel mounted upon trunnion; 
from this walking beam, the springs being mounted upon the 
axle and attached to the frame on the inside. Chain drive was 
made use of in this case, which is about the only feasible drive 
with this arrangement. This construction ran successfully for 
about 10,000 miles before serious failure occurred. We were, 
however, inconvenienced with the chains jumping off and were 
not able to get a brake mechanism that would work. The main 
point against this design was its enormous weight ; however, it 
served to show us that satisfactory tire mileage could be secured 
from such an arrangement and that there was a good possibility 
of adapting four small tires to the rear wheels. To further de- 
velop this point, we built up the tandem axle construction as 

FiG. 4. Another View of the Tandem Axle Construction 

shown in Figs. 3 and 4. This construction appears to have good 
possibilities and has at present operated some 3,300 miles, 1,000 
to 1,200 miles over rough and uneven country roads, so rough 
in fact that it was difficult to keep the front springs tight. Fig. 5 

November 1, 1920 



indicates another very feasible design to adapt the tandem axles. 
Some of the advantages of the six-wheel truck over the regular 
type of the same capacity, on 48 by 12-inch pneumatic tires and 
on the regular equipment of solid tires, are that compared with 
the pneumatic-tired four-wheel truck the saving by using four 
smaller tires is sufficient to purchase three or four complete 
spares, or approximately $S(X) per truck. Regarding case of han- 
dling, each 40 by 8-inch tire weights only 119 pounds, whereas 
each 48 by 12-inch tire weighs 398 pounds. Carrying a spare tire 

Fig. 5. A Fe.\sibi.e Design for Tandem Axles 

in each case, the reduction in axle cost, the use of two rear axles 
in tandem results in the advantage that small axles are normally 
in large production, with consequent lower costs, whereas large 
sizes are made only in small quantities, with extremely high costs. 
The actual saving amounts to about $120 per truck. As regards 
weight saving, four 8-inch wheels with brake drums, etc., weigh 
n pounds more than the same equipment for a 12-inch tire. The 
total saving in weight is 814 pounds. 

Considering traction qualities, the area of contact of four 8- 
inch pneumatic tires upon the road is about 27 per cent greater 
than that of two 12-inch pneumatics. This additional surface, keep- 
ing the tires from sinking in soft places, gives better traction 
when most needed and, in ordinary service, the additional area 
gives them a better chance to take hold. As compared to solid 
tires in winter service, off of paved roads, the four pneumatic 
tires have all of the advantage. 

The four-wheel combination has about the same advantageous 
effects over single-axle construction that the pneumatic would 
have over solid tires, in regard to economy. With the four- 
wheel combination, when passing over an obstruction in the road, 
the chassis is raised only one-half the distance it would be raised 
in the regular type of construction. This reduces the accelera- 
tion of bodies upon the chassis to one-fourth that with ordinary 

construction. Thus, by reducing shocks and vibration, the num- 
ber and cost of repairs, due to crystallization, fatigue of metal 
and the like, are reduced by a large percentage. The tandem 
construction makes for such exceptional riding qualities that a 
glass, filled to within an inch of the top with water and attached 
to the rear of the six-wheel truck, lost none of the water even 
when running over a decidedly rough road. 

The most destructive factors of the operation of vehicles upon 
pavements are the wheel load and the wheel thrust. By re- 
ferring to Fig. 6 one can see that a heavy wheel load causes the 
road to fail by breaking through the pavement. If, as is the case 
with the tandem coii-structioii, the wheel loads are cut in two, 
the chances are that the wheels will seldom find spots in the 
pavement weak enough to break through under this reduced load, 
even if a S to 7-ton load be carried on the truck. 

The twin-axle combination has a decided advantage over both 
regular pneumatic-tired and solid-tired types in that four brakes 
of 21-inch diameter are used in place of two brakes of 21-inch 
diameter. The six-wheel truck has a greater operating radius. 

Fig. 6. A He.wy Wheel Load Breaks Tiirouge the Pavement 

Pneumatic tires permit of an increase of average speed to double 
that of solid tires, and the combination of four small tires on the 
tandem rear-drive wheels wHll permit of increased minimum speeds 
on bad roads. 

Pneumatic-Tire and Motor-Truck Development Experiences' 

By M. D. Scott" 

TABLE I gives a summary of the truck development obtained 
over a period of two and one-half years. Picture a truck 
weighing 15,800 pounds and carrying a pay load of 3,850 
pounds, as against a truck weighing 8.000 pounds and carrying a 
pay load of 7,000 pounds. This has all been brought about through 
the use of pneumatic tires, thereby being able to carry a much 
heavier load on a much lighter truck and, as pointed out before, 
on a smaller sized tire, automatically increasing the earning power 
of the truck. 

Table I. Summary of Pneumatic-Tire Accomplishment' 

Increased Pay Load; 

Body and Chassis 

Pay Load, lb. 

Decreased Ton-Mile 

Weight, lb. 

Cost, Per Cent 



(Basis, 100 per cent ) 

I'eriod, 2>3 yeart 

But the end is not in siglit. We have succeeded only in prov- 
ing that commercial trucks are uniformly built unnecessarily 
heavy for use with pneumatic tires and that, when pneumatic 
tires are used, weight can be materially reduced and the pay- 
load capacity increased. We have also shown that the lessening 
of the weight in turn allows the use of a smaller and less ex- 
pensive tire for the increased pay load. We prove that more 
can be carried on a light truck when it is hauled on air, and that 
pneumatic tires permit a light truck to haul a larger load. This 
all helps to sustain our contention that pneumatic-tired trucks will 
use less gas, have smaller repair bills and generally give better 

The following tabulation shows tlie performance of a fleet of 
pneumatic-tired trucks covering a period of six months : 

^ Abstracted from Detroit-Cleveland Sections paper. The Journal of the 
Society of Automotive Knpinccrs. October. 1920. 
' The Gocdycar Tire & Rubber Co.. Akron, Ohio. 



November 1, 1920 

T.\BI.E II. 


April . . . . 
May .... 


.August . . . 

Totals . . 


Through Overhead 

Trucks Total Loading Cost Tola! 

Actively Fleet Ton- Capacity Operating Cleveland Operating 

Operated Mileage Mileage Per Cent Cost Terminal Cost 

WiNCFOOT Highway Express 

































Per Mile Ton-Mile 
$0.42170 $0.15670 
0.39620 0.15590 
0.42590 0.17150 
0.41690 0.15760 
0.40600 0.15345 
0.33603 O.12940 

Pay Loads 
Hauled, lb. 



Truck Efficiency 
Miles per Gal, 

' ^ — ;r^ 

Gasoline Oil 

81,706 212,283 

$32,530.33 $3,852.31 

7.7 13,617 35.381 80 $5,421.72 $642.05 


10,490.742 $45,908.14' $9,525.50 

$0.40045 $0.15409 1,748,457 $7,651.35 $1,587.58 5.93 143.3 

'Gross earnings. 51.9 per cent on the investment, 26.2 per cent on the operating cost. 

Operating costs and efficienc>- of solid and pneumatic tire equip- 
ment are -rompared in the following tabulation : 

T.\BLE III. Solid versus Pneumatic Tire Equipment 


Type, tons 

Total travel, miles 

Number of round trips 

Average mileage per trip 

Hauling, ton-miles . -. 

Loading capacity throughout, per cent. 






Maintenance, material 

Maintenance, labor 

Consumer's tire cost 







Truck Tires 

Truck Tires 

































/ 64.94 

























Total operating cost 


Cost per mile 

Cost per ton-mile 

Gasoline, miles per gallon 

Oil, miles per gallon 

Time per round trip, hours 

Truck speed, m. p. h 

Time saved, hours 

Driver's earnings — 

Straight time 57.8 hours, at $0.60 

Overtime 57.8 hours, at $0.90 

Saving on ton-mile cost 

Net saving effected 

Ket gain by cost reduction, per cent 

" Credit not allowed pneumatic-tired equipment for additional available 
hours over solid tires; increased satisfaction and better personnel of drivers, 
with less labor turn over, value to production in effecting quicker deliveries, 
additional safety and fewer claims for breakage in pay loads. 


J. E. Schipper:— On the large-size tires there is considerable 
more ci a flat tread than on the smaller sizes; that is, the sidevvall 
seems to be built up. Would that work out to advantage in the 
smaller-size tires, and has it any effect on the gas consumption 
on rutty roads? 

Chairman Hai.e:— There is a flat tread and steep sidewall on 
the 44 by 10 and 48 by 12-inch tires. In 1917 it was decided that 
we should make a 44 by 10-inch pneumatic truck tire with suffi- 
cient carrying capacity to support a 3-ton truck. The greatest 
difficulty encountered was to prevent separation between the tread 
and the carcass. The first tires were made with round treads, 
which caused the tires to flex considerably before the necessary 
contact area could be obtained. This flexing, combined with a 
component of the vertical load on the tire, resulted in a tremen- 
dous shearing action between the tread and carcass, which in time 
caused the tread to separate from the carcass or tire body. The 
logical thing was to make the tread flat, to give the necessary 
contact area without so much flexing and to widen it t ut, which 
would decrease the unit stress on the union between the treac 
and carcass of the tire. We did that and the results have been 
very satisfactory, 

There seems to have been an understanding among tire design- 
ers that it is not good practice to have much of a shoulder at 

the edge of the tread of passenger-car tires. However, we have 
proved that a flat tread of the proper proportions has several 
distinct advantages and results in much longer tire life. As to 
the relative economy in gasoline consumption of the two types 
of tire on rutty roads, there would be a slight advantage in favor 
of the round tread ; but when good roads are taken into considera- 
tion the advantage would be in favor of the flat tread. 

Have any tests been made to determine what the trucks geared 
to run 30 m.p.h. with a larse engine will do in city travel? Is 
this truck limited to one particular use? 

Gasoline and oil consumption comparisons hardly seem fair. 
The pneumatic records have been made on trucks with tires which 
have been developed for this purpose. The commercial solid tire 
has been made to sell. The efficiency varies tremendously. That 
may possibly be due to variations in tire manufacture. The tires 
used on electric trucks have to' be made of an entirely different 
compound. So far as we have been able to determine, the highly 
efficient solid tire does not give any reduced mileage. Under 
equal conditions it gives better mileage. There is also a possibility 
for the development of the solid tire. We have run a few S.K.' 
tires and have had remarkable results. That tire has great pos- 
sibilities for city work. 

In connection with pneumatic tires, the demand comes from 
people who want to put these tires out in the country where there 
are no good roads. They buy them because they cannot get 
there with the solid tires. But they soon find that operating 
trucks under those conditions is hard on the truck tires, engine 
and every other part of the chassis and body. That immediately 
brings about a demand for a good road, with a foundation and 
with good surface. With the ultimate road of that type, what 
sort of tire will be used? The trend toward the pneumatic tire 
may change in time because of the changed condition of the road 
surface. The locomotive with its steel track and steel wheels gets 
satisfactory running under most conditions. It will be a long 
time before we have the type of road which the railroad now has, 
but the smooth hard road appears to be the ultimate road. If 
that is the case, would not the solid tire serve well? 

Mr. Scott :— Regarding the 30-m.p.h. truck designed for pneu- 
matic tires, its efficiency and the speed at which it must run in 
city streets, this is a question of the efficiency of the large engine 
in comparison with the small. Practically all of our experimental 
work has been over long runs. By usin;j a S-ton truck engine to 
draw a 3-ton load we found that this engine was more economical 
than that of the 354-ton truck. This is because of the ease with 
which the large engine does the work. Over the mountains the 
smaller engine was working at a maximum. A very close check 
on that showed a 0.7-mile difference in gasoline consumption of 
the larger engine over the smaller. 

City work is dependent upon the stops to be made. Many 
trucks stop often ; with these we can get about two miles per gal- 
lon of gasoline. With that same truck outside of the city, we 
can get six miles per gallon. An average on all the buses shows 
about five miles per gallon of gasoline with a 2-ton chassis. But 
that is not low mileage, because of the unusual number of starts 
and stops. 

* Goodyear cusliion tire. 

November 1, 1920 



Chairman Hale: — The efficiency of solid tires as far as ab- 
sorbency is concerned depends entirely upon the formula used in 
compounding the rubber. It is possible to have a wide range in 
the efficiency of the rubber stock. There seems to be a very posi- 
tive indication ot a very satisfactory saving of gasoline in the use 
of the pneumatic as compared with solid tires. 

Mr. Foljambe: — In regard to the tendency toward or away 
from pr.eumatic tires when we get good roads, it seems that the 
tendency toward pneumatic tires will be increased under those con- 
■ditions. With good roads, speeding is the next thing desired. 
Even on gcod roads the desired speed cannot be attained with 
a. solid tire. There never will be a time when all roads will be 
improved. Even with a highly-improved highway system the 
truck must occasionally leave the hard surface, which again re- 
■quires some kind of tire other than a solid one. 

Chairman Hai-e : — The speed at which the pneumatic-tired 
trucks shall be operated must be controlled entirely by the safety 
at which they can be operated. We have found that 25 to 30 
m.p.h. is satisfactory ; it is very similar to passenger-car speed. 

There has been considerable talk to the effect that the pneumatic- 
tire equipment for trucks would completely supersede solid-tire 
•equipment, with the claim that the pneumatic tire rides so much 
-easier that the truck chassis will stand up better than it would 
in the case of the solid tires. No doubt this is true in the country 
when driving at high speeds, but it has been my experience that 
Tieavy trucks in crowded city traffic on short hauls last prac- 
tically indefinitely when run on solid tires, because the nature 
of the service and the traffic conditions prevent the truck from 
running fast enough to develop any serious vibration. I feel 
that there will always be a large field for solid tires for heavy 
trucks in city work. 

H. B. Knap: — On trucks in general it appears that solid tires 
-will be used in cities for short-haul hard-road low-speed work. 
Pneumatic tires will be used for high-speed long-haul conditions 
and for soft-road rough-country conditions. In other words, the 
added expense per mile of the p?ieumatic tire must be offset chiefly 
by making more trips per year, either by virtue of higher per- 
missible speeds or by being able to negotiate soft roads and 
■ground where solid-tire equipment cannot operate. 

Mr. Darrow : — The question of solid and pneumatic tires can 
be argued only on two counts. The first is reliability. We can 
•expect 7,000 miles and over from pneumatic tires. During the 
life of each tire we can expect to remove it once from necessity, 
and perhaps other times for treatment. With average mileage 
and care we must remove one tire per month. 

The second point is cost. The first-class improved highway of 
■ concrete, with a deep foundation, costs $40,000 per mile. Mr. 
Seiberling mentioned that there are 200,000 miles of more-or-less 
improved highways in the United States. This runs up to $8,- 
•000,000,000. If we ever get highways of that character, the ele- 
ment of depreciation on roads must be included in the cost of 
pneumatic tires. 

In regard to unit load, there is a limit to the weight that can 
be carried on solid tires per inch of tire width. As a matter 
of fact, this is not the right way to measure it ; it should be 
-pounds per square inch of contact area. With pneumatic tires, 
the load per each square inch of contact area is equal to the in- 
flation pressure. As to the cushioning, a solid tire deflects about 
f^-inch. A pneumatic tire deflects ^-inch or more. We have 
only one-quarter the impact with one-half the load, per square 
inch. Those things have a bearing on the maintenance of the 
foundation of the road. The road is the expensive part. We 
must keep in mind that solid tires will injure the foundation of 
the road and that the investment involved in keeping the roads in 
repair is tremendous. 

To sum up and connect three things together, in a pneumatic- 
-tired truck we have a saving in the truck itself, an increased effi- 

ciency and a large saving in roads. Taking into consideration 
only the initial tire cost and mileage delivered, we cannot show 
that pneumatic tires are more economical but, considering these 
other things, there is no question that pneumatic tires excel solid 

Joseph Schaeffer :-^Considering the future prospects of large- 
size pneumatic tires, it appears that the weight will prove the main 
limiting factor. A driver and his helper can handle a tire with 
rim below 200 pounds, so that the 40 by 8-inch tire would still be 
practical, wdiile the 48 by 12-inch tire, weighing with rim about 
500 pounds, can hardly be handled by one or two men without 
involving undue efl'ort. In exceptional cases the very large sizes 
may be justified and establish a field of usefulness, but for gen- 
eral adoption they appear to be too heavy and too expensive 


THE annual New York Electrical Show was held Octoljcr 6-16, 
inclusive, at Grand Central Palace. The displays made by 
an unusually large list of exhibitors were of much popular in- 
terest since many of them featured household electric appliances 
of every sort, in which rubber in some form is used. No house- 
keeper, it would seem, can aflFord to do without some of the lalxir- 
saving electrical machines, such as those for washing, ironing, 
cooking, and cleaning. A few only of the typical exhibits need 
be referred to here. 

The Habirshaw Electric Cable Co., Inc., exhibited detailed 
plans showing how a home should be wired and where outlets 
should be placed. The exhibit also included samples of all the 
types of wires, c4bles and cords essential for the full utilization 
of the many domestic appliances which relieve household work 
of drudgery. 

Western Electric Co. showed a complete assortment of elec- 
trical appliances for the home. Five essential machines of more 
than ordinary importance were shown, namely, the clothes washer, 
vacuum sweeper, dish washer, portable sewing machine, and 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co. A general 
display of electric household heating devices for laundry, kitchen 
and nursery was augmented by an exhibit of a number of motor- 
driven appliances using small Westinghouse motors. This in- 
cludes machines for washing, ironing, vacuum cleaning and dish 
washing. In another section the same company showed a complete 
motion picture equipment using a Westinghouse motor-generator 
set to transform from alternating to direct current, a studio light- 
control outfit for motion picture work and an outfit for charging 

The Elasticap Co. demonstrated the value and convenience of 
Elasticaps, molded rubber caps, for the positive insuLition of end 
splices of electric wires. They do away with the usual and often 
unreliable rubber tape method, meet all requirements of the fire 
underwriters, and are approved by the Underwriters' Laboratories, 
Inc. The Elasticap was illustrated and described in The India 
Rubber World, March 1, 1920, page 366. 

The General Electric Co. in its main exhibit show-ed in actual 
operation many of the latest devices and apparatus for the utiliza- 
tion of the heat of electric energy. Of special interest were the 
following : electric arc welding equipment, automatically making 
perfect welds without attendance; electric furnace, heat-treating 
steel parts and tempering in an electrically heated oil oven for 
japanning and baking foundry cores ; besides various other in- 
dustrial heat applications, electric vehicle charging, and better 
lighting equipment of industrial establishments emphasized by 
an exhibit of four miniature models of machine shops. The re- 
sults of research work in the insulating material field made an 
unusual display. 



November 1, 1920 

Safety and Sanitation for Rubber Mills and Calenders ; 

By C. B. Mitchella' 

SAFETY AND SANITATION fof rubber mills and calenders covers 
so many opportunities that if discussed fully it would fill a 
large volume. Many schemes have been tried with varying 
success for accomplishing the same purpose, and it is the inten- 
tion that this paper shall present only the most important pre- 
cautions and the most successful installations. 
Although the education of the operator is the most important 
of all precautions in preventing injuries on mills and calenders, 
this part of the subject will not be presented in detail; instead, 
the discussion will be confined to mechanical safeguards. How- 
ever, a few pointed suggestions, or rules, to develop mental 
alertness of the operators are submitted as follows: 


1. Follow instructions of your foreman and your inspectors 


2. Wear no clothing which can be caught in the machines, 
such as long sleeves, loose neckties, aprons or unbuttoned jackets. 

3. Keep your eye on the job all the time, and give your work 
your entire attention. 

4. Keep your hands off moving rolls. 

5. Never force the rubber into the bite of the rolls with your 

6. Never oil, clean or repair your machine while it is in 


7. When cutting stock oflf roll, always cut below the center. 

8. If you feel ill, or in such condition as to interfere with 
your work, report at once to your foreman. 

9. Stop machine at once in case of emergency. Do not wait 
for instructions. 


1. Never allow your hand to go past the top of the roll, and 
never reach over one roll to work on the other. 

2. Watch your hands when the rubber folds over. Don't let 
them get caught in the folds. Be careful in doubling the ends 
of batches when "batching out." 

3. Never cross arms when cutting or rolling stock from the 
mill. Learn to cut and roll with both hands. When cutting 
from left to right, cut with right hand and roll with left. When 
cutting from right to left, cut with left hand and roll with right. 

4. Never take anything out of the rolls while the mill is in 
motion. Stop the machinery. 

5. Never stand on the mill pan, compound boxes, platforms 
or makeshifts. 

6. Never work with one hand under the rolls while the other 
is above them. 

7. Take care not to catch your fingers between the guide and 


8. The back roll of the mill runs faster than the front. Be 



1. Never pick stock out of the bite of the rolls. 

2. In starting end of liner in building up plies, keep your 
hands at least six inches from the rolls. 

3. Never start calender unless properly signaled. 


A safety throw-out to stop the mill in case of accident con- 
sists of a horizontal throw-out bar heavy enough to resist the 
struggling of an injured operator, placed over each mill roll. 

These bars should be located six feet above the floor upon which 
the operator stands, and in plan be located 18 to 21 inches to 
the front and rear of the bite of the rolls. Fig. 1 illustrates this 
double type of throw-out. The cross bars are made of one-inch 
steel rods rigidly attached to the double levers. 

There are three predominating methods of cutting off the 
power from the mills: (1) magnetic clutch brake mounted on 
motor shaft; (2) mechanical clutch on either the drive gear 
of the mill, or on the motor shaft; (3) dynamic braking of the 
motor. From the experience the writer has had on all the above 
types, recommendation is made to use either the magnetic clutch 
brake, or the dynamic brake, preferably the former, and the dis- 
cussion is confined to those types of apparatus. If the magnetic 
clutch brake is used, it is best to place over one housing of each 
mill an electric cut-out switch. Many installations of mill lines 
have been made with only one switch for the whole line, the 
switch being operated by a cable running from one end of the 
line to the other, or operated by an equivalent rod. This method 
is not perfectly reliable because of the lost motion due to the 
variable tension in the cable, or the torsional deflection and 
binding of the rod, any of which will slow down responsiveness 
of the switch. In order that the cut-out switch may be opened 
with the least travel of the safety throw-out bar, the switch spindle 
should be geared up to the throw-out lever shaft in a ratio of 
about five to one. Consequently, it is not necessarj- to move the 
safety bar a distance of more than three and one-half inches 
either up or down. The travel of the safety bar and lever is 
limited by an adjustable stop, which prevents damage to the 
electric switch by being thrown too far, and which makes the 
safety bar more rigid to resist the struggling of an injured 
operator. It should not require more than a five-pound force 
on the safety bar to throw the switch. 

Tlie electric switch should be. entirely enclosed so that dirt 
cannot gather on contacts. The wiring from the mill switches 
should be carried in conduits down the housing, and through 
the mill pits to the panel board and magnetic clutch as shown 
in Fig. 2. The brake on the magnetic clutch should be operated 
by a counterweight and be capable of bringing the mills to a 
complete stop in no greater time than one second. While the 
mills are running, this counterweight is held inoperative by a 
solenoid electrified by a circuit which connects the mill safety 
switches and the clutch. This circuit is fed through circuit 
breakers which are held closed by a solenoid operated latch. 
.After the clutch circuit is broken these circuit breakers cannot 
be closed except by the operator's going to the panel board and 
resetting by hand. Therefore the clutch cannot be engaged if 
the operator should first close the safety switch. It is probably 
useless to describe the well-known construction of the magnetic 
clutch, but it may be mentioned briefly that this clutch is of 
the disk type, the two disks being drawn together by electro- 

Dynamic braking is accomplished by cutting off the current 
which feeds the motor and at the same time placing a low re- 
sistance short circuit across the brushes of the motor armature. 
The motor then acts as a generator requiring considerable driv- 
ing power. Obviously this power comes from the rotating parts 
of the mills, decreasing their momentum. As the speed decreases, 
the power generated by the motor decreases and brings the motor 
and mills to a smooth yet rapid stop. 

iPaper read before the Rubber Division of the National Safety Council 
at Milwaukee. Wisconsin, September 30, 1920. 

'Engineering Department, The B. F. Goodrich Co., Akron, Ohio. 

■November 1, 1920 



There are numerous types of mechanical ckitches which have 
been apphcd to mill drives, most of them without brake. Among 
these, the spiral coil clutch and a disk clutch operated by com- 
pressed air are used probably more than other types. No doubt 
a mechanical clutch can be designed for quickly cutting off the 
power, but a great many of these clutches now in use do not 
release readily. In no event should a mechanical clutch be in- 
stalled without a powerful brake in connection therewith. 

The foregoing methods have been applied principally to groups 
of mills driven by one motor, but the method is equally ap- 
plicable to an individual mill with its motor drive. An indi- 
vidual clutch for each mill on a line of mills is not so advisable 
as one clutch controlling a number of mills, because the greater 
the number of mills, the greater is the resistance and the quicker 
is the stop. 

It is possible that the best throw-out mechanism that might 
be devised may not operate when most needed, and therefore it 
is veo' necessary that daily inspection and tests be made to 
determine the condition of these safety devices, and a record kept 
of the surface travel of the rolls. No day should begin without 
this test, and no mill should be operated until its safety throw- 
out is in perfect operating condition. Frequent tests with the 
mills loaded should be made to ascertain the surface travel of 
the rolls. 

The location of the mill pan has much to do with the safety 
of the operator, particularly as to the distance which the operator 

may he increased to as much as 4 feet 6 inches without making 
it difficult to feed stock into the mill. 

The speed of the mill rolls should not exceed twenty-live revo- 
lutions per minute. Higher speeds cause ditTiculty and danger 
in cutting and rolling of stock. 

The roll-adjusting screw which projects through the front of 
the housing should have threads of large lead, so that the mill 
rolls may be separated in the shortest possible time, thereby 
releasing an operator caught between the rolls before he can 
be burned seriously. With threads of large lead, the adjusting 
screw will tend to back off, because of vibration, but this can be 
overcome by placing a quick operating clamp back of the head 
of the screw. • ''I'TT '. ( 

Between the roll-adjusting screw and front-roll bearing is 
usually placed a safety breaking cup. This cup often breaks into 
many small pieces which frequently strike the operator. A band 
or screen ought to be placed around the cup to confine these 

Gears ought to be guarded most thoroughly if it is probable 
that a workman may be compelled to be adjacent to them. It 
is advisable in any case to enclose the outside perimeter or face 
of gears with a sheet steel band to prevent oil or grease from 
depositing on the floor of the pit. For most thorough guarding, 
a solid enclosure of steel plate should be provided over faces of 
gears and down the sides beyond the depth of the teeth, and the 
point of contact between gears covered completely. Projecting 

Fig. 1. DoiHLE Throuiu't Tvfe 

OF S.\FETV Stop Device 

FOR Mills 

I'lG. 2. Ei.ECTRic.\L Wiring From Mill 

Switches Should be Carried 

IN Conduits 

Fig. 3. The Brake on the Mag.m tic- 
Clutch Should be Operated by 
A Counterweight 

is kept from the face of the rolls. One of the principal precau- 
tions for safety in mill operations is to prevent the operator 
from placing his hands beyond the top of the nearest roll. It 
has been found excellent practice to have the least distance from 
the bite of the rolls to the edge of the pan 3 feet 8 inches on 84- 
inch mills, and 3 feet 1 inch on 60-inch mills. If, for any reason, 
it is not practical to locate the edge of the pan so far from the 
rolls, then a bar or pipe guard should be placed at the equiva- 
lent location. The front and rear edges of the pan should be 
smooth, preferably turned down or beaded, to prevent injury to 
the workmen's legs. 

The height of the top of the mill rolls above the floor upon 
which the operator stands should not be less than 4 feet 2 
inches. A height less than this gives the operator too great an 
opportunity to place his hands too far into the mill. This height 

keys, and other projecting revolving parts, as well as spokes, 
ought to be covered with removable wire mesh, which will not 
prevent visual inspection of the gear parts. Proper door open- 
ings must be provided in various parts of the guards, to facilitate 
inspection of the gears, and the guard designed so that it may 
be quickly removed when necessary to repair the mill. Guards 
should be attached neatly and rigidly to a machine to prevent 
rattling or sagging, or being knocked out of shape, for other- 
wise the guard may suddenly be removed by a self-appointed 
specialist, because of its being an aggravation and eyesore. 

If there is no passageway between the ends of mills set in 
a group, then there is no necessity to guard the gears so 
thoroughly. Instead, a pipe railing, at least 3 feet 6 inches high 
may be placed between the mills and be fastened to the mill 
housings. Pipe railing, with gate, should be set around motor 



November 1, 1920 

j)ancl boards and other electrical equipment, and these railings 
w rapped with friction tape, particularly where workmen operate 
the electric switch and may be in contact with railing. Pipe rail- 
ings around pits, such as for motor drives, are often covered 
with steel plate from floor to top of railing so that materials 
may be stored adjacently without falling into the pit. 

1. will make the mill room a safe and cheerful place to work. 
.\n inexpensive lighting unit may be used, the reflector being of 
metal, dome type, porcelain enameled. This reflector used with 
a bowl enameled type C lamp of high wattage, will produce a 
diffused, high intensity, non-glaring illumination. However, 
where ventilating hoods are placed above the mills it will be 

FiG.4. E.\CH MiLLis Proviued WITH A Sheet Ikon Hood 

A mixing apron is desirable for continuously feeding rubber 
and pigments into the rolls. This apron reduces the number of 
manual operations which would otherwise be necessary to feed 
the mill entirely by hand, and therefore it proportionately re- 
<!uces the possibilities of injury to the operator. The apron 
should not be closer than five inches above the mill pan. 

Many injuries have resulted by workmen falling on slippery 
mill room floors, and various floor coverings such as rubber 
mats and non-slip metal have been provided for the operator to 
stand upon. These are not entirely satisfactory except that 
light weight non-slip metal can be used to good advantage for 
cross overs between mills to cover the pit and line shaft, and 
where it is necessary to remove floor for repairs to equipment. 
A non-slip cement floor can be made perfectly satisfactory and 
maintain a perfectly smooth surface. Several prominent firms 
have laid such floors for years by constructing the original floor 
finish with a carborundum treatment as follows : 

Proceed as in a neat cement floor finish to the point where the 
area has first been wood floated to a level surface and finished 
smooth vifith steel floats, then sprinkle the finished area with a 
dry mixture composed of one part of 12-30 carborundum grit 
and two parts of Portland cement. Wood float to a smooth sur- 
fact and finish with steel float. Sprinkle the area a second time, 
wood float to a smooth surface and again finish with a steel 
float. In the two sprinklings use one and one-third pounds of 
carborundum grit to each square yard of surface. Cover and 
keep wet seven days, or longer, the same as for neat cement 

The above method will make a floor surface which is con- 
siderably harder than the ordinary cement finish. This method 
■can also be used in combination with the metallic floor hardeners. 

Several accidents have been attributed to improper lighting 
of mill rooms. Momentary blindness of workman caused by ex- 
cessive glare of lamps may be the cause of a workman making 
a wrong movement. A poor lighting system will produce fatigue 
due to continuous eye strain. A general lighting system of uni- 
formly spaced units distributing light equally over th? whole 
mill room, with an intensity of 5 foot-candles, as shown in Fig. 

Fig. 5. Mill Pits and Switchboards Should be Safeguarded 

necessary to install a local lamp under the hood in such a loca- 
tion that it will be up and out of the normal vision. This lamp 
should be covered with a heavy cage to protect it from breakage. 
The intensity of light on the mill rolls should be the same as 
provided in the general lighting system. This is important, for 
if the light on mill rolls were different from that outside the 
hood, eye strain would be produced, with resulting discomforts 
and hazards. 


Ventilation and cleanliness are equally important with mechani- 
cal safeguards. It is possible that a workman can operate for a 
lifetime a machine having not a single safeguard, but not so, if 
he is compelled to work in a poorly ventilated, dirty room, for 
he may eventually become as much if not more of a physical 
wreck as though he had been injured on his machine. Bad 
ventilation and dry, dusty atmosphere dull the workman, and slow 
down his productiveness. In mill rooms the installation of a 
ventilating system is absolutely necessary. Oftentimes natural 
ventilation may accomplish fairly good results, especially in a 
small mill room having a high ceiling. However, it is impossible 
to handle a few pigments, such as lampblack, zincs and leads, as 
well as soapstone, satisfactorily, without mechanical ventilation. 
The ideal ventilating system is one which will heat, ventilate, 
clean and humidify the air. Local conditions and first cost often 
prevent a near approach to this ideal. Because the maintenance 
of air washers handling rubber pigments has been difficult, many 
systems have been installed without the \.ashers, with success. A 
brief description of such a system is as follows: 

Heat, dust, and fumes arising over the mills are carried away 
by an exhaust system. Each mill is provided with a sheet iron 
hood covering the mill. The under side of this hood should 
not be less than 6 feet 6 inches above the floor upon which the 
workman stands. Fig. 4 illustrates this hood and the air ducts. 
The two sides of the hood over the housings are enclosed with 
sheet iron, but the front and rear are open. However, conditions 
often demand that canvas curtains on spring rollers be mounted 
upon the front or rear of the hood to prevent the operator 
actually throwing compounds across the rolls and out on other 
side of the mill. Fig. 4-A illustrates a cross-section of the 

November 1, 1920 



preferred type of mill hood. The preferred type is the ordinary 
box style of hood with the air duct connected to the middle of 
the top through a flared connection. This style uf hood insures 
that the air currents carrying dust and heat from workmen will 
go directly to the middle of the top of the hood, where the duct 
connection is made. An alternate type of hood is also illustrated 
in Fig. 4-A. This type of hood has a so-called false ceiling 
which makes a small space through which the air passes near the 
outside edges of the hood. This small space creates a higher 
velocity near the edges of the hood. There is also an opening in 
the top of this ceiling directly into the air duct. This alternate 
type does not carry all the dust-laden air directly from operator to 
the middle of the hood. It has the objection of carrying a great 
portion of the dust to the front or rear edge, where there is a 
possibility of its rolling out from underneath the hoods, and it 
is necessary in order to overcome this last objection to main- 
tain a very high velocity of air which will actually carry away 
all of the dust. 

In the preferred type a slower air velocity may be maintained, 
and it is found that near the center of the hood a considerable 
amount of the dust actually drops back onto the rolls and is 
mixed in with the rubber. This is one of the best features of 
this type of hood, for it does away with the necessity of an air 
washer, and the small amount of dust which is carried away 
through the ducts is easily collected. The hood should be con- 
nected to the air ducts by a flexible connection so that the vibra- 
tion created on the mill will not be carried to the ducts and 
cause leaky joints. The ducts are carried to a centrifugal multi- 
vane exhaust fan which discharges into, preferably, a vertical 
flue carried to the top of the building. In the case of a one- 
story building it is preferable to carry this exhaust flue at least 
forty feet above the ground level. At the base of this flue is a 
collecting chamber located below the entrance of the fan duct, 
into which nearly all the dust descends by gravity and may be 
removed through a cleaning door. For an 84-inch mill the volume 
of air for the preferred type of hood is 3,800 cubic feet per min- 
ute, at a velocity of 1,300 feet per minute. The static pressure 
necessary to be maintained in the ducts varies according to the 
design of the ducts and the length of runs. Such pressure will 
rarely exceed one and one-half inches of water. 

In order to offset the large volume of air removed from the 
mill room through the hoods, it is necessary to feed in fresh 
air. In suttmier time this is easily accomplished by opening the 
windows, but in winter it is necessary to force heated air into 

A ir Current carrying 
I ^ f ♦ + I Dust and Heai away 
jJJ\ \!;\^rom Workman. 

Alternate Type of 
Mill Hood 


Air J 
Ducf \ 

\ -Flexible 
\\v Connection 

^ I 

i-Canvas Curtain on 'xX 

Spring Roller both n 

front and rear if desired 

Przfe,rrzdi Type of Mill 

Fig. 4-A. The Preferred and the Alternate Type of Hood 

the room by fans. This air ought to be heated to about 90 de- 
grees F. and distributed equally over the entire room. It is also 
possible, in order to save expense of heating the entire volume 
of air, to recirculate a portion fed into the flue by exhaust fans, 
and also to draw air from other portions of the building, pre- 
ferably from stair and elevator towers. 

With the best type of ventilating system, as described, there is 

still an opportunity- for dust to collect in various parts of the 
mill room. Perhaps the most frequent cause is from dusting 
batches of stock with bags of soapstone. This dust will ac- 
cunnilate on the floor and stock racks. To keep these parts of the 
building and floor in the cleanest condition a vacuum cleaner is 
advisable. With this system of cleaning there is no dust stirred 
up, as is the case with brooms or brushes, and the cleaning is 
more easily facilitated. With the vacuum cleaner system one man 
under ordinary circumstances, ought to clean 3,500 square feet 
of floor per hour. This system is also very desirable to clean 
walls, ceilings, pipes, machinery and equipment, and motors. 
Another aid to cleanliness is the running of curbs around all 
pits, so that rubbish, etc., may not be kicked into them. 



The various methods of quickly stopping mills, previously de- 
scribed, arc equally adaptable to calenders. The dynamic braking 
of the motor is perhaps most simply applied and operated and re- 
quires no extra floor space. A throw-out bar is necessary in 
both front and rear of the calender, and this bar should be a 
steel rod or pipe, and be placed full width between the calender 

Signal bells,"or their equal, should give warning each time the 
calender is to start or stop ; one bell to be so connected that any 
workman may signal when he desires the calender started or 
stopped, and another bell directly connected with the motor con- 
troller or other starting and stopping device. The latter bell 
will automatically give warning to all workmen. If calenders 
are operated in trains, the safety appliances should be so ar- 
ranged that operation of any one of the safety switches on the 
various calenders will instantly stop the entire train. The opera- 
tion of a train of calenders should be as a unit, and under the 
control of one operator, the only person who can start the 

All switches and control boards should be of the enclosed type, 
making it impossible for the operator to be in contact with live 
parts. Control panels are best situated in a separate room open 
only to authorized electricians. Rubber floor mats are necessary 
in front and rear of all control boards. 

Feeding stock into calenders has caused more accidents on 
these machines than any other operation. Nearly all of them 
resulted from feeding fabric or sheet rubber into the calender 
rolls, and into the wind-up. Statistics show that comparatively 
few accidents have occurred from feeding batched gum, and there 
is no good reason why any should occur. A sheet metal table 
about twelve inches wide and the same length as the rolls, lo- 
cated about six inches below the bite of the rolls, will hold the 
gum while feeding. If it is necessary to feed small pieces of 
gum this may be done with the aid of a wooden paddle or 

Feeding fabric or sheet gum is not so easily accomplished, and it 
is necessary for the operator to place his hands close to the rolls, 
unless it is possible to use a guard which will also assist in 
starting the fabric into the rolls. Although numerous efforts 
have been made, it seems that no really efficient guards of this 
type have been devised, and experimental ones have generally met 
antagonism from the workmen as being a hindrance to rapid 
and successful work. Such a safeguard is most needed to feed 
sheet stock between closed rolls, but the space available is not 
sufficient to provide safety without impeding production by mak- 
ing it impossible for workmen to place the sheet within a rea- 
sonable distance from the rolls. 

If a calender does not require the two bottom rolls to be in 
contact with each other, and if the bottom roll is used only 
as an idler roll to return the stock to other side of calender, then 
the bottom roll should be lowered about three inches so that 



November 1, 1920 

a man's arm' can pass between tlie rolls and not be pinched. 
\\ here the rolls cannot be thus separated, it may be possible to 
separate them to such an extent that a guard can be used suc- 
cessfully. A guard used in several factories consists of two hori- 
zontal steel plates about VA inches apart, extending in between 
the rolls. (See Fig. 7.) The lower plate does not extend so far 

Fic. 6. Xon-Slu' Floors .\re Necess.\ry Around Calenders 

inwardly as the upper plate, and this allows workman to place 
the stock on the lower roll ; and if the travel of the roll should 
carry his fingers forward they will strike the upper plate with- 
out harm. To be successful, this guard must be constructed very 
heavily, and be very rigidly attached to the machin?. A scraper 
bar is attached to the lower section of the guard after the guard 
is in place, and so adjusted to the roll that there is only a very 
small clearance between the scraper and the roll. This scraper 
is for any stock which may get around the lower roll and which 
would have a tendency to roll up under the guard and bend it 
out of shape. It must be urged most forcefully that a man who 
is working on a calender with separated rolls shall never be trans- 
ferred to another calender having its rolls in contact, for the 
knowledge of not being subjected to danger on the first type, 
forms a habit of placing the hands between the rolls, and this 
habit will unconsciously be continued on the latter type and re- 
sult in severe injury. 

All wind-ups and let-oflfs should have a stationary hand-wheel 
for adjusting the tension in stock. This can be accomplished 
by mounting the hand-wheel on the wind-up bearing, the outside 
of the bearing having screw threads upon which the hand-wheel 
adjusts itself against the friction disk. To hold the stock shell 
bar within the wind-up spindle, a smooth ring should slide on 
the spindle and cover the end of the bar. This ring can he locked 
in position by a pin with a spring. No projecting set-screws or 
pins should be placed on any revolving part of the wind-up. 

All idler rolls ought to be placed as far as possible from cal- 
ender rolls. Particularly is this true where the stock passes be- 
tween the idler and the calender rolls, for serious accidents have 
occurred where the operator was caught by the stock and drawn 
between the rolls. 

Gear guards and pipe railings as described under the subject 
of mills, are equally adaptable on calenders. Fig. 6 illustrates 
excellent guards. 

Non-slip floors are particularly necessary around calenders. 
A concrete floor with carborundum treatment, previously de- 
scribed, will not become slippery from scapstone because the 
grains of carborundum cut the soapstone and prevent it from 
adhering to the floor finish. Between the housings of the cal- 
ender it is usually not practical to lay a concrete floor, and there- 
fore a metal floor predominates. This metal floor surface ought 
to be rough. Objections are often heard against this, and it is 
contended that a rough floor may damage the tail end of the 

stock which drags along the floor before being wound up. How- 
ever, this objection is greatly overdrawn. Fig. 6 shows such a 
floor under a calender which has been doing a high grade of 
work for years. 

Illumination for calender work is important, not only to safe- 
guard the workman, but particularly to produce work of highest 
quality. Too many calenders are being operated with local lights 
attached to the macliine. The general lighting system described 
for mill rooms is recommended for calender rooms, except that 
tlic maximum amount of light should be given the calenders, and 
a lower intensity in the aisles. The intensity on the calenders 
ought to be 10 foot-candles uniform lighting, and about 5 to 
6 foot-candles uniformly in the aisles. If glare is eliminated this 
difference in intensity will not produce eye strain. 

The tendency in calender work has been toward increased 
width of stock and greater lengths, which has produced rolls of 
slock of great weight and unwieldy size, and consequently greater 
chance of injury to operator. Careful consideration of methods 
of handling heavy rolls of stock becomes very impcjrtant. An 
electric or air hoist mounted on a trolley is perhaps the simplest 
and (|uickest means of lifting these rolls. 

A calender may produce excessive heat or fumes, making it 
advisable to install a ventilating hood above, and connected to an 
exhaust fan. However, it is far better to have a high calender 
room, preferably one story, with saw-tooth skylights to give 
good ventilation and light. If the room has a low ceiling then 
mechanical ventilation is necessary, especially during summer 
months and times of high humidity. 

Where excessive soapstone or stock dusting accumulates on 
the floor under the calender wind-up and let-off, a suction system 
should be provided. This dust should fall onto and through a 
latticed or perforated floor into a chamber from which it is drawn 
into a duct and thence to a fan exhausting into a stack as de- 
scribed for mill room ventilation. 

The vacuum cleaner principle has been applied to the cleaning 
of liners and this obviates most of the flying dust around calen- 

Scraper slofhdVxHs'and 

P/afe tapped after Guard is installed 

Fig. 7. An Efficient Calender Guard 

der let-offs and wind-ups. A vacuum cleaner is of even more 
importance in a calender room than in a mill room, for in ad- 
dition to the benefit to workmen, tliere is an extreme necessity 
for cleanliness of calendered stock. All pits and openings in the 
floors should be free from rubbish and grease, and should have 
proper curbs around them. 

The foregoing descriptions have covered mechanical safe- 
guards which for a large part depend upon a little common sense 
on the part of workmen in providing personal care. Workmen 

November 1, 1920 



should be educated to know thoroughly the dangers which a safe- 
guard covers, that they inay furnish the precautions which the 
safeguard cannot. It may be possible to safeguard a machine 
so thoroughly that it would be impossible for a workman to in- 
jure himself dehberately, but with the result that the workman 
would eventually dismiss from his mind any thought of danger. 

It would be folly to place such a man on another machine which 
cannot be so well guarded. Thorough education in safety is, 
after all, the most important requirement, and it not only pro- 
vides protection in his mechanical duties, but it expands his men- 
tal capacity and alertness to provide protection for himself and 
his fellow-men at all times, everywhere. 

The Effect of Certain Accelerators Upon the Properties of Vulcanized 

Rubber— ir 

By G. D. KraU and A. H. Flower' 

IN A RECENT p.^PER,' H. P. Stcvens has given new figures, and 
from them made a number of deductions in regard to certain 
discrepancies befween results obtained by the present authors* 
and earlier results obtained by him.' We do not entirely agree that 
these latest deductions will suffice for the complete coordination 
of his former results with ours. This view is confirmed by the 
repetition and amplification of our former e.Kperiments, including 
work with extra light instead of heavy calcined magnesia. 

This work was carried out with a sample of the rubber pre- 
viously employed and also with another rubber of similar physical 
appearance. Entirely different results were obtained with the two 
rubbers. In neither instance, however, was extra light magnesia 
found to develop greater activity than Accelerator A, and, in one 
case, it was markedly inferior to the latter. In both cases where 
Accelerator A was employed, the load required to effect a given 
extension led to erroneous conclusions, if used as a criterion of 
the rate of cure. 

As these results were obtained with accelerators of definite com- 
position and purity, the differences may be attributed to variations 
existing in the rubbers themselves, and most probably in the na- 
ture, amount, or condition of the extraneous materials present. 
As a considerable portion of this extraneous matter was extract- 
able with acetone, an investigation was made of the relative effect 
of the two accelerators upon the two rubbers after extraction. 
Since the nature of the substances removed by the extraction' was 
not studied, no attempt can be made to correlate the effect of the 
extra light magnesia with any definite one of the extraneous sub- 
stances originally present in the rubber. Certain facts, however, 
have been well enough established to deserve brief consideration. 

It was noted by Spence' that the nitrogen in rubber was not 
entirely of protein origin, and that nitrogenous bodies of well- 
defined alkaloidal character could be detected in the acetone ex- 
tract of Para rubber. This was subsequently confirmed by Spence 
and Kratz' for plantation crepe (Hez'ea), although a difference 
in the character of the protein material in the two rubbers was 
found. Further, certain of their results indicated that in planta- 
tation Hezva the non-protein nitrogenous substance was not easily 
extractable with acetone. Dekkar' also noted the presence of 
nitrogen in the acetone extract, and gave figures for nitrogen 
distribution in the extracted rubber and its acetone extract which 
closely confirmed those originally obtained by Spence. Prior to 
Dekkar's observations, Beadle and Stevens" noted that the rate 
of vulcanization of certain rubbers decreased if the rubbers were 
previously extracted with acetone. After vulcanization the phy- 
sical properties of the acetone-extracted samples were so greatly 
impaired, due either to the loss of the resin or the physical effect 
of the solvent upon the rubber, that the decrease in the rate of 
cure was considered of secondary importance. 

It would therefore appear that the removal of the acetone- 
soluble nitrogenous constituent is responsible for the decrease 
in the rate of cure of the rubbers, rather than either of the 
causes originally assigned by Beadle and Stevens." This is also 
in accordance with the later results of Eaton, Grantham and Day," 
and of Stevens," wherein the accelerating substance of plantation 

Hcvca rubber was found to be an organic base or mixture of 
bases, probably formed by the degradation of the protein portion 
of the nitrogenous material originally present in the rubber." 

The possibility that magnesia may hasten this degradation, with 
the formation of an accelerator similar to that produced liy the 
biological decomposition of the proteins, has already been pointed 
out by Eaton" in commenting upon the patent of Esch." 

In view of the well-known action of many synthetic organic 
accelerators in the presence of certain mineral oxides, such as 
that obtained by Cranor" with zins oxide, we are led to the con- 
clusion that the effect of small amounts of magnesia in accelerat- 
ing the vulcanization of rubber is of a secondary or contributory, 
rather than a primary nature, and consists largely in effecting a 
response from the natural accelerator in the rubber. This finds 
further confirmation in the observation of Stevens in his previous 
paper, wherein he pointed out that the accelerating effect of 
extra-light magnesia decreases when a sulphur coefficient of 
2.0 to 2.5 has been attained. At this point, increased amounts of 
magnesia would have no effect, as they would be in excess of the 
amount required by the natural accelerator, which is present in 
the same definite and limited amount in all of the mixtures." 

The same would not be true for Accelerator A, which is 
regarded as a primary accelerator and is present in the various 
mixtures in increasing amounts up to 1 per cent of the rubber. 

In conclusion, we wish to draw a distinction between the terms 
"effect of accelerators" and "action of accelerators." This paper 
deals primarily with the effect produced by certain accelerators 
upon the sulphur coefficient and the physical properties of the 

[ tli« 

' Published by courtesy of the American Chemical Society. Paper read 
before the Rubber Division of the Society at St. Louis, Missouri, April 1216 

- The Falls Rubber Co., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio. 

» The India-Rubber Journal, 58 (1919). 52?. 

* Oieinical and Metallurgical Engineering, 20 (1919). 417. 

^Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, Z7 (1918), 156t. 

° .\ qualitative determination showed llie presence of nitrogen 
extracts of both rubbers. 

^ Herbert Wright, "Hcvea Brasiliensis, or Para Rubber," 1912, 

s KolloidZeitschrift. 14 (1914), 268. 

8 Communications of the Netberland Government Institute for Advising 
the Rubber Trade nnd the Rubber Industry, Part II, p. 55. 

'"International Congress of Applied Chemistry, 25 (1912). 581. 

'1 In a previous paper [The Journal of Engineering and Industrial Chem- 
istry, 12 (1920), 317], we liave mentioned that results obtained with certain 
syntlietic organic substances indicate, in some cases, that the accelerator 
may be clnsely l)ound to tlie rubber. Should this also be found true in the 
case of the natural accelerator, the removal of this substance by extraction 
would markedly impair the pliysical properties of the .sample after vulcaniza- 
tion, as well as slow down the rate of cure. (Compare with footnote 25.) 

" "Vari.ibility in Plantation Rubber," Journal of the Society of Chemical 
Industry, 35 (1916). 715. 

"Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 36 (1917), 365. 

'* The protein portion of this nitrogenous material which is in.soIublc in 
rcctone and benzene has been shown to act as an accelerator (Beadle and 
Stevens. Kolloid-Zeitschrift. 11 (1912), 61; 12 (1913). 46: 14 (1914). 91). 
It has the further advantage of being present in relatively large amount as 
compared with the acetone-soluble constituent. As it does not, however, 
respond to magnesia to the same extent as the latter substance, and, as 
certain results (not included in this paper) indicate that the extraction with 
acetone docs not cause a marked degradation of this protein material into 
the soluble varietv, we have not made reference to it. 

"'Agricultural ilullclin Federated Malay States, 5 (1915), 38. 

"German Patent 273,482 (November 22, 1912). 

"The India Rubber World. 61 (1919), 137. 

*^ It is interesting to note that Dekkar's figures for the nitrogen in the 
2cetone extract of TIevea crene 'when calculated on a protein basis) are 
very close to the amounts of the accelerators cmploj'ed in these experiments. 



November 1, 1920 

rubber after vulcanization. The action of these accelerators, per 
sc, is another problem entirely. We are convinced, however, 
that in many instances both the action and effect of organic ac- 
celerators are dependent in great extent upon the presence of cer- 
tain mineral substances in the mixture. 


The experimental procedure was similar in all respects to that 
of our former experiments. Essentially it differs from that of 
Stevens only in the method of vulcanizing, and in the substitu- 
tion of straight pieces for physical tests in place of the rings em- 
ployed by him. The relative effects of vulcanization in steam and 
in a platen press are commented upon later. 

Two samples of thin, pale, first latex crepe (Hevea) were 
used. Sample 408 was from the lot of rubber that was used 
in our former experiments, while Sample 444 was chosen from 
another lot of equally good appearance, which was found to have 
different chemical and physical characteristics whep employed 
in factory mixtures. 

A partial analysis of the two rubbers gave the following 
results. No great importanife, however, is attached to the figures 
for total nitrogen. 

No. 408, No. 444, 

Per Cent Per Cent 

Total ash O-i 

Acetone extract .' 2.6j^ 

Total nitrogen "19 


The extra light magnesia (specific gravity 3.4S) was the best 
grade obtainable. It lost 4.00 per cent on ignition, after which 
it contained 93.67 per cent MgO. Accelerator A was prepared 
by the condensation of an amine with formaldehyde and was 
C. P. grade. 

The conditions of milling and making physical tests were 
identical with those previously employed, but, as comparisons 
were made after the method of Stevens, the physical properties of 
the different mixtures at break have been omitted. 

Sulphur determinations were made by our method"" in place 
of that of Rosensiein-Davies." The coefficients represent the 
combined sulphur of vulcanization expressed as a percentage of 
the rubber in the mixture. 

Throughout the work all cures were made in a platen press of 
the usual type. Stevens' samples were wrapped with cloth and 
vulcanized in steam." 

Experiment I. This work consisted virtually of a repetition of 
the previous work, using the sample of rubber (No. 408) pre- 
viously employed, but substituting extra light magnesia for the 
heavy calcined material used in our former experiments. The 

0.6 0.3 yo O? O.'f 0.6 

Per Cent Accelerator on Rut't'er 
The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chcmisiry 
Fio. 1. Relation Between Sui-riivu Coefficients and Amount of Accel- 


Required to Effect a Given Extension 

results are given in detail in Table I,"" and the relation between 
sulphur coefficients and amount of accelerator is shown graphi- 
cally in Fig. 1. The relation between the amount of accelerator 
and the load required to effect a given extension is also shown 
in Fig. I. In both cases these results confirm previous ones, even 
to the shape of the curves themselves. As has already been 

stated, if accelerators (such as our Accelerator A) are present 
in the mixture even in small amount, it is evident that the load 
required to effect a given extension is not a measure of the phy- 
sical projKTties of the mixture, nor is it a reliable criterion of 
the rate of cure of the vulcanized mixtures. 

Table I — Tests on Rubber No. 408 


light ■ 

erator A- 





L 1.00 


I.oad in Hectograms 
per Sq. Mm. to Effect Extension 

,9 > 

Actual Excess Actual Excess Actual Excess Actual Excess 

-1 to 7- 

-! to 8- 

-1 to < 



















Aec A. 



Ace b. . 





Oi - 









/I 1 1 

^ Samble 40S 




1 1 
'Tipfe 444 



Experiment II. This consisted of a repetition of Experiment 
I upon Sample 444. The results are given in Table II, and the 



4 8 12 4 8 12 , 16 

Excess Hecfo<^rams per - 1 to9 Exten yon 

The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 

Fig. 2. Relation Between Coefficient of Vulcanization and Load at a 
Given Extension 

relation between sulphur coefficients and the amount of accelerator, 
and between the amount of accelerator and the load required to 
effect a given extension, are shown in Fig. 1. On the basis of 
the sulphur coefficients. Accelerator A and extra light magnesia 
appear to be of almost equal activity; or, conversely, Sample 
444 vulcanizes at the same rate with either accelerator. When 
judged by the load required to effect a given extension, however, 
extra light magnesia appears to be much the more active. As it 
is now almost .£»enerally conceded that sulphur coefficients 
afford the most reliable indication of the state of cure, the load 
required to effect a given extension is again seen to be unreliable 
as an indication of the rate of cure of accelerated mixtures. 
These results have strengthened our former opinion that unless 
a complete series of stress-strain measurements are made, when 

>» In collaboration with Bernard .T. Shapiro. 

»The India Ruhhcr World, 61 C1920), 356. 

=iThe Chcmisl-An.-iIvst, 15 (1916). 4. 

~- Stevens in his first paper on this subject has mentioned the possibility 
of a difference m the rate of cure uf accelerated mixtures when vulcanized 
in dry heat. We have found similar mixtures which contained magnesia to 
show increasingly laree sulphur coefficients when vulcanized, respectively, 
in dry heat, pl.-'.tcn press, and open "itpani. This was not found to be true, 
however, for mixtures which contained organic accelerators. With the latter, 
results obtained in a platen press were frequently higher than thi-se ob- 
tained in open steam. Evidently many organic accelerators are partially 
soluble in, or volatile with steam and. consequently, results obtained with 
these substances in .-ipen steam are apt to be low. This i>oinl is of con- 
siderable importance, and accounts in large part for the difference in the 
results obtained by Stevens and ourselves. We have found that most uni- 
form results are obtained with samples encased in molds and vulcanized in 

open steam. . . . t, ,,•,..,- 

"= The results obtained and rhown in this table are somewhat higher than 
those ariginallv finnd, and which were given in Table I of our former 
paper. This discrepancy may be attributed to a change in the rubber 
itself, as the sample used in 


,-.- - present instance had aged for over one 

year'in"roll form in a partially broken-down condition before the experiment 
was repeated. Also, the method previously employed for the estimation of 
combined sulphur was found to give slightly low results for mixtures which 
contained but small amounts of substances. 

November 1, 1920 



the results of physical tests are taken as measure of the rate or 
state of cure of accelerated mixtures, such measurements must 
be made at or near the point of break of the respective mixtures. 
The effect of such small amounts of accelerators on the elonga- 
•tion of vulcanized mixtures has already been commented upon 
in our previous article. In contradistinction to Stevens' view, 
we do not regard the composition of a mixture as fixed when 
different accelerators are used, even if they are employed in 
amount less than 1 per cent on the rubber. 

Table II — Tests on Rubber No. 444 

Load in Hectograms 


Coct?' '•■''"* 

per Sq. 

Mm. to 

Effect Extension 

Acceler- T'er 
ator Cent 

^ , 1 to 8 

Actual Excess 



Actual Excess 


















light -{ 





























L 1.00 









r Con- 







. . - . 











erator A-^ 




















3 437 








I 1.00 









In his second communication,^ Stevens has drawn attention to 
the relationship between the coefficient of vulcanization and the 
load at a given extension. Our present results, for Samples 408 
and 444, expressed in the same manner, are shown graphically 
in Fig. 2. It is at once evident in both cases that they differ 
markedly from the results obtained by Stevens. In the case of 
the mixtures which contained magnesia, the curves for both 
rubbers are practically straight lines up to coefficients of about 
2.0 to 2.5, and, as Stevens has already noted, the excess load 
required to effect a given extension affords a fair measure of 
the rate of cure. In the case of Accelerator A, however, these 
curves are not straight lines, which shows that the load required 
to effect a given extension is not a measu;-e of the rate of cure, 
as indicated by sulphur coefficients. Evidently, 'both rubbers vul- 
canize at almost the same rate when this accelerator is employed. 

Both Stevens' and our own results are subject to the same' 
interpretation. Our Accelerator A has been shown to decrease 
the load required to effect a given extension, namely, has increased 
the elongation as compared with extra lig'ht magnesia. It is quite 
possible, however, that Stevens' Accelerator I induced a greater 
resistance to extension under a given load than our Accelerator 
A. Furthermore, it is not entirely out of the question to select 
an organic accelerator which would actually increase the resistance 
to extension to more than that obtained with a similar quantity 
of extra light magnesia. 

Experiment III. A comparison was made of the results ob- 
tained with the two rubbers before and after extraction with 

A 10-gram sample of the rubber was sheeted thin and extracted 
with acetone in a Soxhlet apparatus for 36 hours. At the end 
of this time, the sample was dried in z'acuo to constant weight 
and resheeted. The mixture was made by carefully sieving the 
required amount of sulphur and accelerator into the sheeted 
rubber and then rolling into a cylinder. The sample thus pre- 
pared was squeezed between the rolls of the mill to press the 
ingredients into the rubber without loss of either sulphur or 
accelerator. Subsequently, it was thoroughly mixed by resheet- 
ing and rerolling until a homogeneous mix was obtained. After 
the samples had been allowed to age for 24 hours they were 
vulcanized in a button mold in the platen press and the combined 
sulphur estimated in the usual manner. Owing to the small size 
of the samples,^ no physical tests were made. 

The results of this experiment are shown in tabular form 
in Table III. It is seen that, despite the small size of the samples 

employed, the results obtained with the unextracted rubbers are 
in good accord with those previously found for similar quantities 
of the accelerator (Tables I and II). In the case of the extracted 
rubbers, however, this was not true. 

Table III 


-Sample 408- 



(Ext. 36 Hrs.) 

Ext. = 2.62 


-Sample 444- 



(Ext. 36 Hrs.) 


Ext. = 2.99 

, A 

Sulphur Kxcess Sulphur Excess Sulphur Excess Sulphur Excess 

Co- Co- C(- Co- Co- Co- Co- Co- 

efficient efficient efficient efficient efficient efficient efficient efficient 




Control . , . 0.580 
Extra light 


0.5 percent 1.874 1.294 1.290 0.459 3.132 2.123 1.343 0.343 

A, 0.5 per 
cent 2.925 2.345 3.204 2 373 2.938 1.929 3.424 2.-f24 

After extraction with acetone and vulcanization with the assis- 
tance of Accelerator A, Samples 408 and 444 were both found 
to have approximately (slightly higher) the same sulphur co- 
efficients as were obtained with the unextracted rubbers, which 
have already been shown to be almost equal to each other. The 
extracted samples which were vulcanized with the assistance of 
extra light magnesia, however, gave entirely different results. 
.'\lthough the unextracted samples had sulphur coefficients of 
1.874 and 3.132, respectively, the same mixtures, when prepared 
with acetone-extracted rubbers, had approximately the same 
sulphur coefficient, 1.3. 

It Would appear that Sample 444 differed from Sample 408 
quite markedly in the nature or condition of its acetonc-extract- 
able components. Although we recognize that the extraction 
with acetone may not be without effect upon the rubber or 
upon the extraneous substances left in the rubber, it would appear 
that, if' the acetone-soluble substances are removed, not only is 
the response of the two rubbers to the accelerating influence of 
extra light magnesia decreased in both instances, but also the 
excess sulphur coefficients obtained are small and almost equal. 
The excess coefficients obtained were, indeed, so little above 
their controls that it would appear that a more complete re- 
moval of these extraneous substances would prove extra light 
magnesia to be almost inactive as an accelerator. As Accel- 
erator .\ functions equally well with both rubbers, either before 
or after extraction, when judged on the basis of the sulphur 
coefficients obtained, the results obtained with it require no 
further comment. 

Final emphasis is placed upon the fact that all results were 
obtained with mixtures of rubber, sulphur, and accelerator only, 
and that the amounts of accelerators employed were small in 
all instances. 


In view of the above experimental results, we are warranted in 
drawing the following conclusions: 

I — The activity of small amounts of magnesia as an accelerator 
is largely of a secondary or contributory character, and acts in 
conjunction with, or obtains a response from, certain extraneous 
substances (probably nitrogenous) present in the rubber. 

II — The activity of small amounts of magnesia is limited by 
the amount and nature of these extraneous substances originally 
present in the rubber. 

" Loc. cit. 

^ It was obvious that the physical properties of the control mixture and 
the mixture which contained magnesia were very inferior to similar mixtures 
of unextracted rubber. This was not true, however, for the mixture which 
c<'ntaincd Accelerator A: the nhysical properties of this mixture were good 
and not greatly below a similar mixture prepared from unextracted rubber. 



XOVEMBER 1, 1920 

The Effect of Compounding Ingredients on the Physical Properties 

of Rubber 

By C. Olin North 


IT IS GENERALLY REALIZED that thc Compounding of rubber is more 
or less of an art. It depends solely on a large number of un- 
correlated and apparently unrelated facts. It is hoped that in 
time this art will become a science with facts, theories and laws 
so well substantiated that guess work and e.xperiments will be 
reduced to a minimum. 

Before this ideal condition can be attained both rubber testing 
and compounding must make considerable progress. Tensile 
strength and ultimate elongation are important but tell only a 
very small part of the whole story. Tests are needed which will 
give us true measures of hardness, toughness, plasticity, resiliency, 
internal friction, hysteresis, and many other properties. 

The purpose of this paper is to present some data as to the ef- 
fect of certain common compounding ingredients on rubber and 
to propose a method of visualizing the peculiar behavior of these 

It should be mentioned in the beginning that the tests on which 
this work is based are very crude from the standpoint of scientific 
accuracy but it is believed that the values obtained, the curves, 
etc., are relative and as such will be more or less of interest to 
other rubber technologists. 


It was realized in the beginning that the usual weight method 
of compounding was not only valueless but misleading. Conse- 
quently a basis of 100 volumes of rubber was chosen to which 
were added volumes of the different fillers varying from zero to 

In the first experiments it was thought desirable to use a small 
quantity of accelerator, for which purpose thiocarbanilide was 
selected. Later this practice was discontinued and in all but two 
of the experiments (barytes and zinc oxide) described below, no 
curing agent other than sulphur was employed. A selected grade 
of pale crepe was used with all fillers except barytes. Stocks 
were prepared on small experimental mixing rolls and sheets were 
vulcanized in the usual manner, in molds maintained at 140 de- 
grees C. in a hydraulic press. Physical tests were performed on 
a Cooey testing machine. 

Some years ago Dr. Warren K. Lewis called our attention to 
thc fact that we were measuring tensile strength at the expense 
of ultimate elongation. In the present methods of testing, tensile 
strength is figured on the area of the test piece under no load. 
This is very unfair to a stock high in rubber since the actual area 
at break is considerably smaller than the original area and the 

r X d' 

relative decrease in cross-section of a soft stock is much greater 
than for one heavily loaded. 


Assuming that the volume cf a stuck remains constant through- 
out elongation, it can be readily shown that thc tensile at break 
can be arrived at by multiplying the tensile strength figured on 
the area at rest, by the final length and dividing by the original 
length. Thus, — 

Let L ^ the load necessary for rupture 

IV :^ width of a test piece before stretching 
d = distance between the marks 
t = thickness tf the test piece 
I ' rn the volume =: wdt 

T = tensile figured on cross-ssction at rest 
T' ^ tensile at break _ . 

Let u'd't and V represent the respective dimensions at break 
Since V ■= V by assumption, then tvdt — w'd't' 

T = — T' — 

■wt ii't' 

.". Twt = T'w't' 

and T' = ■ But wdt = Wd't' 

wt d' 

w'f d 

Substituting, T' 


Unfortunately the volume of a test piece does not remain con- 
stant during elongation as has been shown by Schippel.^ Con- 
sequently a correction factor should be used if absolute accuracy 
is desired. 

.•\nother method of taking into account the decrease in area 
and the corresponding increase in length is by Stevens' "ten- 
sile product," which is obtained by multiplying the ultimate 
elongation by the tensile strength as usually calculated. When 
dealing with hard rubbers where the elongation is practically 
zero, this method is absurd since the tensile product becomes 
zero. However, on soft stocks it is a satisfactory unit of com- 
parison. It is convenient when working in English units to 
divide by 10,000. Tensile product is a less logical method of 
attack than tensile at break but since the curves, when plotted 
against volumes of filler, are parallel and the former is rather 
generally used by rubber technologists this unit was chosen for 
the comparisons given below. Correction factors are necessary 
for absolute accuracy as in the case of tensile at break, but 
in our experiments we did not use them, partly because of the 
small error introduced by volume change of the test piece and 
partly because of the lack of information about this phenomenon. 

1 Read before the Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society, at 
the St. Louis meet ng, April 12-16, 1920. 
" Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 12 — 1, page 33. 





ON Barytes (G 

Iround White) 

Values Corrected 
to 100 Volumes of Rubber 

Vol. Bary 

Tcr Cent 

by Weil 






— \ 

tcs to 
100 Vol. 

^ by Vol 


Best Cure Ti 

at 40 lbs. Sli 

Steam Lbs. 

Sq. In. 

Per Cent 

ment Set 
Per Cent 


T X E H- 




Lbs. Sq. In. 

Per Cent 









BaS04 ' 









1 hr. 45 min. 















1 hr. 55 min. 















1 hr. 35 min. 















1 hr. 55 min. 















1 hr. 55 min. 















1 hr. 55 min. 











3 92 

1 96 

90 1 


1 hr. 45 min. 















1 hr. 45 min. 














16 6 

1 hr. 45 min. 















1 hr. 45 min. 















1 hr. 45 min. 















1 hr. 35 min. 















1 hr. 45 min. 















1 hr. 35 min. 















1 hr. 45 min. 








November 1, 1920 




; II 

Data on Tripoli 


ues Corrected 

to 100 Volumes of R 


Ratio Vol. 

Per Cent by W 


Per Cent 

: by Volume 





Tripoli to 




100 Vol. 


Cure 40 



mcnt Set 

T X E -=- 




'V^ . . 







Pounds Steam Lbs. 

Sq. In. 

Per Cent 

Per Cent 



Sq. In. 

Per Cent 








2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 














2 hr. IS min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














Z hr. 15 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 














2 hr. 15 min. 














2 hr. 15 min. 














2 hr. 45 min. 










Values Corrected 


Data on Lithopone 

100 Vol 

lumes of Rubber 


Per Cent by Volume 

Lith. to 
100 Vol. 


Cent by Weight 

(Neglecting S) 

Best Cure 

at 40 Lbs. 





. Sq. In. 

Per Cent 

nent Set 
Per Cent 


C| .1, 

Per Cent 









. Sq. In. 






2 hr. 15 min. 













' i'.9 

2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 40 min. 














2- hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 40 min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 30 min. 














2 hr. 20 min. 














2 hr. 40 min. 






85 S 




\'alues Corrected 



Data on Magnesium ' 


100 Vol 

lumcs of Rubber 

MKCO3 to 


Per Cent by Weight 

Per Cent by Volume 

Best Cure 








100 \ol. 



at 40 Lbs. 




nent Set 











MgCOs ' 



. Sq. In. 

Per Cent 

Per Cent 



. Sq. In. 

Per Cent 








2 hr. 15 min. 












98. i 


1 hr. 50 min. 














1 hr. 40 min. 














1 hr. 40 min. 














1 hr. 50 min. 














I hr. 40 min. 














1 hr. 20 min. 














1 hr. 20 min. 














1 hr. 20 min. 









51. 1 





1 hr. 20 min. 














1 hr. 20 min. 














1 hr. 20 min. 








Data on Zinc Oxide 

Values Corrected to 




100 Volumes of Rubber 


Per Cent hv Weight 

by Volume 




Best Ci 








100 Vols. 


at 40 Lbs. 



nent Set 







ZnO Sulphur b: 






. Sq. In. 

Per Cent 

Per Cent 


Lbs. St]. In. 

Per Cent 








hr. IS 











2.55 7.76 















9.46 7.2 















17.3 6.58 















23.86 6.06 















36.54 5.05 















43.92 4.46 















51.04 3.88 















56.7 3.45 















61.1 3.1 















64.61 2.82 















67.7 2.58 















70.2 2.38 















72.28 2.19 
















1 Corrected 



Data on Gas 

1 Black 

100 Voli 

limes of Ri 


Volumes ct 
Black to Pel 

r Cent by Weight 

Per Cent by Volume 

Best Cure 








100 Vol. 

^r 1 


Black ' 

at 40 Lbs. 


. S(|. Ill, 

Per Cent 

Tx E. -^ 

nent Set 
Per Cent 

Lbs. Sq. In. 

Per Cent 


Black Sulphu 







hr. 30 










90 2 

.83 9. 




hr. 4S 









3.23 8.8 




hr. 45 






5 2930 



84 8 

6.2 8.5 




hr. 00 










82 5 

9 13 8.25 




hr. 45 










11.8 8. 




hr. on 









76 S 

15.6 7.68 




hr. 00 






5 3620 




72 5 

20.2 7.25 




hr. 00 











68 2 

24.8 6.8 




hr. 45 






4 4530 



60 5 

33 5 6.0 




hr. 45 










57 3 

36 9 5.7 




hr. 45 









40.2 5.4 




hr. 30 











51 8 

43 5.18 




hr. 30 










45.6 4.9 




hr. 45 











November 1, 1920 


5 10 15 ?0 25 50 35 40 45 
Volumes Filler tolOO Volumes Rubber 
Fig. 1 2___ 

BO g^O%^-t 

10 15 70 25 30 35 40 45 50 
Volumes FillertolOOVolumes Rubber 

Fig. 5 


V 900 




Magnesium Carhonafe\ 



15 20 25 30 35 40 45\50 s 
Volumes Filler to 100 Volumes Rubber l\^ "^ 
Fig. 2 

5 10 15 20 25 50 55 40 45 50 
Volumes Filler tolOOVolumes Rubber 
Fig. 6 


5 10 15 20 25 30. 35 40 45 50 
Volumes FillertolOOVolumes Rubber 
Fig. 3 

1 1 ' r 

Magnesium Carbonate; 

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 5Q 
Volumes FillertolOOVolumes Rubber 
Fig. 7 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 
Volumes Filler to 100 Volumes Rubber 

Fig. 4 

? 1.30 
= 1.10 

12 .90 

t 10 

I .50 



£ .30 
















I I 

) ^ 


'■> k 



3 $ 

3 1 


Fig. 8 

November 1, 1920 



In order to ascertain the effect of the different fillers on the 
rubber, the device of figuring tensile strength, ultimate elonga- 
tion and tensile product back to the actual volume of rubber 
present was tried out and found to be of value. 

The present state of compounding demands a simple pro- 
cedure whereby fillers can be compared with regard to their 
effect on rubber regardless as to how that effect is produced. 

Assuming that the effective area is that obtained by sub- 
tracting the area occupied by the particles of filler from the 
total area of the test piece one can refer the test back to the 
proportional quantity of rubber present by dividing the difference 
by the percentage by volume of rubber and multiplying by 
100. For example, referring to Table IV we find that the stock 
containing 25 vohmies of magnesium carbonate to 100 volumes 
of rubber (80 per cent rubber and 20 per cent MgCOj by volume) 
has a tensile strength of 2,670 pounds per square inch. The 
ultimate elongation is 630 per cent and the tensile product 168. 
Correcting these values to the relative quantity of rubber present 
by multiplying them by 100 -t- 80 gives 3,340 pounds per square 
inch as the corrected tensile, 788 per cent corrected elongation, 
and 210 as the corrected tensile product. The term "corrected" 
which is used throughout the paper always indicates that the 
value has been corrected back to a basis of 100 volumes of rubber. 

Complete data of the various experiments are recorded in tables 
I to VI, inclusive. This information has been reduced to curves. 
Figs. 1 to 7 inclusive. 

Barvtes — You will note that this filler causes a continuous 
decline in tensile until 35 volumes to 100 volumes of rubber is 
reached. From this point the curve comes to a "flat." 

LiTHOPONE — This filler also causes a decided falling off in 

Tripoli — Infusorial earth, etc., shows a maximum above 
3,000 pounds per square inch at 3 volumes to 100 volumes of 
rubber after which there is a decided falling off, due perhaps to 
cutting action of the sharp particles. 

Zinc Oxipe — The variety used here was New Jersey Red XX. 
You will note that its curve comes up to a flat at 5 volumes to 100 
volumes of rubber, remains constant until IS volumes and then 
falls gradually until 35 volumes is reached. Beyond this point 
the fall is rapid. 

Magnesium Carbonate — This filler comes up to a maximum at 
6 volumes to 100 volumes of rubber and then falls off gradually. 

Gas Black — The curve rises gradually to 20 volumes, remains 
constant until 30 volumes and falls off slowly. 


Barvtes — This filler stands out over all the others as having 
least effect on the elongation. 

LiTHOPONE — Is next to barytes. 

Magnesium Carbonate, Gas Black and Tripoli — These all 
produce about the same falling off. 

Zinc Oxide — This produces a somewhat greater drop in elonga- 
tion, at the beginning of the curve. 


Magnesium Carbonate — Shows the highest values but rapidly 
falls off when over 15 volumes are employed. 

Gas Black — Holds practically constant until 20 volumes and 
then falls away. 

LiTHOPONE AND Barytes — Both are quite low. 

Tripoli — Comes up and then rapidly goes down, indicative that 
both tensile and elongation are markedly affected by increase in 

Zinc Oxide — Shows a rather steady falling off. 

The above curves are satisfactory only as far as they go. The 
methods employed do not permit one to analyze the effects of 
the filler and to differentiate between simple decrease in tensile 
with decrease in rubber and increase in tensile due to some 
peculiar property or action of the filler. By using the corrected 

values we eliminate the effect of decreasing the actual rubber 
content of the stock. 


Barvtes — It is remarkable how well the evidence supports the 
view that this filler has no effect on the stock. The straight line 
curve is not absolutely accurate considering the data but it is be- 
lieved to be very close to the truth. 

LiTHOPONE— Falls off to about 2,400 pounds per square inch 
and then very gradually declines. 

Tripoli — Shows the same behavior as in other curves which 
would indicate some peculiar behavior of the filler, probably 
a cutting action by the siliceous skeletons of the diatoms. 

Zinc Oxide — Comes up to a maximum at 15 volumes and re- 
mains constant until 35 volumes is reached. At this point we 
liave a decided falling off in corrected tensile. This value can 
be taken as the maximum quantity which may be added without 

Magnesium Carbonate — Shows a maximum value from 6 to 
15 volumes beyond which it shows a marked decline. 

Gas Black — Shows a continued increase until 30 volumes is 
reached. Beyond this point the curve remains constant. Ap- 
parently black has a stiffening or toughening action on rubber. 
Barvtes and Lithopone— Have very little effect on the elonga- 
tion. The values obtained are not far from those secured with 
pure gum. 

Tripoli, Gas Black and Magnesium Carbonate— Show about 
the same effect, namely, a gradual decrease with increased filler. 
Zinc Oxide— Gives a more or less flat curve which does not 
show such a marked decline as the others. 

These curves require considerable study. The previous con- 
clusions are substantiated. 

Magnesium Carbonate — Is shown to give excellent results up 
to 15 volumes. 

Gas Black — Increases the corrected tensile product up to 
20 volumes after which the curve declines, thus indicating that 
the increase in tensile, as ordinarily figured, is more or less at the 
expense of elongation. 

Zinc Oxide — Comes to a maximum at 11 volumes to 100 vol- 
umes of rubber. 
LiTHOPONE, Barvtes and Tripoli — Function as before. 

On Fig. 7 data as to the relative permanent sets of the re- 
spective stocks are plotted. The method of obtaining permanent 
set was worked out by E. L. Davies and the writer and was de- 
scribed by my colleague in a letter accompanying the methods 
proposed by the Rubber Testing Committee. 

The curves all show a decided increase in set, namely, plasticity, 
with increased filler. The very high set obtained with 20 vol- 
umes of magnesium carbonate explains why American compound- 
ers have not used this filler to any marked extent. 
It is desirable for the better understanding of compounding 
phenomena to form a mental picture of the probable internal 
structure of rubber. The conception presented below is given 
solely as a vehicle fur thought. 

As a working hypothesis let us assume that vulcanized rubber 
consists of plastic material and elastic fibers. There is evidence 
that some such condition actually exists. For instance, elastic 
fibers are indicated by the following: 

(1) It is well known that high-grade stocks have a noticeable 
grain when calendered, that is, they tear in the direction the 
stock has been run. This is as true for pure gum as for com- 
pounded stocks. Grain in rubber is somewhat analogous to 
grain in wood. See Table VII. 



November 1, 1920 

(2) Calendered stocks have higher tensile strength and lower 
ultimate elongation with the grain than across it. 

(3) Previous stretching (see Bulletin No. 38, Bureau of 
Standards) increases tensile strength. See Tables VIII and IX. 

That plastic material is present is indicated by: 

(1) Test pieces in which a set has been developed tend to 
recover their original length. Set decreases with time after 
release. Pure gum recovers in 8 hours 75 per cent of the original 
set (measured after 10 minutes). See Table X. 

(2) Schwartz (Schidrowitz, "Rubber," page 241) pointed out 

that elongation under constant load follows the equation : 

J- = o + 6 log t 

when .r zz elongation at the end of an interval of time t 

a — elongation at the end of the first minute 

b ^ a constant depending on the plastic flow of the stock. 


Fig. 8 shows (x — a) plotted against log. / for a heavily 
loaded black stock under 25 pounds load. The curve is a straight 
line which shows that the equation actually holds. 

This indicates that rubber consists in part of a plastic sub- 
stance which may be regarded as a supercooled liquid which 
probably forms a matrix for the elastic fibers. 

(3) That the set is due to plastic material is indicated by 
the fact that it is decidedly increased when a material known 
to be plastic, as for example mineral rubber, is added. 

Returning to the hypothesis that rubber consists of plastic 
material and elastic fibers, it is recognized that the colloidal 
aggregates (CioH,e)i, doubtless vary considerably in size. The 
chief difference between plastic and elastic matter would appear 
to be in the size of the aggregate. 

Vulcanization produces a profound change in the properties of 
rubber. In the uncured condition it is weak and plastic. Prop- 
erly vulcanized, it is strong, elastic and resistant to repeated 
flexing. The polymerizing influence of sulphur is well known in 
organic chemistry. 


Vakiation of Tensile Strength and Ultimate Elongation with Direc- 
tion OF Grain 

Stock ' No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 
Tensile Strength 

Longitudinal 2.730 lbs. sq. in. 9:.S lbs. sq. in. 10.550 lbs. sq. in. 

Transverse 2.675 lbs. sq. in. 625 lbs. sq. in. 3,160 lbs. sq. in. 

Eloneation Ult. 

Lcnpitudinal 630 per cent 90 per cent 

Transverse 640 per cent 210 per cent 

Cheap tread Cheap mechanical Asbestos packing 

Is it not possible that the chief effect of vulcanization is the 
locking up or polymerization of these colloidal aggregates? 
Plastic material probably also unites with sulphur but since it is 
composed of much smaller aggregates the effect is not so marked. 
If this is the case we may regard vulcanized rubber as consisting 
essentially of a vast network of very fine fibers linked up and 
strengthened in some way by sulphur. This network extends 
throughout the plastic materials present and also completely sur- 
rounds and incloses any filling material that may be present in 
the stock. It is to this network that the writer attributes the 
desirable properties of rubber such as its strength, its elasticity, 
its resistance to repeated flexing and its ability to be compounded. 

Stock No. I No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5 No. 6 

Tensile strength, lbs. sq. in. ^,„ 

Single stretch 2470 1740 990 1710 750 930 

Repeated stretch 2610 1960 1180 1790 790 920 

Ultimate elongation, per cent. 

Single stretch 645 665 510 460 430 375 

Repeated stretch 765 780 645 555 440 465 

(Bureau of Standards, Bulletin No. 38, page 41, Table 6.) 

Carrying this picture farther let us consider an ordinary fishing 
net. Empty, it can be stretched out to a rather great length. 
But when it is full of fish it is no longer possible to alter the 
shape to anything like the previous extent. The fish act as 
struts and keep the sides of the net distended. If you will 
imagine many nets closely interwoven and embedded in plastic 
material, you have the writer's conception of rubber. When 
compounding material is introduced the net is distended and 

tliere is a strut action which prevents ready change of position. 

Examples of similar conditions are found in reinforced con- 
crete and in the mordanting or weighing of fabric. In the 
second case we have merely interposed particles among the fibers 
of the cloth in such a way that they are no longer free to move. 
In other words we have wedged them into position, consequently, 
the fabric has become stiff^cr, less pliable, and its tensile strength 
has been greatly increased. 

Applying the same idea to a compounded stock it would ap- 
pear that the increase in tensile strength of a stock produced 
by compounding ingredients is due to two principal effects : 

First, that filling material so distends the network 
reinforcement cf rubber that the stock becomes stiffer, less 
stretch}- and its tensile strength as measured on the area at 
rest is increased because a greater area is presented at break. 

The second and more important effect is due to the influence 
of the compounding ingredient on the closeness of weave of this 
net. Rubber doubtless contains colloidal aggregates of different 
lengths. When a coarse compounding ingredient is added, only 
the long fibers become effective in constructing the network 
around the particles. Consequently the resulting stock has a 
loose weave. It tears readily, the ultimate elongation is not 
greatly influenced and the tensile strength of the rubber has not 
been increased. A typical representative of this class is ground 



Effect of Repeated Stretching and Suspension Under Load on Tensile 
Strength and Ultimate Elongation 

Stock: Compounded rather heavily; chiefly with gas black. 

Tensile strength, lbs. per sq. in.: 

Single stretch 2960 

Stretched twice to 75 per cent breaking elongation 3200 

Suspended 135 hrs. under 25 lbs. load 3950 

Ultimate elongation per cent.: 

Single stretch 585 

Stretched twice to 75 per cent breaking elongation 675 

Suspended 135 hrs. under 25 lbs. load 475 

When the compounding material is very finely divided, the 
short colloidal aggregates also become effective in looping up 
the particles of filler. The more finely divided the ingredient 
the more fibers that are rendered effective. In this case the 
network reinforcement is closely woven and contains the maxi- 
mum number of loops, each of which is more or less wedged 
and anchored in place bv the particle it incloses. The resulting 
stock is close grained. It does not tear easily and has a high 
tensile strength. Gas black is the best example of this type. 
It has perhaps the finest state of division of all compounding 
ingredients known to date and its effect on rubber is more 
marked than that of any other filler. Its tensile strength and 
tensile product values, when corrected back to the actual volume 
of rubber present, are exceptionally high. It produces, when 
properly handled, a closer grain than can be obtained with any 
other material. Zinc oxide is a close second to black in point 
of fineness and from a compounding standpoint its position is 
admittedly the same. 

Decrease of Set with Time 

A B C D E F G 

Per Per Per Per Per Per Per 
Cent Cent Cent Cent Cent Cent Cent 
8 19 10 26 24 34 3/ 

6 18 8 26 22 31 34 

4 17 8 24 20 30 33 

4 17 8 24 20 30 33 

4 16 6 24 20 29 33 

2 16 6 23 20 28 32 

2 15 6 22 19 27 30 

2 15 6 22 18 27 30 

Time After Release 

10 minutes 
20 minutes 
40 minutes 

1 hour . . . . 

2 hours . . . 
4 hours . . . 
6 hours . . . 
8 hours . . . 

Recovery in 8 hours 6 4 4 4 6 7 7 

Recovery based on set in 10 , „ 

minutes 75 21 40 15.4 25 20.6 19 

Method — Stretched to 75 per cent the breaking stretch (ultimate elongation) 
held 10 minutes. Released and measured at intervals after release. 

Stocks: A— pure gum; lbs. B— cheap friction; C— friction; D— low 
specific gravity tread; E — high specific gravity tread; F — cheap tread; G— 

The author wishes to thank Messrs. C. W. Bedford, E. L. 
Davies, and Dr. W. K. Lewis for many ideas and suggestions 
which have been incorporated into tliis paper. 

No\TMBER 1, 1920 



What the Rubber Chemists Are Doing 


THE following notes are abstracted from a report by Guy IJarr, 
B. A., B. Sc, of official tests on proofing airship fabrics 
against ignition by gnni fire. 

The special fabric (B. 29) under test .was of treble cotton and 
lubber, and had been doped on the exterior surface with alumi- 
num dust suspended in "soluble gun-cotton." Comparison of 
results was made with similar tests made on an ordinary yel- 
low treble balloon fabric. 

A rubbered fabric does not continue to burn if locally sparked, 
unless the heat supplied by the lighting agent plus tliat due to 
the small quantity of fabric consuqjcd is sufficient to cause 
decomposition of the subjacent rubber. If the heat reaching 
the rubber is at any point too small to cause the distillation of 
volatile vapors therefrom, the conflagration is not transmitted 
to that point. The combustion of rubber requires a very much, 
greater volume of air than that of cotton, and the supply of 
air being limited, tlie diffusion of the inllammable rubber de- 
composition products is the preponderating agent in the spread 
of the fire. 

The wads used for these comparisons were made by cutting 
out disks of cardboard of the correct diameter from a sheet 
of such thickness that the efTect of placing one of these disks 
on a piece of balloon fabric was the same as that caused by 
wads removed from a few .303-inch cartridges. 


When the treble yellow fabric was compared with B. 29, it 
was found that the former was occasionally burnt completely 
through by the smoldering wad, and nearly always damaged 
as far as the innermost cotton layer. With B. 29 the dope was 
not only not a source of danger in this respect, but the fabric 
was actually somewhat protected. A wad would occasionally 
damage the innermost layer, but usually the outer two layers 
were alone attacked, and in no case was a hole burned right 
through. These results were further confirmed in the pres- 
ence of hydrogen confined under a pressure of about an inch 
and a half of water by a piece of the fabric attached to a suitable 
vessel. In spite of repeated attempts the fabrics were not 
burnt through by the wad in either case, and even when, by 
the successive application of three or four wads, a hole had 
been burned, the gas which escaped did not catch fire. In 
fact, wads smoldering with sufficient energy to cause their 
complete combustion were found to be unable, at any rate in 
the half-dozen tests made under laboratory conditions, to ignite 
hydrogen or hydrogen-air mixtures. 

In the above cases the damage done to the fabric by a smolder- 
ing wad was sufficient to cause a considerable local reduction 
of strength, together with a good deal of softening of the rub- 
ber. The position of the damage was, of course, readily visible 
by the blackeninc: of the yellow fabric, but the aluminum-doped 
B. 29 showed very little trace of the incident on a cursory 
examination. It was only when the burnt spot was rubbed 
with a pencil or other moderately hard body that the wnite 
film of metallic powder was removed, and the scorching ren- 
dered visible. 


The resistance to fire of these fabrics is thus somewhat small, 
nor can any considerable protection be expected from any or- 
dinary fireproofin.g. however efficient, applied to the different 
plies of cotton. After consideration it was decided that the 
most promising method of attack lay in the provision of an 

outer metallic coating. The attachment of metal foil appeared 
to offer almost insuperable difficulties, but the following method 
of procedure was found to afford a very gratifying measure 
of resistance to ignition by smoldering: 

Various inventors have occupied themselves with the prob- 
lem of spraying metallic coatings on woodwork, ironwork, 
etc., with the idea of forming a coat to resist atmospheric in- 
fluences. The latest and most practical apparatus for the pur- 
pose is one due to Schoop, some details of the use of which 
are given in a paper by Morcom (Institute of Metals). 

The principle of the method is briefly the feeding of a wire 
of the metal to an oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe flame, where the 
molten metal is atomized by a blast of air external to and 
concentric with the oxy-hydrogen flame. The particles of mol- 
ten metal are rapidly cooled by the air-blast, and reach the 
surface to be coated at a temperature very slightly above or 
possibly below their melting-point. In virtue of their velocity, 
and perhaps also of their high temperature, they adhere firmly 
to the object to be coated. The cooling and scattering is sufficient 
to insure that no undue rise of temperature occurs on the 
sprayed surface. 

A small sample of single rubbered fabric was sprayed with 
aluminum by this process in order to see whether the fire- 
proofing was of any value. It was found that a smoldering 
wad which would burn a hole through a treble fabric scarcely 
affected this sample beyond slightly softening a small portion 
of the rubber. This effect was largely due to the heat con- 
ductivity of the metallic surface. The tensile strength of the 
sample was not affected by the spraying. It is therefore evident 
that the metallic particles are sufficiently small and well-cooled 
to do no damage to the cotton. This being the case, it is reason- 
able to conclude that the rubber, and hence the permeahility 
will also be unaffected. 

•Reports and Memoranda, No. 178, (British) Advisory Committee for 


The statement that vulcanized rubber kept in a tin box over 
a layer of ordinary kerosene remains in a serviceable condition 
for a much longer period than if kept in air, led Dr. H. P. 
Stevens to test the preservative effect of kerosene and other 
vapors. The results confirmed the claims made for kerosene 
vapor and also showed that water vapor has a similar or even 
more marked effect. 

From experimental results, particularly the constancy of the 
acetone extracts after aging, it appears that the preservative 
action of water or kerosene vapor is due to an actual chemical 
preservation of the vulcanized rubber. These agencies inhibit or 
retard -the chemical changes, including oxidation of the rub- 
ber, which normally take place when vulcanized rubber is aged 
in air, as shown by increase in weight and increase in acetone 
extract, but ihey do not retard the physical changes sometimes 
known as "after-vulcanization," as shown by the tensile strength 
and reduction of distensibility (reduced final strength) of test 
rings kept in air saturated with water vapor. We may there- 
fore distinguish two changes which normally take place when 
vulcanized rubber ages : firstly, a physical change comprising 
an initial increase in tensile strength (if the specimen is not 
apnreciably overcured), and a gradual reduction in final length; 
Secondly, a chemical deterioration, consisting mainly in an oxi- 
dation with a sli.ght loss of sulphur in a volatile form. The 
extent of the chemical change is conditioned (1) by the coeffi- 
cient of vulcanization, the higher the coefficient the more rapid 
the oxidation, (2) by the atmosphere surrounding the specimen, 

= Tniirnal of the Society of Chemical Industry, July 31, 1920, page 251. 



November 1, 1920 

and (3) by the temperature. Doctor Stevens does not at this 
stage put forward a theory to account for the preservative action 
of the water vapor, as further experiments to this end are in 


1. The hfe of vulcanized rubber is prolonged by storing in 
air saturated with moisture or petroleum vapor. Even over- 
cured rubber can be preserved by this means for si.x or seven 
months al tropical temperatures. 

2. Preserved under these conditions, the acetone extract does 
not increase, showing that the rubber is protected from oxida- 
tion and decomposition. Nevertheless, the physical changes char- 
acteristic of "after-vulcanization" proceed normally. 

3. In dry air the chemical change (oxidation) takes place 
more rapidly than in air containing moisture, and an increase 
in the acetone extract takes place. 

4. As the oxidation of soft vulcanized rubber lakes place the 
more rapidly the higher the coefficient, and is accompanied by 
an increase in the coefficient, and as vulcanized rubber, when 
perished, tends to become soluble in acetone, the percentage of 
combined sulphur or coefficient in such case should be based 
on the weight of the specimen after acetone extraction. 


In investigating the viscosity of rubber solutions, the following 
method was used by the Delft rubber laboratories : 

.^bout one gram of the finely cut up rubber sample is placed 
in a hollow flask and shaken on the machine with 100 cc. chem- 
ically pure benzol, boiling point 80 degrees C, until the rubber is 
about 80 per cent dissolved. The solution is filtered through 
glass wool and the viscosity measured in Ostwald's viscosimeter, 
of the Fol type, at constant temperature, in diffused light. The 
first number is taken as the basis. The test is repeated in order 
to guard against errors. This always shows low values. The 
time taken to flow out divided by the time taken to flow out of 
pure benzol gives the relative viscosity. The concentration was 
determined by evaporating 25 cc. of the solution. 

factohs influencing results 

Inkluence of the Light and of the Discharge Through a 
Capillary on the \'iscosity of Rubber Solutions. It is recom- 
mended that the work be carried out in a subdued light and to 
use the first observation of the viscosity. 

Influence of Moisture and of Acid on the Viscosity of 
Rubber Solutions. While water appears to play no great part 
in the determination, acid, even in traces, must be kept out for 
a correct determination. 

Influence of Incomplete Solution on the Viscosity of 
Rubber Solutions. The resins are more easily soluble than the 
rubber, therefore if the solution is not complete enough low 
viscosity numbers will be obtained, while if agitation is carried 
too far the nitrogen compounds dissolve and the viscosity is 
raised. In all ca.scs the greatest part of the rubber must be 
dissolved, otherwise the viscosity numbers must be taken with 

Influence of the Nature of the Solvent on the Viscosity 
or Rubber Solutions. It was found that the quotient of the 
relative viscosity of various rubbers for two different solvents 
is not constant, that it is proportionately greater with rubbers 
having high viscosities than with those of less viscosity. It is 
therefore important that the same solvent should be used if a 
comparison is to be made. 

Influence of the Resinous Bodies on the Viscosity of 
Rubber Solutions. Extracted rubber shows a less viscosity 
than crude rubber. This is not a fact which applies to all 
cases. The separation of the resin causes this diminution of 

the viscosity or it may be the extraction treatment. In any 
case it is not possible from a solution of the resins on the one 
hand and the extracted rubber on the other by mixing these 
to form a mixture in which the original viscosity is raised. 

Influence of Sulphur and Compounds on the Viscosity of 
Rubber Solutions. The simple mixing of sulphur and com- 
pounding materials does not change the viscosity. In the cal- 
culation it is only necessary to bear in mind the change of the 
concentration due to the compounding ingredients. 

The Importance of the Viscosity Determination. There 
exists an actual relationship between the viscosity and the tensile 
strength. The viscosity also shows the important factors con- 
cerning the quality of the rubber. 

The Measurement of the Swelling Power of the Rubber 
Gives VALitABLE Conclusions Concerning the Quality of the 
Rubber. However, as yet, not enough work has been done on 
this property to give definite results. The swelling power is 
proportional to the viscosity. 



A patented device for securely clamping and shaking a half 
dozen flasks at one time is shown in the illustration. The 
size of the flasks held may vary from si.x to 24 ounces capacity. 
The use of this machine great- 
ly facilitates the operations of 
solution or precipitation where 
much routine work of such char- 
acter is involved. 

The power required for oper- 
ation of the apparatus is about 
one-sixth horse-power. The ma- 
chine is arranged for attaching 
to a bench by screws and is con- 
nected by a round leather belt 
to a motor. — Eimer & Amend, 
211 Third avenue. New York 

Clamp Shaking Machine 


The new immersion type water heater shown herewith, con- 
sists of nickel-chromium heating elements incased in a flat brass 
casting which protects them from mechanical injury, and making 

a simple and durable heater that 
is easily cleaned. When pro- 
tected in this manner the life of 
tlie heating elements is in- 
creased, requiring less frequent 
renewals than with the ordinary 
immersion type heater. 

This heater is particularly use- 
ful in the chemical laboratory 
for heating or evaporating wa- 
ter in any shallow container, and 
may also be used with glue pots, 
paste kettles, sterilizers and 
other apparatus. 

Electric Water Heater 

' Communications of tlic Nethcrland Government Institute for Advising 
the Rubber Trade and the Rubber Industry, Delft, Holland. 

To install the heater, a IJ^-inch hole is drilled through the bot- 
tom of the container and the heater inserted from the top, so 
the extension through which the Cord is run projects downward 
through the hole. Tightening the nuts and washers holds the 
heater rigid and prevents leakage. 

By means of a snap switch on the heater cord three different 
heats may be obtained: 1,200 watts, 600 watts and 30O watts. 
Standard heaters are made for 110, 120, and 220 volts, and may 

November 1, 1920 



be used on direct-current or alternating-current circuits. — The 
Cutler-Hammer Manufacturing Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

liquid tight layer of nitro-cellulose. — Gesellschaft, fur Verwerth- 
ung Chemicher Produkte, 11 Ehrenbergstrasse, Berlin, Germany. 
British patent No. 145,544, not yet accepted. 



Water-Proof Sheet and Process. A flexible, tough and sub- 
stantially water-proof sheet of material made up of uniform 
intimately united layers, one of which is composed of nitro-cellu- 
lose and rubber, and the adjacent layer being composed of rub- 
ber. — Charles Weber, Newark, New Jersey, United States patent 
No. 1,350,533. 

Coated Fabric and Process. The process consists in coating 
a fabric with rubber, applying a liquid coating constituting a 
clear vulcanizing varnish, embossing the coated fabric and then 
vulcanizing both coatings simultaneously. — John A. Wilson, Eliz- 
abeth, assignor to The Duratex Co., Newark, both in New Jer- 
sey. United States patent No. 1,352,163. 


Ebonite Substitute Process consisting in dissolving vulcan- 
ized new rubber in drying oils to which melted paraffine wax, 
stearine, resin or similar products have been previously added, 
heating and mechanically mixing the mixture, subsequently add- 
ing finely divided absorbing filling material and vulcanizing to 
a soft elastic material. — The Naamlooze Vennootschap Neder- 
landsche Maatschappij tot Exploitatie van Optimietfabrieken, as- 
signee of Salmon van Raap, both of Amsterdam, Holland. Ca- 
nadian patent No. 202,817. 

Tire Filler. A composition of matter consisting of any heavy 
vegetable oil, 32 pounds ; oxide of magnesium, about one pound ; 
ultra-marine, about two pounds ; oakum, about one and one-half 
pounds; and chloride of sulphur, from six to ten pounds. — Irv- 
ing Gray, Qiampion, Alberta, Canada. Canadian patent No. 

Coumarone Resin. The process of making coumarone resin 
which comprises polymerizing the polymerizable constituents of 
solvent naphtha boiling from 160-180 degrees C, settling, re- 
moving any sludge, distilling the unchanged solvent naphtha 
from the products of polymerization in subjecting the latter to 
distillation under a high vacuum whereby a hard resin is ob- 
tained. — The Ellis-Foster Co., Montclair, New Jersey, assignee 
of Louis Rabinovitz, Pomona, New York. Canadian patent No. 

Packing Ring. A molded and vulcanized piston packing ring 
comprising in its composition rubber, sulphur, short asbestos 
fiber, and ground sponge, the rubber constituting a minor pro- 
portion of the mass by weight. — The H. W. Johns-Manville Co., 
New York City, assignee of George Christensen, Plainfield, New 
Jersey. Canadian patent No. 203.356. 


Synthetic Resins. Polymerized coumarone, etc. The acid 
solution obtained by the treatment of solvent naphtha with sul- 
phuric acid is neutralized by agitation with dry powdered alkali 
carbonate or alkaline earth carbonate. The agitation is frequent- 
ly effected by injection of air. Alkali or alkaline earth peroxides 
may be added with the carbonate. The solution is clarified by 
standing, filtering, or centrifuging, and freed from volatile hydro- 
carbons by distillation. — G. S. Walpole, 121 Victoria street, West- 
minster, London. British patent No. 145,415, not yet accepted. 

Compound Sheet Materials. A method of uniting two or 
more layers of dissimilar materials, particularly plastic materials 
which are difficult to stick together, as rubber with other plastic 
materials. For example, a gas proof and liquid tight fabric may 
be prepared by coating a fabric foundation with acetyl-cellulose 
as a gas proof layer, then applying the intermediate layer before 
the acetyl-cellulose is completely dry ; and finally applying a 


Manufacture of Dimethyl-hutauiene. Pinacone chlorhy- 
drin is treated with compounds which will combine with hydro- 
chloric acid but do not contain hydroxyl groups, namely, am- 
monia or organic bases. A mixture of water and dimethyl-bu- 
tadiene is obtained by distilling a mixture of pinacone chlorhy- 
drin and dimethylaniline between 60 degrees and 80 degrees C. — 
Farbenfabricken formerly F. Bayer & Co., German patent No. 

Vulcanization. Method for the acceleration of the vulcan- 
ization of caoutcliouc. — Dr. Johann Francois Barthold van Has- 
selt, Rotterdam, Holland. German patent No. 325,306. 

Substances Similar to Rubber. Method of manufacture.— 
Gustav Rath, 136 Feldstrasse and Dr. Erich Asser, 19 Ahorn- 
strasse, both in Wandsbeck, Germany. German patent No. 

Caoutchouc Products. Method for the prevention of the 
oxidation of synthetic caoutchouc products.— Badische Anilin- 
und-Soda-Fabrik, Ludwigshafen, Germany. German patent ap- 
plication No. 85,671, February 26, 1918. 

Synthetic Rubber. Method for the production of product 
similar to caoutchouc— Badische Anilin-und-Soda-Fabrik, Lud- 
Farbenfabricken formerly F. Bayer & Co. German patent No. 


In a recent communication to the American Chemical Society 
at St. Louis, Professor V. Leuber stated that the selenium oxy- 
chloride obtained as a waste product in the electrolytic re- 
finery of copper has remarkable solvent properties. It dissolves 
all the unsaturated hydrocarbon such as acetylene, benzene, 
toluene, etc., while the paraffine hydrocarbons sucli as gaseous 
kerosene and the mineral waxes were unaffected. Some vege- 
table oils react violently with the selenium oxychloride. This 
easily dissolves vulcanized rubber as well as the unvulcanized 
material, and bakelite, waterproof casein glue, asphalt and bitumen 
also dissolve in the oxychloride. The reagent also extracts the 
bituminous material from soft coal, leaving a carbonaceous 


To the Editor : 
pvEAR SIR:— 

•-^ Are not the opportunities that await American rubber 
growers in the Philippines almost as great in the cultivation of 
gutta percha in that territory of the United States? Nearly all 
the gutta percha produced in the islands (and last year it was 
38,030 kilos, valued at $18,476) was shipped to Singapore and 
thence to Europe and the United States. According to the Secre- 
tary of the Department of Commerce and Communications, a 
considerable export trade in gutta percha with the United States 
can be built up readily by having American buyers in the Philip- 
pines, by establishing a regular market in the United States for 
gutta percha, and by arranging for direct shipments. 

Carlos Luz 

Manila, P. I., September 10. 1920. 

Gutta percha cultivation is of course possible and greatly to 
be desired. It would, however, be difficult to get capital to 
back it. The reason is that the tree is of exceedingly slow 
growth and many years must elapse before a profitable crop 
could be gathered. So far the only successful cultivation of 
gutta is that begun years ago by the Dutch in Java, the funds 
being supplied by the Government. — The Editor. 



November 1, 1920 

New Machines and Appliances 


Cc.RD fabrics used in the manufacture of cord tires are impreg- 
nated with rubber solution before the skim coat is applied by 
the calender. That constant improvement is being made in 
the design and construction of impregnators is shown in the 
accompanying illustration. 

The fabric from the stock roll is fed over a smoothing roller 
and into the tank, where it becomes saturated with the rubber 
solution. From the tank the saturated web passes between pres- 
sure rollers as adjusted, that the solution is forced into the 



used as a drilling template or fi.xture. .\ny selection or grouping 
of nail holes may be made from this template for any size or 
style of rubber heel, using the back center hole for the men's 
sizes, and the front center hole, which is ^-inch ahead of the 
back hole, for women's sizes. 

As the compound used in heels 
bydififerent rubber manufacturers 
varies considerably, the shrinkage 
in the finished heel varies. There- 
fore, in order to locate the washer 
pins in the heel molds correctly, 
a nailing should be selected from 
the celluloid template, each manu- 
facturer figuring his individual 
shrinkage, and the washer pin in 
the mold located properly to com- 
pensate for this shrinkage, so that 
the holes in the finished rubber 
heel will line up with the holes 
in the template, as described 
above. — United Shoe Machinery 

o o o 

r? °0 

o oo o 

' o 

O" o 
O Oo o 


o o 

Celluloid Templ.\te 
Corporation, Albany Building, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Cord Fabric Impregn.\tor 

interstices of the fabric in an even and thorough manner. The 
impregnated fabric is then passed in festoons between the steam- 
heated coils of the dryer, where the solvent is evaporated. 
While not a part of the equipment, a solvent recovery apparatus 
can be attached to this machine. 

After drying the impregnated fabric is wound up on a stock 
shell and is ready for the final skim coat.— The Banner Machine 
Co., Columbiana, Ohio. 


Standard machines used for nailing, or for loading and at- 
taching leather heels to shoes are shown herewith. All three 
can be equipped for rubber heel at- 
taching in connection with rubber heels 
which have been laid out and con- 
structed for machine attaching. 

The type of machine selected is 
governed liy the kind of shoe to be 
manufactured, the amount per day to 
be made, and the territorial conditions. 
It requires a complete special nailing 
outfit, in comparison with that used 
for leather heel attaching, this outfit 
being made from a heel of each size 
and style to be attached. The outfit 
includes a rubber heel locating ring 
which supports the heel while the nails 
are being driven, to prevent expansion 
of the heel, which would cause the 
location of nail holes to be changed. 

The celluloid rub1)er heel template 
shows the proper alinement of the 
nail holes in rubber heels for machine 
attaching. This is a reproduction of 
the die on the heeling machine, and 
the celluloid template is in no way 


This device, according to the manufacturer, affords a great 
saving in labor, time and money over the old makeshift methods 
of cutting sample sections from tires. It cuts clearly through 
any tire section, fabric or cord, including the steel bead inserts 
ordinarily used. Each cut is accurate and true toward the center 
of the tire, clearly sho'wing up the tire construction. It will han- 
dle any size tire up to and including an 8-inch cross-section. 
The maximum width of the sample cut is three inches. An entire 
tire can be cut up into samples without any w-aste. 

The machine is compactly built on a rigid base casting. The 
working table in front is adjusted for each size tire. The mandrel 
for holding the work is located above the end of the table and 
in line with the main bearing. The circular cutting knife rotates 
around the forward end of the mandrel. 

The operation of the machine is simple. A mandrel of the 
correct size is set up and the circular knife is advanced into 

.\merican Lightning N 
ING Machine 

ail- McKay Automatic Heel 
Loading and Attaching 
Machine, Model A 

McKay .\utomatic Heel 

Loading and Attaching 

Machine, Model B 

November 1, 1920 



contact with the mandrel. Then the limit stop on the right-hand 
side of the machine is set on the feed-screw. The tire is cut and 
the open end is placed over the mandrel, projecting a distance 
beyond the knife equal to the width of the sample desired. The 
vise is adjusted and closed, holding the tire firmly around the 
mandrel. The knife advances through the work to the limit set- 
ting of the feed-screw. A small amount of water from the water 
tank each minute insures easy cutting. 

Each machine is supplied with two mandrels, for 3-inch and 
4>^-inch tires, and two circular cutting knives. 

The manufacturer announces that the sample section cutter is 
not furnished with motor, but that a J'j-h.-p. motor running at 
1800 r. p. m. geared down to give a speed of 60 r. p. m. to the 

The ventilator is of heavy galvanized iron. The sectional view 
illustrates the ingenious way in which the damper is opened or 
closed. A cord attached to the damper is run through a small 

Sample Section Tire Cutter 

rotating knife may be used with it. A belt shaft is constructed 
to shift the belt on machines equipped with motors. — Peerless 
Machine Company, Racine, Wisconsin. 


A decided improvement in ventilators is this new glass-top 
style. It should be of interest to all rubber manufacturers, not 
only as an aid in economically solving the ptoblem of correct 
ventilation, but also as a means of securing better lighting facil- 

The ventilator is stationary and immovable. Impure air, steam 
or gas from the building is automatically drawn up and fresh air 
supplied without lowering the temperature inside too far for 
comfort. There is no other expense attached to the equipment 
outside of the original cost of the ventilators, which are simple 
in design and noiseless. 

The damper is constructed in such a manner that the air shaft 
always remains free and open. Back currents of air are elimi- 
nated. At no time does the ventilator become clogged up with 
ice, snow or other substances. It is said that during calm weather 
any movement of the outer air is sufficient to cause an upward 
flow of air in the air shaft, thus drawing out the hot air and 
supplying fresh air. 

Another advantage of the glass-top ventilator is the fact that 
the light cannot be shut off, even when the damper is closed. It 
is further affirmed that where this combination ventilator and 
skylight is used, no other form of skylight is necessary. 

Gi.ASs-Top Ventilator 
Sectional View Outside View 

pulley suspended from the bar at the top. The damper itself is 
a rounded piece of galvanized iron fitted inside of the outer walls 
of the air shaft. — Burt Manufacturing Co., .■\krnn. Ohio. 


Dressing combs of hard rubber are molded in presses, and 
after vulcanization the teeth are cut on specially designed ma- 
chines of the type shown in the illustration. 

This machine feeds 
and stops automatically. 
The weight draws the 
comb down on the saw 
that cuts the first tooth, 
and a cam then raises 
the comb from the saw 
which is carried along 
the space for one tooth 
by a cam and rack. This 
continues until all the 
teeth have been sawed, 
when the machine stops. 
The rack and cam can be 
taken out and others sub- 
stituted if a different 
number of teeth to the 
inch are to be sawed. 

These machines are 
usually operated i n 
gangs, 15 machines be- 
ing operated by one operator who can turn out under favorable 
conditions 1,200 to 1,500 dressing combs a day. 

The machine for sawing teeth in fine combs also feeds and 
stops automatically. It is similar to the dressing comb sawing 
machine, except in size. — The College Point Mold & Engraving 
Co.. 714 Seventh .A. venue, College Point, Long Island, New York. 


^ . 







Dressing Comb Sawinc. Machine 


THIS invention comprises a system of conveyors and mold- 
handling apparatus operating continuously, whereby the tire 
molds are filled, moved in and out of the vulcanizers, and the 
cured tires removed from the molds which are then cleaned and 
refilled. Referring to the illustration, Fig. 1 is a plan view at the 
plane of the vulcanizers, and Fig. 2 is a side elevation. 

Suspended on hooks, the uncured tires and cores are suc- 
cessively delivered by the conveyor A to the loading station B, 
where they are placed in the molds. At station C the upper 
mold halves are lowered and registered with the lower halves, 
when the molds are delivered to the heaters D. At the same 
time molds are being discharged from the heaters and conveyed 



November 1, 1920 

to station E where ihcy arc opened, the upper halves being 
elevated by the conveyor. The tires are then removed from 
the molds at station F and placed on the conveyor G whicli de- 



Tire Mold Conveyor 

livers the tire to the stripping machine H. As the mold halves 
pass station I they arc cleaned preparatory to receiving the un- 
cured tires.— Carmon A. Meyers, assignor to Firestone Tire & 
Rubber Co., both of .\kron, Ohio. Canadian patent, No. 200,863. 













,350,696 Wilcanizing apparatus. O. F. Beck. Lawndale, and 
J. W. Spi-crs and R. R. Jtnc-s. Akron, assignors to Firestone 
Tire S: Rubber Co.. -Akrun — all in Ohio. 

Adjustable die for rubber-extrudinR machines. D. E. Cooden- 
berj.'er, assignor to Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. — both of 
Akron, O. 

Two-part mold for sclid rubber tires. C. and A. E. Burnett, 
Trowbridge, EnR. 

Machine and method for building tires. W. C. Stevens, as- 
signor to Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. — both of Akron, O. 

Apparatus for forming hard rubber storage battery jars. T. A. 
VVillard, Cleveland. O. 

Ccllapsible tir'; core. F. L. .Tohnson, Akron, O. 

Apparatus for manufacturing rubber bathing caps. R. E. Riley, 
assignor to The Miller Rubber Co.^both of Akron. O. 

Apparatus for removing pneumatic tires from metal rims by 
fluid iiressure. N. L. Caldwell. Knoxville, Tenn. 

Retread vulcanizer. E. Harris. Los .Angeles, Calif. 

Tire mandrel and method of production. J. R. Gammeter, 
.Xkrcn, O., assignor to The B. F. Goodrich Co., New York 

Apparatus for forming storage battery boxes. S. E. Hall, Akron, 
assignor of '/j each to E. R, Sloan, Maumee, and E. H. 
Workinger, .Akron — all in Ohio. 

Repair vulcanizing pad. J. N. Dieser, assignor of Vi to A. L. 
Silvcrstcin — both of San I'rancisco. C"alif. 

Mold for making rubber tobacco pouches. F. F. Jamieson, 
Montreal, Oue., assignor to Mechanical Rubber Co., Cleve- 
land, 0~ ^ „ , u 

Apparatus for manufacturing solid rubber tires. C. Stacbelh 
and W. E. Hardeman, Birmingham, assignors to The Dunlop 
Rubber Co., Limited, Westminster, London — all in England. 


203,334 Machine governor. The Canadian Consolidated Rubber Co., Lim- 
ited. Montreal, Que., assignee of B. E. Cederstrom, Detroit, 
Mich., U. S. A. 

203.349 Calender ^hell fir winding fabrics. The VV. F. Gammeter Co., 

assignee of W. F. Gammeter — both of Cadiz, O., U. S. A. 

203.350 Tire machine drum. The W. F. Gammeter Co., assignee of 

\V. F. Gammeter— both of Cadiz. O., U. S. A. 

203,367 Apparatus and method for making golf balls. The Paramount 
Rubber Consolidated. Inc., Philadelphia, Pa., assignee of 
F. T. Roberts. Cleveland, f).- both in U. S. A. 

203,522 Tire mtld. H. Raflovich, Buffalo, N. Y., U. S. A. 


145,041 .•\p|)aralu.s for making holbiw rubber articles. Par.imount Rubber 
Consolidated. 5232 Germantown avenue, Phiiadel))hia, Pa , 
assignee of F. T. Roberts, 1051 Power avenue, Cleveland, 
(X — both in L'. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

145.515 Special apjiaralus for making fabric tires. The Goodyear lire 

& Rubber Co., assignee rf \V. C. Tyler— both of Akron, O., 
U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

145.516 Special apparatus for making f,abric tires. The Goodyear Tire 

& Rubber Co., assignee of E. G. Templeton— both of Akron. 
O., U. S. A. (Not yet ,-iccepted.) 
145,590 Special appar.itus for making fabric tires. The Goodyear Tire 
& Rubber Co., assignee ( f W. C. Tyler — both of Akron, O., 
U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 









Special apparatus for making fabric tires. The Cioodyear Tire 
& Rubber Co., assignee of W. li. Ilarsel — both of Akron, 
O.. U. S. A. (Not yet acccjited. ) 

Special apparatus for rotating mandrel in making fabric tires, 
W. B. Harsel, 1144 East Market street, and E. A. Nail, 152 
Grand avenue — both of Akron. 0., U. S. A. (Not yet 

Special apparatus for applying bead cores to partially built 
fabric tire covers. W. 11. Harsel, 1144 East Market street, 
and E. A. Na!I, 152 Grand avenue — both in Akron, O., 
U. S. A. (Not ytt accepted.) 

Special ar'Paratus for making fabric tires. W. B. Harsel, 1144 
East Market street, and E. A. Nail, 152 Grand avenue — 
both in .-Vkrcn, O., U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Special apparatus for making fabric tires. W. 11. Harsel, 1144 
East Market street, and E. A. Nail, 152 (irand avenue — 
both in .\kri n, O., U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Special apparatus for making fabric tires. W. B. Harsel, 1144 
East ^iarkct street, and E. A. Nail, 152 Grand avenue — 
both in .\kr( n, O., U. S. A. (Not yet accel)ted.) 

Special apparatus for making fabric tires. \V. B. Harsel, 1144 
East Market street, and E. A. Nail, 152 Grand avenue — 
both in .\krcn. O., L'. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Special apparatus for making fabric tires. W. B. Harsel, 1144 
East ^larket street, and E. A. Nail, 152 Grand avenue — 
both in .-\kr( n, ()., U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Apparatus for vulcanizing tires and other rubber articles. The 
Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., assignee of C. Wattleworth — 
both in .Akr. n. ()., U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Device for separating mold sections as raised from well of 
hydraulic press. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., assignee 
of VV'. K. Glennon and C. Wattleworth — all of .Akron, O., 
U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Special apparatus for making cores for beaded edges cf tire 
covers. The (i'oodyear Tire & Rubber Co., assignee of W. B. 
Harsel — both of .Akron, O., U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Tire mold. The Goodvear Tire & Rubber Co.. assignee of W. C 
State — both of .Akron. O., U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Mold for vulcanizing tires under internal pressure. The Good- 
year Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, 0., assignee of B. Darrow, 
L( s .Angeles, Calif. (Not yet accepted.) 
Special apparatus for treading tires. The Goodyear Tire & 
Rubber Co.. assignee of K. B. Kilborn — both of .Akron, C, 
V. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Special apparatus for making fabric tires, the tread and side- 
walls being treated before placed on the carcass. The Good- 
year Tire & Rubber Co., Akrcn, O., assignee of B. Darrow, 
Los Angles, Calif. — both in U. S. A. (Not yet accepted.) 

Apparatus for applying hard rubber base to metal foundation 
band of tires. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., assignee of 
.A. Weatherill— both of Akron. O., U. S. A. (Not yet 
accepted. ) 


327,576 (September 16, 1916) Machine f' r making hollow vessels from 
rubber. W. W. Weitling, College Point, N. Y., U. S. A. 



O. 1,3 



51.856 Manufacturing cushion tires. H. M. Lambert, Portland, 

161 Forming hard-rubber storage-battery jars. T. A. Willard, 

Cleveland, O. (Original application divided.) 
Manufacture of hard-rubber storage-battery jars. H. L. Bt yer, 

assignor to Joseph Stokes Rubber Co. — both of Trenton, N. J. 
Manufacture of garters. R. Gorton, Brookline, Mass.; C. W. 

Noyes adniinistrator of said R. Gorton, deceased. 
Manufacture of hard-rubber storage-battery jars. H. L. Beyer, 

assignor to .Toseph Stokes Rubber Co. — both of Trenton, N. J. 
Manufacture of boots and shoes with rubber soles, etc. H. C. 

Egerton. Ridgewood, N. .T. 
Manufacture of rubber bathing caps, etc. R. E. Riley, assignor 

to The Miller Rubber Co. — both of .Akron, O. 
Manufacture of portus insulating block with ribbed surface of 

filaer asbestos. H. .\. Asheniuirst. assignor of 4/5 to J. J. 

Rej«ioIds — both of Chicago, 111. 


203,433. Manufacture of hot-wnter bottle, M. li. Clarke, Akron, O., 


146,346. Joining ends of tire lubes. The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 
assignee of C. B. Orr— both of Akron, 0., U. S. A. (Not 
yet accepted.) 

Leaky inner tubes come from a variety of causes. It may 
be that the valve plunger is worn or sticks; the lock-nut at the 
base of the valve stem may work loose; or running flat may 
honeycomb the inside of the casing with tiny holes. In running a 
tire soft or in changing it along the roadside, foreign substances 
get in between the rim and beads and work around next to the 
tube. Particles of rust off the rims also cut the tubes oftentimes. 
Though these holes are, as a general rule, too small to be seen by 
the naked eye, yet under pressure they will leak enough air to 
let a tire down fifteen to twenty pounds pressure in a week's 
time. — Miller News Service. 

November 1, 1920 



New Goods and Specialties 


THE football Ikto of 1920 goes to battle as heavily armored 
as any ktiiglit of old, protectors of leather, felt and rubber 
replacing chain shirt and coat of mail. One of the newest 
safety appliances is a shoulder pad and protector made of heavy 
white felt, covered with 
best quality tan fal)rikoid 
and reinforced with elas- 
tic flexible ribs of rubber 
tubing. The shoulder 
caps are of molded fiber, 
lined with white felt, 
ivith rubber cushions in Football Shoulder Pad 

the center to act as shock absorbers. This protector is very 
light and comfortable to wear. — Rawlings Manufacturing Co., 
St. Louis, Missouri. 


The manufacturer of "Xatural Tread" shoes recognizes the 
value of rubber heels as an essential of the perfect shoe. All of 

this com- 
pany's shoes 
are equipped 
with low, 
broad heels 
o f resilient 
rubber, and 

Men's "Natural Tread" 

one model has in addition 
a rubber sole. "Natural women's "Semi- 
Tread" shoes are considered Natural" Boot 
by the maker to conform 
more nearly to the shape of the normal 
foot than any other shoe in the world, 
and this company is the only one in 
Canada manufacturing and dealing ex- 
clusively in what it claims is correct 
footwear. The lasts on which "Natural 
Tread" shoes are made are based on the lines of the natural 
human foot. Vet the boots are stylish and made of the best ma- 
terials. Their 
construction has 
been approved 
by the War 
Work Council 
of the Y. M. C. 
A., and by hos- 
pitals and or- 
ganizations in- 
terested in the 
health welfare 
of humanity. 

The m en's 
shoe here illus- 
trated is recom- 

Women's "Natural 
Tread'' Hoot 


"Natural Tread" Sum 

mended liy George Cmnniings, the pr(ife.ssi<inal golfer, as an ideal 
shoe for the links. 

Wearers of "Natural Tread" and "Semi-Natural Tread" shoes 
— a modified form combining style and comfort — will not be sub- 
jected to the annoyance of ill-t'itting rubbers, as the company also 

manufactures rubbers in black and bnnvn to fit all styles of their 
shoe. — Natural Tread Shoes, Limited, 310 ■^'onge street, Toronto, 
Ontario, Canada. 


Everyone is familiar with the si.nlit nf a newspaper used to pro- 
tect hats in a sudden shower. They will serve in a pinch, but a 
more practical and handy article that can 
be quickly put over a hat in case of rain 
is the "Stop-A-Drop" hat shield, which, un- 
like an umbrella, can be carried in jiocket 
or handbag when not needed. It is made 
of fine quality dark-gray rubberized ma- 
terial fastened with snaps and will fit any 
hat up to 16 inches in diameter. It is 
dustproof as well as waterproof and per- 
mits the wearing of a stylish, dressy hat 
in an automobile without danger of dusty 
or crushed trimming. — Stop-A-Drop Hat 
Shield Co., Chicago, Illinois. 

Hat Shield 


Every golfer knows the importance of wearing shoes that will 
not slip, inside or 
out, in stance, 
back swing or 
finish. Golf shoes 
must stand tre- 
mendous strain 
in places that in 
ordinary shoes 
receive little 
wear and unless 
constructed with 
this fact in view 
they do not give 
the service the 
buyer has a right 
to expect. A shoe that fills all requirements for strength and 
service and has the advantage of smartness and comfort is the 
Tom Logan golf shoe. The style illustrated is made of the best 
leather with a stout innersole. and rubber and fiber composition 
outersole with suction cups. — Thomas H. Logan Co., Hudson, 

( ^ 



( \®®.^ 

^S) ) 



"Tom Logan" Golf Shoe. 


The Hercules ".Mrless Punctureless" inner tube is made of 
specially compounded, perforated 
soft rubber in two halves for con- 
venience in manufacture and in- 
serting into the casing, and is 
designed to fill the cavity ordinarily 
occupied by an inflated inner tube. 
The two halves of the Hercules 
tube when together give the ap- 
pearance of a solid core, as the 
perforations do not extend through 
the outer wall of the tube. The 
sy.stcm of circular openings con- 
sists of rows of perforations of 
varying diameters, so arranged that the solid rubber between 
the openings acts tangentially to equalize the strain. 

'.\iRLtss Punctureless" 
Inner Tube 



November 1, 1920 

Wire, nails, tacks, pebbles and glass, the cause of 90 per cent 
of the punctures and blow-outs in air tubes, arc said to have no 
effect on this tube. The maker also claims a minimum wear 
on the casing, indicating that any casing reasonably well built of 

good material will serve in- 
definitely when e(|uipped with 
this tube. — Hercules Rubber 
Corporation, 908 Union Central 
Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


HHna /.S^BHHMBI a practical waterproof gar- 
ment is the "Fishbrand" apron 
which was originally intended 
for use of fishwives and market 
women. Its useful features will 
be appreciated, however, by all 
vomen who have wet, dirty 
work to do. The apron is made 
of single rubber sheeting in 
serviceable black and entirely 

covers the front of the wearer's dress. It will not wet through 

and can be cleaned quickly with a damp cloth or sponge. It is a 

useful article without being very heavy 

or cumbersome to the wearer. 

"Fishbrand" .\pron 


Acids of necessity require a special 
-container when being carried about in 
manufacturing processes. Hard rubber 
is one of the best materials for these con- 
tainers, as it does not corrode under the 
-action of acid, is practically unbreakable 
a:id of little weight. A particularly 
'well-constructed acid bucket is here illus- 
trated. It is made in two styles, one 
entirely of rubber and the other having 
double rubber walls reinforced with 
metal rim at top and bottom, with metal 
side hooks and rubber handle. The 
metal-reinforced bucket will probably 
stand more abuse, but the one of all 
rubber has no parts to corrode by the action of the acid contents. 

Both the "Fishbrand" rubber apron and the acid bucket are 
manufactured by the same company.— W. II. Salisbury Co., Inc., 
308 West Madison street, Chicago, Illinois. 

.■\ciD Bucket 

for women, called the "Protecto' sanitary bloomer. More venti- 
lating holes in the sides remove an objection which many women 
have made to the use of all-rubber bloomers. The "Protecto" is 
the popular step-in style, full enough for comfort, with no ob- 
jectionable bulkiness about waist or hips, and comes in three 
sizes — small, medium and large. This garment is protected by 
United States patent No. 1,353.750, listed elsewhere in this issue; 
also by trade jnark \o. 131,714. — Rubberized Sheeting and 
Specialty Co., Inc., 221-227 Fourth avenue. New York City. 


Rubber bloomers have become an indispensable part of the 
modern infant's layette, "Quickslip" baby bloomers are manu- 
factured especially to fill 
^ the need of a cool, sani- 

tary, waterproof g a r - 
ment, easily removed and 
cleansed, and with no 
buttons, strings, tapes, or 
pins. Practically in one 
piece, of carefully se- 
lected all-rubber sheeting 
in the natural color, they 
are durable and will 
stand a great amount of 
use. The vents at the 
sides permit air to enter 
freely, thus preventing 
over-heating and conse- 
quent discomfort. A special feature is the gathered top, cemented 
without stitching to a strip of rubber. 

The same manufacturer puts out a similarly made large model 

"Quickslip" Bloomess 



nutomobilo accidents have been traced directly to snow 
or rain on the windshield or the glaring headlights of an ap- 
proaching car. Protec- 
tion against such danger 
is assured by the maker 
of the "Budd Motor- 
Visor," an awning-like 
contrivance constructed 
with welded steel frame. 
Over this is stretched a 
detachable and cleanable 
cover of rubber-covered 
drill which may be had 
in various color combi- 
nations to harmonize 
with the enamel of the 
car. The "Budd Motor- 
Visor" fits all cars, is easily installed and detached, and can be 
adjusted to any angle. — Alastic Tire Cushion Co., 1421 Locust 
street, St. Louis, Missouri. 

"Budd MotorA'isor" 


Seven points of superior merit are credited to Wayne Rough- 
shod tires by the maker, who claims to have eliminated rim 
cuts, tread separation, side wall cracking, bead separation, stone 
bruises and ply separation, 
thereby obtaining long life 
for the tire. 

The Wayne ribbed tread 
'is a distinctive design. 
Wayne casings are all con- 
structed with a heavy wall 

15 f"^ i I^hI "^ resilient anti-friction 
r— ' liHl 1 cushion stock between plies, 
which is claimed to insure 
elasticity commensurate with 
the average service condi- 
tions and to maintain a low 
temperature. The danger of 
bead separation is overcome 
by the manufacturers' proc- 
ess of tying the bead firmly 
where it belongs, turning 
the plies of fabric over heel 
and point and protecting the 
core from all angles. Great- 
est care has been exercised 
and every scientific principle 
used to produce a strictly 

high-grade long-lived. tire which the maker says will exceed the 

6,000-mile basis of adjustment.— Fort Wayne Tire & Rubber 

Manufacturing Co., Fort Wayne, Indiana. 


The value of an inner tube to the buyer depends largely 
upon the manner in which it has been packed. An unused tube 
can be "box worn" to the point of uselessness by careless pack- 


November 1, 1920 



ing and boxing. One manufacturer makes a container for 
inner tubes, the "Efficient" inner tube box, for which it claims 
especial superiority. The covers are practically dustproof and the 
heavy quality of stock used, as well as the attractive printing, 
makes the boxes good-looking and durable. — Gereke-Allen Carton 
Co., St. Louis, Missouri. 


The disk wheel has been cliaracterizcd as the only wheel ever 
designed exclusively for motor cars. The "Miiltidisc" wheel is a 
detachable wheel with demountable 
^^—^^ rim in combination and has, the maker 

A^^A claims, many superior advantages 

I ^^^^1 ' over other wheels of the type. A 

cross-section, shown' on this page, 
may be easily understood by refer- 
ring to the letters. A, standard de- 
mountable rim. making it easy to 
change tires and eliminating the neces- 
sity of carrying an extra wheel ; B 
and C, four inside aluminum disks 
supporting from four angles, make 
l)o.ssib!e a combination of utmost 
strength and light weight ; D, re- 
moving six bolts screwed into driving 
lugs demounts the wheel ; E, specially 
designed aluminum hub cap adds 
greatly to appearance of wheel; H, 
entrance to valve, optional either in- 
side or outside of wheel ; K, aluminum 
tapered hub bearing, making it easy 
to demount wheel ; M, felloe con- 
struction of aluminum, held together 
by thirty J4-i'ich bolts; a special 
hub for each make of car. "Multi- 
disc" wheels impart to any car that 
air of speed and substantiality which 
is already expressed in the modern 
stream-line design, and their beauty is 
excelled only by their strength and 
■MuLTiDisc" WiitEL durability.— The Lack Manufacturing 

Co., Paducah, Kentucky. 


"How many lives has a Ford?" is the pertinent inquiry of 
the manufacturer of the 
"Faultless" top for auto- 
mobiles. Equipped with 
this top, a car can be 
used with comfort in all 
four seasons, it is claim- 
ed. The "Faultless" top 
is made in styles to fit 
Ford and Dodge cars and 
is constructed with steel 
and hardwood frame, 
covered with the best quality ^g-inch "Neverleak'' rubber fabric. 
The top and sides are well padded to give proper shape and a 
rain trough is provided to prevent water dripping on the sides. 
This top can be set up without the aid of a mechanic, as complete 
instructions for installing accompany each top. — The American 
Auto Top Co., Pittsburgh avenue and Belt Railroad, Delphi, 

"Fai-ltless" .\fT<i Top 


A new system of mechanical addressing is used in the Address- 
erpress. A stenographer can stencil the address cards on her 
typewriter without resorting to the expensive embossing machine 

necessary with many addressing machines. Another practical 
feature is the ink roll of soft rubber that presses the ink through 
the address cards, giving equal pressure to each letter. This 
overcomes the uneven addresses so frequently seen in mechanically 

addressed matter. — The 
Elliott Company, 44 Albany 
street, Cambridge, Mass. 


That rubber heels were 
never more popular than at 
the present time is attested 
by the demand for the "Co- 
lumbia" heel, a new product 
of a Massachusetts rubber 
company. Put upon the mar- 
ket less than six months ago, 
the maker says that salesmen 
have been requested not tc> 
show samples until equip- 
ment to turn the heel out 
faster can be secured. The 
Columbia heel is well made 
of high quality rubber. — Taunton Rubber Co., Taunton, Massa- 

"Columbia" Heki. 



A feature 


of articles 
made of the 


^^ waterproof ma- 

^v,^ terial "Nauga- 

^ / Hyde," having 

rubber as a 

^^^^^^^^HHR'" ' 

base, is their 


absolute imper- 

viousness to 


water and their 
inability to 

^^^^^Hsi ' 

come apart un- 
der the rough- 
est usage. They 

"Navgaiivde" Collar Bag 

have no sewed or nailed seams, every part being perfectly vul- 
canized to adjacent parts. The "Naugahyde" collar bag is 
handy to have when traveling, as it keeps clean collars fresh and 
in shape. The brief case has all the good points of the more 
expensive sole 
leather, besides 
(|ualitics iiecu- 
liarly its own 
that leather 
does not pos- 
sess. It is as 
durable as 
leather. b n t 
much lighter in 
weight. It is 
good - looking, 
capacious, and 
fitted with lock 
and key to in- 
sure privacy to 
V a 1 u a b le pa- 
pe r s . The 
' ' Naaigah\de ' ' 

traveling liag was described in The Ini)I.\ .Rubber World, April 1, 
19IS, page 412.— United States Rubber Co., 1790 Broadway, 
\ew York. 

•.\Aiu;AnvDE" Brief Case 



November 1, 1920 


THIS METHOD of spliciiig inner lubes is not only extremely 
popular in England with all those concerned in tire repair- 
ing hut is rapidly being taken up by manufacturers as well. 

\ot only is the lapped joint a constant source of weakness in 
itself, but whenever a puncture occurs near it the very act of 

lie, i. TkiMMixr, THE E.Mi- 

putting the repair on the vulcanizer opens the splice and causes 
further trouble. All this is avoided when a tube is spliced by 
the present method, which consists in bringing the two ends to- 
gether and vulcanizing them without lapping. The tube then 
has an even uniform surface, all parts are equally strong, and 
the pressure is equally distributed. The tube is in fact endless, 
because the space between the two ends is filled with vulcanized 

Fig. 2. The Exn.s Beveled 

rubber, which is identical in every way with the tube itself. 

The only way in which a butted joint can be made is to vul- 
canize the tube while it is circular, and as it would be when in- 
flated, and this is done on a special splicer. Following are the 
instructions for making jointless splices. 

Trim both ends of the tube, taking care to press the sides to- 
gether as_ shown in Fig. 1. This will preserve the curved shape 
of the tube. 


I'll.. ,v b n - i. . . ■ i Ji ' ' , I h I M I- l-\ !■ \ :■. Ml u 

Tievel both ends with small shears, giving a good broad bevel, 
and mark the ends where thev should meet. See dotted line in 
Fig. 2. 

Fold back one end of the tube for 12 inches and fold back 
again for 2 inches, making a double fold as in Fig. 3. Press the 

' Trom "The Complete Guide to Tyre Repairing." Harvey Frost & Co., 
3-imited, London, England. 

tube through the opening at the side of the expanding mandrel, 
and replace the covering shield. Push the mandrel into the fold- 
ed part of the tube, as shown by direction of the arrow, until 
only about J/j-inch of the mandrel remains outside. The correct 
position is shown in the ne.xt illustration. The wedge-shaped 
opening in the mandrel must be the part exposed. 

Now bring the other end of the tube over the folded-back por- 
tion until the two ends almost meet and form a V-shaped groove 
between them. Care must be taken that the tube is not twisted. 
See Fig. 4. 

Fit the wedge in the slot and push it until the tube is held 
tightly "n tbo mandrel. Then rasp the hnvclcd ends. The 


Fig. 4. iiiiikk F.n'd I\1-;.\I)V to Ijh I'illkh ux l'_\r,\MiKK 

knife-shaped rasp is best used for this operation, and a piece 
of old rubber should be placed inside to protect the inner part 
of the tube. This stage is shown in Fig. 5 and the protecting 
piece of rubber is marked "X." The rasping is an important 
operation, and should be done thoroughly and carefully. 

Apply two coats of Plastene-Safiu.x, allowing each coat to 
dry separately. Then remove the protecting piece of rubber and 
adjust the two ends of the tube until they are 1/16-inch apart, 
bill in the groove with Plastene as follows : cut a narrow strip 
of this material and lay it evenly at the bottom of the groove 

Fig. 5. Rasping the Beveled Ends 

all around the splice ; then a slightly wider strip on top, and so 
on until the place is well tilled. 

The subsequent operations of pressing down, rolling, and trim- 
ming are the same as in ordinary tube repairs, but care must be 



.Sr\(i, i- 

taken that the new material is pressed tirmly and evenly to the 
beveled sides, and that the depth of the new rubber corresponds 
to the thickness of the tube. -Apply two coats of red paint, al- 

November 1, 1920 



lowing each coat to dry seiiaratcly, and the splice will then be 
ready for vulcanizing. Refer to Kig. 6. 

Pull out the wedge and wrap a piece of face cloth, slightly 
damped and chalked, all round the splice. The cloth must be 
placed evenly in position and have no creases. Remove the key 
from the splicing mold and pass tl:e tube through the slot as in 
Fig. 7. Replace the key and fix the tube in the center of the 
mold. Then put back the wedge and push ii in until close 
contact is secured between the sphcc and the mold. If it does 
not lit closely, liners should be used to secure close contact. Fig. 
8 shows this stage, and the splicer ready for attaching to the 
vulcanizing plant. 

Let steam into the mold and then open the pet-cocks for a 
moment to blow out air and condensed steam. Then close the 
pet-cocks — keeping the main valve open — and lime the repair. 

Fig. 7. Fitting in the Mold 

The pet-cocks should be opened again for a moment after an 
interval of five minutes. 

At the expiration of the correct period the steam valve should 
be closed, the pet-cocks opened, and the splicer detached from 
the plant. Remove the mold key, pass the tube through the 

Fig S. Rk \n\ n 



slot, and then, by pulling out the wedge, the mandrel will ])e 
contracted and can be separated from the tube. The repair is 
then completed. 

At the end of every 2,500 miles' service, a tire should be 
deflated, dismounted, soapstone and grit removed, and the inside 
of the casing washed with gasoline, .'\fter drying, the inside 
should be dusted with talc, the tire mounted and the tube charged 
with fresh air. 

During this operation a close inspection should be made of the 
tread for cuts and fragments of glass, and the rims should be 
cleaned of rust and painted. — Miller News Service. 


AMONG the many uses for india rubber, those that apply 
to modern railroad transportation are of great importance in 
the economical welfare of the countrj'. In fact rubber today is 
nearly as essential to the successful operation of railroad trains 
as coal to create steam and motive power, the steel rails and 
the material from which locomotives and coaches themselves 
are manufactured. 

Because of its popular use in the form of tires, we are per- 
haps accustomed to think of rubber as primarily essential only 
to motoring. We fully appreciate just how essential rubber is 
to civilization only when we can see its uses and applications 
with our own eyes, and perhaps there isn't one in a hundred who 
aiipreciates just how essentia! rubber in its various forms is 
to the successful operation of a railroad train, nor how many 
separate functions it performs. 

Take the brakes, for instance. In the olden days before all 
tlie various possibilities of harnessed steam were known to the 
engineering world, coaches had to be checked in their speed by 
individual manipulation of hand-operated brakes on each coach. 
This prevented the engineer attaining any great speed, for should 
any emergency arise necessitating the quick stopping of the train, 
it was impossible to operate all brakes simultaneously, or to 
stop all coaches without their piling up in a heap. But now, 
thanks to rubber and air, a train of a dozen passenger and Pull- 
man coaches, or of more than a score of heavily loaded freight 
cars, can be brought to an easy stop by a lever in the engineer's 
cab. Thanks also to rubber, it is now possible to convey the 
exhaust steam and heat from the locomotive boilers, through 
pipes and radiators in every coach. 

Rubber is also responsible for the discard of the old gas- 
lighted passenger coaches, and their being replaced by the more 
modern coaches equipped with storage batteries and electric 

The matter of safety is a mighty important factor. Modern 
steam transportation has come to be the world asset that it is, 
not only because of its celerity in covering great distances and 
in bridging continents, but because of the comparative immunity 
from danger that this form of travel affords. .■\nd safety in rail- 
road transportation depends preponderately upon rubber. The 
air brake is comparatively simple in operation, yet without rub- 
ber never could have been applied to railroad trains, for two 
specially constructed, multiple-ply pieces of rubber hose form 
the connecting link of compressed air pipes and cylinders between 
coaches. With trains swinging around curves and swaying as 
they speed along it would be impossible to effect ihe car union 
of brakes with metal piping. 

Air signal hose also connects all coaches of a passenger train, 
enabling the conductor or trainman to signal the engineer from 
any part of the train. Sleam-hcat hose lengths also connect 
passenger coaches with the engine, the exhaust steam and heat 
from the boilers being forced through the runner connections and 
through radiators in each coach. 

That makes six pieces of hose to every passenger or rulhnan 
coach — two 22-inch lengths of air-brake hose, two 22-inch lengths 
of air-signal hose, and two 24 or 2S-inch lengths of steam-heat 
hose. Air-brake hose is also a necessary equipment on all freight 
cars, there being two lengths to every car. 

Latest available statistics show approximately 2,500,000 freight 
cars rolling in the United States, about 60,000 passenger coaches 
and at least 10,000 Pullman sleeping and parlor cars. That 
means a total of 2,570,000 cars and coaches, each equipped with 
two pieces of 22-inch air-brake hose. Thus, the air-brake hose 
equipment in the United States today consists of 5,140,000 

'By Ralpli C. Ilufljey, Goodyear News Service. 



November 1, 1920 

lengllis. Kacli hose is replaced every six months, making 10,- 
280,000 pieces of air-brake hose necessary everj- year. Each 
piece being 22 inches long, this means a total of 226,160,000 
inches of air-brake hose or exactly 3,570 miles. In other words, 
if all the air-brake hose used in the United States in a year's 
time could be stretched out, with the individual pieces placed 

material. To compute the square loot area of rubber tiling floor 
and step treading and rubberized curtain material used on railroad 
trains in America would mount into figures seemingly incon- 

And back behind the scenes of railroad transportation we find 
numerous other uses for rubber. In the round-house, for in- 

cn <ii /Cii ^^ ^^ i^Ti^Ti iCi ^:^ c:^ 




E — Tender hose 

F — Rubber floor treads and tiling 

G — Rubber step treads 

Goodyear News Service 

A — Air-signal hose 

B — Steam-heat hose 

C — Air-brake hose 

D — Generator axle-lighting belt 

end to end, it would reach across the vast American continent, 
from Portland. Maine, to Portland, Oregon. 

On each of the 70,000 passenger and Pullman coaches there 
are also two lengths of air-signal hose and two lengths of steam- 
heat hose. Figuring four such lengths to a coach, and replace- 
ment of all hose equipment twice a year, it would take approxi- 
mately 200 miles of such hose to meet the American railroads' 
needs every year. Added to the 3,570 miles of air-brake hose 
already computed, we have the amazing total of 3,770 miles of 
hose used every year — enough to make a solid line hurdling the 
ocean and readiing from New York to Gibraltar. 

The air-brake hose is of uniform size, measuring one and 
three-eighths inches in diameter. The steam-heat hose is of 
slightly larger size, ranging from one and three-quarters to one 
and five-eighths inches in diameter, while the air-signal hose is 
one and one-eighth inches in diameter. These dififerences in 
size are important, for the three pieces of hose hang together 
from the end of each coach, and the brakeman making train 
connections can detect each hose instantly by its size and special 
branding, and can effect the coupling without confusion. 

Modern passenger coaches are equipped with electric lights and 
large storage batteries in which hard rubber is largely used. 
These are recharged by means of a dynamo beneath the car 
body, the dynamo being operated and electricity generated by 
means of a rubberized fabric belt connected with the axle of 
one truck. Thus with the train speeding along at 60 miles an 
hour, the generator axle-lighting belt keeps the batteries well 
charged. A four-ply belt is used, six inches wide and 10 feet 
long. The average life of a belt is 25,000 miles, but in winter 
with trains encountering ice and snow, coaches in swinging 
around curves frequently throw the belts and lose them. This 
means a heavy replacement of belts every year. But figuring 
one ten-foot belt to every one of 70,000 coaches, it takes 700,000 
feet of such belt, or 135 miles, for original equipment. To figure 
the total amount of belting including replacements would be 
practically impossible. 

Every locomotive must have two lengths of tender hose con- 
necting with the tender, to syphon water into the boilers. 
This hose varies in size from a diameter of two and one-half 
inches to three and one-half inches, and varies in length from 
36 to 72 inches. Each locomotive also has what is known as a 
squirt hose, connecting the engine-man's cab and the tender. 

On locomotives, also, rubber packing of special make is used 
for cylinder-head packing and air-pump packing, while the gage- 
glass gaskets in the engine-man's cab are of rubber.' Going back 
through the train we find rubber floor treads and step treads 
used on the steps and in the vestibules of coaches, with rubber 
tiling used in many passenger coaches and Pullmans as flooring 

Showing Uses of Rubber in Railroad Practice 

H — Rubber vestibule curtains 
I— Rubber window curtains 
J — Cylinder-head packing 

K — Air pump packing 
L — Gage glass gaskets 
M — Squirt hose 

Stance, we find "blow-off" hose used to remove water and steam 
from engine boilers. Then there is a specially designed "wash- 
out hose" equipment for cleaning boilers, also "fill-up" hose, 
engine-washing hose, steam and water hose and pneumatic tool 
hose, all used every day in the year in hundreds of round-houses. 
AW these various type of hose are maimfactured according to 
master car-builders' specifications. Needless to say, the best of 
materials and the best of workmanship available are necessary 
to the successful manufacture of such rubber equipment for the 
railroads, for the safety and comfort of railroad travel today 
depend very largely upon rubber. 


MORE high explosives are used in pursuing the arts of peace 
than in times of war. The modern farmer would scarcely know 
how to get along without them. They do the work of the hired 
man who used to toil patiently roofing out stumps, digging ditches 
and drains and holes for posts and for young orchard trees. 

Urrciih-! I'v-Micr L. 



Dj'namite does all these things for the farmer nowadays — what 
would he do without its willing power in these times of high- 
priced farm labor? It never strikes, never takes holidays, and 
never objects to working overtime. .'\nd even the poorest farmer 





can avail himself of its aid because of its low cost. India rubber 
has much to do with that, although this fact is seldom realized. 
The use of rubber in the manufacture of high explosives has 
lessened the attendant dangers to the point where their manu- 
facture is' no more costly than that of commodities with no 
potentialities of destruction. Personal danger has been reduced 
to a minimum and the lives of the workmen guarded by the use 
of india rubber. Not an explosive itself, and not even a com- 
ponent ingredient of one, it is safe to say that without the assist- 
ance of rubber no explosive could be manufactured. 

Dynamite was invented in 1866 by Nobel, a Swedish engineer, 
and has proven men's greatest ally in his fight to conquer the 
earth. It wages ceaseless warfare against the forces of Nature, 
blasting out channels for commerce and transportation, breaking 
down natural barriers that check commercial intercourse, laying 
bare hidden stores of precious metals, minerals and oil, and re- 
claiming for agricultural use desert and swamp land alike. 

-Many persons who habitually employ dynamite in their daily 
activities are but hazily aware of its content and totally unin- 
formed as to the of its manufacture. They know that 
nitroglycerine, which it contains, is very dangerous to handle but 
that dynamite is comparatively safe. Nobel's process was to in- 
corporate nitroglycerine with a kind of infusorial earth. Modern 
practise has substituted active absorbents containing nitrates of 
soda, nitrate of ammonia, wood pulp, etc., which assist in the 
explosion instead of he'ins absorbents only. 

Nitroglycerine is made by adding slowly a comparatively pure 
glycerine to a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acids in a steel 
tank with a brine coil around its outer edge to remove the heat 
generated. This is called a nitrator, and the contents are slowly 
agitated by means of mechanically driven paddles. After all the 
glycerine is added the mixture is let into a lead tank and allowed 
to stand until the nitroglycerine rises to the top. This is drawn 
off to a tank of warm water where it is washed free from acid, 
afterwards receiving a final wash with soda ash solution to re- 
move the last trace of acid. During all these operations the 

Hercules Powder Co. 


TO Mixer 

hands and feet of the workmen are protected from acid burns 
and toxic absorptions by rubber gloves and boots, and rubber 
hose is used extensively. The pure nitroglycerine is then con- 
veyed to the storehouses in gutters which are lined with rubber 
to facilitate gentle handling. 

The absorbent material, technically known as dope, is prepared 
by every manufacturer of explosives according to formulas 

worked out by his chemists. It is taken to the mixing house in 
fiber barrels, and the greatest care is required in handling nitro- 
glycerine on its way to the mixing house. The nitroglycerine 
wheeler uses a copper-lined, rubber-tired buggy for his precious 
charge. He owes not only his own safety but that of the entire 
plant to the resilient qualities of india rubber. No one disputes 
his right of way. A smooth plank walk is constructed especially 

Herattes Powder Co. 

The He.wy Wheels of the Mixer Are Shod with Hard Rubber 

for his use. At one end he fills the buggy from the storehouse. 
At the other end he transfers the nitroglycerine to the mixing 
machine by means of long rubber tubes attached to the buggy. 

The mixing machine is a wooden bowl in which large wooden 
wheels revolve. Here again rubber safeguards the workinen, for 
the wheels are shod with hard rubber, thus allowing no metal in 
contact with the dynamite during the mixing process. Even the 
pulleys that drive the mill are made of wood, lest a bit of rub- 
bing metal produce a disastrous spark. Five minutes' mixing by 
the rubber-tired wheels is sufficient. The loose dynamite is re- 
moved by wooden shovels into wooden tubs, thence to the pack- 
ing machine, where it is packed into paraffined paper shells by 
means of wooden tamps tipped with rubber, a great improvement 
over the dangerous old-time hand operation of filling each shell 
through a funnel. 

The dynamite cartridges are placed in paraffine-paper lined 
boxes containing a small amount of sawdust to lessen shocks 
and the covers nailed on. This is the final step in the manu- 
facture of the explosive, which is then stored in an isolated 
magazine until shipped. 

Gelatine dyn.imite was invented to fill the demand for an ex- 
plosive that would resist the action of water. It is a jelly-like 
substance and is produced by the addition of small amounts of 
nitro cotton to the mi.xture of nitroglycerine and absorbents. 
Rubber contributes to safety in gelatine dynamite manufacture in 
the same manner as in making ordinary dynamite. Rubber 
gloves, boots and aprons are worn by the workmen and rubber 
hose and tubing are largely used. 

The extent to which tires are used west of the Rockif.s ts 
fairly reflected in the registration of automobiles in eleven West- 
ern States for the year 1920 up to July 1. The figures show that 
California had 421,327, Washington 143,561, Colorado 111,907, 
Oregon 89,933, Montana 52,100, Idaho 46,360, Utah 37,261, Ari- 
zona 29.803, Wyoming 21,250, New Mexico 20,300. Nevada 9,383. 



November 1, 1920 

Activities of The Rubber Association of America 


A MEETING of the Executive Committee ul the Merhaiiical Rub- 
ber Goods Manufacturers' Division was held in New York 
City on October 19, at which trade conditions in general 
were discussed. 

The Specification Committee of the Mechanical Rubber Goods 
Manufacturers' Division met in the Association rooms on Octo- 
ber 26, when a conference was held with a committee appointed 
by the American Railroad Association to confer on subjects of 
mutual interest to both railroads and manufacturers in connection 
with specifications for the mechanical rubber goods which are 
used by the carriers. 

A most interesting meeting of the E.xccutive Committee of the 
Tire Manufacturers' Division was held in the .Association rooms 
October 20, when many matters of importance to the tire industry 
were given consideration. Among the most important of the 
conclusions reached was the decision to have the .Association 
gather statistics on a monthly basis from members of the Division 
with respect to the inventory, production and shipments of auto- 
mobile tires and tubes and the consumption of crude rubber and 
fabric in that production. Consideration was also given to the 
proposed organization of a foreign trade department as an ad- 
junct to the Association and to the work which might be done by 
that department on subjects of interest to tire manufacturers, 
notably the promotion of the straight side tire equipment in 
foreign markets. 

It was arranged also to appoint a sub-committee of the Tire 
Manufacturers' Division comprised of advertising or publicity 
representatives of several members to give attention to matters 
of an advertising or publicity nature for the Association. It was 
also recommended that a special committee of the Division be 
established comprised entirely of those manufacturers engaged in 
making bicycle tires, in order that due consideration might be 
given to the problems which are of particular interest to those 


Members will recall that in 1919 the Federal Trade Commis- 
sion initiated investigation proceedings for the purpose of securing 
definite information regarding the practice of protecting customers 
against decline in manufacturers' prices. The Commission, there- 
fore, invited all of the important industries in the country to 
inform it of the manner in which they applied this practice, if at 
all, and the particular reasons and conditions which made the 
practice desirable or undesirable from the standpoint of the man- 
ufacturer, wholesaler, dealer and consumer. 

The two divisions of this Association which are most vitally 
interested in this practice are the Footwear Division and the Tire 
Manufacturers' Division, although the practice extends to other 
specific articles manufactured by the members, namely, clothing, 
garden hose and possibly one or two others. 

A large majority of the members of the Footwear and Tire 
Divisions responded to the questionnaires submitted to them and a 
compilation of the facts and views of the members regarding con- 
tinuance of the present practice was prepared. This was presented 
to the Federal Trade Commission August 27, with request for 
permission to appear at the Trade Practice Submittal held Octo- 
ber 5. 

A joint sub-committee representing both the Tire Manufac- 
turers' and Footwear Divisions attended this meeting, which oc- 
cupied all of October S and 6. The first day of the hearit.g was 
taken up almost entirely with arguments from those opposed to 
the practice of protecting customers against decline in prices. 
Most of the industries represented by those speaking against the 
practice do not employ it now and their arguments as to unfair- 

ness were based largely upon what 'would occur if the practice 
were introduced into those industries. No facts were shown indi- 
cating that any unfairness had actually resulted from the use of 
this practice. 

During the second day of the hearing representatives of this 
.Association explained to the Commission the very seasonal na- 
ture of the footwear business and the tire business and set forth 
the various reasons why this practice of protecting against price 
decline should be continued. With relation to tires the practice 
may be divided into two classes, first, the protection as applied to 
spring dating business and, second, protection as applied to cur- 
rent business. The answers to the questionnaire submitted to the 
members of the Tire Manufacturers' Division showed that an 
overwhelming majority of the members favored the continuance 
of this practice with relation to spring dating business. 

At the conclusion of the hearing the chairman stated that the 
Commission had not yet decided what procedure it would follow, 
but intimated that it might possibly issue some statement with 
regard to this practice after a full examination of the informa- 
tion which it had gathered, or it might use this information merely 
as a guide in the case of any specific complaints which might 
hereafter be considered by it in relation to this practice. 

It is the opinion of counsel for the .Association that unless and 
until the Federal Trade Commission issues a definite order direct- 
ing manufacturers of rubber goods to cease the practice of pro- 
tecting their customers against price decline such manufacturers 
will be warranted in continuing this practice, if they so desire. 


Number of firms to whom questionnaires were sent 283 

Number of firms responding 167 

Number of firms reporting statistics 160 

Average Total Daily Number of Employes, 177,333 





by Manu- 


Used per 



Pound of 

Whn Al^o 





Total Produced 

Reclaimed rubber produced 


from raw and. cured 

scrap pound.^ 62.010,311 



Scrap rubber (includint; 

M lb., S 02. 

raw and cured scrrn) con- 

sumed in production of 

reclaimed rubber. ^o»tiJ.v 79,107,432 


230,985,246 J 

Number of Pounds of Crude Rubber Consumed in the Manufacture op 

Rubber Products and Total S.« Value of Shipments of 

Manufactured Rubber Products 

Total Sales Value 

.\uniber of 
Pounds Crude 
Product Rubber Consumed 

Tires and tire sundries: 

Automobile and motor truck casin.cs 240.904.417 

Automobde .ind motor truck tubes 54.025.307 

Solid tires 27.989,361 

Otlier tires and tire sundries 14,472,416 

"Total — Tires and tire sundries 338.521.064 

Other rubber products: „ ,., 

Mechanical Roods r'-^lol:;'; 

Boots and shoes ??-9?^'sS; 

Other products ' 4.646,895 

•Total -Other rubber products 67,712,158 

of Shipments 
of Manufactured 
Rubber Products 




Grand tr tal— All produr-ts... 406,231,563 


• Note— It should be noted that the abcvc tot.ils of 'Tires .and tire sun- 
dries" and "Other rubber products" include some figures which arc not 
shown under the various ite:nr,. which is due to the fact that some of the 
reports received were not itemized. 

November 1, 1920 


THE first look tells the smarter, 
more graceful difference of 
Silvertown Cords; the first ride, 
their easier-running difference-, the 
first check-up on mileage, their 
lower-cost difference. 


cAmericas First Cord Tire 

T/je Goodrich JIdfustment "Basis: Silvertown Corcfs^ 8000 3files ; FabricTires, booo 3files 



XOVWIBER 1, 1920 

In our Gear Cutting Department we have the latest and 
most modern gear cutting machines and can furnish gears of any 
material, in — bevels, spurs, worm, sprockets, and motor pinions, 
etc. We guarantee accurate gear cutting, and have as our regular 
customers, Goodrich, Goodyear, Firestone, Miller and in fact 
every rubber factory in the Akron Rubber District. 

In our Core and Mold Department we design and build a 
complete line of Cores and Molds for fabric and cord tires. 

We would be pleased to see you at our factory or hear from 
you by mail. 

/^o Tin: Akron Gear ^Engineering Co. ^^^ 

VJW^^-., COR. SOUTH ^v^. „ HKJH «TS. '^V&l'^ 

^ ^KLI^OIV, OHIO, U.S.A.. S 

November 1, 1920 



News of the American Rubber Industry 


THt American Chicle Co., New York City, has declared a 
dividend of $1 per share, payable N'ovember 1 on its non-par 
value common stock of record October 20, 1920. 

The American Wringer Co., Woonsocket, Rliode Island, re- 
cently declared its quarterly dividend of $1.75 per share, payable 
October 15 on preferred stock of record September 30, 1920. 

The American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co., New York City and 
St. Louis, Missouri, has declared its regular quarterly dividend 
of $1.50 per share, payable November 1 on its preferred stock of 
record October 15, 1920. 

The Dayton Rubber ManufoCluring Co., Dayton, Ohio, recent- 
ly declared its 26th consecutive dividend of seven per cent, 
payable October 1, 1920. 

The Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, recently de- 
clared a quarterly dividend of one and one-half per cent, payable 
October 15 on its six per cent preferred stock of record October 
1, 1920. 

The General Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, recently de- 
clared its regular quarterly dividend of one and three-quarters 
per cent, payable October 1 on preferred stock of record Septem- 
ber 20; it has also declared a dividend of four per cent, payable 
November 1 on common stock of record October 20, 1920. 

The Hodgman Kubber Co., Tuckahoe, New York, has declared 
its quarterly dividend of two per cent, payable November 1 on 
preferred stock of record October 15, 1920. 

The Kelly-Springfield Tire Co., New York City, has declared 
the following dividends : quarterly, $1 per share, and a three per 
cent stock dividend, both payable November 1 on common stock 
of record November 15; quarterly, $2 per share, payable Novem- 
ber 15 on eight per cent preferred stock of record November 1, 

The Lee Rubber & Tire Corporation, Conshohocken, Penn- 
sylvania, has declared a quarterly dividend of fifty cents per share, 
payable December 1 on capital stock of record November IS, 1920. 

The Manufactured Rubber Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, re- 
cently declared its quarterly dividend of one and one-half per 
cent, payable October 14 on preferred stock of record October 9, 

The O'Banncn Corporation, New York City, recently declared 
its regular semi-annual dividend of three and one-half per cent, 
payable October 1 on preferred stock of record September 25, 

Tlie Sterling Tire Corporation, Rutherford, New Jersey, re- 
cently declared the following dividends : one per cent, quarterly, 
on common stock ; one and three-quarters per cent, quarterly, on 
seven per cent preferred stock ; and two per cent, quarterly, on 
Series B preferred stock ; all payable October 20 on stock 
of record September 30, 1920. 

The Tyer Rubber Co., Andover, Massachusetts, paid its regular 
quarterly dividend of $1.50 per share on common stock, October 
15, 1920. 

The United States Rubber Co., New York City, recently de- 
clared quarterly dividends of two per cent, payable October 15 
on both common and first preferred stock of record October 30, 

The Van der Linde Rubber Co., Limited, Toronto, Ontario, 
has declared its regular semi-annual dividend of seven per cent. 

The Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., Akron, Ohio, recently de- 
clared its fifty-ninth quarterly dividend of one and three-quarters 
per cent on preferred stock. On account of contracts for car 

(hunpcrs, lloating cranes, and rubber machinery, totaling about 
#1.500.000 and requiring considerable capital, the usual cash divi- 
dend on common stock was deferred and instead a ten per cent 
dividend to be charged to accumulated surplus was voted, payable 
t)ctober 15 to stock of record September 28, 1920. 

The Wcstinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., East Pitts- 
Inirgh, Pennsylvania, recently declared quarterly dividends of 
two per cent ($1 per share), payable October 15 on preferred 
stock and October 30 on common stock; both on stock of record 
September 30, 1920. 


Colonel Samuel P. Colt, chairman of the board of directors of 
tlic United States Rubber Co., denies the reports that his com- 
pany will require new financing before January 1. He calls atten- 
tion to the fact that the business of the United States Rubber 
Co. is well balanced between footwear, tires and mechanical 
goods, the former being its largest product, and tires being about 
one-third of its total production. He stated that there had been 
no falling off in the volume of the company's sales taken as a 

A $500,000 issue of 7 per cent cumulative preferred stock has 
recently been announced by the Converse Rubber Shoe Co., 
Maiden, Massachusetts. This is the first block to be sold from 
the last authorized increase of $2,000,000 in the company's capitali- 

Tlie Falls Rubber Co., Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, increased its 
authorized capital stock $1,500,000 on October 1, giving the com- 
pany an authorized capital of $2,500,000, all common stock. 

The following is the statement of Boston Woven Hose & Rub- 
lier Co., Boston, Massachusetts, as of September 1, 1920. 



Office furniture . . . . 
l.and and buildings 
Less depreciation 

Machinery and tools $2,325,961.74 

Less depreciation 1,256,940.37 




Cafeteria fixtures 

Cash $465,215.18 

Accounts receivable 1,791,264.77 

Notes receivable 16. 392.00 

Merchandise inventory 4,926,299.26 

Notes receivable — Employees* stock subscriptions 

Liberty Bonds 

Capital stock, preferred 
Capital stock, common . 

Loans, bills payable . . . . 
Loans, Liberty Bonds . . 

Accounts payable 

Accrued wages 












A group of New York and Chicago bankers has advanced a 
substantial sum to The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. and fur- 
ther amounts will be provided as required. Goodyear business 
continues on an even keel, showing sales for the first 26 days of 
September in excess of $14,000,000. With the fiscal year ending 
October 31 sales to date exceed $195,000,000, and will thus go 
far above $200,000,000 for the year, as compared with slightly 
over $167,000,000 last year. 

It is reported that The Perfection Tire & Rubber Co. will issue 
$1,000,000 8 per cent gold notes for one year to be dated October 



November 1, 1920 

1, 1920, secured by a trust deed on the company's plant at Fort 
Madison, Iowa, the funds to be used for expansion purposes. 

The Republic Rubber Corporation has reduced its indebtedness 
about S4.CHX),000 in the past three months. On September 30 the 
indebtedness was $2,600,000 compared with $6,443,991 as of June 
30. Inventory on hand and in transit shows about $5,000,000 as 
against $8,972,456 on June 30. 

The National .Aniline & Chemical Co., Inc., New York City, 
has increased the common shares of its stock to 554,386 and 
the capital to $26,296,630. 


I IrroBER .',\ 19.'0 

High Low 

Aja.\ Rubber Co., Inc 41 40>4 

The Fisk Rubber Co 20H ZO'4 

The B. r. C.oodrich Co : 50H 48^^! 

The B. F. Goodrich Co., pfd 84 81 

Kelly-Sprinfficid Tire Co SS'A 51}^ 

Kellv-Springfield Tire Co., pfd 9\'A 9\'A 

Ke\ stone T. & R. Co., Inc 15!^ 14!4 

Lee R. & T. Corp lOH 20^4 

United States Rubber Co 77M '%'/, 

•United .States Rubber Co., pfd 106;4 105 










The following quolatirns on the Cleveland Stock F.xcliange. October 

19, of stock of the principal rubber companies were supplied by Otis & Co., 
Cuyahoga Uuilding, Cleveland, Ohio: 


Sale Bid Asked 

Fire.'iione T. & R. Co 106 lOS 

Firestone T. & K. Co., 1st pfd 88^ 88!^ 90 

Firestone T. & K. Co.. 2d pfd Si'A 

General T. & R. Co., pfd 102 ... 102}4 

The B. F. Goodrich Co 5254 

The B. F. Goodrich Cc, pfd 84K .•• SS!4 

The Goodvear T. & R. Co 70 6554 67VS 

The Goodvear T. & R. Co., 1st pfd 774^ 75 77 

Kellv.SoringficId T. & K. Co 156i^ 

KellvSprinsfield T. & R. Co., pfd 120 

The' Miller Rubber Co 115 ... 112 

Portage Rubber Co 45 ... 50 

Portage Rubber Co., pfd (0 62!/$ 67 

Star Rubber Co 350Ji 

Sw.nehart T. S R. Co 80 

\'icior Rubber Co 22 ... 24 


American Insulator Corp., The. September 17 (Massachusetts), $1,000,000. 
E. L. Clarke, J Wilshire street; V. M. Kempton, Marshall street, both of 
Winthrop: G, C. Cutler, Jr.. Heath street. Brookline — both in Massachusetts. 
Principal office, Boston, Niassachusetts. To manufacture and deal in plastic 
aiu' other materials for insulation, heat resisting and otlier purposes. 

.\|iex Tire & Rubber Co., October 15 (Delaware), 11,000.000. M. E. F. 
Hawkins; W. 1-. lourdan; E. E. Borton — all of Wilmington, Delaware. To 
manufacture tirjs. 

.\rmstrong Tire & Supply Co.. September 20 (Delaware). $225,000. F. R. 
Hansell; J. \'. Pimm; E. M. MacFarland — all of Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. 

Hrix Rubber Cement Co., Inc., September 23 (New York). $10,000. L. 
Knapp, 33 Jackson avenue; T. Brix. 2349 Second avenue; .M. Streeve, 153 
Ninth street — all of Long Island City, Xew York. To manufacture rubber 
cement, tires, etc. 

Brock Co., The, September 22 (Massachusetts), $40,000. V. M. Hanson, 
Saugus; L. M. .Marsh. Roslindale; A. M. Monahan, Bosti.n — all in Massa- 
chusetts. Principal office, Boston, Massachusetts. To manufacture and 
deal in rubber goods. 

Cbalfin S: Co., Inc.. Joseph, September 25 (New York), $1,500. J. and F. 
Ch.nlfin, both of 795 Crotona Park North, Bronx; I. Bromberg, 396 Christo- 
pher avenue, Brooklyn — both in New York. To do a general rubber busi- 

Crescent Tire & Rubber Co., September 28 (Delaware), $100.(J00. M. L. 
Rogers: >I. M. Nicholson; W. G. Singer — all of Wilmington, Helaware. 

Dun-Pen Co.. October 18 (Delaware), $21,000,000. T, L. Croteau; M. A. 
Bruce: S. K. Dill — all of Wilmington. Delaware. To manufacture fountain 
or stviographic pens. . 

F.wing Rubber Co.. September 29 (New Jersey), $100,000. A. F. Updike; 
J. Schultz; .\. Emrick — all of Trenton. New Jersey. Principal office, Homan 
and Hilton avenues. Hillcrest. New Jersey, .^gent in charge. E. F. Updike. 
To manufacture, buv. sell and deal in all kinds of rubber goods. 

General Tire Sales Co.. October 6 (Delaware). $550,000. M. L. Rogers; 
M. M. Nichols; AV. G. Singer — all of Wilmington, Delaware. To deal in 
automobiles and automobile tires. 

Gove Si Co.. Inc.. Scmtraber 21 (.\ew York), $24,000. F. G. G. ve, Jr.: 
W. Liddle. Jr.; F. L. Byrne— 25 Beaver street. New York City. To deal 
in crude rubber. 

Greenpoint Rubber & Metal Corp.. September 24 (New York). $10,000. 
M. Fishman. 18 Franklin street, Brooklyn; P. Fogclman; H. Blum, both of 
299 Broadway. New \'ork City — both in New York. Principal office, Brooklyn, 
New York. To do a rubber and metal business. 

Ilenba Balloon Developing & Transport Co., October 18 (New York), 
$50,000. T. Henha; G. Frey; R. Hyde— all of 9,201 Fort Hamilton avenue, 
Brooklyn. New York. Principal office, Brooklyn. New York. To make air- 
planes, etc. 

Jobum Rubber Corp., September 29 (New York), $5,000. H. Joseph; 
A. M. Burnham; E. Levy — all of 1 Madison avenue. New York City. To 
manufacture rubber, 

Lc-Rex Products Co., The. September 22 (Massachusetts), $25,000. J. S. 
Herrick, 164 Strathmore Road, Brighton; S. Olansky; 3 Westminster Road. 
Roxbur>': NI. H. Wchb. 1340 Cotnmonwcalth avenue, .Mlston — all in Massa- 
chusetts. Principal office, Boston, Massachusetts. To manufacture and sell 
jjruggists* sundries, etc. 

Liberty Rubber & Supply Corp., October 13 (Delaware), $100,000. E. E. 
and F. C. Jeffords, both of Erie, Pennsylvania; C. C. Densford, Buffalo, 
New York. To tleal in tires. 

Lincoln Shoe & Rubber Co.. September 16 (Massachusetts), $50,000. J. 
L. Wiseman. 21 Homestead street; E. Adiow, 35 EIra Hill Park, both of 
Roxbury; Ci. L. Kotzen, 86 Orange street, Chelsea — both in Massachusetts. 
Priitcipal office, Boston, Massachusetts. To buy, sell and deal in shoes, rub- 
bers, etc. 

LittellCoombs Co., Inc., September 28 (New York), $5,000. M. C. 
Coombs, 607 East 29th street; F. G. and I. H. Littell, both of 32 Chester 
Court — both in Brooklyn. New York. Principal office, Brooklyn, New York. 
To manufacture rubber goods. 

.Mathey Brothers, Inc.. September 23 (New York). $15,000. F. A. Mathey, 
president. 506 West 45th street; J. II. Jackson; M. M. Coughlin. both of 
27 William street — both in New York City. Principal office, 506 West 45th 
slreei. New ^'ork City. To sell truck tires. 

National (iasoline Hose Co., Inc., October 5 (New York), $1,000. I. E. 
Maginn; J. R. Cogen ; W. P. Cavanagh — all of 1476 Broadway, New York 
City. To manufacture hose. 

Standard Wire Tire Corp.. September 25 (New York). $100,000. B. J. 
Bowers, 159 Herkimer street; S. S. Shears, 221 Hancock street, both m 
Brooklyn; A. 1.. Chauvet, 51 Hamilton Place, New York City — both in New 
York. To manufacture tires, etc. 

Starbestos Textile Co., September 28 (Massachusetts), $100,000. T. J. G. 
.Armstrong. 37 Partridge avenue. Somerville; M. F. Ford, 47 Water street, 
Hyde Park; G. M. Faulkner. 1870 Commonwealth avenue. Brighton — all in 
Massachusetts. Principal office. Boston. Massachusetts. To manufacture 
and deal in asbestos yarns, brake linings and any and all textiles containing 

Thomas Tire & Rubber Co., The, September 14 (Ohio), $100,000. W. S. 
Thomas, president; G. B. Thomas, vice-president and sales manager; T. 
Richards, treasurer; M. S. Lower, general manager; L. H. Jones, secretary. 
Principal office, Millersburg, Ohio. To manufacture pneumatic automobile 

Thrift Garter Co.. October 4 (New York). $20,000. C. Cohen; M. L. 
Blumberg; H. Miller — all of 546 West 146th street. New Y'ork City. 

Tireheal Manufacturing Co., Inc.. October 6 (New York), $150,000. R. H. 
Raphael; J. Leiman; S. Schnaps — all of 2 Rector street. New York City. To 
repair tires. 

Tompkins Rubber Manufacturing Co., October 16 (Delaware), $300,000. 
E. E. Tompkins. Narberth; J. M. Stitzer; T. E. Montgomery, both of Phila- 
delphia — both in Pennsylvania. 

Union County Tire & Rubber Co.. October 1 (New Jersey). $100,000. 
T. -A. Kelly. 17 Nutman Place. West Orange; D. Seaman, 798 Hunterdon 
street, Newark, both in New Jersey; J. Berkelbamer. 34 Lander street. New- 
burgh. New York. Principal office. 2 South Broad street, Elizabeth, New 
Jersey, .-\gent in charge. .\. G. Weinberg. To buy, sell, import, export, 
trade' and generally deal in tires and all rubber articles. 

L'nited Process Co.. Inc.. September 24 (New York), $10,000. I. Gold- 
farb, 134 West 26th street; D. W. and R. Goldfarb, both of 953 Simpson 
street, Bronx — both in New York City. To manufacture raincoats. 

United Tire Stores of Buffalo, September 25 (Delaware). $250,000. W. A. 
Mc(.oy. Pittsburph. Pennsylvania; W. 1. N. Lofland and F. M. Jackson, 
both of Dover, Delaware. 

Considerable speculation has been aroused as to why the plant 
of the Dunlop Tire & Rubber Corporation of .America was lo- 

The Dunlop Corporation Has PuBciiASFn Land Extending to the 

Niagara River That Provides an Abundant Supply of Water and 

Affords a Cr)NVENiENT Location for Docking Facilities 

rated at Buffalo. The accompanying map will give a more exact 
idea of just where the Dunlop factory is and also illustrates some 
of the reasons why it is there. Two facts are quite evident from 

November 1, 1920 



this map, one being the large number of railways entering the 
city, and the other that the Dunlop plant is not only on one of 
the main rail routes but also on what is destined to be a great 
water highway as well. 

There are some fourteen lines of railroads operating into Buf- 
falo and half the population of the United States lives within a 
circle whose center is Buffalo and whose radius is one night's 
journey by rail. Buffalo is within easy access of power, fuel, and 
markets, including Xew York City, our greatest port of entry 
and the largest rubber importing port as well. Therefore, after 
the analysis of a broad survey the company decided that out of 
twenty different possible locations Buffalo had more points of 
advantage for an automobile tire manufacturer than any other 

The factory is situated in the town of Tonawanda, one mile 
north of the Buffalo city limits on River road, which runs par- 
allel with Niagara River, being separated from it by the Erie 
canal and a strip of foreshore. The company has acquired land 
fronting on the river, which will give access to wharves, so that 
advantage can be taken of any new developments in water trans- 
portation. Plans are in prospect which may ultimately make all 
of our Great Lakes cities ports of entrance and exit for ocean- 
borne commerce, and there is the practical certainty of water 
transportation to Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, and New York, 
which are all great tire distributing points. 

In view of the large amount of power required in a rubber 
works, it is a point of importance that in Buffalo there are two 
ample sources of power supply, both of which are turned into 
the same mains. • Manufacturers have available the supply from 
the great Niagara Falls plant, as well as the new plant of the 
Buffalo General Electric Co., which was built during the war as 
a war measure and is now proving to be quite as valuable in 
peace times. 


V. G. Thomas, treasurer of L. H. Butcher Co., New York 
City, importer and exporter of minerals, colors, and chemicals 
for the rubber and allied trades, has been elected to membership 
in The Merchants' ."Kssociation. 

E. W. Newell, engineer, Westinghouse Electric & Manufactur- 
ing Co., East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Harry Young 
Stebbins, engineer for The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Detroit, 
Michigan, at Warsaw, Poland, have been elected junior and for- 
eign members, respectively, of the Society of Automotive Engi- 

James H. .Aldred, for a number of years assistant chief chemist 
for the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, has been 
appointed chemist for the Smith Rubber & Tire Co., Inc., Pas- 
saic, New Jersey. 

J. J. Williams has been appointed general production super- 
intendent of The Federal Rubber Co., Cudahy, Wisconsin, effec- 
tive September 1, 1920. 


A country-wide appeal by an executive committee of The Na- 
tional .Association of Credit Men urges a return to solid business 
principles of good sense and honesty in the sale of commodities. 
The cancellation of orders is denounced as a contributing cause 
to business paralysis, responsible for failures of many industrial 
plants, and the return of merchandise is also held an unneces- 
sary waste and one of the abuses that provoke disorders in 

The committee suggests that the liuycr should not be urged to 
purchase beyond his needs, but should be sold in good faith and 
buy in good faith. As the committee sizes up the situation, it 
is time that the entire business community should be controlled 
by a strong business conscience which will not under any circum- 
stances allow actions which violate business decency. 


Ever since The India Rubuer World donated a silver cup to 
the Rubber Industries Athletic League we have watched with 
friendly interest the contests of the baseball clubs for the per- 
manent possession of the trophy. .-Xt the close of the season it 
was announced that the team of the Sterling Tire Corpora- 
tion of Rutherford, New Jersey, has for the second consecutive 
year won the pennant in the Rubber Industries Athletic League. 
The standing of the clubs at the end of the season of 1920 was : 


Won Lost 

Sterling 14 2 

United States 11 4 

Ajax 6 7 

Goodyear 2 12 

Keystone 2 6 

Kelly.Si)ringficld 1 } 

This second victory was especially unusual since the Sterling 
Tire Corporation is probably the smallest of the organizations 
represented in the league and, unlike some of the others, is 
composed entirely of amateurs recruited from the factory. None 
of them had played much more than the normal "open lot" 
games, although their pitcher, Harvey Davis, has been showing 
professional class in winning 34 out of 40 games played during 
the Rubber Industries .Athletic League's two years of existence. 

One somewhat interesting incident in connection with the 
second victory was the fact that one of the Sterling 1919 players, 
to whose work the victory of that year was in some degree at- 
tributed, in 1920 became a member of another club in the league 
Contrary to expectation, this change did not visibly affect the 
work of the Sterling team. 

Sterling B.\se B.'\ll Team and The India Rubber World 
Trophy Cup 

The India Rubber World trophy must be won three times. 
Manager Rourke of the Sterling team announces that his or- 
ganization will be after the third leg on the cup ne.xt season. 

Batting and fielding averages of the champions were as follows: 

Players Position 

J. Kourke 1st li. 

T. i.'alandriello S. S. 

.\. Roaclie t". 

W. Jackson L. I'. 

C. Hess 3dB. 

P. Dittrich C. F. 

W. White R. K. 

II. Davis P. 

T. lirameld 2d R. 

A. Jackson O. F. 

(i. Meany O. F. 

W. .Maikowsky I.I" 












































November 1, 1920 

By Our Regular Correspondent 

THE Staybestos .Manulacturing Co., iS22 Lena street, German- 
town, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, has purchased a lot at 
Germantown avenue, Apsley and Berkley streets, on which a fac- 
tory is in course of erection which it is expected 'will be finished 
about the first of the year. The new building will be occupied by 
the Staybestos Manufacturing Co. and the National .'\sbestos Co., 
separate concerns but financed by the same people. The National 
company manufactures woven aslie.stos products which are sold 
in the untreated state in which they come from the looms, while 
the Staybestos company manufactures brake linings and other 
asbestos products for the automobile industry. 


The Ackurate Rubber Co., Inc., 253 Broadway, New York 
City, recently incorporated in New Jersey for the manufacture 
of insulating tapes, compounds, etc., has already put on the 
market its "Ackerman" friction tape, in novel paper cartons. 
The New York trade is being handled direct and agencies in 
the principal cities of the United States will be established. 

The Edward A. Cassidy Co., 23-31 West 43d street. New York 
City, is the sales division of The Sterling Varnish Co., Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, which manufactures "Nitrex," a substance 
for painting spare tires to prevent oxidation and the collection 
of rust on tire rims. This specialty was described in our Janu- 
ary issue. 

The Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., E. Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania, has acquired control of the International 
Radio Telegraph Co., 326 Broadway, New York City, an op- 
erating organization engaged in radio communication, etc. The 
older International Radio Telegraph Co. has been reorganized 
with a capital of $1,250,000 preferred stock and 250,000 shares 
of common stock of no par value. 

The officers are Guy E. Tripp, chairman ; E. M. Herr, presi- 
dent; S. M. Kintner, Calvert Townley, and H. F. Davis, vice- 
presidents, and J. V. L. Hogan, manager. All of these are West- 
inghouse officials except Messrs. Kintner and Hogan, who were 
president and manager respectively of the older company. The 
Westinghouse has equipped a special factory at East Springfield, 
Massachusetts, for the manufacture of wireless apparatus. 

Gaston. \\ illiams & VVigmore, Inc., formerly at 39 Broadway, 
has removed to the Buckley-Newhall Building. 100 West 41st 
street. New York City, where it has leased three floors and 
basement for IS years. The October number of the G. IV. W. 
Bulletin, the company's house organ, devoted the first page to a 
brief account of the removal and the reasons for it, accompanied 
by a photograph of the building where its new quarters are. 

The Fellsen Tire Co., 1995 Broadway, New York City, has 
increased its capital from $30,000 to $100,000. 

The Walters Rubber Co., Inc., of New York, Mineola, New 
York, is the Long Island distributer for Federal and Amazon 
tires, Firestone truck tires, and Walters tubes. H. S. Walters 
is president. 


The India Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, has appointed 
The General Auto Supply Co. its distributer in Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and vicinity. 

The Cumberland Tire & Rubber Co., Inc., Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, has purchased the plant, property, and assets of the Ten 
Broeck Tyre Co. of the same city, including the textile fabric 
mill. The offices are at 26th and Courtney streets. The Cum- 
berland company will make cord tires and tire fabric exclusively 
and will be able to sell cord tire fabric to outside buyers above 
its own requirements. The officers of the company, which was 
recently incorporated, are: F. W. O'Brien, president; S. J. 
Dant, secretary and treasurer; and A. L. Henry, chairman of 
the board of directors. Production is looked for sometime in 

November. The name "Ten Broeck" will be discontinued, the 
company featuring its own name, "Cumberland," as its brand. 

The McClaren Rubljer Co., Oiarlottc, North Carolina, has 
appointed the J. D. Bowen Co. its Florida distributing repre- 
sentative at 327 Laura street, Jacksonville, Florida, with a branch 
at Tampa, in the same state. 

The Victory Rubber Manufacturing Co., 259 Peachtree street, 
Atlanta. Cicoruia, has its factory at East Point in the same state 
and was recently incorporated to manufacture "Sealtyte Leak- 
Proof inner tubes The officers of the company are : Homer 
S. Prater, president; George J. Reutcr and W. H. Camp, vice- 
presidents; B. Graham West, secretary-treasurer; and the fol- 
lowing directors in addition to the above — A. P. Phillips, C. W. 
McCIure. W. M. Morris, .'\. McD. Wilson. T. L. Shapard, and 
Dr. James N. Brawner. 

Frederick J. Schlosstein was appointed receiver of the Balti- 
more Rubber Tire Manufacturing Co., Inc.. Monument and 11th 
streets, Orangeville, Baltimore, Maryland, on October 1, 1920. In 
addition to the entire stock of finished tires, the equipment of the 
plant, or the plant and equipment together, will be disposed of. 
The property, which is located on the main line of the Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, consists of several large, modern, daylight brick 
buildings and tire manufacturing machinery. 

It is estimated by the Goodrich News Bureau of The B. F. 
Goodrich Co., Akron, Ohio, that at least half a million people 
will spend all or part of this winter in the South. According to 
the severity of the winter in the North, this number may be 
twice as large. Florida and California are the popular winter 
resorts and many people travel to these points by automobile. 
The Goodrich Travel and Transport Bureau is collecting the 
latest information regarding the roads throughout the South and 
on the Pacific Coast and will distribute it to motorists without 
charge on request. 

The Virginian Rubber Co., Charleston, West Virginia, has in- 
creased its capitalization from $1,200,000 to $2,500,000. Its plant 
is nearly completed and will be in operation by the first of De- 
cember, it is hoped. Tires and tubes will be produced. 

The new tire branch recently opened in Louisville, Kentucky, 
by The Miller Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, will be managed by G 
Lund. The branch will cover the territory of w^estern Kentucky 
and southern Indiana. 

By Our Regular Correspondent 


THE Thermoid, Semple and Home Rubber companies had 
attractive booths at the recent Trenton State Fair 
All three companies showed the raw product in the various 
stages and explained to the patrons of the booths just how 
tires and other rubber products arc manufactured. 

The Thermoid company representative in charge handed out 
blanks to all persons who stopped at the booth and asked them 
to sign name and address for the drawing of a tire. The 
names were deposited in a box, and after the drawing the lucky 
one secured free one of the best tires made by the company. 

For the purpose of distributing advertising literature for the 
Thermoid Rubber Co., Qiestcr Charles, an aviator connected 
with the advertising department of the firm, made daily flights 
at the fair. Those who happened to find one of the Thermoid 
circulars were entitled to a drawing for an expensive Thermoid 
tire. Yoimg Charles received his air training while in army 

The Semple Company, which manufactures tubes exclusively, 
had a sign displayed bearing these words: "All our energy and 
thoughts are focused on just one product — tubes." 

The Liberty Tire & Rubber Co. had an attractive booth and 
six representatives engaged during the week in selling stock in 
the concern. 

November 1, 1920 



One of the feature events of the automobile races was the 
Ajax Trophy Sweepstakes. The distance was fifteen laps and 
the prize money amounted to $1,200, in addition to a handsome 
trophy donated by the Ajax Rubber Co., of New York. 

Barney Oldfield, president of the Oldfield Tire Co., Cleveland, 
Ohio, who was one of the judges, distributed several hundred 
miniature automobile tires — made of real rubber — to his friends 
and to those whom he met at the fair grounds. The tires were 
four inches in diameter and can be used as paper weights. Old- 
field's special automobile, used in many famous races, was 


While automobile tires and tubes are at present selling at 
greatly reduced prices, the Trenton dealers announce a 20 per 
cent increase in the prices of all motorcycle and bicycle tires. 
This is the second recent jump in motorcycle tires. The demand 
for bicycle and motorcycle tires has greatly increased of late. 

The Bergougnan Rubber Corporation, Trenton, announces that 
it is the only Trenton tire manufacturer selling tires with 
mileage insurance. The company claims that buyers are entitled 
to protection and that mileage insurance protects them. With 
each tire sold the company gives a written agreement. 

Papers of incorporation have been filed by the Ewing Rubber 
Co., of Trenton, for the purpose of manufacturing inner tubes, 
patches, etc. The authorized capita! stock is $100,000. The of- 
fices and plant of the company will be located at Homan and 
Hilton avenues, where the A. F. Updike Rubber Co. 
recently ceased business. The incorporators of the new 
company are Archibald F. Updike. James Schultz and Alice 
Emrick. The Updike Rubber Co. recently erected a plant in 
the Hillcrest section, where it manufactured tubes and patches. 
Edwin H. Steel was president of the corporation, while A. F. 
Updike was secretary-treasurer. 

John A. Lambert, treasurer and general manager of the Acme 
Rubber Manufacturing Co., and president of the Trenton Cham- 
ber of Commerce, is at the head of a committee to urge the 
building of new homes with the aid of building loans. 

The Montclair Rubber Co., Trenton, has changed its name 
to the Montclair Linoleum & Rug Co. 

The Para Rubber Co., 121 East Hanover street, Trenton, has 
recently changed hands. Irving L. Wright, president and treas- 
urer of the company, has retired from the business. C. E. Beving- 
ton and Vernon Jones are the new owners. 

J. Cornell Murray, secretary and treasurer of the Empire 
Tire & Rubber Corporation, Trenton, who recently underwent an 
operation for appendicitis at the Mercer Hospital, Trenton, has 

The firm of Joseph S. Papier and Philip Papier, dealers in 
automobile tires and accessories, Trenton, has been dissolved. 
The former takes over two stores, while Philip Papier will con- 
tinue the East Front street tire shop. 

Judge Lynch in the United States District Court has named 
John O. Bigelow, of Newark, as receiver for the Trent Rubber 
Co., Trenton, tire manufacturer. The receiver was named upon 
the petition of the McLain, Hadden, Simpers Co., a Pennsyl- 
vania corporation, and Carl Ludwig, New York, on behalf of 
themselves and other creditors and stockholders of the company. 

ri. A. Ludeke, president of the company, in an affidavit, con- 
tends that the corporation is solvent, but that because of in- 
ability to get its plant in operation upon the date desired, it 
lost the spring trade, and that it is without sufficient ready cash 
to meet its obligations. The present stringency of the money 
market also added to the difficulties of the concern. L A. Worth- 
ington is vice-president of the company, and E. H. Unkles is 
secretary and treasurer. All are Trenton men. 

"The Story of the Tire." a three-reel picture, was recently 

shown at the K. B. Motor Sales Shop, Trenton, by The Good- 
year Tire & Rubber Co., of Akron, Ohio. A special representa- 
tive was sent from the factory to explain the various abuses 
which cause a tire to go out of service before it has rendered 
normal mileage, aiid how they can be prevented. Just how a 
tire is made by workers in the Goodyear plant was also shown. 

De Mattia Brothers, Inc., manufacturers of tire building equip- 
ment, will erect a three-story machine shop addition to the plant 
at Garfield. New Jersey. 

The Rubber Products Co., of 411 Wilson avenue, Newark, 
will shortly erect a one-story brick and cement machine shop 
to cost $5,000. 

The Smitli Rubber & Tirt Co., Inc., 625 Main avenue, Passaic, 
Xew Jersey, invited all of its stockholders to make a personal 
inspection of its new factory on Columbus Day. A large number 
responded and refreshments and music were furnished. The com- 
pany owns eight acres of land on which it plans to build other 
structures in the spring. The present factory is located on the 
Erie Railroad, ten miles from New York. Mechanical rubber 
goods will ho added to the company's lines. 

By Our Regular Correspondent 

A CHANGE in buying sentiment is being felt in the New England 
rubber trade, especially in tires. People are still buying 
conservatively, but it is believed that the bottom has about been 
reached. The publicity given by The B. F. Goodrich Rubber 
Co. to the fact that tires are actually 20 per cent cheaper and 
of better quality than in 1910, whereas the prices of most other 
commodities have been sky-rocketing, has had telling effect. Af- 
ter a thorough survey of the national market most Massachusetts 
dealers are agreed with James J. Rosenfield, general manager of 
the Boston Auto Tire Exchange, who regards the 1921 outlook 
most encouraging, as a result of the stabilizing influences of the 
past few weeks. 

Keeping the highways open during the winter months is one 
of the big problems in making truckportation the success it must 
be to meet present and future traffic needs. Urged by the lead- 
ing industries of the state, Massachusetts has taken up the mat- 
ter with characteristic promptness. The legislature of 1920 
passed an act authorizing the Department of Public Works to 
cooperate with city and town authorities, and to accept financial 
or other assistance from individuals, partnerships and corpora- 
tions. The state is to furnish suitable equipment, to supervise 
its use, and during the years 1920 and 1921 may expend such 
sums as may be appropriated by the General Court not exceed- 
ing $50,000. Forty plows have been imrchased to be operated 
in conjunction with motor trucks, and the commissioner of pub- 
Mc works desires to ascertain what individuals or corporations 
will in time of need furnish trucks and operators to work these 
plows, as the appropriation is insufficient to carry out the project 
without considerable cooperation from the industries which are 
to benefit by it. 

The plan is to keep open the trunk line highways in the terri- 
tory about Boston, including Lowell, Lawrence, Ljnin, Salem, 
I laverhill, Fitchburg, Taunton, Brockton, Fall River, New Bed- 
ford, to the State line on the Providence road, Worcester. Spring- 
field to the Connecticut line, Holyoke and Chicopee Falls. 


Highway and housing conferences featured the annual meeting 
of the Massachusetts Chamber of Commerce at the Hotel Ven- 
(lome, Boston, October IS. E. F. Broadwell, vice-president of 
The Fisk Rubber Co., Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, spoke on 
"The Business End of Highways; Are Good Highways Good 



November 1, 1920 

Henry C. Link, service supervision department of the United 
States Rubber Co., and Dr. R. S. Quinby, service inanager of 
the Hood Rubber Co., were among the speakers on the program 
for the Human Relations Section conferences of the Associated 
Industries of Massachusetts, held in Boston October 28 and 29. 

Stanley L. Blood, district manager for the New England ter- 
ritory of the Dayton Tire Co., has been promoted to general 
sales manager at the factory at Dayton, Ohio. Mr. Blood en- 
joys a wide acquaintance in the trade and is regarded not only 
as a successful distributer but as a general merchandising ex- 
pert of exceptional ability. 

Frederic C. Hood, treasurer of the Hood Rubber Co., Water- 
town, delivered a notable and timely address on the subject of 
"Stability of Industrial Capital" at a luncheon October 28 at the 
Copley-Plaza Hotel, Boston, in connection with the annual meet- 
ing of the Associated Industries of Massachusetts. 

"Bring your lunch" clubs, as a protest against e.xcessive res- 
taurant prices, are rapidly increasing in Boston. At The B. F. 
Goodrich Rubber Co. branch both the men and women have a 
club, and rooms are provided for the purpose, including a fully 
equipped kitchen, dishes and silver. The men bring their own 
lunches and the women cook theirs at a total cost of 20 cents a 
day per person for supplies. Five girls in rotation prepare the 
meal for the other sixty and splendid cooks many of them are 
proving to be. 


The biggest boot and shoe ticket in the history of the Con- 
verse Rubber Shoe Co., Maiden, Massachusetts, is now being 
turned out and yet the demand for its goods is not being tilled. 
A daily total of 17,500 pairs of all kinds of footwear was recently 
reached. The tire division is maintaining two shifts of workmen. 
No reduction is contemplated and no employes have been laid 
off through lack of work. 

Dr. R. S. Quinby, service manager of the Hood Rubber Co., 
Watertown, is a member of the executive committee, represent- 
ing the rubber industry of the Council of Management Education 
which has been created to put into operation the plan for train- 
ing executives for the principal American industries in colleges 
and technical schools that was advocated by Dr. Hollis R. God- 
frey, of Drexel Institute. It is apparent that the shortage of 
trained industrial engineers must be relieved by closer coopera- 
tion between manufacturers and institutions of learning, and the 
Council of Management Education has been organized to become 
a clearing house to promote a better understanding of the mutual 
problems of college and industry and to keep a perpetual inven- 
tory of the educational needs of industry and the ability of col- 
leges to meet them. 

The Fisk Rubber Co., Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts, has been 
a leader in accident prevention work in rubber mills. What such 
a campaign will accomplish is shov.n by the success of its recent 
"no accident week," when no loss-of-time accidents were re- 
ported. The campaign was continued for another week with 
the same result. This is a splendid example of what it means 
to make factory carefulness a common hal)it. 

A comprehensive plan for the cooperation of the public schools 
and the industries of Massachusetts in the work of immigrant 
education was adopted unanimously by the delegates at the re- 
cent Plymouth Conference under the joint auspices of the State 
Department of Education and the .Associated Industries of 
Massachusetts. The recommendations for procedure by the two 
agencies are as follows : 

1. The Schools: (a) accept provisions of Chapter 295, 
Acts of 1919; (b) appropriate enough money to get the job well 
done; (c) provide for classes in industries whenever organized; 
(d) provide a director of immigrant education; (e) train and 
supervise teachers; (f) provide suitable text material including 
motion pictures; (g) organize courses of study. 

2. The I.ndustries : (a) Centralize responsibility in a plant 
director or committee or other effective agency; (b) conduct 
preliminary study to learn the extent and nature of the problem ; 
(c) recruit classes; (d) provide satisfactory school accommoda- 
tion; (e) establish an efficient follow-up; (f) provide incentives; 
(g) collaborate in training teachers and in providing special text 

Loyalty service pins were recently presented by Frederick H. 
Jones, president of the Tyer Rubber Co., Andover, to all em- 
ployes who have been on the company's pay-roll for a year or 
more. Two women received 35-year service pins, and a number 
of workers, both men and women, received 2S-year pins. Mr. 
Jones has himself been with the company for 35 years. 

The Tyer Rubber Co., Andover, Massachusetts, through the 
athletic committee of the Tyrian Service Association, has ar- 
ranged a bowling league composed of teams representing different 
factory departments. This committee has also been instrumental 
in the organization of a bowling league made up of teams from 
the different manufacturing plants of the town, and known as 
the .\ndover Industrial Bowling League. Schedules for both 
leagues begin in November. 

By Our Regular Correspondent 

THE FUEL siTU-^TioN, with its shortage of supply and the in- 
creased price of bituminous coal, together with the lack of 
cars for the shipping of completed products, is causing the manu- 
facturers of rubber goods in Rhode Island and vicinity much 
concern and it is feared that these conditions may become grad- 
ually worse. These problems, together with those concerning 
labor — wages, hours and the securing of experienced employes- 
are materially affecting all industrial prospects. Great efforts, 
however, are being made to establish Providence as one of the 
principal ports of entry on the .Atlantic seaboard and already 
various projects are under way, fostered by the Providence Cham- 
ber of Commerce, for new steamship lines. One of these is the 
extension of the Merchants and Miners Line from its present 
terminal to Baltimore; a new line is proposed to Philadelphia; 
another to Manchester, England, and a fourth to Cuba. The 
Fabre Line to the Azores, Lisbon, Marseilles and Rome has 
recently announced an expansion of its service, so that altogether 
the future for freights, domestic and export, looks very en- 

While there is a general policy of curtailment throughout the 
textile industry with the shutting down of plants to a schedule 
of three or four days a week, or a reduction of operating force, 
there has been no indication of general curtailment among the 
rubber manufacturers. Business among the manufacturing ruliber 
concerns of Rhode Island continues good, though not driving, 
and most of them have sufficient orders on their books to keep 
them in full operation for an indctinite number of months. 

A majority of the 2,000 operatives composing the working 
force in the three plants of the Jenckes Spinning Co. in Paw- 
tucket and Central Falls, have accepted a 15 per cent reduction 
in wages rather than have the inills shut down for an indefinite 
period. A short time previous to this agreement a cut was made 
in the wages of a number of the employes at these plants rang- 
ing from 12 to 20 per cent, but this has been adjusted on the 
uniform basis of a 15 per cent cut. The Jenckes Spinning Co. 
had been running its plants day and night up to about the first 
of September, when the day schedule alone was introduced. The 
company controls three plants, the Jenckes Spinning Co. on Barton 
street, Pawtucket; the Tamarack Mill on Front street, Pawtucket, 
and the Central Falls Mill, formerly the United States Cotton 
Co. The company manufactures tire fabrics as its principal 

During the past summer practically all of the plants in the 

November 1, 1920 



state have been thoroughly overhauled and renovated so that they 
are now in the best physical condition that they have been since 
the beginning of the W orld War, six years ago. Additions that 
have been under way at several of the plants have been com- 
pleted, thereby increasing the capacities to a very appreciable 
extent, while several others have been commenced. 

Ground was broken about the middle of the month for a new 
addition to the wire manufacturing division of the National India 
Rubber Co.'s plant at Bristol, Rhode Island. The structure is 
to be located cast of the main wire building and will be of brick 
and mill construction, two stories high and about 100 by 180 feet. 
When completed the new building will give an increase in floor 
space of upwards of 30,000 square feet. The new building will 
be used for the braiding departments, and 192 triple-decker, 
weather-proof, wire-braiding machines will be installed, making 
a total of 1,400 braiding machines in the company's wire division. 

An -Americanization school has been established at the plant of 
the National India Rubber Co. at Bristol, Rhode Island, which 
is in charge of the Industrial Relations Bureau, and is under 
the personal supervision of Mrs. Bacon. The school was opened 
on September 9, when more of the employes of the plant than 
could be accommodated under the present arrangements applied 
for admission. A spacious schoolroom has been provided and 
furnished with all modern appointments, and there is an efficient 
corps of teachers. Classes are to be held from 8 to 4 o'clock, 
five days a week, and the employes are to receive their pay dur- 
ing the time that they spend in the school-room. After the 
school is fully established on its regular schedule of classes it 
is expected that at least 200 employes will be accommodated, the 
majority of whom at present are able to speak but little English. 

The valuation on the taxable property of Providence has been 
announced by the Board of Tax .Assessors for this year, and the 
list contains a luiinlier of individuals, firms or corporations iden- 
tified with the rubber manufacturing industry or its kindred and 
allied trades that are assessed on a valuation of $50,000 or more. 
Among these are the following, together with the amount of their 
assessment; American Multiple Fabric Co., $117,580; Walter 
S. Ballou, $91,840; estate of Joseph Banigan, $1,139,120; Mary 
Banigan, $50,720; .Augustus O. Bourn, $95,140; Bourn Rubber 
Co., $292,580; Samuel P. Colt, $340,240; Davol Rubber Co., 
$627,100; Mary E. Davol, $874,200; Glendalc Elastic Fabric Co., 
$217,300; International Braid Co., $1,215,320; Mechanical Fabric 
Co., $177,400; Eugene R. Phillips, $153,700; Revere Rubber Co., 
$2,000,000; Rhode Island Hospital Trust Co., trustee under will 
of Joseph Davol, $391,600; United States Rubber Co., $3,618,920. 

More than 250 employes of the Bourn Rubber Co., Providence, 
attended the annual outing that was held at Emery Park about 
the middle of the past month. The party proceeded from the 
company's plant on Warren street by special conveyance to the 
grounds, arriving shortly after 12 o'clock, when a luncheon was 
served, after which ihe boot cutters defeated the boot makers' 
team, 11 to 8, in an exciting baseball game, which was one of the 
principal events on the sporting program of the afternoon. The 
tug-of-war between the married and single women was won by 
the married team. The day's outing concluded with the clam- 
bake at 4 o'clock. 

The Westerly Textile Co. and the Ninigret Co., at Westerly, 
Rhode Island, that have been working on orders for The Good- 
year Tire & Rubber Co., .Akron, Ohio, have completed their con- 
tracts and tem])orarily discontinued the production of tire fabric, 
as there have been no renewals with the Goodyear people, al- 
though it is expected that new contracts will be made at an early 
date that will insure active operations for some time to come. 

The -Atlantic Tubing Co. is taxed on a property valuation of 
$67,270 in the city of Cranston, Rhode Island, according to the 
assessments levied for this year by the Board of Assessors as 
certified to the city treasurer for collection. Others paying taxes 
on $5,000 valuation and over are; -Arch Narrow Fabric Co., 

$18,075; William B. Banigan estate, $46,900. In the town of 
East Providence the -American Electrical Works is taxed on 
$838,590, and the Washburn Wire Co. on $585,050. 

The Central Warp Co. is one of the busiest concerns in the 
Blackstone Valley and is running to its full capacity, with an 
increase of orders coming every day. The manufacture of yarns 
for tire fabrics is one of the most important branches of the 
concern's business and is expected to Ix'Come more important in 
future operations. 

The Lynn Rubber Co., of Warren, Rhode Island, has made a 
trust deed of $100,000 to the Industrial Trust Co., which has been 
recorded at Warren. The bonds are guaranteed by the Kleistone 
Rubber Co., which has leased the property of the Lynn Rubber 
Co., at Warren, both real and personal, as a going concern for 
ten years with an option to purchase at a fixed price. 

George L. Drown, Jr., for IS years in the employ of the 
United States Rubber Co., has been transferred from the National 
India Rubber Co., where he was foreman of the binding and 
spreading departments, to the new Colt plant at Providence, 
where he is in charge of several departments. 

Harlow W. Waite, who for some time has been factory mana- 
ger in charge of the Revere plant of the United States Rubber 
Co. on \'alley street. Providence, has been transferred to a posi- 
tion of greater responsibility in New York. 

James Q. Dealey, Jr., .son of Professor Dealey, of Brown Uni- 
versity, and now associated with the Lycoming Rubber Co., of 
Williamsport, Pennsylvania, a subsidiary of the United States 
Rubber Co., has been named as the 1920 Rhodes scholar from 
Rhode Island. He was chosen by the electors from four candi- 
dates for the appointment. He was a member of the class of 
1920 at Brown and since leaving college has been connected with 
the Industrial Relations Department of the Lycoming Co., and 
is now managing the factory newspaper, which he recently in- 

By Our Regular Correspondent 


A<R()X, tlie rubber center of the world, is the thirty-second 
city in size in the I'nited States, according to the Federal 
census made public recently. 

Summit County, of which .Akron is the county seat and hub, 
including Barberton, Kenmore and Cuyahoga Falls, all small but 
energetic manufacturing cities, has a population of 286,065 per- 
sons. This is an increase of 177,812, or 164.3 per cent over the 
population ten years ago. 

Summit County is now the third largest count\- in the state of 
Ohio, Cuyahoga County, of which Cleveland is the hub, being 
first, and Hamilton County, containing Cincinnati, being second. 

The population of the state of Ohio has increased more than 
1.00U,lX)0 the past ten years. The total has been announced as 
approximately 5,757,461 for 1920 as compared with 4,767,121 in 
1910. This is an increase of 20.8 per cent. Only one county is 
missing from the Ohio census figures. Ohio leads the United 
States in the number of cities having over 200,000, having five 
such cities, and ties Massachusetts with seven cities over 100,000, 
being exceeded by none. 

The increased population is mainly in the cities, Ihe rural coun- 
ties as a rule remaining practically stationary or losing. The 
increase is obviously due to the greater manufacturing carried 
on in the state. During the war the Government census of manu- 
facturing districts showed that a circle with a 200-mile radius 
with Pitt.sburg as a center would include more than 30 per cent 
of the manufacturing area of the whole United States. Akron 
and Summit county are in that area, as is Cleveland, Lorain 
and other eastern Ohio cities. 



November 1, 1920 

The increasing population of cities in Ohio has led to consider- 
able speculation regarding the future food supply of the country, 
which was one of the principal topics of discussion at the annual 
meeting of the Federal Highway Council at Akron the latter 
part of September. 

L. J. Taber, master of the Ohio State Grange, at a dinner given 
the Council by the Akron Chamber ot Commerce at the Portage 
Country Club, warned highway builders, automobile and truck 
men that the time has come when the food supply of the nation 
is menaced by the fact that the farms are being depleted because 
of the wages paid by the industries in the cities. He cited 
Akron as an example and was frankly pleased to learn that men 
are going from Akron back to their homes on the farm. 

The eight speakers who followed Mr. Tabor dwelt mainly 
upon the necessity for increased rapidity of transportation from 
the farm to the cities to overcome the scarcity of help on the 
farms. Among them were Paul W. Litchfield, factory manager 
of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. ; F. S. Holbrook, vice-presi- 
dent and treasurer of the American Railway Express Co.; S. M. 
Williams, chairman of the Council ; A. R. Kroh, of The Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Co. ; Dr. R. S. McEIwee, of the foreign bureau of 
the Department of Commerce, and David Beecroft, of the Class 
Journal Co., of New York City. 

Mr. Litchfield asserted that the pneumatic tire will replace the 
solid tire in truck transportation because it is better able to stand 
the hard bumps of the road with heavy loads. Multiple-wheel 
trucks will be the ultimate means of carry^in.a; heavier loads at 
greater speeds. He said that the Goodyear company employs two 
men in agriculture to each man employed in the rubber mills. 
For every pound of cotton grown for tires on the Goodyear plan- 
tations two pounds of food are raised. 

Dr. McElwce believes that the industries of the country are 
producing more than the home market can consume and the only 
hope for keeping the mills of America running at top speed is to 
enlarge our foreign commerce. The United States, he said, has 
become the trade center of the world, following the world war, 
and foreign trade alone will make it possible to take care of our 
increasing manufacturing plants and industrial population. 

One of the first problems to be taken up by the Council is an 
adequate supply of water for home and industrial consumption. 

Horseback riding in the home of the automobile tire promises 
to be revived through the formation of a group of cavalry as one 
unit of the Ohio National guard stationed at Akron. The troop 
is being organized by Major Joseph Johnston, son of W. A. 
Johnston, president of the Rubber Products Co., Barberton, Ohio. 
It will consist of thirty saddles. Several years ago when auto- 
mobiles were not as popular as now. Battery B of the national 
guard made Sunday riding popular. The fact that H. S. Fire- 
stone, president of the Firestone Tire & .Rubber Co., established 
a riding school at his home last winter that may be repeated this 
year lends additional support to the belief that riding horses will 
again become popular here. 

Much speculation has resulted from a visit to Akron by Henry 
Ford, head of the Ford Motor Co., of Detroit, and his son 
Edsel, active head of the company. They spent two days late in 
September with H. S. Firestone, president of the Firestone Tire 
& Rubber Co. Coming directly after the announcement of de- 
creased prices for Ford automobiles his visit was for a time 
looked upon as a step to lower the price of automobile tires. 
Mr. Ford was quoted in Canton and Cleveland newspapers to 
the effect that he intended building his own tire factory, but Mr. 
Ford denied having given out such an interview. 

The agreement reached with the mine operators, railroads and 
dealers by the transportation department of the Chamber of Com- 
merce before the Interstate Commerce Commission has resulted 
in more than 16,000 loads of coal being distributed in Akron 
during the past month. According to W. W. Hall, traffic com- 

missioner of the Chamber, conditions will not be serious this 
winter unless strikes prevent the mining or moving of coal. 

Ralph H. Upson, holder of the Gordon Bennett International 
balloon race trophy, Akron's best-known aircraft man, has re- 
signed from his position as head of the aeronautical department 
.if The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. to develop a commercial 
"lighter-than-air" transportation company. Mr. Upson has main- 
tained for several years that the rigid type of lighter-than-air 
craft is the ultimate solution of the lighter than air problems and 
this is the type of machine his new company will develop. 

According to factory heads the educational literature sent out 
by Akron tire companies regarding the preservation and care of 
lires to get maximum mileage has resulted in an increase of more 
than 20 per cent in the service given by tires, and this as a con- 
sequence has decreased the sale of tires to some extent. This 
lampaign will be enlarged during the next few years, it is said. 

The first temporary grade separation on Miller avenue, the 
main artery to the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. and The B. F. 
Goodrich Co., has been opened by the city of Akron and the 
railroads. For many years the traffic to these two plants has 
been held up by railroad traffic. The city and railroads will 
spend $3,000,000 in building other separations over railroad tracks 
during the next few years. This will remove one of the worst 
handicaps to transportation in the city. 

W. R. Ridge, president of the Rubber Engineering Co., Akron, 
has resigned his position as president of the Andes Tire & Rubber 
Co., Toledo, Ohio, to which he was elected some time ago, in 
order to devote his entire time to rubber engineering and other 
business interests. 

VV. H. Barkwill, Akron, has purchased the mold manufacturing 
department of The Die Sinking & Machine Co. of the same city, 
and will continue the business under the same name. He expects 
to incorporate and build a larger plant. 

J. W. Jordan, for ten years in the accounting department of 
The B. F. Goodrich Rubber Co., and for the past few years 
assistant auditor, has been made auditor of the company to suc- 
ceed W. Murra.v, who recently resigned. 

John R. Gammeter, head of the experimental department of 
The B. F. Goodrich Rubber Co., advised Akron business men to 
prepare to do business on a pre-war basis at a dinner given by 
the Akron Builders' Exchange recently. 

J. C. Clinefelter has been promoted from the position of pro- 
duction superintendent to that of sales manager of The .\krou 
Standard Mold Co., Akron, manufacturer of rubber inolds and 
machinery. He was formerly chief engineer of The Portage 
Rubber Co., Barberton, Ohio, and previous to that was assistant 
chief engineer for the Republic Rubber Corporation. Youngstown, 

More than 8,500 employes of The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. 
voted in tlie second annual election of the company's industrial 
republic held recently. More than 1,000 women went to the polls. 

Si.x of the ten present members of the Goodyear senate 
seeking reelection were defeated in their senatorial dis- 
tricts in the factory. Of twenty-three members of the house of 
representatives, running for second terms, only ten were re- 
elected. Senator E. J. Hard, first president of the Goodyear 
senate, was defeated by twenty-two votes for reelection by Fred 
Arbogast. J. B. Long, speaker of the lower house, was re- 

Both houses of the industrial assembly will convene early in 
November to elect presiding officers for the year. P. W. Litch- 
field, vice-president and factory manager, who conceived and 
established the Goodyear industrial republic, will continue to 
sit in the same relation to the industrial legislators as the Presi- 
dent of the United States to Congress. 

In such capacity during the first year of the republic's operation 

November 1, 1920 



Mr. Litchrield never was required to exercise his veto power 
over bills passed by either house. 


Lawrence A. Subers and others, Cleveland, Ohio, have filed 
a bill in equity in the Court of Chancery of Delaware against 
the American Rubber Products Co. and the Continental Secur- 
ities Co.. alleging the illegal control, holding and sale of a 
large portion of the common shares of the American Rubber 
Products Co. and asking for injunctions. 

The Ideal Tire & Rubber Co., East 17th street and Euclid ave- 
nue. Cleveland, Ohio, manufacturer of "Greyhound" tires and 
tubes, has taken over the Porter Rubber Co. of Salem, Ohio, and 
begun to manufacture tires at lliat plant. I. R. Davies is president 
and general manager. 


C. C. Mosher, vice-president of the company, has been ap- 
pointed receiver of The East Iron & Machine Co., Lima, Ohio, 
by the United States District Court, Northern District of Ohio, 
Western Division. This action has been taken, it is claimed, to 
protect creditors and the company itself during the general re- 
striction of credit, pending the realization of financial plans to 
meet increasing business. It is said that the company has a fine 
surplus and is doing all the business it can finance. Plans to 
increase the working capital are already under way. 

The Oak Rubber Co., Ravenna, Ohio, which has been building 
a new and larger factory for the manufacture of dipped rubber 
goods and toy balloons, expects to start operations at an early 
date with the production of 150,000 balloons daily. The most 
modern equipment has been installed, including new types of ma- 
chines approved aflcr experimentation. The officers of the com- 
pany are : Paul E. Collette, president and treasurer, and John 
W. Shira, secretary and superintendent. 

Barberton. the home of the Rubber Products Co., has organized 
a Chamber of Commerce. W. A. Johnston, president of the com- 
pany, was one of the principal organizers. 

The .\Ilied Belting Co., Greenville, Ohio, has completed a new 
brick, concrete and steel factory building, to which it is moving 
its factory and equipment from Toledo. It has also increased its 
capital stock from $60,000 to $100,000. 

The Climax Rubber Co., with general offices at 21 West Gay 
street, Columbus, Ohio, has its factory at Huntington, West Vir- 
ginia, where it manufactures its specialty, the "Climax Com- 
pression" inner tube. The ofliccrs of the company are : Irving 
S. Hoffmann, president; H. A. Longshore, vice-president; Merch 
E. Swanson, secretary-treasurer; and Clyde B. Turner, assistant 

The factory and equipment of The Central Rubber Reclaim- 
ing Co., Defiance, Ohio, was recently purchased by I. J. Cooper, 
Cincinnati, and J. F. Schafer, C. E. Hart and D. E. Reynolds, 
Findlay, Ohio. The company is specializing on the reclaiming 
of raw scrap friction and also produces a complete line of re- 
claims for all uses. The new officers are : J. F. Schafer, 
president ; C. E. Hart, vice-president ; D. E. Reynolds, secretary 
and treasurer. A. T. Oakley is general manager. 



THE REGUi..\R MONTHLY MEETING of the Mid- West Rubber Man- 
ufacturers' Association was held at the Chicago -Mhletic 
Association on October 19, the meeting having been postponed 
one week on account of the regular meeting date falling on 
Columbus Day. Forty members were in attendance and after 
the meeting interesting remarks were made by a number of 
those present, including Joseph F. McLean, Pequanoc Rubber 
Co., liutler. New jersey : H. F. Harrah, National-Standard Co.. 

Niles, Michigan; Thomas M, Gardner, Brighton Mills, Passaic, 
New Jersey ; P. E. Findlay, Bibb Manufacturing Co., Macon, 
Georgia; Charles W. Bliss, Chicago, Illinois; Raymond T. Bill, 
Tires, New York City ; Theodore E. Smith, The India Rubber 
Review, Akron, Ohio; J. E. Grady, Archer Tire & Rubber Co., 
Minneapolis. Minnesota; W. F. Hendrick, Rotary Tire & Rubber 
Co.. Zanesville, Ohio, and E. A. .'\rmstrong, Cleveland Rubber 
Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio. 

-•\ note of optimism was evident in what nearly all of tlie 
speakers said, the apparent feeling being that business in the 
tire industry was already on a firmer basis and that demand was 
increasing among the dealers. 

President John T. Christie read the brief which he had 
prepared and filed 'with the Federal Trade Commission in op- 
position to the continuance of the practice of guaranteeing tire 
prices against a decline. This was listened to with great in- 
terest and appeared to meet the hearty approval of all present. 

The following new members were elected : 

Regular Member : Malay Rubber Co., 1035 Guardian Build- 
ing, Cleveland Ohio. 

As.sociATE Members: The Akron Gear & Engineering Co., 42 
East South street, Akron, Ohio; The Williams Foundry & Ma- 
chine Co., 52-56 Cherry street, Akron, Ohio. 


The Wildman Rubber Co., Detroit, Michigan, broke ground on 
October 12 for its new factory at Brooks, Bay City, in the same 
state. The company owns si.xty acres of land and its factory will 
ho one of the largest in the city when completed. 

The A. Plamondon Manufacturing Co., Chicago, Illinois, re- 
moved Octolicr 1 to its new location at 5301 South Western 

The Monroe Tire Corporation, 1825 Michigan avenue, Chicago, 
Illinois, has been organized as factory distributer and jobber of 
tires, tubes and sundries. The officers are: Harold J. Samuels, 
president, and Leroy Eschner, vice-president and treasurer. They 
were formerly secretary and sales manager, respectively, of the 
World Tire Corporation, from which they resigned to go into 
business for themselves. 

The Liberty Vulcanizer Manufacturing Co., Madison street and 
Ninth avenue, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, is removing to its new 
building at 1212-1214 National avenue. The company manufac- 
tures vulcanizing plants, separate molds, small boilers, various 
kinds of burners, and other equipment for repairing tires. 

The India Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio, has appointed the 
.Mien & Guard Tire Co. its distributer for the State of Colorado, 
with headquarters in Denver. 

The Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, has 
established practical monthly training courses to make available 
to manufacturers and packers the principles that underlie proper 
box and crate construction. The course consists of one week's 
instruction under a staff of competent specialists and the next one 
will be given from November 8-13, 1920. Those interested may 
obtain further information from the director of the laboratory. 

Earle J. \\'. Fink, assistant general manager and general sales 
manager of the Mishawaka Woolen Manufacturing Co., Misha- 
waka, Indiana, manufacturer of felt and rubber boots and shoes, 
was married on September 10, 1920, to Miss Nina A. Gabel, a 
prominent musician and pipe organist, of the same city. The 
wedding was considered one of the social events of the year. 

The Indiana Cord Tire Co., formerly of Mishawaka, Indiana, 
has changed its name to Burr Oak Cord Tire Co. and is now 
located at Burr Oak in the same state. The new officers are: 
R. W. Thomas, president; .^. A. Peterson, secretary and general 
manager; G. E. Watson, vice-president; H. M. Cole, treasurer. 
The company has raised considerable capital in Burr Oak and is 
prepared to manufacture a high-class inner liner of merit. 

The Oldfield Tire Co., Cleveland, Ohio, has appointed E. H. 



November 1, 1920 

Brandt northern district manayor, with headquarters at Chicago. 
He will have charge of sales in eastern Montana, North and 
South Dakota, \\ isconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Illinois, Indiana, and 

The National Association of Waste Material Dealers, Inc., 
will hold its ne.\t quarterly meeting at Chicago, December 8 
and 9. The secretary is arranging for a special car from New 
York and meml}ers planning to attend the meeting are urged 
to reserve accommodations early. 

The Prudential Tire & Rubber Co., 813 Hartford Building, 
Chicago, Illinois, has recently purchased the plant and equip- 
ment of The Great Republic Tire & Rubber Manufacturing 
Co. located at Mc.\lester, Oklahoma, and will operate this 
modern factory at capacity. W. H. Owens, who was presi- 
dent and general manager of The Great Republic Tire & 
Rubber Manufacturing Co., has been retained by the Prudential 
as vice-president and operating manager of the Oklahoma plant 

Organized less than a year ago, the Prudential Tire & Rubber 
Co. has acquired three plants, the Boone tire plants at Chip- 
pewa Falls, Wisconsin, and Sycamore, Illinois, and the Great 
Republic plant here mentioned, and has also purchased a large 
tract at Erie, Pennsylvania, where they will build a modern 
factory early in the spring. Fred .\. Seiberling, formerly of the 
Newcastle Rubber Co., is president of the Prudential, and asso- 
ciated with him is his brother, .A.. G. Seiberling, vice-president 
of the Haynes .\utomobile Co. 

By Our Regular Correspondent 

' I 'HE F.\CTCRiES on the Facitic Coast that make tires and other 
■^ rubber goods are busier than ever. Two of the larger mills, 
the Pioneer Rubber Works, San Francisco, and the Goodyear 
Tire & Rubber Company of California, Los Angeles, are steadily 
adding to their working force and expanding the scope of their 
operations. .A very optimistic view of trade for many months 
to come is taken by rubber manufacturers and selling agencies 
on the entire western coast. Three factors referred to as promot- 
ing the generally hopeful spirit are : the unusually successful 
season experienced by the thousands of big fruit raisers, who are 
counted upon as liberal customers by tire makers and dealers : the 
rise in railroad freight rates, which is perceptibly aiding truck- 
portation ; and the recent reduction in price uf some of the well- 
known makes of automobiles. Tire repairmen also feel very con- 
fident that the factors noted will stimulate their business, and 
better sales of tread gum and other repair stock are reported 
by mills and supply houses. 


Rubber ll^urcd prominently at the National Tractor Show 
at Verdugo Woodlands, near Los .\ngcles, recently. -Among 
the notable exhibits were belting for tractors, gasoline hose, 
steam hose, hose for spray rigs, packing for gas engines, for 
steam and cold water, and automobile radiator connections. 
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co. of California, made the 
principal display in these lines. The show was the largest of 
its kind ever staged in the West. 100,000 square feet of space 
being used for over 400 different exhibits. 

Flans have been perfected whereby Los Angeles banks will 
lend cotton growers $7,500,000 for picking and ginning the 1920 
crop on warehouse receipts, instead of personal credits, which 
will greatly relieve growers who have been unable to finance 
their crops beyond the harvest period. The sum of $1,000,000 
was made available on October 15. 

Business is reported by the several branches of the United 
States Rubber Co. on the coast to be away ahead of last year, 
and additions are being constantly made to the sales forces in the 
Pacific slope cities. The various branch managers are confident 
of a large increase in business for 1921. 

Koy R. Meads, president and general manager of the Pacific 
Rubber Co., Los .Angeles, has gone to Racine, Wisconsin, for a 
conference with the Horseshoe Tire Co., which concern his com- 
pany represents on the Pacific Coast. 

C. L. Reely, advertising and salesmanager of the Oldficld Tire 
Co., Cleveland, Ohio, has been visiting Hess & Sackett, Inc., Los 
.Angeles distributers of Barney Oldfield's products. 

Over 100 newspaper editors and publishers of Southern Cali- 
fornia were recent guests of the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 
of California, and the scribes were much impressed with the mag- 
nitude of the plant in Los Angeles, the machinery used in tire- 
making, and the cotton mill, where cotton spinning and weaving 
are for the first time conducted on a large scale on the Coast. The 
Goodyear company has 2,200 men at work anl the tire output 
has risen to 2,300 a day, with 2,.500 tubes da ly as well as a lot 
of automobile accessories. September sales were reported the 
largest in the company's history. .An enterprise "on the side" is 
tlie Goodyear dirigible passenger-carrying line between Los -An- 
geles and Santa Catalina Island, a 39-mile trip made daily by the 
Pony Blimp in sixty minutes. 

-\d()lf Schleicher, president of the Samson Tire & Rubber Cor- 
poration, Los -Angeles, recently spent t\\e weeks studying the big 
tire factories of the Middle West. The Samson company claims 
the honor of having produced the first cord tires on the Coast. 


The new warehouse of the Spreckcls "Savage'' Tire Co., 
San Diego, is nearly ready for use. The building is 670 feet 
long and its walls and roof are wholly zinc-covered. It will 
have ten loading doors connecting with a spur of railroad track. 
The "Savage'' factory reports business as excellent, and the 
company is now considering plans for largely increasing the 


The Plant Rubber & .Asbestos Works, Inc.. 537 Brannan 
street, San Francisco, California, has taken over the factory and 
business formerly operated by the Merle Magnesia Manufac)- 
turing Co. Magnesia and magnesia pipe and boiler covering are 
i)eing produced at present and the company plans to offer car- 
bonate of magnesia to the rubber trade in a short time. Flans 
have already been drawn for an extension to the plant to pro- 
vide additional space. The officers of the Plant organization 
are : Sydney L. Plant, president and manager ; Charles A. 
Wright, vice-president ; Elliott H. Pierce, secretary ; George J. 
Sivers, treasurer. The company also distributes the products 
of the Boston Belting Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 

The Cleveland Rubber Mold Foundry & Equipment Co., 
Cleveland, Ohio, is planning to erect a branch plant on the 
Pacific Coast, in or near Sacramento, California. 

-A novel display at the recent state fair in Sacramento, Cali- 
fornia, was the power conservation exhibit of the California 
Electrical & Mechanical Engineering Co., in which was demon- 
strated the correct use of rubber belting in operating pumps, 
cream separators, washing machines, and other farm machinery 
by power. -A unique feature was a threshing machine operated 
by a 150-foot, 8-inch, 5-ply endless belt, which continuously 
crushed brick-bats as easily as it threshed wheat. 

W. S. Gelette, sales manager for the Rubber Products Co., 
Barberton, Ohio, who visited the Coast recently, has appointed 
V. W. Cunningham branch manager for San Francisco, suc- 
ceeding Stewart Slosson. 

The Howe Rubber Co., factory branch for Howe tires and 
tubes, has moved from 1214 Sutter street to larger quarters at 
824 Ellis street, San Francisco. 


Long-Staple cotton growers in California and .Arizona are 
worried at the slow market for the commodity and the fact that 
Egypt is looking to the United Slates as an outlet for thousands 

NOV-EMBER 1, 1920 



of bales of the long-staple product which Europeans are unable 
to buy. The Southwest cotton growers fear that the home mar- 
ket will be demoralized if the Egyptian article is allowed to come 
into this country duty-free, and they point to the fact that 
Egyptian producers can not only sell the cotton cheaper than 
the cotton of the Southwest as the labor cost is very much less, 
but they can also make a good profit on American exchange. 
Hence many cotton growers and factors are urging a protective 
tariff to save the Southwest product, especially on Pima or long 
staple cotton. Little competition is feared on the short staple 
cotton, as the Southwest practically leads the world in producing 
the latter, according to Secretary Robert C. Rowland of the Pa- 
cific Cotton Exchange in Los Angeles. 

The .American-Egyptian Cotton Growers' Association of 
Phoenix, .Vrizona, has been shipping 10,000 bales of Pima cotton 
to Los .Angeles warehouses, where it will be stored until the 
market regains its equilibrium. The growers state that many 
of them would be almost bankrupted if forced to sell at present 

The International Cotton League of the West, which includes 
growers in the United States and Mexico, is now fully organized, 
and it intends to aid in getting federal legislation or other assist- 
ance in stabilizing the industry, as well as in safeguarding crops 
and seeds from pests. In the league are also state entomolo- 
gists, state and county horticultural commissioners, and many 


Rubber footwear is gaining decidedly in popularity on the 
entire Pacific Coast, according to statements made by manu- 
facturers' agents and the leading jobbers in that section. The 
demand is actually 100 per cent over that of a year ago, say the 
dealers, whose chief worry now is not so much to sell as to 
deliver the goods. 

For the numerous beaches which line the 1,300 miles of Pacific 
littoral, and which are available the greater part of the year, 
there is a steadily-growing demand for women's canvas rubber- 
soled bathing shoes. Hitherto, they were made almost wholly 
in black and white uppers. This season, however, manufac- 
turers have not only made the duck shoes more attractive, but 
they have also introduced many novel effects in tinted satine 
uppers with corrugated rubber soles. Women's white shoes hav- 
ing a much longer season here, the wearers seek more variety in 
them. The belter class of women's sport shoes are now made 
quite as modish as leather footwear costing twice as much. 
They have finely-woven duck uppers, very flexible rubber soles, 
colored leather trimmings, and rubber-tipped high heels. An old- 
time objection that rubber shoes made the feet "smart" is said 
to be entirely removed by improved sole construction. 

The high cost of leather footwear is the reason why a great 
number of men in towns and cities are wearing white duck 
rubber-soled shoes. Not only have they found that they cost only 
half as much as leather, but also that the white shoes deflect 
the hot rays of the sun better than leather, that they are lighter 
and give the wearer a springier gait. Demand runs strong, 
especially among the younger men, for white duck shoes trimmed 
with brown or black leather for every-day use. .Among tennis 
players and athletes generally the canvas shoe with the suction 
sole is gaining favor, although many wearers of shoes with 
corrugated soles claim that when well made the latter are su- 
perior to "suctions." 

In connection with rubbers worn in the rainy or winter season 
here an cKid fact is noted. In the East, where downpours are more 
general and snow and slush often abundant, low-cut rubbers are 
in greatest detnand. Vet in tlie Pacific Coast cities where snow 
is a rarity and the rainfall light high-cut or storm rubbers are 
preferred by men, and skeleton or toe-hold rubliers by women. 

Rubber boots find ready sale among the fishermen who supply 

the great salmon canneries of the Northwest, the tuna packing 
establishments of the Southwest, in the logging camps, and in 
mining and rough construction work. 

A type of rubber boot which is being widely used for very 
heavy service has an upper of coated duck with a rubber-fiber 
composition sole, which, it is claimed has proved to be more 
wear-resisting than the tougliest leather. For mining work 
the boots are often ordered with the soles covered with 3/16-inch 
flat steel studs. Many mining and contracting concerns also use 
large quantities of rubber boots on wliich plain leather soles 
are nailed. 

In the logging camps, as well as on the big ranches and in 
tlie citrus groves where much irrigation is constantly carried on, 
high and low red, brown, and black bootees are strongly favored 
as light, tough, waterproof and durable footwear. They have 
cither stout rubber or composition soles with a heavy mail-bag 
duck upper, and with the toe given a 2-ply frictioned fabric 
box. These shoes have either strong linen or leather laces. One 
of the newer types of such shoes has a particularly well-made 
sole. It is constructed first with a rubber tap, then an inner 
rubber sole, two fillers, a treated shank and fiber sole, leather 
sock lining, a hollow, air-vented rubber heel, and finally a strip 
of light rubber, the whole being vulcanized to the canvas upper. 


Tlie luxury tax on shoes in Canada has been increased from 
ten to fifteen per cent on all shoes retailing above $9, to become 
effective when the entire budget with the proposed amendments 
has been dealt with. 

Direct exchange of parcel mails between Canada and France 
has now been resumed, Montreal and Havre being the terminals 
of the Canadian Pacific Ocean Services steamship line which acts 
as carrier. 

The United Rubber Co., Limited, Bathurst street, Toronto, 
Ontario, was reorganized in March last, with capital amounting 
to $1,000,000, and the following officers and directors: Henry 
Stanyon, president and general manager ; C. H. Stanyon, secre- 
tary-treasurer ; E. A. Pill, Dr. Shier, and G. Wooten, directors. 
Henry Stanyon was formerly president and manager of the K. 
& S. Tire & Rubber Goods, Limited, Weston and Toronto, 
Ontario. The L'nited company will manufacture tires and tubes, 
toy balloons, nipples and druggists' sundries. 

Professor A. B. Macallum has accepted the newly created chair 
of biochemistry at McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, and has 
resigned as administrative chairman of the Honorary Advisory 
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, to take effect as 
soon as his successor is appointed. He will, however, continue 
to be a member of the Council and take a considerable part in its 

The Oak Tire & Rubber Co., Limited, 19 Dundas Street East, 
Toronto, Ontario, has reorganized and increased its capital to 
$3,000,000. It took over the .Acme Tire & Rubber Co. and F. D. 
Law is managing director. The company's tires are sold under 
the trade mark "Royal Oak." 

.Arthur H. Marks, formerly with the United States Rubber 
Co., has acquired a large interest in the Van der Linde Rubber 
Co., Limited, Toronto, Ontario, and besides being on the di- 
rectorate is also vice-president of the company. Victor van der 
Linde. manager of the factory, was formerly associated with The 
B. F. Goodrich Co. as development manager. The Van der 
Linde Rubber Co. is one of the most prominent Canadian or- 
ganizations, and though it has other lines is particularly con- 
cerned in the manufacture of V. D. L. tires, the highest-priced 
made in Canada. The "V. D. L. Radio" cord made its first 
appearance on the market in 1918, the 30 by 3J^ and 31 by 4 
clincher • "Radio" cord being the original light-car cord made 
in Canada. 



November 1, 1920 


& Co., Limitcrd, London, 1919. (Boards, 184 pages, 6 by 9^j inches.) 

THE second edition, revised and enlarged, of a text book of the 
Harvey Frost process of vulcanization applied to the repair 
of motor tires. It contains chapters written by experts cover- 
ing every application of the process. Prcliminan,' hints are given 
on undertaking repairs, and tube and cover repairs are ex- 
haustively treated. There is an informative chapter on "The 
Care of Tyres" which includes standard inflation tables, etc. 
Condensed instructions in French and also in Spanish are a 
feature of the volume. 

lion. The Chemical Catalog Co.. New York. (Cloth, 1,450 pages. 
9 by 12 inches.) 

This valuable collection of chemical etigineering data is pub- 
lished annually under the supervision of an official committee 
appointed by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the 
American Chemical Society and the Society of Chemical In- 

The work covers every division of the broad field of the chemi- 
cal industries, the information being presented as follows: (1) 
by condensed and standardized catalog data of equipment, ma- 
chinery, laboratory supplies, heavy and fine chemicals and raw 
materials used in the industries employing chemical processes 
of manufacture ; (2) a general directory of such equipment and 
materials, classified and cross-indexed; (3) a technical and scien- 
tific book section, cataloging and briefly describing a practically 
complete list of books in English on chemical and related subjects. 


THE Peachy Process Co., Limited, 40 Gerard Street, London, 
W. 1, has recently issued a pamphlet covering matters re- 
lating to the capitalization of the company; the chief advantages 
of the Peachcy process of cold vulcanization; a short biography 
of the inventor ; and separate reports by Dr. Henry P. Stevens 
and Frederick Kaye on the technical value of the process and 
validity of the patents. These are followed by a brief historical 
review of Goodyear's hot vulcanization process and a state- 
ment of its drawbacks. 

The E.\ci-e-Picher Lead Company has issued a 16-page 
booklet listing the lead products which it manufactures, many 
of them being used largely in the rubber industry. The book- 
let is illustrated with half-tone illustrations of the various Eagle- 
Picher plant.i, and includes a graph showing the derivatives of 

.\t the Chemical Exposition recently held pj New York 
City, the Buffalo Foundry & Machine Co.. Buffalo, New York, 
distributed a booklet covering some recent developments in vacuum 
dryers, evaporators, vacuum pans, chemical equipment, etc. 
Many manufacturers of rubber goods are well acquainted with 
the "Buflovak" line of equipment and will be interested in its 
newer developments. 

The National Aniline & Chemical Co., Inc., New York 
City, manufacturer of dyestuffs and miscellaneous coal tar prod- 
ucts, has issued a handsome 24-page illustrated booklet containing 
a very readable brief history of the development of the American 
dyestuff industry, showing the important place this firm occupies 
in that field and presenting much information regarding its serv- 
ice and products for the treatment of textiles and rubber. The 
list of intermediates and other coal tar derivatives includes sev- 
eral accelerators, notably aniline oil and thiocarbanilide, much 
used in rubber manufacture. 

"Carspring," the latest catalog of belting and cotton 
' rubber-lined fire hose, published by the New Jersey Car Spring & 

Rubber Co., Inc., Jersey City, New Jersey, serves for a reference 
book as well as a catalog. It includes a technical discussion in 
regard to the construction of belts, together with data compiled 
from a series of tests made at Stevens Institute of Technology, 
Hoboken, New Jersey, and offers in handy form some valuable 
information for plant engineers and students of belting efficiency. 
The booklet is attractively printed in two colors and is adequately 

.The illustrated c.\talog of the Davol Rubber Co., Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island, is said to present the most complete line 
of druggists' sundries, hospital and stationers' rubber goods on 
the market today. It is printed on fine quality paper, profusely 
illustrated with cuts in color and black and white, and will be 
found by the buyer superior in many respects to a line of samples. 

An ATTRAcrrivE folder entitled "The A B C's of Refrigera- 
tion," issued by The Technical Products Co., 501 Fifth avenue. 
New York City, describes under the caption "The Technical 
Way" the high speed vertical single acting ring plate valve com- 
pressors which this company is handling. The Technical Products 
Co. deals in new and used equipment, the latter comprising large 
purchases from Government munitions plants. 


come to the Editor's desk, is The Planter, an illustrated monthlj 
paper, official journal of The Incorporated Society of Planters, 
and published by them at Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States. 
.As is but natural, the magazine is devoted mostly to rubber 
culture and its constant problems and activities, but its lighter 
side shows the characteristic trait of the Englishman to take 
his sports and his jests with him wherever he goes. The August 
issue contains among others, articles on "The Future of Rub- 
ber," "Brown Bast — the Mystery Still Unsolved," and "Sugar 
in Malaya." We wish success to The Planter. 

"Commercial VEiiia.ES of Great Britain, Volume II, 1920," 
published by The B. F. Goodrich Co., Limited, London, England, 
contains complete specifications of various types of trucks, char-a- 
bancs, etc., arranged to be of great value to manufacturers, deal- 
ers and users of commercial vehicles. Upwards of a hundred types 
of vehicles are considered, ranging from J4 to 6 tons normal 
capacity, or to 10 tons when used with trailer. 

.'Analysis of the various tire sizes used shows that out of six 
Ij'i-ton trucks considered, three preferred front tires measuring 
S60 by 90 mm. single (or 90 to 720 mm. rim), while three also 
agreed upon rear tires 860 by 90 mm. twin. In 2-ton trucks six 
out of twelve analyzed called for front tires 870 by 100 mm. or 
100 for 720 rims single, and rear tires twin of same dimensions. 
The same dimensions of tires were also popular with four out of 
seven 2J^-ton trucks analyzed. Three-ton trucks showed more 
diversity in tire sizes, five out of seventeen using front tires 900 
by 120 mm. or 120 for 720 mm. rims, while only two used the 
same rear tire size, 103 by 140 or 140 for 851 twin. Three VA- 
ton commercial vehicles used front and rear tires the same size, 
930 by 120 mm. or 120 for 771-mm. rims, the remainder of the 
eleven analyzed calling for many different tire sizes. Among the 
4-ton trucks, tire sizes varied still more, three preferring front 
tires 900 by 130 mm. or 130 for 720 rims, and two each front tires 
900 by 120 or 120 for 770 riins, and 880 by 120 or 120 for 720-mm. 
rims. Rear tires 1,010 by 120 mm. or 120 for 850 were chosen by 
two 4-ton trucks, while two others agreed upon 1,050 by 120 or 
120 for 881. 

The others among the nineteen 4-ton trucks analyzed showed 
wide variations, .\mong eighteen types of S-ton trucks there was 
more uniformity. Three each used front tires 900 by 160 or 160, 
for 720-mm. rims, and 880 by 120 or 120 for 720-mm. rims. For 
rear tires five used 1,050 by 160 twin or 160 for 850, and four 
used 1,030 by 140 twin or 140 for 850. Out of five 6-ton vehicles 
two used front tires 970 by 160 or 160 for 771 and rear tires 
1.050 by 160 or 160 for 850-mm. rims. 

November 1, 1920 



Goodrich tires are made in millimeter sizes as well as in inches 
as used in America, and are in great demand for British-made 

Other subjects of interest treated in the booklet are: A Stand- 
ard for Recording the Operating Costs of Commercial Vehicles, 
Lengthening the Life of the Motor Vehicle, Fifteen Helpful Sug- 
gestions for the Fitting and Detaching of Solid Band Tires, and 
Weights of Materials Commonly Hauled by Commercial Vehicles. 

"Markets of the World," published by the First National Bank 
of Boston, Massachusetts, comprises a series of economic maps 
and statistical abstracts of the principal countries of the world. 
The book, which is entirely original in character, has been com- 
piled by H. A Lyon of the bank's commercial service depart- 
ment and is tastefully and conveniently bound in loose-leaf form 
with black cloth covers stamped in gold. Owing to the special 
value of the volume to organizations devoted to foreign trade 
it has not been prepared for general distribution. 

EusHA S. Williams 


EUSHA Slade Converse Williams, vice-president in charge of 
the mechanical goods division and a director of the United 
States Rubber Co., New York, died October 8, at the Ossining 

Hospital, Ossining, N. Y., aged 
47 years. His death was a great 
shock and a profound sorrow to 
the host of friends both in and out 
of the organization, who knew and 
loved Mr. Williams. Funeral serv- 
ices at the Funeral Church, Broad- 
way and Sixty-sixth street. New 
York City, were conducted by the 
Rev. George Caleb Moor, pastor of 
the Madison Avenue Baptist 
Church. Burial was made at 
Maiden, Massachusetts, which was 
Mr. Williams' former home. 

Mr. Williams was born in 1873, 
and, a namesake of the late Elisha 
S, Converse, began his career in 
the rubber industry in 1891 with 
the Revere Rubber Co., Chelsea, 
Massachusetts. He was associated with this firm in various 
capacities, including those of treasurer and general manager, 
becoming a practical rubber manufacturer of exceptional execu- 
tive ability. Under his management the firm's annual output 
reached $6,000,000 in 1909, when the business was taken over by 
the United States Rubber Co. 

Thereafter Mr. Williams was an important factor in the suc- 
cessful growth of the United States Rubber Co. and its sub- 
sidiaries. In 1910 he became president, a director and member 
of the executive committee of the Rubber Goods Manufacturing 
Co„ following the death of Charles H. Dale; a director and 
member of the executive committee of the United States Rubber 
Co. ; a director and member of the executive committee of the 
General Rubber Co., and president of the Revere Rubber Co. 
Since that time he has held several official positions in a number 
of affiliated companies of the Rubber Goods Manufacturing Co., 
including the presidencies of the Mechanical Rubber Co. and 
the Hartford Rubber Works Co. He was also a director of the 
American Commerce Co. and the Eureka Fire Hose Manufac- 
turing Co. 

In 1911 Mr. Williams was instrumental in organizing the 
United States Tire Co., of which he was made president, to 
market its entire production. The same year he went to Europe 
and laid the foundation for the company's export tire trade. In 
1915 he resigned this office to devote his exclusive attention to 

the mechanical rubber business of the United States Rubber 
Co., of which he had for several years been in charge. 

As a member and for ten years a director of The Rubber 
.-Association of America, Mr. Williams was prominent in its con- 
structive work. When the War Service Committee of the Rubber 
Industry was organized early in 1918, to act as a point of contact 
between the industry and the Government, Mr. Williams was ap- 
pointed chairman of the mechanical goods commercial division, 
and under his leadership important recommendations were made 
tending toward much needed standardization in this line of goods. 
He was a member of the New York ."Xthlctic, Metropolitan, Union 
League and other New York clubs. 

Mr. Williams was a keen judge of men, a natural organizer, 
a business man to the core, yet possessed of a genuine but quiet 
friendliness. His passing brings wide-spread sorrow. 


Albert Siein, 54 years old, president and founder of A. Stein 
& Co., manufacturers of elastic goods in Chicago, New York and 
Toronto, died last month of pneumonia. Mr. Stein, who was 
born in 1866 in Germany, tame to this country in 1884, and 
three years later started business in Chicago. 


'I 'HE inquiries that follow liave already been answered; never- 
^ iheless they are of interest not only in shozmng the needs 
of the trade, but because of the possibility tliat additional in- 
formation may be furnished by those who read them. Tlie editor 
is therefore glad to Itave those interested communicate with him. 

(829) A manufacturer desires the address of a company 
that regrinds calender rolls in the factory. 

(830) A correspondent asks where he can obtain "Glugloss 
gelatin" in small quantities for investigative work in waterproof- 
ing fabrics. 


Addresses may be obtained from the Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce. Washington, D. C, or from the folloiiing 
district or cooperative otfices. Requests for each address should 
be on a separate sheet, and slate number: 

District Offices Cooperative Offices 

New York: 734 Customhouse. Cleveland: Chamber of Commerce. 

Boston: 1801 Customhouse. Cincinnati: Chamber of Commerce; 

Chicago: 504 Federal Building. General Freight Agent, Southern 

St. Louis: 402 Third National Bank Railway, 96 Ingalls Building. 

Building. Los .^URcles: Chamber of Commerce. 

New Orleans: 102O Hibernia Bank Philadelphia: Chamber of Commerce. 

Building. Portland. Oregon: Chamber of Com- 

San Francisco; 307 Customhouse. merce. 

Seattle: 848 Henry Building. Dayton, Ohio: Dayton Chamber of 


(33,795) A merchant in Ceylon desires to purchase bicycle 
lires and inner tubes. Quote c. i. f. Ceylon port. 

(33,819) An American firm which is the representative of 
a manufacturer's agent in Colombia desires to get into communi- 
cation with firms for the sale in that country of elastic webbing. 

(33,829) The representative in the United States of a manu- 
facturers' agent in Colombia desires to secure an agency for the 
sale of household and pharmaceutical rubber goods. 

(33,834) A commercial agent in Chile wishes to purchase 
rubber overshoes from manufacturers. 

(33.838) An import and export agent in Jugoslavia desires 
to establish commercial relations with firms handling rubber 
goods. Correspondence may be in English. 

(33.839) An industrial firm in Belgium desires to secure the 
agency for the sale of balata belting, and all industrial articles 
for the manufacture of rubber goods, waterproof fabrics, etc. 
Cash against documents. 

(33.843) The representative of a merchant in Haiti is in the 



November 1, 1920 

United States and desires to secure an agency for the sale of 
second-hand automobile tires. 

(33.866i A commercial agent in Hrazil desires to represent 
firms exporting industrial and pharmaceutical rubber goods. 
Quote c. i. f. Brazilian port or f. o. b. .American port. Terms, 60 
and 90 days' draft. Correspondence may be in English. 

(33.867) .A commercial agent in Brazil is in the market for 
automobiles, trucks and rubl)er goods. Quote c. i. f. Brazilian 
or f. o. b. American ports. Terms, 60 and 90 days' drafts. Cor- 
respondence may be in English. 


In a competition that centered the thoughts of more than 200,000 
high school students, their relatives and friends, upon good 
roads problems, which will Ic theirs to solve within the next 
few years, 16-year-old Katharine Flournoy Butterfield, of Weiser, 
Idaho, won the Harvey S. Firestone university scholarship for 
the best 500-word essay written in the Ship by Truck-Good 
Roads essay contest recently concluded. 

School children from every state in the Union competed under 
the supervision of educational authorities. The best essays were 
winnowed out by a process of elimination through city and 
state committees until the national committee, which sat in 
Washington, had before it only one essay from each state. 

The contest and prize was announced during National Sliip 
by Truck-Good Roads Week last May and was part of Mr. 
Firestone's contribution to its success. So great was the in- 
terest aroused by this effort to turn the thoughts of thousands 
of young people to one of the nation's greatest problems that 
motor companies, newspapers, magazine publishers and auto- 
motive associations gave hundreds of city and state prizes. 

R. J. C.\Ln\vELL Co.. Inc., manuf.-^cturers of tire f.vbrics, 15 
Park Row, New York City, has sent out a paperweight souvenir 
that has more weight than the heavy plate glass of which it is 
made. It is backed by two pertinent cartoons suggesting in- 

Distatcit, Columhtis, Ohio Star, Si. Loins, .Mus^ iiri 

A STfRY WiTHOfT Words Why Not Sit at the Small 

dustrial partnership and better cooperation between labor and 
employer, and on the reverse carries a few paragraphs by Mr. 
Caldwell on "Mutual Good Will," reprinted from The Survey. 
Such a reminder on one's desk, constantly giving out its good- 
natured silent message, probably has more psychological effect 
than many soap-box speeches. 

For the eight months January to, 1920, the value 
of rubber exports from London to the United States was $30,- 
242,036, as against $9,744,511 for the same period in 1919. Ex- 
ports of rubber in July, 1920, were $1,069,184 and decreased in 
August, 1920, to $590,005. 


\ice-Prcsident F. S. Wilson of the Thermoid Rubber Com- 
pany, Trenton, New Jersey, and San Francisco branch manager 
of that concern, certainly "started something" when, in a vigor- 
ous address at the recent convention in San Francisco of the 
National Traffic Officers .Association, he emphasized the im- 
portance of having automobile brakes officially and systematically 
inspected. Already plans are being made for securing legis- 
lation for the purpose in California, and the indications are that 
it will not be long before most of the other forty-seven states 
in the Union will enact laws along the lines suggested. The 
traffic officers of the country and the accident insurance com- 
panies can be depended upon to exert their influence toward 
getting the desired legislation, and public sentiment in favor 
of all "safety first" measures will aid the movement powerfully. 

It was pointed out by Mr. Wilson that w^hile the brakes on 
steam and electric railroad cars and on all factory, warehouse, 
and office building elevators are set up according to strict gov- 
ernment specifications and are regularly inspected, there ap- 
pears to be no effort made in any part of the country to apply 
the same safeguard to motor cars, which so tremendously out- 
number the .150,000 elevators in the United States and rival 
in number the railroad cars of the country. 

Mr. Wilson submitted statistics showing a remarkable re- 
duction in the number of steam railroad accidents since Congress 
in 1893 passed the law standardizing braking equipment and re- 
quiring periodical inspection. He predicted a correspondingly 
great decrease in automobile accidents (85 per cent of which 
are due to poor or misused brakes) if braking apparatus be reg- 
ulated properly by law. As an instance of the universal need 
of such regulation he cited the fact that in a recent test on 
numerous motor cars in the city of Oakland, 25 per cent of 
the brakes on the cars showed a practically worthless and poten- 
tially dangerous condition. 


Statement of the ownership, nianasemcnt, etc.. rei|uirecl hy the .\ct ot 
Congress of August J4, 191.;. of The iNDrA Rubber World, published 
monthly at New York, New York, for October 1, 1920, 
State of New York, leo . 
County of New York. P°' ' 

IJefore me, a notary public in and for the State and county aforesaid, 
personally appeared E. M. Hoag. who, having been duly sworn according 
to law, deposes and says that she is the business manager of The India 
Rubber World, and that the fallowing is, to the best of her knowledge and 
belief, a true statement of the ownership, management, etc., of the afore- 
said publication for the date shown in tlie al>ove caption, required by the 
.\ct of .-\u.cust 24. 1912. embodied in section 443, Postal Laws and Regula- 
tions, iirinted on the reverse (f this form, to vvit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, managing 
editor, and business managers are: 

Publisher. The India Rubber Publishing Co., 25 West F'orty-fifth street. 
New York City. 

Kdilor, Henry C. Pearson, 25 West Forty-fifth street. New York City. 

Managing Kdilor, Henry C. Pearson, 25 West Forty-fifth street. New 
Ycrk City. 

Hnsiness manager, 1^. M. lloag. 25 West Forty-liftb street. New York 

2. That the c-wners are: ((live names and addresses of individual 
owners, or, if a corporation, give its name and tlie names and addresses 
of stockholders owning or lulding 1 per cent or more of the total amount 
of stock.) 

lUnrv C. Pearson, 25 West Forty-fifth street, New York City, 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and ether security holders 
owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, mcrtgages, 
or other securities are: None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next ahrvc, giving the names of the owners, 
stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not only the list of 
stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the books cf the 
company but also, in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears 
upon the bni ks of the company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, 
the name of the person t)v corporation for whom stich trustee is acting, 
is given: also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing 
affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and condilitna 
under which stockholders and security holders who do not appear upon the 
books of the company as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity 
other than that of a bona fide owner; and this affiatit has no reason to 
believe that any other pcrsm, association, or corporation h,as any interest 
direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or ctlier securities than as so 
staled bv her. 

v.. M. HoAG, Business Manager. 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 29th day of September, 1920. 

Fredk. Sprenger, 


Ni tary Public. Westchester County. 
Certificate filed in New Yi rk County. 
New York County Clerk No. 188. Register's No. 2210. 
(My commission expires March 30, 1922.) 

November 1, 1920 



The Rubber Trade in Great Britain 

By Our Regular Correspondent 

THE TOPIC of the day is the low level to which raw ruliljcr 
has fallen, a level which has confounded the prediction made 
by experts a year ago that the price would go to three shil- 
lings per pound on the resumption of Continental buying. There 
is no need to say that the course of trade events in America, in 
conjunction with the Continental exchanges, has been the chief 
causes of the slump. The position is sufficiently patent to those 
who are really interested or concerned. Moreover, it is not the 
rubber manufacturer but rather the plantation shareholder who 
is adversely afifectcd by the slump in American tire manufacture 
and the reselling of raw rubber bouglit by .America. It is the 
large increase in London stocks which is causing concern, and 
much advice is being tendered to the plantation authorities as to 
the necessity for an immediate curtailment of output. 

In view of the present state of affairs it is somewhat surpris- 
ing that the pressure to realize share holdings has not been 
more pronounced, and it may be taken to indicate a feeling that 
ultimate recovery is certain. The threatened surplus of about 
40,000 tons at the end of 1920 has, of course, caused the Rubber 
Growers' Association much concern and it is not surprising that 
at the council meeting on September 24 it was decided to recom- 
mend that all producers eflfect a genuine reduction of 25 per cent 
of their estimated normal monthly output. Warehouse accommoda- 
tions being among the questions involved it is a logical argument 
that the trees provide by far the best storage until the com- 
modity can be absorbed by the trade. Naturally, consumers do 
not view the situation through the same glasses as the growers, 
and complaints are appearing in the press about the deliberate 
and combined attempts to keep up the price of rubber to the 
disadvantage of the motorist. It is averred that Stock Exchange 
manipulation is back of the rubber growers' move. Well, I sup- 
pose it is, as the rubber growers' shares are dealt with on the 
Stock Exchange. 


The announcement has just been made that the Board of Man- 
agement has selected J. D. Fry, M. Sc, of Bristol University, 
to assist the director of research, B. D. Porritt, in the important 
investigations in connection with the physical properties of rub- 
ber which are already under consideration. Mr. Fry was edu- 
cated at the Merchant Venturers' College, Bristol, and at Bristol 
University, of which he is a graduate. He subsequently received 
an appointment on the staff of the University as lecturer in 
physics, with sole charge of the junior physical laboratories. 
In addition to designing much of the intricate apparatus used for 
the expcriincntal work of his department, including an ingenious 
instrument for measuring minute gas pressures, he has pulilishcd 
numerous papers on a variety of scicntilic subjects. At the out- 
break of war he volunteered his service in the capacity of quar- 
termaster and radiographer in connection with Lady Paget's 
Hospital Unit, which he accompanied through the Serbian cam- 
paign, being awarded the Serbian Royal Red Cross and the Ser- 
bian Charity Cross decorations. On his return from Serbia he 
was appoinlcd to take charge of the radiographic department of 
the Welsh Metropolitan War Hospital, and in connection with his 
work there he devised a rapid method of locating foreign bodies 
without the use of photographic plates and also a skin marker 
which has been widely adopted. 

In 1916 the difficult problems arising in connection with balloon 
fabric rendered it necessary for the R. N. A. S. to seek the serv- 
ices of a competent physicist, and Mr. Fry was appointed senior 
research officer of the Research Staff. From this date until the 
termination nf hostilities Mr. Fry was occupied in investigating 

the many intricate questions arising in the manufacture, testing 
and use of balloon fabric, more especially in connection with the 
action of light on the physical properties of rubber. I under- 
stand that Mr. Fry h-s already entered upon his new duties, and 
the Research Association is to be congratulated on having se- 
cured the services of a man who is not only a sound scientist 
and skilful experimenter but who combines a considerable insight 
into the peculiar problems of the rubber industry. 


-A financial paper in commenting on the recent increase in the 
Dunlop Rubber Company's capital to £20,000,000 confessed that 
it was getting somewhat bewildered by Dunlop finance, .\lthough 
not yet on the scale of Lever Brothers' finance, the figures keep 
.steadily mounting. What with works in Birmingham, France 
and America, cotton mills in Lancashire, and rubber estates in 
the East, there has indeed been a startling progress since the 
days of Byrne Brothers at Birmingham. The increase of capital 
has been effected by the creation of 12.500,000 additional ordinary 
£l-shares. Some i;7,50O,0(X), representing premiutns received on 
shares and undistributed profits, is to be distributed as a bonus 
to shareholders in the proportion of three to one. Of the bal- 
ance, 3,0(X),000 is to be offered to existing holders of shares at 
the price of il.10.0 per share. The financial position certainly 
seems very satisfactory, showing a considerable increase on the 
previous year. 


The trading profit of this company for the past year shows 
a decline of £4,700, as compared with the high level of 1918-19, 
but as a larger sum was brought forward and it is not thought 
necessary to devote so much to depreciation, bad and doubtful 
debts, etc., the sum actually available is larger. The dividend 
is 15 per cent for the fifth successive year, but it is payable now 
upon a larger capital, although the 125,000 shares issued last 
.'Vpril do not participate in it. No allocation is made to reserve 
this year. 

J. Mandlcberg Co., Limited, has declared an interim dividend 
for the first half of 1920 at the rate of 10 per cent on the ordinary 
shares up to 300,000. The recently created capital docs not share 
in the above declaration. 


The present world shortage of camphor threatens to create 
a serious position in Sheffield, where its use in celluloid for mak- 
ing knife handles and razor hafts has developed ten-fold in the 
last fifteen years. Sheffield's yearly requirements of celluloid 
are now estimated at between 400 and 500 tons, representing half 
a million sterling in value, and millions of dozens of celluloid 
handles, scales, etc., are on order to provide for the cutlery out- 
put of the next six to twelve months. This situation obviously 
presents an opportunity for hard rubber manufacturers. 


A rather important case was recently before the Manchester 
stipendiary magistrate in which a rubber worker who had been 
discharged without notice sued the firm for a week's wages. 
The firm's solicitor said that the usual custom in the rubber trade 
was that no notice was given on either side. The magistrate 
expressed surprise at this and adjourned the case for the firm 
to bring evidence supporting this statement. .\t the resumption 
of the case witnesses from three firms testified as to it being the 
custom not to give or require notice, although in none of the 
works was there any notice posted up to this effect. On this evi- 
dence the plaintiff's claim was dismissed. The result of the case 
has been that some of the rubber works have put up prominent 



November 1, 1920 

notices to the eflfcct that no notice is given or required. This 
summary procedure, which is by no means common in our in- 
dustries generally, seems to have had its origin in the tendency 
of a workman under a week's notice to go back or possibly to do 
damage to a serious amount. It is the few black sheep among 
the hands that have caused manufacturers to apply this rule to 
workmen generally. 


In a recent British report on progress in the chemistry of oils 
and fats I read that a new use for lead oleate is reported from the 
United States, where it has been used successfully to prevent 
tackiness in manufacturing rubber goods. It is further stated 
that the consumption for this purpose amounts to about one mil- 
lion pounds a year. I do not remember seeing any reference to 
this in rubber technical literature. The lead soap takes the place 
of the ordinary soap which is used by the web mixers in pre- 
paring the dough in proofing works. 

The writer recently had the pleasure of a call from John 
Young, chief chemist of the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co.. Akron, 
Ohio, and allowed him to depart without the ordeal of an "inter- 
view" on the general conditions of the American rubber trade. 
On the scientific side Mr. Young was informative on the continu- 
ous progress which is being made in American works in the way 
of laboratory equipment. 

A good index of the extent to which sponge rubber manufac- 
ture has attained is the large amount of waste now arriving at the 
reclaimers' premises. This does not consist of individual sponges 
collected from bath rooms but of factory clippings. Sponge rub- 
ber is not limited to its original use but is employed for making 
a variety of rubber goods, hence the increased volume of waste 

A business meeting to be followed by a luncheon is to be held 
at the Queen's Hotel, Manchester, on October 8, in connection 
with the proposed Rubber Club. It is reported that the initiation 
of the club is progressing satisfactorily, though from what I hear 
in the trade there is likely to be considerable opposition to the 
proposal that agents, travelers, holders of junior posts in works, 
etc., shall be eligible for membership. In fact, the fixing of a 
datum line as to eligibility seems likely lo prove a difficult matter. 

At a recent Government auction of boots all the leather quali- 
ties went off easily, while no satisfactory bid was obtained for 
the rubber boots and galoshes. I suppose buyers were afraid 
of having them left on their hands, as rubber footwear has not 
really made much progress in this country in popular estimation. 

Walter Wild has severed his connection with the Victory Rub- 
ber Co., Leyland, maker of rubber fiber boot soles. 

S. J. Peachey is to read a paper on his cold vulcanizing pro- 
cess at the Manchester Section of the Society of Chemical In- 
dustry in November. 

Horsfall & Bickham, Limited,, Pendleton, Manchester, maker 
of rubber-faced and composition card clothing, has just com- 
pleted a large extension to its wire-drawing department and 
made other alterations to the works, which were founded in 1S35. 
H. H. Worthington is the chairman of directors and P. C. Briggs 
managing director. There are several firms in Yorkshire which 
buy card cloth foundations, card and reed wire steel points, etc., 
from the few manufacturers who do the whole of the processes, 
and then they assemble the parts into the finished article. Prob- 
ably there are not as many as half a dozen works in England 
where the whole process of wire drawing and rubber manufacture 
is carried on by the same firm. 


.Anticipating a large increase in the demand for tires and other 
rubber goods, the Americans were heavy crude rubber buyers 
last autumn and in the early months of this year, and as it 
turns out, the rubber mills have over-manufactured. Transpor- 
tation difficulties, the limitation of credits and failure of an- 
ticipated tire demands, however, beset manufacturers who now 
hold unusual stocks. We have learned that work forces are 
greatly reduced in American factories. 

The position is much the same in this country. High taxa- 
tion — especially the increase in excess profits duty — and labor 
unrest have created uncertainty and thereby limited devel- 
opment. It is unlikely that British manufacturers will take as 
much crude rubber m 1920 as they did in 1919, and the defi- 
ciency may reach, if it does not exceed 10,000 tons. Nor can 
it be said that the immediate prospects are encouraging. The