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Instruments of the Modern 

Orchestra & Early Records 

OF THE Precursors of the 

Violin Family 



In Two Volumes — \' ol. II 

Vol. I. Modern Orchestral Instruments. 

Vol. II. Archaeological Records. Researches into the Remote Origin 

of the Violin Family ; a Bibliography of Music and Archaeology 

Enghsh and Foreign) and copious Indices to the two volumes. 


William Reeves 83 charing cross road 


VH— A 

Printed by The New Temple Press, Croydon. 






With over 200 Illustrations and Plates, 

A Bibliography of Music and Archaeology 

And Indices to the Two Volumes 

[^Forming Vol. II of " The Instruments of the Modern 

Orchestra and Early Records of the Precursors 

of the Violin Family."^ 


William Reeves, 83 charing cross road. w.c. 

Plate I. , 
IvoRi Caevixg fhom the Binding op the Psalter of Lotuaiu. IXth t'i;NTURY 
AT ArmitageBkidqe HorsE. 

PhiitiKjni jih present rd hij the late Sir Tlioinax lironlce. 



Of all the arts, music is by far the most popular and the 
dearest to man, because her language, that of the soul, is under- 
stood by all; she succeeds where all others fail in expressing 
thoughts, feelings, and longings unutterable in words. We 
enjoy and prize the orchestra in these days; it cannot, there- 
fore, be without interest to us to look back and see how it was 
evolved through countless ages, and what it cost of life-long 
study and energy to bring each family of instruments to its 
present stage of development. 

The want of a comprehensive system of notation, for which 
tradition made but a poor substitute; and the fact that a proper 
understanding of many natural laws, sciences, and industries 
was necessary for the construction of musical instruments, are 
the circumstances chiefly responsible for the slow growth of 
music as compared to that of her sister arts; to these must be 
added the disadvantages of civil and foreign wars and the 
iconoclastic fury of the fanatics which led them to destroy 

2 B 


invaluable MSS., pictures, and records of music and musical 
subjects; the chain once broken, the links had to be forged 

With regard to music, each of the great civilizing powers of 
the world has gone over more or less the same ground, reaching 
its apogee, declining and falling; the progress of music in 
each has been observed to vary according to the character of 
the race, its geographical position, and its internal history. 
The civilizations with which we are concerned in tracing the 
precursors of our modern instruments and more especially of 
the violin family are the Egyptian, Assyrian, Chaldean, 
Persian, Hindoo, Arab, Greek and Roman ; the Chinese 
and Japanese have had absolutely no influence on the 
development of our European instruments. The boundary 
line of historic and pre-historic Egypt has been placed by 
modern Egyptologists somewhere about 5,000 B.C., and among 
the earliest records are to be found representations of primi- 
tive harps, which argues a high degree of civilization, for the 
order in which musical instruments have been observed to 
develop is f i) percussion, (2) wind, (3) strings. Greece, who 
was chiefly instrumental in introducing the art into Western 
Europe, owed much of her knowledge of music and musical 
instruments to Egypt, and still more to Asia. 

Her ideals of musical art and of its uses were of the most 
exalted character ; hence the unique position which the art en- 
joyed, and the numbers of treatises and references to music 
by the Greeks which are extant. Music, both with Egyptians 
and Greeks, formed part of the religious rites; it was in 
request at all festivals, religious, civil, and social. 

The origin of musical instruments is wrapped in obscurity, 
and many are the difficulties in the way of tracing their past 
history. The earliest sources of information, but by no means 
the most satisfactory, are sculptured and painted representa- 
tions of the instruments. Here one is at the mercy of the 


artist, who, even at the present day, often sacrifices truth in 
delineation to artistic fancy; he is seldom a musician as well, 
and many little details are left out, which to him appear un- 
sightly or insignificant, but which to the antiquarian musician 
are of the utmost importance. By far the most valuable are 
the MS. treatises on music and musical instruments, unfor- 
tunately few in number. 

Relics of the instruments themselves are so few and in such 
a bad state of preservation that they help but little to fill the 
numerous gaps in the history of the various families. 

Perhaps one of the most serious difficulties in the way of 
the inquiring antiquarian of the present day is that writers 
on music have been so often tempted to derive their informa- 
tion from the works of other writers, without going directly 
to the sources or taking the trouble to verify statements for 
themselves, thus multiplying errors. Faulty drawings from 
sculptures and paintings have been propagated in the same 


The Precursors of the Violin Family. 

To trace in detail the history of each of the precursors of 
our modern instruments would be beyond the scope of this 
little work, which is intended to set clearly before the reader 
the various steps in the evolution of these instruments, and the 
links which are still wanting to complete the chain; further, 
to interest the reader in the subject and induce him to in- 
vestigate it more fully himself. 

The order in which musical instruments have developed 
in all civilizations has been observed to be as follows : — 

(i.) Instniments of Percussion. 

(a.) Of indefinite sonorousness such as rude drums, rattles, 

(b.) Of definite musical pitch, ancient cymbals, bells, 
kettledrums, etc. 

(2.) Wind Instruments. 

(a.) Wood Wind : such as pipes, flutes, shawms. 

( b. ) Brass wind : trumpets, horns, trombones (sackbuts). 

(3.) Stringed Instruments. 

(a. ) Twanged by fingers or plectrum, with open strings : 
lyres, harps, psalteries, etc. 

With stopped strings : guitars, lutes, some crottas, 
crwths, etc. 


(b.) Instruments vibrated by a bow : the rebab, rebec, 

viol, fi-thele, guitar fiddle, etc. 
(4.) Keyboard Instruments. 
(a.) With pipes : organs. 
(b) With strings : dulcimers, hurdy gurdys, harpsichords, 

clavichords, pianos, etc. 

The origin of the violin family is obscure, and it is only 
by conjectures, analogies, and inferences that we are able to 
proceed in tracing the instrument. 

But very few relics of these instruments have come down to 
us : as better models were made, the old ones were destroyed 
or discarded; the very construction of the instruments in their 
ruder state was inimical to preservation for any lengthened 
period. We are obliged to rely on the descriptions of the 
writers of the middle ages, which unfortunately are meagre 
and obscure in the extreme. 

Stringed instruments were introduced to the nations of 
Western Europe from two great sources, which, if I mistake 
not greatly, started from one common fount, Egypt : or was 
it Assyria? 

The Greek civilization and arts were carried by the Romans 
to Western Europe, including Great Britain, at the beginning 
of our era, and all musical instruments known in Europe before 
the beginning of the eighth century, when the Saracens con- 
quered Spain (711 A.D.) and implanted their civilization in the 
west, must, with few exceptions, have been made known by 
the Greeks or Romans. 

It is after that period that our difficulties commence, for it is 
well nigh impossible to assign a correct and certain origin to 
instruments that are known by name only, or at best from the 
miniatures in illuminated MSS. ; from paintings and sculp- 
tured representations, many of which are known to have been 
restored. The reader has already been reminded how untrust- 
worthy these are ; Art, besides, was at a low ebb during the first 


centuries of the middle ages. We must add to these disad- 
vantages the fact that names of instruments have been applied 
in different centuries and countries seemingly haphazard to 
very differently constructed specimens, showing that no well 
defined laws or models for the manufacture of these instru- 
ments existed during the middle ages; it is only when we 
reach the viol period that we find fundamental laws and unity 
of design. As treatises on music were all written in Latin 
during the middle ages, we have not even the names of the in- 
struments in the different languages to guide us in our re- 
searches, for the nearest Latin equivalent was used instead. 

An important question in the history of the violin is to find 
out whence came the use of the bow, which is just as much a 
matter of conjecture as the rest, and to what instruments it was 
at first applied. 

It has been suggested with reason that the absence of the bow 
in the sculptures and paintings of the ancient Egyptians and 
Greeks is no proof that it was unknown to them.* 

We all know the excruciating effect of a badly-made or 
handled bow, so that we need not wonder that the crude, early 
bows (see Fig. i), if they had them, were not looked upon with 
favour by nations of such aesthetic tastes as the Greeks and 
Romans, who had reached such a high development in other 
arts. They naturally preferred to continue to twang the 
strings of their favourite instruments, the citharas and lyres, 
with their fingers, or to pluck or strike them by means of a 

Fig. 1. 
Primitive Bow, as used by Hindoos and Arabs with their earliest bowed instruments. 

Before beginning to trace the progressive steps in the history 

(* Engel, Researches into the early History of the Violin Family.) 


of the violin, it will be well to glance at the various parts of 
the modern instrument and bow, in order that we may be able 
to grasp the various points of resemblance and divergence in 
the numerous precursors, and to form for ourselves an inde- 
pendent opinion as to the probable ancestry of the violin 

Beginning at the lower end of the violin (Figs. 2, 3, and 4), 
we have the volute called the scroll (A), with (B) the cheeks of 
the scroll forming the walls of the peg-box (C); this scroll is 
characteristic of the i6th century instruments. The head, com- 
posed of the scroll and peg-box, must be carefully observed in 
comparing the different mediaeval specimens of stringed instru- 
ments, and particularly the manner ni which the screws or pegs 
are inserted in it. 

The pegs (D), four in number in violins, violas, and violon- 
cellos, three, four, or five in double-basses, serve to tighten or 
slacken the strings which are wound round them, and are in 
the precursors sometimes inserted alternately in the sides, some- 
times all on one side; in other cases they are to be found on the 
under side or even on the front of the head. 

The fen ger board (e), which lies flat on the neck, but 
stands away from the soundboard, (see Fig. 12), plays 
a most important part in the development of the violin; 
by means of it, strings which would otherwise be open 
as in the lyre can be stopped by the fingers. Fingerboards 
may have frets as in the modern guitar, but their absence 
is a proof of higher development, showing that the ear 
is a sufficient guide in finding the true intonation ; frets 
might be compared to the lines ruled to assist a beginner 
in keeping his writing straight. What appears to be a finger- 
board may be all in one piece with the body of the instrument, 
then it is simply the neck, as in the rebec (Fig. 6) and gigue 
(Fig. 7), or it may begin with the neck at the shoulders of the 
instrument as in many early viols, and fitheles (Fig. 8). 

F'C. 2. 
Tlie ruoileni Violin. 


The neck (f) (see diagram of the back view, Fig. 5), which 
is fastened to the body by means of the button (G), supports 
both the scroll and the fingerboard (notice the adjustment ui 
Fig. 5) ; it is found of various lengths and widths according to 
the number and thickness of the strings. Some early rebecs, 
crowds, rottas and crwths had no neck (Fig. 9), the head was 
fastened to the shoulders. 

The belly or soundboard H), forming the uppermost part of 
the body, is slightly and delicately arched; it is difficult to find 
out from mediaeval drawings of instruments whether 
the soundboard is arched and how much ; if the 
drawing is in outline, it will appear quite flat (as does 
my diagram), and if shaded, only a first-rate artist 
could accurately represent the true arch of the sound- 
board. Rebec. 

T-i 7/\- II- 1 ■ ^■ c -1 in 13th Century 

ihe back (I) is arched in the violm ramily and nat ArumieiMs. 
in that of the viols; vaulted in the lute and man- LatinPsaiter 
doline (Fig. 10), rebec, gigue. crowds and lyres.* ' "^*" 

The pnrfling (j) is a delicate little moulding bordering both 
belly and back of the instrument. 

The edges (K) project over the sides or ribs, and are called 
upper bouts (y), round the shoulders ; centre bouts (X), at the 
incurvations, and lower bouts (z), from the latter to the tail- 

The corners (l) are strengthened from within by means of 
the four corner-blocks, i^ inches thick, which fill in the corners, 
and lie closely upon the inside between the soundboard and 
back; these were not found in any of the precursors except the 
viol (which differed from the vielle in this respect). 

The // sound-holes (n) form the chief distinctive feature of 
the violin. Readers will notice how various are shapes of the 

■* indications of distinctive features accompanying the parts of 
the violin are preliminary; the subject will be treated more fully further 


sound-holes, and their number and position in the precursors; 
this being a point of great importance, more will be said on 
the subject hereafter. 

The bridge (o) (see Fig. ii) is again an important feature, 
and will be observed to be present in some lyres, in most 
fitheles (when absent in paintings it has probably been 

U igue from an ornament 
on a Chasuble at Sens, 
11G5A. D.Shaw: "Dresses 
and Decorations of the 
Middle Ages." 

rig. s. 

Vit'Ue or Fiddle. 14tli Century 
W Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 27695. 
From a "Treatise on Virtues 
and Vices," bv a Genoese. 

F>g. J. 
The Violin. Front View. 

overlooked by the artist). The use of the bridge is to transmit 
to the soundboard the vibrations of the strings, and to raise 
the latter into a convenient position for bowing or twanging; 
bridges are accordingly flat or arched. 

The ta'il-'piece (P) is pierced with sufficient holes to receive the 
strings; in the precursors, these tail-pieces varied very greatly 
in shape, length, and position (see Figs. 7, 8, 12), and in 


some specimens even appear to have been absent altogether, 
while in others, curiously enough, the delineator seems to have 

F/.'. 9. 

Rebec. 14tli 

Century. Brit. 

Mus. Add. MS. 


The Violin. Side View. 

Fig. 5. 
The Violin. Back Viev 

Fi:: U. 

Modern Violin Bridge. 

represented the tail-piece in the middle of the soundboard 
(Fig- 9)- 

The tail-pin with the rest (Q) is the kind of button to which 


the tail-piece is attached by means of a loop made from a gut 
string (generally a D tenor or viola string), which the ebony 

Fif;. 10. 
Modern Mandoline. 

rest supports at the edges of the violin, thus protecting them, 
and preventing the rubbing or chafing that would otherwise 
result from the tension of the loop. 



The nut (S) is a small strip of ebony which forms a little 
bridge between the peg-box and the fingerboard, and is pro- 

F^g. 12- 
Viola," nth cent. Sloaiie MS. 3983, Brit. Mus. 

vided with small grooves to receive the strings and raise them 
clear of the fingerboard. The shoulder (T) is the base of the 
neck where it fits on to the body of the violin round the button 
(G), which is cut in one piece with the back and not added. 




The Question of the Origin of the Violin. 

On this subject there have been many and diverse opinions at 

all times; on account of the prominence of the violin in the 

■orchestra, and the favour it justly enjoys amongst musicians 

and amateurs, those opinions must 

ever form an interesting literature; 

since, even should the conclusions 

arrived at by the different writers not 

be in accordance with our own, many 

important facts and details are thus 

brought to our notice. 

Two principal and diametrically 
opposed theories exist on this subject 
at the present day : the 
first derives the violin 
from the Greek lyre (Fig. 
13) through the inter- 
mediary of the mono- 
chord and its successor 
the tromba-marina, the 
crwth, crowd, viol, and /r,^. /j_ 

vinlin IpTvino" fhp Mnnri^h Chelys Testudo or Tortoise) Lyre, 15th cent. b.c. 
VlOim, leavnig me iVlOOriSn 3rd Vase Room. Case 31, E 191. Brit. Mus. 

rebab out of the question. 


This theory may aptly be represented by the following genea- 
logical table.* 


Lyre ilonochord 

Crwth Hiirdy Gnrdy Marine Trumpet 

I Rebec | 
Crowd I Geige 

Troubadour Fiddle 

Viol, Viola da Gamba, Violone, or D. Bass 


Lyra Viol d'Amore Violin, Tenor Violin 

Lirone Violoncello, or Bass 


The second theory derives the violin from the East through 
the Moorish rebab introduced into Spain in the eighth century ; 
this descent can be aptly represented by Mr. Edward Heron- 
Allen's genealogy of the violin.f 

















* Copied from Mr. E. J. Pajaie's article on the violin in Grove's 
Dictionary of Music ami Musicians. 

I Violin Making as it was and is. 


Primitive Lyre 

Barbitos Bridged Lyre 

I I 


Crwth, Tnthant 


After mentioning these opinions, it is with diffidence that I 
venture to set forth the conclusions at which I have arrived 
after careful investigation and consideration of the point in 
question, taking no statement on trust, but gomg when possible 
to the original sources for information. 

These conclusions rest upon two main points : 

(i) The shape of the sound chest of the violin : shallow with 
ribs connecting the front and back resonating tables, which is 
also characteristic of the Asiatic kithara, the Greek cithara, 
the guitar of troubadour fiddle, and the vielle of the Middle 
Ages; and of the viol. 

(2) The derivation of all these names from the cithara, i.e. 

Cithava* or Fidicnla* 

Kithara. or Githara | | 

Guitra or Cuitra Mhiiela — Fythele 

Guitarra Videi or Fidel 

Guitar Vielle Fiddle 


(* See San Isidore's "Etymologiarnm," Lib. III., Cap. 21.) 

The bow first of all, whose history has been considered to 
be identical with that of the violin, was undoubtedly, judging 
from the best evidence we possess, (see Chapter III. on Plec- 
trum and Bow) first introduced to the Western Civiliza- 
tion from the East, at what date is uncertam, but possibly by 
the Moors in the 8th Century. Although the bow was pro- 
bably first used in Europe with the rebab (Fig. 14) it was ap- 
plied to many other instruments formerly twanged either by 



Fig hi. 

Moorish Rebab, 

/ ncient and Modern. 

the fingers or with a plectrum, and that 
before the immediate descendants of the 
rebab — the rebec and the gigue — had 
attained to any development which could 
bring them into touch with the violin. 
What is it that constitutes the distinctive 
and most important characteristic of the 
violin ? Some will say the boiv, because 
of the increased beauty of tone which it 
gives, and of the legato style and variety 
of expression which it makes possible. 
But if that be the case, why not have been 
content to use the bow on the vielle, or 
even on the rebab ? 

It seems to me that by far the most im- 
portant feature of the violin is the shape 
and construction of its soundchest, which alone places it far 
above all other stringed instruments, as would be seen if we 
compared its pizzicato and legato with those of the rebec and 
Moorish rebab. 

What was the verdict of the middle ages with regard to 
those two classes of bowed, stringed instruments, i.e., that with 
vaulted soundchest and no ribs, represented by the rebec (Fig. 
15) and gigue; and that with parallel soundboard and back 
connected by ribs, represented by the vielles (Fig. 16) or viols 
and guitar-fiddles? In France, there was actually an edict 
forbidding the use of viols (or vielles) in taverns and lov^' 
places on acount of the superiority of the instrument and of 
its use by the best musicians, but on the other hand permitting 
that of the rebec — which was despised by musicians of 

We have in all countries evidences of the sharp, disagreeable 

tone of the rebec; its place in the musical world was always a 

low one. 

2 C 



"El rave (rebab or rebec) gritador con su alta nota" ("The 
shrill rebec with its high note." This line occurs in a Spanish 
poem written in 1330 by Jean Ruiz, archipreste de Hita, 
in an enumeration of the musical instruments used in his day. 

Fig. 15. 
Rebec. Spain, 14th century. From an Altar Piece. Real Aoadeniia de la Historia, Madrid. 

(see p. 26). This is said of the instru- 
ment 600 years after its introduction 
to Western Europe, during which time 
very little development is observable. 
Leaving the bow aside, then, in de- 
termining the ancestry of the violin, 
since it was applied equally to manv m- vieiie or tidme, ntu century. 

-^ Add. MS. ^7695. Brit. M us. From 

StrumentS which before were twano"ecl a " Treatise on virtues and 

'^ ' Vices, "by a Genoese. 



such as crowds, rottas, crwths and guitars, we must consider 
which of the instruments of the ancients possessed in the 
greatest degree the characteristics of the violin. 

The soundchest, as has been before said, is the most im- 
portant of all characteristics, and there are two great classes of 
sound-chests to be found in stringed instruments : Firstly, the 
simplest and earliest form, having a vaulted back which, in 
primitive instruments, was cut out of a single block of wood, 
to which the soundboard of skin or wood was glued. 
Secondly, the soundchest composed of two parallel, flat or 
only very slightly arched, resonating tables, joined by sides of 
equal width called ribs. This type of soundchest was 
originally made in one piece in the ancient Kitharas. (See 
Fig. 165 and explanation in Chap. IX.) 

Among the most ancient stringed instruments known in any 
civilization (the antiquity of the Ravanastron (Fig. 17), it 
must be remembered, is only traditional, 
and absolutely unproved) are the lyres, 
which have existed from the earliest ages in 
various shapes and sizes, furnished with a 
variable number of strings, and designated 
by many different names. 

The primitive lyre — chelys in Greek (Fig. 
13 and 18) and testiido in Latin — was ori- 
ginally made from the shell of a tortoise, 
over which was glued a soundboard of 
parchment or wood, forming a concave or 
vaulted soundchest. 

The cithara or kithara (Fig. 19) preserved 
the general characteristic of the above, but 
its construction showed a great advance; the 
soundchest here consisted of two parallel 
tables joined by sides or ribs of uniform width 

Fig. 17. 

Hintloo Kavaiiastron. 

Snnnerat, " Voyages 

aux Indes Orientales." 

Vol. I. 



In these two classes of instruments were to be found in 
addition at their apogee: bridge (Figs. 19 and 20), soundholes, 
tail-piece, pegs (Fig. 21), or their equivalent, purflings (Fig. 22), 
and perhaps fingerboard — all, as w411 be observed, features of 
the violin of sufficient importance to warrant our following 
the trail. 

Fig. IS. 
Clielys Lyre. 5th Century n.c. Brit. ilus. 3rd Vase Room, E 374. 

Of these two, the cithara (Fig. 23) we know was of Asiatic 
origin; its name exists still in Chaldee, chetaraJi or ketharah; 
in Arabic, kitJiara; in Nubia, it is kissar ; delineations of it 
have been found in Assyria, and Strabo, the historian and 
geographer (born B.C. 63), says that authors constantly quote 
the " Asiatic kithara." 

Centuries later we hnd in Europe, among the precursors of 
the violin, two classes of instruments corresponding to the 
lyre and cithara in their characteristic soundchest, and both 
■played with the boiu. 



Fig. 19. 
Cithara. From a Greek Vase. 
Thos. Hope; "Costumes of 
the Ancieuts," Vol. II., p. 192. 

Fig. 20. 
Bridged Lyre— with soundholes, 
tail-piece, and ring contrivance for 
tightening the strings over the 
cross-bar. Thos. Hope : " Costumes 
of the Ancients," Vol. II., p. 209. 
(From a Greek Vase.) 

Fig. 21. 
Cithara with pegs, bridge, sound- 
holes and tail-piece. Thos. Hope: 
"Costumes of the Ancients," Vol. 
I., p. 113. Found atHerculaneum 

Fig. 22. 

Cithara showinp- nur- 

flings and pegs. Rome 

Museo. Capitolano. 

Clarac : Tom. III., 

PI. 490. 



(i.) The Vaulted soundchest, zvithout ribs, like a vertical 
section of half a pear — such as the rebab, rebec (Fig. 15), 
gigue, crwth, etc. 

(2.) The Shallow soundchest, ivith ribs — like the guitar- 
fiddle (Fig. 16) or vielle. 

Fig. 23. 

Primitive Asiatic Kctharah, Botta : " IVIoinmieiits de 

Niiiive," Vol. II , PI. 102. 

The question is, where did these instruments (found in 
delineations of the iith Century) come from, and how were 
they evolved ? 

The cithara was as great a favourite among the Romans as 
it had been among the Greeks. Traces of it, as well as of the 
chelys lyre, are to be found in all countries that have at any 
time fallen under the denomination of the Romans; therefore 
instruments with vaulted and shallow soundchests found their 
way to the various countries of Europe before the conquest 



of Spain by the Moors, and there developed m due course of 

Let us consider, then, what is known 
of stringed instruments in Europe before 
711 A.D. Besides the various kinds of 
lyres and citharas, the Romans knew of 
the instrument represented in Fig. 24, of 
which there are three independent delinea- 
tions in sculpture extant, two being in the 
Louvre and one at Girgenti. (See Fig. 

Mr. Carl Engel, in his Early History 
of the Violin Family, p. 112, gives an il- 
lustration of the two women playing these 

curious instruments, that forms part of 
Fig. 24. ' 

Roman Instrument ot the the SCulpture On a SarCOphagUS.* 
Rebab and Lyre type ilyre t^i • ■ • , ^ r i_u u u l 

in transition) played by two This IS an mstrument of the rebab class, 
Kiris. ciarac: "Mus^edu boat-shapcd, with Vaulted back, and eight 

Louvre. No. 261, Vol. I., r ' ' ts 

^^- ^"^- or nine strings ; a sort of compromise be- 

tween the lyre and rebab, it betra\s 
oriental influence. 

The Romans have also left us sculptured representations 
of an instrument shown in Fig. 25, probably the pandoura, 
developed from the tamboura of the Ass}'rians or the nefer 
of the Egyptians, but having four pegs set in the back of 
the head in oriental fashion. 

The author was enabled by the kindness of the late Mr. A. 
S. Murray, of the British Museum, to And the instrument de- 

* Found among the ruins of Agrigente in Sicily, and now preserved in 
the Cathedral of Girgenti— of which a cast may be seen in the Sepulchral 
Basement of the British Museum, by applying to the authorities for 



picted in Fig. 25, and to sketch it from a bas-relief illustrating 
a scene from the myth of Eros and Psyche; this sculpture is 
thought to date from the reign of the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 

76 to 138) and is at present to be 
found in the Mausoleum Annexe at 
the British Museum. A little illus- 
tration of the above is published in 
Millin's Galeric Mythologique, Paris, 
1850, PI. 103, No. 409, in which, how- 
ever, the musical instruments are not 
correctly drawn. 

Further, I find an instrument of 
the lute tribe (Figs. 27 and 27A) in 
profile with three pegs inserted in 
the front of the head ; all these instruments have counterparts 
or prototypes among Asiatic instruments, from which they 
were unquestionably derived at some time or other; and they vaulted Foundchests with a varying number of strings 

Fig 25. 

. Pandoura or Taml)oura, with 
four pegs inserted from the back 
of the hea 1, in Oriental fashion, 
the strings being drawn througli 
holes in the neck and wound 
round the pegs, u Side view 
of the insirauiont showing the 
vaulted back. 



twanged by the fingers or with the plectrum. So far, I have 
not been able to trace a European instrument of the kithara 
class, showing a corresponding degree of development at that 
period, i.e., the 2nd or 3rd century A.D., although I have reason 
to believe that such existed and were known in Spain before 
the invasion of the X^'isigoths in the 5th century A.D. 

Fig. 26. 

Cithara and Lyre (in transition) from a bas-relief in the Louvre. No. 656. Clarac : " Miisee 
cle Sculpture," Vol. IL, PI. 119. Paris, 1826. 

This bas-relief has been drawn by various artists with valuations ; the instruments in this copy 
seem more carefully drawn than in the others, but the lute is incorrect (see Fig 108.) M. de 
Clarae declares the subject (of which Fig. '26 is only part) to represent Apollo and three muses 
(see Figs. 107 and 108.) 

In the article on Egyptian Music (Aegyptische Musik) in 
Mendel's Miisikalisches Conversation s Lexikon, Vol. ii, p. so, 
is depicted an Egyptian guitar with a waist, four soundholes, 
four strings, and a fingerboard ; the head is bent back as in 
the lute family, and four pegs are inserted in it lateralh'. 



Mendel assigns it a date between 1,700 and 1,200 B.C., but 
does not give his authority.* 

Before proceeding further, where does the 
word guitar come from ? In mediaeval Arabic 
it is cuitra or cuitara (see Y ocabidario Espanol- 
Arabigo, Tanger, 1892); it is the Kithara of 
modern Arabic, which I am told is to this da\' 
pronounced " githara " (with a hard " g " and 
the " th " as in theme) by the Arabs of North 
Africa, the very region from which the Moors 
of Spain issued. No doubt, an instrument s mil- 
iar to the Egyptian guitar mentioned above 
must have been introduced to the Spaniards b}' 
this name in the 8th century, since we finrl 
representations of it in a highly developed state 
in illuminated MSS. of the 13th and other cen- 
turies (see Figs. 28 and 29). 
A poem by Juan Ruiz, the Archipreste de Hita, written in 
the 14th century, contains an enumeration of musical instru- 
ments alluded to at the beginning of this chapter, in which 
these lines occur : 

" AUi salian gdtando, la Giiiturra Moris a, 
De las voces agudas e de los puutos arisca 
El covpiido lund (lute) que tiene punto a la trisca, 
La Giiitaria Lutina con estos se aprisca 
El rave gritador," &c. 

From this, we gather that the Moorish guitar, like the rave 
or rehab, had a shrill and harsh tone; from which we may 
infer that as there was likewise a Latin guitar, which is not 
spoken of in a disparaging manner, it is to that one, rather 
than the Moorish instrument, that our European guitars are 

Fig. 27. 
Instrument of the 
Jliute type found 
at Herculaneum. 
Thos.Hope: "Cos- 
tumes of the An- 

* It is probably the instrumeut shown in Fig. 171. 



When the Moors introduced 
their improved Kithara or Gith- 
ara into Spain, they found that 
the inhabitants already had a 
similar instrument obtained from 
the Romans, which, to distin- 
guish it from that of the Moors, 
was then called the Latin Guitar. 
It is probable that the " Guitarra 
Latina " was at first twanged by 
the means of the fingers or plec- 
trum, and that later, when the 
bow was applied to other stringed 
instruments such as the crotta, it 
was also used for the guitar, 
which we thenceforth designate 
as the guitar -fid die. 

Figures 28 and 29 are two of 

Fig. 28 

the 51 figures of instrumentalists Moorish Guitar. 13th Ceutury, from the 
-> o Cantigas de Santa Maria," in the 

from the beautiful Spanish MS. Esooriai Library, (j. b. 2.) 

known as the " Cantigas de 

Santa Maria " in the Escorial Library (J. b.2.) This MS. dates 
from the second half of the 13th century, and was compiled 
by King Alphonso the Wise. It consists of a collection of 
poems on devotional subjects, in Galician dialect, dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary, and set to music on five-lme stave. There 
are three distinct copies of the MS., all slightly different, one 
at the Bibl. Nac, Madrid, which formerly belonged to the 
Cathedral of Toledo, and two at the Escorial, which came 
from Seville Cathedral. I have obtained my drawings 
through the kindness of Mr. T. L. Southgate. The whole 
collection is to be seen in Critical and Bibliographical Notes 
on Early Spanish Music, by Juan F. Riaiio, published by 
Quaritch. A facsimile in colours of part of the Cantigas (J. 



b. 2) can be seen at the British Museum—" Academia, Madrid." 
Real Academia Esp. Cantigas de Santa Maria. Facsimile 
of MS. (Madrid, 1889, quarto 1872, c. 18.) 

Fig. 28 represents a Moor with 
an instrument, possibly the 14th 
century Giiitarra Morisca of the 
poem quoted above, since the tail- 
piece is crescent-shaped, and has 
the Oriental rose soundhole of the 
Arab lute, but in outline the Moor's 
instrument is strongly reminiscent 
of the ancient Egyptian nefer. 
See Fig. 31 and 32. 

Fig. 29 may be the " Guitarra 
Latina " of the same poem, for as 
the head is in the shape of a 
grotesque animal-head, it could not 
be Moorish, the Arabs being for- 
bidden by their religion to portray 
living objects. 

We learn, moreover, from quota- 
tions given in Hisioria de la Miisica 
Espafiohi, by Soriano Fuertes, vol. 
IV., chap. XXV'IIl., pp. 195 to 217, 
that the most distinguished Spanish antiquarians and musi- 
cians believe the guitarra latina to have been originally the 
Roman Fidicida, and that the Spaniards called it later vigola 
and vihuela (a corruption of Fidicula), words which were in use 
in the 14th century, and are to be found in the enumeration of 
the Archipreste de Hita (quoted in the above mentioned work 
by Fuertes), accompanied by the distinguishing terms " de 
mano " (hand) and " de arco " (bow), which were no doubt 
added when the bow was applied to the instrument. 

Fig. 29. 

Guitar, 13th century, from the same 

MS. as Pig. '28. 



< ^ 



-a -^ 




ifj " 



F ^^ 



c .t: 



- Q .=! -- 

"--' — - S o - 

t c = 
O S5 5: 

"3 -3l 


S K 


ce o 



On investigating the Spanish sources, I find in the Elymolo- 
giarium, Lib. III. Cap. 21, by San Isidore, an archbishop of 
Seville who lived in the 7th century, the following words : 


Fig. 30. 
Modern (Uiitar. 

" Veteres aut cilharas fidicula vel fid ice nominaverunt." Here 
at last is reliable evidence as to that much disputed instrument 




the fidicula, by one who lived not too long after the Romans 
to be able to give a trustworthy account of their instrument : 
It was simply the cithara. Therefore the above Spanish 
authors were quite right in their surmise; the guitarra latina 
was the fidicula (since guitarra is a corruption of cithara), and 
it was known in the middle ages as vihuela de arco or vihuela 
de mano. The same fidicula became ni Northern countries 
fidel and fythele, and the very names fiddle, vielle, viol, and 
violin, in their etymological history, which is identical, con- 
clusively reveal the ancestry of the violm. 

Thus we see that the Spanish guitar of the present da}- 
(Fig. 30) is the lineal descendant of the ancient ketharah of the 
East (Fig. 23); that in its development, its history and that 
of the violin are identical, until the moment when the bow 
was applied to it, then their paths diverge ; the guitar, 
which was never bowed by the Moors, retaining its name and 
characteristic of being twanged by the fingers; the other, 
the progressive, European guitar played with a bow, was called 
by the various derivatives of the Latin Fides, a string, and 
Fidicula, an instrument mentioned by the ancients (see Cicero 
Dc Natura Dcoritm, II., 8, 22) as being made of plane wood 
(maple) and having several strings. 

As to the derivatives, their name is legion ; in the south, the 
/ was softened to z\ and the vowels became sonorous; ap- 
pended are a few of them — 

Latin fidicula or fides 

Mediaeval Latin vitula 

Late Latin figella, fi'^ola 

French viele, vielle, viole 

Spanish viguela, vihuela, vigola 

Old High German fidula 

Middle Fligh German videle 

German fiedel, violine, geige 

Anglo-Saxon fithele, fythele 



English fiddle, violin 

Italian viola, violino 

Norwegian fidla, fiol 

The monochord has been numbered by some amongst the 
antecedents of the violin; it has been said that to it we owe 
the resonant box with its soundholes, the fingerboard and the 
movable bridge which gave the idea of stopping the strings 
by means of the fingers. The invention of the monochord has 
been ascribed to Pythagoras in the 6th century B.C., but as he 
spent many years in Egypt studying, he probably is indebted 
to that country for the idea of 
dividing the string to obtain differ- 
ent sounds by stopping it with 
the fingers ; for in Egypt a kind (j^ 
of lute called nefer (see Figs. ^ i 
and 32) was known more than 
3,000 years B.C., in which the 
divisions of the strings were 
marked on the finger-board by 
means of frets of gut. There 
are numerous illustrations of 
these tambouras or nefers in p-/,^ jj 

Egyptian pictures and sculp- Egyptian Nefer or Tamboura. From a 

painting on a tomb at Thebes. Sir 
tureS, and they dirter greatly Gardner Willdnson. "Manners and 
r ,1 1 • Customs of Ancient Egyptians." Vol. I. 

from one another, some havmg 

vaulted soundchests and others shallow soundchests with ribs. 
A nefer with frets can be seen in the British Museum in a 
fragment of painting from a tomb on the Western Hills, 
Thebes— XVIIIth to XlXth Dynasty. 

As to the soundchest of the violin being derived from 
that of the monochord, the hypothesis appears to me very 
doubtful. I have not yet come across a drawing or sculp- 
tured representation of the Greek monochord (the mediaeval 

are outside the subject entirely); whereas thecithara was a much 

2 D 


older instrument than the monochord, and we are familiar with 
all the varieties of this instrument, which was so constantly 
depicted by the Greeks, and so intimately associated with 
them in their social life. 

Again, the soundholes were present also in this ancient 
tamboura (see Fig. 32), so that it does not seem that we need 
take the monochord into consideration at all in determining 
the ancestry of the violin, since it possessed no characteristic 
feature not already known in much older instruments. 

As to the crwth, crowd, rotta, chrotta, etc., its characteristics 
seem to have been a vaulted back (less vaulted than that of 
the lute), and a hole cut through the soundchest of the instru- 
ment at the upper end, to admit of the hand passing through to 
stop the strings (see Fig. 33.) 

The crwth family is apparently descended from the chelys 
or testudo lyre with the vaulted back. Mr. Carl Engel in his 
Researches into the Early History of the Violin Family (pp. 
24 to y"/), has treated the subject exhaustively, and has shown 
ingeniously that the name chrotta and probably crwth may be 
derived from the words tortoise and toad in the various 

The evolution of the chrotta, crowd, etc., culminated in the 
Welsh crwth, about which very little reliable information is 
extant; the assertion that it was played with a bow earlier than 
the 1 6th or 17th century remains absolutely unproved. The 
verses by Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers in the 6th 
century* — 

" Romanusque lyra, plaudat tibi, Barbarus harpa, 
Graecus achilliaca, chrotta Britanna canat," 
have been variously translated — ■ 

* See Poemata by Yen. Fortunatus, lib., VII., cap. 8, p. 245, in Migne's 
Patrologia Sacra, torn. 88. 



" The Romem praises thee with the 
lyre, the Barbarian sings to thee with 
the harp, the Greek with the cithara 
and the Briton with the crwth or 

The achilliaca refers to the cithara 
used by Achilles (Homer's Iliad, book 

These lines have often been c]uoted 
to prove the fact that the crwth was 
known in the 6th centur\' and played 
with a bow; this statement is absolutely 
unproved, as the use of the bow 
with the crwth cannot, at present be 
conclusively placed further back than 
the 14th century. The crwth of the 
1 8th century had a soundchest com- 
posed of two tables connected by ribs of 
graduated width. 

The cithara m transition was by some writers called Rotta 
(see Chap. VII.). 

More will be said on this subject in a subsequent chapter. 

Welsh Crwth, 18th Cen- 
tury. From " Musical and 
Poetical Relicks of the 
Welsh Bards," by Edward 


'Soundchests, Soundlioles, Bridges, Tailpieces, Fingerboards, &c. ' 

Before proceeding further in our study of tiie instruments 
of the past, it will be well to understand the use and relative 
value of the different parts of the nistrumcnts, so as to be able, 
on seenig a fresh specimen or illustration, to perceive its dis- 
tinctive features and to classify it. This chapter, however, 
does not claim to be exhaustive, but rather suggestive and 

The ancestor of all stringed instruments was, as has been 
said, probably the hunting bow, of which the string, on being 
plucked, gave out a note. 

Ulysses (Homer's Odyssey, xxi., 404), when he had strung 
his bow in the sight of the overbearing wooers of Penelope, 
whom he wanted to chastise, tried the string with his right 
hand, and it gave out a sweet note, as clear as that of a bird. 

The musical sound to be derived from the vibrations of a 
string alone is feeble and unsatisfactory m the extreme, owing 
to the smallness of the surface of the vibrating string which 
influences the surrounding air. Stretch the string, however, 
over a resonating body, a simple wooden table or thin plank 
of wood, and you will notice a considerable increase in tone, 
connect the string, further, with the soundboard by means of 
a bridge of wood, which will transmit the vibrations to the 


sound-board, and again the volume of sound will be increased ; 
further, instead of the simple wooden table, give the string 
a hollow soundboard with soundholes to let out the sound 
and give elasticity to the soundboard, and you have the chief 
characteristics of the violin in their primitive state. 

The primary object of the soundboard is to take up the vib- 
rations of the strmgs, and by providing a larger resonating 
surface than that given by the strings alone, to magnify the 
intensity of the sound. Of the two kinds of vibrations, the 
transverse is undesirable in a soundboard ; it is the molecular 
which is essential. The molecular shocks which transmit 
corresponding shocks to the surrounding strata of air, thus 
causing sounds, can only be intensified by applying more 
force to the vibrating strings; each vibration of the string is 
therefore responsible for a corresponding molecular impulse 
of the vibrating soundboard, and for the intensity of the 
sound, thus enabling the performer to produce the most subtle 
and delicate variations of tone solely by his touch. Spruce 
fir is superior for making soundboards to all other woods, by 
reason of its elasticity and resonant power. 

Soundchests are of two great types, and should ever be the 
primary consideration in classifying and identifying stringed 
instruments. The first and most primitive was the vaulted, 
carved out of a solid piece of wood, with a fiat soundboard 
and no ribs. The second, a decided advance on the first in 
point of construction, was shallow, and consisted of parallel 
tables of wood joined by sides or ribs of equal width. Origin- 
ally this type of soundchest was also hollowed out of a single 
block of wood. (See Fig. 165). These two types of sound- 
chests can be traced from the remotest ages to the present day, 
growing up side by side, the second type, however, belonging 
always to the nobler instruments, and having some affinity 
with the violin. 

The most primitive soundchests hollowed out of blocks of 



wood assumed various shapes; that of a cylinder for instance, 
such as the urheen* of the Chinese, which resembles a croquet 
mallet with the handle slightly out of the middle; the sound- 

Fig 34. 
C'hclys lyre, Hcrculanuni. " Le Antichita di Ercolano," Vol. I., pi. 43. 

board here consists of a piece of serpent skin stretched over 
the hollow; sometimes large nuts were used instead of blocks 
of wood, as in the Hindoo koka* and the Arab gunibry.* 

The origin of the lyre is ascribed to Hermes or Mercury, 
and one of the legends describing its invention states that 

* All these instruments can be seen at the South Kensington Museum, 
and ilhistrations of them are given in Carl Engel's " Catalogue of the 
Musical Instruments in South Kensington Museum." 



Hermes, after the waters of the Nile had returned to their 
bed at the yearly inundation, was attracted by sweet sounds 
proceeding from the banks, and on walking towards the spot 
he found a dead tortoise, of which the shell alone remained, 
with some tendons stretched across it, and the wind playing 
among these caused them to vibrate and emit sweet sounds; 
this gave the god a subject for meditation, of which the up- 
shot was a musical instrument (see Fig. 34), with a soundchest 
composed of a tortoise-shell, over which was glued a parch- 
ment or thin wooden soundboard, 
and three — some say four — strings. 
(See San Isidore's " Etymolog- 
inrum,'' Lib. III. cap. xv.) A similar 
story is told of Mercury by the 

The kokiu* of the Japanese and 
the rebab-esh-sha'er* of the Moors 
(see Fig. 35) were composed of 
wooden frames, the first square, the 
second of trapezoid shape, over 
which were stretched at the top and 
bottom soundboards of skin. Boat- 
shaped soundchests are to be found in various instru- 
ments like the Moorish rebab (see Fig. 14) and the Egyptian 
nanga (Fig. 36), of which latter several specimens in fairly 
good preservation are to be seen in the British Museum (fourth 
Egyptian Room, Case A). One of these. No. 24564, is an 
elegant instrument, with a sphinx head, and is painted in 
colours, chiefly blue, green and terra-cotta. The soundchest 
of the lyres in its mediaeval development is to be found in some 
rottas, in crowds and crwths; its chief characteristic is a vaulted 

Fig. 35. 
Rebabeshsha'er (the poet's rebab.) 

* All these instruments can be seen at the South Kensmgton Museum, 
and illustrations of them are given in Carl Engel's " Catalogue of the 
Musical Instruments in South Kensington Museum." 


Fig. 36. 

Egyptian Nang-a. Primitive harp. From Thebes-Kourna. ChampoUioii's 
" Monuments de I'Egypte et de la Nubie," Tom. II.. pi. 151. 

back scooped out of a single 
block of wood with one or two 
holes made in the soundchest, 
through which the hand passes 
to stop the strings (see Figs. 
33, 37 and 38). It is a curious 
fact worthy of notice, that 
among the European precur- 
sors with which we become ac- 
quainted in our archaeological 
researches, those with sound- 
chests of the second type (that 
of the violin) survive, whereas 
most of those of the first type 
become extinct or sink into in- 
significance : viz., the cithara Fig. 37. 

of the Greeks lives to the crowd, lath cent., from a basrelicf on 8 

seat in the Choir of Worcester Cathedral, 
present day in the Spanish carter's "Ancient sculpture." 



mandolyre or guitar-lyre, which 
is merely a true cithara (with 
ribs and shallow sound-chest) 
to which has been attached 
a guitar-neck with frets. The 
guitar, which was identical 
with the guitar-iiddle until 
the moment when the bow 
was applied to the instru- 
ment, is still a favourite, 
whereas the chelys lyre, with 
all its mediaeval developments 
above mentioned, is extinct, as 
is also the rebab, with its 
descendants the rebec, gigue 
and pochette. 

The rebec and gigue may be 
distinguished from the other 
stringed instruments of the 
middle ages by the fact that 
the back of the soundchest and 
of the neck is in one piece, 
covered with a thin piece of 
wood serving as belly and front of the neck, which in the rebec 
does duty for a fingerboard ; the addition of the latter forms 
the main difference in the gigue (Carl Engel.) 

Incurvations in soundchests are generally considered to 
have been suggested by the use of the bow, but in the case of 
the lyres and their descendants, the natural curve of the horns 
which formed its primitive arms, gave the lyre and cithara a 
waist, and this curve was preserved for the sake of elegance 
when the horns were replaced by wooden arms or supports for 
the cross-bar. The corner blocks, which iix the form of the 
incurvations of viols and violins, distinguish the former from 
the vielle or guitar-fiddle, in its most perfect form. 

Fig. 38. 
Crout, nth cent., France. From MS. of 
S. Martial of Limoges, Bibl. Roy. Paris. 



The " if " holes of the violin are so delicately shaped, that 
to alter them in the slightest degree would be to spoil the tone 
of the instrument : their shape and position on the belly are 
the inevitable result of the arch of the latter. The object of 
the soundholes is to give elasticity to the soundboard; to 
enable it to vibrate freely and communicate its vibrations to 
the rest of the soundchest. 

Fig. 39. 

Guitar, 15th cent., from a MS., 
" iliroir Historical do Vincent 
do Bcauvais," Bibl. Imp. Paris, 
No. 6731. Willcmin, " .Monu- 
ments Inedita." 

Fig. 40. 

Citliara (in transition), 12th 

cent. Harleian ilS. 2804, Brit. 


If a violin were made without soundholes, it would not be 
able to bear the 68 lbs. tension of the strings when strung up 
to pitch, nor the 26 lbs. vertical tension on the bridge, see- 
ing that in itself the violin only weighs about one pound; the 
result would be that the belly would be crushed in. To pre- 
serve the tone and pitch of the violin, the "#" holes, as well 
as every other part, must be shaped according to well-defined 


The position of the soundholes, on each side of the central 
point of the soundboard, left it free to vibrate, and rendered 
after-vibrations impossible. This in bowed instruments is 
highly important, as the bowing can be continued as long as 
the note is required to sound ; but no doubt the tone of the 
■pizzicato suffers in consequence. In instruments of which the 
strings are plucked, the soundboard is cut out in the circular 
shape called " rose," to ensure the prolonged vibration which 
is essential. 

The ancient Egyptians more than 3,000 years ago knew the 
use of soundholes, and generally made them round and small 
(see Fig. 32), but they did not always place them on the belly; 
on the contrary, they are often to be found on the back; this 
would considerably soften the tone of the instrument, de- 
priving the belly of much of its elasticity, in fact muting it. 
Probably the Egyptians knew this also, and purposely made 
the soundholes on the back to soften and mellow the shrill 
notes of their nefers. 

Soundholes of almost every imaginable shape have been 
tried since then ; the lyres mostly had round ones, after the 
style of Oriental instruments, but in the latter the circle is 
fretted or carved in more or less elaborate roses (see Fig. 39). 
Later, the circle was divided, crescents were used ; ovals, 
tongues of hre, flaming swords (characteristic of the viola 
d'amore), " S " holes, squares (see Fig. 48), holes in the shape 
of a Roman I (see Fig. 40), of a " C " (which placed back to 
back formed one of the characteristics of the viols), of half 
an oval (see Fig. 41), of an eye (see Fig. 47). The position 
of these soundholes has varied greatly according to nation and 
time, and two or more kinds were frequently combined on the 
same instrument. 

The bridge fulfils two or three functions in stringed instru- 
ments : it raises the strings to a convenient height above the 
belly for bowing, twanging or striking them; it conveys to 



the soundchest the vibrations excited in the strings ; and it 
marks one boundary or fret of the vibrating string, deter- 
mining its length; the otJier being the nut of the peg-box, 
which raises the strings clear of the fingerboard ; the string 
between the bridge and the tailpiece will, when vibrated, also 
give out a note, but of very high pitch and weak tone, 
naturally, since it is so short. 

Fig. 41. 

" Lyra Tputoniea " with bow. Gijruo, !'th 

ci'ut., from MS. of S. Blasius. Grrbert's 

" Do Cantu I't ^lusica Satra." 

The violin-bridge, made of maple wood (see Fig. ii), 
assumed its present shape at the hands of Stradivarius; its 
influence on the tone of the instrument is considerable owing 
to its use, position and construction. The arch of the bridge 
is just sufficient to allow the bow to vibrate each string separ- 
ately ; the feet are absolutely necessary to raise the bridge 
over the central longitudinal join of the belly, the latter being 



a node with a starting point for the vibrations on each side of 
it; it is most important that this portion of the 
soundboard be left free. The feet both rest on the 
belly; the right foot (on the side of the E string) 
is kept rigid, just on the side of the instrument on 
which the tension of the strings is greatest, by the 
soundpost, a thin round stick of wood resting on 
both belly and back, and transmitting the vibra- 
tions of the strings to the latter; the left foot rests 
just above the bass or sound bar, a fine strip of 
pine glued on the inside of the belly on the side 
of the G string. In consequence of the right foot 
being rigid, the left vibrates the more strongly, 
and communicates the vibrations of the strings to 
the whole belly and sound-bar. From these few 
facts will be seen the importance of this 
part of the violin. Instruments with 
strings plucked or struck by hammers do 
not require an arched bridge, a thin strip 
of hard wood, maple or ebony, in the 
guitar, is sufficient to raise the strings; 
for as in these instruments the soundhole 
is in the centre the bridge does not require 
to have feet. 

It will be observed in the various illus- 
trations that many different shapes of 
bridges have been tried; the only two 
which call for explanation are those of 
the crwth (Fig. y^, V-tSi) and of the 
tromba marina (see Fig. 42). The crwth 
bridge had two feet, and was placed 
obliquely across the soundboard; the 
right foot, three quarters of an inch long, 
resting on the belly, while the left, two 
and a half inches in length, passed 



Fig. 42. 
The Tromba marina. 
Sebastian Tirduno-, 
" Musica getuTscht." 



through the soundhole and rested upon the inside of the back, 
doing duty for soundpost as well ; this bridge was so flat that 
when a bow was applied to it, the ist, 2nd, 3rd and 4th strings 
could not be sounded singly. The tromba marina or marine 
trumpet (Fig. 42), a descendant of the Greek monochord, had 
a bridge of which one foot was glued to the soundboard, 
whilst the other, in response to the vibrations of the single 
string of the instrument, trembled violently on the soundboard, 
giving out a reedy tone, which was reinforced by sympathetic 
strings within the soundchest. 

The kind of box found on some kitharas (see Fig. 43) which 
was a combined bridge and tailpiece, as in its modern 
descendant the guitar, will receive due 
notice in the chapter on Greek stringed 

In many of the miniatures in MSS. the 
bridge has either been left out altogether 
by the artist, or drawn as though the 
strings passed under it. 

The pegs are the wooden pins round 
which the strings are wound to tune them ; 
their shape is of little importance in 
studying their history, but their position Fig. 43. 

in the head of the instrument helps to '^''*''"''"- '^''^''''"ti's ■• Jiuseo 

, .J- ,, ..^^ . Pio Clementino," PI. 21 

Classify the ditterent specimens. The (Erato's cithara). 

custom of setting them in the back of the head is Oriental, 
and prevailed among instruments of the 
lute tribe introduced by the Moors. Great 
care must be taken to make the peg fit ex- 
actly into its hole, or it may slip and let 
the string down. Some mandolines and 
Fig. 44. guitars have pegs fitted with cog-wheels, to 

^ri with ;U.. tl prevent them from slipping back after they 

" Le Antichita de Ereo- ^-j^^yg hten tumcd. 

lano, Vol. III., p. 5. ^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Qr€^t\i citharas the strings 



were passed round little pegs (see Fig. 44), hooks or knobs 
(see Fig. 45), which were 
fastened into a roller bar 
made to revolve on screws 
thus tightening or slackening 
all the strings together (see 
Fig. 46). In the illustra- 
tion, the Greek performer is 
precisely tuning up her in- 
strument in the manner de- 
scribed above. In other 
citharas the strings were 
simply rolled round the re- 
volving bar (see Fig. 47). 

In a MS. of the tenth cen- 
tury is shown a cithara with 
tuning pegs or pins and a 
hammer-like tuning wrench which is fixed in a hole made 
through the cross-bar (see Fig. 48). 


Fig. 45 

Cithara with knobs on tlie cross bar (back 

view). The right hand holds a primitive 

pleetrum. From " Le Antichita de Ercolano," 

Vol. IV., p. 201. 

Fig. 46. 

Tuning the lyre. From Thomas 

Hope's " Costumes of the Ancients," 

Vol. II., p. 193. 

Fig. 47. 
Cithara with cross-bar round 
which the strings are wound. 
From a Greek vase. Thomas 
Hope's " Costumes of the An- 
cients " Vol. II., p. 192. 



Representations of lyres are often found with ring contriv- 
ances attached to the revolving bar by means of which the 
strings were tightened or slackened (see Fig. 20). The Egypt- 
tian kithara had strings of graduated length tied round the 
revolving bar, which was naturally higher at the bass of the 

Fig. 4S. 

•Cithara of the 10th cent, with tuning pins and a tuning wrench. From a MS. Bibl. du 

lloi., Paris. Willemin, " Monuments Inedits." 

instrument than at the treble, and to tune the strings these 
were simply made to slide up or down the bar (see Figs. 49 
and 165). 

The use of this tailpiece is to receive the ends of the strings 



Fig, 49. 
Egyptian kithara, from Thebes- 
Kourna, in which the strings are 
made to slide along the cross-bar 
for tuning purposes. From 
Champollion, " Monuments de 
I'Egypte et de la Nubie," Tom. 
II., pi. 175. 

and support them in a rigid posi- 
tion; it is furnished with the same 
number of holes as there are 
strings. In the cithara and its 
modern descendant the guitar, the 
tailpiece serves as a bridge as well, 
being furnished with a higher nut 
than ordinary fiddle tailpieces (see 
Figs. 30 and 50A). In some primi- 
tive instruments there was no tail- 
piece, the strings were fixed to pins 
stuck in the tail end ; in others, the 
artist, as before stated, has repre- 
sented the tailpiece suspended by 

strings near the middle of the instrument (see Figs. 9 and 12, 
the object of this may have been to 
shorten the strings so as to obtain the 
shrill tone proper to a rebec. The tail- 
piece has assumed various forms in different 
countries and periods : straight (Fig. 29), 
round, half-circular (Fig. 50), square, 
crescent-shaped (Fig. 28), box (Fig. 43), &c., 
but since the twelfth century the wedge- 
shaped, similar in outline to the modern 
one, has gradually assumed the ascendancy 
(see Fig. 40). 

The fingerboard of violins consists of an 
ebony board placed over the neck, over 
which the strings are stretched, and against 
which they are stopped or shortened by the 
fingers, to form the intervals of the chro- 
matic scale. On instruments of which the 

2 E 

F,g. 50. 
Cithara in transi- 
tion, with half-cir- 
cular tailpiece. 
From a ilS. in 
Trinity College. 
Cambridge (11. 17, 1). 



strings are plucked, and on many 
medieval bowed instruments, such 
as the viols, the fingerboards have 
the points at which these intervals 
are to be found marked by frets, 
i.e., thin strips of wood, gut or 
metal fixed transversely, and form- 
ing bridges, by means of which a 
pure intonation is made easy (see 
Fig. 29). 

The height of the violin bridge 
makes it necessary that the finger- 
board and tailpiece should be 
raised in a slanting position above 
the belly (see Fig. 4). Egyptian 
nefers and lutes of a high antiquity 
had fingerboards with frets, which 
argues a high state of culture in 
music, for on their three-stringed 
nefers the Egyptians could pro- 
duce more notes than on their harps. 

It is difficult to be sure from sculptured representations 
whether any lyres or citharas were made with fingerboards, 
for the strings were always sculptured out of a solid block 
of marble m one piece without isolating the strings, so that 
they look as though they were lying over a fingerboard. 
In the Second Grasco-Roman Gallery, at the British Museum, 
there is a figure of Erato holding a lyre of which the back 
can be viewed, and it has a fingerboard set on a neck, 
rounded at the back, into which four pegs are set, and having 
beside a nut or bridge where it meets the soundboard : 
but as the statue has been restored, the evidence is not 

The gigue (German, Geige) was an improved rebec, from 

Fig. 50a. 

Modern Violin tailpiece. 

(Block kindly lent by 

Messrs. Beare & Son.) 


which it was distinguished by having a fingerboard ; therefore 
the " Lyra Teutonica " of the MS. of St. Blasius (see Fig. 41) is, 
properly speaking, a gigue and not a rebec , since it has a 





The Plectrum and the Bow. 

The various manners of setting strings in vibration, which 
also represent so many steps in the development of the great 
family of "strings" {i.e., violin, viola, 'cello and double bass), 
are : — 

modern bow it is as well to make oneself acquainted with its 
construction. It is to Francis Tourte, born in Paris in 1-4- 
that we owe the most perfect model of the violm bow known 
(Fig. 51), and it is curious to notice that although the bow was 
used so long before the violin was developed, it did not reach 
a state of perfection until more than a century and a half after 
the Cremona masters gave us the violin. 

The different parts of the bow are described below. 

(i) The stick (A), about 29I inches long, is made of Per- 
nambuco wood, which alone combines the requisite lightness 
and power of resistance; it will be observed that m modern 
bows the stick is bent by heat till it is slightly convex to the 
hair, instead of being more or less concave to it as in old 

(2) The screw or ferrule (B) (Figs. 51, 52 and 54) at the 
extremity of the stick which is held by the hand, is the means 

I^lodern Yiolii Bow 

(i) By twanging with the fingers, a method which still 
remains in the pizzicato, and in instruments of the guitar and 
lute families. 

(2) By plucking with a plectrum, quill or other small imple- 
ment — a principle later applied to the harpsichord family, and 
and still in use with the mandoline, zither, &c. 

(3) By striking with a plectrum, and afterwards a small 
hammer, as in tne dulcimer, the cembalo, and later, the piano- 

(4) By friction (a) with a plectrum, a long feather, or with a 
bow; (b) with a wheel, as in the hurdy-gurdy. 

Before investigating the question of the ancestry of the 

iTourtc Model). 

of tightening or loosening the hair of the bow. This screw, 
about i\ inches long, hidden within the stick, runs through 
the eye (z) (Fig. 52) of another little screw at right angles to it, 
which is firmly embedded in the nut. 

(3) The nut (C) (Fig. 52). The nut slides up and down in 
answer to the screw, along the stick; it contains a little cavity 
or chamber into which the knotted end of the hair is firmly 
fixed by means of a little wedge, and then flattened into a 
ribbon by means of a ferrule (E.) The hair outside the nut is 
further protected by a little mother-o'-pearl slide (P). 

(4) The hair (N) (Fig. 51) is carefully chosen from the 
best white horse-hair, and each of the 150 or 200 hairs 



composing the ha If -inch wide ribbon of 
each bow, must be perfectly cyhndrical and 

(5) The hecxd (Fig. 53) (H) is cut in one 
z piece with the stick, and is fitted with a 
chamber and wedge contrivance similar to 
that of the nut, in which the other end of 
the hair is immovably fi.xed. The reader 
will perceive, on examining the illustra- 
tions of primitive and early bows, in what 
respects they obviously differ as to light- 
ness, elasticity, convenience, durability, &c., 
from the Tourte bows. 

It was the hunting bow which in all 
probability hrst suggested to man the 
possibility of making music by vibrating 

Nut of the bow showing- ^ . / ° -^ ° 

the screw. (Kindly lent strmgs, in addition to tliosc iiicthods al- 

bv Messrs. Bcarc & i , • i i ■ ■ ^ • i 

gQ,^ ^ ready known, i.e., blowing into pipes and 

striking resonating substances of wood 

or metal. Given a string fixed at both ends, the most 

natural manner of inducing it to vibrate and produce a 

Fin. 52 

musical sound was by means of the fingers ; and for centuries 
after others had been discovered, this method remained the 
most favoured. Instruments of the lyre or harp tribe re- 



tained their ascendency during the 
Egyptian, Assyrian, Greek and 
Roman civilization. Stringed instru- 
ments themselves underwent many 
changes and developments ; the in- n 
ventions of soundboards and bridges 
added sonorousness to the strings ; 
that of the fingerboard was a double 
step forward : it made it possible to 
obtain more than one sound from 
each string, and to make a twofold 
use of the hand: — (i) for plucking, 
(2) for stopping the strings. e 

Twanging with the fingers an- 
swered admirably with strings of 
hemp, gut or silk, for the player was 
able to command various shades of 
expression. Loudness of accent and 
great brilliancy of tone, however, 
had to be obtained in a different 
manner ; small pieces of tortoise-shell, 
ivory, metal, wood, bone, leather or 
quill were used for the purpose (see 
Fig- 55)> the Greeks called them 
■plectrones (singular, plectro7t,-X?]KTpov, 
from TrXi'ia-aeLv flessein, to strike), and 
the Romans plectra ^singular, flcct- 
72im, from flan go, I strike) — an adap- 
tation from the Gr^ek; another word 

is found, however, in some Latin 

classics instead of plectrum, i.e., 

pecten, meaning a comb, and chosen 

because the plectrum, like the weaver's comb, was held in 

the right hand and inserted between the stamina of the 


Fig. 54. 
Illustration of bun. (Kindly 
lent by Messrs. Boare & Son.) 


lyre as the comb was between the stamina of 
the loom. 

Plectra have been in use from the earliest 

times in Egypt and Asia in a variety of shapes 

and sizes, but they were not always held in ^j^g same manner. The Spartans were very 

an^°arr^ pTiiit Conservative about old customs, and Plutarch 

at one end and ^-gUg ^g ^j-, ]^[^ " Apothegmi Laconici " that on 

round at the 

other. From a one occasion, during a religious rite, a cithanst 

statue in Spain. . , . , , ... , , 

.ciarac, Vol. iii., was puiiishcd becausc he did not use the plec- 
pi. .524. trum, but twanged the strings with his fingers ; 

" this latter, however, is a much more delicate way of 
sounding the strings and the sound then gives more pleasure," 
.adds Plutarch. 

Athenasus, 3rd cent. A.D., (Tom. iv. p. 183), speaking of 
Epigonus, says, " he was a great master of music, and twanged 
with his hands and without plectrum." 

Again, Athenasus (Tom. xiv. p. 635) says that he agrees with 
Aristoxenus that the magadis and pectis (two instruments of 
the lyre or cithara tribe about which we have no very reliable 
evidence) are played without the plectrum, and also that .Ana- 
creon called the magadis " organon psaltikon " when sounded 
with the fingers. 

These quotations seem to show that although the use of the 
plectrum was a later invention than twanging the strings with 
the fingers, the critics recognised the fact that the sole use of 
it was not the highest form of art. We know from classical 
writers, as well as from delineations, that the Greeks recog- 
nised the value of the different tone-colour obtainable by the 
two methods of twanging the strings, and frequently com- 
bined them on the same instrument. It is not impossible that 
Ihey used the fingers to produce some kind of harmony, by 
playing chords, which would be impossible with the plectrum. 
A few quotations will suffice on this point. 


The Imagines of Philostratus the Elder and Younger 
contain many references to lyres, citharas and plectra. For 
instance, in Book i., No. 7, " Memnon " (by the Elder), we hear 
that "the rays of the setting sun falling upon the mouth of 
Memnon like a plectrum seem to produce a voice, and to con- 
sole the day by the sounds of that artificial voice." Now, the 
tone-colour produced by the use of the plectrum was of a 
brilliant cheerful quality, suitable to raise the spirits of the 

In the same book, No. 10, " Amphion " — after a description 
of the construction of the lyre, to which reference will bs made 
in a proper chapter, Philostratus tells us that, " seated on a 
mound, Amphion beats time with one foot; holding the plect- 
rum with the right hand, he strikes the strings; he twangs 
them with the fingers of the left hand, which are outstretched. 

Philostratus the Younger (Imagines vii., no. 7, p. 403, 
" Orpheus ") says : " Of the two hands, holding the plectrum 
firmly in the right one, with the elbow outstretched and the 
palm bent inwards, he produces a loud sound ; but with the 
left he plays the strings with straightened fingers." (The 

Ovid (Her., epist. xv. 198) says that "the plectra has become 
silent from sadness, and the lyre is mute with grief." This 
may only be a poetical figure of speech; but metaphors are 
usually founded on fact — the lyre played with a plectrum is 
certainly unsuitable for expressing sad music. 

Tibullus, elegiac poet, of the first century B.C. (Lib. iii., Eleg. 
4, 39) proves that the plectrum and fingers, respectively, were 
used to accompany joyful and sad music. The passage freely 
translated runs thus : — 

" At first he came, and playing the cithara with an ivory 
plectrum, he sang a joyful song with resounding voice; but 

2 F 


afterwards playing [or twanging] with his fingers in a sweet 
manner, he sang these sad words," &c. 

Many other quotations might be given, but two well-known 
ones must suffice. Virgil, in the ^neid. Book vi., v. 647, 
says : — 

" There they also dance in circles, singing a festal song ; 
and the Thracian bard in his long flowing garments accom- 
panies the rhythmical song on the seven-stringed cithara, play- 
ing it now with his fingers, and now with the ivory plectrum." 

Lucanus, in his panegyric on Piso, says : " He plays the 
chelys with his fingers and the ivory plectrum." 

A very long plectrum made its appearance, which, with 
instruments of many strings, would have been very incon- 
venient for either plucking or striking ; some have thought 
(see Carl Engel's " Researches into the Early History of the 
Violin," pp. 4 and 6) that this was used for rubbing the strings, 
and that it was therefore the ancestor of the fiddle bow. Any 
one can prove the efficiency of this kind of rude bow for him- 
self, by taking a long stick with a rough edge, or by applying 
resin to it, and then rubbing a thin gut or twisted silk string 
with it. It is a well-known fact that Paganini could play his 
violin with a resined reed instead of a bow, but that the 
ancients ever practised this must at present be relegated to 
the realm of unproved possibilities. 

When wire strings came into use in the fourteenth century 
(drawn wire was first made at Nuremburg in the fourteenth 
century) the plectrum, or long nails as a substitute, became a 
necessity to prevent soreness of the finger-tips. So long as 
the plectrum was only required for melody or arpeggio 
passages — and these latter were only possible when the strings 
required were placed next each other — it was found invalu- 
able to give brilliancy of tone. 

Since our forefathers acquired the knowledge of harmony, 
the plectrum has lost favour ; fingers can select the strings 



Fig. 56. 
Zither thumb-ring-. 
(Kindly lent b y 
Messrs. Beare & Son.) 

necessary to form a chord and twang them simultaneously, 
which is impossible with a plectrum. Some Asiatic nations 
of the present day use small plectra, which fit on to the fingers 
of the hand like thimbles, not for the purpose of playing 
chords, but to obtain a brisk quality of 
tone, and to produce grace notes the more 
easily. A similar contrivance is used on 
the zither for the thumb (see Fig. 56), 
which plays the melody on wire strings, 
while chords are produced on guts with the 

When the want of a plectrum was first felt, it would be only 
natural to suppose that the ancients made use of such objects 
as they found at hand, ready made, before proceeding to make 
plectra for themselves; if we are to believe Pollux, this was 
really the case (see Pollux iv. 60), " e plectra caprarum erant 
labia [or ungalae]" ; he tells us the earliest plectrum was a 
goat's foot or hoof (more likely a kid's), and there are actually 
delineations of this amongst the statues and paintings of the 
Greeks and Romans (see Figs. 57 and 58). Other natural 
objects, such as twigs broken off the nearest 
tree (see Fig. 59), pieces of horn, quills (sec 
Fig. 60), are also in evidence as plectra, and 
the latter were amongst the latest survivals 
and were still in use in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. The most ancient 
delineations of plectra that we possess are 

the Egyptian and Assyrian, and they 
resemble those in use in Europe during 
the late middle and early modern ages, 
rather than those of the Greeks, as can be 
seen by examining drawings of the 

Natural plectrum — a bone r , . p . . 

-probably a goat or kid's lamous sculpturcs, copics ot pamtmgs, 
foot, found in a painting ^^ ^ contained in works by Champollion, 

excavated at Portici. " Le "^ 

Antichita de Ercoiano," Bottc, Placc, Clarac, Montfaucon, Wille- 
"'■' ^' ' min, &c., &c., which want of space 

Fig. 37. 
Natural plectrum, 
consisting of a kid 
or goat's hoof. 
" Le Antichita de 
Ercoiano," Vol. iii., 
p. 5. 


Fig. 58. 



Fig 59. 

Natural plect- 
rum, consisting 
of a twig- or an 
antler, used with 
an eleven- 

stringed cithara. 
" Le Antichita de 
Ercolano," Vol. 

Vol. iv., p. 201. 

prevents my reproducing here. The Assyrian 
rod-like plectrum to be seen in the Nimrod 
Gallery at the British Museum (4 B.), in the 
" Return from the Lion Hunt " (B.C. 880, reign 
of Assur-Nasir-Pal), in the hand of a musician 
playing a triangular harp-like instrument 
called Trigonon by the Greeks, seems too 
long to have been conveniently used for twang- 
ing or striking. Another similar plectrum, but 
held in a different manner, will be found in the 
Kojundijick department of the Assyrian 

Gallery, and also drawn in " Nineveh," by 
Place, p. 57. 

One or two of the plectra are curiously 
arched. Fig. 61, for instance, dating 
from the fifth century B.C., is held with 
the concavity downwards, whereas that 
in Fig. 62, held by " Erato Psaltrian," 
seems to form a sort of cradle for her 
hand; a third, of more recent date, resem- 
bling a scythe, and taken from a 
Harleian MS. (No. 603) of the eleventh 
century (thought by experts to be a copy 
of the earlier Cotton MS. known as the 
Utrecht Psalter), looks as though it 
might have been a primitive bow of 
which the artist had omitted the string or hair in copying. 

The Greeks, who in all arts and sciences aimed 

at no less an ideal than ferfeciion, only associ- 

Fig 62. ated the most perfect musical instruments then 

si-micircuiar known with their religious rites, their drama, and 

thrMu"sc "Erato their national games or contests; and finally these 

r^wlir-^aiS only were perpetually by them on their monu- 

at Hercuianum. ments and paintings. This characteristic of the 

Clarac, Vol. iii. . ^^,,. ^ , ^ ■ r • 

pi. 520. ancient Hellenic race of only glorifying per- 


Fig. 60. 
Quill plectrum, 12th 
■cent. From a Latin 
MS., Biblioth. Stras- 
Jj u r g. W i 1 1 e m i n, 
*' Monuments franpais 


Fig. 61. 
Broad arched plectrum used 
with a lyre. Third Vase 
Koom, Brit. Mus., Case 31, 
E. 3rS. Athens, 5th cent. B.C. 


fection, as known to them, is consistently borne out by their 
history ; whether, therefore, the use of the bow for stringed 
instruments was known to them can be with us but a matter 
of conjecture. The bow at its early stages of development 
must have been crude in the extreme and the use of it ex- 
cruciating to musicians. In all cases where the accessories or 
parts of an instrument are in process of evolution, the amount 
of satisfaction and enjoyment to be derived from playing upon 
the instrument must always be in proportion to the culture, in- 
tellect, and sense of beauty of the nation. The Greek cithara 
was perfect as a cithara, and did not subsequently undergo 
any important development with other races as long as it 
remained a cithara. That seems a quite sufficient and satis- 
factory reason to account for the numerous references to the 
cithara and lyre in their literature, the endless delineations of 
those instruments, and also for the small amount of evidence 
the Greeks have afforded us as to the construction and use of 
such instruments as by reason of their crudeness and faulty 
construction they deemed unworthy to serve the muse they so 

Had the bow been used with instruments of the lyre family, 
■we should have found references to it in some of the innumer- 
able passages in the classical writers on the subject of music; 
and surely, if the long plectrum had been used by them for 
rubbing instead of twanging the strings, the revolution caused 
dn the character of their music by this proceeding would 
scarcely have passed unnoticed. If the Greeks used the bow 
at all, it would have been with instruments of the tamboura 
kind ; these instruments were evidently not favourites, and are 
rarely found depicted or mentioned ; moreover, as these have 
•come down to us, used without the bow till the thirteenth cen- 
tury (see " The Fifty-one Musicians of the Cantigas de Santa 
Maria," of which a reproduction is given in Riano's " Spanish 


Music "), it seems unlikely that they should ever have been 
used with it. 

The invention of the bow has been claimed by many writers 
of musical history for Wales, but absolutely without authority 
— true, the crwth as we know it, from the three specimens of 
the eighteenth century of which we possess illustrations, was 
played with a bow resembling that used for our double basses, 
but reliable evidence of its use at an early age is wanting. 

We know that the bow was in use in England in the 
eleventh century, from the well-known illustration of an 
Anglo-Saxon hthele in the Cotton MS., Tiberius C. vi., but 
before that period all is a blank with regard to the bow in 

Cassiodorus (Op. 2, p. 507), who, in speaking of the music 
of the ancients, divides their musical instruments into three 
classes, (i) percussionalia, (2) tensibilia (stringed), (3) 
inflatilia, in speaking of class 2, says the " tensibilia consisted 
of chords tied with art, which, on being struck with a plectrum, 
soothed the ear with a delightful sound, such as the different 
kinds of citharas." Had Cassiodorus known of the use of the 
bow, he would undoubtedly have mentioned it. The same 
may be argued with even more weight of Bede, the Venerable, 
whose works are interspersed with references to music and musi- 
cal instruments, even leaving his two works on music, " Musica 
Pratica " and " Musica Theoretica " out of the question, as 
their authenticity is not hrmly established. Isidor, Bishop of 
Seville, to whom reference has before been made, in his 
Etymologiarum in Lib. iii., although he classifies and 
describes instruments, says nothing of the bow either. 

Which of the civilizations can lay claim to having intro- 
duced the bow to the others is still a matter of conjecture and 
discussion. There are some few circumstances and references- 
which point to Asia as the cradle of the bowed instruments. 

A Hindoo tradition assig-ns the invention of the bow to- 


Ravanon, King of Ceylon, more than 3,000 B.C., and the instru- 
ment for which he invented it was called Ravanastron. A 
primitive instrument of that name is still in use in Hindostan, 
with either one or four strines (see Fig. 17, from Sonnerat's 
"Voyages aux Indes Orientales," Paris, 1806, Vol. i, p. 182). 

It has been noticed that in countries which have not yet 
attained to a high degree of civilization, the development of 
music is very slow. That would account for the fact that 
musical instruments in the East seem to have made little or no 
progress within the past five or six centuries — among the 
people more particularly, for the influence of European 
civilization is more noticeable among the higher castes resident 
in large towns. 

Among the ancients, however, India had the reputation of 
having attained to a high degree of culture in music; which is 
borne out by the fact of the extraordinary predominance in 
that country, at the earliest times of which we possess trust- 
worthy evidence, of stringed instruments of all kinds. Besides 
this, there are extant several treatises on music. Be this as it 
may, we hold no absolute proof of the existence of the bow in 
antiquity among the Hindoos and Persians. 

There is a circumstance which may throw some light on the 
subject, even though that light be somewhat feeble and 
uncertain. Of all the stringed instruments played with a bow, 
that of which wc possess the earliest and most trustworthy 
evidence is the rebab of the Arabs, not the rebab-esh-Shaer 
(Fig. 35,) which may be seen in many Histories of Music, but 
the boat-shaped instrument like the Persian rebab (see Fig. 
14), which was sounded with a primitive bow. 

An inquiry into the origin of the word rebab shows us that 
it is derived from the Persian revaveh, " emitting plaintive 
sounds " (Engel, " Early History of the Violin Family," p. 

Now the Arabs invaded Persia in the sixth century, and it 



is recorded that finding the Persian musical system better than 
their own they adopted it. They declare that they obtained 
the rebab from the Persians; they probably received the fiddle- 
bow at the same time, as their name for it is derived from the 
Persian, too. The Arabs, spreading westward, conquered 
Egypt at the beginning of the seventh century. In 711 Tarik 
crossed the straits to Andalusia and at Xeres defeated the 
armies of Spain : Roderick, the last king of the Goths, here 
lost crown and life. In 731 a further invasion of the Arabs 
under Abd-er-Rahman extended in France as far as the Loire, 
where the chief was defeated by Charles Martel. 

After this there was a short peace, durhig which the Car- 
lo vingian King learnt much from the Arabs, whose superior 
culture gave a fresh impetus to arts and sciences in the south- 
west of Europe. The Arabs left a trail of civilization in the 
south of Europe (which they invaded from North Africa), in 
Sicily, Candia, Rhodes, Cyprus, Malta, Sardinia, and Corsica, 
and indeed their civilizing influence has in every case outlasted 
their rule in the countries subject to them. Charlemagne, who 
flourished towards the end of the eighth century, fought many 
battles with his paladins against the floors, and cannot but 
have been struck with the evidences of a higher civilization 
which he saw everywhere in their land. He was the most en- 
lightened sovereign of his time, and gathered around him at 
his court the cleverest men in all branches of sciences and 
arts. He also established schools of music at Metz, St. Gall, 
and Soissons, and probably was the means of introducing the 
new Arabian instruments to the rest of Europe. It is at any 
rate significant that one of the earliest illustrations of a bowed 
instrument (a rebab or rebec) in Europe is depicted in a MS. 
preserved z;z the. library of St. Gall ; it is a translation of the 
Psalms by Labeo Notker, who died in 1022, dating from the 
tenth century, and containing an illustration in pen and ink 
of King David playing a seven-stringed lyre with a plectrum, 


while around him stand four musicians playing a harp, a 

cithara, a dulcimer and a rebec, with a bow which has a handle 

(see Fig. 63). As we have no traces of 

a bow of European origin, it seems 

^'S- ^■^^ reasonable to acknowledge that in all 

From a MS. translation of 1 1 i-. ^ 4^ ii a 1 1 

Psalms by Labeo Noikvr, probability wc owc it to the Arabs ; and 
s. Gall., late 10th cent. ^^^ ^q posscss evidence that a bow was 

known to them in the seventh century, for in an Arabian MS. 
of that period there is an illustration of a bow with a fixed 
nut (see Fetis, " Antoine Stradivarius," p. 113). Whether we 
derive it from India through Persia, Arabia and Spain, or from 
India through Persia, Phoenicia, Greece, and Rome, the bow 
slowly but surely grew and developed, varying almost as much 
as the precursors of the violin in different countries and cen- 
turies, until, m the eighteenth century, Tourte, the Younger 
(born 1747) gave us the most perfect known model. 

The earliest and simplest bow was formed of a piece of cane 
pierced at each end, with a hole through which the gut, cord, 
horsehair, or silk was threaded and knotted. Such are the 
bows still used at the present day by the Hindoos with their 
primitive ravanastron, and by the Moors with their rebab. 
The first improvement on this rude bow was to lengthen the 
handle, so that the hand in grasping it, which it almost in- 
variably does in the older illustrations, should not arrest the 
vibrations of the horsehair. 

The earliest bow of which we possess 
an illustration dates from the eighth cen- 
tury (Fig. 64), and is to be found in 
" Costumes Frangais," by Herbe, who ^^'S- ''-'■ 

1- ji, 1 Ti r Ti r "Costumes Francais." Herbe 

derives that and a whole page full of sth cent. (?). 

various implements, ornaments, etc., in- 

indiscriminately from Montfaucon, Maillot, Bonier, Willemin, 
and Gaignieres. As I have so far failed to trace the original, 

I only give the reference for what it is worth, hoping some 

2 G 



reader may be more fortunate. The next century gives us the 
bow used with the Lyra Teutonica (see Fig. 65), taken from 
a MS. of S. Blasius. This bow shows a much greater de- 
velopment than many of 
Ov HL— — --^^r:::^:^ those of the eleventh and 

^.., ^.- twelfth centuries, notably 

From a MS. S. Blasius. 9th cent. Gerbert that USed with the CrCUt (Fig. 
" De Caiitu et Musica SatTa.'' on i " 11 1 

30), and IS much less curved. 

The tenth century bow has already been given. 

The eleventh century, besides the bow already referred to in 

the Cotton MS., Tib. C. vi., gives us 

another (Fig. 66) with a handle and a 

distinct head ; the convexity of the stick 

is slight. In the twelfth century there 

are many different shapes to be seen, the 

majority of them with handles (see 

Figs. 67 and 68), some very much 

curved, others almost straight. One taken 

from a Harleian MS., 
2,804 h'ls a knob at 
each end for fastenhig 
the string or hair (see 
Fig. 69) but no handle. 

F/A'. 6(). 

From the Church of S. 

Georj^es Boscherville nth 

cent. (Willemin). 

Fig. 67. 
Bodleian Lib. N.E.D. 2. l-2th cent. 

Fis. 6S. 
From Doorway of the Abbey of S. 
Denis. 12th cent. (Willemin). 

The thirteenth century sup- "T---,-^,.^ v^_^ 

plies two straight bows, both , / / ^^^Ci 

from French sources (see > / /^^^? — ^-^^^^ 

Figs. 70 and 71); the first ^' 

may be earlier than the 

thirteenth century, the later date assigned in Willemin's book 

has been given. The bows to be found in the miniatures of 

musicians in the 
" Cantigas de Santa 
Maria " show no 
special development. 

Fig. 69. 
Harleian MS. 2804. Brit. Mas. 12th cent. 




Fig. 70. 


the Soissons 

enamel basin 


13th cent. 

In a quaint MS. (Sloane 3,983) of the fourteenth century in 
the British Museum, on astronomy, is to be 
seen a bow with a contrivance that seems 
to foreshadow the cremaillere (see Fig. 72); 
the hair of the bow if finished with a loop 
might be made to slide up and down the 
tapering end, fastening into notches not in- 
dicated by the artist. Another bow in the 
same MS. has also curious contrivances for 
fastening the hair, but the drawing is too 
rough to give much clue to the working. 
The fifteenth century gives us a genuine cre- 
mailliere bow (Fig. 73), from a painting. 
Here the hair is fastened to a knob appar- 
ently attached to the metal band, which is 
hitched over the notches at will, thus en- 
abling the player to moderate the tensity 
of the hair. This method, which was later 
improved by having a sliding nut instead of 
the knob shown above, was the best known 
until the eighteenth century. Fig. 74 is the 
bow of a gross-geige, that is to say, a bass 
viol in use about 1500. 

Figs. 75 and 76 are taken from Mersenne's " Traite d'Har- 

Fig. 71. 
From the fapade of 

the Musician's 
House, Rheims, 13th 
cent. (Tiolletle-Duc). 

Fig. 72. 
Sloane MS. 3983. Brit. Mus. 11th cent. 

Fig. 73. 
From a painting. Violletle-Duc, " Diet. Eaisonne du ."\Iobilier Frannais." 1.5th cent. 

monie Universelle," 1627; the first appears to have a ferrule 
and nut like those of the modern bow, although the pointed 



head is, of course, very different; but appearances are deceit- 
ful, and what looks like a ferrule is probably the result of the 

Fig. 74. 
Bass Viol Bow, late 14th cent. 
Musiea Instrumentalis," M. Agricola. 

fancy of the artist who drew the bow. The invention of a 
movable nut propelled by a screw is ascribed to the elder 
Tourte in the eighteenth century. These examples of bows, 



Fig. 76. 
" Traite d'Harmonie Universclle." Merscniie. 1627. 

with the exception of those of the eighth, ninth and tenth cen- 
turies, of each of which I have only found a solitary specimen, 
might have been considerably multiplied but for the limita- 
tions of space. 


Stringed Instruments known to the Greeks. 

Egypt was the cradle of the arts, yet Europe obtained but 
little of her knowledge of music as an art directly from her : 
Egypt was the probable fount from which the surrounding 
nations obtained their materials, but before they were passed 
on to our continent the arts had become strongly tinged by the 
individuality of the race which acted as medium; to take musi- 
cal instruments alone into consideration, they have retained 
such strong racial characteristics that after many centuries it is 
still possible to assign to the different varieties their true 

Just as the Greek civilization is recent compared to the 
Egyptian and Chaldean, the origin of its music and musical 
instruments can be traced back to the older nations. In the 
thirteenth century B.C., for example, when the history of Greece 
was but commencing with the reputed settlement of the Pelasgi 
(«>. 1290 B.C.), and is misty and legendary in the extreme, 
the very musical instruments of which she has claimed the in- 
vention for her gods Mercury and Apollo, and which intimate 
and constant use has made peculiarly her own, i.e., the lyre 


and the cithara, were already well known and developed in 

Egypt and Chaldea. 

On a fresco at Beni-Hassan, in the reign of Usertasen II., 

1700 B.C., is depicted a procession of strangers bringing tribute, 
and one Asiatic musician, walking by the side of 
a laden ass, is playing a ketharah (see Fig. 77) 
with a plectrum, and holding the instrument hori- 
zontally before him, unlike the Greeks, who 
played both lyre and cithara in an upright posi- 
tion. The instrument depicted is a ketharah in a 

Fi". 77. .... 

Asiatic State of transition similar apparently to the rotta 

ketharah, 1700 of the middle ages in Europe (see Figs, no, 112, 

B.C. From ^ '^ ^ ^ 

Beni-Hassan. 1 68 and 1 72). It has been thought that these 
persons, evidently foreigners judging from their beards and 
sandals, which mark them as Asiatics, may have formed part of 
Jacob's procession journeying to Joseph in Egypt. The in- 
scription on the fresco reads: "The arrival to offer the colly- 
rium mestem which the 37 Aamu bring to him." On the scroll 
held by one of these foreigners are the words : " The year 6 of 
the reign of H.M. the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Rak- 
hakheper, &c." (or Usertesen II.). (See Champollion, vol. iv., pi. 
361, 362 and 363, and Sir J. Gardner Wilkinson's "Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians." vol. i., p. 480). It is 
evident, therefore, that neither the lyre, of which there are in- 
numerable and very ancient delineations in Egypt, nor the 
cithara can have been the invention of the Greeks, they must 
have been introduced during the legendary ages by Asiatic 
and Egyptian merchant or soldiers; but it is equally certain 
that in no country did the instruments reach such a develop- 
ment as in Greece. 


The harp, the favourite Egyptian instrument, does not seem 
to have been appreciated by the Greeks any more than the in- 
struments with necks of the guitar and lute tribes. Music 


found in Greece a congenial soil, and developed rapidly ; it pos- 
sessed a high and noble significance for the Greeks, who studied 
it from a philosophical point of view, as appealing to the mind 
and soul rather than to the senses. This high standard was 
lost sight of by the Romans, with whom music gradually as- 
sumed a sensuous character, which eventually led to its being 
excluded from the education of Christian youths and maidens, 
as exercising an unfitting and corrupting influence on the mind 
and character. (See Epistles of St. Jerome). It also gradu- 
ally became separated from the drama, which led to the down- 
fall of the latter in the middle of the fourth century A.D. 


The first uses of music must have been pastoral, but our 
knowledge of this is only legendary, whereas we possess early 
testimony of its use in religious rites and military evolutions; 
with the latter we are not concerned, for stringed instruments 
were of little use to the followers of Mars. Songs and hymns, 
with an accompaniment of lyres, citharas and oboes, 
(often mistranslated flutes), formed the chief part of 
all religious rites; and from the fusion of the 
dithyramb, or hymn to Dionysus, accompanied by the 
above-mentioned instruments, and of the rhapsodies, epic 
poems chanted by rhapsodes to instrumental accompaniment, 
came the Tragedy (from Iragos, a goat, and ode, a song), so 
named from the sacrifice of goats in the worship of Dionysus. 
The great Greek tragic writers, Thespis, vEschylus, and 
Sophocles, were musicians, and wrote both the text and music 
of their dramas. Music formed part of the curriculum of edu- 
cation for youths and maidens, and was daily practised to 
rhythmical dance steps, in order to elevate and ennoble the 
mind, and to train it to perceive beauty ; whilst gymnastics and 
athletics performed a like office for the body. (See Plato, 
"Republic," Bk. III.) 


PLATO 428 TO 348 B.C. 

Music was regarded as the handmaid of poetry to a certain 
extent, in that its great aim was to give fuller expression to the 
latter. x\bsolute music without words was looked upon as in- 
ferior, but nevertheless as one of the most intellectual means 
of schooling the feelings and forming the character. The 
very word miisice itself, "the art of the Muses," shows us that 
the Greeks regarded lyric and dramatic music, which various 
Muses combine to inspire, as the highest form. The great im- 
portance attached to music in Greece is further demonstrated 
by the fact that it was looked upon as a gift of the gods (see 
Plato, " Ion.") Plato says that poets and musicians are 
directly inspired by the Muses, that their odes are not written 
in cold blood, by art or theory, but only when they are pos- 
sessed by " lyric fury," which takes them right out of them- 
selves, leading them whither it wills; further, that each musi- 
cian or poet can only succeed in the particular style into which 
the divine afflatus guides him; in all others he only produces 
commonplaces (would that modern composers understood the 
wisdom of Plato!): this one excels in the dithyramb, another 
in eulogy, a third in dance-songs, a fourth in epic poetry 
(always accompanied on the cithara). In fact, instead of 
allowing them to work by their own art, the god for the time 
being takes away their reason and substitutes his own. Besides 
these uses, music was in request at banquets, festivals, social 
and civil, at contests in the national games, more especially 
the Pythian. As the lyres, and still more the citharas, were 
the mstruments most used on all these occasions, it is not sur- 
prising that they should not have been allowed to remain long 
in a crude form. The cithara being, as I believe (see 
Chapter II. on the question of the Origin of the Violin), 
the original precursor of the violin, is worthy of special 



The lyre and cithara, although they in the beginning be- 
longed to the same class of instruments, and possessed many 
general principles in common, have yet been the ancestors of 
two distinct and diverging classes of instruments. 

At a time when stringed instruments were all twanged by 
fingers or plectrum, they must be classified by means of their 
sound-chests, and the relative position of the latter with regard 
to the strings; these latter are stretched at right angles to the 
plane of the sound-chest in all harps; lie parallel to the whole 
length of it in the psaltery or psalterion proper; extend partly 
over it and partly a vide in lyres, citharas and rottas, &c. ; and 
over sound-chest and neck in guitars, panduras (or tambouras), 
fiddles, &c. 


The lyre or chelys, according to the older myths, was in- 
vented by Mercury, or Hermes, who, it is said, made it from 
the shell of a tortoise, over which he stretched 
sinews or gut for strings, varying in number, ac- 
cording to different accounts, from three to seven. 
The use of the word lyre is post-Homeric, and 
^ did not become common until the time of Pindar 
\^k=:::::^\^y I (^z^22 to 442 B.C.) : it occurs once in the Homeric 

^^ ^^' Hymn to Hermes, line 423; the verb derived from 

Xvpa, meaning touching or tivanging the lyre, is 
getes' lyrp, show- unknown in good Greek, the derivatives of 

ing kerata. Froiu ° 

Naples oiusfo cithara being used instead. 

Borb., Tom. \.. ^ 

No. 2C-I) The body, or sound-chest, of the lyre, as the 

instrument developed, was made of wood, and the back fre- 
quently contained a tortoise-shell inlaid ; the original vaulted 
back and flat sound-board, however, were retained; the latter 
-was called echeion. The original arms, formed of the horns 

Fig. 78. 
Apollo Musa- 



of some animal (see Fig. 78), which were fastened to 

the side of the body, were called kerata (horns); 

and later, when wooden arms of a similar shape 

were substituted (see Figs. 79 and 80), the lower 

part was called an gk ones, and the upper, or fore- iv ^ -^1/0*^ 

arm, which sepported the cross-bar, pecheis. The ^^ 

cross-bar, round which the strings were wound or Fig. 79. 

fastened by a ring-shaped or other contrivance, ^°^ll<l ^^^^^ 

was called the ziigon (in Latin, transtilluin) ; this Antiquen 

_ \ Bas-relieven 

cross-bar was oblique in the Egyptian lyre (see Rom's," pi. 98. 
Fig. 49), and the strings, fastened to it 
j by a noose, could be made to slide up or 
down to slacken or increase the tension. 
At first the lyres had no bridge, and the 
lower end of the strings was inserted 
into a cross-reed or tail-piece called 
hypolyrios, and secured by knots; 
as in the guitar, this reed served the 
double purpose of bridge and tailpiece, 

Lyre with short strings froin raising tne 

Hercula^um (Back View, ^^^^ ^ j 

Thos. Hope s Costumes of o 

the Ancients," vol. I., p. 87. soundboard and 
communicating to it their vibrations. 
The true bridge which is present in 
Etruscan and highly-developed lyres (see 
Fig. 8 1, p. 79 and Fig. 82) seems from its 
name magas to be of barbarian origin. 
Sound-holes were also a later addition 
to the lyre, and are to be found depicted 
occasionally in Etruscan paintings (see 
Fig. 82). The strings varied in number Fig. 82. 

from three to twelve: in Fig. u is an Etruscan lyre with bridge, 

" ^' sound-holes, tailpiece. From 

example of a chelys with eleven strings d'Harcanviiie's " collection of 

Etruscan. Greek and Roman 

found on a fresco at Herculanum; sev'en Antiquities, p. 10a. 



strings was the number most 
used ; additional strings were 
not so much in request for 
extending the compass as to 
allow of using the different 
modes which formed the 
basis of the musical system 
of the Greeks, a description 
of which lies outside our 
present subject. The strings 
were all of the same length 


F/>. 83. 

Long chelj's lyre, low pitched, 5th cent. 
B.C. Brit. Mus., Third Vase Room, E. 378. 

Fig. S4. 

Asiatic Ketharah. Botte, 
" Monuments de Ninive, 
Tom I., pi. 67. 

in the Greek lyre, but varied in thickness; each was played by 
a particular linger, the little finger not being used. The body 
of the lyre remained comparatively small, although the arms, 
and therefore the strings, varied in length according to the 
pitch of the instrument (see Fig. 83), which was always light 
and portable, as we know from numerous paintings on vases, 
in which women are depicted holding them out at arm's length 
with apparent ease. 


The cithara differed from the lyre even in the crudest and 
earliest representations of the two instruments (see Fig. 84). 
All the Assyrian representations are of more or less primitive 



citharas, which a superficial glance will show to be very differ- 
ent from any known specimen of the lyre. 

The sound-chest of the cithara being the most important part 
of it, is also that in which developments are most noticeable; 
its contour varied considerably during the many musical ages, 
but the characteristic which foreshadowed the precursors of 
the violin and distinguished them from the other contemporary 

stringed instruments of the Middle 
Ages, was preserved throughout : it 
was a box consisting of a back and 
sound-board or belly connected by 
sides of equal width. The Kerata, 
or horns of the lyre, were absent in 
cithara, for its sound-chest in- 
cluded the arms or support for the 

The back of the instrument was 
sometimes like the keel of a boat 
Figs. 85 and 45) and at others there 
was a bulge in the middle (see Fig. 
86); the latest development of all 
Back of cithara, shaped like a keel. ^^,.^5 ^ soundboard and back ab- 

Thos. Hope, " Costumes of the An- 
cients," Vol. I., p. ri3. solutely parallel and rectangular, 

with narrow ribs. With regard to the general ^^ — ^rL 

contour of the soundchest in Assyrian illus- <(l %^^^I_,^ i 

trations, it was rectangular, with the lower 
corners rounded off; this shape, however, 
was much too clumsy and heavy locking 
for the aesthetic Greeks, and it was soon re- 
placed by a soundchest wide across the 
centre and tapering towards the base (see 
Fig. 87) ; large instruments of this shape 
(similar to that in Fig. 95), with massive Fig 86. 

, J , ^ , , Citliara with bulging 

arms and transverse bar {zugon), are de- i^^^k. iiome. musco 
picted in the hands of bards or professional *'''y^i°^iii' x^^^^' 



musicians on archaic vases at the British Museum, and in the 
Second Vase Room [case B, 345], dating from 520 to 480 B.C., 

F,g. 87. 

C'ithara found at Herculanum. 

Thos. Hope's " Costumps of the 

Ancients," Vol. II., p. V)2. 

Fig. 8S. 

Cithara of Erato, from 

Herculanum. Clarac, 

Vol. III., p. 520. 

there is a specimen on an amphora, with bridge, tailpiece and 
soundholes similar to those of the best Athenian period (480 
to 450 B.C.). Later on this shape became more accentuated, and 
the base narrower : a great many delineations exist of this in- 
strument taken from wall paintings and statues found in Her- 
culanum (see Fig. 88). With the Etrus- 
cans the cithara was not such a favourite 
instrument, and the few examples we have 
are more squat-looking and compact than 
the Grecian (see Figs. 89 and go). It must 
be borne in mind that the cithara, besides 
varying in name (of which more at the end 
of the chapter), also varied in size accord- 
ing to pitch; this again depended on 

, , ..... Cithara. Paris, Musee 

the mode to which the strings were tuned, Royai. ciarac, Voi. iii., 
and each province had its favourite modes. 

Fis. 89. 

p. 518. 



From Plutarch (" Dialogue on Music," chap, vi.), we learn that 

in the days of Cepion, pupil of 
Terpander (seventh century B.C.), 
the shape of the cithara changed, 
and the box-tailpiece was added, 
of which there are several differ- 
ent kinds now on evidence; one 
of these on a cithara held by 
Terpsichore (see Fig. 91) looks 
like a box pure and simple fixed 
on to the sound-board. In Fig. 
92 the tailpiece resembles a lid 
rather than a box, and the cithara itself has assumed the rect- 
angular shape with which we are familiar from finding ir so 

F'^'. 90. 
Citlifira. Tlios. Hope, Vol. I., p. S2. 

F/?. 91. 

Terpsichore's Citharo. 

• Clarac, Vol. III., p. 267. 

Flf^. 92. 



Clarac, Vol. 

III., p. 353. 

Fig. 93. 

Erato's Cithara. Vis- 

conti. JIus., Clemen- 

tino, pi. 23. 

often in the hands of Apollo Musagetes or Citharoedus. rig. 
93 shows a box-tailpiece placed on a curved stand resting on 
the sound-board, and here the sound-chest is gracefully curved. 
Figs. 19 and 43, show boxes on hinges supported on the sound- 
board by means of two feet at each end. There is one circum- 
stance which is very strange in connection with these citharas 


with box-tailpieces, which can surely not be only a coin- 
cidence : not one of them has any strings indicated in the 
sculpture, and in some of them, as for instance Fig. 93, if 
correctly drawn from the statue, there could not have been any 
strings at any time, for the whole hand and arm are visible 

Fig. 81. 
Chelys lyre with plectrum, bridge and reed tailpiece, oth cent. B.C. Third Yase Room, 

Brit. JFus., E. 267. 

across the space that would be filled by the strings; these in 
sculpture are merely indicated on the face of a solid piece of 
marble looking like a finger-board, behind which the hand 
cannot be seen; one must conclude, therefore, that the sculptor, 
seeing the impossibility of representing the strings, and yet 


preserving the light and graceful appearance of the nistrument, 
or else wishing to show the hand m preference, has purposely 
omitted them; from his point of view this is of course quite 
right, but it has deprived us of the means of studying the 
method by which the strings are attached to the tailpiece. 
From the indications of small hooks or bolts on some of the 
boxes, we may presume that the strings were fastened on the 

As in the lyre the strings of the cithara were all of the same 
length, pitch being determined by their thickness; they were 
attached to the revolving transverse bar by various contrivances 
already mentioned and illustrated in Chapter III., " Pegs." 
The strings, which, as will be seen, varied greatly in number 
at different times, were always arranged and added less for 
the purpose of gaining compass, than to enable the performer 
to play in the different modes of the Greek musical system. 
The cithara was suspended by means of an embroidered band 
or ribbon passed over the right shoulder, so that the instrument 
could be supported against the left hip or breast, leaving the 
right hand free for the treble, the left taking the bass; this 
band was called in Greek telamon, and in Latin balieus. 


It is evident to anyone who is acquainted with the vase and 
mural paintings and the sculptures of ancient Greece, that the 
lyre and cithara played totally different parts in musical life: 
we fi.nd the lyre in domestic circles, in lessons, receptions, at 
banquets, or in mythological scenes ; it is found in the hands 
of women no less than men, and the costume of the performers 
on the lyre is that of an ordinary citizen of the time (see Fig. 
82); in fact, the lyre was the instrument of the amateur, and 
did not make any very great demand upon the intellect or 

On the other hand, the cithara was the instrument of the pro- 
fessionals ; its technique was extensive and difficult to acquire; 



its use was two-fold : (i) to accompany the voice — this being 
placed by the Greeks far above mere instrmiiental music; (2) 
for solos, dance-music or pieces to play at trials of skill, at 
the national games, and at the receptions of the rich, at which 
virttiosi performed then as they do now at our fashionable 
at-homes, with this difference, that before the decadence in 
Greece, music was too serious and sacred an art not to com- 
mand full attention, and it was used as an accompaniment to 
songs and hymns, but not to the desultory conversation of a 
fashionable gathering. 


The costume of the professional 
citharcsdus, as the performer was 
called if he used the cithara to ac- 
company his song, or cit funis ta if 
he used it for instrumental music, 
was exceedingly rich and quite dis- 
tinct from any other (see Auctor, ad 
Herennio, lib. iv., 47, 60, and 
Apuleius, Florid., 2, 15); he wore a 
■palla or long tunic with sleeves, em- 
broidered with gold, which was girt 
high above the waist and fell in 
graceful folds to the feet; the palla 
of the citharoedus must not be con- 
founded with the garment of the 
same name worn by women, which 
was a mantle. Over one shoulder, 
or hanging down the back, was the 
purple chlamys or cloak (see Fig. 
94), and he wore a golden wreath of 

As all representations of these professionals, so easily reco 

2 H 

Fig. 94. 

Apollo Citharoedus, Tiscouti. 3Ius. 




nized by their dress and laurel wreath, bear the characteristic 
instrument described above, and never one of the lyre type, 
we may consider this is an additional proof of the identity of 
the cithara. 

Fig. 95. 

Cithara'dus. showing the Palla and Chlamys. From d'Harcaiiville's Collection of Greek, 
Itoman and Etruscan xVntiquities. 

This distinctive costume varied little from the palmy days 
of Greek music (see Fig. 95) to the time of Nero, who was a 
great patron of music. At the time of the burning of Rome, 
it is recorded that he was singing " The Destruction of Troy," 
accompanying himself on the cithara. He was fond of dress- 
ing up as a citharoedus, and of being represented in that char- 
acter on medals; Fig. 96 is a copy of one of these. (See 
Suetonius, " Nero," cap. 25). 




Although even the briefest summary of the History of Greek 
Music would be out of place here, a few facts and anecdotes 
relating to the citharoedes may prove interesting. 

This record, extending over more than thirteen centuries, 
falls naturally into two divisions : the mythological, from the 
thirteenth century B.C. to the first Olympiad, 776 B.C., and the 
historical, from 776 B.C. to the days of Ptolemy, 161 A.D. Yet 
there are reservations in this division, for tradition takes us 
back by occasional allusions to periods beyond the veil, and 
the historical period is set in a framework of mythology. In 
the thirteenth century B.C. took place the conquest of the Pelo- 
ponnesus by Pelops, leader of the Lydians, who with the 
Phrygians were descendants of the first Aryans who peopled 
Asia Minor; the -pectis, a stringed instrument of the cithara 
tribe, was probably then introduced by them to the Greeks (see 
Athenaeus, 14, c. 5). Herodotus also testifies to the Asiatic 
origin of the instrument in his account of the march of 
Alyattes, king of Lydia (sixth century B.C.). father of Croesus, 
and his army against Mile- 
tus to the sound of the 
syrinx, pectis and flutes. 

In the same century the 
sovereign power of music to 
soothe, inspirit and touch 
the heart is symbolized by 
the legendary history of 
Orpheus, who encouraged 
the heroes on the Argonaut 
expedition by his war-like 
songs and music, besides pi„ qq 

bending the powers of Nerone Citaredo, Yiseonti. :\rus., Clcnientino. 

Nature and Hades to his will by the music of his 
lyre. The legend of Amphion building the walls of 


Thebes by his magic playing, is but another tribute to the 
power of rhythmical music. Apollo, the leader of the Muses, 
was also the god of music and poetry and as such was sur- 
named Musagetes and Citharcedus, and was celebrated in 
poems, sculptures and paintings innumerable; he was con- 
sidered to represent that art of music which appeals to the 
mind and soul of man, and is potent to allay pain, to ennoble, 
and to educate; whilst Dionysus (Bacchus) inspired emotional, 
sensuous music, which excited, maddened, and led to the Bac- 
chanalian orgies : in memory of his sad fate arose wild laments 
and outbursts of passionate sorrow. In the twelfth century 
B.C. occurred the events which inspired the immortal Homer, 
and Achilles stands out as the only singer and performer on 
stringed instruments alluded to among the warriors who 
besieged the luckless Troy. Achilles' instrument is sometimes 
called phorminx, and at others cithara; these were probably 
the large and low-pitched instruments similar to that in Fig. 
95, which would be the most suitable for accompanying heroic 
songs and epic poems; the word lyre occurs neither in the Iliad 
nor in the Odyssey. Achilles comforted his heart, we are told, 
with a phorminx which had a bridge of silver, and stimulated 
his courage by singing the deeds of the heroes (Iliad ix., 188). 
The Iliad and Odyssey are a mine of wealth to musical his- 
torians, and contain evidence of the wide-spread practice of 
the art, and of its intimate relation to man in all conditions 
and at all times. 

At the beginning of the tenth century B.C. the celebrated 
national games, Olympian, Nemeian and Pythian, were estab- 
lished, and the latter was specially devoted to musical con- 
tests, which at first consisted of festival songs accompanied 
by rival instruments, chiefly oboes and citharas; the oboists 
or auletes, laboured under the disadvantage of not being able 
to sing and play at the same time. The prize was a simple 
laurel wreath, but the honour was great. 


With the period immediately precednig Terpander, who 
flourished in the seventh century B.C., we enter the reahiis of 
history. Round this great composer, poet, theorist and instru- 
mentalist there gathers a halo of traditions, in addition to 
the known facts, which, treated allegorical ly, seems to point 
to his descent from a long line of bards. Terpander, a native 
of Lesbos, founded the great Lesbian school, which counts 
among its pupils, Cepion, Arion, Alcaeus and Sapho; the chief 
scene of his labours was, however, Sparta, where he taught 
about 640 to 630 B.C., and composed his celebrated melodies 
called Nomes, which the Spartans found so inspirating that 
they looked upon the master with the greatest reverence. On 
one occasion, when dissensions and quarrels arose among them 
concerning the spoils from the Messinian War, the Delphic 
oracle announced that " not until Terpander's cithara sounds 
will contention cease in Sparta." This oracle was actually 
fulfilled when, under the influence of Terpander's singing and 
playing, the disputants were reconciled. Terpander is said to 
have increased the strings of the cithara from four to seven, 
which long remained the perfect number in Sparta, who strenu- 
ously resisted all attempts to break through the canons of 

Arion's story {circa 620 B.C.), like Terpander's, is a curious 
mixture of fact and myth ; his reputation as citharoedus no 
doubt caused much jealousy, and his proven superiority over 
the citharoedes of Tarentum gave rise to the well-known fable. 
There is a very quaijit miniature (see Fig. 97) in a Bestiarium 
of the fourteenth century, an English MS., Sloane 3544 (Brit. 
Mus.), showing Arion seated in a very diminutive ship charm- 
ing the so-called dolphins by playing on a hurdy-gurdy. The 
myths of ancient Greece were frequently used during the 
middle ages to glorify the favourite musical instrument of the 

Sapho {circa 560 B.C.), the Lesbian poetess, has been ac- 



credited with the invention of the barbiton, a stringed instru- 
ment (of which more will be said at the end of the chapter) of 
barbaric origin, as its name indicates, and unknown to the 
Greeks, as far as we can tell, until her day. Sapho, who in her 
school at Lesbos trained innumerable maidens of noble birth 

Fie. 97. 
Arion charming- the dolphins with a hurdy-gurdy. From Sloane MS. 3544 Brit. Mus. 

lith cent. 

in dancing, singing and gymnastics, seems to have chiefly used 
a lyre of six strings. Pythagoras, the greatest name in Greek 
musical history, made the daily use of the lyre morning and 
evening the rule for himself and his pupils, and was a strong 
believer in the power of music to subdue the passions and even 
to cure madness, an idea likewise held by Goethe many cen- 
turies later. 

Pindar, the greatest lyric poet, was also a celebrated com- 
poser, and one of his Pythian odes has been preserved and 
deciphered, Bockh vouching for its authenticity ; the opening 
bars of the solo, m which the phorminx of Apollo is mentioned, 
are given in Fig. 98; the solo is followed by a chorus for 



)(pv - ae- a fop-jdiyt, A-ttoA-Xw-j'oc /cat t - o-ttXc ku fidjy. 

Fig y<s. 

The solemn games and processions called Panathena?, 


held every four years in honour of Athene, which used to con- 
sist principally of athletic sports, horse and chariot races, were 
under Pisistratus (about 540 B.C.) greatly extended, and made 
to include contests of singers and instrumentalists, recitations 
of portions of the Iliad and Odyssey by citharoedes, such as 
are represented on the frieze of the Parthenon (see Elgin Room, 
British Museum\ and later on friezes by Phidias. It was also 
at that time (550 B.C.) that the first contests for citharistas, or 
solo players on the cithara, and for auletes were instituted at 
the eighth Pythian games. The golden age of music was fast 
approaching, and these contests smoothed the way. Pisistratus 
was a great patron of the festivals held in honour of Dionysus 
in Athens in the spring, in which the singers of the dithyramb 
accompanied their song with pantomimic action, celebrating 
the god of the joys of life; these, and the more solemn festi- 
vals when the mystic goat was sacrificed, and the sorrows and 
painful death of the god were sung, eventually brought about 
the glorious drama, at whose shrine we worship to-day in the 
works of Richard Wagner. 

In the time of Pericles (478 to 429 B.C.) the beauty of the 
drama reached its height with ^schylus (525 to 456 B.C.), and 
the cithara was glorified with it. Just as instrumental music 
in the middle ages originated in the regenerated drama of the 
sixteenth century, so the rise of virtuosity followed the growth 
of the Greek drama, and became the sign of the decadence 
which came when the soul of music and its message to men 
became of less account than the dexterity of the fingers; the 
worst is that this was but the outward sign of the canker that 
was eating out the heart of this great and glorious nation, and 
which led to its ultimate ruin. This passing reference to the 
drama must suffice, for we must not lose sight of the cithara. 
Pericles, who lived among such giants in the arts as Phidias, 
^schylus, Sophocles and Euripides, was by no means an un- 
worthy patron of the tonal art; besides the noble Parthenon 



and Propylae, he had the Odeion built for musical and poetical 
contests. In 456 a great virtuoso, Phrynis, the citharoedus and 
citharista, distinguished himself by his wonderful execution 
and his scale passages in single and double notes : although 
the people were enthusiastic over this skill, the critics of the 
day shook their heads, missing the true spirit which used to 
elevate and ennoble. Phrynis added a ninth string to the 
cithara (see Fig. 99), which enabled him to play in two modes 

Fig. <)!). 
Citliarcedus playinfr on tlio !)strinfro(l fitliarn introduced 
Phrynis. From IMillijjcn's " \'ases Grccs de la Collectir 
Sir J. Conhill." 

without re-tuning the instrument ; he was made much of in 
Athens, but a visit to Sparta, where he intended to create a 
sensation with his improved technique and new instrument, 
brought him a severe rebuke from the Lacedemonians, who 
were faithful to Terpandcr's classical style and seven-stringed 
cithara. This sopf in instrumental music spread in time to 


singing, and the coloratura style became popular; virtuosi vied 
with each other in producing more and more wonderful effects, 
which the people rushed to hear ; statues were erected m honour 
of singers, auletes, dancers, actors, and personality received 
the worship and honour due to Art. This superficiality and 
striving after effect was severely criticized and satirized, among 
others, by Aristophanes in his comedy " The Clouds." 

Alcibiades was passionately fond of music, and was a great 
amateur citharoedus. Plutarch tells us, in his " Life of Alci- 
biades," that in the course of his education he willingly took 
lessons in all but the aulcs, which he refused to learn to play, 
looking upon u as a mean art, unworthy of a gentleman. " The 
use of the plectrum upon the cithara," he would say, " has 
nothing in it that disorders the features or form, but a man is 
hardly to be known by his most intimate friends when he plays 
upon the oboe. Beside, the cithara does not hinder the per- 
former from speaking, or accompanymg it with a song," &c. 

Histseus, of Colophon, added a tenth string to the cithara, 
and Timotheus, the Elder of Miletus (446 to 357), added the 

As Timotheus exercised a great influence on the music of his 
day, making many innovations, a little sketch of his career may 
prove of interest. He was a famous virtuoso as well as a 
citharoedus and composer, and he may be said to have formed 
his style on that of Phrynis (likewise a native of Miletus), 
whom he excelled on one occasion at a musical contest. Euri- 
pides, who, however, it must be remembered, was no musician, 
and did not himself compose the music for his tragedies, was 
much struck with the virtuosity of Timotheus. When the 
latter was hissed on his first performance at Athens by an audi- 
ence whose taste he had offended by his bold innovations and 
by the increase of strings on his cithara, Euripides predicted 
for him a brilliant future. 

We find that he delighted in intricate passages and forms, 


"windings like the passages in ant hills " (Plut., " De Musica," 
30, p. 1 141 f.); he moreover cultivated instrumental music more 
than any preceding musician, making great use of the chro- 
matic scale. Timotheus may be called the originator of pro- 
gramme music, for he tried to make his music imitative, seizing 
on the points of the mythical stories which admitted of imita- 
tion, such as raging elements, cries of men and of beasts, and 
neglecting the ethical side entirely. Timotheus, in common 
with some of the virtuosi of our day who do not disdain to 
play music written for other instruments, played on the cithara 
music written for the aulos, and he was the first to entrust the 
singing of the Nomes to a chorus instead of to a soloist. 
Judged by an aesthetic standard he fell short, but he enjoyed 
great popularity, as an instance of which may be mentioned 
that he received a thousand pieces of gold from the Ephesians 
for his hymn to Artemis (Diana). He did not profit by the 
experiences of Phrynis at Sparta, confidently going there to 
exhibit his skill to the severe classicists at the Carneian musical 
contests; one of the Ephori, however, snatched from him his 
cithara and indignantly cut the four strings which were m 
excess of Terpander's canon, then, as a warning to future in- 
novators, he confiscated the mutilated instrument, which 
Pausanius tells us, he saw hanging on a peg in the Scias (III., 
12, sec. 8). Timotheus composed eighteen books of citharoedic 
nomes, eighteen dithyrambs, twenty-one hymns, and some en- 
comia. A few fragments of these are extant. 

We now come to a time when there were two distinct parties 
in the musical world of Greece, and the glorious drama which 
opened out such infinite possibilities for the furtherance of the 
art of music, actually may be said to have sown the seeds of the 
decadence which led to the ultimate ruin of the art, because the 
people became degenerate and demoralized. This was also the 
great age of philosophy, and the great minds of Plato, Aristotle, 
and Socrates foresaw that in diviner free reins to the emotional 


m music, the power of elevating the mind and encouraging the 
love of intellectual beauty and harmony would be lost ; this 
tendency was, however, not what the philosophers most de- 
plored, there was something infinitely worse — the reign of vu'- 
tuosity was at hand. The craving for greater compass and a 
larger number of strings, innocent and laudable enough in 
itself (for we cannot hold with the extreme conservatives of 
Sparta), was a pregnant sign of evil in this case, because these 
greater facilities were misused and music was neglected for the 
superficial pleasures of dexterity of the fingers. The futile, 
meaningless music of the virtuosi tickled the ears of the unre- 
flecting masses, and the citharistas vied with each other in 
producing mere and more wonderful effects, and in scoring 
triumphs over each other, not of pure skill, but for having 
secured the favour and applause of the masses and their rich 

Plato (430-347 B.C.) must not be omitted from our list of 
citharoedes, for when a mere youth he contended at the Isthmian 
and other games, and composed epic, lyric and dithyrambic 
verses before he turned his attention to philosophy under the 
tuition of Socrates (Diogenes, Laert. III., 4, 5 ; Aelian, V. H. II., 
30; Plato, Epistle VI.). Like Plato, Aristotle threw the whole 
weight of his influence against virtuosity, believing that it was 
injurious to the welfare of the state, whereas it was really only 
the outward sign of the evil which was even then threatening 
Greece. Aristotle's taste was by no means so severe as Plato's, 
and he recommended all music that was graceful and elegant; 
he advised his pupils to use great discrimination in the choice 
of instruments, holding that those of which the technique was 
difficult and complicated were best left alone, and that the use 
of those with many strings, like the citharas of Aristoxenus 
and Timotheus, the trigonon, epigonion, etc., could not fail to 
prove pernicious in their influence on mind and morals. Aris- 
totle, when tutor to Alexander the Great, had a new version of 


the Iliad prepared for him, to be sung to the cithara with at 
most seven strings. The father of the young prnice, Philip of 
Macedon, was surrounded with poets and musicians, who flat- 
tered him most shamelessly, debasing their art and making 
music which was only sensuous. Alexander himself was ac- 
companied on his warlike expeditions by bards, and on the 
occasion of his marriage to Statira at Susa (B.C. 324), a number 
of celebrated Greek musicians, citharoedes, were invited to assist 
in the festivities; amongst these were Timotheus the younger, 
Aristonymus, Cratinus, Heraclitus and Athenodorus of Teos, 
a celebrated citharista. 

Aristoxenus (B.C. 350), a pupil of Aristotle, who wrote two 
treatises, one on " Rhythm," of which a fragment remains, and 
the second, "The Elements of Harmony," in three volumes still 
extant — was opposed to the theories of Pythagoras founded on 
numerical ratios. Aristoxenus recognized no guide but the 
ear; the followers of the former were called canonists, and of 
the latter harmonists. We are chiefly concerned with Aris- 
toxenus in his character of instrumentalist, for he is said to 
have further added to the strings of the cithara, raising the 
number from fifteen to eighteen ; if this be true, he must have 
diverged very greatly from the teaching of his master Aristotle. 

Alypius, whose date seems difficult to fix, is thought by some 
to have lived in the second century B.C. Be that as it may, he 
has left us a valuable and interesting work indicating the sym- 
bols used for voice and instruments of all the sounds in the 
forty-five scales. Euclid, about 200 B.C., Diodorus Siculus, 
contemporary of Julius Caesar, Plutarch (49-120 A.D.), Ptolemy 
(60-139 A.D.) have all furnished information on musical subjects 
and instruments. 

Many stringed instruments are known to us by name from 
numerous classical references, and these are frequently men- 
tioned in such a manner by the writers, if Greeks of Hellas, as to- 


show that the fame of these instruments had reached them from 
afar, but without details; on the other hand, writers from the 
Greek colonies in Asia Minor, whence came most of the instru- 
ments mentioned below, refer to them familiarly, but do not 
describe them, doubtless because they were so well known in 
their country. We gather most of the few facts we know on 
the subject from Atheneus, an Egyptian born at Naucratis 
about the beginning of the third century A.D. ; he was a writer 
of great erudition, and in the " Deipnosophists," or Banquet of 
the Learned, quotes many writers whose works are now lost. 
The Greeks of Hellas may be said to have used only the lyre 
and cithara, and did not by any means rank as the most musical 
in Greece; that distinction belongs rather to the colonies of 
Asia Minor (Lesbos, Lydia, Phrygia, &c.). Great Greece (Italy), 
Sicily and Egypt, to whom the real progress of instrumental 
music is due. Hellas may have become acquainted with in- 
struments of many strings after the conquests of Alexander 
the Great, but the epigonion excepted, not before. The names 
of the instruments seem to have been hopelessly confused by 
various classical writers, and applied to totally different speci- 
mens; this is hardly strange seeing that most of them w^ere only 
known to them by name. It must be remembered that through- 
out the history of music the same instrument was frequently 
to be found with a varying number of strings at different 
periods, so that we need not feel puzzled when A\riters do not 
agree on this point. 

The citharas and lyres were known by different names, for 
reasons which in most cases we can but conjecture. 


The word phorminx as far as we know occurs first in Homer, 
where it is used as a synonym for cithara, as will be seen from 
the following lines quoted from the Odyssey (Canto I.), "A 
herald presents a cilhara to Phemius, who constrains himself to 


Sing before the suitors. He plays a prelude to a melodious 
song on the fhorminx" A quotation from the Iliad (Canto 
XVIII.) corroborates this, and at the same time shows the sup- 
position that the phorminx was a large cithara to be improbable ; 
the instrument was probably made in different sizes. " A phor- 
minx was borne by a young boy, who joins his melodious voice 
to the harmonious sound of his cithara." 

Classical authors agree in saying that the sound of the phor- 
minx was sweet and sympathetic, and eminently suitable to 
accompany the voice. Euclid, in his " Introduction to Music," 
quotes Terpander on the subject of this instrument : "But we, 
loving no more the tetrachordal chant, will sing aloud new 
hymns to a seven-toned phorminx." These lines are also quoted 
by Strabo (p. 169). Terpander, we hear from Plutarch, (De 
Musica) won the prize with this instrument at the hrst musical 
contest which took place at the feast of Apollo Carneius at 
Sparta, and he was victor four times in succession at the 
Pythian games, singing his own epic verses as well as Homer's. 


The pectis was a Lydian instrument, said to have been in- 
troduced to the Greeks by Pelops in the thirteenth century B.C., 
according to Atheneus (Lib. XIV., c. 5), who also says that it 
was a small instrument with shrill notes. Sapho (22nd frag- 
ment) endorses that statement. Herodotus also testifies as to 
its being a Lydian instrument ; as the Lydians played en 
citharas principally and did not use the lyre, we may believe 
that the pectis was a small variety of the cithara. With regard 
to the number of strings, Plato classes the pectis with the poly- 
chorde (Rep. Lib. III., p. 399). Sopater (323-283 B.C.), a parod- 
ist of Paphos, who spent much time at the Court of Alexander 
the Great, assigns to it but two strings in his burlesque, " The 
Initiated," quoted by Atheneus (Bk. XIV.) " The pectis proud 
of its barbaric muse with its two strings, was placed 


within my hand." Diogenes (about B.C. 404), a tragic-poet of 
Athens, in his tragedy, " Semele," gives the shape of the pectis 
as triangular : " Strii^ing the clear three-cornered pectis, and 
raising responsive airs upon the magadis." It is probable that 
Diogenes, being an Athenian, knew little about the instrument, 
and had in his mind the Phrygian trigonon. 


This, as its name denotes, was an instrument of nine strings, 
and is probably neither more nor less than the nine-stringed 
cithara of Phrynis (see Fig. 99). 


This name is of barbaric origin, and the term magas applied 
to the bridge of the cithara and lyre by the Greeks was prob- 
ably derived from the magadis, a Lydian instrument of twenty 
strings or tones, probably a kind of cithara, since Anacreon 
(B.C. 540), a native of Teos in Asia Minor, who should be a good 
authority on the subject, and also Menaechmus of Sicyone, 
who lived in the time of the successors of Alexander the Great, 
of whom he wrote a history, both clearly state that it is the 
same instrument as the pectis. As the strings are all of the same 
length on the cithara, it is difficult to understand how thickness 
and tension alone could produce so many different notes ; it 
seems to me that the magadis may have been an instrument of 
ten strings, with a second bridge or fret against which the 
fingers stopped the strings half-way, thus producing the 
octaves of the notes at will; this seemed all the more probable 
because to magadise was a well-known term for playing hi 
octaves with another instrument; we must also remember that 
the use of hnger-boards and frets had been known for cen- 
turies in Egypt and Assyria. Atheneus (XIV., c. 8, p. 617) 
quotes Anacreon : " O Leucaspis, I sing sounding my Lydian 


magadis with twenty strings." Now, Anacreon mentions the 
three modes, Dorian, Lydian and Phrygian, in which music 

Dorian. Phvygiaii. Lydian 

^z:i^=gzi!-F=:ii=li=Eg=i=a -*-'- p:^=EJ=^=g=* -*-'^- i:d 

was written in his time, and possibly his magadis 
was tuned so that he could play in the three scales with- 
.out re-tuning ; this would require only ten strings from 

■which would agree with my supposition that the other 
ten tones were produced by means of a fret bridge. 
Atheneus quotes a description of a wonderful instrument which 
Artemon {cirai B.C. 300) calls the tripod of Pythagoras of 
Zacynthus, because in shape it resembled the Delphic tripod : 
this instrument was a revolving triple cithara ; it was composed 
of three complete instruments joined by their sides, of which 
one was tuned to the Dorian, another to the Lydian, and ths 
third to the Phrygian scale; this triple instrument was fixed on 
a revolving pedestal. Pythagoras sat before it on a chair, 
steadying the instrument with his left hand and holding the 
plectrum in the right, and played first on one side, then dexter- 
ously turning the instrument with his foot, he continued on 
another side as the music demanded, using such agility of 
finger and execution that any one hearing without seeing would 
have fancied he was listening to three players on different in- 
struments. This tripod, although so much admired when 
played by Pythagoras, fell into disuse after his death, probably 
on account of the intricacy of its technique, and so it escaped 
the notice of many writers. The Delphic tripods were dedi- 
cated to Apollo, and formed one of his attributes, and as 
Apollo was the reputed inventor of the cithara, according to 


Greek traditions, there seems to be a suitableness and meaning 
in the construction of this tripod cithara; moreover, tripods of 
bronze were frequently given as prizes at the Pythian Games 
and other contests. 

There are many more quotations to be found in Athenseus in 
which the magadis is mentioned ; sometimes it is described as 
having five strings, at another it is said to be a Lydian flute, 
from which I am inclined to think that the name is generic, 
indicating those instruments on which the octaves can be pro- 


The barbiton was also a barbarian instrument, as the name 
seem.s to indicate, barbat being the name of a Persian stringed 
instrument, a lute or harp (Johnson's Persian, Arabic and 
English Dictionary); Theocritus calls it an instrument of 
many strings (that is to say more than seven). Pollux 
(Onomasticon iv., c. 9, No. 59), calls it a barbiton or barymite 
(from barus, heavy, and mitos, string), that is to say, with deep 
sounds ; the strings were twice as long as those of the pectis, and 
sounded an octave lower; one could magadise on the two in- 
struments, as Pindar tells us (Athen. xiv., c. 9, p. 635) in the 
same line wherein he attributes the introduction of the instru- 
ment into Greece to Terpander. Anacreon in his first ode sings 
that his barbitos only gives out erotic tones. 


Even less is known of this instrument than of the preceding ; 

its invention has been attributed to Ibycus in the sixth century 

B.C. ; he may have introduced it to the Greeks. The sambuca, 

or sabuca, is undoubtedly the Phoenician sabecha, and perhaps 

the same as the lyrophoenix; its tone was very shrill, like that 

of the pectis, and it had four strings, according to some writers. 

Euphorion, in his book on the Isthmian Games (Athen. xiv.) 

tells us that it was used by the Parthians and Troglodytae. 

2 I 



Andreas of Panormus {ibid.), in his History of Sicily, says that 
the military engine sambuca was named after the instrument 
whose shape it resembled, being like a ship and a ladder joined 
together : the description is too vague to help us much, although 
some Egyptian harps would answer to this description ; indeed, 
any instrument with a resonant box at the base and strings ris- 
ing from it perpendicularly might, by a stretch of imagination. 

Fig 100. 

Instrument of the harp-lute description fount! on a tomb at 

Tliebes-Kourna, Champollion. 

answer to the above simile. The instrument, mistranslated 
sackbut in the book of Daniel (ch. iii. 5), is in the original Chal- 
dee sebeka, no doubt the instrument in question, which was of 
Assyrian origin. The sambuca is sometimes described as tri- 
angular, and at others boat-shaped, and was possibly similar 
to the primitive small Egyptian harp-lute instrument (see Fig. 
100) called nanga. 



This instrument was invented, or at least introduced into 
Hellas, by Epigonus, a Greek musician of Ambracia, who was 
admitted to a citizenship at Sicyone. The epigoneion had 40 
strings (Pollux Onomasticon, Lib. iv., cap. 9, sect. 2). It was 
probably a harp or psaltery, since in an instrument of so many 
strings some must have been of different lengths, for tension 
and thickness only could hardly have produced forty different 
sounds; strings of varying lengths require a frame, like that of 
the harp or of the Egyptian Kithara (see Fig. 165); or, in the 
case of the psaltery, a harp-shaped arrangement of the bridges. 

Juba, or Jobas, the learned king of Mauritania, who flourished 
in A.D. 63, declares that Epigonus brought the instrument from 
Alexandria, and played upon it with the fingers of both hands, 
not using it only as an accompaniment to the voice, but intro- 
ducing chromatic passages, and a chorus of other stringed in- 
struments, probably citharas, to accompany the voice. Epigonus 
was also a skilled citharista, and played it with his bare hands 
without plectrum (Athen. iv., p. 183 d, and xiv., p. 638 a). Had 
we the means of ascertaining when he lived, his career would 
have proved an interesting addition to our list of citharoedes. 


All we know about this instrument is that it had 35 strings, 
and that its invention was attributed to Simos, about 600 B.C. 
(Pollux, ibid?) 


This instrument derived its name from the Greek psallo, to 
twitch, pull, and let go again, to twang a bow string; the term 
was applied in the 6th cent. B.C., to the hair (^schylus, Persai, 
1062) in the 5th cent. B.C., to the bow (Euripides, Bacchae, 784), 
and in the 4th cent. B.C., for the first time to a musical instru- 
ment of which the strings were twanged with the fingers in- 
stead of a plectrum. (Sse Liddell and Scott, Greek Lexicon). 


The psalterion consisted of strings stretched over a sound- 
board during the middle ages, and even in the days of St. 
Jerome and San Isidore of Spain, both of whom refer to it in 
their w^ritings ; and we may assume that the same characteristic 
was present in its earliest form, since it was probably identical 
with the Chaldean -pisantir. Some writers have thought that the 
inscription, " Erato Psaltrian " (Fig. 88) on the base of the statue 
of the muse found at Herculanum, who is playing a large cithara, 
showed that the instrument was a psalterion or psaltery, where- 
as psaltrian simply indicates that Erato is playing a stringed 
instrument and twanging the strings. It is evident from the 
words of Juba (see above, " Epigoneion ") that in his day, in 
the first century of our era, there were two kinds of psalterions, 
an upright and a horizontal. Atheneus (iv. c. 25, p. 183) says 
that Alexander of Cytheria completed the number of the 
strings of the psalterion, and afterwards, having grown old in 
Ephesus, he consecrated his ingenious invention to Diana in the 


This instrument, like so many of the others, is little more 
than a name to us. From the epic poet Theopompus (380 B.C.), 
we know something of its construction ; " Sounding a large 
skindapsos of maple-wood inlaid with tamarisk, similar to a 
lyre " (Athen. xiv.). As the instrument was large, its strings 
must have been long and have produced deep tones ; the strings 
were four in number, the parodist Matronus (5th and 4th cent. 
B.C.) tells us : " Nor did they hang it upon pegs where hung 
the sweet skindapsos with its fourfold strings, joy of the 
woman who the distaff hates " (Athen. xiv.). Anaxilas, an 
Athenian comic poet, contemporary of Plato, from whose work 
" The Lyre Maker," Atheneus quotes, informs us : " I was 
making three-stringed barbiti, pectides, citharae, lyres and 
skindapsi." Unfortunately, this treatise is not extant ; it would 
have proved of great interest to us, and would doubtless have 



cleared up many obscure points in the history of musical in- 
struments. The derivation of the word in Greek is not known. 


The trigonon was a sort of early triangular harp, and has 
nothing to do with the precursors of the violin. 


This instrument, evidently little known in Greece, had been 
introduced from Asia; it usually had three strings (Pollux, 
Lib. iv. 60), and had we not evidence from other 
sources, we should know little about it from the 
Greeks. It is evidently the tamboura of the 
Assyrians, Persians and Arabs, a sort of lute 
with a vaulted back, a long neck, with or without 
frets, and a flat sound-board. It is similar to 
the Egyptian instrument found by Mr. Madox 
(Fig. loi), or that in Fig. 102, from a painting 
on the third tomb at Thebes Kourna. We shall find 
this instrument again in the middle ages under 
the name of Panduria, Banduria and Tambor, 
the latter in the Moorish enumerations of musi- 
cal instruments. In the " Cantigas de Santa 

Fig. 101. ^ 

Sort of tamboura. Maria," a manuscript of the 13th century in the 

Sir Gardner -r^ • i i • i i i i- i 

Wilkinson's Lscorial, which has several times been men- 
Manners and tioncd, are scvcral miniatures of performers on 

Customs of the ' ^ 

Ancient |-]^^g instrument, which will be given later (see 

Egyptians." *=" ^ 

Vol. I., p. 483. Riafio on " Early Spanish Music "). In the 
British Museum there is, in the mausoleum annexe, a sarco- 
phagus assigned to the reign of Hadrian, on which is depicted 
an instrument answering to the above description in all but the 
number of strings, which is four (see Fig. 25). 



Fig. 102. 
Egyptian nefer or tamboura. ChampoUion. Tom. ii., pi. cvii. 

This concludes the list of the principal stringed instruments 
mentioned by Greek writers. 


Stringed Instruments among the Romans. 

The Romans inherited their knowledge of the arts from the 
Greeks, but their treatment of them differed greatly from that 
of the Hellenes; the Romans were realists in art, whereas the 
Greeks were idealists. The warlike instincts of the former in- 
fluenced their cult : Mars was placed by them far above Apollo 
and the Muses, hence the fondness of the Romans for wind 
instruments of a martial character, which, however, they did 
not invent, but only improve. The Romans obtained all their 
musical instruments from the surrounding nations ; stringed 
instruments were comparatively little used by them, and ap- 
parently not until close upon the commencement of our era. 
The earliest references to the lyre occur in Horace B.C. 65 to 
8), when he sings: "The dorian notes of the lyre will har- 
monize with the mixolydian tones of the flute" (Horace ad 
Mecaenat, Epod. ix.). 

The word cithara seems to occur first in the writings of Varro 
(116 to 28 B.C.), a bibliophile, who enjoyed the favour of 
Augustus; he contributed enormously to the literature of his 
day, for it is computed that he wrote no fewer than 490 books, 
of which only two are extant, " De Re Rustica " and " De 
Lingua Latina." We must not conclude that the instruments 
were unknown to the Romans until that period ; the reason for 
the omission lies partly in the fact that the instruments do not 



seem to have been very generally used until the first century 
A.D., when the study formed part of the education of noble 
maidens, the other reasons are related to the style of the litera- 
ture. Virgil mentions both lyre and cithara repeatedly ; it 
will be sufficient to quote two passages : "If Orpheus had been 
able to summon the shades of his wife, by the power of his 
Thracian cithara with melodious strings" (^n. vi. 120); this 
reference shows us to whom the Romans attributed the orisfin 

Fig. 103. 

Back of a lioman 
cithara, held by Noro 
Citharoedo. Jliis. Pio 
Clem. Tom. iii., Tav. 

Fig. 104. 
Highly developed 
Roman cithara of 
the Lycian Apollo. 
Bom. Mu8. Capit. 
Tom. iii., PI. 13. 

Fig 105 

Ten stringed instrument with 

characteristics of both lyre and 

eithara. Heliac Table, Montfau- 

con. Sup. i., Tab. 32 

or introduction of the instrument : " The bard lopas, with 
flowing locks, sang to his cithara ornamented with gold, as 
instructed by the lore of the great Atlas" (vEn. i. 740). 

The citharas we And represented on Roman sculptures bear 
evidences of high development, probably attained in Greece, 
and introduced to Rome by the numerous musicians who flocked 
to the capital of the world. The rectangular shape that we have 
observed in Figs. 18, 43, 94, &c., is the dominant one : the back 
and belly are flat, as in Fig. 103, a cithara held by Nero in one 
of the representations of him in the character of Citharoedus; 
this clearly fixes the date of the instrument depicted some- 



where in the first century A.D. We observe that the sound-chest 
becomes more and more compact, and at last we find a speci- 
men, shown in Fig. 104, of which the sound-chest is narrow, 
and extends, but for one large round hole and two small semi- 
circular ones carried right through the sound-chest, from base 
to transtillum without arms; a tail-piece and bridge are indi- 
cated, and they are so narrow that the instrument could have 
had but three or four strings at most; this example has been 
restored (the restored portions being marked by a dotted line), 
but enough of the original remains to show conclusively what 
the form was. This seems to be the first step in the transition 
from cithara to guitar-fiddle, which will be treated in the next 

In Fig. 105, from the Heliac Table in Palazzo Maffei, Rome, 
we have an instrument partaking of the nature of both lyre and 
cithara. The sound-board, which is delicately arched, presents 
a certain affinity in that respect with that of the violin; the 
sound-chest is that of a cithara, the arms are those of the 
lyre; there are ten strings attached to a tail-piece and 
stretched over a bridge placed on the upper edge of the 
belly; there is an elegant rose sound-hole placed in the 
centre. This instrument presents a certain resemblance to the 
crwth or rotta in Fig. 115. Apollo's lyre, seen 
in Fig. 106, is still more extraordinary, there 
appear to be six strings, and hardly any sound- 
board, in which respect this lyre very much 
resembles the Indian sarinda. 

Glancing at another cithara (Fig. 108) taken 
from a sarcophagus now in the Louvre (also 
given in Fig. 26), and assigned to the second 
century A.D., it would seem to possess similar 
characteristics to that seen in Fig. 104. Find- 
ing that the drawings differed so widely ac- 
cording to different authors, it was judged ad- 

Fig. 106. 

Apollo's lyre. Mont- 

faucon, Sup. Tom. i.. 

Pi. 31. 



visable to write to the curator of the Musee du Louvre for 
information on the subject of the instruments, which are of 
great importance to us students of their history. A photo- 
graph (see Fig. io8) has been specially taken for this work 


Fig. 107. 

From a sarcophagus in the Louvre (see Fig. 26) From " Monuments 

d'Antiquite figuree." Raoul Rochctte, Paris, 1838. 

through the courtesy of M. A. Heron de Villefosse, Curator 
of the Musee du Louvre, who at the same time supplies 
the following information about the sculpture, of which 
Figs. 26 and 107 purport to be exact drawings. The sar- 
cophagus had formerly been divided into several pieces, 
which have, by the agency of M. A. Heron de Villefosse, been 

Co 5 


readjusted; the bas-reliefs represent scenes from the life of 
Achilles at Scyros, among the daughters of Lycomedes. With 
regard to the instruments seen in Figs. 26, 107 and 108, only 
the arm of the cithara held by Achilles' hand has been restored, 
but the drawings are not faithful representations by any means, 
as will be seen by comparing them with Fig. 108, this will 
give an idea of the difficulties thrown in the way of the 
musical antiquarian. The cithara turns out to be quite an 
ordinary specimen. The lute-like instrument of Figs. 26 and 
107, as will be seen in Fig. 108, is nothing but the instrument 
already illustrated in Fig. 24 and therewith described. 

Another representation of the same instrument is to be se&n 
in Zoega's " Antiken Bas-relieven Rom's " (pi. 98), a representa- 
tion from a sarcophagus dealing with the life of Phaedra, where 
she is represented in a fainting condition, leaning on a boat- 
shaped instrument partaking of the characteristics of both 
lyre and Persian rebab, supported by a boy ; her maids 
are ministering to her. The instrument is similar to that de- 
scribed and illustrated in Fig. 24, except that the strings seem 
to be attached to pegs at the base, arranged in two rows, three 
above and four below; a third example of the instrument exists 
in a cast taken of the Agrigente Sarcophagus, which is kept in 
the Sepulchral Basement at the British Museum. These in- 
struments and those of the lute tribe are of Oriental origin, and 
they never came into general use either among the Greeks of 
Hellas or the Romans. The little we are able to find out about 
them serves to show the great activity then existing in the 
manufacture of musical instruments and the steps in their trans- 
ition; we meet with some of these agam in the early middle 

The position that music occupied among the Romans was 
very subordinate ; it was but an amusement and an accomplish- 
ment even in its palmiest days, degenerating afterwards into 
an art practised by slaves and foreign musicians to while away 


the leisure hours of luxurious Romans; it was manifestly im- 
possible for art to flourish, or even hold its own under such con- 
ditions. It is evident, however, that music was extensively 
cultivated by the races under Roman sway, if not by the 
Romans themselves, for the musical contests continued to be 
held at the national games, the Pythian lasting until, at any 
rate, A.D. 394. These games were not only held at Delphi, but 
smaller contests, called Pythia, and modelled on the Great 
Pythian at Delphi, were also instituted in various provinces 
of the Empire, in Asia Minor more especially. There are 
several inscriptions found among the ruins of the Temple of 
Diana at Ephesus referring to musical subjects which are in- 
teresting; as, for instance, an epigram commemorating the vic- 
tory of a son in a musical contest, the prize poem having been 
composed in vindication of his father, who had been slandered 
by malicious enemies. This inscription is in Doric, and was 
found on a pier of the Coressian Gate at Ephesus; the transla- 
tion runs thus : — 

" How good a thing it is to leave behind a son when one is 
dead, said the poet well versed in the sweet-tongued muses. 
This, my friend, is judged to be true in my case; for the 
memory which malice had destroyed, a son again revived. 
And to show by a good act his lasting gratitude for his parent, 
he kindled for me, not indeed a second light of life, but an 
immortal life of fame. All praise to the reverend race of the 
muses ! for they have given me a living delight in my child 
for his virtue." 

A second example is a fragment discovered on the site of the 
Temple of Diana, and was inscribed on a pillar erected in 
memory of her two sons, by Ulpia, who lived in the time of 
Augustus, as we find from another inscription on a sarcophagus. 
. ... "of all the trials and given the prizes to the musicians 
and to the athletes at his own expense, and presided at the 
great festival of Artemisia, and conducted the games at the 


great Pythia, and held the office of chief priest to the guild 
comprising Ionia and the Hellespont, and conducted the games 
for the Chrysophori, and likewise given columns to the city for 
the old Gymnasium. Erected by Ulpia, their mother" 
(" Wood's Discoveries at Ephesus "). Want of space prevents 
more than a fleeting allusion to this interesting subject. Until 
the forty-eighth Olympiad (584 B.C.) the Delphians had had 
the exclusive management of the Games, but this was after- 
wards entrusted to the famous Amphictyonic Council, com- 
posed originally of twelve of the wisest and most virtuous men 
in Greece, whose office was to attend to the temples and oracles 
of Delphi. The Games lasted several days, of which the first 
was devoted to music. At these contests, in which citharistas and 
auletes (oboists) only took part, a tremendous work in five parts, 
called " Nomos Pythicos," was frequently given ; it was music 
descriptive of the struggle and victory of Apollo over the 
monster Python (Strabo ix. p. 421). To the Games came musi- 
cians from all parts of the world, and the Spaniards, at the 
beginning of our era, had attained to such a marvellous pro- 
ficiency in playing the cithara, an instrument which they had 
learnt to know from the Phoenician colonists (iioo to 700 B.C.), 
that some of their citharoedes easily carried off the honours at 
the musical contests. The Consul Metellus was so charmed 
with the sweetness of the songs of the Spanish citharoedes, and 
with their skill in accompanying themselves en their citharas, 
that he sent some to Rome for the festivals, and the impression 
they created was so great, that the Romans henceforth could 
not do without them. On one occasion, at Rome, during the 
festivals, several instrumentalists were brought to perform at 
a banquet; after all invited had in turn played on the cithara, 
it was handed to a Spanish rhetorician, Antonius Julianus, and 
the Greeks who were present were all prepared to look down 
upon his performance Vk'ith scorn, for was he not a barbarian ? 
but he sang with such ease, sweetness and art, that all were 


astonished (Aulus Gellius, "Attic Nights," vol. ii. lib. xix. cap. 
g). This custom of handing round a musical instrument to 
each of the guests in turn after a banquet was afterwards much 
cultivated among the Anglo-Saxons. Music and dances played 
a great part in the Liberalia Feasts and the Dionysiac Rites 
(the latter borrowed from Greece); but the safeguard of a 
serious moral purpose being absent from the practice of music, 
which among the Romans was only cultivated in order to afford 
pleasure to the hearer, music became purely sensual, and sank 
gradually to such a low and immoral level, that at length the 
Bacchanalian performances were prohibited by special edict in 
1 86 A.D. Whereas the Greeks showed the greatest reverence for 
the art of music, and had serious schools for its cultivation 
among the people, the Latins depended more upon dilettanti 
and virtuosi for their enjoyment of music. 

Nero, it will not be forgotten, was not unpractised in the art 
of the citharoedes, and his vanity led him to masquerade in vhe 
guise of one before an audience of courtiers and sycophants, 
;singing songs and sometimes accompanying himself, and at 
others commanding the musician, Diodorus, to do so on the 
cithara. In the year 64 A.D. Nero appeared as citharoedus in 
Naples, and later made a musical tour through Greece and the 
colonies, being everywhere received with fulsome flattery, which 
liis vanity led him to believe sincere. He has been represented 
at his own command on coins and statuary in the character of 
anusician that he so delighted in assuming (see Fig. 96). 



The Cithara in Transition during tlie Middle Ages. 

In the last chapter we left music at a low ebb in Greece and 
Rome at the beginning of our era. The high and noble aims 
of the tonal art were disregarded or forgotten; music became 
the slave of the senses. Whereas it had been the custom to 
teach youths and maidens to play the aulos (oboe) or the lyre, 
just as our children learn to play the piano, the practice was dis- 
continued by degrees with the spread of Christianity westward, 
for fear that instruments, which had become associated with 
the low, sensual amusements of corrupt Rome, should exercise 
a pernicious influence on their young minds. The once glorious 
drama of vEschylus was tottering in a state of shameful de- 
gradation to its ruin, which came at length towards the end 
of the fourth century A.D., when the condemnation of the 
Church closed the theatres, and the great national games, the 
Pythian, came to an end. It will be seen that Christianity was 
by no means favourable to the development of instrumental 
music; on the contrary, the bitter but unavoidable antagonism 
of the Church to all connected with the theatre condemned 
good and bad without discrimination, and even went so far as 
to refuse the sacraments to professors, musicians, actors and 
mountebanks, and to threaten with the terrors of excommunica- 
tion all who visited theatres on Sundays and holidays : thus 
was instrumental music banished from both civil life and reli- 
gious rites, which latter were long conducted with simple, un- 



accompanied chants. We must seek among the unconverted 
barbarians of Northern and Western Europe for the slender 
threads which connect the musical instruments of Greeks and 
Romans with those of the early middle ages. When the 
theatres were closed, a number of actors, jugglers and musi- 
cians lost their occupation and means of sustenance ; they took 
to a wandering life, appearing at festivals with their instru- 
ments to play and sing for the delectation of the rich, and then 
disappearing again. 

There is evidence that the Eastern, and more especially 
Asiatic, influence in the development of stringed instruments 
was of overwhelmmg force, for it has repeatedly been brought 
to bear on Western Europe from different points. 

Asia introduced the cithara to the Greeks of Hellas, and 
through them to the Romans, who in turn spread their know- 
ledge among their tributaries. Those great travellers and col- 
onists, the Phoenicians, implanted their knowledge in Southern 
Spain many centuries before our era, so that the excellence of 
the Spaniards in citharoedia was not derived from the Romans. 

After the decadence of the Roman Empire, when musical 
instruments seemed about to disappear for ever from Christian 
Europe, the barbarian races kept alive the traditions taught them 
by conquerors and colonists; but as civilisation was in its in- 
fancy with them, the instruments sent out from their workshops 
were probably of crude, primitive types, like that shown in Fig. 
109 — the cithara of some Gallic bard 
before the days of Caesar, if we take 
Herbe's word for it, for his authority 
is not clear. We know from Diodorus 
(Hist. lib. V. 31) that the poets of the 
Gauls, called bards, sang the songs they 

composed to the accompaniment of an 
Fig 109 
Ancient Gallic cithnra instrument Similar to the lyre. By the 
(before Caesar). eighth ccntury the soil was ripe for fresh 

Herbe's " Costumes Fran- . . _ , . . , 

pais." outside influence, and it came in the 


shape of the conquest of Spain by the Moors. Charlemagne, 
the most cultivated and enlightened sovereign of his and of 
many preceding ages, was the means of disseminating the fresh 
knowledge of musical instruments brought from the East, 
which fell on good soil, and was skilfully adapted and readily 
absorbed. When the Crusades drew the flower of chivalry to 
the East, the art of music had made great progress in Europe, 
the germs of harmony were seething and stirring, but there 
was still much to be learnt on the score of musical instruments 
from the Orientals, and the returning Crusaders doubtless 
gave a fresh impulse, even if they did not actually introduce 

As sculpture and painting were of the crudest among the 
barbarian races, and that with the Christians musical instru- 
ments had almost fallen into disuse in the fifth and sixth 
centuries, we have nothing to guide us in this transition period 
but a few allusions in the writings of the fathers, some coins, 
and finally the miniatures in MSS. of the eighth and ninth 
centuries which enable us to retrace in a measure the various 
steps in the evolution. 

If we attempt to prosecute this study, trusting in the names 
applied to the instruments at different periods and by different 
nations, we shall find ourselves entrapped by many pitfalls, 
and the result will be chaos. For, from the earliest times, in- 
struments have been arbitrarily named from their shape, size, 
material or character, according to the whim of the maker. 
Thus as each country had its national instruments, the same 
instrument was known under many different names; and the 
same name was frequently applied to very different species. 
It would therefore seem best to classify the instruments for 
oneself, according to certain broadly defined characteristics, 
following the latter as tenaciously as may be throughout the 
centuries, paying little attention to detail (for the purpose of 

classification), since artists of all ages have sinned grievously 

2 K 



against truth in their representations. If we find important 
features repeated by various artists, we may feel tolerably cer- 
tain that these features really existed. Among Greeks and 
Romans we found the name cithara applied always to instru- 
ments possessing the specification of a sound-chest composed 
of a sound-board and back generally parallel, joined by sides 
or ribs, though differing in outline, size and details. Our 
authority for this statement lies in the fact that the citharoedes 
represented in sculpture and painting, and who are easily recog- 
nizable by their dress, invariably used this kind of instrument, 
frequently miscalled lyre by modern writers. In the middle 
ages the word cithara was applied to various stringed instru- 
ments, and the word itself assumed other forms, such as cither, 
guitar, cittern, gittern, cetra, zither, &c. ; but the steps in its 
development into a violin are well defined. 

The most highly developed cithara that we found among 
the Roman remains (Chap. VI., Fig. 104) shows that the advan- 
tage of constructing the sound-chest so that the whole length 
of the strings should lie over a resonant body, instead of 
part only, thus ensuring their not being played a vide, had 
been recognized. This is the first step in the transition, and in 
Fig. no, another similar instrument, from a 
statue in Rome, is seen; here the central hole, 
not a sound-hole, but an opening made right 
through the instrument, allows the strings to be 
twanged by both hands from back and front. 
It was presumably not until the practice of 
stopping the strings with the left hand and of 
twanging them with the right only became gener- 
ally known in instruments of the tamboura type 
with long necks, that the principle was applied 
Roraan"^ cithara in ^^ ^^6 cithara ; these openings then gradually 
transition (1st disappeared from the precursors of the violin, 

step), from a 3tuse 

in Rome. Mont- lingering Only after many meanderings until 

faucon, Supp. Tom , ., , -iTTrii i 

1. 34. the eighteenth century in the Welsh crwth. 



There are two distinct and independent tracks to be followed 
in the evolution of the cithara during the middle ages : the 
one, always the more primitive, seems due entirely to European 
enterprise; the other is of Eastern origin, and led, after many 
centuries, to the violin. 

We therefore find the cithara undergoing two simultaneous 
transitions, both of which are important in the early stages. 
The instruments of European development retaining at first the 
general outline and characteristics of the cithara remained 
fundamentally true to their prototype; whereas those in which 
the influence of the remote Eastern civilization is discernible, 
by grafting the neck of the instruments of the tamboura and 
nefer tribes upon the sound-chest of the Greek cithara, arrived 
at the form of the guitar fiddle before the bow was applied to 
the instrument, and absolutely without the intervention of the 
Moorish rebab, which is entirely devoid of any of the char- 
acteristics of the violin tribe. It is evident that this evolu- 
tion had been previously accomplished by the ancient Egyp- 
tians centuries before, as will be seen when these theories are 
further developed. 

Therefore, to follow out the European track first, we leave 
Rome and Roman instruments behind, and search in countries 

that were under Roman domina- 
tion, and in which the Roman 
civilization and arts were firmly 
miplanted, for further links in the 
chain of evidence, either in writ- 
ings or in delineation. These links 
are at present meagre enough, 
but it is to be hoped that in tnne 
further discoveries will be made, 
when more is known to musical an- 
tiquarians of the treasures lying 
fallow in provincial towns in Eng- 
land and on the Continent. 


Fig. 7 7 7. 

Cithara mosaic. See Lyson's " Reli 

qHse Britannico-RomaniB." 


The Romans were not great musicians or virtuosi themselves, 
although they knew how to appreciate music, and citharistas must 
have followed the army that conquered Britain and have taught 
the Britons to use and make the instrument, for among the relics 
of Roman Britain we hnd a cithara with four strings roughly 
designed on the mosaic pavement excavated at Woodchester. 
The instrument depicted in Fig. in is by no means in an ad- 
vanced stage of development ; this may be partly the fault of 
the artist : it is not clear whether the front or back of the in- 
strument is represented, probably the front, and the artist may 
have omitted to carry the strings down over the bridge into the 
tailpiece. It is not a question of great importance, but Fig. 
1 1 1 shows that the Britons knew the instrument at an early 
period in their history. Another still rougher example is found 
engraved on a silver military ensign found near Stony Strat- 
ford (see Lyson's work quoted). 

In an illuminated MS. in the British Museum, dating from 
the beginning of the eighth century (Cotton, Vesp. A. i), we 
find a cithara in transition form in the hands of King David ; 
he is twanging the strings with the left hand, and appears to 
be using his right to stop the vibrations. The MS. is a Psalter 
finished in 700 A.D., and therefore represents instruments known 
in the seventh century. On examining the Psalms in the MS., 
we find the musical instrument now translated harp called 
cithara or cythara in the Latin text, and citram or citran in the 
accompanying Anglo-Saxon interlined version. Many musical 
historians have called the instrument a " rotta," and they may 
be right, but there is no evidence of its being so-called by the 
Anglo-Saxons of the period, who evidently recognized in it the 
successor of the Greek and Roman cithara : it is better, as 
names of musical instruments in the middle ages are apt to be 
misleading, to depend rather upon general characteristics for 
the purposes of classification. King David's instrument in 
Fig. 112 has an oblong sound-chest not unlike those of the 



latest Roman citharas we saw in Figs. 104 and no; but the 
opening left here for the purpose of twanging the strings is 
larger. The artist has not shown the method in which the strings 
were fastened at either end, nor has he indicated any bridge; 
there are six strings, the same number as in the Welsh crwth. 

Fig. 112. 

Cithara in transition. Cotton MS., Vesp. A. 1. Brit. ilus. 

700 A.D. lor Rotta, see Fig. 168, Old German Rotta.) 

In Fig. 1 13 we see the back view of a similar instrument with 
but five strings only, which the performer (again King David) 
is twanging with his left hand. This illustration, which I have 
reproduced without the ornamental details, is taken from an 
illuminated MS. of the eighth century, in the Cathedral Library 



at Durham, entitled, "A Commentary on the Psalms by Cas- 
siodorus manu Bedcs,'' a transcription by the Venerable Bede 
of " Exposito in Psalmos sive commenta Psalteriis," by 

We find a similar instrument in Germany, depicted in a MS. 

Cithara in transition (or Rotta). MS. Dnrlmni 
Cathedral Library. 8th cent. Sec 
J. O. Westwood's " Facsimilies." 

Fig. 114. 

Cythara Teutonica." Martin 

Gerbert's " De Cantu et 

Musica Sacra." 

of the ninth century, one of the many rescued from oblivion by 
Martin Gerbert from the monastery of St. Emmeran at Ratis- 
bon, which were placed at his disposal by the monks to aid him 
in his researches into the history of music. Abbot Gerbert had 
a printing press at the magnificent monastery of St. Blasius in 


the Black Forest, where his work, " De Cantu et Musica 
Sacra" was published. The instrument drawn in the MS. is 
called a cythara teufonica, and in this case the name affords 
additional evidence of the origin of the instrument. This 
specimen has five strings fastened to little hooks, and raised 
from the sound-board by means of a wide bridge, which al- 
ready shows signs of two feet. A little plectrum hangs by a 
ribbon from the instrument, while the performer twangs the 
strings a vide with her right hand. The opening for the hand 
is large and roomy. The outline of the instrument (Fig. 114) 
is already that of the body of the guitar-fiddle without the 

This is the second evidence we have that these instruments 
went by the name of cithara in Germany and England during 
the eighth and ninth centuries. An old Germanic rotta or 
cythara found in an Alemanic tomb of the 4th to the 7th cen- 
tury in the Black Forest very similar to Fig. 113 is given on 
p. 440, Fig. 168, together with a full description. 

In connection with the application of the name rotta to this 
instrument, there is an interesting passage in a letter of the 
eighth century written by Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
to Lullus, second Archbishop of Mainz and successor to St. 
Boniface the Martyr, among whose correspondence it was pre- 
served and found. The reader will find the letter numbered 
XXII. in Migne's Patrologiae Cursus Completus Tome 96, 
p. 839; freely translated the passage runs thus:* "It 
delights me to have a citharista who can play the cithara which 
we call rotta, for I have an instrument, but have no musician 
to play it " — the word which I have translated " play " means 
to twang with the fingers, which shows that there was as yet 
no bow used for this early rotta. How long the word rotta had 
been in use and what its derivation is we do not know exactly, 
but it seems unlikely that it had any connection with rota, the 

* For the original Latin see p. 425. 


Latin for a wheel ; it is more probable that it is a form of the 
word ckrotta : this opinion is strengthened by the fact that in 
the poem already quoted by Venantius Fortunatus (sixth cen- 
tury) the instrument is in one MS. called " Chrotta Britannica," 
and in another in the Vatican, " Rotta Britannica," the speci- 
mens illustrated in Figs. 112, 113 and 114 were undoubtedly 
early forms of the crowd, crwth or rotta. 

There is an interesting though short descriptive reference to 
the rotta (the earliest found as yet) given by Gerbert in his 
"Scriptores Ecclesiastici de Musica" (vol. i., p. 96). The quota- 
tion in German dates from the second half of the tenth century, 
and was penned by Labeo Notker — the younger Notker— a monk 
of St. Gallen, which was one of the three music schools founded 
by Charlemagne. " Fone diu sint andero lirun, unde andero 
rotun is siben sieten, unde siebene gelischo geuuerbet," which 
has been translated by Professor Max Miiller, at the request of 
the late Mr. A. J. Hipkins, as follows: "Of them there are in 
the lyres and in the rotes (or rottas) each seven strings, and 
these seven are made to vibrate in the same way." (See " The 
Early History of the Violin Family," by Carl Engel, p. 52). 
With regard to the number of strings, it was as variable in 
this instrument as in lyres and citharas. This passage shows 
us that the lyre and rotta were both twanged with the fingers 
or with a plectrum, which corroborates the statement of Cuth- 
bert before quoted. 

Thus far the rottas (or cytharas) had not passed through 
more than one stage in the transition, and the makers had, 
presumably, gathered inspiration from no other instrument, 
unless it be the psalterium, from which Notker Balbulus, who 
lived in the ninth century, declares it to be derived. (See 
" Symbolum Athanasii apud Schilterum," word rotta). 

The chrotta (or rotta) was called the instrument of the 
Britons by Venantius Fortunatus in the sixth century ; it cer- 
tainly became, in conjunction with the harp, the national Welsh 



instrument, and may have been less primitive in that country 
than with the Anglo-Saxons : perhaps it resembled 
a very much more advanced specimen (see Fig. 
115) that we find depicted in a MS. dating from 
the middle of the ninth century, the Bible of 
Charles le Chauve, now in the National Library, 
Paris. The colouring is black and yellow. 
This instrument is also reproduced in " Peintures, 
Ornements, etc., de la Bible de Charles le 
Chauve " par le Comte Auguste de Bastard, 
Fi<'. 115. Paris, 1883. In this case a fac-simile of the whole 
crwth, ninth miniature representing King David and his musi- 

cent. MS. Bibl. . . . ,,,.,. 

Nat. (See wii- cians IS givcn and the chrotta is being played by 
Ss" inedHs."') Aethan, who is stopping the strings on the finger- 
board with his left hand and plucking them with 
his right. King David in this miniature is playing a small 
triangular harp. 

In another Bible transcribed and illustrated for Charles the 
Bald which was formerly in the Monastery of St. Paul extra- 
muros, Rome, and is now deposited in that of St. Callixtus also 
in Rome, there is another chrotta of precisely the same style as 
Fig. 115. The instrument occurs in a miniature representing 
King David composing the Psalms; it is being played by one 
of the musicians just as in Fig. 115. In both examples the 
second stage in the transition has been accomplished ; the 
strings are no longer played a vide, for there is a fingerboard, 
and a space has been left on each side of it for the hands to 
pass through. The instrument still retains the general form of 
the cithara, and I should be inclined to think that at the time 
when that chrotta was made the finger-board was no longer a 
novelty. A third example of the instrument similar but not 
identical in form is represented on the ivory binding of the 
Lothair Psalter to which reference is made further on. See PI. I. 
Let any one who feels the slightest doubt as to the origin of 


the instrument compare Figs. 115 and 105, and it will be at 
once evident to him how the crwth was called into existence. 
This is the model which eventually developed into the eigh- 
teenth-century crwths we know from Daines Barrington, and 
Edward Jones' " Relicks of the Welsh Bards." (See Fig. 33). 

Fig. 116* 
King David and two musicians playing on rottas. See " Geschichte der Bogen 
Instrumente " (Taf. VI., No. 5), by Julius Riihlmann. 

In Engel's book quoted above (page 42), there is an engrav- 
ing of a crwth which may be assigned to the fourteenth century, 
or the beginning of the fifteenth at the latest; the original is a 
fresco in the Chapter House, Westminster, the walls of which 

* Reproduced by permission of Prof. Dr. Richard Riihlmann. 


were decorated in the reign of Edward III., between 1336 and 
1360, but it is recorded that additions were made towards the 
end of the century. This crwth has a finger-board, and is so 
like the crwth in Jones' "Relicks" (see Fig. 33), although this 
one has but three strings instead of six, that we may 
presume we have here the crwth trithant (with three strings). 

The crwths of the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth centuries, 
in which the oval form of the fiddle or vielle was borrowed, 
never seriously influenced the development of the crwth. (See 
Figs. 3; and 38). 

There is not the slightest authority for thinking that the 
bow was used with instruments of this class before it was ap- 
plied to the rebab and to the precursors of the violin. An 
interesting fact, first discovered, I believe, by the late Julius 
Riihlmann, who was an indefatigable antiquarian as well as a 
fine practical musician, is brought to our notice in his " Ge- 
schichte der Bogen Instrumente," published after his death by 
his son (Taf. VI., No. 5). In his researches Riihlmann came 
across this quaint illustration of King David surrounded by 
four musicians, in a prayer-book of the eleventh century that 
belonged to the Archbishop Leopold the Saint (1073 to 1136) : 
the MS. is treasured up in the monastery of Neuberg,* near 
Vienna, which was founded in 11 14 by the Archduke. The 
three most prominent figures (see Fig. 116) are represented 
with rottas in their hands, and we see here three distinct sizes 
that would correspond to the treble, tenor and bass voices. 
It is evident from this that before the end of the eleventh cen- 
tury, when, at the latest, the prayer-book was transcribed, these 

* In a letter received from the librarian at Kloster Neuburg concerning 
the MS. Prayer Book from which Fig. 116 was taken, I am informed that 
in Psalm xliii. 4, Ixxx. 2, and cl. 3, the stringed instruments are rendered 
" cythara " and " psalterium " ; the latter instrument is also shown in the 
drawing, but was omitted from my illustration, as it lies outside the subject, 
Fig. 116 evidently represents the artist's idea of a cythara. — K. S. 


instruments were made in sets, as was the case later with viols 
and wood-wind instruments. The smallest, corresponding in 
size to the violin, is held against the breast obliquely, with the 
opening for the hand uppermost; the second, a little larger, is 
being held at rest; the third, which would represent the 'cello, 
is held in much the same position as the latter, and is more 
than twice the length of the smallest instrument. All three 
have bows, and the two musicians at the right and left of King 
David appear to be awaiting a signal from him to begin to 
play. The drawing, though crude and unsatisfactory, since no 
strings are indicated in the two larger of the instruments, and 
the two given to the smallest rotta are placed where the bow 
could not by any possibility reach them, is very interesting 
and of great importance. The artist has given the instruments 
very large sound-holes, and in ©ne a bridge is indicated; the 
opening for the hand — the chief characteristic of the rottas — 
is heart-shaped, and the instrument has a waist which, in my 
opinion, was not made to facilitate the bowing, but was simply 
reminiscent of the cithara or lyre in its most elegant forms. 

A MS. in the University Library, Cambridge (F. f. i. 23) a 
Latin Psalter of the nth cent, with interlinear Anglo-Saxon 
translation in red letter of the same size and hand, shows in a 
scene of King David and his musicians, the former playing on 
a small harp, Ethan, on a very small instrument in outline like 
a rotta but without the opening, it has no neck, but is being 
held like the modern violin and played with a bow; another 
musician is playing on an elongated rotta, and plucking the 
strings with his fingers. (See J. O. Westwood, Pal : Sac. Pict., 
1845, pi. 41). 

In corroboration of the fact noticed by Dr. Riihlmann (see 
" Geschichte der Bogen Instrumente," Taf. VI., No. 5, and p. 
92), and shown in his illustration, that rottas were made in 
various sizes, and also in sets corresponding to the various 



registers of the human voice, a tiny 

figure has been reproduced in Fig. 117 

from an old MS. (ninth century) known 

as the Utrecht Psalter, which will be 

noticed at greater length further on. 

The instrument held by the singer is of 

almost identical proportionate size with 

that held by the musician at the right of 

^ the group in Fig. 116, which corres- 

Fig. 117. ^ y b . 

Bass rotta or cithara. pondcd probably to the 'cello m our 

Utrecht Psalter. Ps. 149. String quartet ; here the instrument, 
which has four strings, is being twanged with the right hand 
instead of vibrated with the bow, showing that the idea of 
making the instrument in sets was anterior to the application 
of the bow to the rotta; indeed, when one remembers that the 
rotta is but a fully developed cithara or lyre (for both instru- 
ments seem to have served as models), which among the Greeks 
certainly did exist in various sizes, this will not seem sur- 
prising. The exact date of the Utrecht Psalter is not known; 
but most experts agree in placing it in the 9th, two centuries 
earlier than the MS. from which Fig. 116 was taken. Fig. 117 
is part of the illustration to Ps. 149 (150 in our version), and in 
the text the instruments are rendered " . . . . Cithara et choro, in 
cordis et organo in cymbalis tubae " ; there are several other 
citharas besides this one in the illustration, and they resemble 
some which are given further on. 

Numerous illustrations of the later stages in the evolution 
of crwths might be given, but they lie outside this chapter, 
for the transition of the cithara along this track never extended 
further than bridge, sound-holes, finger-board and bow, and 
all these have already been exemplified. 

Starting again from the cithara at the point where the bifur- 
cation indicated in the accompanying diagram occurs, we have 


The Cithara of the Greeks. 


The first transition step or Rotta. 

The Rotta or Chrotta. The 2nd transition. 

I Cithara with neck, 

j &c. 

The Crowd, Crout, Crwth. ultimately leading to the 


to travel along the second track, which bears traces of Oriental 
influence, and now it behoves us to walk carefully, for we 
tread on debatable ground, and the illustrations which will 
be brought forward to prove my theory of the origin of the 
violin (see Chap. II., " The Question of the Origin of the 
Violin,") have not yet to my knowledge appeared in any work 
on music; they seem to have completely escaped the notice of 
musical historians. 

Hitherto we have known the cithara in various forms in an- 
tiquity, and in the early middle ages under the name of rotta; 
in the twelfth century (perhaps earlier) we find in Europe the 
guitar-fi-ddle with ribs and incurvations, and between the two a 
gulf, which has only been bridged by surmises. It is the 
Moorish invasion of Spain in the eighth century which causes 
the greatest difference of opinion. The Europeans most pro- 
bably learnt the use of the bow from the Arabs, who intro- 
duced it, together with many of their musical instruments. 
Some of the most earnest antiquarian musicians, and notably 
Mr. Carl Engel, have named the Moorish rebab as the pre- 
cursor and origin of the violin. As the rebab was a boat- 
shaped instrument without ribs, neck or fingerboard, scooped 
out of a solid block of wood to which was glued a flat sound- 
board, I feel compelled to reject it entirely from the genea- 
logical tree of the violin, nor can I see that the crwth has any 
right to a place therein either, for instead of becoming merged 
in the instrument of which it was the supposed prototype, the 
crowd or crwth kept to its characteristic development in the 


one direction long after the guitar-fiddle was known in Western 
Europe, finally falling into disuse without further develop- 
ment. Contemporaneous with both these types, there existed 
an instrument which supplies the missing link in the chain of 
evolution which produced the guitar-fiddle and later the 
violin; this instrument was formed from a cithara to which 
were added a long neck and finger-board, in some cases with 
frets, and three or four strings ; further, although twanged with 
the fingers, it was held in a very similar manner to the modern 
violin. These illustrations show two or three distinct forms 
of this transition besides ordinary citharas and the instrument 
in Fig. 117, a rotta; the reader will judge which of these forms 
has the best claim to be classed among the precursors, in direct 
line, of the violin. 

A conclusive proof that the illustrations represent modified 
citharas, and that they were known as such in the ninth cen- 
tury, if not before, lies in the fact that not only do these instru- 
ments appear as illustrations of the Psalm in which the word 
"cythara" occurs, but also that in Psalm 42 (43 in our version), 
where that instrument alone is mentioned, it is also the only 
one in the drawing. (See Fig. 121). 


The illustrations to which I refer are reproduced from an 
illuminated MS. known as the Utrecht Psalter, about which 
there have been endless discussions and reports in the some- 
what vain endeavour conclusively to prove its date and origin. 
The MS. is at present in the library at Utrecht, but it bears 
the signature of Robert Cotton on the fly-leaf, and it has been 
identified as the missing Cotton MS., Claudius c. 7, which was 
once in our possession. 

There are many facts about this MS. which are worthy of 
special interest ; for instance, it contains a copy of the Athan- 
asian creed, which is of great importance to the theologian. 

With regard to the age of the MS. competent experts have 


placed its date somewhere in the 6th cent., others in the 8th 
while the majority are now agreed that the Psalter dates from 
the first half of the Qth century. 

As to the nationality of the handiwork and more 
especially of the drawings, which are outlined with a pen 
in bistre, some say they are the work of an Anglo-Saxon artist, 
some that they are copies from an old classical MS., whereas 
Sir Thomas Duffus-Hardy considers they bear unmistak- 
able signs of Oriental work, and that the scenery, fauna, flora, 
implements, furniture and costumes are such as would be 
familiar to an artist living in Alexandria before the burning 
of the library in 638 A.D., the scattering of the theological 
schools, and the destruction of the city by the Arabs. Without 
being competent to judge whether this is correct from any 
other standpoint, I consider that the musical instruments bear 
distinct traces of Oriental influence such as the Greeks of Asia 
Minor, Syria and Northern Egypt would be likely to have felt 
in their intercourse with the Persians, Arabs, etc., who used the 
instruments of the older Asiatic civilizations, from which the 
neck finger-board and pegs were borrowed, whilst the sound- 
chest of the instrument remained essentially Greek in contour, 
and the instrument itself retained its Greek name of kithara, in 
Latinised form cithara. 

The Utrecht Psalter is in Latin, and it is the Gallican version 
of St. Jerome (380 A.D.) which has been used; the characters 
are rustic Roman capitals, a style of writing which prevailed in 
Europe from about the third century to the seventh A.D. The 
titles are in Uncials. 

It is a thousand pities that the figures in the drawings are 
so small, and some, alas ! so indistinct, since the musical in- 
struments are of so great an interest; larger figures would have 
given the artist more scope for the detail of which he seemed 
by no means oblivious. 

The Utrecht Psalter was evidently much admired, for MS. 

a 3 O 



copies which are extant were made of it at intervals extending 
over a period of several centuries. There is available in the 
Reading Room at the British Museum a f ac-simile of the whole 
Psalter in autotype, published by Messrs. Spencer, Sawyer, 
Bird and Co., which any interested reader can examine.* 

We will now consider the principal stringed instruments 
found in the MS., which have been reproduced 
in the same size. In Fig. ii8 we have the 
back view of an ordinary cithara with four 
strings, the corners of the sound-chest have 
been rounded off; it occurs in the illustration 
of Ps. cxlvii of our version. The same in- 
strument is seen again in Fig. 119; this, it 
will be seen, differs essentially from the large 
rotta in 117; in the latter the sound-chest has 
an opening made for the fingers to twang the 
strings from both sides, whereas in Figs. 118 and 
1 19 there is merely a bar across from arm to arm, to 
which the strings are fastened, this constitutes the 
main difference during the early middle ages 
between the cithara proper and the cithara in trans- 
ition or rotta. 

Fig. 120 shows the back of an instrument com- 
posed of the lower part of a cithara, to which has 
been added a long neck; from the back view it 
appears to be really added and to form a finger- 
board. The reader will be able to observe this characteristic 
construction in some of the remaining illustrations. 

The instrument in Fig. 121 is the one which remains as a 
proof that these instruments were acknowledged descendants 
of the cithara at the time when the artist drew these illustra- 

Fig. 118. 

Cithara Utrecht 

Psalter (Cott : Claud 

c. 7. Ps. cxli.) 

Fig. 119. 
Ibid. Fs. 134. 

* As the press-mark is not easy to find, I may mention that the 
book is indexed in the catalogue under the heading of BtbU, Psalter 
Latin, press mark C 35. K. 8. 

2 L 



Fjg. 120 

Ibid. Ps. xli. 

Cithara in 
second stage 
of transition. 

tions; Fig. 121 occurs in the illustration to Ps. xlii. 
(xliii. in our version), and is the only instrument 
on that page. In the text of the Utrecht Psalter it 
is called cithara, and in our version the verse (4) 
runs, "Yea, upon the harp will I praise thee, O 
God, my God " ; the v^ord /larp in our version, 
which always stands for cithara, is, of course, a 
mistranslation, and the manner in which the error 
arose will come under consideration in a subse- 
quent chapter. The body or sound-chest in Fig. 
121 corresponds in shape to the citharas in Figs. 118 and 119, 
minus the arms, that is to say, as though 
they had been cut off, and the dispropor- 
tionately long neck added. This was 
clearly the first direct step taken towards 
the violin, which strains right away from 
the cithara proper, destroying at a blow one 
of its characteristics, that of twanging the 
strings a vide, and of depending therefore 
on the sound-chest alone for resonance; in 
the first step of the transition, what already 
existed was further developed, that was all. the general outline 
remaining the same, which is by no means the case with this 
second step. Any casual reader might at once perceive the 
relationship of the rottas in Figs. 112, 113 and 117 to their 
prototype, but the origin in the case of Fig. 121 is by no means 
so apparent. 

There are clearly three strings to our new example, as any 
one can see from the head of the instrument, which has three 
pegs, or perhaps only hooks, as in some citharas. The drawing 
IS too small to show which — if they were pegs they were prob- 
ably in the back of the head. A tail-piece, reminiscent of the 
stands of some lyres, has been drawn by the artist in this 
instrument, although it was absent m Fig. 120. The musician is 

FiR. 727. 

Cithara in second traii 

sition. Utrec'ht 

Psalter. Ps. xlii. 



holding out the instrument as though drawing special atten- 
tion to it as to something new and wonderful. It is highly 
probable that the musicians of those days having added a neck 
to the instrument in imitation of the tambouras they had seen, 
instead of adopting the tamboura straight away, because they 
retained a lingering fondness for the old Greek cithara, yet did 
not at first fully understand the possibilities of the neck when 
they had got it. The idea of stopping the strings to produce a 
succession of intervals on each string came very gradually. It 
is a pity that the manner in which the instrument was played 
was not shown in any of the illustrations. 

Fig. 122 shows another specimen of the same kind which 
illustrates verse 2 of the 107th 
Psalm : " Awake, psaltery and 
harp," which in the Gallican ver- 
sion is rendered, " Exsurge psal- 
terium et cythara." David is here 
represented heavily laden with two 
musical instruments and a long 
sword — in the former we recog- 
nize the cithara, and the other 
is meant to represent a small 
triangular harp which the Greeks 
occasionally used and called 
Trigonon, and of which several different kinds are found on 
Assyrian monuments. There is a bridge to the cithara and 
we also note a somewhat indistinct tail-piece, but very different 
from that in Figf. 121 ; there are three strings, and the three pegs 
m the head are clearly shown. This head occurs the same 
exactly in another instrument of the same century, about which 
I shall have occasion to speak shortly, and which is of Oriental 

Leaving this model, we now find one in which a third step in 
the development, and a very weighty one, has been reached. 
On examining Fig. 123 in the illustration to Ps. cxxxuii. we 

Fig. 122. 

Cithara, second transition, and Psal- 
terium. Utrecht Psalter, Ps. evii. 



find that the cithara maker, still feeling his 
way, and probably dissatisfied with the 
results given by the instruments in Figs. 120, 
121 and 122, which were cumbersome and 
difficult to hold, imagined a sound-chest 
which should entirely cover the general out- 
line of the old cithara, as seen in Figs. 118 
Ft". 123. ^^^ ^^9< ^^^ ^^ ^his he added a neck of a 

Back view of cithara, suitable length that could be conveniently 

third transition. 

Utrecht Psalter, Ps. reached by the player. The little figure 
(of. Fig. 196). striding along so joyfully is holding his in- 

strument close against him, so that the back view is presented 
to us, and we see nothing of strings or bridge ; but what could 
be more significant than the shape of the body, or indeed of 
the whole instrument ? It does not require a very great stretch 
of imagination to add the round shoulders of the guitar-fiddle, 
of which Fig. 124 is an example. It is taken from a MS. of 
the thirteenth century, Add. 28784A, a book 
of Hours of the Virgin written late in the 
fifteenth century, with miniatures by French 
artists, and cuttings of initials and borders from 
a beautiful Psalter of the thirteenth century, 
which are pasted in the book of Hours; it is one 
of these cuttings which I have here reproduced, 
so that the readers may compare the two speci- 
mens, one from the ninth century, and the second 
from the thirteenth. The artist has represented 
the performer holding the fiddle on the right arm; the simi- 
larity is startling, and it would be a great delight to find 
further traces of this early development during the intervening 
centuries. Unfortunately, the opportunities of becoming ac- 
quainted with the illuminated Psalters and other MSS. of the 
eighth and tenth centuries, or earlier, that remain in Europe, 
are few and far between, and must be a matter of time. 

The next figure (125) shows us the instrument being actually 

Fig. 724. 
Guitar fiddle, 
13th century. 
From a MS. in 

the British 

Museum Add. 

MS. 28784A. 



played upon, and again we cannot but be struck by the manner 
in which it is held, for it reminds us very 
forcibly of the position of vielles and fiddles, 
and later of the violin itself. The reader 
will no doubt remember the position in 
which the nefers or tambouras were held by 
the Egyptians; they were shown in Figs. 31, 
cithara,''thirf transi. 32 and I02. The body of the mstrument 
tion. Utrecht Psalter, was held against the chest of the performer 
(cf. Fig. 136 and 137). towards the right, either in a slanting posi- 
tion with neck pointing upwards towards the left shoulder, or 
else the tamboura was quite horizontal (see Fig. 32) ; in no case 
have I come across a nefer held like this instrument in Fig. 125. 
It is evident that the position in which the nefers and tambouras 
were held was traditional with the Egyptians and later with 
the Arabs, for in a beautiful MS. before quoted of the thir- 
teenth century, containing the Cantigas de Santa Maria, in 
which fifty-one figures of musicians are painted in delightful 
little miniatures, we still find the Moorish tamboura differing 
but little from the ancient Egyptian model, and held in pre- 
cisely the same manner (Fig. 28), whereas the horizontal posi- 
tion was common during the middle ages for twanged instru- 
ments such as citterns, or ghitterns (almost invariably termin- 
ating in some grotesque animal head), and lutes, and does not 
require illustration. 

Thus, throughout our examination of these little drawings 
in the Utrecht Psalter, we are confronted with evidences of 
strong originality and independence, which are more Greek 
than Moorish, since the instruments of the latter remained 
practically unchanged for centuries. There is a great amount 
of enterprise and perseverance displayed in the construction 
of these instruments, consisting of parts borrowed from those 
of other nations; not, however, blindly accepted in a conserva- 
tive spirit, but adapted with understanding, altered and im- 
proved to form a new instrument. 


Fig. 125 occurs in the illustration to Psalm Ixxx. of the 
Utrecht Psalter with reference to verse 2 : " Take a psalm and 
bring hither the timbrel ; the pleasant harp with the psaltery," 
which in the Gallican version is rendered, " Sumite psalmum et 
date tympanum, psalterium iocundum cum cythara." Psal- 
terium et cythara are the very same two instruments represented 
in Fig. 122, and, as we know which kind of instrument went by 
the name of cythara, we also know which was at that time called 
psalterium, viz., no other than the small triangular harp called 
Trigonon, which I have not again reproduced, as it is precisely 
the same in the illustration to Psalm Ixxx. as in Fig. 122. Fig. 
I2S was, therefore, another form of the recognised cithara. 

In an Anglo-Saxon MS. dated 700 A.D., a Latin Psalter, in 
which the Gallican version of St. Jerome has also been followed 
and which is interlined in Anglo-Saxon, the same psalm has 
over the word psalterium, hear fan, and over cithara, citran. I 
shall have more to say on this subject when dealing with a later 
century, but it is interesting to know what words were used for 
the instruments by our Anglo-Saxon forefathers; of course, 
hearpan is our word harp, and to the word citran it is not diffi- 
cult to trace the cittern of the later middle ages. 

For the last of the series of citharas from the Utrecht Psalter 
I have kept the most highly developed (Fig. 126), a cithara 
resembling the last two models, and seen from the front. The 
neck of the instrument is considerably longer 
and has frets indicated, which the artist has 
probably put in from memory, the distances 
between them being slightly erratic and not cal- 
culated to produce any recognized intervals. 
Still, there is no doubt that he must have seen 
instruments of the kind with frets; on the other 
hand, he has omitted bridge and tailpiece. 
Fig. 126 althoup-h the three strings are shown over the 

Cithara, third ^ ^ 

transition. sound-board. There are three pegs set in the 

Utrcfht . , 1 1 -i^ii 1 1 i 

Psalter. Ps.cxivi. head, and the strmgs pass through little holes to 


the back before they are wound round the pegs. There is no 
appearance of a bow, and judging from the position in which 
the performer is holding his cithara, he had no intention of 
playing upon it just then, but appears to be idly twanging 
the strings with one finger as he stands. 

This little figure is taken from the illustration to Psalm cxlvi. 
(cxlvii in our version), verse 7, " Sing praises upon the harp to 
our God " — harp is of course rendered in the Latin " cithara " ; 
there is but one instrument mentioned in the text, but there are 
several in the illustration: another like Fig. 126, and several 
primitive citharas like those in Figs. 1 18 and 1 19. 

It is not right to take too much for granted or to build too 
much upon the slender evidence afforded by the miniatures in 
ancient MSS., but from the absence of the bow with all these 
instruments, it seems reasonable to suppose that it was not 
known, or at any rate not used with stringed instruments of 
this description in the artists' country ; but then where did the 
bow come from, and when did it first make its appearance in 
Europe ? It is impossible to form any definite conclusion on the 
subject with such poor facts and evidences as we have brought 
to light up to the present time; these, however, will be touched 
upon in the next chapter, and the reader must be left to form his 
own opinion of the matter. It is just this question of the 
nationality of the artist which we should like to be able to 
solve definitely. I have at the present time the strongest 
reasons to believe that the originals of these exceedingly valu- 
able little drawings of instruments were not the work of an 
Anglo-Saxon or Carlovingian artist; these reasons are entirely 
founded on studies of musical instruments and on the manner 
in which the instruments were copied in the case of the Harleian 
MS. 603, and would have little or no weight from an archaeo- 
logical point of view. 



The Question of the Origin of the Utrecht Psalter. 

The question of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter continues 
to interest the palaeographical and archaeological world and 
since the researches embodied in a series of studies* forming 
the basis of Part II. of this little work were published in 
1897, the bibliography of this singular and baffling MS. 
has received many important and authoritative additions. 
In view of the weight of evidence in favour of my theory of 
the origin of the violin furnished by the drawings of musical 
instruments contained in the Utrecht Psalter, I have considered 
it advisable to re-open the subject in order to take advantage 
of any fresh light thrown upon it by recent writers, and to 
avail myself of the increased opportunities for studying the 
illuminated MSS. of other countries afforded by the many 
beautiful publications of fac-similes which have recently ap- 
peared.! The following is a brief review in chronological 
order of the principal works concerning the drawings of 
the Utrecht Psalter, which have been consulted in treating the 

* The Series appeared in the " London Musical Courier " between June 
1897 and the end of 1898. 

t See " Bibliography." 


(i). Fac-similes of the Miniatures and Ornaments of Anglo- 
Saxon and Irish MSS., 1868, by Professor J. O. Westwood 
(pp. 14-20). Professor Westwood, who inspected the Utrecht 
Psalter at Utrecht,* considers that the writing of the text might 
be referred to the VI. or VII. cent, with the exception of the 
large golden uncial B, the initial letter of the hrst Psalm, which 
is in genuine interlaced Saxon style. t 

Concerning the drawings, Prof. Westwood has come to no 
such definite conclusion; he considers it probable that these 
were copied from some earlier MS. derived from Rome, by 
Anglo-Saxon artists, not necessarily contemporaneously with 
the text, but at a later date, perhaps the IX. c. On the fac- 
simile reproductions which he gives of Psalms i and 149, the 
date is thus expressed. VI. cent. ? IX. cent. ?t 

In a later dissertation forming part of the report given below 
(No. 3), Prof. Westwood states the various pomts which induce 
him to refer the MS. to the 8th or 9th c. at the earliest; he still 
adheres to the Anglo-Saxon character of the drawings. In a 
letter to the Athenaeum (July 18, 1874, p. 81) he draws atten- 
tion to the remarkable ivory carvings on the binding of the 
Psalter of Charles le Chauve,§ (middle of 9th cent.) in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. The scene carved on one of the 
ivory plaques is almost identical with that given as illustration 
to Ps. 56 in the Utrecht Psalter and in the Harleian Psalter, 

* See " Archaeological Journal," Vol XVI., pp. 132-145 and 236-252. 

t See Westwood, op. cit. pi. 29. Paul Durrieu points out in " L'Origine 
du Psautier d'Utrecht," Paris, 1895, p. 8 and 9, that although the style is of 
Anglo-Saxon origin, it was introduced into the Continent and was widely 
adopted by Carlovingian artists; on page 18 a drawing of the letter in 
question is given and Mr. Durrieu states that he considers it in the purest 
style of the Rheims School. 

X Westwood, op. cit. pi. 29 and 30. 

§ For illustrations of these see Cahier et Martin " Melanges d'Arche- 
ologie," I. pi. X. and XI.; Labarte " Hist, des Arts Industriels, etc.," I. 
pi. XXX. and XXXI. 


MS. 603. He points out another ivory in the Museum of the 
Antiquarian Society of Zurich,* which is evidently the work 
of the artist who chiselled the Paris plaque; he, too, follows 
the miniaturist of the Utrecht Psalter in his illustration to Ps. 
26. In another letter to the Athenaeum (Sept. 19, 1874, p. 384) 
Professor Westwood states that he has since been to Paris and 
examined the ivory carvings in question, and that he finds that 
the carving on the back of the cover, representing the story of 
David and Uriah, is identical with one of the Utrecht Psalter 
drawings, with the exception that Bathsheba in the ivory holds 
in her hand a spindle suspended by a thread, which the carver 
has mistaken for the twisted end of a curtain suspended 
beneath the arch of the building. Prof. Westwood further 
mentions an illustration in the Psalter of the Cathedral of 
Troyes, written in the 9th c. for Count Henri le Liberal, in 
which the artist has again followed the Utrecht Psalter in his 
conception of a miniature illustrating the Psalm Quid gloriaris. 
It is significant that Professor Westwood, after supplying these 
interesting comparisons, concludes as follows : I make no 
comment on these Carlovingian ivories being so evidently 
identical with the Utrecht Psalter drawings. 

(2). Sir Thos. Duftus Hardy's Report on the Athanasian 
Creed in connection with the Utrecht Psalter, issued in 1872, 
has already been referred to above; his conclusions are very 
definite : he assigns the MS. to the 6th century and gives it an 
Oriental origin (see above p. 344). 

(3). Sir Thos. Duffus Hardy's Report led to the making of 
further enquiries. The precious MS. itself was sent over to the 
British Museum by the authorities at Utrecht, and deposited 
there for inspection. During this time the MS. was photo- 
graphed, folio by folio, by the Palaeographical Society and 

* See " Zurich and das schwei^erische Landes-Museum," 1890, in 4to., 
pi. XXXI. ; also Emile Molinier, " Hist. g6n. des arts appliques k I'in- 
dustrie," Tom. I. P. 124. With two illustrations in the text. 


reproduced in fac-simile by the permanent Autotype process,* 
and the immediate result of Sir Thos. Duffus Hardy's Report 
was an important treatise compiled in 1874 by eight experts 
in the form of reports, addressed to the Trustees of the British 
Museum, on the age of the MS. by E. A. Bond; E. M. Thomp- 
son; the Rev. H. O. Coxe (of the Bodleian); the Rev. S. S. 
Lewis (of Corpus Christi) ; Sir M. Digby Wyatt ; Prof. West- 
wood ; Mr. F. H. Dickinson and Prof. Swainson, with a preface 
by A. Penrhyn Stanley, D.D., Dean of Westminster. The 
general concensus of opinion from these experts placed the date 
in the 8th or 9th cent, at the earliest, while admitting in the 
MS. evidence indicating that it was a copy by an Anglo-Saxon 
artist from an older work, possibly of the 6th cent. Thus, 
some of the leading palasographical experts in our country 
found it impossible after a deliberate and lengthy examina- 
tion of the MS., to agree as to the date, and the con- 
troversy continued for some time between two parties, of which 
Sir Thos. Duffus Hardy led the sixth-century men against Mr. 
Bond, Keeper of the MSS. at the British Museum, and Mr. 
Thompson, Assistant Keeper of the MSS., and the Rev. H. O. 
Coxe, who represented the ninth-century men.t 

(4). This important discussion drew forth a second report 
by Sir Thos. Duffus Hardy, written after making an elaborate 
study of the whole MS., which fully confirmed the opinion 
arrived at in 1872, when as yet he had only had the opportunity 
of examining a few pages of the MS. This book+ forms an ex- 
haustive and most valuable treatise which passes in review the 

* Published by Messrs, Spencer, Sawyer, Bird and Co., 1875. Press- 
mark at the British Museum, C. 35. — k. 8. 

t P'or a lucid review of these reports numbered above 2, 3 and 4, See 
" Athenffium," July 18, 1874, pp. 71-74. 

t ''Further Report on the Utrecht Psalter; in Answer to the Eight 
Reports made to the Trustees of the British Museum, edited by the Dean 
Westminster." 1874. 


palaeography of Europe between the years 500 and 900. In an 
appendix is an interesting letter from Mr. Howard Payn, who 
considers that the probabilities are in favour of the artist having 
been an inhabitant of Alexandria, well acquainted with Syria. 
He places the date of the MS. between the death of S. Anas- 
tasius in 373 A.D. and the destruction of the Library at Alex- 
andria in 638 A.D. 

(5). The next contribution to the literature of the Utrecht 
Psalter is the important monograph by the pen of Mr. Walter 
De Gray Birch, F.R.S.L., Senior Assistant of the Department 
of MSS. in the British Museum : " The History, Art and 
Palaeography of the MS. styled the Utrecht Psalter." London, 
1876. Mr. Birch here gives a careful summary of all the previous 
literature of the subject, from the time when the MS. formed 
part of Sir Robert Cotton's famous collection of MSS., ana- 
lysing carefully and with impartiality the various documents, 
while not concealing his own opinion, which coincides with that 
of Mr. Bond and the ninth-century men. The history of the 
MS. as far as it is known up to the time when it was presented 
to the Utrecht University, as well as a detailed description of 
the MS. are included in the volume. 

(6). This, as far as I know, concludes the disquisition on the 
Utrecht Psalter as far as England is concerned, and the scene 
now shifts abroad to Germany. Anton Springer makes the 
Utrecht Psalter the basis of a paper on the illustration of the 
Psalter in the early middle ages.* Springer looks upon the 
Utrecht Psalter as the naive production of Western-European 
early mediaeval culture; he considers that the miniaturist was 
no copyist, that his designs were original, and that over- 

* " Die Psalter-IUustrationen im friihen Mittelalter, mit besonderer 
Riicksicht auf den Utrecht Psalter. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der 
Miniatur-malerei, von Anton Springer, Mitglied d. Konigl : Sachs, Ges. d. 
Wissenschaften ; Abhandhingen. d. K. S. Ges. d. Wissenschaften. Band 
XIX. Leipzig, 1883. Philologisch-historische Classe. Band VIII., pp. 
187-296. With 10 fac-simile plates in autotype from the MS. 


whelming influence points to his being of Anglo-Saxon nation- 
ality, his grounds being duly set forth and comparisons and 
parallels instituted between the Utrecht Psalter and other 
psalters of the Carlovingian period, concerning which valuable 
information is given. 

(7). Up to this time, with the exception of Sir Thos. Duffus 
Hardy, all the authorities were agreed on certain broad lines 
about the approximate date of the famous Psalter, and the 
country of origin. Adolph Goldschmidt, in an article: ''Der 
Utrecht Psalter','^ was the first to endeavour to discover other 
Carlovingian MSS. displaying the same stylistic characteristics 
as the Utrecht Psalter, and of the same period, i.e., not later 
than the ninth, or earlier than the eighth cent. A group of 
such MSS. of the late Xth., XL and XII. c, executed in Eng- 
land and the North of France, and illustrated with pen and 
ink sketches in bistre or in colours, was indeed already known 
as the product of the Winchester School or as Opus. Anglicum; 
it includes the Cotton MS., Tiberius C. VI., British Museum, 
XI. c. ; the Missal of Bishop Leofric (X. c.) in the Bodleian, 
Oxford; Treatise de Virginitate, copied by Bishop Aldhelm, 
X. c, now in the Archiepiscopal Palace at Lambeth ; the 
metrical paraphrase of Casdmon in the Bodleianf ; the Cotton 
MS., Titus D. XXII., British Museum, an Offichim S. Crucis, 
executed between 1012-1020, in Newminster, near Winchester; 
and the Benedictionale of ^thelwold from the same school 
as the latter. To these Anglo-Saxon MSS. Professor West- 
wood had already drawn attention in 1868+; Goldschmidt was 
the first, however, to draw comparisons between the Utrecht 
Psalter and the Evangel iarium of Ebo, preserved in the Library 
at Epernay. Ebo, or Ebbon, was Bishop of Rheims between 

* *• Repertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft," Band XV., Stuttgart, 1892, 
pp 156-166. 

\ See " Archasologia," Vol. XXIV., p. 324, where the drawings are 

Fac-similes of Miniatures and Ornaments, etc., p. g8 et seq. 


8i6 and 835, during the reign of Louis le Debonnaire, son of 
Charlemagne, and the origin of the work executed for him is 
clearly indicated in some dedicatory verses, which inform us 
that the MS.* was written and illuminated in his diocese, in the 
Monastery of Hautvillers (Altumvillare) near Epernay, under 
the Abbot Petrus, at some time previous to the year 835. 
The style of the 12 richly illuminated canon-tables differs en- 
tirely from that of all the other Carlovingian schools, but 
closely resembles that of the Utrecht Psalter; more especially 
in the case of the small figures in wash outlined in ink which or- 
nament the canon-tables. In the pictures of the four evangelists 
which are in wash, St. Matthewf bears a striking resemblance to 
the evangelist in the first full page illustration to the Utrecht 
Psalter. The style of drawings is identical in both MSS., but 
in the one case the artist used the pen and in the other the 
brush. Goldschmidt argues that we cannot go far wrong in 
seeing in the illustrators of the two MSS., a single personality; 
in any case, the scene of the activities of both artists must have 
been closely related in one and the same monastery, or at the 
very least in the same school of art. The diocese of Rheims 
with Hautvillers as a nucleus, produced in the first half of the 
ninth century a group of MSS. standing alone and closely 
characterised in style and conception ; to this group belong first 

* See Paulin Pans : '• Comptes Rendus de I'Academie des Inscriptions " ; 
4^. Serie, Tom. VI , 1878, p. 97 ; Ed. Aubert : " Manuscrit de I'Abbaye de 
Hautvillers, dit Evangeliaire d'Ebon." Paris, 1880 ; e.xtrait des Memoires 
de la Soc. des Antiquaires de France, avec planches. Le Conite Auguste 
de Bastard : " Peintures et Ornaments des MSS.," etc., pi. iig-122 {nomen- 
clature Delisle), which has been followed in re-arranging the copy at the 
British Museum; and "Die Trierer Ada-Handschritt " Leipzig. i88g, 
p. 93. Text by H. Janitschek, and pi. XXXV. and XXXVI. ; Samuel 
Berger ; '• Histoire de la Vulgate," p. 278 ; Paul Durrieu : " L'origine du 
MS. celebre dit le Psautier d'Utrecht," Paris, 1895, pi. i and 2 and text. 

t There are besides three more miniatures of St. Matthew belonging to 
this school of painting which closely resemble these two : See Georg 
Swarzenski, " Die Karolingische Malerei u. Plastik in Reims." Jahrbuch 
der K. Preuss. Kunstsammlungen, Band 23. Berlin, 1902, p. ^5 (plate). 


of all the Utrecht Psalter, the Evangeliarium of Ebo, and the 
Psalter of Troyes; secondly the Hincmar* Evangeliarium; the 
Evangeliarium of Loysel, the Evangeliarium of Blois and the 
Douce Psalter in Oxford. 

Goldschmidt, perhaps independently of Prof. Westvvood, 
also noticed the similarity in conception between the scenes 
illustrating Ps. 56 on the ivory carvings of the binding of the 
Psalter of Charles le Chauve and in the Utrecht Psalter, to 
which reference has already been made. The greatest resem- 
blance in the style of the drawings, however, exists in two 
illustrations bound up with a manuscript copy of the works of 
Hrabanus Maurus, now in the Konigliche Landesbibliothek, 
Diisseldorf. This MS., attributed from its palaeographical 
characteristics to the lOth century, is preceded by a folio con- 
taining two pen and ink sketches, and other folios, fragments 
of an Evangeliarium which are in no way connected with 
Hrabanus Maurust and evidently of earlier date. A poem in- 
serted between these two parts of the MS. points to the 
monastery of St. Florini in Coblenz, as origin of the work. 
The drawings, which are of the greatest interest, are in bistre, 
and the figures, nearly approximating in size those of the 
Utrecht Psalter, are so identical m all characteristics with the 
latter that the two Diisseldorf drawings might easily be mis- 
taken for illustrations from the Psalter. Goldschmidt observes 
in conclusion, that as Coblenz was known to have had very 
close relations with the Prankish Emperor, Louis le Debon- 
naire, the striking similarity in style forms but a further con- 
firmation of his view that the origin of the Utrecht Psalter 
must be sought in France and not in England. Goldschmidt 

* Hincmar succeeded Ebo as Archbishop of Rheims. See Paul Dur- 
rien, " L'Origine du MS. c61ebre dit Psautier d'Utrecht, Paris," 1895, p. 

t For a reproduction see Jahrbiicher des Verein von Alterstliums- 
freunden des Rheinlandes, Heft 72. Tafel. IV. and V. with text bj- H. 


then propounds several questions on points to which he has 
not yet found a satisfactory answer. 

(i). In what spot in Hautvillers did this school form its 
style and conception? 

(2). To what extent was Anglo-Saxon art represented there? 

(3). To what extent did originality in design predominate? 

(4). What were the models or prototypes ? Late Roman, or 
Byzantine and to what extent were they used ? 

These queries are taken up again later and answered by 
Goldschmidt and others. 

(8). Franz Friedrich Leitschuh, of Strassburg University, 
was the next writer who, in his history of Carlovingian paint- 
ing,* devoted earnest consideration to the subject of the Utrecht 
Psalter. This interesting volume was, in its original form, 
written in 1887 and won the prize awarded by the philosophical 
faculty of the Kaiser-Wilhelm University in Strassburg; the 
publication of the revised work was eventually unavoidably 
delayed. Leitschuh calls the Utrecht Psalter one of the mile- 
stones in the artistic activity of the period, and considers that 
the artist has produced original pictures. Like Springer, he 
upholds the Anglo-Saxon origin of the artist, who was the most 
important vehicle of Anglo-Saxon influence, and states that 
the Psalter is related in form and technique to other Anglo- 
Saxon MSS. A whole group of Psalters felt this influence, 
the Utrecht Psalter is the nucleus of the group and may be 
used as a collective designation for the stylistic tendencies of 
the whole. Leitschuh also notices the close relation that exists 
in the conception of the ivory carving on the binding of Charles 
le Chauve's Psalter, and cites as another example the gold relief 
binding of the Codex Aureus of St. Emmeran, now in Munich.t 

* Geschichte der Karolingischen Malerei, ihr Bilderkreis u. Seine 
Quellen. 59 illustrations, Berlin, 1894, p. 321-330. 

t See Labarte, " Hist, des Arts Industriels," pi. XXXIV. Photograph 
by Hanfstaengl, Munich. 


The various Carlovingian schools of miniature-painting were, 
he considers, more or less influenced by Anglo-Saxon art, or 
at least related to it. The school of Rheims alone absorbed 
the full tide of this influence without foreign admixture; in 
Corbie, Anglo-Saxon material was utilised ; but Tours was not 
indebted to Anglo-Saxon influence, in spite of an obvious resem- 
blance in the motifs used but had rather drawn from the same 
source, i.e., late classical art. Metz had evidently had access to 
some other MS. similar to the Utrecht Psalter, from which was 
borrowed the idea of drawing scenes full of movement on a 
small scale. 

The question of the Carlovingian schools of illummation 
which has been treated very clearly by H. Janitschek, Leit- 
schuh's master and monitor, will receive more attention later 
on. The year 1895 brings contributions to the question of the 
Utrecht Psalter from Goldschmidt and Paul Durrieu. 

(9). Adolph Goldschmidt in his monograph on the Albani 
Psalter,* gives us a reply to some of the queries with which he 
concludes the former article. (No. 7). Facts, he avers, can be cited 
to show that the conception of the illustrations of the Utrecht 
Psalter was not only derived from an older civilisation (early 
Byzantine) but was directly copied from a model. Into these 
comparisons and deductions we may not, for want of space, 
follow him in his argument, his conclusions must suffice : in 
any case Psalters with verse illustration, such as the Utrecht 
Psalter and the Stuttgart Psalter t (lOth cent), are no original 
creations of the younger civilisation North of the Alps. The 
Eadwine Psalter, XII. cent., now in Trinity College, Cambridge, 
written at Canterbury, is a copy of the Utrecht Psalter with 

* " Der Albani- Psalter in Hildesheim unci Seine Beziehung zur Sym- 
bolischen Kirchensculptur des XII. Jalirhunderts," with 8 plates and 44 
illustrations, Berlin, 1895. 

t For reproductions of the miniatures see Hefner- Alteneck. " Trachten 
d. Christlichen Mittelalters." 

2 M 


only a few variations; the text is in three versions, instead of 
in the one Gallican version; it was not copied from Harleian 
MS. 603, for this is incomplete, whereas the Eadwine Psalter* 
agrees with the Utrecht Psalter to the end of the Psalms. 

The Paris copy, a Psalter of the 13th century, t and the 
Cambridge Psalter have many points in common, some of zvhich 
do not exist hi the Utrecht Psalter, which seems to show that 
they were both copies of an original also copied in the Utrecht 
Psalter, but now lost. The Paris Psalter drawings are not out- 
line sketches, but paintings in body colours on a gold ground. 

(10). Paul Durrieu in his pamphlet on the Utrecht Psalter,+ 
seems to have come independently to much the same conclusions 
as Goldschmidt (to whom he does not refer), as to the Utrecht 
Psalter being a product of the school of Rheims. It is inter- 
esting to find, however, that his arguments are not founded 
merely on the drawings, but that he succeeds in showing that 
certain palseographical peculiarities in the uncials used as 
head lines and initials in the Utrecht Psalter are characteristic 
of the work of the schools of Rheims and Metz, and are not to 
be fonnd in the MSS. of any other school in France or Eng- 
land. The single ornamental letter, the initial B of the first 
psalm is, moreover, in pure style remois, which is quite distinct 
from that of the school of Metz. Leopold Delisle§ had already 
pointed cut a certain resemblance between the miniatures of the 

* Add. MSS. 29,273, at the British Museum, contains a few photographic 
reproductions of illustrations from the Eadwine Psalter and Utrecht 
Psalter. See also PI. VII. 

t MS. Suppl. Lat. 1194, now 8S46 Bibl. Nat., Paris. See Silvestre. 
Pal6ographie Universelle for facsimiles of text and initials ; one reproduc- 
tion of the drawing illustrating Ps. II. in Cahier and Martin, Melanges, 
d'Archeologie. Tom. I., pi. 45, p. 252. 

:] " L'Origine du MS. celehre dit le Psauticr d'Utrecht," Paris, 1895. 

§ " Memoire sur d'Anciens Sacramentaires e.xtrait dcs Mem de. I'Acad. 
des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres," Tom. XXXII., i^ie partie. p. 102. 


Sacramentaire de Drogon* (^letz School) and those of the 
Utrecht Psalter; Durrievi shows the great similarity in the little 
drawings on the Canon Tables of the Evangeliariuni of Ebo 
to certain drawings and single figures taken from the Ctrecht 
Psalter, not only by means of a description, but by reproduc- 
tions in juxtaposition on two plates, published m the pamphlet. 
Durrieu's conclusions are thus based on paUeographical char- 
acteristics of the initials as well as on the illustrations. 

(11). At the XI. International Oriental Congress in Paris, 
1897, Byzantine section, a paper was read by Hans Graeven, 
"Die Vorlage des Utrecht Psalters "t which, as the title indi- 
cates, treats of the Greek prototype of the famous psalter. 
Graeven duly acknowledges the work of other writers already 
noticed above, and especially of Goldschmidt, who, although 
inclined to believe in a Greek prototype, reminds us that we 
possess no illustrated early Christian Psalters, nor have we 
sufficient knowledge of the liturgy of those early days of the 
Christian church to enable us to state with certainty that the 
prototype of the Utrecht Psalter was not late-Roman rather 
than Byzantine. Graeven, however, feels convinced that the 
drawings of the Utrecht Psalter were executed to illustrate a 
Greek text; his reasons, given in detail, are out of place here. 
The Utrecht Psalter forms but one more link m the chain of 
evidence that mediaeval art has assimilated the wealth of proto- 
types produced by early Christian art in its palmy days of the 
fourth century, in close connection with the art of Gra?co- 
Roman antiquity. In these productions, the Greek artists were 
surely more strongl}' represented than the Latin nation, which 
was less gifted in the pictorial arts. These Greek artists were 
not necessarily to be found in Constantinople alone; they have 
left numerous traces in Egypt, and we must bear in mind the 

* See Durrieu's pamphlet, 
t Published in Repertroium f. Kunstwissenschaft. Bd. XXI. Stuttgart, 
i8g8, p. 2S-35. 


work of the two great centres of culture, Alexandria and 

(12). The most exhaustive monograph on the Utrecht Psalter 
is perhaps that of the distinguished Finn. J. J. Tikkanen.* 
Relying on the evidences of a number of objects singled out 
from the illustrations, which could not have existed in any 
early Christian MS., Tikkanen pronounces with strong con- 
viction against the theory of a prototype, and in favour of the 
Utrecht Psalter being a fairly independent illustration due to 
Carlovingian art, but he rejects the Anglo-Saxon nationality of 
the artist because all the MSS. exhibiting characteristics of 
style similar to the Utrecht Psalter are of later date, i.e., late 
tenth to twelfth. Tikkanen, however, admits the evidences of 
the influence of late Roman and early Christian art and that 
adaptation and borrowing from antique art had always been a 
tendency of the Rheims school to which the Utrecht Psalter 
belongs, and which may be explained by the strong stratum of 
Roman culture traceable in the diocese of Rheims. Finally 
Tikkanen allows that the relation of the Utrecht Psalter to 
ancient art appears to be, as far as the motifs are concerned, 
rather a conscious borrowing than a slavish copying. t 

(13). Georg Swarzenski in his paper on Carlovingian art in 
Rheims, + accepting the Utrecht Psalter as a product of the 
Rheims school of miniaturists, finds in spite of all that has 
been written on the subject, a new ray of light to cast on the 
much-discussed question of the origin of the famous psalter. 
In reviewing H. Janitschek's classification of the Carlovingian 

* Abendlandische Psalter Illustration. Die Psalter Illustration im 
Mittelalter. Part III., Der Utrecht Psalter. Helsingfors, igoo. 320 pp., 
4to, with 77 illustrations in the text. 

t See p. 311. 

I " Die Karolin^ische Malerei nnd Plastik in Reims." Jahrl>uch d. K. 
Preussischen Kunstsammlungen Bd. XXIII. , Berlin, 1902. pp. 81-100. 


schools of painting* given further on (facing p. 367}. Swarzen- 
ski contends that the MSS. attributed by the former to the 
Palatine school (see Schola Palatina Plate facing p. 367) are 
all works of the Rheims school, setting forth his reasons clearly 
and convincingly. This proposition enables him to develop 
his theory as to the origin of the Utrecht Psalter with ease and 
simplicity. The remarkable tendency of the Utrecht Psalter 
and of the group of closely related AISS., does not form the 
basis and beginning of an independent school, but appears 
as an important secondary tendency due to the personality of 
an extraordinarily gifted artist in an already established school 
— that of Rheims. It does not reveal itself as an indefinite 
tendency, evolving and feeling its way, but as a perfect, com- 
plete force, which takes up its stand boldly, side by side with 
the established school. The very fact that we observe the influ- 
ence of a tendency, so foreign in style and technique to French 
soil, without being able to trace its evolution, taken in con- 
junction with its characteristics, forces us to the conclusion that 
it came from outside — that is from England. The artist of the 
Utrecht Psalter and his colleagues, form a parallel to that other 
Northern French school, called by the French the Franco- 
Saxon, whose drawing of the living form entirely coincides 
with that of the other French schools, whereas its beautiful 
ornamentation displays the same Anglo-Saxon influence which 
our artist infused into the figure drawing of the Rheims school. 
Regarded from the point of view of technique alone, this ten- 
dency assumes but a temporary local significance, whose 
gradual effacement is less a sign of decay, than a return to the 
well-worn track. This theory is simple, convincing and tends 
to reconcile many antagonistic points in the opinions quoted 

* •' Die Trierer Ada-Handschrift." Index (see plate facing p. 367. 
note I for full title). 


The passionate impetuosity in conception, the energy of the 
illustration, the eccentric mobile pathos of gesture, the im- 
provising ingenuity of the technique have no parallel in autoch- 
tonic French painting. The remarkable gift of this talented 
artist followed the same direction as the Anglo-Saxon miniature- 
painting of the early middle ages and produced the most 
important achievement of the whole of the contemporary 
Western School of painting. In his other work, the Ebo 
Evangeliarium, he has shown himself under the influence of 
Continental Carlovingian art and more especially of that of 
the Renaissance School of Rhemis, which stood foremost in 
the revival of the late antique art. It is more difficult to trace 
the relation of the Utrecht Psalter to Carlovmgian art. This 
stupendous digest (redaction) for it was neither an absolute 
copy nor an absolutely new creation, and most certainly not 
a tradition, is an undertaking which betrays the consciously 
directed energy of the Prankish race, with its passion for col- 
lecting and its intimate knowledge of the monuments of art, 
which the Prankish empire was so exceptionally able to pro- 
cure.* This cycle bears the unmistakable impress of Car- 
lovingian and not of Anglo-Saxon spirit, but nevertheless its 
main characteristics are purely English. One might say that 
the artistic inspiration was due to English influence, but that 
the execution was Carlovingian. 

(14). The last contribution to the subject of the Utrecht 
Psalter is a paper by Ormonde M. Dalton, M.A., P.S.A., on " The 
Crystal of Lothair,"t read before the Society of Antiquaries. 
The Crystal, now preserved in the British Museum, is engraved 
in intaglio with eight scenes from the story of Susanna; each 
accompanied by a descriptive legend in Latin. In the centre 
is the inscription '' Lothanus Rex Francoritm Fieri jiissit.'" 
It is a disputed point to which Lothair this applies; both 

* Swarzenski, p. 83. 
t " Archaeologia," Vol. LIX., :()04. 






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reigned in the 9th cent., between 817-869. The work is evi- 
dently Carlovingian and the little figures all gesticulating 
with outstretched hands and prominent thumbs are reminiscent 
of the Utrecht Psalter. Mr. Dalton points out that not merely 
in architecture, but also in the minor arts of MS. illumination 
and ivory carving, the best work of the 9th and loth centuries 
owes much to early Oriental models produced for the most 
part in Syria and Egypt, and he endorses Graeven's opinion 
as to the origin of the Utrecht Psalter. 

This, then, is the concensus of expert opinion concerning the 
drawings of the Utrecht Psalter. The question that remains for 
us to decide is whether any of the opinions stated offer a satis- 
factory explariation of the probable origin of the musical instru- 
ments which the miniaturist of the Utrecht Psalter used so 
lavishly in illustrating the Psalms. The following table contains 
a list of the principal Carlovingian illuminated !nISS. arranged 
according to the different art centres in which they were pro- 
duced, which will be found useful for reference. 

Schools of Carlovingian Art. The Plastic Art of the 
School of Rheims.* 

'i). The ivory plaques enriching the bindmg of the Psalter 
of Charles le Chauve (see School of Corbie, No. 3, opposite, also 
Westwood p. ;^^2 above) and for illustrations, Cahier et Martin 
Melanges d'Archeologie, I., pi. X. and XI. ; Labarte, Hist, des 
Arts Indust., L, pi. XXX. and XXXI., J. F. Leitschuh, Gesch. 
der Karoling. Malerei, p. 324. 

(2). " The Marriage of Cana." Brit. Mus. See Westwood, 
Descript. Catal. of Fictile Ivories, p. 125, No. 278; Graeven, 
Elfenbeinwerke. I.. No. 36. 

• Swarzenski, p. 91 et seq. Ad. Goldschniidt. (Rep. f. Kunstw. XV.) 
1892, p. 166. 


(3). " The Crucifixion " on the binding of a MS. in Munich 
Staatsbibl. Cimelie, 57. See Westwood, Descript. Catal., p. 
458, 124, No. 276. Voege. Malerschule, p. 113, et seq. P. 
Weber. Geistliches Schauspiel, etc., p. 22. Taf. IV. Molinier 
"Ivoires," p. 134. 

(4). Plaque in Munich National Mus. : Katalog. V., No. 
160; Cahier et Martin Melanges 1851, pi. VIIL, p. 39 et seq. 

(5). Ivory plaque, St. Thomas. Weimar, Grossh. Museum, 
and Swarzenski, p. 91, Fig. 6, in which evident resemblances 
in type, figures, movement, gesticulation, connect the ivory 
with the work of the Anglo-Saxon miniaturist of the Rheims 
School ; the same remark applies to No. 6 below. 

(6). Ivory plaque. IX. Schweizerisches, Landes-Museum, 
Ziirich, representing a scene from Ps. XXVI. , which is con- 
sidered to be a copy of the illustration to the same Psalm in 
the Utrecht Psalter or some other Psalter, of which the latter 
was a copy. See Molinier (Emile), " Histoire generale des 
arts appliques a I'industrie, Tom. I., pp. 124, 125; and Zurich 
und das Schweizerische Landes-Museum." Zurich, 1890, in 
4to, pi. XXXI. 

(7). Gold Relief from the binding of a MS. of the Gospels 
at Lindau which was formerly in the Ashburnham Collection. 
Swarzenski, p. 92 and 95, Fig. 8 ; \''etusta IMonumenta, \"ol. 
VI., Westminster, 1885, pi. II. 

(8). " The Crystal of Lcthair " in the Brit. Museum, repre- 
senting the Story of Susanna and the Elders. Archasologia, 
1904, Vol. LIX. Article by Ormonde Dalton with plate. 

We will now consider the various hypothetical nationalities 
which might be assigned to the musical instruments in the 
Utrecht Psalter according to the opinions held b}- the various 
experts as to the origin of the MS. 

(i). Anglo-Saxon, in actual use in the IXth cent. 

,.„,.. ( actual Iv in use in the diocese of 

(2). Carlovmgian -^ -^, . ' ,,, , 

^ ^ ^ Rheims. IXth cent. 



(3). Late classical. 

(4). Earl)' Romano-Christian. 

(5). Byzantine. 

(6). Greek from Syria or North Egypt 

made known by 
means of illu- 
minated j\ISS. 
^ treasured in the 
libraries of the 
monasteries of 
the diocese of 

According to Dr. Swarzenski's opmion, which, besides being 
the most recent, also seems to reconcile the most essential points 
of all the other arguments instead of refuting them, the artist 
responsible for the miniatures of the Utrecht Psalter was an 
Anglo-Saxon working in the diocese of Rheims during the 
ninth century. His conception, the life, energy and movement 
infused into the little drawings were due directly to Anglo- 
Saxon feeling or influence, just as the wealth of ornament 
characterising the work of the Franco-Saxon school bore the 
impress of the Anglo-Saxon art of the day, while the scenes 
depicted are entirely in the style of the other French schools 
of the Carlovingian period. The Anglo-Saxon characteristics 
of the Utrecht Psalter are only to be traced in the work of 
the Rheims school of the time of Charles le Chauve, after 
which they gradvially vanish, from which circumstance it seems 
not unreasonable to attribute them to the strong personality 
of a talented artist. 

From what source did this artist draw his inspiration in 
illustrating the musical scenes ? Did he give his musicians 
the real instruments he had seen in use around him, or did he 
copy them from the older MSS. from which he had derived 
his training — MSS. obtained from the Roman and the Byzan- 
tine empires? If the instruments were actually in use, they 
would be those known either to the Anglo-Saxons or to the 
Franks of the diocese of Rheims. One might in this case 


reasonably expect to find traces of these instruments in other 
MSS. of the same period or at least in those of the succeeding 
centuries such as the nth, when England and France had 
begun to free themselves from the influences of classical art, 
and to strive to express themselves, and their own life. One 
might also expect to find the instruments drawn with some 
degree of understanding in those copies of the Utrecht Psalter 
which have survived, if the objects were familiar to the minia- 

The examination (unfortunately by no means an exhaustive 
one), of the Anglo-Saxon, Carlovingian and French MSS.* 
and monuments of the 8th to the i ith centuries accessible either 
as originals, in fac-simile, or as reproductions of more or less 
correct drawings, has not disclosed any trace of the kithara in 
its 2nd or 3rd transitions. 

Collected in this chapter are the musical instruments from 
the MSS. of the Carlovingian and other contemporary schools, 
together with those derived from Anglo-Saxon copies of the 
Utrecht Psalter of later date; there is among them all only 
one instrument with a neck which is in any way reminiscent of 
the instruments in the Utrecht Psalter, i.e., the one from the 
miniature of King David in the Psalter of Lothair, to which 
reference is made later on. As far as these MSS. are con- 
cerned, the development of the kithara stopped short at the 
rotta, the first of the transitions, which appears to have been a 
favourite instrument in Germany, France and England from 
the 6th to the 12th cent. The instruments from the Psalter of 
Lothair (PI. 1. and V.) from the Psalterium Aureum, St. Gallen 
(Fig. 151) from the Psalterium of Labeo Notker, St. Gallen 
(Fig. 149 and PL IV.) and from the Evangeliarium of St. 
Medard of Soissons (Fig. 145) are all oriental instruments 

* The theological illuminated MSS. productive of material for the 
archaeology of music are Bibles, Psalters and the Apocalypse. 

Plate IV. 

From the Psalter of Labko Notker, Xth Century, St. Gallen. Showixcj a 


From a Photoyraph specially taken for this uorl hi/ Schohinycr and Sandlierr. St. Gallcn 

See Appoudix Rehab niul c.f. Fig. 149. 


derived from the Egyptian or older Asiatic civilisations and dis- 
seminated in Europe mamly through the Arabs. These instru- 
ments have one common feature of construction, i.e., the vaulted 
back and flat sound-board and a neck formed by the gradual 
narrowing of the body; in short their essential features are dia- 
metrically opposed to those of the kithara and guitar-fiddle, the 
immediate ancestors of the violin family. It is a remarkable fact 
that the instruments in question all emanate from MSS. executed 
in the very localities in which were situated the three schools of 
music founded by Charlemagne who was known to have 
assimilated much of the art and learning of the Arabs : 

(i). Metz. The Psalter of Lothair. 

(2). Soissons. The Evangeliarium of St. Medard. 

(3). St. Gallen. The Psalterium Aureum. 

The Psalterium of Labeo Notker. 
The instrument from the Psalter of Lothair of which body and 
neck seem to be in one piece and the back vaulted, has some 
affinity with the spoon-shaped nofre of the Egyptians wide in 
the shoulders and tapering to a rounded apex, which occurs so 
frequently among the hieroglyphs.* It seems reasonable to 
suppose that we have here an instrument in actual use at the 
time the miniature was painted, and familiar to the artist. The 
Metz school of miniature painting is characterised by imita- 
tion of Roman models, but the instrument from the Psalter of 
Lothair does not occur, as far as I know, among those found 
on Roman monuments or MSS. extant. It does, however, 
slightly resemble the one taken from the illustration to Psalm 
107 of the Utrecht Psalter (PI. VI., i)t ; moreover in the copy of 
this famous Psalter Harl. MS. 603, British Museum, of the nth 
cent., the copyist has drawn in the instrument with great deli- 
cac)/; and such details as bridge and tail-piece, which in the 

* As, for example, in the Theban recension of the Book of the Dead. 
A papyrus with coloured vignettes written in 1050 B.C. British Museum. 

f And also the rebab in the top left hand corner of PL IV. (Labeo 
Notker s Psalter.) 


original were blurred and indistinct, stand out with wonderful 
clearness; from which we may conclude that the artist thought 
he recognised the instrument, and accordingly drew it with 
understanding. One cannot be quite sure on account of the 
smallness and indistinctness of the drawing in the Utrecht 
Psalter that this is really the type of instrument which is given 
in the illustration to Psalm 107 (PL VI., i), or whether this was 
a variant of the instrument in Fig. 121. 

When we compare the other instruments which occur in both 
original and copy, we find that the copyist has been non- 
plussed, as in Fig. 120, for instance, which in the Utrecht 
Psalter is so vague and indistinct that it might be taken for a 
skin-bottle; this in the Harl. MS. is faithfully copied without 
improvements. Unfortunately, the most important instru- 
ments are omitted in Harl. 603, i.e. .■ 

Ps. CXXXIV (Fig. 123) is differently illustrated and con- 
tains no musical instrument. 

Ps. CXLIII. being the last "copied in the Harl. MS., Fig. 126, 
(PI. III.) and the page illustrating the 150th Psalm, in which is 
the famous picture of the Hydraulic organ (PI. VI.), and the 
large rotta (Fig. 117), are both absent. 

Ps. LXXX. (Fig. 125), is not illustrated either. The Flarleian 
copy has been illustrated by three different hands : from Ps. 
I to 65 by the first; blank spaces are left from Ps. 66 to 100; 
the second artist whose work was technically very fine and 
delicate illustrates Ps. loi to 1 1 1 and the third hand, whose 
work is comparatively coarse, has continued the illustration 
from Ps. 112 to 143 in similar style, but according to his own 
ideas, instead of copying the scenes in the Utrecht Psalter. 

The Canterbury artist who made the copy of the Utrecht 
Psalter known as the Eadwine or Cambridge Psalter (12th 
cent.), had evidently no knowledge of the instruments he was 
copying, judging from his fanciful and utterly unpractical 

Vlate r. 

From inio I'saltkh of Lothair. .\t ARJiiTAOK-BuiDor. HorsE. IXtu Cemiry. 
Photinjraiih presented hy the late Sir ThniiitiK Bniake. 


drawings* see PI. VII.); he may, however, have been an un- 
musical man, working in an unmusical milieu. 

The Psalter of Lothair.t now at Armitage Bridge House in 
the Library of Sir Thomas Brooke, to whose kindness I owe 
the fine photographs here reproduced of the miniature of King 
David, and of the carving of King David on the ivory plaque 
set in the binding of the MS. Here the artist, copying as was 
the custom, but without understanding, from a miniature in 
some other MS., such as the Bible of Charles le Chauve, or the 
Bible of St. Paul (both of which contain similar instruments, 
see Fig. 115), has produced an impossible instrument; the out- 
line will be recognised as similar to that of Fig. 115, but in 
the ivory instrument the strings instead of lying over the neck, 
only, are drawn right across the instrument, leaving no space 
for the hand to reach the strings, and stop them ; it would 
moreover be impossible to use a bow to such an instrument, 
without sounding several strings at once; the bow is of the 
cremaillere type (see Fig. 73), the earliest and most perfect 
example of the kmd }'et found. Experts have pointed out 
that the ivory carving seems to be some two centuries younger 
than the MS., and was probably executed in the nth cent., 
judging from the figure, the pose, the arrangement of the 
draperies, etc. ; the head alone, reminiscent of classical models 
and full of vigour and life, might be gth cent. work. The 
ivcry carvings of the Carlovingian period, to some of which 
reference has been made above, widely differ from this figure 

* Add. MS. 29.273 at the British Museum contains a few photographic 
fac-similes of folios from the Eadwine Psalter presented by the Rev. 
Canon Swainson, of Cambridge. The important illustration to Ps. 150 (of 
our version) is one of these and contains a travesty of the instrument 
given in Fig. 123 above (c/. PI. VI I.) 

f Known for some years as the F21Iis and White Psalter, illustrated by 
the Pala^ographical Society, Pi. 70 and 90, \"ol. II. 


of King David in feeling and technique. A brief sketch of 
the interesting MS. may prove of interest : 

The Psalter of Lothair,* written in gold letters, was bestowed bv Louis 
le Dibonnaire, son of Charlemagne, upon the Abbey of St. Hubert in 825 
In the Cantatoriumf of the Abbe}' of St. Hubert, in the Ardennes, written 
in the twelfth century, is an entry stating that upon the occasion of the 
translation of the body of St. Hubert in 825, Louis le Debonnaire, who 
was present, made gifts of royal magnificence to the Abbey of St. Hubert, 
amongst which was a Psalter written in letters of gold. Dr. A. Namur 
accounts for certain poems in honour of Lothair, written in rustic capitals 
(whereas the Psalter is in Caroline minuscules with capitals in uncials) and 
accompanied by the three miniatures, one of which is that of King David 
(PL V.) by stating that they were probably added in the Abbey of St. 
Hubert after the gift had been made. This statement, a mere hypothesis, 
as well as the record in the Cantatorium. written three centuries after the 
events recorded, must be accepted with all due reserve. 

The famous MS. underwent many vicissitudes, and Dr. Namur relates 
that when the fatal influence of the French Revolution was felt in Belgium, 
Dom Etienne (M. Jacques Bernard Neumann) removed many of the 
treasures of the Abbey of St. Hubert to a place of safety, restoring them 
when the monastery was re-opened, but that he kept the Psalter and some 
other MSS. in memory of the Abbey where he had passed the greater part 
of his life, and he bequeathed them to his nephew. 

The group of instruments from the districts in which Charle- 
magne established the three schools of music, being as before 
stated undoubtedly derived from the Arabs, either by way of 
Spain or through Sicily and Southern Ital\-, are treated more 
fully in the nsxt chapter. 

Our investigation of such musical instruments as are here 
presented from Carlovingian and Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the 
8th to the nth cent., reveals no single specmien which can 
claim a place in the evolution of the guitar-hddle from the 
Greek kithara, with the exception of the instruments of the 
Utrecht Psalter and the rotta. Of the latter we find a variety 

* A full descriiJtion and history of the MS. quoted from Dr. A. Namur's account in the 
"Bulletin du Biblioishile Beige," Sept., 18G0, are given in " the Catalogue of the MSS. and 
printed Books collected by Thomas Brooke, F.S.A., and preserved at Armitage Bridge House, 
near Huddersfield." Vol.11., p. 530 to 540. London, 1891 (for private circulation); see also 
"Second Voyage litt^raire de deux religieux b^nddictins de la congregation de St. Maur." 
(Martene et Durand). Paris, 1754, p. 135 to 144. 

f Published and translated in 1847 by M. de Robaulx de Soumoy. 

Plate TI. (1). 
Ps. CVII. Utrecht Psalter. IXth Centuri. (lleprodiicccl ftom the Autotype 
Facsimili' in the Britisli Museum). 
riivtiiiiraitli bi/ E. J. Clark. 

UAUDfwrNqMJWfwnw c-wulrAiiowf/DaWGur uifAaAwjiwfi/iuDiciu 



Flnte YI. (2). 


(Keproducetl from the Autotype Faesimile in the British Museum). 

Photograph hy E. J. Clark. 


of forms m Engiand, France and Germany, some with finger- 
boards, arguing a great advance in technique, based on the 
knowledge of instruments with necks, in which by stopping 
the strings with the fingers several sounds may be produced 
from each string. 

There is ever}- reason to believe that even in those i\ISS. 
which are obviously copies from Romano-Christian models, 
the instruments* depicted were all actually in use at the time 
for they have been traced both before and after in the process 
of evolution. 

Opinions seems to be divided among the authorities quoted 
above, who have given earnest consideration to the question of 
the origin of the Utrecht Psalter, as to the source of the artist's 
inspiration in thus illustrating the Psalter, psalm by psalm, 
the Utrecht Psalter benig the earliest example extant of the 
kind. What were the models from which he consciously bor- 
rowed local colour, landscape, fauna, flora, classical objects 
and customs, etc., while infusing into his version — a digest 
from many sources — a distinctive feeling and vigom' charac- 
teristic of Anglo-Saxon art of the gth and succeeding cen- 
turies? Reference to the later writings of Goldschmidt.t 
Graeven,t Swarzenskit and Josef Strzygowski,t in which they 
state their reasons, leads to the same conclusion, on arch^o- 
logical grounds, as I myself reached independently from the 
history of the musical instruments with which we are concerned. 

A study of such MSS. and monuments of all available 
sources, covering the first 8 centuries of our era, has revealed 
but little bearing on the question, that was not already known 
from the study of antique musical instruments. Examples of 

* With the exception, perhaps, of the instrument in Fig. 151 from the 
Psalterium Aureum of St. Gallen, which occurs in certain Romano- 
Christian bas-reUefs in the Lateran. For references see Notes to pp. 

f See BibUography. 



the kithara in a variety of forms, and stages of development,* 
do indeed abound, for very obvious reasons ; there was but a 
slender hope of finding somewhere a trace of the newer instru- 
ments of the Utrecht Psalter, a hope which up to the present 
has been disappointed. 

* For other illustrations of the kithara not reproduced in this work see 
the following: " The Vatican Virgil," Cod. Vat. 3225, Rome, i8gg. Pict. 8 
32 and 36 (see Bibliogr. for full titles). " Picture Iliacse," by Angelo Mai, 
Mediolani, i8ig, pi. X. " Roma Sotterana," by J. Wilpert, Tav. 37 (Orfeo) 
II. cent.; Tav. g8 (Orfeo) III. cent. "Hist. gen. de I'art applique a 
I'industrie," by Emile Molinier, Tom. I., No. 62. Diptych, VI. cent., 
Tresor de la Basilique de Monza, Muse with cithara; No. 63, Musee du 
Louvre. VI. cent., Melpomene with Cithara. " Descript. Catalogue of 
Fictile Ivories," by J. O. Westwood, No. 25; ' Nouveaux Melanges d' 
Archeol. " " Ivoires, Miniatures, Emaux," etc.. p. 75. Binding of a MS. in 
the Bibl. de I'Arsenal, Paris, about V. cent. " Catalogo del Museo 
Nazionale, Firenze " (Collection Carrand) Rome, i8g8, p. 204, No. 22 
(description only) Roman Art, V. cent. " Die Quedlinburg-Itala Hand- 
schrift," by V. Schultze, i8g8. p. 13, Taf. I. (lower picture) a golden 
kithara, very indistinct in the reproduction. " Storia dell' Arte Cristiane," 
Garrucci III., pi. 130, Cod. Siriaco Laurenziano, 6th cent. Rabulo Evang. 
*' Jahrb. d. Kunsthist. Samml. d. AUerh. Kaiserhauses," Vol. XX., i8gg, p. 
183, Taf. V. (Wickhoft) from an antique sarcophagus. " Gallerie naz. 
italiane," III. (i8g7), pp. 263 and 261, and L'Arte, Vol. I. (i8g8), p. 24 
Ivory Casket, Florence, Carrand Coll., IX. cent., and ditto Cividale, IX. 
•cent. " Antike Vorlagen Byz. Elfenbeinreliefs," Hans Graeven, Jahrb. d. 
K. Preuss. Kunstsamml., Bd. 18 (i8g7), p. 11. Veroli Casket, South Ken- 
sington Mus., IX. cent. " Storia dell' Arte," Garrucci, Vol. V. (Orfeo) pi. 
307, No. 4. PI. 2g6, No. 4. Vol. II., pi. 4, and pi. 25 and 30. "Le 
Monastere et la Necropole de Baouit," Jean Cledat. Le Caire, igo4. PL XVI. 
Chapelle III. (King David playing to Saul). Archsologia, Vol. LX., p. 8. 
igo6. O. M. Dalton. Silver dish from C^'prus, same type of cithara as the one 
from Baouit. "Denkm. d. Mittelalters in d. Rheinl." Ernst aus'm Weerth. 
Leipzig, 1857. pi. XVII. (1). late Roman, VII. cent. " Eine roemische 
Villa z. Zeit d. Augustus" J. Lessing and A. Man. Berlin, i8gi, pi. VIII. 
" Bilderkreis des Physiologus, etc., J. Strzygowski. Taf. II. (very primi- 
tive), p. g3, ill. in text (Orpheus). '• Inscriptions from Cyzicus." F. W. 
Hasluck, Jnrl. of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 23. London, 1903, p. 88. " Kunst- 
mythologie." Overbeck. PI. 21, No. 32, No. 14 and 18. PI. 24, Nos. 20, 
24 and 25. PI. 25, No. 3. Nuovo Bull, di archeol. Cristiana. Rome, 1897. 
PL I, Orpheus. On an ivory pyxis from Bobbio ; Byzantine, 5th or 6th 


The instruments of the tamboura and rebab type, oval, pear- 
shaped, boat-shaped and spoon-shaped found, will be intro- 
duced in the next chapter. The past remains absolutely silent 
and vouchsafes no help in bridging the gulf betv^een the 
cithara and rotta of the 6th century (Fig. 168) and the guitar- 
fiddle of the nth cent, of Byzantine origin (Fig. 173) v^ith 
the single exception of the instruments of the Utrecht Psalter. 

My theory of the origin of the guitar-fiddle and viols was 
not built up upon the evidence of the Utrecht Psalter, a wel- 
come link in the chain of evolution, which was not discovered 
until the rest of the structure had been pieced together in spite 
of the duly recognised gap. 

We must not lose sight of the importance and full signific- 
ance of having the complete evolution of the guitar-fiddle em- 
bodied in the one MS., irrespective of the question of origin. 
The persistent iteration of these instruments throughout the 
Psalter can hardly be either entirely fortuitous, nor yet inten- 
tional ; it could only occur naturally and consistently among 
the people who had themselves been instrumental in the evolu- 
tion of the kithara. Moreover although these instruments are 
only used in illustration of the verses containing the word 
Kithara in the Greek version of the Psalms, the original artist 
has included all the forms of the instrument, which were known 
to him by that name; thus giving all the steps in the evolution 
of the kithara; it is evident too from the illustrations that the 
original artist (not the Anglo-Saxon of Rheims) was acquainted 
with many musical instruments and made his selection with 
discrimination and understanding. Where, for example, the 
only instrument mentioned in the text is cithara, we find the 
cithara in transition of Fig. 121 ; where the words cithara and 
■psalteriiim occur, we get as illustration. Fig. 122, in which both 
are shown, the Rheims artist is doubtless responsible for the 
vagueness of outline in this cithara, being probably tempted to 

see in it an instrument then in use, similar to the one in the 

2 N 


Psalter of Lothair. In the last, psalm, the drawing of the 
hydraulic organ, barring a little misconception in the key- 
board, also due no doubt to our Rheims artist, quite tallies 
with the much more complete and elaborate little model in 
terra-cotta of a hydraulic organ, assigned to the 2nd cent. 
A.D., found in the ruins of Carthage and now in the museum 
there.* See PI. IX. In the Utrecht Psalter moreover that part, 
of the mechanism of the hydraulus usually contained within the 
altar or pedestal is very accurately indicated. 

One slender thread of evidence in favour of the Syrian or 
Greek (of Asia Minor or N. Africa) origin of the prototype of 
the Utrecht Psalter does indeed exist, i.e. : In the Gallican 
version of St. Jerome, in the Vulgate and in the Septuagint ver- 
sions of Psalm 137 (136 in the Utrecht Psalter), verse 2, we read 
that the Israelites hung their organa upon the trees by the 
waters of Babylon; in the Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac and 
Arabic versionst the word used is not organa but Kinoora, in- 
terpreted in Latin as citharas. It is curious and may be quite 
accidental, that the original artist here depicts citharas, of the 
violin form and of the rectangular and delicately arched form 
so familiar in antique monuments as the kithara of the kitha- 
rcedes, whereas the Anglo-Saxon copyist in MS. Harl. 603 the 
third hand who illustrated independently according to his own 
ideas, shows us in illustration of this psalm, a fanciful repre- 

* See " Music." London, i8g8, Fig. 20, p. 482 ; a series of papers on the 
Organ of the Ancients. K. Schlesinger. Illustration from somewhat in- 
accurate drawing. '"Researches into the Origin of the Organs of the 
Ancients." K. Schlesinger. Sammelband d. Intern. Musik Ges. Berlin, 
1901, Vol. II., Part II., p. 201 (from a photograph). Loret. Revue 
Arch^ol. Paris, 1890, p. 96 (drawing) '' Diet, des Antiquities Grecques at 
Romaines." Daremberg et Saglio Article Hydraulus. Vol. III.. Part I., 
p. 316. Fig. 3919 (drawing). Photographs of a working model of the 
Carthage organ made by the Rev. F. \V. Galpin are reproduced in " The 
Story of the Organ," by C. F. Abdy Williams. London, 1903, pp. 211, 
212, 213. Grove's Diet, of Music and Musicians, igo6, " Hydraulus." 

t See Walton's Polyglot Bible. 


sentation of a primitive organ, or elaborate set of pan-pipes and 
a harp, hanging on a tree by the river side. It seems to me that 
in view of the knowledge of musical instruments displayed else- 
where in the Psalter by the artist, and of his careful selection 
for the purpose of illustrating the text, we are justified in re- 
garding this as no mere coincidence, but as evidence that the 
original artist was familiar with the Syriac version. 

I feel convinced that the instruments which we find 'n the 
Utrecht Psalter, somewhat distorted and vague in outline and 
sometimes wanting in detail, but nevertheless full of signific- 
ance, were not the accidental result of Western European ex- 
periments; they represent on the contrary the conscious effort 
of the eclectic aestheticism of the descendants of the Greeks of 
Hellas, with whom the kithara was a revered tradition con- 
nected with the most glorious and noble period of the history 
of their country's civil and religious life. The Greeks, who 
so jealously cherished the kithara, having adopted it and ex- 
alted it above all other stringed instruments, were alone capa- 
ble of carrying out the evolution, guided by a fine appreciation 
of the cesthetic proportions and peculiar construction of the 
kithara, no less than by national pride. 

There is no lack of evidence that the Greeks of Asia Minor 
were acquainted during the early centuries of our era (and 
probably before) with stringed instruments with necks, for 
representations such as PI. X. (in the British Museum) are 
not rare. The rebab here illustrated is from one of the friezes 
which formed the risers of steps to the tope at Jumal-Garhi, 
in the Yusufzai district of Afghanistan — there are many of 
these friezes at the British Museum representing scenes of 
music and dancing in which stringed instruments, pipes and 
drums abound. The style of these sculptures which are 
assigned to the second or third century of our era, shows traces 
of classical influence, introduced probably during the reign of 
Alexander the Great and of the Greek and Indo-Scythian 


princes who succeeded him. A similar instrument (PI. XI.) 
from a Sassanian Silver Dish in the British Museum, which is 
not later than the 7th cent, and probably much earlier, is no 
doubt the rebab (before the bow was applied to it) which the 
Arabs state they obtained from the Persians. Both are of the 
pear-shape so familiar in the MSS. and monuments of the 
middle ages in the West, such as the Cotton MS., Tib. C. VI. of 
the Xlth. cent. (Fig. 128). These instruments belong to the 
period to which the original of the Utrecht Psalter may be 
assigned, but are of quite a different type from anything found 
therein, they are only mentioned here to show that the Greeks of 
Asia Minor and Northern Egypt were well acquainted with in- 
struments with necks ; from some such specimen they probably 
conceived the idea of adding a neck to their kithara in order to 
obtain several notes from each string.* The interesting point 
is that they did not adopt the whole instrument, but retained 
the general outline of the cithara with the rounded sound- 
chest and graceful curves and the principle of constructing the 
body with ribs. 

One or two facts seem to support the theory that the evolu- 
tion of the kithara took place among the Greeks of Asia Minor 
or Alexandria : representations of David with his musicians, 
do not seem to have occurred among the many examples of 
early Christian Roman art, although in the absence of very 
early illustrated Psalters, it would be unwise to attach too much 
importance to such an argument ; the conception of the Shep- 
herd-King as psalmist and musician is more likely to have 
originated in the East or in Lower Egypt during the 6th cent., 
which seems to have played a great part in the illustrative ex- 
planation of the Old Testament. t As an example of this art of 

* See Appendix. Barbiton. 
f See Kondakov. " Hist, de I'Art Byzantin," Paris, 1886. Tom. I. p. 
140. " Trierer Ada-Handschrift." H. Janitschek, p. 80 and 81 ; Springer. 
loc. cit. (see Bibl.) p. 8g. 

5V 2 



illustration practised by the Greeks of N. Africa during the 
early centuries of our era, we may cite the mural frescoes of the 
monastery and necropolis of Baouit, illustrating the story of 
King David (Chapel III.) In one of these frescoes, Saul is 
depicted, javelin in hand, threatening David, who is playing 
upon a kithara of somewhat primitive design, having fourteen 
or fifteen strings.* 

Among the early Christian mosaics, mural paintings from 
the Catacombs and churches, bas-reliefs and sarcophagi. King 
David does not appear as musician or accompanied by musi- 
cians, the first indication of this conception which was so 
general during the middle ages in Western Europe, occurs as 
far as I know in the Cosma Indikopleustes of the Vatican, t an 
illuminated MS., by a native of Alexandria, assigned to the 
6th or 7th century ; in this we see David and his chorus or 
choir used decoratively in a medallion, but without musical 
instruments, perhaps in the classical acceptation of the word 

Another circumstance supporting the above-mentioned theory 
is the curious coincidence that indirectly connects a second 
Syriac illuminated MS. with the Utrecht Psalter group. I 
refer to the Cod. Siriaco, Bibl. Laurenziana, of Florence, some- 
times known as the Rabulo-Evangeliarium+ of the 6th century 
written in the monastery of St. Giovanni in Zagba, a city of 
Mesopotamia. The Canon tables are ornamented with little 
scenes and figures not only on the gables but at the sides of 
the columns which every now and then are reminiscent of the 
Ebo Evangeliarium, written and illuminated in the diocese of 
Rheims, by the same artist who executed the Utrecht Psalter. § 

* See work by Jean Cledat in foot-note to p. 376. 
t Cod. Vatic. No. 699. See Garrucci,"Storia dell' Arte " III., PI. 142-153. 

I See Garrucci, " Storia dell' Arte," III., PI. 128-140. Text p. 52. 
§ See p. 357, 361-2 the summaries of the reports by Goldschmidt and 


The little figures in PI. 137 [Garucci] may well have been arche- 
types of those in the Ebo MS. ;* moreover in the Syrian MS., 
the originals of the little plants and flowers so characteristic 
of the gable decoration of the canon tables of the Ebo MS. 
may be seen on Pi. 132 and 134 (Garrucci). 

On the other hand, it cannot be denied that in the mural 
paintings of the Catacombst there are many figures reminiscent 
of those in the Utrecht Psalter, with exaggerated slim legs and 
fluttering draperies, gesticulating with prominent thumbs, such 
as in Tav. 13, 25 of the II. cent., Tav. 64, III. cent. 

With regard to the models accessible to the Carlovingians, 
it is a well attested fact that from the time of Charlemagne, 
they copied early Christian monuments in Italy and the South 
of France, and that their MSS. and ivory carvings betray a 
close acquaintance with the sarcophagi and ivories produced 
during the early centuries of our era. It is however only in 
recent years that the part played by the Christian East in the 
development of Prankish art has been appreciated. Evidence 
is rapidly accumulating that even in the minor arts of MS. 
illumination and ivory carving, the best work of the 9th and 
1 0th cent, owes much to early oriental models produced mostly 
in Syria and Egypt. + The influence of late classical art would 
be less felt in Gaul, and that only at second hand, whereas the 
work of the Christian East, between the 5th and 7th cent, when 
Syria and Egypt were perhaps the most active art centres, must 
have found its way to the ports of S. France as a consequence 
of the commercial intercourse between Gaul and the East.^ 

* For illustrations of these see Durrieu, PI. I. and II. and Bastard's 
monumental work, PI. iig and 120. 

f See J. Wilpert's Roma Sotterana. 
l See "The Crystal of Lothair," by O. M. Dalton. Archaeologia, 1904, 
Vol LIX., p. 29. 

§ Idem p. 30. 


The Influence of the Moors on the Stringed Instruments of Europe. 

We must now leave the cithara (of the Greeks) in transition 
until we can take up the thread again in the guitar-fiddle, but 
it will be only fair to glance at other contemporary stringed 
instruments, if only to justify our selection of the cithara as 
the direct lineal ancestor of the violin. 

Before we can rightly determine what influence the Moors 
exercised on the musical instruments of Europe, through their 
conquest of Spain (711 A.D.), it will be as well to summarize 
briefly the stringed instruments known before and after 
the eighth century. This will enable us, by comparison to see 
what we owe to the teaching of the Arabs. 

The earliest teachers of music in Europe were the Greeks, 
the Phoenicians, and the Romans ; their influence was far- 
reaching and deeply rooted. Wherever the Roman civilization 
was implanted we find that the lyre, the cithara, and the small 
triangular harp, or instruments evolved from them, are pre- 
valent. An almost insuperable difficulty lies in the way of 
investigating this point : there is so little reliable evidence 

Britain remained under Roman domination until the fourth 
century, and we have found mosaics and representations of 
rude citharas belonging to that period, of which an example 
was given in Fig. in. We saw, moreover, in Chapter VII., 



o o o o 

that two examples of the rotta or cithara in its first transition 
(Figs. 112 and 113) are represented in illuminated MSS. of the 
beginning of the eighth century. The Cotton MS., Vespasian 
A I, which bears the date 700 A.D., may be considered to repre- 
sent instruments in use in the seventh century — before the con- 
quest of Spain by the Moors — but we do not need the date 
to tell us that these rottas and citharas are in no way 
connected with the Moors. In the 
Vespasian MS. we also find a small 
harp. These are, up to the present 
moment, all the instruments I have been 
able to find in England up to the eighth 
century. We must remember that in the 
oft-quoted verses of Venantius Fortuna- 
tus. Bishop of Poictiers in the sixth cen- 
tury — " The Roman praises thee with the 
lyre, the Barbarian sings to thee with the 
harp, the Greek with the cithara, and the 
Briton with the chrotta or rotta " — the 
rotta is assigned to the Briton. Hence 
it is possible that the Anglo-Saxons may 
have learnt to use this instrument from 
the Britons, for the MS. referred to 
above is the work of Anglo-Saxon 
artists. It is not surprising that the Briton should have known 
the cithara in transition, at a very early period, considering 
the length of time that Britain remained under the domination 
of the Romans. 

In the absence of evidence during the ninth century, we find 
an illuminated MS., Cotton, Tib. C. vi. of the tenth to eleventh 
centuries, which has been considered to throw an important light 
on the state of music in Anglo-Saxon England. The manu- 
script contains drawings of several curious musical instruments 
with obscure explanations in Barbaric Latin. They are evi- 






^ 1 



^ ^ 















3 C 




Fig. 127. 

Fanciful cytliara, 

eleventh century. Cotton MS. 

Tib. C. vi., Brit. Mus. 


dently of the same kind as those described in the apocryphal 
letter of St. Jerome ad Dardamim; in fact the little sketches 
give the impression that they represent an unmusical illus- 
trator's endeavour to draw instruments known only from hear- 
say, and probably from this very apocryphal letter of St. 
Jerome. Similar instruments occur in the Great Latin Psalter 
of Boulogne* written in the Abbey of St. Bertin between 989 
and 1008 during which period Odbert was Abbot; he decorated 
the volume which contains most of the instruments in Tib. C. 
vi. and some others in the same style. It seems probable that 
the latter MS. may have been a copy of the Boulogne Psalter or 
that both were copies of some other older MS. The origin of 
Tib. C. vi. is not definitely known, from archaeological and 
palasographical characteristics it has been referred to Anglo- 
Saxon England. Some of these curious instruments also occur 
in MSS. in the libraries of St. Emmeran, (Ratisbon) St. Blasius 
and Angers. 

It is therefore by no means certain that any of these instru- 
ments were known in England, although there is a strong 
probability that the rebec shown in Fig. 128 had found its way 
to England from the continent. This manuscript is well worth 
seeing, the drawings are in coloured inks, blue, green, red and 
black, and some of the instruments are decidedly curious- 
looking objects. They are not reproduced here, for they have 
absolutely nothing to do with the violin family, with one ex- 
ception, but some of them have a place among the precursors of 
the harp and pianoforte. 

The instrument, probably entirely imaginary, given in Fig. 
127 is called a cythara in the description, but here applied to 
a totally different instrument. Fig. 127 has seven strings of 
different lengths, the principle of the harp and not of the 

* See J. O. Westwood, " Fac-similes of Miniatures and Ornaments in 
Anglo-Saxon MSS.," p. 118. 



cithara, fastened a vide to a rect- 
angular frame by little pegs or pins 
at one end, and passed at the other 
through holes to the other side of the 
frame. In order to allow of differ- 
ent lengths for the strings, they are 
stretched obliquely in the frame, 
and three of them are fastened to a 
little supplementary • pin-plate 
which cuts off a corner; in other 
stringed instruments shown in the 
MS., otherwise very similar, called 
nahidum and -psalterhini, the strings 
are vertical and all of the same 
length, as in the Greek cithara. 

At the beginning of the Psalms 
in this MS. there is, in addition, the 
usual figure of King David play- 
ing upon a small harp, while above 
hnn, on the right, is the figure of 
Jeduthun (Fig. 128), who, we are 
told, prophesied with a harp (in 
Latin, cythani). Here we have an 
entirely different instrument, played 
with a bow, and resembling the one-stringed gigue shown in 
the MS. of St. Emmeran, ninth century, as given by Gerbert in 
his " De Cantu et Musica Sacra" (Fig. 41). This MS. is one 
of the same group as Tib. C. VI.. and the Boulogne Psalter, 
and all may be copies of the same original now lost, by artists 
of England, France and Germany. If Gerbert has assigned 
the correct date to the MS. of S. Emmeran, that may have been 
the original, since both the others date from the end of the loth 
or beginning of the iith century. 

We have in Fig. 128 a pear-shaped instrument of which the 

Fig. 128. 
Anglo-Saxon Rebec, eleventh cen- 
tury. Cotton MS., Tib. C. vi., 
Brit. Mus. 

riate IX. 
Tkrha-Cotta Mobf.l of Hydraclic Organ. 
Carthage Muskum. 
Through the Courtesy of Rev. Pere Delattre. 

C'lR. 150 A.D. 


sound-chest and neck are in one; the vaulted back is hollowed 
out of one piece of wood, and the flat sound-board, which also 
covers the neck and does duty for a fingerboard, is glued on to 
it. These are the characteristics of the rebec and gigue family. 
There are four strings which pass through the neck near the 
head, and were in all probability wound round pegs in the back 
of the head, for the little holes into which these were fixed 
have been indicated by the artist. This is another Oriental 
characteristic. The tailpiece has already assumed the tapering 
form which ultimately developed into the modern tailpiece of 
the violin. There are two small round sound-holes. The per- 
former is playing the instrument with a bow — the earliest in- 
stance of its use in England yet found, I believe — and his left 
hand is held in readiness to stop the strings. 

As we have to rely so much on illustrations in tracing the 
early history of musical instruments, this one is of very great 
importance in more than one way, and the question of the name 
of the instrument will prove of interest a little later. In 
England this appears to have been the prevailing stringed in- 
strument used with a bow during the middle ages, and we find 
these same characteristics of the rebec often repeated in instru- 
ments of various shapes, of which a few examples are 

There are many other examples of the rebec to be found in 
the MSS. of the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries of 
English workmanship. 

Fig. 129 represents a singularly well-developed instrument, 
which also possesses that characteristic of the rebec and gigue 
tribe — -the body and neck in one piece. The drawing is repro- 
duced from an MS., Harleian 2804, dating from the twelfth 
century. The back of the instrument, which is not visible, 
was probably vaulted and without ribs, the flat sound- 
board being glued on to it. There are three strings passed 
through the head, which is round, and in the back of 



which the pegs, if any, were fixed ; the sound-holes are 
semicircular, the bridge has two feet, and the tailpiece, clearly 
indicated in the drawing, is fastened by a pin to the body. The 
bow which accompanies the instrument has a knob at each end 
to which the hair is fastened, and it is quite possible that the 

F/A'. 729. 
British Jfuseum, Harl. MS. 2804. 

12th centurv. 

latter was thus tightened at will. This bow 
compares very favourably with others of the 
same century. 

Fig. 130 shows a cithara in transition, but 
here the influence of the rebec again makes 
itself felt, and the track has diverged con- 
siderably from the original starting-point, the 
cithara of the Greeks. In Fig. 130 we have a 
somewhat curiously shaped body and neck in 
one; the arms of the cithara have been dis- 
carded, and the strings were evidently in- i^th cmturv. Trin. 

'^ . ^ . Coll. Camb. (R. 17, 1) 

tended to be stopped against the neck, which 

Fig. 130. 
C'itlinra in transition, 



Fig. 131. 
8ix-stringed lyre 

12th century. 

Trin. Coll. Camb 

(R. 17, 1). 

also acts as a fingerboard ; we have the small 
round sound-holes which we so often find in 
early English instruments, notably in Fig. 128. 
There are five strings fastened to a tailpiece at 
one end, and at the other they pass through the 
end of the neck, which we can hardly call a head, 
since it is but a slight widening of the neck. The 
drawing is reproduced from a MS. in Trinity 
College Library, Cambridge (R. 17, i), and dates 
from the twelfth century. 

Fig. 131 is a six-stringed lyre with sound-holes 
in the back, but otherwise a very primitive instru- 
ment. Fig. 131 is drawn from the same source 
as the preceding. 
Fig. 132 represents a small rebec with four 
strings, which was common during the middle 
ages in all countries. It is taken from a Cotton 
MS., Nero, D., which dates from the thirteenth 
century. The sound-holes are large and of 
somewhat uncommon shape, the artist has for- 
gotten the bridge. 

I^ig- 133 represents an instrument which pos- 
sesses several characteristics of the rebec. It has 
the vaulted sound-chest and flat sound-board in 
one piece with the neck, and it is played with a -^^^■' ^'^''°- "• ^^• 
bow. The curved neck finished with a gro- 
tesque head indicates an affinity with the in- 
strument which, according to some historians, 
went by the name of cittern or gittern, but 
which was plucked with the fingers or the 
plectrum. There are but two strings, and the 
attist has indicated a small flat bridge similar 
to those used at the present day in guitars 
and mandolines. 

Fig. 132. 

Rebec, 13th 

century. Brit. 

Mus., Cotton 

Fig 133. 
Rebec, 13th centiu-y. 
Cott. MS. Tib. A vii, 

Brit. Mus. 



With regard to the name of cittern, Carl Engel, in his " Re- 
searches into the History of the Violin Family," gives many 
interesting quotations from poems of the time of Shakespeare, 
with allusions to the grotesque heads of citterns and gitterns; 
and Halliwell, in his "Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial 
Words," gives the term " cittern-headed " with the explanation : 
"Ugly, in allusion to the grotesque figures with which the cit- 
tern was ornamented." 

Fig. 133 is taken from a MS. of the thirteenth century, 
Cotton Tib. A vii. in the British Museum. 

Fig. 134 again represents a small rebec, which has a vaulted 
back and a curved neck, over which the four strings 
are strained to allow of greater tension; two of the 
pegs to which the strings are fixed are visible in the 
side of the neck, which terminates in a decided 
scroll. The tail-piece also acts as a bridge, and the 
sound-hole is of the Oriental rose shape. This 
illustration and Nos. 135, 136 and 138 are taken 
from a MS. of the fourteenth century, the "Liber 
Regal is " in Westminster Abbey. 

Fig. 135 shows an instrument very similar to that 
in Fig. 134, but in this case the neck is not curved, 
and the four strings pass through holes to the back 

of the scroll, in which are fixed the pegs; in this 
specimen the sound-holes are long and slender. 

The two next illustrations present a great contrast 
to what has gone before; for we find here a mixed 
type, which was by no means uncommon in the MSS. 
of the fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
Fig. 136 shows an instrument with ribs and a 
Fig. 135. shallow sound-chest, the shape of which recalls the 
Rebec, 14th cithara, more especially in the transition forms 

cent. Ihtd. . . 

shown m Fig. 125; but the neck is not added as in 



the instruments illustrated in the Utrecht Psalter. 
The four strings are raised over a bridge, and pass 
through holes in the head to pegs fixed in the back. 
This is clearly a compromise between instruments 
of the cithara or guitar class and the Moorish 

Fig. 137 is given here, although a French instru- 
ment of the sixteenth century, to show a step in the 
evolution of Fig. 136; the similarity in outline is 
remarkable. The instrument in Fig. 137 has ribs, 
a long graduated neck, a head with the receding 
curve associated with the lute family, and the 

Fig. 137 

Instrument of mixed type— cithara-rebec, 16th cent. French MS., " Fonda de la Tallifere," 
No. 4316, Bibl. Imp., Paris. 

grotesque of the cittern ; the sound-holes are elegant rose-holes ; 
tail-piece and bridge are both present, and the instrument was 
played with a bow. 



In Fig. 138 we have the same characteristics, although the 
general outline is different. The four corners foreshadowing 
the viol are already there, but the neck is again, as in the rebec, 
only a gradual narrowing of the sound-chest. 

The bow, which is given with this instrument, was probably 
common to all the instruments in Figs. 134, 135 and 136 as 

While the instrument's in Figs. 136 and 137 are still in our 
minds, it will be interesting to note a new and 
more perfect example (Fig. 139) copied from 
a French MS. of the fourteenth century in the 
British Museum — " La Bible Historiaus " 
(Roy. 17, E VII.) The sound-chest is of the 
late cithara form already seen in the illustra- 
tions from the Utrecht Psalter and in Figs. 
136 and 137 with ribs; but here we have the 
sloping shoulders of the viol supporting 
a neck finished with a scroll, in which 
are set the three T-shaped pegs; a finger- 
board further adds to its affinities with the violin family ; 
no frets are indicated ; the sound-holes are C- 
shaped, turned back to back. A tail-piece to 
which the three strings are attached is in- 
dicated, but there is no bridge. The artist has not 
drawn a bow with the instrument, but although this 
particular specimen may have been used without, 
the guitar-fiddle shown in Fig. 139 has every right 
to claim a place among the precursors of the violin, 
and it forms, besides, one of the most valuable 
evidences that the violin is descended from the 
ancient cithara of the Greeks. 
The instrument in Fig. 140 shows a fiddle with slight incur- 
vations, played with a small bow; the neck, which again finishes 

Fig. 13S. 

Guitar-Fiddle, I.ibcr 

Regalis, Westminster 

Abbey. 14th cent. 

Fig. 139. 
14th cen- 
tury, Roy. 
JIS. 17 E 
VII., Brit. 



Fig. 740. 

Fiddle. 14th cent.. 

Italian work. Add. 31 S. 

29902, Brit. JIus. 

with a scroll, is of a separate piece, but 
the artist who appears to have been some- 
what erratic, has not indicated any finger- 
board ; he has, however, given the fiddle 
two bridges : one small straight one, such 
as are used now on guitars, and a high 
arched one, suitable for a bowed instru- 
ment ; there are three strings, and the 
sound-holes are in an unusual position 
near the tailpiece, probably another freak 
of the artist. 

The MS. from which Fig. 140 is copied is in the British 
Museum (Add. MS. 29902), and consists of miniatures and 
borders cut out of Italian choral works of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, and pasted into a book without the text. 

This example (Fig. 141) is exceedingly interesting for many 
reasons; it is Flemish, and has been copied from a MS. which 
contains many musical instruments not yet in- 
cluded in musical histories, and particularly valu- 
able from the fact that the names in most cases 
accompany the instruments. 
^11 ; The MS. (Sloane, 3983 Brit. Mus.) is a Treatise 
%ill r on Astronomy, translated from the Persian of 
Albumazar into Latin by Georgius Zothari Zopari 
Fenduli, priest and philosopher, with a prologue 
P j^j and numerous illustrations by his own hand. I 
"Viola," 14th have chosen this fiddle among the many, because it 
MT3983^^°Bdt. is 3- g^od illustration of the oval vielle of the 
Mus. twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and 
because the name "viola" is written in the MS. just above it. 
The fingerboard, the trefoil head containing the three pegs, 
the bridge apparently joining the tailpiece, which is fastened 
by loops to a large tail-pin, and the large " C " sound-holes 
facing each other, are all clearly represented. 

2 O 



Fig. 142, taken from an English MS. (Arundel 157) of the 
thirteenth century, represents a type of instrument common in 
Europe during the twelfth, thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, which is an 
offshoot of the rebec; it has a vaulted 
back, as may be seen from a specimen 
of the twelfth century given by Wil- 
lemin, and taken from a MS. in the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale, Paris (see 
" Monuments Inedits "), in which part "^'^- ^'^^• 

... . Instrument of the rebec or 

of the Side of the mstrument is shown. gigue tribe, 13th cent. Amndel 

The body and neck are in one; there 

are two rose sound-holes, one in the centre of each lobe, and 
three strings fastened to a tailpiece and passing through holes 
in the large round head, presumably to the pegs on the other 
side, according to Oriental fashion ; the bow used with the in- 
strument has a long handle, which must have been very much 
in the way of the performer; fortunately, the orchestras of the 
thirteenth century were not very crowded and every member 
could be allowed plenty of elbow room. 

These examples might be continued ad infinitum did space 
but allow, so rich are the illuminated MSS. of our own, and 
other, museums in examples of stringed instruments as yet un- 
published; but these will suffice to show that no matter how 
many and various the instruments appear to be in general 
outline, they all were evolved from the tanbur — the rebab 
with vaulted back, or the cithara with ribs and shallow 
sound-chest. The shape of these stringed instruments has been 
empirically determined, and varied so constantly in outline and 
detail according to time and place, and the whim of the maker, 
that attempts to classify them by any but the two broad classes 
described above on p. 235 seem futile : as soon as a new develop- 
ment was thought out by some master-mind, or introduced from 
the East, it appears to have been seized upon immediately by in- 



strument makers generally, and applied indiscriminately to ex- 
isting models. Throughout the middle ages this uncertainty as 
to models and this spirit of progression are very noticeable. 

After carefully examining examples of stringed instruments 
from various countries during the middle ages, we cannot fail 
to notice the prevalence of the rebec tribe until about the 
twelfth century; this is equivalent to acknowledging the in- 
fluence of the Moors on the bowed instruments of Europe, 
since it has long been an accepted fact among musical his- 
torians that the rebec was evolved from the Moorish rebab in 
the first instance. But how and when ? What bearing has 
this Moorish influence on the precursors of the violin ? And 
was the Moorish rebab the first bowed instrument known in 
Europe? Those are the questions which we must be prepared 
to answer. The Moorish rebab has been much written about, 
but as no description of the instrument with an illustration 
anterior to the conquest of Spain is known to exist, writers, 
therefore, hold conflicting opinions on the subject. The oldest 
description known is that of Al-Farabi, the famous Arabian 
musician, who flourished at the beginning of the tenth century ; 
he assigns to it two strings, but has not given a drawing of the 
rebab — the MS. is in the library of the Escorial, Madrid. Our 
safest course is surely under the circumstances to examine the 
instruments at present in use under 
that name among the Arab races and 
to compare them with the various 
examples of the Middle Ages. 

The rebab-esh-shaer, or poet's 
rebab (Fig. 143), is often quoted, 
and notably by Fetis, as the pro- 
genitor of the rebec, but this hypo- 
thesis seems hardly tenable when 
we consider that the shape and con- 
struction of the body are entirely t, ^^ v, ,, ,. '^' / ^ 

J "■ ^,i_y Rebab-esh-shaer, modern Egyptian. 

different from those of the rebec; and the rebab-esh-shaer is 



held like the violoncello and not like the rebec; nor have we 
any proofs of the antiquity of the instrument, which has 
already been described, and which may be seen in the collec- 
tion of musical instruments at the South 
Kensington Museum. 

Fig. 144 represents another rebab in use 
at the present day in Persia and among 
the Arabs; it is boat-shaped, and the 
sound-chests consists of a vaulted back hol- 
lowed out of one solid block of wood, to 
which has been glued a parchment or 
thin wooden sound-board ; the instrument 
tapers off at the head without having any 
neck ; the pegs are either set in the back 
or the side of the head, as in the present 
example, and the head is bent back at 
right angles to the body ; the strings vary 
in different specimens from one to three. 
Comparison with the Byzantine rebab in 
the Kentrikon Museum, Athens and others dating from the 
earliest centuries of our era (see notes pp. 406-409) and Appen- 
dix. Rebab) removes all difficulty in establishing its antiquity. 
In the instruments fprobably barbitons*) depicted on the 
sarcophagus foundat Agrigentein Sicily, to which reference has 
several times been made, and of which a cast may be seen in the 
Sepulchral Basement of the British Museum, we find that this 
boat-shaped sound-chest was known before our era, and that its 
shape has remained practically the same throughout the nineteen 
centuries or more; how long it had been known previously we 
cannot even conjecture, but the shape of the sound-chest is very 
similar to that of the nangas or primitive harp-like instruments 
of the ancient Egyptians (see Fig. 100), and the latter pro- 
bably supplied the model. The Agrigente instruments are the 

* See Appendix. Barbiton. 

Fig 144. 

Modern Moorish rebab. 



same as the one shown in Fig. io8 held by a female figure 
standing on Achilles' left in the bas-relief representing scenes 
from the hero's life at Scyros, which has been assigned by ex- 
perts to the second century A.D. Fig. 1 08 is a reproduction of 
a photograph taken for this work through the kindness of M. 
de Villefosse, from part of the bas-relief in the Louvre. 

From the cast in the British Museum the boat-like shape of 
the sound-chest is distinctly visible from the side. The instru- 
ment is clearly a precursor of the rebab as we know it, but 
provided with many strings like the lyre, which accounts for 
its being a little wider than the modern instrument with but 
two or three strings. Two other representations of the same 
instrument exist, embracing on the whole a period of three or 
four centuries ; this seems to indicate that among certain races 
at least it was a well-known instrument and one in general 
use; we must also notice that during those four centuries no 
further development is traceable. Mr. Carl Engel believes the 
Agrigente Sarcophagus to show traces of Semitic influence, 
and he points out that the hypothesis is a reasonable one, since 
Agrigente was in possession of the Carthaginians before 250 
B.C., the date assigned to the Sarcophagus. 

The early rebecs are of two distinct types : the one outline 
is pear-shaped with a neck like the instrument shown by Ger- 
bert (see Fig. 41) called the Lyra Teutonica, which he says he 
copied from a MS. of the ninth century — this has affinities 
with some of the ancient Egyptian nefers or tambouras; the 
second type is boat-shaped like the modern rebab in Fig. 144. 
There are several fine examples of the latter in the Cantigas 
di Santa Maria. 

It may be interesting at this juncture to recapitulate very 
briefly the chief points in the history of the Moors which bear 
on this period in the development of the stringed instruments 
of Europe. In the sixth century the Arabs conquered Persia, 
and from their own records we read that, finding the musical 


system of the Persians so far in advance of their own, they 
adopted it, making a profound study of it with native teachers. 
The Arabs declare that it was from the Persians* they obtained 
the rebab, and probably the fiddle-bow at the same time, but 
this is not stated, yet the Arab name for the bow is derived 
from the Persian. The Arabs turning westward conquered 
Northern Egypt, destroying Alexandria, and with it the splen- 
did library and its untold treasures. In 711 Tarik made the 
first attempt to subjugate Spain at the battle of Xeres. 
The conquest was completed by Abd-er-Rahman in 731; he 
then pushed north into France, reaching the Loire, where he 
was defeated at Tours in 732 by Charles Martel. After this 
there was a short peace, during which the Carlovingians did 
not scorn to learn much from their enemies. In this way the 
superior culture of the Saracens gave a fresh impetus to art, 
which had been languishing and dying a slow death in Europe 
since the fall of the great Roman Empire. 

Charlemagne, who fought many battles against the Moors in 
Spain, being the most enlightened and understanding sover- 
eign of his and many succeeding ages, learnt much about the 
liberal arts from them. When Charlemagne, during the years 
of peace, gathered round him at court the flower of intellectual 
Europe, music was not unrepresented. From the three schools 
of music which he founded at Metz, Soissons and St. Gall, 
emanated teachers who spread the culture of the art in other 
lands, where, however, we have good reason to think it had not 
been entirely neglected, for the following reason : Another great 
tide of Eastern influence, emanating from the Greeks of North- 
ern Africa and of Asia Minor, had, I feel convinced, preceded 
that of the Moors; for the instruments of a totally different 
type that we find growing up side by side with the descendants 

* A statement which receives confirmation j ust as these lines are passing 
through the press. See PI. X., XI., XII., p. 407 and 408 and Appendix. 
Persian Rebab. 



Fig. 145. 

Stiiii<,>-c'd instrument 

(tamboura), end of 

the 8th century, from 

the '■ Evangoliaire de 

S. Medard," in tlie 

Bibl. Nat., Taris. 

(See Bastard). 

of the rebab, and of which the citharas in transition shown in 
the illustrations from the Utrecht Psalter were the prototypes, 
point to that conclusion. 

If proof were wanting of how much Charle- 
magne was influenced by the music and musi- 
cal instruments of the Moors, and of the 
manner in which the latter were introduced 
from Spain into the surrounding countries, 
it would be found in Carlovingian MSS., from 
one of which is drawn the next illustration 
(Fig. 145), taken from a AIS. of the end 
of the eighth century, " L'Evangeliaire de 
S. Medard de Soissons," which was written 
for the Emperor Charlemagne, and was pre- 
sented by his sen, Louis le Debonnaire, to the 
Abbey of St. Medard at Soissons, one of the 
very towns in which a school of music had 
been established by him. I have not seen the MS. itself, which 
has within the last few years been transferred to the Biblio- 
theque Nationale in Paris. But finding two independent re- 
productions of the folio of the MS. containing Fig. 145 in which 
the instrument was altogether different — the one given by M. 
Edouard Fleury having incurvations like those of a modern 
guitar — I applied to M. Michel Deprez, the curator of the MSS. 
department, who very kindly compared my little sketches with 
the original in the MS., and wrote me that the one reproduced 
in Fig. 145 was correct as to the instrument. This rough illus- 
tration was copied from the beautiful work of Count Auguste 
de Bastard on the illuminated MSS. of France, of which a 
very large number of examples are reproduced in facsimile. 
The outlines, after being drawn by the artist, were 'printed, and 
the colours were afterwards added by hand in each of the only 
five copies of the work that exist. One of these is in the British 
Museum. The work that was begun on such a magnificent 


scale, and which has been accomplished with the most scrupu- 
lous care and accuracy under the immediate supervision of the 
Count, has unfortunately remained unfinished. 

One glance at tne instrument held by the Saint (there are 
several others in the MS. holding similar instruments) is suffi- 
cient to determine its origm ; it is the descendant of the oval 
Egyptian nefer or of the tamboura, of which there are so many 
examples on the wall paintings of Egypt. The instrument is 
painted in gold in the MS., and the outline only is indicated, 
without reference to such details as bridge, tailpiece, finger- 
board or sound-holes. We know that it had three strings from 
the three pegs in the head, which are arranged in precisely the 
same manner as in the instrument held by King David in Fig. 
122 from the Utrecht Psalter. There are no bows in any of 
the illuminations of the " Evangeliaire de S. Medard," which, 
of course, does not prove that it was not known at the time; 
when we find the instrument again in the thirteenth century in 
both Arab and Spanish forms in the Cantigas de Santa Maria, 
the tamboura is still twanged with the fingers. Fig. 145 is, I 
believe, the earliest example of the mediaeval instrument that 
has yet been reproduced in any musical work. Fig. 146 repre- 
sents an Egyptian nefer of the oval type. The reader is invited 
to compare Figs. 145 and 146, the similarity in the outline of the 


Fi^. 146. 
Eg-yptian ncfev, from the 52iul tonilj at Thebes — Kourna (Champollion). 

two instruments will at once be apparent ; but in Fig. 25 the 
resemblance is still more striking. An example of the vaulted 
tamboura* on an early Christian funereal relief, preserved in 
the Museum at Aries, is given on PI. IF 

* An ancient Assyrian tambur, given in Rawlinson's " The Five Great 

Monarchies," 1871, Vol I. p, 534, gives some indication of the manner in 
which the instrument reached the Persians and through them the Moors. 
See also notes pp. 407 and 408. 


With regard to the instruments introduced by the Arabs into 
Europe, one comes across them occasionally unchanged in out- 
line and general characteristics after centuries have elapsed; 
whereas in other cases the instrument, falling into the hands of 
an enterprising race, is soon assimilated to the forms best 
known and most liked, and it speedily becomes a hybrid. 

Continuing to examine the evidences of the form of the 
Moorish rebab which we have shown in Fig. 144 and in PI. XII., 
at the two extremes of its existence as known to us, we shall 
be able to form some opinion as to the probable outline of the 
actual instrument introduced by the Moors. 

It will be remembered that we found at the beginning of this 
chapter two distinct types among the rebecs of the Middle 
Ages, the pear-shaped, as in the oft-quoted Lyra Teutonica of 
Gerbert, and the narrow boat-shaped rebec like the modern 
Moorish rebab (Fig. 144). 

Our next illustration (Fig. 149) represents another rebab of 
the tenth century, taken from the Psalterium of Labeo Notker, 
containing his translation of the Psalms into 
German. The instrument in Fig. 149 is given 
by Hyacinth Abele in his little work on the 
violin, "Die Violme, ihre Geschichte und Bau"; 
it forms part in the MS. of the usual Psalterium 
group of King David playing upon whatever 
instrument was at the time known as the cithara 

(the instrument which in our version is trans- 
Fig. 149. ^ 

Rebab, lotii cent. Istcd harp), accoiiipanied by other musicians, 
from Labeo Notker's ^f ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ usually intended to represent 

German version of J r 

the Psalms. Ethan and Teduthun. This celebrated Psalter- 

Libr. St. Gallen. . . 

H. Abele. ium was, uiitil the seventeenth century, in the 

library at Einsiedeln, but was in the middle of the century 
restored to St. Gallen, where it had been written and where it 
is now. The illustrations of the Psalter are drawn in brown 
and red ink, and are very sparingly ornamented with gold. 


This rebab, coming as it does from St. G alien, where Notker 
lived and worked, is another specimen in which direct Moorish 
influence is traceable, not only through the music school there 
established by Charlemagne, but also because the Moors them- 
selves penetrated thus far. 

The instrument itself is very significant, for it stands mid- 
way between the rebab and the rebec. This pear-shaped in- 
strument' is clearly a descendant of those on the Sassanian 
silver dish (PI. XI.) and others referred to in notes p. 407 and 8, 
the main difference being the degree of prolongation of the 
body and the presence or absence of a bow. 

This Labeo Notker, to whom we owe many precious musical 
relics, must not be confounded with Notker Balbulus, the musi- 
cal monk of St. Gallen, who flourished a whole century before 

Labeo Notker, a nephew of Ekkehard I., belonged to the 
same monastery as his namesake ; he was born about the middle 
of the tenth century, and died in 1022. His learning and zeal 
brought him at an early age to a position of honour at the 
head of the school ; some corrections by his own hand in a 
Latin poem by one of his pupils are extant. He translated 
many of the classics into German to assist the students. His 
translation of the Psalms into German, a language he tried his 
best to popularize, is a valuable work which has been published 
in Hattemer's " Denkmale des Mittelalters " (Vol. II. St. Gallen, 
1846). The translation is especially interesting to musical an- 
tiquarians, for not only does it inform us of the German equi- 
valents of the names of musical instruments, but in it Labeo 
Notker has frequently explained the nature of the instrument 
itself mentioned in the text. This knowledge and interest 
shown in music are not surprising, for he has left a little 
Treatise on Music, the very earliest in the German language. 

Before proceeding with our investigations into the evolution 
of the rebab, it will be well to give an illustration (Fig. 150) of 




Fig. 150. 

Rebec, 8th cent. Herbe, 
" Costumes Fran^ais." 

a rebec alleged by Herbe in his " Cos- 
tumes Frangais " to be of the eighth cen- 
tury. He places it without further explan- 
tion as to its origin, on a page devoted to 
implements, ornaments, &c., of the time 
of Charlemagne. Although the authority 
is so uncertain, I give the illustration for 
what it is worth, because, judging from 
the foregoing examples, there is no reason 
why the instrument should not have been 
known in the eighth or ninth century. On 
comparing it with Figs. 132 and 135 of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, a great resemblance in 
the outlines will be seen. Compared, however, with the Lyra 
Teutonica given by Gerbert (Fig. 41), the outline of the latter is 
seen to be pear-shaped, the greatest diameter being at the tail 
end instead of in the centre, as in Fig. 150; Fig. 41 shows 
higher development, having a distinct finger-board. Fig. 150 
has four strings; the tailpiece is semi-circular, very small, and 
is fastened by a loop to a button on the back, which is not 
visible in the drawing. There are six sound-holes, three on 
each side, as in Fig. 149, although they are differently grouped ; 
the bow, if the date assigned be correct, is the earliest yet found 
in Europe, and is very similar to that of Labeo Notker's rebab. 
While we are still occupied with the past greatness of the 
monastery of St. Gallen, there is a very fine Psalterium of the 
ninth century that is worthy of a little attention if only on 
account of the musical instruments to be seen therein. The 
MS. goes by the title of " Psalterium Aureum," on account 
of the lavish display of gold in the miniatures and 
initials. The author of the MS. is in this case not known ; a 
latter MS. attributes it to Folchardus (ninth century), but the 
dissimilarity of the styles weighs heavily against this hypo- 
thesis. The artist who painted the miniatures of the " Psal- 



terium Aureum " had evidently felt the influence of Irish art. 
It was, it must not be forgotten, Irish missionaries of the 
seventh century, Columba and Gallus, who, in their wanderings 
through Switzerland, overthrew the altars to Wotan, and 
founded many monasteries, Gallus giving his name to the one 
we are just now interested in. 

The miniatures of the " Psalterium Aureum " have been very 
perfectly reproduced in a fine work on the subject by J. Rud. 
Rahn, St. Gall., 1878; these miniatures are far more artistic 
than the early age of the MS. would lead us to expect. There 
are several full-page paintings on purple grounds, and the 
initials are large and very elaborate. 

In a communication on the subject of the MS. (Cod. MS. 22), 
which was kindly sent me by the librarian of the Stiftbiblio- 
thek, St. Gallen, Dr. R. Fiih, I find that the instruments, of 
which I give one in Fig. 151, are quite correctly drawn, and 

that the irregularities in the out- 
line are likewise noticeable in the 

Fig. 151 is part of a full-page 
miniature representing two Levites 
placing the ark before King 
David, perhaps an allusion to 
I Chron. xvi. i and 7. King 
David, seen in Fig. 151, is holding 
in his left hand an instrument which 
m the present sketch seems to be in- 
tended for a pandoura* similar to 
the one reproduced in Fig. 25 ; the 
. drawing is unfortunately vague. 

Pandura, or tambura, 9th cent., The instrument givcn in Figs. 24 

from the " Psalterium Aureum " 10110 l ■ ' i. 

(Codex 22). St. Gallen. and 1 08 had 8 or 9 strings; it 

* See also Garrucci " Museo Lateranense." Tab. XXX. and " Storia, 
Vol. v., pi. 35 No 39. 

Plate XL 

Sa.ssanian Su.vf.r Dish. British SlrsKUM. Showing Performers o.n a 



does not seem to have enjoyed great popularity in that 
form in Europe, whereas the pandoura reappears in many 
forms and has survived in the lute. The instrument in 
Fig. 151 had evidently three strings, although but two are 
drawn, for there are three holes indicated in the head. The 
pandura, we hear from the Treatise on Music written by Al- 
Farabi, the famous Arabian musician who jElourished in 900 A.D., 
and of whose work a collated edition, Arabic and Latin, has 
been published by Kosegarten, had sometimes two, sometimes 
three strings ; it was a very old instrument also called tanbur. 

From the foregoing examples it will be seen that by analogy 
with the modern rebab of the Arabs and the ancient rebab of 
the Persians we are enabled to arrive at a conclusion as to the 
nature of the instrument introduced under that name into Spain 
by the Moors in the eighth century, a conclusion which 
may be granted as justifiable. In this instance the Arab 
and European races stand out in strong contrast. The 
Arabs were in possession of instruments such as the rebab and 
tambura in the seventh century — the latter an instrument found 
depicted on Egyptian wall paintings and tombs of highest 
antiquity, the former probably of less remote origin — and the 
same instruments are found practically unchanged at the 
present day among the descendants of those Arabs, who have 
been little if at all influenced by Western civilization; yet, for 
certain, liine centuries, and probably twelve have elapsed since 
the earliest date at which we can feel certain that the rebab 
and tambura were known to them. 

The Arabs themselves have declared that they obtained the 
rebab from the Persians in the seventh century, but we only 
know of the instrument with any degree of certainty from Al- 
Farabi's description (tenth century).* 

What happened to those instruments after they had been made 

* See note p. 398. 



known to the nations of Europe? What remains of the rebab 
at the present day ? and to what extent is the violin indebted to 
the instrument in its evolution ? These are the questions which 
must be answered before we bring our chapter to a close. 

We have seen that already in the tenth century the shape of 
the rebab in Notker's Psalterium (Fig. 149) shows a step 
forward; in Gerbert's Lyra Teutonica and in instruments of 
the type of Fig. 150 (which, it must not be forgotten, may be of 
a later date than the eighth century assigned by Herbe) still 
further developments are noticeable. By the time we reach the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries the rebec, as the instrument was 
later called, was to be found in innumerable guises, retaining 
its characteristics of vaulted back and of having no separate 
neck or fingerboard, but being otherwise grafted on to other 
types and nearly alw^ays played with the bow. 

I am inclined to think that the instrument 
we call rebab, with the pear-shaped body, is a 
hybrid which originally obtained its outline 
from the pear-shaped tambura, known to 
the ancient Egyptians (see Fig. loi), which 
is quite distinct from the oval nefer given 
in Fig. 146, and also from the spoon- 
shaped with two or four lateral pegs which 
so constantly recurs in hieroglyphics. Fig. 
1 01 represents the instrument discovered by 
Mr. Maddox in a tomb at Thebes; the body 
is of wood and the sound-board covered with 

This pear-shaped tambura was no doubt in 
use among the Moors who conquered Spain, as 
well as the oval type which we found in the 
Evangeliaire de S. Medard (Fig. 145) together 
with many others, since Al-Farabi, who 
flourished in the ninth and tenth centuries, 

Fig. 101. 
Tambura dis- 
covered by ]Mr. 
IMaddox at 
Tliebes. See Sir 
Gardner Wilkin- 
eon's " !>ranner8 
and Customs of 
the Ancient 
Vol. I., p. 481. 


mentions several panduras (or tamburas) of which the Chorassan 
and Bagdad varieties are respectively of Persian and Assyrian 
origin. As far as I have yet discovered from the Latin transla- 
tion given by Kosegarten of the treatise of this learned Arabian 
musician, no clue is given as to the form of the instruments. 

A group of interesting and valuable examples discovered 
just as this chapter was in the press, throws light on the early 
history of the rebab and tanbur. The ancient Persian boat- 
shaped rebab (cir. 800 B.C.), twanged with the fingers is shown 
on some terra-cotta figures found in a Tell at Suza (see PI. XII.) 
Comparison with the rebabs in Figs. 15, 144, 149, i 53 and 4, etc., 
leaves no doubt as to the origin of the mediaeval instrument. 
Two silver dishes, Persian repousse work (between the 4th and 
7th cent.) show examples of the pear-shaped rebab. The first of 
these, at the British Museum,* is given on PI. XI. (see p. 380). 
The second silver dish is among the collections at the Hermit- 
age, St. Petersburg;! it was found at Irbit in 1880. The subject 
is Eros riding on a lion, a purely Greek conception, showing 
that the Persians of that period took their inspiration from 
Graeco-Roman art, bringing it into harmony with Persian 
thoughts and customs. The three strings of the rebab are 
strained over the neck, as in Fig. 134; the neck is bent back at 
right angles to the body, and the pegs are inserted in the back. 
A third example, on which is depicted a similar instrument, 
was found at Perm, and forms part of Count Stroganoff's 
collection. + 

The instruments from the Topes at Jumal-Garhi (see PL X. 
and p. 163) date from the days of Greek classical influence in 

* For an account of the dish accompanied by an illustration. See " The 
Treasures of the Oxus,"' by O. M. Dalton, 1905, p. igo. 

\ For an illustration see " Comptes-Rendus de la Comm, Imp. d'Arche- 
ologie,'' pour I'annee 1881. St. Petersburg, 1883 ; text p. 52 and Atlas of 
the same date, PI. II., No 10. 

\ See "Antiquities du Nord " by J. R. Aspelin, p. 141, No. 608. 


Afghanistan and would doubtless account for the introduction 
of rebabs and tanburs into S.E. Europe through the medium 
of the Greeks of Asia Minor. Sculptures from the Buddhist 
Tope of Amaravati, dating from the latter part of the second 
century A.D., on the grand staircase at the British Museum (slab. 
No. 17) provides a back view of a very large stringed instru- 
ment of somewhat different type and an outline reminiscent of 
the large viols, held horizontally. Other musicians are play- 
ing on a transverse flute and a drum (see Jas. Fergusson, " Tree 
and Serpent Worship." London, 1873, PI. LX., No. 2). 
The Kentrikon Museum* at Athens possesses another example 
of the rebab on a Byzantine relief, on which is depicted a 
Centaur holding the instrument, a piece of very coarse work- 

The culminating point of interest in this group is un- 
doubtedly the pear-shaped rebab played with a bow on one of 
the sides of an ivory casket of Italo-Byzantine work belonging 
to the same period as the Veroli casket of the S. K. M., about 
the 8th or 9th cent. A.D., the specimen in question forms part 
of the Carrand Collection,! Florence, in the Palazzo del Potesta. 
The bow, which is long and slender, shows a higher develop- 
ment, than th " examples derived from the Carlovingian MSS. 

Equally interesting examples of the tanbur have simul- 
taneously come to light, which allow us to trace the 
progress of the instrument from Egypt, through Assyria,! 

* For an illustration of this relief see " Das Byz. Relief aus Tusla im 
Berliner Museum," by J. Strzygowski. Jahrb. d. K. Preuss, Kunstsainin- 
lungen, Berlin, 1895. Bd. XIX , p. 62. 

} For an illustration with text, see Gallerie Naz. Ital. III. (1897), p. 263 ; 
by A. Venturi, and " L'Arte," Vol. I. (1898), p. 24; Museo Naz. Firenz, 
(1898), p. 205, No 26 (text only). 

I See Rawlinson "The Five Great Monarchies,' iSyr, Vol. I., p. 524; 
also Brit. Museum, Assyrian and Babylonian Room, Mural Case, No 39 ; 
small terra cotta idol. Bust of female musician ; neck of instrument only 
remaining ; left hand stopping strings ; probable date about 2nd cent, b c. 
to ist cent. .\.D. 


Greece* and Carthage, t thus again pointnig to a double intro- 
duction into Europe from East and West. 

Evidence of the prevalence of the tanbur in 
Europe during the Graeco-Roman period (2nd or 
3rd cent. A.D.), is afforded m abundance^ 
by a group of instruments similar to that in 
Fig. 25. 

Fig. 152 is of a well-known type, taken from ^,„ ;j2 
an English Psalter of the thirteenth century, with Rebec, isth 

11 -1 • 1 • 11 cent., Lansd. 

four strings, (although the artist has indicated but ms. 420, Brit, 
two), judging from the diamond-shaped head, 
which contains four pegs. 

I feel convinced that if we could but obtain a glimpse of the 
treasures secreted in old Spanish monasteries at the present 
day, as well as in the various libraries, public and private, 
a curious light would be thrown upon the history of music and 
musical instruments during the early Middle Ages ; and that 
rare illuminated MbS. would be brought to light that would in 
a measure account for the treasures contained in the " Cantigas 
de Santa Maria," a MS. of the thirteenth century, of which 

* The Greek Pandura, of which we read in the classics occurs on a bas- 
relief from Mantinea. See Bull, de corresp. hellenique. Paris, 1888, Vol. 
XII., PI. III. and text by Gustave Fougeres, p. 105-128 (whose theories as 
to date must be accepted with reserve). 

t The Carthage Tambura occurs in the hands of a terra-cotta figure 
dating from the period of the Roman domination. See Mus6e Lavigerie 
de St. Louis de Carthage. Coll. des Peres- Blancs, formee par le R. Pere 
Delattre. Paris i8gg. Part II., Roman Period, PI. XIII., No. 7. Te.xt 
P' 51- 

I Roman Sarcophagus, Fulvio Orsini, see Montfaucon, L'Antiquite 
Expl. Tom. III., PL 57, and Revue Archeol. Tom. III., PL 359. 

Sarcophagus Giustiniani Coll. ?ee GalL Giustiniani. Tom. IL Tav. 
gi. Montfaucon, op cit., SuppL, Tom. III., PL 27. 

Two Sarcophagi in the Luteran Museum, see note to p. 404. 

For fuller references consult " Compte. Rendu de la Comm. imp. 
Archeol." (St. Petersburg) for the year 1881. Published 1883. Article l)y 
Ludolf Stephani (in German), pp. 52 et. seq. 

2 P 


much has already been said in these pages. A country which 
could in illustration of a set of canticles dedicated to the 
Virgin find in the thirteenth century fifty-one figures of in- 
strumentalists nearly all carrying different instruments must 
have been a very musical one. Almost every class of instru- 
ment is therein represented (the drum only by the small tabor). 
I have not yet come across any manuscript which contains so 
many. The greatest proportion of these can of course be 
traced to an Oriental origin, through the Arabs, and it would 
be a matter of the greatest importance to find evidence of the 
earlier specimens before they reached this stage of develop- 
ment ; and such probably do exist if one could but find them ! 
The suggestion that most of the instruments are of Moorish 
origin must not be taken to mean that they remained strictly 
true to this origin without feeling outside influences, for Spain 
was not peopled entirely by the Moors, and the constant effort 
of the Christians to regain portions of the lost territory ever 
and anon brought a fresh European, chiefly French, tide to 
bear on the civilization, which prevented the Moorish element 
from predominating entirely. More especially was this French 
influence on the Fine Arts of Spain noticeable during the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries; neither music nor musical in- 
struments escaped it. As the MS. " Cantigas " is a product of 
the thirteenth century, this explains the meaning of much that 
was foreign to Moorish and Mozarabic art and costumes in the 
musicians represented therein. After Toledo had been wrested 
from the Moors in 1085 by Alphonso VI. of Castile and Leon, 
the Roman breviary was introduced into the worship of the 
Christian Church, the ground having been previously paved 
by the influx of French monks, chiefly from Cluny, who settled 
in Spain, and to whom the highest ecclesiastical pests were 
given. The Gregorian chant only was commanded to be used 
in the churches. Of course this change was not effected without 
a severe struggle, for the people were accustomed to the Mozar- 

\ J 

Plate XII. 
The Rebab and PA.NDun of the Ancient Peesiaxs. TIIIth Centirt b.c. from the Tell at Suza. 
Reproduced by Courtesy of 31. Ernest Leroux from " Delegation en Perse." 
by J. de Morgan. Paris, 1900. Vol. I., PI. 8. 
From a Heliogravurv hij M. Paul Diijardin. 



abic ritual, and would not see it supplanted by the Roman. 
Indeed, its hold upon the people was so strong that to this day 
there exists in Toledo Cathedral a chapel where the Mozarabic 
service is performed daily by clergy and musicians devoted ex- 
clusively to it ; the ritual is the same as in the Middle Ages and 
has been derived from old MSS. (See "Notes on Early 
Spanish Music," by Juan F. Riafio, p. 6). 

The figures of the musicians in 
the "Cantigas" illuminations ap- 
pear to have been drawn from the 
life, judging from the unusual 
amount of expression with which 
the artist has endowed them. The 
collection was, however, I should 
say, not intended to be exhaustive, 
but merely illustrative of the prin- 
cipal instruments used at various 
times, not in concert, to accompany 
the songs to the Virgin. 

Fig. 153 represents one of these 

figures tuning her instrument. Her 

one of a similar kind, is giving 

an exalted personage, seated on 

some troubadour or musician 

Fig. 153. 
Boat-shaped cittern or 
rebab, 13th cent., " Canti- 
gas de Santa 3Iaria." 

who holds 


her the note, while 
a small throne, probably 
of high degree, looks down upon them with a slightly super- 
cilious smile; he is playing upon a four-stringed vielle or 
fiddle. The instrument in Fig. 153 is, it will be seen, derived 
from the boat-shaped rebab, and has three strings and a tail- 
piece acting as a bridge, and two sound-holes, probably in- 
tended to be crescent-shaped. There is, however, an important 
divergence about the specimen ; its strings were plucked instead 
of vibrated by the bow, as we learn from the accompanying 
monk, who holds an instrument of the same pattern and is 
plucking the string with a quill to give the note. The head, 


which is very indistinct owing to the darkness of the colour- 
ing, is probably curved back ; this is, in fact, the cittern or 
gittern so often mentioned in Chaucer and other poets of the 
Middle Ages, which had nothing more in common with the 
cithara or guitara than the derivation of the name and the 

fact that the strings were plucked. 
If other evidence were required in 
proof of this suggestion, it would 
be found in the position in which 
the monk holds the instrument, viz., 
horizontally, stopping the strings 
with the left hand and plucking 
Fig. 154. them with the right. 

Gig-ue. 13th cent.. " Cantigas Civ Y'l^. I S4 represents a gigue or im- 

Santa Maria." fe -'t 1 fat. 

proved rebec, derived from the true 
rebab and innocent of any great structural changes. There is 
in the miniature a fingerboard coloured darker than the rest 
of the body, the body is boat-shaped. There are two 
small round sound-holes on each side, two small roses under 
the strings, and two strings attached to a combined bridge 
and tailpiece. The head, thoroughly Oriental in character, is 
bent back like that of the lutes, the strings being strained over 
the edge or nut, and passing through holes to the back, where 
are the two pegs. The remarkable circumstance about these 
boat-shaped rebecs played with the bow is that they are held 
as in the very first specimen we have (Fig. 24) of the beginning 
of our era, with the head uppermost slanting towards the left 
shoulder, and the tail end resting on the performer's knee; 
whereas the pear-shaped instrument which has been included 
under the name of rebec or gigue is invariably held in the 
violin position. Several other instruments like that in Fig. 
154, varying a little in size and detail, but bowed and held 
in the same position, are given in the MS. Want of space 
forbids the reproduction of them all ; they can, how- 



Fig. 153. 

cittern, 14th 

cent., from 

•• Biblos 
historiaux " 
in the Bibl. 
Nat., Paris 

( Willemin). 

Fig. 156. 




14tb cent., 

MS. 17 E. 

VII., Brit. 


ever, be seen in black and white in 

Riano's book, as before stated. The 

boat-shaped instruments seen m Figs. 

155 and 156, the one with three strings 

and the other with six, are like Fig. 

153, citterns, having a decided neck, 

although still in one piece with the back, 

curved backwards and finished with a 

grotesque head ; the sound-holes are in 

both cases rose-shaped. These two 

examples are of the fourteenth century. 
Doubtless many more illustrations of 

the boat-shaped rebab of the middle 

ages might be given to prove that 

the species did not die out after the 

European nations had experiment- 
alized with the shape of the original Moorish 
rebab, but these will suffice for the purpose of 
this chapter. 

Fig. 157 represents an instrument of the 
fifteenth and sixteenth centuries which 
has undergone considerable development; 
it has a modern and, above all, a Euro- 
pean look which none of the other specimens 
had m the same degree. This geige most re- 
sembles the instrument in the Cantigas (Fig. 
154) except for the head, which here is 
finished with a scroll and contains a peg-box 
such as we see in violins. 

The origin of the illustration requires a 
little explanation : it is reproduced from an 
instrument in the fine collection of the Rev. 
F. W. Galpm, of Hatfield, Broad Oak, Essex, 
who very kindly photographed it in a group 

Fig. 157. 
Geige of the loth 

and 16th cent., 
from a facsimile 
in the Galpin Col- 


with some others for these studies, and Fig. 157 is a drawing 
made from the photograph. 

The instrument itself is of great interest, aUhough it 
is but a facsimile made by Mr. Galpin from the illus- 
tration in Sebastian Virdung's " Musica Getutscht " (pub- 
lished at Basel in 1511). This geige is used in the Pas- 
toral Plays which the Vicar arranges with members of his 
parish for the May festivals. The idea seems a singularly 
happy one, and we should not probably find many villages in 
England where associations with the past are so faithfully 
kept up and old customs revived. The plays are performed 
in costumes of the time, and the morris and other old English 
dances and rounds are danced on the green in this quaint, old 
world village — or rather town — to the music of the rebec. 
Part-songs are sung to the accompaniment of the portative 
organ or Bible regal, and processions march to the more vigor- 
ous music of the old sackbut and wooden cornet, as in the days 
of Henry the Eighth, who had ten sackbuts in his band. 

The geige, or improved rebec in question, is tuned to G D A, 

tf — =t ^ 

and the tone of the instrument, although rather shrill, is by 
no means unpleasant, it is, moreover, eminently suitable for out- 
door music. There are both bass bar and soundpost in this 
specimen. The back and neck are in one piece, hollowed cut 
of a block of wood with a flat sound-board glued on; the wide 
finger-board following the outline of the body is added. The 
instrument, of course, nearly approaches the pear-shape, 
although very much elongated in proportion to the width, a 
characteristic of the Moorish rebab of the present day ; the 
tail end of the instrument has no longer the greatest diameter, 
as was the case in Notker's (Fig. 149), and in the modern rebab. 
The bridge is arched and the tailpiece is wedge-shaped ; the 


sound-holes in the form of " C's," or crescents, as they are also 
sometimes called, face. 

The word Geige, which m modern German is a violin, is at 
least some 300 years older, as far as we can trace it, than Vir- 
dung's illustration, but the latter is the first instance I have 
found of the word accompanied by an illustration; and on this 
we base our definition of the instrument — an improved rebec 
with a finger-board. The name is in Virdung applied with the 
qualification of klein (small) to the specimen in Fig. 157, and 
with that of grofs (large) to an instrument of a totally different 
type with decided and very deep incurvations, ribs, a head bent 
back as in the lute; there are nine strings, a large rose sound- 
hole and two small " C " holes in the foliate parts of the body 
which correspond to the shoulders of the violin. We also find 
frets and a bow, but no raised or arched bridge has been in- 
dicated, only a level or guitar bridge and tail-piece which must 
have had a raised edge over which the strings were strained. 
The klein Geige — given equally ni Virdung, 151 1, m Sus- 
cinius (Ottmar Nachtigall), " Musurgia seu Praxis," 1536, and in 
Martinus Agricola's "Musica Instrumentalis," 1532 — is in three 
sizes — discant, alt or tenor and bass geige. The gross Geige 
was also made in three or four sizes, it must not, therefore, be 
thought that it was merely the bass of the other. The first 
mention of the word Geige in German literature occurs, accord- 
ing to Grimm in the 12th century, in "Judith," a poem of the 
1 2th century given in Diemer's Deutsche Gedichte cles 11 and 
12 Jh. Wien, 1849. 

" Mit vigelen jorich mit gigen, 
" Mit rotten jorich mit liren, 
" Mit harphen jorich mit springen, 
" Mit tanzen jorich mit singen 
'• Chomen si un entgegen." 

(gedichte 139, 1 1.) 

Several ether examples occur in the early part of the thir- 


teenth century, as, for example, in Wolfram von Eschenbach's 
"Parsifal," and "Der Junge Titurel," respectively : 


" Ern ist Gige noch diu Rotte," 
" Either the geige or the rotta," 

■ Diu Rotte noch diu Gige," 
Neither the rotta nor the geige ; ' 

and m Gottfried von Strassburg's "Tristan" of the same 


" Ir Gige unde ir Rotta." 
" Her geige and her rotta." 

Authorities are not agreed as to whether the French guige 
or gigue was derived from the German Geige, or vice versa, 
and it is not purposed here to enter upon the question of the 
names of instruments, which would fill a long chapter. 

It seems probable that the word geige may have been applied 
in Germany to the first stringed instruments played with a 
bow, in contradistinction to those whose strings were plucked 
by fingers or plectrum,* such as the cythara, rotta and fidula 
or fiedel (see p. 424). The names geige in Germany and gigue 
in France were in the middle ages applied to instruments of 
the rebec type with fingerboards. As we have every reason to 
believe that the bow was first applied in Europe to instruments 
of the rebab family, both boat and pear-shaped, that it was 
indeed made known through these instruments, the probability 
is that the name geige clung to them long after the bow had 
been applied to other stringed instruments derived from the 
cithara, such as the fiddle or vielle. This hypothesis is sup- 
ported by several authorities and amongst them, Moritz 
Heyne who in his " Deutsches Worterbuch," Leipzig, 1890, 
gives under the word geige : from the middle-high-German 

* For the use of the word citharisare, meaning to twang the strings, and 
the generahsation of tlie word cithara, tee pp 335 and 424. 



gige, originally designating the manner of playing the geige, 
so named after the rocking motion of the bow fmiddle-high- 
German gigen, to rock, old Scandinavian geiga, to sway). 

Dr. Lexer " Mittel-hoch-deutsches Handworterbuch," Leip- 
zig, 1872, gives under the word glgcn : literally to set vibrating, 
trembling : old Scandinavian gciga, to tremble. 

Fig, 158 represents an example of the last relic of the rebec 
class — it can hardly be called a development, for the instru- 
ment was then rapidly declining; it is the 
pochette, sordino, or Taschen Geige (pocket 
geige), a little instrument some fifteen to eighteen 
inches long, used by dancing masters of the 
sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries ; 
during the latter it was practically abandoned 
for the kit, a diminutive instrument shaped like 
the violin. For this illustration I am indebted to 
the same source as for the preceding ; this in- 
strument is an original, dating from about 1700. 
In outline it most nearly approaches the old 
boat-shape, but it has felt the influence of the 
violin in its accessories; there is a finger-board, 
a head surmounted by a grotesque and containing 
an orthodox peg-box ; the bridge is raised and 
arched, to take the four strings; the wedge- 
shaped tailpiece is very similar to mat of the violin; the sound- 
holes are long and narrow ; the instrument is bowed and gives 
out but a thin, weak tone. 

A very good illustration of a " pera," or " poche," is given by 
Martin Mersenne in his ' De Instrumentis Harmonicis " ; and 
another of a courtly dancing-master with a sordino like that in 
Fig. 158 is given by Vidal in his quaint work, "La Chapelle 
de S. Julien des Menestriers." 

We have now traced the developments of the Aloorish rebab 
as far as possible, and we And that after it became known to the 

Fig. 158. 

Sordino or 

pochette, circa 

1700. Galpin 



Europeans the instrument underwent various changes, and that 
it undoubtedly gave a great impulse to the making of stringed 
instruments during the early Middle Ages. To it, in conjunc- 
tion with the tamboura or pandura, we owe the many types 
of stringed instruments with vaulted sound-chests which are 
to be seen in the mediaeval miniatures and sculptures, and side 
by side with the hybrids we still find the original long boat- 
shaped type. The rebec seems to have enjoyed highest favour 
during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, though under what 
name it was then known we can but conjecture. In the four- 
teenth century we hnd slighting allusions to the instrument, 
rebekke in English, and el rave gritador in Spanish. It is 
called shrill and shrieking, and its popularity was on the wane ; 
it was chiefly the instrument of the wandering minstrel of no 
very exalted rank. There is no doubt it was better adapted 
for open-air than indoor music. In England, from the four- 
teenth century, the rebec was often ornamented with a grotesque 
head, and when played with a plectrum became the cittern or 
ghittern, of which we hear already in the time of Chaucer. 

During the seventeenth century m France opprobrium was 
heaped upon it, and in the statutes of the Guild of Musicians 
(founded in the fourteenth century), known as " La Confrerie 
de St. Julien des Menestriers," confirmed by Louis XIV. in 
1658, we find in rule iv. "that it was a punishable act for the 
masters of the guild, or any other musicians, to play their in- 
struments (violins) in taverns, &c., under penalty of imprison- 
ment and forfeiture of the instruments." Fetis, in quoting this, 
states in a footnote, that the rebec was excepted. The statutes 
will be found in Vidal's book before quoted, and he states that 
he copied them from the printed records m the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, F. 2795. 

It is recorded, moreover, in confirmation of this point, that 
the Civil Lieutenant of Paris gave sentence on March 27th, 1628, 
jthat "no musician was permitted to play in taverns, or any 



such low places, upon the discants, basses and other members 
of the violin family, but only upon the rebec." See " Biblio- 
theque de I'Ecole des Chartes," A., vol. iv., p. 543. 

The best proof of the want of popularity of the instrument 
lies in the fact that it has now practically died out, although 
we do hear that it was still occasionally met with in primitive 
villages in Brittany some twenty years ago, and in Mr. Galpin's 
collection there is a rebec bought from a rustic 
in Athens which he called " lyra," The instru- 
ment (Fig. 159) is exceedingly primitive and 
roughly made, but it has all the characteristics 
of a rebec, or gigue : there are three strings 
fastened to pegs set in the back of the head, 
the middle string being strained over an ad- 
ditional wooden stud to equalize the tension; 
both sound-post and bass-bar are present, the 
former being made with a little notch m the 
side upon which the bridge rests, thus, as Mr. 
Galpin pointed out, presenting a certain affin- 
ity with the bridge of the Welsh crwth. (See 
Fig 33)- The tail-piece is of the most primi- 
tive, being of twisted wire attached to a little 
keel-like projection cut on the back of the instrument. 

The third point to consider before closing the chapter is the 
extent to which the rebab influenced the evolution of the violin. 
This is a much-discussed question, and one upon which anti- 
quarians do not agree ; I do not And it possible to acknowledge 
any influence except the use of the bow, which, after all, is an 
adjunct, and not part of the instrument itself; the bow was, 
besides, applied equally to the rotta, and to many of the 
hybrids of the rebab-tamboura type, and to the tromba marina 

The violin certainly does not owe its sound-chest to the 
rebab — for no two instruments could be more dissimilar in that 

Fig. 159. 

Modern primitive 
" lyra," or rebeo. 

from Athens. 
Galpin Collection. 


respect — nor its neck, nor the fingerboard. Neither the rebab 
nor its successors had incurvations; their sound-holes were, 
generally speaking, Oriental in character, as were the head and 
arrangement of the pegs in the back. Nothing remains, there- 
fore, of the violin that can be said to be derived from the rebab. 
It might be worth while to study the subject still more 
deeply, but that investigation seems called for in another direc- 
tion. There was co-existent with the rebab a Moorish in- 
strument having a very decided affinity with the violin, the 
cithara or guitarra, an instrument which was no longer the 
cithara of the Greeks, since it had a neck and four frets. Of 
this I shall have occasion to speak in the next chapter. We 
have, further, the complete evolution of the cithara into just 
such an instrument depicted in the valuable pages of the 
Utrecht Psalter, from the cithara with rounded base, to the 
instrument with a body of similar outline and a long added 
neck with frets and three strings. This development we un- 
doubtedly owe to the East, but not to the Moors originally. 
How these instruments of the Utrecht Psalter, whose influence 
we can trace in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, became 
known in Europe is at present purely surmise (I have not given 
up the hope of tracing them), but we have in addition the evi- 
dence of the word violin itself, which can be traced back by 
two separate sources to the l^atin Fidicula (another name for 
the cithara. See San Isidore, Etymologiarium, lib. iii., chap. 
2i). This was discussed in the chapter on the question of the 
orisfin of the violin. 


The Guitar-Fiddle. 

In this chapter, one of the most important, in which much 
new matter will, it is hoped, be brought forward, the subject 
will first be treated from a general point of view, that is to say, 
we will glance at the guitar-fiddle as we find it in the Middle 
Ages before entering into details as to its history. 

What is the guitar-fiddle, and how is it that it bears a com- 
pound name designating two instruments of such very different 
types, judged from a modern standpoint ? 

It must be confessed that this name, which we bestow upon 
the precursors of the violin during the eleventh, twelfth, thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries, is entirely modern, and there 
is absolutely no reason to think that the term guitar-fiddle was 
ever used before last century. The name has arisen through 
retrospection; each instrument, the guitar and the fiddle or 
violin has now reached approximate perfection, and possesses 
clearly defined characteristics, which we take into consideration 
in imposing the name, and we pay a well-deserved tribute to 
the guitar in recognizing it as the parent or precursor of the 

What we more especially wish to convey by the name is the 
fact that the instrument in the shape of the guitar, which at 
first was exclusively vibrated by the fingers, adopted at a cer- 
tain period the use of the bow ; that, at least, is my opinion, and 
the point to be settled is the period at which the change took 



place. The guitar-fiddle, in fact, existed as soon as the in- 
strument with a neck evolved from the cithara was played with 
a bow. Writers who recognize the guitar-fiddle at all have 
generally placed the transition in the thirteenth century, and 
what is more, they look upon the fiddle as a separate instru- 
ment which existed independently of the guitar, whose waist 
is borrowed for the sake of bowing more conveniently. In the 
article " Violin " in Grove's Dictionary of Music, the " invention 
of the waist " is assigned to some unknown mechanic of the 
thirteenth century ; the writer evidently does not recognize the 
existence of the guitar at that period. 

When the subject is treated in detail, and a number of new 
illustrations are introduced, the reader will be able to form his 
own opinion. The guitar as a descendant of the kithara always 
had incurvations, and, as regards those to which the guitar- 
fiddle has hitherto owed its name, I consider that they are 
anterior to the thirteenth century ; and, secondly, that their 
existence has nothing to do with the use of the bow; nor are 
they a European development. 

Fig. 1 60 represents a large instrument with incurvations 
played with a bow and held like the violon- 
cello between the knees; it forms part of 
the capital of the Abbey of St. Georges de 
Boscherville, near Rouen, which was 
founded in 1066 by Raoul. Sire de Tan- 
carville. The abbey was demolished in 
the sixteenth century, but the sculptures 
were preserved, and are at present in the 
museum of Rouen. 

With regard to the probable age of the 

p.^ ^^g mstrument, a piece of sculpture dating 

Large vieiie with in- from the eleventh century would not repre- 

curvatioiis, 11th cent. , ., • ^ ^ r j_i i 

From the Abbey of Sent quitc ncw instruments, tor the sculp- 

St. Georges de Bos- ^ ^j^^ -^^ ^^^^j^ j^^^^ j^^^jg ^-^^ 
cherville, near Kouen. " 


or opportunity to ascertain the form of practically unknown 
instruments — means of communication were too restricted and 
travelling too slow; he would choose for his model a well- 
known instrument easily available to copy. The illustration is 
taken from Willemin's " Monuments Inedits," which rather re- 
presents the instrument as it was than as it is, and shows firmer 
and more unbroken lines than the remains of the sculpture do 
at the present day, for they have become chipped, worn and 
broken : fortunately this valuable piece of evidence has not 
been restored. Willemin cannot be accused, however, of giving 
a fanciful reproduction, he has merely restored the jagged 
outline. A more realistic drawing will be found in Riihlmann's 
" Geschichte der Bogen Instrumente," Atlas, Taf. III. No. iB. 
Before proceeding, it will be as well to give an example of 
what is commonly understood by a guitar-fiddle of the Middle 

Fig. 161 is taken from a French MS. (Add. 28784A) in the 
British Museum, dating from 
the fifteenth century, a Book 
of Hours, of which the paintings 
are of coarse art, but in the mar- 
gins are pasted beautiful illumin- 
ations cut out of a Psalter of the 
thirteenth century, and Fig. 161 
is one of the latter. The figure 
is one of the animal grotesques so ^'S- -^67 

n/roo r ,^ ,t-. ,^ Guitnr-fiddlo, 13th cent. Add. 

common m Mbb. or the thirteenth jis. 28784a, Brit. itus. 

and fourteenth centuries. The guitar-fiddle has well-defined 
incurvations, and but for the absence of corner blocks has, 
roughly speaking, quite the outline of the violin ; the finger- 
board is unmistakable, the artist has forgotten the bridge.* 

* There should be two sound-holes which should lie just across the path 
of the bow, for this omission I must plead guilty, I have only now 
detected it. 


It will be urged that illustrations of guitar-fiddles are com- 
paratively rare, in the eleventh and twelfth centuries particu- 
larly, whereas so-called oval vielles without incurvations and 
all kinds of rebecs and gigues abound ; that is undeniably true, 
but then the violin and its precursors down to the cithara were 
always the instruments held most in honour, the instruments 
of musicians and professionals of high degree, and as their 
construction required greater skill and better materials, the 
specimens did not multiply in the same way as did the rebecs 
and hybrids : the citharas, guitars and vielles were made ac- 
cording to model and rule, the makers required experience and 
training, whereas the other instruments, whose construction 
was more or less the result of venture and experiment, and 
whose types are legion, were attempted by one and all ; hence 
the confusion and the extreme difficulty of classifying the 
mediaeval-stringed instruments. 

Both the words guitar, fiddle, and, in addition, the violin, 
are derived from one common source, and can be traced to the 
names given at various times by different nations to the As- 
syrian ketharah, which in Greece became kithara ; in Rome 
cithara — there the instrument was known also under the name 
of fides or fidicula, possibly because it was the chief stringed 
instrument with both Greeks and Romans. In Arabic of the 
present day the word kithara is still in use, but the Arabs of 
North Africa pronounce it githara (with a hard " g " and a 
"th" as in "thick"); that is precisely the region whence came 
the conquerors of Spain in the eighth century. In mediaeval 
Arabic the word was cuitra or cuitara (see Vocabulario Espaiiol- 
Arabigo, Tanger, 1892), and among the Spaniards guitra and 

In Italy the word cithara became chitarra, and the English, 
apparently influenced by Spain, probably through the medium 
of France (which knew the guiterne), had in Chaucer's time 


both citterns and gitterns, as far as we know, very similar 


" For sorwe of which he brake his minstralcie. 
Both harpe and lute, giteme and sautrie : 

Phebus in grief at having slain his wife with a random shot 
from his bow gives up his minstrelsy." (The Manciple's Tale, 
1 72 1 7, Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, fourteenth century). 

The word gittern is also spelt gyttren and gythornis in other 
poems of the same and the next century. 

Gitterns and citterns appear to have been named more with 
reference to the manner in which the strings were vibrated than 
with regard to any characteristic shape of the instrument. 
Citharisare meant in Latin to twang the strings, either with the 
fingers or plectrum, as in the cithara ; this accounts for the great 
variety of instruments known as citharas, and for the transla- 
tions of the name in psalters. As this generalization of the 
cithara is only observable after the introduction of the bow was 
a recognized fact, we cannot be far wrong in assuming the 
names derived from cithara to have been applied as a dis- 
tinguishing term for stringed instruments of which the strings 
were plucked and not bowed. Examples will be given later 'of 
a few of the instruments so called. 

In a letter written by Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
to Lullus, second Archbishop of Mayence, about 750 A.D., there 
is an example of the use of this verb : 

" Delectat me quoque cytharistam habere qui possit cythar- 
izare in cithara quam nos appellamus Rottae quia citharam 
habet." (See Giles's Patres Ecclesiae Anglicanas, letter No. 

Thus is the word guitar cursorily accounted for; it came to 
us from the East, and travelled West by two routes — through 
the Roman Empire on the one hand, and by way of Africa and 
the Moorish dominions on the other. The instrument called 
cithara that came by the first route was still in its simple form 

2 Q 


when introduced by the Romans; it became tirmly rooted 
wherever implanted. The second traveller, the Moorish kithara 
or githara, had undergone important transitions (according to 
Al Farabi), and it only needed a little European enterprise to 
turn this instrument into the guitar-fiddle. 

Meanwhile, the Romans had taught the early inhabitants of 
Iberia to call the ketharah (probably originally made known to 
Spain by the Phoenician colonists) fidicula or fides. San Isi- 
dor, Bishop of Seville in the seventh century, plainly tells us 
as much in his Etymologiarium (lib. iii. cap. 21): " Veteres aut 
citharas fidicula vel fidice nominaverunt," and' this fidicula 
was in time turned quite naturally by the soft Southern tongue 
into vihuela. In France we get vielle; in Italy and mediaeval 
Latin, vitula, viula, and later, viola; in Germany it was fidula 
or vidula already in the ninth century, for the word is used 
by Ottfried of Weissenburg, 840 to 870, in his Harmony of the 
Gospels, where the beauty of Heaven is described. 

" Sih thar ouch al ruarit 
This organo fuarit 
Lira joh Fidula. 
Job managfaltu Swegela (flute) 
Harpha joh Rotta. 
Joh thaz joh Guates dohta. 
Thez mannes inuat noh joh giwuag 
Thar ist es alles geniiig 
Thoz Spiel, thaz seitoii fuarit 
Joh man init hanton ruarit 
Ouh mit Blasciniie 
Thoz horist thu alles thauue." 

(See Schilter's Thesaurus Antiq. Teut.. Vol. I., p. 379). 

This gives quite a list of the musical instruments of the time; 
if we could produce contemporary MSS. from Spain, France, 
Italy, in which these musical instruments were quoted, we might 
learn something on the ver}/ knotty point, for the names lira, 
rotta, cithara, gigue, fidula, vielle seem to have been applied 
more or less at random until the fourteenth century, which is 


scarcely surprising, seeing the variety of hybrid instruments 
one comes across in every century. 

A curious definition of a lira, for instance, occurs in the 
thirteenth century, in which kinship is claimed for it with 
cithara, viol and rote. The lines are taken from Coussemaker's 
"Memoire sur Hucbald " (Paris, 1841), in which is quoted a 
note in writing of the thirteenth century, made in Allain de 
Lille's "De Planctu Naturae"; "Lira vioel. Lira est quoddam 
genue cithara; vel fitola alioquin de reot. Hoc instrumentum 
est multum vulgare."* 

(The lira or fi.tola is of the genus of citharas, otherwise of 
the rota. This instrument is very common). 

During the early Middle Ages stringed instruments seem 
to have been chiefly used to accompany the voice, or to play a 
little ritournelle between the verses or parts of the songs. The 
vielle figures by one or other of its names in most lists of musi- 
cal instruments that we find in MSS. of the Middle Ages, 
showing that it was a favourite instrument. 

Galfridus de Vim Salor, one of the most distinguished poets 
of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, who followed Richard 
Coeur dc Lion to the Holy Land, says in his " Medulla Gram- 
maticas, Coloribus Rhetoricis " : 

" Cvmbala prseclara, concors symphonia dulcis, 
Fistulas, somnifera cythara, Vitulasque jocosse." 

Those two lines convey a good deal in a few words, and 
characterize strongly the tone-colour of the various instruments. 
The bright, clear cymbals, not the clashing cymbals of our 
orchestra, but the ancient cup-shaped cymbals with a definite 
musical pitch and a clear bell-like tone; the cythara, and not 
for the first time, is characterised as soothing and conducive to 

* For a vocabulary of the nth cent, containing the names of many 
musical instruments accompanied by short definitions or explanations, see 
J. A Lenoir de La Fage " Diphtherographie Musicale," p. 363 et seq 
from a MS. at Monte Cassino, 


sleep — since the introduction of bowed instruments, those whose 
strings were plucked naturally sounded unusually weak and 
sweet in comparison; finally we have the joyous vitulas (or 
vielles) and pipes and the sweet harmony of the symphonia or 
hurdy-gurdy of the thirteenth century. 

Another poet of the thirteenth century, and a minstrel in the 
train of King Thibaut of Navarre, Colin Muset by name, men- 
tions the vielle and bow used in accompanying song : 

" J'alay a li el praelet (meadow), 
O tot la vielle et I'archet 
Si li ai chante le Muset." 

In the "Roman de Brut" (twelfth century) verse 10823, &c., 
we find a description of the court music of the age : 

"Mult ot a la cort pigleors, 
Chanteors, estrumanteors ; 
Mult poi'ssies oi'r chan9ons. 
Rotruenges et noviax sons 
Vieleures (music of the vielle), lais de notes ; 
Lais de vielles, lais de rotes 
Lais de harpe et de fretiax (syrinx), 
Lyre, tympres (drums) et chalemiax (shawms), 
Symphonies, psalt6rions, 
Monacordes, cymbres, chorons." 

No other kindred stringed instrument was used apparently 
in this court orchestra, and the vielle is at the head of the list. 

It is interesting to note in these lines the distinction between 
the " pigleors " or minstrels who sang, and those who played 
the musical instruments or estrumanteors. The nobles, who 
took up minstrelsy and sang of gallant deeds and love after 
the manner of professionals, could not always accompany them- 
selves; they used, therefore, to travel with paid estrumanteors 
in their train, who accompanied their lays and played solos 
when required. This is probably the explanation of the second 

The vielle is again mentioned in the same poem at verse 


" Et mult sot de lais et de note 
De viele sot et de rote 
De lire et de salterion." 

"A^<7/^" in both quotations means the playing of instruments 
either in accompaniments or as solos. 

In the " Roman de Rou," verse 3093, &c., of the same cen- 
tury, there is a description of a time of sadness and desolation 
when even vielles and rotes were silent : 

" Mult aviet par la terre plors et dementoisons. 
N'a vieles ne rotes, rotuenges ne sons. 
Meis (meme) li infez plorent par pliisors des mesons." 

From these lines it is clear that vielles and rotes were great 
favourites and much in request. 

In Chaucer's time (fourteenth century) the fidel was evidently 
still an article of both intrinsic and artistic value : 

" For him was lever han at his beddes hed 
A twenty bokes, clothed in black or red, 
Of Aristotle and his Philosophic, 
Than robes riche or fidel or sautrie." 

— Prologue, V. 298. 

Vielles existed throughout the Middle Ages in a variety of 
shapes and styles, and every country did not understand pre- 
cisely the same instrument under the name. For instance, what 
was the fidula of Ottfried in the ninth century ? Was it 
already a bowed instrument, or was it not more likely akin to 
the cithara — the cithara in transition, in fact — -"Lira joh 
Fidula " ? Each must form his own opinion on the subject, for 
at present we have no means of knowing. 

In the lourteenth century, at all events, there was no doubt 
about the relative value of rebecs and vielles or hddles, for 
Chaucer, who told us that a hdel was worth more than even 
twenty books of philosophy, also says : 

" Brother, quod he, her wonneth an old rebekke 
That had almost as lefe to lose hire nekke 
As for to yeve a peny of her good." — Fre/es Tale. 


The quotation testifies to the want of 
esteem in which the rebec was held. The 
oval vielle was the most prevalent form, 
and we know at any rate for certain that 
in the fourteenth century the type shown 
^ , . „ ,../ , in Fig. 141 was called viola, for the name 

Oval Tielle, 14th cent. ° ^ ' 

Add. MS. 27695, Brit. Mus. is written ovcr the instrument in the MS. 
The oval vielle had a flat back and sides or ribs (see Fig. 162); 
this illustration is taken from Add. MS. 27695, " A Treatise 
on Virtues and Vices " by a Genoese ; in it is depicted an 
Eastern banquet. A potentate is seen at table, feed- 
ing on what appears to be limbs of little white 
dogs. Some of the latter stand gazing in terror at 
the dishes, awaiting the same fate as their unfortunate com- 
panions. Behind and at each side are musicians playing on 
double pipes, Addles and a tuba. On the same folio, but on a 
lower section, is a fine pneumatic organ being played and 
blown by men kneeling, while a woman with a large bell 
strapped round her waist plays on two kettledrums fastened 
to the back of a black slave; he is playing the cymbals, and 
two more musicians are blowing long straight trumpets. This 
is quite a large and important orchestra ; the MS. is altogether 
very interesting and very finely illuminated. 

By a vielle, then, we understand an instrument with flat back 
(or at least not vaulted) and a sound-board joined by ribs, as 
far as we can judge from illustrations; the neck is generally 
added, and there is sometimes a flnger-board very clearl}- in- 
dicated in the illustration ; the number of strings varies either 
in reality or from the fancy of the artist, and it is played with 
a bow. 

Whether our forefathers held the same views as to this 
classification is quite another matter — probably not. Those 
instruments made by amateurs, and which differed more or less 
in outline and detail from the best known models of the age. 



Fig. 163. 

Bowed instrument, lltli 
cent. From the Abbey 
of S. Georges de Bos- 
oherville, near Uouen. 

were doubtless called vielles also; they, 
too, have found a place in the miniatures 
of the MSS., and m paintings and sculp- 

Until more documents come to light we 
cannot be sure one way or the other. For 
instance, were instruments like those in 
Figs. 163 and 164 called vielles, and if 
not, what were their names? Fig. 163 
represents a musician from a capital in 
the Abbey of Boscherville, founded in the 
eleventh century, as was stated with Fig. 
160. The instrument is oval and has but 
little neck, like the early rebecs, and that 
all in one piece with the body ; sound-holes 
and tail-piece are indicated, so are four 
This instrument, if the back was vaulted, was one of 


those hybrids which were the outcome of tambura and rebab. 

Fiq. 164. 

Stringed instrument of the 12t'h cent. From a gateway in the Abbey of 
St. Denis (from Willemin, " Monuments infidits.") 

Fig. 164 is composed of sound-board and back with short 
neck, connected by ribs; there is, at least, reason to think the 
back was flat rather than vaulted. The bridge appears to be 
nothing more than a rectangular block of wood without any 
arch, which would make the bowing a matter of some nicety; 


the incurvations here form a distinct waist. This shape with 
the two distinct lobes is often met with in MSS. of this and the 
two succeeding centuries. 

The owners of these two stringed instruments probably called 
them vielles. 

No language in the mouth of the masses remains long un- 
corrupted ; words are modified, new ones are introduced to meet 
the needs of the day, and the meaning often changes radically. 
This was the case with many musical instruments, to cite the 
cithara alone. 

We who have the perfected instrument, the violin, are able 
also to examine what is left of the oldest types of stringed 
instruments, and we can trace these types through all their 
wanderings without turning aside at every side branch, how- 
ever puzzling and misleading. 

A strong plea has been advanced in favour of the European 
origin of the violin; leaving the Eastern and older civilizations 
out of the question altogether, our obligations to the latter are 
yet great in every other department of art and science. Ac- 
cording to some, Germany is the fatherland of the fiddle; 
according to others, Wales ; others again name Italy ; yet of 
what avail is it to shut our eyes to the fact that prototypes of 
what we have seen developed often beyond recognition 
were to be found m Egypt, China, or Chaldea? If 
among the musical instruments of the ancient Egyptians we 
find the unmistakable prototypes of all the stringed instruments 
which flooded Europe during the Middle Ages, is it unreason- 
able to suppose that these reached Europe later by means of the 
Roman and Byzantine Empires through the Greeks of Asia 
Minor, of Northern Africa, or through the Moors, who, con- 
quering the latter, brought their civilization to bear upon Spain 
and France ? 

Some of these instruments have been casually mentioned and 
illustrated in these pages, others have been reserved, and it is 


now proposed to go into the matter carefully, with a view to 
finding out where this guitar-fiddle came from, and to illus- 
trate side by side the prototype and the instruments of other 
climes and ages that seem to correspond with them in the 
matter of construction. If this attempt at classification seems 
startling at first sight to those who have long held different 
views and theories, I must ask their patience and forbearance 
and an impartial consideration of the question. 

In the oldest known civilization, the Egyptian, we find 
stringed instruments very fully represented, and it is not per- 
haps too much to assert that the prototype of almost every 
European mediaeval instrument of which the strings were either 
bowed or plucked (the bow, however, excepted) has been found 
represented in the paintings or sculptures of Egypt. 

The harp and nefer seem to have been the favourites, for they 
figure in all scenes of civil and private life in which music had 
a part; they vary in pattern and detail, but in all Egyptian 
harps the pillar is absent. 

The nofre, or nefer, is used as a hieroglyphic symbol for 
"good," which speaks for itself; in the hieroglyphs the nefer 
looks somewhat like a spoon with two or four pegs inserted 
laterally in the head; the neck and body are in one piece. A 
similar nefer is also frequently depicted with a very long 
added neck; m both of these the sound-chest consists of a flat 
back and sound-board with ribs, or at any rate what appear in 
delineations to be ribs. The oval tamboura with vaulted back 
is less often seen ; it resembles the nefer, unless seen in pro- 
file ; many of the oval instruments in the hands of musicians 
may, therefore, be tambouras and not nefers. With regard 
to the pear-shaped tambouras. we have what is better than any 
number of illustrations, i.e., a real specimen which has already 
been shown m Fig. loi. 

There exists also at least one representation of a real 
Egyptian guitar with ribs and slight incurvations. I say at 


leasts because there is a second known to me (given in Mendel's 
" Musik-Lexikon," Vol. I., p. 50, " Aegyptische Musik "), but as 
th-; authority is not given, I do not recognize its value as 

The Egyptian cithara, or lyre, as it has also been called, 
although on account of the construction and shape of the sound- 
chest I prefer to use the former name, is recognised by one 
unvarying characteristic : the transverse bar to which the strings 
are attached is slanting, one arm being shorter than the other, 
so that the pitch of the strings is determined by length as well 
as thickness. To tune the instrument, the strings can be made 
to slide along the bar, thus increasing or decreasing the tension 
and length as desired. 

Of all these instruments the Greeks seem to have taken but 
little notice, the kithara excepted, and this instrument came to 
them from Asia and differed greatly from the Egyptian model. In 
the hands of the Greeks the kithara became a national instru- 
ment, an ahnost inseparable adjunct to the arts of music and 
poetry, and was passed on by the Greeks to the Romans, with 
whom it was also the chief stringed instrument. Through the 
Romans and the Phoenicians the cithara spread by degrees over 
the Continent of Europe. 

We know, however, that Greece and Rome did not remain 
entirely uninfluenced by the instrumental music of Egypt and 
Asia, more especially at the beginning of our era, for we have 
single examples of some of the Egyptian instruments men- 
tioned above on sculptures; but these instances are rare, and 
seem to show that the instruments they represent were by no 
means popular or widely known. 

The origin of the rebab appears to be rather Asiatic than 
Egyptian, since no traces of it are to be found in ancient 
Egypt; the Arabs themselves, from whom we learnt to know it, 
say they obtained it from the Persians, a statement which 
obtains corroboration through examples of the instrument 



cleaxly delineated on silver dishes of the Sassanian JDeriod (see 
pp. 402, 407 and 408 and PL XL). As a whole chapter 
has already been devoted to this instrument, it is unnecessary to 
do more than remind the reader of the plain facts now that the 
mediaeval European instruments and their prototypes are to be 
given side by side. 

It is possible that the long, boat-shaped rebab, of which the 
shape appears to have gone through little or no material change 
during our era, was the outcome of the pear-shaped tamboura 
and the cithara, both of which were known to the ancients, or 
else it may have preceded or succeeded the primitive nanga 
shown in Fig. 100, the sound-chest of which resembles that of 
the rebab. 

In this juxtaposition of mediae- 
val and ancient instruments, it 
must not be forgotten that m the 
former the march of the centuries 
brought with it great activity m 
the construction and wide-spread 
influence of musical instruments, 
and that instances of the national 
cult of one instrument, as in the 
case of the kithara with the 
Greeks, are almost unknown. 
Musical instruments rapidly be- 
came cosmopolitan, receiving here 
and there national touches and 
characteristics which resulted in 
what appears to us an endless 
confusion of models. 

The first instrument to claim 
pjg i(j^ our attention will be the cithara 

Egyptian kithara from Thebes. SCeil in Fig. 1 65 J it is a sketch 

in the Museum of Antiquities. ^ 1 • r i ■ 

Leyden. oi 3- real instrument found in 


Thebes, and forming part of the d'Anastasy Collection at the 
Museum of Antiquities, Leyden; it is in a very good state of 
preservation. As far as I know, there are but two specimens 
in existence, the second is in the museum at Berlin ; it is 
therefore of very great interest to musical antiquarians and 

The sketch represented in Fig. 165 was originally taken from 
Sir Gardner Wilkinson's " Manners and Customs of the Ancient 
Egyptians,"* but there are a few little additions that were made 
for me in Leyden by the director of the museum, Meinheer 
W. Pleyte, to whose kindness I owe some interesting informa- 
tion as to the construction of this ancient cithara. 

As will be seen, it has the oblique transverse bar described 
in the last chapter, which seems to be characteristic of the 
Egyptian instrument, whereas the Asiatic and Greek citharas 
were generally fitted with horizontal bars resting on arms of 
equal length, the pitch of the strings being varied by thickness 
and tension instead of length. 

In Fig. 166 we see a group of Assyrian musicians, and both 
Asiatic and Egyptian citharas are being used. 

Until lately I had always thought that in the construction of 
all box-like sound-chests the back and front were joined by 
means of sides or ribs, and this very illustration in the book 
referred to above is responsible in a measure for this theory ; 
for in it the sides are distinctly drawn as separate pieces; the 

* London, 1878, Vol. L, p. 478. The invaluable results of the labours of 
explorers of all nationalities in Egypt and Assyria which are published j^ear 
by year 'see Bibliography 1 show us that we are but at the beginning of our 
knowledge of these ancient kingdoms, and that we may be called upon to 
reconsider in a totally different light, the deductions made some years ago. 
Indeed the nmsical instruments of the ancient Egyptians and Assyrians 
demand a separate, thorough and systematic study which has not yet been 
attempted by the author. 


difference is but a slight one in a drawing, a few tiny strokes 
of the pen suffice. This is the only drawing of a cithara I can 
remember in which the base and inside are visible. Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson's illustration was, slightly incorrect I found, on re- 
ceiving my tracing from the Leyden Museum together with a 
corrected drawing which is here reproduced. I was much sur- 

Fig. 166. 

Group of Assyrian musicians with ketharaTis, drum, and cymbals from 
Koyoundjick. " Place," PI. 59. 

prised to hear that not only are back and sides in one piece, 
but that the whole sound-chest is hollowed out of one piece of 
wood, from the base to the dotted horizontal line ; the little bar, 
which measures but 2\ centimetres (i inch), is also of the same 
piece; the wood is thought to be acacia. The arms are solid, 
and are fixed to the body by means of wooden pins, indicated 
in the sketch by dotted lines, and are glued besides. The base 



of the cithara is open, and measures 
seventeen centimetres across; the sides 
are also seventeen centimetres long. 
There are no indications on the instru- 
ment of any kind of bridge or string 
attachment, except the little half hoop 
of iron wire which passes through from 
front to back (omitted from my draw- 
ing). To this the strings were probably 
attached, and the little bar was, no 
doubt, left to strengthen the tail end 
and to enable it to resist the tension of 
the strings. 

It seems strange that so much trouble 
should have been taken to hollow out the 
sound-chest and bar, when the use of 
glue and wooden pins was known, for 
the instrument must have been heavy 
and clumsy in consequence — perhaps 
this construction was adopted in prefer- 
ence for durability on account of the climate. It does not, 
however, follow that the Kitharas of the Greeks were made in 
the same manner. 

There is apparently no description extant of 
the construction of the Greek or Roman kithara, 
although the instrument was such a favourite 
and is so often quoted. It was probably too 
well known. One should, however, not neglect 
one's duty to posterity. The marble represen- 
tations are not more reliable than the draw- 
ings, for few artists would take the trouble 
to reproduce all the details of that kind even p- ^^ 

if they noticed them. We are, therefore, once cithara from Rome. 

V 1 t r J. £ -ii 111 n Museo Capit. Clarac, 

.again brought face to lace with a blank wall. Tom. iii. pi. 490. 

Fig. 19. 

Greek kithara, from a 
■Greek vase. Thos. Hope, 
" Costumes of the An- 
cients." Vol. II., p. 192. 



Fig. 19 is the cithara that we find in the hands of the 
citharoedes or professionals ; it presumably represents the 
kithara par excellence. 

In Figs. 104 and iio the cithara has undergone a transition. 
There are no longer any arms ; ^ (7 

the strings extend over the whole < <' n — ty- 
sound-chest. The aperture, made 
right through the sound-chest, so 
characteristic of the rotta, chrotta, 
crowd, crwth, is already there, 
and a slight incurvation is notice- 
able, which afterwards developed 
during the middle ages, as seen 
in Fig. 167 — a cittern dating from 
the reign of Ecl\\ard 1. (1307; 
and taken from a MS. m the 
British Museum (Reg. II.. R. VII.) 

Fig. 104. 
Roman cithara 
(or rotta) of the 
Lycian Apollo. 

Mus Capit., 
Tom. III., PI. 13. 

ti-. IIU. 

Roman cithara 
(or rotta). Prom 
a muse in Rome 


Suppl.. Tom. I.. 


Fig. ir>7. 

Cittern, 13th or 14th cent. Brit. Mns. MS. Reg. II., B. VII. 

We do not know exactly how earl}- the cithara underwent its 
first transition, i.e., when the arms and transverse bar were 
merged into one, forming with the sound-chest a rectangular 
body, as in Figs. 112 and 113, and was called rotta, but it 
must have been before the sixth century in Europe. 

In the Utrecht Psalter (ninth century) which has furnished 



Fig. 117 

Bass rotta or cithara in 

transition. Utreclit Psalter, 

Ps. 14'J. Ottr cent. 

such interesting and valuable evidence 
as to the transition of the old cithara of 
the Greeks into the cithara with a neck, 
or guitar, we already have a large rotta. 
Fig. 117, repeated here. 
■ ijY)/ ^^ jf J, There exists, however, in Berlin an old 

-^ ■^■^"^r^^^^'T^^y^ Germanic rotta, found in an ^A-lemanic 
tomb of the fourth to seventh century 
at Oberflacht, in the Black Forest. The 
instrument was lying in the arms of a 
warrior armed with sword and bow, and was in 
excellent preservation. The rotta is no fitting 
instrument for a warrior, but the knight loved 
the Arts of Peace as well as of war, and so 
when he was laid to rest his beloved rotta 
accompanied him, and was thus preserved to us 
through many centuries. It is so far the only 
specimen m existence; the original is in the 
Volker Museum, Berlin, but for the strings and 
pegs, it is absolutely as it was when found ; 
the holes for the pegs were there to indicate the 
number, position, and approximate size of the 
latter.t The Royal collection possesses the fac- 
simile illustrated (from a drawing) in Fig. 

The sound-chest is shallow, and consists of 
back and sides hollowed out of one piece of 
wood, apparently with a sound-board added ; 
the edges are, however, quite sharp and clean 

Fig. I6S. 

Old Germnn 
Rotta. 4th to 7th 

cent., Berlin. 
Volker Mviseuui. 

* The original, from which the instrument was copied was probably of 
much earlier date, /.''., 5th or 6th cent. See Chapter VIII. 

f Iliustration s^iven in Jahreshefte d. Wiirtemb. Altertums-Vereins III. 
Stuttgart, 1846. Tab. VIII. Fig. 10 and 11. Grabfunde am Berge 
Lupfen. bei Oberflacht, 1846. 


cut. There are no sound-holes, and the tone of the instrument 
is consequently weak. The transverse bar is neatly dovetailed 
and nailed to the rest of the body. The lines seen in Fig. 168, 
where the arms would in the usual way be joined to the body, 
do not represent joins, but. only indentations or cuts (one 
centimeter in depth), which extend to two-fifths the depth of 
the sides. For what purpose these were made it is difficult 
to say, unless it were to fasten a ribbon or chain by which the 
instrument was suspended round the neck of the performer. 
There are six strings fastened to a little peg at the tail-end. 
The wood is very hard and almost black, so that it is difficult 
to distinguish joins; but Dr. Oskar Fleischer, the curator of 
the Royal collection, who has had many opportunities of ex- 
amining the original, assures me that the construction is as 
above stated. This is only one step removed from that of the 
Egyptian cithara in Fig. 165, which was entirely in one piece. 

Besides the rectangular cithara or rotta of the Middle Ages, 
we also find the guitar-shaped, as in Fig. 117, which was still 
called cithara in Latin as late as the fourteenth century. 

In a MS. of the fourteenth century in the Royal Library, 
Dresden (A 117) a "Commentary on the Apocalypse" Rev. 
xiv. 2, are these words : " Et vocem quam audiviste sicut cithar- 
oedum citharizantinm, in citharis suis" with an explanatory 
note that by citharedi are designated the twenty-four elders 
who had cytharas and citharised, singing new songs — and, as 
illustration, there are guitar-shaped rottas with incurvations. 
(See Fig. 172). 

I feel tempted, while on the subject, to mention that in a 

German Apocalypse of the same century, in the British 

Museum, the word cithara of the Vulgate is translated harfin 

(Add. MS., 15243, Brit. Mus.). In a French Bible of the 

fourteenth century (19 D II., Brit. Mus.) for citharas is given 

harpes, as also in a French Apocalypse of the same century 

(Add. MS., 17333, Brit. Mus.) where in one place cithara has 

2 R 


been translated citole, and in another harpe, " harpeozs qui 
sonnent los harpes " and harps are drawn in illustration. 

The Egyptian nefer or nofre, which occurs so frequently in 
hieroglyphs as a symbol for good, is the third prototype 
which appears to have furnished a model for the mediaeval 
stringed instruments of Europe, the other two being the harp 
and the kithara. 

The nefer is shown in Fig. 169, and it can be seen in addi- 

Fig. 169. 

Nefer from the Egyptian Obelisk in Campus Martius at Rome. (See 
Burney's " History of Music," Vol. I., p. 205). 

tion in almost every inscription in hieroglyphics. Its shape 
is sometimes like that of a spoon, an irregular oval with a 
narrower curve at the base than at the shoulders; the pegs are 
sometimes two, sometimes four in number, as in the present 

The chief characteristics of this nefer according to the illus- 
tration are a long neck in one piece with the body, and a flat 
back with sides. Supposing the illustrations to be correct, the 
nefer and tambur* belong to totally different classes. The same 


Fig. 146. 
Nefer from the 52nd Tomb Thebes-Kourna (Champollion). 

features are observable in Fig. 146, here repeated for com- 
parison ; in both of these the side view is presented. 

* An Assyrian tambur may be seen at the British Museum in the Nim- 
roud Gallery on a bas-relief No. 11 a. An illustration is given in Perrotand 
Chipiez, Vol. II., p. 201. Photograph by Mansell, No. 390. See also Fig. 
25 and Chapter IX. 



Fig. 169 is reduced from Dr. Burney's illustration ("History 
of Music," vol. L, p. 205) of the hieroglyph on the broken 
obelisk, guglia rotta, in the Campus Martius at Rome, sup- 
posed to have been erected at Heliopolis by Sesostris and 
brought to Rome by Augustus. It was thrown down and 

F,g. 170. 

Oval stringed instrument of the 12th cent. 

Doorway of the Abbey of S. Denis (see 


broken during the sacking and burning of the Holy City by 
the Connetable de Bourbon in 1527. 

The neck with which the instrument is furnished would 
enable the player to obtain various intervals by stopping the 
strings with the fingers, and so to extend the compass of the 
instrument without multiplying the number of the strings as in 


the harp and kithara. No indication of the use of the bow 
has been traced as yet in any of the paintings or sculptures of 
ancient Egypt, and the stringed instruments similar to Fig. 169 
are all plucked either with the fingers or with a plectrum. 

Whether or no my supposition be correct that the oval stringed 
instruments with neck and body in one, and sides or ribs, found 
in profusion from the eleventh century, are derived from the 
Egyptian nefer, it is singular that the instruments in Figs. 169 
and 170 should show such a strong resemblance. 

Fig. 170 is taken from a sculpture of the twelfth century on 
the doorway of the Abbey of St. Denis, which was built under 
the direction of the Abbot Suger. Here we see more 
than the mere outline; sound-holes, bridge, tail-piece, 
strings, and pegs are all indicated, and the under part of the 
neck is evidently flat as in the nefer. The chief difference 
seems to me to be in the use of the bow to vibrate the strings. 
From other paintings on the tombs in Egypt we know that 
nefers had at times sound-holes, bridge, and sometimes what 
appears to be a finger-board. These are by no means the only 
illustrations of this strange resemblance than can be produced ; 
space, however, being limited, they must be deferred for the 

We now come to the most important of all these compari- 
sons drawn between the prototypes found in ancient Egypt 
and the instruments of the Middle Ages. I hope to be able 
to show that the guitar-fiddle with incurvations, which was the 
immediate precursor of the viol family, and, therefore, of the 
violin, was derived from the East, probably through the Greeks 
of Northern Egypt, rather than through the Moors of Spain, 
or that at any rate the instrument was obtained from both 
sources almost simultaneously. 

The great and essential point of excellence which the guitar- 
fiddle can claim over other and more transitory stringed instru- 
ments are briefly recapitulated as follows : The shape of the 


sound-chest (shallow, with ribs) ; incurvations like those of the 
modern guitar, without corner blocks; a fingerboard, and a 
separate neck added to the body. 

Now, when one finds an instrument with most of these essen- 
tial points represented on monuments of the most ancient of 
all civilizations, and that one finds them again many centuries 
later among mixed races whose civilization — and above all, 
arts — are derived from a complex source, is it more reasonable 
to claim that the mediaeval instrument is of Kuropean inven/ion, 
that it is the result of evolution, or that it has been transmitted 
approximately as it stands through the ages ? The first of 
these propositions is of course untenable, and can only be held 
by those who are unacquainted with the instruments of the 
ancient Egyptians. The rights of the other two are more diffi- 
cult to decide upon, and require both thought and evidences to 
assist in arriving at a conclusion. 

I think it has been sufficiently demonstrated that the instru- 
ment called guitar was evolved, like its name, from the 
ketharah or kithara; it was apparently in Egypt that the evolu- 
tion first took place several centuries B.C. 

Younger civilizations, however, rarely receive the objects per- 
fected through evolution ; they have been found rather to adopt 
the primitive forms, carefully going over the ground again, 
evolving for themselves, and eventually reaching the same goal, 
but stamping their individuality upon the perfected object. 
This was the case with the Assyrians, the Greeks, and the 
Romans, who all received the primitive form of the kithara and 
passed it on to the Western nations of Europe before it had 
materially developed. Here, and among the Greeks of the 
first centuries of our era settled in North Africa and Syria, the 
evolution was considerably hastened by a close observance of 
the more perfect forms of other and older nations. In this 
matter the racial differences are very marked, the evolution 
being so leisurely among the Eastern civilizations as to be 


hardly perceptible in the course of the eight or nine centuries, 
so far as musical instruments go; whereas among the Western 
Europeans an almost feverish haste is observable, and during 
the same period the development of musical instruments made 
such rapid strides as to have entirely surpassed anything before 
attained at any period of the world's history. 

Thus the rebab of the Arabs of the present day — not the 
square rebab-esh-shaer, standing on a spike and played like a 
'cello, but the boat-shaped instrument — is practically the same 
as that found in MSS. of the thirteenth century, and notably in 
the " Cantigas de Santa Maria," so often referred to. We 
know the Arabs had a guitar, called kithara, in the tenth cen- 
tury, with a neck, four strings, and frets; we have no drawing 
of it, but it is freely described in Al-Farabi's writings (Kose- 
garten's Latin translation collated with the Arabic), and it was 
apparently very similar to the Egyptian guitar copied by D. V. 
Denon during his travels in Egypt from the paintings on the 
royal tombs of the Western hills in Thebes (see Fig. i/i). This 
is attributed to the period between 1700 and 1200 B.C. by 
Mendel in his " Musikalisches Lexicon," where we find the same 
instrument (reversed) and another guitar with four sound- 
holes and a head bent back like that of the lute. Unfortunately 
no authorities or references are given.* 

In Plate 55, No. 27, in Denon's "Voyage in Egypt " (London, 
1807), the shallow sound-chest of the ancient Egyptian guitar 
is very plainly indicated, together with what appear to be ribs ; 
they may, however, only be the sides cut in one piece with the 
back. A fingerboard, such as wc understand it, is not plainly 

* I have not succeeded in tracing these instruments given by Mendel 
and Denon in other of the great works on Egypt. It has been suggested 
by Egyptologists that Denon may of course, have seen and copied the 
instrument from a tomb at Thebes whicli has since been destroyed; it is 
on the other hand also possible that he may have drawn somewhat on his 
own imagination for the shape of the instrument. 



drawn, but the neck is doing duty for one, and there are very 
slight incurvations. The neck is long, as in the nefers, and is 
finished with a very modern looking scroll, in which are fixed 
three pegs. 

The figure in Denon's illustration appears to be playing with 
the left hand ; the drawing has probably been reversed. There 
is no indication, of course, of the use of the bow in this guitar, 
and the tail-piece serves as bridge as in the present day; the 

Fig. 171. 

Ancient Egyptian guitar, 1700 to 1200 b.c. Denon's " Voyage in Egypt." 
London, 1807, Pi. 55. 

sound-holes are roses, and are placed in the centre, a favourable 
position for instruments of which the strings are twanged. 

The earliest instrument with incurvations and neck of the 
Middle Ages is the one given in Fig. 123 and again in Fig. 126 
the latter with the addition of frets; both are taken from the 
famous Utrecht Psalter, a MS. dating from the ninth century, 
A.D., but probably representing instruments used during the 
early centuries of our era in Asiatic Greece and Northern 


Egypt before the destruction of Alexandria by the Arabs in 
638 A.D. The instruments shown in this MS. completely illus- 
trate the evolution of the guitar from the cithara in all its tran- 

The guitar-fiddle from Caesarea, A.D. 1066, (Fig. 173) in a 

Greek psalter (Add MS. 19352, Brit. Mus.), shows the same long 
neck with four pegs that go right through laterally as in the 
nefer, Fig. 169; there is a decided change in the character of the 
instrument, for this is a guitar-fiddle, and the bow is not a very 
crude example by any means, considering the date of the MS., 
1066 A.D., and compared with some of our European bows 
of the same century. There is still the straight 
guitar-bridge, but a tail-piece or button has 
been added to resist the tension of the 
strings ; and a second bridge, an arched 
one, to enable the bow to vibrate the strings 
separately. The curious point about this illus- 
Fig. 173. tration, which has not yet to my knowledge 
loee^A.D'^.^rom a appeared m any musical work, is that it is not 
Greek Psalter EuroDcan. It 15 taken from a Greek psalter 

written in ^ 

Caesarea by the written and illuminated by Theodorus of Caesarea, 

arch-priest ... r u 

Theodorus. Brit, arch-pricst in the monastery ot .... by com- 
Mus.,^Add. 31 s. ^^_^^^^ ^^ Michael, abbot of the same monastery, 
in the year 6574 (A.D. 1066). This psalter, like the Utrecht 
Psalter, contains an extra psalm, No. 151, supposed to have been 
written by David after triumphing over Goliath. Thus we are 
told the name of writer and artist, and we know that he was a 
Greek, a subject of the Byzantine empire; this is the more in- 
teresting as the instrument he depicts is one of the very earliest 
authenticated, having incurvations and played with the bow, 
that we have; it shows that bowed instruments of the violin 
type were indeed not only known, but well-known in the East 
during the eleventh century. This priest, a scholar entrusted 
with the copying of the psalter and with its illustration, would 
probably insert the instruments in common use in his own coun- 


try; whether or no the details are accurate we cannot tell, but 
the general form and the bow, at any rate, we find again and 
again later in Europe. It is a pity that the sound-holes have 
been omitted, for it would be interesting to know what was 
their shape, and whether the influence of the position of the 
sound-holes on the vibrations of the sound-board had already 
been discovered. Central rose-holes cause a prolongation of 
vibration very desirable in instruments of which the strings are 
plucked ; this prolongation becomes highly undesirable with 
bowed instruments in which the tone can be prolonged by 
means of the bow. It is impossible that there should have 
been no sound-holes; they must have escaped the attention of 
the artist, for a sound-chest without sound-holes would not be 
able to withstand the tension of the strings and their pressure 
through the bridge ; the thin sound-board would crash through. 

The reader must judge whether or no there is any ground 
for asserting that the guitar of the present day and the guitar- 
fiddle of the Middle Ages played with a bow owe their origin 
to the ancient Egyptian instrument shown in Fig. 171 — sup- 
posing this to be correctly drawn — either through the agency 
of the Moors or of the Greeks of Northerri Africa by way of 
the Byzantine empire or Italy. 

This instrument differs from the Egyptian nefers in many 
respects, the chief of which is that it has slight incurvations. Fig. 
171 shows us that the sound-chest was a shallow one, and that 
the back of the neck was fiat. In face of this illustration it 
will manifestly be impossible any longer to assert that incurva- 
tions owe their origin to the use of the bow, for here is an 
ancient instrument being twanged with the fingers at a time, 
too, when no trace of the use of the bow with any instrument 
has been found, and in which incurvations nevertheless exist. 
They must necessarily have been made for a different purpose, 
or else from an aesthetic perception of the beauty of undulating 
curves. In deriving the guitar from the kithara it is not diffi- 


cult to account for this undulation, for it existed in many of its 
prototypes, which, however, do not appear to have been so 
common in Egypt as the square-shaped shown in Fig. 165. 

An example of the cithara to which I am referring is given 
here in Fig. 172, of which the outline is precisely the same as that 
of the other ancient Egyptian guitar which is given 
by Mendel in his Lexicon, but without the neck. 
Fig. 172 is one of the latest examples of the 
cithara* which we find bearing that name, for 
it is taken from a MS. of the fourteenth 

Fig. 172. 

century m the Royal Library, Dresden (MS. cithara or rotta 
A 11;). The MS. is a Latin version of the °f t'^'; if h cent. 

' ■' lioyal Library, 

Apocalypse with commentary, and Fig. 172 is i^rpsden. Jis. a 
used in common with many other similar instru- 
ments to illustrate Rev. v. 8 and g; the twenty-four ciders 
with crowns on their heads, and these citharas in their 
one hand and horns or phials of gold in the other, are 
bowing down before the Lamb : the word cythara in the Latin 
being further explained in the commentary as an instrument. 
whose shape was said in the beginning to resemble the human 
chest, and out of which proceeded song, just as the voice came 
from the human chest — the same which was called pecten 
{pedis) in the Doric language. In Rev. xiv. 2 of the 
same MS. the same instrument again occurs to illustrate 
" And I heard the voice of harpers, harping with their 
harps " ; and the commentary, besides repeating the Doric 
origin of the comparison, mentions the cythara as a 
symbol of the Cross and Passion on account of its having 

* A similar instrument occurs on the left wing of an altar-piece painted 
by Meister Bertram, a native of Minden, working in Hamburg 1367-1415; 
the subject here is the Adoration of the Lamb (Rev. V. 6-14I. The altar- 
piece which belongs to the S. Kensington Museum, was recently on view 
at the German Art Exhibition promoted by the Burlington Fine Arts 
Society, igo6. 


strings stretched over the wood. These details are given to 
show that it is indeed the cithara of the Greeks which was here 
intended in the fourteenth century by scribe and artist. In 
comparing similar passages from other manuscript versions of 
the Apocalypse, I find in a German translation of the fourteenth 
century (Brit. Mus., Add. MS. 15243), Rev. v. 8, " vor dem lambe 
habinde alle harfin (citharas) und videln (not fiddles, but phials 
or vials) vol von gutheme geruche und Suzikeit." This con- 
fusion between the words cithara and harp occurs already in 
MSS. of the eleventh century, and was due to the fact that when 
the use of the bow to vibrate strings became known, the verb 
citharisare in Latin, and in Anglo-Saxon hear-pan, which had 
hitherto been used to denote the plucking of the strings, was 
applied by degrees indiscriminately to all instruments vibrated, 
like the cithara, by twanging or plucking the strings. In Eng- 
land, for instance, in the Cotton MS., Vespasian A i (Brit. 
Museum), a Latin Psalter dated 700 A.D., the Anglo-Saxon 
interlinear glosse gives for cithara " citran, cilre, or citrani'' 
according to the case of the noun, and gives for psalterium 
" hearpe" ; whereas in the Cotton MS., Tib. c. VI., i ith cent., the 
same instrument is translated in the Anglo-Saxon version 
" hear pan" and psalterium '' Salter." To continue our compari- 
son, in a French Bible of the fourteenth century in the British 
Museum (19 D. ii.) the word cithara in Rev. v. 8 is translated 
" harpes" whereas in an Apocalypse of the same century, also 
in French (Add. MS. 17333), the word given is " citoles" and 
in Rev. xiv. 2 " harpeozs qui sonnent los harpes" 

Luther's translation of the Bible (last edition) gives in the 
same passage " harffen." 

Before leaving the Eastern held of illustrations, which, if 
thoroughly exploited and examined, would probably be found 
to yield some interesting finds, we must consider two more 
bowed instruments taken from the ivory binding of a MS. in 
the British Museum, Egerton 11 39. This binding belongs to 


a Latin Psalter believed to have been written for Queen Melis- 
senda of Jerusalem between the years 1131 and 11 44, for it 
contains in the calendar the obits of her father and mother, 
Baldwin, King of Jerusalem, who died on Aug. 21st, 1131, and 
Emorha, his queen, on Oct. ist. Melissenda married Foulques, 
Count of Anjou, who succeeded Baldwin on the throne of 
Jerusalem in 1131 ana died in 1144. 

The Psalter contains fine miniatures illustrating the life of 
Christ and the Virgin, painted by a Greek artist, Basilius, whose 
name is written on the last one. 

The binding, said to be coeval with the manuscript, is ex- 
quisitely carved and ornamented with turquoises. Events in 
the life of King David, symbolic of the cardinal virtues, are 
represented on the upper side, and on the lower, illustrations 
of the seven works of mercy, in all of which a royal personage 
is introduced, who, it has been suggested, was intended to repre- 
sent Foulques, King of Jerusalem. Near the upper border is 
inscribed the name of the ivory-carver, " Herodias." 'This 
volume is said to have belonged to the monastery of La Grande 
Chartreuse at Grenoble. 

The instruments in Figs. 174 and 175 belong to a scene from 
the life of Kmg David, in which he is represented as playing 
on a dulcimer, while various musicians grouped around him 
play in concert on different kinds of harps and bowed instru- 

Fig. 174 is an instrument with very pronounced incurvations 
and a neck in one piece with the body, which narrows gradu- 
ally till it forms a diamond-shaped head; 
instruments similar to this were used in Ens- 

land in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

Needless to say this is not a guitar-fiddle, „. ,, ,"' „', 

-' *=> \ lelle of the 12th cent. 

such as we understand it, but one of the f"-"™ Jerusalem. Brit. 

JIus., MS. Egerton 

many hybrids. 1139. 


Fig. 175, an oval vielle from the same ivory carving, presents 
a very striking resemblance to the instruments on the doorway 
of the Abbey of St. Denis (twelfth century), of 
which one was given in Fig. 170; they were repro- 
duced partly on account of this similarity, which 
is interesting, inasmuch as it shows that the same 
types of instruments were in use contemporaneously 
'^' ' in the East and in the West. It will be observed 

Oval vielle, 

nsi to 1144 A.D in Fig. 175, as well as in Fig. 170 that the bow is 

from Jerusa . . . 1 1 ■ 1 / • 1 

lem. Eg. MS. not Vibrating the strings near the bridge (or m the 
' '' ■ "^" case of Fig. 175, the place where the bridge would 
be, had the artist carved one), but nearer the neck, where the 
body is narrowest. 

Fig. 176 shows an instrument with very decided incurvations, 
which, except that there are no corner blocks, give the body very 
much the outline of the modern violin. The head is diamond- 
shaped, as is often the case in the twelfth 
century, to which this example belongs; the 
tail-piece is modern-looking, to it are 
attached but three strings, although there 

appear to be four pegs in the head : the 

\^ . ^ ^ Fig. 176. 

middle string, which is doubly provided, is Guitar-eddie, 12th cent. 

probably an instance of the use of a nut or t^°"°° ms. Nero c. 

'^ •' IV., drawn by Anglo- 

peg, introduced to equalize the tension in the Norman artist, Brit. 

^ . ^ . Mus. 

three strings, as was the case in the Rev. F. 
W. Galpin's modern "lyra" from Athens, illustrated in Fig. 
159. The sound-holes are of a shape rarely met with, the only 
other instance I can recall being in a rotta of the twelfth cen- 
tury (Fig. 40), from a Harleian MS. 2804 in the British 
Museum. It will be further observed that the bow is very long, 
and that the instrument is being held in front of the performer 
more like a cello than a violin, with the head uppermost; this 
is by no means a solitary example of this position, nor yet the 
earliest. Fig. 160 showed a large vielle with incurvations which 



Fig. 177. 
Bowed instru 
ment, with in 

the musician holds between his knees, from the Abbey of St. 

Georges de Boscherville (eleventh century). 

The MS. from which this illustration is taken is a Psalter of 

the twelfth century, by the hand of an Anglo-Norman artist. 

The next example (Fig. 177) shows another in- 
strument in 'cello position, between the knees; this, 
however, although it has incurvations and is 
vibrated by the bow, is a hybrid, resembling Fig. 
174, and not an authentic guitar-fiddle. There are 
four sound-holes, but the artist has given it no bridge 
and apparently only two strings. It is evident that 
the artist's sympathies were more enlisted in the 

curvations. 13th grotesque figure than the instrument he has placed 

cent. Lans- . . , 

downe MS. m its hands. 
420. Brit. Mus. ^^i^ illustration IS taken from an English MS., 
Lansdowne 420, in the British Museum, a Psalter with mini- 
atures, in which grotesques are incongruously mixed with 
sacred subjects. There is a considerable amount of life and 
expression in the quaint animals. 

Fig. 178 shows one of the most perfect types 

of guitar-fiddles ; it is of old French origin and 

dates from the thirteenth century. 

The finger-board is distinctly indicated, and 
so are the sound-holes and tail-piece, but the 
bridge has been omitted by the artist. The 
bow is long and slender, and has a handle. 
There are three strings to the instrument in the 
MS., but no pegs are to be seen. The figure 
presumably represents one of the minstrels or 
troubadours of the period, to whom instru- 
mental music owes so much. 

The illustration was originally in a beautiful 
Psalter of the thirteenth century, which was 
afterwards cut up by some Vandal of the cent., French. From 

^ ■' . . a MS. Add. 38784a. 

fifteenth century, who has pasted the minia- Brit. mus. 

Fig. 17S. 
Guitar-fiddle, 13th 


tures in his Book of Hours of the Virgin, of which the paintings 
are very inferior and of coarse art. 

It was in the Sunny South, in the Garden of France 
and in Spain, among beautiful women and courtly knights, 
that there arose those princely smgers, the troubadours, who 
were the means of disseminating not only the love of song, 
but also the culture of musical instruments all over Europe. 
Want of space will not allow of more than a fleeting reference 
to these romantic guilds of poets and musicians, who laid the 
foundation of the town orchestras and of the Court Kapelles 
in Germany. 

The courts of the counts of Toulouse, Provence, and Barce- 
lona were the first to foster the art, called art de trobar (or 
trouver, in the north of France), and Count Guillaume de 
Poitiers (1087 to 1 127) is said to have been the first troubadour. 

In France the troubadour seldom sang his songs himself; he 
had among his retinue a servant skilled in singing and in the 
playing of musical instruments; to him he entrusted the inter- 
pretation of the songs he composed, and if he did not wish to 
appear in person or was unable to do so, he frequently " sent his 
song and his music " by deputy, as he put it ; thus the Trouba- 
dour Marcabrun said : 

" Lo vers e'l son vuth enviar 
A'n Jauffe Rudel oltra mar," 

which meant that he would send a professional singer over the 
seas to sing his song for him. In this respect the troubadour 
differed from his German contemporary, the Minnesinger, who 
was known to sing himself. 

The professional musicians — that is to say, those who 
accepted a guerdon or money either from the master in whose 
train they travelled or from the nobles at whose courts they 
sang — whether they composed the songs or sang them or played 
upon musical instruments, were all liable to be included under 
the general term of jongleurs or jiigleors, a term which meant 


jocidatores, or gleemen, for they were, before all, expected to 
amuse the lord and his court with plays, jokes, and antics; 
but there were many subtle distinctions and ranks, as at the 
present time. The jongleurs included from the first chanteors 
and estrumanteors, words of which the meaning is obvious. 

Whereas with the troubadours and Minnesingers love formed 
the prevailing theme, in Northern France and in England, the 
trouveres and bards sang in a more earnest, heroic strain of 
warlike or noble deeds. They also engaged professionals to 
accompany them on their travels and provide the instrumental 
part of the music; these were variously called meneslrels or 
minstrels, and also jestours or jugleors and gleemen. 

Of these there were many classes : some were virtuosi and 
composers, and only sang and played high-class music of a 
serious strain; whilq others also included dance music, dancing, 
and buffoonery. Their duties in the twelfth century we learn 
from a poem — " Charlemagne " (edited by F. Michel, London, 
1836, verses 413 and 834): — 

" E cantent, e vielent et rotent ciljugluf 

Vielent iiienestiels, rotruenges et sons." 

This impetus given to secular music from the eleventh cen- 
tury spread like a mighty wave all over Europe: the glory of 
the orchestra was at its dawn. These minstrels were required 
by their masters of exalted rank to be able to play on at least 
nine different mstruments, each of which, we cannot doubt, had 
its appropriate use, either for accompaniment, instrumental or 
dance music. 

Giurault de Calanson, to give an instance, asked his minstrel 
if he could play on nine different instruments, to which he 
received the following reply : — 

" Se sai juglere de viele, 

" Si sai de muse (pipe) et de frestele (pan-pipe), 


" Et de har-pe et de chifonie (hurdy-gurdy), 

" De la gigue, de Varmonie. 

" Et de salteire (psaltery) et en la rote " (see Forkel's " His- 
tory of Music," vol. II., p. 744). 

Just nine instruments, in fact. We may readily imagine that 
no great demand was made on the technical ability of a musi- 
cian who was expected to be proficient on all three classes of 
musical instruments. 

Before all, however, to troubadours and Minnesingers is due, 
perhaps in a still greater degree than to trouveres or bards, the 
rapid development of the bowed instruments, which were more 
suitable by reason of their singing quality to accompany the 
passionate love-songs of the sunny South ; while those stringed 
instruments whose strings were plucked would seem to accord 
better with the more declamatory style of the dramatic and 
heroic songs of the North. 

It stands to reason, however, that the minstrels and jugleors 
who naturally acquired proficiency in playing their vielles and 
gigues should try their hand at solo music; first playing a few 
bars of appropriate music to lead from one verse to the next — 
thus corresponding to the prelude to an act of an opera, of 
which indeed the solo song was in some degree the prototype — 
and next playing interludes between the songs, while their 
masters, the singers, sunned themselves in the smiles and 
thanks of ladies fair. 

As minstrelsy was practised during the twelfth, thirteenth,, 
and fourteenth centuries in Spain, France, England, Germany, 
and Italy, we must expect to find traces of the guitar-fiddle in 
all those lands. 

Taking into consideration the characteristics of race, tem- 
perament and climate, and the circumstances of the customs 
and history of the nations, we should naturally hope to find 
the development of the instrument influenced in some degree 
by them. This was no doubt the case, yet it was very difficult 

2 s 


for US to get actual proofs of this hypothesis and to acquire 
sufficient matter to form a basis of study, and this for the 
following reasons : 

Minstrelsy was a roving art which led its votaries through 
many lands, giving them the opportunity of seeing all kinds 
of instruments and of acquiring any novelty that appeared to 
them desirable. On their return to their native land this new 
treasure would be shown to colleagues, and would be eagerly 
copied by them as nearly as possible, thus confusing and re- 
moving all landmarks for him who should, in years to come, 
attempt to identify the nationality of specimens. Again, 
specimens of the instruments themselves not being extant at the 
present day, we have to depend upon sculptures and miniatures 
for our study, and should we succeed in tracing beyond a doubt 
the nationality of the artist who executed any one MS. or 
sculpture, how can we feel certain that the minstrels depicted 
with their instruments were of the same nationality ? Thus, 
although an attempt will be made to produce examples from 
all these lands, dating from the age of minstrelsy, the evidence 
will yet not be sufficiently authoritative to enable one to assign 
any given characteristics in the construction of the instrument 
to one land rather than to another. 


To this statement, however, there is one exception in the case 
of Germany ; in Prof. Riihlmann's " Geschichte der Bogenin- 
strumente," a work upon which he lavished the best years of 
his life, and which is to musical antiquarians of inestimable 
value, we get a collection of bowed instruments of the Minne- 
singers, which, as far as I know, stands unrivalled in repre- 
senting the instruments of any one country during this inter- 
esting period. These instruments have all the same character- 
istics : a body and short neck in one piece, with ribs and 
incurvations, whereas the true guitar-fiddle had a separate neck 



from the very first, for it was added to the body of the cithara, 
as has been before shown. 

I know not whether it be chance only which has thrown 
together so many similar specimens, or that we have not equally 
rich collections from other lands to judge from, or whether 
Germany really preserved some individuality in the shape of 
the Minnesingers' fiddles, owing to France, Spain, Italy, and 
England forming a common ground for minstrels where the 
Romance languages were understood, and who left Germany 
as a field to its own Minnesingers. 

The instruments in question are all taken from MSS. of the 
Minnesingers or from the great Nibelungen Lied, and purport 
to represent the instruments used by minstrels. 

The crowned figure of a minstrel given in Fig. 179 is a good 
example of this troubadour or guitar fiddle, as I suppose we 
must call it, since the terms are so often used synonymously, 
although readers will have an opportun- (jO^ 

ity of observing that there is a difference 
in the two terms when applied to Ger- 
many at any rate. 

The back and front of the fiddle, which 
are flat, are connected by very wide ribs 
in which the incurvations are very pro- 
nounced. The body and neck are in one 

There are five strings attached to a 
wedge-shaped tail-piece, but the bridge 
has been omitted. The four sound-holes 
are ear-shaped. Fig. 179 represents a 
crowned statue in the Church of Our pig_ ng_ 

Lady (Liebfrauen Kirche) at Treves, and Minnesinger's flddie, 14th 

1 • -11 , ,• ■ • 1 T-...1 1 cent., German. From the 

this illustration is given by Ruhlmann Liebfrauen Kirche at 

(Taf. VII., Nos. 7 and 8, and p. in. fT" R-P-f,>^-d .^'o- 

' " i. Ruhlmann s ' Geschichte 

A misprint gives in one place the origin ^^^ Bog-eninstrumente," by 

. . n • , r '^'"'^ permission of Dr. R. 

as Aix-la-Lhapelle instead of Treves). Ruhlmann. 


In bowed instruments the growth of the neck must be re- 
garded less as a means of increasing the volume of tone than 
as an indication of the improvement in the technique. It 
stands to reason that in those instruments of the rebab type, 
without neck or fingerboard, the technique was necessarily 
much restricted. In these German minnesinger fiddles the 
neck is much less developed than in the contemporary or 
earlier guitar-fiddle of other countries, notably Figs. 173 and 
178, and resemble the instruments in Figs. 163 and 170, from 
St. Georges de Boscherville and the Abbey of St. Denis, with 
the addition of incurvations, and Fig. 174 from Jerusalem. 
Fig. 180 represents " Reinmar der Vidiller," one of the il- 
luminations from the Manesse MSS., made 
known by Herr von der Hagen in the " Ab- 
handlungen der Berliner Akademie der 
Wissenschaften," 1842, p. 437, and later in 
his beautiful " Bildersaal" ; five of these 
are Minnesingers of renown (such as 
'It Frauenlob), or the attendant minstrels, and 

Fi". 180. they all hold instruments similar to the 

Minnesinger fiddle from two cxaiiiples here given, oiie showing the 

Germany, 13th cent. From 

the Manesse MSS. i?e- profile and the Other (rig. 180) the full 

produced from J. Riilil- • t^i • • , , • • ■ . r 

mann's work, by kind per- ^lew. This instrument IS remmisccnt of 
mission of Dr. R. Riihi- j-j^g citharas or cittems which occur among 

mann. "^ 

the minatures of the Stuttgart Psalter.* 
The instruments of the Stuttgart MS., dating from the Xth cent., 
were all played with the plectrum and had one feature in 
common, i.e., a very long neck, apparently in one piece with the 
long, narrow soundchest, while the outline and details varied. 
The musicians held their instruments either like the 'cello, or 
horizontally in front of them. 

The long tail-piece, which we have repeatedly seen 

* See Hefner-Alteneck (Jacob H. voni, Trachten d. Christl. Mittelalters 
Abteilung I., Pi. 53, 74 and 75. Stuttgart, K. offentliche Bibl. Bibl., fol. 23. 


in bowed instruments from various MSS., and which 
is sometimes placed quite in the centre of the strings, 
is explained by Prof. Riihlmann to be not an error 
of the draughtsman, but a contrivance for stopping all 
vibration of the strings between the bridge and tail-piece; the 
strings, he says, passed through this rectangular damper, and 
every kind of sympathetic vibration was thus effectually pre- 
vented. In order to make room for it, the bridge had to be 
placed very near the neck, which would by no means improve 
the tone of the fiddle. I should feel inclined to doubt the 
correctness of this surmise on that account, and also because in 
two of the examples quoted in support of this theory, from the 
famous enamelled bowl from Soissons, the performer is bowing 
between the bridge and this contrivance or tail-piece, and in 
three others the bridge has been omitted altogether, showing 
in all cases the inaccuracy of the artist. 

Continuing our study of tne instruments of the fiddle-class 
in use among the Minnesingers of Germany, we find that 
" Reinmar der Vidiller " (see Fig. 180) had for a coat of arms 
a fiddle, which is given in Fig. 181. 
We must notice that it has a short neck 
of which the lines are parallel, as in our 

violins, and that the bridge appears to 

^ ^^ Fig. 181. 

be an arched one. If this really was pij^ie f^om Rcinmar-s coat 

the case, and is not due merely to the °^ ''™'' ^^^'^ ^''°^- ^^"" 

^ maun. 

imagination of the draughtsman, we 

must presume that there was some sort of fingerboard not here 
indicated, or the performer would have had some difficulty in 
stopping the strings. 

On comparing Reinmar's fiddle with some belonging to other 
Minnesingers, this difference in the necks will at once be 

The five-stringed fiddle here given from F. von der Hagen's 
" Bildersaal/' and also to be seen in Riihlmann's work already 


quoted (Taf. VIL, No. 11) shows a 
model with sloping shoulders and a 
less distuict neck. 1 am convmced 
that both kinds of hddles existed, and 
P'g- 1^^- were used by minstrels; they are not 

Minnesinger's fiddle, 13th cent. , . . i • i . 

merely a variation which we owe to 

Von der Hag-en's " Bildersaal." •' 

the fancy or inaccuracy of the artist 
who painted the miniatures, for, as I shall be able to show when 
dealing with the minstrel hddles of France and other countries, 
the distinction exists elsewhere also. 

In the collection of Manesse MSS. at the Bibliotheque 
Nationale in Paris there is an exceedingly interesting miniature 
depicting Heinrich von Meissen, the last of the Minnesingers, 
who was born at Meissen (presumably the Meissenheim of to- 
day, near Mainz) in 1260, and died at Mainz in 1308. He was 
surnamed Franenlob from the fact of his devoting his muse to 
the praise of woman, and of his using chiefly the word Frau 
instead of the older word \\ eib, used in preference by Walther 
von der Vogelweide and others. 

In the illustration in question, a personage with crown and 
ermine cloak, thought to be Frauenlob, is seated on a very much 
raised dais, conducting with baton and raised finger a small 
orchestra of instrumentalists and singers standing below, two 
of whom have just unrolled a rich carpet on which some great 
minstrel stands playing his fiddle, while the rest listen with 
rapt attention, some of them beating time apparently. This 
solo player is considered by some to be Frauenlob playing to 
some king or prince. This may be so, but the latter's crown 
looks hardly important enough for a king. 

The other instrumentalists, some of whom wear crowns or 
diadems, consist of a second fiddler, of musicians playing upon 
two wood-wind instruments, a shalmey and a cornet, a psaltery, 
a set of bagpipes, and a little tabor. 

An old chronicle relates that when Heinrich von Meissen 



died the women of Mainz bore their favourite to his tomb and 
watered it with their tears. 

Fig. 183 represents either Frauenlob or his minstrel, and is 
taken from the group mentioned above, which can be seen in 
its entirety in Naumann's History of 
Music* The point that concerns us most, 
however, is the instrument itself, in which 
neither bridge nor fingerboard is given; the 
minstrel is stopping a string with his second 
finger : in all probability the bridge was 
similar to that in Reinmar's fiddle (Fig. 
180), and there was some sort of finger- 
board. The shoulders again here, as in Fig. 
182, slope up gradually to the head, and 
the same remark applies to the second 
fiddle of the group. 
In Volker der Fiedler's fiddle (Fig. 184) we see a very 
modern-looking instrument with incurvations which would seem 
to call for corner blocks, a very 
arched bridge, but again no appear- 
ance of the very indispensable finger- 
board. The shoulders slope off gradu- 
ally to the head, which is bent back 
at the same angle as that of the 
modern violin, and terminates in a 
kind of scroll. This illustration, from von der Hagen's " Hel 
denbilder," is not given by Riihlmann. 

Volker, the minstrel knight of the Nibelungen Lied, played 
so sweetly, we are told, in the court of the Palace of Kriemhild 

Fig. 183. 

Minstrel with fiddle, 
from the Frauenlob 
miniature, 14th cent. 
Manesse MSS., Bibl. 
Nat., Paris. See Ruhl- 
mann,t Tafel VII. 

Tolker's fiddle, 14th cent. " Hel- 

denbilder," von der Hagen. 


* The History of Music, by Emil Naumann, translated by F. Praeger, 
i8g8-igoo. Vol. I., p. 249. 

t By kind permission of Dr. R. Rijhlmann. 



at night, that all the careworn warriors fell asleep as he wished 

under the magic influence of his music : 

" Da klangen seine Saiten uiid hallten durch das Schloss : 
Die Kunst und seine Krafte, die waren beide gross. 
Drauf sanfter nun und sjsser zu geigen er begann, 
Und wiegte in den Schlummer gar manchen Sorgenvollen Mann." 

Translated from the Middle-High-German into modern German 
by H. A. Junghans (Abenteuer 29). 

Fig. 755, 

Oval vielle, 14th cent. From the Cathedral, Cologne. 

Ruhlraann, Taf. III., No. 9. 

It must not be taken for granted that the kind of fiddle 
shown in Figs. 179 and 184 was in universal use in Germany, 
nor must it be considered characteristic of the Minnesingers 
upon this scanty evidence. Some day, when opportunity offers 
of searching the treasures of other lands, a better light may be 
thrown upon this exceedingly interesting subject, and it may 
perhaps then be less imperfectly treated than has been the case 

Fig. 185, for instance, shows an oval fiddle with a finger- 


beard, but no bridge, unless it has been misplaced by the artist 
just where the end of the fingerboard would come, in which 
case the bowing is of course an impossibility, and the stopping 
of the strings futile. The ribs are wide, and the neck is joined 
to the body, not made in one with it as in the minstrel fiddles 
shown previously ; incurvations are wanting, however, and one 
cannot but wonder how the strings were reached without sound- 
ing more than one at the same time. 

The illustration forms one of the pictures in the Cathe- 
dral at Cologne, attributed to the brush of the artist Stephan 
(fourteenth century), and given by Riihlmann, who calls it a 
geige-riibebe; with this nomenclature I cannot agree, for the 
instrument appears from its construction — supposing the draw- 
ing to be correct — to be a large oval four-stringed vielle with 

From the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle we get Fig. 186, 
taken from the console of one of the statues of the Apostles; 
it is classed by Riihlmann among the fiddles. There are 
neither strings nor bow; the absence of 
the former is remarkable in a sculpture, 
for the strings are always cut out of 
one solid piece, which, one would 
imagine, would be difficult to break p^„ j^q 

away ; the presence of the two little Hurdy Gurdy in shape of 

, , . . . . , 1 r 1 ifuitar-fiddle, 14th cent. From 

round holes lying m the path of the cathedral of Aixia-chapeiie. 

, ■ „ • , . . r -.I Riihlmann. Taf. VII., No. 10. 

strings is not easy to account for, either, 

if we call the instrument a fiddle. The curious-looking tail-piece 
might represent the badly-drawn crank of a hurdy-gurdy ; in- 
deed, it would not require any very great effort of the imagina- 
tion to see in Fig. 186 a hurdy-gurdy instead of a hddle, but 
it would be hardly fair to judge without seeing the original at 
Aix-la-Chapelle. However this may be, we have in this four- 
teenth century instrument the outline of the true guitar-fiddle, 
with incurvations, fingerboard, and even purflings. This is an 


instrument of the same type as Fig. 178, a French example a 
century earher in date and much smaller. 

When we reach the fifteenth century we find the guitar-fiddle 
in its most perfect shape and beautifully proportioned, but it 
does not follow that this perfection was not attained in Ger- 
many at a much earlier date. 

Fig. 187 represents an instrument from a painting in the old 

Pinacothek at Munich by an anony- 
mous master of the Cologne School 
of the fifteenth century, given also 
by Ruhlmann (Atlas. Tafel VIII., 

Fi,.187. Fig. 27). 

Guitarfiddie, 15th cent. From the The body IS large — it was prc- 

Pinacothek, Alunich. Ruhlmann. i_ 11 .1 1. ■ . . 1 

Taf. VIII., Fig. 27. Daoly the alto instrument — and 

shallow, having a neck furnished 
with a sort of reel head over which the strings are strained, the 
better to obtain the requisite tension. 

The " C "-shaped sound-holes are correctly placed, but the 
bridge, as is so often the case, has proved a puzzle for the artist, 
who, not content with placing it above the sound-holes, has 
drawn a second one where the end of the fingerboard might 
show through under the strings; the bridge, it will be observed, 
has a groove for each of the strings. The tail-piece consists 
of two more bridges, over which the strings are strained, and 
of a tail-pin to which they are fastened. Unfortunately, only 
part of the bow has been preserved. 

In Fig. 188 we draw upon Aix-la-Chapelle again for our 
illustration (Riihlmann, Taf. VIII., No. 12), where it is by a 
misprint attributed to the fourteenth century, which yields an 
instrument of a less perfect type than the last, but nevertheless 
a true guitar-fiddle, with at least one point in common with 
the Minnesinger fiddles shown in the last two articles, and 
that is the round head with pegs inserted in the under sur- 



face instead of at the side, as in Fig. 
187. Fig. 188 is from a painting on 
wood by the hand of the Dutch artist 
Hugo van der Goes, who flourished 
between 1467 and 1479, and travelled 
a great deal in Italy and Germany. 

Such, then, is the best selection of 
minstrel fiddles from Germany 
which can at present be gathered to- 
gether, all, with one or two excep- 
tions, the result of Dr. Riihlmann's 
labour, independent research (which 
in one fortnight alone, included over 
sixty MSS. and facsimiles) having 
proved fruitless as regards Germany. 

The Minnesingers never imitated 
the courtly, somewhat superficial style of the romantic trou- 
badours of Southern France; those of lower Germany were 
influenced in a measure by the troicvhes of Northern France by 
way of Burgundy, Flanders, and the Rhine country, but 
in the songs of the Minnesingers of upper Germany there is 
no trace of French style. The Minnelieder were always dis- 
tinguished by a popular element and by the expression of a 
poetry which came from the heart, and was as much at home 
in the breast of a peasant woman as in that of a courtly dame. 
The beauty of the poetry was less dependent on expression, on 
hne language, and on romantic accessories than on pure feel- 
ing, distinctions which characterize German poetry at the 
present day in a still more striking degree. 

Fig. 188. 
Guitar-fiddle, 15th cent. From a 
painting- by Hugo van der Goes. 
Riihlmann, Taf. VIII., No. 12. 


Researches in the region of Spain on the subject of the 
guitar-fiddle of the troubadours, considering the extreme diffi- 
culties in the way, have not proved altogether fruitless. 


The earliest illumination we have of any bowed instrument 
in Spain is, I believe, that contained in Add. MS. 11695 at the 
British Museum, dating from the twelfth century. This manu- 
script is a version of the Apocalypse by an anonymous author, 
believed to be a Spaniard, with commentaries, from the mon- 
astery of Silos, near Burgos in Old Castile. 

The minstrel, as he has been called in Shaw's "Ornaments 
of the Middle Ages," where a facsimile of the figure is given, 
holds the instruments with the head pointing towards his left 
shoulder and the tail end poised on his knee, he is represented 
in an attitude of dancing. 

The miniatures in the manuscript are crude both in outline 
and colouring; red, yellow, green, and black predominate, and 
the faces throughout are of one type peculiar to the produc- 
tions of that part of Spain, with large heavy black eyes and 
hair. The instrument in Fig. 189 is, if allowances be made 
for the licence of the artist, an oval vielle with 
five strings fastened to very long pegs in a 
T-shaped head, and at the other end to a cres- 
cent-shaped tailpiece; the neck was in a separ- 
ate piece and joined to the 
body apparently (judging by 
the painting) by a sort of 
collar, which may in reality 
have indicated the end of the 
fingerboard, over which the 
artist has carried but one string 
to the neck, whereas there are pi^. 1S9. 

five stretched over the body. '^"'^^ vlclle, or minstrel's fiddle, 12th cent., 

... . , Spain. From Add. MS. 11695, Brit. Mus. 

The bow is of the type with 
a long handle already seen in MSS. from other countries. The 
ornamentation on the vielle is singular, and will be mentioned 
again later on. There is in the MS. but one bowed instru- 
ment, whereas a similar instrument, with several small round 


sound-holes and three strings, plucked with the fingers, occurs 
several times. Riaiio, in his " Early Studies of Spanish Music " 
(p. 109), gives seven musicians from a MS. dated 1047, from 
the same source as Add. MS. 11695, one of which holds an 
instrument like the one in Fig. 189. 

In M. le Comte de Bastard's matchless work (already 
described in these articles) with facsimiles of the principal illu- 
minated MSS. in France, we find traces of the same art. In a 
version of the Apocalypse now in the Bibliotheque Nationale, 
Paris, we find the adoration of the twenty-four elders depicted 
in a miniature, and they hold practically the same instrument 
again, some with four and others with five strings, but no bows. 
The MS., written in the second half of the eleventh century, is 
derived from the Abbey of St. Sever, in Gascony, which was 
evidently in communication with the monastery in Burgos, 
judging from the great similarity in the drawing of the minia- 

One would naturally turn with great expectations to the 
unique MS. from the Escorial, so often quoted in these articles, 
the " Cantigas de Santa Maria," where, among the fifty-one 
figures of musicians, however, there is not a single instance 
of the guitar-fiddle with incurvations; this is not a little re- 
markable, and perhaps some one better versed in the history of 
Spanish music might be able to suggest some explanation. 
The kithara or githara answering to al-Farabi's description, 
with fingerboard and frets and a body representing the kithara 
of the Greeks, is twice given, but the strings are plucked with 
the fingers. Oval vielles there are with fingerboards, and 
soundholes and tailpieces, but no incurvations. One of these 
is held like a fiddle, and the others like the violoncellos, merely 
resting on or between the knees, according to their size; this 
was apparently, however, not the sole cause of so holding the 
precursors of the violoncello, since in this and other manu- 
scripts quite small instruments are rested on the knees, whereas 



others, much larger, and one would think much too heavy to 
be so played with ease, rest under the chin like the violin. 
Curiously enough, in one of these oval vielles with fingerboard 
and diamond-shaped head held like Fig. 189, we find the same 
ornamentation as in the Burgos vielle. Alfonso the Wise, who 
caused the " Cantigas " to be compiled, or, as some say, wrote 
them himself, reigned over Castile and Leon, and presumably 
employed a native artist to paint the miniatures. 

Fig. 190 is derived from the same century — the thirteenth — 
as the " Cantigas," and from the same province of Leon. It is 
from a painted window in the Cathedral of Leon, and has been 
copied from a very fine work by Don 
Juan de Dies Rada y Delgado, the 
" Museo Espanol de Antiguedados," 
vol. ii., p. 286. 

Here we have the instrument we 
sought for in vain in the " Cantigas " — 
the real guitar-fiddle — still, however, 
held on the knees, which appears to 
have been the favourite position in 
Spain. I may, en passant, remark that 
five out of the six bowed instruments 
in the " Cantigas " are so held. Fig. 190. 

In Fig. 190 we have an instrument Guitarfiddie, 13th cent. Spain. 

^ -^ hrom a painted window in the 

with incurvations, ribs, a fingerboard, t!athedrai at Leon, sce " mus. 

. Esp. de Antio-uedados," vol. ii., 

four strings, and a square tailpiece kept p. 286. 

in place by strings fastened to a button ; the head is somewhat 
indistinct; the sound-holes have been placed in the upper lobes 
by the artist ; it is otherwise a thoroughly satisfactory example, 
equal in point of development to any of its contemporaries from 
other lands. 

With this Spanish guitar-fiddle we must, owing to want of 
space, leave Spain for France, where available materials are 
richer and show a great variety in style. 




While the form of the Minnesingers' fiddles from Germany, 
such as Figs. 179 and 180, are still in our mind, we must con- 
sider what France can give us of the same type. 

The long narrow fiddle with wide incurvations reproduced in 
Fig. 191 is the nearest I have yet seen to the German type we 
found common in the MSS. of the Minnesingers and of the 
Nibelungen Lied. This illustration is from a painted window 
of the thirteenth century in the Chapel of the Virgin in the 

Fig. 191. 
Fitklle, 13th cent., Troycs Cathedral. Lacrois, p. 218. 

Troyes Cathedral, which is given by Lacroix in " The Arts of 
the Middle Ages," p. 218. The bridge, resting on very decided 
feet, must have been very high if anything like the painting. 
There are four strings tuned by pegs set in the back of a dia- 
mond-shaped head, which here replaces the round one common 
in the Minnesingers' fiddles; there are four pegs, the fifth dot 
being probably intended for the nut over which the longest 
string was strained. This fiddle, it will be observed, is held 
like the Spanish one in Fig. 190. The neck is formed by the 



gradual narrowing of the body — one of the characteristics of 
the Minnesingers' fiddles. 

We have no authority for thinking that this fiddle was a 
type of those in use among the minstrels of France, the royal 
personage here playing being rather intended for King David. 
The elaborate and fanciful instrument in Fig. 192 is taken 
from one of the famous manuscript " Bibles Historiaux," of 
which there are so many in the Bibliotheque 
Royale, Paris. Willemin gives the num- 
bers 6819 and 6703 from which he derives 
a page of illustrations without further 
specification; both manuscripts date from 
the fourteenth century. The position of 
the left hand and arm supporting the 
fiddle, and of the right hand on the bow, 
testify that the artist was not much of a 
connoisseur in fiddles, nor did he under- 
stand how they were played, he has made 
of the pegs an ornamentation for the head 
without regard for the fact that there are 
but three strings. 
Fig- 193 has the outline of a much elongated pear-shaped 
rebec, but apparently with ribs; it is here given on account of 
the interesting detail of the head which it gives us. Here we 
see the nut at the end of the neck over which the strings are 
strained as they leave the peg-box ; there are five strings and 
five lateral pegs. Fig. 193 is from a sculpture given by Viollet- 
le-Duc in the " Dictionnaire Raisonne du Mobilier Franqais " 
under the head of "Vielle" in Vol. II.; it is one of the sculp- 
tured statues of kings on the western doorway in Notre Dame 
de Chartres, of which the date is 1140 A.D. 

Fig. 194 is a genuine minstrel fiddle of the twelfth century 
from the Abbey of Vezelai, taken from the same source as Fig. 
193. The instrument hangs by a ribbon at the side of the 

Fig. 192. 

Guitar-fiddle, 14tli cent. 
from a MS. Paris, BibI 
Nat. " Bible Historians.' 



minstrel, as we read was the custom in the verses of the Fabliaux 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In outline it reminds 
us of the class of instruments which was the outcome of the 

Vielle, 1140 a.d., Notre Dame 
Chartres. See Violletle-Uuc, Vol. 

Fig. 194. 

Minstrel fiddle, 12th cent.. 

Abbey of Tezelai. See Viol- 

let-le-Duc, Vol. II. 

cithara before necks were added ; the bridge is visible between 
the strings, the pegs are set Oriental fashion in the back of the 

Belonging to the same category are the instruments given in 
Figs. 195 and 196. Fig. 195 is a bowed 
instrument from a painted window in 
the Cathedral of Bourges, given by 
Cahier et ^lartin in " Monographie de 
la Cathedrale de Bourges," Vol. IL, 
Plate 23, and is of the thirteenth cen- 
tury ; the head is fancifully drawn in 
trefoil, enclosing the fleur-de-lys. No 
finger-board is given, but that may be 
Fig. 19.'). omission of the artist. 

Fiddle, 13tli eeiit.. Cathedral of r- ■ en U „U1 <-U^ 

B,j„,.„^,s. Fig. 190 very much resembles the 



last in outline, tail-piece, &c., but with 
the addition of a hnger-board and of a 
more practical head. The illustration is from 
Add. MS. 16975 in the British Museum, a Psal- 
terium written at the close of the thirteenth or 
the beginning of the fourteenth century ; the 
drawings are in tinted outline by a Norman 
artist, and the MS. belonged to the Abbey of 
Lire in Normandy ; we may conclude that it 
was written there, for in the calendar are 
entered many obits of abbots and benefactors Guitar-flddie, end of 

- , , , „ , , 13th cent. Add. MS. 

of the monastery, among them the harl and 16975, Brit. .uhs. 
Countess of Leicester. 

Fig. 197 represents a minstrel from the Faqade des Musiciens 

F/>- 196. 

Oval viellc. 13tli cent., Fafade des ilusicicns, Rheims 
See Tiollet-le Due, Vol. II. 



at Rheims, as given by Viollet-le-Duc. The statues are life 
size and date from the thirteenth century. The instrument has 
nothing special to distinguish it ; it is merely an oval vielle, 
and has nothing in common with the guitar-fiddle; the bow 
is an iron one, and its slim, elegant shape with a handle is 

A true guitar-fiddle is Fig. 198, without details, however; it 
is found on a painted window in the Abbey of Bon-Port, dating 
from the thirteenth century ; the neck is in a separate piece, but 
is thick and rectangular. The bow is abnormally long. 

Fig. IDS. 
Guitar-flcldle, 1.3tk cent.. Abbey of Bon Port. 

The guitar-fiddle in Fig. 199 is taken from a very beautiful 
MS. of the thirteenth century in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, No. 

6769, " The Romance of the San 
Graal," and forms part of a scene 
representing the beautiful Josiane, 
disguised as a female juggler, play- 
ing a Welsh air on the guitar-fiddle 
to make herself known to her friend 
Bewis. The MS. is considered very 
precious; it was brought from 
" Pavye " by Louis XII. of France, 
who, it is believed, obtained it from 
the library of the Sforza family, one 
of the richest in Italy, when Louis 
Paris. ■ XII. carried off its treasures to Blois. 

Fig. 799. 
Guitar-fiddle, 13th cent. 
MS. No. 6769, Bibl. Imp. 



The Romance is written by a Frenchman, Robert de Borron, 
and begins thus: "El comence (sic) Messire Robiers en tel 
maniere com vous pores. S'il est qui le vous lie," an interest- 
ing allusion to the mediaeval custom of reading prose romances 
aloud to amateurs. The illustration may be seen in full in 
Lacroix's work quoted above (p. 457). Here we have the in- 
strument again held in a very insecure position ; it is a genuine 
guitar-fiddle with five strings, the same number of pegs inserted 
laterally in the head. It is interesting to note from this ex- 
ample that it was customary for women of high degree to learn 
to play the fiddle even as early as the thirteenth century in 


Fig. 200. 
Guitar-fiddle, Utli cent, :MS. No. 7;i7.SA, Bibl. Inip. Paris. 

Fig. 200 is a guitar-fiddle, slightly reminiscent of the last but 
with its head bent back in order to obtain a better tension for 
the strings, which, judging from the lines, number six, but from 
the pegs four — probably the correct number as there are also 
four notches in the bridge, the other two representing the 

This illustration is given by Viollet-le-Duc, who derived it 
from a MS. No. 7378A, of the fourteenth century, in the Biblio- 
theque I m peri ale. 

Fig. 201 shows yet another true guitar-fiddle from 
MS. 6737, of the fourteenth century in the Ribliothcque 



Fig. 201. 


14th cent., MS 

6737, Bibl. 

Imp., Paris. 

See Willemin. 

Fig. 202. 
Fiddle, 13th cent., 
from the Catliedral 

Impenale, Paris, which contains 
three Romances by Benoit do 
Ste. Maure — " Le Roman de 
Thebes, le Roman de Troyes, et le 
Roman d'Eneas." The whole 
scene is given by Willemin in his 
beautiful volumes of "Monuments 
Inedits," and contains besides a 
tabor with a snare, a tambourine, 
a psaltery, a portative organ, and of^^n>'ens. sceNau 

mann's " History of 

a Cittern. .^lusic." p. 257. 

Before closing our study of the guitar-fid(;lle 
\i\ France one more example is given, Fig. 202, to show that 
the idea of using some sort of corner block had already occurred 
to a fiddle-maker, although it did not come to perfection or 
become generally used until the da)/ of the viol family dawned. 
The illustration is from a piece of sculpture in the Cathedral 
of Amiens, and may be seen in Naumann's " History of Music," 
first edition, p. 257. (See Appendix E). 


In England, we find that the favourite stringed instruments 
of the minstrels were first of all the harp and crouth (rctta) and 
during the eleventh and twelfth centuries the pear-shaped rebec 
and gigue, all of which have already been illustrated m these 
pages. The cittern and gittern apparently superseded all others 
m popularity during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries — 
this we deduce from the poems and miniatures b)' English 
artists which remain. 

The precious manuscript known as Queen Mary's Psalter 
(British Museum, Reg. II. B. VII.) contains, perhaps, more musi- 
cal instruments than any other manuscript, and more especially 
scenes of minstrelsy treated in every imaginable way by a very 
observant artist with a keen sense of humour. It seems stranere 


to US moderns to find the Book of Hours, Psalteries, and 
Breviaries with borders in which the broad comic humour of the 
artist is allowed to run riot; but no one examining these trea- 
sures of archaeology will feel inclined to find fault with the 
taste of our forefathers. 

In Queen Mary's Psalter the instruments do not vary very 
much; we find the vielle, the little minstrel harp, the psaltery, 
the small portative organ with eight notes, the long straight 
trumpet, the shawm, the pipe and tabor, tambourines, the 
oliphant both large and small, the bagpipes; of all the instru- 
ments the two that recur most constantly are (i) the oval vielle, 
with fingerboard, tail-piece, small sound-holes placed close 
together, a leaf -shaped head, and a long bow, of which half 
the length is handle; (2) the cittern, already given 
in Fig. 167, the outline of which is sufficient, even with- 
out the name of the instrument, to point conclusively to its 
descent from the kithara of the Greeks and Romans. This 
instrument, as we see from one of the miniatures, has ribs con- 
necting the flat back and sound-board, but the strings are 
vibrated with a plectrum and not a bow. 

A bowed instrvmient of almost identical shape, but with the 
change in the sound-holes necessitated by the difference in the 
method of vibrating the strings, is to be found on a sculptured 
pillar in the cathedral of Aix-la-Chapelle. 

The unique MS. of which we were speaking is the work of an 
English artist of the beginning of the fourteenth century. The 
miniatures which adorn every page are throughout of the same 
character; the first part, the Old Testament in pictures with 
short explanatory text in French, and the border grotesques 
illustrating animal and bird life as well as social English life, 
without any regard to the sacred text written above, are in 
tinted outline, the favourite colours being green, mauve, and 
light red (terra cotta), whereas the Psalter itself is independ- 
ently illustrated by paintings. 



Fig. 203. 

Guitar-fiddle, 1-lth cent. Clias. Wild's 

" Architecture and Sculpture of Lincoln 


Fig-. 203 IS given by Chas. 
Wild in his book of "Illus- 
trations of the Architecture 
and Sculpture of Lincoln 
Cathedral" (London, 18 15), 
to which he assigns the dates 
1 25 1 to 1306. The instrument 
seems to belong to a much 
later date from the shape of 
the incurvations ; it may have 
been restored. 

A more thorough study of 
the musical instruments used 
in England before the great wave of Italian influence set in 
would, I imagine, bring us very little evidence that the true 
guitar-fiddle was ever a favourite in this country. 

Italy must now engage our attention, and with it these studies 
will close. The land of the Cremona masterpieces was already, 
in the thirteenth century, rich in great painters, who have left us 
illustrations of the very instruments for which we are now 

Fig. 204 represents a guitar-fiddle from a painting by Andrea 
Tafi, of the school of Florence 

(12 13-1294), who was a pupil of 
Apollonius, a Greek painter estab- 
lished in Venice. 

Tafi was the first, it is said, to 
introduce into his pictures figures 
of angels playing fiddles. This 
illustration was taken by Riihlmann 
from Artaud de Mentor's " Pemtres 
Primitifs," Paris, 1843. 

The incurvation is but a wave in 
the general outline, but the fiddle is 

F/>. 204. 

Guitar-fiddle, Italian, 13t)i cent., 

from a picture by Andrea Tafl 

I see Hiihimann.) 



Fig. 20.-> 

Guitar-fiddle, Italiiin, 
13th cent., from a picture 
by C'imabue in Pitti Gal- 
lery, Florence. 

well proportioned, and the bow is by no means a clumsy 

Fig. 205 is from a picture by Cirnabue in the Pitti Gallery, 
Florence. This early Florentine 
artist, born in 1240 and still living in 
1302, also had Greek masters, and 
was, as is well known, the founder of 
the Italian school, and the master of 

We are indebted to him for having 
recorded the guitar-hddle here shown, 
in which the outline is again wavy. 
The finger-board has been clearly 
drawn, and also the tail-piece, which, like the modern one, is 
wedge-shaped, and is slung by a gut string to a button; the 
sound-holes are ear-shaped, and the head large and oval. The 
positions of the hands stopping the strings and holding the 
bow are remarkable. 

The four-stringed guitar-fiddle given in Fig. 206 is from a 
wall painting in the Spanish Chapel of S. Maria Novella, Flor- 
ence, ascribed to Simcne IMemi (see Springer, 
Part 11.). The instrument is of a very large 
size, and was probably the alto guitar-fiddle, 
corresponding to our viola. The finger-board 
stands out well in the picture; the neck finishes 
off with an oval head vaulted at the back. The 
six sound-holes are curious — four being dia- 
mond-shaped, and two like crescents. The 
Fi" 206 bc)^^' is modern looking, forming a great con- 

Guitar-fiddie, 14th trast to that in Fig. 204, from a picture by 
cent., from a pictur.. /\j-,clrea Tafi, and the century which lies 

ascribed to Simone ^ 

Memi, s. Maria No- between the two illustrations hardlv seems 

vella, Florence. 

enough to account for the development. 
Fig. 207 is taken from the celebrated "Triumph of Death" 



by Orcagna, painted in the middle of the fourteenth century in 
the Campo Santo at Pisa. This illustration is borrowed from 
Riihlmann's book before quoted (Taf. VIII., No. 5). Andrea 
and Bernardo Orcagna were engaged in collaboration in the 
Campo Santo in two large frescoes, "Paradise" and the "In- 
ferno," illustrating Dante's immortal conception. Andrea 
repeated these later in the Church of Santa Croce at Florence, 
placing among the elect portraits of his benefactors, and in the 
"Inferno" those of his enemies. 

We only see the back of the instrument, which was orna- 
mented, thus we cannot judge of the details. There seem to be 
six pegs in the head. In outline 
the instrument resembles one in 
a MS. in the British Museum, 
Nero C. IV., by an x\nglo-Nor- 
man artist of the twelfth cen- 
tury, having two lobes, between 
which the bout (if we may call it 
thus) is straight ; the purflmgs 
are distinctly shown. 

In the fifteenth century, 
although we still find numbers 
of guitar-fiddles in Italy, the 
viol characteristics were begin- 
ning to show themselves, and 
corner blocks, single and double, 
are observable, giving to the viols various curious shapes, 
which, however, leave the guitar-fiddle with its wavy incurva- 
tion behind altogether to die a natural and gradual death. 

Several of these bowed instruments with corner blocks, of 
which the outline seems to have been derived from the oval 
vielle, giving a body with sloping shoulders and a tail-end to 
match, with the straight bouts above described, a finger-board 

Fig. 207, 

Guitar-fiddle, 14tli cent., Italy, " TriuinpU 

of Death," by Orcagna, Pisa, lliilil- 

mann, P]. Till. (5). 


with frets, " C "-shaped sound-holes, and a scroll terminating 
the head, will be found in one of the most precious and beauti- 
ful manuscripts of the British Museum, known as the Sforza 

This work of art dates from the end of the fifteenth century, 
and was only acquired in 1893, having been presented by Mr. 
J. Malcolm, of Poltalloch. A facsimile in collotype of some 
of the miniatures and borders, with an introduction by G. F. 
Warner, M.A., has been issued by the British ^Museum. (See 
Bibliography, Section E.) 

The MS. was written for Bona of Savoy, Duchess of Milan, 
wife of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, second Duke of Milan, between 
the years 1476 and 1480, it is thought. After the death of 
Bona in 1 503, her daughter Bianca Maria inherited the treasure, 
and it passed successively into the hands of the Emperor Maxi- 
milian, her husband, and of Charles V., after which it cannot 
be traced again until it was purchased in 1871 at Madrid. This 
exquisite work of art contains no less than sixty-four full-page 
miniatures and 139 illuminated borders, m which musical in- 
struments of every kind abound. These miniatures are by 
three different hands, one of which was Flemish, and the other 
two representative of the ver)' best Milanese illuminators; the 
l^ainting of the latter is distinguished by extreme richness and 
brilliancy of colouring, the colours, reds and browns more 
especially, being heightened by the use of gold paint, which is 
never burnished ; the colouring of the Flemish miniatures is 
softer, the conception and design are simpler, and the back- 
grounds are especially lovely. 

Amongst the musical instruments are the early viols above 
mentioned, of which there are several examples — gigues, lutes, 
an oval vielle with long fretted neck, and a long bow of which 
half the length is handle, a trumpet bent into " S " shape, harps, 
psalteries, a lyre, a portable organ played by two angels, double 

Plate XIII. 

Archetype of the Lute and IIebab. 1000 b.c. Greek Post-J[icen.ean Pekiod. ForsD tx 

THE Cemetery of Goshen, 1!)06. XXth Dynasty. Reproduced through the Courtesy ot 

Prof. Flinders Potrie (Brit. School of Arch, iu Egypt). 

From a photograph by Robert C. ilurray. 


and single pipes, platerspiels, the hurdy-gurdy, cymbals, pipe 
and tabor. 

Fresh evidence afforded by the great wealth of archaeological 
material of every description published during the last few 
years, since the original studies were written, and which has 
therefore been only partially investigated while these pages 
were going through the press, comes as a confirmation of the 
theory of the evolution of the violin family set forth in this 
collection of studies. A wide field for independent research 
has been opened out, in which others, and notably Edward 
Buhle* are earnestly working. The explorations now being 
carried out in the East, of which the results are published year 
by year, show us that we are but on the threshold. We still 
have almost everything to learn concerning the archetypes of 
European instruments in the East, and the manner in which 
they were made known to the nations of the West. This is 
emphasized by Prof. Flinders Petrie's discovery of a little 
terra-cotta figure, Greek work of the Post-Mycenaean period, 
found in Egypt during the excavations of 190^-6! in a grave 
in the Goshen cemetery, + and reproduced from a photograph 
obtained through the courtesy of Professor Flinders Petrie 
(see PI. XIII.;. The squat instrument, ornamented in char- 
acteristic Mycenaean style, bears no resemblance to any of the 
types of Egyptian instruments known to us, all of which have 
long necks; it is on the contrary reminiscent of the early 
Persian rebab, of which it may have been the archetype. The 

* " Die Musikalischen Instrumente in den Miniaturen des friihen 
Mittelalters. Ein Beitrag Zur Geschichte der Miisikinstrumente. I. Die 
Blasinstriimente." Von Edward Buhle, mit Text figuren nnd 14 Tafeln 
Leipzig, Breitkopf and Hiirtel, 1903. 

t Excavations carried out by the British School of Archaeology in 
Egypt and Egyptian Research Account. 

X See " Hyksos and Israelite Cities," by W. M. Flinders Petrie and 
J. Garrow Duncan, igo6. Brit. School of Archaeology (double volume ) 


date assigned to the statuette is the XXth dynasty, circa looo 
B.C. ; it is therefore the oldest non-Egyptian representation of a 
stringed instrument yet found ; and doubly valuable from 
being not flat but modelled. 

The great aim of these studies was to trace the History of 
the Violin from the highest antiquity to the day of the viols, its 
immediate precursors; this has now been done, and, according 
to the writer's opinion, the violin was directly descended in body 
as well as in name from the kithara of the Greeks through the 
guitar, which latter, at a time when the rest of the world was 
still plunged in barbarism, had already been evolved in ancient 
Egypt, where it had reached as great a state of development as 
during the fourteenth century in Europe. 


The Barbiton. 

Authentic information concerning this instrument (see p. 313) 
is meagre in tlie extreme; I believe, however, that in the instru- 
ment given in Figs. 24 and 108 we may identify the barbiton 
as it was known among the Greeks and Romans in the period 
immediately preceding and following the birth of Christ. 
From the Greek classics* we gather that the barbiton possessed 
features in common with the lyre — probably the vaulted back, 
the seven or eight strings and the manner of plucking them 
and that it was a bass instrument — from Persian and Arab 
sources that it was a kind of rebab or lute or a clielys 
lyre.t All of which agrees substantially with the barbiton 
of Fig. 1 08.+ The barbiton penetrated into Europe from 

* See Quotations and References, p. 313. 

f Johnson's Persian-Arabic-English Dictionary. Persian barbat—a. 
harp or lute ; baibatzan, player upon lute ; barbat-nawaz, lutenist. Arabic 
barbat plural barabit. G. W. Freytag. Lexicon Arabigo-Latinum, Tom. 
I, p. 102. Persian and Arabic, Barbat— )ia.vh\i\\?, genus testitudinis 
plerumque sex septum ve chordus instructum (Rotundam habet formam 
in Africa). Tom. iv., p 433 chelys — barbiton. (Jac. Schult.) 

\ The deep shadows thrown by the figure conceal in the reproduction 
the slight shoulders of the instrument. Other illustrations of the barbiton 
from sculptures are to be found in M. G. Zimmermann, " Sizilien" (Beriihmte 
Kunststaetten, No. 24), p. 98, from a photograph. The Agrigente Sarco- 


Asia Minor by way of Greece and was later introduced in 
a somewhat modified form by the Moors into Spain, where, 
in the 14th century* it was known as al-barbet. At some 
period not yet determined during the Middle Ages, the barbat 
or barbut approximated to the form of a large lute, for in the 
early part of the 17th century, a kind of theorbo or bass lute, 
with neck bent at right angles to form the head, is described 
and illustrated under the name of barbiton by Robert Fludd.f 
It had nine courses of strings in pairs of unisons. G. B. DoniJ 
mentions the barbiton, defining it in his index as " Barbitos seu 
major chelys italice Tiorba," deriving it from lyre and cithara 
in common with the testitdines, tiorbas and all tortoise shell 
instruments. Until the end, the barbiton retained the charac- 
teristics of the instruments of the lyre and cithara families, 
whose strings were plucked, whereas those of the rebab were 
vibrated by the friction of the bow. The large pear-shaped 
rebab and the lute were practically one and the same instru- 
ment before the application of the bow to the former, which 
probably took place in the 7th century. The Persian word 
Barbud applied to the barbiton is derived according to modern 

phagus of which a caste is preserved in the Sepulchral Basement at the 
British Museum. See also Dom. lo Faso Pietra Santa. Le Antichita 
della Sicilia. Palermo, 1834. 

Zoega" Antike BasRelieven Rom's" Gressin 1812. Atlas pi. 98, Sarco- 
phagus representing the story of Hippolytus and Phaedra. " Clarac " 
MuseedeSculpture, Paris, 1826-51. Planches Tom. II., PL 202., No. 261, 
also P. Bouillon, Musee des Antiquites, Paris, Tom. III., PL 24. 

* Enumeration of Arab Musical Instruments known in Spain, XlVth 
cent. Treatise of Music by Mahamud. Ibrain Axalihi MS. 6g, Escorial. 
See R. S. Kiesewetter. Die Music der Araber., Leipzig 1842, p. 91. In 
the MS. Cantigas de Santa Maria, to which reference has frequently been 
made, there are thi'ee musician pla3'ing upon large bass lutes. 

f "Historia Utriusque Cosmi," Roberto de Fluctibus, Oppenheim, 1617. 
Tom. I., Tract II., Part II., Lib. VI. Cap. i, p. 226. 

I G. B. Doni, " Lyra Barberina." Florence, 1763, Vol. i., p. 29 and VoL 
11,, Index. 


Persian sources* from the name of a famous musician living at 
the time of Khosroo Parviz (6th century A.D.) who excelled in 
playing upon the instrument — a kind of rebab apparently to 
which the Arabs afterwards gave his name. I give the story 
for what it is worth not knowing what authority the Persian 
writer had for his statement. If the Greek barbiton was ob- 
tained from Persia by way of Asia Minor, however, as the 
derivation of the name would seem to suggest, the name barbat, 
barbut, must be many centuries older than the time of Khosroo 
Parviz. The barbiton was a bass instrument (see ante p. 313, 
Pollux and Athenseus), and therefore the ancestor of the bass 
lute or Theorbo. 

* The Seven Seas, A Dictionary and Grammar of the Persian Language, 
by H. M. Abul Masaffer Muiseddin Schah Seman Ghasieddin Haider 
Padischah. Ghasi (the name under which he is indexed), King of Oude, 
in seven parts, Lucknow, 1822. This book has not, I think, been trans- 
lated. Only the title being in English, but a review with copious quota- 
tions by von Hammer- Purgstall is given in Jahrbiicher der Literatur, 
Vienna, 1826, Bd. 35 and 36. Names of Mus. Insts., Vol. 36, p. 292 et seq. 
Also Kiesewetter, op cit, p. g. 

See also Fr. Riickert " Grammatik, Poetik, u. Rhetorik der Perser," nach 
dem yten, Bande des Heft, Kolzum, Gotha, 1874, p. 80 (the introduction 
to the " Seven Seas."). " Die Sanger stehen bei seinem Gastmahl, in ihrer 
Hand Barbitonwnd Leyer und Laute und Flote und Deff." In the original 
Persian, barbiton is rendered Barbat, an interesting and valuable point 
ascertained through the courteous assistance of Mr. A G. Ellis, M.A., of 
the Oriental Department, British Museum. 

2 U 



The Persian Rebab. 

The rebab was, as far as we know, the means through which 
the bow was introduced into Europe; that is to say it is the 
first instrument we find associated with the bow in the earliest 
pictorial or sculptural monuments of European art. It will 
not, therefore, be out of place to summarise briefly the dis- 
coV'Cries made by the author while the book was in the Press 
and to point out the extent to which they modify the con- 
clusions arrived at therein. In the chapter on the " Influence 
of the Moors on the Stringed Instruments of Europe " it is 
stated that the Arabs declare they obtained the rebab from 
the Persians in the 7th century A.D. [pp. 383-420 and p. 405]. 
No representation of the ancient instrument from Arab or 
Persian sources had up to the present time been forthcoming. 
This statement is now substantiated by a series of representa- 
tions of instruments of Asiatic origin ranging from 1000 B.C. 
to the 9th century A.D. 

Stringed instruments having a body shaped like a longi- 
tudinal section of a pear, more or less elongated, are of Asiatic 
origin; the actual pear-shaped instrument found by Mr. 
Maddox at Thebes (Fig. loi, p. 406) appears to be quite an 
isolated instance in ancient Egypt for it does not occur in 
representations of musical scenes in sculpture or fresco. The 
characteristic construction of the pear-shaped instrument with 
vaulted back and flat soundboard glued together without ribs 
or sides, was followed with certain variations in outline and 
in the minor features in a number of instruments which received 


different names among the races of Asia : we have no clue to 
the name of the archetype. El-Oud (the lute) of the Arabs 
and the pear-shaped rebab were practically one and the same 
instrument until the advent of the bow, which had probably 
been made known to the Arabs by the Persians, since the Arab 
word for bow is derived from the Persian. The Arabs learnt 
to know the lute and probably at the same time the rebab, from 
the Persians at the end of the 6th century, when one of their 
musicians named Nadr-Ben el Hares Ben Kelde was sent to 
Khosroo Parviz to learn to smg and to play the lute; through 
him the lute was brought to Mecca. In Plate XIII., 
which represents a little terra-cotta figure of a musician play- 
ing on a pear-shaped instrument, we see what may be the 
archetype of the rebab or lute family. The terra-cotta figure 
discovered in Egypt by Professor Flinders Petrie (1905-6) 
during the course of excavations in the cemetery of Goshen, is 
Greek work of the Post-Mycenaean age; it was found in sur- 
roundings assigned to the XXth Dynasty (cir. B.C. looo) and 
shows the earliest pear-shaped instrument yet discovered. 
Plate XII. shows two statuettes of musicians (to the left) play- 
ing upon ancient Persian rebabs; the terra-cotta figures were 
excavated from the Tell at Suza, and date from the 8th cent. 
B.C. The instruments may be compared with some of the 
medieval rebabs or rebecs illustrating Chapter IX. These 
figures clearly establish the origin of the instruments by some 
named Lyra^'' by others (including the present writer) rebabs 
or rebecs, which were common all over Western Europe from 
the 9th century (see Fig. 15, p. 234, and Fig. 41, p. 260). 

If this ancient Persian rebab or rubdb was the ancestor of 
the Moorish boat-shaped or elongated pear-shaped rebab (see 
Figs. 144, 153, 154, etc.), the instrument shown on the Sassanian 

* See Laurent Grillet, " Les Ancetres du Violon," etc. Paris, 1901, 
Tom. 1, p 29. Portail occidental de I'Eglise de Moissac (Tarn et Garonne.) 
XII. siecle. 


silver dish (British Museum) on Plate XL is no less certainly 
the ancestor of the lute, as well as of the bowed instruments 
common in the 12th century, such as Fig. 128 and Figs. 6 and 7. 
Instruments of this type appear on several other Sassanian 
works of art of the same period (see pp. 407-8). The 
central seated figure on Plate XI. is holding in the right hand 
an object which might well pass for one of the ancient Persian 
rebabs shown on Plate XII. Mr. Dalton, in his description of 
the dish,* suggests that the object resembles a iiy-flap. The 
personage holds a wine cup in the other hand and could cer- 
tainly not play the instrument with one hand only, but the 
cup may have been handed to him by the attendant who stands 
at his left with hands crossed over the breast. We may imagine 
he would resume his performance after having refreshed him- 
self. This, however, is only surmise, and needs corroboration 
or confirmation by further discoveries of the instrument at the 
same period in less ambiguous circumstances. Excavations car- 
ried out in ancient Khotan or Ilchi (Turkestan) by the Indian 
Government t have brought to light fresh evidences of rebabs 
both pear and spoon-shaped on terra-cotta figures referred to 
the 8th century (circa). They are in the style of the Gandhara 
school (India). Here we find the spoon-shaped instrument 
with very short neck and large round head so familiar in Euro- 
pean mediaeval sculptures of the iith and 12th centuries, such 
as the instrument in the top left hand corner of Plate IV., of 
which it is a replica, the bow excepted; the pear-shaped rebab 
with very long neck as in the instrument represented on the 

* Ormonde M. Dalton. The Treasures of the Oxus. Catalogue of the 
Franks' Bequest to the British Museum. London, 1905, Pi. XXVI. 
No. 190. 

t See Ancient Khotan, a detailed report of Archaeological Explorations 
in Chinese Turkestan carried out by H.M. Indian Government, by Marc 
Aurel Stein. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1907. Vol. II., PI. XLVI., Nos. 
Yooii, d., Y009, i., PI. XLIII., V0028 and XLVII., Yooii, d. 


Sassanian Dish (Plate XI.) but with the addition of two lateral 
soundholes. The same instrument occurs among decorative 
motifs in the paintings of the Buddhist cave-temples of 
Ajanta (Khandesh, India)* assigned to the 6th century A.D. 
A later example at the British Museum, an engraved plate 
found at Ray in N. Persia (destroyed by Chinghis Khan in 
the 13th cent.) shows a woman holding the pear-shaped 
instrument with the long neck, and four strings twanged 
by the fingers. In all these examples the strings are 
plucked, but there is an ivory casket of Italo-Byzantine work, 
of the 8th or 9th cent, (similar in style to the Veroli casket at 
the South Kensington Museum) belonging to the Carrand Col- 
lection in Florence (see p. 408), on which is represented a pear- 
shaped instrument played with a bow. As, therefore, instru- 
ments of the same type as the rebab were at first twanged with 
the fingers, it is clear that the bow was not invented for the 
rebab, but only applied to it as it became known, all argu- 
ments in favour of including the rebab among the ancestors 
of the violin because the bow was used with it, fall to the 
ground. Instruments of a great variety of types and forms 
might equally claim the privilege of this ancestry without 
having, any more than the rebab, any single structural feature 
in common with the violin. It is evident therefore that the 
types of rebabs with which we are well acquainted from their 
frequent recurrence in MSS. and on monuments of Western 
Europe from the 8th century had their origin in the East, and 
were widely distributed over Asia Minor, India and Persia long 
before the 6th cent. A.D. 

By John Griffiths. London, 1S96, Vol. II., PI. 105, Cave. I., 10, e. 



The Rebab in the Psalterium of Labeo Notker. 
(Fig. 149, p. 401 and Plate IV.) 

Through the courtesy of Dr. Fiih, the Director of the Library 
of St. Gallen, I find that the instrument reproduced by 
Hyacinth Abele in his book " Die Violine, ihre Geschichte und 
ihr Bau," Fig. 7, is not anywhere contained in the MS. to which 
it is referred, i.e., the Psalterunn of Labeo Notker, loth cent. 
Abele's* description and illustration apply, in fact, not to the 
spoon-shaped rebab in the top left-hand corner of Plate IV., but 
to a similar miniature in the Psalter of Notker, MS. 774 (fol. 
30), preserved in the Library of the University of Leipzig. 
The whereabouts of the MS. are not given by Abele and as the 
Notker Psalter in the Library of St. Gallen is the better known, 
the omission may give rise to certain misconceptions. 


The Crwth. 

By a curious process of reasoning certain writers on music 
and musical instruments persist in claiming for Wales or Brit- 
tany the honour of the invention of the bow, on the strength 

• An English translation of Hyacinth Abele's work. " The Violin, its 
History and Construction, together with a list of Italian and Tyrolese 
Violin Makers," by John Broadhouse has now been published. William 
Reeves, 1907. 


of the lines written by Venantius Fortunatus,* Bishop of 
Poictiers, in the second half of the 6th cent, (see p. 34). 
" Romanusque, lyra, plaudat tibi, Barbarus harpa, 
Grascus achilliaca, Chrotta Britanna canat." 
Nothing is known of the use of a bow with the crwth before 
the nth century, but it is nevertheless assumed without the 
slightest authority by these writers that the crwth had always 
been played with a bow,t whereas the very construction of the 
instrument, to which every facility for using the bow has been 
denied (such as incurvations, arched bridge), militates against 
this hypothesis, moreover, the word Britanna here probably 
denotes not Wales but Brittany in France. The earliest in- 
stance of the rectangular crwth, so-called, of Wales, with 
slightly vaulted back and ribs, as it has survived from the i8th 
century in a specimen preserved at the South Kensington 
Museum, is the representation of the instrument on an old seal 
of the 14th century brought to light by Mr. Edward Heron- 
Allen. The seal in question belonged to Roger Wade, 
CrowderX bears the date 13 16. It is attached to a defeasance 
of a bond between the crowd-player and Warren de I'lsle, his 
debtor, and the document is preserved in the muniment room 
at Berkeley Castle, where Edward II. was murdered in 1327. 

The representation of the instrument we regard as the Welsh 
crwth, on the seal of a "crowder" or crowd-player would seem 
to show that there was at that period no structural difference 
between the English instrument known as crowd and the Welsh 
crwth : that the instrument, in fact, was not peculiar to Wales. 

* See " Poemata," lib. VII., cap. 8, p. 245 in Migne's Patrologiae Cursus 
Completus. Tome 88. Paris, 1857-66. 

t See for instance Laurent Grillet, " Les Ancetres du Violon." Paris 
1901. Tome I, p. XV., xvi.,xvii. and xviii., and p. 11. Grove's Dictionary 
of Music and Musicians, 1904. Article C>'te'//i. Hugo Riemann's Lexicon 
Leipzig, 1905. Article Chrotta. 

X See De Fidiculis Opuscula VIII. "The Seal of Roger Wade." 
London, 1895. With illustrations. 


Roger Wade's crwth was similar in outline to the i8th century 
instrument pictured by Edward Jones (Fig. ^^), but there were 
in the 14th century crowd only four strings; the left foot of 
the bridge does not appear to pass through the " C " sound 
hole in order to rest on the inside of the back and the bridge is 
fiat. The bow is very short and one wonders how it was possi- 
ble with it to set any single string in vibration — for there were 
no incurvations — they must have sounded together in a rude 
harmony of fourths, fifths and octaves. As evidence that the 
crwth was not always played with the bow, we have the instru- 
ment occurring in two Carlovingian MSS. (see Fig. 1 1 5, p. 337) 
the Bible of Charles le Chauve* and the other Bible tran- 
scribed for the same king, known as the Bible of St. 
Paul.t The crwth is being played by one of King David's 
musicians who is stopping the strings with the left hand and 
plucking them with the right. This crwth is a roi^a with 
fingerboard added ; the reader is invited to compare it with the 
oldest known rotta, the Asiatic instrument 1700 B.C.) shown in 
Fig. // (p. 286) the prototype of the crwth (which only needs 
the addition of a fingerboard to transform it into the semblance 
of a Welsh crwth of the 14th cent.) and also with the Anglo- 
Saxon rottas m Figs. 1 12 and 1 13 and the ancient German rotta 
of Fig. 168. 

The Welsh crv/th, in fact, until the time when the bow was 
applied to it, probably during the i ith century, was a rotta and 
was known in England by that name during the 8th cent, (see 
p. 335) and in Ireland as cro/ or cfi/z/. It was, moreover, also 
known in France and Germany. In Irish MSS. of the 
8th and gth centuries, cithara is always glossed by crot. The 

* See Comte Auj,'uste de Bastard. Peintures et ornements de la Bible 
de Charles le Chauve . . . also Willeinin, " Monuments Inedits " (plates 
not numbered). 

t The Bible of the Monastery of St. Fanl, near Rome. See fac-simile 
in photographs by S. O. Westwood, London, 1876, 


Anglo-Saxons began to gloss cithara by hear pan in the i ith cen- 
tury, and this is probably why later writers have given har-p as 
the equivalent for cridt from analogy. The well-known 9th 
century Cotton MS., Vitellius. F. XI. (Brit. Mus.) has a minia- 
ture of King David showing the cruit or rotta of that period, 
slightly caricatured, no doubt, to suit the grotesque character 
of the miniature. The Welsh crwth was therefore obviously 
not an exclusively Welsh instrument, but only a late i8th cen- 
tury survival in Wales of an archaic instrument once generally 
popular in Europe, but long since obsolete. 


The Fiddle in Fig. 202. 

The origin of instruments havhig, like those represented in 
Figs. 202 and 138, a soundchest of which the outline is based 
upon a rectangle, a varying number of strings either plucked 
by fingers or bowed, has until now been purely hypothetical. 
An illustration in a recent publication* representing a bear 
playing on a rectangular cittern with the tail-end corners cut 
off, solves the question. The fine volume of plates consists of 
coloured reproductions of some remarkable frescoes by a Greek 
artist from the palace built at Kiiseyr Wmra either for Khalif 
Walid II., of the Omayyad Dynasty (A.D. 744) or for Prince 
Ahmed the Abbaside (862-866). We may conclude that the 
instruments similar in outline which are to be found in later 
mediaeval European MSS. and sculpture are not mere freaks 
due to Western European initiative but were derived from 

* Y^nseyy 'Antra, a publication issued by the Kaiserliche Akademie der 
Wissenschaften, Vienna, 1907, Vol. IT., PI. XXXIV. On the same plate is a 
transverse flute. 


Eastern models. The earliest* of these European instruments 
dates from the loth cent. Other examples are to be found in 
Du Sommerard's Les Arts au Moy en-age, Atlas, Ch. XL, PI. 
IV., 15th century, a carved wooden and gilded Triptych in 
gothic Italian style and in the Album, 6th Series, PI. XXXV^., 
a painting offered in 15 18 to the Cathedral at Amiens. In 
these the corners are variously treated but both instruments are 
based upon a rectangle. In the Album, Series 7, PI. XXXVII., 
is a bowed instrument long and narrow, with incurvations and a 
bow, represented on a i6th century faience in relief by Bernard 
Palissy or one of his school. Numerous other examples will 
be found in the works of the Italian masters of the i c;th and 
1 6th centuries. 

* Stuttgart Psalter (said to be French work) loth cent. ; reproductions 
in Trachten des Christlichen Mittelalters by J. \on Hefner- Alteneck 
Frankfurt-am- Main, 1840- 1854. 

Plate XIV. 
Medieval Ohchestra. XUth Centcrt. Fnoii the Cathedral or Santiago di Compostllla. From the Cost at South KoDsington Museum. 






Section A. 

(i). Works on Musical Instruments and the Orchestra. 
(2). Catalogues of Museums, Collections or Exhibitions of 
Musical Instruments. 

Section B. 

(i). General works on Music, historical and critical. 
(2). Bibliographies, Dictionaries of Music and Musicians and 


Section C 

(l). Works on Classical Antiquities with illustrations — ■ 

(2). Works on Classical Antiquities — mural paintings, mosaics, 

vases and terra-cottas. 

* To which are added a few suggestive references discovered too late 
to be of use to the author 

Asterisks denote special value to the subject treated herein, of either 
the text or ilhistrations. 



(3). Works on Early Christian Antiquities. 

(4). Works on Mediaeval Antiquities, Monuments, Sculptures, 

(5). Works on Ivories, Bronzes, Wood Carving, Metal Work. 
(6). Catalogues of Museums, Collections (public and private), 

(7). Monographs. 
(8). Periodicals. 

Section D- 

The Antiquities of (i) Ancient Egypt and Africa, (2) As- 
syria, (3) Persia, (4) Asia Minor, (5) India, (6) Christian East, 
(7) Northern Africa. 









Section E. 

Miscellaneous Selections of Fac-similes. 

Classical and Romano-Christian. 



Anglo-Saxon and Irish. 


French Mediaeval. 




Section F. 

Miscellaneous works on History, Art, Social Life, etc., con- 
nected with Sections C, D, E. 

Section G. 

-Greek and Roman Classical Authors. 



Works on Musical Instruments and the Orchestra. 

ABELE, HYACINTH. Die Violine, ilire Gescliichte uiid Ban. 

Munich, 1874. (With illustrations). 
ADLUNU, JACOB. Musica Mechanica Organoedi, etc. . . . 

Orgeln Clavicymbkl, Clavichokdien unci anderen Instru- 

mentia. 4to, 2 Bde. Berlin, 17G8. 
AFHANIO. See Albonesius. 

* * * AGRICOLA, MARTINIUS. Musica Instrumentalis Deutsch 

Ynn welcher begriffeu, wie man nach den Gesange aiiff nian- 
cherlei Pfeiffen lernen soil. Audi wie auff die Orgel, Harffen, 
Lauten, Geigen und Allerley Instrument und Saitenspiel nach 
der recht gegriindeteu Tabelthur sey Abzusetzen. (With 
numerous illustrations). Wittenberg, 1528 and 1529. 

AGRICOLA, MARTINIUS. Musica Instrumentalis. (Reprint) 
Gesellschaft fiir Musikforschung. Band XX., 8vo. Berlin, 
1873, etc. 

ALBERTI, L. L'Organo nelle sue attinenze coUa musica sacra. 
8vo, pp. 83. Mihnio, 188». 

daicam linguam Syriacum atque Armenicam et decern alias 
linguas, etc. . . . et de.scriptio ac .simulacrum Phagoti Afranii 
(Fagotto, p. 179 et seq., with illustration), 4to. Papise. 

ALBONESIUS, AFRANIO DEGLI. See Valdrighi, Luigi Francesco. 

* * ALLEN, EDWARD HERON. Violin Making as it was and is. 

Witli illusti'ations. London, 1884. 

* * ALLEN, EDWARD HERON. Opuscula Fidularum. Ancestry 

of the Violin. Parts 1 and 4. London, 1882-90. 

* * ALLEN, EDWARD HERON. The Seal of Roger Wade, 

Crowder, in De fidiculis Opuscula, VIII. (With two illustra- 
tions of crwth). London, 189.5. 

* * ALTENBURG, JOHANN ERNST. Versuch einer Anleitung 

zur heroiscli-musikalischen Trompeter und 
Halle, 1795. 

* * ALTENBURG, WILHELM. Die Klarinette, ihre Entstehung 

und Entwicklung bis zur Jetztzeit in akustischer, techniker 

und musikalischer Beziehung. Large 8vo, pp. 46. Heilbronn, 

ALTENBURG, WILHELM. Die Fabrikation der Klarinett und 

SAXOPHONblatter. Zeitschrift fiir Instninienteiilidu xxv. 

1 Oct. Leipzig, 1904. 
AMIOT, JESUIT MISSIONARY. [Instruments of Arab.s and 

Chinese]. Memoire concernant I'histoire, les sciences, les arts, 

les raceurs, les usages, etc., des Chinois i)ar les missionaires de 

Pekin. 4to. Paris, 1780. 


AMMERBACH, ELIAS NICOLAUS. Orgel oder Instrument Tabu- 

latur, etc. Small 4to, no pagination. Leipzig, 1571. 
ANON. \V. Meckel's neue Klappen-Oidnung an Klarinetten. 

Deutsche I\Jusiker Zeitunq, 23, No. li). Berlin. 
ANTONY, JOSEPH. Geschichtliche Darstellung der Entstehung 

und Vervollkommnung der Orgel, etc. 8vo, pp. 22U. 

Miinster, 1832. 

* ARMSTRONG, R. B. Musical Instruments. Fine plates, Part 

1., Harps. 4to. Edinburgh, 1904, etc. 
BACH, CARL PHILIP EMANUEL. Versuch iiber die wahre Art 

das Clavier zu spielen mit Exompeln und 8 Probestiicken in 

6 iSonaten erlautert. Eister TlteiL 4to, pp. 17 and 26 plates. 

Berlin, 1753. 
BACH, CARL PHILIP EMANUEL, idem. Reprinted in E. Dann- 

reuther's "Musical Ornamentation." Part II. Novello, 

London, 1895. 
BACH, CARL PHILIP EMANUEL. Versuch iiber die wahre Art 

das Clavier zu spielen. Zweiter Theil. 4to, pp. 341. Berlin, 

BACKOFEN, JOHANN GEORG H. Anweisung zur Harfe mit 

eingestreuten Bemerkungen iiber den Ban der Harfe. Breit- 

kopf u. Hjirtel, Leipzig, 18!Jl. 
BACKOFEN, JOHANN GEORG H. Anweisung zur Clarinettk 

nebst einer kurzen Abhandlung iiber das Bassethorn. (AVith 

illustration of the latter), 4to. Breitkopf u. Hartel, Leipzig, 

BAIF, JEAN ANTOINE DE, 1531-1591. Instruction pour toute 

musique des huit divers tons en tablature de Lvth. Instruc- 
tions pour apprendre la tablature et a jouer de la Guiterne. 

See Laborde, Essai sur la Musique, Vol. IV., p. 11. Venice!-' 
BALFOUR, HENRY. Natural History of the Mvsical Bow. A 

chapter in the developmental hi.story of stringed instruments. 

Primitive Types. 8vo, pp. 87 (with illustrations). Clarendon 

Press, Oxford, 1899. 
BANCHIERI, D. ADRIANO. Conclusioni nel suono dell' Organo. 

Bologna, 1609. 
BARON, ERNST GOTTLIEB. Historisch-theoretische und prak- 

tische Untersuchung des Instruments der Lavten, etc. 8vo, 

pp. xxviii., 218. Niirnberg, 1727. 

tibus Rerum (enumeration of musical instruments in Bk. 19). 

According to Eorkel, Haarlem, 1485. See Hawkins's Hist, of 

Music, Vol. II., p. 279-288. 


d'ORGUES, etc. 3 vols., fol., pp. 676,^137 copperplates. Paris, 
1766-1778. German Translation by JOHANN CHRISTOPH 

* BERLIOZ, HECTOR. Grand traite d'instrumentation et d'or- 

chestration modernes. Paris and Brussels, 1860. 
BERLIOZ, HECTOR. Treatise on Modern instrumentation and 
Orchestration. Translated bv MARY COWDEN CLARKE. 8vo, 
pp. 257. London, 1856 and 1904. 

* BERMUDO, JEAN. Comien^a el libro llamado .... de instru- 

mentos mu.sicales. Folio. Ossuna, 1555. 


BEVAN, G. P. and RIMBAULT, E. F. Musical Instruments. 

Biitish Manufactvring Industries. London, 1876, etc. 
BIEREY, GOTTLOB BENEDICTUS. StcBlzel's invention of the 

TisTON. Allgememe Musikalische Zeitung, No. 18. Leipzig, 


* BIERNATH, ERNST. Die Guitarre seit dem III. Jahrhundert 

von Christus. Berlin, 1907. 

* * BLAIKLEY, J. D. Acoustics in relation to Wind Instruments. 

I'p. 3d. London, 1890. 

BLANCHINI, FRANCESCO. De tribus generibus instrumentorum 
Musicae veterum organicse, dissertatio. 4to, pp. 58. (With 
numerous illustrations, etc.) Roma, 1742. 

BLOUNT, EDWARD. Glcssographia : or a Dictionary inter- 
preting all such hard words of whatsoever language now used 
in our refined English tongue, etc. London, 1656, 1661, 1670, 
1674, 1G81. 

BLUM, C. Neue vollstandige GuiTARschule. 2 Pts. Schlesinger, 
Berlin, 1818. 

PiANOFORTE-baues in seiner Geschichte, Theorie und Technik, 
etc. Atlas zum Lehrbuch des PiANOFORXE-baues. 16 PI., 8vo, 
2iid edition. Weimar, 1886. 

BODDINGTON, HENRY. Catalogue of Musical Instruments illus- 
trative of tlie History of the Pianoforte. The property of 
H. B., formerly the collection of J. Kendrick Pyne. Ob. 
folio (with illustrations, etc.) Manchester, 1888. 

BOEHM, THEOBALD. Feber den FLOTENbau und die neuesten 
Verbesserungen desselben. Mainz, 1847. 

BOSANQUET, PROF. R. H. M. Article "Organ." Encyclopsedia 
Britannica, 9tli edition. London. 

BOWLE, JOHN. Remarks on some ancient musical instruments 
mentioned in the "Roman de la Rose." Arcliccologia, Vol. 
YIL, p. 214. London. 

BROADWOOD, W. S. An Essay on the Construction of Flutes. 
Originally written by Theobald Boehm, published with the 
addition of correspondence and other documents. London, 

BROWN, MARY EUGENIA fMrs. Crosby Brown) and WILLIAMS, 
ADAM. Musical Instruments and their Homes. (With illus- 
trations, etc.), pp. 380, 4to. New York, 1888. 

BRUNI, A. B. Fn inventaire sous la Terreur. Instruments de 
Musique releves chez les emigres et condamnes. 4to, pp. 228. 
Paris, 1890. 

BUHLE, EDUARD. Die musikalischen Instrumente in den Minia- 
turen des friilien Mittelalters. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte 
der Mvisikinstriimente I. Die Blasinstrumente. (With illus- 
trations and plates). Breitkopf u. Hartel, Leipzig, 1903. 

BURBURE, LEON DE. Recherches sur les facteurs de Clavecins 

et les LuTHiERS d'Anvers. Bruxelles, 1865. 
BURNHAM, HORNER. Earlv English Organ Writers. Lecture, 

Soc. of Arts, April 15, 1896. 
BUTTMANN, PHILIPP. Die Wasserorgel. Abh. der Kgl. 

Preuss: Akademie. Hist-Philos. Kla-sse, 1804-1811. Band 

I-IV., p. 131-176. Berlin, 1815, etc. 

2 X 


CAFFI, FRANCESCO, Stoi'ia della inusica sacra iiella gia Capella 
Ducale di San Marco in Venezia. 8vo, 2 vols. Venice, 

CAMPION, FRANCOIS, Nouvelles decouvertes sur la Guitarre, 
contenant plusieurs suites de pieces sur 8 manieres d'accorder, 
Paris, 17U.J. Translated into English as Compleat Instruc- 
tions for the Guitar. 4to. London. 

CHORON, ALEX. ETIENNE, Traite general des voix et des in- 
struments d'orche&tre, principalenient des instruments a vent. 
Paris, 1812. 

CHOUQL'ET, OUSTAVE. Rapport sur les instruments de mu.sique 
et les editions musicales. Exposition L'niverselle de Paris, 
1878. liappurts dit Junj Iitteni. Gioupe II., Classe 13. 8vo. 
Paris, 1880. 

* CHOUQUET, GUSTAVE. Le Musee du Conservatoire National 

de Musicjue. Catalogue des instruments de musique. (A few 

illustrations), 8vo. Paris, 1884. 
COCHE. Exanien critique de la Flute ordinaire comparee a la 

Flute Boehm. Paris, 1838. 
COMPAN, MR, Methode de Harpe, ou Principes courts et clairs 

pour apprendre a jouer de cet instrument, etc. Thomassiu, 

Paris, 1783. 
CORDER, FREDERICK, The Orchestra and How to Write for 

It, etc. Folio, ])p. 115. London, 1895. 
CORRETTE. MICHEL, Nouvelle methode pour apprendre a 

jouer de la Harpe, etc. 4to. Paris, 1774. 
COURVOISIER, KARL. Die Violtn Technik. Cologne, 1878. 

instruments de musique an moyen-age. Ajinalcs archco- 

liuiiqum. Tom. IJL, p. 148. 
COUTAGNE, H. G, Duiffoproncart et les luthiers Ivonnais du 

XVI« siecle, pp. 79, 8vo. Paris, 1893. 
COUWENBERG, H, V, L'Orgue Ancien et Moderne. 8vo. 

Ijierre, 1888. 
DALY, W. H, The Concert-Goer, a handbook of the orchestra and 

orche.stral music, pp. 96, 8vo. Edinburgh, 1905. 

* * DALYELL, SIR JOHN GRAHAM, Musical Memoirs of Scot- 

land (with historical annotations and numerous illustrations 
and good plates), 4to. Fdinbuigh, 1849. 
DANNREUTHER. EDWARD. Musical Ornamentation. Part I. 
" Girolamo Dirutta." Xorclh/s ^Jiisic Priiiwrs, No. 37. 
London, 1891. 

* * * DAY, CAPT, C, R, (Oxford Light Infanivy). "An His- 

torical Catalogue of the Militarv Instruments recently ex- 
hibited at the Royal Military Exhibition, London, 1890." 
(With illustration.s and plates), 4to. London, 1891. 
DAY, C, R. and HIPKINS, A. J, The Music and Musical Instru- 
ments of vS. India and Dpccan. (With illustrations, etc.) 
London, 1891. 

* * DEGERING, HERMANN, Die Orgel, ihre Erfindung und 

ihre Geschichte bis zur Karolingerzeit. 8vo, pp. 86, 8 plates. 
Coppenrath, Miinster, 1905. 
DIDEROT and D' ALEMBERT. Encyclopedic. "L'Art du faiseur 
d'instruments." Paris, 1751-80. 


Frati Minori Comi, di S. Fi-ancesco) " II Transilvano, Dia- 
logo sopra il vero modo di sonar Drgani et istromenti da 
penna." In Venetia, appresso Giacomo Vincenti. 1597. See 
also Dannreiitlier, E. 

* * ECORCHEVILLE, J. " Quelques documents sur la musique 

de la Grande Ecurie du Roi." In I)iteni. Mus. Gesell. Sam- 
meJband. II. (4), pp. 608-642. With two Tables. Leipzig, 

* EICHBORN, DR. HERMANN. Zur Geschichte der Instru- 

mental Musik, Eine produktive Kritik. Leipzig, 1885. 

* * EICHBORN, DR. HERMANN. Die Tuompete in alter und 

neuer Zeit, pp. 118, 8vo. Leipzig, 1881. 
ELSON, A. Orchestral Instruments and their Use, pp. 299, 8vo. 

Boston, 1903. 
ELSON, L. C. Curiosities of Music. Bvo. Boston, 1880. 

* ENGEL, CARL. Examples of Art Workmanship. The Musical 

Instruments in the S. Kensington Museum, with text by Carl 
Engel. Folio (with illustrations, etc.) Arundel Soc, London, 

* ENGEL, CARL. Music of the most Ancient Nations, particularly 

of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Hebrews, with special refer- 
ence to recent discoveries in W. Asia and Egypt. 8vo (with 
illu.strations, etc.) London, 1864. 
ENGEL, CARL. Musical Instruments. With woodcuts. .S'. Ken- 
s'nujtoii Museum Art Ilandbuoks, No. 5, 8vo. London, 1875, 

* * ENGEL, CARL. Researches into the Early History of the 

Violin Family. 8vo (with illustrations, etc.) London, 1883. 
ENGEL, CARL. Catalogue of the special Exhibition of Ancient 
Musical Instruments, 1872, Science and Art Department. 4to 
(with illustrations, etc.) London, 1873. 
See also Catalogues S. K. M. 

* EUTING, ERNST. Zur Geschichte der Bias instrumente im 16 

u. 17. Jahrhundert. Inaugural Dissertation. Friedrich- 
Wilhelm Universitat. 8vo, pp. 47. Berlin, 1899. 

* FETIS, FRANCOIS JOSEPH. Antoine Stradivari, luthier 

celebre coiinu sous le nom de Stradivarius. Precede de 
recherches historic|ues et critiques sur I'origine et les trans- 
formations des instruments a archet .... 8vo. Paris, 1856. 

FETIS, FRANCOIS JOSEPH. Manuel des compositeurs, direc- 
teurs de mu.sique, chefs d'orchestre et de musique militaire, 
ou Traite methodique de I'harmonie des instruments et des 
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* ROBINSON, THOMAS. New Citharen Lessons with perfect 

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* * * RUHLMANN, J. Die Geschichte der Bogenin.strumente. 

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* * RUHLMANN, DR. JULIUS. Das Waldhorn. In Ne^ie 

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Catalogues of Collections and Exhibitions of 
Musical Instruments. 

Classified alphabetically according to the Name of the Collection, or place of the 

BERLIN, HOCHSCHULE. Fiihrer durch die Samnilung alter 

Musik-instrumente in der K. Hochschule t'iir Musik zu Berlin. 

By FLEISCHER, DR. OSKAR. Berlin, 1892. 

BODDINGTON Collection (formerly Kendrick Pyne). Catalogue 

of Musical Instruments illustrative of the History of the- 

Pianoforte. Oblong folio (with illustrations, etc). Man- 
chester, 1888. 
BRUSSELS CONSERVATOIRE. Album des Instruments extra- 

europeens du Musee du Conservatoire Royal de Musique de 

Bruxelles. 12 plates, photographs. 8vo. 
BRUSSELS CONSERVATOIRE. Catalogue de la collection icono- 

graphique du Musee instrumental du Conservatoire Royal de 

Bruxelle.s. Gand, IDOl. 
* * * BRUSSELS CONSERVATOIRE. Catalogue descriptif et 

analytique du Musee instrumental du Conservatoire Royal 

de Bruxelles; precede d'un essai de classification methodiqufo' 

de tons les instruments anciens et modernes. By MAHILLON, 

VICTOR CHARLES. 3 tomes. 8vo (a few " illustrations). 

Gand, 1880, 1896 and 1907. 

bliotheque du Conservatoire Roval de Musique de Bruxelles, 

Annexe 1, pp. 188. Bruxelles, 1901. 
CLAUDIUS COLLECTION, Stockholm. Katalogofver C. Claudius' 

Instrumentensamling utstallda till forman for niusik historika 

Museet i. Stockholm. By C. CLAUDIUS. 8vo, 14 pp. Malmo, 

COPENHAGEN, Museum of Musical Instruments. Description of, 

in Tijdschrift der Vcreiniqing v. N. Nederlands Muzeen, vii., 

No. 2. Am.sterdam, 1903. 
COPENHAGEN, Musical InstruJiient Museum. Das Kopenhagener 

Instrumenten-Museum. Deutsche Instrumenienhrtu-Zcitunii, 

1900-1901, No. 2 (recent additions to collection). Berlin, 1901. 
COUSSEMAKER COLLECTION. Catalogue de la Bibliotheque et 

des instruments de musique de feii C. E. H. de Coussemaker. 

8vo, pp. IV., 208. Bruxelles, 1877. 

etc. Catalogue of the Crj-stal Palace Exhibition of Musical 

In.struments, pp. 94, 8vo. London, 1900. 

2 Y 


musicali all' esposizione italiana del anno 1861. Descrizione 
sununaria e motivi del guidizii pionunziali della teiza sezione 
della Classo IX. del consiglio dei giurati. 8vo, pp. 51. 
Firenze, 18(32. 

GALPIN COLLECTION. (No catalogue exists). A popular 
account of Ancient musical instruments and their development 
as illustrated by typical examples in the Galpin Collection at 
Hatfield, Broad Oak, Essex, by WILLIAM LYND. (With illus- 
trations, etc). 8vo. London, 1897. 

KRAUS MUSEUM, FLORENCE. Catalogo della collezione etno- 
grafico — musicale Kravis in Firenze — Sezione Instrumenti 
musicali, by A. KRAUS. Firenze, 1878. New ed., Firenze, 

* * LEIPZIG. PAUL DE WIT COLLECTION. Katalog des Musik- 

historisches Museums von Paul de Wit. 8vo, pp. 207 (with 
numeious illustraticnis, etc.) l^eipzig, 1904. 

LONDON. COMPANY OF MUSICIANS. Catalogue of the Loan 
Exhibition held in Fishmongers' Hall by the Worshipful 
Company of Musicians in 1904. London, 1904. 

Collection. Guide to the Loan Collection of the International 
Inventions Exhibition, London, 1885. Musical Instrument 
Section bv A. J. HIPKINS, p. 85 cf srq. London, 1885. 


Catalogue of the Militarv Instruments recentlv exhibited 
at the Royal Military Exhibition, London, 1890. (With 
illustrations and olatcs, etc.), by CAPT. C. R. DAY (Oxf. 
Light Inf.) 4to. London, 1891. 

BROWN COLLECTION. Catalogue of the Crosby-Brown 
Collection of Musical Instruments at the Metropolitan 
Museum of Ai't. (With illu.strations, etc.) New York, 1901 
and 1902. 

MILAN. ARRKjONI COLLECTION. Organographia, ossia 
descrizione degli istrumenti musicali antichi, autografia e 
bibliografia musicale della collezione. LUIfll ARRIOONI, etc., 
pp. 118. 8vo. Text onlv, i)p. 95-118. Milano, 1881. 

Musikinstrumenten Sammlung des Museums der Gesellschaft 
der Musikfreunde. Bv G. NOTTEBOHM. Wien. 

Section at the Paris Exhibition. Piano, Organ and Music 
Trades Journal, Special No., October. London, 1900. 

SEPTALA COLLECTION. Museo e Galeria adunata dal .sapere e 
dalla studio del Sign. Canonico Manfredo Settala, nobile 
milanese. By PAOLO MARIA TERZAGO. 1 pi. (last chapter p. 
363-68, musical instruments). 4to, pp. 408. Tortona, 1666. 
Also 4to, pp. 324, 1 ol. Dertonae, 1664. 

* * SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM. Descriptive Catalogue of 

the Musical Instruments in S. K. M., by CARL ENGEL. 143 
engravings, 6 photographs. I^ondon, 1874. 

* * SNOECK COLLECTION. Die Snoeck'sche Musikinstrumen- 

tensammlung in der K. Hochschule, Berlin. By DR. OSKAR 
FLEISCHER. Int. Mas. Gcs. III., 4, p. 565-594 (with 12 
plates). Leipzig, 1902. 


SNOECK COLLECTION, GAND (novy in Berlin). Catalogue de la 
collection d'instruments de niusique flamands et neerlandais. 
By C. C. SNOECK. 8vo, pp. 61. Gand, 1903. 

ling. 8vo, pp. 34. Stockholm, 1902. 

THE DRAMA. Die Internationale Ausstellung fiir Musik und 
Theaterwesen, 1892; by SIEGMUND SCHNEIDER (very fine 
illustrations), folio. AVien, 1894. 


General Works on Music. 

ABERT, HERMANN. Zu Kassiodor. Int. Mus. Ges. Sbd. III., 3, 

pp. 439-53. Leipzig, 1902. 
AMBROS, AUGUST WILHELM. Geschichte der Musik. 3 vols, 

revised by : Vol. I., B. von Sokolowsky. 1887. Vol. II., 

Heinrich Reimann. 1891. Vol. III., Otto Kade. 1891. 3rd 

edition, 8vo. Leipzig, 1887-1891. 

* * AUBRY, PIERRE. La Musicologie Medievale. Paris, 1900. 
AUBRY, PIERRE, l^a musique et les inusicieus d'eglise en Nor- 

mandie au XIII. Siecle. Paris, 1906. 

AUBRY, PIERRE. Les plus anciens monuments de la musique 
frangaise. 24 Plates. Melanges de MusieoJugie. Paris, 1905. 

AUGUSTINUS, SAINT. Bishop of Hippo. De musica prsecepta 
artis musicse collecta ex libris sex de musica. (Angelo Mai's 
Scriptorum Veterum Nova Collectio, etc. Tom. III). 1825, 
etc. Italian translation — "De Musica," Delia Musica libri 
sei, tradotti ed annotati da R. CARDAMONE, pp. 206. 
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* * BATKA, R. Geschichte der Musik in Bohmen. Prague, 

1906, etc. 
BERGMANS, C. Le Conservatoire Roj'al de Musique de Gand. 

8vo, pp. 529. Gand, 1901. 
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licht tot het welverstaan van de musiec en de bascontinuo, 

etc. 2 deel. 4to. Gravenhage, 1739. 
BRENDEL, J. Geschichte der Musik. 8vo, pp. 662. Leipzig, 

BRIDGE, SIR J. FREDERICK. Samuel Pepys, Lover of Musique. 

8vo, pp. 125. London, 1903. 
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from a .series of letters from a gentleman to his daughter. 3 

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* * BURNEY, CHARLES, Mus.Doc. General History of Music 

from the earliest ages to the present period. To which is pre- 
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CERONE, DOM PEDRO. El Melopeo v Maestro. (Book 21^. 
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CHAPPELL, WILLIAM. A Collection of National English Airs 
consisting of Ancient Song, Ballad and Dance Tunes, inter- 
spersed with remarks and anecdotes and preceded by an essay 
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* * CHAPPELL, WILLIAM. Old English Popular Music, a 

new edition with a preface and notes and the earlier exam- 
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CHAPPELL, WILLIAM. Popular Mu.sic of the Olden Time. 2 
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* * CHAPPELL, WILLIAM. The History oi Music, etc. Vol. I. 

(no more published). 8vo. London, 1874. 

* * CHLADNI, ERN,ST F. F. Die Akustik. Leipzig, 1802. 
CHOUQUET, GUSTAVE. Histoire de la musique dramatique ^en 

France depuis ses origines jusqu'a nos jours. 8vo. Paris, 1873. 

CHRISTIANOWITSCH, ALEXANDRE. Esquisse historique de 
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CONRAT, H. J. La Musica in Shakespeare. 8vo, pp. 44. Torino, 

au Xlle. et XITP. siecles. 3 parties. 4to. Paris, Lille, 1865. 

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DANNREUTHER, E. " The Romantic Period. Vol. VI. of the 
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DOBNECK, JOANNES [COCHLAEUS]. Tetrachordum Musices. 
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griechisclien Musik .... Nach den Quellen neu-gearbeitet. 
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EITNER, ROBERT. Die Oper von ihren ersten Anfangen bis 
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VICH MUSEUM. Catalogo del Museo Arqueologico-Artistico 

Episco]ial de Vich. 8vo, \)\y. vii., 542. Vich, 1893. 




BOURGES. Monogiaphie de la Cathedrale de Bourges, by A. 
Martin and Charles Cahier. Folio, plates. Paris, 1841, etc. 

COIRE. Tresor de la Cathedrale de Coire. By Emile Molinier. 27 
plates (no mnsical instruments), folio. Paris, 1895. 

DONNA REGINA. Gli affreschi del Monastere di Donna Regina. 
Bv Denietrio Salazaro. Folio, plates. Napoli, 1879. 

LINCOLN CATHEDRAL. An Illustration of the Architecture 
and Sculpture of the Cathedral Church at Lincoln. By 
Charles Wild. (Musical instruments), folio. London, 1819. 

QUEDLINBURG. Tresor de I'Abbaye de Quedlinburg. By J. M. 
de Vasselot. Gaz. des Beaux Arts. Paris, Oct., 1898. 

RHEIMS. Tresor des Eglises de Rheinis. By Prosper Tarbe. 4to, 
28 plates. Rheinis, 1843. 

S. BLASIUS. Der Kirchenschatz von S. Blasien jetzt zu S. Paul 
in Karnten. By Fr. X. Kraus. Knnstdenlimiiler d. Gross- 
hciz. Baden, Bd. III. Freiburg, i/B., 1892.^ 

ST. CHRISTOPHE, LIEGE. Monographic de I'Eglise paroissiale 
de St. Christophe a \Aege. By Jules Helbig. Itecueil de 
inodi'les artistiqnes dn moi/en-uge. Liv. I. Folio. Gand, 


S. DENIS, PARIS. Monographic de I'Eglise royale de St. Denis. 

By R. F. M. N. de Guilhermy. Dessins. 12mo. Paris, 1848. 
S. MAURICE D'AGAUNE. Tresor de I'abbaye de S. Maurice 

d'Agaune, deciit et dessine. VA. Aubert. 4to, pp. vii., 263. 

Paris, 1872. 
TREVES. Der Dom zu Trier in seinen drei Hauptperioden, 

romische, friinkische, ronianische. Bv J. N. von Wilmowsky. 

XXVI. Taf. 2 pts., 4to and folio. Trier, 1874. 



ANNALES ARCHEOLOGIQUES de Didron. 4to. Paris, 1844- 

ANNALI del Instituto di Correspondenza Archeologica. Roma, 


ANNUAIRE DES MUSEES scientifiques et archeologiques des 

departenients. 8vo. Paris, 1900, etc. 
ANNUAL OF THE BRITISH SCHOOL of Archaeology in Athens, 

4to. London, 1896, etc. 

* * ANTIKE DENKMALER. Deutsches Archfeologisches Institut. 
Folio, fine plates. Berlin, 1887, etc. 


ARCHAEOLOGISCHE ZEITUNG. 4to. Berlin, 1843-85. 
ARCHIVIO della R. Societa Romana di Storia liatria. Roma. 

* * L'ARTE. (Archivio Storico dell' Arte 1888-97 contiuued as 

I'Arte). 8vo, fine plates. Roma, 1898, etc. 

ATLAS ARCHEOLOGIQUE de I'Algerie. Folio. Alger, 1902, etc. 

BULLETIN ARCHEOLOGIQUE de rAthenteum Fran9ais. 4to. 
Paris, 1852-56. 


table generale). Fine plates (musical instruments). Paris, 
1877, etc. 

* BYZANTINISCHE ZEITSCHRIFT. 8vo (a few plates and illus- 

trations). Leipzig, 1898, etc. 

* * COMPTE-RENDU de la Commission imperiale arclieologique. 

(In French and German), 4to and Atlas, folio, fine plates 
(many musical instruments). St. Petersburg, 1860, etc. 
COMPTE-RENDU du Congrc's International d'Archeologie 
d'Athenes. Paris, 1905, etc. 

* * GAZETTE ARCHEOLOGIQUE. Recueil do monuments pour 

servir a la connaissance et a I'histoire de I'art antique. 

Plates, 4to. Paris, 1875, etc. 
JAHRBUCH der Gesellschaft fiir Lotliringisclie Geschichte und 

Alterthumskunde. 8vo. Metz, 1889, etc. 
JAHRESHEETE des "Wiirttembergischen Alterthums Vereins. 

Plates, folio. Stuttgart, 1844-51. 


truzione Pubblica. Roma, 1894, etc. 

LE MUSEE. Revue d'Art antique. 4to, plates. Paris, 1904, etc. 
MITTHEILUNGEN der Kiinig. Kaiserl. Central Commission zur 

Frhaltung der Baudeiikmale. 4to, plates and woodcuts. 

Wien, lS5(i, etc. 

* MITTHEILUNGEN des Deutschen Archaeologischen Instituts. 

Athenische abtheilung. 8vo. Athens, 1876, etc. 

* MITTHEILUNGEN des Deutschen Arciiaeologischen Instituts. 

Romische Abtheilung. Rome, 1S86, etc. 
NOUVELLES ANNALES de I'lnstitut de Correspondence arclieo- 
logique (Istituto di Corrispondenza Archeologica), publiees 
par la section fran^aise de I'lnstitut. Folio, plates. Paris, 
1836, etc. 

* * NUOVO BULLETINO di Archcologia cristiana. 8vo. Roma. 

1895, etc. 
ORIENS CHRISTIANUS. Priester Collegium des deutschen 

Campo-Santo. (Halbjiihrlich). With plates. Rom, 1901, etc. 
PROCEEDINGS of the Society of Biblical Archfeologv. London. 
PUBLICATIONS de I'lnstitut fran^ais d'Archeologie Orientals. 

4to, with plates. Le Caire, 1901, etc. 

* * REVUE ARCHEOLOGIQUE, ou Recueil de documents et de 

memoires relatifs a I'etude des monuments, etc. 8vo, with 
plates. Paris, 1844, etc. Xouvelle Serie, 1860, etc. 

* * REVUE DES ETUDES GRECQUES. With plates. Paris. 

1888, etc. 

* ROMISCHE QUARTALSCHRIFT fiir christliche Alterthums- 


wissenschaft and fiir Kirchengeschichte. 8vo, plates. Rom, 

1887, etc. 

SONDERSCHRIFTEN des CEsterreichischen archEeologischen In- 

stituts. 4to. Wien, 19U1, etc. 
STIMMEN AUS MARIA LAACH, katholische Monatsschrift. Svo. 

Freiburg i/m Breisgau, 187(i, etc. 

1888, etc. 


Antiquities of Ancient Egypt and Africa. 

BISSING, F. W. VON. Catalogue general des anticjuites egyp- 
tiennes du musee du Caire. No. 3426-3o87, etc. Metalwork. 
Le Caire, 1901, etc. 

CAPART, JEAN. Primitive Art in Egypt. 8vo (many illustra- 
tions, a few musical instruments). London, 1905. 

CAPART, JEAN. Recueil de monuments egyptiens. 50 plates 
(phototypies) avec texte explicatif. 4to (with musical instru- 
ments). Bruxelles, 1902. 

CHAMPOLLION, J. F. Monuments de I'Egypte et de la Xubie. 
3 vols, (many musical instruments), jilates, fol. Vol. II., pi. 
165, and Vol. III., pi. 261, musical instruments. Paris. 

DAVIES, N. DE G. Rock Tombs of El Amarna, etc. AVith plates. 
4to. London, 1903, etc. 

DENON, D. V. Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte. With 
plates, folio (musical instruments). Paris, 1802. 

DENON, D. V. Voyage dans la Basse et Haute Egypte. AVith 
plates, folio (with musical instruments). London, 1807. 

EGYPTIAN EXPLORATION FUND. Abydos. Memoirs, No. 22. 
etc. London, 1902, etc. 

EGYPTIAN EXPLORATION FUND. Archfeological Report, 
1892-93. (With illustrations). London, 1893, etc. 

EGYPTIAN EXPLORATION FUND. ArcliEeological Survey of 
Egvpt. Memoirs. 4to. London, 1893, etc. 

EGYPTIAN EXPLORATION FUND. El Amrah and Abvdos, 1899- 
1901. (With illusti-ations), folio. London, 1902. 

Papvri. (With illustrations and plates), 4to. London, 1900. 

EGYPTIAN EXPLORATION FUND. Memoirs. 4to, with plates. 
Jjondon, 1885, etc. 

ments of EI-Kab. Plates, folio (no musical instruments). 
London, 1895. 

GAYET, ALBERT. Coins d'Egvpte ignores. (With illustrations). 

Paris, 1905. 
GAYET, ALBERT. Le Temple de Louxor. Ministcre de Vinstruc- 


tion puhlique. Egypte. Mcmoires. Tom. 15. Plates. Paris, 

1894, etc. 

Papyri. Egypt. Exploration Fund. Grccco-Homan Branch. 

8vo. London, 1898. 
LANGE, H. O. iind SCHAEFER, H. Grab— und Denksteine des 

mittleren Reichs im Museum von Kairo. Catalogue general 

des antiquites egyptiennes. Vol. V. 4to. Le Caire, 1901, 

* * LEPSIUS, C. R. Denkmale aus ^gypten and^thiopien. 
4 Bde., numerous plates (stringed instruments in Vol. IV., 
Part II., pi. 133. Berlin, 1849. 

MARUCCHI, O. II Museo egizio vaticano. With plates, 8vo. 
Roma, 1899. 

MORGAN, J. DE. Fouilles a Dahchour, 1894-95. (Egyptian An- 
tiquities). 2 Pts., 4to (fine plates, no musical instruments). 
Vienne, 1895-1903. 

MORGAN, J, DE. Notice des principaux monuments d'Egypte, 
exposes au musee de Gizeh. Seivice des antiq. d^Egypte. 
Paris, 1892. 

MUELLER, W. M. Neue Darstellungen " Mykenischer " Gesand- 
ter xuid phonizischer Schiffe in altagyptischen Wandgemalden. 
8vo, pp. 67. Berlin, 1904. 

Ancient Egvpt. 2 vols, (with illustrations), 8vo. Translated 
by WALTER ARMSTRONG. London, 1883. 

PETRIE, W. M. FLINDERS. Diospolis Parva. Cemeteries of 
Abadiveh and Hu. Fol., with plates. London, 1901. 

PETRIE, 'W. M. FLINDERS. Naukratis. Egypt. Expl. Fund 
Mr in. IjoikIoh, 1886, etc. 

PETRIE, W. M. FLINDERS. The Royal Tombs of the First 
Dvnastv. Egi/pt. ExpJ. Fund MenK, No. 18, etc. London, 
1900, etc. 

PETRIE. W. M. FLINDERS. Six Temples at Thebes. 26 plates. 
Loudon, 1897. 

Temple of the Kings at Abydos. With drawings by H. L. 
Christie. Egypt. Research Account. Publ., No. 8. London. 

PRISSE D'AVENNES, ACHILLE C. T. E. Monuments egyptiens, 
bas-reliefs, peintures, inscriptions, etc., d'apres les dessins 
executes sur les lieux par P. d'A. pour faire suite aux Monu- 
ments de I'Egypte et de la Nubie par Champollion le jeune. 
Fol., fine plates (musical instruments). Paris, 1847. 

PRISSE D'AVENNES, ACHILLE C. T. E. Notice sur le musee 
du Caire et sur les collections d' antiquites egyptiennes de 
M. M. Abbott, Clot Bey, et Harris. Extrait de la "Revue 
Archeol." Svo, pp. 28. Paris, 1846. ..,^^,., 

DE LA FAYE, P. Histoire de I'art egyptien d'apres les 
monuments depuis les temps les plus recules jusqu'a la doniina- 
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ROSELLINI, N. F. I. B, Monumenti dell' Egitto e della Nubia. 
3 Pts., with plates. Pisa, 1832-44. 


monuments et inscriptions de I'Egypte antique. Paris, 

WILKIMSON, SIR J. G. Manners and Customs of the Ancient 
Egyptians. AVith numerous illustrations and plates (many 
musical instruments), 3 vols. London, 1837-41. 


Antiquities of Assyria. 

ASSYRIAN SCULPTURES. Collotype plates with text, fol. 

London, 1904, etc. 
BOSCAWEN, W. ST. CHAD. The First of Empires. Babylon of 

the Bible. 8vo, pp. 355. London, 1903. 
BOTTA, P. E. Monuments de Ninive decouverts et decrits par 

P. E. B.', dessines par E. Flandrin. 5 vols, folio (musical 

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BOTTA, P. E. and MOHL, J. Botta's Letters and Discoveries 

at Nineveh. London, 1850. 
HILPRECHT, H. V. Die .\usgrabungen der Universitat von 

Pennsylvania ini Bel-Tempel zu Nippur. 8vo, pp. 76. 

Leipzig, 1903. 
KAULEN, F. Assvrien und Babylonia. 8vo. Freiburg im 

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LAURENT, A. Ija niagie et la divination cliez les Chaldeo-As- 

syriens. 8vo. Paris, 1894. 
LAYARD, RT. HON. SIR A. G. C. B. Monuments of Nineveh, 

from drawings made on the spot. Fol., 100 pi., in two series, 

many musical instruments. London, 1849 and 1853. 
LENORMANT, F. La magie chez les Chaldeens. 8vo (chapter 

on musical instruments). Paris, 1874-75. 

Art in Chaldea and Assyria. Translated by W. Armstrong. 

Engravings in text and coloured plates, 2 vols., 8vo. London, 

REISNER, G. Tempelurkunden aus Telloli. Mittlirihnigcn aits 

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SARZEC, ERNEST DE. Decouvertes en Chaldee. Fol., plates. 

Paris, 1884, etc. 
SARZEC, ERNEST DE. L^ne villa royale chaldeenne vers I'an 

1400 B.C., d'apres les leves et les notes de M. de S. (No musi- 
cal instruments). Paris, 1900. 
SMITH, GEORGE (nf the British Museum). History of Assur- 

baiii]5al. 8vo. London, 1871. 
VIGOUREUX, F. La Bible et les decouvertes en Assyrie. 4 vols., 

12mo. Paris, 1881 and 1882. 



Antiquities of Persia. 

BENJAMIN, SAMUEL G. W. Persia and the Persians. 8vo, pp. 
xvii., 507 (with illustrations). London, 1886. 

* * * DALTON, O. M. The Treasure of the Oxus, with other 

objects from Ancient Persia and India bequeathed to the 
Trustees of the British Museum by Sir A. "W. Franks. 29 pi. 
(musical instruments). London, 1905. 
DIEULAFOY, M. L'art antique de la Perse. Achemenides, 
Parthes, Sassanides. (No musical instruments), 5 Pts., fol., 
with fine plates. Paris, 1884-89. 

pendant les annees 1840 and 1841. (Ancient Persia). 5 vols., 
folio and 8vo, plates, 4 vols., letterpress, 1 vol. 

GAYET, ALBERT. L'art persan. Plates. Paris, 1895. 

KAVASJI, DINSHAH KIASH. Ancient Persian Sculptures. 8vo, 
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LONG, H. A. P. DE and BABELON, E. Essai sur les medailles des 
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* * * MORGAN, JACQUES DE. Delegation en Perse, Memoires. 

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MORGAN, JACQUES DE. Mission Scientirtque en Perse. With 
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NOELDEKE, T. Persepolis. Die Denkinaler und Inschriften. 
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Art in Persia. 8vo, ])]). 508. I^ondon, 18*12. 

ioirz de V Art dans I'Avtiquitv. Tome IV., pp. 918, with 
plates and illustr itions, 4to. Paris, 1890. 

RAWLINSON, GEORGE. The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy 
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Antiquities of Asia Minor. 

ANGELINl. Scoperte archeol. in Gerusalemme, ed. in Nazareth. 
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BARKER, WILLIAM BURCKHARDT. Lares and Penates. Cilicia 
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BENNDORF, OTTO. Aichaeologische rntersuchungeu auf 
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BENNDORF, OTTO and KIEPERT, H. Lykien und Karien. 
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BROSSET, M. Rapports sur un voyage archeologique dans la 
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CLERMONT-GANNEAU, CHARLES. Archseological and Epi- 
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DORPFELD, W. Troja und Ilion, 1870-1894. 76 pi. (471 illus- 
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FROHNER, WILHELM. Terres-cuites d'Asie Mineure. Folio, 

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GERHARDT, EDUARD. Ueber die Kunst der Phoenicier. 7 

Kupfertafeln, Jto. Berlin, 1848. 
HOLZMANN, C. Binbirkilise. Archaeologische Skizzen aus 

Anatolien. 4to. Hamburg, 1904. 
HUMANN, C. Magnesia am Maeander. Bericht iiber die Ergeb- 

ni.sse der Ausgrabungen der .Jahre 1891-93. Folio, pp. 228. 

Koiiigl. .][vseeit. Berlin, 1904. 
LENORMANT, F. liettres assyriologicxues sur I'histoire et les 

antiquites de I'Asie anterieure, etc. Etudes Accauiennes. 
5 Tomes, 4to. Paris, 1871-80. 

NEWTON, C. T. A History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus, 
Cnidus and Branchidse. Vol. I., plates; Vol. II., Letterpress. 
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in Phrvgia, Lvdia, Caria and Lycia. (With illustrations), pp. 
xii., 4i)d, 8vo.' London, 1892. "^ 

in Phoenicia and its Dependencies. Translated by W. ARM- 
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J. GONINO. Historj' of Art in Sardinia, Judsea, Syria and 
Asia Minor. (Coloured plates and engravings), 8vo, 2 vols. 
London, 1890. 

archeologique de la Galatie et de la Bithynie, d'une partie de 
la Mysie, de la Phrygie, de la Cappadoce en 1861. (Publie 

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PETRIE, W. M. FLINDERS. Catalogue of Antiquities from Tel- 
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PETERSEN, EUGEN, and LUSCHAN, F. VON. Reisen in Lykien, 
Milyas und Kibyratis mit 40 Tafeln. Folio, pp. 248. lieiseii 
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RAYET, OLIVIER and THOMAS, ALBERT. Milet et le Golfe 
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RENAN, JOSEPH ERNEST. Mission de Plienicie. With plates, 

pp. 884, 4to. Paris, 1864. 
SCHLIEMANN, HEINRICH. Ilios Stadt und Land der Trojaner. 

Forschnngon und Entdeckungen in dor Troas und besonders 

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880, 8vo. Leipzig, 1881. Also English edition. London, 

SCHLIEMANN, HEINRICH. Trojanische Altertumer. Plates, 

8vo. Leipzig, 1874. 
SCHMIDT, HUBERT. H. Schlieniann's Sanindung Trojiinischer 

Altertliiinier. 9 pi., 1170 figures. Berlin, 1902. 
SCHNEIDER, ROBERT VON. Ausstelluug von Fuiulstucke aus 

Ephesos. Kuusfhist. Sdinml. dvs AJU'ihiichstcs KaiseiJuiuses. 

8vo. Wien, 1902. 
SMITH, R. M. and PORCHER. E. A. History of Recent Dis- 
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* * * STEIN, MARC AUREL. Ancient Khotan (Chinese 

Turkestan). 2 vols., folio, text and plates. Musical instru- 
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STRZYGOWSKI, JOSEPH. Kleinasien. Ein Xeuland der Kunst- 

geschichte. 8vo, p]). 225. Leipzig, 1903. 

Syrie centrale. Architecture civile et religieuse du l*"'" au 

7^ siecle. 4to, 24 plates. Paris, 1865, etc. 
WIEGAND, J. and SCHRADER, H. Priene. Ergebnisse der Aus- 

grabimgen, 1895-98. Folio, pp. 492, plates. Berlin, Konigl 

Miiseen. Berlin, 1904. 
WINTER, FRANZ. Alterthiimer von Hierapolis. Jahrhuch d. 

K. Deutsche. Archaeol. Itjstititt, Etiianziingsheft 4. Berlin, 



Antiquities of India. 

* * BURGESS, JAMES. The Buddhist Stupas of .Vniaravati, etc. 

With plates. Archacolori'icaJ Suirrii of Indin, Vol. (i. (Trans- 
verse Flxtte and rebabs). Simla, Calcutta, 1887. 

* * FERGUSSON, JAMES. Tree and Serpent AVorship. 4to, 

with plates (musical instruments). London, 1873. 
FOUCHER, .A. Etude sur I'iconographie bouddliiciue de I'lnde 

d'apres des documents nouveaux. 10 plates, 30 illustrations, 

])p. iii., 265. BihJioth. des Sciences lerKiieuses. Vol. 13, 

Parts I. and II. Paris, 1900 and 1905. 
FOUCHER, A. L'art Greco-bouddhique du Gandhara. Etude 

sur les origines de I'influence classique dans l'art bouddhique 

de rinde et de I'extreme Oi-ient. Ecule Fran^. dans Vex- 
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* GRIFFITHS, JOHN. The Paintings in the Buddhist Cave- 

Temples of Ajanta, Khandesh, India. 2 vols., folio. London, 


GRUENWEDEL, ALBERT. Biiddische. Kunst in Indien. 102 
illustrations. Jlandhuvh dcs Museums fiir ]'oIker]{}nulp. Ber- 
lin, 19UU. Also JCnglish edition (154 illustrations). London, 

GRUENWEDEL, ALBERT. Mythologie des Buddliismus in Thibet 
und der Mongolei. Fiihier durcli die luiiuiisfiseJie Sainin- 
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Leipzig, 1900. 

* KUSEJR'AMRA. (Arabia) frescoes of the 8th or 9th century. 
(See PI. XXXIV). I'ublication of the K. Akademie der 
Wissenschaften. 2 vols., folio, text and plates. Vienna. 

MUSIL, ALOIS. Arabia Petrsea. Illustrations. In progress. 
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SMITH, VINCENT A. Graeco-Roman Influence of the Civilisa- 
tion of Ancient India. Journal of Asiatic Societi/ of Beiiqal, 
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SONNERAT, PIERRE. Collection de planclies pour un voyage 
aux Indes. (Musical instruments). Paris, 180(). 


Antiquities of the Christian East. 

BAUMSTARK, DR. ANTON (editor). Oriens Christianus,, 
Roniische Halbjahrheft fiir die Kunde des christlichen 
Orients. Publication of the " Priester Collegium des deutschen 
Campo Santo." Rome and Leipzig, 1901, etc. 

BOCK, WLADIMIR DE. Materiaux pour servir a I'archeologie 

de I'Egvpte chretienne. (Russian and French text), pp. 95. 
Atlas, XXXIII. nl., ob. folio. St. Petersburg, 1901. 
BUDGE, E. A. TH. W. The Miracles of the Blessed Virgin Mary 
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Michael. AiiaJecfa BoUandiaiia XX., Ill pi., 4to. London, 

BULLETIN de I'lnstitut Egvptien d' Alexandiie. Alexandiie, 

1882, etc. 
BUTLER, ALFRED JOSHUA. The Ancient Coptic Churches of 

Egypt. 2 vols, 8vo. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1884. 

CLEDAT, JEAN. Le monastere et la necropole de Baouit. Mvin. 
de rinst. fra)i^ais d'Aveheoloiiie orientale. Tom. XII., 
folio, ]ilates (1 primitive kithara). Cairo, 1904. 

CRUM, W. Der heilige Apollo und das Kioster von Baouit. 
Zeitselirift fiir jEgijptisehe Spiaehe. Tom. XIj., 4to. Leip- 
zig, 1863, etc. 

DALTON, O. M. A Guide to the Early Christian and Byzantine 
Antiquities in the Department of British and Medifeval An- 
tiquities of the British Museum. 8vo, pp. xii., 116, 15 plates, 
84 illustrations. London, 1903. 

DALTON, O. M. Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities and 
Objects from the Christian East. 4to, pp. xxiv., 186; xxxv. 
plates. British Museum, London, 1901. 


DIEHL, CHARLES. L'eglise et les mosaiques du convent de St. 

Luc en Phocide. Bibliothtque des Ecoles fran^aises. Fasc. 
55, pp. 72, 8vo and 4to. Paris, 1889. 
FOWLER, MONTAGUE. Christian Egypt, Past, Present and 
Futnre. 8vo, pp. xiv., 319. London, 1901. 

FROHLICH, ERASMUS. Annales compendiarii regum et rerum 
Svriae. Vienna, 1754. 

TYLOR, J. J., OUIBELL, J. E. and others. Comite de Conserva- 
tion des monuments de I'Art arabe. (On the Churches and 
Monasteries of Egypt). Publications vf the Egi/ptian 
Besearck Account. 4to. London, 1898. 

VINCENT. Une mosaique byzantine a Jerusalem. lievue Bib- 
lique Ti imestrielle, VoL X., p. 436-444, plate from photo- 
graph. (Orpheus with his kithara, V. to VII. cent.). Paris, 


Antiquities of Northern Africa. 

AFRICAN ARCHAEOLOGY. Tombes en mosaique de Thabraca. 
Bibliothtque d'li i ch/'olo(iie af ricaine. Facs. 1. Paris, 1897. 

BABELON, ERNEST. Carthage. Pp. 197, 12mo, with illustra- 
tions and a map. (iuidrs en Algiiie et en Tuntsie. Paris, 

BALLU, ALBERT. Les Ruines de Timgad. 2 vols, 8vo. Paris, 
1897 and 1903. 

BALLU, ALBERT. Theatre et Forum de Timgad. 11 plates, 
folio. Paris, 1902. 

BLANCHERE, LA, R. DE. Collection de la Commission Farges a 
Constantine. M usees et Collections arcJieol. de VAhjerie, IX. 
12 pi. (no musical instruments). Paris, 1901. 

gad, une cite africaine sous I'empire romaiu. 4to, pp. 362, 43 
pi., heliogravures, etc., 9 ou 10 livraisons. Paris, 1905. 

BOTTI, G. Fouilles a la colonne theodosienne. 2 -pt., 8vo. 
Alexandrie, 1897. 

BOTTI, G. Musee Greco-Romain d'Alexandrie. Notice des 
Monuments exposes au Musee. 8vo, pp. xxviii., 254. Alex- 
andrie, 1893. 

CAGNAT, R. Musee de Lambese. Musces et Collections de 
VAlqcrie et de lo Tunisie, 1'., 7. Paris, 1895. 

CAGNAT, R., GAUCKLER, P. and ROY, B. Les monuments his- 
toriques de la Tunisie. Part I., Antiques; Part II., Arabes. 
5 I>ivraisons, 50 pi. Tunis, 1890. 

CATALOGUE des monuments exposes dans le Musee National du 
Caire. Good jilates (no musical instruments). Le Caire, 

DELATTRE, REV. PERE. Musee Lavigerie de St. Louis de 
Carthage. Musces et Collections atehcolo(jiqucs do rAlgcric 
et de la Tunisie. Serie II. Paris, 1899. 


DOUBLET, GEORGES. Le Musee d' Alger. Lcs Mufees et Col- 

h'ctioHS arclictiJ. de VAlyciie, etc. VoL I., 17 plates, folio, 

Paris, 1890. 
DOUBLET, GEORGES and GAUCKLER, P. Miisee de Constan- 

tine. Les Musccs et Collections arclicol. de VAlgcrie, etc. 

Vol. II., 16 i^lates, folio (no musical instruments). Paris, 

GAUCKLER, P. Le Musee de Cherchel. Mvsees et Collections 

de VAlgcrie, etc., Vol. IV. 21 plates, folio. Tunis, 1893. 

GAUTIER, J. E. and JEQUIER, G. Memoire sur les fouilles de 
Licht. Inst, franc. dWrchcoloqie oiientale. Tom. G. 30 
plates, 144 figures (mostly architectural). Cairo, 1902. 

GAYET, ALBERT. Kantomes d'Antinoe. Les sepultures de 
Leukyone et Myrithis. Paris, 1904. 

GAYET, ALBERT. L'art copte. Ecole d'Alexandrie. 8vo, pp. 

334, plates (no musical instruments). Paris, 1902. 
GAYET, ALBERT. L'exploration des necropoles greco-byzan- 

tines d'Antinoe et les sarcophages de tombes pharaoniques. 

Annules dn Musee Gniinet. Tome 30, 20 plates. Paris, 1902. 
GAYET, ALBERT. Les monuments coptes du Musee de Boulaq. 

J][inisti'te de Vlnstniction 2)ublique. Memories de la mission 

arclicol. fran^'. au Caire. Tom. III. Plates. Paris, 1889. 
GAYET, ALBERT. Notice relative aux objets recueillis a An- 

tinoe pendant les fouilles executees en 1900-1903, et exposes 

au Musee Guimet. 3 pts., Bvo. Paris, 1901-03. 

GSELL, STEPHANE. Les monuments antiques de I'Algerie. 8vo, 
Paris, 1901, etc. 

LA BLANCHERE, RENE DE. Collection du Musee Alaoui de 
Tunis. 4to. Paris, 1890. 

LA BLANCHERE, RENE DE. Musee d'Oran. Musccs et Collec- 
tions archcol. de VAlgcrie, etc. 4to, plates (several musical 
instruments). Paris, 1893. 

LA BLANCHERE, RENE DE. Musees et Collections archeo- 
logiques de I'Algerie et de la Tunisie. 11 vols, 4to, with 
plates, 3«. serie. Paris, 1890 to 1900. 


Catalogue du Musee d' Alaoui Tunis (Roman). Plates (musi- 
cal instruments) (poor reproductions). Paris, 1897. 

MARCAIS, W., and MARCAIS, G. Les monuments arabes de 
Tlemcen. 30 planches and 82 illustrations, pp. v., 358, 8vo. 
Service des monuments hi.ttoriques de VAlgcrie. Paris, 1903. 

MASPERO, GASTON. Memoires publies par les membres de la 
mission archeologique fran^aise au Caire. Ministhe de Vln- 
stniction puhliqiic. ]<'olio (a series of volumes). Paris, 1884, 

NEROUTSOS, TASSOS DEMETRIOS. L'ancienne Alexandrie. 

Etude archeologique et topographique. 8vo, pp. 132. Paris, 

Angers, 1888. 
POOLE, STANLEY LANE. The Art of the Saracens in Egypt. 

With woodcuts, pp. xi., viii., 264, 8vo. London, 1886. 
SCHREIBER, THEODOR. Die alexandrinische Torentik. Un- 

tersuchungen iiber die griechische Goldschmiedekunst im 

3 B 


Ptolemaer Reiche. Abh. der K. S. Gesell. der Wissenschaften. 
Bd. 34, 1852, etc. Leipzig, 1894, etc. 

SCHREIBER, THEODOR. Die AViener Brunnenreliefs aus 
Palazzo Grimani. Eine Studie iiber das hellenistische Relief- 
bild mit Untersuchungen liber die bildende Kunst in Alex- 
andrian. 4to, pp. viii., 102. Leipzig, 1888. 

THIERSCH, H. Zwei Graber der romischen Kaiserzeit in Gab- 
bari. 10 plates and 8 illustrations, pp. 40. Soc. archeol. 
d'Alexandrie. Bulletin, No. 3. (No miisical instruments), 
8vo. Munchen, 1900. 

VILLOTEAU, GUILLAUME ANDRE. L'Egypte moderne. 2 vols. 
Vol. II. Description historique, technique et litteraire des 
instruments de musique des Orientaux. Fol. Paris, 1812. 


Miscellaneous Works on the East. 

BOURGOIN, J. Precis de I'art arabe. 4to, 4 pts. Paris, 1889- 

BUTLER, A. J. The Arab Conquest of Egypt. 8vo, pp. 563. 

London, 1902. 
CUMONT, F. Textes et monuments relatifs aux Mysteres de 

Mithra. 2 tom., 4to. Bruxelles, 1899. 
DUMONT, ALBERT. Terres Cuites orientales et greco-orientales. 

Chaldee, Assyrie, Phenicie, Chvpre et Rhodes. 4to, pp. 35. 

Paris, 1884. 
LINDL, ERNEST. Cyrus. Entstehung und BHithe der altorient- 

alischen Kulturwelt. (98 illustrations). Miinchen, 1903. 
MASPERO, GASTON. Histoire ancienne des peuples d'orient. 

Paris, 1904. 
NEWTON, SIR CHARLES THOMAS. Travels and Discoveries in 

the Levant. 2 vols., 8vo (with numerous illustrations). 

London, 1865. 

dans I'Antiquite. Egypte, Assyrie, Perse, Asie Mineure, 

Grece, Etrurie, Rome. 8vo. Paris, 1881. 
PETRIE, PROF. W. M. FLINDERS, Methods and Aims in 

Archseologv. 66 illustrations. London, 1904. 
PRISSE D'AVENNES, A. C. T. E. Miroir de I'Orient, ou tableau 

historique des croyances, moeurs, usages, sciences et arts de 

I'Orient par une societe d'orientalistes, de voyageurs, d'ar- 

tistes sous la direction de P. d'A. Livraison I. (no more 

published), 4to. Paris, 1852. 
RAWLINSON, GEORGE. The Five Great Monarchies. (Some 

musical instruments; tanbur in Vol. I., p. 534, 2nd edition), 

3 vols., 8vo, numerous illustrations and plates. London, 

TEXIER, CH. F. M. Description de I'Armenie, la Perse et la 

Mesopotamie. (Musical instruments). Paris, 1845-52. 


WEBER, O. Studien zur siidarabischen Alterthumskunde. Mit- 
theilunqen der Vonleiusiutischen GeseUschaft. Jahrgang 6. 
8vo. Berlin, 1906. 

WEBER, O. Arabien vor dem Islam. Der alte Orient. 8vo, pp. 
36. Mittheilungen der Vorderasiatischen GeseUschaft. Jahr- 
gang 3. Berlin, 1903. 



Miscellaneous Collections of Facsimiles. 

AMBROSIAN LIBRARY. Edited by A. M. Ceriani. Monumenta 
sacra et profana ex codicibus, prsesertim Bibliotheca Ambrosi- 
ana. Tom. i.-lll., V. Ft. 1 and 2, VII. 4to and fol. Medio- 
lani, 1861-1874. 


ASHBURNHAM, LORD. Facsimiles of the principal MSS. of the 
Libri collection at Ashburnham Place. Folio, 9 plates, litho- 
graphs. London. 

BASTARD, AUGUSTE, COMTE DE. Peintures et ornements des 
MSS. 163 plates, imp. fol. [outlines only printed, illumina- 
tions filled in by hand. 5 copies completed, one in Brit. Mus. 
c. f. Delisle's classification of plates. Sect. E, p. 72]. Paris, 
1835, etc. 

BIRCH, WALTER DE GRAY. Ancient Psalters preserved in the 
British Museum. London, 1879. 

Drawings and Illuminations. Subject Catalogue of the MSS. 
in the British Museum. 12 plates. London, 1879. 

BRADLEY, J. W. and GODWIN, T. Manual of Illumination on 
paper and vellum. (Appendix). 12 lithographic illustra- 
tions. London, 1860. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. Fac-similes of Biblical MSS. in the British 
Museum. With plates. London, 1900. 

BRUNN, ADOLF. "An Inquiry into the Art of the Illuminated 
MSS. of the Middle Ages," in Offizieller Bericht iiher die Ver- 
handl. des Kunsthist. Kongresses in Amsterdam. Edited by 
Prof. Neuwirth di Praga. Niirnberg, 1898. Separately 
printed at Edinburgh, 1897, 4to, with 10 phototypes. 

CAHIER, CHARLES. Facsimiles of Miniatures. 2 vols., folio. 
Paris, 1866. 

melanges d'archeologie. 2 vols. Paris, 1874. 

CASLEY, DAVID. Catalogue of Royal MSS. 4to, with plates. 

London, 1734. 
CHANTILLY, MUSEE CONDE. Le Cabinet des Livres MSS. 29 
phot, engravings, 2 vols. Paris, 1900. 


UELlSLfc", LEOPOLD. Cabinet des MSS. 4to, with plates. 
Paris, ISm, etc. 

* DELISLL, LEOPOLD. L'oeuvre paleographique de M. le Comte 

de Bastard. Extrait de la Bibl. de I'Ecole des Chartes. (List 
of plates), pp. 26, 8vo. Nogent-le-Rotrou, 1882. 
DELISLE, LEOPOLD. Memoire sur d'anciens Sacramentaires. 
Acad, (hs Inscr. et Belles. Lettrcs. Tom. XXXII., pp. 57-423, 
4to and plates, fol. Paris, 1886. 

DELISLE, LEOPOLD. Notices de douze livres royaux du Xllle. 
et du XIV''. s. Psaultier d'Ingeburge, etc. 4to. Paris, 1902. 

ELLIS. R. Xll. Facsimiles from Latin MSS. in the Bodleian 
Library. 12 Photo lithog., pp. Ill, 4to. Oxford, 1885. 

GAUSSEN, ALFRED. Portefeuille archeologique. With illustra- 
tions. Paris, 18G5. 

UROLIER CLUB, NEW YORK. Catalogue of an Exhibition of 
illuminated and painted MSS., together with a few early 
printed books, also some examples of Persian MSS. With 22 
plates in fac-simile, pp. xxiii., 64. New York, 1892. 

HERMANN, H. J. Miniaturhandschriften aiis der Bibliothek des 
Herzogs, Andrea Matteo III. Jahrhuch. der Kvnsthist. Samml. 
de.f AJlcrlioc listen Kaiserhavses. Bd. 19. Wien, 1898. 

* HUMPHREYS, HENRY NOEL. The Illuminated Books of the 

Middle Ages ; an Account of the Development and Progress of 
the Art of Illumination .... from the IV. to the XVIIth 
cent. Fol., pp. 20, 41 plates (chromo-lithog.). London, 1849. 

* KOBELL, LUISE VON. Kunstvolle Miniaturen and Initialen 

aus Handschriften des IV. bis XVI. Jahrhundert. Folio, fine 
plates (musical instruments). Miinchen, 1890. 

KONDAROEF, N. Voyage au Sinai en I'annee 1881. Les an- 
tiquites du monastere du Sinai. 8vo, pp. iii., 160, and Atlas 
of 100 photographs bv .1. X. Raoull, folio. Odessa, 1882. 

KOPP, ULRICH FR. Bilder und Schriften der Vorzeit. (Fac- 
similes). Mannheim, 1819-21. 

LAMPRECHT, CARL. Initial-ornamentik des VIII. bis XIII. 
Jahrhundert. 4to, 24 plates, and pp. 32. (Gives list of MSS). 
Jjeipzig, 1882. 

LEITSCHUH, FRIEDRICH. Aus den Schatzen derkgl. Bibliothek. 
zu Bamberg. Bamberg, 1888. Bd. I., 27 plates, phototype, 
pp. 11, folio. (Tafel IX. Cithara). 

LIBRI, GUILLAUME. Monuments inedits ou peu connus, faisant 
partie du cabinet de G. Libri et qui se rapportent a I'histoire 
de I'ornamentation chez differents peuples. Folio, pp. 14, 60 
pi., chromolith. and lithog. London, 1864. 

MADAN, FALCONER. Books in MS., Introduction to their 
Study and Use. 8vo, pp. xv., 188, 8 pi. London, 1893. 

MIDDLETON, PROF. J. H. Illuminated MSS. in Classical and 
Media?val 'J'imes. (Woodcuts). 8vo, pp. xxiv., 270. Cam- 
bridge, 1892. 

MOLINIER, AUGUSTE. Les MSS. et les Miniatures (illustra- 
tions). Paris, 1892. 

MUNTZ, EUGENE. Etudes iconographiques et archeologiques sur 


le moyen age. (Chapter on Irish and Anglo-Saxon Minia- 
tures), pp. 135-1(J4. yew PaUco)jruphical ,Soc. See Thomp- 
son, Sir E. M. Paris, 1887. 

FAL>5:OGRAPHIC SOCIETY. Facsimiles of Ancient MSS. 5 
vols., folio (very fine plates, a few musical instruments). Two 
Series, 4(i5 plates. Text and a few phototype miniatures. 
London, 1873-83 and 1884-94. 

QUARITCH, BERNARD. Nineteen plates to illustrate romances 
of chivalry, m gold and colours. Catalogue of Mediaeval 
Literature. 8vo, pp. 88. Ijondon, 189(J. 

QUARITCH, ILLUSTRATIONS II. Examples of the Art of Book 
Illumination during the Middle Ages. Reproduced in fac- 
simile, y illuminations from biblical and liturgical MSS., XI. 
to XV' I. centuries. 4to, 108 chromo-lithographs. London, 

SHAW, HENRY. Illuminated Ornaments of the Middle Ages. 
159 plates from MSS. of the (5th to 17th cent. London, 1833. 

SHAW, HENRY. The Art of Illumination as practised during 
the Middle Ages. 2nd Edition. Chromo-lithog. and cuts. 
London, 1870. 

SILVESTRE, J. B. Paleographie rniverselle. 2 vols. Paris, 
1839-41. English Edition by Sir Fred. Madden. (Some min- 
iatures, a few musical instruments). London, 1850. 

SOLESMES. Paleographie musicale. Facsimiles phototypiques 
des priiiciijaux MSS. de chant gregorien, ambrosien, mo- 
zarabe, gallican, Publie par les Eenedictins de I'Abbaye de 
Solesmes. 7 vols, in 4to. 1889-1902. 

SPRINGER, ANTON. Der Bilderschmuck in den Sacramentarien 
des friihen Mittelalters. K. Scichs. Ges. drr ]T issenscliaften 
Abhdndlungen, Fhihil.-liistor. Classe. Bd. XI. 8vo. Leipzig, 

SPRINGER, ANTON. Die Genesisbilder in der Kunst des friihen- 
mittelalters. 31it besonderer Riicksicht auf den Ashburnham 
Pentateuch. K. Saclis. (ics. der Wissoischaftcn Abliatul- 
hnujcu, FhUol.-hist. Classe. Bd. IX. 8vo. Leipzig, 1884. 

SWEET, HENRY and GRIGGS, W. The Epinal-Glossary, Latin 
and Old English, 8tli cent. 28 plates, photo-lithogr. London, 

THOMPSON, SIR E. M. English Illuminated MSS. '• Btblio- 
qidpltica/' 1895-97. 

Facsimiles of Ancient MSS., published for the New Palceo- 
(iniphical Soc. Oxford, 1903, etc. 

* * TIKKANEN, J. J. Die Psalterillustration im Mittelalter. 3 

vols, (monograph on the Utrecht Psalter, Vol. III., p. 148). 
Helsingfors, 18.^^5-1900. 


ERATI, C. Monumenta palseographica sacra. Atlante palseo- 
graphico artistico compilato sui MSS. esposti in Torino alia 
mostra d'arte sacra, 1898. Folio, pp. viii., 73 and 120 plates, 
phototype (very hne illustrations, several with musical instru- 
ments). Torino, 1899. 

* * WARNER, GEORGE F. Illuminated MSS. in the British 

Museum. Miniature borders and initials reproduced in gold 


and colours. Descriptive text by G. F. W. Folio, 4 series of 
50 plates, photo-chromo-lithographs. London, 1899-1903. 
WESTWOOD, PROF. J. O. Illuminated Illustrations of the Bible, 
copied from select MSS. of the Middle Ages (15th and 16th 
cent., MSS., a few musical instruments). 4to. London, 1846. 

* * WESTWOOD, PROF. J. O. PalEeographica sacra pictoria. 

Select illustrations of ancient illuminated biblical and theo- 
logical MSS. 4to (several musical instruments). London, 

* WYATT, M. DIGBY. The Art of Illumination as practised from 

the earliest times. 101 jilates, 4to. London, 1860. 


Facsimiles of Classical and Early Christian 

ANACREON. Anacreontis convivialia semiambia. Edited by G. 
Spalletti, with Latin prose translation by J. Barnes. (A few 
Lyres and Citharas), folio. Rome, 1781. 

ASHBURNHAM PENTATEUCH. Miniatures of the Ashburnham 
Pentateuch. Edited by Oscar von Gebhardt. English intro- 
duction and descriptive text by C. R. Gregory. Folio, pp. 24 
(no musical instruments). London and Berlin, 1883. 

BEISSEL, STEPHAN. See Vatican Miniatures. 

CAPELLA, M. M. F. Facsimile delle miniature nel codice mar- 
ciano. Fotogravure esequite da A. Perini (no musical instru- 
ments), folio. Venetia, 1878. 

COZZA-LUZI, GIUSEPPE. Ad editionem Apocalypseos S. Johan- 
nis juxta vetustissimum codicem Basiliano Vaticanum 2066. 
4to. Ronice, 1869. 

DURRIEU, PAUL. Les MSS. a Miniatures des Heroides d'Ovide. 
Traduites par Saint-Gelais et un grand miniaturiste fran9ais 
du XVJf- s. 8vo, pp. 36, with plates. Paris, 1894. 

GENESIS MINIATURES. Die Wiener Genesis. Edited by Franz 
Wickhoff. Beilage des Jahrbiichs. der Kunstliist. Samml. des 
allerhdchsten Kaiserhauses. Bd. XV. and XVI., pp. 171 and 
52 plates, phototypes, folio (Double Pipes and Kettledrums). 
"VVien, 1895. 

GENESIS MINIATURES. Fragments du MS. de la Genese de R. 
Cotton, conserves parmi les papiers de Peiresc. Published by 
Henri Omont. Mem. de la Soc. Xat. des .Intiq. de France. 
Tome III., 6e Serie. 8vo. Paris, 1893. 

etc.. Codex Argenteo-purpureus Csesareo-Vindebonensis. (Part 
of Genesis III. to VIII. ; St. Luke, 24). 48 drawings (time of 
Constantine or end of 5th centurv). 

von S. Marco in Venedig und ihr Verhiiltniss zu den Minia- 
turen der Cotton Bibel, nebst einer Untersuchung iiber den 
Urprung der Mittelalterlichen Genesis-Darstellung besonders 


in der byzantinischen und italienischen Kunst. 4to, pp. 153, 
16 plates, lithogr. Helsingfors, 1889. 
UKNESIS M1T>JIATURES. The British Museum Genesis Minia- 
tures. Cotton MS. Otho B. VI. (badly damaged by fire). 
Reproduction in ]'etnsta Monumentu, ^ ol. I. (no musical in- 
struments). London, 1847. 
HOMKH. Fragments of the Iliad of Homer, from a Syriac 
Palimpsest. Edited by AVill. Cureton. Folio, pp. xix., 129, 
and (J plates, chromo-hthographs. London, 187i. 
HOMER. Picturse antiquissimse bellum liiacum representantes ex 
Horaeri codice, etc. Edited by Angelo Mai. Obi. folio album 
(CiTUARA), pp. 58. Mediolani, 1819. 
JOSHUA. Die Josuarotula. By Hans Graeven. Jahrh. d. Kgl. 
Preuss.-Kuiist. ,SanniU. Bd. XVIII., pp. 31, with illustra- 
tions (no musical instruments). Berlin, 1897. 
JOSHUA. II Rotulo di Giosue codice vaticano Palatino-Greco, 
431. L'Arte. Vol. I., pp. 221 seq., with illustrations. 
Rome, 1898. 
JOSHUA. Volumen picturarum, liber Josue. Bibliotheca ]'ati- 

caiice lY . 2 vols. Folio and obi. folio. Milano, 1905. 
MEUX MSS. Lady Valerie S. Meux. The Miracles of the Blessed 
Virgin Mary and the Life of Hanna and the Magical Prayers of 
'Aheta MiKael. 4 vols. 111 coloured plates. (.Ethiopian 
MSS.). 4to. Edited by Dr. E. A. T. W. Budge. London, 
PENTATEUCH. Les MSS. de Lyon et Memoire sur I'un de ces 
MSS., Le Pentateuque du Vie. siecle. By Leopold Delisle. 
Svo, pp. 103. Lyons, 1879. 
PLAJNTUS, TITUS MACCIUS. Macii Planti fragmenta inedita : 
item ad. P. Terentium. Commentationes et picturai ineditse. 
Edited by Angelo Mai. 8vo, pp. 67. Mediolani, 1815. 
Itala-Miniaturen der Kgl. Bibliothek in Berlin, i^'ragment 
der aeltesten christlichen Buch-malerei. Edited by Dr. Victor 
Schultze. 7 plates, phototypes, pp. 44. Miinchen, 1898. 
RABULA GOSPELS. Bibliothec£e Mediceo-Laurentiante et Pala- 
timse codicum MSS. orientalium catalogus. By A. M. Bisci- 
onus. (Syriac MS. of tour gospels written in o86 by Rabula, 
a scribe in the Monastery of St. John in Zagba, Mesopotamia). 
Folio, 26 plates of illuminations. Florence, 1742. 
STETTINER, RICHARD. Die illustrierten Prudentius-Hand- 

schriften. 4to. Berlin, 1905, etc. 
STRZYGOWSKI, JOSEPH. Die Calenderbilder des Chrono- 
graphen vom Jahre 354. Jahrh. d. Kgl. deutschen Archcol. 
Instituts Erganzungsheft. 30 plates. Berlin, 1888. 
STRZYGOWSKI, JOSEPH. Orient oder Rom. Beitrag zur Ges- 
chichte der spatantiken und friihchristlichen Kunst. 9 Taf., 
53 Abbildungen (no musical instruments). Leipzig, 1901. 
TERENTIUS. Terentius. Codex Ambrosianus. H 75. Edited 
by Erich Bethe. Codices Grcccl et Latini, phototypice depicti 
VL\.l. 69 plates (no musical instruments). Lugduni-Batavi- 
orum, 1903. 
THIELE, GEORG. Antike Himmelsbilder (MS. Astronomical 
Treatises). (A Lyre). 7 plates. Berlin, 1898. 


THIELE, GEORG. De antiquorum libris pictis. 8vo, pp. 43. 

Marburg, 1897. 
VATICAN MINIATURES. Miniatures choisies de la Bibliotheqiie 

du Vatican. Documents pour une histoire de la miniature. 

By Stephen Beissel. 4to, pp. viii., 59. 30 plates, phototypes. 

F'reiburg i/B., 1893. 
VATICAN. Virgil, Vat. MS. 3225 (4th cent.) Reproduction of 

miniatures in Histoire de Vart par Ips monuments, by Seroux 

d'Agincourt, Vol. V., pi. 28-30 (Cith.\ras). Paris, 1823. 

.Also in iStoria della arte cristiana, tom. III., pi. 157-167, by 

Raffaele Garucci, Prato, 1872, seq. Text and miniatures in 

phototype facsimile in Codices p Vaticanis sclccti, etc., tom. 

I. Ronife, 1899. Cf. T/Artp, IT., p. 239. 
VATICAN. Virgil, Vat. MS. 3867 (Vergilius Romanus). Photo- 
type facsimile in Codices e Vaticanis selccti. Tom. II. and 

tom. IV., 33 plates. 4to. Roma?, 1899-1902. 
VIRGIL. Virgilii picturse antiquse, etc. By Angelo Mai. Folio. 

Romse, 1835. 
WICKHOFF, FRANZ. Die ornamente eines altchristlichen Codex 

der Wiener Hofbibliothek (Genesis"). Jnlub. d. Kiinstsamml. 

d. allerliochsten Kaiserhanscs. Bd. XIV. (See also Beilage 

Bd. XV. and XVI.) Wien, 1893. 


Facsimiles of Byzantine MSS. 

BERSOHN, M. 6 Illumino^\•anych rekopisach polskich. 8vo, pp. 

ii., 159, Tabl. 15. Warsaw", 1900. 
BLASIIS, G. de. Le pergamene bizantine degli Archivi di 

Xa))oli o di Palermo. Arcliirio Stnrico Italiano de 1866. 

Serie terza, 26 tomes. 8vo. I'lorence, 1865-77. 

BORDIER, HENRI LEONARD. Description des peintures et 
autres oi'iiements contoiius dans les MSS. grecs de la Biblio- 
tll^f|ue iiationale. 4to, pp. viii., 336. Paris, 1883. 

BROCKHAUS, HEINRICH. Die Knnst in den Athos Klostern. 
4to. pp. 212, mit Lichtdruck Tafeln. (Valuable references). 
Leipzig, 1891. 

BYZANTINE MINIATURES. Peintures byzantines dc I'ltalie 
meridionale. BnUetin de Correspondance Jtellcniqiie VIII. 
Pp. 264-281. Paris, 1884. 

FRANCE (Ministere de I'lnstruction publique). Monuments de 
I'Art bvzantin. Plates. I'aris, 1899, etc. 

FROTHINGHAM, A. L. Byzantine Artists in Italy from the 6th 
to the 15th cent. Anicr. Jid. of ArcJurology. Baltimore, 1894. 

GAYET, ALBERT. L'Art byzantin d'apres les monuments de 
ritalie, de I'lstrie et de la Dalmatie. Releves et dessines par 
C. Krrard. Folio. Paris, 1901, etc. 

orum Codex grsecus purpureus Rossanensis. 4to, pp. xlix., 
19 ijl., chromolithographs. (No musical instruments). Leip- 
zig, 1880. 

HASELOFF, ARTHUR. Codex purpureus Rossanensis. Die 
Miniaturen der griechischen Evangelien-Handschrift in Ros- 


sano, nach photographischen Aufnahmen herausgegeben. 4to, 
p]). xvi., 154, 15 pi., phototypes. Berlin and Leipzig, 1898. 

* KONDAKOV, N. P. Histoire cle I'Art byzantin, considere 

principalement dans les miniatures. Translated by M. 

TRAVVINSKL (A few musical instru'nients), 2 tomes, folio, 

plates. Paris, 1886 and 1891. 
KONDAKOV, N. P. Voyage au Sinai en I'annee 1881. Atlas in 

folio, 100 photographs, by J. X. Raoull. Odessa, 1882. 
KRUMBACHER, KARL. Byzantinischer Miniatur-malerei. By- 

ziint. Zntsrhrift IV., p. 109, etc. Leipzig, 1895. 
LANGLOIS, VICTOR. Geographie de Ptolemee. Reproduction 

pliotolitliographique du JM8. grec du nionastore de Vatopedi 

au Mont Athos, executee d'apres les cliches . . . de M. Pierre 

de Sewastianoif et precedee d'une introduction historique sur 

le Mont Athos, etc. CVIII. plates, chromolithographs, pp. 

119, carte. 
MILLET, GABRIEL. Choix de peintures de MSS. grecs du Mont 

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MUNTZ, E. Les artistes byzantins dans I'Europe latine du V^. au 
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NEYRAT, ALEXANDRE STANISLAS. L' Athos. Notes d'une ex- 
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* OMONT, HENRI. Fac-similes des miniatures des plus anciens 

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* OMONT, HENRI. Fac-similes des plus anciens MSS. Grecs du 

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OMONT, HENRI. Notice sur un tres ancien MS. grec de I'Evan- 

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visite a Paris, Oct., 1896. Folio, 20 pi. avec texte en photo- 

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POKROWSKI, N. Miniaturen des Evangeliums des Klosters 

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SCHLUMBERGER, GUSTAVE LEON. L'epopee byzantine a la 
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* STRZYGOWSKI, J. Das Etschmiadzin Evangelarium. Byz. 

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* STRZYGOWSKI, JOSEF. Der Bilderkreis des griechischen 

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* STRZYGOWSKI, JOSEF. Die Calenderbilder des Chrono- 

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Facsimiles of Oriental MSS. 

* * AL-FARABI. Treatise on Music (cir. 900 a.h.). 3 MS. copies 

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COXE, HENRY OCTAVIUS. The Apocalypse of St. John the 
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CASTER, MOSES. Hebrew illustrated Bibles of IX. and X. cen- 
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MiJLLER, D. H. and VON SCHLOSSER, J. Die Haggadah von 
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PETTIGREW, THOMAS JOSEPH. Bibliotheca Sussexiana, Vol. 
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SACHAU, CARL EDUARD. Verzeichniss der Lyrischen Hand- 
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WALLIS-BUDGE, E. A. Lady Meus Manuscript No. I. The lives 
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WALLIS-BUDGE, E. A. Lady Meux MSS., No. 2-5. The miracles 
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WRIGHT, WILLIAM. Fac-similes of MSS. and Inscriptions. 
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FORBES-LEITH, WILLIAM. The Gospel Book of St. Margaret 

Bodleian. 4to, 8 chromo-photo. lithographs, and 60 collo- 
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FRERE, WALTER HOWARD. Graduate Sarisburiense. A repro- 
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GILBERT, J. THOS. Account of Fac-similes of Irish MSS. 
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GILBERT, J. THOS. Fac-similes of National MSS. of Ireland. 
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PSALTER. Fac-similes in photogravure of six pages from a 
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ROBERT OF JUMIEGES (Archbishop of Canterbury). Illumina- 
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SWEET, HENRY. The Epinal-Glossary, Latin and old English, 
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THOMPSON, HENRY YATES. A Lecture on some English Illu- 


minated Manuscripts. 8vo, 31 pp. and 50 plates in photo- 
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* * * WESTWOOD, JOHN OBADIAH. Facsimiles of the Minia- 

tures and Ornaments of Anglo-Saxon and Irish manuscripts. 
Drawn on stone by W. R. Tymms and chromo-litliographed. 
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WtJLKER, DR. RICHARD. Codex Vercellensis. Die angel- 
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* AUBERT, ED. Manuscrit de I'abbaye d'Hautvillers dit Evan- 

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* * BASTARD, COMTE A. DE. Peintures de la Bible de Charles 

le Chauve. 5 parts, plates. Paris, 1883. 
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DELISLE, L. V. Notice sur un MS. de I'eglise de Lyon du temps 

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BihI. Sat., etc., with plates. 4to, pp. 16. Paris, 1898. 

* * DURRIEU, P. L'origine du MS. celebre dit le Psaultier 

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GREY-BIRCH, W. DE. The History, Art and Palseography ^of 
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GAUSSEN, ALE. Portefeuille archeologique. Paris, 1865. 

HRABANUS MAURUS. Zwei Federzeichnungen aus dem Xten 
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and LAMPRECHT, K. Die Trierer Ada-Handschrift. (Taf. 
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JORAND, J. B. J. Grammatographie du TX«'. siecle (plates from 
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KRAUS, FRANZ XAVER. Picturae Codices Egberti nunc primum 
publici jurisfactae cura F. X. Kraus. (Die Miniaturen, etc., 
60 plates, with descriptive German Text), pp. 27, 4to (good 
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goviae, 1884 (c. f. Sauerland. part VIII.) 

LEITSCHUH, F. F. Der Bilderkreis der Karolingischon Malerei, 
seine Umgrenzung u. seine Quellen. 8vo, no illustrations. 
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* * LEITSCHUH, F. F. Geschichte der Karolingischen Malerei, 

ihr Bilderkreis und seine Quellen. 8vo, pp. xii., 471, 59 pi., 
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LINDAU EVANGELIUM. Coloured reproduction of ivory 
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A., HETTNER, F. and LAMPRECHT, K. Die Trierer Ada- 
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* * RAHN, J. R. Das Psalterium aureum von Sanct Gallon : ein 

Beitrag zur Geschichte der karolingischen Miniaturmalerei. 
Historisclter ^'erein des Kantons St. Gallen. 4to, G7 pp. and 
17 plates in chromo. and lithog. A few musical instruments. 
St. Gallen, 1878. 

* * SPRINGER, ANTON. Die Psalter illustrationen im fruhen 

Mitte! alter mit besonderer Riicksicht auf dem Utrechtpsalter. 
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* * SWARZENSKI, GEORG. Die karolingische Malerei und 

Plastik in Reims. Jahrb. der Kgl. Preuss. K^instsamm- 
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* * TikKANEN, J. J. Die Psalterillustration im Mittelalter. 

4to, Band III., Utrecht Ps., with illustrations. Helsingfors, 
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* * * UTRECHT PSALTER. Autotype Fac-simile. Published 

by the Palseographical Society (British Museum, pressmark 
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* * WESTWOOD, J. O. The Bible of the Monastery of S. Paul 

near Rome, described and compared with other Carlovingian 
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Facsimiles of French MSS. 

APOCALYPSE. " Les Apocalypses MSS. du moyen age, et les 

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BASTARD, AUGUSTE, COMTE DE. Costumes de la cour de 
Bourgogne sous le regne de Philip III., dit le Bon. Miniatures 
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BASTARD, AUGUSTE, COMTE DE. Histoire de Jesus Christ en 
figures, gouaches du XII®. au XIII®. siecle, conservees jadis a 
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Mr. Pierpoint Morgan). Folio, 30 plates lithog. Paris, 1878. 

BASTARD, AUGUSTE, COMTE DE. Peintures et ornements des 
MSS. 163 plates, imp. fol. [outlines only printed, illumina- 
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BASTARD, AUGUSTE, COMTE DE. Roman de Girart de Nevers. 

MS. Fr. 24378 Bibl. Nat. fac-simile des 16 premieres pages. 

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CAHIER, CHARLES. Facsimiles of miniatures by Foucquet. 

With descriptive notices by C. C. 4to. Paris, 1866. 

DELAUNAY, ABBE. Le livre d'lieures de la reine Anne de 

Bretagne : traduit du latin et accompagne de notices inedites. 

4to, 2 vols, pp. vii., 475 and 12, and 477 leaves in chromo- 

lithog. Paris, 1841. 
DELISLE, L. V. Deux MSS. de I'Abbaye de Lavigny au X^. 

siecle. Extrait du Tom. XI. des Mem. de la Comm. des Antiq. 

de la Cote d'Or. 4to, pp. 13. Dijon, 1887. 
DELISLE, L. V. Facsimiles de livres copies et enlumines pour le 

roi Charles V. 4to, 14 pi., pp. 20. Paris, 1903. 
DELISLE, L. V. Les evangiles de I'abbaye de Priim. Extrait du 

Journal des Savants. With fac-similes of 2 pp. 4to, pp. 15. 

Paris, 1902. 
DELISLE, L. V. Les livres d'heures du due de Berry. Extrait 

de la Gaz. des Beaux Arts, etc. 8vo, pp. 39, 5 illustrations. 

Paris, 1844. 
DELISLE, L. V. Les MSS. de Lyon et Memoire sur I'un des MSS. 

8vo. Paris, 1879. 
DELISLE, L. V. Les tres riches heures du due de Berry, con- 

servees a Chantilly au Musee Conde, et le Breviaire Grimiani. 

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DELISLE, L. V. Notice sur un Psautier du XIII«. siecle. Paris, 

DELISLE, L.V. Notice sur uu Psautier latin-francais du XIP. 

siecle. Tire des Notices et extraits des MSS. de la Bibl. Nat. 

4to, pp. 18. Paris, 1891. 
DELISLE, L. V. Photographies des miniatures du MS. de 

I'Apocalypse. Coll. de Sails, Bibl. Mun. de Metz, No. 38. 32 

plates. Paris, 1901. 
DELISLE, L. V. and MEYER, P., etc. L' Apocalypse en fran^ais 

au XIIl'^. siecle. 8vo and folio. Paris, 190L 
DENIS, F. Livres de prieres illustres. Ornements des Manuscrits 

du moyen-age. 2 vols., chromolithographs. Paris, 1855-62. 

DESTREE, JOSEPH. Les heures de Notre Dame dites Heunessy. 

Etude sur un manuscrit de la Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 
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DURIEUX, ACHILLE. Les Artistes Cambresiens du IX^. au 
XlXe. siecle. 8vo, 10 plates, lithog. Cambrai, 1874. 

DURIEUX, ACHILLE. Les Miniatures des MSS. de la Biblio- 
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DURRIEU, PAUL. Heures de Turin. 45 feuillets a peintures 
provenant des tres-belles heures de Jean de France, due de 
Berry. Reproduction en phototype d'apres les originaux de 
la Biblioteca Nazionale de Turin et du Musee du Louvre. 
Folio, 27 pp. and 45 plates in phototype. Paris, 1892. 

FLEURY, ED. Les MSS. a miniatures de la Bibliotheque de 
Laon, etudies au point de vue de leur illustration. 4to, 2 pt. 
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* FLEURY, ED. Les MSS. a miniatures de la Bibliotheque de 
Soissons, etudies au point de vue de leur illustration avec 16 


pi. lithograpliiees et 30 lettres gravees dans texte. 4to, pp. 
iii., 163, 16 pi. Paris, 1865. 

FOUCQUET, JEHAN. Heures de Maistre Esticnne Chevalier, 
texte restitue jiar M. I'Abbe Delaunay. 4to, 2 vols, xvi., 22 
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FROISSART. Edited by HUMPHREYS, H. N. Illustrations of 
Facsimiles selected trom the MS. in the Bibliotheque Royale, 
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LASSUS, J. B. A. Album de Villard de Honnecourt, Architecte du 
XIJI^. siecle. Manuscrit publie en facsimile, annote, precede 
de considerations sur la renaissance de I'art fran^ais au XIII^. 
siecle et suivi d'un glossaire. 4to, pp. xxviii., 223, and LXX. 
pl. engraved. Paris, 1858. 

LIVRE D'HEURES. Notice d'un livre d'heures avec 54 minia- 
tures, relie en mosaique par Padeloup, qui sera mis en vente 
le 4 de Novembre, 1901, en la librarie de M. P. Vindel, rue du 
Prado, Madrid. 6 plates and 4 in simile-gravure, 8vo. 

MOREL, C. Une illustration de I'Enfer de Dante LXXI. minia- 
tures du XV^. siecle. 8vo, oblong, pp. xiii., 140, and 71 plates 
in phototype. Paris, 1896. 

OMONT, HENRL " Histoire des Francs" de Gregoire de Tours. 
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PSALTER. Psalter of Anger. Annales Archcol., III., p. 82. 
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PSALTER. Psautier de St. Louis. Miniatures du MS. Latin 76a, 
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PSALTER. Psautier de Saint Louis ; reproduction de 86 minia- 
tures du manuscrit Latin 10525 de la Bibliotheque Nationale, 
edited by Henri Omont. Pp. 20 and 92 plates in phototype. 
Paris, 1902. 

ROBERTET, JEHAN. Les douze dames de Rhetorique publiees 
pour la premieie fois d'a^ires le manuscrit de la Bibl. Royale, 
avec une introduction par Louis Batissier et ornees de gravures 
par Schaal. 4to, 16 engraved plates. Moulins, Desrosiers, 

THOMPSON, H. Y. Thirty-two miniatures from the Book of Hours 
of Joan II., Queen of Navarre, 14th cent, (presented to the 
members of the Roxburghe Club by). 4to, 2 pts., pp. 18, 7 
and 32 pl. in phototype. London, 1899. 

THOMPSON, H. Y. Three photographs from a MS. copy of the 
Miroir Histoi-ical (of Vincent de Beauvais) that belonged to 
the Duke de Berri, together with those of 48 historiated ini- 
tials (Brit. Mus.. add MS. 6416), apparently from the same 
MS. No. CXLVI. in the Catalogue of the Ashburnham 
Appendix. 4to, with 19 photographs. London, 1902. 

VARNHAGEN, HERMANN. ^ Ueber die Miniaturen in vier 
franzosischen Hds. des XV. und XVI. Jahrh. in den Biblio- 
theken Erlangen, Berlin, Tubingen. 4to, pp. 40, 24 photo- 
types. Erlangen, 1894. 

DE VILLENEUVE, GUYOT. Notice sur un MS. du XIV«. siecle. 


Les Heures du Marechal de Boucicault. Soc. cles Bihliophiles 
fraiv^ais. Gr. in 4to, pp. 104, 9 planches heliogravures. 
Paris, 1839. 
W.4RNER, DR. GEORGE F. Miracles de Nostre Dame. Collected 
by Jean Mielot, secretary to Philip the Good. Reprodncetl in 
fac-simile from Douce MS. 374 in the Bodleian Library for 
John M. of Portallock. 4to, pp. xlviii., 81, and 12J photo- 
types. Westminster, 1885. 

* * * WILLEMIN, N. Z. Monuments frangais inedits pour servir 

a I'histoire des Arts depuis le VI^. siecle jusqu'au com- 
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part viii. 

Facsimiles of German MSS. 

* AMIRA, KARL VON (published by). Die Dresdener Bilder- 

handschrift des Sachsenspiegels. 2 vols, folio, pp. 34, 184, 
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K. buyer Akad. d. Wiss CI. I., Bd. XXII., Abt. II., pp. 327- 
385. Miinchen, 1902. 

BEISSEL, STEPHAN. Das Evangelienbuch Heinrichs III. aus 
dem Dome zu Goslar in der Bibliothek zu I'psala, in seiner 
Bedeutung fur Kunst und Liturgie, mit einer Einleitung 
von Alexander Schniitgen, Domcapitular. Tirage a part aug- 
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plates and 1 in phototype. Diisseldorf, 1901. 

BEISSEL, STEPHAN. Der heilige Bernward v. Hildesheim als 
Kunstler und Forderer der deutschen Kunst. 4to, pp. viii., 
74, and 11 phototypes. Hildesheim, 1895. 

BEISSEL, STEPHAN. Des hi. Bernward Evangelienbuch in Dome 
zu Hildesheim. Mit Handschrifteii des lO'i". und lltcn. Jahr- 
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Hildeslieim, l8Dl. 

BEISSEL, STEPHAN S. J. Die Bilder der Handschrift des Kaisers 
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Lichtdrucktafeln, herausgegeben und mit den Bildeni der 
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BEISSEL, STEPHAN. Stimmen aus Maria Laach. Nos. 22, 23, 
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BIRCH, W. DE GRAY. On a thirteenth century Service Book of 
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BRAUN, E. W. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Trierer Buchmalerei 
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DELISLE, L. V. Die Gdttinger Hds. von Karl VII. und Ludwig 
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DELISLE. L. V. Notice sur le Psautier d'Ingeburge Ext. de la 

Jiihiio. de VEcnle des Chartcs, etc. 8vo. Paris, 1867. 
DEWICK, E. S. Tlie Metz Pontifical. .\ maniiscrij)t written for 
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DIEMER, J. Genesis und Exodus nach der Milstater Hds. (Poem 
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ENGELHARDT, CH. M. Herrad von Landsperg. Aebtissin zu 
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See also L.^ndspehg and Str.\ub. 

GOLDSCHMIDT, ADOLPH. Der Albanipsalter in Hildesheim 
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* HAGEN, FRIED. HEINRICH VON DER. Die Minnesiinger und 

Liederdichter des 12, 13, 14, Jh. Aus alten Hds. (Mediaeval 
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deutsche Heldenbilder aus den Sagenkreisen Dietrichs von 
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Berlin, 1855. 

* HAGEN, FRIED. HEINRICH VON DER. Heldenbilder aus den 

Sagenkreisen Karls des Grossen, Arthur der Tafelrunde, und 
des Grals, Attilas, der Amelungen und Nibelungen. Bvo, 
with 60 coloured jirints. Breslau, 1823. 

* HAGEN, FRIED. HEINRICH VON DER. Minnesanger aus der 

Zeit der Hohenstaufen im 14*^'". Jahrli. Fac-simile der Pariser 
Hds. Folio. Paris, 1850. 
HAGEN, FRIED. HEINRICH VON DER. Fber die Gemalde in 
den Samml. d. altdeutschen Dichter, vornamlich in d. Manes- 
seschen Handschrift, etc. Part I., no more published. 4to. 
Berlin, 1844. 

* HASELOFF, ARTHUR E. G. Fine thtiringisch-sachsiche Maler- 

schule des IS**"". Jh. Studien zur dcittsclicii Kiiust(jesch . 
Heft 9. 8vo, pp. 379, pi. 49, small phototypes. (A few musi- 
cal instruments). Strasburg, 1897. 

Psalter Erzbischof Egberts von Trier, Codex Gertrudiauus in 
Cividale. Preface by M. Keuffer. 4to, pp. 121, 6 pi. in fac- 
simile. Trier, 1901. 

HASSE, P. Miniaturen aus Handschriften des Staatsarchivs in 
Liibeck. Imp. 4to, 10 illustrations. Ijiibeck, 1897. 


des christl. Mittelalters. Vol. I. 4to, coloured plates. Many 
musical instruments. Mannheim, Frankfurt-am-Main and 
Darmstadt, 1840-1854. 


Kunstwerke u. Gerathschaften vom friihen Mittelalter bis 
Ende des Achtzehnten Jahrhunderts. 10 Bande. Folio. 
Frankfurt-am-Main, 1879-1890. (See Vol. I.). 

* * HRABANUS MAURUS. Zwei Federzeichnungen aus dem Xten. 

Jahrhundert by H. Otte. Hierzu Taf. IV. und V. Fac- 
simile plates. Jalirhiicher des Tereins rou AJfprfhuins- 
freunden im Bheinlande. Heft 72. 8vo. Bonn, 1882. 

3 c 



JANITSCHEK, HUBERT. Geschichte der Deutschen Kunst. 8vo. 
4 vols. Berlin, 1885-91. 

* * * KRAUS, F. X. Die Miniaturen dei; Manesseschen Lieder- 

liandschrit't. Nach der original der Pariser Nat. Bibl. in 

unveranderl. Lichtdruck. Folio, i^p. 16, 144 illustrations. 

8trasbnrg and Mainz, 1887. 
LANDSPERG, HERRAD VON (Abbess of Hohenburg). Hortiis 

Deliciarum de Herrade de Landsperg. Miniatures du XII^. 

siecle d'apres le MS. qui a ete brule en 187U dans I'inceudie de 

la Bibliotheque de Strasburg. Folio, 12 pi., coloured. Paris, 


See also Engelhardt and Straub. 
LASTEYRIE, ROBERT, COMTE UE. Miniatures inedites de 

I'Hortus Deliciarum. 

LEHNER, M(jR. (published by). L'Ecole bohemienne de peinture 
au XI*^. siecle. Tome I. L'Evangeliaire du couronnement 
du roi Vratislav, dit codex du Vysehrad. Folio, pp. iv., 51, 
32 plates in photochrom. and 4 pp. Prague, 1902. 

LEITSCHUH, DR. FR. Aus den Schatzen der Kgl. Bibl. zu Bam- 
berg. Folio, pp.xi., 27 pi. phototypes. Bamberg, 1888. 

MENZEL, C. Die Trierer Ada Handschrift. GeseUschaft fur 
Bhrinische (Tpschichtskunde. Band VI. 4to, 8vo and folio. 
Bonn, Leipzig and Diisseldorf, 1884-1889. 

* MINNESINGER. Manessische Sammlung. Reproduction en 

phototj'pie du MS. 32 du fonds allemand de la Bibliotheque 
Nationale. Aujourd'hui a la Bibliotheque de I'Universite 
de Heidelberg. Folio, 428 leaves, 2 vols. 1888. 
See also Hagen. 

NIBELUNGENLIED. Das Nibelungenlied, nach der Hohenems. 
Miinchener Handschrift (A) in phototypischer Nachbildung, 
nebst Proben der Handschriften B. und C, mit einer Ein- 
leitung von Ludwig Laistner. 8vo. Mtinchen, 1886. 

OECHELHAUSER, A, VON. Die Miniaturen der Universitats- 
bibliothek zu Heidelberg. 2 vols, 4to, pp. 108, pi. 18, VIII. ; 
pp. 420 and pi. 16. In chromolith. and phototype. Heidel- 
berg, 1887-1895. 

•OTTE, H. ''Hrabanus Maurus." Zwei Federzeichnungen aus 
dem X. .lahrhundert. Jah rbiiclier des ]'ereius von Altertums- 
fieaiiden tin Bheiiihiudc. Heft 72. Taf. IV. and V. Svo. 
Bonn, 1882. (cf. with T'trecht Psalter). 

PIPER, PAUL. Ottfried und die ubrigen Weissenburger Schreiber 
des 9tt'ii. .Jahrh. 4to, pp. 24, j)!. 30, phototype. Frankfurt- 
am-Main, 1899. 

SAENFTL, COLOMANNUS. Dissertatio in aureum pervetustus 
S.S. Evangeliorum codicem. MS. Monasterii S. Emmeranii 
Ratisbonre. 4to, pp. 93, full size plates. Ratisbon, 1786. 

SARAN, DR. FR., and BERNOULLI. Die Jenaer Liederhands- 
chrift. With preface by K. K. Miiller. 2 Bde. 4to, 266 pi. 
Leipzig, 1901. 

Psalter Erzbischof Egberts A'on Trier, Codex Gertrudianus in 
Cividale. Preface by M. Keuffer. 4to, pp. 212, 62 pi. in fac- 
simile. (A few musical instruments). Trier, 1901. (cf. 
Kraus, part VI.). 


SCHRADER, G. and KOCH, F. Des hi. Bernward Evangelien- 
biich im Dome zu Hildesheim. 4to, pp. vi., 71, 26 pi. 
Hildesheini, 1891. (See also Beissel). 

* SICKEL. TH. Monumeiita graphica medii aevi ex arcliivis et 

bibliothecis imperii Aiistriaci CoUecta. 1 vol., text viii., iv. 
and 184 pp. Atlas gr. in folio. 200 pi. in photogravure. 
Vindobonae, 1858-1882. 

* * STRAUB, CANON A. Hortus Deliciarum de Herrade de 

Landsperg. Texte explicatif commence par le Chanoine A. 
Straub (1891) et acheve par le Chanoine G. Keller, 1879-1899. 
Folio, XXV., 59, 6 and 7 pp., 80 pi., lithog. (Musical instru- 
ments). Strasbiirg, 1901. 
STRAUB, CANON A. Hortus Deliciarum de Herrade de Lands- 
perg. XII. cent, miniatures from the library at Strasburg. 
12 pi. Paris, 1877. 

* SWARZENSKI, GEORG. Denkmaler der siiddeutschen Malerei 

des friihen Mittelalters. In i^rogress. Vol. I., X. and XI. 
cent. Leipzig, 1901, etc. 

* SWARZENSKI, GEORG. Die Regensburger Buchmalerei des X. 

und XI. Jahrh. Studien zur Geschichte der deutschen Malerei 

des friihen Mittelalters. 4to, pp. 11-228, 35 pi., phototvpe. 

Leipzig, 1901. 
SYBEL, H. VON and SICKEL, TH. Kaiserurkunden im Abbil- 

dungen. 1 vol., 4to, Text, pp. viii., 54G. 2 vols., Atlas, oblong 

folio, 295 pL, phototvpe. Berlin, 1881-91. 
THODE, HENRY. Die Malerschule von Niirnberg im XIV. und 

XV. Jahrhunderten in ihrer Entwickelung bis auf Diirer. 

8vo, pp. xvi., 332. Frankfurt-am-Main, 1891. 

VOGE, WILHELM. Eine deutsche Malerschule um die AVende 

des Istcn .Jahrtausends. Wcstdeutsclte Ztscli. fur Geschichte 
und Kuitst. Eriiduzuufislicft. VII. Trier, 1891. 

* WICKHOFE, FRANZ. Beschreibendes Verzeichnis der illumi- 

nierten Handschriften in Osterreich. Inst'ttut fiir uster- 
icichische Geschirlifsforschung. 2 vols., folio, with illustra- 
tions. Vienna, 1905, etc. 


Facsimiles of Spanish and Portuguese MSS. 

* ALPHONSO X., THE WISE. Lapidario del Rey Don Alphonso 

X. Codice Original. Edited bv SELFA, DON A. and 
RODRIGANEZ, DON H. Beport of the Ileal Acad, de la His- 
toria Madrid. Coloured facsimiles. (A few musical instru- 
ments). 4to, 263 chromo-p)hoto-litliographs, piD. xx., 118, 14, 
76. A photo-lithographic reproduction of the original MS. 
edited by Jose Fernandez Montana. Madrid, 1881. 

AZNAR, DON F. Idumentaria espaiiola (containing coloured 
fac-similes of the miniatures of the musicians in the Cantigas 
de Santa Maria). Madrid, 1880. 

CANTIGAS DE SANTA MARIA. Facsimile of MS. Real Academy 
Espanola. A few stringed instruments. Folio. Madrid, 1889. 

* DIOS, DE LA RADA Y DELGADO, DON J. Museo Espanol de 


Antiguedades. 10 vols, folio (Tom. III. and XI., pp. 1-41 
Cantigas). (Musical instruments). Madrid, 1872-85. 
KINGSBOROUGH, LORD. Antiquities of Mexico, comprising 
facsimiles of Ancient Mexican Paintings and hieroglyphics, 
presejved in the royal library of Vienna, etc., together with 
the monuments of New Spain by M. Dupais, the whole illus- 
trated by many valuable inedited manuscripts. The drawing 
on stone by A. Aglia. 9 vols., the first four composed exclu- 
siA-ely of plates in chromolith. on litlio. Folio. London, 1831- 

V. Sarajevo, eine Spanisch-jiidische Bilderhds. des Mittel- 
alters. (2nd hf., 13th cent.), many plates. Wien, 1898. 

* * RL4N0, J. F. Notes on Early Spanish Music (with reproduc- 

tion of musicians from the Cantigas). 8vo. London, 1887. 


Facsimiles of Italian MSS. 

BELTRAML LUCA. II Libro d'Ore Borromeo alia Biblioteca 

Ambrosiana. Miniato de Cristoforo Preda secola XV. -XL. 

tavole in eliotipio. 8vo, 30 pp. and 44 plates in phototype with 

text. Milano, 1897. 
BELTRAML LUCA. L'Arte negli arredi sacri della Lombardia. 

Selection from Esposizione Eucaristica, 1895. Folio, pp. 54, 80 

phototypes. Milano, 1897. 

* * CARTA, F., CIPOLLA, C. and FRATL C Atlante paleo- 

grafico artistico. Compilato sui manoscritti esposti in Torino 
alia mostra d'Arte Sacra nel 1898. Begia Bepntazione d'l 
Stoi'ia Patria. 4to, pp. viii., 72, 120 plates. (Many musical 
instruments). Torino, 1899, etc. 

FAVARO, ANT. Documenti per la Storia dei MSS. galileiani 
nella biblioteca nazionale di Firenze. 4to, p. 192. Rome, 

HOFFMANN, MAX A. B. Der Codex Mediceus. 2 Pts. 4to, pp. 
XX., 3(5, 39 pi. Berlin, 1889. Leipzi^;, 1901. 

KALLAB, W. Die Toskanisclie Landschaftmalerei n. s. w. Jalir- 
buch der Kunsthistorische)i-saiiiinhtn(jen dcs Allcrh. Kaisei- 
ha^ises XXI. Taf. II. Vienna, 1900! 

LATRIE, L. DE MAS. Facsimile delle miniature contenuti, nel 
Brevario Grimiani. 3 vols., 4to, 110 photos. Venice, 1862- 

MONTE CASSINO. Le Miniature nei Codici Cassinesi, by D. 
Oderisio Piscicelli Taeggi. Documenti per la storia della 
miniatura in Italia. Folio, coloured and illuminated plates. 
Monte Cassino, 1887. 

MONTE CASSINO. Le miniature nei rotoli dell' Exultet : docu- 
menti per la storia della miniatura in Italia. By AG. MARIA 
LATIL. Folio, p. 10, pp. 6, pi. 60, chromo-lithographs. 
Monte Cassino, 1889, 1901. 


MONTE CASSINO. Miniature sacre e profane del anno 1023, illus- 
tranti TEnciclopedia Mediovale di Rabano Mauro, reprodotte 
da un codice de Monte Cassino. By AMBROGIO MARIA 
AMELLI. 4to, pp. 22, 123 chromo-lithographs. Monte Cas- 
sino, 1896. (For private circulation). 

MONTE CASSINO. Miscellanea Cassinese, ossia nuovi contributi 
alia storia, alle scienze e arti religiose raccolti e illustrati per 
cura dei P. P. Benedettini di Montecassino. Monte Cassino, 
1897, etc. 

MONTE CASSINO. Paleografia artistica di Monte Cassino, by D. 
Oderisio Piscicelli Taeggi. Folio, coloured and illuminated 
plates. Monte Cassino, 1876 to 1887. 

MAURO, RABANO. Miniature sacre e profane dell' anno 1023, 
illustranti I'Enciclopedia niedioevale con prefazione di A. M. 
Amelli. 4to, 22 i^p., 123 plates, chromolithog. (For private 
circulation). Monte Cassino, 1896. 

SIENNA. Docunienti i)er la storia dell' arte Senese de' sec. XIII., 
XIV., XV., XVI. Edited by GAETANO MILANESI. 3 vols., 
8vo. Sienna, 1854-56. 

SFORZA BOOK. Facsimile d'apres le manuscrit original apparte- 
nant a Monsieui- le Marquis d'Azeglio, Ambassadeur de Sar- 
daigne a I^ondres. Photograpliie et publie par C. Siloy. 8vo, 
6 pp. and 16 photographs. London, 1860. 

SFORZA BOOK. Facsimile of the Miniatures, etc., of the Sforza 
Book, edited by George F. Warner (British Museum MS). 
4to. London, 1894. 


Miscellaneous Works on History, Art, Social Life, 
ETC., Connected with Sections C, D, E. 

ARX, ILD. VON. Geschichte des Kantons St. Gallen. 3 Bde. 
St. Gallen, 1810-13. 

ASSEMANUS, S. E. Bibliothecse Mediceoe Laurentianse et Pala- 
tinse codicum MS. orientalium Catalogus. Folio. Floi'ence, 

ASTLE, THOS. Catalogue of Harleian MSS. (British Museum 
MSS.). London, 1759. 

ATHOS. Ein Besuch auf dem Berge Athos, by P. M. Kinter. 
Wissenschaftl'tche, Stiidien und Mitteiluniien aiis dem Bene- 
dictine r-Ordcr. Jahr. II., Bd. II., 1881. 8vo. Brunn, W^iirz- 
burg, Wien, 1880-81. 

BARTHOLOM/EUS, ANGLICUS. MediEevel Lore. Edited by 
Robert Steele. Preface by W. Morris. 8vo. London, 1893. 

BEDA. Venerabilis Bedae Opera theologica, moralia, historica, 
philosophica, mathematica and rhetorica, omnia, etc. Vita 
Bedse ex annalibus Cardinalis. C. Baronii et alliis desumpta. 
8 vols., folio. Colonise Agrippinge, 1688. 


BELIN. THEOPHILE. Catalogue de MSS. avec miniatures des 
Xllle. au XVIIIe. Siecle. 8vo, pp. 157. Paris, 1899. 

BEOWULF. Edited by T. M. Kemble, together Avith a copious 
glossary, preface and notes. 16mo, pp. Iv., 127. London, 

* * * BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ART. Subject Lists of Works of Art 

and Art Industries. Patent Office, England. 8vo. London, 

BISCIONI, ANTONIO MARIA. BibliothecEe Ebraicaj, Greecoe, 

Elorentinse ; Sive Bibliothecse Mediceo-Laurentianae Catalogus. 

2 Pts., 8vo. Florence, 1757. 
BOND, SIR E. A. (K.C.B.). Description of the Ashburnham MSS. 

and account of offers of purchase, etc. 12nio, pp. 12. London, 


* * BRADLEY, J. W. Historical Introduction to the Collection of 

Illuminated Letters and Borders in the National Art Library, 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 8vo, pp. 182, illustrations, 
liondon, 1901. 
BRIGHT, WILLIAM. Chapters of Earlv Church History. Oxford, 
Clarendon Press, 1888. 

* BROOKE, THOMAS, SIR. Catalogue of the MSS. and Printed 

Books collected by Thos. Brooke and preserved at Armitage 

Bridge House, near Huddersfield. 2 vols., private circulation, 

illustrated. London, 1891. 
BUCKLE, H. T. Introduction to the History of Civilisation. 8vo, 

pp. 915. London, 1901. 
COMPARETTI, DOMENICO. Iscrizione arcaica del Foro Romano. 

Illustrations, folio, pp. 24. Firenze, Roma, 1900. 
CONGRESSES. Congresso Jnternazionale di Archeologia cristiana. 

Atti dell II. Congresso tenuto in Roma nell' Aprile, 1900. 8vo, 

pp. vi., 445. Roma, 1902. 
COUSIN, L. Histoire de Constantiiu)ple depuis le regne de 

I'ancien Justin jusqu'a la fin de I'Empire. Tom. III., 8 Tom., 

4to. Paris, 1(572, etc. 


Dictionnaire des Anti(|uites grecqres et romaines, d'apres les 
textes et les monuments. 4to. I'aris, 1873, etc. 

DELISLE, LEOPOLD VICTOR. Melanges de Paleographie et de 
Bibliographic. Paris, Le Mans, 1880. 

DELISLE, LEOPOLD VICTOR. Vente des MSS. du Comte d'Ash- 

burnham. Catalogue of a portion of the collection of MSS. 

known as the Appendix made bv the late Earl of Ashburnham. 

4to. Paris, 1899. 
DENIS, J. N. C. M. Codicis Manuscripti theologici. Biblioteca 

Palatinae Vindobonensis. Latin descriptive text onlv. 2 vols. 

Vienna, 1793, 1802. 
DIBDIN, THOS. FROGNALL. A Bibliographical Antiquarian and 

picturos(|ue tour in the Northern counties of England and 

in Scotland. 8vo, 3 vols., supplement and plates. L. P., 

London, 1838. 
DIBDIN, THOS. FROGNALL. Bibliographical Decameron. Notes 

on MSS. No illustrations, 3 vols. L. P., London, 1817. 
DIBDIN, THOS. FROGNALL. Voyage bibliographique, archeo- 

logique et pittoresque en France 4 vols., 8vo. Paris, 1825. 


DIDRON, ADOLPHE NAPOLEON. Das Handbuch der Maleiei 
voni Berge Athos. Paris, 1855. 

DIDRON, ADOLPHE NAPOLEON. Manuel d'iconographie 
chretienne grecqiie et latiiie. 8vo. Paris, 1845. 

DIEHL, CHARLES. L'Afrique byzantine. Histoire de la Domina- 
tion b^-zantine en Afrique, 533-709, etc. 8vo, pp. siv., 644, 
with plates and maps. Paris, 1896. 

DUCHESNE, LOUIS. De Codibus MSS. Graecis Pii II. in Biblio- 

theca Alexandrino-Vaticana. Bibliothlque des EcnJes fran- 
Cuises (VAtlirnes et de l^ome. 8vo, pp. 34. Paris, 1877. 

DUMMLER, ERNST LUDWIG. St. Gallische Denkmale ans der 
Karolingischen Zeit., p. 205-268. Mitteihingen der Gescll- 
scliaft fur Erforschung and Beicalirung Vaterhindischer Alter- 
thiimcr afterwards Antiquarische GeseUschuft, 1859. Bd. 
XII., Heft VI., Text only. 4to. Zurich, 1858-1860. 

* * DURRIEU, PAUL. MSS. d'Espagne remarquables par leurs 

peintures et par la beaute de leur execution, etc. Ecole des 
Clinrfcs. 8vo, vol. 54. Paris, 1893. 

EHRHARD, ALBERT. Die altchristliche Litteratur und ihre 
Erforschung von 1884-1900, 1 Abt. Die Yornicanische Litter- 
atur. (Strashurg Thenl. Stiidien, Erster Supplementband . 
8vo. Freiburg-ini-Breisgau, 1900. 

EHRLE, FRANZ and STEVENSON, HENRY (the younger). Gli 
Affreschi del Pinturicchio nell' appartaiuento Borgia del 
Palazzo Apostolico Vaticano. Folio, pp. 78. phototypes, 
Roma, 1897. 


schriften fiir Kunstgeschichte und Kunst-technik des Mittel- 
alters und der Renaissance. 8vo. \Vien, 1871, etc. 

* ENLART, CAMILLE. Manuel d'archeologie fran^aise depuis les 

temps merovingiens jusqu'a la Renaissance. 8vo, illustra- 
tions. Paris, 1902, etc. 

* ENLART, CAMILLE. Monuments religieux de I'architecture 

romane, et de transition dans la region picarde, etc. Societe 

d\ircheologie du Dcpt. de la Somme. 4to. Amiens, 1895. 
FAURE-BIGUET, G. T. Histoire de I'Afrique septentrionale sous 

la domination Musulmane. Pp. 458. Paris, 1905. 
FLORENCE. Catalogo del R. Museo Nazionale di Firenze. 

Rome, 1898. 

* FREEMAN, E. A. AVestern Europe in the 5th and 8th Century 

and onwards. An aftermath. 8vo, pp. vi., 386, 5th century, 
pp. viii., 470, 8th centurv and onwards, 2 vols. London, 1904. 

* * FRIMMEL, THEODOR VON. Die Apokalypse in den Bilder- 

handschriften des Mittelalters. Eine Kunstgeschichtliche 
Untersuchung. (Valuable references). 8vo, pp. viii., 70. 
Wien, 1885. 

* FROiSSART, JEAN. Le premier volume de Froissart des 

croniques de France, Dangleterre, Descoce, Despaigne, De 
Bretaigne, De Gascongne, De Flandres et lieux circunvoisins. 
Descriptive text, 4 vols., folio. Paris, 1495? 
GEBHARDT, OSCAR VON. Die Psalmen Salomo's zum ersten 
Male mit Benutzung der Athos-handschriften. Texte und 


Uvfersiirhui}qen zur (Tcschichte der altrltristlichen Liiteratur. 
Bd. 13, Heft'2, neue Folge. Leipzig, 1895, 1896. 

GEIGER, WILHELM. Civilisation of the Eastern Iranians in 
ancient times, with an introduction on the Avesta religion. . . 
Translated from the German with a preface, notes and a bio- 
graphy of the author by Darab . . . ir'eshotan Saniija. 8vo. 
Oxford, 1885, etc. 

GHEYN, JOSEPH VAN DEN, S. T. Catalogue des MSS. de la 
Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique. 8vo. Brussels, 1901, etc. 

* * * GODEFROY, FREDERIC. Dictionnaire de I'ancienne 

langue fran^aise et de tons ses dialectes du IX^. au XV^. 

siecle, etc. 10 vols., 4to. Paris, Abbeville, 1880-1902. 
GOODWIN, CHARLES WYCLIFFE. Dirges of Egypt and Greece. 

Records of the Past. IV., pp. 115-118. 
GRAUX, CHARLES. Notices Sommairesdes MSS. grecs d'Espagne 

et de Portugal. Mises en ordres et compilees par A. Martin. 

Extmit des Nvuvclhs Arcliives des Missions scientifiques et 

litferaircs. 8vo, pp. 321. Paris, 1892. 
GUTHRIE, MATTHEW. Disseitations sur les antiquites de 

Russie, traduites de son ouvrage Anglais. 4to (cliapter on 

musical instruments with plates). St. Petersburg, 1795. 
HAGEN, HERMANNUS. Augustinus, Beda, Horatius, etc. Codex 

Bernensis 363, etc., vol. 2, 394 pi., text only, folio. Leyden, 


PHILLIPS. Dictionary of .\rchaic and Provincial words, 

obsolete phrases, proverbs and ancient customs from the 14th 

cent. 5th edition. 2 vols, 8vo. London, 1865. 
HAMILTON, FREDERICK JOHN. The Svriac Chronicle known as 

that of Zachariah of Mitvlene. Translated by F. J. H. Bi/z. 

Texts, X., 283-87 (Kriiger), 8vo. Leipzig, 1899. 

* HAMMER-PURGSTALL, JOSEPH VON. Literaturgeschichte 

der Araber. von ihrem Beginne bis z.u Ende des 12tfi. .Tahr- 
hunderts der Hidschret. 7 Bde., 4to. Wien, 1850-56. 

* * HARDY, SIR THOMAS DUFFUS. The Athanasian Creed in 

connection with the rtreeht Psalter being a report to the 
master of the Rolls on a MS. in the University of Utrecht. 
4to. London, 1872. 

* * HARDY, SIR THOMAS DUFFUS. A Further Report on the 

Utrecht Psalter in answer to the eight Reports made to the 

Trustees of tlie British Museum and edited by the Dean of 

Westminster. 4to. Tiondon, 1874. 
HARTEL, WILHELM VON. Serta Harteliana. Classical studies 

by pupils. 8vo, pj). 314. Wien, 18<)6. 
HASELOFF, ART. ERICH. GEORG. Der Bildschmuck der Psal- 

terien des Landgrafon Hermann von 'I'hiiringen und der 

bewandten Handschriften. Text only, Th. I., pp. 56, 8vo. 

Strasburg, 1897. 

* * HATTEMER, HEINRICH (collected and edited by). Denk- 

male des Mittelalters. (Sanct Gallens altteutsche Sprach- 
schatze). 3 vols, 8vo. St. Gallen, 1843-47. 


der Araber in Sicilien und Sicilien unter der Herrschaft der 
Araber. Aus dem Italianischen. Mit Anmerkungen und 
Ziisatzen. 4 vols., 8vo. Kbnigsberg, 1791-92. 


HELBIG, WOLFGANG. Sur la question Myceiuenne 1896. 
Academie des Sciences et BeUes-Lettres. Ilistoires et 
Memoires, etc. Tom. 35. 4to. Paris, 1831, etc. 

* HOLINSHED, RAPHAEL. Chronicles of England, Scotland and 

Ireland, containing the description and chronicles of England 
from the first inhabiting unto the Conquest. Scotland from 1st 
original till 1571. Ireland, 1st original until 1547. The last 
volume until the present time. Eolio, 3 vols, text only. 
Ijoiidon, 1577. 
JOSEPHUS, FLAVIUS. Histoire des Juifs sous le titre de " Anti- 
quitez Judaiques." Traduite sur I'original Grec, reveu sur 
divers MSS. par Arnauld d'Andilly. Folio. Paris, 1667. 

* JUBINAL, MICHEL LOUIS ACHILLE. Jongleurs et Trouveres, 

on choix de saints, epitres, reveries et autres pieces legeres des 
XIII. et XIV'*'. siecle. 8vo. Paris, 1835. 


contes, dits fabliaux et autres pieces inedits des XllJe., XIV®. 
et V^. siecles pour faire suite aux collections de Legrand 
d'Aussy, Barbazon et Meon. Mis au jour pour la premiere fois 
d'apres les MSS. de la Bibliotheque du Roi. 8vo, 2 vols. Paris, 

* JUBINAL, MICHEL LOUIS ACHILLE. Oeuvres completes de 

Rutebeuf recueillies. (Musical instruments quoted). 8vo. 
Paris, 1839-74. 

KELLER, DR. FERDINAND. Description of Irish and Anglo- 
Saxon MSS. in various Swiss Libraries, by. Mitteilungen 
der AntiqiKtrischen Gesellschaft in Zurich. Vol. VII., Part 3. 
4to, pp. 35, 13 illustrations. Zurich, 1851. 

KRUMBACHER, KARL. Geschichte der byzantinischen Literatur. 
8vo, pp. 628. Mlinchen, 1897. 

LAMPROS, SPYRIDON._ Catalogue of libraries in Mt. Athos, in 
Gi'eek. Athens, 1895, etc. 

LAMPROS, SPYRIDON. Catalogue of the libraries in Mt. Athos, 
in Greek. 8vo. Athens, 1888. 

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Action, iJoublo escapement, for pianoforte, 

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.^llschylus. Perfection of the Greek drama 

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Afranio, Reputed inventor of fagotto or 

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Alcibiades As amateur citharoedus, 305. 

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Alexander the Great, And the citharcedes, 

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Al-Farabi, Description of the Moorish re- 

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Alto guitar fiddle. From a painting 
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Alvpius And the forty-five Greek scales, 

Amaravati, Buddhist Tope of, stringed in- 
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Amati, The Cremona master-violin makers, 

Amphictyonio Council, Management of the 

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Ancient Cymbals, 182. 

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, The miniatures of the 

Utrecht Psalter regarded as a product 
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375, 377. 

Anglo-Saxon MSS., A group of the same 
period and displaying the same stylistic 
characteristics as the Utrecht Psalter. 

■ And monuments, from 

the Vlllth to Xlth cent.. No trace of 
the cithara in 2nd or 3rd transitions vet 
disclosed in, 370, 374. 

Anglo-Saxon Rebec, Manner of fastening 
the strings on the, 387. 

, Played vrith bow; 

earliest instance of the use of the bow 
in England (Xlth cent.), 278, 387. 

Anglo-Saxons, Possibly learnt to use the 
rotta from the Britons, 384. 

Antonius Julianus, the Spanish rhetori- 
cian, Proficiency on the cithara of, 325. 

Apollo, Phorminx of, mentioned by Pin- 
dar in a Pythian Ode, 302. 

Arabian Bowed instruments introduced 
into central Europe by CJharlemagne, 280. 

Arabian Bow with fixed nut (Vllth cent.), 

Arabian Origin of the bow probable, 281. 

Arab Gunibry, 254. 

Arabs, Adoption of the Persian musical 
system by the (Vlth cent.), 279-80. 

, Description of their boat-shaped re- 

bab, in use also at the present day in 
Persia, 396. 

, Evidence of a bow being known to 

the, in the Vllth cent., 281. 

Obtained the rebab from the Per- 

sians, 398, 405, 407. 

Survival of the rebab and tambura 

in practically the same stage of de- 
velopment for twelve centuries among 
the, 405. 

The bow probably obtained from 


tlie Persians by the, 398. 
, The musical instruments of the, see 

Rebab, Tanbur, Guitar. 
Archetypes of European Instruments, 

The important bearing of the researches 

now being carried out in the East on the 

history of the Eastern, 483. 




Aristotle and the decadence of music in 

Greece, 307. 
, Instruments with many strings 

considered pernicious to mind and 

morals by, 307. 
Aristoxenus Opposed to the theories of 

Pythagoras, 30S. 
. 1 Said to have added to the 

strings of the cithara, 308. 

, The musical treatises of, 308. 

Arms or horns of the lyre, Greek terms for 

the, 289-90. 
Arpa, see Harp, 138. 
Art, Frankish, Influence of the Christian 

Kast on the development of, 382. 
, Irish, Evidence in the miniatures of 

the Psalterium Aureum of the influence 

of, «3-4. 
Sacrificed to technique by Grecian 

virtuosi (456 b.c), 305, 307. 
_ Schools of, see Carlovingian Schools 

of Art and Schools. 
, Spanish, French influence on, during 

the Xlth and Xllth cent., 410. 

In Europe, which had been languish- 
ing since the fall of the Roman Empire, 
Saracens give a fresh impetus to, 398. 

Asia, Great influence in the development 
of stringed instruments of, 328. 

Asiatic cithara. Horizontal cross-bar char- 
acteristic of the. 436. 

Assyrian Harp, Absence of pillar on, 146. 

Plectra, 275-6. 

Bod like plectrum, 276. 

Tanbur from terracotta idol in 

Brit. Mus. (Ilnd cent. B.C.), 408;. 

Athenfeus, Descriptions of musical instru- 
ments by, 309. 

Auletes (or oboists) at the Pythian Games, 
300, 303, 325. 

Aulos, Contempt of Alcibiades for the, 305. 

Of the Greeks, not a flute but a 

reed pipe, 6-7. 

Of the Greeks the prototype of the 

oboe, 13. 

Aureum Psalterium, Reproduction in fac- 
simile of miniatures of, 404. 

Bach Trumpet, The, 88. 

Back, Flat, Roman oitharaa with, 320. 

How shaped in various instruments, 


of the cithara. Development of the, 

Vaulted, characteristic of family 
of lyre, 255-6. 

, Vaulted, of stringed instruments 

scooped out of a single block of wood, 

, Vaulted, of the rebec, 386. 

Backers, Americus, Inventor of the Eng- 
lish direct action for pianoforte in 1773, 

Balteus or band for suspending the cith- 
ara, 296. 

Banduria, see Pandoura 

Baouit, Frescoes from the necropolis of, 
showing a cithara [and also a bowed in- 
strument (Orpheus) found too late for 
inclusion in the text], 376*, 381. 

Barhiton, A bass stringed instrument, 313, 

and rebab. Distinguishing char- 

Bnrbiton, Features possessed in common 

with the lyre by the, 487. 
In modern Persian literature, 

488-9 and note *. 
, Instrument with boat-shaped 

sound-chest, 396, 487. 

-, Introduction into Europe of the. 

313, 487. 

, Introduction of the, into Greece 

attributed to Terpander, 313. 

Invention of the, attributed to 

Sapho, 302. 
, l\lediteval, identical with the 

theorbo, -1S8. 
, Depicted on sarcophagus fonnd 

at Agrigente in Sicily, 239, 323, 396, 


Similaritv between the sound- 

chest of the Egyptian Nanga and that 

of the, 396. 

— — , Strings of the, 313, 487-8. 

, The, in Spain, 488. 

, Various illustrations of the, as 

it was known among the Greeks and 

Romans, 487+. 
Bards and trouveres and instrumental 

music, 456-7. 
• and trouveres. Themes of the Trou- 
badours and Jlinnesingers compared with 

those of the, 456 7. 
Baryton, see Euphonium, 58. 
Bass Clarinet, First made by Greser, of 

Dresden, in 1793. 40. 

Invented in 1793, 40. 

Bass Drum, Drumsticks used with the. 


see Drum, Bafm, 177. 

acteristics of the, 

, Derivation of the word, 

488 9. 


.Basset Horn or Tenor Clarinet, see Chap- 
ter on this instrument, 35. 

Basset Horn Compass, 35, 207. 

, Construction of the, 35. 

, Invention in 1770 of, 36. 

, A misnomer, not a horn but a 

tenor clarinet, 35. 

— , Origin of the, 36. 

, Possibilities of the. 36. 

, Production of Sound, 35. 

, Quality of tone, 36. 

Said to have been invented by 

Horn, of Passau, in 1770, 36. 

Bassoon or Fagotto, see Chapter on this 
instrument, 20. 

Compass, 23, 205. 

■ , Construction of the, 20. 

- — , Orisrin of the, 24. 

, Production of sound, 21. 

, Possibilities of the, 23. 

, Quality of tone, 23. 

. Reputed invention by Afranio in 

1539, 24. 
Beak shaped mouthpiece. The single reed 

mouthpiece of clarinet family, and 

Saxophone, 29. 
Belgian model of Double Bassoon, 25. 
Bells, Orchestral, see Chapters on these 

instruments, 167, 171. 
, Penl of Hemispherical. Jlade for 

Sullivan's " Golden Legend," pitch and 

tone, 175. 
. Peal of Hemispherical. Made for 

Sullivan's " Golden Legend," construe- 

tion of the, 175. 
BellvBars of pianoforte. Function of. 126. 
Belly Bridge of pianoforte, Function of, 120. 



Belly of precursors of violin, sometimes 
arehed, 225. 

Big Drum, see Drum, Bass. 

Bach, Walter de Grey, History and des- 
cription of the Utrecht Psalter by, 35G. 

Bombardon, see chapter on The Tubas, 58, 
65, 70. 

Bore, Conical, Wood-wind instruments 
with, see Oboe fainilt/. Saxophone, 
French Horn, Tuba^, Ophicleido trom- 
bone (mixed). Trumpet (mixed). Cornet 

, Cylindrical, Woodwind instruments 

with, see Clarinet family. Flutes, Trom- 
bone (mixed). Trumpet (mixed). Cornet 
( mixed). 

■ of wind instruments. Classification by, 


Bouclie or hand-stopped notes on French 
Horn discovered by Hampel, clr. 1770, 

Boulogne Psalter Probably a copy of the 
Psalter of St. Emmeran at Uatisbon, 

, Similarity of the draw- 
ings of instruments in the Cotton MS., 
Tib. C. Vt., and in the, 385. 

Bouts or edges of violin, 100, 225. 

Bow, Absence of any proof of use with 
the crwth prior to the Xlth cent., 495. 

, Arabian, with fixed nut, Vllth cent., 


, Asia probably the birthplace of the, 

278, 281. 

, Cremaillere (XVth cent.), 283. 

- — , Cremaillere, Earliest known repre- 
sentation of (Xlth cent.), 373. 

■ , Cremaillere, Method of attaching 

hair on, 283. 

. Description of the different parts of 

the, 269. 

, Development of the, compared to that 

of the violin, 269. 

*, Earliest known illustration of, 281. 

* In J. Cledafs Monastere et Necropole 
de Baouit, Paris, 1904. PI. XVII., Vlth 
cent., found too late for inclusion in 

, Earliest illustration yet found in 

Europe of, 403. 

, Earliest instance vet found of the use 

of the, in England, 278, 387. 

, Earliest known stringed instrument 

played with the, 279. 

, Evidence of a, being known to the 

Arabs in the Vllth cent., 281. 

— , Ferrule of the, use and construction 
of the, 103, 269. 

, From " Traite d'Harmonie Uni- 

verselle," Mersenne (XVIIth cent.), 283. 

, Hair of the. Manner in which at- 
tached to the nut and head, 269-70. 

, Head of the, its form and construc- 
tion, 269. 

— — , Hunting, the ancestor of all stringed 
instruments, 252, 270. 

, Incurvations in stringed instruments 

not due to the use of the, 257, 422, 4-19. 

In its primitive form probably not 

known to the Greeks, 276. 
— , Instrument with incurvations, from 
Csesarea (a.d. 1066), from a Greek Psal- 
ter. Plaved with a, 448. 

. Instruments to which first applied, 


Bow, Introduction into Europe of the, 232, 

278, 281. 
, Invention of the, by some assigned 

to Ravanon, King of Ceylon, 278-9. 
, Iron, with handle, from the Fa?ade 

des Musiciens at Ilheims (Xlllth cent.), 

, Long handled, from a version of the 

Apocalypse from the ^Monastery of Silos, 

nr. Burgos, in Old Castile (Xllth cent.), 


Made known to the Arabs by the 

Persians, 398, 491. 

— — , No proof of use with crwth before 
Xlth cent, of, 27S, 494 5. 

Not invented for the rebab but only 

applied to it, 490-493. 

, Not represented, with stringed in- 
struments in the Utrecht Psalter, 351. 

, Not traced as yet in ancient Egypt, 


, Not used with eithara or rotta in 

the Vlllth cent., 335. 

— — , Not used with instruments of the 
crwth type before it was applied to the 
rebab, 339. 

, Not used with Welsh crwth earlier 

than XVlth cent. (XlV^h cent.*), 250-51. 
* See Appendix " Crwth," 494-5. 

, Number of hairs in modern, 103, 269. 

, Nut of the, use and construction of 

the, 103, 269. 

Of Cremaillere tvpe from the ivory 

binding of the Psalter of Lothair (Xlth 
cent.), 373. 

Of the Gross Geige (XVIth cent.), 


, Primitive, first improvement on, 281. 

, Probably obtained by the Arabs from 

the Persians, 398. 
, Probably unknown to the original 

artist of the Utrecht Psalter, 351. 
, Proof that incurvations are not due 

to the use of the. 449. 
, Screw of the, use and construction 

of the, 103, 269. 

, Stick of the modern, 103, 269. 

, Straight, Xlllth cent., 282. 

, The earliest and simplest form of, 

, The plectrum perhaps the ancestor 

of the, 274. 
, The prevailing stringed instrument 

in England during the Middle Ages 

played with a. 387. 
, Used in Xlth cent, with instruments 

of both rebab and guitar types, 236 8. 
, Used with Anglo-Saxon fithele, 278, 

, Used with the crwth in the XVIIIth 

cent., 278. 

, Used with the Lyra Teutonica, 282. 

, Used with the Ravanastron by the 

Hindoos at the present day, 281. 
, Used with the rebab by the Moors 

at the present day, 281. 
— — , Used with two stringed instrument 

of rebec type ^Xlllth cent.), 389. 

, Violin, Construction of the, 102-3. 

, Violin, Tourte model of, 102, 269. _ 

. Wales' unsupported claim to the in- 
vention of the, 278, 494. 
. With contrivance foreshadowing the 

Cremaillere (XlVth cent.), 283. 



Bow, With handle, from MS. in the library 
of St. Gall.* (Xth cent.), 280. 
* See Appendix C, 494. 

, With knob at each end to fasten 

hair, accompanying instrument of rebab 
type. From Harleian MS. 2804 (Xllth 
cent.), 388. 

, With knobs for fastening the string 

or hair (Xllth cent.), 282. 

, With long handle, used with instru- 
ment of the rebec or gigue type, com- 
mon in Europe during the Xllth, Xlllth 
and XlVth cent., 394. 

, With very long handle. From the 

Sforza Book, MS. Brit. Mus. (XVth 
cent.), 482. 

, Wood used for stick of modern, 269. 

Bowed instruments, Asia the cradle of, 

Depicted in the " Can- 

tigas de Santa Maria." 469-70. 

Description of. From 

a capital in the Abbey of Boscherville, 
nr. Rouen (Xlth cent.), 431. 

, Hybrid, held in the 

position of the violoncello (Xlllth 
cent.), 454. 

, Moorish rebab, pos- 
sibly the first known in Europe, 395. 

Development of the 

neck in, an indication of the improve- 
ment in the technique, 460. 

From the ivory bind- 
ings of a Latin Psalter written for 
Queen IMelissenda of Jerusalem (1131- 
1144), 451-2. 

■ Held in the position of 

the 'cello, examples of, 453-4. 

Of the Arabs probably 

introduced into central Europe bv 
Charlemagne, 280. 

Of the Minnesingers, 

Characteristics of the, 458 seq. 

, Eapid development of, 

due to the Troubadours and Minne- 
singers, 457. 

, The earliest known il- 
lumination in Spain of, 468. 

Bows, Different forms of (Vlllth to 
XYIIIth cent.), 281-4. 

, Shape of the stick in the modern 

and the ancient, 269. 

Box-tailpiece of the cithara, 294. 

Brass Wind Instruments, The Belgian 
model of the Double Bassoon made of 
brass is classed among the reed instru- 
ments of the wood wind, not among, 25. 

, Classification of. 

v.], 937. 


phone [q. v.], 92-3. 

[q. v.], 47-54. 

. The Cornet [q. 

, The Cornophone, 

The Doublo- 

The French Horn 

[q. v.], 89-91. 

[q. v.], 44 6. 

[q. v.], 74-82 

[q. v.], 83 8. 






Brass Wind Instruments, The Tubas [q. 

v.], 58-74. 
Bridge, Combined tailpiece and, Of the 

cithara and the guitar, 265. 

, Functions of the. 126, 226, 259-62. 

, Grooved, Guitar-fiddle with, from 

a painting in the Pinacothek, Munich 

(XVth cent.), 466. 

-, Its use and construction, 226, 259- 


Of cithara and lyre, Greek name 

for, 311. 

Of cithara in transition showing 

signs of feet, 335. 

Of instruments of which the 

strings are plucked or struck by ham- 
mers, 261. 

Of Ivre, 290. 

Of the cr-svth, 261 2. 

Of the Gross Geige, 415. 

Of the Tromba Marina. 261-2. 

Or fret. Second or octave of the 

magadis, 311. 
—, Silver, phorminx mentioned by 

Homer with, 300. 

, Violin, Feet of. 260-1. 

Violin, Its influence on the tone 

of the instrument, 260. 

Violin, Wood used for, 260. 

Bridges of pianoforte. Construction of, 126. 

Of pianoforte, Function of, 126. 

Broadwood's barless grand, patented in 

1888, 137, 190-1. 
Britain, Stringed instruments known in, 

previous to the conquest of Spain bv the 

Jloors, 384. 
Britons, Cithara known to the, at the 

time of the Koman Empire, 332. 
, Rotta or chrotta assigned by 

Venantius Fortunatus to the (Vlth 

cent.), 2.')0, ,336, 384, 494. 
Brooke's, Sir Thomas, Psalter of Lothair, 

History of (now in Brit. Mus.), 374. 
, Sir Thomas, Psalter of liOthair, 

identical with Ellis and White Psalter, 

Buccina, The ancestor of the trumpet, 87. 
, Performers on the, carved on 

Trojan's column, 88. 
Buddhist Tope of Amaravati, Stringed in- 
struments from the, grand staircase, 

Brit. Jlus. (Ilnd cent, a.d.), 408. 
Bugle, Application of Keys to the, by 

Halliday in 1810, the origin of the tubas, 

Button of violin, 229. 
Byzantine Antiquities with representations 

of musical instruments, 376 note. 
Bas-relief showing an early re- 
bab or lute, in the Kentrikon Museum 

at Athens. 408. 

Casket with representation of 

pear-shaped rebab played with bow, 408, 

Frescoes at Kusevr 'Amra, 

showing musical instruments, 497 note. 
Frescoes at Kusevr '.\mra, trans- 

verse flute represented on, 497 note. 

Influence on the development of 

musical instruments, 344, 378-80, 398. 
MS., Guitar-fiddle in (Xlth 

cent.), 377. 448-9. 
MS,, Brit. Mus., Add. 193,''>2. 

transverse flute represented in (Xlth 

cent.), 7. 



Bvzantine Origin of Utrecht Psalter, 344, 
355, 361, 363, 367, 369, 377-80. 

Cafsse Roiilante or Tenor drum, 180. 

Cambridge Psalter, see Eadwine Psalter, 

Canonists and Harmonists (B.C. 350), 308. 

Canterbury Tales, Musical instruments re- 
ferred to by Chaucer in the, 425, 429. 

Cantigas de Santa Maria, Curious absence 
of the guitar-fiddle in the miniatures of 
the, 469. 

, Facsimile repro- 
ductions of the 51 miniatures of instru- 
mentalists in the, 243-4. 

■ • , Origin of the in- 
struments illustrated in the, 410. 

, Spanish MS. of 

the Xlllth cent., with 51 miniatures of 
instrumentalists, 243, 409. 

The foreign ele- 

ment noticeable in the illuminations of 
the, 410. 

, Various positions 

in which are held the bowed instru- 
ments depicted in the, 469. 

Carillon, see Glockenspiel, lyre-shaped, 168. 

Carlovingian Art, School of Bheims, 
Utrecht Psalter a product of, 35706. 

, Table of Schools of il- 
lumination collated from Janitschek, 
Swarzenski and P. Durrieu, 367. 

Carlovingian Illuminated MSS., List of 
the principal, arranged according to the 
different art centres in which they were 
produced, 367. 

— Ivories, Scenes carved on, 

identical with the drawings of the 
Utrecht Psalter, 353 4, 359-60. 

MSS., A group of, of the 

same period and displaying the same 
stylistic characteristics as the Utrecht 
Psalter, 357-8. 

— JISS. and Monuments, No 

trace of the cithara in 2nd or 3rd tran- 
sitions yet disclosed in the, from the 
Vlllth to Xlth cent., 370, 374. 

• Origin of Utrecht Psalter 

demonstrated by Goldschmidt and Uur- 
rieu, 357-363. 

Schools of Art, Examples of 

Plastic Art of, 367-8. 

Scliools of illumination in- 
fluenced by Anglo Saxon art, 371. 

Carlovingians, Models accessible to the, 

Carneian musical contests. Fate of the 
oleven-stringed cithara at the, 306. 

Carthage Tanbur from terra-cotta figure 
dating from period of the Roman dom- 
ination, 409 note t. 

Case of the pianoforte, 122. 

Cassiodorus' classification of the instru- 
ments of the ancients, 278. 

Cellone, Stelzner, see Chapter on The 
Stehner Violin Family, 194. 

-, Compass, 200, 203. 

, Construction of the, 199. 

, Possibilities of the, 201. 

, Production of sound, 


■ , Quality of tone, 200. 

Cembalo or dulcimer supplied the idea of 
the hammer-action for the pianoforte, 

Central soundholes desirable on stringed 
instruments of which the strings are 

by, 280, 398. 

plucked, but undesirable on bowed in- 
struments, 259, 449. 
Chaldea, Cithara already well known in, 

before 1700 B.C., 285. 
, Lyre already well developed in, 

in Xlllth cent, b.c, 285. 
Chalumeau, Lowest register of clarinet, 30. 
Chanteors, see Musicians, professional, 

different terms applied to. 
Characteristics, Distinguishing, of the 

lyre and cithara, 245, 289-97. 
Charlemagne, Arabian bowed instruments 

introduced into Europe by, 280. 
— , Founder of the Schola Pal- 

atina, 365, 307 (table). 
, Influence of the musio and 

musical instruments of the Moors on, 


Schools of Music established 

The means of disseminating 
in Europe fresh knowledge of musical 
instruments, 329, 398. 

Chaucer, References by, to the cittern, 
rebec and other instruments, 412, 425, 429. 

Chelys, Construction of the, 235. 

, Invention of the, to whom attri- 
buted, 289. 

• — , Features possessed by the Bar- 

biton in common with the, -477. 

, Manner of playing the, described 

by Lucanus, 274. 

Or testudo lyre, crwth descended 

from, 232, 250. 

Christian East, Utrecht Psalter a product 
of the, 35C, 363-4. 367-82, see also Syria. 
Alexandra, Byzantine. 

Christianity, Effect of the spread of, on 
instrumental music, 327. 

Chromatic Harp, see Harp, Chromatic, 

With crossed strings in- 
vented by Henri Pape in 1845. 

, Plcyel, Wolff & Co. '8, 


Chrotta, Characteristics of the, 250. 

, Derivation of, 250. 

, In the second stage of transition. 

From Bibles of Charles the Bald, 337. 

, Number of strings of the, accord- 
ing to Labeo Notker, 336. 

, Reasons for supposing the, and 

Rotta to be identical, 335-6. 

^, Referred to as the instrument of 

the Britons, 250, 336, 384, 495. 

Church, Condemnation bv the, closes the 
theatres (IVth cent. A.b.), 327. 

, Earlj' Christian, Antagonistic to 

development of instrumental music, 327. 

Cithara Akin to Lira, definition by Allain 
de Lille (Xlllth cent.), 427. 

, Alcibiades and the, 305. 

, All stringed instruments known 

in Europe during the Middle Ages 
evolved either from the tanbur, the re- 
bab or the, 394. 

■ Already well developed in Egypt 

before 1290 B.C., 285. 

And epic poetry, 288. 

And harp, Contusion between the 

words, 442, 451. 

And lyre. Comparison of the uses 

made by the Greeks of the, 296. 

And lyre mentioned by Virgil, 320. 

And lyre. Question of the evolu- 



tion of instrunipnts of these classes 
found in Europe in the Xlth cent., 236 8. 

Cithara, Appearance in various countries 
of Europe previous to the conquest of 
Spain by the Moors of the, 238. 

■, Aristo.\enus said to have added to 

the string-s of the, 308. 

, As a symbol of the Cross and 

Passion, 450. 

, Asiatic, Horizontal bar charac- 
teristic of the Greek and, 436. 

, Asiatic origin of, 236, 424. 

— , Assyrian, soundohest of, 292. 

, A tenth string added to the, 305. 

, Development of the back of the, 


, Bowed instruments with the char- 
acteristic sour.dcliests of lyre and, found 
in Europe in the Xlth cent., 236 8. 

, Box-tailpiece of the, 262, 294. 

, Bridge of the, Greek name for, 


, Characteristic features of all in- 
struments bearing the name or derived 
from, 330. 

, Chief instrument of the Greeks 

and Romans, 434. 

, Combined tailpiece and bridge of 

the, 265. 

, Construction and characteristics 

of the, 235. 

, Construction of the, 291 6. 

, Costume of the professional pel- 
former on the, 297. 

, Country of origin, and country 

of its greatest development, 286. 

Declared by Notker Balbulus to be 

derived from the Psalterium (IXth 
cent-K 336. 

Delineations of the, found at 

Heroulanum, 293. 

, Derivation of names of instru- 
ments from the, 232, 424. 

— , Design of, with four strings found 

on the mosaic pavement excavated at 
Woodchestcr. 332. 

Distinguishing characteristics of 

the lyre and, 235, 289 97. 

Egyptian, Chief characteristic of 

the, 434-8. 
, Egyptian, Method of tuning the. 

Eleventh string added to the, 305 
Evidence showing that in tin 

Vlllth century the bow vi^as not yet used 
with the, 335. 

Evolution accomplished through 

the influence of remote Eastern civilibsi 
tion in the, 331. 

, Evolution of the, carried out bv 

the Greeks of Asia Jlinor, 378-82. 

, Explanation of the word in a 

commentary to a Latin version of the 
Apocalypse (XlVth cent. J\IS.). 450. 

— , Features of the violin to be ob- 
served in the, 236. 

, Fidicula and guitarra latina 

identical instruments, 246 8. 

— , First stejj in the transition of 

the, 330. 

From sarcophagus now in tlio 

Louvre assigned to the Ilnd cent, a.u., 

From the Stuttgart Psalter (Xth 

cent.), similarity between the Minne- 

singer fiddle from the Manesse MSS. 
(Xlllth cent.), and the, 460. 

Cithara, Gallic, before the days of Csesar, 

, Greek, Different methods of fix- 
ing the strings on the, 262-3, 296. 

, Greek, Methods of tuning the, 


, Greek, Perfection of the, 277. 

, Greek or Roman, The absence of 

any description of the, 438. 

Greek, Valuable evidence that 

the violin is descended from the, 392. 

Horizontal bar characteristic of 

the Asiatic and Greek, 436. 

, Imaginarv description of, from 

Cotton MS., Tib. C. VI. (Xlth cent.), 385. 

, In first transition, i.e., arms and 

transverse bar merged into one. Two 
specimens of the, 439. 

, In second stage of transition, 

from Utrecht Psalter, 347. 

, In 2nd or 3rd transitions, not 

traced in Anglo-Saxon, Carlovingian or 
French MSS. and monuments of the 
Vlllth to Xlth cent., 370, 374. 

— , In second stage of transition 

showing the first direct step taken 
towards the violin, from Utrecht Psalter, 
345 6. 

, In the Vllth cent. b.c. 294. 

, In third stage of transition with 

sound-chest covering the whole outline 
of the instrument, 348. 

, In transition called cythara in 

Germany, and chrotta or rotta in Eng- 
land, 250, 335, 339 note, 384, 425, 441, 495. 
In transition, from illuminated 

MS. of the Vlllth cent, in the Cathedral 

Library at Durham. 333 4. 
, In transition highly developed. 

with whole length of strings stretched 

over sound chest, 330. 
, In transition (or rotta) known to 

the Britons before the Vlllth cent., 

334 7, 38 1. 
, In transition, originality and 

enterprise displayed in the construction 

of the, in the Utrecht Psalter, 349. 

, In transition, Xllth cent., 388. 

--, In transition, with body of the 

guitar fiddle and bridge showing signs 

of feet, from IMS. of the IXth cent., 334 5. 
, In transition (rotta), with oblong 

sound-chest and si.x strings from Anglo- 
Saxon MS. (700 A.D.), .329-30. 
, List of JISS. and monuments 

from the Ilnd to tht IXth cent., not 

reproduced in this work containing 

representations of the, 376. 

, Manner of holding the, 296. 

, Mediaeval, identical with the 

rotta (750 a.u.), 335, 425. 
, JMethod by which the strings are 

attached to the l)oxtailpiece of the, 296. 
, Miniatures of tlie Utrecht Psal- 
ter, reproducing all the steps in the 

evolution of the, 377, 447 8. 
, Names of instruments deriverl 

from the, 232, 424. 

, Nero and the, 298. 

. Nine stringed, Enneachordon, a 

synonym for the, 311. 
, Ninth string added bv Plirvnia 

to the, 304. 



Cithara, Of Apollo Musag-ctes oi- citba- 

roedu8, 294, 302. 
, Of Aristoxenus, Aristotle's 

opinion of the, 307. 

, Of the best Athenian period, 293. 

Of the Etrviscans compared with 

that of the Greeks, 293. 

Of the Greeks, liatest develop- 

ment in construction of, 292 3. 

Of Timotheus, Aristotle's opinion 

of the, 308. 

-, Or Cythara, Proofs of the use in 

Germany during the middle ag-es for the 
rotta of the word, 335, 42.5, 441. 

-, Orig-in of the, attributed by the 

Romans to Orpheus, 320. 

Or Itotta from an altar-piece 

1367-1415) belong-ing to the S. Kensint 
ton Museum, 450. 

-, Or Botta having the same outline 

as the body of the ancient Egyptian 
Guitar, from ^IS. in the lioyal Library, 
Dresden (XlVth cent.), 4.50. 

Phorminx used as a synonym for. 

Presence of incurvations in many 


of the prototypes of the, 449-50. 
. Proficiency of Antonius Julianus, 

the Spanish Rhetorician on the, 325. 
, Proper, Main difference during 

the early Middle Ages between the 

cithara in transition or rotta and the, 


— , Rapid evolution of the, among 

the Western nations of Europe during 
the first centuries of our era, 445 6. 

-rebec. Instrument of mixed type 

by no means uncommon in the .MSS. of 
the XlVth, XVth and XVIth cent.. 3!.'(i. 
Recognised by this name at the 

time of the Utrecht Psalter, 343, 347 

, Roman, in Britain, 331-2. 

Roman, Number of strings 

the, 321. 

, Roman, Sound-chest of, 321. 

, Roman, Tail-piece of the, 321. 

, Roman, with flat back, 320. 

-, Seven-stringed, Jlanner of play- 

ing the, described in the .Eneid, 274. 

, Seven-stringed, Version of the 

Illiad arranged for the, 307-8. 

Shajje of the, compared to the 

human chest, 450. 

Shape of the, in 3rd stage of 

transition compared with guitar-fiddle of 
the Xlllth cent., 348. 

Slow development of the, among 

the Eastern civilisations, 279, 445. 

Soothing tone of the. referred to 

by Galfridus de Vim Salor (Xlllth 
cent.), 427. 

Soundchest of the, Eaily shapes 

and development of the, 292 seq. 

Soundchest the most important 

feature of the, 233, 235, 292. 

-, Strings of the. Number, arrange- 

ment and method of fixing the, 296. 

Terpander increases the number 

of strings in the, 301. 

, 'The instrument of Achilles, .300. 

The instrument of the Greek pro- 

fessional, 296. 
, The instruments of the Utrecht 

Psalter the only link connecting the 

guitar-fiddle with the, 377, 440. 
Cithara, Theory of evolution among the 

Greeks of Asia Minor or Alexandria of 

the, 378-82. 
, The two distinct transitions due 

to European and Oriental enterprise in 

the evolution of the, 331. 

, Triple revolving, 312. 

Two-fold use of the, by the 

Greeks, 297. 

Type of instruments to which the 

name was applied by the Greeks and 
Romans, 297, 330. 

, Used by professional musicians, 


, Various translations of the word, 

in German and French MSS. of the 
XlVth cent., 441-2. 

, With frets and pegs, highly 

developed model in 3rd stage of transi- 
tion, from the Utrecht Psalter, 350. 

With guitar shaped incurvations. 

from MS., XlVth cent., in Royal Lib- 
rary, Dresden, 441. 

, \\'ith hole through the sound- 
chest allowing the strings to be 
twanged from back and front, charac- 
teristic of crowd and crwth, 330. 

, With long neck and fingerboard 

forming the connecting link between 
the rotta of the earlv middle ages and 
the guitar fiddle of tlie Xllth cent., 343. 
With oblique transverse bar 

characteristic of the Egyptian instru- 
ment, 435-6. 

, With possible fingerboard, 266. 

, Wonderful execution of Phrynis 

on the (456 B.C.), 304. 

. see also Ketharah and Kithara. 

s. High development of, repre- 
sented on Roman sculptures, 320. 

Made in sots of three sizes 

corresponding to the treble, tenor and 
bass voices, 339 41. 

Of the Stuttgart Psalter, Xth 

cent.. Common feature of the, 460. 
, Rectangular shaped, 294, 320, 

■ , Treble and bass. Method of 

holding as shown in a JIS. of the Xlth 

cent., 340. 
, With box-tailpieces depicted in 

sculpture. Absence of strings in. £(,5. 
Citharisare, Meaning of the I,atin verb, 

Citharista, And Citharoedus, Distinctive 

costume of the, 297. 
, And the Citharoedus, Difference 

between the, 297. 

• , Meaning of the word, 297. 

Contests instituted at the 

eighth Pythian games for, 303. 

Sacrifice Art to technique 

(456 B.C.), 305, 307. 
Citharoedes, At the marriage of Alexander 

the Great, 308. 

. At the Panathena?, .303. 

, Chorus for, in a Pvtbian ode 

of Pindar, 302. 

, Diodorus and Nero ap. 326. 

, Spanish, Consul ]M('tellus 

being charmed with them, sends some to 

Rome for the festivals, 325. 
, Spanish, Marv-ellous profi- 



ciency at the beginning of the Christian 

era of the, 325. 
Citharoedi, P^xplained in a " Commentary 

on the Apocalypse " (XlVth cent. MS.), 

Royal Library, Dresden, 441. 
Citharcedus, Alcibiades as, 305. 

, Nero as a, 298, 32C. 

, Or professional singer who 

accompanied himself on the cithara, 

Costume of the, 297. 

-, Plato as, 307. 

Citra[n] (cithara), Reference to the, in 

Anglo-Saxon MS., 700 a.d., 350. 
Cittern, Boat-shaped, Examples of the 

(XlVth cent.), 413. 
, Boat-shaped, or rebec from Can- 

tigas de Santa Maria (Xlllth cent.), 


Class of instruments to which 

the term was applied, 425. 

-, Combined bridge and tailpiece of 

the, 411. 
, Derivation of the word, and its 

various pronunciations and spellings, 

350, 4245. 
, Description of a, in Queen 

Mary's Psalter, MS., XlVth cent., Brit. 

Musi, -478. 
, Description of the, and gittern 

mentioned by Chaucer, 412. 

, Head characteristic of the, 389-91. 

, Jlanner of holding the, during 

the middle ages, 349. 

, Origin of the word, 350, 424-5. 

, Popularity of the, in England, 

References to the, by Chaucer, 


, With incurvations dating from 

the reign of Edward I., from MS. Brit. 
Mus., 439. 

From the Stuttgart Psalter 

(Xth cent.). Similarity between the 
Minnesinger fiddle from the Manesse 
MSS. (Xlllth cent.), and the, 460. 

Of the Stuttgart Psalter, Xth 

cent.. Common feature of the, 460. 

Classical Writers, Mention of the Plect- 
rum by, 272, 274. 

Clarina, see chapter on, in the Appendix, 

, Compass, 205. 

, Construction of the, 188. 

. , Hybrid between oboe and 

clarinet, 188. 

, Invented by W. Heckel, 188. 

. Used in " Tristan and Isolde " 

at Bayreuth since 1891, 188. 
Clarinet, see chapter on this instrument, 


, Compass, 30, 206. 

, Construction of, 29. 

, Derivation of name, 33. 

Invented in 1690 by Johann C. 

Denner, of Nuremberg, 33. 

, Origin of the, 33. 

, Possibilities of the, 33. 

, Production of sound, 29. 

, Quality of tone, 32. 

-, Bass, see chapter on this instru- 

ment, 38. 

— ' , Bass, Compass, 39, 207. 

, Bass, Construction of the, 38. 

Bass, Origin of the, 40. 

Clarinet, Bass, Possibilities of the, 40. 

— , Bass, Production of sound, 38. 

, Bass, Quality of tone, 40. 

, " Clinton," Description of the, 

, Contra, the, see chapter on the 

Pedal Clarinet, 41. 

The Pedal, see chapter on this 

instrument, 41. 

-, Tenor, see Basset Earn, 35-6. 

Classification, And order of development 

of musical instruments, 220. 
— — ■ — — , Cassiodorus', of the instru- 

ments of the ancients, 278. 
Of musical 

Brass Wind, 2-3. 

Percussion, 157. 
, Of 

Strings, 99. 



Wood wind, 1-2. 

Of stringed instruments by 

the relative position of their sound- 
chests and strings, 289. 

Clavichord, Description of mechanism of, 

, Predecessor of pianoforte, 


Clef, Bass, Instruments for which the, 
only is used in notation, 27, 42, 60, 68, 
118, 160, 178, 182, 200. 

, Treble, Instruments for which the, 

otil)/ is used in notation, 3, 12, 15, 30, 45, 
95, 105. 

- — s, Alto and Treble, Instruments for 
which the, are used in notation, 111. 

, Bass, Tenor and Treble, Instru- 
ments for which the, are used in nota- 
tion, 113. 

— , Bass and Treble, Instruments for 

which the, are used in notation, 23, 36, 
40, 51, 57, 71, 91, 129, 142, 180. 

" Clinton " Clarinet, the, see Clarinet, 
" Clinton," 32. 

Comb, Of the harp, containing mechanism 
for shortening the strings, 140. 

Combination Clarinet, see " Clinton " 
Clarinet, 32. 

Contests, Carneian musical. Fate of the 
eleven-stringed cithara at the, 306. 

, Carneian musical, Terpander a 

victor at the, 310. 

, Jlusical, at the eighth Pythian 

games, 300, 303, 310. 

■ ; Musical, at the Panathense, 303. 

, ilusical, encouraged by Pericles, 


, Smaller musical, modelled on tlie 

Pvthian games at Delphi held in Asia 
Minor, 324. 

Contrabasso, see Double Bass, 116. 

Contra Clarinets, Attempts of Sax, Wie- 
procht and Albert to construct, see 
Pedal Clarinet, 43. 

Contrafagotto, see Double Bassoon, 25-7. 

Contrcbasse, see Double Bass, 116. 

Copies, Of the Utrecht Psalter, 361-2, 371-3. 

Cor Anglais, see chapter on this instru- 
ment, 14. 

, A misnomer, not a horn but 

a tenor oboe, 17. 

, Compass, 14, 205, 

, Construction of the, 14. 



Cor Anglais, Example of use in " Tristan 

and Isolde," 17. 

, Origin of the, 17. 

— , Possibilities of the, 17. 

, Production of sound, 14. 

— , Quality of tone, 16. 

- — ■ , Suggested explanation of 

name, 17. 
Cor de Chasse, see French Horn. 
Corner Blocks, Characteristic of violins 

and viols, 225, 257. 

Early examples of, 463, 

477, 497-8. 

Early instance of use of. 

, Fiddle having apparently. 

From von der Hagen's " Heldenbilder " 

(XlVth cent.), 463. 
, Fiddle shoveing that they 

were already known. From a sculpture 

in the Cathedral of Amiens (Xlllth 

cent.), 477, 498. 
— , In fiddle (von der Hagen'i 

"Heldenbilder") (XlVth cent.), 463. 
— — Of viols and violins, 225, 

Cornet, see chapter on this instrument, 

, A hybrid between bugle and high 

trumpet, 96. 

, Compass, 95, 209. 

, Construction of the, 93. 

• , Harmonic series of, 94. 

. Origin of the, 96. 

, Possibilities of the, 95. 

, Production of sound, 93. 

, Quality of tone, 95. 

, The Victory model, 96-7. 

Cornet k Pistons, see Cornet, 93. 
Corno Inglese, see Cor Anglais, 14. 
Cornophono, see chapter on this instru- 

Corapass, 56, 209. 
Construction of the, 55. 
Harmonic series of, 55. 
Invention by M. F. Besson of. 


, Possibilities of the, 57. 

, Production of sound, 55. 

, Quality of tone, 57. 

Cosma Indikoplenstes, Earliest conception 

of David as musician from the, of the 

Vatican, 381. 
Costume of the citharoedus and citharista 

or professional performers on the cith- 

ara, 297. 
Cotton MS., Tib. C. VI., Brit. JIus., 

Stringed instruments from the, 384-7. 
, Tib. C. VI., Possibly a copy 

of the St. Emmeran MS. at Batisbon, 

A'espasian A 1, 700 a.d., In- 
struments to be found in the, 384. 
Court music. Description in the " Roman 

de Brut," of (Xllth cent.), 426. 
Cousineau's .\ttempt to construct a harp 

with double pedal action in 1782, 147. 
Cremaillere Bow, XVth cent., 283. 
■ , From the Psalter of 

Lothair, 373. 
— , Method of attaching hair 

on, 283. 
Cremona, The master violin makers of, 


Cristofori, Inventor of the Pianoforte in 

1711, 134. 
Crooks, Explanation of term, 47-9, 83. 
, The eleven, in use with the French 

Horn, 51. 

-, The four, in use with the corno- 

phone, 56. 

-, The seven, in use with the trumpet. 

-, The two, in use with the cornet, 95. 


Crowd, Characteristics of the, 250. 

, English, Structural similarity be- 
tween the rectangular orwth and the 
XlVth cent., 495. 

, From the seal of Roger Wade pre- 
served in Berlieley Castle (cast in the 
British Museum) (XlVth cent.), 495-6. 

, Manner of stopping the strings of 

the, 256. 

Popularity of the, with the min- 

strels in England, 477. 
Cruit or Crot, the Irish for orwth, glossed 

cithari during the Vlllth and IXth 

cent., 496. 
Crusades, Effect of the, on the progress of 

musical instruments in Europe, 329. 
Crwth, Absence of proof that the bow was 

ever used with the, prior to the Xlth 

cent., 495. 
, An instrument not peculiar to 

Wales but merely a survival of an ar- 
chaic instrument once generally popular 

in Europe, 495, 497. 

, Bow used with the, 278. 

, Bridge of the, 2G1-2. 

, Characteristics of the, 250. 

, Comparison with instruments of the 

early mediaeval cithara type, 336-9. 

, Derivation of the name, 250. 

, Evidence that the, was merely the 

rotta with fingerboard added, 337, 496. 

Family descended from the Chelys 

or Testudo liyre, 245, 250. 

, Genealogy of the, 232. 

, Instances proving tliat the strings 

wore pluclced previous to the application 

of the bow to the instrument, 337, 496. 
, Manner of stopping the strings of 

the, 256. 
■ , No authority for supposing that 

before it was applied to the rebab the 

bow was used with the, 339. 

Of the XVIIIth cent., Construction 

of the, 251. 

Or Rotta of the IXth cent., from 

the Bible of Charles the Bald, 337, 496. 

, Reasons for rejecting the, from the 

genealogical tree of the violin, 342. 
, Rectangular, Structural similarity 

between the," and the English crowd of 

the XlVth cent., 495. 

, Soundpost of the, 262. 

, Ten-stringed instrument presenting 

a certain resemblance to the, from the 

Heliac Table in Palazzo Maffei, Rome, 


, The Welsh, 250-1, 337-9, 494-7. 

, Use of the bow with the Welsh, 

earlier than the XlVth cent, absolutely 

unproved, 250-1. 
Crwth Trithant, From a fresco in the 

Chapter House, Westminster (XlVth 

cent.), 338-9. 
Cross-Bar, Horizontal, characteristic of the 

Asiatic and Greek citharas, 436. 



Cross-Bar, Rpvolving, for tuning Giocli 

and Egyptian citharas, 263-4. 
" C "-shaped souudlioles, 251), 415. 
-^, A fine example 

of the guitar-fiddle (XlVth cent.), with, 


Bowed instru- 

ments with, depicted in the Sforza Book, 
XVth cent. MS. in Brit. Mus., 4S2. 

On oval vielle of 

the XlVth cent., From Sloaue MS., Brit. 
Mus., 482. 

Cutbbert, .Vrchbishop of Canterbury, Let- 
ter written in 750 a.d. mentioning the 
cithara " called rotta " from, 335, 425. 

Cymbals, Construction of the, 181. 

, Cup-shaped, Tone of the, 427. 

, Origin of the, 182. 

• , Possibilities of the, 181. 

. , The ancient. Construction and 

tone of, 182. 

Cythara, see ciilmra. 

Cythara teutonica (cithara in transition), 
With body of the guitar-fiddle and 
bridge showing signs of feet, 31S. of the 
IXth cent., 33l}. 

Dalton, Ormonde iM., in favour of an Ori- 
ental origin for the Utrecht Psalter, 

David and his Musicians, First representa- 
tion of. traced in the Cosma Indiko- 
pleustes of the Vatican, 381. 

In Latin Psalter, 

Xlth cent., Cambridge Univ. Library, 

In MS. Prayer- 

Book from Kloster Neuberg, 339-40. 

On ivory binding 

of Byzantine Psalter of Melissonda, XHth 
cent., 452. 

, Pepresentations 

of, not traced in Early Christian art, 380. 

— Uepresentcd in 

Anglo-Saxon Psalter (Cotton MS., Tib. 
C. Vl.), 386. 

Carlovingian Bibles, 337. 

Represented in 

Uepresentcd in 
Psalterium of Labco Notker, 402, 404. 

David as a musician. First conception of. 
In TIth cent. IMS. in the Vatican, 381. 

Delisle, Leopold's, nomenclature of the 
plates in Bastard's collection of fac- 
similes, 358, note *. 

Denner, J. C, of Nuremberg, Inventor of 
the clarinet in 16!)0, 33. 

Derivation From the name cithara of other 
instruments, 232. 424. 

Of word hnrhitoii, 313, 487. 

. Of word chrofta. 245, 2,")0. 

Of the word i-ittvrn, 350, 424 5. 

— Of word clnrinrt, 33. 

Of word Geirie, 415-17. 

Of the word guitar, 232, 236, 

242, 424. 

Of word psalterion (um), 315 

Of word liolin from fidicula, 232, 


Development of Frankish Art, Influence of 
the Christian East upon the, 382. 

Of instrumental music re- 
tarded by Early Christian Church, 327, 

. Of instruments in the East 

Development, Order of, and classification of 

musical instruments, 220. 
Diamond-shaped head, Instances of thp 

oval vielle with, in the " Cantigas de 

Santa Maria," 470. 
■, Prevalence of the, 

on bowed instruments of the Xllth cent.. 

Dickinson, F. H., Report on Utrecht Psal- 
ter by, 355. 
Diodorus and Nero, 326. 
Dionysiac Rites, Music and the, 326. 
Dionysus, Festivals of, in Athens (550 B.C.), 

and their influence on Drama, 303. 
, Instruments used by the Greeks 

to accompany the hymn to, 287. 
Discant Violin, Statute forbidding the 

playing in taverns or other low places in 

Fra'nce of the, -118-19. 
Dithyramb, Instruments used by the 

Greeks to accompany the, 287. 
Dorian Scale, 312. 
Double Action Harp patented bv Sebastian 

Erard in 1809, 147. 
Double Bass, see Chapters on this instru- 
ment, 116, 194. 

, Accordance of, 118. 

, Compass, 119, 203. 

, Construction of the, 116. 

, Flat back of, 110. 

Mr. A. C. White's Accordance 

of, 118-19. 

Origin of the, 120. 
Possibilities of the, 119. 

, Production of sound, 118. 

, Quality of tone. 119. 

, Stelzner, see chapter on The 

Stelzner Vinliii Famili/, 191. 

, Stelzner, Compass, 200. 

Stelzner, Construction of the, 

Stelzner, Production of 


slow, 279, 415 0. 

sound, 200. 

, Stelzner, Quality of tone, 200. 

Double Bassoon or Contrafaffotto, see 
chapter on this instrument, 25. 

, Compass. 27, 2(J6. 

• , Construction of the, 25. 

, Origin of the, 27. 

, Possibilities of the. 27. 

, Production of sound, 26. 

■ , Quality of tone. 27. 

Double-Escapement .-Nction for pianoforte 
invented by Sebastian Erard in 1808, 1,35. 

. Of pianoforte 

explained, 128 9. . 

Double-slide Trombone, see Trombone, 
Double-slide, 76, 78-9. 

Double tonguing Practised on flute, trum- 
pet, cornet. 6, 87, 95. 

Doublophone. see chapter on this instru- 
ment, 92. 

— — , Compass, 93. 

, Construction of the. 92. 

— — Invented by ^I. F. Besson. 92. 

, Production of sound, 93. 

, Quality of tone, 93. 

Drama, Greek, at the time of Pericles (478 
to 429 B.C.), ,303. 

, Greek, Degradation and ruin of the, 


, Greek, Perfection of the, in the 

time of .Eschylus, 303. 

, Influence on the. of the Athenian 

festivals in honour of Dionysus, 303. 



Drama, Roman, :Music and the, 286. 
Drawings of Utrecht Psalter, Controversy 

concerning' origin of, 352 382. 
, , Executed to 

illustrate a Greek text, 363, 378. 
-, Style of, 

compared with that of certain Carlo- 

vingian ivories, 353-4, 359 60, 367-8. 
, see also Il- 

Drawn wire first made at Nuremberg in 

the middle of the XlVth cent., 123. 
Drum, Word when used by musicians 

always means Kettledrum [q. v.], 161. 
, Bass or Big, Construction of the, 



Bass or Big, Origin of the, 178. 
Bass or Big, Possibilities of the, 178. 
Bass or Big, Production of sound, 

Side or Snare, Construction of the, 

Side or Snare, production of sound. 

The Tenor, see chapter on the 
Side Drum, 180. 

— — sticks. Used with the Bass or Big 
drum, 177-8. 

, Used with the Snare drum. 

■ — , Used with the kettledrum, 

Construction of, 159. 
Duififoprugear or Tieffenbrueckcr, Gaspar, 

by some accepted as the father of the 

violin, 109. 
Dulcimer, Supplied the idea of the 

hammer action for the pianoforte, 133. 
Durrieu, Paul and Adolph Goldsehmidt, 

independently attribute the execution of 

the Utrecht Psalter to the School of 

Rheims, 361-2. 
■ . Ascribes Utrecht Psalter 

to the School of Rheims, 362. 

Bases his conclusions on 

the origin of the Utrecht Psalter on 

palseographical grounds as well as on 

the miniatures, 362-3. 
. , Origin of the Utrecht 

Psalter according to. 362. 
, Resume of pamplet on 

Utrecht Psalter by, 362-3. 
Diisseldorf ^Miniatures. Close resemblance 

in stvle between miniatures of Utrecht 

Psalter and, .3.59. 
Eadwine Psalter, a Cambridge Xllth 

cent, copy of the Utrecht Psalter, 361, 

, Fanciful and unpracti- 
cal drawings of the instruments in the, 


Similarities between 

the Paris copv of Utrecht Psalter and 
the, 362. 

Ear-shaped soundholes. Guitar-fiddle, 
Xlllth cent., with, from a picture by 
Cimabue in the Pitti Gallery, Florence, 

, Minnesinger's 

fiddle with (XlYth cent.), 459. 

East, Instruments of the, Slow develop- 
ment of, 279, 445 6. 

Eastern Archetypes of European instru- 
ments. The important bearing of the 
researches now being carried out in the 
East on the history of the, 483. 

Eastern Influence, A great tide of, eman- 
ating from the Greeks of N. Africa and 
of Asia Minor had preceded that of the 
Sloors, 398. 

Influence on the development of 

stringed instruments, 328. 

Instruments, see Rebab, Tanbur, 

Pandoura, Nanga, Guitar, Kithara, 
Ketharah, Barbitoii, Hydraulic Organ. 

, Origin of the medireval rebab by 

some called lyra, 492. 

Origin of the violin. Overwhelm- 

ing evidence pointing to the, 432 

See also Aniaravati, Arab, As 

Syrian, Baou'it, Carthage, Christian Eaut, 
Goahen, Jumal-Garhi, Khotan, Tiuseyr' 
Amra, Persia, Syria, etc. 

Echelon or soundboard of the lyre, 289. 

Edges of violin known as bouts, 225. 

Egypt and Syria, Influence on the dcvelop- 
rnent of Prankish art of, 382. 

, Cithara well developed in, before 

1290 B.C., 285. 

, Influence on the instrumental music 

of Greece and Rome of, 434. 

, Lyre already well known in, in 

Xllith cent, b.c, "285. 

. , No indication of the use of the 

bow traced as yet in any of the paint- 
ings or sculptures of ancient, 444. 

, No traces of the rebab to be found 

in ancient, 434. 

Prototypes of almost all European 

mediseval stringed instruments found in 

the paintings or sculptures of, 432-3. 
Egyptian and Assyrian plectra, 275. 
— ^ Guitar, Ancient, copied by De- 

non from the tombs of the Western hills 

in Thebes. 446. 

Harp, Absence of pillar on, l-!o. 

. Instrument of tamboura type. 

Arrangement of strings 
Chief characteristic of 


on the, 2G4, 438. 

the, 4346. 

of the, 265, 435-8. 


Kithara, Construction and use 

Jlethod of tuning the. 

with fingerboards and 

characteristic of 

frets, 266. 

Lyre, Chief 

the. 434-6. 

, Nanga, 255, 396, 487. 

Nanga, Similarity between the 

sound-chest of the, and that of the bar- 
biton, 396, 487-9. 

Nefer of the oval type. Similar- 
ity in outline between a Tamboura 
(Vlllth cent.), from Carlovingian MS.. 
" L'Evangeliaire de St. Medard " and 
the, 300. 

Nefer or Nofre employed in 

hieroglyphs as a symViol for good. 442. 
Nefer or Tamboura from ~ 

painting on the third tomb at Thebes 

Kourna, 317. 
Nefer, Position of soundholes on 

the, 2.i9. 
_ Nefer similar to the Greek Pan- 

doura, 317 

frets, 276. 

Nefer, the three-stringed, 366. 
Nefers with fingerboards and 



Egvptians, Favourite instruments of the, 

Ellis and White Psalter identical with 
Psalter of Lothair in the Library of Sir 
Thomas Brooke (now Brit, ilus.), 373 
note t. 

England, Earliest instance yet found of 
the use of the bow in, 387. 

• , Favourite stringed instruments of 

the minstrels in, 177. 

, Popularity of the cittern and git- 
tern in, 477. 

Prevailing stringed instrument 

used with a bow in, during the Middle 
Ages, 387. 

■ , Stringed instruments known in, 

previous to tlie conquest of Spain by the 
Moors, 239, 331-2, 384. 

English Horn, see Vor Anglais, 14. 

Enharmonic Scale possible on the harp 
alone of all modern instruments with 
fixed tones, 142. 

Enneachordon, A synonym for the nine- 
stringed cithara of Phrynis, 311. 

Epic poetry and the cithara, 288. 

Epigoneiou, Aristotle and the use of the, 

Introduced into Hellas by 

Epigonus, 315. 

. , Number of strings of the, 


. , Probable shape of the, 315. 

Epigonus as citharista and citharcedus, 

Introduces the Epigoneion into 

Hellas, 315. 

Erato, Lvre* of. Second Grseco'Roman 
Gallery," Brit. Mus., 206. 
* A kithara. 

Estrumanteors, see also Musician^, pro- 
fessional, different terms applied to, 428. 

, Dillerence between the, and 

the pigleors, 428. 

Etruscan cithara compared to the Grecian, 

Eyre, Characteristics of the, 290. 

Euphonium, see chapter on Tubas, 58-63. 

, Compass, 60. 

, Construction of the, 58. 

■ ■ , Harmonic series of the, 60. 

. , Origin of the, 63. 

, Possibilities of the, 62. 

, Production of sound, 59. 

, Quality of tone, 60. 

, The outcome of the applica- 
tion of keys to the bugle by Halliday in 
1810, 63. 

Euroije, .Vrabian bowed instruments intro- 
duced by Charlemagne into central, 280. 

. , Charlemagne the means of dis- 
seminating fresh knowledge of musical 
instruments in, 329, 398. 

, Classification of the stringed in- 
struments known during the Middle Ages 
in, 394. 

-, Culture of musical instruments 

disseminated by the troubadours over, 

, Difficulty of ascertaining the in- 
fluence of the various nations of, on the 
development of the guitar-fiddle, 457-8. 

, Earliest representation of the 

bow yet found in, 303. 

-', Earliest teachers of music in, 383. 

Europe, Effect of the crusades on the 

progress of musical instruments in, 329. 
, First courts to foster the art of 

the troubadour in, 455. 
, Introduction of the barbiton into, 

313, 488. 
, Instruments of the rebeo or 

gigue tribe common during the Xllth, 

Xlllth and XITth cent, in, 394. 
, Moorish rebab probably the first 

bowed instrument known in, 395. 
, Position of music in the Vlllth 

cent, in, 329. 
, Rapid evolution during the first 

centuries of our era of the cithara among 

the Western civilizations of, 445. 
, Saracens give a fresh impetus to 

art in, 398. 

Stringed instruments known previ- 

ous to the conquest of Spain by the Moors 
in, 239, 384. 
European instruments. The important 
bearing of the researches now being 
carried out in the East on the history of 
the Eastern archetypes of, 483. 

Origin of the violin refuted, 432. 

Evangeliarium of Ebo, Close resemblance 

in style between the illuminations of 
the Utrecht Psalter and those of the, 

, Resemblance be- 
tween the scenes and figures in the Cod. 
Siriaco, Bibl. Laurenziana of Florence 
(Rabulo-Evangeliarium), and those of 
the, 371. 

Evangeliarium, Rabulo, Cod. Siriaco, Bibl. 
Laurenziana of Florence, see Rabulo, 

Of St. Medard, Common 

feature of construction in the instru- 
ments from the Psalters of Lothair, 
of Labeo Notker, and from the, 371. 

Of St. Medard, Origin of 

the, 399. 

Of St. Medard, Tamboura 

from the (Vlllth cent.). 300. 
Evolution of the cithara accomplished, 

through the influence of remote Eastern 

civilization, 331. 
■ Of the cithara. First step in 

the, 330. 
■ Of the cithara, see also Cithara, 

evolution of the. 

Of fiddle from guitar, 421-4. 

Of the guitar from the kithara 

demonstrated bv the miniatures of the 

Utrecht Psalter", 447-8. 

Of guitar-fiddle from the Greek 

kithara, 331, 445, 448, 484. 
Fagotto, see Bu^xooii. 
Feet Of violin-bridge, Necessity for the, 

Of violin-bridge. Their position on the 

instrument, 260-1. 
// Holes. Their shape, position and object, 

100, 258-9. 
, Distinctive feature of the violin, 

Ferrule of the bow. Use and construction 

of the, 269. 
Fiddle, Derivation of the word, 244, 248, 

, Did not exist independently of the 

guitar but was evolved from it, 421-2. 



Fiddle, Example showing that it was cus- 
tomary in France as early as the Xlllth 
cent, for women of high degree to play 
the, 475-6. 

, Five-stringed Minnesinger, with 

sloping shoulders and neck termed by 
the gradual narrowing of the body. 
From Yon der Hagen's '' Bildersaal " 
(Xlllth cent.), 461. 

, French minstrel, of the Xllth 

cent.. From the Abbey of Vezelai, 472. 

, German Minnesinger, neck com- 
pared with that of the guitar-fiddle of 
other countries, 460. 

, Minnesinger, Description of (XlVth 

cent.), 459. 

, Minnesinger, Description of fiddle 

somewhat resembling the. From painted 
window of the Xlllth cent., in Troycs 
Cathedral, 471. 

, Jlinnesinger, with short, straight 

neck from the coat of arms of " Hein- 
mar der Vidiller " (Xlllth cent.), 461. 

, Jlinnesinger, with sloping 

shoulders. From 3Ianesse 31 SS. at the 
Bibliotheqne Natiouale, Paris (XlVth 
cent.), 463. 

, Minstrel, Two contemporaneous 

types in Europe of the, 462. 

llelative value in the XIYth cent. 

of the vielle, rebec and, 429. 
, Showing signs of corner blocks. 

From a sculpture in the Cathedral of 
Amiens (Xlllth cent.), 463, 477, 497-8. 

Volker der Fiedler's, with incurva- 

tions and corner blocks. From Yon der 
Hagen's " Heldenbilder " (XIYth cent.), 

-, With fancifully drawn head and no 

fingerboard. From a painted window in 
the Cathedral of Bourges (Xlllth cent.), 

see Violin. 

Fidel, Reference to the, by Chaucer, 429. 
Fides, Name sometimes applied to the 

cithara by the Romans, 248, 434-6. 
Fidicula, cithara and guitarra latina, 

identical instruments, 244-8. 
, List of instruments of which the 

names are derived from, 232, 248, 424. 

Mentioned by Cicero, 248. 

Or Kithara, Derivation of the 

word violin from, 108, 232, 248, 424. 

Roman, Its probable identity 

with the I,atin Guitar and Spanish 
Vigola and Yihuela, 244. 

San Isidore's definition, " Yeteres 

aut citharas fidicula vel fidice nomin- 

averunt " (Yllth cent.), 246. 
Fidula, Reference in Ottfried of Weissen- 
burg's Harmonv of the Gospels in German 

to the (IXth cent.), 426, 429. 
Fiedler, Yolker der. The minstrel knight 

of the Nibelungen Lied, 463. 
Fingerboard and soundboard combined of 

Anglo-Saxon Rebec (Xlth cent.), 387. 
, Divisions of the, marked by 

means of frets, 223, 249, 266. 
■ , Effect on stringed instru- 
ments of the addition of the, 271. 

Of the violin, 102, 223, 265-6. 

Of the violin, Reason for the 

Fingerboard Of violin. Its important part 

in development of the instrument, 223. 
- — — , On the lyre and cithara, no 

proof of existence of, 276. 
■ — , The distinctive feature of the 

gigue or geige, 257, 412, 416. 
— — , Three-stringed crwth from 

XIYth cent, fresco in tlie Chapter House, 

Westminster, with, 339. 

With frets. Bowed instru- 

ments from the Sforza Book (XYth cent. 

MS. in Brit. Mus.) having, 481. 
Fingerboards, Comparison of, of various 

instruments, 223, 257, 414. 
Of instruments of which the 

strings are plucked, 265-6. 

Of mediceval bowed instru- 

ments, 257, 266, 414. 

Of the viols, 266. 

Rottas with (second stage of 

transition), from the Bible of Charles 
the Bald, 337, 496. 

With frets, 223, 249, 266, 350. 

slanting position of the, 266. 

Fithele, Anglo-Saxon, Bow used with, 278. 

Flageolet Notes (French and German), the 
harmonics on instruments of the violin 
family, 106. 

Flemish Yiola, or oval vielle named in the 
MS., Sloane 3983, Brit. Mus., XIYth 
cent., 393. 

Flinders Petrie's, Prof., Discovery in 
Egypt of a Greek statuette with an in- 
strument — the archetvpe of rebab and 
lute, cir. 1000 B.C., 484, 491. 

Flute, see chapter on this instrument, 4. 

, Ancient Egyptian reed, 1100 B.C., 

known as Lady Maket Flute, found by 
Prof. Flinders Petrie in a mummy-case, 


, Compass, 5, 204. 

, Construction of the, 4. 

, Georgi, see Appendix, 192. 

, Georgi, compass, 194, 204. 

, Georgi, Construction of the, 192. 

, Georgi, Possibilities of the, 194. 

, Georgi, Production of sound, 192. 

, Georgi, Quality of tone, 194. 

, Lydian, The name Magadis applied 

to the, 313. 

, Octave, see Piccolo. 

, Origin of the, 6. 

, Possibilities of the, 6. 

, Production of sound, 5. 

, Quality of tone, 5. 

, Tonguing on the, 6. 

, Transverse, Earliest* representa- 
tion in Byzantine MS., Xlth cent. (Brit. 

Mus. Add. 19352), 7, 497*. 

* See errata and below. 
, Transverte, From the Buddhist 

Tope of Amaravati, Grand Staircase, 

Bril. Mus. (llnd cent, a.d.), 408. 
, Transverse, On Byzantine frescoes 

of Kusejr 'Amra (Yllltii or IXth cent.), 

497 *. 
Folehardus, Reputed author of the Psal- 

terium Aureum, 303. 
Frame of pianoforte. Cast-iron or steel, 

122-3, 190. 
France, The troubadour and his art in, 

Franco-Saxon or St. Denis, Carlovingian 

School of Art, 365, 367 (table). 
Prankish art. Influence of Syria and 

Egypt on the development of, 382. 



Fraucnlob and his orchestra. From the 
ilaiiesse MSS. Bibl. Nat., Pans (XlVth 
cent.), 162. 

, Heinrich von Meissen sur- 

named, last oi the Minnesingers, 462. 

Frenoh Horn, see chapter on this instru- 
ment, 47. 

Bouche, or hand-stopped 

notes ou, 50 

, Chief crooks in use on, 51. 
-, Compass, 50, 208. 
— , Construction of the, 47. 

First introduced into the 

orchestra in England in 1720, 53. 
. Hampel's discovery of 

hoaclie notes on, 50. 

, Harmonic series of, 52. 

, Origin of the, 53. 

, Possibilities of the, 52. 

, Production of sound, 49. 

Quality of tone, 52. 

French Influence on the Fine Arts of 
.Spain during the Xlth and Xllth cent., 

Frets, Bowed instrument having nnger- 
board with. From the Sforza Book, 
XVth cent. IMS. in Brit. Mus., 471. 

, Cithnra with, highly developed 

model in 3rd stage of transition. From 
the Utrecht Psalter, 350. 

Fingerboards with, 223, 249, 266, 


Nefer with, Thebes— XYIIIth to 
XlXth Dynasty, 249. 

Of gut used to mark the divisions 

of the strings on the fingerboard (3000 

B.C.), 2-49. 

, Their use, 266. 

Frichot, reputed inventor of the ophicleidc, 

Galfridus de Tim Salor (poet Xllth to 

Xinth cent.), Reference to the tone- 
colour of various instruments by, 427. 
Gallon, St., see St. Gallcn. 
Gallic Cithara before the days of Cajsar, 

Gandhara School of Indian Art, Statuettes 

from Khotan in the stylo of, 492. 
Geige, Comparison of the Gross and Klein, 

. , Definition of instruments to which 

the name is applied, 415-17. 

, Derivation of the word, 41517. 

, Gross, Construction of the, 415. 

. How distinguished from the rebec, 

257, 266, 413. 
-— — , Klein, Construction of the, 413-15. 
. Jlention of the word, in German 

literature of the Xllth and Xlllth 

cent., 415. 
— , Showing considerable development 

and traces of European influence (XVth 

and XVIth cent.), 413. 

, Taschon, or Pochette (q. v.) 

, see also gigue. 

Genealogical Table of the violin, JFr. E. 

Heron-Allen's, 231. 

— , Of the violin, Author's, 

233, 245. 

— Of the violin, Mr. 

E. J. Pavne's, 231. 

Of the crwth. 233. 

Gerbcrt, ^Martin, Date assigned by, to the 

MS. of St. Emmeran, 386. 
's, JIartin, " De Cantu et Musica 

Sacra," Cithara in transition from, 334.. 
Germanic Kotta, Description of old, found 

in an Alemanic tomb of lYth to Vllth 

cent., and now in the Volker Museum, 

Berlin, 335, 440-1. 
Ghittern, see also gittern and cittern. 
, Manner of holding the, during 

the Jliddle Ages, 449. 
Gigue and rebec family, Characteristics of 

the, 257, 387. 

And Rebec, How best distinguished 

from other stringed instruments of the 
Middle Ages, 257. 

■ , Definition of instruments to which 

the name is applied, 415-17. 

, Derivation of the word, 415-17. 

, How distinguished from the rebec, 

257, 266, 387, 413, 416. 
, Or improved rebec, derived from 

the true rebab. Description of (Xlllth 

cent.), 413. 
, ^lodern primitive instrument from 

Athens having all the characteristics of 

the, 419. 
, Soundchest and neck in one piece 

characteristic of the, 387. 

Tribe, Instrument of the, common 

in Europe during the Xllth, Xlllth 
and XlVth cent., 394. 

, see also Geige. 

Gigues and rebecs. Illustrations of, more 
plentiful than those of guitar-fiddle 
during the Middle Ages, 424. 

Gittern, Head of the, 389-91. 

, Popularitv of the, in England, 


Glockenspiel, Example of Wagner's use in 
" Walkure," 169. 

, Lyre-shaped, Carillon or Har- 
monica, compass, 168. 

Lyre-shaped, Construction of 

the, 168. 

Lyre-shaped, Quality of tone. 

Georgi Flute, The, see Flute, Georgi, 192. 

, Pyramid-shaped or Pavilion 

Cliinois, Construction of, 167. 

Goat's hoof as plectrum, 275. 

Goldschmidt, ,\do!ph, and Paul Durrieu 
independently attribute the e.veoution of 
the Utrecht Psalter to the School of 
Kheims, 361-2. 

, Date and origin of 

the Utrecht Psalter according to, 357-61. 

, Illustrations of thj 

Utrecht Psalter derived from early By 
zantine models according to, 361. 

Goldschmidt's, .\dolph. Reasons for as- 
signing the execution of the Utrecht 
P.salter to Rheims. 357-60. 

Goshen, Statuette with pear-shaped instru- 
ment of post-Mvcenrean period discovered 
at, 483. 491 and PI. XIII. 

Graeven's, Hans, Theory of a Greek pro- 
totype of the Utrecht Psalter, 363. 

Gran Cassa, see Drum, Bass, 176. 

Greece, Decadence of, and its effect on 
music, 303, 306. 

, Decadence of music in, Aristotle 

and the, 307. 

Egyptian influence on the instru- 

meutal music of, 434. 



Greece, Importance attached to music 
in, 2S7-8. 

, Introduction of the Pectis by the 

Lydians into, 29y. 

, Lyre and Kithara introduced 

from Asia or Egypt into, 2S6. 

Greek Drama at the time of Pericles (478 
to d2!) B.C.), :w3. 

, Degradation and ruin of 

the, 327. 

, Perfection of the, in the 

time of ^Eschylus, 303. 

Greek Kithara, A fine example of the 
guitar-fiddle, ' XlVth cent., forming 
valuable evidence that the violin is 
descended from the, 393. 

Compared with the Etrus- 
can, 293. 

, Different methods of fix- 
ing the strings on the, 2G3-4. 

-, Its grace of form com- 
pared to other citharas, 293-4. 

Horizontal bar charac- 

teristic of the, 436. 

— , Methods of tuning the. 

The absence of any de- 


scription of the, 43S. 

— , Perfection of the, 277. 

Greek Legends referring to music, Vlth 

cent. B.C., 299. 
Greek Monuments and Paintings, Absence 

of crude and faulty instruments in, 276. 
Greek Names of the various parts of the 

lyre, 289-90. 
Greek Pandura on bas-relief from Man- 
tinea, 309 note. 
Greek Plectrum, Used for rubbing the 

strings?. An unproved possibility, 274, 

Greek Prototype Of the Utrecht Psalter, 

Theory of a, 344, 361, 363-4, 378. 
— Of the Utrecht Psalter, 

Tikkanen's* reasons for rejecting the 

idea of a, 364. 

* Prof. Tikkanen has since accepted the 
theory of a prototype. 
Greek Tragedy, Important part played by 

music in, 287. 
Greek Tragic Writers, Music and the 

great, 287. 
Greek Virtuosi sacrifice art to technique 

456 B.C.), 305-7. 
Greeks, Domestic life of the, Part plaved 

by the lyre in the, 296. 
■ , Instruments used by the, at ban- 
quets, festivals and at the Pythian 

games, 288, 299-300. 

Instruments used to accompany 

the dithyramb and rhapsodies by the, 

, Musical life of the. Part played 

by the cithara in the, 297. 

Of Asia Minor, Acquainted in the 

early centuries of the Christian era with 
stringed instruments with necks, 379. 

Of Asia Minor, Author's convic- 
tion that the evolution of the cithara 
was carried out by the, 344, 378-80. 

Of Asia Minor, Facts tending to 

support the theory that the evolution of 
the cithara took place among the, 378-80. 
Of Asia J\Hnor, Tide of Eastern 

ceded that of the Moors in Western 
Europe, 398. 

Greeks, Peotis said to have been intro- 
duced by Peloids to the (Xlllth cent. 
B.C.), 310. 

, Position of music among the 

(Vlth cent. B.C.), 299. 

■ , The chief stringed instrument of 

the, 238, 288, -434. 

Use of stringed instruments in 

religious rites by the, 287 

Various uses of the lyre and 

cithara by tlie, 296. 
Greser, of Dresden, Maker of the first 

bass clarinet, 40. 
Grosse Caisse, see Drum, Bass, 176. 

Trommel, see Uruiii, Bas.^, 176. 

Gross-Geige, Bow of the, XlVth cent., 283. 
, Comparison of the Klein Geige 

and the, 415. 

_ Construction of the, 415. 

Guarneri, The, or Cremona master violin- 
makers, 109. 
Guitar, Arabian, called Kithara, described 

in the writings of Al-Farabi (Xth cent.), 

, Author disputes theory that the 

fiddle existed independently of the, and 

was not evolved from it, 421-2. 
, Combined tailpiece and bridge of 

the, 265. 

■ , Derivation of the word, 242, 424. 

• , Description of ancient Egyptian, 

from the tombs of the Western liills in 

Thebes, 446, 449. 
, Development of the, identical 

with that of the violin until the bow 

was applied to it, 248. 
• , Latin, introduced into Spain by 

the Komans, 243. 
■ , Latin, Jlethod of playing the, 

, Latin, Supposed by Spanish an- 
tiquarians to have been the Roman 
Fidicula called later Vigola and Vi- 
huela, 244. 

Moorish, or Tanbur, with cres- 

influence emanating from them had pre- 

cent-shaped tailpiece and oriental rose 

soundhole, 244. 
Of the present day and guitar- 
fiddle of the Middle Ages, Common 

ancient Egyptian archetype of, 445, 449, 

; , Spanish, of the present day the 

lineal descendant of the ancient keth- 

arah of the East, 245, 248. 
, Superior tone of the Latin, as 

compared to the Moorish guitar, 242. 
■ , The word, traced to the East by 

two distinct routes, 242-8, 425. 
Guitar-fiddle, Appearance in Italy in the 

XVth cent, with viol characteristics, 481. 
, Assigned to the XlVth cent., 

from Lincoln Cathedral, 479. 
■ , Chief diflerence between the 

fiddle of the Minnesingers, and the true, 

;■ , Chief points of excellence 

claimed, over other contemporary 

stringed instruments for the, 444. 
, Cithara in transition with 

body of, 335. 
, Curious absence of the, in 

the miniatures of the " Cantigas de 

Santa 31aria," 469. 



Guitar-fiddle, End of the Xlllth cent. 

From US. from the Abbey of Lire in 

Normandy, now in the Brit. Jlus., 473-4. 
Evolved from the Greek kith- 

ara and instruments of the tamboura 

and nefer tribes, 331, 484. 

Evolved from the kithara 

through the guitar, 445. 

, XVth cent. From a painting 

on veood by Hugo van der Goes, 466. 

— , Fine example of the (XlVth 

cent.), forming valuable evidence that 
the violin is descended from the Greek 
cithara, 393. 

Four-stringed alto (XlVth 

cent.), from a painting ascribed to 
Simone Memi in the Chajjel of S. Maria 
Novella, Florence, 480. 

, French, with finger-board, 

sound-holes and tail-piece, from MS. 
Brit. Mus. (Xlllth cent.), 454. 

From a Greek Psalter from 

Cfesarea, a.d. 106C, proving that bowed 
instruments of the violin type were 
well-known in the East in "the Xlth 
cent., 448. 

, From Orcagna's " Triumph 

of Death " in the Campo Santo at Pisa 
(XlVth cent.), 481. 

From Xlllth cent. MS., 

compared with cithara in 3rd stage of 
transition, 348. 

Good example of the true, 

from painted window in the Cathedral 
at Leon, Spain (Xlllth cent.), 470. 

Influence of the various 

nations of Europe on the development of 
the, 457-84. 

— , Instrument supplying the 

connecting link between the rotta of the 
early Jiliddle Ages and the Xllth cent., 

, Instrument to which the 

term is retrospectively applied, 243, 421. 

Less frequently represented 

on monuments of the Middle Ages than 
the rebec, 424. 

, Modern retrospective appel- 
lation for the precursors of the violin 
during the Jliddle Ages, 421. 

, Neck of the German Minne- 
singer fiddle compared with that of the, 
of other countries, 460. 

Of the Middle Ages and 

guitar of the present day, common an- 
cient Egyptian archetype, 449. 

, Period at which the, first 

came into existence, 243. 421-2. 

, Reasons for the scarcity of 

illustrations of the, in the Xlth and 
Xllth cent., 424. 

Steps in the evolution of. 

covered by the instruments of the 
Utrecht Psalter, 343, 377, 440. 

Xlllth cent., from a picture 

by Cimabue in the Pitti Gallery, 
Florence, 480. 

Three-stringed, v^ith decided 

incurvations, from Cotton MS. Brit. 
Mus. (Xllth cent.), 453. 

True, with five strings, from 

MS. "The Romance of the San Graal " 
in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris 
(Xlllth cent.), 475. 
■ , True, with incurvations, fin- 

gerboard and purflings. from a sculp- 
ture in the Cathedral of Aix-la-Chapello 
(XlVth cent.), 465. 

Guitar-fiddle, Well proportioned, from a 
painting bv Andrea Tafi, of the School 
of Florence (Xlllth cent.), 479. 

, With corner-blocks, 

sculpture in the Cathedral of 
(Xlllth cent.), 477, 497. 

, With " C "-shaped 

from a 


holes, from a painting in the Pinacothek 

at Munich (XVth cent.), 466. 
, With the sloping shoulders 

of the viol (XlVth cent.), 393. 
Guitarra, Derivation of the name, 424. 

Latina. see Latin guitar. 

Guitra, Derivation of the name, 424. 

Gunibry, Arab, 254. 

Hair Fastened to bow by means of a 

knob at each end of stick, 282. 
, Method of attaching, on crimail- 

Here bow, 283. 
, Methods of fastening the, to the 

bow (Xllth cent, to XVIIIth cent.), 282-4. 
• Of the modern bow, Manner in 

which attached to the nut and head, 103, 

s, Number of, in the modern bow, 

103, 269. 
Halary, Inventor of the double-slide trom- 
bone in 1830, 7!). 
• , Reputed inventor of the ophi- 

cleide, 91. 
Hallidav, Inventor of Key-bugle in 1810, 

Hammer-action for pianoforte suggested 

by hammers of dulcimer, 133. 
Hammers of pianoforte, 12(S, 128, 133. 

L'sed with the Harmonica, 168. 

- — — Used with the Hemispherical 

Bells, 175. 
Used with the " Parsifal " Bell 

Instrument, Construction of, 174. 

Used with the Xylophone, 169. 

Hampel, Anton, Horn-player of Dresden, 

discovered hand-stopping in 1770. SO. 
Hand-stopping on the French Horn dis- 
covered by Hampel in 1770, 50. 
Hand-Stopped Or bouche notes on horn, 

Explanation of, 50. 
Hardy, Sir Thos. DuSus, Date and origin 

of the Utrecht Psalter according to, 344, 

Harleian MS. 603, Copy of the Utrecht 

Psalter, 353, 371. 
Harmonica, see Gloclcenspiel, lyre-shaped, 


, Keyed, Cor.struction of, 170. 

, Keyed, Compass of, 170. 

Harmonic Bar of pianoforte introduced by 

Pierre Erard in 183S, 136. 
Harmonic Series of cornet, 94. 

Of cornophone. 55. 

Of euphonium, 60. 

Of French horn, 52. 

Of ophifleide, 91. 

Of trombone, 75. 

■ Of trumpet. 8o. 

Of tubas, 60, 68. 

Of various wind instra 

ments. Table of, 3. 

Of Wagner tubas, 71. 

Harmonics. Given out by the various brass 

wind instruments of the orchestra. 

Table of the, 3. 



Harmonics of the violin t'amil.v known as 
Flageolet tones in Germany and France, 

On the harp. Production of, 144. 

Harmonists and Canonists (B.C. 350), 308. 
Harmony of the Gospels, Reference to the 

fidula," rotta and other musical instru- 
ments by Ottfricd of Weissenburg in 
his, 426." 

Harp, see chapters on this instrument, 138, 
148, 150. 

, Action of pedals in shortening the 

strings and raising the pitch one or 
two semitones, 140, 144. 

And cithara. Confusion between the 

words, 442, 451. 

— - — , Body or soundchest of, 130. 
, Chromatic, see chapter on this in- 
strument, 150. 

, Chromatic, Construction of, 151. 

, Chromatic, Invention by Henri 

Pape in 1845, 150. 

, Chromatic, Origin of, 150. 

, Chromatic, of Plevel, Wolff & Co., 


, Chromatic, Possibilities of, 152. 

Chromatic, Unsuccessful attempts 

of German makers of the XVIIIth cent. 

to produce a, 146. 
, Comb concealing mechanism for 

shortening the strings of, 140. 

, Compass of, 203. 

, Construction of the, 138. 

Cousincau Brothers' attempts to 

construct double pedal action in 1782, 

, Double action. The only instrument 

vyjth fixed tones having separate notes 
for sharps, flats and naturals producing 
the enharmonic scale, 142. 

, Double action, patented by Sebas- 
tian Erard in ISO!), 147. 

, Earliest pedal mechanism by Hoch- 

brucker in 1720, 146 7. 

— . Hoehbrucker's pedal mechanism 

into the orchestra in 

(1720). 146-7. 

France in 1581, 147. 

, Lyon and Healy, 153. 

, Lyon and Healy, Construction of. 


Comprising the comb and 
brass bridges of, 140. 

, Neck containing vcrest or tuning 

pins of, 140. 

, Neck supported by pillar and 

soundchest of. 139-40. 

, Origin of the. 145. 

, Pedals of, 138-40, 144. 

, Pedestal or pedal box of, 1.38. 

, Popularity of the, with the min- 
strels in England, 477. 

, Possibilities of the, 145. 

, Production of harmonics on the. 


Production of sound, 142. 

. Quality of tone, 143. 

, Relative position of the soundchest 

and strings in the, 289. 
. Single action, of the Cousineau 

Brothers, 142, 147. 
. Vertical pillar upholding the neck 

of the, 139. 
s. Absence of pillar on ancient 

Egvptian, Assyrian and earlv Welsh 
and Irish, 146. 
Harpsichord and spinet or virginal, pre- 
decessors of the pianoforte, 132. 

Derivation from psaltery of 

the, 132. 

— , ^Mechanism of the, 132. 

Superseded in the orchestra in 

England bv the pianoforte at the end 

of the XVIIIth cent., 136. 
Hautbois, sec Oboe, 11. 
Head, Diamond-shaped, instances of oval 

vielle in the " Cantigas de Santa 

Maria," with, 470. 
, Diamond-shaped, Prevalence on 

bowed instruments of the Xllth cent, of 

the, 452-3. 
, ^Modern looking. Fiddle with 

(XlVth cent.). From von der Hagen's 

" Heldenbilder," 463. 

Of bow, Form and construction of 

the, 103, 269. 

Of cittern and gittern, 389-91. 

Of violin, 102, 223. 

, Reel-shaped, Guitar-fiddle with. 

From a painting in the Pinacothek at 

Munich (XVth cent.), 466. 
, Round, with pegs inserted in the 

under surface common to many of the 

Minnesinger fiddles, 4G6. 

T-shaped, Bowed instrument with. 

:MS. from the ^Monasterv of Silos, near 

Burgos, in Old Castile (Xllth cent.), 468. 
Hearpan, Anglo Saxon gloss for psalter- 

ium, in Anglo-Saxon IMS. 700 a.d., 350. 
Heckel, W., Inventor of clarina, 188. 
Helicon' or circular contra-bass tuba, 70. 
Hemispherical Bells, Peal of, see Bellx, 

Hieroglyphic symbol. The ancient Egyp 

tian nefer used as a, 433, 442. 
Hincraar Evaneeliarium, Carlovingian 

JIS. of the School of Rheims, 359, 367 

Hindoo Koka, 254. 
Hindoos, Bow still used with the ravan- 

astron at the present day by the, 281. 
Histaeus of Colophon adds a tenth string 

to the cithara, 305. 
Hoboe, see Oboe, 11. 
Hochbrucker, Earliest pedal mechanism 

for harp invented in 1720 by, 146-7. 
Holztrompete, Construction of the, 16. 
, Designed by Wagner to 

replace cor anglais in " Tristan and 

Isolde," 16. 
■ , Melody in " Tristan and 

Isolde " played at Bayreuth in Wag- 
ner's lifetime by, 17. 

— — — , Production of sound, 16. 

Replaced since 1891 at Bay- 

reuth by Clarina [q. v.], 
Horn, Basset, see Basset Horn, 35. 
— — — , English, see Cor Anijiais, 15. 

, French, see French Horn, 47. 

Of Passau, Reputed inventor of 

the Basset Horn in 1770, 36. 
Hrabranus Maurus, Resemblance between 

the drawings of a manuscript copy of 

the works of, and those of the Utrecht 

Psalter, 359. 
Hum Tone of bells, 172, 175. 
Hurdy-gurdy (or Symphonia), Arion and 

the, 301. 

3 E 



Hurdy-gurdy (or Symphonia), Kxample of 
the, in a XVth cent. 31 S. in the Brit. 
Mus., 483. 

(Or Symphonia), In the shape 

of the true guitar tiddle. From a sculp- 
ture in the Catliedral of Aixla-Chapelle 
(XlVth cent.), 4G5. 

(Or Symphonia), Xlllth 

cent., Reference by Galfridiis de Vim 
Salor to the sweet tone of the, 427-8. 

Hybrid instrument, Description of. From 
a capital in the Abbey of Boscherville, 
nr. liouen (Xlth cent.), 431. 

Of the rebab and lyre 

type (Barbiton), on a sarcophagus 
found among the ruins of Agrigente in 
Sicily, 239. 

, With pronounced in- 
curvations. From the ivory binding of 
a Latin Psalter in the Brit. ]Mus. (XlJth 
cent), 452. 

Hybrid instruments. Large variety found 
prior to the XlVth cent., to which 
various names have been applied, 42G. 

Hydraulic organ, .Model of. found in the 
ruins of Carthage dlnd cent, .^.d ), 378. 

, From the Utrecht 

Psalter, 378. 

Hypolyrios or tailpiece of the lyre, 2fl0. 

Iliad, Version of the. arranged for singing 
to the seven-stringed cithara, 308. 

Illustrated Psalters, Utrecht Psalter, The 
earliest example extant of, 37."). 

Illustration. Art of, in Christian East, 
3G3, 37.5, 380 1. 

Illustrations of Utrecht Psalter, Author's 
opinion on the origin of the, 377-81. 

, Contro- 
versy in England on the date and ori 
gin "of, 354 6. 

— — . Dalton's 

opinion on the origin of the, 366. 

, Durrieu's 

theorv of the origin of the text and, 

— — . — , Executed 

by Anglo-Saxon artist, 353, 3,55, 357, 360, 

364-6, 369, 375, 37 

— . Executed 

to illustrate a Greek text, 363, 378-9. 
, Gold- 

schmidt's theorv of the origin of the, 

. Graeven's 

theory of the origin of the, 363. 

theory of the origin of the, 344, 354-6. 

— . . Leit- 

sehuh's theory of the origin of the, 

— . Springer's 

theory of the origin of the, 356-7. 


ski's theory of the origin of the, 364-6. 

— ■ -^, The pro- 
duct of the School of Rheims, 357-66. 

_ . Tik- 

kanen's* theory of origin of, 364. 

* Prof. Tikkanen now accepts the 

theorv of an earlv Greek or Svrian origin. 

: : — :_. west- 

wood's theory of the origin of, 353-4. 357. 
Incurvation.^ Did not owe their origin to 
the use of the bow, 440. 

Incurvations, Earliest instrument of the 
Middle Ages with neck and, From the 
Utrecht Psalter, 447. 

, Hybrid instrument with pro- 
nounced, From the ivory binding of a 
Latin Psalter in the Brit. Mus. (Xllth 
cent.), 452. 

In musical instruments not due 

to the use of the bow, 257, 422. 
Observed in many of the pro- 
totypes of the rotta, 449 50. 

Of the guitar and violin, 

Theory regarding the, 257, 422. 
India. Ancient, High degree of musical 

culture in, 279. 
Indian Sarinda, Lyre resembling the, 321. 
Influence, Anglo Saxon, Traced in the 

miniatures of Utreclit Psalter, 353, 355, 

357. 360, 364 7 (table note 16), 369, 375, 

, French, On Spanish art during 

the Xlth and Xllth cent., 410. 
Of Anglo-Saxon art on the 

various Carlovingian schools, 353, 357, 

361, 365. 
Of Asia on the development of 

stringed instruments, 328. 

— Of Christian East on the de- 

velopment of Frankish art, 382. 
Of classical art on miniature 

painting not shaken off until Xlth cent., 

Of Early Christian Church on 

the development of instrumental music, 

327, 329. 
Of Egypt on the instrumental 

music of Greece. 434. 
Of Greek art on Indian and 

Persian art, 379, 407, 492. 
Of Irish art evident in the 

miniatures of the Psalterium Aureum, 

403 4. 
■ — Of Pythian Games on develop- 
ment of musical instruments, 303 seq., 


Of remote Eastern civilisation 

on the evolution of the citliara, 331. 

Of the construction of the 

Boundehest on the, development of 
stringed instruments, 235, 253, 25.5 6. 

Of the various nations of 

Europe on the development of the 

guitar-fiddle, 457-84. 
— Of violin-bridge on the tone, 

On Charlemagne of the music 

and musical instruments of the Moors, 

On the art of Afghanistan and 

India exercised by Alexander the Great, 

. Oriental, On the development 

of musical instruments, 286, 328, 331, 

344. 378-80. 398, 425, 434. 
Instrument, Bowed, Description of. From 

a capital in the Abbey of Boscherville, 

nr. Rouen (Xlth cent.)" 4;il. 
• , Bowed, The Moorish rebab 

probably the first known in Europe, 395. 
, Bowed, With characteristics 

of the rebec tribe. From Harleian MS. 

(Xllth cent.), 387. 
, Brass wind, having single- 
reed mouthpiece, 2, 44 6. 



Instrument, Chief stringed, of the Greeks 

and Romans, 238, 288, 434. 
• , Earliest stringed. Played 

with the bow, 279. 
, Early Spanish illumination 

of bowed, 468. 

Egj'ptian, Of tamboura type. 


, Fanciful. From the ivory 

carving on the binding of the Psalter 
of Lothair, 373. 

, Fanciful, Of the guitar-fiddle 

type, from XlVth cent. MS. ("Bible 
Historiaux ") in the Bibliotheque Nat., 
Paris, 472. 

, French, Of cithara-rebec 

type, with long graduated neck, and 
played with bow. From MS. Bibl. Nat., 
Paris, 391. 

From the Psalter of Lothair, 

Common feature of construction in the, 
and in those from the MSS. of Soissons 
and St. Gallen, 371. 

Having the outline of the 

true guitar-fiddle with incurvations, 
fingerboard and purflings. From a sculp- 
ture in the Cathedral of Ais-la-Chapelle 
(XlVth cent.), 465. 

Modern primitive, from 

Athens having all the characteristics of 
the rebec or gigue, 419. 

Of the rebec or gigue tribe 

common in Europe during the Xllth, 
Xlllth and XlVth cent., 394. 

, Pear-shaped, Played with a 

bow. From ivory casket of Italo Byzan- 
tine work in the C'arrand collection at 
Florence (IXth cent.), 408, 493. 

, Pear-shaped, The earliest re- 
presentation yet discovered, 483, 491. 

Played with bow. Earliest in- 
stance yet found in England of an, 387. 

— — Ueminiscent of the early 

Persian rebab, from a terracotta statu- 
ette found in a grave in the Goshen 
cemetery and assigned to the XXth Dy- 
nasty, circa 1000 B.C., 483. 

Resembling the cittern, but 

played with a bow. From sculptured 
pillar in the Cathedral of Aix-la- 
Chapelle, 478. 

Spoon-shaped, from the Psal- 

ter of Lothair derived from the Egyp- 
tian or older Asiatic civilisations, 371. 

, Spoon-shaped, with neck, 

from the Psalter of Lothair, slightly 
resembling instrument in the Utrecht 
Psalter, 371. 

, Spoon-shaped, with neck, il- 
lustrated in the Psalter of Lothair, 

Supplying the connecting link 

between the rotta of the early Middle 
Ages and the guitar-fiddle of the Xllth 
cent., 343. 

Ten stringed, with charac- 

teristics of both lyre and cithara. 321. 

, The prevailing stringed, used 

with a bow in England during tlie 
Middle Ages, 3S7. 

, The vielle a favourite, of the 

Middle Ages, 427. 

To which the term guitar- 
fiddle is applied, 421. 

Instrument, Two-stringed, Played with a 
bow and possessing several characteris- 
tics of the rebec (Xlllth cent.), 389. 

, A'ery large stringed, Remin- 
iscent of the large viols from the Bud- 
dhist Tope of Aiuaravati, Grand Stair- 
case, Brit. JMus. (Ilnd cent, a.d.), 408. 

With incurvations and neck, 

Earliest yet found in the Middle Ages, 
From the Utreclit Psalter, 447. 

With incurvations played 

with a bow and held like the violon- 
cello. From the Abbey of St. Georges 
de Boscherville, Rouen (Xlth cent.), 422. 

, Wood-wind, with cup-shaped 

mouthpiece, 16. 

Instrumental music banished from civil 
life and religious rites of the Christians 
(IVth cent, a.d.), 327. 

Cultivated by Timo- 

theus (446 to 357 B.C.), 306. 

, Early Christianity 

antagonistic to the development of, 327. 

Of Greece and Rome, 

Egyptian influence on the, 434. 

Instruments, Absenee of bowed, in the 
Utrecht Psalter, 351. 

, Absence of crude, in Greek 

monuments and paintings, 276. 

^, All stringed, known in 

Europe during the Middle Ages evolved 
either from the rebab, the tanbur or 
the cithara, 394. 

(Barbitons), depicted on sarco- 
phagus found at Agrigente in Sicily, 
Description of, 306, 486-9. 

-, Bowed, Asia the cradle of. 



, Bowed, Characteristics 

of the Minnesingers, 458. 

; , Bowed, Development of the 

neck ill, an indication of the improve- 
ment in the technique, 460. 

, Bowed, ti.xamples of, held 

in the position of the 'cello, 453-4. 

, Bowed, Rapid development of 

the, due to the troubadours and Alinne- 
siugers, 457. 

, Bowed, Prevalence of tlie 

diamond-shaped head on, of the Xllth 
cent., 452-3. 

, Bowed, Probably introduced 

into central Europe by Charlemagne, 280. 

, Casbiodorus' division of, into 

three classes, 278. 

, Certain, Considered by Aris- 
totle pernicious to mind and morals, 

, Characteristics of, Classed as 

vielles, 430. 

Claimed as their own by the 

Greeks, previously known to the Egyp- 
tians, 285. 

, Classification by chief struc- 
tural characteristics, 329. 

, Descriptions by Athenaeue 

of (Ilird cent, a.d.), 309. 

Designed specially for Wag- 
ner, see Holztroinpete, Wagner Tubas, 
Parsifal Bell In><trument, 16, 70, 171. 
Difficulty in assignin 

.a cor- 
rect origin to, prior to viol" period, 221. 

, Elongated pear-shaped, the 

Asiatic origin of, 490. 



Instruments, European, The important 
bearing- of the researehes now bciny 
carried out in the Kast on the liistory 
of the Eastern archetypes of, 483. 

, Favourite stringed, of the 

minstrels in England, 477. 

Found in Europe in the lliul 

and Ilird cent. a.d. having counterparts 
or prototypes among Asiatic instru- 
ments, 2o8 41. 

■ From the Buddhist Tope of 

Amaravati, Grand Staircase, Brit. ilus. 
(Ilnd cent. A.D.), 4CS. 

From the Evangeliarium of 

St. .Mediu-d and the :\ISS. of .Metz and 
St. Gallen, Ccmmon feature of construc- 
tion in the, 371. 

From the Topes at Jumal- 

Garhi in Afghanistan, Showing Greek 
classical influence, 407. 

Illustrated in '■ A Treatise 

on Virtues and Vices." bv a Genoese, 
XlVth cent. ilS., Brit. Mus., 430. 

■ Illustrated in the " Cantigas 

de Santa ilaria," Origin of the, 410. 

Illustrated in the Cotton 

MS. Vespasian Ai (700 a.d.), 384. 

Illustrated in the Utrecht 

Psalter, Do any of the expert opinions 
on the Utrecht Psalter offer a satisfac- 
tory explanation of their origin. 367 82. 
In the Eadwine Psalter, 

Copy of the Utrecht Psalter, fanciful 
and unpractical, 372. 

~ In the East, Slow develop- 
ment of, 271), 445. 

In the Utrecht Psalter missing 

in the Harleian copy, 372. 

List of brass wind 

tubes of fixed length, 3 

List of brass wind 

the orchestra, 2. 

, List of brass 

cup-shaped mouthpiece, 2. 

List of brass wind, 


used in 

wind, with 


funnel-shaped mouthpiece. 

, List of brass wind, with 

length of tube varied by means of 
lateral holes, 3. 

List of brass wind, with 

List of brass wind, with 

slides, 3. 

valves, 3. 
, List of stringed, used in the 

orchestra, 99. 
, List of wood-wind, having 

conical bore, 2. 
, List 

cylindrical bore 

, List of wood-wind 

the orchestra, 12. 

List of wood-wind, 

of wood-wind, having 

used in 


double reeds, 1. 

List of wood-wind, without 

List of wood-wind, with 
single reeds, 2. 

Many musical, found in the 

reeds, 1. 

MS. known as Queen Marv's Psalter, 
Brit. MuB. (XlVth cent.), 478. 

, Mediasval bowed. Fingerboards 

of, 266. 

. Mediaeval stringed. The diffi- 
culty in classifying, 424. 

Instruments, Musical, Charlemagne the 

means of disseminating in Europe fresh 

knowledge of, 329. 
, .Musical, Classification and 

order of development of, 220. 
, Mames of, Derived from Latin 

Fides, a string, 248. 

JNames of various. Derived 

from the word cithara, 330. 

Of mixed type (cithara-rebeo) 

by no means uncommon in the MSS. of 
the .\IVth, XVth and XVIth cent., 390. 

Of percussion of definite 

musical pitch. List of, 157, 182. 

Of percussion of indefinite 

musical pitch. List of, 157, 176. 

Of rectangular outline, Con- 
clusive evidence of the Eastern origin 
of the stringed, found in later medireval 
European MSS., 4!)7. 

Of the orchestra. Table show- 

ing the compass of the brass wind, 208-10. 
Of the orchestra. Table show- 
ing the compass of the stringed, 202-3. 
Of the orchestra. Table show- 

ing the compass of the wood-wind, 204-8. 
Of the orchestra, The use by 

old and modern masters of the wood- 
wind, 2. 

— Of the Stuttgart Psalter, 

Common feature of the (Xth cent.), 460. 

— Of the tamboura type not 

favourites with the ancient Greeks, 277. 
Of the Utrecht Psalter the 

only link yet discovered between the 
cithara of the Vlth cent, and the 
guitar fiddle of the Xlth cent., 377. 

■• — • Of which the strings are 

plucked, Fingerboards of, 265 6. 

Orchestra of musicians 

playing on various. Conducted by a 
personage thought to be Frauenlob. 
From Manesse MSS. at the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Paris (XlVth cent.), 462. 

On which the effect known 

as tonguing can be produced, flute, 
trumpet, cornet, 4, 83, 93. 

On which the octaves could 

be produced. The name Magadis pos- 
sibly a generic term applied to all, 313. 
Oriental, Manner of fastening 

the strings characteristic of, 387. 
Played with the bow found 

in delineations of the Xlth cent., 236-8. 
• — , Prototypes found among those 

of the ancient Egyptians of all European 

mediseval stringed, 432. 

Reference to the tone-colour 

of various, bv Galfridus de Vim Salor 
(poet Xllth to Xlllth cent.), 427. 

Spoon-shaped stringed, from 

Psalter of Lal)eo Notker, St. Gallen, 
the Psalter of Lothair, etc., 370 1, 492, 

-, Spoon-shaped, with short neck 

and large round head found by Dr. Stein 
in Chinese Turkestan, Representations 
of, 492. 

Stringed, at the Siege of 

Stringed, Change effected 

Troy, 300. 

by the introduction of the fingerboard 
in, 271. 



Instruments, Stringed, Chief use during 

the Middle Ages of, 427. 
, Stringed, Classified by the 

relative position of their soundchests 

and strings, 28'J. 

Stringed, Comparatively little 

used by the Konians, 311). 

, Stringed, Earliest form known 

in Europe of, 235. 

Stringed, Effect of the ' 

on the devolopment of, 327. 

Stringed, Effect of the 

vention of the bridge on, 259-60, 271. 
, Stringed, Effect of the Sound- 
board on, 253, 257, 271. 
— — , Stringed, From the Cotton 

MS., Tib. C. VI., Brit. Mus. (Xlth 

cent.), 384-5. 
■ , Stringed, Known in Europe 

before 711 a.d., 244, 384. 
, Stringed, Relative position 

of the soundchest and strings in the 

different classes of, 289. 
, Stringed, Predominance in 

ancient India of, 279. 

Stringed, Prevalence 

Europe until about the Xllth cent., of 
the rebec tribe among, 395. 

, Stringed, Proof that in the 

Xllth cent, the same types were in use 
contemporaneously in tlie East and in 
the West, 453. 

Stringed, The ancestor of all. 


, Stringed, Use by the Greeks 

in religious rites of, 287. 

, Stringed, with necks, Evi- 
dence that the Greeks of Asia Minor 
were acquainted in the early centuries 
of the Christian era with, 379-80. 

, Table showing the harmonics 

given out by the various brass wind, 3. 

, The favourite, of the Egyp- 
tians, 433. 

To which the name cithara 

was applied by the Greeks and Romans, 

To which the names Gigue 

and Geige were applied, 415-17. 

To which the term cittern 

was applied, Class of, 425. 

Tortoise shell. Derived from 

the lyre, 488. 

Twanged, Manner of holding 

in the Middle Ages, .349. 

Used l3v the Greeks at ban- 

quets, festivals and the Pythian games, 

Used by the Greeks to ac- 
company the dithyramb, 287. 

Used by the Greeks to 

company the rhapsodies, 287. 

Wind, Fondness of the Romans 

for, 319. 
piece, 29, 

With beak-shaped mouth- 
35, 38, 41, 44. 
With boat-shaped soundchest. 

With crooks, 47, 56, 83. 95. 

With incurvations and played 

with a bow were well-known in the East 

in the Xlth cent., 448. 
Introduction of Arab instruments into 

Western Europe by Cliarlemagne, 280, 

329, 398. 

Invention of barless grand pianoforte bv 

H. J. T. Broadwood in 1888, 137. 
Of bass clarinet in 1793, 40. 

Of basset horn in 1770, 36. 

— • Of bassoon in XVIth cent., Re- 
puted, 24. 

■ Of chromatic harp with crossed 

strings bv Henri Pape in 1845, 150. 

— Of clarinet, 1690, by J. C. Den- 

ner, of Nuremberg, 33. 

Of cornoplione by M. F. Besson, 


Of double escapement action bv 

Seb. Erard in 1808, 135. 

— ■ Of double-slide trombone by 

Halary in 1830, 79. 

Of doublophones by M. F. Bes- 
son, 92. 

; Of English direct action for 

pianoforte bv Americus Backers in 1773, 

Of keyed bugle in 1810 by Halli- 

day, 63. 
Of ophicleide claimed for 

Friohot, Regibo and Halary, 91. 

Of pianoforte claimed 

Marius, of Paris, 134. 

Of pianoforte claimed by 

Schroeter, of Dresden, 134. 

Of pianoforte claimed by Sil- 

bcrmann, of Freiburg, 134. 

Of pianoforte in 1711 by Cris- 

tofori, 134. 

Of pianofortes with iron frames 

by W. Allen in 1831, 136. 

Of pistons or valves in 1815 by 

Stblzel, 53, 80. 

Of saxhorn family by Adolphe 

Sax, of Paris, 63. 

Of saxophone family in 1840 

by Adolphe Sax, 45-6. 
Of soft pedal with shifting ac- 
tion by Stein in 1789, 135. 

Of the barbiton attributed to 

Sappho, 302. 
■ Of the chelys attributed to 

Hermes, 289. 
Of the clarina by W. Heckel. 

Irish art, Evidence in the miniatures of 

the Psalterium Aureum of the influence 

of, 203. 
Iron-framed pianoforte invented bv W. 

Allen in 1831, 136. 
Isidore, San, Archbishop of Seville, Defini- 
tion of the fidicula (Tilth cent.), 246. 
Ivories. Carlovingian, Scenes identical witli 

the drawings of the Utrecht Psalter 

carved on. .353-4, 360. 367-8. 
Ivory Binding of Psalter of Lothair. 

Fanciful instrument carved on, 373 (set- 
also Errata). 
— Of Psalter of Melissenda 

of Jerusalem (1131-1144), Brit. Mus. 

Egerton MS. 1139, Instruments from. 


Casket from Carrand Collection. 

Florence, Rebab with long bow from 

(IXth cent.), 408. 
Janitschek's classification of Carlovingian 

Schools of Art, 365-7, table. 
Japanese Kokiii, Construction of the. 255. 
Jpstours. or professional minstrels, see 

different terms ajiplied to, 455 0. 



Joculatores, or professional minstrels, see 
ditterent terms applied to, 455 6. 

Jongleurs, or prolessional minstrels, see 
ditfe'reiit terms applied to, 455 6. 

Jugleors, or professional minstrels, see 
different terms applied to, 455-6. 

Jumal-Garlii, Afghanistan, Musical in- 
struments on reliefs from, 379, 407. 

Kentrilion Museum, Athens, Kebab or 
lute on Byzantine relief from, 408. 

Kerata, or horns of the lyre, 289-90. 

Kettledrum, Compass, 159. 

, Construction of, 158. 

— . , First use in the orchestra by 

Lully in the reign of Louis XiV., 162. 

, Origin of the, 161. 

, Possibilities of the, 160. 

, Potter's mechanical, construc- 
tion of, 163. 

, Potter's mechanical, quality 

of tone, 166. 

, Production of sound, 

— ■ , Quality of tone, 160. 

-, Sticlis used with the, 159. 

Used in England in 1606, 161. 

— , sec chapters on this instru- 
ment, 158, 163. 

Ketharah, Adoption of the word into 
various languages, the changes it sub- 
sequently underwent and the forms in 
which It survives at the present day, 


Asiatic, Manner of holding 
B.C., from 

the, 1700 B.C., 286 

In transition, 1700 

fresco at Beni-Hassan, 486. 
, Names by which knovrn in 

Spain, 426. 

, see also KitUara and Cithara. 

Keyboard instruments, Classification of, 

Khotan, Ancient, Representations of in- 
struments from, 492, see also, Rehab, 

Lyra, Stein (M. A.). 
Kithara, Construction of the soundchest 

of the, 436. 
, Egyptian, Arrangement of 

strings on the, 264. 
, Egyptian, Jlethod of tuning the, 

, Evolution of the guitar-fiddle 

from the, 445. 
Or Lyra, Arabian guitar de- 
scribed in the writings of Al-Karabi 

as (Xth cent.), 446. 

The word, still in use in Arabic 

I.abeo Notlcer, 

His knowledge of music. 

— , His 
German language 

, The 

3701, 401, 494. 

280, 402. 

into the 
of, 2801, 

at the present day, 421 

, see also Cithara. 

Klein Geige, Comparison of the Gross 
Geige and the, 415. 

, Construction of the, 413-15. 

Koka, Hindoo, 254. 

Kokiu, Japanese. Construction of the, 255. 

Kuseyr 'Amra. Transverse flute and rect- 
angular cittern on a fresco from, 497. 

Lady Maket Flute, 1100 B.C., found in a 
mummy-case by Prof. Flinders Petrie, G. 

Latin guitar, Identical with the fidicula 
and cithara, 248. 

— Introduced into Spain by 

the Romans and later designated guitar- 
fiddle, 243. 

, Method of playing the, 243. 

Supposed by Spanish anti- 
quarians to have been the Roman fidi- 
cula, called later vigola and vihuela, 
244, 248. 

Leaf-shaped head. Oval vielle with. From 
Queen Mary's Psalter, XlVth cent. 
JUS., Brit, ilus., 478. 

Legends, Greek, Referring to music (Vlth 
cent. B.C.), 299. 

Leitschuh, Franz Friedrich, Anglo-Saxon 
origin of the Utrecht Psalter according 
to, 360. 

Lesbian school founded by Terpander, 301. 

I^iberalia Feasts, iMusic and tlie, 326. 

Lira, Definition of the, claiming for it 
kinship witli the cithara, viol and rote 
(Xillth cent.), 427. 

Lothair Psalter, see Psalter of Lothair. 

Lute and pear-shaped rebab nearly iden- 
tical instruments till Vllth cent., 488- 

, Bass, The name barbiton applied to 

the (XVIIth cent.), 488. 

, CUearly evolved from pear-shaped 

instrument witli long neck depicted on 
Sassanian dish, Brit. Mus. (before the 
Vlth cent.), 4913. 

Made known to the Arabs by the 

Persians, 491. 

, Survival of the Pandoura in the, 405. 

Lutes, Egvptian, with fingerboards and 
frets, 26(i. 

Lvdian tiute, The name ilagadis applied 
"to the, 313. 

Scale, 312. 

Lvdians, Introduction of the Pectis into 

"Greece by the, 299. 
Lyra Teutonica, Bow used with the (MS. 

'of S. Bhisius), 282. 
. , Outline of the, compared 

with that of Tlllth cent, rebab, 403. 
To be classed as a giguc 

(MS. of S. Blasius), 267. 
Lyra, .Modern primitive, from Athens 

having all the characteristics of the re- 
bec or gigue, 419. 
Lvre already well known in Egypt and 

Chaldea in 1290 B.C., 285 86. 

And cithara, Comparative uses 

among the Greeks of, 296 97. 

.\nd cithara, Di.stinguishing charac- 
teristics of the. 2.35 9, 289, 291-7. 

And cithara introduced into Greece 

from Egypt and Asia, 286. 

And cithara mentioned by Virgil, 


And cithara. Question of the evolu- 
tion of instruments of these classes 
found in Europe in the Xlth cent., 236-8. 

Arms of the, 289 90. 

Body of the, Size and portability of 
the, 29i. 

— , Bridge of, 290. 

— . Bridge of the, Greek name for the, 

— , Country of its origin, and the coun- 
try of its greatest development, 286. 
— ", Cross bar of the, 290, 434. 



Lyre, Cross-reed or tail-piece of the, 290. 

, Earliest Latin references to the, in 

Horace, 319. 

, Egyptian, Chief characteristic of 

the, 434, 436. 

, Etruscan, highly developed, 290. 

, Features possessed by the barbiton 

in common witli the, 487. 

. , First use of the word, 289. 

, Greek names for the various parts 

of the, 289-90. 

, Greek, Stringing- of the, 291. 

, Invention of the, To whom attri- 
buted, 289. 

, Legendary origin of the, 254. 

, Sfaterial used for the back of the, 

235, 289. 

• , Material used for the body of tho, 


, ilethods of tuning the, 263-4, 434. 

■ , Motive for extending the number of 

strings on the, 291. 

~- — ; Number of strings in the, 289-91. 

Of Erato, Second Grseco-Roman Gal- 
lery, Brit. Mus., 276. 

■ -, Primitive, Its construction, 235. 

, Eelative position of the souudchest 

and strings in the, 289. 

Resembling the Indian snrinda, 321. 

, Six-stringed, with sound holes in 

back. From MS., Trinity College. Cam- 
bridge (Xllth cent.), 389. 

, .Soundcliest of the, in mediajvai in- 
struments, 255. 

, Soundholes of the, 259, 290. 

. , Strings of the, ^Manner of fastening 

the, 290, 434. 

. -, The instrument of the Greek ama- 
teur, 296. 

, LTse of the, bv Sappho and bv Py- 
thagoras, 302. 

, With fingerboard, ilarble representa- 
tion of, 276. 

Lvrophcenix said to be the same as the 
"Sambuca, 313. 

Magadis, Instrument of cithara tribe, 
played without the plectrum, 272. 

, Lydian instrument, probably a 

kind of cithara, 311. 

, Number of strings in the, 311. 

Thought to be a generic term 

applied to all instruments on wliich the 
octaves could be produced, 313. 

Magadise, ^Meaning of the term, 311. 

Magas, Term applied by the Greeks to 
the bridge of cithara and lyre, 311. 

Manesse MSS., vSimilarity between the 
citterns from the Stuttgart Psalter (Xth 
cent.) and the Minnesinger fiddle (Xlllth 
cent.), from the, 460. 

Marine-trumpet, see Tromba marina. 

Marius, of Paris, Invention of piano 
claimed for, 134. 

Martin, Gerbert, Cithara in transition 
from " De Cantu et Musica Sacra " of, 

Maurin (14981515), The bending of the 
tube of the trumpet wrongly attributed 
to, 88. 

Maurus, Hrabanus, Resemblance between 
the drawings of a manuscript copy of 
the works of, and those of the Utrecht 
Psalter, 359. 

Medard, St., see St. Mcdard. 

Mediaeval Barbiton identical with theorbo, 

Bowed instruments, Finger- 
boards of, 266. 

Stringed instruments. Difficulty 

in classifying, 434. 

Medulla Grammaticse, Coloribus Rhetori- 
cis, Reference to the tone-colour of 
various instruments by Galfridus de Tim 
Salor in his (Xlllth cent.), 427. 

Meissen, Heinrieh von, surnamed " Frau- 
enlob," The last of the Minnesingers, 

Metz and Rheims Schools of Art, Palceo- 
graphical peculiarities of the, 362. 

School of (!arlovingian Art and the 

Utrecht Psalter, 361-3. 

■ , Illumin- 
ated MSS. produced by, 367 (table). 

, Psalter 

of Lothair the work of the, 367 (table). 

, The Sac- 

ramentarium of Drogon a product of the, 

, Common feature of con- 
struction in the instruments from the 
3ISS. of the Schools of Soissons and St. 
Gallen and in those from the, 371. 

established by Charle- 

magne at, 371. 

Miletus, Timotheus of, adds the eleventh 
string to the cithara, 305. 

■, Sketch of the 

career of, 305 6. 

Minnelieder, Style and character of the, 

Minnesinger Fiddle, Description of fiddle 
somewhat resembling the, from painted 
window of the Xlllth cent., in Troyes 
Cathedral, 411. 

■ , Description of (XlVth 

cent.), 459. 

, Five stringed, with 

sloping shoulders and neclc formed by 
tlie gradual narrowing of the body. 
From Von der Hagen's " Bildersaal " 
(Xlllth cent.), 461. 

From the i\ranesse 

JISS. (Xlllth cent.), Simil.Trity between 
the citterns from the Stuttgart Psalter 
(Xth cent.) and the, 460. 

, Neck of the German, 

compared with that of the guitar-fiddle 
of other countries, 460. 

With short, straight 

neck. From the coat of arms of Rein- 
mar der Vidiller (Xlllth cent), 461. 

With sloping shoul 

ders. From Manesse MSS. at the Biblio- 
theque Nationale, Paris (XlVth cent.), 

Minnesingers and Troubadours, Rapid de- 
velopment of bowed instruments due to 
the, 457. 

And Troubadours, The 

Themes of the trouveres and bards, com- 
pared with those of the, 456-7. 

■ , Characteristics of the bowed 

instruments of the, 458. 

, Impetus given to secular 

music by the, 456. 

— , Last of the, Heinrieh von 

Meissen (" Frauenlob "), 462. 

, Style of the, and the char- 
acter of their songs, 467. 



Minstrel-Fiddle, French, of the Xllth 
cent., without neck and with the pegs 
set in Oriental fashion in the back of 
the head. From the Abbey of Tezelai, 

Knight of the Nibelungcn Lied, 


Minstrels, Duties of professional, in the 
Xllth cent., 456. 

• — ■ In England, The favourite 

stringed instruments of the, 477. 

Modes, The Dorian, Lydian and Phrygian, 

Molecular vibrations, 125, 195, 253. 

Jtonochord, Construction of tjie, 249. 

Improbability of the violin 


derived from the, 249 50. 

Invention of the, ascribed to 

Pythagoras (Vlth cent. B.C.), 249. 
Supplied the idea of bridges for 

the pianoforte, 132 3. 
3[outeverde, Tlie first to give prominence 

to the violin family in the orchestra, 

Moorish guitar or tanbur with crescent- 
shaped tailpiece and Oriental rose 

soundhole, 244. 
Rebab, Construction of the, 233, 

238, 341, 395, 490-3. 
, Description of the, by Al- 

Farabi (Xth cent.), 395. 

Devoid of any of the char- 

acteristics of the violin tribe, 331, 419, 

, Modern, Parchment or 

thin wooden sound-board of the. 396. 
, Modern, Soundchest of, 

, No illustration of the, 

anterior to the conquest of Spain known 

to exist, 395. 
Probably the first bowed 

instrument known in Europe, 395. 

As tlie ancestor of the 

violin, Theory rejected, 342, 419, 493. 

Moors, Bow used with the rebab at the 
present day by the, 281. 

, Conquest of Spain by the. Influence 

on music of the, 329. 

, Conquest of Spain by the. Stringed 

instruments known in Europe previous 
to the, 239, 384. 

, Music and musical instruments of 

the. Influence on Charlemagne of the, 

Mouthpiece, beak-shaped. Single-reed in- 
struments with, 29, 35, 38, 41, 44 

, Cup-shaped, List of brass 

wind instruments with, 2. 

, Cup shaped, wood wind in- 
strument with, 16. 

— , Funnel shaped. List of brass 

wind instruments with. 
Reed, List 

of instruments 
having a, 12. 
Music, Alexander the Great and, 308. 

— And musical instruments of the 

Moors, The influence on Charlemagne of 
the, 399. 

And the Dionysiac rites, 326. 

And the great Greek tragic writers. 


— And the Libernlia Feasts. 326. 

— And the Pythian games, 3C0. 303. 

— And the Roman drama, 287. 

Music as a cure for madness, 302. 

, Condition of, in Europe in the 

Vlllth cent., 329. 
, Court, Description in the " Roman 

de Brut " of Xllth cent., 428. 
, Difference in the cultivation among 

the Greeks and among the Romans of, 

, Effect of the decadence of Greece 

on, 294, 306. 
, Effect of the spread of Christianitv 

on, 327. 
■ Extensively cultivated by the races 

under Roman sway, 324. 

First day at the Pythian Games 

devoted to, 325. 

, Great importance attached to, in 

Greece, 287-8. 

■ , Greek legends of TIth cent. B.C. 

referring to, 299. 

, How regarded by the Greeks, 287. 

, How regarded by the Romans, 287. 

, Influence of the conquest of Spain 

by the Moors on, 329. 

In Greece, Aristotle and the de- 
cadence of, 307. 

Instrumental, Banished from civil 

life and religious rites (IV^th cent, a.d.), 

, Instrumental, Cultivated by Timo- 

thcus (446 to 357 B.C.), 3U6. 

Instrumental, of Greece and Rome, 

Influence of Egypt on the, 434. 

Part of the curriculum of education 

for the youth of Greece, 287. 

, Programme, The originator of, 306. 

Sacrificed to technique by Greek 

citharistas, 305, 307. 

, Scliools of, established by Charle- 
magne, 280, 371, 398. 

• , Secular, Impetus given to, by the 

troubadours and minnesingers, 456. 

. Subordinate position occupied 

among the Romans by. 323, 326. 

, The important part played in the 

Greek tragedies by, 287. 

. Treatise by AlFarabi on (Xth 

cent.), 405. 

■ , Treatise, The very earliest in the 

German language on, 402. 

, Tri))utcs paid by the Greeks to the 

power of (Vltli cent. B.C.), 299. 

. Use of, in religious rites and mili- 
tary evolutions, 287. 

Musical contests at the Pythian Games, 
300, 303. 

, Carneian, Fate of the 

eleven-stringed cithara at the, 306. 

, Carneian, Terpander a 

victor at the, 310. 

Encouraged by Pericles, 

thcnse, 293. 

Included in the Pana- 

On smaller scale and 
modelled on the Pytliian games at Del- 
plii, instituted in Asia .Minor, 324. 

Musical instrument. Custom of handing, 
to the guests after a banquet a, 325 6. 

Musical instruments Classilied liy their 
chief characteristics instead of by their 
names, 329. 

, Culture of. Dissemin- 
ated over Europe by the troubadours, 



Musical Instruments depicted in the Canti- 
gas di Santa Maria, 243-4, 409-13, 469. 

Depicted in the Sforza 

Book, MS. Brit. Mus. (XVth cent.), 482. 

■ — -, Effect of the Cru- 

sades on the progress in Europe of, 329. 
, Enumeration by 

Guirault de Calanson of (Xllth cent.), 

, Enumeration by Ott- 

fried of Weissenburg of (IXth cent.), 426. 
Enumeration in poem 

by Juau Ruiz of (XlVth cent.), 234, 242, 

, Enumeration in the 

" Roman de Brut " of (Xllth cent.), 

From the precious MS. 

known as Queen JIary's Psalter, Brit. 

Mus. (2;iVth cent.), 478. 

Incurvations not due 

to the use of the bow, 422. 

— — In Hellas, Scarcity 

previous to the conquests of Alexander 
the Great of, 309. 

Of the Moors, Their 

influence on Charlemagne, 399. 

Preserved among tho 

barbarian races of Europe after their 
disappearance from Christian Europe 
with the decadence of the Roman Em- 
pire, 328. 

— Prevalent wherever 

the Roman civilization was implanted, 

References by classical 

vrriters to, 308-9. 

-, References by Chaucer 
in the Canterbury Tales to, 425, 429. 

Slow development 

among the Eastern civilizations of, 279, 

, Vocabulary, contain- 

definitions of (Xlth 

ing names and 
cent.), 427 *. 

-— , See also Instruments. 

Musical Subjects, Inscriptions found 
among the ruins at Ephesus, referring 
to, 324. 

Svstem of the Persians adopted 

by the Arabs, 398. 

Musician, Earliest instance of the concep- 
tion of King David as a. From MS. in 
the Vatican (Vlth cent.), 381. 

Musicians, The Church refuses the Sacra- 
ments to (IVth cent, a.d.), 327. 

, Plato on poets and, ("Ion"), 


, Professional, The diflerent 

terms applied during the Middle Ages 
to, 455-6. 

, Small orchestra of, playing on 

various instrumeiits and conducted by 
a personage thouirht to be Frauenlob. 
From JIanesse MSS. at the Bibliotheque 
Nationale, Paris (XlVth cent.), 462. 

Nabulum, Stringed instrument from Cot- 
ton MS., Tib. C. VI. (Xlth cent.), 386. 

Nacaire or mediasval kettledrum, 161. 

Nanga, Egyptian, 255. 

, Egyptian, Similarity between the 

sound-chest of the barbiton and that of 
the, 396. 

, The boat-shaped rebab possibly the 

outcome of the, 434. 

Nanga, The sambuca similar in shape to 

the, 314. 
Natural objects used as plectra, 275. 

Trumpet, see Trum-pet, natural, 


Neck and sound-chest of the rebec, 387. 

, Development of the, in bowed in- 
struments an indication of improvement 
in technique, 460. 

■ — -, Minnesinger fiddle with short 
straight. From the coat of arms of 
Reinmar der Vidiller (Xlllth cent.), 461. 

, Minstrel fiddles with short straight, 

and witli the neck formed by the 
gradual narrowing of the body existed 
contemporaneously in Europe, 462. 

• — — Of tlie German Minnesinger fiddle 
compared witli that of the guitar-fiddle 
of other countries, 460. 

Of violin. Adjustment of, 102, 225. 

Terminating in scroll. Rebec with, 

(XlVth cent.). From MS. the "Liber 
Regalis " in Westminster Abbey, 390. 

Nefer and tambur, Instruments of two 

distinct classes, 442. 
, Egyptian, Affinities between a tam- 

boura from a Carlovingian MS (Vlllth 

cent.) and the, 400, 433. 
, Egj'ptian, A prototype of some of 

the mediieval stringed instruments of 

Europe, 442. 
■ , Egyptian, Employed in hieroglyphs 

as a symbol for tjood, 442. 

Egyptian, or tamboura, Character- 

istic features common to the violin and 

the, 249-50. 
, Egyptian, or tamboura. From a 

painting "on the third tomb at Thebes 

Kourna, 317. 
— -^, Egvptian, or tamboura, with frets, 

Thebes "(XVIIIth to XlXth Dynasty), 

, Egyptian, Pear-shaped rebec 

having affinities with some of the an- 
cient, 397, 401 
, Egvptian, Position of soundholes 

on the, 259. 
, Egyptian, with fingerboard and 

frets, 260. 
, Manner of holding cithara and, 

Compared, 349. 
Or notre with long neck. From the 

hieroglyph on the broken Egyptian 

Obelisk in the Campus Martius at 

Rome, 442-3. 
, Egyptian, Oval stringed instru- 

ment of the Xlltli cent, showing strong 
resemblance to the, but played with a 
bow. From a sculpture on the doorway 
of the Abbey of S. Denis, 444. 
, Resemblance between the oval 

tamboura, and the, 433, 444. 

• , Three-stringed Egyptian, 266. 

Used as a hieroglyphic symbol. 433. 

Nero and the musician, Diodorus, 326. 

As a citharoedus, 298, 326. 

Neuschel, A celebrated maker of trom- 
bones in Nuremberg at the beginning 
of the XAath cent., 80. 

Nibelungen Lied, Volker der Fiedler the 
minstrel knight of the, 463. 

Nofre, see also Nefer. 

, Spoon-shaped, Affinity between the 



rotta from the Psalter of Lotbair and 

the, of the Egyjjtians, 371. 
Nomea of Terpaiider, 301. 
, Tiinotheus and the singing of the, 

" Nomos Pythicos," Musical work fre- 
quently performed at the Pythian 

Games, 325. 
Notker Balbulus, Cithara declared to be 

derived from the Psalterium by (IXth 

cent.), 336. 
, Labeo, Descriptive reference to 

the rotta by (Xth c«nt.), 336. 
, Labeo, His knowledge of musie, 

Organ, Hydraulic, Pottery model of, found 
in the ruins of Carthage (Ilnd cent. 
A.D.), 378. 

Pneumatic, MS., Brit. Mus. (XlVth 


Labeo, His translations into the 

German language, 401. 

, Labeo, Psalterium of, 401. 

JMut, Fixed, Bow with a (Vllth cent.), 2S1. 
Of tlio bow. Invention of a movable 

(XVlIlth cent.), 102-3, 284. 

Of the bow, Use and construction of 

the, 102 3, 269. 

■ Of violin. Its formation and use, 102, 


Of the peg-bo.K, Function of the, 102, 

229, 260. 

. , Vielle with. From sculpture on 

Western doorway of Notre Dame de 
Chartres (Xlith cent.), 472. 

Nuts Used as sound-chests, 254. 

Oboe, Alcibiades and the, 305. 

, C!ompass, 12, 205. 

, Construction of the, 11. 

, Origin of the, 13. 

, Possibilities of the, 12. 

— — , Production of sound, 11. 

. Quality of tone, 12. 

^ Use of the, in Greek religious rites, 


See chapter on this instrument, 11. 

Oboists at the Pythian Games, 300, 303, 

Octave Flute, see Piccolo, 8. 
Odeiou built by Pericles. 304. 
Oliphant, or Poland's Horn, 53. 
Ophicleide, Compass, 91. 

, Construction of the, 90. 

, Harmonic series of, 91. 

, Invention of, claimed for Fri- 

chot, llegibo and Halarv, 91. 

, Origin of the, 91. 

. , Production of sound, HO. 

, Quality of tone, 91. 

, See chapter on this instru- 

ment, 89. 
Opus Anglicum, Group of MSS. produced 

by Winchester School, displaying the 

same stylistic characteristics as the 

Utrecht Psalter and known as, .357. 
Orchestra, First conducted from a desk in 

England by Spohr in 1820, 136. 
, Introduction in France, in 

1581, of harp into, 147 
, Introduction of French horn 

by Handel in 1720 into English, 53. 
, Small, of musicians playing on 

various instruments and conducted by a 

personage thought to be Frauenlob. 

From Jlanesse MSS. at the Biblio- 

theque Nationale, Paris (XIYth cent.), 

Organ. Hvdraulic, from the Utrecht 

Psalter, 378. 

cent.), 430 

Portable, Example in 

a XVth 
cent. MS. in the Brit. Mus., of a, 482. 

Oriental, see Eastern, Byzantine, Syrian, 

Origin, European, of the violin refuted, 

Of the barbiton, 487-9. 

Of the crwth, 494-7. 

Of the rebab, 279, 490-3. 

Of modern instruments, see under 


Of the ITtrecht Psalter, Contro- 
versy concerning the, 352 382. 

Of the Utrecht Psalter, see Illus- 
trations of the Utrecht Psalter and 
Utrecht Psalter. 

Of the violin. Question of the, 230, 

342, 419, 432. 

Ottavino, see Piccolo. 

Overblowing, Exijlanation of term, 49. 

Oval Yielle, Description of an, in Queen 

Mary's Psalter, .MS., Brit. .Mus. (XlVth 

cent.), 478. 
, Five stringed, with T-shaped 

head. The earliest known illumination 

of any bowed instrument in Spain. 

From Xlltli cent., .MS. from Jlonastery 

of Silos in Old Castile. 468. 
, From the ivory binding of a 

Xllth cent. Eastern .MS. showing a 

marked resemblance to the instruments 

on the doorwav of the Abbev of S. 

Denis (Xllth cent), 453. 
, Large, with fingerboard and 

wide ribs. From a picture in the 

Cathedral at Cologne (XIYth cent.), 465. 
Type. Instruments of the. but 

plucked with tlie fingers. From ^ISS. 

from the ilonastery of Silos, Old 

Castile. a)id the Abbey of S. Sever, Gas- 
cony, 468-9. 
' With fingerboard and 

diamond shaped liead from the " Canti- 

gas de Santa ^Maria," 470. 
_ With iron bow. From the 

Faipade des Musiciens at Bheims (Xlllth 

cent.), 474. 
. With long fretted nock. 

From a XYth cent. MS. in the Brit. 

Mus., 4S2. 
Oxus, Hebab or lute on Sassanian silver 

dish now in British Museum, from the, 

407, 492. 
Palla, Or tunic of the Citharwdus, 297. 
Panathena\ .Musical contests included in 

the, 303. 
Pandoura. Construction of the, 317. 
, Depicted on sarcophagus of the 

reign of Hadrian. 239-40, 317. 
, Description of the, bv Al- 

Farabi (Xth cent.), 405, 407. 
. Greek, on bas relief from ^Ian- 
tinea, 409 note. 
, Greek, similar to the Egyptian 

nefer, 317. 

, Number of strings of the, 317. 

Of the liomans, derived from 

the tamboura of the .Vssvrians. From 

a bas relief cir. a.d. 76 to" 138, 239-40. 



Pandoura or Pandurra identical with the 
tamboura, panduria, banduria and 
tambor, 317. 

Or tambura with three strings, 

from the Psaltcrium Aureum (IXth 

cent.), 404. 

Survival of the, in the lute. 



Panduria, see Pandoura. 

Pandurra, see Pandoura. 

Pape, Henri, inventor of 
harp with crossed strings in 1845, 150. 

Paris Psalter, Similarities between the 
Efldwine Psalter, Cambridge, and the, 
both copies nf the Utrecht Psalter, .Sfi2. 

Parsifal Bell Instrument, compass, 174. 

, Construction 

of the, 172. 

Dr. Mottl, 172 3. 

sound, 172. 

tone, 174. 

Designed by 

Production of 

Quality of 

Use at Bay- 
reuth in combination with other instru- 
ments, 172. 

Pauken, see Kettledrum, 158. 

Pavilion Chinois, 167. 

Pavn, Howard, Date and origin of the 
Utrecht Psalter according to, 356. 

Payne, E. J., Genealogy of the violin, 231. 

Pecten, see Plectrum, 271. 

Peotis, Classed by Plato with the poly- 
chorde, 310. 

• — : — Confused with the Phrygian tri- 
gonon, 311. 

, Instrument of the cithara tribe 

played without the plectrum, 272. 279. 

, Introduced into Greece by the 

Lydians, 290. 

-, Introduced to the Greeks 

Pelops fXlIIth cent, b.c), 310. 

-, Number of strings of the. 310. 

, Probably a small varietv of the 

cithara. 310. 

Shape of the, 310. 


Pedal Clarinet, Compass of, 41. 207. 

. Construction of, 41. 

, History of, 43. 

, Quality of tone of, 43. 

, Used in Wagner's " Nibe- 

lungen Ring" at Covent Garden, .43. 

, see chapter on this instru- 
ment, 41-3. 

Pedals, First adapted to pianoforte by 
John Broadwood in 1783, 135. 

Of the harp, Action of double, 140, 


Of the pianoforte. Functions of, 


Pedal, Soft, with shifting action in- 
vented by Stein in 1780, 135. 

Peg, Guitar-fiddle with extra. From 
Cotton MS., Brit. Mus. (Xllth cent.), 

Peg-box of violin, 102, 223. 

, Pochette with orthodox (XVIIIth 

cent.), 417. 

Pegs, Cithara in second stage of transi- 
tion with three. From Utrecht 
Psalter, 347. 

• , Cithara with frets and. Highly 

developed model in third stage of 
transition. From the Utrecht Psalter, 

Pegs fitted with cog-wheels, 262. 

Of the Greek citharas, 262-3. 

Of the violin, 102, 223. 

■ . Position of. in head of instrument 

an aid to classification, 262. 

• , Position of, in oriental instruments, 


, Rebec with, in the side of the neck. 

From MS. " Liber Regalis " in West- 
minster Abbey, 390. 

, T-shaped, Fine example of the 

guitar-fiddle with (XlVth cent.). 392. 

, Tuning, of Greek citharas, 263. 

Pera or Pochette (q. v.) 

Percussion, Instruments of, their classifi- 
cation, 220. 

Pericles, As patron of the tonal art, 294. 

, Greek drama at the time of, 303. 

, Odeion built by, 304. 

Persia, Description of boat-shaped rebal) 
in use at the present day in, 396. 

Persian musical system adopted by the 
Arabs (Vlth cent.), 280, 398. 

Rebab, Instrument reminiscent 

of the early, from a terra-cotta 
statuette fouiid in a grave in the 
Goshen Cemeterv and assigned to the 
XXth dynasty, circa 1000 B.C., 483, 491. 

Persians, JIusical svstem adopted by the 

Arabs from the, 280, 398. 
. , Reputed introduction of the 

rebab to the Arabs by the, 398, 405, 434. 

. The bow said to have been 

obtained by the Arabs from the, 398. 
Phoenicians, Cithara introduced to Southern 

Spain by the, 325, 328. 
Phorminx, At the musical contests at 

Sparta, 310. 

, ^lentioned by Pindar, 304. 

, Mentioned in the Odyssey and 

the Iliad, 309. 
, Seven-toned, Terpander and 

the, 310. 

. , The instrument of Achilles, 300. 

, Used as a synonym for 

cithara, 309. 
Phrygian scale, 312. 
Phrynis adds a ninth string to the 

cithara, 304. 

And the Lacedemonians, 306. 

' Wonderful execution on the 

cithara (456 B.C.), 304. 
Pianoforte, Action of the soft pedal of 

the, 129. 
. Action of the. Table of parts 

constituting the, 133. 
. Earless steel frame concert 

grand. Construction of Broadwood's, 190. 
Belly-bars of the, their func- 

tion, 126. 


Belly-bridge of, its function, 

Bridges of the, their function 
and construction, 126. 

, Case of the, 122. 

Cast iron or steel frame for, 


Compass, 129, 203. 
Construction of, 121. 
Cristofori, inventor of the, 134. 



Pianoforte, Earliest application of name, 
1598, 134. 

, Hammer action of the, sug- 
gested by the dulcimer, 133. 

— , History of the, 132. 

■ — , Invention by Pierre Erard in 

1838 of harmonic bar for the, 136. 

Invention claimed for Cristo- 

fori, Silbermann, Schroeter and Marius 
of the, 134. 

-, Pedals first adapted by John 

Broadwood in 1783, to the, 135. 

Pedals of the, their function. 


, Possibilities of, 131. 

, Production of sound, 127. 

, Quality of tone, 130. 

, Soundboard of the, its func- 
tion and construction, 123-6. 

, Strings of the, their tension, 


, Superseded the harpsichord in 

the orchestra at the end of the XVIIIth 
cent., 136. 

, Wrest or Tuning Pins of, 123. 

Wrest-Plank of the, its func- 

tion and construction, 123. 

See Chapters on this instru- 

ment, 121, 190. 
Piccolo, Compass, 9-10, 204. 

, Construction of the, 8. 

, Origin of the, 10. 

, Quality of tone, 10. 

(Or octave flute), see Chapter on 

this instrument, 8. 

Pickelflote, see Piccolo, 8. 

I'igleors, Difference betvreen the estru- 

manteors and the, 428. 
Pindar, Pythian ode of, Chorus for citha- 

roedes in a, 302. 
Pipe and Tabor, Examples of the, in a 

XVth cent. MS. in the Brit. Mus., 483. 
Pisantir, Chaldean, said to be identical 

with the Psalterion, 316. 
Pisistratus, iMusical contests included in 

the Panathena; by, 303. 
Piston Trumpet, see Trumpet, Piston, 84. 
Pistons or Valves invented in 1815 by 

Stokel, 53, 80. 
Plato as citharoedus, 307. 

On poets and musicians, 288. 

Plectra, Arched, 276. 

, Delineations of, amongst the 

statues and paintings of the Greeks and 
Romans, 272 seq. 

, Described by Pollux, 275. 

, Egyptian and Assvrian. 275. 

, Mention of, by Ovid, 273. 

■ Of the ancients, 275. 

The most ancient delineations of. 


, Used by Asiatic nations of the 

present day, 275. 

— , Used on the zither, 275. 

-, Various substances used for, 271, 


Plectron, see Plectrum, 271. 
Plectrum, Advantages of the fingers over 

the, 272, 274. 
And fingers sometimes used 

simultaneously for twanging strings, 

And fingers, the different quality 

of tone colour produced, 272, 274. 

Plectrum, .\ssyrian rod-like, 276. 

, Different manners of holding the, 


, Earliest form of, 275. 

. Etymology of the word, 271. 

, For use with wire strings a 

necessity, 274. 

Instruments of the Stuttgart 

Psalter played with the (Xth cent.), 

— , Its use by the ancients for the 

rendering of joyful passages, 274-6. 

Ketharah from fresco at Beni- 

Hassan, 1700 B.C., played with a, 286. 

- — , Jtanner of holding the, 273. 

JMention by Tibullus of the (Ist 

cent., B.C.), 273. 
, Reasons for the introduction of 

the, 271. 



Reference by Athenseus to the. 
Reference by Lucanus to the. 
Reference by Plutarch to the. 

, Reference by Tirgil to the, 274. 

, References by Philostratus the 

elder to the, 273. 

References by Philostratus the 

younger to the, 273. 

Scythe-shaped, from the Utreoht 

Psalter, 276. 

Seven-stringed lyre depicted in 

Xth cent. MS. in library of St. Gall, 

played with, 280. 
, The ancestor of the fiddle bow 

improbable, 274, 277. 

, Tone-colour produced by the, 273. 

Use by the Greeks for rubbing 


the strings imjjrobable, 274, 

Pleyel Chromatic Harp, sec 
Vhromatir, 1.50-3. 

Poche, see Pochette. 

Pochette (last stage of the rebec, instru- 
ment with manv of the accessories of 
the violin (XVHIth cent.), 417. 

Poet's licbab, Construction of the, 255. 

Poitiers, Count Guillaumc de, said to 
have been the first troubadour, 455. 

Pollux, Plectra described by, 275. 

— , Barbiton described by, 313. 

Polychordc, Pcctis classed "bv Plato with 
the, 310. 

Portable Organ, Example in a XYth cent. 
MS. in the Brit. Mus., of a, 482. 

Posaunc. see Trombone, 74. 

Potter's Revolving or mechanical kettle- 
drum, 158, 163-6. 

Primitive Bow, First improvement in, 381. 

Programme music. The originator of, 31C. 

Prototype, Greek, of the Utrecht 
Psalter, Tikkancn's* reasons for reject- 
ing the idea of a, 364. 
* Prof. Tikkanen now accepts the 

theory of a Greek prototype. 

Psallo. Greek verb first applied to musical 
instruments (IVth cent. B.C.), 315. 

Psalter, Bvzantine, Xlth cent. MS., Brit. 
Mus. Add. 19352, 6, 377, 448-9. 

, Eadwine, a Xllth cent, copy of 

the Utrecht Psalter in Cambridge, 361, 

, Eadwine, Fanciful and unprac- 



tical drawings of the instruments in 

the, 372. 
Psalter, Eadwine, Similarities between the 

Paris Psalter and the, 362. 
, Greek, Written and illuminated 

by Theodoriis, of Cajsarea, a.d, 1066; 

guitar-fiddle illustrated in a, 4-18. 
Known as Ellis and White's, identi 

cal with Psalter of Lothair (q. v.), 373 
Of Boulogne, Similarity between 

the instruments drawn in Cotton MS. 

Tib. C. VI., and those of the, 3f-5. 
Of Charles le Chauve, Close re 

semblance between the drawings of the 

Utreolit Psalter and tlie carving on the 

binding of the, 353, .359, 360. 
Of Labeo Notker, Two copies, one 

in S. Gall, the other in Leipzig Univer- 
sity, 401, 404. 

Of Lothair, Affinity between the 

spoon-shaped nofre of the ancient Egyp- 
tians and the instrument from the (PI. 
v.), 371. 

Of Lothair, Bow of Cremaillere 

type from the, 373. 

Of Lothair, Brief history of the, 


Of Lothair, Fanciful instrument 

(rotta) from ivory carving on the bind- 
ing of the, 373. 

— Of Lothair, Formerly known as 

Ellis and White's Psalter, 3^3, note. 

Of Lothair, Instrument from the. 

resembling one from the Utrecht Psal- 
ter, 371. 

— Of Lothair, Spoon-shaped instru- 
ment, from the. Derived from the ancient 
Egyptian and Asiatic civilizations, 371. 

Of Lothair, Spoon shaped instru- 
ment from the, probably in actual use 
at the time the miniature was painted, 

Of Lothair, Style and character 

of the, 374. 
- — ■ Of Queen Mary, MS. containing 

many miniatures of musical instru- 
ments (XlVth cent.), 477-8. 
Of Queen JTary, Description of a 

cittern represented in the (XlVth cent. 

MS.), 478. 
— Of Queen Mary, Description of an 

oval vielle represented in the (XlVth 

cent. MS.), 478. 
— , Paris, Similarities between the 

Eadwine Psalter, Cambridge, and the, 

Both copies of the Utrecht" Psalter, 362. 
, Stuttgart, A common feature of 

the instruments of the, 460. 
— , Stuttgart (Xth cent.). Similarity 

between the Minnesing'er fiddle from the 

Manesse MSS. (Xlllth cent.), and the 

citterns in the, 460. 

Utrecht, see T'trecht Psalter. 

Psalteries, Examples of, in a MS. in the 
Brit. Mus. (XVth cent.), 482. 

Psalterion, Construction of the. 316. 

, Derivation of the name, 315. 

, Relative position of the sound- 
chest and strings in the, 289. 

Psalterions Of the time of Juba (1st cent. 
A.D.). ,316. 

Psalterium from Cotton MS. Tib. C. VI. 
(Xlth cent.), 386. 

, Rotta or cithara declared by 

Notker Balbulus to be derived from the, 
Psalterium Aureum, Authorship unknown, 

— ^, Common feature of 

construction in the instruments from 
the MSS. of the schools of Metz and 
Soissons and tiiose from the, 371. 

■ , Evidence of the in- 
fluence of Irish art in the miniatures of 
the, 403. 

— — , ^Miniatures reproduced 

in fac-simile in a work by J. Bud. Rahn 

Pandoura or tambura 

with three strings from the (IXth cent.), 

Purflings of the violin, 99-100, 225. 

Pythagoras and the Lyre, .302. 

, Contrasted theories of Aris 

to.xenus and of, 308. 

, Tripod kithara of, How con- 
structed and played, 312. 

I'ythia Contests instituted in Asia Minor 
on smaller scale, modelled on the Py- 
thian Games at Delphi, 324. 

Pythian Games, Auletes (oboists) at the, 


the, 303. 

Contests for citharistas at 

, Duration of the, 325. 

, End of the (IVth cent. 

A.D.), 327. 
, Instruments used by the 

Greeks at the, 288. 

Management before and 

after the forty eighth Olympiad, ,325. 
, Musical contests at the, 

300, 303. 
-; ; , Smaller musical contests 

instituted in various provinces of the 

Roman Empire modelled on the, 324. 

Spanish citharcedes at 

the, 325. 
■ , Terpander a victor at the, 

■ , The " Nomos Pythicos " 

performed at the, 325. 

Time devoted to music at 

the, 325. 

Pythian Ode of Pindar, Chorus for cithar- 
cedes in a, .302. 

Queen Mary's Psalter, see Psalter of 
Queen Mary. 

Quills used as plectra, 275, 411. 

Rabulo Evangeliarium, Cod. Siriaco, Bibl. 
Laurenziana, Florence, Resemblance 
between the scenes and figures of the 
Evangeliarium of Ebo and those of the, 

Rahn, J. Rud., Fac-simile of the minia- 
tures of the Psalterium Aureum edited 
by, 404. 

Ravanastron, Bow used by the Hindoos at 
the present day with the, 281. 

, Primitive Hindoo instrument, 


Ray, Site in N. Persia, Engraved plate 
showing a pear-shaped instrument with 
four strings, twanged by the fingers. 
found at, 493. 

Rebab, Ancient Persian, from terra-cotta 
statuette excavated from the Tell at 
Suza clearly establishing the eastern 



origin of the instrument (Vllltb cent. 
B.C.), 407, 491. 

Rebab, ancient Persian, Instrument re- 
miniscent of tlie. From a terra-cotta 
statuette found in a grave in the Goshen 
cemetery and assigned to the XXtli 
dynasty, circa 1000 B.C., 483, 491. 

And barbiton, Distinguishing char- 
acteristics of the, 488. 

, As the precursor and ancestor of 

the violin, Theory rejected, 331, 342, 
419, 493. 

. Boat-shaped, continued to exist 

after tlie Moorish instrument had been 

adopted and altered by the nations of 

Europe, 413. 
, Boat-sliaped, in use at the present 

day in Persia and among the Arabs, 

Description of, 396. 
, Boat-shaped, of the Arabs of the 

present dav practically the same as that 

found in 31 SS. of the Xlllth cent., 446. 
, Boat-shaped, or cittern with three 

strings from Cantigas de Santa Maria 

(Xlllth cent.), 411. 

Bow used by the Moors at the 

present day with the, 281. 

Cannot claim to tigure as ancestor 

of the violin, 331, 419, 493. 

, Characteristics of the, 406. 

, Construction of the, 342. 

, From the Psalterium of Labeo 

Notlver in the Library of the University 
of Leipzig (Xth cent.), a case of direct 
Moorish inHuence, 280, 402, 494. 

Gigue or improved rebec derived 

from tlie true (XVlUth cent.), 412. 
, Modern Moorish, Sound-board of 

parchment or thin wood of the, 396. 
, Modern Moorish, Soundchest of, 


Jloorish, Description by Al-Farabi 

of the (Xth cent.), 395, 446. 
, Moorish, devoid of any of the char- 
acteristics of the violin tribe, 331, 419, 

Moorish, of the present day, Char- 

acteristic of the, 414. 

, Moorish, No illustration anterior 

to the conquest of Spain Ivnovvn to exist, 
see Rehab, Ancient Persian, .395, 491. 
Moorisli, probably the first bowed 

instrument known in Europe, 232, 279, 

, No authority for supposing the 

bow to have been used with the crwth 
before it was applied to the, 339. 

No traces to be found in ancient 

Egypt of the, 434. 
, Obtained by the .'Vrabs from the 

Persians, 398, 405, 434, 490. 
■ Of the Arabs, the earliest known 

stringed instrument plaved with a bow, 
232, 279. 

■ On a Bvzantine relief, Kentrikon 

Mus., .\thens," 408. 

— On a frieze from Jumal-Garhi as- 
signed to llnd or Ilird cent. ad. iBrit. 
Mus.), 379, 407. 

■ , Origin of the word, 279. 

Or rebec depicted in Xth cent. MS. 

in library of St. Gall, 280, 401-2, 492, 494. 

— , Pear-shaped, and lute identical in- 
struments till the Vllth cent., 488, 491. 

Pear-shaped, on Sassanian silver 
(between IVtli and Yllth cent.), 
Mus., 380, 407, 491-3. 
Pear-shaped, on Sassanian silver 
dish (between IVth and Tilth cent.) 
found at Irbit. Hermitage CoUeotion, 
St. Petersburg, 407. 

, Pear-shaped, on Sassanian silver 

dish found at Perm, Count Stroganoff's 
Collection. 107. 

, Pear-shaped, played with a how. 

From ivorv casket of Italo-Bvzantine 
work (Vlilth or IXth cent'. A.D.), 
Palazzo del Potesta. Florence, 408. 
, Persian, before the bow was ap- 
plied to it. From Sassanian silver dish 
(not later than Tilth cent.;, Brit. Mus., 
380. 407. 491-3. 

. See also Rebec. 

, Survival among the Arabs in prac- 
tically the same stage of development 
for 12 centuries of the, 405. 

, The barbiton* a precursor of the, 

397, 487 seq. 

* The discovery, after these pages had 
been printed, of representations of ancient 
Persian rebabs (q.v. in Appendix B) modi- 
fies this statement. 

, The bow not invented with, but 

culy applied to the. 493. 

'-, The poet's. Construction of, 255, 


, To what extent is the violin in its 

evolution indebted to the? 16-18, 232-4. 
331, 419, 493. 

Type, Description of instrument 

known to the Homans before 711 a.d. 
(barbiton), belonging to the, 239. 
Rebab-esh-Shaer. As the progenitor of the 
violin or even rebec improbable, 395. 

, Construction of the, 

255, 395. 

, Manner of holding: the, 

Rebabs, Representations found by Dr. 
Marc Aurel Stein in Khotan (Chinese 
Turkestan), of, 492. 
Rebec and gigue family, Characteristics 
of the, 257, 387. 

. , How best distinguished 

from each other and from other stringed 
instruments of the middle ages, 257, 2i66, 
387, 412, 416. 
Rebec and rebab, Instrument standing 
mid-way between the. From the Psal- 
terium "of Lobeo Notker (Xth cent.), 401. 
Rebec, Anglo-Sn.xmi, Description of. From 
Cotton MS., Tib. C, TI., Brit. Mus. 
(Xlth cent.), 3S6-7. 

— , Anglo-Sa.\on, Played with bow, 

earliest instance of the use of the latter 
in England (Xlth cent.), 278, 386-7. 

, Boat-shaped, 389 90, 397, 401. 

, Characteristics of the. 406. 

. Combined soundboard and finsTr- 

board of the, .387. 
, Comparison of the manner of hold- 
ing the boat-shaped and the pear- 
shaped, 412. 

, Improved or Geige (,\Tth and 

XTIth cent.), Fiic-simile made by the 
Rev. F. W. Gal[)in from A'irdnng. 41:^-14. 

, Improved, or gigue derived from 

the true rebab (Xlllth cent.), 412. 



Rebec, Influence on the cithara of the, 
displayed by hybrid instruments, 388. 

, Its inferior position in the musical 

world, 233, 418. 

■ , Manner of fastening the strings of 

the, 387. 

, Modern primitive instrument from 

Athens having all the characteristics of 
the, 419. 

— Or rebab depicted in Xth cent. MS. 

in library of St. Gall., 280. 

, Outline of the lyra teutonica com- 
pared with that of the, 403. 

, Pear-shaped, possessing affinities 

with some of the ancient Egyptian 
nefers or tambouras, 3U7, 401. 

, Relative value in the XlVth cent. 

of vielle, fiddle and (Chaucer), 429. 

, See also Rebab. 

, Slow development after its intro- 
duction into Western Europe, 234. 

, Soundchest and neck of the, 387. 

, The prevailing stringed instrument 

used with a bow in England during the 
middle ages, 387. 

Tribe, Prevalence among the 

stringed instruments of Europe until 
about the Xllth cent, of the, 395. 

, Two-striuged instrument played 

with a bow and possessing several char- 
acteristics of the (Xlllth cent.), 389-90. 

Type, The last relic of the, 417. 

— ■ , Vaulted back of the, 238-9, 387, etc. 

With four strings, from an English 

Psalter (Xlllth cent.), 409. 

Rebecs, In the Xlth and Xllth centuries, 
Numerous forms of, 406. 

, The two distinct types of, 397, 


Rebecs and gigues. Reasons for the super- 
abundance during the middle ages of, 

Reed, Double, Wood-wind instruments 
with, 1. 

, Single, Brass instrument having, 2. 

, Single, Wood-wind instruments with, 


, Wood-wind instruments without, 1. 

Regibo, Reputed inventor of the ophi- 
cleide, 91. 

Religious Kites, Use of stringed instru- 
ments by the Greeks in, 287. 

Rest, Violin, its use, 227. 

Rhapsodies, Instruments used by the 
Greeks to accompany the, 287. 

Rheims School of Carlovingian Art, 362, 
364-5, 367 (table). 


the Utrecht Psalter, 358-9, 362, 364-6, 369. 

Anglo-Saxon influence on the, 358-9, 361, 
365-6, 369. 

Chief illuminated MSS. produced by, 
357-9, 367 (plate). 

Greatness due to the dominant per- 
sonality of an artist thought to be 
Anglo-Saxon, 364-6. 

Monastery of Hautvillers near Epernay, 
the nucleus of the, 358. 

Rheims School of Carlovingian Art. Palteo- 
graphical characteristics common to the 
School of Jletz and the, 362. 

Plastic art of, 367-8. 

, The 

Utrecht Psalter regarded by Gold- 
schmidt, Uurrieu and Swarzenski as a 
product of the, 357-66. 

Works of the Schola Palatina attributed 
by Swarzenski to the, 364-5, 367 (table). 
Ribs of stringed instruments, Earliest 
form of, 235, 436-7. 

Or sides the distinguishing structural 

characteristic of the precursors of the 
violin, 232, 235, 292. 
Roland's Horn or oliphant, 53. 
Roll, How produced on bass drum, 178. 

. How produced on side drum, 180. 

Roman Britain, Design of cithara with 
lour strings excavated at W'oodchester, 
among the relics of, 332. 

Cithara, iMon-existence of any de- 
scription of the, and unreliability of the 
marble representations of the" instru- 
ment, 438. 

Civilisation, Instruments follow in 

the wake ot, 383. 

— Eidicula, Its probable identity 

with the Latin guitar and the Spanish 
vigola and vihuela, 244. 

Roman de Brut, Description of the court 
music and list of instruments of the age 
in the (Xllth cent.), 428. 

Roman de Ron, Reference to the vielle 
and the rote in the (Xllth cent.), 429. 

Romans, Fondness for wind instruments 
of the, 319. 

, Stringed instruments compara- 
tively little used by the, 319. 

, Subordinate position occupied by 

music among the, 323, 326. 

, The chief stringed instrument of 

the, 319 Keq, 434. 

Romance of the San Graal, Guitar-fiddle 
from the Xlllth cent. .MS. now in the 
Bibliotheque Imi^eriale, Paris, 475. 

Rose Soundhole, Of instruments of which 
the strings are plucked, 259. 

, Small rebec with. From 

MS. the " Liber Regalis " in Westmin- 
ster Abbey (XlVth cent.), 390. 

Rote, A favourite instrument of the 
middle ages, 429. 

. Definition of the lira claiming for it 

kinship with the (Xlllth cent.), 427. 

Rotta, Anglo-Saxons probobly learnt from 
the Britons the use of the, 384. 

, Bass, corresponding to the 'cello 

(Xlth cent.), 338-41. 

Bass, from the Utrecht Psalter 

(IXth cent.), 341. 

, Chief characteristic of the, 250, 340. 

Declared by Notker Balbulus to be 

derived from the Psalterium, 336. 
, Descriptive reference to the (Xth 

cent.), 336. 

Evidence showing that in the 

Vlllth cent, the bow was not vet used 
with the, 335. 

, Evidence that the Welsh crwth 

was merely the, with fingerboard added, 



Rotta, Guitnr-shaprfl, with inourvatioiis. 
From XlVth .nit. AIS. in the Itoyal 
Library, Dresdoii, 441. 

In Eimland, France and Germany 

from the V'lIIth to Xlth cent., 374. 

, Jlethod of playing- the, 335-(i. 

, Number of strings on the, 336. 

Of the middle ages. Instrument 

supplying the connecting link between 
the guitar-fiddle of the Xlth cent, and 
the, 343. 

Of the Vlth cent.. The instruments 

of the Utrecht Psalter the only link 
between the guitar-fiddle of the Xltli 
cent, and the, 377, -440. 

, Old Germanic, found in an Ale- 
manic tomb of lYth to Tilth cent, and 
now in the Tiilker ^Museum. Berlin, 441. 

Or chrotta referred to as " the in- 
strument of the Britons," 336, 384 

Or chrotta, thus known in England 

but as cvthara in Germany, 250, 335, 339 
note, 384, 425, 441, 495. 

Or cithara from an altar-piece 

(1367-I4I5) belonging to the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, 450. 

Or cithara having the same outline 

as the ancient Egyptian guitar. From 
>IS. in Royal Library, Dresden (XlVth 
cent.), 450. 

Or cithara in transition. Main differ- 
ence during the middle ages between the 
cithara proper and the, 345. 

, Popularity with the minstrels in 

England of the, 477. 

, Probable origin of the name, 335-6. 

, lleasons for supposing the chrotta 

to be identical with the, 335-6. 

Reference by Ottfried of Weissen- 

burg in his Harmony of the Gospels to 

the (IXth cent.), 426. 
, The cithara called, in a letter from 

Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury, 750 

A.D., 335, 425. 
, The name, applied to the cithara in 

transition, 335. 
, Without neck, but held like 

modern violin and played with bow. 

From Xltli cent. jMS. in University Lib- 
rary, Cambridge, 340. 
Rottas In the second stage of transition. 

From two bibles of Charles the Bald, 337. 
Made in sets of three sizes corres- 
ponding to the treble, tenor and bass 

voices, 339-41. 
, Treble and bass, Blethod of holding 

them, as shown in MS. of the Xlth cent., 

Round head With pegs inserted in the 

under surface common to many of the 

Minnesinger fiddles, 466. 
Riihr Trommel or tenor drum. 180. 
Sabecha, Phoenician, see Satnbuca, 314. 
Sabuca, Jlistranslated sackbut in the book 

of Daniel, 314. 
Sabuca, see Sambiica, 314. 
Sackbut, Entymology* of word from the 

Spanish, SO. 

* The more probable derivation is the 
Arab Buk or Buqiie, a war trumpet, and 
sacar to draw, i.e., a draw trumpet or 
slide trumpet. 
, Name applied in error to the 

sabuca in translating the book of 
Daniel, 314. 

Sackbut, See chapter on The Trombone, 
74, 80. 

St. Emmeran, Psalter of. Date assigned 
by Gerbort to the, 386. 

■ , The Boulogne 

Psalter and Cotton MS.. Tib. C, VI., 
possibly copies of the, .386. 

St. Gallen. Common feature of construc- 
tion in the instruments from the MSS. 
of the schools of !Metz, Soissons and, 371. 

, .School of music established 

by Charlemagne, 

St. Medard, Evangeliarium of. Common 
feature of construction in the instru- 
ments from the MSS. of Metz, St. 
Gallen and, 371. 

, Origin of 

the, 399-400. 

, Tamboura 

(end of the Vlllth cent.), from the, 399. 
Salo, Gasparo da, maker of the first 

violins at the end of the XVIth cent., 

see also Tieffeiibriiecker, 109. 
Salpin.x, Ancient Greek trumpet. 87. 
Sambuca Identical with the Phoenician 

sabecha, 313. 
, Invention of the, attributed to 

Ibycus (Vlth cent. B.C.), 313. 

, Number of strings on the, .313. 

. Perhaps similar in shape to the 

Egyptian nanga, 314. 

Shape of the, according to 

Athenanis, 314. 

Sapho and the lyre, 302. 

Credited with invention of the bar- 

biton, 301-2. 

Saracens Give a fresh impetus to art in 
Europe, 398. 

Sarinda, Indian, Lyre resembling the, 321. 

Sassanian silver dish from Irbit (Hermi- 
tage St. Petersburg), showing a pear- 
shaped rebab or lute, 407. 

From Perm (Count 

Stroganoff's collection) showing a pear- 
shaped rebab or lute, 407. 

(British Sluseum), 

from the Oxus showincr a pear-shaped 

rebab or lute, 380, 407, 491-3. 
Sax, Adolphc, Inventor of the saxhorn 

family and of the saxophones, 45-6, 63. 
Saxophone, see chapter on this instrument, 


— , Compass, 45, 208. 

, Construction of the, 44. 

■ . Invented by Adolphe Sas in 

1840, 45-6. 

-, Its fingering similar to that of 

flute and oboe, 44. 

, Origin of the, 45. 

, Overblows an octave instead of 

a twelfth like the clarinet, 46. 

— — , Possibilities of the, 45. 

Production of sound, 44. 

— . Quality of tone, 45. 

Scales, Dorian, Lydian and Phrygian, 312. 

, Forty-five, Alypius and the, 308. 

Schola Palatina, The school of miniature 

painting founded by Charlemagne, 365, 

367 (table). 
School of Winchester, A group of TMSS. of 

the, of the same period and displaying 



tlie same stvlistic r-liaraotiTistics as tlie 

Utrecht Psalter, 357, 372. 
Schools of Carloviiigiaii Art, Corbie, 3G1, 

367 (table). 
, Fraiuo-SnxoTi 

or St. Denis, List of illuminated ilSS. 

produced by, 365, 367 (table). 
, Influenced 

by Anglo-Saxon art, 361. 
• — -, Metz and the 

Utrecht Psalter, 361-3, 367 table, 371. 
. Uheims and 

the Utrecht Psalter, 358-'J, 361, 363-9, 

Plastic art of, see also K)iviint<, 367-8. 

, Schola Pala- 

tina, the school founded by Charle- 
magne, 365, 367 table. 


minatcd MSS. produced in, 367 table. 

— , Tdui's, not 

indebted to Anglo-Saxon art, Imt influ- 
enced by late classic art, 361. 

Schools of -Music Established by Cliarle- 

Lesbian, founded bv 

Terpander, 301. 
, 3letz, One of the tliree 

founded by Charlemagne, 371, 3!)8. 
'- , St. Gall, one of the 

three founded bv Charlemagne, 371, 398, 

•101-5, -194. 
, Soissons, One of the 

three founded by Charloma<>ne, 371, 398- 

400, 406. 
Schroeter of Dresden, Invention of piano- 
forte claimed by, 134. 
Screw Of the bow. Use and construction 

of the. 103, 269. 
Scroll, Guitar-tiddle having- a neck finished 

with iXIVth cent.), 390. 

Of violin, 102, 223. 

, l?ebec with neck ti'rniiiiatinL'' in. 

From 5[S. the " Liber Itegalis " in 

Westminster Abbey (Xl\'th cent.), 390. 
Sebeka, see Samhiica. 
Seven Positions or Shifts of i 

trombone, 75-6. 
Of th 

Sforza Book. Exquisitely illuminated ITS. 

of the XVth cent, now in the British 

Museum, containing numerous repre- 

.sentations of musical instruments, 482. 
Shawm, Shalme.y, The precursor of the 

oboe, 11, 13. 
Shoulder of violin, 102, 116, 194-201. 229. 
Side Drum, see Drum, Side, 157, 179. 
Silbermann of Freiberg. Invention of 

piano claimed for, 134. 
Simmikion, A stringed instrument (date 

about 600 B.C.), mentioned l)v Pollux, 

Simos, Invention of the simmikion attri- 
buted to, 315. 

-" , Number of strings on the. 315. 

Single action harp by Cousineau, 142, 147. 
Skin soundboards, 254-5. 
Skindapsos, Construction of the, 316. 
, Number of strings on tlu'. 


he slide 
1' violin. 

Skindapsos, Tone of the, 316. 

Slide, Seven positions or shifts of the, 

75-6, 84. 

— ■ Trombone, see Trombone, 74-82. 

Trumpet, see Trumiiet, Slide. 

Slides, Brass wind instruments with. List 

of, 3. 
Snare Drum, Sticks used with the, 180. 
, See Drum, Side or Snare, 

157, 179. 
Soft Pedal, Action of, 129. 
Invented for harpsichord bv 

John Heywood, cir. 1670, adapted to 

pianoforte by John Broadwood, 1783, 135. 
, With shifting action invented 

by Stein in 1789, 
Soissons, Common feature of construction 

in the instruments depicted in MSS. 

from the centres of Metz. St. ttallen 

and. 371. 
Sonata, Earliest use of word, xxxiv. 
Sordino or Poehette (q. v.), 417. 
Soundbar Of the violin, 102, 261. 
Soundboard and fingerboard combined, of 

Anglo-Saxon rebec (Xlth cent.), 387. 
, Influence of the position of 

the sound-holes on the vibrations of the, 

199, 449. 

Influence on the tone of 

stringed instruments of the, 123-5, 271. 
Of the lyre, Greek name for 

the, 289. 

Of the pandoura, 317. 

Or belly of pianoforte. Con- 
struction of, 123-6. 

Or belly of pianoforte. Func- 
tion of, 123-6. 

Or belly of stringed instru- 

ments. Function of, 123-6, 252-3. 

— , Parchment or thin wooden, 

of modern JNIoorish rebab, 396. 

, Serpent skin, 254. 

Soundchest and neck of the rebec, 387. 

As the most important feature 

of the violin, vii, 238. 

, Boat-shaped, Antiquity of 

the, 396. 

. Boat-shaped, Instruments in 

which it is found, 255. 

■ , Box, Construction of the, 436. 

, Cylinder-shaped, 254. 

— , Earliest form of, 235. 

•, Oblong, of cithara in transi- 
tion, from Anglo-Saxon MS. (700 a.d.), 

Of lyre, 289. 

Of modern Moorish rebab, 396. 

Of Roman cithara without 

arms, 321. 

Of the cithara. early forms 

and development of the, 292-4. 

Of the cithara the most im- 

portant feature of the instrument, 2.33. 

235, 292. 
— Of the crwth, crowd, rotta, 

etc., 250. 
Of the lyre in its mcdireval 

development. Chief characteristic of the, 

— ; Of violin, derivation from that 

of the monoehord improbable, 24li. 
■ . Rectangular, of As.«vnan 

ketharah, 292. 

3 F 



Souiulchost, Hclativf position in the diffcr- 

ciit classes of stringed iustruments of 

strings and, 289. 
. , Superior tvpe of, sliallow, 

witli ribs, 235-6, 253, 250. 
, 'i'lie most primitive (vaulted). 

235, 238. 253, 2.56. 
■ . Tortoise-shell, of l.vre, 235, 

, Vaulted, The most primitive 

tvpe, 235, 238, 253, 256. 

— , With ribs hollowed out of 

one piece of wood. Cithara found in 
Thebes, novi- in the iJuseum of Anti- 
quities, Leyden. 436. 

Soundehests, How incurvations may be 
accounted for in, 25". 

, Nuts used to form. 254. 

. , The two great types- of. 

235, 238, 253, 256. 

— , Their importance in tlie 

classification and identification of 
stringed instruments, 233, 235, 238, 253. 

Soundliole, Rose, of instruments of which 
the strings are pluclved, 259. 

Soundholes, " C "-shaped. Characteristic of 
the viols, 259. 

, C-sbaped, fine example of 

guitar-fiddle with (XlVth cent.), 392. 

, Crescent shaped, 415. 

, Ear-shaped, in a fine guitar- 
fiddle. From a ])icture by Cimabue in 
the Pitti Gallery, Florence (Xlllth 
cent.), 480. 

, Ear-shaped, ^finnesinger's 

fiddle with (XlVth cent.), 459. 

, Effect of central rose on the 

vibrations of the soundboard of stringed 
instruments, 449. 

. //, The distinctive feature of 

the violin, 225. 

, " Flaming sword." Character- 
istic of the viola d'amore, 259. 

, Importance of the, 259. 449. 

. Influence on tlie vibrations of 

the soundboard of the position of. 199, 
258-9. 449. 

Not needed on tlic kitbava tlic 

'bottom being left open. 438. 

Of the lyre. 290. 

Of the violin. Their shape, posi- 
tion and object, 100, 225, 258-9. 

Round, of early English in- 

struments, 387, 389. 

Used on the instruments of the 

ancient Egyptians. 259. 

-, Various shapes of. 259 steq. 

Soundpost, Improved rebec or geige (XVIh 

and XVIth cent.), with bass bar and. 


. Of the crwth, 262. 

. Of the violin. 102, 261. 

Spain, Cithara probably introduced by the 

Phoenician colonists (1100 to 700 b.c.i. 

into, 325. 
. Conquest by the jVloors of. Influence 

on music of the, 329. 
, Conquest by the ]\[oors of. Stringed 

instruments known in Europe previous 

to the. 239. 384. 
, French influence during the Xlth 

and Xllth cent, on the fine arts of. 410. 
, Introduction of the barbiton into, 

48S. ' 

Spain, Names by which the kithara was 
known in, 426. 

Spanish Citharuedes, ilarvellous profici- 
ency at the beginning of the Christian 
era of the, 325. 

. Sent by Consul 

iletellus to Rome for the festivals, 325. 

Guitar of the present day the 

lineal descendant of the ancient ketha- 
rah of the East. 248. 

Spinet or Virginal. Predecessor of the 
pianoforte. 132. 

Spohr First in England to conduct the 
orchestra from a desk in 1820, 1.3G. 

Spoon-shaped Instruments, 371-3, 442, 494. 

Nofre of the Egyptians, 

Affinity between tlie instrument from the 
Psalter of Lothair and tlie, 371. 

Sprin;.;er. Anton. Date and oriirin of the 
rtrcclit Psalter according to.';«6. 

S-shaped Trumpet. E.xample of the, in a 
XVth cent. MS. in the Brit. Mus.. 483. 

Stein, Dr. .Marc Aurel, Statuettes showing 
spoon and pear-shaped reliabs dis- 
covered on the site of ancient Khotan bv, 

, of Augsburg. Invention of soft 

pedal with shifting action in 1789 b.v. 135. 

Stick. Difference in shape in the modern 
and the ancient bow, 269. 

Of modern bow made of Pernambuco 

wood. 103. 269. 

Of the modern bow, 103. 269. 

Of Tonrte bow bent slightly convex 

to the strings. 103. 269. 

Stolzel, Inventor of valves or pistons in 
1815. xx.wii. .53. 80. 

Stradivari, The, or Cremona master 
violin-makers, 109. 

Straight Bow iXIIItli cent), 282. 

String, Eleventh, added to the cithara. 

, Ninth, added to tlie cithara l)v 

Phrynis, 304. 

. Tenth, added to the cithara, 305. 

Stringed, Four, rebec \^ith large sound- 
holes, common during the middle ages 
in all countries. 389. 

, Three, crwth from XlVth cent. 

fresco in the Chapter House, West- 
minster. 338-9. 

Instrument, Earliest, plaved with 

the bow, 278-9. 

Of the Greeks and 

Romans. The chief. 434. 

. Oldest non-Egyptian 

representation yet found of a. From a 
terra-cotta statuette. Greek work of the 
post-^Mycenfpan period, found in a grave 
in the Goshen cemetery and assigned to 
the XXth dynasty, circa 1000 n r^. 483. 

, The principal used 

with a bow in England during the 
middle ages, 387. 

Very large, remini- 

scent of the large viols. From the Bud- 
dhist Tope of .\maravati (TInd cent., 
A.B.I. Grand Staircase, Brit. Alus.. 402. 

Stringed Instruments At the Siege of 
Troy, 300. 

. Change effected by 

the introduction of the ifingcrboard in, 

— . Chief points of ex- 



foUenc-e claimed for the guitar-fiddle 

ovlt other. Hi. 
Striiig-ed iTistriimeiit, Chief use during the 

middle ages of, 437. 
, Classification of, 91), 

Classified by the 

relative position of their soundchests 

and strings, 289. 
Comparatively little 

used by the Romans, 319. 
, Earliest form known 

in civilization of, 235. 

, K.astern influence on 

the development of, 328. 

■ — ^ Effect of the inven- 
tion of the bridge on, 271. 

. — , Elongated pear- 
shaped. The Asiatic origin of, 490. 

, Fanciful. From the 

Cotton MS., Tib. C, VI., Brit. Mus., 
Xlth cent., 384. 

. — — Known in Europe 

before 711 a.d., 239, 384. 

Known in Europe 

during the middle ages. Classification of 
the, 235, 394. 

, Mediteval, Difficulty 

in classifying, 424. 

Of rectangular out- 
line, found in later medieval European 
-USS. were derived from Eastern models, 

Predominance in 

ancient India of, 279. 


Europe until about the Xllth cent., of 
the rebec tribe among. 395. 
— . Prototypes found 

among those of the ancient Egyptians 
of all European medift^val, 4.S2. 

__ , See also Instru- 
ments, strlnfjed. 

, The favourite, of 

the minstrels in England, 477. 

The three prototypes 

of the mediteval, of Europe, 442. 

. Use by the Greeks 

in religious rites of. 287. 

With necks. Evidence 

that the Greeks of Asia Minor were ac- 
quainted in the early centuries of the 
Christian era with, 379. 

Strings, Characteristic manner of fasten- 
ing the, in Oriental instruments, 387-8. "" 

. Crwth with three, from XlVth 

cent, fresco in the Chapter House, West- 
minster. 338-9. 

. Divisions of the, marked on fin- 
gerboard by means of frets, 249. 

— , In.otrwment with two, played with 

a bow and possessing characteristics of 
the rebec (Xlllth cent.), 389. 

Of a Tfoman oithara in transition. 

Number of, 320-1. 

Of chromatic harp. No mechanism 

required for shortening, 151-2. 

Of chromatic harp. One for each 

chromatic semitone throughout the com- 
pass provided. 152. 

Of chromatic harp, White and 

black, corresponding with arrangement 
of notes on the piano, 152. 

Strings of citharas with box tailpieces, 
-Method of attaching, 296. 

Of harp, Jlechanism for shorten- 

ing the. 139-40. 
Of harp. 

ment of, 140-2. 
Of harp 

Number and arrange- 

tuned by means of 
pedals, 142. 

Of the barbiton, 313, 487-8. 

Of the chrotta, or rotta. Number 

according to Labeo Notker, 3.3C. 

Of the citliara, .\ristosenus said 

to have added to the, 308. 

Of the cithara. Number, arrange- 
ment and method of fixing the, 296. 

Of the cithara. Their number in- 
creased by Terpander. 301. 

Of the epigoneion, Number accord- 

ing to Pollux of, 315. 

Of the lyre, Methods of fastening 

the, 290. 

Of the lyre. Number of, 289, 290-1. 

Of the niiagadis. Number of, 311. 

Of the pandoura, Number of, 317. 


Of the pectis. Number according 

to Plato and Sopatcr, 310. 

Of the pianoforte, How fastened 

and tuned, 123. 
Of the pianoforte. Tension of the, 


Of the skindapsos, Number of, 316. 

On crowds and crwths, Manner of 

stopping the, 256. 

On the Greek citharas. Methods of 

fixing, 262-3, 296. 
— . Hebec with four, and large 

sound-holes, common during the Middle 

Ages in all countries, 389. 
. The various manners of setting 

them in vibration, 268. 

Twanged with fingers and plec- 

trum simultaneously, 272-3. 

, Wire, Introduction of, 274. 

. Wire, Necessitating the use of 

the plectrum. 274. 

Stroganoff, Count, Sassanian silver dish 
found at Perm, on which is represented 
a pear-shaped lute or rcbab, preserved in 
the collection of, 407. 

Stuttgart Psalter, Common feature of 
stringed instruments with necks in the, 

Swarzenski, Georg. Theory that the artistic 
inspiration of the Utrecht Psalter was 
due to Anglo-Saxon influence but that 
the execution was Carlovingian, 364, 369. 

, Theory that the Car- 
lovingian school of miniature painting 
at Rheims was due to a single dominant 
personality of Anglo-Saxon nationality, 
364-6, 369." 

Symbol. The cithara as a, of the Cross 
and Passion, 450. 

SymiihoniK" Sacra? of the Gabrieli's, xxxi, 
xxxii, xxxiv. 

Symphonia, see Hnrdi/Gurch/. 

Syria and Egypt, Influence on the de- 
velopment of Prankish art of, 382. 

Syrian Evangeliarium by Rabulo of 
"Zagbn. in the Bibl. Uaurenziana, Flor- 
ence, .Vffinities with Utrecht Psalter of, 



Svrian Orig'in of Utroclit I'saltcr iiiiiiii- 

"tained, vii, 344, 356, 367, 378-U. 
Syrinx, Kefereiico bv HtTodotiis to tlio 

(Vlth cent. B.C.), 2U9. 
Tabor, E.xampli's in a XVth coiit. .MS. in 

the Brit. Mus. of the, 483. 
Tafi, Andrea (1213-1294), Said to have been 

the first painter to introduee into his 

pictures figures of angels plaj'ing fiddles, 

Tailpiece, Box, of the cithara, 294. 
. , Combined bridge and, of the 

cithara and the guitar, 265. 
Fastened by loops to tailpin on 

Flemish "viola" (oval vielle) (XITth 

cent.), 393. 
, Its shape, position and use, 

101-2, 226, 264-5. 
Of the Egyptian kithara. Con- 

struction and use of the, 265. 

Of the violin, l?eason for the 

slanting position of the, 266. 
Or cross-reed of the lyre. Its 

use before the introduction of the bridge, 

, Square, attached by strings to 

a button, on Xlllth cent, guitar-fiddle. 

From a painted window in the Cathedral 

at Leon, 470. 

Tapering, which ultimately de- 

veloped into the modern tailpiece of the 
violin (Xlth cent.), 265, 387. 

Tail-pin of Flemish " viola " (oval vielle) 
to which the tailpiece is fastened by 
loops. From Sloane iiS., Brit. JFus. 
(XlVth cent), 393. 

Of violin. Its use and how at- 
tached, 101, 227. 

Tamboura, Egyptian, Manner of holding- 
the ancient, 349. 

From the Evaiigeliarium of St. 

Medard (end of Tlllth cent.), 399. 

, Moorish, Manner of holding: 

the, in the Xlllth cent., 349. 

Of the Assyrians. Persians and 

Arabs identical with the pandoura of 
the Greeks, 317. 

Or tanbur. Construction of the. 


Or tanbur, of the !Moors iden- 
tical with the pandoura of the Greeks, 

, Oval, T?escmlilanee between the 

nefer and the. 433. 

, Vaulted, from an early Chris- 
tian funereal relief, 400. 

Tambura or pandoura with three strins's. 
From the Psalterium Aureum (IXth 
cent.), 404. 

. , Survival among the .Arabs in 

practically the same stage of develop- 
ment for twelve centuries of the, 405. 

Tanbur, .\11 stringed instruments known 
in Europe during the ^fiddle .-Vges 
evolved either from the cithara, the re- 
bab or the, 394. 

And nefer. instruments of two 

distinct classes, 442. 

Assyrian. From terra-cotta idol 

in Brit. Mus. (Ilnd cent. B.C.), 408. 

, Carthage, from terra-cottn fi"ure 

dating from period of the Roman dom- 
ination, 409 1. 

, Evidence pointing to thi< simul- 

taneous introduction into Europe froai 

the East and the West of the, 407-9. 
Tanbur, Examples allowing the iiistid- 

ment to be traced from Egypt, through 

Assyria, Greece and tlnrthage, 408. 
Or Moorish guitar with crescent- 
shaped tailpiece and Oriental rose 

soundhole. 214. 
, Prevalence of the, in Euroj:e 

during the Grwco-ISoman period, 409. 
Taschen Geige or Pochette (q. v.) 
Telamon or band for suspending the 

cithara, 296. 
Tenor Drum similar to side drum but 

without snares, 180. 
Terpander A victor at the Pvthian games. 

And the seven-toned phorminx, 

At the musical contests u.f 

Apollo C'arneius, 310. 
, Corajjoser, poet and instrumen- 
talist (Vllth cent. B.C.), ,301. 

, Lesbian school founded by, 301. 

, The nomes of, 301. 

Testudo Lyre or Chclvs, Construction of 

the. 235," 254-5, 289-9o". 
, Crwth family 

descended from, 250. 
Theatres closed through the condemnation 

of the Church, 327. 
Theodorus of Cwsarea, Description of 

guitar-fiddle represented in a Greek 

Psalter written and illuminated bj-, a.d. 

1066, 448. 
Theorbo or bass lute. The name barbiton 

applied to the (XVIIth cent.), 488. 
Tibia, Tl\e prototype of the oboe, 13. 
Tieffenbrucker, Gaspar or Caspar (died 

1560), First steps towards production of 

violin ascribed by some to, 109. 
Tikkanen, .1. .T.. Origin of the Utrecht 

Psalter according to, 364. 
Tikkanen's* Reasons for rejecting the 

idea of a Greek prototype of the Utrecht 

Psalter, 364. 

* Prof. Tikkanen now accepts the Greek 
or Syrian origin of the Utrecht Psalter. 
Timbales. see Kettledrum, 158. 
Timotheus, the Elder, And the singing of 
the nomes, 306. 

— , Aristotle's 

opinion of the cithara of, 307. 

At the Car- 

neian musical contests, 306. 
of, 306. 


Of Miletus. 

adds the eleventh string' to the cithara, 

Timotlieua. Instrumental music cultivated 

by (446-.r)7 u.i. l, 306. 

^ , Sketch of the career of, 305. 

The originator of programme 

music. 306. 
Timpani, see Kettledrum, 158. 
Tonguing. Double and triple. Explanation 

of practice, 6. 
, Practised 

on fiute. cornet and trumpet, 6. 87. !>5. 
Tope of .\miir;'ivnti, Buddhist, Stringed in- 
struments from tlie. Grand Staircase. 

Brit. Mus. (Ilnd cent. A.n.i, 408. 
Topes at Jumal-Qarhi (Afghanistan), In- 



stiumeiits betraying Greek classical in- 

Huencc, from the, 407. 
Tortoise-shell, Back of the lyre inlaid 

with, 289. 
Instruments all derived from 

the lyre, 488. 
Tours. School of Carloving-ian Art, Bible 

of Charles le Chauve produced by, 367 

, School of Carloving-ian Art, Il- 
luminated .\ISS. produced by the, 367 

. School of Carlovingian Art, Not 

indebted to Anglo-Saxon inHuence but 

inspired bj' classic art, 361. 
Tragedy, Greek, Important part played 

by music in. .\xiv, 287. 
Transtillum or cross-bar of the lyre, 290. 
Transverse Flute, Earliest representations 

of the, India, Ilnd cent. ; Byzantine, 

Vlllth cent., 7, see also flute, traiin- 

ver^e, 6. 
Treatise on Music, By Al-Farabi (Xtli 

cent.), 405. 
. , The very earliest, 

in the German language, 402. 
Triangle, Instrument of percussion of in- 
definite musical pitch. 157, 180-1. 
Trigonon, Aristotle and the use of the, 


, Assyrian, 276. 

From the Utrecht Psalter, 347, 

, Phrygian, confused with the 

pectis, 311. 

Shape of the, .317. 

Triple revolving cithara, 310. 
Tonguing practised on flute, trum- 
pet and cornet, 6, 87, 95. 
Tromba Marina, Bridge of the, is, 261-2. 

, See TriDiipct. 83. 

Trombone, Compass, 76, 209-10. 

. , Construction of the, 74. 

, Harmonic series of, 75. 

, Origin of the, 79. 

, PossiViilities of the, 79. 

, Production of sound, 75. 

. , Quality of tone, 78. 

Or Sackbut. Origin of word, 79- 

, The alto, see chapter on The 

Trombone. 74. 
, The bass, see chapter on The 

Trombone, 74. 
, The contra-bass, sec chapter on 

The Trombone, 74. 
, The seven positions or shifts of 

the slide on the, 75-6. 
_, The tenor-bass, sec chapter on 

The Trombone. 74. 
Trombones, Pitch of the four chief, 76. 
, Slide, made by Neuschel, of 

Nuremberg, at the beginning of the 

XVIth cent., 80. 

, The double-slide. 

The valve. 


Troubadour, Count Guillaume de Poitiers 
said to have been the first, 455. 

_. , First Courts in F.urope to 

foster the art of the, 455. 

In France, Art of the, 4.'i5 

tliemes compared with those of the trou- 

veres and bards, 4.36-7. 
Trouljadouis, Impetus given to secular 

music by the, 456. 
— , Love of song and culture of 

musical instruments disseminated over 

Europe by the, 455. 
Trouveres and Bards, Their themes com- 
pared witli those of the troubadours and 

iiiiniiesingers. 4.56-7. 
Trov. Siege of. Stringed instruments used 

by Achilles at the, 300. 
Trumpet, Arrangement of valves on, 84. 
, Bending of the tube wrongly 

attributed to .Maurin, 1498-1515, 88. 

, Compass, 84, 120. 

. Construction of the, 83. 

, Harmonic series of the, 85. 

, .Marine, see Tromba Marina. 

, Origin of the, 87. 

, Piston or valve, see chapter on 

The Trumpet, 83. 

, Possibilities of the, 86. 

. Production of sound, 83. 

: , Quality of tone, 85. 

, S-shaped, Kxample in XVth 

cent. MS. in the Brir,. .\lus. of the, 483. 
, See chapter on this instrument, 


, The Bach, 88. 

, The natural, see chapter on 

The Trumpet, 83. 

The slide, see chapter on Tlie 

Troubadours and ;Minnesingers, Tiapid de- 
velopment of bowed instruments due to 
the, 457. ^, . 

And Minnesingers, Their 

Trumpet, 83. 

, The valve or piston, see chap- 
ter on The Trumpet. 83. 

Tuba, Bass, Compass, 65, 208. 

, Bass. Construction of the, 65. 

, Bass, Quiility of tone, 68. 

, Bass, see ciiapter on The Tubas. 

Contra-bass, Compass, 68. 
Contra-b:\ss, Construction of the. 

Contra-bass, see chapter on The 
.s, 58. 

. See Euphonium, Bombardon, Heli- 

eofi. Tuba, basx, Tuba, contra bass. 
Tubas, War/ner. 

, Tenor and tenor bass, see Tubas, 


Tubas, Harmonic series of the, 60, 68. 

. Wagner, Compass, 71, 208. 

, Wagner. Construction of, 70. 

■ , A^'agner. Harmonic series of the, 


, Wagner, Possibilities of, 73. 

, Wagner, Production of sound, 70. 

, Wagner, Quality of tone, 72. 

, AVagner, see chapter on The Tubas, 


Tuning Wrench of cithara (Xth cent.) 

Urheen. Chinese, Instrument with cylin- 
drical soundehest, 254. 

Utrecht Psalter a nroduct of the school 
of Pheims, 362, 364-5. 

And the school of Metz, 


. . Anglo-Saxon origin ac- 
cording to Franz Friedrich Leitsclinh of 
the, 360. 

. , Close resemblance in 

stvlc between the carving on the bind- 



ing of the Psalter of Charles le Chaiivc 
and the drawings of the, 353, 359-60. 

Utrecht Psalter, Close resemblance in 
style between the illuminations of the 
Evangeliarium of Ebo and those of the, 

, Controversy concerning' 

the origin of the, 352-82. 

, Copies of the, 361-2, 


, Date and origin accord- 
ing to Adolph Goldschmidt of the, 357 

, Date and origin accord- 
ing to Anton Springer of the, 356. 

: — , Date and origin accord- 
ing to Mr. Howard Payn of the, 3.56. 

, Date according to Prof. 

Westwood of the, 35.'J. 

. Date and origin accord- 
ing to Sir Thos. Diifl'us Hardy of the. 

344, 354-5. 

Dates assigned to the. 


. Kvidonce showing that 

the cithara was recognised by that 
name at the time the original 31 S. was 
produced, 347, 350. 

. , Evolution of guitar 

from kithara demonstrated by minia- 
tures of the, 377, 379-80. 

, From what source did 

the artist draw his inspiration in illus- 
trating the musical scenes in the, 369, 

, Goldschmidt's reasons 

for assigning the execution to France ; 
the origin to the East, 357-62. 

— , Greek prototype of the, 

Tikkanen's* reasons for rejecting the 

idea of a, 36 1. 

* Prof. Tikknnen is now satisfied as to 

the Oriental origin of the Utrecht Psalter. 

1908. [K. S.] 

. , Group of Carlovingian 

^ISS. of the same period and displaying 
the same stylistic characteristics as the, 

'- — ■ , Harleian MS., 603 (Xlth 

cent.), copy of the, 353, 371. 

History and description 

by Mr. Walter de Gray Birch, F.R;S.L., 
of the, 356. 

— , Hydraulic organ from 

, Illustrations of the. nil 

the, 378. 

the steps in the evolution of the cithar.a 
reproduced in the, 377, 448. 
■ , Illustrations of the, de- 
rived from an early Byzantine model 
according to Goldschmidt, 361-2. 

Important bearing 

the evolution of the violin of the origin 
of the. Chap. VII. and VIII. and 351-2. 
377-8 seq. 

In favour of a Western 

origin of the :\1S. see Westirnnd, Report 
nf the Kight Experts. De Gray Birch, 
Sprhiger, Leit.frhiih, Ttiirrieu. fikkanen 
isince writing his book has changed his 
views), 353-4, .3.56. 360, 362, 364. 

■ , In favour of Eastern 

origin of the JfS. see Diiffus-Hardy, 
Goldschmidt, Graeven, Sivarzcnslci, Dal- 

ton ^nd Author, 344, 354-5, 357, 361, 363-4, 
368, 378-9. 
Utrecht Psalter, Is a satisfactory ex- 
planation of the origin of the musical 
instruments illustrated to be deduced from 
any of the expert reports on tlie, 3()7, 369. 
Is it of Eastern or of 

Western origin?, 344-82. 

Miniatures of, designed 

to illustrate a Greek or Syriac version of 
Psalms and not the Galilean, vii, 363, 

, Musical instruments de- 
picted in, a proof of the Syrian or Greek 
origin of, 378. 

, Opinions of Gold- 
schmidt, Duffus-Hardy and Hans 
Graeven concerning origin of, corrobor- 
ated bv the musical instruments chosen 
in illustration of Ps. 1.37, 378-9. 

• , Oriental origin accord- 
ing to Ormonde M. Dalton of the. 367. 

, Origin according to 

J. J. Tikkanen* of the. 364. 

* Prof. Tiklcanen is now convinced of 

its Oriental origin. 1908 [K. S.l 

, Origin according to 

Paul Durrieu of the, 362. 

— — , Palieological character- 
istics of the, 344, 353, 362-3. 

— — , Plectrum shaped like a 

scythe from the, 276. 

Press mark in the Brit. 

Mus. of the autoty])e copy of the, 345. 
Reasons for attributing 

to one artist the group of .\ISS. 
playin? the same characteristics as the. 
365, 369. 

— , Reports by eight pala^o- 

graphical experts made to the Trustees 
of the British JMuseum on the date of 
the, 355. 

Resemblance between 

the drawings bound up in a manuscript 
copy of the works of Hrabanus JIaurus, 
and those of the, 359. 

Some instruments 

the, missing in the Harleian copy. 372. 
Style of certain Car- 

lovingian ivories identical with that of 
the drawings of the, 3.53, ,3,59-60. 

, Summaries of principal 

works consulted concerning the draw- 
ings of the, 353 seq. 



that the artistic inspiration of the, was 
due to Anglo-Saxon influence but tluit 
the execution was Carlovingian. 364. .369. 

. The earliest instrument 

with incurvations and neck of the 
Middle Ages from the. 447. 

, The instruments of the. 

form the only link between the cithura 
and rotta of the Vlth cent, and the 
guitar-fiddle of the Xlth cent., vii, .377, 

. Theory of a Greek pro- 
totype of the, 363-4. 378. 

— , Traces of Oriental in- 
fluence in the instruments depicted in 
the, 344. 

Were the musical in- 

struments illustrated in the, actual 

use in France or England at that time?, 




Valve Trombone, see Trombone, Valve. 

Trumpet, see Trumpet, Valve. 

Vtlves or pistons. Brass wind instruments 

vith, List of, 3. 
Invented by Stiilzel in 

1815, 53, 80. 
Vaulted backs, Rejection from the ances- 
try' of the violin of all instruments with, 

10*, 342, iV.), 4'J3. 
Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poictiers 

(Vlth cent.). Oft-quoted and misropre- 

seiited verte concerning' use of chrotta 

by Britons, 236, 250, 384, 495. 
Vespasian :\1S. A.I. (Cotton MS.), Botta 

ilhstrated in the, 384. 
Vibrition of strings, Aliquot or partial 

producing upper partials or harmonies, 

'M, 144. 
, Various manners of setting 

strings in, 'J'J, 2(j8. 
Vibiations of soundboards. Molecular and 

trinsverse, 253. 
Of the soundboard of the violin, 

Iiifluenee of the position of the sound- 
holes on tlie, 449. 
Vidula or Fidula, Derivation of the name, 

2)8, 42(). 
Jlentioned by Ottfried 

ff Weissenburg (IXth cent.), 426, 429. 
\"i"Ile, A favourite instrument of the 

Middle Ages, 42", 429. 
, Characteristics of instruments 

classed under this head, 430. 
, Frencli edict forbidding use in 

taverns of the, 233. 
Having the outline of an elongated. 

pear-shaped rebec. From sculpture on 

doorwav of Notre Dame de Chartres 

(Xllth'cent.), 472. 
, Large oval, with fingerboard and 

wide ribs. Taken from a picture in the 

Cathedral at Cologne (XlVth cent.). 465. 

, Origin of the word, 232, 248, 426. 

, Oval, a good example of the. of 

the Xllth, Xlllth and XlVth cent. 

From Sloane MS., 3983, Brit. Mus.. 393. 
, Oval, description of an, in Queen 

.Marv's Psalter. MS. Brit. Mus. (XlVth 

cent.), 478. 

, Oval, from the ivorv binding of a 

Xllth cent. Byzantine IMS., 4.53. 
, Oval, with fingerboard and dia- 
mond-shaped head, from the " Cantigas 
de Santa Maria," 470. 

, Oval, with iron bow. From the 

Fagade des ^lusiciens at IMieims (Xlllth 
cent.), 474. 

Oval, with long, fretted neck. 

From the Sforza Book MS. in the Brit. 

Mus. (XVth cent.). 482. 
, Reference in the " Roman de 

Brut" to the (Xllth cent.), 428. 
, Relative value in the XlVth cent. 

of the rebec, and, 429. 

— , The most prevalent form of. 430. 

With incurvations, played with a 

bow, and held like the violoncello. From 
the Ab))ey of St. Georges de Boscher- 
ville, near Rouen (Xlth cent.), 422. 

Vigola, see Guitar, Latin. 

Vihuela, De Arco, or guitar-fiddle, viii. 
244-5 (table). 248. 

De Mano, or guitar, viii, 244-5 

(table), 248. 

, Origin of the name, 244, 248, 426 

Vihuela, see Guitar, Latin. 
Viol, bass. Bow of the, 283-4. 

Characteristics, The appearance of 

the guitar-fiddle with the, in Italy in 
the XVth cent., 481. 

, Definition of the lirsi, claiming for 

it kinship with the (Xlllth cent.), 427. 

, 1^'me example of the guitar-fiddle, 

liaving the sloping shoulders of the 
iXl\'tn cent.), 392. 
, Guitar-fiddles foreshadowing the out- 
line of the (XlVth cent.), 392. 
\iola, Lompass, 110, 202. 

, Construction of the, as for violin 

[q. v.], 99-103, 110. 
, rlemisii (Xi\'th cent.), a good ex- 
ample ot the oval vielle of the Xllth. 
."vlilth and Xi\th cent. From Sloane 
MS., 3983, Brit. Mus., 

, Origin of the, see " Origin of the 

Viulin t'amilu," 107. 

• , Origin of the word, 248, 426. 

, Quality of tone, 110. 

, See chaiiter on this instrument, 


, Stelzner, Compass, 200. 

, Stelzner, Construction of the, 197. 

, Stelzner, Production of sound, 200. 

, Stelzner, Quality of tone, 200. 

, Svelzner, see Stelzner Violin 

t'ainilt/, 194. 

, Type of vielle known as (XlVth 

cent.), 393, 430. 
Viola d'amore, Soundholes characteristic 

ot the, 259. 
\iolin, Ancestrv of, conclusively revealed, 

, Bouts or edges of the, 100, 225. 

Bow, Construction of the, 102-3, 


Bow, Fran(;ois Tourte model, 103, 


Bridge, Function of the feet of, 


Bridge, Its influence on the tone 

of the instrument, 102, 226, 260. 

. Bridge. Wood used for, 260. 

. Button of, 229. 

, Chief characteristic of the, 108, 233. 

, Cithara in second stage of transi- 
tion showing the first direct step taken 
towards the evolution of the, from the 
Utrecht Psalter. 345. 

, Compass, 105, 202. 

, Construction of ihe, 99, 223-9. 

, Cremona masters of the, xxxi, xxxii, 

XXXV, 109. 

, Derival ion of the name, 248-9, 420, 


, Derivation of the word from fidi- 

cula (or kithara), 108, 232, 248-9. 

, Development of the, identical with 

that of the guitar in the earlv stages, 248. 

, Edges or bouts of, 100, 225. 

. Etvmological histnrv of the fiddle 

identical with that of the, 248-9. 
, Evolution of the. Important bear- 
ing of the origin of the Utrecht Psalter 
on the. 351-2, 377-8 seq. 
Family, Author's theory of the evo- 
lution of t!ie, sustained by the recently 
published results of archaiologica] re- 
search now being carried out in the 
East, 483. 



Violin Family, The Moorisli rchal) pos- 
sesses no characteristics of the, H31, 419, 

, Features of the, to be observed in 

the kithara, 336. 

, Fing-erboard of, Its important part 

in development of the instrument, 223, 

, Fingerboard of the, 102, 265-B. 

. Fingerboard of the. Necessity for 

the slanting position of the. 102, 26(j. 

First solos written bv Biagio iiarini 

for the, 109. 

, French statute (XTIIth cent.), for- 
bidding the playing in taverns or other 
low places of the, 418-19, see also Viellc, 

, Guitar-fiddle having, but for the 

absence of corner blocks, the outline of 
the (Xlllth cent.), 423. 

, Guitar-fiddle (XlVth cent.), form- 
ing valuable evidence of the descent 
from the Greek cithara of the, 392. 

. Genealogical table of the, 31r. K. 

Heron-Allen's, 231. 

, Genealogical table of the. Author's, 


, Genealogical table of the, 31 r. F,. J. 

Payne's, 231. 
, Harmonics, natural and artificial 

of the, 104-5. 

, Head of, 223. 

. Important bearing of the structure 

of its soundchest, 231. 
. Instruments with vaulted backs 

have no part in the ancestry of, 109, .342, 
419, 493. 

, Modern appellation for the pre- 
cursors of the, during the Middle .\gcs. 

, Monteverde the first to assig-n to 

tlie violin the place of leader of the 
orchestra, 109. 

, Jlost important characteristic of 

the, 108, 233. 

, Neck of. Its adjustment, 102, 223. 

. Origin of the. Author's theory re- 
garding the, 107-9, 230 geq., 2-15. 288. 4]:)- 
20. 484. 

. Origin of the, brief sketch of the. 


. Origin of the. Two main points re- 
garding the, 232. 

— , Peg-box of, 102, 223. 

, Pegs of, 102, 223. 

Plea in favour of the Kurnjiean 

origin refuted. 432. 

■ , Possibilities of the. 100. 

, Production of sound. 103. 

, Purfling of the, 99-101, 225. 

, Quality of tone, lOfl. 

, Question of the origin of the, 107-9, 

230 KCij., 342. 419-20, 432, 484. 
, ]?easons for rejecting tlio erwth 

from the genealogical tree of the. 342. 
. Heasons for rejectins' the ^foorish 

rcbab from the genealogical tree of the. 

342. 419. 

'1 iJost, Its use. 227. 

_. iJival claims of Duiffoprue'enr and 

Gasparo df. Palo as father.s of the, 109. 

, Scroll of the, 102, 223. 

, Shoulder of. 229. 

, Soundbar of the, 102, 201. 

Violin, Soundchest of the. Its construc- 
tion, 235. 

, Soundchest of the, The importaiicc 

of the structural features of the, 108, 

, Soundholcs of the, a charactenstio 

feature of the instrument, 225. 

. Souiidpost of the, 102, 201. 

. Stelzner. see Stelziicr Tiolin 

Fatinhi, 194 .'cg. 

, Stelzner, Compass, 200. 

, Stekiier, Construction of the, 197. 

, Stelzner, Production of sound, 200. 

, Stelzner, Quality of tone, 20t. 

. .See chapters on this instrument, 

99, 194. 

, Tailpiece of the, Peason for the 

slanting jiosition of the, 266. 

. 'I'ail-pin of. Use and how attschcd, 

102, 227. 

, The citliara the original precursor 

of the, 288. 

, Tlie distinguishing eharactcristio 

of the precursors of the, 294. 
, The improbability of its being de- 
rived from the monochord, 249. 

. The neck and head comprising 

scroll, peg-box, fingerboard, nut, ?tc., 

. Tlieories regarding the origin of 

the, 2311. 

, To wliat extent indebted to the re- 

t)al) in its evolution?, 419. 

— . Tremolo and pizzicato effects first 

used by .Monteverde to create a dra- 
matic atmcsphere. 107. 

Type well known in the East in tile 

Xlth cent, and proved by a representa- 
tion of a guitar-fiddle from a Greek 
Psalter from Cicsarea (a.d. 1066). 448. 

, L'se of nut of, 102, 229. 

. Various parts of the, 99 seq.. 223 

Violoncello, Bass rotta corresponding to 
the (Xlth cent.). .340-1. 

■ , Compass, 113, 202. 

, Construction of tlic, 112, 

. Deiivation of word. 115. 

. Examples of liowed instru- 
ments held in the position of the. 453-4. 

. Origin of the, 115. 

. Possibilities of the. 113. 

. Production of sound. 112. 

. Quality of tone, 113. 

. See chapters on this instru- 
ment. 112. 194. 

. Stelzner. see Stclznrr Violin 

Vamilij, 194. 

. Stelzner, Compass, 200. 

, Stelzner, Construction of the, 


_ Stelzner. Production of sound, 


. Stelzner, Q\ialltv of tone, 

Violnne. see Ihtuhlr Bas^\ 115-16. 
Violotta. Stelzner, Compass. 200. 202. 

. Stelzner. Construftion of tlie. 197. 

, Stelzner. Possibilities of the, 201. 

. . Stelzner. Production of sound. 


Fa mill/. 194. 

Stelzner. Quality of tone, 201. 
Stelzner. see " Stelzner Violin 



Viols, " C " souinlliolcs characteristic of 
the, 259. 

— — ^, Fingerboards with frets of the, 26fl. 

, French edicts forbidding' their use 

in taverns and low places, 2i33, 418-1!). 

Virgil Clavier, Cimstruction of the, 185. 

, Oliject of the, 18". 

. see Appendix, 185-8. 

Vitula, Origin of the name, 248, 426. 

Viula, Origin of the name, 426. 

Vocabulary Containing names and defini- 
tions of musical instruments (Xltli 
cent.), 427*. 

Volker der Fiedler, IMinstrcl knight of tlie 
Nibelungen i.,icd. 463. 

Wales, Crwth an instrument not peculiar 
to, but merely a survival of an archaic 
instrument once generally popular in 
Kuropc, 495, 497. 

, Unsupi)ortc(l claim of, to the inven- 
tion of the bow, 278, 494. 

Wagner, Instruments designed specially 
for, see BolztioDipctc, Wagner Tiihat^. 
Parsifal Bell Itisfntment, 16, 70, 171. 

Tubas. Arrangement of valves on 

the tenor, 70. 


Harmonic series of the, 

Not jiroperly tubas but 
bass horns, 70. 

Waldhorn, see Frciieh Horn, 47. 

Weissenburg, Ottfried of, l?eference tn 
the fidula, rotta and other musical in- 
struments bv, in his " Harmonv of tlic 
Gospels" (I'Xth cent.). 426. 

Welsh Crwth. 250-1, 494-7. 

Wi'lsli C'rwtli, Absence of any proof that 
the bow prior to the Xlth cent, was used 
with the. 495. 

Western Civilizations of Europe, The 
rapid evolution during the first centuries 
of our era of the cithara among the, 445. 

WCstwood. Prof., Date assigned to the 
Utrecht Psalter by, 353. 

Winchester School, Group of 3ISS. known 
as ■' Opus Anglieum " of the, of the 
same period and displaying the same 
stylistic characteristics as the Utrecht 
Psalter, 357. 

Wind Instruments, Classification of, 1-3, 

, Fondness of the 

IJomans for, 319. 

Wire strings. Introduction of, 274. 

, Plectrum necessary for use 

with, 274. 

Wood Used for modern bow, 269. 

Wood Wind Instruments, see Wind Inf:tru- 
ments. Wood. 

Wrench, Tuning, of cithara (Xth cent.), 

Wrest or tuning pins Of pianoforte. 123. 

Wrest Plank Of jiianoforte. Function of, 

Of the pianoforte. Construc- 
tion of, 123. 

Xylophone. Compass. 169. 

, Construction of the, 109. 

. See chapter on Orchestral 

Hells, 167. 

Zither. Plectra used on the. 275. 

Zugon Or crossbar of the Ivre and 
cithara, 290, 292. 


Aix-la-C'hapcUe, Guitar-fiddle (XVth cent.) 
From a painting by Hugo vau der Goes, 
Fig. 188 : 467. 

Hurdy-Gurdy (XlVth 

cent.), from the cathedral of .Mx-la- 
Chapelle, Fig. 186 : 465. 
Amiens Cathedral, Fiddle (Xlllth cent.). 

Fig. 20-2 : 177. 
Ancient Kgvptian Guitar, 1700-1200 B.C., 
Fig. 171 : 447. 

Egyptian kithara from Thebes 

1)1 Levdeu .Museum of Antiquities, Fig. 
165: 435. 
Apollo Citharoedus, Museo Pio Clementino, 

IJome, Fig. 94: 297. 
Aries .\luseum, hydraulic organ, pandoura 
and kithara, early Christian sarco- 
phagus, PI. II (Fig" 27a). 
Armitage Bridge House, Psalter of 
Lothair (IXth cent.). Ivory carving 
from the binding of, PI. I. 
Asiatic Ketharah, Fig. 23 : 238. 

Ketharah or rotta, 1700 b.c, from 

Beni-Hassan, Fig. 77 : 286. 
Assyrian ^lusicians with ketharahs, 
drums and cymbals, from Koyoundjiek, 
Fig. 166 : 437. 
Bach Trumpet (Besson and Co.), 86. 
Bagpipe, IlOO b.c, from a Hittite 

relief. Frontispiece to Vol. II. 
Barbiton and cithara, drawing of 
relief in the Louvre, Paris (cf. 
108), Fig. 107 : 322. 

.ind cithara, Louvre (see 

Fig. 108: 107), Fig. 26: 241. 

— And cithara, photograph of a 

bas-relief in the Louvre, Paris, Fig. 108 : 

— Or rebab-lyre, Fig. 24 : 239. 

Barless Grand pianoforte, Broadwood's 

patent, 191. 
Bass Drum (Boosey and Co.), 177. 
Bass Rotta or cithara in transition (IXth 
cent.), Utrecht Psalter, Fig. 117: 341. 

Viol bow (late XVth cent.), see 

Krriita. Fig. 74 : 284, 
Basset Horn, photograph presented by 
31. Victor Mahillon, Brussels, 37. 

Bassoon, Double, or contrafagotto (Bessor. 
and Co.), 26. 

, Double reed mouthpiece of the, 18. 

(Hawkes and Co.), 20. 

The double, or contrafagotto 





(W. Heckel, of Biebrich-am-Rhein), 26. 

, Two views of improved Savary 

model with seventeen keys (Hudall 
Carte and Co.), 18. 
Bell Instrument, Parsifal, Dr. Mottl's, 

(L. Schweisgut, Carlsruhe), 173. 
Bells, Hemispherical, Peal of (from a 

sketch by courtesy of Novello and Co.), 

Beni-Hassan, Asiatic ketharah or rotta, 

17(jO B.C., Fig. 77 : 286. 
Bi>rlin, Vulker ^Museum, old German rotta 
(real instrument) (IVth to Vllth cent.), 

Fig. 168 : 446. 
BibliotheqU(> Nationale, see Paris. 
Big or bass drum (Boosey and Co.), 177. 
Bombardon, Four valve, or bass tub:i 

(Hawkes and Co.), 62. 
Bon-Port, Abbej' of. Guitar-fiddle from 

(Xlllth cent.). Fig. 198: 475. 
Boscherville, Abbey of St. Georges de, 

near liouen, large vielle (Xlth cent.). 

Fig. 160 : 422. 
, Abbey of St. Georges de. 

near Uouen. oval vielle (Xlth cent.). 

Fig. 163: 431. 
, Church of St. Georges, bow 

(Xlth cent.). Fig. 66: 282. 
Bourges Cathedral, fiddle (XIITth cent.), 

Fig. 195 : 473. 
Bow, Bass viol (late XVth cent.), see 

Krrata, Fig. 74: 284, 
, Cremaillere (XVth cent.), Fig. 73: 


, Head of violin, 101. 

, Head of violin, Fig. 53: 270. 

(late Xth cent.), Labeo Notker'a 

Psalter, Leipzig, see Apjiendix C, Fig. 

63: 281. 

-, Nut of the violin, 101. 

, Primitive, Fig. 1 : 222. 

— — . Straight, with handle (Xlllth cent.1, 

from the Fapade des -Musiciens, Rheims, 

Fig. 71 : 283. 



Ui'.v. Strai^-ht (Xlllth cent.), from a 

.Soissons enamel basin, Fig:. "0 : '283. 
, With a knob at each end (Xlltli 

cent.), British Museum, Harleian -MS. 

•J804, Fig-. Gl) : 282. 
, With handle (Xllth cent.), Oxford, 

Bodleian Library, N. E. D. 2, Fig. 67 : 

■ , With spear-shaped head and ferrule. 

irom Mersenne (XV^lIth cent.), Fig-. 7."): 


(Vlllth cent.), Fig. 6i : 281. 

(IXth cent.), from a MS. of St. 

Blasius, Fig. 65 : 282. 

(Xlth cent.), from the Church of St. 

Georges de Boscherville, near Koueu. 
Fig. 66: 282. 

{Xilth cent.), from a doorwav of tlic 

Abbey of St. Denis, Fig. 68 : 282.' 

• (XlVth cent.), British ^luseum. 

Sloane MS. 3983, Fig. 72: 283. 

(XVIltli cent.), trom Mersenne, Fig. 

76: 284. 

Bowed Instrument, with Cremaillerc how 
(Xlth cent.), on ivory binding of Psalter 
of Lothair, PI. I. 

Bridge, Jlodern violin. Fig. 11 : 227. 

Of violin, 101. 

British Museum, Antiquities, musicians 
and dancers from a frieze from Yusufzai 
(Afghanistan), PL X. 

, Antiquities, Sassanian 

silver dish, showing musicians with in- 
struments, PI. XI. 

, Greek vases, chelys 

lyre (Vth cent, b.c). Fig. 18: 236. 

, Greek vases, chclvs 

lyre (Vth cent, b.c). Fig. 81: 295. 

Greek vases, chclvs. 

cent.), Fig. 40 

testudo or tortoise lyre (Vth cent, b.c 
Fig. 13: 230. 

, Greek vases, long chclvs 

lyre (Vth cent. B.C.), Fig. 83: 291. 

■ , Jlanuscripts, Anglo- 
Saxon rebec. Cotton MS., Tib. V. VI. 
(Xlth cent.), Fig. 128: 386. 

, Manuscripts, bow 

(XlVth cent.), Sloane JIS. 3983, Fig. 
72: 283. 

■ , Manuscripts, bow 

(Xllth cent.), Harleian MS. 28C4, Ki-. 
6J: 282. 

, Manuscripts, cithara, in 

Harleian MS. 2804 (Xllth 

jManuscripts, citliara in 
transition or rotta, Cotton MS. Vcs]). 
Al., 700 A.D. icf. Fig. 168), Fig. 112: .333. 

, ^Fanuscripts, cittern 

(Xlllth or XlVth cent.), MS. Uci;. 11.. 
B. VII., Fig. 167 : 439. 

, ilanu^cripts, cittern, 

Beg. 17, E. VII. (XlVth cent.). Fig. 
156: 413. 

■ . JIanuscripts. cvth.Tr.n, 

Cotton MS. Tib. C, VI. (Xlth" cent.). 
Fig. 127: 384. 

, Manuscripts, guitar- 
fiddle, Cotton MS. Nero C. IV. (Anglo- 
Norman) (Xllth cent.), Fig. 176: 45.3. 

— , Manuscripts, guitnr- 

iiddle. Add. MS. 28784a (Xlllth cent.). 
Fig. 161 : 423. 


tiddlo, Lansdowne MS. 420 (Xlllth 
cent.), Fig. 177 : 454, 

British Museum blanuscripts, guitar-fiddle. 
Add. MS. 29902 (XlVth cent.). Fig. 140: 

, Manuscripts, guitar- 
fiddle, French, Add. MS. 28784a (Xlllth 
cent.). Fig. 178: 454. 

, JIanuscripts, guitar- 

Hddle, lleg. MS. 17, E. VII. (XlVth 
cent.). Fig. 139: 392. 

_ Manuscripts, guitar- 
fiddle, i\.dd. MS. 28784a (Xlllth cent.), 
Fig. 124: 348. 

blanuscripts, guitar- 

fiddle. Add. ilS. 16975 (end of Xlllth 

cent.). Fig. 196: 474. 
, Manuscripts, guitar- 
fiddle, Add. 31S. 19352 (1066 a.d.), Fig. 

173; 448. 
. Manuscripts, hurdv- 

gurdv, Sloane -MS. 3544 (XlVth cent.). 

Fig. 97 : 302. 
, Manuscripts, oval vielle 

(1131 to 1144 A.D.), from Jerusalem, Eger- 

ton -MS. 1139, Fig. 175 : 453. 

Manuscripts, oval vielle 

(Spanish), Add. MS. 11695 (Xllth cent.), 

Fig. 189 : 468. 
, ^Manuscripts, oval vielle, 

Add. MS. 27695 (XlVth cent.). Fig. 162: 

, blanuscripts, rebec. 

Cotton MS., Tib. A.. VII. (Xlllth cent.). 

Fig. 133: 389. 
, blanuscripts, rebec. 

Cotton MS. Nero D., IV. (Xlllth cent.), 

Fig. 132: 389. 
, ilanuscripts, rebec, 

Arundel .MS. 157 (Xlllth cent.). Fig. 

142: 394. 
, Manuscripts, rebec, 

Latin Psalter, Arundel MS. 157 (Xllltli 

cent.). Fig. 6: 225. 
, Manuscripts, rebec, 

Harleian .\LS. 2S04 (Xllth cent.). Fig. 

129: 388. 

blanuscripts, rebec. 

l.ansdowne MS. 420 (Xlllth cent.). Fig. 

l.)2 : 409. 
. Manuscripts, rebec, 

Add. -MS. 17333 (XlVth cent.), Fig. 9: 

. Manuscripts, vielle, 

from Jerusalem. Egerton MS. 1139 fXIIth 

cent.), Fig. 174: 452. 
. Jlanuscripts, vielle or 

fiddle, from Add. MS. 27695 (XlVth 

cent.). Fig. 16: 234. 
, Manuscripts, vielle or 

fiddle (Genoese), from Add. JIS. 27695 

(XlVtli cent.). Fig. 8: 226. 
, JIanuscripts, viola, 

Sloane :MS. 3983 (XlVth cent.), Fig. 141: 

. Viola, from Sloane SfS. 

3983 (XlVth cent.). Fig. 12: 229. 
Bvzantine Gnitar-Pddlo (1066 a.u.), Brit. 

■.Mus. Add. MS. 19352, Fi',^ 173: 448. 
Vielle, Brit. Mus., Egerton MS. 

11.39 (Xlltli cent.). Fig. 174: 452 
Cambridge. Trinity College Library, 

citlinra. in trnnsition (Xllth cent.). .MS. 

H. 17. 1, Fig. 50 : 2(i5. 



Cambridge, Trinity College Library. 

cithara, in transition 1 Xiltli eent.), 11. 

17, 1, Fig. 130 : 172. 
. , Trinity College Library, 

Eadwine Psalter (Xlth cent.), Anglo- 
Saxon, Pi. VII. 
, Trinity College Library, Ivre, 

sis-striuged (Xllth cent.), MS. IL 17, 1, 

Fig. 131 : 38'J. 
Carthage Museum, hydraulic organ (eir. 

loO A.D.), Terra-cotta model of, PI. IX. 
Cliartres, Cathedral of Notre Dame, vielle 

(1140 A.D.), Fig. VXi: 473. 
C'helya Lyre (Vth cent. bo. from a Greek 
in the British Museum, Fig. 18: 



(Xlllth cent.), 
. 20.5 : -180. 
(before C»sar), 

Lyre (Vth eent. n.c.i, from a Greek 
in the British Museum, Fig. 81 : 

Tiyre, Herculaneum, Fig. 34 : 2.">4. 

(Testudo or tortfiise) lyre (Vth eent. 

B.C.), from a Greek vase in the Britisli 
Museum, Fig. 13: 230. 

Cimabue, Guitar-fiddle 

from a picture by. Fig. 
Cithara, Ancient iSallic 

Fig. 109: 328. 
- — — And barbiton, from a sarcophagus 

in the Louvre, Paris (cf. Fig. 108;, Fig. 

107) : 322. 
And barbiton (see Fig. 108: 107), 

from a bas-relief in the Louvre, Fig. 26 : 

, Crossbar of Greek, from " Le 

Antichita de Ercolano," Fig. 44: 2G2. 
, Erato's, from .Museo Pio Clemen- 

tino, Rome, Fig. !)3 : 2U4. 
, Erato's, profile view. Fig. 92 : 



Found at Herculaneum, Fia 
Found at Herculaneum, Fig 

21 : 

From a Greek vase. Fig. 47 : 263. 

, Highly developed Roman, of the 

Lycian Apollo, Home, 3Iuseo Capitolano, 

Fig. 104: 320. 
, In third transition, back view, 

Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), (cf. Fig. 

196), Fig. 123: 348. 

In third transition, Utrecht 

Psalter (IXth cent.), (cf. Figs. 136 and 
137), Fig. 125: 349. 

, In third transition, with frets, 

Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.). Fig. 126: 

, In transition. 

Errata (IXth cent.). 

Fig. 122: 347. 
, In transition. 

and Harp (see 
I'trecht Psalter, 

and harp from 

Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), photograph 

by E. J. Clark, Plate VI. (i). 
^. In transition or rotta. British 

Museum, Cotton MS., Vesp. A. I., 700 

A.D., (cf. Fig. 168). Fig. 112: .333. 
, In transition (Xllth cent.). 

Trinity College, Cambridge, MS., 1?. 17, 

1, Fig. 1.30: 388. 
, In transition or rotta (Vlllth 

cent.), MS., Durham Cathedral Library, 

Fig. 113: 334. 

In transition. Itoman, from a 

Muse in Rome, Fig. 110 : 330. 

, In transition. Trinity College, 

Cambridge, MS. R. 17, 1, Fig. 50: 265. 

Cithara in transition (Xllth cent.), 
British Museum, Harleian MS. 2804, Fig. 
40 : 258. 

, ^losaic, excavated at Wood- 

chester, Fig. Ill : 331. 

. Nine-stringed, Citharcedus play- 
ing on, from a Greek vase. Fig. 99 : 304. 

• Of Erato, psaltrian from Hercu- 
laneum, Fig. 88 : 293. 

Or rotta (XlVth cent.), Dresden, 

Roval Library, MS. A, 117, Fig. 172: 4.-.(i. 

, Paris, Musee Royal. Fig. 89: 2!i;i. 

, Roman, held by Nero, Museo Pio 

Clementino, Rome, Fig. 103 : 320. 

, Home, Museo Capitolano, Fig. 

— , Small, Fig. 90: 294. 
— , Terpsichore's, Fig. 91 : 294. 
— . Utrecht Psalter, Figs. 118-19: 315. 
With back shaped like a keel. 

Fig. 85: 292. 
, With box-tailpiece, Rome, Museo 

Pio Clementino, Fig. 43 : 262. 
, With bulging back, Rome, Museo 

Capitolano, Fig. 86 : 292. 
, With ten strings, from Palazzo 

Maffei, Rome, Fig. 105 : 320. 
, With tuning knobs, from " Le 

Anticnita de Ercolano," Fig. 45 : 263. 
■ — , With tuning wrench (Xth cent.), 

from a MS. in Bibl. Nat., Paris, Fig. 

48 : 264. 
Cithara-Rebec, Instrument of mixed type 

(XVIth cent.), French MS., " Fonds de 

la Valliere," No. 4316, Bibl. Nat., Paris, 

Fig. 137 : 391. 
(XlVth cent.), (Instrument 

of mixed type), from the " Liber He- 

galis," Westminster Abbey, Fig. 136 : 391. 
Citharas, In second stage of transition 

(IXth cent.), Utrecht Psalter, Figs. 

120-1 : 346. 
, In transition, hydraulic organ, 

etc., Eadwine Psalter, Trinity College, 

Cambridge (Xlth cent.), Anglo-Saxon, 

from a photograph by Mason and Bas- 

sevi, PI. VII. 
Citliaroedus, Nero as, Museo Pio Clemen- 
tino, Fig. 96 : 299. 
Of best Greek period, wearing 

the PaRa and Chlamys, Fig. 95 : 298. 
Playing on the nine-stringed 

cithara, from a Greek vase, Fig. 99 : 

Cittern, Boat-shaped (XlVth cent.), Bibl. 

Nat., Paris, " Bibles historiaux," Fig. 

155: 413. 
, Boat-shaped (XlVth cent.), 

British Museum, xMS., 17, E. VII., Fig. 

156 : 413. 
■ Or rebab, boat-shaped (Xlllth 

cent.), " Cantigas de Santa Maria," 

Escorial Library, Madrid, Fig. 153: 411. 
(Xlllth or XlVth cent.), British 

.Aluseum, MS., Reg. II., B. VII., Fig. 

167: 439. 
Clarina, a substitute for the Holztrompete, 

W. Heckel, Biebrich-am-Rhein, 189. 
Clarinet, Bass, back view (Rudall Carte 

and Co.), 37. 
, Bass, front view (Hawkes and 

Co.), 39 (Rudall Carte and Co.), facing 

page 40. 
, Clinton, normal position in B flat 



and opened in A (Robert Cocks and Co.), 

Clarinet, Pedal (Besson and Co.). 42. 
, Tenor, or basset horn (from a 

photog-raph presented by M. Victor 

Maliillon, Brussels), 37. 
Cologne, Oval vielle (XlVth cent.), from 

the Cathedral, Fig. 185: 464. 
Contrafagotto or bassoon, Haseneier- 

.Morton model, 26. 
-, Or bassoon, \V. Heckel's 

model, 26. 
Cor Anglais or English horn (Joseph 

Wallis and Son), 15. 
Cornet, '" I'roteano " (Besson and Co.). !M. 
, The " Enharmonic " (Besson and 

Co.), !)(i. 
Cornophone (Besson and Co.), 56. 
o'remailler(> Bow, on ivory binding (Xlth 

cent.), of Psalter of Lothair, PI. I. 
(Crossbar of Greek cithara, from " Le 

Antichita de Ercolano, Fig. 44 : 262. 
Crowd or crout (Xlth cent.). Bibl. Nat., 

Paris, MS. S. Martial of Limoges, Fig. 

38: 257. 

(Xlllth cent.). Worcester Cathe- 
dral, Fig. 37 : 256. 

Crwth, Welsh (XVIIIth cent.). Fig. 33: 

, With fingerboard (IXth cent.), 

from the Bible of Charles le Chauve, 

Bibl. Nat., Paris, Fig. 115: 337. 
Cup-shaped mouthpiece (Besson and Co.), 

Cvmbals (G. Potter and Co., Aldershot), 

, Ketharahs and drums. Assyrian 

musicians with, from Koyoundjick, Fig. 

166: 437. 
Cvthara, Teutonica or rotta (IXth cent.). 

Fig. 114: 334. 

(Xlth cent.), Cotton MS., Tib. 

C, YI., British Museum, Fig. 127: 384. 

Double Bassoon or contrafagotto, see Bas- 
soon, Ddithle, 26. 

Slide trombone, 82. 

Uoublophone (Bessr-n and Co.), 92. 
Dresden, Hoval Library, cithara or rotta 

(XlVth cent.), MS., A. 117, Fig. 172: 

Drum, Bass or big (Boosey and Co.), 177. 
, Cymbals and ketharahs, Assyrian 

musicians with, from Koyoundjick, Fig. 

166: 437. 
, Side, Potter's orchestral (G. Potter 

and Co., Aldershot), 179. 
Durham, Cathedral Library, citliara in 

transition, from JIS. Cassiodorus Mann 

Bedac (Vlllth cent.). Fig. 113: 334. 
Egvptian Guitar, ancient, 1700-1200 B.C., 

Fig. 171: 417. 

Kithara, from Thebes-Kourna, 

Fig. 49: 265. 

Nanga, from Thebes-Kourna, 

Fig. 36: 2.56. 

Nefer, from obelisk in Campus 

Martins, at Pome, Fig. 169: 442. 

Nefcr or tamboura. Fig. 102 : 

Escnrial Library, Madrid, cittern or rrbab 
(Xlllth cent.), from the " Cantigas dc 
Santa Maria," Fig. 153: 411. 

, .Madrid, gigue (Xllltli 

cent.), " Cantigas de Santa Maria," Fig. 
154: 412. 

, Madrid, guitar (Xllltli 

cent.), from the " Cantigas de Santa 
Maria," Fig. 29 : 244. 

, Madrid, ^loorish tanlmr 

(Xlllth cent.), from "Cantigas de 
Santa Maria" in. Fig. 28: 243. 

Etruscan Lyre, Fig. 82 : 200. 

Euphonium, The five-valve (Besson and 
Co.), 59. 

Fiddle, ilinnesinger (Xlllth cent.). Fig. 
182: 462. 

, Minnesinger (Xlllth cent.), Ger- 
man, Manesse AISS., Fig. 180: 460. 

, Minnesinger (Xlllth cent.). Rein- 
mar's Coat of Arms, Manesse MSS., Fig. 
181 : 461. 

, -Minnesinger (XlVtli cent.). BibL 

Nat.. Paris, .Manesse MSS.. Fig. 183 : 463. 

. .Minnesinger (XlVth cent.), Ger 

man, from the Liebfrauen Kirchc al 
Treves. Fig. 179 : 459. 

, Minstrel (Xllth cent.). Abbey of 

Tezelai, Fig. 194: 473. 

Or vielk' (XlVth cent.), BritLsli 

Jluseum, Add. MS. 27()95, Fig. 8: 226. 

Or vielle (XITth cent.), Britisli 

Museum, .Add. JIS. 27695, Fig. 16 : 234. 

(Xlllth cent.). Cathedral of 

Amiens, Fig. 2G2 : 477. 

(Xlllth cent.). Cathedral of 

Bourges. Fig. 195 : 473. 

Txillth cent.), Cathedral of Troves, 

Fig. 191 : 471. 

Ferrule or screw of violin bow. Fig. 54 : 27L 
Florence, Pitti Gallery. Guitar-fiddle from 

a picture by Cimabue in. Fig. 205 : 480. 
Flute, Concert (Boehm) (Hawkes and Co.), 

, Cylinder (Boehm), Rockstro model 

(Rudall I'artf and Cn.i. facing page 4. 

Georgi (Joseph Wallis and Son), 

Nefer, Thebes-Kourna, Fig. 146: 

Erato's Cithara, from 51useo Pio C'lemen- 

tino, Rome, Fig. 93 : 294. 
, Profile view. Fig. 92: 29J. 

Folchardus, Psalterium of, St. Gallen, 

small triangular harp (IXth cent.), PI. 

French Horn With three pistons. Raoux 

model (Hawkes and Co.), 
■ With two pistons, Raoux 

Jlodcl, Knellnr Hall pattern (Rudall 

Carte and Co.), 49. 
Galpin Collection. Geige (XVth and XTIth 

cent.). Fig. 157: 413. 
— , Modern primitive lyra 

or rebec from Athens, Fig. 159 : 419. 
. Sordino or pochette (cir. 

1700), Fig. 158: 417. 
Geige (XYth and XTIth cent.), Galpin 

Collection. Fig. 157 : 413. 
Georgi Flute, The (Joseph Wallis and 

Son). 194. 
German .Minnesinger fiddle (XlVth cent.), 

from the Liebfrauen Kirche at Treves, 

Fig. 179: 459. 
Gigue, From a IMS. Brit. JIus.. Lnnfd. 

420, Fig. 7 : 226. 
(Xlllth cent.). "Cantigas de Santa 

Maria." Escorial Librarv, Madrid, Fig. 

1,54: 412. 



Glockenspiel. the lyre-shaped (Boosey 

and Co.), 168. 
Goes, Hug-o van der, Guitar-fiddle (XVth 

cent.), from a painting by. Fig'. 188: 

Greek Vases, British Museum, chelys, 

testudo or tortoise lyre (Vth cent, b.c.1, 

(see also Fijrs. 81 and 83), Fig. 13: 230. 
Guitar, Ancient Egyptian (1700-1200 B.C.), 

Fig. 171: 447. 
, Ancient Hittite (cir. 1000 B.C.), 

from the Dromos at Eyuk in Cappa- 

docia. Frontispiece " Precursors." 

(Modern), Fig. 30: 2-l(i. 

— (Xlllth cent.), Escorial library. 

" Cantigas de Santa Maria," Fig. 29 : 

Guitar-Fiddle, Byzantine, {106() a.d.). 

British Museum, Add. MS. 19352, Fig. 

173 : 448. 
-— — (Xllth cent.). Anglo-Nor- 
man. British Jluseum, Cotton 31S.. \oro 

C, IV., Fig. 176 : 453. 
(End of Xlllth cent.), 

British Museum, Add. MS. 16975, Fig. 

196: 474. 
. French (Xlllth cent.), 

Brit. Museum, MS. Add. 28784a, Fig. 

178: 454. 
— , Hybrid type of (Xlllth 

cent.), Brit. Mus., Lansdowne MS., 420, 

.Fig. 177: 454. 
, Italian 'Xlllth cent.), from 

a picture by Andrea Tafi, Fig. 204: 479. 
(Xlllth cent.), Abbey of 

Bon-Port, Fig. 198 : 475. 
(Xlllth cent.), British 

Museum, Add. MS. 28784a, Fig. 124: 348. 
(Xlllth cent.), British 

Museum, Add. MS. 28784a, Fig. 161 : 423. 
(Xlllth cent.), from a pic- 

ture by Cimabue in the Pitti Gallery, 

Florence, Fig. 205 : 480. 
(Xlllth cent.), Paris, Bibl. 

Nat., MS. No. 6769, Fig. 199: 475. 
(Xlllth cent.). Spanish. 

from a painted window in Cathedral at 

Leon, Fig. 190 : 470. 

French (XlVth cent.). 

Paris. Bibl. Nat., MS. Bibles Historiaux, 
Fig. 192: 472. 

(XlVth cent.). Add. MS. 

29902 (Italian), British Museum, Fig. 
140 : 393. 

(XlVth cent.), British 

Museum, Roy. MS. 17, E. VII., Fig. 139 : 

(XlVth cent.), from a paint- 
ing bv Siraone Memi in S. Maria No- 
vella, ■Florence, Fig. 206 : 480. 

■ (XlVth cent.), from 

Orcagna's " Triumph of Death " in the 
Campo Santo, Pisa, Fig. 207: 481. 

(.XlVth cent.), " Liber Re- 

galis," Westminster Abbev, Fig. 138: 

(XlVth cent.). Lincoln 

Cathedral, Fig. 203 : 479. 

(XlVth cent.). Paris. Bibl. 

Nat., MS. No. 737RA, Fig. 200: 476. 

(XlVth cent.), Paris. Bibl. 

Nat., MS. 6737, Fig. 201 : 477. 

(XVth cent.), from a paint- 

ing at Ai.iL-la-CliapeJle bv Hugo van der 

Goes. Fig. 188: 467. 
Guitar-Fiddle (XVth cent.), from the Pinn- 

cothek. Munich. Fig. 187: 466. 
Harp, Action of the Pedals, 144. 
. Chromatic (Pleyel, Wolff and Co.), 


. Double Action, by Erard, 141. 

, Rebab and two Hottas (Xth cent.). 

Psalter of Labeo Notker, St. Gallen, PI. 

. Small triangular. King David with, 

from Psalterium of Folchardus dXth 

cent.), St. Galieii. Photograph by Scho- 

binger and Sandherr. PI. VIII. 
Harp-l.utc or Nanga, from a tomb at 

Thebcs-Kourna. Fig. 100: 314. 
Head of Violin bow. Fig. 53 : 270. 
Helicon or circular Contra-bass Tuba 

(Hawlves and Co.), 66-7. 
Or circular Contra-bass Tuba in 

B fiat, showiiig manner of carrying 

I Boosey and Co.). 69. 
Hcmisplierical Bells, Peal of 

sketch bv courtesy of Novello, 
Co.). 176. 

Cithara found at 

( from a 
Ewer and 



Cithara from. Fig. 87 : 
Erato's Cithara, Fig. 


r tanbur from. Fig. 
with short strincs 

. Lvre 

from. Fig. 80 : 290. 
. Jlural paintings at, Chelvs 

Lyre, Fig. 34 : 254. 
Hindoo Ravanastron, Fig. 17 : 235. 
Hittite Guitar (cir. 1000 B.C.). from the 

Dromos at Eyuk, in Cappadocia, Frontis- 
piece " Precursors." 
Holztrompete. 18. 
Horn. Basset, or Tenor Clarinet (from a 

photograph presented by M. Victor Ma- 

hillon. Brussels). 37. 
. English, or Cor Anglais (Joseph 

Wall is and Son), 15. 
. French (Hawkes and Son and 

Rudall Carte and Co.), 48-9. 
. Sassanian silver dish, Brit. Mus., 


. Tenor (Rudall Carte and Co.), 54. 

Hurdy-gurdy in shape of guitar-fiddle 

(XiVth cent.), from the Cathedral of Ai.K- 

la-Chapelle. Fig-. 186 : 465. 
(XlVth cent.), Arion charm- 
ing the dolphins. Sloane MS. 3544, Brit. 

Mus., Fig. 97: 302. 
Hydraulic Organ, from Eadwine Psalter, 

Trin. Coll.. Cambridge (Xlth cent.), PI. 

. From Utrecht Psalter 

(IXth cent.), photograph bv E. J. Clark, 

PI. VI. (2). 
. Pandoura and Kithara. 

from early Christian Sarcophagus, Aries 

Museum, PI. II. (Fig. 27a). 
• . Terra-cotta model of 

(cir. 150 A.D.), Carthage Museum, PL IX. 
Ketharah. Asiatic (1700 B.C.), from Beni- 

Hassan, Fig. 77 : 286. 

, Primitive Asiatic, Fig. 23: 238. 

. , Rectangular Asiatic, Fig. 84 : 


, W 



Ketharahs, Drum and Cj-mbals, Assyrian 
musicians with, from Koyoundjiolc, Fig. 
166: 437. 
Kettledrum, Ordinary Cavalry (Bosson and 
Co.), 165. 

, Potter's, Diagrams showing' 

mechanism for the instantaneous tuning 
of {G. Potter and Co., Aldershot), 164. 

(21st Hussars) (G. Potter and 

Co., Aldershot), 163. 
Kithara, Ancient Egyptian instrument 
from Thebes, Leyden, Museum of Anti- 
quities, Fig. 165 : 435. 

. And Barbiton, from a bas-relief in 

the Louvre, Paris, Fig. 108 : 323. 

, Egyptian, from Thebes-Kourna, 

Fig. 49 : 265. 

, From a Greek vase. Fig. 1!) : 237. 

, Hydraulic Organ and Pandoura, 

Early Christian Sarcophagus, Aries 
Museum, PI. II. (Fig. 27a). 
Kloster Neuburg MS. Prayerbook (Xlth 
cent.), Rottas played with bows, Fig. 
116: 338. 
Kovoundjick, Group of Assyrian musicians 
with ketharahs, drums and i^ymbals 
from. Fig. 166: 437. 
Ltou Cathedral, Guitar-fiddle (Xlllth 
cent.), from a painted window. Fig. 190: 
Leyden Museum of Antiquities, Ancient 
Egyptian Kithara from Thebes, Fig. 
165": 435. 
" Liber Rpgalis," Westminster Abbey, 
Cithara-rebec, instrument of mixed type. 
Fig. 136: 391. 

. . Westminster Abbey, 

Guitar-fiddle (XIYth cent.). Fig. 138: 

, Westminster .\bbey. 

Rebec (XlVth cent.). Fig. 134: 390. 

, Westminster Abbey, 

Rebec (XlVth cent.), Fig. 135: 390. 
Lincoln Cathedral, Guitar-tiddle (XIYth 

cent.). Fig. 203: 479. 
Lothair, Psalter of (IXth cent.), Armitage 
Bridge House (now in Brit, ilus.). Ivory 
carving from the binding of, PI. I. 

(IXth cent.), at .\rmi- 

tage Bridge House (now in Brit. Mus.), 
Spoon-shaped rebab from, PI. V. 
I>ouvre, see Paris. 

Lute or Tanbur, from a mural painting 
found at Herculaneum, Fig. 27 : 242. 

Sassanian silver dish, Brit. Mus., PI. 


(Guitar), see Errata, MS. " Miroir 

Historical de Vincent de Beauvais," No. 
(i731 (XVth cent.), Bibl. Nat., Paris, Fig. 
39: 258. 
Lyra or Rebec, Modern primitive, from 
Athens (Galpin Collection), Fig. 159: 419. 

Teutonica, with bow, or Giguo (IXth 

cent.), MS. S. Blasius, Fig. 41: 260. 
Lyre, Bridged, from a Greek vase, Fig. 
20 : 237. 

, Chelys, Herculaneum, Fig. ,34 : 254. 

, Chelys, Long, low-i)itched 1 Vth cent. 

B.C.), from a Greek vase, Brit. Mus., Fig. 
83: 291. 

. , Chelvs (Vth cent. B.C.), Brit. Mus., 

Third Vase Room, Fig. 18 : 236. 

Chelys (Vth cent. B.C.), from a Greek 

vase, Brit. Mus., Fig. 81: 295. 

Lyre, Etruscan, Fig. 82: 290. 

Of Apollo iMusagetes, showing Kerata^ 

Naples, iluseo Borb., Fig. 78 : 289. 

• , Si.x-stringcd (Xllth cent.). Trinity 

College, Cambridge (MS. R. 17, I), Fig. 
131 : 389. 

, Tortoise-shell, Fig. 79 : 290. 

, Tuning the, Fig. 46 : 263. 

With short strings, from Hercu- 
laneum, Fig. 80 : 290. 

Madrid, Escorial Library, Guitar (Xlllth 
cent.), from " Cantigas de Santa Maria," 
Fig. 29: 244. 

, Escorial IJbrary, Tanbur (Xlllth 

cent.), from " Cantigas de Santa Maria " 
in, Fig. 28: 213. 

ilandoline, Modern, Fig. 10: 228. 

Manesse MSS., see ManuscriiHs. 

Manuscripts, Armitage Bridge House (now 
in Brit. Mus.), Ivory carving from the 
binding (Xlth cent.). Psalter of Lothair 
(IXth cent.), PI. I. 

-, Armitage Bridge House (now 

in Brit. Mus.), Psalter of Lothair (IXth 
cent.). Spoon-shaped rebab, PI. V. 

, British Museum, Add. MS. 

16975 (end of Xlllth cent.), Guitar- 
tiddle, Fig. 196: 474. 

, British Museum Add. MS. 

27695 (XlVth cent.), Vielle, Fig. 162: 

, British Museum, 

27695 (XlVth cent.), Vielle 

from. Fig. 8 : 226. 
, British Museum, 

27695 (XlVth cent.), Vielle 

from. Fig. 16: 234. 
, British Museum, 

Add. MS. 
or Fiddle 

Add. MS. 
or Fiddle 

Add. MS. 

28784a (Xlllth cent.), Guitar-fiddle from. 
Fig. 124: 348. 

British Museum, Add. MS. 

28784a (Xlllth cent.). Guitar-fiddle from, 
Fig. 161 : 423. 

, British JIuseum, Add. MS 

28784a (French, Xlllth cent.). Guitar- 
fiddle from. Fig. 178 : 454. 

, British :\[useum. Add. MS. 

29902 (Italian, XlVth cent.). Guitar- 
fiddle from. Fig. 140: 393. 

. British .Aluseum, Add. MS. 

11695 (Spanish, Xllth cent.), Vielle from, 
Fig. 189: 408. 
. British Museum, Add. MS. 

17333 (XlVth cent.). Rebec from, Fig. 

9: 227. 
-. , British Museum, Add. MS. 

19.352 (1066 A.D.), Guitar-fiddle from, Fig. 

173: 448. 
, British Museum, Arundel MS. 

157 (XlUth cent.). Rebec from. Fig. 

142: 394. 
. British 3Iuscum, Arundel MS. 

157 (Xlllth cent.), Latin Psalter, Rebec 

from. Fig. 6 : 225. 
, British Museum, Cotton MS., 

Nero C. IV., Anglo-Norman (Xllth 

cent.), Guitnr-tiddle "from. Fig. 176: 453. 
, British JIuscum, Cotton MS., 

Nero D. IV. (Xlllth cent.), Rebec from. 

Fig. 132: 389. 
■, British Museum, Cotton MS.. 

Tib. C VI. (Xlth cent.), Cythara from. 


127: 384. 
, British Museum, Cotton MS 



Tib. A. VII. (Xlllth cent.). Rebec from, 

Fis:. 133 : 389. 
^Manuscripts, British Museum, Cotton MS., 

Tib. C. VI. (Xlth cent.), Anglo-Saxon 

Kebec from. Fig. 128 : 386. 
■ , British Museum, Cotton MS. 

V(jp. A I.. 700 .*.D., Cithara in transi- 

ti./n or Rotta, see Fig. 168, Fig. 112 : 

, British Museum, Egerton MS. 

1139 (Xllth cent.), from Jerusalem, 

Vielle from. Fig. 174 : 452. 
, British Museum, Egerton MS. 

1139 (1131-1144 A.D.), from Jerusalem, 

Vielle from, Fig. 175 : 453. 
, British Museum, Harleian 

MS. 2804 (Xllth cent.). Bow with a knob 
at each end from, Fig. 69 : 282. 

, British Museum, Harleian 

MS. 2804 (Xllth cent.), Cithara in tran- 
sition from. Fig. 40 : 258. 

, British Museum, Harleian 

MS. 2804 (Zllth cent.), Rebec from. Fig. 
129: 388. 

, British Museum, Lansdowne 

MS. 420 (Xlllth cent.), Guitar-fiddle 
from, Fig. 177 : 454. 

British Museum, Lansdowne 

JIS. 420 (Xlllth cent.). Rebec from. Fig. 

152: 409. 
, British Museum, Reg. MS. 17, 

E., VII. (XlVth cent.). Cittern from, 

Fig. 156: 413. 
, British Museum, MS. Reg. 

II., B. VII. (cir. XlVth cent.). Cittern 

from. Fig. 167 : 439. 
, British Museum, Reg. MS. 

17, E. VII. (XlVth cent.). Guitar-fiddle 

from. Fig. 139 : 392. 
, British Museum, Sloane ^fS. 

3544 (XlVth cent.). Hurdy-gurdy, .Vrion 

charming the dolphins. Fig. 97 : .302. 
— -, — , . British iluseum, Sloane MS. 

3983 (JflVth cent.), Bow from, Fig. 72: 

, British Museum, Sloane 3IS. 

3983 (XlVth cent.), Viola from, Fig. 12: 


British Museum, Sloane MS. 

3983 (XlVth cent.), Viola from. Fig 

141: 393. 
, Cambridge, Trinity College, 

Eadwine Psalter (Xlth cent.), Anglo- 
Saxon. Photograph by Mason and Bas- 

sevi, PI. VII. 
, Cambridge, Trinity College, 

MS. R. 17, 1, Cithara in transition 

from. Fig. 50 : 265. 
, Cambridge, Trinitv College, 

MS. R. 17, 1 (Xllt'h cent.), Cithara in 

transition, Fig. 130 : .388. 
, Cambridge, Trinity College, 

MS. R. 17, 1 (Xllth cent.), Lyre, six- 
stringed. Fig. 131 : 173. 
, Dresden, Roval Library, MS. 

A. 117 (XlVth cent.), Cithara or Rotta 

from. Fig. 172 : 450. 
. Durham. Cassiodorus i/iaiiu 

Bedae, Cathedral Library, Vlllth cent. 

MS., Cithara in transition from, Fig. 113 : 

, Kloster Neuburg, Prayer 

Book of Archbishop Leopold (Xlth 

cent.), Rottas jjlayed with bows from. 

Fig. 116: 338. 

.Manuscripts, Library of the :\[onastery of 
St. Gallen, " Psalterium Aureum " (IXth 
cent.), Pandura from. Fig. 151: 404. 

, Library of the Monastery of 

St. Gallen, Psalterium of Folchardus 
(Xlth cent.), Harp from, PI. VIII. 

, Madrid, Escorial Library, 

" Cantigas de Santa Maria" (Xlllth 
cent.). Cittern or Rebab from. Fig. 153 : 

, ^[adrid, Escorial Library, 

" Cantigas de Santa Maria " (Xlllth 
cent.), Gigue from. Fig. 154: 412. 

, Madrid, Escorial Library, 

" Cantigas de Santa Maria " (Xlllth 
cent.), Guitar from, Fig. 29: 244. 

, iladrid, Escorial Library, 

"Cantigas de Santa Maria" (Xlllth 
cent.), Tanbur from. Fig. 28: 243. 

Oxford, Bodleian Library, 

MS. N., E., D. 
from. Fig. 67 : 282 
, Paris, Bibl 

(Xllth cent.), Bow 

Nat., Bible of 
Charles le Chauve (IXth cent.), Crwth 
with fingerboard from. Fig. 115 : .337. 

. Paris, Bibl. Nat., Bibles His- 
torians (XlVth cent.). Boat-shaped Cit- 
tern from. Fig. 155 : 413. 

, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. Bibles 

Historiaux (XlVth cent.). Guitar-fiddle 
from. Fig. 192 : 472. 

Paris, Bibl. Nat., " Evan- 

geliaire de St. 3Iedard " (end of Vlllth 
cent.), Tamboura from. Fig. 145: 399. 
, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. 

" Fonda de la Valliere," No. 4316 (XVIth 

cent.), Cithara-rebec from. Fig. 137: 391. 
T . Paris, Bibl. Nat., Manesse 

MSS. (XlVth cent.). Fiddle from. Fig. 

183: 463. 
, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS., S. 

Martial of Limoges (Xlth cent.), Croat 

from. Fig. 38 : 257. 
, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS., 

'■ iliroir Historical de Vincent de Beau- 

vais," No. 6731 (XVth cent.). Lute from, 

see Errata, Fig. 39 : 258. 

Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. 6737 

(XlVth cent.). Guitar-fiddle from, Fig. 

201: 477. 
, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. No. 

6769 (Xlllth cent.). Guitar-fiddle from. 

Fig. 199: 475. 
, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. No. 

7378a (XlTth cent.). Guitar-fiddle from. 

Fig. 200: 476. 
, Paris, Bibl. Nat., MS. Lat. 

11550, fol. 7b (Xth cent.), Cithara, Fig. 

48: 264. 
, St. Blasius (IXth cent.), Lyra 

Teutonica with bow from. Fig. 41 : 260. 
, St. Gallen (Leipzig, see p. 

494), Psalter of Labeo Notker (Xth 

cent.), Rebab from, Fig. 149: 401. 

St. Gallen, Psalter of Labeo 

Notker (Xth cent.), Rebab, two Rottas 
and a small Harp from. From a photo- 
graph bv Sohobinger and Sandherr, St. 
Gallen, PI. IV. 

, Strasburg Library, Latin 

MS. (Xllth cent.). Quill Plectrum from. 
Fig. 60 : 276. 

, Utrecht Library, The Utrecht 

Psalter (formerly Cotton: Claud. C. 7). 

3 G 



(IXth oont.), Citharas in soonnd stapo 
of transition from, Fig-s. 120-1 : 346. 

Jlanuscripts, Utrecht Library. The Utrecht 
Psalter (IXth cent.), Bass Kotta or 
Cithara in transition from, Fio-. 117 : 

, Utrecht Library, Utrecht 

Psalter, Citharas from, Fig. "ll8 : 345. 

, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), 

Cithara in transition and harp. Photo- 
graph by E. J. Clark, PI. VI (1). 

, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), 

Cithara, second transition, and Harp (see 
Errata), Fig. 122 : 347. 

-, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.). 

;\Iiisco I'iu Clcmentino, Rome, Apollo as 

-Pio Clementino, Rome, Cithara, Fig. 
Pio Clementino, Rome, Cithara held 


Cithara in third transition (cf. Figs. 

136-7), Fig. 125: 349. 
, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), 

Cithara in third transition, back view 

(cf. Fig. 196), Fig. 123: .348. 
, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), 

Cithara in third transition, with frets. 

Fig. 126: 350. 
, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.), 

Citharas, and citharas in transition, with 

frets. Photograph by E. J. Clark, PL 

, Utrecht Psalter (IXth cent.). 

Hydraulic Organ. Photograph by E. J. 

Clark, PI. A^I. (2). 
Mcdiseval Orchestra (Xllth cent.), from 

the Cathedral of Santiago de Compos- 

tella, PI. XIV. 
Memi, Simone, Guitar-fiddlc (XlVth cent.), 

from a picture b.y, Fig. 206 : 480. 
Minnesinger Fiddle, Volker's, Fig. 184 : 

(XlVth cent.), Ger- 
man, from the Liebfrauen Kirche at 

Treves, Fig. 179 : 459. 
(Xlllth cent.). Ger- 
man, Manesse MSS.. Fig. 180: 460. 
— (Xlllth cent.). Rein- 
mar's Coat of Arms, Fig. 181: 461. 
(Xlllth cent ), with 

sloping shoulders and no neck. Fig. 182 : 

Minstrel Fiddle (Xllth cent.). Abbev of 

Vezelai, Fig. 194: 473. 
Modern Guitar, Fig. 30 : 246. 
— Violin, Diagram showing ribs and 

bell.v of. Fig. 2 : 224. 
Moorish Rebab, Fig. 14: 233. 

Tanbur (Xlllth cent ). Escorial 

Library, " Cantigas de Santa ^laria," 
Fig. 28: 243. 

JMottl's Parsifal Bell Instrument. 173. 
Mouthpiece, Cup-shaped (Besson and Co.). 

, Double Reed, of the Bassoon, 


, Double Reed, of the Oboe, 18. 

Munich, Pinaeothek. Guitar-fiddle (XVth 

cent.). Fig. 187: 466. 
Musco Borbonnico, Naples. Apollo Jfusn- 

getes Lyre, showing Eerata, from, Fig. 

78: 289." 

Capitolano, Rome, Cithara from. 

Fig. 22 : 237. 

Capitolano. Rome, Cithara of the 

Lycian Apollo, Fig. 104 : 320. 
Capitolano, Rome. Cithara with 

bulging back. Fig. 86: 76. 

by Nero, Citharoedo, Fig. 103 ; 320. 
Pio Clementino, Rome, Nero as 

Citharoedus, Fig. 96 : 209. 
Musicians and Dancers, from a frieze from 

Yusufzai (Afghanistan), Brit. Jlus., PI. 

Mute, Violin (Beare and Son), 101. 
Nanga, from Thebes-Kourna, Fig. 36 : 250. 
Naples, Museo Borb., Apollo Musagetes' 

Lyre, showing Kerata, Fig. 78 : 289. 
Nefer, Egyptian, from Obelisk in Campus 

.Martius"at Rome, Fig. 169: 442. 
, Egyptian, Thebes-Kourna, Fig. 

Egyptian, Fig. 102 : 
from a tomb at 

146 : 4011. 
Or Tamboura, 

Or Tamboura, 

Thebes. Fig. 31 : 249. 
Or Tamboura, from Thebes-Kourna. 

Fig. 32: 247. 
Nerone. Citaredo, iluseo Pio Celementino, 

Fiu-. 96: 299. 
Notker, Psalter of Labeo (Xth cent.), St. 

Galhii, Kebab, two Rottas and a small 

Harp, PI. IV. 
Nut of Violin Bow, showing the screw. 

Fig. 52 : 270. 
Oboe, iSeventeen-Keyed. by liudall Carte 

and Co., facing page 4. 

, Double Reed Mouthpiece of the, 18. 

(Hawkes and Son), 9. 

Ophicleide in C, 89. 

Oreagna, Guitar-fiddle (XlVth cent.), 

from the Campo Santo, painted by, Fig. 

2117 : 48 1. 
Orchestra, Mediwval (Xllth cent.), from 

the Cathedral of Santiago de Compos- 

tella. PI, XIV. 
Oval Vielle, with wide ribs (XlVth cent.), 

from the Cathedral, Cologne, Fig. 185 : 

(XHth cent.), from doorway 

of the Abbev of St. Denis, Fig. 170": 

Oxluid, Bodleian Library, Bow, with 

handle (Xllth cent.), from JIS. N., E., 

1).. 2, Fig, 67: 282. 
Pandourn jind Rebab, Ancient Persian 

from the Tell at Suza (Vlllth cent. B.C.), 

, Kithara and Hydraulic Organ. 

Earlv Christian Sarcophagus, Aries 

iluseum (Fig. 27a), PL II. 
Or Tamboura, Front and Side 

views. Fig. 25.\ and b : 240. 
Or Tambura (IXth cent.), from 

the " Psnlterium Aureum," St. Gallen, 

Fig. 151 : 404. 
Paris. Bas-relief, Cithara and Barbiton, 

Fig. 26: 241. 
, Bililiotheque Nationale, Boat- 
shaped Cittern (XlVth cent.), " Bibles 

Historiaux," Fig. 155: 413. 
, Bililiiithetiue Nationale, Cithara, 

MS. Lat. 11.550 (Xth cent.), Fig. 48: 26t. 
Bibliothequc Nationale, Cithara- 

rebec (XVIth cent.), MS., " Fonds de 
la A'allifere," No. 4316, Fig. 137: 391. 



Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, Crout 
from MS. S. Martial de Limoges (Xlth 
cent.), Fis-. 38: 257. 

, Bibliotheque Nationale, C'rwth 

(IXth cent.), from Bible of Charles le 
Chaiive, Fig-. 115 : 337. 
, Bibliotheque Nationale, Guitar- 
fiddle (XlVth cent.), MS., "Bibles His- 
toriaux," Fig. 192 : 472. 
, Bibliotheque Nationale, Guitar- 
fiddle (XlVth cent.), MS. No. 6737, Fig. 
199: 475. 
, Bibliotheque Nationale, Guitar- 
fiddle (XlVth cent.), MS. No. 737SA, Fig. 
200: 476. 
. Bibliothfequc Nationale, Guitar- 
fiddle (XlVth cent.), MS. No. 6737, Fig. 
201 : 477. 

-, Bibliotheque Nationale, Lute (XVth 

cent.), from JIS., " IMiroir Historical de 
Vincent do Beauvais," No. 6731, Fig. 39: 

, Bibliotheque Nationale, ilinne- 

singer Fiddle (XlVth cent.), from 
Manesse .AISS., Fig. 183: 463. 

, Bibliotheque Nationale, Tamboura 

(end of Vlllth cent.), from the " Evan- 
geliairc de St. Medard," Fig. 145 : 399. 

, Louvre, Barhiton and Cithara, from 

a sarcophagus, Fig. 107 : 322. 

, Louvre, Cithara and Barbiton, from 

bas-relief. Fig. 108: 323. 

, Musee Uoyal, Cithara, Fig. 89 : 293. 

Parsifal Bell Instrument, Dr. :\lottrs 
( from a photograph by courtesy of L. 
Schweisgut, Carlsruhe), 173. 
Pianoforte, Bechstein Grand (C. Boch- 
stein), 131. 

. Broadwood Grand, View of 

the bass end of the hammers and checks 
of a (Broadwood and Sons), Fig. 4: 128. 

. Broadwood Grand, View of 

the stringing and framing of a (Broad- 
wood and Sons). 125. 

, Broadwood Grand. View of 

the treble end showing the levers, etc., 
of a (Broadwood and Sons). Fig. 5: 128. 

. Broadwood Grand. Underside 

of soundboard, with belly bars of 
(Broadwood and Sons). 124. 

. Erard Grand, Exterior of 

(Erard and Soid, 122. 

. Grand, .V Ijarless steel frame 

concert (Broadwood and Sons), 191. 

. Grand, One note of the Herz- 

Erard action of a (Broadwood and 
Sons), 130. 

. Steinway Grand, View of the 

stringing and framing of a (Steinway 
and Sons), 127. 
Piccolo, or Octave Flute (Hawkes and 

Son), 9. 
Plectrum, Bone, from " Le Antichita de 
Ercolano," Fig. 58 : 275. 

, Broad arched (Vth cent. B.C.'), 

from a Greek vase, Brit. Mas., Fig 61 : 


From a statue in Spain, Fig. 

Plectrum, Semi-circular, from statue of 
" Erato Psaltrian," Herculaneum, Fig. 
62: 276. 

, Twig used as, from " Le Anti- 
chita de Ercolano," Fig. 59 : 276. 

Pochette or Sordino (cir. 1700), Galpin 
Collection. Fig. 158: 417. 

Potter's Kettledrum, with instantaneous 
system of tuning, 163-4. 

Primitive Bow, Fig. 1 : 222. 

Proteano or Quick-change Cornet (Besson 
and Co.), 94. 

Psalter of Lothair (IXth cent.), Armitage 
Bridge House (now in Brit. Mus.), Fan- 
ciful bowed instrument with cremaillrre 
bow on carved ivorv binding of (cir. 
Xlth cent.), PI. I. 

Quill Plectrum (Xllth cent.), Bibliotheque 
Strassburg, Latin MS., Fig. 60: 276. 

Ravanastron, Hindoo, Fig. 17 : 235. 

Bebab and Pandur, Ancient Persian 
(Vlllth cent. B.C.), from the Tell at 
Suza, PI. XII. 

, Archetype of (1000 B.C.), Post-My- 

cenwan from Goshen, PI. XIII. 

Lvre Type, Eoman instrument of 

(Barbiton, see .Vpp. A.), Fig. 24: 239. 

. Modern Moorish, Fig. 144: 396. 

— - — , :\roorish. Ancient and Modern 
type. Fig. 14: 233. 

Or Cittern, Boat-shaped ^Xlllt.h 

cent.), Escorial Library, " Cantigas de 


Santa ^Maria," Fig. 153 : 411. 
. Sassanian silver dish, Brit. 

PI. XI. 
. Spoon-shaped, from the Psalter of 

Lothair at Armitage Bridge House (now 

Brit. Mus.) (IXth cent.), PI. V. 

Rottas and a small Harp, 

from the Psalter of Labeo Notker 'Xth 
cent.i, St. Gallcn. From a photograph 
bv Sfhobinger and Sandherr, St. Gallen, 
PI. IV. 

(Vlllth cent.). Fig. 150: 403. 

(Xth cent.). Library of St. Gallen 

(Leipzig, see p. 494), Fig! 149: 401. 

Rebab-esh-sha'er, Fig. 35 : 255. 

, iiodern Egyptian, Fig 

Tib. C. VI., 

(Xlth cent.). Cotton 
Brit. Mus., Fig. 128: 


55: 272 
, Kid's hoof used as, from " Le 

Antichita de Ercolano," Fig. 57 : 275. 
, Quill, Bibliotheque Strassburg, 390. 

Latin MS. (XUth cent.), Fig. 60: 276 

(Xllth cent.), Brit. :Mus. 

MS. 2804. Fig. 129 : 388. 
, Latin Psalter (Xlllth cent.), Brit. 

Mus.. Arundel :\IS., 157, Fig. 6: 225. 
Or I-yra. Modern primitive, from 

A+hens (Galpin Collection), Fig. 159: 

'- (Xlllth cent.), .Vrundel MS 157, 

Brit. :\riis.. Fig. 142: 394. 
(Xlllth cent.), Brit. Mus., Cotton 

MS., Tib. .\. VII., Fig. 133: 389. 
. (Xlllth cent.), Brit. Mus., Cotton 

MS., Nero D. IV.. Fig. 132: 389. 
. (Xlllth cent.). Lansdowne MS. 420, 

Brit. Mus., Fig. 152: 409. 
(XTVth cent.). Brit. Mus.. Add. 

MS., 17333, Fig. 9: 227. 
(XI Vth cent.), from the "Liber Re- 

galis," Westminster Abbey, Fig. 134: 

(XlVth cent.), from the "Liber Re- 



galis," Westminster Abljcv. Fig-. 135 : 

Rebec (XlVth cent.), Madrid, from an 

altar piece, Fig. 1-5 : 234. 
Rectano-ular Asiatic Ketharah, Fig-. 84 : 

Reed Slouthpieces, Double, of Oboe and 

Bassoon, 18. 
Rheims. Oval Vielle (Ylllth cent), Facade 

des .Alusiciens, Fig. 197 : 474. 
, Straight Bow, with handle 

(Xlllth cent.), from the Facade des 

Musiciens, Fig. 71: 283. 
Roman Cithara. held bv Nero. JMuseo Pio 

Clementino, Rome, Fig. 103: 320. 

In transition, from a Jliise 

in Rome, Fig. 110 : 330. 

Rome, Egyptian Nefer from obelisk in 

Campus Jlartius, Fig. 169 : 442. 
■ , Milan, Museo Pio Clementino. 

Roman Cithara held by Nero, Fig. 103 : 

, Museo Capitolano. Cithara from. 

Fig-. 22: 237. 
— , Museo Capitolano, Cithara of the 

l^ycian Apollo, Fig. 104 : 320. 
, Museo Capitolano, Cithara with 

bulging back. Fig. 86 : 292. 
Rotta, Old German (IVth to Vllth cent.), 

Berlin, Volker Jluseum. Fig. 168 : 440. 

Or Cithara in transition, Bass (IXth 

cent.), Utrecht Psalter, Fig. 117: 341. 

Or Citliara in transition (Ylllth 

cent.), Durham Cathedral Library, 
" Cassiodorus," Fig. 113: 334. 

Or Cithara (XIYth cent.), Dresden, 

Royal Library, MS. A. 117, Fig. 172 : 

Rottas, Small Harp and Rebab (Xth cent.). 
Psalter of Labeo Notker, St. Gallen, PI. 

(Xlth cent.), played with bows, 

from a MS. Praver-book at Klostor Neu- 
burg. near Vienna, Fig. 116: .338. 

St. Denis, Abbey of. Oval Vielle (Xllth 
cent.), from a doorwav. Fig. 170: 443. 

■ , Vielle (Xllth cent.), 

from a gateway. Fig. 164 : 431. 

St. Gallen (Leipzig, see p. 494), Psalter 
of Labeo Notker (Xth cent.), Rebab, 
Fig. 149: 401. 

, Library of ilonastery of. Pan- 
dura or Tambura (IXth cent.), from the 
'• Psalterium Aureum," Fig. 151 : 404. 

, Library of ^fonastery of. Psal- 
ter of Labeo Notker (Xth cent.), Rebab. 
two Rottas and a small Harp, PL IV. 

. Psalterium of Folchardus (IXth 

cent.). Harp, PI. VIII. 

Santiago Di Compostella, Cathedral of, 
Medi.-vval Orchestra (Xllth cent.), PI. 

Sassanian Silver Dish. Brit. Mus., Pear- 
shaped stringed instrument akin to re- 
bab and lute and curved liorn on a, PL 

Savary Bassoon (Rudall Carte and Co.), 18. 

Saxophone (Besson and Co.), 4C. 

Screw or Ferrule of violin bow, Fig. 54 : 

Short-action Bass Tuba (Rudall Carto and 
Co.), 61. 

Slide Trumr>et (Kbhler and Co.), 86. 

Soissons, Straight Bow (Xllltli cent.), 

from an enamel basin, I"ig. 70: 283. 
Sordino or Pochette (cir. 1700), Galpin 

Collection. Fig. 158: 417. 
Stelzncr Violin. Diagrams showing fea- 
tures of construction, 196-9. 
Suza. .Ancient Persian Rebab and Pandur 

(Vlllth cent, n.c), PL XII. 
Tafi, Andrea, Italian Guitar-fiddle (Xlllth 

cent.), from a picture by. Fig. 204: 479. 
Tailpiece of Violin, Fig. 50a : 266. 
Tamboura (end of Vlllth cent.). " Evan- 

geliaire de St. Medard," Bihl. Nat., 

Paris, Fig. 115: 399. 
Or Nefer, Egyptian, Fig. 102: 

Or Nefer. from a tomb at 

Thebes. Fig. 31 : 249. 
Or Nefer, from Thebes-Kourna, 

Fig. 32 : 247. 
— Or Pandoura, Front and side 

views. Fig. 25a and b : 240. 

Or Pandoura (IXth cent.), from 

the " Psalterium Aureum," St. Gallen, 

Fig. 151: 404. 
, Pear-shaped, found by Jlr. 

Madox in Egypt, Fig. 101 : 317. 
Tanbur. :\loorish (Xlllth cent.), Madrid. 

Escorial Library. " Cantigas de Santa 

:\laria," Fig. 28": 243. 
Or Lute, from a mural painting 

at Herculaneuni, Fig. 27 : 242. 
Terpsichore's Cithara, "Fig. 91 : 294. 
Thebes, Ancient Egyptian Kithara, now in 

the Levden .Museum of Antiquities, Fig. 

165: 435. 

Egyptian Kithara from. 

Fig. 49: 265. 

Fig. 36: 256. 

Egyptian Nanga from. 

Egyptian Nefer, from 

52nd tomb at. Fig! 146: 400 
. Harp-lute or Nanga, Fig. 

100 (Fig. 36 repeated): 314. 
, Nefer or Tamboura from. 

Fig. 32: 247. 
Thumb-ring of Zither. Fig. 56: 275. 
Tortoise I>yre or Chelvs (Vth cent. B.C.), 

on Greek" vase, Brit. Mus., Fig. 13: 230. 
Tourte, Violin bow bv, Diagram of. Fig. 

51 : 268. 
Treves. TJeb'rauen Kirehe, Minnesinsrer 

FiddU- (XlVth cent.), German, Fig. 179: 

Trituifih' and Beater (G. I'otter and Co., 

Alder.shot). 180. 
Tromba Alarii'a, with bow, from S. Vir- 

dung. Fig. 42: 261. 
Trombone, Contra-bass (Boosev and Son). 

. riouble slide (Rudall Carte and 

Co.), 82. 

. Tenor (Hawkes and SonV 78. 

Valve (Ilawkes ard Son). 77 

Troves Cathedral, Fiddle from (Xlllth 

cent.). Fig. 191 : 471. 
Trumpet. Bach (Besson and Co.), 86, 87. 

, Natural. 84. 

. Slide (KiJhler and Co.). 86 

. Valve (Hawkes and Son). 86. 

Tuba. B flat Bass or Contra-bass (Hawkes 

and Son), 64. 
Or Helicon, Circular form of. 66. 69. 



Tuba, Bass, in F, usually substituted for 

the Wagner Tuba in England iBessoii 

and Co.), 72. 
, Bass or Bombardon, with four 

valves (Hawkes and Son), 62. 
, Short action Bass (Kudall Carto 

and Co.), 61. 

, Wagner Bass, in F, 74. 

-, Wagner Tenor, in B flat, 73. 

Tuning the Lyre, Fig. 46 : 263. 

Wrench for Cithara (Xth cent.). 

from a MS. in Bibl. Nat., Paris, Fig. 48 : 

Utrecht Library, Citharas in second stage 

of transition, from the Utrecht Psalter 

(formerly Cotton : Claud. C. 7), Fig. 119 : 

. , Citharas from the 

LTtrecht Psalter (formerly Cotton : 

Claud. C. 7), Figs. 118-9: 345. 
Vezclai, Abbey of, French Minstrel Fiddle 

from (Xllth cent.). Fig. l'J4 : 473. 
Vielle, Byzantine (Xllth cent.), from Jeru- 
salem, " Brit. Mus., Egerton MS. 1139. 

Fig. 174: 452. 
, Five-stringed (1140 A.n.), Notre 

Dame de Chartres, Fig. 193 : 473. 
Or Fiddle (XlVth cent.), Brit. Mus.. 

Add. ^IS. 27695, Fig. 8: 226. 

Or Fiddle (XlVth cent.). Brit. Mus.. 

Add. MS. 27G95 (Genoese), Fig. 16: 234. 

, Oval (Xlth cent.), from the Abbey 

of St. Georges de Boscherville, near 

Bouen, Fig. 163 : 4.31. 
— , Oval (XlVth cent.), Brit. Mus.. 

Add. MS. 27695, Fig. 16??: 4.30. 
, Oval (Xllth cent.), from doorwav 

of the Abbey of St. Denis, Fig. 170: 443. 
, Oval (1131-1144 .\.D.). from Jeru- 
salem, Brit. Mus., Egerton MS. 1139. Fig. 

175: 4.53. 
, Oval (Xllth cent.), Spanish, Brit. 

Mus., Add. MS. 11695, Fig. 189: 468. 
— . Oval (Xnith cent.). Facade des 

Musiciens, Bheims, Fig. 197 : 474. 
. Oval with wide ribs (XlVth cent.). 

from the Cathedral, Cologne, Fig. 185 : 


With incurvations (Xlth cent.1, from 

the Abbey of St. Georges de Boscher- 
ville, near Rouen, Fig. 160 : 422. 

• (Xllth cent.), from a gateway in 

the Abbey of St. Denis. Fig. 164 : 4.31. 

Viola (XlVth cent.). Brit. .\Ius., Slo:nie 
MS. 3983. Fig. 12: 229. 

(XIYth cent.), Brit. Mus., Sloane 

MS. 3983. Fig. 141 : 393. 

Violin Bow. Head of. Fig. 53 : 270. 

Bow, Nut, showing screw. Fig. 52 : 


Bow, Showing nut and screw or fer- 
rule, Fig. 54 : 271. 

Bow. Tourte Model, Diagram of. 

Fig. 51 : 268. 

Bridge. Modern, Fig. 11: 227. 

. Bridge of, 101. 

-, Head of bow of, 101. 

, Modern, Diagram showing back 

view of. Fig. 5 : 227. 
, 5todern, Diagram showing front 

view of. Fig. 3: 226. 
, Modern, Diagram showing ribs and 

belly of. Fig. 2 : 224. 
, ilodern. Diagram showing side 

view of, Fig. 4 : 227. 

JIute (Beare and Son). 101. 

. Nut of bow of, 101, 

Showing front, back and side eleva- 
tion, 101. 

-. Stelzner. Diagram showing the foci 

of the soundwaves in the interior of the 

, Stelzner. Diagram showing the re- 
spective lines of the ribs in the Italian, 
and in the, 199. 

. Stelzner, Outline of the Cremona. 

and the, showing top block and sound- 
holes. 196. 

, Tailpiece. Fig. .50a : 266. 

, " The Emperor " Strad (Hart and 

Son). 100. 

Violoncello (Hart and Son), 114. 

Volker ^luseuni. Berlin, Old German 
Piotta (real instrument). (IVth to Vlltli 
cent.), Fig. 168: 440. 

Volkor's Fiddle (XlVth cent.). Fig. 1S4 : 

Wagner Tubas, 7.3-4. 

Welsh Crwth (XVIIIth 

Worcester Cathedral, 
cent.), from. 

Xylophone. 183. 

Yusufzai. Afghanistan. 

cent.). Fig. 33: 
Crowd (Xlllth 

Viola (Hart and Son), 111. 

Dancers, from 
PI. X 
Zither, Thumb-ring of. Fig. 56 

Musicians and 
frieze in Brit. Mus., 


Horn. Pages 51-3. It is necessaiy to remember that in the French 
horn, owing to the narrow boie, in proportion to the length of tube, the 
fundamental notes are ineffective and the practical compass commences 
with the second harmonic. The notation, when the bass clef is used, is 
generally an octave below the real sounds. The French horn is the 
result of the fusion, during the Middle Ages, of the busine and bugle 
horns, respectively descendants of the Eoman hucclna and cornu. Many 
writers affirm that the French horn assumed its present form in coils in 
Paris at the end of the XVIfth century, but I have discovered in an 
early woodcut, a horn coiled tliree times round the performer's body (see 
Virgil, Opera, Strassburg, 1502, PI. CCCVIII.) The whole question of 
the history of the horn has been treated at some length under the heading 
Horn in the eleventh edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica " now in 
the Press. 

GiTH.\RA. Page 108, line 17. It is extremely doubtful that the early 
mediaeval Moorish githara possessed any important structural features 
in common with those of the European guitar. There is, in fact, no 
trace among the Arab instruments known to us of any instr^^ment re- 
sembling the guitar; the niitra or guitluna of the modern Arabs is a 
pear-shaped instrument witli vaulted back, a long neck and strings 
twanged by means of a quill, belonging, therefore, to a different type 

Kettledrum. Page 161, line 17. It is now known that the Romans, 
and probably also the classic Greeks, were acquainted with the kettle- 
drum. The earliest European representation of the instrument occurs 
in a fine early Christian illuminated MS. known as the Vienna Genesis 
("about Vth century a.d.), in a banquet scene. See "Die Wiener 
Genesis," edited by Franz WickhofF, Bibliogiaphy, page 574. 

Page 20, lines 9-10. Instead of an octave lower read "two octaves 


Page 33, line 31. Between Johanv and Denncr insert "Christoph." 
Page 40, line 6*. Instead of Grescr read " Grenser." 
Page 45, lines 13-14. Read "sounds of the E flat bass being an 
octave and a sixth lower, and those of the B flat contrabass saxophone 
two octaves and one tone lower than the Mritten notes." 

Page 48. Under illustration, instead of Bovx read " Raous. 

* Lines having the number accDmpanied by an asterisk are counted from the bottom of 

the page. 



Page oS, line 3*. After Gcnnuny insert "(Hamburg, 1705.)" 

l*age 58, line 5. Instead of are really read" were originally." 

Page 58, line 12. After muuthpicce insert "and bore." 

Page 58, line 22. After instrument insert "now." 

Page GO, line 10. Instead of all the valves read "all four valves"; 
and tor B flat read " B natural." 

Page 68, line 7. Before Compass insert "Practical" and after E flat 
delete "or F." Under both musical examples of compass delete " 8va 
bassa " and '' loco." 

Page 68, line 9. Read "in B flat." 

Page 71. In the harmonic series of the F bass as sounded the B flat 

— ?• — - should be within brackets. 

Page 97, line 1. Instead of Victory read "Enharmonic." 

Page 105, line 6. Instead of it read "them." 

Page 106, line 5*. Instead of amoits read "laments." 

Page 109, line 7. Instead of 6th to Sth cent, read " 6th to 9th cent." 

Page 110, line 5*. Before peculiarly delete "a." 

Page 113, line 12. For treble or C clef read "treble or G clef" and 

over musical example add "4" over the C string. 

Page 120. Over musical example read " contrabassi." 

Page 135, line 14. For 1703 read "1783." 

Page 144. Under diagram read "Action of the Pedals in the Harp." 

Page 152, line 9. For black keys road "black strings." 

Page 157, line 9. Omit Pavilion Chinois. 

Page 162, line 3*. For Sulli, read " Lully." 

Page 163, title. After G. Potter and Co. add " Aldershot." 

I'age 167, title and line 3*. Omit Pavilion Chinois and see page 183. 

Page 176. Above ^/f/e insert " Chapter XXXIII/' 

Page 209. Trombone read "Alto in E flat (or in F, one tone higher.)" 

Page 210. Bass trombone read " in F (in G, or double slide in E flat 

correspondingly higher or lower.)" 


Psalter of Lothair. Page 373. This priceless Carlovingian MS., a 
product of the School of Metz, was known for some years as the "Ellis 
and White Psalter" until it passed into the hands of the late Sir 
Thomas Brooke, who recently bequeathed it to the British Museum. 
The ivory carving which adorns the binding is of later date (probably 
Xlth century). The instrument Avhich the artist has placed in the 
hands of King David may be found to throw some light on the proven- 
ance of the ivory carving; it has evidently been copied from the minia- 
ture representing King David and his musicians in the "Bible of Charles 
le Chauve," a masterpiece of the School of Tours, executed for Count 
Vivien for presentation to King Charles. The precious MS. (now in the 
Bibl. Nat., Paris), was passed on after the king's death to the city of 
Metz where it was preserved until the XVlIth century. That \vas, no 
doubt, how the ivory carver got his inspiration from the Bible of 
Charles the Bald ; but he was not content to copy the instrument as he 
found it ; he tried to turn it into a lyre, while preserving the fingei'board 


which forms a characteristic feature of the chrotta or crwth : if the 
artist was Morking during the Xlth century, as has been thought, the 
bow was at that date beginning to be applied to instruments of this 
type, whereas in the IXth century the crwth, as represented in the 
"Bible of Charles le Chauve," was still played by twanging the strings 
with the fingers. 

Persian Tanbur. Page 400, note. The Persians in the Vlllth cen- 
tury B.C., were vising tanburs of both oval and pear-shaped types, which 
display a standard of development as high or higher than the Assyrian 
one here quoted. See PI. XII, the two right hand figures. 

Viols. Page 452. Bowed instruments with sloping shoulders dis- 
playing in their soundchests the structural features of the violin family, 
such as Fig. 174, became the characteristic instruments of the German 
Minnesingers and developed centuries later into the viols. The guitar- 
liddle, on the other hand, developed in Italy, through the intermediary 
of the lyra family, directly into the violin. The lyra had the same out- 
line as the violin, " ff " soundholes, bridge and fingerboard, differing 
only in the shape of the head which was flat and the number of strings 
(from seven to twelve.) See "Michael Praetorius de Organographia " 
(Part II of "Syntagma Musicum"), Wolfenbiittel, 1618, PI. XVII (4) 
and XX (5.) 

Page 22(3, Fig. 7. From the legend, delete "from an ornament on a 

Chasuble at Sens, 1165 a.d." 

Page 233, Fig. 14. After modern insert "type." 

Page 250, line 6*. A XlVth century crwth with bow is figured on a 

seal dated 1316. See Appendix, page 495. 

Page 255, note. For Smith Krtisington Museum read "Victoria and 

Albert Museum." 

Page 258, Fig. 39. For (iuitar read "Lute." 

Page 264, line 1*. For this tailpiece read "the tailpiece." 

Page 2(36, line 28. For Lijre read "Kithara." 

Page 271, line 3. For civilisation read "civilisations." 

Page 273, line 23. For plectra read "plectrum." 

Page 275, line 17. For ungalae read "ungulae." 

Page 283, Fig. 71. For Musician's read "Musicians'." 

Page 284, under Fig. 74. For 14th cent, read " 15th cent." 

Pages 290 and 293, under Figs. 80 and 87. For Hcrculanum read 

"' Horculaneum." 

Page 292, under Fig. 86. For Musco read " Museo." 

Page 316, line 4*. For Atlicneus read " Athenaeus." 

Page 338, line 4*. For (p. 1,2) read " (p. 255.)" 

Page 339, line 7*. For Ncuberg read " Neuburg." 

Page 347, under Fig. 122. For Psalterium read "Harp." 

Page 358, note *, line 6. Transfer parenthesis from after Delisle to 

after "British Museum." 

Page 358, note *, line 7. After Janitscheh insert "and others." 

Page 377, line 22. After Kithara insert ("or Kinyra.") 

Page 384, line 11. Before instruments insert "stringed." 

Page 401, line 2. This is an error. See Appendix C, page 494. 

Page 405, line 3. For lute read "mandoline." 

Page 408, note f. For Fircnz read " Firenze." 

Page 409, note t. For Lutcran read "Lateran." 

Page 415, lines 18-19. For Suscinius read " Luscinius." 

^ H 


Page 415, line 2U. For Martimis read " Martinius." 

Page 419, line 12. Delete "or gigue." 

Page 455. In veise for viith read " luth." 

Page 456, line 5*. For Giuravlt read ''Guirault." 

Page 464, line 8. For 29 read "30." 

Page 466, line 2*. For articles read "types." 

Page 479, Fig. 203. Beiore Ointar-fiddk add "Tenor." 

Page 488, note *. For musician read "musicians." 

Page 496, note f. For ,S'. 0. Wesfwood read "J. 0. Westwood." 

Page 505, line 7. For \'ou Christus read " A-or Christiis." 

Page 505, line 11*. Before BuhJe insert "* * *." 

Page 507. Before Elsaii insert " Eisel, J. F. Musiciis Autodidaktos. 

Erfurt, 1738." 

Page 509, lines 9-10. Delete "Gewandhaus Concert." 

Page 512, line 13. I'^or Landcs Kundc read " Landeskunde." 

Page 515, line 6. Delete " (the only copy m Gt. Britain is in the 

Advocates' Library, Edinburgh)." 

Page 516, line 16. For Musec read " Musee." 

Page 518, line 12*. For Yitruela read " Vihuela." 

Page 521, line 25*. For Musee read "Musee." 

Page 530, line 12*. In 1,700 omit the comma. 

Page 531, lines 21-2*. Transfer to Section B, III, page 532. 

Page 532, line 10. For WOO read "1889." 

Page 538, line 12. For Clemcutiiii read " Clementino." 

Page 540, line 5. ]'rrschjucttctpii read " verschuetteten." 

Page 541, line 12. For and read "unci." 

Page 545, line 23. For Monuments read "Sculpture." 

Page 557, line 10. For Ewrrbuvgen read " Erwerbungen." 

Page 560, line 23. For W iirtte uibe rgischc n read " Wiirtembergischen." 

Page 562, line 6. After Grab a "hyphen" instead of a dash. 

Page 569, line 21. For Memories read " Memoires." 

Page 571. Under Section E add "Manuscripts." 

Page 578. Omitted from Section A. Land, J. P. N. " Reclierches 

sur I'histoire de la Gamme Arabe." Intern. Orient, ('oiigress, Leiiden. 

188S. Compte Bcndu. Part II, p. 100. Contains extracts in Frencli 

from Al-Farabi's work. 

Page 578, line 20. For Evangelminm read " Evangeliarium." 
Page 596, line 17. For MitteJalters read " Mittelalt^^r." 

Date Due 


Uirt ■ ' 

NOV 1 " ^■ 


"OFC 2 1^ 

.1AT,I 2 4 


APR 9 


'Wl i ^ jg74 

SEP 9 18 


Lkrary Sttr«a 

» Cat. no. 1137 


i f,-es,„g,g002 00267 7453 

ML 460 . S3 2 

Schlesi-nger^ Kat.hleen. 

The Ins-trumen-ts of "the 
modern orches'tra & early