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Full text of "... International exhibition, 1876. [Reports]"

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REPORT OF THE BOARD 



OX BEHALF OP 



United States Executive Departments 



AT THE 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION. 



PHILADELPHIA, PA., 1876, 



UNDER ACTS OF COINGRESS OF MARCH 3, 1875, AND MAY 1, 1876. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



Vol. II. 



This volnme is Volume XI of the series of ReporU on ttie International Exhibition of 1876. 
heretofore published by Congress under joint resolution of June 20, 1879. 



WAfeHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, 
1884. 



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OIFT 



1588aH 



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CONTENTS OF VOLUME I. 

Messagk of the President of the United States, transmitting the 

Report of the Board : 5 

Report of the Board on behalf of United States Executive Depart- 
ments AT THE Exhibition 7 

Specifications and drawings of United States Government building 

AT THE Exhibition 15 

Report on participation of the War Department in the Exhibition.. 21 

Establishment of the War Department as an Executive Department 31 

Report on the Quartermaster's Department. U. S. Army, at the Exhibition. 107 

Report on the Medical Department, U. S. Army, at the Exhibition 121 

Report on the Engineer Department, U. S. Army, at the Exhibition 289 

Report on the Ordnance Department, U. S. Army, at the Exhibition 649 

Report on the Signal Service, U. S. Arm j , at the Exhibition 966 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME II. 

Catalogue of the articles and objects exhibited by the Navy De- 
partment AT the Exhibition, including catalogue of objects pre- 
sented TO THE United States by the Emperor of Siam 11 

Report of the participation of the Treasury Department in the Ex- 
hibition 79 

Catalogue of articles and objects exhibited by the Post- Office De- 
partment at the Exhibition, with history of the Department, and 
an appendix 171 

Report of the participation of the Department of Agriculture in 

THE Exhibition •. 221 

3 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876. 



CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

ARTICLES AND OBJECTS EXHIBITED BY THE UNITED STATES 

NAVY DEPARTMENT IN THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT 

BUILDING, FAIRMOUNT PARK, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



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NAYY DEPARTMENT 

AT THE 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876. 

HON. GEORGE M. ROBESON, 
SECRETARY OF THE NAVY. 



EEAE-ADMIKAL THOENTON A. JENKINS, 

UNITED STATES NAVY, 

REPRESENTATIVE OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT AT THE INTERNATIONAL 
EXHIBITION OF 1876. 



LIST OF THE OFFICERS 

ATTACHED TO THE HAVAL BRANCH OF THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIOH OF 1876 AT 

THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDINO, FAIRMOUNT PARK, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

REAR-ADMIRAL THORNTON A. JENKINS, 

UNITED STATES- NAVY, 

REPRESENTATIVE OF THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 

MEDICAL DIRECTOR JOSEPH WILSON, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER FREDERICK PEARSON, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

PAYMASTER FRANK H. ARMS, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

LIEUTENANT CHARLES M. THOMAS, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

LIEUTENANT RICHARD GRAHAM DAVENPORT, 

UNITED STATES NAVY, 
AID TO REAR-ADMIRAL JENKINS. 

PASSED ASSISTANT ENGINEER JAMES W. HOLLIHAN, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

ACTING PASSED ASSISTANT SURGEON F. V. GREENE, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

GUNNER MOSES K. HENDERSON, 

UNITED STATES NAVY. 

SERGEANT JAMES BRENNAN, 

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS, 

IN COMMAND OF THE UNITED STATES MARINE GUARD AT THE UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT BUILDING. 



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TABI.E OF CONTENTS. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE. 

Pftge. 

Class A.— Heavy ordnance 11 

B. — Howitzers, Catling guns, & c j 11 

C— Small arms ...^. 12 

D. — Heavy and light projectiles 13 

E. — Small-arms amiuanitioo 18 

F. — Loading gear, cannon locks, fuzes, vent impressions, &c 19 

C— Models 24 

H.— Relics 25 

J. — Ordnance publications 25 

K.— Torpedoes and torpedo publications 26 

L. — Apparatus for measuring force of projection 26 

M. — Dresses of sailors and marines 26 

N.— Powder 26 

. Section II.-NAVIGATION. 

A. — Nautical and surveying instruments 27 

B. — Logs and sounding implements 2d 

C— Lights 28 

D.— Charts 29 

E.— Books 29 

F. — Flags and bunting 29 

G. — Observatory publications, &o 30 

H. — United States transit of Venus expeditious 31 

J.— American Arctic explorations 31 

K.— Nautical Almanac 35 

L.— Relics 35 

Section IIL— EQUIPMENT. 

A.— Galleys 35 

B.— Rope 35 

C— Wire ropes 36 

D. — Chains, shackles, buoys, &c 36 

E. — Canvas 37 

F. — Hoisting gear 37 

G.— Tests of iron 38 

Section IV.— YARDS AND DOCKS. 

A.;— Dry-docks 40 

B. — Pieces of vessels 40 

C. — Plans of navy-yards 41 



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8 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Section V.- CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR. ^'^ 

A.— Models 41 

B.— Ship's knee 42 

C— Relics 42 

Section VI.— MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 

A. — Surgical iustrumeuts 43 

B. — Surgical appliances 43 

C. — Hospital stores 43 

D. — Dispensary furniture 43 

E.— Models 43 

F. — Sanitary machinery 43 

G.— Photographs of hospitals J.. 43 

H. — Stationery 43 

Section VII.— PAY, PROVISIONS, AND CLOTHING. 

A. — Specimens of the Navy ration 44 

B. — Original packages, as packed for sea 44 

C— Clothing 44 

D. — Small stores 44 

E.— Contingent 45 

Section VIII.— STEAM MACHINERY. 

A. — Engines and hoilers 45 

B.— Filtering apparatus 45 

C. — Indicators 45 

D. — Tools, lamps, &c 45 

E. — Drawings, &c 45 

Section IX.— PORTRAITS. 

A. — Portraits of distinguished deceased naval officers 46 

Section X.— NAVAL ACADEMY. 

A. — Views and plan of Naval Academy grounds and huildings; specimens 

of drawings, &c 48 

^ I> I> K 2»3- D I X . 

1.— Specimens of small-arms ammunition 49 

2.— Chronometers at the United States Naval Observatory 49 

3. — Navy compasses 51 

4.— Hanging or cabin compasses 51 

5. — Azimuth circle 51 

6. — ^Turret or monitor compass 51 

7. — Old compasses of the United States Navy 51 

8. — Compass-testing instruirent 51 

9. — Magnetic collimator 51 

10. — Adjustable binnacle for correct iug the deviation of the compass 51 

11. — Gravitation compass, designed by the Earl of Caithness 52 

12. — Deep-sea sounding machine, designed by Sir William Thomson, and modi- 
tied by Capt. G. E. Belknap, United States Navy 52 

13. — Sir William Thomson's detaching apparatus for deep-sea soundings by 

piano-forte wire 52 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 9 

Page 

14. — Belknap's specimen cylinder No. 1 53 

15. — Belknap's specimen cylinder No.2 53 

16. — Belknap's specimen cylinder No. 3 53 

17. — Belknap's specimen cylinder No. 4 53 

18. — Collins's detaching and specimen apparatus 53 

19. — Bnnting testing apparatus, designed by Commander R. W. Meade, United 

States Navy 53 

20. — Navy bunting 54 

21.— Flag of Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Md. , in 1814 54 

22. — Apparatus for determining personal equations in astronomical observa- 
tions 54 

23. — United States transit of Venus expeditious 55 

24. — \V. M. Wood's apparatus for attaching, detaching, lowering, hoisting, and 

securing ships' boats 56 

25.— Tests of iron 56 

26. — Steam steering machine (Sickles's patent) 61 

27. — Life-boat or " balsa," designed by Commodore Daniel Ammen, United 

States Navy 61 

Exhibit of articles generally used in Siam and of samples of trade of 

Siamese origin 63 



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THE N^^VY DEP^RTMEiNTT. 



CATAIiOGUE OF THE UNITEI) STATES NAVY DEPART- 
MENT. 



BUREAU OF ORDNANCE. 
Capt. William N. Jeffers, Chief of Bureau. 

Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE. 



Class A. — Heavy Ordnance. 

1. Fac-siniile of a '^Mouitor" revolving 

turret, with two XV-inch guns in- 
side, one on an Eads^ steam car- 
riage and the other on an Erics- 
son's carriage, complete. 

2. Xl-inch smooth-bored gun on wood 

pivot carriage. 

3. Xl-inch smooth-bored gnnon Monitor 

iron carriage. 

4. IX-inch smooth-bored broadside gun 

on iron carriage. 

5. Vlll-inch smooth-bored broadside gun 

on iron carriage. 

6. 32-pdr. smooth -bored gun on iron car- 

riage. 

7. lOO-pdr. rifled gun on Ericsson^s iron 

carriage and slide. 

8. 60-pdr. rifled gun on wooden Marsillj 

carriage, with directing bar. 

9. 32-pdr. smooth- bored gun on skids 

(1827). 

10. Rifled ^* Moody " gun on skids. 

11. Rifled ** Cochrane " breech-loading 

gun on skids. 

12. 3i-inch carronade (old). 

13. Swivel gun, for mounting on ships' 

gunwales and in ships' tops, on 
skids. 

14. Xl-inch shell gun converted into an 

Vlll-inch rifle, lined Avith wronght- 
iron tube and jacket. Twist uni- 
form ; one turn in 40 feet ; 15 grooves 
and lands each 0.8:J772 inch wide. 
Grooves 0.075-inch deep. 



14a. TreadwelPs 32-pdr. steel gun mounted 
on its wooden carriage. 

15. Grice's wooden gun carriage. 

16. IX-iuch carriage and slide (Ward's). 

17. 12-pdr. boat carriage. 

Class B.— Howitzers, Gatling guns, 

ETC. 



1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 
6. 
7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11a 



12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 



20-pdr. rifled bronze gun on a wooden 

carriage. 
24-pdr. smooth-bored howitzer on a 

boat carriage. 
3-inch wedge-breech breech-loading 

rifled gun (1874). 
3-inch screw- breech breech-loading 

rifled gun. 
Long Gatling gun. 
12-pdr. boat-howitzer (light). 
12-pdr. boat-howitzer (heavy)* 
12-pdr. rifled howitzer (heavy). 
'* Nugent" gun. 
De Brame's revolving gun, patented 

July 2, 1861. 
and \\h. Small Spanish guns cast 

about 1490, brought to America and 

used by Cortez iu the conquest of 

Mexico. 
Billifighurst battery. 
Floyd's rifled breech-loader. 
Small iron carronade (old). 
Small iron carronade (old). 
Screw-breech breech-loading rifled 

steel howitzer. 
Short Gatling gun. 
Light 12-pdr. smooth-bored howitzer 

on boat carriage. 

II 



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12 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Continued. 



Class C. — Small Arms. 

1. U. S. flint-lock musket (1810). 

2. Harper^B Ferry rifle (1815). 

3. Virginia musket, flint-lock (1816). 

4. Virginia musket, percussion lock 

(1818). 

5. Smooth-bored flint-lock musket 

(Richmond, Va.). 

6. U. 8. flint-lock musket (1812). 

7. Virginia musket, percussion lock 

(1818). 

8. Springfield flint-lock musket (1823). 

9. Wickham flint-lock musket (1826). 

10. Springfield flint-lock musket (1827). 

11. Flint-lock musket (E. W. Have, 

1830). 

12. Percussion -lock musket (G. S. Pots" 

dam, 183:{). 

13. Harper's Ferry breech-loading flint- 

lock rifle (J. H. Hall, 1834). 

14. Springfield percussion-lock musket 

(1836). 

15. North's breech-loading rifle (ia36). 

16. Harper's Ferry flint-lock rifle (1838). 

17. Hall's breech-loading rifle. 

18. North's percussion carbine (1840). 

19. Prussian musket (1842). 

20. Harper's Ferry musket (1842). 

21. Jenks' breech-loading rifle (1843). 

22. Breech-loading carbine, long (Jenks'). 

23. Navy flint-lock musket altered to 

percussion musket. 

24. Jenks' breech-loading rifle (1844). 

25. Breech -loading carbine (North). 

26. Jenks' carbine, short (1845). 

27. North's carbine (1846). 

28. Sharps carbine (1848). 

29. Sharps carbine (1848). 

30. Sharps carbine (1848). 

31. Springfield musketoou, furnished by 

Union Defense Committee (1848). 

32. Sharps carbine (1848). 

33. Rifle musket (Robbins <& Lawrence). 

34. Springfield cavalry carbine. 

35. Tower musket (1851). 

:^. Smooth-bored cadet's musket (Har- 
per's Ferry). 

37. Wandel rifle (1852). 

38. Springfield breech-loading musket- 

oou. 

39. Palmetto armory musket, Columbia, 

S.C.(1852). 

40. Enfield musket (ia')2). 



41. Harper's Ferry rifle musket. 

42. Springfield musketoou (1853). 

43. Trident. 

44. Harper's Ferry rifle (1H53). 

45. Harper's Ferry rifle (1854). 

46. Plymouth rifle musket (Whitney 

Arms Co.). 

47. Breech-loading carbine (Joslyn, 

1855). 

48. Breech -loading carbine (J. H. Mer- 

rill). 

49. Breech-loading carbine (J. H. Mer- 

rill, 1856). 

50. Maynard's carbine (1846). 

51. Maynard's breech-loading carbine. 

52. Maynard's breech-loading carbine 

(1856). 

53. Burnside's breech-loading carbine. 

54. Breech-loading carbine (L. H. Gibb) 

55. Springfield rifle (1857). 

56. Remington musket (1857). 

57. Breech-loading rifle (Greene). 

58. Breech-loading carbine (Smith). 

59. Breech-loading carbine (Greene). 

60. Colt's revolving rifle (1850). 

61. Colt's revolving rifle (1850). 

62. Colt's revolving rifle and bayonet. 

63. Colt's revolving rifle (1857). 

64 Merrill's breech-loading carbine 
(18.58). 

65. Harper's Ferry musket broken by a 

shot (1858). 

66. Plymouth rifle with tape primer 

(1858). 

67. Merrill's breech-loading rifle and 

saber-bayonet. 

68. Merrill's breech-loading repeating 

rifle. V 

69. Starr's breech-loading carbine. 

70. Buruside's breech-loading rifle. 

71. Tower musket, flint lock. 

72. Plymouth rifle broken by a shot 

(1858). 

73. Sharps breech-loading rifle. 

74. Sharps breech-loading rifle (1859). 

75. Sharps bTcech-loading rifle (18.59). 

76. Sharps breech-loading rifle (1859). 

77. Lindner's breech-loading carbine. 

78. Tower rifle and sword - bayonet 

(1859.) 

79. Sharp & Haukius carbine (1859). 

80. Sharp «fe Hankins eech-loading 

carbine. 

81. Sharp & Hankins rifle carbine. 



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THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



13 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Continued. 



C)2. Sharp & Hankins breech -loading ' 

rifle. 
83. Sharp «& Hankins breech-loading 

rifle (ia=i9). 
M, Sharp & Hankins breech loading 

rifle (1859). 

85. Lindsay's rifle with two hammers 

(1860). 

86. Harper's Ferry rifle (18()0). 

H7. Gallagher's breech-loa<ling carbine. 
H8. Spenrer'ri breech-loading repeafing 
rifle. 

89. Springtield rifle, IT. S. 

90. Tower rifle (1861). 

91. Tower rifle (1861). 

92. Tower rifle (18fil). 

93. Ballard's breech loading carbine. 

94. Tower rifle (1861). 

95. Cook & Bro. rifle (1864). 

96. Gwyn & Campbell's breech -loading 

carbine. 

97. U. S. rifle (Whitneyville, 1864). 

98. Palmer's breech-loading carbine. 

99. Prussian musket. 

100. Vincennes rifle. 

101. Spencer's breech-loading carbine. 

102. Whitney rifle. 

103. Rifle (unknown). 

104. Walter's breech-loading rifle. 

105. Sporting rifle. 

106. Greene's breech-loading rifle (1857). 

107. Joslyn's breech-loading carbine. 

108. Perrj's breech-loading carbine. 

109. Joslyn's breech-loading rifle. 

110. Joslyn's breech-loading rifle. 

111. Vincennes rifle and saber-bayonet. 

112. Perry's breech-loading carbine. 

113. Remington's breech-loading carbine. 

114. Remington's breech-loading carbine. 

115. Remington's breech-loading carbine. 

1 16. Springfield musket, altered, and bay- 

onet. 

1 17. Springfield musket, altered. 

118. Remington's breech-loading rifle and 

bayonet. 

119. Remington's navy rifles, with sword 

bayonet, cal. 0.50 inch (1868). 

120. Remington's navy carbines, cal. 0.50 

inch (1866). 

121. Remington's carbines. 

122. Remington's navy carbines. 

123. Springfield shoulder pistol. 

124. Roman sword. 

125. Remington's carbine (old pattern). 



126. Saber bayonet. 

127. Portei-'s rifle. 

128. Cutlass (U. S.N.). 

129. Otticer's cutlass (U. S. N.). 

130. Remington's carbine (old pattern). 

131. Saber-bayonet and scabbard. 
132 Saber-bayonet and scabbard. 

133. Revolver (Sjivage). 

134. Saber bayonets. 

135. Revolver (Joslyn). 

136. Sword-bayonet. 

137. Saber-bayonet and scabbard. 

138. Revolver (Allen &*\Vheelock). 
138a. Saber-bayonets 

139. Revolver (Starr). 

14t'. Saber- bayonet and scabbard. 

141. Saber- bayonet. 

142. Remington's pistol, nickel-plated 

(1866). 

143. Common bayonets. 

144. Remington's breech-loading pistol. 

145. Common bayonets. 

146. Remington's pistol (1866). 

147. Common bayonets. 

148. Common bayonets. 

149. Common bayonets. 

150. Virginia muskets, flint lock (1817). 

151. Remington'snavy rifles, cal. 0.50 inch 

(1874). 

152. Virginia musket (1818). 

153. U. S. flint-lock musket. 



Class 



D. — Heavy and Light Projec- 
tiles. 



1. 200-pdr. Globe shell (Stafford). 

2. 150-pdr. Dahlgren hollow shot. 

3. 30-pdr. Dahlgren steel bolt shot 

4. 50-pdr. Dahlgren steel bolt shot. 

5. 50-pdr. steel shot (Holroyd). 

6. 12-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

7. 20-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

8. 20-pdr. hollow shot (Dahlgren). 

9. 50-pdr. hollow shot (Dahlgren). 

10. 30-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

11. 50-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

12. XV-inch solid shot. 

13. XV-inch shrapnel. 

14. XV-inch shell (3 fuze-holes). 

15. 50-pdr. shell (Dahlgren). 

16. 12-pdr. shell (Dahlgren). 

17. 12-pdr. grape (Dahlgren). 

18. 200-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

19. 150 pdr. sub-caliber shot (Staftord). 

20. 200.pdr. sub-caliber shot (Emery). 



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14 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNA^X'E— Coutiuued. 



21. XV-inch hollow shot. 

22. 150 -pdr. steel shot (Dahlgreu). 

23. 50-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Ganster). 

24. 50-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

25. XV-inch canister. 

.26. 4.3-inch shot, wrapped with rope. 

27. 50-pdr. Dahlgreu shell ; section. 

28. 30-pdr. Dahlgren shell ; section. 

29. 12-pdr. Dahlgren shell ; section. 

30. 20-pdr. Dana shell ; section. 

31. 200-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Smith). 

32. XV-inch grape. 

33. XV-inch sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

34. 60-pdr. Parrott shell. 

35. 30-pdr. Parrott shell. 

36. 30-pdr. Parrott canister. 

37. 20-pdr. Parrott shell. 
:<8. lO-pdr. Parrott shell. 

39. 30-pdr. Parrott shell ; section. 

40. 100-pdr. Parrott shell ; section. 

41. 20-pdr. Parrott shrapnel 

42. Xlll-inch solid shot. 

43. 12-pdr. shut (Dahlgren). 

44. 50-pdr. steel shot (Dahlgren). 

45. 6-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

46. 12-pdr. canister (Dahlgren). 

47. 100-pdr. Parrott shell ; long. 

48. 200- pdr. Parrott shell. 

49. 150-pdr. Schonkl shell. 

.50. 140-pdr. Schenkl shrapnel. 

51. 200-pdr. hollow shot (Parrott). 

52. 150-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

53. 100-pdr. short shot (Parrott). 
,54. 100-pdr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

55. 30 iMlr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

56. 10- pdr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

57. 60-pilr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

58. 30-pdr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

59. 100-pdr. shot, chilled end (Parrott). 

60. 100-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

61. 60-pdr. shot (Parrott). 

62. lOO-pdr. hollow shot (Parrott). 

63. 200-pdr. shot, chilled end (Parrott). 

64. 30-pdr. sub caliber shot (Stafford). 

65. 50-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Emery). 

66. 30-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Emery). 

67. 24 pdr. shrapnel. 

68. 24-pdr. shell. 

69. 24-pdr. canister. 

70. 12-pdr. heavy shell. 

71. 12-pdr. heavy shrapnel. 

72. 12-pdr. heavy canister. . 

73. 12-pdr. light shrapnel. 

74. 12-pdr. light canister. 



I 75. 12-pdr. light shell. 

• 76. XV-inch shell (3 fuze-holes). 

77. XV-inch shel^3 fuze-holes). 

78. XV-inch steel shot. 

79. XV-inch steel shot. 
: 80. 32-pdr. shell. 

I 81. 12-pdr. shot (Dahlgreu). • 

82. 12-pdr. Hotchkiss percussion shell. 
! 83. 12-pdr. Hotchkiss time-shell. 

84. 12-pdr. Dahlgren tijne-shell. 

85. 12-pdr. Dahlgren blind shell. 

86. 12-pdr. Dahlgren shell. 

87. 100 pdr. Parrott shell. 

88. lOO-pdr. Parrott shrapnel. 

89. Xl-iuch shell. 

90. Xl-inch shell. 

91. IX-inch shell. 

92. Vlll-inch shell. 

93. 32-pdr. shell. 

94. 150-pdr. Hotchkiss shell. 

95. 50-pdr. Hotchkiss shell. 

96. 80-pdr. Hotchkiss shot. 

97. 60-pdr. Hotchkiss shot. 

98. lOO-pdr. Hotchkiss shot. 

99. 80-pdr. Hotchkiss shot. 

100. lOO-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

101. 20-pdr. Hotchkiss shell. 

102. 30-i)dr. Hotchkiss shell. 

103. 20-pdr. Hotchkiss shell. 

104. 12-pdr. Hotchkiss shell. 

105. 12-pdr. Hotchkiss shrapnel. 

106. 12-pdr. Hotchkiss shot. 

107. 12-pdr. Hotchkiss canister. 

108. 12-pdr. James shot. 

109. 200-iKlr- Stafford Globe shot. 

110. H)-pdr. Schenkl shell. 

111. 80-pdr. Schenkl shrapnel. 

112. 7-iuch Globe shot (Stafford). 

113. 20-pdr. Parrott shot. 

114. 3.50-inch Sawyer canister. 

115. 50-pdr. Schenkl shell. 

116. 100.i>dr. Schenkl shell -short. 

117. 20-pdr. Schenkl shot. 

118. .50-pdr. Schenkl shot. 

119. 12-pdr. Schenkl shell. 

120. 20-pdr. Schenkl canister — sectional. 

121. Shell (A. C. Twining). 

122. .3.6:Mnch Sawyer canister. 

123. 30-pdr. Schenkl .steel shot. 

124. 50-pdr. Schenkl steel shot. 

125. 20-pdr. Schenkl shell. 
Ii6. 30-pdr. Schenkl shell. 

127. 20-pdr. Schenkl shrapnel. 

128. 30-pdr. Schenkl shrapnel. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



Section L—NAVAL ORDNANCE— Continued. 



15 



129. 


80-pdr. Sawyer shell. 


182. 


60-pdr. Bradley's shell. 


130. 


50-pdr. Sawyer shell. 


183. 


80-pdr. Bradley's shell. 


131. 


30-pdr. Sawyer shell. 


184. 


Wood's shell, 5. 10- inch diameter. 


132. 


12-pdr. Sawyer shell. 


185. 


20-pdr. Dana's shell. 


133. 


20-pdr. J^awyer shell. 


186. 


Cochran shot, 3.55-inch diameter. 


134. 


10-pdr. Sawyer shot. 


187. 


Shell (Fayetteville Arsenal). 


135. 


10-pdr. Sawyer shell. 


188. 


12-pdr. Cochran shell. 


136. 


30-pdr. Sawyer shot. 


189. 


20-pdr. Cochran shell. 


137. 


12pdr. Sawyer shell. 


190. 


Cochran shell, 3.81-fnch diameter. ' 


138. 


Sawyer canister, 4.48-inch diameter. 


191. 


Mann's shell, 4.30-inch diameter. 


139. 


Sawyer canister, 3.55-inch diameter 


192. 


Shrapnel, 3.b0-inch diameter. 


140. 


Sawyer canister, 4.50-inch diameter. 


193. 


12-pdr. Dana's shell. 


141. 


Sawyer canister, 3.50-inch diameter. 


194. 


Stearns' shell, 2-indh diameter. 


142. 


Sawyer canister, 3.30-inch diameter. 


194€i 


. Steams' shot, 2-inch diameter. 


143. 


12-pdr. Schenkl canister. 


195. 


Stearns' hollow shot, 2-inch diame- 


144. 


Vlll-inch James shell. 




ter. 


145. 


lOO-pdr. Brooke steel shot. 


196. 


Xl-inch solid shot. 


146. 


IX-inch service shrapnel (strapped). 


197. 


Xl-inch shot (.Johnson). 


147. 


Vlll-inch Bimey shell. 


198. 


Vlll-inch solid shot. 


148. 


Mana's shot, diameter 8.20-inch. 


199. 


IX-inch solid shot. 


149. 


Cochran shot, diameter 4.58-inch. 


200. 


Vlll-inch shrapnel. 


150. 


32-pdr. shrapnel. 


201. 


Vlll-inch shell. 


151. 


32-pdr. shell. 


202. 


IX-inch shell (not strapped or 


152. 


XIrinch grape. 




bouched). 


153. 


X-inch grape. 


203. 


Callender shell, 5.80-inch diameter. 


154. 


IX-inch grape. 


204. 


Steel-pointed shell, 5.04-inch diame- 


155. 


Xl-inch canister. 




ter (Johnson). 


156. 


X-inch canister. 


205. 


Cochran shell, 3.50-inch diameter. 


157. 


Xl-inch shell (3 fuze-holes). 


206. 


30-pdr. shot and shell combined (Kel- 


158. 


Xl-inch shrapnel. 




log). 


159. 


Xl-inch shell. 


207. 


Ganster 12-pdr. shell. 


160. 


X-inch shrapnel. 


208. 


Percussion shell, 2.9.5-inch diameter 


161. 


X-inch shell. 




(Mitchell & Rennet). 


162. 


IX-inch shell. 


209. 


Shell, 5.07-inch diameter (Dr. Reed). 


163. 


Vlll-inch shell (eccentric). 


210. 


20.pdr. shell (White). 


164. 


42-pdr. shell. 


211. 


12-pdr. shell (Johnson), 


165. 


Vlll-inch shell (zinked). 


212. 


12-pdr. shell (Brokel) 


166. 


Vlll-inch shell (papered). 


213. 


32-pdr. shell. 


167. 


Vlll-inch shell (zinked and pa- 


214. 


24-pdr. shell. 




pered). 


215. 


'^4-pdr. chilled shot. 


168. 


32-pdr. shell. 


216. 


24-pdr. shrapnel. 


169. 


32-pdr. shell (zinked). 


217. 


32-pdr. shell (Holroyd). 


170. 


IX-inch canister. 


218. 


Stevens shell, 5.60 inch diameter. 


171. 


Vlll-inch canister. 




with four fans at base to obtain ro- 


172. 


32-pdr. canister. 




tary motion. 


173. 


32-pdr. shell (in bag). 


219. 


Conical shell, 3.70-inch diameter. 


174. 


32-pdr. shell (not strapped). 


220. 


Shell, 3-inch diameter. 


175. 


32-pdr. shell. 


221. 


Xl-inch shell (Williams). 


176. 


32-pdr. shell. 


222. 


X-inch shell. 


177. 


32-pdr. shell (Hotchkiss ring fuze). 


2-23. 


Sbot, 5.07-inch diameter (Dr. Reed). 


178. 


32-pdr. solid shot. 


224. 


Shot, 3.64-iuch diameter (Cochran). 


179. 


80-pdr. Atwater's shot. 


225. 


30-pdr. shell (Kellog). 


180. 


150-pdr. Ames steel shot. 


226. 


Shot, 4.37-inch diameter (Dimick). 


181. 


60-pdr. White's shell. 


227. 


12-pdr. shot. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



i6 



INTER-NATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Continued. 



228. Shot, 3.38-inch diameter (Captain | 276, 

Henry). ! 277, 

229. 12-pdr. steel shot (Halsey). 278. 

230. Shot, 3.65-inch diameter (Captain 279. 

Henry). 

231. Shot, 3.54-inch diameter (Dr. Reed). 280. 

232. Shot, 2.20-iuch diameter (Glenn). 281. 

233. Shot, 3.70-inch diameter (Merrill). 282. 

234. 6-pdr.8hot(Kellog). 2"3. 

235. Shot, 2.66-inch diameter (Lyman). 284. 

236. Expansion bands for Dana's shell. 285. 

237. Remnant of rifle steel shot. 286 

238. 12-pdr. shot (Henry). 287 
2:^9. Hollow shot, 11.90-inch diameter 

(Buruside). 288. 

240. Shot, 4..=i0-inch diameter (McDou- 289. 

ough). 290. 

241. Shot, 5-inch diameter (Kenyon). 291. 

242. Shot, 6.2o-inch diameter (Holroyd). 292. 

243. Shot, 5.65-inch diameter. 293. 

244. Shot, 4.45-inch diameter (Oliver). 294. 

245. Shot, 3.90.inch diameter. 295. 

246. Shot, 4.(i5-inch diameter (Hall & 296. 

Colby). 297. 

247. Shot, 6.35-inch diameter (Commo- 298. 

dore Smith). 299. 

248. Shot, volcanic, 2.70 inch diameter. 300. 

249. Canister, 3.55-inch diameter. 301. 

250. 12-pdr. shot (Holroyd). \ 302. 

251. Shot, 6.30-iuch diameter (Burnside). 303. 

252. Shot, 5.90-inch diameter. 394. 

253. Shot, 5.85-inch diameter. 305. 

254. Shot (Holroyd). 306. 

255. X-inch solid shot. 307. 
2o6. 12-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 308. 

257. Chain shot (Stearns). 300. 

258. 12-pdr. shot (Holroyd). 310. 

259. VIII inch shell (Jones). 

260. Vlll-iuch grape. 311. 

261. 32-pdr. grape. 312. 

262. 18-pdr. grape. 313. 

263. 12-pdr. grape. 314. 

264. Xlll-inch solid shot. 315. 

265. Section of IX-inch service shell. 316. 

266. Section of Xl-inchr service shell. 

267. Section of X-inch service shell. 317. 

268. Section of IX-inch Mclntyre shell. 

269. Section of IX-inch Feavy shell. 318. 

270. Section of IX-inch service shell. 319. 

271. Section of Vlll-incU service shell. 320. 

272. Section of :W-pdr. service shell. 321. 

273. Section of 24-pdr. shell. 

274. Section of 12-pdr. shell. 322. 

275. Section of 12-pdr. shrapnel (Hilkins). 



Section of 12-pdr. service shrapnel. 

Compound shell. 

12-pdr. shell. 

12pdr. shrapnel (Felton, Hanes & 
Atkins). 

Mclntyre shell, 3.41-inch diameter. 

Shell, 3.2.'>inch diameter. 

XV-inch service shrapnel — broken. 

X-inch cast iron shot. 

Xl-inch cast iron shot. 

Xl-inch wrought iron shot. 

X-inch wrought-iron shot. 

80-pdr. wronght-iron shot (Dahl- 
gren.) 

Vlll-inch wrought-iron shot. 

80-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

30-pdr. steel shot (Dahlgren). 

20-pdr. steel shot (Halsey). 

Remnant of steel shot (Schenkl). 

150-pdr. steel shot (Jenkins). 

150-pdr. steel shot (Dahlgren). 

Xl-inch wrought-iron cored shot. 

Xl-inch cast iron cored shot. 

Vlll-inch rifled shot (Mann). 

100- pdr. steel shor (Jenkins). 

Vll-inch wrought-iron shot (Brooke). 

Xl-inch cast-iron shot (Brooke). 

Fragments of 32-i)dr. shells. 

Xll-inch Parrott shot. 

Xll-inch Hotchkiss shot. 

Xll-inch Rodman shot. 

Shell for 3-inch breech-loading rifle. 

150-pdr. shrapnel (Schenkl). 

Cochran shot. 

Lyman's shot ; long. 

James shot. 

Shell, 6.30 inches diameter, with rub- 
ber band. 

Hotchkiss shot. 

12-pdr. shell (Hotchkiss). 

12-pdr. shell (Hotchkiss). 

lO-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

10-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

20-pdr. with combination 
(Hotchkiss). 

20-pdr. with combination 
(Hotchkiss). 

20.pdr. shell (Hutchki.ss). 

.'^O-pdr. shell (Hotchkiss). 

20-pdr. shot (Parrott). 

12-pdr. shot, with brass expansion 
ring (Dahlgren). 

20-pdr. shell (Dahlgren), with 
AVright 4& Hotchkiss fuze. 



fuzo 



fuze 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



17 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Coutiuued. 



with 



with 



expansion 



323. iOptlr. shell (Dahlgren), 

Wright & Hotchkiss fuze. 

324. 12-pdr. shell (Dahlgren), 

Wright & Hotchkiss fuze. 

325. 50 par. shell (Dahlgren). 

326. 50-pdr. shell (Dahlgren). 

327. 50.p<lr. shot with brass 

cup (Dahlgren), 

328. 20-pdr. shell (Dahlgren). 

329. 12-pdr. shell (Dahlgren), with four 

strips of lead to fit grooves of gun. 

330. 12-pdr. shot, with lead expansion 

(Dahlgren). 

331. 12-pdr. shot, with lead expansion 

(Dahlgren). 

332. 12-pdr. shot, with two brass expan- 

sion rings (Dahlgren). 

333. 12-pdr. shot, with brass expansion 
cup (Dahlgren). 

334. 12-pdr. shell, with brass expansion 

cup (Dahlgren). 

335. 12-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

336. IX-inch shell ; section. 

337. IX-inch shell ; section. 

338. IX-inch shell ; section. 

339. IX-inch shell ; section. 

340. IX-inch shell ; section. 

341. Vlll-inch service shell ; section. 

342. 12-pdr. shell, with lead expansion; 

section (Dahlgren). 

343. 12-pdr. shell, with lead expansion ; 

section (Dahlgren). 

344. 12-pdr. shell, with lead expansion ; 

section (Dahlgren). 

345. 12-pdr. shell, with. lead expansion; 

section (Dahl^^ren). 

346. 12-pdr. shell, with lead expansion; 

section (Dahlgren). 

347. 12-pdr. shell, with composition ex- 

pansion cup ; section (Dahlgren). 

348. 12-pdr. shell, with composition ex- 

pansion cup; section (Dahlgren). 

349. 30-pdr. shell, with composition ex- 

pansion cup; section (Dahlgren). 

350. 30-pdr. shell, with lead expansion 

cup ; section (Dahlgren). 

351. 50-pdr. shell, with lead expansion 

cup, section (Dahlgren). 

552. 50-pdr. shell, with composition ex- 
pansion cup ; section (Dahlgren). 

:553. 30-pdr. shell ; section (Parrott). 

354. Shot, 6.25-inch diameter, with four 
flanges extenditig from center to 
base (Moses Hill). 
2 CEN, pt. 2 



355. 
356. 
357. 
358. 
359. 
360. 
361. 

362. 
363. 
364. 
365. 
366. 



367. 
368. 
369. 
370. 
371. 
372. 
373. 
374. 
375. 
376. 
377. 
378. 
379. 
380. 
381. 
382. 
383. 
384. 
385. 
386. 
387. 
388. 
:«9. 
390. 
391. 
392. 
393. 
394. 
395. 
396. 
397. 
398. 
399. 
400. 
401. 
402. 
403. 
404. 
405. 



12-pdr^ shrapnel (Sawyer). 

50-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

50-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

50-pdr. sub-caliber shot (Stafford). 

30-pdr. shot (Emery). 

12-pdr. shot (Hotchkiss). 

12-pdr. shell, with lead expansion 
(Dahlgren). 

100-pdr. shell ; section (Parrott). 

30-pdr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

50-pdr. shell (Sawyer). 

12-pdr. shell (James). 

Shell, 3-inch diameter, with four fans 
to obtain rotary motion ; glass cyl- 
inder inside the shell. 

James shot. 

Vlll-inch shot. 

Vlll-inch shot. 

Vlll-inch shot. 

Vlll-inch sheU. 

Vlll-inch shrapnel. 

Vlll-inch grape. 

IX-inch shot. 

IX-inch shot. 

IX-inch shot. 

IX-inch shell. 

IX-inch shrapnel. s 

IX-inch canister. 

IX-inch grape. 

Vlll-inch rifle shell, conical. 

Vlll-inch rifle shell, conical. 

XV-inch shell (3 fuze-holes). 

XV-inch shrapnel. 

XV-inch shrapnel. 

XV-inch shot. 

XV-inch shot. 

XV-inch shot. 

XV-inch grape. 

XV inch grape. 

XV-inch canister. 

60-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

60-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

60-pdr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

Xl-inch shot. 

XI inch shot. 

Xl-inch shot. 

Xl-inch shot. 

XI inch shot. 

Xl-inch shell. 

Xl-inch shrapnel. 

Xl-inch shrapnel. 

Xl-inch cauis er. 

Xl-inch grape. 

Xl-inch grape. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



i8 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE—Continnecl. 



406. X-iuch sliot. 

407. X-inch shell. 

408. 32-pdr. shot. 

409. 32-pdr. shot. 

410. 32-pdr. shot. 

411. :}2-pdr. shot. 

412. 32-pdr. shot. 

413. 32-pdr. shell. 

414. 32-pdr. shrapnel. 

415. 32-pdr. shrapnel. 

416. 32-pdr. canister. 

417. 32-pdr. grape. 

418. 32-pdr. grape. 

419. 20-pdr. rifle shot. 

420. 20.pdr. rifle shot. 

421. 100-pdr. shot (Parrott). 

422. 100-pdr. shot (Parrott). 

423. 100-pdr. shell (Parrott). 
424 100-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

425. 100-pdr. shrapnel (Parrott). 

426. Shot, shell,and charges for De Brame^s 

gun. 

427. Elevating screw and shot for Floyd's 

gun. 

428. 30-pdr. shell (Parrott). 

429. 12-pdr. shrapnel (Cochran). 

430. 12-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 

431. Shot (Bumside). 

432. Shot (Bumside). 

433. 12-pdr. canister (heavy). 

434. Projectile, with ix)pe attached, to he 

fired from a vessel toward the shore. 

435. Shot covered with leather. 

436. 12-pdr. shot (Dahlgren). 
4.37. 12-pdr. shot. 

438. 12-pdr. shell with lead expansion. 

439. 12-pdr. shot (Hotchkiss). 

440. 20-pdr. shrapitel (Parrott). 

441. Shot, 2.85-inch diameter, with three 

fans to obtain rotary motion. 

442. 30-pdr. steel shot (Dahlgren) 

443. 12-pdr. shell, brass fuze-stock. 

414. 80-pdr. shot, wrought iron (Dahl- 
gren). 

445. Shell for 3-in«h brt-ech-loading rifle, 

with brass expansion. 

446. Shell for 3 inch breech -loading rifle, 

with brass expansion. 

447. Shell for 3-inch breech -loading rifle, 

with lead expansion. 

448. Shell for 3-inch breech-loading rifle, 

with brass expausiou. 

449. Shot (Buruside). 

450. Compound shell. 



Class E. — Small-Arms Ammuxitiox. 



6. 

7. 

8.- 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 
20. 

21. 
22. 

23. 
24. 
25. 

26. 
27. 

28. 
i 29. 
I 30. 

31. 

32. 

33. 

34. 

3r>. 

30. 

37. 

38. 
39 
40 

41 
42 



Machine for making caps. 

Cap-filling machine. 

Cap-varnishing machine. 

Navy time-fuze machine, and tools, 
complete. 

Laboratory box,containing cartridges, 
percussion caps, navy time-fuzes, 
cannon and friction primers. 

Improved bomb lance (Brand). 

Hand grenades (Ketchum). 

Portion of a war rocket. 

Revolving rifle cartndges (Cult). 

Carbine cartridges (Perry). 

Musket cartridges (U. 8. N. ). 

Revolver cartridges (Joslyn). 

Carbine cartridges (Sharp). 

Buckshot cartridges (U. S. N.). 

BuckshQt cartridges (U. S. N.). 

Plymouth rifle cartridges. 

Musket blank cartridges, cal.0.69 (U. 

S.N.;. 

Carbine cartridges (Jenks). 

Boarding pistol cartridges (U. S. N.). 

Musket blank cartridges, cal. 0.58 (U. 
S.N.). 

Musket ball cartridges (U. S. N.). 

Pistol cartridges, metallic (Reming- 
ton). 

Rifle cartridges, metallic (Bumside). 

Rifle cartridges, metallic (Spencer). 

Carbine cartridges, metallic ^^Hall & 
Hub). 

Rifle cartridges, metallic (Powers). 

Army cartridges, cal. 0.5K 

Aj*my cartridges, cal. 0.5(i 

Cartndges, cal. 0.50 (Bcrdan). 

Cartridges, cal. 0.43 (Berdan). 

Cartridges, cal. 0.42 ( Berdan ). 

Tape primer (Maynard). 
, Sample cartridg»'S. 

Lead balls (Clarke. 
, Gun cappers (E. D. Seelv). 
, Sample shots (New York Shot and 

Lead Co.). 
, Sample musket balls, lead, steel, and 

copper. 
. Percushiou primers (U.S. N., 1846.). 
. Quilted (iriniers (U. S. N.). 
. Percussion primers (U. S. N. regula- 
tion;. 

Friction primers (U. S.N. regulation). 
. Cannon wafers (U. S. N., 18.50). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



19 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Continued. 



43. Cannon caps (U. S. N., 1846). 

44. Lead tnbe primers (U. S. N.) 

45. Percussion primers (E. Gomez, 1864^^ 

46. Percussion primers, paper tube (1853). 

47. Spur tubes (U. S. N., 1847). 

48. Percussion primers ai'd package of 

composition (Blake, 1864). 

49. Specimens of small-arms ammunition. 

(Appendix No. 1.) 

Class F.— Loading Gkar, Cannon 
Locks, Fuzes, Vent Impressions, 

ETC., ETC. 

1. XV-inch passing box. 

2. Xl-inch passing box. 

3. IX-inch passing box. 

4. YI II- inch passing box. 

5. 32-pdr. passing box. 

6. 100-p<lr. passing box. 

7. 12-pdr. smootb- bored parsing box. 

8. 12-pdr., rifle, passing box. 

9. 2e-pdr., rifle, passing box. 

10. Matcb stave. 

11. Port-fire stave. 

12. Cutlass scabbard and frog. 

13. Single-sticks. 

14. Adze. 

15. Copper knife. 

16. vFire-bucket and lanyard. 

17. Junk wads. 

18. Gronimet wad. 

19. Rifle cartridge-box. 

20. Carbine cartridge-box. 

21. Revolver cartridge-box. 

22. Primer-box. 

23. Powder flask. 

24. Powder-scoop. 

25. Battle-ax and frog. 

26. Boring-bits. 

27. Priming-wires. 

28. Brace, drill, and punch. 

29. 20-pdr. breeching. 
;iO. 24-pdr. side tackles. 

31. Funnel and measure. 

32. 12-pdr. (light) elevating screw. 

33. Rattle, flxed. 

34. Waist-belts. 

35. Magazine lantern. 

36. Magazine candle and stick. 

37. Battle lantern. 

38. Hand grenailes. 

39. Tank wrench. 

40. Cartridge-bags, 12-pdr. to XV-inch. 

41. IX and XI inch side sights. 



I 42. 
I 43. 

I 44. 

45. 
46. 
47. 
48. 
49. 
50. 
51. 
52. 
53. 
54. 
55. 
56. 
57. 
58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 
62. 
63. 
64. 
65. 
66. 
67. 
68. 



70. 

71. 
72. 
73. 
74. 
75. 
76. 
77. 
78. 
79. 
80. 
81. 
82. 
83. 
84. 
85. 

86. 

87. 
88. 
89. 



32-pdr. breech sights. 

Tompious and wads, 12-pdr. to XI- 

inch. 
Formers for cartridge- bags, 12-pdr. 

to IX- inch. 
Lock toggles. 
Vent guard. 
Fuze cutter. 
Lock lanyards. 
20-pdr. sight. 
Pistol cartridge-bux. 
Fuze wrenches (Nos. 1 and 2). 
Fuze picker. 
Magazine vise. 
Spring-spike. 
Rifle shell fuze-driver. 
Pistol frog (U. S.N. ). 
Battle-ax frog(U. S. N.). 
Cap pouch (U.S. N.). 
Saber- bayonet frog(U. S. N.). 
Saber-bayonet frog (U. S. N.). 
Cutlass frog (U. S. N.). 
Cutlass frog (U. S. N ). 
Bowie-knife frog (Ames). 
Cutlass belt and frog. 
Waist-belt (U. S. N.). 
Waist-belt (U. S. N.). 
Waist-belt (U. S. N.). 
Xl-inch rubber passing box (Van- 

derpool). 
Pattern of rubber fire-bucket (Van- 

djerpool). 
Cartridge-box, with elastic bottoms, 

and belt (Newcomb & Lycms). 
Waist-belt and bayonet-frog. 
32-pdr. cap squares. 
Cannon lock, flint (Hidden). 
Stands for repeating swivels. 
Gun scraper. 
Sectional rammer. 
Rammer (Walker). 
Rammer head, rubber (Day). 
Bristle sponge heads (Bachemyer). 
Wire sponge heads. 
Bristle sponge heads ( U. S. N. ). 
Wood model (design unknown). 
Bore scraper (Ball). 
Cannon lock (Hidden). ^ 
Ladle and worm connected for light 

12-pdr. howitzer. 
Stand for double-bairel swivel. 
Vlll-inch sight. 
Vlll-inch sight, re-enforce. 
32-pdr. siglit. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



'20 



IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Continneil. 



90. lOO-pilr. sight, re-enfurce and breech. 

91. IX-inch breech sight. 
92.- 32-pdr. breech sight. 

93. Sight. 

94. Expansion baud, raw hide. 

9.5. Cannon lock, percussion (James). 

96. Cannon lock, percussion (Shaw). 

97. Cannon lock, percussion (Ashard). 

98. Cannon lock, flint (Hidden). 

99. Cannon lock, percussion (Hidden). 

100. Cannon lock, percussion (Dahlgren). 

101. Cannon lock, 32-pdr. (Hidden). 

102. Cannon lock, 32-pdr. (Ames). 

103. Cannon lock, 32-pdr. (Dahlgren). 

104. Cannon lock, 32-pdr. (Dahlgren). 

105. Cannon lock, 12-pdr. howitzer (Dahl- 

gren). 

106. Cannon lock, 12-pdr. howitzer (Dahl- 

gren). 

107. Cannon lock, Vlll-inch (Dahlgren). 

108. Cannon lock, 30-pdr. (Parrott). 

109. Cannon lock, 30.pdr. (U. S. N.). 

110. Brass swivels for boats. 

111. Cannon lock for wafers. 

112. Stands for brass swivels. 

113. Cannon lock, percussion. 

114. Cannon lock (Barry). 

115. Cannon lock, flint (Hidden). 

116. Cannon lock, percussion (Hidden). 

117. Brass cannon lock, percussion (Bur- 

dett). 

118. Cannon lock, 32-pdr. (Dahlgren). 

119. Cannon lock, 24-pdr. howitzer (Dahl- 

gren). 

120. Steel shot (Lyman's) and iron target. 

121. Steel shot (Lyman's) and wood target. 
12/. Calcium light reflector (Hooper & 

Co.). 

123. Signal shell. 

124. Semaphoric telegraph lamp (Rogers). 

125. IX-inch ladle (Watkins). 

126. Trunnion sight (U. 8. N.). 

127. Trunnion gauge. 

128. Signal rockets with balloon (Edge). 

129. Cartridges in box (Wise). 

130. Combination fuzes (Sawyer). 

131. Fuze, submarine, safety (Gomez). 

132. Fusfe, submarine, galvanic (Gomez). 

133. Fuze, submarine, water- train. 

134. Fuze, submarine (Gomez). 

135. Fuze, submarine, sample of (Gomez). 

136. Fuze, submarine, safety (Reynolds & 

Bro.). 



137. Fuze, submarine (Toy, Bickfonl & 
Co.). 
^138. Rocket fnze (Hunt). 

139. Fuze, concussion (Dana). 

140. Fuze, concussion (Hubbell). 

141. Fuze, 20 seconds (Hill). 

142. Fuze, 10 seconds (Dahlgren). 

143. Fuze (Crane). 

144. Fuze (U. S.N. ). 

145. Fuze, 10 seconds (U. S. N.). 

146. Fuze, time and concussion (Mclu tyre 

& Balou). . 

147. Fuze (Alger) and paper case (Har- 

wood). 

148. Fuze, wood stock, sample (Hogg). 

149. Fuze (Laidley). 

150. Fuze, concussion (Stevens). 

151. Fuze, concussion (Taylor). 

152. Fuze, time (Bormann). 

153. Fuze, percussion (Holroyd). 

154. Fuze, percussion (Rice). 

155. Fuze, wood stock (U. S. N.). 

156. Fuze for infernal machine. 

157. Fuze, time and percussion, with 

bouche (Schenkl). 

158. Fuze, time and percussion (Schenkl). 

159. Fuze, time and percussion (Wright & 

Hotchkiss). 

160. Fuzes, percussiou,a88orted(8chenkl). 

161. Fuzes, percussion, assorted (Hotch- 

kiss). 

162. Fuzes, percussion, assorted (Parrott). 

163. Fuzes, percussion, assorted (Mum- 

ford). 

164. Fuze, Xlll-iuch mortar. 

165. Fuze, combination (Hotchkiss ^ 

Sons). 

166. Adapting fuze bouch lug. 

167. Fuzes, paper case, stock -metal, and 

lead. 

168. Fuzes, spelter, Parrott shrapnel. 

169. Adapting bouche. 

170. Spelter rings for navy time-fuze. 

171. Adapting bouche for navy time-fuze. 

172. Spelter stocks, paper case fuzes. 

173. Fuzes, time (Parrott). 

174. Vent impressions. 

175. Cutlasses, Roman. ' 

176. Sword (U. S. N.). 

177. XI -inch bristle sponge. 

178. IX-inch bristle sponge. 

179. Vlll-inch bristle sponge. 

180. Xl-inch worm. 



Digitized by VjDOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



21 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— ContiDued. 



181. 


IX- inch worm. 


228, 


Warning signals, green, white, and 


182. 


Ordinary quoiu. 




red. 


183. 


20-p4lr. rammer and sponge con- 


229. 


Breech pieces, India rubber (H. H. 




nected, and cap. 




Day). 


184. 


20-pdr. bristle sponge. 


230. 


Sabots (H. H. Hnbbell). 


185. 


24-pdr. rammer and sponge con- 


; 231. 


Vent stopper. 


• 


nected, and cap. 


• 232. 


Deck scraper. 


186. 


12-pdr. (lieavx ) rammer and sponge 


233. 


Tompions. 




connected, and cap. 


234. 


Dismounting chock. 


lo7. 


12-pdr. (rifle) rammer and sponge 


, 2:«. 


Haudspikes, ordinary. 




connected, and cap. 


' 236, 


Handspikes, roller. 


188. 


32-pdr. bristle sponge. 


j 237, 


Magazine shutter. • 


189. 


100- pdr. bristle sponge. 


' 238, 


Expanding tompions. 


190. 


32-pdr. woolen sponge and cap. 


239. 


Hand grenade and fuzes (Adams). 


191. 


100. pdr. woolen sponge and cap. 


240 


Hand grenade and fuzes (Adams). 


192. 


24 pdr. ladle and worm connected. 


241. 


Xl-inch plug from cored shot. 


193. 


12 pdr. (heavy) ladle and worm con- 


242. 


Cartridge box (Holroyd). 




nected. 


243. 


Cartridge box(McGiuuis). 


194. 


12-pdr. (light) ladle and worm con- 


244. 


Cartridge box (Morris). 




nected. 


245. 


Cartridge box and belt (Howlett). 


195. 


12-pdr. (rifle) ladle and worm con- 


246. 


Cartridge box and belt (Howlett). 




nected. 


247. 


Cartridge box^U.S. N.). 


1^6. 


Xl-inch woolen sponge and cap. 


248. 


Mortar pouch. 


197. 


IX-inch woolen sponge and cap. 


249. 


Cartridge box (Spencer). 


198. 


Vlll-iuch worm. 


250. 


Cartridge box — revolver (U. 8. N.). 


199. 


Xl-inch rammer. 


251. 


Cartridge box— revolver (U. S. N.). 


200. 


IX inch rammer. 


252. 


Set of night signals (Caston). 


201. 


Vlll-iuch rammer. 


253. 


Rocket, serpent (Hadtield). 


202. 


VIII- inch woolen sponge and cap. 


254. 


Rocket, stars (Hadtield). 


203. 


Trail bars. 


255. 


Rocket (Hadfi«ld). 


204. 


Roller handspikes, IX-inch. 


256. 


Rocket, gold rain (Hadfield). 


205. 


Roller handspikes, 32-pdr. 


257. 


XIII- inch mortar pasbiug box. 


206. 


Roller handspike^, 32-pdr. 


258. 


24-pdr. passing box. 


207. 


Roller handspikes, IX-inch. 


259. 


24-pdr. passing box. 


208. 


Ordinary handspikes. 


2u0. 


30-pdr. rifle passing box. 


209. 


Ordinary handspikes. 


261. 


60-pdr. passing box. 


210. 


Scraper for 32-pdr. 


262. 


100-pdr. passiug box. 


211. 


Scraper for 100-pdr. 


263. 


32-pdr. passing box. 


212. 


Scraper for 20-pdr. 


264. 


Xl-inch passing box. 


213. 


Scraper, Xl-inch. 


265. 


Xl-iuch passing box. 


214. 


Scraper, IX inch. 


266. 


32-i»4r. passing box. 


215. 


Scraper, Vlll-inch. 


267. 


XV-inch passing box. 


216. 


Worm, 32.pdr. 


268. 


Purchase (Griolet).. 


217. 


Rammer, 100-pdr. 


269. 


Breechings ; IX and XI inch, 20-pdr., 


218. 


Boarding pike and guard. 




30-pdr., and 32-pdr. 


219. 


Impression taker, Vlll-inch. 


270. 


Transporting handspike. 


220. 


Impression taker, 32-pdr. 


271. 


Transporting truck and axle. 


221. 


Navy time fuzes. 


272. 


Shot plug. 


^irZ, 


Fuzes (Boi-mann). 


273. 


Shot plug — mouitor. 


223. 


Percussion fuzes (Schenkl). 


274. 


Magazine air pump. 


224. 


Percussion fuzes (Hotchkiss). 


275. 


Magazine can. 


2^5. 


2 piecesof solidi ti d Greek Are (Short). 


276. 


Magazine bucket. 


226. 


Port Are (IT. S. N). 


277. 


Chocking quoin. 


227. 


Signal rucket (U. S. N.). 


2:8. 


Bolt and box (clevis). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE—Continued. 



279. DismonntiDg chock. 

280. Disraoucting bar. 
2'^1. Trail bar. 

282. Powder measnres. 

283. Sabot for shell. 

284. Pivot socket. 

285. Pivot bolt. 

286. Pendnlum. 

287. Elevating screw. 

288. Shifting chocks and boxes. 

289. Side-op bolt. 

290. Gun tackle. 

291. Trunnion sight, Xl-inch. 

292. Bristlespongeheads,IX, XI, andXV 

inch. 

293. Sponge head, plain, XV-inch. 
294a. Section of breech of 32-pdr. 

2946. Section of breech 6f Vlll-inch gun. 

295. Boat stove and fixtures. 

296. Boat stove box. 

297. Sweep piece. 

298. Rubber buffer. • 

299. Candle mold. 

300. Candlestick. 

301. Selvedge. 

302. IX-inch cartridge former. 

303. Xl-inch cartridge former. 

304. XV-inch cartridge former. 

305. Gun sliug-chain. 

306. Hoe and pickax. 

307. Wood-ax. 

308. Battle-ax. 

;^. Spare parts of small arms. 

310. XV-iuch gun scraper. 

311. Xl-inch gun scraper. 

312. X-inch gun scraper. 

313. IX-inch gun scraper. 

314. Vlll-inch gun scraper. 

315. 32-pdr. scraper. 

316. 100-pdr. scraper. 

317. 60-pdr. scraper. 

318. 30-pdr. scraper. 

319. 20-pdr. scraper. 

320. XV-inch passing box. 

321. Vlll-inch passing box. 

322. 12-pdr. (light) passing box. 

323. 12-pdr. (light) passing box. 

324. 20-pdr. passing box. 

325. Vlll-inch rammer. 

326. 32-pdr. rammer. 

327. 100-pdr. rammer. 
.328. 60-pdr. rammer. 
329. 30-pdr. rammer. 



I 330. *<0-pdr. rammer. 
331. XV-inch worm. 
I 332. Xl-inch worm. 

333. X-iuch worm. 

334. IX-iuch worm. 

335. Vlll-inch worm. 

336. :W-pdr. worm. 

337. 100-pdr worm. 

338. Xl-inch sponge head. 

339. X-inch sponge head. 

340. IX-inch sponge head. 

341. Vlll-inch sponge head. 
i 342. 32-pdr. sponge head. 

343. 100-pdr. sponge head. 

344. 60-pclr. sponge head. 

345. 30-pdr. sponge head. 

346. 20-pdr. sponge head. 

347. XV-inch sponge, wool cover. 

348. Xl-inch sponge, wool cover. 

349. IX-iuch sponge, wool cover. 

350. V Ill-inch sponge, wool cover. 
3.M. 32-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

352. 100-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

353. 60-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

354. 30-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

355. 20-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

356. 20-pdr. sponge, wool' cover. 

357. 24-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

358. 12-pdr. sponge, wool cover. 

359. 12-pdr., rifled, spouge, wool cover. 

360. Gatling gun equipments. 

361. Gatling gun carriage. 

362. Signal mortar. 

363. Signal mortar. 

364. French pistol. 

365. Colt's revolver. 

366. Bowie-knife. 

:{67. Cutlass, Roman (old). 

368. Tomahawk. 

:J69. Lance. 

^0. Set of boarding pikes. 

371. Magazine screen. 

372. Magazine dress. 

373. Dust pan. 

374. Gong. 

375. Powder shute. 

376. 60-pdr. gun carriage and directing 

bar. 

377. Inspecting instruments fir guns. 

378. Impressions taken from pressure 

plugs used in IX-inch gun No. 22 
with charges of 10, 13, and 20 lbs. 
powder. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



23 



Section I.—NAVAL ORDNANCE—Contiiiued. 



379. Impressions taken from pressure 
plugs used in Xll-iuch Parrott rifle 
with charges of 30, 35, 40, and 45 
lbs. of mammoth powder. Three 
impressions from 35 lbs. No. 7 
powder. 
.386. Vent impressions of Xl-inch gun No. 
35 after 34 fires ^U. S. gunboat 
"Seneca"). 

381. Vent impressions of chamber of 32- 
pdr. No. 41 after 405 rounds (1 inch 
from bore and upwards). 

3^*2. Vent, impressions of 30-pdr. Parrott 
rifle after 3,000 tires. 

3b3. Vent impressions of 30-pdr. Parrott 
rifle after 2,000 fires. 

384. Parts of 3-inch breech-loading shell, 

barst at experiment-al battery, 
Annapolis, Md. 

385. Parts of 3-iuch breech-loading shell, 

burst at experimental battery, 
Annapolis, Md. 

386. Vent impressions taken from first XI- 

inch gnn. 

387. Vent impressions of 32-pdrs. of 33 

cwt. 

388. Vent impressions of IX-inch gnn No. 

797, fired 1,082 rounds. 

389. Vent impressions of Xl-inch gun No. 

897, fired 750 rounds. 

390. 200 lbs. powder tank. 

391. 100 lbs. powder tank. 

392. 50 lbs. powder tank. 

393. IX-inch chamber scraper. 

394. Vlll-inch chamber scraper. 

395. 32-p4lr. chamber scraper. 

396. 32-pdr. of 4,500 lbs. chamber scraper. 

397. 60-ptlr. Parrott chamber scraper. 

398. 20-p<lr. Parrott chamber scraper. 

399. 30-i)dr. chamber scraper. 

400. XV-inch ladle. 

401. Xl-inch ladle. 

402. X-inch ladle. 

403. IX-inch ladle. 

404. Vlll-inch ladle. 

405. 32-pdr. ladte. 

406. Cannon lock, flint (Hidden). 

407. Cannon lock, flint (Hidden). 

408. Cannon lock, flint (Hidden). 

409. Cannon lock, percussion. 

410. Cannon lock, percussion (Shaw). 

411. Cannon lock, percussion (Shaw). 

412. Cannon lock, percussion (unknown). 

413. Cannon lock, percussion (Hidden). 



414. 
415. 
416. 
417. 
418. 
419. 
420. 
421. 
422. 
423. 
424. 



425. 



426. 



427. 
428. 
429. 
430. 
431. 
432. 
433. 
4'34. 
435. 
436. 
437. 
438. 
439. 
440. 
441. 
442. 
443. 
444. 
445. 
446. 
447. 
448. 
449. 
450. 
451. 
452. 
453. 



454. 



Cannon lock, percussion (Hidden). 
Canncn lock, percussion (Dahlgren). 
Cannon lock, percussion (Dahlgren). 
Cannon lock (Dahlgren). 
Cannon lock (Dahlgren). 
Trunnion level. 
Small iron mortar. 
Double-barrel flint-lock swivel. 
Repeating swivel, flint-lock. 
Repeating swivel, flint-lock. 
Impressions taken from pressnreplugs 

used in IX-inch gun No. 35 with 

charges of 50 lbs. powder. 
Impressions taken from pressure 

plugs used in IX-inch shell gun 

with — 
7 charges of 10 lbs. ; 
3 charges .of 13 lbs. ; 
3 charges of 15 lbs. powder. 
Impressions taken from pressure 

plugs used in X-inch gun with 

charges of 12^, 15, 18, and 20 lbs. 

powder. 
Rubber shot-plug for monitors. 
Intrenching §hovel. 
Intrenching shovel. 
Intrenching shovel. 
Explosives used at torpedo station. 
Hand rattle. 
Hand rattle. 

Gunpowder in glass bottles. 
BulFs-eye lantern. 
Powder measure. 
Powder measure. 
Powder measure. 
Powder measure. 
Powder measure. 
India-rubber breech piece. 
India-rubber breech piece. 
India-rubber breech piece. 
Ammunition chest. 
Ammunition chest. 
Ammunition chest. 
Ammunition chest. 
Ammunition chest. 
Ammunition chest. 
XV-inch chamber scraper. 
Xl-inch chamber scraper. 
X-inch chamber scraper. 
Impressions taken from pressure 

plugs used in the Hotchkiss 100- 

pdr. rifle gun with 10 lbs. charge. 
Spare-article boxes for 12-pdr. liow- 

itzers. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



24 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section- I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE—Contiuued. 



455. Spare-article boxes for 12-pclr. how- 

itzers. 

456. 60-pdr. breeching. 

457. 60 pdr. rammer. 

458. 60-pdr. bristle sponge. 

459. 60-pdr. woolen sponge. 

460. 60-pdr. scraper. 

461. 60-pdr. worm. 

462. Ordinary handspike, 60-pdr. 

463. Xl-inch shell bearer. 

464. Xl-inch worm. 

465. r2-pdr. rifle pasi^ing bos. 

466. Xl-inch scraper. 

467. Xl-inch scraper. 

468. XI- inch rammer. 

469. Xl-inch woolen sponge. 

470. Xl-inch woolen sponge. 

471. Xl-inch bristle sponge. 

472. Xl-inch bristle sponge. 

473. Xl-inch shell bearer. 

474. 32-pdr. w'orm. 

475. 32-pdr scraper. 

476. 32-pdr. rammer. 

477. 32-pdr. woolen sponge. 

478. 32-pdr. bristle sponge. 

479. lOO-pdr. worm. 

480. lOO-pdr. rammer. 

481. 24-pdr. ladle and worm connected. 

482. Roller haadspike, 32 pdr. 

483. Ordinary handspike, 32-pdr. 

484. Ordinary handspike, 32-pdr. 

485. Dismounting bar, 12-pdr. 

486. Rammer and sponge connected for 

12-pdr. rifle, heavy. 

487. Rammer and sponge connected for 

3-inch breech-loading rifle. 

488. Sponge bucket for 3-inch breech - 

loading rifle. 

489. Sponge bucket for 3-inch breech- 

loading rifle. 

490. Cartridges for 3-inch breech-loading 

rifle. 

491. Cartridge cases for 3-inch breech-load- 

ing rifle. 

Class G. —Models. 

1. Model brass gun and carriage. 

2. Model naval service gun. 
2a. Model naval service gun. 
26. Model naval service go.n. 
2c. Model naval service gun. 
2d. Model naval service gun. 
2e. Model naval service gun. 
2/. Model naval service gun. 



3. Gun and carriage in port (woo<l model). 

4. Gun and carriage (Tice)( wood model). 

5. Gun and carriage (Marshall) (wood 

model). 

6. Monitor gun and carriage (wood 

model). 

7. Model brass gun and carriage. 

8. Model brass gun and carriage. 
I 9. Guu and carriapce (model). 

I 10. Port of the **Duuderberg" (wood 
I model). 

11. " Homby's" shot (wood model). 

12. •' Ferris's " shot (wood model). 

13. " Warburton's " shot (wood model) 

14. Shot (wood model). 

15. ^* Spaulding's" shot (wood model). 

16. "Beecher & Walker's" shoj (wood 

model). 

17. Shot (wood model). 

18. **Binnix'8" shot (wood model). 

19. Shot (wood model). 

20. Shot with 4 flanges in the rear (wood 

model). 

21. Shot with 4 flanges in the rear (wood 

model). 

22. Rifle bbot (wood model). 

23. IX-inch shot, service (wo<»d model). 

24. Serg't G. Dixon's shell (wood model). 

25. 6.3-inch shell (wood model). 

26. 60-pdr. shell, Lt. Com. Badger (wood 

model). 

27. Darts. 

28. Papier-mach6 sabots (Schenkl). 

29. Broadside carriage (wood model). 

30. Eccentric gun carriage (wood model) 
31.' Gun carriage (wood model), 

32. Brass mortar and carriage (model). 

33. Gun carriage (wood model). 

34. ** Marvilly " carriage (wood model). 

35. Broadside gun carriage ( wood model). 

36. Guu carriage (wood model). 

37. Gun and carriage (wood model). 

38. XV-inch gun and carriage with load- 

ing gear (wood model). 

39. Parrott gun and fricti(m carriage 

(wood model). 

40. Gun and carriage in turret (wood 

model). 

41. Gun carriage (wood model). 

42. (Um and carriage (wood model). 

43. Guu and carriage (wood model). 

44. Broadside guu and carriage (wood 

model). 

45. Monitor, turtle (wood model). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



25 



Sfxtiox I.— naval ordnance— Continued. 



46. Naval gun (wood model). 
46a. Naval gun (iron model). 

47. 150-pdr. gun and carriage, Parrott 

(wood model). 

48. Gun and carriage (wood model). 

49. Magazine (tin niinlel). 

50. Furnace (wood model). 

51. Gun and carriage in port (wood 

model). 

52. Gun and carriage in port (Sawyer) 

(wood model). 

53. Brass gun and tnick carriage (model). 

54. Xl-inch pivot gun and carriage 

(model). 

55. Broadside gun and carriage; improve- 

ment in closing and opening ports 
(wood model). 

56. Model showing the plan of the ** Iron- 

sides" ports. 

57. Plan for loading XV-inch gun (wood 

model) 

58. Small brass mortar and carriage 

(model). 

59. Gun and carriage (wood model). 

60. Gun carriage (model by S. M. Pook). 

61. Gun and carriage in port (wood model). 

62. Monitor's turret (brass model). 

63. Training truck with lever, pivot 

(wood model). 

Class H.— Relics. 

1. This musket, while in the hands of 

John Holmes, a private marine on 
board the U. S. ship Constitution, in 
the action with the Cyane and Le- 
vant, December 20, 1815, was struck 
by a canister shot, passing through 
the barrel and knocking i t out of his 
hands. A second musket which he 
took was also shot to pieces, and his 
hand shattered. 

2. Cutlass, belonging to Capt. John Paul 

Jones, used onboard the Bonhomme 
Richard. 

3. Boarding cap. 

4. Boarding cap. 

5. £nfield ride from the sunken monitor 

Keokuk. 

6. Old boarding pike. 

7. Board penetrated by a candle tired by 

Admiral Farragut from a musket at 
10 paces. 

8. Board penetrated by a candle fired by 

Admiral Farragut from a musket at 
5 paces. 



9. Leaf from Navy Department records, 
1794, 1798. 

10. Leaf from Navy Department reconls, 

1794, 1798. 

11. Leaf from Navy Department records, 

1794, 1798. 

Class J.— Ordnance Publications. 

1. Gunnery Notos. 

2. Laboratory Notes. 

3. Naval Ordnance Papers — No. 1. 

4. Naval Ordnance Papers — No. 2. 

5. Naval Ordnance Papers — No. 3. 

6. Naval Ordnance Papers— No. 4. 

7. The French Mitrailleuse. 

8. Divisional Coarse of Instruction. 

9. Gunnery Instructions: Detail Drill. 

10. Cutlass Drill. 

11. Provisional Drill of Gatling Gun. 

12. Notes <m Reftye Gun. 

13. Regulations for Powder Magazines and 

Shell Rooms. 

14. Instruction— Xl-inch Gun. 

15. United Service Journal. 

16. Naval Drill (Landing Drill). 

17. Instruction and Care of Ammunition. 

18. Dimensions and Weights of Gun Im- 

plements. 

19. Use and Care of Gatling Gun. 

20. Lecture on Galvanic Batteries — I and 
I II. 

21. Organization of Naval Brigade. 
I 22. Vit-nna Exposition. 

23. Zapata Chronograph. 
I 24. Iron-clad Ships of the World ; with 

plates. 
I 25. Iron-clad Ships of the World ; without 
plates. 

26. Granulation of Powder. 

27. Object and Resources of the Naval 
I Experimental Battery. 

I 28. Organization of Landing Parties. 

29. Partial List of Cases involving Gross 
I Carelessness. 

30. Electric Position-Indicator or Dis- 

tance-Measurer. 

I 31. Ordnance Instructions. 

' 32. Brandt^s Catechism. 

j 33. Manual of Navy Carbine. 

j 34. Navy Pistol Drill. 

I 35. Hints to Captains of IX-iuch Guns. 
3H. The Art of Pointing Cannons, for 

• Young Sea Offlcei-s 

j 37. Phosphorus-Bronze for Founding Can- 
non. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



] 



26 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION^ 1876. 



Seition I.— naval OEDNANCE—Continned. 



Class K.— Torpedoes. 

1. Lay torpedo. 

2. Electric key-board and pedestal. 

3. Ericsson t(»rpedo. 

4. Fish torpedo. 

5. Harvey t(»rpedo (port). 

6. Harvey torpedo (starboard). 

7. To wing torpedo (constructed at the U. 

S. Tor|)edo Station at Newport, 

R. L). 
8 Barber's torpedo. 
9. Spar torpedo. 

10. Spar torpedo (taken apart). 

11. Spar torpedo. 

12. Spar torpedo (taken apart). 

13. Exercise torpedo. 

14. Powder torpedo (steel). 

15. Unloaded firing bolts. 

16. Loaded firing bolts. 

17. Reel for electric cable. 

18. Totpedo cable. 

19. Torpedo supply box. 

20. Farmer's dynamo-electric machine 

(large). 

21. Firing key (Farmer). 

22. Farmer's dynamo-electric machine 

(small). 

23. Pneumatic battery. 

24. Switch board. 

25. Permanent wires. 

26. Terminals. 

27. Model showing method of fitting boat 

spar. 

28. Circuit closer forgronnd torpedo. 

29. Circuit closer for ground torpedo. 

30. Circnit closer for ground torpedo. 

31. Circuit closer for ground torpedo. 

32. Circuit closer for ground torpedo. 
3;^. Circuit closer for spar torpedo. 

34. Fuzes and igniters. 

35. Rnbber torpedo (Beardsley). 

36. Harvey torpedo towing reel. 

37. Harvey torpedo tripping reel. 

38. Electric key-board for ship'sdeck. 

39. Torpedo publications: 

T<»rpedo Experiments. 
Report on Spar Torpedoes. 
Lecture on Movable Torpedoes. 
Notes on Torpedo Fuzes. 
Whitehead's Torpedo. 
Notes on Explosives. 
Lectnre on Submarine Boats. 
Lecture on Galvanic Batteries. 
Liquid Carbonic Acid. 



40. Plan of the U. S. Naval Torpedo Sta- 
tion, Goat Island, Newport Harbor, 
R. I. Scale: ^n* 

Class L. 

I. Apparatus to illustrate the action of 

the forces of projection and gravity 
in determining the trajectory of a 
shot. (Made for the Department of 
Physics and Chemistry, U. S. Naval 
Academy.) 

Class M.— Dresses of Sailohs and Ma- 
rines. 

1. U. S. Marine, 1776. 

2. U. S. Marine sergeant, 1876. 

3. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1776. 

4. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1876. 

5. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1797. 

6. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1798. 

7. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1800. 

8. Seaman of the U. 8. Navy, 1805. 

9. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1815. 
10. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1816. 

II. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1825. 
12. Seaman of the U. S. Navy, 1835. 

Class N.— Powder. 

1. Waftie powder (Dn Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.750. 
Granulation : 64 to 1 lb. 

2. Register powder (Du Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.750. 
I Granulation : 72 to 1 lb. 

I 3. Oriental Mills pow'der. 
! 4. Cubical No. 1 powder (Schaghticoke). 
I Specific gravity : 1.729. 

I Granulation : 64.4 to 1 lb. 

, 5. Prismatic powder (Washington navy- 
I yard). 

Specific gravity : 1.750. 

6. Experimental battery powder. 

7. Powder (Hall, of Deptford). 

8. Mammoth powder (Du Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.716. 
Granulation : 72 to 1 lb. 

9. Mammoth powder (Du Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.760 to 1.720. 
Granulation : 82 to I lb. 
10. Mammoth powder (Du Pout). 
Specific gravity : 1.679. 
Granulation : 45 to 1 lb. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



27 



Section I.— NAVAL ORDNANCE— Cod tinned. 



11 



12. 



Mammoth powder (Dn Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.741. 

Granulation : 72 to 1 lb. 
Mammoth powder (Du Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.730. 

Granulation : 72 to 1 lb. 
13. Mammoth powder (Du Pont.) 

Specific gravity : 1.753. 

Granulation : 1 13 to 1 lb. 
Mammoth powder (Oriental Mills). 

Specific gravity: 1.769. 

Granulation: 109.7 to 1 lb. 
Special powder for Xl-inch guns (Dn 
Pont). 

Specific gravity: 1.748 to l.(iG9. 

Granulation: 0.7x0.6. 

16. Special powder for Xl-iuch gnns (Dn 

Poni ). 
Specific gravity : 1.75H. 
Granulation: 0.7x0.3 

17. Special powder for Xl-inch guns (Dn 

Pont). 
Specific gravity : 1.738. 
Granulation: 0.2x0.3. 



14 



15. 



18. Special powder for Xl-inch guns (Da 

. Pont). 
Specific gravity : 1.774. 
Granulation: 0.7x0.3. 

19. Rifle powder (Hazard Mills). 

Specific gravity : 1.732. 
Granulation : 0.5x0.3. 

20. Cannon powder (Oriental Mills). 

Specific gravity: 1.754. 
Granulation: (7.4x0.5. 

21. Musket powder (Oriental Mills). 

Specific gravity : 1.713. 
Granulation: 0.7x0.6. 

22. Musket powder (Oriental Mills). 

Specific gravity : 1.713. 
Granulation: 0.6x0.4. 

23. Small arms powder (Du Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.723. 
Granulation: 0.7x0.2. 

24. Explosive shell powder (Du Pont). 

Specific gravity : 1.724. 
Granulation: 0.6x0.8. 



B UREA U OF NA VIGA TION, 

Commodore Daniel Ammex, Chief of Bureaa. 

Section II.— NAVIGATION. 



Class A.— Nautical and Surveying In- 
struments. 

1. Chronometers: (Appendix No. 2.) 
(a) Mean time chronometer (Bond No. 

293). 
(&) Mean time chronometer (Negus No. 
917). 

(c) Mean time marine chronometer 

(Negus No. 1593). 

(d) Mean time marine chronometer 

(Negus No. 1447). 

{e) Mean time marine chronometer 
(Negus No. 1595). 

(/) Break circnit chronometer (Negus 
No. 1470). 

(g) Break circuit chronometer (Negus , 
No. 1591). 

(h) Break circuit sidereal chronome- 
ter (Negus No. 1589). 

(i) Mean time marine chronometer 
(Negus No. 1583). 

2. Navy compasses. (Appendix No. 3.) 

3. Hanging or cabin compasses. (Ap- 

pendix No. 4.) 



4. Navy boat compasses. 

5. Azimuth circle and compass.. 

6. Azimuth circle. (Appendix No. 5.) 

7. Turret or monitor compass. (Appen- 

dix No. 6,) 

8. Old compasses of the navy. (Appen- 

dix No. 7.) 

Compass testing instrumeat. (Ap- 
pendix No. 8.) 

Magnetic collimator. (Appendix No. 

9.) 

Adjustable binnacle for correcting the 
deviation of the compass. (Appen- 
dix No. 10.; 

Ship's binnacle for steering compass. 

Sbip's binnacle on bronze stand for 
steering compass. 

Gravitation compass (designed by the 
Earl of Caithness) and binnacle with 
adjustable magnets for correcting 
the deviation of the compass. (Ap- 
pendix No. 11.) 

Sextant (superior). 

Sextant (ordinary). 



9. 



10, 



11 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section IL— NAVIGATION— Continued. 



17. Octant. 

18. Quadrant. 

19. Night octant. 

20. Arti Heidi borizen. 

21. Spyf^lass (superior). 

22. Spyglass (ordinary). 

23. Binocular glass (superior). 

24. Biuoculap-gliiss (ordinary). 
55. Micrometer. 

26. Ektropometer. 

27. Mercurial barometer. 

28. Aneroid barometer.' 

29. Thermometer. 

30. Hydrometer. 

31. Theodolite. 

32. Vernier compass. 

33. Steel chain, 100 feet. / 

34. Steel chain, 50 feet. 

35. Links and extra rings. 

36. Arrows. 

37. Metallic tape, 100 Jeet. 

38. Standard measure, 10 feet. 

39. Set of drawing instmments. 

40. Roll and pitch self-registering indi- 

cator. 



Class B.— Logs and Soixdino Imple- 
ments. 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
U. 
12. 



126. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 



Registering log (Massey's). 

Registering log (TrowbridgeV). 

Registering log (Walker's). 

Registering log (Hotchkiss^s). 

Registering log (Reynolds's). 

Log line. 

Log reel. 

Time glass (28 seconds). 

Time glass (14 seconds). 

Time glass (half-hour). 

Time glass (60 seconds). 

Deep sea sounding machine (designed 
by Sir William Thomson and mod- 
ified by Captain G. E. Belknap, U. 
S. Navy). (Appendix No. 12.) 

Wooden model, Sir William Thom- 
son's. (Appendix No. 13.) 

Belknap's specimen cylinder No. 
(Appendix No. 14.) 

Belknap's specimen cylinder No. 
(Appendix No. 15.) 

Belknup's specimen c\ Under No. 
(Appendix No. 16.) 

Belknup's specimen cylinder No. 
(Appendix No. 17.) 



17. Collius's detaching and' specimen ap- 
paratus No. li (Appendix No. 18.) 

18. Collins's detaching and specimen ap- 
paratus No. 2. (Appendix N»». iH.) 

19. Registering lead (Merrill's). 

20. Registering lead (Trowbridge's). 

21. Registering lead (Mass«y's). 

22. Deep sea lead, 50 pounds, with Sand's 
specimen cup attached. 

23. Hand lead, 7 pounds. 

24. Hand lead, 9 pounds. 

25. Hand lead, 14 pounds. 

26. Hand lead, 25 pounds. 

27. Deep sea lead, 100 pounds. 

28. l)e«p sea lead, 80 pounds. 

29. Deep sea lead, 50 poundn. 

30. Hand lead line. 

31. Coasting leadline. 

32. Deep sea lead line (li inch). 
3:i. Deep sea lead line (l^ inch). 

34. Deep sea lea<l line (If inch). 

35. Deep sea lead line reels. 

Class C— Lights. 

1. Signal lantern, red. 

2. Signal lantern, white. 

3. Signal lantern, green. 

4. Head lantern, common, white. 

5. Side lantern, common, red. 

6. Side lantern, common, green. 

7. Head lantern (French), white. 

8. Side lantern (French), red. 

9. Side lantern (French), green. 
10. Constant level lamp. 

'11. Capillary lamp. 

12. Spring candlestick. 

13. Hand lantern. 

14. Dark deck lantern. 

15. Storeroom lantern. 

16. Hold and spirit-room lantern. 

17. Standing light. 

18. Moderator lamp, used in cabins and 
I wardrooms. 

19. Hydraulic lamp, used in cabins and 
wardrooms. 

1. 20. Single burner lamp, stand, and hook, 
used in cabins and wardrooms. 

2. 21. Double burner lamp, stand, and hook, 
I used in cabins and wardrooms. 

3. 1 22. Costoii night signal lights. 
■ ! 23. Navy blue lights. 

4. 24. Signal rockets. 
' 25. Signal light discharger. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 
Sfxtiox II.— navigation— Continued. 



29 



HYDfiOGRAPHIC OFFICE. 
Class D.— Charts. 

1. PortfoUo Xo, 1.— Charts of the North 
Atlantic Ocean and islands, embrac- 
ing east coast of Labrador to Cape 
Florida. 

•2. Port/olio Xo, 2.— Charts of the South 
coast of the United States; Florida 
Reefs; Bahama Banks and Chan- 
nels; Windward Islands. 

3. Portfolio Xo, 3.— Charts of Gulf of 

Mexico ; Caribbean Sea and adjacent 
coast to the month of the Amazon. 

4. PortfoUo Xo. 4.— Charts of Sonth At- 

lantic coast and islands from river 
Amazon to Cape Horn. From Equa- 
tor on the coast of Africa to Cape of 
Grood Hope. 
5 Portfolio Xo. 5. — Charts of Southern 
Ocean and islands between their 
meridians; Great Britain, coasts, 
islands, <&c. ; English Channel, isl- 
ands, and adjacent coasts; North 
Sea, and adjacent coasts. 

6. Portfolio Xo. 6.— Charts of Skager 

Rack; Kattegat; Great and Little 
Belts; Baltic Sea; Gulfs of Bothnia 
and Finland, with adjacent coasts ; 
west of France from Ouissant to 
Gibraltar ; coast of Africa from Cape 
Spartel to the Equator; Mediterra- 
nean, Adriatic, Black, and Azof Seas, 
with adjacent coasts and islands. 

7. Portfolio Xo, 7. — General charts of Pa- 

cific Ocean and islands; portion of 
Southern Ocean between its merid- 
ians. 

8. Portfolio Xo. 8.— Charts of west and 

northwest coast of the United States ; 
west coast of America from Cape 
Lisburne to Cape Horn ; Sea of Kamt- 
schatka to Cape Lopatka. 

9. Portfolio Xo. 9.— Charts of Aleutian 

and other islands ; Straits of Magel- 
lan; Okhotsk, Japan, and Yellow 
Seas, with adjacent coasts and 
islands ; Cape Lopatka to Macao. 

10. PortfoUo Xo. 10.— Charts of China 

Seas; Indian Ocean; New Guinea, 
and other islands. 

11. PortfoUo Xo. 11.— Charts of Arctic 

Ocean, coasts, and islands; track- 
charts, wind, current, isothermal, 
and variation charts. 



12. Plaster-of-Paris cast from the engra ve<l 

plate of the chart of Savaii Island, 
Samoan Group. (Made at th*i U. S. 
Hydrograpbic Office, Washington, 
D. C.) 

13. Plaster-of-Paris cast from the engraved 

plate of the map of the Hawaiian 
Islands. (Made at the U. S. Hydro- 
graphic Office, Washington, D. C.) 

14. Sample of plate printing (U. 8. Hydro- 

graphic Office, Washington, D. C.) 

15. Plaster-of-Paris cast from the engraved 

plate of the chart of the Straits of 
Tsugar, Japan. (Made at the U. S. 
Hydrograpbic Office, Washington, 
D. C.) 

Class E.— Books. 

1. Nautical books and sailing directions. 

2. Library for a flag-ship. 

Class F. — Flags and Bunhng. 

1. Pine Tree flag (1775-1776). 

2. Pine Tree flag (1775-1776). 

3. Grand Union flag (1776). 

4. Union national flag (1777). 

5. Union national flag (1795). 

6. Union national flag (181tt). 

7. Union jack (1876). 

8. National flag (1876). 

9. Commodore's blue broi^ pennant 

(1776-1860). 

10. Commodore's red broad pennant ( 1776- 

1876). 

11. Commodore's white broad pennant 

(1776-1876). 
.12. Flag-officer's blue flag (1858-1866). 

13. Flag-officer's red flag (1858-1866). 

14. Flag-officer's white flag (1858-1H66). * 

15. Union national flag (1H15). 

16. Flag of the Secretary of the Navy. 

17. Admiral's flag (1866^1869). 

18. Vice-admiral's flag (1866-1869). 

19. Rear-admiral's blue flag (1866-1869). 

20. Rear-admiral's red flag (1866-1869). 

21. Rear-admiral's white flag (1866-1839) 

22. Commodore's blue broad pennant 

(1866-1869). 

23. Commodore's red broad pennant ( 1836- 

1869). 

24. Commodore's white broad pennant 

(1866-1869). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



30 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section II.— NAVIGATION— Continued. 



25. Admiral's, Vice-AdmiraVs, and Rear- I 1. 

AdmiraVe flag (1869-1876) (Admi- | 
raFs at the mainmast bead, Vice- 
Admiral's at the foreroabt head, 
Rear-Adniirars at the mizzenmast 
head). 

26. Admiral's barge flag. 

27. Vice-adniirars barge flag. 

28. Rear-adrairaVs barge flag. . 

29. Commodore's flag (at the mainmast 

head). 

30. Commodore's boat flag. 

31. Signal numeral flag No. 1. 

32. Signal numeral flag No. 2. 

33. Signal numeral flag No. 3. 
M. Signal numeral flag No. 4. 

35. Signal numeral flag No. r>. 

36. Signal numeral flag No. 6. 

37. Signal numeral flag No. 7. 

38. Signal numeral flag No. 8. 

39. Signal numeral flag No. 9. j 

40. Signal numeral flag No. 0. | 

41. Comet. | 

42. First repeating flag. \ 

43. Second repeating flag. \ 

44. Third r**peating flag. | 

45. Numeral flag. 1 

46. Geographical flag. 

47. Guard flag. | 

48. Church flag. 1 

49. Answering pennant. 1 

50. Preparatory pennaut. 

51. Interrogat^iry pennaut. | 

52. Flag of the *• Bonhomme Richard," 

uuder Captain John Paul Jones, 
Continental Navy. 

53. Printed flag, made by the American 

Buutiug Coii.pauy. 

54. Bunting testing apparatus. (Appen- 

dix No. 19.) 

55. American manufactured bunting. 

(Appendix No. 20.) 

56. Flag that inspired the writing of the 

**Star Spangled Bannt-r." (Appeu- 
dixNo.21.) 

Class G.— Observatory Publications. 

ETC. 

1. Publicaiione of the U, S, Naval Observa- 

tori/ : 

2 vols. Astronomical, Magnetic, 

and Meteorological Obbervations, 

made by Lieut. J. M. Gillis«, U. S. 

Navy, lt^3e'-lc42. 



Pnblicatiotis of the U. S. Naval Obeerra- 
tory— Continued. 
20 vols. Astronomical and Meteoro- 
logical Observations made from 
1845 to 1873. 
2 vols. Maury's Sailing Directions. 
1 vol. Zones of Stars observed at the 
Washington Observatory, 1846 to 
1849. 
1 vol. Meteorological Observations, 

1842 to Ir^. 
1 vol. Catalogue of Stars observed 

fiom 1845 to 1871. 
1 vol. Catalogue of Stars observed 
in Praesepe; Solar Parallax from 
Observations of Mars; Orbit of 
Nemausa. 
1 vol. Latitude and Longitude of U. 
S. Naval Observatory; Investi- 
gation of rhe Distance of the Sun; 
Description of the Transit Circle . 
Positions of Fundamental Stars; 
Right Ascensions of Equatorial 
Fundamental Stars ; Urauian aud 
Neptunian Systems. 
1 vol. Report on Interoceanic Rail- 
roads and Canals. 
1 vol. November. Meteors, 1866, '67, 

'68. 
1 vol. Report of Solar Eclipse of 

1869. 

1 vol. Reportof Solar Eclipse of 1870. 

1 vol. Diflerences of Longitude be- 

tweeu Washington and Uavaua, 

and between Washington aud 

Saint Louis. 

1 vol. Founding and Progre8.s of the 

U. S. Naval ObwTvatory. 
1 vol. Papers relating to the Transit 

of Venus of December 8-9, 1874. 
1 vol. Instruments aud Publications 

of the U. S. Naval Obhervatory. 
1 vol. Awards to American Arctic 
Explorers Kane, Hayes, aud Hall. 
1 vol. Catalogue of 1,963 Stars ob- 
served in the Southern Hemis- 
phere. 
1 vol. Origin and Operations of th« 
Naval Astronomical Expedition 
to the Southern Hemisphere. 
4 vols. U. S. Naval Astronomical 
Expedition t<) the Southern Hem- 
isphere, by Lieut. James M. Gil- 
liss, U. S. Navy. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



31 



Section II.— NAVIGATION— Continued. 



I. PMxcaiiom of the U, S. Naval Obaena- 
tory — Continued. 

2. Phoiigraph of the 26-inch re- 

fractor. 

3. Photograph of the 9.6-iuch re- 

fractor. 

4. Photograph of the transit circle. 

5. Photograph of the transit instru- j 

meut and mural circle. ' 

6. Photograph of a drawing of the | 

planet featui-n, made by Mr. i 
Trouvelot with the 2(5-inch re- | 
fractor. 

7. Annular nebula, drawn by Prof. I 

E. S. Holden, with the '^e-inch 
refractor of the Naval Observa- j 
tory, Washington. | 

8. Photograph of a drawing of the 

nebula M. 17, made by Mr. Trou- 
velot with tfie 26-inch refractor. 

9. Photograph of a drawing of the 

nebula of Orion, made by Mr. | 
Trouvelot with the 26-inch re- | 
ractor. 

10. Apparatus for determining per- 

sonal equation in astronomical 
observations (Prof. J. R. East- ; 
man). (Appendix No. 22.) 

11. Heliotypeofthe 26-inch refractor. 

12. Heliotypeofthe 9.6-iuch refractor. 

13. Heliotype of the transit circle. 

14. Heliutype of the transit instru- 

ment and mural circle. 

Class H.— U. S. Thaxsit of Venus Ex- 
peditions. 

1. Equatorial house. 

2. Transit house. 

3. Photographic house. 

4. Equatorial telescope. 

5. Transit instrument. 

6. Striding level. 

7. Hanging level. 

8. Electric ohix)nograph. 

9. Apparatus for determining difference 

of longitude by telegraph. 

10. Heliostatand lens. 

11. Plate-holder. 

12. Chemicals and apparatus used in tak- 

ing solar photogra]»h8. 

13. Portable declinometer, with theodo- 

lite. 

14. Dip circle. 

15. Astronomical clock, mounted on field 
stand. (Appendix No. 23.) 



Class J.— American Arctic Explora- 
tions. 

1. Boat Faith of first and second Grinnell 
expeditions ; one of the three which » 
in 1855, on abandoning the Advan'ce, 
Kane pushed, with their stores, over 
the ice, cjO miles south to the open 
sea, and thence made 1,000 miles to 
Dtsco Brought home by Captain 
Hartstene, U. S. N. 

2. Boat of the Polaris, in which the part 

of the crew which abandoned her 
June 3, 1873, were rescued off Cape 
York, in August, by the Ravens- 
craig. 

3. Sledge like that on which Captain 

Hall made his last journey north 
from Thank God Harbor to latitude 
H2<^ 3', October 10 to 24, 1871. (Made 
by the Esquipiaux Joe Ebierbing ) 

4. Bust of Elisha K. Kane, assistant sur- 

geon U. S. Navy. 
(Bom at Philadelphia, Feb. 3, 1820. 
May, 1«43, naval surgeon to U. S. Chi- 
nese embassy. 
May, lt:$50, surgeon and naturalist of 
Lieutenant De Haven's first Grin- 
nell Arctic expedition. 
1853 to 1H55, conducted the second 

Grinnell expedition. 
Died in Havana February 16, 1857.) 
I 5. Furs worn by Dr. Kane in his Arctic 
I expedition, 18.5:i-'.55. 

j 6. Dr. Kane's rifle. 
] 7. Dr. Kane's kayak. 
I 8. Walrus head. 

I 9. Runners and bars of Sir John Frank- 
I lin's sled. 

' 10. Piece of the boat of Sir John Franklin. 
I 11. Dr. Kane at the graves of Franklin's 
< meu. . / 

I 2. Chart showing; the track of the Ad- 
vance aud the rescue. 
'3. The discoveries north of Suiith's 
Sound by the Polaris, 1871. (Capt. 
I C. F. Hall.) 

I 14. Track of the Polaris; drift of the ice- 
I fltie party. 

15. Map made by Joe Ebierbiug. 

16. Map made by C. F. Hall for his " Arc- 

tic Researches." 

17. Progrens of American Discovery. 

(Kohl.) 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



32 



L\TERNATIONAL EXHIBITIOX, 1876. 



Section II.— NAVIGATION— Coutiuued. 



18. The Panther in Melville Bay. (Brad- 

furd'a Expedition, 1869.) 

19. The glacier of SermitKialik, South 

Greenland. (Bradiovd^s expedition, 
1869.) 

20. Castled iceberg in Melville Bay. 

(Bradford's Expedition, 1869.) 
*21. Fiskemaes, Greenland. ('* Narrative 
of the Polaris.") 

22. Lichtenfels, Greenland. ("Narra- 

tive of the Polaris.") 

23. Holsteinborj:, Greenland. ("Narra- 

tive of the Polaris.") 

24. Tisbinsak, Greenland. ("Narrative 

of the Polaris.") 

25. Uperuavik, Greenland. ("Narrative 

of the Polaris.") 

26. Cape Lnpton. (** Narrative of the 

Polaris.") 

27. Ravine near Thank God Harbor. 

( " Narrative of the Polaris.") 
2d. Boat camp, Newman's Bay, July, 

1872. ( " Narrative of the Polaris/') 

29. Leaving Thank God Harbor, August 

12, 1872. ("Narrative of the Po- 
laris.") 

30. The boats at Hakluyt Island, June 4, 

1873. (" Narrative of the Polaris.") 

31. Arctic scene. (Kane and Hamilton.) 

32. Arctic scene. (Kane and Hamilton.) 
3:{. Arctic scene, (^aue and Hamilton.) 

34. Arctic scene. (Kane and Hamilton.) 

35. Arctic scene. (Kane and Hamilton.) 
3i). Arctic scene. (Kane and Hamilton.) 
37. Captain Tyson's boat, prepared for its 

northern journey. 
3f^. The house on the ice-floe,October, 1872. 

39. Thank God Harbor. 

40. Passing Fitz-Clarence Rock, August 

26, 1871. 

41. Sighting the Ravenscraig off Cape 

York, June 23, 1873. 

42. U. S. steamer Polaris on Providence 

Bay, spring, 1872. 



11. 

I 12. 

13. 

14. 



Vobjects on the northeast side of case.) 

I.— Expedition of Lieut. E. J, De Haven, 
{Firat GrinneU Expedition, 1850-'52.) 

1. Soup canister from Franklin's first 

winter quarters. 

2. Red snow from the cliffs of Beverly. 

3. "The First U.S.Grinuell Expedition." , 

By E. K. Kane, M. D. I 



II,— Expedition of Dr, Kaney 1833-'55. 

1. Flag of the Advance. 

2. Jonmalsof Kane. 2 vols. 

3. Transit instrument of Kane. 

4. Sextant of Kane. 

5. Prismatic compass of Kane. 

6. Spyglass of Kane. 

7. Portfolio of Arctic sketches. 
8.;Twelve Arctic scenes in oil colors. 
9. Forty-eighf Arcti.c scenes in water 

colors. 

Ten daguerreotypes. 

Copy of Tennyson (read to his men). 

"Arctic Explorations," 1853-'55. 

"Arctic Boat Journey." Dr. I. I. 
Hayes. 

Photographs of medals awarded to 
Kane, viz, from the Royal Geograph- 
ical Society, London ; from the 
Geographical Society of Paris; from 
British residents in New York City ; 
from the State of New York, and 
itu^ai "The Queen's medal." 

15. Electrotype of medal from the Geo- 
graphical Society of Paris. 

16. Kane's Miscellanies. 2 vols. 

17. Photograph of Kane. 

18. Daguerreotype of Kane. 
; 19. Daguerreotype of Kane in furs. 
! 20. Daguerreotype of Kane in uniform of 
I assistant surgeon U. S. Navy. 
< 21. Kane medallion. 

22. Stones collected by Morton at the 
most northern headland reached. 

23. Small kayak. 
! 24. Knife made from the relics of Sir 

John Franklin's expedition. 

25. Photograph of the vase presented by 
I the British Government, " asa token 
I oftheir sincere gratitude and esteem, 

to Henry GrinneU, of New York, 
i throngh whose exertions and mu- 

; nificence the American Arctic expe- 

I ditions in search of Sir John Frank- 

! lin and the officers and crews bf Her 

Britannic Majesty's ships Erebus 
and Terror were undertaken and 
carried into execution, between the 
years lH50-'53." 

26. Photograph of William Morton. 

27 and 28. Medals awarded to Mr. 
Amos Bonsall, viz : 

27. "The Queen's medal." 



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THE NAVY DEPARTMENT, 



33 



Section II.— NAVIGATION— Continued. 



28. Medal from the British Government 

to the ofiBcers and men engaged in 
the American Arctic expeditions. 

29. The American Geographical Society 

honoring Kane's memory. Vol. for 
1856. 

30. '^Medals'awarded to American Arctic 

explorers." 

(Objects on the northwest side of case.) 
II L- Expedition of Dr, L L Hayes, I860- 

1. "The Open Polar Sea." Dr. I. I. 

Hayes. 

2. Syenite from the most northern point 

reached. 

3. Electrotype of medal awarded to Dr. 

Hayes by the Geographical Society 
of Paris. 

IV.^Fxrst Expedition of Capt. C, F, Hall, 

1. Notes of Journey to Conntess of War- 

wick Sonnd. 

2. Covers for notes. 

3. Writing tablets 

4. Pen-holder. Dipping needle. 
.5. Bottle of mercury. 

6. Sledge log, line and reel . . 
•7. Boat log. 

8. Bag for compass. 

9. Tape measure. 

10. Canvas drinking cup. 

11. Skil lings and mud from Holsteinborg. 

12. Rock from Kodluma Island. 

13. Fool's gold and fossils from Frobish- 

er's Bay. 

14. Case for spyglass. 

15. Fragments of rock and brass knob 

from Field's Bay. 

16. ** Arctic Researches." C. F. Hall, 

1862. 

17. Photograph of Hall, with autograph. 

18. Electrotype of medal from Geograph- 

ical Society of Paris. 

19. Garnets from Kinggaite. 

20. Mica from Niometelik. 

21. Musk-ox horns. 

22. Gloves and button. 

23. Graphite (lat. 67<^ 30', long. 68^ 41'). 

24. Minerals from Rescue Bay. (Fro- 

bisher's Bay Expedition. 

25. Journal kept from 1860 to 1862. 

26. Picture of Esquimaux dog. 

3 CEN, PT 2 



27. Box carried by Hall on his second ex- 

pedition. 

28. Minerals collected by Hall ("Meta 

incognita" of Frobisher). 

29. U. S. flag borne on the Peacock by 

Captain Wilkes to the South Seas, 
and by De Haven, Kane, Hayes, 
and Hall to the Arctic Seas. 

30. Whale chart prepared by Lieut. M. 

F. Maury at the Naval Observatory, 
1851 ; used by Hall. 

31. Addresses of Hall and Henry Grinnell 

before the American Geographical 
Society of New York. (Journal of 
the Society.) 

(Objects on the southwest side of case.) 

r.Second Expedition of Capt, C, F, Hall, 
1864-'69. 

1. Flag of the expedition. 

2. Note box. 

3. Long saber used on King William's 

Land. 

4. Seal spear. 

5. Hall's notes. 

, 6. Brass writing plates, heated to pre- 
I vent ink from freezing. 

7. Shot used by Hall. 

8. Rib of spotted seal. 

9. Musk-bull tooth. 

, 10. Seal tooth and walruH tooth. 
' 11. Reindeer horns. 

12. Esquimaux kayak. 

13. Cord from the British ship Resolute. 

14. Quartz from Marble Island. 

15. Minerals from Repulse Bay. 

16. Minerals from Amherst Island. 

17. Journal of second expedition. 

18. Minerals from Gifford River apd from 

Fury and Hecla Strait. 

Eelics of Parry's Expedition. (Brought 
back by Hall,) 

19. Wood and oakum ; wood of Parry's 

flagstaff. (Igloolik.) 

20. Pieces of tent; rope yam; oilcloth; 

canvas; shot; beads; iron. (Ig- 
loolik). 

Belies of Capt, James Bosses Expeditionf 
18;»-'33. (Brought back by Hall, ) 

21. Pieces of riveted and hoop iron ; shot. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



34 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section II.— NAVIGATION -Continued. 



BtXxcfi of Dr. Mae's Expedition, 1845-^47. 
(Brought back by Hall) 

22. Pieces of wood, iroii, canvas, clay 

pipe, from near Fort H*)pe. 

Articles belonging to Joe Ebiei'bxng and 
Hannah. 

23. Sealskin coat. 

24. Map made by Joe. 

25. Inomit ladies* boots. 

26. Skin of a deer shot by Hannah. 

27. Skin of a musk-ox shot by Hannah. 

28. Shoes worn by Hannah's child Sylvia. 

Belies of Sir John Eranklin^s Expedition^ 
1845. ( Brought hack by Hall. ) 

1. Silver watch oases ; silver fork ; table, 

desert, and tea .•spoons; scissors. 

2. Piece of azimnth compass: tin vessel 

for records. 
'^. Brass tubing ; jjjimlet ; knob ; bullet; 
cylindrical lead. 

4. Needle; button of naval uniform; 

coat lining. 

5. Barometer. 

6. Britannia dish; pickle jar woru by 

ice or snow. 

7. Bottle contrtiuiug hair and fragments 
■^ of clothing of Franklin's men. 

8. Piece of chair from Franklin's vessel. 

9. Probe, tile, and strip of copper. 

10. Instrument box ; piece of desk. 

11. Arrows. 

12. Arrowters (snow- beaters). 

13. Sledge bars. 

14. Wedge, chisel, wood (Repulse Bay, 

Whale Point, Fox Channel). 

15. Canisters of roast beef and carrots. 

16. Cauvfis; wood from (iit!\)rd River. 

William Bradford's Expedition in the Pan- 
ther, 18(39. 

1. Photographs of Arctic scenery. 

2. *' The Land of Desolation." 

(Objects on the southeast side of case.) 

VI.— Third Expedition of ('apt. (\ F. Hall. 
(The Polarifi, 1871.) 

1. Log of the Polaris. 

2. Journal of Capt. S O. Bndiugton. 

3. Rough log of the scientific coqis. 



4. Journal of K. W. D. Bryan, astron- 

omer of the Polaris; of H. Siemans; 
of J. B. Mauch; of John Herron; 
of H. Hobby. 

5. Sketches by E. Schumann, engineer. 

6. Plan of the Polaris as fitted for the 

Arctic Expeilition by Naval Con- 
structor B. F. Delano. 

7. The Polaris at the Washington navy- 

yard, June, 1H71, 

8. Hall's inkstand. 

9. Tip of a walrus tusk. 

10. Note-book used by Captain Hall in his 

last hledge-journey, October 10, 
1871. 

11. Photograph of Joe Ebierbing. 

12. Photograph of Hannah. 

Artivles belonging to Capt. (r. E. Tysm. 

13. Note books containing his diary kept 

on tli»- ice from OctoWr, 1872. to 
April. H73 ; cover; peui-il. 

14. Walrus tusk. 

Articles belonging to U. \V. I). Bryan j 
astronomer of the Polaris. 



15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 



19. 



20. 



21. 
2-2. 
23. 
24. 

25. 

26. 



Shotgun. 

Celsius and Fahrenheit thermometers. 

Pieces of the flag of the Polaris. 

Sealskin mittens used while observ- 
ing ; cap; eider-dowu wristlets; 
watch-guard. 

Bag of tobacco and of tea used while 
in the boats; coins; ivory articles 
manufactured by Etah Esquimaux ; 
brass tokens marked "Christinas, 
1871— latitude 8P 3^'.^' 

Chronometer key ; stone with lichens ; 
fossils from Thank God Harbor ; 
hair from the tips of whitlebtme 
slabs; <»il silk for records ; pipe. 

Collection of minerals and fossils by Dr. 
Emih BemclSj chief of the scientijic 
corpH of the Polaris Expedition (79 
specimens). 

Earth from Hall's grave. 

Hall's grave. 

Arctic flora. 

Laniliug stores from the Polaris on 
the ice. 

The Polaris before separating from 
the ice-floe i»arty. 

Boat camp, June, 1873. 



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THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



35 



Section II.-NAVIGATIOX— Continued 



Articles brought back to the United States on 
IM^ the U. S. S. Juniata {relief ship ) , 

1. The Little Juniata on her cruise to 

Cape York. 

2. Model of kayak. 

3. Danish book — pictures drawn by Es- 

quimaux. 

4. Esquimaux sealskin suit. 

5. Sealskin coat. 

6. Huutiuggear; dog harness and whips. 

7. Esquimaux baby ; sled. 

8. Walrus tusk. 

9. Seal spear. 

10. Specimen of (Greenland work. 

11. Lead ore. 

12. Coal. 

13. Mica. 

Articlts brought hack on the C S. S. Tigress 
{relief ship), 1^73. 

14. Sealskin frock and hood ; boots ; wo- 

men's pants. 

15. Log of the Tigress. 

Articles brought to the United States on the 
r. <S\ S. CongresH. 

16. Sealskin coat, pants, boots, child's 

shoes. 

17. Water cask. 

18. Kayak, with 6 dressed fitjures. 

19. Kayak, with 1 figure. 

20. Cane of narwhal's horn, the head of 

walrus tooth. 



Class K.— Nautical Almanac Publica- 
tions. 

1. The American Epbemeris and Nautical 

Almanac for the years 1855 to 1878. 
24 vols, ^ 

2. The Almanac for the Use of Navigators 

for the years 1876 to 1879. 4 vols. 

3. Tables of the Moon. 

4. Tables of Mercury .ind Venus. 

5. Tables of Melpomene, Economia, Har- 

mon ia, and Parthenope. 

6. Star Tables of the American Ephcmeris. 

Class L.— Relics. 

RiUcs of Capl. Paul Jones, of the Conti- 
nental Xary. 

1. Chart — Cooke and Clerke. 

2. Part of chart of the world 

3. Atlas to Vancouver's Voyaji 

4. Loose leaves with drawingf 

to them, and two loose di 

5. Cap(..Tolin Paul Jones's 

1779-'-2. 

6. Dutch othcial copy of the t 

by Jones's shii>s while in 
October, 1779. 

7. OtHcial copy of John Paul Jones's com- 

mission. 

8. Facsimile of John Paul Jones's com- 

mission. 

9. Blank commis,siou of John Paul Jones, 

signed by John Uancock, President 
of the Continental Congress. 
10. Journal of the French fleet, 178l-'82, 
while under the command of Count 
de (Jrasse. 



BUREAU OF EQUIPMENT. 

Capt. R. W. Shufeldt, Chief of Bureau. 

Section III.— EQUIPMENT. 



3. 



Class A. — Gallkys, vrrc. 

Sh ip's galley for 500 meii, with utensils, 
complete. 

Ship'sgalley for200meu, with utensils, 
complete. 

Model of a boat with Lieutenant 
Wood's gear for lowering, hoisting, 
and securing boats, and apparatus 
for detaching and attaching them. 
( Appendix No. 24. ) 



Class B.— Ropk. 

1. Russia hemp hawser (24 inches). 

Breaking strain, 280,000 ])ounds. 

2. Manila rope (4 strands, 6 inches). 

Breaking strain, 24,01)0 pounds. 

3. Russia hawser (6 inches). Breaking 

strain, 24,000 pounds. 

4. Manila hawser (6 inches). Breaking 

strain, 20,000 pounds. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876 



Section III.— EQUIPMENT— Continued. 



5. Rassia hemp rope (tarred, 4 strands, 

6 inches). Breaking strain, 1^8,800 
pounds. 

6. Manila hawser (5 inches). Breaking 

strain, 20,000 fbands. 

7. American hemp rope (tarred, 4 stralids, 

4 inches). Breaking strain, 16,200 
pounds. 

a Manila rope (4 strands, 5 inches). 

Breaking strain, 16,700 pounds. 
9. Russia hemp rope (tarred, 4 strands, 

5 inches). Breaking strain, 20,000 
pounds. 

10. Manila rope (4 strands, 4 inches). 

Breaking strain, 10,700 pounds. 

11. American hemp rope (tarred, 3 strands, 

5 inches). Breaking strain, 22,500 
pounds. 

12. Russia''hawser(4i inches). Breaking 

strain, 13,400 pounds. 

13. Manila rope (3 strands, 5 inches). 

Breaking strain, 14,000 pounds. 

14. Manila hawser (4 inches). Breaking 

strain, 10,700 pounds. 

15. American hemp rope (tarred, 3 strands, 

4 inches). Breaking strain, 14,400 
pounds. 

16. Manila rope (3 strands, 4 inches). 

Breaking strain, 10,700 pounds. 

17. Manila rope (4 strands, 3 inches). 

Breaking strain, 8,200 pounds. 

18. Russia hemp rope (tarred, 4 strands, 

3 inches). Breaking strain, 7,200 
pounds. 

19. Manila rope (3 strands, 3 inches). 

Breaking strain, 6,000 pounds. 

20. American hemp rope (tarred, 3 strands, 

3 inches). Breaking strain, 7,200 
pounds. 

21. Manila rope (4 strands, 3^ inches). 

Breaking strain, 8,200 pounds. 

22. Russia hemp rope (tarred, 4 strands, 

2^ inches). Breaking strain, 5,000 
pounds. 

23. Manila rope (3 strands, 2^ inches). 

Breaking strain, 4,000 pounds. 

24. American hemp rope (tarred, 3 strands, 

2 inches.) Breaking strain, 3,200 
pounds. 

25. Manila rope (3 strands, 2 inches). 

Breaking strain, 2,700 pounds. 

26. Manila rope (3 strands, \\ inohes). 

Breaking strain, 1,700 pounds. 



27. American hawser (5 inohes). Break- 

ing strain, 16,700 pounds. 

28. Hide rope (4 strands, 6 inches). 

29. Manila line rope (18 thread). 

30. American hemp line (untarred, 15 

thread). 

31. Manila rope (3 strands, 1^ inches). 

32. American bemp line (untarred, 6 

thread). 

33. American hemp line (untarred, 18 

thread). 

34. Manila line (12 thread). Breaking 

strain, 800 pounds. 

35. American hemp line (untarred, 12 

thread). 

36. American hemp line (untarred, 9 

thread). 

Class C— Wire Ropeh. 

1. Wire rope (6 inches). 

2. Steel- wire hawser (4f inches). 

3. Wire rope (5 inches). 

4. Wire rope (4 inches). 

5. Wire rope (3^ inches). 

6. Wire rope (3 inches). 

7. Wire rope (2i inohes). 

8. Wire wheel rope (2 inohes). 

9. Wire rope (2 inches). 

10. Wire rope {\\ inohes). 

11. Wire rope (l^ inches). 

12. Wire rope jib net (f inch). 

13. Copper-wire lightning conductor. 

Class D.— Chains, Shackles, Buoys, 
etc. 

1. Jew's harp. 

2. Club link and shackle. 

3. DeviFs claws. 

4. Mooring swivel. 

5. Mooring swivel. 

6. Swivel. 

7. Swivel. 

8. Fish-hook for anchor. 

9. Boat anchor. 

10. Boat anchor. 

11. Club link and shackle. 

12. Drying stove. 

13. Grapnel. 

14. Grapnel. 

15. Grapnel. 

16. Grapnel. 

17. Grapnel. 

18. Grapnel. 



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THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



37 



Section III.— EQUIPMENT— Continued. 



19. Rigger's screw. 


59. 


20. Anchor buoy. 




21. Kedgebuoy. 




22. Relieving cuRhion. 




23. Dead eye. 




24. Relieving cushion. 




25. Dead eye. 




26. Hose basket. 




27. Stop-cock. 




28. Brass belaying pins. 




29. Iron belaying pin. 




30. Sail prickers. 


1. 


31. Splicing fids. 


2. 


32. Hose coupling. 


3. 


33. Hose clamps. 


4. 


34. Hose pipe. 


5. 


35. Link mooring chain. 


6. 


36. Pickax and hoe. 


7. 


37. Hammock fitted with clews and lash- 


8. 


ings. 


9. 


38. Lightning conductor spindle. 


10. 


39. Setting fids. 


11. 


40. Carpenter's slings. 


12. 


41. Clothes bag. 


13. 


42. Marline spikes. 


14. 


43. Set of chain links. 


15. 


44. Shackles connected with boat chain 


16. 


(H'O. 


17. 


45. Samples of rigging chain. 


18. 


46. Set of hooks and thimbles. 


19. 


47. Set of sister, hooks. 


20. 


48. Set of sail clews. 


21. 


49. Boat stove complete. 


22. 


50. Mess cloth. 


2:^. 


51. Hospital cot. 


24. 


52. Set of riggiug thimbles. 




53. Water bag. 




54. Set of sailmaker's thimbles. 


1. 


55. Set of composition thimbles. 


2. 


56. Chain hooks. 


3. 


57. Cork jacket. 


4. 


58. Specimens of chain iron broken in test- 


5. 


ing at Washington navy-yard. 


6. 


59. Model of a link-bending machine for 


7. 


bending iron chain cable links, 


8. 


tackle hooks, connecting shackles, 


9. 


dec. (In use at the navy -yard, 


10. 


Washington, D. C.) 


IL 


Photograph of the machine. Printed 


12. 


report of the Naval Committee of 


13. 


the House of Representatives, Feb- 


14. 


ruary 11, 1870. 


15. 


12 leaden links to be used in model, 


16. 


showing the mode of working the 


17. 


machine. 


18. 



Model of a link-bending machine 
&c. — Continued. 

5 chain cable links (2f'S 21", 2", U", 
\"\ 

3 connecting shackles (2i'', li", 1")- 

6 links of rigging chain (-ft'S tV", A"f 

T^", -.V, A"). 

7 tackle hooks (2VS 2i", If", U", I", 

r,r). 

Class E.— Canvas. , 

, Flax canvas, No. 1. 

Flax canvas, No. 2. 

Flax canvas. No. 3. 

Flax canvas. No. 4. 

Flax canvai), No. 5. 

Flax canvas, No. 6. 

Flax canvas. No. 7. 

Flax canvas, No. 8. 

Flax canvas, No. 9. 
, Cotton canvas. No. 1. 
, Cotton canvas, No. 2. 
, Cotton canvas, No. 3. 
, Cotton canvas, No. 4. 

Cotton canvas, No. 5. 
, Cotton canvas. No. 6. 
, Cotton canvas. No. 7. 

Cotton canvas, No. 8. 
. Cotton canvas. No. 9. 
, Cotton canvas. No. 10. 
, Light cotton canvas (Raven's). 
, Heavy cotton canvas (Raven's). 
, Bag canvas. 

Cot canvas. 
, Hammock canvas. 

Class F.— Hoisting Gear. 

Tackle and runner (1 to 4). 
. Single Spanish burton (1 to 3). 
, Double Spanish burton (1 to 5). 
, Burton (1 to 9). 
, Water whip (1 to 2). 

Topsail halyards (1 to 10). 

Lift jigger (1 to 3). 

Burton (1 to 8). 
, Watch tackle (1 to 3). 

Bell purchase (1 to 8). 

Whip (1 to 1). 

Whip (1 to 2). 

Whip and runner (1 to 2). 

Gun tackle purchase (1 to 2). 

Riggiug luft(l to 3). 

Luff* tackle (1 to 3) 

Double purchase (1 to 4). 

Old jeer purchase (1 to 5). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



38 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section III.— EQUIPMENT— Continaed. 



19. Top burton (1 to 3). 

20. Sail tackle (1 to 5). 

21. Royal halyard purchase (I to 2). 

22. Burton (1 to 16). 

Class G. — Tests of Iron. 

1. Section of connecting rod of hydraulic 

chain-proving machine at the navy- 
yard, Washington. In use thirty- 
five years, and subjected to strains 
equal to 300,000 pounds, and to re- 
ceils incidental upon the rupture of 
the test specimen. Illustrating the 
action of strains and vibrations in ♦ 
producing crystallization. 

2. Coarse granulons iion, of fair tensile 

strength, but with slight transverse 
strength, and no resilience. Speci- 
mens broke by blows of from 3(M) t«> 
500 pounds delivered on a scored 
circle with a wedge-shaped ham- 
mer. This iron is unsuitable for 
any purpose where it is exposed to 
sudden or transverse strains. 

3. Chain iron made from condemned 

scrap iron by a process discovered 
by Commander L. A. Beardslee, U. 
S. N. These specimens were broken 
by from three to six blows, of 3,000 
pounds each, with a wedge-shaped 
testing hammer. 

4. Testof bars of same iron as No. 3. This 

lot of iron not scored ; struck in the 
center from eight to fifteen 3,000- 
pound blows ; then closed under an 
H-tou steam hammer. 

5. Tests of l^-inch bars made by Com- 1 

mander L. A. Beardslee's process. 
All bent to their present shape by 
heavy blows. The piece tied into 
an overhand knot was pointed 
while hot, then allowed to cool, and 
hauled taut by tension. The screw 
bolts were struck in the center, the 
bearings being placed at junction 
of the threads with a solid iron. 
6. Collection of ends of bars of various 
makers which have bet»n broken off 
by sledge blows afrer having been 
nicked with cold chisel, the highest 
number of blows struck being one 
hundred and nineteen, and tlu« low- 
est number of blows one. 



3-inch bar of Burden B. B. (best bar) 
iron, bent cold by blows of an 8-ton 
steam hammer. 1 

3-inch bar ox Burden B. B. (best bar) 
iron, scored -^^ inch deep, and broken 
by seventeen blows of 4,500 pounds 
each. 

Bars of Burden B. B. (best bar) iron, 
pulled asunder by hydraulic power, 
illustrating the increase of tensile 
strength and elastic limit per sqnare 
inch as the bar decr.^ases in diameter. 
The average elongation is 23 per cent., 
and the average contraction of area 
45^ per cent, 
(rt) 2-inch bar: Elastic limit 24,480 
pounds per square inch ; tensile 
strength 47,6K7 pounds per scjuare 
inch. 



(6) ]|-iuch bar: Elastic limit 

pounds per square inch ; 

strength 49,089 pounds per 

inch. 
(c) l|-inch bar: Elastic limit 

pounds per square inch ; 

strength 49,714 pounds per 
inch. 

(rf) If-inch bar: Elastic limit 

pounds per square inch ; 

strength 50,912 pounds per 

inch, 
(e) li-inch bar: Elastic limit 

pounds per S([uare inch ; 

strength 51,455 pounds i)er 

inch. 
(/) 1| inch bar : Elastic limit 

pounds per square inch ; 

strength 52,H,54 pounds per 

inch. 
{g) li-inch bar: lElastic limit 
, pounds per square inch ; 

strength 51,9^9 pounds per 

inch, 
(/i) l^inch bar: Elastic limit 

pounds per square inch : 

strength 52,153 pounds per 

inch. 
(J) l-inch bar: Elastic limit 

pounds per square inch ; 

strengih .52,r)98 pouiuls per 

inch. 



21,068 
tensile 
square 



26,640 
tensile 
square 

31,050 
tensile 
square 

:«,910 
tensile 
8<iuare 

32,400 
tensile 
square 

29,700 
tensile 
square 

28,260 
tensile 
square 

2H,eoo 

tensile 
square 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



39 



Skctiox III.— equipment— Continued. 



9. Bars of Burden B. B. iron, &c.— Con- ' 

tinned. 

(ifc) 2i-inch bar: Elastic limit 24,200 
pounds per square inch ; tensile 
strength 47,600 pounds per square 
inch. 

(0 2i-inch bar: Elastic limit 23,600 
pounds per sqnare inch ; tensile 
strength 47,000 pounds per square 
inch. 

10. Set of turned cylinders of Tamaqua 

iron, tested to ascertain the proper 
form of test-piece. They are all from 
the same bar, and of various lengths, 
from 10 inches down to the groove 
form; they show a difference in ten- 
silestreogth of nearly 16,000 pounds, 
between the average of the pieces 
above four diameters in length, and 
the groove form. 

(rt) lO-inch piece : tensile strength 
54,8^^ pounds, seamy. 

(6) 9i-inch piece : tensile strength 
55,288 pounds. 

(c) 9-inch piece : tensile strength 
55,355 pounds. 

(d) 8i-inch piece : tensile strength 
55,622 pounds. 

(e) 7i-inch piece : tensile strength 
54,890 pounds, seamy. 

(/) 7- inch piece : tensile strength 

55,488 pounds. 
(g) Ci-inch piece : tensile strength 

51,800 pounds, bad seam. 
(h) 6-inch piece : tensile strength 

55,418 pounds. 
0) 5|-iuch piece: tensile strength 

55,333 pounds. 
{k) 4-inch piece: t-^nsile strength 

55,887 pounds, 
(i) 3^ inch piece: tensile strength 

55,48*-^ pounds, 
(m) 3-inch piece: tensile strength 

56,190 pounds, 
(n) 1-inch piece: tensile strength 

58,933 pounds, 
(o) i inch piece : tensile strength 

59,38r5 pounds, 
(p) Groove piece: tensile strength 

71.300 pounds. ^ 



11. Set of turned cylinders of Pembroke 
rivet iron, illustrating the propor- 
tions ot test-pieces to be used with 
a soft iron. In this set the average 
tensile strength of the pieces above 
five diameters in length was 46,000 
pounds per square inch ; that of the 
groove specimen, 61,000 pounds ; a 
ditterence of 15,000 pounds per 
square inch. 

(a) 8-inch piece : tensile strength 
45,800 pounds. 

(6) 7-inch piece : tensile strength 
45,930 pounds. 

(c) 6-inch piece : tensile strength 
45,995 pounds. 

(d) 5-inch piece : tensile strength 
45,768 pounds. 

{e) 4-inch piece : tensile strength 
46,561 pounds. 

(/) 3-inch piece: tensile strength 
46,759 pounds. 

{g) 2-inch piece : tensile strength 
46,734 pounds. 

{h) 1-inch piece: tensile strength 
47,033 pounds. 

(j) Groove piece: tensile strength 
61,02Ii pounds. 

I 12. Fonr pieces turned from a 2-inch bar 
of Cainsauqtia iron, and tested to as- 

I certain the difference due to varia- 

tion of the sectional area of the 
test-piece. The large pieces (H 
inches in diameter) broke at 49,500 
pounds per square inch, and the 
small ones (^ inch in diameter) 
broke at 49,850 pounds per square 
inch. 

13. Collection of cable links broken by 

tension, showing the different char- 
acters of breaks of iron suitable for 
chain cables. 

14. Cable links broken by tension, show- 

ing iron unfit for chain cable. 

15. Cylinder test-pieces, giving their 

shape before and after straining to 
tensile limit. 



Digitized by VjQOQIC 



40 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section IIL— EQUIPMENT— Continued. 



16. Sections of rigging chain broken by 

tension (sizes, J, |, i, f , and f inch). 

17. Two bars that were subjected to ten- 

sion, which broke in the eyes and 
were found to be contracted in aiea 
at other points than at th3 break. 
The eyes were repaired, and the 
specimens broke at higher strains, 
at points not previously contracted. 



18. Bar of stiff hard iron, of high tensile 

strength, but not suitable for stand- 
ing sudden shocks or to make chain 
cable. 

19. Three bars of good iron from Fm^broke 

Mills, which have been tested by 
impact. 

20. Lever and catch designed and used 

for conveying a sudden strain to 
test-pieces. 



BUREAU OF YARDS AND DOCKS. 



Commodore John C. Howell, Chief of Bureau, 
Section IV.— YARDS AND DOCKS. 



Class A. — Dry Docks. | 

I 

1. Model of dry-dock, U. S. navy-yard, , 

Brooklyn, N. Y. | 

Commenced August, 184 1 ; completed I 
August, 1851 ; length, 350 feet ; I 
breadth, 66 feet ; draft of water, | 
25 feet; capacity, 7,000 tons; ma- ; 
terial, granite ; weight of turning . 
gates, 187 tons; weight of caisson, | 
217 tons ; cost of caisson, |79,.^OiO; 
cost of dock, including pumping j 
engine and caisson, ^,000,000. j 

2. Model of the stone dry-dock being con- | 

structed at the U. S. navy-yard, t 
Mare Island, California. 
Principal dimensions: Extreme | 
length of dock over all, 525 feet 9 ; 
inches ; length of floor on line of 
keel blocks from inside of caisson, 
440 feet ; length on floor from face 
of invert to first altar, 418 feet; 
length of invert, 41 feet; length 
of invert and apron, 48 feet 9 
inches; width of invert at coping, 
78 feet ; width of fl«M)r. 30 feet ; in- 
side width of dock at coping, 104 
feet; depth of water on invert at 
mean high tide, 27 feet 6 inches ; 
depth of water on floor at invert* 
32 feet. 
3. IT. S. naval dry-dock at Norfolk, Va. 
Cost, $943,676.7:i. Dimensions: Ex- 
treme length at top, 322 feet; 
width at bottom, 30 feet ; width at 
top, S6 feet; commenced Decem- 
ber 1, 1827 ; John Q. Adams, Pres- 



3. U. S. naval dry-dock at Norfolk, Va.— 

Continued. 

ident of the United States ; Sam- 
uel L. Southard, Secretary 6t the 
Navy. Authorized by the Nine- 
teenth Congress. Opened June 
17, 183.3, Andrew Jackson, Presi- 
dent of the United States; Levi 
Woodbury, Secretary of the Navy ; 
Laomi Baldwin, engineer. Scale 
of model, 8 feet to 1 inch. 

4. Dry-dock, navy-yard, Boston. 

Commenced July 10, 1827; opened 
June 24, 1833; cost, $677,090; 
lengthened 65 feet in 1857-*58-'59 ; 
extreme length on coping, 402.8 
feet ; width on coping, 99.7 feet ; 
width of coping on main arch, 60 
feet; depth from top of coping to 
floor of chamber at the h**ad, 30.9 
feet ; depth from top of coping to 
floor of chamber at the galleries, 
32 feet ; length of floor of chamber, 
293 feet. 

Class B.— Pieces of Vessels. 

1. These blocks were made^from parts 
of the undermentioned vessels-of- 
war while under repair or being 
broken up, with the dates at 
which each one was commenced 
to be built : 

Florida, 1861. 

Cumberland, 1825. 

Pennsylvania, 1822. 

Merrimac, 1855. 



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THE NAVY DEPARTMENT, 



41 



Section IV.— YARDS AND DOCKS— Continued. 



Pieces of Vessels — Continned. 
United States, 1794. 
Delaware, 1817. 
Columbus, 1816. 
Columbia, 1825. 
Raritan, 1820. 

^ Class C— Plans. 

1. Plan of the U. S. navy-yard, Ports- 

mouth, N. H. 

2. Plan of the U. S. navy-yard, Boston, 

Mass. 

3. Plan, sections, and elevation of the 

stone dry-dock now under construc- 
tion at the navy-yard, Mare Island, 
California. 



4. Plan of the U. S. naval torpedo sta- 

tion. Goat Island, Newport Harbor, 
Rhode Island. Scale, ^. Sur- 
veyed hy Commander £. P. Lull, 
U. S. Navy. 

5. Plan of the U. S. navy-yard. Mare 

Island, California. 

6. Plan of the U. S. navy-yard. New 

York, N. Y. 

7. Plan of the U. S. navy-yard, Wash- 

ington, D. C. 

8. Plan of the U. S. navy-yard, Norfolk, 

Va. 



BUREAU OF CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR, 

Chief Constructor I. Hanscomb, Chief of Bureau, 

Section V.— CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR— NAVAL ACADEMY. 



Class A.— Models. 

1. U. S. sloop-of-war Antietam. Full 

model, from water-line to rail ; fully 
rigged, with sails, equipment, and 
armament of twenty- two broadside 
guns. Length of model, 41 feet. 

2. U. S. sloop of- war Antietam. Full 

model in frame, showing iu detail 
the construction of a ship-of-war. 
Length of model, 13 feet. 

3. French line-of-battle ship Dante (built 

about the year 1600). Full model, 
fully sparred and rigged. 

4. Model of an iron-clad ram, with 

grooved bottom and two sub- 
merged propellers on sides. (Mod- 
ification of Commodore James Bar- 
ron's ram.) 

5. Model of the French frigate Did on. 

Built in the year 1797, at St. Malo ; 
was noted for her extraordinary 
sailing qualities. 

6. Sectional model of a double-bottom 

broadside irou-clad frigate. 

7. Model of the U. 8. ship Niagara, 1855. 

8. Model of the U. S. ship Merrimac, 1855. 

9. Model of the U. S. ship New Ironsides, 

1862. 

10. Model of the U. S. ship Hartford, 1858. 

11. Model of the U. S. ship Monadnock. 

12. Model of the U. S. ship Constellation. 

13. Model of the U. S. ship Kearsarge 

(steam). 



14. Model of the U. S. ship Vandalia, 1875. 

15. Model of the U. S. ship Constitution 

(sails). 

16. Model of the U. S. ship President 

(sails). 

17. Model of the U. S. ship Ohio (sails). 

18. Model of the U. S. ship Enterprise 

(sails). 

19. Model of the U. S. ship Washington 

(sails). 

20. Model of the U. S. ship Fulton (steam). 

21. Model of a proposed sea-going mon- 

itor. 
Dimensions : Length of water-line, 
355 feet 8 inches; extreme 
breadth, 63 feet ; depth of hold, 
26 feet 3 inches ; displacement at 
23 feet 6 inches, 9,330 tons; ex- 
ponent for displacement, .062; 
port- sill above water amidships, 
7 feet 6 inches ; proportion of 
length to breadth, 5.64. 
Estimated weight of hull : Bracket 
construction and wood planking, 
3,000 tons; weight of armor, 3,000 
tons; engines and coal, 1,900 tons; 
stores, 500 tons; total, 9,300 tons. 
Armament: Four 35- ton guns on 
pivot carriages; four ll-inch guns 
on swivel carriages; total, 8 guns; 
nominal horse-power, 1,080 H. P. ; 
indicated horse-power, 7,500 H. P. 

22. Model of sloop-of-war of 1,200 tons. 



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42 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 



Section V.— CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR— NAVAL ACADEMY— CoutiDued. 



23. Model of torpedo boat {twin screws). I 

24. Model of torpedo boat (siugle screw). 1 

25. Model of the U.S. ship Vandalia (sails). 

26. Gig of the Lackawanna. 

27. Model of tlie U. S. ship Constitution. 

28. Model of the U. S. ship Mississippi, 

1841. 

29. Model of the.U. S. ship Jamestown. 

30. Model of the U. S. ship St. Mary's. 

31. Model of the U. S. ship Portsmouth. 

32. Model of a boat with Wood's gear for 

lowering, hoisting, and securing 
boats, and apparatus for detaching 
and attaching them. 

Class B. 

1. Ship's knee, bent by bending machine. 

2. Steam steering machine. 
**Sickles's Steam Steering Apparatus 

consists simply of two ordinary 
steam cylinders, operating a linked 
chain leading directly to the tiller. 
The valve motion is operated by a 
hand-wheel or cord to control the 
movement of the rudder. This cord 
or hand-wheel may be placed at 
any convenient part of the vessel." 
(Appendix No. 25.) 

3. Balsa with fitments complete. 

Class C— Relics, 

1. A fragment of the United States frigate 
Philadelphia^ Capt. Wm. Bain- 
bridge, U. S. N., wrecked on the 
rocks, four or five n.ile8 to the 
eastward of Tripoli, Africa, No- 
vember 1, 1803. 

At 7 p. m , February 16, 1854, Lieut. 
Stephen Decatur, jr., commanding 
the ketch Intrepid, of four guns, 
with sixty-two men and tbe follow- 
ing officers, viz: 

Lieut. Stephen Decatur, Jr., com- 
nuvuder. Lieutenants: James Law- 
rence, Joseph Bainbridge, Jona- 
than Thorn. Surgeon: Lewis Heer- 
man. Midshipmen : Ralph Izard, 
John Rowe, Charles Morris, jr., 
Alexander Laws, John Davis, 
Tbomas Macdouongh, Thomas O. 



1. A fragment of the United Slates frigate 
Ph iladelph ia — Con t i n iied. 
Anderson. Pilot: Salvador Cato- 
loni, entered the harbor of Trip- 
oli, and boarded and took posses- 
sion 01 the Philadelphia. At the 
time the Philadelphia was boarded, 
she bad all her guns monnted and 
charged, and was lying within 
half gunshot of the Bashaw's 
castle and of its principal battery. 
Two Tripolitan cruisers were lying 
within two cables' length, with 
starboard quarters, and several 
gun-boats within half gunshot, 
with starboard bow ; and all the 
batteries on shore were opened 
upon the assailants. About twenty 
men of the Philadelphia were kill- 
ed ; a large boat- full got off; many 
leaped into the water, and one 
man was made prisoner. After 
having gained possession of tbe 
frigate, Lieutenant Decatur set 
fire to the store-rooms, gun-room, 
cockpit, and berth-deck, and, with 
a firmness highly honorable to him, 
his officers, and men, they remained 
on board until the flames had issued 
from the ports of the gun-deck and 
the hatchways of the spar-deck; 
/ind they continued in the ketch 
alongside the frigate until the fire 
had communicated to the rigging 
and tops. Lieutenant Decatur 
did not lose a man, and had but one 
slightly wounded. (See The United 
States Naval Chronicle, by Charles 
W. Goldsborough, vol. i., pp. 250- 
256.) This fragment was recov- 
ered and brought to the United 
States by Capt. Earl English, U. S. 
N., commanding the U. S. frigate 
Congress. 

2. Piece of timber from the starboard 

bow of the U. S. ship Kearsarge. 

3. Piece of wood from the bow of Com- 

modore Perry's flagship Lawrence, 
showing where a 24-pound shot 
from the enemy's gnu lodged, Sep- 
tember 10, 1H13. 



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THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



43 



BUREAU. OF MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 

/ 
Surgeon-General Joseph Beale, Chief of Bureau, 

Section VI.— MEDICINE AND SURGERY. 



Class A.— Surgical Instruments. 

1. General operation case of surgical in- 

struments. 

2. Expeditionary case of surgical instru- 

ments. 

3. Pocket case of surgical instruments. 

4. Case of instruments for operations on 

the eye and ear. 

5. Instruments for operations on the gen- 

ito-urinary organs. 

6. Dental instruments, No. 1. 

7. Dental instruments, No. 2. 

8. Autopsy case. 

9. Set of surgical splints for the treat- 

ment of fractures. 

10. Additional surgical instruments be- 
^ longing to the outfit for 500 men. 

11. Additional general operation case. 

Class B.— Surgical Appliances. 

1. Outfit of medicines for 500 men, com- 

prising 147 articles. 

2. Cot for transporting wounded men on 

board ship. 

3. Stretcher for transporting wounded 

men. 

4. Amputation table having a folding 

leaf, which allows it to be converted 
into a writing table. 

Class C— Hospital Stores. 

1. Hospital stores for 500 men. 

2. Hospital furniture for a ship with 500 

men. 

3. Hospital bedding for a ship with 500 

men. 

4. Elevating bedstead with movable foot- 

board to adapt it for use as an ordi- 
nary fracture bedstead. 



5. Bedstead with woven-wire mattress. 

6. Close stool. 

7. Close stool. 

Class D.— Dispensary Furniture. 

1. Dispensary furniture for a ship of 500 
men. 

Class E.— Models. 

1. Model (^ size) of a hospital ship. 

2. Model (-^ size) of the forward section 

of the U. S. ship Hartford, showing 
sick bay. 

Class F.— Sanitary Machinery. 

1. Fan for ventilating the lower parts of 

the ship in hot weather. 

2. Aerator for distilled water. 

Class G.— Photographs of Hospitals. 

1. U.S. Naval Hospital at Chelsea, Mass. 

2. U. S. Naval Hospital at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

3. U.S. Naval Hospital at Philadelphia. 

4. U. S. Naval Asylum at Philadelphia. 

5. U. S. Naval Hospital at Annapolis, Md. 

6. U. S. Naval Hospital at Washington, 

D.C. 

7. U. S. Naval Hospital at Norfolk, Va. 

8. U. S. Naval Hospital at Mare Island, 

California. 

9. Natianal Home for Disabled Volunteer 

Soldiers and Sailors. 

Class H.— Stationery. 

1. Surgeon's outfit of stationery. 

2. Set of record and account- books for 

naval hospital. 
• 3. Blank form for record of physical ex- 
aminations of candidates for adniis- 
sion to the Naval Academy. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



BUREAU OF PBOriSIONS AND CLOTHING. 



Pay- Director James H. Watmough, U. S. N., Chief of Bureau pro tempore. 
Section vn.— PAY, PEOVISIONS, AND CLOTHING. 



Class A.— Specimens of the Navy Ra- 


7. 


Blue flannel overshirt. 


tion. 


.' 8. 


Blue flannel uudershirt. 


1. Bread. 


i ^• 


Blue flannel drawers. 


2. Beef. 


1 10. 


Boots. 


3. Pork. 


! 11- 


Calfskin shoes. 


4. Preserved meat. 


12. 


Kipskin shoes. 


5. Floor. 


13. 


Woolen socks. 


6. Rice. 


1 14. 


Cap. 


7. Evaporated apples. 


1 15. 


Black silk handkerchief. 


a Pickles. 


!l6. 


Working suit. 


9. Sugar. 


17. 


Blue cloth. 


10. Tea. 


18. 


Blue flannel. 


11. Coffee, in berry. 


19. 
^20. 


Blue thin flannel. 


12. Coffee, ground. 


Barnsley sheeting. 


13. Butter. 


21. 


Canvas duck. 


14. Evaporated potato. 


, 22. 


Mattress. 


15. Beans. 


23. 


Mattress cover. 


16. Molasses. 


24. 


Blankets. 


17. Vinegar. 


'25. 


Bale of satinet trousers, as packed for 


18. Tomatoes. 




sea. 


19. Pepper, in berry. 


26. 


Blue satinet. 


20. Pepper, ground. 






21. California mustard, seed. 




Class D.— Small Stores. 


22. California mustard, ground. 


1. 


Tobacco. 


23. Bread-bag. 


2. 


Soap. 


Class B.— Original Packages AS packed 


3. 


Beeswax. 


FOR Sea. 


4. 


Thread, white. 


1. Bread. 


5. 


Thread, black. 


2. Beef. 


6. 


Ribbon. 


3. Preserved beef. 


7. 


Tape. 


4. Evaporated apples. 


8. 


Spool cotton. 


5. Pickles. 


9. 


Sewing silk. 


6. Sugar. 


10. 


Pocket handkerchief. 


7. Coffee, ground. 


11. 


Needles. 


8. Evaporated potato. 


12. 


Thimbles. 


9. Beans. . 


13. 


Jackknife. 


10. Viuegar. 


14. 


Scissors. 


Class C. — Clothing. 


15. 


Razor. 




16. 


Razor strop. 


1. Pea jacket, 


17. 


Shaving box and soap. 


2. Moukey jacket. 


18. 


Shaving brush. 


3. Blue cloth trousers. 


19. 


Scrub brush. 


4. Satinet trousers. 


20. 


Blacking brush. 


5. Canvas duck trousers. 


21. 


Wisp brnsh. 


6. Bamsley sheeting frock. 


22. 


Eagle buttons, large. 



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THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 



45 



Section VII.-PAY, PROVISIONS AND CLOTHING— Continued. 



23. Eagle buttons, 


medium. 


1 


Class E.— Contingent. 


24. Eagle buttons, 


small. 


• 




25. Deadeye buttons. 


1. 


Set of paymaster's books and blanks 


26. Pearl buttons. 




1 


for a crew of 200 men for a three 


27. Fine comb. 




i 
1 


years* cruise. 


28. Coarse comb. 




' 2. 


Set of paymaster's stationery for a 


29. Mess kettle. 




' 


crew of 200 men for a three years' 


30. Mess pan. 






cruise. 


il. Tin pot. 




1 3. 


Set of steward's stores. 


32. Tin pan. 




1 ^• 


Iron safe. 


33. Spoon. 




' 5. 


Post-office scale. 


34. Fork. 




6. 


Copying press. 


35. Can opener. 




7. 


Door lock. 


36. Mustard. 




: 8. 


Padlock. 


37. Pepper. 




1 ^• 


Candles. 


38. Blacking. 




10. 


Drawer lock. 



BUREAU OF STEAM ENGINEERING, 



W. W. W. Wood, Chief of Engineers, Chief of Bureau, 



Section VIII.— STEAM MACHINERY. 



Class A.— Engines and Boilers. 

1. Back-acting compound screw engine, 

800 indicated horse-power. Diam- 
eter of high-pressure cylinder, 34 
inches; diameter of low-pressure 
cylinder, 51 inches; stroke of piston, 
42inche8. (For detail drawings see 
portfolio.) 

2. Back-acting condensing engine, 500 

indicated horse-power; diameter, 
36 inches; stroke of piston, 48 
inches. 

3. Compound marine boiler, 8 feet diam- 

eter. 

4. Compound marine boiler, 8 feet diam- 

eter. 

5. Cutter engine and vertical boiler (6 

by 6 inches). 

6. Cutter engine and vertical boiler (8 

by 8 inches). 

7. Steam cutter propellers. 

8. Copper exhaust pipe, marine engine. 

Class B.— Filtering Apparatus. 

1. Filtering apparatus for feed water. 

2. Distilling apparatus and aerator for 

making fresh water. 

3. Water-distilling apparatus (Baird). 



Class C— Indicators. 

1. Indicator instrument for determining 

the condition and efficiency of die 
engine. 

2. Sallnometer for determining the den- 

sity of the water in the boiler. 

Class D.— Tools, Lamps, etc. 

1. Tools. 

2. Portable forge. 

3. Box for transportation of forge. 

4. Open-end and box wrenches. 

5. Standard fire-hose, couplings, and 

pipe. 

6. Gum packing and valves. 

7. Bulkhead lamp, with reflector. 
6. Globe lanterns. 

9. Drip pans, oil feeders, squirt cans, 
hand lamps. 

Class E.— Drawings, etc. 

1. Drawing of engine and boiler. 

2. Drawing of torpedo vessel Spuyten 

Duy vel and machinery. 

3. Drawing of iron cutter and ma- 
. chinery. 

4. Book of photographs of shops and 

tools used for the fabrication of 
steam machinery at the navy- 
yard, Brooklyn, New York. 



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46 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 



Section VIII.— STEAM MACHINERY— Contiuued. 



5. Steam log-book, with synopsis of ' 

quarterly log and indicator cards. 

6. Drawings of compound boiler. 

7. Complete set of drawingh of com- 

pound engines. 

8. Drawings of engine and boiler for U. 

S. steam cutters ; diameter of cyl- , 
inder, H inches; stroke of ]>i8ton, | 
8 inches; grate surface, 5.33 square 
feet ; heating surface, 150 square 
feet ; weight, 2,r>()0 pounds. 

9. Drawings of compound screw engines, 

1,150 .indicated horse-power; di- 
ameter of cylinders, 42 inches and 
64 inches ; stroke of piston, 42 
inches; diameter of screw, 15A feet ; 
pitch, 21 feet; grate surface in 
boilers, 240 square feet ; heating 



9. Drawings of compound screw engines, 

&c. — ('oniinued. 
surface in boilers, 5,986 square 
feet ; cooling surface in condenser, 
3,500 square feet. 

10. Drawing of engine for U. S. steam 

cutters; diameter of cylinder, 8 
inches; stroke of piston, 8 inches; 
weight, 550 pounds. 

11. Drawing of engine for U. S. steam 

cuttei*s; diameter of cylinder, 8 
inches ; stroke of piston, 10 inches ; 
weight, 750 pounds. 

12. Drawing of boiler for U. S. steam 

cutters; grate surface, 4.5 square 
feet ; heating surface, 125 square 
feet : weight, 2,700 pounds. 



SiXTioN IX.— PORTRAITS OF DlSTIXfiriSHED DECEASED NAVAL OFFI- 

CERS. 



1. The first commander-in-chief of the 

Continental Navy, Commodore 
EsEK Hopkins. Commissioned by 
Congress in 1775 as commodore and 
couiniander-in-chief of the Navy. 
^ Died in 1;^02, aged eighty-four 
years. 

2. Commodore Abkaiiam Whipple. 

Born in Providence, R. I., in 
1733. During the French and En- 
glish war he commanded the priva- 
teer Gamecock, and took tweny- 
tliree French prizes in a single 
cruise. He tired the first author- 
ized gun which was discharged on 
the water in the Revolutionary 
coiit<'st. He commanded the Provi- 
dence from 1775 to 1779. Subse- 
quently he commanded a stjuad- 
ron. In attempting to save 
Charleston, S. C, from ca])ture, his 
squadron was lost, and his naval 
career was ended. Died near 
Marietta, Ohio, May 29, 1?*19, at 
age of eighty-tive years. 

3. Captain Nicholas Bipdle. Bom 

Sejiteiuber 10, 1750. A]>i>ointed by 
Coiigres«, December 22, 1775, a 
commanding otJicer in the Navy. 
June (>, 177<), api>ointed by Con- * 
gress to command the frigate Ran- 
dolph. 32 guns, built at Pbiladel- 



3. Captain Nicholas Biddle— Cont'd. 

phia. On March 7, 1778, while 
cruising, fell in with the line-of- 
batth'-ship Yarmouth, 64 guns. 
An action immediately commenced 
by a broadside from the Randolph, 
and was maintained for twenty 
minutes, when the Randol[>h blew 
up. The gallant Biddle, with 310 
men, i>erished in a blaze of glory. 
Four men only escaped, who were 
picked up four days afterwards by 
the Yarmouth, they having sup- 
ported themselves on a piece of 
wreck, and having had nothing to 
eat, and no water except a little 
rain-water sucked from a blanket. 

4. Rear-Admiral Chakles Stewart. 

Born, July 2H, 1778. 

Appointed in the Navy March 9, 

179H. 
Died, November 6, 1869. 

5. Rear-Admiral A. H. Foote. 

Born, September 12, 1806. 
Appointed in the Navy December 

4, 1H22. 
Died, June 26» 1863. 

6. Rear-Admiral S. F. Dupont. 

Born, September 27, 1803. 
Appointed in the Navy December 

19. 1H15. 
Died, June 23, 186.'.. 



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THE NA VY DEPARTMEXT. 



47 



Section IX.— PORTRAITS OF DISTINGUISHED DECEASED NAVAL OFFI- 
CERS— Continued. 



7. Admiral D. G. Farragut. 18. 

Born, July 5, 1801. 

Appointed iu the Navy December 

17, 1810. 
Died, August 14, 1870. 

8. Commodore John Paul Jones. i 19. 

Born, July 6, 1747. 
ApiK)inted in the Navy 1775. 
Died, July 18, 1792. 

9. Commodore Stephen Decatur. 20. 

Born, January, 1779. 

Appointed in the Navy April 30, 

1798. 
Died, March 22, 1820. 21.' 

10. Commodore Jacob Jones. 

Boru,1770. 

Appointed iu the Navy April 10, 

1799. * 22. 

Died, August 3, 1K)0. 

11. Commodore John Rodgers. 

Born, 1771. 

Appointed in the Navy March 9, 

179-*. 23. 

Died. August 1, 18;?8. 

12. Commodore O. H. Perry. 

Born, August, 1785. 

Appointed iu the Navy, April 7, 24. 

1799. 
Died, AuguHt 23, 1820. 

13. Commodore M. C. Perry. 

Boru, 1795. 

Appointed in the Navy, January 25. 

1(), 1809. 
Died, March 4, IH58. 

14. Commo<lore Edward Preble. 

Boru, August 15, 1761. 

Appointed in the Navy, April 9, 26. 

1798. 
Died, August 25, 1807. 

15. Commodore Thomas McDonough. 

Born, Deceuiber, 1783. 27. 

Appointed iu the Navy, February 

5, 1800. 
Died, November 10, 1825. 
1(). Commodore James Biddle. 

Appointed iu the Navy, February 28. 

12, 1800. 
Died, October 1, 1848. 
17. Commodore David Porter. 

Bom, February, 1780. 29. 

Appointed in the Navy, April 16 

1798. 
Resigned, Augnat 18, 1826. 
Died, March 28, 1843. 



Commodore Isaac Chauncky. 
Born, February 20, 1772. 
Appointed in the Navy, Septem- 
ber 17, 1798. 
Died, January 27, 1840. 
Commodore John T. Newton. 

Appointed in the Navy, January 

16, 1809. 
Died, July 28, 1857. 
Rear-Admiral George C. Read. 
Appointed in the Navy. April 2, 

1804. 
Died, August 22, 1862. 
Commodore John B. Nicholson. 
Appointed in the Navy, July 4, 

1805. 
Died, November 9, 1846. 
Commodore Lewis Warrington. 
Born, November 3, 1782. 
Api)ointed in the Navy, January 

6, 1800. 
Died, October 12, 1851. 
Conmiodore John Shaw. 

Appointed in the Navy, August 3, 

1798. 
Died, September 17, 1823. 
Rear- Admiral John A. Winslow.^ 
Boru, November 19, 1811. 
Apjiointed in the Navy, February 

1,1827. 
Died. September 29, 1873 
Capt. Percival Drayton. 
Born, August 25, 1812. 
Api>ointed iu the Navy, December 

1, 1827. 
Died, August 4, 1865. 
Commodore Richard Dale. 
Boru, November 6, 1756. 
Appoiiitediu I he Navy June 4, 1794. 
Resigned, December 17, 1802. 
Rear- Admiral William B. Shubrick. 
Born, October 31, 1790. 
Appointed iu the Navy, June 20, 

18('6. 
Died, May 27, 1874. 
Capt. L. Kearney. 

Appointed in the Navy, July 24, 

1807. 
Died, November 29, 1868. 
Rear-Admiral H. H. Bell. 
Born, April 12, 1805. 
Appointed in the Navy, August 4, 

1823. 
Died, Jauuary 11,1868. 



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48 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Section IX.— PORTRAITS OF DISTINGUISHED DECEASED NAVAL OFFI- 
CERS— Continued. 



30. Purser John N. Hamblkton. 

Born, February 22, 1798. 
Appointed iu the Navy: chaplain, 

October 26, 1819; purser, May 

26, 1824. 
Died, December 5, 1870. 

31. Purser Samuel Hamblkton. 

Appointed in the Navy, December 

6, 1806* 
Died, January 18, 1851. 

32. Capt. James Lawrence. 

Born, October I, 1781. 
Appointed in the Navy, September 

4, 1798. 
Died, June 5, 1813. 

33. Commodore John Downes. 

Born. 1786. 

Appointed in the Navy, June 1, 

1802. 
Died, August 11, 1854. 

34. Commodore W. C. Bolton. 

Appointed in the Navy, June 20, 

1806. 
Died, February 22, 1849. 

35. Commodore M. T. Woolsey. 

Bom, 1782. 

Appointed in the Navy, April 9, 

1800. 
Died. May 18, 1838. 



36; Commodore William Bainbridoe. 
Bom, May 7, 1774. 
Appointed in the Navy, May 20, 

1800. 
Died, July 27, 1833. 
37. Commodore Isaac Hull. 

Bom. March 9, 1775. 
^ Appointed in the Navy. March 9, 

1798. 
j Died, Febmary 13, 1843. 

' 38. Commodore Robert F. Stockton. 
I Born, 1796. 

I Appointed in the Navy, September 

\ 1, 1811. 

Resigned, May 28, 1850. 

39. Commodore Daniel Turner. 

Appointed in the Navy, January 

1, 1808. 
Died, February 4, 1850. 

40. Commodore D. T. Patterson. 

Appointed in the Navy, August 20, 

1800. 
Died, August 25, 1839. 

41. Commodore Foxhall A. Parker. 

Appointed in the Navy, January 

1, 1808. 
Died, November 23, 1857. 

42. Jack Libby. 

Quartermaster U. S. Navy, 1830-^35. 

43. Frederick Boybr. 

Quartermaster U. S. Navy,1830-^. 



Section X.— NAVAL ACADEMY. 



Class A.— Plans, Designs, etc. 



1. Plan of the buildings and grounds of 

the U. S. Naval Academy. 

2. View of the U. S. Naval Academy 

grounds. 

3. Designing of machinery by cadet en- 

gineers, U. S. Naval Academy. 

4. Exercises in machine drawing by cadet 

engineers, U. S. Naval Academy. 



5. Rudimentary instruction of the cadet 

engineers, U. S. Naval Academy. 

6. Specimens of drawings from Depart- 

ment of Drawing, U. S. Naval Acad- 
emy. 

7. Photographs of the U. S. Naval Acad- 

emy. 



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APPENDIX. 



1. Specimens of small-arms ammunition. 

The caliber 0.50 of these specimens of small-arms ammuuitiou is the standard serv- 
ice cartridge of the Uoited States Navy, manufactured at the "United States Cart- 
ridge Company^s" factory at Lowell, Mass. This cartridge is of the type known as 
Molid-head, reloading and outside primed cartridge. It is made from an alloy of 
copper and zinc. The mixture is intended to give the greatest tenacity with the 
necessary ductility for the manufacture. The metal is flr«*t rolled into sheets ySS^ of 
an inch in thickness ; from these sheets a disk is punched which takes a cup form by 
Ix-ing forced through a proper--8haped die; from this cup the shell is drawn to its 
proper length, having a surplus of metal at its closed end. The next process is to 
form the head, which is done by flowing the metal into the proper form, leaving it 
ready to receive its primer, powder-charge, and bullet. 

The primer consists of two cups, one within another, with a fulminating compound 
between them ; the inner cup has two perforations. This primer is inserted within 
the pocket made for it in the head of the shell, and is exploded by a blow, and the 
lire communicated to the powder through the perforations. The metal shell weighs 
165 grains, the powder charge 70 grains, and the bullet 450 grains. The lubricator is 
barberry wax placed in the grooves of the bullet, and the powder is that manufact- 
ured by the Oriental Powder Company under the direction of the United States Navy 
Department. 

The special features of this cartridge are— 

1. It is impossible to burst the head by any charge of powder ; and, 

2. Its great safety in transportation. 

2. Chronomettrs at the United States Naval Observatory. 

The Naval Observatory at Washington is the depot for all chronometers belong- 
ing to the United States Navy. They are issued from this instiiution to all ships 
of the Navy that go into commission, and they are received there from vessels after 
the completion of a cruise. The chronometers on hand are kept together in one room 
in the east wing of the building, which room contains also the standard mean-time 
clock of the Observatory. The chronometers are arranged in wooden cases, which fill 
the center and the sides of the chronometer room. These cases are capable of contain- 
ing two hundred and two chronometers when all filled. The temperature? of the apart- 
ment is always about that of the outside air. No artificial means are employed to keep 
the room at an even temperature, but the variation of temperature is observed each 
twenty four hours by means of a sell-registering maximum and minimum thermometer. 

Chronometers are purchased for the Navy, when required, by the Bureau of Naviga- 
tion, the preference being given to those of American manufacture. Before the final 
purchase of an instrument, it is subjected to a trial of six months at the Observatory. 

All chronometers on hand are wound and compared with the standard mean-time 
clock, daily, at noon. The error and rate of the clock are determined by observations 
with the transit circle at intervals of five or six days, or oftener if the weather per- 
mits. 

On every tenth day the actual error of each chronometer on Greenwich mean time 
is romputed, together with its rate during the ten days preceding, and these results, 

4 CBN, PT 2. 49 



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50 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, I876. 

with the mean maximuiD, mean niintmum, aud averajj^e temperature diiriug the ten 
days are entered in the rate-hook, in which oi^e page is assigqed to each chronometer 
on hand. Thns, a glance at the columns of the rate-hook will show the actual per- 
foruianctj of any instrument during the time it has been at the Obnervatory. 

The firm of Messrs. T. S. & J. D. Negus, of New York, are regularly employed by 
the Bureau of Navigation for the cleaning and repair of chronometers. All instru- 
ments which, in the judgment of the Superintendent, may need cleaning or repairs 
are sent to them, and the prices of their work are fixed l»y contract. No chronometer 
is aUowe<l to run more than four years without cleaning; and after an instrument has 
bet- n cleaned or repaired it is subjected to the same trial as those offered for purchase. 
If it is rej^'cted on trial, it is sent to Messrs. Negus for readjustment. Thirty years is 
coiiHlderr d the lifetime of a chronometer. Those that are worn out in the service, or are 
found to be otherwise unfit for issue, are condemned by an order from the Bureau 01 
Navigation, on a representation of the fact« of the case from the Superintendent. 
These oondemned instruments are carefully packed and stored at the Observatory. 
They are sometimes issued, by order of the Bureau, to shore stations or recei viiig-ships 
as local timekeepers, but never, under any circumstances, to sea-going ships. 

Chronometers on hand for issue, that is, those which have passed trial subsequent 
to purchase or repairs, are compared with the standard clock, as above noticed, and 
thi* record of their errors and rates kept in the rate-book. 

Chronometers on trial are also compared every day with the standard clock. At 
the end of six months the trial number of each instrument is computed by the follow- 
ing rule: 

Find the mean daily rate and extreme daily variation for each month in the period of trial; 
add twice the difference between the greatest and the least of the monthly rates to the mean of 
the monthly variations. 

If the trial number exceed eight seconds, the chronometer is rejected. 

When a chronometer is received at the Observatory, it is placed under comparison 
from the day of its receipt, and its record in the rate-book opens on the first rate-day 
after its receipt. 

Chronometers issued to vessels are accompanied by a paper showing their errors 
aud rates at the time of leaving the Observatory^ and the mean rate for every 10° of 
tenii>yratare from 40° to &P Fahrenheit. These instruments are always sent to a 
distant station in charge of an officer or other competent |>er8on. If the Journey is to 
be made by rail, the instruments are packed in a basket with cotton. 

In addition to the rate-book already mentioned, a histocy-book is also kept, in 
which each chronometer occupies a page, and in which are entered its date of pur- 
chase, price, and trial number, with a description of the instrument, and its Hubse- 
qneiit history. For convenience of reference, the history-books and rate-books are 
ind4*xed in a separate volume. 

There are at present on the records of the office 812 chronometers. Of these, 12 are 
poi'ket-chronometerM, 9 are adjusted to sidereal time, and 106 have been condemned 
an<l stored at the Observatory. Of this number some have been also lost at sea. 

There are 60 mean-time chronometers, 4 sidereal chronometers, and 3 pocket chro- 
nometers on hand at the Observatory, ready for issue. Of the remainder, some are in 
actual use on board bhip and at naval stations ; some are retained at Mare Island, 
California, for the supply of ships of the Pacific fleet, and some are in the hands of 
Messi's. Negus, under repairs. 

The greatest number ever held ready for issue at the Observatory duriug the last 
five years is 125. 

The least number on hand at one time during the same period is 31. 

The average number on hand per month during the same period is 83. 

The telegraphic apparatus for transmitting the exact instant of noon to the West- 
Am Union Telegraph office, and for dropping the time- ball on the dome of the Ob- 
Bervatory, is in the chronometer-room, and is used in connection with the standard 
mean-time clock. 



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THE XAVY DEPARTMEXT. 



51 



3. Soxy C9mptu9e9, 

Three apeciineiiB, comprisiog N08. 8826, 88-27, and 88*-fe? of the makero, are exhibited. 
Thetje are used as standard and steering compasses in the United States Navy, to ihe 
exchision of all others. The bowl-eircle^^ of these compasses are fitted to a uniform 
gange. The two card-magnets are compound, being built up of thin laminie, hard- 
ened and tempered throughout their length and magnetized to their utmost. The 
magnet piles are set edgewise to the plane of the card. The card-cirele (or gradu- 
ated annnlos) is adjusted into position, before fixing upon the cani, to coincidence be- 
tween its line of zeros and the magnetic axis of the card. 

The two caid-magnets weigh 1760 grains = 114 grams ; and the whole weight of the 
card is 37^ grains = '240 grams. 

The pressure on the p^rot in the liquid medium is 60 grains at 60^ Fahrenheit, or 
about 4 grams at l&i^ Centigrade. 

4. Hau4fim^ or embim coMpa98e$. 

Two specimens, inclnding Nos. 8961 and 8982, are exhibited. The exterior of these 
compasses is nickelized for conyenience in keeping, it having been determined that 
no appreciable deviation arises from either fixed or changeable magnetism in this 
coating. The card of this compass is adjusted to a minimum upward pressure against 
the pivot ; that is to say, to about 60 grains at a temperature of 60^ Fahrenheit. 

5. Jzimutk drde. 

Two specimens, comprising Nos. 39 and 40, are exhibited. These circles are inter- 
changeable npon every navy compass. 

6. Turret or wumitar compass. 

This compass, inside of its outer case, consists of a vertical spindle, with upper and 
lower bearings, carrying a magnet-float above and a reading-card Ih-Iow, the whole 
being bO far buoyant as to have sensibly the same specific gravity as that of the liquid 
medium ; while an interior gimbal-action, at the magnet-float, provides for all nec- 
essary inclinations of the latter in consequence of any rolling or pitching motions of 
the ship. 

This compass is placed in the common vertical axis of the gun-turret and pilot- 
house above ; and it is so fixed in the roof of the latter as to bring the reading-card 
ju^t Ix-low or inside, and the magnet float about 7 feet above or outside of that roof. 

7. Old iompa$9€$ of the U. S, Aiory. 

A d<»zen specimens of these compasses have l>een selected from those in store at the 
Boston and New York navy-yards, comprising such as were in use from 182U to 1870; 
and they are exhibited to illustrate the grave defects of the oldest, as well as to show 
the )>rogree8 made towards the better ones last in use. 

8. Compass-UBting inelrumeHi. 

This instrument was designed by the Superintendent of Compasses as a portable sub- 
Btif nte for the fixed compass observatory near Boston ; it being sometimes desirable 
to have the means of examining the compasses which have been turned into store 
from ships going out of commission at a navy-yard, before they are otherwise handled 
in returning them for repairs or refitting at Boston. 

9. Magnetic volUmaior, 

This instrument was devised by Mr. £. 6. Ritchie, of Boston. It is intended to serve 
as a substitute for the collimator of the ordinary form ; that is, with a suspended mag- 
net Experience has demonstrated its sufficient sensibility, as well as its practical 
convenience in use. Its magnetic axis is defined by comparisons with a suspended 
collimator. > 

10. Adjustable binnacle for correcting the deviation of the compass. 

This apparatus was designed by the Superintendent of Compasses to serve more es- 
pecially as a steering binnacle for the new iron ships Alert, Huron, and Ranger, 



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52 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

of the U. S. Kavy ; but it is intended to serve equally well on board any ship whose 
magnetic forces, acting at a particular compass position, are of suCacient magnitude to 
make it expedient to effect their neutralization. The apparatus has polar, quadrantal, 
and vertical correctors. Each corrector is definitely adjustable to the required distance 
and direction with respect to the center of the compass card, aiid admits of being 
definitely registered in accordance with a prescribed form; while it also admits of 
being retouched, and again recorded, in the same definite manner, as found expedient 
from observations subsequent to those made at the port of outfit upon which the first 
adjustment was based. 

11. Gravitation compasHf designed by ths Earl of Caithness. 

This compass has the distinctive peculiarity of a heavy pendulum, which isattache<l 
to the bottom of the compass-bowl, and is claimed by its inwntor to improve the sta- 
bility of the bowl, this being hung in gimbals in the ordinary manner. The compass 
is suspende:! in a closed binnacle, which is provided with movable magnet-holders for 
the correction of the compass deviation. 

1*2. Deep-sea sounding machine, 

(Designed by Sir William Thomson, and modified by Captain G. E. Belknap, U. 
8. N.) This machine consists of the drum for the wire, with its supports, counter, 
and crank ; the dynamometer or spring-balance wheel, with its support- and dyna- 
mometer ; and the endless rope with its pulley-wheel, pendant, weight-attachments, 
and stanchion. 

The wire is reeled on the large groove of the drum, the difierent lengths be- 
tween the splices having been previously measured ; and in reeling it on the drum 
the number of revolutions between the splices must be noted. One bight of the 
endless rope is placed over the V'groove of the drum, and the part leading irom 
the bottom of the drum is taken up over the dynamometer-wheel and once around 
it, and the other bigat of the rope is kept taut by being placed over thp pulley- 
wheel, to which a pendant is attached, which is rove through a block secured to a 
stanchion ; to the end of the pendant weights are attached which keep the pendant 
and endless rope taut, by means of which the revolutions of the drum may be regu- 
lated as desired. The dynamometer- wheel and dynamometer are connected by a conl 
or check-line which is secured to a hole in the rim of the dynamomet-er- wheel, and the 
other end is attached to the eye in the end of the spring balance. 

The specimen- apparatus is attached to the wire; it consists of Belknap's cylinders 
with the Brooke's detaching arm. The sinkers are i>ored shot, and are fitted with two 
lugs, to which lanyards are attached, which go over the detaching arm. 

The counter registers the number of revolutions of the drunij ftom which the depth 
is computed. 

On reachinjr bottom the sinker will detach, and the upper cylinder will fall over tht* 
lowtT one, which has already taken up the bottom specimen. 

The moment of the cylinder's touching bottom will be shown by the stopping of the 
revoljif ions of the drum and by the action of the spring-balance. 

The greatest depth reached by means of this machine was 4,G55 fathoms, 27,930 feet. 

13. Sir JVilliam Thomson^s detaching apparatus for deep-sea soundings hg piano-forte wire. 
The tube to bring up specimens of bottom has attached to it a bolt, which is held in 
position by a light spring. With the bolt in this position when the bottom is reached 
the tube is pressed by the weight of the sinker until it penetrates so deep that the 
sinker rests on the bottom, or till the whole weight is boma on the tube, as is the 
case when the bottom is stiflf clay. Independently of this action, the detaching ap- 
paratus acts when the weight is nearly all borne on the bottom ; a spring double-claw 
opens, and leaves the sinker free, except so far as the tube and bolt influence it. 
Then, when hauling up commences, a slight cord attached to the bolt rjjleases it and 
brings up the tube, leaving the sinker on the bottom. 



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THE XA VY DEPARTMENT. 53 

Pr«'fe8£or Fleeniing Jenkiu's dyuamonietric brake, as applied to deep-sea 80uudiiig» 
is shown in connection with the preceding. 

Whatever weight is borne on the free end of the brake-cord, the whole tangential 
resistance applied to the running wheel is equal to this weight within a very small 
l>ercentage of its amount. 

In the two parts of the brake-cord where it leaves tangentially the running wheel, 
let T and T' be the tensions so that T— T' is the whole tangential resistance actually 
applied to the wheel. Let r and r' be the radii of the greater and smaller brake- 
drums, and let W l»e the weight borne on the free part of the brake-cord hanging down 
tangentially from the larger brake-drum. For the equilibrium of the double brake- 
drum we have : 

Wr=Tr— TV; hence, 

»T« T'^W T' ^ ^ 

r 

14. Belknap^ 8 specimen cylinder No. 1. 

Is designed for bringing up bottom water as well as ooze or mud. 

15. Belknap^B specimen cylinder Ko. 2. 

Is designed for bard sandy bottom, but will also work well where soft bottom is 
found. 

16. Belknap^e aptcimen cylinder Ao. 3. 

Is designed for use where ooze, mud, or clay may be found. 

17. Belhnap^s spedtnen cylinder Xo. 4. 

Is designed for use in sandy or gravelly bottom. 
1^. Collinses detiicking and specimen apparatus. 

The object of this apparatus is to make use of the ordinary shot as sinkers, without 
]>erforation or othtsr preparation. 

In preparing this apparatus for use, withdraw the specimen cup and attachments 
from the cylinder as far as posf'ible and insert a wooden chock to prevent re-entering; 
place the sinker on the top of the cylinder and the crown on the top of the sinker. 
Then compress the spring and place the rings of the straps over two opposite lugs of 
the detaching ring. Then release the spring, withdraw the chock, and the appara- 
tus is ready for letting go. 

On reaching bottom, the resistance causes the specimen box to slide up, carrying 
the detaching ring with the cylinder, thus releasing the straps and permitting the 
sinker to fall off. The specimen of the bottom enters through the aperture closed by 
the conical valve (as in the Belknap cylinder No. 2), as well as over the top of the box 
in case of soft bottom. 

19. Bunting testing apparatus. (Designed by Commander R. W. Meade, U. S. Navy.) 

Directions for use. — The test pieces of bunting being properly cut, are placed in the 
clamps in the following manner: One-half of each clamp is placed in position by us- 
ing the distance-board, the bunting is then laid so that the outer threads are the 
same distance from the screw holes. The upper parts of the clamps are then put on 
and the screws sent evenly home. The distance-board receives the large clamp at its 
open end, hook part of the clamp down and out. 

To connect the lever with the clamps, enter the small clamp in the grooves pre- 
pared for it, and raise the long arm of the lever until the upper clamp can be hooked 
on to the short arm; let down the lever carefully to adjust the small clamp so thur 
the bunting may have a direct strain. 

Turn carefully the crank, and note from the forward side of the slide which carries 
the weight the marks at which the bunting breaks. 

The figures represent pounds. Avoid hastening the speed of the weight when near- 
ing the breaking point. 



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54 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

20. yavkf bunting. 

Exhibited is a piece each of red, whit«, and blae bunting, 18 inches in width mann- 
'Uctnred expressly for use in the U. S. Navy, by the U. 8. Bunting Company, in Lo- 
well, Mass. 

21. Flag of Fort McHenry, Baltimore, Md.^in 1814. 

This flag, seen by Francis Scott Key, of Baltimore, Md, flying from the flag-stafl' 
at Fort McHenry, in the eurly morning after the boinbar<lm«nt in 1814, inspired 
him to write the beautiful patriotie song *' Star-spaiigUd Bannisr,^^ 

THE STAR-SPANGLED BANNER. 

By Francis Scott Key. 
Of Baltimobb. Mo.. 1814.* 

Oh ! say, can you see, by the dawn's early light. 

What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming, 
Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the clouds of the flght, 
O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming T 
And the rockets' red glare, the bombs bursting in air. 
Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there : 
Oh ! say, does that Star-spangled Banner yet wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave T 

On the shore dimly seen through the mists of the deep. 
Where the foe's haughty boat in dread silence reposes, 
What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep. 
As it fitfnlly blows, half conceals, half discloses? 
Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, 
In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream. 
'Tis the Star-spangled Banner! Oh ! long may it wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

And where is the foe that so sweepingly swore 

That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion 
A home and a country should leave us no more f 
This blood has washed out his foul footstep's pollution. 
No refuge could save the hireling and slave 
From the terrors of flight or the gloom of the grave ; 
And the Star-spangled Banner in triumph doth wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

Oh ! thus be it ever wlieu foeman shall stand 

Between their loved liomes and war's desolation ! 
Blest with victory and peace, may the Heav'n-rescued land 
Praise the Power that hath made and preserved us a nation. 
Then ccmquer we must, when our cause it is just. 
And this be our motto, ** In God is our trust." 

And the Star-spangled Banner in triumph shall wave 
O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. 

22. Apparatus for determining personal equations in €istron4nnical observations. 

To determine the absolute, as well as the relalive, personal equation of observers with 
the transit instrument. Thin apparatus requires simply a chronograph, with a single 
pen to record irs own indications and the work of the observwr; and it may then 



'^This 18 the version furnished by the author in 1842. 



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THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 5 5 

be employed to determine the personal equation of an observer using the eye and tar 
method, as well as the chranographic. 

A similar apparatus has been in use at the United States Naval Observatory since 
AprU, 1875. 
■23. United Slaies Tran$ii of Venus Expeditions. 

For the observation of the transit of Venus in December, 1874, the "United States 
Transit of Venus Commission " caused eight sets of instruments to be made, in all re- 
.spects identical with each other, which were used respectively at Wla<livostock, 
Siberia; Peking, China; Nagasaki, Japan; Kerguelen Island; Hobart Town and 
Campbell Town, Tasmania; Qneenstown, New Zealand; and Chatham Island. 

The set exhibited is the one which was used at Queenstown. The instruments are 
mounted in three portable observatories, so constructed as to be easily taken down 
and erected again ; and everything is arranged precisely as it was when in actual use* 

The transit house is *J.ii meters long by 3.05 meters wide, and contains the following 
instruments, namely: 

A meridian instrument arranged for the determination of time and latitude. Its tel- 
escope is of the diagonal form (that is, the eye-piece is at one end of the axis), has a 
focal distance of 7b2 millimeters, a clear aperture of 63.5 millimeters, and is provided 
with magnifying powers of 30, 60, and 90 diameters. The Ys are segments of cylin- 
ders, ground to tit the pivots accurately, and incapable of any adjustment. The ad- 
justment for level is effected by means of the foot-screws of the snbstand, which are 
provided with heavy jam-nuts to fix them securely when they are properly set. To 
permit the use of the instrument in the vertical.of the Pole-star, the azimuth adjust- 
ment has a range of more than five degrees. It is effected by means of abutting 
screws which move the stand upon the substand. The instrument is provided with 
suitable reversing apparatus, and with striding and hanging levels, the latter of 
which may remain upon the pivots at all times. A fine level, capable of rotating in 
the vertical plane, is attached to the tube of the telescope, and this, when used in 
connection with the zenith-distance micrometer of the eye-pi«*ce, convert-s the instru- 
m nt into a zenith-telescope capable of determining the latitude with great acciv 
racy. 

A chronograph for rt-cording electrically the times of transits of stars observed with 
the meridian instrument, and the exact instant at which plates are exposed in the 
photographic telescope. This apparatus consists of a cylinder moved by clock-work, 
turning once in a minute, and covered with paper upon which the record is made by 
a pen actuated by an electro-magnet. The cylinder is large enough to contain two 
hours' work, each s<.cond being represented by a space H^ millimeters long. 

A dip circle provided with needles 127 millimeters long, for determining both the 
magnetic iuclination, and, by Lloyd's method, the relative magnetic intensity. 

A portable declinometer for determining the declination and absolute intensity of the 
earth's magnetism. 

A uuirersal instrument^ having horizontal and vertical circles 76 millimeters in diam- 
eter, used with the portable declinometer, and also in setting up the observatory 
buildings. 

A Y level f whose bubble will indicate half a second of arc, used for determining the 
constants of the photographic telescope. 

A. stt 0/ apparatus for the telegraphic determination of differences of longitudCf consist- 
ing of a receiving magnet, sounder, transmitting key, and the necessary switches, the 
whole permanently arranged upon a suitable base. It is used in connection with the 
chronograph, which is specially fitted for longitude work. 

The astronomical clock and break circuit chronometers^ used with the meridian instru- 
ment, have, for convenience, been mounted inside the Government building. 

The photographic house, 3.66 meters long by 3.05 meters wide, stands due south of th*) 
transit house, and is fitted with the baths, chemicals, water-tank, sinks, <&c., used in 
photography. From the northern side of this house projects the 



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56 IXTERXA7I0XAL EXHIBITIOX, 1876. 

Pkotographic telescope employed iu taking pictares of the sun. This instranient has 
an objective of 12.0 meters focns and 127 millimeters clear aperture, corrected for the 
ebemical rays. An iron pier, standing between the transit and photographic houses, 
carries this objective, together with the heliostat which reflects the sun's rays into it. 
The sensitive plate, npon which the sun*8 image is formed, is mounted upon a second 
iron pier inside the photographic house. The $1idefor exposing the plate in connected 
telegraphically to the chrouog^ph in the transit house. A standftrd iron rod, suitably 
mounted, ser\'es for measuring accurately the distance between the objective and the 
sensitive plate. 

The equatorial house is 3.05 meters iu diameter, octagonal in form, and surmounted 
by a revolving roof. In it is placed — 

An achromatic refracting telescope of 1.778 meters focus and 127 millimeters clear aper- 
ture. It is mounted uxK>n a portable equatorial stand, adjustable to any latitude 
whatever, from the north pole to the south pole, and provided with clock-work and 
divided circles. It has also a large finder, the usual battery of eye-pieces, and a 
double-image position micrometer. 

24. W, M, Wood^s apparatus for attaching^ detailing j lowering, hoisting, and securing shipHf 

boats. 
The boat being secured for sea, and it becoming necessary in case of emergency, as 
a " man overboard," or other causes, to place the boat quickly in the water, and clear 
the ship, it is only necessary to turn back the large screw which holds the cradle un- 
der the bottom of the boat, and thus allow it to drop clear ; then the pendants from 
the inner arms of the davits are slacked, and the boat allowed to swing out, until it 
hangs directly from the outer arms of the davits. (It is understood that the boat has 
been manned by the crew.) When in this position, the boat's descent is controlled 
completely by one man, who is stationed at the compressing lever of the friction baud. 
He tirst heaves this taut, and, placing his foot on the tail of the ratchet pawl, lifts it 
clear, when, by slackening slightly his friction baud, he can lower as rapidly as he 
pleases, or check it up in an instant. As soon as the boat is manned, the stroke oars- 
ihan casts off the trigger line, which is kept hitched forward as a safety lashing, and 
hands it to the coxswain ; when the latter deems the boat low enough, he frees the 
ends of the connecting rope or chain from each other by a quick jerk on the trigger 
line. This allows the links in the ends of the boat to rise, and the ball toggles arc 
release<l, and both ends of the boat are simultaneously detached. Immediately after 
detaching, the stroke oarsman should bring the ends of the rope together again, and 
set up the ship hook, which renders the boat ready for hooking on again when she re- 
turns. To hook on, it is only necessary to push the ball toggles into the links and i)op 
in the counter-balanced tumblers, whose office is to prevent unhooking, when once 
hooked, by the motion of the boat. To hoist the boat, the men run away with the 
fiingle rope on the large dnim which winds up the wire-fall of the boat. When the 
boat is up, this drum is detached from its axle by withdrawing the linchpin, and the 
rope recoiled on it for future use and to get it off the deck. The pendants are then 
rove off, and the main fall slacked, which allows the boat to swin^ between the davits ; 
the cradle is then Hfled under it and secured. As a further securing, a line is taken 
over the in-boanl gunwale under a thwart, and back to the rail which steadies the 
I oat in-board. 

25. T'Stsofiron, 

Extracts from '* Organization of the United States Board appointed to test iron, 

steel," «&c. 

[This Board is appointed by the President of the United States, and instructed to 
determine by actual tests the strength and value of all kinds of iron, steel, and other 
metals which may be submitted to it, or by it procured, and to prepare tables which 
will exhibit the strength and value of said materials for constructive purposes.] 



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THE NA rv DEPAK TMENT, 5 7 

COMMITTEES. 

(Z).) On CliaiiiH and Uire Bopes : Commauder L. A. Beartlslee, U. S. N., chairman; 
Lieut. Col.Q. A. Gilmore,U. S. A.; Chit-f Engineer D. Smith, U. S. N. 

/ii«/ni c/wms.— To determine the character of iron best adapted for chain cables, the 
best form and prox>ortions of link, and the qualities of metal used in the manufact- 
ure of iron and steel wire rope. 

{£,) On Con-osion of Mtiah : W. S. Smith, C. E., chairman; Lieut. Col. Q. A. Gil- 
more, U. S. A. ; Commander L. A. Beardslee, U. S. N. 

Instructions. — To investigate the subject of the corrosion of metals under the condi- 
tions of actual use. 

(F.) On the Effects of Temperature : R. H. Thurston, C. E., chairman; Lieut. Col. Q. 
A. Gilmore, U. S. A. ; Commander L. A. Beardslee, U. S. N. 

Instructions, — To investigate the effects of variations of temperature upon the 
strength and other qualities of iron, steel, and other metals. 

(H.) On Iron, malleable: Commander L. A. Beardslee, U. S. N., chairman; W. S. 
Smith, C. E. ; A. L. Holly, C. E. 

Instructions, — To examine andreport upon the mechanical and physical proportions 
of wrought iron. 

(«7.) On Metallic Alloys : R. H. Thurston, C. E., chairman ; Commander L. A Beards- 
lee, U. S. N.; Chief Engineer D. Smith, U. S. N. 

Instructions, — To assume charge of a series of experiments on the characteristics of 
alloys, and an investigation of the laws of combination. 

(K.) On Orthogonal Simultaneous Strains: W, S. Smith, C. E., chairman; Commander 
L. A. Beardslee, U. 8. N. ; R. H. Thurston, C. E. 

Instructions.— To plan and conduct a series of experiments on simultaneous orthog- 
onal strains, with a view to the determination of laws. 

(M,) On Reheating and Rerolling : Commander L. A. Beardslee, U.S. N., chairman; 
Chief Engineer D. Smith, U. S.N.; W. S. Smith, C. E. 

Instructions. — To observe and experiment upon the effects of reheating, rerolling, or 
otherwise reworking; of hammering, as compared with rolling, and of annealing the 
metals. 

(0.) On Steel for Tools: Chief Engineer D. Smith, U. S. N., chairman; Commander L 
A. Beardslee, U. S. N., ; W. S. Smith, C. E. 

Instructions. — To determine the constitution and characteristics and the special 
adaptations of steels used for tools. 

[Extracts from American Society of Civil Eugineers, 4 East Twenty-third street, New York.] 
TESTS OF AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL. 

The committee on chains and wire rope is endeavoring to determine the character • 
of metal best adapted to making chain and rope, and the proper form and proportions 
of link, and is working up the data which have long been collecting at the Navy De- 
partment. The later experiments of Commander Beardslee are extensive in ran^e, 
and that officer is collating and arranging the records for the use of the Bonrd. 
Further experiment will fill up any hiatus that may be detected. The navy-yard at 
Washington, where this work is going on, aifords peculiar facilities not only for test- 
ing but for making chain-cable of any desired size, form of link, or quality of metal. 

Work already done there by the chairman of this committee has revealed serious 
defects in accepted tables of sizes and strength, and has indicated the rate of variation 
of strength with variation of size of bar, and permitted the formation of a new and 
trustworthy table. 

The committee on malleable iron has collated a large mass of valuable infonnation 
and the records of a great number of experiments, and, among other important mat- 
ter, has obtained an extensive collection of experimental determinations of the effect 
of time upon the elevation of the elastic limit by strain, during periods varying from 
a few seconds up to a year. The variation of quality due to differences of size ai d 



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^8 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



form of section of the bar, and the modification of strength, ductility, and resilience, 
are under investigation. The chairman of this committee is also determining the in- 
fluence of proportions of test-pieces upon their ultimate resistances. 

The committee on reheating and rerolling is to test iron, <&c., in the several stages 
of manufacture, refined and unrefined, and to observe the efiects of successive reheats, 
of rewor*king and rolling, to determine, if possible, what amount of working is de- 
manded by different irons, and what are the temperatures which will practically give 
the best results. 

The committee on steel for tools is making an extended series of experiments at the 
Washington navy-yarvl to determine the value of various steels for tools. A large col- 
lection of steels is made; their composition is determined, and they are then carefully 
tested by setting them at work — turning, planing, boring, and chiseling — and their 
behavior and their composition being thus ascertained, it will probably be easy to 
learn the chemical and physical characteristics of the best tool. The names of makers 
are of no importance in this investigation, and are not to be reported. The Board, in 
all its work, will avoid reference to makers of material in any way that may injure 
any manufacturer directly or indirectly. Scientific knowledge of directly practical 
value, and engineering facts and figures, solely are sought. 

PROPORTIONS OF TEST-PIECIS. PEKIBROKB RIVBT 2 INCH. 



Diameter. 



Rednction 
of area. 



Length. 



I Per cent, 
elongation. 



1.000 

.U99 
1 000 

.900 ! 

.998 I 
1 000 
l.OOl ' 
1 000 

.985 



; a 


1 


a 


::: 




.s 




\ 


§ 


H 


.698 


H 


1 .85.1 


.«76 


27 


..880 


.704 


22.5 



'a 



I I 



.8HI 
.853 
.863 
.849 



.700 I 
.683 
.705 , 
.700 
.718 



22.2 

'22.' 3* 
25.6 

28 



52 

54.3 

50.3 

50.9 

53.1 

«0.3 

51 

48.4 

17 



2 ' I 



Inch. 
8.00 ; 
1 7.00 i 
5.82 ! 
4.90 

1 3.95 ; 

2.98 
1.98 

.975 

G. 



9.63 

8.82 
7.18 I 
6.04 I 
5.02 I 
3.70 ! 
2.41 I 
1.25 ' 



10.25 
9.09 
7.57 
6.42 
5.33 
4.05 
2.78 
1.42 



I 



20.3 

26 

23.2 

23.3 

27.3 

24.3 

21.9 

22 






Ultimate atrain per 
square Inch. 



o 



i 



u 

ee et 



••a 



28 28. 619 
29.8; 30,000 
29. 9I 26, 700 
31 28,000 
35 26.588 

36.1 

40.4 28.000 
45.2 28.200 
....' 48,000 



45,800 




45.930 


62,692 


45,995 


59.396 


45.768 


58.850 


46,561 





46,759 


60,244 


46.734 


62,874 


47,033 


66,843 


61.028 





MEMORAN DUM OF TESTS OF FOUR SAMPLES JIADE FROM 2.INCH CATASAUQUA BAR 



96.873 


62..^ 


IW», 614 


62.1 


92,818 


58.2 


9:1.280 


50.4 


99,413 


57.1 


94,070 




95.560 


60 


93,455 


5a4 


73,587 


78.7 


luqua 


BAR 



Marks on samples. 



Original diameter 

Fractured diameter 

Original length 

Fractured length 

Commenced to stretch 

Diameter at first stretch 

Length at first stretch 

Lever balancetl 

Diameter at lever balance 

Length at lever balance 

Lever fell 

I 'iameter at lever fall 

Length at lever fall 

Time balancing minutes.. 

Broke at 

Brok e to square inch 



Catalogue 2 
iu No. 10. 



L238 

.781 

7.395 

9.860 

87,425 
L231 
7.412 

59.600 
L088 
9.277 

59.600 

1.063 

9.370 

10 

59,600 

49. 542 



Catalogue 2 
in No. 11. 



1.245 

.787 

7.40 

9.887 

38, 300 
L237 
7.434 

60,125 
L160 
9.068 

60, 125 
L068 
9.374 

60,125 
49,404 



Catalogue 2 
in No. 12. 



.5 

.327 
2.902 
3.810 
5,000 

.498 
3.000 
9,800 

.438 
3.545 
9.800 

.426 

3.608 

2 

9,800 

49,923 



Catalogue 2 
in No. 13. 



.498 

.328 
2.989 
4.025 
5,650 

.403 
3.002 
9,700 

.439 
a 723 
9,700 
. .421 
3.840 

2i 

9,700 

49,820 



The fractured ends of the samples show small squares, as if the iron had been made 
of square bars welded together. 



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THE NA VY DEPAR TMENT. 5 9 

I 
Iron-teating machine. — Commander BeardsMa impact hammer. 

Iron which, when manufactured, is, during its use, to be subjected to sudden trans- 
verse strains should possess in the greatest degree the quality of resilience or power 
of reKisting shocks. 

A great tensile strength is seldom accompanied by a proportionate transverse 
strength or resilience. The strain to which a chain-cable is most liable to yield is 
that of a surge or sudden strain ; iron suitable for chain-cables should have the 
power of resisting these strains. 

The testing machines in general use test only the power of the metal to resist 
steady strains of tension and torsion. 

This machine has been contrived to ascertain the power of iron rods to resist 
shocks. 

The following is a description, accompanied by Figs. 1, 2, and 3: 

DESCRIPTION. 

A cast-iron hammer having a wedge-shaped impact surface upon its lower side 
(Fig. 2) is made to traverse two perpendicular iron rods of, say, 2^ inches diameter, 
and from 30 to 50 feet in length, which pass through holes in the body of the hammer, 
as shown at a (Fig. 1). The hammer may be of any weight, a convenient one being 
100 pounds. 

A traveler of wood or metal, fitted with a pair of hooks which can be opened or 
closed by pulling up a cord (h) attached to them, is placed upon the rods above the 
hammer, as shown at e (Fig. 1). At the foot of the rods, they passing through it, as 
shown at t, a heavy cast-iron block with a cylindrical opening (k) S inches in diameter 
is fitted ; the specimen of iron to be tested {j) is placed across this circular hole, the 
hammer resting upon the box which surrounds the anvil, to prevent accidents, as shown 
by dotted lines (0), and supported by a chock (p). 

A common purchase (shown at/), through which a hoisting rope is led to the wind- 
lass (g)y is secured to the upper portion of the framework. 

At the side of one of the rods an upright, marked plainly to feet and inches (/)) is 
secured. 

Should it be necessary to carry the rods through a flooring, as shown at x (Fig. 1). 
a slight projection on the upper surface of the traveler (shown at m) is fitted to come 
in contact with and operate a light rod which has on it« lower end a pointer («). 

To use the machine, the traveljer is lowered until the clip-hooks clasp a projection 
on top of the hammer; the latter is then hoisted to the desired height, the lower edge 
of the hammer being brought in line with the figure on the measuring rod. 

Should the hammer be hoisted out of sight, through a floor, the marker (n) will 
indicate its height. 

When at the proper height, the tripping-line (A) is pulled, opening the hookn, and 
releasing the hammer, which falls, striking the specimen {j) in the center a blow 
who.se force can be measured, and which is dependent upon the gravity of the loca- 
tion, and slightly decreased by the friction. 

A coarse and brittle iron will break short at a moderate blow from this hammer ; a 
tough and strong iron will resist its utmost power. 

The weight of the hammer can be increased at will, by the addition of lead weights. 

An iron which exhibit-s good results when tested in this manner, and also possesses 
great power of resisting steady strains of tension, is suitable for chain cables; one 
that ddes not, is utterly unsuitable for the purpose. 



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6o INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1S76. 

To estimate the force of blow delivered by the impact -hammer machine, use the 
following formula : 

F=—f in which 

2g 
tc = weight of hammer in pounds, 
r = its velocity in feet, 
^ = gravity (at Washington 32.153), 
F= force in foot-pounds. 

The formula is derived from the empirical law, as follows: 

Multiply both by ^, and you have 

gh = ^9^t^, or 

2gh=9H^, or 

V2gh = gt, which is practically found to equal i?; hence, 

r« 

'^/2gh = r, or A = ^^- 

is the effect of one pound falling one foot in one secoud. 

The force F of any number of pounds tr, falling one foot in one second, is %c times as 
great, or 

Fh =-7:- , or, as * = 1, 

2g' ' i 

F= --— , as given above. 

To obtain the numerical value of r, let 

h = hei'^ht in feet to which the weight is raised ; 
g = (at Washington) 32.152 ; 
/ = time. 
From the formula h — ^gt^ deduce, as before, y/^gh^^gt = v, or for a height of 30 feet, 
since 2gh = r*, vou have 

2x32.153x30 = r*, 

or 

r = i/iy^aiJ^UO =43,92, 

or velocity of hammer at instaut of striking when dropped 30 feet (the friction not 
being estimated). The force is derived from the formula 

and developed is 

43.92«xl00__ 
32.153x2 — 

1929.18X100 _ 
32.153x2 " 
1929.18 
~^6473 ~ '^'^^ pounds. 

To make a table giving foot-pounds force for each foot of hoist : 

2x3'j.i$:[txaXl00 
^X3«.l«'3 I 

in which a varies for each foot ; cancel common factors, and the foot-pound force is 
at each height = the height multiplied by 100 ; thus, 30 feet drop = 3,000 pounds. 



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THE NA VY DEPAR TMENT. 6 I 

26. «SVrai» Steering Machine {Sickles^s patent). 

[Extract iVom a report of IT. S. naval officers on the trial of this machine.] 

This apparatus was temporarily applied to the U. S. irou-clad Roanoke, for the rea- 
son that this vessel not only required greater power to move her large rudder, but 
also presented the difficulty of being efficiently steered from the pilot-house above 
her turret. 

The steering machine consists of two cylinders of 24 inches diameter and 12 inches 
stroke, placed at right angles and connected directly to the steering drum. It was 
placed in the lower chamber of the ceiiter turret, occupying a space of 8 feet 11 iucLe* 
by 5 feet 6 inches, with a height over all of 5 feet 11 inches, and, although of same 
general principle as has been heretofore applied, yet the details of this arrangement 
have been so perfected as to gain all requisites of rapid steering from any part of the 
vessel without interfering with the ordinary internal arrangements of a vessel-of-war. 
The machine itself is to be placed below the water and entirely protected from shot; 
the only parts exposed being the ordinary tiller ropes and the small line leading to 
the deck or pilot-house. For use in iron-clads, where space is of so much importance, 
the dimensions above given can be materially reduced. 

With the ordinary hand-steering wheel, it took the full force of two men (all that 
the pilot-house could conveniently contain) over to minutes two move the rudder from 
its extreme positions of starboard and port, and requiring twenty-six turns of the wheel. 
With the steam machine, one man could easily move the rudder the same distance in 
three seconds with three and one-half revolutions of the wheel. The steering cords 
were led to the pilot-house above the forward turret, and leaders provided by which 
the vessel could be steered from any part of the vessel deemed most convenient. 

The steam-steering arrangements were applied to the tiller, entirely independent 
of the hand-steering gear, so that either one was available for use without interfer- 
ing with the other. An indicator is fitted with the machine, so that the helmsman 
can at any time ascertain the position of the rudder, and the engine is so designed as 
not to require either skilled mechanical labor in its operation or care, as it can be 
worked by any seaman in the same manner and more readily than the ordinary 
steering wheel. 

It is at all times ready for use when steam is raised, as by the peculiar arrange- 
ments of valves it is not necessary to first free the machine from condensed water, 
or prepare it for service, as is necessary in the Cameron steam-engine. 

In the steam-pipes is fitted a regulating valve, so as to retain the power of the en- 
gine with the same and varying pressure of steam ; that used on this trial averaging 
about 17 pounds per square inch. 

The valves of the engine are so designed as to hold the rudder at any desired angle, 
and also where '^hard over," to slightly yield for the instant to any sudden shocks 
or strains that may endanger the safety of the rudder. 

The durability of the various details of the steering-gear was clearly shown, as the 
apparatus was kept in use for four consecutive days, and subjected to the severest 
trial to test its strength. It is certain in its action, and so little labor is required 
from the man at the wheel that he can be more careful in-his attention to the course 
of the vessel, and act with greater promptness in every emergency, and more securely 
guard against accident from collision. 

Jn case of a vessel-of-war in action, this most important point cannot be overrated, 
as quickness of maneuver in making the attacks as well as facility in avoiding the 
♦^nemy, either from the ram or torpedo, is one of the most essential features of a man- 
of-war. 

'27. Life JSoaty or ^^Balsttj" designed by Commodore Daniel Ainmen, U. S. Navy. 

The original of this life boat, or balsa, was designed and built on board the U. S. 
steamer Mohican, in 1865, by the commanding officer of that vessel, now Commodore 
Daniel Ammen, U. S. Navy. 



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62 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

It is aot pftteut d) ami is built at the U. S. Navy-yards for use od board of vessels- 
of-war. It has great buoyancy in proportion to its weight, is constructed at small 
cost, easily kept in repair, and cannot swamp. If injui-ed by running upon rocks, a 
)>utch of tarred cotton cloth placed under a thin sheet of lead, and tacked over the 
hole, makes the boat practically as serviceable as ever. It sails well, is pulled with 
ease, and can be handled with great facility. 

' Modified for river use and in bays, it would offer an inexpensive means of floating 
and carrying a large unniber of persons, should the vessel supplied with them be lost 
by Hre or otherwise; and in emigrant ships they could be used as water-casks, and 
speedily emptied if required for use sis life boats. 



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EXHIBITS OF ABTIOLES GENEBALLT USED IN SIAM, 

AND OF 

SAMPLES OF TRADE OF SIAMESE ORIGIN, 

Prepared by order of His Majesty the Kino of Siam, 

and presented by his majesty to the united states of amehica as a souvenir 
from the kingdom of siam. 



CORRESI>ONI>KN^CK. 

Navy Department, Waahinglottf Stptember 30, 1870. 
Sib: The Department iDclones for your informatiou a copy of a dispatch from Rear- 
Admiral William Reynolds, commanding Asiatic Station, dated Jnne 26, 1876, also a 
copy of its incloenre from the minister of foreign affairs of Siam, in relation to a col- 
lection of articles from that GoveninieDt to the CeDteuuial Exhibition at Philadelphia. 
Also inclosed is an inventory of the articles, which you will please endeavor to have 
translated ; after which you will return it to this Department to be returned to the 
Department of State. 

The articles referred to have arrived at Kan Francisco, and are on the way to Phil- 
adelphia. 

Very respectfully, 

I. C. HOWELL, 
Acting Sfcretarg of the Xary, 
Rear-Admiral Thornton A. Jenkins, 

r. S. Kartft l*hUade\phia^ Pa, 



No. 59.] Flag-Ship Tennessee, Second Rate, 

Eohe, June 26, 187f . 
Sir: I inclose herewith a copy of a letter addressed to me by the minister of foreign 
affairs of Siam, and also of a letter from the same personage to the Secretary of State 
of the Uuited States, iuclosed therein, and received by the last mail from Hong-Kong. 
The list of articles did not accompany the letter. 

Commander Matthews reports from Hong-Kong, June 14, that the Siamese Curios 
conld not go in the Alaska, then about to leave that port, as she was full of freight, 
but would go by next steanu*r, the Belgic, to leave July 1, for Sau Francisco. They 
should arrive in Philadelphia during the first of August. 
I am, very respectfully, 

WILLIAM REYNOLDS, 
Hear Admiral Commanding U, S, Xaval Force, Asiatic Stalion. 
■ Hon. George M. Robeson, 

Setrdary of the Nary, Washington, 

63 



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64 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 

Chow Phya Bhanuwoxgse Maha Kosa Dhipoti the Phraklang, Ministtr for 
Foreign Affairs, ha^i the honor to address 

His Excellency the Rear-Admiral Reynolds. 

Sir: His Majesty the King of Siaai is much gratified by your excellency's having 
peimitted Couiniand- r Matthews to return in the U. S. steamer Ashuelot, to take 
charge of the collection which His Majesty had had much pleasure in preparing for 
the Exhibition at Philadelphia. 

Commander Matthews arrived here on May 26, and I have committed to his care 
for embarkation the collection described in the a<;companying catalogue. I beg your 
excellency to transmit the collection to the Government of the United States. 

I inclose copy of my dispatch to the Government of the United States for your ex- 
cellency's information. 

I beg your excellency to accept the assurance of my high esteem. 

Dated at the foreign office at Bangkok the 30th of May, 1876. 

(Signature. ) 

(Seal of Minister for Foreign Affairs.) 

Chow Phya Bhanuwongse Maha Kosa Dhipoti the Phraklang, Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, has the honor to address 

Hon. Hamilton Fish, / 

Secretary of State^ United States, Washington, 
Sir : His Majesty the King of Siam has commanded me to address you as follows : 
On the 23d of April last Commander Matthews, in the United States war steamer 
Ashuelot, came to Siam on a visit to the United States Consul, and had audience of 
His Majesty the King of Siam, after which His Majesty took counsel with the Sena- 
bodi on the subject of the collecticm prepared by the Government of Siam for the Ex- 
hihi t ion at Philadelphia, which, to the regret of the Siamese Government, still remained 
on hand, not having been forwarded at the appointed time owing to causes which 
have been explained in my dispatch of the 28th of January, 1876. His Majesty the 
King of Siam commanded me to ask Commander Matthews to take charge of the col- 
lection and convey it in the Ashuelot to the Rear-Admiral Reynolds, on the Japan 
Station, to be forwarded to the Government of the United States. Commander Mat- 
thews left Siam and communicated with the Rear-Admiral Reynolds, and on the 2t)th 
instant returned to Siam in the United States steamer Ashuelot, and informed me 
that Rear-Admiral Reynolds had intrusted him to fetch the collection intended for the 
Exhibition. 

His Majesty the King and the Senabodi of Siam have been most pleased to intrust 
to Comuiaiider Matthews the collection, which His Majesty the King and Senabodi 
have prepared for presentation, with their best wishes, to the Government of the 
United States. When the Exhibition is ended, please exhibit it at the Museum as a 
souvenir from the Kingdom of Siam. It is not a collection of articles of peculiar ex- 
cellence, but of articles generally used in this country, and of samples of articles of 
trade of Siamese origin ; a collection which the Siamese Government had much pleas- 
ure in preparing as a contribution to the Exhibition as a token of their esteem and 
respect for the Government of the United States. 

# • # » » , * *• 

His Majesty the King' of Siam and Senabodi pray that the Power which is highest 
in the universe may assist, foster, and protect the city of Washington and the Unite<l 
States of America, and may from the date of their centenary onward bless them with 
a prosperity still greater than that they have hitherto enjoyed. 

I beg to add the assurance of my high esteem. 

Dated at the foreign office at Bangkok the 30th of May, 1876. 

(Signature.) 

(Seal of iiiinisr»'r for foreign atlairs.) 



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THE NA VY DEPARTMENT. 



65 



EXHIBIT OF THE KINGDOM OF SI AM BY THE UNITED STATES NAVY 

DEPARTMENT 

NOTES. 

The apostrophe ( ' ) alter consonants indicates that that consonant is aspirated. 
The apostrophe ( ' ) after the vowel u' indicates the French 1*. 

This mark ( ' ) over a vowel indicates the tone made in the roof of the mouth, designateil the high 
tone. 
This mark ( •• ) over a vowel indicates the prolonged tone. 

This mark ( * ) over a vowel indicates an abi-upt tone, throwing the sound trom the speaker. 
This mark C) over a vowel indicates an abrupt tone thrown into the chest. 
All vowels without these tonal marks are spoken naturally without etfurt. 
This mark ( : ) after a vowel indicates a short vuwel. 
Twelve Siamese niew equal 10 English inches. 
Siamese wah equals 80 English inches. 
Siamese »auk equals 20 English inches. 
Siamese Vvp equals 10 English inches. 

One picul equals 133^ English pounds. \ 

One cKang equals \\ English pounds. 

IMPLEMENTS FOR MAKING CLOTH. 






27101 I Kee-iu'-an 



Siamese names. 



27102 
27103 
27104 



27106 

27107 
27108 

27109 

27110 

27111 
27112 

27113 
27114 
27115 
27118 
27117 
27118 
27119 
27120 
27121 
27122 
27»28 
27124 
27125 
27126 
27127 
27128 
27129 
27130 
27131 
27132 
27133 
27134 
27185 
27136 
27137 
27188 
27139 
27140 
27141 
2714J 



Pirn 

Kra:-som 
Ta:-kron . . 



Eight MAi^Luk Ta-kans . 
MAi-ya^ow 



Kra: dahn 

Two Toug Taangs 

MAiya-ow 

MAi-ya-ow 



MAi-ya-ow 
Chu'-ak ... 



Ra:wing 

Ak..... 

Nai -k'rohng 

K'ong-p'at 

Heep 

KoDg-deet 

Ka:su-ee 

Kong-p'&t - 

Heep-mfihk*muk 

Pahu-waanf4. mnk 

Heei>-s£i-kamp'ee 

I'a^Iiim 

ChAunh5i-muk 

Yok-niAinAhkep 

Mu-ang hahng karauk n^h kep 

P'uni k'am&oe 

Yok t'aung 

P'nmk'aniine nAh kep 

Mn-ang Choen 

P'Ahp'u'n 

P'&h tah sa-mnk 

P'&htah letgnah 

P'Ah song 

T'ee naun p'ap 

MAun sr^ sa ntin sah ra: bap . . 

MAunkAhng 

MAnnniint'Au 

MAnn ing sara bap 

>IAiiu Hem nAh pak 

Mfkiigp'raa tit luk mfti 



English names. 



L<iom, one of the implements used by a person sitting and 

WHHvlnj; cloth. 
An implement 1 1 which silk to be woven is put. 
An implement on which the woven cloth is rolled. 
Shuttle, an impleruent in which is put the spool of silk used 

in weaving cloth. 
For gntheHug the Ta-kaus and placing tbem with the 

standing Uuk. 
Two sticks over forty inches long, to be tied to the Ta-kau 

that are trodden with the feet. 
B<Mrd M roll the silk of the standing Huk. . 
Ti> which are attached the boards on which the standing 

Hiik is rolled. 
Stick over sixty inches long, for stretching the Tong-taaug, 

pl'iced upon the frame Kee. 
Stick over sixty inches lung, for stretching the P'im and 

the Ta:-kau <»n the frame K.ee. 
Stick over forty inches, to be ftutened beneath the frame. 
Rope for fasteuing the Tougtaang sticks uutlerneath to 

make all taui <m the frame. 
Implement in which are ])ut the ooconns. 
Implement for unraveling silk from the cocoons. 
Spinning- wheel for making silk or cotton jarns. 
For reeling off the spun siDc. 
For compressing the loo-e cotton. 
Implement for suapping the cutlon. 
Implement to receive toe snool for tho shuttle. 
Implement for snapping off the cottou from the Nai. 
Pearl beetle box. 

Stand of glass and pearl for cloths. 
Bookcase. 

Set of stands (3), inluid with pearl, on which fool is placed. 
Pearl spf»on. 
Silk cloth. 
Cloth. 

CamlKMlian silk cloth. 
Cloth, gold flowers. 
Cambodian eloth. 
Chinese cloth. 

Cloth. f 

Cloth raised. 

Cloth, rafned like teel seed. 
Two cloths. 
Folding bed. 

Colored pillow, for resting body and arm «. 
Pillow for the sidfs. 
Pillow for resting the legs. 
Pillow to lean the backagLinst. 
Angular pillow. 
Silk curtains, tlowered. 



5 CEN, PT 2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



66 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1976, 



IMPLEMENTS FOR MAKING CLOTH— Contianed. 



•3525 

ga 



27148 
27144 
27146 
27146 
27147 
27148 
27149 

27160 
27151 
27162 
27168 

27164 
27165 

27166 

27167 

27168 



Siftmese names. 



English names. 



K'an nAmp'ahn ramie 

K'an nAm lAhng n^h 

E'an nAm, p'abn raungroee f&b.. 

K'an oAm I&hng n4h mee f4h 

Bah: p'ap ranng iikvk% 

T'iiht lAbns n4h torn ta: t'anng. . . 
Pabn k'rii-ang paang torn ta: 

t'anng 

K'an torn ta: t'aung 

Rah-ow 

Toh: torn ta: t*aang ranng ir'6e.. 
Pahn mtthk torn ta: t'aung 

Toh: torn ta: t'aang ranng lii-em. 
Kah n4m yen tom ta: t'aung mee 

t'aht raung. 
Ti&ht miihk tom ta: t'anng 

Ka: t'dbntom ta: t'anngptthk kraa 

yfti. 
Ka: t'6hn tom ta: t'anng lek 



Water bowl stand. 

Wash bowl. 

Water bowl stand with cover. 

Wash bowl and cover. 

Folding cushion seat 

Wash bowl trav, gilt 

Lady's toilet stand frith seven gold pots (designated Tdb 

pnk). 
Bowl with cover and stand. 
Gilt stand for holding the toweL 
Comb stand. 
Beetlc-nnt stand (with accompanim^its, three boxes, one 

cup, one bag). 
Stand for aatchel. 
Gilt water goblet and tray. 

Beetle tray (with accompaniments^ three boxes, one cup, 

one bag). 
Large spittoon, gilt 

Small spittoon, gilt 



HATS AND CAPS. 



27IM 

27100 

27161 , 

27182 

27168 

27164 I 

27166 

27166 

27167 

27168 

27169 

27170 



Mftak hhmp'Ah 

Mttak la: met 

Mii-ak cap 

Mti-akla:met 

Mti-ak mnking cap 

Miiak mki dM hhm p'4h 

Mtt-ak la: met 

Mil-akcap 

Mii-ak la: met 

Mtiak muking cap 

Tang nAm r4un 

Aap mfthk 



Hats and caps covered with cloth. 
Hat with air holes for ventilation, covered with cloth. 
Cap covered with cloth. 
Cap covered with cloth. 
Cap. 

Hats and caps without cloth covers. 
Ventilator hat 
Cap. 
Hat 
Cap- 
Hot water bucket 
Beetle Imaket 



C^GES. 



27171 , Krong nok k'du ylil j Ca^e for a large turtle dove. 

27172 Krong nok k'6u chfi: wah j Chfi: wah dove cage. 

27173 \ Krong nok ka : t'ah Partridge cage. 

27174 . Krong nok k'hm K'hm cage. 



BASKETS. 



27175 
27176 

27177 
27178 
27179 
27180 
27181 
27182 

27183 
27184 
27185 
27186 
27187 
27188 
27189 
27190 
27191 
27192 
27193 
27194 
27195 
27196 
27197 
27198 
27199 
27200 
27201 



Ka: bung La: k'aun 

Ta: kraang dauk peknn . 



Ka: ch'Au dauk m&i . . 

Ka: fai 

Ka:ldh 

, Ka:chaht 

I Ta: kraang rjknn yah . 
; F6m 



Sa: rank 

Ka: kraang ritnn 

Ka: ddngfat 

Ka: bung 

Ka: kriihlek fai 

K'raang tak nAm 

Ta: krausoi 

Ta: krau , 

P'Au ra '. 

Ka: b«i 

Kh: ch'aun 

Kru 

Ta: krAhch'amra: 

T'uiig sam-rap sai uAm rAun — 

Kliiung sam rap sfii mfibk 

P'Aum sAm rap sai k'owplu'-ak. 

K'ru sam rap tak nAm k'n 

K'raang sam rap saht t5n mAi. . 
Kra: ki Au sam rap 86i luk mAi 



. i Li^ore basket 

Wicker-work basket. The i^>ertures resembling the flower 

Pekun. 
Flower basket. 
Small basket, bamboo. 
Small bamboo basket 
Shallow basket. 

lUtsk^t-work sieve for medicines. 
Bamboo basket with cover, in which soldiers, when going 

to war, carry rice. 
Small square and otherwise shaped bamboo baskets. 
Bamboo sieve. 

Bamboo sieve, with stiff bamboo edges. 
Basket 

Porous basket for steel and flint. 
Basket wHter dipper, damroared. 
Basket for gathering fruit fmm trees. 
Rattan foot -ball. 
Bamboo basket-work, grainery. 
Dipper-shaped l>asket 
Cocoanut milk strainer. 
Bamboo water dipper. 
Basket for washing and cleansing articles. 
Bucket for warm water. 
Beetle box. 

Basket-work for paddy stores. 
Basket water dippers. 

Lou^handled bamboo basket dipper for watering plants. 
Fruit-gathering implement 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 
HORSE 6EAB. 



(>! 



s . 

is 

P 



SUmese names. 



27202 ! 

27203 i 

27204 ' 

27205 ; 

27206 : 

27207 I 



P'AftUff ktog. 



English names. 



Bang 

Ahn 

Boh.-raiingabn 

P'^bra: bain^hoban I Wbite screen borders. 

P'4h ohannang Wl^ite screen. 



Side leather. 

Bit and bridle. 

Saddle. 

Cnehion used under the saddle. 



PEBFORATED LEATHER (USED FOR NIGHT PLATS) riGURES. 



27208 
27209 
27210 
27211 
27212 
27213 
27214 
27215 
27215 

27217 
27218 
27219 
27220 



Dn-ang p*ra abtit 

Da^angp'ra chant 

Nabng Maakalikh 

RabmaSlin 

P'aang sam rap pit tai nah ehaa 

Bai pitlangcbaa 

T'ong lek pak yant ohan 

T'ong lek p'ak lang chan 

Nang Yak 

Nang P*ra rafam 

Nang k'4ne ling 

Nang nabng 

Xangta:16k 



Figure of the snn made of perforated leather. 

Figure of the moon made of perforated leather. 

Perforated leather representation of Lady Maakaliib. 

Perforated leather representation of Rshma Stin. 

Bamboo woven partitions placed under the screen. 

Partition used back of the screen. 

Four small flags to be fixed on tbe top of the screen. 

Four small flags to be placed behind the screen. 

Five perforated leather representations of the monster 

Yak. 
Three perforated leather representations of P'ra rahm. 
Three perforated leather representations of monkey fights. 
Four perforated leather representations of females. 
Perforated leather representation of a bulfoon. 



TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTS. 



27221 
27222 
27223 
27224 
27225 
27226 
27227 
27228 
27229 
27230 
27231 
27232 
27233 
27234 
27236 
27236 
27237 
2r238 
27239 
27240 
27241 
27242 
27243 
27244 
27245 
27246 
27247 
27248 
27249 
27250 
27261 
27252 
27253 
27254 
27255 
27256 
27267 
27258 
27259 
27260 
27261 
27262 
27263 
27264 
27265 



EAun knnrup. 
Kop t'awai. 
K'eem 
i K'eep. 

Sup 

P'rAhkrai 

P'rAhSiem 

P'r&hhu-et 

P'rAhUen 

Meetsai 

K'An ch'ak mahk 

Lti'-ay ok tat kra: dahn. 

Lti'-avsung 

EopCbeen 

Sieu 

Cbftup 

Si6m...; 

HAa 

t^-en 

Sa: wing 

ChAun 

Yau 

Laup 

Sai 



AnviL 

Hammer (for contracting metals). 

Hammer (for eicpanding metals). 

Hammer (for shaping metals). 

Bnrman plane. 

Pincers. 

Nippers. 

Bellows. 

Long, narrow knife. 

Knife, broad at the end. 

Grass and underbrush cutter. 

Knife for leveling off. 

Malay knife. 

Curved knife for cutting down beet1«* nutp. 

Saw with bamboo supports to cut phiiiks wtth. 

Saw for sawing logs. 

Chinese plane. 

Chisel. 

Implement for breaking up the giot nd. 

Implement for digging small holes into th*' grounrl. 

Fish net thrown by men. 

Stationary fish net. 

Net. 

Net. 

Net 

A bamboo snare to catch fish. 

A bamboo basket with fish trap. 

Fish trap. The fish enter bnt cannot return. 



E-cha 

Lan Fish trap. 

Sum ' Fish trap. 

Betra-ou i Fish line for many hooks. 

Bett'ant \ Fish line with hook and handle. 

Bet-K'an ■ Fi«h trap, springs and hooks the fish. 

Cba.mii.ek , Trident harpoon. 

SAum Spear for eels. 

Fu'ak Fish trap of bamboo slats. 

Elaung-Ch'a:na: Drum. 

S&-lieng Sedan top or cover. 



Plaa-kun-nAhng . 
Sappnu k'ap . . . 

K*AuchAng 

Kra-Cbing 

P'ahn-nAh 

i Sappra:-K*one . 
P'ahn-t'Ai 



Nobleman's sedan. 

Elephant's saddle. . 

Hook for managing elephants— controlling them. 

A pointed piece embossed with ivory. 

A hind piece embossed with ivory. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



68 



IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITIOS\ 1876. 
SIAMESE PRIEST'S ARTICLES. 



e . 

S§ 

•325 

§a 

^ S 

27266 
27267 
27268 
27269 
27270 
27271 
27272 
27273 
27274 
27^75 
27276 
27277 
27278 
27279 
27280 
27281 
27282 
27283 
27284 
27285 

27286 
27287 
27288 

27289 
27290 
27291 



SiameAO names. 



English names. 



— I 



Baht 

Tah-la:-pat 

MAI fAu 

Pihkrai 

Yfthm 

Ka; t'one-t'om p'at 

K'an-DAm-pabn-niuDg-t'ora-pat. . . 

Kah-DAm-tom-pat 

KlAun^-mahk-toin-pat 

ElAong-k^m 

Hin-meet-kohno 

MAn-raat 

MAu-ch'amra: 

T'ee-Dann 

I MAnn-kVAhn 

MAan-ing 

i Tum-pak-ch'oeng-pam 

I Tompak-laung-pha-en 

' CboeDg-pum-tom-pak-rla 

I Rahta:-k'ut-DAhm-ka: oAn-see-mu- 

ang. 
I P'Ah-hom-Daun-praaaaang-ch'An 

P'Ah-honi-Dann, lai eAung-ch'An. . 
I Tama:-ka:i-ok-i)am-rap kra un g • 
I nAm. 

'*'Ah-8Aae-weiD-daang 

I PAhi«akaraht-hum-Daun-p*ap 

P'Ah■lah^p'ap 



Prieat'g rice pot, used to receive his momlDg meal. 

A priest's Ian. 

Walking stick. 

Ttie three cloths constituting a priest's dress. 

Piiest'ssatehel. 

Priest's spittoon. 

Wash Iwwl and receiver. 

Water goblet. 

Beetle box. 

Needle case. ^ 

Hone for sharpening razors. 

Urinal. 

Chamber vessel. 

Bed. 

Axe-shaped pillow. 

Rectangular pillow. 

Priest's cloth. 

Priest's cloth. 

Cloth, ribbed. 

A clored sash. 

A silk sleeping quilt or sheet, double. 
A colored sleeping cloth, doable. 
A water filter or strainer. 

Cloth. 

A woolen blanket. 

Kug. 



Musical instruments. 



27292 Kraa-farang European trumpet. 

27293 Kraa-guaun Truui|>et, bufl'alo horn shape. 



CLOTHS. 



27294 PAh-fin ; Cloth. 

27295 P'Abtah-tdhng ' Cloth. 



UMBRELLAS. 



27396 
27297 
27298 
27299 
27300 



P'ra-kr<»t-niote 

P'ra-k rot-p'Ah -k '6e-pung 

Riimkunnahng 

Chat-h'Ach'an 

Cfaat-ohet-ch'an 



Large imibrrlla. 
Waxed doth umbrella. 
NoblemHu's umbrella. 
Five-Mfttioned umbiella. 
Seven -sectioued Umbrella, 



TOBACCO. 



2TW1 
27302 
27303 
2rJ04 
27305 
87306 



Yah-hhi-nah I Tobacco. 

Yah-lom , Tolmrco. 

Yah-hhi-sai ' Tobacco. 

Yah-nAni sak , Tobacco. 

Yah-hUi-toh Trbact-o. 

Yah-pah-daang ' Tobacco. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE XAVY DEPARTMEXT, 



69 



MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. 



§8 
-I 

27307 
27308 
27309 
2TI10 
27311 
27312 
27313 
27314 
27315 
27316 
27317 
27318 
27319 
27320 
27321 



Siamese names. 



£Dj(lish nameR. 



T'ooe Mufiical inf*tniment. 

Kam munah MiinicaHiiAtrument. 

Cha: k*aa Mnsi* al insirunieut. 

K'a: chap pee | Giiitair. / 

S<»e8aa. Fiddle. 

Pee ' Flute 

Pee ebawah ' Chawah flute. 



Sail Oo. 
Klaangkiiak . 

K'AuDff WODg.. 

Ta: P^hn 

Klaang 

Poengroahne. 
Ra: naht t'fim. 



Ficl.lle. 
Malay drnm. 
Circular brxsn gODgs. 
A kind of <irum. 
A kind of drum. 
MuHical inatniment 
, Musical instrument. 
Ra: nahtake ; MuHical instiiiment. *■ 



BOATS. 



27322 
27323 
27:W4 
27325 
27326 
27327 
27328 
27329 
27330 
117331 
27332 
27333 
27:)34 
27335 
273.36 
27337 
27338 
27330 

27340 
27341 I 

27342 

S7343 ' 

27344 

27345 

27346 
27347 

2734A 
27340 
^7350 j 

27351 I 

27352 I 
27353 
27354 
27355 
273S6 
27357 
27358 
27859 
27360 
27361 
27862 
27863 
27364 
87895 
87866 
27867 
37868 
27869 
27870 
27371 
27872 



Rn'aprattn 

Ru'a wate 

Ru'a a yn-en 

Ru'a oha k^ k'am rahm r&uug . 

Ru'a stka tyyhn cli6n 

Ru'a r6u 14ang loi sinti\ ^ 

Ru'a Manitkaun chain laang 

Ru'a toh k'a mang k'In'n 

Ru'a sihng kam biang hahn 

Ra'a kee len pra laung choeng ^ 

Ru'a krabee prahp mu'-ang mabn 

Ru'a a aura: wab vup'ak 

Ru'a suk k'reep k'raung ron'ang.. 
Ru'a krnt hoen ra: bet k'a cb'Ak. . 
Ru'a ako cb'ai bnen b&u k'u cb'4k 

Ru'a dang laa ru'a kan 

Ru'a t^ung k'wane filb k'u ch'Ak. 
Ru'a p'r^ t'ee nang krai sahn muk 

king. 
Ru'a p'r& t'ee nang see snp&n bong : 
Ru'a p'l^ t'ee nang anan tanahk'a: 

rabt. 
Ru'a p'r& t'ee nang mong k'on sn 

ban. 

Ru'a p'r4 t'ee nang snwan r6u 

Rn'a p'r& fee nang ratana dee Ink . 
Ru'a p'r^ t'ee nang chakrap'at 

p'eeroro. 
Ru'a p'r& t'ee rang see t'iparat — 
Ru'a p'rjk t'ee nang p'l^ cbaro 

t'aweep. 

Ru'a p'r 4 t'ee nang kdng 

Ru'a s waara wahree 

Ro'acbaliam 

Ru'achalium p'aa 

Ru'a nA'a 

Ru'a La-ow 1 

Ru'a pan long 

Ru'a kraa nauk pabk 

Ru'akulaa 

Ru'a wate ktog 1 

Ra'a pet \ 

Rn'amabt < 

Rn'a sam pAn p4 t'fkn 

Ra'amA-ang 

Ru'a man g kulaa 

Ra'a pal mfth 

Ru'asampiiu 

Ra'asfthlih 

Ru'a kAi sukann — 

P'ra miibAh p6e ebai rabclia rot 

Taranftk cbAa fib 

Rn'an fA ka: dahn 

Rn'anfAsom ruet 

P'aa 

Ru'an kru'-ang p'uk f& cbahk 



Boat. 

Biiat. 

Cochin Chinese boat. 

Boat. 

B(»at. 

Boat. 

Bout. 

Boat. 

Biwt. 

BoHt. 

Bitat. 

Boat. 

B(»at. 

Boat preceding barges of the royal processions. 

Boat prccp«liug barges of the royal proceHHiuux. 

Boat UHed in ro«ral procestiions. 

Boat pi-ecfdiu'jTor tullowing the royal barge. 

Royal barge used in State processiuus. 

Royal barge. 
Ro^ al bar^e. 

Royal barge. 

Royal barge. 
Royal barge. 
Royal barge. 

Royal barge. 
Royal barge. 

Royal barge with a bouse cover. 
Boat. 

Native flHbtng boat. 
> at ivH fishing boat. 
An up-conuiiy bust. 
Laosian boat.' 
Native boat. 
Boat. 

Native boat. 
Native boat. 
Native b«»at. 
Native boat of one log. 
Native boat with ci»ver. 
Native l>oat. 
Native boat. 
Native boat. 
Native boat. 
Native boat. 

Native boat used by pork venders. 
Royal carriage. 

Buibling where tb^ing lands (royal landing places). 
Frame noiise. 

House with som ra-et partitions. 
Floating bouse. 

Oniinary bouse of the poorer classes. Partitions made 
a species of palm leaf. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



70 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 
THBATBICAL Ilf AGES. 



It 




Englifth lUUDM. 



27373 
27374 
27375 
27376 
27377 
27378 
27379 
27380 
27381 
27382 
27383 
27384 
27385 
27386 
27387 
27388 
27389 
27390 
27391 
27392 
27393 

27394 

27395 
27396 
27397 
27398 
27399 
27400 
27401 
27402 
27403 

27404 

27405 

27406 

27407 

27408 

27409 

27410 

27411 

27412 



27413 
27414 
27415 
27416 
27417 
27418 
27419 
27420 
27421 
27422 
27423 
27424 
27425 
27426 
27427 
27428 
27429 
27430 
27431 
27432 
27433 
27434 
27435 
27486 



N4b p*r»-rahm . 
Ch'fc dah 



ham-lMuig 

nab 

^anng 

bsAungch'an. 



» 
IS 

I 
I 
\ 

\ ^ — . hmtiang ma-prahng 

Heel k' wAbn let nia-prabng 

Km'-ang ma' cb'4iig k'la'ng p*a: 

mann. 
Krn'-ang ma' ob'&ng k'la'ng man 

t'up. 
Knr-ang m'a cb'&ng k'la'ng mAi 
Kra'-ang ra'a oh'i^Dg k'la'ng mAi 
Kra'-ang m'u ch'Ang k'la'ng mAi 
Kra'-ang ro'a ob'ADg k'ln'ug mAi 
Kru'-ang m'li oh'Ang k'la'ng mAi 
Kra'-ang m'n ch'Ane k'lu'ng mal 
Kra'-ang m'a ch'Ang k'la'ng mAi 
Krn'-ang m'a ch'Ang k'la'ng mAi 
Kra'-ang m'u oh'Ang k'la'ng 

t'aang paat yabng. 
Kra'-ang m'a oh^Ang 



k'la'ng 
k'la'ng 



t'aang. 
Kra'-ang m'a ch'Ang 

t'aang. 
Kra'-ang m'a ch'Ang k'la'ng 

t'aang. 
Kra'-ang m'u ch'Ang k'la'ng 

t'aang. 
Kra'-ang m'a ch'Ang k'la'ng 

t'aiing. 
Kru'-8ng m'a ch'Ang k'la'ng 

t'aang 
Krn'-ang m'a ch'Ang k'la'ng 

t'aang. 
Kra'-ang m'a ch'Ang pAn meet 

ka: lem nilng. 
Kru'-anK m'a ch'Ang pan mAi, aa; 

niot ka ; dut, saulet mAi ma ; 

kltia. 

Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang salak, sfa 

j Kru'ang m'u ch'Ang salak, sin 

. Krn'aDgm'a ch'Ang salak, sia 

Kra'ang m'u ch'Ang salak, sin 

Kra'ang m'u ch'Ang salak, sin — 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang salak, sia — 
Kra'ang m'n ch'ang salak, sin — 
Kra'ang ra'a ch'Ang salak, sin — 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang salak, sin — 
Kur'ang m'a ch'Ang salak, siu — 
Kra'ang m'u ch'Ang salak, sin — 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang salak, sin — 
Kra*ang m'n ch'Ang salak, sin — 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang k'ien p'ukan. 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang k'ien p'nkan. 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang k'ien p'nkan 
Kra'ang m'n ch'Ang k'ien p'nkan. 
\ Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang k'ien p'okan 
Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang k'ien p'nkan. 
' Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang k'ien p'nkan 

I Kra'ang m'n ch'Ang ka: 

I Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang ka: 

I Kra'ang m'a ch'Ang ka: 

, Krn'aDg m'v oh'Ang ka: 



Face of P'ra-rahm. 

A kind of crown. 

Head band. 

Mask. 

Face of Snk'reep. 

Face of Hannmahn, giant monkey. 

FaoeofOngk'ot. 

Face of K'i-ew-p'et. 

Ordinary monkev face. 

Face of T'otsakan. 

Face of P'ee pake 

Face of Intarachit. 

Face of Sat'abstin. 

Face of Wirnm cham-bang. 

Face of the monster Yak sAa nab. 

Colored cloth with gold hnea. 

Doable vaae. 

Razor. 

Knife for preparing mangoes and maprabrgs. 

Knife for picking the meat of the maprahng not. 

Turner's tools. 

Tamer's tools. 

Wood taming tool. 
Wood turning tool. 
Wood turning tool. 
Wood turning tool. 
Wood turning tool. 
Wood tuming tool. 
Wood turning tool. 
Wood tuming tool. 
Eight brass turning tools. 

BraHS turning tool. 

Brass turning tooL 

Brass taming tool. 

Brass taming tool. 

Brass turning tool. 

Brass tuming tool. 

Bcas.H turuing tool. 

Carver's knife. 

Car%'er'B implements. 



Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Chisel for carving 
Painter's brush. 
Painter's bnish. 
Painter's brush. 
Paint«r's brush. 
Painter's brush. 
Painter's brush. 
Painter's brush. 
Engraver's too). 
Engraver's tool. 
Engraver's tool. 
Engraver's tooL 



or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving, 
or engraving. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT, 
THEATRICAL I\1AGES— Continoed. 



71 



as 


Siamese nftmes. 


Englifth names. 


27437 


MArnia 


Inch Tnle. (12 Siamese inches = 10 English lnoh«-s.) 

Royal seal. 

Royal image. 

Carriage. 

House. 


27438 


P'ratrah 


27439 


P'ra mo 


27440 


Lt™. .::::::.:.;:.::::;::; ::::: 


27441 


Ra*iin 


27442 


Btt'a 


Boat. 


27443 


P'a» 


Floating-house. 







VARIETIES. 



27444 I PIhn-€h4k.wow . 

27445 K*on-men 

27446 Tra: 

27447 Tra: 

27448 Tra: 

27449 Tra: 

27460 Tra: 

27451 Tra: 

27452 Tra: 

27453 Hala.pangh4h ... 

27454 ' Plaa-yuen 



.' Kite-twine; weight, 7 ch'ang, Chinese. 
. Porcupine qnills, 100 quills. 
. I Toi-toise shell 
. j Tortoise shell. 
J Tortoise shell. 
. I Tortoise shell. 
1 Tortoise shelL 
. I Tortoise shelL 
. Tortoise sheU. 
. : Black wood. 
.1 One Cochin Chinese hammock. 



MATS. 



27455" 

27450 I 

27457 

27458 

97459 

27400 

27401 

27402 

27403 

27404 

27405 

27400 

27407 

27408 

27409 

27470 

27471 

27472 

27473 

27474 I 

27475 

27470 

27477 

27478 

?7479 

27480 , 



Sh'a-K'lAh 

Sh'a-KlAh.... 
Sh'a-K'lAh .... 
Sh'a-K'lAh..... 
Sii'a-K'lAh..... 

Sh'a-KMAh 

Sh'a-kok 

Sh'a-kok 

Sh*a-kok , 

Sii'a-kok 

Sh'a-kok 

StiVmAi-lai.... 
Sii'a-mAi-Ui.... 
Sh'a-mAi-lai ... 
Sh'a-mAilai.... 
Sii'a-mAi-lai ... 

Sii'a-wAl 

Sh'a-wAi 

SVawAi 

Sh'a-wAl 

Sh'a-wAi 

Sti*a-lam-paan . 
Sti'a-lam-paan . 
Sii'a-lam-paan . 
Sh*a-lam-paan . 
Sii'a-lam-paan . 



KMAh mat 
K'lAh roar. 
K*]Ah mat. 
K'lAh mat. 
K'lAh mat 
K'lAh mat 
Kok mat 
Kok mat. 
Kok mat 
Kok mat 
Kok mat 
HAi-lai mat 
MAilai mat 
MAilai mat. 
MAi lai mat 
MAilai mat 
Rattan mat 
Rattan mat 
Rattan mat. 
Rattan mat 
Rattan mat. 
Lam-paan mat 
I.am-paan mat 
Lam>paan mat 
Lam-pa)in mnt 
Lam-paan mat. 



STONE. 



27481 
27482 
27483 
27484 
27485 
27480 
27487 
27488 
27489 
27490 
27491 
27492 
27496 
27494 
27495 



Hinbot .. 
Hin-bot... 
Hin-bot... 
Hin-bot... 
Hin-bot . 
K*rok-hin 

f*rok-hin 
'rok-hin 
K'rok-hin 
K'rok-hin 
K'rok-din 
K'rok-din 
K'rok-din. 
K'rok-din. 
K'rok-din 



Stone slab and roller to grind medicines. 

Stone slab and roller to grind medicines. 

Stone sliib and roller to grind medicines. 

Stone slab and roller to grind meoicines. 

Stone slab ana roller to grind medicines. 

Stone mortar and pestle. 

Stone mortar and pestle. 

Stone mortar and pestle. 

Stone mortar and pestle. 

Stone mortar and pestle. 

Earthen mortar. 

Earthen mortar. 

Earthen mortar. 

Earthen mortar. 

Earthen mortar. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



72 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 
POTTERY. 






27496 
27497 
27498 
27499 
27J>00 
27501 
275<»2 
27503 
27504 
27505 
27506 
27507 
27508 
27509 
27510 



SiamefM) Qames. 



Mji>u-k'(^w I Ric© pot. 

MJlu-k'^w I Rice pot. 

U&ii-k'Aw Rioe pot. 

M}^uk*6w ' Rice pot. 

MAii-k'ow Rice pot. 

^j^u-k'6w Rici^po.t. 

Mku-kaaofc 1 Ourry pot. 

Mau-kaiins i Curry pot, 

Mfiii-ka^ing Curry pot. 

Mao-kaaD{; Curry pot. 

Mjiu-kaauf; Curry pot. 

M^u-kaang Curry pot. 

Guaup Farmer's sun hat. 

GiiRup FamHT's sun hat. 

Gnaup Faimerasun hat. 



Engliah uaines. 



SPINNING MACHINES. 



27.511 


N; 


27512 


N 


27513 


N 


27514 


N 


27515 


N 


27516 


K 


27517 


K 


27518 


K 


27519 


K 


27520 


K 


27.521 


H 


27522 


H 


27523 


H 


275 .'4 


H 


27525 


H 



Cotton apiuning- wheel. 

Cotton 8pinuin>t-wlieel. 

Cot on 8piuning-whe«'I. 

Cotton Hpiuuing-wheel. 

Cotion vpinnmg wheel. 

W Bow for Huappiog cotton. 

W Bow for HnappiDu: cotton. 

ki Bow for .snapping cotton. 

'i»i Bow for anapplng cotton. 

ai Bow for Hnapping cotton. 

ti Cotton preHH. 

li I ('ottun pi-o.Hs. 

li Colion prena. 

li Cotton pi-eas, 

li.... Cotton jirertH. 



SUGARS. 



27526 
27627 
27528 
27529 
27530 
27531 
27532 
27533 
27534 
27535 



NA.ni-tahnsai-yahDgdam-mu*-ang- 

Sa-Roeng-8ow. 
NAm-t-ahn aai-k'^w-mn'-ang Sara- 

huree. 
NAni-tahn sai-dani-mn'-ang Chan- 

ta-bnree. 
N&ni-tahn sai-k'Aw -rou'-ang Na- 

kaun-chai-s^>e. 
N&m-tahn aaik'dw -rau'-ang Rah- 

cha buree. 
NAiU'tahn aai -k'llw-ranng-inQ'- 
aDg-Nakann-chai-si'e. 
N4m-tahn rohng-chak-nank-mu- 

ang-Nakaun-chni-H^e. 
NAni-tahnsal-rohng'Chak-nai-mn'- 

ang-Nak aan-chai-R6e. 
NAm-tahn aai-dam-nm'-ang-Nak- 

aun*chai-8^^e. * 
NAintahn Hai-k'dw, niu'-ang.Sa- 

80eng-80W. 



I Black Bugnr from the Province Sa-soeng-aow : weight, 41 

chang. 
White sugar fiom the Province Sara-buree: weight, 40 

chang. 
I Black augar from the Province Chanta-buree ; weight, 41 
' chang. 
White Bugar from the Province Nakaan-cbai-Kee ; weight. 

40 chang. 
White augar from Riibcha bun^e ; weight, 38 chang. 
I 

I Inferior white sugar from Nakanuchai s^o ; weight, 38 
' chang. 
I Sugar trom the foreign steam sugar mill at Nakann-chai- 

H6e: weight, 38 chang (48 pounds Engliah). 
' Sugar from native st^-am sugar mill at the Province Xukano- 

chai-M6e: weight, WW chang (44 pounds Enitlish). 
J Brown sugar from Nakauu-chai-s^e ; weight, 41 chang. 

White sugar from Province Sasoeng-sow ; weight. :J8 chang. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



27536 
27537 
27Ki8 
27539 
27540 
27641 
27642 
2754:{ 
27644 



Nang-sti'a-Iaitalap Tigers akin, spotted 

Nang-ch'a-mot... ' Mnskrat skin 



P'on-du'-eh 

Gnu-Mam 

Gnu-Uhm 

GnulAbm 

Nftu-niAibAaog 



A kind of barl**y ; weight, 35i chaog. 

Boa conntrlctor's skin. 

Skin of a small species of boa. 

Skin of a small species of boa. 

prietl bamt^oo sprouts ; weight, 13 chang. 



Rong Gum gamboge ; weight, 34^ chaog. 

K^e p'ung Beeswax ; weight, 34j chang. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 






TiViE: XA ry depar tmest. jt^ 

MISCELLANEOFS— Continued. 
Siamese names. EngliBh names. 



27545 I)ni-dip *... Cotton yarn ; weight, 5 chang. 

27546 , MAi-kuep ^ Twlstexl silk, one twiftt. 

27547 MAiliU) Laos silk, two twists. 

27548 Mdl-lAo Laos silk, two twists. 

27549 P'on-raaw , Bsstard cardamoms : weight, 21^ chang. 

27.550 j P'on-kra ; wabn-Pohtesat. Cardamoms from the Province Pohtesat ; weight, 13chang. 

27551 I Plingta; laa Sea leech (Ueche-dc-mere); weight, IS^ chang. 

27552 1 Pon-kra-bow Krabow sfed : weieht. 40 chang. 

2755.1 Krang Shellac ; \reieht, 28 chang. 

27554 Pou-kra ; wahnMatabaimg Biistnid caiuemonis from Province Matabong; weight. 9( 

chang. 

27555 Klet-lin 

27556 Met4ahiing Castor oil beans ; weight, 28 chang. 

TOBACCOS. 

27.^57 t Yah dee, mn'ang Kahncha-hnree. Best Kaubnree tobacco. 

2755A Tahklahng^ mu'-ang t'anug : Medium tobacco from Province of Angt'aung. 

27559 Yah Klahng, mu'-ang Nak-aun* ' Medium tobacco fit>m the Province of Nakaunchais6e 

chai-s^e. 

27560 Yah klahng, mu'-ang P^tch'a Medium tch'a P^buree tobacco. 

buree. 

27561 , Yah lew, mu'-ang Baug-ch'Ahng.. Inferior tobacco from the Province of Bang-ch'Ahng. 

27562 { Yah lew, mu'-ang Xakanu-chai-s^e luferior Nakauu-chai-»^e tobacco. 

27561 Yah klahng, Bang-ch'&bng Medium Ban g-cb 'Ah ng tobacco. 

27,504 i Yah lew, Saraburee Inferior Saraburee tobacco. 

27565 I Yah lew, mu' ang Lak'aun Infeiior I'goro tobacco. 

27.566 Yah lew, mn'-aug Kahnchaburee. Inferior Kabnchaburee tobacco. 

27567 ; Vah lew, mu'aug P'etachaburee..* Inferior i'Vtchaburee tobaccco. 

27568 j Yah dee, Saraburee First-class Saraburee tobacco. 

275C9 I Yah lew. mu*-ang, Austahng Infei ior Aniitahug tobacco. 

27570 ; Yah dee. mu'-ang Lak'aun First-cla'S Ligore tobacco. 

27571 I Yah klahng mu'-ang Saraburee.. . Medium Saraburee tobacco. 

27572 j Yuh dee Bahng-ch'Ahng First-class Bahnif-ch'Ahuj; tobacco. 

27573 I Yah klahng, mu'-ang Eahncba- Kahnaburee medium tobacco. 
! buree. 

27574 j Yah dee, mu'ang P'etchaburee .. First-class P'etchaburee tobacco. 

Yah dee, mu'-ang !Nakaun-chai- First-class Nakaun-chai->6e tobacco. 

27575 ' 86e. 

27576 t Tah dee, mu -ang Angt'aung First-class Angt'aung tobacco. 



27577 
27578 
27579 
27580 
27581 
27582 
27583 
27584 
27585 
27586 
27587 
27588 
27589 



27690 
27601 

27592 
27593 
27594 
27505 
27596 

27597 
27598 
27509 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

P'rik t'al dam Black pepper, 

F'Ai hot Cleaned cotton. 

Ndng Nahk Three beavers' skins. 

Pan { Hemp bark. 

K'6n-nok-kra: ten i Two huudred king-flshers" feathers. 

Prik-t'ai-k'Aw White pepper; weight, 21 chang. 

K4ra-man'k'wai Buffalo oil ; weight 12 chang. 

Bang-no k-yahiig-dee ' First-das'; edible birds' nests : weight, 1) chang. 

VV'aMa: k'ah Ta: kah rattan. 

Waita-k'ah Ta: kah rattan. 

Rang nok-yabng klahng Edible birds' nests, medium quality; weight, 1| chang. 

Pahu-bai H?mp cloth ; weight, 1 chang. 

K'rahn Indigo, half-bucket. 

SEEDS. 



6'nah-met-kmng-kiiw , Tulseed from Aguthiee, the old ca|[>ital. 

G'nah-met-mn'- ang-su - p'anta-bu- Tulseed from the Province of Supan. 

fee. 

T'u-a-k'6w ; White beans. 

T'u-a-ton-tai ; Tai beans. 

T'n-a-t'anng Taung (gold) beans. 

T'a-a4oh-86ng .". Soh sons beans. 

G'nah-met-mu'-ang- Rahchah-bu- Kachaburee teelseed. 

ree. 

T'a-a-dam-lek Small black bead's. 

T'n-a-dam-yfii LargH bla4k beaus. 

T'u«a-k'i-ea Green beans. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



74 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 
SEEDS— Continaed. 



•325 

li 



27600 
27001 
27602 
27608 
27604 
27605 
27606 
27607 
27608 
27609 
27610 
27611 
27612 
27613 
27614 
27615 
27616 
27617 
27618 
27619 
27620 
27621 
27622 
27623 
27624 
27625 
27626 
27627 
27628 
27620 
97630 
27681 

27632 
27633 
27684 

27635 
27636 
27637 
27638 
27630 
27640 
27641 
27642 
27643 

27644 
27645 

27646 
27647 
27648 
27649 
27650 

27651 
27652 

27653 
27654 
27655 

27656 
27657 
27658 
27659 
27660 
27661 

27662 
27663 
27664 
27665 
27666 
27667 
27668 
27660 



Siamese Dames. 



T'M-k'a 

T'Wdee-ow 

K'raht-yfth 

K*raht-chak-yah . 
K*Taht-80Dg-yah . 
L'a-aii-lahk-K*6w 
M&i-h<ia-yoke ... 
MAi-keep-mti 

CI 
Si 
K 
P' 
K 
K 
S^ 
S^ 
K 
K 
Se 
K 
Ti 
K 
K 
K 
K 
K 
K 
K 

K „„ 

K'6w k'&w ch'aw wang 
K'6w k'4w k'amdne ... 



>«. 



K'6 w p'ra : yah ohdm. . . . 
K'6w lu-ang p'u-ang .... 
K'dw t'aanff mah klutk. 



K'dwk'Awtahchti.i.. 

K'6w nahng k'&i 

K'6w hin sauD 

K'6wta:sii.l 

K'6w kttan chan 

K'6w ta: p'ahp nAm .. 
K'6w p'a-aDg mah lai. 

K'6wlam yal 

K'dw nAm p'ting 



K'6w ch&a ma-i 
K'6w kftan ma: 



K'6w naen taang 

K'dw dam k'wan t'i*en 

K'6w kewklahng 

K*6w sdi t'aane 

K'6w hAng mAh s6e make. . 



K'6w plai snahm 

K'6w kra: auk ch'ADg. . 



K'dwlh'ang 

K'6w daang 

K'6w nahng ta: k'raong. 

K*dw gush ohAhDg.. 



English namen. 



Plow for a nair of huflkloee. 

Plow for single buflfalo. 

Rake. 

Rake to drag grass or hay. 

Rake to ^and up grass or hay. 

An implement to drag rice. 

An implement. 

An Implement. 

An implement. 

An implement to break up earth. 

An implement to dig the earth. 

An instrument to reap paddy. Sickle. 

6ra»ii cutter. 

A Laosian shoulder-stick for carrying burdens. 

A kind of sickle. 

Rice mill or grinder. 

Husk blower. 

Foot pestle for pounding rice. 

Wood mortar to pound rice in. 

Wooden pestle for rice mortar. 

A kind of moriar for the pestle No. 27617. 

A kind of pestle used by band. 

Yellow fVagrant rice, gathered Ave months after planting. 

Luang p'ahn taung rice, gathered six months after planting. 

K'em taung rice, gathered six months after planting. 

Champah tUinng rice, fathered five months after planting. 

Kanchut rice, gathered five months after planting. 

HAng rice, gathered five months after planting. 

Nahng haum rice, gathered six months after planting. 

White sung sot rice, gathered seven months after planting. 

White chaw wang rice, gathered three months afterplantlng. 

White Cambodian rice, gathered three months after plant- 
ing. 

Pru: yah ohdra rice, gathered three months after planting. 

Yellow P'u-ang rice, gathered three months after plantinz. 

Taung mah k'aak rice, gathered eight months after plant, 
ing. 

White tah chtl-i rice, gathered eight months after planting. 

Nahng k'lii nee, gathered five months atter planting. 

Hin sAun rice, gathered six months after planting. 

Ta: stl-1 rice, gathered four months after pUinting. 

Kf&an chan rice, gathered five months after planting. 

Ta: p'ahp nAm nee, gathered six months after planting. 

P'u-ang mah lal rice, gatheri»d five months after planting. 

Lara yal rice, gathere<l six months after planting. 

NAm p'ting (honey) rice, gathered six months after plant- 
ing. 

ChAn ma-prahng rice, gathered three months after planting. 

Eaan ma kM-a rice (ebony rice), gathered three months 
after planting. 

Nu en taang rice, gathered three months after planting. 

Dam k*wan t'i-en rice, gathered five months after planting. 

Eew klahng rice, gathered six months after plantmg. 

S^i t'auns rice, gathered six months after planting. 

UAng mAh s^ make rice, gathered six months after plant- 
ing. 

P'lai gnahm rice, gathered seven months after planting. 

Kra: duk ch'Ang (elephant bone) rice, gathered seven months 
after planting. 

Lu'ang (yellow) rice, gathered seven months after planting. 

Daang (red) rice, gathered seven months after plantinsr. 

Nahng ta: k'raung rice, gathered seven months after plant- 
ing. 

Gnah chAhng rice, gathered seven months after planting. 

K'6 w pa: mAh. ... 7. ' Pa: mah rice, gathered eight months after planting. 

K'6w k'Aw ; K'Aw rice (white), gathereil eight months after planting. 

K'6w baling maun I Bahng mann rice, gathered eight months after planting. 

K'6 w taung gnahm I Taung gnahm rice, gathered eight months after planting. 

K'6w k'Avr yai I K*Aw yai (large white) rice, gathered eight months after 

planting. 

Cbet p'ak rice, gathered eight months after planting. 

Soin bun rice, gathered eif^t months after planting. 

Pn-Hug ma: bote rice, gathered six months after planting. 



K'6w chet p'ak 

K'6 w som bun 

K'6w pn-ang ma: bote. 

K'6w s6i sa: wing 

K'6w sAi bu-a 

K'6w haum nak, 



86i aa: wing rice, gathered six months after planting. 
SAi bu-a rice, gathered seven months after planting. 



Hnum nak rice, gathered seven montha after pbiur'n?. 

K'6w k'Au ph-ang K'Au ph-ang rice, gathered eight months after planting. 

K'6 w daang sal i Daang sai rice, gathered eight months after plantivig. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC' 



THE NAVY DEPARTMElfT. 



75 



SBBD8— Continaed. 



5* 


Siamese names. 


English names. 


27870 


K'ftw k'4w sap'sn. ....«*. .r.T,. r*- 


White sap'an rice, gathered five months after planting. 
Yung ta: lai rice, gathered seven months after planting. 
Kret rice, gathered seven months after planting. 
K^w rioe, gathered seven months after planting. 
K'&w koh: rice, gathered seven months after planting. 
T'aung sak rice, gathered seven months after planting. 
T'sung ta: nee rice, gathered eight months after planting. 
P&um rice, gathered eight months after planting. 


27671 


K'dwyfmeta: lai 




K'dw kret 


37678 


K'dwkdw 


27674 


K'dw k'4w koh: 


27675 
27676 


K*dw t'aung sak 

K'Aw t'aniiir ta: nee 


276n 


K'dwPAam 



84 
65 
66 
87 
88 
88 
60 
91 
92 
66 
94 
95 
96 
97 
96 
99 
160 
101 
102 
166 
104 
166 
106 
107 
108 
100 
110 
111 
112 
IIB 
lU 
115 
116 
U7 
118 
119 
Iff 

m 

IS 
196 





GLUTINOUS GRAIN. 


27678 


K*dw rahk kln-i 


Rahk-kla-i rice, gathered six months after planting. 

Nok ka: tah, partridge rioe, gathered seven months after 

planting. 
Dank ka: nahk rice, gathered eight months after planting. 
T6m rice, gathered six months after planting. 
Short sto<;k paddy. 
Short stock glutinous rice. 
Long stuck rice. 
Long stock glutinous paddy. 
Long stock bing chAhng (elephant tail) rice. 
Sa: rant koh dom rice. 


27679 


K*dwnokka: tah 


27680 


K*6wdankka: nahk 


27681 


K*dirt6m 




K'dw poht k'ow oh6w .».. 


27688 


K'A w p* oht k'ow ni«ew 


27684 


K'dw rahng k'dw chow 


27685 
S7686 


K*d w fahng-k'bw ni-ew 

K*6w fahng h&og ch'Ahng 


27687 


K'Aw SA; mnt ko^ dom . .T ........ . 


27688 


P'6ndaai Dla-ak 


Barley uushelled. 


27689 




Barley husked (cleaned). 

Cart wagon. 

A pair of white buffalo horns. 

A pair of black bufEklo horns. 

An iron spade. 

A wooden 8pade. 

CoarMO itieve for sifting rice. 

A fine sieve for sifting rice. 

A basket. 


27600 


Ki-enka: t'aa 


27691 
27692 


K'dw kra: ba''p'aak k'h 

K'dwkra: bu' dam k'h 


27608 


P'lu-a lek 


27694 


PMu-amAi 


27695 
276B6 
27697 


Ta: kraang raun-k'ow hilhng 

Ta: kraang raun-k'ow t'^ 

Kra: bnns 


27608 


Kra: dong 


A bamboo basket rioe cleaner. 









SPECIMENS OF WOOD. 



liAi Chan til' an. 

Il4i ynng 

HAi Chan ta: tip. 

HAison 

llAita:bsak.... 

MAikletlin 

JdAl pohng 
liAi gnah ch'Ang 
HAinahsee. .. 
MAisamak .r... 
MAichahng ... 
MAInahngpron. 
llAi ta:kMen.... 
llAi ch'ang yake 

liAika:bow 

llAi teen pet 

MAinahruet .... 
llAiin ta:nin... 
MAika: bahk... 
lIAi ch'am ch'Ah 
lIAiP'a: wah... 
IfAi nahk but ... 
HAikra: ting.. 

MAlrak 

KAik*rAi 

IfAi Inra p'an . . . 

KAiyahng 

lCAIta:bnn 

MAiman mfi.... 

IfAikl'em 

MA< kai fang... 

MAlrak 

MAI p'oh ta: laa. 
MAI gnah oh'Ang 

MAl!a:lum 

MAikate 

MAlnlohke 

MAikfim 

MAisahk 

MAIhieng 



Wild sandal wood. 

Tung wood. 

Chan ta: tip wood. 

Pine wood or son wood. 

Ta: baak wood. 

Klet lin wood. 

Pohng wood. 

Ivory wood. 

Nah see wood. 

Samak wood. 

Chahng wood. 

Nahng pron wood. 

Ta: kMeu wood (heavy). 

Ch'Ang wood. 

Ka: bow wood. 

Teen pet wood. 

Nah met wood. 

In ta: nin wood. 

Ka: bahk wood. 

Ch'am ch'Ah wood (pine). 

P'a: wah wood. 

Nahk but wood. 

Kra: t'ing wood. 

Rak wood (lacker tree). 

K'rAi wood. , 

Lum p'aii wood. 

Yahng wood. 

Ta: bun wood. 

Man mil wood. 

Klem wood. 

Ka: t'ang wood. 

Rak womI. 

Poh ta: laa wood. 

Gnah ch'Ang wood^ ivory wood. 

Ta: lum wood. 

Kate wood. 

Ulohke wood. 

Kiiin wood. 

Sahk wood. 

Hieng wood. 



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76 



ISTERXATIOXAL EXHIRITIOX, 1876. 
SPECIMENS OF WOOD— Continued. 






SianieAe nnmcA. 



English names. 



124 
125 

126 , 

127 , 

128 I 
129 
130 I 
131 
132 
131 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 

139 I 

140 I 

141 ' 
142; 
143 
144 I 
145 

146 ! 

147 I 
148 
149 

150 i 

151 ! 

152 I 

153 i 
154 

155 I 

156 I 
157 

158 I 

159 : 

160 i 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 
191 
192 
193 
194 
195 
196 

197 
198 
199 
200 



MAIniA:kAh 

IklAidani ilong...." 

MAlf : bake 

MAi chan t«: fit 

MAi ka: tang 

M&i t'nrien 

M4I bariwdne 

MAi ehnenz 

MAiwAh 

MAi sAhn 

MAipi-et 

MAi Hiiri en 

MAi baiiwane 

MAiNon 

MAi jrnaun kai 

MAinalik but 

MAi piohus: 

MAi ian>>bon 

MAi pobn>e 

MAi pe: 

MAi chahng 

M Ai k'a: nun 

MAi ni-enpah 

MAi sang k a: t 'am 

MAi nok naiin 

MAi k'Ah nalin;{ 

MAi nuin mix 

MAinjangka 

MAI lam paan 

MAi Kobn^zKahng 

MAi ma: praitnj; 

MAi K'laaujr 

MAi Ka: faun 

MAi Kak 

MAi 8ii-Km 

MAipiIng 

MAi in tauin 

MAi ta: ki-en sal 

MAi p'ong 

MAikaa 

MAi Krai 

MAi p'lap 

MAI teen pet 

MAicb'ah niueng 

MAi lu- et k'wai 

MAi pa: ni-eng 

MAi ka: ri-eng 

MAi Mangkahn 

MAi pnah ch'ahng 

MAiyshng ka: Men 

MAi t»:koh 

MAi siet san 

MAika:nAhn 

MAi ta: k'i-en sahm p'aun 

MAi sai bu*ang : 

MAItleu 

MAlta: k'i-en 

MAi kra: rAa .- 

MAi p'om gnuet 

MAi vung 

MAiknumtk 

MAimak 

MAip'a: wAh 

MAi Haug kriet 

MAi lien 

MAi cbanipah 

MAi cbungku-et .. 

MAita:taaw 

MAip'ai 

MAi ka: baak 

MAllnhw 

MAi ko-epnak sahm-tam Inngchin. 
M Ai sak > iii raup sig-kaw kam 

MAI sak k'ee k'wai pftan 

MAi sak t'aung pilan 

MAllahw... 

Dai dip 



MA: k'Ab wcH»d. 

Dam dung iroud. 

Ta: l»ake w«»fMl. 

Cbanta: t'itwood. 

Ku: tang woml. 

Durian wood. 

Bariwane wi»od. 

Chneug wood. 

WAh wood. 

SAhn wootl. 

Pi-et wood. 

Suri-en wood. 

Kariwane uood. 

Non wood. 
I (luann kiii woo<l (cockscomb wood>. 
' Nabk but wood. 
I Prohng wood. 
I Tangbon wood. 
I Pobng wood. 
• Pe: wood. 
; Chahng wood. 
1 Jack fruit ti-ee wood. 

Ni-en piih wood. 

Sang ka: tarn wood. 
' Nok naun wood. 
' K'Ah naling wood. 

Man nii\ wood. 

Maiig k'a w<io<l. 

Lam pann wo<k1. 

Koling Kaling wood. 

Ma: prahng wooil. 

K'raaug wo d. 
1 Ka: t'aun wood. 
' Itak Wood. 

Si^-em woo<l. 

Pi lug WOOil. 
, In ta nil! wood. 
I Ta:k i-en Siii wood. 
i P'ongwwHi. 
' K'aawood. . 
, Krai wood. 
I P'lap wood. 

Teen pet wo<mI. 

Cli'ab uiueuu wood. 

Lii'et k'wai wood (buffalo blood wood). 

Pa: nieng wocmI. 

Ka: ri-eng wood. 

Maug kahn wood. 

Guah cli'ahn^ wood. 
, Yahng ka: si-en wood. 

Ta: koh wchmI. 

iSi-ct sail W001I. 

Ka: nAlin wood. 

Ta: k'ien sabni p'aun wood. 

Sai bu'aug wood. 

Tieu wood. 

Ta: k'i-en woml. 

Kra: rAa wood. 

P'om wood. 

Yung wooil. 

Kan mi) wtMxl. 

Mak %«oo<]. 

P'a: wAli wood. 

Sanj; kri-et wood. 

Li*Rn wo4id. 

Champah wood. 
, Chung ku-et wood. 

Ta: taaw wood. 

Bamboo. 

Ka: baak wood. 

Lahw wood. 

Ku-ep womi ; weight, 3 tarn lung, Chinese. 
\ One round block teak wood, semi-cii-cnmference. 10 kam ; 
weight, 14 ch'ang. 

K'eo k'wai teak plank 

T'aung pftan (golden) teak plank. 
, Laosian silk : weight, 8 tarn lung, Chinese. 

Cotton yarn ; weight. 5 chang Chinese. 



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S- 



THE NAVY DEPARTMENT. 77 

MINERAl. ORES. 

Siamese names. English names. 



20000 B^-gMlena Galena from the Pi-ovince Pa: lAh. 

20001 K&at'aongkam Gold from the Pmvinee Krabin. 

20002 Rita t'aung-<laang j Copper from the Province Chant'iik, under the j tirisd iction 

of the Province Korabt. 

20003 Riia-dee-biik i Tin from the Pnivince Rananng. 

20004 < lUka-dee-buk I Sfcond-cla^stin; unotherquality found iu the plains, white, 

\ ! in the Province Koket. 

SOOO-** RJUi-dee-bnk -.| Tin found in the Province Prachnep. 

20006 KiM-prnanz I . , Antimony miiced with gold, found in the stream Nam It, in 

Poket. 
2<H)07 I Raa-mt^-ang yai Or^s from the great mineral district. 

20008 I Ki^at^e-sam j Thii d-class ore, found in yellow soil, mixed with red stonea, 

in Pohet. 

20009 I Bi^a-pmang ' Antimony attached to rock, at an island near the sea-shore, 

at Puket. 

20010 1 Yahng-k'iempa-nanng ' Copal varnish ^um. 

20011 i R&M-l*<k . Irt»n ore ftiund m the Prorince Singora. 

20012 K^-t*eeniing , An orf found back of mountains, in the Province Puket. 

20013 RiU ' Ore at KnhOhang Island, in the Ranaung Province. 

20014 R^-ka-ow GrMuular-lron pyrites, " white ore " from Ranaung Prov- 

; I ince. 

20015 Rka-koh-Chang I Ore I rom Koh-Chnng Island. 

RICE IN BOTTLES. 

Kia-k6: mtfne ) 

Loang-pu-eng > Rice made of each of these kinds of uuglutinous paddy. 

Paum ) 

Tachn-i ) 

Kau-cbut > Ric« made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

Kew s ) 

Chan-ma: prahtjg ) 

Pfieng-mablai > Rice made of each of tbe-se kinds of glutinous paddy. 

Ta: 8U-i ) 

Ltiang-bdnm ) 

Habng-mA: s^emake >Rice made of each of those kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

TaoDg-iEnabm 3 

EAu-y&i - > 

Plai-Enabm >Rice made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

S6i-iAonir ) 

KAa-cbA w wang ^\ 

Kret > Rice made of each of these kinds of unjilutinous paddy. 

Charopah t'aong ) 

Hang ) 

Taung-snk > Rice made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

Taung-niah-kauk > 

Kaan-chan ) 

Nok-kra-tnh >Rice made of each of these kinds of glutinous paddy. 

NAm p'nng ) 

S'aibiia. t... ) 

K'Au-gnab-chAng > Rico made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

KAw ) 

Babng-mauD ) 

PVa: yah-ch'ora > Rice made of each of those kinds of unglutinous p.iddy. 

Nahny ta : k'ann ) 

L'uang-pabn-t Anng ) 

L'nsDg > Rice made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

Haom-uak — ) 

. P'a : mah \ 

P*oeng-nia: bote > Rice made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

Chet-pak ) 

Daany ) 

K'aA-pn-ene > Rice made of each of these kinds of unglutinous paddy. 

Kat^-sang-Mor ) 

Soi-«a: aawtng ) 

K'Aw-kaw >Rice made of each of these kinds of nu^lutinous paddy. 

Kaw-klahng .V. .'.'.' ) 

Bank-kra: nabk >Ric« made of each of these kinds of glutinous paddy. 

Daro-viii ) 

Dam-kwaD-t'i-em 

Ta: pAh-nAm 

NneU'taang . . 

K'ra dnk-cb'&'ng 1 

K'em t'auQg >Rice made of each of these kinds of nuglutinous paddy. 

Nahng-klii S * ^ ^ 

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> Rico made of each of theee kinds of glutinous padd}-. 



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REPORT 



PARTICIPATION OF THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 18T6. 



Hon. K. W. TAYLEE, 1st Oomptroller, 
JRepresenlative of Treaswij Departmmt at Inlemaiional Exhihitiou^ 187G. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFPIOE 
1884. 

79 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



p»g& 

Listof Secretaries of the Treasury, 1789 to 1876 83 

Officers of the Treasary Department during the Centennial year 83 

History of the organization of the Treasury Department 87 

History of the Light-House Board 95 

Exhibits of the Light-House Board at the Exhibition : 

Lenticular apparatus 99 

Lamps 100 

Lamp-burners 102 

Wicks and chimneys 1 102 

Illuminating material 102 

Cleaning materials and implements '103 

Testing instruments 104 

Light-houses and models 105 

Buoys 106 

Light^ships 107 

Maps, plans, and graphic representations 107 

Fog-signals — v 108 

History of the United States Coast Survey 113 

Catalogue of instruments, &c., exhibited by the U. S. Coast Survey : 

Standard weights and measures of the United States 117, 122 

Geodesy 117 

Surveying 119 

Hydrography 120 

Office publications 121 

History of the Life-Saving Service 125 

Districts 128 

Superintendent's 129 

Keepers 129 

Crews 131 

Stations — ^life-saving 131 

life-boat 132 

houses of refuge 132 

Apparatus and equipments 133 

Catalogue of the exhibit of the Life-Saving Service 135 

Superintendents of construction .*. 137 

Inspectors 137 

Fiscal management 138 

Co-operatioii of the Storm-Signal Service 138 

History of the United States Mint and Coinage * 143 

Description of U. S. Medals exhibited at the Exhibition 144 

History of Bureau of Engraving and Printing 157 

Catalogue of exhibits of the Bureau at the Exhibition 157 

History of Office of Supervising Architect of the Treasury 161 

Catalog lie of exhibits of the Office at the Exhibition 163 

History of the Bureau of Internal Revenue 167 

Catalogue of exhibits of the Bureau at the Exhibition 168 

6 CBN, PT 2 



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THE TREASUKY DEPARTMENT. 



8E0BETABIE8 OF THE TBEASUBT. 
1789 to 1870. 



Nimes. 



Wheiioe appointed. 



Alexander Hamilton... 

Oliver Wolcott, jr 

Samael Dexter 

Albert Gallatin 

George W. Cuopbell. .. 
Alexander J. Dallas — 
William H. Crawford .. 

BichardRnsh 

Samuel D. Ingham 

Lonia HoLane 

William J. Duane 

Soger B. Taney 

Levi Woodbury 

Thomas £ wing 

Walter Forward 

John C. Spencer 

George M. Bibb 

Bobert J. Walker 

WUliam M. Meredith .. 

Thomas Corwin 

James Guthrie 

Howell Cobb 

Philip F. Thomas 

JohnA.Dii 

Salmon P. Chase 

William P. Fessenden . 

Hugh McCnlloch 

GeOTge S. Boutwell 

Wniiam A. Richardson 
Benjamin H. Bristow... 
Lot M.Morrill 



New York 

Connecticut 

Massachusetts... 
Pennsylvania — 

Tennessee 

Pennsvlvania — 

G^eorgia 

Pennsylvania 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Pennsylvania — 

Maryland 

New Hampshire. 

Ohio 

Pennsylvania. . . . 

New York 

Kentucky 

Mississippi 

Pennsylvania 

Ohio 

Kentucky 

Georgia 

Maryland 

New York 

Ohio 

Maine 

Indiana .. 

Massachusetts . . . 
Maroach nsetts . . . 

Kentucky 

Maine ... 



Date of 
commission. 



Expiration of 
service. 



Sept 

Feb. 

Jan. 

May 

Feb. 

Oct. 

Oct 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Aug. 

May 

Sept 

June 

Mar. 

Sept 

Mar. 

June 

Mar. 

Mar. 

July 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

July 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

June 

June 



11, 1789 
2, 1795 
1,1801 

U,1801 
9, 1814 
6, 1814 

22, 1816 
7,1825 
6.1829 
8.1831 

29,1833 

23, 1833 

27,1834 
5,1841 

13,1841 
3,1843 

15,1844 
6,1845 
8,1849 

28.1850 
7.1853 
6,1867 

12,1860 

11, 1861 
7,1861 
1,1864 
7.1865 

11, 1869 

17, 1873 
4,1874 

21, 1876 



' Jan. 
jDec 
I May 
; Apr. 
I Sept. 
I Oct 

Mar. 

Mar. 
I June 
I May 

Sept 
I June 
;Mar. 

i May 

Mar. 

Mar. 

July 
'Mar. 

Mar. 

Dec. 

Jan. 

Mar. 

June 

Mar. 

Mar. 

Mar. 

June 

June 



81, 1795 

31,1800 

6, 1801 

20,1818 

26,1814 

21, 1816 

3.1825 

3,1829 

20,1831 

29.1833 

23,1833 

24,1834 

4,1841 

11,1841 

28,1843 

2,18U 

7,1845 

5,1849 

22,1850 

7,1853 

6,1857 

8,1860 

14,1861 

6,1861 

30,1864 

3,1865 

4,1869 

16,1873 

3,1874 

20, 1876 



OFFICERS OF THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT DURING THE CENTENNIAL YEAR. 



Names. 



BKCBETAB1B8. 



Benjamin H. Bristow. 
Lot M.Morrill 



Charles F. Conant 
Curtis F. Bumam 
Henry F. French. 



A88I8TA1IT 8BCBBTARIBS. 

n 



Whenceappolnted. ^^^,^.°^- 



Kentucky . 
Maine 



New Hampshire. 

Kentucky 

Massachusetts. . . 



FIB8T OOHPTBOL^R. 

Robert W, Tayler I Ohio 

DepuHsi. 

William Hemphill Jones i Delaware . . . 

Jonathan Taroell I Mississippi . 



June 4,1874 
June 21, 1876 



July 1,1874 
May 4,1875 
Aug. 7,1876 



Jan. 14,1863 



July 1,1875 
Aug. 25, 1876 



Expiration of 
service. 



June 20, 1876 



July 1, 1876 



Sept 4,1876 

83 



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84 ' INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

OFFICERS OF THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, ETC.— Continued. 



Names. 



Whence appointed. 



Date of com- Expiration of 
miMion. service. 



SECOND COMPTBOLLER. 



John M. Brodhead . . . 
C vms C Carpenter . 



D^fpytixM. 



Edmand B. Curtis. . 
Reuben Williams . 
James S. Delano . . 



COMMI8SIONKB OF CUSTOMS. 

Henry C. Johnson , 

Deputy. 
Henry A. Lockwood , 

FIUST AUDITOR. 

David W. Mahon 

D^mty. 
Henry K. Laver 

SECOND AUDITOE. 

EzraB. French , 

Deputy. 
Charles F. Herring .. 

TUIBD AUDITOR. 



Allan Rutherford. 
Horace Austin — 



Deputy. 
Allen M. Oangewer 

FOURTH AUDITOR. 

Stephen J. W. Tabor 

Deputy. 
William B. Moore 

FIFTH AUDITOR. 

Jacob HEla 

Deputy. 
Jonathan B. Mann 

SIXTH AUDITOR. 

Jacob M. McGrew 

Deputy. 
Frederick B. LiUey 

TREASURER. 



John C. New 

Albert U. Wyman . 



Aseietanti, 



Albert U. Wyman. 
James Gilfillau 



Dist- of Columbia. 
Iowa 



May 28. 1868 Jan. 23, 1876 
Jan. 7,1876 



New York 
Indiana... 
Illinois ... 



July 1,1876 
Jan. 7, 1876 



July 21, 1876 
Apr. 14, 1874 
July 1,1875 
Dec. 21,1871 
July 1,1875 
Aug. 17, 1861 
MaSsaAusette .. July 1,1875 



Pennsylvania 

Wisconsin 

Pennsylvania 

New Hampshire . . 



Maine . 



North Carolina . 
Minnesota 



Ohio.. 
Iowa. . 
Ohio. 



New Hampshire. 
Massachusetts. . . 
Ohio 



New York. 



I 



Apr. 21, 1870 
Jan. 7, 1876 



July 1,1875 

June 1,1863 

July 1,1875 

Jan. 1,1872 

July 1,1875 

July 1,1875 

July 1,1875 



Jan. 16,1876 
Jnly 15,1876 



Jan. 14,1876 



Indiana — 
Wisconsin . 



Wisconsin . 



July 1,1875 
July 1,1876 



Mar. 18, 1875 



Connecticut I June 20, 1876 



July 8,1876 



July 8,1876 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 85 

OFFICERS OF THE TKEASURr DEPARTMENT. ETC.— Contiiiued. 



Names. 



Whence appointed. 



I 

Date of com- 1 Expiration of 

miasion. service. 



KBOI8TBR. 
John Allison 

WilliamP. TItcomb 

COMFTBOLLBB OF THE CURBBNCT. 

John Jay Knox 

Deputy. 
John S. Langworthy 

COMMiaeiONER OF IKTEBNAL HEVE2CUK. 



Daniel D. Pratt . 
Green B. Ranm.. 



Depu^. 
Henry C. Rogers 

DIEECTOB OF THE MIKT. 

Henry R Linderman 

SUPEBVIBniO ABCHITECT. 



William A. Potter. 
James G. Bill 



BUPBBVI6IXO MSrECTOB-GEMEBAL OF STEAMBOATS. 



WiUiam Bnmett . . 
James A. Damon t . 



CHIEF OF BUREAU OF BTATI8TICB. 

Edward Young 

SUPEBVISINO SURGEON-OSKEBAL. 

JohnH. Woodwortb 

CHIEF OF THE BUREAU OF ENGBAVHIG AKD FRIKTIHG. 

George B. McCartee 

Henry C. Jewell : 



SUPEBINTENDEST OF COAST SURVEY. 

Carlisle p. Patterson ^ 



Pennsylvania 

Massachusetts. . . 

Minnesota 

New York 



Indiana. 
Illinois. 



Pennsylvania. 



Pennsylvania 



New York 

Massachusetts. . . 



Massachusetts... 
New York 



Pennsylvania. 
Illinois 



New York 

Dist. of Columbia. 



California. 



Apr. 8.1860 
July 1,1875 
Apr. 25. 1872 
July 1,1875 



May 15,1875 
Aug. 2,1876 



Nov. 23, 1871 



Dec. 8,1873 



Jan. 1.1875 
Aug. 11, 1876 



Dec 23, 1874 
Nov. 28, 1876 



July 1,1870 
Mar. 3.1875 



Mar. 17. 1869 
Feb, 23, 1876 



Feb. 17, 1874 



Aug. 2,1876 



Aug. 11, 1876 



Nov. 23, 1876 



Feb. 21.1876 



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ORGANIZATION OF THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 



The Treasury Department was established by the act of Congress 
approved September 2, 1789. 

The officers provided for were a Secretary of the Treasury, to be 
deemed head of the Department, a Comptroller, an Auditor, a Treasurer, 
a Register, and an Assistant to the Secretary of the Treasury, to be ap- 
pointed by him. The other officers named were to be appointed by the 
President with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

The Department so created was capable of indefinite expansion, to 
m^t the growth of the country and of its business ; and, preserving its 
organization, there are now two assistants to the Secretary, two Comp- 
trollers, a Commissioner of Customs, a Comptroller of the Currency, 
a Commissioner of Internal Revenue, six Auditors, a Treasurer, a Reg- 
ister, and a Superintendent of the Coast Survey, each of whom is ap- 
pointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

The Comptrollers, the Commissioner of Customs, the Auditors, the 
Comptroller of the Currency, and the Register, have each a deputy, and 
the Treasurer an assistant, appointed by the President with the advice 
and consent of the Senate. 

There are also a Supervising Architect of the Department ; a chief of 
the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and a chief of the Bureau of 
Statistics, who are appointed by che Secretary. 

The duties of the Secretary and other officers of the Department re- 
main much the same as at first, though in some instances enlarged, and 
in others divided between the old and new offices ; and, in some others 
where new duties have been prescribed, new offices have been created, 
as in the cases of the Comptroller of the Currency and the Commissioner 
of Internal Revenue; and in yet other instances transfers have been 
made to other Departments, but the general organization retains its 
original form. 

By the act of 1789 it was made the duty of the Secretary of the 
Treasury to digest and prepare plans for the improvement and manage- 
ment of the revenue, and for the support of public credit, to prepare 
and report, estimates of the public revenue and the public expenditures ; 
to superintend the collection of the revenue ; to decide on the forms of 
keeping and stating accounts and making returns, and to grant, under 
the limitations established or to be provided, all warrants for moneys 
to be issued from the Treasury, in pursuance of appropriations by law; 

87 



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88 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

to execute sach services relative to the sale of the lands belonging to 
the United States as might be by law required of him ; to make report 
and give information to either branch of the legislature, in person or in 
writing (as he might be required), respecting all matters referred to him 
by the Senate or House of Representatives, or which shall appertain to 
his oflBce ; and, generally, to perform all such services relative to the 
finances as he should be directed to perform. 

The duties of the Secretary have been, in many things, increased at 
various times, and in many instances during and since the late war, 
especially in relation to the issue and redemption of United States 
securities and notes. 

The Assistant Secretaries discharge such duties as may be required 
of them by the Secretary j and one of them, designated by the Presi- 
dent, acts as Secretary in the absence of that officer; and one of them, 
appointed for that purpose by the Secretary, signs warrants for the 
payment of money into the Treasury, and warrants for the payment of 
accounts settled and allowed by the accounting officers of the Depart- 
ment. 

The act of 1789 made it the duty of the Comptroller to sui)erintend 
the adjustment and preservation of the public accounts; to examine 
all accounts settled by the Auditor, and certify the balances arising 
thereon to the Register; to countersign all warrants drawn by the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury which should be warranted by law; to report 
to the Secretary the official forms of all papers to be issued in the dif- 
ferent offices for collecting the public revenue, and the manner and 
form of keeping and stating the accounts of the several persons em- 
ployed therein; and also to provide for the regular and punctual pay- 
ment of all moneys which might be collected, and direct proseaitions 
for all delinquencies of officers of the revenue, and for debts that were 
or should be due to the United States. 

The powers and duties of the Comptroller — now the First Comptrol- 
ler — remain the same, except in relation to portions transferred to the 
Second Comptroller and the Commissioner of Customs. 

The duties of the Treasurer were to receive and keep the moneys of 
the United States, and to disburse the same upon warrants drawn by 
the Secretary of the Treasury, countersigned by the Comptroller, and 
recorded by the Register, and not otherwise. He was required to render 
accounts quarterly, and at all times to submit to the Secretary of the 
Treasury and the Comptroller, or either of them, the inspection of the 
moneys on hand ; and various acts directed specifically and more in 
detail the manner in which the duties of the office should be discharged. 

It was made the duty of the Auditor to receive all public accounts, 
and, after examination, to certify the balance and transmit the accounts 
with the vouchers and certificate to the Comptroller for his decision. 

The Register was required to keep all accounts of the public money, 
and of all debts due to or from the United States, to receive from the 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 89 

Comptroller the accounts which shall have been finally adjusted, and 
to preserve such accounts with their vouchers and certificates; tore- 
cord all warrants for the receipt or payment of moneys at the Treasury, 
certify the same thereon, and to transmit to the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury copies of certificates of balances of accounts as adjusted. Subse- 
quently the Register was required to perform various duties in relation 
to the issue and transfer of certificates of the public debt. 

By act of March 3, 1817, one Comptroller and four Auditors were added 
to the Department ; by act of July 2, 1836, one additional Auditor for 
Post-OflBce accounts ; by act of March 3, 1849, a Commissioner of Cus- 
toms, who, as to customs' accounts, was authorized to decide upon the 
same, as had been previously the duty of the First Comptroller. 

By other provisions the Commissioner of the General Land Office (an 
officer of the Department of the Interior) audits all accounts relative to 
the public lands, and reports them to the First Comptroller for decision, 
in the same manner as other accounts are reported by an Auditor. 

The First Auditor receives and examines all a<H50unts accruing in the 
Treasury Department, all accounts relating to receipts from customs, 
including accounts of collectors and other officers of the customs, all 
accounts accruing on aceount of salaries in the Patent Office, all accounts 
of the judges, marshals, clerks, and other officers of all the courts of the 
United States, all accounts of the officer in charge of the public build- 
ings and grounds in the District of Columbia, all accounts of the ex- 
penditures of the Department of Agriculture,/all accounts relating to 
prisoners convicted in any court of the United States, and, after exam- 
iningT;hem, certifies the accounts of customs and of collectors and other 
officers of the customs to the Commissioner of Customs for his decision 
thereon ; and the balances of all other accounts to the First Comptroller 
for his decision thereon. 

In like manner the Second Auditor receives and examines accounts 
relating to the pay and clothing of the Army, subsistence of officers, 
bounties and premiums, military and hospital stores, and contingent 
expenses of the War Department, and accounts relating to Indian af- 
fairs, and of agents of lead and other mines, and certifies the balances 
to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon. 

The Third Auditor examines accounts relative to the subsistence of 
the Army, the Quartermaster's Department, and, generally, all accounts 
of the War Department other than those provided for, certain other 
Army accounts, and Army pension accounts, and certifies tbem to the 
Second Comptroller for his decision thereon. 

The Fourth Audlt-or examines all accounts accruing in the Navy De- 
partment or relative thereto, and to Navy pensions, and certifies the 
balances to the Second Comptroller for his decision thereon. 

The Fifth Auditor examines all accounts accruing in or relative to the 
Department of State (which includes foreign intercourse), all internal- 
revenue accounts, and accounts of the contingent expenses of the Patent 



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90 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Office, and relating to tbe census, and certifies them to tiie First Comp- 
troller for his decision thereoii. 

The Sixth Auditor examines accounts accruing in the Post-Office 
Department, relative to mail and postal service (not including salaries 
and expenses in the Department), and audits and settles the same, and 
certifies the balances thereon to the Postmaster-General. Various other 
duties are performed by this Auditor. He countersigns warrants drawn 
on the Treasury by the Postmaster-General, and is the register of the 
accounts which he settles. 

The Postmaster-General, or any party dissatisfied with the settlement 
of an account by him, may, within twelve months, appeal to the Mrst 
Comptroller, whose decision in such case is final. 

The revenues and funds of the Post- Office Department go into the 
Treasury, but the accounts thereof are kept separate from those of the 
general Treasury, and these funds are appropriated separately, and only 
for the postal service. 

The Second, Third, and Fouith Auditors keep and register the accounts 
audited by them, separate from those kept h^ the Register. 

The decisions of the First and Second Comptrollers, and of the Com- 
missioner of Customs, on accounts audited and certified to them, are 
final, subject to appeal to the courts or to Congress; and the setttlement 
of an account by the Sixth Auditor is final unless an appeal be taken 
to the First Comptroller within twelve months. 

The Comptroller of the Currency has control of the organization and 
the general supervision of the national banks, as also of the preparation 
and issue of circulation to them. 

The Commissioner of Internal Revenue has the supervision of the in- 
ternal-revenue assessments and collections, and the decision of various 
questions connected therewith. 

The Light- House Board, of which the Secretary of the Treasury is ex- 
officio president, consists of two officers of the ^avy, of high rank, two 
officers of the Corps of Engineers of the Army, and two civilians of high 
scientific attainments, whose services may be at the disjKmal of the 
President, together with an officer of the Navy and an officer of Engi- 
neers of the Army as secretaries. 

The Coast Survey is in charge of a Superintendent, who has the assist- 
ance of officers of the Army and Navy detailed to that duty. 

The Director of the Mint has the superintendence of the mint, branch 
mints, assay offices, and of assay and coinage of precious metals. 

Under Presidential order of January 23, 1874, a Board on behalf of 
the Executive Department, of the Government was appointed by the 
President to represent the Government in its participation in the In- 
ternational Exhibition of 1876, and consisted of one member ea<5h from 
the Treasury, War, Navy, Interior, Post-Office, and Agricultural Depart- 
ments, and one from the Smithsonian Instituttion. 

On the Board Hon. Frederick A. Sawyer, Assistant Secretary of the 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 9 1 

Treasury, represented that Department antil his resignation during the 
month of June, 1874, by which his officisd connection with the Exhibi- 
tion ceased. Subsequently, Mr. Eobert W. Tayler, First Comptroller, 
was appointed to represent the Treasury as a member of the Board, and 
has continued in that position to the present time. 

Very little was done by the Department toward representation at the 
Centennial Exhibition, until the latter part of April, 1876; but on an 
increase of the money appropriated, made in the act of May 1, 1876, work 
was pushed forward as rapidly as practicable; still the articles put in 
place for exhibition were incomplete at the opening of the 10th of May. 

The sum appropriated for the Treasury was not suflacient to warrant 
as large an exhibition by that Department as would have been desir- 
able; still the exposition was highly creditable to the Department and 
the Government, and, except in quantity and space, not inferior to that 
of any otherDepartment. It was of objects wholly devoted to commerce 
and other peaceful pursuits; many of them to humane purposes. 

The exhibitions on the part of the Treasury Department were made 
by the Light-House Board; the Superintendent of the Coast Survey ; 
the Commissioner of Internal Eevenue; the Director of the Mint; the 
Supervising Architect; the Bureau of Engraving and Printing; and the 
Superintendent of Life-Saving Service. 

The catalogues of articles exhibited by these several branches of th% 
Treasury Department are hereto appended, and will convey to the reader 
a general idea of the work performed by these branches, which come 
within the general scope of the Exhibition. 

The historical sketches which accompany these catalogues were pre- 
pared by the respective offices. 



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LIGHT-HOUSE BOAED. 



93 



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THE LIGHT-HOUSE BOARD. 



Previous to 1851, the United States Government had no regularly 
organized Light-House Estabh'shraent. The aids to navigation then in 
use resulted from the necessities of commerce, and were in general 
charge of the Fifth Auditor of the Treasurj'. The estabHshment was 
far from complete, and did not satisfy naVigators. Accordingly, by act 
approved March 3, 1851, Congress authorized and required the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury "to cause a Board to be convened" ♦ ♦ • 
whose duty it was made, *' under the iustru<*.tions of the Treasury De- 
partment, to inquire into the condition of the Light-House Establish- 
ment of the United States, and make a general detailed report and 
programme to guide legislation in extending and improving our present 
system of constructionj illumination, inspection, and superiuteudeuce.'^ 
This Board was ''to be composed of two officers of the Navy, of high 
rank, two officers of Engineers of the Army, and such civil officers of 
high scientific attainments as may be under the orders or at the dispo- 
sition of the Treasury Department, and a junior officer of the Navy to 
act as secretary to said Board." 

The Board thus provided for was organized, and on January 30, 1852, 
submitted a report which was published as Senate Ex. Doc. No. 28, 
first session Thirty-second Congress. Based upon this report. Congress, 
by act approved August 31, 1852, provided for the organization of a 
permanent Light-House Board, to i»e composed of ''two officers of the 
Navy of high rank, one officer of the Corps of Engineers of the Army, 
one officer of the Topographical Engineers of the Army, and two civilians 
of high scientific attainments whose services may be at the disposal of 
the President, and an officer of the Navy and an officer of Engineers of 
the Army as secretaries.'' 

The Board so constituted is attached to the office of the Secretary of 
the Treasury, and, under his superintendence, discharges all the admin- 
istrative duties of that office relating to the Light-House Establishment. 
The Secretary- of the Treasury is ex-officio president of the Board, and 
the members from amongst their number choose one, by ballot, as chair- 
man, who, in the absence of the president of the Board, presides over 
their meetings and is the executive head of the establishment. 

Under the Board, the sea and lake coasts of the United States, and 
the western rivers, are at present divided into fourteen light-house dis- 
tricts, to each of which an officer of the Army or Navy is eligible for 

95 



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96 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBIT ION, 1876. 

assignment as inspector, and the detail of such officers of Engineers of 
the Army as may be needed for duty in connection with the establish- 
ment is also authorized. 

The law organizing the Light- House Board provides for quarterly 
meetings, but it is authorized to convene as often as the service re(}uires. 
Practically the meetings are frequent. The current business is trans- 
acted by the chairman and the two secretaries, and questions outside 
of the routine are discussed and disposed of by the Board at its meetings. 

Previous to 1776, and from that date down to August 15, 1789, the 
few lights and other aids to navigation that were in existence appear to 
have been sustained by the public authorities and by private citizens. 

Since August 15, 1789, Congress has made provision for the estab- 
lishment and support of all aids to navigation within the limits of the 
United States. 

It does not appear, however, that this branch of the public service 
received the serious attention it demanded until July 1, 1820, at which 
date it was placed in charge of the Fifth Auditor of the Treasury, under 
whose special supervision it continued till the organization of the Light- 
House Board under the act of August 31, 1852. 

On taking charge this officer found in operation 55 light-houses, and 
a few buoys in position. 

In 1838 there were 210 light-houses and 28 light- vessels. 

In 1850 the number of lighthouses was 296 ; light- vessels 40, and 
buoys about 2,500. 

The following tables show the condition of the Light-House Estab- 
lishment on July 1, 1852, and July 4, 1876: 

Number of lights, Ught-cesuU, ani buoys in existende July I, 1852. 

Primary sea-coast lij^hts 40 

Secondary sea-coast lights 33 

Soand, bay, aod river lights 240 

Light-ships or floating lights (tonnage ranging from 54 to 400) 40 

Baoysin position (about) 2,500 

Number of lights , light-vessels, and other aids to navigation in existence July 4, 1876. 

Primary lights (5 double) 74 

Secondary lights (69 on the lakes) 140 

Sound, bay, and harbor lights (142 on the lakes) 317 

River lights (Ohio, Mississippi, Missouri) , 280 

Light-vessels (10 double lights) 21 

Total of light- stations 832 

Day beacons 358 

Buoys in position 2,902 

Fog-signals, steam, Daboll, and horns 62 

Fog-bells 84 

3,406 

Total aids to navigation 4.238 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 



97 



The following table shows the kind of lights (reflectors or lenses) in 
use July 1, 1852 : 









Beflectora. 












1 




















--- 






With- 
ont re- 
tiector. 
























Lenses. 


21-iiich. 


No. of stations. | ^ 
I No. of lamps. & 


l«-inch. 


15-inclL 


H-inch. 


13.inch. 


12-iiich. 


lO-il 


loh. 

t 

1 


Olnch. 




[ No. of stations. 
No. of lamps. 


• 

00 

d 


t 
1 

••s 

o 


i 

1 
% 

d 

12; 


1 

o 
d 
125 


06 
§ 

1 

. 


t 
1 

* 


1 

eS 

d 

:z5 


t 
1 

d 
5z; 


1 
d 


1 


S 
•1 
1 

o 
d 


1 No. of stations. 
1 No. of lamps. 


) No. of stations. 
1 No. of lamps. 




1 


1 

'a 
H 


7 18 


1 i 30 
1 ! 11 
1 ' 9 

■•"■('"*■ 


1 
2 
2 
1 
2 
4 
4 
5 
2 
IB.. 

2 
2 


19 

14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 

% 
\ 


7 
2 
2 
4 
16 
10 
6 
7 
3 
2 


15 
14 
12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
5 
4 


2 15 
5 1 13 
1 1 12 

12 1 11 
I 10 

35 1 
27 1 8 
11 t 7 
24 ' tf 

13 ' 5 


1 

2 

1 
2 

I 


11 

8 
6 


2 

1 


15 

7 


1 
1 


10 
4 


1 8 1 1 A 


*2 






10 
10 


15 
14 
13 
io 


.--.1. ... 


1 5 

1 3 

45 1 






3 










.. .-!.... 


' ' ! 


2 






|--- 


1 


! 


:* 


3 11 




_. i_... 




. . -.1 




5 10 






1 1 








^ 


2 9 








1 ; 














1 


(1,1 












i 


....1........ 




j 


1 






... 


6 
4 
2 
9 


4 
3 
2 

1 










! \ J 








1 










....!....*... 




■ --- ... 1 .1 


J 
















1 ; 






1 
















i....|.... 




1 t 








. ' 


1 






1 


! ! 1 1 1 i 


1 





* One fixed and one revolving. 



tOne fixed and ouo flashing. 



;One on the lakes. 



First and second order lenses were used in primary lights only. 
Among the f)rimary lights there were four double lights, and among the 
secondary ones there were nine revolving and nine red and red-shaded 
lights. In one instance, the same tower had a double light. 

Among the sound, bay, and river lights there were seventeen revolv- 
ing and thirteen double lights ; one station had three lights, and eight 
had double towers. 

The light- vessels had, in all, forty -seven lamps, seven of them having 
double lights. 

The following table shows the kind of lights (lenses, reflectors, or 
lanterns) in use July 4, 1876: 



Kind. 



I 



Primary , . - 1 

Secondary on coast ! . 

Secondary on lakes \. 

Soand, bay, and harbor. . . . . 

Sound on 'lakes j. 

River lighta '. 

Pier-headlights 

Light- vMseis, ten being . 
doable lights. 

7 CEN, PT 2 



53 , 



18 

2 ! 



Order. 






20 I 
20 



2 
37 
32 
91 

30 : 

2 



Keflectors. I 



Lanterns. 



27 



I a 



1 ! 

2 ^ 



11 !. 



1 t 

2 '. 
280 . 



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98 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The following table shows the color of the sea-coast, sound, and har- 
bor and lake lights : 



Fla«biDg 

Kind. inrhite or 

, red, &c. 



Primary j 19 

Secondary (coast) 1 6 

Secondary (lakeft) ' 7 

Sound and harbor (coast) 11 

Soand and harbor (lake:*) 1 



Red or red- Fixed ^ ^^„ 
shaded. white. ^"^en. 



6 36' 

11 i 41 

7' 43! 

41 218 1 

*37 , 91 ' 8 



*And 3 on vessels. 

Among the sound and harbor stations there is one tower having two 
lights; one station having three towers and eight stations with double 
lights. 

Among the lake stations there is one at which three hs^^nd lanterns 
are used for the purposes of illumination. 

There are four fog-signal stations without lights. 

The number of portable beacons in operation is twenty-two. 

There are in i)roce8s of construction or authorized to be built (July 4, 
1876),* eighteen harbor lights and beacons. 

By the act ot March 3, 1859, the Light-House Board was authlPized 
to erect, when practicable, at the localities occupied by light-vessels, 
lighthouses upon pile foundations. Under the authority granted by 
this act, the number of light- vessels in position has been greatly re- 
duced. 

EXHIBITS OF THE LIGHT-HOUSE BOARD, AT THE INTERNATIONAL 

EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Peculiar diflaculties were encountered by the Light-House Board in 
preparing its exhibit. The funds allowed for the purpose were only 
sufficient to meet the necessary expenses of the transportation and 
arrangement of articles exhibited. Nothing could be allowed for the 
preparation of new models of existing works or for the purchase of any 
articles. Nothing was shown, therefore, but apparatus, articles taken 
from the stock on hand, and models which had been constructed for 
the actual use of the Board in designing new structures. 

The Board directed the following-named officers to superintend the 
preparation, and display of its exhibit : Capt. John L. Davis, U. S. N., 
Bvt. Brig. Gen. W. T. Raynolds, U. S. A., Commander G. B. White, 
U. S. N., and Lieut. A. G. Paul, U. S. N.; the last of whom was placed 
in charge at the grounds. 

A rectangular space 40 feet long by 30 wide was allowed to the Light- 
House Establishment inside the Government building between the sec- 
tion occupied by the Coast Survey on the one hand, and that occupied 
by the Supervising Architect and the Bureau of Engraving and Print- 
ing on the other. Two tables were made, 30 feet by 3 feet, covered with 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 99 

red oil-cloth, on which were placed the smaller aiticleB aud models. A 
space, 18 feet by 35 feet, was railed off in which were placed the lenses, 
lamps, instruments, and delicate models. On the side wall of the sec- 
tion hang a large map, showing the location of every light under the 
jurisdiction of the Light-House Board. On the rear wall of the section 
the pictures were arranged. The space outside the building consisted 
of a large platform on which was placed a light-house, fog-bell, and 
buoys of different classes. Alongside the platform was placed a house 
containing both the caloric and steam sirens. 

The exhibit within the building was ready by the opening day. On 
July 1st the fog-honis were working, and on July 4 the light-house 
was lighted for the first time. 

The steam siren was, at the request of the authorities used to give 
notice of the daily opening, and closing of the Exhibition. 
The exhibition was classified as follows : 

Lenticular apparatus. 

Lamps. 

Lamp-burners. 

Wicks and chimneys. 

Illuminating materials. , 

Cleaning materials, and implements. 

Testing instruments. 

Light-houses, and models. 

Buoys. 

Fog-signals. 

Light-ships. 

Maps, plans, and graphic representations. 

LENTICULAR APPARATUS. 

The apparatus employed in the light-houses of the United States 
is almost exclusively of the catadioptric or Fresnel system. They are 
divided into seven orders, according to their size and the intensities of 
their lights. They are also distinguished according to the appearances 
they present as follows: Fixed white; flashing white; fixed varied by 
white flashes ; fixed red ; flashing red ; flashing red and white ; fixed 
white varied by red and white flashes; fixed white varied by red 
flashes ; fixed red varied by red flashes. 

Lights of the first order, being visible at the greatest distance, are 
placed upon the headlands or points farthest to seaward. The smaller 
and colored lights are used in narrow seas, passages, rivers and chan- 
nels, or to mark the entrance to a roadstead or port, and in less impor- 
tant places. 

The exhibit of lenticular apparatus was as follows : 

Firitt-order lens, yrhiteyflashvig every 10 seconds, — Illuminates, 36(P of 
the horizon ;. lamp and attachments complete for lard oil. 



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lOO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Third-order lenSj fixed white. — Illuminates 360^ of the horizon ; lamp 
and attachments complete for lard oil. 

Fourth-order lenSy whiter flashing every 10 seconds. — Illaminates 360° 
of the horizon; lamp and attachments complete for mineral oil. 

Fifth-order lens^ fi^ed white, — Illaminates 300o of the horizon, with 
catadioptric reflector; lamps and attachments complete for mineral oil. 

River or stake lights. — In use on the Western rivers. These lights are 
placed on stakes or posts about 10 feet high, which can be moved as 
the channel changes. One of these lights was fitted up as in service 
and placed near the light-house ; the other was among the exhibit of 
lenses. These lights can be plainly seen from G^ to 7 miles. The cost 
of posts is nominal, as they are cut where they are used. The cost of 
the entire outfit does not exceed $tO, and the cost of oil and wick used 
in a lamp, per night, does not exceed 2 cents. Mineral oil is used, and 
from one-third to one-half pint is consumed each night. . If properly 
trimmed, the light should bum 16 hours without retrimming. The lan- 
tern is so constructed that the wind cannot blow the light out nor even 
make it smoke. To secure this result each lantern is tested in front of 
a steam blower before it is accepted. 

Range or leading lights. — These lights are used when it is necessary 
to keep in a channel, or mark where a channel changes its direction. 
Both lights must show in one vertical plane. If more than one set is 
used, the new range will mark the change in the channel, and before 
the old one is off the new one should be on. 

Running lights. — For steamers at night, as used ou board the United 
States light-house tenders and supply vessels. 

Mast-head lights. — For the banks of a canal, showing the light up and 
down the canal. 

Fourth-order lens. — Shows a red and white flash alternately every 
10 seconds, illuminating 360^ of the horizon. In use on the light-house 
outside of the Government building. 

LAMPS. 

Three kinds of lamps are in use, the mechanical, the moderator, and 
the hydraulic. 

In the mechanical lamp the oil is forced into the burner by pumps 
driven by clock-work, run by a weight. In moderator lamps the as- 
cent of the oil is ettected by a weighted piston. Hydraulic lamps de- 
pend for their supply upon the pressure of the oil above, regulated by 
various devices. 

A complete exhibit was made of the different lamps, of which the fol- 
lowing is a li8t : 

Wa^ner^s mechanical lamp^ 1855. — A reciprocating motion is given to 
two vertical shafts which pass through the oil cistern and work the. 
feed pumps. A fly regulates the velocity. The flow of oil is regulated 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, lOI 

by turning a screw placed in the upper part of the oil case. Tbe pumps 
communicate with the reservoir of oil by means of a feed-pipe fitted 
at its lowest extremity with a small strainer. The pistons are formed 
of plungers of calf-skin, and the valves are of the same leather. 

Lepaute^s mechanical lampj 1855. — The mechanism in this case con- 
sists of a barrel carrying a crown-wheel, fitted on its two faces with 
friction rollers, which make an escapement with four bent levers. These 
levers work two shafts, which traverse the oil cistern and put the 
four feed-pumps in motion. The flow of oil is regulated by a small ori- 
fice in a diaphragm placed in the upper part of the pump case. A small 
pK)inted screw penetrates the orifice and the fiow is regulated at will by 
turning the screw. 

Moderator lamp, 1855. — A cast-iron piston, bound with leather, and of 
such a size as to gently slide in the lamp-cistern is connected above 
with a horizontal shaft by a chain which wiuds around the shaft. On 
the piston are weights to make it descend. By turning the shaft the 
chain is wound up and the piston ascends ; then left alone it causes by 
its pressure a fiow of oil to the burner. The regulator is a small orifice 
through which the oil is forced aud a needle is pushed in or withdrawn 
to diminish or increase the supply. This device is usually arranged so 
as to be self-acting. 

XJoat^s valve lamp, 1856, fourth order. — The reservoir of the lamp is 
a hollow cylinder and is placed above the lens, on the framework of 
which it rests. The fiow of oil is regulated by an automatic valve to 
the axis of which a stem is attached bearing at one extremity a conn-, 
terpoise and at the other a cup into which the surplus oil from the 
burner drips. This cup is pierced with a little hole, and when full of 
oil sustains its counterpoise but if the oil ceases to fiow, the coun- 
terpoise falls and opens the valve. 

Meade^s lamp, 1857, third order, — This also has a reservoir in the dome 
of the lantern. By means of a screw-pin on tbe supply tube, the tube 
can be closed or opened at will, thus regulatiug the delivery of tiieoil. 

Funclc^9 hydraulic fl4)at lamp, 1876, first order, — The reservoir is placed 
as in the two preceding lamps, above the apparatus. The flow is regu- 
lated by a small float carrying a valve, and contained in a close chamber. 
Wlien the supply is too copious, the float rises and the valve stops the 
orifice of the supply tube. As the oil in the chamber is consumed the 
float falls and allows a freer flow of oil. The relative distauce of the 
valve from the float is regulated by means of a thread cut on the valve 
stem. The lamp is in general use in the light-houses of the United 
States. 

Fu»cWs hydraulic float lamp, second order, — Its action is the same as 
that of the last-mentioned lamp, but it has a glass float chamber show- 
ing the fioat and the action of the float. Cue of these lamps fitted for 
service was also exhibited. 

Third order Fundus hydraulic float lamp. 



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I02 INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Fourth order float lamp for minercd oil. 

Fifth order lamp for mineral oil. 

Fountain lampj 1853. — ^An argaod or constant level lamp, composed 
of two parts, the burner and the reservoir or fountain. The reservoir 
is provided at its lowest part with a valve, which lifts when the stem 
which is attached to it comes in contact with the bottom of the body of 
the lamp. A communication is thus established between the reservoir 
and the burner. 

Common regulation hand lantern for toicer use. 

Lantern with lucerns. — For lighting the main lamp at night, as matches 
are not allowed in the light-house tower. 

Rod lamp. — This lamp is constructed on the same principle as the 
student's lamp. It is to be kept ready for use in case of accident to the 
main light, when but a few seconds can elapse before it is replaced by 
the rod lamp, which should be near the keeper on watch. It is also 
used while the main light is being trimmed. 

Hanging lamp. — For use in the cabins of the light-house tenders and 
supply vessels. Its action is the same as that of Funck's hydraulic 
float lamp described above. 

LAMP BUKNEBS. 

The burner of a lamp is the case in which the wicks are set and 
lighted. Lamp-burners are provided with from one to five concentric 
wicks, according to the order of the light and the intensity required. 
The lower end of each wick is fixed to a circular carrier and raised and 
lowered by means of a rack. A pipe forming the stem of the burner 
supplies the wicks with oil. 

First-order lamp burner^ with a photogyph of the flame of natural 
size. 

Second-order burner j with the same. 

Third-order burner, with the same. 

Fourth-order burner^ with the same. 

Fifth and sixth order burner, with the same. 

WICKS AND CHIMNEYS. 

Samples of wicks used in all the different orders of lamps were ex- 
hibited, also a case containing the different varieties of chimneys used 
in the Light-House Establishment. 

ILLUMINATING MATERIALS. 

The oil in use iu the Light-House Establishment is winter-strained 
lard oil, which must be of such a quality that when burning in a fifth- 
order Franklin lamp it will give the intensity of nine candles. Samples 
of this oil, contained in the regulation oil-butts, were exhibited; also 
samples of mineral oil used in many small lights, and of signal oil, 
which remains fluid in any temperature. 



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THE TREASCRY DEPARTMENT. IO3 

CLEANING MATERIALS AND IMPLEMENTS. 

Oil pump, — tJsed to transfer oil from casks to the butts and from the^^e 
to oil carriers. 

Oil-strainer. — This is in two parts, the strainer proper, and the vessel 
to receive the strained oil. The strainer proper is a plate pierced with 
holes. On it is placed a piece of cloth and a thin layer of fine sand. 

Oil buckets and cam. — These are used to carry oil inside the light- 
house. 

Measures. — These are used in determining the quantity of oil con- 
sumed in the lamps. 

Se» vice-box fitted for use. — This has a transverse handle and a cover 
with two lids. It is divided into three compartments. The first re- 
ceives a flat tray, on which are temporarily placed greasy cloths and 
wick trimmings ; under this tray are the clean cloths for wiping glass 
chimneys. The second compartment contains a triangular scraper for 
removing crusts of burne<l oi4 from the burner, a horse-hair brush for 
cleaning the lamp and tubes of the burner, ami a pair of curved scissors 
for trimming the wicks. The third compartment contains a pair of 
straight scissors for cutting wicks, a measure to determine the proper 
lengths, and the conical mandrels for fitting the wicks on to the tubes. 

Dripping-pan. — A square, flat vessel with a double bottom, the upper 
one pierceil with holes. 

Lamp-filler. — For filling small lamps and lanterns. 

Rouge box. — Containing polishing rouge (peroxide of iron) for polish- 
ing the glass of the lenticular apparatus and lantern. 

Whiting-box. — Containing Spanish white for polishing glass and tin, 
and for making putty. 

Lifters, — For removing chimneys from lighted lamps. 

Small spirit level. — Used to verify the level of the crown of the lamp- 
burner. 

Large spirit level. — Used to verify the position of the surface on which 
the rollers of the revolving apparatus move. 

Heater for mechanical lamps. — A little lamp shut in an oblong box 
with two tubes. 

Molds. — For making plunger and valve leathers for mechanical lamps. 

Punch. — For cutting valves of lamps, and washers for joints. 

Key. — For winding revolving machinery. 

Wolffs-head brush. — A long handled, round horse-hair brush, used for 
cleaning ceilings and staircases. 

Long-handled brushes. — Of horse-hair, used for sweeping rooms and 
stairways of the interior of light-houses. 

Feather diusters. — For dusting apparatus and glass of lanterns. 

Counter brushes.-^A short handled brush with long bristles for sweep- 
ing the service-taWe, gallery ,^ and steps. 



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I04 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Silver-plating brushes, — Used to clean the lamp, clockwork, and uten- 
sils. 

Sash-brushes.— Used to paint the iron work of the lanteras and illumi- 
nating apparatus. 

Bottle brushes. — Used to clean the burners and chimneys. 

Wick'boxes. — For preservation of wicks of various sizes. 

Oil-gauge. — For measuring height of oil in butts. 

TESTING INSTRUMENTS. 

Photometer^ used for measuring the intensity of light. This is a 
modification of Bunsen's instrument. The intensity of a light is ob- 
tained by comparing it with a light of a known standard, which in the 
United States Light-House service is a London sperm candle burning 
about 2 grains of its substance per minute. For lights of great inten- 
sity the candle is first compared with a larger light, and then this latter 
with the light to be tested. This instriAnent consists of a graduated 
scale, at the two extremities of which are placed the lights to be com- 
pared. The graduation of this scale is made according to the formula 
based upon the law that the intensity of a light varies inversely as the 
square of the distance at which it is seen. Upon the scale slides a small 
white screen, placed vertically between the two lights. In the center 
of this screen a circular hole about half an inch in diameter is closed 
by a piece of thin paper rendered translucent by a solution of sperma- 
ceti in oil of turpentine. The screen is so placed between two mirrors, 
that a reflection of the two sides can be seen at the same moment and 
compared. To test the lights, the screen is moved to a position between 
them where the two images on the screen are exactly of the same bright- 
ness. An index gives the reading of the scale at this point, and this 
shows the intensity of on6 light in terms of the other. 

All oil used by the lighthouse establishment is subjected to a care- 
ful test before purchase. The experiments are made in a dark room, the 
ceilings, walls, and floors of which are painted dead black. 

An artificial ear^ designed by the chairman of the Light-House Board, 
consisting of a large trumpet-shaped instrument with a membrane 
stretched tightly over the smaller end, which is covered with a glass 
shade having a magnifying glass in its upper portion. Sand is placed 
on this membrane, and when two sounds are to be compared, the agita- 
tion of the sand, when the large end is towards the direction from 
which the sound comes, is noted in each case. The arrangement of the 
particles of sand is also noted to find the nodal points of the sound. 
This instrument is intended to merely concentrate the rays of sound 
and not to act as a resounding cavity. The distance when measured 
in feet or yards gives the number indicating the penetrating power of 
the sound under trial. 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, IO5 

LIOHT-HOUSES AND MODELS. 

Model of caisson and coffer-dam — Used in bailding the foundation for 
Spectacle Eeef light-house, Straits of Mackinac. 

Model of 8pecta4)le Beef Lighthouse, — This light-house stands upon a 
reef in the northern end of Lake Huron, off the eastern end of the Straits 
of Mackinac. It is built upon the southern end of the most northerly 
of two shoals of limestone, paved with a covering of bowlders 2 feet 
thick. The least water in the shoals is about 7 feet; but at the site se- 
lected for the light-house the rock is 11 feet under water. The nearest 
land 10} miles distant is the southeasterly point of Bois Blanc Island ; 
a depot was made for building materials at Scammon's Harbor, about 
16 miles from the light-house site. The greatest exposure to waves is 
to the southeastward, from which direction the seas have a fetch of about 
170 miles. 

Were there no other elements of destruction, no unusual precautions 
would have been necessary to secure suflBcient stability. But under 
certain meteorological conditions currents having a velocity of from 2 
to 3 miles per hour are developed here, and during the inclement sea- 
son serve to move to and from icefields 2 feet thick, which frequently 
have an area of thousands of acres. This freshwater ice is of great 
solidity, and, when moving in masses, and with the velocity named, 
has a force almost irresistible. The aim was to oppose to it a structure 
against which the ice would be at first crushed, and then so impeded 
in motion as to cause it to ground upon the shoal itself, thus forming a 
barrier against subsequent action. In the spring of 1875 the ice was 
piled up against the light-house 30 feet above the water, or 7 feet above 
the ^ill of the doorway, which is 23 feet above the lake. When the 
keepers went to the station to exhibit the light (not in operation during 
the winter) they were unable to obtain entrance to the tower until they 
had cut a passage through this pile of ice to the doorway. The tower 
is built of light-gray limestone, and is 97 feet from base to focal plane. 
The illuminating apparatus is of the second order, showing alternate 
red and white flashes at intervals of thirty seconds, visible 17 miles. 
The fog-signal is a 10-inch steam whistle. 

Model of Brandywine Shoal light-house on Brandywlne Shoaly Delatcare 
Bay. — This light-house is erected on iron screw piles,- with an iron screw 
pile ice-breaker. The illuminating apparatus is 46 feet above sea-level, 
and is of the third order, showing a fixed white light visible 12 miles. 
The fog-signal is a bell struck by machinery. 

Model of Coffin^s Patches light-house. — An iron pile structure on the 
Florida Reefs, with a first order illuminating apparatus visible 19 miles. 

Model of Sand Key lighthouse. — The original is on a small sand and 
shell island in the Florida Beefs, and is 7^ nautical miles from Key 
West, Fla. It is an iron pile light-house 121 feet from base to focal 
plane, with a first order illuminating apparatus showing a clear light 



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I06 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

for one minute followed by a brilliant flash of ten seconds, preceded and 
followed by partial eclipses of twenty- five seconds' duration. 

Model of lighthouse at Chicago^ III — The light-house is an iron tower 
on the north pier of Chicago Harbor, Lake Michigan. It is 83 feet above 
the lake level, and has an illuminating apparatus, fixed white, of the 
third order, visible 16 miles. 

Minots Ledge light house.^On the outer Minots, Boston Bay, an ex- 
ceedingly exposed and dangerous situation. The tower is built of dark- 
gray granite, 100 feet trom base to focal plane, and 92 feet above the 
sea-level. It has a second order fixed white illuminating apparatus, 
and is visible 16 miles. The fog- signal is a bell struck by machinery. 
The original tower (an open-work iron structure) was destroyed about 
twenty-five years ago. 

Model of the crib work for the foundation of Southwest Pass light-house^ 
mouth of the Mississippi River. — This is built on a low marshy island west 
of the pass. In the construction of this model, the two upper courses 
of grillage and plank floor were omitted. The model is made from a log 
which it is known had been sunk in Lake Pontchartrain for more than 
50 years. 

Complete light-house^ fitted upj with light-keepers in charge, — This light- 
house, in which a keeper live<l during the exhibition, has a fourth-order 
lens, flashing red and white alternately, and was lighte<l every evening 
during the exhibition. This iron structure is to be permanently placed 
on the caisson on Ship John Shoal, Delaware River, at the close of the 
exhibition. 

BUOYS (OUTSIDE OP THE BUILDINO). 

First-class iron can buoy. 

First-class iron nun buog. 

First-class iron spar buoy. 

First class iron spar buoy. 

Second- class iron can buoy. 

Second- class iron nun buoy. 

Second-class iron spar buoy. 

Second-class iron spar buoy. 

Third-class iron can buoy. 

Third-class iron nun buoy. 

All these buoys had attached ballast balls, chains, sinkers, &c., com- 
plete for service, and were so painted as to show the different marks and 
colors used in the buoy service. 

INSIDE OF BUILDING. 

Models of spar buoys in use. 

Models of iron spar buoys {experimental) 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. v lO/ 

The foHowiDg description table was also shown in connection with the 
baoys : 



Buoys. Chains. Sinkers. 



Ballast 
balls. 



Class. 



1 215 IS'?''" 



u5 



, X6«. Fe In'Ti-ln. Jn. In. I X6*. I Lb». Lb». Lb: 

First class Can 3,326 6 »6 H U 2 ' 120 990 3.220' 1,130 



. .2 


a 


t 


.^. 


1 i 

Ft In.[Ft.In. 


6 


9 6 


6 4« 


12 


• 44 


7 


4 


66 


1 



First claiw Nun.... 3,100 6 4^ i 12 lA 7$ 2 120 990 3,220 1,130 

Secondclass Can 1,600 • 4 4 j 70 l| 74 1) , 66 685; 1,810 386 

Second class Nun.... 1,300 40 I 66 l| 7$ !{ 66 685 .1,810 185 

Thirdclass Can... tm' ' t 1 7i H 39 452 1,162 I 110 

Thirdclass Nun.... 450 i i 1 7J U I 39 | 452 1,162 110 



.-« 


-3) 


9 


*S 


^ 


^ 


Lbs. 


Lbi. 


120 


990 


120 


990 


66 


685 


66 


685 


39 


452 


39 


452 



LIGHT-SHIP. 

Complete model of lightship No. 40. — ^This model is rigged to represent 
a lightship ready for service on her station, on a scale of three-quarters 
of an inch to the foot. Its timbers, planks, &c., are on ^xact scale, and 
each one is placed in position separately and is drawn oif on board as 
in the mold loft. 

Lantern for the masthead of alight-ship tvith lamps and reflectors. 

Day mark for the mast-head of a light-ship. 

Mushroom anahor for a lightship iceighing 4:^200 pounds. 

BOOKS, MAPS, PLANS, AND GRAPHIC REPRESENTATIONS. 

The drawings and paintings are as follows: 
Currituck Beach Ughthot^ej North Carolina. 
Saint Augustine lighthouse^ Florida. 
Race Rock light house j Ijong Island Sound. 
Cleveland, Ohio, light-house, Lake Erie. 
Piedras Blancas light-house, California. 
Ship John Shoal lighthouse, Delaware River, 
Hunting Island lighthouse. South Carolina. 
Thimble Shoal light-house, Hampton Roads, Virginia. 
First Class light-vessel, with steam fog-s^ignal. 
Screw-Pile River and Harbor lighthouse. 
Sand Key lighthouse, Florida. 
Alligator Reef lighthouse, Florida. 
Pigeon Point lighthouse, California. 
Craighill Channel light-house (front), Chesapeake Bay. 
Craighill Channel light-house, (rear), Chesapeake Bay. 
Fort Sumter light-house. South Carolina. 
Lighthouse tender. 



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I08 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Grosse Point light-house, Lake Michigan. 

Fowey Rockn light-house, Florida. 

Day-beacon^ sea. Flower Reef, Long Island Sound. 

Minots Ledge lighthouse. 

Fenfield Beef lighthouse. Long IsUmd Sound. 

Spectacle Beef light-house, Lake Huron. 

Foundatutn for Cross Ledge light-house, Delaware Bay. 

Tybee Island light-house, South Carolina.^ 

Old Field Point light-hou^e Long Island Sound. 

Fowey Bocks light-house, Florida. 

A large map 17 feet by 19 /eef.— This shows the location of each light 
under the jurisdiction of the Light-Hoase Board. Each class is distin- 
guished on the chart by the size of the red circular spot denoting order 
and its range of visibility. 

The following table shows the number of the lights shown on the 
chart, and their respective orders : 

First-order lights 46 

Seoood-order lights 28 

Third-order lights 67 

Fourth-order lighu 190 

Fifth-order lights 125 

Sixth-order lights 179 

Stake lights 280 

Reflectors on light-ships ^ 

953 

The Light-House Board's Reports for 1873, 1874, and 1875, also light- 
house lists, buoy lists, and special reports, were issued, on request, to 
persons interested in lighthouse matters. A set of portfolios and books 
were also exhibited, showing specifications, plans, and designs for the 
following lights : 



Calcasieu, Louisiana. 

Cleveland, Ohio. 

Day-beacons for Potomac River. 



Thirty mile Point, Lake Ontario. 
Block Island, Rhode Island. 
Thimble Shoal, Virginia. 



West Point, New York. ; Penfield Reef, Long Island Sound. 

Keeper's dwelling for first-order ' Craighill Channel, Iron Beacon. 

steam fog- whistle. 1 Buoys, sinkers, &c. 

Oil butts. ; Fowey Rocks, Florida. 

Iron bell.-boat. Southwest Ledge, Long Island 

Fourth-order harbor light and keep- Sound. 

er's dwellings. ! Thomas Point Shoal, Chesapeake. 

Hudson City, New York. Timbalier, Louisiana. 

Hunting Island, South Carolina. Body's Island, North Carolina. 

FOG SIGNALS. 

Fog-bell struck by a large hammer worked by clock-work. — It gives one, 
two, one, three strokes at regular intervals. The clock-work was de- 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, IO9 

signed by Mr. J. M, Stevens, of Boston, by whom it was placed at the 
Exhibition. 

Steam siren. — ^The general character of the instrument may be described 
as follows : Suppose a drum of shoi*t axis, into one head of which is 
inserted a steam-pipe connected with a locomotive boiler, while the other 
end is provided \^ith triangular orifices through which the steam is at 
brief intervals allowed to enter. Immediately before this head, and in 
close contact with it, is a disk provided with corresponding radial slits. 
This disk revolves 2,000 times a minute. By this arrangement at every 
complete revolution of the disk the orifices in the head of the drum are 
opened and shut with great rapidity, thus producing a series of rapid 
impulses of steam. This steam issues through the smaller orifice of a 
trumpet immediately in front of the revolving disk. The impulses are 
of such intensity and rapidity as to produce a sound of great magni- 
tude and penetrating power. The siren is attached to a horizontal cyl- 
indrical tubular (locomotive) boiler, with a pressure of from 50 to 150 
pounds on the square inch. A small engine is attached for feeding it 
and for rotating the disk, the latter being elfected by means of a band 
passing over pulleys of suitable relative dimensions. The machine as 
exhibited was complete in all its parts as adapted for steam, cold or hot 
air, or other gases under pressure. 

Siren blown by compressed air. — ^A 12horse power engine operates 
this siren. At one time when fires were not even lighted on this ca- 
loric engine, orders were given, and in seven minutes the foghorn was 
blowing its regular blasts at intervals. 

Courtenay^s automatic signalbuoy, — A model of this was exhibited in 
September. It consists of u large can, a shell, to which a tube 32 or 
more feet in length is attached. This tube passes througfai the buoy, 
and is furnished with a diaphragm through which pass three smaller 
tubes. One of these tubes is open at both ends, the upper end being 
so placed that any air passing through it will act upon the whistle 
placed upon the top of the buoy. The other tubes are open at the top, 
and at the bottom are fitted with ball valves, which allow air to pass 
down, but prevent it from passing up. If now the buoy should remain 
stationary and the level of the water rise and fall around it, the follow- 
ing would be its action: As the water fell in the large tube, air would 
rush in through the smaller tubes, the valves being arranged to allow 
this. As the water rose again the air between the diaphragm and the 
water level would be compressed, and as the valves closed the only 
exit would be the tube connected with the whistle. It will thus be 
seen that the action of the apparatus itself is of the simplest char- 
acter. These buoys may be moored in a sufficient depth of water. 
Each buoy is provided with a sort of wing or rudder, which keeps it 
in proi>er position. 



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COAST SURVEY. 



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UNITED STATES COAST SURVEY. 



At the begioDiug of the present century extensive geodetic surveys 
were going on in ditterent parts of Europe, undertaken as well for their 
indirect as for their direct results, and geodesy was rapidly assuming 
a scientific and practical form. The example was not unheeded by the 
United States. The requirements of commerce pointed to a survey of 
the coast as the measure of immediate importance, and through the 
intelligence and influence of its distinguished advocates the work at the 
very outset was organized upon the most approved methods known to 
geodetic science. 

Toward the close of 1805 Ferdinand E. Hassler, a native of Switzer- 
land, arrived in the United States in search of a permanent home. He 
had been employed in the triangulation of the canton of Berne, and 
his valuable experience, combined with high scieutitic attainments, 
early attracted the attention and won the consideration of those who, 
fortunately, were scientists themselves, and at the same time prompt 
to take up any plan that would advance the interests and credit of the 
country. Among these Dr. Robert Patterson, president of the Amer- 
ican Philosophical Society, and Albert Gallatin, then Secretary of the 
Treasury, stood pre-eminent. The law authorizing the survey of the 
coast was passed February 10, 1807, upon the recommendation of 
Thomas Jefferson, then President of the United States, and the plan 
adopted for its execution was the one proposed and previously fore- 
shailowed by Mr. Hassler. 

In 1811 Mr. Hassler proceeded to England to have the necessary in- 
struments made according to designs prepared by him ; was detained 
there during the war with Great Britain ; returned in 1815 ; and in Au- 
gust, 1816, was formally ajipointed Superintendent of the Survey. Oper- 
ations were at once commenced on a limited scale, and were vigorously 
prosecuted until April, 1818. For a considerable period after that date 
appropriations ceased, but public conviction in regard to the utility of 
the work permanently deepened during the suspension of the survey. 
In July, l.">32, Congress, at the repeated solicitation of the Hon. Sam- 
uel L. Southard, Secretary of the Navy, and of others interested in the 
development of the coast and harbors, revived the act of 1807, and 
Mr. Hassler was reinstated as Sui)erintendent. From 1832 to 1836, the 
survey was under the control of the Navy Department. In the latter 
year the charge was reassigned to the Treasury Department, and so 
remains. 

8 CEN, pt. 2 113 



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114 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Again, in 1843, and for the last time, the survey was the subject of 
legislative action. On the 3d of March of that year a Board was ap- 
pointed by Congress, with authority to reorganize the mode of execut- 
ing the survey. The plan agreed upon by the Board and approved by 
the President reaffirmed the scientific methods adopted by Mr. Hass- 
ler, and defined with considerable detail the organization and order 
required to carry them out, and these prime features, confirmed by sub- 
sequent experience, are yet retained, except so far as they have been 
extended and improved by commercial or other public requirements. 

Since the survey was first authorized, the seaboard of the United 
States has been more than quadrupled in extent by the acquisition of 
Florida and Texas, and of California, Oregon, and Alaska. It now 
stretches through 21^ of latitude and 14^ of longitude on the Atlantic; 
Sjo of latitude and 16^ of longitude on the Gulf of Mexico; and on the 
Pacific, exclusive of Alaska, through 16^^ of latitude and 7^ of longi- 
tude. 

SUPERINTENDENTS UNITED STATES COAST SURVEY. 

Ferdinand R. Hassler, August, 1816, to April, 1818. 

Ferdinand R. Hassler, August, 1832, to November, 1843. 

Alexander D. Bache, December, 1843, to February, 1867. 

Benjamin Peirce, February 26, 1867, to February, 17, 1874. 

Carlile P. Patterson, February 17, 1874. 

Professor Hassler died November 20, 1843 ; Professor Bache, Febru- 
ary 17, 1867, and Professor Peirce resigned February 17, 1874. 

The survey may be said to have commenced in 1832, and between 
that date and the close of 1843 the Fire Island base had been measured ; 
a network of triangles, primary and secondary, had been extended over 
the coast from Point Judith to Cape Henlopen and the Chesapeake, and 
the topography and hydrography had made commendable advance 
within the same limits. 

It was not, hQwever, until 1844 that the magnitude and responsibili- 
ties of the work were fully realized. In the year following the Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts were divided into sections, in each of which the different 
operations of the survey were carried on simultaneously. By this di. 
vision of the field, commerce and the interest of each part of the sea- 
board experienced the benefits of the survey at the earliest moment. A 
similar system was carried out on the Pacific coaat upon the acquisition 
of California in 1849. Step by step the organization was perfected ; a 
more thorough system wad introduced in the conduct of the field and 
office operations ; a higher standard was established for the topographi- 
cal surveys; a wider field opened to hydrographic research; and the 
supervision of the Superintendent was extended to every detail. While 
"the Coast Survey owes its present torm and perhaps its existence to the 
zeal and scientific ability of the first Superintendent,'' the organization 
as it exists to-day, complete in every branch, is the creation of Alexan- 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 



115 



der 1). Bacbe. To his untiring energy, administrative qualities, and 
varied scientific attainments, tlie progress, value, and high character of 
the survey may be justly ascribed. 

The survey being under the charge of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
the regulations for carrying out the organic law and all decisions in 
cases affecting the survey or its personnel, are made by him, in consul- 
tation with the Superintendent. The Secretary is also the medium of 
official correspondence with the other Departments and with Congress. 

Estimates in detail for the different expenses to be incurred in the 
prosecution of the work are annually submitted by the Superintendent 
for the approval of the Secretary, and by him included in the Treasury 
budget for the next fiscal year. Upon those estimates all appropria- 
tions for the survey are specifically made by Congress. 

The staff of the survey is composed of the Superintendent and of as 
sistants and subassistants, consisting, by law, of civilians, Army and 
Navy officers. A previous experience, obtained by years of service in 
a subordinate capacity, is an indispensable requisite, in conjunction 
with other qualifications, for an appointment as a civil assistant. After 
that promotion depends altogether upon efficiency, regardless of sen- 
iority or influence. 

The Superintendent is the immediate head of the survey. He lays 
out the work to be executed during the season throughout the country; 
he assigns to each assistant an appropriate duty under written instruc- 
tions, a definite field of labor, and a limited credit with the disbursing 
agent; he takes general supervision over all the or»erations of the office, 
as well as over the construction and comparison of the standard weights 
and measures; he inspects the parties in the field whenever |>ractica- 
ble; and at the close of the year when the reports of the dift'erent par- 
ties are received, he carefully examines the results accomplished by 
each assistant, and from these and the office reports the annual report 
is compiled. Besides these administrative duties, the disc\ission of 
scientific questions connected with the various operations of the sur- 
vey, and all special investigations and experiments required for addi- 
tional data, are conducted under his direction, while, at the same time, 
he co-operates with other bureaus of the Government, in matters in 
which the special information and resources at his control would bene- 
fit the public service. 

The details of the scientific methods employed are fully explained in 
the annual reports, and in the Professional Papers published under the 
authority of the survey. It is only necessary here to give the general 
order of the field operations: Reconnaissance, measurement of bases, 
triangulation, primary, secondary, and tertiary; astronomical observa- 
tions for time, azimuth, and latitude; telegraphic determination of lon- 
gitude; topography, determination of the magnetic elements and hy- 
drography, in shore and off', including the exploration of the Oulf Stream, 



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Il6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

tbe investigation of tides and of other questions of value to tbe navi- 
gator and to science. 

The results of these extensive field operations are regularly forwarded 
to the office at Washington, and are there revised, combined, and re- 
duced, and find their way to the public in the form of four classes of 
charts: Sailing charts, general coast charts, coast charts, and harbor 
charts. 

Beside these direct results — and among these should be included the 
data for studying the various problems of defense, river and harbor im- 
provements, light-houses, and other national and local objects depend- 
ing on the topography of the immediate line of the coast, peculiarities 
of the tides and variation of the magnetic needle along the coast, with 
researches for the law of variation over the entire continent — the sur- 
vey has made valuable additions to geodetic science, and by the meas- 
urement of arcs of meridian and parallel, completed and in progress, 
will contribute the proportion of data, due from America to Europe, for 
determining the dimensions and figure of the earth. 

In 1872, upon the recommendation of the Superintendent Benjamin 
Peirce, Congress directed that the Coast Survey should make a geodetic 
connex5tion between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, and also ordered that 
it should supply triangulation points to any State which would provide 
for its own topographical and geological survey. The advantages to 
the General Government of an accurate map of a State are quite as 
great as to the State itself, and co-operation in its construction was con- 
sidered, for this and other reasons, an almost imperative duty. The 
policy of Congress in supplying the frame-work of the survey, consist- 
ing of a net- work of triangles secured by measured bases, and the usual 
astronomical determinations, insures to a certain extent its accuracy ; 
and that, eventually, when the difterent network shall be connected 
with each other and with the triangulation of the coast, they will to- 
gether constitute one harmonious whole based on the same scientific 
methods and standard of execution. 

CATALOGUE OF INSTRUMENTS, ETC., EXHIBITED BY UNITED STATES 

COAST SURVEY. 

The exhibition on the part of the survey of the coast includes char- 
acteristic specimens of the instruments and apparatus employed in the 
triangulation, astronomical, surveying, and hydrographical operations 
of the survey, with a view to illustrate the order, character, and pre- 
cision of the field-work ; secondly, the results of the field operations, 
and of the intermediate processes as embodied in 300 charts and prelim- 
inary sketches of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts of the United 
States, published for the benefit of commerce and navigation; and finally 
the annual reports, and other publications, in which the methods adopted 
in the field and in the office are discussed and published for the ad- 
rancement of science. 



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THE TREASUR Y DEPARTMENT. I 1 7 

With but few exceptions no instrument or apparatus will be exhibited 
or method referred to which is not, in whole or in part, of American 
construction or origin. 

STANDARD WEIGHTS AND MEASURES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

In correlation with the commercial objects of the survey, and of the 
standard- character of the measurements to be made during its execu- 
tion, the construction of the standard weights and measures is under 
charge of the Superintendent of the survey. These standards will be 
represented by a complete set of the measures of length and capacity 
and of the different established weights, both of the American and 
metric systems, and by the comparators and balances used in their 
construction. 

GEODESY. 

1. Compensation base apparatus^ 6 meters in length; composed of two 
bars, one of brass and the other of iron, firmly connected at one end 
and free at the other. The free ends are connected by a lever so related 
to the different expansions as to preserve one point at an invariable 
distance from the fixed end. The specialties of the apparatus consist 
in the relative proportion of the cross-sections of the two bars, so that 
their acquired temperature will be equal during changes; in the deli- 
cate knife-edge lever of compensation attached to the free ends, and, 
at the fixed end, in the level contact so adapted as to admit of its use 
on inclined grades. 

The apparatus was designed in 1845 by A, D. Bache, superintendent, 
and constructed in 184G by William Wurdeman, mechanician of the 
survey, to whom many of the details are due. The equipment for the 
field includes a 6-meter standard bar arranged for comparison with the 
base bars, and a Saxton pyrometer mirror-comparator for indicating mi- 
nute differences of length. These comparisons are made before and 
after the base measurement. 

For a full descnption of the apparatus, its theory, practical working, 
and results, see Appendices 21 and 12, Keports for 1865 and 1873. 

2. Models of the usual form of signal and of two or three varieties 
of the braced tripod and outside scaffold on which the instrument and 
observer are mounted to obtain elevation. Their height varies from 15 
to 60 feet. 

3. Heliotropes or signals for the longer lines of the triangulation, con- 
structed on different plans, looking to certainty of direction, siuipiicity 
of adjustment, and economy in their cost. 

4. Theodolite for primary triangulation ; graduated circle 20 inches in 
diameter, with three micrometer microscopes reading to parts of a sec- 
ond by radial illumination; focal length of telescope 42 inches, and 
diameter of aperture 3 inches. 

Constructed for the Coast Survey by William Wurdeman. 
C 



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I 18 INTERXATIOKAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

5. TheodoliU^ repeating, for secondary triangulation ; graduated cir- 
cle, 12 inches in diameter, reading to three seconds by means of verniers 
and microscopes. Circle by Gambey, of Paris ; upper parts, including 
telescope of 26 inches focal length and 2J inches aperture. Made at 
Coast Survey Office. 

6. Theodolite^ repeating, for tertiary triangulation, diameter of circle, 
10 inches. Made by C. Fauth, of Washington. 

7. Vertical circle^ repeating, for measuring double zenith distances ; 
circle by Gambey, 12 inches in diameter, with four microscopes and 
verniers reading to three seconds. Movements reconstructed at Coast 
Survey Office. 

8. Zenith telescope; focal length, 48 inches ; diameter of aperture, 3 J 
inches; constructed at Washington by William Wurdeman, and used 
for determining the latitude of a station by measuring the difterence in 
the meridional zenith distance of two stars of about the same altitude 
and culminating at nearly the same time, one north and the other south 
of the zenith. The distinctive features of the instrument are the filar- 
micrometer eye-piece and delicate spirit level, and of the method, its 
simplicity and freedom from errors of refraction and i>ersonal equation. 
(For details see Appendix 10, Keport for 1866.) 

The above method of employing the zenith telescope originated with 
Capt. Andrew Talcott, United States Engineer Corps, in 1834. The in- 
strument was introduced in the survey in 1846, and having received 
several improvements suggested by experience, it has been exclusively 
employed in the field-work since 1851. 

9. Transit and equal-altitude instrument^ or a combination of the ze- 
nith telescope and portable astronomical transit, by adding to the lat- 
ter a filar-micrometer eye-piece and delicate level, and by dividing the 
iron horizontal frame into two parts, so that the upper part, carrying 
the entire instrument, can be revolved 180° or more in azimuth, with- 
out disturbing the level or interfering with its relation to the telescope. 
(See Appendix 8, Report for 1867.) 

The combination was first suggested by Assistant George Davidson 
in 1S53, but it was not until 1868 that the instrument, as exhibited and 
now used in the survey, was perfected and constructed at the office. 

10. Astronomical transit^ with reversing apparatus; focal length of 
telescope 46 inches, and diameter of aperture 2f inches ; twenty-five 
threads divided into five groups, together with battery, a Bond astro- 
nomical clock, or chronometer, with break-circuit attachment, chrono- 
graph, keys for tapping, and the usual equipment for determining dif- 
ferences of longitude by the electric telegraph method, purely American. 
(For details see reports and scientific papers of the Survey and Astro- 
nomische !Nachrichten, Nos. 632 and (j(j(S,) The theory and details of the 
method were elaborated by Assistant Sears C. Walker in 1845, were 
practically carried out in 1846, and by means of the circuit-breaker and 
revolving-cylinder chronograph designed by Joseph Saxton, United 



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THE TREASUR V DEPARTMENT. I 1 9 

States Coast Survey, were brought to their present degree of perfection 
in 1849. 

11. Personal error apparatusj portable, to enable the assistant on tele- 
graph longitude duty to determine the error he may have committed, 
if auy, in noting the time of the star transits, in consequence of some 
personal peculiarity, temporary or permanent. 

The clock-breaks and apparatus-breaks are in one electric circuit, the 
registration being automatic, while the breaks for the apparent transit 
by the observer are effected through a second circuit, the true and ob- 
served time being thus recorded on the same chronograph sheet, side 
by side. 

12. Personal equation apparatus^ portable, constructed on the same 
general plan as the preceding. The improvements consist in the deli- 
cate arrangements for adjusting the electric-break to the bisection of 
the star by each of the five threads, and in the addition of a telescope 
of minor i>ower to aid in making an accurate adjustment of the appa- 
ratus-breaks. 

The five lines and the image of the artificial star appear upon the same 
surface; there is, therefore, no parallax ; hence two or more observers can 
obtain their personal equation by observing at the same time through 
small telescopes or field-glasses at a suitable distance. (For description 
of details see Appendix, Report for 1875.) 

Designed and constructed by Werner Suess, mechanician, United 
States Coast Survey. 

13. Mercurial horizon, designed by J. H. Lane, Coast Survey Office, 
to extinguish ripples or oscillation, in the mercury. 

SURVEYING. 

14. Plane-table, with alidade, magnetic declination needle and tele- 
meter, as improved from time to time in its adjustments, stability, and 
usefulness ; constructed at the office and used in the survey for topo- 
graphical details. (See Appendix 22, Beport for 1865.) 

15. Gradienter. 

16. Magnetic apparatus for determining the declination, dip, and in- 
tensity of the magnetic force. Magnetometer No. 7 is for observing 
work requiring precision and facility for observing large disturbances, 
and is of the construction which, in deflection, keeps the magnets at 
right angles to each other; a simple contrivance has been added for 
determining the induction coefficient. For ordinary field-work the 
survey uses the theodolite separate from the box containing tbe magnet, 
although both are mounted on the same stand. In this case the de- 
flecting magnet remains in the plane of the magnetic prime-vertical. 
The principle of collimation is employed in both forms. 

17. Dip circle No. 10, of the ordinary pattern, with the single im- 
provement that the needles have movable axles, admitting of different 
positions to eliminate the defects in the shape of the pivots. (See Ap- 
p4'ndix No. 14, 1872.) Made at Washington by William Wurdeman. 



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I20 . INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

HYDROGRAPHY. 

18. Model of hydrographio signal; shape pyramidal, base triangular, 
made of rough scantling, boarded up on one or more sides and sur- 
mounted by a staff bearing a distinctive flag. The color of the boarding 
and fla^ is either white or black, to suit the background. Height varies 
from 15 to 40 feet. 

19. Hydrographic sextant, used for measuring the angles required to 
determine the position of the sounding boat. Made by E. Lorieux, p^re, 
Paris. 

20. Three-arm protractor for plotting on the chart the position of the 
sounding boat. Made at United States Coast Survey OflBxje. 

21. 'T>eepsea sounding machine for wire, constructed from the original 
plans of Sir William Thomson, with the addition of an accumulator 
worked by coil springs. By means of the accumulator and its arrange- 
ments, the exact amount of wire paid out is registered ; a strain can 
be put on the friction line attached to the reel at the instant the sinker 
strikes the bottom 5 and, in reeling in, the sudden strain brought on the 
wire by the rolling and pitching of the ship can be eased. 

Made at the office from the designs of C. D. Sigsbee, lieutenant-com- 
mander, U. S. N., and assistant. United States Coast Survey. 

22. Sounding rod and detacher or a single ro<l to serve either for using 
and recovering a light sinker, or of detaching, with increased certainty, 
a heavy lead. The apparatus secures a large specimen of the bottom. 

Made at office from designs of O. D. Sigsbee, lieutenant-commander, 
U. S. N. 

23. ^Yater specimen cup so constructed that it can be attached to any 
part of the sounding line as it is paid out, and detached as it is reeled 
in without materially affecting the opening or closing of the valves of 
the cups then under water. Specimens of the water can be thus ob- 
tained, at a single cast, from as many depths as there are cups em- 
ployed. 

Made at office from designs of C. D. Sigsbee, lieutenant-commander, 
U. S. N. 

24. Specimen cups, several varieties, shipped in the lower end of a 
deep-sea lead to bring up specimens of the bottom. 

Designed by Lieutenant (now Eear-Admiral) B. F. Sands, Lieut. H. 
S. Stellwagen, ahd Acting Master R. Piatt, U. S. N., while serving as 
assistants in the survey. 

25. Detaching sinker, water-bottle, and specimen cup : two varieties. 
Designed by Admiral D. D. Porter, U. S. N., and G. R. WiUon, of 
Washington. 

26. Massey^s sounding indicator, 

27. The Miller-Casella maximum and minimum thermometer fbr deep- 
sea temperatures. 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, 121 

28. The Negretti-Zambra deep-sea thermometer. 

The three preceding instruments are of British origin and make and 
are used in the Coast Survey as giving the most satisfactory results. 

29. Hydrometer, with can and attached tliermometer, for sea- water. 
Designed by J. E. Hilgard, United States Coast Survey. 

30. Self-registering tide-gauge^ as at present used in the survey. The 
record is made on a large horizontal cylinder driven by a balance-clock 
of peculiar construction. So soon as the paper is covered with curves 
made by the rising and falling of the tioat, the cylinder is taken out and 
another substituted. The first cylinder is then put into the reading- 
box, and the height of high and low water, and heights at every hour, 
are read oft* on a scale of equal parts and tabulated. For details see Di- 
rections for making tidal observations. 

Constructed at the office from designs by E. S. Avery, United States 
Coast Survey. 

31. Dredge for obtaining specimens of the bottom and of deep-sea 
fauna. 

OFFICE AND PUBLICATIONS. 

32. Record books ruled and of uniform size and color for each class 
of field-work and blank forms for computations, adopted in the Survey 
to secure system in the field and order in the archives. 

33. Chart showing the character of the principal triangulation of the 
Coast Survey. 

34. Chart of the isogonic lines, or the declination of the magnetic needle 
in the United States. 

35. Portfolio containing twenty characteristic specimens of the sailing 
charts and general charts of the coast, drawn, engraved, and published 
at the office of the Coast Survey. 

36. Portfolio containing forty-five similar specimens of coast charts, 

37. Portfolio containing forty similar specimens of harbor charts. 

38. Electrotype plates, alto and basso, 35 by 42 inches. (New York 
entrance.) 

39. Steel faced plate (Mount Desert Island). Deposit of iron is made 
upon this engraved copper plate by the galvanic battery from a solu- 
tion of ferrous suli)hate and am monic chloride. The electrotype iron is 
very hard and retains magnetism permanently. Thickness of deposit, 
0.035 millimeter, or about y^^ of an inch. Number of impresk^ions un- 
limited, since deposit can be renewed at pleasure. 

40. Anmial reports of the Superintendent. 

41. Professional and scientific papers relating to geodesy, astronomy, 
methods of determining dift'erences of longitude, purveying, hydrog- 
raphy, terrestrial magnetism, tides, the Gulf Stream, and other kindred 
subjects connected with the various operations of the survey, including 
Coast Pilots and Tide Tables. 



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122 INTER NATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 

STANDARD WEiaHTS AND MEASURES. 

42. American standards of length, weight, aud capacity. 

43. Metric standards of length, weight, and capacity. 

44. Invariable meter compensated for temperatare; designed by Sax- 
t »n. 

45. Mirror comparator for endmeasares (Saxton's pyrometer). 

46. Vertical contact level comparator; designed by Hilgard. 

47. Optical comparator for comparing line-measures with end-meas- 
ures; designed by Ililgard and Lane. 

48. Balance for 1 pound, sensible to ^-^^ of a grain ; designed and 
<u)nstructed by Hassler, with improvements by Saxton. 

49. Balance for 25 pounds, sensible to one tenth of a grain with that 
load ; designed and constructed by Stixtou. 



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LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 



123 



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LIFE-SAVING SERVICE. 



The necessities of civilization have developed in this country a pro- 
gramme for the aid aud protection of navigation, in which one place is 
occupied by the Engineer Corps of the Army, charged with the labors 
of the lake survey and of river and harbor improvements; another by 
the United States Coast Survey, which furnishes the amplest possible 
sailing directions and guides, based upon comprehensive and diversified 
scientific studies of our shores and waters; a third by the Light-House 
Establishment, guarding «11 our coast approaches and principal rivers 
with its elaborate chains of night and day beacons for the guidance of 
mariners; a fourth by the Storm-Signal Service of the Army, whose 
semaphores giv^e timely notice to seamen of the probable or actual ap- 
proach of tempests ; and the fifth by the Life Saviug Service, which 
complements the functions of the others by providing efficient means for 
rescuing life, and, secondarily, property, imperiled on our strands by 
marine disaster. 

The growth of the Life-Saviug Service, like that of the other members 
of the quintuple activity with which it is co-ordinate, has been slow, con- 
sidering the demand for such ministration, necessitated by the distinct- 
ively maritime character early assumed by the nation. The organization 
appears to have obscurely resulted from the institution of the Massa- 
chusetts Humane Society. This noble benefaction, which was first as- 
sociated in 1786 and incorporated in 1791, erected in 1789 huts on the 
coast of Massachusetts for the shelter of shipwrecked persons, and in 
1807 put up at Cohasset the earliest life-boat station, following it sub- 
sequently with others, which were all supplied with boats, rafts, mortars, 
and other apparatus for rescuing life, and were served by volunteer 
crews, paid upon each occasion of service at shipwrecks, and honored 
for signal conduct with medals and other tokens of appreciation. But 
notwithstanding its eiforts, the eiforts of similar enterprises atdifierent 
points along the Atlantic seaboard, and the local endeavors of indi- 
viduals in numerous shore communities, the annual loss of life by 
shipwreck on our coast, probably on account of the want of adequate 
means for rescue, and the insufficient aud defective organizations of the 
institutions for that purpose, was, and long continued to be, frightful. 
Its enormity was notoriously such that in the debate preceding the ac- 
tion of Congress in 1854, Mr. Skelton, of New Jersey, and Mr. Chandler, 

125 



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126 IXTERXATIOXAL EXJ/IBITIOX, 1876. 

of Peunsylvania, repeatedly asserted, perhaps with some exaggeration^ 
but certainly without contradiction, that the loss of life on the coast of 
Long Island and New Jersey alone amounted to more than one thousand 
persons per annum, and it is this mass of annual calamity that has 
given the shores of Cape Cod, New Jersey, and Cape Hatteras their 
sinister and ineffaceable tradition. 

The black chapter of marine disaster continued until 1848, when 
some wreck of more than usual horror brought the Government to con- 
sider its duty in the premises. The undying honor of the initial meas- 
ure for the mitigation of these calamities belongs to the Hon. William 
A. Newell, of New Jersey, whose powerful appeal in the House of Rep- 
resentatives secured the passage of the act of August 14, 1848, appro- 
priating $10,000 for providing surf-boats, rockets, carronades, &c., for 
aiding the shipwrecked on the coast of New Jersey between Sandy 
Hook and Little Egg Harbor. With this money eight stations were 
erected under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury. 

In March, 1849, $10,000 was appropriated for the same locality and 
$10,000 for other parts of the coast of the United States, with which six 
stations were added to the Jersey coast, eight built on Long Island, and 
two at points in Long Island Sound. 

No complete record exists of the efficacy that followed these expend- 
itures. But it is known that in the winter of 1849-'50 264 persons were 
saved on the coast of Long Island by the life-saving appliances and 
291 on the coast of New Jersey, together with much other unrecorded 
life, and also property ; and this fact, and notably the striking service 
rendered in the great storm of January, 18.50, by the Ottinger surf-car 
in bringing ashore 201 persons from the wreck of the emigrant ship 
Ayrshire encouraged Congress to appropriate $10,000 on September 
28, 1850, and $10,000 on September 30, 1850, with one of which appro- 
priations two more stations were added to the Long Island coast in 
1851, and with the other life-boats were placed at diflferent points on 
the coasts of North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Texas. 
This was the tirst national extension of the wandering and uncertain 
movement which had begun for ameliorating the miseries and terrors 
of our seaboard. 

In March, 1853, and August, 1854, there were appropriations of 
$10,000, $12,500, and $20,000, which were expended for life-boats on 
Lake Michigan and other points on the lakes and the Atlantic coast, 
and for the establishment of fourteen life-boat stations on the coast of 
New Jersey and eleven on the coast of Long Island. 

At this time the degree of efficacy which had attended these meas- 
ures began to slacken through the fatal incoherence of organization 
which had accompanied them. There were now on the Atlantic, Pacific, 
Gulf, and Lake coasts eighty-two life-boats without stations, besides 
those at the stations on the Long Island and New Jersey coast ^ and a 
few of them, which had been placed in charge of Government officials, 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 12/ 

were in good condition, but the larger part had been entrusted to cor- 
porations, ephemeral benevolent societies or private citizens, and, de- 
spite their proved usefalness, had been let go to ruin. In the absence of 
any paramount directing mind, the necessary transfer of stations to 
points at which the alterations of the coast had formed new snares for 
mariners had not been made ; and the stations, through repeated dep- 
redation and constant neglect, had dwindled in efficiency. The terri- 
ble thickening of disasters at this time, and the frequent spectacle of 
wrecks breaking up within sight of shore, amidst screams and suppli- 
cations for assistance, when useless boats and apparatus made help im- 
possible, indicated the radical fault which only the later creation of an 
organized service repaired. 

A dreadful shipwreck on the New Jersey coast, involving the loss of 
three hundred lives, inspired the passage of the act of December 14, 
1854, which authorized superintendents for the coasts of Long Island 
and New Jersey, and keepers for each of the stations. Although the 
service remained inchoate and inefifective, a corresponding improve- 
ment followed this measure, which was increased by the additional step, 
taken in 1870, of employing six surfmen at each alternate station on the 
coast of New Jersey during*three months of the winter. These, how- 
ever, were still only surface remedies, and renewed disasters in the Win- 
ter of 1870-71 caused the Treasury Department to make vigorous rep- 
resentations upon the subject to Congress already roused by the fre- 
quency and horror of such calamities. These representations led to a 
sudden and splendid development of the Life-Saving Service, which was 
eff'ected by the appropriation in April, 1871, of $200,000. The act also 
authorizing the Secretary of the Treasury to employ crews of expe- 
rienced surfmen at such stations and for such periods as he might deem 
necessary and proper. 

A report upon the condition of the stations was made, under orders, 
by Capt. John Faunce, of the Eevenue Marine, and the exhibit deter- 
mined the Hon. George S. Boutwell, then Secretary of the Treasury, to 
authorize a thorough reorganization of the service. Under his direction 
the work was at once begun. With the view of bringing the stations 
within an average distance of 3 miles of each other, twelve new station, 
houses were built on the coast of New Jersey and Long Island; the 
existing stations were either rebuilt or enlarged ; all were furnished 
with the most approved and appropriate apparatus; a suitable quantity 
of beds and bedding for the use of the surfmen and those they rescued 
was provided for each; efficient officers and crews displaced the inca- 
pable; drill and exercise in the use of the boats and apparatus was in- 
stituted; the constant nocturnal patrol of the beach between the sta- 
tions was established; a signal code was devised; the coast was dis- 
tricted ; elaborate regulations for the government of the stations were 
promulgated ; examinations, periodical inspections, the keeping of ac- 
counts of expenditures, the journalizing of transactions and occurrences, 



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128 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and the forwarding of returns and reports were exacted; in brief, the 
service became organic, and entered upon a career of usefulness unsur- 
]>assed by any similar service in the world, the proof and epitome of 
which are in the fact of the reduction of the former frightful annual loss 
of life to an average for the last five years of about three persons per 
annum. The details of the reorganization were entrusted to the Revenue 
Marine Division, then under the charge of Mr. 8. I. Kimball, under 
whose administration the service has since remained. 

By act of March, 1871, two additional stations were established on 
the coast of Ehode Island ; by act of June, 1872, nine stations were 
erected upon Oape Cod; and by act of March, 1873, twenty-one more 
upon the coast from Maine to North Carolina. By the subsequent act 
of June 20, 1874, which provided more completely for the organization 
of the service than any of those preceding, fifty-one additional sta- 
tions were authorized for points on the Atlantic, Lakes, and Pacific 
coasts ; and the later act of March 3, 1875, added two more on the 
coast of Ehode Island and Long Island Sound, making one hundred and 
fitty-five in all. The important act of June 20, 1874, which authorized 
the establishment of the stations in a classified order, was the result of 
the report of a commission, designated by the Secretary of the Treasury 
on the 6th of March, 1873, composed of Mr. S. I. Kimball, chief of the 
Division of Revenue Marine, and Ca[>ts. John Fauuce, and J. H. Mer* 
ryman, officers of that service, the latter officer being the inspector of 
the Life-Saving Service, who made a tliorough study of the coast and 
its requirements, involving personal inspection of the localities, upon 
which to base their recommendations. 

The foregoing sketch of the historical development of the service 
necessarily preludes some account of its present organization. Under 
the system adopted, the sea and lake coasts of the United States are 
apportioned into eleven life-saving, districts, each of them under the 
supervision of a local officer called a superintendent. Inspection is pro- 
vided for by the detail of an inspector and two assistants, all officers of 
the Revenue Marine. Two officers of the Revenue Marine also act as su- 
perintendents of construction. Each station-house is under the charge 
of an experienced surfman, called a keeper, who commands a selected 
crew. The entire service, by virtue of its relation to commerce, is 
affiliated upon the Treasury Department, and is under the immediate 
government of one of it« officers, as above shown. 

IJistricts. — The districts are distinguished by numbers, from one up- 
wardi*, beginning with the most northerly or easterly. The first district 
comprises the coasts of Meineand New Hampshire, from West Quoddy 
Head to Rye Beach ; the second, the coast of Maasjujhusetts, including 
the island of Nantucket; the third, the coasts of Rhode Island, Block 
Island, and Long Island, from Narragansett Pier, Rhode Island, to 
Coney Island, New York ; the fourth, the coast of New Jersey, from 
Sandy Hook to Cape May; the fifth, the coasts of Delaware, Maryland, 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. I 29 

and Virginia, from Cape Henlopeu to Cape Charles ; the sixth, the coasts 
of Virginia and North Carolina, from Cape Henry to Cape Hatteras ; 
the seventh, the eastern coast of Florida ; the eighth, the coasts of Lakes 
Ontario and Erie; the ninth, the coasts of Lakes Huron and Saperior; 
the tenth, the coast of Lake Michigan ; and the eleventh, the Pacific 
coast, from Cape Flattery, Washington Territory, to Point Conception, 
California. 

Superintendents. — Each district is in charge of a superintendent He 
is appointed only after careful examination by an Examining Board, 
consisting of two persons, one of them the inspector of life-saving sta- 
tions. He is required to be not less than twenty -five, nor more than 
fifty -five years of age ; to be familiar with the coaat 6t his district ; to 
be conversant with the proper management of surf-boats and life-saving 
apparatus ; to be able to read and write the English language correctly, 
and to have a knowledge of notation, numeration, the four rules of arith- 
metic, and the elementary principles of book-keeping. He is charged 
with the superintendence of the stations in his district. His duty is to 
visit every station at least twice during the winter months, and three 
times during the remainder of the year. Upon each visit he carefully 
examines the condition of the building and its apparatus, books, furni- 
ture, &C.; and musters and inspects the crew of the station, whom he 
exercises in the use of the boats and apparatus, according to a prescribed 
form. After each examination he makes a written report of the result 
to the Department through the inspector. He also makes requisition 
through the same officer for repairs, supplies, or outfits which he fijids 
needed by any station. He scrutinizes the reports of wrecks which 
keepers are required to make and forward to him upon the occurrence 
of each disaster, and sees that they contain all the particulars before 
forwarding them through the inspector to the Department. In cases of 
vacancy occurring through any cause, he selects and nominates to the 
Department suitable persons for keepers of the stations, temporarily 
employing meanwhile proper agents to discharge the duties. He also 
acts as a disbursing officer for the payment of crews, and for certain 
supplies which he is authorized to purchase upon requisition. These 
superintendents are vested with the powers and duties of inspectors of 
customs, and labor for the prevention and detection of smuggling upon 
the coasts of their respective districts. Their pay is $1,000 each per 
annum, except those of the third and fourth districts, who receive $1,500 
each, in consideration of the more arduous duties which those impor- 
tant coasts involve. The third district is also allowed an assistant 
superintendent at a compensation of $500 per annum. 

Keepers. — ^The keepers of the stations are selected on account of their 
reputation as brave and expert seamen, and their skill in controlling 
boats beset by the dangers incident to wrecks stranded in angry water. 
They are the captains of their respective crews, and must have the 
qualities which inspire the confidence and obedience of their men. The 

9 GEN, PT 2 



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130 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

• 

immediate care and government of the stations are confided to them, 
and they are accountable for the condition of the buildings, boats, ap- 
paratus, &c., and for the proper use of all supplies under their charge. 
They are prohibited, during the winter season especially, from engag- 
ing in any business or occupation which involves absence from the stations 
or interference with their duties. They are required to have received 
sufficient education to enable them \fi keep accounts of all expenditures 
at the stations, journalize all transactions and occurrences, and make 
monthly reports, and all other necessary communications to the superin- 
tendents. The duties of a keeper of the life-saving station are extremely 
important. During the season of storms, which ranges on pur coast 
from four to six months (the Lakes excepted) he resides at the station 
with his crew, and givcA his whole time and attention to keeping a look- 
out for vessels in distress. One of his most especial cares is to see that 
the beach between his station and the two to the right and left adjoin, 
ing is constantly patrolled by his men all night and during the stormy 
or thick weather in the day also, in order that any vessel driven ashore 
may be at once descried. When a wreck is discovered, the keeper's 
first duty is to communicate the fact when necessary by signal to the 
adjoining stations, and then to prepare the apparatus and boats for serv- 
ice. Upon boarding wrecks, the preservation of life is his first consid- 
eration 5 that of property is secondary. All cargoes, or portionsthereof 
that come ashore, he guards in the interest of the owners and for the 
protection of the revenue. After a wreck he fully reports the particu- 
lars on a printed form to the superintendent. He sees that the boats and 
apparatus are carefully cleaned, dried, and repaired after each occasion 
of service. When two or more keepers and crews meet at a wreck, they 
are required by regulation to co-operate harmoniously, the most experi- 
enced keeper assuming the general direction. The drill and exercise 
of crews in the use of the boats and apparatus are frequent, and in 
addition to those required upon the visits of inspectors and superin- 
tendents, keepers must get out their respective boats at least once a 
month for the same purpose, but are not allowed to expend powder, 
shot, or rockets in the exercise unless by authority. The lakes are 
closed by ice to navigation during the winter months, and the active 
season for keepers in that locality is during the spring and fall, when 
heavy gales and storms are prevalent; but elsewhere upon the coast 
the keepers are required to remain at the stations during the inclement 
portion of the year (or longer if the Department should so direct) 5 this 
being a period varying in duration according to the degree of latitude, 
but comprised between November and May. The keeper of a station 
has possession of its keys when closed, and visits it frequently during 
the summer to see that everything about it is in proper order. In case 
of his illness or incapacitation at any time, the keeper of the next 
adjoining station takes charge until his recovery, or the appointment 
of his successor. His remuneration is at present only $200 per annum. 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. \xi 

payable quarterly — an insnfflcient sum — which it is hoped Congress will 
increase, in consideration of the dignity, value, and responsibility of 
his functions. 

Crews, — ^As stated hereafter, there are three classes of stations, re- 
spectively designated complete life-saving stations, life-boat stations, 
and houses of refuge. To a life-saving station there is allotted a crew 
of six persons, permanently resident at the station-house during the 
season, and paid at the rate of $40 per month while they serve, and $3 
each for every occasion of shipwreck at other times where they render 
assistance. The life-boat stations are served by twelve volunteers, not 
resident at the station-house, but summoned whenever a wreck occurs, 
and paid at a rate not to exceed $10 each for every time they save life 
at such an occurrence. The houses of refuge are in charge of a keeper 
only. The surfmen who form the crews of the two first classes of sta- 
tions are the Slite of our coast, hardy and experienced seamen, adepts in 
managing boats in heavy seas and near wrecks at seasons of the sternest 
marine ordeal. Their skill with the oar in the crash and convulsion 
of shipwrecking seas is. incredible, and such is their mastery that they 
deliberately prefer, in attempts at rescue, their comparative cockle-shell 
of a surf-boat to the superb self-righting and self-bailing mahogany life- 
boats devised by the English. They are engaged annually, nominally 
for the year, by signing articles. The eflflciency of the stations being, 
of course, dependent upon discipline, they are required to render 
the strictest obedience to the keepers. The duty which alone of all 
others equals that of their service at wrecks is their maintenance of 
the patrol. For this purpose the winter night is divided into three 
watches of four hours each. At each of these periods two men set out 
from the station, one proceeding toward the nearest station on the right, 
the other toward that on the left (the stations being from 3 to 7 miles 
apart), and traverse the beach till they meet the patrol coming from 
the contiguous station, when they exchange signals and return. Each 
patrolman carries a beach-lantern and a red Coston hand-light. His 
Bevere and laborious march is sustained nightly in all weathers y and as 
he plods through the darkness over the hummocked beach he keeps 
perpetual watch for the token of some vessel stranded in the obscure 
offing. Should he discover such he instantly ignites his red Coston 
light, both to alarm his station and to notify the wreck that succor is 
at hand, and rushes back to the station-house to take his part in the 
thrilling work of rescue. 

Stations. — As already indicated there are three classes of stations. 
Those known as complete life-saving, stations are established at locali- 
ties exposed to the actual ocean, on long beaches or outlying bars, gen- 
erally void or sparse of population, and therefore calling for resident 
crews. They are placed at points which statistics of disasters prove the 
frequent scene of shipwrecks, and usually at an average distance of 3 
miles apart. The station-houses are structures mainly of pine, a story 



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132 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and a half in height, 44 feet long by 18^ broad (inside dimensions) ; 
of pointed architectore, painted in three coats of oil, brown in color, 
with trimmings of darker brown, and dark-red roofs. The older sta- 
tion-houses have less ample interiors, but the new and improved struct- 
ures are designed to contain five rooms. In the lower story, one of ob. 
long form, for the boat and heavy apparatus, and one adjoining for the 
mess-room of the crew; in the upper story, one furnished with cot-beds, 
for the accommodation of shipwrecked persons, one for the storage of 
lighter articles belonging to the station, one for the sleeping chamber 
of the crew, and one for the use of the observer of the Signal Service. 
The number of complete life-saving stations is one hundred ai^d twenty- 
six. 

The life-boat stations are of similar materials and architecture, but 
not having to accommodate keepers or crews, contain only one large 
apartment with closets, and are 20 by 40 feet inside dimensions. This 
house contains the lifeboat, mortar and shot, hand-cart lines, and other 
lighter articles. These stations are located near populous places in the 
vicinity of piers and harbors. When built upon piles or upon wharves 
or piers, as they sometimes are, they are furnished with what are termed 
inclined platforms, a species of trap in the lower floor furnished with 
rollers, upon which the life-boat rests, and which, lowered at an angle 
determined by the height of the water below, permits the boat to be 
easily launched by sliding down this sloping plain. There are twenty- 
four of this class of stations. Their keepers and the members of the vol- 
unteer crews, by which they are served, are supposed to reside in their 
neighborhood. 

The houses of refuge^ which constitute the third class of stations, are 
only Ave in number, and are all upon the eastern coast of Florida. For 
nearly 500 miles this coast is a desolate waste, with shores so bold that 
stranded vessels ai*e usually thi-own high upon the beach, and crews 
wrecked by its frequent gales and tornadoes are less in peril of death 
by drowning than by hunger and thirst when cast ashore. Hence 
these houses are designed to offer shelter and sustenance, these being 
the main necessity of the situation. They are a story and a half high, 
supported upon posts, are about 35 by 15 feet in dimensions, and are 
built of Florida pine and light wood, and roofed with cypress shingles. 
Their architecture is of the type frequent in the southern part of our 
country, characterized by a large chimney, sloping roof, and ample ver- 
andas on every side. Instead of glass the windows are furnished with 
brass wire-gauze mosquito netting and solid outside shutters. Each 
house is inhabited by a keeper and his family, is provisioned suflciently 
to support twenty-five persons for ten days during the season of hurri- 
canes, having also capacity for sheltering that number. A boat-house 
about 28 by 12 feet in dimensions is attached to each station, housing 
one 22-foot surf-boat and one 12-foot skiff A)r keepers' use, both of gal- 
vanized iron, furnished with oars, masts, and sails. 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 



"^ii 



The estimated cost of these stations, with their eqnipmeDts, which 
the actual cost closely approaches, is as follows : $5,302.15 for a com- 
plete lifesaviug station, $4,790 for a life-boat station, and $2,994 for a 
house of refu^. 

A^aratuB and equipments. — The apparatus, &c., used at the stations 
formed part of the national exhibit at the Cenntenial Exhibition. 

First in order may be mentioned the sorf-boat, which is either metallic 
or cedar, insubmergible; usually 25 feet long, 6 feet broad, 2 feet and 
3 inches deep, made buoyant with air-chambers running along the sides 
under the thwarts, having cork fenders on the sides for protection in 
case of collision with hulls or wreckage, and the bottom considerably 
flattened for convenience in launching from our flat beaches. These 
boats are painted red, with a black streak on the gunwale. They are 
generally used at the complete life-saving stations, and are the favorite 
of the crews. 

The life-boats used at the stations of the second class are a modifica- 
tion of the English pattern. They are 26 feet 8 inches by 7 feet 3^ 
inches in dimension, and are so buoyed at stem and stem with air- 
chambers, and weighted in the keel, as to be self-righting when cap- 
sized. Their decks being so placed as to be always above the water- 
line, with delivery pipes leading through to their bottoms; they are also, 
on the principle that water seeks its level, self-bailing. A boat of this 
species, when thrown over, as may sometimes happen by a monstrous 
wave, comes right side up, full of water, of which she empties herself 
in twenty seconds. These boats are strongly built, being of mahogany, 
double planked diagonally, and are very heavy. Their main disadvan- 
tages are their great cost, and their weight, which makes their trans- 
portation from the station to the water (except where they can be 
launched directly from their houses into deep water) impossible, un- 
less at points where horses are available. Their splendid advantages 
are obvious. One of them was displayed at the Exhibition, afloat on 
the lake in front of the station, and its self-righting and self-bailing 
qualities were illustrated by a working model 4 feet in length, and made 
in exact proportion to the actual life-boat. Their draft is considerable, 
which also makes them unsuitable for use on the greater part of the 
Atlantic coast, which is bordered with shoal water. An admirable boat 
of this description, which is believed to be a marked improvement, for 
our purposes, on the English model, has been devised by Gapt. John 
M. Bichardson, superintendent of the first life saving district, and is in 
use at Station No. 4, White Head Island, Maine. It draws 4 inches 
less water than the smallest English boat; is over 1,400 pounds lighter; 
has flat decks to the air-cases at each end, an advantage over the con- 
vex surfaces of its prototype; is built of cedar and white oak, and 
fh^med and planked like ordinary boats, which makes it lighter and less 
expensive than the diagonal double-planked maho|2:auy hull of the other, 
and delivers the water it ships through shuttered scuppers in the sides, 



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134 INTERNATIONAL EXNIBIIION, 1876. 

less liable to become choked with ice in onr high latitudes than the 
delivery pipes of its model. 

Fq( the transportation of boats to the place of launching on the beach 
there is a peculiar boat-carriage, very strongly made of oak and hickory, 
consisting of a skeleton reach 16 feet long resting on solid bed-pieces at 
either end, and mounted on fore and hind wheels 4 feet in diameter and 
of equal dimensions, the whole being furnished with a pole and whiffle- 
trees for two horses. When horses cannot be had the surf-boat is drawn 
upon this carriage by the crew. 

The life-car or surf -car, which was invented by Capt. Douglass Olt- 
inger, of the Ke venue Marine, in 1848, is a species of covered boat; made 
of galvanized iron, capable of holding from two to four persons, and, 
with a ring at each end, by which it is suspended with a pulley-block to 
a hawser, rigged between a wreck and the shore, and upon which it is 
pulled to and fro with hauling lines. It is entered by a hatchway closed 
with a sliding cover, which is pierced with air-holes, the perforations 
being made from within so as to raise the edges of the metal, and thus 
prevent water from entering as the car is hauled through the surf. 
Many lives have been saved by itJS instrumentality. 

Another device employed for life-saving, and which may be used with 
hauling-lines, with oars, or with sails, as occasion requires, is the Eider 
life-raft. It is made of two pointed cylinders of canvas, each 26 inches 
in diameter and 22 feet long, which are coated with gutta-percha and 
inflated with air, and are secured together by hoops of hickory at equal 
distances, so as to sustain an intermediate frame-work, the whole form- 
ing a structure of 7 feet and 2 inches wide. It sits lightly on the water ; 
is insubmergible, and its broad surface affords accommodation for a 
large number of passengers. For rowing, it is fitted with four oars for 
pulling and one for steering. 

Still another contrivance for use with hauling-lines by suspension to 
a hawser stretched between a wreck and the shore, is the breeches- 
buoy, a circular life-preserver of cork, with a pair of short, stout, can- 
vas breeches attached, into which the person to be brought ashore gets 
and sits for his landward journey through or over the surf. A similar 
invention is the life-buoy or cradle devised by Mr. H. Cordes, of Bre- 
merhaven, which is simply a species of basket made of cork, eliptical in 
shape, with a sagging of canvas bands interwoven across, slung to the 
hawser like the breeches-buoy. In this a person to be rescued lies and 
is pulled ashore. 

To effect the communication with a wreck, by which a hawser is 
stretched between it and the shore for the employment of the surf-car, 
breeches-buoy, &c., a shot is fired with a line attached, which, falling 
over the wreck, enables those on board to drag it in with the hauling- 
lines and the hawser fastened thereto. To carry the shot over the wreck 
mortars, guns, and rockets are employed. The mortar used is of the 
eprouvette pattern ; caliber, 5J inches ; weight, with its bed, 288 pounds. 



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THE TREASUR Y DEPARTMENT, . 1 3 5 

It is furnished with twelve spherical solid balls, 24 pounds each. The 
charge of powder is from 2 to 4 ounces. It can be relied upon to send a ball 
from 300 to 400 yards. For the transportation of the mortar or similar 
apparatus over the beaches there is a strong hand-cart, 4 feet 9 inches 
long, by 3 feet wide, with wheels of 4 feet diameter, made of oak and iron, 
with rims of from 4 to 5 inches broad. 

Another invention for sending a shot-line to a wreck, produced by 
Cordes, of Bremerhaven, is a gun of 3-inch caliber, mounted on a 4- 
wheeled carriage, which also carries the ammunition, implements, and 
lines. The extreme range of this gun is about 560 yards. The projec- 
tile u.^i is peculiar, being a hollow, cylindrical, pointed shot, 20 pounds 
in wei^t, 3 inches diameter, and 20 inches long, through which the 
shot-line is rove with an ingenious contrivance for preventing the line 
from breaking by the impulse of the discharge from the mouth of the 
, gun. The same inventor has contributed what is called a knapsack 
gun, being a small brass cannon mounted so that a strong surfman can 
carry it strapped to his back, and which has a range of 300 yards. He 
has also invented a hand or shoulder gun which has a range of 150 to 
200 yards. The projectiles and method of firing are the same in all his 
guns. 

The Liliendahl rocket apparatus is a portable contrivance for effect- 
ing communication with wrecks. It consists of a tube of iron upon a 
tripod for giving direction to the rocket, which is of steel and carries, 
instead of the stick usually attached to rockets, a loop of steel rod, to 
• which the line is secured by a steel- wire lanyard. The rocket is capable 
of caiTying a line 350 yards. 

The Cordes apparatus has only recently come into notice, but all the 
other articles of boats, rafts, surf-cars, mortars, rockets, &c., are furnished 
to the stations of the first and second class, which are also provided, 
for the safety of the crews, with suits of the Merriman rubber life-sav- 
ing dress, made famous by the exploits of Paul Boyton, and also with 
cork-life belts, which the men are required by regulation to wear when 
they go out in the boats to rescue. The stations are also furnished in 
suitable quantities, according to their respective wants, with a number 
of articles of ship's stores and equipments, such as axes, buckets, calk- 
ing irons, hatchets, lanterns, marline-spikes, medicine-chests, oakum, 
sail-needles, speaking-trumpets, twine, &c. Such of the latter articles 
as are necessary are also provided for the houses of refuge, which are 
likewise provisioned with salt beef and pork, navy breaS, coffee, and 
sugar. 

** The following is a specific catalogue of the exhibit at the life-saving 
station erected on the Centennial grounds : ^ 

1. Self-righting and self-bailing life-boat, with following attachments : 

Ma8t«y sails, rudder and yoke, tiller, row-locks, oars, boat-hooks, canvas boat cover, 
transporting trucks and turn-table, skids, ridge-pole and stanchion. 



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136 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

% Sarf-boaty with following attachments : 

Boat wagon (complete), oars, boat-hooks and warp, boat anchor, thole-pins, rabber 
bailing buckets, carriage wrench, hand-grapnels and warp, cork life-jackets, boat 
cover (canvas). 

3. Howitzer, with following attachments : 

Carriage (complete) and containing shot-lines, hanling line and guide posts, 
wooden maul, spare article box, containing rubber springs, leather sabots and fric- 
tion primers, iron shot or elongated projectiles. 

4. Life-car (metallic), with following attachments : 

Manila hawser, hauling line, or double ''whip"; large and small tackles, selvagee 
strops ; shot-line, with box and faking peg^ ; tally-board, with instructions to wrecked 
persons in the application of life-car apparatus ; mortar and bed ; spherical shot (24' 
pounder), shot wires, cannon fuzes (water-proof) ; sand anchor, with bullVeye and 
strap; shovel. 

5. " LilliendahP rocket, with following attachments: 

Rocket range, " Lilliendahl " rockets ; connecting shackles, with rocket line (com- 
plete). 

6. Breeches buoy, with sling and runner block. 

7. Life-basket (cork). 

8. Life-rafb, with following attachments : 

Rubber cylinders, with air-pumps ; oars, boat-hooks, thole-pins (spare), cork floats, 
and life-lines. 

9. Knapsack gun, with following attachments : 

Carriage (complete), to be transported upon the back of a snrfboan ; elongated pro- 
jectiles (iron) ; rubber springs, leather sabots, shot-line, box and faking pegs. 

10. ShouMer gun, with following attachments : 
Swivel, projectiles (iron), sabots, cone key, oil-can, cleaning rod. 

11. Loaded mace (for throwing lines by hand over a wrecked vessel). 

12. Merriman's life-saving suits (rubber). 

13. Equipments: 

Hand-cart (for transportation of life-car apparatus); large beach light and staflT, 
(for night work on the beach) ; signal lanterns (brass) ; lamp-feeder, powder magazine, 
powder flask, speaking trumpet; marine glasses (binocular), with case; calking mal- 
let and iron ; claw hammer, gimlets, grindstone and box ; monkey wrench, hand-saw,, 
jack-plane, axes, hatchets, marline-spikes; " Costings ^' night signals, with holders; 
signal rockets and stafis ; sewing palm, sail-needles, branding iron (*' U. S. L. S. S. ") ; 
Are buckets (rubber) ; sponge (boat) ; rocket and lantern stand; clock; signal flags 
( " U. S. L. S. S. ") ; national ensigns. 

14. Medicine chest, containing the following medicines, &c. : 

Brandy and sherry wine (in flasks), ammonia carb., snufl^, MonseFs salt (to arrest 
bleeding), pills of camph. and opii, adhesive plaster, sinapisms, probaogs (for clear- 
ing the throat), sponge, bandages, wadding, flannel, and pins ; printed directions of 
the most approved method of ** resuscitating the apparently drowned." 

15. Stores: 

Manila cordage, marline, spun yam, cotton sewing-twine, putty, white lead, paint 
oil, signal oil, boat nails, tacks, sand-paper, emery-paper, lamp-wicking, stove-black- 
ing, rottenstone, whiting, soap, brooms. 

16. Furniture: 

Ten cot-bedsteads (of iron and canvas) ; ten mattresses (husk), with linen covers ; 
en pillows (husk), with linen covers ; twenty woolen blankets (" U. S. L. 8. 8. " pat- 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, I37 

tern), chairs, mees table (with drawers), desk (writing), washstand (iron), water 
pitcher, wash-bowl and pitcher, water cooler, )(las8 tumblers, cocoa mats, cuspidors, 
dustpan and brush, painters' duster, brushes (scrubbing), brushes (stove-blacking), 
crash toweling, watering can, water pails. 

17. Oooking utensils : 

Cook stove and fixtures complete, including extra set of fire-brick aud grate ; coal 
scuttle, shovel and poker, mess pans, coffee pots, tea kettle, tin pans, plates and 
cnps^ tablespoons, teaspoons, knives and forks, mess kettles (iron, with covers), skill 
let, wash boiler, butcher knife, and large fork. 

18. Books, blanks, &c. : 

Register, journal, receipt and expenditure book, ''Regulations for the Government 
of the United States Life Saving Service;'' rocket and mortar drill; specifications 
and plans of construction of United States life-saving stations on Pacific and Lake 
coasts ; specifications and plans of construction of self-righting and self-bailing life- 
boat ; blank shipping articles (U. S. L. 8. S. ) ; blank wreck report (U. 8. L. S. S. ) ; 
blank quarterly report (U. 8. L. S. S. ) ; blank requisition for supplies (U. S. L. S. S.) ; 
blank quarterly estimate tor funds (U. S. L. 8. S.) ; blank pay-rolls (U. S. L. S. S.) ; 
blank vouchers, purchases, and repairs; blank inventory of public property ; blank 
-vouchers for services and traveling expenses attending drill and exercise; blank re- 
quisition for official postage stamps ; blank report of official postage stamps ; blank 
requisition for blank forms; blank account current of disbursement by superintend- 
ents; blank abstract of disbursements by superintendents; blank weekly transcript 
of journal ; blank statement of accounts by superintendents. 

19. Special exhibits : 

Life-saving medals, gold (in case), first class; life-saving medals, silver (in case), 
second class; 24-pounder ball (being the first shot fired in the United States to save 
life from shipwreck). This ball, with line attached, was thrown over the ship Ayr- 
shire, wrecked on Squan Beach, New Jersey, January 12, 1850, saving 201 lives. 

20. Model life-car apparatus, iDclnding the model of a vessel ashore 
and in distress, the whole showing practically the method of rescuing 
life from the perils of the sea by means of the life-car. 

21. Diagram of life-car. 

22. United States Life-Saving Service signal code. 

23. Model of self-righting and self-bailing life-boat. 
Superintendents of construction. — ^The stations are built and kept in 

repair through the agency of superintendents of construction, located 
for this purpose at New York. The two oflBcers of the Revenue Marine 
acting in this capacity supervise the work under the contracts and 
agreements made by the Department for the construction and repair of 
stations, and of all boats, boat-carriages, &c., and see that they are 
properly carried out. They have oversight of all plans and specifica- 
tions, inspect all materials, and are responsible for all constructions be- 
ing effected in a workmanlike manner. 

In>spectors, — ^The inspector is a captain of the Revenue Marine, as- 
sisted by two lieutenants of the Revenue Marine, all detailed for this 
duty. He and his assistants exercise a general supervision over all the 
districts. The duty of an inspector involves the personal scrutiny of 
every station along the whole coast, at least once a year, and oftener if 
directed by the Department. He is accompanied in each district by its 



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138 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

superintendent. He notifies the stations of his intended visit in advance, 
so that the surfmen may be assembled to meet him. He exercises the 
men in the use of the boat and car, causing them to launch and to go 
and return through the surf 5 also in the use of the mortar and rocket 
apparatus, all as if actually engaged in the work of savinis: life. He 
closely examines everything in and about the station, ascertaining that 
all is in proper condition. He is required to know the use and application 
of every article, and to see that the keeper and surfmen have the same 
knowledge. After each visit he makes a full report to the Department, 
containing such recommendations as may be called for. All requisi- 
tions for supplies and repairs are received by him from the superintend- 
ents of the districts, which he approves or disapproves, and forwards 
to the Department. He also forwards all reports which he receives in 
the same way. Capt. James H. Merryman has ably performed the im- 
portant duties of this office since June, 1872. 

Fiscal management. — The Life-Saving Service is annually appropriated 
for by Congress. The cost of new stations is defrayed by special ap- 
propriations. The appropriations for the annual running expenses are 
two; one for the Life-Saving Service, covering expenditures for salaries 
and pay; the other for contingent expenses, providing for all other 
current outlays. For the year ending June 30, 1877, the appropriation 
for the purpose first named was $201,580; the other appropriation was 
$30,000. 

The salaries of the superintendents of the districts and of the keepers 
are fixed by law. The wages of the surfmen are prescribed by the De- 
partment. All payments of salary and wages are made quarterly upon 
pay-rolls, in accordance with estimates which the superintendents of the 
districts are required to forward at least twenty days before the expi- 
ration of the quarter. Payments must be made in lawful money, and 
only to the persons to whom they are owed, No purchases of any de- 
scription for the stations can be made without the authority of the De- 
partment. When such authority is obtained, the purchases are made 
upon written proposals obtained from three or more responsible dealers. 
All supplies and outfits of any considerable quantity are procured by 
contract made upon proposals obtained by public advertisement, and 
are rigorously inspected upon delivery. Bills and vouchers are required 
to be made out in detail and presented in duplicate. 

Go-operation of the Storm-Signal Service. — By the a<Jt of March 3, 1873, 
the Storm-Signal Service of the Army made an affiliation with the Life- 
Saving Service, and is now directly connected with the stations at 
Sandy Hook, Monmouth Beach, Squan Beach, Barnegat, Atlantic City? 
and Peck's Beach, New Jersey ; at Cape Henry, Virginia ; and at Kitty 
Hawk and Little Kinnakeet, North Carolina. The signal stations at 
Cape May, Oswego, Buflfalo, Erie, Cleveland, Grand Haven, Chicago, 
Milwaukee, and San Francisco, are also available for the Life-Saving 
Service. The connection has worked beneficially in two ways ; first, 
by afifording means of immediate communication between the stations, 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTAIENT. 1 39 

the saperintendents, and the Department, making them npon occasion 
mutually clairvoyant of all occurrences and operations, and also ena- 
bling important orders to be given from any center of authority, local or 
superior, at moments of exigency or crisis; secondly, by diminishing the 
number of wrecks through the display of cautionary signals warning 
vessels to remain in port, or to avoid the lee shore, upon indications of 
approaching tempest. 

The act of June 20, 1874, greatly promoted the efficiency of the serv- 
ice in many ways, and among them in authorizing means for obtain- 
ing statistics of disaster to shipping, which are now annually appended 
to the reports of the service, and are of great value in determining 
points at which life-saving stations, lighthouses, &c., should be estab- 
lished, or to which they should be removed, by showing the recurring 
frequency of shipwrecks at those localities. The information they af- 
ford is obviously also of great value to ship-owners, underwriters, and 
all persons interested or concerned in commerce. 

The same act authorized the award of gold medals to persons dis- 
tinguished for signal gallantry in saving life, and silver medals for per- 
sons who rendered similar service under less trying circumstances, a 
measure highly promotive of the work of life-saving by adding to it the 
stimulations of public honor. 

The annual report of the Life-Savin g Service for the past year shows 
that an extraordinary success has attended its operations, especially 
since its reorganization in 1871. There are no statistics anterior to 
1850 of the dreadful mass of marine calamities which made Cape God, 
New Jersey, and Gape Hatteras, each as much a by- word as Gape Horn- 
Between 1850 and 1871, the imperfect data which have been collected, 
and which re'^resent the merest fragment of the traditional reality, 
show an average of 25.6 persons lost per annum on the Long Island 
and Kew Jersey coasts. Since 1871, on the same portions of the coast, 
the loss per annum has been only 3.2 persons, an amazing diminution, 
amounting, in fact, to 87^ per cent. It is certain that under the system, 
atic operations of the service, the succession of Golgothas once pre 
sented by our coast, belongs wholly to the past. What was once cur- 
rent tragedy has become legend, and the platoons of surfmen have de- 
stroyed the horrors of the shore. It is probable that with the yearly 
growth of its organization, and the improvement of its appliances and 
methods, the service will yet make every life imperiled near the shore 
absolutely safe, complementing jeopardy with deliverance. 

A gratifying fact connected with the history of the service is that it 
has been furthered in Gongress, as all scientific and purely humane in- 
terests should be, by men of the most contrary political opinions, nor 
has any party consideration ever been allowed to affect its organization. 
Its object is to make our national coasts secure against death by ship- 
wreck to voyagers, and the measures promoting this end have been 
carried through by the active and generous support of all political par- 
ties. 



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MINT AND COINAGE. 



141 



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MINT AND COINAGE. 



HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES MINT AND COINAGE. 

The Mint, by the act of April 2, 1792, was established "for the pur- 
pose of a national coinage," at Philadelphia, that city then being the 
seat of Government. By the same act it was provided that the money 
of account should be expressed in dollars or units, dimes or tenths, cents 
or hundredths, and mills or thousandths ; and that all accounts in the 
public offices, or proceedings in the courts of the United States, should 
be kept and had in conformity therewith. 

Although the ideal unit of the colonial money of account was origi- 
nally called a pound, the " Spanish dollar'' was for many years before the 
establishment of the present form of government the money of com- 
merce and practical monetary unit, and whether obligations were dis- 
charged in gold, silver, or paper money, a certain number of Spanish 
dollars constituted, specifically or by implication, the standard or meas- 
ure of value. This had much to do with the selection in 1792 of the dol- 
lar as the monetary unit. 

By the act referred to, provision was also made for the issue of gold, 
silver, and copper coins. The gold coins were to be rated at 24.75 grains 
of pure gold to the dollar, and the silver coins at 371^ grains to the dol- 
lar, the relative value of the two metals being declared in the same law 
to be as 15 to 1. These standards were continued till 1834, when an 
act was passed reducing the pure gold from 24.75 to 23.20 grains to the 
dollar. 

By the act of January 18, 1837, the fineness of the gold was increased 
about three-fourths of one thousandth by changing from the standard 
of .899225 to 900 thousandths, which increased the pure gold to the 
dollar from 23.20 to 23.22 grains, at which it still remains. 

By this act the fineness of both the gold and silver coins was fixed at 
900 thousandths. The silver dollar weighed 412J grains troy, and the 
gold was issued at the rate of 25.8 per dollar in value, the actual gold 
dollar coin not being authorized until 1849. The relation of the metals 
was, therefore, almost exactly 16 to 1. 

The quantity of pure silver in the dollar, as originally fixed, was not 
changed from the date of its issue down to April 1, 1873, when it was 
discontinued, but the weight of coins of less aenomination was reduced 
from 412^ to 384 grains standard per dollar of nominal value by the act 
of February 21, 1853, which fixed the weight of the half dollar at 192 

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144 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

grains, and the quarter dollar, dime, and half dime, at one-half, one- 
flftb, and one-tenth of the said half dollar. 

The standard weight of these latter coins was, by the coinage act of 
1873, increased to 385.8 grains to the dollar, composed of two half dol- 
lars, four quarter dollars, or ten dimes, and corresponding in weight 
and fineness with the five-franc coin of the Latin States of Europe. These 
coins are issued at the rate of 1.24414 per standard ounce, 803| ounces 
giving coins of the nominal value of $1,000. 

The coinage act in effect abolished the silver dollar of 412^ grains 
troy (371 J grains pure silver) and declared the gold dollar of 26.8 grains, 
nine-tenths fine (23.22 grains pure gold) the unit of value, and thus 
legally established gold as the sole standard or measure of value. 

The issue of copper coin commenced in 1793, silver in 1794, and gold 
in 1796. 

Branch mints were established in- 1835 at New Orleans, La., Char- 
lotte, N. C, and Dahlonega, Ga., in 1854 at San Francisco, and in 1870 
at Carson City. An assay office was established in New York in 1854, 
Denver in 1864, Boise City, Idaho, 1872, and Helena, Mont, in 1874. 
These establishments were not distinct institutions, but branches of the 
mint, managed by superintendents, who were subject to the general 
control of the Director of the Mint at Philadelphia. The coinage was 
conducted under this organization until the 1st of April, 1873, when the 
new law became operative, which established the mints and assay offices 
as a bureau of the Treasury Department, placed the several institutions 
upon substantially an equal basis, and brought them under the general 
supervision of the chief officer of the bureau. 

The manufacture of the minor coins is confined by law to the mint at 
Philadelphia, where also all dies for the coinage and for national medals 
are executed. 

Prior to April 1, 1873, no statutory provision authorizing the strik- 
ing of medals existed, the business having been carried on since 1856 
under departmental authority only, but the act of 1873 provided that 
national and other medals should be struck by the coiner of the mint 
at Philadelphia, under such regulations as should be prescribed by the 
superintendent with the approval of the Director of the Mint. 

DESCRIPTION OF UNITED STATES MEDALS EXHIBITED AT THE INTER- 
NATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 

No. 1. Washington before Boston. 
Obverse : Bust of Washington. 

Reverse: Washington and officers on horseback; Boston in the dis- 
tance. 

Ko. 2. Major-General Gates, for Saratoga. 
Obverse : Bust of Gates. 

Reverse : General Burgoyne surrendering his sword to General Gates ; 
troops in background. 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, 1 45 

No. 3. General Dauiel Morgan, for Oowpens. 

Obverse: An Indian queen placing a wreath on brow of General 

Morgan. 
Ee verse: Combat — Americans pursuing retreating British. 

No. 4. Col. John Egar Howard, for Cowpens. 

Obverse : A mounted ofl&cer pursuing foot soldier bearing a stand of 

colors ; Victory with palm branch descending between them. 
Reverse : Legend, inclosed within laurel wreath. 

No. 5. Col. William Washington, for Cowpens. 

Obverse: A mounted officer leading American cavalry in pursuit of 

British troops. 
Reverse : Legend, inclosed in laurel wreath. 

No. 6. Col. George Croghan, for Sandusky. 
Obverse : Bust of Colonel Croghan. 

Reverse: American Fort Stephenson, at Sandusky; English and In- 
dian line attacking fort. 

No. 7. Major-General Harrison, for the Thames. 
Obverse: Bust of General Harrison. 
Reverse : Battle of the Thames. 

No. 8. Governor Isaac Shelby, for the Thames. 
Obverse : Bust of Governor Shelby. 

Reverse: A female placing laurel wreath on a stack of arms; drum, 
cannon, &c., at her feet. 

No. 9. Major-General Scott, for Chippewa and Niagara. 
Obverse : Bust of General Scott. 
Reverse : Inscription inclosed in wreath. 

No. 10. Major-General Gaines, for Fort Erie. 
Obverse : Bust of General Gaines. 

Reverse : Victory placing laurel wreath on the cascabel of a cannon 
fixed upright in the ground ; helmet and cannon-balls on the 
ground. 

No. 11. Major-General Porter, for Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie. 
Obverse : Bust of General Porter. 

Reverse : Figures of Victory and the Muse of History ; Victory hold- 
ing flags ; the Muse recording the victories. 

No. 12. Miijor-G^neral Brown, for the same. 
Obverse : Bust of General Brown. 

Reverse : The Roman fasces, surrounded by British colors, swords, 
maskets, &c.; laurel wreath hangs from top of fasces ; eagle stand- 
ing on British flag. 
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1^6 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 13. Brigadier-General Miller, for the same. 

Obverse : Bust of General Miller. 
, Reverse : Battle of Chippewa. 

No. 14. Brigadier-General Ripley, for the same. 
Obverse: Bust of General Ripley. 

Reverse: Fame hanging a tablet on palm-tree, bearing inscription: 
Chippewa, Niagara, and Erie. 

No. 15. Major-General Macomb, for Plattsburgh. 
Obverse: Bust of General Macomb. 
Reverse: Battle of Plattsburgh. 

No. 16. Major-General Jackson, for New Orleans. 
Obverse : Bust of General Jackson. 
Reverse : Figures of Victory and Peace, tablet, &c. 

No. 17. Major-General Taylor, for Palo Alto. 
Obverse: Bust of General Taylor. 
Reverse: Inscription within wreath. 

No. 18. Major-General Taylor, for Monterey. 
Obverse : Bust of General Taylor. 
Reverse: Inscription within wreath. 

No. 19. Major-General Taylor, for Buena Vista. 
Obverse: Bust of General Taylor. 
Reverse : Battle of Buena Vista. 

No. 20. Major-General Scott, for battles in Mexico. 
Obverse : Bust of General Scott. 

Reverse: Representations of the several engagements during the 
Mexican campaign at which General Scott commanded. 

No. 21. Major-General Grant : 

Obverse: Bust of General Grant. 

Beterse : Circle formed by Mississippi River monitors and steamboats, 
the Genius of America descending on a rainbow over Vicksburg 
and Chattanooga, cornucopia in left hand, shield in right, marked 
''Donelson," eagle holding up her drapery. 

No. 21a. Colonel Lee, "Light Horse Harry.'' 
Obverse: Bust of Colonel Lee. 
Reverse: Inscription inside wreath. 

No. 22. John Paul Jones, for Serapis. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Jones. 

Reverse: Engagement between Bonhomme Richard and the Sera- 
pis, sailors in water, &c. 



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147 



No. 23. Capt. TI108. Truxtou, actiou with tbe frigate L'lnsurgente. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Truxtow. 
Reverse: Eagagement between La Vengeajice and Constellation. 

Note — Captain Truxton captured the French frigate L'Insurgente 

on the 9th of February, 1800. 

No. 24. Captain Hull, for capture of the Guerriere. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Hull. 
Reverse: Engagement between the Constitution and the Guerriere. 

No. 25. Captain Jacob Jones, for capture of Frolic. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Jones. 
Reverse: Engagement between the Wasp and Frolic. 

No. 26. Captain Decatur, for capture of the Macedonian. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Decatur. 
Reverse: Bngagementbetween the Macedonian and the United States. 

No. 27. Captain Bainbridge, for capture of the Java. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Bainbridge. 

Reverse: Tlie Java with all her* masts gone; the Constitution under 
full sail. 

No. 28. Captain Lawrence, for capture of the Peacock. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Lawrence. 

Reverse: Peacock in the act of sinking; a boat from the Hornet is 
being rowed to her. 

No. 29. Captain Burrows, for capture of the Boxer. 

Observe: An urn on a tomb surrounded by military emblenis; W. 

Burrows on toml?. 
Reverse: Action between Enterprise and Boxer. 

No. 30. Lieutenant McCall, for capture of Boxer. 
Obverse: Bust of Lieutenant McCall. 
Reverse: Action between Enterprise and Boxer. 

No. 31. Captain Perry, capture of British fleet on Lake Erie. 
Obverse : Bust of Captain Perry. 
Reverse : Engagement between American and British fleets. 

No. 32. Captain Elliott, for same. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Elliott. 
Reverse: Same as Perry medal. 

No. 33. Captain Warrington, for capture of the Epervier. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Warrington. 
Reverse: Engagement between the Peacock and Epervier. 



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148 * INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 34. Captain Blakely, for capture of Reindeer. 
Obverse: Bust of Captain Blakely. 
Reverse: Engagement between the Wasp and Reindeer. 

No. 35. Captain Macdonough, capture of British fleet on Lake Cham- 
plain. 

'^^ je: Bust of Captain Macdonougb. 

le: Engagement between the American and English fleets — 
rs in boats — on the right Plattsburg in flames. 

3aptain Henly, for the same. 

se : Bust of Captain Henly. 

;e: Same as Macdonougb medal. 

jientenant Cassin, for the same. 
»e: Bust of Lieutenant Cassin. 
te: Same as Macdonougb medal. 

Captain Biddle, for capture of Penguin. 

5e: Bust of Captain Biddle. 

5e: Engagement between the Hornet and Penguin. 

japtain Stewart, for capture of the Cyane and Levant. 

se: Bust of Captain Stewart. 

5e: Engagement between the Constitution and the Cyane and 

int. 

Captain Edward Preble, 
se: Bust of Captain Preble, 
se: American fleet before Tripoli. 

biescue of oflftcers and crew of brig Somers. 

se: Brig Somers capsized. 

se: Brig Somers in the distance, capsized; three boats going 

er assistance. 

Captain lugraham, for rescue of Martin Koszta. 

se: Smyrna in the distance; American sloop-of-war St. Louis 

Austrian sloop-of-war Hussar confronting each other. 

se: Inscription inside wreath. 

Shipwreck medal. 

se: A light-house and sinking ship in the distance; a wrecker 

just reached the shore with a shipwrecked person. 

se : A spread eagle. 

dnited States Coast Survey, for gallantry and humanity, 
se : Inscription in wreath. 

se: Plain inscription: ^'The Treasury Department of the U. 
Coast Survey to ." 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 1 49 

No. 44. Japanese embassy medal. 
Obverse: Head of BuchanaD. 
Reverse : Inscription in wreath in commemoration. 

Ko. 45. Dr. Frederick Bose, for skill and humanity. 
Obverse: Bast of Buchanan. 

Reverse : Dr. Rose keeping back death, with scythe and hour glass on 
the right; patients on the left. 

No. 46. Allegiance medal. 
Obverse : Bust of Washington. 

Reverse: Wreath; inscription: "Oath of allegiance taken by the of- 
ficers and workmen September 2, 1861." 

No. 47. Thomas Jefferson, Presidential or Indian peace medals. 
Obverse : Bast of Jefferson. 
Reverse: Clasped hands; tomahawk and pipe crossed. 

No. 48. James Madison, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Madison. 
Reverse : Same as Jeff'erson medal. 

No. 49. James Monroe, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Monroe. 
Reverse: Same as Jefferson medal. 

No. 50. John Q. Adams, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Adams. 
Reverse : Same as Jefferson medal. 

No. 51. Andrew Jackson, Presidential. 
Obverse: Bust of Jackson. 
Reverse: Same as Jefferson medal. 

No. 52. Martin Van Buren, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Van Buren. ^ 

Reverse : Same as Jefferson medal. 

No. 53. John Tyler, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Tyler. 
Reverse : Same as Jefferson medal. 

No. 54. James K. Polk, Presidential. 
Obverse: Bust of Polk. 
Reverse : Same as Jefferson medal. 

No. 55. Zachary Taylor, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Taylor. 
Reverse : Same as Jefferson medal. 



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150 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 56. Millard Fillmore, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bast of Fillmore. 

Reverse : Farmer and farming implements to left ; Indian to right ; 
large American flag in foreground; cattle and vessel in distance. 

No. 57. Franklin Pierce, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Pierce. 
Eeverse : Same as Jefierson medal. 

No. 58. James Buchanan, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Buchanan. 
Reverse : Same as Fillmore medal. 

No. 59. Abraham Lincoln, Presidential. 
Obverse : Bust of Lincoln. 

Reverse : Circle formed by two Indians clasping each others topknot ; 
and bow, pipe, and quiver full of arrows ; man plowing in fore 
ground ; town in distance. 

No. 60. Andrew Johnson, Presidential. 
Obverse: Bast of Johnson. 
Reverse : Bust of Washington on pedestal ; Indian clasping hMids 

with Goddess of Liberty with flag in her left hand ; railroad to 

right, buffaloes to left. 

No. 61. 

No. 62. Captain Perry (State of Pennsylvania), for capture of British 
fleet on Lake Erie. ' 

Obverse : Bust of Captain Perry. 

Reverse : The engagement on Lake Erie ; Perry passing to the Niag- 
ara in small boat ; eagle over the Niagara with scroll in its mouth 
bearing the word " victory." 

No. 63. Pennsylvania Volunteers, action on Lake Erie. 
Obverse : Bust of Perry. 

Reverse : Wreath ; to in testimony of his patriotism and 

bravery, &c., on Lake Eri". 

No. 64. Major-General Scott (Commonwealth of Virginia.) 
Obverse: Bust of General Scott resting on a pedestal, supported on 

each side by an eagle ; cannon, colors, &c., to right and left. 
Reverse: Column on two stands of colors, with eagle on top of col- 
umn ; troop to right and left; City of Mexico and fort in distance. 

No. 64a. Professor Agassiz medal. 
Obverse: Bust of Professor Agassiz. 

Reverse: Wreath with date of birth and death inside; inverted 
torches. 



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No. 65. Colonel Armstrong, for destruction of Indian village of Kittan- 
ing. 
Obverse : An officer, with two men, pointing to a third who is shoot- 
ing an Indian from behind a tree ; burning village in background. 
Reverse: Coat of arms of Philadelphia. 

No. 66. Indian peace medal. 
Obverse: Bust of George II, King of England. 
Reverse: A white man and Indian sitting beside a fire under a tree; 
white man handing Indian a pipe. 

No. 67. Captains Creighton, Low, and Stouffer; wreck of steamer San 
Francisco. 
Obverse: Coat of arms of Philadelphia. 
Reverse: No device; inscription. 

No. 67a. Captains Creighton, Low, and Stouffer, by Congress. 

Obverse: America crowning a sailor with a laurel wreath; quadrant 
in saiWs right hand ; eagle at feet of America and standing on 
Roman fasces and shield; Capitol in background; ship in distance. 

Reverse: Man and woman on a raft; ship in the distance. 

No. 67ft. Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Obverse: Bust of Vanderbilt. 

Reverse: The genius of commerce presenting a ship to armed America 
ship in the distance. 

No. 68. Dr. Hosack. 
Obverse: Bust of Dr. Hosack. 
Reverse : The insignia of arts and science. 

No. 69. First sleam coinage. 
Reverse: Liberty cap in circle formed by rays. 
Obverse: Inscription: First steam coinage. 

No. 70. Commodore M. C. Perry, from merchants of Boston. 
Obverse: Bust of Commodore Perry. 
Reverse: Inscription in wreath of oak and laurel leaves. 

No. 71. Pacific Railroad medal. 
Obverse : Bust of President Grant. 

Reverse : Atlantic and Pacific Oceans ; mountains in the background ; 
train of cars crossing plains in foreground. 

No. 72. Emancipation Proclamation medal. 
Obverse : Bust of President Lincoln. 
Reverse: Insciiption: ^'Emancipation proclaimed, January 1, 1863." 



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152 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 73. Cyrus W. Field— Atlantic cable. 
Obverse : Bust of Field ; ocean ; sliips paying out cable in opposite 
directions; half globe on right and left; hand above Field's head 
holding wreath. 
Eeverse : Inscription ; shield to left ; star to right ; globe at bottom 
oak and laurel leaves. 

No. 74. Dr. Joseph Pancoast. 
Obverse: Bust of Pancoast. 
Reverse: Wreath of oak and laurel leaves ; inscription. 

No. 75. Grant's Indian peace medal. 

Obverse: Bust of Grant; pipe and twig of laurel ; inscription. 
Eeverse: Open Bible on top of globe, which is resting on farming 
implements. 

No. 76. Let us have peace. 
Obverse : Bust of Grant. 
Reverse : Inscription : '* Let us have peace." 

No. 76a. Seward-Robinson medal. 
Obverse : Bust of Robinsop. 

Reverse : Seward lying in bed ; Robinson struggling with Paine, who 
has a dirk in his right hand ; pistol lying on the floor. 

No. 76[>. Metis (shipwreck) medal. 

Obverse : Boat with crew, one of whom is standing up with a coil of. 
rope on his arm, and is pointing Co the sinicing steamer Metis; a 
second has his arras around a drifting woman, and is lifting her 
into the boat; life-saving station in the distance. 

Reverse : Inscription ; to , for courage and humanity, &c. 

No. 76c. John Horn (life-saving) medal. 
Obverse : Bust of John Horn. 
Reverse : Laurel wreath with inscription. 

No. 76<i. United States Diplomatic medal, July 4, 1776. 
Obverse : Mercury inviting America to peace and commerce ; bales 

of cotton and emblems of commerce to left ; ship to the right. 
Reverse: First arms of the United States. 

No. 77. Presidency relinquished. 
Obverse : Bust of Washington. 

Reverse : Pedestal with United States shield on side ; on top a sword 
and fasces encircled with laurels. 
No. 78. Cabinet medal. 
Obverse : Bust of Washington. 

Reverse: Pedestal, filled with Washington medals, surmoufited with 
bust of Washington. 



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Ko. 79. Time increases his fame. 
Obverse : Bust of Washiugton. 
Reverse: Inscription: ^^ Time increases his fame." 

No. 80. Commencement of Cabinet. 
Obverse : Bust of Washington. 

Reverse : Inscription : '^A memorial of the Washington Cabinet, May, 
1869." 

No. 81. David Eittenhouse, Director. 
Obverse : Bust of Eittenhouse. 
Eeverse : Inscription : " He belongs to the whole human race." 

No. 82. I. E. Snowden, Director. 
Obverse : Bust of Snowden. 
Eeverse : The Mint building. 

No. 83. Ex-Governor James Pollock, Director. 
Obverse : Bust of Pollock. 

Eeverse : Inscription : " Governor of Pennsylvania, Director of the 
Mint," &c. 

' SILVER MEDALETS. 

Washington and Jackson, heads of both. 
Washington and Lincoln, heads of both. 
Washington and Grant, heads of both. 
Washington and wreath, date of birth and death. 
Lincoln and Grant. 
Lincoln and broken column. 



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BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING. 



155 



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BUREAU OF ENGRAVLNG AND PRINTING. 



ORGANIZATION AND HISTORY OF THE BUREAU, 

During the administration of Mr. Secretary Chase, in February, 1862, 
the first step was made toward the organization of this Bureau. The 
public issues at that time were printed by private corporations in ]S^ew 
York City, and from there forwarded to Washington for signature by 
the proper officers. This mode of preparing the public securities was 
soon found to be impracticable as well as insecure, and the Secretary 
was authorized by Congress to have the seal of the Treasury Depart- 
ment, together with the engraved signatures of the Treasurer of the 
United States and the Register of the Ti*easury imprinted thereon, under 
his immediate supervision, in the Treasury Department, and a sum 
sufficient to procure the necessary machinery was appropriated. 

Mr. Spencer M.Clark, of Connecticut, was placed in charge, and un- 
der his management the organization of the Bureau was carried for- 
ward ; and as the needs of the public service became manifest inven- 
tions were made which enabled much of the work to be done in a more 
economical and rapid manner. 

Urged by the considerations of security and economy, in June, 1862, 
the requisite authority was given by Congress to have the entire me- 
chanical work upon the public securities done under official oversight, 
and since that time a very large portion of the work on these securities 
has been done in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing in the Trejis- 
ury Department. 

Mr. George B. McCartee, of New York, in 1869, succeeded Mr. Clark, 
and continued in charge of the Bureau until February, 1876, when Mr. 
Henry C. Jewell, the present incumbent, was appointed chief. 

CATALOGUE OF EXHIBITS AT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Exhibit Xo. 1. — The large frame to the right-on entering contained 
proof specimens of various public securities, cbecks, &c., which had 
been entirely prepared in the Bureau. In the center of the frame was 
placed the medal awarded to the Bureau by the Emperor of Austria- 
Hungary for the excellence of the engravings exhibited by it at the.In- 
ternational Exposition in Vienna in 1873. 

Exhibit No. 2. — The large frame to the left contained a proof-copy of 
the Centennial certificate of stock; also specimens of lettering produced 

'57 



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158 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

by a process invented by Mr. G. W. Casilear of the Bureau. The pecu- 
liarity of the process is, that after an alphabet of any kind has been once 
engraved and properly transferred in relief upon rolls the letters can be 
indeinitely reproduced by pressure upon steel plates, and in a much 
shorter tim* ikan by the process of successively engraving them. 

Exhibit No. 3.— Tite frame in the center contained proof-specimcAS of 
various Government i otmiC y and a proof of the $10,000 United States 
funded loan bond, with coupons and other engraved work ; also por- 
traits and vignettes. 

Exhibit No. 4. — The frame at the right end contained yarioufi vignettes 
and portraits of public men, with proof-specimens of bank notee^ &c. 
This frame was exhibited at the Exposition in Vienna in 1873, and the 
medal above mentioned was awarded therefor. 

Exhibit No. 5. — The frame at the left end contained specimens of the 
distinctive paper manufacturer! under the supervision of the United 
States Government at Glen Mills, Pennsylvania, by Messrs. James M. 
Willcox & Co., and which is used solely for the public securities ; also 
impressions of one dollar United States notes, showing in detail the suc- 
cessive printings, &c., which, combined, make the perfect note. 



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SUPERVISING AECHITECT. 



159 



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SUPERVISING ARCHITECT. 



HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE OFFICE OF THE SUPERVISIXG ARC HI- 
TECT, TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 

This office was organized in the spring of 1853, under the direction of 
James Gnthrie, the then Secretary of the Treasury, under the title of 
the '• Construction branch of the Treasury Department." Prior to this 
time the Secretary of th^ Treasury was charged by law with the con- 
struction of all the custom-houses, marine hospitals, branch mints, 
assay offices, appraisers' stores, and court-houses, and almost everything, 
but the amount of the appropriation was left to his discretion. No 
system had been devised for the performance of these duties, and the 
management of the business was confided to no particular branch of 
the Department. An architect, Amrai B. Young, was employed at a 
salary of $3,000 per annum, with traveling expenses, alio wed when ab- 
sent inspecting works, &c. He was paid out of the several appropria- 
tions, according to the time given to each work. The buildings were 
genemlly constructed under the supervision of a local commission ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of the Treasury with local architects and 
superintendents, who were paid out of the appropriations. No system 
of keeping or rendering accounts of the respective works at the build- 
iugs or in the Department had been adopted. The plans were obtained 
through competition, and the successful architect was generally ap- 
pointed superintendent. At this time the United States owned but 
twenty-three custom-houses and eighteen marine hospitals, completed 
and occupied, and fifteen customhouses were in course of construction. 
Most of the buildings occupied had been purchased. 

With a view to a more efficient management application was made 
by Secretary Guthrie to the Secretary of War to detail an engineer 
officer to take charge of this branch of the service, and Capt. Alexander 
H. Bowman, of the Engineer Corps of the United States Army, was 
detailed and assigned to duty as engineer in charge of the Bureau of 
Construction. For these services he was allowed a compensation of $8 
l)er diem (less his pay as captain) and his traveling expenses while in- 
specting buildings. Mr. Young was also retained as supervising archi- 
tect to aid Captain Bowman in his particular branch of work. Captain 
Bowman, on assuming charge of the office, prescribed certain regulations 
for the Government of the employes, both at the department and on 

i6i ' 
11 CEN, PT 2 



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1 62 INTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

the different works, and devised certain forms of vouchers, accounts 
current, abstracts of disbursements, reports, returns, &c., all of which 
were submitted to the Secretarj^ of the Treasury, and, receiving his ap- 
proval, were adopted. These regulations and forms are still in force, 
with such modifications and variations as the growth of the business 
and changes of system in the expenditures have necessitated. Under 
this new form plans for i)ublic buildings were prepared in the Bureau 
of Construction and reproduced by the lithographic process, and the 
lithographic copies were furnished to contractors and builders, upon 
which they submitted estimates and obtained contracts. 

Captain Bowman continued in charge until the fall of 1860, when he 
was relieved from duty, and S. M. Clark assumed the duties as acting 
engineer in charge. This arrangement continued until July 28, 1862, 
when Isaiah Rogers assumed charge of the office as Supervising Archi- 
tect, and the designation of tlie office was then changed to that of 
^' Office of Supervising Architect, Treasury Department.'^ 

In 1864 Congress recognized the office and made specific appropria- 
tions for its officers. Mr. Rogers held the position until September 30, 
1865, and during his administration the use of photography was ap- 
plied to the reproduction of the plans, and a building for photographic 
purposes was erected south of the Treasury. 

On October 1, 1865, Alfred B. Mullett was placed in charge as acting 
Supervising Architect, and on June 1, 1866, he was appointed Supervis- 
ing Architect. Mr. Mullett held the office until January 1, 1875, when 
he was succeeded by William A. Potter, who in turn was succeeded by 
the present Supervising Architect, James G. Hill, who assumed the 
duties of the office August 11, 1876. 

The increase of the work of the office is shown by a comparison of 
the number of buildings of the character hereinbefore indicated owned 
by the United States or in course of construction, with their total cost, 
on June 30, 1853, and the number and cost of such buildings June 30, 
1876. 

The total number of buildings owned or in course of construction 
June 30, 1853, was 56, and their cost was $8,877,350.88. The number 
owned or in course of construction June 30, 1876, was 159, and their 
cost was $62,594,539.26. The annual expenditures for the first six 
years after the organization of the office averaged $2,000,000 5 the ex- 
penditures for the past six years averaged $7,000,000. 

Of the 56 buildings owned or in course ot construction in 1853, 15 
have been sold or disposed of. 

At present the office is charged with the following duties : Selecting 
and purchasing sites for all public buildings under the Treasury De- 
pai;tment, including custom-houses, appraisers' stores, court-houses, 
post-offices, mint buildings, assay offices, and marine hospitals; mak- 
ing designs for these buildings and preparing plans, specifications, es- 
timates, schedules, detailed working drawings, models, &c., therefor ; 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT, 1 63 

constractiDg the buildings and supplying furniture, heating, hoisting, 
and ventilating apparatus, vaults, safes, locks, fuel, light, water, and 
such miscellaneous articles as may be required for all public buildings 
in charge of the Department, and performing all work necessary for 
their repair and preservation. It has also to prepare all contracts for 
the supply of materials or labor required in connection with the above 
duties. It is also charged with the leasing of all buildings rented for 
• the public service under the Department, and with the custody of the 
leases and deeds, and all bonds of superintendents of construction or 
repair of public buildings. The office is required to exercise supervision 
over the public property in owned and rented buildings under the con- 
trol of the Department, and to keep a record thereof. It is also re- 
quired to give to accounts of disbursing agents for the several works 
hereinbefore specified the administrative scrutiny required by law be- 
fore they are forwarded to the proper accounting officers for adjust- 
ment. 

Catalogue of articles exhibited by the office of the Supervising Architect^ 
Treasury Department^ at the international exhibition at Philadelphia^ 
1876. 

LABaE PERSPECTIVES. 

Atlanta, Ga., court-house and post-office. 
Cincinnati, Ohio., custom-house, &c. 
Covington, Ky., court-house and post-office. 
Evansville, Ind., custom-house, &c. * 

Fall River, Mass., custom-house, &c. 
Nashville, Tenn., custom-house, &c. 
Philadelphia, Pa., court-house and post-office. 

SMALL PERSPECTIVES (LINE DRAWINaS). 

Albany, N. Y., custom-house, &c. 

Auburn, N. Y., public building. 

Boston, Mass., post-office and sub-treasury extension. 

Memphis, Tenn., customhouse, &c. 

SMALL PERSPECTIVES (PHOTOGRAPHS.) 

Bangor, Me., custom-house, &c. 

Boise City, Idaho, assay office. 

Boston, Mass., post-office and sub-treasury. 

Cairo, 111., custom-house, &c. 

Carson City, Nev., mint building. 

Chicago, 111., custom-house, &c. 

Chicago, 111., modification of above. 

Chicago, 111., marine hospital. 

Des Moines, Iowa, court-house and post-office. 



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164 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Dover, Del., court-house and post-office. 

Grand Rapids, Mich., court-bouse and pos^office. 

Hartford, Conn., custom-house, 4&c. 

Helena, Mont, assay office. 

Little Rock, Ark., court-house and post-office. 

Madison, Wis., court-house and post-office. 

New York City, court-house and post-office. 

Ogdensburg, N. Y., customhouse, &c. , 

Parkersburg, W. Va., court-house and post-office. 

PhiJadelphia, Pa., appraisers' stores. 

Port Huron, Mich., custom-house, &c. 

Portland, Me., court-house and post-office. 

Portland, Me., custom-house. ' 

Portland, Oreg., custom-house, &c. 

Saint Louis, Mo., custom-house, &c. 

Saint Paul, Minn., custom house, &c. 

Springfield, III., courthouse and post-office. 

Trenton, N. J., court-house and post-office. 

Washington, D. C, new State, War, and Navy Departments. 

Washington, D. C, new jail. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

One plaster model of the United States custom-house at Nasbville, 
Tenn. 

Three tracings, three negatives, and three photographs, showing 
method of reproducing plans by photography. 

Super VISING Architect's Office, 

Treasury Departmenty January 3, 1877. 



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INTERNAL REVENUE. 



165 



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INTERNAL REVENUE. 



The system of internal revenue now in force was inaugurated a little 
over one year after the outbreak of the rebellion, under the act ap- 
proved July 1, 1862, entitled *' An act to provide internal revenue to 
support the Government and to pay interest on the public debt." 

The following table shows the names, &c., of the several Commis- 
sioners of Internal Eeyenue from 1862 to 1876 : 



George S. Bootwell ' Massachasetta.. J July 17, 1862 j Mar. 3,1863 

Joeepb J. Lewis ' Pennavlvania 

William Oiton i New York 

B. A. Rollins Xew Hampsliire . 

Colnmbns Delano ' Ohio 

J. W Douglass * , Pennsylvania 

Alfred Pleasonton New York 



Mar. 4, 1863 Jnne 30, 1865 
July 1,1865 'Oct 31,1865 
Nov. 1, 1865 Mar. 1«, 1869 
Mar. 11, 1869 I Oct 31, 1870 
Nov. 1,1870 Jan. 2,1871 
..Jan. 3, 1871 i Aug. 8,1871 

J. W. Douglass • ' Pennsylvania '^Aug. 8,1871 Dec. 11,1871 

J.W.Douglass '....do Dec. 12, 1871 : May 14,1875 

D.D.Pratt Indiana \ May 15, 1875 July 31,1876 

Green B.Itaum Illinois Aug. 1,1876; 

* Acting Commissioner. 

At first the taxes it imposed were comparatively light. As the de- 
mands of the Government for increased revenues, however, became 
more urgent, in consequence of the magnitude and long continuance of 
the war, it was gradually enlarged by successive enactments, in 1863, 
1864, and 1865, until it levied heavy taxes upou raw products; upon 
every branch of manufacturing industry ; upon nearly all professions, 
trades, and occupations; upon the entire receipts of transportation and 
other companies, of lotteries and places of amusement ; upon articles 
of luxury kept for use; upon legal instruments of nearly every kind; 
upon incomes, sales, proprietary medicines, 4&c. ; upon legacies and suc- 
cessions; and upon the capital, circulation, and deposits of banks. In 
a word, every available source of revenue was laid under contribution 
to furnish means to support the Government in its struggle for exist- 
ence. This system was probably more far-reaching and comprehensive 
than any ever before devised. 

About the middle of the year 1866 the work of reducing internal 
taxation commenced, and went on more or less rapidly every year until 
1872, when, according to carefully prepared estimates, taxes amounting 

16;^ 



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1 68 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

to over two hundred and sixty-two millions of dollars per annum had 
been repealed, and the system relieved of its most burdensome pro- 
visions. 

The articles now on the tax-list are few in number, and are mostly 
limited to what are usually denominated articles of luxury. They in- 
clude spirituous and fermented liquors 5 manufactured tobacco of every 
description, domestic and imported j occupations relating to the manu- 
facture and sale of the aforesaid articles; proprietarj'^ medicines, per- 
fumery, cosmetics, friction-matches, and bank checks, and the capital, 
circulation, and deposits of all banks and bankers not national. 

The total amount of internal revenue collected and deposited in the 
Treasury of the United States under this system prior to June 30, 1876, ex- 
clusive of drawbacks ($6,673,845) and of sums refunded ($6,467,27.210), 
as illegally collected, was $2,169,890,833.81. 

rNVEMORT OF ARTICLES ON EXHIBITION BY THE INTERNAL REF- 
ENVE OFFICE, TREASURY DEPARTMENT. 

No. 1. One very large frame containing specimens of documentary, 
general proprietary, and private die proprietary stamps of all denomi- 
nations from one cent to five thousand dollars each. Printed by J. R. 
Carpenter, Philadelphia. 

No. 2. One large frame in three sections; the first containing speci- 
mens of documentary stamps, of the denomination of two cents only ; 
also general proprietary^, private die proprietary, tobacco, snuff, and 
fermented liquor stamps, and exportation stamps for distilled spirits, 
tobacco and snuflf, and cigars. Printed by the National Bank Note Com- 
pany of New York. The second section contains specimens of stamps 
for distilled spirits, cigars and* cigarettes. Printed by the American 
Bank Note Company of New York. And the third section contains speci- 
mens of stamps for tobacco, snutf, and cigars, also exportation tobacco 
stamps. Printed by the Continental Bank Note Company of New York. 

No. 3. One large frame containing specimen stamps for distilled Bpirit«, 
fermented liquors, tobacco, snuff and cigars; also special taxistamps, 
brewers' permits, hydrometer certificates, and lock seals. Printed by the 
Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Treasury Department. 

No. 4. One large frame containing specimens of stamps for distilled 
spirits, tobacco, snuff, and cigars, and special tax stamps. This also 
was printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Treasury De- 
partment. One large glass show-case containing four complete gaug- 
ing rods, used for ascertaining the capacity of whisky packages; two 
full and complete sets of hydrometers, used for ascertaining the tem- 
perature and strength of distilled spirits; two Slaight seal locks, one 
brass and the other nickel plated, together with paper seals, used upon 
the doors of distillery warehouses and cistern rooms; two D. K. Miller 



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THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT. I 69 

locks, one brass and the other nickel plated, used upon various points 
throughout distilleries; fourteen empty whisky and beer casks; all sizes, 
showing the manner in which stamps are required to be placed thereon; 
twelve empty tobacco boxes and six empty cigar boxes, showing the 
manner in which stamps are required to be placed thereon; four dozen 
packages of smoking tobacco of various kinds; nine packages of Cen- 
tury chewing tobacco; three jars of snuflf and three bladders of snuflF, 
all with stamps placed thereon, showing the manner in which they are 
required by law to be affixed. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876. 



CATALOGUE OF THE ARTICLES AND OUECTS 



EXHIBITED BY THE 



POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



IN THE 

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING, 

FAIRMOUNT PARK, PHILADELPHIA, PA., 

PRECEDED BY 

A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE DEPARTMENT AND AN OUTLINE 
OF ITS PRESENT ORGANIZATION; 

TO WHICH IS ADDED 

AN APPENDIX. 



WASHINGTO]^: 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

J883. 

171 



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Hon. Jambs N. Tyner, 
Postmaster-General, 

Dr. C. F. Macdonald, 
Superintendent money-order system^ Representative of the Post-Office Department at the In- 
ternational Exhibition of 1876. 



LIST OF THE OFFICERS OF THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT ATTACHED TO THE 
POST-OFFICE SECTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876, AT THE 
UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT BUILDING, FAIRMOUNT PARK, PHILADELPHIA, 
PA. 

M. La Rue Harrison, 

Special agent of the money-order system^ assistant to the Representative of the Post-Office 

Department^ in charge of post-office section of International Exhihitiony 1876. 

John Jameson, 

Assistant general superintendent railway mail servicey in charge of mailing division and 

Centennial railway post-office. 



Centennial Branch Post-Office, Philadelphia, Pa. 



George W. Fairman, 
Postmaster. 

H. H. Wolle, 

Superintendent^ in charge. 
172 



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TABIiE OF CONTEXTS. 



Page. 

I. — Condensed chronological bistory of the Post-Office Department 175 

II. — Revenues and expenditures of the Post-Oflace Department 177 

III.— ^Historical schedule of changes of rates of postage on letters passing 

between post-oflSces in the United States 177 

IV. — Present organization of the Post-Office Department 179 

V. — Catalogue of Post-Office Department section . •. 184 

General division 184 

Centennial branch post-office at Philadelphia, Pa 184 

Division I.— Railway mail service 184 

Division II.— Stamps, envelopes, and postal cards 184 

Division III.— Postal topography 185 

Division IV.— Mail equipments 186 

Division V.— Mai 1 collections and delivery 186 

Division VI. — Marking, rating, and canceling 187 

Division VII.— Miscellaneous 187 

VI. — The Centennial branch post-office, Philadelphia, Pa 188 

VII. — The railway post-offices and the railway mail service of the United 

States 191 

VIII.— The railway mall-bag catcher 194 

IX. — Postage stamps, stamped and other envelopes, postal cards, &c 199 

X. — The Centennial envelope machine 204 

XL— Postal topography 206 

XII.— Mail equipments 208 

XIII. — The free-delivery system 211 

XIV. — The money-order system 213 

173 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



L—CONDENSED CHRONOLOGICAL HISTORY OF THE POST-OFFICE DE- 
PARTMENT. 

There were no mails in the colonies prior to 1672. In that year the 
government of 'New York established a monthly mail to Boston. 

1680. John Haywood was appointed the first postmaster in Massa- 
chusetts. 

1683. William Penn established post-offices in Pennsylvania. 

1702. A second monthly mail between New York and Boston was 
started. 

1737. Benjamin Franklin was appointed postmaster at Philadelphia. 

1763. Delivery of letters by penny-post was begun. 

1754. A weekly mail from Philadelphia to New England was com- 
menced. 

1765. Mails conveyed in covered New Jersey wagons (without springs) 
semi- weekly between New York and Philadelphia. Time, three days. 

1774. Benjamin Franklin, postmaster, removed by Home Depart- 
ment. 

1775, July 26. Congress assumed direction of the post-offices, and ap- 
pointed Benjamin Franklin Postmaster-General. 

1775, November. Eichard Bache, of Philadelphia, son-in-law of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, was appoint^ Postmaster-General. 

1789, September 26. Samuel Osgood, of Massachusetts, appointed 
Postmaster-General. He had one Assistant Postmaster-General and 
one clerk. The number of post-offices was 75. 

1791. Timothy Pickering, of Pennsylvania, appointed Postmaster- 
General August 12. 

1793. Penny-post of Philadelphia employed three carriers. New York 
one carrier. Letters delivered at 2 cents each. 

1795. Joseph Habersham, of Georgia, appointed Postmaster-General 
February 25. 

1798. Transit time between Philadelphia and New York seventeen 
hours. 

1799. United States mail-stage line between Philadelphia and Balti- 
more put in operation. Time between New York and Boston four days 
and five hours. 

175 



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176 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBniON, 1876. 

1800. General Post-Office moved to Washington. 

1801. Gideon Granger, of New York, appointed Postmaster- General. 
1810. Number of post-offices, 2,300. 

1814. Eeturn J. Meigs, of Ohio, appointed Postmaster-General. 

1815. February 1, to March 31, 1816, 50 per cent, added to all postage 
for the purpose of raising revenues to meet war expenses. 

1823. John McLean, of Ohio, appoint-ed Postmaster-General, March 9. 

1835. Amos Kendall, of Kentucky, appointed Postmaster-General 
March 1. 

1836. General Post-Office building destroyed by fire. 

1840, March 25. John M. Niles, of Connecticut, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 

1841, September 3. Charles A. Wickliffe, of Kentucky, appointed 
Postmaster-General. 

1845, March 5. Cave Johnson, of Tennessee, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 

1849, March 7. Jacob Collamer, of Vermont, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 

1850, July 20. Nathan K. Hall, of New York, appointed Postmas- 
ter-General. 

1852, August 31. J. D. Hubbard, of Connecticut, appointed Post- 
master-General. 

1853, March 6. James Campbell, of Pennsylvania, appointed Post- 
master-General. 

1857, March 6. Aaron Y. Brown, of Tennessee, appointed Postmas- 
ter-General. 

1859, March 4. Joseph Holt, of Kentucky, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 

1861, January 1. Horatio King, of Maine, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 

1861, March 7. Montgomery Blair, of Maryland, appointed Post- 
master-General. 

1864, October 1 William Dennison, of Ohio, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 

1866, July 15. Alexander W. Randall, of Wisconsin, appointed Post- 
master-General. 

1869, March 4. John A. J. Creswell, of Maryland, appointed Post- 
miaster-General. 

1874, July 6. James W. Marshall, of Virginia, appointed Postmas- 
ter-General. 

1874, September 1. Marshall Jewell, of Connecticut, appointed Post- 
master-General. 

1876, Jul^ 13. James N. Tyner, of Indiana, appointed Postmaster- 
General. 



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178 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1710. 

«. iT. 

Rate of postage by act of Parliament : 
To and from New York : 

Within 60 miles 4 

Within 60 miles, double 8 

Within 60 miles, treble .' 10 

Within 60 miles, ounce 1 4 

Exceeding 100 miles ft 

From New York to — 

Philadelphia 9 

Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maryland 1 

Virginia 1 ^ 

Charleston 1 ^ 

1776. 

Single letters : 

Not exceeding 60 miles 5i 

Exceeding 60, not exceeding 100 miles 8 

Exceeding 100, not exceeding iiOO miles 10^^ 

Exceeding 200, not cxcee<ling 300 miles 1 1 

Exceeding *.^00, not exceeding 400 miles 14 

Exceeding 400, not exceeding 500 milfes 1 6^ 

Exceeding 500, not exceeding 600 miles 1 9 

Exceeding 600, not exceeding 700 miles 2 

Exceeding 700, not exceeding HOO miles 2 2^^ 

Exceeding 800, not exceeding 900 miles 2 5 

Exceeding 900, not exceeding 1,000 miles 2 8 

Every ounce charged four times the single rate. 

1776. 

Rates for single sheets, established by Congress : 

Ceota. 

Not exceeding 60 miles 7f 

Over 60, not exceeding 100 miles 11 

1792. 
February 2: 

Not exceeding 30 miles (^ 

Exceeding 30, not exceeding 60 miles 8 

Exceeding 60, not exceeding 100 miles ^ 10 

Exceeding 100, not exceeding 150 miles 12i 

Exceeding 150, not exceeding 200 miles . . . v 15 

Exceeding 200, not exceeding 250 miles 17 

Exceeding 250, not exceeding 350 miles 20 

Exceeding 350, not exceeding 450 miles 22 

Exceeding 450 miles - 25 

1816. 

Not exceeding 30 miles 6 

Exceeding 30, not exceeding 80 miles 10 

Exceeding 80, not exceeding 150 miles 12^ 

Exceeding 150, not exceeding 400 miles 18| 

Exceeding 400 miles 25 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT ' I 79 

1846. 

Cents. 
March 3 : 

Not exceeding 300 miles 5 

Exceeding 300 miles 10 

1855. 

If arch 3: 

Not exceeding 3,000 miles 3 

Exceeding 3,000 miles 10 

1856. 
Jnue 1, prepayment by stamps made compulsory. 

1863. 

March 3, and — , unifonn rate of postage without regard to distance, fixed at 3 
cents. 



W.— PRESENT ORGANIZATION OF THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

Jamfs N. Tyner, Indiana. Postmaster-General. 

William A. Knapp, Ohio, Chief Clerk. 

The direction and management of the Post Office Department are as- 
signed by the Constitution to the Postmaster-General. That the busi- 
ness thereof may be the more conveniently arranged and prepared for 

his final action, it is distributed among several bureaus, as follows : 

« 

OFFICE OF THE FIRST ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERALa 

Jambs W. Marshall, Virginia, First Assistant PostmasUr- General. 

James H. Mark, Maryland^ Chief Clerk. 

Including the divisions of free delivery, blank agency, appointment, 
bond, and of salaries and allowances. 

FREE DELIVERY. 

Revere W. Gurley, Lonisiaua, Superintendent. 

To this division are assigned the duty of preparing cases for the in- 
auguration of the system of cities, the appointment of letter-carriers, 
the regulation of allowances for incidental expenses, and the general 
supervision of the system throughout the United States. 

BLANK AGENCY. ^ 

Nicholas A. Gray, Ohio, Superintendent. 

To this division is assigned the duty of sending out blanks, wrapping- 
paper, and twine, and also letter- balances and canceling stamps to offices 
entitled to the same. « 



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l8o * INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

APPOINTMENT DIVISION. "^ 

Thomas E. Roach, Delaware, Principal Clerk. 

To this division is assigned the duty of preparing all cases for the es- 
tablishment, discontinuance, and change of name or site of post-offices, 
and for the appointment of all postmasters, special, route, and local 
agents, railway postal clerks, mail-route messengers, and Department 
employes, and of attending to all correspondence consequent theiieto. 

BOND DIVISION, 

CUAUNCEY Smith, Vermont, Cltrk in charge. 

To this division is assigned the duty of receiving and recording ap- 
pointments, sending out papers for postmasters and their assistants to 
qualify, receiving, entering, and filing their bonds and oaths, and issu- 
ing the commissions of postmasters. 

SALARY AND ALLOWANCE DIVISION. 

, Clerk in charge. 

To this division are assigned the duty of readjusting the salaries of 
postmasters and the consideration of allowances for rent, fuel, and lights, 
clerk hire, and miscellaneous expenditures. 

OFFICE OF THE SECOND ASSISTANT POSTMASTER GENERAL. 

Thomas J. Brady^ Indiana, Second Assistant Postmaster-General. 

John L. French, Chief Clerk. 

Including the divisions of contracts, railway classification, railway 
mail service, inspection, and mail equipments. 

contract DIVISION. 

To this division is assigned the business of arranging the mail service 
of the United States, and of placing the same under contract, embrac- 
ing all correspondence and proceedings respecting the frequency of trips, 
mode of conveyance, and times of departures and arrivals on all the 
routes; it has charge of the course of the mails between the different 
sections of the country, the points of mail distribution, and the regula- 
tions for the government of the domestic mail service of the United 
States. • It prepares the advertisements for mail proposals, receives the 
bids, and has charge of the annual and occasional mail lettings, and the 
adjustment and execution of the contracts. All changes in mail service 
and mail arrangements and in mail messengers are made through this 
office, and all claims for transportation service are adjusted by it. From 



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THE POST- OFFICE DEPAR TMENT, 1 8 1 

this office all postmasters at the ends of routes receive the statement of 
mail arrangements prescribed for the respective routes. It reports 
weekly to the Auditor all contracts executed, and all orders affecting 
the accounts for mail transportation ; prepares the statistical exhibits 
of the mail service, and the reports to Congress of the mail lettings, 
giving a statement of each bid ; also of the contracts made, the new 
service originated, the curtailments ordered, and the additional allow- 
ances granted within the year. 

DIVISION OF RAILWAY CLASSIFICATION. 

James N. Davis, Maryland, Superintendent, 

This division has charge of the classification of railroa<l routes and 
the adjustment of the rates of pay for the transportation of mails there- 
on, according to the amount and character of the service. 

RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 

Theodore N. Vail, Iowa, Superintendent, 

MiLO V. Bailey, New York, Chief Clerk, 

To this di\ision is assigned the general supervision of the railway 
post-office clerks, route agents, mail-route messengers, and local mail 
agents ; also the distribution and dispatch of mails in all post-offices 
and on railroad and steamboat routes. All delays or jrregularities in 
the delivery and transmission of mails on railroads are reported to 
this office. Wooden or card labels, for pouches and sacks, are furnished 
by this office. 

INSPECTION DIVISION. 

Samuel M. Lake, Illinois, Clerk in charge. 

To this division is assigned the duty of receiving and examining the 
registers of the arrivals and departures of mails, the certificates of the 
service of route agents, and the reports of mail failures; of noting the 
delinquencies of contractors, and preparing cases thereon for the action 
of the Postmaster-Gteneral ; of furnishing blanks for mail registers and 
reports of mail failures, and such other duties as may be necessary to 
secure a faithful and exact performance of all mail contracts and service. 

MAIL EQUIPMENT DIVISION, 

Henry L. Johnson, District of Colombia, Clerk in charge. 

To this division is assigned the issuing of mail locks and keys, mail 
pouches and sacks, and the construction of mail-bag catchers. 



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1 82 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

OFFICE OF THE THIRD ASSISTANT POSTMASTEB-GENERAL. 

Edward W. Barber, Miobigan, 7\Wd A%%%»ian% FonXmoMttr-Getitral, 

William M. Morton, New York, Ckwf Clerk, 

Including the divisions of finance, of postage-stamps, stamped envel- 
opes and postal cards, of registered letters, of dead letters, and of 
files, records, and mails. 

DIVISION OP FINANCE. 

Hannibal D. Norton, Clerk in charge. 

To this division are assigned the duty of issuing drafts and warrants in 
payment of balances reported by the Auditortobe due to mail contractors 
or other persons ; the superintendence of the collection of revenue at de- 
pository, draft, and depositing offices, and the keeping of the accounts 
between the Department and the Treasurer and assistant treasurers and 
designated depositories of the United States. This division receives 
all accounts, monthly or quarterly, of the depository and draft offices, 
and certificates of deposit from depositing offices. 

DIVISION OF POSTAGE-STABtPS AND STAMPED ENVELOPES AND POSTAL CARDS. 

Abraham D. Hazen, Pennsylvania, Chief of Division, 

To this division is assigned the issuing of postage-stamps, stamped 
envelopes, newspaper wrappers, and postal cards ; also the supplying 
of postmasters with envelopes for their official use and registered pack- 
age envelopes and seals. 

DIVISION OF REGISTERED LETTERS. 

Samuel S. Stratton, Pennsylvania, Clerk in charge. 

To this division is assigned the duty of preparing instructions for the 
guidance of postmasters relative to registered letters, and all corre- 
spondence connected therewith ; also the compilation olstatistics as to 
the transactions of the business. 

DIVISION OF DEAD LETTERS. 

Everett J. Dallas, Kansas, Chief of Divieionm 

To this division is assigned the examination and return to the writers 
of dead letters, and all correspondence relating thereto. 

DIVISION OF files, RECORDS, AND MAILS. 

Evelyn S. Hall. Vermont. Clerk in charge. 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 1 83 

MONEY-ORDER OFFICE. 

Charles F. Macdonald, Massachusetts, Su.'perinitndenU 

Dayid Haynes, Pennsylvania, CHef Clerk. 

To this office are assigned the general supervision and control of the 
postal money -order system throughout the United States, and the super- 
vision of the international money-order correspondence with foreign 
<;ountries. 

OFFICE OK FOREIGN MAILS. 

Joseph H. Blackfan, New Jersey, Superiniendeni, 
James S. Crawford, Maryland, Chief Clerk, 

To this office are assigned all foreign postal arrangements, and the 
supervision of the ocean mail-steamship service. 

topographer^s office. 

Walter L. Nicholson, District of Columbia, Topographer^ Poet-Office Department, 

Charles H. Pool, principal assistant. 

This office is charged with keeping up the maps in use by the officers 
and clerks of the various bureaus ; with the preparation and publication 
of new post route maps and revised editions of others; and with -fur- 
nishing maps, where necessary, to postmasters and other persons in the 
postal service. 

OFFICE of special AGENTS AND MAIL DEPREDATIONS. 

Charles Cochran, Jr., Maryland, Superiniendenl, 

All cases of mail depredation, or violation of law by private ex- 
presses, or by the forging or illegal use of postage-stamps, are under 
the supervision of this office. Special agents of the Department make 
their reports to this office, and to it all their accounts for compensation 
a.nd expenses are transmitted for examination and presentation to the 
Postmaster-Genera) for allowance. 

ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL FOR THE POST OFFICE DEPART- 
MENT. 

Thomas A. Spbnce, Maryland. 

OFFICE OF THE AUDITOR OF THE TREASURY FOR THE POST-OFFICE 

DEPARTMENT. 

J. Milton McGrew, Ohio, Sixth Auditor of the Treasury. 

F. B. LiLLEY, New York, Deputy Auditor, 

This is a bureau of the Treasury Department, which, for convenience, 
is located in the General Post-Office building. To this office is assigned 
the dnty of auditing the accounts of the Post-Office Dopirtment. 

\ 

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184 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



y, —CATALOGUE OF POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT SECTION, INTERXA- 
TIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

CENTENNIAL BRANCH POST-OFFICE, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

A. — Staff and Finance Division. 

B.— Money Order Division. 

C. — Registry Division. 

D.—CiTY Deuvery Division. 

E. — Mailing and Distribution Division. 

F.— Miscellaneous Division. 



Division I.—RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 

a. Railway post-office car, " Governor Dix," from the "fast mail line '^ 
of the New York Central, Michigan Southern and Lake Shore Rail- 
roads. 

h. Railway post-office car, from the "limited mail line" of the Fenii 
sylvania, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati and Saint Louis, Vandalia, Terre 
Haute and Indianapolis Railroads. 

c. Model railway post-office car, on scale of one inch to the foot, upor* 
20 feet of track, exhibiting a working model of L. F. Ward's mail-pouch 
catcher. 

Division II.— STAMPS, STAMPED AND OTHER ENVELOPES, AND POSTAL^ 

CARDS. 

a. Postage stamps. — Framed specimens of each of the styles of postage- 
stamps heretofore issued by the Post-Office Department, 1847 to 1876, 
inclusive. 

h. Stamped envelopes^ first series. — Framed specimens of each of the 
styles of stamped envelopes of the first series issued by the Po8^0ffice 
Department, 1853 to 1870. George F. Nesbitt, contractor. 

c. Stamped envelopes^ second series. — Framed specimens of each of the 
styles of stamped envelopes of the second series issued by the Post- 
Office Department, 1870 to 1874. George H. Reay, contractor. 

d. Stamped envelopes^ third series. — Framed specimens of each of the 
styles of stamped envelopes of the third series issued by the Post-Office 
Department, 1874 to 1876. Plympton Envelope Company, contractor. 

e. Official envelopes. — Framed specimens of each of the styles of official 
envelopes in use by the Post-Office Department. 

/. Postal cards^ first series. — Framed specimens of the first series of 
postal cards, used prior to 1875. 

g. Postal cards, second series — Framed specimens of the second series 
of postal-cards, 1875 to 1876. 

h. Envelope machine for gumming, embossing, printing, and folding 
United States stamped envelopes. Furnished for exhibition by the 
Plympton Envelope Company. 

i. Baxter steam engine (two horse-power), used in operating the en- 
veloi)e machine. 



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THE POST- OFFICE DEPAR TMENT. I 8 5 

Division III.— POSTAL TOPOGRAPHY. 

A series of maps aud atlases, illustrative of tbe postal service of the 
United States, and exhibiting the location of the 36,383 post-offices aud 
9,003 post-routes in operation therein, June 30, 1876, viz: 

Milea. 

Railway post- routes •. 72,348 

DoineHtic steamboat routes 14, 883 

All other steamboat routes / 194,567 

Total (9,003 routes) 281,798 

a. Map of the United States and Territories, scale 16 miles to the inch, 
illustrating the 72,348 miles of railway mail service of the United States 
PostOffice Department. 

h. Two atlases of post-route maps (in sheets). 

e. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the State of Maine, show- 
ing the location of the 877 post-offices in that State, with their routes of 
supply. Scale, 8J miles to the inch. 

d. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the New England States 
(exclusive of Maine), showing the location of the 2,193 post offices in 
those States, with their routes of supply. Scale, 6 miles to the inch. 

e. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the State of New York, 
showing the location of the 2,835 post-offices in that State, with their 
routes of supply. Scale, 6 miles to the inch. 

/. Map ot the post-offices and post-routes in the States of Pennsylva- 
nia, New Jersey, Delaware, and Maryland, ^nd in the District of Co- 
lumbia, showing the location of the 4,537 post-offices in those States, with 
their routes of supply. Scale, 6 miles to the inch. 

g. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the States of Ohio and 
Indiana, showing the location of the 3,712 post offices in those States, 
with their routes of supply. Scale, 8 miles to the inch. 

A. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the States of Michigan 
and Wisconsin, showing the location of the 2,469 post-offices in those 
States, with their routes of supply. Scale, 10 miles to the inch. 

I. Map of the post-offices and post routes in the State of Minnesota, 
showing the location of the 832 post-offices in that State, with their 
routes of supply. Scale, 10 miles to the inch. 

/r. Map of the ix>st offices and post-routes in the States of Illinois, 
Iowa, and Missouri, showing the location of the 4,767 post-offices and 
post routes in those States, with their routes of supply. Scale, 10 miles 
to the inch. 

I, Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the States of Kansas and 
Nebraska, showing the location of the 1,688 post-offices in those States, 
with their routes of supply. Scale, 10 miles to the inch. 

m. Map of the post-offices and post routes in the Territory of Colorado, 
showing the location of the 212 post-offices in that Territory, with their 
routes of supply. Scale, 15 miles to the inch. 



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1 86 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

n. Map of the postoffices and post-routes in the States of California 
and Nevada, showing the location of the 855 post-offices and post-routes 
in those States, with their routes of supply. Scale, 10 miles to the inch. 

o. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the States of Virginia, 
West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware, showing the location of the 
2,936 post-offices in those States, with their routes of supply. Scale, 8 
miles to the inch. 

jp. Map of the post-offices and post- routes in the States of North Caro- 
lina and South Carolina, showing the location of the 1,630 post-offices 
in those States, with their routes of supply. Scale, 8 miles to the inch. 

g. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the State of Florida, 
showing the location of the 222 post-offices in that State, with their 
routes of supply. Scale, 16 miles to the inch. 

r. Map of the post-offices and post-routes iu the States of Alabama 
and Mississippi, showing the location of the 1,372 post offices in those 
States, with their routes of 8ui)ply. Scale, 10 miles to the inch. 

«. Map of the post-offices and post-routes in the States of Louisiana 
and Texas, showing the location of the 1,253 post-offices in those States, 
with their routes of supply. Scale, 16 miles to the inch. 

Note. — Maps of a few of the States and Territories, which exist as 
yet only in a manuscript foriA in use for the Post-Office Department 
were not exhibited. 

Division IV.— MAIL EQUIPMENTS. 

a. Mail locJcs^ — Framed specimens of each style of mail lock in use by 
the Post-Office Department, from 1800 to 1876, inclusive. One frame, 
eighteen specimens. 

b. Mail pouches and sacks, — Glass case, containing a specimen of each 
style of canvas mail-bag and of leather pouch in present use by the 
Post-Office Department ; also specimens of several kinds of materials 
used iu the manufacture of such bags and pouches. Case and speci- 
mens furnished by John Boyle, contractor, Nos. -203 and 205, Fulton 
street. New York, N. Y. 

c. Mail pouches and hags, — Eight specimens of leather mail pouches 
furnished for exhibition by the contractors, Polydore S. Thompson, No. 
338 Broadway, New York, N. Y., and John C. Fetterman, Albany, N. Y. 

Division V.— MAIL COLLECTIONS AND DELIVERY. 

a. Street letter-boxes. — One specimen each, two styles street or lamp- 
post letter collection boxes. 

b. Post-office lock-boxes, — One specimeu each, two styles post-office 
lock-boxes for letter delivery. 

c. Newspaper lock-boxes, — One specimen each, two styles post-office 
lock-boxes for newspaper delivery. 



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THE POST- OFFICE DEPAR TMENT. [ 8 ^ 

These boxes were furuished for exhibition by the Johnson Rotary- 
Lock Company of New York through their secretary and treasurer, Mr. 
J. L. Chambers. 

d. Mail 'pmich iov use of " lett^er-carriers '^ in the collection and de- 
livery of mail. 

e. Safety chain for use of "letter-carriers" in attaching key to belt. 

Division VI.— MARKING, RATING, AND CANCELING. 

a. Letter and mailing scales, — One specimen each, all styles of scales 
used by the PostOflBce Department for weighing letters, newspapers, 
miscellaneous mailable matter, and mails in bulk. These exhibits were 
furnished by the "Fairbanks Scale Company,'' contractor. 

h. Marking J rating^ and canceling stamps, — Framed specimens one each, 
of all styles of marking, rating, and canceling stamps used by the Post- 
Office Department. One frame. 

Division VII.— MISCELLANEOUS. 

a. Postmaster -General FranJcHn^s ledger. — Glass case containing the 
ledger in which Benjamin Franklin, first Postmaster-General of the 
United States, kept the accounts of the Post-Office Department in the 
year 1776. Furnished for exhibition by the Auditor of the Treasury 
for the Post-Office Department. 

b. Glass case containing the Diary of Hugh Finley^ surveyor (or 
special agent) of the Post-Office Department of the Britis^h-American 
Colonies, written in 1773. This diary contains a detailed account of a 
survey of the post-offices and post-roads between Casco Bay, Maine, and 
Savannah, Ga., begun September 13, 1773, and ended June 26, 1774. 

c. Post-Office hlanks, — Bound volume, containing one specimen each, 
of all the varieties of blanks and blank forms in use by the United States 
Post-Office Department in 1876. 

, d. Postal laws and regulations, postal conventions, distances, and 
documents of the United States Post-Office Department. One volume 
bound. 

e. American Star Papers, relating to postal affairs from 1789 to 1832, 
inclusive, and a '* treaty concerning a general postal uqion " made in 
1874. One volume bound. 

/. Advertisements of October, 1875, for carrying the mails of the 
United States from July 1, 1876, to June 30, 1877, inclusive, in the fol- 
lowing States, viz: Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and New Jer- 
sey ; and from July 1, 1876, to June 30, 1880, inclusive, in North Caro- 
lina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, 
Kentucky, and Ohio. One volume bound. 

g. United States Official Post-Office Guide, — Two volumes. Vol. I, 
October, 1874, to July, 1875; Vol. II, October, 1875, to January, 1876. 



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1 88 INTERNATIONAL .EXHIBITION, 1876. 

h. Reports of the Postmasters- Oeneral of the United States. Five vol- 
umes. Vol. I, 1833 to 1850, inclusive; Vol. II, 1851 to 1858, inclusive; 
Vol. Ill, 1859 to 1864, inclusive; Vol. IV, 1865 to 1870, inclusive ; Vol. 
V, 1871 to 1875, inclusive. 

L Post days at Boston for the year 1795. — Schedule of arrivals and 
departures of mails at the post-office at Boston, Mass., in the year 1795. 
Donated by General William L. Burt, late postmaster at Boston, Mass. 

I', Engraved and photographed likenesses of the Postmasters-Gen- 
eral of the United States. From the Post-Office Department, at Wash- 
ington, D. 0. 



APPENDIX. 

Yl.—THE CENTENSIAL BRANCH POST-OFFICE, PEILADELPHIA, PA. 

This post-office was fully opened for business March 10, 1876, by 
order of the Postmaster-General dated February 14, 1876, and was 
closed November 30 of the same year. It was established for the ac- 
commodation of the officers, attendants, and visitors at the United 
States International Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and was, moreover, 
designed as a " model post-office,'' complete in all its appointments, to 
exhibit in detail the appliances, arrangements, and methods employed 
for the transaction of post-office business in the United States. 

In the allotment of space for this purpose about one-half of the 
southern transept of the United States' Government Building was used, 
covering about 2,100 square feet. The fittings were in walnut, richly 
panneled with appropriate carvings, emblematic of'postal matters, and 
were surrounded by highly embellished moldings. Ten letter-carriers 
and seven clerks were employed, and five wagons, specially constructed 
for the purpose, with drivers in uniform, were used in making an hourly 
exchange of mails between this branch office and the main post-office of 
the city. Fifty ornamental pedestal letter-boxes were located through- 
out the buildings and grounds, bearing a notification in seven lan- 
guages that hourly collections would be made from them by carriers. 

The locks used upon these boxes were nickel-plated, of a special de- 
sign and extra finish, bearing upon their face an embossed representa- 
tion of the "old bell" of Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., with 
the words and figures, "Liberty Bell— 1776-1876— Centennial." They 
were furnished by Messrs. Smith & Egge, of Bridgeport, Conn., the 
contractors. 

Envelopes with an embossed stamp of an entirely new design, indi- 
cating the progress made in postal facilities in this country during the 
last century, were manufactured and sold in the Government building. 
Of these stamped envelopes 689,000 were retailed'at .the branch office, 
and the total value of postage-stamps, &c., sold amounted to $49,328.60. 



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THE POST OFFICE DEPARTMENT, 189 

The following is a tabular statement of the business transacted at 
the Centennial branch office: 

MAIL MATTER DELIVERED. 



2j^Q^L Mail Local Mail postal Loral post- News- 

, letters. letters. cards. , al cards. papers. 

March ' 1.527 I 669 108 144 439 

April 17,075' 5,660 1,150 1.36H . 4,834 

May 47,050 1 5,8^3 6,488 5,883 35,957 

June 84,033 30,795 13,146 10,039 76.186 

July I 86,564 27,461 14,637 11,114 80,018 

AojniBt ; 97,472 27,586 14,885 10.913 100,150 

September 107,728 26,021 19,670 12,024 104,916 

October 121.976, 27,671 22,928 11,295 112.681 

November t 70,1711 19,335 10,896 7,645 61,074 

Total 633,586 I 171,081 103,908 70,425 576,255 

Grand total 1,555,255 



MAIL MATTER COLLECTED. 



^fr^^. , ^.. ,•<>""£-' P^P- 



March 906 554 195 138 

April 14,468 4,878. 2,506. 6,775 

May 45,049 14, 910 ' 9, 713 t 14,517 

Jane 93,959 31,571 26,657 38,378 

Jnly I 106,294 1 30,477 30,M6 50,970 

Aufnwt 121.807 33,388 40,442 60,711 

September .' 133,072 34,595 59.743 73,042 

October 144,963 35,358 39.618 71,965 

November | 70,302, 19,468 35,997 31.815 



Total ] 730,820 205,199 295,687 348,911 

Grand total ' t 1,580,617 

Whole number of pieces delivered and collected within the Centennial f^rounds 3, 135, 872 

ReiciBtered letters mailed 2, 255 

Itegistered letters delivered 2, 047 

MONEY ORDERS ISSUED. 

'Domestic money orders. P'oreijcn money orders. 



Month. 



Number. Amount. Number. Amount. 



March, April, May . 

June 

Jnly 

August 

September 

October 

November 



Totals. 



212 


$4, 012 08 


1« 


$324 75 


564 


11,280 62 


24 


566 25 


544 


10,555 60 


20 


480 00 


518 


10. 802 09 


1® 1 


326 95 


734 


16. 389 73 


32 1 


590 37 


595 


14,071 79 


31 


676 63 


318 


7,591 23 


20 1 


313 75 


3,485 


74,703 14 


162 


3, 284 70 



Total number issued 3,647 

Total money received $77, 987 84 



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ipO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



HONEY ORDERS PAID. 



Domestic money orders. Foreign money orders. 

Mouth. I ; 

Namber. ' Amount. Number. AmoaaL 

March, April, May 11 $230 92 2 $58 58 

Jane 95 2. 476 90 | 1 10 ©• 

Julv 167 4,313 79 I 8 1 65 17 

Angnsfr 176 4,425 8i 

September 249 6.488 29 1 11 276 90 

October , 221 5, 184 aO ' 4 103 70 

November 163 3,367 77 1 8, 167 66 



Total I 1.092' 26,482 85 I 29 1 676 9S 



Total number received 1, la 

Totol money paid $27,159 80 

In view of the comparatively slight baBine:«8 done in March and April, the money-order statemeota 
for these months were incla^E»d in that of May. 

The busiiiessof the Centennial brauch post office compares very favor- 
ably with that of the postal business transacted at the Vienna Exi>osi- 
tipn in 1873. At Vienna forty-three persons, clerks, carriers, &c., were 
employed, and the post-office of the Exposition was kept in operation 
one month longer than the Centennial post-office. A summary of the 
business transacted is as follows : 

Total nnraber of pieces of mail matter collected aud delivered 630, 654 

Registered letters mailed 10, 671 

Registered letters delivered 15, 454 

Moaoy orders issaed 1, 820 

Money orders paid 1,668 

In connection with the Centennial branch office were tw^o railway post- 
offices (Exhibits a and 6, Division I of this catalogue), in which were 
made up, under the supervision of the assistant general superintendent 
of the railway mail service, by a competent corps of clerks detailed from 
the various lines of railway post-offices throughout the country, all the 
outgoing mails from the Exhibition grounds. The number of lettei'S 
and circulars handled in these cars, during the continuance of the Ex- 
hibition, is stated at 30,000 per day during the months of August, Sep- 
tember, and October. The total number handled is estimated at 4,000,000 
pieces. 

The above statement includes circulars received from the city office 
for mailing on the cars, and likewise letters and circulars deposited in 
the pedestal boxes in the branch post-offices, and in the mailing boxes 
of the two post-office cars. 



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THE POST' OFFICE DEPAR TMENT, \ 9 1 

YIL—THE RAILWAY POST-OFFICES AND RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE OF 

THE UNITED STATES. 

As early as 1864 the revolution in the commercial methods of the 
country, caused by the rapid development of its railroad system, had 
impressed upon the attention of the Post-OflBce Department the neces- 
sity for some improved system of mail distribution, whereby the cum- 
bfrsome and tedious delays atdistributing post-offices mi^rht be avoided* 
Prior to this date these offices, located in a few only of the largest 
cities of the Unitt*d States, had been confined to the exchange of mails 
with each other by means of "through" pouches. Letters deposited 
in a post-office in any section of the country were forwarded to the dis- 
tributing office for that section, where a distribution, in accordance with 
their direction, was made, and they were then forwarded to another dis- 
-tributing office for tinal dispatch to destination. Serious delays were 
caused by this method. Mails arriving on trains could not, in most 
cases, bedistributed in time to depart with the next outgoing trains, and 
hence frequently met with a delay of twenty-four hours, so that it was 
no uncommon occurrence for travelers over long distances to arrive at 
destination in advance of letters leaving with or before them. It is^rue 
that, for some time previous to this date, agents of the Department had 
been employed upon the mail cars of the various lines of railroad in the 
United States, but they acted, for the most part, solely as custodians and 
supervisors of the mails in their charge, their sphere of duty being limited 
to the delivery of pouches made up at the several distributing offices for 
the local post-offices along their respective routes ; to the pouching and 
delivery of mail matter receivetl by them from such local offices ; and to 
the forwarding to terminal distributing offices of mails destined for more 
distant points. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1804, the Depart^ient inaugu- 
rated the experiment of placing upon several of the great railroad lines, 
terminating at important distributing centers, skilled clerks, detailed 
from distributing post-offices. These clerks were required to make, as 
far as practicable, upon the mail car, before reaching destination, the 
same distribution that had been made previously in distributing offices. 
By this means each through mail, hitherto detained for distribution at 
some distributing office, was pouched while in transit, and was ready, 
on the arrival at the railroad terminus, to be forwarded towards its 
destination by the first connecting train. 

The first official notice of this experiment was made by the Postmaster- 
General in his annual report for that year (1864), in which he says: 

The oiailing of all letters direct from one office to another in so vast a territory 
as that embraced within the United States is objectionable. The ordinary distribnt- 
ing post-office not meeting the necessities of the service, experiments have been com. 
menced with railway and traveling post-offices. The requisite cars for the purpose 
are prepared for one daily line between Washington and New York, and, by means of 
clerks, taken temporarily from post-offices at Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, 



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192 IXTERXATIOXAL EXI/IB IT/OX, 1876. 

and New York, letters iiitendeil for distribution at either of those points are distrib- 
nted in the cars, and so arranged that they can be dispatched withont delay on con- 
necting rontes. Thus it is fontid that the transmission of letters is expedited from 
twelve to twenty-four hours, being the time usually lost in distributing post-offices. 
Similar experiments have been made on the route from Chicago, 111. , to Clinton, Dav- 
enporr, and Dnbuque, Iowa, with eqnally satisfactory results. 

In order to make the work of railway post-offices effectual, a change in the 
. UKKle of mailing letters is necessary. All offices cannot mail direct, neither can all 
mail to a railway post-office. The work will therefore be divided between head 
offices and route offices, the former being those that are the initial or terminal points 
of routes, and the latter those offices or stations on the direct line of a road from 
which there are no post- roads diverging. 

The introduction of the proposed scheme will necessarily be attended with difficul- 
ties, and must beaec«mpli8he<l gradually. The classification of offices alone requires 
time and labor, and, for the present, operations wiU be limited to a few principal rail- 
road lines. Until the necessary classification is complete<l, and the railway distribu- 
tion organized, it is anticipated that additional expense will be involved, but it is 
hoped that the final effect will be to reduce the expenses connected with the present 
plan of distribution. 

Th^se experiments proved successful, and the service was gradually 
extended, until, in 18(»5, 1,041 miles of railway post-office service were 
in operation, employing 64 clerks, while the aggregate railroad service 
not thus operated was 22,000 miles. 

In 1867 the number of railway post-office routes had increased to 
18. the length of their lines to 4,435 miles, and the number of clerks to 
160. In the report of the Postmaster-General for that year it is esti- 
mated that the reduction of labor in the distributing post-offices of the 
country, resulting from the introduction of railway distribution, when 
taken in connection with the saving oft time in the transmission of the 
mails over railway )>ost office routes, " would seem sufficient to justify the 
increased expenditure." In the report for 186 > it is estimated that, in 
Edition to the great saving of time in the transmission of mails, above 
mentioped, there was a saving of postmasters' commissions upon sales 
of stamps, caused by the mailing of large numbers of letters uppn the 
cars, which, added to the amount saved by the reduction in the force of 
route agents and clerks in local post-offices, more than covered the en- 
tire cost of the railway post-office service. 

In his report for 1869 the Postmaster-General, speaking of this sys- 
tem of distribution, says : 

It has become an essential part of the service. It is, in fact, indispensable, and. 
AS the population and wealth of the country' shall increase, it will bo necessary to 
•extend it to keep pace with the wants and demands of the people. 

So, in 1870, the report says : 

The system has been found in practice to accomplish all that has been claimed for 
it, and its u^^efulness has been clearly demonstrated. 

During the year ended June 30, 1871, a continuous railway post- 
office service was established from Vanceborough, on the eastern bound- 
ary of Maine, to San Francisco, Oal., on the Pacific coast. 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 



193 



Prior to 1874 the country, for the convenience of the service, was di- 
vided into five districts or '' divisions.'' To each of these was assigned 
an '^assistant superintendent of railway-mail service," with supervisory 
jurisdiction over the dispatch, forwarding, and distribution of mails in 
the post-offices and over the lines of mail service included within the 
territorial limits of his division. 

In 1874 a reorganization of the service was made, by which the ter- 
ritory of the United States was redivided into eight divisions, with a 
superintendent in charge of each, and over the whole service was ap- 
pointed a " general superintendent," with headquarters at the seat of 
the Government. 

From time to time disagreements have arisen between the Depart- 
ment and several of the railroad companies relative to the amount of 
compensation to which the latter are entitled for the carrying of the 
mails over railway post-office routes. The failure thus far to adjust 
the compensation <»f these companies, upon a basis at once satisfactory 
to them and equitable to the public service, has, in a measure, pre- 
vented the railway-mail system from assuming that just relation to the 
other divisions of the postal service which its importance seems to de- 
mand ; but negotiations are now pending which, it is believed, will re- 
move this want of harmony, thereby assuring the extension and per- 
fecting of this system in a manner and to an extent commensurate 
with the wishes of the people and the business requirements of the 
country. • 

During the year 1875 the vast increase in the bulk of mail matter 
transmitted between the different sections of the country seemed to in- 
dicate a necessity for especial facilities for rapid transit and quick dis- 
tribution. With this end in view, arrangements were entered into 
between the Post-Office Department and several of the great trunk lines 
which conuei*.t the Atlantic seaboard with the Valley of the Mississippi, 
for the establishment of special and fast service; and on the 16th day 
of September, 1875, in pursuance of these arrangements, two lines of 
railway post-offices went into operation, connecting Saint Louis, Cin- 
cinnati, and Chicago with Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, accom- 
plishing the distance of 1,064 miles between New York and Saint Louis, 
via Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, Columbus, and Indianapolis, 
in thirty-three hours, and the distance of 979 miles between New York 
and Chicago, via Albany, Buffalo, and Cleveland, in twenty-four hours, 
giving to the territory embraced within the scope of their distribution 
mail facilities unequaled in any other country. 

The Saint Louis and New York line was represented at the Centennial 
Exhibition by one of its " limited mail'' working cars, and the Chicago 
and New Y'ork line bj- the working car " Governor Dix." These cars 
were furnished by the companies to which they respectively belong, as 
a part of the exhibit of the Post-Office Department, and were placed on 
a model track, buiit by the Pennsylvania Eailroad Company, adjoining 
the Government building. One of them was marked a and the other 
13 CEN, PT 2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



194 IKTERNATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

h in DivisioQ I of the exhibit of the Post-Offlce Department, and they 
are so inscribed in this catalogue. 

At the close of the last fiscal year this fast-mail service was with- 
drawn by the railroad companies operating the lines upon which it had 
been established. The reason assigned for this action was that they 
were not receiving, under the laws regulating their compensation, an 
equivalent for the service performed. 

Note. — December 18, 1876. Since the preparation of the above arti- 
cle, this "service" has been resumed upon the lines of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad Company, connecting New York with Chicago, Saint Louis, 
and Cincinnati by way of Philadelphia, Harrisburg, and Pittsburgh, the 
company, by special arrangement with the Post-Office Department, 
having agreeJl to continue the service at the former rate of compensa- 
tion, pending the action of Congress thereon. 



VIII.— M^ RAILWAY MAIL BAG CATCHES. 

This desideratum in the railway mail service of the United States 
was invented, in the year 1865, by Mr. L. F. Ward, of Elyria, Ohio, 
was adopted by the Post-Office Department in 1866, and was patented 
by the inventor in 1867. Previous to the introduction of the "catcher'' 
there had been no contrivance in use in this country by which mails 
could safely and certainly be received upon railway trains passing 
flag stations ht ordinary rates of speed, and the frequent failure of ex- 
press trains to stop at these stations was, in nearly all cases, the cause 
of the failure of mails to leave their point of departure on time, except 
in occasional instances where they could be thrown into the doors of 
passing cars, or caught in the unprotected arms of route agents. 

In the autumn of 1865 Mr. Ward accompanied Mr. G. B. Hamilton, a 
route agent upon the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, 
upon a trip for the purpose of devising, if possible, some mech^ruical 
method by which mail bags could be taken up, with safety and certainty, 
by trains in motion. The requisite qualities that such a contrivance 
should possess were these: It must be simple, strong, durable,, and 
compact; it must not be liable to get out of order, must not interfere 
with the opening or closing of car doors, nor with the egress or ingress; 
must thereat not occupy space needed for other purposes; must not be 
in danger of collision with objects outside the car; must be light and 
easily operated, and must take up mails of any required weight at any 
rate of speed. A fork, between the arms or prongs of which a mail bag 
could be firmly driven by the momentum of the train, one prong to lie 
parallel with the side of the car and the other to form an inclined plane 
at an acute angle therewith, suggested itself as a solution of the prob- 
lem. All subsequent experiments have tended to confirm this solution. 
Mr. Ward returned home and at once caused a catchfer to be constructed 
upon this principle, and to be placed upon one of the cars of the above- 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 1 95 

named railroad. From the beginning it was a complete success, and, 
although subsequently improved in some of its minor details, there has 
been no material deviation, up to the present time, from the primitive 
model. 

During the first year after its invention it was only used upon the 
cars of the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Railroad, and was 
there inspected by expert agents, sent from the Post-Office Department 
for the purpose, among whom was Mr. George B. Armstrong, the first 
Superintendent of Railway Mail Service. These agents reported favor- 
ably, and, on the 8th of December, 1866, by an order of the Postmaster- 
General, it was officially adopted by the Post-Office Department. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company was the first to build cranes 
for holding mail bags in a position for catching, and by that company 
the catcher service was practically inaugurated. The New York and 
Erie Railroad Company, upon whose road railway post-offices had been 
built, but had not commenced running for want of some means of pick- 
ing up mail bags by moving trains, was the next to bring this inven- 
tion into use. From this time forward the putting up of cranes and 
catchers progressed rapidly, and, at the present date, nearly every im- 
portant line of railway in the United States and Canada is supplied 
with them. By means of their use the mail service is thoroughly per- 
formed upon the fastest trains, mail bags being taken up by them, while 
passing flag stations, at the highest rates of speed, with as much cer- 
tainty as at cities where full stops are made. 

• To meet the requirements of the service upon the *' fast mail ^ of the 
New York Central and Michigan Southern, and upon the " limited mail'' 
of the Pennsylvania roads, Mr. Ward devised an improved and stronger 
catcher, but in it there has been no deviation from the principle and 
very little from the form first adopted. 

Catchera, with the necessary attachments, are, at the present time, 
manufactured by contract, and are supplied by the Post-Office Depart- 
ment. Cranes, upon w'hich to suspend mail pouches in a position to be 
taken up by the catcher, are built and kept in repairs by the railroad 
companies using them, in conformity with plans and specifications fur- 
nished by the Department. 

The figures here given in Plates A and B illustrate fully the method 
of constructing and operating the catcher. 

Plate A. — The mail catcher. 

Fig. 1 represents the first form of the catcher. This is now in use 
upon railroads where the mails to be taken up are light and 
the rate of speed of trains low. 

Fig. 2 represents the improved catcher used on roads where the mails 
are heavy and the rate of speed high. 
A A iron socket or stem by which the prongs or arms B B and C C 

are held firmly in place. 



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196 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 











Fig.2. 




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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT, 1 97 

B B exterior arm, fixed in the socket at an angle, V, of 22^ with the 
interior arm G G. This arm is shown at rest, dropped against the side 
of the car. When in use it is raised to a horizontal position on the 
same plane with G G, the angle V operating forward at 22° off the line 
of motion. 

G G, interior arm, a shaft turning freely in the boxes E E E E. 

D D, wooden handle, by means of which the interior arm G G is 
turned in the journal boxes, and the exterior arm B B is raised to a 
horizontal plane with G G. 

E E E E, journal boxes, in which turn the shaft or interior arm-G G. 

F F, rubber ring on arm G G, against which slides the socket A A, 
80 fixed to counteract the shock of receiving the pouch in the angle V V. 

G G G G-, door posts of mail car. 

O O, doorway. 

Plate B. — The mail <!rane. 

Fig. 1 represents the crane complete and in position for use. 
Fig. 2 represents the details of different portions. of the crane. 

A, the base, a raised platform surmounted by steps upon which the 
operator stands while fixing the mail pouch in place. The base is 
usually a cubical box, of about 2 J feet dimensions, filled with broken 
stone for holding it iu position. 

B, the stem, a perpendicular post which supports the arras of the 
crane. It is firmly bolted to the platform A. 

G, the superior arm. At the extremity of this arm, upon the.end of 
the spring K, the mail pouch is suspended. The arm is supported near 
its center by, and partially revolves upon, a pin passed through the lug 
H. The free end of this arm is heavier than that upon which the niail 
pouch is suspended, so as to insure its dropping readily to a perpendic- 
ular i>osition when relieved of the weight of the pouch, as shown by the 
dotted outline. 

D, the inferior arm. At the outer extremity of this arm, by the spring 
K, the lower end of the mail pouch is held firmly in place. When re- 
leased from the pouch this arm drops to a perpendicular position, as 
shown by the dotted outline. The details of this arm is shown in Fig. 2. 

E, the Chech blochj bolted to the top of the inferior arm to prevent 
the latter fix)m being lifted above a horizontal position. 

F, the loopj a band of strap iron sliding freely on the stem B, and 
forming the lugs and hinge to which the arm D is attached. By means 
of this loop the elevation of the inferior arm is regulated. (Also see 
Fig. 2.) 

G, the stop fastened to the side of the stem to prevent the inferior 
arm, when not in use, from falling to the platform. 

H, lugs of cast iron, bolted to the top of the stem B, for holding the 
superior arm in place. 



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198 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



IP LATH 







T\^. 2. T 



K 







^**'^'\^-' * 



ffl n 



Digitized by 



GooqI 



gie 



THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



199 



I I, eye bolts^ for holding the ioDer ends of the springs K and K, 
(Also see Fig. 2.) 

K K, tension springs^ 21 inches long, upon which the mail pouch is 
stretched. K is made of If by J and of IJ by J spring steel. The 
inner end of each spring is perforated with a hole, through which passes 
the hook of the eye bolts, and by means of which the springs are per- 
mitted to swing freely when not in use. The outer ends of the springs 
are slightly narrowed and curved, one upward and the other downward, 
so as to prevent the handles of the pouch from slipping too easily from 
the springs. (Also see Fig. 2.) 

ti L', tension plates, screwed upon the ends of the arms. L is con- 
cave upon it« upper edge, and is fastened to the superior arm in such a 
manner as to hold the spring about three-eighths of an inch away from 
the surface of the arm. L' is the reverse of L, holding its spring away 
from the under surface of the inferior arm. (Also see Fig. 2.) 

31, mail pouchy in position for being taken up by the catcher. The 
pouch should be belted or tied around the middle by a strap or string, 
so a^ to give it the proper diameter for passing easily between the 
prongs of the catcher, and should be hung in an inverted position, as 
shown in the diagram. 

HOW TO OPERATE THE CATCHER. 

The pouch being already placed in position, as shown in Plate B, one 
of the employes from within the approaching mail car seizes the handle 
D (Plate A), and brings the prong B to a rest in a horizontal position. 
On passing the crane the middle of the pouch strikes the inside of the 
prong B about half way out from the socket A, slides with force into 
the angle V, which strips it from its fastenings upon the crane and car- 
ries it forward with the car, into which it is taken by the employ^ in- 
side. The arms of the crane, being thus set free at once drop to the 
perpendicular position of rest. 



IX.— POSTAGE-STAMPS; STAMPED ENVELOPES; POSTAL CARDS, ETC, 

The use of postage stamps in the United States was first authorized 
by act of Congress approved March 3, 1847, and their issue, in de- 
nominations of 5 and 10 cents only, to meet the then existing rates of 
postage, was begun by the Post-Office Department on the Ist of July 
following. Previous to this date postage was collected entirely in money? 
its prepayment being in all cases optional. 

On the 1st of July, 1851, under the operation of the act of Congress 
of March 3 of that year, reducing the rates of postage, a new series of 
postage-stamps was adopted, consisting at first of denominations of 1 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



200 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

aud 3 cents only, but subsequently of the additional denominations of 
5, 10, 12, 24, 30, and 90 cents. The issue of these stamps continued un- 
til 1861, when, soon after the commencement of the late rebellion, to 
prevent the use of such of them as were outstanding in the hands of post- 
masters in the insurrectionary States, the series was superseded by a 
new one of the same denominations, but of different designs and colors. 
Another denomination — 2 cents — was, however, added on the Ist of 
July, 1863, to accommodate the local rate of postage. Moreover, in conse- 
quence of a change in the rates of newspaper postage, special stamps of 
large size, in denominations of 5, 10, and 25 cents, were issued on the 
1st of April, 1865, but soon fell into disuse on account of unpopulartty. 

In March, 1869, a new series of stamps replaced those then in use, 
of the same denominations, except that a 6-cent was substituted for 
the 5ceut stamp, but the series not meeting with favor, it was, in its 
turn, superseded in May, 1869, by the stamps now in use. The same 
denominations continued to be employed, with the subsequent addition 
of a 7-cent stamp, until July 1, 1875, when a ocent stamp was added, 
and the 7, 12, aud 24 cent stamps were discontinued. The series, there- 
fore, at present consists of the following denominations: 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 
10, 15, 30, and 00 cents. 

By act of Congress of March 3, 1873, in consequence of the repeal of 
the franking privilege, the Postmaster-General was required to provide 
stamps or stamped envelopes, of special design, for each of the several 
Executive Departments, to prepay postage on official matter passing 
through the mails. The issue of these stamps was commenced on the 
24th of May, 1872, for use on the 1st of July following, and still con- 
tinues. Their denominations are as follows: Executive, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 
10 cents 5 Department of State, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 
cents, and 2, 5, 10, and 20 dollars ; Treasury, War, and Navy Depart- 
ments, each, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and (K) cents; Departments 
of Interior, Justice, and Post-Office, each, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, 
and 90 cents ; Department of Agriculture, 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, l5, 24, and 
30 cents. 

Under the act of Congress approved June 23, 1874, stamps of special 
designs were provided for the prepayment of postage on newspapers 
and periodicals mailed from known offices of publication or news agen- 
cies. The act took effect on the 1st of January, 1875, but the issue was 
begun on the 11th of December previous, and still continues. The fol- 
lowing are the denominations : 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 
84, and 96 cents, and 1.92, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 dollai-s. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



20I 



The following tables give the issues of postage-stamps from the date 
of their adoption to the present time : 

Stamps issued for sale to the public. 



Te«r ended — 



Number of 
stamps. 



Value. 



June 30, 1847, to 1851 4,603,200 $274.710 00 

JuneSO, 1852 1 54,136,319 1 1,535,638 51 

June30, 1858 i 58,344,006 1 1,60.8.792 91 

June 30, 1854 56,330.000 1,526,300 00 

Jnne30, 1855 ; 72,977,300] 2,056,127 00 

June30,l856 126,045,210 ! 3,611,274 40 

JuneSO, 1857 154,729,465 4.337,135 20 

June30, 1858 176,761.835, 4,945,374 35 

JnneSO, 1859 192,201,920 I 5,279,405 00 

June30. 1860 1 216,370.660 | 5,920,939 00 

JuneSO, 1861 211,788,518' 5,908,522 60 

June30, 1862 251,307,105! 7,078,188 00 

June30, 1863 338,340,385' 9,683.394 00 

June30.1864 33*, 054, 610 , 10,177,32700 

June30, 1865 .187,419,455 i 12,099.987 CO 

June30, 1866 347,734,325 | 10,816.66100 

June30, 1867 , 371,599,605 , 11.578,607 00 

June30, 1868 383,470.600 11,751,014 00 

June30, 1869 42i,047,460 ' 12,722 568 00 

June30,1870 : 468,118,445 1 13,976,768 00 

June30,1871 498,126,175 14,630,715 00 

June30, 1872 541,455,070 i 15.840,649 00 

June30, 1873 1 601,931,520 • 16,681,189 CO 

JnneSO, 1874 632,733,420 1 17.725,242 CO 

June30, 1875 684,551,685 19,087,38147 

June30, 1876 700,089,437' 19,718,708 75 

Aggregate 8,284,267,630 | 240,572,618 69 



Official postage- si amps. 



I I 

June30,1873.* June 30, 1874.iJune 30, 1875. June 30, 1876.' Aggregate. 



$16, 250 



$15,000 I 



$35,900 



101, 595 


$100,500 


34,500 


297, 090 


9, 442, 560 


2, 400, 000 


3, 190. 000 


21,350,000 


703, 050 


659.000 


646.860 


2, 449, 410 


315, 330 


243,700 


217, 000 


936, 860 


19, 207, no 


13, 260, 270 


11,860.005 


49, 837, 995 


1, 994, 250 


1, 419, 370 


1,604,700 


5, 988, 795 


100, 000 


66, 100 


59,600 


281^, 100 


440, 000 


347, 000 


55,000 


977,000 


32. 320, 085 


18, 495, 940 


17. 682, 665 


82. 154. 150 


1.415,845 20 


834, 970 25 


668, 831 58 


3, 409, 621 65 


Two months 


only. 


^ 


'^ 



Executive $4, 650 

Stete 60,495 

Treasury 6,317,500 

War 440,500 

Navy 160, 830 ' 

Po«t~Ofl8ce 5,510,610 

Interior 970, 475 

Justice I 55,400 I 

Agriculture I 135, 000 I 

Total stamps , 13.655.460 

Total value $494, 974 70 



The first issue of stamped envelopes was begun in June, 1853, the 
denominations being 3 and 6 cents; but during the following year the 
design of the 3-cent envelope was altered, and on the 25th of April, 
1855, a 10-cent envelope was added. This series remained uninterrupt- 
edly in use until October, 1860, when it was succeeded by new designs 
of all three denominations, with additions of a 1 and a 4 cent denomi- 
nation (the latter being a combination of the 1 and 3 cent stami)s) in 
December, 1860, and of 12, 20, 24, and 40 cent denominations in Janu- 
ary, 1861. In July of the same year (owing to the rebellion in the 
Southern States), the designs of the three principal denominations — 3i 
6, and 10 cents — were again changed, remaining in use until September, 
1864, when the 3 and 6 cent designs were further altered. In June, 
1863, however, a 2-cent denomination was adopted, and in December, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



202 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1865, four others — 9, 12, 18, and 30 cents — the 24 and 40 cent denomi- 
nations being likewise changed in design. This series, consisting of 
denominations of 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 18, 20, 24, 30, and 40 cents, con- 
tinued in use until 1870. 

Up to October, 1859, the stamped envelopes issued had all been plain, 
but at that time a self- ruling envelope was added to the series, meeting, 
however, with only a moderate demand. In May, 1865, envelopes con- 
taining a printed request for the return of the letter to the writer, in 
case of non-delivery, began to be issuied, becoming popular at once. 
There were also issued, in August, 1861, for the first time, stamped note 
and letter sheets of the denomination of 3 cents, which, though only 
partially successful, remained in use until April, 1864. 

On the 1st of October, 1870, the entire series of stamped envelopes 
was changed in design, and in some of its denominations, the latter 
consisting of 1, 2, 3, 6, 10, 12, 15, 24, 30, and 90 cents. These designs 
and denominations have remained unchanged up to the present time, 
with the exception of the 12 and 24 cents, which have been recently 
discontinued. A 5 and a 7 cent denomination were also added, but the 
7 cent has also lately gone out of use. For some time after the adoption 
of this series, envelopes were furnished, when desired, with black or 
faint blue lines on their face, to indicate the place for the superscription, 
but they continued in demand for a comparatively short period. The 
envelopes now being issued are of seven different sizes, of three quali- 
ties of paper, of four colors, and are furnished either plain or with 
"printed request,'^ according to the desire of purchasers. 

In May of the present year an entirely new and distinctive design of 
stamped envelope was adopted for issue during the continuance of the 
Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia. Their manufacture began on 
the 10th of May and ended on the 10th of November. Only two sizes 
were made, both of first quality white paper, and of the same denomina- 
tion (3 cents), the stamp on the larger size, however, being printed in 
red, and that, on the smaller in green. The design was a shield, bear- 
ing in the upper half the device of a mounted post-boy and the date 
1776, and in the lower half a representation of a "fast-mail train" and a 
telegraph line with the date 1876, as the principal figures. 

In addition to the several kinds of stamped envelopes, described in 
the foregoing sketch, there was adopted, in October, 1861, a new article 
of postal manufacture, known as the newspaper wrapper, the con- 
venience of which was at once recognized. So great, indeed, was the 
popular sense of their utility, that the issue during the first three mouths 
succeeding their introduction amounted to nearly 1,000,000. Since then 
they have continued to form a part of the series of stamped envelopes, 
and the demand for them annually increases. They are made of inex- 
pensive manila paper, are of oblong shape, and of such size as to allow 
of two folds over an ordinary-sized newspaper. At first the denomina- 
tion was 2 cents; in October, 1870, it was changed to 1 cent ; at present 
thev are issued of both denominations. 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



203 



Soon after the repeal of the flunking privilege and the consequent 
adoption of official stamps, two of the Executive Departments — the War 
and Post-Office — began the use, also, of official stamped envelopes to 
cover official matter passing through the mails. Such envelopes are 
still being used, of denominations as follows: War Department, 1,.2, 3, 
6, 10, 12, 15, 24, and 30 cents; Post-Office, 2, 3, and 6 cents. The War 
Department envelopes are of colors and qualities such as are sold to the 
public; the Post-Office envelopes are of four sizes only, and all are of 
the same color and quality. None of the other Executive Departments 
have ever used official stamped envelopes. 

The following tables show the number of stamped envelopes issued 
to postmasters for sale to the public, and of official stamped envelopes 
issued to the War and Post-Office Departments for official use, from the 
first issue to the close of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876. In the 
first of these tables newspaper wrappers are included under the head 
of plain envelopes. 

SiaUmeni of stamped Envelopes issued to postmasters for sale to the public from 1853 to 

1876, inclusive. 



Tear ended— 



June 30, 1853... 
Jane 30, 1854... 
Jane 30, 1855 . . . 
June 30, 1856 . . . 
June 30. 1857 ... 
Jane 80, 1858... 
Jane 30, 1859 ... 
Jane 30, 1860... 
Jane 30, 1861 .. 
June 30. 1862.... 
June 30, 1883... 
June 30, 1864... 
June 30, 1865.... 
June 30, 1866... 
June 30, 1867... 
June 30, 1868 .... 
June 30, 1860... 
June 30, 1870.... 
June 30, 1871 .... 
June 30, 1872.... 

June 30, 1873 

June 30, 1874.... 
June 30, 1875 .... 
June 30, 1876..., 

Aggregate 



Plain envel- 
opes. 



5, 000, 000 

21, 384, 100 

23, 451, 725 

33, 764, 050 

33. 033, 400 

30, 971, 375 

30. 280, 300 

29, 280, 025 

26, 027, 300 

*27, 234, 150 

*25, 548, 750 

*28. 218, 800 

25, 456, 175 

30, 386, 200 

46, 421, 400 

47, 894, 900 
49, 851, 000 
49, 951, 500 
56, 503, 625 
67, 100, 750 
78, 971, 350 
84, 478, 250 
95, 135, 400 

100, 965, 750 



Special request 
envelopes. | 



Total. 



750,000 
8, 708, 525 
16, 665, 250 
25, 469, 750 
31, 824, 100 
36, 338, 000 
48,111,650 
46, 825, 000 
52, 201, 250 
51,940,250 
54, 631, 000 
64, 554, 500 



1, 047, 370, 275 438, 019, 275 



5, 000, 000 

21, 384, 100 

24,451,725 

33, 764, 050 

33, 033, 400 

30, 971, 375 

30, 280, 300 

29, 280, 025 

26, 027, 300 

27, 234, 150 

25, 548, 750 

28, 218, 800 

26, 206, 175 

39, 094, 725 

63. 086, 650 

78, 364, 650 

81, 675, 100 

86, 289, 500 

104, 675, 275 

113, 925, 750 

131, 172, 600 

136, 418. 500 

149, 766, 400 

165, 520, 250 



1, 485, 389, 550 



* These amounts include 212,300 stamped note and letter sheets (166,100 letter and 46,200 note). 

Statement of official stamped envelopes issued to the War and Post-Office Departments from 

1872 to 1876, inclusive. 





Tear ended— 


1 To War De- 
partment. 


To PosfrOffice 
Department, j 


Total. 


June 30. 1873* 

June 30, 1874 




1 587,100 

* 2,397 000 


4, 354, 750 ; 
10, 503, 300 
10,718,300 ' 
12, 775, 250 


4, 941, 850 
12, 900, 300 
12, 845, 000 
15, 690, 155 


June 30, 1875 




2,126,700 


June 30, 1876 




' 2,914,905 


Aggregate ... 


1 8,025,705 


38,351,600 


46, 377, 305 



* Two months only. 



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. 204 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Postal cards were first employed and issued in May, 1873 — the denom- 
ination being one cent — and gained immediate popularity. A new de- 
sign of ca,rd was adopted in August, 1875, being the one now in use. 

The number of cards issued during each year, since their adoption, 
is as follows : 

Year euding June 30 1873 (two months only) 31,094,000 

Year ending June 30, 1874 91,079,000 

Year ending June 30, 1875 107,616,000 

Year ending June 30, 1876 150,815,000 

Total 380,604,000 

MODE OF ISSUING^ STAMPS, ETC. 

Postage-stamps, stamped envelopes, and postal cards are manufact- 
ured for the Government by contract, and are issued under the super- 
vision of an agent stationed at the place of manufacture, upon the daily- 
orders of the Post-OfiBce Department. These orders are made up of 
items covering the wants of different postmasters, as partially made 
known by their requisitions from time to time received, and the stamps, 
envelopes, or cards called for are sent directly from the agency to the 
offices named in the order. As the issue of these articles is at the founda- 
. tion of nearly all the revenues of the Post-Office Department, great vigi- 
lance is exercised to prevent any postmaster from being supplied there- 
with to an extent greater than the actual needs of his office, or to an 
amount exceeding his bonded liability. 

For the year 1852— the year immediately preceding the introduction 
of stamped envelopes — the number of postmasters' requisitions for 
stamps was 9,200. During the year ending June 30, 1876, the number 
of requisitions for stamps, stamped envelopes, and postal cards amounted, 
in round numbers, to 312,000. 



X.—THE CENTENNIAL ENVELOPE MACHINE. 

The embossing of postage-stamps, upon envelopes, was at first executed 
by means of ordinary printing presses of small size, fed by hand. Later, 
a self-feeding machine for embossing and printing the stamp, capable 
of making about 24,000 envelopes per day, was invented by Edward Al- 
len, of Norwich, Conn. During the term of the contract with George 
H. Reay, of the city of Kew York, for furnishing the Post-Office De- 
partment with stamped envelopes, that contractor built and operated a 
number of folding and stamping machines with various novel devices. 
These machines were of two kinds. One, a single machine, was capa- 
ble of manufacturing 20,000 envelopes per day; the other, a double ma- 
chine, making two envelopes at a time, had a capacity of 30,000 per day. 



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TH£ POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 20$ 

These machines are now the property of the Plimpton Manufacturing 
Company, the present contractors, who have, however, never made use 
of them in the manufacture of Government stamped envelopes. 

The Plimpton Company commenced the manufacture of stamped en< 
velopes with the Allen machine, above mentioned, but the defectiveness 
of its operation soon attracted the attention of their foreman, Mr. Horace 
J. Wickham, and induced him to make a series of experiments, the re- 
sult of which has been an ingenious and successful combination of all 
the processes hitherto in use into a single piece of mechanism, the 
^^ Centennial Envelope Machine." A machine of this kind was placed 
on exhibition in the United States Government building, by the Post- 
CfBce Department, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, upon which were 
printed, during that period, the Centennial stamped envelopes, sold at 
the Centennial branch post-offlce at Philadelphia, Pa. 

The blank envelope-paper, first having been cut into the required form 
by a cutting-machine, and .placed in proper position in a rack, exactly 
fitted to its shape, is taken up, piece by piece, by the picking-up mech- 
anism at one end of the envelope-machine, gummed, embossed, printed^ 
folded, dried, and turned out, at the opposite end, complete in pack- 
ages of 25 envelopes each, ready for banding, at the rate of about 900 
packages, or over 22,000 envelopes in ten hours. 

The ends of the pickers, before descending to the pile of blank envel- 
ope forms, are, by two rollers previously supplied with mucilage and 
moving in opposite directions, coated with sufficient gum to enable 
them to raise the uppermost blank from the pile, as well as to gum the 
top flap and hold the envelope together ; at the same time a valve gum- 
tube, descending with the pickers to the end flap of the envelope, de- 
posits thereon just the amount of gum required to hoKl that point. The 
blank is now quickly raised from the pile, and a pair of conveyors, glid- 
ing beneath, receive and bear it forward under the cross-bar which holds 
the male embossing die and the blanket for receiving the impression of 
the type. Here the blank remains long enough to receive the impression 
from the die and type, when it is passed to the folding box, folded, and 
dropped into the endless chain, finished. 

The chain, filled with envelopes, passing over and around a fan which 
dries their gum, returns to the machine where each, as it arrives, is 
seized by a pair of steel fingers which draw it quickly aside and deposit 
in a box ; each twenty-fifth envelope, being drawn half an inch beyond 
the line of its fellows, marks the completion of the package. 

The envelopes, thus finished, dried, and counted into packages, are 
at once banded and boxed by an attendant, when they are ready for 
distribution. 



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206 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, ^Z^6, 

XL— POSTAL TOPOGRAPHY. 
(See Lift of Exhibita, Division III.) 

The first attempt, of which any record has been preserved, at deliue- 
ating upon maps the post-routes of the territory now comprised within 
the limits of the United "States was made by Hugh Finley, apost-oflfice 
suveyor or special agent, who makes the following statement in his diary : 

In December, 1772, the Right Honorable Francis Baron Despencer, and the right 
Honorable Frederic Thynne, His Majesty^s Postmaster-General, appointed me to be 
surveyor of post-roads on the continent of North America. In the month of March 
following I was commanded to embark for New York, to be instracted in my duty as 
surveyor by the resident deputy general there. 

I arrived at New York in April; Mr. Foxcraft was then in Virginia; without wait- 
ing his return I proceeded to Canada, in consequence of leave obtained in England, 
and arrived at Quebec on the last of the month. 

During my stay there I received orders from Mr. Foxcraft to hold myself in readi- 
ness to enter on service in September by beginning the survey in exploring the unin- 
habited country between the most southerly settlements on the river Chaudi^re, in 
Canada, and the most northerly habitations on the river Kennebec, in the govern- 
ment of Massachusetts Bay. 

After detailing the difficulties encountered in obtaining the funds 
necessary for defraying the expenses of the expedition, Mr. Finley con- 
tinues: 

Four Indians, perfectly well acquainted with all the dififerent passes, were deemed 
a unmber sufficient to conduct me and carry the necessary provisions. Four of the 
most expert were accordingly engaged, with an interpreter of the Abenaqui language, 
to meet me on the 15th of September, at the last settlement on the banks of the Chau- 
di^re, and fh)m thence to conduct me by the shortest way to the nearest settlements 
on the river Kennebec, in New England. 

Finley crossed the Saint Lawrence on the 13th of September, 1773, 
and met his guides at the last farm on the Ghaudi^re, 52 miles south 
of Quebec, on the 15th, according to api>ointment. By canoe and land 
carriage they reached Falmouth, on Casco Bay, on the 30th. On the 
2d of October he left Falmouth and surveyed the post-route by way 
of Portsmouth, Boston, Providence, New London, New Haven, to New 
York, thence to Norfolk, Wilmington, Charleston, and Savannah, Ga., 
closing the survey on the 26th of June, 1774. Mr. Finley's notes and 
sketches of the route surveyed by him are very minute in detail and 
furnished valuable information to the postal authorities of his time. 
His manuscript diary was on exhibition by the Post-Office Department, 
marked ft. Division VIL 

From such small beginnings, made more than a century ago, over 
comparatively restricted areas, the United States system of post-routes 
has expanded, until it now embraces the supply of the mails to 36,383 
post-offices upon 9,003 routes, whose aggregate length is 281,798 miles, 
extending into every inhabited portion of forty-eight States and Terri- 
tories, comprising within their limits an area of a little less than 4,000,000 
square miles. 



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THP POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT, 207 

No correct knowledge of the location of a great number of post-offlces 
scattered over a territory so vast could be attained except through the 
medium of a thorough system of maps, nor could any well-organized 
and economically-conducted scheme of mail supply be established and 
continuously operated, except through a knowledge attained from such 
maps, supplying, from their frequently-published editions, the ever- 
changing topographic data of a rapidly-developing territory. 

In the earlier days of the Kepublic, when the number of post-oflBces 
were few and confined mainly to the States bordering on the Atlantic 
coast, the knowledge of the topography of 1;he country was necessarily 
very limited, for the surveys at that period had been few and imper- 
fect. As settlements increased in number, and colonies of emigrants 
moved westward, the attention of the Department was directed to the 
necessity for more clearly-defined information relative to the location 
of distant communities, to the shortest, or most easily and rapidly trav- 
ersed routes by which to reach them, and to the intervening obstacles 
to be overcome. 

In 1839 a set of maps, elaborately engraved, were published under 
the auspices of the Department, and, for a short time, used with ad- 
vantage in its ofQces; but no provision having been made to meet the 
constant alterations and additions ne^3es^ry to make them keep pace 
with the frequent changes and rapid extensions of the service, they soon 
became obsolete, and were finally discarded. For many years thereafter 
the changes and extensions in the location of post-offices and post routes 
were b^sed, for the most part, upon unofficial representations made to 
the Department, or upon references to a solitary copy, in manuscript, 
of each of such diagrams and maps as could then be produced by a sin- 
gle individual employed thereon, until the deficiencies in topographical 
information became so apparent, that the adoption of some system, 
thorough and correct in all its details, became a public necessity'. 

In 1866 was commenced the publication of a series of post-rout^ maps, 
which, having been gradually extended, now embrace all the Northern 
and the greater part of the Middle and Southern States. These maps 
are at the present time eighteen in number, issued in forty-seven sheets. 
Several others as yet exist only in raanu^ript for want of the necessary 
appropriations to meet the expense of their speedy completion. They 
are produced partly by impressions from engraved copper plates, and 
partly from lithographic and photolithographic transfers. They em- 
brace one or more States each, as their relative extent m<\v allow, and 
vary in scale from a maximum of 6 miles to the inch {^^-^x^-^)^ for the 
older and more densely populated States, to 10, 16, and the minimum 
of 20 miles (rreHoTr) for those more sparsely settled. The lines for 
their construction are laid down on what is called " the polyconic pro- 
jection,^ as introduced for this continent, and systematically carried out 
by the United States Coast Survey. The primary geographical data 
have been obtained from the rigorously exact Government surveys of 



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208 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

the coast and the great uorthern lakes, filled in from the township sur- 
veys of the United States General Land Office, wherever these surveys 
have been made. For the older States, not covered by such surveys, 
the best local surveys, published or in man nscript, have been used. Only 
one State, Massachusetts, has yet executed its own survey. For the 
vast and imperfectly known Territories of the western interior, advan- 
tage has been taken of the reconnaissances and published maps of mil- 
itary and geological explorations. 

The principal object of post-route maps being their technical use, 
all superfinous detail of topography, other than the principal rivers 
and creeks, has been studiously omitted. The names of places ar^ those 
only at which there are post-offices ; the county towns or court-houses 
being designated by a special bolder type 5 the names of the coanties, 
with their boundaries, and also those of the States and Territories are 
shown, and the lines of the railroads with their corporate names. The 
frequency of the service is shown by a system of differently colored 
lines representing the routes : black indicating a service of six times a 
week, or oftener ; blue, three times a week; orange, twice a week; and 
red, once a week. Special offices have their supply indicated by a broken 
line. 

The topographical Bureau of the Post-Office Department employs con- 
stantly one superintendent and a corps of skilled clerks and draughts- 
men upon new maps and new and correctetl editions of those already pub- 
lished. It is in constant correspondence with survey offices, located in 
all parts of the country, and with persons capable of giving information 
in regard to surveys, roads, explorations, and matters of topographic 
interest, so that no change takes place that does not soon come to be 
known at this Bureau, and be noted upon the maps of the Department. 



XII — MAIL EQUIPMENTS, 

Specimens of the mail-bags, pouches, and sacks in present use by the 
Post-Office Department, were furnishecl for the exhibit of the Post- * 
Office Department in the Government building by Mr. John Boyle of 
No. 203 Fulton street. New York ; Mr. Polydore S. Thompson of No. 
338 Broadway, New York, and Mr. John C. Fetterman of Albany, N. Y., 
contractors with the Government. These articles are of five classes. 

Class A.— LEATHER MAIL-POUCHES. 
(Five sizes.) 

No. 1. Forty-eight inches in length, and 60 inches in circumference* 
No. 2. Forty-oiie inches in length, and 48 inches in circumference. 
No. 3. Thirty-six inches in length, and 42 inches in circumference. 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. ' 209 

No. 4. Thirty inches in length, and 36 inches in circumference. 

No. 5. Twenty-six inches in length, and 28 inches in circamference. 

The body of these pouches is made of good and substantial leather, 
well tanned, weighing for sizes numbered 1 and 2,»8 ounces, and for 
the smaller sizes 7 ounces to the square foot ; the bottoms^ handles, 
and flaps are of good skirting leather, well tanned, and the seams well 
and strongly secured with the best tinned-iron rivets and burs or wash- 
ers, the latter 1 inch apart. 

Each of the leather pouches is provided with a metallic label case or 
holder. 

Class B.-MAIL-CATCHER POUCHES. 

(One size.) 

Thirty-six inches in length, and 36 inches in circumference, made of 
closely woven cotton duck, impervious to rain. 

Each of these pouches has a leather drawing-strap and buckle, so at- 
tached and an*anged that it may be contracted or pursed up in the 
middle when hung upon the crane, from which it is taken by the catcher 
on a passing mail-car. 

Each of these pouches has also a handle at the bottom and top, con- 
sisting of a wrought-iron nng (galvanized), one-fourth of an inch in di- 
ameter of metal, and If inches in diameter of its inclosed space. 

Class C— LEATHER HORSE MAIL BAGS. 
(Three sizes, adapted to conveyance by horseback.) 

No. 1. Body, 48 inches in length in longest part, and 21 inches in 
width in the widest parts, and 12 inches across the narrowest part or 
middle. Ends or bottoms (of elliptical form) 26 inches in length in the 
longest parts and 14 inches wide at the widest part. 

No. 2. Body, 45 inches in length in the longest part, 18 inches in 
width at the widest parts, and llj inches across the middle or narrow- 
est part. Ends or bottoms 24 inches in length at the longest parts and 
12 inches wide at the widest part. 

No. 3. Forty-two inches in length at the longest part, 16 inches in 
width at the widest parts, and lOJ inches across the middle or narrow- 
est part. Ends or bottoms 20 inches in length at the longest parts and 
10 inches wide at the widest part. 

Each bag is to have two suitable loops, rings, straps, and buckles, 
so made and arranged as to connect it with the stirrup-straps of a sad- 
dle. 

These bags are made of good and substantial bag-leather, well tanned, 
weighing for the body 7, and for the bottoms 8 ounces to the square 
foot; the seams sewed, are made with a welt, and secured strongly with 
waxed-thread stitches; when made wholly or in part with rivets, are so 
done as to chafe neither horse nor rider. 
14 CEN, PT 2 



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2IO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Class D. -JUTE CANVAS MAIL SACKS. 
(Three sizes.) 

No. 1. Forty-three inches iu length and 62 inches in circumference. 

No. 2. Forty-one inches in length and 48 inches in circumference. 

No. 3. Thirty -two inches in length and 38 inches in circumference. 

The sacks of size No. 1 are made of closely- woven jutecanvas, weigh- 
ing 16 ounces to the yard of 31 J inches width; each thread of the warp 
is composed of two spun yarns twisted together, weighing 1 ounce to 
60 yards, and each thread of the woof is a single spun yarn weighing 
1 ounce to 78 yards. 

The sacks of size No. 2 are to be made of jute canvas weighing not 
less than 9 ounces to the yard of 24J inches width, with warp and woof 
the same as described for size No. 1. 

The sacks of size No. 3 are made of thinner canvas, weighing 4^ ounces 
to the yard of 19^ inches width. 

The sacks of sizes Nos. 1 and 2 -arft made with a tabling or hem at 
the top 2 inches wide, upon which a sufficient number of eyelets, ten to 
the former and eight to the latter, are well wrought, and those of size 
No. 3 have a tabling or hem at the top of half an inch, without eyelets 
or grommets. 

Class E.— COTTON CANVAS MAIL SACKS. 

(Three sizes.) 

No. 1. Of same dimensions as size No. 1, of jute, made of cotton duck 
weighing 12J ounces to the yard of 22 inches width, and thread of the 
warp and of the woof being composed of three spun yarns twisted to- 
gether, the former measuring 118 yards to the ounce, and the latter 124 
yards to the ounce. The tabling or hem is IJ inches wide, with ten 
well- wrought eyelets. 

No. 2. Of same dimensions as jute sack No. 2, and of same material 
as described for cotton canvas sack of size No. 1. Tabling or hem \\ 
inches wide, with eight eyelets wrought thereon. 

No. 3. Of the same dimensions a« jute sack No. 3, made of cotton can- 
vas weighing 8 ounces to the yard of 28 inches width ; each thre^ of 
the warp and woof being composed of two spun yarns twisted together, 
the former measuring 330 yards to the ounce, and the latter 220 yards 
to the ounce. 

All the mail-bags, of every class, have " U. S. MaiP (with number of 
its size) stenciled upon them in large letters and figures, the canvas 
sacks so marked both inside and outside. 

The mouth or opening of each pouch and bag of classes A, B, and C 
is so constructed as to admit of its being locked with a padlock, and, 
when so locked, to secure its contents from any abstraction that may 
be attempted without opening the lock or without any traceable mark 
of violence left upon the bag or pouch. The mouths of the canvas sacks 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 2 I I 

are constructed with eyelets, so that they may be tied with a string. 
The avera«;e number of new mail-bags put in use annually in the United 
States is about as follows : 

Class A 10,000 

Class B , 1,000 

Class C 1,000 

Class D 60,000 

Glass E 5,000 

Specimens of all the different styles, eighteen in number, of mail 
locks in use since the year 1800 were placed on exhibition in a case 
marked a, Division IV, viz : 

One brass mail lock, used from 1800 to 1812. 

One brass mail lock, used from 1812 to 1825. 

One iH-ass mail lock, used from 1825 to 1842. 

One iron mail lock, used during same period. 

One brass mail lock, used from 1842 to 1852. 

One iron mail lock, used during same period. 

Oiie brass mail lock, used from 1852 to 1862. 

One iron mail lock, used during same period. 

One brass mail lock, used from 1862 to 1870. 

One iron mail lock, used during same period. 

Two brass mail locks, used from 1870 to 1876. 

One brass mail lodk, used during same period. 

Three register pouch locks, used during same period. 

One street letter-box lock, used during same period. 

One specimen mail lock, latest improvements. 



XIII.— T^j; FREE-DELIVERT SYSTEM, 

The rapid and uninterrupted growth of the postal service had caused 
to be felt, at an early date, the necessity for various devices by which 
to facilitate the delivery of letters and papers, and from time to time 
experiments were made, resulting in slight improvements in the forms 
and arrangement of general-delivery cases of '' wheels," and in the style 
of private letter-boxes. 

In 1862 there existed, in a number of cities, a " penny post," a paid car- 
riers' delivery, the carriers remunerating themselves by the collection 
of a voluntary fee of from 1 to 2 cents on each piece of mail matter de- 
livered by them. In five cities this service had the partial recognition 
of the Post-Ofl&ce Department, while in the others it was altogether a 
local arrangement. 

Free delivery^ as a system, was first put in operation in the United 
States, with the sanction of law, July 1, 1863, in compliance with an 
order from the Postmaster-General, establishing it in forty-nine cities 
under the provisions of an act of Congress, approved March 3, 1863, by 



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212 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

which act the employmcDt by the Department of letter-carriers at regu- 
lar salaries, to be paid from a fund appropriated for that purpose, was 
authorized, and the inauguration of the system in such cities as might 
be designated by the Postmaster-General wa« provided for. At the 
date of the passage of this act a similar service existed in France, Aus- 
tria, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Prussia, Bel- 
gium, Switzerland, Italy, The Netherlands, Denmark, and theHanseatic 
cities. 

A paragraph from the order above referred to will partially explain 
the views and expectations then entertained : 

It is supposed by some to be an error to give increased accommodations to the public, 
without increased expense, when our revenues are deficient. I reason otherwise. 
Correspondence grows in proportion to the facilities afforded for carrying it on, so 
that, if we provide for prompt deliveries and prompt mailings of letters, we shall 
greatly increase our income. To this end we should have, not only frequent deliver- 
ies, but must collect promptly from boxes, put up throughout the city, so as to bring 
the post-oflBce to every one's door. 

It was further predicted that '*free delivery," properly organized and 
conducted, would greatly diminish the number of letters forwarded to 
the dead-letter oflBce as "not called for," many of which failed to be 
received by the persons addressed by reason of having been misplaced 
in large general-delivery cases. 

The first official record of the progress of this service is to be found 
in the annual report of the Postmaster-General for the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1864, which states the number of free-delivery post-offices in 
operation to be 66, the number of letter-carriers 685, and the cost of the 
service for that year to be $317,061. During the first year of its exist- 
ence, the new service, in a number of cities, had been misunderstood by 
the public and the post-office officials; the latter in some instances not 
being in accord with the policy of the Department in regard to this mat- 
ter, and the resulting mismanagement and inefficiency was so widespread 
as to render the system for a time extremely unpopular. At the close 
of the following year, June 30, 1865, the number of free-delivery offices 
had been reduced to 45. During the next year only one was added to 
the list, making the number 46 in 18G6. 

Through increased efficiency and zeal in both general and local manage- 
ment, and through improvements in equipments, furniture, and fixtures, 
the service gained in popularity during each succeeding year to such 
au^extent that applications were from time to time received for its ex- 
tension to cities which did not possess it. These applications were 
granted in the case of all cities whose population was large enough to 
warrant the establishment of the system. At the present time it is 
estimated that 75 per cent, of the delivery service in cities having a 
population of 20,000 and upwards is performed by letter-carriers. In 
the;iarge cities the facilities thereby afforded for local correspondence 
have long been appreciated, and no inconsiderable portion of the postal 
revenues is derived from the free-delivery service in those cities. 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 2 I 3 

c 

The aDDual reports of 1865 and 1875 show the number of free-delivery 
offices in those years to have been 45 in the former year and 87 in the 
latter, an increase of 42 offices in ten years. The number of carriers 
employed during those years was 757 and 2,195, respectively, and the 
cost of the service $448,664 and $1,880,041. While there is no record 
of income from local delivery in 1865, it was reported in 1875 at 
$1,974,559, a very large proportion of which is believed to be the result 
of the facilities for local correspondence afforded in large cities by the 
free-delivery system. 

The stamp division of the Post-Office Department reported $12,847,437 
as the proceeds of the sales of stamps and stamped envelopes in 1865, 
and $25,477,511 in 1875, an increase of nearly 100 per cent, in ten years. 
As the rates of postage have been in some cases reduced, it necessarily 
follows that there must have been a much larger increase in the amount 
of mail matter handled. The number of dead letters reported as re- 
ceived at the " dead-letter office" in 1865 was 4,377,087, and in 1875 
as 3,628,808. Had the number of dead letters increased during the ten 
years referred to in a ratio corresponding to the increase in the sales 
of stamps and stamped envelopes, the number of such letters received 
would have reached 8,500,000 in 1875, showing a falling off of nearly 
5,000,000 letters in the business of the dead-letter office. To this result 
the free delivery system has in no small degree contributed. 



XIV.— tfje; postal money-order system. 

An office, called the " Centennial branch post-office of Philadelphia, 
Pa.,'' was, by order of the Postmaster-General, opened for business on 
the 10th day of March, 1870, in the United States Government Exhibi- 
tion building at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa. The statistics of 
this office during the continuance of the International Exhibition, from 
May 10 to November 10, 1876, inclusive, are given elsewhere in this ap- 
pendix. The money order, like the other divisions of this office, though 
established for the accommodation of the exhibitors, officers, attendants 
and visitors at the Exhibition, was intended also to illustrate the prac- 
tical workings of the money-order system. 

The domestic money-order system of the United States went into 
operation November 1, 1864, in pursuance of an act of Congress ap- 
proved May 17 of the same year. By this act $100,000 was appropri- 
ated from the public treasury, out of which to defray the expense of in- 
augurating the system. 

At.the close of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1865, eight months after 
the commencement of the business, the Auditor of the Treasury for the 
Post-Office Department reported 142 money-order offices in operation, 
at which 74,277 orders, amounting to $1,360,122.52, had been issued, and 
70,573, amounting to $1,291,972.22, had been paid. The orders repaid 



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214 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITON, 1876. 

during the same period amounted to $21,784.86, and the fees received 
for the issue of orders to $11,534.90. The expenses were $7,047.97 in 
excess of emoluments. The orders issued averaged $18.31 e^ch, and the 
fees 15.53 cents each, or 8J mills to the dollar. The expenses averaged 
25.02 cents to each order issued, or 13.66 mills to the dollar. 

The first complete fiscal year of the syst-em closed with 473 money- 
order oflices in operation on the 30th of June, 1866. During this year 
243,609 orders, amounting to $3,977,259.28, were issued, and 233,124, 
amounting to $3,851,839.49, were paid. The orders repaid amounted to 
$52,050.73, and the fees received to $35,799.98. A net revenue of 
$7,138.79 was declared by the Auditor, an amount of $90.82 in excess 
of the deficiency of the previous year. The orders issued averaged 
$16.32 each, and the fees received 14.69 cent$ each, being 9 mills to the 
dollar. The expenses averaged 11.77 cents to each order issued, or 7.21 
mills to the dollar. 

The last complete fiscal year of the system closed with 3,697 money- 
order offices in operation on the 30th of June, 1876. During this year 
the number of orders issued was 4,998,600, amounting to $77,035,972.78, 
and the number paid was 4,947,685, amounting to $76,632,571.45. The 
amount of orders repaid was $473,767.40, and of the fees received 
$645,699.40. The net revenue was $190,770.84. The orders issued 
averaged $15.41 each, and the fees 12.92 cents each, or 8g mills to the 
dollar. The average expenses were 9.13 cents to each order issued, or 
5.92 mills to the dollar. 

A comparison of the above data shows the ratio of increase during 
the ten years to be as follows : 

In the number of offices as 1 to 7.81. 

In the number of orders issued as 1 to 20.48. 

In the amount of orders issued as 1 to 19.37. 

In the number of orders paid as 1 to 21.22. 

In the amount of orders paid as 1 to 19.90. 

In the amount of orders repaid as 1 to 9.10. 

In the amount of fees received as 1 to 18.03. 

In the amount of net revenue as 1 to 26.72. 

During the \\\ years since the inauguration of the system, being 
from November 1, 1864, to June 30, 1876, inclusive, the total number 
of orders issued was 27,066,100, amounting to $466,754,758.14, and the 
number paid 26,847,993, amounting to $462,087,088.81. The amount 
of orders repaid was $3,322,560.90, and the fees received $3,254,404.35. 
The aggregate net revenue, after deducting the deficiency of the first 
eight months, was $928,092.68. The orders issued averaged $17.24^ 
each, and the fees 12.02 cents, being 6.97 mills to the dollar. 

The average annual issue of orders since the commencement of the 
system has been 2,319,380, and the average amount thereof $40,007,- 
535.27. The average annual receipt of fees has been $278,948.94, and 
of net revenue $80,759.02J. 



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THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 2 I 5 

Since the commencement of the system 112,683 . uplicate orders hav9 
been issued, being at the average of 9,658.5 per annum, or one duplicate 
for every 240 orders issued. Of this number 109,344 were in lieu of 
orders reported to have been lost in the mails, 1 ,369 in lieu of orders 
lost or destroyed while in the hands of remitters, payees, indorsees, 59 in 
lieu of orders burned in the mfiils, 5 in lieu of orders lost by reason of the 
robbery of post-offices; 70 were issued to remitters in lieu of orders pay- 
able to persons, ascertained to be engaged in obtaining money through 
the mails by means of false or fraudulent pretences, promises, or repre- 
sentations contrary to law; 1,636 in lieu of orders which had become in- 
valid by reason of their failure to be presented for payment prior to the 
expiration of one year after the date of their issue, and 200 in lieu of 
orders invalidated by reason of having received more than one indorse- 
ment. 

Money-order post-offices are divided into two classes. Those of the 
first class are depositories of the surplus funds which accumulate at 
offices whose receipts exceed their disbursements. All offices not desig- 
nated as depositories are known as of the second class. 

For convenience in the transfer of funds from the issuing offices to 
the great paying centers certain of the larger post-offices whose loca- 
tion is suitable are designated as such depositories. These depositories 
retain only funds sufficient to meet their disbursements, and forward 
their surplus to New York, the central depository of the system. 

During the ten years previous to the close of the last fiscal year 
$331,385,536.16 of surplus funds were transferred from issuing to pay- 
ing offices, the greater part of which was currency forwarded through the 
mails in registered letters, being an annual average of $33,138,553.62. 
The ascertained losses sustained by the Post-Office Department during 
the same period by reason of the failure of such remittances to reach 
destination amounted to $39,507.54, an average of $3,950.75 per an- 
num, or less than ^ii^ of 1 per cent, upon the gross amount of the re- 
mittances. It appears also that, during the first half of the period 
above referred to, the remittances amounted to $87,769,495.92, and the 
losses to $24,542.34, while during the last half the amount of the re- 
mittances was $243,616,040,040.24, and of the losses $15,498.20 ; the 
losses during the first half being 'f%%^ of 1 per cent, of the amount re- 
mitted, and during the last half only a little over ^-jfj^r o^ ^ P^r cent. 
Prior to July 1, 1871, no complete account was kept of remittances re- 
poi-ted missing, where such cases were finally adjusted without loss to 
the Department During the five years ended June 30, 1876, the cases 
under consideration numbered 171, amounting to $32,285 62. Of these 
the amount of $15,498.20 was allowed to the credit of the remitting 
][>ostmasters ; $9,734.94 was recovered by special agents of the Depart- 
ment; $2,090 was charged to the remitting postmasters through whose 
negligence the loss occurred, and 24 cases, amounting to $4,963, are still 
unsettled. 



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2 1 6 INTERNA TIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Offices east of the Rocky Mountains at which the disbursements ex- 
ceed the receipts are allowed credits with the postmaster at New York, 
from time to time, as the exigencies of their business may require, to 
meet such deficiencies, and a limited number of blank drafts are fur- 
nished with which to draw against these credits. Buch offices in the 
Pacific States are supplied by the postmasters at San Francisco, Cal., 
and Portland, Oreg. The total amount of funds furnished from the 
three offices named since June 30, 1869, is $36,634,574.33. 

Prior to July 1, 1871, no complete separate accounts were kept of the 
final disposal of cases of orders reported erroneously paid, unless actual 
loss occurred. In cases where actual loss did occur to the Department, 
it was charged as a miscellaneous item. Since that date 242 cases of 
alleged erroneous payment, amounting to $6,610.68, have been under 
consideration, (n 33 of these, amounting to $1,031.94, the loss was 
sustained by the Department; in 6J. amounting to $147.73, by the 
remitter, through whose carelessness the loss occurred; in 11 cases, 
amounting to $243.88, by the payee; in 83 cases, amounting to $2,084.45, 
by the paying postmaster, by whom proper precautions were not taken 
in the identification of the payee; in 72 cases the amount, $2,032.07, was 
recovered by si>ecirtl agents of the Department ; one-half of the amount 
of an order, $2.50, was refunded by the issuing postmaster, who was 
jointly liable with the remitter for the loss ; in 4 cases the amount^ $75.45, 
was subsequently ascertained to have been rightly paid ; and 32 cases, 
amounting to $992.66, are still unsettled. 

The first arrangement between the United States and a foreign coun- 
try for an exchange of postal money-orders was made with the Swiss 
Government on the 12th day of October, 1857, but the details were not 
fully agreed upon until the 2d day of July, 1869, nearly two years later, 
when an international exchange office was established at New York, in 
the United States, and a corresponding one at Basle, in Switzerland, 
for the exchange of money-orders by lists. In pursuance of the final 
agreement, the system was put in operation September 1, 1869, since 
which time, up to the close of the last fiscal year, a period of six years 
and ten months, 16,854 orders, amounting to $448,665.08, were issued 
in the United States for payment in Switzerland, and 5,538 orders, 
amounting to $152,117.61, issued in Switzerland, were paid in the United 
States. The amount of orders repaid was $1,280.56, and the amount of 
fees received $9,784.23. The revenue for the last fiscal year has not yet 
been ascertained by the Auditor ; it is estimated at $800; for the pre- 
vious years it amounted to $5,363.57, making the total, including the 
above estimate, $6,163.57, since the commencement of the system. At 
the present time 179 post-offices in the United States are authorized to 
issue and to pay Swiss international money orders. 

A convention between the United States and the United Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland was concluded on the 30th of June and 
27th of July, 1871, in pursuance of the provisions of which the exchange 



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THE POST- OFFICE DEFAR TMENT. 2 I 7 

of mouey-orders between those countries was commenced, through the 
offices at London and New York, on the 2d ot* the following October, 
from which date to the close of the last fiscal year, a period of four 
years and nine months, 308,911 money-orders, amounting to $5,770,960.15, 
were issued in the United States for payment in the United Kingdom, 
and 72,136 orders, amounting to $1,349,503.53, issued in the latter coun- 
try, were paid in the United States. The amount of orders repaid was 
$18,425.03, and of fees received was $173,722.20. The revenue for the 
last fiscal year has not yet been ascertaine<l ; it is estimated at $900. 
For the preceding years it was $32,955.69, making a total, including 
the above, estimated, $33,855.69 since the commencement of the busi- 
ness. At the present time 1,013 offices, authorized to transact British 
international money-order business, are in operation in the United 
States. 

On the 22d day of July, 1871^ a convention was concluded with the 
postal authorities of the German Empire, in pursuance of which the 
exchange of money-orders with that country was commenced October 
1, 1872, through exchange offices established at New York and Cologne, 
Germany, from which date to the close of the last fiscal year, a period 
of three years and nine months, 125,489 money -orders, amounting to 
$2,649,061.91, have been issued in the United States for payment in the 
German Empire, and 85,092 such orders, amounting to $2,195,754.40, 
issued in the latter' countrv, have been paid in the United States. The 
amount of orders repaid was $13,227.70, and the amount of fees received 
$72,898.10. The amount of the revenue for the last fiscal year has not 
yet been reported by the Auditor. It is estimated at $8,000. For the 
preceding years it was $24,742.58, making a total, including the above 
estimate, of $32,742.58 since the commencement of the business. There 
are six hundred and thirty-one money-order offices in the United States 
authorized to transact German international business. 

June 8 and 23, 1875, a convention with the postal authorities of the 
Dominion of Canada was signed, under the provisions of which the ex- 
change of money -orders with that country was commenced on the 2d 
day of the following August. Since that time, previous to the close of 
the last fiscal year, a period of eleven months, 8,695 money-orders, 
amounting to $186,995.74, were issued in the United States for payment 
in the Dominion of Canada, and 11,783 such orders, amounting to 
$232,625.57, issued in the latter country, were paid in the United States. 
The amount of orders repaid was $1,447.14, and of fees received $4,284.85. 
The amount of revenue has not been reported by the Auditor; it is es- 
timated at $300. Three hundred and sixteen offices are in operation in 
the United States at which Canadian orders are issued and paid. 

Negotiations are now pending for the establishment of a system of 
money-order exchange with France and also with Italy. 

At the present time all money-orders, domestic as well as interna- 
tional, are limited to $50, in the paper currency of the United States, 



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2l8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

and no more than three domestic orders, payable to the same payee, are 
allowed to be issued in one day to the same remitter. The system be- 
ing intended chiefl}" for the accomodation of persons desiring to remit 
small sums of money, this restriction was imposed upon the issue of or- 
ders for the purpose of preventing the use of the system in large busi- 
ness transactions, as well as to provide against the accumulation of 
considerable sums of money at small issuing offices, remote from safe 
methods of transportation, and to protect postmasters from sudden 
calls for the payment of lurge amounts of orders at small interior pay- 
ing offices, where the retention of considerable balances is deemed un- 
safe. 

The expenses of the system since its inauguration have been paid 
partly from its proceeds and partly out of appropriations made by Con- 
gress. Of the former class are postmasters' commissions, allowances 
for clerk-hire in post-offices, salaries and expenses of special agents of 
the system, stationery and incidental expenses in money-order account 
in post-offices, and miscellaneous allowances for losses of various kinds. 
Of the latter class are salaries in the office of the superintendent of the 
money-order system, and in the money -order division of the office of the 
Auditor of the Treasury for the Post- Office Department in Washington, 
the cost of books, blanks, and printing, furnished by the Public Printer, 
and of stationery furnished by the Post-Office Department. If all the 
expenses of the system had been made payable out of its proceeds, in 
all fiscal years, except three, prior to the last, a deficiency would have 
occurred, by far the greater part of which would have appeared during 
the years ended June 30, 1873, 1874, and 1876, during which a reduced 
schedule of fees was in operation, under the act of June 8, 1872, the ' 
effect of which was to stimulate the sale of orders for small amounts at 
the expense of the Government 

In bis annual report for 1874 the Postmaster-General recommended 
the enactment by Congress of such a schedule of fees as would make the 
system self-sustaining, and subsequently the act approved March 3, 
1875, established the present schedule, viz: On all orders not exeeding 
$15, 10 cents; over $15, and not exceeding $30, 15 cents; over $.30, and 
not exceeding $40, 20 cents; over $40, 25 cents. This act took effect 
July 1, 1875, and during the first year of its operation the increase in 
the amount of fees received over the amount of the preceding year has 
been equal to 31 per cent., notwithstanding a falling off of one-half of 
1 per cent in the amount of orders issued. Had all expenses of the 
preceding year been made chargeable to the proceeds of the business, 
a deficiency of over $53,000 would have occurred, while, had ail the ex- 
penses of the last year been made so chargeable, there would still have 
been a surplus (including the profits of the international business) of 
more than $12,000. 

By a law of Congress the net profits arising from the sale of money- 
orders are made a part of the postal revenue, and are turned over to 



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THE POST- OFFICE DEPAK TMENT 2 1 9 

the Treasurer of the United States, subject to tbe order of the Postmas- 
ter-Geueral. 

In the oflBce of the superintendent of the money-order system in Wash- 
ington a force of twenty-five clerks, messengers, and laborers is at pres- 
ent employed, at an expense of $35,000, and in the money-order division 
of the office of the Auditor a force of eighty-five is employed, at an ex- 
pense of $95,000 per annum. The cost of blanks, books, printing, and 
stationery furnished in Washington is about $00,000 per annum. * 

Xew York, as before stated, is the international exchange office, on 
the part of the United States, for the exchange of money-order lists 
with all foreign countries. In this office an average force of twenty- 
three clerks is employed exclusively on international exchange business, 
at an annual expense, at the present time, of $29,000. In the case of 
Canada only, owing to the extreme length of frontier bordering on the 
United States, additional exchange offices are in operation. Seven 
«uch have been designated, viz, Bangor, Me., Boston, Mass., Buffalo, 
!N. Y., Detroit, Mich., Ogdensburg, N. Y., Portland, Greg., and Saint 
Paul, Minn. 



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REPORT 



ON THE 



PARTICIPATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGMCULTDRE 



IN THE 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876, 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



By WILLIAM SAUNDEBS, ESQ., 

Superintendent of Gardens and Grounds of Department of Agriculture, and 
Bepresentative of the Department at the Exhibition, 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PBINTING OPPIOB. 

1884. 



221 



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OFFICERS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

1876. 



Hon. Frederick Watts Commissioner. ^ 

Frederick Watts, Jr Chief Clerk. 

B. F. Fuller ^. Disbursing Clerk. 

TowNEXD Glover Entomologist. 

William Saunders Superintendent of Gardens and Grounds 

and Horticulturist. 

J.R.Dodge Statistician. 

Dr. Wiluam McMurtrie Chemist. 

R.L.Packard Assistant Chemist. 

Dr. George Vasey Botanist. 

Thomas Taylor Microscopist. 

Andrew Glass Superintendent of Seed Division. 

J.B.Russell Librarian. 

222 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Paze. 

Officers of the Depai-tinent of Agriculture, 1876 222 

Organization and duties of the Department of Agriculture 225 

The Seed Division 226 

The Entomological Division 227 

The Horticultural Division 228 

The Statistical Division 229 

The Chemical Division 230 

The Botanical Division • 230 

The Microscopical Division 231 

The Library 231 

Museum and Entomological Divisions at the Exhibition : 

Collection of grains, seeds, &c 235 

Leaf and manufactured tobacco 246 

Collection of fibers 248 

American wools 249 

Cottons 252 

Flax 254 

Miscellaneous fibers 254 

Silk 255 

Paper stock and manufactured paper 255 

Models of fruits and vegetables 258 

Apples 258 

Pears 269 

Plums 277 

Cherries 278 

Apricots 278 

Nectarines 278 

Melons 278 

Squashes 279 

Potatoes 279 

Miscellaneous 279 

Collection of economic entomology 280 

Ornithological collection 285 

Horticultural Division at the Exhibition : 

Economic plants 297 

List of ligneous plants in Agricultural grounds and arboretum 298 

Division of Statistics at the Exhibition : 

History of the division 325 

Centennial exhibits 327 

Maps. — 1. Showing value of farm lands of United States 328 

2. Showing average monthly wages of farm labor in United 

States 328 

3. Showing proportion of wood lands in the farm areas of 

United States t 328 

4. Showing distribution of product of sugar crop 328 

5. Showing area in fruits of all kinds, <fec 328 

223 



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224 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page- 
Division of Statistics at the Exhibition — ContiDued. 

CeDteonial exhibits — Continued. 

Charts. — I. Showing com and wheat production of United States, &c . 329 

2. Showing proportion of improved lands to the farm area 

of each State and Territory 330 

Diagrams. — 1. The product of corn, j)«r capita^ 1869 331 

2. The product of wheat, j^er capita, 1869 3.31 

3. Areaof trheat 332 

4. Corn and wheat exports, 1825 to 1875 :J33 

5. Sugar supply, 1850 to 1874 336 

6. The cotton crop, 1865 to 1874 336 

7. Average yield, per acre, 1866 to 1875 337 

8. Aggregate value of principal crops, 1866 to 1874 338 

9. Aggregate product of com, wheat, and potatoes — 

effect of quantity upon value 338 

10. Wages of farm labor — monthly rate, without board — 

1866 and 1875 338 

11. Immigration of seven years — comparison of its 

sources 339 

12. Comparative area of the public-land States 339 

13. Aggregate value of farm animals, average fh>m 1846 

to 1874 339 

Minor charts. — Showing numbers and prices of farm animals, 1876 — 

horses, mules, milch cows, oxen, and other cattle. . . 340 

Statistics of agriculturalleducation 342 

Statistical album 344 

Chemical Division : 

Catalogue of collection prepared by the Chemical Division 347 

A. Soils and fertilizers p.. 348 

Soils taken from different geological formations 348 

Known rocks and soils formed^irom them 352 

Marls 353 

Natural fertilizers ; 355 

Combination of natural fertilizers for the production of com- 
mercial fertilizers 358 

B. Vegetable products : 

Cereals and thejproducts resulting from their utilization 361 

Sugar 362 

Vegetable products preserved for food by special methods - .. 364 

Fermentation and distillation of vegetable substances 365 

Preparation of tobacco for consumption 368 

Tanning and dyeing materials 369 

Dry distillation of wood 371 

Products of the American Materia Medica '. 374 

C. Dairy products 376 

Forest trees of the United States 383 

Division of Microscopy 429 



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DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



The Department of Agriculture is now in the fifteenth year of its ex- 
istence as a distinct branch of the operations of the Government. For 
many years previous t4> the organization of this Department the agri- 
cultural interests of the country received the attention of the Govern- 
ment, in a limited degree, through the administration of the Patent 
OflBce. New and valuable seeds and plauts were introduced and care, 
fully distributed; agricultural statistics were partially collected and 
made available for reference; investigations relating to the habits and 
general history of destructive insects were prosecuted, and a large 
amount of information upon the general subject of agriculture was im- 
parted to the public in essays and papers that were deemed to be in- 
structive and valuable to farmers. 

These operations, although necessarily crude and unsystematic, were 
widely recognized as beneficial; increased interest was manifested in 
agricultural improvements and experiments, which led to a frequently- 
expressed desire on the part of the farming population for a more com- 
prehensive system of seed and plant distribution, a more extended in- 
vestigation of the extent and value of the agricultural resources of the 
country, and a more permanent and systematic organization of Govern- 
ment aid to the leading industry of the nation. 

In May, 1862, Congress responded to this general desire by the pas- 
sage of an act establishing the Department of Agriculture. The gen- 
eral designs and duties of the Department, as defined by this act, are 
" to acquire and diffuse among the people of the United States useful 
information on subjects connected with agriculture in the most general 
and comprehensive sense of that word, and to procure, propagate, and 
distribute among the people new and valuable seeds and plants." 

It was made the duty of the Commissioner appointed under this act, 
as the chief executive officer of the Department, "to acquire and pre- 
serve in his Department all information concerning agriculture which 
he can obtain by means of books and correspondence, and by practical 
and scientific experiments, by the collection of statistics, and by any 
other appropriate means within his power ; to collect, as he may be 
able, new and valuable seeds and plants; to test, by cultiv^ation, the 
value of such of them as may require such tests ; to propagate such 
as may be worthy of propagation, and to distribute them among agri- 
culturists. He shall annually make a general report, in writing, of his 
15 CEN, PT 2 225 



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226 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

acts to the President and to Congress, in which he may recommend 
the publication of papers forming parts of or accompanying his report. 
He shall also make special reports on particular subjects whenever re- 
quired to do so by the President or either house of Congress, or when 
he shall think the subject in his charge requires it." He was also em- 
powered to employ', as their services may be needed, such persons as 
botanists, entomologists, chemists, and other persons skilled in the nat- 
ural sciences pertaining to agriculture. The law also contemplated the 
publication of an annual report from the Department, to embrace such 
papers on agricultural subjects as might be deemed essential in further- 
ing the general design. 

In the performance of the duties thus imposed upon the Department, 
and in the gradual enlargement of the range of its operations, a body 
of assistants has been organized which now embraces a working force 
of about one hundred persons — specialists, clerks, laborers, and other 
employes. 

This working force is systematically arranged in divisions, each one 
of which is directed by a responsible head. These divisions^are the seed 
division, the entomological division, the horticultural and propagating 
division, the statistical division, the chemical division, the botanical 
division, and the microscopical division. Through these divisions the 
Commissioner is enabled to execute the various duties prescribed and 
contemplated in the organic act creating the Department. 

THE SEED DIVISION. 

The distribution of seeds is a leading feature of the operations of the 
Department, having for its objects the introduction and dissemination 
of new and improved varieties of cereals and forage plants, as well a^ 
every kind of economic plant of promising interest or of known value. 
An incentive is thus given to new productions, and the formation of new 
industries, equally to that of increased food products. The benefits ob- 
tained from mere change of seeds from one soil or climate to a differ- 
ent soil or climate ; the advantages derived from careful selection of 
seeds, demonstrating that diminished crops may result from careless 
seed selection, as well as from deterioration or exhaustion of the soil, 
are some of the objects sought to be obtained by seed distribution. 
Even careful selection will not, in all cases, tend to improvement in 
seeds. In climates perfectly adapted to the habits and requirements 
of a plant, skill in cultural applications and judicious selection of seed 
will naturally tend to increased improvement as to quantity and qual- 
ity of products; but when plants are introduced into climates inimical 
to their perfect growth gradual deterioration will invariably follow. 
Under these conditions the only method of insuring a succession of 
remunerative crops is by the introduction and use of seeds produced in 
climates favorable to their perfect development, and in no other way 
can this fact be so forcibly impressed upon farmers than that of fur- 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



227 



ishing them witb such seeds, so that they may reach conviction from 
direct personal experiments. 

A further important object of seed distribution is that of testing the 
merit of new seeds in different climates and on a diversity of soils in 
one season. Seeds of new, untested varieties are placed in the hands of 
farmers in selected localities for cultivation who in due time report the 
results to the Commissioner who is thus i)laced in possession of data 
that enable him to intelligently direct future distributions. Thus every 
farm ui)on which these seeds are tested, and the results fairly reported 
becomes an experimental farm so far as that particular product is con- 
cerned. 

The seeds are usually sent through the mails, free from all charges 
to the recipients. They are distributed through agricultural societies 
and institutions, regular correspondents of the Department, members 
of Congress, and in special cases to individual applicants. 

THE ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVISION. 

The depredations of insects constitute a most serious obstacle to the 
successful culture of vegetable products, and their life history is one of 
the most important branches of knowledge that the cultivator can 
acquire. The principal duties of this division are those relating to the 
dissemination of information regarding the natural history and habits 
of insects injurious to vegetation, and the best known remedies for their 
extermination. The reports of the Department contain a very large 
amount of general and special information submitted from time to time 
by the entomologist, embracing detailed treatises on the habits of in- 
sects that are injurious to plants, their modes of attack, the damages 
they inflict, and the means by which they may be kept in check or utterly 
destroyed. An important part of the duties of the entomological divis- 
ion consists in answering the letters of inquiry concerning insects that 
are forwarded for identification and description from all parts of the 
country. This special information, on special subjects of immediate im- 
portance to farmers and horticulturists, is thoroughly appreciated, and 
its value duly acknowledged by those thus directly benefited. 

The economic museum of the Department is also in charge of the 
entomological division, and although it is but of a few years' growth the 
collection has assumed large proportions, and, being strictly agricultural 
in all its essential parts, it is of much interest, as well as forming a 
valuable auxiliary in the work of the Department. The arrangement 
of objects is thoroughly systematic in all its consecutive details. Repre- 
sentations are here to be found of all the leading agricultural products 
of the country. Vegetable fibers are largely represented, and specimens 
of the various stages of manipulation, from the raw material to the 
finished product, are placed side by side, whether it is woven into cloth, 
spun into rope, or fabricated into paper. In numbers and varieties of 
kinds and grades of wools and silks the collection in the museum is 
probably unsurpassed. 



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228 IMEKXATIONAL EXHIBIT JON, 1876. 

A collection of preserved birds, ueatly prepared and mounted, em- 
braces only those tbat are noted either lor their beneficial or injurious 
propensities in fields and gaidens; references, easily comprehended, 
significant of their good or bad qualities, accompany each specimen. 

Kepresentationa of i)ure breeds and distinct varieties of domestic 
poultry- form a series of great value. 

Models from nature of the best varieties of fruits and vegetables are 
here numbered by the thousand ; the influences of soils and climates on 
particular fruits are clearly demonstrated by s[>ecimens of the same va- 
rieties produced in different States and localities. 

The entomological branch of the museum consists of finely colored 
plates and cases of preserved insects methodically arranged for refer, 
ence. The details illustrate the various transformations they undergo, 
the plants they feed upon, and the injuries they inflict. Beneficial in- 
sects are also conspicuously placed, so that the cultivator may distin- 
guish friends from enemies, for it is quite as important that he should 
as zealously strive to protect the former as to destroy the latter. 

THE HORTICULTURAL DIVISION. ^ 

Some years prior to the establishment of the Department of Agricult- 
ure a garden was formed under the auspices of the Patent Oflice for the 
purposes of propagating and cultivating plants for distribution. This 
garden was transferred to the Department, and it has been enlarged, 
both in its extent and range of operations, as demanded by the increased 
requirements of the Department. 

Among the duties charged to this division the following may be noted 
as prominent : The propagation and distribution of such plants as are 
deemed worthy of introduction for their economic value; the testing of 
seeds and plants in regard t-o their climatic adaptation, and experiment- 
ing with species and varieties of useful plants, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining their comparative merits. 

Glass structures of ample dimensions are provided for the propaga- 
tion and preservation of exotic and other plants. The exotic collection 
is mainly confined to plants having economic value, a« furnishing dyes, 
sugars, starches, gums, fibers, edible fruits, beverages, &c., many of 
which may be cultivated in this country. This collection also enhances 
the value of the economic museum, as it contains specimens of the 
plants from which the materials are produced, so far as relates to the 
articles of vegetable origin in that collection. 

The horticultural division is also charged with the arrangement and 
general superintendence of the grounds attached to the Department; 
the erection of such structures as are required for horticultural pur- 
I)0se8, and all operations pertaining to landscape gardening and garden 
architecture. 

About 20 acres are appropriated to the formation of an arboretum, 
which is designed to include a specimen of every hardy ligneous plant, 
arranged in accordance with a botanical classification, combined with 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 229 

the development of landscape-gardening effect, so far as the combina- 
tion can practically be produced. 

Although the operations of this division are largely tentative they 
are also intended to furnish examples of results attained by processes 
of culture, such as the modifications effected by pruning and similar 
manipulations on fruit trees and other plants; the plants best adapted 
for hedging purposes, protective and ornamental, and modes of care 
and management; appliances for the propagation of plants; methods 
of constructing, heating, and ventilating greenhouses, graperies, and 
conservatories; the formation and care of lawns, and other operations 
connected with rural improvements. 

It is also the duty of the superintendent of the garden to answer 
inquiries directed to the Department on subjects embraced in his divi- 
sion. 

THE STATISTICAL DIVISION. 

In the act to establish a Department of Agriculture the collection of 
agricultural statistics was specified as one of its leading objects. 

The general census taken by the Government embraced certain por- 
tions of the statistics of agriculture, such as a general statement of the 
principal crops, their estimated commercial value, and the leading 
sources of agricultural investment. But no effort was made to depict 
clearly the points either of production or consumption of different crops 
or their significance in regard to the internal commerce of the country; 
no exhibit that would show the cost to consumers in dift'erent sections, 
the price of farm labor and its relation to the interests of the producer 
or consumer. These and many other leading questions can only be 
solved by statistical data carefully collected and intelligently used. 

The statistical division is charged with the duties of collecting and 
publishing this statistical matter; but instead of offering decennial re- 
turns, it miikes a monthly collection of data, obtained through a corps 
of corespondents, numbering several thousands, so situated as to rec- 
ognize every county in the United States from which information is 
sought to be procured. These correspondents are appointed with ref- 
erence to their facilities for obtaining authentic information and their 
ability to insure impartiality and accuracy. They are informed monthly 
by circular letters in regard to the specific data required, and the an- 
swers are returned in accordance with transmitted instructions. The 
acknowledged value of the accuracy of data thus obtained clearly 
proves the excellence of the system adopt«Hl ; and whether it is desired 
to ascertain the amount of acreage in particular crops ; the condition 
of crops as regards growth, maturity, or yield at certain periods ; the 
numbers and local values of horses, cows, sheep, oxen, or other cattle; 
the prices of labor in different localities, or answers to any other series 
of interrogatories, the information is promptly returned in the time and 
manner required. The data thus acquired is immediately prepared for 
publication in the monthly report of the Department. 



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230 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

THE CHEMICAL DIVISION. 

The work of the chcmieal division consists in the collection and dis- 
semination of information relating to the practical application of the 
results of chemical investigations on the nature and properties of soils 
and their products; in determining the value of natural fertilizers of 
mineral or of vegetable origin; the kinds of fertilizers, and their value 
in reference to the increase of special products in plants, and such other 
investigations and analyses as may tend to promote agricultural inter- 
ests and progress. 

Soil analyses are directed more particularly to the investigation of 
causes immediately injurious to vegetation, with a view to the deter- 
mination of practical methods for their removal. The relative values 
of the fertilizing properties of peat, muck, marls, and other natural de- 
posits are determined, and the results made known through the reports 
of the Department. 

Valuable investigations are made in reference to the exact specific 
relations that exist between plants and soils upon which they grow, as 
influencing the increase of the special products for which they are cul- 
tivated, such as sugar in the beet, and wine-making constituents in 
the grape. 

The chemist is provided with a well equipped laboratory, conveniently 
fitted for the prosecution of his studies; a carefully-selected cabinet of 
geological and mineralogical specimens is attached to this division, 
illustrative of the formation and physical condition of soils, and other- 
wise contributing towards the solution of questions submitted by cor- 
respondents, whose letters of inquiry on these and other subjects relat- 
ing to agricultural chemistry largely occupy his attention and consid- 
eration. 

THE BOTANICAL DIVISION. 

The botanical division of the Department is charged with the collec- 
tion, classification, and preservation of the herbarium. This herbarium 
is composed in part of the large botanical collections made by the 
various Government exploring expeditions, which had been accruing 
during many years in the natural-history collections of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and which were transferred to this Department sev- 
eral years ago. These, with donations from foreign governments and 
private individuals in this and other countries, together with the ad- 
ditions constantly being made by the botanist of the Department, com- 
prise a herbarium of great extent and value, which is duly being ar- 
ranged, classified, and prepared for permanent preservation, in order 
to be available for reference and study. 

In addition to that of the general arrangement and care of the her- 
barium, it is the duty of the botanist to answer all inquiries for infor- 
mation on questions relating to practical and economic botAuy which 
are presented to the consideration of the Department. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 2 3 1 

THE MICROSCOPICAL DIYISION. 

The importance of microscoinc investigations to the interests of the 
farmer and gardener is now fully recognized. The diseases of plants are 
yet imperfectly understood, and what is definitely known concerning 
their pathology is largely, if indeed not wholly, due to the revelations 
of the microscope. 

The microscopical division is the latest addition to the organization 
of the Department, and so far the attention of the microscopist has 
mainly been directed to the investigation of diseases in plants of promi- 
nent importance, such as the rot in the potato, the blight in pear-tree 
branches, the yellows in the peach tree, leaf mildew on the grape and 
the rot in its fruit ; onion rust, cranberry rot, and blight on orange 
trees and fruits ; these, and other similar subjects, have been studied^ 
and such remedies suggested as observations indicated. 

There is much of promise to the agriculturist in the results of micro- 
scopic studies, especially in regard to a better understanding of the 
structure and life habits of the lower cryptogams. Fungoid growths are 
the active agents in the dissolution of plants, and whether their pres- 
ence in each particular case is a cause or a consequence of disease can 
only be ascertained by oft repeated observations and close, properly- 
directed study. 

THE LIBBAEY. 

The Department is furnished with a very complete library of between 
7,000 and 8,000 volumes, comprising standard works, scientific and 
practical, on all subjects directly connected with agriculture and horti- 
culture. It is acknowledged to be one of the best libraries of its kind 
in the country. 

It is in regular receipt of the transactions and reports of leading ag- 
ricultural, horticultural, and poraological societies, and of scientific asso- 
ciations in this country, as well as those of similar institutions in Europe 
and other foreign countries. 

Domestic and foreign periodicals and papers germane to the interests 
of the Department are daily received. ^ 

Through its extensive official correspondence the Department dis- 
seminates a vast fund of information on specialties connected with the 
wide r^nge of subjects coming directly under its administration, which, 
although never published, is of significant value, as bearing directly 
upon specific questions of vital interest to the productive industries of 
the country. 

WILLIAM SAUNDERS, 
Representative of the United States Agricultural Department 

Washington, D. C, November, 1876. 



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MUSEUM AND ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVISIO: 



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MXrSEUM AND ENTOMOLOGICAL DIVISIONS. 



COLLECTION OF GRAINS, SEEDS, ETC., WITH SOME OF THEIR MANUFACT- 
URES. 

In this collection are shown between 800 and 900 specimens of the 
cereal products of the United States, selected expressly for the exhi- 
bition by agents of the Departnaent, from nearly every State in the 
Union, and from various portions of the State. These are arranged in 
glass jars one foot in lieight, and so placed that a comparison can be 
made of well-known varieties from different States. 

The 125 samples of Indian corn, or maize, are exhibited upon black 
tablets and arranged similarly to the jars of grain, so tha< ready com- 
parison can be made, for example, between Northern and Southern 
grown corn. 

To more fully complete the grain exhibit and to carry out the original 
plan of a strictly agricultural and economic museum, upwards of 100 
samples of manufactured products of cereals are shown, illustrating 
processes of manufacture in great variety, including the fancy products, 
which are rapidly making their way to all well-supplied tables. 

MAINE. 

1-9. James W. Ambrose, Aroostook County : 

Lost Nation, , and India wheat; six-rowed barley ; Canada, 

Potato, and Russian pats ; Marvaska beans and Button corn. 

10-23. Robia Whitney, Cumberland County: 

Lost Nation, Prolific Spring, Lancaster redchaff winter and Mam- 
moth Red Spring wheat; two-ro wed and Probstier barley; Early Yellow, 
White Polish, Hulless, and Black Spanish oats; Silver-skin buckwheat ; 
Early Improved beans and King Philip corn. 
24-33. W. W. Johnson, Penobscot County : 

Tappahannock, Lost Nation, and India wheat; Native Winter and 
Spring rye; Birlie oats; Rice-pop, , and Early Canada corn. 

34-41. H. G. O. Smith, York Countv : 

Lost Nation, White Italian, and Tappahannock wheat; Poland and 
Swedish oats; Pea; Bears Hoop and Canada corn. 

235 



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236 INTERNATIONAL EXHlBrTlON, 1876. 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

42-55. G. H. Gilbert, Cheshire County : 

Probstier and Sawyefs' barley 5 Sand, Schoeneu, Canada, and Sawyer 
oats : Sawyer, White Pearl (popcorn), Holden, Griffin, Claremont, Red 
Cob (sweet), Crosby Early (sweet), and Excelsior corn. 

56-64. William Eamsdell, Hillsborough County : 

Spring wheat; Spring rye; Crosby (sweet), Putnam, Tucker, Tucker, 
White (pop), Eice (pop), and Tom Thumb (pop) corn. 

65-77. Levi Bartlett, Merrimac County : 

Fultz (winter). Putties' Red Bearded Laissette, Arnold's Hybrid, 
Bartlett's (spring) White (winter), Arnautka wheat; Wild Goose, 

or Poland rye; Australian and White Excelsior oats; White Flint (pop), 
Red (pop); Rice (pop), Crossby's Early (sweet), Harris' (sweet). Coral 
and Couch com. 

VEBMONT. 

78-86. L. H. Kellogg, Rutland County : 

Spring wheat; White and White Winter rye; Oats, Barley; Silver 
Hull buckwheat; Early 8-rowed corn; Canada and Black-Eyed Mar- 
rowfat Pea ; 'Pop-Corn. 

CONNECTICUT. 

87-113. T. L. Gold, Litchfield County: 

Twenty-six varieties cereals received too late for exhibition. 
114-130. T. G. Kingsley, New London County: 

Fifteen varieties cereals received too late for exhibition. 

NEW YORK, 

131-144. A. J. Denniston, Steuben County: 

China Tea, Lancaster red, and Tread well wheat; White rye; 6-row 
Barley; Probstier, Surprise; Yellow Bide oats ; Buckwheat and Silver 
Skin buckwheat; White Flint and Button corn. 

146-154. B. Wilbur, Dutchess County: 

Wicks wheat ; White and rye ; Native White, Native White and 

California oats; Silver Hulled buckwheat; Yellow, Dutton, and Ex- 
celsior cQru. 

NEW JERSEY. 

155-161. James D. Evans, Salem County: 

(114-120.) Fultz,Mediterrauean,and Golden Chaff wheat; Early Cum- 
berland, Chester County Mammoth, White Cob and White Cob corn. 

162-180. Thos. J. Beans, Burlington County: 

Mediterranean, Eed Straw, and Amber wheat; Whiterye; Whiteoats; 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TLRE, 237 

White, Little's White, and Burlington County Yellow corn ; Amber and 
Fultz wheat; Common rye; Common oats; Common buckwheat; Early 
Spring, Early White, York 8- Rowed White, Common Yellow, and Early 
Red corn. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

181-184. W. O. Thurston, Bradford County : 

Soule's Wiuter wheat ; Winter rye; Yellow Side, or Mane oats; early 
8- Rowed corn. / 

185-196. Johnson Miller, Lancaster County : 

Canada White, White, Red, Garber, Stouble, or White Chaffer, Old 
Red, and Fultz wheat; Imported Canada, Norway, and Surprise oats; 
and corn. 

197-213. F. J. Cope, Westmoreland County: 

Mediterranean, Treadwell, Fultz, Red Mediterranean, and 

White wheat; Norwell and Connecticut oats; Brown Skinned and 
Silver Skinned buckwheat; Flax seed; Red-Top Clover seed; Timo- 
thy seed; Yellow Flint, 8-rowed sugar. Calico, Yellow Ground Seed, 
and Yellow Ground Seed corn. 

214-219. W. W. Brown, Clinton County: 

Fultz and Black Sheaf wheats; Snow-Shoe, Schoenen, and Buckwheat 
oats; Triumph (sweet) corn. 

220-224. J. S. Williams, Bucks County : 

Amber and Mediterranean wheat; Preston, Pearson, and Improved 
Gourd Seed corn. 

DELAWARE. 

225-237. Prof. E. D. Porter, Kew Castle County : 

Fultz and Red Mediterranean wheat; White rye; buckwheat; 

Schoenen and White oats ; New England Sugar, White Pop, 

White Briar, White Dent, Yellow Dent, Yellow Dent and StowelPs 
Evergreen Sugar corn. 

MARYLAND. 

238-247. H. L. Rautzahn, Frederick County: 

Fultz wheat; White rye; Norway and Common oats; Catoctin and 
Mammoth White corn ;: White Marrowfat and Common Field bean ; 
Common Velvety and Sapling Clover seed. 

248-25G. James P. Stabler, Montgomery County : 

North Carolina White, Fultz, and Tappahannock wheat; Common 
rye; Excelsior oats ; White Field, 8-Rowed White, Mammoth Sweet, 
and Yellow Field corn. 
257-265. Abraham De Witt, Cecil County : 

Mediterranean, Fultz, and Red Mediterranean wheat; Early Yellow 
oats ; Silver Hull buckweat ; Yellow, white, Yarnall, and Yellow corn. 



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238 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

266-272. R. J. Willoughby, Caroline County: 

Boden White and Fultz wheat; Potato oats, Maryland Flint, Smith, 
White, [Noble, and Smith corn. 

VIRGINIA. 

273-284. Thomas F. Rives, Dinwiddie County : 

Boughton White, Lancaster Red, and Fultz wheat ; White Winter 
and Schoenen oats; Brown Hulled buckwheat; Velvet (early). Hicks' 
Prolific, and ^Pennsylvania Yellow maize; White Bonny-Bess beans; 
Black Field and Old Virginia Black-eyed peas. 

285-296. C. S. Catron, Washington County : 

Lancaster, Fultz, and Mediterranean wheat; Black rye; Black oats; 
Old Variety buckwheat ; Virginia White, Kansas White, White Flint, 
California Yellow, Big Frederick Yellow, and Early Yellow corn. 

NORT^ CAROLINA. 

297-304. A. C.'Hartgrove, Haywood County : 

Broughton, Walker, and Tappahannock wheat; Yellow Winter and 
Pure Ruffled oats; White Flint, China, and Pigeon River Grourd Seed 
corn. 

305-310. John Robinson, Wayne County: 

(Notknown)]wheat; Red Rust Proof and Black Egyptian oats; Whit^ 
Flint (not known), and (not known) corn. 

SOUTH CAROLINA. 

311-312. Felix Lake, jr., Edgefield, County. 

Rust-Proof oats ; White Dean corn. 
313-322. James C. Brown, Barnwell County : 

White rice ; Red Rust Proof oats; ; White Ground seed ; White 

Ground^Seed and Red Cob corn ; Early Cow and Scheina pea. 

323-326. Dr. P. Prichard, Beaufort County : 

Big Grain White, Ordinary, Gold and Gopher rice. 

GEORGIA. 

327-336. George S. Black, Floyd County : 

New Orleans Winter wheat ; White Winter barley ; Gray Winter, 
Grazing and Rust Proof oats ; Little Wills, Ellison's Prolific, Hart's 
Early, Black Improved and Rapen Early com. 

FLORIDA. 

337-342. T. R. Collins, Columbia County : 

Early Red and Rust Proof oats ; White or Lowland and Red or Upland 
rice; Gourd Seed and Yellow Field corn. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 239 

ALABAMA. 

343-349. Hon. J. Waltspn, Lauderdale County : 

White Winter and Lancaster wheat 5 Winter rye ; Eed Rust Proof, 
Barbary, and Biown's Yellow oats ; Houston's White corn, 

350-356. D. K. Caldwell, Jackson County : 

Tappahannock wheat; Rye; Black oats; Silver Hull buckwheat; 
Field peas ; German millet ; Field corn. 

MISSISSIPPI. 

357-368. P. H. Slepworth, Lafayette County. 

Golden Chaff and Red Spring wheat; Red Rust Proof oats; (no 
name), Peyton King's, Sourby, Peyton King's on Ear and (no name) 
corn; White Sugar and Snake pea; Millet; Sorghum. 

TEXAS. 

369-374. W. G. Matthews, Collin County : 

Red Mag Winter and . Fultz wheat ; Winter rye ; Winter barley ; 
Black Spring and Red Rust Proof oats. 

375-382. J. T. Gains, Lamar County : 

Tappahannock wheat;: White Winter Scotland rye; Winter barley; 
Red African oats ; Tuscarora and Tuscarora corn ; Silver Top and Flat 
and Winter Globe and Flat Turnip seed. 

WEST VIRGINIA.. 

383-389. G. W. Tabler, Berkeley County : 

Lancaster and Lancaster wheat; Common rye; Lancaster wheat; 
Early Fallow oats ; Yellow Gourd Seed and White corn. 

390-402. Dr. J. T. Nicklin, Tyler County: 

Red Lancaster, Premium, Iturian, White and Tappahannock wheat; 
Molock Winter rye; Oats; Buckwheat; White, Snowflake, Bison, 
Cooley, Denoon and Leghorn Yellow corn. 

KENTUCKY. 

403-414. J. A. Kinkhead, Hardin County: 

Week's White Rough and Ready Mixed and Pennsylvania Red wheat ; 
Small Black rye ; Fox Fall and Black Norway oats ; Ben Rag, Smith's 
White, White Dent, Lewis, Yellow Dent, and Lydan com. 

415-419. L. Moorman, Grayson County. 

Swamp wheat ; White rye ; White oats ; Field and Pearl White corn. 



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240 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

OHIO. 

420-430. G. W. Morris, Miami County : 

Tappahannock, Fultz, and Mediterranean wheat ; Light rye \ Spring 
barley ; Miami Bottom, Improved Miami Valley, Yellow Upland, Tus- 
carora, Dutton, and White corn. 

431-436. James McDowell, Starke County : 

Tod, Fultz, and Vick's White wheat ; Winter rye , Early Somerset 
oats ; Starkler corn. 

437-447. J. J. Kudisill, Williams County : 

Winter rye; Surprise and Sumerset oats; Silver Hulled buck- 
wheat ; Marsh's Improved, Pioneer White, White Cap, Pickaway Yel- 
low, Yellow Dent; Kinety Days, and Mammoth Yellow Dent corn. 

MICHiaAN. 

448-457. K A. Clapp, Oakland County : 

Diehl wheat ; White and Yellow Probstier, Probstier and Black Nor- 
way oats ; Mammoth Rice, Clapp's Early Large King Philip and Red- 
nose Yellow corn ; Kidney beans. 

458-471. F. K. Smith, Kalamazoo County : 

Ramsdell oatsj Diehl wheat; Spring barley, Canadian, Surprise, 
Shoenen, and Poland oats; Timothy Grass seed; Medium White Field, 
Marrow-fat, and Butter beans; Yellow Dent, Yellow Dent and White 
Dent corn. 

472-490. Robert Ure, Saginaw County : 

Tread well. White Mountain, and Black Sea Spring wheat ; White Win- 
ter and Spring rye; Six-rowed and Russian barley; Barley, Barley 
White, and California oats: Northern and Silver Skin buckwheat; 
Rice Pop, Boston Pop, White Flint, Dutton Rowed, Yellow Dutton, 
Rowed, Smut Nosed, and Northern Dent corn. 

491-501. S. R. Kilsey, Shiawassee County : 

Diehl, Lincoln, Arnold's Gold Medal, Post, and (name not known) 
wheat; German and (name not known) oats; White Dent, Hackberry 
Dent, Farmer's Best, and (name not known) corn. 

INDIANA. 

502-513. L. Link, Rush County : 

Swamp and Gennet Red wheat; Rye (no name); German barley; 
Canada and Surprise oats ; Flax Seed ; Navy and Cow bean ; Mam- 
moth Yellow, Flesh Colored, and White corn. 

514-519. R. M. Mumford, Gibson County : 

English wheat; Chevalier barley; Hinkle's Early White, Gibson 
County White, Medium Yellow, and Oil corn. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL TURE, 24 1 

520-531. A. M. Sanderson, Kosciusko County : 

Scott's, Lancaster, Tappabannock, and Egyptian wheat; Probstier 
and Turkey oats 5 Spring barley ; Silver Hull and Common Black buck- 
wheat 5 Native Yellow, Grant's White, and Speckled corn. 

532-539. J. E. Paddock, Union County : 

Mixed and Michigan Amber wheat; Norway oatfi ; Buckwheat, Pop, 
Mammoth Sweet, Feed, and Indiana Yellow corn. 

ILLINOIS. 

640-546. G. C. Eisenmeyer, Saint Clair County : 

Bed, Tennessee May, White Tappahannock, Missouri Velvet, and 
Fultz wheat 5 Ninety day Pop, and Steaming and Bread com. 

547-568. W. B. Derrick, Ogle County : 
Twenty-one varieties cereals received too late for exhibition. 

569-574. Ira Kowell, Mcl^ean County : 

Somerset oats ; Macon County Yellow, Macon County Yellow, White 
(name unknown). Yellow Dent, and Berkshire corn. 

575-588. E. S. Phelps, jr., Bureau County : 

Odessa, White Spring ; China Tea, Early Organ-Spring, and Octo. 
Spring wheat; White Winter rye; Scotch barley; Northern Illinois 
White; White Swedish and Canada Small oats; Judson Field Branch- 
ing, Pearl and Rice Pop, Rice Pop, Yellow Field and Yellow Field 
com. 

WISCONSIN. 

589-604. W. W. Jackson, Monroe County : 
Fifteen varieties grain received too late for exhibition, 

605-613. J. M. Bailey, Pierce County : 

Somerset oats; Diehl, Scotch Fife, and Odessa wheat; barley (no 

name); oats; Medium Clover Seed; Early Golden Dent, and 

Dent corn. 

614-625. Edwin Reynolds, Fond du La<5 County : 

Independent Spring, Amautka, and New Canada Fife wheat; Dutch 
barley; German, English, and Early oats; Yellow Flint and Yellow 
Dent corn; Timothy seed; Early White Dent corn. 

MINNESOTA. 

626-632. B. F. Perry, Olmsted County : 

Scotoh Fife, Tea, Fife, Rio Grande, and Genesee White Winter wheat; 
barley (no name); Yellow corn. 

16 CEN, PT 2 



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242 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

633-644. G. Knight, Fillmore County : 

Scotch Fife, Golden Strain, and Club wheat; Four-rowed barley; 
White Standard oats; Early White Field, and Sugar pea; Black Eye 
Early bean; Yellow Dent, White Flint; Pop (no name), and Pop com. 

645-652. L. Cray, Blue Earth County: 

China Tea, White Hamburg and Fife, Mixed Black, and White oata; 
Yellow Dent, White Dent, Squaw, and Dakota Squaw corn. 

653-659. F. W. Cady, Faribault County : 

Fife, Early Sherman, and Eureka wheat; White Hamburg wheat; 
Brown Dent, Yellow Dent, and Yellow Dent corn. 

660-669. L. B. Raymond, Stearns County : 
Tea Spring, Scotch Fife, and White Spriog wheat; Six-rowed barley; 

; White iN'orway ; White Xorway, and Norway oats ; Six Weeks 

and Yellow Flint corn. 

IOWA. 

670-677. J. T. Miller, Hardin County : 

Rio Grande Spring, White Michigan Spring, Canada Fife, and Spring 
Tea wheat; White Canada oats ; White Dent, White Hominy and Calico 
corn. 

MISSOURI. 

678-689. Hon. William B. Ames, Johnson County : 

Graham or New York Flint wheat; Common buckwheat; Flax seed • 
White Cane seed; Chinese sorghum; White Pop, Red Pop, White Dent 
Missouri Bread, Bloody Butcher, Yellow Dent, and Eivrly June Sugar- 
corn. 

690-701. J. W, Steele, Platte County : 

Red May wheat; White Flour, Missouri Bread, Golden Sioux, Ken. 
tucky Big Yellow, Calico, Bloody Butcher, Missouri, Early Flint, White 
Gourd Seed, Strawberry, Missouri Red Gourd, and Bloody Butche 
com. 

702-712. J. F. Hensley, Lawrence County : 
Specimens received too late for exhibition. 

KANSAS. 

713-723. F. W. Case, Johnson County: 

Red May,wheat ;^rye (name not given); buckwheat (name not given); 
White Dutton corn ; castor bean ; timothy ; millet ; Kansas Yellow, 
Yellow Wa-ka-rusa, and White Dutton corn. 

724-728. Dr. C. WilUamson, Washington County : 

White California and White California wheat; Norway oats; Kansas 
Early Red and Yellow Dent corn. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 243 

729-739. C. L. Ware, Cherokee County : 

Egyptian Amber, Walker & Amber, Large May and Walker wheat; 
White Scotch and Oregon oats ; Navy beans ; Runner's Field, Large 
Mammoth, Our Native Yellow, and Northern Flint corn. 

NEBRASKA. 

740-753. J. Mutz, Cass County : 

Priest Spring, Russian Club Spring, Rio Grande Spring, and Rus- 
sian Club wheat 5 White Winter rye ; common barley ; mixed oats ; 
common buckwheat ; Pennsylvania Yellow Dent, Yellow Dent, Hoo- 
sier White, Yellow Dent, Yellow Dent, and Hoosier com. 

754-760. William Pachen, Richardson County : 

White Octoe wheat ; Silver Skin buckwheat ; Ohio White, White 
Charles, Bloody Butcher, Flesh-color and Yellow corn. 

CALIFOENIA. 

761-773. J. Strentzel, Contra Costa County : 

White Australian, Jones' Red Australian, White Australian, White 
Australian, and Sonora Club wheat; barley (no name) \ Chevalier and 
(name not given) barley ; White oats ; Medican Yellow corn ; Califor- 
nia Frigtrol and Brown Kidney beans. 

774-783. W. G. Phelps, San Joaquin County : 

Touzelle, Nonpareil," Propo, White Chili, Nonpareil, Sonora, and Pride 
of Butte wheat; rye (name not given) ; barley (name not given) ; Sur- 
prise oats. 

OOLOEADO. 

784-790. R. Gaines, El Paso County : 

Mixed and mostly white Colorado wheat ; White Colorado rye ; Yel- 
low Dent and Yellow Flint corn ; Gipsic and Fultz wheat. 

791-797. W. R. Fowler, Fremont County : 

Mexican, Mexican, Mexican Mixed, and American corn ; White Chili 
wheat ; Colorado Red Chaff wheat. 

UTAH. 

798-802. Thomas Ord, Juab County : 

Red Taos wheat ; Two-rowed barley ; Black and White Mixed and 
Schoenen White oats ; Yellow corn. 

WASHINGTON. 

803-808. J. H. Wells, Stevens County : 

Common Four-rowed and Six-rowed Spring barley; Surprise and 
Potato oats ; White Australian Spring and Canada Club Spring wheat. 



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244 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

DAKOTA. 

809-817. T. K. Hovey, Clay County: 

Turkey and Michigan White wheat; barley; Mollala and Schoenen 
oats ; Pop (name not given), Bed Mixed, White Squaw, and Mixed corn. 

INDIAN TEEEITOEY. 

818-821. Eev. J. L. Murrow, Choctaw Nation : 

Tit-i-ka wheat; Black oats; Choctaw Ta-ful-la and- Yellow Field 
corn. 

NEW MEXICO. 

822-835. M. Rudolph, Mora County: 

Lauigoza and Sonora wheat; rye; White and Black oats; Concho 
or Flour, White Flint, Pueblo Indian, and Yellow Flint com ; Horse 
beans; (2142-2145) Mexican, Parde, and Mulita beans; Black-eyed 
peas. 

OREGON. 

836-847. W. Phillips, Clackamas County: 
Eleven varieties grain received too late for exhibition. 

MISCELLANEOUS SPECIMENS, 
.848. George W. Sevier, Marion County, Missouri: 

Marion County corn. 
:849. Hon. G. G. Dibrell, Tennessee : 

Corn (name not given). 
^0. David McCluskey, Centre County, Pennsylvania: 

Calico corn. 
851-853. S. B. Stephens, ^New Orleans, La. : 

Honduras rice, South Carolina Seed, South Carolina Seed. 
854-856. D. Eichardson, Harrison County, Texas : 

Black-eyed peas, Texas Table pea, Texas Table pea in pod. 
857. W. S. Scribner, Montana: 

Chinese Seven-headed wheat. 
858-860. James Small, Montana: 

White Tennessee, Fancy Virginia, and Red Tennessee pea-nut seed. 
861. G. W. Bruckner, Monroe County, Michigan: 

White Schoenen oats. 
862-863. B. F. Perry, Stearns County, Minnesota: 

White Diehl wheat ; barley. 
864-865. A. G. Conant, Genesee County, Michigan : 

Diehl wheat ; Yankee Dent corn. 



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THE DEPAJi TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 245 

86^-869. Dr. E. Palmer, North Arizona: 

Corn (grown by Mouqui Indians); same; same; same. 

870. , Orange County, New York : 

King Philip (17 inches) com. 

871. Allen Dodge, Georgetown, D. C: 
(776) Thirty-two Rowed corn. 

MANUFACTURES FROM WHEAT. 

872-885. D. L. Shoemaker, Georgetown, D. 0. : 

Red winter wheat, same cleaned. Patent Process Flour, Family No. 
1 ; Family No. 2 uncleaned middlings, cleaned middlings, middlings, 
ship stuff, offal from middlings, rubber dust, ordinary ship stuff, shorts, 
brown stuff, screenings, screenings. 

886-894. Clark & Hanna, Peoria, 111.: 

Red whfeat; white wheat; red wheat flour; white wheat flour; 
Graham flour from white wheat; flour from refined middlings ; (2165- 
2167) purified middlings from red wheat; shorts; bran. 

895-901. W..H. Tenney & Sons, Georgetown, D. C. : 

Patent Process, white wheat (family) Flour; white middlings; 
southern red wheat (family) flour; brown middlings; ship stufl'; bran. 

902. George R. Hill & Co., Alexandria, Va. : 

Southern breakfast wheat. 
903-904. Cereals Manufacturing Company, Brooklyn, N. Y.: 

Steam-cooked and crushed wheat ; cracked wheat. 
905-906. Nutrina Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Nutrina; southern breakfast hulled wheat. 
907-908. George V. Hecker & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. : 

Self- rising flour; Becker's farina. 

MANUFACTURES FROM CORN. 

909-913. Beall & Shoemaker, Georgetown, D. C. : 

White bolted and white unbolted corn meal ; bolted and unbolted 
yellow meal ; corn bran. 

914-915. Clark & Hanna, Peoria, III.: 

White and yellow corn meal. 
916-918. C. Gilbert, Buffalo, N. Y. : 

Patent gloss starch ; coarse and fine hominy corn. 
919-921. Glen Cove Manufacturing Company, Glen Cove, N. Y. : 

Duryea's Unproved and satin gloss cornstarch ; maizena« 



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246 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTUEES. 

922-928. Glen Cove Manufacturing Company, Glen Cove, N. Y. : 

Pearl barley ; A vena (or oaten grits) ; oatmeal; rice; rice flour; split 
peas; sago. 

929. Clark & Hanna, Peoria, 111. : 
Eye flour. 

LEAP AND MANUFACTUEED TOBACCO. 

This collection embraces upwards of one hundred specimens of leaf 
tobacco grown in a score of States, representing the tobacco crop of this 
country. Many of the samples were improperly prepared for shipment 
to the Department, and have been somewhat injured as to color in le- 
preparing for exhibition. It is also to be regretted that more care was 
not exercised in forwarding the names of varieties, though nearly all 
are represented. 

931-93^. Virginia Leaf, John M. Thomas, Montgomery County, Vir- 
ginia. 

934. " Big Shoe-string," Johnson County, Illinois. 

935. Kentucky Leaf, K. Jameson, Hart County, Kentucky. 
936-937. White Burley, William H. Tolman, Bracken County, Ken- 
tucky. I 

938. ^'Pryor's.'' 

939-943. "Yellow Bay,'' "Spangle Bay," "Ground Leaf," and "Tips or 
Tails ;" White Stem, John N. Loper. 

944. Missouri Leaf, J. C. Downing, Lincoln County, Missouri. 

945. Virginia Leaf, Floyd C. H., Virginia. 

946. Japanese Seed, , Maryland. 

947-948. Kentucky Mammoth, John G. Fessenger, Union County, Ken- 
tucky. 

949. Connecticut Seed-leaf, R. T. Tubman, Charles County, Maryland. 

950-951. North Carolina Leaf ($2.50 and $4 per pound). Dr. Bedford 
Brown, Caswell County, North Carolina. 

952. Illinois Leaf, H. B. Watson, Livingston County, Illinois. 

,953. White Tobacco, G. W. McKinley, , Ohio. 

954. Native Indian Tobacco (wild), Dr. E. Palmer, Arizona. 

955-956. Golden Leaf, E. I. Smith, Caswell County, North Carolina. 

957. Orinoco, J. S. Battle, , Tennessee. 

958. Cuba Seed, James Sanders, , Pennsylvania. 

959. Spanish. 

960-963. No name or locality received. No. 830 probably from Wash- 
ington. 

964. Orinoco, Virginia. 

965. White Stem seed, Virginia. 

966. Orinoco, Virginia. 

967. Belknap, . 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 247 

968. Connecticut Seed leaf, . 

969. Kentucky Leaf, L. Moorman, Grayson County, Kentucky. 
970-972. Dark Fillers, Wrappers, Bright Fillers, Thomas F. Rivers, Din- 

widdie County, Virginia. 

973. No name. 

974. New Hampshire Leaf, Cheshire County, New Hampshire. 
975-976. Ohio Leaf, Warren County, Ohio. 

977-978. White Burley, Shelby County, Kentucky. 
979-983. Five samples leaf tobacco from Virginia. 

984. North Carolina Leaf, J. N. Hagin, i^ew Garden, North Carolina. 

985. Virginia Leaf, Fredericksburg, Va. • 
986-989. Four samples Virginia Leaf, H. R. Robey. 
990. North Carolina Leaf, J. M. Burnett, North Carolina. 

091-995. Bright yellow, medium, good, good, brown or dull, Tips or 
Tails and frosted inferior, H. H. Pfeiflfer, Prince George's County, 
Maryland. 

996. Kentucky Leaf, James Pringle, Livingstone County, Kentucky. 

997. Illinois Leaf, W. B. Couch, Franklin County, Illinois. 

998-999. Kentucky Leaf, Blue Prior, L. W. Evans, Logan County, Ken- 
tucky. 

1000. Kentucky Leaf, , , Warsaw, Ky. 

1001. Virginia Leaf, Z. C. Vaughn, Buckingham County, Virginia. 
1002-1003. Kentucky Leaf, No. 1 White Burley, No. 2 Yellow Trust 

Head, Carroll County, Kentucky. 

1004. Virginia Leaf, C. A. Morton, Prince Edward County, Virginia. 

1005. New Hampshire Leaf, Cheshire, N. H. 

1006. Connecticut Leaf, H. Schubert & Co., Litchfield County Connec- 
ticut. 

1007. Kentucky Leaf, Monroe County, Kentucky. 

1008. Connecticut Leaf, , Litchfield County, Connecticut. 

1009. Prior or Lockett, McLean County, Kentucky. 

1010. Kentucky Leaf, Livingston County, Kentucky. 

1011. Pennsylvania Leaf, H. Williams, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. 

1012. Virginia Leaf, H. R. Robey, Spottsylvania County, Virginia. 

1013. White Stem, W. F. Jackson, Amelia County, Virginia. 

1014. Connecticut Broad Leaf, . 

1015. Pure Havana seed, W. H. Compton, Bastrop, La. 
1016-1017. Persian Tobacco and Twist, D. Johnson, South Carolina. 
1018-1020. Maryland Leaf, yellow, red, and dull, W. P. Dorsey, Calvert 

County, Maryland. 

1021. Missouri Leaf, John C. Downing, Lincoln County, Missouri. 

1022. Kentucky Leaf, C. M. Fleming, Fleming County, Kentucky. 

1023. Spanish, T. F. Patton, Pierce County, Washington. 
1024-1025. No name or locality. 

J026. West Virginia Leaf, Fayette County, West Virginia. 
1027. No name or locality. 



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248 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

SAMPLES OF MANUFACTURED TOBACCO, SHOWING ALSO SAMPLES OP 
LEAF TOBACCO FROM WHICH DERIVED. 

102^-1048. G. W. Gail & Ax, Baltimore, Md. : 

Kentucky Leaf, fine cut chewing; Virginia Leaf, granulated and 
long-cut smoking ; Maryland Leaf, smoking ; Snuffs. 
1049-1075. Marburg Brothers, Baltimore, Md.: 

Ohio Leaf, granulated smoking; Virginia Leaf, granulated and 
straight-cut smoking; North Carolina Leaf, fancy brands of smoking 
tobacco ; Maryland Leaf, smoking ; Kentucky Leaf, cut and dry and 
granulated smoking tobacco. 

1076. Virginia Leaf, plug, J. R. Pace & Co., Danville, Va. 

1077. Virginia Leaf, plug, B. F. Gravely, Virginia. 

1078. Virginia Leaf, Navy plug, B. F. Gravely, Virginia. 

1079. Illnois Leaf, plug, Harris, Beebe& Co., Quiucy, III. 

1080. Connecticut Leaf, cigars, . 

108L Kentucky Leaf, fine-cut chewing, Spence Bros., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

1082. Virginia Leaf, pan-cake chewing, P. M. Lyon & Co., Richmond, Va. 

1083. Connecticut Leaf, cigars, , Connecticut, 

COLLECTION OF FIBERS. 

The collection of fibers, both textile and paper-making, though not 
as complete as might be desirable, is certainly a representative one. 
Over five hundred samples of wool aTe shown, representing the princi- 
pal breeds established in this country, with their crosses of every grade. 
Though a majority of the samples have a growth of but ten months they 
are generally fine specimens, and make an exceedingly interesting ex- 
hibit. The system of illustrating the processes of manufacture, by a 
series of their products enables the farmer to see, in any style of piece 
goods, shawls, carpets, or flannels, the particular grade of wool which 
enters into its composition. 

In the cotton exhibit 120 samples are shown, both in lint and seed, 
with the various processes of manufacture, and the variety of fabrics 
into which it is woven. 

Flax and jute are shown in the same manner, together with a great 
variety of miscellaneous fibers, including silk, ramie, hemp, asclepias, 
and many of the fibers from the far West, of little utility in the arts, 
yet showing the resources of the country. 

The paper exhibit includes about 100 samples, from the raw material 
to the finished paper, the manufacture of "bogus," "scrap," and " rope 
manilla," "straw," "book" and colored paper, "flat" and "linen" paper, 
besides many kinds not in general use, as the okra, spartina, yucca, 
ramie, &c., not omitting samples of the first paper manufacture— by 
wasps — from wood. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 249 

COLLECTION OF AMERICAN WOOLS. 

1084-1124. From John McDowell, Washington County, Petinsylvania: 
Silesian merino grade ram, J. McDowell ; Saxony merino ewe, J. Mc- 
Dowell ; Silesian merino ewe, J. McDowell ; Silesian merino ewe, J. Mc- 
Dowell, Saxony merino ram lambs, J. McDowell; Saxony merino of 
1801, improved, by J. McDowell ; black-toi) or Wells and Dickson me- 
rino ewe lambs, bred by J. McDowell; back-top, bree<ling ewes, J. Mc- 
Dowell ; black-top yearling rams, J. McDowell ; black-top breeding and 
yearling ewes, J. McDowell ; thoroughbred American merino, Infau- 
ta<lo, Robert Vanvoorhis; thoroughbred American merino, Infantado 
ewe, Robert Vanvoorhis ; thoroughbred American merino, Infantado 
ram, Robert Vanvoorhis; thoroughbred American merino, Infantado 
ewe, Robert Vanvoorhis ; thoroughbred American merino, Paular ewes, 
Robert Vanvoorhis ; thoroughbred Spanish merino ewes, Robert Van- 
voorhis; thoroughbred Spanish merino ram, Robert Vanvoorhis; Cots- 
wbld breeding ewes, J. McDowell ; American merino breeding ewes, J. 
McDowell. 

1125-1127. From J. W. Blacklein, Buchanan County, Missouri : 

Southdown, three-fourths native; Cotswold, three-fourths native; 
graded Cotswold, three-fourths native. 

1128-1133. From Henry C. Hallowell, Montgomery County, Maryland : 
Cotswold grade; Cotswold pure bred; Cotswold and Southdown 
cross ; Cotswold grade. 

1134-1148. From C. F. Kingsbury, Grrafton County, New Hampshire : 

Two samples, purebred merinos, and seven-eighths Leicester; Cots- 
wold and merino cross ; Spanish merino, and three-fourths pure ; Span- 
ish merino, pure ; Cotswold. 
Shropshire grade (Cotswold) ; pure bred Spanish merino. 

1149^1151. From Edward Jessup, York County, Pennsylvania: 

Common breed of sheep grown in the county ; thoroughbred South- 
down ; grade Southdown. 

1152-1156. From B. F. Perry, Olmstead County, Minnesota: 

Leicester; Leicester and Cotswold, cross. 
1157-1159. From James Courtney, Westmoreland County, Vermont: 

Cotswold and Leicester, cross ; Cotswold and Southdown, cross ; Cots- 
wold. 

1160-1168. From Hon. G. Corning, Albany County, Kew York : 

Full blood Southdown ewe; Cotswold and Southdown; Leicester 
ram lamb; ewe lamb; full blood Southdown ram ; Leicester ram; ewe; 
ram : Southdown ram lamb. 



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250 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1169-1174. From George Grant, Victoria, Ellis County, Kansas : 

Leicester, graded Mexican, Cots wold ; Lincoln; Southdown; Oxford- 
down. 

1175-1183. From O. M. Lord, Winona Connty, Minnesota : 

Cross, one-fourth Cotswold, one-fourth Leicester, one-half merino ; 
Leicester and merino cross; Cotswold and merino cross; ^full blood Lei- 
cester: one-half Cotswold, one-half native, cross; fall blood Cotswold, 
seven-eighths Cotswold, two samples. 

1184-1187. From L. B. Thornton, Colbert County, Alabama : 

Cashmere goat ; Cotswold ; merino, Cotswold. 
1188-1190. From W. O. Thurston, Bradford County, Pennsylvania : 

Seven samples merino wool. 
1191. From G. Kiese, Winona County, Minnesota : 

Cross Cotswold and Southdown ; clip, 13 pounds. 
1192-1201. From Benjamin F. Sayre, Albany County, New York : 

Spanish merino and Cotswold cross, nine months growth ; full blood 
Cotswold ram, nine months growth ; lambs, Cotswold, on native coarse 
wool; cross Cotswold and merino; lambs, cross Cotswold, on half blood 
ewe; Cotswold and merino, cross, eleven months growth; five-year-old 
merino ram. 

1202-1206. From William Williams, Davidson County, Tennessee : 

Cotswold yearling ram ; clip, 15 pounds; Cotswold lamb, eight months 
old; Leicester ewes, one year old; Leicester ewes, two years old. 

1207-1209. From J. R. Hill, Williamson County, Tennessee: 
Cotswold. 

1210-1211. From B. M. Hoard, Naehville, Tenn.: 
Cotswold. 

1212-1215. From B. F. Cockrill : 
Merino. 

1216-1219. From S. C. Pattes, Warner, N. H. : 
Cross Leicester and Cotswold; merino and Cotswold, cross. 

1220-1223. From Hon. George Rea, Copiah Coutity, Mississippi : 

Cross, native and Southdown; merino improved by Southdown; 
sample, no name. 

1224-1227. From W. H. Broaddess, Fayette, Indiana : 

Cotswold and Leicester, cross; Cotswold and Southdown, cross; Cots- 
wold and Bakewell, cross; Lincoln. 

1228-1236. From John Staltes, Cowley County, Kansas: 

Merino cross; full blood Spanish merino; merino grades; full blood 
Spanish merino. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 2 5 I 

1236-1237. From T. E. Collins, Columbia County . Florida : 

Half merino; common. 
1238-1241. T. 8. Gold, Litchfield County, Connecticut : 

Ten samples Cotswold; Southdown ; Southdown, ram, two samples 
Southdown, ram, yearling. 

1242. From James M. Doughty, Orwell, Addison County, Vermont: 
Ten samples Leicester. 

1243. From S. Tillson, Onawa, Iowa: 
Merino grades. 

1244-1246. No name or locality given : 

Merino. 
1247-1250. , Wayne County, Pennsylvania : 

Coarse wool; Spanish merino; Southdown; Cotswold. 
1251. , Pike County, Missouri : 

Common ; two-year old buck. 

MANUFACTUkES. 

In this collection the processes of manufacture are illustrated by a 
series of their products, enabling the farmer to see, in any style of piece- 
goods, shawls, flannels, carpets, &c., the particular grade of wool which 
enters into its composition, and the various processes by which the 
special result is accomplished. 

1252-1274. Series of twenty-three specimens from Lowell Manufactur- 
ing Company, Lowell, Mass., illustrating the manufacture of carpets : 
Unwashed Valparaiso; washed Valparaiso; foreign washed Dons- 
koy ; rewashed Donskoy at the mill ; Valparaiso and Donskoy received 
from the comber ; same after leaving first drawing frame ; same after 
second drawing frame ; same after leaving roving frame ; same, spun, 
doubled, and twisted ; same, dyed and ''eady for the manufacture of 
Wilton and Brussels carpets ; mixed wool for filling for ingrains ; rov- 
ing from second breaker card ; roving from finished card ; samples of 
yam in the grease and in colors for the manufacture of ingrain and 
three ply carpets; ingrain carpet completed; three-ply carpet com- 
pleted ; Brussels carpet completed ; Wilton carpet completed. 

1275-1302. Series of 28 samples from Washington Mills, Lawrence, 
Mass., illustrating the manufacture of shawls and piece-goods : 
Shawl in various stages of manufacture from the raw wool to com- 
pleted fabric ; "Newport cloth in various stjles of manufacture; 
"honey-comb" cloth in various stages of manufacture; " winter super" 
cloth in various stages of manufacture ; " blue cloth " in various stages 
of manufacture. 



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252 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1303-1318. Series of 16 specimens, illustrating the manufacture of 
opera and other flannels, from Charles A. Stevens & Co., Ware, Mass.: 
Wool in grease ; wool scoured and combed ; weft yarn ; warp yarn ; 
unfinished flannel (white); finished flannel (white); wool in grease 
(opera flannels) ; scoured and combed ; warp yarn ; weft yarn ; unfin- 
ished white opera flannel ; finished white opera flannel ; finished col- 
ored opera flannel. 

1319-1321. Samples illustrating the manufacture of stockings, manu- 
factured by A. P. Olzendorn, Manchester, N. H. : 
Eaw wool, scoured and carded; spun; webbing woven; finished 

stocking. 

ANGOEA WOOL AND MANUFACTURE. 

1322-1323. Samples of Angora wool, from collection of Department of 
Agriculture, originally sent by R. W. Scott, Frankfort, Ky. : 
Angora goat fleece ; Angora goat fleece colored. 

1324. Sample of fleece (1431) sent by John Walker, Howard County 
Missouri. 

1325-1326. Samples of Angora fleece, as manufactured into robes, by 
the Angora Robe and Glove Company, San Jos^, Cal. 

COTTONS. 

1327. Extra staple upland. South Carolina. 

1328. Short staple upland, D. C. De Leon, New Mexico. 

1329. Goosey, E. B. Hays, Vicksburg, Miss. 

1330. Extra staple upland, McCarthy, ginned, South Carolina. 

1331. Tahiti seed, grown on Arkansas River, 

1332. Dixon, . 

1333. Egyptian, G. R. Thralls, Wellborn County, Florida. 

1334. Peeler extra, E. B. Hays, Warren County, Mississippi. 

1335. Short staple, T. R. Spencer, New Mexico.' 

1336. Cotton grown in latitude 40°, W. Ewing, West Virginia. 

1337. TIppora extra staple, G. Hamilton, South Carolina. 

1338. Sea Island, J. N. Jones, Galveston, Tex. 

1339. Fine Sea Island, Saint Helena Island, South Carolina. 

1340. Moina, Lexington, Ga. 

1341. Cotton grown in Pennsylvania, York County, Pennsylvania. 

1342. Wild cotton, collected in South Carolina. 

1343. Tumel Maki. 

1344. Tumel Maki, W. H. Corapton, Bastrop, La. 

1345-1353. Samples from James C. Brown, Barnwell County, South 

Carolina : 

Hunt seed, cotton grown from ; Dixon ; unimproved ; Simpson 5 Rio 
Grande seed ; Hunt seed ; Rio Grande; Dickson seed; unimproved. 



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THE DEPAH TMENT OF A CRICUL TURE. 253 

1354. Upland short staple, T. 0. Dockeray, De Soto County, Mississippi. 
1365-1356. Texas wool cotton, J. T. Gaines, Lamar, Tex. 

1357. Japanese prolific, D. R. Caldwell, Jackson County, Alabama. 

1358. Home improved, Felix 'Lake, Edgefield, S. C. 

1359-1367. Nine samples from prize bales at Saint Louis Fair, 1871 
(1733-1741) from Missouri, Texas, Tennessee, Alabama, Louisiana, 
South Carolina, Arkansas, and Mississippi. 

1368-1376. Nine samples grown in Indian Territory (1742-1750) by 
Choctaw Nation, M^. T. D. Griffith, agent. 

1377. Upland. 

1378. Miniature bale, H. J. Fulton, New York City. 

1379. Texas prolific, Col. M. B. Park, Lamar County, Texas. 
1380-1383. Four samples middling cotton from Tennessee. 
1384-1386. Three samples green seed, J. W. Holman, Lincoln County, 

Tennessee. 
1387-1389. Peeler and prolific, C. B. Henderson, Rusk County, Texas. 
1390^1 391. Upland short staple, D. Richardson, Harrison County, Texas. 
1392-1397. Green seed, Java prolific and Peeler, T. C. Dockerj , De Soto 

County, Mississippi. 
1398-1405. Peeler, Dickson, and McClendin's mammoth, with samples 

of seed, George A. Black, Floyd County, Georgia. 
1406-1408. Fouchstons, Dickson, and Simpson, B. J. Eussel, Baker 

County, Georgia. 
1409-1413. Old Petit Gulf, Improved Bemessis, Georgia Prolific, Texas 

Burr, W. W. Ross, Dallas, Tex. 
1414. Prolific, or Green Seed, John L. Taylor, Hazelhurst, Miss. 
1415-1416. C. B. Crumb, Stoddard County, Missouri. 
1417-1422. Hurlong Improved, Johnson and China, George G. Klapp, 

Concordia Parish, Louisiana. 

1423. Cotton, J. F. Donaldson, Warren County, Kentucky. 

1424. Peeler (saw ginned), ii. Hamilton, New York. 

1425. Egyptian, Conrad Bush, , Alabama. 

MANUFACTURE. 

1426-1429. Samples illustrating the domestic manufacture of cotton one 
hundred years ago, J. T. Gaiues, Lamar County, Texas. 

1430-1450. Amoskeag Mills, Manchester, N. H. : 

Cotton from South Carolina, in raw state; lap-picker, or first process ; 
carding, second process; rail way -head, third process; first head-draw- 
ing, fourth process ; secondheaddrawing, fifth process; coarse speeder, 
sixth process, commencing to twist ; intermediate speeder, seventh pro- 
cess ; gingham warp, ninth process, including weft, several samples ; 
dyeing, tenth proce^, with the manufactures of canton flannels, ticking, 
denims, sheetings, &c. 



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2 54 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

FLAX SPECIMENS. 

1451. Raw flax, Michael Fryer, Wilmington, Del. 

1452-1453. Water and dew rotted. 

1454-1470. Specimens illustrating manufacture : 

Stark Mills, Manchester, N. H.; American flax tow, from the hackle; 

from the scutch mill ; dressed line ; tow sliver for roving ; line roving for 

16-card yarn; tow roving for 16-card yard; tow yarn, 10 card, dry spun; 

line yarn, 16 card, dry spun; tow yarn, 16 card, wet spun; tine yam, 

16 card, wet spun ; specimens of toweling, showing completed mana. 

facture. 

1471-1487. Illustrating the manufacture of flax-cotton (a flax fiber con- 
verted material intended as a substitute for cotton). 
From the collection of the United States Department of Agriculture: 

Twelve specimens showing various processes in the preparation of the 

fiber; fiber colored; cloth, including samples of fibrilla yarn, one-half 

cotton, one-half flax; calico, carpet, &c. 

MISCELLANEOUS FIBERS. 

1488-1493. Six samples of hemp in various stages of preparation, from 
the collection of the Department of Agriculture. 

1494-1519. Series of jute samples illustrating the manufacture of jute in 
the (Jnited States, fro:n the Methuen Mills, Methuen, Mass. : 
Jute butts, rejections, fine ; rejections, drawing sliver; butts, finished 

card sliver; fine, first drawing sliver; fine, second drawing sliver; butts, 

breaker card sliver; rejections, breaker card sliver; rejections, finisher 

card sliver; fine, finisher sliver; fine, breaker sliver; fine, roving; butts, 

bagging filling yarn; rejections, bagging filling yarn; bagging; car 

pets; 40-inch burlaps, horse blankets; 31^ canvas, heavy; jute crash; 

iute and cotton union crash; warp; twist; weft. 

1520-1527. Samples of ramie bark {Boehmeria nivea) in various processes 
of manufacture, from collection of the Department of Agriculture: 
Eamie stalks, bark, sample, of fiber, fabric, rope, paper. 

1528-1534. Asclepias fiber in various stages of preparation, from collec- 
tion-of the Department of Agriculture: Stalks, fiber, fal)ric silk from 
pod ; worthless as a fiber. 

1535-1540. Apocynum canabinum, samples of a fiber used by Indians of 
North America for making nets and mats principally. Silks, fiber 
rudely prepared, half made mats, half made and completed nets, made 
by San Diego Indians. 

1541-1548. Yucca angustifolla and Y. baccata, specimens of fiber rudely 
prepared from them for making mats, rope, &c., by the Indians and 
natives of Arizona, California, and Mexico. 

1549-1550. Mesquite fiber prepared and unprepared and used by In- 
dians. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 255 

1551. Agave, in rough state, used by Indians. 

1552-1553. Mescal fiber {agave) and the same made into saddle-cloth, 
by Indians of Mexico. 

1554-1557. Sisal hemp. Raw and prepared fiber, from collections of De- 
partment of Agriculture, with coarse fabric and rope. Samples from 
Santo Domingo, but grown in Southern Florida. 

1558. Banana fiber, musa sapientum, prepared. 

1559-1562. Abutilon avicennae or Indian mallow; fiberin various stages 
of preparation, used principally for the manufacture of cheap dust 
brushes, in the style of feather dusters, feathers being supplied on the 
inside to give form to the brush. 

1563. Bear grass fiber Basylirion graminifolium. 

1564-1565. Fiber of Southern moss, Tillandsia^ used for making a sub- 
stitute for curled hair ; fiber shown in two stages. 

1566. Wild nettle {Urtica gracilis), fiber of. 

1567. Fibrous plant used by Indians. 

1568-1570. Sponge cucumber and fiber, collection of Department of Ag- 
riculture. 

SILK. 

Only a few samples of silk are exhibited ; all from the collections in 
the Department of Agriculture. The cocoons shown are grown in vari- 
ous parts of the country, and some of them have been spun by worms 
reared entirely on the leaves of the maclura aurantiaca or Osage orange. 
No good specimens of American silk manufacture -could be obtained 
from American manufactures, so the specimens exhibited are not repre- 
sentative ones. The samples are as follows : 

1571. Cocoons from worms fed on Osage orange in Kansas. 

1572. Cocoons from worms fed on Osage orange. Department of Agri- 
culture. 

1573. Hybrid annual, Ed. Miiller, California. 
1574-1575. From Japanese eggs, L. Prevost, California. 

1576. Bred by J. G. Coller, Victoria, Tex. 

1577. Bred by L. Prevost, California. 

1578. French annual, Ed. Miiller, California. 

1579. Bred by L. Prevost, California. 

1580-1582. Raw silk as reeled, specimens from California, North Caro- 
lina, and Kansas. 

1583-1590. Various samples illustrating processes of silk manufacture 
in the United States from collections in museum of the Department. 

PAPER STOCK AND MANUFACTUHED PAPER. 

N08. 1592-1598. "American linen." 
Linen rags. — Holyoke Paper Company, Hadley Falls, Mass. : 
Baw rags; cut and bleached; half reduced or "half stuff; pulp or 

"stuffs ready to run into paper; blank and ruled letter, note, cap, &c. 



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256 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Nos. 1599-1607.— *' Flat papers." 

Cotton and linen rags. — Holyoke Paper Company, Hadley Falls, Mass. : 
Mixed cotton and linen rags; bleached by boiling in lime water; re- 
duced to *^ half-stuff"; reduced to pulp; various samples of paper, as 
"flat cap," "flat letter," &c., used principally for writing papers and 
for finer kinds of printing paper. 

Nos. 1608-1614. "Book and news." 

Cotton rags and old paper, — John A. Dushane & Co., Baltimore, Md.: 
Eaw material, consisting of old newspapers, paper scraps and cut- 
tings, and colored cotton rags; bleached and reduced to "half-stuff"; 
reduced to pulp and ready for manufacture; stuff as it runs in the 
machine producing paper, being the pulp with water added; samples 
of 60-pound book paper. 

1070-1072. , Baltimore, Md.: 

Raw material; paper scraps and colored rags, reduced to pulp; paper 
used for ]>rinting newspapers. 

1615-1617. Okra paper. — Dr. J. B. Bead, Tuscaloosa, Ala.: 

Baw material, consisting of stalk pods, &c., of the okra plant ; sam- 
ples of manufactured paper; newspaper printed upon okra paper; not 
yet manufactured in any quantity. 

1618-1621. Colored papers, — Springfield Paper Company, Bainbow, 

Conn. : 

Raw material, boiled, washed, and bleached; reduced to pulp (dried 
sample) ; manufactured papers. Used for covers of pamphlets, for col- 
ored wrapping paper, &c. 

1622-1631. "Manilla." 

Oldmanilla rope. — Askell & Smiths, Canajoharie, N. Y.: 

Old manilla rope; cut and deviled; boiled and washed; same two 

hours in heating engine; pulp ready to run into paper; stock washed 

and bleached; paper will bear tensile strain of 120 pounds to the inch; 

used i)rincipally for flour sacks. 

1632-1638. Jute bagging^ old rope^ and manilla scraps, — Dobler, Mudge 

& Chapman, Baltimore, Md. : 

Raw material as bagging, old rope, and scraps of manilla paper; 
"half stuff;" pulp; unfinished and finished paper; bundle of manilla 
wrapping, called " scrap manilla." 

1639-1645. Jute bagging^ strawj and waste paper, — John A. Dushane & 

Ci>., Baltimore, Md. : 

" Bo^us manilla;" raw material, consisting of rye straw, burlaps, and 
gnnny bagging and old paper, known as "commons"; cooked and ready 
for the engines; pulp ready to be "let down"; "stuff" as it runs in the 
machine producing paper, colored; manufactured paper, used for wrap- 
pers. 



Digitized by VLjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 257 

164(^-1652. — Straw wra])ping. 

Bye straic. — Jolm A. Dushane & Co., Baltimore, Md.i 

Eye straw; cooked straw ; furuislied straw; half-ground straw; stuff 
from vat; straw wrapping paper. 
1653-1657. Republic Paper Company, Springfield, Ohio: 

Straw; cooked straw; half reduced; half stuff; pulp ready for man- 
ufacture; straw wrapping pai>er. 
1658-1659. Oat and wheat straic. — E. S. Berthand, Golden City, Colo.: 

Two sampler manufactured paper. 
1660. Salt hay. — One sample of paper manufactured by E. Young, 

Whippany, N. J. 

1661-1663. Spartina {Spariinacynosuroides). ^Woo(\raff& Boyd,Quincy, 

111. 

Raw spartina fiber; pulp, wrapping paper. The spartina grows by 
the side of the Mississippi River, and can be furnished for $5 per ton. 
It makes a tough paper, more the texture of manilla than straw ; used 
for wrapping. 
1664-1665. Miscellaneous : 
Tveca (Yucca angustifolia). — E. S. BerthaiM, Golden City, Colo. 

Yucca plant, full size; bundle of paper (1097-1098). Leaves of yucca 
and prepared wrapping paper. Kot manufactured at the present time, 
so specimens of pulp could not be obtained. 
16C6-l(i67. Palmetto palm.— J. C. Herron, , Fla. 

Samples of palmetto leaf and paper manufactured from it. Not yet 
manufactured in any quantity. 
1668-1669. Ramie hark. — American Fiber Company, New York, N. Y. 

Ramie fiber ; manufactured paper, 1099. Ramie bark handkerchief. 
J. W. Hall, donor, Washington, D. C. 
1670-1671. Bamhoo canefiher. — Samples of fiber disintegrated by being 

blown against a wall, having first been heated in steam guns at high 

pressure ; paper samples. 
1672. ^Yood 2>ap^r.— Paper sample; Cascade Paper Company, Peun 

Yan, N. Y. 
1673-1674 (1075). Paper made by wasps; a genuine wood-pulp paper, 

used for making their nests; sample from Mississippi (1100); small 

wasp nest. 
1675-1677. Tissue ma^iilla twine paper. — Manchester Paper Mill Com- 
pany, Richmond, Va. 

Half stuff; pulp; paper; material not stated. 
1678-1693 (1081-1086). Samples illustrating the manufacture of paper 

twine, and imitation rush for chair bottoms. 
1694. Sugar-cane. — Sample of printing paper, from refuse of Chinese 

sugar-cane ; manufactured by J. T. Budd, Cecil County, Maryland. 
17 CEN, PT 2 * 



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258 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

\ MODELS, 

These models of fruits and vegetables are made of plaster of Paris, and 
painted in oil colors. They are facsimiles of specimens obtained by 
donation or purchase, with the intention of forming a complete collec- 
tion of the horticultural products of the country, illustrated not merely 
by single specimens, but by ajsufl&cient number of each kind to show 
the modifications effected by a wide range of soil and climate. 

The arrangement in the cases is alphabetical ; the nomenclature^ ac- 
cording to Downing, to which visitors are referred for synonyms that 
in some cases are very numerous. For example, the apple extensively 
grown in the West, and properly called Buckingham, is also known by 
all of the following names: Equinetely, Queen or Fall, Kentucky, Lex- 
ington, or Frankfort Queen, Ladies' Favorite, Byers, Ox-eye, Bachelor 
King, Red Horse, Ne Plus Ultra, &c. 

Several of the leading fruit-growers of the country have contributed 
largely of specimens for our use; among them Charles Downing, New- 
burg, N. Y.; Dr. Brinckle, Philadelphia; D. T. Curtis, Boston ; the 
American Institute; New York State Agricultural Society; Lindley 
& Sons, Georgia; B. K. Bliss, New York ; EUwanger & Barry, Roch- 
ester, and others. 

APPLES. 

For convenience of comparison the Russetts, Pippins, Crabs, Pear- 
mains, and Sweet or Sweeting apples have been grouped together in the 
following catalogue. It is perhaps needless to say that, except in a 
few cases, it has not been the object to show the largest specimens of a 
given variety, but to exhibit its average size and condition, so that the 
model shall serve as a legitimate standard of comparison : 

1701. Abram—Ohio, Virginia, Kansas, Georgia. 

1702. Alexander — New York (3), Oregon. 

1703. Alum — Georgia. 

1704. Alaska — Virginia^ 

1705. American Black — New York, New Jersey. 

1706. Annie's Favorite — Georgia. 

1707. Anonymous — New York. 

1708. Aunt Peggy — Georgia. 

1709. Armfleld's Red— Georgia. 

1710. Baldwin — ^New York (4), Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Oregon (2). 

1711. Illinois, Maryland. 

1712. Baltzby — Virginia. 

1713. Beefsteak— Maine (2). 

1714. Baltimore Red — Georgia. 

1715. Ben Bow — Georgia. 

1716. Beauty of the West— Indiana. 

1717. Benoni — Pennsylvania. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE, 2 59 

1718. Belle et Bonne— New York (2). 

1719. Ben Davis — Illinois, Minnesota, Pennsylvania. 

1720. BelPs Early— Maine. 

1721. Bemiss's Seedling — Massachasetts. 

1722. Belmont — New York, Illinois. 

1723. Beauty of Kent— New ifork. 

1724. Beaver Creek. 

1725. Big Bomanite— Illinois. 

1720, Bellflower— New York (3), Minnesota (2), Indiana. 
172L Blooming Orange— Pennsylvania. 

1728. Black Coal- New York. 

1729. Boone— Indiana. 

1730. BoUwilliger — Pennsylvania. 

1731. Boren's Winter — Georgia. 

1732. Borrsdorfer — Maine. 

1733. Bonrassa — New York, Massachasetts. 

1734. Boxford — Massachusetts. 

1735. Bowman's Excelsior — Georgia. 

1736. Bottle Greening — Massachusetts. 

1737. Buff— North Carolina. 

1738. BuePs Favorite— New York. 

1739. Bush — New Jersey. 

1740. Buckingham — Georgia. 

1741. Brooks — Virginia. 

1742. Bradford's Best— Georgia. 

1743. Capp's Mammoth — Illinois. 

1744. Cain — Georgia, New York. 

1745. Caldwell — Minnesota. 

1746. Cartwright — Virginia. 

1747. Cathead Greening, Massachusetts. 

1748. Carthouse — District of Columbia. 

1749. Caledonian — New York. 

1750. Cabbage Top — District of Columbia. 

1751. Canada Red— New York (3), Oregon. 

1752. Campfield — New York, Kansas. 

1753. Canada Reinette— New York (2). 

1754. Cathead— New York. 

1755. Cayuga Red Streak — Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, New York. 

1756. Cornish Aromatic — New York, 

1757. Cold— New York. 

1758. Colvert — New Hampshire. 

1759. Cole's Black — Indiana. 

1760. Congress — New York. 

1761. Cheese — New York, Indiana. 

1762. Chenango Strawberry — Iowa. 

1763. Champlain— New York. 



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26o INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1764, Curiosity — Wiscousin, 

1705. Cumberland Seedling — Peunsylvauia. 

17GG. Court of Wyck— New York. 

1707. Codling, English — Massachusetts. 

1708. Clerniont— Ohio. 

1709. Cellar — Pennsylvania. 

1770. Crab — District of Columbia, Virginia, Georgia, New York. 

1771. Crab, Chase's, Hutchinson's — Minnesota. 

1772. Crab, Beach Sweet, Transcendent — Minnesota. 

1773. Crab, Siberian, Ilesper Blush — Minnesota. 

1774. Crab — Wake County, Georgia. 

1775. Crab, Maiden Blush — Kansas. 

1770. Crab, Siberian, Green, Amber — New York. 

1777. Crab, Red, Small Red— New York. 

1778. Crab, Large Red, Waxen — New Y'ork. 
3 779. Crab, Orange — Minnesota. 

1780. Crab, Sweet — Pennsylvania. 

1781. Crab, Hughes— Ohio. 

1782. Daisey — New York. 

1783. Detroit — Indiana. 

1784. Detroit Red— New Y'ork. 

1785. Detroit Black — Indiana. 
] 780. Disharoon — Georgia. 

1787. Doctor — Pennsylvania, Indiana, 

1788. Domine — Minnesota, New Y'ork. 

1789. Duchess of Oldenburgh — New York (2). 

1790. Dutch Codlin — Massachusetts. 

1791. Dutch Mignonne — New Y'ork. 

1792. Drap d'Or — Massachusetts. 

1793. Dyer — New York. 

1794. Early Bough— New Y^ork. 

1795. Early Joe — New Y'ork, Maine. 
1790. Early Strawberry- New York (3). 

1797. Early Reel Margaret — Ne »v York. 

1798. Early Red Streak— Virginia. 

1799. Early Harvest— Maryland. 

1800. Edwards— Georgia. 

1801. English Reinette— New Y'ork. 

1802. Endicott — Massachusetts. 

1803. Eustis— New Y'ork (2). 

1804. Egg Toi>— District of Columbia, New York. 

1805. Egg (?)— New York. 

1800. Everlasting Red— New Y'ork (2), Maine. 

1807. Eastern Roseau — New Y'ork (2). 

1808. English Red Streak— Maryland. 

1809. Equinetely — Oregon, Georgia. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF A GRICl 'Z TURE. 2 6 1 

1810. Elliott SeedliDg— Minnesota. 

1811. Fall Orange— Illinois. 

1812. Fall Strawberry— Pennsylvania. 

1813. Fall Queen— New York. 

1814. Fall River — Massacliusetts. 

1815. Fall Wine— Iowa. 

1816. Fall Harvey — Massachusetts. 

1817. Fallawater — Kansas (2), Xew York, Indiana, Pennsylvania. * 

1818. Faust— Georgia. 

1819. Faraeuse — Minnesota (3), ]N"ew York (2), !N^ew Hampshire, Indiana. 

1820. Fameuse, Striped — New York. 

1821. Federal— New ^ork. 

1822. Fisher — New Hampshire. 

1823. Gate— Indiana, Ohio. 

1824. Garden Stripe— New York. 

1825. Geneva Spice — New York. 

1826. Golden Wilding— Georgia. 

1827. Golden Ball— Maine. 

1828. General Lyon — Kansas. 

1829. Gloria Mundi — Minnesota (2), Oregon, Virginia, New York, Mas- 

sachusetts, Georgia, Kansas, District of Columbia. 

1830. Green Limbertwig— Georgia. 

1831. Green Graft— Maine. 

1832. Graveustein — Massachusetts. 

1833. Grand Sachem — Maine. 

1834. Granniwinckle — New Jersey. 

1835. Grimes Golden — Illinois, Ohio. 

1836. Grindstone — Virginia, Georgia, Indiana. 

1837. Greenes Choice — Pennsylvania. 

1838. Gulley— Georgia. 

1839. Guilford Ked— Georgia. 

1840. Guilford Battlefield— Georgia. 

1841. Gillitiower — Minnesota, Oregon. 

1842. Gilliflower, Black— New York, Maryland. 

1843. Gilliflower, Cornish — Maine. 

1844. Haas— Minnesota (3), Georgia. 

1845. Hays Fall — Georgia. 

1846. Hawkins Chief — Minnesota. 

1847. Harvest — New York. 

1848. Hall— Georgia. 

1849. Hawley— New York. 

1850. Hamise — Minnesota. 

1851. Harrison — New York. 

1852. Hilton— North Carolina. 

1853. Hottentot — Virginia. 

1854. Howard — Pennsylvania. 

1855. Hoary Morning — New York. 



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262 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1856. Hoover — North Carolina. 

1857. Hoyle'8 Greening — Georgia. 

1858. Horse— Oregon. 

1859. Hull Blossom — Pennsylvania. 

1860. Huntsman's Favorite — Kansas. 

1861. Hubbardston Nonsuch — New York (3), Massachusetts. 

1862. Indiana Favorite — Oregon. 

1863. Ingalls Buff— Georgia. 

1864. Jefferson County — Minnesota. 

1865. Jewett's Fine Red — New York, Iowa, Maine. 

1866. Jeffries — Pennsylvania. 

1867. Juneating — Minnesota, Illinois, Maine. 

1868. Jonathan — New York (3), Illinois (3), Minnesota, Iowa. 

1869. Kay— Oregon. 

1870. Keim — Pennsylvania. 

1871. Keswick Codling — Maine. 

1872. Kilham Hill— Massachusetts. 

1873. Kirk's Lord Nelson— New York. 

1874. King, Tompkins County — Pennsylvania (3), Oregon, New York, 

Minnesota. 

1875. Ladj— New York (2), Oregon. 

1876. Lady, Black— New York. 

1877. Lady, Canada — New York. 

1878. Lady, Green — New York. 

1879. Lady, Double— New York. 

1880. La<ly Finger — Indiana, New York. 

1881. Lady Kenyon — Michigan. 

1882. Lady Haley's Nonsuch — Massachusetts. 

1883. Lansingburgh — Ohio. 

1884. Landon— New York. 

1885. Laquier — New York. 

1886. Lawver — Kansas. 

1887. Late Strawberry— New York. 

1888. Late Wine— New York. 

1889. Late Bough— New York (2). 

1890. Late Green — Indiana. 

1891. Limbertwig — Kansas, New York, Minnesota. 

1892. Lyscom — Massachusetts. 

1893. Little Romanite — Indiana. 

1894. Locey— New York (2). 

1895. Lost. 

1896. Lodge— New Hampshire. 

1897. Long Stem— Ohio. 

1898. Lusus Naturae — Maine. 

1899. Mahaska — Kansas. 

1900. May Apple^ — Kansas. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE, 263 

1901. Maiden's Favorite — New York. 

1902. Mamie's Lavorite — Georgia. 

1903. Maiden Blush— New York (2), Minnesota. 

1904. Male Carle — Massachusetts. 

1905. Matamnskeet — Georgia. 

1906. Magnum Bonum — Georgia. 

1907. Meuagere — New York. 

1908. Miller— New York. 

1909. Milam — Indiana. 

1910. Melon — Indiana, New York, Pennsylvania. 

1911. Minister — New York, Massachusetts. 

1912. Mixed. 

1913. Morton— Ohio. 

1914. Moose — New York. 

1915. Moor's, Winter—Georgia. 

1916. Mountain Rose — Georgia. 

1917. Mother — Massachusetts, New York. 

1918. Murphy — Pennsylvania. 

1919. Muncy — Maryland. 

1920. Nash— Maryland. 

1921. Newville^ — Pennsylvania. 

1922. Nickajack — Georgia (2), North Carolina. 

1923. Neverfail — Minnesota. 

1924. Nonpareil — Minnesota. 

1925. North Carolina Greening — Georgia. 

1926. North Carolina Baldwin — Georgia. 

1927. Northern Spy — New York (2), Oregon (2), Minnesota, Illinois. 
1929. Nuzzle-nose — Massachusetts. 

1929. Ortley — Indiana, Massachusetts, New Hampshire. 

1930. Oslin— New York. 

1931. Oil Pippin— New York. 

1932. Oil— District of Columbia. 

1933. Old Bettie. 

1934. Ox Noble— New York. 

1935. Ox Heart— New Fork. 

1936. Olive— Georgia. 

1937. Ohio Beauty— Ohio. 

1938. Ohio Nonpareil — Pennsylvania. 

1939. Payne's Winter — North Carolina, Georgia. 

1940. Painted Lady — Indiana, Minnesota. 

1941. Pennock — Pennsylvania, Indiana, Illinois. 

1942. Pennock, Red Winter— New York. 

1943. Pennock, Early — Illinois. 

1944. Peck's Pleasant — Massachusetts (2), Kansas. 

1945. Perry Seedling— Georgia. 

1946. Peach— New York. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



264 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

1947. Porter — Oregon, New York. 

1948. Pike— Indiana. 

1949. Pigeonnet — Massachusetts. 

1950. Pomine de Neige — New York (2). 

1951. Pound Royal — New York, New Hampsbire. 

1952. Piedmont — Virginia. 

1953. Pomme Royal — New York. 

1954. Plumb Cider — Minnesota. 

1955. Plum — Massachusetts. 

1956. Poinme Grise — Minnesota, Massachusetts, New York. 

1957. Pomme Grise, Seedling — Minnesota. 

1958. Pryor's Red— Indiana. 

1959. Primate — New York. 

1960. President— New York. 

1961. Priestly — Indiana. 

1962. Pride of the World— Minnesota. 

1963. Pumpkin Ramho — New York. 

1964. Pennsylvania Wine — Pennsylvania. 

1965. Polly Bright— Ohio. 

1866. Pearmain, Summer — New York, Minnesota. 

1967. Pearmain, Blue — Massachusetts, Iowa, Oregon. 

1968. Pearmain, Russet — New Y^ork. 

1969. Pearmain, French — New York. 

1970. Pearmain, Royal — Massachusetts. 

1971. Pearmain — Long Island, Indiana. 

1972. Pearmain, Herefordshire — New York, Massachusetts, Kansas. 

1973. Pearmain, White Winter— Indiana (2). 

1974. Pearmain, Sweet — Oregon. 

1975. Pippin, Albemarle — Virginia. 

1976. Pippin, Blenheim — New York. 

1977. Pippin, Bullock — New York, Indiana. 

1978. Pippin, Blush— Maryland. 

1979. Pippin, Cranberry — New I'ork. 

1980. Pippin, Cabbage — Virginia. 

1981. Pippin, Frencii — District of Columbia. 

1982. Pippin, Fall— Oregon (2), New York (2), Massachusetts, Illinois, 

Minnesota. 

1983. Pippin, Grand Island — New York. 

1984. Pippin, Golden — New York (4), Kansas, Georgia, North Carolina, 

Minnesota. 

1985. Pippin, Green Newtown — New Y'ork (2), Indiana. 

Yellow Newtown — New York (4). 

1986. Pippin, UoUaud- New Y'ork. 
1087. Pippin, Kerry — New York. 

1988. Pippin, King— New York. 

1989. Pippin, Loudoun — Virginia (2). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE- 



265 



1990. 

1991. 
1992. 
1993. 
1994. 
1995. 
1996. 
1997. 
1998. 
1999. 
2000. 
2001. 
2002. 
2003. 
2004. 
200:>. 
2006. 
2007. 
2008. 
2009. 
2010. 
2011. 
2012. 
2013. 

2014. 
2015. 
2016. 
2017. 
2018. 
2019. 
2020. 
2021. 
2022. 
2023. 
2024. 
2025. 
2026. 
2027. 
2028. 
2029. 
2030. 
2031. 
2032. 
2033. 



Pippin, Monmouth — New York, District of Columbia, Oregon, 
Kansas. 



Pippi 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pipp 
Pippi 
Pipp 
Pippi 
Pipp 
Pipp 



n, Missouri — Kansas. 

n, Michael Henry — New York, Indiana. 

n, Newark — New York (2), Indiana, Minnesota. 

n, Nyack — New Y^ork. 

u, Ohio — Ohio, New York. 

n. Orange — Michigan. 

n, Pemberton — Pennsylvania. 

n, Ribston — Massachusetts (2), New York. 

n, Eidge — Pennsylvania (2). 

u. Streaked — New York. 

n, Sweet — District of Cohimbia. 

n, Red Sweet — Indiana. 

n, Red Cheek — New York. 

n. Twenty-ounce — New York (2), Minnesota, Oregon. 

n, Titus — New York. 

n, Virginia— Georgia, Illinois. 

n, White — Indiana, Illinois. 



Queen's Pocket — Maine. 

Rambo-^New York, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Illinois. 
Rambour Franc — Massachusetts. 
Ragan — Indiana. 
Ramshorn — Massachusetts. 

Rawle's Janet — Kansas, Iowa (2), Pennsylvania, Indiana, Minne- 
sota. 
Rebel — District of Columbia. 
Republican— Pennsylvania. 
Red Race — New York. 
Red Astrachan — New York (2). 
Red Bellflower— New York. 
Red Romanite — Georgia. 
Red Cheek — Oregon. 
Red Limbertwig — Georgia. 
Red Juneating — New York. 
R<^d John — New York. 
Red Winter Calville — New York. 
Red and Green Stripedr— New York. 
Red Ranee — New York. 
Red Doctor — Pennsylvania. 
Richard's Graft— New York. 
Ridge G!lliflower — Minnesota. 
Richmond — Ohio. 
Royal Red — Indiana (2). 
Roman Stem — Iowa, Indiana. 
Rock Rimmon — Maryland. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



266 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

2034. EomeBeauty — PeDiisylvania, Illinois. 

2035. Romanite — MiDDesota. 

2036. Robeson — Georgia. 

2037. Robertson— Maryland. 

2038. Rolla— North Carolina. 

2039. Royal Timberling — Georgia. 

2040. Ross Nonpareil — Pennsylvania. 

2041. Rhode Island Greening — Minnesota (2), Massachusetts, Indiana, 

New York. 

2042. Rape's Winter — Georgia. 

2043. Russet, New York — Minnesota. 

2044. Russet, Cheeseboro' — New York. 

2045. Russet, Columbia — Indiana. 
2040. Russet, English— New York. 

2047. Russet, Golden — Minnesota (2), Oregon, Iowa. 

2048. Russet, Hunt's — Massachusetts. 

2049. Russet, Plattsburg— New York. 

2050. Russet, Perry — Minnesota (4). 

2051. Russet, Roxbury — Massachusetts (4), New York, Virginia, Ore- 

gon. 

2052. Russet, Sweet — New York, Pennsylvania. 

2053. Russet, Spice — Kansas. 

2054. Sapson— New York. 

2055. Sailley— New York. 

2056. Seedling— New York (3), Massachusetts (3), Indiana (4), New 

Hampshire (2). 

2057. Scalloped Gilliflower— New York. 

2058. Seek— New York (2). 

2059. Seek No Further— New York. 

2060. September — Pennsylvania. 

2061. Seedless— New York. 

2062. Shockley— North Carolina. 

2063. Sharp's Greening — Georgia. 

2064. Smokehouse — Pennsylvania (2). 

2065. Smith Cider — Ohio, Georgia, Indiana. 

2066. Sheepuose— New York. 

2067. Spitzenburgh — Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Virginia. 

2068. Spitzenburgh, Sweet— New York (2). 

2069. Spitzenburgh, Kaigus — Ohio, Iowa. 

2070. Spitzenburgh, Esopus — New York, Massachusetts, Oregon. 

2071. Spitzenburgh, Newtown — New York, Minnesota. 

2072. Spitzenburgh, Flushing— New York. 

2073. Spitzenburgh — New York, Kansas. 

2074. Spitzenburgh Scribner — ^New York. 

2075. Spitzenburgh French — New York. 

2076. Small Hall— Georgia. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 267 

^77. Snow— New York. 

2078. Spice— ^Massachusetts. 

2079. Spice Bailey— New York (2). 

2080. Spice Summer— New York. 

2081. Sparhawk — Massachusetts. 

2082. Spirit of the Age— Georgia. 

2083. Summer Queen— New York (2). 

2084. Summer Rambo— Pennsylvania. 

2085. Summer Hagloe — New York. 

2086. Summer Bellflower — New York. 

2087. Sutton Beauty— New York. 

2088. Surprise— Wisconsin, New York (2). 

2089. Stark— Illinois. 

2090. Styre— New York. 

2091. Stroat— New York. 

2092. Stannard— Illinois. 

2093. Steer — Pennsylvania. 

2094. Stone — Minnesota. 

2095. Stephen— Georgia. 

2096. Strand— New York. 

2097. Saint Lawrence — Minnesota, New York, Illinois. 

2098. Swaar— New York (2). 

2099. Swaar, Sweet— New York, Maine. 

2100. Swaar, Fall— Illinois. 

2101. Sweet Greening — New York. 

2102. Sweet Baldwin — Massachusetts. 

2103. Sweet Pear — Minnesota. 

2104. Sweet Doctor — Pennsylvania. 

2105. Sweet, Bentley— Jhio(2). 

2106. Sweet, Brittle— New York. 

2107. Sweet, Jersey— New York (2). 

2108. Sweet, Honey— New York. 

2109. Sweet, Lyman — New York. 

2110. Sweet, Broad well— Ohio. 

2111. Sweet, Priest's — Minnesota (2), New York. 

2112. Sweet, Striped— New York. 

2113. Sweet, Danvers — New York. 

2114. Sweet, Bailey — Illinois. 

2115. Sweec, Green — New York. 

2116. Sweet, Northern— New York (2). / * 

2117. Sweet, Holland— New York. 

2118. Sweet, RamsdelFs — Illinois. 

2119. Sweet, Haskell— New York. 

2120. Sweet, Lane— Massachusetts, New York. 

2121. Sweet, Lancaster — Pennsylvania. 

2122. Sweet, Stone^ — Maine. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ISTERXATIOXAL EXH/B IT/OK 1876. 

weet, Ladies' — New York (2), Massachusetts, Obio, iDdiana. t 

weet, Pound — New York (2), Minuesota, ludiana. 

weet, Tolman — Oregon, Minnesota, Indiana, Iowa, New York. 

weet, Tift's— New^ York (2). 

weet. White Winter — Minnesota. 

weet. Winter — Georgia, Indiana. 

weeting, Hartford — Maine. 

weeting, Munson's — New York. 

weeting, Orange — Massachusetts^. 

weet Vandevere — Ohio. 

weet Mountaineer — Ohio. 

weet Wetheralls, white — Virginia. 

allow — New York. 

art Bough — New York, Pennsylvania. 

etofsky— New York (2). 

ewkesbury Winter Blush — New York; District of Columbia. 

horn as Red — Georgia. 

ower of Glammis — New York. 

urner's Green — Indiana. 

ulpehocking — Kansas. 

win — Maryland. 

tter's Red — New York. 

an Wie — New York (2). 

an Dyne — New Jerse^V'. 

andevere — New York (4), Indiana, Illinois. 

irginia Beauty — Georgia, Virginia. 

irginia Greening— Indiana. 

ictuals and Drink — New York. 

t^aston, Doctor — Pennsylvania. 

Tagener — New York (3), Kansas. 

k^ealthy — Kansas. 

►^inter Wine — Illinois. 

i'^inter Greening — New York. 

^^inter Doniine. 

^'ine — Massacliusetts. 

k^inter. Sweet Paradise — Massachusetts. 

Tine Sap — Minnesota (2), Illinois, Kansas. 

/ilderness — Pennsylvania. 

rilfong — North Carolina. 

JWXow Twig — Illinois (2). 

William's Favorite — Massachusetts, New Hampshire. 

/^illow — Illinois. 

/"estfield Seek No Further— New York, Minnesota, Iowa. 

riiite Hawthornden — New York (2), ^fassachusetts. 

^^hite Vandevere — Illinois, Georgia. 

rhite Doctor — Pennsylvania. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF A GRICCL TURE. 269 

2169. White Bellflower— Illinois. 

2170. UnDamed — New York (11), Oregon, Minnesota (4), Massachu- 

setts (3). 

PEARS. 

2171. Abbott— New York. 

2172. Adele St. Denis — Massachusetts. 

2173. Althorpa Crassane — New York. 

2174. Anibrette — Massachusetts. 

2175. Ainire Johannet — New York. 

2176. Ananas d'Ete— New York (4), District of Columbia. 

2177. Andrews — New York, Massachusetts. 

2178. Angora — New York. 

2179. Augleterre Noisette^ — Massachusetts. 
218*. Arbre Courbe — Massachusetts. 

2181. Arch Duke Charles — Massachusetts. 

2182. Assene — Pennsylvania. 

2183^ Autumn Bergamot — New Y'ork. 

2184. Bartlett, N. H.— New York. 

2185. Baronne de Melo — District of Columbia. 

2186. Beurre Beauchamp— Massachusetts. 

2187. Beurre Bosc — New York, Massachusetts. 

2188. Beurre Bolwiller — Massachusetts. 

2189. Beurre Bronze^ — New York. 

2190. Beurre Clairgeau — Massachusetts, Maryland, District of Colum- 

bia. 

2191. Beurre d'Aremberg — Massachusetts (2), New York, District of 

Columbia. 

2192. Beurre d' Augleterre — New York. 

2193. Beurre d'Anjoii— Massachusetts (3), Oregon, District of Colum- 

bia. 

2194. Beurre d'Alen9on — Massachusetts. 

2195. Beurre d'Amanlis — District of Columbia. 

2196. Beurre de Beaumont' — Massachusetts. 
21^7. Beurre de Caen — New York. 

2198. Beurre de Elber— New York. 

2199. Beurre Defais — District of Columbia. 

2200. Beurre de Gens — Massachusetts. 

2201. Beurre d'Hardenpont — New Jersey. 

2202. Beurre de Printemps — Massachusetts. 

2203. Beurre de Sterkman — New York. 

2204. Beurre Diel — Massachusetts (4), Pennsylvania, New York. 

2205. Beurre Duquermes — Massachusetts. 

2206. Beurre Duval — Massachusetts (2). 
2207. 

2208. Beurre Giflfard — Massachusetts, District of Columbia. 

2209. Beurre Goubalt— New York. • 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



270 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

2210. Beurre gris de Lujon — Pennsylvania. 

2211. Bearre gris d'Hiver — District of Columbia, New York. 

2212. Beurre Haggerston — New York. 

2213. Beurre Hardy— District of Columbia. 

2214. Beurre Knox — New York. 

2215. Beurre Langlier — Massachusetts (2). 

2216. Beurre Longelieur — District of Columbia. 

2217. Beurre Preble — Massachusetts. 

2218. Beurre Banz — Massachusetts (2), New Hampshire. 

2219. Beurre Samoyeau — New York. 

2220. Beurre Sprin — Massachusetts. 

2221. Beurre St. Queutin — Massachusetts. 

2222. Beurre Superfln — Massachusetts, New York, District of Colum- 

bia. 

2223. Beurre Thonin— Massachusetts (2). 

2224. Beurre Van Marum — New Y'ork. 

2225. Beurre Van Mons — New York. 

2226. Belle Apres Noel — Massachusetts. 

2227. Belle Alliance — Massachusetts. 

2228. Belle de Bruxelles— New York. 

2229. Belle de Bois — Pennsylvania. 

2230. Belle de Martigne^ — Pennsylvania. 

2231. Belle de Thenars. 

2232. Belle de Flandres— New York. 

2233. Belle Excellent-— Massachusetts. 

2234. Belle et Bonne — Massachusetts. 

2235. Belle Epine Dumas — Massachusetts, Pennsylvania. 

2236. Belle Henrietta — Massachusetts. 

2237. Belle Lucrative^ — District of Columbia. 

2238. Belle Superfln— District of Columbia. 

2239. Bell— Massachusetts. 

2240. Belmont — Massachusetts (3). 

2241. Bergamot Boussiere — Massachusetts (2). 

2242. Bergamot Bruxelles — Massachusetts. 

2243. Bergamot Nonpareil — Massachusetts. 

2244. Bernardiston — Massachusetts. 

2245. Bezi de la Mot te— New York. 

2246. Bezi des Veterans — Massachusetts. 

2247. Bezi Tardif— Massachusetts. 

2248. Bezi Vaet— Massachusetts (2). 

2249. Black Worcester — Massachusetts (2). 

2250. Bleekers Meadow — New York (2). 

2251. Bloodgood— New York (2), District of Columbia. 

2252. Bonne de Zees — New I'^ork. 

2253. Bon Chretien — New York (3), Massachusetts. 

2254. Bouquia — Massachusetts. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 2 7 I 

2255. Broom Park — New Jersey. 

2256. Brown Beurre— Massachusetts (2), New Tork. 

2257. Brougham — New York. 

2258. Buffum — New York, Massachusetts, New Hampshire. 

2259. Butter— District of Columbia. 

2260. Cabot— New York. 

2261. Caennais — Massachusetts. 

2262. Calabasse d'Et6— New York. 

2263. Calabasse de Herkheimer — Massachusetts. 

2264. Calhoun— New York. 

2265. Capsheaf— Massachusetts. 

2266. Capiaumont — New York. 

2267. Canandaigua — New York. 
5268. Canning — Massachusetts. 

2269. Catillac— Massachusetts (2), Kansas. 

2270. Chples d'Autrishe— New York. 

2271. Chancellor — Massachusetts. 

2272. Chapman — Pennsylvania. 

2273. Chaptal— Massachusetts. 

2274. Chaumontelle^ — Massachusetts, New York. 

2275. Chinese Sand Pear— New York. 

2276. Clay— New York. 

2277. Colmar— New York. 

2278. Colmar d'Aremberg — New York. 

2279. Colmar d'Et^ — Pennsylvania. 

2280. Colmar Niel— Massachusetts. 

2281. Columbian Virgalouse^ — New York. 

2282. Comprette — Massachusetts. 

2283. CompteSse de Launey — Massachusetts. 

2284. Copea — Pennsylvania. 
2286. Coter — Massachusetts. 

2286. Cranston's Seedling — Massachusetts. 

2287. Cross — Massachusetts — New York. 

2288. CroftCastle— New Jersey. 

2289. Cushing — Massachusetts. 

2290. Cumberland— New York. 

2291. Dallas — Massachusetts. 

2292. Dana— District of Columbia. 

2293. Dearborn's Seedling— New York. 

2294. Delices d'Hardenpont — Massachusetts (4). 

2295. Delices de Jodoigne — New York. 

2296. Delices Van Mons— Massachusetts, Pennsylvania. 

2297. Des Nonnes- District of Columbia (2), New York. 

2298. De Sorties- District of Columbia. 

2299. De Tongre— New York. 

2300. Dix— Massachusetts (3), District of Columbia. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



.2 72 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

.2301. Dinsmore — Oregon. 

2302. Dr. Nelis— New York. 

2303. Dowuton — Massachusetts. 

2304. Doyenne Boussock — Massachusetts, District of Columbia. 

2305. Doyenne d- Alen^on — Massachusetts. 

2306. Doyenne d'Et^— New York. 

2307. Doyenne de Cornice — District of Columbia. 

2308. Doyenne Defais — Massachusetts (2). 

2309. Doyenne Gris — Pennsylvania. 

2310. Doyenne d'Hiver — Massachusetts. 

2311. Doyenne Goubault — Massachusetts. 

2312. Doyenne Robin — District of Columbia, Massachusetts. 

2313. Doyenne Sautellet— Massachusetts. 

2314. Dunmore — Massachusetts. 

2315. Dundas— Massachusetts. 

2316. Duchesse d'Angouleme — Massachusetts (2), New York, New 

Hampshire. 

2317. Duchesse de Berri d'Et6 — District of Columbia. 
' 2318. Duchesse de Mouchy — New York. 

2319. Duchess of Mars — Massachusetts. 

2320. Duchess Orleans — New York. 

2321. Early Harvest — New Y'ork. 

2322. Easter Beurre — Massachusetts (6), New York. 

2323. Easter Bergamot — Massachusetts, New York. 

2324. Echasserie— New York (2), Massachusetts. 

2325. Emerald — Massachusetts. 

2326. Endicott, from tree two hundred and forty-five years old — Massa- 

chusetts. 

2327. English Jargonelle^ — New York. 

2328. Episcopal — Massachusetts. 

2329. Excellentissima — New York. 

2330. Eyewood— -Massachusetts (2). 

2331. Feaster — Pennsylvania. 

2332. Eigne — Massachusetts (2), Pennsylvania. 

2333. Flemish Beauty— Massachusetts (3), New York (3), District of 

Columbia. 

2334. Flemish Bon Chretien — Massachusetts. 

2335. Fleur Double— Pennsylvania. 

2336. Fondante d'Automiie— New York. 

2337. Fondante des Bois — New York. 

2338. Fondante de Malines— New York. 

2339. Fondante de Mi Hot— New York. 

2340. Fondante Van Mous — New York. 

2341. Fortunee — Massachusetts. 

2342. Franc Real d'fliver— New York. 

2343. Franc Real d'Et^— New York. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 

2344. French Berpmiot — Massachusetts. 

2345. French Jargonelle— New York (2). 

2346. Frederick of Wurtemberg — Massachusetts, ISTew York. 

2347. Fredericka Bremer — New York. 
2248. Fulton — Massachusetts. 

2349. GansePs Bergamot— New York (3). 

2350. Garnons — Massachusetts. 

2351. German Muscat — Massachusetts. 

2352. German Chaumontelle — Massachusetts. 
2;i53. Gendesheim — New Y'ork. 

2;554. Girardin — Massachusetts, New York. 

2355. Gil of Gil— Pennsylvania. 

2356. Golden Beurre of Bilboa— New York, Massachusetts. 

2357. Glout Morceau — New York, Massachusetts. 

2358. Gratiola — Massachusetts. 
2350. Green — District of Columbia. 

2360. Green Holland— New York. 

2361. Green Sugar — New Jersey. 

2362. Grand Soleil — Massachusetts. 

2363. Grasliu— District of Columbia. 

2364. Gros Sucre — Massachusetts. 

2365. Great Citron of Bohemia — New York. 

2366. Guernsey Chauraontfelle — Massachusetts. 

2367. Hacon-s Incomparable. 

2368. Haddington — Pennsylvania. 

2369. Harvard— New York. 

2370. Haut Clochy — Massachusetts. 

2371. Heathcote — New York, Massachusetts. 

2372. Henkle — Massachusetts. 

2373. Henry Fourth— New York. 

2374. Henri Van Mous — New York. 

2375. Hills Fall Butter — Massachusetts. 

2376. Hosenshentz — District of Columbia. 

2377. Howell — District of Columbia, New York. 

2378. Hull — Massachusetts, Pennsylvania. 

2379. Inconnu Cramoisee — Massachusetts (2). 

2380. Jalousie — Massachusetts. 

2381. Jalousie de Foutenay — Massachusetts. 

2382. Jalvia— New York. 

2383. Jaminett^^Pennsylvania. 

2384. Jean de Witt — Massachusetts, New York. 

2385. Jones Seedling — New York. 

2386. John Edwards — Pennsylvania. 

2387. Josephine de Malines — Massachusetts. 

2388. Julienne— New York. 

2389. Kingsessing — ^District of Columbia, Pennsylvania. 

18 CEN, PT 2 



273 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



274 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

2390. Kuigbts Monarch— Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey. 

2391. Lawreuce^ — District of Columbia, Massachusetts. 

2392. Ijas Oanas— New York. 

2393. Lewis— New York (2). 

2394. Le Cure — Massachusetts. 

2395. Leon le Clerc— New York. 

2396. Little Muscat— New York. 

2397. Libert^— New York. 

2398. Locke — Massachusetts. 
3399. Lodge— Pennsylvania. 

2400. Long Striped Green — Massachusetts. 

2401. Louis — Massachusetts. 

2402. Louis de Prusse — Massachusetts. 

2403. Louis Vilmorin — New York. 

2404. Louis Phillippe — Massachusetts. 

240.5. Louise Bonne de Jersey- — Massachusetts (3), New York. 

2406. Marie— Massachusetts (3). 

2407. Marie Louise — New York, Massachusetts, District of Columbia. 

2408. Madame Appert— New York. 

2409. Manning's Elizabeth — New York. 

2410. Martin Sec — Massachusetts. 

2411. McVean— District of Columbia. 

2412. McLaughlin — Maine, Massachusetts. * 

2413. Messire Jean — New York. 

2414. Medaille Napoleon — Pennsylvania. 

2415. Merriam — Massachusetts. 

2416. Mount Vernon — New York. 

2417. Mouth Water — Massachusetts. 

2418. Mouille Bouche— Massachusetts. 

2419. Mollet's Guernsey — New York. 

2420. Monsieur le Clerc— Pennsylvania. 

2421. Napoleon — Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, New York. 

2422. Napoleon d'Hiver — Massachusetts (2). 

2423. Nouveau Poteau — New York. 

2424. Nouveau Simon Bouvrier — New York. 

2425. Newtown Virgalien — Massachusetts. 

2426. Ohio Weaver— New York. 

2427. Onondaga — District of Columbia,'New York. 

2428. Oliver's Kusset— New York. 

2429. Oswego Incomparable — District of Columbia. 

2430. Oswego Beurre — Massachusetts. 

2431. Osborn's Summer— New York. 

2432. Ott— District of Columbia. 

2433. Paradise d'Automne — Massachusetts, New York. 

2434. Parker's American Butter — Pennsylvania. 

2435. Passaus du Portugal — New York. 

243C. Pas^ie Colmar — Massachusetts, New York. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE, 275 

2437. Paqueucy— Massachusetts. 

2438. Paternoster — Massachusetts. 

2439. Pear grown on apple tree — Virginia. 

2440. Petre— New York. 

2441. Pennsylvania — Pennsylvania. 

2442. Philip of France — Massachusetts. 

2443. Picquery — New York. 

2444. Pittsboro'— North Carolina. 

2445. Pitts Prolific — Massachusetts. 

2446. Pound — Massachusetts, Minnesota, New. York. 

2447. Pocahontas — Massachusetts. 

2448. Poire d- Avril— New York. 

2449. Poire d'Albret — Massachusetts. 
2459. Poire de Bavay — Massachusetts. 

2451. Poire d'Ambre — Massachusetts. 

2452. Poire des Chasseurs — Massachusetts. 

2453. Poire Cire — Massachusetts. 

2454. Poire de Florence — Massachusetts. 

2455. Poire de Roude^ — Massachusetts. 

2456. Poire Nock — Massachusetts. 

2457. Poire Rameux — Massa(;husetts. 

2458. Pope's Scarlet Major — New York. 

2459. Prince Saint G^Tmain — District of Columbia. 
2460.' Queen of the Low Countries — New York. 

2461. Quilletete — Massachusetts. 

2462. Rapalje Seedling — New York. 

2463. Rene des Poires — New York. 

2464. Rigolou — Massachusetts. 

2465. Rondelet— New York. 

2466. Rostiezer— New York. 

2467. Rousselet de Rheims — New York. 

2468. Rousselet Hatif— New York. 

2469. Rousselet de Meester — New York. 

2470. Russet— New York. 

2471. Rutter— New York. 

2472. Sabine Vap Mous — Massachusetts. 

2473. Sans Peau— New York. 

2474. Seutin — Massachusetts. 

2475. Seigneur d'Esi)erin — New York. 

2476. Serrurier — Massachusetts. 

2477. Seckel Seedling — District of Columbia. 

2478. Seckel— California, New York. 

2479. Sheldon — New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New Yorlt. 

2480. SieuUe — New York, Massa<5husetts. 

2481. Soldat Laboreur— Massachusetts, New York. 

2482. Spring Beurre — Massachusetts. ^ 

2483. St. Ghislaiu— New York. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



276 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

2484. St. Michael Archangel — Pennsylvania, District Columbia. 

2485. St. Marc — Massachusetts. 

2486. St. Nicholas— Xew York. 

2487. St. Therese— New York. 

2488. St. Germain— New Y'ork. 

2489. Striped — New York, Massachusetts. 

2490. Striped Dean— New Y^ork. 

2491. Striped Madeleine — New Y^ork. 

2492. Styrian — Massachusetts. 

2493. Stevens Genesee — New York. 

2494. Sterling— New York. 

2495. Surpasse Meurs — Massachusetts. 

2496. Surpasse Virgalieu — New York, Massachusetts. 

2497. Susette de Bavay — Massachusetts. 

2498. Swan's Egg — Massachusetts, New Jersey. 

2499. Triomphe Jodoigne — N'W Nork. 

2500. Tresor d'Amour — Pennsylvania. 

2501. Trout — New York, Massachusetts. 

2502. Truckhill Bergamot — Massachusetts. 

2503. Therese Appert — New York. 

2504. Tyson — New York, Massachusetts. 

2505. Urbaniste — Massachusetts (4), New York (2.) 

2506. Uvedale St. Germain — New Hampshire. 

2507. Van Mons Leon le Clerc— Massachusetts, New York. 

2508. Van Mons Talc — Massachusetts. 

2509. Van Mons Late — Massachusetts. 

2510. Van Buren — New York. 

2511. Vallee Franc— New York. 

2512. Vert Longue^ — New York. 

2513. Vert Longue Panache — Pennsylvania. 

2514. Vezouzier — Massachusetts. 

2515. Vicar of Winkfield— Massachusetts. 

2516. Virgoulouse — New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts. 

2517. Washington — New York, Pennsylvania, District of Columbia. 

2518. Waterloo— New York. 

2519. Walker's Favorite— New York. 

2520. Wetherill — Pennsylvania. 

2521. Whitfield— Massachusetts. 

2522. White Doyenne — Massachusetts, District of Columbia. 

2523. Williams Seedling— New York. 

2524. Wilhelmiua — Massachusetts. 

2525. Wilbur — Massachusetts. 

2526. Wilkinson— New York. 

2527. Winter Nelis — Oregon, New York, Massachusetts. 

2528. Winter Sabine — New Jersey. 

2529. Winter Thorn — Massachusetts. 

2530. Winter Virgouleuse — New York, Massachusetts. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



277 



PLUMS. 




The original specimens were grown neai 


' Fishkill and Newburg, X. 1 


2531. Angola. 


2574. 


Ruling's Superb. 


2532. Aatamn Damson. 


2575. 


Ickworth. 


2533. Autumn Gage. 


2576. 


Ive's Frost. 


2554. Bingham. 


2577. 


Jaune Hatif. 


2535. Blue Imperatrice. 


2578. 


Jefferson. 


2536. Blue Imperial. 


2579. 


Knight's Large Green. 


2537. Blue Gage. 


2580. 


Knevel's Late. 


2538. Brinckershoflf's Seedling. 


2581. 


Lawrence Favorite (2). 


253d. Brown Gage. 


. 2582. 


La Delicieuse. 


2540. Bleeker's Gage. 


2583. 


Long Scarlet Gage. 


2541. Bogardus Gage. 


2584. 


Lombard. 


2542. Bolmar's Washington (3). 


2585. 


Lucomb's Nonsuch. 


2543. BuePs Favorite. 


2586. 


MacLauchlin. 


2544. Burlington. 


2587. 


Mirabelle. 


2545. Caledonian. 


2588. 


Monstrous Perdigon. 


2546. Carey's Seedling. 


2589. 


Morocco. 


2547. Carnival Frost. 


2590. 


New Green Gage. 


2548. Cherry. 


2591. 


Penobscot. 


2549. Citron Gage. 


2592. 


Pear Neck, or Mamekonne 


2550. Columbia. 


2593. 


Pond's Seedling (2). 


2551. Coe's Late Bed. 


2594. 


Purple Favorite (3). 


2552. Coe's Golden Drop {2j. 


2595. 


Prince's Gage. 


2553. Cruger's Scarlet. 


2596. 


Prune (4). 


2554. Crosby. 


2597. 


Prune d'Agen. 


2555. Denniston Albany Beauty. 


2598. 


Prune datte.(?) 


2556. Denniston Bed (3). 


2599. 


Quetsche. 


2557. Denniston Superb (2). 


2600. 


Red Gage. 


2558. Downton Imperatrice (2). 


2601. 


Real GK^rman Prune. 


2559. Duonyer's Victoria (4). 


2602. 


St. Martin's Quetsche. 


2560. Dorr's Favorite. 


2603. 


St. Catherine. 


2561. Dorr's Seedling. 


2604. 


Seedling (2). 


2562. Early Orleans. 


2605. 


Siamese. 


2563. Early Damson. 


2606. 


Schuyler. 


2564. Egg (3). 


2607. 


Sharp's Emperor. 


2565. Emerald 13rop. 


2608. 


Small Yellow Gage. 


2566. English Gage. 


2609. 


Smith's Orleans. 


2567. Fotheringham. 


2610. 


Virgin. 


2568. Frost Plum. 


2611. 


Wasp. 


2569. French Prune. 


2612. 


Wild Chickasaw. 


2570. German Gage. 


2613. 


Wild Plum. 


2571. Golden Cherry. 


2614. 


Winter Damson (2). 


2572. Green Gage. 


2615. 


Wine Sour. 


2573. Horseplum. 


2616. 


Yellow Gage (2). 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



278 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 
CHERRIES. 

(Grown near Newburg and Fishkill, X Y.) 



2617. Byrnesville. 


2639. Kirtland's Mary. 


2618. Boyer's Early Heart. 


2640. Late Duke. 


2619. Black Oxheart. 


2641. Madison Bigarreau. 


2620. Black Tartarian. 


2642. Mayduke. 


2621. Black Sweet. 


2643. Manning's Mottled. 


2622.. Black Dutch. 


2644. Napoleon (2). 


2623. Black Mazzard. 


2645. Plumstone Morello. 


2624. Belle de Choisy. 


2646. Eoberts' Bed Heart. 


2625. Carnation. 


2647. Red Oxheart. 


2626. Champaigne. 


2648. Rumsey's White Heart. 


2627. Cleveland. 


2649. Rumsey's Ever-bearing. 


2628. Coe'8 Transparent. 


2650. Sweet Montmorenci. 


2629. Davenport. 


2651. Seedling. 


2630. Downton. 


2652. Short-stalk Montmorenci. 


2631. Dutch Morello. 


2653. Transparent Guigne. 


2632. Early Kichmond. 


2654. Tradescant's Black Heart 


2633. Early White Heart. 


2655. Verplanck's White. 


2634. English Heart. 


2656. Wild. 


2635. English Oxheart. 


2657. Weeping Morello (2). 


2636. Honey. 


2658. White Heart. 


2637. Holland Bigarreau. 


2659. Yellow Spanish. 


2638. Knight's Early Black. 




APRICOTS. 


2660. Apricot Peche. 


2662. Dubois Golden (2). 


2661. Breda. 


2663. Shipley. 


NECTARINES. 


2664. Boston. 


2669. Hardwicke's Seedling. 


2665. Early Violet (2). 


2670, New White. 


2666. Elruge. 


2671. Pitmaston Orange. 


2667. Golden. 


2672. Red Roman. 


2668. Hunt's Tawney. 





MELONS. 

2673. Gypsey Watermelon. 2678. 

2674. Black Spanish Watermelon. 2679. 
5675. Ice Rind Watermelon. 2680. 

2676. Orange Watermelon. 2681. 

2677. Malaga Watermelon (im- 2682. 

ported). 2683. 



Mango Watermelon. 
Hunter Mnskmelon. 
!N'utmeg Muskmelon. 
Preserving Citron. 
Japan Apple-pie Melon. 
Queen Anne's Pocket Melon. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



279 



SQUASHES. 



2684. Boston Marrow. 

2685. Winter Crookneck. 
2086. Hubbard. 

2687. Mammoth. 



2688. Turk's Uead, or Turban (2). 

2689. Summer. 

2690. Snake ( Trichosanthes colu- 

brina.) 



POTATOES. 

(Original specimens, chiefly contributed by Bliss & Co., of New 


2691. Andes. 


2719. 


Great Western. 


2692. Bermuda. 


2720. 


Granite State. 


2693. Balkley Seedling. 


2721. 


Harrison. 


2694. Breese's Peerless. 


2722. 


Jackson White. 


2695. Breese's Prolific. 


2723. 


Jones' Seedling. 


2696. Black Kidney. 


2724. 


King of the Earlies. 


2697. California. 


2725. 


Kearsarge. 


2698. Calico (2). 


2726. 


Lady Finger. 


2699. Colebrook. 


2727. 


Mercer. 


2700. Climax. 


2728. 


Mexican (2). 


2701. Compton's Surprise. 


^ 2729. 


Monitor. 


2702. Dover Seedling. 


! 2730. 


Nova Scotia. 


2703. Dog Foot. 


, 2731. 


No Blow. 


2704. Dyckman. 


2732. 


Patterson's Blue. 


2705. Dyright. 


2733. 


Prince Albert. 


2706. Early Shaw. 


2734. 


Peerless. 


2707. Early Mohawk. 


2735. 


Patterson's Albert. 


2708. Early Rose. 


2736. 


Pinkeye Rusty coat. 


2709. Early Purple. 


1.737. 


Peach Blow. 


2710. Early Minnesota. 


2738. 


Raspberry Leaved. 


2711. Early Samaritan. 


2739. 


Red Streak. 


2712. Early Victor. 


2740. 


Scotch White. 


2713. Early Goodrich. 


3741. 


Seedling Rock. 


2714. Extra Early Vermont. 


2742. 


Strawberry. 


2715. Extra Early White. 


2743. 


Titicaca. 


2716. Excelsior. 


2744. 


Vandervere. 


2717. Fluke. 


2745. 


White Peach Blow. 


2718. Garnet Chili. 






MISCELLANEOUS. 


2746. Long Blood Beet (4). 


2752. 


White Belgian Carrot 


2747. Turnip Early Beet. 


2753. 


Kohl-Rabi. 


2748. Sugar Beet. 


2754. 


Strap Leaf Turnip. 


2749. Mangold Wurzel. 


2755. 


Sweedish Turnip. 


2750. Long Orange Carrot. 


2756. 


Yellow Globe Turnip. 


2751.' Early Horn Carrot. 


2757. 


Orange Turnip. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28o 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



2758. 
2769. 
2760. 
2761. 
2762. 

2763. 

2764. 
2765. 
2766. 
2767. 
2768. 
2769. 
2770. 
2771. 
2772. 
2773. 

2774. 

2775. 
2776. 

2777. 
27T8. 
2779. 
2780. 
2781. 
2782. 
2783. 



Long Scarlet Radish. 

Early Turnip Radish. 

Olive Radish. 

Red Winter Radish. 

Black Spanish (winter) Rad- 
ish. 

White Neapolitan Onion (im- 
ported.) 

Giant White Tripoli Onion. 

Italian Red Onion. 

Long Onion. 

Silver Skin Onion. 

Red Danvers Onion. 

Yellow Danvers Onion. 

Yam (Florida). 

Sweet Potato (4). 

Long Parsnip. 

Soolyn or Toon-qua Cucum- 
ber (Washington). 

London Long Green Cucum- 
ber. 

Long Green Cucumber. 

Gherkin. 

Gourds, varieties (12). 

Hercules Club. 

Purple Egg Plant. 

Trophy Tomato. 

Cherry Tomato. 

Persimmon. 

Marrow Pea. 



2784. Horticultural Bean. 
I 2785. Rhubarb. 

2786. Asparagus. 
j 2787. Peppers, large red. 

2788. Alligator Pear (Florida). 
I 2789. Fruit of Sand Box Tree. 
[ 2790. Banana. 
; 2791. Sugar-loaf Pine-apple. 
I 2792; Fruit Prickly Pear. 

2793. Ogeechee Lime. 
j 2794. Kyssa. 
, 2795. Apple Quince. 
, 2796. Pear Quince. 
; 2797. Japan Quince (large yellow). 
] Japan Quince (flowering.) 

I 2798. Fruit of Monstera Deliciosa. 
' 2799. Fruit of Cereus (Indian 
I Food). 

2800. Fruit of Opuntia Vulgaris 

(Prickly Pear). 

2801. Fruit of Opuntia Ficus ludi- 

ca (Europe). 

2802. Fruit of Maclura Aurantiaca 

(Osage orange). 

2803. Orange— Florida, Califoruia 

2804. Lemon — Florida, Califoruia. 

2805. Shaddock— Florida. 

2806. Lime— Florida. 

2807. Pawpaw. 



COLLEVTIOX OF ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY, 



This collection, filling 24 cases or drawers, and numbering over 1,000 
specimens, comprises the most common forms of the injurious and bene- 
ficial insects of the United States. The collection is by no means com- 
plete, but will serve to illustrate the plan of arrangement, which i?< es- 
X)ecially adapted to cabinets of agricultural colleges and similar institu- 
tions. 

The plan of arrangement is to show in one group the insect foes of a 
certain food plant in the four stages of ^g^^ larva, pupa, and insect, 
accompanied by specimens exhibiting the mode of injury and classified 
according to the portion of the plant injured, as root, stalk, foliage, or 
fruit, to be followed by the beneficial insects known to destroy a par- 
ticular species ; in short, the idea of such a collection is to be able to 
show at a glance the entire history of any insect or group of insects 
affecting any of our food crops. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL 7 URE, 2 8 1 

The first stages of many insects could not be shown in the present 
collection, and in some cases the insects themselves were wanting, and 
so were supplied by water-color drawings executed by Mr. P. G. San- 
born, to whom the work of arrangement was given, or drawings from 
Mr. Glover's plates. 

Case A. 

Nos. 2808-2846. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying Indian 
corn or maize ; 63 specimens, 39 species. The principal injurious spe- 
cies are Anthomyia zew, in the seed corn after planting; Gortymt nitela, 
in the stalk; Sphenophorm (spp.), on the roots; Micropus leucaptertts^ 
Caloptenus (spp.), Hyperchiria varia^ Arctia (spp.), &c., on the foliage ; 
Heliothis armigera^ in the green corn ; Silvanm surinamensis, &c., 
in stored grain, and Tenebrio mollitor and Asopia costalis in the meal or 
ground maize. 

Case B. 

Nos. 2847-2868. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying wheat, 
rye, oats, and other cereal crops ; 40 specimens, 22 species. The prin- 
cipal injurious species are Ceeidomyia tritici and destructor^ the wheat 
midge and Hessian fly, Lmicania unipunctay the army worm, Micro- 
pus leucapterusj the chinch bug, Arclia (spp.), Pyralis farinalis, &c. 

Nos. . — Insects on grasses and forage plants ; 7 species, 13 

specimens shown. Colias philodic€j the common yellow butterfly, and 
Phyllophaga fusca^ the May beetle, are prominent species, the princi- 
pal damage being done in the larval stages, the last named feeding upon 
grass roots. 

Case C. 

Nos. 2869-2901. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying cotton; 
33 species, 54 specimens. The most common enemies to the cotton 
plant are the cotton army worm, Anomis xylina^ and the boll worm, 
Heliothis armigera. A species of Aphis is quite injurious to the tender 
shoots, and Dysdercus suturellus stains the mature cotton. 

Case D. 

Nos. 2902-2917. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying the po- 
tato ; 16 species, 23 specimens. The most prominent injurious species is 
the western, or Colorado beetle, Doryphora decemlineata. Epicauta 
(spp.), Lema triUneata, and Macrobasis fabrlcll are also quite injurious 
at times. 

No. 2918. — Insects injurious to the tomato, as the large green tomato- 
worm, Macrosila quinquemaculata, 

Nos. 2919-2922. — Insects injurious to tobacco ; 4 species, 4 specimens, 
Macrosila Carolina destroys the growing plant. Sitodrepa panicea de- 
stroys manufactured tobacco. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



282 international exhibition^ 1876. 

Case E. 

Xos. 2923-2929. — Insects injurious to cucurbitaceous plants, as cucum- 
ber, squash, melons, &c ; 7 species, 12 specimens. Principal enemies, 
Biabrotica vittata^ " cucumber bugs," Epilachna borealis and Coreus tris- 
tis on squash. Phdkellura hyalinitalis injure cucumbers in Florida. 

Nos. 2930^2954. — Insects destroying milkweed, dogsbaue, &c. 5 25 spe- 
cies, 35 specimens. Banais plexippus^ in all its stages, is an example of 
this group of insects. 

Case F. 

Nos. 2955-2982. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying the plants 
of the kitchen garden, as cabbage, turnip, &c. ; 28 species, 53 specimens. 
Pieris rapaCj and oleracea, Plmia brassicce (in the South) and Strachia 
histrioniea are prominent enemies of the cabbage grower. 

Case G. 

N08. 2983-3013.— Insects injurious to mankind by destroying the 
grape ; 31 species, 47 specimens. The grape-vine is principally injured 
on the roots by Phylloxera va^tatrix. Cicada pruinosa and septendecem^ 
(Eeanthua niveus and Bostrichus bicaudatus injure the canes. Pemphigus 
vitifoliacj Tettiffonia (spp.), Procris americana^ &c., destroy the foliage. 

Case H. 

Xos. 3014-3039. — Insects injurious to fruit, fruit trees and shrubs: 26 
species, 49 specimens. Among the varieties injured are the pear, peach, 
plum, cherry, current, raspberry, &c., and among the prominent insects 
maybe xn^ntiow^di Aegeria exitiosa^ the peach borer, Trochilium tipulifor- 
mi8j ScolytUH pyrij Conotrachelus nenuphar^ the "curculio," iSelandria ce- 
rasi, &c. 

Case I. 

Xos. 3040-3068. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying the ap- 
ple; 29 S[)ecies, 52 specimens. Most prominent species, Saperda bivit- 
lata, the apple tree-borer ; Chrysobothris femorata^ Amphicerus bicauda- 
tu8^ Carpocapsa pomonella^ the api)le worm ; Clisiocampa americana^ the 
tent caterpillar; Anisopteryx vernata^ Aspidiotus conchi/ormis^ the ap- 
ple-bark scale, and others. 

Case J. 

Nos. '3069-3109. — Insects injurious to the household, commonly called 
household pests, &c.; 41 species, 58 specimens. Two species of cock- 
roaches are shown, Stylopyga orientalis and Ectobia germanica ; also the 
ham-beetle, Bermestcs lardarius ; the meal-worm, Tenebrio molitor^Atta- 
genus pellioj and other insects rendering food unfit for use, together with 
Mxisca domestica and other species of flies; Formica^ or ants, closing 
with the insidious disturber of sleep, Ciniex lectularius. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



' the department of agriculture. 283 

Case K. 

Nos. 3110-3146. — Insects injurious by aiding in the destruction of 
forest trees in general ; 37 species, 59 specimens. Many of the species 
shown are enemies to various kinds of trees, while others are particu- 
larly injurious to but one. Ciisiocampa sylvatica^ the forest tent cater- 
pillar, is particularly injurious. Other prominent species deserving 
of mention are Oncideres cingulatus^ the twig girdler ; Scolytus caryce^ 
the hickory-bark beetle; Anisota ruhicunda and senatoria, Telea poly- 
phemnsj Platysamia cecropiaj Actios luna, atheroma regaliSj &c. 

Case L. 

Nos. 3147-3185. — Insects injurious to pine trees. In this case 39 spe- 
cies and 55 specimens are shown. • A number of the species attacking 
the tree in its growing state, as Pmodes strobiy Hylobim pales and con- 
fusuSy Mytilaspis pmifoliw, &c., while the others make it their food after 
it has been cut down for lumber. Among the insects attacking dead 
pine wood maybe mentioned Monohammus tittillator^ Callidium violaceum 
and ligneum^ Xylocopa Carolina, the carpenter bee; Rylotrupes baju- 
lus, &c. 

Case M. 

Nos. 3186-3205.— Insects injurious to mankind by destroying shade 
trees; 20 species, 50 specimens. The elm i« principall}^ injured by 
Anisopteryx vernata, GalerucacalmariensiSj Hyphantria textor, and some 
of the larvae of moths, as the Arctians, Xyleutes rohince atid Glytus 
robiniw are destructive to the locust. Anisota ruhicunda and JBnnemos 
subsi{f)iaria; injure maples. 

Case N. 

Nos. 3206-3233. — Insects injurious to mankind by destroying or injur- 
ing the foliage or wood of various plants or trees ; 28 species and 43 
specimens. The orange tree is injured by Anisomorpha buprestoides, 
Rhomalea microptera, Fapilio thoas, Aspidiotxis gloverii, &;c., Caryborus 
arthriticus injures the palmetto. 

Case O. 

Nos. 3234-3260. — This case is devoted to 36 specimens, representing 
27 species of galls or gall-making insects affecting the different varieties 
of the oak tree, among which are shown the oak-apple gall, Cynips 
spongifictty the wool-sower gall, C. seminator^ Cynips cornigera, C. q.- 
globulus^ C. qAnaniSy C, q. phelloSj &c: 

Case P. 

Nos. 3261-3314. — In this case are shown the galls of other plants 
than oak — 44 species, 48 specimens. Many of these are unnamed in 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



284 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

the collection, which includes galls found upon the rose, blackberry, 
solidago^ or golden-rod, strawberry, grape-vine, walnut, raaple, huckle- 
berry, willow, elm, wild cherry, &c. 

Case Q. 

Nos. 3315-3228. — In this case are shown two collections. First, the 
insects injurious to fish by destroying the eggs or young ; 14 species, 17 
specimens. Belostoma americana^ Byiiscus americanitSy several species 
of Notonecta and other- true " bugs " (Remiptera) represent this class 
of insects. 

iN^os. 3329-3358. — The second collection is devoted to those insects in- 
jurious to bees, and those that atta<;k man and cattle; 30 species, 40 
specimens. Among the species troublesome to man may be mentioned 
the flea, chigae, several species of Pedicnliy and nutobers of the tor- 
menting flies, also injurious to the lower animals. 

Case R. 

Nos. 3359-3406. — A collection comprising 33 different objects of insect 
architecture, and the insects producing them, in all 48 specimens. 
Prominent among the objects shown are the nests of the rose-cutting 
bee, Megachile, the rhinoceros-beetle, Dytiastes tityusj of wasps, and va- 
rious other insects. 

Cases S and T. 

Nos. 3407-3476. — In these two cases are shown 70 species of the most 
common forms of our beneficial insects, making themselves the friends 
of the farmer by destroying noxious species. Among the 90 specimens 
exhibited may be mentioned several species of Tachhia, which live in 
the bodies of other insects, many wasps, which destroy caterpillars while 
provisioning their nests, species of tiger and ground beetles that make 
themselves useful in both larval and perfect stages, and numbers of 
true bugs, suctorial insects, destroying caterpillars, such as Reduvhis 
novenarinsj and other species, destroying insects in various ways. 

Case U. ^ 

Nos. 3477-3507. — Another class of beneficial insects, which are useful 
as scavengers by removing filth and carrion ; 31 species and 42 speci: 
mens are represented, the collection including many of the flies, the 
"tumble-bugs" so-called, and the sexton beetles, remarkable for their 
powers in burying the bodies of birds and small mammals as food for 
their young. 

Nos. 3508-3524. — In this case is also shown 22 specimens represent- 
ing 17 species of insects, principally grasshoppers, that are available as 
food for man. A number of these are already eaten to some extent by 
Indians in this country, and others are shown which probably would 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OY AGRICULTURE, 285 

answer the same purpose quite as well should they ever be needed. 
The eggs of Coriva femorata^ a water lug (and possibly the insects), are 
eaten by some of the natives of Mexico, while the Indians near Lake 
Mono, California, collect and eat the larvae of a fly (veritable maggots) 
found on the waters of the lake, called "ke-chah-va." 

Cases V and W. 

Nos. 3525-3563. — In these two cases are shown 39 speciimens of the 
wild silk-proilucing insects of this country and their cocoons and silk, 
together with representative specimens of the Bombyx mori, or silk 
T\orm of commerce, with various samples of the silk made by this spe- 
cies. Prominent among the American species we may mention Telea 
poJyphemus, Platysamia cecropia, Acfias luna^ IS. cynthUij and CaHosamia 
promethia. 

Case X. 

Nos. 3564-3572. — Showing a few insecticides, so called, and traps and 
devices for the destruction of insects. As this collection is very incom- 
plete it will hardly be necessary to give it more than a mention, to show 
its place in a complete cabinet of economic entomology. 

ORNITHOLOGICAL COLLECTION, 

The object of making this collection of native birds, animals, &c., in 
the Museum of Agriculture is merely to show their value to the farmer, 
as destroying noxious insects, or those injurious to the crops. Both 
the common and scientific name of the bird are marked on the descrip- 
tive label, with reference to the authorities, and if injurious the speci- 
men will be distinguished by a larger or smaller black mark on the 
label, or if entirely beneficial the label will be left unmarked. The con- 
tents of the stomach are placed near each bird, showing what last it 
fed upon. The smaller hawks and owls, although considered injurious 
as preying upon small birds, chickens, &c., are also partly beneficial as 
destroying ground mice and insects. In proof of this, a sparrow-hawk 
shot in October among a flock of reed-birds was found to be filled with 
grasshoppers, and contained not the slightest vestige of feathers or 
bones of small birds. This bird was remarkably fat. A red -shouldered 
hawk, or winter falcon, shot in November, was found filled with crickets 
and grasshoppers, although its usual food appears to be small birds, 
animals, frogs, &c. 

Taking the larger hawks, however, the damage they do in destroying 
poultry and smaller insectivorous birds is by no means counterbalanced 
by the good.deeds in ridding us of mice, insects, &c. The large owls, 
too, although doing some good as destroying rats, mice, &c., are very 
destructive to small birds, game, and poultry. The cuckoo, or raincro w, 
destroys many hairy and prickly caterpillars, rejected by other birds. 
Woodpeckers, as a general rule, are beneficial to orchardists by destroy- 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



286 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

ing the larvfe of wood-boring insects, although some of the species have 
been accused of feeding on the sap and j'oung wood. The whippoorwill 
and night-hawk are beneficial as destroying multitudes of night-flying 
insects. Flycatchers, as their name implies, are beneficial as destroy- 
ing flies and other insects, and even the king bird, also known as the 
bee bird, thatacquired its name from the supposition of their destroying 
the honey bee, feeds also on other insects, as was proved by one sent by 
a farmer, who shot it suspiciously close to his bee-hive, which, when ex- 
amined, was found to contain fifteen small leaf-eating beetles and not a 
vestige of a bee. 

The thrushes feed on fruits, seeds, and insects. A common robin, 
although a ^reat destroyer of cherries and other small fruits, yet, at cer- 
tain seasons, feeds also on worms and insects. The stomach of a blue- 
bird, shot in March, contained grasshoppers, and when feeding their 
young these birds may be observed carrying caterpillars and other in- 
sects to Wmx nests. Swallows and martins are exceedingly useful in 
destroying multitudes of small insects flying in the air, such as gnats, 
mosquitoes, &c. Pigeons, turkeys, grouse, &c., feed principally upon 
seeds and grain, but some of them also feed partially upon insects. 
Cranes, ph>vers, &c., destroy many reptiles, slugs, and insects. Geese 
and ducks, though feeding principally on grain and vegetables, no doubt 
* serve also to destroy many insects and small reptiles. It is, however, 
on our small insectivorous birds that we ought principally to rely as 
insect exterminators, and the American farmer should protect them by 
all the means in his power. 

Mr. Florent Provost, who collected and examineil the stomachs of 
European birds for several years, comes to the conclusion that from his 
researches *' birds are in general far more useful than hurtful to the 
agriculturist," and thus the mischief done at certain periods by the grain- 
eating species is largely compensated by the destruction of insects they 
eff'ect at other periods. The collection of poultry is intended to exhibit 
the varieties of barn-yard fowls, ducks, &c.,now in domestication in the 
United States and to exhibit the best breeds at present existing in our 
poultry yards, as likewise to show new or valuable foreign breeds of 
poultry which may be profitably introduced or crossed with our native 
birds for the production of eggs or for the table. 

LISTS OF BIRDS BENEFICIAL OR INJURIOUS TO THE AGRICULTURIST 
BY DESTROYING INSECTS, FRUITS, SEEDS, ETC., ON EXHIBITION AT 
THE CENTENNIAL. 

(Birds injurious by destroying fruits, seeds, &c., are distinguished by a 
smaller or larger black mark on the perch or label.) 

3573. Hawk, Sparrow-hawk, Tinnunculus sparveritts. 

3574. Hawk, Goshawk, Astur atricapillus. 

3575. Owl, Mottled, Scops asio. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 287 

3576. Owl, Short- eared, Brachyotys asio. 
Soil. Parakeet, Conurus carolinensis. 

3578. Oliapparel cock, Oeoooccyx calif or nianua, 

3579. Cuckoo, Yellow-biU, Coccygus americanus, 

3580. Ouckoo, Black- bill, Goccygus erypthropthalmus. 

3581. Woodpecker, Hairy, Picas villoaus. 

3582. Woodpecker, Downy, Picus pubescens. 

3583. Woodpecker, Three-toed, Picoides arcticus, 

3584. Woodpecker, Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varins. 
3586-3587. Woodpecker, iiedhelVieil^^Centurus carolintis. 
3588-3590. Woodpecker, Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 
3591. Woodpecker, Lewis, Melanerpea torquattis, 

3592-3593. Black- woodcock, Hylotomus pileatus. 

3594-3507. Flicker, High-hole or Yellow-shafted woodpecker, Oolap tus 

auralus. 
3598-3599. Flicker, Re^-shafted, Colaptes mexicanm, 
3600-3603. Humming bird, Ruby -throated, Trochilm colubris. 
3604-3606. Chimney swallow, Chcetura pelasgia. 
3607-3608. Whipporwill, Antro8tamu8 vociferus. 
3609-3610. Night Hawk, Chordeiles popetue. 
3611-3612. Kingfisher, Belted, Ceryle (Megaceryle) alcyoii, 
3613-3614. Kingbird, Tyrannus airolinensis. 
3615-3616. Flycatcher, Gresitiire^t ed, Myiarchvs crinitus, 
3617-3618. Peewee, Sayormcs fuscus. 

3619. Peewee, Wood, Contopus horeaUs. 

3620. Peewee, Least, (or#ycatcher) Empidonax minimus. 

3621. Flycatcher, Small green crested, Empidonax acadicus. 

3622. Flycatcher, Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flaviventris . 
3623-3624. Thrush, Wood, Turdus mustelinus. 

3625. Thrush, Hermit, Turdus pallasi. 

3626. Thrush, Gray-cheeked, Tardus alidce. 
3627-3630. Robin, Turdus migratorus and albinus, 

3631. Robin, Varied, Turdus pavius. 

3632. Bluebird, Sialia sialis. 

3633. Bluebird. Western, Sialia mexicana. 

3634. Bluebird, Rocky Mountain, Sialia arctica. 
3635-3636. Wren, Gold-crested, Begalus satrapa. 

3637. Wren, Ruby-crested, Regula calendula. 

3638. Titlark, Anthus ludovicianus. 

3639-3640. Creeper, Black and white, Mniotilta varia. 
364L Warbler, Blue yellow-back, Parula americana. 

3642. Warbler, Maryland or Yellow-throat, Oeothlypis trichas. 

3643. Warbler, Kentucky, Oporornis formosus. 

3644. Chat, Yellow-breasted, Icteria viridis. 

3645. Warbler, Worm eating, Helmitherus vermivorus, 

3646. Warbler, Blue winged yellow, Relminthopaga pinus. 



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288 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

3647. Warbler, Grold- winged, Helminthopaga chrysoptera. 

3648. Warbler, or Crowned, Helminthopaga celata. 

3649. Thru8h, Water, Seiurus noveboracensis. 

3650. Tlirush, Gold crowned, Seiurus aurocapillus. 

3651. Thrush, Water, large-l>ellied, Seiurus ludoviciunus. 

3652. Warbler, Black -throated green, Dendroica virens. 

3653. Warbler, Black-throated blue, Dendroica canadensis. 

3654. Warbler, Yellow-rump, Dendroica coronata. 

3655. Warbler, Audubon's, Dendroica audubonii, 

3656. Warbler, Blackburn, Dendroica blackburnit. 

3657. Warbler, Bay -breasted, Dendroica castanea. 

3658. Warbler, Pine-creeping, Dendroica pini. 

3659. Warbler, Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pennsylvanica. 

3660. Warbler, Blue, Dendroica cwrulta, 

3660. Warbler, Black-poll, Dendroi^^ striata. 

3661. W^arbler, Black and Yellow, Dendroica maculosa, 

3662. Warbler, Cape May, Dendroica tigrina. 

3663. Warbler, Yellow-poll, Dendroica palmarum. 

3664. Warbler, Yellow throated, Dendroica superciliosa. 

3665. Warbler, Prairie, Dendroica discolor, 

366t). Flycatcher, Green black cap, Myiodioctes pusillus. 

3667. Flycatcher, Canada, MyiodioctesHianadensis. 

3668. Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla, 
3669-3670. Tanager, Scarlet, Pyranga rubra, 
3671-3672. Tanager, or Summer red-bird, Pyranga (estiva, 
3673. Tanager, Louisiana, Pyranga ludoviciaiM, 

.3674. Swallow, Barn, Hirundo horreorum. 

3675. Swallow, Cliff*, Hirundo lunifrons. 

3676. Swallow, Bank, Ooiyle riparia. 

3677. Swallow, Martin purple, Progne purpurea, 

3678. Waxwing, Ampelis garrulus, 

3679. CeilfiT hird^ Ampelis cedrorum, 

3680. Shrike, Great Northern, or butcher bird, Collureo borealis. 

3681. Butcher bird or shrike, white rumped, Collureo excubitoroides. 

3682. Flycatcher, Warbling, Vireo gilvus, 

3683. Flycatcher, Red-eye<l, Vireo oUvaceus, 

3684. Flycatcher, White-eyed, Vireo noveboracensis, 

3685. Flycatcher, Blue-headed, Vireo solitarius. 

3686. Mocking bird, Mimus pollyglotius. 

3687. Catbird, Mimus Carolinensis, 
3688-3689. Thrush, Brown, Harporhynchus ru/us. 
3690-3691. Wren, Great Carolina, Triothorus ludovicianus. 
3692-3693. Wren, Long bellied marsh, Cistothorus palustris. 
3694^ Wren, Short- bellied, Cistothorus stellaris, 
3695-3696. Wren, House, Troglodytes aedon, 
3697-3698. Wren, Winter, Anorthura hyemalis. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF A GRICUL TURE, 289 

3699. Creeper, Certhia americana. 

3700-3701. Nuthatch, White-bellied, Sitta carolinensis. 

3702-3703. Nuthatch, Red-bellied, Sitta canadensis. 

3704. Flycatcher, Blue gray, PoHoptila cerulea. 

3705. Titmouse, Tnfted, Lophtrphanes bicolor. 

3706. Titmouse, Black -cap, Parus atricapillus. 
3 r07-3708. Skylark, Eremophila cornuta. 
3709-3710. Grosbeak, Pinicola canadensis. 
3711-3712. Finch, Purple, Carpadacus purpureus. 
3713. Finch, House, Carpadacus frontalis. 
3711-3716. Yellow bird, Chrysomitris tristis. 
3717-3718. Finch, Pine or Silken, Chrysomitris pinus. 
3719-3721. Cross bill. Red, Gurvh'ostra americana. 
3722-3723. Cross bill, White wing, Curcirostra leucopt^ra. 
3724-3725. Red poll. Lesser, JEgiothus linarius. 

3726. Snow bunting, Pleetrophanes nivalis. 

3727-3728. Lapland, Long-spur, Centrophanes lappanicus, 

3729. Sparrow, Savanna, Passerculus saxmnna. 

3730. Finch, Grass, Poocwtes gramineus. 

3731. Sparrow, Vellow-winged, Goturni cuius passer inus. 

3732. Finch, Sea-side, Aniodromus maritimus, 

3733. Finch, Lark, Chondestes grammaca, 

3734. Sparrow, White-crown, Zonotrichm leucophrys. 

3735. Sparrow, Gambles, Zonotrichia gambeli. 

3736. Sparrow, White-throat, Zonotrichia albicollis. 
3737-3739. Snow bird, Junco hyemalis, 
3740-3741. Sparrow, Tree, Spizella monticola. 
3742. Sparrow, Field, Spizella pusilla. 
3743-3744. Sparrow, Chipping, Spizella socialis. 
3745-3746. Sparrow, Song, Melospiza melodia. 
3747-3748. Sparrow, Lincoln's, Melospiza lincolnii. 
3749-3750. Sparrow, Swamp, Melospiza palustris. 
3751-3752. Sparrow, Fox-colored, Passerella iliaca. 

3753. Bunting, Black-throat, Euspiza americana. 

3754. Grosbeak, Blue, Ouiraca cwrulea. 

3755. Grosbeak, Rose-breasted, Ouiraca ludoviciana. 

3756. Bunting, Painted, Cyanospiza ciris, 

3757. Indigo bird, Cyanospizac yanea. 

3758. Redbird, Cardinalis virqinianus. 

3759. Ground robin (Towhee), Pipilo erythropthalmus. 

3760. Finch, Green tailed, Pipilo chlorurus. 

3761-3763. Bobolink, Reed or Rice bird, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. 
3764. Cowbird, Molothrus pecoris. 

3765-3767. Black bird. Swamp or Red-winged, Agelaias phceniceus. 
3768-3769. Black bird. Yellow-head, Xanthocephalus icterocephalus. 
3770-3772. Lark, Meadow, Sturnella magna. 
19 CEN, PT 2 



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290 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

3773. Lark, Western, Stnrnella neglecta, 
3771-3772. Oriole, Orchard, Icterus spurins. 

3773. Oriole, Baltimore, Icterus baJtimore. 

3774. Oriole, Bullock's, Icterus hullockiu 
3775-3776. Blackbird, Rusty, Scolecophagm ferrugineus. 
3777. Blackbird, Brewer's, Scolecophagus cyanocephalus, 
3778-3779. Grakle, Boat-tail, Guncalis major. 

3780. Blackbird, Crow, Quiscalus versicolor. 

3781-3782. Crow, common American, Corvus americanus. 

3783. Crow, common American, Corvus americanus (part white). 

3784. Crow, Fish crow, Corvm ossifragus. 

3785. Magpie, Pica hudsonica. 

3786-3787. Jay, Blue-crested, Cyanui% cristata. 

3788. Jay, Stellar's, Cynnurastelleri. 

3789-3790. Jay, Canada (or Whiskey Jack), Perisoreus canadensis. 

GEESE. 

3791-3792. Geese, Bremen. 

3793-3794. Geese, Chinese, white. 

3795-3796. Geese, Canadian or wild-domesticated. 

3797. Geese, Brant, wild. 

DUCKS. 

3798-3799. Wild Duck, Red Head. 

3800-3801. Wild Duck, Canvass-back. 

3802-3805. Wild Duck, Black or Dusky. Origin of one variety of do- 
mestic duck. 

3806-3807. Wild Duck, Mallard. Origin of one variety of domestic duck. 

3808-3809. Wild Duck, Summer or Wood— semi-domesticated. 

3810-3811. Wild Duck, Mandarine, from China. 

3812-3813. Wild Duck, Muscovy, from South America. 

3814-3815. Wild Duck, Muscovy, domestic. 

3816-3818. Duck Mallard, domesticated and improved (Rouen). 

3819-3848. Duck, crosses between domestic and Young Dutch and Wild 
Mallard, or the Wild Black. 

3849-3850. Duck, White Aylesbury. 

3851-3852. Duck, Black Cayuga. 

TURKEYS. 

3853-3854. Turkey, Wild Virginia. 
3855. Turkey, Wild New Mexican. 
3856-3857. Turkey, Bronze. 
3858-3859. Turkey, White. 

PEA-FOWL. 

3860-3801. Pea-fowl, common. 

% 

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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE, 2 9 1 

GUINEA FOWLS. 

3862. Guinea fowl, grown wild in Mexico. 
3863-3864. Guinea fowl, Common speckled. 
3865-3866. Guinea fowl, Common and half white. 
3867-3868. Guinea fowl, Common and white. 

3869. Guinea fowl, hjbrid, said to be between Guinea fowl and common 
fowl. 

3870. Guinea fowl, hybrid between turkey and common fowl. 

DOMESTIC POULTRY, ETC. 

3871-3872. Wild Jungle Fowl, {Oallus sonnerattis)^ said to be origin ot 

domestic poultry. 
3S73-3874. Game, Black-breasted red. 
3875-3876. Bantam, Golden Seabrififht. 
3877-3878. Bantam, Silver Seabright. 
3S79--3880. Bantam, Duck-wing game. 
3881-3882. Bantam, Black African. 
3882-3883. Bantam, Spanish Black. 
3884-3885. Bantam, Spanish White or White Leghorn. 
3886-3887. Bantam, Creve-Cceur. 
3888-3889. Bantam, Houdan. 
3890-3891. Bantam, La Fleche. 
3892-3893. Cochin Buff. 
3894-3895. Cochin Partridge. 
3896-3897. Gray, perhaps black. 
3898-3899. Brahma, Dark. 
3900-3901. Brahma, Light. 
3902-3903. Polish Top-knot. 
3904-3905. Hamburg, Gold-spangled. 
3906-3907. Hamburg, Silver-spangled. 
3908-3909. Leghorn, Brown. 
3910-3911. Silky fowl or Cresp-feather. 
3912-3913. Tailless fowl. 
3914-3915. Dorking, Black. 
3916-3917. Dorking, Gray. 

PHEASANTS. 

3918-3820. Pheasants, Golden and young, semi-domesticated. 
3921-3924. Pheasants, Common European and young. 
3925-3929. Pheasants, Silver and young. 

PIGEONS. 

3930-3931. Pigeon, Wild European Rock, said to be origin of domestic. 
3932-3933. Pigeon, Domestic, closely resembling the Wild Rock, shot 
at Washington, D. C. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Pigeon, Archangel. 

Pigeon, Black Trumpeter. 

Pigeon, Barbs. 

Pigeon, Carrier. 

Pigeon, Carrier, Brown, said to be from South America. 

Pigeon, Carrier, said by donor to be from South America. 

Pigeon, Fantail, white. 

Pigeon, Runtz, white. 

Pigeon, Pouters. 

Pigeon, Red Jacobins. 

Pigeon, Turbit. 

Pigeon, Unnamed. 

Pigeon, Dove Ring pecked. 

TOWNSEND GLOVER, 

Entomologut, 



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HORTICULTURAL DIVISION. 



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HORTICULTURAL DIVISION. 



The objects of the horticultural and propagating division were set forth 
in brief but comprehensive terms by William Saunders, the superin- 
tendent of the division, in the Commissioner's report for 1867 : 

1. To procure and encourage the transmission of seeds, cuttings, bulbs, and plants 
from all sources, both foreign and domestic, for the purpose of testing their merits 
and general adaptation, or for particular localities of this country. 2. To procure 
by hy oridizing and special culture, products of a superior quality to any now exist- 
ing. 3. To ascertain, by experiment, the influences of varied culture on products, 
-and the modifications effected by the operations of pruniog and other manipulations 
on trees and fruits. 4. To investigate more thoroughly the various maladies and 
diseases'of plants, and the insects that destroy them. 5. To provide ample means 
for thoroughly testing samples of all seeds and other contributions that may be re- 
ceived. 6. To cultivate specimens of the various hedge plants, and exhibit their 
availability for that purpose. 7. To cultivate a collection of the l>est fruit trees and 
plants, such as grapes, apples, pears, peaches, strawberries, raspberries, currants, &c., 
80 as to compare their ^respective merits. 8. To plant a collection of choice shrubs 
adapted for decorating gardens and landscape scenery. 9. To erect glass structures, 
for the twofold purpose of affording the necessary facilities for cultivating exotic 
fruits and plants, and to famish examples of the best and most economical modes of 
constructing, heating, and managing such buildings. 

These objects have been faithfully and systematically adhered to. 
Since 1862, the year in which the Department was organized, the 
present superintendent has had charge of the experimental garden, 
and since 1867 he has also had charge of the grounds surrounding the 
Department building. Prior to 1867 the experimental garden had 
shown the wisdom of the policy that had inaugurated the propagation 
of improved varieties of domestic fruits and of valuable seeds and 
plants the products of other lands. Since then there has been ample 
verge for experiments, for comparison, and for the exercise of such 
taste and the application of such skill as American horticulture de- 
mands. Every avenue to horticultural knowledge and kindred sciences 
has been opened to the public. The flower-garden, noticeable not more 
for the variety and luxuriance of its flowers than for the exquisite har- 
mony of their arrangement. The conservatory, 320 feet long from east 
to west and reaching southward 150 feet from the center of its extreme 
length, with its perfect heating arrangements, its tropical and semi- 
tropical fruits, its foreign grapes, and its miscellaneous collection of use- 
ful foreign plants — dyes, gums, textiles, medicines, &c.; the arboretum, 
embracing as complete a collection of hardy trees and shrubs, arranged 
in family groups, as can be found in any country ; the experimental 
frni|;-orchard; the carved walks; the terrace; the smoothly-shaven 
lawns; the superb landscape effect; all these greet the eye of the 

295 



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296 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBIIION, 1876. 

visitor to the Department. If be will extend bis walk to tbe experi- 
mental garden, be will be impressed witb otber lessons wbicb cannot 
be learned so well out of books. Tbe wbole borticultural division is 
best comprebended wben regarded as a living teacber, to be seen face 
to face, talked witb and listened to. It is an educator, from wbicb may 
be learned the names of tbe best fruits 5 tbe uses of a thousand foreign 
plants wbicb are adapted to cultivation upon American soil; tbe dis- 
eases of grapes, pears, peaches, &c.; interesting results in hybridizing; 
tbe best methods of pruning, budding, and grafting; and, generally, 
tbe best methods of conducting all borticultural and fruit-growing enter- 
prises. 

A leading object of tbe horticultural division is to direct attention to 
such exotic plants as possess useful properties and are capable of adapta- 
tion to American climatic conditions. In pursuing this object tbe super- 
intendent has aided greatly in giving proper direction to the enterpri8e 
of such citizens as would introduce new agricultural interests. This aid 
has been rendered mainlj' through the medium of official correspondence 
that is never published, but it has been none tbe less timely and valuable 
nevertheless. CoflPee plantations cannot be successfully established in lo- 
calities where tbe temi>erature ever falls below 45^ F., a condition whicb 
nowhere exists in the United States; cinchona can be cultivated where 
the temperature does not fall below 32° F., a condition whicb is sup- 
posed to exist in Southern California ; the tea plant and Eucalyptus glob- 
ulv8 \vi\\ succeed in some portions of the Dnited States, but not in all; 
the olive will flourish in our Southern States, but its cultivation can 
scarcely ever be profitable, owing to its slow growth and the ease with 
which its oil maj^ be counterfeited ; the fig may be successfully culti- 
vated as far north as Baltimore, and, although former eftbrts to properly 
cure the fruit have not been successful, the advice has been given to 
experiment witb tbe recently improved artificial mode of drying fruits* 
These instances are given as illustrations of the character of the infor- 
mation furnished by the horticultural division from time to time in re- 
sponse to inquiries, and it is not tbe least of tbe achievements of the 
Department of Agriculture that this division has given advice that has 
stimulated enterprise in proper directions and prevented tbe sacrifice of 
fortunes in efforts that could only have proved unavailing. 

The exhibit of the horticultural division at the International Exhibi- 
tion, 1876, comprised — 

1. Thirty-two photographic views of tbe grounds, showing character, 
istic grou[)s of trees, the Department building, conservatories, terraces, 
pavibous, experimental garden, flower garden, and general landscape 
eflPects^ 

2. A collection of economic plants, as per list (A). 

3. A detailed plan of the grounds and arboretum, with references, by 
figures, to the position of families, genera, and species, as per list marked 
B, whicb includes nearly all tbe ligneous plants fitted to succeed in the 
District of Columbia. 



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IHE DEBAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 297 

A-ECOXOMIC PLANTS. 

Agave Aiuericana Pita fiber plant. 

Agave sisalana Sisal hemp plant. 

Alenrites Moluccana Caudlebeny tree'. 

Aloesocotrina Bitter aloes. 

Antiaris toxicaria Upas tree. 

Araacaria Bidwilli Buuya nut tree. 

Artanthe elougata Matico. 

Bambasa arundinacea Bamboo cane. 

Bixa Orellana Amotta plant. 

Bobmeria nivea Ramie. 

Boldoa fragrans Boldine. 

Camphora offioinarum Camphor plant. 

Carica Papaya Tropical papaw tree. 

Capparls spinosa Caper busb. 

Ceratonia Siliqua -. Carob bean. 

Chrysophyllum Cainito Star apple. 

Cinchona succirubra Quinine tree. 

Cinuamoraum zeylamcum Cinnamon tree. 

Cofiea Arabica Coffee plant. 

Croton Tiglium Croton-oil plant. 

Damara Australis Damar resin pine. 

Dracsena Draco Dragon's blood tree. 

Erythroxylon Coca Coca leaf plant. 

Eucalyptus globulus Australian blue gum. 

Eugenia Jambosa Rose apple. 

Ficus Indica Banyan tree. 

Ficus elastica India-rubber tree. 

Fourcroya Cubense ^ Cabuya fiber plant. 

Hura crepitans Sand box tree. 

Ilex paraguayensis Mat^, Paraguaya tea. 

Ulicium anisatum Star anise plant. 

Indigofera tinctoria Indigo plant. 

Jatropha Curcas Physic nut tree. 

Mammea Americana Mammee apple. 

Manahot utilissima Cassava, tapioca plant 

Maranta aiiiudinacea Arrow-root plant. 

Musa textilis Manila hemp plant. 

Musa Caveudishii Dwarf banana. 

Olea Europ^a European olive. 

Pbcenix dactylifera Date palm. 

Phormium tenax New Zealand flax. 

Photinia Japonica Japan medlar. 

Pinckneya pubens : Georgia fever tree. 

Piper nigrum Black pepper. 

Psidium Cattleyannm Purple guava. 

Sapota Mulieri * Balata tree. 

Sacchariuum officinarum Sugar cane. 

Sanseviera guineensis Bowstring hemp. 

Taraarindus indica Tamarind tree. 

Then viridis Chinese tea plant. 

Cerens gigantens Gigantic cactus. 



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298 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.~DICOTYLEDON.3E. 
ANGIOSPERMJE. 



POLYPETAL^. 

MAGNOLIACE^. 

Magnolia acuminata. 

Magnolia acuminata foliis variegata. 

Magnolia Alexandrine. 

Magnolia conspieaa. 

Magnolia conspicua speciosa. 

Magnolia cordata. 

Magnolia Fraseri. 

Magnolia glauca. * 

Magnolia glauca Thomsoniana. 

Magnolia gracilis. 

Magnolia grandiflora. 

Magnolia grandiflora Exoniensia. 

Magnolia grandiflora rotundifolia. 

Magnolia Halleana. 

Magnolia Lenne. 

Magnolia macrophylla. 

Magnolia Norbertiana. 

Magnolia purpurea. 

Magnolia Soulangeana. 

Magnolia superba. 

Magnolia Umbrella. 

SCHIZANDRE^. 

Kadsura Japonica. 
Liriodendron tulipfera. 
Liriodendron tulipifera acutifolium. 
Liriodendron tulipifera integrifolium. 
Schizandra coccinea. 

ANONACE^. 

Asimina parviflora. 
Asimina triloba. 

LARDIZABALACE^. 

Akebia quinata. 
Stauntonia latifolia. 

MENISPERMACE.E. 

Calycocarpnm Lyoni. 
Coccnlus Carolinus. 
Menispermum Canadense. 

BERBERIDACE^. 

Berberis aristata. 
Berberis Asiatica. 
Berberis Canadensis. 
Berberis corallina. 



Berberis cratsegina. 

Berberis cuneata. 

Berberis Darwinii. 

Berberis dulcis. 

Beiberis emarginata. 

Berberis empetrifolia. 

Berberis Fischerii. 

Berberis Hookoriana. 

Berberis Iberica. 

Berberis illici folia. 

Berberis Jamiesonii. 

Berberis Nubertii. 

Berberis Siberica. 

Berberis Sinensis. 

Berberis stenophylla. 

Berberis vulgaris. 

Berberis vulgaris alba. 

Berberis vulgaris asperma, 

Berberis vulgaris atropurpurea. 

Berberis vulgaris anrea marginata. 

Berberis vulgaris laxa. 

Berberis vulgaris Intea. 

Berberis vulgaris provincialis. 

Berberis vulgaris spathnlata. 

Berberis vulgaris variegata. 

Berberis vulgaris violacea. 

Mahonia aquifolinm. 

Mahonia Beallii. 

Mahonia fascicularis. 

Mahonia Fortunii. 

Mahonia intermedia. 

Mahonia Japonica. 

Mahonia Leschenaultii. 

Mahonia Nepalensis. 

Mahonia nervosa. 

Mahonia repens. 

HYPERICAC^. 

Hypericum calycinum. 
Hypericum elatum. 
Hypericum hircinum. 
Hypericum Kalmianum. 
Hypericum prolificum. 
Hypericum prolificum densiflornni. 
Audrosaemum officinalis Allioni. 

MALVACE^. 

Hibiscus Syriacus. 
Hibiscus Syriacus alba flore pleno. 
Hibiscus Syriacus cerulea flore pleno. 
Hibiscus Syriacus fleur. blanch. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



299 



B.-DICOTYLEUON.^-Coiitimied. 



Hibiscus Syriacus fol. anrea variegata. 
Hibiscas Syriacas paeon i flora. 
Hibiscus Syriacus purp'trea. 
Hibiscas Syriacus rubra flore pleno. 
Hibiscus Syriacus speciosa. 
Hibiscus Syriacus variegata. 
Hibiscus Syriacus variegata flore pleno. 

STERCULIACE.E. 

Sterculia platanifolia. 

TTLIACE^. 

Tilia Americana. 

Tilia Americana beterophylla. 

Tilia pubescens. 

Tilia pubescens leptophylla. 

Tilia Earopaea. 

Tilia Enropaea alba. 

Tilia Europ^a asplenifolia. 

Tilia Europsea aurea. 

Tilia Europa?a aurea macropbylla. 

Tilia Europ^ea latifolia. 

Tilia Enroptea cordata. 

Tilia Europieadasystyla. 

Tilia Europiea gigantea. 

Tilia EuropsBa grandifolia aurea. 

Tilia Europsea laciniata. 

Tilia Europs^a maculata. 

Tilia Europtea microphylla. 

Tilia Europsea parvifolia. 

Tilia Europaea pendula variegata aurea. 

Tilia Europaea platyphylla. 

Tilia Europaea rubra. 

Tilia Europaea vitifolia. 

CAMELLIACE^. 

Gordonia Lasianthus. 
Stnartia pentagyua. 
Stuartia Virginica. 

MELIACE^. 

Melia Azederach. 

RUTACE^. 

Aliantus glandulosa. 

Ptelea mollis. 

Ptelea trifoliata. 

Ptelea trifoliata variegata. 

Zanthoxylum Americauum. 

Zanthoxylura Caroliniannm. 

CORIARIE^. 

Coriaria micropbylla. 
Coriaria myrtifolia. 
Coriaria ruscifolia. 



ANACARDIACE.E. 

Rbus aromatica. 
Rhus copalliua. 
Rhus cotinoides. 
Rhus Cotinus. 
Rhus glabra. 
Rhus typhina. 
Rhus venenata. 
Pistacia Lentiscus. 
Pistacia Terebinthus. 

RHAMNACE-E. 

Bcrchemia volubilis. 
Ceanothus Americanus. 
Cennothus azureus. 
Ceanothus Delianris. 
Ceanothus deutatus. 
Ceanothus divaricatus. 
Ceanothus Fontanesianns. 
Ceanothus Hartwegii. 
Ceanothus ovalin. 
Ceanothus pappilosus. 
Ceanothus rigidus. 
Ceanothus thyrsiflorus. 
Ceanothus Veitchianus. 
Ceanothus volutinus. 
Frangula Carol iniaua. 
Paliums acnleatus. 
Rharanus Alaternus. 
Rhaumus Alaternus angustifolia. 
Rhamnus Alaternus argenteais. 
Rhamuus Alaternus maculata. 
Rhamnus alnifolius. 
Rhamnus Alpinus. 
Rhamnus Californicus. 
Rhamuus catharticus. 
Rhamuus clorophorus. 
Rhamnus Erythroxylon. 
Rhamnns infectorius. 
Rhamnus lanceolatus. 
Rhamnus latifolius. 
Rhamnus saxatilis. 
Rhamuus utilis. 
Sageretia Michanxii. 
Ziziphus vulgaris. 

CELASTRACE^. 

Celastrus scaudens. 
Enonymus Americanus. 
Enonymus Americanus obvalus. 
Enonymus angustifolius. 
Enonymus atropurpnreus. 
Enonymus Europteus. 



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300 



IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBIT/OX, 1876. 



B.-DICOTYLEDON^E-Continued. 



Enonymus 
Enonymns 
Enonymus 
Eoonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Enonymus 
Euonvmus 



Europieus albo fructo. 
Europwus latifolius. 
Europseus nana. 
Enropeeus rubra fructo. 
Europieus verrucosus. 
Hamiltonianns. 
Japonicus fol. variegata. 
Japonicus. 

Japonicus fol. argentea. 
Japonicus fol. aureus. 
Japonicus fol. crispus. 
latifolia alba, 
linifolius. 



nana, 
radicans fol. 



variegata. 



SAPINDACE^. 



Stapbylea Colcbica. 

Staphylea pinnata. 

Staphylea trifolia. 

uEsculus Cahfornica. 

^sculns Canadensis. 

^sculus crispa. 

^sculus dubia. 

^sculns flava. 

^sculus flava purpurascens. 

-^sculus flava variegata. 

uEsculus glabra. 

^sculus Hippocastanus. 

^schIus Hippocastanus flore pleno. 

-^sculus Hippocastanus flore pleuo alba. 

iBsculus Hippocastanus flore pleuo rubra. 

^sculus neglecta. 

^sculus nigrum. 

^sculus parviflora. 

-^sculus Pavia. 

-^sculus Pavia pendula. 

-^sculus Pavia rubra. 

-£sculu8 praecox. 

uEsculns procera. 

^sculus rubicunda. 

--Esculus rubicunda fol. vatiogata. 

^sculus rubicunda pubescens. 

^sculus spectabilis. 

^sculus variegata argeutea. 

^sculuH Whitlejii cocciuea. 

Kolreuteria paniculata. 

Acer Atheniense. 

Acer campestre. 

Acer campestre Austricum. 

Acer campestre foliis variegata. 

Acer campestre laevigatum. 

Acer circinatum. 

Acer Colchicum. 



; Acer Colchicum rubra. 

Acer coriaceum. 

Acer C ret icum. 

Acer cristata. 

Acer dasycarpum. 

Acer dasycarpum laciniata. 

Acer dasycarpum laciniata foliis aurea. 
j Acer dasycarpum pendula. 

Acer Douglassi. 

Acerfulgens. 

Acer hybridum. 
; Acer Japonica. 
\ Acer Japonica atropurpurea. 

Acer Japonica variegata. 

Acer Leopoldii. 

Acer macropbyllum. 

Acer Monspessalanum. 

Acer Murrayanum. 

Acer Nepalense. 
I Acer obtusatum. 

Acer Opnlus. 

Acer Pennsylvanicum. 
, Acer platanoides. 
j Acer platanoides dissectum. 

Acer platanoides laciniatum. 
I Acer platanoides Lobelii. 

Acer platanoides occulatum. 
I Acer platanoides Schwedlerii. 

Acer polymorphum atropurpureum. 

Acer polymorpbum palmatnm. 
' Acer polymorphum pinnatifldum. 
I Acer polymorphum vari^fgatum. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus alba. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus aurea. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus flava. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus foliis aurea. 
I Acer Pseudo-Platanus laciniatum. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus longifolia. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus purpurea. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus nova. 

Acer Pseudo-Platanus obtusa. 
I Acer rubrum. 
I Acer rubrum pyramidalis. 

Acer saccharinum. 

Acer saccharinum nigrum. 

Acer spicatum. 

Acer Tartaricum. 

Acer Tauricum. 

Acer tricolor. 

Negundo aceroides. 

Negundo aceroides argentea. 

Negundo aceroides crispum. 

Negundo aceroides lutea. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



301 



B.-DICOTYLEI>ON-^-Coiitiiiiied. 



Negundo aceroidea variegata alba. 
Negundo aceroides violacea. 

LEGUMINOS-^. 

Amorplia canescens. 
AiDorpha dealbata. 
Amorpha fragrans. 
Aroorpha fragrans nana. 
Amorpha fruticosa. 
Amorpha glabra. 
Caragana Altagana. 
Caragana arborescens. 
Caragana arenaria. 
Caragana Chamlagu. 
Caragana fruteecens. 
Caragana gracilis peuduia. 
Caragana microphylla. 
Caragana pygmiea. 
Caragana Redowekii. 
Caragana spinosa. 
Caragana tragacauthoidcs. 
Colutea aborescens. 
Colntea crnenta. 
Cytisus abliflorus. 
Cytisus atropurpureus. 
Cytisns AnstriacuB. 
Cytisns biflorns. 
Cytisns capitatus. 
Cytisus elongatns. 
Cytisus hirsutns. 
Cytisus iucamatus. 
Cytisus latifolius. 
Cytisus leucanthns. 
Cytisus nigricans. 
Cytisus purpurens. 
Cytisus secnndus. 
Cytisus spinosns. 
Cytisus triflorns. 
Genista angelica. 
Genista capitata 
Genista Germanica. 
Genista Hispanica. 
Genista horrida. 
Genista pilusa. 
Genista prostrata. 
Genista pnrgaus. 
Genista radiata. 
Genista sagitallis. 
Genista Siberica. 
Genista tinctoria. 
Genista tinctoria flore pleno. 
Genista triquetrit. 
Halimodendron argentenm. 
Laburnum Alpinus. 



Laburnum Alpinus annularis. 
Laburnum Alpinus hybridus. 
Laburnum Alpinus odoratus. 
Laburnum Alpinus Parksii. 
Laburnum Alpinus peudulns. 
Laburnum Alpinus Waterii. 
Laburnum sessilitblns. 
Laburnum vulgare. 
Laburnum vulgare foliis variegata. 
Laburnum vulgare fragrans. 
Laburnum vulgare latifolium. 
Laburnum vulgare purpurascens. 
Laburnum vulgare quercifoliuin. 
Ononis fruticosa. 
Ononis rotundi folia. 
Robinia hispida. ♦ 
Robinia EUiottii. 
Robinia Gordonituia. 
Robinia macrophylla. 
Robinia nana. 
Robinia rosea. 
Robinia Pseudacacia. 
Robinia Pseudacacia amorphaefolia. 
Robinia Pseudacacia bella. 
Robinia Pseudacacia Bessoniana. 
Robinia Pseudacacia crispa. 
Robinia Pseudacacia Decaisueana. 
Robinia Pseudacacia fastigiata. 
Robinia Pseudacacia gigantea. 
Robinia Pseudacacia gracilis. 
Robinia Pseudacacia iuermis. 
Robinia Pseudacacia microphylla. 
Robinia Pseudacacia macrophylla. 
Robinia Pseudacacia monstrosa. 
Robinia Pseudacacia monophylla. 
Robinia Pseudacacia peuduia. 
Robinia Pseudacacia procera. 
Robinia Pseudacacia pyramidalis. 
Robinia Pseudacacia spectabilis. 
Robinia Pseudacacia stricta. 
Robinia Pseudacacia tortuosa. 
Robinia Pseudacacia umbraculifera. 
Robinia viscosa. 
Sarothamnns Scoparius. 
Sarothamnus Scoparius albus. 
Spartium junceuui. 
Spartium juuceum flore pleno. 
Ulex Europtea. 
Ulex Europtea flore pleno. 
Ulex nana. 
Ulex stricta. 
Wistaria Chinenais. 
Wistaria frntesceus. 
Wistaria frntesceus alba. 



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INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.-i:)ICOTYLEi:)ON.fE-Coiitiiiued. 



Wistaria frotesceus brachyletra. 
Wistaria trutescens brachyletra rubra. 
Corouilla Eenierus. 
Sophora JapoDica. 
Sophora Japonica pendula. 
Sophora Japonica variegata. 
Cladrastis tiuctoria. 
Cercis Cauatiensis. 
Cercis carnea. 
Cercis Siliquastrum, 
Cercis variegata. 
Gleditschia Riogoti peudnla. 
Gleditschia Caspica. 
Gleditschia Fontanesii. 
Gleditschia latisiliqua. 
Gleditschia macraciftitha. 
Gleditiichia monosperma. 
Gleditschia sinensis. 
Gleditschia sinensis inermis. 
Gleditschia sinensis purpurea. 
Gleditschia triacanthos. 
Gleditschia triacanthos inermis. 
Gymnocladus Canadensis. 
Albizzia Julibrissin. 

ROSACE.E. 

Amygdalopsis Lindleyii, 
Amygdalns communis. 
Amygdalus communis amara. 
Amygdalns conimunis aurea stricta. 
Amygdalus communis dulcis. 
Amygdalus communis Hore pleno. 
Amygdalus communis macrocarpa. 
Amygdalns communis pendula. 
Amygdalus Dianthifolia. 
Amygdalus jaspida. 
Amygdalus nana incana. 
Amygdalus pendunculata. 
Amygdalus Persica caryophyllus. 
Amygdalus Persica communis. 
Amygdalus Persica flore pleno. 
Amygdalus Persica rosea flore pleno. 
Amygdalus Persica sanguinea pleno. 
Amygdalus Persica versicolor flore pleno. 
Amygdalus pumfla alba plena. 
Amygdalus pumila rosea plena. 
Prnnus Americana. 
Prunus Brigantiac. 
Prunus Califoniica. 
Prunus Chicasa. 
Prunus doraestica flore pleno. 
Prunus domestica variegata. 
Prunus domestica variegata aurea. 
Prunus maritima. 



Prunus myrobolana. 

Prunus pumila. 

Prunus spinosa. 

Prunus spinosa flore pleno. 

Prunus spinosa Institia. 

Prunus Avium. 

Prunus Avium duracina flore pleno 

Prunus Avium Juliana. 

Prunus Avium Juliana pendula. 

Prunus Avium Juliana variegata. 

Prunus Avium pendula. 

Prunus Cerjvsus. 
j Prunus Cerasus flore pleno. 

Prunus Cerasns Gallica. 

Prunus CerasuB marasea. 

Prunus Cerasns nicotentefolia. 

Prunus Cerasns semipleno. 

Prunus Cerasns variegata. 

Prnnus glancifolia. -. 

Prunus ilicifolia. 

Prunus internietlia. 
, Prunus Japonica. i 

Prunus Laurocerasus. 

I^-unus Laurocerasus Caucasica. 

Prunus Laurocerasus Colchica. 
, Prunus Laurocerasus falcata. 

Prunus Laurocerasus intermedia. 

Prunus Laurocerasus Jeff'reyi. 

Prunus Laurocerasus pygnnea. 

Prunus Laurocerasus variegata. 

Prunus Lusitanica. 

Prunus maculata. 
I Prunus Mahaleb. 

Prunus Mahaleb variegata. 

Prunus Pad us. 

Prunus Padus ancnbaifolia. 

Prunus Patlus bracteosa. 

Prunus Padus flore pleno. 

Prunus Padus latifolia. 

Prunus Padus variegata. 

Prunus Pennsylvanica. 

Prunus semperflorens. 

Prunus serotina. 

Prnnus serrulata. 

Prunus Virginiana. 

Kerria Japonica. 

Kerria Japonica flore pleno. 

Kerria Japonica variegata. 

Kerria ramolus. 

SchizonotUH Lindleyaua. 

Schizonotns sorbifolia. 

Schizonotus sorbifolia alpina. 

Spiri^a alnifolia. 

Spiraea alpina. 



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B.-DICOTYLEDON-^-Continued. 



Spirsea amceoa. 

Spirsa ariifolia. 

Spinea bella. 

Spiraea bella caruea. 

Spinee Blumei. 

Spiraea Blllardii. 

Spiraea callosa. 

Spir^a callosa alba. 

Spirsea cana. 

Spinea carpinaefolia. 

Spiraea chamsedrifolia. 

Spir^a corymboQa. 

Spiraea crataegifolia. 

Spiraea cuneifolia. 

Spirsea Douglasii. 

Spirsea eximia. 

Spiraea flexuosa. 

Spirtea floribunda. 

Spiraea grandiflora. 

Spiraea hypericitblia. 

Spiraea Hookeriana. 

Spiraea incarnata. 

Spiraea laccata. 

Spinea laciuiata. 

Spinea laevigata. 

Spiraea Lindlejana. 

Spirsea Nepalensis. 

Spiraea Nicondertii. 

Spirtea Nobleaua. 

Spinea nutans. 

Spinea opulifolia. 

Spinea opulifolia anrea. 

Spirtea opulus. 

Spinea pachystachys. 

Spirtea pauiculata. 

Spiraea prunifolia flore pleno. 

Spirjea Reevesii. 

Spiraea Reevesii flore pleno. 

Spirsea Regeliana. 

Spiriea rhombi folia. 

Spinea robusta. 

Spirwa rotandifolia. 

Spinea salicifolia. 

Spiraea salicifolia alpestris. 

Spinea salicifolia carnea. 

Spiraea salicifolia pissa. 

Spinea semperflorens. 

Spirtea sinensis. 

Spinea thalictroides. 

Spiraea Tbunbergiana. 

Spiraea tonientosa. 

Spinea trilobata. 

Spiraea ulmifolia. 

Spiraea vaccinae folia. 



Potentilla fruticosa. 

Potentilla fruticosa Daburica. 

Potentilla fruticosa tcnuiloba. 

Potentilla glabra. 

Rubus caesius. 

Rubus fructicoRus. 

Rubus fructicosus flore pleno. 

Rubus fructicosus laciniatiLs. 

Rubus fructicosus rubra. 

Rubus fructicosus superba. 

Rubus fructicosus variegatus. 

Rubus leucodermis. 

Rubus Nutkanus. 

Rubus odoratus. 

Rubus rnpestris. 

Rubus spectabilis. 

Rubus suberectus. 

Amelanchier Canadensis. 

Amelancbier Canadensis alnifolia. 

Amelancbier Canadensis Botiyapium. 

Amelanchier Canadensis oblongifolia. 
I Amelancbier Canadensis oligocarpa. 

Amelanchier Canadensis rotundifolia. 

Amelanchier floribunda. 
I Amelanchier florida. 

Amelancbier latifolia. 
I Amelanchier vulgaris. 
I Cotoneaster acuminata. 
' Cotoneaster affinis. 

Cotoneaster buxifolia. 

Cotoneaster com pacta. 

Cotoneaster frigida. 

Cotoneaster Hookeriana. 

Cotoneaster lanata. 

Cotoneaster laxiflora. 

Cotoneaster macropbylla. 

Cotoneaster nummularia. 

Cotoneaster rotundifolia. 

Cotoneaster rupestris. 

Cotoneaster Simondsii. 

Cotoneaster thymi folia. 

Cotoneaster tomentosa. 
•Cotoneaster uniflora. 

Cotoneaster vulgaris. 

Cotoneaster Wheelerii. 

Crataegus acerifolia. 

Crattegus Aronia. 

Crataegus apii folia. 

Crattegus Azerolus. 

Crataegus coccinea. 

Crataegus cordata. 

Cratiegus Crus-galli. 

Crataegus Crus-galli prunifolia. 

Crataegus Douglasii. 



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INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.-DICOTYLEr>ON.3E~Continued. 



Crattegus flava. 
Crataegus llava pubescens. 
Cratffigus floribnnda. 
Crataegus heterophylla Fluggo. 
Cratflegus intermedia. 
Crataegus lati folia. 
Cratsegus labata. 
Crataegus lucida odorata. 
Crataegus Macnabiana. 
Crataegus macracautha. 
Crataegus melanocarpa. 
Crataegus Mexicana. 
Crataegus nigra. 
Crataegus obtusi folia. 
Crataegus orieu talis. 
Cratffigns Oxycantha. 
Crataegus Oxycantha Celliana. 
Crataegus Oxycantha Guthrieana. 
Crataegus Oxycantha laciniata pendula. 
Cratffigus Oxycantha lutea. 
Crataegus Oxycantha mespilue. 
Crataegus Oxycantha raonogynia. 
•Crattegus Oxycantha Oliveriana. 
Crataegus Oxycantha pendula variegata. 
Crattegus Oxycantha pendnla pyracanthi- 

folia. 
CratfTgus Oxycantha pleno alba. 
Crattegus Oxycantha punicea. 
Cratiegus Oxycantha punicea ilore pleno. 
Crataegus Oxycantha quercifolia. 
Crataegus Oxycantha regina pendula. 
Crataegus Oxycantha spinosissinia. 
CratiBgus Oxycantha stricta. 
Crattegus Oxycantha tanacetifolia. 
Crataegus Oxycantha tortuosa. 
Crataegus Oxycantha variegata aurea. 
Crataegus Oxycantha variegata argentea. 
Crataegus parvi folia. 
Crataegus parviflora grossulariefolia. 
Crataegus purpurea. 
Crattegus pumila. 
Crattegus Pyracantha. 
Crattegus Pyracantha crenulatha. 
Crattegus Pyracantha ioiplexa. 
Crattegus spathulata. 
Crataigus tomentosa. 
Crataegus tomentosa punctata. 
Cratjegus tomentosa punctata aurea. 
Cratjegus tomentosa punctata rubra. 
Crattegus tomentosa punctata rubra 

stricta. 
Cratjegus tomentosa variegata pyrifolia. 
Crattegus trilobata. 
Cydonia Japonica. 



Cydonia Japonica Aurora. 

Cydonia' Japouica albaoincta. 

Cydonia Japonica atro-sangninea. 

Cydonia Japouica aurantiaca. 

Cydonia Japonica caudidissima. 

Cydonia Japonica flore alba. 

Cydonia Japonica Hore pleno. 

Cydonia Japonica grandiflora. 

Cydonia Japouica Mallardii. 

Cydonia Japonica Moerloozii. 

Cydonia Japonica Princesse Emilie. 

Cydonia Japouica umbeliata. 

Cydonia sinensis. 

Mespilus Germanica. 

Mespilus Smithii. 

Photinia deut«ta. 

Photinia serrulata. 

Pyrus aceri folia. 

Pyrus Americana. 

Pyrus Americana fastigiata. 

Pyrus Americana flore albo pleno. 

Pyrus Americana rubra pleno. 

Pyrus amygdaliformis. 

Pyrus angustifolia. 

Pyrus arbuti folia. 

Pyrus arbuti folia crythrocarpa. 

Pyrus arbuti folia melanocarpa. 

Pyrus Aria. 

Pyrus Aria latifolia. 

Pyrus Aria nivea. 

Pyrus Alia undulata. 

Pyrus Aucupuria. 

Pyrus Aucuparia Astracanica expansa. 

Pyrus Aucuparia Astracanica fastigiata. 

Pyrus Aucuparia fastigiata. 

Pyrus Aucuparia foliis variegata. 

Pyrus Aucuparia fructo-luteo. 

Pyrus Aucuparia pendula. 

Pyrus aurea hybrida. 

Pyrus baccata. 

Pyrus baccata coccinea. 

Pyrus Bolwylleriana. 

Pyrus Chamcemespilus. 

Pyrus communis flore pleno. 

Pyrus communis foliis variegatis. 

Pyrus communis fructu variegatis. 

Pyrus communis jaspida. 

Pyrus coronaria. 

Pyrus Vlomestica. 

Pyrus dulcis. 

Pyrus elcegnifolia. 

Pyrus floribnnda. 

Pyrus flutex dwarf. 

Pyrus heterophylla. 



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B.-DICOTYLEDON^E-Continued. 



Pyrus hybrid large. 

Pyms hybnd dwarf. 

Pyms intermedia. 

Pyms lauuginosa. 

Pyrns Mains argentea marginata. 

Pyms Malus anrea nervosa. 

Pyms Mains foliis argenters. 

Pyms Mains jaspida. 

Pyrns Mains ntacnlata. 

Pyrns Mains Nepalensis. 

Pyrns Mains nivalis. 

Pyrns Maulei. 

Pyrns nana lloribunda. 

Pyrns pinnatifida. 

Pyrns pinuatifida arbuscnla. 

Pyms prunlfolia. 

Pyms prunlfolia coccinea. 

Pyms prnnifolia hybrida. 

Pyrns prnnifolia pulveriana. 

Pyms prnnifolia Rigno. 

Pyrns prnnifolia salicifolia. 

Pyrns prnnifolia sinensis. 

Pyrns qnercifolia. 

Pyms iSambncsefolia. 

Pyrns Sorbns. 

Pyrns spectabilis. 

Pyrns spectabilis albo pleuo. 

Pyrns spectabilis liore pleno. 

Pyrns spectabilis foliis variegata. 

Pyrns spectabilis Semi-pleno. 

Pyms Spuria. 

Pyrns Theoprastii. 

Pyms Toriugo. 

Pyrns nndnlata. 

Pyrfis variolosa. 

Pyrns vestita. 

CALYCAXTHAC-E. 

Calycauthns iloridns. 
Calycantbns glancns. 
Calycanthns heterophyllnm. 
Calycantbns laevigatns. 
Calycanthns macropyllus. 
Calycanthns prnnifolia. 
Chimouanthus fragrans. 
Cbiuionanthud fragrans aurantiacns. 
Chimonanthns fragrans graudifloms. 

MYRTACE^. 
Pnnica granatum. 
Pnnica granatnm Legrellii. 

LYTHRACE.E. 
Lacjor^trjemia Indica. 
Lagerstriemia purpurea. 
20 CEN, PT 2 



Lagerstrtemia regina. 
Lagerstrsemia rubra. 
Lagerstrtemia violacea. 



TAMIRICACE^. 

Myricaria Qermanica. 
Tamarix Africana. 
Tamarix gallica. 
Tamarix Indica. 

GROSSULACE^. 

Ribes alpinnm. 

Ribes adrenm. 

Ribes anreum fragrans. 

Ribes Benthamii. 

Ribes cerasiforme. 

Ribes cereum. 

Ribes Cynosbati. 

Ribes diacantha« 

Ribes floridnni. 

Ribes Gordonianum. 

Ribes gracile. 

Ribes grossulariodes. 

Ribes hirtellnra. 

Ribes lacnstre. 

Ribes Londonianum. 

Ribes Menziesii. 

Ribes nigrum. 

Ribes nigrum foliis variegata. 

Ribes uigrnm frnctu-viride. 

Ribes nigrum laciniatnm. 

Ribes niveum. 

Ribes prostratum. 

Ribes rutundifolium. 

Ribes rubrum. 

Ribes sanguinenm. 

Ribes sanguinenm atro-sanguineum. 

Ribes sanguinenm flore-albo. 

Ribes sanguinenm pleno. 

Ribes saxatile. 

Ribes speciosum. 

Ribes tenniflornm. 

SAXIFRAGACE^. 

I tea Virginica. 
Decumaria barbara. 
Dentzia crenata. 
Dentzia crenata flore pleno, 
Dentzia corymbosa. 
Dentzia gracilis. 
Dentzia scabra. 
Dentzia sinensis. 



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3o6 



IKTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.-r>ICOTYLEnON.E-Continued. 



Deutzia stamioea. 
Hydrangea aboresceus. 
Hydrangea Horteusia. 
Hydrangea Japonica. 
Hydrangea pauiculata. 
Hydrangea quercifolia. 
Hydrangea radiata. 
Philadelphus Columbiana. 
Pbiladelphus coronarius. 
Philadelphus coronarius flore pleno. 
Philadelphus coronarius nanus. 
Philadelphus coronarius variegatus. 
Philadelphus floribuudus. 
Philadelphus Gordonianus. 
Philadelphus hirsutus. 
Philadelphus inodorus. 
Philadelphus inodorus grandidoras. 
Philadelphus laxus 
Philadelphus Mexicanus. 
Philadelphus verrucosus. 
Philadelphus verrucosus latifolius. 
niladelphus verrucosus speciosus. 
Philadelphus Zeyberii. 

HAMAMELACE^. 

Hamamelis arborea. 
Uamanielis Virgioica. 
Fothergilla alnifolia. 
laquidambar imberbe. 
Idquidambar styraciliua. 

UMBELLIFER.E. 
Bapleuruni fruticosum. 

ARALIACE^. 

Aralia Japonica. 

Aralia juglandifolia. 

Aralia spinosa. 

Hedera Helix. 

Hedera Helix Algeriensis. 

Hedera Helix Hibernica. 

Hedera Helix Hibernica variegatis. 

Hedera Helix variegata argent a. 

Hedera Taurica. 

Hedera Raegneriana. 

CORNACE.E. 

Bentbamia fragifera. 
Comus alt^rnifolia. 
Corn us asperi folia. 



Corn us Canadensis. 

Comus circinata. 

Comus florida. 

Cornus grandis. 

Comus niascula. 

Comus mascula variegatil. 

Cornus pauiculata. 

Comus sanguinea. 

Comus sanguinea variegata. 

Comus sericea. 

Cornus Sibirica. 

Comus Sibirica variegata. 

Cornus stolouifera. 

Cornus stricta. 

Garrya elliptica. 

Xyssa aquatica. 

Nyssa multidora. 

Nyssa uniflora. 



MUNOPETALJE. 

CAPRIFOLIACE^. 

Diervilla amabilis hortensis rubra. 

Diervilla amabilis Steznerii. 

Diervilla amabilis Van Houtei. 

Diervilla corascensis. 

Diervilla corascensis alba. 

Diervilla corascensis Groenewegenii. 

Diervilla corascensis Isoline. 

Diervilla corascensis nivea multiflonu 

Diervilla corascensis stricta. 

Diervilla Japonica.. 

Diervilla Japonica aurea. 

Diervilla Japonica Desboisii. 

Diervilla Japonica flore pleno. 

Diervilla Japonica nana variegata. 

Diervilla Japonica variegata argentea. 

Diervilla sessilifolia. 

Diervilla trifida. 

Leyce»t«ria fomiosa. 

Leycesteria Nepalensis. 

Linnn?a borealis. 

Louicera Alpigena. 

Louicera affinis. 

Lonicera l»rachypoda. 

Louicera braohypoda aureum reticala- 

tum. 
Lonicera Brownii. 
Louicera Canadensis. 
Lonicera cerulea. 



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B.-DICOTYLEDON.3E~Continued. 



Lonicera ciliata. 
LoDicora coufusa. 
LouLcera diversi folia. 
Lonicera etruscum. 
Lonicera Fenesii. 
Lonicera flava. 
Lonicera fragrantissima. 
Lo&icera grata. 
Lonicera Uallieaua. 
Lonicera hiHaata. 
Lonicera Iberica. ' 
Lonicera itnplexa. 
Lonicera Ledebourii. 
Lonicera Magnevillie. 
Lonicera magnitica. 
Lonicera oblongiflora. 
Lonicera occidentalis. 
Lonicera pallida. 
Lonicera parviflora. 
Lonicera parviflora coccinea. 
Lonicera parviflora Douglasii. 
Lonicera Periclymonum. 
Lonicera Periclymennui aurea. 
Lonicera Periclyinenuui Belgica. 
Lonicera Periclymenum quercifoliuin. 
Lonicera Periclymenuni^serotinuui. 
Lonicera pulveralenta. 
Lonicera Pyrenaica. 
Lonicera Serotinum. " 
Lonicera Sbeperdii. 
Lonicera speciosa. 
Lonicera Standishii. 
Lonicera Tartarica. 
Lonicera Tartarica alba. 
Lonicera Tartarica grand idora. 
Lonicera Tartarica rnbra. 
Lonicera Xylotenni. 
Symphoricarpus glaucus. 
Symphoricarpus niontanas. 
Symphoricarpus occidentalis. 
^ SymphoricarpuB racemosas. 
Syinphoricarpns vnlgaris. 
Symphoricarpas vnlgaris foliis variegatis 
Sambucns Canadensis. 
Sambucus nigra. 
Sambucns nigra aurea. 
Sambncufi nigra fastigiata. 
Sambucus nigra beterophylla. 
Sambucus nigra laciniata. 
Sambucus nigra lencocarpa. 
Sambucus nigra monstrosa. 
Sambucus nigra rotundifolia. 
Sambucus nigra variegata argentea. 
Sambucus pubens. 



Sambucus racemosa. 
Sambucus racemosa Tiresceus. 
Viburnum acerifolium. 
Viburnum anglicnm. 
Viburnum cylindriacum. 
Viburnum dentatum. 
Viburnum lantana. 
Viburnum lantana aurea margiuata. 
Viburnum lantana tbliis variegata. 
Viburnum lantauoides. 
Viburnum Lentago. 
Viburnum macrocephalum. 
Viburnum nudum. 
Viburnum nudum Cassiuoides. 
Vibarnum nudum Claytonii. 
Viburnum obovatum. 
Viburnum Opulus. 
Viburnum Opulus Aterilis. 
Viburnum Opulus nana. 
Viburnum paucidorum. 
Viburnum plicatum. 
Viburnum prnnifolium. 
Viburnum pubcscens. 
Viburnum rugosum. 
Viburnum Towardii. 



RUBIACEiE. 

Cepbalanthus occidentalis. 
Gelsemium Sempervirens. 

COMPOSIT.E. 

Baccliaris angnsti folia. 
Baccbaris glomeruli Hora. 
Baccharis balimifolia. 
Iva frutescens. 
Arteniisa Abrotanus. 
Artemisa arboresceus. 
Artemisa Tobolskianum. 

ERICACEAE. 

Cbiogenes bispidula. 

Gaylussacia bracbycera. 

Guylussacia dumo^a. 

Gaylussacia frondosa. 

Gaylussacia resinosa. 

Gaylussacia ursina. 

Vaccinium arboreum. 
I Vaccinium caespitosum. 
I Vaccinium Canadense. 

Vaccinium Constableii. 

Vaccinium corynibosum. 

Vaccinium corymbosum amieuum. 

Vaccinium corymbosum atrococcnm. 

Vaccinium corymbosum glabrum. 



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308 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

B.-DICOT YLEDO N^E-Continued. 



Vaccininm coi*ymbo.sum pallidum. 
Vacciniuin crassifolinm. 
Vaccininin Elliottii. 
Vaccinium erythrocarpon. 
Vacciniura hirsutum. 
Vacciniain macrocarpoD. 
Vaccinium Oxycoccus. 
Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum. 
Vaccinium stamineum. 
Vacciniura uliginosum. 
Vaccinium vacillans. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Id«?a. 
Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea variegata. 
Andromeda ferruginea. 
Andromeda floribunda. 
Andromeda lignstrina. 
Andromeda mariana. 
Andromeda nitida. 
Andromeda polifolia. 
Andromeda speciosa. 
Arbutus hybrida. 
Arbutus procera. 
Arbutus tomentosa. 
Arbutus Unedo. 
Arctostaphylos alpina. 
Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi. 
Azalea arborescens. 
Azalea calendulacea. 
Azalea nudiflora. 
Azalea viscosa. 
Azalea viscosa glauca. 
Azalea viscosa nitida. 
Cassandra calyculata. 
Cassiope bypnoides. 
Cassiope tetragon a. 
Clethra acuminata. 
Cletbra ainifolia. 
Dabopcia polifolia. 
Dabipcia polifolia flore aibo. 
£pigff>a repens. 
Kalmia angustifolia. 
Kalmia cuneata. 
Kalmia glauca. 
Kalmia glauca rosmarinifolia. 
Kalmia hirsuta. 
Kalmia latifolia. 
Kalmia myrtifolia. 
Kalmia nana. 
Ledum latifolium. 
Ledum palustre. 
LeucotbcB acuminata. 
Leucotbce axillaris. 
Leucothcp Catesbtei. 
Leucothcp racemosa. 



Leucotbce recurva. 

Leiopbyllum buxifolium. 
i Loiseleuria procumbens. 
I Menziesia ferruginea. 

Meuztesia ferruginea globnlarls. 
! Menziesia globosa. 

Menziesia globosa flore albo. 

Oxydendrum arboreum. 
' Pemettya floribuuda. 

Pemettya mucronata. 
j Pbyllodoce taxifolia. 

Kbododendroo Catawbiense. 

Rhododendron Dauricum. 

Rhododendron hirsutum. 

Rhododendron Lapponicnm. 

Rhododendron maximum. 

Rhododendron punctatum. 
' Rhodora Canadensis. 

1 AQUIFOLIACE^. 

Ilex Aquifolium. 

Ilex Aquifolium angusta marginatum. 

Ilex Aquifolium ferox. 

Ilex Aquifolium ferox argenteum. 

Ilex Aquifolium ferox argenteum screw 
leaved. 

Ilex Aquifolium ferox argenteum hedge* 
I hog. 

Ilex Aquifolium laurifolia. 

Ilex Aquifolium media-picta variegatam. 
I Ilex Aquifolium pictum. 

Ilex Aquifolium purpureum. 
, Ilex Aquifolium quadricolor. 

Ilex Aquifolium Reginea. 
' Ilex Aquifolium regidnm marginatam. 

Ilex Balearica. 

Ilex Balearica variegata. 

Ile^Cassine. 
I Ilex Castanifolia. 

Ilex coniuta. 
' Ilex crenata. 

Ilex Dahoon. 

Ilex Dahoon myrtifolia. 

Ilex Dahoon myrtifolia aurea. 

Ilex dipyrena. 
I Ilex furcatA. 
' Ilex latispina minor. 
I Ilex latifolia. 
I Ilex roacrocarpa. 

Ilex Magellanica. 

Ilex opaca. 

Ilex rigida. 

Ilex Turago. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



th£, department of agriculture. 



309 



B.-r>ICOTYLEDON^E— Continued. 

CYRILLACE.E. 
Cyrilla raceiniflora. 
: Elliottia racemosa. 

EBENACE.E. 



Ilex Amelanchier. 

Ilex decidua. 

Ilex mouticola. 

Ilex coriacea. 

Ilex glabra. 

Ilex Isevigata. 

Ilex lauceolata. 

Ilex verticillata. 

Myginda myrtifolia. 

Kemopanthes Canadensis. 

STYRACE^. 

Halesia diptera. 
Halesia parviflora. 
Halesia tetraptera. 
Styrax AmericaDum. 
Styrax Californica. 
Styrax grandifolia. 
Styrax pulverulenta. 
Syniplocos tinctoria. 



Diospyrus Lotas. 
Diospyrus Virginiana. 

SAPOTACE^. 
Bumelia lanaginosa. 
Bumelia lanaginoSa obiongifolia. 
Bumelia lycioides. 
Bumelia reclinata. 
Bumelia tenax. 

BIGNONIACE.E. 

Bignouia capreolata. 
Catalpa bignoniodes. 
Catalpa Bungeii. 
Catalpa Keempferii. 
Catalpa umbrae nlifera. 
Tecoma graudiflora. 
Tecoma radicans. 



SCROPHULARIACE^. 



Paulownia Imperialis. 
Buddlea Liudleyana. 

VERBENACE^. 

Callicarpa Americana. 
Vitex Agnus-castns. 
Vitex AgnuB-castus latifolia. 
Vitex incisa. 

ASCLEPIADACE^. 

Periploca Gneca; 

JASMINACE.E. 

Jasmiuum chrysautha. 
Jasminum fruticans. 
Jasmiuum bumile. 
Jasminum nudiilorum. 
Jasminum ochrolenca. 
Jasminum officinale. 
Jasminum officinale variegata. 
Jasminum pubigenim. 
Jasminum revolutum. 
Jasminum triumpbans. 

OLEACE.i:. 

Cbtonantbus Virginica. 
Chionantbns Virginica maritiuia. 
Ligustrum aurenm. 
Liguatmm buxifolium. 
Ligustrum coriacenm. 



Ligustrum Japonicura. 

Ligustrum laurifolium. 

Ligustrum lucidum. 

Ligustrum Nepalense. 

Ligustrum ovalifolium. 

Ligustrum prunifolium. 

Ligustrum pyramidalis. 

Ligustrum Siuense. 

Ligustrum vulgare. 

Ligustrum vulgare flore leuteum. 

Ligustrum vulgare leucocarpum, 

Ligustrum vulgare superbum. 

Ligustrum vulgare variegatum. 

Olea Americana. 

Fontanesia phillynvoides. . 

Forsytbia Fortuneii. 

Forsythia suspeusa. 

Fors3'tbia viridissima. 
I Syringa Emodi. 
' Syringa Josikoea. 
' Syringa Persica. 

Syringa Persica alba. 

Syringa Persica laciniata. 
i Syringa rotbuiagensis. 
i Syringa vulgaris. 

Syringa vulgaris alba. 

Syringa vulgaris coprulea. 

Syringa vulgaris Charles X. 

Syringa vulgaris coccinea. 

Spriuga vulgaris Columbiana. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



3IO 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B-r)ICOTYLEDON.E-Continiied. 



Syriuga vulgaris Constant! nopoli tana. 
Syringa vulgaris Croix de Broby. 
Syringa vulgaris Dr. Lindley. 
Syriuga vulgaris Dnchesse de Nemours. 
Syringa vulgaris gpgantea. 
Syringa vulgaris Glory of Mt. Hope. 
Syringa vulgaris graudiflora. 
Syringa vulgaris insiguin. 
Syringa vulgaris Louis Bouaparte. 
Syringa vulgaris Noissetiana. 
Syringa vulgaris Philemon. 
Syriuga vulgaris Prince Nottger. 
Syriuga vulgaris Princesse Maria. 
Syringa vulgaris purpurea. 
S3Tinga vulgaris rosea. 
Syringa vulgaris rosea graudidora. 
Syringa vulgaris rubra. 
Syringa vulgaris semi-plena. 
Syringa vulgaris Siberica. 
Syringa vulgaris Sinensis alba. 
Syringa vulgaris speciosa. 
Syringa vulgaris spectabilis. 
Syringa vulgaris Trioniphe d^Orleans. 
Syriuga vulgaris variegata. 
Syringa vulgaris violacea. 
Syringa vulgaris virginalis. 
Fraxinus amaerissima. 
Fraxinus Americana. 
Fraxinus Americana lucida. 
Fraxinus Americana lyrata. 
Fraxinus Americana Ricbardii. 
Fraxinus Boscii. 
Fraxinus Calabrica. 
Fraxinus Chineusis. 
Fraxinus Eloriza Japonica. 
Fraxinus excelsior. 
Fraxinus excelsior acubcefolia. 
Fraxinus excelsior argentea. 
Fraxinus excelsior aurea. 
Fraxinus excelsior aurea pendula. 
Fraxinus excelsior crispa. 
Fraxinus excelsior fungosa. 
Fraxinus excelsior glomerata. 
Fraxinus excelsior montrosa. 
Fraxinus excelsior nana gl()bosa. 
Fraxinus excelsior nigra. 
Fraxinus excelsior pendula. 
Fraxinus excelsior Salicifolia. 
Fraxinus excelsior Salicifolia variegata. 
Fraxinus excelsior variegata. 
Fraxinus excelsior verticillaris. 
Fraxinus heterophylla. 
Fraxinus bispida. 
Fraxinus lentiscifolia. 



Fraxinus oxycarpa. 
Fraxinus pannosa. 
Fraxinus platycarpa. 
Fraxiuus pubescens. 
Fraxinus punctata. 
Fraxinus qnadraugulata. 
Fraxinus rufa. 
Fraxiuus Sambucifolia. 
Fraxinus Scolopendrifolia. 
Fraxinus spectabilis. 
Fraxinus Tbeophrasti. 
Fraxinus viridin. 
Ornus Europa^a. 
Omus rotundifolia. 
Forestiera acuminata^ 
Forestiera ligustrina. 

III.— APETAL^. 

POLYGONACEiE. 
Brunnicbia cirrhosa. 

LAURACE^. 

Benzoin melisswfolium. 
Benzoin odoriferum. 
Laurus nobilis. 
Persea Carolinensis. 
Persea Carolinensis palustris. 
Sassafras officinale. 
Tetrauthera geniculata. 

ARISTOLOCHIACEiE. 

Aristolochia Sipbo. 
Aristolochia tomentosa. 

THYMELEACEiE. 

Daphne alpina. 
Daphne Aucklandii. 
Daphne Cneorum. 
Daphne Cneorum foliis variegata. 
Daphne Fortuneii. 
Daphne Houtteaua. 
Daphne Japonica. 
Daphne Laureola. 
I Daphne mezereum. 
Daphne mezereum alba. 
Daphne mezereum atropurpureum. 
Daphne mezereum autumnale. 
Daphne mezereum nova. 
Dirca palustris. 

EL^AGNACE.E. 

Elieagnus angustifolia. 
Elieagnus argentea. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



311 



B.-r>ICOTYLEr)ON.:E-Contiiiued. 



EJoeagnns Hortensis. 
Elieagnus parvifolia. 
Elfpagnus reflexa. 
Elfipagnus reflexa varigata. 
Hippophffi salicifolia. 
Hippophte rhaniQoides. 
Hippophie rbanmoides angustifolia. 
Shepherdia argentea. 
Shepherdia Canadensis. 

SANTALACE^. 

Buckleya distichopbylla. 
Darbya umbellulata. 
Pymlaria oleifera. 

EUPHORBIACE^. 

Baxns Balearica. 

Baxas Cblueusis! 

Baxus Fortuneii. 

Baxns Japonica aurea. 

Bnxns longifolia. 

Buxus rot undi folia. 

Baxns sempervireus. 

Buxus sempervirens aboresceus. 

Buxus semperrirens angustifolia. 

Buxus sempervirens intermedia. 

Buxus sempervirens margiuata aurea. 

Buxus sempervirens nana. 

Boxus sempervirens pendula. 

Buxus sempervirens rosmarinifolia. 

Buxus f empervirens tenuifolia. 

Buxud sempervirens variegata argentea. 

Buxus tbymifolia. 

Stilliugia ligustrina. 

EMPETRACE.E. 

Ceratiola ericoides. 
Coreraa Conradii. 
Eropetrnm nigrum. 

URTICACE.E. 

Celtis australis. 

Celtis Caucasica. 

Celtis glabrata. 

Celtis Mississippiensis. 

Celtis occidentalis. 

Celtis occidentalis crassifolia. 

Celtis occidentalis pumila. 

Planera acuminata. 

Planera aquatics. 

Planera Ricbardii. 

Ulmus alata. 

Ulmus Americana. 

Ulmus Americana aspera. 



Ulmus Americana pendula. 
Ulmus campestris. 
Ulmus campestris argentea. 
Ulmus campestris betulaefolia. 
Ulmus campestris Cornubiensis. 
Ulmus campestris foliis variegata, 
Ulmus campestris incisa. 
Ulmus campestris monumentali^. 
Ulmus campestris myrtifolia. 
Ulmus campestris nodosa. 
Ulmus campestris parvifolia. 
Ulmus campestris pendula. 
Ulmus campestris plicata. 
Ulmus campestris pyramidalis. 
Ulmus campestris stricta purpurea. 
Ulmus campestris tortuosa. 
Ulmus campestris vimiualis. 
Ulmus cinerea. 
Ulmus effusa. 
Ulmus Floridaua. 
Ulmus fulva. 
Ulmus glabra. 
"Ulmus glabra glomerata. 
Ulmus glabra Scampstoniana. 
Ulmus glabra pendula. 
Ulmus glabra vegata. 
Ulmus glabra vegata variegata. 
Ulmus glabra vicosa. 
Ulmus Kackii. 
Ulmus Lantana. 
Ulmus major. 
Ulmus montana. 
Ulmus montana asplenifoliii. 
Ulmus montana crispa. 
Ulmus montana erecta. 
Ulmus montana fastigiata. 
Ulmus montana lati folia. 
Ulmus montana pendula. 
Ulmus montana pumila. 
Ulmus montana purpurea. 
Ulmus montana rugosa Mastersi. 
Ulmus montana scabra. 
Ulmus montana variegata. 
Ulmus plumosa. 
Ulmus racemosa. 
Ulmus serrati folia. 
Ulmus suberosa. 
Ulmus suberosa erecta. 
Ulmus suberosa vulgaris. 
Ulmus superba. 
Ulmus urticie folia. 
Broussonettia papyrifera. 
Broussonettia papyrifera variegata. 
Ficus Carica. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



312 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.-DICOTYLP:r>ON.^-Coiitimied. 



Madura auraiitiaca. 

Madura aurautiaca variegata. 

Madura tricuspidata. 

Moms alba. 

Moms alba Morettiana. 

Moms alba multicanlis. 

Morus alba pumila. 

Morns Constautiuopolitana. 

Mortis Kaerapferii. 

Moms nigra. 

Moras rubra. 

PLATANACE^. 

^palensis. 

ddentalis. 

ientalis. 

ien talis aceri folia. 

ientalis cuneata. 

JUGLANDACE.E. 



a. 

gua. 

tioa. 

'a. 

)carpa. 

sticielbnnis. 

,ta. 

ntosa. 

utosa maxima. 

erea. 

erea pnpparturiensis. 

ndchurica. 

uopliylla. 

:ra. 

:ia. 

:ia pendula. 

ia lacininta. 

>estri8. 

CaucaHica. 

laevigata. 

sinensiii. 

CUPULIFER.E. 

binensis. 

irysopbylla. 

iroila. 

^sca. 

isca uspleni folia. 

58ca aurea uova. 

!8ca cochleata. 

(sca criHpa variegata. 

«ca Downtoniaua. 

!8ca glabra. 



Castanea vesca macula. 
Castanea vesca Madairensis. 
Castanea vesca prolifica. 
Castanea vesca pyramidalis. 
Castanea vesca variegata. 
Carpinns Americana. 
Carpi nus betulus. 
Carpinns betulus incisa. 
Carpi'nus betulus pendula. 
Carpinns Stains variegata argentea. 
Carpinns betulus variegata aurea. 
Corylus Americana. 
Corylus Avellana. 
Corylus Avellana heterophylla. 
Corylus Avellana purpurea. ^ 

Corylus Columa. 
Corylus rostrata. 
Fagus betuloides. 
Fagus ferruginea. 
Fagus ferruginea Caroliniana. 
Fagus sylvatica. 
Fagus sylvatica cristata. 
Fagus sylvatica cuprea. 
Fagus sylvatica graudidentata^ 
Fagus sylvatica heterophylla. 
Fagus sylvatica macrophylla. 
Fagus sylvatica monstrosa. 
Fagus sylvatica Norvegiea. 
Fagus sylvatica pendula. 
Fagus sylvatica purpurea. 
Fagus sylvatica quercifolia. 
Fagus sylvatica variegata argentea. 
Fagus sylvatica variegata aurea. 
Ostrya alba. 
Ostrya Virginica. 
Ostrj'a vulgaris. 
Quercus ^gilops. 
Quercus ^Egilbps peudula. 
Quercus agrifolia. 
Quercus all>a. 
Quercus aquatica. 
Quercus australis. 
Quercus bambusa^folia. 
Quercus Castanea. 
Quercus Catesbrei. 
Quercus Cerris. 
Quercus Cerris Austriaca. 
Quercus Cerris Fulhamensis. 
Quercus Cerris heterophylla. 
Quercus Cerris laciuiata. 
Quercus Cerris Luconibeaua. 
Qnercns Cerris Luconibeaua inci.sa. 
Quercus Cerris Lucombeana variegata ar- 
geutea. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



313 



B.-DICOTYLEDON^E-Continued. 



\ 

Qaercas Cerris variegata. 

Qaercas cinerea. 

Qaercns cinerea puiiiila. 

Qaercas coccifera. 

Quercns cocciuea. 

Qaercas coDcordia. 

Qaercns conferta. 

Qaercas Damio. 

Qaercns densi folia. 

Qaercas Esculus. 

Qaercns falcata. 

Qaercas falcata pagodosfolia. 

Qnercns flagina. 

Qnercns Oeorgiana. 

Quercas glabra. 

Qaercns Gramantia. 

Qaercas heteropliylla. 

Quercns Hindsii. 

Qaercas Ilex. 

Qaercns Ilex ballota. 

Qaercas Ilex dentata. 

Qaercas Ilex Fordii. 

Quercns Ilex iutegrifolia. 

Quercas Ilex latifolia. 

Quercns Ilex longifolia. 

Quercas Ilex rotuudifolia. 

Quercus Ilex serratifolia. 

Qnercns Ilex Shepherdii. 

Quercus ilicifolia. 

Quercus imbricaria. 

Qaercns Japonica. 

Quercus Libani. 

Quercus Leaua. 

Quercus Lonettii. 

Quercns lyrata. 

Quercns raacrocarpa. 

Quercus macrocarpa olivieformis. 

Qaercas Mirbeckii. 

Quercus nigra. 

Quercus obtnsiloba. 

Qnercns obtnsiloba parvifolia. 

Quercus palustris. 

Quercus Pannonica. 

Qnercns pednnculata pterifolia. 

Quercus pednnculata variegata bicolor. 

Quercns pednnculata variegata uiaculnta. 

Quercus pednnculata variegata niargin- 

ata. 
Quercus Phellos. 
Quercns Phellos areuaria. 
Quercus Phellos laurifolia. 
Quercus prinoides. 
Quercns Prinus. 
Qaercas Prinus discolor. 



Quercus Prinus Michauxii. 

Quercus Prinus mouticola. 

Quercus Pyrenaica. 

Quercus Robur. 

Quercus Robur. peuduncnlata. 

Quercus Robur. pednnculata asplenifolia. 

Quercus Robur. pednnculata fastigiata 

cochleata. 
Quercus Robur. pednnculata fastigiata. 
Quercus Robur. pednnsulatahet«ropbylIa. 
Quercns Robur. pednnculata imbricata. 
Quercus Robur. pednnculata pendula. 
Quercus Robur. pednnculata purpurea. 
Quercus Robur. pednnculata rubra. 
Quercus Robur. pednnculata viride. 
Qnercns Robur. sessiliflora. 
Qnercns rubra. 
Quercus rubra taraxicifolia. 
Quercus tinctoria. 
Quercus tridentata. 
Quercus Turnerii. 
Quercus vireus. 
Quercns vireus dentata. 
Quercus vireus maritinia. 

MYRICACE.E. 

Coraptonia asplenifolia. 
Myrica asplenifolia. 
Myrica Californica. 
Myrica cerifera. 
Myrica cerifera media. 
Myrica cerifera pumila. 
Myrica Gale. 

BETULACE.E. 

Alnus barbata. 

Aluus cordifolia. 

Alnus glutinosa. 

Alnus glutinosa asplenifolia. 

Aluus glutinosa aurea. 

Alnus glutinosa Imperalis laciniata 

Alnus glutinosa laciniata. 

Alnus glutinosa oxycanthoefolia. 

Alnus glutinosa quercit'olia. 

Alnus glutinosa sorbifolia. 

Alnus iucaua. 

Alnus incana glauca. 

Alnus uiaritiuia. 

Alnus oblongata. 

Alnus pyrifoiia. 

Aluus serrulata. 

Alnus viridis. 

Betula alba. 

Be tula alba folius purpurea. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



3H 



IXTERXATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.-DICOTYLEDON^E-Continvied. 



Betulaj^alba laciniata peuilula. 

Betula alba p«>udula. 

Bet u la alba populifolia. 

Betula alba populifolia incisa. 

Betula alba pubescens. 

Betula alba urticifolia. 

Betula Indiana. 

Betula lenta. 

Betula lutea. 

Betula nana. 

Betula nigra. 

Betula n. sp. 

Betula papyracea. 

Betula pumila. 

Betula rubra. 

SALICACE.E. 

Populus alba. 

Populus alba acerifolia. 

Populus angulatn. 

Populus balsam ifera. 

Populus balsaniifera candicans. 

Populus balsamif^ra suaveoleus. 

Populus canescens. 

Populus dilatata. 

Populus grteca. 

Populus grandidentata. 

Populus grandidentata pendula. 

Populus heteropbylla. 

Populus laurifolia. 

Populus monolifera. 

Populus monolifera Lindleyaua. 

Populus tremula. 

Populus tremula pendula. 

Populus tremula variegata. 

Populus tremuloides. 

Salix acuminata. 

Salix acutifolia. 

Salix alateruoides. 

Salix alba. 

Salix alba coerulea. 

Salix alba pendula. 

Salix alba vitellina. 

Salix alba vitellina anranfiaca. 

Salix ambigua. 

Salix Ammaniana. 

Salix amjgdalina. 

Salix Andersoniana. 

Salix argentea. 

Salix atrovireuK 

Salix angustata. 

Salix Ansoniana. 

Salix aurita. 

Salix Babylonica. 



Salix 


Babylonica annularis 


Salix 


bicolor. 


Salix Borreriana. 


Salix ccpsia. 


Salix 


canescens. 


Salix 


Candida. 


Salix 


caprea. 


Salix 


caprea pendula. 


Salix 


caprea tricolor. 


Salix 


cinerea. 


Salix 


con form is. 


Salix cotincsfolia. 


Salix cordata. 


Salix 


cordata myricoides. 


Salix cordata rigida. 


Salix crassifolia. 


Salix 


damasceua. 


Salix 


daphnoides. 


Salix 


Dicksoniana. 


Salix discolor. 


Salix 


Doniana. 


Salix 


dura. 


Salix eriantba. 


Salix eriocepbala. 


Salix 


fagi folia. 


Salix 


ferruginea. 


Salix FiumarcUica. 


Salix 


finna. 


Salix 


Floridana. 


Salix Forbesiana. 


Salix 


Forbyana. 


Salix 


Forsteriana. 


Salix 


fragilis. 


Salix 


fragilis decipiens. 


Salix fragilis Russelliana. 


Salix Grisonensis. 


Salix 


bastata. 


Salix Helvetica. 


Salix 


Helix. 


Salix 


herbacea. 


Salix 


heteropbylla. 


Salix 


hippopbcefolia. 


Salix birta. 


Salix 


Hoffmanniana. 


Salix 


holosericea. 


Salix 


bumilis. 


Salix incana. 


Salix 


Japonica. 


Salix lacustris. 


Salix 


lanata. 


Salix lancifolia. 


Salix 


latifolia. 


Salix laurina. 


Silax 


linearis. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

B.—DICOTYLEOON^E— Continued. 



315 



Salix loDgi folia. 


\ Salix regal is. 


Salixyucida. 


Salix recurvata. 


Salix Meyeriana. 


j Salix repens. 


Salix'microdeutata. 


Salix reticulata. 


Salix^mollissima. 


Salix rivularis. 


Salix MoDspeliensis. 


Salix rosmarinifolia. 


Salix moscbata. 


Salix rostrata. 


Salix'nervosa. 


1 Salix rotundata. 


Salix Digra. 


Salix rubra. 


Salix nigra falcata. 


Salix rugosa. 


Salix nigricans. 


Salix rupestris. 


Salix nitens. 


; Salix Salamoni. 


Salix obtuserrata. 


, Salix Schleicberiana. 


Salix palleucens. 


1 Salix septentrionalis. 


Salix pallida. 


1 Salix sericea. 


Salix pedicellaris. 


Salix spatbulata. • 


Salix pentandra. 


I Salix strepida. 


Salix petiolaris. 


Salix tenuifolia. 


Salix petracB. 


1 Salix tetrapla. 


Salix pbyUcifolia. 


Salix triandra. 


Salix pannosa. 


! Salix tristis. 


Salix platens. 


Salix ulmifolia. 


Salix Pomeranica. 


Salix undulata. 


Salix Pontederana. 


1 Salix Uva-Ursi. 


Salix pratensis. 


Salix Valesia. 


Salix procurabens. 


1 Salix variegata. 


Salix prunifolia. 


Salix Vandensis. 


Salix pnrpnrea. 


1 Salix violacea pendula. 


Salix purpurea pendnla. 


Salix viniinalis pendula. 


Salix pyrifolia. 


Salix virescens. 


Salix ramifnsca. 


Salix Weigeliana. 




GYMNOSPERM^. 


CONIFER.E. 


1 Pinus Mugho. 




j Pinus Mugho nana. 


Pin us Austriaca. 


1 Pinus Mugho rostrata. 


Pinus Austriaca variegatn. 


1 Pinus Mugho rotundata. 


Pinus Banksiana. 


Pinus Mugho uliginosa. 


Piuns Brutia. 


Pinus rauricata. 


Pinus contorta. 


; Pinus Pallasiana. 


Pinus densiflora. 


1 Pinus Persica. 


Pinus glabra. 


Pinus Pinaster. 


Pinus Halepensis. 


1 Pinus Pinaster folius variegata 


Pinus Halepensis Pityusa. 
Pinus inops. 


Piuns Pinaster Harailtonii. 


' Pinus Pinaster Lenioinana. 


Pinus Laricio. 


\ Pinus Pinaster minor. 


Pinus Laricio Calabrica. 


Pinus Pinea. 


Pinus Laricio caramanica. 


Pinus Pinea Cretica. 


Pinus Laricio contorta. 


j Pinus Pinea fragilis. 


Pinus Laricio pygraooa. 


Pinus purailis. 


Pinus Massoniana. 


' Pinus pungeus. 


Pinus Merkusii. 


Pinus Pyrenaica. 


Pinus mitis. 


Pinus resinosa. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



3i6 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION 1876. 



B.-DICOTYLEDON.E-Continued. 



Pinus sylvestris. 


Piuus Strobus alba. 


Pinus sylvestris Altaica. 


! Pinus Strobus nana. 


Pinus sylvestris argentea. 


, Pinus tenuifolia. 


Pinus sylvestris aurea. 


Pinus Torreyana. 


Pinus sylvestris globosa. 


Pinus Wincesteriana. 


Pinus sylvestris Haguensis. 


Pinus australis. 


Pinus sylvestris horizontalis. 


Pinus australis excelsa. 


Pinus sylvestris intermedia. 


' Pinus Bungeana. 


Pinus sylvestris lati folia. 


Pinus Cauariensis. 


Pinus sylvestris monophylla. 


Pinus Chfhuahuana. 


Pinus sylvestris nana. 


, Pinus Coulteri. 


Pinus sylvestris tortuosa. 


Pinus edulis. 


Pinus sylvestris uncinata. 


Piuus Fremontiana. 


Pinus Buonapari^a. • 


Pinus Gerardiana. 


Pinus cornea. 


Pinus insignis. 


Pinus Lawsoni. 


Pinus insularis. 


Pinus protuberans. 


Pinus Jeffreyii. 


Pinus Regeliana, 


Pinus longifolia. 


Pinus albicaulis. 


Pinus Llaveana. 


Pinus Apulcensis. 


, Pinus macrocarpa. 


Pinus aristata. 


Pinus Parry ana. 


Pinus Ayachuite. 


Pinus patula. 


Pinus Balfouriana. 


Pinus patula macrocarpa. 


Pinus Cerabra. 


Pinus patula stricta. 


Pinus Cembra pygmcea. 


Pinus ponderosa. 


Pinus Cembra Siberica. 


Pinus Pi iiceana. 


Pinus Devoniana. 


, , Piuus radiata. 


Pinus excelsa. 


1 Pinus rigida. 


Pinus excelsa rigida. 


Pinus rigida serotiua. 


Pinus flexilis. 


Piuus Sabiniana. 


Pinus filifolia. 


Pinus Sinensis. 


Pinus Frieseana. 


Pinus Tfleda. 


Pinus Gordoniana. 


Pinus Teocote. 


Pinus Greuvilleaj. 


Pinus tuberculata. 


Pinus Hartwegii. 


^ Abies alba. 


Pinus Koriana. 


Abies alba glauca. 


Pinus Lambertiana. 


\ Abies alba minima. 


Pinus leiophylla. 


Abies alba nana. 


Pinus Lindleyana. 


Abies Alcocquiana. 


Pinus lophosperma. 


Abies Engelmanni. 


Pinus Loudoniana. 


Abies excelsa. 


Pinus macropbylla. 


Abies excelsa Carpatica. 


Pinus Montezuma*. 


Abies excelsa Clanbrasiliaua. 


Pinus monticola. 


Abies excelsa conica. 


Pinus occidentalis. 


Abies excelsa denundata. 


Pinus oocarpa. 


Abies excelsa diffusa. 


Piuus oocarpa oocarpoides. 


Abies excelsa Donetti. 


Pinus Orizaba. 


Abies excelsa elegaus. 


Pinus parvifolia. 


Abies excelsa erimita. 


Pinus Pence. 


Abies excelsa Findoneusis. 


Piuus Psendo-Strobus. 


Abies excelsa Gregoryana. 


Pinus Russftliana. 


Abies excels^ inverta. 


Pinus Strobiformis. 


Abies excelsa montrosa. 


Pinus Strobus. 


Abies excelsa mncronata. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTUR'E, 



M 



B.-DICOTYI^KDON^E-Continiied. 



Abies excelsa nigra. 

Abies excelsa pendula. 

Abies excelsa pyramid alis. 

Abies excelsa pygmtea. 

Abies excelsa pygm^a glauca. 

Abies excelsa stricta. 

Abies excelsa teouifolia. 

Abies excelsa variegata. 

Abies firma. 

Abies Jezcpnsis. 

Abies Menziesii. 

Abies niicrosperma. 

Abies nigra. 

Abies nigra pnmila. 

Abies nigra rabra. 

Abies obovata. 

Abies orientalis. 

Abies Pattoniana. 

Abies polita. 

Abies Smithiana. 

Abies Albertiana. 

Abies Brunoniana. 

Abies Canadensis. 

Abies Canadensis inverta. 

Abies Canadensis microphylla. 

Abies Canadensis nana. 

Abies Canadensis pendnla. 

Abies Douglasii fastigiata. 

Abies Douglasii Standishiana. 

Abies Douglasii taxifolia. 

Abies Hookeriana. 

Abies Mertensiana. ^ 

Abies Tsuga. 

Abies Tsnganana. 

Abies Apollinis. 

Abies baUamea. 

Abies balsaniea longifolia. 

Abies balsamea variegata. 

Abies bracteata. 

Abi^s Cepbalonica. 

Abies Fraseri. 

Abies Fraseri Hudson ica. 

Abies nobilis. 

Abies nobilis glauca. 

Abies Nordnianniana. 

Abies i>ectiuata. 

Abies pectinata fastigiata. 

Abies pectinata nana. 

Abies pectinata pendula. 

Abies pectinata pyramidalis. 

Abies pectinata tortuosa. 

Abies pectinata variegata. 

Abies religiosa. 

Abies amabilis. 



Abies Cilicica. 

Abies concolor. 

Abies Fortuni. 

Abies glaucescens. 

Abies grandis. 

Abies grandis lasic^arpa. 

Abies grandis Lowiana. 

Abies grandis Parsoniana. 

Abies Pichta. 

Abies Pichta longifolia. 

Abies Pindrow. 

Abies Pinsapo. 

Abies Pinsapo variegata. 

Abies Veitcbii. 

Abies Webbiana. 

Cedrus Atlantica. 

Cedrus Deodara. 

Cedrus Deodara crassifolia. 

Cedrus Deodara robusta. 

Cedrus Deodara viridis. 

Cedrus Libani. 

Cedrus Libani argenteis. 

Cedrus Libani pendnla. 

Cedrus Libani nana. 

Cunuinghamia Sinensis. 

Cunningbamia Sinensis glauca. 

Sciadopitys verticillata. 

Sequoia gigantea. 

Sequoia sempervirens. 

Larix Americana. 

Larix Dahurica. 

Larix Europea. 

Larix Europea com pacta. 

Larix Europea flore alba. 

Larix Europea flore rubra. 

Larix Europea Kiliermanni. 

Larix Europea laxa. 

Larix Europea pendua. 

Larix Europea repeus. 

Larix Griffitbiana. 

Larix Japonica. 

Larix Ledebourii. 

Larix leptolepis. 

Larix Lyalli. 

Larix occidentalis. 

Psendolarix Kaempferi. 

Araucaria Bidwillii. 

Araucaria Brasiliana. 

Araucaria Brasiliana gracilis. 

Araucaria Brasiliana Ridoiflana. 

Araucaria imbricata. 

Araucaria Cunningbami. 

Araucaria Cunningbami glauca. 

Araucaria Cunningbami longifolia. 



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3i« 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



B.—DICOTYLEDOXiE— Continued. 



Araucaria Rulci. 
Arthrotaxis ciipressoides. 
Arthrotaxis taxifolia 
Artbrotaxis selaginoides. 
Junipems cqmmauis. 
Junipems communis alpina. 
Juniperos communis compressa. 
Juniperus communis drupacea. 
Juniperas communis Suecica. 
Juniperus communis Hibernicn. 
Juniperus bemispbierica. 
Juniperus macrocarpa. 
Juniperus oblouga. 
Juniperus Oxycedrus. 
Juniperus rigida. 
Juniperus rufescens. 
Juniperus densa. 
Juniperus excelsa. 
Juniperus excelsa variegata. 
Juniperus prostrata. 
Juniperus recurva. 
Juniperus religiosa. 
Juniperus Sabina. 
Juniperus Sabina cupressitulia. 
Juniperus Sabina tamariscifolia. 
Juniperus Sabina tamariscifolia varie- 
gata. 
Juniperus squamata. 
Junipems thurifera. 
Juniperus Virginiana. 
Juniperus Virginiana Barbadensis. 
Juniperus Virginiana Caroliniaua. 
Juniperus Virginiana dumosa. 
Juniperus Virginiana glauca. 
Junipenis Virginiana pendula. 
Juniperus Virginiana pendula viridis. 
Juniperus Virginiana variegata alba. 
Juniperus Virginiana variegata aurea. 
Juniperus Bermudiana. 
Juniperus ctesia. 
Juniperus Cedro. 
Juniperus Cerrosianus. 
Juniperus Chinensis. 
Juniperus Chinensis aurea. 
Juniperus flaccida. 
Juniperus gigantea. 
Juniperus Japonica. 
Juniperus Mexicana. 
Juniperus occidentalis. 
Juniperus Phwuicia. 
Juniperus procera. 
Juniperus spboerica. 
Juniperus spboerica glauca. 
Juniperus taxit'olia. 



Junipems totragoua. 

Juniperus tripartita. 

Widdringtonia Commersonii. 

Widdringtonia cupressoides. 

Widdringtonia Juniperoides. 

Widdringtonia Natalensis. 

Widdringtonia Wallichiana. 

Libocedrus Chileusis. 

Libocedrus decurrens. 

Libocedrus Doniana. 

Libocedrus tetragon a. 

Lcpchbardtia Macleyana. 

Fitzroya Patagonica. 

Thuja dumosa. 

Thuja gigantea. 

Thuja occidentalis. 

Thuja occidentalis argentea. 

Thuja occidentalis BrincherhoflS. 

Thuja occidentalis Caucasica. 

Thuja occidentalis Cheltonieusis. 

Thuja occidentalis cristata. 

Thuja occidentalis densa. 

Thuja occidentalis Doeii. 

Thuja occidentalis ericoides. 

Thuja occidentalis excelsa. 

Thuja occidentalis glauca. 

Thuja occidentalis globosa. 

Thuja occidentalis Hackeri. 

Thuja occidentalis Hoveyi. 

Thuja occidentalis minima. 

Thuja occidentalis nana. 

Thuja occidentalis pendula. 

Thuja occidentalis pumila. 

Thuja occidentalis plicata. 

Thuja occidentalis plicata varlega*a. 

Thuja occidentalis Keedii. 

Thuja occidentalis rotundata. 

Thuja occidentalis Siberica. 

Thuja occidentalis Tom Thumb. 

Thuja occidentalis variegata. 

Thuja occidentalis Vervaiueaua. 

Thuja occidentalis recurva. 

Thuja Standishii. 

Thuiopsis dolabrata. 

Thuiopsis dolabrata nana. 

TJiuiopsis dolabrata variegata. 

Thuiopsis hvt^ivirens. 

Thuiopsis Standishii. 

Biota oriental is. 

Biota orientalis argentea. 

Biota orientalis aurea. 

Biota orientalis elegantissima. 

Biota orientalis falcata. 

Biota orientalis flagelliformis. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



319 



B-r)ICOTYLEE>ON.E~Gontimied. 



Biota orientalis glnca. 

Biota orientalis gracilis. 

Biota orientalis bybrida. 

Biota orientalis intermedia. 

Biota orientalis niacrocarpa. 

Biota orientalis Meldensis. 

Biota orientalis montrosa. 

Biota orientalis pendnla. 

Biota orientalis pyramidalis. 

Biota orientalis pygratea. 

Biota orientalis semper anrea. 

Biota orientalis Sieboldii. 

Biota orientalis Tartarica. 

Biota orientalis variegata aurea. 

Biota orientalis Zuccariniana. 

Cupressus attenuata. 

Cnpressns aromatlca. 

Capressus Bentbamii. 

Capressus Comeyaua. 

Cupressus excelsa. 

Cupressus fnnebris. 

Capressus fragrans. 

Cupressus Goveniana. 

Cupressus Knigbtiaua. 

Cupressus Lawsoniaua. 

Cupressus Lawsoniaua argentea. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana aurea. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana compacta. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana erecta viridis. 

Cupressus Lawsoniana laxa 

Cupressus Lawsoniana nivea. 

Cupressus Lawsoniaua stricta. 

Cnpressns Lusitanica. 

Cupressus Mac-Nabiaua. 

Cupressus macrocarpa. 

Cupressus Nutksensis. 

Cupressus NutksBUsis variegata. 

Cupressus sempervirens. 

Cupressus sempervireus cerciformis. 

Cupressus sempen^irensborizontalis. 

Cupressus sempervireus moustrosa. 

Capressus sempervireus variegata. • 

Cupressus thurifera. 

Capressus tbyoides. 

Capressus tbyoides atrovirens. 

Cupressus tbyoides Keweusis. 

Capressus tbyoides nana. 

Cupressus tbyoides variegata. 

Cupressus torulosa. 

Cupressus torulosa majestica. 

Cupressus torulosa nana. 

Cupressus torulosa viridis. 

Cupressus Ubdeana. 

Cupressus Wbittleyana. 



Retiuospora cristata. 
Retiuospora filifonuis. 
Retiuospora Hoggi pendula. 
Retiuospora leptoclada. 
Retin6spora lycopodiodes. 
Retiuospora obtusa. 
Retinospora obtusa argentea. 
Retiuospora obtusa aurea. 
Retinospora obtusa aureagracilis. 
Retiuospora obtusa elegans. 
Retinospora* obtusa ericoides. 
Retinospora obtusa pygmiea. 
Retiuospora pisifera. 
Retiuospora pisifera argentea. 
Retiuospora pisifera aurea. 
Retinospora pisifera nana variegata. 
Retinospora plumosa. 
Retiuospora i)lumo8a aurea. 
Retinopsora squarrosa. 
Retiuospora squarrosa variegata. 
Cryptouieria Japonica. 
Cryptomeria Japonica arancarioide.s. 
Cryptomeria Japonica Lobbii. 
Cryptomeria Japonica nana. 
Cryptomeria Ja)>onica pendula. 
Taxodium distichuui. 
Taxodium disticbum denudatum. 
Taxodium disticbum fastigiatum. 
Taxodium disticbum Mexicanum. 
Taxodium disticbum nanum. 
Glyptostrobus beteropbyllus. 
Glyptostrobus pendulus. 
Taxus adpressn. 
Taxus baccata. 
TaxuH baccata Canadensis. 
Taxus baccata Cbesbunteusis. 
Taxus baccata Dovastoui. 
Taxus baccata empetri folia. 
Taxus baccata erecta. 
Taxus baccata ericoides. 
Taxus baccata excelsa. 
Taxus baccata fastigiata. 
Taxus baccata fastigiata variegata. 
Taxus baccata fructu-lutea. 
Taxus baccata glauca. 
Taxus baccata gracilis. 
Taxus baccata Hiberuica. 
Taxus baccata borizontalis. 
Taxus baccata Jacksonii. 
Taxus baccata linearis. 
Taxus baccata Nidpatbensis. 
Taxus baccata nana. 
Taxus baccata nigra. 
Taxus baccata recurvata. 



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320 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876 



-DICOTYLEDON.E-Continued. 



larsifolita. 
ariegata aurea. 
ariegata alba. 



na. 
lica. 



npacea. 

»rtuDii. 

(Umciilata. 

abraculifera. 

na. 

ra. 

ina. 

irctica. 

^rilli. 

teata. 

teata brtfvipes. 

iana. 

leuis. 

lensis argeiitea. 

ieusi8 aurea. 

icea. 

Ligata. 

yoides. 

slor. 

1. 

gata. 

licberianus. 

folia. 

ita. 

iginea. 

>Dica. 

liaua. 

a. 

ibertii. 



Podocarpns Lawreucii. 
Podocarpos leptostachya. 
Podocarpus macrophylla. 
Podocarpns neglecta. 
Po<locarpu8 neri folia. 
Podocarpns nivalis. 
Pedocarpns nnbigcena. 
Podocarpus oleifolia. 
Podocarpns polystachya. 
Podocarpns Purdieana. 
Podocarpns rigida. 
Podocarpus Rumphii. 
Podocarpns salicifolia. 
Podocarpns Sellowii. 
Podocarpus spicata. 
Podocarpus spinnlosa. 
Podocarpns taxifolia. 
Podocarpns taxifolia densifolia. 
Podocarpns tbevetitefolia. 
Podocarpns Thnnbergii. 
Podocarpns Totara. 
Dacridinm Colensoi. 
Dacridinm cnpressiunm. 
Dacridinm Cnpressiforme. 
Dacridinm elatnm. 
Dacridinm Frauklinii. 
Dacridinm laxifolinm. 
Salisburia adiantifoUa. 
Salisbnria adiautifolia dissecta. 
Salisburia adiautifolia macrophylla. 
Salisburia adiautifolia variegata. 
Saxe-Gotbtea conspicua. 
Xageia Blumei. 
Nageia cuspidata. 
Nageia grandiflora. 
Nageia Japonica. 
Nageia Japonica variegata. 
Nageia lati folia. 
Nagf ia ovata. 
Nageia ovata variegata. 
Vwtchia Japonica. 



MONOCOTYLEDONJB. 



1LACE.E. 



variegata. 

auritauiea. 
ta. 



Smilax hispida. 

Smilax lanceolata. 

Smilax laurifolia. 

Smilax Pseudo-Cbina. 

Smilax rotnndifolia. 

Smilax rotnndifolia cinadrangnlaris. 

Smilax tamnoides. 

Smilax Walteri. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGR. 



LILIACEJE. 

Buscos acnleatus. 
Rosens aoaleatus rotandifolins. 
Rnsous hypogloBsum. 
Rusoas racemosus. 
Tucca angustifolia. 
YiiccaBlamentosa. 
Yacca lilamentosa pendalns. 
21 CEN, PT 2 



Yacoafilai 
Yucca filif 
Yucca glo] 
Yucca qus 
Yucca reel 
Yucca reel 
Yucca reel 
Yucca sup 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



DIVISION OF STATISTICS. 



323 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



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DIVISION OF STATISTICS 



This division was established is 1863, in the year following that of 
the organization of the Department, by the creation of the office of 
statistician and the appropriation of $20,000 for the purposes of statisti- 
cal investigation and compilation. The position was filled by the ap- 
pointment of a statistician, who was charged with the collection of crop- 
reportu and current general statistics, and with the editingof the monthly 
report, a publication designed to include the gist of current crop-returus 
and such other data as required prompt publicity. 

In 1806 the annual report was transferred to this division, and its 
editor was appointed statistician, and has since discharged the increased 
duties of this consolidation, establishing the division of statistics and 
publication, which now combines with the crop-reporting system and 
general investigation the revision and issue of [the reports and publica- 
tions. 

The agricultural report of the Patent Office, which was published a 
few years prior to 1847 in connection with the annual mechanical re- 
port, became at that date a separate publication, which was continued 
as an annual until the organization of the Department of Agriculture, 
the last issued being that of 1861, under the auspices of the agricultural 
division of the Patent Office. The annual edition had been increased 
from a few thousand to 200,000. The new (or Department) series 
has had still larger issues, varying from 200,000 to 275,000 copies per 
annum, until the repeal of the franking privilege interfered with their 
distribution. The recent reports have not been published promptly on 
account of the differing views of the Senate and House relative to their 
distribution, the House usually voting to order 200,000 to 300,000 copies 
for free delivery, and the Senate desiring to limit franking, and inclin- 
ing to the English plan of sale at cx>st of printing ; but in August of 
the present year provision was made for the publication of 200,000 copies 
of 1875 and 100,000 copies of 1874. 

It is susceptible of abundant proof that these volumes have greatly 
stimulated agricultural thought, encouraged the adoption of advanced 
processes, and excited a taste for agricultural reading, especially in new 
and poor settlements, in which they have proved a pioneer in all that 
pertains to agricultural progress. They have even gone in advance of 
the issues of the agricultural press, and created a demand for rural liter- 
als 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



326 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

ature. They are more sought, according to the constant testimony of 
Congressmen, than any other public document, and are carefully hus- 
banded and distributed by members with farming constituencies, while 
members representing cities now very generally make exchanges further 
to accommodate the constituents of the rural districts. 

The function of the division of statistics is the collection of the. cur- 
rent facts of agriculture in the United States and the compilation of 
such foreign statistics as may serve, by comparison and suggestion, to 
advance the interests of rural economy in this country. It involves 
an organization of a corps of reporters, consisting of a chief and three 
assistants in each county, charged with the duty of responding monthly 
to systematic inquiries concerning the condition of the growing crops, 
the area planted, rate of ultimate yield, the prevailing home prices of 
products, the condition and comparative numbers of farm animals, and 
other points of general interest. Circulars upon si)ecial subjects of local 
importance are occasionally sent; and special information from indi- 
vidual reporters is often sought, generally with prompt and satisfactory 
results. 

These reporters are selected for their known intelligence and judg- 
ment, and the aid of agricultural societies, or, in their absence, of the 
Eepresentative in Congress, is invoked in their selection, if suitable 
persons are not known to the officers of the Department. They are 
selected with reference to fitnessj and their political views are usually 
unknown. Their duties are performed gratuitously, in a spirit of self- 
sacrifice for the public good, and with an ardent desire to co-operate 
with the Department for general as well as local progress iu agriculture. 
They are undoubtedly more efficient than a force of mere stipendiaries, 
and are entitled to grateful recognition of their valuable services. It 
is a subject of regret that the Department has been unable to supply 
its statistical corps promptly with the annual reports which they help 
to make and on which many of their comparisons are based. 

The translation and utilization of foreign statistical matter, and the 
preparation of original statistics for foreign exchange, are important 
features of the regular work of this division. The official statistics of 
States, of boards of trade, of railroads, of industrial associations, and all 
attainable data tending to illustrate production, distribution, and manu- 
facture, are made available, so far as clerical facilities permit. 

The furnishing of statistical statements for committees and members 
of Congress, boards of trade, and agricultural editors and authors, in- 
creases materially the work of the division. Added to these duties, the 
investigations required for original and practical papersfor the monthly, 
annual, and special reports, the revision of matter prepared for publi- 
cation, the preparation of illustrations, «&c., demand service for which a 
singularly meager appropriation is quite inadequate, though other di- 
visions of the Department are laid under contribution for such clerical 
aid as can properly be spared. The smallest State appropriation in aid 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



327 



of agricultural iuvestigatiou is rarely less than the largiBst provision 
made for agricultural statistics of this Department for thirty-eight States 
and ten Territories. That results of comparative importance are ob- 
tained can be only due to the remarkable facilities of the Department 
in its control of an intelligent and faithful body of statistical reporters, 
whose combined service, freely rendered, is tenfold greater than the 
clerical and other service paid from appropriations. 

More than nine-tenths of all this service is gratuitous. ]S"one of the 
ordinary work of the correspondent, who is often a farmer with a national 
reputation as a rural economist and man of broad views and general 
culture, is paid for; the work of the editor of the annual has been en- 
tirely unremunerated for ten years, and much of the matter for the 
several reports is furnished without cost. From $150,000 to $200,000 
l>er annum is thus made a gratuity to the Government by ruralists of 
public spirit, who wish to advance the interests of producers and con- 
sumers, and save both classes from the jaws of the sharks that thrive 
on false statements concerning crop-production. 

CENTENNIAL EXHIBITS. 

The line of exposition adopted to illustrate the work of this division, 
at the International Centennial Exhibition, aims to present in compact 
form and logical arrangement, with such aids to interpretation as are 
oflfered by color and mathematical delineation, some of the main facts 
which illustrate the progress of settlement, production, and rural im- 
provement in the United States. With a national census giving only 
the estimated production of the principal crops once in ten years, and 
very few of the States making any attempt in the direction of agri- 
cultural statistics, the field of prompt and general agricultural inquiry 
is left almost entirely to the statistical division of the Department of 
Agriculture. The rapid extension of cultivation in Western States and 
Territories and in the Pacific and Southwestern States, which causes 
changes in a single year that appear almost incredible, as for instance 
the increase of corn production in Kansas from 16,000,000 of bushels in 
1874 to 80,000,000 in 1875, renders the work of this division exceedingly 
active and difficult. To gather the immense array of fragmentary data, 
and present for the Centennial a rounded and complete result in as 
many essential points as possible, much special statistical work was 
necessary, which has been reduced to a minimum by the extremely lim- 
ited appropriation available for the service. The line of effort adopted 
includes, first, a series of large outline maps, illustrating the geographi- 
cal distribution of crops and various results of original investigation ; a 
series of charts and diagrams showing the important facts in production 
and distribution, industrial education and political economy ; statistical 
reeord of the ^several great classes of agricultural facts, in plain text 
and with map, diagram and pictorial illustrations, designed to present 
briefly more succinct summary than has ever been presented to the 
public, and more comidete in the classes of facts selected for exposition. 



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328 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Maps. — The larger charts consist of sixteen sheets, mounted as a 
single ontline map of the United States, in size 17 by 12 feet, six in 
number, as follows : 

1. Showing in five classes, by degrees of tinting, the value of the 
farm-lands of the United States by groups of counties, the first class 
including all below 810 per acre; the second, those not less than $10, 
and not exceeding $20 ; the third, those not less than $20, and not ex- 
ceeding $30 ; the fourth, $30, and not exceeding $40 ; the fifth, $40 and 
over. 

2. Showing, by five degrees of color, the average monthly wages 
through the year of fi«*m-labor (without board) in the several States, 
from records of an investigation made by the statistical division in 
1875. The classes are as follows : Under $20 : South Carolina, $12.84 ; 
North Carolina, $13.46 5 Alabama, $13.60 ; Georgia, $14.40 ; Virginia, 
$14.84; Tennessee, $15.^0; Florida, $15.50; Mississippi, $16.40; Ken- 
tucky, $18,12; Louisiana, $18.40; Missouri, $19.40; Texas, $19.50. 
Under $25: Maryland, $20.02; Delaware, $20.33; Arkansas, $20.50; 
West Virginia, $20.75 ; New Mexico^ $22.75 ; Kansas, $23.20 ; Nebraska, 
$24 ; Ohio, $24.05 ; Indiana, $24.20 ; Iowa, $24.35. Under $30 : Illinois, 
$25.20 ; Maine, $25.40; Wisconsin, $25.50 ; Pennsylvania, $25.89; Min- 
nesota, $26.16 ; New York, $27.14 ; Michigan, $28.22 ; Connecticut, 
$28.25 ; New Hampshire, $28.57 ; Vermont, $29.67. Under $35 : Rhode 
Island, $30; New Jersey, $30.71; Massachusetts, $31.87; Dakota, 
$32.50. $35 and over: Washington, $35 ; Utah, $35.50 ; Oregon, $38.25 ; 
Colora<lo, $38.50 ; California, $44.50 ; Montana, $45 ; Wyoming, $47.50. 

3. Showing by groups of counties, in five shades of color, the pro- 
portion of woodlands in the farm-areas reported in the last census. The 
first class includes all counties with less than 15 per cent, in forest, the 
other classes divided, respectively, by 30, 45, and 60 i)er cent. 

4. Showing the distribution of the product of the sugar crops — cane, 
sorghum, maple, and beet — and indicating, by three shades of color, the 
relative amount of such production in groups of counties. 

5. Showing the distribution of the production of the textile fibers — 
cotton, hemp, flax, and wool — and indicating the localities of greatest 
production by three shades of color in each. Counties producing less 
than 1,000 bales of cotton, 50 tons of hemp, 100,000 pounds of flax fiber, 
or 100,000 pounds of wool are not indicated. 

6. Showing the area in fruits of all kinds, by tints of States in four 
degrees of density, and indicating the prominent fruit sections and 
kinds of fruits most grown in each. The first class includes all States 
in which the entire fruit area does not exceed 1 per centum of the im- 
proved land in farms; i. 6., all farm-lands exclusive of forest and waste 
areas, viz: Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and the Territories; the second, 
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Virginia, North Carolina, South 
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Wisconsin ; third. 
New York, Pennsylvania, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, West Virginia, 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



329 



Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, California, Oregon ; fourth, 
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, Mary- 
land, Florida, Michigan, Missouri. 

Chabts. — The larger charts are a« follows : 

1. Showing the corn and wheat production of the country, with the 
exports, seed used, and home consumption for live years, constituting 
the first half of the present decade. It is 7 feet 6 inches in height and 
4 feet 6 inches wide, with diagrams presenting these details of average 
production on a scale of three-fourths of a million bushels to the square 
inch. It is a lucid and striking showing, especially to foreigners unfa- 
miliar with the immensity of our cereal productions and the compara- 
tively small proportion of the whole sent abroad. 

The accompanying diagram represents it on a reduced scale. This 
chart makes the average supply of com, in excess of export, for each 
unit of population, almost exactly 24 bushels for this period ; the aver- 
age area in cultivation, 37,699,803 acres 5 and the yield per acre 26.3 
bushels. The statement accompanying the chart represents corn pro- 
duction and distribution as follows : 



Years. 



Prodnction. Cousnmptiou. Seed. 



' BuiheU, 

1870 1 1, 094, 25.% 000 

1871 1 091,898,000 I 

1872 ; 1,092,719,000 1 

1873 1 932,274,000; 

1874 1 850.148,500 | 

Total I 4.961,294,500 | 

Average i 992,258,90o" 



BiuheU. 
1,070.695,802 I 

944,807,278 ' 
1,040.722,348 | 

883,222,450 

806,444,492 



Bushels. 
12,882,825 
11,363,712 
11, 842, 278 
13. 065. 716 
13, 678, 972 



Export. 
Corn as meal. ! Corn . 



Bushels. 

850,564 
1, 235, 360 
1,612,444 
1, 551. 228 
1, 166, 616 



4,745,892,370 62,833,Oo5" 6,416,212 



949, 178, 474 12, 566, 601 



1,283,242 



Bushels. 
9, 826, 300 
34. 491, 650 
88, 541. 930 
34. 434, 606 
28,858.420 



146. 152, 915 



29, 230, 583 



An importation of com is a fact scarcely dreamed. A little crosses 
our northern boundary from the Dominion, averaging 68,864 bushels. 

The average supply of wheat in excess of export is 6 bushels 5 area 
in cultivation (average for five years), 21,386,709,- yield per acre, 12.2 
bushels. The imports of wheat have averaged 1,502,541 bushels, of 
which about three-tenths have been exported. The wheat figures are 
as follows: 



Years. 



1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
•873. 
1874. 



Production. ' Conanniption. Seed. 



Bushels. 
235, 8W, 700 I 
230.722.400 ' 
249, 997, 100 
280,372,700 I 
308, 102, 700 



Total 1,305,079,600 

ATerage 261, 016, 920 



Bushels. 
154,821.703 
161,810,806 I 
166,694,847 , 
155,735,041 i 
197,849,555 < 



I 



Bushels. 
28,488,886 ' 
29,915,839 
31, 287, 538 
33,127,261 
37,430.540 



Export. 



Wheat. 



Bushels. 
84.304,906 
26. 423, 080 
39, 204, 285 
71, 039, 928 
53, 047, 175 



836, 911. 952 160, 270, 064 ; 224, 019, 374 



167, 382, 390 32, 054, 018 44, 803, 875 



Wheat as 
flour. 



Bushels. 
18, 269, 205 
12, 572, 675 
12,810,430 
20, 470, 470 
19, 755, 430 



83, 878, 210 



16, 775, 642 



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330 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

2. Showing the proportion of improved lands to the farm-area of eaco 
State and Territory. This is given in classes as follows : 

Under 30 per cent: North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, 
Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Dakota, Colorado, l^ew Mexico, Washing- 
ton, Wyoming; 30 and under 40 per cent.: Plorida, Alabama, Minne- 
sota, Mississippi, Tennessee, West Virginia*, Kansas, Nebraska, Idaho ; 
40 and under 50 per cent. : Maine, Virginia, Kentucky, Missouri, Cali- 
fornia, Oregon, Nevada; 50 and under 60 per cent. : Rhode Island, In- 
diana, Michigan, Wisconsin ; over 60 per cent. : New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Delaware, Maryland, Ohio, Illinois, Iowa, Utah, Arizona, Montana. 

This chart also indicates the extent of several crop-belts, by a delinea- 
tion of the line of northern limit respectively of sea -island cotton, upland 
cotton, sorghum, and winter-wheat. The line dividing spring wheat 
from winter is worthy of careful study, as it separates, tortuous as it ap- 
pears, within one or two parts in a hundred, the entire production of 
fall and spring sown grain. The line runs from near Boston through 
Southeastern Massachusetts and Connecticut, curves round the Housa- 
tonic Hills, strikes the vicinity of Saratoga, and runs in a northwesterly 
direction to Lake Ontario ; thence including all our territory east of 
Lake Michigan, traverses a small section of Southwestern Indiana, 
strikes nearly west through the northern line of Missouri, crosses the 
Missouri at Saint Joseph, and gradually curves southward in Kansas 
as higher elevation is reached. The general direction from ocean to 
lakes is northwest, from lakes to the Rocky Mountains west-southwest. 
The line of northern limit of sorghum, on the contrary, preserves with 
a degree of uniformity a northwestern course. The difference is, sor- 
ghum is a summer crop, and its cultivation follows the summer isother- 
mal line; while winter wheat depends not only on winter and spring 
climates, but to some extent on the nature of the soil and methods of 
cultivation. 

The sea-island-cotton line skirts the coast from Charleston to Galves- 
ton ; and the upland line rfans from Norfolk southwesterly, curving 
around the mountain spurs of upper Georgia, cutting the northeastern 
section of Alabama, and thence sharply northward to include the Ten- 
nessee Valley and Western Tennessee, and all but the hill region of 
Arkansas, and southwestwardly through a corner of the Indian Terri- 
tory and Texas to the Rio Grande. 

Accompanying this chart is an estimate of the extent of cultivation 
of the principal crops, as follows : 

Acre*. 

Area, in 18T5, in cereal crops 37,000,000 

Ofwhichjin maize 44,800,000 

Ofwhich, in wheat 26,400,000 

Area, in 1875, in hay crops 23,500,000 

Area-, in 1875, in cotton 10,750,000 

Area, in 1875, in orchards, vines, and fruits 4,500,000 

Area, in 1875, in tobacco 460,000 

Tota] area in cnltivation in 1875 133, 000, 000 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 3 3 I 

The following statement of grand areas, in square miles, is also given : 

Square miles. 

Area, incloding water-surface 4,000,000 

Area of States and Territories 3,611,889 

Area of the thirteen original States 341, 756 

Area of public-land States and Territories 2, 867, 185 

Area of public land unsold in 1870 2,168,331 

Area of farm-lands in 1869 637,086 

Area of farm-lands improved 295,189 

Area of farm-lands in forest 248,922 

Diagrams. — To aid in comparison of different numbers and quanti- 
ties, atanjgible measure is useful to all, and to the multitude absolutely 
necessary. The arts of coloring and mathematical drawing are both 
brought into requisition for illustration of these abstract ideas which 
represent things so practical and commonplace. Among the diagrams 
which form a part of the exhibit are the following : 

1. The product of corn per capita. — This is based upon the census year 
1869, to save the necessity of estimating anew both population as well 
as production, taking the census data for both. The figures on which 
the diagram is based are, for the several States : 



States. 



Alabama 

Arkansas 

California 

Connecticut... 

Delairare 

Florida 

Georffia 

niinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Miebifran 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri . 



Population.' Corn. 



States. 



996,092 

484, 471 

660, 247 

537, 4M 

125.015 

187, 748 

1,184.109 

2, 539, 891 

1.680,637 

1, 194, 020 

364,399 

1,321.011 

726, 915 

626, 915 

780, 894 

1,457,351 

1. 184, 0.59 

439, 706 

827, 922 

1.721,295 



I 16.977,948 

13, 382, 145 

I 1.221,222 i 

1,570,364 

1 3, 010, 390 

, 2.225,056 

I 17.646,459 

129.921,395 

51.094,538 

68, 935, 065 

I 17,025,525 

' 50,091,006 

. 7,596,628 

1, 089. 888 

I 11,701.817 

I 1. 397. 807 

; 14,086,238 

I 4,743,117 

I 15,637.316 

66,034,075 



Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampsbire 

New Jersey 

New York 

North Carolina 

Oiiio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Kboile Island 

South Carolina 

Tennessee. 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia... 

West Virginia. 

Wisconsin , 



Total 



Population. Com. 



122.993 
42, 491 
318,300 
906,096 
382,759 
071. 361 
665,260 
90,923 
521. 951 
217,353 
705,606 
258, 520 
818. 579 
330, 551 
225,163 
442, 014 
054,670 



Bushels. 

4,736,710 
9,660 

1, 277, 768 

8, 745. 384 
16,462,825 
18,454,215 
07,501,144 
72, 138 
31, 702. 006 
311,957 

7, 614, 207 
41,343,614 
20, .')54, 538 

1,699,882 
17, 649, 304 

8. 197, 865 
15,033,998 



I 38,115,641 759,826,214 



It will be remembered that this was a year of very deficient yield of 
corn. Illinois, which stands second in proportion to population, had 
less than two-thirds of a full crop. A diagram for 1875 would differ 
somewhat from this. Illinois and most of the States west of the Mis- 
sissippi would nearly or quite double the present rate per head, and re- 
quire several additional "stories" in the structure of the diagrafai. 

2. The product of wheat per capita from the crop of 1869, which was a 
large one for that date, but not so large as the crop of 1874 and of 1875, 
the acreage being on the increase. It will be seen that none of the New 
England States, with the sole exception of Vermont, produces one bushel 



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332 



JNTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



per head; that l^ew York and New Jersey grow about half of their 
wheat supply; and the Southern States, with the exception of Virginia, 
fail to produce five bushels for each inhabitant, though in ordinary years 
Tennessee and Kentucky have a surplus. The following table gives the 
crop of each State and the number of bushels to each inhabitant: 



states. 



Alabama 

ArkanBAS 

California 

Connecticut — 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georjria 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kanaaa 

Kentucky 

Loaisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Maasachasettn . 
Michigan — 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 



Wheat 






1, 055. 068 1. 05 

741,736 1.53 

16,676,702 ' 29.76 

88,144 I .07 

895,477 7.16 



2, 127. 

30. 12H, 

27. 747, 

29, 435, 

2,391, 

5. 728, 

9. 

278, 

5, 774, 

84. 

16.265, 

18,866, 

274, 



017 

405 

222 

692 : 

198 

704 

906 

793 

603 

648 

778 

073 

479 



1.79 
11.86 
16.51 
24. 66 
6.56 
4.38 
.01.3 
.44 
7.39 
.02.3 
13.73 
42.90 j 
.83 I 



States. 



Wheat 



Missouri 14,315,926 

Nebraska 2,125.086 

Nevada 228,866 

NewHamishire 193.621 

New Jersey 2,301.433 

New York i 12,178.472 

North Carolina | 2,859.879 

Ohio 27,882,159 

Oregon.. 2,340.746 

Pennsylvania 19,672,877 

KhodelHland 784 

South Cai-olina I 783.610 

Tennessw? 6,188,916 

T«xas 415.112 

Vermont 454,7u3 

Virginia 7,39a787 

West Virginia 2,483.543 

Wisconsin 25,606,844 



111 



a 31 

17.29 

5.39 
.60 

2 54 

2.77 

2.66 
10.46 
25.75 

5.58 
.00.3 

1.11 

4.91 
.50 

1.37 

6.03 

6.61 
24.28 



3. Area of wheats with the proiM)rtion sowed and drilled, respectively. 

This diagram is based on results of investigation by the statistical 
division. It omits the New England States, which produce little wheat, 
nearly all of which is sown broadcast. The wheat area in New York is 
divided equally between the two methods. 

In New Mersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland the drill 
greatly predominates. In the Southern States the area is small, par- 
ticularly in the cotton States, and the drill is comparatively unknown. 
North of the Ohio River, in the winter- wheat States, the drill is very 
generally used, the proportion rising to 70 per cent, in Illinois. 

In the spring- wheat region there are several reasons for prominence 
of broadcasting. One comes from a prevalent practice of sowing wheat 
on the irregular surface of a corn-field without plowing^ another is 
found in the use of the combined cultivator and broadcast-seeder, which 
destroys many of the weeds that would otherwise be left between the 
drills. The gist of both of these reasons lies in the saving of labor by 
a compromise process, which is cheap though slovenly. The result of 
the investigation shows that 47 per cent, of the winter- wheat and 30 of 
the spring, or 37 of both, represent the proportion seeded by the drill. 
The improvement by drilling is made to average 10 per cent. The aver- 
age quantity of seed used for seeding winter wheat is 1.35 bushels per 
acre; 1.24 for drille<l; 1.44 for the sown. The details are as follows: 



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74. 

* i40QM 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRrCULTURE. 



333 



States. 



New York.... 
New Jersey.. - 
PemisylTania . 

Delaware 

Maryland . 
Til • • 



rirginia.. 
(^orthCai 



Konh Carolina. 
South Carolina. 

Georn^ 

Alabama , 

Mississippi 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia . 

Kentucky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Missouri 



Nebraska . 
California . 
Oregon — 



^ 


'% 


\ 


See^ 


I per 


1 


»« 


b 


acre. 


, 


1 


1 


1 


reaseof 
bydriU 


B^ 


t 


1 


1 




a 









'© ;j 


1 


Percentage. 


1 


50 


50 


13 


1.80 


1.60 


45 


55 


6 


1.95 


1.60 


80 


70 


12 


L74 


L49 


26 


74 


10 


1.75 


1.50 


24 


76 


7 


1.70 


1.43 


62 


38 


12 


L44 


L21 


97 


3 




1.07 


.83 


99 


1 




1.00 


.70 


99 


1 


...... 


1.00 


.90 


99 


1 




1.00 




99 


1 




1.25 




98 


2 




1.18 


.90 


100 






1.10 
1.20 




96 


4 


10 


LIO 


58 


42 


12 


1.53 


1.33 


92 


8 


10 


1.86 


1.11 


89 


61 


16 


L57 


1.33 


49 


51 


9 


1.62 


1.40 


24 


76 


19 


1.62 


1.24 


49 


61 


15 


1.48 


1.21 


62 


88 


21 


L52 


1.21 


55 


45 


16 


1.49 


1.23 


51 


49 


17 


1.56 


1.26 


98 


2 




1.33 




81 


19 


5 


1.50 


1.21 



4. Own and wheat ea^orta of fifty years, 1825 to 1875. — The light space 
on the right of the diagram represents the volume of wheat, the darker 
shade the flour in its equivalent of bushels of wheat. On the lefb corn 
in bushels is shown, and the darker stripe gives the equivalent of the 
corn-meal exports. It will be seen that the first half of the period is 
credited with less than a fifth of the wheat exports ; and that the aggre- 
gate of the last quarter of the period is equal to the total shipment of 
the preceding three-fourths. A striking feature of the diagram is the 
remarkable increase in the export of whole wh^at. For many years 
scarcely an appreciable quantity, it increases slowly at first, rapidly 
after 1860, and at the close of 1875 it nearly equaled the aggregate of 
wheat exports in the form of flour. 



Year. 


; Wh« 

BualieU. 

125,547 . 
-.1 614,145 . 

739,692 
1,842,841 :. 

2,582,533 1 
.., 2,946,861 ;. 

1 5.529.894 1 
..1 10,184,645'. 

16,714,039 
.. 16,446,955. 

I 32.160,994 


At 



Bushels. 


Floi 

Bushels. ! 

22.250.700 
26.209,820 


IT. 

Bushels. 


Total wheat and flour. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Ig30 


23,885,247 
26.823.965 




1835 




'"49.'469,'626 






739,692 


60, 209, 212 


1840 


49.469.520 , 
20.464,660 


50, 209. 212 
22.307.501 




2,582.533 


69.934,180 
'"i02,'3O7,*665' 
**i62,'78i,*805* 
"228,' 479,395 


72,516,713 


1845 


69,934,180 , 
31,873,485 


72. 516. 713 
34,320.346 




5, 529, 394 


106,837,069 


1850 


101,307,665 1 
61. 424. 140 ' 

162,731,805 
65,747.590 

228.479.895 


106, 837, 059 
71,608,785 

178,445,844 
82, 194, 545 

260,640.389 


1855 


15, 714. 039 
"32,'i60,'994' 


178,445.844 
260.640,389 



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334 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Tear. 


Wh< 

Bnshels. 

... 32.160,994 
.J 38. 808, 573 

1 70,969.567 
. 1 138,306,907 

1 209.276.474 
..1 81,808.364 

1 291,084,838 
.. 34,304,906 

1 325.389.744 ' 
..( 26,423.080 

351, 812. 824 
.. 39,204,285 

391, 017, 109 * 
.. 71.039.928 

462,057,087 
53.047,175 1 


>at. 


Flour. 


Total wheat and flonr. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


Bushels. 


BusheU. 


Busliels. 


1855 


"70*969*567 
*209,*276,'474 
' *29i,*084,*838' 


228. 479, 395 
78. 891. 340 

807.370.735 
98,788.665 

406. 159. 400 
57, 273, 925 

463. 438. 325 
18, 269, 205 

401,702,530 , 
12.572,675 1 

494,275,205 ; 
12,810,480 ! 

607,085.635 \ 
20,470,470 




260.640.380 
117. 699, 913 




I860 






807, 370, 785 


378,340,302 


1865 


378, 340, 802 
237, 095, 572 




406,i59,46o 
*'463,*433,325' 


615,435.874 
754,518,163 


1870 


815.435.874 
139. 082, 289 


1871 


754,518.163 
52, 574, 111 




325, 389, 744 
''351,812,824* 

'sii'oii.'iw' 

'*462,*057,'087 


481,702,530 
'494* 275,' 205 
*507, 162,744 


807,092.274 
846,088,029 
896,102,744 


1872 


807.092,274 
38,995,755 


1873 

1874 . 


846,088.029 
52,014.715 

898,102.744 
91,510.398 




527,556.105 


969,613,142 


1875 


627,556. 105 i 
19,755.430 

547,311,535 


989.613.142 
72.802,605 




515,104,212 


515, IW, 212 


547. 311. 535 


1,062,415,747 




1,062,415,747 









The value of wheat exports for each half decade is thus given in 
detail : 



Year 


Wheat 


Flour. 


Total value of 
wheat and 
flour. 




Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


1830 


$112, 754 
787,365 




$24,708,090 
29,847,649 

54,055,739 
27,231,952 

81, 287. 691 
31,056,156 

112,343.847 
60. 375, 741 




$24,820,844 


1835 





$54,055^739 
81.287.601 1 
112,343,847 | 
181,719,588 
257,494.808 
861,863,254 
495^ 220, 129 
587, 291, 846 
611, 385, 030 
629,340.714 
648,722.378 
677, 980, 472 
701. 690, 546 






$860,119 


64.906.858 


1840 


850.119 
1. 817, 067 




2,667,186 

5,'567,97i' 

18," 360* 064 

40.'238."826 


83,954,877 


1845 


2.667,186 
2.900,785 




117,911,818 


1850 ;. 


5,567.971 1 
12.801,093 




200,088,652 


1855 


IB, 360. 064 
21, 864, 762 


181.719,588 
75, 775, 220 

257,494.808 
104,368.446 




207,728,634 


1860 


40. 233. 826 
53. 343, 918 




93, 577, 744 
"*272,'oi8,*i88 


455,440,988 


1865 , 


93,577,744 
178, 470, 444 

272,048,188 
117, 527, 424 

389,576.612 
45, 143. 424 


361.863.254 
183,366,875 




767,268,317 


1870 


. 495, 220, 129 
92.071,717 




889,575,6i2 


976,867,458 


1871 


587,291,846 
24, 093, 184 




434,714,036 


1,046,IH066 


1872 


434, 719. 036 
38. 915. 060 


611. 385, 030 
17, 955, 684 

629. 340. 714 
19. 381. 664 

648.722.378 
29.258,094 

677,980.472 
23.710,074 

701, 690, 546 




473,634,096 



525,086,350 



626, 507, 809 


1,102,974,810 


1873 


473. 634, 096 
51, 452. 254 




1.168.808,728 


1874 


525. 086. 350 
101. 421, 459 

626,507.809 
59, 607, 863 


1875 


1.804,488,281 


* ■ 


686,115,672 


1,387,806,218 




686,115,672 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



335 



The corn and corn-meal exported are equivalent to the following ag- 
gregate of bushels of corn : 



Year. 



1830. 
1835. 



1840. 
1845. 
1850. 
1855. 
1860. 
1865. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 



QUANTITY. 



Corn. 



Cora-meal. 



Bii8hfls. 



Total. 



Bnshels. 



Bash els. < Bnshels. 



6, 664, 342 



3,530,710 ; 3,133,632 

:J,568,946 3,209.532 1 

6, 099, 656 1 6, 408, IM 12, 502; 820 

0.090,656 6.403,164 

1,184,973 3.375,720 

7. 284, 629 



7,284,629 - 9,778,884 

3,474,109 1 4,530,996 

10, 758, 738 



10, 758, 738 I 14, 309. 880 

43,822,153' 9,974,800 

54. 580, 891 



54, 580, 801 
23,905.196 



78, 486, 087 



24.284,680 
4, 4>i5, 824 



78, 486, 087 28, 770, 504 

27,697,896, ' 5,165,368 

106, 083, 983 



9, 778, 884 17, 063. 518 

14, 309, 880 25, 068. 616 

24, 284, 680 I 78, $65, 571 

28, 770, 504 107, 256, 591 



106, 083, 983 
52, 612, 028 



158,696,011 



33, 935, 872 
4,706,428 



33,985,872 
i 38,642,300 



158,696,011 , 38.642,800 I 

47,993,276.. ' 6,420,006' 

206,689,287 44,062,396 I 250,751,683 



140,019,855 
197, 338, 311 



206, 689, 287 

9,826,309 

1 216,515,596 

216,515,596 



44, 062, 396 
850,564 



44,912,960 I 
34,49i;650 ' 1,235,360 



44, 912, 960 ! 261, 428, 556 



251,007,246 
38,541.930 



251. 007. 246 



280,549,176 ; 
1874 34,434,606 



289. 549, 176 



46,148,320 
1, 612, 444 I 



46. 148. 320 * 297, 155, 566 



323.983.782 



47,760,764 i 
1, 551, 228 I 



47,760,764 ' 337.309,940 



49, 311, 992 373, 296, 774 



1875. 



323,983,782 49,311,902 

28,858,420 i 1,166.616 i 

352,842,202 , 50.478,608 I 403,320,810 



352, 842, 202 I 



50,478,608 I 



The value of corn and corn-meal, represented in connection with 
wheat in the second figure of the diagram, is as follows for the several 
periods: 



Tear. 


Corn. Cora-meal. 


Total value 
cora-n 


of cora and 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. Value. 


leal. 


1830 


$2,019,926 
1,804,711 




$2,404,371 ' 


$4,424,297 
4, 535, 788 




1835 




2 731,077 






$3,824,637 
'""4,"e97,'74i* 


■ ■- $5 135 H8 


$8,960,085 


1840 


3,824,637 
873,104 


5,135,448 ^ '" 1 
3,471,215 1 

g 00^ 0^3 


8, 960, 085 
4, 344, 319 




13, 304, 404 


1845 


4,697,741 
1, 765, 602 


8, 606, 663 ' 

3,037,021 1 


13, 304, 404 
4,792,623 




6,453,343 
37 7^1 263 


18,097,027 
58.359,190 
80,219,216 


1850 


6,453.343 
81, 277, 920 

37, 731, 263 
17.712.699 


ll,643,6g4 1 '"" 

8,984,252 1 i 

on tmn oo« 1 


18, 097, 027 
40.262,172 


1855 


20, 6-47, 936 1 

' 4,147,318 

55, 443. 962 \ 24, 775, 254 

1 24,775,254 1 


58, 359, 199 
21, 860, 017 




55. 443. 962 


. 80.219,216 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



33^ 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Tear. 


Cora. 


CorameaL 


Total value < 
oorn-D 


i>f ooni and 


1 
Valne. *. Valae. | Value. 


Yalae. 


neal. 


1855 

1800 


55,443,962 | 

19,789,181 1 


24, 775, 524 
4, 917. 515 


'29;692,"769* 
35,016,039 
42,'36i,'i87' 


PO, 219. 219 
24,706.696 

104,925.912 
40,226,635 

145,152,547 
64,488,265 

199,641,812 
8.410.827 

206.052,639 
25.199.364 

233,252.003 
25.269,521 








75,283,143 
'*iio,'l36.508 




104. 9^012 


1865 


75, 2:13. 143 
34.903,365 


20,692,769 
5, 323, 270 




145,152.647 


1870 , 


110, 136, 508 
47, 148, 817 


35. 016, 039 
7, 3 5. 448 




157.280.325 
iii, 739,322 


190.641,812 


1871 


157, 280, 325 
7,458,997 


42,361,487 
951,830 




43, 313, 317 


208,052,639 


1872 


164,739,322 
28,984,365 


43,813.317 
1,214,999 






188,723.687 


44, 528, 316 
46,*003,'l43' 


233.252.003 


1878 


188,723.687 
83, 794. 694 


44.528,316 

1 171 vn 




212, iii, 381 1— ^ ^ 

i 46. 003, 143 
I 1 SM !100 


258,521.534 


1874 


212.518,381 
24,769,951 


258.521,524 
26.299.350 




237.288,382 
"261,'745,"269' 




284.820.874 


1876 


237,288.332 
24,456.937 


47. 532, 542 
1,290,583 


284.820,874 
25.747.470 

310. 568. 844 




48,823,075 


310,568.344 




261, 745. 269 


48.813,075 



5. SuQar supply of twenty-five yearsy with a comparison of qaantities 
of native, and foreign. This diagram represents the annual production 
of Louisiana, together with the imports entering annually into consump- 
tion, by separate tints of color, on the scale of 200,000,000 pounds per 
inch. It shows that in 1850 half the requisite supplies were produced 
in Louisiana; now, from the vast increase in consumption, and decrease 
in production, less than one-tenth of our wants are supplied at borne. 
The figures accompanying this diagram are as follows : 



Yean. 



Louisiana. 



Total. 



Years. 



Louisiana. 



Total. 



Pounds, Poundi. 

1850 242,881.150 443.908.672 

1851 272.029,050, 642,792,697 

1862 i 370,224,100 j 816,663.435 

1863 605,222,600 ' 944,814,232 

1854. 398,630,250; 792,610,363 

1856 266.141,050 605.021,736 

1866 85,072,400 597,638,166 

1867 ! 821.651.660 i 1,078,450,344 

1868 , 416,640,400 I 853,994,264 

1859 ; 256,116,000 870,640,053 

1860 , 268, 071, TOO ' 919,346,722 

1861 1 528,321,500 1,251,620,551 

1862 530,832.412 

1868 I 498,846.005 



PoundM, 

1864 7.668,200 

1865 17.250,000 

1866.... 47.150,000 

1867 43,294.050 

1868 96.^4.400 

1869 100.153,5iK) 

1870 166.613,150 

1871 147.730.150 

1872 ' 124.798.000 

1873 102.922,700 

1874 134,604,691 

Totol I 4,913,980,591 



POUTUU. 

611.284.468 
504, 830. 143 
1,012,799,901 
870, 528, 017 
1, 195, 120, 413 
1. 309. 847, 125 
1.306,202,065 
1,327,456.300 
1,566,760,616 
1,525. 794, 9n 
1,705,193,954 



23.960.395,437 



6. The cotton crop of ten years — effect of qtuintity upon value. — ^This 
brings in juxtaposition the aggregate quantity and value of the crop for 
each year since 1865, one inch in length meaning a half million of bales 
or $50,000,000. It shows that when the quantity rose from 3,154,946 
bales in 1869 to 4,352,317 bales in 1870, the price declined from 23.6 to 
14.9 cents, so that the large crop brought $44,673,491 less than the me- 
dium crop preceding. The next year the crop declined to 2,974,351 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



I. 
I 



ll 
ll 

I 
i 

I 



i{ 



<9 



ifl 



QUANTITY. 

a.»93.987 bales. 

2,019,774 bales. 
«>S93»993t>ales. 
«>439>o39 t>ales. 
3*154,946 bales. 
4,352,317 bales. 
2,974,35 1 l^ales. 
3,930,508 bales. 
4 1 70,388 bales. 
3,832,991 t)ales. 



VALUE. 

$440,738,108 'S) 43.ac. 
$285,515,252 'S) 30.4c- 
$234,004,108 'S) 19.4c 
$285,806,590 'S) 25.2c. 
$346,223,774 "S) 23.6c. 

$301,550,283 ® 14.9c 
$266,933,130^5) 19.3c. 

$345»432,695 « 18.9c 
$300,580,715 ^ 15.sc 
$269,133,463 ^ 15.1C. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



zn 



bales, aDd the price rose to 19.3 cents. The high price of the first year 
was, of course, the result of the cotton famine of the war period. 

7. Average yield per aerej 1866-1875. — ^The estimates of area and pro- 
daction furnish means of making averages for a period which are truer 
and more instructive than the fluctuating averages of separate years. 
Those averages are not necessarily indices of fertility of soil, as Massa- 
chusetts, utterly insignificant in corn production, stands far higher than 
Illinois. Fertilizers and special culture give larger results per acre than 
the richest soils. Illinois probably stands lower for this period of nine 
years than for any former period, having sufl'ered for several seasons of 
drought and other unpropitious meteorological conditions. The average 
yields of corn and wheat are as follows: 



2. WHEA.T. 

tiO.9 to 15.2 bnshels : 

Nevada. 

Oregou. 

MassachnsettB. 

CoDuecticut. 

Vermont. 

Rhode Island. 

Minnesota 
14.8 to 14.0 : 

New Hampshire. 

Kansas. 

New Jersey. 

New York. 

13.7 to 13.0 : 
California. 
Wisconsin. 
Michigan. 
Pennsylvania. 
Maine. 
Texas. 

12.4 to 12.1: 
Nebraska. 
Iowa. 
Missonri. 

11.8 to 11.4: 
Illinois. 
Ohio. 

tO.9 to 10.1 : 

ludinna. 

Delaware. 

Maryland. 

Arkansas. 

West Virginia. 
9.3 to 8.3: 

Kentucky. 

Miasiflsippi. 

Louisiana. 

Florida. 

Yiiginia. 

22 08N, PT 2 



1. Corn. 

38.2 to :^.2 bushels: 

California. 

New Jersey. 

Vermont. 

Ohio. 

New Hampshire. 

Pennsylvania. 
34.7 to 32.1 : 

Massachusetts. 

Iowa. 

Nebraska. 

Kansas. 

Minnesota. 

Indiana. 
31.2 to 30.1 : 

New York. 

Wisconsin. 

Connecticut. 

Nevada. 

Michigan. 

Missouri. 
29.9 to 25.9 : 

Oregou. 

Illinois. 

Maine. 

Kentucky. 

West Virginia. 

Rhode Island. 

Arkansas. 
24.5 to 22.8: 

Maryland. 

Tennessee. 

Texas. 
19.9 to 16.1: 

Virginia. 

Delaware. 

Lonisiana. 

Mississippi. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



338 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

2. Wheat, 1. Corn. 

7.7 to 6.0: 14.2 to 9.6: 

Tennessee. North Carolina. 

Alabama. Alabama. 

North Carolina. . Georgia. 

Georgia. Florida. 

SonthCarolina. South Carolina. 

8. Aggregate value of principal crops, being an average from 1866 to 
1874, inclusive. This diagram is a line illustration on the scale of 
100,000,000 to the square inch, which shows that corn leads all our 
crops, hay next (grass as pasturage not included), and wheat and cotton 
are almost exactly equal. These averages are as follows : 



Com 

Hay 

Wheat 

Cott4>n 

Oata.... 



f549.238,907 J Potatot-a | $76,356,914 

343,111.450 1 Tobacro 34. 439. 809 

308,983.272 1 Barley I 23,374,788 

308.690.811 I, Ryfi , 18,695,^2* 

123,867.426 Buckwheat 12,943,912 



9. Aggregate product of corn, xcheat, and potatoes — effect of quantity upon 
value, — This diagram shows the course of production through eight 
years. The scale is arranged to illustrate quantities by lines represent- 
ing one hundred, two hundred, up to thirteen hundred millions of bush- 
els, and when used to illustrate value the same lines mean fifty, one 
hundred, up to six hundred and fifty millions of dollars. Tracing the 
line representing corn, starting at less than nine hundred million bush- 
els, it falls one hundred millions in 1809, and at 1870 and 1872, respect- 
ively, it nearly reaches eleven hundred million. Then following the 
upper line, showing the value of corn, nearly six hundred millions of 
dollars in 18G6 — a rise in value attends a decline in quantity, and vice 
versa, the only excei^tion being in 1871, when the surplus of the preced- 
ing year made the supply a very full one, while the great crop of 1872 
struck with panic the corn markets, and completely demoralized prices. 
The prices of corn are controlled almost exclusively by the quantity 
produced, as the market cannot be '* cornered," and the exi)ort of 3 per 
cent, is scarcely a disturbing element ; in this instance, foreign demand 
does not fix the prevailing home price. With wheat it is diiferent, as 
the lines show, in some years prices continuing to rise with a rise in 
quantity, caused by poor crops in Europe. 

10. Wages of farm labor — monthly rate without board, 1860 and 1875. — 
This diagram shows the monthly rate of each State, in both the years 
named, from the exhaustive investigations of the Department. The 
scale of line-illustrations is $10 per inch. There is shown a decline in 
wages, except in some of the Southern States, where labor is becoming, 
more efficient and valuable, and in Oregon, where a scarcity exists. 
The figures are a« follows : 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1874. 



650 mil. dols. 
1,300 " bu. 



600 mil 4ob. 
1,200 " bu. 



550 mil. dols. 
1,100 '* bu. 



SCALK t - 

Quantity of C^ 
Value " 



500 mil. dols. 
1,000 " bu. 



450 mil. dob. 
900 " bu. 



Quantity of W 
Value « 

Quantity of Ol 
Value " 

Quantity of pc 
Value " 



^''^-' - -^. -\ 



400 mil. dob. 
800 " bu. 



350 mil dols. 
700 " bu. 



300 mil. dob. 
600 '* bu. 



950 mil. dob. 
500 " bu. 



900 miL dob. 
400 '< bu. 



150 miL dob. 
300 « bu. 

xoo miL dob. 
900 ** bu. 



50 miL dob. 
100 ** bu. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



A6GREGATE OF IMMIGRANTS 
2.5^11569 



I. Aggregate for all countfies 2«S3i>5^ 

3. Great Britain and Ireland 99ZA^S 

3. Germany 869,000 

4. North America 2i3»958 

5. Sweden 93»o53 

6. Norway 78,036 



Digitized by 



C oogle 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



339 



States. 



1866. . 1875. 



SUtes. 



1866. 



1876. 



-|- 



Maine 

l^««w Hampshire' 

Vermont 

Massachasetta 

Hhode Island 

Connecticut 

Nmw York 

N"ew Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

X>elaware 

Maryland 

Viririnia 

^orth Carolina . . 
South Carolina. . . 

Cr^orgia 

Florida 

Alabama 

Mississippi 



127 00 
32 74 
32 84 
38 94 
34 40 
34 25 
29 57 
32 27 
29 91 
24 93 
20 36 

14 82 
13 46 

12 (K) 

15 51 
18 00 

13 40 

16 72 



$25 40 
28 57 
M 67 
31 87 
30 00 
28 25 
27 14 
30 71 
2o 89 
20 33 
20 02 
14 84 

13 46 

12 84 

14 40 

15 50 

13 60 

16 40 



Louisiana $20 

Texas 19 

Arkansas 24 

Tennessee 19 

West Virginia 25 

Kentucky I 20 

Ohio ' 28 

Michigan i 81 

Indiaua 27 

Illinois 28 

Wisconsin. ' 30 

Minnesota « 31 



Iowa . 
Missouri ... 

Kansas 

Nebraska.. 

California .. 

I Oregon 



:^ I 

50^ 
00 ! 

'^^ 1 

00 
35 ' 

23 1 
46 

I?' 

54 

841 

65 

34 

75 

03 , 

37 

71 

75 ' 



$18 40 

19 50 

20 50 
15 20 
20 75 

18 12 
24 05 
28 22 

24 20 

25 20 

25 50 

26 16 
24 35 

19 40 

23 20 

24 00 
44 50 
38 25 



11. Immigration of seven years — comparison of its sources. — In further 
illustration of labor interests, this diagram shows the sources of our 
supply from other countries. Great Britain furnishes 39 per cent, and 
Germany 34 ; all other nationalities little more than a fourth of the 
whole. 

12, Comparative area of the public land States. — This diagram illus- 
trates the superficial area of each State by square figures drawn to a 
scale of 25,000,000 acres per square inch. The proportion surveyed in 
1874 is indicated by shading, as also the area actually appropriated up 
to 1870. 



States and Territories. 



California 

Dakota Territory 

Montan^ Territory 

New Mexico Territory 

Arizona Territory 

Nevada 

Colorado Territory 
Wyoming Territory . - . 

Oregon 

Idaho Territory 

Utah Territory 

Minnesota 

Kansas. 

Nebraska 

Washineton Territory. 

Indian Territory 

Missouri 

Florida 

Michifcan 

IlltnoU 

Iowa 

Wisconsin 

Alabama 

Arksnsas 

Mississippi 

Looiaiana 

Ohio 



Area in acres.' 



Acre* sur- 
veyed. 



Acres appro- 
priated. 



120. 
96, 
92. 
77. 
72. 
71, 
66. 
62, 
60. 
55, 
54. 
53, 
52, 
4», 
44, 
44, 
41, 
87. 
36. 
35, 
35, 
34, 
34, 
33, 
30, 
26. 
25, 



947, 
590, 
016, 
568. 
006, 
7:t7, 
880, 
615. 
975, 
228, 
065. 
450. 
043, 
636, 
796, 
154, 
284, 
931, 
128, 
462, 
228, 
511, 
462, 
406, 
179. 
461. 
676, 



840 
128 
640 
640 
240 j 
600 
000 I 
068 ! 
360 i 
160 I 
042 I 
840 
520 I 
800 I 
160 I 
240 
000 i 
520 ' 
640 , 
400 
800 I 
360 
080 
720 , 

840 : 

440 
060 



38,805,776 
13,S6:{,9I3 I 
6, 7H4, 4811 I 
5, 486, 185 
3, 135. 753 
8, 198, 194 
15. 683. 9K6 

4, 748, 841 
15.255.617 

4,014,953 

5, 984, 792 
35,897,912 
45. 770, 685 
32,372,410 
10,190,046 
22, 832. 725 
41, 284. 1100 
29. 345. 870 
36. 128. 640 
85, 462, 400 
35, ^K. 8«»0 
34,511,360 
'M, 462, 080 
33. 406, 720 
30. 1V9, 840 
23. 909, 253 
25, 576, 960 



20, 877, 662 
A 835. 604 
5. 179, 821 
6, 864. 082 
4. 050, 350 
4. 669. 383 
4, 303, 329 
3, 4^0, 281 
9,515,744 
3.102,407 
5.315.086 
19,516.340 
10, 544. 439 
8, 869, 943 
3, 556, 967 

40, .549, 368 
20, 643, 611 
32,468,110 
35, 462. 400 
84, 036. 220 
26. 1 18, 729 
28, 522, 448 
22, 463, 872 
25. 531, 387 
20, 033, 897 
25, 576, 960 



13. Aggregate value of farm animals — average from 1846 to 1874. in- 
elusive. — ^This diagram represents these values as follows: Cattle, 
$646,214,801; horses, $600,782,2.33; mnles, $108,033,293 ; swine, $146,- 
417,611 ; sheep, $94,491,942. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



340 



IXTERXATIOXAL EXHIBIT/OX, 1876. 



Minor charts. — Several charts embody the numbers aud prices of 
farm animals, taken from the statistical estimates of 1876, which are as 
follows: 

Table showing the eetimated value and arerage price of horeee^ muleSy aud cowuy and other 

cattle January^ 1876. 



Hordes. 



Mules. 



Milch cows. 



Oken and other 
cattle. 



States. 



Value. 



Maine t $6. 

New Hampshire 1 3, 

Vermont 6, 

Massacbusetts 1 0, 

Rho«le Island I ] 

Connecticut 1 4, 

New York I 61 

New Jersey 12, 

Pennsylvania ' 40, 

Delaware 1 1, 

Marxland ; 8, 

Virginia 13, 

North Carolina. 10, 

South Carolina. j 5, 

Geoigia | 9, 

FloHda 1, 

Alabama 7, 

Mississippi 6, 

Louisiana t 4, 

Texas 25, 



Arkansas 8. 

Tennessee 19, 

West Virginia 6, 

Kentucky 20, 

Ohio , 52. 

Michigan 24, 

Indiana ! 41, 

Illinois : 65, 

Wisconsin 23, 

Minnesota 12, 

Iowa 43, 

Missonri 26, 

Kansas 11, 

Nebraska 4. 

Callomia 9, 

Oregon 8, 

Nevada 

The Territories t 6, 



463.954 

804,180 

201,380 

416,718 , 

438,689 ' 

197.354 

119,000 

824.188 

557.970 

635,620 

779, 710 

551,397 

473, 300 ' 

040,202 ; 

389, 471 

306,274 I 

449,984 

775, 164 

484, 914 

554, 168 

594.901 , 

9)9,520 

651. 336 

766,018 

601.712 

437,839 

725.056 

229,075 

608,305 

945, 516 

774, 614 

400,100 

_.-,899 

713. 618 

614, 778 

900,952 

£88,600 

380,600 



Total 632,446,065 



Orand average of I 
prices. , 






$81 41 
80 94 

83 24 

89 94 
97 87 

82 14 I 

90 00 
110 84 

84 70 i 

83 45 , 
83 22 
69 53 ! 

74 97 ( 
88 58 
79 37 
78 22 , 
71 36 ! 
76 04 

58 78 
33 17 
54 09 
62 64 

59 44 
56 94 
69 14 
82 31 
61 76 
59 75 

67 05 

75 09 

68 83 
45 40 
49 68 

69 42 
45 46 
42 68 
54 00 
66 00 



Valne. 






64 96 



$1, 819, 475 
1,924.800 
2, 528, 745 

380.000 
1.164,460 
2.5.50.880 
4. 267, 318 
4,204,929 
8, 2m, 944 

879,840 
8,132,280 
9. 328, 427 

6, 708, 404 
6, 932, 413 
6.629,500 
6, 910, 858 

163, 392 
5, 009, 050 
1, 9(19. 060 

365,256 
4, 187, 864 
7,929,207 

443,352 

306, 5. '8 
3. 041. 770 

7, 070. 980 
1,383.080 

450,800 
1, 407, 680 

169, 016 

85,800 

1,859,000 



106, 666, 114 



$98 35 
128 32 
96 15 

95 00 
105 86 

85 60 

82 54 

94 07 
87 12 
91 65 
80 20 
07 07 

83 96 
53 69 
67 50 

67 82 

68 08 
58 98 
72 04 

96 12 
71 71 
71 37 
85 26 

95 79 
82 21 
56 03 
64 40 
98 00 

77 20 
46 68 

78 00 
71 50 



76 38 



Value. 



$6, 079, 100 

3, 780. 700 

7,060,1.50 

6,780.699 

795.600 

4, 805. 297 

56,111.250 

6, 429, 213 

29, 027, 160 

736,000 

3, 052, 217 

6. 168. 790 

8,111,480 

3, 146, 175 

4, 512, 002 

976. 616 

3, 409. 414 

3, 671, 838 

1, 855, 616 

7.861.572 

3.606,580 

4, 701, 331 

3. 234, 135 

6, 836, 918 

26,433.440 

12,169,070 

11,916,260 

20, 852, 090 

12, 679. 500 

5. 881. 866 

16, 726, 420 

9, 140, 862 

5,600,282 

1. G76. 078 

11.446.118 

1. 759, 675 

826,700 

7,988,750 



820.346,728 



ss 

<^ 

$87 00 
88 50 

33 70 
48 33 
39 00 

43 38 
37 50 

44 37 

34 68 
32 00 
80 31 

22 77 
15 48 

19 75 
17 02 

14 62 

20 27 

21 03 
20 71 

15 72 

16 20 
20 83 
C5 77 
27 94 

32 6 > 

33 70 

27 40 
29 05 
26 76 

25 19 

26 90 

20 86 

23 76 

28 00 
31 46 

21 75 
33 00 

27 60 



28 80 



Value. 



$7. 155. 336 
4. 498, 160 
8,827,565 
6,710.hO0 
79.5, 520 
4, 185, 188 

21,122,920 
8. 037. 800 

20. 556, 143 
788,624 

2, 728. 391 
6. 701, 850 
8, 191, 508 
2.182,523 
3. .572. 010 
2,058.076 
4. 186. 167 
3. 639, 135 
2, 007. 792 
22, 429, 209 
2, 775, 006 
8, 945, 908 
.5, 087, 376 
8, 236, 144 

21. 510, 063 
10, 803, 500 
15. 17\ 606 
27, 7l'l. 080 

0, If 8. 071 
6.6(16,475 

10. («5. 012 

14, 148, 844 
0. 218. 400 
1,804,044 

21. 686, 000 

1, 754, 400 

080,700 

14. 761, 080 






$35 44 

38 12 
20 33 
47 50 
40 72 
36 68 
31 85 



29 08 
24 73 
22 87 

16 8S 

10 10 

11 00 
8 01 
8 14 

, 12 70 

11 85 
I 11 68 
' 57 

10 62 

, 12 10 

21 63 

21 14 

24 87 

< 26 36 

I 10 65 

; 21 54 

I 20 30 

20 05 

20 01 

17 38 
I 18 06 

20 76 
' 20 06 

12 75 

21 00 

18 78 



310,628,600 



to Oi 



Table showitig the e$HmaUd nmmber, average price, and value of ekeep and swine January, 

1876. 



States. 



Mahie 

New Hampahire 

Yennont 

MaMaohoaetU .. 
Rhode lalaod.... 
OoDBectlenl ..... 

New York 

New Jersey 

PMUMylTaaia.... 





Sheep. 






Swine. 


X 


Number. 


Average 
price. 

$8 78 


Value. 
$1,087,003 


Number. 


Average 
price. 1 


Value. 


525,000 


58,800 


$11 66 


$686,000 


342,400 


2 70 


664.480 


87,800 


16 20 


601,300 


400,600 


8 74 


1,884.470 


61,800 


13 10 


681,443 


76,800 


868 


276,060 


7^600 


18 08 


1,86^000 


35,800 


8 06 


100,188 


It. 800 


17 06 


tn.OM 


08,600 


4 18 


880.660 


07,000 


If 78 


OOOLM 


1,006^600 


806 


7,640,175 


868,700 


1180, 


1^ 477.400 


125.800 


6 01 


680,360 


168,000 


laao 


XUfl^OM 


1,640,500 1 


868 


^072,000 


1175,000 


11 50 


io,o«;5ot 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEFAR TMEXT OF A GRICL'L TL RE. 34 1 

TahU showing the estimated number ^ average price, and value of sh^p and ewine — Cont'd. 



States. 



Sheep. 



Delaware 

^fanland 

Virginia 

>*orth Carolina. 
Sooth Carolina. 

OeorKia 

Florida 

Alabama 

HlMimippi 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Arkansas 

Tennessee 

West Virginia.. 

Kentncky 

Ohio 

Michigan 

Tndiana 

niinols 

Wisconsin 

Minnesota 

Iowa 

Missoari 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

California 

Oregon 

Nevada 

The Territories.. 



23,600 I 
141,200 ' 
356,400 
283.000 
142, 70C t 
371,200 
37,800 
185,900 
151, 8U0 
68,800 
1, 601, 400 
102,400 I 
341,700 I 
544,500 , 
683,600 I 
4,546,600 I 
3,4r>0,600 I 
1, 250, 000 
1,311,000 
1, 162, 800 
100,200 
1,663,900 
1,284.200 
123,000 
48,000 
6,750,000 
710.500 
20,900 
3, 049, 200 



Total 135,935,300 



Grand average of prices. 



r 



8 67 
3 80 
2 93 
1 58 
1 81 
1 73 
1 94 ' 
1 93 

1 81 

2 04 
2 00 
2 01 
2 11 
2 55 
2 85 
2 72 
2 65 
2 62 
2 41 
2 74 
2 63 
2 66 

1 86 

2 80 
2 77 
2 02 

1 99 

2 60 
2 80 



2 60 



Swine. 



»"»»»'• ''^i^lS* . 



86,612 
549,268 
1,044,252 
448,562 i 
258,287 
642, 176 
73, 832 
3.58, 787 
274, 758 i 
140, 352 1 
3,38*i,H00 
386,724 ; 
720,987 I 
1, 388. 475 
1,948,260 
12,366,752 
9. 144, 090 , 
3, 275, 000 
3, 159. 510 , 
3, 186, 072 ; 
500,226 I 
4,425,974 
2,388,612 ' 
346,920 i 
IS.%453 ! 
13, 63.'>, 000 
1,413.895 
54,340 
8, 537, 760 ; 



46,700 

233.500 

589,800 

758,300 

275,900 

1, 360, 700 

175,400 

765,900 ' 

792, 900 

222,600 

1, 090, 000 

901.200 

1,026.400 

248,400 

1,604,300 

1,506.100 

459,700 

2,136,000 

2, 640, 100 

540.700 

213.400 

8, 296, 200 

1, 874. 300 

S46,500 

80,900 

363,300 

181,500 

5,200 

116,500 



10 61 

7 10 
4 45 
4 01 
4 11 

8 91 

2 26 
8 99 

4 31 

3 98 

4 09 

3 91 

6 22 

5 38 

5 51 
8 06 

7 93 

7 70 

8 63 

7 58 

6 99 

8 08 
5 94 

8 91 

7 58 

7 17 

4 41 

9 00 

8 75 



93,666,318 ! 25,726,800 



6 80 



Yalae. 



495,487 

1, 657, 850 

2, 624, 610 

3, 040, 783 

.1. 133, 949 

5, 820, 387 

396,404 

3, 016, 041 

3, 417. 390 

885,948 

4, 458, 100 

3,523,692 

5, 3^7, 808 

1,336,392 

8,839,698 

12, 864. 566 

8, 64.5. 421 

16, 447. 200 

22, 784. 063 

4,098,506 

1. 491, 666 

26, 633, 296 

11,133,342 

2,196,815 

613.222 

2,604,861 

800,415 

46.800 

1, 019. 376 



175, 070. 484 



The comparative value of horses and cows in the several States is 
thus presented : 



2. Cows. 



$50 to $40: 

New Jersey. 

Maasachasetts. 

CoDDecticat. 

Kbode Ittland. 
$40 to $35: 

Nevada. 

California. 

Vemiont. 

New York. 

PeDDBylvauia. 

New Hampshire. 

Maine. 
$35 to $30: 

Michigan. 

Ohio. 

Delaware 

The Territories. 

Maryland. 

Nebraska. 

Illinois 



1. HOBSES. 



$130 to $100 : 

New Jersey. 

Massachusetts. 

Rhode Island. 

Connecticut. 

Florida. 
$100 to $90: 

Pennsylvania. 

Georgia. 

South Carolina. 

New York. 

Vermont. 

Mississippi. 
$90 to $80: 

Maryland. 

Louisiana. 

Maine. 

New Hampshire. 

North Carolina. 

Delaware. 

Alabama. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



342 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, iSt^, 

Comparative value of hordes and cows — Contiuued. 
2. Cows. !• Horses. 

|35to|30: $80to|70: 

Indiana. Michigan. 

Kentucky. ' Virginia. 

West Virginia. Ohio. 

130 t o |25 : TenneHsee. 

Oregon. Wisconein. 

Wisconsin. Minnesota. 

Iowa. Arkansas. 

Minnesota. Nebraska. 

Kansas. |70to|65: 

Virginia. West Virginia. 

$25 to 120: Indiana. 

Missonri. Kentucky. 

Louisiana. Iowa. 

South Carolina. IHioois. 

Mississippi. $65 to $50 : 

Tennessee. Kansas. 

Georgia. Missouri. 

Alabama. The Territories. 

$20 to $10: $50 to $30: 

Arkansas. Nevada. 

North Carolina. Oregon. 

Florida^ California. 

Texas. Texas. 

In connection with these charts are type specimens (in lithograph, 
black and tint) of breeds of farm animals most popular and generally 
distributed. These are — 

a. Shorthorn bull (Bates), Duke of Airdrie (12,730). 

6. Shorthorn cow (Bates), Dutchess of Geneva. 

c. Shorthorn bull (Booth), Breastplate (11,431). 

d. Shorthorn grade steer. 
6. Devon bull, Huron. 

/. Jersey bull, King of Prairie. 

g. Dutch cow, Infrau. 

h, Ayrshire grade, "Old Creamer." 

The second is the famous cow that brought, at auction, $40,600 ; the 
last, the cow that gave 100 pounds of milk daily for thirty days. 

Another series of charts illustrates the statistics of agricultural edu- 
cation, accompanied by the following illustrations (wood engraving 
upon lithographic tint) of college buildings, as follows : 

a. College of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts at Hanover, N. H. 

h. Institute of Technology at Boston, Mass. 

c. Agricultural College at Amherst, Mass. 

d. College of Agriculture (Cornell University), Ithaca, N. Y. 

e. Agricultural and Mechanical College, Columbus, Ohio. 
/. Industrial University at drbana, IlL 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



343 



g. "Ashland,^ homestead of Henry Olay, regents' residence, Ken- 
tacky University, Lexington, Ky. 

A. College of Agricalture at Berkeley, Cal. 

». Female College, University of Wisconsin, Milwankee, Wis. 

Aj. College of Agricalture, Lincoln, Nebr. 

/. Industrial University, Fayetteville, Ark. 

A portion of these. statistics of our industrial system are given in 
the following tables : 



St»t«s. 



Alabama.... 
Aikansas... 
Califurnia . . . 
CoDneoticat . 

Delaware 

Florida 

Georgia 

niinois 

Indiana 

Iowa.. 



Kansas 

Kentucky 

Ijouislana 

Maine 

Maryland 

MaMachnaetto ... 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi. 

Missouri 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

NewYork 

North Carolina... 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island..... 
Sonth Carolina .. 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Wefct Virginia... 
Wisconsin 



Total. 






240,000 
150,000 
150,000 
IKO.OOO 
90,000 
90,000 
270,000 
480,000 
390,000 
240. (lOO 
90,000 
880,000 
210,000 
210,000 
210. 000 
360,000 
240,000 
12 ,000 
210,000 
330.000 
90.000 
90,000 
150,000 
210, 000 
990,000 
270.000 
680,000 
90,000 
780, Oi'O 
120.000 
180, 000 
800,000 
180.000 
150,000 
300.000 
150,000 
240.000 



i 
5Z5 



240.000 

150.000 

15u,000 

180.000 

90,000 

90.000 

270.000 

454.560 

390,000 

63.025 

57.495 

880.000 

210,000 

210, 000 

210,000 

360.000 

75.584 

64,097 

210, 000 

1,571 



150.000 
210,000 
580.800 
270.000 
680,000 
700 
780,000 
120, 000 
180.000 
300.000 
180,000 
150,000 
3(»0,000 
150,000 
187,597 



9.510,000 7,997,829 



till 

S « <> a 

a « o 



468 



Hi 

111 

111 
ill 

7\ 



844 
181 



277 

287 

95 

225 

116 

52 

391 

156 

9 

5 

142 

20 

29 

57 

78 

7 

100 

60 

148 

40 

20 

53 



14 

423 

15 

17 



8,708 






248 

281 

1«051 



487 

374 

67 



237 
222 
401 
182 
470 
188 
533 
70 



155 



255 
209 
315 



153 



125 
345 



6,616 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



344 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



From the above statement it appears that 84 per cent, of the donated 
lands have been sold^ and the following shows the property abready in- 
vested in industrial education aggregates seventeen and a half millions: 



SUt«8. 



a 


m 


•o 


i| 


g 


9 


4S 


^ 


B 


o 


c 




• o 


• 










< 


-a 


I 



Alalamft 

Arkansas 

Califuniia 

CoDDecticat 

Delaware 

Floiida 

Georfiria 

IHlDols 

Indiana 

Iowa 

£anaas 

Kentncky 

Idaine , 

Maryland 

MaAsachusetta .. 

Hicbigan 

IdiDuesota 

Idifisissippi 

Hi(»Boari 

Nebraska 

New Hampshire.. 

New Jersey 

New York 

Ohio . 



200 I 
160 , 

200 I. 



$2,000 
12,000 



$100,000 
5,000 I 



Oregon 

Pennsylvania... 
Rhode Island . . . 
South Carolina . 

Tennessee 

Texas. 



70 j 
■*7o ;" 

623 

184 

870 

415 

433 

370 . 

270 

383 

676 

143 

310 

600 

480 . 

163 

99 
200 I 
320 I 

86 
600 ! 



15.000 



225.000 
60,000 



2,500 
60,000 I 
60,000 
10.584 

3,000 I 
130,000 

13,566 
37,500 
10,148 
8,500 
5,100 
60,000 

"15,060 , 
30,000 I 
40.b00 

112,000 , 
5.000 , 
50, 136 I 



200,000 I 
200.000 i 

25.000 
237,000 

31,000 
120,000 ! 

65,000 

60,000 i 
163.500 
109,500 , 

1,200 
100,000 I 

75,000 

" 50,666 [ 

75,000 I 

560,000 i 

*" 6.666 

300,000 



IS) 



$327, sm^ 

300.000 
1,087,500 
614.000 
139,000 
100. 134 
346.000 
866,308 
510, 000 
968. M»0 
458,782 
311.000 
258,620 
210.000 
1, 460, 627 
929,699 
357.250 
229,515 



Vermont 

Virginia 

West Virginia. 
Wii^consin 



116 I 

200 

800 



9.000 
30.000 . 



35.000 , 
53.000 I 



869 39,740 j 89,000 

25 80.000 i 

234 ! 164,000 ' 



Total . 



468,000 
240,000 
292,200 
2,651,998 
904,000 
239. OiK> 
897.589 
56.000 
200.800 
397.190 
291.340 
416. 972 
491, 448 
15iV,0U0 
359,204 



17. 535, 475 



To conclude the series of exhibits, the smaller diagrams, the charta 
in the show-frame illustrating the above-named branches of statistical 
exposition, together with further letter-press illustmtion of the real ex- 
tent of our agricultural resources and present production, are gathered, 
together in the form of a statistical album, for preservation of the sub- 
stance of the exhibits, and as a fragmentary record of a century's prog- 
ress and memorial of the great centennial anniversary. 

J. R. DODGE, 

Statistician. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHEMICAL DIVISION. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHEMICAL DIVISION 



CATALOGUE OF COLLECTION PREPARED BY THE CHEMICAL DIVISION 
OF THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR EXHIBITION IN THE 
INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF 1876. 

WiiJjAM McMuRTRiE, Ckemist in Chief. 

The collection prepared under the direction of the chemical division 
of the Department of Agriculture consists of soils and fertilizers and 
of materials intended to illustrate the utilization of those agricultural 
and horticultural products, the value of which depends upon their chem- 
ical changes to render them fit for consumption. Further than this, 
the collection contains a series of products illustrating the utilization of 
American dair^' products. 

In order to carry out this general idea the collection was made up in 
two grand divisions, viz : 

A. Soils and fertilizers. 

B. Vegetable products, the value of which depends upon their chem- 
ical composition, and the methods for the utilization of which involves 
chemical processes. 

The first grand division consists of: 
I. — Soils taken from different geological formations. 
II.— 'Bocks of known composition, with samples of soils formed from 
them by disintegration and decomposition. 
III.— Marls: 

1. Calcareous or shell marl. 

2. Phosphatic marl. 

3. Green sand marl. 
IV. — Natural fertilizers : 

1. Miueral. 

2. Vegetable. 

3. Animal. 

V. — The combination of natural fertilizing materials for production 
of the so-called commercial or artificial fertilizers. 
The second grand division consists of: 

1. Cereals and the products resulting from their utilization. 

2. Materials illustrating the production of sugar. 

3. Products illustrating the processes of fermentation of amylaceous 
and saccharine substances, and the production of alcoholic liquors from 
them by distillation. 

347 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



348 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

4. Products illustratlDg the processes of preparing tobacco for con- 
sumptioD. 

5. TaDDiug and dyeing materials. 

6. Materials illustrating the utilization of wood by dry distillation. 

7. Vegetable products prepared and preserved for food by special 
methods. 

8. Products of the American materia medica, and the active proxi- 
mate principles separated from them. 

The dairy products are divided into — 

1. Salt. 

2. Annatto. 

3. Cheese. 

4. Butter. 

On account of the limited time and means at the disposal of the di- 
vision the groups represented are not entirely complete. The collec- 
tion will, however, serve to illustrate the object and the work of the 
division, viz, the application of geology and chemistry to the study of 
agriculture and the utilization of agricultural and horticultural pro- 
ducts. 

A.— SOILS AND FERTILIZERS. 

I. — SOILS FROM DIFPERtlNT GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS. 

The materials included in the first group of this grand division were 
prepared under the supervision of Prof. George H. Cook, State geolo- 
gist of New Jersey. It was the intention of the Department to have 
had all the specimens presented analyzed, but the means at its disposal 
would not admit it. In order, therefore, to show the composition of 
soils from the diflferent formations we present, in connection with aver- 
ages of several analyses published by Professor Cook in the first annual 
report of the State Board of Agriculture of New Jersey. While the in- 
dividual specimens exhibited may have a slightly diflferent composition 
than is represented by the figures given, the variation with this regard 
will never be found very great. 

I.— SOILS TAKEN FROM DIFFERSNT OEOLOOICAL FORMATIONS. 

1. Soils arranged with reference to the geological formation from 
which they were taken. 

A. — Gneiss Soils. 

1. Surface soil, trom Hon. Aaron Eobertsou's farm, Schooley's Mount- 
ain, Morris County, New Jersey. This soil has never been cultivated 
or manured. 

Average composition: SiOj, 68.89; AI2O3, 11.55; FeO, 4.95; CaO, 
1.11; MgO, 1.37; K^O, 1.95; Na^O, 0.41 ; HSO4, 0.04 ; CI, trace; P2O5, 
0.18; H2O, 1.64; organic matter, 6.86. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OE AGRICULTURE, 349 

2. Subsoil, same. 

3. Surface soil, from Martin J. Rj-erson's farm, Bloomiiigdale, Pas- 
saic County, New Jersey. 

4. Subsoil, same. 

6. Surface soil, gneiss drift, from M. J. Ryerson's farm, Porapton 
Plains, N. J. 

6. Subsoil, same. 

B.— Magnesian Limestone Soils. 

7. Surface soil, from Thomas Shields's farm, Beatyestown, Warren 
County, New Jersey. This soil was a natural one, unchanged by culti- 
vation or manure. 

Average composition: SiOj, 65.06; AI2O3, 14.75; FeO, 4.51; CaO, 
0.67; MgO, 1.55; K^O, 4.57; Na^O, 0.53; HSO4, 0.02 ; CI, trace; P2O5, 
0.16: H2O, 1.45; organic matter, 5.52. 

8. Subsoil, same. 

C. — Slate Soils. 

9. Surface soil, from Delaware Station, Warren County, New Jersey. 
Taken from a fence-corner on border of woods. 

Average composition: SiOg, 65.75; AI2O3, 14.37; FeO, 6.10; CaO, 
0.56; MgO, 1.60; K2O, 3.86; NaO, O.lU; HSO4, 0.04; CI, trace; P3O5, 
0.17; H2O, 1.68; organic matter, 5.12. 

10. Subsoil, same. 

D.— Red Sandstone Soils. 

11. Surface soil, from New Brunswick, New Jersey. This is a natural 
soil taken from the commons in the northwest part of the city. 

Average composition: Si02, 65.80; AI2O3, 13.29; FeO, 6.05; CaO, 
0.84; MgO, 1.21; K2O, 1.74; NaOj, 1.12; HSO4, 0.09; CI, trace; P2O5, 
0.15 ; H2O, 2.70 ; organic matter, 7.45. 

12. Subsoil, same. 

13. Surface soil, from New Jersey State Agricultural College farm. 
New Brunswick, N. J. From a fence-corner uncultivated for many 
years. 

14. Subsoil, same. 

£.— Greens AND (marl) Soils. 

15. Surface soil, from B. C. Fatem's farm, Woodbury, N. J. This 
ground had been broken up, but never bad been manured. 

Average composition: SiOj, 79.30 ;'AU03, 1.81; FeO, 1.71; OaO, 
0.82; MgO, 0.23; KjO, 0.77; Na,0, 0.03; HSO4, 0.12; 01, 0.14; P,©,, 
0.11 ; H,0, 2.24 ; organic matter, 12.56. 

16. Subsoil, same. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



350 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

17. Surface soil from Azariah Conover's farm, Middletown, Monmoath 
County, New Jersey. This ground had never been plowed. 

18. Subsoil, same. 

19. Surface soil, from Rev. G. C. Schanck's farm, near Marlborough, 
Monmouth County, New Jersey. Natural soil. 

20. Subsoil, same. 

21. Surface soil, from John R. Perri le's farm, Manalapin, Monmouth 
County, New Jersey. This soil has been under cultivation for many 
years. 

22. Subsoil, same. 

23. Surface soil, from E. A. Osborn's farm, Middletown, Monmouth 
County, New Jersey. 

24. Subsoil, same. 

25. Surface soil, from Charles Hollingshead's farm, Medford, Burling- 
ton County, New Jerse3\ This soil was taken from a lence-corner of a 
field. 

26. Subsoil, same. 

27. Surface soil, from Lesley Peacock's farm, Medford, Burlington 
County, New Jersey. This soil was from woodland. 

28. Subsoil, same. 

29. Surface soil, from General H. Irick's farm, Vincentown, Burlington 
County, New Jersey. This soil was taken from a byroad on the farm. 

30. Subsoil, same. 

31. Surface soil, from Charles Stevenson's farm, Blackwoodstown, Cam- 
den County, New Jersey. This soil was taken from a corner of .a cul- 
tivated field. 

52. Subsoil, same. 

33. Surface soil, from B. Tomlinson's farm, near Clementon, Camden 
County, New Jersey. This soil was taken from the side of the public 
road, and had not been cultivated for many years. 

34. Subsoil, same. 

F. — Tertiary (Eocene) Soils. 

Average composition: SiOj, 84.80; AI2O3, 6.53; FeO, 1.92; CaO, 0.48; 
MgO, 0.40; K2O, 0.81; Na^O, 0.44; HSO4, 0.08; CI, 0.0 1; P2O5, 0.05; 
H2O, 1.60; organic matter, 1.90. 

35. Surface soil, from Atsion, Burlington County, New Jersey. 

36. Subsoil, same. 

37. Surface soil, from Spring Lake Beach (old Osbom farm), near 
Squan, Monmouth County, New Jersey. 

38. Subsoil, same. 

39. Surface soil, from Upper AUoway's Creek Township, SaJem 
County, New Jersey. This soil was taken from white oak land that had 
never been cultivated. 

40. Subsoil, same. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 3 5 1 

41. Sarface soil, from G. Ayer's farm, near Jericho, Cumberland 
County, New Jersey. This soil wa« taken from brush land. 

42. Subsoil, same. . 

G.— Deift Soils. 

Average composition : SiOg, 94.62; Al203,2.21; PeO, 0.60; CaO, 0.08; 
MgO, 0.12; K2O, 0.13; Na^O, 0.14; HSO4, 0.04; CI, trace; P2O5, 0.01; 
H2O, 0.56 ; organic matter, 1.61. 

43. Surface soil, from Kichards's farm, Jackson, Camden County, New 
Jersey. This soil was taken from old fields not under cultivation at 
present. 

44. Subsoil, same. 

45. Surface soil, from H. A. Green's farm, Atco, Camden County, 
New Jersey. Taken from the most sandy soil in the neighborhood. 

46. Subsoil, same. 

47. Surface soil, from Whiting's Station, Ocean County. Taken from 
the poorest soil of this vicinity, and represents but a small area of the 
surrounding country. 

48. Subsoil, same. 

49. Surface soil, from Hon. A. K. Hay's farm, Winslow, Camden 
County, New Jersey. Taken from woodland. 

50. Subsoil, same. 

51. Surface soil, from Twelfth street and First road, Hamilton, 
Atlantic County, New Jersey. Taken from the poorest of the tract 

52. Subsoil, same. 

53. Surface soil, from H. Bahihr's farm, Egg Harbor City, N. J. This 
is considered the best soil for grapevines. 

54. Subsoil, same. 

55. Surface soil, from H. Hobel's, Egg Harbor City, N. J. This is a 
lighter soil and very sandy. 

56. Subsoil, same. 

57. Surface soil, from Dr. T. T. Price's lands, Tuckerton, Burlington 
County, New Jersey. Taken from woodland. 

58. Subsoil, same. 

H. — Post Tertiary Soils. 

Average composition : SiOj, 85.41 ; AI2O3, 5.29 ; FeO, 1.36 ; CaO, 
0.55; MgO, 0.37; K^O, 0.80; NaO, 0.26; HSO4, 0.03; CI, trace; P,Oft, 
0.06; H2O, 1.37; organic matter, 4.14. 

59. Surface soil, from Port Elizabeth, Cumberland County, New Jersey. 
Taken from roadside. This represents the more sandy portion of this 
part of the State. 

60. Subsoil, same. 

61. Surface soil, from Captain Van Gilder's lands, 1 mile from Searl- 
▼ille Station. Taken from soil not under cultivation. 

62. Subsoil, same. 

63. Subsoil No. 2, same.' 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



352 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

n.— KNOWN ROCKS AND SOILS FORMED FROM THEM. 

The second group consists of known rocks and the soils formed from 
them by disintegration and decomposition. The series exhibited was 
prepared under the direction of Prof. E. L. Berthoud, Canon City, 
Colo. It is, of course, by no means as complete as it was originally in- 
tended to make it, but it will serve to suggest to those having time and 
means to follow it out a profitable line of study, viz, the character and 
composition of the soils which may be produced from our known rocks. 
The specimens of soils were selected from positions where admixture 
from dehru from breaking down of rocks other than those represented 
by the soils was impossible. 
Feldspathic granite, Rocky Mountains. 
Subsoil from metamorphia granite. 
Mica schist from foot-hills, Bocky Mountains. 
Surface soil from granite and mica schist. 
Dolerite. 

Decomposed dolerite. 
Sandstone from Trias red bed. 
A sandstone from Trias red bed. 
Surface soil, Triassic red bed. 
Subsoil, same. 

Limestone from Cretaceous formations. 
Surface soil, limestone, between Triassic and Cretaceous. 
Subsoil, same 

Surface soil. Cretaceous clay, with veins of bog ore with arenaceous rock. 
Subsoil, same. 
Cretaceous sandstone. 

Surface-soil over Cretaceous rock (sandstone). 
Subsoil from decomposed Cretaceous rock. 
Arenaceous shell marl. Cretaceous. 
Surface soil from green clay beds. Eocene. 
Sul)soil, same. 
Surface-soil from Miocene. 
Subsoil, same. 

Surface soil covering glacial drift. 
Subsoil, same (auriferous). 
Sandstone from lignite beds. 
Surface soil from lignite beds, Tertiary. 
Subsoil, same. 

Alkali soil, Clear Creek alluvian lands. 
Alkali soil, Clear Creek bottoms. 
Tailings from mines, deposited by Clear Creek, 20 to 30 miles below the 

mines supposed to cake the soil and render it sterile firom tiie hydroas 

oxide of iron, and the sulphates of iron and copper. 
Tailings and quartz-sand after several years' exposure. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 353 

ni.— MARLS. 

This group may be divided into (1) Calcareous or shell marls; (2) 
Phosphatic marls ; (3) Greeusand marls. 

Calcareous or shell marls, — This series was prepared by Prof. George H. 
Cook. The value of these marls depends almost entirely upon the 
quantity of carbonate of lime, in a friable condition, they contain. They 
are found quite extensively distributed through the more recent geologi- 
cal formations. 

1. Shell marl, from O. C. Herbert's pits, Marlborough, i^. J., PaOs, I.6O5 
HS.O4,— ; Si02, 41.50; K2O,— ; Ca, 11.47; C03,— ; MgO,2.37; AI2O3, 
FeO, 30.12; H2O, 9.91. Marl under shell layer, same. 

2. Shell marl, from N. Lippincott's pits, Auburn, Salem County, Kew 
Jersey. 

3. Shell marl, from Basset's pits, Marshallville, Salem County, ^N'ew 
Jersey, SiOg, 43.40; Ca CO3, 44.45; MgO, 1.95; AI2O3, TeO, 6.20. 

4. Shell marl, from West Jersey Marl Company, Barnsboro', Gloucester 
County, New Jersey. 

5. Shell marl, from G. Ayar's pits, near Jericho, Cumberland County, 
New Jersey. 

Phosphatic marls. — These marls are found in connection with the ex- 
tensive phosphate beds near Charleston, S. C, and are valuable on 
account of the phosphate and carbonate of lime they contain. Before 
being applied to the soil, they are generally calcined. The specimens 
presented for exhibition were collected under the direction of Dr. C. TJ. 
Shepard, jr., of Charleston, S. C. 

6. Marl, from Stone Eiver, South Carolina. 

' 7. Marl, from Coosaw Eiver, South Carolina. 

The following marls were taken from different positions in -a bed nearly 
60 feet in thickness, found near Woodstock, 16i miles from Charleston, 
8. C: 

8. Marl, 3 feet from top of bed. 

9. Marl, 9 feet from top of bed. 

10. Marl, 13 feet from top of bed. 

11. Marl, 18 feet from top of bed. 

12. Marl, 23 feet from top of bed. 

13. Marl, 28 feet from top of bed. 

14. Marl, 32 feet from top of bed. 

15. Marl, 36 feet from top of bed. 

16. Marl, 47 feet from top of bed. 

17. Marl, 55 feet from top of bed.^ 

18. Marl, from end of gallery. 

19. Calcined marl, from Woodstock Marl Works. It has the following 
composition : 

Per cent 

Phosphate of lime 13. 25 

Carbonate of lime 10.23 

Lime ^ 47.15 

Silica 29.80 

23 CEN, PT 2 



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354 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Greenland marls. — These marls have been used more largely in New 
Jersey than in any other section, and while the deposits there have been 
more extensively worked in that State than in any other section they ate 
by no means confined to it, but are found in many of the other States of 
the Atlantic coast, and in the far West. Their value depends almost en- 
tirely upon the percentage of phosphoric acid and potassa they contain- 

The deposits are divided into lower, middle, and upper beds 5 those 
from the middle beds being considered the most valuable and most 
generally selected for fertilizing purposes. 

The marls exhibited and their analyses were furnished by Prof. George 
H. Cook. 

20. Blue marl, from J. G. Smock's pits, near Holmdel, Monmouth 
County, New Jersey. 

21. Red or highbank marl, from J. G. Smock's pits, near Holmdel, Mon- 
mouth County, New Jersey. 

22. Grey marl, from J. G. Smock's pits, near Holmdel, Monmouth 
County, New Jersey. 

23. Blue marl, from Rev. G. C. Schauck's pits, near Marlborough, Mon- 
mouth County, New Jersey: P2O5, 2.08; Hg, SO4, — ; SiO«, 56.30; COj, 
— ; K20,4.92; CaO, — ; Mgo, 1.70; AI2O3, 8.20; FeO, 17.38; H2O, 8.05. 

24. Blue marl, from J. R. Perrine's pits, Manalapan, Monmouth County, 
New Jersey: 1^05,2.37; SiOj, 47.10; CaO, 2.52; MgO, 2.44; AI2O3? ' 
FeO, 32.93; H2O, 8.90. 

25. Green marl, from Ballin's Mills, Gloucester County, New Jersey* 

26. Green marl, from Cream Ridge Marl Company, Upper Freehold, 
Monmouth County, New Jersey: P2U5, 1.34; H5SO4, — ; SiOj, 46.82; 
CO2, — ; K2O, 5.59; CaO, 2.02; MgO, 3.10; AI2O3, 6.48; FeO, 23.93; 
H2O, 9.70. . 

27. Green marl, from Pemberton Marl Company, Birmingham, Burling- 
ton County, New Jersey : P205,1.28; H2S04,1.37; SiOj, 51.92; CO2,— ; 
K2O, 5.36; CaO, 1.68; MgO, 3.38; AI2O3, 5.40; FeO, 19.82; H2O, 8.70. 

28. Chocolate marl, from Pemberton Marl Company, Birmingham, Bur- 
lington County, New Jersey. 

29. Green marl, from Fostertowu and South Branch Marl and Trans- 
portation County, Burlington County, New Jersey. 

30. Limesand^ from General H. Irick's pits, Vincentown, Burlington 
County, New Jersey. 

31. Limesand, from Hanies's mill, near Medford, Burlington County, 
New Jersey. 

32. Green marl, from Burlington pits, near Lumberton, Burlington 
County, New Jersey. 

33. Green marl, from M. Roger's pits, Kirkwood, Camden County, New 
Jersey: P2O5, 2.24; H2SO4, 0.39; SiOa, 50.80; K2O, 5.18; CaO, 2.13; 
MgO, 3.59; FeO, 18.83; AI2O3, 8.77 ; H2O, 8.46. 

34. Green marl, from D. Marshall's pits. Black wood town, Camden 
County, New Jersey: P2O5, 3.66; H2SO4, 0.62; SiOa, 49.94; K2O, 6.31; 
CaO, 2.37; MgO, 2.71; FeO, AI2O3, 24.54; H2O, 9.43. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 



355 



35. Green marl, from Thomas Herita.ge'8 pits, Hurfoille, Gloucester 
Countj^, New Jersey: P2O5, 2.50; SiOg, 47.30 ; CaO, 2.97 ; MgO, 2.69; 
AI2O3 FeO, 29.91 ; H2O, 8.96. 

36. Green marl, from West Jersey Marl Company, Barnsboro', Glou- 
cester County, ]Srew Jersey: P2O5, 1.60; H2SO4, — ; SiOi, 51.10; CO2, 
— ; K2O, 6.46; CaO, 2.13; MgO, 3.85; AI2O3, 9.15; FeO, 18.20; H2O, 
6.75. 

37. Green marl, from N. T. Stratton's pits, Mullica Hill, Gloucester 
County, New Jersey. 

38. Green marl, from Dickinson & Bro.'s, Woodstown, Salem County, 
New Jersey: P2O5, 1.47; H2SO4, — ; SiOa, 50.85; COj— ; K2O, 5.33; 
CaO, 1.65; MgO, 2.95; AI2O3, 6.89; FeO, 21.34 ; HjO, 8.40. 

39. Green marl, from Squankum and Freehold Marl Company, Farm- 
ingdale, Monmouth County, New Jersey : P2O5, 4.67 ; H2SO4, 0.51 ; Si02, 
52.70; CO2, 0.00; K20,3.81; CaO, 5.52; MgO, 2.70; Al203,8.66; FeO, 
15.92; H2O, 6.40. 

40. Ash pari, from Squankum knd Freehold Marl Company, Farm- 
ingdale, N. J. : P2O5, 3.17 ; H2SO4, 0.57 ; Si02, 59.05 ; C02, — ; K2O, 
4.72; CaO, 4.65; MgO, 2.66; AI2O3, 6.67; FeO, 11.27; H2O, 7.50/ 

41. Green marl, from Vincentown Marl Company, Vincentown, Bur- 
lington County, New Jersey : P2O5, 2.46 ; H2SO4, 0.17 ; Si02, 57.35 ; CO2, 
— ; K2O, 4.47; CaO, 3,36; MgO, 2.99 ; AI2O3, 5.86; FeO, 15.03; H2O, 
8.20. 

42. Green marl, from Hamilton Adam's pits, Clementon, Camden 
County, New Jersey: P2O5, 2.64; H2SO4, 0.44; SiOj, 56.20; K2O, 5.37; 
CaO, 1.98; MgO, 1.61; AI2O3, 6.00; FeO, 16.29; H2O, 9.28. 

43. Green marl, from G. Ayars's pits, near Jericho, Cumberland 
County, New Jersey. 

44. Yellow marl, from G. Ayars's pits, near, Jericho, Cumberland 
County, New Jersey. \ 

rV.— NATURAL FERTILIZERS. 

A.— MINERAL FERTILIZERS (PHOSPHATE ROCKS). 

1. Group of specimens of river rock, from Stono River, South Carolina, 

with fossil teeth and bones formed in connection with them. 

2. Group of specimens of land rocks, with fossil teeth and bones, from 

Ashley River, South Carolina. 

3. River phosphate, Coosaw River, South Carolina. 

4. Land phosphate, Cohr's Place, Cooper River. 

5 Land phosphate, Wando Mining and Manufacturing Company, Ash- 
ley River, South Carolina. 
C. Bull River rocks. 

7. Land phosphate, Boag's Place, South Carolina. 

8. Land phosphate. Oak Point Mines, Bull River. 

9. Land phosphate, Wando Miuing and Manufacturing Company, Ash- 

ley River. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



356 INTERXATIOXAL EXHIBIT/OX, 1876. 

10. Marsh phosphate, Cohr's Place, Cooper Eiver. 

11. Fossil teeth, Coosaw Eiver. 

12. Fossil vertebra, Wando Mining and Manufacturing Company. 

13. Elephant's tooth, Wando Mining and Manufacturing Company. 

14. Fossil teeth, Coosaw Eiver. 

15. Fossil wood, Coosaw Eiver. 

Sample of phosphate rock weighing 1,590 pounds, from Charleston, 
S. C. 

The following table shows the average composition of these ma- 
terials: 



:§ 2 £ "^1. 

Locality. . I , "^ © r ; * i 

i I I I I t=s 
I I I I I s i 

Per et Per et. Per cL Per ct, < Per U, Per >et Perd, 

Stono Elver, ordinary airdried rock 3.68 4.78 4.68 10.64 25.61 55.91 1L55 

Stono Kiver, ordinary air-dried, dark phos- 

phaticrock i 4.28 9.73 26.68 5a24 1L76 

StoDO River. large nodule, ^eijsht 1,590 lbs., 

forwarded to Centennial Exhibition 1.50 5.59 3.89 8> 84 25.75 56.21 12.41 

Ashley River, hotairdried rock* 0.00 5.256 4.466 10.07 27.006 58.963 1L37 

Coosaw River, hotairdried rock 0.57 4.31 3.79 8.61 ,27.26 59.51 aO« 

Coosaw River, hot-air-dried rock 0.66 3.75 4.34 9.84 '28.78 58.46 1L77 

Bull River, hotairdried rock 0.79 5.80 3.61 8.19 25.14 '54.88 13.30 

Boag's Place, ordinary air-dried rock 10. 07 3. 545 8. 06 27. 1 1 5a 18 16. 396 

Chisolm'8 Island, hotairdried rock ' 0.84 4.22 8.54 , 8.04 27.255 59.50 9.06 

^ The rock as delivered contained 7. 41 per cent, of moisture, hence the content of bone phosphite 
of lime amounted to 54. 59 per cent. 

B. — VEGETABLE FERTILIZERS. 

1. Marsh mud, from tide meadows, Atlantic City, Atlantic County' 

New Jersey. 

2. Marsh mud, from banked meadows, Mannington, Salem County, 

New Jersey. The composition of this mud is represented in the 
following analysis of specimens from four localities other than 
that from which the sample exhibited was obtained : SiOj, 60.62; 
AI2O3, 12.59; FeaOg, 4.84; CaO, 0.76; MgO, 0.64; K^O, 1.32; Na,0, 
0.98 ; CI, 0.17; HSO4, 0.92; P2O5, 0.16; organic matter and water, 
15.61 ; hygroscopic moisture, 2.15. 

3. Muck, from a swamp of deciduous and coniferous trees. H. A. 

Green, Atco, Camden County, New Jersey. 

4. Muck, from savanna land, W. Regu, Atco, Camden County, New 

Jersey. 

5. Muck, from a swamp of coniferous trees near Jackson, Camden 

County, New Jersey. 

6. Seaweed — kelp. Contributed by Vinal N. Edwards, Wood's Holl, 

Mass. 

7. Seaweed (rock weed), Vinal N. Edwards, Wood's Holl, Mass. 

8. Seaweed (rock weed), Vinal N. Edwards, Wood's Holl, Mass. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL Ti RE, 357 

9. Mesembry anthemum crystalliuum, California. 
10. Saeda californica, Califoruia. 

The two plants last named grow largely upon the coast of California, 
and are supposed to be of value on account of the large percentage 
of mineral matter they contain, especially potassa, and also like kelp 
as a source of iodine. 

C— ANIMAL FERTILIZERS. 

1. Cancerine, manufactured on the coast of i^ew Jersey from the king 

crab (Limulus polyphemus) by drying and pulverizing. Contrib- 
uted by Prof. George H. Cook. 

2. Crude menhaden, residue remaining after extracting of oil. 

3. Air-dried menhaden. 

4. Steam-dried menhaden. 

5. Pork cracklin, refuse from manufacture of lard. 

6. Dried blood. 

The last five materials were contributed by the Pacific Guano Com- 
pany of Boston, Mass., and Charleston, S. C. 

7. Atlantic Phosphate Company's dried flesh. Contributed by Dr. C. 

U. Shepard, jr., Charleston, S. C. 

8. Bat excrement, from a cave near Georgetown, Williamson County, 

Texas. (Contributed by R. E. Talbot.) 

9. Bat excrement, J. Bandera, Texas. (Contributed by J. A. V. Pue.) 

10. Bat excrement, Spencer, Tenn. (Contributed by Hugh J. Brady.) 

11. Bat excrement, Huntsville, Ala. (Contributed by J. B. Miller.) 

12. Matter found disseminated through the deposits of bat excrement 

formed near Huntsville, Ala. ' (Contributed by J. E. Miller.) 

13. Bat excrement, Benton County, Arkansas. 

14. Bat excrement, San Antonio, Tex. (Contributed by H. Weir.) 
16. Bat excrement, Bandera, Tex. (Contributed by J. A. V. Pue.) 

The following table, taken from the Monthly Report of the Depart- 
ment for May and June, 1876, shows the composition of some of the 
samples mentioned above : 



ConsUtuents. , L II. 1 III. IV. V. | VI. VIL 



Sand, clay, insoluble silicate 1.068 82.29 0.46 2.153 1.885 { 0.447 62.660 

Moistare 36.300 2.59 9.17 26.710 44.330 0.425 14.020 

Organic volatile matter 46.77 I 82.18 58.439 47.73 92.745: 6.141 

Alumina and sesquioxide of iron 0.356 8.06 0.17 0.463 

Soluble phosphoric acid 0.541 loao S 1-^2 125 1.833, 1.691 

Insoluble phosphoric acid 3.000 > "^ 1 { 0.67 3.866 0.581, 0.909 0.711 

Lime. 6.428 2.92*! 1.86 0.710 

Magnesia 0.666 0.38 1 0.38 Trace 

Sulphuricacid 0.61' 1.16 2.161 

Chlorine , Trace. 1 0.38 0.202 

Nitricacid ' I Trace 0.258 1 : 

Potassa 1.590 Trace. I 0.67 L471 ; 0.590 1 0.763 0.0707 

Soda 0.750 Trace.; Notdet. 0.425 0.312 1 0.160 0.162 

Soluble silica 0.41 I 

Organic nitrogen 5.336 : 7.96 0.556 6.000 10.091 0.109 

Ammonia (N. H.) corresponding to or- 1 

ganic nitrogen 0.675 7.28 12.263 2.2416 

Actual ammonia 0.528 1.24 0.132 2.013 0.472 

Undetermined 1.531 6.511 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



358 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

The Roman numerals, at the top of the table, represent different 
samples' as follows : 

I. Sample from Brierfield, Ala. Part of the deposit from which it 
was taken was burned during the war, but this sample represents that 
portion which remains uninjured. 

II. Sample from same deposit represeiiting the remains of the burned 
portion. It has the appearance of dry, sandy soil. 

III. Sample from Bandera, Tex. 
lY. Sample from San Antonio, Tex. 

y. Sample from Benton County, Arkansas. 

VI. Sample from Georgetown, Williamson County, Texas. 

VII. Sample from Cave City, Ky. 

v.— COMBINATION OF NATURAL FERTILIZBRS FOR THE PRODUC- 
TION OF COMMERCIAL FERTILIZERS. 

The next subdivision consists of materials representing the combina- 
tion of the natural fertilizers for the production of the so-called com- 
mercial or artificial fertilizers* We show first the substances more 
generally used by maniftacturers, arranged in the order in which they 
are applied in the process of manufacture. These series almost invaria- 
bly contain imported articles, since these are necessary to the production 
of standard and first-class articles. The substances more largely im- 
ported for this purpose are nitrate of soda and the German potash salts. 
In many cases Peruvian guano is employed to supply ammonia. 

We therefore divide this group into (1) Series illustrating process of 
manufacture of artificial fertilizers ; (2) Manufactured articles. 

The first series representing process of manufacture is that contrib- 
uted by the Pacific Guano Company, of Boston, Mass., and Charleston, 
S. C, as follows : 

1. South Carolina land. 

2. South Carolina land, marsh. 

3. South Carolina land, marsh, crushed. 

4. South Carolina land, marsh, ground. 

5. Sulphur. 

6. ISitrate of soda. 

7. Sulphuric acid. 

8. A compound acid phosphate lime. 

9. Sulphate ammonia. 

10. German Leopoldshall Kainit. 

11. Crude menhaden fish scrap. 

12. Air- dried menhaden fish scrap. 

13. Steam-dried menhaden fish scrap. 

14. Dried meat pork cracklins. 

15. Pacific Guano Company's fertilizer. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



359 



The following materials and analysis were contributed by Dt. C. TJ. 
Shepard, of Charleston, S. 0. The next series represents the order of 
application of raw materials in the process of manufacture as carried on 
by the Wando Mining and Manufacturing Company, Charleston, S. C: 



No. I 



Matenals. 



i !t 



I I 



l|. 



a . 
> 



I* 



3 

o 
H 



Ground bone phosphate . 
Soluble bone phosphate. . 



20.56 



Azotine. 
Blood. .- 

Kainite. 



SOi 
10.86 



6.09 26.65 , 



7.00 ! 



33.65 



MkO 
6.15 



14. 73 



01 I 
40.06 



Muriate of potaah 4 ' 53.88, 47.38 

Sulphate of ammonia 1 j 

Gnanape of guano 59.12 

Wando fertilizer , ! 30.39 1 



K?S04 
27. 21 
Kcl 
85.32 



S 

s 



13.345 ! 
I 12.31 I 



23.26 
*i2."37" 



The Stono Phosphate Company of Charleston, S. C, employ the fol 
lowing materials: 



I 



No. 



Materials. 



J_ 



25I 

26 , 
27 
28 I 
29 

30 , 

31 I 



Crushed rock . 
Ground bone . 

Dry blood 

Fish scrap . 



It 



i % I 
lit 



I I 



Mi 

s 

> 



Si 



12.255 



Solubleguano 10.89' 3.30 14.19 1 

Kainite I 1 

Stono acid phosphate ' 14. 87 1 3. 95 ' 18. 82 I 



14. 25 I 
*i6.'55' 



I 



28.44 I 
*35.'37 1 



The following are specimens of some of the more important manu- 
factured articles found in the markets. They were analyzed and con- 
tributed by Dr. C. U. Shepard, Charleston, S. C. : 



No. 



32 
33 I 
34 
35 



Materials. 



Lardy's amraoniated soluble 

Pacific euauo. , 

Lardy's dissolved South Caro- | 

lina bone phosphate. 
Lardy's pure ground South 

Carolina bone phosphate. | 
Lardy's phospho Peruvian 

guano. ' 



s 



II 



s 

5 









la I 3^ 



•3 



"r 



10. 87 ; 5. 13 ! 16. 00 

26. 25 1 0. 66 I 21. 21 

' I 



7.13, 
16.37 



I 



3 

o 
H 



23. 13 ' 
37.58 



I" 

12.13 I 2.62 , 14.75 



I 



8.51 



23.26 



S 
B 



2.60 



3.34 I 



I 



1.38 



2.73 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36o 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



Ifo. 



36 



37 



38 



40 
41 



42 
43 



44 

45 



46 



48 



49 
50 



51 
52 



58 



54 

55 
66 
57 

58 
59 
60 



Materials. 



Phoenix jHiano, imported from . 
Phoenix Islands, South Pa- 
cific. 

"Wilcox, Gibbs & Co.'e raanip- , 
iilated ffuano, Charleston, 
S. C. 

Robson'fl compound acid phos- 
phate for composting with , 
cotton -seed. 

Kob.Hon's cotton and corn fer- 
tilizer. ' 

Soluble Pacific ^ano, Paclflo 
Guano Company. 

Compound acid phosphate, i 
Pacific Guano Company. 

Etiwau crop food (chemical) . . 

Ktiwan 24 per cent, dissolved 
boue. 

Eti wan guano 

Etiwan 29 per cent, dissolved 
bone. 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- 
pany's acid phosphate (with- 
out lime). 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- 
pany's acid phosphate (with 
lime). 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- 
pany's 27 per cent, dissolved 
i>one 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- 
pany's fertilizer. 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- 
pany's phosphate dust. 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- . 
puny's ground rock. 

Atlantic Phosphate Com- 
pany's lime. 

Atlantic Phos]>hftte Com- 
pany's cracked rock 
(Ebangh's patent crusher). 

Atlantic Pnosphate Com- . 
pan\ 's euanape. 1 

Carolina fertilizer 

Bradlev's patent , 

Guanape guano, G. TV. "Will- . 
iams ii Co. | 

Palmetto acid phosphate ' 

Ammoniated 8nperi>ho8phate . 

(Climax.) i 



3 

•g. 

h 
I- 
1 


1 

p. 


1 

k 

T 




li 
jl 






22.27 


22.48 


9.25 


1L84 


21.09 


7.72 


11.74 


5.23 


1&97 


17.37 


10.89 


3.30 


14.19 


14.25 


10.87 


2.30 


13.17 


3.78 


12.74 


7.02 


19.76 


&12 


19.86, 
23. 05/ 


0.48 
2.88 


20.34 
2.^9T 


2.80 
&02 


15.01 
29.51 


3.10 
0.50 


18.11 
30.01 


3.11 


14.36 


3.07 


17.43 


12.44 


5.58 


8.47 


14.05 


18.74 



I 

44.75 
28.81 
34.34 



< 



2.88 



2.36 



L50 



28. 44 3. 04 1. 50 

16.95 a 00 1.68 

27.88 1.59 

I 10.48 



23.14 
3L95 



21.22 3.12 3.81 
30.01 



29.87 



32.79 



1.50 



10.74 I 2.03 12.77 i 11.59 

I 



24.36 8.20 1.56 
58.72 



11.06 
12.18 



2.29 I 
1.92 I 



14.36 ! 
18.94 



3.07 
0.04 



13.35 
14.10 



17.43 

18.98 



ia OK 5CaO. C0»,' CaO 
^25 J 1Q23 : 47.15 



13.49 
10.26 



26. 84 2. 85 1 
24.36 2.45 
12.87 



12.44 
5.71 



29.87 

24. 69 3. 20 0. 34 



The following specimens of manufactured fertilizers were contributed 
by Dr. J. H. Parker, Charleston, S. C: 

61. Russell Ooe's ammoniated bone superphosphate of lime. 

62. Mape's dissolved bone. 

63. Mape's dissolved bone phosphate. 

64. Mape's prepared tish guano. 

65. Mape's potato and vegetable fertilizer. 

66. Mape's nitrogeuized superphosphate of lime. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. . 36 1 

B.-^ VEGETABLE PEODUCTS, 

THE VALVE OF WHICH DEPENDS UPON THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, 
AND THE UTILIZATION OF WHICH INVOLVES CHEMICAL PROCESSES. 

In this grand division we have not only the materials included in the 
above statement, but also specimens taken from the progressive stages 
of the economic processes through which the raw material must pass to 
prepare it for consumption. Following this plan, we have — 
1. Cereals, and the products resulting from their utilization. 
The utilization of cereals includes — manufacture of flour, starch, and 
alcoholic liquors. 

The production of alcoholic liquors constitutes the subject for another 
group. 

The manufacture of flour consists of grinding the grain, separation of 
flour (amylaceous and glutinous principles) from the bran (cellulose) and 
subsequent purification of the flour. 

Under this head are exhibited specimens contributed by Deener, Cis- 
sel & Welch, of Georgetown, D. C, as follows : 
Wheat before cleaning. 
Wheat after cleaning, ready to grind. 
Meal after grinding. 
CTnpurified middlings. 
Purified middlings. 
Flour, Welch's best family. 
Flour from purified middlings, patent process. 
Mr. A. M. Bond, Laurel Md., contributed the following: 

1. Rye. 

2. Rye chop or ground grain. 

3. Rye bran. 

4. Rye flour. 

5. Corn. 

6. Corn chop or ground corn. 

7. Corn meal. 

8. Corn bran. 

9. Buckwheat. 

10. Buckwheat chop or ground buckwheat. 
13. Buckwheat flour. 

12. Buckwheat bran. 

E. C. Hazard & Co., contributed specimens of cereals prepared for 
the table by the Cereal Manufacturing Company of New York, by special 
methods, as follows : 

13. Hulled wheat. 

14. Steam cooked and desiccated wheat. 

15. Steam cooked and desiccated wheat and barley flour. 

16. Steam cooked and desiccated oatmeal. 



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362 • INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

17. Avena or oaten grits. 

18. Oried sweet corn. 

19. Samp or hulled com. 

20. Hominy or granulated com. 

21. Corn hulls — waste product from manufacture of samp. 

22. Hulls resulting from manufacture of hulled wheat. 

MANUFACTURE OF STARCH. 

The separation of starch is effected by two methods: (1) By fermen- 
tation and (2) by washiner with alkaline solutions. 

Specimens illustrating the first method were contribui;ed by O. A. 
Taft, jr., & Co., of Providence, R. I. They consist of materials repre- 
senting production of starch from wheat, corn, rice, and potatoes, as 
follows : 

8TAUCH PRODUCTS FROM WHEAT. 

1. White winter wheat. 

2. Minnesota spring wheat. 

3. Winter-wheat flour. 

4. Spring-wheat flour. 

5. Wheat flour in process of fermentation. 

6. Wheat starch in crude state, washed. 

7. Winter- wheat starch fully crystallized. 

8. Wheat-starch flour. 

9. Gum for calico, made from wheat starch. 

10. British gum from wheat starch. 
Starch from com. 

11. Corn starch fully crystallized. 

12. Corn-starch flour. 

Starch products from potato. 

13. Potato-starch crystals. 

14. Potato-starch flour. 

SUGAR. 

In this country sugar is manufactured from sugar-cane, beet roots, 
and sap of the sugar maple {Acer saccharinum). Molasses is also manu- 
factured from sorghum, but this is not represented in the collection, on 
account of our inability to secure specimens. 

For the following specimens of sugar products representing manu. 
facture of sugar from the cane in Louisiana and the South generally, the 
Department is indebted to Mr. M. S. Briugier, of New Orleans. 

The specimens of beet sugar were taken from the museum of the De- 
partment, and the maple sugars were contributed by Dr. Charles A. 
Goessmann, Amherst, Mass. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 363 

A.— Cane Sugar and Molasses. 

Woodland, A or No. 1, from B. Johnson. 

Bradish, B or No. 2, from B. Johnson. 

Bradish molasses from B. Johnson (Woodland centrifugal). 

Terre Haute, A or No. 1, from J. W. Goodburg. 

Terre Haute, B or No. 2, from J. W. Goodburg. 

Louisiana molasses from J. W. Johnson (from centrifugal). 

Gold Mine Plantation from Octave Hymel. 

Sackett Plantation (fair). 

Woodland C, or No. 3. 

La Reupitte from B. BayhL 

Reserve Plantation (choice) from L. Goodheart. 

T. O. M. (common). 

Louisiana molasses, common. 

Louisiana molasses, fair. 

Louisiana molasses, fully fair. 

Louisiana molasses, prime. 

Louisiana molasses, choice. 

B.— Beet Sugar. 

Dried beet-root. Theodore Gennert, Catsworth, 111. 

Crystallized sugar. The6dore Gennert, Chatsworth, 111. 

White beet sugar. Germania Sugar Co., Chatsworth, 111. Jonathan 

Periam. 
White beet sugar. No. 2. Jonathan Periam, Chatsworth, 111. 
Beet-root sugar. California. 
Beet-root sugar. Joseph Duncan, esq., England. 
Beet-root sugar. Grown and manufactured at Fond Du Lac, Wis. 
Beet-root sugar. E. H. Jones & Bro. 
Beet-root sugar. Hon. C. A. Eldridge, Fond Du Lac, Wis. 
Beet-root sugar, first quality. Sacramento 'Valley, Cal. 
Beet-root sugar, second quality, Sacramento Valley, Cal. 

C— Sugar from Sap of Maple. 

1. Maple sirup. 

2. Maple sirup, concentrated. 

3. Maple sugar, raw. 

4. Maple sugar, purified. 

5. Maple sugar in cakes, raw. 

6. Maple sugar in cakes, purified. 

7. Maple sugar, crystallized. 

8. Photograph of maple grove showing manner of collecting sap, &c. 

9. Photograph showing manner of concentrating sap, &c. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



364 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

VEGETABLE PRODUCTS PRESERVED FOR FOOD BY SPECIAL METHODS. 

The methods employed for preservation of food are : (1) Desicc^»tion; 
(2) hermetically sealing; (3) packing in sugar; (4) packing in brandy 
or other alcoholic liquors. 

Desiccated fruits found in our markets are generally prepared by the 
patented methods for rapid drying. In illustration of these methods 
we have the following specimens dried by the Alden process, contrib- 
uted by D. Wing & Bro., Rochester, N.* Y. 

1. Dried squash. 

2. Dried squash, flour. 

3. Dried sweet apples. 

4. Dried sour apples. 

5. Dried potatoes. 

6. Dried onions. 

7. Dried Lima l)eans. 

8. Dried sweet corn. 

Messrs. E. C. Hazard & Co., 192 and 194, Chambers street, New York, 
contributed the following specimens, dried according to the method pat- 
ented by E. E. Miffbrd and Susan Peebles. 

1. Dried apples, whole core removed. 

2. Dried apples cut. 

Fruits preserved by hermetically sealing, are put up either in glass 
jars or tin cans. F. H. Perry, Providence, E. I., furnished the follow- 
ing fresh fruits put up in glass : 

1. Seckel pears. 

2. Bartlett pears. 

3. Crab-apple. 

4. Peaches. 

5. Quinces. 

6. Raspberries. ' 

7. Blackberries. 

8. Currants. 

9. Citron. 

10. Tomato. 

11. Sweet corn. 

Messrs. W. K. Lewis & Bro., 93 Broad street, Boston, Mass., contrib- 
uted the following specimens put up in tin : 
Pears. 
Apples. 
Peaches. 
Quinces. 
Green peas. 
Green beans. 
Squash (Hubbard). 
Golden pumpkin, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 365 

Green lima beans. 
Green corn. 
Tomato. 
Asparagus. 

Messrs. B. C. Hazard & Co. contributed the following specimens of 
fruits preserved in sugar, packed by Gordon & Dilworth, New York : 
American cranberries, from the Fruit Growers' Trade Company of New 

Jersey. 
Peaches, Grordon & Dilworth. 
liaspberries, Gordon & Dilworth. 
Cherries, Gordon & Dilworth. 
Strawberries, Gordon & Dilworth. ^ 

Pineapple marmalade, Gordon & Dilworth. 
Limes, Gordon & Dilworth. 

Messrs. Hazard & Co. also furnished the following specimens of fruits 
preserved in brandy : 
Peaches. 
Green gages. 
Cherries. 

The same dealers also prepare for the trade the following, specimens 
of which they have contributed : 
Tomato catsup. 
Queen olives. 
Minced meat. 
Grated horse radish. 
Natural Tabasco peppers. 
Dried Tabasco peppers. 
Tabasco pepper sauce. 
Eesidue from manufacture of Tabasco pepper sauce. 

FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION OF VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES. 

A.— Production of Ale, Porter, &c., by Fermentation of 

Barley Extract. 

Messrs. F. Dandelet & Co., Baltimore, Md., contributed the follow- 
ing: 

1. Barley malt. 

2. Barley malt, ground. 

3. Brown malt for porter and brown stout porter. 

4. Extract of barley malt (wort) boiled with hops. 

5. Extract of barley malt boiled and fermented (ale). 

William Massey & Co., Philadelphia, contributed the following : 
Barley malt, whole grain. 
Barley malt, crushed. 
Barley malt, extract, unfermented. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



366 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Barley malt, extract, fermented (ale). 

XX ale. 

Brown stout. 

Brown barley malt. 

Porter. 

MANUFACTURE OF WHISKY FROM CORN AND RYE BY DISTILLATION 
OF THE FERMENTED PRODUCTS. 

B.— Whisky. 

The series representing the manufacture of whisky from corn and 
rye was contributed by " Hannis Distilling Company ^ of Baltimore, 
Md., and Philadelpl^a, Pa. : 

1. Com. 

2. Corn meal. 

3. Rye. 

4. Rye meal. 

5. Rye malt, raw. 

6. Rye malt, ground. 

7. Barley malt. 

8. Barley malt, crushed. 

9. Barley malt, ground. 

The following series of products are mixed with each other in given 
proportions for making the various yeast neqessary to a maximum 
yield : 

10. Barley malt extract. 

11. Barley mash yeast. 

12. Barley mash (fermented). 

13. Barley malt meal (fermented). 

14. Rye malt (fermented). 

15. Barley malt mash yeast and rye flour (uufermented). 

16. Fermented yeast. 

17. Rough yeast. 

The last mentioned yeast is really the rye mash employed for produc- 
tion of what is known as rye whisky. 

For production of mixed rye and corn whisky, commonly called corn 
whisky, this rough yeast is mixed to make the next ))roduct on the list. 

18. Corn mash. 

19. Corn inash, malted. 

20. Fermented beer. 

21. Single distilled whisky. 

22. Double distilled whisky. 

23. Spirits, single rectified. 

24. Spirits, double rectified. 

25. Hopper distilled whiskj-, one month old. 
20. Hopper distilled whisky, eight mouths old. 
27. Whisky, seven years old. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



367 



Mr. Alex. Yoimg, of Philadelpliia, Pa., contribated the following 
specimens of whisky manufactured from wheat : 
1876. 

One year old. 
Two years old. , 
Three years old. 
Four years old. 
Five years old. 
Six years old. 

C— Wines produced by fermentation of grapes. 

The following were contributed by Bush, Son & Meissner, Saint Louis, 
Mo.: 



Name of wine. 



L American sherry 

2. Norton's Virginia seedling. 

3. Herman 

4. Alvey, 187S 

5. Taylor Ballet. 1874 

6. American port 

7. Martha, lOTS , 

8. Missoari claret 

9. Herbemout, 1874 , 

10. Catawba. 1874 

11. CaUwba,1875 

12. Catawba sweet, 1875 

13. North Carolina. 1874 

14. Cynthiana. 1874 

15. Goethe, 1873 

16. Clinton. 1874 

17. Delaware, 1874 

18. Ives, 1874 

19. Norton's, 1873 

20. Concord, 1873 

21. Concord. 1875 

22. Concord white, 1874 



Composition. 



Specific 
gravity. 



Alcohol by 
volume. 



Alcohol by 
weight. 



0.995 
0.990 



0.995 

1.03 

0.995 

0.9975 

0.995 

0.990 

0.995 

1.015 

0.990 

0.995 

0.990 

0.998 

0.990 

0.995 

0.995 

1.000 

0.9975 

0. 



I 



17.6 
12.2 
13.9 
10.1 
12.4 
13.1 
11.3 
11.8 
11.8 
12.0 
11. 
14.4 
13.5 
12.8 
11.8 
13.4 
13.1 
11.2 
12.6 
9.4 

a7 

12.2 



14.23 
9.85 
1L24 
8.13 
10.01 
10.59 
9.11 
9.51 
9.51 
9.69 
8.87 
11.65 
10.92 
10.33 
9.51 
10.83 
10.50 
9.03 
10.17 
7.56 
6.99 
9.85 



Add.* 



Ver cent. 
0.37 
0.66 
0.48 
0.78 
0.48 
0.48 
0.43 
0.72 
0.57 
0.37 



SoUds. 



Percent 
6.55 
2.31 



0.40 

0.48 

0.54 

0.42 

0.45 

0.40 

0.54 

0.47 I 

0.60 I 

0.48 i 

0.47 



2.52 
1.73 
11.30 
1.72 
2.87 
2.42 
1.66 
1.53 
7.86 
1.80 
3.15 
1.68 
3.70 
2.18 
2.29 
2.46 
2.38 
2.36 
1.55 



* Calculated as dry tartaric. 



The wines of Virginia are represented in the collection by samples 
contributed by the Monticello Wine Company of Charlottesville, Va., as 
follows : 

23. Claret, Norton's Virginia. 

24. Claret, CUnton. 

25. Claret, Virginia. 
2G. Hock. 

Mr. L. J. Eose, Los Angeles, Cal., contributeil the following California 
product: 

27. California Port, 3 years old. 

28. Blaue Elba Hock, last vintage 

29. Blaue Elba Hock, 2 years old. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



368 IXTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

30. Grape-juice, plus sugar. 

31. Spirits of wine or grape spirits (high proof). 

32. California brandy, 5 years old. 

PRODUCTS ILLUSTRATING THE PREPARATION OF TOBACCO FOR CON- 
SUMPTION. 

The specimens for this purpose were contributed by Messrs. P. Loril- 
lard & Co., New York. They consist of— 

A. — Chewing Tobacco (Fine cut). 

1. Natural leaf for fine cut tobacco. 

2. Leaf stemmed, and sweetened for fine cut tobacco. 

3. Fine cut tobacco from cutting machine. 

4. Fine cut tobacco furnished ready for consumption. 

B.— Chewing Tobacco (Plug). 

' 5. Kentucky leaf for fillers. 

6. Kentucky leaf for fillers, after stemming and sweetening. 

The leaf thus stemmed and sweetened is spread out in layers of 
requisite thickness, and cut in pieces of different size«, making — 

7. Plug uncovered, not pressed. 

The pieces thus prepared are then covered with either of the three 
varieties of leaf according to color desired. 

8. Kentucky leaf for dark wrapper. 

9. Virginia leaf for dark wrapper. 

10. Virginia leaf for bright wrapper. 

When covered with the different wrappers we have — 

11. Dark plug wrapped before pressing. 

12. Bright plug wrapped before pressing. 

13. Dark plug pressed ready for consumption. 

14. Bright plug pressed ready for consumption. As waste materials 

resulting from the manufacture, we have — 

15. Kefuse scrap from plug tobacco. 

16. Stems from dark wrappers and fillers. 

17. St^ms from bright wrappers and fillers. 

C— Smoking Tobacco. 

18. Kentucky leaf for smoking tobacco. 

19. Cut smoking tobacco. 

20. Best smoking leaf in process of gran ulation. 

21. Best smoking tobacco (granulated.) 

D.— Snuff. 

22. Virginia snuff leaf. 

23. Virginia leaf cut for snuff not cured. 

24. Virginia leaf cut for snuff and fermented. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 369 

The fermented product is separated into different parts according to 
the extent and character of the fermentation it has undergone, and is 
gronnd and placed upon the market as — 

25. Scotch snuff. 

26. Maccaboy snuff*. 

27. Coarse French Rapp6e snuff. 

TANNING AND DYEING MATERIALS. 

The number of materials adapted to application in the processes of 
tanning and dyeing, which are indigenous to the United States are lim- 
ited. The tanning materials are restricted principally to sumac leaves 
and to oak and hemlock barks. There are, however, other leaves and 
barks containing sufficient tannic acid to merit some attention in this 
particular, and it has been the endeavor of the division to secure as 
many as possible of such materials, as may be found in sufficient quan- 
tities to warrant their application in the arts. These substances will 
be noticed in the list given below. Most of them have been described 
in the journals, and further description will be unnecessary. Those 
which have not been described are familiar. 

• The i>ercentage of tannin contained in very many of these samples 
has been estimated, and the amount is mentioned in connection with the 
samples, respectively. 

SUMAC. 

For condensation of sumac for transportation to market, and removal 
of valueless material the leaves are carefully pulverized. The materials 
resulting from the process employed were contributed by Mr. German 
Smith, Winchester, Va., and by Martin Brothers & Baker, Halls- 
borough, Va., as follows : 
From Winchester : 
White sumac {Rh\ui glabra) leaves. 
Black sumac (Rhus^cotinus) leaves. 

Ground sumac (mixed), containing 24.18 per cent, tannic acid. 
Refuse from grinding sumac. 

From Hallsborough : 
Small dark leaf sumac {Rhus cotinm)y containing 24.08 per. cent, tannic 

acid). 
Silver leaf sumac (Rhtis glabra). 
Sumac stems separated by grinding. 
Mixed sumac, ground. 

LEAVES OF OTHER PLANTS. 

Leaves of sweet tern (Comptonia asplenifolia). Contributed by Will- 
iam S. Soule, Boston, Mass. 

Leaves of Polygonum amphibium. Contributed by , 

Chicago, 111., containing ll.G per cent, tannic acid. 
24 CEN, PT 2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



370 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Sumac leaves. Contributed by S. A. Day, Fort Scott, Kans., Ephedra 
antisyphiliticaj from table-lands of Arizona and Utah, containing 11.9 
per cent, tannic acid. 

BABKS. 

Bark of sweet gum {Liquidambar styraciflua) from District of Columbia, 
containing 8.36 per cent, tannic acid. 

Quercm rvhra (red oak) from Canton 111., containing 5.55 per cent, tan- 
nic acid. 

QiLPrcm alba (white oak). Canton, III., containing 3.35 per cent, tannic 
acid. 

Quercus coccineaj Canton, 111., containing 7.78 per cent, tannic acid. 

Quercus macrocarpa^ Canton, 111., containing 7.85 per cent, tannic acid. 

Cruslied quercitron bark {Quercus nigra) j from German Smith, Win- 
chester, Va., containing 6.47 per cent, tannic acid. 

Qtiercus nigra^ rough, from Boston Dyewood and Chemical Company, 
Hanover, Pa. 

Quercus nigra^ rossed. 

Quercus nigra^ rossed, for manufacture of quercitron. 

J. F. Hixon &c.. Van Ettenville, N. Y., contributed the following speci- 
mens illustrative of manufacture of extract of hemlock bark. The list 
will explain itself: 

Hemlock bark (Abies canadensis), containing 9.5 per cent, tannic acid, 
rough. 

Hemlock bark, rossed. 

Kossings, or outside of hemlock bark. 

Ground hemlock bark. 

Liquor obtained from leaching hemlock bark. 

Concentrated leachings, extract. 

Sediment from concentrated leachings. 

Spent tan, or residue after leaching. 
Of the coloring matters manufactured from indigenous products, fla- 

vine from oak bark is probably the most important. It is extensively 

produced by the Boston Dyewood and Chemical Company, at their 

works at Hanover, Pa. We have obtained through the courtesy of this 

company the following series of specimens used in and resulting from 

the process of manufacture : 

Crude black-oak bark. 

Shaved black-oak bark. 

No. 1. Shredded bark. 

No. 1 Baltimore bark. 

No. 2. Baltimore bark. 

Fine-ground Philadelphia bark. 

Bolted bark (common). 

Extra bolted bark. 

Shrewsbury mills black -oak liquor. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 3 7 1 

Shrewsbury mills black-oak extract. 
Shrewsbury mills C. flavine. 
Shrewsbury mills C. S. flavine. 
Shrewsbury mills X flavine. 
Shrewsbury mills XX flavine. 

MISCELLANEOUS DYE-STUFFS. * 

Barberry root^ fix)m B. P. Clapp & Co., Pawtucket, R. I., through Prof. 

J. M. Ordway, Boston, Mass. . 
American indigo, from Paul S. Felder, Orangeburg, S. C. 
Orchilla weed, from W. K. Ross & Bro., Kew York City. 
Cudbear, manufactured from orchilla weed, by W. K. Ross & Bro., New 

York City. 

DEY DISTILLATION OF WOOD. 

This process is carried on more especially for the production of acetic 
acid. ,The harder and more compact woods are generally employed. 
When heated in closed retorts to low red heat they yield, besides crude 
acetic acid, methyl alcohol, methyl acetate, &c., and tarry matters. 
These substances are separated either by collection in different con- 
densers or by fractional distillation. The amount of acetic acid pro- 
duced from wood varies from 1 J to 3^ per cent, of the weight employed. 
In its crude state it is called pyroligneous acid, and as such is largely 
used for manufacture of pyrolignites of lime, iron, alumina, manganese, 
&c., which are extensively employed in dyeing and calico printing. 

The series of specimens illustrating this branch of manufacture, which 
is one of considerable importance in the United States, was prepared 
under the direction of Prof. J. M. Ordway, of the Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology, Boston, Mass., the materials being furnished by B. 
P. Clapp & Co., of Pawtucket, R. I. 

1. Oak wood. 

2. Birch wood. 

3. Maple wood. 

4. Methyl alcohol (wood spirit). 

5. Pyroligneous acid. 

6. Wood tar. 

7. Charcoal residue. 

8. Pyrolignite of iron. 

9. Pyrolignite of lead. 

10. Acetate of lime (brown). 

11. Acetate of lime (gray). 

12. Pure acetic acid.' 

To illustrate the application of the acetates of iron and alumiua as 
mordants in calico printing. Professor Ordway obtained^ from Wheel- 
wright, Anderson & Co., manufacturers of '^Merrimac Prints," Boston 
and New York, specimens of calico as follows: 

13. Specimen after application of acetate of alumina mordant. 



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372 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

14. Same after ageing and dunging. 
16. Same after dyeing with madder. 

16. Specimen after application of acetate of iron mordant. 

17. Same after ageing and dunging. 

18. Same after dyeing with madder. 

J?he following collection of products obtained from the pine was pre- 
pared by Dr. J. H. Parker, Charleston, S. C. 

In this series the specimens numbered 1 to 4 represent the raw pro- 
duct collected directly from the pine trees, principally from Fxnu% au^- 
traits of the Oarolinas, from which they exude when portions of the 
bark are removed and the surface of the wood is made bj^re. The crude 
turpentines are subjected to distillation with water, when 10 to 25 per 
cent, passes over as a distillate consisting of spirits of turpentine, which 
must be purified by redistillation. This product in the different stages 
of rectification is represented by the specimens numbered 5 to 9, respect- 
ively. When the distillation is carried so far that all the water and 
turpentine are removed, rosin, the different grades of which are repre- 
sented by specimens numbered 10 to 23, remains as a residue. This 
may be more or less colored, according to the care observed in selectioa 
of the raw materials used, and ia conducting the process of distillation. 

If the temperature of distillation be increased suflftciently the residue 
yields a product known as rosin oil, represented by specimen No. 24. 

The old trees of the pine forests which are no longer capable of yield- 
ing crude turpentine, and which are of no value for lumber, are removed 
and subjected to dry distillation, and from this process tar, contaiiing 
a number of volatile substances and rosin and paraffine,Jas solid ijon- 
stituents, is obtained. When subjected to distillation the ;^volatile 
constituents are removed, leaving a residue known as pitch. These pro- 
ducts are represented by specimens numbered 25 and 26. 

1. Scrape or hard, crude turpentine. 

2. Crude turpentine, yearling or second clip. 

3. Crude turpentine, yellow dip. 

4. Crude turpentine, virgin dip. 

5. Spirits turpentine, colored, unmerchantable. 

6. Spirits turpentine, one shade. 

7. Spirits turpentine, two shades. « 

8. Spirits turpentine, three shades. 

9. Spirits turpentine, white. 

10. Black rosin. 

11. Common strained rosiii. 

12. Fine strained rosin. 

13. Low No. 1 rosiu. 

14. No. 1 rosin. 

15. Extra No. 1 rosin. 

16. Low No. 2 rosin. 

17. No. 2 rosin. 



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THE DEPARTMEA T OF A GRICUL TURE, 3 73 



18. Extra No. 2 rosin. 

19. Low pale rosin. 

20. Pale rosin. 

21. Extra pale rosin. 

22. Opaque rosiu. 

23. Window-glass rosin. 

24. Bosinoil. 

25. Pine tar. 

26. Piteh. 

VEGETABLE OILS. 

The oils obtained from vegetable products may be divided into two 
classes, according to their properties and the methods employed for their 
extraction, viz: 

A. — Fixed oils separated by pressure. 

B. — Volatile oils, separated by distillation. 

The fixed oils manufactured in this country are linseed oil obtained 
fi'om flaxseed (Linum usitatisnmum)^ oil of cotton seed {Qo8sypium)j 
and castor oil from castor beans (Ricinus communis). 

The process employed in the manufactuie of these oils is essentially 
the same, but there are certain differences in the details. The flaxseed 
and castor beans are crushed and carried directly to the press, but the 
cotton seed, on account of the lint accompanying it, and its hard hull or 
shell, must firs tbe decorticated. The difference in the methods is 
quite evident from the character of the specimens representing them. 

The specimens representing manufacture of linseed and castor oils 
were contributed by R. B. Brown & Co., Saint Louis, Mo., and the cot- 
ton seed products by A. A. Maginnis' Sons, New Orleans, La. 

1. Flaxseed. 

2. Ground flaxseed as prepared for the press. This is the form used 
for medical purposes. 

3. Oil cake. 

4. Oil cake, ground, for cattle food. 

5. Raw linseed oil. 

6. Boiled linseed oil. 

7. Castor beans. 

8. Castor beans, crushed (pomace). 

9. Castor cake, ground, for fertilizer. It contains 5.5 per cent, nitro- 
gen and 4.5 per cent, phosphate of lime. 

10. Brilliant castor oil. 

11. No. 3 castor oil for lubricating, oiling harness, &c. 
12.* Raw cotton seed. 

13. Cotton seed with lint removed. 

14. Cotton-seed hulls. 

15. Lint from cotton seed. 

16. Cotton-seed meal. 



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374 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

17. Crude cotton-seed oil. 

18. Eefined cotton-seed oil. 

19. Refined and bleached cottonseed oil. 

20. Ash from cotton seed. 

21. Harness soap made from cotton seed. 

22. Laundry soap made from cotton seed. 

23. Fullers' soap made from cotton seed. 

Of the volatile or essential oils there are fourteen manufactured from 
indigenous products in the different States. 
Those exhibited are as follows : 

24. Oil of cedar, product of New Jersey. 

25. Oil of erigeon, product of Vermont. 

26. Oil of golden rod, product of Virginia. 

27. Oil of horsemint, product of I^ew York. 

28. Oil of hemlock, product of Michigan. 

29. Oil of neroli, product of Louisiana. 

30. Oil of petit grain, product of Louisiana. 

31. Oil of peppermint I, product of New York. 

32. Oil of peppermint II, product of Michigan. 

33. Oil of peppermint III, product of Wisconsin. 

34. Oil of pennyroyal, product of southern States. 

35. Oil of Sassafras, product of southern States. 

36. Oil of spearmint, product of New York. 

37. Oil of wintergreen, product of New York and Pennsylvania. 

38. Oil of wormseed, product of Maryland. 

39. Oil of wormwood, product of Maryland. 

40. Oil of castor I, product of Western States. 

41. Oil of castor II, product of Texas. 

PRODUCTS OF THE AMERICAN MATERIA MEDICA. 

Prof. E. S. Wayne prepared for exhibition the following specimens of 
the more important indigenous materials belonging to tlie American 
materia medica : 

1. Seed of Lobelia inflata (lobelia). Natural order, Lobeliaceee. 

2. Lobelina,Jalkaloid from lobelia seed. 

3. Oil of lobelia. 

4. Root of !' Sanguinaria canadensis (blood-root). Natural order, Pa- 
paveraceaB. 

5. Sanguinarina, alkaloid from blood-root. 

6. Sanguinarina sulphate. 

7. Root ot {Podophyllum peltatura (May apple). Natural order, Ber- 
beridaceae. 

8. Podophyllin, resin from May-apple root. 

9. Root of Oelsetnium sempervirens (yellow jessamine). Natural order, 
Apocynaceae. 

10. Gelseminia, alkaloid from yellow jessamine. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 375 

11. Gelsemic acid, acid from yellow jessamine. 

12. Gelsemate of ammonia (solation). 

13. Marrvibiuin, vulgare (horehound). Natural order, Laariaceae. 

14. Marrnbin, from horehound. 

15. Bark of Celastrus scandem (false bitter-sweet). Natural order, 
CelastracesB. 

16. Gelastrin, alkaloid from Celastrus scandens. 

17. Boot of Inula helenium (elecampane). Natural order, Asteraceae. 
IS. Helenin, alkaloid from elecampane root. 

19 Veratrum viride (American hellebore). Natural order, Melan- 
tbaceae. 

20. Veratroidia, alkalide from hellebore. 

21. Jervia, alkaloid ftx)m hellebore. 

22. Trillium pendulum (beth root). Natural order, Trilliaceae. 

23. Trilline, active principle of beth root. 

24. Aretostaphylos uvaursa (uva ursi)* Natural order, Ericaceae. 

25. Arbutin, alkaloid from leaves of uva ursi. 

26. Oaultheria procumbens. Natural order, Ericaceae. 

27. Salycylic acid from Gaultheria. 

.28. Datura stramonium (stramonium seed). Natural order, Solana- 
ceae. 

29. Daturia, alkaloid from stramonium seed. 

30. Oil of stramonium obtained from the seed. 

31. Prickly-ash berries, fruit of Xanthoxylum fraxineum. Natural 
order, Xanthoxylaceas. 

32. Xanthoxyline, alkaloid from prickly-ash berries. 

33. Blackroot, root of Leptandra virginica. Natural order, Scrophu- 
lariaceae. 

34. Scrophnlarine, alkaloid from black root. 

35. Leptandrin, crude resin from Leptandra virginica. 

36. Manirite, glucoside from Leptandra virginica. 

37. Flaxseed, variety, Linum usitatissimum. Natural order, Sinaceae. 

38. Bark of white willow, 8alix alba. Natural order, Saliacese. 

39. Salacine, alkaloid from white willow. 

40. Hydrastis canadensis. Natural order, Ranunculaceae. 

41. Berberina, alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis. 

42. Hydrastia, alkaloid from Hydrastis canadensis. 

43. Hydrochlorate of berberina. 

44. Apple tree bark, Pyrus mains. Natural order, Rosaceae. 

45. Phloridzine, alkaloid from bark of Pyrus malus. 

46. Castor-oil, from seeds of Ricinus communis, 

47. Ricinine, from seeds of Ricinus communis. 

48. Crude tartar, made from lees of wine. 

49. Bitartrate of potassa (pure). 

50. Rochelle salt, tartrate of soda and potassa. 



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376 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

MATERIALS ILLXTSTRATmO MANUFACTURE OF BUTTER AND CHEESE. 

The specimens comprising this portion of our collection were prepared 
and analyzed under the direction of Prof. G. C. Caldwell, of Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. The collection has been described by Pro- 
fessor Caldwell in the Monthly Eeport of the Department of Agriculture 
for June and July ; and we will transcribe here an abstract of his de- 
scription before proceeding to the tabulation of the materials and their 
comx)osition. 

The collection begins with salt generally employed, with analyses 
showing the comparative value of the best English and American pro- 
ducts found in our markets. The results of the analyses prove that for 
the purpose in question the American product is quite as good as that 
of English manufacture. 

The coloring matter employed iu this country is the pigment obtained 
from annatto seed. Some dairymen prepare the coloring matter directly 
from the seed, but the majority find it more convenient to use that found 
in the markets, and known as basket annotto. This product is further 
purified by certain manufactures for the preparation of annottoine and 
golden extract of annotto. 

The amount of coloring matter contained in these products cannot be 
estimated directly, and can only be determined approximately, according 
to the percentage of organic matter present which seems to vary mate- 
rially with the value of the product. 

Of rennet two varieties are found. Between them there can be little 
choice depending upon chemical characteristics since there is no known 
method of determining the proportion of the coagulating principle with 
accuracy. 

With regard to manufacture of cheese in the United States the 
methods employed are limited, and in the principal factories are gener- 
ally confined to three. Of these, that most commonly employed yields 
what is known as '* whole milk cheese" made from the entire milk, 
without skimming, or removal of the cream. 

Another method, largely employed, consists in the use of skim milk, 
or milk from which cream has been removed for manufacture of butter. 
This method is sometimes modified by heating the milk to 130^ F., then 
cooling it to 65^, and allowing it to stand from twenty-four to forty- 
eight hours, when the cream which separates is removed, and churned 
sweet. To the skim milk remaining, after removal of cream, the butter- 
milk obtained in churning is added and the whole employed in the man- 
ufacture. 

With regard to the comparative value of the two varieties of cheese 
resulting from these processes it has been found that while the skim- 
milk cheese contains a larger proportion of fat than the scalded milk 
and buttermilk cheese, the latter has a more favorable consistency, and 
is probably more digestible. The quantity of fat present in different 
samples of skim-milk cheese is not as constant as in whole milk. 



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THE DEPAR TMEXT OF A GRICUL TURE. 2)11 

A third method, which has not been long in use, in this country, and 
is employed in a limited number of factories, consists in restoring to the 
skim milk used, the fat removed in the cream by the addition of as much 
clean animal fat, manufactured from beef suet, as it will absorb. After 
coagulation the excess of fat floating on the surface is skimmed off. 
The amount to be added cannot be determined precisely beforehand, 
since the quantity taken up hy the curd is so rariable^ — the percentage 
contained in the cheese obtained, according to analyses, made at Cornell 
University, ranging from 18 to 25.9 percent. This oleomargarine cheese, 
as it is called, is considered superior to skim cheese; though, accord- 
ing to comparison of the two varieties of skim cheese mentioned, this 
quality cannot depend wholly upon the larger proportion of fat present. 

With one exception the styles of cheese found in the markets in Europe 
are not imitated in this country. In one place in the State of New York 
limburger cheese is manufactured very nearly according to the process 
as carried on in Europe. It contains a large portion of water — 43.07 
per cent, and about 30 per cent of fat. 

The materials employed in the three methods already noticed, and 
the by-products resulting, with a statement of their composition, are 
•given in the list in connection with the principal products. 

The whey butter exhibited is obtained from the whey resulting from 
the manufacture of whole milk cheese which always contains a consider- 
able proportion of fat. It it asserted that this fat may be removed with- 
out affecting the feeding value of the whey. While the quality of 
this butter for table purposes is far inferior to the samples of Jersey 
butter, and factory butter, exhibited along side, this difference is not 
revealed by chemical analysis. 

As' miscellaneous products there are exhibited specimens of Borden's 
condensed milk and whey oil. The latter is prepared from whey, and 
is used for oiling the cheese in the curing room. 

For more detailed description of the process the reader is referred to 
Professor Caldwell's article in the Monthly Keport of the Department 
of Argiculture for May and June, lb76. 

Materials illustrating the manufacture of dairy products, 
SALT. 



§1 . § 

Materials. ^^ X 

2 * ,• 2 

m- I I 



L Svracase salt 97.74 | 0.4 , 0.62 

2. AsbtoD's Liverpool salt 97.71 0.59 0.9 

a. WorthiDfftou's Liverpool salt 97. 65 i 0.65 i 0.74 

4. Marshall 8 Llvei pool salt 97. 90 0. 47 0. 72 

5. Dean Brothers' Liv^-rpool salt 97.77' 0.52 | 0.91 



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378 



INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



MateriaU illustrating the manufacture of dairy products — Continued. 
ANNATTO. 



Materials. 



Water.; Ash. 



Organio 
I matter. 



6. Annattoseed 32.64 j 10.78 58.58 

7. Basket annatto, No. 1 1 22.96, 28.83] 4a21 

8. Basket annatto, No. 2 1 44.18 8.34, 47.43 

9. Basket annatto, No. 3 9.13 | 4.C6 86.21 



10. Annattoine. 

11. Golden extracts of annatto. 



12. Domestic rennet 

13. Foreign rennet. 



RENNET. 



Factory cheese from whole milk. 



Description. 



Water. 



14. Freshmllk i 87.40 

15. Card ' 42.59 

16. Whey ' 92.63 

17. Ripecheese 35.70 




Case- 
ino, Sec. 



Sugar. 



4.04 , 



1.46 , 
25.82 



4.24 

an* 



Description. 



Water. 



18. New York factory cheese, No. 1 , 31.41 

19. New York fictory cheese, No. 2 1 35.68 

20. New York factory cheese, No. 3 35.24 

21. New York factory cheese, No. 4 33.73 

22. Massachusetts factory cheese. No. 1 1 34.18 

23. Massachusetts factory cheese. No. 2 38.5 

24. Maine factory cheese, Jersey milk 28. 11 

25. Wisconsin factory cheese I 35.49 



Ash. 


Fat. 


3.53 


37.88 


8.60 


35.16 


3.23 


35.68 


4.05 


85.57 


3,02 


33.92 


3,73 


31.19 


2.71 


41.03 


1 3.34 


34.05 



Gaseine, 
sugar, Sec, 



27.18 
25.57 
25.85 
26.65 
:^88 
36.58 
2a 15 
26.12 



Creamery hutter and cheese (ordinary ** skim-cheese"). 





Description. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Fat 


Caseine, 


Sugar. 


26. Fresh milk .... 




1 87.48 


0.69 
0.62 
0.73 
3.43 


3.7 

LI 

26.17 


4.09 
4.32 
6.07 




4.04 


27. Skim milk 




' 89.91 


3.95 


28. Cream 




67.03 

I 8.82 




29. Batter 


87.75 






30. Bnttermilk 










31. Curd 






1 49.96 

! 93.70 

42. 38 


2.65 
0.47 
3.63 
4.50 


11.80 

0.21 

20.55 


35.60 
1.91 






32. Whey 

33. Ripe cheese . . . 


80* 


3.71 


34. Scalded skim-mjllc fth<»«»ftft 


44.48 


15.22 ' 4^ 








1 









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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



379 



Creamery biiUer and cheese {oleomargarine) f by the Freenum patent process. 



Description. 



35. Fresh milk . 

36. Skim-milk.. 

37. Cream 

38. Bntt^r 

39. Bnttermilk 



Water. I Ash. \ Ash. | ^*^*'*®' ' Sugar. 



87.65 
90.51 
70.38 
12.36 
93.79 



40. Oleomargarine | 0.18 

41. Cord 

42. "Whey 

43. Ripe cheese * 

44. Llmbarger cheese 

Sage cheese 



60.91 
92.70 
40.66 



0.69 
0.79 
0.45 
2.98 
0.28 
0.00 
2.69 
0.40 



3.70 

0.67 

23.09 

84, 

0.68 
99.82 
14.06 

0.12 
20.43 



1 3.77 


4.23 


4.18 


3.8S 


6.13 




66 




2.74 


2.51 


32.44 




2.48 


4.30 


36.97 





Samples of butter. 



Description. 'Water. Ash. 

1 1 

45. Jersey bntter I 11.29 | 8.20 

46. Factory hotter I 12.36 1 2.98 

47. Do i 8.82' 3.43 

48. Wheybutter I 9.77 I 1.67 




Miscellaneous produeAs. 

49. Condensed milk (Borden's). 

Compositions Water, 23.6; Ash, 1.87; Fat, 11.19; Caseine, (by difference) 14.71; Milksngar, 
12.43; Cane-sngar, 36.20* 

50. WheyoiL 



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A CATALOGUE 



OF THE 

FOREST TREES OF THE UNITED STATES WHICH USUALLY 
ATTAIN A HEIGHT OF SIXTEEN FEET OR MORE, 

WITH 

NOTES AND BRIEF DESCRIPTIONS OF THE MORE 
IMPORTANT SPECIES, 

ILLUSTRATING THE 

COLLECTION OF FOREST-TREE SECTIONS ON EXHIBITION BY THE DEPARTMENT 
OF AGRICULTURE AT THE INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 



PREPARED BY 

GEO. VASEY, M. r>. 



381 



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FOREST TREES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

CEKTEHNIAL COLLECTIOK. 



Sib : The following li^t is a catalogue of the native and naturalized 
forest trees of the United States which attain a height of 16 feet and 
upward. Descriptive notes of many species are appended. 

By an act of the last Congress an appropriation was made to enable 
the different Departments of the Government to participate in the 
International Exhibition of 1876. In pursuance of this object, the 
Department of Agriculture undertook to make a collection to repre- 
sent the trees of the United States. The aim was to represent every 
important tree by botanical specimens of the leaves, flowers, and fruit, 
and also by sections of the trunk, showing the appearance of the bark 
and of the wood 5 thus giving the completest possible view of every 
species. The great extent of our country and the immense variety of 
our arborescent vegetation made this of necessity a great undertaking. 
Well knowing that the chief value of such a collection would depend 
upon its scientific accuracy, arrangements were made to engage compe- 
tent persons in the different fields of labor. In some portions of the 
country, local botanists were employed to collect the trees of their par- 
ticular districts. But for the larger portion of the country it was neces 
sary to employ traveling agents, whose duty it was to explore a desig- 
nated section, ascertain the localities of the trees desired, collect the 
proper botanical specimens at the right season, and, having carefully 
noted the localities, to return at the end of the growing period and 
obtain sections of the trees. 

As collector for the Southern States, Mr. A. H. Curtiss, of Liberty, 
Va., a well-known botanist, was engaged. 

A large number of the trees of the Middle States were obtained in 
the vicinity of Washington. Of these, thirty species were procured 
from a part of the General Washington estate at Mount Vernon, now 
owned by Dr. E. P. Howland. 

The trees peculiar to the New England States were procured by Mr. 
C. G. Pringle, of Charlotte, Vt. 

As collector for the Western States, Mr. John Wolf, of Canton, 111., 
was employed. In making the collection in Colorado, he was assisted 
by Mr. C. W. Derry, of Granite, Lake County, Colorado. 

The semi-tropical trees of Southern Florida were obtained by Dr. A. 
W. Chapman, of Apalachicola, during a two months' cruise by schooner 

383 



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384 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

on the west coast, amoug the various keys aud inlets, and far into the 
interior by the Caloosahatchee Eiver. Dr. Chapman is an old resident 
of Florida, author of the "Flora of the Southern States," and better 
acquainted with the vegetation of that region than any other person. 

A portion of the trees of Texas were obtained by Dr. S. B. Buckley, 
of Austin, whose labors in developing the botany of that section are 
well known; and a portion were collected by Dr. F. G. Lindheimer, a 
veteran botanist, whose collections of Texas plants, made many years 
ago, enrich the principal herbaria of the country. 

In Utah, Mr. L. F. Ward, botanist of the survey of the Colorado 
Eiver by Messrs. Powell and Thompson, made the collection of the trees 
of that region. 

The trees of the high sierras of California and Nevada were procured 
by Mr. J. G. Lemmon, of Sierra County, California. The magnificent 
conifers of that region are represented by large wedge-shaped sections 
of trees from 4 to 7 feet in diameter, the preparation of which cost a 
great amount of toil and expense. The immense trees had to be felled, 
and the desired sections removed by sawing aud splitting with wedges 
until the portions were reiluced to proper size. 

The trees of the Pacific slope in California were collected by Mr. G-. 
R. Vasey, with valuable aid and assistance from Dr. A. Kellogg, of San 
Francisco, Dr. J. G. Cooi>er, and others. 

Dr. Edward Palmer made the collection for the southern portion of 
California, Arizona, aud Southern Utah. 

Mr. A. J. Dufur, Centennial Commissioner for Oregon, collected the 
peculiar trees of that State. 

After the woods were received at Washington, they were taken to a 
mill and reduced to the uniform length of two feet ; then each section 
was divided by sawing longitudinally into two pieces, which were planed 
on the sawed surface, one arranged to show the outer or bark surface 
and the other to show the grain of the- wood, its color, density, &c. 

The corresponding botanical specimens for each species are displayed 
in frames arranged in the immediate vicinity of the trees to which they 
belong. By this means, an intelligent view of the appearance and prop- 
erties of every species of the trees of the country may be obtained. 

Great difficulty Wiis experienced in deciding upon the limitations of 
height and size which should characterize a tree. It is well known that 
certain plants which are only shrubs in some places become large trees 
in other places ; sometimes the diflference depending on climate and some- 
times on other circumstances. Thus, Magnolia glauca, or White Bay, 
grows and matures its flowers and fruit in some portions of Massachu> 
setts where it attains only the size of a large shrub. It, however, 
steadily increases in size in situations farther south, until in Georgia 
and Florida it attains the size of a large tree. In some places, the same 
plant appears as a shrub or a tree, under different circumstances, in 
closely contiguous localities. Dr. Chapman, who made the collection of 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL Ti RE. 385 

tbe trees of South Florida, says: "I waa much disappointed in tbe size 
of most of the forest growth in that region. A peculiarity of these 
tropical trees is, that for miles they occur to you as mere shrubs, when 
At some other locality you find them lofty trees." As a general rule, I 
liave not admitted into tbe collection any tree which does not, under 
favorable circumstances, attain a height of 20 feet and a diameter of 4 
inches. Yet, in a few cases, in order the more fully to illustrate a family, 
a tree has been admitted which would fall below that standard. The 
accompanying catalogue enumerates about 400 species, the greater por- 
tion of which are represented by specimens in the collection. 

Some portions of the country have been so incompletely explored that 
our knowledge of their vegetation is imperfect; yet it is probable that 
this catalogue ])reseuts, with great accuracy, our present knowledge of 
the trees of the United States. In two or three instances only, foreign 
species have been admitted, because of their extensive naturalization in 
«ome sections. 

The two largest genera of trees are the oaks and the pines, of which 
we have about 30 species of each. Of coniferous trees, including the 
Pines, Firs, Cedars, Larches, Cypresses, Sequoias, &c., we have about 60 
species. The Rose family, including the Plums, Cherries, Thorns, &c., is 
represented by over 30 species. Of the order Legurninoscc, or trees of the 
pod-bearing family, we have over 20, embracing the Locusts, Acacias, 
Bedbuds, Mesquits, &c. Of Ericaceous trees we have 8 species, includ- 
ing the Califoriiian Manzanita and Madrone trees, the Sorrel tree of the 
Southern States, and others. Of Maples we have 8 ; of Magnolias, 7 ; of 
Ash, 11; ofEhns, 6; of Walnuts and Hickories, 13 ; of Poplars, 8; and 
of Birch, species. 

The usual difficulty has been encountered of deciding as to the stand- 
ing of certain forms which some botanists regard as species and others 
as only varieties. In most well-marked cases, these are entered in the 
catalogue under distinct numbers, either as species or as varieties, as the 
evidences in the case seemed most convincing. 

The range, or botanical region, of each species is indicated in a general 
manner, thus: Those trees which occur more or less extensively over the 
whole or the larger portion of the country east of the base of the Rocky 
Mountains or east of the Mississippi River are marked Eastern United 
States. This region is subdivided, by a line running eastward from the 
month of the Ohio River to the Atlantic, into two portions, one of which 
is called Northeastern United States, and the other Southeastern United 
States. Other localities are indicated as Southern States, New England 
States, Western States, Alleghany Mountains, &c. The western portion 
of the United States and Territories is marked in detached regions, as 
follows : Rocky Mountains of Colorado, or Rocky Mountains of Colorado 
and Utah; Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, Oregon, and Wash- 
ington Territory j California 5 Southern California ; Arizona. The por- 
25 CKN, PT 2 



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386 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

tion of the country adjoiiiiug the Mexican border is indicated by the 
locality Western Texas and westward. 

Certain portions of our country have not yet been sufficiently explored 
to determine accurately all the species of trees thereto belonging. This 
is the case with respect to the southern portion of Florida. Some spe- 
cies which at one time were thought to be indigenous in that region 
have not been confirmed by any late investigations, and will probably 
have to be erased from our list. The same difficulty occurs with respect 
to some of the trees of the Kocky Mountains and the western coast, par- 
ticularly the Conifers and the Willows. 

In the short time allotted to making this collection, it has not been 
possible to obtain wood specimens of every species given in the cata- 
logue. The number wanting, however, is but a small percentage of the 
whole. 

Among the good results growing out of this work, we may mention^ 
first, that much information has been gained respecting species hitherto 
imjierfectly known; and, secondly, that lour or five new species, or species 
before unknown t<» our flora, have been obtained. These are mainly in 
South Fh>rida, and include two exogens, viz, an Anona or Custard 
Apple, and a Chrysophyllum orStJir Apple; and one endogen. a Palm 
of the genus Thrinaa;, 

I wish to lecord my sincere thanks to the Hon. F. Watts, Commissioner, 
and to ^Mr. William Saunders, Representative of the Department at 
the Exhibition, for all possible assistance rendered in the prosecution 
of the work. ^ 

Respectfully, 

GEO. VASEY, 

Botanist, 

Hon. Fred. Watts, 

Commissioner, 



Magnoliace^. 

No. 1. Magnolia grandifloray L. — Evergreen Magnolia. — Southern 
States. A large and beautiful tree, with thick glossy evergreen leaves, 
and large white flowers, which are exceedingly fragrant 

No. 2. Magnolia glau<Mj L. — Sweet Bay; White Bay. — Massachusetts 
southward. Northward, this is only a small tree or shrub ; but in the 
South it attains a large size, and the leaves become evergreen. 

No. 3. Magnolia umbrella^ Lam. — Umbrella Tree. — Southern States ; 
Alleghany' Mountains. 

No. 4. Magnolia acuminata^ L. — Cucumber Tree. — New York; South 
and West. This species has a greater range to the northward, where it 
sometimes attains a large size. 

No. 5. Magnolia cordata^ Michx. — Yellow Cucumber Tree. — Southern 
States. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 387 

No. 6. Magnolia Frmeru^^i, — Long-leaved Cucumber Tree. South- 
ern States. 

No. 7. Magnolia inacrophyllajMichx, — Large-leaved Umbrella Tree. — 
Southern States. 

No. 8. Liriodendron tuUpifera^ L. — Tulip Tree ; Yellow Poplar. — East- 
ern United States. One of the largest and most beautiful of North 
American trees. In the Western States, it attains an immense size. It 
is found principally in the rich bottom lands of the large rivers, where 
its wood is extensively employed for building purposes and for the man- 
ufacture of furniture. As an ornamental tree, it is hardly surpassed by 
any other; its form being regular, its foliage peculiar and pleasing, and 
its abundant flowers, though not highly colored, are yet very beautiful. 

Anonace^. 

No. 9. Anona, — Custard Apple. — Southern Florida. Discovered by 
Dr. Chapman in South Florida. It grows 15 to 20 feet high. The fruit 
is small and eatable when fully ripe. The species is undetermined. 

No. 10. Asimina triloba^ DvLxi^X, — Papaw. — From Pennsylvania south- 
ward. A small tree, very common in the Southern States, less frequent 
at the North. It produces an oblong pulpy fruit about 4 inches long, 
which when ripe has a rich luscious taste. 

Capparidace^. 

No. 11. Capparis Jamaicensis, J acq. — Caper Tree. — South Florida. A 
shrub or small tree of South Florida, also growing in the West Indies. 
The true capers of commerce are the fruit of th^Old World species. 

Canellace^. 

No. 12. Canella alba, Swsirtz. — White Wood; Wild Cinnamon. — South 
Florida. A small tree in South Florida. In the West Indies, it is 
abundant, and called Wild Cinnamon and White Wood. The bark is 
aromatic and tonic, and is much employed in medicine. 

Tamariscine^. 

No. 13. Fouquiera splendens, Fng. — Western Texas and Arizona. 
Grows in Western Texas, and thence westward to Southern Caliiornia. 
In our borders, it is usually only a shrub; but in Mexico it grows 20 to 
30 feet high, and on account of its spiny branches is used for hedges 
and fences. 

GUTTIFERiE. 

No. 14. Glusia flava, — South Florida. A West Indian tree, said to 
have been found in Florida, but not recently observed. 



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388 international exhibition, 1876. 

Ternsteomiace^. 

!No. 15. Oordonia Lasianthus^ L. — Loblolly Bay. — Southern States. A 
tree 30 to 50 feet high, growing in swamps near the sea-coast from North 
Carolina to Florida and Louisiana. The leaves are evergreen ; the flowers 
showy white, and sweet-scented. The bark is much employed in tan- 
ning as a substitute for oak-bark. 

No. 16. Oordonia pubescens^ L'H. — Mountain Bay. — Souttern States. 
A small tree rarely over 30 feet high, found in Georgia and Florida, and 
quite rare. It has been introduced into cultivation, and is hardy as far 
north as Philadelphia. When in bloom, it is beautiful, and it flowers 
continuously for two or three months. 

TlLIACE^. 

The Tilias in Europe are called Lime trees, or Linn. Our species are 
commonly called Basswood. They are large trees, and have a wide 
range, being found probably in everj State east of the Eocky Mountains. 
It is, howmer, not abundant, except in some localities. The wood is 
white and soft, and is employed to some extent in the manufacture of 
furniture, &c. 

No. 17. Tilia Americana, L. — Basswood; Linden. Eastern United 
States. 

No. 18. Tilia heterophylla, Vent. — White Basswood. Eastern United 
States. 

No. 19. Tilia pubescens, Ait. — White Basswood. Eastern United 
States. 

• Zygophyllace^. 

No. 20. Guaiacum sanctum^ L. — Lignum Vita?. — South Florida. A 
small tree, quite rare in South Florida, but common in the West Indies. 
It is very similar t^, and has the same i)roperties as the Q. officinale of 
the West Indies, which furnishes the gum resin called guaiacum, which 
is a common stimulative aromatic medicine. The wood is much heavier 
than water. 

Zanthoxylac'E^. 

No. 21. Zanthoxylum Americanum, Mill. — Prickly Ash ; Toothache Tree. 
— Northeastern United States. A shrub or small tree. The bark is 
very hpt and aromatic, and is somewhat used medicinally. 

No. 22. Zanthoxylum Carolinanuniy Lam. — Southern Prickly Ash. — 
Southern States. A small tree found from South Carolina to Florida 
and westward. The bark is aromatic and tonic. The young stems are 
spiny, and the old ones more or less covered with tubercles, which have 
developed from the spines. 

No. 23. Zanthoxylum Floridanum J Nutt. — Satin Wood. — South Florida. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 389 

No. 24. Zanthoxylum Pteroia^ H. B. K. — False Iron Wood; Yellow 
Wood. — ^The Gulf States. A small shrubby tree occurring from Florida 
to Texas. The wood is yellow and close-grained. 

No. 25. Ptelea trifoliata^ L. — Hop tree. — Eastern United States. This 
is seldom more than a tall shrub. The fruit, a wafer-like seed, grows in 
clusters, is a bitter tonic, and has been used as a substitute for hops. 

No. 26. Ptelea angttstifolia, Benth. — Narrower leaved than the preced- 
ing. — Rocky Mountains; Texas to California. 

SlMABUBIACE^. 

No. 27. Simaruba glauca, DC. — Quassia; Bitter-wood. — South Flor- 
ida. Found in South Florida by Dr. Blodgett. It occurs in the West 
Indies with another species, the Simaruba amara^ the bark of which is 
medicinal, and po^>sesses the same properties as quassia. 

BUESERACE^. 

No. 28. Bursera gummiferaj Jacq. — West India Birch ; Oummo 
Limbo. — South Florida. The largest of South Florida trees, abounding 
in gum. 

No. 29. Amyris Fhridana, Nutt. — Torch Wood. —South Florida. Mostly 
a shrub, but becoming a small evergreen and elegant tree. 

Olacine^. 

No. 30. Ximena Americana^ L. — Hog Plum. — South Florida. Mostly 
shrubby, but sometimes 20 feet high. It bears a drupe the size of a 
plum, which is yellow and pleasant tasted. 

Meliaceje. 

No. 31. Melia Azederach, L. — Pride of India; Bread Tree.— Natural- 
ized in Southern States. A native of Persia, but quite freely natural- 
ized in some parts of the South. It is there one of the commonest 
ornamental trees. The wood is of a reddish color, solid, durable and 
taking a beautiful finish. 

ILICINE^. 

No. 32. Ilex opaca^ Ait. — Evergreen Holly. — Southern States. In fa- 
vorable localities, this tree attains a pretty large size, frequently 40 feet 
high, and 12 to 15 inches diameter. The wood is very heavy, compact, 
and fine grained. It is employed in some parts of cabinet-work. It 
very closely resembles the European Holly. 

No. 33. Hex Dahoon^ Walt. — Dahoon Holly. — Southern States. 

No. 34. Ilex decidua, Walt. — Deciduous Holly. — Southern States. 

No. 35. Hex monticola^ Gr. — Holly. — Southern States. 



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390 international exhibition, 1876. 

Celastrine^. 

No. 36. Schmfferea fruiescens^ 32icq. — Crab- wood; False Box. — Soath 
Florida. A small tree of South Florida ; the wood is close and fiue- 
graiued, and is said to be exported from the West Indies as a kind of 
box-wood. 

No. 37. Euonymus occidentalism Nutt. — California Spindle Tree. — Cali- 
fornia. 

No. 38. Euonymus atropurpureus, Jacq. — Waahoo. — Southern and 
Western States. 

Rhamnace^. 

No. 39. Frangula CaroUniana^ Gr. — Alder Buckthorn. — Virginia and 
southward. 

No. 40. Frangula Purshiana^ DC. — Oregon Buckthorn. — Western 
coast. 

No. 41. Frangula Californica, Gr. — California Coffee-tree. — ^Western 
coast. This much resembles the F. Caroliniana. In California, the 
berries of this species have been employed to some extent as a substi- 
tute for coffee. Some persons recommend it; others have been made 
sick by its use. 

No. 42. Ceanothiis thyrsiflorus^ Esch. — California Lilac — Western 
coast. One of the most showy shrubs or small trees of California. 

No. 43. Ceanothus divaricatus^ Nutt. — California. 

No. 44. Zizyphu8 obtusi/olias, Gr. — Texas Jujube- tree. — Texas and 
westward. 

No. 45. Scutia ferre.a^ Brong. — South Florida. 

Sapindaceje. 

No. 46. ^Jsculus glabra. Wild. — Ohio Buckeye. — Tennessee and West- 
ern States. This tree attains, in favorable situations, 20 to 30 fet 
height, and is much in use as an ornamental tree. It is not found wild 
east of the Alleghany Mountains; its favorable localitiy being the banks 
of the western rivers, in Ohio, Illinois, and Kentucky. The Wood is 
light, soft, and useless. The nuts are said to be poisonous to cattle 
eating them. 

No. 47. uJCsculusflava, Ait. — Sweet Buckeye. — Southern States. This 
tree prevails more to the southward than the Ohio Buckeye. It is 
abundant in the mountainous districts of North and South Carolina and 
Georgia. In favorable situations it frequently attains a height of 50 to 
60 feet, and the trunk a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. The flowers are of a 
light agreeable yellow and quite ornamental. The wood is soft and 
perishable. 

No. 48. ^sculiis Pavia, L. — Bed Buckeye. — Southern States. This 
species has nearly the same range as the preceding, but is usually only 
a shrub of 8 to 10 feet height; sometimes, however, becoming a small 
tiee. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL Ti 'RE. 3 9 I 

No. 49. ^sculns Calljurnira^ Nutt. — California Buckeye. — Califoruia. 
This is the ouly buckeye of the Pacific coast. It forms a low, spread- 
iDg, bushy tree from 15 to 20 feet high. 

No. 50. Ungnadiaspeciosa, Eudl. — Spanish Buckeye. — Texas and west- 
ward. This is a large shrub or small tree, a native of Texas and New 
Mexico. The chestnut-like fruits have an agreeable, sweet taste, but 
^re sirongly emetic. The foliage resembles that of the hickory, (Carya.) 

No. 51. Sapindtts marginatus, Wild. — Soap Berry. — Southern States. 
This tree varies from 20 to 40 feet in height. It occurs along the coast 
in Georgia and Florida, also in Arkansas and Texas. The berries are 
smaller than those of the next species, but, like that, the black hard nuts 
of the berries are sometimes strung for beads and crosses. 

No. 52. Sapindus saponaria^ L.— White Wood. — South Florida. This 
«pecies was Ibund by Dr. Chapman in South Florida. In the West In- 
dies, the berries and the roots are used as a substitute for soap. The 
berries are also used to intoxicate fish. 

No. 53. Hypelate paniculata^ Don. — Madeira Wood. — South Florida. 
A small tree found in South Florida. The wood is very like mahogany, 
and is highly valued. 

No. 54. Acer «rtcc/^arinMm, Wang. — Sugar Maple; Hard Maple. — East- 
ern United States. The well known Sugar Maple, from the sap of which 
in the Northern States and in Canada large quantities of sugar and sirup 
are made annually. It is one of the noblest of American trees, both for 
the value ot its wood and the beauty of its foru» and foliage. It is much 
•employed as an ornamental tree. 

No. 55. Acer saccharinum^ Wang., var. nigrum, Gr. — Black Sugar 
Maple. — Eastern United States. This variety differs little from the 
•common form except in a darker wood. 

No. 56. Acer dascycarpum, Ehrh. — Silver-leaf Maple. — Eastern United 
States. One of the most beautifiil of maples; much used as a >hade- 
tree on account of its rapid growth and beautiful foliage. 

No. 57. Acer rubrum, L — Red Maple. — Eastern United States. More 
<^ompact in form and less rapid in growth than the preceding, but, like 
it, a favorite for street-planting and ornament. 

No. 58. Acer Pennsyltanicum, L. — Striped-bark Maple. — Northeastern 
Uuiied States. A small tree, the young bark with longitudinal stripes 
of green and black. Rare and little known outside of the Northeastern 
States. 

No. 59. Acer macrophyllum, Pursh. — Oregon Maple. — California and 
Oregon. This occurs in the mountainous districts of California and 
Oregon. In Oregon, it attains a large size, and the wood abounds in that 
peculiarity of grain which is called Bird's-eye and Curled Maple. For 
•cabinet purposes, it is thought to be equal to mahogany. 

No. 60. Acer circinatum, Pursh. — Vine Maple. — Oregon and Washing- 
ton Territory. This species has a low and frequently reclining or pros- 



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392 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

trate trunk, which sends forth branches, at first upright, then bending* 
down to the ground, and forming almost impeneti*ab]e thickets. 

No. 61. J.c<?r^randi<fentofMw,Nutt.— Great-toothed Maple. — California^ 
and Oregon. A small tree or shrub of the Rocky Mountains. 

No. 62. Negundo aceroides^ Moench. — Box Elder. —Eastern United 
States. This is a fine ornamental tree, of rapid growth, not commonly 
growing more than 20 to 30 feet high. It is rare east of the Allegha- 
nies, but found along all the rivers of the West, reaching into Kansas^ 
Missouri, and Nebraska, and even northward iiito Minnesota and the 
British possessions. The sap contains a large amount of sugar. The 
wood is fine and close-grained, and has been used in cabinet-work. 

No. <i3. Negundo Californiea^ T. & 6. — California Box Elder. — Cali- 
fornia. This species is confined to the Pacific coast. It does not seem 
to differ greatly from the preceding species. 

No. 64. Staphyleatrifoliata^L. — Bladder Tree. — Eastern Unite<l States^ 
A large shrub or small tree 10 to 15 feet high, with trifoliate leaves and 
peculiar 3-lobed bladdery pods. 

ANACiS.RDIACE^. 

No. 65. Rhus typhina, L. — Staghoru Sumac. — Eastern United States^ 
The Sumacs are large shrubs or small trees, mostly with pinnate leaves. 
The leaves and young twigs are employed in tanning, and are thought 
to be equal in strength to those of the Sicilian Sumac. 

No. 06. Bhus glabra, L. — Smooth Sumac. — Eastern United States. 

No. 67. Rhus mi^rophylla^ Eng. — Small-leaved Sumac. — ^Texas and 
Southwest. 

No. 68. Rhus copallina^ L. — Dwarf Sum ac.-^Ea stern United States. 

No. 69. Rhus Metopium, L. — Coral Sumac. —South Florida. This- 
grows in South Florida, where it attains a height of 20 to 30 feet. Iti» 
very poisonous. In the West Indies it is called Mountain Manchineel 
and Burnwood. 

No. 70. Rhus venenata^ DC. — Poison Sumac. — Eastern United States^ 

No. 71. Rhm integrifolm^^att. — One-leaved Sumac. — South California, 
This species and the succeeding do not have pinnate leaves. They are 
found in Southern California. The red berries of this species are used by 
the Indians to make a cooling acid drink. 

No. 72. Rhus Laurina^ Nutt.— Laurel Sumac— -South California. A 
low spreading tree, much branched and very leafy, and exhaling to a 
considerable distance an aromatic odor. The flowers are somewhat 
showy, and the plant would be fine in cultivation. 

J^o. 73. Pistacia Mexicana^ H. B. K. — Mexican Pistacia-tree. — Texas. 

No. 74. Schinus molle, L— Pepper Tree. — Southwestern United States* 
Cultivated ai^ an ornamental tree in California and in Mexico. It is. 
probably introduced. The berries have the taste of black pepper. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL TURE. 393 

VlTACE^. 

No. 75. yit%% cesiivalis^ Michx. — Summer Grape. — Eastern Uuited 
States. 
No. 76. Vitis cordifoliaj Michx.— Winter or Frost Grape. — Eastern 

United States. 

Leguminos^. 

No. 77. Robinia Pset^dacacia, L. — Common Locust. — Pennsylvania and 
southward. Hardly found north of the fortieth degree of latitude ex- 
cept in cultivation. It is chiefly found in the AUeghanies and the mount- 
ainous parts of Kentucky and Tennessee. It is a beautiful tree, attain- 
ing a height of 50 feet and upward. The wood is hard, compact, and 
very durable, much used in shipbuilding. 

No. 78. Rohinia vUiCom, Vent. — Clammy Locnst. — Virjrinia nnd vsonth- 
ward. A smaller tree tliaii tbe preceding, and much more rare, being 
confined to the mountains of Georgia ami North Carolina. 

No. 79. Rvbinia SeoMexicana^ Giay. — New Mexican Locust. — New 
Mexico and Arizona. A small tree, rarely exceeding 20 feet. Very 
thorny. Grows in stony ravines at the foot of mountains in New Mex- 
ico and Arizona. 

No. 80. Olneya t^ota^ Gray. — Palo de Hierro. — New Mexico and Ari- 
zona. 

No. 81. Piffcidia Erythrina^ L. — Jamaica Dogwood. — South Florida. 
A tolerably large tree of South Florida; also grows in the West Indies. 
Its blossoms resemble those of the Locust. The wood is heavy, coarse- 
grainetl, and durable. 

No. 82. Cladraiftrvf ihwtoria^ Kaf. — Yellow Wood. — Tennessee and 
Kentucky. This is one of the handsomest, tiowering-tiees oT the Locust 
kind, it gr<»ws chietly in the mountainous regions i»t* Kentucky and 
Teunessee. The wood is yellow, and has been used in domestic dyeing 
The tree rarely exceeds 40 feet in height and 1 foot in diameter. It is 
well worthy of cultivation. 

No. 83. ISophora ajfinis, T & G. — Texas and Southwest. 

No. 84. Stphora speciosa^ Benth. — Texas and Southwest. Our two 
Sophoras are small trees of Texas and New Mexico, seldom over 6 inches 
in diameter. They produce an abundance of showy flowers very early 
in the season. The Sopliora speciosa has evergreen leaves, and beautiful 
red beans, which are said to be poisonous. 

No. 85. Gymnocladus Canadensis^ Lam. — Kentucky Coflfee-tree. — East- 
ern United States. A tall, large, and handsome tree, rare in Western 
New York, Pennsylvania, and the States north of the Ohio River; more 
common in Kentucky and southwestward. The wood is very compact 
and close-grained, tand valuable for cabinet-work. The large beans of 
the podr. have been used for coffee. 

No. 80. Gleditsvliia triacantlioSj L. — Honey Locust. — Eastern United 
States. This is a large and handsome tree ; the trunk and branches 



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394 iMERNATIONAI, EXIJIBH ION, i«76. 

generally beset with long and formidable spines, on which account it has 
been employed as a hedge-plant. The long pods contains a sweetish 
pulp, and have been used in fermenting a kind of beer, but are of no 
practical value. The wood is heavy, and affords excellent fuel, but is 
not considered durable as a timber. The tree is rare in the Atlantic 
States, but rather common west of the Alleghanies, in Tennessee, Kea- 
tncky, and the tributaries of the Ohio and Mississippi. 

No. 87. Oleditschia monospeima^ Walt. — Water Locust.— Illinois and 
southward. This is a smaller tree than the preceding, growing in swamps 
in the Southern States and in the vicinity of the Ohio River. The pods 
are short, roundish, and only one-seeded. The tree is thorny, like the 
Honey Locust. 

No. 88. Cercidium floridum^ Torr. — Green-bark. — Western Texa« and 
Arizona. This is the Palo Verde of the Mexicans and the Green-barked 
Acacia of American travelers. The bark is smooth and green on the 
young trees. It is a small, wide-spreading tree, with many branches, 
rarely seen a foot through, and 20 to 30 feet high. 

No. 89. ParMnsonia aculeata^ L. — Jerusalem Thorn. — W^estern Texas 
and Arizona. Mostly a shrub ; quite ornamental, and frequent in culti- 
vation in the region bordering on Mexico. 

No. 90. Farkinsonia microphylla^ Torr. — Western Texas and Arizona. 

No. 91. Cercis Canadensis^ L. — Redbud or JudasTree. — Eastern United 
States. The Redbuds are small trees; very ornamental. This species 
is frequent east of the Mississippi. The next is found principally on the 
Pacific coast. 

No. 92. Cercis occidentalism Torr. — Western Redbud. — Western United 
States. 

No. 93. Prosopis glandulosa^ T. & G. — Mesquit. — Texas to California. 
A scrubby, small tree, seldom more than 25 to 30 feet high ; sometimes 
constituting extensive forests. It produces an abundance of bean like 
pods, which contain a sweet pulp. Both beans and pulp are eaten by 
Indians and often by whites, but they are used chietly as food for horses, 
which eat them with avidity. The wood is very hard and durable, dark 
brown, and resembles mahogany. Fences made of this timber are very 
d urable. The wounded bark in spring exudes a gum of the same quality 
as gum arabic. 

No. 94. IStrombocarjjus pvbescens. Or. — Screw-bean. — Texas and west- 
ward. This tree is very similar to the preceding, but of smaller size. 
The pods are two to three inches long, and twisted like a screw. They 
are eaten by the Colorado Indians, powdered to a coarse meal, and made 
into a kind of bread. They are also good food for horses. 

No. 95. Leucwna retusa^ Gr. — Texas and westward. 

No. 90. Acacia Farnesiana^ Willd. — Texas and westward. 

No. 97. Pithecolobium VngiiisCati^ Benth. — Cat's-claw. — South Flor- 
ida. In South Florida, mostly a shrub, rarely a small tre«. The bark 
has medicinal ])ropeities. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICl Z TURE. 395 

ROSACEJE. 

No. 98. Frunu% Amerxmna^ Marsh. — Wild Yellow or Red Plum. — East- 
ern United States. This is the common wild plum of the countrj^ east 
of the Rocky Mountains, from Mississippi to Minnesota. In the valley 
of the Mississippi, and particularly south westward, the two next named 
species also occur. 

No. 1)9. Pruntis rivulariH^ Scheele. — Wild Plum. — Mississippi Valley 
and westward. 

No. 100. Prunus Chicasa^ Michx. — Chickasaw Plum. — Southeastern 
United States. 

No. 101. Frunus vmbellata, Ell.— Small WMld Plum.— South Carolina 
and southward. A small purple or black plum, sour and bitter, growing 
from South Carolina to Florida. 

No. 102. Prunus Pennsylvanica^ L. — Wild Red Cherry. — North-Eastern 
United States. A small tree, or often a shrub, with sour, unpleasant 
fruit. 

No. 103. Prunus serotina^ Ehrh. — Wild Black Cherry.— Eastern United 
States. A fine, large tree, of wide range, frequent in the Northern and 
T\^tistern States, and along the Alleghany Mountains in the Southern 
States. The wood is compact, fine grained, and highly esteemed for 
cabinet- work. The fruit is small, rather sweet and pleasant when fully 
ripe. 

No. 104. Prunus Virginiana^ L. — Choke-cherry. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 105. Prunus CaroHniana, Ait. — Mock Orange.— North Carolina 
and southward. A small tree with evergreen leaves, growing from 
North Carolina to Florida and in the Gulf States. It closely resembles 
the Cherry Laurel of Europe. It is a beautiful tree for cultivation, but 
probably would not bear a northern climate. 

No. 106. Prunus dcmissa, Walp.— Rocky Mountain Choke-cherry.— 
Rocky Mountains and California. 

No. 107. Prunus Andersonii^ Gr. — Desert Plum.— California and Ne- 
vada. ^ 

No. 108. PrunuH ilicifolia, Walp.— Holly-leaved Cherry.— California. 
No. 109. PrumiH mollis^ Walp.— Oregon. This is the principal wild 

'estern coast. It grows to the height 
ringent and unpleasant. 
T. & G.— California. 
:m, Torr. — Chimisell. — California. 
Nutt. — Mountain Mahogany. — Rocky 
?e, not usually over 10 to 15 feet high, 
r feet thick. The leaves are evergreen ; 
ogany, extremely compact and heavy, 
f Utah, Nevada, and California. 



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396 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 113. Carcocar^M%parvifol\ufi^l^wX,t, — Small Moan tain Mahogany. — 
Califomia. A much smaller tree or sbrub than the preceding; the wood 
quite similar. 

No. 114. Pyrmcoronariaj L. — American Crab Apple. — Eastern United 
States. The common wild ("rab apple of the United States, growing in 
glades and frequently forming extensive thickets. The fruit is variable, 
but seldom palatable or serviceable. It is used, however, in new por- 
tions of the country for preserves or for making cider. 

No. 115. Pyrus angustifolia^ Ait. — Narrow-leaved crab. — Pennsylva- 
nia southw^ard and westward. Perhaps only a variety of the preceding, 
with narrower leaves and rather smaller fruit. 

No. 116. Fyrus Americana, DC. — American Mountain Ash. — North- 
eastern United States. A small tree growing in swamps and mountain 
woods, sparingly in the Alleghany Mountains, most common in New 
England and northward. It is frequently seen in cultivation, and much 
resembles the European Mountain Ash. The clusters of bright-red 
berries are very ornamental, and remain on the tree until winter. 

No. 117. Fyrus rivularis, Doug. — Oregon Crab Apple. — Oregon and 
Rocky Mountains. This is a small tree, ranging from Califomia north- 
ward into Alaska. The fruit is of the size of a cherry, of an agreeable 
flavor, and used, particularly in Alaska, by the natives of the country 
for food. 

No. 118. Gratcegus spathulata, Michx. — Wild Thorn. — Virginia and 
southward. Of wild thorns, we have numerous species, most of which 
aresmall andshrubby. Abouttwelve speciesand varieties of thecountry 
east of the Eocky Mountains may be counted as small trees, and two of 
the Rockj- Mountains and western coast. 

No. 1 19. CraUegus apiifolia, Michx. — Wild Thoro. — Virginia and south- 
ward. 

No. 120. Crntwgm cordata, Ait. — W^ashington Thorn. — Virginia and 
southward. 

No. 121. Cratwgus arborescens, Ell. — Wild Thorn. — Southern States. 

No. 122. Cratwgns coccinea, L. — Scar let -fruited Thorn. — Eastern 
Ujiited States. 

No. 123. CraUegtm tomeniosa, L.— Black or Pear Thorn. — Eastern 
United States. 

No. 121. CraUeguH tomentosa^ L., var. punctata^ Gr. — Black Thorn. — 
Eastern United States. 

No. 125. Cratwgus tomentosa, L., var. mollw, Gr. — Wild Thorn. — East- 
ern United States. 

No. 126. CraUvguH CrusgaHu L. — Cockspur Thorn. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 127. Cratwgus wstivalis, T. & G. — Wild Hawthorn. — Southern 
States. 

No. 128. Cratwgus Jiava J Ait. — Summer Haw. — Virginia and south- 
ward. 



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J HE DEPARTMENT OF A GRICi L Ti RE. T^gj 

No. 129. Craiwgvfi glanduhsajMichx, — Wild Hawtliorn. — Virginia aud 
southward. 

No. 130. Cralwgvs rivvlariSj Doug. — Western Hawthorn. — Rocky 
Mountaius. 

No. 131. Crataegus sangninea, Pallas. — Oregon Thoru. — Oregon. 

No. 132. Photinia arbuti/olia^ Lindl. — Laurel Hawthorn. — California. 
A beautiful evergreen shrub or small tree of the Pacitic coast. It some- 
times attains the height of 20 or 25 feet and a thickness of trunk of 12 
or 15 inches. 

No. 133. Amelanchier Canadensis^ T. & G. — Service or June Berry. — 
Eastern United States. Usually a small tree, but sometimes becoming 
30 to 40 feet high, with a diameter of 10 or 12 inches. It is found mostly 
by the banks of mountain-streams. There are several varieties. 

No. 134. Amelanchier alni/olia,N\itt. — Service Berry. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This is usually a shrub ; in Oregon and Washington Territory, it 
is said to be a small tree, yielding abundance of berries, which are 
largely employed as food by the Indians. 

HamamelaceyK. 

No. 135. Liquidamhar styraciflua^ L. — Sweet Gum or Bilsted. — Eastern 
United States. A large and beautiful tree, with singular star-like leaves, 
somewhat resembling the maple. It grows in the Atlantic Slates in rich, 
low woods ; also in the Mississippi Valley, but not far north of the Ohio. 
The wood is compact and fine-grained, but not durable. Ft is a fine 
ornamental tree, and deserving of cultivation. 

Rhizophorace^. 

No. 136. Khizop'>ora Mangle^ L. — Red Mangrove. — South Florida. 
Commonly a low, spreading tree in South Florida, also in Louisiana and 
on the coast of Texas. On the Thousand Islands, it attains a height of 
40 to 60 feet. All the low ke^s along the coast are covered by this tree. 
It sends down roots from its germinating fruits, which take lOot upon 
reaching the earth, and thus forms an inii>enetrable thicket like the 
Banyan tree of India. 

COMBRETACE^:. 

No. 137. Conocarpvs erectuSjJAi^q, — White Button Wood. — Florida. A 
small tree of the West Indies and South Florida. It furnishes almost 
the only fuel used in South Florida, and extends north as far as Ancelote 
Keys.— (Dr. Chapman.) 

No. 138. Laguncularia racemosa, Ga»rt. — Black Button Wood. — South 
Florida. Found by Dr. Chapman in South Florida; a small tree 
everywhere; is a mere shrub, except among the Thousand Islands and 
north of Cape Sable, where it forms a large tree. 



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398 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Myiitace^. 

No. 139. Eugenia hnxifolia^ Wild.— Iron Wood.— South Florida. The 
Eugeiiias are in Florida small trees, reaching 20 to 25 feet in height. 
They belong to the Myrtle family, and the tioweis of some species are 
very fragrant. The wood is close grained, hard, and applicable to cabi- 
net-work. 

No. 140. Eugenia monticola^ DC— Iron Wood. — South Florida. 

No. 141. Eugenia procera, Poir. — lion Wood. — South Florida. 

No. 142. Eugenia dichotoma^ DC— Stopper Wood. — South Florida. 

No. 143. Fsidium pyriformeyL, — Guava. — South Florida. TheGuava 
is a well-known fruit in the West Indies, where it is highly esteemed, and 
eaten either raw or formed into preserves. Dr. Chapman found the 
tree extensively naturai>ed at Tampa Bay, Florida. 

Cactace^. 

No. 1 44. Cereusgiganfeus. Eng. — Tree Cactus. — Western Texas and Ari- 
zona. The specimens for this order are from Southern Arizona, where 
they are striking and characteristic features of the country. The Cereus 
giganteuH grows 50 to (iO feet in a straight column, and finally divides 
into several naked looking branches. .The wood of this and other large 
Cacti presents a singular network oi fibers in distinct layers. 

No. 145. Cei-eus Tkurberi^ Eng. — Thurber's Cactus. — Western Texas 
and Arizona. 

No. 14G. Opuntia arboreacens^ Eng. — Tree Opuntia. — Western Texas 
and Arizona. 

Araliace^. 

No. 147. Aralia spinona^ L. — Angelica Tree or Hercules's Club. — East- 
ern United States. 

CORNACE^:. 

No. 148. Cornus florfda^ L. — Flowering Dogwood. — Eastern United 
States. This is usually a small tree, but sometimes acquires a height of 
40 or 50 feet, and a diameter of trunk of IJ feet. It tiowers in spring 
before the full development of the leaves, and then presents a beautiful 
appearance. It deserves to be more generally cultivated. 

No. 140. Cornus Nuttallii^ Aud. — White Dogwood. — California and 
Oregon. This species, which is confined to the Pacific coast, has rather 
larger flowers than the preceding, and is perhaps more showy. The 
wood of both is hard and valuable. Grows sometimes 50 or 60 feet high. 

No. 150. Cornvs puhescens^ Nutt. — Western Dogwood. — California and 
Oregon. This rarelj' becomes a small tree, 25 to 30 feet high, on the Pa- 
cific coast. We have five or six other species of dogwood which do not 
attain tree size. 

No. 151. Garrya Fremontiiy Toir. — Tassel-tree. — Oregon and Califor- 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 



399 



Ilia. The Garryas ar6 mostly shrubs, thougjh ander favorable circum- 
stances the Garry a elliptica ^aius a height of 20 to 30 feet. 

No. 152. Garrya elUptica^ Liudl. — 8atiu Tassel-tree. — Califoruia. 

No. 153. Nysm multifloray Wang. — Black or Sour Gum ; PepperidMe. — 
Eastern United States. A middle-sized tree, growing from Massachu- 
setts to Illinois aiid southward. The fibers of the wood are so inter- 
woven that it is almost imJ)0^isible to split ; hence it is used for wheel- 
hubs, rollers, and cylinders. — (Bryant.) It is quite ornsimental in cul- 
tivation. 

No. 154. Nyssa aquatica^ L. — Water Tui>eIo. — Southern States. This 
species grows in low wet ground, chiefly in the Southern States, but is 
found also in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The wood is very tough, 
and has been used iu the manufacture of wooden bowels, &c. 

No. 155. Nynsa uniftora^ \Valt. — Large Tupelo. — Virginia and south- 
ward. This is the largest tree of the genus. It is confined to the South- 
ern States, growing iu swamps. It bears a dark-blue plum-like fruit 
nearly an inch long. The wood is soft and extremely' light. The roots 
arc also extremely light and soft, and have been used as a substitute for 
cork. The wood is only used to make bowls and trays. 

No. 156. Nyssa capitata^ Walt. — Ogeechee Lime. — Southern United 
States. This species is fonnd in swamps in Georgia and Florida and 
westward near the coast. It bears an oblong, red, plum-like fruit, which 
is agreeably acid, and, can be employed as a substitute for the lemon 
The tree is small and the wood without value. 

Caprifoliace^:. 

No. 157. SambucuH ylauca^ Nutt. — California Elder. — California and 
Kocky Mountains. This species of elder in Califoruia forms a low tree, 
sometimes 30 feet high, with a stem 2 feet in diameter. Indians and 
birds eat the berries. 

No. 158. Viburnum prunifolium^ L. — Black Haw. — Eastern United 
States. The haws are small trees or large shrubs, with smooth glossy 
leaves and handsome flowers. They are worthy of cultivation. 

No. 159. Viburnum Lentago, L. — Sweet Viburnum or Sheepberry. — 
Eastern United States. 

No. 160, Viburnum obovatumjWsXt. — Wild Haw. — Yirginiaand south- 
ward. 

RUBIACE^. 

No. 161. Cephalanthus occidentalism L., var. Cali/orniva, — Button bush. 
— California. This is seldom more than a shrub; but in California it 
sometimes grows 25 to 30 feet high, with a trunk 12 to 20 inches in diam- 
eter. 

No. 102. Guettarda Blodgettiiy Suttle. — South Florida. 

No. 163. Randia clusice/olia, Chap. — Seven-years Apple. — South 
Florida. 



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400 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

iS'o. 164. Pinekneya pubens^ Michx. — Georgia B{>rk.— South Carolina to 
Florida. A small tree ia the lower districts of Georgia and in Florida, 
rarely exceeding the height of 25 feet and a diameter of G inches. The 
barjL is extremely bitter, and has been employed in the treatment of 
intermittent fevers. It is closely related botanically to the Cinchona, 
which furnishes the Peruvian bark of commerce. 

Ericaceae. 

No. 16.1. Vaceinium arboreum^ Marshall. — Farkleberry.— Virginia and 
southward. A shrub or small tree sometimes 20 feet high, growing from 
Virginia and ISouthern Illinois southward. 

No. 166. Oxydendrum arboreum^ DC. — Sourwood or Sorrel-tree. — 
Pennsylvania and southward. This tree grows chiefly in the mountain- 
ous districtsof the Alleghanies from Pennsylvania southward. In fertile 
valleys, at the foot of the mountains, in North Carolina and Tennessee, 
it attains a height of 50 feet. The common name sour-tree is derived 
from the acidity of its leaves. The flowers are white, and in spikes 5 
or 6 inches long. They are very ornamental, and begin to be produced 
when the tree is 5 or 6 feet high. 

No. 167. Kalmia laPfoUa^ L. — Calico-bush or Mountain Laurel. — Penn- 
sylvania and southward. A beautiful evergreen shrub, sometimes 
attaining the size of a small tree. It is very ornamental and deserving 
of cultivation. ' ^ 

No. 168. Rhododendron maximum^ L. — Rose Baj' or Great Laurel. — 
Pennsylvania and southward. Like the preceding, an evergreen shrub 
of great beauty. It has been much improved by cultivation. 

No. 169. Ehododendron Galifornicum^ Hook. — California Rhododen- 
dron. — Pacific coast. 

No: 170. Arbutus ^f€nzi€8i^ Pursh. — Madrone-tree. — California and 
Oregon. 

No. 171. Arbutus Texana^ Buckl. — This species or variety grows in 
Texas. It is mostly a large shrub; sometimes, however, becoming 25 
feet high and 8 or 10 inches in diameter. The leaves are smaller and 
the flowers less panicled than in the California species. The timber is 
said to be almost imperishable. 

No. 172. Arctostaphylos glauca^ ljm^\. — Manzanita. — Oregon and Cali- 
fornia. There are several species of this genus on the western coast, 
mostly shrubs or smiill trees, which have been much confused. The 
specimen under this number is from Southern California, and has a large 
drupe-like fruit, with a consolidated nut. These berries are pleasant to 
the taste, and much employed as food by the Indians of that region. . 

No. 173. Arctostaphylos tomentosa^ Doug. — Manzanita. — California and 
Rocky Mountains. 

No. 174. Arctostaphylos pungens^ U. B. K. — Manzanita. — California 
and Rocky Mountains. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE, 40 1 

STYEACACE-aE. 

No. 175. ffalesia diptera^ L. — Suowdrop-tree. — Georgia and Florida. 
The SDowdrop-trees are found in the Southern States from the Ohio 
River southward, near the Alleghanies, and on river banks in Georgia 
and Florida. Tbey are usually smallish trees, but sometimes grow 40 
or 50 feet high, and IJ to 2 feet in diameter. They are very desirable 
for ornamental trees, producing a profusion of white bell-shaped flowers, 
even when quite small. 

No. 176. Halesia tetraptera^ L. — Silverbelltree. — Virginia and south- 
ward. 

No. 177. Symplocos tincto^Ha, UHer. — Horse Sugar or Sweet-leaf. — Vir- 
ginia and southward. A small tree with oblong evergreen leaves, and 
clustered racemes of small white flowers. It grows in low, damp woods 
and pine barrens in North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, and attains 
a height of 12 to 20 feet, with a diameter of 8 to 10 inches. It is one of 
the most beautiful trees of the southern forest. — (Nuttall.) 

Cyeillacejs. 

No. 178. Cyrilla rdcemiflora, Walt. — Iron-wood. — North Carolina and 
southward. 

No. 179. Cliftonia ligustrinaj Banks. — Buckwheat-tree. — Georgia and 
southward. An elegant small tree, growing from 10 to 20 feet high, of 
about the same range as the preceding. It is evergreen, and exceed- 
ingly ornamental when in flower. After flowering, the tree presents a 
curious appearance, from the abundance of triangular winged capsules, 
resembling buckwheat, from which the tree receives its popular name. 

Ebenaoe^. 

No. 180. Diospyros Virginiana^ L. — Persimmon. — Eastern United 
States. A well-known tree, most common in the Southern States, but 
growing as far north as New York. It grows from 30 to 60 feet high, 
with a very hard fine grained wood, which has been used for various 
purposes. It bears a plum-like fruit an inch or more in length, which 
when fully ripe is edible and palatable. 

No. 181. Diospyros Texana^ Schul. — Black Persimmon. — Western 
Texas. This is called Sapote-pieto by the Mexicans and Black Persim- 
mon by the Americans. It is a shrub or middle-sized tree, often with a 
black, ebony-like core. The fruits are black, and of the size of a cherry 
and larger, melting, and very sweet. — (Dr. Lindheimer.) 

Sapotace^. 

No. 182. Sideroxylon pallidum^ Spreng. — Mastic. — South Florida. A 
middle-sized tree of South Florida called Mastic, probably from the 
production of a gum resembling mastic. 
26 CEN, PT 2 



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402 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

l?^o. 183. Dtpholis salidfolia^ A. DC. — South Florida. 

Xo. 184. Chrysophyllum microphyllum, Jacq. — Golden-leaf. — South 
Florida. A small tree of the West Indies, found by Dr. Chapman last 
fall in South Florida. The leaves have a beautiful, golden, satin-like 
surface on the under side. 

No. 185. Mimusops Sieberi, A. DC. — Naseberry. — South Florida. 
This is one of the trees called Naseberry in the West Indies. It is 
common in South Florida, where it becomes a*large tree. Dr. Chapman 
invariably found the large trunks to be hollow. The fruit is delicious 
and highly flavored. 

No. 186. Bumelta lycioiden, Gtiert.— Iron -wood. — Kentucky and south- 
ward. The Bumelias are shrubs or small trees, of no special value. 

No. 187. Bumelia parvifolia^ A. DC. — Iron-wood. — South Florida. 

No. 188. Bumelia lanuginosa^ Per». — Iron-wood. — Southern States. 

No. 189. Bumelia tenaxj Willd. — Iron-wood. — Southern States. 

No. 190. Bumelia reclinata^ Vent. — Iron-wood. — Texas and westward, 

Theopheastaceje. 

No. 191. Jacquinia armillaris^ L. — Currant-trees. — South Florida. A 
small tree of South Florida and the West Indies. The wood is curiously 
grained. 

Myesinace^. 

No. 192. Myrsine Floridana, A. DC. — South Florida. — Mostly a shrub, 
rarely a small tree. 

No. 193. Ardlsia Pickeringii^ T. & G. — South Florida. — Mostly a shrub, 
but on the keys a small tree. It is an evergreen tree, with laurel-like 
leaves, and panicles of showy-white purple tinged flowers. 

Bignoniace^. 

No. 194. Catalpa bignonioidesj Walt. — Catalpa. — Southern States. A 
tree well known in cultivation, and hardy as far north as latitude 4lo. 
It is native in the Southern and Southwestern States and in Southern 
Illinois and Indiana. It attains a height of 50 or 60 feet, and a diameter 
of 1 J to 2 feet. The leaves are large, and the flowers showy, and when 
in bloom the tree is extremely ornamental. The wood is light, but of 
a fine texture, and capable of receiving a fine polish. It is said to be 
very durable. 

No. 195. Ckilopsis linearis^ DC. — Texas and Arizona. Usually a 
shrub, but sometimes attaining a height of 25 feet. It has long willow- 
like leaves, and is very ornamental when in flower. 

No. 196. Tecoma radicanSj Juss. — Trumpet-vine. — Southern States. 
This beautiful woody vine sometimes acquires a woody trunk of a foot 
in diameter or more. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



the department of agriculture. 403 

Vebbenace^. 

No. 197. Citharexylum villosum^ Jacq. — Fiddle- wood. — South Florida. 
Rarely a small tree, of no economic value. 

No. 198. Avicennia tomentosa, Jacq. — Black Mangrove.— South Flor- 
ida. This and the next species are called Black Mangrove, observed by 
Dr. Chapman at Cedar Keys and the Thousand Islands. They are 
low evergreen trees, forming impenetrable thickets on the muddy shores 
of the sea. 

No. 199. Avicennia ohlongifolia^ Chap. — Black Mangrove. — South 
Florida. 

Order BoRRAaiNACE^. 

No. 200. Cordia bullata, L.— South Florida. 

No. 201. Ehretia Buerreria, L. — South Florida. 

No. 202. Ehretia elliptica. — Texas. — Mostly shrubby, but sometimes a 
tree 2 feet in diameter; fruit an orange-yellow berry, of the size of a 
pea; much liked by children and birds. The evergreen rough leaves 
are used to rub and destroy eruptions of the skin. — (Dr. Lindheimer.) 

Oleace^. 

No. 203. Olea Americana^ L. — Devil- wood; American Olive. — South- 
ern States. This is a small evergreen tree, with thick, leathery leaves, 
and small, white, fragrant flowers. It is related to the olive-tree of the 
eastern world, but its fruit has no value. It is impossible to split, and 
hence the vulgar name of Devil- wood. 

No. 204. Chionanthm Virginica^ L. — Fringe-tree. — Middle and South- 
ern States. 

No. 205. Fraxinus Americana^ L. — White Ash. — Eastern United States. 
A large and valuable tree ranging over the eastern portion of the 
United States. The wood is tough and elastic, and much employed in 
various manufactures. It is a handsome and ornamental tree. 

No. 206. Fraxinus pubeseens, Lam. — Red Ash. — Eastern United States. 
A smaller tree than the preceding, perhaps more common. The wood is 
said to be equally" as valuable as that of the White Ash. 

No. 207. Fraxinus viridis^ Michx. — Green Ash. — Western States. A 
middle-sized tree, of vigorous and rapid growth, and the wood has the 
same qualities as the preceding. 

No. 208. Fraxinus sambuci/olia, Lara. — Black Ash. — Northern and 
Western States. A large tree, usually growing in moist soil, and hence 
often called Swamp Ash. The wood is more elastic than that of any 
other species. It splits easily into thin, narrow strips, which are used 
for making baskets and hoops for barrels. 

No. 209. Fraxinus quadrangulata^Michx, — Blue Ash. — Western States* 
This species is not found in the Atlantic States. It is found from 
Ohio to Wisconsin and southward to Kentucky and Tennessee. It 



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404 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

is a large tree, growing from 60 to 70 feet higb, with a diameter of 
2 feet or more. The wood is quite as valuable as that of the White 
Ash, and is said to be much more durable when exposed to the weather ; 
hence its value for fence-rails, posts, &c. 

No. 210. Fraxinus platycarpa, Michx. — Carolina Water Ash. — Southern 
States. This species grows in swamps or marshy banks of rivers. It is 
usually 25 or 30 feet high, but sometimes becomes a large tree. The 
wood is remarkably light and soft, and probably has no economic value. 

No. 211. Fraxinus Curtissij n. sp.! — Southern States. Mr. Curtiss 
found at Eufaula, Ala., a large ash with remarkably small fruit. This 
species is provisionally called F. Curiissi. It requires further investi- 
gation. 

No. 212. Fraxinus Oregona^ J^utt. — Oregon Ash. — California and Ore- 
gon. The common ash of the t^aciftc coast. It grows 00 to 70 feet high. 
Is of equal value with the White Ash of the Eastern States. 

No. 213. Fraxinus dipetala^ H. and A. — California Flowering Ash. — 
California and Oregon. 

No. 214. Fraxinus pista^naf alia J Torr. — Texas and westward. 

No. 215. Fraxinus anomala, Torr. — Single-leaf Ash. — Utah and Ari- 
zona. This ash is seldom more than a shrub 10 to 15 feet high, growing 
in ravines among the foot-hills of Southern Utah and Arizona. The 
leaves are simple, not pinnate, as in the other species. 

No. 216. Fraxinus coriaceay Watson. — Thick -leaved Ash. — Utah and 
Arizona. A smallish tree, with thick, leathery leaves, growing in South- 
ern Utah and Arizona. 

No. 217. Forestiera acuminata, Poir. — Southwestern States. — A large 
shrub or small tree, of no economic value. 

No. 218. Forestiera ligustrina, Poir. — Southern States. 

Nyctageniage^. 

No. 219. Poisonia ohtusata, Swartz. — South Florida. A small tree of 
Florida and the West Indies. 

POLYGONACE^. 

No. 220. Coccoloba uvifera, Jacq. — Sea-side Grape. — South Florida. 
This and the following species are low and spreading trees, along the 
coast in Florida and the West Indies. It is remarkable for the grape- 
like clusters of pear-shaped purple berries, which have an agreeable 
subacid taste, and which are much employed. The wood is heavy, hard, 
and valuable for cabinet-work. 

No. 221. Coccoloba Floridana^ Meisner. — Sea-side Grape. — South Flor. 
ida. 

Laurace^. 

No. 222. Persea Carolinensis^ N^s. — Red Bay. — Southern States. 
This species occurs from Southern Virginia to Florida and the Gulf States. 



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THE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, 405 

It is found in the vicinity of swamps and swampy river-borders. In 
favorable situations, it grows to 50 or 60 feet high and 15 to 20 inches in 
diameter. The leaves are large, shining, and evergre^. *rhe wood is 
of a beautiful rose-color^ of a fine, compact grain, and finishes almost 
equal to mahogany. 

No. 223. Persea Catesbyana^ Chap. — Catesb>\s Bay. — South Florida. 

No. 224. Sassafras officinale^ Ndes. — Sassafras. — Eastern United States. 
This tree is found over a large portion of the United States. It is usu- 
ally a small tree, but sometimes attains a large size. The wood is not 
very strong, but is fine-grained and durable. It is valuable for cabinet- 
work. The bark of the root has a spicy, aromatic taste, and has some 
reputation as a medicine. 

No. 225. Oreodaphne Californioa, — California Myrtle. — California and 
Oregon. TheCalifornia Laurelis a fine ornamental evergreen tree, grow- 
ing in open places from 50 to 60 feet high. In thick woods, it has been 
found shooting up to 100 or 120 feet. The leaves have a very pungent 
odor, which produces headache in some persons. The wood is very 
beautiful, and is used for fine cabinet work. 

Elea^gnace^. 

No. 226. Shepherdia argentea, — Buffalo berry. — Rocky Mountains. A 
large shrub or small tree, growing in thickets on the banks of streams 
in the Rocky Mountain valleys. The scarlet berries have an agreeable 
taste, and are employed as food by the natives. 

EUPHOBBIAOE^. 

No. 227. Hippoinane Mancinella, L. — Manchineel. — South Florida. 

No. 228. StilUngia sehifera^ Michx.— ^Tallow-tree. — Naturalized in the 
Southern States. The Tallow-tree is a native of China, but has become 
extensively naturalized in the East and West Indies, and also in sev- 
eral of the Southern States along the sea-coast. In its native country, 
its seeds and pods are bruised and then boiled, which causes a kind of 
tallow to rise to the surface. This tallow is much employed in making 
candles. 

No. 229. Exccecaria lucida^ Swartz.— Poison- wood. — South Florida. 

No. 230. Drypetes crocea^ Poir. — A small tree of South Florida and the 
West Indies. The leaves are evergreen, and have much the flavor of tea. 

No. 231. Drypetes glauca^ Vahl. — South Florida. 

Ueticace^. 

No. 232. Morus rubra, L. — Red Mulberry. — Eastern United States. 
The Red Mulberry is found throughout the greater part of the United 
States east of the Mississippi, and also in some of the States west of 
that river. — (Bryant.) It is commonly a smallish tree, sometimes, how- 
ever, attaining a large size. The berries are quite palatable, are eaten 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



406 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

eagerly by birds, and also have a place in the markets as a second-rate 
firait. The wood is strong, compact, and extremely durable. 

No. 233. Moru^arvifoUa, Buck; — Small-leaved Mulberry. — Texas and 
westward. " 

No. 234. Madura aurantiaca^ Nutt. — Osage Orange. — Arkansas and 
Southwest. This tree, which is native in Arkansas and Texas, has been 
quite generally introduced over the country, chiefly from its extensive 
employment as a hedge-plant. The early French settlers called it Bois 
cParc, or Bow-wood, from its use by the Indians for bows. The fruit is 
of the size and color of a large orange, but is not edible. The wood is 
very hard, elastic, fine-grained, and durable. 

No. 235. Fieus aurea, Nutt. — Gum-tree ; Wild Fig. — South Florida. 
There are many species of wild fig in the West Indies, but this species 
of South Florida has not been identified with any of them. It is a large 
tree, full of milky juice, which forms a kind of India rubber, whence it 
is also called Gum-tree. The fruit is very small and insignificant. 

No. 236. Ficus pedunculata, Willd.— Wild Fig.— South Florida. This 
tree is also a native of the West Indies, and, like the Banyan of the 
West Indies, it sends downward aerial roots, which become fixed in the 
soil. The fruit is larger than the preceding, being the size of a large 
cherry. 

No. 237. Funis brevifolia, Nutt.— Wild Fig.— South Florida. 

No. 238. Ulmus Americana^ L. — White Elm. — Eastern United States. 
One of our most common and valuable trees, very popular as a shade- 
tree on account of its graceful form. It is one of the largest of the 
deciduous trees of the United States, attaining sometimes the height of 
100 feet. The wood is employed for various purposes, but it is not e^\i- 
sidered durable when exposed to the weather. 

No. 239. Ulmus fulva, Michx. — Slippery Elm. — Eastern United States. 
This is usually a smaller tree than the White Elm. It is not as much 
esteemed as an ornamental tree; The wood, however, is said to be of 
better quality and more durable. The inner bark is very mucilaginous, 
and is in extensive use for medical and surgical purposes. 

No. 240. Ulmus racem^osa, Thomas. — Corky White Elm. — Northern 
States. This tree is limited to the northern portions of the United States, 
being found sparingly in New England, New York, and westward to 
northern Illinois and Wisconsin. It closely resembles the White Elm, 
but may be distinguished by the corky wings of the smaller branches, 
which cause them to look grotesque and rough. Dr. S. H. Wright, of 
Penn Yan, N. Y., says it grows as rapidly as the White Elm, and he 
thinks will become as large. He has seen some young trees over two feet 
in diameter. The wood is tougher and finer grained than the White 
Elm. 

No. 241. Ulmus alata, Michx. — Winged Elm. — Southern and Western 
States. This species does not grow in the Northern States except on 
the line of the Ohio River. It is a smallish tree, and has smaller leaves 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 407 

thau the other kinds. The branches have a broad and thin corky wing 
on the opposite sides. The wood is finer-grained and more compact 
than the White Elra. 

No. 242. Ulmus Floridana^ Chap. — Florida Elm. — Florida* 

No. 243. Llmus crassifolia^ Nutt. — Thick-leaved Elm. — Texas and 
Southwest. 

No. 244. Planera aquatica^ Gmel. — Planer tree. — Southern States. 
This tree is found in the Southern States and in Kentucky and Tennes- 
see. It is a tree of medium size, with foliage somewhat like that of the 
European Elm, It is not a common tree, and the wood is not known to 
be applied to any useful purpose. 

No. 245. Celtis occidentalism L. — Sugar or Hackberry. — Eastern United 
States. This tree is rare in the New England States, but rather common 
in the Southern and Western ones. There are several varieties, one of 
which is usually a low and straggling bush. In the Western States, it 
often becomes a lofty tree. It somewhat resembles the elm in foliage 
and the ash in bark. It produces a dryish kind of berry about the size 
of a pea. The wood is white, but is not considered durable. 

No. 246. Celtis MississippiensiSy Bosc. — Mississippi Hackberry. — Mis- 
sissippi Valley. 

No. 247. Celtis reticulata^ Torr. — ^Net-leaved Hackberry. — Texas and 
Southwest. This is a western species, occurring in Texas and the Rocky 
Mountain region. It is a small tree, often a mere shrub. 

No. 248. Celtis pallida^ Torr. — Pale-leaved Hackberry. — Texas. 

Platanace^. 

No. 249. Platanv^ occidentalism L. — Sycamore ; Plane-tree. — Eastern 
United States. This is probably the largest deciduous tree in the United 
States. It occurs throughout the Eastern, Southern, and Western 
States, and extends beyond the Mississippi River. In the rich bottom- 
lands of the western rivers, it sometimes attains the enormous circum- 
ference of 40 to 45 feet. It much resembles the European Plane- tree, 
and is thought to possess a richer foliage, and to afford a deeper shade. 
As a timber-tree it is of little value, as the wood is liable to warp, and 
decays early. 

No. 250. Platanus raceinosa^ Nutt. — California Sycamore. — California. 
This is the sycamore of the Pacific coast, extending from Central Cali- 
fornia to Mexico. Although a large tree, it does not attain the size of 
the eastern species. The wood is said to be more valuable, receiving a 
good polish and being more durable. 

No. 251. Platanus Wrightiana, S. W. — Wright's Sycamore. — Arizona 

JUGLANDACE^. 

No. 252. Juglans nigra, L. — Black Walnut. — Eastern United States. 
This tree occurs in the Atlantic States, but attains its greatest perfect on 



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408 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBIT ION, 1876. 

and abnndance in the valleys of the Ohio and Mississippi. It has been 
so much in request for the timber that it is much less common than 
formerly. The wood is used for the inside finish of houses, for cabinet- 
work, for gun-stocks, and many other purposes. It produces a nut 
much like the English walnut, but of stronger oily flavor. They are 
greatly relished by many persons. 

No. 253. JugXam cinerea, L. — Butternut; White Walnut. — Eastern 
United States. This is more limited in range than the preceding. In 
Pennsylvania, New York, and New England, it probably attains its 
greatest perfection. It is a smaller tree than the Black Walnut. It is 
also found in the Western States. The wood is of a light-brown color, 
fine-grained, and easily worked. Although less valuable than the Black 
Walnut, the wood is well adapted to many uses. The nuts are not as 
highly esteemed as those of the Black Walnut. 

No. 254. Juglanft Cali/ornica, S. W. — California Walnut. — California. 
The California Walnut attains, in favorable situations, a height of 50 to 
75 feet, and a diameter of 2 to 3 feet. It does not seem to be abun- 
dant, and we know nothing respecting the valuie of its wood. It has 
recently been distinguished as a different species from the walnut of 
Arizona and New Mexico. 

No. 255. Jnglans rupestriej Eng. — Small Black Walnut. — Texas and 
Arizona. 

No. 256. Garya olivwformis, Nutt. — Pecan-nut. — Mississippi Valley. 
This tree grows in the valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries, on 
the Arkansas, the Missouri, the Illinois, the Wabash, and the Ohio, for 
some two hundred miles above its mouth. The wood is coarse grained, 
heavy, and compact. It is a beautiful tree, w.th a straight and well- 
shaped trunk. The nut is well known in the markets, and is thought by 
some to be superior in flavor to any other nut known. 

No. 257. Carya alba, Nutt. — Shell-bark Hickory. — Eastern United 
States. This species becomes a lofty tree, 80 feet high, with a diameter 
sometimes of 2 feet. It is one of the most valuable of the hickories for 
timber and for fuel. It furnishes most of the hickory-nuts of commerce. 
They are pleasant-flavored and hightly esteemed. On large trees, the 
bark shells off in long narrow x)lates, whence the common name of the 
tiee. The wood is heavy, elastic, and strong, and for handles of axes 
and agricultural implements, and many other uses, it is unequaled. 
There is little difference in the quality and value of many of the different 
species of hickory. 

No. 258. Carya sulcata, Nutt. — Western Shell-bark. — Western States. 

No. 259. Carya tomentosa, Nutt. — Mocker Nut. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 260. Carya amara, Nutt. — Bitter-nut. — Eastern United States. 
This is a large tree, growing from 60 to 70 feet high. The timber is said 
to be inferior to the preceding species, and the nuts are thin-shelled, 
bitter, and worthless. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 409 

No. 261. Carya porcinaj Nutt. — Pignut Hickory. — Eastern United 
States. A large tree, with small pear-shaped fruit, the nuts bitterish 
and unpalatable. The wood is tough and valuable. 

No. 262. Carya microcarpoy Nutt. — Small-fruited Hickory. — Eastern 
United States. 

No. 263. Carya myristicaformis, Michx. — Nutmeg Hickory. — Southern 
States. This species grows in swamps in the Southern States. The 
fruit resembles a nutmeg, whence the name of Nutmt^g Hickory. It is 
somewhat like that of the Bitter-nut tree, but much thicker. 

No. 264. Charya aquaUca^ Nutt. — Swamp Hickory. — Southern States, 
A species growing in swamps in the Southern States, with astringent, 
bitter fruit, and brittle, worthless timber. 

CUPULIFER^. 

No. 265. Quercm macrocarpay Michx. — Bur Oak; Overcup Oak. — 
Western States. This species is rare in the Eastern States, but com- 
mon in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. It is a large tree, 
and when growing on low ground assumes a rounded and handsome 
form. It has very large acorns, which are usually deeply immersed in 
the cup ; the border of the cup fringed with loose scales. The wood is 
open and brittle as it occurs in the prairie country, but valuable for 
fuel. 

No. 266. QuercMS alba^ L.— White Oak.— Eastern United States. This 
is one of the noblest, largest, and most useful oaks of this country. 
The wood is strong, compact, and durable, and is only second to that of 
the Live Oak. Jt is extensively employed in ship-building, in manu- 
facturing, and for many purposes. 

No. 267. Quercus lyraia^ Walt. — Southern Overcup Oak. — Southern 
States. This much resembles the Bur Oak, but is chiefly confined to 
the Southern States. 

No. 268. Quercus stellataj Wang. — Post Oak. — Eastern United States. 
This species grows mostly upon poor clay lands. It is a middle-sized 
tree ; the wood is yellowish, strong, tine-grained, and more durable than 
the White Oak. 

No. 269. Quercus bicolor, Willd. — Swamp White Oak. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 270. Quercus Michauxiiy Nutt. — Michaux's Oak. — Southeastern 
United States. 

No. 271. Quercus PrinuSy L. — Chestnut Oak. — Eastern United States. 
Of this species there are several varieties. It is usually a large and lofty 
tree. Its timber is inferior to that of the White Oak in strength, but is 
still very valuable for many uses. 

No. 272. Quercus PrinuSj L., var. monticolay Michx. — Rock Chestnut 
Oak. — New England and Middle States. 

No. 273. Quercus PrinuSj L., var. acuminata^ Michx. — Yellow Chestnut 
Oak.— Northern and Western States. 



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4IO INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Ko. 274. Quercus JDouglasiij Hook. & Aui. — Douglas's Oak. — Rocky 
MountaiDs and California. This and the next two succeeding species 
are the California White Oaks, extending into Oregon and Columbia. 
They are probably of equal value with the eastern species. 

No. 275. Quercus Garryana^ Hook. — Garry's Oak. — California and 
Oregon. 

No. 27G. Quercus lobata^ X^es. — California White Oak. — California. 

No. 277. Quercus undulata^ Torr. — Rocky Mountain Oak. — Rocky 
Mountains. This is the common oak of the Rocky Mountains, usually 
small and scrubby, but sometimes forming a moderat-e sized tree. It is 
very variable in the foliage. 

No. 278. Quercus densiflora^Hook, &Am. — CaliforniaTan bark Oak — 
California. This is an anomalous species of California, between an oak 
and a chestnut. In oi)en ground, it is a beautiful, spreading, pyramidal 
tree, with a trunk sometimes 5 to 6 feet in diameter. Among the forest- 
trees, it rises to 100 feet or more in height. 

No. 279. Quercus agrifoUa^ N^es. — California Field Oak. — California. 
This is commonly known in California as Evergreen Oak. It grows 
usually in open grounds, with a wide, spreading, apple-tree-hke top. It 
is usually a small tree, sometimes a mere shrub, and occasionally be- 
coming 40 or 50 feet high. 

No. 280. Quercus chrysolepiSj Liebm. — Caiion Live Oak.— California. 
An evergreen oak, growing in rocky canons and on mountain-sides. It 
is sometimes shrubby ; sometimes like the last becoming 40 or 50 feet 
high. It furnishes the hardest oak-wood of the Pacific coast, and is 
used in making ox-bows, ax-handles, &c. 

No. 281. Quercus oblongifolia,ToTT. — Oblong-leaved Oak. — Arizona and 
California. 

No. 282. Quercus Emoryi^ Torr. — ^Emory's Oak. — Arizona. 

No. 283. Quercus hypoleuca^ Eng. — New Mexican Oak. — Arizona. 

No. 284. Quercus Durandii^ Buckley. — Durand's Oak. — Texas. This 
species approaches the Post Oak in general characters. The leaves are 
variable, being sometimes lobed and sometimes entire. 

No. 285. Quercus Pkellos, L.— Willow Oak.— Southern States. This 
species is confined to the States bordering the Atlantic and the Gulf; 
not, however, extending into the New England States. It is remarka- 
ble for its narrow, willow-shaped leaves. The wood is strong, but coarse- 
grained, and not durable. 

No. 286. Qu^cus virenSj Ait. — Live Oak. — Southern States. This is 
the famous Live Oak. It grows from Southern Virginia to Florida and 
westward in the vicinity of the sea-coast. The wood is more esteemed 
for ship-building than any other. It is evergreen, and is a large tree 
with spreading branches. 

No. 287. Quercus cinerea, Michx. — Upland Willow Oak. — Southern 
States. A small tree, growing in sandy pine-barrens from North Caro- 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 4 1 I 

liua to Florida. It is evergreeu, with leaves like the Willow Oak, but 
thicker, and downy on the under surfa<5e. 

No. 288. Quercus imbricaria^ Michx. — Shingle Oak. — Eastern United 
States. A middle-sized tree, reaching to 50 or 60 feet high, and with a 
diameti»r of 1 J to 2 feet. It grows principally, in open situations, from 
New Jersey to Illinois and southward. Its foliage is handsome, resem- 
bling that of the Laurel. The wood is coarse-grained, and not durable. 

No. 289. Quercus aquatica^ Catesb. — Water Oak. — Southern States. 
A middle sized tree, of the Southern States, growing on the borders of 
awaraps. The leaves are perennial, of variable form, but always broadest 
at the upper portion and tapering to a point at the base. 

No. 290. Quercus laurifolia^ Michx. — Water Oak. — Southern States. 

No. 291. Quercus nigra^ L. — Black Jack. — Eastern United States. A 
small, scrubby tree, growing usually in poor clay soil. It is found in 
New Jersey, Maryland, and southward, as also in some of the Western 
States. The wood furnishes a good fuel, but is too coarse-grained and 
perishable for any use in the arts. 

No. 292. Quercus falcata^ Michx. — Spanish Oak. — Eastern United 
States. A large tree, attaining 80 feet or more in height, and sometimes 
4 feet in diameter. It has about the same range as the Black Jack, 
not being found in New England nor in the northern part of the West- 
ern States. The wood is not valuable except for fuel. 

No. 293. Quercus Cateshaei, Michx. — Turkey Oak. — Southern States. 
A small tree, with foliage much like the preceding. It is found in 
Florida, Georgia, and North and South Carolina. The wood is good 
fuel, but of no value as timber. 

No. 294. Qtiercus rubra, h. — Bed Oak. — Eastern United States. This 
is one of the largest oaks of our country, and is diffused over all the 
eastern portion of the United States, but more especially to the north- 
ward. It is a beautiful tree, with reddish, coarse-grained wood, which 
is little used in the arts except for barrel-staves. 

No. 295. Quercus coccinea, Wang. — Scarlet Oak. — Eastern United 
States. The Scarlet and Quercitron Oaks do not differ much in their 
characters, and, indeed, are considered but as varieties of one species. 
They form large and handsome trees, and the bark furnishes a yellow 
dye which is used in the arts. 

No. 296. Quercus tinctorial Bart. — Quercitron Oak. — Eastern United 
States. 

No. 297. Quercus palustr is, Jyxi'Bidv, — Pin Oak. — Eastern United States- 
A rather smaller tree than the preceding. The leaves are small, smooth, 
of a pleasant green color, very similar to those of the Scarlet Oak. The 
wood is stronger and more durable than that species. It is chiefly 
limited to the Northern States. 

No. 298. Quercus Sonomensis, Benth. — California Oak. — California. 
This species of California is nearly related to the Quercus rubra of the 



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412 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Eastern States. It grows in mountainous districts, and forms a pretty 
large tree. 

No. 299. Quercus Wislize^iii, DC. — California Live Oak. — Califoniia. 
A smallisli tree of California, with bright-green persistent leaves, some- 
times called Live Oak. 

No. 300. Quercus dumosa^ Nutt. — Dwarf Oak.— California. This is a 
common dwarf oak in Southern California. 

No. 301. Quercus reticulata^ H. B. K. — Dwarf Oak. — Southern Arizona. 

No. 302. Castanea vesca, L., var. Americanay Gr. — American Chestnut. — 
Eastern United States. One of the noblest trees of American forests. 
It occurs from Massachusetts to Michigan, and in the mountainous dis- 
tricts of Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Tennessee, but not on the prairie 
regions of the Western States. The wood is strong, elnstic, and durable, 
and is largely employed in the manufacture of furniture and lor the 
inside finish of railroad-cars and steamboats. The nuts are very sweet 
and palatable, and always command a good price in the markets. 

No. 303. Castanea pumila^ Michx. — Chincapin. — Southern States. This 
may be called a dwarf chestnut, growing from New Jersey and Pennsyl- 
vania to Florida. Northward it is only a large shrub, but in South 
Carolina and Florida it becomes a tree of 30 to 40 feet high and 12 to 
15 inches diameter. The wood equals that of the chestnut, but the 
nuts, although generally eaten by children, are not comparable to those 
of the former. 

No. 304. Castanopsis chrysophylla, — California Chestnut. — California. 
A tree of Oregon and California, becoming 60 to/100 feet high and 2 to 
3 feet diameter. The bur is scarcely one-third as large as in the com- 
mon chestnut, with shorter prickles. The shell of the nut is almost as 
large as the filbert. 

No. 305. Castanopsis chrysophylla J var. pumila, — California Chincapin. 
— California. This is mostly a shrub growing on open mountain-sides, 
and is sometimes called California Chincapin. 

No. 300. Fagusferruginea, Ait. — Beech. — Eastern United States. The 
Beech is one of our loftiest trees, sometimes reaching the^ height of 100 
feet. It grows from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. It is wanting in 
the prairie districts of the West. The wood is hard, fine-grained, and 
compact. It is largely used foi shoe-lasts and handles of tools. It is 
also employed in the frame- work of buildings. The wood is in great 
repute as fuel. The nuts have a delicious flavor, but are too small to 
make them of much economic importance. 

No, 307. Carpinus Americana, Michx. — Blue Beech. — Eastern United 
States. A small tree 15 to 20 feet high. The wood is white, compact* 
and fine-grained. 

No. 308. Ostrya Yirgiyiica, Willd. — Hop Hornbeam ; Ironwood. — East- 
ern United States. The Ironwood is a small tree, but sometimes grows 
to a height of 40 feet. The wood is heavy and fine-grained, and is used 
for mallets, wedges, levers, &c. Its growth is very slow. 

No. 309. Corylus rostrata, var. Californica. — California. 



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the depar tment of a gricul ture. 4 1 3 

Myricace^. 

No. 310. Myrica cerifera^ L. — Bayberry; Wax Myrtle. — Eastern 
United States. A shrub or small tree growing near the sea-coast. Tbe 
berries are coated with a waxy secretion, which is sometimes utilized in 
the domestic manufacture of candles and also in medicinal unguents. 

No. 311. MyHca inodora^ Bart. — Florida Bayberry. — Florida. 

No. 312. Myrica Californicaj Cham. — California Bayberry or Myrtle. — 
California. This species sometimes attains a height of 40 feet, with a 
trunk 2 feet in diameter. It grows on the Pacific coast, from Puget 
Sound to Mexico. 

Betulaoe^. 

No. 313. Betulaalba^ vsir.popuU/olia^ Spach. — American White Birch. 
— ^Northern and Northeastern United States. A small and slender grace- 
ful tree, 15 to 25 feet high, growing from Maine to Pennsylvania, and 
sparsely on the great lakes. 

No. 314. Betulapapyracea, Ait. — Canoe Birch; Paper Birch. — North- 
ern and Northeastern United States. A large and handsome tree, grow- 
ing to the height of 70 feet, and with a diameter of 3 feet. It is limited 
to the northern portions of the country, ranging from Maine to Wiscon- 
sin on the northern border, and extending far northward into Canada. 
It has a brilliant white bark, from which Indians and traders construct 
canoes. The thin, external sheet of the bark forms the basis of a great 
variety of Indian fancy-work. 

No. 315. Betula lutea, Michx.— Yellow Birch. —Northern and Northeast- 
ern United States. This is a beautiful large tree, growing in moist 
woods- on our northern border. The wood is strong, fine-grained, and 
makes handsome furniture. 

No. 316. Betula lenta^ L. — Cherry Birch ; Black Birch. — Northern and 
Northeastern United States. This, like th^ preceding, is a large tree, 
chiefly of our northern borders, but extending also along the Alleghany 
region southward. The bark and twigs are highly aromatic. The Wood 
is of a rosy hue, fine-grained, and valuable for cabinet-work and for 
timber. 

No. 317. BeUda 7iigra, Ij. — Eiver Birch; Bed Birch. — Eastern United 
States. This becomes a large tree in favorable situations. It is found 
along the banks of rivers from Eastern Massachusetts southward to 
Florida, and westward to Kentucky, Illinois, and Iowa. The wood is 
similar to that of the preceding. 

No. 318. BeUila occidentalism Eook. — Western Birch. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species is a small tree, rarely over 25 feet high and 6 inches 
in diameter. It is found in the Rocky Mountains, along streams ; in 
Colorado, Utah, &c. 

No. 319. Alnusincana^ Willd.— Speckled Alder. — Northeastern United 
States. A shrub, or small tree, growing along streams in New England, 
New York, and northward. Of no particular value. 



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414 IXTERXAT/OXAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 320. Alnu8 rhombifolia, Natt. — California Alder. — California. 

No. 321. Alnus Oregona^ Xutt. — Oregon Alder. — California and Ore- 
gon. On the Pacific coast, in California and Oregon. Often becoming 
a large tree, 60 to 80 feet high, with a trunk 2 feet in diameter. 

SaLICACEvE. 

No. 322. Salix nigra, Marshall. — Black Willow. — Eastern United 
States. This is almost the only willow of the eastern portion of the 
continent which attains a tree size. It grows from 20 to 30 feet high, 
with a thick black bark. On the Pacific coast are several species which 
become tree willows. 

No. 323. Salix nigra, var. Purshiana. — Willow. — Texas. 

No. 324. Salix longifolta, Muhl,, var. — California Long-leaved Willow. 
— California. 

No. 325. Salix Wrightiana, And. — Wright's Willow.— Texas. 

No. 326. Salix lasiolepiK, Benth. — Willow. — California. 

No. 327. Salix lucida, Hook., var. — California Shining Willow. — Cal- 
ifornia. 

No. 328. Populus tremuloidesy Michx. — American Aspen. — Eastern 
United States and Rocky Mountains. A small tree of the northern 
border and Canada, also found on mountain-sides through the Rocky 
Mountains. 

No. 329. Popuhis grandidentata, Michx. — Great- toothed Aspen. — 
Eastern United States. Tliis is a larger tree th an the preceding, common 
in the Northern States, and extending southward along the Alleghany 
Mountains. It much resembles the European Silver Poplar. 

No. 330. Populus monilifera, Ait. — Cottonwood. — Eastern United 
States and Rocky Mountains. This and the next species of cotton woods 
have a wide range throughout most parts of the United States. Some 
botanists consider them to be but forms of one species. They are large, 
rapidly-growing trees, particularly abundant in the prairie regions and 
western river banks, extending even to the Pacific Ocean. The wood is 
light and soft, much employed in some of the Western States for build- 
ing purposes, and for inside work of houses, under the name of White- 
wood and Cottonwood. 

No. 331. Popuhis angulata, Ait. — Cottonwood. — Southern States. 

No. 332. Populus heterophylla, L. — Swamp Cottonwood. — Eastern 
United States. This species prevails in the Southern States, but extends 
northward as far as Delaware and Southern Illinois. It is a large tree, 
growing chiefly in swampy woods, and little valued. 

No. 333. Populus balsamifera, L. — Balsam Poplar. — ^Northern and 
W estern United States. This species grows mostly in northern latitudes, 
being found in New England and Northern New York, also in the 
Rocky Mountains. It is a large tree ; a variety of it is in cultivation. 

No. 334. Populus angustifolia, James. — Willow-leaved Cottonwood. — 
• Rocky Mountains. This is now considered to be a variety of the pre- 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICL Z TURE. 4 1 5 

cedinff. It is found principally along streams in the Rocky Mountains, 
where it is called Cotton^vood, sometimes Willow-leaved Cottonwood. 
No. 335. Popnlua trichocarpa^ Torr. — Cottonwood. — California. 

Conifer-^. 

No. 336. Finns Banlcsiana^ lj2imh. — Banks's Pine; Scrub Pine. — Wis- 
consin to New England. This species is found from the northern parts 
ot the United States nearly to the Arctic Ocean, and from Labrador to 
the Saskatchawan. In Wisconsin it becomes a middle-sized tree, and 
is used for timber when the trees are found of sufficient size. 

No. 337. Fimis contorta, Bougl, — Twisted pine. — Rocky Mountains. 
This tree is found in the Rocky Mountains from Colorado to Oregon. 
It differs widely in regard to size in different localities. Near the Paci- 
fic coa«t it is often low and scrubby, bearing cones at 5 feet high. In 
Colorado it is found at an altitude of 7,000 feet, and attains a height of 
50 feet. 

No. 338. Pinus contorta, Doug., var. Bolanderi. — Bolander's Pine. — 
California. This variety in the Sierra Nevada Mountains at an altitude 
of 5,000 to 9,000 feet attains a height of 150 to 200 feet. It is variously 
called Tamarack, Twisted Pine, or Black Pine. 

No. 339. Pinis inopSj Ait. — Jersey Pine ; Scrub Pine. — Eastern United 
States. A straggling tree 15 to 40 feet high, with spreading or drooping 
branches. It abounds in New Jersey, Maryland, and Virginia, also on 
the rocky hills bordering the Ohio in Kentucky, Southern Illinois, and 
Indiana. The wood is of little value. 

No. 340. Pinus mitiSj Michx. — Yellow Pine. — Eastern United States, 
chiefly south. This is a handsome tree, growing from New England to 
W^isconsin, and sparingly in Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and south- 
ward to Florida. The timber is very valuable, commanding a higher 
price even than the white pine. 

No. 341. Pinus clausa^ Chap. — Florida. A small tree found by Dr. 
Chapman at Apalachicola, related to Pinus inops. 

No. 342. Pinus glabra^ Walt.— Spruce Pine. — South Carolina and south- 
ward. A tree 40 to 60 feet high, with smoothish bark and soft white 
wood, branching from near the ground. Eesembles P. mitis; grows 
from South Carolina to Florida. 

No. 343. Pinus resinosa^ Ait. — Red Pine. — Massachusetts to Wiscon- 
sin. A tree 50 to 80 feet high, with reddish bark, growing from Penn- 
sylvania northward through Canada and^ova Scotia, also in Wisconsin 
and Michigan. The wood is compact, strong, and durable, and for some 
uses is preferable to the white pine. It is also an excellent ornamental 
tree. 

No. 344. Pinm Ulliottiiy Eng. — Elliott's Pine. — South Carolina and 
southward. 
No. 345. PimispungenSj Michx. — Table Mountain Pine. — This species 



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4 1 6 INTERNA TIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

grows on the AUeghauy Mountains from Pennsylvania southward ; 
abnndaut in some parts of Virginia and North Carolina. A tree of 40 
or 50 feet height, and of very vigorous and rapid growth. 

No. 346. Tinu% muricataj Don. — Bishop's Pine. — California. A small 
tree 30 to 40 feet high ; grows near the coast north and south of San 
Francisco, and in other localities in that State. 

No. 347. Pintis edulis, Eng. — Pinon Nut Pine. — Rocky Mountains. 
A low tree with a spreading habit, growing in Colorado and Utah, and 
in New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California. It is universally 
known by the Me6tican name of Piiion. It has an edible nut, which is 
much used as food by the Indians, and the wood is rich in resin, making 
it excellent fuel. 

No. 348. Pinus monophyllaj Torr. — Nut Pine. — Sierra Nevada Mount- 
ains. This species is almost limited to the eastern slope of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, at altitudes of 2,000 to 6,000 feet. It is a small tree' 
of 20 to 40 feet height. The seeds are eagerly collected for food by the 
Washoe and other Indians. The wood is excellent fuel. 

No. 349. Pintw Parryana^ Eng. — Nut Pine. — Near the Mexican border 
southwest. 

No. 350. Pinus ponderosuj Dougl. — ^Yellow Pine. — Rocky Mountains. 
A very variable pine; several of its extreme forms have been consid- 
ered different species. It occurs in Colorado, Utah, and the Black Hills 
of Wyoming. It is remarkable for its heavy wood, which makes excel- 
lent lumber. It is generally called Yellow Pine. 

No. 351. Pinus ponderosa, Doug., var. Benthamiana^ Hart. — Sappy 
Pine. — California. This variety grows in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
in damp valleys, and near streams. It is generally slender and tall, 
with low limbs, black bark, and sappy, tough wood. Used for build- 
ing timber, flooring, &c. It has several names, as Swamp Pine, Sappy 
Pine,. Black Pine, and Bull Pine- 
No. 352. Pimis ponderosaj Doug., var. Jeffreyi^ Balf. — Jeffrey's Pine. — 
California. This variety also grows on the Sierra Nevada Mountains, 
and on the Coast Range of California. It often attains a height of 170 
to 250 feet and a diameter of 6 to 10 feet. It differs much in the quality of 
the wood, but is used for all the purposes of other kinds. It is remark- 
able for the comparatively large size of its cones. It is called Yellow 
Pine, Pitch Pine, and Truckee Pine. 

No. 353. Pinus australis^ Michx. — Long-leaved Pine. — South Carolina 
and southward. A lofty tree, growing in the pine-barrens of the South- 
ern States, attaining a height of 75 to 100 feet. Next to the White 
Pine, this is perhaps the most valuable of the genus. The timber plays 
an important part in ship-building, is extensively used as a flooring, and 
in housebuilding. The chief value of this species is for the turpentine, 
tar, pitch, and rosin which it supplies, and of which immense quantities 
are exported in addition to the home supply. 

No. 354. Pinus Coulteriy Doug. — Coulter's Pine. — California. A large 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 4 1 7 

tree of California, from 80 to 100 feet in heigbt, with large, spreading 
branches, and a trunk 3 or 4 feet in diameter. The cones are heavier 
than those of any other of the family, being frequently 1 foot long and 
6 inches diameter, and weighing from 4 to 6 pounds. The large, nut. 
like seeds contained in the cones are nutritious, and used as an article of 
food by the Indians. 

No. 355. Pintis Sahiniana^ Doug. — Hard-nut Pine; Sabine's Pine. — 
California. Grows on the foot-bills of the Coast Eange and on the west- 
ern foot-hillsof the Sierra Nevada Mountainsof California. It is not very 
abundant, and is limited by the altitude of 4,000 feet. It grows from 
40 to 100 feet high. The cones are large and heavy, and full of oily, 
nutritious nuts, which are used by the Indians. The timber is lit only 
for fuel. It is called Digger Pine, Foothill Pine, Gray-leaved Pine, &c. 

No. 356. PmM« Torrp^ana, Parry. — Torrey's Pine. — California. % A spe- 
cies of Southern California, resembling the preceding, but smaller. The 
nuts are thick shelled, but nutritious, and used as food by the Indians. 

No. 357. Finns insignis^ Dougl. — Monterey Pine. — California. Grows 
along the coast south of San Francisco. Some old trees near Monterey 
are 70 or 80 feet high. It is quite an ornamental specie^, and is in fre- 
quent cultivation in California. 

No. 358. Pinus radiata, Don.— California. 

No. 359. Pimis tuherculatay Don. — Prickly-coned Pine. — California. 
A small tree seldom attaining a greater height than 30 to 40 feet, with 
a trunk of 8 or 10 inches diameter. It grows on the Coast Hills south of 
San Francisco, and in other places in the State. 

No. 360. Pinus rigida^ Miller. — Pitch Pine. — Eastern United States. 
A medium-sized tree from 30 to 70 feet high, with dark, rugged-looking 
bark, and hard, resinous wood. The wood is knotty, and of little value 
for lamber, but gives an intense heat in burning on account of the quan- 
tity of resin which it contains. 

No. 361. Pinus serotina, Michx.— Pond Pine. — Southern States. This 
is closely related to the preceding, and is by some considered only a 
variety of it. It grows on the borders of ponds and swamps from Flor- 
ida to North Carolina. 

No. 362. Pinus twda, L— Loblolly; Old -field Pine.— Southern States. 
A species confined to the Atlantic States, growing mostly in damp or 
in light, barren soil, frequently taking possession of old and neglected 
fields. It is variable in height, sometimes rising to 70 or J 00 feet high. 
The timber is said to be valuable, though less so than that of P. australis. 

No. 363. Pinus aristata, Eng. — Prickly-coned Pine. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species was first found in Colorado near Pike's Peak, but it 
is now considered to be synonynfious with the next. 

No. 364. Pinus Balfouriana^ Jeffrey. — Balfour's Pine. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. The specimen is from Southern Utah, and grows on high, bar- 
ren, sandstone mountains; it grows about 50 to 60 feet high. The tree 
is distinguished by its long branches, which are heavy, causing the ends 

27 CEN, PT 2 



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41 8 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

to hang down. The tree is compact in appearance and of very dark-green 
color. It is thought by some that the tree of Oregon, which has been 
described under this name, is a different species. 

No. 365. Pmw« flexilis^ James. — Bull Pine. — Rocky Mountains. This 
is the prevailing pine of the East Humboldt Mountains, Nevada, and 
frequent in the Wasatch. It also grows in Colorado and on the San 
Francisco Mountains of Arizona. In the Wasatch Mountains it is found 
at high altitudes on limestone ledges, and has a branched and knotty 
habit, rendering it unfit for lumber. It is called by the inhabitants 
Bull Pine. It is a middle-sized tree, usually 30 to 50 feet high, but re- 
corded by Fendler as 60 to 80 feet high near Santa F6. 

No. 366. Pinus aJbicauJiSy Eng. — White- baiked Pine. — Eocky Mount- 
ains. This species, although closely related to the preceding, is believed 
to be Bifferent. It grows only at extreme altitudes. It grows on the 
Cascade Mountains of Oregon, on alpine peaks in the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, and on high mountains in Idaho and Montana. The name 
is suggested by the color of the bark of the tree, which Dr. Engelmann 
Kays is as white as milk. 

No. 367. Pinuit Lambertiana, Doug. — Sugar Pine. — Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. Found sparsely growing on the Sierras of California, 
through their extent, at altitudes ot* from 4,000 to 10,000 feet. It is often 
150 to 220 feet high, with a diameter of 8 to 14 feet. It is highly 
prized and eagerly sought by lumbermen for all articles of building- 
lumber, and is fast being exhausted. It is called Sugar Pine from the 
sweet resin which exudes from partially-burned trees. It is also called 
Mammoth Pine and Shake Pine. It has enormous cones. 

No. 368. Pinus moniicola^ Dougl. Soft Pine; Little Sugar Pine. — 
California. Grows sparsely on the high Sierras, at altitudes of 7,000 to 
11,000 feet. It sometimes attains a height of 150 to 200 feet, with a 
diameter of 5 to 7 feet. It resembles the Sugar Pine, but with whitish, 
much furrowed, bark and smaller cones. The timber is similar to that 
of White Pine, but is seldom used, because the trees are so inaccessible. 

No. 369. Pinus 8trobu8, L. — White Pine; Weymouth Pine. — Eastern 
United States. An old, well-known, and useful tree, extending from 
Canada to Virginia, but plentiful in New England, New York, and 
Pennsyh ania. It is a large tree, becoming 100 to 150 feet high. It is 
the source of much of the lumber brought from the Northern States. It 
is not ouly very valuable on account of its wood, but is one of the finest 
ornamental conifers. 

No. 370. Pinus Chihuahua, Eng.— Southern Arizona and Northern 
Mexico. 

No. 371. Abies albaj Michx. — White Spruce. — New England and Alle- 
ghany Mountains. A small tree, native of the northern portion of the 
United States and Canada, extending northward to the extreme con- 
fines of vegetation. It grows from 20 to 30 feet high, according to soil 
and latitude. It is frequent in cultivation, and is considered a handsome 
tree. 



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THE 'DEPARTMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 4 1 9 

No. 372. A}neB nigra, Poir. — Black Spruce. — New Ed gland and Alle- 
ghany Mountains. This tree has much the same range a^ the preceding, 
occasionally being found farther south on the Alleghanies. In favor- 
able situations, it forms quite a large tree, about 75 feet high, tall and 
straight. The wood is light, elastic, and strong, and valuable for many 
purposes. 

No. 373. Abies Canadensis, Michx. — Hemlock. — New England to Wis- 
consin. A well-known tree of the Northern States, extending north- 
ward to Hudson's Bay, and southward along the mountains to North 
Carolina. It is one of the most graceful of spruces, with a light and 
spreading spray, frequently branching almost to the ground. The wood 
is oarse-grained, but is used in great quantities for rough work. The 
bark is very extensively employed in tanning. 

No. 374. Abies Mertensiana, Lind. — Western Hemlock.— California 
and Oregon. This tree closely resembles the A. Canadensis. It grows 
from 100 to 150 feet high, and forms a roundish, conical head. The 
timber is said to be soft and white, and difficult to split. 

No. 375. Abies Williamsoni, New. — Williamson's Spruce. — California 
and Oregon. Grows on the Sierras of California and on the Cascade 
Mountains of Oregon, on high peaks of 8,000 to 12,000 feet altitude. . A 
very graceful tree, attaining a height of 150 feet. The wood is of excel- 
lent quality, but is too rare and inaccessible to be much known. 

No. 376. Abies Bouglasn, Lind. — Douglas's Spruce. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species grows through the liocky Mountain region from 
Colorado to Nootka Sound. On the Pacific coast it sometimes attains 
the immense size of 200 to 300 feet in height, and a diameter of trunk of 
8 to 15 feet. Its timber composes the great lumber wealth of Oregon 
and Washington Territory. The wood is soft and easily worked, much 
prized for masts, spars, and plank for ship-building, and is equally val- 
uable for other building purposes. A tree cut by Mr. A. J. Dufur was 
6 feet 4 inches in diameter 30 feet from the base, and 321 feet long. 

No. 377. Abies Douglasii, var. macrocarpa, Torr. — Large coned 
Spruce. — Southern California. This was collected many years ago on 
the mountains east of San Diego, Cal.; in 1874 sent to the Department 
of Agriculture by Mr- F. M. Ring, of San Bemaniino, Cal. ; and collected 
last summer by Dr. Palmer at San Felipe Canon, east of San Diego. It 
has cones four or five times the size of Douglasiij and will probably be 
confirmed as a new species. 

No. 378. Abies Menziesii, Dougl. — Menzies's Spruce. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This species has a wide range in the Rocky Mountains from Col- 
orado and Utah to Oregon and Sitka. It grows mostly at high alti- 
tudes, 7,000 to 9,000 feet. "In Utah," Mr. Ward says, "it is easily dis- 
tinguished from the other firs by the dense masses of its long, pendant, 
dark-brown cones at the top of the tree, which frequently obscure the 
foliage. The wood is finegrained and white, and would be valuable for 
timber but for the numerous slight curves in the trunk, which render it 



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420 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

impossible to obtain saw-logs of any great length. In some places it is 
incorrectly called balsam, in others it is distingnished as spruce.'' Mr. 
Dnfur, of Oregon, gives a somewhat diflferent account of the tree as 
growing there. He says: ^^It grows along the tide-lands and about 
the mouth of the Columbia River, and is seldom found at an elevation 
of more than 500 feet. The young trees make a beautiful evergreen of 
pyramidal form. The large trees grow from 150 to 200 feet high, and 
from 2 to 6 feet in diameter. The wood is soft, white, and free, much 
prized for lumber." 

No. 379. Ahxe% Engelmannij Parry. — Engelmann's Spruce. — Rocky 
Mountains. This species is found on the higher parts of the Rocky 
Mountains, from New Mexico to the headwaters of the Columbia and 
Missouri Rivers. In Colorado, it occupies a belt between 8,000 and 12,000 
feet, reaching its fullest development between 9,000 and 10,000 feet. On 
the highest summits, it becomes a prostrate shrub. Mr. Ward, writing 
of the tree in Utah, says: "Between 9,000 and 10,000 feet altitude, it 
becomes a large and noble tree, and is of greatest value for lumber, 
taking the place in that region of the White Pine of the Eastern States 
and is alone known by that name among lumbermen. The wood is 
white, very light, and easily worked, and at the same time durable." 
Botanically, it is difficult to distinguish it from some forms of A. Menziesiu 

No. 380. Ahies halsamea^ Marshall.— Balsam. — New England to Wis- 
consin. This species grows in cold, damp woods and swamps, from New 
England to Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and northward. It is also a native 
of Canada and Nova Scotia. It generally grows about 20 to 40 feet 
high. It is a very x)opular ornamental tree, " A very aromatic liquid 
r^sin is obtained from this tree by incisions made in the bark, and is 
called Canada Balsam." 

No. 381. Abies subalpina^ Eng. — Sub-alpine Balsam. — Rocky Mount- 
ains. This is one of the tallest and handsomest firs of the Rocky 
Mountains, often attaining a height of 80 or 90 feet ; perfectly straight, 
and without limbs for a great distance. The wood is white, soft, and ot 
little value for lumber. It is known among the lumbermen of the 
Wasatch Mountains as White Balsam, or Pumpkin-tree. Its nearest 
affinity is to A. balsamea of the Eastern States. It reaches to great alti- 
tudes, being sometimes found near the timber-line. It has .often been 
coUectcid, and generally referred to A. grandisj the incorrectness of which 
has been but lately pointed out by Dr. Engelmann, who has proposed 
for it the name given above. — (Ward.) 

No. 382. Abies grandiSy Lind. — White Silver Fir. — California and Ore- 
gon. This name is here applied to the tree of the Pacific coast. "In 
Oregon," Mr. Dufur says *' it grows on the low, moist land, along the 
small streams emptying into the Columbia River. Is seldom found at an 
elevation of more than 500 feet, and never on sandy or gravelly ridges. 
It attains a size of from 2 to 4 feet in diameter, and 200 feet in height. 
It has a ligh^colored, thin, smooth bark. It is a rapid grower, and the 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 4 2 1 

timber decays correspondingly fast when exposed to the wet. The wood 
is white, free, and soft, but too light and brittle for general building 
purposes. It is used ext^ensively by the settlers for clapboards, boxes, 
and cooperage." • 

No. 383. Ah\e% concolor^ Eng. — White Silver Fir. — Eocky Mountains. 
In the Wasatch Mountains in Utah this tree is very valuable for lumber, 
and is called Black Balsa/n. It is there a large tree, sometimes 3 or 4 
feet in diameter and 40 to 50 feet high. The wood is tough and coarse- 
grained, adapting it for building purposes and all substantial uses. It 
ranges from 8,000 to 9,000 feet in altitude.— (Ward.) In Southern Utah, 
it is sometimes called Black Gum. 

No. 384. Abies amabilis^ Dougl. — Red Silver Fir. — California and 
Oregon. Mr. Lemmon states, "On the Sierra Nevada Mountains, it 
forms dense, scattered groves, at altitudes of 7,000 to 10,000 feet. 
The largest trees are 250 feet high and 6 to 10 feet in diameter. A truly 
beautiful and magnificent tree^ sometimes called the Queen of the For- 
est." Mr. Dnfur says it is found extensively along the western slope of 
the Cascade Mountains, on sandy, gravelly, r^^cky, and dry elevations. 
Its usual size is from 150 to 200 feet in height, and from 1 to 4 feet in 
diameter. The wood is rather coarse, but elastic, strong, and hard. It 
is used extensively for coarse building purposes, and also for masts and 
spars for ship-building. The wood has a peculiar red color, and spikes, 
nails, and bolts hold firm, and never corrode in the timber. 

No. 385. Abies Fraseri^ Pursh. — Fraser's Balsam. — Alleghany Mount- 
ains. This species inhabits the highest parts of the AUeghanies, in 
North Carolina. It is said to be a small tree, ranging from 20 to 50 
feet in height. The cones resemble those of A, nobilis in miniature. 

No. 386. Abies nobilis^ Lind. — The Noble Fir — Oregon. This is one 
of the magnificent conifers of our country. It is a majestic tree, form- 
ing vast forests on the mountains of Northern California and Oregon. 
The Indians give it the name of Big Tree. The timber is said to be of 
excellent quality. It is nearly related to A. Fraseri, but has cones five 
times as large. 

No. 387. Abies bracteata^ Hook. — Bracted-coned Spruce. — California. 
This species grows on the Santa Lucia Mountains, California. It is 
little known. The cones are very curious and remarkable, being h^tnd- 
somely fringed by long leaf-like bracts, entirely different from those of 
any other species. 

No. 388. Larix Americana^ Michx. — American Larch. — New England 
to Wisconsin. This species is seldom found so far south as Virginia 5 
its favorite localities being the New England States, Northern New York, 
westward to Wisconsin, and northward to Canada. In Canada, it is 
called Hackmatack ; in some portions of New England and New Jersey, 
Tamarack. The quality of the wood is represented as being superior 
to any kjnd of pine or spruce. 

No. 389. Larix Lyallii, Pari. — Lyall's Larch. — Oregon. 



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42 2 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

No. 390. Lar\x occidentalism Nutt. — Western Larch — Oregon. Mr. 
Dufur says this species is found abundantly in the Blue Mountains in 
Eastern Oregon, also well up in the Cascade and Coast Ranges, but sel- 
dom at an elevation of less than 3,000 feet. It is often found 250 feet 
high, and attains a diameter of 5 feet, frequently being found 200 feet 
to the first limb. The timber is very strong and durable, free to split, 
and used for all kinds of fencing and coarse building. 

No. 391. Torreya taaifolia^ Am. — Yew-leaved Torreya. — Florida. A 
small tree from 20 to 40 feet high, found on the ea^t bank of the Apa- 
lachicola Riv^r in Florida. It is called by the inhabitants Stinking Yew, 
from the unpleasant odor of the bruised leaves. The genus was named 
in honor of Dr. John Torrey, the late eminent botanist of New York. 
It is considered to be a very oruamental evergreen in cultivation. 

No. 392. Torreya Californica^ Torr. — California Nutmeg-tree. — Cali- 
fornia. This species grows near the coast in California. It sometimes 
attains the height of 60 feet, with a trunk 4 feet in diameter, but is 
usually a round-heatled, small, compact tree, 20 to 40 feet high. The 
timber is said to be heavy and fine-grained. It is, like the preceding, 
called the Stinking Yew, from the unpleasant odor of the bruised leaves. 
The seeds have a rugose and mottled appearance, resembling a nutmeg, 
whence the name. 

No. 393. Taxus hrevifolia, Nutt. — Short leaved Yew. — California and 
Oregon. A tree of California and Oregon, varying much in height in 
diflferent localities. Dr. Newberry saw it forming an upright tree 50 to 
75 feet in height and 2 to 3 feet in diameter. Mr. Dufur says it is found 
on the lowlands of Willamette Valley, is of slow growth, and seldom 
attains a height of 12 to 20 feet and a diameter of a foot. It is very 
scarce in all parts of Oregon. The small, red berries remain on the tree 
till late in the fall, and are used for food by the Indians. The wood is 
very hard and durable, is capable of receiving a fine polish, and is much 
prized for its fine grain, durability, and beauty. 

No. 394. Taxus Floridana^ Nutt. — Florida Yew. — Florida. This spe- 
cies, so far as is known, is confined to very limited field on the Apa- 
lachicola River in Florida. It is a small tree, from 10 to 20 feet high. 

No. 395. Thuja occidentalism L. — American Arbor Vitse. — New England 
to Wisconsin. This tree is well known in cultivation, but in a native 
state is rarely found south of New York. In Canada and along the 
lakes it is known as the White Cedar, which is the name given in New 
Jersey to the Cupressus thyoides. The Arbor Vitae grows 25 to 50 feet 
high, farming a handsome, conical tree. The wood is light and soft, but 
durable, and is considerably used for building purposes. It is frequently 
employed as a hedge plant and as an ornamental tree. 

No. 39'J. Thuja gigantea, Nutt. — Giant Arbor Yitfle. — O^'egon and 
Northwest coast. This tree is found in the greatest perfection on the 
western slope of the Cascade and Coast Ranges in Oregon and Wash- 
ington Territory, at an altitude of from 500 to 1,000 feet. It atlains not 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 423 

unfrequently the enormous size of from 10 to 15 feet diameter and 200 
feet in height. The timber is very soft, smooth, and durable. It makes 
the finest sash, doors, moldings, &c., and all kinds of building-lumber 
The young trees are beautiful ornamental evergreens, and make a hand- 
some hedge. 

No. 397. Thuja plicata^ Don. — !Nee's Arbor Vitae. — Pacific coast. 

No. 398. Gupressus ihyoides^ L. — White Cedar. — Middle and South- 
ern States. This tree is found in swamps chiefly in the Atlantic States 
from Massachusetts to Florida. It has also been found near the Great 
Lakes. The tree rarely exceeds 70 or 80 feet in height, with a straight, 
tapering trunk. The wood is light, finegrained, exceedingly durable, 
and easily worked. In New Jersey it is largely made into shingles. 

No. 399. Cupressm macrocarpa^ Hart. — Monterey Cypress. — California. 
This is found in the vicinity of Monterey, Cal., where it grows 50 to 60 
feet high, with a diameter sometimes of 3 to 4 feet. It is one of the 
finest cypresses known. 

No. 400. Cupre88U8 Nutkanus^ Hook. — Nootka Cypress. — Oregon and 
the Northwest coa^t. This grows at Vancouver's Island and near 
Nootta Sound. It is a tall tree of 80 to 100 feet high. The timber is 
white, soft, and valuable. 

No. 401. Cupr€88U8 Lawsoniana^ Murray. — Lawson's Cypress. — Mount- 
ains of Northern California. 

No. 402. Cupre88tt8 MacN^ahiana^ Murray. — McNab's Cypress. — Mount- 
ains of California and Oregon. 

No. 403. Taxodium distichum, Eich. — Bald Cypress. — Southern States. 
This tree is found in all the Southern States, extending into Delaware 
and into Southern Illinois. In rich, alluvial bottoms, it frequently grows 
to the height of 120 feet. The roots often form large conical excrescences, 
called '* cypress knees," which rise above the surface of the soil to the 
height of 2 to 4 feet, The wood is finegrained, soft, elastic, strong, and 
exceedingly durable. Large quantities are made into shingles, and mar- 
keted at the North. Its foliage is delicate and beautiful, but is dropped 
during the winter. 

No. 404. Sequoia sempervirens, End. — Redwood. — California. This is 
the mammoth tree of the coast of California, second only to the next 
species. It rises to the height of 200 to 300 feet, and sometimes with a 
circumference of 60 feet. The wood is dark red, rather light and brittle, 
but exceedingly durable, and makes valuable lumber. 

No. 405. Sequoia gigantea^ Tort. — Giant Redwood. — California. This 
is the mammoth or big treeof California, growing in several groves on the 
western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains, at an altitude of 5,000 
to 9,000 feet. The largest trees are over 300 feet high, and over 30 feet 
in diameter. < 

No. 406. Lihocedrus decurrenSy Torr. — Bastard Cedar.-— California. 
This is sometimes called Red Cedar, or Post Cedar. It grows in the 
Sierras of California, at elevations of from 3,000 to 7,000 feet. It is a 



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424 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

handsome tree, of low, conical form, tapering fast; 4 to G feet diameter 
at base; but only about 100 feet high. The wood is light and strong, 
and makes excellent cabinet-work, boxes, &c. 

No. 407. Juniper us Virginmna, L. — Red Cedar, — ^Eastern United 
States. This is the Red Cedar of the eastern portion of the United 
States. It grows to the height of 30 or 40 feet, generally with a compact 
conical form. The timber is exceedingly valuable, being light, fine- 
grained, compact, and durable. The heart- wood is of a handsome dark- 
red color. It is used for a great variety of ornamental work, and for 
fence posts is almost imperishable. 

No. 408. Juniperus Virginiana^ var. Floridana. — Pencil Cedar; Florida 
Cedar. — Coast of Florida. This variety, or species, as it is regarded by 
some, grows on the western coast of Florida. The wood is softer and 
freer from knots than the common form, and the pencil manufacturers 
obtain their cedar wood from this source. 

No. 409. Juniperu8 Virginiana, var. montana. — Rocky Mountain Red 
Cedar. — Rocky Mountains. A form or variety of Red Cedar found in 
Colorado and Utah. <*In the Wasatch Mountains, Eastern Utah, this 
tree grows along the canons containing water throughout the year, and 
not in dry places. Its form is there quite diflferent from the Red Cedar 
in the East, being taller and with a looser and less symmetrical top. The 
people there say that the wood is not durable, and do not use it for fence 
posts, &c., as is done with the eastern variety." 

No. 410. Juniperus occidentalism Hook. — Western Cedar. — Rocky 
Mountains, California, and Oregon. This is undoubtedly the cedar 
named by Dr. Hooker J. occidentulis. It grows on the east side of the 
Cascade Mountains in Oregon and also in California. It is of slow 
growth, seldom attaining more than a foot in diameter and 30 feet in 
height. The wood is nearly all white, and harder than the Red Cedar. 

No. 411. Juniperus occidentalism var. Texana, — Rock Cedar. — Texas and 
westward. This forms extensive w ods on rocky soil in Western Texas- 
The trunk is sometimes over one foot in diameter, yearly rings eccentric. 
It branches low, and forms almost impenetrable thickets. It is common 
fuel and fencing timber in Western Texas. — (Lindheimer.) 

No. 412. Juniperus Calif itrnictiSj Carr. — Sweet-fruited Juniper. — South- 
ern California. A cedar growing from San Felipe Canon, in the Cuya- 
maca Mountains, Southern California, into Arizona and Mexico. It is 
a dwarf tree, and is very prolific of berries, which are as large as large 
peas, of a somewhat resinous but sweet taste. The Indians consume 
large quantities of them for food. The seeds are large, smooth, and 
free, one or two in each berry. 

No. 413. Juniperus CalifornicuSj var. Utahense. — Western Red Cedar. — 
Utah and California. This is the prevailing Cedar of the Wasatch 
Mountains, and ranging into Nevada and Southern California. la East- 
ern and Central Utah this tree covers the slopes and foothills at from 
6,000 to 7,000 feet altitude. It is low and spreading at the base, with a 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 425 

dense pyramidal top, light-green foliage, and large rather woody berries, 
not so nutritious as' those of the preceding kind. The wood is ex- 
tremely durable, and used for fence posts. In Southern Utah the berries 
are eaten by the Indians. The bark was formerly used by them in 
manufacturing many articles of clothing. 

PALMACEiE. 

No. 414. Sabal Palmetto jU. & S.— Cabbage Palmetto. — Coast of North 
Carolina and southward. The well-known Palmetto tree of the South- 
ern States, from North Carolina to Florida. It grows in sandy soil 
along the coast, with a stem from 20 to 40 feet high. The leaves are 5 
to 8 feet long. " In the Southern States, the wood of this tree, though 
extremely porous, is preferred to any other for wharves," and when con- 
stantly under water is almost imperishable, but, when exposed to be 
. alternately wet and dry in the flowing and ebbing of the tide, it decays 
as rapidly as other wood. 

No. 415. Brdhea edulis. Wad. — Guadalupe Palm — Guadalupe Island. 
Guadalu[)e Island is off the coast of Lower California, 200 miles from 
San Diego. It is about twenty-six miles long by ten wide. It is owned 
by a chartered American company for the raising of Angora goats. On 
the island there is a palm forest, of this species, of several thousand 
acres in extent. They grow from 12 to 20 feet high, and have a diame- 
ter of trunk of 8 to 15 inches. The fruit is about the size of a plum, 
hanging in clusters, like grapes, 2 feet long, weighing from 30 to 40 
pounds, growing from one to four bunches to a tree. The fruit is eagerly 
eaten by goats. 

No. 416. Pritchardiafilamentosa, Wend.— California Palm. — Southern 
California. This palm has been in cultivation to some extent for several 
years, both in Europe and in this country, under the name of Braliea 
Jilamentosa, It has recently been decided to belong to a different genus 
(Pritchardia). It grows on rocky canons near San Felipe, some seventy- 
five miles northeast of San Diego, California. It grows to the height 
of 50 feet. The fruit is small (as large as peas), blaek, and pulpy. 
Though containing little nourishment, they are used as food by the 
Indians. 

No. 417. Tkrinax parviflora, Sw. — Silver Palmetto. — South Florida. 
This palm was found last fall by Dr. Chapman in South Florida. The 
stem is rarely 6 inches in diameter, yet they attain a height of 30 to 40 
feet. " It occurs first at Cape Ebmans and is found sparingly on the 
mainland southward. It is more common on the keys, but I never 
heard of it before." — (Chapman.) The wood is quite dense; the berries 
white. 

LlLIACE^. 

No. 418. Yucca brevifolia, Eng. — Desert Yucca.— Arizona and South- 
ern Utah. This singular tree grows in the deserts of Arizona and South- 



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426 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

ern Utah. It is from 10 to 20 feet high, with a trunk sometimes 10 or 
12 inches in diameter. It is fibrous in all parts, so that the whole plant 
may be converted to paper. 

No. 419. Yucca Treculiana^ Carr. — Spanish Bayonet. — Western Texas 
and westward. Someti^pes with a stem over 1 foot diameter and 50 
feet high, branching only near the summit, every branch bears a thyrsus 
of flowers 3 to 4 feet high, each consisting of several hundred white 
fleshy flowers, shining like porcelain. The fruit is edible, resembling the 
papaw. The leaves are 2 to 4 feet long, deeply channeled, and pointed 
by a sharp thorn. — (Dr. Lindheimer.) 



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DIVISION OF MICROSCOPY. 



427 



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DIVISION OF MICROSCOPY. 



The exhibit of the Microscopist, Dr. Thomas Taylor, consists of about 
oOO water-color drawings, a large proportion of which represents the lead- 
ing types of the genera of microscopic fungi ; another section of the ex- 
hibit presents the results of original investigations upon chemical tests 
for flax, cotton, ramie, silk, wool, hair, and both animal and vegetable 
cellulose ; and still another series, illustrating the principal vegetable 
starches to the number of about 100 varieties. These drawings present 
highly magnified views of all these microscopic objects, including those 
most important in- economic mycology, especially the fungi commonly 
known as molds, so destructive to vegetation. The edible and poison- 
ous mushrooms are distinguished in one class of these drawings. 

The importance of the mushroom as an article of diet has never been 
properly understood in the United States, nor is it generally known how 
abundant our supply of edible mushrooms is. Many of those popularly 
supposed to be poisonous are not merely innocuous but highly nutritious, 
containing, as they do, many of the elements of animal food. 

In France, Germany, and Italy the mushroom forms so important a 
part of the food of the people that one distinguished writer has spoken 
of it as the " manna of the poor." In Transylvania the oyster mushroom 
is so abundant, and is so largely used, that tons of it may often be seen 
in the markets ; and in some parts of Germany the Morel mushroom is 
so popular that the people, finding it to grow best on a soil treated with 
wood ashes, were accustomed to burn down portions of the forests in 
order to secure favorable spots for its cultivation — a practice which the 
Government ultimately found it necessary to interdict. It is hoped that 
the collection of drawings, which has been made with so much care by 
Mr. Taylor, will serve to call public attention to the value of the mush- 
room as an article of food, and at the same time furnish means of dis- 
criminating between the poisonous and the edible varieties of the plant. 

Particular pains have been taken to represent the last-named clas^ of 
plants as fully a« possible, a number of collectors having been employed 
for the purpose in various parts of the United States. Among these 
may be mentioned Professor Peck, of New York, who, in that State 
alone, gathered specimens of no less than 80 species of mushrooms, in- 
cluding several which are new to science. The specimens furnished by 
Professor Peck are admirably copied and colored to nature; and there 

429 



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430 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

are also a number of excellent photographs, made from specimens fur- 
nished by various collectors, representing diflferent genera and species 
of the same class of plants. 

Another series of drawings illustrates the action of pear-tree blight, 
showing the effects of the chemical changes which take place in the in- 
terior structure of the tree under the attacks of the fungus to which 
this disease is due. The disease of plum and cherry trees, known aB 
"black-knot," is illustrated in a similar manner, some of the drawings 
exhibiting it as it appears to the naked eye, while others show in detail 
its distorted, woody structure. The fungus which produces it is also 
shown at various stages of its growth. 

!t; The fungus Peronospora infestanSj which causes potato-rot, is illus- 
trated in the various stages of its growth. There is also a series of 
drawings of its " resting-spores," recently discovered by Professor Worth- 
ington Smith, and so named from the fact that they remain for months 
in a stationary condition, or, in other words, rest for that time without 
germinating. 

There is an interesting series of drawings representing, as seen 
through the microscope, the mold of bread, cheese, jellies, &c., and 
illustrating their habits of growth, a knowledge of which niay often be 
useful in preventing beer or milk from souring, and wine or bread from 
becoming "ropy." 

One of the most curious of the cryptogamic plants is the Protococcm 
nivaliSy which we believe wa« first found by Capta-in Parry during his 
northern exploration, and to which was given the name of "red snow," 
from the fact that it gives its own red color to the surface of the snow 
on which it grows. This singular little plant is represented by several 
drawings of exquisite finish and color. 

The fibers of hemp, flax, jute, ramie, esparto grass, and Australian 
flax, as well as wool, silk, calfs hair, and the hair of the Cashmere and 
Angora goats, are exhibited as seen through the microscope, both in 
their natural condition and under various forms of chemical action. In 
the course of his investigations on this subject. Dr. Taylor has dis- 
covered a number of new chemical tests by which the presence or ab- 
sence of certain of these fibers, in every fabric, may be determined. 
This series of drawings will, therefore, be of considerable interest to 
manufacturers of textile fabrics, to dealers in that class of goods, and 
to the Government, which, besides being an extensive purchaser of cloth- 
ing for the Army and Navy, is largely interested in determining correctly 
the materials composing the fabrics which pass through the custom- 
houses. 

The investigations to which these drawings relate are still in progress; 
but the great majority of the drawings relate to the leading families, 
orders, and genera of cryptogamic plants or fungi, of which by far the 
greater number are microscopic in size. The latter are often visible to the 
naked eye when massed together in large numbers, presenting in some 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 43 I 

cases the appearance of a pigmcDt on the surfaces of the plants upon 
which they fasten. In sach cases the microscope sometimes reveals mill- 
ions of spores to the square inch. The ravages of these minute vegetable 
organisms are incredible in their extent. The potato has, at times, been 
threatened almost with extinction. Grasses have been affected by them, 
and the cereals throughout large districts have at times suffered blights 
so serious and often repeated that the farmer has been almost ready to 
abandon their cultivation in despair. Fields of hops, vineyards and 
orchards have withered under their blighting touch, and in lower lati- 
tudes they have assailed coffee plantations, and groves of orange, lemon, 
and olive trees, with equally fatal results. Even the lordly forest trees 
have not in all cases escaped their devastating influence, and at the 
present moment many of the statel}^ maples in the public grounds of 
our cities are withering under the insidious attacks of these minute de- 
stroyers. In short, there is hardly any department of agriculture, hor- 
ticulture, or forestry that can claim exemption from their ravages ; and 
the importance of a correct knowledge of their characteristics, modes of 
propagation and development, and the conditions under which they 
tend to flourish or decay, can hardly be overestimated. As a contribu- 
tion toward the dissemination of such knowledge, the collection just de- 
scribed must be regarded as possessing a high practical value. 

No large collection of well-executed drawings of cryptogamic plants 
has heretofore existed in this country ; but by the assistance of Dr. 
M. C. Cooke, of London, and others, Dr. Taylor has supplied the de- 
fect in an admirable manner, and has formed a collection which will 
be of permanent value to mycological science. The drawings, nearly 
all of which were made from nature for the special purpose to which 
they are now destined, exhibit a high degree of delicacy and finish. 

Mushrooms, in their composition, more nearly resemble flesh than any 
other vegetable. Dr. Marcet proves that, like animals, they absorb a 
large quantity of oxygen, and give out in return carbonic acid, hydro- 
gen, or azotic gas. Chemical analysis demonstrates the presence in 
their structure of the several components of which animal matter is 
formed, many containing sugar, gum, resin, fungic acid, various salts, 
albumen, adipocere, and ozmazone, "which last is that principle that 
gives flavor to meat gravy," according to Dr. Badham. 

Fungi are a])plicable to other than culinary uses, though their most 
imi)ortant use is the gastronomic one. To obviate the diflftculty arising 
from the prejudice against the wholesomeness of any mushroom, Mr. 
Berkeley recommends a good quantity of bread to be eaten with them. 
He is of opinion that mushrooms are only indigestible when eaten alone 
or in imprudent quantity. Of course this remark applies equally to any 
sort of mushroom, chough it is made with reference to the one in familiar 
use. 

As an indirect but very important article of diet, the tiny fungus 
known as yeast stands pre-eminent. It is composed of globular cells 



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432 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

which produce other cells with incredible speed, and the interchange of 
fluids on either side of the membrane is the cause of the fermentation. 
German yeast is formed of the dried globules. The Polyporus betuUnvs 
makes very superior razor strops, its substance containing minute crys- 
tals ; the Polyportts squamosus is also good for this purpose, if cut from 
the tree in autumn, then flattened in a press, rubbed carefully with pum- 
ice, cut into slices, and each slice fastened to a wooden stretcher. The 
Polyporus fomentaritis forms the amadou of commerce, formerly used 
only as "German tinder,^ but now applied by, at any rate, one medical 
practitioner in sheets to protect the backs of bedridden patients. Gle. 
ditsch relates that; the poorer inhabitants of Franconia stitch it together 
and make garments of it. Polyporus ignarius is used as snuff in the 
north of Asia ; Polyporus officinalis was formerly used as medicine, but 
is so employed no longer; Polyporus sulphureus furnishes a useful dye. 
Coprinus atramentarius may be made into ink ; Amanita muscarius fur- 
nishes poison for vermin, and is an ingredient in some intoxicating 
liquors. Wood impregnated with the metallic-green spawn of the Peziza 
is of great value in the delicate inlaid work known as Tunbridge ware. 
A small fungus belonging to the Ascomycetes class, and known as ergot 
of rye, furnishes a powerful and useful medicine, though in the hands of 
the ignorant it is an extremely dangerous poison. 

Mr. Berkeley suggests that decayed fungus would form good manure. 
Such being the case, it would be well worth the trouble to let the laborers' 
children collect them, and throw them into a heap like dead leaves for 
leaf-mold. Thus even the poisonous species might be utilized. 

But to enable us to turn fungi to the best profit, we must learn to dis- 
cern the good from the evil, and for this we must cultivate patience and 
close observation. General rules will not suffice us. The test of. a sil- 
ver spoon will not insure safety. Odor is a good guide; those smelling 
offensively must be avoided; those with savory or aromatic perfume are 
generally innocuous; but this test cannot always be trusted, for there are 
some poisonous and deleterious species which have no smell at all. Color 
stands for nothing, for the snowy whiteness which in some is the garb 
of innocence, serves others, as Dr. Badham says, as the mask for guilt. 
We shall do well to regard all milky fungi with suspicion , and avoid 
bringing them into our culinary experiments ; also, we had better es- 
chew those with a biting or acrid smell or flavor. 

We labor under a general impression that all fungi are poisonous ex- 
cept our common mushroom. This is very far from being the fact. 
Many species now despised form valuable articles of food, and the greater 
number of the rejected ones are innocuous, or only deleterious in a 
slight degree. 

Mr. Taylor proposes to make a collection of all the known edible 
mushrooms of the United States, of which descriptions will, from time 
to time, appear in the Monthly Reports of the Department of Agricul- 
ture. 



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THE DEPAR TMENT OF A GRICUL TURE. 433 

Types of the following families, orders, and genera are exhibited. 

Group A, from 1 to 39 inclusive, represents types of the orders and 
genera of the family Hymenomycetes. 

Group B, from 40 to 56, represents types of the order, and genera of 
the family Gasteromytes. 

Group C, from 57 to 119, represents types of the orders and genera 
of the family Goniomycetes. 

Group D, from 120 to 171 inclusive, represents types of the orders 
and genera of the family Hyphomycetes. 

Group E, from 172 to 184 inclusive, is miscellaneous, consisting mostly 
of types of fungi destructive to vegetation. 

172. Mdfiium oomutum^ Pers. 

173. Cranberry, long vine, New Jersey. 

174. Cranberry, short vine, New Jersey. 

175. Various varieties of New Jersey cranberries. 

176. TJredjo effusa. 

177. JEcidium of the ash. 

178. Black knot of the cherry, Spheeria morbosa. 

1 79. American grape fungus, Peronospora vitis viticola (Berkley & Curtis). 

180. Orange leaf, covered with black fungus matter. 

181. Exhibits a microscopic view of the fungus on the orange and orange 

leaf. This fungus destroys the commercial value of the Florida 
oranges when they are aflected by it. 

182. Arctic red snow, a cryptogamic plant. (See Micrographic Dic- 

tionary.) 

183. 184 represent abnormal growths on the foliage of the maple and 
other trees, formerly supposed to be a fungus, which was named UrvieuWy 
but they are now considei^ed to be only abnormal growths. 

Group F, 185, consists of a series of photographs representing the 
connective tissue of the mammary glands of a scirrhus cancer. The 
object of the examination was to detect mycelium or sx>ores of fungoid 
matter, if present, in the tissue. Portions of the cancer ceUs were treated 
with dilute boiling caustic potash until a thin film of it floated on the sur- 
face of the liquid. The film wiis next floated on a microscopic slide, and 
photographs made from it direct* In these preliminary experiments no 
fungus matter was observed. 

Group G, from 186 to 211 inclusive, represents the results of a series 
of experiments on textile fabrics, fibers, etc. 

Group H, frdm 212 to 320 inclusive, represents types of the family 
Ascomycetes. 

Group I, from 321 to 324 inclusive, Physomycetes, alter Worthingtou 
Smith. 

Group J, from 1 to 29 inclusive, edible mushrooms, after W. Smith. 

Group K, from 30 to CO inclusive, poisonous mushrooms, after W. 
Smith. 

28 CEN, PT 2 



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434 INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, 1876. 

Group L, from Gl to 66 inclusive, represents drawings relating to 
pear-tree blight, showing sections, &c., of blighted branches. 

Group M, from ^^ to 67, represents two branches of the foreign gra[>e 
affected by the fungus Oidium Tuckeri, 

Group N, from 87 to 112, photographs of Xew England fungi. 

Group O, 70, represents a photographic view of the starch cells of a 
boiled potato. 

Group P, from 77 to 80 inclusive, represents photographs and draw- 
ings of the resting-sx^ores of the potato fungus, lately discovered. 

Group Q, from 81 to 80, represents types of vegetable starch gran- 
ules. 



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INDEX TO VOL. II. 



The table of con teats prefixed to each of the reports embraced in this volnme will 
be found to answer all the purposes of an index. These tables of contents will be 

found on the following pages : 

Page. 

For the Navy Department 7 

For the Treasury Department 81 

For the Post-OflBce Department 173 

For the Department ^f Agiiculturo 223 

435 



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