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Full text of "The Japan Christian year-book"

1111 



m \ UM\ I HSI I V 



THE JAPAN MISSION YEAR BOOK 

formerly 

The Christian Movement 

IN 

JAPAN AND FORMOSA 

A YEAR BOOK OF CHRISTIAN WORK 

TWENTY-EIGHTH ISSUE 

Issued by 

THE FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 
IN JAPAN 

Editor: 

PAUL S. MAYER 

Editorial Committee: 

MISS B. F. CLAWSON H. 13. HANNAFORD 
G. C. CONVERSE S. H. WAIXRIGHT 

Statistics prepared by: 
PAUL S. MAYER 

Published by 

KYO BUN KWAN 

Cinza, Tokyo 

1930 



THE JAPAN MISSION YEAR BOOK 

MANUEL 

THE CHRISTIAN MOVEMENT 
IN JAPAN AND FORMOSA 

Is on sale at the following places: 

In Japan, 

Kyo Bun Kwan, Gin/a, Tokyo. 

In Korea. 

Christian Literature Society of Korea, 

Chontf-no, Seoul. 

In C?/?u?a. 

The Mission Book Company, 

IS Peking Road, Shanghai. 

In Great Rrttatn. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. 

. .! Xew Oxford St., London, W.C. 1. 

In America. 

Committee of Reference and Counsel, 

L "> Madison Avenue, Xe\v York City, New York. 



Price in Japan: Yen 2:50 



FOREWORD 



The year 1929 was a critical one in the history 
of Japan. Many major problems economic, social, 
political and religious confronted the nation. All 
of these problems have a very vital bearing upon the 
progress of the Christian cause and some under 
standing of them is essential to any one who wishes 
to estimate correctly the present status of the 
Church in the Sunrise Kingdom. It is a matter of 
congratulation that so many Christian leaders, both 
missionary and Japanese, have sensed the dire need 
of Japan and under the guidance of the Holy Spirit 
are contributing towards the solution of many vexing 
problems. 

The first Christian Social Conference was held in 
Tokyo in the summer of 1929. In order to preserve 
for permanent record some of the findings of that 
conference, three of the most valuable papers have 
been included in this volume. 

Attention of the readers in Japan should also 
be called to the directory of Christian Social 
activities which has been most carefully compiled 
by Miss Mildred A. Paine. 

The editor-in-chief hereby completes his third 
term as editor of the Japan Mission Year Hook. To 
all who have so generously contributed of their 
labor and time to the making of the last three 
volumes of the Year Book we again extend oui 
sincere gratitude. 



Printed by 

THE JAPAN Ami- KTI>KR 
Ti.kvci 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



JAPAN 

PART I. GENERAL SURVEY OF JAPAN 
DURING 1929 

Chapter I. The Kyoto Conference of the Institute of 

Pacific Relations Arthur Jorgensen. 
Chapter II. The Political Situation- Harry H. 

lienninghoff 

Chapter III. International Relations of Japan for the 

Past Year- Norikatsu Yasuma .... 
Chapter IV. --The Recent History of the Japanese 

Labor Movement--Toyohiko Kagawa. -! 
Chapter V. .Modern Shinto as a State Religion 

I). C. Holtom i .T 

PART II. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1929 

Chapter VI.- The Christian Churches during IMliU 

Christopher Xoss <">3 

Chapter VII. Christian Educational Work Luman J. 

Shafer Tf> 

Chapter VIII. Christian Social Work in 1929-- 
Mildred A. Paine 

Chapter IX. Work with Boys C.eorge S. Patterson. !>!> 

Chapter X. Rural Cif>spel Schools I). Norman 111 

Chapter XI.- Newspaper Evangelism 192X-30 W. H. 

Murray Walton 11!) 

Chapter XII. Work for Koreans in Japan L. L. 

Young 1 - "> 

Chapter XIII.- The National Christian Council Dur 
ing l!2f Akira Kbi/awa li!:: 



viii CONTENTS 

p ART |||._ASPECTS OF THE GROWING 

KINGDOM 

Faue 

Chapter XIV. The Kingdom of C.od Campaign- - 

William Axling 1 ; ^ 

Chapter XV. Licensed Prostitution and its Suppres 
sion E. C. Hennigar 14!* 

Chapter XVI. Christian Influence upon Japanese 

Literature -S. H. Wainright 15!* 

Chapter XVII. The Youth Movement in Japan 

Soichi Saito lti~ 

Chapter XVIII.- A Study of the Rural Problem M. 

Sugiyama 1^1* 

Chapter XIX. Social Thinking in Japanese Univer 
sities and Colleges - Kenji Sugiyama. li>5 

Chapter XX. The Proletarian Movement in Japan 

Tetsu Katayama 20!t 

PART IV. OBITUARIES 

Obituaries for r.2!-: >> (Jideon F. Draper 21: . 

PART V. FORMOSA 

Chapter XXI. The Educational Situation in For 
mosa Edward Rand 22! 

Chapter XXII. Medical Missions in Formosa Percy 

Cheal 237 

Chapter XXIII. Iteport of the Canadian Presbyterian 

.Mission James Dickson 241 

Chapter XXIV. South Formosa Presbyterian Church 

Edward Hand 253 

APPENDICES 

Appendix I Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the 
Federation of Christian Missions in 
Japan. 1!2! . 259 



CONTENTS ix 

I i.V * 1 

Appendix II. The.Iapane.se Language School Darley 

Downs I M 

Appendix III. The Christian Literature Society of 
Japan (Kyo Bun Kwani- A. C. 
Bosanquet L >V ."> 

JAPAN AND FORMOSA MISSIONARY DIRECTORY 
Prepared by E. Williamson 

List of Mission Hoards and Churches L !*. ! 

Alphabetical List L iiT 

List by Towns Sl S 

List by Missions ::: ,:: 

DIRECTORY OF EDUCATIONAL. RELIGIOUS 
AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 

List of Kducational Institutions 

Hertha Clawson .",;." 

A Preliminary List of Social Institutions 

Mildred A. Paine .".." 

Directory of Religious and Social OrKanixations 

H. I), flannaford : ,77 

STATISTICS FOR YEAR 1929 
Prepared by P. S. Mayer 

List of Mission Hoards and Churches i .s. i 

Statistics for the Year 1?*2! . ::s5 



ADVERTISEMENTS AT END OF BOOK 



JAPAN 



PART I. 

GENERAL SURVEY OF JAPAN 
DURING 1929 



CHAPTER I. 

THE KYOTO CONFERENCE OF THE 

INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC 

RELATIONS 



Art linr Jorgenscn 

There have been three conferences of the In 
stitute of Pacific Relations at Honolulu in 1925 
with 111 delegates, a t the same place in 1927 with 
127 delegates, and at Kyoto in 1929 with 218 dele- 
Kates. All these gatherings have been emphatically 
unofficial. No resolutions have been passed, and no 
solutions have been formally recommended to the 
attention of the various states involved. 

Since the world has suffered incalculably 
through misunderstanding, particularly in the field 
of international relations, it is interesting to find 
an organization whose one article of faith takes the 
form of complete trust in the efficacy of understand 
ing. There are, to be sure subsidiary clauses to this 
main statement of belief but they do not in any 
sense minimize its central significance. Says this 
organization, let people understand the historical 
milieu out of which the problems that disrupt our 
peace have arisen and let them have knowledge of 
the facts that underlie national attitudes and 



L JAPAN 

policies, and the great step in the direction of 
adjustment by reason rather than by force will have 
been taken. There is about this, as about all faith, 
an aspect of sublimity, but in the present instance 
it has the additional advantage of resting upon a 
factual basis. For in the councils of the Institute 
of Pacific Relations there are two words to conjure 
with, one is understanding and the other is 
research, the former resting solidly upon the latter. 
These words describe a method that belongs strictly 
to tlie modern world. In essence it is scientific 
lather than religious, and in so far as that is true, 
the Institute may be said to take its cue from science 
rather than religion. This is perhaps as it should 
be. for after all is said and done, religion has but 
little to offer by way of method, its contribution 
being confined to the generation of spirit and atti 
tude without which all method is dull and inopera 
tive. At any rate so runs the theory of the pro 
tagonists of religion. 

It was with considerable fear and trembling that 
the plan to hold the third conference of the In 
stitute away from Honolulu was finally adopted. It 
was feared that to meet on less neutral ground than 
that offered by Hawaii would curtail the frankness 
that had characterized the discussions of the two 
previous gatherings, and that in some respects the 
methods of the Institute might result in an increase 
of irritation rather than of good will. However, 
the outcome of the Kyoto Conference more than 
justified the expectations of those who believed 
that the technique of the Institute was sufficiently 
well established to bear the strain imposed by the 
new conditions. Delegates at Kyoto who had at- 
tinded the previous sessions of the Institute, and 
there were many such, were all but unanimous in 
the opinion that this third meeting of the Institute 
represented an advance in all important respects 

The programme which was followed at the Kyoto 
Conference represented an enormous amount of j>re- 



INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 3 

liminary work. In spite of this fact, it may bo 
said to have remained tentative, not only up to the 
beginning of the conference but even throughout 
the sessions themselves. From this point of view 
the Conference may be likened to a huge engine that 
lays its own track as it proceeds and therefore plods 
along without much speed or confidence of move 
ment. With the exception of one or two definite 
suggestions for the programme O f the Kyoto Con 
ferencc, which emerged a t the 1927 Conference, 
this atmosphere of vagueness and uncertainty en 
veloped too much of the programme up to the last 
minute. This point is well illustrated in one topic 
to which considerable time was given at Kyoto, 
namely, the Machine Age and Culture. Various 
aspects of this very broad question had, of course, 
been suggested from many sources as possible mate 
rial for the 1929 programme, but up to within a few 
days of the opening of the Conference no very def 
inite decisions had been made on the question as 
to how large a part cultural problems were to have 
on the programme. In view of these considerations, 
it seemed a bit curious to have the Programme Com 
mittee ask the whole Conference to devote con 
siderable time to a discussion of the relation of 
the machine age to traditional culture. This was 
particularly true since previous to the Conference 
the impression was abroad that at least so far as 
the Kyoto gathering was concerned, cultural ques 
tions would be given little if any serious considera 
tion. The result was precisely what might be ex 
pected a vast deal of talk supported by a rather 
frail skeleton of ideas. In my judgment the most 
interesting and weighty problem posed by this dis 
cussion was this: How can we maintain and 
develop cultural independence in a world of rapidly 
increasing economic interdependence? This is not 
a bad problem for missionaries to try their brains 
on. A number of the delegates had come to the 
Conference cia Russia and it was therefore interest- 



4 JAPAN 

ing to hear several of them speak of that country 
as offering a satisfactory solution to this vexing 
problem of a threatening cultural uniformity. For 
it seems that although the Soviet government virtu 
ally commandeers all economic resources, it allows 
the fullest cultural independence to the various 
national and cultural groups under its dominion. 

The time devoted to cultural questions by the 
four Round Tables was viewed by the Programme 
Committee as a sort of preliminary exercise during 
which the delegates would get acquainted and an 
atmosphere of friendly give-and-take created in 
which the more specific and controversial subjects 
could then be discussed without acrimony or mis 
understanding. Problems of culture are, generally 
speaking, long-term problems. The same is more 
or less true of such subjects as the Social and 
Economic Aspects of Industrialization, Food and 
Population, etc. Discussion of such problems 
develops difference of opinion but it does not as 
a rule generate much heat. There was some dis 
cussion of the food and population question at 
Kyoto, but it was clear that the men who know 
most about this subject felt that their research had 
not yet gone far enough to enable them to go deeply 
into the problems created by impending over-popu 
lation at some points in the Pacific area. However, 
the scientific work that has already been done, to 
gether with the thorough programme of research 
that is actually in operation at the present time, 
makes it clear that the Institute will make a major 
contribution to the scientific understanding of this 
problem. 

Among the delegates were several first rate 
economists, a few labour leaders, a goodly number 
of the representatives of capitalism. These various 
elements made the discussion of Industrialization 
highly interesting and to a degree at least, profit 
able. How scientific the point of view is I cannot 
say, but it was new to me at least to find that well- 



INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 5 

trained men are ready to play with the idea that 
urbanization may not be an absolutely necessary 
concomitant of industrialization. The ease with 
which electric power can be distributed makes it 
possible for a nation to industrialize without load 
ing upon itself the distressing social problems that 
seem to inhere in great centres of population. 
"Take the factories to the people," was the advice 
of more than one speaker. Some even said that the 
possibilities of distributing power would enable the 
population of any given locality to be half agricul 
tural and half industrial, that is, a worker might 
give his mornings to his farm and his afternoons 
to the factory! 

From the very beginning of the Conference, it 
was evident that the delegates were interested 
primarily in two subjects, extraterritoriality in 
China, and the Manchurian problem. They were 
impatient with the Programme Committee s devices 
to keep them away from these subjects until the 
proper atmosphere for their consideration had been 
generated. If one were asked to select the one prob 
lem on which interest was preeminently focused, the 
answer would unquestionably be Manchuria. It is 
indeed difficult, not to say impossible, to give an 
adequate idea of what took place during the week 
that was devoted to these two questions. I will not 
even attempt to do so. A full report of the Con 
ference will appear soon in two stout volumes, and 
those who wish to feel the atmosphere of the Kyoto 
Round Tables are advised to procure those volumes. 

For the purposes of this article, suffice it to say 
that in the discussion of these highly controversial, 
and to a certain extent emotionally conditioned 
problems, the genius and method of the Institute 
were revealed at their best. In the first place there 
was the background of thorough preparation, at 
least on the part of a fairly large number of experts 
who were wisely distributed among the various 
round tables. Unfortunately the delegates had not 



G JAPAN 

as a group taken full advantage of the material that 
had been placed at their disposal, and hence only 
a limited number felt qualified to take part in the 1 
discussion. In the second place, from the stand 
point of creating a better understanding of each 
others points of view, there was a distinct advan 
tage in the consciousness that no decision was to 
be made. The whole set-up confirmed the inference 
that here was an adventure in the creation of under 
standing. Men and women were seeking light, not 
heat. Nothing was so likely to bore the delegates 
as eloquence in which there was even the slightest 
suggestion that substance might be wanting. 

As I have just intimated, it would be impossible 
to summarize what took place in these interesting 
round tables; one or two impressions may not, how 
ever, be out of order. Perhaps I can best begin by 
saying that as 1 try to view the whole process quite 
objectively, it seems to me inevitable that the dis 
cussion of both these questions should have resulted 
in some discouragement to the Chinese delegates. 
I say "inevitable" because in a sense the cards were 
stacked against them by the conditions in their own 
country at the very time the Conference was in 
process. The delegates were on the whole people 
who could be described as liberals and idealists. At 
the same time they had enough experience and in 
formation to shade their idealism with realism; they 
were people with their feet on the ground. Perhaps 
I can best describe the group by saying that 
although they were not faced with the necessity of 
making decisions, they maintained to an amazing 
degree the attitude of mind characteristic of those 
who are obliged to settle things. They could not be 
swayed easily by emotional considerations. They 
did reveal "the understanding heart" and in that 
sense were not hard-boiled, not indifferent to factors 
beyond the statistician s dominion, but they were, 
when all is said and done, very objective. Into this 
atmosphere China s representatives injected a thor- 



INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 7 

oughly well prepared case for the abolition of extra 
territoriality. On this point there was virtually 
unanimous agreement extraterritoriality must go. 
It was only when Chinese delegates insisted on a 
plan of immediate abolition that they met with dis 
agreement from most of the other delegates. Entire 
ly apart from the historical situation out of which 
extraterritoriality has grown, it must now be dealt 
with in terms of what will happen if it is abolished. 
China must give the world evidence of a measure 
of stability, of power to direct her affairs, of capac 
ity to build up a dependable and operative juridical 
system, before the nations will take a step which 
they now feel is altogether too likely to result in 
more chaos. So long as these things remain undone, 
the demand for immediate abolition on the grounds 
that China s international political situation demands? 
it, will not appear persuasive even to her liberal 
friends. As I interpret this part of the programme, 
that is about where it was left. 

The handicaps under which the Chinese present 
ed their case were again revealed in the discussions 
on Manchuria. No question that came before the 
conference was more carefully analyzed and eluci 
dated from all points of view than this one deal 
ing with Manchuria. Like extraterritoriality it was 
a highly controversial subject. In spite of this 
obvious difficulty, and even of the possibility of 
wrecking the conference on the rocks of irreconcil 
ability, it must be said to the eternal credit of the 
Chinese and Japanese delegates that during the 
three days while this subject was overhauled from 
every conceivable point of view they kept the dis 
cussion on a plane of moderation and objectivity 
that was beyond all praise. And they did this in 
the English language. 

It I were asked to pass judgment on the outcome 
of the discussion on the Manchurian question, 1 
should say that rightly interpreted it worked out to 
the advantage of both parties concerned, and that 



8 JAPAN 

Japan on the whole gained decidedly from exposing 
tier position in Manchuria to the scrutiny of the 
delegates. The manner in which the representatives 
of the two countries seemed to be drawn together 
as the discussion moved forward was one of the 
most gratifying results of the whole conference. It 
was a clear demonstration of the value of under 
standing, for that is precisely what was achieved 
through the method of the Institute. In the trail 
of understanding came a friendly and enlightened 
appreciation of the fact that when two reasonable 
men differ, neither is without justification of his 
attitude or point of view. That the feeling between 
China and Japan on the subject of Manchuria has 
been intense, is not saying too much; neither is it 
saying too much to describe what emerged between 
them at the Kyoto Conference as a rapprochement. 
After seeing what took place there between two 
national groups with great and vital differences, 225 
delegates went away persuaded that reason and 
fairness are after all the most effective instruments 
for dealing with the disagreements that arise be 
tween individuals and nations. At the time nobody 
thought of this as a religious experience; but if it 
be not good Christianity what is it? 

It should be said in conclusion that Kyoto was 
an ideal place for the conference, and that the 
Japanese were exemplary hosts. Considering the 
space required for national group headquarters, for 
committee rooms, and for the round-table discus 
sions, the Miyako Hotel had its limitations, but 
within those limitations the management did a real 
ly heroic bit of service. The city of Kyoto, with 
its visual evidence of an ancient, highly developed, 
and beautiful culture, made a profound impression 
upon the visiting delegates. Words of genuine ap 
preciation and highest praise were heard on every 
hand. And this was not due to restricted observa 
tion for all the delegates were presented with free 
passes over the entire system of the Imperial Gov- 



INSTITUTE OF PACIFIC RELATIONS 9 

ernment Railways and many of them travelled wide 
ly both before and after the conference. There can 
be no question that Japan gained immensely as a 
result of being host to this important international 
gathering. 



CHAPTER II. 
THE POLITICAL SITUATION 



Harry B. Benninghoff 

.Japan has had an interesting year politically. 
No sooner had the Kellogg-Briand Peace Pact been 
signed in June, 1929, than the Tanaka Government 
was compelled, July 2, to yield its power and in 
fluence to the anti-government party, the Minseito. 
The Tanaka Ministry had long been due to fall. 
For months it had held its place by force against 
a growing public opinion. So when the discussion 
arose in regard to the phrase, "in the names of their 
respective peoples" in the Peace Pact, the Opposi 
tion seized upon the opportunity, and by a series 
of tactful maneuvers, compelled the Government 
to present its resignation. 

Within a few hours His Imperial Majesty, the 
Fmperor, ordered Y. Hamaguchi, the leader of the 
Opposition, to form a new Cabinet. This was done 
most expeditiously evidently the whole matter had 
been thought out beforehand. The new Ministry 
included several men of national distinction, and 
earned for itself the title, "A Ministry of Special 
ists". Baron Shidehara, the new Foreign Minister, 
had had a long and successful career, at home and 
abroad. As Ambassador in Washington and as For 
eign Minister in the Wakatsuki (Minseito) Cabinet 
three years ago he had shown marked ability in 
dealing with Japan s difficult foreign relations. 
Mr. J. Inoue, formerly President of the Bank of 
Japan, and a previous Finance Minister, added great 
ly to the prestige of the new Cabinet on his return 
to the post of Minister of Finance. Home-minister 



1 J JAPAN 

Adachi, and Railway-minister Egi, had both achiev 
ed notable success in dealing with large public 
questions. 

The new cabinet was committed from the begin 
ning to the removal of the gold embargo, which had 
never been removed since the Great War. Deflation 
resulting from this policy would undoubtedly bring 
hardship to commerce and business, but the coun 
try s finance could not be stabilized without this 
drastic financial procedure. Almost immediately, 
in view of the coming change, the Ministry ordered 
significant retrenchment along all lines of public- 
service. So that when at the beginning of the year 
19150 the ban on gold was finally removed, the yen 
was quoted at par, and has remained so up to May 
1, 19:50. Retrenchment has been followed by con 
siderable difficulty in labour and industrial circles, 
but the general financial conditions seem to be fun 
damentally safe. Evidence of this can be seen in 
the fact that a loan of $125,000,000 floated in New 
York City in May was oversubscribed in a few hours. 

The continued spread of "dangerous thoughts" 
lias given no little concern to the new government. 
Early in his ministry Hamaguchi declared that 
student thought must be guided rather than con 
trolled. As a result of this policy there has been 
a gradual withdrawal of the use of force in dealing 
with this question and a corresponding extension of 
co-operation on the part of the government with 
schools and other institutions in their effort to 
inspire healthy social and political ideas among the 
people. A recent report is to the effect that the 
Department of Education is supplying student 
counsellors to large schools, who will co-operate 
with the school authorities in giving proper guid 
ance to the free activities of the students. 

This policy of education reaches well enough the 
youth in the schools. Hut it hardly meets the diffi 
culties growing out of strained relations between 
employers and employees. Reduction of wages due 



THE POLITICAL SITUATION 111 

to the policy of retrenchment and general trade 
conditions has greatly increased the unrest of 
workers, and of the hundreds of young men graduat 
ing from schools and colleges who find difficulty 
in getting posts. This growing "intelligentia" forms 
a fertile field for the dissemination of radical ideas, 
and creates intelligent leadership for the proletariat. 

Almost from the beginning of the new ministry 
it was a foregone conclusion that Parliament would 
be dissolved at its regular session in December. 
The Tanaka Ministry had been supported by a gen 
eral election two years ago; but it was evident that 
the people wanted to change. So no one was sur 
prised when the Emperor dissolved Parliament and 
called for a new election, which was held in Feb 
ruary. Thus for the second time within three years 
the entire manhood of the country was called upon 
to indicate its choice of representatives to the 
Lower House. The result of the election was a 
significant victory for the party in power, which 
secured 273 of the 466 seats. The Seiyukai party 
which had yielded its place to the Minseito, and 
constituted the latter s rival and leader of the op 
position, secured only 174 seats. 

Thus with a majority of 99 over its nearest com 
petitor, and absolute majority of 40 over all, the 
new government was assured of Parliament s sup 
port. But growing social difficulties due to 
retrenchment and loss of trade, and questions 
growing out of the London Conference, created 
serious problems for the government which are being 
considered in Parliament as this article is being 
written. 

Although only three years have elapsed since 
the general manhood suffrage bill went into effect, 
raising the number of electors from li million to 
twelve million, there is a growing demand for the 
extension of the franchise to women. At the begin 
ning of the special session of Parliament in April 
last over three hundred women from all sections 



11 

of thi country met in a large hall in Tokyo in the 
interest of woman suffrage. The meeting was address 
ed by leaders of all the political parties and it seems 
to be only a question of time till their demands will 
be granted. Both large political parties, as well as 
the proletariat parties, have declared themselves in 
favor of the movement. 

In the general election there was a falling off 
of representatives from the Proletariat parties. 
There was almost universal disappointment that 
Prof. Isoo Abe of Waseda University did not succeed 
himself as one of the representatives of the Social 
Democratic Party. Many factors enter into the 
loss sustained by the workers parties; but the chief 
of these must be their lack of unity and organiza 
tion. Mr. I. Oyama, the leader of the extreme left 
among the labor parties, secured his seat, and agita 
tion in the interest of the workers continues un 
abated. During the recent campaign there was wide 
interest in the fate of the proletariat parties. There 
was some official interference with the freedom of 
their meetings and the movements of their leaders, 
but as compared with former campaigns, they were 
not hindered in taking an active part in discussing 
their principles in public gatherings everywhere. 

During the year there have been a number of 
scandals involving officials high up in government 
service. Several of these unfortunate incidents 
were connected with the bestowal of decorations 
upon men who had the money to buy but not the 
honour to earn exceptional favour. The parties 
connected with the scandals have been apprehended 
and are now under investigation on the part of the 
courts. Some have been acquitted, but it seems 
certain that others will be brought to trial. 

According to the .Japanese Constitution the Privy 
Council, which functions as an advisory committee 
to the Kmperor, has been called upon to render im 
portant decisions in dealing with the Kellogg Pact 
and the Disarmament Conference. In dealing with 



THE POLITICAL SITUATION 15 

the latter question the problem has been complicat 
ed by the fact that the Minister of War, though a 
member of the Cabinet, is appointed directly by the 
Emperor. Such being the case the Emperor is 
advised on matters affecting the defense of the Em 
pire directly by the General Staff. Without con 
sulting the General Staff the Hamaguchi Govern 
ment ordered Mr. Wakatsuki, its representative in 
London, to sign the Disarmament Conference agree 
ment. It thus brought itself under the censure of 
the General Staff, and probably also under the cen 
sure of the Privy Council. 

Thus in dealing with both the Kellogg Pact and 
the results of the London Conference the Govern 
ment has by its action called for an interpretation 
of the Constitution. The difficulties are due to the 
fact that Japanese procedure at home is based upon 
an Imperial conception of government which no 
longer forms the basis of international correspond 
ence and co-operation. As a matter of fact public- 
opinion functions as actively in Japan as elsewhere; 
but political, as well as constitutional usage is based 
upon the idea of the real sovereignty of the ruler 
in deciding all important matters of State. 

In general the political events of the year have 
shown an increasing interest on the part of the 
people in their political affairs. An unusually high 
percentage of the enfranchised proletariat went to 
the polls to vote. And during the campaign every 
effort was made to acquaint the electorate with the 
issues and the manner of voting. The stress of 
problems at home and abroad demands intelligent 
participation on the part of all the people in the 
processes of election and government, and the last 
three years have clearly indicated that the people 
recently franchisee! are not slow to realize the signi 
ficance of their newly acquired rights. 

In the past persons rather than party or policy 
have elicited the loyalty of Japanese subjects. But 
more recently programs and policies .are Junction- 



in JAPAN 

ing forcibly in political campaigns, and party gov 
ernment is increasing in power and influence 
throughout the country. There is still a long way 
to go before this becomes the established usage, but 
the developments of the last three years clearly 
indicate that Japan is on the way. 



CHAPTER III. 

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF JAPAN 
FOR THE PAST YEAR 



Norikatsu Y as it ma 

In the days when the Tanaka Cabinet was ap 
proaching its collapse, it seemed as if oppressive 
and stagnant air was setting down over Japan. 
Day after day, people were suffering from the most 
uninteresting and disagreeable events, both in 
domestic and foreign affairs. Restrictions against 
the freedom of speech, the rude actions concern 
ing official appointments, the development of com 
munistic thoughts, the depression of trade, the boy 
cotting of Japanese goods in China and "a certain 
serious case" in Manchuria, etc., all these accu 
mulated troubles led the Cabinet into an abyss 
where no support of public opinion could be relied 
upon. But thanks to the mere fact that he was the 
Premier, Baron Tanaka could cling to his position. 

It was no wonder that under such circumstances, 
every possible measure was taken by the Minseito, 
the Opposition Party, to give a fatal blow to tho 
Cabinet. This was the reason why the objection 
to the phrase, "in the names of their respective 
peoples," which appears in Article I of the Treaty 
lor the Renunciation of War. took fire, disturbed 
the Cabinet and finally consumed the greater part, 
if not all of it. 

I. Ratification of the Treaty for the 
Renunciation of War 

The Japanese Government did not fail to pay 



18 JAPAN 

attention to the phrase, "in the names of their 
respective peoples," before it signed the Treaty. As 
there was some questioning as to whether this 
phrase might violate the Constitution, which stipu 
lates that it is the Emperor who concludes treaties 
and not the people, notes were exchanged on July 
1(), 1928, between Mr. S. Sawada, Charge d Affairs 
of Japan at Washington and the American Secretary 
of State. In this memorandum it was clearly rec 
ognized that the phrase "in the names of their re 
spective peoples" in Article I of the draft Treaty for 
the Outlawry of War did not signify, "as the agents 
of their peoples." Mr. Sawada s note said that the 
phrase in question had been inserted in the Treaty 
tor the purpose of impressing upon the peoples the 
importance of the renunciation of war, and Mr. 
Kellogg said that the phrase was synonymous with 
"on behalf of the people," and that the Japanese 
translation would be perfectly correct as interpret 
ed in Mr. Sawada s note. 

It seems, therefore, that the Japanese Govern 
ment was satisfied with this exchange of notes. 
Accordingly it sent Count Uchida to Paris to sign 
the Treaty. Now, after the Treaty had been signed, 
the objection was raised that as used in the Treaty, 
the phrase violates the Constitution, on the ground 
that the phrase should be interpreted "as the agency 
of," even though it sometimes can be interpreted 
as "on behalf of." This objection was supported 
by some Japanese scholars, statesmen and a num 
ber of Privy Councillors. Thus a heated controversy 
was carried on in the magazines and newspapers, 
in the Diet and in political meetings. 

Meanwhile the Government held tenaciously to 
its own view. But as the Government could scarce 
ly repel the attacks in the Diet and as it feared 
it could not secure the approval of the Privy Coun 
cil, the highest advisory body appointed by the 
Kmpcror, the Government was obliged to issue the 
following declaration in order to get the Treaty 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF JAPAN 19 

ratified, which was done on June 27, 1029: "The 
Imperial Government declares that the phraseology 
in the names of their respective peoples, appear 
ing in Article I of the Treaty for the Renunciation 
of War, signed at Paris on August 27, 1928, viewed 
in the light of the provisions of the Imperial Con 
stitution, is understood to be inapplicable in so far 
as Japan is concerned." 

The Government continued to maintain, however, 
that this declaration was issued not because it rec 
ognized that the Treaty violates the Japanese Con 
stitution, but because it wanted to remove the doubts 
concerning that phrase bogey, Count Uchida resigned 
his post as Privy Councillor, recognizing that he 
signed a treaty which required such a declaration 
in order to secure its ratification. His resignation 
naturally stirred up public opinion to further attacks 
on Baron Tanaka, who was retaining his post as 
Premier and as Minister for Foreign Affairs, 
though he was more responsible than Count Uchida. 

II. Solution of the Grave Incident 
in iManchuria 

Turning a deaf ear to this attack of public- 
opinion, Premier Tanaka attempted to reorganize 
his Cabinet and create a fresh atmosphere in order 
to retain his position. But before he set to work 
he had to solve the problem concerning "a certain 
grave incident" in Manchuria, which means the 
Assassination of Marshal Chang Tso-Lin on June 
4. 1928, by an explosion on the Peking-Mukden Kail- 
way on the spot where it crosses underneath the 
South Manchurian Railway. The Japanese Govern 
ment had never made public the cause and circum 
stances of this incident, on the ground that it was 
under investigation, thus making the solution of 
this incident an outstanding affair. 

Now in facing this problem, the Cabinet fell. 



20 JAPAN 7 

The true reason for the general resignation was not 
clearly announced. It was reported, however, that 
the responsibility of the Minister for War was ques 
tioned by the Grand Chamberlain in view of the 
fact that the Government intended to transfer 
Lieutenant-General Muraoka, Commander of the 
Kwantung Army, to the first reserve, on account 
of his careless superintendence over his army, the 
South Manchuria Railway and the land attached 
thereto, and suspend Captain Kawamoto from active 
service on the ground that he permitted Chinese 
soldiers to enter the spot where the two railways 
crossed each other. On the other hand, the author 
ities of the Army opposed extending the responsibil 
ity to the Minister for War. While the Govern 
ment was struggling with this dilemma, Prince 
Saionji, the only surviving Elder Statesman, hinted 
at a general resignation. Accordingly the Tanaka 
Cabinet fell on July 2, 1929. In a statement issued 
on that day, Baron Tanaka said, among other 
things, " . . . . However, a certain affair which 
took place last year outside our country was-* un 
expectedly utilized for political ends. It is really 
regrettable for the State as well as for constitu 
tional politics that this affair became a political 
issue. In this connection I cannot help feeling 
responsible to the Throne in view of my duty as 
Premier. After remaining in office more than two 
years, I have still some work to carry out, but too 
long a tenure of office is likely to lead to a stagna 
tion of the public spirit. Therefore in view of the 
domestic and foreign situation, I respectfully tender 
my resignation, believing that a change of admin 
istration will clarify the political situation and con 
tribute to the higher prosperity of the nation. . . ." 
However, the cause and circumstances of "the 
grave incident" were never announced, only the 
superintending military officers were punished on 
the above mentioned charge. 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OK JAPAN 21 

III. The Hamaguchi Cabinet and its 
Foreign Policy 

The Hamaguchi Cabinet was formed on July 2, 
11)29, to the great joy of the people at home and 
abroad. It is not too much to say that the people 
felt as if they had seen the blue sky after a long 
continued rain. The new Cabinet announced on 
July 9 its great platform of ten principles. The 
principles of the foreign policy were announced as 
follows : 

(A) Regarding Chinese Questions. "In view of 
the situation in China the Government recognizes 
the necessity for adherence to the same policy. For 
the solution of the problems pending between the 
two nations, it is imperative that the nations con 
cerned should understand each other s position, 
giving due consideration and finding points of 
mutual harmony, based on fairness and equality. 
It does not help the general situation to confine one s 
attention to partial issues. It does not enhance the 
prettige of a nation to move military forces with 
out sufficient reason. 

"What the Government seeks is co-existence and 
co-prosperity. As to the economic relations be 
tween Japan and China, they should have free and 
unhindered development. Our Government not only 
rejects a policy of aggression in any part of China 
but it is prepared to render friendly aid to China 
for the attainment of the national aspirations of 
China. It is, however, the responsibility of the 
Government to protect and preserve the legitimate 
rights and interests that are indispensable to 
Japan s existence and prosperity. The Government 
believes that the Chinese people understand this 
point fully. 

"The Government attaches importance to the cul 
tivation of friendship with the Powers and the pro 
motion of mutual commerce and enterprises. It is 
not desirable that the attention of the Government 



22 JAPAN 

should be concentrated on domestic politics, dis 
regarding economic relations abroad. Improvement 
of the trade balance depends on the peaceful prog 
ress of Japan s trade and foreign enterprises." 

(B) Regarding the League of Nations. "In 
view of the position Japan occupies in the family 
of nations it shall be the high duty of our country 
to participate in the activities of the League of 
Nations and contribute to the promotion of the 
peace, welfare and happiness of mankind in general. 
The Government attaches importance to the League 
and pledges itself to make efforts for the attain 
ment of the aim for which the League exists." 

(C) Regarding Disarmament. "Regarding the 
armament limitation problem, the powers ought, 
with firm determination, to expedite the conclusion 
of an international agreement. Its aim and pur 
pose should be not only the limitation of armaments 
but also their practical reduction. 

"The sincere attitude of our Empire toward this 
question has often been fully demonstrated, and, 
although the attempts at the conclusion of an agree 
ment on this question have often met with diffi 
culties, the public demand for disarmament is now 
more sincere than ever. The time is steadily ripen 
ing for putting the principle of disarmament into 
practice. 

"If the Powers will all consider their respective 
requirements sincerely, and face the problems in 
a spirit of mutual concession, the Government does 
not deem it a difficult task to accomplish this, the 
world s great undertaking." 

IV. The Dispute over the Chinese 
Eastern Railway 

The Dispute between China and Russia over the 
Chinese Eastern Railway was the first test of the 
ability of Baron Shidehara, the new Minister for 
Foreign Affairs. During the dispute, which com- 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF JAPAN 23 

menced on July 10 by the coup d etat of the Chinese 
authorities and ended with the Agreement signed on 
December 22: (1) Mr. Henry L. Stimson, American 
Secretary of State, reminded both China and Russia 
that they were under pledge as signatories of the 
Treaty for the Renunciation of War to settle their 
dispute by peaceful means; (2) Mr. Briand, French 
Foreign Minister, proposed to both countries on the 
same day that they mediate the dispute, and (3) 
the United States, Great Britain, France and sev 
eral other signatories of the Kellogg Pact, present 
ed on December 2 identical notes to both countries, 
appealing to them not to violate the Pact by engag 
ing in organized military warfare in Manchuria. At 
the time when the notes were delivered, direct 
negotiations were already in progress between both 
countries, and the Soviet Government regarded the 
presentation of the notes as an "unfriendly act". 
On the contrary, the Japanese Government did 
not present any formal recommendation to the two 
countries, due to the opinion that the dispute should 
be, and would be, solved by the parties concerned. 
Therefore, the Japanese Government did not go 
beyond the expression of its sincere hope for the 
speedy solution of the dispute. This attitude did 
not hurt the feelings of either country and it is 
worth while mentioning here that since the dispute 
occurred the Chinese people have come to abstain 
from boycotting Japanese goods. 

V. The London Naval Conference 

The Treaty for the Renunciation of War which 
came into force on July 24, 1929, not only acted 
very effectively as a fire-brigade in the burning dis 
pute over the Chinese Eastern Railway but also 
formed the guiding spirit of the London Naval Con 
ference. The welfare of mankind has no doubt been 
promoted by the Treaty. Having received the invi 
tation to the London Naval Conference issued by 



24 JAPAN 

the British Government on October 7, the Japanese 
Government sent a favorable reply on October 16. 
On October 18, it appointed as Delegates Mr. Reijiro 
Wakatsuki, former Premier, Admiral Takeshi Taka- 
rabe, Minister of the Navy, and Mr. Tsuneo Matsu- 
daira, Ambassador to the Court of St. James. On 
December 27, Mr. Matsuzo Nagai, Ambassador to 
Belgium was added to the delegation. 

The official instructions to the Japanese Dele 
gates, which made clear the attitude of Japan to 
ward the Conference, may be summarized as follows: 

(1) To advocate not only limitation but prac 
tical reduction of naval forces. 

(2) To demand a Japanese Navy satisfactory 
for defense and security but not enough for 
aggression. 

(3) To claim a 70% ratio in 10,000 ton cruisers 
armed with 8-in. guns. 

(4) To claim parity in submarines on a basis 
of present tonnage, viz., 78,500 tons and oppose 
abolition or drastic reduction of submarines. 

(5) To request a 70% ratio in total tonnage of 
auxiliary battleships. 

(Gj In regard to capital ships, to favour a reduc 
tion of tonnage to 25,000 and a reduction in gun 
calibres to 14 in. 

(7) To support a reduction in the tonnage of 
aircraft-carriers to 15,000 or 20,000 tons, and 

(8) To approve the establishment of the follow 
ing age limits: Capital Ships 25 years, Cruisers 20 
years, Destroyers 1C years, Submarines 13 years. 
The London Naval Conference was opened on Jan 
uary 21, 1930. The successful results were embodied 
in "The London Naval Treaty of 1930," signed at the 
final meeting held on April 22. The success of the 
Conference was due to a spirit of mutual conces 
sion, mainly, of Japan, Great Britain and the United 
States of America. The agreement finally reached 
was not therefore necessarily the same for Japan 
as thr official instructions mentioned above. it 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF JAPAN 25 

does contribute, however, to the reduction of the 
burdens inherent in competitive armaments. It also 
carries forward the work begun by the Washington 
Naval Conference. 

VI. The League of Nations and Japan 

It is regrettable that the Japanese delegates to 
the Tenth Assembly of the League of Nations held 
in Geneva in September, 1929, were not prepared 
to accept the Optional Clause concerning the juris 
diction of the Permanent Court of International 
Justice, while the Right Hon. J. It. Macdonald, 
British Premier, announced in his eloquent speech 
the intention of his Government to accept it. So 
many delegates of other nations followed his exam 
ple that the Assembly will be known as "the Option 
al Clause Assembly." There is no reason, however, 
that Japan should hesitate to accept this and, more 
over, there is growing public opinion in favour of 
it. It will not be long, therefore, before the name 
of Japan will be found on the list of the countries 
which have accepted the Optional Clause. 

It is true that member States of the League 
should make propositions for promoting the objects 
of the League, such, for example, as the British 
delegates attempted in the last Assembly. They 
made propositions concerning the Optional Clause, 
the amendment of the Covenant, a customs truce, 
an international conference on coal problem, the 
control of the production of opium and other dan 
gerous drugs, in international slavery, the disarma 
ment question and the treatment of members, of the 
League of Secretariat. Japan, on the contrary, pro 
posed nothing in the Assembly. Nevertheless, it 
must be recognized that Japan has an eager inten 
tion to co-operate with other countries in order to 
promote the work of the League. For example, she 
sent an official delegate, not an observer, to the 
Customs Truce Conference, held from February 17 
to March 24, 19:10, although it was known before- 



26 JAPAN 

hand that the United States of America, China, In 
dia and Australia, all of which have close trade 
relations with Japan, would not participate in the 
Conference. It was a pity however, that this sincere 
purpose of Japan secured for her, as a result of 
participating in the Customs Truce Conference, the 
Indian tariff increase and the differential treatment 
of Japanese cotton goods on and after March 1, 
1980. Moreover, the Conference ended with the con 
clusion of the Commercial Convention, the Protocol 
regarding the Programme for Future Negotiations 
and the Final Act, none of which were important 
for participating countries outside Europe. 

This tendency of the League is really deplorable, 
in view of its universality. But even if the univer 
sality of the League of Nations was not realized 
in this case, still we must appreciate the fact that 
Far Eastern questions are attracting the attention 
of the League. This is witnessed by the fact that 
the League sent to the Far East during the last year 
(1) Dr. Yotaro Sugimura, under-Secretary General 
of the League Secretariat, and Mr. Cummings, 
member of the Secretariat, to the Third Conference 
of the Institute of Pacific Relations, held in Kyoto 
from October 28 to November 9, 1929. (2) Dr. 
Thorvald Medsen, Chairman of the League s Health 
Commission, to the Eighth Japanese Medical Con 
gress held in April, in Osaka 1930. (3) Dr. Eric 
Einer Ekstrand, Chairman of the League s Commis 
sion of Enquiry into the Control of Opium in the 
Far East, to visit Japan. 

VII. International Relations of Japan in General 

The following facts indicate that the relations 
between Japan and China have very much improved 
through the past year: 

(1) The Japanese Government officials recog 
nized the Nanking Government on June 3, 1929, 
taking advantage of the opportunity afforded by the 
removal ceremony of the casket of the late Dr. Sun- 



INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF JAPAN 27 

Yat-Sen from the Suburbs of Peking to Nanking. 

(2) The downfall of the Tanaka Cabinet and 
the formation of the Hamaguchi Cabinet helped to 
remove the bad feelings between the two countries. 

(3) Since the dispute over the Chinese Eastern 
Railway arose, the Chinese people have given up 
the boycotting of Japanese goods. 

(4) The Tariff Agreement between Japan and 
China was formally signed in Nanking on May 6, 
1930, by Mr. Mamoru Shigemitsu, the Japanese 
Charge d 1 Affairs in China, and Dr. C. T. Wang, 
Foreign Minister of China, and came into force on 
and after May 6 of the current year. By this agree 
ment Japan recognized China s tariff autonomy, 
which the latter lost some ninety years ago and 
which has been the object of the earnest wishes 
of the Chinese people. 

Although the United States of America, Norway, 
Belgium, Italy, Denmark, Portugal, Holland, Great 
Britain, Sweden, France and Spain had previously 
recognized China s tariff autonomy, it had not been 
put into force, because of the "most favoured nation" 
clause as stipulated in the Sino-Japanese Commer 
cial Treaty. Now that this barrier has been sur 
mounted by the said Sino-Japanese Tariff Agree 
ment, and the Chinese government has given its 
pledge to abolish the various trade hindrances, the 
feelings between the two countries have been greatly 
reconciled. 

As to the relations between Japan and the 
United States of America, we are glad to find an 
other hopeful atmosphere. This is due to the follow 
ing facts: 

(1) The third Conference of the Institute of 
the Pacific Relations held in Kyoto last autumn 
served to promote mutual understanding between the 
two countries. 

(2) The London Naval Conference has increas 
ed good will between Japan, Great Uritain and the 
United States of America. 



28 JAPAN 

(3) The gratitude Envoys consisting of six 
Japanese girls, have conveyed during the spring of 
1930, the national thanks of Japan to the American 
people for the relief extended to Japan at the time 
of the Great Earthquake and Fire of September, 
1923. 

(4) Senator Albert Johnson, Chairman of the 
Committee on Immigration of the House of Repre 
sentative of the U.S.A., announced, on May 23, 1930 
that he intends to propose an amendment to the 
Immigration Law of 1924 in order to apply the quota 
basis to immigrants from Japan. As the Immigra 
tion Law has been a deep-rooted obstacle in the 
way of good will between the two countries, Senator 
Jonnson s announcement has been heartily welcomed 
by the Japanese people. 

Space does not permit me to dwell on the rela 
tions between Japan and other countries, other than 
China and the United States of America. It can 
be said, however, that Japan is now on very good 
terms with all other countries and in these days 
there are no important world affairs with which 
Japan is not connected. In regard to this, I wish 
to mention, (1) that Japan has begun to exchange 
ministers with Canada. The first Canadian Minister 
to Japan is the Hon. Herbert Marler, who present 
ed his credentials to His Majesty the Emperor on 
September 18, 1929 and (2) that Japan sent Mr. 
Kengo Mori, M.P., to the meeting of the Experts 
Committee on Reparations held at Paris from Feb 
ruary 11 to June 7, 1929, and Dr. Mineichiro Adachi, 
Ambassador to France, to the Diplomatic Confer 
ence on Reparations held at The Hague from August 
G to August 29, 1929. Through these meetings deci 
sions were made as to the reparations problems of 
the Great War. The Bank for International Settle 
ments has been established at Basle, Switzerland, 
with Japan as one of the important promoters of 
the Bank. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE RECENT HISTORY OF THE JAPANESE 
LABOR MOVEMENT 



Toyohiko Kuyawa 

Decreases in Membership 

Since the panic of 1927 the membership of the 
labor unions has decreased, large numbers are still 
reported, but in reality the many whose names are 
on the books are not paying their dues to the 
unions. They have become tired of supplying 
salaries for secretaries who spend too much money, 
they feel, on political movements and especially on 
general elections. 

The Situation of the Peasant Unions 

Before the general election of 1928, Mr. Sugi- 
yama s Peasant Union was considered to have about 
one hundred thousand members, but after the elec 
tion the members stopped paying their dues and it 
became very difficult to raise the national budget. 
It is said that now the paying membership of this 
great Peasant Union is only fifteen thousand. 

The radical Peasant Union which had been 
originally Mr. Sugiyama s but had been captured by 
the communists was in even more distress, since its 
leaders had lost the confidence of the moderate 
peasants, who had found the communist position 
too extreme to be adapted to peasants in Japan. 
So Mr. Yamakami, its president, and his group, 
sought to be re-united with Mr. Sugiyama s Union; 
and in June, 1928, this reunion was accomplished 
at a reconciliation mass meeting held in Osaka Cen- 



;;o JAPAN 

tial City Auditorium. The secretaries of the new 
Union were, however, very unfortunately more com 
munistic than otherwise in their inclination, and 
local unions soon stopped giving full support to 
headquarters, which gradually became paralysed, 
while the local unions became more active. 

1928 Strikes and Tenant Disputes Fewer 

In the year of 1928 there was the smallest rec 
ord of strikes and land disputes for the last ten 
years, not because the workers were satisfied, but 
because the effect of the 1927 depression was so 
great that they had lost even the power to strike 
or dispute. There were less than three hundred 
disputes in factories, and only about eighteen hun 
dred land disputes, mostly small ones, between land 
owners and tenants. Victories for the workers were 
also fewer in proportion to the totals. 

Communist Arrests and Activities 

The communists were desperate. Just before the 
1928 election they distributed handbills attacking 
the Imperial Household and the bourgeois cabinet. 
Arrests followed to the number of eight hundred, 
on March 15, 1928. This was the first great arrest 
of communists and became famous as the "Case of 
the Fifteenth Day of the Third Month (San Ichi 
Go Jiken)". Among those who fled from the police 
at that time was the leader of Sovietism in Japan, 
Masanosuke Watanabe, who committed suicide in 
Keelung, Formosa, after killing a policeman. 

Fukumoto, the famous promoter of "Fukumoto- 
ism," was arrested in Osaka, and Sano Gaku in 
Shanghai. It looked as if the communist movement 
in Japan was decaying, but a revival began from 
the literary quarter. Since then hundreds of com 
munist propaganda books have appeared in the 
form of novels. 



JAPANESE LABOR MOVEMENT . U 

Meanwhile Oyama and Kawakami grew very bold 
and made public a statement from their political 
party, the Extreme Left, that they would stand for 
a non-rational violent movement. Non-rational 
means not obeying the law, and this statement was 
very pleasing to the Soviet. But again came the 
natural consequence in another arrest of communists 
which made it impossible for Oyama s party to be 
active. This is called the "Case of the Sixteenth 
Day of the Fourth Month", (April 16, 1029) and 
involved about two hundred arrests, mostly of 
students. 

At that time the communist agitators lost their 
basic fortress (office), but they continued to issue 
their propaganda organ, the Proletarian News (Mu- 
sansha Shimbun) almost every day, without any fear 
of the government. The printing office was moved 
daily, so that the police could not find it, and the 
product distributed among laborers. Nevertheless 
the communist movement lost ground in 1928 and 
1929, especially at the time of the Enthronement of 
the Emperor, when it is said that thousands were 
arrested and housed in barrack-prisons built espe 
cially for the purpose. 

Losing the lead in the Union Movement, the com 
munists tried next to capture the consumers co 
operatives. There were about twenty-seven laborers 
consumers co-operatives in Tokyo. The communists 
captured more than half of them, causing a division 
in the Co-operative Union in the fall of 1929. Then 
the police department stepped in and forcibly pre 
vented the communists from creeping into the rest 
of the co-operatives, and into the trade unions. 

All the Peasant Unions in Kagawa Prefecture 
were stamped out absolutely. It became the policy 
of many Prefectures to wipe out the Extreme Left 
from the local Unions. Then the Soviet movement 
laid hold on some of the big cities. Now in Osaka, 
Kobe and especially in Tokyo the communist move 
ment is more popular. In the local Prefectures the 



32 JAPAN 

communists have almost disappeared, or else have 
changed their policy slightly toward the Right. 

Split in the Japan Federation of Labor 

As the Left Wing was more and more oppressed 
by the government, the Central Right, the Japan 
Federation of Labor, increased in membership and 
became a very strong body. But in the fall of 
1929 the Left Wing made a new move inside the 
Osaka branch of the Japan Federation of Labor, 
which caused this strongest section of the J.F. of 
L. to divide. Oyama and Yamanouchi followed by 
about seventy per cent of the whole membership 
formed a new Union called the Zenkoku Rodo Domci 
under the Left Wing influence. This "National Labor 
Federation" is pink. It is not exactly communist, 
but has generously fraternized with communism. 
It has formed a new political party called the 
National Peoples Party (Zenkoku Minshuto), led 
by such intellectuals as K. Taman and Furuya. This 
split in the political formation is what caused the 
failure of Bunji Suzuki to be re-elected from his 
Osaka district at the 1930 election to the Diet. It 
is chiefly the followers of Suehiro Nishio who have 
remained in the Japan Federation of Labor in 
Osaka. 

This is the third time that there has been a 
split-off from the Japan Federation of Labor. The 
first time was when the Federation took the initia 
tive in expelling eight thousand radicals led by 
Nakamura Gimei in 1924. Most of these became 
communists. The second time was when Fujioka 
and his following left in 1925. The second and 
third split-offs are now trying to unite, and hope 
that their new Federation will become stronger than 
the old Japan Federation of Labor. But at latest 
accounts they have not succeeded in their effort 
to unite. They are not communist, but are gener 
ous to communism. 



JAPANESE: LAHOK MOVEMENT : ." 

Laborers Less Radical and Government 
More Liberal 

The general movement in 1929 was more to the 
Right, or to the moderate Left. With the fall of 
the Cabinet following the death of General 
Tanaka, Hamaguchi took the reigns of govern 
ment and adopted a moderate policy toward 
the labor movement. At the general election on 
February 20, 19)50, the proletarians lost seats, the 
number of labor seats decreasing at this time from 
eight (in 1928) to five in 1930. And as Oyama of 
the Extreme Left had returned to "lawful" move 
ment, the government gave recognition to his 
political party, and he was elected to the Diet. 

More Strikes in 1929 

In 1929 the workers became more impatient with 
the great panic and revolted against the depression. 
More land disputes and more strikes took place. 
The largest was in the spring of 1929, the strike 
of the steamship sailors. This and other 1929 dis 
turbances came from a simple reason. They were 
protests against the almost universal reduction of 
wages. 

Girl Workers in the Cotton .Mills 
Learn to Strike 

As the cotton mills wanted to reduce wages 
through reducing the working time, their girl work 
ers for the first time began to strike. The year 
before there had been a big strike in cotton mills, 
but led by men. Now through the panic the girls 
were stimulated to awaken to the situation, catch 
ing fire from public opinion prevailing outside the 
factories with reference to the improvement of labor 
( onditions. 

The paternalism of the great mill owners col 
lapsed, and in 1930 came the strike even of the 
"K. inebo" factories, the largest and most model fac 
tories in Japan. 



, M JAPAN 

"Kanebo" Strike 

The Kanebo Company (of which the full name is 
Kanegafuchi Bosekikaisha) owns twenty-seven fac 
tories scattered over all Japan and with thirty- 
eight thousand employees. These employees had en 
joyed higher wages and more welfare features than 
those in other companies. But when the company 
suddenly announced a reduction of forty per cent in 
the special wartime allowance of seventy per cent of 
the regular wage, the employees everywhere revolt 
ed, and were supported in their protest by all the 
organized forces of Labor. The seventy per cent 
of special allowance was a necessity because of the 
three hundred per cent rise in the cost of living at 
wartime, which had never been reduced to its 
former level. The forty per cent reduction would 
have amounted to a net reduction of twenty-seven 
per cent of the total wage. 

In spite of the tradition of paternalism loudly 
reiterated by company officials, the workers struck 
in Kanebo factories in Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Tokyo, 
Takasago, and in Fukuoka. Tokyo and Takasago 
workers soon went back to their factories. Osaka 
and Kyoto workers endured for more than fifty days 
and won a partial victory, probably for the whole 
of the twenty-seven factories, whereby the company 
agreed to replace about thirty per cent of the pro 
posed reduction, and promised that as the depres 
sion lessened to go back to the full wartime wage. 

Depression Causes Failure of Cotton 
and Silk Mills 

This reduction of wages seems an imperative 
necessity to the factory owners. There is a large 
cotton mill in Wakayama from which the proprie 
tor fled recently, leaving behind him two thousand 
five hundred girl employees and so large a debt that 
the government had to pay the return tickets for 
the girls to return to their homes and simply close 



JAPANESE LAHOK MOVKMKNT o5 

up the affairs to the company. The same sort of 
thing is happening everywhere. In Shinshu, the 
silk district, over fifteen thousand girls in more 
than fifty factories have not received their wages 
for more than six months. They have had food but no 
wages, and only about half of them are working. 
In Shinshu this situation is caused by the panic in 
Wall Street, New York City, because of which raw 
silk is not being bought from Japan as usual. 

Laborers Transform a Factory into 
a Co-operative Producers Union 

The most interesting and hopeful result of this 
business depression of the last two years has just 
come to light in Kawaguchi Cho, an industrial 
suburb of Tokyo. Here forty laborers were almost 
put out of their factory because of the depression. 
The company could not afford to pay wages, so the 
laborers organized themselves into a co-operative 
producers union, and have been carrying on since 
February, 1929 in a thoroughly successful fashion. 
They have been able to increase their own wages 
from thirty to forty per cent over the former scale, 
and are very much pleased with the result. 

Sufferings of the Unemployed 

Hut this happy situation exists so far as is 
known in only this one factory. Bourgeois policy 
does not promote this sort of enterprise, and the 
government is very slow to act to help along such 
a movement. An investigation made today in Kawa 
guchi Cho reveals the fact that of three hundred 
and forty iron-casting factories in this town of four 
thousand laborers, one-third are closed altogether, 
one-third are working half-time, and only one-third 
are carrying on as usual. This means that many 
skilled workers are reduced to beggary. Fully one- 
third of all the laborers in this town are suffering. 
They are to be seen picking up broken glass out 
of ditches to sell, and eating snakes. 



CHAPTER V. 
MODERN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 



D. C. Holtom 

Questions relating to the real status of the Shinto 
Shrines can hardly escape the notice of the serious 
student of contemporary Japan. To truly know 
Japan and the inner forces and problems of her 
national life it is essential that we take cognizance 
01 certain movements of thought and practice that 
center in the complicated system known as Shinto. 
The grounds for such statements can be made to lie 
largely in the fact that from childhood the Japanese 
people are taught that attitudes and usages connect 
ed with the Shinto shrines are vitally related to good 
citizenship. To be a good Japanese requires loyalty 
to certain great interests for which the shrines are 
made to stand. This interest is deliberately fostered 
on a large scale by the government. The shrines and 
their ceremonies are olticially regarded as probably 
chief among the agencies for the promotion of what 
is commonly designated kokumin dot ok it, or national 
morality. They are thus accorded a place of distinc 
tion among the approved instrumentalities for com 
bating dangerous tendencies in the thought-life 
of the people and for firmly uniting the nation about 
certain important social and political institutions. 

Just now, in various sections of the nation, there 
is manifestation of an unusual interest in certain 
Shinto problems which have remained unsettled for 
decades and which are now pressing for solution. 
Special attention was drawn to the shrine issue last 
year by the appointment of a commission of the gov 
ernment for the investigation of the institutions of 



JAPAN 



the shrines, called the Jinja Seido Chdsa Kai. It is 
probable that the study of this commission will extend 
over a period of several years. Important pronounce 
ments are expected from it. The Yomiuri Shimbun, 
beginning with the current year, has been publish 
ing a series of incisive and well-informed articles 
dealing with Shinto. The Chuyai Xippd, which is 
the newspaper organ of the Shin sect of Buddhism, 
has been making sturdy efforts to acquaint its readers 
with the shrine problem in its various aspects. The 
same is true of one or two Christian periodicals, 
notably the Fuktdu Shimpd. The National Christian 
Council has had a special committee studying the 
shrine problem in relation to the Christian move 
ment in Japan. An examination of the pronounce 
ments made by these various agencies will show that 
they are fairly unanimous in regarding as probably 
the most important issue connected with the shrines, 
the question: Are the shrines and their ceremonies 
religious in nature, or, put in another form, is state 
Shinto a religion? Statements pro and con on this 
question turn up with fair frequency in the contem 
porary press. The officials of the Bureau of Shrines 
of the national government announce that they are 
now gathering material on the basis of which they 
hope to make a fair appraisal of the entire matter. 
Before attempting to come to closer terms with the 
investigation of this situation, it is perhaps in order 
to make a few remarks regarding the limits of the 
present study. 

It is possible to attempt delimitation by a pre 
liminary definition of Shinto. A definition is, how 
ever, hardly more than an epitomized description in 
terms of significant features, and manifestly the sense 
of what is significant varies with the investigator. 
In the definition of sociological and psychological 
materials such as we have in Shinto it is very diffi 
cult to avoid the introduction of the personal equa 
tion. There are ten or a dozen good definitions of 
Shinto in existence, all varying according to the in- 



MODERN SHINTO AS A STATF RELIGION 39 

dividual viewpoints of those making the definitions. 
Shinto is the Way of the Gods; it is the indigenous 
religion of the Japanese people; it is Kami cult; it 
is pan-psychism or hylozoism; it is the national spirit 
of the Japanese ( Yamato Damashii) ; it is the sacred 
ceremonies conducted before the Kami; it is the 
principles of imperial rule; the principles of social 
and political relationship; the way of ideal national 
morality; it is a system of patriotism and loyalty 
centering in Mikadoism; it is nature worship; or, on 
the other hand, its essence is ancestor worship; or, 
finally, it is an intermixture of nature and ancestor 
worship; etc. We have suggested a dozen or more 
definitions. Perhaps the chief value of such brief 
descriptions is that they state fields of interest, and 
indicate points of view from which data may be 
collected and lines of thought developed. 

It is manifestly necessary to fix in some manner 
the limits of the field of investigation. For our 
purpose let it suffice to take the data which the gov 
ernment itself has included in the so-called Shinto 
classification. When we approach the study from 
this point of view we find four main fields of activity 
in Shinto, namely: first, the ceremonies of the Im 
perial Household; second, domestic Shinto, centering 
in the kamidana or god-shelves of the private homes; 
third, shrine Shinto, centering in the public shrines; 
and, fourth, sect Shinto (also called religious Shinto) 
centering in the many churches of the various 
Shinto denominations. As a matter of fact it would 
probably furnish a more rigorous classification if 
we distinguished only three forms, Domestic Shinto, 
Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto, since the ceremonies 
of the Imperial Family may be classified under either 
the first or the second of the forms just mentioned. 
As far as public activities are concerned, then, we 
have only two forms, namely, Shrine Shinto (Jhijn 
Shinto) and Sect Shinto (Shfiha Shinto): The 
present discussion is confined to Shrine Shinto, except 
in so far as it is necessary to differentiate Sect 



40 JAPAN 

Shinto. The distinctions to be made between these 
two branches of Shinto will be stated later in the 
discussion. 

What then is a Shinto Shrine? In Japanese law 
the institutions which we call shrines in English are 
generally designated jiiija, from xliin, or jin, mean 
ing deity (kanii in original Japanese) and aha, or 
ja, which in this connection should be rendered house 
oi dwelling place. The shrine of jiuja then is a 
house or dwelling place in which the deity or deities 
of Shinto are supposed to live, or where they are 
regarded as taking up residence when summoned In 
appropriate ceremonies; that is, they are holy places 
where the kanti may be found and communicated 
with. Japanese law permits the use of the term 
jiiija only in connection with the traditional institu 
tions of original Shinto wherein the kami are en 
shrined. The institutions of Buddhism and of the 
Shinto sects are denied the right to use the designa 
tion. We can preserve the distinction, if, in English, 
we speak of the institutions of traditional Shinto as 
shrines, or those of Buddhism as temples, and of 
those of the Shinto sects as churches or chapels. Jiiija 
is thus a modern Sino-Japanese legal designation and 
does not represent the early Japanese usage. Older 
and more distinctive Japanese terms used to indicate 
the abodes of the Shinto deities are miija, or omiya, 
jltishiro or ninnmliii-fi. hokora, hokura and mimurn. 
It is not necessary to venture- on an exposition of 
this varied terminology here. All the terms just list 
ed may be properly taken to mean dwelling place, or 
superior dwelling place, in one form or another. 

The shrine or jinja may be a small god-house of 
stone or wood, casually met with by the wayside. It 
may be a Grand Imperial Shrine of Ise, or a great 
Meiji Shrine of Tokyo, including in its appointments 
extensive landed holdings, numerous costly buildings, 
and varied objects of ceremony and art, with a total 
valuation of millions of yen. Shrines which are rec 
ognized and counted by the government in its clas- 



MODERN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 11 

sifications are divided into twelve groups. At the 
head of the classification appears the Ise Dai Jingu, 
or the Grand Imperial Shrine of Ise, listed in the 
official statistics as one great shrine, but really con 
sisting of a group of sixteen shrines, large and small. 
Below these are arranged eleven groups which vary 
from government and national shrines and their sub 
classes down through those of prefecture, district and 
village to a large group of more than 62,000 shrines 
which are designated as being without rank, the so- 
called Mukakuxhn. Outside of these again lie tens 
of thousands of little shrines that are not officially 
counted or recognized in any way. The total num 
ber of shrines in Shinto, large and small, is unknown. 

The number is legion. Shrines recognized and 
counted by the government as given in the latest 
statistics available total 112,390 (for 1927). Attached 
to these are 14,804 priests. No statistics of adher 
ents of the Jinja are kept by the national govern 
ment, the assumption evidently being that all Japan 
ese are by virtue of nationality naturally included 
within the sphere of shrine fealty. 

From the statement of these limiting remarks we 
may turn to some of the details of the situation which 
we have set out to examine. As a means of getting 
the more important issues before us let us take a 
typical statement from the vernacular press. The 
article selected appeared in the Tokyo \ichi Nichi 
Shimhuti of February . 5, 1930. It bears the title, Jinja 
ira Shiikyo ka, "Is Shrine (Shinto) a Religion?" The 
text reads in translation: 

"Emphatically, the shrines are not a religion. 
Nevertheless, the question as to whether or not they 
are objects of religious faith is by no means an easy 
one. The problem is difficult indeed, but in the end 
we must conclude that the shrines are not properly 
the objects of religious faith, otherwise it becomes 
impossible to perpetuate the (real) dignity of shrines. 

"But as a matter of fact the shrines have existed 
up to the present as the objects of religious faith. 



42 JAPAN 

Specifically, this religion is Shinto, the racial faith 
of the Japanese people. Moreover, it was (originally) 
a primitive religion, existing in the form of the wor 
ship of nature and of ancestors. 

"Buddhism, subsequent to its introduction into 
Japan, passed under the influence of Japanizing 
tendencies and came to advance the theory that the 
Japanese kami were manifestations of Buddhas 
(Honchi suijakH), and thereby effected an amalga 
mation of Buddhism and Shhito. It appeared for 
example as Ryobu Shinto. We should note that as a 
result of this the content of the primitive Japanese 
religion of nature and ancestor worship was gradual 
ly provided with doctrines. 

"After the beginning of the Meiji Era, Sect 
Shinto was recognized as a religion, and it has be 
come necessary to make a distinction between Sect 
Shinto and Shrine Shinto. It is not necessary for 
us to take up the problem of Sect Shinto here. 

"Under what influences, w r e may ask, did the 
Shrines come into being? In reply we may say that 
the reason lies in the fact that they made concrete 
the deities apprehended in Shinto, that is, they 
originated in beliefs, which from the standpoint of 
exact study, we must recognize as primitive religion. 
The shrines effected an association of the people with 
these deities and thus were built as places of com 
munion (with the spirit world). That is to say, the 
shrines were clearly objects of religious faith. Thus, 
it has been a matter of great difficulty to separate 
the shrines from the religious consciousness of the 
Japanese nation. And unless the attitude of the gov 
ernment toward the shrines is made clear and firm, 
it may prove impossible in the present and in the 
future alike to keep the people from a religious 
dependence on the shrines. In this situation the 
so-called shrine problem lies concealed. 

"If \vt- ask why the Meiji Government declared 
that shrines which were clearly the objects of reli 
gious faith were not the objects of religious faith, 



MODERN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 4li 

and, also, why both Buddhists and Christians were 
led to support the policy of such a government, then 
we must say in reply, that, if Shrine Shinto is a 
religion, then both Buddhists and Christians, under 
the guarantee of freedom of faith set forth in the 
Imperial Constitution, need not do reverence (keirei) 
and a very serious problem arises. 

"Needless to say, the Shinto shrines, beginning 
with the Great Mausoleum of Ise and including the 
government and national shrines as well as others, 
ought to be the centers of the reverence (keirci) of 
the citizens. We accordingly ought to make investi 
gation of the enshrined deities and the sacred objects 
athintai) of all the shrines, and make it clear that 
they are ancestors and meritorious subjects worthy 
of reverence and then preserve them to the end as 
the objects of moral sentiment. 

"In so far as we intend to make the shrines places 
of moral significance where all the people of the 
nation may pay reverence, without regard to indivi 
dual religious faith, we cannot permit ( in connection 
with them) the survival of any religious procedure 
whatsoever. 

"The Japanese government, in order that all 
citizens may be able to revere the shrines as nuclei of 
moral sentiments and not as objects of religious faith, 
should abolish completely all religious procedure and 
should limit the iwrito presented on the occasions of 
shrine festivals to thanksgiving and announcement, 
and never in any way permit the use of words of 
petition to the kami in which they asked to do this 
or that thing. In so doing the government should 
hold before all the people of the nation the highest 
ritualistic standards in affairs of national moral 
education, and should teach them thoroughly that 
even though petitions are offered at the shrines they 
are ineffectual, and that fundamentally the shrines 
are not places where prayers ought to be made." 

The above observations were penned by Taknshima 
Ht iho, a well-known writer who represents the power- 



44 JAPAN 

ful Shin Sect of Buddhism. He formerly served as 
a priest of Higashi Hongwanji. The article is part 
of an extended series of operations which this sect 
is carrying on in favor of a more rational procedure 
respecting the shrines. It opens with a strong 
affirmation of the non-religious nature of the shrines. 
The point of view thus expressed would seem to be 
in line with official intention and represents the ideal 
of a very large number of well-informed Japanese 
who desire to see the shrines and their ceremonies 
perpetuated as centers of ethical reinforcement for 
the nation and as rallying points of national senti 
ment in so far as they are competent to serve as 
such. 

Regarding the real status of the shrines and rites 
and attitudes connected therewith, the author makes 
two important statements: first, that in their histori 
cal forms the shrines have functioned as objects of 
religious faith, and, second, that the actual content 
of ceremonial procedure in the present requires inves 
tigation with a view to determining whether or not 
religious procedure has been successfully eliminated. 
These statements call for further exploration. They 
may he taken as furnishing the outline for the remain 
der of our discussion. 

In the first place is State Shinto, that is, Shrine 
Shinto, revealed by its history to be a religion; and, 
in the second place, are beliefs and practices con 
nected with the shrines as objects of state ceremony 
such as to require classification as a religion? 

Perhaps at this point I am expected to state more 
exactly what I mean by religion. One hesitates very 
much to attempt to make any definition at all, mainly, 
because the subject is so complex and withal so per 
sonal that a definition runs the risk of being pounced 
on by the connoisseurs and torn limb from limb. I 
am not unaware of the existence of a whole book full 
of definitions of religion, ranging from statements 
such as that of the late Father George Tyrrell, who 
declares that the difference between religion and 



MODERN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 45 

ethics is in the belief in another world and the en 
deavor to hold communion therewith, to those of the 
modern humanists who give up the other world, 
super-human God, human soul and like beliefs and 
make religion essentially a loyalty to social idealism. 
Personally I am attracted by Durkheim s statement 
that religion is a unified system of belief and practice 
relative to sacred things (including sacred persons 
or beings). Should Shrine Shinto be classified here? 
Does it manifest such characteristics as sacred places, 
sacred rites and ceremonies, organized priest-hood, 
sacred beliefs such as the assumption of the existence 
of super-human beings whose aid is sought in prayer 
and ceremony, processes of release from uncleanness 
whether ethical or ceremonial, belief in the existence 
of a life after death, and a definite theory and practice 
of a life after death, and definite theory and 
practice of conduct, whether personal, social, or 
national? 

How, then, shall we classify Shrine Shinto as 
revealed by its history? It is impossible here to do 
more than to touch briefly on a small section of 
Shinto development. I arbitrarily select a special 
area which is of unusual significance, in relation to 
our problem, namely, the period lying between the 
Restoration of 1868 and the year 1875, that is, the 
Early Meiji Period. 

The first main event pertinent to our study in 
this Early Meiji Period was the establishment of 
Shinto as the State Religion of Japan. We may say 
this advisedly, for if we classify the Buddhism of 
the time as a religion, there seems no good reason 
why we should not do likewise with those beliefs and 
ceremonies of Shinto wherein the government of the 
time was seeking to secure a unique support for the 
state. A brief outline of the historical evidence 
follows. 

There are Japanese Shintoists who maintain that 
the most conspicuous thought-movement of the latter 
part of the Tokugawa Era was that system to which 



46 JAPAN 

the name Fukko Shinto has been given. The inter 
pretation can be strongly supported by the historical 
evidence. Fukko Shinto, as the name indicates, was 
Renaissance Shinto, a revival of ancient institutions, 
inspired and led by some of the greatest scholars 
that Japan has ever produced. It was an attempt to 
clear away accumulated historical rubbish and permit 
the clear flowing of the dammed-up and obscured 
stream of pure and ancient culture. We know well 
enough, of course, that this renaissance was far from 
transcending continental influences; the loyalists of 
the time were permeated through and through with 
Confucianism, yet, it is true that on the ceremonial 
or religious side, they had no other recourse than 
Old Shinto, or, as it is sometimes designated, Pure 
Shinto. But this new tide that was sweeping through 
the clogged-up bed of Japanese life was no mere 
idealistic construction of isolated academic religion 
ists. At its heart was vital theory of state. 

It was a conception of a united nation ruled over 
eternally by an unbroken line of Emperors, divinely 
descended from the great Kami of the Age of the 
Gods. This conception was the underlying strength 
of the loyalist movement. It became effectual in the 
restored imperial government and led directly to a 
new union of Shinto and state. 

In the first month of the first year of Meiji a 
Department of Shinto was established as chief among 
seven different departments of government. Three 
separate reorganizations were found necessary before 
the fourth year of Meiji came to a close, but the 
total result was to make Shinto ever more secure as 
the religign of the state. Propagandists (scnkyoshi) 
were appointed by the government to proclaim the 
Great Teaching of revived Shinto to the nation. In 
the first month of the third year of Meiji the Em 
peror issued a Rescript defining the relation of Shinto 
to the nation and the intention of the government 
regarding the same: 

"We solemnly declare: The Heavenly Deity and 



MODKRN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION -17 

the Great Ancestor established the Throne and made 
the succession sure. The line of Emperors, following 
one after the other, entered into possession thereof 
and transmitted the same. Ceremonies and govern 
ment were united and the innumerable subjects were 
of one mind. Government and education were made 
clear, above, and the manners of the people were 
beautiful, below. Since the Middle Ages, however, 
there have been sometimes periods of decay, and 
sometimes periods of progress; sometimes the "Way" 
has been plain, sometimes, darkened, and the period 
during which government and education were not 
spread abroad was long. And now in the cycle of 
fate (all this) is reformed. Government and educa 
tion must be made plain that the Great Way of belief 
in the Kami may be propagated. Accordingly, we 
newly appoint propagandists to proclaim this to the 
nation ( Yottc amta tii senkyoshi wo mcijite rtiottc 
t(uka ui fukyotsu). Do you our subjects keep this 
decision in mind." 

In November of this same year the central gov 
ernment placed "officials in charge of propaganda" 
( nenkyogakari) in each hau, and attempted to carry 
cut a program of popular instruction in the unity of 
Shinto and the state (saisei itchi). 

One phase of the situation just described was the 
development of an opposition to Buddhism stronger 
than any known before or since in Japanese history. 
This anti-Buddhist movement and its temporary reac 
tion, leading to a brief amalgamation of Buddhism 
and Shinto as a new attempt at a state religion, 
deserve careful attention. As is well known, Bud 
dhism was severely attacked during the later Toku- 
gawa period both by the Shinto revivalists and by the 
Japanese Confucianists. Especially did Ryobu Shinto 
come under the critical fire of the aroused nationalists 
who were attempting to eliminate all Buddhist in 
fluences from the Shinto shrines. As an example I 
cite Tomobayashi Mitsuhira who is mentioned in 
Prof. Kono s Jingi Shi as a loyalist scholar who 



48 JAPAN 

nourished at the close of the Tokugawa Era and 
withal a former Buddhist priest. Tomobayashi 
declared : "Originally we, the people of the land of 
the Gods, were a clean people, but we went astray and 
became slaves to Buddhism and preached compromise 
with dirt. But from now on we cast ye off, Ye 
Buddhas! And be ye not angered, for we are a clean 
people of the land of the Gods." Such sentiment 
was widespread, especially in official circles, for we 
must remember that Shintoists and Confucianists 
were in majority among those that accomplished the 
Imperial Restoration. 

The new government immediately set about a 
thorough house-cleaning in which all traces of Bud 
dhist dirt were to be swept out of doors once and for 
ali. Legislation was initiated in the third month of 
the first year of Meiji requiring that Buddhist priests 
attached to Shinto shrines should immediately relin 
quish their offices, and that all shrines should give 
up the use of Buddhist images as shintai, that is, 
as sacred enshrined objects in which the kami were 
supposed to take abode. Buddhist images, pictures 
and other Buddhist materials within the shrine pre 
mises were ordered removed. In many places the 
/"/// standing before Buddhist temples were taken 
away or broken down. ( In rare cases, however, even 
to-day torii may be still found standing before Bud- 
hdist edifices). In the fourth month of the same year 
the name of Bosatsu as attached to certain shrines 
was abolished. P or example, the title Iwashimidzu 
Hachiman Bosatsu was changed to Iwashimidzu 
Hachiman Gu, etc. The enforced changes extended 
to minute details. With Buddhist influences thus 
expelled, the nature of the offerings placed before 
the Kami reverted more and more to those listed in 
the norito of the Ktif/ixliiki and characteristic of 
original Shinto. Fish, for example, which had been 
taboo to Buddhist ceremonials now quickly found its 
way back into Shinto rites. The cry of Haibutsu 
kn (Abolish Buddhism, smash the Buddhas) 



MODKRN SHINTO AS A STATK RELIGION H) 

was raised throughout the land. Buddhist temples 
were spoiled, in some cases demolished. Prof. Kono 
of the Tokyo Kokugakuin Daigaku a careful student 
of Shinto history says regarding this situation, "As 
the movement for the separation of Buddhism and 
Shinto gained headway, it became a violent and mad 
rush to abolish all traces of Buddhism and was accom 
panied by demolition of Shinto-Buddhist temples 
(Jinguji), the burning and destruction of treasures 
that were suspected of having a Buddhist odor, and 
the persecution of monks and priests." 

The net result, however, was a situation far dif 
ferent from that contemplated by the official propa 
gandists of pure Shinto when they set out on their 
program of iconoclasm. The faith of the masses of 
the nation was then, as it is even to-day, a practically 
inseparable blend of Shimbutfiit, or Shinto-Buddhistic 
elements. The government quickly perceived that the 
forcible attempt to pry the two apart was creating 
a serious wound in the thought-life of the nation. 
The faith of the people was being officially turmoiled 
at a time when above all things else it was essential 
that the national psychology be ruffled as little as 
possible. On this point I summarize again certain 
penetrating observations made by Prof. Kono: "The 
anti-Buddhist movement not only wrought great 
damage to the power and organization of this great 
religion, but confused the faith of the people at large. 
The Shogunate had been destroyed. Buddhism which 
had been the anchor-rock to millions of people was 
passing through extraordinary vicissitudes; it was 
unavoidable that the faith of the people should be in 
restless ferment and that revolution and iconoclasm 
should be in the air. In this disturbed atmosphere 
the problem of the government was one of great 
difficulty. The strengthening of the national govern 
ment and the unification of the public mind demanded 
as a prime necessity the promulgation of loyalty to 
the Mikado and the fostering of a unified national 
psychology as a means of attaining corporate unity. 



50 JAPAN 

In a situation in which feudal military authority had 
just been displaced by imperial rule, in a land where 
seclusion and conservatism were just giving place to 
foreign intercourse and progressiveness, it was im 
perative that the government adopt toward the nation 
a steadying policy and program. To precipitate a 
struggle between Buddhism and Shinto at a time 
when the whole nation was in a ferment of new 
adjustment might spell disaster." 

Thereupon, at least as far as the religious policy 
was concerned, the ship of state was suddenly brought 
about and started on exactly the opposite tack. On 
April 21, 1872, the Department of Shinto was 
abolished and a Department of Religion, which in 
cluded within its jurisdiction the affairs of both 
Buddhism and Shinto, was set up in its stead. The 
affairs of both Shinto and Buddhism were placed 
under the same set of official regulations. 

A step of special importance was taken when on 
May 31, 1872, the government created a new office 
known as K>/<~>d<~> Shokn, literally "the profession of 
teaching and leading." Specific instructions given 
later to those appointed to the office of Kyodo Sh<>kn. 
indicate that it was the intention of the authorities 
that they should function primarily as teachers of 
religion and morals to the people. Priests of Shinto 
and Buddhism were appointed to this office without 
discrimination. It was specially enacted that public 
instruction given by the Kijmln Shoku should be 
according to three underlying articles: 

1. It should embody the principles of reverence 
for the gods and love of country. 

2. It should make clear the Truth of Heaven and 
the Way of Humanity. 

. . It should lead the people to respect the Em 
peror and be obedient to his will. 

In addition to the priests of Shinto and of Bud 
dhism, the office of Kyndn Shnkii included a certain 
number of actors, story-tellers, and even poets. The 
government was attempting to enlist the support of 



MODKKN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 51 

a wick- and varied personnel in a united program of 
cultural education and nationalistic centralization. 
The three principles of instruction just given were 
supplemented and clarified by a long list of subjects 
on which the appointees to the new office should study 
and teach. Among the subjects specified are the 
following: the virtue of the (national) deities, the 
benevolence of the Emperor, the immortality of the 
human soul, the creation of the world by the 
heavenly deities, patriotism, the nature and mean 
ing of Shinto festivals, services for the repose 
of deceased souls, the relations of ruler and 
subjects, of husband and wife, of parent and child, 
Shinto purification, the national organization of 
Japan (Kukoku Koktttai), the significance of the 
Restoration, loyalty, how mankind differs from the 
lower animals, the necessity of study and education, 
the nature and need of intercourse with foreign 
nations, civilization and culture, history of law, how 
to develop a rich country and a strong military 
organization, taxes, and finally how to increase pro 
duction and lessen consumption. 

It will undoubtedly be admitted that the list 
represents a fairly comprehensive and ambitious 
scheme. A serious attempt to carry it into effect was 
immediately undertaken by Buddhism and Shinto 
alike. In the late spring of the year in which the 
Kijodo Shoko was established (1872) various sects 
of Buddhism requested the government for per 
mission to establish Shinto-Buddhist Union In 
stitutes (Shimbutsu (iappci Kyoiti) where preachers 
and teachers for Kyddo Shokit appointment could 
be thoroughly trained, where students could be 
instructed in the three principles, and where occiden 
tal civilization could be examined. The requests were 
granted. The government itself soon took steps in 
the same direction. In January of 1873 a so-called 
Dai Kyohi (Great Institute of Instruction) was offi 
cially established on the estate of the Feudal Lord 
of Kishu in what is now Kojimachi, Tokyo. The 



52 JAPAN 

purpose of the foundation was to give centralized 
direction to the work of those appointed to Kyddd 
Shokit. In the Dai Kydiu was a Shinto Shrine 
wherein were established the Great Yamato Sun- 
goddess, and the Three Great Deities of Creation that 
appear in the opening verses of the Kojiki; namely, 
the four great kami, Ama no Minaka Nushi no Kami, 
Taka Mimusubi no Kami, Kami Musubi no Kami, 
and Amaterasu Omi Kami. Later in the same year 
the Dai Kydin was moved to Zojoji in Shiba. In 
December of the same year it was fired and burned. 
Suspicion fell on loyalists who were enraged at the 
thought of the sacred deities of Shinto enshrined in 
a mere Buddhist temple. In the rural districts 
smaller institutes of a similar nature called Chu 
Ki/dhi and Slid Kydiu. were set up. Priests of Bud 
dhism and of Shinto were ordered to unite their 
efforts in teaching and preaching, and mutually to 
overlook their private beliefs. The sequel proved that 
the latter expectation was impossible of fulfillment. 
This remarkable experiment in a dual state 
religion lasted only until the spring of 1875. In 
April of that year union propaganda on the part of 
Buddhism and Shinto was prohibited and in Novem 
ber of the same year the Kydin were abolished. In 
1877 the Department of Religion itself was dissolved 
and the legal oversight of Buddhism and of Shinto 
as separate bodies was provided for by setting up 
a Bureau of Shrines and Temples in the Department 
of Home Affairs. The office of Kyddd Shoku. lingered 
on for a number of years. Finally in January of 1882 
by an ordinance issued in the Department of Home 
A flairs, priests of Shinto were forbidden either to 
hold this office or to conduct funeral services. An 
exception attached to the enactment, however, makes 
it possible for priests connected with shrines up to 
and including those of prefectural grade to conduct 
funeral services as in the earlier status. Two years 
later, in 1884, the government did away with the 
office of Kyddd Shoku entirely and all authority in 



MODERN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 5, i 

the appointment and dismissal of the priests of the 
various sects of Buddhism and Shinto was left in 
the hands of each Kanchd or Superintendent Priest 
in charge of any given sect. 

\\ e should note briefly the reasons that led to the 
dissolution of the Buddhist-Shinto Federation of 1872- 
7."). In the first place we should take cognizance of 
the influence of the experience of Europe and America 
as mediated by the reports of the Iwakura commis 
sion. This party was abroad during the years 1871-- 
187.*>. On his return to Japan Iwakura opened the 
modern European- American world to Japanese states 
men and exercised a far-reaching influence on the 
policies of the early Meiji period. On the basis of 
his observation abroad he called attention to the in 
creased dangers of revolt and revolution arising out 
of too close connection between state and religion. 
His reports were made at exactly the time in which 
the government was attempting its difficult experi 
ment in the unification of Buddhism and Shinto. It 
is not mere coincidence that union propaganda on 
the part of these two faiths was prohibited almost 
immediately after Iwakura s return to Japan. 

Another factor is to be found in irreconcilable 
tendencies existing between the priesthood of Bud 
dhism, on the one hand, and those of Shinto, on the 
other. The former had had long experience in 
doctrinal propaganda but little practice in the fields 
of national ethical education, demanded in the new 
program of the authorities. Yet the Buddhist priests 
were vastly more skilled in public exposition than 
were their Shinto confreres, and many were tempted 
by the opportunity presented in officialized propa 
ganda to indoctrinate the people according to private 
and sectarian conceptions of what the situation 
required. The great Shin sect held aloof from any 
entangling alliances with despised Shinto. Serious 
differences arose between the Kyndo Shoku and the 
government, on the one hand, and between Buddhist 
and Shinto elements within the Kiindit Slmkii. on the 



f>4 JAPAN 

other. These fundamental diversities could not be 
overcome by mere legal enactment directed toward 
creating a unified propaganda. 

Out of this situation arose the governmental con 
viction that the interests of national unification under 
the Imperial Family could best be met by Shrine 
Shinto alone. Buddhism could be dispensed with, but 
the government could absolutely not let go of Shinto. 

In the above summary a great many of the details 
of official enactment relative to the shrines have been 
pel-force omitted. It would appear to be undeniable, 
however, that between 1868 and 1875 Shrine Shinto 
//v/.s- /// the paxitio)!. of tlie xtate religion of Japan, 
l><irt of tfie time exclusively .so, part of the time in 
conjunction with Buddhism. In this period Shinto 
possessed unmistakably most of the special marks of 
religion that we have noted, namely, sacred places 
where deities were communicated with, sacred rites 
and ceremonies, organized priesthood, and officially 
propagated doctrines that included not only the nation 
alistic tenets of love of country, loyalty to the Em 
peror and obedience to his will, but also instruction 
in more speculative subjects such as the immortal 
ity of the human soul, the creation of the world by 
the gods of heaven, how man differs from the lower 
animals and services for the dead. 

We may revert now to the second of the main 
questions proposed above in outlining the develop 
ment of our discussion, namely, are the beliefs and 
practices at present connected with the shrines as 
objects of state ceremony such as to require classi 
fication as a religion? This question may be best 
approached by noting the chief alterations in the 
status of the shrines that have been effected through 
government action since 1875. What are these 
changes and are they sufficiently thorough-going to 
give support to the governmental contention that 
Shrine Shinto may be properly classified outside the 
category of ordinary religion? 

The most important of these changes may be 



MODKRN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 55 

stated under three heads: first, the separation of 
of State Shinto from so-called Sect Shinto; second, 
the interdiction on the part of the government of 
the liberty of the priests to directly indoctrinate the 
people in Shintoistic tenets; and, third, the perfect 
ing of legal arrangements by which it is possible to 
formally classify and control State Shinto in entire 
independence of the control of ordinary religions. 

First, then, with regard to the distinction that 
has been drawn between Shrine Shinto and certain 
popular manifestations of Shintoistic belief that have 
come to be classified as Sect Shinto (Shilha Shinto) 
or Religious Shinto (Shukyo Shinto). In proportion 
as the authorities have magnified the shrines, popu 
lar interest in Shinto deities has been stimulated, 
popular reliance on them deepened and tendencies to 
ward the creation of popular organization about tenets 
and practices centering in the national kami 
strengthened. Various schools of Shinto thought 
have appeared in the long course of Japanese history, 
notably in the Tokugawa Era, and as a matter of 
fact some of the sects now under consideration have 
their roots in the Tokugawa regime. The Meiji Era, 
however, witnessed a truly extraordinary multiplica 
tion of Shinto sects, so much so that it became neces 
sary for the national government, fairly early in the 
Meiji Era to outline the limits of official Shinto as dis 
tinct from non-oHicial Shinto movements. ( I quote 
here from a summary of this situation recently pub 
lished in another connection.) 

"In 1882 all Shinto organizations were divided by 
law into two classes. The institutions of the state, 
that is, all Shinto shrines, were from now on to 
reserve to themselves the title of jinja (already 
explained) in contradistinction to the institutions of 
the sects which were to be called kijukai (churches). 
All Shinto bodies classified under the; second of these 
divisions were separated from direct relationship with 
the state, and were obliged to depend on private 
initiative for organization and support. This has 



5G JAPAN 

furnished a distinction which has been of great 
service to the government, but which, on the other 
hand, has led to much confusion. 

"The main points of difference between the two 
forms of Shinto thus differentiated by national law 
are as follows: Sect Shinto nucleates for the most 
part about the faith and activities of historical 
founders. Shrine Shinto, on the other hand, claims 
to perpetuate the traditional beliefs and rituals of 
the Japanese race, and insists that it is a cult with 
out individual historical founder. The sects, like all 
other ordinary religious bodies, maintain their own 
independent organizations and their legal properties 
are totally distinct from those of the shrines. They 
are denied the use of the latter as meeting places. 
They are not even permitted to make use of the 
/or//, the distinctive gateway that stands outside of 
the shrines. On the other hand, the shrines receive 
supervision and a measure of financial support from 
village, municipal, prefectural, or national govern 
ments, depending on the grade of the particular 
shrine concerned. Special legal enactments regulate 
the affairs of the shrines in matters of organization, 
priesthood and ceremonial. The sects carry on definite 
religious propaganda. They employ religious teachers 
and preachers. They maintain churches, chapels, 
schools and social service activities. They conduct 
religious services at appointed times wherein appear 
such elements as exhortation and instruction, prayer 
and ritualistic adoration. They publish a vast amount 
of literature for the ethical and religious guidance 
of the people. Faith healing is a dominating interest 
in several of the sects. The official cult, on the 
other hand, confines itself to the celebration of 
ceremonials and festivals considered appropriate to 
the fostering of "national characteristics." Its priests 
are forbidden by law to attempt to indoctrinate the 
people."* 



* Holtom. "Tii- St;it<- Cult of Modern .hipm)," Journal ,,j Rtli^ion, 

Vol. vii. N... i. PP. > -<;. 



MODERN SHINTO AS A STATE RELIGION 57 

The one conspicuous point of identity between 
Shinto of the state and Shinto of the people lies in 
the deities that are honored. The kami of Sect Shinto 
and of Shrine Shinto are for the most part one and 
the same, that is to say, the deities worshipped in 
any particular sect are generally a limited number 
of important kami selected from the abundant pan 
theon of old Shinto. This is not exclusively so, for 
once in a while on finds a deity in the sects not 
known to traditional Shrine Shinto. 

This fact of the existence of practically identical 
deities in the two great divisions of Shinto presents 
an almost insuperable difficulty to the authorities in 
any effort that they may make toward the elimina 
tion of popular faith in the efficacy of prayer offered 
at the shrines, for it is not easy to see how the official 
directors of popular thought, however astute they 
may be, are going to be able to devise a means of 
persuading the people that kami whose superhuman 
aid is efficacious when evoked in the churches are 
deaf when approached at the altars of jinja. As a 
matter of actual fact, however, the national govern 
ment itself is a party to services of prayer before 
the kami of the shrines, prayers wherein we find the 
elements not merely of thanksgiving and announce 
ment but also of direct entreaty. 

The number of Shinto sects now recognized by 
the government as independent legal bodies totals 
thirteen. There are numerous subjects, however. 
The total number of adherents enrolled in the thirteen 
sects is about seventeen millions. Whenever in cur 
rent literature one finds statements of the numbers 
of believers in Shinto, it should be remembered that 
the figures refer to the sects and not to the shrines. 
Statistics of adherents in the case of Shrine Shinto 
are not published by the Japanese government. 

The second of the major changes brought about 
in Shrine Shinto with a view to the elimination of 
ordinary religious elements is the strict prohibition 
of all religious propaganda on the part of the priests. 



Shrine priests are not permitted to attempt to in 
fluence the beliefs of the people by any of the 
ordinary agencies of sermon lecture, printed page or 
private conversation. All such activities whether by 
priests or others are prohibited at the shrines. This 
situation has already been touched on in outlining 
the separation of Sect Shinto from the parent stream, 
and it is perhaps unnecessary to make further exposi 
tion here. Be it said, however, that the priests are 
still allowed to conduct private ceremonies of prayer 
before the kami on behalf of individuals or groups 
this in addition to the main function of ritualist for 
public celebrations, and the priests of most of the 
state shrines are permitted to conduct funeral 
services. In recent years marriages at certain Shrines 
have become very popular. Priests are freely per 
mitted to serve as ritualists in various dedicatory 
services, both public and private, such as opening of 
expositions and erection of new buildings. Public 
meetings of local adherents (Ujiko), under priestly 
direction, are commonly held at the shrines of tutelary 
deities (L r jl(/ami). In many other ways, also, the 
shrines and their priests serve the social and religious 
needs of the people. It should be added, however, that 
consistent with the interdiction of priestly propa 
ganda, the government makes no attempt whatsoever 
to secure any creedal assent from individual 
worshippers. 

The existence of facts such as those just enumer 
ated does not justify us in supporting the statement, 
sometimes made, that Shinto has no doctrinal beliefs, 
no special ethical teachings and no sacred scriptures. 
The tntrito or formal addresses and prayers read 
before the kanri are treated with such deep reverence, 
and set forth ideas and attitudes of nature such as 
warrants their classification as sacred texts. The 
same may be said of some of the Imperial Rescripts, 
notably the Rescript on Education. Some modern 
Shintoists claim the Kojiki and the Nihongi as sacred 
scriptures. Furthermore, there are in existence ex- 



MODKRN SHINTO AS A STATE RKLIGION 59 

positions of Shinto thought which are classified by 
their authors as Shinto philosophy, or in some simi 
lar manner. Volumes dealing with Shinto ethical 
teaching are fairly numerous, as, for example, studies 
of Kokumin Dotoku, or national morality, mentioned 
at the beginning of this discussion. Practically every 
book on this subject, which is a required course in 
most government schools, contains sections on the 
shrines and their significance in the national life. 1 
refer anyone interested in this phase of the matter 
to a little book by Prof. Kono entitled Shinto Taikd 
( The Gist of Shinto) which lists selected biblio 
graphies on various branches of Shinto study, includ 
ing the subjects just named. 

The third main change in the status of the shrines 
and their ceremonies consummated in the modern 
period is found in the progressive legal isolation of 
State Shinto from all ordinary religious bodies. In 
this matter the authorities have proceeded cautiously 
..tep by step over a long period of years as the exi 
gencies of the situation have pointed the road. It is 
impossible to find an adequate explanation of the 
measures taken in any officially conducted scientific 
survey furnishing a basis for the conclusion that 
Shrine Shinto is not a religion. The most important 
of this legislation came in 1900 when distinct national 
bureaus were created for the oversight of the shrines, 
on the one hand, and of "religions", on the other. For 
a time both the Bureau of Shrines and the Bureau of 
Religions were managed inside the Department of 
Home affairs. In 191. * the latter bureau was trans 
ferred to the jurisdiction of the Department of 
Education. 

Hereby a legal and administrative device has been 
arrived at under which it is possible to avoid the neces 
sity of classifying Shrine Shinto as religion, that 
is, as Khftktjn. This merely forensic point is often 
strongly emphasized by the advocates of a non-reli 
gious nature for the shrines. It is the final resort 
of the official mind. Inasmuch as the government 



GO JAPAN 

does not classify and control the state system along 
with ordinary religious affairs, the weight of official 
pronouncement is not infrequently cited as a primary 
reason for rejecting a religious interpretation. It is 
largely on the basis of such formal classification that 
the authorities insist that Japan is without a state 
religion. In view of the guarantee of the right of 
individual freedom of religious faith in the Imperial 
constitution, accompanied by the official insistence on 
the importance of the shrines and their ceremonies 
as contributory to good citizenship, for the author 
ities to do otherwise than to insist that State Shinto 
is not a religion would be tantamount to the confes 
sion of a great inconsistency in the governmental 
treatment of religious matters. 

We may summarize the above discussion by point 
ing out that the changes wrought by the government 
in the status of State Shinto in the modern period 
have had almost nothing to do with the real content 
of shrine worship itself. In its inner life State Shinto 
of to-day is practically identical with the state reli 
gious system of 1868-1875, and with the Old Shinto 
of the Kngishiki. On the basis of content it is appro 
priate to classify modern State Shinto as a religion 
exactly as we classify the Shinto of Old Japan as a 
religion. 

Its major activities center in sacred ceremonies 
carried out within sacred shrine precincts by an 
organized group of sacred priests. Priest and lay 
man alike before they dare come into the dread pres 
ence of the enshrined kunii must be purified by special 
rites that cleanse from ceremonial defilement. The 
shrine rituals include prayer and sacrifice offered to 
deities regarded as objectively existing entities of 
a superhuman spirit world. The continuation of in 
dividual life after death is accepted as a fact under 
lying the state rituals. The ideals of sacred obliga 
tions of loyalty to Kmperor and Fatherland are in 
culcated as primary desiderata. The ethical motive 
of inspiring conduct conducive to good citizenship 



MODKRN SHINTO AS A STATF KKLIC.ION (1 

is dominant. In all these respects \ve find in State 
Shinto differentia that are accepted as characteristic 
in classifying so-called religious data from other 
fields. There is no jrood reason why \ve should make 
an exception in favor of State Shinto. 



PART II. 
Till; CHRISTIAN CHURCH IN 1929 



CHAPTER VI. 
TIIK CHRISTIAN CHURCHES DURING 1929 

Chr is topher X <> s s 

The Church in Japan is growing. A veteran 
missionary (Mr. Wynd) writes of a significant 
event: "In Tokyo towards the close of the year 
there was a very interesting interdenominational 
gathering of Christians. They came together to 
celebrate the seventieth anniversary of the open 
ing of Protestant work in Japan. Twenty years ago, 
when the fiftieth anniversary was celebrated, only 
about . 500 Christians were present, and outside of 
Christian circles no one knew anything about the 
meeting. It was different this time. The biggest 
hall in the city was strained to hold the 4,000 en- 
thusiatic men and women who took part. It was 
an event, and the city seemed to be moved by it. 
Messages wore received from the Premier and prom 
inent ministers. The new Minister from Canada 
gave one of the addresses, and said that he had 
never, even in Canada, seen such a Christian 
gathering." 

Moreover far beyond the bounds of the churches 
Christian sentiment is found to be surprisingly 
strong. Evangelism is not limited to the missions. 
Every Christmas Eve a radio hook-up is devised, and 
the whole nation is led in the observance of the 



64 

festival. Last Christmas the chief feature was a 
line presentation of "The Other Wise Man" in dia 
logue and song, concluding with an impressive reci 
tation of the "Inasmuch as," all in Japanese. The 
phonograph helps. Recently, for instance, the 
Victor Company released a record of two Japanese 
hymns sung by Rev. Percy Buchanan, with clear 
enunciation and exquisite expression. A hymn so 
sung brings tears to Japanese eyes and is certainly 
an evangelistic force of the first magnitude. Even 
the cinema helps occasionally. A film like "Ben 
II ur" sympathetically interpreted and reinforced by 
Christian hymns is a sound commercial proposition 
in. most places. Literature does its part. A book 
like Kagawa s "Crossing the Death Line" is a first- 
class seller still, and it has been the direct means 
of bringing salvation to many. In the great dailies 
it is becoming more and more the fashion to have 
a religious column. And so superior is the appeal 
of the Gospel that the Japanese word for "religion" 
is coming to have a predominantly Christian con 
notation. 

But the progress of the Church is slow, dis 
tressingly slow. 

Stanley Jones has pointed out that intelligent 
people in India and China respect Christ but mis 
trust the Church that bears His name. Jerome 
Davis in his latest book quotes a labor leader as 
saying of the American working man: "If workers 
had the same faith in the Church that they have 
in the Bible, there would not be half enough 
churches in the country to hold them." The case 
is not different in Japan. 

The causes of aversion to the Church are various. 
The inherited prejudice, and slanderous misrepre 
sentation by those who have their private reasons 
for disliking this religion, still prevail. But we 
Christians should not plead an alibi. We are our 
selves largely to blame. The presence in any com 
munity of nominal Christians whose lives offer a 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 65 

glaring contrast to the ideal set forth in the Bible 
is a chief cause. In many quarters there has been 
too little reserve in the granting O f baptism. There 
fore it may often be noted that it is easier to estab 
lish a church in a town where no official Christian 
work has ever been done than in one with an evan 
gelistic history. 

Further, the strongest of the older religions of 
the nation have been more individual than social 
in their emphasis, and church-life is foreign to 
them. Certain newer Shintoistic sects have shared 
with us the Japanese name for "church", but, this 
sect unfortunately, is in bad repute on account, so 
it is said, of its having exploited and impoverished 
its adherents. Into soil thus prepared that able 
and devoted Christian leader, Uchimura Kanzo, 
recently deceased, sowed the seeds of his individu 
alistic and unchurchly interpretation of the Gospel 
with extraordinary diligence and effectiveness. 

The resultant attitude is well expressed in the 
following letter from a rural friend, addressed to 
the writer and his associate in the work of corre 
spondence-evangelism. The translation is literal: 
"Thank you for often sending me the Kingdom of 
God Newspaper. Probably you are provoked be 
cause there has been no response. But, without 
doubt, I also am a disciple of God. In secret I am 
learning the doctrine of God; I know it well, too; 
I am saved, too. Since we here are busy, we do not 
wish to b<> taken captive by mere formalities, and 
indeed that is impossible for us. God did not de 
light in having people pray to Him in public, nor 
did He tell people to build churches and withdraw 
into them. Therefore for me it is enough to with 
draw into a room and in that quiet place to pray. 
To announce to the people in public I am a believer , 
and to be pompous about it, is hateful. I think that 
religion should be practiced naturally, under the 
blue sky and in the midst of the green fields. If I 
should in public confess God, just to show huw 



6fi JAPAN 

superior I am, how Mr. Christ would grieve ! I 
gladly receive the Kingdom of God Newspaper which 
you send, and in regard to the mind of God I am 
thankful; but as for withdrawing into a church, 
I wish to be excused. When I heard that you my 
teachers walked through the mountains to proclaim 
the mind of God, I was so happy that the tears 
came." Here is one whose heart is Christian, but 
who is blind to the social implications of his faith. 
There are many such. 

Nevertheless the Church grows. 

In an article so limited as this one can only 
glance at a few features of the great field. 

Greek Orthodox. Archbishop Sergius is greatly 
cheered by the successful restoration of the Cathe 
dral on Surugadai, Tokyo, burnt out in the catas 
trophe of 192;$. Of the required amount, 180,000, 
four-fifths were raised by the Japanese churches; 
the remainder, by Russian emigres on the continent 
near by. Since the revolution in Russia the Church 
in Japan has received no aid. The strongest 
churches have been combined into charges under 
the care of the older clergy. The pressing problem 
now is that of raising up young priests to take the 
places of the aging disciples of the great Bishop 
Xicolai. 

Roman Catholic. It is very difficult to secure 
accurate information in regard to this communion. 
In a country where it aroused such deadly animosity 
three hundred years ago its progress is necessarily 
slow. 

Hut it has elements of great strength. One is 
the character of its missionary personnel, cosmo 
politan, increasingly so, and utterly devoted. An 
other is the consistency of its policy. The educa 
tional institutions play fair, doing thorough work, 
and not obtruding their religion on those who do 
not want it. Consequently they are well patronized 
by many of the "best families." In evangelistic 



THK CHRISTIAN CHt RCIIKS T>7 

work the aim is the christianizing of families, not 
the conversion of individuals culled from the gen 
eral public. It is particularly to be noted that a 
girl is not granted baptism unless she can present 
a paper signed and sealed by her father or guardian 
to the effect that she will never be given in marriage 
to a man not a Catholic Christian. In considering 
the Church s reports of baptisms large deductions 
must be made on account of those performed in 
articulo mortis, which number half or more, but, 
on the other hand, for the reason stated above, 
the statistics of adults baptized have greater weight 
than in the case of the Protestant churches. 

Reformed or Presbyterian. The Ninon Kirisuto 
Kyokwai remains by far the strongest of the Pro 
testant groups so far as membership and self- 
support are concerned. 

The Mission of the Reformed Church in America, 
working in Kyushu, reports through Mr. Kuyper a 
better condition than at any time in the past ten 
years, with marked improvement in attendance at 
services and progress toward self-support. He says: 
"At the beginning of this year we placed before 
the groups receiving aid from us the project of 
opening up work in a new out-station. We inform 
ed them that we did not have the necessary amount 
in our budget, and allocated to each group what we 
considered a fair proportion of the necessary 
amount, and asked them to increase their contri 
butions by that amount. All the groups approach 
ed acceded to our request and with but one excep 
tion increased the full amount we asked of them." 

The two Presbyterian Missions have adopted tin- 
policy of turning over to the presbyteries all their 
aided churches with a subsidy diminishing to the 
vanishing point in five years. The final result of 
this experiment remains to be seen. If it succeeds, 
it does not follow that it would be equally appli 
cable to the fields of the Reformed Churches in 



68 JAPAN 

Kyushu and Tohoku, which are at the extremes of 
Japan proper, are at a great disadvantage economi 
cally, and are constantly contributing members to 
the central fields, receiving very few in return. 
Moreover if the policy succeeds so far as the cities 
and towns are concerned, the suggestion is in order 
that the Presbyterian Missions gird up their loins 
once more and make an entirely fresh start with a 
new personnel and a new method suited to the rural 
problem. For until the Church has deep roots in 
the villages the end of the evangelization of Japan 
is hardly in sight. 

In the field of the Reformed Church in the 
I nited States the Presbyterian policy has produced 
one regrettable reaction. Here the evangelistic 
work has been pushed energetically and the present 
financial subsidy from the home base is comparative 
ly large. The Japanese leaders, fearing the sudden 
withdrawal of the subsidy, are now inclined to resist 
expansion. 

Anglican. The Nihon Seikokwai has command 
of a large foreign personnel, not limited to Amer 
icans, well distributed. It pursues undeviatingly a 
churchly policy. Since the outbreak of the world 
war the missionaries sent from England have gradu 
ally decreased in number. The communicant mem 
bership has about doubled in the last twenty years, 
the contributions from Japanese sources in the same 
period multiplying sixfold. This Church has always 
maintained that when self-support is unduly stress 
ed the result is apt to be the checking of evangel 
istic progress. In Hokkaido, for instance, in order 
to fulfil the conditions required to install a Japan 
ese clergy man as bishop a strong effort was made 
to advance a certain number of churches to the 
point of self-support. Bishop Walsh rightly says: 
"When a church has to strain every nerve to pay 
its own way, it frequently follows that evangelistic 
effort declines." 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES GO 

Speaking of Hokkaido, one matter of very great 
interest is the survival of six churches of Ainu 
(the aborigines of Japan). Two of the workers, 
one fully ordained, are native Ainu. The founder 
of this unique mission to a vanishing race, the Ven. 
John Batchelor, after distinguished service for over 
fifty years, is living in retirement at Sapporo, great 
ly revered by all who know him. 

The salient event of the year in the history of 
the Seikokwai was the opening of a way to co-operate 
with the National Christian Council. At the Synod 
held at Tokyo in April a Consultative Committee 
was appointed to confer with other Christian bodies, 
Catholic or Protestant. This Committee is empower 
ed to appoint three delegates to sit with the Council. 

Congregational (Kumiai). The chief event of 
the year was the arrangement of a union with the 
Kumiai group of a small number of "Christian" 
churches in Tokyo, Utsunomiya, Sendai, Ichinoseki 
and points near these centers. The union was 
effected in April of the present year. It naturally, 
but not inevitably, followed the amalgamation of 
the corresponding bodies at the home base. The 
Christian Church arose in America by way of pro 
test against denominationalism, and in Japan the 
point is stressed that this is "the first step toward 
the union of all denominations." The addition to 
the larger group of nearly 150, 000 members amounts 
to 1(> congregations comprising 1905 members and 
is comparatively small numerically, but strengthens 
the Kumiai body in a section where it has been 
relatively weak. 

Methodist. Last but not least among the "big 
four" Protestant bodies is the Japan Methodist 
Church, the co-operating Missions being the Amer 
ican Methodists, North and South, and the United 
Church of Canada. Some of the strong points of 
this body are an excellent organization and a multi 
farious activity. It is significant that at the last 



70 JAPAN 

meeting of the Mission Council of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church Rev. Mr. Akazawa, Secretary of 
the Board of Missions of the Japan Methodist 
Church, urged that the supply of evangelistic mis 
sionaries be kept up and that an evangelistic mis 
sionary family be appointed to Tokyo. 

The missionary representatives of the United 
Church of Canada, men and women, are well dis 
tributed among the most needy and difficult sections 
of Central Japan, and are foremost in attacking the 
rural problem. Led by Messrs. Norman and Hen- 
nigar of Nagano Ken many of them are using the 
method called "newspaper-evangelism" in opening 
up the rural districts. 

Many of the readers of this will remember a 
significant article by Mr. Callahan (Methodist 
South) on "Tent Evangelism" that appeared in the 
Japan Christian Quarterly last year. 

Of similar import is a statement by Mr. Warren 
of the Free Methodist Mission that at last the Japan 
ese ministers whom they have trained in the city 
of Osaka have begun to sympathize with them in 
their determination to devote themselves to the 
rural sections of the Island of Awaji. "The year 
19 2 J was in many ways a most successful year in 
the work. Over eighty baptisms, one new flourishing 
Church and a splendid well-built church-edifice tell 
but part of the story. When a society of but fifty 
part of the story. When a society of but fifty 
working people put up on their own initiative 
and largely with their own money (the Mission but 
buying the lot) a large building that is indeed a 
credit to the town, we may feel that the work in 
the country is going forward." 

Friends. There are only nine churches of this 
denomination, but they abound in good works. Mr. 
Binford writes most appreciatively of a Japanese 
Friend in Ibaraki Ken who after twenty-three years 
in rural educational work has resigned his position 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 71 

as principal in order to give all his time to the 
Christian training of rural young men. 

United Brethren. Mr. Knipp writes: "Our 
Japanese leaders feel keenly the need of suitable 
buildings to house the groups of Christians that we 
have organized. During the past eighteen months 
we have dedicated three new churches; in each 
proper rooms for kindergarten work have been in 
cluded." This is a policy that might well be imitated 
in many other quarters. An immense amount of 
precious labor and money is being wasted in trying 
to build up churches in unsuitable and often dilap 
idated rented houses. 

Universalist. The five churches are concentrat 
ing on a campaign of "Each One Win One" and are 
getting results. 

Fukyu Fukuin Kyokwai. This is the Japanese 
title of five congregations, one of them self-support 
ing, in Tokyo, Toyohashi, Kyoto, Osaka and Itami. 
At the last-named place Pastor Aoki, using an in 
terpreter, has begun services for Koreans. These 
churches were founded and have been fostered by 
a German Protestant Missionary Society. There are 
two German missionary families, one in Tokyo and 
one in Kyoto. The writer of these lines may be 
permitted to digress a moment to say that in the 
matter of interpreting the Japanese to the people 
at the home base these missionaries are worthy of 
imitation by us all. The "Ostasien Jahrbuch" which 
they have a large share in preparing is up to the 
minute and very informing. 

Votsuya Mission. This owes its existence main 
ly to one "independent" missionary, Mr. Cunning 
ham, who says: "Evangelistically this Mission had 
a good year in 1921). Our ten churches (four <>f 
them self-supporting) baptized : (>."> during the year. 
We stress Sunday School work. A month ago we 
organized our eightieth school. We have schools 
and churches in Tokyo. Yokohama and Seoul." 



72 JAPAN 

One cannot but rejoice in a report like this. 
There are, however, "unsectarian" bodies that take 
an antagonistic attitude toward the other churches. 
One proclaims: "There are only 13 Full Gospel 
Mission Stations in the whole of Japan." 

One of the most heartening examples of co-opera 
tion may be witnessed at Toyohashi. Mr. McAlpine 
reports two months of daily tent meetings in con 
nection with the National Exposition there. "Bishop 
Hamilton lent us his tent and several preachers; 
it was set up in the front ground of the Methodist 
Church, which is very near the fair grounds, and 
the Methodist pastors have given themselves finely 
to the meetings; we Presbyterians have furnished 
the funds and the majority of the workers." 

Let this meager survey conclude with a look at 
two powerful auxiliaries of the churches. 

Young Men s Christian Association. Mr. Phelps: 
"Before the end of the year the magnificent new 
building of the Tokyo City Association was com 
pleted. It is located at a strategic point in the 
downtown district where it stands as a sample of 
the best modern architecture. Together with the 
gymnasium completed three years before, this plant 
represents an investment of a million and a half 
yen, of which amount one-third was given by the 
citizens of Tokyo as a part of their contribution to 
the spiritual reconstruction of the city. The Asso 
ciation already has enrolled over 3,000 members. 

"During the year a scientific survey of the work 
of the Young Men s Christian Associations in Japan 
has been carried on by a commission appointed by the 
National Committee with the co-operation of pro 
fessional survey experts furnished by a neutral 
foundation in America. It is hoped that this survey 
will furnish a valuable review of the achievements 
of the movement during the past fifty years and 
will point the way to a greatly enlarged service for 
the future. 



THE CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 1H 

"One of the recent developments has been an 
experiment in co-operation between the Y.W.C.A. 
and the Y.M.C.A. The Boys Division of the Tokyo 
Y.M.C .A. and the Girls Division of the Tokyo 
Y.W.C.A, have co-oi>erated in the form of joint 
meetings between the two divisional committees, 
between the group leaders of the two divisions, and 
by an exchange of invitations between groups of 
boys and groups of girls for an afternoon of games 
together." 

Salvation Army. The most noteworthy event of 
the year was the visit in November of Commander 
Evangeline Booth, who received an extraordinary 
welcome from the nation. She was received in 
audience by the Emperor. This was an honor never 
before accorded to a woman. "The public gather 
ings were unsurpassed in influence and power, vast 
crowds filled the largest halls, and the power of 
Christ to save from sin was demonstrated in a most 
remarkable manner." 

It is said that of the whole budget of the Army 
in Japan, Y500.000, only one-tenth has to be sent as 
a subsidy from abroad. 

It is impossible to include all relevant facts in 
an article of this size. The Japanese proverb says: 
"By hearing one thing we know ten." The total 
impression leads to deep gratitude, encouragement 
and fresh determination. 



CHAPTER VII. 
CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL WORK 



L um an J . Shafcr 

The proposal for a survey of Christian education 
in Japan by a commission of educational experts 
from England, America and Japan is timely. Most 
situations are likely to be viewed as presenting 
serious implications when carefully examined, but 
the Christian educational situation in Japan to-day 
appears to be critical even to a casual observer. 
It requires thorough study and investigation. 

It has long been a feature of the situation that 
students, in the majority of cases, prefer other than 
Christian schools. In other words, we are educat- 
iriK second or later choices in our schools. One 
reason for this is the traditional attitude of Un 
people toward government, sedulously cultivated 
during the Meiji era through the Government s 
paternal policy in the development of the country. 
Government enterprise has naturally been looked 
upon as superior to private enterprise. (Whatever 
may be the case in other departments of life, it is 
a fair question to ask whether, as a matter of fact, 
this universal prejudice has not been supported by 
the facts in the case of education.) The fact that 
the school is a Christian school and is to that extent 
a "different" school is also undoubtedly a contribut 
ing cause. Add to this the fact that the word 
"Mission" has come to be associated with foreign 
religious influence and it can be readily seen why 
it is that "Mission Schools" are not looked upon 
with favor by many Japanese educators partic 
ularly in the primary schools. In any case, the num- 



76 JAPAN 

her of entrances from a given primary school into 
a government middle school contributes to the rela 
tive standing of that school and this tends to make 
the primary school authorities, in many cases, exert 
pressure upon students and parents in favor of the 
government school as against the Christian school. 

It should also he pointed out that the lack of 
a Christian University of the grade of the Imperial 
Universities and offering the courses available in 
these universities, which makes it necessary for our 
graduates to enter government universities rather 
than a university within our own Christian system, 
if that term can be used, affects the situation very 
materially. A student intending to go to the Univer 
sity will naturally try to enter a school that leads 
more directly to the University and will not take 
his chances with a Christian school which offers 
no special convenience for entrance into the Higher 
Schools leading to the Universities. 

So far as it is true, therefore, that the Christian 
school is depending on second or later choices for 
its students there will be a place for our schools so 
long as government schools are insufficient to accom 
modate all the students. In order to get some idea 
of the situation as regards secondary education and 
in this article we have confined our study largely to 
this field we secured reports from 45 boys middle 
schools and . ->9 girls high schools in Kanagawa Ken, 
Osaka Fu, Hiroshima Ken, Fukuoka Ken and Naga 
saki Ken. We selected these districts because of 
their distribution and differing character. The 
reports for the different sections all show the same 
tendency, so that summaries will be sufficient. 



Y-ar 

1)2< % > 
i>27 
1)28 



FIGURES FOR 45 BOYS MIDDLE SCHOOLS 

Applications for 



Cntrnnre 


IVr Out 


Kntninrcs 


IVr Cent 


16,041 


100 


8,313 


100 


ir>,r><; ( . 


1)7.05 


8,524 


102.5 


14,211 


88.5 


8,7(H) 


105.3 


12,1)1*5 


80.5 


8,740 


105.1 


11,7114 


7:5.5 


8,520 


102.4 



CHRISTIAN KDUCATIONAL WORK 77 

FIGURES FOR :5i GIRLS HIGH SCHOOLS 

i2 > .... n,f>95 mo 0,02:5 100 

27 1 1,588 99.08 (5,201 103.0 

28 10,167 8<>.9 r>.:5:5:5 105.1 

2t i,(>78 82.7 (v>75 ios.8 

;w 9,814 8:5. .) <>,n:5 io<u 



It will be noted from these figures that the 
decrease in applicants for both boys and girls sec 
ondary schools of this type is marked. The number 
of applicants for entrance into girls high schools 
in 1930 is 83. 9 , of the number in 192U. while in 
boys middle schools the percentage is 73. .V r or a 
bit less than three-fourths. On the other hand the 
number of students actually entered has increased 
in both cases, in the case of the boys schools by 
2A f , and in the case of girls schools HA ,. In 
other words, on a decreasing demand, a larger 
supply has been forthcoming. 

It will be interesting to compare with this the 
tabulation of reports which we have obtained from 
9 Christian middle schools and 23 Christian girls 
high schools. 

FIGURES FOR 9 CHRISTIAN HOYS 
MIDDLE SCHOOLS 





Applications for 








V. ar 


Kntrancc 


1 lT(Vl.l I 


tit ranees 


!Vr Crnt 


92*. .... 


.1,128 


100 


1,7-10 


100 


1)27 


.i/.m 


120.4 


1,780 


102.2 


.JL H 


4,401 


1 ()>.<> 


1 ,78 J 


102.7 


(>>() 


. > 1-18 


8M.5 


1 ,0:5(5 


94.02 


two .... 


;j,408 


82.5 


1, :{!)() 


80.2 


FKll RKS 


FOR 2:{ CHRIST 


IAN GIRLS 


Ill-ill 


SCHOOLS 


l/2 .... 


.i,. J8i 


100 


2,-18!) 


100 


.127 .... 


.1,77:5 


108.9 


2.5o;{ 


104.5 


928 


1 5:$o 


lO. J.l 


2,520 


101.2 


<)2 J 


4.28i 


1)7.8 


2.4:57 


97.9 


two 


. {,81)5 


88.2 


2,211> 


D2.:; 



The falling off in the number of applicants for 
girls high schools is not quite so marked as that 
for government schools of the same grade, but the 



78 JAPAN 

decrease in actual entrances at the point where the 
real situation appears in our schools has been 
from 104.5 r ; at the highest point in 1927 to 92.3 r r 
in 1930, whereas in the same period the government 
schools show a slight increase. The situation shows 
up more critically in boys middle schools, where 
applications have fallen off from 120.4 r /r in 1927 
to 82.5 << in 1930 a drop from 106.6 r / r to 82.5 f f 
taking place in two years while actual entrances 
dropped from 102. 2 f f to 80.2 r r in the same period. 

To recapitulate the situation as regards actual 
students entered: in the Christian girls high 
schools entrances in 1930 were 7.7 f / ( less than in 
192G, whereas in the government schools of the 
same type during that period entrances increased 
(>.4 r f ; in the boys middle schools against an in 
crease of 2.1 , in the government schools the Chris 
tian schools lost 19.8 r r. 

A much more detailed study would be required 
tor absolutely safe deductions but, taking the situa 
tion by and large, it looks as though so far as sec 
ondary education is concerned we were squarely 
up against the necessity of improving our position 
or reducing the scope of our activities. We ought 
not to be content with a second rate position in 
the educational system, in any case, but it would 
appear that under present conditions it will be 
disastrous to continue to do so. 

If it were practicable, the organization of a 
university offering the courses now given by the 
Imperial Universities or private universities, thus 
making the Christian educational system a complete 
system by itself, would undoubtedly do a good deal 
to improve the situation for our schools. This, how 
ever, while very desirable, is not an immediate 
practical possibility. Our own opinion is that the 
only immediately possible way to secure a future 
for our schools is to make the schools that we have 
more distinctive educationally. Where this has been 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL WORK 70 

done, even in a modest degree, the Christian school 
has no lack of applications for entrance. 

The question then arises is there such a tiling 
as a distinctive type of education which, as educa 
tion, can be called Christian as distinguished from 
secular education? The Jerusalem Meeting has 
helped to clarify this issue and recent hooks such 
as those by Dr. Albert Coe and Canon Raven have 
contributed to the discussion. This question must 
be clearly answered before we can expect to develop 
a distinctive type of education. 

Stated rather bajxlly, it is our opinion that the 
Christian schools in Japan have, up to the present 
time, answered this question in the negative. We 
have tacitly said that our school was Christian but 
that our education was simply education. We have 
used secular education as bait with which to gather 
together impressionable youths to whom we could 
then preach, (liven the school we teach Bible to, 
and hold religious exercises among those in attend 
ance upon the school. During 28 or 29 hours a 
week \ve are educating and during 2 or .\ hours we 
arc 1 Ch rixt id it educating. 

Questionnaires are a nuisance, all the more so if 
badly prepared. Our recent effort, to which most 
of our colleagues made faithful reply, was of the 
latter variety, we fear. We hope we will not receive 
too many brick bats if we make use here of the 
replies we received. We asked the question, "What 
relation do you understand the religious work in 
your school to bear to the regular teaching work?" 
More than thirty schools replied and the total num 
ber of statements made amount to 70. Of these, 
the larger number lil simply mentioned Bible 
teaching, chapel exercises, voluntary group meet 
ings, evangelistic meetings, etc. In these cases, 
the implication is quite clear that the relation is 
of the character that we have mentioned above, 
that is, the extra activity that saves the school from 
being secular and makes it Christian. Seven* stress 



80 JAPAN 

the fact that the religious work is of equal impor 
tance with the regular teaching work or vice versa; 
that the religious work should not be neglected or 
that the teaching work should not be. Here, too, 
the religious work and the regular teaching work 
appear to stand oft" in the mind as separate depart 
ments, both of which are equally important. Five 
distinctly say that the religious work is the neces 
sary additional activity of the school work that 
gives the fully rounded personality, or that makes 
the school life a unity, or joyous, or which gives 
the real object of study and makes study valuable. 
In these cases, the emphasis seems to be on the 
secular education which is the real end of the 
school, and Christianity appears to be one element 
in it to round it out and make it worth while. Nine 
say that the subject teachers are Christians and in 
fluence the students or bring in references from the 
Bible in the teaching of secular subjects, thus using 
every period as an opportunity of preaching Chris 
tianity. Here, surely, we have the exact confirma 
tion of what we have been giving above as our 
definition in practice of what a Christian school is. 
There are eleven replies that speak of a Chris 
tian atmosphere that must permeate the whole 
school, of the fact that Christianity must be fore 
most, that every subject should be taught with reli 
gious ideas in the background, of education from a 
Christian standpoint, that "our regular teaching ?.s 
religious work in that it is done with the religious 
motive. The so-called religious work is the fruit of 
the teaching work." These eleven replies point in 
the direction of a distinctive type of education which 
s Christian and which will determine methods used 
in all subjects in the curriculum as well as in all 
extra-curricular activity, in short, to an answer to 
the question, "What is Christian Education?" The 
great majority of the replies, however, (if we have 
interpreted the replies incorrectly, we hope we will 
be set right) only confirm our thesis that up to 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL WORK 81 

the present, as Christian schools, we have not devel 
oped a distinctive type of education that could be 
called Christian education. 

We believe, further, that it can be substantiated 
that our traditional view of the school as an evan 
gelizing agency using secular education as a means 
to that end, rather than as an educational institu 
tion the whole educational process of which is in 
itself evangelistic, has resulted neither in good 
educating nor in good evangelizing. We cannot dis 
cuss the latter point here but we would like to have 
something to say about the kind of educating we 
are doing in our schools at present. 

Let us refer again to the questionnaire. We ask 
ed each school to characterize the method used in 
that school suggesting that replies be made, using 
such phrases as "lecture method," "recitation method," 
"project method", "Dalton plan", etc. Under this 
head there are 46 different replies. Of these three 
reply that they have no method; two that they use 
all methods; one a little of each; one that they use 
the "conversational method" probably the Socratic 
method ; two mention some use of the project 
method in connection with the lecture and recitation 
method ; two have begun using the project method 
in one or two subjects or hope to do so; two have 
the whole school in the Dalton plan either one hour 
a week or every afternoon; while 33 use either a 
combination of the lecture and recitation methods, 
or the lecture method alone or the recitation method 
alone. With the exception of the two schools try 
ing the Dalton plan and the two or three that are 
hoping to try it or that are trying the project method, 
the remainder either use no method at all, or all 
methods, or the recitation or lecture method. The 
large majority, then, are in the lecture or recitation 
stage of development. This, one can imagine, means 
that in the majority of cases the teacher lectures, 
the students listen, or the teacher lectures and the 
students recite what was lectured, either in the 



82 JAPAN 

next class period or at the end of the term in exami 
nations. If not this, the student cons the book and 
reproduces the content of the same either in the 
class period or at the end of the term in examina 
tions. If this is not a fair inference from these 
replies, here again we hope to be corrected. 

We are all aware that a major revolution ha t s 
taken place in education during the past few 
decades. This movement has not been confined to 
one country. It is taking place in certain quarters 
in Japan, as Mr. Obara s book on New Schools 
(Shin (i<ikk<>) testifies, as well as in Europe and 
America. In passing, it should be pointed out that 
in Mr. Obara s book not one "Mission" school is 
noticed. 

One outstanding feature of this revolution is the 
change from subject matter to student taught, from 
the teaching material to the person to be educated 
and hence the effect of the use of a given teaching 
material on that student. This change of emphasis 
has come about for many reasons, but one large 
contributing factor was psychological studies, which 
gave a clearer understanding of the learning process 
and which, furthermore, abolished the doctrine of 
the training of mental faculties and established in 
its place the doctrine that the transformation of 
knowledge into power and the transfer of power to 
unnumbered new fields of interest do not take place 
automatically. This is not the place to discuss such 
well known matters, but a maxim of this movement 
is that we learn only by practicing and only by 
practicing that thing. In other words, the teacher 
cannot short circuit experience. The student must 
learn for himself in practice, he must acquire power 
to do by doing. 

This comparatively recent change of emphasis 
has rewritten curriculums in many school systems, 
has brought about an entirely different use of sub 
ject matter, a revolutionary change in class room 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL WORK 83 

procedure and a whole new definition of educational 
aims. 

Where has this movement left the lecture method 
and the recitation method, which according to the 
reports of the persons in authoritative positions in 
our schools, are the prevailing methods used in these 
schools? It is scarcely necessary to answer this 
question. A book written more than ten years ago 
in America, but still a standard, in discussing vari 
ous types of class room procedure, mentions the 
lecture method but says that this method alone will 
not be discussed because it is no longer used. With 
regard to the recitation method, the author has this 
to say, "the common practice of using the class room 
period for mere repetition of material learned from 
the text book is one of the most pernicious sources 
of waste and lack of interest to be found in schools." 

These methods are quite evidently survivals of 
the time when it was thought that it was the busi 
ness of the educator to transmit certain kinds of 
knowledge or to hand on certain intellectual 
concepts. 

In view of these facts, perhaps there is justifica 
tion for the remark of a man highly placed in the 
Japanese educational department that except for the 
religious teaching of the "Mission" schools, he did 
not find in them any worth as educational institu 
tions. 

Now the main emphasis of this new movement, as 
we have said, is upon personality development. A 
study of the different statements of the revised aims 
of education in America will make this quite 
evident. Hut the type of character sought is not 
the static kind, moulded according to certain pre 
conceived notions of the present generation of 
educators, but a personality that is able to develop 
and grow from within, form new ideals for new 
times, make new applications of those ideals in new 
situations and that will be able to carry out 
what is found to be right and proper to do 



84 JAPAN 

in these situations. This sort of personality is 
to be the aim not of the personal guidance periods 
only, but the method by which the student is led 
to use each type of subject matter must aim to 
accomplish this definite result. The method used 
thus becomes perhaps the most important thing in 
education and the resulting abilities, attitudes and 
insights self-attained and self directed become 
the result to be obtained by the use of the method. 

Since the main emphasis of this new movement 
is upon the development of personality and in view 
of the Christian emphasis also upon the value of 
personality and that too a dynamic personality 
rather than a static one is it not a fair question 
whether after all so-called secular education as 
education in so far as it has been able to carry 
out the ideals of the new movement, is not more 
Christian than the type of education prevailing in 
our Christian schools in Japan? 

At any rate, it is clearly the duty of the Chris 
tian school to adapt the more recently discovered 
scientific principles governing true education to the 
Christian aim of developing Christian personality. 
The Christian content of our education is not to be 
viewed simply as content to be transmitted in one 
department of the school, but a spirit which is to 
control the whole educational process. Once this 
is clearly understood and actually developed in prac 
tice a distinctive type of education will result, which 
will prove to be of inestimable value to any country. 
It is at this point that the Christian school can make 
its position secure in Japan to-day. This is to be 
done not by making the school less Christian but 
more so. As the Rev. J. W. C. Dougall, in his valu 
able study of "Religious Education in Africa," has 
expressed it, "Our religious work more educative 
and our educational work more comprehensively 
religious", is to be our aim. Not by giving the 
same type of education as secular schools with one 
hand and with the other giving the student the 



CHRISTIAN EDUCATIONAL WORK 85 

Christian dynamic- that will, if properly conceived, 
destroy the frame work of the education thus given, 
hut by making the Christian dynamic the motive 
power and the controlling principle in the whole 
educational process. We believe that a school of 
this type a true Christian school, may we say- 
would be so indispensible to the country that there 
would be no difficulty about securing students. 

Our thesis, which we have only given in outline 
in this paper, is that the Christian school in Japan 
is fast in the way of being in a position where it 
must needs become distinctive in order to survive; 
that it is not distinctive at present and in its educa 
tional technique farther from being Christian than 
the more advanced among ^he secular schools; that 
the whole question of Christian education its aims 
and its methods requires earnest study and fear 
less experimenting in actual practice, that a type 
of education may be developed that is in itself 
Christian and which will make the Christian school 
a unified and organic whole pointing, in the so- 
called secular subjects as well as in its religious 
work and extra-curricular activities, to the one aim 
of the development of Christian personality. To 
quote again from Mr. Dougall s suggestive essay, 
"Our task is not simply to learn how to teach 
religion better but to see how the Christian reli 
gion can be made an integral part and a supreme 
motive in the complete education of childhood, youth 
and adult life. " 



CHAPTER VIII. 
CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK IN 1929 

Mildred A. Paine 

Social work includes any work which is done to 
relieve the distressed from their difficulties, to bring 
the life of the individual or of the family to normal 
conditions, to prevent harmful influence of society, 
and to better social and living conditions. Such is 
social work as defined by the international social 
conference of Paris, 1929. 

The object of this paper should be to set forth 
the extent to which Christian forces in Japan reliev 
ed difficulties, prevented harmful influences of 
society and lifted social conditions, during 1929. 
It is, however, a recognized fact that the Christian 
bodies of Japan are not a true measure of the Chris 
tian forces. As Professor Namae says, "Much gov 
ernment social work is carried on by Christians but 
is not counted as the work of Christian bodies." 
Six of the most influential men of the Social Bureau 
of the Home Department of the Government are 
superior Christian characters. On the other hand, 
the Christian Church to-day is often rightfully 
charged with being unsocial, unbrotherly, un-Christ- 
like. Stanley Jones searching criticism of the 
Church is relayed through Volume III of fY/rwrfs 
<>/ ./rxf/.s: "The church is behind closed doors for 
fear; behind closed systems of thought for fear of 
the scientist; behind closed economic systems for 
fear of offending wealthy contributors; behind clos 
ed doors of race exclusiveness for fear of losing 
white prestige; behind closed doors of national 
isolation for fear of being called unpatriotic." Who 



88 JAPAN 

shall venture to mark the boundaries between Chris 
tian and non-Christian? 

There are great movements focussed on the up 
lift of Japan s social life: The Temperance Move 
ment, The Purity or Abolition Movement, The King 
dom of God Movement. There are commissions 
earnestly, seriously seeking the Way of Jesus as 
they drive through storms of materialism and cut 
barbed barriers of competition. 

The Kingdom of (iod Movement 

A star of hope appeared in 1929 when the Church 
of Japan pledged itself to the establishment of the 
Kingdom of God in Japan. Of the Kingdom of God 
Movement Dr. Axling writes: "it is centered 
around Kagawa Toyohiko, Japan s most outstand 
ing Christian social worker, writer, Christian mystic 
and evangelistic crusader. The Campaign, however, 
is under the immediate direction of a Central Com 
mittee representing the entire Christian Movement 
of Japan. 

"This Campaign has fired the imagination and 
aroused the expectation of the Christian forces of 
this land as no movement has done during the 
writer s almost thirty years of residence in Japan 
and promises to be one of the most creative move 
ments ever launched here." 

The Movement, as defined by Dr. Kagawa, has 
three aspects: (1) Evangelistic, (2) Educational, 
(. ?) Social. The objective from the social side is the 
establishment of "Economic Christianity through 
promotion of co-operatives by Mission Boards, Mis 
sions and Japanese Churches in one nationally 
coordinated system, with international assistance 
to set it in operation." 

The Christian forces of Japan by pledging them 
selves to this campaign are pledging themselves to 
a movement for the revival of love, a revival of love 
put into practice. "The Incarnation of Christ must 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK 89 

be realized. To-day we must visually see the 
Hesh of Christ. Where? In sacred society!", cries 
the prophet leader of the Movement. 

The National Temperance League in 1929 

The National Temperance League during the year 
held its tenth national conference in Sapporo. It 
sent petitions to the Minister of Education, to the 
Minister of the Home Department, to the Education 
Division of the Social Bureau and to the Board of 
Police, urging their support in four ways: the study 
and survey of alcoholic problems, the encourage 
ment of scientific education concerning the evils of 
alcoholic drink, the building of public opinion 
among teachers and students, the raising of the 
age limit of the anti-juvenile drinking law. (A bill 
is already under consideration to raise the age limit 
from eighteen to twenty-five.) 

The League made the great earthquake memorial 
day into a Temperance Day. Miss Topping writes of 
the preparatory demonstration: "Two thousand 
Japanese lanterns lighted and militant they 
marched lustily in procession from Shiba to Hibiya 
Park, the night of the last day of August, carried 
by singers of Kagawa s Temperance Anthem. .Joined 
there by a lantern less audience of another thou 
sand, the whole assemblage heard Kagawa and 
others on the genuinely popular subject of national 
prohibition." 

The League set its goal for one temperance unit 
in every village, steamship, station and factory. 
Through posters, pamphlets and its two monthly 
papers (Ki)ixhn tin \ilni and Khinhn Shiwhini ) , it 
has enlightened the mind of the people and created 
a new public opinion. Over forty young men s societies 
in the various colleges and universities, besides high 
government officials, are actually supporting the 
League. It counts l,(iH5 organized units in its body. 



90 JAPAN 

The Kyofukai 

The Kyofukai, or W.C.T.U. of Japan, with its 
objectives of National Temperance, National Purity, 
and World Peace, set five stakes for 1929 and attain 
ed these goals: It increased itself by sixteen new 
local unions. 

It carried on its scientific educational campaign 
in 25,000 primary schools. 

It put new zeal into its preparation for woman s 
suffrage. 

It sent two delegates, one to Washington and 
one to London, carrying 180,000 signatures on its 
petition for permanent world peace. 

It set out on its second four-year campaign for 
purity and raised forty thousand of its one hundred 
ninety thousand yen budget for the abolition of 
licensed prostitution. 

The Abolition Movement 

The Purity Society successfully opposed plans to 
build licensed quarters in five different towns: 
Moji, Okaya in Nakano, Sano Machi in Tochigi, 
Morioka and a town in Shiga Ken. Morioka s gov 
ernor after the drive of this force for righteousness 
withdrew his once-granted permission to build a 
new quarter. For abolition of licensed prostitu 
tion the Society sent petition to the Diet bearing 
2f>,407 signatures. Fifty-seven of 466 members of 
the Diet voted in favor of the petition. 

In twenty prefectures associations for abolition- 
agitation have already been formed and, as a result 
of their work, votes in favor of abolition within the 
prefecture have been taken in Saitama, Fukushima, 
Akita and Niigata. Fukui also voted but here it was 
for national, not prefect ural abolition. Niigata was 
added to the list in 1929. 

So far abolition has not been effected in any 
prefecture but pressure is being brought to bear on 
governors to carry out the wishes of the prefectural 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK 91 

assemblies. In Saitama, a petition movement among 
the villages round the licensed quarter is going n - 
It is hoped that by this means the governor may 
be induced to act. Agitation associations have been 
formed in Akita, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaragi, 
Toehigi, Nagano, Saitama, Tokyo, Kanazawa, Yama- 
nashi, Shizuoka, Fukui, Kyoto, Osaka, Hyogo, Oka- 
yuma, Hiroshima, and Ishikawa. 

In the next five years it is planned to form agita 
tion associations in every prefecture and to press 
for the final abolition of the licensed system 
throughout the whole nation. 

A Japanese Copec 

Actualized by a central committee representing 
the Christian forces of the country there burst a 
prophetic sign of a Japanese C.O.P.E.C. Churches 
of eighteen denominations co-operated to put on 
this National Christian Social Problems Conference. 
Dr. Kaga\vu held high and clear the life of Christ 
and the life of Paul, patterns for social workers. 
Mr. Katayama of the National Committee of the 
Y.M.C.A. and General Secretary of the Japanese 
Federation of Labor, stated the platform of the 
Social Democrats. Professor Kenji Sugiyama of 
Waseda reported on Student Thought. Rev. Moto- 
jiro Sugiyama described the Rural Situation. Pro 
fessor Namae gave a study of the Problem of In 
dustry, Factory and Domestic. Information, inspira 
tion and vision caught at this conference struck 
directly to the heart of eighteen Christian bodies 
rousing men to put on the social mind, the mind of 
the brotherhood of the early Church. 

Co-operatives 

The prodigious work of Dr. Kagawa can hardly 
be hinted at. Four social centers in Kobe, Osaka 
and Tokyo; Consumers Co-operatives; Students 
Co-operatives, Labor and Peasant Movements have 



92 JAPAN 

sprung up in the light of his vision and love. His 
original writings carry his influence far beyond 
measure. His translations from other languages 
are creating a Kingdom of God Movement Literature 
for Japan. 

Of the Honjo Settlement s significance one 
catches a glimpse from its 1929 report of achiev- 
ments: 

(1) Dr. Kagawa s appointment to the Tokyo 
City Social Bureau was the first achievement of the 
Honjo Settlement in 1929. It took place in time for 
him to begin work August first Kagawa did not 
ask for an increase of the amount the City appro 
priates to his bureau. He, rather, planned to reduce 
the already small proportion of the Social Bureau 
funds which come from direct donation, and to make 
the institutions, even more fully than at present, 
self-supporting. His hope has been to put the social 
work institutions on a co-operative basis. He divided 
the population into three main groups, the rich, 
the middle class and the submerged. The rich need 
no social work, the submerged must continue to 
have it given to them; but the middle class, whose 
monthly income for a family of five or over is from 
eighty to a hundred and fifty yen, these middle class 
people can pay a small sum monthly for member 
ship in co-operatives, and the social services now 
on a charity basis can thus be made of, by, and for, 
the people. To thus democratize the social services 
will, of course, make them more popular, more 
patronized by self-respecting people. 

(2) A new law for CO-OPERATIVE UNEM 
PLOYMENT INSURANCE was passed for the city 
of Tokyo on December 27, 1929. 

( V) Mi\ Kidachi of Honjo organized a school 
for the training of workers in the LABORERS 
CO-OPERATIVES and has proved himself an expert 
on the Co-operative System. 

(4) The development of the CREDIT UNION 
PAWN SHOP in 1929 led to the appropriation of 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK 93 

Yen 100,000 by the Mayor for the establishment of 
eleven more Credit Unions of the same model. 

(5) In addition to those already under way in 
three universities (Waseda, Taku Shoku, Imperial) 
STUDENTS CO-OPERATIVES were started in 
Rikkyo Dai Gakko, and Meiji Dai Gakko in 1021). 
The membership altogether reaches nearly 4,000. 
"\Ve want to teach the forms and regulations of 

the New Society Through this vehicle we 

want to teach a new economic system throughout 
Japan. Graduating from the colleges the students 
can spread the gospel of the co-operatives even to 
far distant villages, instead of the Class Struggle," 
writes Kagawa. 

The Poor Always With Us 

Besides these movements directed at the uplift 
of the social well-being of Japan there is the work 
of mending and curing and relieving. Preventative 
work cannot separate itself from the curative. 
Health cannot be built and insured while disease 
exists. 

Sufferers of White Plague 

Professor Namae of the Social Department of 
the Japan Woman s University quotes that 85,502 
from pulmonary tuberculosis, 4,723 from tubercu 
losis of meninges and central nervous system, be 
sides 22,808 from unclassified tuberculosis die an 
nually. The number of tubercular patients is 
estimated to be ten times the number who die; that 
is, 1,140,930. 

The White Cross Society is a body for fighting 
this disease. Through its monthly magazine, The 
\\ hit< ( /-ox.s, through other publications and lectures 
it seeks to educate the people to help themselves 
fight the disease. In its Open Air School it is pro 
viding regular school opportunities for weak chil 
dren, and directing health measures in the homes 



94 JAPAN 

of these students. Through clinics it is giving free 
examination and treatment to tuberculous patients. 
By its sale of Christmas seals it announces a great 
need to masses of people. But yet it has made only 
a beginning. Should the members of the Christian 
bodies of Japan face the facts with a united force 
they could easily prevent much of this unnecessary 
suffering. 

The Blind 

Latest statistics report 84 schools ministering 
to the blind in Japan. Five of these are reported 
by Christian bodies. In a single year, of 2.()5?> 
registered blind children of school age, only ;>51 
entered school. The Missionary Society of the 
Church of England in Canada in its Gifu Kummo- 
in is helping 49 boys and 19 girls to become useful 
citizens. The principal could say to his graduating 
class: "There are many physically fit persons in 
Japan without work to-day, but all blind people who 
have had proper training can make a living, and 
need not worry about unemployment." In the school 
the Imperial Household and the Department of 
Education as well as the local government give 
support. 

Dr. Draper reports of the Yokohama Kummo-in: 
"Eleven of the , U children of the school are entire 
ly dependent upon school funds for support. Two 
hundred yen will provide for one child for the 
school year of ten months." 

Besides these reported many other blind schools 
have sprung up and are being supported in many 
ways by Christians. Recently, stimulated by the 
visit of Mr. and Mrs. Rufus Graves Mather, the 
Central Association for the Welfare of the Blind 
has developed out of previous efforts in this line. 
The goal of this organization is to promote the 
cause of prevention of blindness, and to do every 
thing possible for the welfare of the blind. It is 
attempting to centralize the various local associa- 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK 95 

tions, composed principally of blind people them 
selves, for mutual help. 



The Deaf 

Latest available statistics say 44 schools are 
serving 15, 189 deaf in Japan. In a single year out 
of 0,525 deaf children of school age but 1,170 enter 
ed school. Of Japan s First Oral School for the 
deaf, which is directed by Christians, Mrs. Reis- 
chauer writes: "The enrolment for the past year 
in our school was 04 .... The outstanding advance 
was the starting of a middle school course for the 
first class graduating from the grammar school 
course." The influence of this school in the field 
of oral work is great. Teachers trained here have 
gone out to other institutions so that already within 
four years there are six purely oral schools for the 
deaf. Many more are gradually introducing this 
method. 

The Lepers 

Though the number of registered lepers in 1929 
was only a little over 15, 000 the actual number is 
estimated to be between fifty and sixty thousand. 
Of these 2,08!> are in five government hospitals anil 
021 in private hospitals directed by Christians. 

Dr. Oltmans writes: "To the private leper hos 
pitals in Japan there was added in the course of 
1929 a small beginning of a hospital in the outskirts 
of the city of Fukuoka. 

"No Mission, as such, has any official relation to 
any leper hospital in Japan, nor any official obliga 
tion as far as I know, but the Kozensha, an inter 
denominational society of Christian Japanese and 
foreign missionaries, owns and operates the I-IIai- 
Kn, the Christian Hospital at Shimo-Meguro, Tokyo. 

"One of the most encouraging and gratifying 
features of the work throughout the past year has 
been the widening of the circle of friends and 



96 JAPAN 

laborers both in Japan and abroad .... In April 
a Conference on Leprosy was held at Osaka under 
the auspices of the Social Welfare Bureau of Japan. 
One of the results of the conference was a general 
endorsement of a plan for the formation of a Leper 
Prevention Society among the Japanese. Such an 
organization is a practical recognition of the very 
important fact that by assiduous care and effort to 
instruct and assist the people in general, and spe 
cially those who are more nearly in danger of leprosy 
infection, much can be done to prevent the incidence 
and spread of the disease and thus decrease more 
rapidly the number of leper patients throughout the 
country. 

"Pete" Banks, A Prevention of Leprosy 

"More than 4,000 of these banks were sent out 
during the year to the various schools in which the 
story was told .... The "Pete" bank movement is 
primarily intended for the gathering of funds where 
with to start a Home For Untainted Children of 
L( /><)*, somewhere in the vicinity of Tokyo. The 
fund in hand amounts to 835, an increase of Y285 
during 1929. . . . The only home of this kind now 
existing in Japan is the one connected with the St. 
Barnabas Hospital in Kusatsu. 

"Among the present so-called modern and highly 
civilized countries of the world, Japan is the only 
one that still faces leprosy as an unsolved problem." 

The Ex-Convicts 

According to the Department of Justice statistics 

several hundred associations are doing work for ex- 

Of the Christian bodies, however, the 

Salvation Army only reports such work. 152 men 

passed through its homes during the year .... 

>29 ^vas the forty-eighth year of Mr. Taneakira 

Hara s tireless work in reform and legislation for 

protection of the ex-convicts. Though he did not 



CHRISTIAN SOCIAL WORK <)7 

rebuild his Kanda Home after the earthquake he 
does continue his visit? to the prisons and his con 
tacts with those who need a strong friend .... Mr. 
Shimpei Homma in Yamaguchi Ken, a Christian 
business man, employs, along with his other men, 
ex-convicts helping them get a natural place in 
social life again .... Professor Sadachi Sato in 
the Imperial University often speaks in prisons and 
helps men find work .... Mr. Shirosuke Arima, 
forty years governor of the Kosuge Prison, a rare 
Christian character, has two reformatories for girls: 
Hodogaya Home in Yokohama and the Kosuge Home 
outside of Tokyo .... Mr. Masanosuke Kato is 
doing noble work in Nagoya .... Mr. Muromatsu 
is a well-known friend famous for his work in Kobe 
. . . . Dr. Caroline Macdonald says that because of 
the very nature of work with ex-convicts it cannot 
be reported. One cannot know the successes this 
side of heaven; newspapers advertize the failures. 
Finding employment for those who have served their 
term, befriending them, keeping in touch with them, 
lifting them spiritually into a new poise these 
things cannot be written. 

The Challenge 

Resides the blind and the deaf, besides lepers 
and ex-convicts, there are unmentioned sufferers. 
Thousands are suffering from the present social dis 
tortion. Desire to compete has vanquished the will 
to co-operate. Desire for material comfort has 
choked the desire for moral values. Desire to 
possess has killed the capacity to create. Desire to 
control has smothered love. Over 350,000 in Japan 
with will and ability to work have not the opportu 
nity. Their children are without food. The great 
middle class is being pushed into the group of sub 
merged. Not without resistance! Kxcept relief be 
found poison will burst from festering hurts. 

"What have Christians to offer?" 



98 JAPAN 

"A Church with closed doors!" or "The empty 
carcass of individualism!" come firing the answers 
of bitter truth from suffering society. 

Except followers of Jesus reject entirely competi 
tive methods and control motives, and establish in 
their places the method of co-operation and the 
motive to create, society \vill rush headlong into 
destruction. "Jesus religion must transfuse the 
economic order with new life or die with it," says 
II. F. Ward. The challenge to-day is so to organize 
society that men can "grow together for mutual 
improvement." 

Even here, where the annual income per person 
averages but 218, by CO-OPERATION it would be 
possible to rise victorious from under the iron hand 
of capitalism and establish a healthful society. 

In the Church in Japan, more significant than 
its countless philanthropic institutions for welfare 
and relief, would be the will of the various bodies 
to face together the challenge, together to seek the 
method of Jesus, together to translate the ethic of 
Jesus into daily life, to realize in Japan the King 
dom of love. "The nineteenth century type of social 
work is out," says Kagawa. Philanthropy must 
take a subordinated place. We must "operate 
brotherhood." \Ve must live the love of Jesus. 

Conclusion 

In this work of relief and prevention of evil, in 
this creation of a true brotherhood, the family of 
God, Christian bodies can take up the challenge just 
so far as they have achieved the social mind, the 
mind of Jesus. 



CHAPTER IX. 
WORK WITH BOYS 



George S. Patterson 

Christian work with boys is usually thought of 
as the individual and group work carried on direct 
ly with boys from twelve to eighteen or twenty years 
of age, by the church, the Young Men s Christian 
Association and other Christian agencies. There 
are certain tendencies in education and religion to 
day which are changing this conception. Some of 
these tendencies are more clearly seen in America 
than in other countries but their influence is more 
or less universal. In Japan where the influence of 
American educational theory and practice is unusu 
ally strong, their force will undoubtedly be felt. 
Before outlining the present situation in Japan, a 
simple enumeration of certain of these trends will 
indicate some of the factors already influencing 
boys work and suggest somewhat the direction in 
which this work ought to proceed. 

1. There is the tendency to think of education 
as concerned with the whole life of the individual 
rather than with the intellectual phase alone. This 
tendency is reflected in the enlarging of the school 
curriculum to include many activities formerly 
carried on by other agencies. The building of 
gymnasiums in modern school buildings is a specific 
illustration. 

2. The school is putting more and more em 
phasis on character education as one of its major 
aims. That this trend in secular education will have 
far-reaching effects on the work of the church is 
obvious. Conceivably it may result in opposition on 



100 JAPAN 

the part of school men to the encroachment of the 
church on what they consider to be the legitimate 
field of the school. Much more probably, however, 
it will result in appeals from educators for co-opera 
tion and active help from religious organizations. 
There are definite signs already in Japan of the 
appearance of this second result. 

3. There is a strong tendency in many quarters 
to think of religion as the value side of all activities 
rather than to confine it to an area of special 
activities. The church is more and more concerned 
with what the individual does throughout the week. 
The inclusion of mid-week activities in the church s 
program for boys is a reflection of this tendency. 

Where these three tendencies are present it is 
apparent that the aims of church and school are 
converging and that Christian work with boys takes 
on a new orientation. 

4. A fourth tendency perhaps the outgrowth 
of the first three is increasing recognition of the 
need for correlating the activities of all community 
organizations in their approach to youth. Witness 
evidences of this trend in the establishment of 
Parent-Teachers Associations, the employment of 
teachers on school staffs for home visitation and 
the growing number of conferences between repre 
sentatives of related agencies such as home, school 
and church. 

5. There is less tendency to consider adoles 
cence as a period specially marked off, with quite 
peculiar characteristics. Growth at this period is 
recognized as much more gradual than was formerly 
believed; and there is clear recognition of the strong 
influence of childhood on later life. Greater em 
phasis on the nine to twelve year old period and its 
inclusion in the legitimate field of "Boys Work" may 
be regarded as outcomes of this tendency. 

0. There is greatly increased emphasis on the 
need for dealing with individual behavior problems 
and of enabling the individual to make a satisfac- 



WORK WITH HOYS 101 

lory adjustment to his social environment. This 
tendency is reflected in the presence of psychologists 
on school staffs, in the increase of psychiatric 
clinics to which pastors often refer their parishion 
ers, and in the emphasis on personal interviews in 
Y.M.C.A. and church. 

7. There is a widespread attempt to secure tests 
for use in the diagnosis of individual and group 
needs and measures by which to judge the results 
of our work in the field of human relationships. 
The development of this movement first in the educa 
tional field revolutionized procedure there and enor 
mously increased efficiency. It is just beginning 
to make its presence felt in the field of character 
education. 

The Present Situation in Japan 

The present situation in boys work in Japan 
may be referred to under two headings, first, the 
work that is being done by religious organizations, 
and, second, that which is being done under secular 
auspices. No attempt will be made to present a 
complete catalogue of activities and many significant 
pieces of work may have escaped the writer s notice. 
The list will, however, indicate the many-sided 
approach which is being made to the problem of the 
leadership of youth to-day, and will suggest also 
some of the more promising results. 

I. Hoys Work Under Religious Auspices 

1. Church and Sunday School. It is difficult to 
estimate the amount of work which is being done 
for boys through the Sunday School or to appraise 
its value. The Sunday School Association reports 
the following figures: 

192K 1930 

No. of hoys registered in Sunday Schools. .. {1,542 2-1,1)52 

No. of boys in attendance 20,5:57 1 5,1128 

No. of girls registered -Ifi/^lM. . {7,723 

No. of girls in attendance. . . .. H.llW 2. {,H1 1 



102 JAPAN 

The very great variation in two years suggests 
that the figures are probably not complete. There 
are no figures to indicate the proportion of boys in 
the various age groups. Many churches now have 
departments for middle school students in their 
Sunday Schools and a few have church services of 
worship for juniors. The Association leaders feel 
that the attendance of middle school students at 
Sunday School is increasing but they attribute the 
failure to hold more of these older boys to the in 
adequacy of the teachers who are available. 

The Sunday School Association has the Shonen- 
dan Program for boys prepared in 1923 and based 
largely on the Canadian Program. They report, 
however, that it is not being widely used. 

Summer Vacation Schools are now conducted by 
a considerable number of churches. Forty-nine 
such schools were reported for the year 1928, vary 
ing in length from two to twenty-two days with the 
average length 8.2 days. The attendance for the 
49 schools aggregated 2,714, varying from 9 to 422 
with an average of 55.4. The courses of study 
covered a wide variety of subjects. Those most 
frequently mentioned were: Bible Study (26); 
Music (19); Worship (16); Exercise and Games 
( 16) ; Handicraft (16) ; Review of School Work (15). 
No figures are available to show the number or the 
ages of the boys in these groups. 

There is little organized boys work as such 
being carried on within the denominations, but there 
are signs that it may soon become for some churches 
a specific department of work. The Mission of the 
United Church of Canada has recently appointed a 
committee on teen-age work and experiments are 
beginning in various centers with boys groups. 
The development of camping for boys within the 
Congregational church is worthy of note. There 
are four camps regularly conducted by this denomi 
nation. 

2. Young Men s Christian Association. After 



WORK WITH HOYS 103 

going through an experimental stage in which it 
largely concentrated its efforts in the Tokyo associa 
tion, the Y.M.C.A. is now extending its boys work 
to several other centers. The Tokyo work which 
was carried on for over five years in a small hut 
in Aoyama was productive of certain definite results. 
Methods of leadership training were worked out and 
materials produced for use in this field. Strong 
committee service on the part of laymen was devel 
oped. In building the program every effort was 
made to meet the needs and interests of the various 
groups of boys. With this approach no set program 
could be followed. The leaders met frequently to 
discuss their problems and program material was 
published from time to time in mimeographed 
pamphlets but not in book form. This indicates the 
emphasis which the Association feels must be placed 
on helping boys meet their present problems and 
suggests the undesirability of having all groups 
follow a predetermined and uniform program. 
Nevertheless the necessity is felt for having mate 
rial which will be suggestive especially to less 
experienced leaders. A boys council with repre 
sentatives from all the groups has been a central 
part of the work and has taken a leading part 
actually in determining what the program shall be. 
Relationships have been established with boys 
homes where many group meetings have actually 
taken place. Mothers meetings have been organiz 
ed for the discussion of the practical problems of 
adolescent boys. Through conferences of teachers 
the attempt has been made to establish a basis of 
co-operation and understanding with the schools, 
and Older Boys Conferences with representatives 
from various schools and churches are held each 
year largely for the sake of the inspiration which 
comes through contact with the larger group. 
Camping has come to be one of the most interesting 
and promising of the Association s activities. So 
fur the camps have been confined to short periods 



104 JAPAN 

of from three to ten days but pians are oeing made 
for a long term camp which shall serve as an educa 
tional agency during the entire school vacation 
period. Recently, in line with one of the tendencies 
referred to above, the work has been extended to 
include boys from the three upper primary school 
years. 

This period of experimentation has convinced 
Association leaders of the possibility of holding the 
interest of boys in a religious organization over 
an extended period. A very large proportion of the 
members have continued throughout their stay in 
middle school and several groups have maintianed 
their organization for the sake of occasional meet 
ings even after entering college. Most of the pres 
ent leaders were former members of these boys 
groups. There have been developed an intimacy of 
fellowship between leaders and boys and a sponta 
neity and freedom of expression among the boys 
which are educational values not sufficiently em- 
phasizrd nor sufficiently often obtained by the pres 
ent school system. With the conviction that results 
gained through such experimentation should be 
extended to the schools, groups have been estab 
lished within certain schools for further experiment. 

In addition to this work of the city associations, 
the regular Y.M.C.A. work carried on in Middle 
Schools has been extended to some forty-two schools. 
The program here is largely confined to the specific 
religious activities of prayer and Bible Study. Fre 
quently the student officers of the various schools 
meet for counsel, and a summer conference has been 
established where boys and teachers meet for a 
discussion of the problems of the Association and the 
school. 

Among significant Association activities for boys 
mention should be made of the International Camp 
for countries around the Pacific. The first of these 
camps was held at Unzen in 1929 with representa 
tives of six countries around the Pacific. Repre- 



WORK WITH BOYS 105 

sentatives of seven other countries whose residence 
is in the Far East also attended. 

H. Salvation Army. The Salvation Army has 
twenty-eight troops of Life Saving Scouts with a 
total of 375 boys enrolled. The program is much 
the same as that of the regular Boy Scouts, but 
attendance at Sunday School or Bible Class is one 
condition of membership. This has made it difficult 
to enrol large numbers of boys, although one object 
in organizing the work was to attract boys from 
outside. The movement has no official connection 
with the National Boys Scout Movement which is 
considered somewhat ultra-patriotic. Some dozen 
camps for scouts are held each year meeting for a 
week or more. 

II. Hoys Work of Secular Organizations 

1. Regular Schools. A study recently made 
among eight middle schools in the vicinity of the 
Tokyo Y.M.C.A. indicates the extent to which schools 
are making provision to-day for students activities 
outside of the regular curriculum. In all, twenty- 
seven extra-curricular activities are referred to. 
Half of these are physical activities such as base 
ball, tennis and fencing, but a wide variety of other 
clubs is also mentioned including debating, music, 
English, art, horticulture, etc. 

A similar study in fourteen Supplementary Com 
mercial Schools (Jitsugyo Hoshu Gakko) shows that 
even such schools which are organized specifically 
for intellectual work do not entirely neglect other 
phases of education. Twelve extra-curricular 
activities are mentioned twenty-nine times, giving an 
average of more than two such activities per school. 
These are grouped almost entirely around social 
and intellectual interests. None of these schools 
makes use of Sunday for such work. 

It is not possible to estimate accurately the num 
ber of bible study classes and discussion groups 



106 JAPAN 

which are carried on at schools by Christian organ 
izations and individuals. It is recognized to-day 
that the Educational Department is not opposed to 
such organizations of students for religious purposes 
holding meetings at school if they have the approval 
of the school principal. 

2. Progressive Schools. Although the educators 
of Japan rank probably second to none in their 
knowledge of modern educational theory and prac 
tice, the schools where significant experiments are 
being carried on are pitifully few. Among boys 
schools the prominence of Seijo Gakko is due in 
part to the isolated position it occupies although 
this detracts in no \vay from one s appreciation of 
the very significant work which it is doing. This 
school which was fully described in the Christian 
Movement of 1925 (pp. 209-212) recently organized 
two new branches known as Tamagawa Gakuen. 
The original purpose of having one of these branches 
as a middle school department for the somewhat 
retarded students at Seijo who were not able to 
benefit from the methods of instruction there, will 
probably have to be modified in view of the tendency 
for brighter children also to enter the school in 
the hope of using it as a stepping stone for entrance 
with the limited number w^hom Mr. Obara is admit 
ting into the Jiku Department, established by him 
as a school for brighter children where he could 
experiment even more freely than at Seijo. At 
present in the second year of the experiment both 
departments are operating with half a day of school 
work, where under improved methods of instruction 
it is proposed to cover the required course, and with 
the rest of the day spent together in work and 
recreation. In the so-called school work a few 
classes are fixed, meeting together for instruction. 
For the most part there is individual study with 
help from the instructors when needed. To one 
who has grown accustomed to the wav in which our 



WORK WITH BOYS 107 

schools succeed in crushing the initiative and 
ardor of children, a visit to this school in the after 
noon will be a source of amazement to all it will 
surely be a source of satisfaction. There he will 
see boys in small groups working with zest and en 
thusiasm at the tasks necessary to our efficient 
living. There are altogether ten varieties of work. 
The boy spends three-quarters of his time at the 
task of his own choosing and one-quarter at other 
tasks in turn. Carpentry, Printing, Gardening and 
other Farming, Keeping Bees, Making Roads and 
Raising Mushrooms are some of the activities 
through which boys are developing wholesome 
attitudes to work and through which they are forced, 
though not unwillingly, to seek the information 
needed for living well. Here is education for life. 
A multiplication of such schools would demand an 
entirely new approach on the part of religious 
organizations to their task. The whole aim of the 
school is character education. Through the in 
fluence of Mr. Obara the principal who is a Chris 
tian the program includes daily morning worship 
on the mountain back of the school and regular 
groups for bible study. 

3. Shonendan (Hoy Scouts). The Shonendan or 
Hoy Scout Movement established within the Depart 
ment of Education reaches more boys than any other 
single organization. This work follows somewhat 
the same lines as in the United States and England 
but with closer relationship through the Education 
al Department. The report for June 1, 1930 shows 
that there are 732 registered troops in 45 prefectures 
and districts with an enrolment of 71,920 boys. 
There are, of course, many troops carrying on a Hoy 
Scout program without being registered at head 
quarters. The Scouts range in age from 12 to 18 
years with the Wolf Cubs organization for boys 
from 8 to 12 years. As in the West there is a mark 
ed tendency for boys to drop out at 15 or 1C years 



108 JAPAN 

of age and there is no special organization for these 
older boys. Many of the troops are organized in 
connection with Buddhist Temples and some in 
connection with churches and Y.M.C.A. s. The Kon- 
kyo religion is very active in organizing troops 
among its younger adherents. In some cases reli 
gious activities are carried on as part of the local 
Scout Program as there is no objection to this on 
the part of national headquarters. 

The question of local leadership is said by the 
national leaders to be their most difficult problem. 
Most of the leadership is recruited from among 
primary school teachers with some businessmen and 
a few university students. All of the leadership is 
voluntary. Every year six or seven training camps 
for leaders are held, one a national camp for first 
class leaders and the rest district camps for second 
class leaders. The leaders pay all their expenses 
at these camps. Eleven officials are related to the 
work at national headquarters besides a very large 
number of directors who serve in a voluntary cap 
acity. There are no district commissioners as yet. 

In 1929 twenty-one scouts from Siam and forty- 
three from Sacramento, California, visited Japan 
and spent some days in camp with the Japanese 
scouts. A group of thirty-nine from Hawaii is ex 
pected this year. The popularity of scouting in so 
many countries offers an opportunity for building 
international friendships among boys which will 
undoubtedly be utilized more and more in the future. 

4. Vocational Guidance Agencies. There are 
some ten or twelve vocational guidance agencies for 
boys and girls in Japan operating more or less close 
ly under municipal auspices. Probably the finest 
example of this work is that carried on by Tokyo-fu 
Social Work Association (Tokyo-fu Shakai Jigyo 
Kyokai) in its modern and splendidly equipped 
building near lida Kashi in Tokyo. The work is 
divided into the two departments of Employment 



WORK WITH HOYS 109 

Placement and Vocational Guidance. Only about 
ten per cent of those who come do so in the first 
instance to seek vocational counsel but even for the 
other ninety per cent the procedure is one of care 
ful counselling with a view to leading the applicant 
to an understanding of his capacities and interests 
and to placement in the position where he will be 
most happy and productive. 

Fifty boys and girls are interviewed daily by 
the ten counsellors of the Association. From Nov 
ember to March the numbers run from one hundred 
to one hundred and fifty. An average of one hour 
is spent with each applicant but many return for 
several hours of counsel. In addition to the reg 
ular counsellors, a Psychologist and a Medical 
Adviser are on the staff with regular consultation 
hours twice a week and other consultation as it 
is required. The best intelligence tests, vocational 
aptitude tests and other psychological tests are used 
by the Association with workers visiting the schools 
regularly to carry on a testing program among the 
larger number of children available there. 

In addition to the work of counselling with ap 
plicants who come to the Association, five men are 
engaged daily in visitation work. One visits the 
schools; three are establishing contacts with em 
ployers; and one is constantly following up the boys 
and girls who have been placed in employment by 
the Association. The last named is considered a 
very important phase of the work. Contacts are 
maintained till the boys and girls are twenty years 
of age; at present the Association is in touch, 
through correspondence, visitation, and an occasion 
al "consolation meetings," with 5,000 such boys and 
girls. 

The Association has no official connections with 
religious organizations but many individual religious 
and social workers avail themselves of the Associa 
tion s services. These services are entirely free of 



110 JAPAN 

charge both to the applicant looking for employ 
ment and to those seeking employees. 

5. Juvenile Courts. A report of the work of the 
Tokyo Juvenile Court appeared in the Christian 
Movement for 1924 (Pp. 201-208). Nothing much 
can be added to this report except hearty commen 
dation of the steady volume of service which the two 
Juvenile Courts of Tokyo and Osaka have continued 
to render. Unfortunately it has not been possible 
to increase the number of courts since the estab 
lishment of the first two in 1923. The average num 
ber of cases examined by the Tokyo court alone over 
a four year period has been nearly 3,000, over ninety 
per cent of whom were boys. The ages of the boys 
were distributed as follows: Under 14 1%; under 
153%; under 16 21% ; under 1729%; under 
18 36%. The Tokyo court is now in touch with 
twenty-eight institutions to whom juvenile delinquents 
may be committed for care and training. Thirteen 
of these are Buddhist, six are Christian and nine 
are under non-religious auspices. 



CHAPTER X. 
RURAL GOSPEL SCHOOLS 



D. Norman 

The writer of this article feels great diffidence 
in attempting to describe something which he has 
not yet seen. He feels the need of them and has 
read and heard of them and hopes some day to see 
them fully established in Japan. 

When Christian Evangelization began in Japan 
seventy years ago only a few port cities were open 
to missionary effort. Later the larger interior cities 
were entered and churches established. Now wo 
are in an era when all the country is open and lies 
before us, if not ripe unto harvest, at least ready 
for the seed sowing. All the cities and larger towns 
have an average of seven churches each but half of 
the population of Japan lives in villages of less than 
5,000, yet only one village in a hundred has a church 
or any kind of regular Christian service. The aver 
age area of a village is 14 sq. miles. The Christian 
forces, churches and missions, worked valiantly and 
boldly in the first lines of attack and entrenched 
themselves r.o deeply and securely in their bases 
that they have become almost immobile and find it 
difficult, almost impossible to move out into the 
villages. Substantial buildings for city churches 
and schools and various forms of institutional work 
had to be built and now must be maintained so 
there seems to be little if any progress in the direc 
tion of the needy, unevangelized portions of the 
Japanese people. 

Robertson Scott in his splendid book, "The Foun 
dations of Japan," writes, "I went to Japan to see 



112 JAPAN 

the countryman. The Japanese whom most of the 
world knows are townified, Americanized, Euro- 
peanized .... often elaborately educated . . . . 
Remarkable men. They stand for a great deal in 
modern Japan. But their untownified countrymen, 
with the training of tradition and experience, of 
rural schoolmasters and village elders, and as fre 
quently of the carefully shielded army, are more 
than half of the nation." A survey of the indus 
tries of Japan and the proportions of the popula 
tion engaged therein reported at the Conference of 
Pacific Relations in Kyoto last Fall stated that 52.19 
per cent of the families of the nation are engaged 
in agriculture. In terms of individuals the propor 
tions were 4.7 per cent more engaged in agriculture 
than in fishing, mining, manufacturing, commerce 
and in all the various departments of communica 
tion of the country combined. From the standpoint 
of numbers then the rural village folk are by far 
the largest class in Japan. This class is the domi 
nant factor in the nation. Steady, strong, conserva 
tive, optimistic, "The Foundation of Japan" as Scott 
calls it, the rural community is the citadel which 
challenges the Christian forces and on which 
Christianity has as yet succeeded in making but 
little impression. 

There are many preachers and pastors who are 
quite willing to spend a few days on an evangelistic 
jaunt out among the country villages, and then 
hurry back to the city, or are ready and willing to 
serve on a committee on Rural Evangelism. But 
there seem to be few who really love the soil and 
those that must work in it for a living. There seems 
to be a need of preachers who know something of 
farming and of improved methods and who can talk 
religion in terms of the simple everyday life of the 
farmer; who can study in college and read books 
and think great thoughts and still be unaffected 
and humble in life and win the hearts and influence 
the lives of the country youth. It is well worth 



RURAL GOSPEL SCHOOLS 113 

while to live in Japan long enough to know that 
there are some such pastors. They realize the value 
of Christ in relation to the rural individual and can 
express that evaluation so that the farmer feels that 
the Gospel of Jesus has real value and meaning for 
him. These preachers are getting audiences. Their 
means of approach are along the lines of the think 
ing of the countryman and woman. Unfortunately 
the training received by many of the theological 
students seems to speed them up so that they lose 
touch and sympathy, if they ever had it, with their 
country cousins. They have become urbanified to 
such an extent that it is martyrdom to them to have 
to live out in country evangelistic work and they 
will take the first opportunity to get into any kind 
of a city church. 

If some Rural Gospel School or schools could be 
established which would help the preacher who 
loves the country to get an understanding of, and a 
touch with, the life of the country folk it would be 
well worth while. If such schools could be broad 
enough and made attractive for the country youth 
so that like the Folk High Schools of Denmark they 
would draw young men from the country aiming at 
the development of Christian character then they 
would be doubly worth while. The idea in a modified 
form has taken root in Shizuoka, Ibaraki and Yama- 
nashi prefectures. 

The writer counts it a rare privilege to have met 
some who have had such thoughts and purposes 
burning within their hearts and to have had a little 
to do in trying to work them out. But all that has 
been accomplished in his sphere of action has been 
to share in holding two institutes one of ten days 
in January, 1929, and the other of eight days dura 
tion in January, 1930. These institutes were digni 
fied by the name of Nomin Fukuin Gakko but one 
must exercise the imagination to think of them as 
Rural Gospel Schools. 

Let us spend a day in the institute. All lodged 



11-1 JAPAN 

and ate together as one large family. At six a.m. 
promptly, they lined up and exercised, stripped to 
the skin except the loin cloth or with a few, a thin 
shirt. It was cold weather and in Shinshu where 
ice and snow are dominant for three months, but the 
young men did their half hour and kept warm and 
laughed as they went through the drill. Then pre 
paration for breakfast. The quiet hour was ob 
served. During the day there is much singing. It 
was hearty and harmonious, not from the stand 
point of technique but from the standpoint of the 
spirit. The songs are not all from the church 
hymnal, they are mostly from "Aikan Kashu" by 
Hasenuma Monzo who seems to have caught the 
spirit which moved the men who founded the Danish 
Folk High Schools. His Magazine "Kojo Shuyo" 
has a considerable circulation. His ideals are ex 
pressed in the mottoes, "Ryukan Tanren" and "Dobo 
Soi." (Sweat by Exertion, and Brotherly Love. 
Those who wish may give their own translation of 
the mottoes). The songs are national in spirit but 
are permeated by Christian thought. There are study 
periods with ample time for discussion and for read 
ing or examination of the various charts, diagrams, 
notes written on blackboard, etc., used by the speak 
ers. Bible expositions and sermons are on the 
program, but we do not think of the institute as 
primarily an evangelistic effort. It is rather an 
attempt to understand life in all its relations. We 
feel that life is not to be feared nor are its duties 
to be shirked, but life is a great and glorious privi 
lege and to understand it and meet its claims is the 
way to true success. God loves us and plans our 
development, but in harmony with laws that are for 
our good and that contribute to joy when we know 
and seek to live in harmony therewith. Fellowship 
with God will lead to self-mastery and self-devotion 
to the highest end of life. So addresses on Tem 
perance, Purity and Social Reform, Home and Social 
Life, National Problems as well as International 



RURAL GOSPEL SCHOOLS 115 

Questions are on the Bill of Faro. Marriage and 
Divorce, Thrift, Diet, Child Training, Folk High 
Schools and Rural Reconstruction in Denmark were 
on the Program under various titles. The hope was 
that those who enrolled and attended would see that 
the entrance to the Christian Life is an initial act 
which opens up the life of the individual to the 
unfailing power of God as revealed in Jesus and 
that this leads to an experience of conscious unity 
of life with God and with one s fellow-men in a 
ministry of service for others under the leadership 
of Christ. 

One who came for two days as a visitor wrote 
thanking us for the opportunity of visiting the 
school. He is an experienced teacher, a Christian of 
25 years standing. He said that he found the spirit 
of Christ manifested to a wonderful degree in the 
school. One of the students wrote "I went without 
faith, knowing nothing of Christian teaching, but by 
the second day I found a warmth of friendship, a 
brotherhood, and a love that I had never known 
before. I am resolved to continue the spiritual life 
that I found there." Another wrote saying that he 
had never been to a church nor heard a Christian 
address before. But a week before attending the 
school he had called on the pastor of the church 
in the town nearest him and made inquiries about 
the school and its requirements. Then he decided 
to attend. This young man went to the same church 
some days after he returned from the school and 
made known his desire to live a Christian life. One 
from a village in a very remote mountain locality 
wrote, "I was greatly impressed by the spirit of love 
and high ideals which I found. I am resolved to put 
into practice what 1 have seen and heard. I want to 
go again and learn more. It is better than anything 
that 1 ever thought." Such are a few of the testi 
monies from those who attended our simple and 



116 JAPAN 

feeble effort. All who shared in the work of the two 
schools, a year ago last Winter and again in 1930 
agreed that the second one was the better of the 
two, though the attendance was less. 

We received valuable assistance from the local 
Agricultural Experimental Station. We were invited 
to bring the students and see all that could be shown 
them. The physical teacher from the Station came 
daily or sent some one competent to take his place 
to give us the morning physical training. The 
method followed is practically the same as in Den 
mark and Sweden. The teacher also used illustra 
tive charts and gave explanations on health and 
care of the body. The city offered us the use of the 
city Physical Training Hall, a very fine new r building 
but we preferred to take the morning daily dozen 
in the church where we ate and slept and studied 
together. We showed our appreciation of the city s 
kind offer by going one morning, meeting and exercis 
ing with others and expressing thanks for the use 
of the Hall. 

Those who attended paid their own cost of travel, 
lirought their bedding or paid for hiring it, brought 
fnod and cooked in common or paid for their share, 
so tin- expenses were reduced to a minimum. The 
local pastors who assisted by leading the singing or 
giving an address or a series of studies, received no 
honorarium, by previous mutual agreement all work 
ed together for the success of the school. An old 
woman was engaged to keep the kettle boiling and 
help prepare the food and all joined in a fee to meet 
such common expense though it did not cover every 
thing. Speakers from outside, of course, were given 
the usual honorarium. 

Some have asked, how we get young men to at 
tend. The constituency is prepared by Newspaper 
or Correspondence Evangelism and the literature 
which we circulate through our own immediate field 



RURAL GOSPEL SCHOOLS 117 

of North Shinshu. Several articles sent out for two 
or three months informs those who read our litera 
ture of our plans and prepares the way. Notices 
are inserted that applications will be received up to 
a certain date. Each time we have had all the appli 
cations that we felt desirable. We did not want a 
crowd. About twenty is what we thought an ideal 
attendance. The first time we had more than that 
number. Less than half of them were Christian? 
though all had been receiving literature and were on 
our mailing list. 

Some say, "Is not eight or ten days too long 
Would not two or three days do as an experiment 
anyway?" Our experience and judgment is that 
such a short period school is not an experiment at 
all. If those enrolled are largely non-Christians and 
unacquainted with each other then eight days is 
about the minimum of time that should be planned 
for. This should include two Sundays and good 
devotional services of worship. A well organized 
Sunday School should also be on the program for 
Sunday. The Sunday s program should be quite 
different from that of other days. It should be 
spiritually helpful, educational, inspirational, im 
pressive and free from all that might seem to be dull, 
perfunctory or depressing. Life and Light might 
well be our mottoes in planning for the Sundays. 

One very desirable result is that the pastors who 
assisted have been helped to a more rural mind or 
attitude. They see more in the rural work than 
formerly. Another marked result is that those who 
attended have been inspired to work for Christ and 
they find ways and means of doing so. 

Many of the things that arc being done by these 
will not figure in annual reports of conferences, 
presbyteries or synods but they are recorded in the 
Hook of Life and those concerned are content there 
with. 



118 JAPAN 

For the benefit of any who may wish to study the 
subject of the Danish Folk High Schools, and it is 
a profitable and interesting study, we would recom 
mend "The Folk High Schools of Denmark and The 
Development of a Farming Community" published 
by the Oxford University Press. 

Also for the songs referred to above address, Mr. 
Hasunuma Monzo, GG8 Sendagaya, Toyotama-gun, 
Tokyo-fuka. 



CHAPTER XL 
NEWSPAPER EVANGELISM 1928-30 



H . //. Murrau Waltmi 

During the two years under review two things 
stand out prominently in the world of Newspaper 
Evangelism. These are a decidedly more friendly 
attitude on the part of the press to the insertion 
of Christian articles, and a development of the 
Newspaper Evangelism Movement all along the line. 
Nevertheless the development is still wholly unequal 
to the opportunity. 

With regard to the former, the more favorable 
attitude on the part of the press to religious matters, 
special mention should be made of the Osaka Mai- 
nichi, a paper with a daily circulation of a million 
and a quarter, which has frequent religious articles, 
the Tokyo Nichinichi, its sister paper with a circula 
tion of over a million, which now has a religious 
section nearly every Monday, and the Yomiuri News 
paper with a circulation somewhere approaching a 
quarter of a million, which has a daily religious 
column, and a full-time editor in charge. In all 
these three central papers Christian writers receive 
a generous share of space, and in at least one case 
the editor responsible is a Christian. No plan, how 
ever, har as yet been worked out in any of the above 
three papers for "follow-up" work as a result of the 
articles. For a time the Yomiuri had a small inset 
advertisement, offering further information, but the 
charges were out of proportion to the results ob 
tained and it was discontinued. The Seikokai, how 
ever, has a short weekly religious advertisement in 
the Tokyo Nichinichi, which produces from one to 
two hundred applications a week, and serves to shew 



120 JAPAN 

readers of that paper where they may apply for more 
information. 

In addition to the above three central papers 
Christian articles, some as articles pure and simple, 
others as advertisement, appear in about twenty-five 
other papers throughout the country. Indeed appli 
cations are now coming in from papers for Christian 
material. Nevertheless the above figures do not 
represent more than 10 r r of the total field. 

During the period under review one missionary 
undertook to supply papers with regular material 
provided they would use it, and as a result Christian 
articles appeared for a short time in over fifty papers 
throughout Japan. But the plan was discontinued 
owing to the difficulty of obtaining material. The 
experiment, however, served to shew the possibility 
of expansion in this direction. 

In 1926 the Newspaper and Correspondence 
Evangelism Association was formed by those inter 
ested in this form of work. Its immediate object 
was the interchange of literature and ideas. A 
Conference was held under its auspices in 1928 at 
Omi, Hachiman, which proved of such value that 
it was repeated again in 1929. At this latter con 
ference the old N.C.K.A. gave place to the new Japan 
Christian News Agency. (Nihon Kiristokyo Tsushin 
Kyokai), with Mr. Hampei Nagao, M.P., as Chairman, 
Rev. M. S. Murao as Secretary, Rev. W. H. Murray 
Walton as Treasurer, and Dr. Kennard, Mr. Tsukada 
and Mr. Yoshida as additional members of Com 
mittee. The purpose of this new body is not only to 
continue the work of the old, but also to develop 
the whole movement, by (a) securing a regular 
supply of good articles for use by the different 
affiliated branches and also such papers as care to 
use them; (b) negotiating with the several papers on 
behalf of affiliated branches; (c) making such other 
necessary plans as the situation demands for the 
development of the work. Of course, a programme 
of this kind requires money, and for the first six 



NEWSPAPER EVANGELISM 121 

months of its existence the Committee has been 
busily engaged in raising it. Sufficient funds have 
now come in to justify a beginning being made, in 
the hope that after six months trial the results will 
justify the experiment and produce sufficient support 
for its continuance. A full time secretary has been 
secured and in addition Rev. M. S. Murao is giving 
a proportion of his time to this work. There is no 
doubt, however, that if a sum of 1,500 per annum 
were in sight for three years, the Agency could be 
placed firmly on its feet and be in a position to make 
a substantial contribution to the work in Japan. 

During the period under review there has been 
a gratifying increase in the number of centres where 
Newspaper Evangelism is being regularly carried 
on. Today such centres number close on twenty, 
while a few more should be opened within the next 
year or two. It is only fair to add, however, that the 
bulk of the work is still shouldered by three of the 
larger branches, the Tohoku New Life Hall, the 
Seikokai New Life Hall and the Fukuoka New Life 
Hall respectively. Of the 12,000 applications re 
ceived annually, three-quarters are handled by these 
three offices. Of these various branches the inter 
denominational group in the north have reorganized 
with the Tohoku New Life Hall at Sendai as their 
central office and with certain branch offices; the 
Seikokai New Life Hall has opened its first branch 
office in Niigata Prefecture, and another is contem 
plated in the Kanto. Nearly all the branches are 
members of the J.C.N.A. 

A certain measure of comity is observed among 
the different branches; papers used by one branch 
are not used by another; applications received as a 
result of interdenominational effort are distributed 
among the various branches according to their 
location. 

Most, if not all, the above branches owe their 
origin to missionary enterprise, and so are at but 
a stage of their development. There are signs, how- 



122 JAPAN 

ever, that the organized church is awaking to the 
importance of this form of work. For example, the 
Methodist Church recently appointed two full-time 
Japanese workers, one in East Japan, one in West, 
to develop this work. The Seikokai New Life Hall, 
which as its name suggests, has perhaps had a more 
intimate connection with the church than other 
branches, is now definitely linked on to the Evan 
gelistic Bureau of the Diocese of Kyushu with a 
view to using the press in certain unoccupied areas 
in that island. 

In two special directions work of an interdenomi 
national character is being 1 attempted. In the weekly 
Kingdom of (iod Newspaper invitations now appear 
inviting further correspondence from those interest 
ed; but the response so far has been surprisingly 
small. The Kingdom of Clod Movement inserted 
special messages in certain of the central news 
papers at the beginning of the year, but no attempt 
was made to link them on to the work of the Agency 
to the mutual loss of both organizations. In Fuku- 
oka, however, the local office has co-operated with 
the Movement in their meetings. There is no doubt 
that further Uuixon work is necessary between the 
two bodies. 

In 1028 the firm in Japan responsible for the dis 
tribution of the American patent medicine Menthola- 
tum undertook to send out with each packet a short 
notice about Christianity entitled "Heart Medicine." 
As a result of this several thousand applications 
have been received, and in order to follow un the 
work among such more effectively a series of "Heart 
Medicine" pamphlets is now in the press. 

With regard to experiments made by different 
branches mention should be made of Christian post 
ers used with success by the Wakayama Branch, a 
Higher and Lower (irade Correspondence Course 
issued by the Tohoku Otlice with nearly eighty mem 
bers enrolled at present, a full-time travelling evan 
gelist also employed by this oilice, whose function is 



NKWSPAPER EVANGELISM 1215 

to link enquirers on to the local churches, and the 
enrollment by the Matsumoto Branch of Newspaper 
enquirers in an anti-vice campaign in the prefecture. 
The Seikokai Branch has recently tried the experi 
ment of putting Christian articles on the boarding 
outside its office in the main street of Tokyo. One 
such recently on the subject of the Tram Strike was 
read by thousands. 

So far as literature is concerned, each branch 
tends to make use of its own or of general literature. 
.Mention, however, should be made of the Kingdom 
of (Jod Newspaper, which several of the branches 
are using with elFect, and also of "New Life Through 
Clod," a small book for which Mr. Kagawa has been 
largely responsible. The Shizuoka Branch has re 
cently brought out an excellent series of short evan 
gelistic pamphlets for use among country enquirers. 
At the present stage of the work it is best that 
branches should be free to experiment in this matter, 
though at the same time it is hoped they will share 
the knowledge they thus acquire with other branches. 

The Tohoku Branch now issues a weekly sermon 
and service by post, which they send to scattered 
members. The Seikokai New Life Hall is reviving its 
similar series after being a year in abeyance. It, 
however, makes it a rule to distribute only through 
the local churches. 

Looking at the work of Newspaper Evangelism 
in Japan, as a whole, there is no doubt that every 
where are signs of healthy growth and that the 
future is full of hope. It is no exaggeration to say 
that through this method the Gospel is now placed 
week after week before millions of readers, and that 
though possibly the direct results are still propor 
tionately few, yet the work thus done is of great 
potential value in creating attitudes, and its fruit 
will be seen to an increasing degree in the years 
that lie ahead. If the necessary funds were forth 
coming there is no limit under (Jod to what might be 
accomplished. 



CHAPTER XII. 
WORK FOR KOREANS IN JAPAN 

L. L. Young 

Since the occupation of Korea by the Japanese 
in 1905 there has been a steady immigration of 
Korean people into Japan. The stream began small. 
A few students and adventurers led the way. But 
year by year the numbers multiplied and at the pre 
sent time there are well over 500,000 of them more 
or less permanently settled here. The exodus from 
Korea has not been toward Japan only. Generally 
speaking those who came to Japan are from the 
South of Korea. Contemporaneous with this there 
has been an even larger exodus into Manchuria and 
Siberia. The reasons for these emigrations are not 
hard to find. The hermit Kingdom, as the country 
has often been called, at the close of the Russian 
Japan war awoke to the fact that isolation was no 
longer possible and the more venturesome spirits 
began to go abroad. This is quite natural and to be 
expected but it will by no means account for the 
very large exodus that has taken place since. The 
real reason is to be sought in the economic conditions 
that have existed in the country since 1905. 

Space does not permit of a study of these condi 
tions but anyone wishing to do so would find much 
food for reflection in three things relative to these 
conditions. First that the Koreans to an amazingly 
large degree have during this time lost ownership 
of their property. In the 24th annual issue of Chris 
tian Movement in Japan, Korea and Formosa, page 
. {(>7 the writer, Rev. R. A. Hardie speaking on the 
land problem in Korea, makes the statement that 



12C) JAPAN 

"in the two South-West provinces (North and South 
rhulla), generally spoken of as "the granary of 
Korea," it has been estimated that 75 per cent of the 
rice land has been mortgaged or sold for debt," 
and again on page . 568 in the same article he Fays, 
"perhaps it is not too large an estimate to say that 
nearly two-fifths of the rice land and one-third to 
one-half of the dry land under cultivation has passed 
out of the ownership of Koreans." In the second 
place one could find much to think about in looking 
into the question of the large numbers of Japanese 
in Korea enjoying good positions in all branches of 
the government service. The Korean getting a good 
salary in any of these is rare indeed. In the third 
place Chinese cheap labour has been allowed to flood 
the country to an amazing degree, Chinese now 
largely monopolize the market gardening industry. 
Then too there is scarcely a town or village in the 
country where the Chinese restaurant and Chinese 
traders are not found doing a flourishing business 
and making it difficult for the Korean with his less 
thrifty ways and higher standard of living to exist. 
A study of these conditions leaves one impressed 
with the fact that at both ends of the economic 
scale the Korean is faring badly. In an effort to 
improve his condition he turns his back on his 
home land and goes abroad. 

There is little doubt but that the majority of the 
five hundred thousand who are here now have come 
They are here bag and baggage, wife and 
children. Many of the early arrivals have already 
become rooted in the country and cannot easily be 
distinguished from the Japanese. There is little 
doubt that it is only a matter of time until the great 
majority will regard .Japan as their home. Speak 
ing generally, however, the process of assimilation, 
as yet. has not proceeded so far. Most of the women 
prefer to wear their native dress and Korean 
traditions and ideals are to some extent maintained 
in the homes. They locate for the most part in the 



WORK FOR KOREANS IN JAPAN 127 

larger cities and manufacturing towns but are also 
found here and there over the length and breadth 
of the country. Osaka has over 90,000, Tokyo 30,000, 
Nagoya 20,000 and Kyoto 16,000. Wherever there 
are roads to build, drains to clean, or hard, low 
paying work of any kind to do, there you will usually 
find the Korean doing a share. 

Aside from the student class who number prob 
ably around 5,000, the majority are unskilled labour 
ers. There is, however, a growing middle class 
cither working in the factories or engaged in a 
small independent business of some kind. These 
are comparatively well fixed and make by far the 
most permanent element in the Korean population. 

The lot of the day labourers is most distressing. 
Because of their poverty they are compelled to live 
in the slums where living is cheapest and where 
their contacts with the life they find there is most 
degrading to themselves. Most of them come from 
the (juiet farms and country sides of Korea where 
such vice as they find in these big cities is unheard 
of. One who has had long residence in the South 
of Korea referring to the young men he knew who 
were going and coming to and from Japan said, 
"They go to Japan fine sturdy hopeful young men, 
they return like the back wash from a war." This 
agrees with a statement made to myself by a Japan 
ese official in Osaka who is in close contact with the 
Koreans and working for their welfare. He remark 
ed that "When the Koreans first come to Japan they 
are good people but after they have been here for a 
time they become very bad." He went on to explain 
that for the first year or two they worked hard at 
whatever they could find to do and sent money back 
to their friends in Korea; but that in the course of a 
few years became discouraged, fell into sin of all 
kinds, and became a menace to the country. It is not 
surprising that it is so. Away from home influences, 
not wanted, without work, discriminated against, 
exploited by labour bosses, and given the raw edge of 



128 JAPAN 

things generally the temptation to do as slum life 
teaches them is often overwhelming. Under these 
conditions many become an easy prey to the traders 
in narcotic drugs. In Osaka alone there are said to 
be over :*,000 Korean addicts some of them mere 
boys of not more than sixteen years. It is a pitiful 
sight to see these young men sitting in groups in 
certain districts waiting for death, their bodies a 
mass of sores, the result of using an. infected 
hypodermic needle when injecting morphine. Boot 
leggers peddle the poison, the police either being 
powerless to hinder the traffic or openly indif 
ferent. When asked how they managed to live and 
get money to purchase the drug, they replied in 
effect, "by picking up other peoples property and 
selling it. The police used to arrest us but they 
seldom do so now. We have learned to make our 
selves so objectionable when in the jails that the 
authorities are glad to turn us out. We have no 
difficulty in turning into cash shoes or umbrellas 
or anything else that may conveniently be had. We 
know it is wrong to do so but it is either that or go 
without the drug which to us now is torment worse 
than the thought of death." 

Some have argued that there should be no Chris 
tian work done for the Koreans in Japan in their 
own language. This we consider a mistake. The 
proper language for anyone to worship in is the 
language of his childhood. When there are no places 
for them to worship in their own language they 
should by all means be encouraged to attend the 
Japanese services. However the inducements for 
them to do so are not great. With the exception of 
the Korean students their knowledge of the Japanese 
language is not sufficient to make the worship hour 
profitable and moreover the welcome accorded them 
in many Japanese churches is not such as to en 
courage further attendance. The result is that if the 
Korean Christian who comes to Japan fails to find 



WORK FOR KOREANS IN JAPAN 129 

a Korean place of worship he ere long is lost to the 
church. 

Christian work for Koreans in their own language 
was begun in Tokyo by the Korean Y.M.C.A. in 
1907. In 1909 the native Presbyterian church of 
Korea sent over a pastor and continued to finance 
and manage the work in Tokyo until 1912. In that 
year the Presbyterian Church in Korea began its 
foreign mission work in Shantung, China and handed 
over the work for Koreans in Tokyo to the care of 
the Presbyterian and Methodist mission bodies in 
Korea. Thus began the union work for Koreans in 
Japan. In 1925 all the work in Japan was turned 
over to the Korean Federal Council, a body which 
corresponds to the National Council in Japan. 

Since the year 1923 the Federated Missions in 
Japan has helped maintain this work by contributing 
annually about Yl.OOO toward its support. In the 
Fall of 1927 Rev. and Mrs. L. L. Young were sent out 
by the Presbyterian Church in Canada to begin work 
among the Koreans in Japan and at the request of 
the Mission committee of the Korean Federal Coun 
cil, this church agreed to its mission in Japan co 
operating with that council in building up one 
church for Koreans in Japan, this to be known as 
the Chosen Christian Church. 

The Korean Federal Council assisted by the 
Korean work Committee of the Federated Missions 
in Japan supports one pastor in Tokyo, one in Osaka 
and one in Kyushu. Many missions and missionaries 
in Japan also give invaluable assistance locally in 
the way of taking part in the Korean services, sup 
porting of lay preachers, helping pay church rents 
and in some car.es giving the free use of mission 
halls for Korean meetings. The Presbyterian Church 
in Canada supports its staff of four missionaries 
with two more under appointment to come out in 
September, one Korean pastor in the city of Sapporo, 
Hokkaido, one in Nagoya, one in Kyoto, a Bible 
woman in Shimonoseki, one in Osaka and one in 



130 JAPAN 

Kobe. It assists in maintaining one Kindergarten in 
Osaka, and two in Kobe. It supports two theological 
students who give part time to evangelistic work in 
the Kobe Korean churches. 

The statistical report for the whole work for the 
year 1920 shows the following: 34 churches and 
meeting places. 1254 adherents, 416 baptized mem 
bers, 12 adult Bible classes with 347 members, 21 
children s Sunday Schools with 532 member?, 12 
Young Peoples societies with 437 members. The 
total contributions by the native church for all pur 
poses amounted to Y7.78( .3(>. During the summer 2 
Daily Vacation Bible schools were held. 

Several missions to the Japanese have also some 
work among the Koreans. The Yotsuya Mission in 
Tokyo reports 3 Korean churches, 11 Sunday Schools, 
1 night school and 1 kindergarten. The Japan 
Evangelistic Band reports two Korean groups and 
two paid workers. The Oriental Missionary Society 
has recently began a work in Tokyo and Nagoya 
with several native workers. The Mino Mission in 
Ogaki ha: a Korean evangelist and two groups of 
Christians. There are probably also other missions 
doing some special work for Koreans of which we 
do not know. We entreat the Master s blessing on 
any and all who are giving the good news of redeem 
ing love to the needy Koreans. 

The difficulties in carrying on Evangelistic work 
among them are many. They do not segregate to 
any extent, but live among the Japanese wherever 
work may be had and rents are cheap. Visiting 
them in their homes requires perseverance and 
patience. The struggle for existence too is so keen 
that it is difficult to get them interested in higher 
things. If a man s body is craving food and warmth 
the condition of his soul does not easily become his 
first concern. When the Gospel claims are present 
ed the average Korean will readily agree that Chris 
tianity is good and that he should be a Christian but 



WORK FOR KOREANS IN JAPAN 131 

the look on his face says "tell me where I can get 
some honest work and I shall be with you." 

The Koreans in Japan need friends, people who 
are willing to help them get adjusted to their new 
environment. They do not deserve all the bad names 
given them in some quarters. They are a loveable 
people and respond readily to kindness and fair 
treatment. The missionary and Japanese Christian 
can do much for them not so much by way of assist 
ing them financially nor even by helping them get 
work, important as that is, as by attempting to 
understand them and being concerned for their 
eternal salvation. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 
DURING 1929 



Akira Ebizawa 

The Christian Church shares the problem and 
burdens of the Nation at large. In fact the Church 
<,ften feels these problems before the Nation itself 
has become conscious of them. There are many 
people who being duly chosen or elected are willing 
to carry these burdens for the welfare of the Nation. 
Much more are Christians ready to do so because 
they realize that this is a part of the Mission ap 
pointed them by (loci. 

The entire world is confronted by tremendous 
problems. Japan is no exception. The so-called 
three national perils political, economic and 
thought life were most keenly felt in 11)21). How 
ever, the Nation has at last become awakened to the 
seriousness of these problems and is earnestly striv 
ing to find the right solution. 

The climax of the thought life problem was 
reached in the first half of 11)29. On March 15th 
hundreds of communists were arrested. The arrest 
of these men and women proved to be a tremendous 
shock to the Nation. By the latter half of the year, 
however, the public mind had begun to recover from 
the shock which threatened the National spirit and 
began to catch a glimpse of new light. Christianity 
also rose to the occasion and seemed to step forward 
with fresh vigor and power. 

The year 11)21) may be characterized as a year of 
preparation for new advances in all realms of life. 



134 JAPAN 

This is true of the National Christian Council and 
of all the Christian agencies in the Empire. 

The Kamakura and Nara Conferences 

Dr. John R. Mott, after his return to America 
from an eight months tour through the Orient, at 
the Williamstown Conference, called attention to the 
fierce economic struggle which is going on through 
out the Orient. He spoke especially of Japan and of 
the fortitude with \vhich the Nation is bearing up 
under the great burdens resulting from the earth 
quake. It goes without saying that this sympathetic 
observer of world conditions wished to share with 
the Japanese Churches the heavy responsibility 
which they are shouldering. During this visit to 
Japan in April last year, two special conferences 
were held at Kamakura and Nara. Although not 
large in numbers, these conferences endeavored to 
study the policy for the future in regard to evan 
gelism, Christian education and the production of 
Christian Literature. 

International Cooperation 

The year may be characterized as a year when 
the Council entered into closer fellowship and co 
operation with the China Council and with the Inter 
national Missionary Council. 

In the early spring Drs. Kozaki and Axling visited 
the China Council at the time of its annual meeting. 
They were most cordially received and were able to 
intensify the cordial relations that exist between 
the two Councils. 

Last summer the Executive meetings of the Inter 
national Missionary Council were held at Williams- 
town and it was the writer s privilege together with 
Dr. I). IJ. Sdmeder of Sendai to represent Japan at 
this noteworthy gathering. Those ten days of con 
ference, meditation and fellowship together with the 
delegates from all over the world afforded a rare 



THE NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 135 

opportunity to understand the present condition of 
Christianity throughout the world and to enter into 
hearty cooperation with those who are leaders in the 
task of Kingdom building. 

It was generally held at the conference that 
Japan is the most advanced Mission field in the 
world and the leaders of the different countries re 
peatedly referred to the fact that there are so many 
outstanding Japanese Christian leaders and that the 
autonomy of the church has been so well developed. 
They naturally showed their great interest in, and 
sympathy towards, the Christian activities of this 
country. 

It is a matter of real gratitude that the recom 
mendations from Japan were readily adopted by the 
Conference. Among such recommendations the fol 
lowing stand out as of special importance. (1) The 
sending of an educational commission to Japan to 
make a thorough survey of Christian education in 
this land. (2) To cooperate as fully as possible in 
the Kingdom of God Campaign, making it an object 
of prayer and of the revival of missionary interest 
in Western churches. (3) The sending of Dr. But- 
terfield to the Orient in order to promote Rural 
Evangelistic work. The activities of the National 
Christian Council in 1930 naturally center about 
these recommendations. 

The Seventieth Anniversary of the Beginning 
of Protestant Missions 

The Christian community in Japan is justly proud 
of its many prominent leaders. Their influence upon 
the life of Japan can never be fully estimated. A 
very impressive Seventieth Anniversary service was 
held in Tokyo at which time such leaders who had 
served for fifty years were especially honoured. Local 
associations held similar gatherings and a spirit of 
gratitude for the remarkable aciiirveinents ol the 
seventy years filled the entire Church in Japan. 



186 JAPAN 

The Launching of the Kingdom of God Movement 

In the critical days of the national life the King 
dom of (Jod Movement was launched under the 
direction of a Central Committe composed of the 
members of the Evangelistic Commission of the 
Council and of the Kagawa Cooperators. This Cen 
tral Committee was empowered to carry on the cam 
paign at the Nation-wide Evangelistic Conference 
held in connection with the annual meeting of the 
Council last November. Every necessary prepara 
tion had been made during the year and the actual 
campaign was launched with the opening of the pre 
sent year. Already in a number of districts remark 
able meetings have been held. It is the aim of the 
Movement to bring all the Christian denominations 
into fullest cooperation and to mobilize all the Chris 
tians throughout the empire in this great effort. 

Cooperation of the Anglican Churches 

It has always been a source of sincere regret 
that one of the greatest denominations in Japan, the 
Seikokwai, did not see its way clear to cooperate 
in the National Christian Council. During the past 
year, however, members of that church, took their 
seats in the Council, thus marking another mile 
stone towards the union of all Christ s followers 
a goal to the attainment of which the Seikokwai 
is making such a large contribution. 

The Church Union Movement 

Under the auspices of the Committee for the 
Promotion of Church Union the representatives of 
the various denominations organized themselves into 
a committee for survey work and after one year of 
study and consultation the committee drew up a 
basis of union which was presented to the different 
denominations. At the same time a request was 
made to continue the committee for further study 
and investigation. Almost all of the denominations 



THK NATIONAL CHRISTIAN COUNCIL 1!>7 

responded favorably to this request and the com 
mittee of Union in consultation with the members 
of the Anglican Churches is studying the Basis 
again. 

The spirit of cooperation and united effort has 
greatly increased during the last few years. A 
remarkable instance of this is the united protest of 
fifty five Christian organizations on the question of 
State Shintoism. 

The Japanese church, although comparatively 
young, is no longer a child, but has attained full 
maturity. In her ranks are many pastors and laymen 
of long experience and of the widest Christian cul 
ture. The Japanese Christian church as the holder 
of the most genuine puritanic type of Christianity 
and as the discoverer of the immeasurable Christian 
teachings through the key of Oriental life and cul 
ture has some contributions to make to the develop 
ment of the world s Christianity. The real coopera 
tion of the Orient has only just begun and seems 
really possible. 



PART III. 
ASPECTS OF THE GROWING KINGDOM 



CHAPTER XIV. 
THE KINGDOM OF GOD CAMPAIGN 



William Axliny 

The Kingdom of God Campaign is one of the 
most daring and most adventurous Christian move 
ments that has been launched since Christianity s 
first introduction into Japan. Like many an other 
epoch-making Christian venture the vision of such 
a movement Mashed upon a soul made sensitive by 
continuous hours of fasting and prayer. 

Its Inception 

Kagawa, the saint of Shinkawa, in his study of 
the history of the Huguenots, in France, had been 
impressed with the parallel which existed between 
the mission of that movement in relation to its en 
vironment and that of the Christian movement in 
Japan. He was further led to an ever deepening 
conviction that until Japanese Christianity has a 
following of at least one million strong it can never 
repeat in this land the Huguenotic accomplishment 
of fashioning a whole nation s moral, social, indus 
trial and political ideals in the Christian mould. 

At Easter time, 1928, when many of the world s 
Christian leaders were gathered at the memorable 
Jerusalem Conference, this eminent Christian mys 
tic, back in Japan, was spending the night watches 



MO JAPAN 

of the Passion Week in passionate, creative prayer. 
Out of this experience there came to him a call, as 
deal- as an evening bell, to launch a movement that 
would push the number of Christians of this land 
up to a round million so that the impact of their 
united lives and influence would become a moulding 
force in all phases of the nation s life. 

The numerical "one million" as related to this 
movement is, therefore, not simply a campaign call 
or the flare-up of a fleeting fancy. The goal of one 
million Christians for Japan which has become the 
slogan of this movement is based on the lessons of 
history as well as the conviction of a definite divine 
call. 

Contributing Forces 

Kvery great movement comes to the birth through 
the creative influence of a far-seeing, forward- 
moving super-soul, but it grows in momentum and 
power as it gathers to itself an ever-increasing num 
ber of men and women who catch the vision and 
follow the gleam. Kagawa, under God, was the 
great soul which first caught the vision of the King 
dom of (iod Campaign and whose courage and faith 
brought the movement to the birth. Along the path 
way of its development, however, there is a whole 
group of outstanding causative events. 

The National Christian Conference which was 
called in June, 1 ( J28, to receive the reports of Japan s 
eight delegates to the Jerusalem Conference, marked 
a milestone in preparing the way for the realiza 
tion of this vision of a Kingdom of God Campaign. 
Up until this time Kagawa, with the exception of 
a small group of intimate friends and followers, 
had been fighting a single-handed fight. The 
Church, as such, was not behind him nor behind the 
Million Souls Movement. It was an extra-church 
movement. So much so was this true that the 
National Christian Conference, which was made up 
of representatives from practically all of the dif- 



THK KINGDOM OF ( ,()!) CAMPAIGN 1 11 

ferent Japanese Christian communions and in a 
very real way represented the organized Christian 
movement of the Empire, voted unanimously to 
launch a one year s Nation-wide Union Evangelistic 
Campaign entirely separate from the "Million Souls 
Movement," and set up a "Committee of Fifteen" 
to organize and put it across. 

This "Committee of Fifteen" worked in the 
closest possible relationship with the National Chris 
tian Council, with the result that Kagawa was in 
vited to become one of the main campaigners in 
this one year s special nation-wide evangelistic ef 
fort. This one year s try-out in the far-flung evan 
gelistic field of Japan brought out two flaming facts. 
First, that the heart of Japan was hungry and, 
second, that Kagawa and his message was the man 
and the message for this hour in the history of 
Christian endeavor in this Empire. 

Then in rapid succession came the Kamakura 
and Nara Conferences which recommended to the 
National Christian Council that it take steps to 
launch a national evangelistic campaign based "on 
Kagawa s plan." The Council accepted this chal 
lenge and asked its Commission on Evangelism to 
work out plans and policies for the launching of 
such a movement. As a result of the deliberations 
of this Commission the present Central Committee 
of the Kingdom of (iod Campaign was organized. 

An All-Christian Campaign 

Kagawa is still the religious genius and pivotal 
personality around which the Campaign moves but 
it is no longer a one-man movement. It has rapidly 
become an all-inclusive Christian movement. Not 
only are all the Japanese communions represented 
on the Central Committee but as far as possible 
every Christian organization has a representative 
on that directive body. 

More than that, an efl ort is made to bring every 



142 JAPAN 

Christian organization into active participative rela 
tions with the Campaign. The American and British 
Bible Societies were both prevailed upon to get out 
a special Kingdom of God Campaign issue of the 
New Testament. The Japan Christian Literature 
Society was asked to assume the responsibility for 
the printing and the circulation of the Kingdom of 
God Weekly. The Japan Purity Society and the 
Japanese W.C.T.U. have been asked to furnish 
speakers for local campaigns on the reform issues 
which come within their special fields. To the 
Y.M.C.A. the Y.W.C.A. and the Christian Endeavor 
Society has been assigned the task of mobilizing the 
Christian youth for the Campaign. 

A list of some one hundred and fifty-four out 
standing evangelistic campaigners has been prepar 
ed to be drafted whenever needed in local campaigns. 
Already more than forty of these have been called 
upon for special meetings and campaigns. 

Although it is only five months since the Cam 
paign was launched it is already moving forward 
on seventy different fronts. Seventy and the num 
ber is constantly increasing District Committees 
have been organized in the cities and centers 
throughout the Empire and are aggressively carry 
ing forward plans for campaigns in their local areas. 
These District Committees are autonomous and 
have full responsibility for inaugurating campaigns, 
choosing the speakers and determining the charac 
ter of the special efforts in their respective areas. 

A Far-Flung Program 

The Kingdom of God Campaign is an intensive, 
evangelistic crusade. It is not, however, simply a 
preaching campaign. Preaching is an outstanding 
part of its program but it is only a part. The goal 
of this movement is to establish the Kingdom of 
God ideals and spirit and the Kingdom of God way 
of life in every relationship and every sphere of 
the nation s life. 



THE KINGDOM OF GOD CAMPAIGN 143 

This movement has a passion and a purpose to 
reach the hitherto neglected classes with the Gospel 
of a fuller, freer and finer life. Seventy years have 
passed since Christianity was introduced into Japan 
but the 5,278,000 industrial and factory workers, the 
597,000 fishing folk, the 459,000 miners, the 1,033,- 
000 employees in transportation services and the 
1,158,000 toilers engaged on public works are still 
unreached by the Christian evangel. It is hoped 
that it will be possible to organize evangelistic 
"missions" to these different untouched classes and 
incarnate the Gospel in sacrificial service in their 
behalf. 

This Campaign also has on its heart the far- 
reaching unoccupied rural field with a total popula 
tion of 30,000,000 people. Among these farming 
folk are 1,500,000 tenant farmers who are fighting 
a losing fight with poverty. 

Forty per cent of the smaller towns of Japan 
are still unevangelized and in the 13,000 villages 
there are less than 13 Christian chapels. 

The Kingdom of God Campaign yearns to push 
out the frontiers of Christian evangelism and help 
fulness into this virgin rural field. Through evan 
gelistic campaigns it plans to broadcast the Good- 
News among the rural peoples. It aims to gather 
picked young men and women from the farms into 
short term Farmers Gospel Schools and train them 
for Christian and community leadership in their 
respective centers. It purposes, under God, to be 
come a renewing, revitalizing force which will lift 
the whole life of rural Japan to a higher and better 
plane. 

The task which the Campaign has undertaken 
is loo vast to be accomplished by the present 
limited number of pastors and evangelists. A host 
of volunteer witnesses must be raised up and releas 
ed into the nation s whitening harvest-field, 5,000 
lay preachers, dedicating their time and talent free 
ly to giving the Gospel to the communities in which 



144 JAPAN 

they live and the circles in which they move are 
needed in order to realize the Campaign s goal of 
one million Christians for Japan. 

Through the holding of Training Conferences for 
Christians throughout the Empire, it is hoped to 
enlist an ever-increasing number of lay evangels 
who will pour their lives into this evangelistic 
crusade. 

The Printed Page 

Japan, in a unique sense, is a nation of readers. 
Ninety-eight per cent of her people are literate and 
have an insatiable appetite for reading matter of 
every kind. The printed page, therefore, is a silent 
evangel which has the right of way and is given a 
hearing everywhere it circulates. 

In view of this fact "The Kingdom of God 
Weekly" has been launched. It is a daring venture 
to bring a new publication to the birth but no exist 
ing Christian Weekly or Monthly met the need. This 
is an out and out evangelistic messenger, going 
silently into homes and institutions where often no 
other witness can gain admittance. 

Moreover, it serves as a means of following up 
the increasingly large number who sign cards as 
Inquirers in the various local Campaigns. It is 
also a boon to the young Christian who needs to 
be nurtured and established in the faith. Already 
25,000 copies of this voiceless witness are going out 
into all parts of the Empire every w r eek. 

The Central Committee of the Campaign is now 
at work preparing the following series of pamphlets: 

Series I. 

1. Practical and Relating to 
Community Life: 

(a) Industry and the Kingdom of God. 

(b) Scholars and the Kingdom of God. 

(c) Social Evils and the Kingdom of God. 
<d) Politics and the Kingdom of God. 



THE. KINGDOM OF GOD CAMPAIGN 145 

2. Practical and Relating to 
the Individual: 

(a) The Diseased and the Kingdom of God. 

(b) The Mentally Distressed and the Kingdom of 

God. 

(c) Toilers and the Kingdom of God. 

(d) Farming Folk and the Kingdom of God. 

3. Theoretical: 

(a) Buddhism and the Kingdom of God. 

(b) Shintoism and the Kingdom of God. 

(c) Confucianism and the Kingdom of God. 

(d) Natural Sciences and the Kingdom of God. 
(c) Social Sciences and the Kingdom of God. 
(f) International Relations and the Kingdom of 

God. 

Series II. 

I. Life of Christ: 

(1) The Kingdom of God and the Problem of 

Living : 
Christ and the Problem of Existence. 

(2) The Kingdom of God and the View of Human 

Lift- 
Christ and the Problem of Life. 
Ci) The Kingdom of God and the View of Society : 

Christ and the Problem of Society. 
(-1) The Kingdom of God and the View of Reli 
gion : 

Christ and the Religious Problem. 
(5) The Kingdom of God and the View of Educa 
tion : 
Christ and Education. 

II. Theological: 

(1) The Kingdom of God and Its Lord . . . 

Regarding God. 

(2) The Kingdom of God and Its Saviour . . . 

Regarding Christ. 



146 JAPAN 

C>) The Kingdom of God and the Thought Prob 
lem. 
(4) Progress of the Kingdom of God. 

III. The Believer s Life: 

(1) The Kingdom of God and Its Dynamic. 

Regarding the Holy Spirit. 

(2) The Kingdom of God and Activity. 

Regarding the Bible, 
(tt) The Kingdom of God and Its People. 

Prayer and the Church Life. 

These will be published and used in mass quantities. 
At the request of the Central Committee both 
the American Bible Society and the British Bible 
Society have issued special ten sen Kingdom of God 
editions of the New Testament. It is planned to 
put out these cheap-edition Testaments by hundreds 
of thousands during the continuance of the Cam 
paign. 

Some Results to Date: 

Wherever the movement goes evidences that it 
is of God and was launched at the psychological 
hour continue to pile up. In a recent eight day 
campaign in Okayama Prefecture with Kagawa as 
speaker, 12,:>(>0 people attended the meetings and 
1,091 Inquirers signed cards. Young men rode fif 
teen to twenty miles on their bicycles to be present. 
Some of these meetings were held in the lecture hall 
of the local primary schools, with scripture read 
ing, prayer and an appeal for decisions for Christ. 
The use of public school buildings for such a pur 
pose as this has, until now been an unheard of, and 
impossible, thing in Japan. 

On a recent Sunday three meetings were held 
in one of the largest churches in Tokyo. I*, 000 peo 
ple attended these meetings and 155 signed cards. 
The following Sunday morning 150 people crowded 
into one of the smaller churches of this City and 
:i() signed cards. At meetings in another Tokyo 



THE KINGDOM OF GOD CAMPAIGN M"/ 

Church, attended by 220 people, 61 signed cards. 
In still another Church, out of an attendance of 
6: JO, cards were signed by 45. Special meetings 
were held in 50 Tokyo Churches during May with 
similar results in almost every case. 

Two special meetings held by Kagawa at the 
Meiji Gakuin (Presbyterian College) were attended 
by 795 students, of whom 496 signed up as Inquirers. 
Where the Campaign has been carried on quite con 
tinuously through the month there has so far been 
an average of 2,000 people a month who have signed 
cards as Inquirers. 

Ninety meetings were held during January, 
February and March attended by 59,724 people. The 
purpose of many of these meetings was to mobilize 
the Christians for the Campaign. In the meetings 
where an appeal was made for decisions 2,1598 en 
rolled, either as seekers or took a definite stand for 
Christ. 

(Jod is marching on, may His Church and the 
Christian forces within and without Japan not fail 
to keep step with Him in this critical, creative hour 
of the nation s life. 



CHAPTER XV. 

LICENSED PROSTITUTION AND 
ITS SUPPRESSION 



E. C. Hcnnigar 

The history of prostitution goes back into the 
most remote ages O f Japanese history. Before the 
Xara period there was a class of women called 
"ukareme" merrymakers. During the Nara period 
a department to regulate these "court singers" was 
established in imitation of the Chinese regime. 
After the transfer of the capital from Nara to Kyoto 
prostitutes settled at the landing places of the Kana- 
zakigawa, near Osaka, going out in small boats to 
the fishing and other vessels gathered there. These 
women were called "Eguchi-no-yukun", Eguchi 
being the centre of their activities. In the later 
days of the Kyoto period a class of dancers called 
"shirabyoshi" formed a distinct quarter. In the 
following Kamakura period many even of the fam 
ilies of the defeated Taira and other daimyo became 
women of the streets. It was at this time that dis 
orderly houses made their appearance at the stages 
along the Tokaido and other roads. This fact led 
the Government to establish a bureau called "Yukun 
Betto" for their regulation. The rulers of the Ashi- 
kaga Government, hardpressed financially because 
of the extravagance of the day, and looking for new 
sources of revenue, hit upon the idea of taxing these 
women and for that purpose organized a "Keisei 
Kyoku". This naturally involved giving some pro 
tection to the women thus taxed, so the first licenses 
were issued. This first government-taxed and 
licensed system of prostitution dates from the early 



150 JAPAN 

purl of the 16th Century. A most exhaustive his 
tory of this whole matter was published in 1929 
by .Air. K. Uemura, under the title of Yurishi, His 
tory of Prostitution. The book runs to over 600 
pages and the student is referred to pages 24, 29 
and 51 ff, for these early facts. 

Hideyoshi permitted prostitutes in Osaka in 1584 
and live years later in Kyoto, where a segregated 
district was established at Made-no-koji, which 
seems to have been the first licensed quarter. It 
was in 1612 that one Shoji Jin-e-mon, "for his own 
profit", was given permission to establish in the 
very heart of what is now Tokyo on a low-lying spot 
where reeds (yoshi) grew, a large licensed quarter 
called "Yoshi wara". (Yurishi, p. 117 ff.) Here the 
inmates were restricted in their movements not 
being allowed outside the moat which surrounded 
the quarters. All unlicensed traffic was forbidden, 
but as is ever the case the authorities utterly failed 
to control the women of the street. The original 
Yoshi wara was destroyed by fire and moved subse 
quently to the present site in Asakusa. 

Meiji Period 

When the Meiji Kra dawned the authorities at 
tempted, with a good deal of success in many lines, 
to bring order out of the chaos of the later Toku- 
gawa period. Hut in their handling of the matter 
under discussion they followed almost entirely the 
traditional policy. To be sure the new laws declar 
ed that the girls were not sold outright as slaves, 
only nntrt<j(iin-(l to the keepers, but this was a matter 
of nomenclature only. The right to freely, at any 
time, renounce the business was given the inmates, 
but this too was, until very recently, a dead letter. 
One new feature worthy of mention was the system 
of regular physical examination imposed on all 
licensed prostitutes. Uemura tells us that this sys 
tem was proposed by a Dr. Newton, Surgeon in the 



LICENSED PROSTITUTION AND ITS SUPPRESSION 151 

British Navy, and was established in Yokohama, 
Nagasaki and Kobe in 1867 and four years later ex 
tended to the whole Empire. (Yurishi p. 393.) 

Status of Geisha 

The status of geisha has been called in question 
of late. Among the prostitutes of 400 years ago 
there were those with ambition to better their posi 
tion who gave public dancing and singing perform 
ances. It was forbidden for prostitutes to give 
these dancing recitals and men actors took their 
places. Out of this class grew the present Kabuki 
(at that time, according to Uehara, called the Okuni- 
Kabuki since Izumo-no-Okuni was the originator). 
Certain others among the inmates of the licensed 
quarters who excelled in musical accomplishments 
formed a class by themselves. At first they were 
called "odoriko" (Dancers). Often this class was 
repressed by the Tokugawa authorities who spas 
modically tried to put down all but segregated 
licensed prostitutes. As to their status today, the 
writer has been informed that 99 per cent are im 
moral. Mr. II. Ito, an authority on this matter, 
writing in the Fujin Shimpo of February 1930 sets 
forth the following four reasons for regarding geisha 
as in the same class as licensed prostitutes (xhogi) : 
(1) The world commonly defines them so. (2) They 
are mortgaged to their employers as security for a 
loan (zenshakkin) precisely as in the case of tthogi. 
(3) In some prefectures they are required by law 
to undergo at stated intervals an examination for 
venereal disease, again precisely as in the case of 
nlnnji. And, what is of even great significance, in 
some of the prefectures where this is not required 
by law the (ieisha Employers Association requires 
it. (1) Various judgments handed down by the 
courts recognize geisha as prostitutes. To this may 
be added the fact that as, under pressure of public 
opinion the keepers of licensed houses are them- 



152 JAPAN 

selves considering a reformation of their business, 
in many places they are asking permission to change 
their shogi into geisha, or to have licenses for the 
two businesses in one and the same place. This 
would be anything but an advance. The women of 
Japan fear the geisha more than the shogi, for the 
geisha are the more mobile of the two and go out 
to catch their prey whereas the shogi are kept in 
strict segregation. 

Early Attempts at Abolition 

Even before the Meiji Era there were not lack 
ing men who saw the utter futility of the attempt 
to regulate and segregate prostitution. As early as 
1796 that wise ruler Uesugi Yosan of Yonezawa 
ordered the emancipation of the shogi in his pro 
vince. In 1888 the Hizen clan in Kyushu, abolished 
both xh<ji and geisha. This reformation raised the 
standard of public morals temporarily but after the 
Meiji Restoration public licensed quarters were 
re-established. In 1853 li Naosuke, who later be 
came Prime Minister, abolished the licensed quarters 
at Sano in Tochigi Prefecture, and in 1867 Kawai 
Tsugunosuke did the same in Nagata, loaning money 
to the keepers to assist their re-establishment in life 
and giving to the women money for their return ex 
penses to their homes. 

In the 5th year of Meiji (1872) a Peruvian vessel 
entered Yokohama harbour with 2,31 indentured 
Chinese labourers destined for the plantations of 
South America. One of these escaped and as a result 
the Japanese authorities freed the whole number. 
This action brought on an international question, 
which, submitted to the arbitration of Nicholas II 
was decided in Japan s favour. However, one plea 
against Japan, namely, that there was a most degrad 
ing form of slavery within her own borders, the 
licensed prostitution system, so got under the skins 
of some of the leaders of those davs that an ordi- 



LICENSED PROSTITUTION AND ITS SUPPRESSION 1 5tt 

nance was promulgated abolishing the traffic. Un 
fortunately, this had been unpremeditated and there 
fore there had been no preparation of any kind for 
such a step. It was not long until many of the 
inmates were coming back to ask their old masters 
for employment under any name whatsoever. This 
demonstrates the need of educating public opinion 
and of some preparation for taking care of the 
emancipated women when emancipation takes place. 
From that time the inmates are no longer sold out 
right to the keepers but are given in a kind of 
mortgage which amounts to exactly the same thing. 
(Cf. Kakusei Magazine, Vol. 14, No. 10). 

Gumma Prefecture 

Following on this the Christians of Gumma, home 
of Dr. Niijima, conceived the idea of clearing the 
traffic out of their Prefecture. Because of this 
agitation a memorial signed by 35 members of the 
Prefectural Assembly was presented to the Govern 
or calling for abolition. After a battle that lasted 
thirteen years, and which involved the bribing of 
the Governor by the brothel keepers, his removal, 
the dissolution of the Assembly by another Govern 
or and its reelection almost to a man by a thoroughly 
aroused populace, the bill finally became law in 
189:5. Gumma was thus the first Prefecture in Japan 
to free itself from this shameful traffic. Since that 
time the keepers and their friends have more than 
once attempted to restore the licensed system but 
without avail. 

\V. ( . T. U. 

During the period of this agitation in Gumma 
and to a very large extent growing out of it the 
Woman s Christian Temperance Union was organiz 
ed with the late Mrs. K. Yajima as the first pres 
ident. From its very inception this society has made- 
two of its primary objectives the rousing of public 



154 JAPAN 

opinion in regard to this infamous licensed traffic 
at home and a stricter control of women going 
abroad for immoral purposes. In this latter point 
they showed far-sighted sagacity for it is an estab 
lished fact that much of the antipathy against the 
Japanese settlers on the West Coast of America was 
due to the fact that such a large percentage of the 
Japanese women there were engaged in immoral 
practices. The W.C.T.U. has, through these years, 
carried on an active and ceaseless campaign of 
education which is to-day just beginning to show 
results. 

Some years later than this Rev. U. G. Murphy, 
of the Methodist Protestant Mission in Nagoya start 
ed an agitation that finally led to the revision of 
the law regarding the contracts for prostitutes. The 
steps necessary for any woman wishing to cease her 
occupation in the brothel were made much simpler. 
Kven with this revision the boasted "free cessation 
clauses" ( jiyu-haigyo) were largely a dead letter 
until within the last two or three years, as the 
police almost invariably took the side of the keepers 
against the inmates and would send the women back 
to bondage on one pretense or another. 

Purity Society 

While the women were organized for abolition 
some 45 years ago it was not until 1911 that the 
men of the nation organized for this work. In that 
year, as a direct result of a fire in the Yoshiwara 
in which, shut behind barred doors the majority of 
the inmates lost their lives, a great outcry arose 
throughout the nation as it came to be realized that 
these unfortunates were in truth no better than 
prisoners or slaves. In this atmosphere, and stimu 
lated by the visit of Mr. Gregory of the Purity 
Society in Kngland, the Kakuseikvvai ( Purity Society) 
was formed. The first President was the Hon. S. 
Shirnada. for many years the representative of Yoko- 



LICENSED PROSTITUTION AND ITS SUPPRESSION 155 

hama in the Imperial Diet. In that same year the 
Purity Magazine was established as the organ of 
this new Society and has been in continued circula 
tion since that time. It has been conducted on a 
high level, numbering among its contributors some 
of the leading liberal statesmen and writers of the 
country and is considered an authority on all statis 
tics and other matters relating to prostitution and 
its abolition. Since the death of Mr. Shimada in 
1 ( .)23 the President of the Society has been Dr. Isoo 
Abe, Dean of Economics in Waseda, a leader in the 
Labour Movement and for one term a member of 
the Diet. 

Post Earthquake Developments 

A great stimulus was given to the whole aboli 
tion movement by the earthquake of 19215. The 
Yoshiwara, with other quarters, was destroyed. As 
had been the case before, some 500 of the inmates 
met a cruel death, denied by the keepers the right 
to (lee for their lives, and again the nation was 
stirred bv news that leaked out, though the police 
forbade the circulation of pictures of the revolting 
scene. Capitalizing this feeling the W.C.T.U., back 
ed by the Purity Society, started a movement to 
prevent the rebuilding of the quarters. A petition 
to this effect addressed to the. Home Department was 
circulated. In one day no less than 12,000 signa 
tures were procured in Tokyo. These, supplemented 
by many thousands from the provinces, were pre 
sented to the authorities. Viscount (loto, the Home 
Minister, expressed himself as desirous of ending 
the traffic but said he "must wait on public opinion." 
It seemed as if something might be accomplished, 
but on account of the unfortunate attempt on the 
life of the Prince Regent the entire Cabinet resigned 
and taking advantage of the short period of in 
stability in government circles the Yoshiwara was 
rebuilt more splendidly than before. 



156 JAPAN 

In the Provinces 

However, all the ground occupied at this time 
was not lost. Workers in Shinshu, impelled by the 
words of the Home Minister as to the need of rous 
ing public opinion and seeing the efficacy of the 
petition method in that educational process, began 
to organize and the following year presented a peti 
tion to the Governor of Nagano Prefecture pray 
ing that no new houses be authorized and no new 
girls licensed in the Prefecture, thus ensuring the 
collapse of the system in six or seven years. This 
petition that first year bore 6,000 names, and repeat 
ed year by year with substantial increases grew 
into one that last year (1929) bore 60,600 signatures 
nnd needed a truck for its conveyance to the Kencho. 
Thus was launched the Kenbetsu Movement, the 
effort to abolish the traffic locally in one prefecture 
M a tinu 1 , as had been done in Gumma 30 years 
before. 

Abolition League 

Meanwhile, Christian men and others in the Diet 
were not idle. Mr. Matsuyama, Mr. Hoshijima and 
others sponsored memorials calling for Abolition. 
Several times the question has been debated in the 
Diet sessions. The authorities gave some recogni 
tion to the movement when they ordered a revision 
of the rules regulating the traffic, in an endeavour 
to make the lot of the victims a little less terrible. 
This, with the other indications that the tide of 
public opinion in the Empire was rising led to the 
formation in 1926 of an Abolition League, formed 
by a union of the W.C.T.U. with the Purity Society. 
From that date this League (Haisho Remmei) has 
fatnered the movement, raising large funds and 
organizing subsidiary Unions in the prefectures, 
until now more than half the prefectures in the 
country are organized. 



LICKNSKI) PROSTITUTION AND ITS SUPPRKSSION 157 
1928 

The year 1928 saw the first substantial advance 
that had been made since 1893. Four prefectural 
Assemblies passed memorials calling for Abolition 
of the licensed system. These were Saitamu, Fukui, 
Akita and Fukushima. In Nagano, Okayama, Kyoto 
and Tochigi similar bills were either defeated or 
left undecided when the Assembly arose. Follow 
ing" this in 1929 a Labour member in the Niigata 
Assembly introduced a Bill which was passed. 
Smaller gains have been made in various places. 
Some prefectures have refused to permit any new 
houses being built, in many the regulations have 
been modified. In Nagano the authorities have can 
celled the tax on the brothels, thus cutting the offi 
cial monetary interest in the traffic. In Akita no 
new women are being licensed, and there is a slow 
but very general drop in* the number of shogi 
(licensed women). In December 1928 there were 
in all Japan 547 segregated quarters with 11,155 
houses and 49,058 inmates, a drop of 3,271 in three 
years. Geisha number now 80,808, showing an in 
crease of 8,808 in the same period. This beside an 
estimated 100,000 private prostitutes and an equal 
number of recognized concubines. These make to 
gether an army of immoral women two to three times 
as great as the number of girls in higher institu 
tions of learning. Japan is the only civilized power 
that fosters this licensed, protected system of vice 
contributing to the public revenues of the state. As 
will be seen from the above, active measures look 
ing to abolition have a history of only seven years, 
yet in that short time immense progress has been 
made in rousing the public conscience and we may 
believe that the time is not distant when this blot 
will be wiped from the fair name of this country. 

(The reader is referred to the 1927, 1928 vols. 
of this Mission Year Hook for further detailed in 
formation on this matter). 



158 JAPAN 

Later. 

Two bills looking to the abolition of the licensed 
system were introduced in the special session of the 
Imperial Diet. The fate of these bills was not known 
when the above was sent to the press. However in 
the furore of the closing days both these bills were 
passed up not voted upon. 

One, proposed by Mr. Miyake of Yokohama called 
for the passing of a law forbidding any further 
brothels being licensed, any new girls enrolled as 
prostitutes and that the whole system come to an 
end in April 1935. 

The second, a memorial proposed by Dr. D. Ta- 
gawa, President of Meiji Gakuin, called for a drastic 
amendment to the present law as the best w r ay to 
end the traffic 1 , viz. ( 1 ) that employment offices be 
forbidden to recommend their clients to the brothels, 
< 2 i That it be made illegal for parents or guardians 
to sell girls to those known to be in this business, 
(3) that it be declared that money loaned on con 
tracts with these girls be non-collectable, (4) that 
the age of consent be raised from 18 to 21 to bring 
it into conformity with the League of Nations 
regulations. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

CHRISTIAN INFLUENCE UPON JAPANESE 
LITERATURE 



S. H. Wainright 

It is not easy to distinguish Christian influence 
from Western influence. Japanese Literature, like 
Japanese life in general, has been profoundly in 
fluenced by the West since the opening of the coun 
try in 1868. While we would not lay claim to every 
change for the good brought about through contact 
with the West, yet as Christians we may justily point 
out the wider scope of influence to be credited to 
Christianity than that exerted within the organized 
Christian lines. Some of the particular fields in 
which this influence is apparent will be mentioned 
i;. the present article. 

Literature 

In the field of literature as such, fiction, drama, 
poetry and essay writing, as in art in general the 
Christian ideals of the West have left an impres 
sion upon modern Japan. The use of oils, for exam 
ple in art. is an indication of the greater degree to 
which human passions are recognized by the artist, 
as compared with the earlier schools which painted 
in water color or with ink. The essentially human 
in literature as in the other arts has figured more 
prominently. Human life is neither presented as 
a caricature nor as a symbol. We may call the new 
attitude realistic and ascribe it to the influence of 
modern science. Yet that does not fully account 
for the change. The point of view is to a very great 



!()() JAPAN 

decree to be ascribed to the hold Christianity has 
obtained upon the thought of Japan. 

The evidence that Christianity has influenced 
literature as such is to be found in the number of 
Christians or those whose minds have been formed 
under Christian influence in school or church who 
have attained fame in this field. Such names as 
Tokutomi Roka, Arishima Takero, Kagawa Toyohiko, 
Shimazaki Toson, Mushakoji and Sato Koroku are 
well known to the present generation of Japanese, 
beside the names of many others. 

As regards problems, although literature has 
sounded the note of revolt against social customs and 
traditional usages, the writing has not been wholly 
negative. Christian ideals have often had prominence 
given them. About questions of marriage and the 
family in particular has this been true. A typical 
example of this type of production is to be found in 
Xamiko one of Tokutomi s most popular composi 
tions. The freedom and the equality of the sexes, 
as an ideal, is thrown over against the past in such 
a way as to discredit traditions of the fathers. 

In later years, this note of revolt has been 
sounded with reference to wider things. The so- 
called proletariat literature, in vogue, marks a 
change in emphasis. Interest now is not only in 
the liberation of womanhood, but takes a wider 
sweep. Literature is concerned with the unprivileg 
ed classes. It has taken on popular forms. It uses 
the colloquial style and is issued at popular prices. 

One phase of the new emphasis is to be seen in 
the writings of the Shirakaba school. Its stand 
point is like that of Count Tolstoy, dominated by 
the spirit of Christianity more than by the letter of 
the Orthodox Faith. 

The Christian inspiration can be recognized in 
the changes to which attention has just been called. 
The new value attached to womanhood, to the free 
dom of the sexes, to ideal marriage and family life 
is Christian in its source. So also we may trace 



INFLUENCE UPON JAPANESE LITERATURE 161 

back to Christ and his compassion for the multitude, 
the deliverance sought for the afflicted and bound, 
the interest in the great masses of the people. 
Democracy is a product of Christianity in the West. 
The new interest throughout Asia in the multitudes, 
assuming one phase in one country and a different 
phase in other countries, is but a translation of the 
Christian gospel into terms of literature, politics 
and social reform. 

Philosophy 

Japanese possessed a philosophical tradition 
when the country was opened to the West. As Bud 
dhism transmitted the concepts of philosophy, which 
had their source in India, if not in Greece, to 
.Japan, so Confucianism brought in the study of 
ethics and civil government. The invasion of 
thought systems from the West, therefore, found in 
Japan a soil already prepared. 

Since the opening of the country, the Western 
tradition, by means of the modern schools, has be 
come fairly well established in the thought-life of 
Japan. Kant and Hegel, and to a lesser degree the 
Greek philosophers, not to speak of English and 
American thought, have been patiently studied. 
Even in the Buddhist circles, in their modern schools 
and ancient monasteries, German philosophy has 
been made a subject of study. 

What influence, therefore, are we to ascribe to the 
Western invasion in this country, as regards the 
crossing of the currents of thought from the ancient 
East and from the more modern West? In answer 
to this question, there has been decided improve 
ment, under Western influence, in the matter of pre 
cision of terms and rigour of logic, as well as in the 
determination of subject matter according to a 
stricter division of fields. But in this connection 
our subject is limited to the Christian influence and 
about this we shall now say a few words, 



162 JAPAN 

First of all, contact with Christianity is shown 
in the changed conception of God. Buddhist thought 
has been reversed by the Christian emphasis upon 
the Personality of God. This is likewise true as 
regards the Confucian school. "Heaven" was a term 
vaguely personal in its significance. Later Confu 
cian scholars, under influence from the West, have 
taken pains to show that Confucian terminology 
really implied Personality in God. A more decisive 
Christian influence exerted in Confucian circles 
relates to the definite conceptions of the Divine 
Nature brought in by Christianity. Confucianists 
had never contemplated the attributes of God, nor 
grasped the Divine Fatherhood though filial obedi 
ence might have pointed in that direction, to which 
virtue so much importance was attached. 

The Christian tradition makes its appearance 
also in the mutual approach between the religious 
and philosophical conceptions of God. The concep 
tion of Divine Personality affords a meeting point 
such as Oriental thought did not possess, between 
religion and philosophy in their respective ideas 
about the Divine Nature. Japanese thought has 
reacted, both with sympathy and decision, to the 
Christian view of the Fatherhood of God. 

Christian influence may be observed in the deep 
ened feeling of intolerance for polytheistic and 
superstitious forms of religion. There are indica 
tions in the words of Confucius of a certain degree 
of intolerance felt by him toward the low forms of 
worship. Buddhist philosophy is skeptical, though 
tolerant and even friendly, with reference to popu 
lar deities and superstitions. These are regarded as 
unreal though useful. With the entrance of Chris 
tianity there has been a deepening of the feeling of 
antagonism toward the popular religions and their 
primitive usages. 

With reference to the conception of the universe, 
it is not so easy to distinguish Christian influence. 
The idea of creation has had effect in deepening the 



INFLUKNTK UPON JAPANKSK LITKRATl RE 16o 

conviction of Christians with reference to the tran 
scendence of God. Christianity has attached impor 
tance to progress in contrast to the Oriental view 
of successive cycles. "Progress" indeed has become 
a ruling idea in recent Japanese thought, as a result 
of contact with the West. Christianity has had 
something to do with the prevalence of this idea. 
Yet the doctrine of evolution, so widely predominant 
in Western thought, has in a similar manner per 
vaded all Japanese thinking. Hence, along with 
Christianity evolution must be mentioned, and 
Western achievements as well, in order to account 
for the strong hold the idea of progress has obtain 
ed with the Japanese mind. 

Ethics 

The subject of ethics has been discussed with 
far greater conservatism than has been manifested 
in other fields. The teaching of morals in the 
schools has been so colored with patriotism as to 
render a conservative attitude inevitable. Yet 
Christian influence, and especially Western influ 
ence, has made its impression upon the field of 
ethics. What are the evidences of this? 

Christianity has made substantial contribution in 
aiding Japan s transition from the feudal to the in 
dustrial conception of ethics. Hushido has gradual 
ly yielded to a type of ethics better adapted to an 
industrial society. Mr. Fukuzawa, the founder of 
Keio University and a pioneer of Western learning, 
was an open champion of utilitarian ethics. Ik- 
was not a Christian, yet he turned against Confu 
cianism in favor of a conception of human society 
that valued utilitarianism and gave a larger em 
phasis to material progress. Christianity has stress 
ed virtues suited to the modern form of society 
without particular emphasis upon militaristic 
virtues. 

Another evidence of Christianity is to be seen in 
the changed conception of womanhood. The con 



trust between what is written now upon the person 
ality, the duties and rights of womanhood is in 
marked contrast to the ethical ideals set forth in 
the OHIUI Ddiyaku. Not only is the equality of 
women with men now recognized, but the Christian 
interpretation of the larger sphere in which woman 
hood may follow legitimate pursuits has been wide 
ly accepted in accordance with the modern trend 
in the West. 

In this connection also the influence of Chris 
tianity is marked upon the problem of sex. Its 
stricter ideal has become potent in public opinion 
and in social reform as championed, for example, 
by the Kyofukai, (W.C.T.U.) and as interpreted in 
current literature. 

Another field in which Christian influence has 
been manifest is in the emphasis given to social 
service, to the unselfish endeavor for the welfare of 
society, to all forms of rescue work and care for 
the unfortunate. Humanitarianism expressed in 
the Confucian term hcncrnlcncc, has been vitalized 
and expanded by Christianity. Buddhism has been 
drawn away from its "other worldiness" and is im 
pelled to adopt social service under the inspira 
tion of Christian example. Quite an interest in 
social service is taken by the younger priests of 
the Buddhist sects. 

The literature of the period reflects Christianity 
in the accentuated conciousness of the recent period 
as regards the distinction between good and evil. 
Kvil with increasing seriousness is becoming a 
problem. The great advance in knowledge, through 
the establishment of modern schools and other 
agencies, has not led to the realization of moral 
freedom. A twofold consequence is apparent. On 
the one hand, we observe a deepened conflict for 
many a soul, usually referred to as the unrest char 
acteristic of the times. It is a state of mind well 
described in the seventh chapter of Romans. On 
the other hand, and at the opposite extreme, with 



INFLUENCE UPON JAPANESE LITERATURE 165 

many there has been a complete surrender of the 
moral ideal. The ethical struggle is given up in 
exchange for an easy naturalism the temptation to 
accept which is at hand owing to the widespread 
vogue of naturalistic ideas in modern times. One 
thing is certain, knowledge has failed to solve the 
problem of good and evil. There is a growing dis 
trust of knowledge and a casting about for a solu 
tion from some other direction. 

Sociology 

Much of interest might be written about the new 
and voluminous literature on such subjects as legal 
and economic science. Christianity has had an in 
fluence in this field. But space will not admit of 
these wider studies. Let it suffice to mention the 
literature, increasingly abundant, on social sub 
jects. It cannot be said that this subject is wholly 
new. Confucian literature relates not only to 
ethical but to social and political subjects. Hut 
modern Japan has shown extraordinary interest in 
the new sociology which has come to form a purl 
of the curriculum in the schools and a topic of gen 
eral discussion in current literature. Propagandist 
literature of this type also forms a part of the gen 
eral output. 

Our subject limits us to Christian influence. 
This is apparent in the awakened interest in the 
depressed classes, in the inspiration to reforms, in 
the agitation for the abolition of certain customs 
and institutions detrimental to the social welfare 
and in organized social service. Christianity has 
many exponents of the social message whose writ 
ings, to a greater or lesser degree, are influencing 
the present generation. The following names are 
among those Christians who have become well 
known: Tomeoka Kosuke, Xamai Takayuki, Hara 
Taneaki, Arima Shirosuke, Sugiyama Motojiro, Ka- 
gawa Toyohiko, Kubushiro Ochimi, Mrs. Kdward 



166 JAPAN 

(launtlett, and Miss Toko Azumn. This list 
might be extended if the names of political and 
social leaders who were once connected with the 
churches, were added. The literature on temper 
ance reforms, including prohibition, is almost en 
tirely a Christian contribution. Ando Taro, Ito 
Kazutaka and Nagao Hampei are the outstandiiiK 
leaders in this field, and they have produced litera 
ture on the subject. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
TIIK YOUTH MOVEMENT IN JAPAN 

Soichi Snito 

Is there a youth movement in Japan today? In 
order to answer this question, one must make a 
brief survey of the historical background in which 
the youth movement has developed. 

In the feudal days one would usually find in 
each village or town several groups of young men, 
called "wakaishu" or "waka renju". These groups 
would correspond to what we today would call boys 
and young men s clubs. Their chief duties and 
function seem to have been to spend their evenings 
chatting together, playing shogi, Japanese chess, or 
discussing the things they might be able to do to 
have a good time at their next local district festival. 
Often these discussions ended in various plans 
whereby they might be able to attack the young men s 
group in some neighboring town or villge. They 
were distinctly provincial. 

Among the Samurai class, the young men also 
had their own clubs. They were no less provincial. 
The study of "sha" or "kenji no sha" as it existed 
in the province where the Satsuma Clan lived is in 
itself a project of great interest. Before the Re 
storation in 18G7, these provincial groupings of 
young agitators began to form two outstanding 
national groups, the one backing the old Shogunate 
regime, and the other standing for the Imperial 
family. 

As one studies the earlier part of the Meiji Era, 
he cannot but be impressed by the remarkable 
change brought about by the break up of the Samu- 



1G8 JAPAN 

rai Class, whereby everybody was given an equal 
opportunity in the pursuit of learning, and later in 
business and politics. Another important point 
which should be mentioned in this connection is 
the fact of the quite unnatural and altogether too 
rapid and sudden importation and adoption of occi 
dental customs and ideas. During those so-called 
"Kokumeikan" days, cabinet ministers and the upper 
class members of society were spending their nights 
at dances and fancy dress balls, the Japanese ladies 
wearing foreign dresses. It is no wonder that a 
conservative reaction set in, actively attacking the 
"worshippers of the West." 

It was not till about 1905 or 1906 when Japan 
was having her life and death struggle with Russia 
that the youth of Japan began to assert itself and 
to make a beginning at an organization. As a result 
of this war Japan took her place as one of the first 
powers of the world. Politically the country began 
to work out a real constitutional government, and 
economically she had completed her industrial revo 
lution and had begun the process of readjustment. 

It was quito natural, therefore, that the Japan 
ese people at large felt free from the domination 
of foreign influence, and thus they began to realize 
the necessity of concentrating their efforts along 
the lines of perfecting their local government and 
helping to uplift the youth of the country morally 
and intellectually. With this in mind, an organiza 
tion known as the "Sei Nen Dan", or Young Men s 
Society, was brought into existence. It is true that 
even preceding this time the government authorities 
had done their best and had often discussed the 
best ways and means leading to an improvement of 
the condition and activities of the above mentioned 
young men s groups which were already in exist 
ence. The local governors had several times issued 
instructions along this line. 



THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN JAPAN 1G9 

Sei Nendan Organi/ed 

The year 1910 stands out prominently for it was 
in this year that the first gathering on a nation 
wide scale of the Sei Nen Dan was held. More than 
2,000 young men came together at Nagoya from all 
parts of Japan for this first national gathering of 
young men. By this time two different departments 
of the central government the Departments of 
Home Affairs and of Education were busily engag 
ed in several attempts to encourage and strengthen 
the various local units of the organization. A 
Survey Commission was set up, and leader s train 
ing program was worked out. General Giichi 
Tanaka, later head of the Seiyukai and Premier, 
published, following his return from a trip abroad, 
a book which he called "Social Civic Education". 
In this book Baron Tanaka laid special stress on the 
necessity of the proper education of youth from the 
social standpoint. 

In 1920 there was appointed in each local pre 
fecture a secretary to have charge of social educa 
tion. This was a step which gave great impetus 
to the rapid development of the Sei Nen Dan 
organization. 

In July of the following year a large conven 
tion of young men was held in Osaka under the 
auspices of the united youth of that city, and the 
enthusiasm generated there led to a unanimous 
decision in September of the same year whereby all 
the local Young Men s Societies contributed toward 
a fund for the purpose of building in Tokyo a 
national headquarters. This building known as the 
Sei Nen Kwan was therefore built in the Meiji 
Shrine Outer Garden. Following two more national 
conventions in Tokyo in 1922 and in Kyoto in 192. , 
there finally came into existence in October 1924 
a carefully worked out National Union of all the 
Young Men s Societies. 

As has already been mentioned this movement 



170 JAPAN 

from its very beginning was under the direct in 
fluence and supervision of the government author 
ities, its basic foundation having been laid by the 
Home Department in September of 1915. It should 
here be stated that the Sei Nen Dan was not an 
organization for the promotion of any established 
set of activities or program. Its purpose had been 
rather the broad one of promoting and helping up 
lift the moral and intellectual life of the young men 
of the nation. The objective was to help youth in 
the all round development of life the building of 
high character and good citizenship through im 
proving their intellectual and physical life. 

In May of 1926 a more specific and detailed set 
of instructions was issued, whereby an attempt was 
made to help meet the changing needs of society as 
expressed in the economic and social unrest of the 
Japanese people following the Great War. This 
new program included such items as how to increase 
and develop the supplementary education of youth 
and their taste for good reading, the cultivating of 
their physical education, and the training of leaders 
of youth. 

The emphasis of the third set of instructions 
which were subsequently issued was upon the auto 
nomous development of the youth movement itself. 
It encouraged the local groups, however, to keep 
in as close contact as possible with the various 
educational institutions both public and private. 

Sei Nen Dan Program 

Thus the gradual growth and development of the 
Sei Nen Dan has come to include 17,2;?0 affiliated 
groups composed of 2,7. l7,90tt young men as mem 
bers. These figures which were published on April 
ISO, 1929 are the latest statistics available. The 
program of the movement now includes the follow 
ing: 



THE YOUTH MOVEMENT IN JAPAN 171 

Intellectual 

Supplementary education correspondence 1 

schools, summer schools, Institutes, etc. 

Circulating 1 libraries and magazines. 

Education for Kd citizenship preparatory 
education before conscription service. 

Exhibitions of art and science also discus 
sions. 

Study of local autonomous civic institutions. 

Peripatetic inspection trips. 

And 19 other items. 

Moral- 
Cultivation of a pious spirit. 
Ceremony of Emperor worship from a distance. 
Reading of the Imperial Edict. 
Society to honor and respect the aged people. 
Improvement of social customs and manners. 
Abstinence from smoking and drinking. 
The training of the younger boys. 
The establishment of a Youth Day. 
Doing one good deed a day campaign. 
Promotion of thrift and savings. 
And 1, i other items. 

Physical- 
Athletic and track meets. 
Hiking and mountain climbings. 
First aid and emergency calls. 
Get up early campaign. 
Propagating knowledge of hygiene. 
Promotion of various contests. 
Gymnastics. 
.Judo and fencing. 
Archery. 
And 8 other items. 

Civic Service 

Repairing roads and bridges. 
Making sign and direction boards for 
and roads. 



172 JAPAN 

Fire brigade practice. 

Punctuality campaign. 

Prevention of contagious diseases. 

Night watch duty. 

Keeping up places of note, of historic interest, 
and of places of natural beauty and attrac 
tion. 

Sweeping and keeping clean of IHiddhist tem 
ples and Shinto Shrines. 

Traffic campaigns. 

Visiting barracks to take comfort to soldiers. 

And (> other items. 

Indigenous Movement 

Up till the time of the annual convention in 
Kyoto in li)2:i the Sei Nen Dan with the help and 
supervision of the government had been able to 
make large strides forward in the realization of 
their objectives. It was at this convention, how 
ever, that the young men themselves and on their 
own initiative gave much freer expression to their 
own feelings and ideas. The voice came clearly 
from the mouth of youth that if it were to be 
successful in this new day the youth movement 
must stand on its own feet. This was the first time 
that the audible voice of youth demanded a really 
self-directed movement rather than one guided by 
the government or other outsiders. 

This new tendency has led the movement into 
new and difficult problems during the past few 
years. Were the youth to be satisfied with leaders 
in persons such as the social secretaries of the re 
spective prefectures, or retired military officers, or 
the principals of the local primary of middle 
schools? Where and how were they to get the kind 
of leaders demanded for the new day and the new 
conditions? There is now on foot a movement look 
ing toward the establishment of a regular and per 
manent leaders training institute which would 



TI1K YOITH MOVKMKNT IN JAPAN 173 

provide the right kind of leaders for local units 
all over the country. 

Another serious problem confronting the Sei Nen 
Dan is the attitude of the radical youth movement 
which in many places, has been aiming their attacks 
at the Sei Nen Dan as a camp of the reactionary 
forces of the country. 

Radical Movement 

This leads me to my next point a youth move 
ment or tendency which has come to be more or 
less latent and driven under ground. I refer to 
the tenacious communist movement throughout the 
country. 

The social unrest in Japan first found its vent 
in the wide-spread discussions of democracy. Men 
like the late Dr. Tokuzo Fukuda and Dr. Sakuzo 
Yoshino were the pioneers of this movement, but 
little did they dream probably of what would follow 
so quickly. Just how much direct influence the 
International Communist League of Youth has had 
over the youth movements of the country is hard 
to say, but there are reasons to believe that an organ 
ized effort on the part of the radicals to this effect 
has been in evidence. The two drastic arrests of 
March 15, 1928, and April 1(5, 1929, gave definite 
evidence of this movement. The complete works of 
Marx and Kngels have been translated into Japan 
ese, and the prolific production and sale of so-called 
"red" books give us an indication of the forces at 
work. A significant fact which must be kept in 
mind in this connection is the collaboration of the 
laborites and the intelligentia in this movement. 

Right here, however, mention should be made of 
the fact that as has taken place in Europe various 
reactionary movements somewhat similar to the 
Fascist organization have already been set in motion 
and are beginning to exert the opposite effect, 
though not in so strong and enduring a manner as 
the other radical force. 



174 JAPAN 

Ethical Movements 

In addition to the above mentioned youth move 
ments and tendencies there are two organizations 
which during recent years have had some very in 
teresting developments, and many ways are quite 
similar. 

The first and oldest one is called the Shuyodan, 
and was organized in 1906 by Mr. Monzo Hasunuma. 
In general this organization is very nationalistic in 
its tendencies and program. They hold retreats 
and meetings all over the country. The Shuyodan 
has a total of some 160,000 active members. These 
together with the Associate members bring the total 
up to nearly 800,000, of whom about 200,000 are 
women. The mottos are "Brotherly Love" and 
"Severe Physical Training", etc. The monthly 
organs published by the Shuyodan are "Kojo" (Up 
ward Move), "Ai to Ase" (Love and Labor) and 
"Shiroyuri" (White Lily). 

The second of these Ethical movements is called 
the "Kibosha", and was organized in 1917 by Mr. 
Seiko Goto. Since that date there has been a very 
rapid and wide-spread progress in this organiza 
tion, the "Friends of Kibosha", as they are called, 
being scattered all over the land. Membership 
figures are said to reach nearly 1,000,000 people, 
the large majority of whom are young women. 
Kibosha was originally started as an organization 
for the more adequate education of women, but was 
later broadened to include young men also. The 
present membership includes over 600,000 women 
and more than UOO.OOO men. Mottos often used by 
the Kibosha include The Ethicalization of Society", 
"The Industrialization of Education", and "The Ap 
plication of Educational Principles to Industry". 
Monthly organs include the "Daido", (The Great 
Way), "Kibo" (Hope), "Kibo no Nihon" (Hope of 
.Japan), "Esperanto", "Gakuto" (for students), and 
"Kagayaki" (for the blind). 



THE YOITII MOVKMKNT IN .JAPAN 175 

Both of these two movements are outstanding in 
that during such a short period of time they have 
become so wide-spread and popular. Just to what 
extent they exert any very great influence, or what 
permanent contribution they are making to society 
is an open question. It is difficult to predict as to 
the future of these organizations, for both move 
ments are centred around two personalities, and it 
is due to their zeal and effort that these organiza 
tions are thriving. Mention should be made that 
some of these members are also members of the 
Young Men s Society or Young Maiden s Society. 
Both organizations have splendid headquarters in 
Tokyo. 

Religious Organizations Among Students 

It is of interest to note the number of various 
types of religious organizations which are composed 
of students in the various Universities, Higher 
Schools and other College Grade Schools in Japan. 
The following statistics were gathered by the Reli 
gious Bureau of the Department of Education, in 
September, 1929. The figures show an increase of 
78 in the total number of such religious organiza 
tions since 1925. 

Number of Orxani/.ittions and Members 



I 2 3| 

5 H *o ~ 

3 2.10 126 X9S6 13.93 
1 4 62 1402 7.67 
37 23>*7 4.40 
IX 299X 1H.11 

Mierriiil Collide., . 19 24 1131 3. 1 3.1 61 1971 9.00 

Total 216 144 9276 147 776.1 X 414 .1 2H9 304 17744 lo.li 

But there are two facts worth mentioning here. 
One is the revolt of youth against any form of estab 
lished religion, and the other is the tendency to go 







H V 







-i~ 


Unive 


-.itie, 


. M 





14 2* 


4H 30H2 


II. vh. 


Srhools . 


:<2 




770 


29 600 


r<iil-K 


s ( men 1 . . 


.13 


15 


.192 


21 163.1 


Colleir 


* I women I 


37 


5 


13.1.1 


13 1643 


Terhn 


;il find Com 











\1(\ 

deep to the root of the life problems and yet to keep 
an attitude of evaluating the guiding principles of 
the religion with which they have affiliated them 
selves. 

The attitude of the government authorities to 
ward religious organizations affords us some aspects 
for our consideration and careful examination. For 
instance, about a year ago the Minister of Educa 
tion called a special meeting, to which he invited 
representatives of a number of different sects and 
faiths in order to council with them and get their 
advice as to how to meet the communist influence 
among the students especially. In the next place 
the changed attitude of the educational authorities 
toward religionists is of significance. It is not pre 
sumptuous to say that they have come to recognize 
the value of religious organizations, for they are 
now greatly troubled in knowing how to approach 
the youth problem of the day. 

In spite of all these baffling problems and ques 
tions, however, the glimpse of hope for the future 
lies in youth itself. For a time the materialistic 
interpretation of life may have attracted their atten 
tion. Hut fundamentally the thirst of youth for 
truth and aspiration for better things and for a 
better social order will find expression in the forma 
tion of different upward looking movements. This 
is as true in Japan as it is in the other countries 
of the world. Japan is no exception to the present 
day world current. 

Xow let us take up some phases of the Christian 
movements of our country. 

The Y..M.C.A. and Y.VV.C.A. Movements 

The Young Men s Christian Association was first 
organized just fifty years ago this year. The vision 
and foresight of the comparatively small body of 
Christians of that day in taking the leadership in 
such a positive way in helping young men meet 



THK YOUTH MOVKMKNT IN JAPAN 177 

their problems is surprising and encouraging. This 
was but a few years after the Meiji Restoration at 
a time when even the Japanese government itself 
was passing through a period of trial and doubt 
regarding what should be done by way of a guid 
ing spirit for the minds of youth. 

The experience and leadership of these early 
Christian pioneers in holding religious meetings, in 
conducting summer schools, and in getting out 
various pieces of printed matter contributed great 
ly to the awakening of civilization in this country. 
The summer school which was held at Kyoto through 
the earnest effort of Luther Wishard was the first 
summer school of any kind in Japan. Not a few 
of the most promising young men of that day were 
inspired to devote their lives for the welfare of the 
nation because of this influence of the early days 
of the Y.M.C.A. 

At present there are a total of 168 Associations, 
including both city and student organizations. The 
total membership is about 25,000 young men. The 
program includes numerous religious meetings and 
discussion groups, physical education activities, 
social functions, boys work, student dormitories, 
etc. In all these things, marked interest is being 
shown by the young men who come into the Y.M.C.A. 
buildings in the larger cities. 

As mentioned above, this year marks the 50th 
Anniversary of the Y.M.C.A. movement. In October 
there is to be held a three day celebration of that 
event. It is hoped that this series of events will 
mark an epoch in the future advance of the move 
ment. 

There have been evidences recently of an awak 
ening on the part of the Christian student move 
ment in view of the activities of the aggressive 
Marxian students. 

The Young Women s Christian Association has 
also exhibited marked progress all over the coun 
try, both in the city and student departments. There 



178 

arc at present -15 different city and student Asso 
ciations with a total of about 6,000 members. 

Although there is no organic connection between 
these two organizations working with the young 
men and the young women, it is an indisputable 
fact that both Associations have come to realize 
more and more the need of co-operation. 

Facing New Problems 

The problems which confront these two move 
ments are how to meet the present changing situa 
tion created by the new tendencies and attitudes 
of life on the part of our young people. Both young 
men and women are baffled with the economic and 
social problems of the day. While there are some 
who are quite ignorant and indifferent about these 
problems and are eager to be active members of 
the Sunday Schools and churches, nevertheless the 
great majority of the youth of today are troubled, 
and are seriously considering the fundamental 
problems of the present day. Some of these young 
people are feeling obliged to re-evaluate the whole 
present position of the Christian church and other 
Christian organizations. 

An earnest Christian student recently put this 
question to the writer of this article, "Is it possible 
for me to join the socialist movement which the 
Marxians are propagating even though I cannot 
agree with their beliefs and methods of action?" 
Before we laugh at his inconsistent statement, we 
should try to understand the environment in which 
this student is placed. It is not an easy task to 
offer a panacea by which all the pressing problems 
of the day may be immediately solved. However, 
the eagerness of youth forces us to rediscover the 
Way of Jesus and the application of His guiding 
principles to the present day problems. This must 
be done with courage and straightforwardness. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
A STIDY OF THE RURAL PROHLKM 



M. Sugiyama 

(Translated by William Axling) 

At present the rural problem has become a 
major problem not only in Japan but throughout 
the world. 

What then is the Rural Problem? Ur. Brackett, 
the American authority on rural questions declares 
that it can be summed up under the three headings 
of Agricultural Technique, Rural Living Conditions, 
and Farm Management. What is known as the rural 
problem in Japan is a far more vague and undefined 
matter. It comprehends such matters as education, 
sanitation, economic conditions, agricultural methods 
and farm management. 

National ( hn-lian Social Conference A movement similar to 
that of ( .(). I . K.C. in Kngland is developing in Jjijuin mainly through 
the influence of Dr. Kagawa. From August C, to ,*. 1<I2. a National 
Christian Social Conference was held, and generated great enthusiasm. 
It., twenty cooperating denominations and organizations added to their 
number at their fall committee meeting, and organized for permanent 
and annual efforts. Kev. Michio Kozaki meanwhile gave his attention 
to the printing of a full report, paying the expenses for free distribu 
tion among delegates by selling the volume to others at fifty sen a 
copy. 

In the lir-t three months of 1!3<I. chapters of thi.s report were 
translated and discussed at three successive meetings of the Tokyo 
Missionaries Discussion Croup. These are herewith inserted in the 
Year Hook. 

On May 11. 1MO. a one-day social conference with Dr. Sherwood 
Kddy and Mr. Kirhy Page was held under the joint auspices of the 
above-monlionpd Social Conference Committee, j.nd cooperating with 
the Srx-ial Welfare Departments of the Kingdom of Cod Movement 
and of the National Christian Council. In the autumn it is hoped to 
have a longer conference at the time of the vi*it of Dr. Hutterfleld. 
the world famous rural expert. The new social movement and the 
nation-wide evangelism are going forward wide by bide, both the 
accepted business of the Church as a whole. 



180 

Some people think of the tenant problem as the 
rural problem. This is a great social problem but 
it is only one phase of the larger rural problem. 

The rural problem has a narrow and a broad 
aspect. One aspect is the rural problem from the 
standpoint of the nation and society: the other 
aspect is this problem as it is seen from the stand 
point of the rural community itself. For instance, 
if the matter of rice is considered from the broad 
standpoint of the nation and society the fact that 
consumers are numerous makes a low price desir 
able. But from the narrower point of view of the 
farmer only a high price is desirable in order to 
meet the cost of production. 

For myself, I believe that the rural problem 
should be considered from the narrower point of 
view, because apart from the farming class there 
is no rural problem. That is, this question should 
be approached from the standpoint of the farming 
class and a solution should be found for the 
economic, social and cultural wrongs which create 
the rural problem. The finding of a cure for these 
ills is the center and heart of the rural problem. 

Therefore, such matters as rural economic prob 
lems, social wrongs and harmful tendencies related 
to rural life, problems connected with living con 
ditions and cultural problems in the rural area 
naturally constitute the real problem. 

Because of the limitation of time, I will, in the 
main deal with the social phase of the rural 
problem. 

The rural problem has become a major issue at 
present. It it is, as some people think, only a minor 
problem it could never have assumed the large 
dimensions it has. The rural community has a 
great work to do for the nation and for society. 
Conditions there must, therefore, be bettered. 

We must recognize that there are two causes 
which underlie the rural problem. The first is the 
decline of the rural community. The second is the 



A STUDY OF THE RURAL PROBLEM 181 

important place which the rural community occupies 
in the nation s life. 



INDEBTEDNESS 

Ac-cording to the survey of the Treasury Depart 
ment of the Central Government, made in 1910, the 
indebtedness of the farmers on movable and im 
movable property was 378,000,000, but in 1925 it 
had leapt up to Y2,400,000,000. That is, their in 
debtedness had increased six fold in the short period 
of fifteen years. Not only so, but if to this sum is 
added credit loans this sum is not definite but 
authorities agree that it about equals the loans on 
property these two forms of indebtedness amount 
to a total of 4,800,000,000. If you put their total 
indebtedness at the conservative figure of 4,000,- 
000,000 it will average 750 for each family. The 
survey of the Agricultural Department of the Cen 
tral Government puts the figure at 550 for each 
family. If the distress of the farmers caused by 
this situation is a matter of no moment then, of 
course, there is no rural problem. However, because 
of the importance of the farming class as indicated 
by the following facts, this situation cannot be 
disregarded. 

I. POPULATION 

Consider the importance of the farming class 
from the standpoint of population. In Japan proper 
there are 5,549.000 families. Of this number, tin- 
farmers total 49 ( of the total population of Japan 
proper. If to this is added Japan s colonies, the 
percentage of farmers totals 55.0 , of the total 
population of the Empire. Over half of Japan s 
population is, therefore, to be found on the farm. 

II. CAPITAL 

According to the survey of the Japan Industrial 
P.ank the value of the farms of Japan totals 27.700,- 



182 JAPAN 

000,000. The value of other farm property is 
7,000,000,000. That is, the farms of Japan repre 
sent a total capital of Y34, 700,000,000. The capital 
invested in commercial enterprises is 13,000,000- 
000. Industrial enterprises represent a capital of 
10,000,000,000. The ratio of capital between agri 
cultural investments, commerce and industry stands 
as follows, 41.l f ( , 17.(t f , , and i:>.G f f. Agriculture 
represents, therefore a capital investment three 
times that of commerce and four times that of in 
dustrial enterprises. 

III. PRODUCTION 

The value of the annual products of the farms 
amounts to 4, 400,000,000. Of this, 1,200,000,000 
is spent for materials necessary in the process of 
production so that the actual net annual addition 
to the national wealth on the part of the farming 
class is . 5,200,000,000. 

IV. EXPORTS 

The total annual national exports of Japan 
amount to 2,000,000,000. Of this, 60 Y is pro 
duced on the farms: 15 << are imports which are 
again exported and only 25 r f of our exports come 
from other sources. From these facts and figures 
we can understand the important place occupied by 
the farming community in the nation s life. 

When to this we add the social factor, the 
strategic place held by the farming class becomes 
even more evident. The contribution of the farms 
to society are healthy, promising youths and an 
inherited, cultivated love for labor. 

From the spiritual point of view the farms teach 
the spirit of cooperation and unity in contradiction 
to the ultra-individualistic tendency of modern 
society. From of old, the beautiful custom of 
neighborliness and helpfulness has flourished on the 
farms. These things indicate some of the priceless 



A STUDY OF THE RURAL PROHLEM 183 

contribution which the farming community is making 
to the social life of our day. 

The rural problem in the Occident has arisen 
out of about the same kind of causes. How then 
did this social problem arise in a community of 
such outstanding importance? There are two 
causative factors. The first is an economic cause: 
the second lies in the realm of idealism. 

The economic cause lies in the fact that if a 
man labors he should receive reasonable returns 
for his labor. But no matter how much a farmer 
labors he does not and cannot secure, under present 
conditions, a fair return for his work. When we are 
told that the tenant s wage works out at only 40 
sen a day we stand amazed. Even the comparatively 
well-to-do farmer who owns his farm, gets only Y25 
for a bag of rice which it costs him Y40 to produce. 
Thus he gets little or no return for his labor. This 
is the first underlying cause of the rural problem. 

The idealistic cause is rooted in man s respect 
for personality and his demand for equality. 
Whether we have property or not we demand to be 
treated as equals and due respect for our person 
ality. On the farms, however, the property owners 
and the propertyless are not treated as equals. 
There, personality is not respected. 

Kven though we do not believe in Marxism, we 
as Christians must stand for justice and must en 
deavor to correct economic wrongs. Moreover, we 
cannot fail to correct wrongs that lie in the realm 
of idealism. If we forget these closely related prob 
lems we cannot propagate religion. On the shores 
of Galilee Christ did not leave the five thousand 
hungry people to their fate. He ordered his 
disciples to provide them with bread. We must not 
forget men s bodies in our zeal for their souls. 

How, then, can we right the economic wrongs 
and also minister to the spiritual needs of the farm 
ing folk? The first question relates to external 
reforms which will correct economic wrongs. How 



184 JAPAN 

can we furnish the right kind of leadership in this 
realm? The second has to do with the meeting of 
inward and spiritual needs. In a word, how can 
rural evangelism be carried forward? 

Let us start with the first question. Outward 
economic reform waits for our leadership. 

1. Rationalizing Distribution: The tenant ques 
tion is a troublesome one. Japanese tenantism is a 
hold-over from Feudalism and the returns which a 
tenant is compelled to make to the land-owner is 
exceedingly high. The land-owner takes 55% of 
the actual crop or of the returns from the crop. 
The tenant gets the remaining 45%. For the pov 
erty stricken tenant this exorbitant rental is the 
cause of great distress. This rental rate must be 
changed, not because of tenant riots but for the 
sake of justice. 

2. Rationalizing the Expense of Production: In 

the production of rice according to the reports for 
1921, 1922 and 1928, it cost Y40 to produce one bag 
of rice. Therefore, it would be fair to add a profit 
of about ten per cent and sell for Y45 a bag. But 
as u matter of fact the market price was Y25. The 
reason for this is that the farmer has nothing to 
say about the price he is to receive for the rice 
which he produces. The doctor determines the 
return he shall receive for his service. Not only 
the doctors, but barbers, even restaurant keepers 
and others form guilds and have the power to fix 
and do fix the price for their works. The progress 
which labor unions and trade guilds have made is 
based on their power to fix wages. 

In America and Canada there are Grain Elevator 
Unions which give the farmer the power to deter 
mine the price which he will take for his products. 
Such agencies are greatly needed in Japan. 

From the standpoint of consumption the prevail 
ing price of all supplies needed by the farmer, with 
the exception of rice and cereals, is high and the 



A STUDY OF THE RURAL PROBLEM 185 

quality inferior. This is true even of such an every 
day article as the farmer s hand sickle. A sickle 
which is sold at 18 sen in the place where it is made 
is sold to the farmers for 55 sen. Moreover, ferti 
lizer which according 1 to the Fertilizers Union 
should sell at Y1.10 for ten kwan (82.8 pounds) cost 
the farmers 2 and more. 

Such unreasonable factors as these are prevalent 
in the realm of production in the rural field. The 
capitalistic system with its middle men made these 
irrational practices possible. For this reason it is 
absolutely necessary to organize rural producers 
and consumer guilds. 

:?. Rationalizing Management: Because of the 
farming class, farm management lacks efficiency. 
The Japanese farmer works only 200 out of the . 565 
days of the year. We must help them to discover 
ways of being profitably employed during the 
remaining 165 days. We must find work which will 
distribute their activity throughout the year. More 
over, we must help them to make use of modern 
scientific methods in their work. Not only so, we 
must help them to extend their sphere of work 
through the use of modern scientific implements 
and methods. 

4. Rationalizing Economics: The farmers 
economic burdens, taxes, etc., are unduly heavy. 
According to the survey of the Agricultural Asso 
ciation of the Ehime Prefecture, the ratio of taxa 
tion for agricultural, commercial and industrial 
enterprises in that prefecture is 100 for agriculture, 
15 for commerce and 28 for industry. There is, 
therefore, great need for equalization. 

I now want to consider the inner spiritual phase 
of the situation. To reform these outward aspects 
of the farmers life and neglect the spiritual will 
be fruitless. To encourage the organization of in 
dustry as a part of the national program without 
creating a strong spirit of cooperation and mutual 



18G JAPAN 

helpfulness in the more than 14,000 villages of the 
Empire will fail of real results. 

In truth only as Christians and as brothers can 
real success be realized in consumers and producers 
guilds. Where the people are good you will find 
a good village. If the head of the village, the prin 
cipal of the village school and leaders of the village 
life are outstanding folk the village is always char 
acterized by reform movements and by progress. 
Spiritual reform is by far the most important. 
This reform which is centered in men s hearts makes 
good men. The importance of rural evangelism lies 
here. 

How then can we make real progress in rural 
evangelism? 

I. HY must stress the need of rural evangelism aud 
create a public opinion and passion in its behalf. 

(a) A department on rural studies should be 
added to our Theological Seminaries. It is 
necessary to give cultural preparation to 
those whose hearts are turned toward the 
rural field. A certain Professor asserts 
that the reason for the decline of the rural 
churches in America is the inferiority of 
the rural pastors. He says that the pastor 
who would work in the rural area should 
spend a year in Y.M.C.A. work and two 
years in an agricultural school following 
his graduation from the Theological 
Seminary. 

(b) Rural evangelism should be stressed in the 
churches. Sermons should be preached on 
the rural situation and on rural evangelism 
at least two or three times a year in every 
church. Prayer should be made for the 
farming class. 

11. Actual Rural Evangelism. 

(a) Direct evangelistic methods. 

( 1 ) Liberal use should be made of tracts, 



A STUDY OF THK RURAL PROHLEM 187 

posters and leaflets. The printed type of 
such literature must be large and the 
"kana" affixed to the Chinese characters. 
The poorly educated, undernourished, 
weak-eyed farmers cannot read small 
type. 

(2) The Sunday School: The religious educa 
tion of the children must not be neglected, 
no matter how busy the church may be. 
They must be taught in the church, out 
in the open spaces and in the temple 
groves. 

(.") In the opening of preaching places, cen 
ters must be selected where the farmers 
naturally go and congregate. 

<b) Preaching and Lecture Meetings: In Nagano 
Prefecture I tried out the matter of 
having the members of the local Young 
Men s Association make the preparation for 
lecture meetings on topics pertaining to 
rural life. In this way contacts were estab 
lished with these villages for the future. 

(c) Indirect Evangelism: 

( 1 ) Farmers Gospel Schools. 

This has already been tried out in vari 
ous areas by taking advantage of the 
slack season on the farm. The young 
people from the farms are asked to bring 
five sho of rice and they cook, eat and 
study together during the period of the 
school. At such times, through service 
rendered by the Women s Society of the 
Church, these young folk from the fields 
get a taste of the joyousness and helpful 
ness of the fellowship and comradeship 
which characterizes the church life. 
(2) The Sending out of Rural Leaders. 

Leaders with culture and abilitv to 



188 JAPAN 

lead in needed reforms must enter the 
rural field. Of these the men should 
have a knowledge of, and training in, 
agriculture. The women should be able 
to give leadership in the reformation and 
betterment of the home life. They should 
also have a knowledge of midwifery and 
sewing. 

(. l) >) Visiting clinics are greatly needed as well 
as visiting midwives. 

(1) If it is possible to open Rural Settle 
ments this is exceedingly desirable. 

Closely connected with the betterment 
of rural life is the study of superstition. 

Methods of Studying Superstitions: 

( 1 It is important to analyze and study the 
different forms of superstition in a scien 
tific way. For instance, superstitions 
related to daily life, those related to sex, 
etc. 

(12) The study of the history of various super 
stitions is also important. 

(.". ) The study and criticism of the contents 
of various superstitions. Even though 
there be an element of truth in these 
superstitions they should be thoroughly 
and scientifically criticised. 

(4) It is necessary to teach the way of escape 
from these superstitions. 

(5) Finally an effort should be made to abso 
lutely wipe out all superstitions. 

How Can Self-Supporting Churches be Built 
Among the Poverty Stricken Farming Class? 
( 1 ) This cannot be done through money con 
tributions but only through contributions 
in kind. Rico, cereals and firewood 
should be contributed at the time they 
aro harvested. 



A STUDY OF TIIK RURAL 1 ROHLKM 189 

(2) The contribution of labor is another 
method. The devotion of a brief time in 
the morning and in the evening to the 
cultivating of a co-operative church field 
provides a way for the contribution of 
labor to the support of the church. 

(3) If the evangelist will spend half of his 
time farming the problem of self-support 
in the; rural church is easily solved. 

(4) To provide the church with a tract of 
land as a part of its property is another 
way of building a self-supporting church. 

(5) Another way is for the pastor to have 
some profession by which he can support 
himself, for instance, that of a doctor or 
a pharmacist or a dentist, etc. 

Methods of Bettering Rural Life. 

(1) The pastor must dig in and reside a long 
time in a rural community. Rural men 
tality looks with suspicion on a stranger. 
It is necessary for a Christian worker to 
become part and parcel of the rural 
community and its life. 

(2) We must help the economic life of the 
community. For instance, the organiza 
tion of a consumers guild and giving the 
community the advantages of the profits. 
The providing of good seed is also greatly 
welcomed. 

(. >) We must educate through demonstration. 
For instance, the cultivation of grapes 
and teaching the farmers the art of grape 
culture. The Bible also can be taught 
through the demonstration method. If the 
branch of the vine does not bear after 
two years it is cut down and destroyed. 

(4) We must endeavor to get hold of the best 
people of the villages. The village peo- 



190 .JAPAN 

pie are great imitators and have a strong 
spirit of dependence. Therefore, it is 
necessary to lay hold on the influential 
people and those who are trusted in the 
villages. This is also in accord with 
what Christ taught. 

(5) One of the best opportunities in the work 
of village betterment is the place where 
the villagers gather to enjoy the summer 
evening breezes. Here old and young 
without any distinction gather and relax. 
Here they profit much through the wisdom 
which comes from communing with the 
stars. Here their hearts are open and 
their souls sensitive. 

n; The gathering around the fire-box in the 
winter serves the same purpose as the 
under-the-stars rendezvous in the sum 
mer. It can be made a great power in 
lifting the life of the village folk. 

(7) A Strong Feature in the Villagers 
Character. 

The villagers are the descendants of 
the ancient gentry and have a long and 
honorable history back of them. The 
relation between smaller divisions within 
the same village is often a trouble 
some factor. However, it is always im 
portant to remember that as in topo 
graphy the streams flow from a higher 
source so the country folk in Japan 
come from superior stock. It also must 
be borne in mind that it is seldom that 
thought movements cross such geographi 
cal obstacles as rivers and mountains. 

(8) Simplicity of Language. 

The local language of the rural people 
must be used rather than scholarly and 
standardized speech. 



A S ll DV OK THK Kl KAL I KOHLKM 191 

( .)) A general knowledge of agriculture is 
necessary. It need not necessarily be 
specialized knowledge but it is highly 
important that it be of such a character 
that one can converse in terms of under 
standing and familiarity with the farm 
ing people. 

These, then, are some things which 
need to be kept in mind by those who 
work for rural betterment. 

Some Questions Which Call For Consideration: 

(1) Where should rural betterment begin? 

The reconstruction of rural life must 
begin with the kitchen. The women on 
farms must center their efforts in better 
ing this phase of their life. 

(2) How must the consumers unions deal 
with the question of the small retail 
merchants? 

In Kobe the growth of the consumers 
guilds has without question proven op 
pressive to the small merchants. How 
ever, retail merchants will naturally be 
ruined as a result of the advance of the 
capitalistic system. The advance of 
socialism also spells ruin for them. 

The progress of consumers guilds in 
the rural area has not, as a matter of 
fact, brought suffering to small mer 
chants except in the case of those hand 
ling fertilizers. Merchants who deal in 
fertilizers have been affected by tin- 
growth of rural consumers guilds but for 
the most part these merchants are so 
well off that this has not in any way 
endangered their livelihood. 
( .]) Should Economy be Taught the Farmers? 

As a matter of fact there is no realm 
in which they can practice economy ex- 



1912 



cept where because of ignorance they 
spend money uselessly. The economy 
which they need to be taught is not the 
closing of the purse but as to how they 
can lengthen the life of things at their 
disposal. 

(4) Why do our tenants pay a larger rental 
than the tenants of America and Europe? 
The reason is not an economic one but 
simply that custom has held over from 
Feudal days to the present time. Of 
course, it is a fact that land is too scarce 
and the people on it too large in number. 

(5) Regarding an Anti-Marxian Movement in 
the Rural Districts. 

Just as there are study groups for 
students where they have an opportunity 
to study social problems, so among the 
farmers there must be provided an op 
portunity to study social problems from 
the idealistic point of view. Moreover, 
here we must courageously face actual 
problems. The reason why the farmers 
have so speedily taken up with Marxism 
is that the believers in Marxism in at 
tempting to find actual solution for actu 
al problems are courageous and sacri 
ficial. 

((>) A Fair Tenant s Rental. 

Even according to the standards of 
present day capitalism scholars are 
agreed that one-third of the crop is a 
fair return for the land-owner. 

(7) How far can the Church Ally Itself with 
Tenants Guilds? 

There are temples which declare that 
they are neutral but as a matter of fact 
this is impossible. Near Osaka a temple 
refused to allow the tenants guild to 



A STUDY OF THE RURAL PROHLEM 193 

meet on its premises. But the tenants 
declared that it was partly their prop 
erty and proposed to destroy their part 
of the temple and leave only the land 
owners share of it intact. 

We must make it clear whether we are 
for or against capitalism. Personally I 
believe that I should take my stand on 
the side of the propertyless masses and 
1 am making this my working principle. 
(8) Should the church act as an arbitrator 
at times of tenant riots? It cannot 
always act in that capacity but when it 
refuses to do so it will be disowned by 
laborers and the capitalists. 



CHAPTER XIX 

SOCIAL THINKING IN JAPANESE 
UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES 



Prof. Kt iiji Sugiyama 
(Translated by Dr. H. B. BenninghofT) 

I. THE FIRST OR THEORETICAL 
PERIOD, 1918-1923 

"Democracy". Industrial development during the 
World War brought about a rapid increase of capi 
talism, and of the number of new-rich. On the 
other hand, the German and Russian revolutions, 
and the rise of the Japanese Labor Movement, were 
stimuli of a contrasting character. The resulting 
thought-conflict between conservative Right and ex 
treme Left was the real beginning of "student 
thought" in Japan. 

"Democracy" had become a world issue and Japan 
ese students could not but join in the consideration 
of its meaning. Innocuous as it seems now, at that 
not distant period, "Democracy" seemed as radical to 
the reactionaries, the adherents of the status quo, 
as does Marxism at present. But the thinking 
process was inevitable, and month by month it 
developed. 

October, 1 JIH saw a thought-battle, the arena of 
which was the newspapers. Ikuo Oyama, at that 
time one of the editors of the Osaka Asahi, publish 
ed in it a series of articles on democracy, supported 
by Prof. Hasegawa of Kyoto Imperial University. 
Meanwhile in Tokyo Prof. Yoshino of Tokyo Imperial 

National ( hrintian Social Conference Sit- Footnote un IMIKI- 1 < - 



196 JAPAN 

University was writing for the Chuo Koron, and 
Prof. Tokuzo Fukuda was supporting him, also urg 
ing democracy. A reactionary imperialistic society 
called the Ronin Kwai took up the cudgels against 
them. To strengthen themselves against this op 
position the liberals, these professors and their 
student-followings, organized a society for the study 
of labor issues called the Ro Gakkwai. Awakened 
through their study, they gave the strong support 
of their membership to Bunji Suzuki s nation-wide 
laborers society which was then on its way to 
becoming what it is now, the Japan Federation of 
Labor. 

November, 1918 staged the first organized ex 
pression of student opinion, in a debate sponsored 
by the Tokyo Imperial University Oratorical Society. 
Prof. Yoshino argued against a representative of the 
Ronin Kwai for democracy. Students from all the 
big schools of higher grade in Tokyo attended the 
debate. 

December, 1918 saw the birth of the Dawn 
Society, a group of scholars and thinkers banded to 
gether to support the ideals of Prof. Yoshino; and 
in that same month was born also the Shin Jin Kai, 
the New Man Society, participated in by Imperial 
University Law students, and helped by Professors 
Yoshino, Sano, and Azabu. Thus by the end of 1918 
there were three new societies expressing the develop 
ing interest among university students in democracy. 

The following year of 1919 saw merely an exten 
sion of the same tendency to organize. In February, 
I .n .), \Vaseda University produced its society of this 
character, called the Peoples Union (Minjin Domei), 
under the leadership of Takahashi and Kitazawa. In 
November a federation of such local university groups 
was organized, called the Seinen Bunka Domei. All 
these societies so far arose during Japan s "good 
times" of economic prosperity following the War. 

Syndicalism, Anarchism, and Communism. The 



SOCIAL THINKING IN t NIVKKSITIES 197 

year of 1920 ushered in a period of increasing 
economic distress, reduction of wages, unemploy 
ment, and labor strife. The academic discussion of 
democracy gave place to interest in concrete social 
problems. Among the students as well as among 
labor groups there was an interest in Universal 
Manhood Suffrage, but with the dissolution of the 
Diet on February 26, 1920, to avoid a vote on this 
question, the success of the reactionaries quelled 
tli is interest for a time, in the parliamentary method. 
Osugi argued for syndicalism, and faith in this idea 
spread among laborers and students. 

Meanwhile the Suffrage Movement, diverted 
from its main objective, expressed itself in two side 
lines: (1) The first large general celebration of 
"May Day," which took place on May 2. (2) The 
organization of the Socialist Union, which aimed to 
extend the field of socialism. This was on Decem 
ber 10, 1920. Student groups participating were the 
Imperial University New Man Society, a Waseda 
group called the Kensetsusha, or Constructors. 
Other groups in the Union were of organized 
laborers. 

Remembering that it was in 1920 that the For 
eign Propaganda Department of the Soviets was 
organized, and that in that year was organized the 
first communist movement in Japan, the (lyomin 
Communist Party of Osugi, we see a new signifi 
cance in the next item in the student movement for 
that year. The Peoples Union (Minjin Domei) of 
Waseda was dissolved, and in its place there was 
organized the Gyomin Society, or "Dawn" Club, and 
the Bunka Kwai, or Civilization Club. This prob 
ably represents a division in the original group into 
those who were willing to accept the "dawn" of Com 
munism in Japan, and those who refused such radi 
calism and stuck by the middle ground of "civil 
ization". 

In 1921 the Socialist Union was dissolved by the 
government. In 1922 syndicalism disappeared as a 



198 JAPAN 

thought-movement, and was succeeded by the two 
tendencies of aniu cliixm and communism in popular 
favor. The two ideas clashed with one another. 
The students union followed the lead of the social 
istic movements and divided along these lines. The 
famous socialist, Yamakawa Hitoshi, proposed that 
social opinion be directed to political effort to 
change xocicil conditions, instead of merely academic 
discussion of economic problems. This helped begin 
the movement which later led to the formation of 
the proletarian political parties. One of the rea 
sons for both reactionary and radical outbursts 
hitherto had been that there had been no outlet 
otherwise. Nobody had had a vote. 

Student Communism and Governmental Sup 
pression. On November 7, 1922, on the anniversary 
of the Russian revolution, the Students Socialist 
Union was organized again, to express student ideas. 
This was for universities. And in January, 192, $, 
a corresponding Union for students of the Higher 
Schools (three-year Junior Colleges) was brought 
into being. At this time the government passed a 
bill to restrict the freedom of the press and of meet 
ings for the expression of radicalism. So the 
Student Unions above-mentioned joined with other 
bodies to oppose these measures. 

(1) In April, 192l>, a "Self-Government" meeting 
at the -Imperial University, Tokyo, was held. 

(2) Meanwhile a "War Investigation Group" 
organized itself to oppose these liberals, and was 
fought by the Students Unions. On "Bloody Friday" 
Waseda students assembled in front of the statue 
of Marquis Okuma, the founder of the university, to 
oppose the War Investigation Groups. 

(3) In June, 192.S, the students organized the 
"Daigaku Yogo", an organization to shield their 
professors from police investigation. Police at that 
time were raiding the rooms of the professors to 
examine their desks and desk-drawers to see what 



SOCIAL THINKING IN UNIVERSITIES 109 

they were rending and writing. The students in 
sisted on freedom for study, and the independence 
of scholarship. 

In this same month of June, however, sixty-four 
Communists were arrested by the government. And 
by September the country was in great confusion 
through the conflict of opinion and ideals. During 
the disturbed period after the great earthquake of 
September 1, 192, >, anarchists were killed, including 
Osugi and his wife and child. Martial law was 
declared, and social questions were for a time in 
abeyance. The radicals had mostly fled from Tokyo, 
and students turned their energies to relief work. 

II. SECOND PERIOD-^STUDENTS TAKE 

PART IN PROPAGANDA AND 

REVOLUTIONARY PLOTS 

Serious Questions. Hut serious questions soon 
arose again, to stimulate radical student thinking. 
(1) The Korean, Bnkurctxu, with a Japanese wife, 
was discovered in a plot to kill the Emperor. (2) 
What is called the Toranomon incident took place 
late in December, 19215, when young Namba, a 
Waseda student, son of a member of the House of 
Peers, made an attempt on the life of the Crown 
Prince. His brave bearing at the time of his final 
sentence aroused popular sympathy. ( ,}) General 
Fukuda was shot by an enthusiast of the Labor 
Movement, and (4) in Osaka certain students took 
the place of motormen in the street car strike. This 
aroused the indignation of students in Tokyo in 
favor of the Labor Movement, who held a meeting 
in the Tokyo Imperial University Y.M.C.A. hall, to 
protest against the strike-breaking of the Osaka 
students. 

National Organization. On September 14, 1924, 
there was organized in the Tokyo Imperial Univer 
sity an All Japan Students Social Science Union, 
attended by seventy-seven representatives from 



200 JAPAN 

twenty-three schools. They divided Japan into three 
districts, (1) Tohoku, or the North District; (2) 
Kanto, or the Central District; and (3) Kansai, or 
the Southwest District. Each school was to become 
a center for propaganda. Some of their statements 
at this meeting are significant: 

"Previously the University sought to make scholars 
or Cabinet members, at any rate, a privileged class . 
Now university graduates face the difficulties of get 
ting food, and employment, and of being exploited by 
capitalism. Present day society destroys our ances 
tral homes and casts us out into the world. These 
conditions drive students to turn away from bourgeois 
society and to join issues witli the proletariat." 

At this meeting arose a movement against in 
ternational war, and against military education. 

On July 16, 1925, at the Imperial University of 
Kyoto, was held the second meeting of the Social 
Science Union, attended by forty-seven, represent 
ing fifty-nine schools and sixteen hundred members 
of the local Unions. 

In December of 1925 the Kyoto Imperial Univer 
sity became the centre of the All Japan Students 
Communist Plot. Following the discovery of this 
plot the Japanese government refused to recognize 
the freedom and independence of the universities, 
and imprisoned several students without trial. On 
investigation the police found that students were 
not only studying communism, but were taking part 
in communistic movements. Their investigations 
disclosed that students were working along com 
munistic lines in at least the following ways and 
places: 

1. In the Fukuoka Higher School. 

2. In the Otaru Higher Commercial School. 

. *. In the Imperial University, Tokyo, the New 
Man Society (Student Union) collected funds to 
support a strike. 

4. The Student Unions were working against 
Military Education. 



SOCIAL THINKING IN UNIVERSITIES 201 

5. They were working to relieve the Korean flood 
sufferers. 

(J. Kyoto University students helped Osaka 
electric workmen in their strike. 

7. The Japanese Labor Conference invited Rus 
sian representatives. 

8. Students were working for schools for pro 
letarian education. 

On May Day, 1925, the students took part in 
the Annual Labor Demonstration. 

As a result of the police investigation, thirty- 
eight were convicted of participation in the Kyoto 
Plot, thirty-three undergraduates, four graduates, 
and one former student. 

During these years there were many difficulties 
(strikes) in various schools, in the Matsuyama 
Higher School, in Waseda University, in the Iwakura 
School for Railway Men, in the Okita Middle School, 
in the Sendai Higher School, in the Girls Higher 
Normal School in Tokyo, in the Music School in 
Tokyo, in the Higher School in Keijo (Seoul), in 
the Kansai University, in Meiji University, in the 
Southern Higher School in Okayama, in the Kyushu 
Imperial University. And there was a student effort 
to appeal directly to the Emperor. 

The climax came in March, 1928, in the All Japan 
Communist Plot, which may be said to have brought 
to an end the second period, during which theore 
tical discussion and study, now concentrated on the 
works of Marx and Lenin, were continued. Hut the 
emphasis was increasingly on propaganda and revo 
lutionary effort. 

III. THE THIRD PERIOD OF INCREASING 

GOVERNMENTAL SUPPRESSION 

AND SECRET CLUBS 

From 1928 onward the government began a more 
thoroughgoing oppression of socialist activities. It 



202 JAPAN 

dissolved and forbade meetings for social study. 
Secret clubs developed, therefore, and students 
utilized existing recognized clubs in which secretly 
to discuss their communistic problems. In news 
papers and speeches they denounced the policies of 
the government. A sample student speech of the 
period is taken from the meeting of the Kanto 
Students Oratorical Union, December 10, 1928: 

"We have come to this: the oppression of the 
government reaches into the factories, into the vil 
lages and the towns, into the schools and colleges. 
They are taking away from us our liberty of study, 
speech, and assembly. Real student life has become 
impossible. We must resist this oppression even 
unto death." 

Student slogans are: Students must unite to pro 
tect the rights of study, of meeting and free speech. 

We must opjtose the unequal cnid unjust distri 
bution of goods. 

\V e must resist the unjust condemnation of pro 
letarian students and workers. 

We must resist the police enteri)if/ our educational 
institutions to apprehend students. 

During this period Mr. Mizuno, the Minister of 
Education, dismissed an Imperial University pro 
fessor apparently in sympathy with the students. 
The students, therefore, criticised the Minister, say 
ing society itself and the existing authorities are 
to blame for the conditions which lead to student 
radicalism. 

In April, 1929, a number of students were arrest 
ed because of interest in Marxism. In this period 
there were also as many as a hundred student strikes 
and disturbances, in the Sendai Imperial University, 
in the Doshisha, in the Buddhist University, in the 
Okazaki University, in the Japan University, in the 
First Higher School, in the Imperial University 
(Tokyo), in Waseda, etc. 



SOCIAL THINKING IN I NIVKRSITIKS 203 

IV. STUDENT THOUGHT TODAY 

A. How Modern Progressive 

Students View Society 

History teaches (they think): 

(1) That Capitalism destroyed feudalism and 
its attendants. 

That Capitalism will in turn be destroyed by the 
proletariat. 

That the European War confirmed Lenin s pro 
phecy. 

That international capitalism tends to peace for 
a time; but conflicts for markets and materials will 
bring War. We must await this final conflict. Then 
the proletariat will contend against the exploita 
tions of capitalism. The students believe in the 
triumph of anti-capitalistic enterprise. 

That in times of tranquillity Capitalists will dole 
out gifts to the workers; but with hard times they 
hoard their wealth and the poor suffer. 

That improvement is impossible by conference 
and mutual concession. 

That War is inevitable. 

<2) That Japan will follow this tendency. 

The Capitalists think that the farmers exist to 
enable them to win any capitalistic war, because 
money depends upon production. Therefore the 
man-power of the country, the young men s organ 
izations, the students and Firemen s Clubs, the 
agencies which promote War and the agencies for 
Research, the movies, papers, magazines, literature, 
schools and religion are all capitalized for "Capital". 

The Japanese capitalists, with their eyes on 
China, hold all these forces ready to maintain 
Japan s position there. 

Capitalists fear the Russian Soviet, because 
Sovietism seeks to restore the productve land and 
other resources to the worker. Japan is preparing 
to hold her own in this matter against all odds. 
Students resent this attitude towards Russia. 



204 JAPAN 

Until now there has been only criticism and dis 
cussion of labor and capital and their problems in 
Japan. Thought has been along economic lines 
only. But now there is a rapid movement towards 
taking these questions into politics. So there now 
exist a Proletarian Party and a Communist Party, 
arranging for political action. 

B. How Students Regard the Schools 

Schools are a part of society, and the student 
is a vital factor in the school and so of society. 

According to modern capitalistic conditions 
graduates of schools must sink below the salaried 
middle class into the proletariat. 

The salaried class itself is now only on a par 
with the laborers. 

The small capitalist of the home town becomes 
the victim of the big capitalist. Money is scarce 
and students have to shift. How can such students 
be expected to close their eyes to social and politi 
cal questions and devote themselves to "study"? 

Moreover, modern schools do not allow students 
to analyze and criticise conditions. 

Modern "learning" studies only the past. 

Marx and Lenin call for real live study. "Social 
Study" is alive and real. 

But educational authorities forbid and persecute 
such interesting study. They blind us to the real 
and punish anyone who peeks from his blindfold 
to see what is really going on. 

The upper class suppress the rise of proletarian 
thinking. They deprive the workers and students 
of their freedom, hoping thus to protect their own 
position. Modern students urge their fellows to 
seek the truth and discuss reality. Modern (private) 
schools, formerly free, follow the trends of imperial 
(government) schools, taking away our liberties, and 
forcing on us their own bourgeois ideals. They are 
looking for honor and money, not men. 



SOCIAL THINKING IN UNIVERSITIES 205 

Can we trust such a school? No. 

Schools do not furnish guidance and training for 
the actual problems facing us. Is such education 
worth while? 

Indifference is a sin. Enjoyment is selfish. 
Profligacy has no spirit. Religion is opium. Bour 
geois take refuge in these "escapes". The true man 
becomes a proletarian and devotes himself to the 
study of the problems of real life. 

What shall I do? Study Social Science. In this 
we find life. 

The professors lectures are dead and deal only 
with fragments of business or commercial life. 

Be careful beware of the social inconsistencies 
which are dealt out to us. Study Social Questions! 

C. The Place of School Oratorical Societies 
in the Movement 

The following is the interpretation of the oratori 
cal societies given to new members: (The new mem 
ber asks the following questions). 

(1) Does the Oratorical Society teach the art 
of public speaking? No. Oratory has nothing to do 
with Art. Art stupefies oratory. Form is nothing. 
Content is everything. 

(2) What is the content? Independence of 
learning. Freedom of Research. For the realiza 
tion of these ideals we have shed our blood. This 
is our life. We must carry the ideal for tomorrow 
and publish it abroad. This we have asserted with 
great conviction. 

CJ) Then the Oratorical Society is a liriiii/ 
organization? Yes, it is. Our society welcomes 
honest, pure-minded young men who arc interested 
in studying the truth and proclaiming it. 

(4) I have found (concludes the new member) 
ttnv place where there is freedom. I will join. 



206 JAPAN 

D. Student Slogans 

A. Political 

1. Oppose the "orthodoxy" of the capitalists, and 

military training. 

2. Do away with reactionary policies. 

3. Do away with "student monitors." 

4. Give freedom to student group organizations, 

publications, discussion, research. 

5. Emancipate students from Korean, Formosan, 

and other "colonies." 

6. Do away with the presence of police in the 

universities. 

7. Do away with imperialistic military wars. 

8. Protect Soviet Russia. 

9. Help China. 

10. Long life to Japanese Communism. 

11. Do away with government-directed efforts to 

"pour oil on the troubled waters." 

H. Economic. 

1. Reduce school fees by thirty per cent. 

2. Do away with enforced "donations" and the 

military fee. 
15. Recognize and establish the Cooperatives. 

( . Miscellaneous. 

1. Give freedom for social study, propaganda 

and organization. 

2. Admit students to teachers meetings. 

:>. Give self-government to societies and clubs. 

1. Allow (Hubs with leaders not connected with 
the universities. 

5. Establish a "self-governing" Committee. 

( ). Omit verbal test from the entrance examina 
tions. 

7. Revise the time-schedule and the contents of 

the lectures. 

8. Oppose sports, athletics, where the objective 

is working for a championship. 

9. Destroy reactionary groups. 



SOCIAL THINKING IN UNIVERSITIES 207 

10. Fight against university restrictions. 

1 1. Form a "Students Union" in each class, depart 

ment, etc. 

12. Show your proletarian class consciousness. 

!. >. Stir up your fighting spirit and drive away 
oppression. 

E. How to Propagate Our Proletarian Principle 

1. By public speeches 

A. Formal addresses 

B. Between formal addresses distribute 

information and speak extempore. 

2. By Publications 

A. Newspapers 

a. Dailies 

b. Party Organs 

c. College Papers 

B. Secret distribution of handbills 

C. Distributing publications through the 

mails. 
\. Utilize meetings for other purposes. 

A. School class meetings 

B. Study clubs and seminars 

C. Alumni meetings 

D. Miscellaneous. 

F. Conclusions 

How can educators help students who have such 
thoughts and problems? There are two classes of 
such students. 

( 1 ) The "Marx boy", the student who follows 
the popular trend without serious consideration or 
responsibility. 

(2) The serious student who believes in the 
Marxian philosophy. The first class might be dis 
regarded, but they cause a lot of trouble. The 
second class of thoughtful students who believe in 
Marxism as a doctrine disturb the peace of the 
school, an- unmanageable, audacious and shameless, 



208 JAPAN 

do not attend classes, but present themselves at all 
meetings and occasions which they can utilize to 
further their aims. They attend public gatherings, 
get arrested, give trouble to their families and to 
the school. 

If the school asks such a student to attend 
classes, he says that there is no advantage in bour 
geois education. Professors controlled by bourgeois 
ideals do not know, or want to know, true science. 
To the question, "Why do I register in such a school, 
then?", the bold Marxist replies, "It is my duty to 
destroy the mistaken organization and constitution 
of such a school from the inside. This is my mis 
sion, to increase our proletarian group." 

To deal with this situation, school authorities 
must try to lead the students to see their mistakes. 
If they acknowledge their mistakes, have them sign 
a statement not to continue. Inform parents, and 
co-operate with them. But most of the "red" students 
cannot be managed or controlled even by their 
parents, much less by the school. Did such students 
get their ideas before or after entering college? It 
is hard to determine. Anyway university teachers 
have great responsibility. The weakness of the 
family and the influence of friends as well as the 
defects of the individual character must all be in 
cluded as causative factors in the situation. Many 
students who promise to "be good" soon forget their 
promises. Then they must be dismissed. "Red" 
students are not made by the schools. They are 
driven by modern social impulses and conditions to 
extreme positions. We can run away from these 
problems, or find ourselves in the midst of them. 



CHAPTER XX. 
*THE PROLETARIAN MOVEMENT IN JAPAN 



Tctxu Katayama 
(Translated by Michio Kozaki) 

At the time of the first national election under 
Manhood Suffrage, which took place in February, 
1928, it is quite natural that Proletarian Parties 
emerged. Before the achievement of universal suf 
frage the number of voters was 3,300,000 but now 
it is 14,000,000; and these more than ten million 
new voters are proletarians. 

It was in December 1, 1925, that the first prole 
tarian party came into existence the Farmer-Labor 
Party. Hut after three and one-half hours it was 
dissolved by the government. Why did the govern 
ment prohibit the organization of this party? Was 
it simply reactionary? Is our government entirely 
opposed to proletarian parties? We must consider 
the reason. ... It is well known that there are two 
principles among proletarian parties. One is that 
of communism and the other that of .sorm/ democracy. 
The former has direct connection with the Third In 
ternationale, and its aim is Peasant-Labor Govern 
ment. Consequently its adherents deny the parlia 
mentary system. The latter, on the contrary, aims 
at government by all the people, according to its 
principle of social democracy. 

The Struggle Between the Tim Principles. These 
two tendencies are apparent in the world, and it is 
no surprise to find them coming to the surface in 
Japan when the universal suffrage brought freedom 
to the mass of the people. 



National Chrintian Social Conference Sec Footnote on pae 179. 



210 JAPAN 

It was in 1917 that the Russian Soviet govern 
ment succeeded in getting power. After three years 
it organized a Foreign Propaganda Department, and 
in that same year of 1920 we saw the first communist 
movement in Japan. It was the Gyomin Communist 
Party, organized by Mr. S. Osugi, who first went to 
Shanghai to study it, and then organized it secretly 
in the next year, 1921. (This Mr. Osugi was killed 
at the time of the earthquake.) 

In September of the same year we saw the first 
definite movement, in the appeal made by various 
labor organizations, by the use of the slogans: 

Save tltc KHHKHIII Famine! 

Absolute non-interference iu CJihia! 

Recognition of KHHXHOI Government! 

Immediate withdrawal of the army from Siberia! 
And in this year of 1922 the Japan Communist 
Party was organized by such men as Sakai Toshi- 
hiko and Sano Gaku, famous socialists. In the spring 
of 1924 the Japan PYnleration of Labor expelled some 
communistic groups, numbering about eight thousand 
men. Those expelled organized themselves into a 
Left Wing Party. 

The Gyomin Communist Party had been secret, as 
well as other early developments, and so the govern 
ment did not interfere, until they discovered them! 
But in 1924 the government took quick action, in 
the passing of the "Peace Preservation Law", in 
which severe punishments were proclaimed for 
communism. 

The Political Formation Resulting from the 
After the suppression of the first prole 
tarian party, above recorded, in 1920 a new one, the 
Labor-Farmer Party, was organized at Osaka. But 
soon afterwards (at the third meeting of the Execu 
tive, says Kagawa, who sat in them all) the party 
divided itself into Left and Right. Those against 
the communistic idea now organized themselves into 
the \i]))iou Farmers Part)/, and in the same year, 
in December, 192G, we saw the Social Democrat Party 



TIIK PKOLKTAKIAN MOVKMKNT IN JAl AN 211 

and the Nippon Labor and Farmer Party organized, 
making altogether four proletarian parties. After 
the first national election under universal suffrage, 
in February, 1928, the Tanaka government dissolved 
the Faiincr-Labor Party because its leading spirit 
was communistic. Its members at once organized 
"A Meeting for preparation for a New Party", but 
even this was prohibited for the same reason. (But 
later, apparently, permitted.) 

In December, 11)28, the Nippon Farmer Parti/, and 
the Nippon Labor-Farmer Party, and certain local 
proletarian parties, organized the Taxlinto, or Japan 
Maxs Party. This became the Middle, while the 
Social Democrat Party is the R njnt, and the new 
Labor-Farmer Party is the Left. 

Student* and Communism. The Communist Party 
is spreading its ideas among the students. Their 
organization, "Social Science Study Club" had 
branches in fifty-nine colleges with sixteen hundred 
members. Hut in July, 1925, when they held their 
second annual convention at Kyoto Imperial Univer 
sity, the Peace Preservation Law was brought into 
action for the first time, and the arrest of the 
students followed. 

The Difference in Philosophy Between 
the Proletarian Parties 

There is a distinct difference between the com 
munistic and social democratic tendencies among 
.Japanese proletarians. The Labor-Farmer Parti/ is 
faithfully following the rules of the Third Interna 
tionale, proclaimed in 1920, that the aim of com 
munism cannot be realized except by fighting against 
social democracy. So everything in their party is 
decided by a few officers who completely control 
the party system. This was well illustrated when the 
Soviet expelled Trotsky and four others from their 
organization. 

The Social Democrat Party is entirely opposed to 
such a systfjn, and believes in the mass of the people. 



212 JAPAN 

It follows the decision of the majority. It believes 
in the education of the mass of the people and does 
not neglect international connections. It believes 
that true democracy is maintained only by the devel 
opment of the proletarians as a class; and that the 
true development of proletarian political and economic 
privileges is to be attained through slow evolution. 



PART IV 
OBITUARIES 1929-30 



Gideon F. Draper 
Rev. R. C. Armstrong, Ph.D. 

Robert Cornell Armstrong was born near Ottawa, 
Canada, in 1876. He graduated at Toronto University 
in 1903 and came to Japan as a missionary of the 
Methodist Church of Canada in the same year. 

In 1904 he married Miss Ketha Service, and they 
served in this field together until he passed away the 
last of October, 1929. 

Gifted though Dr. Armstrong was as a speaker 
and administrator his greatest contribution was as 
a student and a thinker. His chief interest was 
Japanese thought and religion. His published works 
won him not only university degrees but the admira 
tion and respect of all who were interested in such 
subjects. 

He was at first in the evangelistic work and later 
professor of philosophy at Kwansei Gakuin, Kobe, and 
lecturer in theology at Aoyama Gakuin. Nine years 
ago he became missionary to the Central Tabernacle 
in Tokyo, a special church for students. He was in 
great demand as a speaker. In addition to mind of 
exceptional quality he had a strong personality. He 
was greatly attached to the Central Tabernacle and 
rejoiced to see the new building completed but died 
the night before it was dedicated. 

He is survived by his widow and five children, now 
in Canada. 

Rev. James Hlackled^e 

The Rev. James P.lackledge, who passed away in 



214 JAPAN 

November, 1929, at Santa Monica, California, came 
to Japan as a missionary of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in 1882, having joined the Philadelphia Con 
ference in 187G. He was connected with the work at 
Aoyama until 1886, when he returned to the States 
on account of the ill health of his wife. He took up 
work in Southern California in 1887, and continued 
in the effective relation until 1916, when he retired. 

Miss Annie Hammond Hradshaw 

Born in Boston on July 16, 1852, Miss Bradshaw, 
after the usual education in New England schools, and 
a term of service in practical work in the East, came 
to Japan in January, 1889, as a regular appointee 
of the American Board. She went at once to Sendai, 
and there, with the exception of four furloughs, spent 
her thirty-four years of missionary life. Her work 
was in the evangelistic field, and chiefly among Middle 
School students and boys who were attached to the 
Sendai Telegraph and Postoflice. The fame of these 
classes and her influence over these young men has 
become almost nation-wide. 

She retired in 1922, returning to the United States 
in December of that year. After a brief visit in 
California, she crossed the continent to Orange, N. J., 
where she settled down for the remainder of her days, 
passing away on May 28, 1929. 

She was the students friend, not only in her home 
in Sendai, but through an extensive correspondence 
throughout her whole career. 

Miss Alice I,. Coates 

Miss Coates was born in Becket, Mass., in 1858. 
She was appointed as a missionary of the W.F.M.S. 
of the Methodist Protestant Church and arrived in 
Japan in 1895. After teaching for a short time in 
Yokohama Eiwa Jo Gakko she went to Nagoya when 
she was transferred to Ilamamatsu where the remain 
der of her missionary life was spent as supervisor of 



OHITUARIES 1929-30 215 

the Tokiwa Kindergarten which she established. She 
labored with untiring zeal and devotion until July, 
1929, when she was ordered home by her physician. 
She died in Rochester, Minn., on January 17, 19.30. 

Mrs. Walter Boardman Bullen 

Miss Evelyn O. Johnson was married to Rev. VV. B. 
Bullen at E. Providence, R. I., on August 16, 1904. 
Both Mr. and Mrs. Bullen were graduates of Brown 
University. Shortly after their marriage they sailed 
for Japan as missionaries of the American Baptist 
Foreign Mission Society. They spent a year in Kobe, 
chiefly engaged in the study of the language. From 
1905 to 1909 they were stationed in Sendai, after 
which they lived and worked for a time in Otaru, 
Hokkaido. The later years of their service in Japan 
were spent in Morioka. 

Mr. Bullen s health made their return to America 
necessary in 1914, since which time Mrs. Bullen has 
resided mostly at Newton Centre, Mass. Mrs. Bullen 
was a devoted wife and mother, a good missionary and 
an exemplary Christian. She died August 3, 1929, 
after a painful illness. 

William Leavitt Curtis, D.I). 

Dr. Curtis was born at Broadhead, Wisconsin, 
August 15, 1863, and was graduated from Doane and 
Oberlin, being ordained in 1889. He married Miss 
Gertrude Benedict and was appointed to Japan, arriv 
ing October 19, 1890. His first station was Sendai, 
but his missionary career was spent in Niigata and 
Kyoto. Mrs. Curtis died in 1912, and Dr. Curtis 
married Miss Grace W. Learned in 1916. Dr. Curtis 
was responsible for starting the publication of the 
"Japan Mission News" about forty years ago, and he 
gave about 16 years of service as a teacher in Doshisha 
University. He died in Peiping August 15, 1929. 



216 JAPAN 

Mrs. H. Evington 

Mrs. Evington, widow of Bishop Evington of 
Kyushu, died in August, 1928, after their last Con 
ference Meeting. At Tokushima, in Osaka, and after 
wards in Kyushu, Mrs. Evington nobly seconded her 
husband s work. She was also instrumental in start 
ing the Women s Missionary Auxiliary in Kyushu, 
which celebrates its twenty-fifth anniversary this 
year. 

Mrs. James McD. Gardiner 

Florence Rhodes Pitman was born in Charlottes- 
ville, Va., December 17, 1854. She was the first 
woman missionary and teacher to be sent to the 
American Episcopal Church Mission in Tokyo, arriv 
ing in November, 1877. She lived in Tsukiji, teach 
ing in St. Margaret s School, only just beginning its 
long and successful career. In 1881 she married Mr. 
J. McD. Gardiner, who had come out as a teacher to 
St. Paul s School (now Rikkyo Daigaku) in 1880, and 
shortly after became its principal. From the begin 
ning their home was, and continued to be for forty- 
five years, one always open to Japanese and for 
eigners alike. 

Mrs. Gardiner was a well-known figure in all 
circles of Tokyo society, active in the Japanese Red 
Cross, never missing a meeting .and co-operating with 
her Japanese sisters in every possible way. An in 
valid for some years after her husband s death, she 
fell asleep very quietly on March 2G, 19!>0, leaving 
a large number of bereaved friends who mourn espe 
cially this severing of so dear a link with old Japan. 

Mrs. Harvey 

Mrs. Harvey came to Japan in 1892 under the 
C.M.S. in response to an appeal for someone to carry 
on a small home-like Christian School for Girls at 
Nagasaki, which had been Mrs. Goodall s work. She 
was much loved by her girls, over whom she had a 



OBITUARIES 1929-80 217 

lasting influence. Mrs. Harvey retired in 1908, but 
kept up her loving interest in Japan to the end of her 
lift-. She recently passed away at Alton, on Hamp 
shire, England. 

Rev. H. E. S. Lindstrom 

Born in Denmark, of Swedish parents, Mr. Lind 
strom made up his mind at the age of twenty to enter 
the Christian ministry, and later was associated with 
August Anderson in evangelistic work in Denmark. 
He went to the United States as chaplain on an Amer 
ican-Scandinavian steamer, entered Chicago Union 
Theological Seminary for two years, preaching dur 
ing that time to Scandinavian communities on Sundays 
and in summer vacations. 

He came to Japan on November 23, 1891, in a com 
pany of fifteen Scandinavian missionaries, among 
whom were Rev. Mr. Aurell, and Miss Christina L. 
Engrstrom, whom he later married. In his early 
years in this country he had an experience of serious 
persecution at the hands of a mob of drunken fisher 
men in Central Japan. After his marriage in 1895, 
the couple went to the town of Miyoshi in the Bingo 
mountains for four years, and then on to Hiroshima 
where they served with the Christian and Missionary 
Alliance for twenty years. His last work was at 
Nara, remaining there until his retirement in 1927. 
In October, 1928, he went to Peking for medical treat 
ment, and passed away at Peking Union Medical 
College on November 21, 1928. 

Mr. Lindstrom was known as an eloquent preacher 
in four languages, and was a frequent contributor to 
various religious publications. 

Mrs. W. F. Madeley 

Mrs. W. K. Madeley (Miss Marian F. Niveling) 
was born in Tyron, Penn., on January 17, 1872. She 
came to Japan in June, 1899, under the Presbyterian 



218 JAPAN 

Mission to start kindergarten work. While studying 
the language she taught in the IJaika (Jirls School 
in Osaka, and later moved to Hiroshima, where she 
was engaged in evangelistic work. 

On May 15, 1902, she married the Rev. W. F. 
Madeley of the American Episcopal Church Mission, 
and in July of that year they went to Akita. There 
Mrs. Madeley gathered a few children together and 
opened the first kindergarten of that Mission. Later 
they moved to Wakamatsu, and afterwards went to 
Sendai, where Mr. Madeley is now stationed. Since 
1921 Mrs. Madeley has lived in England and Canada, 
where the children were in school. She died in St. 
Luke s Nursing Home on April 10, 1930. The four 
older children are in Vancouver and the two younger 
are at school in England. 

Mrs. Madeley was always keenly interested in 
Christian educational work in Japan. Her strong in 
tellectual personality did not overshadow her loving 
interest in the welfare of her friends and all that was 
being done for the benefit of humanity. She leaves 
many friends in Japan, in England and in Vancouver. 



Mrs. William A. Mcllwaine 

Georgia Gifford Mcllwaine was of Vermont parent 
age, but was born on September 17, 1891 at Marietta, 
(la., while her parents were visiting there. Her 
parents died while she was still young. She graduated 
with honor from the University of Vermont in 1914, 
being admitted to the Phi Beta Kappa Society. She 
then taught English at Mount Hermon School, where 
she met Mr. Mcllwaine. They came to Japan in April, 
1919, under the Southern Presbyterian Mission, and 
lived for a short while in Kochi, but soon moved to 
Xagoya. From her first arrival in Japan, although 
robust in appearance, she was not strong, but worked 
for ten years with indomitable will and tenderest 
individual care and sympathy. In the spring of 1929 
her last illness came upon her, and acting on the 



OIUTUARIES 1929-. l> >0 219 

doctor s advice, she and her husband sailed for Amer 
ica on August 1, 1929. She landed in America safely, 
but died on the train while passing through Montana. 
Her husband took her body to her old home in Spring 
field, Vermont, where it reposes beside that of her 
mother. 

Mrs. Leltie Lay Newton 

Mrs. Newton was born on April G, 1848 in Pit-kens 
County, South Carolina, U.S.A., and with her hus 
band, Rev. J. C. C. Newton, D.D. came to Japan in 
1888 as a missionary of the M. E. Church, South. 

After a year in Tokyo, the couple removed to Kobe, 
where Dr. Newton became Dean of the Theological 
Department of the newly founded Kansai Gakuin. 
There they both served until 1896, when ill health 
made it necessary for Mrs. Newton to return to 
America, her husband returning with her. They 
came again to Japan in 190, l> ,, and served until 1923. 

Retiring from missionary work at the age of 
seventy-five, Mrs. Newton was granted five more 
peaceful sunset years in the home land, and lived for 
the most part in the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Marvin Underwood of Atlanta, Ga. There on Decem 
ber 8, 1928, she entered into rest. 

She rendered her largest service as a home maker, 
and as an adviser and active helper in all her hus 
band s work. Her outstanding characteristics were: 
keen insight and sound judgment, ability in practical 
and business affairs, and a deep, unquestioning faith 
in Jesus as a present personal Savior and Lord. 

Rev. W. B. Parshley, D.I). 

Wilbur IJrown Parshley was born in Urbana, 
Ohio, on September M, 1859. His father moved to 
Live Oak, Florida in I860. 

After studying in the High School at Springfield, 
Mass., he returned to Live Oak and was pastor of the 
Baptist Church there, being ordained in January, 



220 JAPAN 

1882. Later he graduated from Brown University, 
Providence, R.I. and from the Newton Theological 
Seminary, in 1890. Being united in marriage with 
Miss Helen A. Hovey, they came to Japan as mission 
aries of the Baptist Church the same year. Their 
first work was in Nemuro, but in 1895 Dr. Parshley 
became professor in the Baptist Theological Seminary 
in Yokohama and in 1909 he was chosen its president. 

Returning to the United States in 1911 on furlough, 
his ill health prevented his return to the field; but he 
served as pastor again of the Live Oak Church and 
also later in some rural churches until 1926, despite 
increasing ill health. lie passed away on January 
24, 1930. Mrs. Parshley survives him. 

"He acquired a splendid education in days when 
it was not easy for a young Florida boy to do so." 
"He was wise in counsel. His example as a Chris 
tian gentleman, an honest and courageous citizen, 
a sincere and devoted friend inspired those who 
knew him with unusual confidence." "His death 
leaves a ragged gap in the ranks of Who s Who in 
Florida ." 

Hilton I edley, D.I). 

Born at St. Johns, Newfoundland, January 14, 
1802, Dr. IVdley was graduated from McGill and 
Montreal Congregational Theological Seminary. He 
married Miss Elizabeth Ann Staples and was ap 
pointed to Japan, arriving September 22, 1889. Dr. 
Pedley was first stationed at Niigata and Mrs. Pedley 
died there in 1890. In 1892 he married Miss Martha 
Clark of Kumamoto, and in 1900 was sent to Mae- 
bashi where he remained until 1918. In 1919 he 
became first field secretary of the Japan Mission and 
was also mission secretary for three or four years. 
The outstanding achievement of Dr. Pedley was the 
negotiation of the new basis of relationship between 
the Japan Mission and the Kumiai Church in refer 
ence to evangelistic work. 



OHITt ARIES 1929-IU) 221 

Rev. H. V. S. Peeke, D.I). 

Harmon Van Slyke Peeke was born on Novem 
ber 6. 18GG, at Owasco, X. Y. lie received his B.A. 
from Hope College, Holland, Mich., in 1887. When 
beginning his theological studies, he received a call 
to teach in Steele Academy, Nagasaki, and came out 
in 1887 for three years. He returned for a three 
years course at Auburn Theological Seminary, 
graduating in 1893. That autumn, having married 
Miss Vesta O. Greer, he returned to Japan as a 
missionary of the Reformed Church in America. 
The greater part of his service was in evangelistic 
work in Kyushu, but he was also a teacher for nine 
years in Meiji Gakuin, Tokyo. His health failing, 
he and his wife returned to the United States in 
1929, and he passed away on December 27, 1929. 

Thoroughly devoted to his work, never sparing 
of his energies, facile with his pen, pleasing in his 
personality, valuable in council and executive 
service, his going has left a void that cannot be 
easily filled. His valuable work as a student of the 
Japanese Language impressed all workers in this 
land. He leaves his wife and seven children. 

Rev. George H. Pole 

Mr. Pole first came to Japan as a civil engineer 
under the Japanese Government Railways, and super 
intended the laying of the railroad between Kobe 
and Osaka, one of the first in Japan, Becoming 
keenly interested in the possibilities of religious 
work here, he returned to England to prepare him 
self for missionary labor in this land. He returned 
to Japan in 1881 where he gave nearly twenty years 
of service, during two periods of which he was 
Principal of Holy Trinity Divinity School in Osaka. 
Two of his pupils are now Bishops of the church. 

On his retirement he still continued to serve the 
missionary cause as a member of one of the Home 



222 JAPAN 

missionary committees. He died in Bromley on 
February 17, 1929, at the age of 79. 

"To mention two characteristics only, in a fine 
character: he had deep and strong religious con 
victions, combined with great sympathy for the 
views as well as the needs of others." 

Miss Sarah T. Rees 

Miss Sarah T. Rees came to Japan in September, 
1911, and after a year s study of the language went 
to Kanazawa, on the west coast, to engage in evan 
gelistic work. She remained there for several years, 
then went to Sendai to help for a while in the Bible- 
woman s Training Department of the Aoba Jogakuin. 
During the World War she served for a short time 
in Red Cross work at Vladivostok, returning to 
Japan when that work was finished. Upon the death 
of her father in 1919, Miss Rees returned to America. 
She went by way of Europe, accompanying a group 
of wounded Czech soldiers. She was never able to 
return to Japan, at first because her family needed 
her, and afterwards when she wished to return, 
her health would not permit it. She was head of 
the Girls Department of the Hartford (Connecticut) 
High School at the time of her death, July 30, 1929. 

Rev. I). S. Spencer, D.D. 

David Smith Spencer was born January 31, 1854 
at Lymansville, I enn. He entered the ministry of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1882. Having 
graduated from Drew Theological Seminary he 
married Miss Mary Pike and they came to Japan 
as missionaries of this church in the fall of 1883, 
rendering faithful service to the cause until 1927 
when, for health reasons, he was obliged to return 
to the home land. 

Dr. Spencer s work was along educational, evan 
gelistic and publishing lines, and they were located 
in Tokyo, Xagoya and later in Kumamoto. 



OHITUARIKS 1929-: >0 22\\ 

He was faithful and efficient, and impressed one 
with his physical endurance, his intellectual strength 
and his executive ability. As a friend he was 
dependable and helpful. He was also a man of deep 
experience and firm faith, rendering most effective 
aid to the building up of the Kingdom in this land. 
On retiring they went to Robinson Park, Pasadena 
where they built an attractive home. Here he 
passed away in October, 1929. 

He is survived by his faithful companion and 
three sons, one of whom is a missionary of the same 
church in Japan. 

Mrs. Edna Luce Stewart 

Mrs. Stewart was born in 1892, probably, at 
Lagrange, Illinois, U.S.A. She received her educa 
tion at Meridian College, Meridia Mississippi. She 
was married to Rev. Robert S. Stewart of the South 
Georgia Conference, of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. They came to Japan as mission 
aries of that church in 1915, and after a year of 
Language Study they were appointed to Matsuyama. 
A year later they were compelled to return to Amer 
ica on account of the illness of their oldest child. 
In 1920, however, they again resumed work in 
Japan living in Kobe, and continuing there until 
192:*. Following their return to America, Mr. 
Stewart became pastor of a church at Ashburn, 
(la., only to meet his death through an automobile 
accident, in 1927. At that time Mrs. Stewart was 
already suffering from the disease that ultimately 
caused her death on May 2, 1929, at Fort Valley, (la. 
She is survived by four children. 

Dr. (icorge Washington Van Horn 

Dr. Van Horn was born in Allegheny, Pa., on 
March IK. 181(5. He took his IJ.A. degree at Cum 
berland University, and received later the degree 
of D.D. from the same institution. Do Pauw Univer- 



224 

sity conferred upon him the decree of M.A. He 
was married to Miss Francis Matilda Dorsey on 
July 4, 1878. The couple were appointed to the 
Japan Mission ten years later, and passed their 
thirty-four years of missionary life in and around 
Osaka. Mrs. Van Horn died about two years ago 
in the home land, and on May 28, 1929, Dr. Van 
Horn himself received the Higher Summons. 

Dr. Van Horn was unselfish to the last degree, 
was a true friend to all who knew him; especially 
kind to "the down and out", one who was much 
sought by those in trouble, and who lived a life 
close to God. 

Miss Eleanor Verbeck 

Eleanor Verbeck was born in Japan, September 
2:>, 1875. She was the second daughter of Guido 
Verbeck, of missionary fame. She left Japan when 
nine years old, was educated in America, and after 
teaching some years, she took kindergarten train 
ing and offered herself for work in the Field. She 
was first in Akita, and after her furlough stayed in 
America to take out her citizenship papers. On 
her return she went to Sendai, in charge of the 
Kindergarten Training School, and later was in 
Mito. 

In May, 192:?, Miss Verbeck had a slight stroke 
and returned to America in September. In April, 
1929, she wrote of feeling very well and enjoying 
her work among Japanese women in Sacramento, 
California. But her great longing was to return to 
Japan. She died after a short illness on July 29, 
1929. A kind, bright, cheerful, witty and loving 
friend, she will always be remembered with deep 
affection by both foreigners and Japanese. 

Mrs. F. W. Voe^elein 

Kate K. Voegelein, nee Henneck, was born at 
Dubuque, Iowa, March 13, 1849, and died July 26, 



OIUTL ARIES 1929-, ;0 225 

1929, at Los Angeles, Calif. She was converted 
when nine years of age, and spent practically her 
entire life in the service of Clod. In 187."> she 
married Rev. F. W. Voegelein of Kansas. In 1883 
they sailed for Tokyo. Japan, where they served 
twenty-five years as missionaries in Japan. For a 
number of years Rev. F. W. Voegelein was super 
intendent of the Japan Mission of the Evangelical 
Church. In 1900 they returned to Los Angeles, 
Calif. Her husband predeceased her in 1920. 

Mrs. C. T. Warren 

Mrs. C . T. Warren came out to Japan under the 
C . M. S. as Miss Fawcett, in 1891: married Arch 
deacon Warren in the following year, and is remem 
bered by the older members of the C. M. S. group 
as a most kind hostess in the old days of life on 
the Kawaguchi Concession. Osaka. On Archdeacon 
Warren s death, she decided to stay on in Japan, 
and worked with her friend Miss Ritson, at Toku- 
shima until 1915, when both retired to live in Eng 
land together, where she recently passed away. 



PART V 

FORMOSA 



CHAPTER XXI. 

THE EDUCATIONAL SITUATION 
IN FORMOSA 



Edward Band 

The main features of the educational situation 
in Formosa have undergone little change since last 
year. As mentioned in our previous report, for a 
colony, Formosa has quite good educational facil 
ities. Some of the school buildings are the best in 
the East. The educational system with the usual 
elementary, middle and high schools, commercial, 
medical and agricultural colleges, etc., has now 
been completed by the establishing of the new Im 
perial University of Taihoku. The highest educa 
tional institutions are provided for Japanese and 
Formosans, and are nominally open to both alike, 
but the actual figures reveal a strong preference in 
favour of Japanese students. 

Of a total population of nearly four and a half 
millions, about 5 , of the people are Japanese. For 
them elementary education is compulsory, and prac 
tically all children of school age attend. For the 
Formosans, for various reasons, compulsory educa 
tion has not yet been introduced, and only 30 r r of 
their children are to be found at school. 

The (lovernment has been criticized for spending 
such a large sum of money on the new university 
while so many Formosans are still without even an 
elementary education. The university scheme may 
be somewhat premature, but instead of grudging 
the expenditure on university education it would be 
possible to economize in other directions and divert 



230 FORMOSA 

other funds in the national budget for educational 
purposes. 

In Japan proper, 14 r r of the total national 
budget is allocated to education; in Formosa the 
proportion is only 10 r f . Of the total population in 
Japan 9 yen a head is spent on education, in For 
mosa only ?> yen. It is interesting to compare the 
total spent on education in Formosa (17 million 
yen) with the revenue derived from the Monopoly 
Bureau. Tobacco yields over 15 millions, alcoholic 
liquor (sake) 15 millions, opium over 4 millions. We 
leave our readers to draw their own conclusions. 

The Problem of Assimilation 

In the minds of the authorities the chief educa 
tional problem lies in the assimilation of the For- 
mosan people, in the training of the young Formo- 
sans to grow up loyal Japanese; in other words, in 
the fostering of the national spirit (kokumin seishin 
kanyoi. With such a policy in vogue, of course, 
great importance is attached to the spread of the 
Japanese language with the ultimate object of 
making the Kormosans bilingual. Some enthusiasts 
would even prefer them to forget their mother 
tongue and talk Japanese from their cradles. 

Co-education, not of the sexes, but of Japanese 
and Formosan children together, has existed for 
several years, and with the rapid spread of the 
Japanese language presents fewer difficulties year 
by year. In the elementary schools (shogakko) only 
a very few children who can speak the language 
well are chosen to study alongside the Japanese. 
The vast majority of the Formosans are taught 
separately in public schools (kogakko). By the time 
they are ready to enter the middle schools their 
language is good enough, and when they are allowed 
to study with the Japanese pupils they are equal if 
not superior in most school subjects. 

Having shown that thev are not inferior in intel- 



THE EDUCATIONAL SITUATION IN FORMOSA 231 

lectual ability to the ruling class, the young For 
mosans are beginning to wonder why all the best 
positions in the life of the colony are occupied by 
Japanese. Co-education of itself will not bring 
about any harmonious results; in fact, by intensify 
ing the Formosan inferiority complex, it may have 
the opposite effect and rouse political discontent, 
unless the Government takes another step forward 
and opens up higher positions in public life for the 
better educated among the Formosan people. 

There is no doubt that the educational policy 
adopted thirty-five years ago at the time of the 
Japanese occupation is now out of date. A few of 
the leading educationalists are beginning to realise 
that the chief end of education consists in some 
thing more than training the Formosans to dress, 
eat and live exactly like the Japanese. A state in 
which all Formosans think, speak and act accord 
ing to the same standardized Japanese pattern may 
bo very pleasing to imperialistic politicians, but 
hardly satisfactory to the more thoughtful Japanese 
educationalists. 

The New Minister of Education 

The new Minister of Education. Mr. Sugimoto, 
appears to have broader and more enlightened views 
on education. Formerly he was an official in the 
Monopoly Uureau. His experience in the alcohol 
department has at least taught him how to put new 
wine into old bottles, for he has certainly introduced 
a new spirit into the educational affairs of Formosa. 
He has a good understanding of the present-day 
needs of Formosan society and an earnest desire to 
further not merely the material prosperity but also 
the spiritual culture of the island. How far his 
views will prevail among the more conservative ofli- 
cials with a narrower nationalistic outlook remains 
to be seen. 



2,>2 FORMOSA 

Secondary School Principals Conference 

The thirty-three principals of the Government 
secondary schools for boys and girls were summoned 
to a conference by the Minister of Education. By 
his invitation this year for the first time represen 
tatives were also invited from the eleven private 
schools to listen to the proceedings. At such a 
gathering where educational polices, principles and 
methods were freely discussed, it was possible to 
detect several significant tendencies in the views of 
those responsible for training the future genera 
tion. The general tone of the conference and the 
level of the discussions were remarkably good. 

Various types of educationalists were found pres 
ent, probably similiar to those in Japan proper. The 
normal school principals were concerned about pro 
ducing a standard type of teacher guaranteed to 
pronounce Japanese perfectly and to abstain from 
all dangerous thoughts. The middle school princi 
pals were inclined to measure their schools success 
by efficiency in military drill and by the number 
of their graduates passing into high schools and 
colleges. The principals of girls schools seemed 
more alive to modern educational ideas as we meet 
them in the West. It was from their lips, mainly, 
that words like "self-expression," "initiative", "self- 
government" "independence," etc., were frequently 
heard. 

As in Japan, the Government Girls School prin 
cipals in Formosa are all men, yet they appeared 
quite willing to pose as experts on female attire and 
they took up the cudgels nobly on behalf of female 
education. They urged that better facilities should 
be provided for the girls who at present have no 
higher institution than the usual four years high 
school. They complained against the prevailing at 
titude taken by Japanese and Formosans alike, re 
garding women a.", mere dolls. 



THK KDUCATIONAL SITUATION IN FORMOSA 23.) 

The Need for Religion 

The most interesting tendency to be noticed at 
the conference was the growing realization of the 
need for religion in training young people. Accord 
ing to regulation, all Government schools must be 
non-religious institutions, but several principals 
appear to be introducing semi-religious practices for 
the moral benefit of their pupils. 

In some Government sohools, as a substitute for 
morning prayers, a short period for meditation is 
provided, when all the students join in a form of 
thanksgiving and dedication which begins with the 
words, "I give thanks to Heaven and earth . ..." 
Little books on self-culture are also distributed to 
the pupils. Some principals are enthusiastic mem 
bers of the Kibosha, the Society of Hope, the founder 
of which has included many Christian ideas in its 
fundamental principles. In fact, many teachers are 
willing to accept religion if the name of GOD is 
left out, and quite a few want the fruits of Chris 
tianity without the roots. 

It was interesting to observe also that at the 
graduation ceremony of the Blind and Deaf and 
Dumb School both the Governor of Tainan and the 
principal in addressing these poor afflicted pupils 
could not refrain from uttering words of comfort 
full of religious meaning, "As you go out into life 
thus handicapped, God and the spirits (Kamisama to 
Hotokesamai will certainly take cure of you." 
There is no doubt that many Japanese, and Formo- 
sans. too, are dissatisfied with a non-religious system 
of education. They satisfy their religious instincts 
by visiting the shrines regardless of the Govern 
ment edict declaring that such edifices were not 
erected for religious purposes. 

Attendance at the Shrines 

To a greater extent than in .Japan proper an at 
tempt is made to foster loyalty by attendance at the 



2154 FORMOSA 

shrines. According 1 to law, obeisance at the shrine 
signifies respect, but in actual practice with the vast 
majority of those who attend it attains a religious 
meaning. Officially however, the shrines are non- 
religious, so it cannot be reckoned as a breach of 
religious freedom to insist on attendance. 

Recently some elementary school children went to 
the Tainan Shrine to pray for the safety of some 
relatives who are in peril on the sea. The ship was 
wrecked on an island south of Formosa but the pas 
sengers were all saved. Whereupon the principal 
summoned all the school children together and com 
mended those who had visited the shrine and receiv 
ed an answer to their prayers. 

A Formosan boy, a pupil of a middle school in 
Taihoku absented himself from attending the shrine 
on a national holiday. Being a Roman Catholic he 
had religious scruples and believed that compulsory 
attendance at the shrine was a breach of religious 
freedom. He was promptly expelled by the principal. 

These two incidents are typical of the inconsist 
ency in the official attitude towards the shrine ques 
tion. In the one case the religious motive is praised, 
in the other, it is condemned. It is hoped that the 
new Shrines Hill to be introduced into the Diet will 
define clearly the religious or non-religious nature 
of such shrines as the school children are forced to 
attend. 

Conclusion 

While there is much to admire in the efficiency 
of the educational system in Formosa, one feels 
that the authorities would attain even greater suc 
cess if a more liberal spirit was introduced into the 
organization. The problem will not be ultimately 
solved either by the extreme nationalistic policy of 
assimilation carried on by the Japanese or by the 
opposite extreme utilitarian outlook of Formosans 
in search of profitable jobs. Only a new spirit of 
mutual good-will and forbearance, with freedom of 



THK EDUCATIONAL SITUATION IN FORMOSA 235 

opportunity for all. will ultimately bring peace and 
harmony. 

Hut furthermore, in order to create a permanent 
atmosphere of good-will that will dispel all racial 
differences, there must not only be justice and 
straight dealing, there must be more straight think 
ing on problems of education and less confusion in 
distinguishing between questions of loyalty, of 
morality and religion. The average school teacher 
in his zeal for uniformity attaches as much impor 
tance to superficial questions of clothing as to seri 
ous problems of conduct. 

Even we Christian educationalists, in spite of our 
alleged emphasis on the things of the spirit, in our 
desire for quick results and in a slavish conformity 
to government methods, may be tempted to educate 
by "reforming from without" rather than "trans 
forming from within." Character-building may well 
be our task, but it is usually best achieved indirect 
ly, for we aim at turning out living GOD-inspired 
personalities and not engine-driven Ford cars. The 
words of John Oman arc worth pondering in this 
connection: "It is not our task to make men better, 
but to make them responsive to the voice of (1OI) 
in their own hearts." 



CHAPTER XXII. 
MEDICAL MISSIONS IN FORMOSA 



Percy Chtal 

This article attempts to give some answer to the 
two questions: (1) Are Medical Missions still 
needed in Formosa? (2) Are they maJdng good, or 
not? 

The Mission Treasurer would seek his answer to 
these questions in the accounts, and would doubt 
less gain gloomy ideas from the increase of expen 
diture, and lack of increase, or even decrease, in 
receipts; a statistician would shake his head over 
the diminished In-Patient and Out-Patient numbers 
but neither of these reports would give a just 
answer. 

Poverty, prejudice, and the private practitioner 
make a strong coalition in deterring patients from 
coming to the Mission Hospital. 

Poverty. In our farming population the rice and 
sugar crops are all important, and the last twelve 
months have been most disappointing. The vast 
majority of our patients are not blessed with a bank 
ing account, and few indeed are addicted to the 
use of stockings either for wear or for laying by a 
secret store for bad times. This means that what 
little money they can get together is usually spent 
on some treatment outside, and when they come to 
the Hospital they haven t the money to pay even the 
small fees demanded. Small wonder that a poor 
rice harvest is soon shewn in the Treasurer s state 
ment ! 



2o8 FORMOSA 

Prejudice. The majority of sick folk, of any 
nationality, have somewhat fixed ideas of the general 
lines along which their cure is to take place. For 
example the Formosan with influenza at once ex 
hibits a more or less white cloth round his neck, an 
increase of three or four waistcoats, and a desire 
for the stuffiest room he can get. Medicine must be 
plenteous, palatable, and instantly effective, a hypo 
dermic injection is usually called for once. To him 
our light and airy wards are utterly opposed to 
reason, and our methods may represent a wearisome 
thing to a man already miserable with his disease. 

Again the sufferer from a bone abscess may have 
been warned by his friends that the foreigner will 
probably wish to operate, and that he should guard 
warily against this bloodthirsty tendency. His ideas 
run along the line of some sort of soothing dressing 
and a few injections of morphia at intervals. As 
he can probably find plenty outside of the Hospital 
willing to humor him he will usually give them a 
trial first and only come to the Hospital when things 
have become so far advanced that even he realizes 
that an operation will have to be performed. 

The point is that methods which to us represent 
efficiency may represent discomfort, danger, and 
wrongheadedness to him. The day has gone past 
when we can simply dictate to him and he has to 
take it because he can get no other treatment- a 
very pressing question often is "How far, if at all, 
can I meet him?" 

The patient s friends often ask "Can you guaran 
tee that he will get well?", perhaps in the case of a 
pneumonia patient. When one is compelled to say 
that no guarantee can be given, though there is a 
strong hope of cure, the patient may be taken home 
at once. To us this may seem unreasonable, but the 
problem to them is that the patient, if he is going 
to die, must do so at home. 



MEDICAL MISSIONS IN" FORMOSA 2ol) 

Private Practitioners. With the great increase 
of these in the past few years the attendance at 
our Out-Patient Departments has markedly fallen 
of! , as was to be expected. A patient who can pet 
attention in his own village is not likely to walk 
.". or 4 miles to the Hospital for it. Whether a Hos 
pital can be kept self-supporting or not often largely 
depends on its Out-Patient Clinic, and this falling 
off in numbers is a very serious difficulty with us. 

Then again many practitioners here have opened 
small hospitals with, perhaps, 10 beds, and it is not 
uncommon for them to employ touts at the Railway 
Station to intercept any sick-looking folk and induce 
them to patronize their wards. Another custom is 
to pay a yen or 50 sen to the ricksha man who 
brings a patient to them several patients have told 
us that they were whirled away to such Hospitals 
willy-nilly, even though they asked for the Mission 
Hospital. 

In view of these facilities in the Island the time 
has come when we can no longer claim to be an 
essential part in the political economy of the Island, 
thouirh there is still a very useful place for us to 
fill and it may well be that a swing of the pen 
dulum may again bring about a state of full Wards 
and busy Out-Patient Departments. 

It must never be forgotten however that our 
primary work is not merely the curing of bodily 
ills, but presenting the (lospel to a large class (still 
the largest in this Island) of people who would 
probably not hear it otherwise, as they are not 
reached by the Schools, and only very transitorily 
by wayside preaching. 

It is still true that of those who come to our 
wards a great many become interested in the Gospel; 
a large number learn to read and go away possessed 
of a P.iblc which has become a living book to them; 
;ind a goodly proportion become active Church mem 
bers. It is the custom in our Hospitals to offer a 
small book prize for any who learn to read while 



2-10 FORMOSA 

in the Hospital, and it is gratifying to see the num 
bers that qualify for this. 

The Island may have less need of our services 
as Institutions for the treatment of disease, but the 
place of Hospitals in the Formosan Church is still 
an important and valuable one, and will probably 
always remain so. 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

REPORT OF THE CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN 

MISSION 1929 

Re i . James Dickson 

While the present staff on the field numbers 
nineteen, only eight of this number have been en 
gaged in full time work, due to the fact that the 
others have been acquiring the language. Never 
theless, there has been an encouraging advance in 
practically every department of our work. The en 
rollment in our institutions on the whole is larger 
than last year, and very notable improvements have 
been made in the medical department as well as 
encouraging progress in evangelistic work. A total 
of Ml people have been received into the church 
by baptism during the year, l. JG of these being 
children, and 171 adults. 

While the results of the past year s work as in 
dicated in the following report are not all that we 
would like to have them, with the arrival of more 
workers from Canada, we look confidently forward 
to the future with the anticipation of greater prog 
ress in the building up of the work of the Kingdom 
of Formosa. 

EVANGELISTIC 

All our work is evangelistic, in the sense that the 
whole aim and purpose of our institutions is to win 
people to faith in Christ, and build up the Christian 
Church. In the hospital and schools the (iospel is 
taught and preached regularly as an essential part 
of the work. We use the word "evangelistic" here 
to designate the work which is not connected with 
the schools, hospital, and other institutional work. 

The Formosan Presbytery, at its regular annual 



242 FORMOSA 

meeting this year, voted to appropriate Yen 300 for 
assisting 10 congregations with special evangelistic 
meetings. Many other places on the field have 
started and conducted similar special meetings last 
ing from one to two weeks with no special financial 
ar-sistance. The preachers also go to many villages 
where there are no churches and hold meetings. 
Usually three or four go together for three or four 
days at a time, preaching wherever they can get a 
crowd together. They carry with them an acetylene 
lamp and a drum. In the evening, they choose a 
likely spot, light the lamp, and start beating the 
drum, which along with the singing of Gospel hymns, 
usually attracts an inquiring crowd, to whom they 
preach the "to-li" (Gospel). By this form of evan 
gelism, ninety-five villages were visited this year 
and 10,952 people heard the message. 

During the past couple of years, because of a 
lack of missionaries who could devote their time to 
evangelistic work, the native pastors have had 
greater responsibilities in administering and carry 
ing on the field work. It is very encouraging to 
note the way in which they are assuming the respon 
sibility for much of this work. We feel w r e are in 
this way promoting an indigenous church. Several 
of the pastors expressed themselves at the meeting 
of Presbytery in favor of greater self-support on 
the part of the native church. A resolution was 
passed to encourage and promote this purpose. It 
is hoped that more congregations will become self- 
supporting in the near future. 

A ten days conference for preachers was held in 
Tamsui during July. About sixty of the staff were 
able to attend. We were fortunate in securing as 
a special speaker for the conference, Dr. Harry 
Myers of Kobe. 

A contribution is made each year by the home 
church to assist the preachers in buying books. This 
is given to them in the nature of a reward for the 
completion of a course of Bible study which is 



CANADIAN PRESHYTERIAN MISSION REPORT 2 l. i 

planned by a committee of Presbytery annually. All 
the preachers worked at this course of Bible study 
the first part of the year, and at the time of the 
preachers conference in July, twenty-two of them 
took the appointed examination and received the 
stated amount of money for the purpose of purchas 
ing books. Short conferences of groups of the 
preachers in two or three centers were held for the 
purpose of Bible study. Groups have also been held 
with students attending the Government schools in 
Taihoku. 

Bible women have been engaged in evangelistic 
work among women and children in many parts of 
the field during the year. Many more requests have 
come from preachers for this kind of work than they 
have been able to supply. These women are all 
experienced and consecrated and this department 
has had an encouraging growth as a result of their 
labors. 

A woman from one of the aboriginal tribes who 
also speaks the Chinese language and has been a 
baptized Christian for some time, has spent part of 
a year of special study in the Women s School, in 
Tamsui, and has now returned to work among the 
people of her own tribe in the vicinity of Korenko. 
She is now doing house-to-house visiting and explain 
ing the Christian message as she knows it, and we 
hope that this will prove to be an opening wedge 
for other evangelistic work later on. 

The seventh annual meeting of the Formosan 
W.M.S. was held in November in Shinsho with an 
attendance of 170. The treasurer reported contri 
butions of Yen 700 during the year. 

The Bible women who have been at work in the 
field also gave their reports. Their work consists 
of home visitation, Sunday School work, helping the 
preachers, teaching the children to read the Roman 
ized Chinese, as well as teaching older people at 
times, and conducting religious services for women 
or children in the churches and home. Sometimes 



244 FORMOSA 

they puss through very trying times in carrying on 
their work. One of the Bible women said, "Opposi 
tion doesn t bother me. when God s time comes, 
they will have to yield." This represents the spirit 
in which some of them go at their work, and much 
fine work is accomplished by the earnest Christian 
women in this department. 

After the annual meeting, a four-day conference 
for Bible study and inspiration was planned to be 
held in Tamsui. Besides the Bible women, several 
young women had their expenses paid to the con 
ference as a reward for special Scripture memory 
work. Two of these young women have expressed 
their desire to prepare themselves for the work of 
Bible women. 



EDUCATIONAL 

Theological College, Tamsui, Formosa 

K< r. 11. A. MacMillau, Principal 

At present there is no scarcity of applications 
tor entrance into the college, but careful judgment 
must be exercised in choosing those who will develop 
into the desired leaders. The present student body, 
consisting of seventeen students is a very promising 
group. 

In April Mr. Go Thian Beng returned from study 
ing at the Meiji Gakuin Theological College in Tokyo, 
where he has been taking advanced work, and has 
been taken on the staif of our college. Two other 
Formosans assist part-time in the college as well as 
one full-time Japanese teacher. 

During the summer most of the students received 
appointments to work in various congregations. An 
important part of their work was organizing and 
running "Daily Vacation Bible Schools" for the 
children of their respective communities. In thirteen 
places, an aggregate of three hundred and fifty 



CANADIAN PRESHYTERIAN MISSION REPORT 245 

children, two hundred of whom were non-Christian, 
between the ages of six and fifteen gathered for at 
least two hours a day for a month and a half for 
the study of Bible stories, singing, Romanized read 
ing and writing, Japanese, Chinese characters, and 
games. 

Tamsui Middle School, Tamsui, Formosa 

Mr. George W. Mackay, Principal 

The Tamsui Middle School had an enrollment of 
2. ) >0 boys in 1929. The applicants for admission were 
181, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. The 
graduates were nine. 

The year has been notable for a healthy and 
happy school spirit, and good work done both in 
the school room and playground. In the realm of 
sports, English Rugby ranks first in importance. 
Since the first Tamsui Middle School Rugby team 
was organized, never has the school lost a game. 
This year, instead of playing so much against other 
schools, inter-class matches were held, and created 
much enthusiasm and interest. 

Not only in studies and sports has this year s 
school life been gratifying for, from the spiritual 
side, there are indications of a rising tide of spiritu 
al life. One fifth year boy, who through the lower 
years had openly opposed Christianity, was in this, 
his final year, baptized. Fully a third of the boys 
in the two first years come weekly to the Principal s 
home for Bible study. Throughout the year several 
teachers have carried on Bible classes, both in 
Japanese and in Formosan, and Sunday School teach 
ing has been faithfully done by students represent 
ing every year in the school. 

Our staff consists of four Japanese teachers and 
six Formosans. Of these, three are graduates of 
thf Imperial University, and four of private univer 
sities. On the whole the teachers work together 
with harmony. They are ready to give of their time 



246 FORMOSA 

and talent to Christian work. The Japanese teachers 
resident in Tamsui have conducted a large Sunday 
School for Japanese children. The Formosan teach 
ers have taken turns going out in country preaching, 
and are often called upon to fill pulpits on Sundays. 

Tamsui Girls School, Tamsui, Formosa 

Miss Mabel Clazie, Principal 

The Girls School opened in January with eighty- 
two pupils in attendance. At the end of the school 
year in March, twelve girls were graduated, and a 
few others left during the year for various reasons. 
But, with the new students who have entered, the 
registration is now ninety-three, of whom thirteen 
are day pupils. 

Tribute should be paid to the faithful, earnest 
work of the Formosan and Japanese teachers. Not 
only in their own lines of teaching is their work 
important and helpful, but, the influence of these 
teachers counts for much in the daily life and con 
duct of the pupils. 

Of the students who graduated last year, one 
has entered a High School in Tokyo, one is taking 
a nurse s training course in the Government hospital 
in Taihoku; one has been married; two have been 
employed as Kindergarten teachers; and two as 
language teachers for new missionaries. 

Most of the older girls help actively in Sunday 
Schools, Christian Endeavor Society, and other 
Christian activities of the school, taking their stand 
as Christians among the other pupils, though some 
of them, who come from non-Christian homes have 
not yet obtained permission from their parents to 
receive baptism and unite with the church. During 
the year seven confessed their faith in Christ by 
coming to His table. 

Sunday is a busy day with pupils and teachers. 
They attend worship morning and afternoon in the 
church in the town, and after morning service, some 



CANADIAN PRESHYTERIAN MISSION REPORT 247 

of the older pupils help in teaching in the Sunday 
Schools, while at the same time, the others attend 
Bible classes conducted in the school by the resident 
teachers. 



Women s School, Tamsui, Formosa 

Miss Alma Burdick, Principal 

Twenty-eight women attended the Women s 
School for a part or all of the school year of 1929. 
Three of these, having completed the course, were 
graduated during the year. Several of these women 
have come from non-Christian homes, some never 
having heard the Gospel until they came to the 
school. Two girls from Christian homes made a 
confession of their faith and joined the Church 
during the year. 

The ages of our women range from 15 to 50, some 
are married, some are widows, but in spite of these 
differences, the atmosphere of the school is a happy 
one. 

The students have helped in Sunday School work 
in Tamsui and have regularly attended the Women s 
meetings at the church. 

The ordinary duties of the school are done by 
the students in turn, while extra work is given those 
who wish to earn something to help pay for their 
fees. 

Kindergarten 

The seven teachers have done splendid work with 
the one hundred and seventy children that come to 
the kindergartens five days a week and on Sundays. 
Most of these children come from non-Christian 
homes, thereby giving contacts with people with 
whom we would not perhaps otherwise be able to 
meet. An earnest, enthusiastic and capable woman 
devotes her whole time to visiting the homes of the 
kindergarten children. 



248 FORMOSA 

The Mackay Memorial Hospital 
Taihoku, Formosa, Japan 

Dr. R. B. McClure, Acting Supt. 
Miss Gretta Gauld, Head Nurse 

In mechanical equipment there has been the ad 
dition of a much needed X-Ray machine which has 
been in almost daily use since its installation. A 
new operating table has also been added and has 
proved itself to be of great value in view of the 
increased number of operations that have had to 
be done this year. The heavier abdominal operating 
work which has come from the increased attendance 
in the women s department has proved the table to 
be a very good investment indeed for this hospital. 

The evangelistic work of the hospital has been 
ably conducted by Pastor Lu who is a most dynamic 
worker and is absolutely tireless in his efforts not 
only in preaching and teaching but in helping the 
patients individually as well by his advice and letter 
writing assistance and like deeds. A great many 
gospel portions and hymn books have been distrib 
uted through the evangelistic work in the hospital 
while preachers from all over our field tell us of 
the help in the work from interest awakened in 
people while staying in the hospital. 

In the leper work, we have continued to increase 
as well as to keep on most of the former patients. 
There have been 51 new cases, many of them hope 
ful indeed, who have come for diagnosis and most 
of them have arranged for their treatment. One 
case during the year has been discharged from the 
list as being free from symptoms and three others 
at the end of the year were ready for a final exam 
ination before being sent away as clear. The clear 
ing up of a few, while it is encouraging to the 
others, is little compared to the optimism caused 
by the gradual, but steady, improvement of nearly 
everyone coming for treatment. The treatments now 
have to be handled two days a week and an average 



CANADIAN PRESBYTERIAN MISSION REPORT 249 

of over one hundred are thus treated each week. 
The number of attendance was 5,285 while the 
actual number of injections was 5,098. All patients 
in regular attendance have had bacteriological ex 
amination during the year, and we have this year 
also completed the work of doing a blood test on 
each patient. Those found to be infected with other 
diseases have been given the necessary treatment 
with good results in all cases. Through the enthu 
siasm and Christ-like devotion of a native doctor 
down country, we have been able to establish a 
treatment center. There are nine patients who 
regularly attend this clinic for treatment with ex 
ceptionally good results. We plan to supervise this 
work by regular quarterly visits and so far this 
work looks to be promising indeed where a man of 
the right type will undertake it. We supply all 
medicines free of cost while he does all the work 
on similar terms ! 

Out-patient work has increased very considerably 
this year due largely to an increase in the venereal 
disease clinic and the department of women s 
diseases. The total out-patient attendances were 
10,751. In the venereal disease clinic there have 
been 1,187 intravenous injections given and 490 other 
injections. In the out-patient department also there 
have been 7(> operations performed under local 
anaesthetic and (> under general anaesthetic and 
184 teeth extractions performed. There has been 
a very steady attendance of over 10 each Friday 
afternoon at a regular clinic for women s diseases 
from which department we feel we have had some 
of our most grateful as well as most successful 
cases. 

In the in-patient work we have had 861 cases, 
most of them surgical in nature and a very large 
proportion of poor people who have been unable to 
pay the entire hospital fees. 

In the operating room we report 278 major opera 
tions for the year. Under general anaesthetic 110, 



250 FORMOSA 

under spinal 85, while the balance were under local 
and general mixed. A large proportion of this in 
creased number may be attributed to the cases who 
have come in from the out-patient department for 
women s diseases. 

In the maternity department there has been a 
considerable increase and indication of still further 
extension of the service in the future. 

Besides the routine laboratory work done there 
have been 44. } blood tests done of whom 72 were 
for leper patients. A moderate charge for this work 
from those who can afford it is more than sufficient 
to cover the entire expense of these tests so that 
they are being done in all cases requiring them and 
for poor patients and leper cases entirely free of 
charge. 

The typhoid ward has been occupied all year 
with the exception of some two w r eeks. During most 
of the time it was full to capacity. Our results 
have been excellent, due largely to the careful nurs 
ing care which our patients have received. 

In regard to the finances of our hospital, with 
rigid economy in buying drugs and supplies the 
hospital can be practically self-supporting except 
for the loss incurred by charity patients. 

The nursing department reports a very happy 
successful year. Three nurses graduated in the 
early Spring, and three during the Summer and 
Autumn. There is at present a staff of twenty-two 
nurses, five of whom are graduates. 

In the Nurses Training School there has been 
the innovation of the midwifery course. This is 
being given to our senior nurses and our graduates. 
The government permit necessary to allow us to 
undertake this work was obtained after considerable 
negotiation. Their willingness to grant us this 
permit we consider to be an indication not only of 
the respect in which we are held by the local gov 
ernment authorities but also of the good relationship 
which exists between ourselves and them. All the 



CANADIAN PRESHYTERIAN MISSION RFPORT 251 

teaching in this course must be done in the Japanese 
language but the fact that in many cases there is 
a lack of thorough knowledge of Japanese among 
our nurses frequently requires that many parts of 
the lecture be repeated in Formosan and explana 
tions given. The starting of this course has done 
much to put on a yet higher level the esprit de 
corps of the nursing staff. 

When we review the year that has passed and 
see the steady increase in the work in spite of the 
small staff, we look forward with great anticipa 
tions toward the future of the medical work here. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

SOUTH FORMOSA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 
GENERAL REPORT 



Edward Band 

There is not sufficient material to furnish a 
separate report on each department of the work of 
the work of the South Formosa Church during the 
past year. We shall confine this general report to 
a brief account of several significant changes that 
have taken place. 

Church Organization 

Of the two Presbyteries, North and South, that 
unite to form the Synod of the Presbyterian Church 
of Formosa, the Southern Presbytery, with w r hich 
the E. P. Mission is connected, has recently been 
sub-divided into four smaller Presbyteries, corre 
sponding to the four provinces of Taichu, Kagi, 
Tainan, and Takao. 

A cnange in organization does not in itself denote 
spiritual progress, just as the introduction of the 
card-index system will not necessarily insure busi 
ness prosperity yet we cannot but hope that this 
change will result in greater efficiency and religious 
activity in the life of the Church. By this step 
the aim of the early missionaries to make the 
Church self-governing, self-supporting and self- 
propagating is more widely and adequately fulfilled. 

It is now thirty-five years since the various 
churches ceased to be controlled by the Mission 
Council and the first Presbytery was established. 
Pastors have increased and missionaries have de 
creased in numbers until the Church is now self- 



254 FORMOSA 

governing, (though a few missionaries have votes 
in the Presbytery). 

With regard to self-support, of the 107 congre 
gations, thirty-one presided over by pastors are 
entirely self-supporting, and sixty-three where 
preachers are in charge are partially so. Before 
a congregation can call a pastor it must be finan 
cially strong enough to provide his whole salary, 
otherwise it is only entitled to a preacher appointed 
by the Central Committee. Each church is assessed 
at a certain rate and must pay its preacher several 
months salary according to its ability. The remain 
der of the year s salary is drawn from the Preach 
ers Sustentation Fund, to which the Mission Council 
contributes 7,000 yen annually. 

As far as the Church is propagating the Gospel, 
it may be said to be self-propagating, for, owing to 
shortage in staff and absences on furlough, we 
have only two women missionaries, and no men, 
doing evangelistic work outside of our institutions. 
Recent statistics, not yet completed, show a fairly 
satisfactory increase in church membership. 

The division into four smaller Presbyteries is 
made possible by a considerable increase in the 
number of pastors. This will mean a closer concen 
tration on local affairs and the more harmonious 
co-operation of the pastors who seem to work better 
in small groups. On the other hand, there is a 
danger of losing the wider vision, the corporate 
responsibility and the loyalty to the Church as a 
whole. 

Women s Work 

(Jreat advances have been made during the past 
year in women s work. The new Women s Bible 
Institute completed its first two years course this 
March and twenty-one students passed out. Several 
became the brides of theological college students, 
(their graduation and wedding ceremonies taking 
place on the same day!) and others are doing Bible 



SOITII FORMOSA PRESBYTERIAN CHt KCH 255 

Women s work in the churches. Thanks to the keen 
ness of these women two or three new Sunday 
Schools have been opened in non-Christian villages, 
and these are becoming preaching stations or 
churches in the making. 

The new Women s Missionary Association, under 
the presidency of Mrs. Ko, has had a very success 
ful first year. Branches have been opened in many 
of the churches, and the members have made them 
selves responsible for the support of a missionary 
of their own. They have chosen a Hakka woman, 
a converted Buddhist nun, who has been trained in 
the Bible Institute. She has gone to work among 
the Hakka-speaking people in a wide district hither 
to untouched by the Gospel. 

Young People s Conference 

Last summer the first Young People s Confer 
ence was held with a view to helping them to face 
the problems of modern life and thought. For some 
time past there has been an uneasy feeling that the 
Formosan Church has not been doing enough for 
her young people, especially for the better educated 
that return from Japan full of new thoughts and 
advanced ideas. The Sunday Schools are success 
ful as far as they go, but they seldom extend beyond 
the Primary and Junior Departments. With the 
exception of a few Senior Bible Classes in one or 
two of the churches there has been no definite 
organization for the young people of adolescent age. 
The problem that perplexes many Christian workers 
at home how to fill the gap between the Sunday 
School and the Church has arisen in Formosa, too. 
It is only partially solved by definite Christian 
teaching in our Mission Schools where about five 
hundred boys and girls are being educated. There 
is a considerably larger number of young Formosans 
in non-Christian schools in Formosa and Japan who 
have no contact with the Christian religion. Those 
who go to Japan to study are thrown into a whirl 



25G FORMOSA 

pool of new ideas both political and religious. Even 
the Christians among them begin to wonder whethei 
their own Formosan Church is not rather a "back 
number." They are afraid that a reasonable case 
cannot be made out for the Christian faith. 

To help such young people a Summer School was 
held and an attractive program was prepared with 
subjects dealing with the relation of Christianity 
to modern thought and present social needs. Some 
of the lectures were rather above the level of the 
hearers but the final meeting for thanksgiving show 
ed that the conference had been appreciated more 
than enough to justify a repetition this year. There 
is no doubt that the young people derived no small 
benefit, if not from the lectures, then certainly from 
meeting together in the fellowship of a high and 
common purpose. We should like to see this Fellow 
ship making a definite contribution to the life and 
thought of the Church, not just an annual gather 
ing of young folk on holiday, but a strong, deep and 
lasting movement of the Spirit among the youth 
of all the churches. 

In closing we should like to commend to the 
notice of all Christian friends in Tokyo a meeting 
of Christian Formosans held every Sunday after 
noon in the chapel of the Meiji Gakuin. Few mis 
sionaries or Japanese Christians may have the op 
portunity of visiting the Church in Formosa, but 
in the capital of Japan there is a group of keen 
young Christians from Formosa who would welcome 
any Christian friendship extended towards them. 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I. 

MINUTES OF THE TWENTY-EIGHTH 
ANNUAL MEETING 

of the 

FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 
IN JAPAN 1929 



A now departure was made last year in the open 
ing of the conference with a Wednesday evening 
prayer meeting, and in closing it on a Sunday with 
joint memorial and communion service. The general 
satisfaction expressed with this arrangement has 
led to its adoption again for the conference to be 
held this present year. Thereby the climax of the 
meetings has seemed to be where it belonged, in a 
day wholly devoted to things spiritual, its supreme 
moment an affirmation of union with fellow workers, 
past and present, and our Lord. 

A conference planned with such emphasis is in 
keeping with our needs and with the changing char 
acter of the Federation. We are indeed fortunate 
through the transference of most of the administra 
tive responsibility to the National Christian Council, 
to be able to devote so much time to exploring of 
spiritual issues basic to the establishment of Chris 
tianity. Clear corporate thinking, backed with 
earnest corporate intercession, has now become the 
supreme end of the annual conference. 

A total of 85 delegates, representing .">2 missions, 
attended the meetings. Through admitting two new 
bodies last year, the Federation has come to include 
nearly all evangelical missions at work in .Japan. 
As to those still outside, their affiliation is the 
earnest prayer of all who subordinate externals of 



260 

organization and authority to the inner things of 
the manifest working of the Spirit of God. 

All who own the Lordship of Christ have a joint 
responsibility in such corporate thinking, corporate 
intercession, and corporate action. Herein is condi 
tioned the speedy triumph of the Kingdom of God in 
Japan. The council and the Federation, each in 
their sphere, are the mediums of such cooperation. 

PROGRAM OF THE ANNUAL MEETING, 1929 

General Theme: The Penetration of Japanese Life 
and Thought by Christian Ideals 

WEDNESDAY, JULY 3 1ST 

7:45 p.m. Prayer Meeting. Leader Rev. P. S. 

Mayer, D.D. Vice-Chairman. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 1ST 
9:00 to 9:15 a.m. Devotional Period. Leader, Chairman 

of Federation. 
9:15 to !):55a.m. Penetration of Education. Dr. C. B. 

DeForest. 

0:55 to 11 :1() a.m. Discussion. Leader, Miss L. L. Shaw. 
11 : 10 to 11 :20 a.m. Intermission. 

1 1:20 to 12:00 a.m. Devotional Address. Bishop James C. 
Baker. 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

2:00 to 2:15 p.m. Devotions. Leader appointed by 
Chairman. 

2:15 to , J::{() p.m. Roll Call and Business including re 
ports of Committee. 

U: .l() to 5:00 p.m. Reception with introduction of Fra 
ternal Delegates. 

H:0() p.m. Kingdom of God Movement Con 

ference. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 2ND 

0:00 to 0:15 a.m. Devotions. Leader appointed by 

Chairman. 
0:15 to 0:55 a.m. Penetration of Industry. Toyohiko 

Kagawa. 

0:55 to 11:10 a.m. Discussion. Leader, Mr. R. L. Durgin. 
11:10 to 11:20 a.m. Intermission. 
11:20 to 12:00 a.m. Devotional Address. Bishop Baker. 



FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 2G1 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

2:00 to 2:15 p.m. Devotions. Leader appointed by Chair 
man. 

2:15 to 2:50 p.m. Penetration of Rural Life. Mr. Sugi- 
yama. 

2:50 to 3:50 p.m. Discussion. Leader, Dr. C. Noss. 

3:50 to 4:00 p.m. Announcements and Closing Period. 

8:00 p.m. Concert. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 3RD 
9:00 to 9:15 a.m. Devotions. Leader, appointed by 

Chairman. 
9:15 to 9:55 a.m. Penetration of Religious Life and 

Thought. Dr. Inazo Nitobe. 
9:55 to 11:10 a.m. Discussion Leader. Rev. John C. 

Mann. 

11:10 to 11:20 a.m. Intermission. 
11:20 to 12:00 a.m. Devotional Address. Bishop Baker. 

AFTERNOON SESSION 
2:00 to 2:15 p.m. Devotions. Leader appointed by 

Chairman. 

2:15 to 2:45 p.m. Address by Delegate from Korea. 
2:45 to 4:00 p.m. Business. 

SUNDAY, AUGUST 4TH 
7:00 to 7:45 p.m. Morning Prayer Meeting. 
10:30 a.m. Church Service. Sermon by Chairman. 

4:30 p.m. Combined Memorial and Communion 

Service in Charge of Rev. H. Pedley, 
and Bishop Baker. 

The only departure from this program was the 
unavoidable omission of the Friday Evening concert. 
A report concerning the papers is here unnecessary 
as they have been printed in full in the Japan Chris 
tian Quarterly of October, 1929. Only one paper was 
presented in a given session, and each was followed 
by an hour or more of discussion. 

The series of three inspirational addresses by 
Bishop Baker took up the following themes: 

1. "The Corporate Power of Evil". 

2. "Rational Grounds for Belief in the Corporate 

Power of Good-will". 

:5. "The Task of the Christian Worker". 
A feature of the early Sunday morning meeting 
was the absence of an appointed leader. As one of 



262 JAPAN 

the regular sessions of the conference it was well 
attended, different ones taking part as they felt led, 
the whole being conducted in a spirit of earnest 
silence and a corporate listening for the voice of 
Cod. 

THE BUSINESS SIDE OF THE CONFERENCE 
First Business Meeting, 2:15 p.m., August 1st 

The first business session was opened with a 
brief meditation by Dr. McKenzie, the Fraternal 
Delegate from Korea. Roll Call followed. In the 
absence of the Secretary of the Federation, the 
report of the Executive was read by the treasurer. 

1. Report of the Executive Committee 

The Executive Committee of the Federation of 
Christian Missions has held six meetings during 
the year, three in Tokyo and three in Karuizawa. 

Three main problems have claimed their atten 
tion: 1. Finance. 2. Publications, - >. Program. 

1. /// rcaard t<> finance, the report of the Treas 
urer which is appended, showed a balance at the 
close of the calendar year 1928 of 193.115. The 
account has been kept witli the Mitsui Bank, Tokyo, 
and the transfers handled by check. During the 
year 500 on the principal of the loan and the entire 
interest has been paid off, and the treasury in 
general closed the year in a more hopeful condi 
tion. Since the close of last year, as will be stated 
later in the ad interim report of the Treasurer, an 
additional 1,000 on the loan and interest on the 
same has been paid off, and there is a balance on 
deposit with the Karuizawa hank equal to last year s 
Federation expenses, namely, 1,426.69. Whether or 
not it will be possible to wipe out the remaining 
1,000 of the debt before the next annual conference 
of the Federation and so permit the reduction of 
the amount of the delegate fees as has been approv 
ed, would, therefore, seem only dependent now upon 
amounts to be paid out for travel of delegates. In 



KFDKRATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 2Go 

this there has been a strong spirit of co-operation. 

2. Publications. The Executive has spent some 
time in accordance with the instructions of the last 
annual meeting in studying the problem of the 
,/<i}mn Christian Quarterly. In view of the better 
financial condition of the Quarterly during the past 
year and in view of the absence from Japan of Mr. 
Walton, Editor in Chief of the Quarterly, it was 
voted to continue the present subsidy of Y400 for 
another year. It is noted with pleasure that during 
the past year the J.C.Q. has found it necessary to 
claim only a part of this subsidy. 

The Japan Mission Year Book continues its high 
standard of excellence. The 1928 edition has been 
very largely sold out and the 1929 edition has just 
been put on sale this week. 

0. The Pntf/ram has already been presented to 
the Conference for approval. The Executive feel 
that the provision of this inspirational program is 
one of their main duties. Considerable time has 
been devoted to the correlation of subjects, and 
securing of able speakers. The program must speak 
for itself. 

During the year the Executive have co-operated 
in various ways with the National Christian Coun 
cil. The Chairman accepted an invitation to repre 
sent the Federation at the Christian Service held 
at Kyoto in honor of the Coronation. 

During this present Annual Meeting, the Federa 
tion is co-operating in the Kingdom of Cod Cam 
paign, by setting aside one whole evening for the 
use of the promotion committee and also by setting 
aside half an hour during one of the business 
sessions for the presentation of a representative 
from the promotion committee of the cause of the 
campaign. 

In presenting this report your executive make 
the following recommendations: 

1. It is recommended that Miss Edith Helmer 
be asked to act as Minute Si-cri tani. 



264 JAPAN 

2. It is recommended that Rev. J. C. Mann and 
Rev. B. F. Shively constitute the Business Committee. 

3. It is recommended that the following be asked 
to act as a Nominating Committee: 

Dr. H. B. Newell, Dr. A. K. Reischauer 

Chairman Mr. W. M. Vories 

Miss Edith Helmer Dr. S. H. Wainright 

Mrs. C. W. Iglehart Rev. W. H. M. Walton 
Rev. C. F. McCall 
Rev. L. S. G. Miller 

(Guy C. Converse, Secretary). 

This report of the Executive Committee, includ 
ing the above nominations, was adopted. 

The Business Committee then introduced the 
recommendation: "In the unavoidable absence of 
Mr. Converse, the Secretary of the Federation, it is 
recommended that Dr. Kennard be requested to 
serve as Secretary pro tern." Adopted. 

The Executive Committee made the following 
recommendation: "that the very courteous invitation 
of the National Sunday School Association, to nomi 
nate a representative for appointment to the Board 
of Directors of the Association, be accepted." The 
same was considered, and with the understanding 
that no financial obligation was involved, it was 
adopted. 

Thereupon at the suggestion of the Business 
Committee, the following reports were introduced. 

2. Report of the Fraternal Delegate to the 
National Christian Council 

Dr. Miller, the Chairman, spoke briefly concern 
ing his personal relations with the National Chris 
tian Council during the past year. 

3. Report of the Fraternal Delegate 
to Korea 

In view of the fact that the retiring Chairman, 



FEDERATION 7 OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 265 

Rev. J. C. Mann, was unable to get away, the Secre 
tary was asked to serve as alternate. 

The pleasure of serving as fraternal delegate 
to Korea has been dwelt upon by every delegate 
who has returned recently. The hospitality of the 
friends in Seoul is proverbial, and the present case 
was no exception. 

The centre of interest in the program was rural 
work. It was most inspiring to hear a number of 
missionary rural specialists report on the very prac 
tical work that they were doing to raise the 
economic level of the farmers. Probably the keen 
est interest and surely the warmest discussion was 
aroused by a paper on Usury, followed by some very 
strong arguments both pro and con in regard to 
the experience of missionaries in lending money to 
Koreans. The experience of evangelists in country 
districts, and of educational missionaries in cities, 
seemed to be somewhat different. 

It was very pleasing to see the amount of co 
operation and interest shown by Japanese author 
ities. Two or three Japanese officials, I believe the 
heads of the Educational and the Agricultural 
departments, were present at most of the meetings, 
and references were made by the chairman and a 
number of speakers which showed the good will and 
co-operation that existed between these and some 
other officials and at least a certain portion of the 
missionaries. A reception tendered by the Japan 
ese Christians to the members of the Conference 
was also a very nice affair. 

Your delegate was asked to speak on more 
occasions than he could accept, and felt only too 
strongly how inadequately he was able to represent 
your Federation. 

(Guv C. CONVERSE). 

1. Report of the Committee on Work 
among Koreans in Japan 

Among the several hundred thousand Koreans 



266 JAPAN 

resident in Japan are hundreds if not thousands of 
Christians. It is to reach these Christians first 
and shepherd them that we foster the work among 
them. In Korea many of them were faithful Chris 
tians and church attendants, but here with no church 
facilities and unable to understand the Japanese 
language used in the Japanese churches they fall 
away. However, whenever a place of worship is 
provided they eagerly return to their earnest Chris 
tian ways of living. At present there are thirty 
places where services are held regularly in the 
Korean language. These churches are found from 
the Hokkaido to Kyushu. There are numbered in 
these churches IUJ7 baptized members and G. U other 
adherents. There are 1)> native workers on salary 
and Mr. Young gives the figure of 4,297.83 given 
by the Korean themselves towards this work. There 
are 11) Sunday schools, 2 kindergartens, 12 young 
peoples societies and 6 women s societies. 

Not all of these churches have a pastor. There 
are but 6 resident pastors among all these groups. 
Each group has its own managing committee elected 
by the group and this committee shoulders the 
responsibility for self-support and self-propagation 
in an encouraging way. There has been a very 
encouraging advance in the last year in the auton 
omous direction of these churches. 

At the beginning of the year advantage was 
taken of the holiday season and the Christians met 
in seven convenient centers for Bible study. Each 
clav was begun with an early morning prayer meet 
ing. Study classes began at nine o clock and con 
tinued with the exception of the noon hour until 
three in the afternoon. In the evening evangelistic 
meetings were held. This is a well-tried Korean 
method of holding Bible classes and it has proven 
successful and helpful here, too. as it has often done 
in the Korean homeland. 

Reports from all the classes show that about 
two hundred studied in these classes dailv and over 



FKDKRATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 207 

three hundred and seventy attended the evening 
meetings. About one hundred and twenty expressed 
their desire to be Christians at these evening 
meetings. 

The large majority of the Korean Christians are 
factory employees. They must work part of the 
Sabbath or run the risk of losing their jobs. Their 
daily wage probably does not average more than 
two yen. With the cost of living as it is to-day it 
is easy to see that self-support in the Korean church 
will be slow in developing. However, we have been 
much encouraged in that respect during the year. 
Many groups are now paying their church building 
rent without assistance and in addition pay the 
travel expense of the student who gives them assist 
ance each Sabbath. It is not too much to expect 
that many of these churches will attain full self- 
support. 

Your committee failed during the fiscal year H -S 
to reach the full promise of 1,000 to the Union 
Committee in Korea which fosters this work in 
Japan. The fault was largely due to the poor sys 
tem of presenting the work to the missionary com 
munity and soliciting the funds. This year of 1021) 
we met early in Kyoto and started a more systema 
tic drive. By the end of June we had in hand and 
promised more than half our funds. However, 
we still lack fully six hundred yen of the goal we 
set (1,200.00). We appeal to you to give individu 
ally even if your own Mission may make a grant. 
We deplore the fact that some missions have decid 
ed not to make a grant this year. Kven though Mr. 
Young is here in Japan and has a small budget of 
his own, the funds are so inadequate that many of 
the churches have only a rare visit from the pastor. 
There should be more pastors sent to aid in so 
promising a work. We can at least help to the small 
sum of 1,000. It is the very least that we can do. 

i JOHN A. FOOTK). 



268 JAPAN 

5. Report of the Japanese Language School 

This Report is printed elsewhere. 

Representatives of the Conference on the Board 
of Trustees, in a joint meeting with coopted mem 
bers of the present session Messrs. Mann, Downs, 
Buchanan, Callahan, and Lake submitted the fol 
lowing recommendations: 

1. That this Conference heartily approve of the 
reorganization of the Japanese Language School 
along the lines indicated in the report of the Board 
of Trustees, as presented to the Conference, provid 
ing for courses in Japanese history, religions, cul 
ture, and present day thought life. 

2. That the School be permanently located in 
Tokyo. 

3. That the Trustees be encouraged to continue 
their efforts to secure a thoroughly qualified Director. 

4. That this Conference pledge itsvfull support 
to the School, and urge the constituent Missions to 
direct their language students to the School, and 
to provide the institution with all possible financial 
assistance. 

Wm. Axling, Chairman Joint Meeting 
D. R. McKenzie, Secretary). 

Mr. Downs, the new Director of the School, was 
invited to the platform and gave a concise and in 
teresting report of the condition of the School, and 
certain needed modifications in its policy. 

6. Report of Representative on Board of 
the American School 

The second year on its own property has seen 
steady growth in every department of the American 
School in Japan, located in Kami-Meguro, Tokyo. 

Enrollment, which was in round numbers, 150 
in 1928, has risen this year to 169. It was com 
prised as follows: 

The total enrollment has included children from 
thirteen countries: 



FEDERATION OK CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 26!) 

Children from missionary homes . W.64 J 

,, business ,, 34.91 /* 

,, professional 17.1 */t 

gov t and military homes. 8.28 ,; 

America 103 Germany 8 

Argentine 1 Japanese 27 

Australia 2 Mexico 2 

Canada 2 India 1 

China 1 Russia 6 

Denmark 1 Spain 1 

England 14 

The number of teachers has included ten full 
time teachers, five part time teachers and the 
Principal. 

School Course. The school course has included 
six years of elementary work, two of Junior High, 
and four of Senior High School work. It has been 
based on the Baltimore course of study, and on the 
Course of the State of Illinois with modifications 
to fit the needs of foreign children in Japan. 

Special courses have been offered for those who 
finish their education in the high school, and for 
the first time diplomas were granted upon comple 
tion of the required sixteen units, to those students 
who do not definitely plan to enter college. Six 
received such diplomas, and eleven received the reg- 
gular college preparatory diplomas. In all a class 
of seventeen were given diplomas, the largest 
graduating class in the history of the school. 

For the benefit of those students who desire to 
enter colleges requiring examinations under the col 
lege entrance board, the senior high school course 
has been arranged to meet those requirements, and 
six students, two of whom were graduating, took 
the college entrance examinations at the school in 
June of this year. 

The Home Department, which has charge of the 
dormitories and of the noon lunches served to all 
students of the school, secured the services of Mrs. 
Jessie Suzuki as Supervisor upon the resignation 
and return to America, in February of Mrs. HofT- 



270 JAPAN 

summer. Ten girls, four boys, and two teachers 
have been in residence, besides the Supervisor, and 
the Principal and his family. Another dwelling 
house added to the Home Department, has been 
moved, re-erected and completed for occupancy this* 
fall. 

Reorganization. The school is now organized as 
a Zaidan. The Executive Committee of the Board 
has been reorganized, and has become a smaller 
group of seven members in order to facilitate the 
work of the committee. It is composed of the four 
officers of the Board, and three additional members 
of the Board, elected in June. This group is 
responsible to the Board, for the administration of 
the school during the year. The Principal is a mem 
ber ex officio of this Executive Committee. 

I LONA B. JORGENSEN). 

7. Report of the Representative on the 

Advisory Board of the 

Canadian Academy 

It has been a real pleasure to have been asso 
ciated in fellowship and deliberation with the men 
and women who are giving of themselves freely to 
the world of the education of our children in the 
Canadian Academy. 

This splendid school has had an enrollment of 
1M1 pupils representing 18 different nationalities 
and ranging from first grade elementary through 
high school. This is a record for the Academy. 
The school has continued to stress music in its cur 
riculum and has introduced courses in Shorthand, 
Typewriting, Bookkeeping and Commercial Arith 
metic. 

New Developments 

1. Beginning with September the Academy will 
have for the first time an assistant principal. 

2. From September a kindergarten will begin 



FKDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 271 

its work in the rooms of the new Union Church of 
Kobe, and be administered by the Academy manage 
ment. 

. . A new site of 15,000 tsubo has been purchas 
ed near the foot of Mt. Rukko. Already roads are 
being laid out and grading has commenced. 

4. A new committee to be known as the Canadian 
Academy Property Management Committee has been 
created consisting of representatives of the various 
missions and other bodies contributing to the new 
project. 

5. The Property Management Committee is 
working out plans for extensive athletic grounds 
and building to house the school, including admin 
istration building and recitation halls, dormitories, 
dining hall, music conservatory, infirmary, and 
homes for the staff. 

(5 A campaign for the raising of funds to 
realize the enlarged plans is forming gradually 
under the direction of the Property Committee. 
Mrs. Roy Smith has given up her summer vacation 
and has gone to America to interest friends in the 
U.S. and Canada in the project. 

i H. F. SHIVKLY). 

At the point the Business Committee suggested 
that Mr. Tench, the Principal of the Canadian 
Academy, be granted the privileges of the floor. 
There being no objection, the chairman so ordered, 
and Mr. Tench made a statement concerning the 
work and needs of the Academy. 

X. Report of the Publications Committee 

The Publications Committee, as heretofore, has 
formed itself into two editorial hoards, and func 
tioned in the preparation and publication of the 
two regular publications of the Federation: the 
Christian Year Book, with Dr. Mayer as Kditor-in- 
Chief, and the Christian Quarterly, with Mr. Walton 
as Editor-in-Chief. Unfortunately Mr. Walton has 



272 JAPAN 

been absent from Japan during the entire year, and 
Dr. Wainright was good enough to undertake the 
supervision of the Quarterly. 

The problem of circulation has been given care 
ful thought, as will be seen in the report of your 
Executive Committee. The material results of the 
two publications are being reported upon separately 
by the two editors. It is enough for me to add that 
the thanks of the Federation is heartily due these 
two editors for their heavy and unselfishly rendered 
labors. 

(E. T. IGLEHART). 

9. Ad Interim Report of the Treasurer 

The Treasurer, Mr. J. S. Kennard, made a brief 
statement concerning the finances of the Federa 
tion. He reported the reduction of the debt by 
1,500 during the year, and a balance on hand of 
1,426.69. 

Both the ad interim report, and the report for 
the year 1928 are appended. 

The foregoing reports were all adopted, and the 
meeting adjourned. 

The Second Business Session, 2:15 p.m., 
August 3 

The second business session of the Conference 
was opened with a brief devotional period under the 
leadership of Bishop H. J. Hamilton. 

The minutes of the Conference were referred 
to the Executive Committee for approval. 

The Secretary pro tern presented the following 
letter of greetings and appreciation from the League 
for the Abolition of Licensed Prostitution: 
Dear Fellow Workers: 

The League for the Abolition of Licensed Pro 
stitution, (Haisho Remmei) sends greetings to the 
Federation of Missions and desires through you to 
express deep gratitude to all of your members who 



FKOKKATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 278 

have during the past year rendered great assistance 
in the work of the League; and to those, as well, 
who have over a period of three years given finan 
cial assistance totalling nearly 8,000. 

By your aid the scope of the movement is widen 
ing until at present there are district organizations 
in some twenty different prefectures, the latest to 
be organized being Niigata, Tochigi, Miyagi and 
Ishikawa ken. P^our Prefectural Assemblies passed 
Haisho Bills last December and in others bills will 
be prevented this coming autumn. Last year peti 
tion drives were carried on in fifteen different 
prefectures. 

In a number of cases our missionary friends 
have been instrumental in inaugurating this move 
ment in their local communities. In several in 
stances they have taken the lead in getting an 
organization, have started petition drives, and in 
one case a missionary was largely instrumental in 
securing the support of the majority of the mem 
bers of the Prefectural Assembly for the Abolition 
Bill. For all this active assistance our League is 
deeply grateful. 

We request your endorsement of this movement 
and your active participation in extending the work 
to prefectures yet untouched that this curse of com 
mercialized vice may the sooner be driven from 
our empire. 

Thanking you again and asking your still more 
active co-operation in our intensive drive of the 
next five years, 

I am, 
On behalf of the Abolition League, 

(Haisho Remmei) 
Yours very sincerely, 

YAHEI MATSUMIYA 

Rijicho. 
(Signed) Yahei Matsumiya. 



274 JAPAN 

The recommendation of the Executive Committee 
as to the Kingdom of God Campaign, "that this 
Annual Meeting place itself on record as heartily 
in favor of the Kingdom of God Campaign, and 
pledge its support in every feasible way, and that 
it also call the attention of the members of this 
Federation to the Campaign, and urge their cordial 
co-operation in financial and other ways" was 
adopted. 

The recommendation of the Executive Committee 
in regard to the problem of American Citizenship 
as raised by Rev. Frank Gary was withdrawn by the 
Secretary, on behalf of the Executive Committee, it 
being the opinion of the Conference that the recom 
mendation concerned a matter with which as a Con 
ference we could not deal. 

The recommendation of the Executive Committee 
as to Christian Literature Contributions, "that be 
ginning with the calendar year 1930 Missions be 
requested to pay their Christian Literature contri 
butions directly to the Christian Literature Society 
Treasurer, without clearing them through the books 
of the Federation" was lost. 

The recommendation of the Executive Committee 
as to a Mutual Protective Association, "that the 
question of forming a Mutual Protective Association 
for Mission property against loss by fire again be 
raised, and that a committee be appointed to in 
vestigate and to make recommendations," was 
adopted. 

A commit fee composed of Dr. McKenzie, Dr. 
Kennard and Dr. Stirevvalt, was appointed by the 
chair. 

The report of the Christian Literature Society 

was presented by Dr. Wainright, and adopted. 

The following resolution, offered by Dr. Reis- 
chauer, was adopted: 

"Resolved, that we have heard with great inter 
est about the plan for the erection of permanent 



FEDERATION OK CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 275 

quarters for the Christian Literature Society s work 
(either as a C. L. S. building or as a Union head 
quarters building* ind that we hereby express the 
hope that, in the formation of the Zaidan Hojin 
that is to be organized for the holding of this valu 
able property, due provision be made to secure in 
perpetuity for the cause of Christian Literature, 
not only the present assets of the Christian Litera 
ture Society, but also the earnings which may 
accrue from these assets, and any new gifts to the 
Society for investment in this building." 

The recommendation of the Executive Committee 
as to the granting of discussion privileges was 
withdrawn. 

The repcrt of the Nominating Committee, as 
presented by Mr. Walton, was adopted. A complete 
list of officers and committees is appended. 

The following resolution, offered by Rev. J. M. T. 
Winther, was lost. 

"Resolved, that the Japan Christian Quarterly be 
published as a monthly." 

The following resolution was heartily adopted by 
the Conference: 

"Resolved, that this Conference desires to place 
on record an expression of its appreciation of the 
valuable papers prepared and read by the several 
experts who have appeared on the program; and 
of the inspiring messages brought by the leaders of 
the devotional periods, especially of the services of 
Bishop Raker in his series of addresses." 

In closing. Dr. Miller, the retiring chairman, in 
a brief closing speech, welcomed into office his suc 
cessor, the Rev. P. S. Mayer, I). I)., who offered the 
closing prayer. 

Adjournment. 



270 JAPAN 

OFFICERS 

President P. S. Mayer 

Vice-President W. M. Vories 

Secretary J. S. Kennard, Jr. 

Treasurer J. H. Brady 

COMMITTEES 

E X K C U T I V E C O M M I TT K E 
1930 1981 

W. .1. M. Cragg Miss Carolyn Marsh 

\V. C. Lamott Rev. G. H. Moule 

Miss Esther Rhoads 

PUBLICATIONS COMMITTEE 

I93M 1931 1932 

Miss B. Clawson G. C. Converse Miss I. MacCausland 

II. I). Hannaford J. K. Linn W. H. M. Walton 

P. S. Mayer S. H. Wainright H. F. Woodsworth 

REPRESENTATIVES ON CHRISTIAN LITERATURE 
SOCIETY 

1 .>:;<) 1931 1932 

A. I). Berry D. C. Holtom D. Downs 

A. Jorgensen J. C. Mann Miss K. I. Hanson 

Mrs. J. S. Kennard, G. E. Trueman P. G. Price 

Jr. T. A. Young A. J. Stirewalt 

A. K. Reischauer 

TRUSTEES JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 

1980 1931 1932 

\V. Axling 1>. R. McKenzie G. Bowles 

H. W. Myers L. J. Shafer T. A. Young 

COMMITTEE ON WORK WITH KOREANS 
J. A. Foote B. F. Shively Miss K. Tristram 

National Sunday School Assoc. Rep 
resentative Lois F. Kramer 

American School Representative Mrs. D. Holtom 

Canadian Academy Representative . . . W. H. Erskine 

Fraternal Delegate to Korea H. K. Miller 

Fraternal Delegate to N.C.C P. S. Mayer 

Necrologist G. F. Draper 



FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 277 

Ad Interim Report of the Treasurer 

AUGUST 1, 1929 
For the first six months of 1929 

CASH STATEMENT 
Receipts 

Balance from 1928 1 93.1:1 

Received in mission dues (incl. 1928, 

WO) 2,220.00 

From Christian Movement 270.0. } 

Hank interest ,3.27 

Total 2,092.4. } 

Expenditures 

Paid off on debt, with interest on same. 1,040.00 

Deficit on Quarterly 84.99 

Executive Committee expenses 140.75 



Total 1,265.74 

Balance on deposit with Karuizawa 

03rd Bank 1,420.09 



T()tal 2,692,4. } 

Audited, Karuizawa, Aiitf. 5, 1929, by 

H. K. MILLER 

Treasurer s Report for Year 1928 

RECEIPTS 

A. General Sources: C.L.S. F.C.M. 

Balance from 1927 Y 3.55 

Kyo Bun Kwan 251.02 

Interest .08 

Dr. Rowland, returned 10.00 

Mrs. Trueman, returned 20.00 

|{. Mission Treasurers: 

American Board Y 852.54 150.00 

American Baptist 90.00 

American Friends 350.00 00.00 

American Bible Society . 10.00 

British Bible Society . 50.00 

Christian Church Mission 00.00 

Church Missionary Society .... 150.00 

Evangelical Church 350.00 oo.oo 



278 



JAPAN 



Lutheran Church of America. . . 1,400.00 120.00 

Methodist Episcopal, General.. 200.00 120.00 

Methodist Episcopal, Women .. 800.00 120.00 

Methodist Episcopal South 150.00 

Methodist Protestant 300.00 

Mis. Socy. Church Canada 1)0.00 

Omi Mission 30.00 

Presbyterian North 750.00 150.00 

Presbyterian South 570.00 150.00 

Reformed Church in America . . 1,000.00 120.00 

Reformed Church in U.S 450.00* 120.00 

Southern Baptist 90.00 

United Brethren 30.00 

United Church Canada, General 1.400.00* 120.00 

United Church Canada, Women 800.00* 120.00 

United Christian Mission 295.00 90.00 

(1929) 45.00 

Woman s Union Mission 30.00 

Yotsuya Mission 30.00 

Young Men s Christian Asn. ... 1,400.00 GO.OO 
Young Women s Christian Asn. 700.00 GO.OO 
English Presbyterian, Formosa. 30.00 
Presbyterian of Canada, For 
mosa 30.00 

Totals . . 11,617.54 2,819.65 



* Organizations starred made contributions to the Christian 
Literature Society which they failed to clear through the Treas 
urer of the Federation. 



DISBURSEMENTS 

A. Loan Items 

Rev. J.Stirewalt, loan and interest. . 525.00 
Rev. A. Oltmans, interest on 2,000 120.00 



H. Annual Meeting 

Delegates, travel and board . . 

Expenses of speakers 

Use of Auditorium, honorarium 

Printing of Program 

Printing of Minutes . 



C. Relations 

Delegate to Korea 

Delegate to Coronation 

1). Administration 

Executive Committee meetings .. 



1,051.67 
70.00 
25.00 
20.35 
34.00 



88.72 
12.72 



167.08 



Totals 
645.00 



1,201.02 



101.41 



FEDERATION OF CHRISTIAN MISSIONS 279 

Secretary s expenses 15.08 

Treasurer s expenses 4.40 

180.50 
E. Publications 

To Kyo Bun Kwan 400.00 

To Japan Christian Quarterly. . . . 50.00 

Publications Committee expenses. 42.50 



Total expenditures 2,020.52 

Balance on hand .... 19;} i;$ 



Grand total 2,81S).G5 

Audited, Tokyo, Jan. 18, 11)21*. by 
H. K. MILLKR 

ASSETS AM) LIABILITIES 

AUGUST 1, 11)21) 

Unpaid Federation dues 

Unsold copies of Christian 
Movement, 4.S of old edi 
tions at 2.40 104.20 

100 of 1928 edition (in Japan 

72, abroad 28) . . 200.00 



Deducting 10 ; commission 



Total assets 00. i.78 

Outstanding debt, with interest 

on same . 1.000.00 

Christian Quarterly maximum 

subsidy H)2 ( J-li);iO 400.00 



Total liabilities 1,400.00 



APPENDIX II. 
THK JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 



The writer assumed his position in the Japanese 
Language School at the end of the last school year. 
During the summer he worked with some of the 
teachers in providing new materials for the first 
term, first year. This was based on materials pre 
pared some years ago under the direction of Prof. 
H. E. Palmer. While some verbal changes will have 
to be made in this new material its use has con 
firmed us in the opinion that it is the best material 
for beginning students of Japanese now available. 
During the year study has been made with a view 
to thorough-going revision of all the material in 
the whole \ year course. It is hoped that during the 
summer with the exception of the national readers 
(tokuhon) all the remaining material may be thor 
oughly revised. Some changes have already been 
made in . ?rd year material. 

Mr. Y. Akimoto was made head of the Extension 
Department from April 1. He has thrown him 
self with great enthusiasm into this work and it is 
confidently expected students in this department 
will be increasingly well served. The number of 
active students in this department at present is 
79, though many more names are on the list. There 
have been 5 who completed the . In! year course in 
this department during the past year. During the 
past year, just 40 persons have attended the regular 
class of the school; although the present enrollment 
is 24. Six have moved away from Tokyo, the others 
discontinued mainly on account of ill health. 



282 JAPAN 

Since January 1 the school has had excellent 
quarters in the fine new building of the Tokyo 
City Y.M.C.A. Small rooms with students and 
teachers around a table in seminar fashion have 
definitely increased the efficiency of the school 
work. During the fall and winter terms the follow 
ing weekly study classes were carried on: 

1. Outlines of Japanese History, with Special 
Emphasis on The History of Japanese Religions. 

Leader: Dr. H. B. Benninghoff, Waseda Uni 
versity. 

Special Lecturer: Prof. Gyoichi lida, St. 
Paul s University. 

2. Some Problems in the Social and Economic 
Background of Modern Japan. 

Leader: Dr. Tatsunosuke Ueda of the Tokyo 

Commercial University. 

. l) >. Studies in the Historical Development of 
Japanese Art. 

Leader: Mr. Isamitsu Kitakoji. 

During the third term a series of lectures was 

again given under the school s auspices with the 

general subject "New and Old Forces in Modern 

Japan". Lecturers and subjects were as follows: 

Dr. Inazo Xitobe on "Spiritual Elements which 

Created the Meiji Era". 
Dr. Kumaji Yoshida on "The Development of 

Education in the Meiji Era". 

Dr. Sanji Mikami on "The Educational and Cul 
tural Ideals of the Meiji Emperor." 
Viscount Kaneko, two lectures on "The Making 
of the Japanese Constitution" and Comments 
of European Jurists on the Japanese Consti 
tution". 

Dr. Takeshi Osatake on "The Forces Which Led 

to the Formation of a Constitution for Japan". 

With the prospective absence of Dr. Bowles on 

furlough, the writer is obliged to take his place 



THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE SCHOOL 28. i 

in directing study and lecture courses, but Dr. H. 
B. Benninghoff and Dr. Kenzo Takayanagi have 
consented to act as his advisors. It is planned to 
offer study courses next year in the history of Japan, 
the economic development of Japan, religions of 
Japan and the government of Japan. 



APPENDIX III. 

THE CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 
OF JAPAN (KYO HUN KWAN) 



Amy C. Boftanqiict 

In Japan, as elsewhere, there seems to be less 
and less leisure for reading and yet people read 
more than ever. There is danger of desultoriness, 
of mere "skimming"; the interruptions to which 
most people are constantly liable interfere with the 
habit of quiet steady reading, and attractions of 
other kinds are innumerable. But there is no sign 
of any falling off in the demand for books. The 
standard of education is always rising, so even books 
without the kntia are read much more freely than 
they used to be. Of course, when this is possible, 
reading is more rapid and printing cheaper. How 
ever, our Society must provide all kinds, remember 
ing that there is need for the country girl as well 
as for the scholar. Viscount Grey, in his "Fallodon 
Papers", twice quotes a great saying of Tennyson s 
about reading: "I like these large still books". We 
find that great books, those which bring us into 
touch with infinity, hold their own, while we must 
go with the times in supplying also short, "read 
able" ones and periodicals. Our aim is to keep the 
balance true for both. 

It was to be expected that the general financial 
depression should make itself felt; book-buyers have 
to consider prices and cannot spend money as freely 
as they would wish. Sales and the circulation of 
periodicals have been affected everywhere, but 
fortunately we have not suffered severely. The fin 
ancial crisis in the U.S.A. has, however, made it 



286 JAPAN 

difficult for some of the contributing Mission Hoards 
to make their usual grants, or, at least, to give the 
full quota, and this is a very serious loss to the 
Society. 

Some publications are such good sellers that they 
quickly bring in returns, but there are theological 
and other books (among them the "large, still books" 
which Tennyson loved) which are expensive to pre 
pare and print and which are appreciated by a 
limited circle of readers only, so that they sell slow 
ly and never really "pay" from the merely business 
point of view. Yet Japan ought to have them. They 
are fruitful in the highest sense. And in order to 
be able to continue them, the Society needs contri 
butions to cover losses. 

The main offices are still in the temporary Ginza 
building, above and behind the shop, and business 
is greatly handicapped by the cramped, inconve 
nient, altogether inadequate, conditions. But during 
1029 negotiations went forward, and prospects look 
ed brighter for the erection of the long-hoped for 
new building, in co-operation with the American 
Bible Society. 

The following books were published during the 
year 1929: 

John Wesley s Journal (Wesley Shinko Nisshi), 

translated from the abridged edition of Percy 

Livingstone Parker, 1906, by S. Kuroda, with 

an introduction by Dr. T. Kagawa. 575 pp. 

The Life of Juhn W T esley (John Wesley Den), an 

original work by the Rev. K. Tanaka, 230 pp. 

Commentary on the Gospel of John (Yohane Den 

Chukai), by Dr. S. II. Wainright. 590 pp. 
The Background of Early Christianity (Shodai 
Kirisuto Kyokwai no Haikei), by the Rev. H. 
W. Outerbridge, of Kwansei Gakuin, Kobe, 
translated by T. Kawashima. 211 pp. 
Concerning the Inner Life (Uchi Naru Sei- 
kwatsu), by Evelyn Underbill, translated by 
Prof. M. Nakayama, of Meiji Gakuin. 125 pp. 



THF CHRISTIAN LITKRATt RK SOCIKTY OF JAPAN 287 

Marx Ka, lesu Ka? by the Rev. P. G. Price, with 
its English edition, Marx or Jesus, Which? 



(ioocl Friends (Yoi O Tomodachi), twenty-two 
original stories for children, by Mrs. Yoko- 
yama. 224 pp. illustrated. 

Hlossomy Cottage (Hana Saku lye), translated 
by Mrs. Muraoka from an American story for 
women and girls. 17:i pp. illustrated. 

Hymns and Anthems for Women s Voices (Sambi 
Shoei Shu), by Miss Kate I. Hansen. Revised 
and enlarged edition. 50 pp. 

Smaller Publications 

Why Jesus Came (lesu Nani Yue Kitaritamaishi 
ya) by Prof. Zenta Watanabe. 1(5 pp. 

Theological Education and the Needs of the 
Times (Shingaku Kyoiku to Jidai no Yokyu), 
by Prof. Z. Watanabe. 21 pp. 

Coloured Picture Leaflets for Children and Plain 
People (K Iri Leaflets), by the Department 
for Women and Children. Four different 
leaflet. 1 of four pages, three pictures, on the 
Life of our Lord. Sold by fifties and 
hundreds. 

A Christmas Card, which was printed by mistake 
on poor card. It sold out quickly, but we 
know that customers were disappointed. We 
hope to be more successful next year. 

Periodicals 

Shokoshi and Ai no Hikari were carried on as 
usual, with a fair circulation, amounting to 
72,0-16 for the whole year for Ai no Hikari. 
and 54,520 for Shokoshi. 

Myojo (Morning Star), the four-page monthly 
paper for students, came to an end with the 
Christmas number. 1 ( .>21), or, rather, was trans 
formed into a weekly eight-page paper called 



288 JAPAN 

The Kingdom of (iod Weekly (Kami no Kuni 
Shimbun), planned to be the main press 
medium for the Kingdom of God Movement, 
edited under the auspices of the National 
Christian Council, but financed and published 
by C. L. S. Only a huge circulation, such as 
about 50,000 copies a week, can make it self- 
supporting at the price. It is edited with the 
personal co-operation of Dr. T. Kagawa, who 
contributes a story to it, and it is illustrated 
on almost every page. 

Books in Preparation at the end of 1929 

Paul: A Study in Social and Religious History, 

by Adolph Deissmann, D.D., translated by 
Prof. W. G. Seiple and Prof. Koriyama, both 
of the Tohoku Gakuin, Sendai. This will be 
a large, scholarly, well illustrated book of 
great importance. 

Faith and Doctrine (Shinko to Kyori), by the 
late Prof. T. Yamada, of Aoyama Gakuin, 
Tokyo. Thirty-nine sermons. 

Brave Adventurers (Mi-Shiranu Kuni Ye), by 
Mrs. Katharine Scherer Cronk, translated by 
Mrs. Hanako Muraoka. It is financed by a 
friend of the late authoress, as a memorial 
to her, and is a book for boys and girls. 

A Primer for Tuberculous, by Robert A. Peers, 
Medical Director, Colfax, California. By 
special request, for use in Japan and among 
Japanese patients at Colfax. 

We have been much interested to hear of some 
ways in which our own and other Christian books 
are being used. Here is one example, which might 
well be followed so enthusiastic are its promoters 
about its success, its delightfulness and spiritual 
profit. In a certain Tokyo congregation, which num 
bers among its members and their friends well-born 
and highly educated women, a Dokusho Kwai or 



THE CHRISTIAN LITERATI/RE SOCIETY OF JAPAN 281) 

Reading Circle was formed early in 1920, meeting 
on the first Thursday of every month at the house 
of one of its members. The pastor is present and 
presides, opening with a hymn and prayer, The book 
for study is chosen beforehand; copies are bought 
and read by all the members, who mark any points 
they nave specially appreciated and come to the 
meeting prepared to discuss them. The object is 
not criticism, but mutual help and spiritual enrich 
ment. The members are keen to understand the 
book, enjoy beautiful thoughts and gain fresh li>ht 
and inspiration. The pastor takes the selected book 
in sections, asking for remarks and questions, and 
after full discussion the meeting closes with prayer 
about the lessons learned. Sometimes new books 
are read, sometimes old ones are re-read with new 
thoutfhtfulness, and the members say that they 
always find themselves refreshed and stimulated. 
The first book chosen was "What is Worth While" 
(Kachi Aru Mono), which was finished at one meet 
ing It was followed by "The Practice of the 
Presence of God," by Brother Lawrence, "The Dew 
of Stillness" (Shizukeki Inori), "The Christian s 
Secret of a Happy Life" (Kofuku na Sho^ai no 
Hiketsui, which took up the time of four meeting. 
I was told that probably the "Life of Damien" would 
be the next. 



JAPAN AND PT)RMOSA 

MISSIONARY DIRECTORY 

Prepared by 
E. WILLIAMSON 



LIST OF MISSION HOARDS AND CHl ltCHES 



Witli names <>f Mi 
li.-l.l. (Tli.- initials use, 



1. AHCKM. American Uoar.l of Commissioners f,,r Kor.-iKH 

Missions. Kev. Darley Mowns. Se< ret ;i ry . 

:. -AMI- . American Ma|. list Foreign Mission Society. Kev 

l>. C Moltoin. Secretary. Mission nitlce: 4 
in-home. Misaki Clio. Kan. la. Tokyo. Miss Klin:. 
K. Tharp. Assistant SM ret a I y. K.-v. .1. K. CreHsltl. 
Treasurer. Miss Louls- K. JenkinH. Statistician. 

::. AKI M. A llKfni<-in.T KvanKi-lisrli - I n.testa n t is<-li-r Mis- 

siun.sv.-r.-in. (Tin Kast Asia Mission). \)r. Carl 
Wi iil in^ cr. SIM ri-ta ry . 

4. -AI- IV l- on-iKn Missionary Assoria t ion of Frirmls <it IMiila- 

l.-lphla. Mr. C. Hurnhain Mralt liwailf. Socn-tary. 

. .. .U li.M. Australian Jtoar.l .,1 Missions. (AriKli ani. lt.-\ . 

K. U. Harrison. SIM n-tary. 
AC.. Tin- Ass.-iul.ly of Co. I. Miss .l.-ssit- VVi-nRliT. 

SIM r.-ta ry. 
7. US. Hil.l.- So.-lt-tU s: 

American Hllilo Socii-ty. U.-v. K. K. Aurt-ll. No. 1 
Shlchnine. C,ln/a. Tokyo. Ti-li-k ra |>h i. address; 
Hil.li-s Tokyo". 

Tin- Hrltish and Kon-i^n liil.l.- Sm-ii-ty an. I 
National Mil, I.- Society of S.otlan.l. Mr. I 

I arrott. 
V CC. Mission Ifoanl of tin- Christian Ctmr.li. Misx 

Martha H. Stacy. S.-cr.-ta r> . 
.<. -<:. Coininunity of tin- Kplphany. Sist.-r Superior 

Kihtli Cotistan.i-. S.Mri-tar\. 
Church of Coil. 
The Central Japan Pioneer Mission. Miss I > A. 

I arr. Secretary. 
I-. CI.S. Christian Literature Society. Ke\ . S. H. \Vam- 

rik ht. Se< retary. 
1 .! CMA. Christian an. I Missionary Alliance. Mr. C. 1 

Creen. Secretary. 

H CMS. Church Missionary Society. U.-v John C. Mann. 

Secretary. Kev. A C. llut.hlnwon. AdiiiK 

Secretory. 
Church of the Na/.ar.-ne. Kev. William A. K. kel. 

Secretary. 

KvariKellcal Church of North America. Dr. I S 
Mayer. Secretary Miss Verm, S Mert/ler. AHH|M- 
tant Secretary. 

C.-neral Mission Hoar. I of the !>. Metho.lli.t 
Church of North Arm-rlia Kev. Frank K 

Warren. Secretary. 
I ti leperxlent of an> So. lety. 



294 



JAPAN 



lit. JAM. 
20. J13TH. 

21. JEB. 
22. JUM. 

23. KCA. 

24. KK. 

2.K LCA. 
IT,. LKF. 

I. LM. 
2S. MHW. 

2!*. MEFB. 



::o. MRS. 



32. MM. 

33. MP. 

34. Msec 

:,:. NKK. 

::;. NMK. 

37. NSK. 



3!). OMS. 
4(1. I E. 



Japan Apostolic Mission. Mr. L. \V. Coote, 
Secretary. 

Japan Hook and Tract Society. Mr. Geo. Braith- 
waite Secretary. 5 llikawa Cho, Akasaka, 
Tokyo. (F. C. Tokyo 2273). (Tel. Kyobashi 4573). 

Japan Evangelistic Band. Mr. James Cuthbertson, 
Secretary. 

Japan Rescue Mission. -Miss Mary Whitemun. 
Secretary. 

Kagawa Co-operators in America. Helen F. Top- 
piny. Secretary. Office: Japan National YMCA 
Huilding, 10 Omote Sarugaku Cho, Kanda, Tokyo, 
(Tel. Kanda 2(101. 2002). 

Kumiai Kyokwai, (Congregational). Kev. Kotaro 
Nishio; Nishibatake. Narno Mura, Muko C,un, 
Hyogo Ken. 

Hoard of Foreign Missions of the United Lutheran 
Church in America. Kev. John K. Linn, Secretary. 

The Lutheran Gospel Association of Finland. 
Kev. V Savolainen, Secretary. 

Liebenzeller Mission. Kev. A. Syring, Secretary. 

Missionary Hands of the World. Mr. Fred Abel. 
Secretary. 

Hoard of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church. 

General Board, Kev. Fred D. Gealy, Secretary. 
WFMS East Conference, Miss Alberta H. Sprowles. 

Secretary. 

WFMS West Conference. Miss Azalia E. Peet, 
Secretary. 

Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Epis 
copal Church, South. Kev. J. B. Cobb, Recording 
Secretary; Kev. J. W. Frank, Statistical Secre 
tary. 

Mission to Koreans in Japan. Mr. L. L. Young, 
Secretary. 

Mino Mission, Miss Sadie Lea Weidner, Secretary. 

Hoard of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Pro 
testant Church. Miss Olive I. Hodges, Secretary. 

Missionary Society of the Church of England in 
Canada. Hisbop H. J. Hamilton, Secretary. 

Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai. ( Presby terian and Re 
formed). Rev. Kanji Mori; 82-0 Onoe Cho, 
Yokohama. 

Xihon Methodist Kyokwai. (FCC. MEFH. MES.) 
Rev. Helzo Hirata; 12X7 Wadayamashita, Hon- 
moku Clio, Yokohama. 

Nippon Sei Ko Kwai. (CMS, MSCC. SPG, AUBM. 
PE). Rev. Naotaro Kukuda; Dendo Kyoku, 

4-3 Kyomachi l>ori, Nishiku, Osaka. 

Omi Mission. Mr. E. V. Yoshida, Secretary. 
( >mi- Hachiman. 

Oriental Missionary Society. 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 

i rotestant Episcopal Church in America. 

Tohoku District: Rev. W. F. Madeley, Secretary. 

North Tokyo District: Miss Ruth Burnside. 

Secretary. 

Kyoto District: Miss Etta S. McGrath, Secretary. 



LIST OF MISSION HOARDS AND CHURCHES 295 

Hoard of Foreign Missions of the Preshy terlan 
Church of the fnited States of America, llev. 
Harvey Hrokaw, Se. reta ry . Miss L. A. Wells. 
Associate Secretary. .Miss S. M. Kykcr, Treasurer, 
llev. K. M. Clark. Statistician. 

4L . PS. Kxecutlve Committee of the Foreign Missions of 

the Presbyterian Church in the t nited States 
(Southern Presbyterian.) Mrs. William < . 

Kuchanan, Secretary. 

*:-.. HCA. Reformed Church in America. Rev. Willis C,. 

Hoekjp. SpiTPtary. 

A4. RC. U<- man Catholic Church. 

-IV llCfS. Reformed Church in the fnitp.l States. Flpv. K. H. 

/.HUKK. I h.I).. Secretary ami Statistician. Mis 
sion office: ! ! > HiKiishi Nil. an Cho. Sendal. 
(Tel. 17K:n. 

);. HOC. Russian Orthodox Church. 

IT. SA. Salvation Army. Krnest I. Pu^mire. Secretary. 

is. SAM. Scandinavian American Alliance Mission. Kev. Joel 

4!. SI!C. Southern Ha]tist Convention. llev. N. K. William- 

son, Secretary. 
.".(I.--SDA. Seventh Day Adventists. Mr. II. .1. PerkinH. 

Secretary. 

r,l . SI C. Society for the PropaK. i t ion of the C.ospel In 

Foreign Parts. 
Soutli Tokyo Diocese: llev. II. D. M. Shaw. 

Secretary. 

Kc.l,.- Diocese: llev. K K-t 1 lewell. Secretary. 
P oreiKn Missionary S.( iety of the Tnited Hrethren 

In Chrl.-t. Kev. .1. K. Kniup. Se-retary. 
rnited Chun-h of Canada. 

Ceneral Hoard, llev. D. II. M< Ken/.ie. Secretary. 
Woman s Hoard. MlssSyl.il II. Courtlce. Secretary. 
.",4 t C.MS. fnited Christian Missionary Soc Iety. llev Thomas 

A. Vuunf. Secretary. 
. .:.. fOO. fruv.-rsalist Ceneral Convention. Mrs. H. M. Cary. 

Secretary. 
.".;.- WM. Wesleyan Methodist Connection c,f Ainerli-H. llev. 

Maurice A. Clhhs. Secretary. 

".?. -\VSSA. World s Sunday School Association. Mr. Ka/.uo 

Kitoku. Ceneral Sec-retary Association Office: 
Mshlki Cho, Kanda Ku. Tokyo. 
W., man s I nion Missionary Society of America. 

Miss Susan A. Pratt. Secretary. 

Y.uiriK Men s Christian Association. (American 
National Council.) Mr. C S. Phelp*. Secretary 

VMCA-T. Cuvernment S< hc,<d Ten. -hers A flllla ted with VMCA. 

II . - Y.M.I. Yotsuya Mlsslcm. Mi. W. D Cunningham. Secretary. 

1 YWCA. Yountf We, men s Christian Association of the 

1 nited States of Amerl-a. Miss Claire McKln- 

nun. Secretary. in Omc.te. Saruk aku Cho. Kanda 

Ku. Tokyo. 

FORMOSA 

;:. KI .M. ForelKn Missions of the Preshyterian Church of 

.1 W. Call. Ass, slant Secretary. 

; !. PCC. Hoard of Kc.n-lKn Missions, Pr.-sl,y lerliin Chun h 

In Canada. Mr HuKh Ma. Millan. Secretary. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



AlM-l. Mr. Kr.-.l an.l \V.. 1 : 



Allchln. U.-v. ( ,.-<>.. AHCKM. (A). 

r <> A I .CKM. 1 4 I .ra.-ori SI.. 

Huston. Mass. I .S.A. 
Allrn. Miss Annit- \V.. r.m.1. ITC. 

47 Ni l . .,-. Ka.n.-i.lo. Tokyo 



MI!W. M>4 Shin... o.-hiai. Tokyo l- u\in. (T.-l. Sunii.la :I102). 

Ku. Allen. Miss Carolyn K.. I .Mli. 

\i-iH-k. Miss Amy A.. 1905. AUK. - (>I;i M .i. Ch..me. 

,;, Shi.n.-t.-ra Ma, In. Hin.ejl. Yokohama. ,T.-I Honkyoku 

\..<k. MlHH Wlnlfrp.l M . 1922, 

Allen. K.-v. 10.. r.il 7. SI C.. C.wai 1 .". 



AMK. ::l:;l Kana^aua Ma. hi. 
Yokohama. (T.-l. llonkyoku ( . > 
L 1 7 > i . 






K..I. 



V.lulr. Miss Lily 1 ! II KI M. Allrn. M|H Thuiniiiilnp. 1915. AUK. 





Shinn. SlK.kii. 



lwat " 



AdaniH. Miss A. la 10. I .iL T. I CC. 

Tiih.ku Koriii.si Anilenion. K.-v. A. .X. an.l \V.. 1 .> H 

AHumn. M,ss AM-.- I .. 1891. ^ 

AHCKM I .". Ka.lola Yashiki. 
(ikayama \lnlerMon. Miss Irene. ILL S. KC 

AliiMUorth. K.-v. K. an.l \\ .. 1!i:.. 
I CC. H ., Taka Ma. hi, llama- 

Alr^ TliHs .... 1907. I.KK. (A). 

Kauhajoki. Sui.ml. Kinlan.l. 

\II.I.TKOII, Miss Myra I IV " 
AUun:i. Mrs Cath.-rin.- AHCKM, M K^ 

:.!. Nakaya.ua,.- ..on. , . C ,e. tMuVmP.K. , .,". 

AllilerHOII. Miss K rla IT ,, 

Akunl. MiHS Martha H. I M::. I.CA. VWCA 10-27 1 Ch.-m.- I ku ta - 

A.. o Hoat,! ol Kor.-u-n M,.s- ,.,, Kl> ,,,. ,.,.,., Kuklal 2104) 

M^,7,,,:,", B M^;,,.r."7 ;.r. ^ra^ii- K vViihis 

All.rerht, Miss H.-l.-n K . 1VJI. Cuiiinia Ken. 



MKKU. Kukii.,ka .1,, Oakk. 



\iulri-\VN. M 



Kukuoka. (T.-l. Kukuoka 2122). r,,,,, N < llk Iin ,,,, Ui 

Allirlicht. K.-v. I. S an. I W . I .tjli. Tokyo Kuka. 

MI.III KiiHHl.uk>! I ll... Andrew*. It.-v. K W. lMi.lv. an. I 

Shtzuuka. w IS . ... l-K. Ain.Tl.an Cliur.h 

\l.-\an.l.r. U.-v I: I* an. I \\ MIHSI..TI. I k.-l.ukui ... T.,k>.. 

\nU, !!.>. K.-v Alfr.-.l an. I \V . 

;akuln. Tuky... (T.-l. A..yama | ., n I., : M HCfs. ( .\. |{,, u t.- T. 

L-OIIH an. I 1 olM). X.-nla. )l.l... I .S.A. 

\l.\iin.l.-r, M|w Salllf IS .M. I N. Xr.hrr. M|SH A. I.. IS .llt. MSCC. 

P> Klta M.I. l,i < ih.Mna. Sakal Inuy.iiua. ilwari. 

\l.-\iiiiili-r. Miss Virginia K.. l!:i. \ r< lillinl.l. Miss MatKar.-t. l!l ^. 

MKK. U Klta I. hlj.. HlKHMlii I S. ;. .\HK"H I ll... r , (Mioin.-, 

t C hoine. Sapporo. NaKoya. 



298 



JAPAN 



.\rml>riiHt<*r, Miss Rose T.. 1903. 
UCMS. 4250 DaUlo, Sanchonie, 
Tennoji. Osaka. 

Armstrong. -Miss Margaret K., 
1903. UCC, 224 SOK i -va (Mm, 
Toyama Sin. (Tel. 2120). 

Armstrong Rev. V. T.. <t VV., 
1921. SDA. H.x 7 Yodobashi 
! .()., Tokyo. (Tel. O^ikubo 51). 

Anbury. .Mis.s Jessie J.. 1901. 
UCMS. 11 Omote Ox.aki Machi. 
Honjo. Akita Ken. 

.\NhlmUKli. Miss Adella M.. 190S. 
MKKH. Kwassui Jo Gakko. Na 
gasaki. (Tel. Nagasaki 1410 ). 

Atkinson. Miss Anna P., 1S82, 
MKKH, (Retired ), (A) 321 
Queen Anne Ave., Seattle. 
Wash.. U.S.A. 

Atkinson. Miss Maria J.. 1899. I S. 
Takamatsu. 

Aurell. Rev. K. K.. & VV.. 1891. 
US, 045 KuKahara, Ikegami, 
Tokyo Ku. ( K. C. Tokyo 18410). 
(Tel. Kyol.ashi G802). 

\\linir, Hev. \Vni.. I). 1)., & W., 
19oi. A HI-", lo Kokiichonie Kuji- 
niichi, Tokyo. (Tel. Kanda 

i >; 2 s i . 

A.vlunl. Miss (Jertrude, KM A, 

(A I, SpriiiK Arbor. MirhiKun. 
f.S.A. 



liiilM-<M-k. Miss ( .race, AHC FM, 
(A), L K, 1 riinera Prive. San 
Antonio, Texas, f.S.A. 

itHfh, He\. i). <;. M., \- w.. i9it;. 

LCA. (A), i- o Board of Foreign 
Missions, IS K. Mt. Vernon 
Place, Haltiinore, Maryland 
U.S.A. 



. Miss M. C., 1925 CMS, 
(A), Hettys-y-( oed, North Wales. 

, Mis.s I.eila. 19JJ>. MKS. 

< o S. H. WainriKht. Denxuin 

Mon Mae. Koishikawa, Tikyo. 
IJullcy, Miss H. M.. 1!H9. MKKH. 

4 Aoyunia C.-ikuin. Aoyania, 

Tokyo. 
Halley, Miss Helen, 1927, MSCC, 

6 San-no-Tsujl, Takatu, Kchi^o. 
Maker. Mis.s Kdith. 1929. YVVCA. 

12 Kitu KoKa C ho. Kanda. 

Tokyo. (Tel. Kanda 1118-1119). 
linker. Miss Kllie, 1!21, SMC. Sei- 

nan C.akuin. Nishi.jin Machi, 

Fukuoka. (Tel. :!170). 



Baker, Miss Elsie M., 1924, CMS, 

(A), 42 London Road, Seven 

Oaks, Kent, Kngland. 
Baker, Bishop James, t <C- VV., 1928, 

MKFH, Seoul, Korea. 
Mallard, Miss Barbara M., 1920, 

.1KB, 145 Umemoto Cho, Kobe. 
Milliard, Miss Susan, 1892. SPG. 

23 Yarai Machi, Ushigome, 

Tokyo. 
Band, Rev. Kdward. M. A., & VV., 

1912, KPM, Presbyterian Middle 

School, Tainan, Formosa. 
Barber. Miss D., 1920, SPG, 50 

Yuki-no-Gosho Cho, Hirano, 

Kobe. 

Thomas, 



D. D.. 
Amoy, 



Barclay, Rev 

1874, KPM, 
China. 

Barnett, Miss Margaret. 1888. 
RPM, Shinro Hospital, Tainan, 
Formosa. 

Barr, Knsign Kenneth. & VV.. 
1921, 1925, SA, 5 Hitotsubashi 
Dori. Kanda, Tokyo. (Tel. 

Kudan 2344). 

Barr, Miss L. M., 1920, UCC, Kiwa 
Jo Gakko, Atago Cho, Kofu 
Shi. (Tel. 591). 

Barrow. Mrs. John, AHCKM, (A), 
32 High St., New Haven, Conn., 
U.S.A. 

Barth. Rev. N. H., & VV., 1928. 
AG, 075 Takinogawa Machi, 
Tokyo Fu. 

Bartlett, Rev. Samuel C., & W., 
1887. 1894, ABCKM, Teramachi 
Dori, Imadegawa Sagaru, Kyoto. 
Masil. lit. Rev. Bishop, D.D.. 1910. 
SPG, (A), House 15 Tuftton St., 
Westminster, London, S. VV. 1, 
Kngland. 

Batc-helor. Yen. John. D.D.. & VV.. 
1877, 1883, CMS, (Retired) Nishi 
7 Chome, Kita Sanjo. Sapporo. 
Bate*. Rev. C. J. L., D.D., * VV., 
1902, UCC, Kwansei Gakuin, 
Koto Mura, Nishinomiya Shigai, 
Hyogo Ken. 

KutfH, Miss K. L.. 1921. UCC, 14 
Saibansho Dori, Kanazawa. 
(Tel. 1G07). 

Bauernfelnd. Miss Susan M.. 1900. 
KC, S4 Sasugaya Cho, Koishi- 
kawa Ku. Tokyo. (Tel. Koishi- 
kawa 354G). 

HayliHH, Miss K.. 1928, SPG. 5G5 
Miyano Ushiro, Hara.la. Kobe. 
(Tel. Kukiai 3477). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



299 



Ba/elr.v. Miss H. Roue. 192G, JEH. 

<kur.Ml.im. Akashl Shi. HyoK" 

Ken. 
Beam. Uev. K. S.. <*i W.. AHCKM. 

<A>. P.O. Hux 11-. LaCanada. 

cai.. I .S.A. 

Hfutty. Mr. HHrolil K.. & W.. 

1921. 1NU. 120 HiaHhl-no Clio. 

.lu.- !. HiKaslii Yodojfawa Ku. 

Osaka. 
Bf. Mr. William. JKH. 6 of 9 

Shll.a Koen. Shil.u Ku. Tokyo 

Ku. 
Bevi-N, Miss C.race -St.. 192T.. LCA. 

Jlal>n. KenKun Mura, Kuma- 

nioto. 
Bender. Itev. Cordon K . Ar W.. 

192*. 1924. AC. liM! NlHhi Su- 

K.-IMIO Mac-hl. Tokyo Ku. 
H. illicit. Kev. M. J.. * W.. 1901. 

1S0.1. AMCFM. HiKawhi Muchl, 

Tottori. 

HeiiiiiiiKiuiir. iiev. ii. H. n.n.. 

* \V.. I jdT AMK. r.r.l Shlnio 

TotHuka Mitrhi. Tokyo Ku. 

(T.-l. r.shl,vonie 3f,H7). (F.C. 

K.,r Was,-. la Hnshlen 757CG ). 
It. r,..,i, H. V. H. K.. \- W.. 1909. 

SDA. Mlnnml Hokujo Nlwhl. 11 

( homo. Sapporo. 
It. rioimlnl. Mr. .1. VttnW.. & W., 

IKL ti. 1 K. St. I itul s I nlverslty. 

Ikt-l.ukuro. Tokyo. 
Mi-rnaiirr. Mrs. KntHle A.. IND. 

48H SuKinaml Clio. AHUKUVU. 

Tokyo Ku. 
Berry. H.-v. A. !>.. I .tOL . MKFM. 

H Aoyaniu (iakuin. Shlbuya 

Mar-hl. Tokyo Ku. (T-l. Aoyama 

200.S). 
Hrrry, Dr. .1. ( .. A- W. AHCKM. 

(A). 28 TrowhridKP K<1.. W.r- 

l HtT, MaHH.. I .S.A. 



in. 

l!ilf>. 



. N. s.. n.n.. * 

J MotokaJI Cho. 



fHt, M|BH Mlandi 
Domlzu AKaru. 
Horl. Kyoto. 
2680). 



. 1919. YWCA. 

Muro Mai-hl 

(T-l. NiHliiJin 



Il-Uel. Mrs. I.. W.. 1SJ(8. AUK. 

(Kftlr.-.l). (At. 2528 MllleKaMs 

Ave.. li.-rk. 1..% Cal. I .S.A. 
HllT-loH. Miss <}. S.. 18S6. I N. 

1K54 Maruyamu Clio. Shltnuno- 

Mkl. 



189.1. 



l. Major KrnoBt W.. & W .. 
1920. SA. S Hltotmitmiihl Dorl, 
Kandu^ Tokyo. (Tel. Kudan 
2344 ). 

Itlnford. Mr. Curney. A W. 
IM<J. AFP. Shlmotauma. 
rakl K*n. 



Miss J. Arrla. 1926, 1 E. 

(A). Chur-li Missionn House. 

2S1 Fourth Ave.. N.Y.C.. I .S.A. 
Hlxhy. Miss Alice C .. 1914. AliF. 

(A). < o C. K. Hixl.y. 55 S. 

Thlr.l St.. Fulton. N.V.. I .S.A. 
B!\l<-r, Mr. Orville I).. Si W.. ll!i. 

l.\n. Shioila Mura. Naka (Jun. 

Iharaki Ken. 
Itliiki-ney, Miss Hossie M.. 1919. 

PS. <A I. < o H,,x :!:!. Nash 

ville. Tt-nn.. t .S.A. 
B.Mleii, Mi.s M. K.. 1!>24. JKH. 

(A), < o JKH. > , Cower St.. 

London W.C. 1. 
llolllKer. Misn L. Aurella. 191 ! . 

llCt S. fid Kwozenjl l)<>ri, Sen- 

dai. 
ItcMith. llev. KuKone S.. D.n.. * 

W.. 1S79, 1912. HCA. (Iletlred). 

<AI. LT> K. 22nd St.. N.Y.C., 

I .S.A. 
Burton, Mr. Huk h. * W.. 19*8. 

AFP. 14 F>ai Machl. Mita. 

Shll.a Ku. Tokyo. 
Boxaiuinet. Miss A. C. 1M2. CMS. 

101 Mlnaiui Cho. 6 Chonie. 

Aoynina. Tokyo. (F.C. 11357). 
BoMh.VMhell. Miss Herthn. AHCKM. 

(A), 1910 {Hk St.. South 1 asa- 

dena. Cal.. I .S.A. 
Bott. Itev. (J. K. * W.. 191M. 

t CC. 21! Kamitomizaka i lm. 

Kuishikawa. Tokyo. 
Bonldln. U.-v C, W. !>.!>.. * U .. 

linn;. SHC. Selnan Cakuln. 

N lshi.iin Machl. Fukuoku. (Tel 

::17<>. 
Bouen. Miss .-(,rKene. 1125. I UC. 

Hlacknier Hume. :,n Takata. 

(Hniatsu Cho. KolMhlkawu. To 

kyo. 
Bottle*. Mr (lllbert. & W. IHnl. 

I89:i. AFP. :!0 K..IJII Clio, illta 

Shll.a Ku. Tokyo. (Tel. Taka- 

n^ w.i L lrti. 

HOXMMHII. MISM N. F. J.. 1907. 
MSCC. 1 ( home. Shlrakube Cho, 
Nttfc-oyji. 

Bu>d. M!SH I.. !,-.. H.. I "*- . PK. 

Kuruwa Machl. Kawan>e. Sal- 

tuma Ken. 
Boydell, Miss K. M.. IVl .i. CMS. 

(A). "C\uTK\vr|e". ciu.n S(ret. 

Llndfleld. Sidney. Auntrallu. 
lii> If. Minn Helen. 1M28 K O J 

Motoyanavl Cho. Sendai. 



300 JAPAN 

Brady, Rev. .1. Harper, ,< \V., Bundy. Mr. Robert K.. & W., 

1917. PS, (A), Statesville. X. 1927. PK. St Paul s University, 

Carolina. I .S.A. Ikebukuro, Tokyo. 

Riuii huaitc, Mr. G. Hurnham. & Bunker, Miss Annie, 1928, .TRM, 

W.. 19L H. 1922. AFP. Tokiua II ,L> Kita Yobancho. Sendai. 

Mura. Mito. Ibaraki Ken. (Tel. Sendai .liur,). 

P.rail h\\ ail, . Mr. C.eo., 18SO..TBTS, ; Burdick. Miss Alma M., 1927. 

\- W., 190H. .1KB. :, Hikawa Cho, PCC, Tamsui. Formosa. 

Akasaka _ Ku. Tokyo. (Tel. H ,,r,neister, Miss Margaret. 192fi. 

MKFH. r,9<; Kuhonji ( e Machi, 

KratiHtad. Mr. K. K.. 1924. PK. Kumamoto. 

St. Paul s University, Ikebukuro. Burnet, .Miss M. A.. 1917. C.TPM, 

Tokyo Ku. is Hyakuken Machi. Maebashi, 

Brittain. Miss Blanche. 1929. ; Gmnma Ken. 

MKKB. K \vassui Jo Gakko. Na- i Burned, Miss Kleanor 1... 1920, 

Kasaki. (Tel. Nagasaki 14K, ). AP.CKM. (A). 1 :!8 Hancock St.. 

Brokaw. Rev. 11.. !>.!>.. & W., A ubu rn-la le. Mass.. T.S.A. 

1S9i:. PX. Ichi.jo Dori. Muro BnriiNid>. Miss Ruth. 1923. PK, 

Machi, Xishi Ichi.jo. Kyoto. American Church Mission. Ike- 

(!.( . Osaka 72944). biikuro, Tokyo. 

Broun, Mr. F. H.. \- W.. Ifli::. Bunhc. Miss S. I,. K.. 1921. CMS. 

YMCA-A. Seinenkai Apartments, c o Miss A. C. Bosanquet. 101 

Hakkeixaka. Oinori. Tokyo Fu. Minami Clio. C, Chome, Aoyama, 

(Tel. Oniori 220i. Tokyo. 

Brown. Miss O., JRM. H ,2 Kita BUSH. Rev. H.. 1928. T,M, 40fi 

Yobaiii-ho, Sendai. (Tel. :;: ,1.",>. Miyatani Kikuna Machi, Yoko- 

1924. MKFB. (A). Hoard of Buss, Miss Florence V.. 1922, RCA, 

Foreign Missions M.K. Church, -7 Bluff. Yokohama. 

ir,o Fifth Ave.. X.Y.C.. r.S.A. Butcher. Miss K.. 1929. MSCC. f, 

Bruner. Mr. G. W.. * W.. 1920. Sa n-no-Tsu.ji, Takata. 

MKKB. Hi^ashiyamate. Naa- Butler. Miss Bessie, 1921, .TRM. 

saki. Tomixawa, Xishitaka Mura. 

BriniH. Rev. Bruno. \- W.. 1930, Nl)t " ri < " Mi.va K l Ken. 

RCA. Bli// H, Miss Annie S.. 1S92. ABF, 

.Buchanan. Rev. I. C.. * W.. 1921. A) . ," K1Iis Ave - Chlca * 

PX. Wakayama. Wakayama " l S - A - 

Ken Byerw, Miss Florence. 1928, AG, 

Buohannn. Miss Klixabeth O.. i fi Taklnogawa Machi. Tokyo 

191 1. PS.. Ken Machi. Gifu. 

Byler, Miss Gertrude M., 1927. 

Buchanan. Rev. P. \\ .. & W.. MKFB Hirosaki Jo Gakko, 

192,-i. PS. 11 Fu.jinari Cho. Naka Hiros iki 

Ku. Natfoya. 

BiM-lianan, Rev. Walter McS.. f^ 

I .!.. ,V W.. 192.-,. PS. t: ,9 Xaka- 

Callahan. Rev. W. .1.. & W., 1891. 

Buchanan. Rev. Win. C., D.IX. MKS, (A), Hoard of Missions 

>V W.. 1S91. 192:!, PS. Shiya- M.K. Church South. Box 510, 

kusho Mae. Gifu. Nashville. Tenn.. I .S.A. 

Bnckland. Miss K. Ruth. 1924. Callhcck. Miss Louise, 1921, I CC. 

PS. (A l. c o Box ::::o Nashville, 12 Ajrate Machi. Nagano. 

Term.. C.S.A. ( amp. Miss Kvelyn A., 1910. ABF, 

Biirknlll, Rev. K. C... X- W.. 1927. A I. 2C!7 Grand Ave.. Minne- 

SPG. 2: ,4 Vamate Clio. Naka apolis. Minn.. I .S.A. 

< aniiell. Miss Mona C.. 1922. PK. 

Biinronihr. Rev. W. P.. & W.. 11 Kdo Shimo Cho. Fukui. 

1SVM. CMS. (Retire,!). 24 Xaka Fukui Ken. 

Kojimachi Ku. Carlson. Rev. S. K., A- W., 19in, 

Tokyo. SAM, 920 Xakano, Tokyo Fu. 



AMMIABKTICAL LIST lUU 

<arp.-iU.-r. .Miss M. M.. lS!i. ,. AMI- . (lark. K.-v. K. M.. I h !>.. \ W.. 

l i Kukurouuu hi. SuruKudui. HC. ". I N. :!4 San. horn.-, Naka- 

Toky... jinia D.iri. K.d..-. 

Carroll. Miss Sail!.-. lUL O. MKS. Clark. .Miss lt...:im..n.l H.. i:L 4. 

:,:, NlaK<- Mju-lii. Oita. AHCKM. M iKashimn. hi. T..tti>ri. 

< aru*-\VHMon. Miss Nona. 19-8. rll rk ; " W " 

I-K. si. I.uk,. , Hospital. Tsu- AmherMt. 

klji. T..ky... 

Clark*-. Miss D.iris K 1!C < .. 

Car,. Miss Ali.-e K.. iai.1. AHPFM. YMCA-A. U Hluf,. Yokohama. 

Taisha Mura, Muko Cun. HvoKo 

K Clarke, Miss s. K. 1:11.*.. I N. 

Kokmaiji Ma. hi. Hiroshima. 



r " 



Koislnkaua. T..ky 



Clau-Hon. Miss Mert.a K.. 18-.S. 

1924 rC 1752 Hlicaiihl Naka- rCMS ,-,-, Njlklix . !lt<1 Takino. 

"" r " k - v " J u - K awn. Tokyo Ku. (Tel. Koishi- 

Car.v. U<>v. <)tis. \- AV.. AMf KM. kawa . )L ", ). 

(A). K1K Han.-.,i-k St.. Auburn- < |,, 7 .|,.. Miss .M.-,l,,.| (!.. lulo. I CC. 

iHle. Mass.. r.S.A. TaniHUl. Formosa. 

< haprmin. H-v. K. >:.. X W . 1!17. Clinch. Miss M a rMi. ri... 1!H ::. 

inn,. I X. Isaila. S))inKu. Waka- MSCC Sliinta Ma<lii Matsu- 

yama K.-n. ,,. 

< hiummn. I{.-\. <;. K. A- \V.. 1921. < oat<*M. \i>~\. U. H. D.D.. \- \V.. 

I N. 4" Kitaliatakl, Sumiyo.shlku, 1 S:HI. 1 CC. (At. 4:fLT> \Vlllo-.v 

>Haka. st.. Vancouver M.C.. Canada. 

< Inn. man, Iu-\ . .1. .).. * W.. (A). Coat-H. ll.-v. \V. ( ,.. \ \V.. 1!L 1. 

1S! !i. I K. Tsu. Mic K<-n. ( K.C. liiL l . I CC. :: 1 !i H ya kkoku Min-hi. 

Osaka .T.-iHl lt). Kofu. 

CliaiM><-ll. Miss Constanrp S.. 101L . Cobb. K.-v. K. S.. * W.. 1!"M. 

f< . Woman s Christian Pol- AMPI- .M. Irhijo Dori. Karasu- 

\f-Ki-. lKi Mura. Tokyo Fuka. maru Nishi. Kyoto. 

Cobb. K.-v .1. H. * W.. 11.1V 

< bappoll. K.-v. .lanu-s. ,V \V . IS .l. ,, MKS. ::: .: Kokutalji Ma.hl. 

I K. :,.-:; N..kama.-hl. Mil... Hiroshima. 

( IIIIH.-. Mr .1 T. \- W.. 10J7. Cockram. Miss H S. 1S!i:t. CMS 

YM.I. 17 ,>; Nakano. Tokyo Ku. (At. i- o CMS. Salisbury Sfj.. 
Chane. Miss I. aura. IIMT.. MKKM. 

I Aoyama Cakuin. Aoyama. CM-. Miss Kst.-lla I,., lull. 

Tokyo. (T.-l. Aoyama L in. AMCI- M. Hiicashi M a< h i. Tot t or l. 

Chrnl. I>r. I .-r.-ival. M.K.P.S.. Colb<irn . Mrs v K. IS tT. CMS 

I..K.C.I .. A \V.. I MH. KI M. ( K.-tir.-.l l. M ina mihara. Aua 

Sliinro Hon;.ital. Tainan. For- Cun. Chil.a K.-n. 

Cole. Mr. A M . \- \V.. I .UC.. Sl>.\. 

( b,.n.->. Miss All..-, lit].-,. MKFM. M..X 7. Yo.lol.ashl I ll. Tok\. 

lal .lo Cakko. Hakodate, Hk- Fu ( T-l likMkuho Mi. 

< olen. Miss A. M . !!"!. .IKM. (At. 

hlnliolm. MIHH Klh.-l K.. Iftl I . . ., Chas M. Col-s * Co.. H:(7 

I CC. Taihoku. FonnoHii. HaMtlnKs Si \V . Va n< <>u\ ! 



C lapp. Ml** Frani. H M.. 1!US. 



Canada 



AHCKM. Io.Hh|Nha .lo Cakko. ( olllllN. Mr. A M. I!L".. 

Kyoto. i. r,i i Shll>a Ko.-n. Shlba K u 

(lark. >fln A HUM. .IKM. (At. 

< o .IKM. :,:, Cow.-r St.. London. ( ollltis. Ml^.s Mary D. 1 .:". . 

\V.C. 1. MKFM. lal Jo Cakko Hnkodat- 

< lurk. K.-v CyniM A. AMCF.M. Convfrwi*. Mlhx Clara. I s!Ml AMK. 

(At. :.1> W>t Sixth St.. Claro- (K.-tir.-.lt 1074 Hlrodai Kanu- 

IIH >nt. Pal.. C.S.A. Kawii. Yokohama. 



302 



JAPAN 



Convene, Mr. G. C., 1915, & "W., 
1913. Y.MCA-A, Sumiyoshi, Hyo- 
K Ken. 

Cook, Miss Henrietta S.. 192C, 
RCrS. CO Kwozenji Dori, Sen 
dai. (Tel. ::<;87). 

Cook, Miss M. M., 1904, MES, 
Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Ishiga- 
tsujiku, Tennoji Ku, Osaka. 

Cook, Miss Ruth E., 1928. RCUS, 
fiO Kwozenji Dori, Sendai. (Tel. 
3687). 

Cookc, Miss M. S.. 1909, MSCC, ! 
105 Kita Maruya, Gokiso, I 
Nagoya. 

Cooper, Miss Lois W., 192S. CLS, 
MES. Hiroshima Girls School, 
Kaminagnrakawa Cho, Hiro 
shima. 

Coote. Mr. Leonard \V., & W., 
1913, 1920, JAM, Hox 5, Ikoma 
P.O., Nara Ken. (F.C. Osaka 
59374). 

Copland, Rev. K. Hruce. H. A.. \- 
W.. i:i29, KI M. Shinro Tainan. 
Formosa. 

CornuHlI-l.cuh. Miss Mary H., 
191f>. PE, Jizo Kusatsu, Gum- 
ma Ken. 

Couch, Miss Helen. 19Di. MEFH, 
(A), Carbondale, Pa., U.S.A. 

(ouch. Miss Sarah M.. 1892, RCA, i 
9> Kami Nishiyama Machi, 
Nagasaki. 

Course. Mr. James H., (V- W., 
1928. IND. Akasaka Hospital. , 
17 Hikawa Cho. Akasaka, ] 
Tokyo. 

Courtlce, Miss Sybil R.. 1910, UCC, 
S Toriizaka. Azabu, Tokyo. 
(Tel. Aoyama 5845). 

Covcll. Mr. J. Howard, \- W. 
1920. AHF. 1327 Mlnami Ot: 
Machi. Yokohama. (F.C. Toky, 

Cowl, Rev. J.. A.- \V.. (A). 191t;. [ 

CMS. 320 Maeshinya. Haruyoshi, 

Fukuoka. 
Cox. Miss A. M.. 190(i, CMS. 51 

Kalrnei Cho, 3 Chome, Amaga- 

saki. 
Coxard. Miss Gertrude. AHCFM, i 

(At, 140 W. Sth St., Claremont. I 

Cal.. U.S.A. 
CragK, Rev. W. .1. M.. D.D.. <V- 

W.. 1911. UCC. K \\ansei Gakuin, 

Koto Mura, Nishinomiya Shigai. 
Craig. Mr. E. H.. & W., 1911, 

INI). Hible Truth Mission, 2 

Rosoku Cho, Kanda, Tokyo. 



Crawford, Rev. V. A.. * W.. 1929, 

I S, j;j Kamitomizaka Cho, 

Koishikawa. Tokyo. 
Cr-\v, Miss An^ie. l!ll>3, CC, Kobe 

College, Yamamoto Dori, 4 

Chome, Kobe. 
CrewdNon, Rev. Ira I)., & W., 

102L . I CMS, 40 Shin Machi, 

Fukushima City. 
Crihh. Miss K. R., IXD, f) Dembo 

Machi. Kita Nichome, Nishi- 

yodoffawa Ku, (Jsaka. 
Cronhy, Miss Amy R., 1913, ABF. 

10 Fukuro Machi, Surupadai, 

Tc.kyo. (Tel. Misaki Tabernacle 

Kanda 128). 
Culh-n, Miss C.ladys, 192ti, F^PM, 

Shinro Tainan, Formosa. 
CunmiiiiffH Miss Jean M., 1928, 

PCC, Taihoku, Formosa. 
Cunningham, Rev. \V. D.. & W.. 

11101. YM.I, fi Naka Cho, Yo- 

tsuya Ku, Tokyo. 
Currell, Miss Susan McD.. 1921 

I S, Rokuban Cho, Takamatsu. 
Curtice, Miss L,. K., 1914, MEFR. 

Hirosaki Jo (lakko, Hirosaki. 
CurtlH, Miss Edith, 1912, ABCFM, 

Taisha Mura, Muko Gun, Hyo- 

K Ken. 
CurtlH. Miss Dorothy, ARCFM, 

Tera Machi Dori, Imadegawa 

Saparu, Kyoto. 
CurtiN, Mrs. W. I... 1908, ARCFM, 

Teramachi Dori, Imadegawa 

Sag aru, Kyoto. 
< iMhlicrison. Mr. J., & \V., 1905, 

.TEH, 102 Hirano Umemoto Cho, 

Kobe. 
Cypert. Miss Lillie, 1917, IND, 

UK! Kichijoji, Tokyo Fu. 



Daniel, Miss N. M., 1898, MKFU. 

4 Aoyama Gakuin. Tokyo. (Tel. 

Aoyama 2011). 
Daniel-. Miss Mabel, 1928. PS. 

Shirakabe Cho, Itchome 11, 

Nagoya. 
Dann. Miss J. M.. .IRM, lf,2 Kita 

Yobancho, Sendai. (Tel. 3315). 
Dan*. Miss Lois L., 1924, MEFR. 

(A). 551 fi Tenth St., Seattle, 

Wash.. C.S.A. 
Diirrow. Miss Flora. 1922, RCA, 

4 Oura Hi^a.shi Yamate, Naga 
saki. 
DaiiKhcrty. Miss L. G.. 1915. I N, 

102 Tsunohazu Shinjuku. Tokyo 

Shlgai. 



Dn\ldMn. Knsijjn Charles, ft W.. 
1939. S.\. :. Hitotsubashi Dori. 
K.ind.i Tokyo. (Tel. Kudan 

DiivU. MiKK Lois I,.. 1924. MKKH, 

(A>. r.r.K, Tenth St.. Seattle. 
Wash.. f.S.A. 
flavin. .Mr. KrnetU .1.. 791 . Klri- 

(Caya, Osaki Machi, Tokyo Ku. 
Da \vtnn. Miss Rllzaheth. 1911. MP. 
Ktwa Jo Gakko. Malta Marhl. 
Yokohama. (Tel. Clioja Mac-hl 
2405). 
DeForeat. Miss Charlotte H.. 

1903. AHCKM. Kobe Jo C.akuin. 

V:uiianiotn Dori. 4 Chome, 

Kobe. 
D-M:i:itf<l. Kov. John .. 1928, 

KCA. 1832 Nakujlina fra. Olta. 
Drmarer. Kev. T. W. H.. * W.. 

18R9. MKS. ! 4 Nlafffi Marhl, 
Olta. 
Drmpsle. Kev. <;. .,., A- W. (A). 

1 AlojcaniltT K<1.. Hirkenhead. 

Knjfland. 
Ienton, Miss A. Cra.f. IJtl .t. 1 K. 

< ilm 11 1 a. Kukui Ken. 
l>-nton. Miss M. K.. 1XS8. AHPFM. 

(Heilredt. OoHhiHha Jo CJakko. 

Kyoto. 
I)l< UlniMtn. Miss Auusta. 1888. 

MKKI5. (K.tlri- l). (A). 1839 W. 

Venanfo St.. IMiila.. Pa.. f.S.A. 
Dlcklnnon, Kev. .1 M , SPG.. 25 

!\vat> Ch... I shlgonie Ku. 

Tokyo. 
IlickHon. Mr. James 1.. A- \V., 

1927. P C. Tallioku. Korim.Ha. 
DirkMon. MlH.s L. K. 19: 7. I K. 

Tachllia na Clio. Ka ranniiiuru 

Dorl. IrnHileKawa SaKaru. Kyoto. 
IMetrlrli. Mr <;oo.. & W.. 19L 4. 

SIA. K.I. Iota, lloncho t>0. Oka- 

Dievenilorf. Mrs. A . l!lL 4. CM A. 

Fnkiiynnirt. Hiroshima Ken. 
l>Ultrou. Miss Helen .1.. I K. 

MlHliamon Clio. Tono.lan. Kyoto. 
DlthrlflKP. Miss Harriet. INK. 

?,R:n Sakae Cho. Taihlkawa 

Ma. hi, Tokyo Ku. 
nonhl.-diiv. Mlsn S. C . 1!t: 9. CMS. 

Poole <Jlrln Sfhool. KatHiiynma- 

Iiorl. 5 Clioine. HlKanhlnarl 

Ku. O:iku. 
DoiiKhiN, MIHH Dorothy C.. 192.S. 

I <*C. TaiiiHut. Kornnma. 
l>wl. Ml!w Annie H . 18KU, PS. 

180 Taknjo Marhl. KOI hi. 



\LFHABETICAL LIST 303 

HoxMilnc. Miss Kulh K.. 1929, 



knier Home. 5 Ta- 
tsu Cho. Kilhlka\va. 



kata 

Tokyo. 

Do\vnM. Kev. A. W., A- W.. 

AHCKM. (A). Ill 2 S. Sixth St.. 

Ironton. Ohio, f.S.A. 
DoxvnH, Kev. Darley. A- W.. 1919. 

1-J21. AHCKM. ti45 Tokoshl 

Khara Cho. Tokyo Ku. (Tel. 

Khara 977). 
Do/ler. Kev. C. K.. A- W. 190f,. 

SHC. Seinan Cakuin. Nishljin 

Machl, Kukuoka. (Tel. H170). 
Drake. Miss K. L.. 1909. fCC, 

Matsushlro Cho. Hamamatsu. 
Draper. Kev. (;. K.. S.T.D.. & W.. 

1880. MKKH. 222-H HlufT. Yoko- 

hama. 
Dnifer. Miss Winifred K.. 1912. 

MKKH, 222-H HI u ft. Yokohama. 
Duncan. Miss A. Constance. 1922. 

YWCA, Muromachi Dori. De- 
miss u AKaru. Kyoto. (Tel. 

Nishljin 2580). 
Dunlop. K.-v. .1. C... D.D.. A- W, 

1887. 1894. PN, Hezal Cho. Tnu. 

Mle Ken. 
Dunnlnir. Kev M D. A- W.. 

AHCKM. (A I. .11 C.len Kd.. 

Newton Lower Kails. Mass.. 

f.S.A. 
DIM;:IM Mi. K L, A- W. 1919. 

YMCA-A. Selnenkal Apartments. 

Hakkei/aka. Omorl. Tokyo Ku. 

(Tel. Omorl 2200). 
Dnrlaiul. Miss Mahel .1.. AHCKM. 

(A), llii; S. Madison Ave.. La- 

(franjfe. Ill . f.S.A. 
Duryee, Kev. Kuene C .. 192t".. 

KCA. 5 Meljl Cakuin. Shlro- 

kane. Shlha Kll. Tokyo. 
Dyer. Mr. A. L. A W. 19"5. 

.1 KH. ( A i. < o JKH. 55 (lower 

HI.. London W.C. 1. 



Kiitiin. Miss A ;.. 19>8. 

llokiirlku Jo (l.ikko, Kanazawn. 

Kt-krl. Mr Win. A & W. CN, 
IS Okaxakt Cho. Kyoto. 

Krkrl. Miss H K. t N. IS Oka- 

/il<i Chi. Kyoto. 

K.-kel. Mr Paul K . CN. IS Oka- 

znkl Cho. Kyoto. 

Kdlln. Miss CM AT. 1927 SPC. 

: Sannodul. NIIIIIHXII Shi. 



;;04 JAPAN 

FJiIman. Rev. D. K.. \- W., 1927. l-Vr B HHoii, Mrs. C. M. U.. 1X9X, 

RCUS, (A). 51!" W. ll . lrd St., KPM. (A), c o Presbyterian 

Xe\v York City, U.S.A. offices. 15 Russell Sq., London 

Klliott, Miss Isabel R. N., 1912. 

KPM Shinro Shoka, Formosa. I->HpTiiisin. Rev. V. L.. <t W., 

19l!i. RCUS. 11 Kita Nibancho, 

Klliott. Dr. Mabel K.. 1925. PK, S cndai. (Tel 2344). 

St Luke s Hospital, Tsukiji. 

T((ky o. Field. Miss Ruth, 1927. MKS, 

Lambuth Jo Gakuin, Ishiga- 
FlllH. Mrs. ( has.. 1XD. ISO Takajo tsujiku. Tenno.ji Ku, Osaka. 

FiHd, Miss Sarah M.. 1911, 

Kiwlmunn, Rev. Mar, us J.. ^ AHCFM, Kobe Jo Gakuin. Ya- 

N .. 1929. RCUS. 3-A Me,.,! mamoto I>ori, 4 Chome, Kobe. 

Finrh, Miss Mary D., 1925. MKS, 
(A). Hoard of Missions M . K. 

FrirkHon. Rev. S. .M.. D.D.. <fc W., Church South. Hox 510, Xasli- 

1!i"5. PS. 1l 7 Hainan.. Clio, vill(1 Tenn., U.S.A. 

Finlay. Miss Alice L.. 1905, 
Dringa. Miss Dora. 1!(22. RCA, MKKH. 1 4 . ! Kajiya Clio. Kago- 

Kurume. Kukuoka Ken. shima. (Tel. Kagoshima 15!tl ). 

I .--.kin, . Rev. Wm. H.. \- AV.. FiHhcr. Mr. Royal H.. X- AV.. 1914. 

19"4, UC.MS. .",:::. Tei/.ukayama, AHK. ]:!27 Minami Ota Machi, 

Sumiyoshi Ku. ()saka. Yokohama. 

KwMen, Miss M. K., 1925. SP;, Foerntrl. Miss M.. 1927, MSCC, 

5i;:, Miya-no-Uahiro, Harada, Kyo Machi. Gifu. 

Foote. Miss Kdith L, 1923, VK. 

l-.Uer. Mr. C. L.. \- W., 1!2S, Kara.sumaru Dori. Shimotachi 

VMOA-T. Hokkaido Imperial Uri A^aru. Kyoto. ( K.C. Osaka 

University, Sapporo. 55455 >. (Tel. Xishi.jin I :i71 ). 

i:\ailK. llev. Ch.is. H.. \- W.. 1S!M, Foot. , Mr. K. W.. 191 :!. PK. St. 

PK. 72 Myotfadani. Koishi- Paul s University, Ikebukuro, 

shikawa Ku, Tokyo. Tokyo. 

FvimN. Miss K.. M.. I .UI. .IX. Foote. Rf>\-. John A., D.D., & W., 

Hokusei Jo Gakko Sapporo l!(12. 1911. AHK. l "l Imasato 

Fverard. Miss Cornelia. 1928. PK. ho Hi^ashi Yodogawa Ku. 
St. Margaret s School. Takai.lo 

Mura. Tokyo Fuka ForjJ. Rev. J. C.. 1928, INI"), (All 

"T^: ,5! ,-.. ? C- i^l; - SSTSU ^ 

110(1 (Jrant St., Los Angeles, FoNdick. Miss Kdith. AHCFM, 

Cal.. U.S.A. (A), c o Raymond Kosdick, til 

Hroadway, N.Y.C., U.S.A. 
r- Fox. Mr. H. J. W., 191 ", INI), 

DaiRo Machi, Ibaraki Ken. 

l- aiinillK, Miss Katlierine I- ., 1H14. Fox, Mr. Harry R., & AV.. 1919. 

AMCKM. (,\t. Hinnham Center, \^\ } [\vakl Tanakura, Kuku- 

Mass.. U.S.A. shima Ken. 

I arnhani. Miss Grace. 191 5. YM.I, 
(A i, Si>rint, r tield, Oregon. U.S.A. 

Farniim, l{-\-. Marlin D.. <V \V.. 

191 7. AMK. 15s Gok.-n Vashiki. Franris, Rev. T. R.. 191.",. CMA. 

llimeji. Kukuyama Shi. (K.C. Osaka 
I. .. I..M. Mr. Thomas K.. * W.. 

191 :!. YMCA-T. Xishishin Machi. Frank. Rev. J. W.. X- W.. 1912. 

Kukuoka. Uwajima. Khime Ken. 

F-hr. Miss V.-ra J.. 192<i. MKKH. Franklin. Rev. S. H.. * AV.. 1929. 

Kwassui Jo Gakko, Nagasaki. PX. Higashi (i Chome. Go.jo 

(Tel. Nagasaki 141ti). llashi. Kyoto. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



, i05 



Fre-tli, Miss K. M.. 1895. C.MS. 
.Miy;iji Mmhi. Aso Gun. Kuina- 

Frehn. il.v. M. C.. & \v., 1925. 
CM A. L 2 Shlmonaka Machi. 
Hiroshima. 

Front, Knsijcn Henry, & W.. 1926. 
SA. r. Hltotsubashl Dor!, Kan- 
da. Tokyo. (Tel. Ku<lan 2344). 

Fry. Dr. K. C.. 1894. CC. 7 Nljo 
Ma. hi. rtsunomlya. Toc-hlRi 
Kf>n. 

Fulton. H.-v. S. P.. D.D.. & W. 
1888, PS. IT, Kamitsutsul Dori. 
5 Chome. Kobe. 



iiin>-M. Miss N. H.. 1HK7, MK S. 

Hiroshima .In Oakko. Kamlno- 

Kurekawa Cho. Hiroshima. 
<iul>. Mrs. Kmma. INI). 240 Ta- 

kafi KawaraRl Mura, Muko 

Inn. HVOKO Ki-n. 
<;le. H.-v. \V. II.. & \V.. 1912. 

191S. Sl fl. :i7 (Jok.-n Yashlkl. 

Himefl. 
<Mllt. Miss .1,-ssi.- \V.. 1922. KPM. 

Proshyt.-rian (Jlrls Srhool. Tai 
nan. Formosa. 
(.iim.TtHfVM.T. Miss Ina. 1H24. 

K< - . (A). Ni llie, Cosho< ton Co.. 

>hlo. I .S.A. 
(iinllnor. Miss Krno.ot Inc W.. 1 92 1 . 

I K.. :!2 !><,te Samban.ho. KoJI- 

mai-hl, Tokyo. 
<inrlni-r. MJHH Kmma K, iriLM. 

PS. KlnJ.i J<,Hlil Semiixm Oakko 

XaKova. 
.. i r i.,.,i, Mr. C. p.. & \V . I90r,. 

< C. fA(. :,o \V. Tlilr.l A vo.. 

Cf.iuiiii.im, Ohio. C.S.A. 

(timid. MIMH C,. L. V.. 1924. PCC. 

A ). c o I nltfil Churrh of 

Cana.la KorHifn Mission Offli-e. 

2U9 yu i-n St. W. Toronto 

Cann.ln. 
.|inlfl, Mrs. \Vm . lH!i: . PCC. (Al. 

> f.cc. Ki.n-lifn MlMMlonH 

Offlie. 299 gu .-n St. W.. Tor.n- 

to. C.ma la. 
(iirruril, Mr. M.. l!iL :i. .IKH. <A). 

< o .IKH. r,5 C.ower St.. Lon.l.m 

W.C. 1. 

(ii-iily. i:,-v. K I> . A W . 19?^. 
MKKH. J Aoyama (Sakuln 
Shll.a. Tokyo. CIVI. Aoynma 
1 ons > . 

<.i-rlinril. M!MM Mary K.. 190. ,, 
licrs. <A). 129 K. Vine St.. 
Lancaster, I a.. U.S.A. 



(.iThnril. K,v. Paul I... 1M D.. * 
W.. 1S97. 1902. RCl S. fi Mlniiml 
Kokken Cho. Sendal. (Tel 
2201 ). 

(.rhnnl. Ki.hert H.. 1H28. HCl S. 

Mlnami Hokk.-n Cho, SeniUI. 
(ii-rrlmh. MIH Rlla M.. 1928. 

MKKH. :,<. KuhonJI Oe Marhi. 

Kumamnto. 

Cipfzliiflr. l>r. K. K.. ti- \V.. 1927. 
SDA. Hnx 7. Voiohahl P.O.. 
Tokyo Fu. (Tol. ORlkuho .111. 

(ilhhH. Itev. Maurl.-e A.. & W. 
(A). 1!)1H. \VM. .185 Shlinn 
Mf-puro. Tokyo Kuka. 

<ilhMon. Miss Martha. 1924. I CMS. 

(A>. < o CCMS Missions HulM- 

\r>K. Indianapolis, Inil.. I .S.A. 
(illli Npli*. Miss .loan. 191T,. T CC, 

(A). Parry Sound. Ontario, 

Canada. 
<.|lli-H|.v. Miss .1. C.. 1902. .IKH. 

m Okano Shlta. Fuku< hlyama, 

Kyoto F... 

(illl.-tt. H-v C. S \- W.. 1921. 

AHCFM. 1?, Okl Cho. Senilai. 
(illl-tt. Miss 10. H.. lK9f,. IM>. 

12:: Kashlwa^i Yo.l.il.aHhl. T..- 

kyo Fu. 

<it. Miss Anm-tt.-. 1915. MKS. 
:t. r . Nakayamate Dori. 4 Chomi-. 
Kobe. 

(.IJICH.T, Miss Martin. 192.1. JAM. 
(A) 1 l.t (Irani St.. Stockto. Cal.. 
f.S.A. 

J.oldsinlih, Miss M O. 192. CMS. 
m Sasayama Cho .T Chomi-. 
Km urn.-. 

(iorbolil. Mrs It P.. IS .H . p\. 
(At. Parkvllle. Mo, C.S.A. 

(iordon. Mrs. AKnes F)., 1H7L . 
AHCFM. ( IliMlreil t. Tera Marh| 
Dori. Itnadi-Kuwa Sak aru. Kyo 
to. 

<.ov,-nl.Mk, Miss I . 1912. I CC. 14 

Salt. . in. In, Doll. K.ina/au.i Shi. 

(Tel. K.07). 
(.rtilmi. It.-v M. C . A. \V., 1929. 

PCC. Talhoku. FormoMH. 
(inivi-M, Miss St.-lla M.. 1922. 

\HCFM. (A). 99 Clarniont 

AVI-., N.Y.C.. I .S.A. 
<ru>. MIMM Cladys \ . 191*0. PK. 

(A). o Churrh MIsMlon lloun.-. 

2K1 Fourth Aviv. N.Y.C.. f.S.A. 
(irrrn. Itev. C. P. ft W. 1917. 

CM A. 1 mali hi M.I. In, ShliUMtic 

Ken. 



JAPAN 



(reenbank. Mis 
FCC, Kiwa J 
(."ho. Kofu Sh 

<ir<>HHllt, Mr. .?. 



< K. M., 1920, 
> Gakko, Atago 

(Tel. 591). 
F.. W.. 1907, 



Hall, Miss Margaret. Hokuriku 
.lo Gakko, Kanazawa. 



AHF, 12 Hachiyamu, 
Tokvo Fu. 



libuya, 



Grime*. Miss Nettie, 1928, AG, 1 

Itchome, Gokiso Cho, Yeikin 
Clio, Naka Ku, Nagoya. 
(-rlswold. Miss Fannie K.. 1889, 

AHCFM. 132 Iwagami Cho, 
Maebashi. 
<;roH. Mr. K. A. C.. 1928, IND, 

28f> Nishigahara, Tokyo. 
<irovT, Mr. D. I.. X- W.. AHCFM, 

(A). 1::10 K. Acacia Ave., Glen- 
dale. Cal.. I .S.A. 
(.iibl.ins. Miss G. M.. 1925, IND. 

(A), N onington. Dover, Kent, 

England. 
(inlirk. Mrs. F. S., AHCFM, (A). 

K. Manoa Rd., Honolulu, T.H. 
(illllrk. Miss .1. A. K., AHCFM. 

(At. HiriO Armstrong lid.. Ho 
nolulu. T.H. 
<iuli-k. Mr. heeds. & W.. 1921, 

1922. AHCFM, 55 Nibancho, 

Matsuyama. 
(illllck. Rev. S. I... \- W.. AHCFM. 

(A). 102 K. 22nd St.. New York 

City. T.S.A. 
(iiiHliue-Ta.vlor. Dr. G.. M.H.H.S., 

F.R.C.S.. K- \V.. 1!)11. PCC. Tai- 

h..ku. Formosa. 
(ixvlnn. Miss Alii 

AHCFM. Di Shish: 

Kyoto. 

H 

lla kett, Mr. H. \V.. ,*; AV. 

AHCFM. 22 Nakayamate 

li Chome. Kobe. 
lladen. T. II.. D.D.. IS!):,. MKS. 

Kwansi-i Gakuin, Nishinomiya 

Shigai. Hyogo Ken. (Tel. San- 

nomiva 360S). 



., MKFH, 
.Nagasaki. 



ll:iK.-li. Miss 
Kwassui .l 
(Tel. HIT, ). 

llll|fT, Miss Hlanche D., 1!U .). 
MKS. l.ambuth .lo Gakuin. Ishi- 
Katsuji Ch<i. Tennoji Ku, Osaka. 

IIUK T, Hev. S. K.. D.D., \- W.. 

IS!):;, MKS. ll O Goken Yashiki. 

Hlmejl. 
llulK, M*ss Mary T.. l!)27, CCC, 

47 Nic-honie. Kamei.lo. Tokyn 

Ku. (Tel. Suinida : ,102). 



K . . 1 S 9 S . P N . , 739 
Sumiyoshi Ku, 



Hail. Mrs. .1 
Kitabataki 

Osaka. 

llailsioii". Miss M. K., SPG. 360 
Sanko Cho. Shiba, Tokyo. 

Ilaines. Miss Hazel, 1926, YWCA. 
72 Rokuchome, Ota Machi. 
Yokohama. (Tel. Honkyoku 

176S). 

HaJl. Rev. M. K.. & \V., 1915, 
AHCFM. (A), <v<> American 
Hoard. 14 Heacon St., Hoston, 
Mass.. I .S.A. 

Halsey. Miss L. S.. 1904. PN. 
.loshi Gakuin. 33 Kaminihan- 
cho. Kojimachi Ku. Tokyo. 

Hamilton. Miss F. G.. 1917, I CC. 
(A). 6X4 St. Mark s Ave.. 
Hrooklyn, N.Y.. U.S.A. 

Hamilton. Miss F., 1914, MSCC, 
Sliinta Machi. Matsumoto. 

Hamilton. Ht. Rev. Hishop. & W.. 
1S!)2, MSCC, 43 Higashi Kataha 
Machi, Nagoya. 

Hamilton, Miss K. M.. 1924. CMS, 
II igashigashi Dori, 4 Chome, 
Tsukishima. Tokyo. 

Hammel. Miss Ksther. 1924. KC. 
(A), 10SO \Yoodview Rd., Cleve 
land Heights, Ohio. I .S.A. 

Hampton, Miss Mary S.. 1861. 
MKFH. (Retired). (A), 2017 
Delaware St., Herkeley, Cal., 
I .S.A. 

Hancock. Miss Klizabeth. 192S. 
PS. 3 Higashi Chikara. Machi, 

Ilimnaffinl. Hev. U. Ti . & W.. 

1915. PN .. Meiji Gakuin, Shiro- 

kane. Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 
Hannah. Miss I.olita, 1!I25. SHC. 

Seinan .lo Gakuin, Ito/.u, Ko- 

kura . 
IlaiiNen. Miss Kate I.. Mus. !>.. 

1!)()7, RCl S, Hi .luniken Cho, 

Komegafukuro. Sendai. (Tel. 

:; c, 7: ,). 

Harder. Miss llelene. 1!>27. I>CA, 
Hunka Apartments, Hongo. To 
kyo. (Tel. Koishlkawa 5901). 

Harder. Miss Martha. 1926, I.CA. 
Kyushu .Jo Gakuin, Kumamoto 
Sliigai. 

Hare. Rev. 10. W., 1925, IND. 
c o Mr. Argall, 36 Shimo- 
> a mate, .", Chome, Kobe. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST ;107 

Harr MOP. li-v K II.. .V W.. SPG. Hereford. K.-v. \V. I- .. !>!>.. & 

Al MM. Hsu Sankawa Cho, \V . jyi i 1 . PN. is;i Kokutuiji 

Chiha. Mai-lii. Hiroshima. 

HuHKcll. It.-v. A. P.. ].!>.. \- W.. HiTt/l.T, Miss \Vrna S.. IH . T. KC. 

I .tii i. PS. Titkusliiina Hon. ho. IKS Tak.-haya Cho, KoishikawH. 

Tokusliiina. (K.C. Osaka OT:!! :}). Tokyo. 

lliiNMfll. H.-v. .1. \V . & W.. I ll;,. ll.-Nt.-r. Miss MatKar.-t \V.. IHL S. 

PS. i A i. c/o Mox :i.".o. Nasli- PK. Karasumaru I>ori. Shinio- 

\lll-. T.-nn.. T.S.A. tai-hi-l ri A^aru. Kyoto. 

1 1 it tli i way. Miss M . AKH^S. 190. r >. ll< t lirrlnict on. Miss Nellie. l!tjr,. 

f;c. Mia. kinfr Mom.-. f)0 Taka- JUM. (\). 1 ; Alf-xan.l.-r U.I.. 

t.i (>iiiiatxu Clio. Koishikawa, MlrkenhiM l. Knj, lan.l. 

ir-.t\vuol. Miss C. C.-rtru.lo. l .<04, 

llnvrn. Miss MarKuerit.-. I .UG. J>K St Marrarcf.s School Ta- 

AMK. (A). l !H < larMii..nt Ave., kal(1 ,, . Mlir:i Tokyo Ku. 

Illhbiiril. Miss Kstlu-r. AMCKM. 

Hu>vklnM. MisH Kran.cs. 1!L 0. Doshistia .In (Jakko Kyoto 

MS < 1 Clionif Shirakalie Cho. 

Illlhurn. H.-v S. M . * \V . 1 -:!. 

MKS K \\.-insoi (lakuin, Nislii- 

lluwklnH. Miss Viol.-t^H.. AMCKM. n( ,, niva shi^ai. Uyw K-n. 

y 



Aoyan.a Oakuln. Tokyo. ^^ ^^^ K ^ 

"T^ ^^ ^r^- r^. J -i-i. H.,, ,.. , w.. .sno. ,,,,, 
chur.l, Mo us... WeBtminster ! CMS. (Iletlreil). Senlio Cho T- 

hon.lon S\V 1. " Slli "k -ka K.-n. ( I- .< - 

ll,,.tn. Miss Carrie A, 1893. 

MKKM. (K.-tir.-.l). (A). 545 Illttlf. -Miss I ..r..t hy. l . l .. 

Irving PI < ulvM- City Cal.. -> Hodono AtaK<> Clio. Aklta. 

Hoar.-. Miss 1>. K.. I .MS. .IKM. 
II. .-Ul. -111:111. U.-v I- . \V.. I ).!).. \- 101".* Tonoslii Kl.ara Ma. -hi. 

\V.. i:t..;. MKKM. . , Aoyama : Tokyo. 

" y;lI11H ! llo,l K ,.H. Miss C)||ve I.. I! - . Ml . 

Klwa .1.. Cakko Malta Ma. 111. 

ll.-ln, It.-v. K. \V . \- W.. HtL 4. | Yokoliania (T.-l Chojaina.hi 
LCA. IT. . Xakano Haslii. K.iJI. j LM0.1). 

llo.-UJ.- K -v Willis < ... . C- W-. 
"1>. Mr. : j,,,,; p.,,,,/ KCA Mi^asl.! 

:tS |).-n.-n Chofu. Tokyo Ku. mate. Nagasaki 

M.-ltil.rl.ll.-. Miss Mary. 11^7. LCA. i (>ka i(isl). 

lloirnmn. Mi- -Mary K . .93. 

1MTS. :i.\ M.-ill <5akuln. Shlro- 
M.-iM|Ht.-n,|. Miss Kth.-l L.. 1!2.. k{|n ,. sl ,||,,, Tokyo. 

,,..n,,H.UH. K.-V. K. C, * W, ; \^^ ^^^^. 7^. 

i:L l. I-CMS. * Shlmo lion. ho. ! 

T.mikljl. Aklla Shi. lliilm^i. K-v. C. * ^ 

lli-nnlKiir. It.-v. K C . !>.!>.. A- 



\V.. I m:,. I CC. L :t Kaiultoinl- 



Ktiki 



ll.ilm.-M. It.-v .1 C . 
ll.-ntv. Miss A. M.. I!i05. CMS. 

HlKUMhlKHMhl |),,rl. 4 Cho.,,.-. < "! . I .S.A. 

llollll.-M. Mr- 

ll.-|in.-r. It.-v. C. W . * \V.. 1 !.:. 

H Kuriiyashlkl Anhlya. || |, oni . U,. v . I . . Pl,l>. DD. 

H >* K-n. t<c . u - ,.,, AMK. No. 20 

ll.-r.-r.inl. Miff. (Ira..-. 1 CT,. PN. . Koina/awa Ma. 

(A). l..-l,an.,n. Tvnn.. L .y.A. Tokyo Ku. (T.-l. Srtatfaya tiT4. 



308 



JAPAN 



Horn. Kev. E. T.. D.D., & W., 

Ittll, LCA, 01 1 Shinio Sagino- 

niiya, Xogata Maclii, Tokyo Fu. 

(Tel. Ogikubo 950). 
Home, Miss A. C. .!., 100C, CMS, 

Kitako.ii Nobeoka Maclii, Miya- 

y.aki Ken. 
Horobln, Miss H.. 1921!, MSCC, 

Inariyama. Shinshiu. 
Howard, Miss Aimee. 1928, PX, 

Hokusei Jo Gakko, Sapporo. 
Howard, Miss U. I)., 1891, CMS. 

til Asabi Cho. 2 Chome, Sumi- 

yosbi Ku, Osaka. (Tel. Ebisu 

1486). 
Howe, Miss Annie L.. ABCFM, 

(A), c/o Mr. C. F. Howe, Ft. 

Valley, (la.. U.S.A. 
Howell. Rev. X. S.. 1 ILMj, i E, 

Hodono Xaka Ch... Akita. 
Ilowey, Miss Harriet M., 191ti, 

MEFM. (A). S1L W. North St., 

Lima. Obi... U.S.A. 
lloyt. Miss olive S., 1902, AHCFM, 

.:> Kotojin Macbi, .} Cboine, 

Matsuyamu. 
Humphreys, Miss Marian, 1915. 

PE. Sbiken Cho. Xikko. 
lluntley. Mr. Frank. \- \V.. 

ABCFM. Karasumaru Dori, 

Ichijo Sagaru, Kyoto. 
Hurd, Miss H. H., 1911. UCC. 

(A), c/o Mrs. A. S. Hurlburt, 

Ycrnon. B.C., Canada. 
HllHted. Miss Edith E., 1917. 

AHCFM, 59 Xakayamate Uori, f, 

Chome. Kobe, 
lint, hif.,,11. Uev. A. C., <!Cr VV ., 

190!(. IfiK . CMS. S50 Kopiion- 

iii, 1 1 MI. Fukuoku. 
HntchlnHon, Kev. E. C.. & W., 

191H. 1919. CMS, (A), 57 Oak- 

lell H<l., Clifton, IJristol, Eng 
land. 



UN-hart, Kev. C . W.. D.D.. \- W., 

190n. 1!11, .MKFH. li Xaka Cho, 

Yotsuya Kn. Tokyo. 
Ul.-b.iri. Hev. E. T.. S.T.D.. & 

W.. 19"l, MEFH, Aoyania (iaku- 

in. Tokyo. 
iHuar. Miss I. L.. 1918. MSCC. 

(A). 99. ! Lome Ave., London, 

Ontario. Canada. 



M-kHun, Kev. K. H.. 1927. PE. 
Haniada oklnoshiina, Yokkaichi, 
Alii- Ken. 



Jean, Miss Frances E.. 19^9. I E. 

St. Barnabas Hospital, Saiku- 

dani Clio, Tonnoji, Osaka. 
.IcnkinH, Kev. C. Kees, <t W., 

1925, PS, Maegawa Cho, Toku- 

shinia. 
.Icnl.itis. Mrs. .1. Allen, ABCFM, 

(A), 543") Hadden Ave., Chicago 

111.. U.S.A. 
.l.-nUins. Miss Louise F.. 1920. 

AHF, 2 Xakajima Cho, Sendai. 
Jesse, Miss Mary I)., 1911 ABF, 

5 Xakajima Cho, Sendai. 
Johnson. Miss Emma M., 1929, 

PE, St. Margaret s School, Ta- 

kaido Mura, Tokyo Fu. 
Johnson, Miss Katherine. 1922, 

MES, Hiroshima Girls School, 

Kaininagarekawii Cho, Hiro 
shima. 
Johnson, Mr. Theodore, 192 i, 

.JAM. P.O. Box 5, Ikoma P.O., 

Nara Ken. 
Johnson, Miss T.. 1927, PE, St. 

Agnes School, Kyoto. 

Johnstone, Miss .1. M., 19115, PX, 
Sturgos Seminary, Maruyama 
Cho, Shimonoseki. 

Jones, Dr. Frank M.. iSL- W., 1929. 
PE. St. Barnabas Hospital, 
Saikudani Cho, Tennoji. Osaka. 

Jones, Kev. H. P., & W., 190X, 
MES. (A). Board of Missions, 
Box 510, Xashiville, Tenn., 
U.S.A. 

Jones, Mr. Tudor .1.. .SL- W., 1924, 
.1KB. Kitashin Machi, Sasayama 
Cho, Taki Gun, Hyogo Ken. 

Jorgensen, Mr. A., & W., 1912, 
YMCA-A, 22 Gochome, Fujimi 
Clio, Kojimachi, Tokyo. (Tel. 
Kudan 25.T1). 

Jost, Miss Eleanor, 1928, UCC, 90 
Hoeikami Cho, Fukui Shi. 

Jost, Miss H. .1.. 189S, UCC, (A), 
Bridgetown, Nova Scotia, Ca 
nada. 

Judsmt, Miss Cornelia, 18X7. 
ABCFM, 42 Xibancho, Matsu- 

Jnergensen, Miss Agnes, 1913, AG. 
1 iCt; Takinogawa Machi, Tokyo 
Ku. 

In. ru.-n-. ii. Kev. C. F., & W., 
191::. AG. Kititi Takinogawa 
Machi, Tokyo Fu. 

JuerKensen, Mr. .1. W.. & W., 

1919, AG. 1 Eikin Cho, Gokiso 
Machi, Xaka Ku. Xagoya. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 309 

.liKTKt-nNcn. Miss Marie. 1913. ACI. Knudten, Uev. A. C.. \- W.. 1920. 
l;;i; Takln.iRawa Mac-hl. Tokyo I..CA, 25S Mot,,k<i| Chlku;t 

Fu. Ma, lii. Hijja.HliI Ku. Nagoya. 

Ko< h, Mr. Alfred. A W.. 1924. 
K SDA. HJ4S Sohara fi Chome. 

NtMhi-Shin MHchl. Fukuoka. 
Kan,-. M Marion. AHCFM (A). Kraf( Mr K j w 

S , )A Hox . Vo.lolmHhl P.n.! 
Tokyo. (Tel. Otflkubo Til). 
Kur,.,,. Kov. A.. & W.. 1917. LEF. Kramer. Miss I,oi K.. 1917 KC. 

(A.. Ktola HeHperiunk 34. A. (A) ,. s , ..... mJH st ,, 

Melinki. Suonil, Finland. ville 111 t" S A 

Kaufman. Miss Kinma U.. 191H. Krhler. II, -V. \V. W . \- \V.. 19JO. 

VWCA. 12 Klta K.Ka Cho. ,..,, ,,. ( . iBaH , )lyiunute . 

Kan, la. Tokyo. (Tel. Kan, la Na^asa ki. ( F.<\ Fukuoka 1 9364 >. 

Krlete. Kev. C. 1). & W.. 1911. 

Kaufmann. MJKS Irono I... 192;,. , rrs ufi M , Kusht sunhani-h... 

YWCA. in ,,no.e. Saru^aku S en,lal. (K.l\ Tokyo 794:tl). 

<T "- KHn - Ku,oU,,h. M,,s Qertrud. 1922. K C. 
310 Siil.niida Marhi. Tokyo 



4S Third St.. Daltun. Ma**.. 



Kellam. Mrs. Lucile C.. 192S. PK. 



Fuki 



St. I.uko s MoMpital. Tukiji, 

T,,kvo Kii.vpor. K.-v. Hul.ert. \ W, lull. 

1912. K( .\. 1H52 Nakajlnni t ra, 
Keiinaril. Kf\. .1. S. Jr., Ph.TX. 

l.;tt D.. & \V.. 1920. 192: ,. AHF. j 
l.S"4 Hixen Mac hi, Mlto. 

Kenned.v. Miss Clara R. I NO. - 

Kennlon. MIB.M olive. 1921. SPC. La ,,,. Miss Helen K.. 1922. PK. 

2 ,.f 1824 Maruyama Cho. Shlmo- s , j. u ke H Hospital. TsuklJI. 

noseki. Tokyo. 

K,-rr. Kfv. Win. C.. & W.. 1908. ] ,, ak ,. K ,. v j. r TI..M.. * W.. 

:: MitHuun.l,.. Seoul. 191t; ,,_ Ni L , Nlsh , ,j c honif. 

K " rf :i - Klta Shlcliljo. Sapporo. 

K.-ttlew-ll. Kev. F.. & W.. 190.-,. |, Mmul ,t. Miss Helen. 1927, 

SI <:. 1 of I.Vir, Ax.a KlMhimoto, AHCF.M. K.,l,e Jo ;akuln. Ya- 

MlkiiKe Clio. Hyotco Ken. mamoto Duri. 4 Clioine. Kot.e. 

Klllnirn. Miss Rli/al.etl, H.. 1919. , umolt K ev W C. * W.. 1919. 

. MlKaHhl Saml.anrho. |>N Me(J| ,; llkllln si.irokane, 

Shll.a Ku. Tokyo. 

Kllluni. MiM Ada 19<>2. I CC. !..; 1|n ,., |Hl ,. r MlflH r K .. 192... SMC. 

ll..ek.ml Cho. Fukut s,i. "Jinan -I" <5kln. "" K - 

iJlluboron.h, l-r D.vld. * W., 
1H9& 1909. KP.M. Shlnro Shoka. 
Klrkaldy. Miss M . 1924. JKM. FormoHii 

I.HH,. Miss K A. 19,2. CMS. 
^arusl.mden. Anhlya. llyK 
Klrtlund. M!MH Leila C,.. 1910. PS. K f) 

,^. Mrs. Harold M. AHCKM. 
Kit i 11 lo NlMhl f, Cliome. 
Kindt. Miss Ann M., 1922. AHF. 

Illldo TralnlriK Sc h(.o|. Imanato 

CM,,,. MlKanhl. Y.Mloicawa Ku. l^n*. Kev. K, 192 

iMaka (F.C. omika 773f,2). i Mlyatanl Klkuna Marhl. 

(Tel. Klta 7005). hama. 

KniiTip Doa.-onoHH Sunan T.. 191S. Ijm^lnB. M!HH Harriet M.. 

PK. St. Paul H rnlvprmty. Ike- IK A. (Hftlre.l). (A). 2. p , K. .. 

l.ukuro. Tokyn. St.. New York City. I .S.A. 

Knl|>,.. P.ev J. KdKar. A W.. 1900. !.*. K,-x . C,, .,.. 

I M. Mild era Shlta. Kamlde. l27. I(C.\. Nlxlil Iforlli 

otsti. Saica. 



310 



JAPAN 



Layman, He 



H. 



\V.. 1S9.-,. MI>, 4:: Chokyuj 
Maclii, Na B oya. 



L.. D.D., and Lloyd. Kev. .1. H., and W., 190S. 



1914. PK. (A). L Sl Fourth Av 
Xe\v York City, U.S.A. 
Lloyd. Miss M.. JRM. 1(12 Kita 
Yobam-ho. Sendai. (Tel. 3:51")). 
I.,,, Ku, ,,!, Rev. (Jeo. C.. and W.. 
AHCFM. Kusaie. Caroline Is 
lands. 
Leu, Miss L.. 1927. SPC,. r,i;r, Miya- Locan, Uev. C 



Lea. Rt. liov. Artliur, D.D.. and 
W., 1.S97. 1900, CMS, :((>:( Kami 
Haruyoshi, Fukuoka. (June to 
Oct.) (A). Church House. West 
minster. London S.W. 1. 



is. 1929. rcc, 

Shizuoka Slii. 



no-Ushira. Harada. Kobe. (Tel 
Fukiai : .477). 

Learned, Kev. ]). W.. and W 
AHCFM. (A). r,20 Mayflower 
ltd.. Claremont. Cal.. T .S.A. 

Ledlard. Miss Klla. 19U, UCC, 12 
Atfata Maclii. Xa^ano Shi. 

Lee, Miss L.. 1927. SPC. 4 of fin 
Xakayamate Dori. H Chome, 

Lee, Miss Mabel, 19<li;. MKFR, 2 

HiKashi Samliancho, Sendai. 
Le(ialley, Mr. ("has. M.. 1929. 

KCUS. C9 Katahira Cho. Sendai! 
Lehman. Miss 

Kiwa Jo Cakl 

(Tel. 1117). 

Leinlmjer, Rev. A. A.. S.T.I)., and 
\V.. 1922. 1!*21. K(". :>()() Shimo 
Ochiai Machi. Tokyo Fu. 

I.emmon, Miss Vivian, 1929. Y.M.I, 
1 Xaka Cho. Yotsuya, Tokyo. 

Under,,,. Rev. K.. and \V.. 1917. 
LKF. (A), Sip,,,,, Suomi. Fin- 

LiiKlHay, Miss Oliva C., 191J. UCC 
Kiwa Jo C.akko. Shizuoka! (Tel 
1417). 

LindMey. Miss Lydia A.. 1907, 
UCUS. Hi Juniken Cho, Koma- 
Kalukuro. Sendai. (Tel. :tt ,7:!). 

LlndNtrom, Mrs. H., (Retired), 
< MA. IS Kitano Cho, Sanchonie, 

Linn. Rev. .1. A.. 
LCA. Kamita 

Shimonoseki. 

Linn. Rev. .1. K.. and W.. 191. ,. 
LCA. IS7 Asa^aya, Tokyo Fu. 

Llppard, Miss Faith. 192. ,, LCA. 
< A ). < o Hoard ,,f Foreign Mis 
sions. IS K. Ml. Vernon PI., Hal- 
tiruore. Md.. U.S.A. 

LIviiiKHton, Miss Anne A.. 191.",, 
KPM. ( A ). c o Presbyterian 
om,-i.M. 1 -, Russell S<|., London 
W.C. 1. 

191 



A.. D.D., 1902, 
hiiiui Machi, Toku- 



Lombard, Uev. F. A., and AV., 

AHCFM. (A), ;io Water-town 

St.. Xe vtonville, Mass., T .S.A. 
London, Miss M. H.. 1907. PX, 

Joshi (Jakuin, li, ! Kami Xiban- 

cho. Kojimachi Ku. Tokyo. 
l.oomls. Miss Clara I).. 1901, "U U. 

(\). co :;ir> Hible House. Xew 

York City. U.S.A. 
Lorimer. Kev. A. I.. AHCFM. (A). 

Union Theological Seminary. 

120th. St.. U.Y.C., T .S.A. 
Lory. Mr. Frank 15., and W., 

YMCA-T. Hokkaido Imperial 

T ni versi ty, Sa]>i)oro. 
Luben, Rev. Harnerd M.. 1929. 

RCA. 2 Mei.ii Gakuin, Shiro- 

kane. Shiba. Tokyo. 
Lnmpkiii. Miss Kstella. 1911. PS. 

Tokushima lloncho, Tokushima. 
LiiHby, Miss Ma.jel. 192S. YM.l. 

1 Xaka Cho, :\ Chome. Yotsuya. 

Tokyo. 

Lulliy. R 

MKFH. 

Sendai. 
Lye, Miss Florence. 1929, JAM, 

Hox :,. Ikoina P.O., Xara Ken. 
Lynn. Miss Ha/el A.. 1921, Y\ U. 

(A). :U: Hible House, Xew 

York City, T .S.A. 



S. U.. and \V.. 1922, 
HiKashi Sambancho, 



>1 



MooCauHlund, Miss Isabelle. 1920, 

\HCFM. Kobe Jo Oakuin. 

Yaniainoto Dori. 4 ("home. 

Kobe. 
Ma, donald. Miss Caroline, 1904. 

IXD, 10 Sakae Cho, Shiba Ku. 

Tokyo. (Tel. Shiba 22C.1). 
MaeKay. Mr. C.eo. W.. and W., 

1911. PCC. Tamsui. Formosa. 

.Mackenzie. Miss V. M.. 1919, PX, 
Hokusei Jo C.akko. Sapporo. 

MackiiitoNli. Miss S. K., 191B. 
KPM. Presbyterian C.irls 

Si-liool. Tainan. Formosa. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 311 

Ma, I, o,l. K.-v. Dun, -an. and W.. MrCulch. Mr. .1. M.. 1S92. 1ND. 

r.io;. KPM. (A). 1; Oak Mount <Ai, 2229 Dot-rinw Court, Louln- 

Kd . Toronto, Canada. vill,-. Ky.. f.S.A. 

M.i, Mlllim. K.-v. Himh. and XV.. Mi-Call. K.-v. C. F.. and XV.. 1908, 

1924. PCC. TaniHui. Formosa. I C.MS. :!5 Nakano Cho. Irhi- 

Ma,h.,n. K..v M. M.. and XV.. 1 895. 

IND 99 Tt>iiiuiabii.shl Sujl 1 MrCliirr, Dr. H. H., and XV.. 1927. 

Chon.e. Kita Ku. Osaka. I>C( - (A >- " l (>r KrelKn 

Mission ( >IMc . 299 QutM-n St. 
Ma. I, lux. Miss Lois. 1924. MKS. w Toronto Can 

>lr ov. Kev. It. D.. and XV. 1904. 
;.U,e: ( Tenn. Ut r.s n r ^ NaSh " ^^ ^ " " ^ ^~ 



H.-v. \V. F.. and W.. 



.. In.lianapnli.s. l,,d.. C.S.A. 
.Miss C. H.. 19U>. PN. 



. . . .. . . 

UoN> Kin.lerKarten. K, Tomioka 
Tho. 1 ChoiiH . <)taru. 
Miikchiim. MISK K.. 19UL . MSCC. McDonalil. Miss M. D. 1911. I N. 

Kilxurit- Ike. Nagano. Woman s Christian CollK*. 

Mann. Kev. J. P.. and \V.. 1905. 

19HS, C.MS. (A>. 1H AKanifUinon >lc-(illl. Miss Mary H.. 19L-S. I K. 

ltd.. \V. Haiiipst-ad. London .Ji/.o, Kusatsu. Cuinnia Ken. 

>lc(;rath. Miss Ktta, S.. 1917. I K. 
Mann. U-v. 1.,-land W.. and \V.. Ka rasiiina ru Dori. Shlnn.tarhi- 

AUCFM. r,4:, Tokoshi. Kl.ara Tri. Kyoto. |T,-1. Nishijin 

Cho. Tokyo. , 237L 1 ). 

MimNflelil. Miss Lillian M.. MrOnilh. Miss Vi,d,-t. 191 S. .IKM. 

AHCKM. K.d).- Cc.ll.-K -. Yama- I ll Kit;, Vol,an,-ho. Scndal. 

moto l> lir i, 4 Choin,-. Kobe. <T,-1. s.-ndai :::t!5). 

Marnh Miss Car.dyn 19L l. YWCA. Mrllualn,-. ll-v \V. A., l!M!t. PS. 

] . , NlHhl M K | Ma, -hi. Kita. (A). H.,\ :i:: Xashvill,-. Tenn.. 

Osaka. (T.-l. Kita 1;!00). IVS.A. 

M.in.l.ll. i:.-v. I,. F.. and \V.. .M.-llwiiln,.. llov. W. H.. I>.D.. and 

1 .!:. I ll -i. KI M. (A(. ClasKow. \V.. 1 W... 1 S. l :M Stil.lo I>"ri. 



1 






Martin. Kev. D P.. and XV.. 192:!. M.-lnne*. 

1-..29. PN. VninHKUflU. Ya.na- (A). Ifi^ Alexander K.I.. Mlrk.-n- 

Martln. Miss Ivlna M.. 192S. K(TS. M * f f !" 11 1 /V^* 

ir.S Hil-ashi Siiinl.unfh... Sondal. ^ NN / -^. y ^ > ( . ^ 



" <>ri MeK|^v. I> U .>..... and 
\V isvs CCC 2:1 Kami Toiul- 

Miittli-\VN. K.-v. W. K . and W.. /;lk . | ,.,,,, K olshlka wa . Tokyo. 

1902. MKS. Kwans.-i Cakuln. rT,-l K.iishlkawa f.nst. ( K.C. 

NlMhlnomlya ShlK"l. My"k oK,-n. Tokyo 249S>. 

Malik. M|HM I.aura. 1915. KC S4 Mi-Klni. M Ns P.,-ssi<-. 1904. PK 

SasuKaya. h-.. KolHhikawa. To- ;>> K |ta Kuruwa Cho. Mar- 

kyo. iT.-l. KolHlilkawa 354*.). l.aHhl. 

MayT. It.-v. P. .. I.l>. . and W . McKltii. U,-\ .1. Col,-, and \V . 

1909. KC. . .on Slilmo <)<-hlHl 1 H I PK. L 14 -Mayania MH, hi. 

Ma, hi. Tokyo Fu. Korlyaina Shi. 

MrAlptnr. Mr .Iain<-H A.. 1929. M.KIin. Itt lt,-v. John. l I> . 

ItCA. 1C llitfa.slil Ytirnnlo. NIIRH- and \V (A). 1SHX. PK. Anu-r- 

i-akl. ;..,,, Chut, h MlHMlon. lk-l>ukuro, 

M, \l|iln.-. IC.-v It. K. Dl).. an. I Toky,. 

XV.. 1HH5. 1SH7. PS. A null I M, Klin. Mlns N,-lll-. 1915. PK. 

Ma, hi. Toyohaxhl. : 4 1 1 Naku Ma, hi. Crawa 



312 



JAPAN 



M< Kitimm, Miss Claire, 1921, 
V\VCA, 10 Omote SaruRaku 
(Mm. Kanda, Tokyo. (Tel. 

Kanda 2652). 

MrKi.iuln. Hev. W. Q. and W., 
l!20, CC, 41 Karahori Clio, 
Sendai. (F.C. Sendai 4ti30). 

Mcl.achlari. Miss Annie May, 1024. 
I CC. 324 Hyakkoku Machi, 
Kolu Shi. (Tel. 116). 

MrLeod. Miss A. ()., 1910. I CC. 
Marubori Cho, Ueda Shi. Naga 
no Ken. 

M. V.imlit.m. Hev. R. R., and W., 
1928. IXD. 7SS Na^ata Shimo- 
nuniabukuro, Tokyo Fu. 

MrSpnrren. Dr. Jos. I.., and W.. 
1fi~ Yamashita Cho, Yokohama; 
and 25 Sakurada Machi, Azahu, 
Tokyo. 

Mi-Williams. Hev. W. H., and W., 
19K. FCC. 14 Nakatakajo 
Mach!. Kanaxawa. 

Mead. Miss Hessie. 1904, PR, 
Kasuini (Mio. Vainapata Shi. 

Meiith, Miss Aurelia ().. 1929 
UCC. S Toriixaka, Azahu, To 
kyo. (Tel. , r ,S4r, ). 

Mellne. Miss Atfnes S.. 1919, AHF, 
:ii:U Kana^awa Machi. Yoko 
hama. (Tel. Honkyoku (2) 
2 1 7 r> ) . 

Mereer. Hev. F. R.. H.D., S 
Sakae (Mio, Shiba, Tokyo. 

M.TI-IH-HH. Mrs. Harry. AHCFM, 
(A), co Blanche Moss. 74f> At 
lantic Ave.. I-onR Heach Cal., 
U.S.A. 

Merrill. Miss Katherine. 1924. 
AHCFM. ;:, Kotojln Machi. San- 
clioine. Matsuyaina. 

MyrrH, Hev. .1. T.. D.I)., an.l W., 
ISO. 1 !. I!t2ti. MRS. Rki Mae. 
Ashiya. Muko C.un. Hyo>, o Ken. 

Ml.kle. Mr. .1. .1., an.l W.. 1921, 
MRS. Kwansei Gakuin. Xishi- 
nomiya Shijfai, Hyogo Ken. 

Mi.Mletoii, Mr. Herbert, l.ND. 792 
KitiKaya, Osaki Machi. Tokyo 
Ku. 

MH N. Miss Mary. 1921, PN. Ho- 
kuriku Jo Cakko, Kanaxawa. 
Kagn. 

Mlllurd. Mr. F. H.. and W.. 1929. 
SDA. Kanno Mura. Kimitsu 
(lun, (Miiba Ken. 

.Milh-r, Mr. A. lain W., and W.. 
l!tJL . C<L (At. 41 :t S. Hobin- 
.s,.n St.. ^jilllmt>re. Mil.. U.S.A. 



Miller, Miss Alice, 789, Semi a - 

Kaya, Tokyo Fu. 
Miller. Miss Rrma I... 192C, MM, 

Otfaki. Gifu Ken. 
Miller, Miss Rdna, AFP, P,0 Koun 

Cho, Mita Shiba, Tokyo. 
Miller. Hev. II. K.. D.D.. and \V.. 

1S92. 1888. HCl S. (A). 24. 1 ! X. 

Sixtli St., lieadint, Pa., U.S.A. 
Miller. Hev. I,. S. C... D.D., and 

W.. 1907. LCA, Kyushu Gakuin, 

Kumumoto. 
Mllln, Hev. R. O., and \V., 1908. 

1900. s]iC. 1041 Xarutaki Maclii 

Xa Sasaki. 
MiiiUUincii. liev. P., 1905, LEF, 

Kami-lida, Nagano Ken. 
Monk. Miss A. M., 1904, PN.. (A). 

c o Miss F. R. Monk, Green- 

born, Md.. \intil Dec. 31. 19HO. 

From Jan. 1. 19. il to Mar. 31, 

19IU: (i. lO.") P iftieth Ave. S.W., 

Seattle. Wash.. I .S.A. 
Montgomery, Hev. W. E., B.D., 

and W., 1909, 1910. RPM. 

Shinro Tainan. Formosa. 
Moody, Rev. C. X., D.D.. and W., 

189,"). 1919. RPM, (A), co Pres 
byterian Offices, ir> Russell Pq. 

London W.C. 1. 
Moon, Miss M. T!.. MKF13. 9 

Aoyama Gakuin, Tokyo. 
Moore. Hev. H. C.. and \V., 1924, 

RCA. 2 of 71 Kyo Machi, 3 

Chome, Kurume. 

Moore, liev. .1. W., D.D.. an.l W.. 

1S90. 1S93. T S, (A). Box 330 

Xasliville, Tenn.. I .S.A. 

Moore. Hev. I.. W., and W.. 1924. 

PS. Atsu Ume Cho, 1 Chome. 

Gifu Shi. 

Moran. Hev. S. F.. and W., 191C,, 

AMCFM, Taisha Maru. Hyogo 

Ken. 

Morehead, Mr. M. I)., and AV., 
IXD. Ota Machi, Ibaraki Ken. 

MorKiin. Miss A. R.. 1889. PN. 
(A), c o PN. Hoard of Foreign 
Missions, 15 Fifth Ave., N.Y.C., 
U.S.A. 

MorrlH, Rev. J. K.. and W., 1925. 
PIC. (A). 281 Fourth Ave., 
N.Y.C.. U.S.A. 

MorrlH. Miss M. H.. 1928. PN. 

Stur^es Seminary, Maruyama 

(Mio. Shimonoseki. 
MoHlnuinn, H.-v. ()., 1929, I.M. 300 

Shimata MaKome, Tokyo Fuka. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST 



MoNley. Mr. Harold. AMCFM. (A). 
13 Chennult St.. WoHttleM 
Mass.. T.S.A. 

MONK. Miss A. F.. 191X MSCC. 
(At. 219 I.oiimlale U.I.. Toronto. 
Canada. 

MMH, Miss Hlamhe. 1926, AHCKM. 

<A). 74fi Atlantic Ave.. I,ontf 

Kea.h. Cal.. r.S.A. 
Moule, Kev. C.. H.. and \V. 190.7 

1*91. CMS, Shin C.akuln, 1 f, 1 2 

Ikeliukiirn. Tokyo Shi^al. 

Mulloy. Mr. M. S., AMCFM. (A). 

\Vati-rtu\vn. r.,nn., r.S.A. 
Miiinfonl. Dr. I{. M.. and W. 

I HIT., KPM. (A ). c o 1 renliy- 

terlan Ottl.PH. If, Huss.-ll Sq.. 

London W.C. 1. 
\liu.ror. Kev. H. H.. I). I)., and 

W. 1 JO;,. Hi or,. PS. (,\). Hox 

:i:i". Nashville. T.-nn.. r.S.A. 
Murray. Miss Kdna H.. 1 C l I K 

(A). Koss. <;,!.. r.S.A. 
Murray. Miss Klsie. 192*. .JHM 

DI2 Klta Vol.an. ho. S.-n.lai. 

(Tel. Sendal . Cil5). 

MiiHM.-r. Mr. C. K . and W.. INI), 
. ir.T. lk.-.)irl. S-ta K aya. Tokyo 
Fu. 

Mii>sk<-riH. Mrs. I.oiiiso S.. 19L i;. 

HCA. :i7 Hluff. Vokohama. 
M.\-rn, K.-v. M. \V.. D.I), and W.. 

1^! T. I S. Ill Yamainoto Dorl 4 
Choi...-. Kol.e. 

M\ (under. Miss Uuih. 1909. KM A. 
Marilyn inn Dorl. 1 ( home .10. 
Sunilyosh! Ku. Osaka. (Tel. 
TeriKai haya l 9S!i). 



N 

\itrr. |{ev. I. (J . and \V.. 1920. 
IKM S. 1-. H| KH nhl Dote Marhl. 
Kanilnoi-h... Akila. (T.-l. 1174). 

Null. Miss Unth K.. 1929. UCl S. 
Ko/enJI Dorl. Sendal. (Tel. 
1930). 

Nimli. Minn Kli/a I..-I li. 1H91. CMS. 
i K. -in.-. I i. <- o Mrs. Nohuko 
MitHhlno. Konya Marhl. Mainada 
M.I. hi. Shlinane Ken. 

Nrrly. Miss Clara J.. 1899. 1 K. 
Kawara Marhl. Oojo SitKarn. 
Kyoto. (Ti-1. Shlino 4.T90). 

NrUon. Mr. A. N.. and \V.. 191s. 

SDA, K.i in... Mm a. KlinttNti 
C.IMI. Chllia Ken. 



NVttl. ton, Miss Mary. 1929. IK. 

Kusatsu C.iiMiina Ken. 
X Wiiry. Miss ( .. M.. i;,^i AMK. 

2 Nakajlina Clio. Sendal. 
! New.-II. Kev. H. H.. ,, \ V .. 

1SS7. AMCI-.M. 50 ,,f ;i HiKushl 

Shlken Clio. Seoul, Korea. 
j N> \vmttn. Knsi^n llerl.ert. and 

\\ .. 1924. SA. .1 MltotHuliiiNhl 

Dorl. Kan, la. Toky,,. (Tel. 

Kudan 2. !44t. 

i MrliolH, Ht. Uev. S. H.. and W., 
1911. I K. Karasnniaru Dorl. 
Shiniota.dii-rrl. Kyoto. (T.-l. 
Nlshljln 2. I72 ). 

M< holsoii. Mr. Herhert V.. and 
\V.. 191.1. 1920. AFP. (A). 304 
Arch St.. Phil.. Pa.. I .S.A. 

MrodemilH, Prof. F. H.. and W . 
191i;, UCl S. t,y Katahira Clio. 
Sendai. (Tel. 19:tO). 

Menil. Miss Tynne. 192H, I.KI , 
Kami Jida. Nagano K.-n. 

NtxirilhofT. Miss Jean.- M., 1911. 

UCA. ::7 Hlurr. Yok-diama. 
Noriiiiin, Kev. C. K . and \V., 1917. 

I.CA, 1.", CokuraknJI Cho. Fuku- 

oka. 

Norman. K.-v. Daniel. D.D.. and 
\V . is;t7. fCC. ( A >. r o Mis 
sion Uoonis. 299 gue.-n St. W.. 
Toronto. Canada. 

Noriiiiin, M ss Lui y. 1913. I Ci . 

(A I. < o Mission KOOIIIH. 299 

(Jiieen St. \\ .. Toronto. Canada. 
Norton. Miss K. I,. H.. 19o MS. 

Nislil K Choine. Mlnainl 1 ". Jo. 

Sapporo. 

NOMH. U.-v. Christ.. pher. D.D.. and 
\\" . IK 1.1. 1910. UCl S. 2M Torll 
Marhl. Ai/u-Wakamatsn. Fllku- 
shlli. . K.-n. ( F.C. Sendal. 4944 . 

NiMtn. Prof. C.-o. S.. and W.. 1921. 

KCI S. lo Daiku Ma.hl. Aomorl. 

Aoinorl Ken. 
Xothhrir. r. U.-v. K. 1929 I.M. 

.-!00 Shtinata MaK"llie. Tokyo 

Pu. 

NIL-, ill. K.-v. \V C.. and W.. 
1920. KCl S. :!OK HlKaMhl.lorl 
Shlnrhtkii. YaiuaKata. Yama- 

k .i til Ken. ( Tel. 922 (. 

Nuno. Minn C M.. 182&. I K. St. 
l.uke M llospiti.l. TiiuklJI. Tokyo. 

YiNtrom. Mlns Flor.-n.e. AHF. lo 
Fukuro Marhl. Suruadul. To 
kyo. 



JAPAN 



O 

Obee, Kev. 10. I., and W., 1904 

All . (A), Lewistown Ohio 

f.S.A. 
Otfburn, Kev. X. S., and W.. 

101L , IOL 1. AIIOS, Kwansei Caku- 

in. Xishinomiya Shitfai, Hyopo 

Ken. 
Oldridjje. Aliss Alary Helle. liiL o, 

A1IOFH. 4 Aoyama C.akuin, 

Tokyo. 
Old*. Aliss Alice C.. AHCFAI. 11 

Dai Alachi. Alita Shil.a. Tnkyn. 
OldH, Kev. C. I!., and \V.. l!ll:i. 

AH(-FA1. liC, Kadota Yashiki. 

< ikayama. 
Olds, Air. Irving. I .IL O. YMCA-T. 

YAICA :Ut Alinami Kawara 

Alachi. Xa^oya. 
Oilman*. Key. Albert. D.I)., and 

\V.. ISSt;. KCA. (Ketired). (A). 

IT, 10. L L nd St., X.Y.CV. T.S.A. 
Oilman*. Miss C. Janet. 1H14. 

KCA (A). L5 K. ^L nd St., X.Y.C.. 

U.S.A. 
Oltman.s, Aliss F. lOvelyn, 1!H4. 

(A). LT. 10. L L nd St.. X.Y.C.. 

U.S.A. 
OH! rum. Itev. H. C.. D.D.. and \V.. 

1 111 1. PS. ( A ). 7DI Court St.. 

Fulton. Mo., U.S.A. 
Ott. Miss Fina, 1 .IL 4. AHCF.M. 

(At. International House, .loo 

Kiverside Drive. X.Y.C., U.S.A. 
OuterbrldKe, Kev. II. \V.. S.T.D.. 

and W.. liild. UCC. Kwansei 

Cakuin. Koto Alura. Xishino 
miya ShiKai. Hyotfo Ken. 
Oxford, Mr. .1. S.. and \Y., 1010. 

MKS. L :: Kita Xa^asa Dori. 4 

Cbome. Kol.e. 



Tain.-, Miss Margaret K.. 10L 2. 

I lO. Koroinonotana Doiniy.u 

.\Karu, Kyoto. 
I ainc. Miss Mildred A.. HIL O, 

MI01 -M. lor, Shiiuo Xopishi, 

Shitaya Ku, Tokyo. 
Palmer, Miss II. M., IHL l. 1 X. 

Wilinina .lo Cakko. Taniatsu- 

kuri. Osaka. 
I alincr, Miss Jewel. IHIX. tTAIS. 

(At. :!1L S. Fifth St.. Columbia 

Mo.. T.S.A. 
I almorr, Mr. I . I,., and W., llll i . 

MKS. lion, ho. Takayama. Ya- 



I arkiiison, Uev. \Vm. AV.. and 
\\".. l!H !t AMF. L O Aol>a, Shihuya 
T..ky<. l- n. 

Partm-lce, .Miss II. F., 1S77. 

AUCF.M. (Retired). 4C,8 Hi.sha- 

nion Cho. Tonodan. Kyoto. 
I arr, Miss A. I).. IHL T. C.II AI. 

1 !!n; Sakana Clio. Ta t ehayash i, 

C.iiiniiia Ken. 
Parrott. Mr. F., and W.. 1SS9. 

1!KI4. HS. >.!-, Yedo Alachi. Kol.e. 

(F.C. Osaka IKIS: 1 ,). (Tele 

graphic Ad.: "Testaments"). 
Patterson, Air. C. S.. and W.. lill l, 

YAICA-A. Seinenkai A part merit s. 

Hakkei-xaka. Omori. Tokyo Fti. 

(Tel. Omori L L OO). 
Pat ton, .Miss A. V.. 1!IOO, PS, 

Cho l t; H. Okaxaki. 
I attoll, Miss I Morence ]).. 1805, 

I S, r, Cho 2C H, Oka/.aki. 
Pavvle.v. .Miss Annahelle. liH. . 

AHF. Hihle Training SclK.nl. 

Imasatn Cho. Hitfashi Yodo- 

Kawa T\u. Osaka. (Tel. Kita 

TOO", ). 

IVHV.V. Miss Anne K., lUL . t, MKS. 

l.amhuth Jo C.akuin. Isliipa- 

tsuji Cho. Tennoji Ku, Osaka. 
IVcMiam. Miss Caroline S., lillf,. 

AlK FU. Fukuoka .1.. C.akko. 

Kukuoka. 
I edU .v, .Miss C. M.. AHCFAI. (A), 

J.".::L Asl.ury Ave.. Kvanston. 

in.. r.s.A. 

IVdlc.v. .Mrs. Hilton. 1SS7. 

AKCFAI. (A), c o AHCFAI. 14 

Hi-acnn St., Hostnn. .Mass., 

I .S.A. 
I iM-k,-. .Mrs. H. V. S.. 180. !. HCA, 

(At. IT. K. L L nd St., X.Y.C.. 

I .S.A. 
I ei-t. Miss Axalia 10.. 1 ill II. AIKFH, 

If! Kajiya Cho, KaRoshima. 

(Tel. Ka^oshinia ir.ill t. 
P.-rUins. Mr. H. .1.. and \V., lill O. 

SDA. Hox 7 Yodohashi P.O.. 

Tokyo Fu. (K.C. Tokyo f.HSOl). 

(Tel. ( iKikul.n T>1 ). 
IVrr.v. .Miss Catherine. AHCFAI. 

il Aoyania Cakuin. Tokyo. 
Pettee, Mi.-s H.dl" \Y.. AHCFAI. 

(At. I l . 1 :: \V. Xorth St., Deca- 

tor. 111.. T.S.A. 
I et THon, Miss A. J., 1S01. SAAI. 

Chiha Shi, Chil.a Ken. 
PheliM. Mr. (I. S., and \V., 1002. 

Y.MCA-A. L J Cnchnme Fujimi 

< li,,. Kojimachi Ku. Tnky... 

(Tel. Kudan IT.:)! ). 



ALPHABETICAL LIST :>,ir> 

PhlllppH. Miss 10. <;.. SPC. (A). I utnaiil. Mr. W. W. AHCKM. 

PirkniN. Miss Lillian ().. I .US (Al - 4 " r> St Charles St.. Klgin. 

KM A. 1 Chome 50. Maruyania 

I ori. Sumiyoshi Ku. <>saka. 

(Tel. Tenga. haya L 98!)). w* 
Pliler. Mi:-s M . X... 1 9 11 . MIOKH. 

Woman s Christian College. Kams,-> . Miss Margaret M.. I .i JX. 

lgi. Mura. Tokyo Ku. I CC. Taihoku. Kormosa. 

PI.-terN. Miss Jennie A.. 1904. Kimilall. Mr. A. K.. an.l W. 19J9 

KCA. Haiko Jo Cakko. Shimo- JAM. }l,,\ 5. Ikoma I .n.. Nara 

no.-.-ki. (T.-l. HIM; |. Ken. 

Plf.-r. Miss H. C I m] KCI S Ku-nNimi. l.-a. oness Anna I... 1:.n|. 

:; K.ta Arai. Nagasaki Marhi I>K A " li;i " <!jkuin. . , .. Muto- 

Tokyo Ku. yan:.gi Clio. S.-n.lai. 

IMnH,-nt. Mrs A. M. l-.o:, TCC """. Miss Mary H.. 1901. 1 N. 

s T.-rii/aka. Axal.u. Toky,,: < A o K. K. H ,-nry. N. M a !.- 

(T.-1 \oviiit "!4" >S M url r.-eslioro. I .-nn.. t .S.A. 

KaxvliiigH. Kev. C. W.. an.l W . 
Pliu-e. Miss Pauline A.. IfiK., 



MKK1I. (A), Porl.an.l. In,,.. ( . |i( , Sumly()Hh| K 1(s; , k; 



1900. I .Mi:!. CMS. :!71 
Clio. Sumiyoshi Ku. 

I on.l. MlMH Helen M . 1923. PE. "",^ 01 ""s H( .JJ,; Seni, J" M a . hV 

Tok o UkP " "" s|>il; L I xuki.ii. Hiroshima. 

KMM|. .\!r. .1 . I . an.l W.. I .tLM. 

I .iMl. Miss Vl.la. 1 ..I ... AUK. 50 ,.,,,; MKS ._,., K ,, aflilKilMa ,,,., 

Shimo Tera Ma. hi. Himeji. 4 ,.,, Kol.e. 

I oltM. Miss Marion K.. II IM. LCA, K.-<-v.-. Itev. W. : .. lliL 7. 1 N. ::::( 

Kyushu Jo C.akuin. Kumamot... Kital.alakl. Sumiyoshi Ku. 
I ow.-ll. Miss Ce< illia K.. IHL L . 

I K. l i K.I., Shimo Ch... Ktikui. ICeiil. Miss 

Kukni K.-n. St. I. uk. 
Power*. Mr. M. 10.. an, I W.. 19:15. 

Mura. Kimitsu H,-lf Hiil.ler. Kt. Kev. C. S.. D .!.. 

Cun. Chll.a K.-n. an.l \V.. IHOI. I lO. St. Paul s 
I liwlan. Miss Anne 1 !t 1 9 IX A. 

(A), Catawl.a. North Carolina. Ku. (T.-l. (Hsuka ( M! I ISlTi. 

K.-I-. h.ni. r K.-v. A. K.. I>.D.. an.l 
| U\V!HN. Miss Mau.le. 19IK. LCA. 

(A I. Catawl.a. North Carolina. <" " < f oll-Ke. Nishi Ogikul.o. 

T.S.A. Tokyo Ku. 

I owli-N. Kev P ! C an.l W. Keiiih-r. Miss i. II . 1:U 

1-1.;. MSCC. Shinolsuji. Takata! -\< " " Mm lil. I-ml/.u Again. 
Pratt. Miss Susan A.. 1x9::. Wr. 

L lL Hlufl Vokohama. (T-l K-nnle. K.-v. 

Honkvoku Sl1 rl1 " Hako.late. 

KliiiiKlN. Miss Ksther H.. 191. 1. 



r.Nlon. Miss Kv.-lvn l>. CMS. 
(A. v <-harl....r, SI I.omlon 



AKI . 3l K-unCh... Mita SHIIm 



N.\V. H. .->... 

I rl.-.-. M.ss C .1. II.L T. CMS. (A). K" >I H. Mr. K 
Itroiul I ark. I If ra. ..ml,,.. North (A) 

l.-v.,n Krik lan.l. Ifi.liur.K. K.-v. \V A . an.l W.. 

I rli-.-. K.-v I . (!.. an.l W.. 191 ^. 

TCC. KM; SI,!,,,., N-Klnlil. MalHUyiiina. Shlkoku. 

SliUava. Tokyo. (Tel. Shltaya ICI. hu rilnoii. Miss C. M . ] 1 1 

L"j, 4 ,. C.MS. Hi, Koiiru Ch... :. Cliom,-. 

1-iiKi.ilr... l.i-u, Colon.-l Krn.-nt I . 

an.l U . l!.l!.. S.\. :, Illtsolu KlrliiiriUuii. M!SH K. JKM. 1 . L 
l.iishl l>.,rl. Kan. la. Tokyo. (T.-l. Klta Vol. an Clio. S.-n.lal. ,T-I. 

K ii Ian :-::44 I. 331.1 ). 



316 



JAPAN 



Klrhunlson. Miss Helena. 192!), 

.1KB. 5 Hikawa Clio, A kasaka, 

Tokyo. 
Kiche.v, Miss Helen I... 1920, 

fCMS, :(.-,.-, Xaka/.ato. Takino- 

Kawa Machi. Tokyo. (Tel. 

Koishikawa 51 . ,). 
Kickert. Miss Adolph. 1924. JAM. 

(A) 24 S. Grant St.. Storto. 

("al.. I .S.A. 
Kiddell. Miss H.. 1S!0. I XI). PR. 

Jliil Furu Shinyasliiki. Kuma- 

moto. 
Kiker, Miss Jessie. 1904. 1 X. 17 

Miyajiri Clio. Yamada, Mie Ken. 
Kiker, Miss S. M.. 1925. I X. Wil- 

inina Jo dakko, Tama tsukuri, 



*. Miss A.. 1S97. CMS, (A), 

10 Laiiriston ltd.. Wimbledon, 

London S.W. 1!), Kntfland. 
Roberts. Miss K.. 1929. YWCA. 12 

Kita Kotfa Oho, Kan. la. Tokyo. 

(Tel. Kanda 111s. 1 1 1 !t ) . 
Roberts. lt-v. Floyd L., and W.. 

AIU FM, i; Aoyania Gakuin. 

Tokyo. 
Kobinwon. It.-v. C. C.. and W.. 

HUH. I XI). Mixulio ("ho, Minami 

Kll, Xaj, .,ya. 
Kol>;tlHon. Miss H. M.. I XI). OK. 

S Otabuko. Mi/.uho C ho, Minami 

Ku. NiiKuya. 
ICo-, Miss Mi Id rod. I .tL ^. YWCA. 

(A). f n Lexington Avo., X.Y.(\. 

I .S.A. 
KOU<TH, Miss Mar-K.-irot S., 19LM. 

Wl . 1ML Hlufr. Yokohama. (Tt>l. 

Honkyoku :!00?,). 
Rolf.-. Major V. K.. and W.. 1! LT), 

SA. .", Mitotsubahi l)iri. Katida, 

Tokyo. (Tel. Kudan L :M4). 
Korkc. Miss Luclla. 1919. TTC, 

Kiwa Jo Cakko. Sh i/.uoka Shi. 

(Tel. 1117). 
KOMS. (lev. (V H.. and W.. 1910, 

A Ml- . ( A ). 449 W. 1 1Mb St., 

Clar.-mont. ( al.. I .S.A. 
Hoxvc. Mrs. .1. H., 191. ,. SBC. Soi- 

nati Jo C.akuin, Itox.u, Kokura. 
|{o\vhind. Kfv. Ceo. M.. and W., 

A BCF.M. ( A ), o A BCFM. 14 

B.-.-u on St.. Boston. Mass.. 

I .S.A. 
KIIIIIHC.V, Miss Mary. 19117. IXD. 

: .S:i. ! Saka- ( ho. Tacbikawa, 

Tokyo Fu. 
KiilM-pl. Miss X.-tti.- L., 191.-, IXD 

.- o M-tb,,dist Mission House, 

. I Banral. Xa kaya ma t.- Dori. L 

Choni.-. K..I.. . 



KiiHch. Mr. Paul F., 1920, PR, 

(A), Church Missions House 281 

Fourth Avo., X.Y.C., U.S.A. 
KiiHNfll. Mr. David. 1928. INI), 

12-! Kaslii\vaKi Yodobaslii Mfifhi, 

Tokyo Fu. 
KuKwll. Miss M. H.. 1895, MEFH, 

(K -tiri-d). (A), Lawrence Col- 

1 . <>. Apph-ton, Wis.. T .S.A. 
Hiiss.-II, Miss Mildred P., 192C. 

I lO. (A), Church Missions 

Mous.-. 2S1 Fourth Ave., X.Y.C., 

U.S.A. 
K.van, Miss Ksther T... 19 in. VCC, 

Marubori Clio. I eda Shi. Xa^ano 

Ken. 
K.vilcr, Miss Certrude K., 190S. 

AHF. 51 Itfhome. Temma Clio, 

Yotsuya Ku, Tokyo. 
Kydcr. Kev. S. W.. and W.. lf)l. !. 

KCA. ( A ). 25 K. 22nd St.. 

N.Y.C., I .S.A. 



Siiioncn. Rev. K., and W., 1911. 

LKF. (A). Museokatu :U Hel 
sinki. Finland. 
Sampson, Miss Marjjueret ta K.. 

19211. MI . Ki\va Jo dakko, 

Maita Machi. Yokohama. (Tel. 

Cho.ja Machi 2405). 
SnrviH, Prof. M. C., and W.. 1919. 

IXD, Tomio, Xara Ken. 
SiiKse, Miss Corena, IXD. 14 Ya- 

mamoto Dori. 4 Chome, Kobe. 
Suville, Miss Hose. 1925, JKM, 

Iwakiri Mura. Miyapi C.un. 

MiyaKi Ken. 
Savolainen, Kev. .1. V.. and W., 

(A), 1907. LKF. l<;:i:i Maruyama. 

Ikebukuro. Tokyo Fu. 
Selmeffer. Miss Mabel II.. 1921. 

I lO. American Church Mission. 

Ikebukuro. Tokyo. 
Srhiinncp. -Miss Maxine. AMCKM. 

(A). 40S Water St., Pendleton, 

Ore.. U.S.A. 
Srhell. Miss Xaomi. 1921. SBC. 

Seinan Jo C.akko, Itozu. Kokura. 
S-lir<>H>lu>\VNky. Miss Caroline K., 

191(1. I K. Temma, Xara. 
Schiller, Stipt. Kmil. D.D.. and 

W.. 1S95. AKI M, 10 Hisasbi 

Machi. Shofjoin Clio. Kyoto. 
SchilllnK T. Kev. C.eo. W.. and 

W.. 1920. LCA. Kyushu Oakuin. 

Kumamoto. 
Si-hlrmer, Miss Katheryn, 1917. 

KC. (A), llolton. Kansas. I .S.A. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST ; ,17 

Mhm-.l.-r. K.-v. K. D.. an d D.D.. Shaver. Kev. I L. and W 1 :m 

LL.D. an.l W.. 18*7. KCI S. MKS. Kanaya Monno Cho. Na- 

a.shi .samhanc ho. Sendai. katsu. Oita Ken. 

Shaw, Kev. U. K. and W 1V 7 

Srhnrder. Miss Mary K.. 101 8. |. K . Ta.-hlkawa Cho Karas u- 

KCTS. (A). 540 K. Palm St.. maru Dorl Imadegawa Kyoto 

Shaw. Miss L. I,. 1,04. MSCC. 

Srhroer. Uev. <J. \V.. and W.. ( .\). 1 91 Main St. St John 

19L L . KCrs. 71 < isawakawara. .\. H.. Canada. 

. Morioka. Iwate Ken. Shaw Kev U D M -ind W 

S-h\veltr.er. Mlws Kdna M.. 1911 . I!i07. SI C. ir,4:i Shinjumku 

KC. X4 Sasutfaya Cho. Koishl- Hlratsuka KanaKawa Ken 

kawa. Tokyo. ,Tel. Koishlkawa H ,epherd. Mis K. M.. 1JMO. SIT.. 

( A . < o SIM; i;, Tuft-.n St.. 

Si-ott. Kov.^ K. N.. D.D.. and W.. Westminster. London. K.W. 1. 

Tokyo 48401). (K.C. (Personal) main. .to Don. C.o.-home. Kohe. 

Kukuoka 4060). (Tel. Aoyama Shirk. Miss Helen. 191 ! . I,C.\. :i:!7 

I OOl). Hai-uvoshi :! Chome. Kukuoka. 

Srotl. Hev. J . .1.. and \V.. 1!10. Shlvely. Hev. H. K.. D.D.. an.l 

i:tl::. CMS, 7S Nishi Clio. Vo- W., 1H07. I M. I l i Muro M,achi. 

na^o. Kyoto. 

Srott, Miss Mary C.. 1 .> 1 1 . I CC. Shlvely. Miss Lillian. AHCK.Nt, 

(A). 4!(H Manning Ave., Toronto, Kol.e c olle^e. Yamamoto Dot i 

Canada. 4 Chome. Kol.e. 

S< niton. Miss K.-rn. lUl i;. I C C. Shore. Miss S. Certrude. IHI 1. 

(A>. l. .J H.-ss St. S.. Hamilton. MSCC. Kyo Ma. hi. C.ifu. 

Sluilt/. Miss Certrud. IOL 7. SDA. 

Snirry. Miss Mary C,.. IHI . I. MKS. ,, ()X ; Yodol.anhi P.O.. Tokyo 

.M Kita/.ato Cho. Kure. ,.- (T( .| ))>f ikul.o . r ,l. 

Srurle. Mrs AHCKM. (A., simpnon. Miss M. K.. 1 H O. TCC. 

1.-..-K N. \V. Third St.. Miami. .,, 4 ,,vakkoku Ma.hi. Kofu Shi. 

Klorida. T.S.A. ,-,-,., ,,,,,, 
Selple, l>\. \V. (;.. I li.D.. and 

\v . nor,. uci s. ( A i. .110 

S.-haff HI. IK.. K O. j Kare St.. 
Phil;... Pa.. I .S.A. 

SellN Miss K V P 1H93 CMS *I|MI . Mr. r.-,rl S.. 1030. KCl S. 

I.; ,. - ( MS Saulhury s i: " J "" hl H.mln.-h, Sendai. 

London K.C. 4. Sinter. Kdith Constan.-f. Sinter 



Seymour. M ss M.-l.-n. AHCKM. HUter. Kleanor. 191 T. CK. 

(A). StonelelKh Court. WaHhlnj;- Hhlkl - Vamnmntii Dorl. 1 

ton DC.. f.S.A. 

Sha. khx-k. Kev. Klovd. an.l W.. Sinter. KN-anor Kran.es. I;.- . CK. 

1920. MKKH. Shlmo Shlrokane I Yimhlkl. Yamamoto Dorl. 

Ma< hi. Hlronakl. Chome, Kol.e. 

Sluifer. Kev. 1, J.. an.l W.. 1911 . M"t.T. Ktheldroda. 1!1 4. CK. 

KCA. . .I muff. Yokohama. Sank.. Cho. Shlrokane. Sllll.a, 
Mmnnon. M|SM Ida L. 1904. MKS. 

HlroHl:lma C.lrls 1 Sflioul Tami- SlnN-r. Kloren. e. 19. KI. CK. 

nnjcnrekawa Cho. HlroMhlma. Sanko Cho, Shtr.-kane. Shll.a. 



Shannon, Miss Kathcrlnc, 



Tokyo. 



MKS. lltrowhlma <lrln Srhool. Sinter, Mary Katharine. I .Mtf. CK. 

TamlnaKarekawa Cho. Illro- :i5H Sank.. Cho. Hhlrokanc. 

shlma. Slnl.a. T<ikyo. 

lmrplfMi. Mm Kdlth K.. HUD. Skllrn. M!HH ll.-l-n. I . l l . TK. 

Al T, KSH Tvnno Cho. Mllo, II. a- Hlroiulchl Muruta .Ma< hi. Sa- 

rakt Ken. Karu. Kyoto. 



IU8 JAPAN 

Smith. Prof. A. I)., and \V., 10i:i, Starey, Miss K. K.. IULT,, SJ)A. 

10-1. RCUS. til Kwox.rnji Dori, Hox 7. Yodohashi. P.O., Tokyo 

Somlai. (Tel. .".GST). Ku. (Tel. Mgikubo 51). 

Smith, Kva H.. SPG. 5A Naka- Staoy, -Miss Martha. 101!). CC. No. 

yaniate Dori, I! Chomp. Kobe. ?> \Vaniyania Jshinomaki. 

Smith. Mr. U. K.. and \V., INI). Aliyapri K>n " 

po B (IX 40 Kyoto Stanford, Mrs. J. P.. AHCFM, 





Harrl e, P., .. w. - 

RCUS, ill Kwozenjl Dori, Sen- 

,].,i Staple. Miss Grace K. M., 10UD, 

""" 1 ^ 



Smth. Miss ,. W., ,927. JEB. 



Iu Ty 



Okuradani, Akashi Shi. Hyogo 

Ken Staples, Rev. 1. H.. and W., CX, 

smith! Miss Janet. IND, Hokusei ShichU H " n Al! " >hl - Kj -" t(> - 

I.. C.akko Sapporo Staples. Miss Marie M., 1015. 

s,,,,,,, , r : , ,... , w ,.. !; .U"^ -,, iKJi / T - 

PN.. Mom Gakuin, Hhlrokane, 

Tokyo. Starkey. .Miss Rertha. 1!I10. MKFH. 



Smith. Itov. P. A., and W., 100: ,, 



IS Itchome, Eiraku Cho, Seoul, 



PK. Mikone. Shi^a Ken. Korea 



S,,mh.".Miss S. C, 1888. PN. (Hon. St ";" nmn : . { : V /; W V n "; me" 

Retired). 2 Nishi Chome, ll0 .- } M (A) Kingsville, 

Kitashichi jo. Sapporo. 

Smy-rr. Rev. M. M, and W.. (A). S "; ^ H K C X ^ ^(i 

!rr- ^ V lVM AkUa K " n - G" ku,n;\ShiVokane C Cho. 5 Shfba, 

Tokyo. (F.C. Tokyo 53521). 

Nn y<l H,,o;^;; ;,,bi rln Dori 11M K,nda- ^etson. Rev. C. K., and W, 1922, 

> <. Kudan^). S^^-Co nV^TI? "li 

Smythe. Kev. L. C. M.. D.D.. an<l It, home, H igashikusabuka, Shi- 

W.. 1013. ion;. PS. It; Nicliome. x.uoka 

Stevens. Miss C. H.. 1920, MRS. 

Sneyd. Rev. H. S.. and W.. 1913, (A) ,. ,, p >oar a ,,f Missions, Box 

Y.MCA-A. 1L Hluff. Yokohama. - 10 Xashville. Tenn., I .S.A. 
Soal. Miss A. A.. l-.Mfi. .IKH. 10 ! Stewart, .Miss Mary C.. I XI). 10 

Kita Tanabe. Mai/.tiru. Kyoto j Higashidai. Senx.oku Den-en- 

ka. toshi. Kbara Gun. Tokyo Fu. 

SoniiTVi-ll. Miss M., 1010. SPG, Stewart. Kev. S. A., and W.. 190fi. 

San-no-Dai. Numax.u Shi. ]S , )S ^JOS. (A), C/O Hoard of 

Sparkman. Rev. H. C., and AV.. Missions. Hox 510, Nashville, 

lOL J. PK. St. Paul s University. Tei.n., U.S.A. 

Ikebukuro. Toky,,. Stirewalt, Rev. A. .1., and W.. 

Spencer, Miss Gladys. I .CM, PK, 1005, LCA. 30 :; Hyakunin Machi. 

Ura Machi. Aomori. Okubo, Tokyo. (Tel. Yotsuya 
Spen-er, Miss M. A.. 1S7.K. MKI- H. 

(Retired). (A). R. K. !>.. No. L , St. John, Mrs. Alice C.. 191S. 

H..x 5L-M. San Diego. Cal.. U.S.A. PK. St. Luke s Hospital, Tsu- 

Spen<-er. Kev. K. S.. and W., 1017. kiji Tuk - Vu - 

MKI -H. S7S Shimo Kego. Fuku- Stokes Miss K. S. K., 101!2, SPG. 

oka. (! .( . Fukuoka If.OdK). 1C, Mitakara Machi. Matsuyama. 

Spen<-er. Rev. V. C., 101:!. MSCC, Stone, liev. A. R.. lOL C,. ITCC, 12 

Tanaka Sen. Okaya. Sliinshiu. Agata Machi, Nagano. 

Sprowles. Miss A. H.. 100.;. MKFH, Stoildt. Mr. < ). M.. and W. 1017. 

J Aoyama Gakuin. Toky.i. (Tel. RCUS. 15 Naga Cho, Sendai. 



AU HAHKTICAL LIST 



>tour. Miss lira..- 11.. 1908. 
AHCK.M. K..I,,- .(,, C.akuin. Ya- 
inamoto I>ri. 4 Cliome. Kohe. 

M\v\ Miss Mary K.. 1908. 
AHCK.M. K..I.P Jo Gakuln. Ya- 
mamo o I>nri. 4 Chomp. Kol.p. 

Strankn. Kov. C. .].. 192S, SP(5. 
Shiraishi. Vaniaguchi Machi. 
Yanianuchi Kon. 

Mriiiih. Mis.s Mao. 1921. AG. 
Chil Irf-n s Home. 240 Takagl 
Kawarak i Alura. Muko CJun. 
Hy,, K .. K-n. 

Mrunii|iilNl. Mis.s An.llt-na. 1929, 

.1AM. H..x ;,. Ik.. ma I .o.. Nara 

K.-n. 
Mronif K.-v. (j. \. 

of 1S7 Maruyaii 

nos.-ki. 
Strofhanl. Miss A. < ).. 1 !! >. I CC. 

* Torli/aka Clio. A/.al.u, Tokyo. 

(T.-l. ;,S45). 
Snltlr. Miss Cucnn. I .IL S. t Cl . 

Hiwa .In (;;ikkn. AtaKo Cho, 

Kofti Slii. (Ti-l. :.!M ). 
S.vrlnif. H.-v. A., an.l W., 191 7. 

I..M. ::on Shimota Ma K om-. To- 

kyu Ktika. 



liillioll. Mrs. .1. M.. C.\. IS Oka- 

x.iki cii... K.vot... 
l.irniiiio. K.-v. K . and \V.. 191.T, 

I.KK (A I. Kyltalankatu No. 1. 

Tainpi-ri-. Suomi. Klnlan.l. 
Tiinni-r. Miss K.. SIM). :!iiO Sanko 

<!,.,. Slill.a. Tokyo. 
lui>Hiin. Miss M A . 1SSS. IND. 

CMS. ( Hi-t!r.-| i. (Jar.l.-n Home. 

Nok ala Mur.i. Tokyo SliJKal. 
Tu>lur. Miss Krma M.. 1!H.!. 

MKKM U Kila 1,-hlJo MI;aMlil. 

, Ch. .,,,.-. Sapporo. 
Taylor. Mrs Mary. AC. Hox ,-,1 S 

Saniiniiilya. Kol.i-. 
Taylir. Miss Mlnnl-. IHI". HCA. 

: <>ura MlKHNhl V.. in.it.-. N a ra 
sa k:. 
Ti-airiH-. Miss Caroline. I .tlL . 

MKKH. -IL 1 YoJiano Cho. Ktiku- 

oka. 
Trnrh. H-v C,. U.. an.l \V.. 1920. 

I CC. Canadian Aa.|Mny, Ha- 

r.nla Mura. Koln* Slilyal. 
T-nn>. K.-v Clias. H.. I.|).. and 

W.. r.t in. |9 14. AUK. 1778 

Mmanii (Ma Ma. hi. Yokohama. 

i T.I. :;-i ios). 



Tcrlturit, K.-v John. and \V 
l!l l f . KCA. 4;, SliiiuoiatHUo Clm, 
KafroHhlma. 

li-th-y. Miss \Vinifrpil. 19r,d. JKH. 

r. Hikawa Cho. Akasaka. Tokyo! 
Ti-tliiw. Miss Melon I... I91. r , 1 K 

7 Ishil.lkl Ch... Kanazawa. 
TcUNltr. I>r. K. H . and \V.. 1X99. 

I K. St. I.Dk.- s Hospital T.su- 

klji. Tokyo. 

Tliurp. Miss Klma K . 191S. AHK. 

(A). Kill Kourt.-onth St.. Bole, 

Idalio. T.S.A. 
Tli-l-. K.-v. Harvi-y. and \V.. 192 i 

KC. 14 Yojo i)ori. Ni. homo. 

Minato KM. <)saka. 
Thompson. K.-v. K. \V.. and W . 

1!IL 7. 191 f.. MKKH. Moto Daiku 

Ma< hi. Hlrosaki. 
IhompHon. Miss K. I,. 190. ,. CMS. 

H.m Mai -hi, 9 Chome, Waka- 

I IIOMI-...II. K,.\. K. A.. D.I"*.. 
K.lt.C.S.. and W.. 1SSS. 1HS9. 
AI .K. (At. < o A KM Missionary 
So. i.-ly. i:,L Madison Avo.. 
N.Y.C.. T.S A. 

Thorfii, Miss Amy. 19^.".. I,< .\. 
(A I. , o Hoard .if Kor.-lwn Mis 
sions, is I-:. Mt. \ .-rnon I l.. Hal- 
tlmo -f. Mil.. f.S.A. 

ThorliikhMnii. K.-v. S. < ).. and \V . 

i;ii<;. I.CA. :.77;> ri*n... Nishi 

Nada Mura. Kol,,-. 

Tlmrslon. Mr. C. K. and \V.. 1927. 
SDA. Kaniio Mura. Klmitsu 
Cun. Chll>a K<-n. 



s l,u. y \V.. 19L v. 
I... J.. Cakuin. Ya- 
i. 4 Chonu>. Kol.i>. 
H.-nry. and \V . 



Tlt.omh, Mi 
AHCKM. K. 

Topplnu. I-- 

IS .i... AHK. (K.-tll.-dl, 1 Naka 
Cho. :: Cliom.-. Yot.Hiiya. Tokyo. 

Topping. Miss Hi-li-n K. 1927. 

KC \. , ., MI.MM Kyd.-r. T, 1 D-m- 

ma Ch... 1 Choim-. Yotnuya. 

Tnkyn. 
Tiipplnic. Mr. \\ K. and W.. 

192C. 1921. (Contrail T-arhPD. 

AHK. (A i. 2 i2N Hlll.-K.iss Avv, 

H.-rki-l.-y. Cal . I .S.A. 
Torhrt. Miss lsal..-lla. 192S. Jlt.M. 

Kl). Osaka. 
Tiiufiin. Minn M.U.II.-. 1917. M KS. 

. ,:, Nlatfi- Mitrhl. Olta. 
TriM-j. Ndss Mary K. I .m, 

212 HlufT Yokohama. (T.-l 

HonkM.ku .7003). 



1520 



JAPAN 



Tr-main. Rev. M. A., and W., 

1927, PX. 34 Tohiume Cho, Ka- 
nazawa, Kapa. 

Trent, Miss K. M.. 1S!)4. MSCC, 
55 Xakanokirl Mizuho Cho, 
Nagoya. 

Trlntram. Miss K. A., 1S8S, CMS, 
(Retired). Poole Jo Gakko, Ka- 
tsuyama Dori, 5 Chome, Osaka. 
(Tel. Tonnoji 290). 

Trott. Miss I).. SPG, 8 Sakae Cho, 
Shiba. Tokyo. 

Trout, Miss Jessie M.. 1921. FCMS, 
1; Xakanapa Machi. Akita Shi. 

Truenmn, Mr. G. K.. and W.. 1911. 
YMCA-A. 84 Gokiso .Machi. 
XaKoya. 

Timilin, Miss Mozelle. 192: ,, MKS, 
( A ). c o Hoard of Mis 
sions. T,amhuth Hldtf., Box 510, 
Xa.shville. Term.. I .S.A. 

TM <*! le. Miss K. C.. l!)0:i, UCC, 
274 Soprawa Clio. Toyama Shi. 



u 

Ipperton, Knsinn .lames. <fc W., 
1927. S.\. Training Garrison, 
Jingu Dori. Shihuya Machi, 
Tokyo. (Tel. Aoyama 41f,;i). 

I llNitillo, Miss S.. 190:{. I.KF, 
L . SSO Xishi Su^anio. Miyanaka, 
Tokvo l- u. 



>-in.\k-n. Mi 
Ilokuriku .I 



H. K.. 1IILT,, I X. 
(Jakko, Kanazawa 



Vanl).vk<>. Ut-v. P. S.. and W., 

1021, PS. (A), Hox :i:;0, Xash- 

villi-. T<-nn.. T.S.A. 
Viiiill.vnlnK. Mrs. Conrad. AHCKM. 

(At, (Pub .if Charities Assoc.) 

KnJton HldK.. 1 ittshur^, Pa., 

T.S.A. 
ViinKlrk. Miss Anna S.. 1H1M. PK, 

St. Harnabas Mosjiital. Tonnoji, 

( Is.ika. 
V rry, Miss Hazel P.. 191 S, 

YWCA. (A I, M>0 Lexinjfton Ave., 

X.Y.C.. f.S.A. 
Vlnall, Mr. C.. H., and AV., 19 . 9, 

HS. !r, Yedo Machi, Kobe. 

fK.O. Osaka llds:t>. 
Voltrlit. Mls.s A. V.. 19J9, PX. 

.I .shi Cakuin. Kami Xiban Cho, 

Kojimachi. Tokyo. 
Vorl.-H, Mrs. J. K.. 1914, OM.l. 

( MM i - 1 lach iman. 



V(ri-H, Mr. W. M.. and W., 1905, 
1919, OM.J, Omi-Hachiman. (Tel. 
lies. 45ti; OIHce 4lifi). 

Vouh-n, Miss J. K.. 191:!, SPG, 
C Cohan Cho, Okayama. 

W 

Wanner, Miss Dora A., 191H, 
MEFH. Woman s Christian Col 
lege, Jopi Mura. Tokyo Kuka. 
Wapner, Hev. H. H., and W.. 
1918. KM A, 599 Harada, Kobe 
Shigai. 

Uainrijfht, Rev. S. H., D.D., and 
XV.. 1888, MKS. CI,S. 56 Omote 
Cho, Donzuin Mon Mae. Koishi- 
kawa, Tokyo. ( F.C. 11 1157 ). 
Walker, Mr. F. H.. and XV., 190, !, 
190(1. SPG. 5 Xakayamate Dori, 
:i Chomp. Kobe. 
\\aller. Rev. J. C,., and W.. 1890, 

MSCC. Xishi Nagano. 
Waller, HPV. Wilfred, 1929, MSCC, 

Xishi Nagano, Xagano. 
\Valne, Rev. K. X.. D.D., and AV., 
1X92, SHC. Kami Tanaka Machi, 
Shimonoseki. (F.C. Fukuoka 
SS49). (Tel. Shimonoseki 2392). 
\Valne. Miss Flon-nce, 1919. SHC, 
Kami Tanaka Machi, Shimono 
seki. 

Walner. Rev. T. D., and W., 19H, 
PX. 1!) of 9 Tsuna Machi, Mita, 
Shiba, Tokyo. 

WalHh. Rt. Rev. Hishop G. .)., 
and XV., 1913. CMS. 553 Nishi 
S Chome, Minami 12 Jo, Sappo 
ro. [May to Oct. (A)l, Church 
Hinise. XX estminster, London 
S.W. 1. 

Walton. Rev. W. H. M.. and W.. 
(A). 1915, CMS. 28<i Nishiga- 
hara. T(d<yo Shitfai. 
WaIvMirl. Miss Florence, 1922, 
RCA. Haiko Jo Gakuin. Shimo 
noseki. 

Wnnl, Miss Rutli C., 1919, A HI . 
:;i:t1 Kanagawa Machi, Yoko 
hama. (Tel. Honkyoku 2-2176). 
Warner. Rev. Paul F., 1924. MP, 
(A). 51C X. Charles St., Jlalti- 
iMore. Md.. U.S.A. 

Warren. Rev. C. M.. and W., 1899, 
AHCFM, Miyata Cho, 2 Chome. 
Miya/.aki. 
Warrrn. .Mr. Dana. 1928. AHCFM, 

Miyata Clio. Miyazaki. 
Warren, Rev. F. F., and W., 1925, 
FMA. Haba Cho. Sumoto Machi, 
Avvaji Island. 



ALI HAHKTICAL LIST 



\\ntei-M. Uov. Ceo. F.. an.l W.. 

1 :! :. l:il 7. MKS, Niomon Dori. 

Hirorni.-hi Nishi. Kyoto. 
IVuNTN. U.-v. Harris. an.l W.. 

lliiS. MKS. (A). < .1 Mfianl of 

Missons. Hox 51o. Nashville, 

T.-nn.. I .S.A. 
Untklnn, Mr. J. T., IHL 9, YMC*A-T 

YMCA :!0 Minaniikawara Ma. -hi 

Nitffuya. 
IViitkinN. Miss KIi/.al>.-th. INI), 

Seinan Cakuin. Nishijin Muchl, 

Kukuoka. (Tel. 3170). 
\\ntHori. Miss K. J., US:!. MKKH. 

( U<-tir-,l (A). 1701 S. 17th St., 

I. inn, In, Nel.raska. I .S.A. 
\Vat ti. ll,-v. K. K., ;in.l \V.. lftL 7. 

IX I>. Seamen s Institute 103 

It., Ma<-hi, Kohe. 
WiittN. U-v. H. <;.. ami W, l .iJ7. 

MSCC. Cakko (Mi... NliKata. 
Weeil. Miss H.-len I.. HUM. UCPS, 

. !. ! fwa (Mm. Koim-Kafukuro, 
Sen.lal. (Tel. ::C7S). 
U -l<MnicT. K.M-. K.. !>.!>. . an.l W. 

lltl fi. AKI-.M. ::: Kami Tom! 

Xaka (Mio. Koishlkawa. Tokyo. 
\\-liln-r, Miss Sa.lic I,.. IJtOu, .MM. 

< 1,-aki. Cifu Kt-n. 
\\ rllH. Miss I.. A . I .HMI. I N. i:i 

N. I a VamaKU. hi, VamaKU.hi 

K.-n. 

\\ Ynif Icr. Miss .l.-ssi.-. IHIU. AC. 
L M <i\vak- (Mi.,. Ha. hioji To 
kyo. 

\Vhi-\vHI. Miss Klixal.-tli A.. I .H S. 

.\I.M. ) k -;,ki. CHti K.-n. 
\Vhlti . Miss Anna Laura. 1 : I 1 . 

MKKH. Kuassui Jo Cakko. 

Nagasaki. (T.-l. Nagasaki Ml f. ) . 
Mlilti-. U.-v. S. S.. an, I \V . 

A lu l- .M. i A ). 1 IT, N. Hill Ave.. 

I iiHa.l-na. C;,l.. T.S.A. 
\\hiti-lii-iKl. Miss iJui-a, 1UL 7. I M ). 

. .":. Nakanol.u, Kl.ara Ma. hi. 

Tokyo Kiika. 
\\liili-ln-iiil. Miss Mal,.-l. 1-JI7. 

MKS. Laml.uth Jo Cakuln, 

IshlKatHuji CMio. Ti-nnoJI Ku. 
Osaka. 

\\hll.rnnn. M Is.s Mary. iy; <i JltM. 

1 .: . Kita Yot,.-in. h... S.-n.lal. 

(T.-l. S-n.lai :i::i5). 
UliltliiR. l{.-v. M M. an.l \V . 

llil l. I CC. Kuans.-l Cakuln. 

K..o Mura. Mshlnomiya Shlk al. 

H.V..KM K-n. 
UlN-ox, Mlsn K.llth K . Hifi4. AMI 1 . 

.". Shim., Tora Ma. hi. Hlmoji. 



\Vllk,-M. Mr. A. P.. an.l \V 1S97 
-IKH. (A). ;,5 Cow.-r st Lon- 
lon W.C. i. 

\VIIklnnon, H.-v. c s an.l W 
191. -IKH. 170 Hirano Cono ^ 
niiya (Ml.,. K. >(,.. 

UilklriHon. Miss J.-ssi... I9i, AHK 
Chomp. :! . Kita (Mi.,. K.il.e. 

\\illlainn. Miss A. H.. l:no. MKS. 
I.aiiilptuh Jo Cakuin, r.^ jo Iwhl- 
Kalsuji (Mi.,. T.-nnoji Ku. Osaka. 

\VillliiniN. Miss A. S.. IIU.,. CMS 
I ool.- Ciris S. hool. Katsuyama 
Dorl. ;, (Mi. ,111... HiKashi Nari 
Ku, Os.,|<;,. (T.-l. T.-nnoji I DO). 

\VIINums. Mr. j.\ T j.,-., )KI! 

: "f Shll.a Ko.-n. Shllia Ku, 
Tokyo. 

\Vllllams. Miss H. K.. 1 M.i j|. : 

St. AKn.-s 1 S. ho.,1. Kyoto. 
\\illliimson. Miss Joanio. I ll i; 

.N{.\l, Xisliitaka Muru. Naturi 

Ctin. MiyaK i K.-n. 
\> IIHuniMon, K,.\. N. I- .. Th.I). 

an.l \V.. I ;MS. I:M:I, SHC. S.M- 

nan Cakuin. Nishiiin Ma.hi 

Kukuoka. (Tel. :il70). 
\\ilsiui. Miss Kloanor ](>-, 

.\HrK.M. :,:. Nakiiyumnte Uorl! 

\\llsun. Miss II, -I, . n . I .U .i. AHK. 
1 T.-nma. 1 (Mioni.-. V.-tsnva 
Tokyo. 

U ilMiin. K.-v. \\ . A., an.l \V.. ls;in 
MKS. ( A t. . o Hoar, I of Mi.s^ 
sions. Hox :,]<i Nashville. T.-nn.. 
I .S.A. 

\\ Inn. U.-v. T. c .. |.|>.. .,,] \\- 
1^S7. I .i i7, I N. ( Hon. U.-tir.-.l I 
1^. , I Maruy.ima (Mi,,. Shim. .110- 
s.-ki. 

UiniH-fl. Mr. Hom.-r II.. lltl li. 

INI). CS Xoshl k ,-,ya. Tokyo. 
\\lnlh.-r. |{ev. .1 M T .,n,| W 

IXs. I.CA. ::., Ku.shihara Ma< hi 

^ Clioiui-. Kiii-uin,.. 

Ulllth.-r, Miss Maya. 1 Ill s. I.CA, 

< kM Ma. hi. Sak a K.-n. 
\Vnlfi-. Mis* Kv.-lyn M . l:: 4. Ml . 

A >. . o J. ||. Lu. us. \Vnrwoo, I 

Tool ( . Wh-.-htiK. \V.-t \ lr- 

Kinla. ? S A. 

U iMMliml. U. \ W I- . an, I \\ . 

llil l. A lUM- M. lo Kita I, hljo 

Hlk-ashi .. (Mi., me. Sapporo. 
\\ooilNrl.li;.. Mr W. I- . 1 M 4 INI>. 

Kall.ara. lllkaml Cm,. HvoK" 

K-n 



322 



JAPAN 



U<Mi<lN\M.rtli, Kev. II. F., anl AV., 

11)11. I CC, Kwansei Gakuin. 

Koto Mura. Xishinomiya Shigai, 

Hyogo. Ken. 
Wood worth, Hev. A. I).. D.T).. and 

W., 1S!2. CC. 26 Kasumi Cho. 

Axabu Ku, Tokyo. 
Wood worth. Miss Olive F., 1928, 

JEB, 145 Umemoto Cho, Kobe. 
Woolley, Miss Alice D., 1925, 

IXD, Box 328, Sannomlya P.O., 

Kobe. 
^lonllry. Miss K., SPG, 360 San- 

ko Cho, Shiba. Tokyo. 
\\i.rdN\vorth. Miss K.. SI G, Samu- 

kawa Cho. Chiba. 
\VorthinKton, Miss II. J.. 1S90, 

CMS, 3LMI XakohK Kokutaijl 

Maclii, Hiroshima. 
U riiclit. Miss A. H.. 1S97, 1M>. 

CK. 430 Furu Shinyashiki Ku- 

nmmoto. 
Wright, rtov. n. c.. i:L 7. rcc. 

1 lfi Senpoku Mac-hi. Toyama. 
\Vyllr, Miss M. I... l!)0fi. CM A. 

(A), Hanpor, Iroland. 
Wyntl. KPV. Win. ().. and W.. 

1S!IO. 1804, AI?F, f.05 Miyashita 

Cho, Koishikawa, Tokyo. 



Wythe. Miss K. Grace, 190!}. 
MKFH, (A), 5571 Taft Ave., 
Oakland, Cal., U.S.A. 



VuleN. liov. X. P.. 1908, 1X1), Ta- 

tsuta, Xara Ken. 
Young. Hev. L,. I... and W.. 

(Korea 1906) Japan 1927. MK.I, 

203 Haracla Mura, Kobe. 
Young. Miss Mariana, 1897, MEFI?, 

11 Oura, Nagasaki. 
Young. Hev. T. A., and W.. 1912, 
, 1905, UCMS, 257 Nakazato Ta- 

kinogawa Machi, Tokyo Fu. 

(Tel. Koishikawa 522). 



/imlr. Miss H. H., 192S, RCA, 
2 Meiji Gakuin, Shirokane, 
Shiba, Tokyo. 

Ziiiigg. Hev. K. H., Ph.D., and 
\V.. 1906 IICUS. 162 Hlgashi 
Sambanclio. Sendai. (Tel. 2139). 

/oil. Mr. Donald. AMCFM. Doshi- 
sha YMCA, Karasumaru Dori. 
Ima<lcgawa Sagaru, Kyoto. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Al/.l -U AKAMATSI 

An.lerson. Ftev. A. N.. A- W., SDA. 
NON*. It.-v. Christopher. A- W.. 

KCCS. 
riioiup.son. Ml.sn K. F... CMS. 

AKASHI SHI. 

My 0*0 Ken. 

Ma/eley. Miss M. K..H.-. .IKM. 
smith. Miss 1. W.. .IKM. 

AKITA SHI. 

Aklta Ken. 
Jl.-n.lri, Us. It.-v. K. c A \\ .. 

rc.Ms. 

Milt I.-. Miss Dorothy. I K. 
Movv.-ll. K.-v. N. S.. A \\ .. I K. 
Nitre. K.-v. I. (;.. A- W.. Itcrs. 
Trout. Miss .l.-ssi,- M.. t C.MS. 

AMACiASAKI. 

H.VOKO Ken. 

C..x. Miss A. M.. CMS. 

A MOV. 

KnhmirHii. hi mi). 

Mar, -lav. li.-v. Thomas. KI M. 

AOMOKI SHI. 

Aomorl Ken. 

M;, Hi, .n. K.-v. It.. KC. 

\> .:<:<. It.-v. C.-o. S.. A- W , KCIS 

Spen, er. Miss Cla.lys. I K. 

ASHIVA. 

H.iuico Ken. 

M.-I.II.-I-. K.-v. C. W.. A \V . I.CA. 
I. a n.-. Minx K. A ., CMS. 
>!>.!>. K.-v. .1. T., A- W.. MKS. 

( IIIMA. 
( hlhu Ken. 
Harris. .n. K,-v. K. It.. A- \V.. SIM!, 

At MM. 

I eternon. M|MM A. .1.. SAM. 
Wor.lHworth. Ml It. Sl C. 

I IM.., MM III 

M... r .1.1 Krn. 
I -.Jt. Mr. Mermon, A- W.. IND. 



I I M I SIM. 
I nki.l Ken. 

Cunncll. Ml H.I Muii;i C. I K 
HI.IIIIPM. Kev. C. P.. A \V t ( C 
loHt. MJHH K. K.. TCC 
K Ilium. M|HH A.lH. 1 CC. 
F ovvHl. Miss C. U.. I K. 

H KIOKA SHI. 

I liknukii Ken. 

All. rwhi. M| 8H Mol.-n K.. MKI H 
Haker. Mins Kfflp. SMC. 
Moiil.lln. Itov. (;. \V.. A> \\ .. Site 
Cowl. K-v. .1.. ,v \v.. CMS. 
l>7.i.-r. Rev. C. K.. * \V. SMC 
Faucet t". Mr. T. K A \\ 

YAICA-T. 
Hut< hinNon. Itcv . A. C ,v \\ 

C.MS. 

K.M-h. Mr. A.. A- \V.. SDA. 
F-pa. Mlxhup Arthur. A- \V.. CMS 
Xornian. Hv. C. K.. A- \\ .. F.C\ 
F eckham. Minx Caroline S.. MKKM 
Shirk. MIHH HH.n. F.CA. 
Spenror. It<v. It. S.. A- \V.. MKKM 
TfaKUf. Minn Carolyn M MKKM 
Wai kins. MiHf. K.. IN It. 
Williams.. n. It.-v. N. K A \\ 

SMC. 

M Kl SHIMA SHI. 
I iikiiNlilnni K. ,, 

Cr.-w.lson. It.-v. Ira P.. ,v \V 
IT. MS. 

Fl Kl VAMA SHI. 

Illr.. si, I,,,., Krn. 

IHf vcnilurf. Mrs. A . CM \ 
Kian.is. K.-v. T. K.. C.MA 

ill sill. 

-ifii Krn. 

Mm lu.nt.n. M|f4M K. <>.. I S 
Mii.-hiini.fi. K.-v. Win. . .* \\ 

I S. 

K.>rnt l, Minn M . MSCC 

Moor*-. It.-v. I.. W.. * \\ . I S. 

Shore. MIHH <!.. MSCC. 

IIAKOIIATK Hill. 
Hokkaido. 

Cheney. Mlsi. All.e. MKKM 
Colllnx. Miss M. I> . MKKM 
Itennl.-. llev. W , IM>. 



324 



JAPAN 



IIAMADA MACIII, 

Slilmane Ki-n. 
Xash, .Miss K., CMS. 

II AM A MATS I* SHI, 

Shizuoka Ken. 

Ainswnrth, Uov. P., <fc W.. T CC. 
Dr.-iko. Miss Katherinp. TTCC. 
Hempstead, Miss Ethel I..., M P. 



HIKONK, 

Sliltru Ken. 

Smith. Rev. P. A., & W. 



PK. 



IIIMI .11 SHI. 
H.vosro Ken. 

Acock. Miss Amy A., ABF. 
Karniiiii. licv. M. I).. \- \\ .. AMP. 
Cal.-. Kev. \V. If.. & W.. SIM!. 
Ha^er, Hev. S. 10.. cSL- W.. MKS. 
Post. Miss Virla. AMP. 
Wilcox. Miss K. K., A UP. 

IIIRATSUKA. 

l\:i 11:1^:1 \\ :i Ken. 
Shaw, Uov. I:. l>. M.. \- W.. SPC. 

HIItOSAKI SHI, 

Aomori Ken. 

P.yl.-r. .Miss C,. M.. MKKH. 
Curtice, Miss I,. K.. MKPH. 
Sha.-klock. Hev. Kloyd. .V- W.. 

MKKH. 
Thompson, Hev. K. W.. \- \V.. 

M KPH. 

HIROSHIMA SHI, 
Hiroshima Ken. 

Clarke. Miss S. P., PX. 
Col.!.. Hev. .1. } ... & \V.. MKS. 
Colil.. Mrs. .1. .1.. MKS. 
Collins. Mr. II. M.. VMCA-T. 
oi>i.er. Miss l,ois. MKS. 
Pr.-hn. Hev. M. ( .. \- \V.. CM A. 
Caini-s. Miss X. I!., MKS. 

iii i-.-rord. p.ev. \v. !.. x- \v.. PX. 

Johnson. Miss Katharine. MKS. 
Kay. Hev. .1 . P., \- \V., SMC. 

Shannnn. Miss K. M., MKS. 
WorthinKt in. Miss H. .1.. CMS. 

HONJO MACIII. 

Akita Ken. 

Ashury. Miss J.-ssie .1.. VC.MS. 

IKOMA r.O., 

Nura Ken. 

Coot.-. Mr. L. \V.. X- W.. JAM. 
.lohnson, Mr. Thcodort-. JAM. 
I,y. Miss I loi.Ti, ... JAM. 
Handall. Mr. A. K.. & \V . JAM. 
Strominiist. Miss An-il^na. .1AM. 



IMAHHI MACIII. 

Sliimane Ken. 

Green, Hev. C. P., < 

INAKIYAMA, 
Shlnshu. 

Harohin. Miss M., MSCC. 

INI YAM A. 

Owari, Airhi Ken. 

Arclier, Miss A. I,.. MSCC. 

ISIIINOMAKI. 

Ml.vugl Ken. 

Stacy, Miss M. li., CC. 

I \V.\K I TANAKl KA, 
I likiiHliirna Ken. 

IM.X. Mr. Marry H.. ,V \V., I XI). 

nVAKIKI Ml KA, 
.^liya^i Ken. 



K.\(;OSHIMA SHI, 

KaKONliinia Ken. 

Pinlay. Miss L. A.. MK1- I!. 
Peet. Miss A. K., ME KM. 
Terl.i.r-f, . Jtev. J., &- AV., HCA. 



\\ 



KAIHAKA, 

H.VOJJO K<-n. 

e. Mr. W. P., I XI) 



KAMI-IIDA \1\< III. 

N:iu;iiiu Ken. 

MInkkinen, iiev. T., X- W., l.KK. 
Xi.Miii. Miss Tyyne. LKK. 

KANAXAWA SHI, 

iNliikawa Ken. 

Mates. Miss K. I... I CC. 

Eaton. Miss A. C.. J X. 

Covenlock. Miss Isal.ol. CCC. 

Mail. Miss Margaret. PX. 

M< \Villianis, Hev. W. H., & \V., 

I CC. 

Miles. Miss Mary. PX. 
Tetloxv, Miss Helen L., PE. 
Tremain. Jiev. M. A., & \V.. PX. 
VanAkcn, Miss H. K.. PX. 

KAN NO Ml KA, 

( liil.a Ken. 

Millard. Mr. P. H., * \V.. SPA. 
Xelson. Hev. A. X., \- W.. SPA. 
Pouers. Mr. M . K.. \- W., SPA. 
Thlliston. Mr. C. E.. & \V.. SPA. 

KAWAGOE, 

Saitania Ken. 

i.^s h. M.. PF;. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



325 



K \\\ 

llyngi) Ken. 

C. ; ,|. Mrs. Km ma. INI). 
S trail I.. Miss M;,.. AC. 

KIKVl SIIK.AI. 

(iuiniim K. n. 
Andrews. Uev.. K. I... A XV . 1 K. 

KITA SHIN MATIN. 

H.\OK<> Ken. 

J..r>.-s. T. .1., & \V., JKM. 

KOHi: SHI. 

H.VOKII Ken. 

Akana. .Mrs. Catherine AMCKM 
Allen, u.-v. Kri. , SI C. 
An.lernon. Minn Myra I .. .MKS. 
Anderson. Miss Uoherta, YXVCA. 
Mallard. Miss M. .\|., JJ.;M. 
Marher, .Miss Doris, si C 
Mayli.ss. .Miss Knl.l. SIM;. 
Clark. Uev. K. .\|.. A- \v. t I X. 
Crew. .Miss An^ie. (< 
Cuthhertson. .Mr. .1 . \- XV.. JKM. 
DeKorest, Miss C. M.. AMCKM. 
Kssen, .Miss M. K., SI C. 
Field. .Miss Sarah .M.. AMCK.M. 
F<,rd. U.-v. .1. C.. INI). 
Fnlti.n. S. 1 .. A- XV.. l-s. 
Cist. .Miss Ann.-ll.-. .MKS. 
Ha<kett. Mr. M. \\ ,V \V 

AMCK.M. 

1 1 are. .Mr. K. \V.. I. XI). 
HUM.-, I. .Miss K. K., AMCK.M. 
Ketilewell. H,.\. S.. \- \v.. SI C 
Ki.in.iiit. .Miss H.-l.Ti. AM<-K.M 
K.-a. .Mi.s.s L. K. SIM; 
I.indstr..in. .Mrs. M.. C.MA. 
.Mar Cau.sland. .Miss Isal.elle. 

AM< KM. 

.Manslield. .Miss I.. M . AMCF.M. 
.Myers, I .ev. II XX .. ,V XX . I S. 
Oxfc.rd. Mr. .1. S, ,v XX .MKS. 
I arrott. Mr. IV. A- \X . MS 
l:ee<|. Mr. .1 IV. \- XX . MKS. 
liui-ert. Miss Nellie I... INI) 
Sasse. MisH d.n-na. I N I > 
Sheppard. Miss K.. INI). 
Shiveley. M|HS Lillian. AMCK.M 
Sister Klf-anur. CK 
Sister Kleam.r Kran<es. CK 
Smith. Miss K. M.. SIMJ. 
Smith. Mr. Itnv. A- XX . MKS. 
Sti.we. MisH C II , AMCK.M. 
St.iwe. Miss M. K. AMCKM. 
Tayli.r. Mrs. Mary. AC. 
Tem-h. ICev. C. K., A- XX .. t CC. 
Thi.rlakMHon. Uev. S. ( ).. A- U . 

I.CA. 

Tit.-., ml,. M1*M l.u.-y XX .. AMCK.M. 
Vlnall. Mr. (5. M . A- XV.. MS. 
WaKMer. Uev M. II . A- \V.. KM A. 
Walker. Mr. K M. SIM;. 
>Vutt. Hev. K. K.. * W.. INI). 



Wilkinson, Mr. C. S.. & W.. JKM 
Wilkinson. Miss Jessie. AMF. 
Wilson. Miss Kleanor, AMCK.M. 
Wood worth. Miss < ). K.. JKM. 
Woolley. Miss Alice. INI). 
You UK. U<-\ I.. I... & W MK.I. 

K0( III SMI. 

K... hi Ken. 

l.,wd. Miss Annie H.. I S. 
Kills. Mrs. Chas.. INI). 
M.-llwaine. I .ev. Win. M.. .t- \\ 
I S. 

KOI I SHI. 
\ .1 in;i ii.i-.li i Ken. 
Marr. Miss I.ulu M.. I CC. 
Coates. Uev. XV. (!., A- W.. I CC 
(Jreenhank, Miss K. M.. I CC. 
M.-La. hlan. Miss A. M., t CC 
Simpson, Miss M. K.. I CC. 
Suttie. Miss <!\\en, t CC. 

KOKl KA SHI. 

I ill. ii. .K.i Ken. 
Hannah. Miss Lolita. SMC. 
Lancaster. Miss C. K.. SMC. 
Itowe. Mrs. .1. H.. SMC. 

KOICIYAMA Sill. 

I ii K n-h i in.i Ken. 

M. Kim. U.-v. John C.. A- \V.. I K 

Kl MAMOTO SHI. 

K iiin.i nioio Ken. 
Meers. Miss Crace. I.CA. 
Murmelster. Miss MarKaret. MUl M 
Herrlsh. Miss Klla. MKKM 
Harder. Miss Martha. LC.X. 
Meltll.rldle. Miss Mary. LCA. 
Miller. Uev. L. S. <;.. A- XV., I.C x . 
foils. Miss Marlon. I.CA. 
Itiddell. Miss II . IND CK 
Si hlllillKer. Uev <: W., A- W . 

I.C \ 
XX rlKht. Miss A H . I N 1> 

Kl I.I SHI. 

II i ,,.- , in, i K. n 
Searcy. Miss Mary C,.. MKS 

Kl III MK. 

I iiKi.ol. i K. n 
KrlnKM. Miss Dora. UCA. 
C.oldsmith. Miss M. >.. CMS. 
Moore. Uev. M C.. A- W , UCA 
Slaveley. MIM .1. A.. CMS 
XVInther. Uev. .1. M. T.. A N\ . 
I.CA. 

Kl SAIK. 

ii. .l.n. l-l.in.U 

L.-ckw I. Uev. <;. C, A- W. 

A UCK.M. 



326 



JAPAN 



Kl SATSl , 

(iumnia Ken. 

Cornwall-LeKh. Miss Mary If.. PK. 
McGlll. Miss Mary H.. PK. 
Nettleton, Miss Mary, PE. 

KYOTO SHI. 

Kyoto I n. 

Martlet t, Kev. S. C., X- W., AMCFM. 
Me.st. Miss Mlanche. Y\VCA. 
Hrokaw. Kev. H., X- W., I N. 
Clapp. Miss Frances H., AMCK.M. 
Culik I .ev. K. S.. X- W.. AMCFM. 
Curtis. Miss Dorothy. AMCFM. 
Curtis. Mrs. \V. L.. AMCFM. 
Denton, Miss M. F., AMCKM. 
Dickson. Miss L. K.. PK. 
Disbrow, Miss H. .1.. PK. 
Duncan. Miss Constance, YWCA. 
Kckel. Miss M. F., ON. 
Kckel, Mr. Paul K.. CN. 
Kckel. Hev. \V. A., X. \V., CN. 
Foote. Miss K. I... PK. 
Franklin, Kev. S. H.. X- \V.. I N. 
Gillespy. Miss .1. C.. .IKM. 
< leu don. Mrs. AKIU S D., AMCFM. 
Gwinn, Miss Alice K., AM(-FM. 
Hester. Miss Margaret W.. I K. 
Hil.l.anl. Miss Ksther, AMCFM. 
Huntlev. Mr. Frank. X- W.. 

AMCFM. 

Johnson. Miss T.. I K. 
McGrath, Miss K. S.. PK. 
Neely. Miss C. .1.. PK. 
Nichols. Ht. Kev. S. H.. * AV.. PK. 
Paine. Miss Margaret K., I K. 
Parmelee, Miss H. F.. ABCFM. 
Heuibert. Miss S. H.. I K. 
Schiller. Kev. Kniil. X- W.. AKP.M. 
Shaw. Hev. H. R.. & W.. I K. 
Shlvely, Hev. M. F.. X- W., I M. 
Skiles. Miss Helen. PK. 
Smith. Mr. H. K.. fi- W.. INI>. 
S,,al. Miss A., .IKM. 
Staples. Hev. I. M., & \V.. CN. 
Tall>ott. Mrs. .1. M.. CN. 
Waters, Hev. Ceo. I... X- W., MKS. 
Williams, Miss H. H.. PK. 
/oil. Mr. Donald, AMCFM. 

.MAKHASIII Sill, 
(iunuiui Ken. 

Murnet. Miss M. A.. C.I I M. 
<irisw.il, I, Miss F. K.. AHCF.M. 
McKim. Miss Messie, PK. 

M MM (. \MI. SHI, 
KIIKIIVVII Ken. 

Muchanan, Hev. W. MrS., \- W.. 
PS. 

MATSl MOTO SHI, 

N. ii;.ui.. Ken. 
Clenrh. Miss M.. IND. 
Hiuuilton. Miss F.. MSCC. 



MATSl YA MA SHI. 

I. him.- Ken. 

Francis, Miss H. M., CMA. 
Gulick, Mr. Leeds. X- W., AMCFM. 
Hoyt, Miss O. S., AMCFM. 
Judson. Miss Cornelia. AMCFM. 
Merrill, Miss Katherine. AMCFM. 
Kichards, Kev. W. A.. X W.. NSK 
Stokes. Miss K. S. K.. SPG. 

M IN AMI HA K A. 

riilt.a Ken. 
Collioi-ne. Mrs. S. K., CMS. 



Ml TO SHI. 

Iliariiki Ken. 

Mraithwaite, Mr. C. M.. < \\ . 

AFP. 
Chappell. Hev. .las.. X- W.. I K. 

AMF. 
Kennard, Hev. .1. S. Jr., X- W. 

AMF. 
Sharpless. Miss K.lith F.. AFP. 

MIYA.II, 

l\ iiiii:iiiinto Ken. 
l- reeth. Miss, I- . M.. CMS. 



M1YA/AKI SHI. 

Warren. Hev. C. M.. X- 

A MCFM. 

Warren. Mr. Dana, AMCFM. 
MOK1OKA SHI. 

Schroer. Hev. <I. W.. X- W., HCl 

NAC;AXO SHI, 

N UKHIIO Ken. 

Calll.etk. Miss I.<iuise, I CC. 
I.ediard, Miss Klla, I CC. 
Makeham, Miss Kva, MSCC. 
Stone, liev. A. H., I CC. 
Waller. Hev. .1. G., & W.. MSC 
Waller. Hev. Wilfred. MSCC. 



NAGASAKI SHI. 

Vmn-;iUi Ken 

AshhaiiKh, Miss A. M.. MKFM. 

Mrittain. Miss Mlanche. MKFM. 

Mruner. Mr. G. W., & W., MKFM 

Couch, Miss Sarah M., HCA. 

Darrow. Miss F., HCA. 

Fehr, Miss M. .1., MKFJ5. 

lla^en. Miss < )live 1., MKFM. 

Hoekje, Hev. W. G., X- W., HCA. 
I Kri.ler. Hev. W. W.. X- W., MKFM 

McAlpine. Mr. .las. A., HCA. 

Mills. Mr. K. <).. X- W.. SMC. 
; Taylor. Miss Minnie, HCA. 

White. Miss A. I,., MKFM. 

Ynuntf. Miss Mariana, MKFM. 



LLST HY TOWNS 



327 



NAUOYA Sill. 

XI, M K. H 

Archibald. Mitt MarKtret. PS. 
lii.wniHn. MIBH X. K. J.. AISl C. 
Huchanan. Hev. P. XV.. & XV.. PS. 
Couke. Mi M. S.. MSCC. 
l .,m.-l*. M,.-.- Mabel. PS. 
Canlner. Mi K. K.. PS. 
Crimes. Miss N.-ttic. AC. 
Hamilton, Ut. Uev. HlNliop. A- XV . 

.\1 SCC. 

Hancock. Mi*H Kli7.al>etli. PS. 
MawklnH. Mi*n Frances, MSCC. 
.luencensen. Uev. .1. \V.. AC. 
Kirtland. Minn L. (!.. PS. 
Knmlten, Uev. A. (V. A- W.. I. ( A. 
Layman. Itev. H. I... A XV.. M P. 
M. Kenzie. Uev. A. P., A; W.. UCC. 
oldH. Mr. IrvlnK. Y.MCA-T. 
Jl..l)lnnon, Uev. C. ( .. A- \V.. 1NH. 
ItohlnHon, Mi.-s H. M.. 1 M >. 
Sniythe. H-v. I.. (\ .M.. A- W.. PS. 
Trent. MJHH K. M.. AiStV. 
Truenian, Mr. i;. K., A- W.. 

VMCA-A. 
Wutklnn. Mr. JanieH T.. YMCA-T 

NAKATSl \i \( III 

Olta K.-n. 
Stui VT. HHV. I. L.. A- W.. MKS. 



NAKA SHI. 

WHky. MlHM C 



MIUATA. 

\V:.tl. P.ev. II. ().. A- W.. MSCC. 
MKKO. 

I... l,ii;i K. II 

Hiiiii,,hr.-y.M. M IMM Marii.n. PIO. 
MHHINOM1YA, 



Italex. Kev. ( . .1. I... * \\ .. I tT. 
CraRK. K-v. W. J. M . A- \N .. t C. 
Ma.lfn. Uev. T. H., M KS. 
Mlll.urn. Kev. S. M.. A- NV.. MKS. 
llllllar.l. Uev. K.. * W.. I CC. 
Mattliewx, Kev. \V. K., A- W.. 

MKS. 

Ml.kl*-. Mr. J. .).. A- W.. MKS. 
iKl.urn. -v. N. S.. A- W.. MKS. 
< luterhrMK**. Ui-v. H. W.. A W.. 

I CC. 

Whltlntf. Uv. M. M.. A- \V.. r < . 
\V.i,.lMworth. Itev. H. K.. &. W. 

I CC. 

MSHITAKA Ml HA. 

MlyiiKl K n 
Hutler. MlHH IV. JUM. 
\VIMhunH<m. M|HH .1.. JUM. 



NORROKA, 

.Mlyuzakl K.I, 
H.rn<>. Minx A. ( . J.. (. MS. 

M MA/.l Sill. 
Slilzuokn Ken. 

K.llin. Miss ( . M. A. T.. SPC. 
Suiuervell. MiHS M.. SPC 

OBAMA. 

I iiUiii Ken 
iM-n(.-i). Mis.s A. (.:.. PK. 

OGAKI, 

(iifu Ken. 

Mill.-r. Mi.sw Krn.a I... MM. 
NVeidner, Mi.ss Sadie, MM. 
\Vtiew.-ll, Miss K. A.. MM. 

(X.I. 
Suicti Ken. 

Winllier. MiH.s Maya, I.< A. 

OITA SHI. 
Oltu Ken 

Can., II. Mi.MS Sallle. MKS. 
UeMaaKl. Uev. .1. C.. UCA 
Peniar.-.-. Uev. P. XV. H.. A- XV . 
MKS. 

Kuyper. Uev. II. W.. A XV.. KC v. 

. owmifi. MisH Mamie. MKS. 

OKAYA, 

NIIKUIIO Ken. 

>penrer. Uev. X . C., MSCC. 

OK XX XM X Sill. 

i i L.I * .ii.i.i Ken. 

A. lams. Mlxs Alice P.. AUCI M 
lletrl.li. Mr. C,.. & XV.. SD.\. 
lli.lineM. MI.MM M.. SPC. 
I >|.lx. Uev. C. H.. A XV.. A IUTM 
X ..llle.M. MiM.I .1. K.. SPC. 

OKA/AKI SHI. 

Xi. l,i Ken 

Pattoti. MlHM Annie X .. PS 
Pa I t..n. MIM Klurence !.. PS. 

OMI-II \( HIM AN. 
Shlicit. Ken. 

X ,.rli-H. MTH. .1. K.. >M.I. 
X uriex. Mr. XV. M. A XV, M.XI.I 

OSAKA SHI. 

".,,!,, Ku. 

AmibruHler. Minn It.. we T., I CMS. 
Meatty Mr. H. K. * XV.. IND. 
rhiipiiiun. Uev. (]. K . A XV . PN. 
Ci.uk. M|HM M. M.. MKS. 



328 



JAPAN 



Cril.b, .Miss E. It., JND. 
Douldeday, Mi.ss S. C., CMS. 
Erskine, Rev. Win. U., X- W. 

UCMS. 

Field, Miss Ruth. MES. 
Foote, Rev. .1. A., & \V., AMI 1 . 
Matter Miss H. D.. MES. 
Hail, Mrs. .1. E.. PN. 
Howard, Mi.ss R. IX, CMS. 
Jean, Miss F. E., 1 E. 
.Jones. Dr. K. M.. & \V., PH. 
Kirkaldy, Miss Minnie, .IRM. 
Kludt, Miss Ann M., AMF. 
Madden, Rev. M. M., \- \V.. IND. 
Marsli, Miss Carolyn. YWCA. 
Mylander. Mis.s Ruth. FMA. 
Palmer, Miss Helen M., 1 X. 
Pawley, Miss Annal.elle. AMF. 
1 eavy. Miss Anne, MES. 
Pickens, Miss Lillian (.)., FMA. 
RawlinKs, Rev. G. W.. \- \V., CMS 
Reeve, Rev. W. S.. P.\. 
Riker. Miss S. M., PN. 
Thede, Rev. Harvey. ,V- \V., EC. 
T(rliet. Miss I.. JRM. 
Tristram. Miss K. A. S.. CMS. 
YanKirk. Miss A. S.. PE. 
Whitehead. Miss M. M., MES. 
Williams. Miss A. M., MES. 
\Villiams, Miss A. S.. CMS. 

OTA M\< III, 

Ihiiruki Km. 
Morehead, Mr. M. D.. X- W.. IND. 

OTAKl Sill. 

Hokkaido. 

Cary, Rev. Frank. A- W., AMCFM. 
M Croty, Miss ( . H.. p.\. 

OTSl . 

Knipp. Rev. .1. K.. \- \V.. I M. 

SAGA SHI, 

SlIKil Kin 

Hems, Rev. F. \V.. ,V W.. LCA. 
Lauj, . Rev. C,,. . \V.. & \V.. RCA. 

SAKAI. 

Alexander, Mi.ss S;illie. PN. 

SAI POKO SHI. 
Hokkaido. 

Al.-xand.-r. Miss V. E.. MEFH. 
Mati-h.de, r. \ ,TI. .1.. \- W.. CMS. 
M.Tison. Pasf,r H. F.. \- \\ .. Sl>.\. 
Ett.-r. Mr. C. I,.. A- \\ .. \VMC.\-T. 
Evans. Miss E. M.. p.\. 
Howard, Miss Ann,-,-. PN. 
l.ak.-. R.-v. I,. C.. ,v- \V.. PN. 
Lane. Mrs. II. M.. AMCFM. 



Mackenzie, Mi.ss V. M., PN. 
Norton, Miss E. L. B. ( CMS. 
Smith, Miss J., PN. 
Smith, Mi.ss S. C., PN. 
Taylor, Miss E. M., MEFM. 
Walsh. Pa. Rev. Mishop C,. .1 . 

CMS. 
Woodard, Rev. W. P., ,< W. 

AMCFM. 



SKNDAI SHI, 

MiyiiKi Ken. 

Minsted, Rt. Rev. N. S.. \- W.. PE, 
Mollinger, Miss Aurelia. ItCl S. 
Moyle, Miss Helen. PE. 
Mrown. Miss ()., JRM. 
Hunker. Miss Annie, .IRM. 
Cook, Miss 11. S., RCl S. 
Cook. Mi.ss R. E., RCl S. 
Dann, Miss .1. M., JRM. 
l- espernian, Rev. F. L., & W., 

RCTS. 

Oerhai-d, Rev. P. I,., & W., RCUS. 
c.erhard. Mr. R. H.. RCl S. 
Gillett, Rev. C. S., & W.. ABCFM. 
llansen. Miss K. I.. RCl S. 
Jenkins. Miss L. F.. A P.F. 
Jesse. Miss M. D., AMF. 
Kill. urn. Miss E. H., MEFM. 
Kriete. liev. C. D., AL- W., RCl S. 
Lee, Miss Mabel, MEKH. 
LeCalley, Mr. Chas. M.. RCl S. 
Lindsey". Miss L. A.. RCl S. 
Lloyd. Miss M., JRM. 
Luthy, Rev. S. R.. & W.. MEFM. 
Madeley, Rev. W. F.. \- W. (A), 

P E . 

Marten, Miss Edna M., RCl S. 
AlrC.rath. Miss Violet. JRM. 
McKniKht. K* v. W. Q.. X- W.. CC. 
Murray. Miss Elsa, JRM. 
Nail, Miss Ruth E.. RCl S. 
Newl.ury. Miss C. M., AMF. 
Xirodemus, Prof. F. M., ,V W.. 

RCUS. 

Ransom. Deaconess A. L., PE. 
Richardson, Miss E., JRM. 
Rumsey, Miss Mary, IND. 
Schned er, Rev. D. M., & W., 

RCUS. 

Sipple, Mr. Carl S., RCUS. 
Smith, Mr. A. D., & W., RCUS. 
Smith. Miss H.. RCUS. 
Stoudt. Mr. O. M., ,Sj W.. RCUS. 
Weed. Miss H. L. RCl S. 
Whiteman. Miss Mary. JRM. 
XauKK. Rev. E. H., tt W.. RCl S. 

SEOUL, 

Korea. 

Maker. Mishop .L. & W.. MEFM. 
Kerr, Rev. Win. C.. < W., PN. 
Newell, Rev. H. H..& \V.. AMCFM. 
Starkey. Miss Mertha, MEFM. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



329 



SIIIMONOSKKI Sill, 
VamiiKUflii Ken. 

Bigelow. Minn CJ. S.. 1 N. 
.lohnstone. Miss .1. .M., I N. 
Kennion, MIHH Olive, SIT,. 
Linn, Hev. J. A.. & W.. LCA. 
Morris. Miss M. H.. I N. 
Pieters, Miss .1. A.. HCA. 
Strong. Hev. C. N.. SPC,. 
Walne. Hev. K. N.. & W.. SHC. 
Walne. Miss Florence, SMC. 
\Viilv.iiinl. Miss Klorence, HCA. 
U inn. Mr. T. ( .. & W., I X. 



SIIMIOTSIM A. 
Ihurakl Ken. 

Minfonl. Mr. Curney, A \V.. AFP 



HHINCil , 

\Vaka.vanm Ken. 

Chapman. Hev. K. N., X W., I X 



SIIIOI>\ Ml l; \ 
Ibarakl Ken. 



Mlxler. Mr. >. 

SIII/.I OKA Sill, 
Slil/uoka Ken. 

All.riKht. Hev. L. S.. A- \V . I ( ( . 
l..-liniiin. Miss Luis. fCC. 
Llnilsay. Miss <) ( .. t CC. 
Kurke. MlHH M L. I Cf. 

si.-1-..n. it.-\ c u. A; \v . rcr. 



SIIOKA. 

I urniimit. 

A. I air. Miss Lily. Kl M 
Kill..!. Miss I-ial.el. Kl M. 
L. t n.Hl.ur,,unl,. Dr. D . .V \V . Kl M 



SI MIVOSIII, 

llyiiKo Ken. 

Ci nvcrs.-, Mr. <; C. \- \V 
VMCA-A. 

SI MOTO. 
AwnJI. 

Warren. l>v. K. ! ., ,V \V., 1 MA. 



I \IIIOKI . 
I orniuHii. 

A.lains, M!SS A. 10. I CC. 

cinsii.iiiii. MISS K K.. rrr. 

< inn luirik s. Mlsn .) . M . I CC. 
Uraliiii. Mr. M. C . \- W.. I CC. 
Uushue-Taylur. Mr. !.. * \S .. I CC. 
Kamsfy. Miss M.. I CC. 
.^.ni.r. Miss Annii-. I CC. 



TAINAN, 
Formowi. 

I uml, Hev. l-M\var,l. \- \V.. EPM. 
Harnett. Miss MarK tret. Kl M. 
Cheal. Dr. I .. & W.. Kl M. 
Copland, Ilfv. K. H.. A- \V.. Kl M. 
Cullen. Miss C.. S.. Kl M. 
C,ault, Miss .Jessie. Kl M. 
Lloyd. Miss .leannle. Kl M. 
Macintosh. Miss S. K.. Kl M. 
Montgomery, Kev. \V. K.. \- W., 

Kl M. 
SinKlelun. Mr. L.-sli,-. \- W . KI M. 

TAISHA Ml KA. 

Ilyogo Ken. 

Cary. Miss A I ire, ABC KM. 
Curtis, Miss Kdlth. AHCKM. 
Hawkins. Miss Viulet. AMCKM. 
Muran, Hev. S. K., \- W., AHCKM. 

TAKAMATSl SMI, 

K.ti;.i\\.i Ken. 
Atkinson. Miss M. .1.. I S. 
Currell. Miss Susan, I S. 
Krlckson. |{ev. S. M., \- \V., I S. 

TAKATA SHI. 

MlKHta Ken. 

Hailey, Miss Helen. MSCC. 
Hul< her. Miss K.. MSCC. 
I uwles. Hi-v. I . S. C., ,v W . 
MSCC. 

T A MSI I. 

ForuioHa. 

Hurdli k. Miss A. M.. I CC. 
Cla/ie. Miss M ;.. I CC. 
Dl< kson. Mr. .1 L. * W.. I CC. 
DoUKlas. Miss D C.. I CC 
Mac Kay. ICeV Ceu. \V . A- \V . . I CC 
Ma. Millari. Itev. HuKh. A- W . 
I CC 

TATRBAYAHIII, 
i. MIMM, i Ken. 

I arr. Miss D A . C.I I M. 

TATSI TA. 

Nam Ken. 



TOUATA Sill. 
Fnkuoka Ken. 

Hind. H,. v . .1 . A- \V . CMS. 
S< hell. Miss Naomi. SMC. 

TOKI SIIIMA Sill, 

I i>l. iixli no.i Ken. 
HanMell. H..\. A I . A- \\ . I S. 
.lenklnH Hev. C. 1C.. A- W , I S 
l.otfan. Hev. C A . PS. 
Lumi.kln. M!HM Kntelle. PS. 
HI. hards., n. M!MH C. M.. MS. 



330 



JAPAN 



TOKLYAMA, 

YiiimigiiHil Ken. 
Palmore, Kev. 1. L., & W., A1KS. 

TOKYO SHI, 

Tokyo Fu. 

Abel, Miss Dorothy, AIHW. 
Abel, Mr. Fred.. X \V., AIHW. 
Alexander, liev. K. I .. X W.. 

XIKFH. 

Allen, Miss A. W., I CC. 
Anderson, Miss Irene, KC. 
Anderson, Kev. Joel, X \\ (A), 

SAM. 

Andrews, Miss ( )., IND. 
Andrews. Kev. K. W.. X W., PK. 
Armstrong, liev. V. ! ., & W., 

SDA. 

Aurell. Kev. K. K.. X W.. MS. 
Axling, Kev. Win., & W., AUK. 
Hagley. .Miss Kate, 1ND. 
Hagley. Miss Leila. MKS. 
Hailey. Miss H. M.. A1KKH. 
Maker, .Miss Kdith. YWCA. 
Mallard, Miss Susan, SPG. 
Marr. Knsign K.. X W.. SA. 
Marth, Kev. N. H., it- W., AC. 
Mauernf eind, Miss S. M., KC. 
Hee. Mr. William, .IK 11. 
Mender. Mr. G. K., & W.. AC. 
Henninghoff, Kev. H. M., X W., 

AUK. 
Mergamini, Kev. ,J. Van W.. X- W.. 

PK. 

Mernauer. Mrs. K. A.. I.\D. 
Merry. Kev. A. 1).. AIKKH. 
Higwood, Major K., X W.. SA. 
Mi.shop, Kev. ("has., X W., MKKM. 
Morton. Mr. Hugh, .V- W.. A ! !. 
Mosanuuet, Miss A. ( .. C.MS. 
Molt. Kev. C. K.. X W., I CC. 
Mowen. Miss G., I CC. 
Howies. Mr. Gilbert.. Xr W.. AKP. 
Moyd. Miss Helen, SPC. 
Mralthwaite. Mr. <;.. .1 KTS. X W.. 

.1 KM. 

Mranstad. Mr. K. K., J K. 
Mrown, Mr. K. M., X W., Y.MCA-A. 
Muncomoe, Kev. W. 1 ., V W., 

CMS. 

Mundy. Mr.. \- W.. I K. 
Murnside, Miss liuth. I K. 
Mushe, Miss S. L. K., CMS. 
Myers, M i K Klorence, AC. 

"itrlson. Mr. C. K.. AL- W.. SAM. 

arpenter. Miss M. M.. AMK. 

arus- Wilson, Miss Nona, I K. 

ary. Kev. H. M., \- W.. i:cc. 

av.-n. Miss Mary. MKKM. 

Miappell, Miss C ., t CC. 

happell. Miss M. II.. MKKM. 

huiie, Mr. .1. T.. * W.. VM.I. 

hase. Miss Laura. MKKM. 

hope. Miss I)., SI O. 

Jlarke. Kev. \\ . II . X W.. SMC. 



Clawson, Miss M. K., UCMS. 

Cole, Mr. A. It., X- W., SDA. 

Collins, Mr. A. M., JKli. 

Course, Mr. J. H., X- W., IND. 

Courtice, Miss S. K., I CC. 

Crawford, Kev. V. A., <fc W.. PS. 

Crosby, Miss A. It., AMK. 

Cunningham, Kev. W. 1)., X- W.. 

YMJ. 

I Cypert, Miss I... IND. 
j Daniel, Miss N. M., MKKM. 

Daugherty, Miss L. C.. PN. 

Davidson, Knsign t\ ! ., X- W., SA. 

Dickinson, Kev. .1. H., SPC. 

Dithridge, Miss Harriet. IND. 

Downing, Miss Kuth K., I CC. 

Downs, liev. Darley, X- W., 
ABCFM. 

Durgin, Mr. K. 1... X- W.. Y.MCA-A. 

Duryee, Kev. K. C., KCA. 

Klliott, Dr. Mabel K., PK. 

Kngelmann, Kev. M. J.. X- N\ ., 
KCL S. 

Kvans, Kev. Chas. H., X- \\ ., ! !:. 

Kverard, Miss C., PK. 

Kwing. Miss A. M., IND. 

Koote. Mr. K. W., X- W., PK. 

Krost, Knsign H., X- W., SA. 

(iardiner. Miss K. W., PK. 

CJeuly, Rev. K. D., X- W., MKKM. 
1 Getzlaff. l^r. K. K., X- W., SDA. 

Gibbs, Kev. M. A.. X- \V., WAI. 
j Gillett, Miss K. K., IND. 
i Gressitt. Air. .1. K.. X- W., AMK. 
I Gross, Air. K. A. C., IND. 
i Haig, Aliss Alary T.. fCC. 

Hailstone, Aliss AI. K.. SPC. 
j llalsey. Aliss L. S., PN. 

Hamilton. Miss K.. CAIS. 

Hannalord, Kev. H. D.. X- W., PN. 

Harder. Aliss Helene, KCA. 

Hartshorne. Aliss A. C., IND. 

Hathaway. Aliss Agnes. l"CC. 

Hayman, Air. V. .1., IND. 

Heckelman. Kev. K. W.. X W.. 
ME KB. 

Helm. Mr. N. T.. X- W.. PN. 

liennigar. Kev. K. C.. X- W.. I CC. 

Henty. Miss A. AI., CAIS. 

Hertzler, Aliss V. S., KC. 

Heywood, Aliss C. C,., PK. 

Hoaie, Aliss D. K., .IKM. 

Hoffman. Aliss AI. K.. KCl S. 

lloltom. Kev. D. C., X- W.. AMI- 1 . 

Horn, Kev. K. T.. X W., LCA. 

Iglehart. liev. C. W., X W.. 
A1KKM. 

Iglehart, liev. K. T.. X- W.. MKKM. 

Johnson. Aliss K. AI.. PK. 

.lorgensen, Mr. Arthur. X- W.. 
Y.MCA-A. 

Juergen.sen, Aliss Agnes. AG. 

.luergensen. Air. C. K., X- W., AC. 

.luergensen. Aliss Alarie, AG. 

Kaufman. .Miss K. K.. YWCA. 

Kaufmann, Miss Irene. YWCA. 



LIST BY TOWNS 



Kellam. Mr*. I.. C.. PK. 
Kennedy. Mi. MM Clara K.. I.N D. 
Kmney. Minn .1. .\J.. I CC. 
K ii. M.I,. Dea. oneKH S. T.. I K. 
Kraft. Mr. K. J.. A- W.. SDA. 
Kue.kllch. Ml8 Gertrud. EC. 
Lade. MlHH H. It.. I K. 
l,iiiiiott. llev. NV. C.. & W.. I N. 
LelniriKer. llev. A. A.. X- NV.. KC. 
I.emmon. .MlH.s \ lvlan. Y.M.I. 
I. inn. Itev. .1. K.. * NV.. I.CA. 
London. Minn M. H.. I N. 
Lilian. Itev. H. M.. 11CA. 
I.UHt.y. MlHH Majel, V.M.I. 
Ma. donald. Minn Caroline. INI). 
M;.nn. llev. I.. NV.. \- \V.. AKCFM. 
M.,uk. Minn Laura. KC. 
Mayer. Jtev. I . S.. A: NV.. KC. 
McCall, llev. C. K.. A- W.. CCMS. 
M. Donald. MiHH M. !>.. I N. 
M. Kenxle. Ht-v. l>. It.. ,t- NV , I CC. 
M.Kim. Itt. llev. .1.. \- NV (A). 

I K. 

McKlnnon. Minn Claire. YWC.V. 
M< NauKhton. Kev. It. K.. .V W.. 

INI). 

McSparren. Dr. .1 I... \ NV.. INI). 
Meatli. Minn A. < >.. I CC. 
Mener. llev. S. K.. SIM I. 
Miililletun. Mr. Herbert. INI) 



itoljert.M. Rev. F. L. \- \V . 
ABCKM. 

llolfe. Major \ K . \- W . S.\. 
llumsey, M!HH M. C., INI). 
ItUHHoll. Dr. Davlil, IND. 
Itytler, MIMS (5. K.. AMK. 
Savolalnen, Itev. \ v N\ ( \ 

LEK. 

S.-haefTer. Ml.s M U.. I K. 
Schweitzer. Mlxx HMna. KC. 
S.tt. llev. K. N . A \V.. MKI lt 
Slmltz. Minn Celruil. SDA. 
Sinter Kilith Cun.sian.f. CK. 
Slter Kthel.lre.la, CK. 
Sister Florence. CK. 
Sinter Mary Katharine. CK. 
Smith, llev. .1. C.. A,. W.. |-\. 
Smyth, Major Annie, SA. 
Spackman, Itev. H. C.. ,v \\ . I K 
Sprowlen. Ml A. H.. MKFK 
Stat-ey. MI.MH K. K.. SDA. 
Staple, Minn C. K. M.. I K. 
Staples. Mis* M. M.. I CC. 
Stetceman. llev. H. V. K. X \V . 

KCA. 

Stewart. Miss M. C.. IND. 
Sllrewalt. llev. A. .1. \V.. I.CA. 
St. .John. MfH. A. C.. I K. 
Strothar.l. Miss A. <)., l C< , 
Syrlnjf. llev. A.. & \V.. I.M. 



Mill; 



Miller, Mlsx Allie, IND. 
Miller. M|H K.lna. AF1 . 
Moon. M!HH M. H.. MKFH. 
MoHlmann. Itev. ()tto, I.M. 
Moule. Itev. <;. M., & W.. CMS. 
Musner. Mr. C. K.. X- \V.. IND. 
Newman. Knnl^n U., \. \v. SA 
NothheKer. llev. Karl. LM. 
Nun... MlHH C. M.. I K. 
NvMtrom. MlHM Florence. AllF. 
nl.lrl.lice. Minn M. M.. MKFH. 
<)|,|H. M|HH Alice. AHCF.M. 
1 alne, M|HM M. A.. MKFM. 
1 arklnnon. Itev. \V. \V.. X- \V.. 

AMK. 
Pattern.. n. Mr. C. S. X- \V.. 

VMCA-A. 

I erklnn. Mr. M. .1.. \- W . SDA 
I erry. Minn Catherine. AUCFM. 
I helpn. Mr. C. S.. \ \V.. YMC.X-A. 
I l.ler. Minn M. /.. MKFH. 
I il.-r. M|HH H. C.. ItCt S. 
I lnnent. MTU. A. M.. CCC. 
I on.l. MIxH Helen. I K 
I ri.-e. llev. IV <!.. * \N .. I CC. 
I UKinlre. Ijleut. -Colonel K. I., A 

W.. SA. 

Id-id. M|HH Crace I... I K. 
llelfMnl.ler. lilithop C. S.. & \V.. 

I K. 

KelNchuuer. Itev. A. K . * \V . I N. 
Itlchar.lN.in. MI.HH Helen. .IKK. 
ICI.hey. M|H H. I... t C.MS. 
ItoI.ertH. MlHH Knther. Y\VC.\ 



TapHon, M|HH M . A.. IND.. CMS. 
Tetley. M!MH Winifred. .IKK. 
TeUHler, Dr. U. H.. X W.. I K. 
Topping. Itev. H.. X W.. AHF. 
TupidriK. MlHM Helen F.. KC.\. 
Trntt. Minn I).. SIM .. 
rpperton. Ktininn .1.. & W., SA. 
CuHitalo, M|HH Slirl. LKF. 
X olk ht. Minn A. \ .. I N. 
Watfiier. M|HH D. A . MKFH. 
WalnrlKlil. Itev. S. H. .V \V 

CLS.. MKS. 

WalMer. Itev. T. D.. Ar W.. I N. 
Walton. Itev. W. II. M . \ NV I \ I. 

CMS. 
Weldlntcer. Dr. Kail. ,V N\ . 

AKI M. 

WeriKler. Minn .l.-HHie. AC. 
NVhltehead. Minn D. IND 
NVIIIIamH. Mr. F. T.. .IKK. 
Wllnon. Minn Helen. AHF. 
Wlnn.-tt. Mr. H. H . IND. 
NVoodworth. Itev. A. D.. A W..CC. 
Wyn.l. llev. NV. <., A NV . AHF 
YounK. K<-\ \ 

X.ander. M I* 



I M M i 
\ ii ru Ken. 



\\ 



TONO, 

IwMlr K.I. 
l. M|M TlHiiiuiNlne. A HI 



332 



JAPAN 



TOTTORI Sill, 
Tottori Ken. 

Mennett, Kev. H. .}., & AY., AKCFM. 
Clark. .Miss K. H., AKCFM. 
C,,e. Miss K. L., AHCFM. 



YAMACiATA SHI, 
YaimtKatu Ken. 

Mead, Miss Bessie, PK. 

Nugent, Kev. AV. Carl, * W. 

Kcrs. 



TO YAM A SHI, 
Toyama Ken. 

Armstrong, Miss M. K., I CC. 
Tweedie, Miss K. G., I CC. 
NYright, Kev. U. C.. FCC. 

TOYOHASHI, 

Xi.-hi Ken. 
McAli.ine, Kev. K. !:.. \- NY., PS. 

TSl SHI, 
Mir Ken. 

Chapman, Kev. J . J., \- AY., 1>K. 
Dunlop. Kev. J. C., <^ NY., PX. 

ri:n\ SHI. 

Nagano Ken. 

McLeud, Miss A. (>., I CC. 
Kyan, Miss K. L., I CC. 



URAWA, 

Siiitamu Ken. 

M.-Kiin. Miss Nellie, PK. 



I lSl NOMIV A, 

lochiKi Ken. 



I WAJIMA, 

I Inn,.- Ken. 

Kianl;. K.-v. .1. \V.. X- \V., MICS. 



\VAKAYAMA SHI, 

\\aka> iiniii Ken. 

liui-lianan, Kev. I). C., & W., PN. 

YAM ADA, 

Mi. Ken. 

Kikor. Miss Jessie. I N. 



YAMA(;i(HI SHI, 

\ :i MI.I i; in I, i Ken. 
Martin, liev. D. I ., \- \V., I N. 
St ranks. Kev. .1. C., SPC,. 
\Vells, Miss L. A., PN. 

YOKKAICHI, 

MI- Ken. 

Jackson, Kev. K. H., f K. 

YOKOHAMA SHI, 

KaintKiiwa Ken. 

Acock, Miss Winifred. AUK. 
Allen, Miss Carolyn. Y\VCA. 
Huckriill, Kev. K. (. ,.. & \V.. SPC. 
Muss, Miss F. V., KCA. 
liuss, Kev. <).. I>M. 
Clarke, Miss D. K., VMCA-A. 
Converse, Miss C. A., AMF. 
Covell, Mr. J. H.. & NY., AUF. 
Dawson, Miss Elizabeth, M P. 
Draper, Kev. C. F.. & AY., MKFM. 
Draper, Miss \Y. ! ., MKFM. 
l isher, Mr. K. H.. X- NY., AMF. 
Haines, Miss Hazel, YYVCA. 
Hodges, Miss (). I., M P. 
Lang, Kev. K., LM. 
Meline. Miss A. S., AMl-\ 
Muyskens, Mrs. L. S., KCA. 
NoordhotT, Miss Jeane. ItCA. 
Pratt, Miss S. A., N\T. 
Kogers. Miss M. S.. N\T. 
Sampson, Miss M. K.. M P. 
Sneyd, Mr. H. S.. X- NY., YMCA-A. 
Shal er, Kev. I.. J.. \Y., KCA. 
Tenny, Kev. C. M., & W., ABF. 
Tracy. Miss M. K., NNT. 
NYard, .Miss K. C., AMF. 

YOKOTE, 

Akita Ken. 

Smyser. lli-v. M. M., 1ND. 

YONAGO. 

Scott, Kev. J. J., >V- AY.. CMS. 



JST BY MISSIONS 



I. \io.r.. in Hoard of < immils- .Jenkins, Mr .1 \ (\) 

NlimtTN for lor-l K n MUMon*. Juilaon. MliM Cornelia. Matsuyama. 

Adams. Miss A. IV. okayama. Kan,-. Mi.s.s Marion. (A). 

Akana. Mrs. C.. Kobe. Lane, Mrs. H. M., Sapporo. 

Allrhln. Kev. (MM.. (A). Lamont. Miss Helen. Kobe. 

HahriM-k. Miss (Jrare, (A I. Learned. Kev. D. W.. \. \v , (A). 

Harrow. Mrs. John, (A). Lock wood. Kev. (I. <_ .. .V W.. 

Martlett. Kev. S. C., \- \V.. Kyoto. Ku.-saie. 

II. -am. Kfv. K. S.. \- \V.. (A>. Lombard. Kev. F. A.. <fc W., (A). 

It.-nnett. Kev. II. .)., \- \V., Tottori. Lorini -r. K.-v. A. I.. (At. 

Merry. Dr. .1. C., \- W.. (A). Ma.Causland. Miss I.. Kobe. 

Moshyshell, Miss Jterlha. (A). Mann, K.-v. L. W.. \- \V.. Tokyo, 

liurnett. Min K. I... (At. Mansfield. Miss I.. M.. Kulie. 

(,-ary. Mlxw A. K.. Taisha Mura. Merrill. Miss Katharine, Matsu- 

Cary, Kev. Frank, Ar \V.. <Haru. yania. 

Cary, JCev. <ttis. \- \V.. (Ai. Mereness. Mrs. Harry, <A). 

C lapj), Miss F. K.. Kyoto. Moran. H.-\ . S. F., ,v \\ .. Taisha 

Clark. K.-v. C. A.. (At. Mura. 

< lark. Miss K. H.. Tottoii. Monley. Mr. Harol.l. (A). 

Mark. Mr. \Vin. S.. (At. Moss. Miss Klamhe. (A). 

Col. I.. Kev. K. S.. A- \\ .. Kyoto. Mulloy. Mr. M. S.. (A I. 

COP. Miss K. I... T.ittori. Newell, K.-v. H. If.. \- \V., Seoul. 

Co/a. I. Miss Certru.le. (At. olds. Mis.s .\ . C., T<.ky... 

Curtis. Miss Dorothy. Kyoto. ol.ls. Kev. C. H.. \- W., okayama. 

Curtis. Miss Kdlth. Taisha Mura. ( tt. Miss F. C.. (A. 

Curtis. Mrs. \V. I... Kyot,,. TariDelee. Miss II. F.. Kyoto. 

D. -Forest. Miss C. H.. Kol.e. i e.lley. MissC. H., (A). 
D.-nion. Miss M. F.. Kyot,,. I edley. Mrs. Milton. (A). 

Downs. K.-v. A. W.. iV W . (At. Perry. Miss Catherine. Tokyo. 
Downs. Kev Darley .V W Tok>o IVttee. Mrs. M. \V.. (At. 

Fu. I utnarn. Mr. W. \V.. ( A ). 

Dunnlr.i:. Kev. M. D., .V \V.. (A). " rts. K.-v. F. I.. \- W.. Tok>... 

Durlan.l. Miss M. I.. (At. Kowland, K.-v. C. M.. \- \V.. (At. 

Fanning. Miss K. F.. (At. Srhunnep. Miss Maxim-. (A). 

Field. Miss S. M.. Kobe Searle. Miss S. A.. (At. 

Fosdi. k Miss Kdlth (\t Seymour. Miss Helen. (A). 

<:illelt. K.-v. C S X \V S-ndai Shlvely. Miss Ulllan. Kobe. 

Cordon Mrs \ I) Kyoto Stanford. Mrs. .1. IV. (At. 

Craves. Miss S M (\, Stowo. Miss (I. H.. Kobo. 

Jtisxvold. Miss F. K.. Maeba.shl. Stowe. Miss M. K.. Kobe. 

Crover. Mr. D. I .V- \V ,K, Tlt.omb. Miss 1.. W.. Kobe. 

C.nlirk Mrs I S (A) . N :i " M . VI > "^. r Conrad. (A). 

;uli.-k. MI.V.H J. A." K. (M Warren. Kev. i\ M.. ,v W.. Mlya- 
Culi. k. Mr. Leeds. \- W . Matsu- 

vaina \\urr.-n. Mr D. T.. Mlyaxakl. 

;uli.k K.-v S I, * \V ,\, White. Kev. S. S. A - \\-.. (At 

Uwinn. Miss A K. Kyoto. "" " *" Kl.-anor. K.d.e 

Ha.kett. M r M U . * \\- K obe ; rl, 
Hall. Kev M K AT W ( V t 

Hawkins. Miss Violet. Taisha Mura X "" Mr """ M - K V " 
Hlbbard. Miss Ksther, Kyot". 

HoltneH. l{f.-v. .1 C.. A: \\ .. (At. Amrrlrmi ItiiptlNt lor. U-n 

How.-. MIS.H A. L.. (A). >l Union Sol t>. 

Hoyt. Miss O. S. Matsuyaina A-o.k. Miss A A. HlmoJI 

Huntley. Mr Frank. * W . Kyoto A, o, k. Miss W M . Vokohnr,,:, 

Hu..-d. Miss K. K. Kobv All-n. Mlns Tninn nine. T<>n<> 



334 



JAPAN 



Axling. Hov. Win.. & W., Tokyo. 

Henninghoff, Kev. U. J!., A: \V.. 
Tokyo Fu. 

Hickel, Mrs. L. W.. (A). 

Hixby. Miss Alice C.. (A). 

Huz/ell, Miss A. S.. (A). 

Camp. Miss K. A.. (A). 

Carpenter, Miss M. M.. Tokyo. 

Converse, Miss C. A.. Yokolianiii . 

Covell. Mr. J. H.. <K W.. Yokohama. 

Crosby, Miss Amy R., Tokyo. 

Farnum, Kev. M. I)., & W.. Himeji. 

Ki.slier, Mr. K. H.. ,< W., Yoko 
hama. 

Foote. Kev. .1. A.. X- W.. Osaka. 

Gressitt. Mr. J. K.. <fe W., Tokyo. 

Haven, Miss Marguerite. (A). 

Holtom. Kev. IX C., * W.. Tokyo 
Ku. 

Jenkins. Miss I,. F.. Sendai. 

Jesse. Miss Mary P.. Sendai. 

Kennard. Kev. J. S.. # W., Mito. 

Kindt, Miss Ann M., Osaka. 

Meline, Miss A. S.. Yokohama. 

.\.-\vl. tiry. Miss (J. M., Sendai. 

Xystrom, Miss Florence. Tokyo. 

Parkinson, Kev. W. W., \- W.. 
Tokyo. 

P.iwley. Miss Annabelle. Osaka. 

Post, Miss Villa. Himeji. 

Koss, Kev. C. H., A: W., (A). 

Kyder, Miss (I. K.. Tokyo. 

Steadman. Kev. F. W., * W., (A). 

Tenny, Kev. C. K., & W., Yoko 
hama. 

Tharp. Miss K. K., (A). 

Thomson, Kev. K. A.. \- W., (A). 

lopping. Kev. Henry, ,V- "XV.. 
Tokyo. 

Topping. Mr. W. F., <V: W., (A). 

Ward, Miss K. ( .. Yokohama. 

Wilcox, Miss K. F., Himeji. 

Wilkinson. Miss J. M.. Kobe. 

Wilson, Miss Helen, Tokyo. 

W\nd. Kev. Wm. SL- W.. Tokyo Fu. 

. t. \ 1 1 i;<-mi-ii>T l !\ n HK<-| irli - I ro- 

f->l;iiifi-ihiT M|NM|OIIH\ ereln. 
Schiller. Kev. K.. At W.. Kyoto. 
Wei. linger, Dr. Karl. \- W., Tokyo. 

4. ForHirn .Mlnnlonary .\MHoclatlon 
of I ri.-nrU of IMiihulelpliiii. 

Minford. Mr. C,. <t W., Shimotsuma. 
Morton. Mr. H. A- W.. Tokyo. 
Howies. Mr. (J.. \- W.. Tokyo. 
Hraithwaite, Mr. <;. H., <V- W., 

Mito. 

Miller, Miss Kdna. Tokyo. 
Ni< holHon, Mr. Herbert . it- W.. < A ). 
Khoades. Miss Kstber H.. Tokyo. 
Sharpies*. Miss K. F.. Mito. 



.->. Australian Itourd of Ml hm... 
(Anglican). 

Harrison, Kev. K. K.. & W.. 
Chi ha. 

<>. AsHemhly of (.0,1 

Marth, Kev. N. H.. At W.. Tokyo 

Fu. 

Render. Rev. (J. K.. At W., Tokyo. 
Byers. Miss Florence. Tokyo Fu. 
C.rimes. Miss Nettie. Nagoya. 
Juergensen, Miss Agnes, Tokyo Fu. 
Juergensen, Rev. C. F., it W.. 

Tokyo Fu. 
Juergensen, Rev. .1. W.. At W.. 

Nagoya. 

Juergensen. Miss Marie. Tokyo Fti. 
Straub. Miss Mae. Kawaragi Mura. 
Taylor, Mrs. Mary. Kobe. 
Wengler, Miss Jessie. Tokyo. 

7. Bible Societies. 

Aurell. Kev. K. K.. At W.. Toky... 
Parrott. Mr. F.. At W.. Kobe. 
Vinall, Mr. C.. H.. At W., Kobe. 

K. Mission Hoard of the Christian 
Church. 

Crew. Miss Angie, Kobe. 
Fry, Kev. K. C., t t sunom iya. 
Garman, Mr. C. P.. At W.. <A>. 
McKnight, Kev. W. y.. At W.. 

Sendai. 

Stacy. Miss M. K.. Ishinomaki. 
Wood worth. Kev. A. ]>.. A;- W., 

Tokyo. 

!). Community of the Kpiphnm . 

Sister Kdith Constance. Tokyo. 

Sister Eleanor, Kobe. 

Sister Eleanor Frances, Kobe. 

Sister Etheldreda. Tokyo. 

Sister Florence, Tokyo. 

Sister Mary Katharine, Tokyo. 

11). Church of <..,,l. 
Miller, Mr. A. At AV., (A). 

II. The Central Japan I lonerr 

Murnet. Miss M. A.. Maebaslii. 
Parr. Miss I>. A., Ta teba yash i. 



I , . Chrli 

Hosamim* 

Wainrigh 

Tokyo. 



n Literature Soclet.v. 

Kev. S. H., At W., 



I !. Christian and M in-iona n 

Alliance. 

Dlevendorf, Mrs. A.. Fiikuyama. 
Francis, Miss M. K., Matsuyama. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 3;,5 

Kran, IN, Uov. T. K.. Kukuyama. Krkel. Mr. Paul K Kyoto 

Krehn. Mr. ( .. A- W.. Hiro*hlma. Staple*. Uev 1 H A- "\V Kyoto 

Oreen. Uev. C. 1 .. & W.. In.al, hi Tiillii.tt. Mr*. H. .1. Kyoto 

Maohl. 

J.m.lKtrom. Mr*. H.. Kol.e. |. K an K ,-ll, al <hur, h of North 

America. 

II. (hurdi MlMNlonary Sm-l-l>. Anderson. Ml MM Irene. T>ky<. 

Map**, Miss M. ( .. (A). Mauernfelnd. Minn Simtn. Tokyo. 

Maker, Ml** K. M.. (A). < .amertwfelder. MiH Ina. (A). 

Hatc-helor, Ven. John, A- \V.. Sap- Hummel. M!HH K*ther. (A). 

poro. Hertzler. Mix* Verna S.. Tokyo. 

MoBamiuet. Mi* A. ( .. Tokyo. Kramer. Mi*H Lol* K.. (A). 

Moydell. Mi.sH K. M.. (A). Kuerkllrh. Minn Oertrud K.. Tokyo 

Hiinromhe. Uev. \V 1 A W Lelnlnser. Ut-v. A. A.. A: \V.. 

Tokyo. Tokyo Ku. 

KuHhe. Ml 88 S. K. K.. Tokyo. Miuik. M|HH Laura. Tokyo. 

rorkram, MI88 H. S.. (A). Mayer, Uev. I . S., A- W.. Tc,K>.. 

Cnlliorne. Mr.s. S. K.. M Inamiha ra. Ku - 

< owl. Uev. J., A- \V (A). Kukuoka. Schlrmer. M!HH Katheryn, (A). 

Cox. Mis* A. M.. AimtKH8ukl. S<-li\veltzer. Ml8 K.lna. Tokyo. 

l>outleilay. Minn S. ( .. <)aka. Thecle, Uev. Harvey. & \V.. <>naka. 
I Veeth, MlMH K. N.. Mlyajl Machl. 

CoMxmlth. Miss M. <>.. Kurume. 17. (.iieral MUwlon Hoiird of Hi. 

Mamilton. Miss K.. Tokyo. Free M.-i limllti ( linrrli of 

Meanlett. lit. Uev. S., A- W, (A). North \ni.-rl. u. 

Menty. Miss A. M.. T.ikyo. Aylar.l Miss Certru.l,- (M 

Illntl. Uev. J.. A- \V.. Tol.iiU, Shi. Mylan.ler. Mis* lluth. )aka 

llorne. MiK A. C. .1.. N,,h,.,,k., IM, ken*. Mis* Lillian (>.. <.Mka 

Wanner. Uev. H. M.. A- \V.. Kol- 

Howar.l. Ml** U. I). Osak;,. Warren. U,-v. Frank K. A- \V 

Kukuoka. Sunmto 
II ill. hinsnn. Uev. A. ( .. A- W . 

I ^ne ^" ^ ^ K \Hhlvf U Al IH. ln,l,.p-nl. lU of any SN-IH>. 

Lea 1 ." Rt"" Hev. "HlBliop" A- \V -\ n.lri-xv.s. M!MM (.live. Tokyo. 

Kukuoka Mauley. .\!l* Kate. Tokyo Ku. 

Mann Uev J T A- W <\) Meatty. Mr. H. K. . A- W.. o*aka. 

Moule. Uev. (5 M A- \V T-kvo Mernauer. Ml** K. A.. Tokyo. 

Nah. MI*H K.. Ha ma.la Ma, hi Mlxler. Mr. ( . !>.. A- \V.. Shlo.U 

Norton. Ml** K. L JJ Saiipon. Mma. 

l re*ton. Ml** K I. (A) Clen, h. Mis* M.. Ma t iii.,,.i . 

I rl.-*.. Ml** <; .1 ( \ Course. Mr. .1. M.. A \\ T..k>... 

UawllnK8. ICev. C \V. A \V "!. Mr. K. K . A- \V.. T..k>... 

4 lM . t ka rllili. Ml** K. U.. n*aka. 

Klrhardwon, Mi** C. M T,-ku- (> >i"-rt. -Ml** l.iih... Ti.k>. 

hlina IHthrliljce, Mi** liarrlet. Tok>... 

Uol.ert*. M|H* A ( A Kl "^ - Nl rj< < "" K " 1 1 

S.ott, Uev .1 .1 A- W V-riiiK., KwlnK. Ml"* A. M.. T..k>.. Ku 

Se||. Ml** K. A 1- (A) Kwlnir. Ml** llettle I ..... . (Al. 

Shaw. Ml** I. L (V) K " rtl - K " v * Kul.f. 

Staveley. Ml** J. A.. Kurume "" <Mr M " rr > * W . ** 

Tap*on. All** M.. Tokyo Ku Tanakura. 

ThompHi.n. Ml** K. I... Waka- K " x A1 H -nn-n .1 A W |.i B o 

inatnu Mai hi 

Tristram. Ml** K. (ixnkii <JM| * - M r " K """"- Kawara k -l Mura. 

Wl*h. Uev. <; J A- \V Sappor,, " ..... N " HH K "- T " k >" Ku 

Walton. Uev. W. H. M.. A W (A! *\ r "** M r K A T " k > 

Tokyo 



<!ul>l>ln*. Ml** (5. M . (A 



WIMIani*. Ml** A. S.. flmikii 



M " r " U " V K W - K 



. . .. 

WorthlnKton Ml** H I Mir,,- H art*horne. M IHH A . (V. T,.k > ,, I u 

j.1,1,,,,, Kenne.ly. Ml* lara K.. <A). 

MHrdonuld. Ml** i arollne. T..kv.- 

l.%. Thur,,, of the Na,arene. %*?%,. M^ ^ ^^ 

K<-k#>l. Uev. W. A.. A- W . Kyolo M< Nauiit..n lli-v. U K A W . 

KrkH. Minn 11. K.. Kyoto. Tokyo. 



336 



JAPAN 



McSparren, Dr. J. L., & W., Tokyo 
Middleton, Mr. Herbert, Tokyo. 
Miller, Miss Alice, Tokyo. 
Morehead, Mr. B. D., & \V. ( Ota 

Machi. 

Musser, Mr. C. K., & W., Tokyo. 
Rennie, Rev. Win., Hakodate. 
Rhodes, Mr. K. A., & W., (A). 
Uiddell, Miss H., Kumamoto. 
Robinson, Rev. C. C., & W., 

Nagoya. 

Robinson. Miss H. M., Napoya. 
Rumsey, Miss Mary, Tokyo. 
Rupert, Miss Nettie L,., Kobe. 
Russell, Mr. David, Tokyo. 
Sarvis, Prof. H. C., & W., Toniio. 
Sasse, Miss Corena, Kobe. 
Sheppard. Miss K., Kobe. 
Smith. Mr. H. K.. & W., Kyoto. 
Smyser, Rev. M. M., Yokote. 
Stewart, Miss Mary C., Tokyo Fu. 
\Vatkins, Miss K., Kukuoka. 
Watts, Rev. F. K.. \- W., Kobe. 
Whitehead. Miss Dora, Tokyo. 
Winnett. Mr. H. H., Tokyo. 
Woodbrid^e. Mr. W. F.. Kaibara. 
Woolley. Miss Alice, Kolie. 
Wright. Miss A. H.. Kumamoto. 
Vates. RfV. X. P., Tatsuta. 

1!). Japan Apostolic Mission. 
Coote. Mr. L. W.. & W.. Ikoma 

I .O. 

Glaeser. Miss Martin. (A). 
Johnson, .Mr. Theo.. Ikoma I . ( ). 
Lye. Miss Florence, Ikoma ]>.(). 
Randall, Mr. A. K., & W., Ikoma 

P.< i. 

Rickert. Miss Adolf, (.\). 
Stroniquist, Miss Ancilena, Ikoma 

I .O. 



,0. Japan Book and Tract 
Society. 

I .raithwaite, Mr. Geo.. Tokyo. 

Jl. Japan 1 \.ini;. -list i<- Hand. 
l .:illard. Miss H. M., Kobe. 
Bazeley, Miss Uose. Akashi 
Hce, Mr. Win.. Tokyo. 
Hodcn, Miss M. K., (A). 
Clark, Miss A^nes, (A). 
Coles. Miss A. M.. (A). 
Collins, Mr. A. M., Tokyo. 
Cuthbertson. Mr. J., & W.. Kobe. 
Dyer, Mr. A. I-.. & W., (A). 
Garrard. Mr. M. H., (A). 
Gillespy, Miss .1. C., Kyoto Fu 
Hoare, Miss D. K.. Tokyo. 
.Tones. Mr. T. J.. & W.. Kitashin 

Machi. 

Richardson. Miss Helen. Tokyo. 
Smith. Miss I. W.. Akashi Shi. 
S<al. Miss A., Kyoto Fu. 



Tetley, Miss Winifred, Tokyo. 
Wilkes. Mr. Pajret, & W., (A). 
Wilkinson, Mr. C. S., & W., Kobe. 
Williams, Mr. F. T., Tokyo. 
Wood worth, Miss O. F., Kobe. 

2 i. Japan Rescue Mission. 

Brown, Miss O., Sendai. 

Bunker, Miss Annie, Sendai. 

Butler, Miss Bessie, Nishitaka 
Mura. 

Dann, Miss J. M., Sendai. 

Dempsie, Rev. Geo., & W., (A). 

HetherinRton, Miss Nellie, (A). 

Kirkaldy, Miss Minnie, Osaka 

Royd, Miss M., Sendai. 

McGrath, Miss Violet, Sendai. 

McJnnes, Miss Barbara. (A). 

Murray. Miss Klsa, Sendai. 

Kichardson. Miss E., Sendai. 

Saville, Miss Rose. Iwakiri Mura. 

Torbet, Miss Isabella, Osaka. 

Whiteman. Miss Mary, Sendai. 

Williamson, Miss Jeannie, Nishi 
taka Mura. 

J:{. Kafirawa Co-operators in 
America. 

Topping, Miss Helen F., Tokyo. 

J4. Kiimiai Kyokwai (ConRrcja- 
grationnl). 

I*. Hoard of Foreign Missions of 
the I nited Lutheran Church 
in America. 

Akard. Miss Martha R., (A). 

Hach. Rev. D. G. M., * W., (A). 

Heers, Miss Grace M., Kumamoto. 

Harder. Miss Helene, Tokyo. 

Harder, Miss Martha M., Kuma 
moto. 

Heins. Rev. F. W., & W., Satra. 

Heltibridle. Miss Mary, Kuma- 
moto. 

Hepner, Rev. Chas. W., & W.. 
Ashiya. 

Home, Rev. K. T., & W., Tokyo. 

Knudten, Rev. A. C., X- W.. 
Nagoya. 

Linn, Rev. John K., & W., Tokyo. 

Linn, Rev. J. A., & W., Shimo- 
noscki. 

Lippard, Miss Faith. (A). 
Miller, Rev. L. S. G., & W., Kuma 
moto. 

Norman. Rev. C. E.. & W.. Fuku- 
oka. 

Potts, Miss Marion E.. Kumamoto. 

I owlas, Miss Anne, (A). 

Powlas. Miss Maude, (A). 

SchillinKer, Rev. Geo. W.. &- W., 

Kumamoto. 
Shirk, Miss Helen M., Fukuoka. 



LIST BY MISSIONS 



Stirf\valt. K.-v. A. J.. \ W., Tokyo. 
Thoren Miss Amy. (A). 
Thorlaksson. Kcv. S. (>.. \ W.. 

Knlie. 
Win t her. K.-v. .1. M. T.. AL- W., 

Kurume. 
Winther. Miss Maya, OB! Machl. 

-, !.. II..- I. ut lii-ran (.oupcl .\HMorlu- 
(lon of Finland. 

Aim. Miss Jennie. (A). 
Car.-n. K.-v. A.. K W.. (A). 
LiriBren. Kev. K.. X- W., (A). 
Minkkinen. Kov. T., .V: \V.. Kami 

Nii-ini. Miss Tyyne. Kami Ilila. 
Sal.men. K.-v. K. K.. A \V.. (A). 
Savi.laim-n. Kev. \ .. \- \V (A). 

Tokyo. 

Tamtnio. K.-v. K.. \- W. (A), 
t usitalo. Miss S.. Tokyo. 

.!7. I i. l-. M/.-ll. r .MlNNlon. 
Muss. Kev. H.. Yokoliama. 
LanB. K.-v. K.. Yokohama. 
Moismann. Kcv. <>., Tokyo Ku. 
.N .-thhelfer, K.-v. K.. Tokyo Fu. 
^yriUB. Kev. A., A: W., Tokyo Ku. 

28. Mi--.ioh.irx It:, ml- of the 
World. 

Al.-l. Miss Dorothy. Tokyo Ku. 
-\|M-|. Mr. Kre.l. A: W.. Tokjo Ku. 

- . I .o.ml of I or.-U-n >l| H HlonN of 
(h- M-tho<llht I pi-. .,)>.! I 
( hnrrh. 

<a) .liipan Mi ,,,., ( oiincll. 
Al.-xan.l.-r. K.-v. K. P, \- \V.. 

Tokyo. 

M.-rry. K.-v. A. I). Tokyo. 
Hishop. Kcv. ( has.. A \V., Tokyo. 
Hruml.auk h. K<-v. T. T .. A- \V . (Ai. 
Urunn.-r. Mr. (J. \V \- \V .\.IK;I- 

H.-ikl. 



C-aly, K. \. I . !.. \ \V.. Tokyo. 
H.-.k.-lman. K.-v. K. \V. & \V.. 

Tokyo. 

U l-liari. IC.-v. C. \V.. A- W.. Tokyo. 
iKl -harl. K.-v. K. T., ,v \V., Tokyo. 
Kil.U-r. K.-v. \\ . \\ .. A- \V.. Natra. 

saki. 

l.utliy. K.-v. S. K.. A- \V.. S.-n,lal. 
Martin. I roi. .1. \ .. A- \V.. China. 
S . it I. K.-v. K. .V. A- \V.. Tokyo. 
Sha.-klork. J:.-v. Kloy.l. A.- W , 

HlroHukl. 
S|..-n. .-i. i:.-v. K. S ,\ W.. l- uku- 

oka. 
Thni|iKon. Kcv. K \V.. \- \V.. 

HlniHukl. 



(I.) I ..-I -l.lp.ui \\ 

ferenie. 

Alexander. Miss V. K.. Sapporo. 
Atkinson. Miss A. I .. (A). 
Malley. Miss M. M.. Tokyo. 
Myler. Miss (I. M.. Mironaki. 
Chappel. Miss Mary M.. Tokyo. 
Chase. Miss I. aura. Tokyo. 
Caven. Miss Mary. Tokyo. 
Cheney. Miss Alice, Hakodate 
Collins. Miss Mary !>.. Mako.late. 
Curtice. Miss I.. K.. Hlroaki. 
Daniel. Miss N. M.. Tokyo. 
Di< kmson. Miss A.. < A ). 
Draper. Miss W. K.. Yokohama. 
Hampton. Miss M. S.. (At. 
Meat on. Miss C. A., (At. 
Kilhurn. Miss K. H.. Sendal. 
Lee. Miss Mai, el. Sendai. 
Moon. Miss M. M.. Tokyo. 
nldridBe. Miss Mary M.-lle. Tokyo. 
I aine. Miss Mildred A., Tokyo. 
I id.-r. Miss M. /.., Toky. 
IMa.-e, Miss P. A.. (A). 
Kusscll. Miss M. M.. (A). 
Spencer. Miss M. A.. (A ). 
Sprowles. Miss A. M.. Tokyo. 
! Taylor, Miss Krina. Sapporo. 
WaBner. Miss Dora, Tokyo. 
Watson. Miss K. .1.. (A). 

() \\Vnt -l:i pan \\om.ii- < 011- 
ferenrc. 

Alhrecht. Miss H. K.. Kukuoka 
AshhaiiBh, Miss A. M., .Nagasaki. 
Maker. Mishop .j. \. \\- Seoul 
Hr!t tain. Miss Mian. he. NaBasakl. 
! Murm.-ist.-r. Miss M.. Kumamoto 
Condi. Miss llel-n. ( A i. 
Davis. Miss l.ols I,.. ( A I 
K.-hr. Miss V.-ra, Nagasaki. 
Kinlay. Miss A. 1... KaB">=hlma. 
C. -Irish. Miss KM. i. Kumamoto. 
HaB -n. Miss (>ll\e. NaBasakl. 
Houcv. Miss Harriet ( A ). 
IVckliam. Miss C. S.. Kukiioka. 
Pc.-t. Miss A. K.. KaBoshlma. 

Starkey. Miss M.-rtha. S il. 

TPIIRUC. Miss C M . Kukuoka. 
While. Miss A. I... NaBasakl. 
Wythe. Miss K. <;.. ( A I. 
YouriB. Miss M . NaBasakl. 

.:<i. Hoard of ForelKii MIoNlon* 
of H,. M.-thofllNt I ,, ,,,,.!,, I 
( luirfh. Koiith. 

Anderson. Mln* M. IV. K.d,,.. 
MaBley. Miss I.eil.t. l-,,k>,. 
Callahan. Kev. \\ I 



Colili. 
nil I ma. 

Col.l.. Mrs .1 .1 . Hiroshima 
Cook. .Mi- . M. M.. <Maka. 
Cooper. MIN I. .,i-. Mlrodhln 



138 



JAPAN 



Uemaree, Rev. T. W 

Field, Miss Ruth, Osaka. 

Finch, Miss M. 1).. (A). 

Frank, Rev. J. W., X- W., I wa- 
jima. 

Gaines. Miss X. B., Hiroshima. 

Gist. Miss Annette. Kobe. 

Haden. Rev. T. H.. Xishinomiya. 

Hager. Miss 1!. D., Osaka. 

Hager. Rev. S. K., X- W., Hime.ji. 

Hilburn. Rev. S. M.. & W., Xishi 
nomiya. 

Holland. Miss C.. (A). 

Johnson. Miss Katherine, Hiro- 

.lones, Rev. H. P.. & W., (A). 

Maddux, Miss Lois. (A). 

Matthews, Rev. W. K., X- W.. 
Nishinomiya. 

Meyers, Rev. J. P.. X- W.. Ashiya. 

Mi.-kle. Mr. .1. J. Jr., X- W., Nishi 
nomiya. 

ouhurn. Rev. X. S.. & W., Xishi 
nomiya . 

Oxford, Mr. J. S.. X- W., Kobe. 

I almore. Rev. P. L.. & W.. Toku- 
yama. 

I eavy, Miss Anne, Osaka. 

Reed. Mr. J. P.. X- W., Kobe. 

Scan y. Miss M. G., Kure. 

Shannon. Miss I. L.. Hiroshima. 

Shannon. Miss K., Hiroshima. 

Shaver. Rev. I. L., & W., Xakatsu. 

Smith. Mr. Roy. X- W., Kobe. 

Stevens, Miss C. H.. (A). 

Stewart, Rev. S. A., X- W.. (At. 

Towson. Miss Mamie, Oita. 

Tumlin. Miss Mozelle (A). 

Wainright, Rev. S. H., X- W.. 
Tokyo. 

Waters, Rev. G. L., Kyoto. 

Waters. Rev. H. M.. & W.. (A). 

Whitehead. Miss Mabel. Osaka. 

Williams. Miss A. B., Osaka. 

Wilson. Rev. W. A., X- W., (A). 

::i. Mission to Korean* In Japan. 
Ma. Lean. Miss J . <".. Kobe. 
Young, Rev. L. L., X- W., Kobe. 



: Miii 
Miller. Miss 10. I... iaki. 
XV.Mdncr. Miss S;idir I... ( )Kaki. 
\\ he\vell. Miss 10. A.. Otfaki. 

:;:{. Hoard of I orH K n Mission* 

Of (>!< M.lbn.lisl IT,,t, s|;,,,( 

Charch. 

Da wson, Miss Klixabeth, Yoko 
hama. 

Hempitead, Miss K. L., llama- 
ma tsu. 

Modpes. Miss O. I.. Yokohama. 

Layman, R.-v. M. L., .V- W., Xagoya. 



(Jbop, Rev. 10. I., <fv- W., (A). 
Sampson, Miss M.. Yokohama. 
Warner, Rev. Paul P., (A). 
Wolfe, Miss K. M., (A). 

;i4. .MiHHlonary SoviHy of In* 
( bun b of Kn^land In Cnnnda. 

Archer, ^liss A. 1^., Inuyama. 
Hailey, Miss Helen, Takata. 
Howman, Miss X. F.. J., Xasya. 
Uutcher, Miss K., Takata. 
Cooke, Miss M. S., Nagfoya. 
Foerstel, Miss M., Gifu. 
Hamilton, Miss F., Matsumoto. 
Hamilton, Hishop H. J., & W., 

Nagoya. 

Horobin, Miss H. M., Inariyama. 
Hawkins, Miss F.. Nagoya. 
Isaac-, Miss I. L., (A). 
Makeham. Miss S. K.. Nagano. 
Moss. Miss A. F., (A). 
Powles. Rev. P. S. K., & W.. 

Takata. 

Shaw, Miss L. T... (A). 
Shore, Miss S. G., Gifu. 
Spencer. Rev. V. C., Okaya. 
Trent, Miss E. M., Nagoya. 
Waller. Rev. J. G., & W.. Nagano. 
Waller, Kev. Wilfred, Nagano. 
Watts, Rev. H. G., & \V.. Xiigata. 

85. Ninon Klrlsuto Kyokwal. 
. Xlhon MrthodlHt Kyokwnl. 

87. Nippon 8ei Ko Kwai. 

Richards. Rev. W. A., & W., 
Matsuyama. 

.:s. Onii Mission. 

Vories, Mrs. J. 10. , Omi-Hachiman. 
Vories. Mr. W. M., & W.. Omi- 
Hachiman. 

:<!>. Orl.-nl.tl Mlssion.ir> SM lrl.v. 

10. l>oin,-s(i, and I or. itii Mi- 
Ni<nar.v Society of the I ro- 
teHtant rpisropiil Church In 
AmericH. 

(a) .MlNHionary District of K.voto. 
("annell. Miss M. C., Fukui. 
("iiapman, Rev. J. J., * W., Tsu. 
Denton. Miss A. f}., Obama. 
Dickson, Miss L. K.. Kyoto. 
Dlsbrow. Miss H. J., Kyoto. 
Foote. Miss K. L., Kyoto. 
Hester, Miss M. W.. Kyoto. 
Jackson. Rev. R. H.. Yokkaichi. 
Jean, Miss F. B.. Osaka. 
Johnson. Miss T., Kyoto. 
Jones. Dr. F. M., & W., Osaka. 
Lloyd, Rev. J. H., & W., (A). 



LIST BY MISSIONS , Wi) 

M fir.ttli. Mi>.s K. S.. Kyot... llusch. .Mr Paul. ( A 

Morns. Kev. .1. K.. A- W., (A). llussell. Miss M | .. <AI 

N-ely. Miss C. .!.. Kyoto. S. haeffer. Miss Mabel K t\i 

Ni. hols. III. Kev. S. M.. A \\ .. Spa. -kinan. IC.-v H C A- W 

Kyoto. T..ky,,. 

I aine. Miss M. It.. Kyoto. Spencer. Miss ill.i.|\v. Amori 

l o\\ell. Miss C. It.. Kukui. Staple. Miss C.. K. M Tokyi 

Kernhert. Miss S. M.. Kyoto. St. .lulm. Mrs. A C .. Tokyo. 

Si hereschewsky, Miss ( ., Nara. Trusler. l>r H M A- \V Tkvo 
Shaw. Kev. H. K.. A- NV.. Kyot... 

Skiles. Miss Helen. Kyoto. 41. Moiird of I ore! K n Mlslon of 

Smith. Rev. I A . A- W.. Ilikon.-. the I r.-Hh% terlim < hiirch of 

Tell..\v. Miss H. I... Kana/awa. (he I nil., I State* of Amerlcn 

V;,nKirk. .\||SH A. S. Osaka. Alexan-l-r Miss Sj.Hj,, s;. (k 

WHII.,,,.. .Mis, ... H.. Kyoto. Hj(reluw i,,i G. I.. ShhmmLkl 

. MU.Ionary I.MH,.Hof Nor,., "^ij. 1 ;,,";; 

Tokyo anil Tiihokn. Hu<iiann. 11,-v. |). 

Andrews. Kev. K. I... .V \\ ., Klryu WakayitniH. 

ShiKai. Chapman. llt-v. K. 

Andrews. Ilev. K. ^V.. ,V \V.. ShinKu. 

Tokyo. Chapman, llev. C.. K.. & \V.. Osaka. 

Herirji tntnl. .Mr. .1 . N iin W.. \- W.. Clark, ll.-v. K. .M .. ,V \V.. Kolie. 

Tokyo. I larke. Miss S. K.. Hiroshima. 

Minute. I. Hev. N. S.. \- \V.. Sen. la i. I a u:liert y . .Miss K. C.. Tokyo. 

Mishop. Miss ... A.. (A). Dunlop. llev. .1. I ,.. & W., Tsu. 

Hoy, I. Miss L. I... KawaKoe. Katon, Miss A. (J.. Kanazawa. 

Movie. Miss Helen. Sendal. Kvans. Miss K. M.. Sapporo. 

Hransta.l. Mr. K. K.. Tokyo. l- rankltn. Hev. S. .... \- \V.. Kyoto. 

Mun.ly. Mr. Kol.ert. A: W.. Tokyo. Corl.ol.l. Mrs. It. I .. (A). 

Muinsl.le. Miss Kuth. Tokyo. Hail. Mrs. .1. K.. Osaka. 

Citrus-Wilson, Miss Nona. Tokyo. Hail, Miss Margaret. Kanazawa. 

Chappell. Kev. James. A- W.. Mil... Hals.-y. Miss I,. S.. Tokyo. 

Cornwall-I.e K h. Miss M . I... K u - Hannafor.l. Kev. H. 1). \- W.. 

satMU. Tokyo. 

Klliott. Dr. Mal.el K., Tokyo. Helm. .Mr. N. T.. <"C- W.. Tokyo. 

Kvans. Kev. C. H., \- \V.. Tokyo. Hereford. Miss (Jra.-e, (A. 

Kverard. .Miss C., Tokyo Ku. Hereford. Kev. \V. K.. \- \V . Hito- 

Kooie. Mr. K. \V.. Tokyo. shima. 

Cardiner. Miss K.. Tokyo. Howard. Miss Alinee. Sa| to 

Cray. .N.iss (I. V., (At. Johnstone. Miss .1. M., Shlmono- 

Heyw.iod. Miss C (I.. Tokyo. ekl. 

Howe... Kev. N. H.. Akita. K.-rr. Kev. Win. C. \- W . Seoul. 

Johnson. .Miss K. M.. Tokyo. Lake, Kev. ... C . \ W.. Sapporo. 

Humphreys. Miss Marian. Nlkko. I^amotl. ll.-v. Willis C.. .V W . 

K-llam. Mrs. L. C.. T..ky... Tokyo. 

Knapp. Dea.oness S. T.. Tokyo. London. Miss M II.. Tokyo 

l.ade, Miss H. K.. Tokyo. Mackenzie. Miss V. M.. Sapporo 

Madeley. Kev. W. K, fit W.. <A. Martin. Kev. I>. IV. A: W. V.iniii- 

Sondal. icuchl. 

M.CIII. Miss M. M.. Kusatsu. M Crory. Minn C. H., otaru 

.M, Kim. Mlxs Mess.e. MaehaHhl. M. Donald. Miss M l>. Tk>o. 

.M.Kim. III. Kev. John. A: W.. (A). MlleB. Mlns Mary. KanazHwa. 

Tokyo. Monk. Miss A M . (A). 

M. Kim. Kev. .1. C.. A- W.. Koi|- Morgan. Miss A. M . ( A I . 

yama. Morris. Miss M. II ShlmiioN"k I 

McKlni. Miss Nellie. Crawa. I alm-r. Miss H M . Osaka 

Mead. Miss Messle. Yam. .*;,!., Hansom. Miss Mary H. (At 

Murray. M|MS K. M. (A I. Keeve. Kev. W S. Osaka 

Nettleton. .\!lss Mary. Kusatsu Kelnc hauer. ll.-v A. K . .V \\ 

Nun... Mis C. M . Tokyo. Tokyo Ku 

Pond. Miss Helen. Tokyo. Klker. Miss Jensle. Yam. 1. 1. 1 

Iliinsom. Peaconess A. I... Sendal Klker. MIsM S. M.. Osaka 

Held. MISH <;. I... Tokyo. Smith. Mlsn Janet. Snppro 

Kelfsnlder. lit. Kev. C. S.. A- W. Smith. Kev .1 C. A- W. Tokyo. 

Tokyo. Smith. Mt* S. C. Spp,,r... 



JAPAN 



tev. M. A.. .V W., Kana- 

za \va . 

VanAken. .Miss II. 10.. Kana/.a\va. 
Voight. Miss A. V., Tokyo. 
Walser, Kev. T. IX, Ar W.. Tokyo. 
Wells, Miss I... A.. Yamaguchi. 
Winn, Kev. T. C.. AL- W.. (K-tired) 

Sh imonoseki. 

4 . Executive C)mmittee of I or- 
eipn HiHHinnH of the I resby- 
terian Church in the I niteil 
States. (Southern I reisby- 
terian.) 

Archibald. Miss Margaret, Tokyo. 
Atkinson, Miss M. J., Takaniatsu. 
Mlakeney. Miss B. M., (A) 
Brady. Kev. J. H.. .V W.. (A). 
Buchanan. Miss 10. < >., Gil u. 
Buchanan, Kev. P. W., it W.. 

Xagoya. 

Buchanan, Kev. W. C., & W., Gil u. 
Buchanan. Kev. \V. McS., & W., 

Marugame. 

Buckland, Miss Kuth E., (A). 
Crawford, Kev. V. A., <t W.. Tokyo. 
Currell, Miss S. McD., Takaniatsu. 
Daniels, Miss M. E.. Xagoya. 
Dowd, Miss A. H.. Kochi. 
Erickson, Kev. S. M., & W., Taka 
niatsu. 

Fulton. Kev. S. P.. & W.. Kobe. 
Gardner. Miss E. E., Xagoya. 
Hancock. Miss Elizabeth. Xagoya. 
Hassell. Kev. A. P.. it W.. Toku- 

shima. 

Hassell, Kev. J. \Y.. & W.. ( A ). 
Jenkins. Kev. C. It.. <t W., Toku- 

shinia. 

Kilt land. Miss L. C,., Xagoya. 
Logan, Kev. C. A., Tokiisbima. 
Lumpkin. Miss 10., Tukushima. 
McAlpine. Kev. It. 10.. & W.. Toyo- 

hashi. 

McIIwaine, Kev. W. A.. (A). 
Mdlwaine. Kev. M.. it W.. Kochi. 
Moore. Mr. J. W.. (A). 
Moore. Kev. L. W.. X- W.. Gifu. 
Munrue, Kev. II. II., K- W., (A). 
Myers. Kev. II. W.. * W.. Kobe. 
( istruni. Kev. H. C.. & \V., (A ). 
Patton. Miss A. M.. nkazaki. 
Pat Ion. Miss F. !>.. Oka/a ki. 
Smythe, Kev. L. C. M.. ,V W.. 

Xagoya. 
YanDyke, Kev. P. S., it \Y.. (A). 

l:{. i;. lorm. ,1 Churcli in America. 

Mouth, Kev. 10. S., X- W., ( A ). 
Bruns, Kev. Bruno. A> \V. 
BUSK. Miss F. V., Yokohama. 
Coii.h. Miss S. M., .Nagasaki 
Harrow, Miss Flora, Nagasaki. 
De.Maagd, Kev. J. C., Oita. 
Duryee, Kev. E. C., Tokyo. 



Eringa, Miss Dora, Kurunie. 

Hoekje. Kev. W. G., AL- W.. Naga 
saki. 

Kuyper, Kev. H., A> W.. Oita. 

Lansing. Miss II. M., ( A ). 

Laug. Kev. G.. * W.. Saga. 

Luben. Kev. B. M.. Tokyo. 

McAlpine. Air. J. A., Nagasaki. 

Moore. Kev. B. C., & W.. Kurnmc. 

Aluyskens. Airs. L. S., Yokohama. 

Xoordhoof. Aliss Jeane, Yoko 
hama. 

Oltmans, Kev. A., <t M .. (A). 

Oltmans, Miss C. Janet, (A). 

Oltmans. Aliss F. Evelyn, (A). 

Peeke. .Mrs. H. V. S., (A). 

Pieters, Miss J. A.. Shimonoseki. 

Kyder. Kev. S. W., & W.. (A). 

Sliafer, Kev L. J. & AY Yoko 
hama. 

Stegeman, Kev. H. V. E. it W., 
Tokyo. 

Taylor, Aliss Alinnie, Nagasaki. 

Terborg, Kev. John, it \V., Kago- 
shima. 

Walvoord, Aliss Florence, Shimo 
noseki. 

Xander, Aliss II. It., Tokyo. 

44. Roman Catholic Church. 

Breton, K.P., A. H. C.. Tokyo. 
Caloin, It. P., E., Yokohama. 
Cadilhac, It. P., H. L., Utsunomiya. 
Cherel. It. P., J. Al. F.. Tokyo. 
Flaujac. K.P.. J. M. C., Tokyo. 
Giraudies, It. P.. J. AL, Tokyo. 
Hoffman. K.P., H.. Tokyo." 
Lemoine, K.P.. C. .]., Yokohama. 
Lissarrague, It. P.. J. B., Tokyo. 
Alathon. K.I .. Aomori Shi. 
Alayrand. K.P., P. A., Hachioji. 

Tokyo Fu. 

Keid. It. P., Koriyama. 
Kev. Algr. J. P., Tokyo. 
Tulpin, K.P.. 10. A., Tokyo. 

15. Reformed Church in the 
I nitcd States. 

Ankeney, Kev. Alfred. ,t \V., (A). 
Bolliger. Aliss L. A., Sendai. 
Cook, Aliss H. S., Sendai. 
Cook., Aliss K. 10., Sendai. 
lOhlman, Kev. I). F.. Al- \Y.. (A). 
Engelmann, Kev. Al. J., Air W., 

Tokyo. 
Fes|)erman, Kev. F. L,., \- W., 

Send a i. 

Gerhard, .Miss Mary K.. (A). 
Gerhard, Kev. P. L.. A> W., Sendai. 
Gerhard. Air. Kobert H., Sendai. 
llansen. Aliss Kate L. Sendai. 
Hoffman, Aliss Alary 10., Tokyo. 
Kriete, Kev. K. J).. it W.. Sendai. 
LcGallcy, Air. Chas. AL. Sendai. 
Lindsey, Aliss L. A., Sendai. 



LIST HY MISSIONS 341 

Martin. Miss K. M.. Tokyo. Srlu-ll. Miss Naomi. Tolmta. 

Mill.-r. U.-v. H. K.. & \V.. (A). Wain.-. H.-v. K. N.. & W. Shlmo 

NIK <-. Hi-v. I. (I.. A: \V.. Akltu. noHi-ki. 

Nail. Miss Utah K.. Sfmlal. Wain.-. Miss Kh.r.-n, . Shimon. . 

M.-o.l.-nius. U-v. K. H.. \- \V . s.-ki. 

S.-ndai. Williamson. K.-v. N. K.. A. W 

Nc.ss. K>v. C.. A; W.. Aixu-Waka- Kukuoka. 



Noss. Mr. <;>... S.. & W.. Aoniori. 



50. Seventh DIIV \l\ .-nt Ut 



NiiK.-nt. Iti-v. W. C.. & W.. Aixu- 

Wakamatsu. And.-r.son. U.-v. A. N.. .v W.. Ar/.u 
I lf.-r. Miss C. ]{.. Tokyo. \Vakaniatnu. 

S< Imeder. IU-v. D. M.. \- W.. S.-n- A rinstronK. U.-v. \ . T. \- \V 

-lai. Tokyn. 

S. Jm...lf. r . Mis* Mary K.. (A). i:-n.si.n. U.-v. II. I- .. \- \V., Sa|. 
S< hr.MT, It.-v. (5. \V., ,V- \V.. Mori- l>r<.. 

oka. I oL-. Mr. A. I ... X W.. Tokyo. 

S.-ipli-. .Mr. Carl S.. S. ndai. I >i.-t rich. Mr. { ,.. \- \\ .. iikayania 

S.-i|.|-, Kev. \V. (}.. & \V.. (A). C.-t/.lafT. Dr. K. K. \- \V.. Tokj., 

Smith. 1 rof. A. !>.. \- W.. S.-mlai. Ko< li. Mr. A.. .V \V.. Kukimka. 

Smith Miss Harri.-t. S.-n. lai. Kralt. Mr. K. J.. \ \V.. Tokyo. 

Stou.lt. Mr. 0. M.. <V \V.. S-n. lai. Millar. I. Mr. K. K.. <V \V., Kami. 
\Vc.-.l. Miss H.-l<-n I.. S.-n.lai. Mura. 

Xailk B liov. K II.. \- \V.. Srn.lai. N.-lson. U-v. A. N.. \- \V.. Kann. 

Mura. 

Hi. KiiHHi,... Orlh.Nlox < hnr.h. 1^!^ Mr. M. I-: . . & W. . K^nn. 

S.-rnius. Ui. ll.-v. Ar. hhishop. Mura. 

Tokyo. Slnjltx. Miss C.-rtru.l. Tokyo. 

Sta. >. Miss Kll.-n K.. Tokyo. 

IT. Salviiliun Army. Thiirston, Mr C. K.. 

I .arr. KM si KM K.-nncth. fi- \V . M " a. 

Tokyo. 

.M. S ( Ml.-t> for Hi,- I roptiK illur 
of tlii- .,.]. -I In lur.-lKt 
I arln. 

KrT,Mt k> KnsiKn 11,-nry. \ W . Tokyo <> K "" l>l"--"-- 

X.-wman. KnsiKn ll.-ih.-rt. \- \V.. All.-n. K.-v. K.. Koh.-. 

Tokyo. Marl, .-r. Miss I... Koh,-. 

I liX tnir.-. M.-ut.-Colon.-l K. I.. A- Hasil. Ht. K.-v. Hishop. ( A I 

\V.. Tokyo. Ha\liss. Miss K.. Koh.-. 

llolf... Major Vi.lor. \ W . Tokyo Kss.-n. Miss M. K.. Koh,-. 

Smyth. Ma i-,r Ann!-. Tok\... Cal<-. K.-\ \V. H . .V \\ Mim.-Ji 

I l.p.-rton. Knsik M .1 , \- \V Tokyo Holni.-s. Miss Mary. Okayama. 

K.-Miiioii. Miss olivr. Shltiiotios.- 

IK. Sf-an<Mna\iiin \III,T|, an Alii- K.-nh-v 
an,, MUHion. 

Smith Miss K. H . Kolic. 

. \nil.-rson. It. v. .1... -I.. .V \V . (A l. st.k.-s Miss K S K . MatMiiyiima 

T " k >"- Siranks" U.-v. . J.. YamaKU, hi 





arlson. U.-v. <V K.. .V \V.. Tok 

i stn.nK 

Minn .1 K . 



, 
-t-rson. Miss A.. .1.. Chlha Shi - < . Shlmon,.s.-ki 



l!>. Soiilli.-rn r..i|itUt ( ,in\,-ntlon. \\alk.-r. Mr. ll <v u 

Maker. .Miss Kill,-. Kukuka. 

Motihlin. U.-v. (1 \V . AT W . Kuku (I.) South Tolt>o l>lor.-,-. 

oka. Hoy. I. Miss II. -h -n. Tokyo. 

(Mark,-. U.-v. \V M.. \- \\ . Tokyo Mil, knlll. U-v. K C, . \ \\ . Y,.l.. 
lio/l.-r. U.-v. <V K .V W . Kukn liaiua. 

oka. Chop.-. MI-H !.. Tokyo. 

Hannah. Mis., I..,|ita. Kokura. I M. k Insot.. K-v. .1 H Tokyo 

l.am ast.-r. MISM C,-, ||.-. Kokura IMhn. M IHH C M . A T . Numa/ilSI 

Mills. It.-v K. (I.. A- \V . Nagasaki II a llxtoii.-. Mint, M K . T.,k>" 

I .ay. U.-v. .1 K.. X \V Hiroshima H.-as|.-!t Hishop S. A \V Y-.l... 
Itow,- Mrs .1 H . Kokura hama 



342 



JAPAN 



Mercer, Rev. F. K.. Tokyo. 
Philipps, Miss K. tJ., (A). 
Shaw, Hev. It. I). M., & W., Hira- 

t.suka. 

Shepherd. Miss K. M., (A). 
Somervell. Miss M., Numazu Shi. 
Tanner, Miss K., Tokyo. 
Trott. Miss I)., Tokyo. 
\\ onlsworth. Miss H., Chil.a. 



.Vi. Foreign MiHHioimr.v Society of 
Hi,- 1 nil, ,1 Mrrl lir.-n ill Chriwt. 
Knipp, Key. .1 . K.. A U ., Ot.su. 
Shiyely, Hev. M. 1- ., <<- W.. Kyoto. 

:.:{. I iiit.-d Church of Canada. 
(a) General Hoard. 

Ainsworth, Hev. F., ,<- \V., Hama- 

mat.su. 
AlhriBht, liev. I,. S., & VV., Shizu- 

oka. 
Hates, Hev. ( . ,1. L., & W.. Nishi- 

nomiya Shi^ai. 

Holt. Ucv. <;. K., i<: \V.. Tokyo. 
Coates, liev. H. M.. * \V.. (A). 
Coates. Hev. W. (}.. <Kr \V.. Kofu. 
CHIRK. Hev. W. .J . M., Nishino- 

iniya Shi^ai. 

Hennitfar, Hev. K. C.. & AV.. Tokyo. 
Milliard. Hev. K., * \V., Nishino- 

nilya ShiKsii. 

Holmes. Hev. C. I ., <* W.. Fukui. 
McKenzie. Hev. A. P.. & \V.. 

Nagoya. 
McKenzie. Hey. 1). H., \- \V.. 

Tokyo. 
MrWIIliams. Hev. \V. H.. \- \V.. 

Ka naza wa. 

Norman. Hev. I)., & W.. (A). 
N..rman. Miss I,.. (A). 
OuterhridKe. Hev. M. W.. .< \\ .. 

Nishinomiya Shipai. 
I rire, Hev. P. G.. X- W.. Tokyo. 
Stone. Hev. A. H., .Nagano. 
Teni-h. Hev. C. H.. * W., Kobe. 
\Vhltinjc. Hev. M. M., * W.. Nishi 

nomiya Shiftai. 
Woodsworth. Hev. H. K.. \- W.. 

Nishinomiya Shigai. 
Writfht. Hev. H. ( .. Toyama. 

<>>) \\onifii , MlHHlonary Society. 

Allen. Miss A. \V.. Tokyo. 
Armstrong. Miss M. K. , Toyama. 
Harr. Miss L. M.. Kol u. 
Hates, Miss K. I... Kariazawa. 
Callheck, Miss Louise, Nagano. 
Chappell, Miss C. S., Tokyo. 
Courthe. Miss S. H.. Tokyo. 
I>rake. Miss K. H.. Mamamatsu. 
Cillesple. Miss .lean. (A ). 
(lovenhx-k. Miss I.. Kana/awa. 
(ireenl.ank. Miss K. M., Kofu. 
Mai*. Miss Mary T.. Tokyo Kn. 



Hamilton, Miss F. O.. (A). 
Hurd. Miss H. H., (A), 
.lost, Miss K. K., Fukui. 
.lost, Miss H. K.. (A). 
Killam, Miss Ada, Fukui. 
Kinney, Miss J. M., Tokyo. 
Lediard, Miss Ella, Nagano. 
Lehman, Miss Lois. Shizuoka. 
Lindsay. Miss O. C., Shizuoka. 
McLachlan, Miss A. M., Kofu. 
McLeod. Miss A. O.. I eda. 
Meath, Miss A. O., Tokyo. 
Pinsent. Mrs. A. M., Tokyo. 
Horke, Miss Luella. Shizuoka. 
Hyan, Miss Esther L., I eda. 
Scott, Miss Mary C.. (A). 
Scruton. Miss Fern, (A). 
Simpson. Miss M. E., Kofu. 
Staples, Miss M. M., Tokyo. 
Strothard, Miss A. O.. Tokyo. 
Sut tie. Miss Owen. Kofu. 
Tweedie, Miss K. (I., Toyama. 

54. Cnited Christian Missionary 
Society. 

Armhruster. Miss H. T., Osaka. 
Ashury, Miss J. J.. Honjo. 
Clawson. Miss H. F., Tokyo. 
Crewdson. Hev. Ira D., * W.. 

Fukushima. 

Krskine, Hev. \V. H., * W.. Osaka. 
C.ihson. Miss Martha, (A). 
Hendricks, Hey. K. C.. * W., 

Akita. 

McCall, Hev. C. F., & W., Tokyo. 
McCoy, Hev. H. D.. & W.. (A). 
Palmer. Miss Jewel, (A). 
Ivichey. Miss Helen L., Tokyo. 
Trout. Miss Jessie M., Akita. 
Yountf. Hev. T. A.. < \V., Tokyo. 

55. Cniversalist C.eneral Conven 
tion. 

Howen, Miss O.. Tokyo. 
Carey. Hev. H. M.. & W.. Tokyo. 
Downing, Miss Huth K., Tokyo. 
; Hathaway. Miss Apnes. Toky... 
Stetson. Hey. C. H., << W.. Shizu 
oka. 

tion of \inerica. 
1 Cihhs. Hev. M. A.. \- W.. Tokyo. 

57. World s Sunday School ANKO- 
clatlon. 

5K. \\ oiii:in - I nion Mlssioiiar> 
Society of America. 

Loom is. Miss Clara D., (At. 
Lynn. Mrs. Hazel A.. Yokohama, 
Pratt, Miss Susan A.. Yokohama. 
Holers. Miss M. S.. Yokohama. 
Tracy. Miss Mary K., Yokohama. 



LIST BY MISSIONS o4!i 

.,. Vounr M*-n N ( hrUtlitn .\mtnt- i K..P. Miss Mildred. <A>. 

elation. 

(it) American Internatlimal ^ Foreign MUilon* of ihr IT,-* 

I.M.-ri.ii. (liiir.li of I nul.ui.l 

lirown. Mr. Frank H.. \- NV., . \<ja.|r M!HH Lllv Shoka 

(A) - I und. Kv. K.. A- \V.. Tallinn. 

Clarke. Miss Doris K.. Yokohama, j u Hr ,.],, v j{,. v Thomas Am..y. 

Converxe. Mr. (Juy I .. & \V.. Sunil- i , lHrnetl . M , HH A , Tainan. 

y>Bh.l. j dieal l>r. I .. * NV.. Tainan. 

I.urtcin. Mr. Kuss.-ll L.. * \V.. | r , >ljlan(1 K ,. v K A . W .. T.,.- 

Tukyo. n;tn 

.Jorfennen. Mr. Arthur. ,< \N.. Cullen Mix* C. S.. Tainan. 

Ti.kyn. Klllut. Minn iHHl.ei. Shokn. 

1 utterwm. Mr. CI. S.. * %N Tokyo. HVrKUS( , n M rs ( M. I .. (A). 

IMiHpn. Mr. (J. S.. * W.. T.iky... , ( .. tl( M|HH JeH) ,, e- Tainan. 

Sney.l. Mr. H. S.. \- \V.. Y.ik,.- i. lin ,lHl...r..uKli. Mr. !.. * ^ 

ham. i. Shoka. 

Trueiuan. Mr. C. K.. A.- \V.. LlvlngHtun. Mln A. A.. (A>. 

Najfoya. j |,| (>v d. .\||MH .)-annl<-. Tainan. 

i Mackintosh. MlM.s S. K.. Tainan. 

(In V.M.C.A. Teacher* Affiliated. | MH( .|_,.,,,,_ U PV . Dunran. * \V..( A i. 

TolllnH. Mr. H. M., Hiroshima. ! Marshall. U-v. D. K . AL- W . <A|. 

Ktter. Mr. C. I-.. X- W.. Sapporo. | MuntKoin.-ry. U-v. W. K.. A- W.. 

Kaucette Mr. T F.. * NV.. Kuku- Tainan. 

,,ka. Muudy. K.-v. C. N.. W.. (A). 

OldH. Mr. IrvlnR. Najfoya. .Munifor.l. l>r. H. H.. \- NV.. (At 

NVMtklns. Mr. .lax. T.. Najfoya. ; Slnrl-ton. Mr. 1.,-sli.-. * NV.. Tai- 

] nan. 

0. YotMUyu Mlimloii. (!:< |i <>llr ,| ,, r Kr.-l|fii M|NH|<IIIN of 

< ha.sf, Mr. .1. T.. .V NV.. Tokyo. of I r. -l.v i . ri.i n ( liurrli In 

("unnlriKhHin. K-v. NV. !.. A NV.. ( anadii. 

Tokyo. A.lamx. Miss A. K.. Talhoku. 

Fnrnhani. MiH Grace. (A). Hurdltk. Mlsx A. M. Tanixul. 

I.i niinon. Mlx.s Vivian. Tokyo. Chisholm. Mi.sx K. K . Talhoku. 

I.u.xl.y, Ml MS Maj.-l. Tokyo. Clash . M IMS M . <!.. Tainnul. 

C liliiinlnKs. Miss .1. M.. Taihoku. 

Dlckson, Mr. .las.. A- NV. . Tan. sin 



Yoiinir \\ ,.ni. n - ( hrUtlan 

N - .< i.i I h . M 



Miss D. C.. Taiiisin. 



(iaulil. Miss Crt-tta. ( A ). 
,llen. MlHM Carolyn. Yokohama. ; au |,|. M rx. M. A.. <A). 



AmltTson. Miss Itoherta. K< 
Hak.-r. MlMM Kdltli. Toky, 



Crahm. Mr. M . (J . & NV.. Tnlh.ku. 



U-M. M,H* Hlanche. Kyoto. 
un.-an. Minx C... Kyoto. 



Main. H. Miss Hazel. Yokohama. 
Kaulman. M IMS K. It.. Tokyo. 



MacKay. K-\ I NV . ,v \\ . 

Tamsui. 
Ma< .Mlllan. K.-\ II A . A \\ . 



Kaufmann. Miss I. I... Tok\... 

\luruh \fiuu ( -. T . . 1 1 1... i IHH U 11 Tamxul. 

Mclntosh Miss K.sl, (A, M ( lure. ... |. H. * NV (A,. 

M.KInnon. Miss Clalr.-. T..ky... Uams.-y. Mis- Mar;ar.-i. Tall,. 

ItohcrlH. Miss Ksthor. Tokyo. Senlot. MI.HX Ann.- T.ilhokii 



LIST OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



Miss Bertha Clawson 

I. \\,,m.iri-s Christian ( ollek e III. Itaiko .lo-<,akuln. 
of Japan. Kami-U tisa. I.^M 

Machl. Tokyo Ku. Dr. Te- V irn rica , P ( V I 

tsuko Yasui. President. , P, eshvterian C h u r , h 

A. Co-operating Missions. ,,, N ; 

1. Hapjist North 

( \V. A. U.K.. M.S.). IV. Kwans. 

1 . Canadian Methodist 1 M, 

(\V.M.S. Tnited Churdi Church. 

of Canada). j_ Tnited Clan 

?,. Church of Clirist (Disci- nada. 

pies) (I .C.M.S.). 
4. Methodist Kpiscopal V. Meljl (iakuin. 

Church (W.K.M.). 1. 1 renhyterlan 

}. I reshy terian Cliun li 

I .S.A. ( W.H.K.M.). 
;. Reformed Church in 

America (W.H.K.M. I. 
II. , \oynnm (iakuin Th,M,lo K l, al VI. I>iM.liUlm I nlvemlty (The 



Department, i Metliodint ). 



I)e]iartment ). 



1. KvaiiKelical Church 1. American Hoard of Coin- 
. . Christian Church. niissioners for K.relKn 

::. Cliurcli of Clirist (I>is-i- .Mission. 

pies) (I .C.M.S. |. - . I nlted Urethren. 



t. .\iiieri<-aii Itaptitl I oreJKii Kid/u Vocliieti. Kidxii Machl. 

MlHHlon Sorh-ty. Kyoto Ku. Miss Takeko Imal. 

KINOKUCAKTKNS ^"n,^" Ma. -ifl. ""^.^^"^ 1 . w" . T- 

Al no Sono Vocliieii. 4 .Mlsaki Cho kyo. Miss Kiku Ishlhara. 

l-Choiii-. Kanda, Tokyo. Miss Kotol.uk! Vochlen. s:t Kotol.uk! 

A. II. Crosby. Clio I -Choiiie. Yokohama. Mr. 

A inn Yochlen. L 7 Tani Machl !*- Nol.uo Tokita. 

Chome. Tennoji. Osaka. Mrs. Mnsutionho Yochien. MitsunoMho. 

T. <>Kawa. KliiiiM- K-n, Miss Amy Amck. 

Airlnen Yorhlcn. Imasato Cho. Morioka Yochlen. l < himaru. M or i - 

MlKashl Yoilujjawa. Osaka. Miss oka. M| HM T. Allen. 

A. M. Kludt. \.-muro Yochlen. Midori Cho 2 

llaramachlda Yochl-n. TakaK.i- CJn.me. Nemuro. Hokkaido, Mr. 

saka. Miriam! Mura. Minaml Shlro Morltirhl. 

Tama Oun, Tokyo Ku. Mr. N ihon.-nok I Yo.lil.-n, L S44 Knna- 

Julchlro l .->ama. Kawa. Yokohama. Mrs. Yanu- 

Helsva Yo< hi.-ri. <S Minaml Tera inura. 

Machl. Yotsuya. Tokyo. Mr. OmlHlilma Yochlen. Mlyanoiira. 

Majlme \Vatanal.e. omiMhlma Ochl fJun. Khlme 

Ilinomoto Jo Cakko Fuzoku Yo- K.-n. Mr Tsurieyowhl Shimoda 

< hlen. 1.", \Vala Machl. Mlm-jl on,, /in in Yochlen. A/.uma 

Shi. Hyok o K.-n. Miss V. Post. |>,,,l. K Mlsn J. M. ! 

I !,i,,l.a Yo, hi.-Ti. Kawamura Cho. Wllk Inxoii. 

Ishloka Ma, hi. ll.araki Ken. 1 iir,- l.lk l.i Y-.chlen. Ton,, Ma-lil. 

Kamalshl Yochien. Kamalshl I . , i . K.-II. Mlns \ S |<ii//,-ll 

Machl. Iwate Ken. Ml K.II- S.-lk., Yoehien. in: 1 Kutal M.ichl. 

ki< hi K.I \\.iinin. i. -!,..(.<., M.ichl. Mly.iKl Kt-n. 



346 



JAPAN 



Miss T. Allen. 
Seiko Yochien, 27 Esashi Machi, 

Koinhikawa, Tokyo, Miss M. M. 

Carpenter. 
Seiko Yoohien, 91 Tosakl Maohi, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo, Miss M. M. 

Carpenter. 
Setoda Yochien, Setoda Machi, 

Hiroshima Ken, Miss Amy 

Acock. 
Shigei Yochien, Shigei Mura, 

Mitsuki Gun, Hiroshima Ken, 

Miss Amy Acock. 
Showa Yochien. Ogawa Machi, 

Kawasaki, Mr. Takashi Osaka. 
Taira Yochien, 23 Zaimoku Cho, 

Taira Machi. Fukushima Ken, 

Miss T. Allen. 
Xenrin Yochien, Azuma Dori. 

Kobe, Miss .1. M. O. Wilkinson. 
Xenrin Aika Yochien, Naha Shi. 

Okinawa Ken, Loochoo, Miss .1. 

M. G. Wilkinson. 

MIDDLE SCHOOLS 
Kanto Gakuin. (Men), 1778 

Minarni Ota Machi. Yokohama, 

Mr. Tasuku Sakata. 
Hinomoto Jo Oakko, (Women), fio 

Shimotera Machi, Himeji Shi. 

Hyogo Ken. Miss K. F. Wilcox. 
Shokei Jogakko. (Women), 2 Na- 

kajima Cho. Sendai. Dr. Ukichi 

Ka waguchi. 
Soshln Jo Gakko. (Women). ::131 

Kanagawa Machi, Yokohama, 

Mr. Kinjiro Takagaki. 

COLLEGES 
Kanto Gakuin. College Dept., 1778 

Minami Ota Machi. Yokohama. 

Dr. C. H. Tenny. 
Sln.kei Jo Gakko. College Dept., 

2 Nakajima Cho. Sendai. Dr. 

t kichi Kawaguchi. 
Soshin Jo Gakko. College Dept.. 

:ii: .l Kanagawa Machi. Yoko 
hama, Mr. Kinjiro Takagaki. 
(Co-operate with Woman s 
Christian College 
of Japan). 

THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL 
Kanto Gakuin. Theological Dept.. 
1778 Minami Ota Machi. Yoko 
hama, Dr. C. B. Tenny. 

1UHLE TRAINING SCHOOL 
Haptist Joshi Shin Gakko, Ima- 
ato Cho. Higashi Yodogawa, 
Osaka. Miss E. A. Camp. 

TEACHKR TRAINING SCHOOL 
Tokyo Kindergarten Training 
School. 101 Hara Machi. Koishi 
kawa. Tokyo. Mins Kiku Ishi- 
haru. 



NIGHT SCHOOLS 

Himeji Kirisutokyo Seinenkai 
Elgo no Gakko, 15 Watamachi. 
Himeji Shi, Hyogo Ken, Mr. 
Saburo Namioka. 

Pukagawa Kaikan Eigo Kai, 26 
Higashi Daiku Machi, Fuka- 
gawa, Tokyo. Dr. Wm. Axling. 

Kanto Gakuin English School. 
1778 Minami Ota Machi, Yoko 
hama. Mr. Tasuku Sakata. 

Mead Christian Center. 2 English 
Schools. Imasato Cho. Higashi 
Yodogawa, Osaka, Miss A. M. 
Kludt. 

Misaki Eigo Gakko, 4 Misaki Cho 
1-Chome, Kanda, Tokyo, Dr. 
Wm. Axling. 

Osaka Joshi Eigakukan. 27 Tani 
Machi 9-Chome. Tennoji, Osaka, 
Dr. J. A. Foote. 

Waseda Hoshien Night School, 
r.f.O Shimotozuka, Tokyo Fu, Dr. 
H. B. Bennlnghoff. 

Yotsuya English Night School, 48 
Minami Tera Machi, Yotsuya, 
Tokyo, Mr. Hajime Watanabe. 

3. \llKcnicln.-r KvanKellsch-Pro- 



KINDERGARTENS 
Kamitomizaka Yochien, Koishi 
kawa, Kamitomizaka, 39 Tokyo, 
Mrs. Sugenoya. 

NIGHT SCHOOLS 
Kyoto Doitsu Yagakko, Kyoto Shi, 

Shogoin Cho, Dr. E. Schiller. 
Doitsu Gakuin, Tokyo Shi, Koishi 
kawa Ku, Kamitomizaka Cho. 
39. Dr. Weidinger. 

BOARDING SCHOOL 

Nichi-doku-kwan, Tokyo Shi. 
Koishikawa Ku Kamitomizaka 
Cho, 39, Dr. Weidinger. 

4. I riciids Mih*ion. 

KINDERGARTENS 
Ishioka Yochien, Yakuba-mae, 

Ishioka Machi, Ibaraki Ken, 

Mr. Chiyomatsu Suzuki. 
Mito Yochien, 888 Tenno Cho, 

Mito, Ibaraki Ken, Miss Edith 

SharplesH. 
Hijirizaka Yochien. 30 Koun 

Cho. Mlta. Shiba. Tokyo, Mrs. 

Toki Tomlyama. 
Shlmotsuma Yochien, Shlmotsu- 

ma. Ibaraki Ken. Mrs. Gurney 

Minford. 



LIST OF KWCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



MIDDLE SCHOOLS 

Friends Girls School. 30 Koun 
Cho, Mlta. Shlba. Tokyo. Mrs. 
Tokl Tomlyama. 

M. MN,l,.i, K,,. ml of the < hrUthui 
Church. 

KINDKKOAUTENS 
Koin Yochlen. Naka Shlbuya 

Christian Church. Tokyo. Rev. 

K. IshiRaki. 

M.iiulana Yochlen. Azabu Chris 
tian Church, Tokyo. Hev. K. 

Matsuno. 

MeKtiro Hoitsuen. MeRuro Chris 
tian Church. Tokyo. Hev. G. 

Sano. 
oji Yochlen. Oji Christian Church. 

oji Machl. Tokyo Fu. Hev. 

Talzuml. 
rtsunomlya Yochlen. rtsunomlya 

Christian Church. TochlRi Ken. 

Hev. Kimura. 
Moka Yochlen. Moka Christian 

Church. TochlRi Ken, Hev. S. 

Hlraga. 
Sendal Yochlen. Sendal Christian 

Church. Sendal. Mrs. K. Kltano. 
Narupo Yochlen. NaruRo Christian 

Church. NaruRo. MlyaRl Ken. 

Hev. K. Ando. 

Wakuya Yochlen. Wakuya Chris 
tian Church. MiyaRl Ken. Hev. M. 

Sakural. 
Iwadeyama Yochlen. Iwadeyama 

Christian Church. MlyaRl Ken. 

Hev. f. Tanaka. 

MIDDI.K SCHOOLS 
I lMunomlya Christian Girls School, 
rtsunomlya. TochlRi Ken. (Af- 

si-hool ). 

;. KvitnRcllcal Church. 

KINDKHGAHTKNS 
Chikko Yochlen. 15 2-Chome. 

V. ( Jo Dorl. Minalo Ku. Osaka. 

Mrs. Thede. 
I/.un Yochlen. S 2-Chome. Naka- 

dorl. Mlnato Ku. Osaka. Mrs. 

H. Thede. 
Aika Yochlen. 4! Naka Machl. 

otsuka. Kolshlkawa, Tokyo. 

Miss Verna Hertzler. 
Alsel Yochlen. M SasuRaya Cho. 

Kolshlkawa. Tokyo. Miss Susan 

Mauernfelnd. 

Asahl Yochlen. If, KoRal Cho. 

V/ahu. Tokyo. Mr". Al Nozawa. 

Kameldo Yochlen. 3-Chome. KH- 

meido. Tokyo Ku. Miss Irene 

Anderson. 



N e?.u Yo hien. 7 SURH Clio. HonR. 

Tokyo. Miss Irene Anderson. 
Heiwa Yochlen. 500 Ochlal Ma. In. 

Tokyo Fu. Mrs. Paul S. Mayer. 
KaneRafuchl Yochien. 310 Suinl.la 

Machl. MukoJIiua. Tokyo Ku. 

Miss Gertrude Kueckllrh. 
Shinioda Yochlen. Shlnuxla Kuku- 

in Kyokwal. Shinioda. Stiir.u- 

oka Ken. Miss Gertrude Kuerk- 

lich. 
Ishlkawa Yoc hien. Ishikawa, Ku- 

kushlnia Ken. Mrs. Kverette 

Williamson. 
ToRane Yochien. ToRane Machi. 

Chlba. Miss Gertrude Kueckllch. 
Seiwa Yochlen, Hon Machl. 

Shlmlzu Shi. Shlzuoka Ken. 

Miss Gertrude Kuecklich. 
Knkuin Yochlen. 17 Sakal Cho. 

Kawasaki Shi. Miss \ erna 

Hertzler. 
NaRoya Yochlen. NaRoya, Hev. 

K. Mori. 
Itayado Yochlen. Itayado Knkuin 

Kyokwal. Kobe ShlRal. Mrs. H 

Thede. 
Numazu KlnderRarten. Nuniazu. 

Miss Gertrude Kueckllch. 

NIGHT SCHOOLS 
MeJIro EnRltsh School. 500 Ochlni 

Machl. Tokyo Fuka. Hev. I . 

S. Mayer. 
Tokyo Hllde S< -hool. KnRlish 

Department. M SasuRaya Cbo. 

Kolshlkawa. Tokyo. Miss Susan 

Rauernfelnd. 

1UHI.K THAINING SCHOOLS 
Tokyo Hlble School. S4 SasURava 
Clio. Koishlkawa. Tokyo. MI*H 
Susan M. Hauernfelnd. 
Hobo Yoseljo. H4 SasuRaya Cbo. 
Kolnhlkawa. Tokyo. Miss Ger 
trude Kueckllch. 

(Co-operate with Aoyatna Gakuin 
In TbeoloRlcal TralnlnR*. 

17. 4.1-in-riil MlnMlon Itourd. Krre 
MethiMlUt < hurt- li of North 
America. 

THKO LOGICAL SCH< oi.s 

Kree Metbo.llst Tbeol. Seminary. 
, r .o 1 -Chorne. Maruyaina l.ti 
Sunilyoshl Ku. Osaka Sbl. Mr 
TetsuJI Tsm -lilyMina. 

>4. Komi.. I K>iik\*Hl ( \lt( IM 
Included). 

K INDKHGAHTKN S 

Alshln Yochlen. Tottorl Sbl. MH!,, 

Ma. hi. 4S. Mrs H H. Hei.net 



348 



JAPAN 



Amashiro Yochien, Okayama Ken, 

Kojima Gun, Pujito Machi, 

Amashlro, Xakagiri Juhei. 
Amagasaki Seichoen, Amagaki 

Shi, Hessho Mura, Aza-Ikeda, 

L Vfi, Imada Ikuyo. 
Chidori Yochien, Kobe Shi, Xishi 

Suma, Tanikawa 10, Takamatsu 

Teruko. 
Doshin Yochien, Kyoto Shi, Kami- 

kyo Ku, Tominokoji, Xijo 

Minami-iru, Minaislii Chiyoko. 
Futaha Yochien, Dairen Shi. Sa- 

tsuma Cho, Honshaura, Kojima 

Shotaro. 
Hakuai Yochien. Fukushima Ken, 

Wakamatsu Shi. Amida Clio, 

Kaneko Shipemitsu. 
Hokukko Yochien, Sapi)on> Slii. 

Odori, Xislii 1-Chome, 14 

Iwapami Setsu. 
Imadegavva Yocliien, Kyoto Shi, 

Imadegawa Dori. Tera Maclii. 

Xishi Iru AKaru. Miss K. F. 

Fann in^r. 
Imazu Futaba Yocliien, Hyopo 

Ken, Muko Gun. Imazu Clio, 

Aza Takoshio. Koizumi Sumi. 
Katsuyama Yocliien, Matsuyama 

Shi, Kasaya Maclii, 5, Mrs. 

Leeds Oulick. 
Kyoai Yochien. Miyazaki Shi. 

Mrs. C. M. Warren. 
Matsuyama Yochien, Matsuyama 

Shi. Eiki Clio. 27. Miss Cornelia 

Jurtson. 
Fuzoku Yocliien, McLean Yochien. 

Kyoto Shi, ShimoKamo. Matsu- 

noki Cho. Suemitsu Xol.uko. 
Maehashi Yocliien. Mael>ashi Shi, 

Hagi Machi 255, Fuji Machi 

Shinsuke. 
Xayori Yocli en, Amashio-no-kuni. 

Xayori Cho. Odori Minami L>- 

Chome. Kokita .linnosuke. 
Okayama Hakuai-kai Yochien. 

Okayama Shi. Hanabatake, IIS. 

Miss A. P. Adams. 
Ueinanx.aka Yocliien. Tokyo Shi. 

Akashka Ku. Tteinanzaka Cho, 

14. Minohe Tsuruna. 
Shoei Yochien. Kol.e Shi, Xaka- 

yamate Dori . )-Chome. "\Vaku- 

yama Kisho. 
Soai Yochien. Kyoto Shi. Shin- 

sakae Ma. hi Dori. Xiomon 

Mainami Iru, Miss K. I . Fan 
ning. 
Seishln Yochien. Maehashi Shi. 

Kitakuruwa Cho, 81. Miss F. 

:. fJriswol.l. 
Seikishin Yochien. C.umma K-n. 

Tsui Cun. Haraichi Machi. 14C,. 

K.-tshiwaui Kiyoko. 
S.-ishln Yochien. Xiipata Shi. 

Ill^ashi Xaka-dorl, Nilian Clio, 

Toyama Chiyu. 



Sliinai Yochien, Gumma Ken. 

Shihiikawa Cho, 1 248, Xaka- 

mura Saya. 
Saijo Futaha Yochien. Eliime 

Ken. Saijo Cho. O-machi, Ka- 

\vashima Sumako. 
Tokyo Shimin Yochien, Tokyo Fu, 

Sendapaya Machi 491, Tanaka 

Masako. 
Takenaka Yochien, Okayama Ken, 

Kurashiki Cho, Asahi Machi, 

Takenaka Mitsuko. 
Zenrinkan Yochien, Osaka Shi, 

Hitfashi Yodopawa Ku. Honjo 

Machi. 505, Xo. 2, Watanahe 

Tsuruko. 
Sakai Yochien, Sakai Shi, Kuru- 

mano Cho, in^ashi, 1-Chome. 

Mori Masako. 
Annaka Futaha Yochien, Oumma 

Ken. Annaka Cho. Tanaka 

Kyoshiro. 
Mepumi Yochien, Tokyo Fu, Tri- 

arai Cho. Araijuku, 450, I\va- 

mura Seishiro. 

1 UIMAKY SCHOOL 
nkayama Hakuai .linjo Sho^Jikko. 
Okayama Shi, Hanahahatake. 
:t7. Miss A. I . Adams. 

MIDDLE SCHOOLS 
Haika Koto ,Io Gakko. Osaka Fu. 

Toyono Gun. Toyonaka Cho. 

I ha Kikujiro. 
Doshislia Jo Gakko. Kyoto Slii. 

Karasumaru Dori, Imadegrawa 

A^aru. Suemitsu Xohuzo. 
Doshisha .1 o Gakko, Kyoto Shi. 

Imadetfawa Dori, Tera Machi 

Xishi Iru. Yamanaka Hyaku. 
Kobe Jo Gakuin. Jopaku-bu. Kobe 

Shi, Yamamoto Dori, 4-Chome. 

f.O, Kawasaki Ichizo. 
.Matsuyama Jojjakko. Matsuyama 

Shi. Kotojin Machi, :: of K~>. 

O. S. Hoyt. 
Kyoai Jo Gakko, Maehashi, I\va- 

Rami Cho, m. Shu Sao Shi. 
0.> Koto Jo Gakko Kumamoto 

Shi, Oe Machi, Takesaki Yasiio. 

TH100LOGICAL SCHOOLS 
Doshisha Dai^aku, Hungaku-bu. 
Shiimaku-ka. Kyoto Shi, Kami- 
kyo Ku, Shin Kitakoji Machi, 
Tominomori Kyoji. 
Doshisha Semmon Gakko. Shin- 
Kakii-lui. Kyoto Shi. Kamikyo 
Ku. Shin Kitakoji Machi, To- 
minomori Kyoji. 

HIl .LE TIIAIXIXG SCHOOL 
Kobe Joshi Shingakko. 59. i- 
Chome. Xakayamate Dori, Kobe, 
Sakujiro Xa^asaka. 



LIST OF KDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS ;J49 

Col, LKUKS (Men) I liiknsa Uutcru Yo.hi.-n, :; 1 :i .M... 

ln.!-lii.->li;i DaiKaku lun, akii-l.ii. tok.,1. Chikusa. NaKoya. Mrs. 

Ky..t... S. otsuka. A Kmi.lti-n. 

"K ^, :;:,., :. .^;^,,.,. ." """-"" - * ....... - 

l...slii.sha DaiKaku Yokwa. Ky..t,,. Kyuwhu C.akuin. ( ) Ma. hi. Ku- 

Hin.. Masumi. inaiui.tu. Dr. S. Toyaiua. 

Doshisha S-mnion Cakko. Koto Kyushu .1,, Cakuin. .Mum/on,,. 

ShoKVo-l.u. Kvoto. S.-iki, hi Na- Kumiimulo ShlKiii. Mis.s Martha 

wa l! - Akar.l. 



Doshisha S.-imnon Cakk. 

i Moto- 

Lutheran Theulo 

T,.kyu. Dr. K. 



*,, .,. ,, ,,, . , ( , , S l M<M,i. 

S)il)ian-l>u. Kyoto. Yalici Moto- 
I|11V;1 Lutheran TheuloRlriil S.-iiun 

oshi.^ha S.-innion Cakk,,. S.-iji 



K. i/.aihtl. Kyoto. TakoKlii Waila 






COJ,!,K<;KS (W<>ni-ni -i6. l.utlirran (ioNprl \-so.iatl.ni 
Doshisha Jo Cakk... S.-iiiiuon -l.ii. " f * lnllini1 - 

Kyoto. Mi.hiko Masu.la. K I X DKIIC A KTKX 

Kill..- Jo Cakuin. On -1-Clion 



Yamamoto Dori. K<.h<-. Mi-ijl 



liila Yen hit-n. Xakano Clio, li.la 
Marhi. Xananu. Miss Tyyn*. 



. 



Hishinuiiia. 
Ualka Joshi S.-ninion Cakk... To- 

yonaka Cho, Toyono Cun. Osaka I"l I KoLt )( ; ICA I, SC1I<><>|. 

Ku. Kikujiro Iba. Luth.-ran Theological S. ho.,1. 

IT.-.sid.-nt Doshisha fnlvt-rsity ,,;..., ikH.ukuro Maruyaina. 

Cintaro Daikuhara Tokyo Ku. H<-v. J. V. Savolai- 

NOKMAL Oil TKACHKK nen - 

M,.-loard of For,l K n M.^lonn 

and U. mi. in- I or. I; ri Mi- 
Mlonary SIM -li-ly of I In- M-th- 

..ilisi l.|.i-< ..|..il (liiinh. 

( (THKH KDTCATH >XAI. K I X DK K( I A HTKXS 

IXSTlTfTIoXS Akunoura Yo t hlen. Xa^asaki. 

Matmiyania Yajakko. Matstiyaina .\| , >,. \\ \\ Kn.l.-r 

Shi. Kiyo XlshiiTiura. Tainanoyi- Yo.hl.-ri. 11 oura. Xa- 

osaka Kyokwal Joshi Kik (Jakko. Kai-aki. Miss Mariana Yoimu 

L -fhoiii-. K.lol.ori. Xislu Ku. Mik iua V... In.-n. II ouia. Xa.i- 

(isaka. Hiroshl Matanaka. saki. .Miss Mariana YoiuiK- 

Toltorl Kik o Kwal. Tottori Shi. , ,j ,. Yo.-ln.-n. ;, Mi Kiihonji. oy... 

Mi. MM Kos.iimiml (Mark. Kuiiianioto. Miss M.itk-au-i 

:,. \ nl|<-il I iilh. -ran ( Inir. li In Yamak a Y.. 

\in.ri. , Kuiiianioto K.-n. 

k .ii.-i HIM in, -i.-l-T. 

KIXDKHCAUTKXS Yatsu.sl.iro Yo.hi.-n. Yatsushllo 

Xanipaku Yo.-hU-n. Makata. Take- Kiiniain..!,, K.-n, Dr. Yoslnnoii 

waka Ch-,. Kukuoka. MISH ll-l -n Yaina/.akl. 

Slilrk. KaKoMlitina Yo.hi.-n. H :! Kajlya 

KuruiiH- Yo.hlcn. MiyoHliI Ma. hi. Ma. hi. K a k-oslillii... MISM All. 

Kuriinio. MlMH Il<-l.-n Shirk. l- inlay. 

OK! Yo.hl.-n. OK! Ma.-hl. Saa. Iwainl/.awa Yo.hl.-n. IwuiulrawH 

K.-n. M|SH l- alth l,lppard. M.-tho.list Cliunh. H-v. S. l- u- 

Ml.lorl Yo. hl-n. Sh in\ a.-luk i Ch. fihlkl. 

Kiiiiiaiiioto. MUM Mary H.-Ill- Di.k.-rson M-inorli. I Y..< hi-n. . f ..1 

lirldli-. Molo Ma. hi. llnko.lat. . MIH 

Kikuk avva Yo.hn-n. Mi ::-Clioin-. ;. M. M> I.T. 

Yanak lwara. llonjo. Tokyo. |- iim ,. M,.|,,,.rial Yo.hl.-n. otoxxa 

K.-v. A. .1 Stlr-\vall. ho. Mako-lat.-. MI.HM <I M 

K.-IS.-II Yo, hi.-n. I l s XiMhl okul.. Myl-r. 

Tokyo. MIMS Hdctii- llanli-r. Mary Al-xan,lrr MI-I 

Croiik Mi-inorial K ln.li-rnart n. ,. n . Mir.,nakl. Minn A. Ch.-n-\ 

.1, n. Kuiii.iuioto. M|MH Mary A lko Yo.hl.-n. KaJI Ma. hi. Mir. 

M.-ltil.rldlp. Mitkl. MIM A. Cln-n-y. 



350 



JAPAN 



Kanajjawa Yochien. Yokohama, 

Miss Waka Ninomiya. 
Airin Yochien, (Lee Memorial i. 

L Sanhan Cho, Sendai. Miss Loo. 
Myojo Yochien, Yonexawa, Rev. 

Kinsco Yamada. 
Flora Hest Hari.s Yochicn, Kama- 

knra, Rev. T. I kai. 

MIDDLE SCHOOLS 
AuyaniH Gakuin, 7-Chome, 

Minami Machi, Aoyama. Tokyo 

Ku. President, Dr. M. Ishi/aka. 

Middle Scliool Dean. Rev. Y. 

Abe. Girl s School Dean. Miss 

Alberta Sprowles. 
lai .Io Gakko. Yunokawa Dori. 

Hakodate. Miss Alice Cheney. 
Hirosaki .Io Gakko, Sakamoto 

Clio. Hirosaki. Miss Lois K. 

Curtice. 
Kukuoka .Io Gakko, Kukuoka. 

Caroline G. Peckham, Acting 

Principal. 
To-0 C.ijuku. 1 Shimonane. Hiro 

saki. Mr. .). Sasamori. 
Chinzei Gakuin. Hitfashi Yamate. 

Nagasaki, Rev. Noboru Kawa 

saki. 
Kwassui .)o Gakko. Hinrashi Ya 

mate. Nagasaki, Miss Anna 

Laura White. 

COLLEGES 

Aoyama Gakuin. 7-Chome. Mina 
mi Machi. Aoyama. Tokyo Ku. 
l>r. M. Ishixaka. College Dean. 
Dr. K. Yabuchi. Associate 
Dean. Dr. K. T. Iplehart. 

Kwassui .loshi Senmon Gakko. 
Nagasaki, Miss Anna Laura 
White. 

(Co-operate with Tokyo Joslii 
Dai C.akko) 

THEOLOGICAL SCHo< )LS 
Aoyama Gakuin, 7-Chome, Mina- 
jni Machi. Aoyama. Tokyo Ku. 
President. Dr. M. Ishixaka. 
Theological Dean, Dr. A. D. 
Merry. Associate Dean, Miss 
Harriet .1. .lost. 

NIGHT SCHOOL 

Akunotira NiRht School, f, Hi^ ashi 
Yamate. Nagasaki, Ucv. \\ . 
K rider. 



;n. Hottril of MlHHloiiM of ih. 
M-tliodlNt i:piH< npiil Chiirch, 
South. 

KINDERGARTENS 

Kyonan Yo<hit-n, Kyoto Shi. Sa - 
kai Machi. Matstl bara Kudaru, 
Uev. Geo. L. Waters. 



Lambiith .Io Gakuin Yochien, 
Osaka Shi. 1J Ishipatsuji Cho, 
Tonno.ji Ku, Miss M. M. Cook. 

East Osaka Yochien, Osaka Shi. 
Tani Machi, Sanchome, East 
Osaka Methodist Church. Miss 
M. M. Cook. 

Kukushima Yochien, Osaka Shi, 
Konohana Ku, Kami Kukushima 
Kita. Nichome, Miss M. M. 
Cook. 

Tsurumachi Yochien. Osaka Shi. 
Minato Ku. Tsuru Machi. Yon- 
chome, Miss M. M. Cook. 

Koyo Yochien, Hyogo Ken. Muko 
Gun. Rev. .J . T. Meyers. 

Lambuth Memorial Yochien. 
Kobe Shi 51 Yamamoto Dori, 
Goohome, Miss M. M. Cook. 

Hyonan Yochien, Kobe Shi, Ka- 
samatsu Dori. Shichome, Mrs. 
J. Paul Reed. 

Mepumi Yochien. Himeji Shi. 
Methodist Church, Rev! S. E. 
Hager. 

Seishi Yochien, Yama/.aki Machi, 
Methodist Church. Rev. S. K. 

Hiroshima Girls School Yochien. 

Hiroshima Girls School, Kami 

Naparekawa Cho, Rev. Z. Hino 
hara. 

Kokutaiji (Ivey) Yochien, Hiro 
shima Shi. Kokutaiji Machi. 

Rev. Z. Hinohara. 
Kwannon Yochien, Hiroshima Shi, 

Kwannon Machi, Rev. Z. Hin<>- 

hara. 
Matoba Yochien. Hiroshima Shi, 

Matoba Cho, Methodist Church, 

Rev. Z. Hinohara. 
Takajo Machi Free Yochien. 

Hiroshima Shi, Takajo Machi, 

Rev. Z. Hinohara. 
Newton Yochien, Kure Shi, 

Methodist Church, Miss Mary 

Searcy. 
Iwakuni Yochien, Iwakuni Machi. 

Hiroshima Ken. Rev. J X. 

Cobb. 
Kutaba Yochien, Okayama Shi. 

Methodist Church, Rev. W. A. 

Wilson. 
Tadotsu Yochien, Tadotsu Machi. 

Ka^awa Ken, Rev. W. A. Wil 
son. 
Kanko Yochien. Kanko, Korea. 

Rev. .1. H. Cobb. 
Yanai Yochien, Yanai Machi. 

Machi, YamaRUchi Ken, Rev. 

P. L. Palmore. 
Tokuyama Yochien. Tokuyama 

Machi, YamaRuchi Ken. Rev. 

P. L. Palmore. 
Kudamatsu Yochien. Kndamatsu 

Machi. Yamasuchi Ken, Rev. 

I . L. Palmore. 



LIST OF KDI CATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



Shinai Yofhlvn, lieppu Shi. oita 

Ken. MiHH Sallle Carroll. 
Alrln Yochien. Olta Shi. . . Nlaife 

M-hl. Ml 88 Sallle Carroll. 
Gotojl Yochlen. Gotoji Machi. 

Fukuoka Ken. Kev. 1. 1, 

Shaver. 
Shinal Yochlen, Matsuyama Shi. 

10 Ichloan (Mio. Kev. T. W. H. 

Demaree. 
Shinl No. 1 Yochien. Matxuyuma 

Shi. Kev. T. W. H. Demaree. 
YH watahania Yochlen, Y a \vata - 

lianui Machi, Khlme Ken. Kev. 

.1. W. Frank. 
Kakiijo Yochlen. fvvaiima Shi. 

Nakano Cho. Kev. J. \V. Frank. 
l noma<-hi Yochien, I nomachl 

Khiine Ken. Itev. .1. W. Frank. 
Shoju Yoi-hlen (Independent). l <i 

Kami TsutBui Dorl. Go< home, 

Mr. M. MatNiimoto. 
<;inK<- Yochlen (Independent). 

MlkaRe Ma. hi. HyoRo Ken. Mr. 

K. Y(.i-hlda. 

Mural Memorial Ym-hlen (Inde 
pendent). YoMhlda Mac hi. 

Khlme Ken. Mr. .1. Inhihara. 

PKIMAHY SCHOOL 
Hiroshima Jo Gakko. Hlr.lilma 
Shi. Kamlnajfarekawa Clio, Kev. 
/.. Hlnohara. 

MIDDLK SCHOOLS 
HiroBhliim Jo Gakko. Hiroshima 

Shi. KamlnaRareka wa Clio. H-v. 

/.. Hinohara. 
KwanHel Gukuin. Koto Mura. 

Ninhlnomlya ShlRai. (fnlon 

with Tnlted Ch. ut Can.); Dr. 

C. J. L. Hate*. 



THEOLOGICAL SCH 

Kwans.-l Gakuln. Koto 
NlHhlnomlya Shlgal. 



Maru. 
( I nlon 

with rnlt.-d Ch. of Can. I. Dr. 
C. J. L. Mates. Theological 
Dept.. Kev. M. Hurl. 



INDI STUIAL SCHOOL 
Palmore Women * Kng. Inht .. 
Kohe Shi. .T. i Nakayamate Don. 
Shirhoin . M|KM Annette (iixt. 

MOHT SCHOOLS 
I almore Inntitute. Kohe Shi. : .: 

KltanaKana Dorl. Shu home. 

Mr. J. S. Oxford. 
Franer InMltiile. HlroHhlnia Shi. 

KokutaIJi Mac hi. Kev. J. H. 

Cobb. 

NOKMAL AND TKACHKK 
TKAINING SCHOOL 

Lamhiith Training Schfnd for 
Chriwtlan Workem (Lamlmlh 
Jo Gakuin). Osaka Shi. 1. 
iHhltratHujI Clio. TennoJI Ku. 
Kindergarten Teacher Training 
Department. MiH Margaret M . 
Cook. 

.<:<. - M.-lhodisl Prol,-l:iiit ( Inir, h 

KINDKKGAKTKNS 
Klwa Jo Gakko Fuzoku Yochien. 

Yokohama. U 4 Malta Machl. 

Olive 1. Hodges. 

Kueretta K. Sampnon 
Toklwa Yochlen. Hamamatnu Shi. 

1 Motoshlro Cho. Kth.-l I. 

Hempnteail. 
Kaklwa-Shlnnel Yochlen, NaKya 

Shi. AtMuta. 105 Tamanol Cho. 

Mary K. WIlllaniH. 
Ftituha Yochlen. HlratHiika. Ka- 

niiKuwa Ken. Mrs. Hlkl. 
ShieldM Sanae Yochlen. Yokohama 

Shi. Mlnowanhlta. Honmokn. 

Kllzaheth Dawnon. 

1 KI MA K Y SCH< >i >L 
Klwa Jo Gakko Fuzokti sh..:akk. 
Yokoh 
Machl. 



ma Shi. U 4 Mull 
Ollvi- I. Hodgex. 



1UMI.K TU.\IMN<; SCHool, 

Lamouth Tn.lnlnu- S.I I for 

Christian Workt-iH (LamLuth 
.In <;aknin). Oxaka Shi. Inhl- 
KatnuJI Cho. TennoJI Ku. Hlhll- 
<H! Dept. Minn Mahel White- 
head. 

COLLBGKS 

KwanHel Gaknln. Koto Mura 
Nl8hlnomlya Shlical, (Cnlon 
with fnlted Ch. of Can.). Dr. 
C .1. L. MateH. 

HlroHhlnia Jo iakko. H!ronhtma 
Shi. KamlnaKarekawH Cho. Kev. 
/.. Hlnohartt. 



MIDDLE SCH 

Nagoya Chu Gakko. 
Machi. Nak oya. Mi. 



Shi. 12< 
Hodge*. 



K INDKKGA KTKNS 
HachloJI Yochlen. Ha.hloJI. 

K. It<>. 
HatNtlklirl Yochlen. Kw 

Minn L. H Hoy. I 
Matmjyama Yochlen. Miilmi 

Minn L II. Moyd 
KelwH Yo. hlen. V r * WM - 

Nellie M< Kim. 



352 JAPAN 

Aishi Yochien, Omiya, Mis* Xellie St. John s Yochien. Koriyama, 

McKim. .Miss Helen .1. Disbrow. 

KtimaKaya Yochien, Kumapaya. Ikusei Yochien, Sakurai, Rev. A. 

Miss Nellie McKim. S. Hoyo. 

St. Matthias Yorhien, Maoliashi, St. James Yochien, Tsu, Rev. J. 

Miss Bessie McKim. Xishida. 

St. Mary s Yorhien Ashikaga, Seiko Yochien, T eno, Rev. C. 

Miss- Bessie McKim. Okamoto. 

Shinmachi Yochien, Shin Machi. st - Peter s Yochien, Tomisato 

Miss Bessie McKim. Mura. Rev. K. Xishikawa. 

Takasaki Yochien, Takasaki, Miss - Spi Sanidii Yochien, Fukui, Miss 

Bessie McKim. Cecil Powell. 

Seiai Yochien. Kusatsu. Miss Kyujo Yochien. Xagoya, Miss X. 

Cornwall-Leph. K - J - Bowman. 

Airin Yochien, I tsunomiya Rev. Ryujo Yochien, Habashita Branch, 

K. Ban. Xapoya. Miss X. F. J. Bowman. 

Airin Yochien, Xikko, Miss Kyn.jo Yochien, Gokiso Branch. 

Marian Huni])hreys. Xapoya. Miss X. F. J. Bowman. 

Shimodate Yochien. Shimodate, H.vu.jo Yochien. Mix.uho Branch. 

Rev. Jas. Chappell. Xapoya. Miss X. F. J. Bowman. 

Onai Yochien, Mito. Rev. Jas. Meido Yochien, Gifu, Miss G. 

Cha-ppell. Shore. 

Futal>a Yochien, Sukegawa, Rev. Sayuri Yochien, Toyohashi, Miss 

Jas. Chappell. F. B. Hamilton. 

Aoba Yochien, (3), Semlai, Dea- Scijuji Yochien, Matsumoto, Miss 

coness A. L. Ranson. F. B. Hamilton. 

Xio Yochicn, Morioka, Rev. II. Koyo Yochien, Takata, Miss I. 

Murakami. Isaac. 

Minato Yochien, Minato. Rev. W. Inuriyama Yochien, Inariyama, 

F. Madeley. Mlss H . Harohin. 

Hachmohe Yochien, Hachinohe, Sejai Yochien. Ikebukuro, Tokyo 

Rev. \V. F. Madeley. Fu 

St Gla I dys S Spencer n A(im ril Mi " S Futaba Vochien, Ohihiro Cho. 

NO YaHL Y o t{ h ne " rNOShIr0> Mr " ZuTho^chien, Kushlro, Hokkai- 

Odjte Yochien. Odate. Rev. Y. ^; ^^ ^^ ^^ 

Seishien Yochien, Akita. Rev X. Hokkaido. 

S Howell Kyozen Yochien, Yonago, Tottori 

Kasumi Yocliien, Yama^ata. Miss Kl n - Mr - *xno. 

Bessie Mead. S.-isliin Yochien. Sakai Machi, 

Seiai Yochien, Fukushima, Rev. Tottori Ken. 

\V. ! . Madeley. Aiko Yocliien, Asliiya, Hyogo Ken. 

Seiai Yochien, Wakamatsu, Rev. Mr. Xakamura. 

J. . McKim. Xaniwa Yochien, Xaniwa Mura, 

Ynmoto Yochien, Yunioto, Rev. Amagasaki. Miss A. M. Cox. 

J. C. M<-Kim. TsukaKiichi Yochien, Tsukaguchi 

Heian Yo.-hien, Kyoto. Miss Helen Cho, Hyogo Ken, Miss A. M. 

J. Dishrow. (>)x. 

St. Mary s Yocliien. Kyoto, Miss St. Luke s Yochien, :i Hipashi 

Helen .1. Dislirow. Xaka Dori 4-Chome, Tsuki- 

St. John s Yochien, Kyoto, Miss shima, Tokyo. 

Helen J. Kisl.row. Yochisha, Miya.il Machi, Aso Gun 

Shinai Yochi.-n, Kyoto. Miss Helen Kumamoto Ken. 

J. Dishrow. Sanko Yochien. P,75 Sanko Cho 

Shinn.Kamo Yochien, Kyoto, Rev. Shirokane Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 

H. Ajima. Kiwa Yochien. not; Xishiyama. 

Seishin Yocliien. Otsu, Miss Helen Ikebukuro, Tokyo Shipai. 

J. Dishrow. Sen.iu Hoikuen, 85!) Minami Senju. 

Shinmai/.nrii Yochien. Shinmai- Tokyo Shigai. 

/urn. Rev. M. Murata. Seiko "Yochien, 4 (if, Asapaya, Su- 

Xlshixu Yochien. Wakasa, Rev. Kinami Cho, Tokyo ShiRai. 

V. Yamada. Wakaba Yochien. 1)72 Yarigasaki. 
Seikyushu Yor-liien, Wakayama, i Minami Shinagawa, Tokyo Shi- 
Rev. Z. Yagi. gai. 



LIST OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



W;..kal.a Yochien 49 Hyakunln 

Miichl. okul.o. Tokyo ShlKal. 
Shohei Yochien. 25 Suehiro Cho. 

Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 
Seiko Yochlen. Takasaki Shi. 
St. Harnal.as Yochien. Kusatsu 

Ma.hl. Chil.it Ken. 
Hanazono Yochien. . i-Chome Oda- 

\vara Machl. Kanagawa Ken. 
Yokalchlha Yochlen. Yokalchil.a 

Machl. Chiha Ken. 
Shion Yochien. Numazu Shi. 
Yotmijl Hoikuen. Ichll.a Mura. 

Yona Gun. Kyoto Ku. 
Sakural Yochien. Sakurai Machl, 

Nara Ken. 
Shoten Yochlen. Shimo-gion, Hira- 

n>. Kol.e Shi, Miss Doris Har 
l.er. 
St. John Yochien. Inaha Machi. 

Higashisuma, Kol.e Shi. Miss 

Doris Harl.er. 
Izumi Yochlen. HlKa.shi S Han- 

cho, Semlal Shi. 
(>nonaka Yochien. Ononaka Muchl, 

Aomorl Ken. 
St. Peter s Yocliien. Toml Machl. 

Akita Ken. 
Kocho Yochlen. Nanoka Machl. 

Yamagata Shi. 
Mizuho Yochlen. \?.4 Yone Machl 

Kushlro Machl. 
Hiratori Yuglkwal. Hlr;it<.rl Mura. 

Hidakanokuni. 

MIDDLK SCHOOLS 
St. Paul s (Men). Ikel.ukuro. To 
kyo Ku. Ut. Uev. C. S. Uolf- 

unlder. 
St. Margaret s (Woman) Takald,, 

Machl. Tokyo Ku. Miss C. G. 

Heywood. 
St. Agnes (Heian Jo Gakko), 

Kyoto. Mr. K. Hayakawa. 
Hlhop I oole Memorial Girls 

School. Tsuruhashl. TennoJI. 

Osaka. Mr. H. Koizumi. 
Shorn Koto Jo Gakko. Kol.e. 4. r .r, 

Shlmo (;,,ln Cho. Mr. J. Aaano. 
Koran Jo Gakko. :if,n Sanko Cho. 

Shlrokane Shll.a Tokyo, Minn 

Toahlko Tomlta. 
Momoyama Middle School. 

Showa Cho .:< !,, ,i,i". Sumlyoshl 

Ku. OHaka. Uev. <;. W. Raw- 



I NIVEltSlTY 

St. PaiiTn. Ikel.ukuro. Tokyo Ku. 



IHHLK TUAINING SCHOOLS 
Ashlya Training School (Women). 
Ashlya. Muko Gun, H>I>KO Ken. 
Aol.a Jo Gakuin. (Women). 39 
Motoyanagi Cho. Sendai Dea 
coness A. L. Uannon. 
Kukuoka Divinity School. 225 Sho 
Aza Mameda. Kukuoka Ken. 
Ut. Uev. A. Lea. 

INDTSTUIAL SCHOOLS 
Aomorl Sewing School. Aomorl. 

Min.s Gladys Spencer. 
Hirosalii Sewing School. Hlropakl. 

Uev. S. Nakamura. 

NOU.MAL AND TKACHKU 

TUAININC; SCHOOLS 
St. Luke s Nurses Training 
School. T.sukijl Tokyo. Dr. U. 
H. Teusler. 

U>ujo Hol.o Yoseljo. (Kindergar 
ten Training). Nagoya, Mla N. 
K. J. Howman. 

NIGHT SCHOOLS 
Nara Night School. Nara. Uev. 

1). Yo.Mhlmura. 
Kukul Night School. Kukul, Uev. 

K. Okajima. 
T.xuki.Mhima Night School. Tnukl- 

Hhlniii. Tokyo. Mls Henty. 

SI KCIAL SCHOOL 
Gifu Kunmoin (School for Hllnd). 
. H. J. Hamilton. 



:s. Oml MlHNlon. 

K INDKUCJAKTKNS 
Selyuen Yochlen, oml-Hachlman 
c ho. Oml. Mr*. W. M. Vorlen. 
Shlon Yorhlen, Maltxtra Cho. Oml. 
Mr. T. Yamada. 

NIGHT SCHOOLS 
Oml-Harhlman Kigo Gakko. Ornl- 

Hachlman Cho. Oml. W. M. 

Vorles. 
Mall.ara Klgo Gakko. Mftllinra 

Cho Oml. Mr. T. Yamnda. 

;t9. orl.-nl. il >IU*lonar> Horlrlj. 

HIMLK TU.\ININ<; SCHOOL 
Hllde Training Inntltute (Co-ed). 
I Kaiihlwagl. Yodot.nnhl. To- 
I u. De.in. Mr. Kurumnda 



ky 
H. 



U 



Uelfnnli!er. 



TIIKOLOCICAL SCIH 101- 
hitiKHkiiln. Ikel.ukuro. Tokyo Ku. 
Uev. J)r. J. K. Orhlal. Trim Ipal. 



ut* MUnlon of the t rrn- 

l.vl.ri.ui ( Inir. h In thr 

r.M.A. 

KINDKUCiAUTKNS 
Kaikwa Klndernarten. Tmnd. 
Ch... NlHhl Narl Ku. Omikn. 
I rlm Ipal. Mm. C. K. Chap 
man. 



354 



JAPAN 



Nishijin Kindergarten, Matsuya 

Clio. Nakatlachiuri Sagaru, 

Kyoto. Principal, Mrs. Harvey 

Brokaw. 
Muromachl Kindergarten, Muro 

Mat-lii. Kyoto. Principal Mrs. 

H. Brokaw. 
Miller Kindergarten. Tamaki Cho, 

Tsu, Ise, Head Teacher, Mrs. 

.1. Hirao. 
Yamada Kindergarten. Miyajiri 

Cho, Yamada, Principal, Miss 

Jessie Hiker. 
Chihon Kindergarten, Oi Machi, 

Moto Shiba, Tokyo. Principal, 

Mrs. Theodore Walser. 
Kanazawa Kindergarten, Shimo 

Honda Machi, Rokuban Cho. 

No. 18, Kanarawa, Principal. 

Miss A. Irene Reiser. 
Takaoka Kindergarten. Tzumi 

Cho. Axana Nishi, Takaoka, 

Toyama Ken. Principal, Miss 

A. Irene Reiser. 
Myojo Kindergarten, Noda, Ya- 

niaguchi Machi. Yamaguehi 

Ken, Principal. Miss I.. A. 

Wells. 
Rose Kindergarten, Tomioka Cho, 

1-Chome, Otaru, Hokkaido, 

Principal, Miss C. H. McCrory. 

SCHOOLS 

Hokusei Jo Gakko. South f.. West 
17. Sapporo, Hokkaido, Princi 
pal, Miss Alice Monk. 

Joshi Oakuin. ri Kami Niban 
Cho. Kojimachi Kn. Tokyo, 
Principal. Miss Tomiko Mitani. 

Hokuriku Jo Oakko. 10 Kakino- 
klbatake, Kanazawa Shi, Prin- 
clpal. Mr. S. Nakazawa. 

Wilmina Jo Oakko, Naenion Chu, 
Tainatsukuri. Osaka Shi, Prin 
cipal, Rev. K. Morita. 

In I nion \vlth other minHlonH. 

Balko Jo Oakuin. Maruyama Clio. 

Shimonoseki. Principal, Mr. T. 

Hirotsti. 
Chuo Theological Seminary, Ku- 

mochi. Kobe, Principal Rev. S. 

P. Kulton. D.D. 
Meijl Gakuin, Shirokane, Shiba 

Ku. Tokyo. Pres. Mr. I). Ta- 

gawa. (For details of Meiji 

Oakuin see separate sheet). 

4 i. Prennyterlun Churrh In the 

I nit. -.I StateH. 

KINDERGARTENS 

Minomiya Kindergarten, Kobe. 

Mrs. S. P. Fulton. 
Nagata Kindergarten, Kobe, Mrs. 

H. W. Myors. 



Marugame (Jverflowing Love Kin 
dergarten, Marugame. Mrs. 
Walter McS. Huchanan. 

Myojo Kindergarten, Nagoya, Miss 
Leila Kirtland. 

Shimizu Kindergarten, Nagoya, 
Mrs. L. C. M. Smythe. 

Airin Kindergarten, Okazaki, 
Miss Florence Patton. 

Mikuni Kindergarten, Takamatsu, 
Mrs. Takata. 

Asahi Kindergarten, Toyohashi, 
Mrs. R. E. McAlpine. 

Misono Kindergarten, Gifu, Miss 
Elizabeth O. Huchanan. 

SCHOOLS 

Kin.jo Joshi Senimon Oakko, Na 
goya, Mr. Y. Ichimura. 

Chuo Theological Seminary, Kobe, 
Dr. S. P. Fulton. 

Carrie McMillan Home, Kochi. 
Miss Annie Do\vd. 

48. Reformed Church In Amer 
ica. 

SECONDARY (M IDDLE 
GRADE) 

Ferris Wa-Ei Jo Oakko (Ferris 
Seminary). (F). 178 Bluff, Yo 
kohama Shi, Rev. L. J. Shafer. 
Principal. 

Chugaku Tozan Gakuin (Steele 
Academy). (M), 9 Higashi Ya- 
mate, Nagasaki Shi, Rev. 
Willis G. Hoekje, Principal. 

In fnlon with Japan Mission of 

the I reKhyterlan Church in 

the U.S.A. 

/aidan Hojin Meiji Gakuin. (M), 
Imazato Cho, Shirokane. Shiba 
Ku, Tokyo, Hon. D. Tagawa, 
T resident. 

Shimonoseki Haikn Jo Gakuin 
(Sturges Seminary), (F), Ma 
ruyama Cho, Shimonoseki Shi, 
Mr. T. Hirotsu, Principal. 

l. r >. Reformed Church In the 
United States. 

KINDERGARTENS 
Seiai Yochien. Sendai Shi. Yanagi 

Machi-dori, Mrs. D. H. Schne- 

der. 
Hizume Yochien. Hizume Machi, 

Iwate Ken. Mr. M. Sasawara. 
Chitose Yochien, Yamagata Shi, 

Yamagata Ken, Mrs. C. D. 

Kriete. 
Miharu Yochien, Miharu Machi, 

Fukushima Ken, Rev. S. Naka- 

yama. 



LIST OF KDUCATIONAL INSTITt TIONS 



KoHhlRiiyH Yorhien. KoshiRaya 

Ma, hi. Sait.una Ken. llev. T. 

N agno. 
Iwatsukl Yorhien. Iwatnukl Marhl, 

Saltainii Ken. Mr. T. Ku/.e. 
Alkn Yorhien. Tokyo Shi. Kanda 

Ku. MitoHhlro Cho. Mrs. H. 

K. Miller. 
Aomorl Yorhien. Aumorl Shi. 

Aoniorl Ken. Hev. T. Ta*urhl. 
Onilya Yorhien. Omlya Marhi. 

Saltama Ken, Hev. K. Yoshlda. 

MIDDLE SCHOOLS 
Tohoku Cakuln (M). Sendai Shi. 

MlKHKhl Nlhun Cho, Hev. I). H. 

S.hneder. D.I).. LI.. D. 
Miyak l .Jo Cakko (F). Sendai Shi. 

HiK axhl Samban Clio. K.-v. C. 

I. Kriete. 



COLLEGES 

Tolioku Cakuln (M). Sendai Shi. 

Minanil Hokken Cho. Uev. D. 

H. S<-hn-,l.r. D.I).. I.L.D. 
.MiyaRi Jo Cakko (F). Sondai Shi. 

IllKauhl Sainl.an Clio. HPV. C. 

D. Krlote. 

TMKOI.C XJIC.M, SCIK )OF, 
Tohuku Cakuln (M). S>ndal Shi, 

Minaml Mafhl Dorl. Rev. D. M. 

S-hn dT. D.D.. LL.D. 



I 1 Southern liaptlHt Convention. 
KINDERGARTENS 

Koinhikawa Yo.hl.-n. :,H Ka;o 
Alaclil. KolHhlkawa. Tokyo. 
MTH. K. A nia no. 



Fukuoka, MTU. 



Hlgashl Ma 

C. \V. Houldln. 
Kokura YochU-n. 141 Konya 

Ma<hl, Kokura. M rx. .1. H. 

Knwe. 
Yiiwata Yochlon. Yawata MapllHt 

Chun-h. Yawata. Mrx. 

Howe. 
Kurf Yorhl.-n. Kur.- H 

Chiir-h. Kur-. lu-v Tanaka. 
SiiKitTiio Yochlcn. NlMhl Sunani 

Tokyo. Mrn. W. M. Clarke. 

MIDDI.K SCHOLS 
Selnan Cakuln. NlnhlJIn Ma.h 

Kukuoka, Itev. C. \V. Houldl 

D.D. 
.Sclnan .Jo Cakuln. Itozu. Kour 

MTM. J. H. K..WO. 



>!einan Cakuln. Literary %nd 
Coniinerdal D-p"rtnienti. NlMhl- 
Jln Ma. hi. Fukuoka. JCev, (}, 
\V. Houldln. D.D, 



THEOLOGICAL M MooL 
Selnan (Jakuin. Mhijin MM. hi. 
Fukuoka. Uev. C. \V. Huuldln. 
D.I). 

.-,(). Seven th-Diiy Ad vent iMtn. 

Ainanunia Cakuln <W. Tokyo 
Fu. SiiKlnainl Marhl. Ainanuma 
171. Mr. A. N. NelH.m. 

Nlhon San-lku Cakuln. (Ml. 
Chlha Ken. KltnltNU Cun. Kan- 
no Mtira. Mr. Andrew N. Nel- 



.Vi. Foreign Mi-.-i.ni.ir* v,,, i. i, 
of the I nii.-il Brethren In 
( hrlNt. 

KINDKKC AHTKNS 
Marajuku Dolio Yorhlen. 70 Mara- 

juku. Aoyaina. Tokyo. Mrn. T. 

Yokota. 
Shlhuya D.d.o Yo.hlen. ,1 T..yo- 

awa. Shllniya Ma-hi. Tokyo 

Fu. Kev. Shojl Terao. 
Selal Yorhien. Ze/e Ma.hl. Otu 

Shltfai. Shlk a Ken, Mrs. Hene 

K. Knipp. 
Alko Yorlilen. Hlrahlura. OIHII. 

Shlfta Ken, Mrs. Hene K. Knlpp. 
Nod a Dolio Yorhien. Noda Chlha 

Ken. Dr. H. F. Shlvely. 
Shin -a I Yorhien. KtiHatsu. Shlpa 

Ken. Mrs. Hene K. Knlpp. 
Dolio Yorhien, S4 Kami Tmitnul 

Dorl. Hatrhonie. Kol.e Uev. V. 



Yorhien. Hlffaahl 

Ma. hi. Kawahata 

Iru. Kyoto. Hev. C. 



Kyoto D 
Maruta 
HlRanhl 
Yanuda. 

Shoal Yorhien. Seta. Kurlla 
County. Shla Ken. MTH. Hene 
K. Knlpp. 

Kakimal Dol.o Yorhlen. 1: Kawa- 
l.ata. Talnho Cun. Kyoto. Mrx. 



D..IKI Yorhien. Hal. a. ( >txu. Slilk a 
Ken. MTH. Hene K. Knlpp. 

NIC I IT SCHOOLS 
Konan Hunka Cakko. II Ixanhltira, 

OtMii, Hev. Klyhl Yabc. 
Konan KIIH.-I Cakko. /.-/..-. Otnil 

ShlKal. ShlKa Ken. Mm. Shun 

Yalie. 

.*>:i. .Inpnii MUnlon of the I nlleil 

liur. I, of .111. id. i 

KINDF.HCAHTKNS 
Toyo Klwa .Jo Cukko Fuxoku 
Yo.-hl.-n. Tokyo Shi. Asitlm Ku. 
H T.-rll Xiika. M IHM M. M. 
Staplert. 



356 JAPAN 

Aiseikwan Yochien, Tokyo Fuka, Haba Yochien, Kanazawa Shi, 

Kameido. 47 Xichome. Miss A. Haba Clio, Rokubancho, Miss I. 

W. Allen. Govenlock. 

Azumacho Yochien, Tokyo Fuka, Shirokane Yochien, Kanazawa 

1 ke.ii, 387 Azunia Cho, Miss Shi, 12 Shirokane Cho, Miss I. 

A. W. Allen. Govenlock. 

Eiwa Yochien, Shizuoka Shi, Nomachi Yochien, Kanazawa Shi, 

Xishikusabuka Machi, Miss Nomachi Sanchome, Miss E. L. 

Lois Lehman. Hates. 

Kutaba Yochien, Shizuoka Shi, Juyoban Yochien, Kanazawa Shi, 

Honda Cho, Miss Lois Lehman. Saiban Dori 14, Miss J. Goven- 

Shizuhata Yochien, Shizuoka Shi, lock. 

Inomiya, Miss Lois Lehman. Hakui Yochien, Ishikawa Ken, 

Matsushiro Yochien, Hamamatsu Hakui Machi, Miss I. Goven- 

Shi. Matsushiro Cho, Miss lock. 

Katherine Drake. Nanao Yochien. Ishikawa Ken, 

Kiwa Jo Gakko I^uzoku Yochien, Xoto, Xanao Machi, Ippon Sugi 

Kofu Shi. 324 Hyakkoku Machi, Dori, Miss I. Govenlock. 

Miss M. K. Simpson. Eikwan Yochien, Fukui Shi, 

Asalii Yochien, Xagano Shi, 1 L Hoeikami Machi, Mi.ss Eleanor 

Aagata Machi, Miss Louise Call- .lost. 

beck. Jonohashi Yochien, Fukui Shi, 

Serita Yochien. Xagano Shi, Xaka Miss Ada Killam. 

Go Sho, Miss Louise Callbeck. Midori Yochien, Fukui Ken, Ma- 

Wakaha Yochien, Xapano Ken. ruoka Machi, Miss Ada Killam. 

Yashiro Machi, Miss E. Ledi- Asahi Yochien, Fukui Ken, Ono 

ard. Machi, Miss Eleanor Jost. 

Matsushiro Yochien. Nagano Ken, Tami no Yurin Yochien, Matsu- 

Matsushiro Machi, Miss E. moto, Rev. W. G. Coates. 

Lodiard. Seiryu Yochien, Xagoya, Mr. A. 

J .aika Yochien, Xnpano Ken, P. McKenzie. 

Ueda Shi. Tokida Machi. Miss Gyosei Yochien, Xagoya, Mr. A. 

A. 0. McLeod. P. McKenzie. 

Tokida Yochien. Xasano Ken, I HIMAUY SCHOOLS 

Feda Shi, Tokida Machi, Miss Toyo Eiwa Jo Gakko Shopakka, 

A. 0. McLeod. Tokyo Shi, Azabu Ku, 8 Torii 

Wakakusa Yochien. Xa^ano Ken, Zaka, Miss J. M. Kinney. 

Mariko Machi. Miss A. O. Me- MIDDLE SCHOOLS 

Aoba Yochien Tovama Shi So- Toyo Eiwa Jo Gakko, Koto Jo 

pawa Cho Miss M F Arm- Gakka, Tokyo Shi, Azabu Ku, 

strong. s TorU Zaka, Miss J. M. Kin- 

Fligashi Hun-en, Toyama Shi, ney - 

Kitashin Machi. Miss M. E. Shizuoka Eiwa Jo Gakko. Shizu- 

Armstrong oka Shi, Xishikusabuka Cho, 

Kyohoku Yochien, Tovama Shi, Miss C Lindsay. 

Jintsu Machi. Miss M. E. Yarnanashi Eiwa Jo Gakko Kou- 

Armstrong s -Atago Machi, Miss K. M. 

Isurugi Yochien, Toyama Ken, Oreenbank. 

Isurugi. Machi, Miss M. E. THEOLOGICAL SCHOOLS 

Co-operate with Aoyama Theolo- 



str< 



ment. 

Kukumi.su Yochien. Tovama Ken, ^^Th " l " ^"^^ ThC<>1 - 

Fukumitsu Machi, Xishi Machi, 

Miss E. G. Tweedie. COLLEGES 

Demachi Yochien. Toyama Ken. Co-operate with Woman s Chris- 

Demachi. Minami Cho, Miss K. (j an College. 

G. Tweedie. Co-operate with Kwansei Gakuin 

Yatsuo Yochien. Toyama Ken. College. 

Yatsuo, Higashi Machi Miss 

E. C,. Tweedie. INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL 

Kawakami Yochien. Kanazawa Cartmell Sewing School, Kofu 

Shi, Shintate Machi, Sanchome, Shi, , !1M Hyakkoku Machi, Miss 

Miss E. L. Hates. M. E. Simpson. 



LIST OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS 



:* 57 



NORMAL AND TKAININC 

SCHot >L 

Kindergarten Training School. 
Toy. Kiwa Jo (Jakko Yochien 
Shlhanka. Tokyo Shi, Azahu 
Ku. ,s Torll Zaka. Mixx J. M. 
Klnney. 

NICHT SCHOOLS 
Nejflxhi Nijfht School. Kanasujji, 

Tokyo. Itev. P. C,. Price. 
Nonia.hl Nlfht School. Nomachl. 

KanaKawa, Itev. W. It. McWil- 

liamx. 

54. I nit., I ( hrlstlan Missionary 
Society. 

K I N DK It( J A IIT K N S 
Nakazato Yochien. Nakazato. T-i- 

klnonawa. Tokyo Ku. Mrs. T. 

A. You UK. 
Murikawa Cho Yochien, Morl- 

kawa Cho. Honjfo. Tokyo. (Sus 
pended ). 
MatxiiKae Yo<-hien, MatsuKae Cho. 

Koi.sl-.ikawa, Tokyo, Mr. Y. 

Ixhika wa. 
Axakuxa Institute Yochien. Asa- 

kuxa. Tokyo, Mr. Su/.uka. 
Tennojl Yochien. ::-Ch..ine. Daido. 

Tennojl. Oxaka, Mixx Hose T. 

Arinl.ruster. 
Akita Yochien. Nakanak a Cho, 

Akita Shi. Mixx Jexxie M. Trout. 
Honjo Yochien. Hlwaxhl Ch... 

Honjo Mai-hi. Akita Ken. Mixx 

Jessie Axl.ury. 

M I DDLK SCIK >< iLS 
Selk akuin, Taklm.tfawa. Tokyo 

Mr. K. Ixhlkawa. 
Joxhl SelKaku!n. Nakazato. Ta - 

kln.-Kawa. Tokyo Ku. Mr. Y. 

Hint!. 



THK< 
,,|M-rat 



SCIH 



kui 



n-n. 



J...ihi S.-lKakiiiti Shin Cakko. Na- 
Kiizato <Mi... TaklnoKawa. To 
kyo Ku. Mr. Hlral. 

(Co-operate with Aoyama Cakuin 
for Women ). 






KNCLISH SCHOOLS 

Oxaka KIK Cakko. Salmon-! 
Tennojl. (ixaka. Mr. \V. 
Krxklne. (Chrlxty Institute). 
Oxaka Joxhl KIK-. Cakko. Salmon- 
nun-. Tennojl. Oxaka. Mr. \V. 
H. Krxklne. 

(Co-operate with Woman * 
Chrlxllan C.,||.- k -.-i 



.%5. I iilvcrHtillMt MlNHlon In .laptin. 

KINDKHC.AUTKNH 

Dai 1 Midori Yo< hicn. Tokyo Shi. 

Kolxhlkawa Ku. Takata Olma- 

txiirho No. 50. Mlxx Ituth Down- 

InK. 
Ohayo Yochien. Tokyo Shi. KoJI- 

inachl Ku. Il.la Ma. hi. 6- 

Chojne No. I l. Mlxx Huth 

I >o\vninK- 
Dai L Mi.l-.rl Y.nhlen. Tokyo Shi. 

Akasaka Ku. MltotxiiKl Cho fi.T. 

M. Ak-n.-s Hathaway. 
Dojin Yi> hien. Shlzuoka Shi. 1 

Mlziiochf Clio. 1-Chonie. Mrx. 

Clifford It. Stetxon. 
DoJIn Yochien. I O .if, Tennojl 

Machi. Suiiilyoxhi Ku. ( ixaka. 

Itev. Keljiro Mlzunuikai. 

5K. Moniiin N Inlon MlnHlonnry 
So-lety of \ni. ri..i 

MIDDI.K SCHOOl, 
Kyorit.su .Id C.akko, Yokohama 



Hluff, 



Clai 



W< >.M A N S THK< (LOGICAL 

scm >OL 

Kyorii.su .loxlil Slilniciikko. Yoko 
hama Shi. 212 Hluff. Mlxx Suxan 
A. Pratt. 

HO. YotNU.vii Mission. 

KINDKItCAKTKNS 
rxhiKome Yochien. n-Chome. 

ShimoKawa Cho. TxhlKome. 

Tokyo, 
rxhlk ome Y.xhlen. 10 Yocho 

Machl. I shiK ome. Tokyo. 
SetaK aya Yoclilen. V, , Talxhido. 

SetaKaya. Tokyo Ku. 
Mlkawaxhlma Yochien. Hnr, Ml- 

kawaxhlma. Tokyo. 

>. Fiiri l K n MlNNlonM of the 
l renli> terliin Clmrrli of F.tK- 
lunil. 

MIDDLK SCHOOLS 
Prexl.yt.-rlan Middle School. ( M ) . 

Iti-v. K. Hand. 
Prexl.yterlan Cirlx S, li,,,d. ( K). 

Tainan. Kormoxa. 



Mlxx J. <!alt. 

I lIKi !.< MJIC.M. SCIH M t. 
.--;,\ l.-ll-.ti TheoloKl.nl C..II--K- -. 
Tainan. Kormoxii. K-v. W. K 
MonlKiitucry. 

IUHI.K TltAININC SCIloiiI. 
ri nh x t i*r la n \\ otix*n x lilldi* In- 
xtltute. Tainan, l- orniona. Mlnw 
T. 1.1. .yd. 



( < ,. ( uiiiidian 
Hion. 



*r Hbvt rlun 



JAPAN 
MiH- 



KINDERGARTENS 

totei Yochien, Taihoku, For- 

a, Miss Ada Adams, 
ikah Yochien, Taihoku, For- 
cisa. Miss Ada Adams. 
>n Yorhien, Taihoku, Formosa, 
Miss Ada Adams. 

Shinchiku Yocliit-n, Shinchiku, 
Kormosa. Miss Ada Adams. 

MIDDLK SCHOOLS 
Tamsui Middle School. Tnnisui, 



I ^ormosa, Mr. George W. 
Mackay. 

C.irls Hitfh School. Tamsui, Kor- 
nu.sa. Miss M. Clazie. 

TH K( )!,()(; 1C AT, COT-L.KGK 
Theological College, Tamsui, For 
mosa, Rev. Hugh MacMillan. 

NORMAL TRAINING SCHOOLS 
Hihle Training School for Women, 

Tamsui, Formosa, Miss Alma 

Burdlck. 
Nurses Training School. Taihoku, 

Formosa, Dr. K. H. McClure. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF SOCIAL 
INSTITUTIONS 

This Preliminary List of institutions doing social work 
based on Christian principles makes no claim to be com 
plete. Moreover, in many instances it could not be 
brought up to date. 

The division into classes of social work is based upon 
that used in a fuller study made by a committee in 1U25 
for The Federated Missions. The Japan National Chris 
tian Council s Year Book supplied much of the material 
used. However, even this limited attempt would have 
been in vain except for the splendid co-operation of 
men and women who are striving for the uplift of social 
conditions in Japan. 

<.\. = AllreHN. H.= l>er*on In (barge, ( . = ( hur< h Attillutlon) 



Settlements 



I. .Hurl Kan. 

A. 47 Nlchome. Kamei.lo. 

Toky, Ku. 
H. Annie Allen. 
C. Japan MethoillHt Church. 

1. ubu V.M.C.A. 

A. Kamlile, Mli<lcra Shlta. 

<->tu. 

U. J. K. Knlpp. 
C. Japan Mlnnlon of the 

Church of the I nltei! 

Hrethr.-n In Chrlxt. 

:<. DoJIn n.. ;-. 
A. Tokyo. 
H. Mr. Yowhloka. 
C. I nlverHHllHt (ieneral Con- 
ventlon. 

4. h ukiigit\vu < hrUllan Center. 

A. : . Mlna.Mhl Dalku Ma. hi. 

KukaKawa Ku Tokyo 
H. William AxllnK. 
C. Nlhon Maputextito Kyokwal 

(Japan KaptlHt Church). 

. Inhll Klnen .\Uen-*n. 

A. Klta Nltto Cho. TennoJI 



;. KlrUuto Kyokul .\nukuiiu Kal- 
kun. 

A. 87 Tanaka Mtu-hl. AnakuMu 

Ku. Tokyo. 
H. Sholchi Tanaka 

"> Kobokiin. 

A. L lli.-, TeriiHhiiiia Much I. 

Tokyo Ku 
H. M|HH Yonhlml 

( M r. Howh-H). 
C. Klrlxutokyo KuJIn Ky.^fu- 

kai (W.C.T.T.). 

K - H>IIHI-| (.1111 Shiikal Shokuiiiln 



A. Yokokuwu Madil. Monjo 

Ku. Tokyo. 
H. C. Yainatnuro. 
c. Salvation Army. 

Mluym \ ucukko Settle- 
ntenl. 

A. N.n;.iUi Clio. MatNuyuiiui. 

II. Klyoo NlMhltnuru. 

C. Mhon Kuiiilul Klrlnuto 

Kyokal (Japan CoiiKreK"- 

Rational Church). 



C. NHion Kumlal Klrlnut 
Kyokwal (Japan CoiucreRa 
tional Church). 



A. liuiiNato Cho. HlRauhl Y..<| 

Kawu Ku. (miikii. 
H. Ann M. Klu.lt. 



360 



JAPAN 



C. Xihon Baputesuto Kyokai 
(Baptist Church). 

11. Nanno Kan. 

A. Bigashi Machi, Tottori. 

B. Patella Coe. 

C. N ihon Kumiai Kirisuto 
Kyokwai (Japan Congrega 
tional Church). 

12. NegiHhl Neighborhood Center. 

A. IOC Shimo Xegishi, Shitaya 

Ku, Tokyo. 
13. P. G. Price. 
C. N ihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 

(Japan Methodist Church). 

13. Nippori Alrin Dan. 

A. 1502 Kanasugi, N ippori 
Machi, Tokyo Fu. 

B. G. Bott. 

C. N ihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 
(Japan Methodist Cliurcli). 

14.~OkH.vunia Ilakual Kal. 

A. 8 of , i7 Hanabatake, Oka- 
yama. 

B. Alice P. Adams. 

C. N ihon Kumiai Kirisuto 
Kyokai (Japan Congrega 
tional Church). 

15. Kimpokan. 

A. Suna Machi, Minami Ka- 
tsushika Gun, Tokyo Fu. 

B. Sakuzo Yoshino. 

C. None (San-iku-kai). 



l(>. Shlkanjinm Settlement. 

A. 7 of 3 Shikanjima Odori. 
Konohana Ku, Osaka. 

B. Genjiro Yoshida (T. Ka- 
gawa). 

C. N ihon Kirisuto Kyokai 
(Presbyterian). 

17. Mn.lv o Seinen lankai. 

A. 23 of . ! Midori Cho Honjo 
Ku, Tokyo. 

B. Yoshitaka Ukazaki. 
C. 

18. Tokyo Misiiki Kaikwan. 

A. 4 of 1 Misaki Cho, Kanda 
Ku, Tokyo. 

B. Toda Fujii, (William Ax- 
ling). 

C. Xihon Haputesuto Kyokwai 
(Baptist Church). 

19. Tokyo Shinrin Kan (Neigh 

borhood Center). 

A. 10 Sakae Machi, Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. 

B. Somei I zawa. 

C. N ihon Kirisuto Kyokwai. 

-JO. Yo<l<ga\va /enrlnkan (Com 
munity Center). 

A. US Xakadori 2-Chome, Mon- 
jo Cho, Higashi Yodogawa 
Ku, Osaka. 

B. S. F. Moran. 

C. Xihon Kumiai Kirisuto 
Kyokwai (Japan Congrega 
tional Church). 



overly Relief 



1. Alrin Dan Relief Seetlon. 

A. 1502 Kanasugi, Nippori, 
Tokyo. 

B. Yoshio Kokita. 

C. N ihon Meaojisuto Kyokwai 
(Methodist Church). 

I. Alrin Sha. 

A. 4S Kitada Machi, Matsuye. 

B. Heiji Fukuda. 

C. Seiko Kai. 

3. Fuji Orphanag* <ld I ..Iks 
Dlvlalon. 

A. 4 Yodawara, Shimada 
Mura. Fuji Gun. Sbi/.uoka. 

B. Matsuko VVatanal.e. 

C. N ihon Kirisuto Kyokwai. 

t. Home for Aged Poor. 

A.:!0?, Koenji, Suginami, Toyo- 
tama Gun. Tokyo Fu. 



B. A. .1. Stirewalt. 

C. United Lutheran Church 

Mission. 

5. I \vate Yoro-ln. 

A. :;5 Harukiba, Kagano, 
Morioka. 

B. Yenbachi Kobara. 
C. 

(i. Ji-AI-Kn (Old FolkH Home and 
Keweue Home). 

A. Ken gen Mura, Kumamoto 
Ken. 

B. Maude Powlas. 

C. 1 nited Lutheran Church 

7. .Ii-KI-Kan (Self Help Center). 

A. Bozu Machi. Sendai Shi. 

B. Annie S. Buzzell. 

C. Xihon Baputesuto Kyokwai 
(Baptist Church). 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OK SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS . iGl 

H. Kobe Voro-In. l.y Commander K. C. H..tti 

A. lo L -Chome, Tsuyuno " { tl " Asakusa 1 1 ..:-i. . i ., I 

M;K hi. Kobe. - Kre, tlon <,( resident 

M. Sukewaki Nishimura. " < " r - superintendent * 

(\ lions- and prnvlHlun of 

motor ambulance (3) Flood 
9. M.I. IH-.M Asylum. 

A. 440 S. Mln.ata. Maebashl. Yokohama durln* Septum- 

H Kiiniii?,. Ti.n-il, """ l H) SI " M lal * ""! 

11. Kumazo Tanabe Christmas distribution and 

tuidnJKlit r.-ll-f at New 
Home for Women. 



H. "M. Kirkaldy. liotono Slim Ma< hi. 

C. Japan Ues.-u 



11. Rescue Home for Women. 

A dai K ta Y " " ln Chr> St n " " St " "" <l11 Vok " 

H. Mary Whlteman. A :l(;o Sanko Cho. Shirokane. 

C. Japan Kf.scue Mission. Shiha. 

H. Sister Superior Constance. 

12. Salvation Army Social Depart- < Sisters of the K|>lphany. 

in. in K. li. f Section. 

A. 5 Hitotsubashldorl. Kanda. r> - Sl - "" I" Voroln. 

Tokyo. A. L of til Hyudo Chu, Azabu. 

M. <:. Yamamuro. Tokyo. 

C. K<-lieC in I .IL H Included: M. Mi.shop lleaslett. 

(li Opening In November C. Seiko Kai. 



Prevention of Poverty 



1. Al Kin Kan l.o<l K liiK lloune M. Yoshlmichi Kida< hi (T. 

for Casual Lahore. KaRawa). 

A. 440 Mlmata. Maehashl < - 

Shi^ai. <; 11 ni in. i Ken. 

K. Kiiina/..! Tanahe. .*>. Dormitory for .Men. 

C. Mael.ashl Association for A . L , ( , : , Y amte Machl. Naka- 

MM Folks Home. ku y , lkl ,,,,. 

K. Kilchl Miy.usaki. 

2. Azuma ( Ommiiiilty (enter and c Yokoliama Y.M.C.A. 

Dormitory. 

A. :i>7 I keji. Azuma Cho. (!. Do>ukal. 

Mlnaml Katsushlka Cun. A ,7 Tanakasekl Tamachl. 

T<>k V"- Kamikyi.ku. Kyoto. 

It. <: K. Molt. H /.,-n-l. hi Mltaka. 

C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokwal r 

M. -Hi. -I, M Chill. l,i. 

7. I ni|d.,\ in. I l liil. Illi;. n. . Of 

: ( otiHiiltatlon In l.i u.il I rob- n, , 



leliiH. 



.( I Moral Cho, Yoko- 



A. Nlchome. Kdoliorl. Klta- hama. 

dorl. Nlshl Ku. Osaka. M \Vakn Nlnomly 

K. MlroHliI Matanaka. C \YCT1* 
C. .Nil,, ,11 Kumlal Kyokwal 

Japan C,,n>creKa t li.na 1 H ||| roM |,| mu Vun 

Home. 

I. Crellt Inlon I .^MI-IM,,, j, MrB Yokokawa 

A Matsukura-Cbo U-Chorne, naifii. 

llonjo. Tokyo. C. \V C.T.T. 



362 



JAPAN 



!i. Home for I nemployed and 19. 
Ex-con vlota. 

A. S J of :. Hayashi-Cho, Hon- 
j,, Ku. Tokyo. 

B. Y. Sugiura. 
C. Seiko Kai. 

20 
II). 1 1 on jo I .a (Hirer s Co-operative. 

A. Matsukura Cho, L -C home, 

Honjo. Tokyo. 
H. Yoshiniiclii Kidachi (T. 

Kagawa). 

11. Hoyo-ln (Railway Anylum). 

A. 145 Nishi Okubo, Okubo 

Machi, Tokyo Ku. 
H. Kamejiro Tsuda. 
C. Seiko Kai. 

12. Kobe \lrhi Kan < I loin.- for ;. . 

Ex-con vlctti). 

A. 97 Kusuya Machi, Hirano, 
Kobe. 

B. Senshiro Muraniat.su. 
C. 

23. 
i:{. K.ihe FuJIn Do jo Kai (Home 

for Women) 
A. -.HI Harada. Xada Ku, 

Kobe. 
H. Nobu Jo. 24. 

C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 

(Methodist Church). 

14. Kobe (.Iris Home. 

A. 74 of 7 Nakayaniate Dori, 
Kobe. 

B. T.suya Watanabe. .,. 

C. I nknown. 

15. Ko-hl Laborer H Home. 

A. 854 Shinyashiki. Odaka- 

xaka. Kochi. 
H. Tokuji Kawazoe. 
C. .Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai 

Hi. K CM III YOUIIK StudentH Home. 2f5. 
A. 7( 4 Kitaifawa Suji, Kochi. 
M. Mi.ss Sliiuia tnura. 
. W.C.T.r. 

17. Kyurel-Tal <SouI-Savlnjf ) Km- 

|ilo> mi-Ill llil.llii;, !!,.- <)lli<-e. > J7< 

A. f,4 Mchoine. Kusunoki Cho, 

Kobe. 

M. Mrs. Koko Kanek.i. 
C . Nihon Kyurei-Tai. 

1R. KyuHel <iun KoNaku Kan (Ke- -^8. 
lief for i:\-convletH). 

A. S7 AkaKi Shiino Cho. I stii- 

KOIIH- Ku. Tokyo. 
M. <:. Yaiuanmro. 
< . Salvation Army. 



Lodging House for Laborers. 

A. G4 Nichome, Kusunoki, 
Kobe. 

B. Kotaro Kaneko. 

C. Nihon Kyurei Tai. 

M.ii-u\ ania Do-jo-kan 

(Lodging House). 
A. 
B. 
C. 

Mikuwashlma Kmployment In 
telligence OthYe. 

A. L GS J Mikawashima Cho. 
Tokyo. 

B. G. Yamamuro. 

C. Salvation Army. 

Mlkawashima Lo<lgln K House. 

A. - G89 Mikawa.shima Cho, 
Tokyo. 

B. G. Yamamuro. 

C. Salvation Army. 

Mojl Tetsudo Selnenkal. 

A. Kiyotaki Cho, Moji. 

B. Etsujiro Goto. 

C. Railway Y.M.C.A. 

Nagoya Restaurant for the 
Poor. 

A. 

B. Rev. Nagano. 

C. rniver.salist General Con 
vention. 

Osaka. Labourers Co-operative. 

A. 3, 8-Chome, Shinkanjima, 
Osaka. 

B. Genjiro Yoshida (T. Ka 
gawa). 

C. Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai 
( Presbyterian ). 

Osaka Tetsudo Seinenkal. 

A. G5 Ushimaru Cho, Kitaku, 
Osaka. 

B. Seiichiro Horii. 

C. Railway Y.M.C.A. 

Osaka Woman s Home. 

A. G of G Nakanoshima, Kita 
ku, Osaka. 

B. rtako Hayasdii. 

C. W.C.T.f. 

Osaka Y.M.C.A. Kmployment 
Bureau. 

A. 1 L of 2 Tosabori Dori, Nishi 
Ku, Osaka. 

B. Junkichi Satomi. 

C. Y.M.C.A. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS :16, 1 

iti. (Mate Free l.odiclnic Houne. M. Kiku JuJI. 

A. (Mat.- Ma. -hi, Akita Cun. (> " """ l r Solderjt and Sail- 

Aklta. " r - s - 
I!. InoHuke Miyazaki. 

C. Japan Methodist Church W " k - vo **OfO Kal Protection 

of K\--OM\ l< (M and . hil.l r.-n. 

:>. ICel Mel Kyo Lodging IlouHe. A. ::<> Moto Yaniiiclwara Ma< hi 

A. Matsukura Cho, Me home. Kanda. Tokyo. 

MonJ... Tokyo. |{ Taneakl Hara. 

M. YoMhlmlchl Kldachl (T. * Japan C hrlnt Chun h. 

Kagawa). 

C. K>. Tokyo KeMcue Home. 

A. <- o :>, , Mir.,.. Ch... A/.ahu 

. { I . Sullorn and Soldlerx F nipluy- Kti. Tokyo. 

meiit Int. llii;.ri. . Office. M. Cunpei Yamamuro. 

A. 1 774 K. .(, ., Ma. hi. Yoko- r Salvation Army. 

xuka. Kana^awa Ken. 

H. Taketojthl NaKayama. Ml okvo Tetud< 

C. rnknown. Hotel. 

A. 17M Koshlini Tal.ai 

:{ i. Sallora Ixxlrlng and F.miiloy- kyo Fu 

ment Int. Hi-. ,,,. Office. 11. 

A. :tsr, Minatoyama Ma. hi. Kallway Y.M.C.A. 
Kobe. 

C. Seiko Kal. A. :t. r . Mlroo Cho 

:t:{. Sendal Free l.o.l K ini: HoUMe. | { M ; Yamaniu 

A. 44 Kita Ma. hil.an< ho, Sen- IV. la. 

lai. C. Salvation Army. 
H. Sakae rtJtuml. 

C. Mhon Klrisuto Kyokwal. :. Tokj o Uomen ii Home. 

::i. Sl.lbukawa (o-operatlve So- 

C \V. C.T.I . 






II. IralnliiK Srlmol of the ln<lu- 



:55. Shlzuoka Welfare Office 

(Shlzuoka .llnjl Solanjo). HonJo K"" T. k 

A. Mtowa Ma. hi. Shl/.uoka ,, v .Thlml.hi KUIachl (Toy... 

hlko Ka K awa). 

It. Juzo In... ,. 

C. Mlion MeHojlHUto Kyokwal 

I-. IsuUjl,,,.. Kinployilient In 
. ShLaoka Welfare Office. telllKen, e Office. 

A. Kan Z e,,ka,do-nai. Mane ( T.." 1 ^"" 

Ma. hi. Shlzuoka. ^yoi.niini. I 

M. Jundo Satake. 



. <?. Student*. II.Httel. TNiiklJIma I ...l k -ln: ll 
A. Nlchl-.lokii-kan. H9 Kami- A. . ..f S TiiuklJIin 

tomlzaka. KolHhlkawa. To- Ky..l.anhl. Tokyo. 

kyo. H. <;. Y.I ma inuro. 

H. Karl Weldlnfer. Salvation Army. 

< . A Ujfemflner KvanirellHfh- 

I rotfMtantlM. her MI.MH|..M- ! Yokohiiiiia lliiHliif-HN 

vereln. Uorniltory. 

::K. I , il-.,ku Kulxun <.unjin Home. 

A IT. Shim.. Yamale Ma. hi. I! Ml. hlko N..mura. 

Km.-. XlroMhlma K.-n C. Yokohama Y.W.I* A. 



364 



JAPAN 



IS. Yokohama Dormitory and 
KcMtauraiit for (.irl- 

A. 104 of (i Otamachi, Yoko- 

hama. 

I .. Michiko Nomura. 
C. Yokohama Y.VV.C.A. 

4!). Working: Men s Home. 

A. <; of 4 Urafune Machi, 

Nakaku. Yokohama. 
I?. (J. Yamamuro. 
V. Salvation Army. 

50. Welfare for Men Injured on 
Duty. 

A. (a) 20 of 1 Fujimi-Cho, 
Kojimarhi-Ku, Tokyo 
(S. rchida). 
(1>) 12 Sane-home, Kayaba- 



Cho, Honjo, Tokyo. (S. 
Uchida). 

(e) Ni.shi Yanagi-Mac-hi, 

Nishi Ku, Nagoya (Shi- 
geru Sasaki). 

(d) 65 Ushimaru-Cho. Kita- 
Ku. Osaka (Seiichiro 
Horii). 

(e) :!0 Shimo Tsuji-no-do 
Mac-hi, Hakata, Kuku- 
oka (T. Sasaki). 

(f) Kiyotaki Cho, Moji 
(Ktsujiro Goto). 

() Hiroshima (Tamiya 

Shibata). 
(h) 5-Chome, Kita Yon.io, 

Sapporo (Koshun Na- 

gayama). 

B. M. Masutomi. 

C. Railway Y.M.C.A. Nihon 
Kirisuto Kyo Kai. 



Medical Relief and Prevention of Sickness 



1. Airin Dan Dispensary. 

A. l. r >02 Kanasugi Cho, Nip- 

pori, Tokyo. 
H. George Hott. 
C. .Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 

(Methodist Church). 

2. .\HakiiNa Institute Dinpennary. 

A. Tanaka Machi, Asakusa 

Tokyo. 

H. Takeo Sato. 
C. Churches of Christ Mission 

in .Japan. 

::. The A kanaka Hospital. 

A. 17 Hikawa Cho, Akasaka. 



C. Friends Cliurch. 

I. Dendo (ilkul of ( lirintlanity 
Hospital. 

A. S IcliiK-aya Tani Machi. 

rshi^ome, Tokyo. 
H. Sotumura (liro. 
C. Kirisutokyo Dendo Gikai. 

5. DlMpennary of The Fukuiciiwii 

< lirisii.m (enter. 
A. 2; MiKashi Daiku Machi, 

l- ukagawa Ku, Tokyo. 
1. I san ni China, Toda l- ujii, 

(William Axling). 
C. Nihon Maputesuto Kyokvvai 
(Maptists Church). 



(I. DorcaH Club 

A. 11 Oura. Nagasaki. 



H. Marianna Young 1 . 
C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 
(Methodist Church). 

7. Free C hrlHtian DiHpensary. 

A. 8 Daimachi, Ic-higaya. 

Ushigome. Tokyo. 
H. Yoshiro Toyama. 
C. Private. 



8. Free Dispensary and Yl 

Nurse (! HII Dan Yuai Kyii- 
saijo). 

A. :: of 5 Azuma-Michi. Kobe. 
M. Dr. Yae Shiba (T. Ka- 

gawa). 
C. Nihon Kirisuto Kyokwai. 

9. Free Dl8|>ennar.v for the I oor 

(Mlion Kenko Kai). 

A. :!!* Tamachi, Tanakasoki, 

Kamikyo Ku, Kyoto. 
M. Itsuwo Ohashi. 
C. 

10. Free Dinpenfmry, Mi-.iUi Hall. 
A. Misaki Kaikan, Kanda. 

Tokyo. 

M. Supt.: William Axling. 
C. Nihon Flaputesuto Kyokwai 

(Baptist Church). 

11. Free DiHpeiiNary, St. Paul H 

(ilrU School. 

A. :;" Motomachi, Hakodate. 
B. 

C. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 

I. . I n K ii-, i in Dispensary. 21. .loNhl Kyolku-en. 

A. Tera - .Machi. Hitoyoshi- A. 7 Shun,, - Yamate 

Ma.hi. Takuina Curi K u - Kol.e. 

inainoto. M. 

H. C. Kman Catholic. 
C. Roman Catholic. 

22. Kobe (Inn, 

!. {. tiarden Home < For Tuberrn- A. Ninrata Clio. Kol.e. 

l.mlN). H. Yayeko Shil.a (T. Kajraw 

A. 11HO Oii/.a Ktfota. NoKiita ( - N l nn KiriMit,. Kyokwal. 
Ma.hl, Tokyo Ku. 

M. Minna Tapson. " :< - Koyama Fukunel II Hal I 

C. Seiko Kill. 1-ep.TN. 

A. li . Kujloka Mura. Sin 

It. ll.il.ii.ii in Dispensary. <Jiin. Sl.l/.uoka Ken. 
A. Yashiro-Miichi, Yashin.- 

Kumamoto. ( K " " ;tn Catholic-. 

21. Kumamoto Kalnhiin llopl 

for l.epern. 

). .. Iliikiijujl-kul Shlnr.vojo. A . K.m.kaml - Machi. Km, 

A. 7:> Sen-la^i-Cho. Konia- ,, /J^nTnah Ui-Mell. 

K. Kokichi linano. 

C. White Cross Society. o- Kyoto Health tenter. 

Hi. llakiijujl-kal Shlnr.vojo. 

A. 17 Naka Siiruwaku -Clio. 

Kan.lii. Tokyo. 

H. S. Nishi. 2fi. Kyoto Sanln. 

C. White Cross Society. A Naka Choja Machikiulo. 

Miiro-Machi-tlori. Kamlkyo- 

17. llukujujl-kal Shlnr.vojo. Ku. Kyoto. 

\ 11-7 Coten Machi Haku- " Hiichiro Salkl. 

san. Koishikawa. Tokyo. r Kirisuto Den.lo Tai. 

C Wliite Cro i ~ ~ l- llnor TH IHnpenMary. 

A. I;T of I Matsukura Clio. 
IK. li.iUu.injl kill Shlnryojo. 



A. 1" or 1 Ninhikl Cho, Kan- 






I". Tokyo. ( . ^ ^natlonal. 
H. Kikuma Muniii. 

C White Cross ., H N || lon M. T. I- (For Tubrr- 

. ul,.-i- 

l!l. HoHpltal for Leper* (Shlrltnu Tokyo Y.MCA Mltoshlro- 

liyoln Ih.ii .!. ,.,,,, Kan.la. 

A. I . . . Shlmo Me^uro. Me^ iir,. M. Masakane Kol.ji yashl. 

Ma.hi, Tokyo Ku. <-. 
It. Hl.letoyo Wa.lii. 

C 1 . Supported l.y Kox.ensha 21. Mlion St. 1 niil I ii/oku llakii- 

Sbn.liin Mojm. Ko/.-nsha- al ll>oln. ( DUpenmiry for 

Interdenominational Sod- the Poor). 

ety of Christian .Japanese A K , ,,,,(,. Si.rilK" ku -< Mi... 

and r.-relK-n mlnslonari-s K amla. Tokyo. 

\vhlch owns and operates | { 

the Ihal-en. ,- R,, m an Catholic. 

20. HoMpllal of Sacrt -So-ur. :;o. Olmachl Mrani h l)lp<-nur> . 

A. Kami Hayashl-Cho. Kuma- A. (Mma-ln. Kl.ara Cun. To- 

moto. kyo Kn 

P.. II. .-..I ll/,. Yoshlno. 

C. Koinan Catholic. C .None ( SH n -Iku -kal I 



366 



JAPAN 



. { 1 . Oku.vaiitii !> l)isp im;iry 
(Okii.vamu Ilukuuikal Scryo- 
in). 

A. 37 Hanabatake, Okayama. 4I - 

H. Alice P. Adams. 

C. Xihon Kumiai Kyo Kai. 

M. Okuura Mum Jlkel-in I>lHp>n- 
HHF.V. 

A. 1816 Okuurago, Minami 
Matsuura Gun, Nagasaki 
Ken. 42. 

H. Ichitaro Yamaguchi. 

C. Catholic. 

:?:{. Onil Sanitarium. 

A. -105 Gaza Kitanosho. I t.suro 

Mura. Gamo Gun, Shiga I.S. 

Ken. 

H. Ktsuzo Yoshida. 

C. Omi Mission. 

4. Open Air School for Weak 
Children. 

A. Kowacla Kaigan, Chigasaki 44. 

Machl, Kanagawa Ken. 
P.. Tomaru Hayashi. 
C. White Cross Society Inter- 

denomi national. 

:::.. Onaka Dental Clinic. ( 

A. Shikanjima Settlement. 

H. Genjiro Yoshida. 

C. Nihon Kirisuto Kyokai. 

<>. KakiiNci IIoHpital for l.t-pcr^. 
A. Akashi, Hyogo. 

H. .M. FukuHliima. lr 

C. None. 4 - 

37. Kimpokan DinpcnHary. 

A. Suna Machi. Minami Katsu- 

sliika Gun, Tokyo Ku. 
M. Sakuzo YoHhino. 
C. None (San-iku-kai). 

:<8. Salvation Army HoHpital for 
Tuberonlosla. 

A. rchimura. \Vadahori, Toyo- 

tama Gun, Tokyo l- u. 
M. G. Yaniamuro. 
C. Salvation Army. 

.::. Salvation Army AHakutm HOH- 4K. 
pltal. 

A. 1 Kita Misuji, Anakusa, 

Tokyo. 
H. G. Yaniamuro (Sanya Ma- 

tsuda). 
C. Salvation Army. 

ID. 

40. San-lku-kai Kinslij HoHpital. 
A. 17 <.f Yanagiwara Machi, 
Honjo Ku, Tokyo. 



M. Sakuzo Yoshino. 

C . None (San-iku-kai). 

Sanitarium for Prevention of 
TubcrculoHis. 

A. Inuhogiisaki, Choshi Machi, 

Chiba Ken. 
Ii. Kikutaro Matsuno. 
C. Supported by Hoon Kai 

(Gratitude Association). 

Seirei HnHnltal. 

A. 5 Gobancho. Naga-Maclii, 

Kanazawa, Ishikawa. 
B. 
C. Catholic. 

SeiNhin Aihhi Kai SfiNhin Iln 

A l)is|K-iis:ir\ . 

A. 10 Hotono Shin Maclii, 

Akita. 
B. 
C. Roman Catholic. 

Si-ishiii-in l)isp< nsar.\ . 

A. Kami Hayashi-Mach i, Ku- 

m a mo to. 

n. Shunzo Naraki. 
C. Roman Catholic. 

Shikanjima DlHpennary. 

A. 7 Sam-home. Shikanjima 
Odori, Konohanaku, Osaka. 

H. Genjiro Yoshida (Kagawa). 

C. Kagawa and Kagawa Co- 
operators. 

Sliionkai ( hlryojo (I)iHpcn- 

Hiiry). 
A. Shin Yashiki-Machi, Ku- 

mamoto. 

M. Reiju Fukuda. 
C. 

St. Harnahan HoNpltal 

(Woman N and Clill(lrrn 8 
Hnanltal). 

A. Kawaguchi-Cho, Nishiku, 
Osaka. 

P.. .1. K. Morris. 

C. Protestant Kpiscopal. 

St. MarnabaH HoHpital for 
Lepers. 

A. Kusatsu, Kusatsu Machi, 

Gumma Ken. 

M. Mary H. Cornwall-Legh. 
C. Seiko Kai. 

St. Lukc H International HOH- 
pitai DittpcnHary. 

A. Akashi Machi, Tsukiji, 
Kyobashl-Ku. Tokyo. 



A PRKLIMINAKY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS M? 

M. iC. M. Nun... Mi.sprn.sary ) NakasaruKaku-Cho. Kamla. 

U. B. Tou.sler. Tokyo). 

C. SHko Kai. M. H. .1. Perkins. S.M n-tary 

Treasurer. 

50. Kduration Hall !> I>!H- c s.v.-mh May A.I v.-nt IMS. 

penury. 



A. Sos Kinokunl-Cho, HIKI 



.M. Tlllx-rcilloNlN K.-li. f Society 



shi-Ku, Osaka. (ll "" n KlllK 

H A. L fi KuMUinl ( ho. A/.al.ii. 

(\ Tokyo. 

II. Klkutaro Matsuno. 

51. Su7.uran-Kn for Lepcrn. (. . Any ChriMian cliKlMc for 

A. TaklJiriKahara, Kunatsu. in-nio.r.ship. 

M i-olyrMikanU^Vonn^ 1 ;: 55. U .C T.I K.H-hl S,,.hu. (Free 



C No Chur.h Amiiation. 



"" " " tr.-alm.-nt ) . 



A. 7 i4 Kltakawa Suji. Ko, h|. 
:.. . Talro-ln llonpltal for I.epern. n. Ikuri Sunakawa. 

A. Shiinazaki-Ma. 111. Kunia- <*. W.C.T.T. 

H " 5i. (Not Yet N.IHM.I Hospital 

C. Roman Catholi.-. tttr l.cper*. 

A. ."UK! Kaml-Haruyoshl. Ku- 
5:. Tokyo Sanitarium HoMpltal. kuoka. 

\ M.-x , Yo.lol.ashi P.O.. M. .1. Cowl. 

Tokyo Ku. (Mran.h: 17 C. Churrh of Knk lan.l. 

Welfare for Children 



1. 


Al-no-Iyr. 

A. . >1K Clio/aik-ahara. Takino- 
K awa. Tokyo Ku. 


M. Kaiuro Iwol.ara. 
C. Nlhon Kiimial Kyokwa 
( .1 a p a n CunKreRHtlonii 
Chur. h I 






M. Yacko Kcliiurlyaiua. 








( - 


. ANen-ryo Orphanage. 




4 


Alrln-Sha Creche. 


A. 7J SastiRaya-Cho. Koi.nlil 
kawa-Ku. Tokyo. 






A. 4* Kita.la Ma. hi. Matwiiye 


M. Susan MatiernfHml. 






City. 


C. Nihon Kukuln Kyokwa 






M. M.-IJI Kuku.la. 


( .1 a p a n Kvanjcell, H 






C. Seiko Kai. 


Church). 




:t. 


Al Sel Sail-In. 


7. \lrln M.in Slioffitkko. 






A. . ,"S4 ol-Mai-hi. Kl.ara Cun. 


A. I! .: KanamiKl < "-. Nip 






Tokyo. 


p.-rl. Tokyo. 






M. Sa.la Ono.l.-ra. 


|{. C, M..tl. 






C. Nlhon Kuinlai Kyokwai 


C. Nlhon MenoJIsulo (.lap* 







(Japan Conxn-Ka t ional 


M.-tho.llst . 






Chun h >. 










K. AUen TaknJI-Sho (Nur-r. 




4. 


Al Urn Creche. 


A. Klta Nltto-Cho. TonnoJI 






A. Klta Mtto-Cho, T.nnoji 


Ku. Osaka. 






Ku. Osaka. 


M. Klko Totnlta. 






M. Klk (> Tomlta. 


C. Nlln.n Kuinlai Kyokwit 






C. Nlhon Kuinlai Kyokwai 


( .1 n p it n ConKre K atl..na 






Chun hi. 







U. Alrattu TakuJI-i-n ( Nur-r) ) . 
5. \i-.-i. Jlnjo Slioirakko (I rl- A :!IS K N-Kli<hl. Yokolianm. 

mary Srliool for th l o<ir). M \v M ku Nlnoiiilyn. 

A. Klta NilI..-Cho. T-nnoJI- C. Nlhon M^noJInuto Kyokwai 

Ku. Osaka. (Mi-thoilim t hurch). 



3G8 JAPAN 

10. Anahigawu Aljl-en (\urnery). M. Yuka NOKU< hi. 

A. Jchi.lo 5 Chome. Asahi- c - 

B * 20. Futaha Hoiknen Bun-en. 

c A. Asaki-Machi, Yotsuya Ku, 

Tokyo. 

11. AnakiiNa Kaikan Creche. M. Yuka Nopuchi. 
A. S7 Tanaka Machi, Asakusa, 

B. ShoiViu Su/.uki. - TrappiHtM Fii/.oku (iaku-en 

C. Kirisuto Kyokwai. (Orphanage). 

A. Hokkaido. 

12. Bethany Home for Widow* B. Furie Okada. 

with Children. C. Trappists. 

A. :!<! of :! Yanagihara Machi, 

Honjo Tokyo. * tiarrten of Light Creche. 

B. A. .1. Stirewalt. A. 85 of U, Matsukura Clio, 

C. Nihon Kuteru Kyokwai Honjo Ku. Tokyo. 
(Japan Lutheran Church). B. Yoshimichi Kidachi (T. 

Kagawa ). 
in. Chlha Orphanage. C. 

A. 11. ) Tateyama-Machi, Awa- 

(Jim. Chiba-Ken. * <ilf " Kummoln. 

B. Shikataro Koda. A. I megae Cho, Oifu. 

C. Nihon Seiko Kai. B. Keijiro Kosakai. 

C. The Miss. Soc. <,f The 
II. ChiiHii-hara Orphanage. Church of England in 

A. H(,kita, Kami Hokita Canada). 

Mura, Koyu Gun, Miyax.aki ^ 1Illkmllllf . school for Deaf and 

H Blind. 

C. Nihon Kumiai Kyokwai A. 87 Moto Machi. Hakodate, 

( J a p a n Congregational Hokkaido. 

Church). B. Masajiro Sato. 

C. 
15. Colouration Hall Crcclic. 

v .,- Hir c , .. . ... 25. Hakodate School for Deaf and 

k yo. lllin - 

B. ( ,. Yamamuro. A. Shiomi Machi, Hakodate. 

C. Salvation Army. Hokkaido. 

B. 

Mi. Dalrl Nunnery. ( Oi>ened by Mrs. Charlotte 

A. : Shirokane-Mac-hl. Dalri. Draper. 

B T^ ishlpuro 1 1 K<>n " ku Yu - n (NurHery). 

C. I>airi S Iesu r Kv,,kai A- Baptist Church. Hiroshima. 

B. F. J. K. Kay. 

17. Education Hall for (.iris. ( - Nihon Baputesuto Kyokwai 

A. Shi.no Yamate Dori, Kobe. (Ji " :in Ha " tiSt Churt>h > 

B. Society of Holy Cliild. .,- | I]|nl ,i Funhoku Kai (Nnrnery 
l-ran<e, Antonin. , |.;,| IH .atlon of the Poor). 

C U " m:in ( ilt "" li "- A . 2 , n Hayashl Tera Machi. 



IK. lukagaxva Kaikan < r.-. I,, . 



HiKashi Nariku. Osaka. 
B. Matsutaru Fujimoto. 

A. I , Higaslii Daiku-.Machi. ( , 
I MikaKawa Ku, Tokyo. 

B. William Axline. ., 8 n a kual Shu (Home for Chll- 
Slhon Bapute.suto Kyokwai ,| r ,. n an< | \Velfnre Work for 
(Japan Baptist Church). Women). 

. - ... A - ;.:a,7w to Ku a o h K": ga "" 

A. Moto-Machi, Yotsuya Ku. B. Jitsunosuke Kohashi. 

Tokyo. C, n* ; ,ka Seiko Kai. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 369 



, . II 1 1. M. 1 1 Sha (N umrr.v anil 

NU-lii School). 
A. .17. Imasato M;.. In. Hlg-ashl 

YodoKawa Ku. (isak.i. 
H. Jltsunosuke Kohanhi. 
r <)8uka Seiko Kal. 

:io. ii.ikii-.. i M 

(Orphanage, rrwlie). 
A. fi Hlganhl Sanjo. Oblhln. 
Mac-Ill. Tokachl. Hokkaido. 
H. SlilnHaku Nakamura. 
C. 

:1. Horn*- School (Reformatory 
Hrhnol). 

A. 2il7 NlBhi Sufcatno. Klta 
ToHhlma Gun, Tokyo Ku. 

H. Ko8uke Tomeoka. 

C. Nlhon Kumlal Kyokal 
(Japan Congregational 
Church). 

.I , llonito < oiii; r i;.il inii.i I Church 

Creche. 

A. L Yuni Cho. 1-Chome. 

Honifo. Tokyo. 
H. Suyohlko Nojfurhi. 
C. Nlhon Kunilat Kyokwal 

(Japan ConKrcKational 

Churrh ). 

. (:{. llyticii l\ H IN MM, I ii . -, IH...I for 

Hi.- Hlln<l). 
A. .in? Kami Heppu. Mlya- 

zakl Sin. 

H. Konjl Seklinoto. 
C. 

34. lin ill iru ( r-i In-. 

A. 45 TalHho-tlorl. Inialiaru 

Shi. Khirue K-n. 
H. Chlka Yanul. 
C. NMlu.n Kunilal Kyokwal 

( J a pan ConKr-Kt lonal 

Church). 

:.%. Ixv il. Yolku-ln I lr|,li in IK- 

A. 200 Kaga Chit. Morloka. 

H. Oenhachl Kohara. 

C. Nlhon KlrlHUto Kyokwal. 

.Iff. .li.i .m K-N-II- Mlimlnn IkiiJIhu 

( Ml.lr. ii H II, ,in. 

A. Toinlxawa, Nlnhltaka Muni, 

Natorl (Sun. 
M. H<*f>Mle lintl.-i. 
C. Japan HrH<-ue Mlflfilon. 

:(?*. Japan St. I aul Hrlrt> <>r- 



C. Roman Catholic. 
:;H. .iiui ( x-ciif. 

A. KenKun Mum. Hotaku Gun, 

Kumamoto. 
M. Mau.lc 1 owlan. 
C. Nlhon Huteru Kyokal 

(Japan Lutheran Church). 

:<U. .Hal OrphanaK<*. 

A. K-nKun Mura. Hotaku Gun. 
Kumamoto. 

M. M.iii.l.- PowlaH. 
C. Nlhon Kiit.-ru Kyokwal 
(.hi pan Lutheran Churrh). 

40. .(..in.. K..JI in (Orphanaicr). 
A. 149 Iwagaml Cho. Mae- 

hanhl, Ciumma Ken. 
H. Naoo Kaneko. 
C. Nlhon Kumlal Kyokul 

(Japan ConKreKHtlonal 

Churdi ). 

II. KMmukiira llolkuen (Protec 
tion of ( nll.lrrn). 

A. r,07 Dal Ma. -hi. Kamakura. 

KanaKawa Ken. 
H. (ItoJIro Satake. 
C. Nlhon Menojlnuto Kyokal 

< Metho<!lxt Church). 

I . K in ./.nv.i lUuJI . ii (Home for 

( hll.lren). 
A. 1 7. Kami Takanho Ma<hl. 

Kanazawn Shi. 
U. H. W. M< -William*. 
C. Nlhon McHoJIiiuto Kyokal 
(MethoillHt Church). 



A. 8 Omote Sar 
Kunda. Tokyo. 



4:i. Kanmc-Mura N 

A. Kaniiit Mura. Kume (;un, 

(ikayama Ken. 
II. 
C. 

II Katel-t.itkko (Mranrh of llonir 

School). 
A. Chl?anakl Machl. K>ZH 

(un. Kanaicawa Ken. 
H Konuke Tomeoka. 
C. Nlhon Ku filial Kyokal 
( J a p a n Conicreirat lonn) 
Church >. 

I.-V. Katrl (iakko Sunahu< hi Hunk 

i U.-foriiinli.r\ i . 
A. Sunalitu hi. Mombctnu Gun. 

Hokkaido. 

H. Kouke Tomeoku. 
C. Nlhon Kumlal Kyokul 

(Japan Conicreja tlonal 

Church). 



370 



JAPAN 



;. Klbo Kan (Home for M.-lin 
quents). 

A. 1G of 1 Kit;i Senba Clio. 

Minato Ku. Osaka. 
II. Gumpei Yamamuro. 
C. Salvation Army. 

47. KikubiiHhi Day Nursery. 

A. 3G of 3 Yanagihara Machi, 

Honjo. Tokyo. 
H. A. J. Stirewalt. 
C. N ihon Kuteru Kyokai 

(Japan Lutheran Church). 

48. l\i> o/.iiini C reche. 

A. Baron Iwasaki s Mansion, 
Isezaki Cho, Fukagawa, 
Tokyo. 

H. Kinuko Sekiya. 

C. 

40. Knb<> Kii.il- In (Orphanage) . 

A. Yashiki 4, Hangai, 7 

Chome, Naka Yamate- 

I>ori, Kobe. 
H. Hatsu Yano. 
C. Ninon Kuniiai Kyokai 

(.Japan Congrega tional 

Church). 

50. Kobokan. 

. A. L 195 Aza Fukaseiru. Tera- 

Jima Machi, Tokyo Fu. 
H. Mrs. (1. Howies. 
C. W.C.T.U. 

51. Ko.-lil .loirakknl (Religious 

Education for Orphans and 
Poor Girls). 

A. ISO Takajo Machi, Kochi. 

H. Annie Dovvd. 

C. Ninon Kirisuto Kyokai. 

52. Kulcinir.-i Orplin nai;i-. 

A. Arikawa Mura. Minatni 
Mata.Mura (.Jun, Napra.saki 
Ken. 

M. Yae O.saki. 

C. Konuin Catholic. 

53. l\ u iismii ( >r|ilin iiau* . 

A. 96 KuHhiinaRo. Oinura, Na 
gasaki. 

M. Mariana Yoiinp. 

C, Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokai 
(Metliodist Church). 

54. Kyofukal Tokyo FuJIn Home. 

A. 35C, Hiyaku-nin-eho, Okubo, 

Tokyo Ku. 
F<. Ax.uina Moriya. 
C. W.C.T.U. 



Kyoto .liiln \lui Kai ( Nur- 
sery). 

A. 5 Shimo Yanagi Marhi, 
Tanaka, Kamikyo Ku, 
Kyoto. 

H. Koji Tsujihara. 

C. 

Kyureltai Kobe JitauK.vo Cia- 
kuin (Keformatory for 

Children). 

A. Hirano, Kobe. 
H. Kotaro Kaneko. 
C. Nihon Kyureitai. 

Maria Juku. 

A. 19, Dal Machi, Sekiguchi, 

Koishikawa, Tokyo. 
B. 
C. Roman Catholic. 

MatHiie Ikujl-in (Home and 
School for Poor Children) . 

A. 4S Kita Tamachi, Matsue, 

Shimane Ken. 
1?. Heiii Fukuda. 
C. Seiko Kai. 

Mi-iriiro Hoikiien. 
A. 4i;n Shimo Meguro, Meguro 

Machi. Tokyo Fu. 
H. C. P. Garman. 
C. Nihon Kurlsuchiyan. 

Miikojlma Nursery-. 

A. rilO Sumida Machi, Tokyo 

Fu. 

II. Gertrud Kuecklich. 
C. Nihon Fukuin Kyokai 

( J a p a n Evangelical 

Church). 

NaKasaka Home. 

A. Xagasaka Cho. Azabu 

Ku, Tokyo. 
H. Sybil Courtice. 
C . Nihon MesojLsuto Kyokai 

(Methodist Church). 

Nakamiira Alji-en (Love of 
Children Creehe). 

A. U 90 Nakamura Cho, Yoko 
hama. 

H. Waka Ninomiya. 

C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokai 
(Methodist Church). 

Nazareth Orphanage. 

A. Yashiro Machi, Yashiro 

Gun, Kumainoto. 
B. 
C. 



A PKKLIMINAKY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS .Ml 



i.l. Miipoii Ikuji in .11, .in. for 
Children). 

A. TIM of 1 Oaza NiHhi-kano. 

K.iiiu Mai-lii. Inalia Cun. 
Glfu K-ti. 
H. Kiko iK al.ishi. 

C. 

65. Nippon St. I uul M Girl School 
Orphanage. 

A. 1 Ka.HUiul Cho. Azahu, To 
kyo. 
H. 
C. 

Mi. Nurftcry School. 

A. Nakainura Clio. Yokohama. 
H. < liv*> I. Motives. 
C. Nlhon Mifu Kyokal (Moth 
odlHt 1 rotontant Church). 

67. OJi < r. , I,,- of (.l.i.l Tiding**. 
A. Tl. i Kn.-ki Cho, < Hi. Tokyo 

Ku. 

H. C. P. C.iirman. 
C. Nihon Kurl.suchian Kyokai. 

H. Ilk. M III,. I ll.lkll.lik.li I I- ML II 

Ijiry School. 

A. 117 Ha na!,a t a kf, iikayama. 

M. A. I . Atlains. 

C. Nlhon Kumiai Kyokal 

( .1 a p a n ConKrcffutlonal 

Church . 

B. nku.ir.i M.ir.i .lik- I In (Or 
phanage, ci.i. 
A. 1K10 MktlUraRo. Min:iinl 

MatHuura Gun. NagaaakL 

H. I. hitaro YaniaKU-lil. 
C. Human Catholic. 

70. Oral School for 111.- D.-.if In 

.lupan < Mppiin KO-UII ..ik 
ko). 

A. 40X Klta/awa. Tokyo. 
M. Kyuma Murakami. 
C. N on -tic nominal Ion a I. 

71. ii- ,1 i BO.VM 1 1,, in, IMI...I. in 
A. I/.UM Cho. Klta Ku. (inaka. 
H. C. Yumamiiro. 

C. Salvation Army. 

7i. ONtikn .irU 1 1,, i,,. (Klhokan). 
A. L Natla Mat hi. Kltaku. 

I isak.t 

M. Cuniix-i Yamamiiro. 
C. Salvation Army. 

73. I M.l I- I ,1-HI, I, \,M-. r. 

A. IpponyanaKi. aza Kuua- 



naka. otato Ma, hi. K<,- 
Dklta Cun. Aklta Ken. 

M. Istik- Mlyazakl. 

C. Nihon .\:-Mtijlnuto Kyokal. 

74. K.. m. in < .itholi. SrlKHil fur 

Ulrli. 

A. ^1 , Shlmo Maruya Matlil. 
Sanjo Nol.oru. Mawara 
Machl Dorl. Kyoto. 

H. 

C. Roman Catholic. 

7.1. San-lku-kul C rcrln-. 

A. fi-morl Cho. YanaKinhima. 

Honjo. Tokyo. 
11. Saku/o Yowlilno. 
C. San-iku-kai. 

7K. Sun-lku-kul Ilonjo Sanln (for 
lo.ii -rmi \ rutWM or orpliann). 
A. :,:. rmi-morl Ma. hi. Yana- 
BlHhlma, Honjo Ku. Tokyo. 
H. Saku/.o YoHhlno. 
C. Nt-nc. 

77. SapiM.ro lUujI .-n (Orplmnimr. 

t rerhe). 

A. 1 - of 1 Minami .lujo Nilii. 

Sai-poro. 

H. TatHiijiro Kuruya. 
C. 

78. S Uhln--n NurM-ry. 

A. U . T.-ra M.i.lii. Akila Shi. 

H. 

C. Roman Catholic. 

70. Sclnhln-rn Numcry. 

A. in. Shin Ma. hi. ll-"l"no. 

Akita Shi. 
H. 
C. Roman Catholic. 

HO. Srndal < hrUllan OrphnnK<*. 

A. li.n Klla Y-.l-an, ho. S-n-lai. 

MlyaKl Km. 
M. K,.ya Kit an... 
c. ln(Ti1rnoniln(lonal. 

HI. S-nJu ( ri--lir. 

^ i:"i of . r . Mlnaml Smjii 

M .I. hi. Tokyo 
II Shlntaro YnmiKU< hi. 
<. Nil.on S.-ikokai. 

Hi. HhlmiiBMkl Onihanair. 

A. Shlma/akl Ma, hi. Kum 

moto. 

H. IV M i oloml.o. 
C Roman Catholic. 



372 



JAPAN 



83. Shin Al llolku-en (Nursery)- 

A. Saiin Clio, Higure Nishi 
Iru Agaru, Maruta Clio 
Dorl. Kyoto. 

H. Makiko Sonobe. 

C. Seiko Kai. 

81. Sliiriikawu Gaku-en (Educa 
tion of Weak- Minded). 

A. Kita Takagamine, Atago 

Gun, Kyoto Fu. 
H. Uyokichi Wakita. 
C. 

85. ShlrltHii IliroHaki Tukujl-en 

(Nursery). 

A. Oaza. Shashosho Marhi. 

Hirosaki. 

J{. Motojiro Vamaga. 
C. NMhon Meso.lisuto Kyokai 

(Methodist Church). 

86. Shlrokane TakuJlHho 

(Nursery). 

A. 11 Shirokanp Machi, Kana- 

zawa Shi. 

H. Teiichi Matsuoka. 
C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokai 

(Methodist Church). 

87. Shl/iioUn Home (Orphanage 

and Nursery). 

A. 18P, Iniiya Machi, Shizuoka. 
H. (I.. S. All>ripht) Ishimaru. 
C. Nihon Meaojisuto Kyokai 
(.Methodist Church). 

88. Shlziioka Nurnery Srh<H>l. 

A. 18,-i Iniiya Machi. Shizuoka. 
M. I,. S. Albright. 
C. Nllion Mosujisuto Kyokai 
(Methodist Church). 

Hit. St. Hilda Yoko Home (for 
rlrlH and Children) . 

A. . ir,0 Sanko Clio, Shiba To 
kyo. 

I?. Kdith Constance, Sister 
Superior. 

C. Sisters of thi> Kpiphany. 

JM>. St. .lohn H frerhe. 

A. f,l Saikeiya Machi, Ten- 

noji, Osaka. 
M. Teljiro Yanapiwara. 
C. Seikr, Kai. 

91. Sumlre ,lo <iakuln (C rerhe 
and Orphunajr* 1 ) . 

A. Koenji. Surinam! Maclii. 

Tokyo Ku. 
H. .Junhe Hussion. 
C. Uonmn Catholic. 

V t. Takajo .Marhl ( r, , b. . 

A. Takajo Machi. Hiroshima. 

B. J. H. Cobb. 



C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokai 
(Methodist Church). 

:. Takinopawa .:ikin n (Training 
of Feeble-minded). 

A. IL t; Owaza Sugaino. Nishi 

Sugamo Machi. 
H. Kiichi Sliibuzawa. 
C. Nihon Seiko Kai. 

!>4. Tarnba Orphanage. 

A. Mizunomi. Sannomiya Mura, 

Funai (lun, Taniba. 
li. Koji Tsujihara. 
C. None. 

95. Ten-will En (Angel (iarlen). 

A. Minami Shin Tsuboi Clio, 

Kumamoto. 
H. P. M. Hortia. 
C. Roman Catholic. 

!). Tokyo Doal Moa Ciukko 

(Scluxd for the Hlindt. 
A. L HOO Aza Tani Cho. Nakano 

Machi, Tokyo Fu. 
M. J. C. A \vnian. 
C. Nihon Mifu Kyokai (Meth 
odist Protestant Church). 

J)7. Tokyo Ikurel-en (Orphanage). 

A. 754 Kamiuma, Komazawa 

Machi, Tokyo Fu. 
H. Hatsu Kitazawa. 
C. Nicolaido. 

J)8. Tottorl KenrltHti Shotoku (iak- 
ko (Reformatory). 

A. Fukuyone Mura, Saeki 
C,un, Tottori Ken. 

B. Toshio Sato. 



09. t ragaml Yolku-en 
(Orphanage). 

A. ,-ir.S of 2 Motohara Machi, 

Nagasaki. 
M. Maki Iwanaga. 
C. 

100. Yokohama Kummo-ln (Selmol 

for the Blind). 

A. .".414 Negishi Machi, Yoko 
hama. 

H. G. F. Draper. 

C. Nihon Mesojisuto Kyokai 
(Methodist Church). 

101. Yonen Hogokai KoHiige Kate! 

(iakuen (Reform Sehool for 
Girla). 

A. IL S.T Minami Ayase Mura, 
Minami Katsushika Gun, 
Tokyo Fu. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS :\T.\ 

H. ShlroHuke Arlina. H. Shin.Huke Arlma 

C. Nihon Kumlal Ky,kal c. xn,,n Kumlni Kyi.kai 

(Japan Congregational (.Japan I onKreicailonul 

Church). CJiurrh). 

lO i. Yonen llotrokal Yokohunni !(:<. Vurln Yen Cre he. 

Katel < ikl, ii. n !{i lnrm.i 

tor, School for (ilrln). A " ^Sj^JJ 1 Y "" l "- 

A. ;:m Minenka Mac hi. Ho- H. 

dutcaya, YukoliHina. C. 

Social Study and Survey Groups 

. = OI>je<-tlv<*H). 

A " KI K > """- organization of oommlttee, 

A. 777 Shlnden, Sukarno Machi, ( ) l>y puldi. at lm of Ka- 

Tokyo Ku. Ifawa .s book* <<|) , y ,, r ,,. 

Ii. Shozo Aokl. motion ,,r odal Ht u.ly 

C. (Objective*:) To stu.ly al- -laneM. 
roliolir ].i.,|.l.-iu>. 

. K<l>- .\HMOcllltioil of -,. Inl 

2. ( . nir;il .\HM(M-latlon for th* Hfform ,,r the ( lirUilmi 

\\-lfuri- of ti- lillnd. MiiiM-h. 

A. <;-n*ral Kedcratlon of So- A t; Slilnio Yauiatf D.rl. 

. lal work. Ilureau of So- Kobe (Y.M.C.A.). 

cial AffairH HulMinjc. Ote H - SenMhlr.i MuratnatMu. Uyuzo 

Ma. -hi, Tokyo. tkumura. 

n. Taken IwahiiMhl and (Jene- ( - 1 " unify nodal workn liy 

vi-ve Caultlcld. Honorary ntuily and recreation. 

C. (a (Welfare of the Ullnd. 7 Kyofukul or \V.< .T.r. 

(I.) I reventlonH of blind- A. :u;o Okubo. Illyakunln 

neH. Ch... Tokyo Ku. 

H. .\!rn. Clilyo Kozakl. 

. {. ( lirUii.in I \i. n, I, ,n In (ireater C. Temperance. Moral I urlty. 

Tokyo. Worlil Peace. Woinan H Suf- 

A. 2>> \lnhl Konya Cho, Kyo- fraRe In Japan. 

l.anhl Ku. T.,kyo. 

H. Seluiel YoHhloka. H. American National Council of 

C. To Intermlfy and exten.! tie Y.M.C.A. 

CMirlHtian life In (Jreat To- .\ . 10 (Miiote SariiKaku < h<.. 

kyo. Kanda. Tokyo. 

n. <;. s. iMieipH. 

4. Committee for the ln\. silv;.i <_ . A HO. lal Mervl.e proffriiiti 
tlon of Opium Tratllc. expreMMlnif ItHelf In employ- 
A. c o iJentaro Maruyama. 77 m-nt buieau. lejfal advice, 
Yamabukl C ho. I MhlKoine b .,> .lul.M. nlRh t -. Jiooln 
Ku. Tokyo. for under prlvlleKed boy*. 
H. TorlJI Klkuchl. Secretary. d lnpi>niiarl<>H. Sunday- 
C. To Htudy Hltuatlon of *. h. ..,!-. h.>tel H . IH.I.-IM for 
(>l>!um Traffic and dlMHeinl. trannlunt younK men. In 
nate lnfi>rinatlon. t.-rnat lonal travel Hervlcp. 

and preparation nchooln 

ft. K a r a \v a ( ,, - operatorn In for i-tnlKrantH. 

Japan. 

A. 01 I>enmia Cho 1 -Choiue. B. Mhon Kokumln Klnhu I>- 

VotMuya. Tokyo. ni. I (National Trmperanrr 

H. Helen K. TopplnR. Kxei u- l.-aue). 

tlve. A. l Minote SaruK iku Clio. 
C. To free J)r. Kaicawu for Kandu. Tokyo, 
full r.-l.-iit.,- of vlidon (a) H Hainpel NaKao. 
1-y rKular financial sup- C. K.-ta l,linli m.-ni of Temper- 
port of nettleiuentN. ( I, ) by an e. 



374 



JAPAN 



10. National Y.M.C.A. 

A. 10 Omote Sarugaku Cho, 
Kanda, Tokyo. 

H. Koken Kakehi. 

C. Promotion an.l establish 
ment of social work. 

11. National Y.W.C.A. 

A. 10 Omote Sarugaku Cho. 
Kanda, Tokyo. 

H Kotoko Yamamoto. 

C. Promotion and establish 
ment of social work. 

12. Xihon ItaptlHt Kyokni Social 

Department. 

A. 4 of 1 Misaki Cho, Kanda, 

Tokyo. 
J*. Toota Fujii, Department , 8 

Chairman. 
C. Study and report of social 

work. 

IS. Ohara Shakal Momlal Kenkyu 
jo (Ohara Research Bu 
reau). 

A. Heijin Machi, Tennoji Ku, 

Osaka. 

H. Iwasahuro Takano. 19. 

C. (a) Study all social prob 
lems. 

(h) Collect information and 
report it through its 
Quarterly and Pamph 
lets. 

14. Opium CommlHHlon of Japan. %>(> 

A. i-o Pentaro Maruyama, 77 

Yamabuki Clm, t shigome, 

Tokyo. 

H. Toriji Kikuchi. Secretary. 
C. To investigate and study 

problems connected with 

( )pium. 

15. Organl/ation for Promotion of 

Oral McthodH in Teaching 
Deaf. 

A. 
B. 

C. (a) To establish best 

methods of teaching 
tlie deaf to beet. mo 
useful citizens, 
(h) To find suitable em 
ployment f" r those 
finishing study courses. >!. 

IK. OHaka liristian Social Work 
ers Association. 

A. Y.M.C.A.. Tosabori, Nishi 

Ku. Osaka. 
U. Shokichi Tomita, T. Hachi- 

hama. 



C. To encourage faitli and 
deepen the spirit of bro 
therhood among members. 
For its scientific study of 
social problems it meets 
with Osaka Fu Social 
Workers Federation and 
Osaka Private Social Work 
ers Groups. 

Social Department of the 
Nihuii Kuiniai Kyokai. 

A. 1 of 1 Tosabori, N ishi Ku, 
Osaka, Daido-Building. 

11. Yotaro Serino. 

C. Study and survey of social 
problems. Education of 
members in social welfare. 

Social Department of Xihon 
Mesojlsuto Kyokai. 

A. IOC, Shimo-Negishi, Shitaya, 
Tokyo. 

H. P. G. Price. 

C. Study and Promotion of 
social movements with spe 
cial concentration on the 
I urity Movement. 

Social Section of Salvation 
Army. 

A. .", Hitotsubashidori, Kanda, 

Tokyo. 

H. E. 1. Pugmire. 
C. Study, Survey, Relief, and 

Education. 

Social Welfare CommisHion of 
the Kingdom of <-od Cam 
paign. 

A. 10 Omote Sarugaku Cho, 
Kanda, Tokyo. 

H. Chairman: K. Manabe. 

C. (a) Furtherance of social 
reform and social 

service. 

<b) A social survey to re 
sult in Rural Gospel 
Schools, and helping 
unfortunate groups, 

special classes, and oc 
cupational groups, 
(c) Translation of the Soo. 
Creed of the National 
Christian Council into 
actual living. 

Social Welfare Commission of 
the National Christian 

Council. 

A. 10 Omote Karugaku Cho, 

Kanda, Tokyo. 
H. Koken Kakehi. 
C. To promote and survey 

social work. 



A PRELIMINARY LIST OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 



2-. Tokyo ( hrlNtlan So-lnl Work- 
em \- .... l.iii<.n 

A. :i of :: MitoKhiro Cho. Kan 
da. Tokyo. 

H. K.ikichi Tomeoka. 
r. Stuily and Survey of So 
cial 1 roldems an.l Social 
Movements. 

, :<. Tokyo Y.M.C .A. 

A. ". San< home Mitoshlro C"h<. 
Kanda, Tokyo. 

U. H. Nagano ( President ), S. 
Saito (Gen l Secretary). 

( . KollowHhip, .study and in 
formation for all Chrl.stian 
Social Workers whether 
organization In which 
they work he Christian 
lindifs or not. 

24. Tokyo Y.\V.( .A. 

A. 11 Kita K..>, a f ho. Suru- 
Ka.lai. Kanda. Tokyo. 



H. Taki Shldachi. 

C. To promote hocial move- 
ment.s l.y creating puhlii- 
opinion. to l>etter life 



c-lubs, younjjer K! 
a student depat 
commercial depar 
KnKlish Departing 
cal education, 
economics and d< 



club*. 

lient. u 
ien I. an 



ousehold 
mltorlr.s. 



5. World Milan,,- for Internii- 

lioiial I ri. n,Nlii|i Through 
the ( Inir.-li. -. 
A. l*i < Mnote SaruKaku < ho, 

Kanda. Tokyo. 
U. K. Matsuno. 

C. Welcome foreign KUetn. 
secure speakers for churches 
for the cause of interna 
tional peace. 



DIRECTORY OF RELIGIOUS AND 
SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS 



1 . Denominational HetulquarterM 

of .la M.I ill-*.- < linn In-- 

( 1 ) Finrantlo MH Fukuln llu- 
teru Kyokwai (Finland 
Lutheran Church). 
Mr. Sogoro I Hhlmaru. 
Mlk-a.Hhi N.I. Il<la Ma. -hi. 

Nagano Ken. 

( 2 ) Kukyu Fukuln Kyokwal. 
Dr. Kinll Schiller. 
No. 10, Noborlbata. Sho- 

Koln ( ho. Kyoto. 
(3) Horlnenu Kyokwal (Holi- 

ru-sM Church ). 
No. 391. Kanhlwaifl. Yo.lo- 

liiiHhl Machi. Tokyo Ku. 
( 4 ) Kami No Kyokwal (Church 
of <;<><) >. 

Mr. I kichl VaJInia. 
No. :). r .10. Aza fznwa. 
Shiino Nerlniu Mura, 
Tokyo Fu. 
I . . ) KlrlHUlo |).i.Hhinkai. 

No. 4. 3-Choine. NiHhlkl 

Cho. Kan. la Ku. Toky... 
( > . ) KlrlHuto Kyokwal. 

Sel Cakuln. NakaHato Cho. 

TaklnoKawa. Toky., Fu. 
( 7 ) KlrlHuto Yukal (Society of 
FrlendB). 

Mr. SelJI Mirukawa. 
No. 13. 1-Chome. Mlta Dal 
Machl. Shlha Ku. Tokyo. 
( X ) Kurinuchan Salennu Kyo- 
kwal (Christian Science 
Churrh). 

Sarikaldo Mull.llnK. Tanip- 
Iko, Akanaka Ku. Tokyo. 
( 9 KyuM.-licun Nlhon IC..n-f| 
(Salvation Army). 
No. :>. HltotHuhaNhl Drl. 
Kan. la Ku. Toky... 

(10) Nlhon Aratanxu Kyokwal. 

Mr. KaK-Tii..rl Kajlhara. 
Tohlya ,\Ja<hl. Funaka 

Machl. Anhlna <!un. Hit.. 

nhlma K.TI 

(11) Nlhon I<a|>ut-Niit Kyokwal 
illaiitixt Church). 

Mr. Kuiuujlro Yanuitnitto. 



Shlha Kyokwal. No. 20. 
Tamuru Cho. Shlha Ku. 
Tokyo. 
(12) Nlhon Dt>n.lo Tai. 

Klrlsut.i II.-TI.I., K.m. 

Shin kale hi, MinatoKawn. 
Kobe. 

(IK) Nlhon l>oho KlrlHuto Ky- 
kwal (t. nlted Itrrthrrn 
Churt-h). 

Mr. ChuklclU Yanu-la. 
No. 1. Kltanoho, NanzenJI. 

Shlnio Kyoku. Kyoto. 
(H) Nlhon DoJIn Klrlxuto Kyo 
kwal. 

Mr. Alnhl Teruzawa. 
No. 164. Klta Ant... Shlzu- 

oka. 

(ir>) Nlhon DoiiH-i KlrlHUtoK.ro- 
kwal. 

Mr. KohH SiiKlinoto. 
No. 1272. Tor! Machl. 

Chlha. 

( 1 f. ) Nlhon Fukuln Kyokwai 
( KvanKelli -til Church ). 
Mr. Klnzo Shlnohara. 
No. :."". Shinto Ochlal 

Ma. hi. Tokyo Fu. 
(17) Nlhon Fukuln Itutrru Kyo 
kwal (Lutheran Church). 
Mr. Ton Mlura. 
No. 921. Shlnio SuKlno- 
nilya. N..kat* Ma. hi. 
Tokyo Fu. 

<!> Nlhon Jiyu M*nojlut 
Kyokwal (Free Mrt ho.t lnt 
Cliurch ). 
Mr. Salchl <ya. 
No. <s. 1-Clu.iiir. Mnru- 
yaiua Dor). Suiiilyonlil 
Ku. iJnaku. 

(19) Nlhon Klrlnut Kyokwiil. 

No. .1. 4-(*hoin<<. .Shin 
M... In. Akuak.t Ku. 
Tokyo. 

(20) Nlhon K initial 
Kyokwal ( Ciiii 
Church ). 

I ul.lo Mull.llnK. 1-Ctionir. 
Tonnliorl l..r. Nml.i Ku. 



378 



JAPAN 



(21) Xihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 
(Methodist Church). 

No. 2:!, Midori-ga-<>ka, 
Shibuya Machi, Tokyo Ku. 

(22) Nihon Mitu Kyokwai 
(Methodist Protestant 
Church). 

Mr. Chokichi S,akai, 
No. 1 !!!*, Tsujido, Kuji- 
sa\va Machi, Kanagawa 
Ken. 

,2: t) Nihon Nazaren Kyokwai. 
Mr. Hiroshi Kittagawa, 
Hon Machi, 7 Jo Sagaru, 

Kyoto. 
,24) Nihon Seikokai. 

Nihon Seikokai Kyomuin, 
No. 8, Sakae Machi, 

Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 
(2ij) Sebunsu De Aclohenchiauto 
Kyokwai (Seventh Day Ad- 
ventist Church). 
No. 171, Ainanuma, Sugi- 

nanii Cho, Tokyo Fu. 
(lit!) Seisho Shinrikan. 

Mr. Kotaro Chikuyama, 
No. :!, Hosoku Machi, 

Kanila Ku, Tokyo. 
(27) Sekai Senkyodan. 

No. :t91, Kashiwagi, Yodo- 
ba.shi Machi, Tokyo Ku. 

i. \iii,-rir;iii Mission to J, |>er. 

Mr. II. D. Hannalord, 
District Secretary, 

No. .-,. Meiji Oakuin, 
Sliirokane, Shiba Ku. 
Tokyo. 

X. C hrlHtlun Kndeavor Inlon 
(Kyureikal). . 

Hev. Masataro Shitje- 
iiiatHU, Secretary, 

No. 1, Miyazaki Clio, 
Naka Ku, Yokohama. 

4. r.-il.-n.tiuii of ChriHtlan Mln- 
nlona. 

lt-v. .1. S. Kennard. 

Ph.D.. Secretary. 
No. S04, Hizen Maclii, 

Mito, Ibaraki Ken. 

r >. F-llo\VHhl|> of H. MDIK illnlioii 
(Vtiwu Kal). 

Mr. Sei.iu Hirakawa. Sec 
retary. 

No. U. 1 Chorue, Mita 
Dai Maclii. Shiba Ku, 
Tokyo. 

Hev. T. D. Walser, Asso 
ciate Secretary, 

No. ly of !i. Tsuna Machi, 
Mita, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 



(>. llaisho I nilo ICi-nmi-i (Mo\i-- 
iiK-nt for Abolition of 
I i. . riscd I roHtitllte ({nart.-rs I. 
Mr. Yaliei Matsumiya. 
No. GOO. Shimo Ochiai 
Machi, Tokyo Fu. 

?. Jupun < lirisiian Kducution 
Vssin ia I ion (Nihon Kirisiilo 
kyo Kyoiku Domei Kai). 

Mr. Takuo Matsumoto, 

Secretary, 
No. 420, Iriyumazu, 

Omori, Tokyo Fu. 

K. .J;i|;iii Kindergarten I nion. 

Miss Louise Callbeck, 

Secretary, 
12 Agata Machi, Nagano, 

Nagano K<?n. 

!). Japanese Language S<*hool. 

itev. Darley Downs, Di 

rector, 
Tokyo Y.M.C.A. Building. 

Mitoshiro Cho, Kanda 

Ku, Tokyo. 



Kai. 

Mr. Hidekichi Ito, Man 

aging Director, 
No. 41, Otsuka Naka 

Machi, Koinhikawa Ku, 

Tokyo. 

11. National ( lirititian ( otim II 
iMIimi KiriHutokyo Keninai). 

Rev. Akira Kbixawa, Sec 

retary, 
No. lo, Omote Sarugaku 

Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

I-, . National Sunday School AH- 
so.ialion (Nihon Nichlyo 
(.ulvko Kyokwai). 

No. 8, 1 Chome. Nishiki 
Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

\:i. National Temperance League 
(Nihon Kokumln KiiiHhu Do 
me!). 

Mr. Hampei Nagao, Pres 

ident, 
No. 10. Omote Sarugaku 

Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

11. National U .C.T.l . (KlrUuto- 
k.vo Fujln Kyofukal). 

Airs. Chiyoko Kozaki, 

1 resident, 
No. .360, Hyakunin Cho, 

Okubo<. Tokyo Fu. 



RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS I179 

15. National Y.M.C.A. (Mhon U..\. K. I). Oaly, AHMO- 

KlrUtitokyo Scln*-nkal !><- . iat- Sciretary, 

mel). Ni.. : , Ao>ama C.ukuin. 

Mr. Mit.suaki Kakohi. Aoyauia. Ti.k><i Fu. 

Cenoral Serretury. 

N >. Hi. Oinote Suruffaku 18. \\lild- ( DIHH >,,<!. i\ (llnku- 

Cli.i. Kan.la Ku. Tokyo. JuJIUal). 

Mr. Kikuiiui Muncnul. 

IB. National V.\V.( ..\. (KlrlHUt- l>lre,.r. 

kyo JoMhl Sflnenkal Mhon \,,. ],,. i c)i<>iii>. Ninhlkl 

Doillfl). Ch.i. Kamla Ku. Tokyo. 
Mi*H Kotoko Yaniamoto. 

Ceneral SM rotary. \\). \\orlil Alllanrr for Intrrna- 

No. 10. Omoto SaruK-tku tlonal I ri.-n.|.lii|. Ihrourli thf 

Cho. Kan.la Ku. Tokyo. < hun-h-. Japan K\r utlvr 

< oiniiiiii.-.- (Nlhon Kokunal 

17. I nlon llynmal Committee Sliln/-n KlrlHutok\o Srkl 

(Sanhlka lln). K-nim-l). 

Mr. Haliint- \V:i ta nalx-, Mr. Klkiitaro Matslino. 

Secretary. S-.-r.Mary. 

N... j;,7, Asajfitya. Tokyo No. JO. Kaxuml Cho. 

Ku Axal.u Ku. Tokyo. 



378 



JAPAN 



(21) Xihon Mesojisuto Kyokwai 
(Methodist Church). 

Xo. 2:;, Midori-ga-Oka, 
Shibuya Machi, Tokyo Ku. 

(22) Xihon Mit u Kyokwai 
(Methodist Protestant 
Church). 

Mr. Chokichi akai, 
Xo. 111)9, Tsujido, Kuji- 
sawa Machi, Kanagawa 
Ken. 

. 2:>) Xihon Xazaren Kyokwai. 
Mr. Hiroshi Kidagawa. 
Hon Machi, 7 Jo Sagaru, 

Kyoto. 
>24) Xihon Seikokai. 

Xihon Seikokai Kyomuin. 
No. 8. Sakae Machi, 

Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 
(25) Sebunsu De Adobenchisuto 
Kyokwai (Seventh Day Ad- 
ventist Church). 
Xo. 171, Anianuma, Sugi- I 

nami Cho, Tokyo Ku. 
(2i) Seisho Shinrikan. 

Mr. Kotaro Chikuyama, 
Xo. :!, Kosoku Machi, : 

Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 
(27) Sekai Senkyodan. 

Xo. It Jl, Kashiwagi, Yodo- 
bashi Machi, Tokyo Ku. 

2. American M Union to Lepers. 
Mr. H. D. Hannatord. 

District Secretary, 
Xo. !!. Meiji (Jakuin, 

Shirokane, Shiba Ku, 

Tokyo. 

X. ChrlHtian F.ndeavor I nlon 
(Kyoreikal). 

Kev. Masataro Shige- 

niat.su. Secretary, 
Xo. 1, Miyazaki Cho, 

Xaka Ku, Yokohama. 

4. Federation of ChrlHtian .MIs- 
ionH. 

Kev. .1. S. Kennard, 

Ph.D., Secretary, 
Xo. S04. Hizen Machi. 

Mito, ll)raki Ken. 



5. I . ll,,uslii|, of 
(Vuvva Kul). 

Mr. Sei.ju Hirakawa, Sec 
retary. 

Xo. i:t. 1 Chorue, Mita 
Dai Machi. Shiba Ku. 
Tokyo. 

Hev. T. D. Walser, ASHO- 
c iate Secretary, 

Xo. iy of <(. Tsuna Marhi, 
Mita, Shiba Ku, Tokyo. 



(i. llai-bo I udo Kcnnu i (Move 
ment for Abolition of 

I i< . ns.-d Prostitute <)inirterN). 
Mr. Valiei Matsumiya. 
Xo. 500. Shiino Ochiai 
Machi, Tokyo Ku. 

"t. Japan ( bristian I .du< at Ion 
.\HHoeiation (Nihon KiriHut<- 
kyo K.voiku Oomei Kai). 

Mr. Takuo Matsuinoto, 

Secretary, 
No. 41!0, Iriyamazu, 

Omori, Tokyo Fu. 

K. .Japan Kindergarten I nion. 

Miss Louise Callbeck, 

Secretary, 
12 Agata Machi, Xagano, 

Xagano Kin. 

. JapaneHe Language Krhool. 

Kev. Darley Downs, Di 
rector, 

Tokyo Y.M.C.A. Building. 
Mitoshiro Cho, Kandu. 
Ku, Tokyo. 

10. KakuMei Kai. 

Mr. Hidekichi Ito, Man 
aging Director, 

Xo. 41, Otsuka Xaka 
Machi, Koishikawa Ku, 
Tokyo. 

H. National Christian Council 
(Mln. ii KlriNutokyo Kenmai). 

Hev. Akii-a Kbi/.awa, Sec 
retary, 

Xo. lo, Oinote Sarugaku 
Cho, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

P,. National Sunday Sc-hool AH- 
H<eiatioii (Nihon NU-hlyo 
<;akko Kyokwai). 

Xo. S, 1 Chome. Xishiki 
Clio, Kanda Ku, Tokyo. 

i:i. National Temperance League 
(Nihon K,.Kiiniiii KinHhu Do 
me!) . 

Mr. Hanipei Xagao, Pres 
ident. 

Xo. 10. Oinote Sarugaku 
Cho, Kanda Ku. Tokyo. 

14. National W.C.T.l". (Kirlnuto- 
kyo I M jin Kyofukai). 

Mrs. Chlyoko Kozaki, 

President, 
Xo. ;ifi, Hyakunin Cho, 

Okubo, Tokyo Ku. 



RELIGIOUS AND SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS IJ79 

I.V National Y.M.C.A. (Mhon K..\. K I>. Oaly. Ano- 

KlrlMiitok.vo Srlnrnkal Do- . iate S,- retary. 

ni*-l). N.,. 1 . Albania Cukuln. 

Mr. Mitsuaki Kakolii. Aoyania. Tokyo Ku. 

(leiieral S<Tetury, 

No. 10, Omote Sarii Mku IK. \\llltr ( TOHM >o. I. I v M.iLn 

(Mm. Kan.lu Ku. Tokyo. JuJIkiil). 

Mr. Kikunui Muni>nul. 

!, N. ui. ,n. 1 1 Y.\V.( .A. (KlrlHUto- Dir-.t<,r. 

kyo JoMhl S*lnenkul Mhon \ (1 K. i cuonu-. Mnhlkl 

lomel). Ch... Kan. la Ku. Tokyo. 
MlHK Kotoko Vainaniot.i. 

C.-neral SP< retary. IU. \Vorlil Alllanrr for Intrrtitt- 

No. 10. (irnoto Saru^aku tlonal I rl.-nUlil|. (hroujtli thr 

Clio. Kan.lii Ku. Tokyo. ( hurclu-N. ,lii|ian Kt-< utlvr 

< oiiuiilii.-.- (Mhon Kokunul 

17. Tnlon Il.tninal < mmltte Shlnirn KlrUutok\o Srkal 

(Sanblku lln). Ki-niu-l). 

Mr. Haiinic \V;t t anal.<>. Mr. Kikularo Mathiino. 

Secretary. S.-.-r.-tary. 

N,.. L , ,7. Asm-ay:.. Tokyo No. ^ 0. Ka.suiul C\\. 

Ku. Axal.u Kn. Tokyo. 



STATISTICS FOR 1929 



Prepared by 
P. S. MAYER 



LIST OF MISSION HOARDS AND CHURCHES 



The Initials used are the standard forms for America. India, 
China and Japan. 

1. AHCFM. American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 

Missions. 

1 . ABF. American Baptist Foreign Mission Society. 

AKPM. Allnemejner KvanRelisch - I rotestant Ischer Mlsslons- 

verein. (The Kast Asia Mission). 

4. AFP. Foreign Missionary Association of Friends of 

Philadelphia. 

5. ATHM. Australian Board of Missions (Anglican). 
!. AfJ. The Asseinldy of Cod. 

7. BS. Bil.le Societies: 

Amerii-an Bilde Society 

The British and Foreign Bilde Society and 
National Bilde Society of Scotland. 

X. CC. Mission Board of the Christian Church. 

9. * K. Cc.mmunily of the Kplphany. 

I".- <;. Church of <;<). 

11. C.I I M. Th- Central .Japan Pioneer Mission. 

11 . CLS. Christian literature Society. 

1.1 C.MA. Christian and Missionary Alliance. 

14. CMS. Chur.h Missionary Society. 

1"). CN. Church of the Na j-.a rerie. 

! . KC. Kvank elical Chur.h of North Amerl, a. 

17.--FMA. Coneral Mission Hoard of the Frre MtMhodlat 

Chiir. h of North Anierl. a. 

IS. INI". lnd"p-iident of any Society 

1!) .JAM .Japan Apostolic Mission. 

I O. JUTS. .Japan Be. ok and Tract Society 

1 !. .1KB. .l.ipan KvanKellstl, Bund. 

I l 1 . .IU.M. .Japan Hes. ue Mlmtlnn. 

23. KCA. KaK iWM Co-operatorn In America 

1 4. KK. Kumlal KyoUwal ( CcmirreKa t lona I t 

IT,. I.CA. Hoiird of Fore| K n Missions ..f th- I r. 

< hurch In Arnerli-ii. 



1 fi. I.KF. Thf I.iilh.-ran ConpH A SH... la I Ion ,.r 

1 7. I..M. l.|.-,..n/.i-ll.-r Mission. 

1 K. MBW. Missionary Bamls of t|,.- \N ..r|.l 

. . MKFH. B<iard of F..r.-ik n M|HK|OIIH of thf M<-lliodiiit Kp 

(opal Chun h. 



384 

. !(). MKS. 

111. MKJ. 
!- MM. 
, !3. MP. 

:4. MSCC. 
. Jo. NKK. 

::;. NMK. 
. !7. XSK. 
:!S. OMJ. 
:!!. QMS. 

40. PE. 

41. PN. 

41!. PS. 

4:!. RCA. 
44. RC. 
4.-). RCt S. 
4fi. ROC. 
47. SA. 
4S. SAM. 
49. SHC. 
")0. SDA. 
Til. SPG. 



:>.",. UCC. 
54. UCMS. 
. r >r>.- UGC. 
";. WM. 
.7. WSSA. 
51. WIT. 
59. YMCA-A. 

YMCA-T*. 

. YMJ. 
!. YWCA. 

ilL . EPM. 
:!. PCC. 



of the Church of England in 
Kyokwai. ( Pretsbyterian and 



JAPAN 

Hoard of Foreign Missions of (lie Methodist Epis 

copal Church, South. 
Mission to Koreans in Japan. 
Mino Mission. 
Hoard of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Pro 

testant Church. 
Missionary Society 

Canada. 

Nihon Kirisuto 
( Reformed ). 

Nilion Methodist Kyokwai. (UCC, MEFH, MES). 
Nippon Sei Ko Kwai. (CMS, MSCC, SPG, AUBM). 
Onii Mission. 
Oriental Missionary Society. 

Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church in America. 

Hoard of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian 
Church of the United States of America. 

Executive Committee of the Board of Foreign 
.Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the 
t nited States (Southern Presbyterian). 

Reformed Church in America. 

Roman Catholic Church. 

Reformed Church in the United States. 

Russian Orthodox Church. 

Salvation Army. 

Scandinavian American Alliance. 

Southern Haptist Convention. 

Seventh Day Adventists. 

Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in For 
eign Parts. 

Foreign Missionary Society of the United Brethren 
in Christ. 

United Church of Canada. 

United Christian Missionary Society. 

Universalist Central Convention. 

Wesleyan Methodist Connection of America. 

World s Sunday School Association. 

Woman s Union Missionary Society of America. 

Young Men s Christian Association (American 

National Council). 

Government School Teachers Affiliated with YMCA. 
Votsuya Mission. 

Young Women s Christian Association of the United 

States of America. 
Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church of 

England. 
Hoard of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church 

in Canada. 









STATISTICS ;^.-, 






1 


. PKRSONNKI. 


1. 


Total For 


eiKii Staff. 


>. Nurse*. 


3. 


Ordained 
Unnrdaine 


men. 

d men. 


! . Short term worl ,-r, (Medical). 
10. Total Native Staff 


4 . 


Wive* 




11. Ordained nu-n. 




Foreitfn l : 


n married Women 


12. rnot-daiiu d men. 


r.. 


Physicians 


. Men. 


13. Women workers. 




Physicians 


. Women. 


11. I rofes^inn Chri-iianh. 






1 2 3 


A FOKKK;N n. NATIVK STAFF 


1. 


AMCFM . 


. . i ;: 




2. 


AUK. 


. .1*72 . 7 11 1 


1C 2". n n ii n 2!3 3 i 122 141 211 


3. 


AKP.M. 


. . l-*r> 4 2 <i 


2 Ii i d d I . I " "> . i 


4. 


AFP . 


..IMS.", 13 ii :, 


3 I) ii d :{ . ! 30 2- 


:,. 


AUHM. 


. . 1 . 11 




6. 


A<; 


. .I .iU 14 :< 1 


.-> d n 4 2 ii 2 d 


7. 


BS. 


. . H7:, 4 1 1 


2 (i ii n .V.I n .V. ii .">y 


.V 


CC 


. . 1MS7 .I 1 II 


3 2 n d 2d 14 2 t 2n 


J. 


CK 






10. 


c<; 


. .P.ilD (i 




11. 


CJPM. 


I .i2. . 2 


d 2 ii n (i " 1 1 1 1 . 1 J 


12. 


CI.S 


..i:H2 1 1 1 


d 2 ii i .< fi 3 ii <> 


13. 


CM A. 


..! .. 7 3 ii 


2 2 n d n o 17 1 - :. 17 


14. 


CMS 


. l-ii .i 




I"). 


CN. 






16. 


EC. 


i-7 i i:, 3 ii 


3 . (i (i (i IT.i 2 . 17 7:1 11- 


IT. 


FMA. 


. P.IH3 .i 3 


3 3 n 1 ii :-, .> }:, 7 17 3 .i 


1*. 


INI). 


i; ii :, 


i7oo n ii i- ; _>; i; 12 


19. 


.JAM 


I!i2. . 3 Ii 


I (I d o 12 ! 1" 1 lj 


20. 


JUTS. ... 


. l-7."> 1 


ii ii ii O ii 7 ii 7 >i 


21. 


JKP.. 


P.I03 27 


.", 1.", Ii ii 43 ti 2! - 


22. 


JKM. 


r.i2<i 17 1 Ii 


1 17 n n 1 n 22 d 17 


2. 1. 


KCM 






24. 


KK 


.1-11:1 r.i r, 3 


17 2i". n i n 24" |i, 7 72 i 


2~>. 


I,< A 


..1-9L 3- 13 n 


13 12 ii (i 1 n f.i. 21 7 2 .i 3i 


2K. 


I.KF. 


. .moo i:, r, (i 


li 3 ill 1 f> 4 In 


27. 


I..M 


. . v.i 2 7 ; :, d 


1 Ii n n 


2-. 


MP.W. 


P.U3 3 1 n 


1 100 li !< 3 2 :. In 


2 . . 


MKFP.. 


.1*73 7 . if, 


22 3 .i ii 2-" l 2 11- 211 


30. 


MES. 


. . IHHI; 70 i; :i 


21 27 n o (i 


31. 


MKJ. 


. 1H27 I 1 n 


1 2 ii ii o 1- ii I 1- 


32. 


MM 






33. 


Ml . 


. . l*-(i ;. 2 d 


1 r, i. ii n o ll. I r, :, i 4 .i . 7 


34. 


MSCC. 


. .1*-- 




35. 


N K K 




\> .V 22- 21 1 27 241 


36. 


NMK. 


. 1-7:1 


371 2 . .i I"- 371 


37. 


NSK. 


. . 1 -on 20- :,o KI 


4- MII 3 I 10 33r. 21 . . .2 f . . 117 


3V. 


OMJ. 


. 190.-. 3 ii 1 


] 1 i, li 3ii :t 12 1 . 27 


3! . 


OMS. 


. I . IU (i 


(. i. 271 i.ii 111 .i 27 1 



386 


1 


JAPAN 
2 3 4 5 6 7 


x 


9 


10 11 12 13 


14 


40. 


I K 


. .1S59 



















_ 




11. 


P\ 


. .1S69 


61 


18 


1 17 25 





(1 


o 


13.1 4 3* 97 


100 


42. 
4 3 


PS 
RC A 


. .1SS5 


46 

op 


IS 


17 11 


II D 


1) 


o 


7." 16 36 23 


75 


44. 


RC 




on 


1 2 


1 10 13 













45. 
46. 


RCUS. . . 

ROC 


. .1S79 

1S77 


51 


14 


6 IS 13 











250 40 10S 102 


181 




SA 


. .1S95 


15 


7 


7 1 





(1 





533 207 60 266 


533 


48. 


SAM 


. .1S91 


4 


2 


1 1 





II 





12 6 5 1 


12 


49. 


SHC 


. .1SS6 


20 


7 


7 6 











10.1 1-! 91 1 


69 


51. 


SDA 
SPG. . . . 


!. ls78 


- 




7 1 3 2 


1 


" 


1 


2-1 9 15 


!? 


52. 


UH 


. . 1S95 


| 


2 


2 1 1 


II 








ill 10 9 21 


40 


53. 


UCC 


. .1873 


7S 


21 


1 21 36 





o 


o 


269 !n 229 


239 


54. 


rcMs. 


. . lsv5 


18 


6 


II 11 ( 


II 








K 2 1* 77 7 


4* 


55. 


uce 


. . 1S90 


7 


2 


1 2 3 





II 





7 5 n 2 


_ 


56. 


WM 


. . 1919 


2 


1 


1 d 











s 1 7 


s 


57. 


WSSA. ... 


.1915 


d 


D 





1) 1 





o 






58. 


wu 


. .1*71 


:, 





II II .") 


(1 (1 





o 


25 i 3 IS 


20 


59. 


YMCA-A. 


. . 1SS9 


17 


2 


6 * 1 


II 





o 


42 ( 12 


42 


60. 


YMJ. 


. . 1901 


7 


2 


2 3 











69 10 11 18 


69 


61. 


YWCA. . 


. . 1904 


14 





II n 11 


li 


n 





39 ii n 39 


39 


62. 


KP.M 


. . 1*65 


29 


7 


1 HI s 


3 n 


1 


o 


162 3(1 S>< 14 


122 


63. 


PCC 


. .1-72 


2" 


3 


5 s 9 


1 


4 


o 


SS 55 16 17 


31 




Totals 




1173 


282 


77 332 458 


11 1 


13 





5096 1551 177.-, 1770 






C. KVANCELISTIC 

Orjranixed Churches. 21. Baptized Non-communicants. 

Self-supporting Churches. 22. Sunday Schools. 

Preaching Places, not in 15. 23. S. S. Teachers. 

Communicants added. 24. Teachers and Pupils. 

Total Columns 20 and 21. 25. Contributions to Christian Work in Yen. 

Communicants. 



2. AHF 3; 

3. AKPF 1 3 13 ,*.! :,7! 10 (> 10 220 

I. AFP 9 5 5 733 733 19 39 9(51 

i-,. AC 5 2 35 126 126 13 I 1 , S06 

7. HS 

X. CC 16 1 s 97 190.-, 535 1370 20 99 1644 

11. CJPM 6 1 (1 IT. ISO ISO 22 22 550 

13. CMO 18 5 4 136 659 27 58 1375 

16. KC. 30 1 10 230 2146 2146 6 54 209 4129 



STATISTICS 


387 






15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


17. 


FMA. . 


16 


4 


8 


328 


1544 


875 


669 


32 


110 


2135 


19.171.16 


19. 


JAM. . 


5 





1 


50 


200 


300 





6 


5 


500 





21. 


JEH. .. 


33 


2 








170 


170 





18 


31 


834 


2.283.00 


22. 


JRM 








8 


8 


1H7 


s - 


100 


8 


21 


474 


1.066.72 


24. 


KK. .. 


171 


84 


85 


1228 


29116 


29116 





260 


1690 


26561 


585.651.00 


25. 


LCA. . 


18 


2 


14 


236 


3267 


2798 


469 


50 


159 


36*2 


15.432.0o 


26. 


LEF. . 


11 





16 


66 


1226 


1194 


32 


23 


47 


854 


3.097.00 


28. 


MHW. 


5 





2 


1C, 


200 


115 





8 


8 


380 


2.886.86 


81. 


MKJ. . 


24 





10 


36 


1609 


355 


1254 


33 


89 


969 


7.786.36 


33. 


MI . .. 


22 


6 


24 


189 


2998 


_ 




51 


190 


3339 


22.828.00 


35. 


NKK. . 


300 


135 


80 


2691 


50398 


46438 


3960 


475 


2144 


39667 


478.142.00 


86. 


NMK 


11 


90 


155 


1036 


33819 


33819 





5 Jl 


2232 


48309 


379. 179.00 


37. 


NSK. . 


243 


38 





1412 


24123 


14861 


9262 


373 


1000 


243*2 


214.940.51 


3. 


OMJ. . 








10 


11 


126 








18 


37 


644 





3 .t. 


QMS. . 


21* 


21* 





2782 


10114 






288 


610 


11663 


286.984.16 


41. 


PN. . . 







45 











82 


100 


1*34 





42. 


PS. . . . 


5H 


19 


46 


526 


6701 


5143 


1261 


137 


337 


760 


81.660.00 


43. 


RCA. . 


19 





14 


135 


673 


560 


113 


50 


111 


2008 


336.8s 


45. 


RCUS. 


1 00 


13 


42 


529 


6550 


6147 


403 


122 


500 


838* 


41.9*0.53 


47. 


SA. ... 


122 




















123 


462 


8789 





48. 


SAM. . 


7 


2 


6 


62 


773 








If. 


57 


1200 


8.500.00 


49. 


sue. 


17 


5 


10 


181 


2419 


2419 





35 


20* 


2434 


21.802.49 


50. 


SDA. . 


16 


o 


4 


75 


,96 


596 





16 


70 


650 


85.940.31 


52. 


NH. ... 


20 


4 


3 


200 


2130 


2033 


97 


31 


161 


2544 


23.271.00 


54. 


UCMS. 


22 


1 


19 


168 


2118 


2118 





30 


135 


21*7 


15.942.24 


6.x 


UGC. . 


5 





2 


35 


415 


415 





10 


: 7 


637 


4.1**. on 


56. 


WM. 


r, 





8 


27 


190 


190 





11 


35 


695 


2.H14.00 


58. 


wu. .. 


4 





3 


8 


10S+ 


100 




43 


53 


1353 


1.000.00 


60. 


YMJ. 


10 


1 


58 


con 


SOO 


800 





71 


14* 


3500 


6.000.00 


62. 


EPM . . 


104 


64 


o 


450 


12239 


6134 


6005 


92 


942 


7669 


75.525.00 


63. 


PCC .. 


. 65 


7 


3 


219 


3408 


, | - 






270 


2352 


25.958.00 



Total* 



1977 725 732 13888 208305 17540* 25011 3332 129S4 237773 V2.249.254. 56 



NOTE : 

The statistics of the American Hoard (1) are mrludl in those of the Kumiai 
Church (24). 

The statistics for all Anglican and American Episcopalian Mi*sion are recorded 
under the N.S.K. (37). 

The statir.tic* of the I re*byteri.m and Reformed minion* are partly recorded m 
the N.K.K. (35) figures. Thone iciven under the Presbyterian Church. North. I 
only new work; the others have all Ix-rn turned over to the N.K.K. 

The statistics of all Methodist Missions are partly recorded under N.M.K. (861 
fiKuren. 

The O.M.K. (Holiness Church) trrves no *upiort to it* orniied congreRatK. 
Hence all are lwte<l as selfHuipportintc- 

The Salvation Army (47) Kiv<- no report for membership and total contribution*. 



388 



JAPAN 



26. Kindergartens. 

27. No. of Pupils. 

28. Primary Schools. 

29. No. of Pupils. 

30. Middle Schools, Men. 

31. Enrollment. 

26 



D. EDUCATIONAL WORK 

32. 



Middle Schools, Women. 

33. Enrollment. 

34. Theological Schools, Men. 

35. Enrollment. 

36. Hible Training Schools, Women. 

37. Enrollment. 



27 28 29 30 



31 32 



33 34 35 



2. 


ABF 


27 


1517 








1 


697 


3 767 


1 


12 


1 


3. 


AEPM. . . 


1 


40 


























4. 


AFP 


4 


140 














1 296 











H. 


CC 


10 


304 














1 16 











11. 


CJPM 























1 


3 


1 


13. 


CMA 


. .. 




















1 


35 





16. 


EC 


. . 18 


835 




















4 


1 


17. 


FMA 


, . 1 


82 

















1 


26 





19. 


JAM 























1 


5 





22. 


JRM 


2 


19 


























24. 


KK 


.... 33 


1754 


1 


44 


1 


1021 


7 2795 


2 


64 


1 


2 *} 


LCA 


9 


257 








1 


700 


1 197 


1 


16 





26. 


LEC 


1 


50 

















1 


2 





29. 


MEFIJ 


14 


843 








3 


2270 


5 2289 


1 


100 





30. 


MES 


31 


1304 


1 


157 


1 


800 


1 351 


1 


68 


1 


31. 


MKJ 


2 


50 


























33. 


MP 


7 


415 


1 


150 


1 


954 


1 279 








o 


37. 


NSK 


70 


2922 


1 


67 


3 


1320 


5 2047 


2 


62 


2 


38. 


OMJ 


9 


47 


o 























39. 


QMS 























1 


56 


1 


41. 


PN 


10 


633 














4 1473 











42. 


PS 


.... 12 


538 














1 563 


1 


42 





43. 


RCA 














2 


886 


2 550 





16 





45. 


RCUS 


9 


401 








1 


557 


1 244 


1 


21 


1 


47. 


SA 


1 


115 

















1 


30 


1 


49. 


"SBC 


6 


235 








1 


401 


1 354 


1 


8 





50. 


SDA 














1 


45 


1 43 











52. 


UP, 


. . . . 10 


449 


























53. 


ucc 


48 


2276 


2 


365 








3 612 











54. 


UCMS 


G 


263 








1 


213 


1 418 


1 


7 


1 


55. 


UGC 


5 


221 


























56. 


WM 























1 


3 





5H. 


WU 




















1 120 








1 


60. 


YMJ 


4 


700 


























62. 


EPM 





I) 








1 


245 


1 227 


1 


28 


1 


63. 


PCC 


4 


170 








1 


240 


1 82 


1 


21 


1 



Totals 347 16580 



19 10349 42 13723 23 629 



NOTE : 

E. C. and U.C.M.S. co-operate with A >yama Gakuin in Theological Training for men. 

U.C.M.S. and U.C.C. co-operate with Aoyama Gakuin in Theological Training for 
women. . 

P.N. and R.C.A. co-operate in Theological Training at Meiji Gakuin, in all 
departments. 

P.N. and P.S. co-operate in Theological Training for men in Kobe Theological 
Seminary. 

M.E.S. and U.C.C. co-operate in Theological Training at Kwansei Gakuin. 



STATISTICS 
D. EDUCATIONAL WORK 



3*<. College-,. Men. 
3!. Enrollment. 
40. Colleges. Women. 
41 . Enrollment. 
42. Industrial Schools. 
43. Enrollment. 


4. r >. Enrollment. 
46. Normal Training 
47. Enrollment. 
50. Nurnes Schools. 
51. Enrollment. 
52. Educational fee*. 


Sche 
Yen. 


44. Night Schools. 








3H 


39 


40 


41 


42 


43 


44 


45 


46 47 


50 


51 


2. 


ABF. ... 


.. 1 


99 


2 


122 








9 


1345 


1 53 








3. 


AEPM. . 


. . 

















2 


40 











4. 


AFP. . . . 


.. 

















1 


25 











8. 


CC 


.. 
































16. 


EC 








o 


o 








2 


200 











24. 


KK 


. . 1 


2102 


4 


1083 


3 


82 


3 


259 


1 31 








26. 


LEF. . . 


. . 
































29. 


MEFB. . 


.. 1 


1005 


1 


103 














l lor. 





o 


30. 


MES. .. 


.. 2 


1115 


1 


93 


1 


152 


2 


1020 


1 29 








31. 


MKJ. .. 


. . 

















8 


188 











33. 


MF 


.. 











1 


55 

















37. 


NSK. ... 


.. 1 


1309 








3 


129 


1 


11 


1 26 


1 


70 


88. 


OMJ. ... 


. . 

















2 


27 











41. 


PN 


.. 
































42. 


PS 


o 





1 


103 


1 


55 

















43. 


RCA. . . . 


. . 


6H 





I) 





214 

















45. 


RCUS. .. 


.. 1 


363 


1 


133 























49. 


SBC. ... 


. . 1 


231 























(1 





50. 


SDA. . . . 


. . 











o 




















52. 


UB 


o 


o 














r> 


57 











53. 


UCC 


. . 











2 


60 


3 


ISO 













UCMS. . 


. . 

















3 


949 











55. 


UGC. . . . 


. . 
































58. 


WU 


. . 

















1 


S 











59. 


YMCA. 


. . 

















10 


55016 











60. 


YMJ. ... 


. . 
































61. 


YWCA. 


. . 

















1 


1917 











62. 


EPM. .. 


. . 





























I) 


63. 


PCC 


. . 























U 


1 


20 




Totals. . . 


, 8 


G292 


10 


1C37 


11 


747 


50 


60432 


5 244 


2 


90 2 



390 JAPAN 

E. MEDICAL WORK 

53. Native Physicians, Men. 61. No. Dispensary Treatments. 
54. Native Physicians, Women. 62. No. Outside Visits. 
55. Trained Assistants, Men. 63. No. Major Operations. 
">6. Trained Assistants, Women. 64. No. Minor Operations. 
57. No. Hospitals and Sanitoria. 6.". Total No. Patients. 
58. Total No. Beds. 66. Total No. Treatments. 
r.9. No. In-patients Treated. 67. Total Medical Fees, Yen. 




60. No. 


Dispensaries. 






53 54 


55 56 


57 


58 


59 


60 


61 


62 


63 


64 


65 


66 


67 


2. 


ARF. 


..30 


3 











2 


16446 











3118 


16446 





18. 


IND. . 


. . 3 


3 


7 


70 


70 


2 


2128 


2198 





50 


170 


300 


38,014.00 


J 1 . 


KK. . 


. . 3 


2 2 


1 


6 


4 














85 


1336 


27436 


_ 


37. 


NSK. 


..51 4 


28 12 


5 


359 


3207 


4 


81337 











19314 


17000 


423,497.00 


38. 


OM.T. 


. . 2 





1 


50 


122 








57 





188 


229 


11917 


4,588.00 


47. 


SA. .. 


..92 





2 


210 


420 


3 


8917 





5 


605 


9317 


65226 


85,560.89 


50. 


SDA. 


. . 1 





1 


20 


200 








150 


12 


25 


800 


2000 


8,900.00 


53. 


UCC. . 


. . 1 


2 











1 


13980 

















3,048.01 


62. 


EPM . 


. . 4 


8 20 


2 


221 


2789 


2 


24329 


305 


1085 


334 


15880 





58,049.00 


63. 


PCC . 


.. 1 


5 5 


1 


130 


861 


1 


16751 


110 


150 


300 


4687 


16751 


25,588.05 



Total 



45 45 20 1066 7673 15 163888 2820 1252 1517 54851 31076 647,244.95 



F. PHILANTHROPIC WORK 



68. No. Orphanages. 

69. Total Inmates. 

70. No. Leper Asylums. 

71. Total Inmates. 

72. Christians in Column 71. 
78. No. Institutions for Blind. 



4. Total Inmates. 

5. No. Rescue Homes. 

6. Total Inmates. 

7. No. Industrial Homes. 

8. Total Inmates. 







68 


69 


,0 


71 




78 


74 


<o 


76 


77 


78 


16. 


EC 


1 


47 





























18. 


IND 


2 


116 


3 


320 























22. 


JRM 























3 


112 


2 


61 


24. 


KK 


2 


119 





























25. 


LCA 


1 


25 























3 


150 


29. 


MEFH 


1 


11 











1 


31 














33. 


MP 

















1 


55 














37. 


NSK 


- 


240 


2 


215 




1 


67 











o 


39. 


OMS 


o 


() 


2 


43 


o 


o 














o 


47. 


SA 




45 


1 


24 




1 


13 


4 




3 


240 


53. 


UCC. 


3 


92 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 


o 





o 







Totals... 


. 17 


695 


N 


602 





4 


166 




169 


8 


454 



P.N. and E.C. are affiliated 
not in the above list. 



carrying on the work of the Deaf Oral School, 



STATISTICS 
(i. LITEKATIRE PROIM ( TION 





79. 
>*0. 
HI. 

S2. 
*3. 


No. Christian Books 
Total No. Hooks Sold 
No. Portions or Tract 
Total No. Sold This 
Amount in Yon Kect 


Published This Year. 
Thw Year. 
H Published This Year. 
Year, 
ived for Sales Thin Y.-nr. 






79 


HO 


Hi H2 


H3 


7. 


US. (Hrit. 


373,1111 


335.320 






7. 


US. ( Amer 


) H70.1.-.0 


903.440 




MM.X5.V73 


11. 


CM I M. ... 


10.000 






__ 


12. 


n.s 


99.200 




9:,.OOU 


16.940. 46 


19. 


JAM 






3:>o.ooo 


10.00 


20. 


JUTS. ... 


<r,.ooo 


74.029 


244.000 .V. 1.60(1 


63.57H.2s 


39. 


OMS 


4">. GOO 


6.1.000 




20.lH2.03 


47. 


SA 


47.100 


76.852 


1.3. ,x.OOO 1.005.900 


5H.596.63 


4! . 


sue 


250.000 


149.974 


1.750.00(1 1.173,603 


25.000. Oo 


,"iO. 


SDA 


r>,ooo 


2.924 




4H.241.Oo 


62. 


KPM 


10,000 


12.349 


49.000 01.013 


7.172.00 


03. 


I C C . 






0.000 


60.00 



Total* . 1.701.241 1.019.400 3.H40.000 2.H9H.122 Y32x.020.13 



Includes publication* from Shanghai and Amoy. 



ADVERTISEMENTS 



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KYO III N KWAN 

: Sh.chomr, (;,,>/- 
Trlrphonr K>hjiln 2 



The American School in Japan 



SCHOOL YKAK 1!:?0 19:tl 



Registration, Sept. ! >, at !) o clock Classes begin Sept. 

16, at 1 o clock. 

Elementary Junior High Senior High School Courses. 
1 repuration for college and university entrance by 

certificate. 

College Entrance Hoard Examinations. 
Interdenominational Fifteen Nationalities. 
Management by twenty-four missionary and business 

organizations. 
Hoarding Department Hoys live with the Principal 

Girls with the House-mother. 

All meals under the supervision of a trained dieticiar. 
Physical Education Mr. Bernard Gladieux of Oberlin 

and Miss Stone, Sargent School Gymnastic Peoples 

College of Denmark. 

School for Superior Children High Scholastic Standards. 
Development of Personality Character Training. 

The ONLY American School in Japan 



C. A. MITCHELL, Principal 

AMERICAN SCHOOL IN JAPAN 

11)85 Kami Mcgiiro, Tnkyo-fu, Japan 

// Interested Write for a Catalog 



THE KYO - BUN - KWAN 

will receive 

Orders from Abro.ul for any IVi -iodical or Hook issued in 
the Far East either in Japanese or European languages. 

We are prepared to make search for Rare- and Out of 
Print Volumes. 

We arc Agents for The Asiatic Society of Japan, the 
Transactions of which are published in English. Five volumes 
of the Second Series have been published since the great 
Earthquake and Tuo \olumes of Reprints: that is of papers 
selected from the First Series, the stock of which was 
destroyed in the earthquake. 

We are in touch with the Japanese publishing world 
and will take orders for books on Scientific or Popular 
subjects printed in the Japanese Language. 

Christian Literature Society 

(KYO IU X KWAN) 
2 Shichome, (linza, Tokyo 



KWANSEI GAKUIN 

WEST JAPAN COLLEGE 

KOTO-MURA. HYOGO-KEN. JAPAN 



C. J. L. BATES, D.D., President 

G. SOGI, D.D., Vice-President 

H. W. OUTERBRIDGE, S.T.D.. Bursar 

W. K. MATTHEWS, A.M.B.D.. Librarian 
M. YANAGIWARA, B.D., Chaplain 



FOUR DEPARTMENTS: 

Enrolment 

THEOLOGICAL - 66 

M. HORI. Dean 

COLLEGE OF LITERATURE - 365 
H. F. WOODSWORTH. M.A.. Dean 

COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 779 

K. KANZAKI, B.A., Dean 

MIDDLE SCHOOL - 728 

Y. MAN ABE, Principal 

Total Enrolment 1938 



Under the Management of the Japan 
Methodist Church, the Methodist Epis 
copal Church South, and the United 
Church of Canada. 



The American School in Japan 



SCHOOL YKAK 1!:U) 19:U 



Registration, Sept. If,, at !> o clock Classes begJn Sept. 

16, at 1 o clock. 

Elementary Junior High Senior High School Courses. 
1 reparation for college and university entrance by 

certificate. 

College Entrance Hoard Examinations. 
Interdenominational Fif teen Na t ionalit ies. 
Management by twenty-four missionary and business 

organizations. 
Hoarding Department Hoys live with the Principal 

Girls with the House-mother. 

All meals under the supervision of a trained dieticiar. 
Physical Education Mr. Hernard Gladieux of Oberlin 

and Miss Stone, Sargent School Gymnastic Peoples 

College of Denmark. 

School for Superior Children High Scholastic Standards. 
Development of Personality Character Training. 

The O/VLY American School in Japan 



C. A. MITCHELL, Principal 

AMERICAN SCHOOL IN JAPAN 

1!)K5 Kami Mi-guro, Tokyo-fu, Japan 

// Interested Write for a Catalog 



THE KYO - BUN - KWAN 

will receive 

Orders from Ahro.ul for any Periodical or Book issued in 
the Far East either in Japanese or European languages. 

We are prepared t<> make search for Rare and Out of 
Print Volumes. 

We arc Agents for The Asiatic Society of Japan, tin- 
Transactions of which are published in English. Five volumes 
of the Second Series have been published since the great 
Earthquake and Two \olunies of Reprints: that is of papers 
selected from the First Series, the stock of which was 
destroyed in the earthquake. 

We are in touch with the Japanese publishing world 
and will take orders for hooks on Scientific or Popular 
subjects printed in the Japanese Language. 

Christian Literature Society 

(KYO HTN" KWAN) 
2 Shichome, Ginza, Tokyo 



KWANSEI GAKUIN 

WEST JAPAN COLLEGE 

KOTO-MURA. HYOGO-KEN. JAPAN 



C. J. L. BATES, D.D., President 

G. SOGI. D.D., V ice-President 

H. W. OUTERBRIDGE, S.T.D.. Bursar 

W. K. MATTHEWS, A.M.B.D.. Librarian 
M. YANAGIWARA. B.D., Chaplain 



FOUR DEPARTMENTS: 

Enrolment 

THEOLOGICAL - 66 

M. HORl, Dean 

COLLEGE OF LITERATURE - 165 
H. F. WOODSWORTH. M. A. .Dean 

COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 77Q 

K. KANZAKI, B.A., Dean 

MIDDLE SCHOOL - 728 

Y. MAN ABE, Principal 

Total Enrolment 1918 



Under the Management of the Japan 
Methodist Church, the Methodist Epis 
copal Church South, and the United 
Church of Canada. 



The American Bible Society 

The American Bible Society is an interdenomina 
tional missionary organization whose sole object is 
to encourage a wide circulation of the Holy Scrip 
tures without note or comment. 

Translation, publication, and distribution are all 
involved in, the accomplishment of this purpose. 

Translation is a long and cosily process, but it is 
fundamental: Publication is calculated to be partially 
self-supporting through the sale of Scriptures with 
out profit: Distribution is largely missionary work 
through the agency of colporteurs whose salaries and 
expenses must be provided. 

The expenses of the Society in carrying on these 
three processes are very large and are met prin 
cipally through voluntary gifts. Such gifts, whether 
large or small, are welcome. 



THE JAPAN AGENCY 

This Agency was established in 1876. By the end 
of 1929. it had circulated a total of 9,357,793 copies 
of the Scriptures in Japan. It is still carrying on. 

THE BIBLE HOUSE IN TOKYO 

Since the great earthquake the Japan Agency has 
been housed in very temporary and inadequate 
quarters. Its paramount need is a permanent build 
ing. While it carries Scriptures in many different 
languages its stock of The Book in Japanese is 
especially complete and ample. The Secretary and 
his Staff are always glad to render any service in 
their power to patrons and friends. The Bible House 
is centrally located and easy of access. Address, 
or call at. 



THE AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY 

No. 2 SHICHOME, GINZA. TOKYO 

Phone: Kyobashi 6802 
Telegraphic Address: "Bibles Tokyo" 




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(A DEPARTMENT OF THE OMI MISSION) 

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BRANCHES: Fujiya Bldg.. Toranomon. TOKYO 

Daido Seimei BMjr., Tosabori, OSAKA 
Main Street of Karuizawa. SHINSHT 



THE CABLE PIANO 

( Full line of sizes 
and styles) 

Y950.00 Yl.800.00 



THE CABLE CO. S 
"101 BEST SONGS" 

( \V i t h music) 
Single 25 ten 
Bv 100 20 , 



MKNTHOLATUM (at any dru^ or department store 

in Jup:m ). 
STERLING CAS RANGE (best made with vertical 

broiler). 
STERLING HKATER (for small houses, churches. 

kindergartens, etc.). 
SAVAGE WASHER AND DRYER i Savage does an 

entire week s wash in an hour -or less). 
GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. S REFRIGERATOR. 
FURNITt RE. DRAPERIES. l 1 HOLSTKRY. VELOl RS 

imported at low cost. 
BEN.J. MOORE CO. S HOl SE I AINT. "MIRES( O" 

for plaster walls, STAINS. "SAM-FKAT." FLOOR 

FINISHES, etc. 

SARCENT BL ILDINC HARDWARE. 
I LUMBINC FIXTl KES. 

OTT WAY S ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOJ E. 
riTKIN FOOD FLAVOURS in bottles and tubis. 

Th- OMI SALKS COMPANY in nn i-xpi-rinnMit in 
npiilyintr th- principle of JI-UH in rmxlj-rn Iuincmi. 
It will nut hamlli- |HH,r t o -l". 

Th.-r<- in n ti N-phum- in onrh of itn nthf**. It 
ti-li. K rphic n.l.Ir^H IH "OSACO. OMI-HACHIMAN." 

Writf for other linen and priren. 



The Canadian Academy 

KOBE, JAPAN 

Under the management of the Japan Mission 
of the United Church of Canada 



American Board 
Lutheran Church of America 
Church of England in Canada 
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United Church of Canada 



perating- Missions 

Presbyterian Church North 
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Full courses from Kindergarten throucrh High School to 

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Graduates accepted without further examinations 
in Universities in England, on the Continent, 
throughout the United States and in Canada. 

Address all correspondence to: 

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/ 

KVO BUN K\VAN 

PUBLICATION DEPT: 

Includes Commentaries, Books on Apologetics and 
Devotional subjects together with Evangelical Books 
and Tracts. 
Complete catalogue gladly sent on request. 

SELLING DEFT: 

Imported publications chiefly of a religious character, 
but maintaining at the same time a more general 
stock of books on: 

Language Study. 

Philosophy and Economics. 

Art. 

Novels. 

Drama and Poetry. Literature. 
\Ve also maintain a large stock of text books from 
England and America, and can supply books in 
quantities. 

AGENCIES: 

Ginn & Co.. New York. General Text books for 

schools, 
t nderwood Typewriter Company. Typewriters and 

Accessories. 

BRANCHES AT: Aoyama 7-chome. Tokyo. 
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CHRISTIAN LITERATURE SOCIETY 

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W 1 

i * * i H- " 

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3 S H I 



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