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^ 'A- 



KAl.KUUl, N. (.'. 





!--• 1 -■'<». 


H. T. BAHNSON, M. D., Satan, N. C. 

\K1. l'Kl.MI)I.NT : 

II. B. Haiti. i.. I'h. I) Raleigh, N. C 

UtSIDSMl vici. i-rksiuknt : 
J. A. Houots, B, Ac.k Chapel Hill, N. C 


P. P. Vknahi.k. Ph. I).. P. C. S Chapel Hill. X. C. 


J. W. GORB, C. E Chapel Hill, X. C. 





List of Officers 

On the Determination of Avail;. hit- Phosphoric Acid in PertiH 

Containing Cotton E P. B. Dancy s 

The Distribution ol Add Among Plants. J. S. Callison 14 

On the Occurrence of Boracic A«.iil .1^ an Impurity in Ilk* 

liis. P, I*. Venable and J. S. Callison 11 

The Determination of Crude FilR-r. \V. A. Withers 
Some Modifications of tin- Method for Determining Crude Piber. \V. 

a. Withers 
( )n Three Mew A Kuni 

Two \Yu Meteoric Irons, i'. i'. Venable 31 

cription of the Meteorites of North Carolina, p. 1*. 

Venable ;; 

New and Improved Methods 1 S. J. Hinsdale 52 



Elislia Mitclidl Scientific Society, 


l;V P. B. DAS< V L B 

The term available phosphoric loid i- need to denote the dif- 
ferenoe between the total phosphorie acid in ■ fertiliser ami tin* 
insoluble. The total phosphorie acid is the entire amount of 
phosphorie acid, of whatever kind, that the fertiliser contains. 

The insoluble phonphorio acid ii rally seeepted, that phos- 

phorie acid which is left after two grams of the fertilizer, ground 

to pass a sieve of ■pproximately twenty meshei t<» the lioesr 

inch, have had the soluble phosphoric acid extracted with cold 
water and then been digested tor thirty minutes, with agitation 
every live minute-, at 85 ( '., with one hundred cubic centiuie- 
tere of a Strictly neutral solution of ainnioiiiuin citrate of I spe- 
cific gravity of 1*09, immediately after which digestion they 
have been thoroughly washed with cold water. 

The avaUabUy then, being the difference b e twe e n the total and 

the insoluble, it follows that inso/ubles being equal, the availabU 
varies exactly and directly as the total; and total* being equal, 
the available varies exactly, though inversely, as the insoluble. 

Tin- total is a definite end fixed quantity, and there should, 

therefore, he DO material variation in its determination beta 
the work of accurate analysts. Not BO with the others. The 

6 .Ktl'KNAI. OF I Ml. 

toluble, insoluble, reverted t and available are ool fixed and defi- 
nite quantities. They are dependenl on to many conditions of 
time, temperature, degree of fineness, quality and quantity of 
solvent, agitation, etc., that it is do matter of wonder thai even 
skillful manipulators vary iu their determination. They are the 
results of methods, and will vary according to 1 1 * « - method or the 
manner of executing tin- details of 1 1 » « - method. But, as baa 
been remarked ;ui<l as its name implies, the total is all the phos- 
phoric acid in the material under examination, of whatever kind 
and iii whatever shape or form. It i- not what i- gotten by i 
method, but ir/inf there it there, and any method, therefore, thai 
mils tu reach any pari or kind of it is not i method for total 

phosphoric acid. It i- - (times said thai discrimination 

impracticable, and thai all fertilisers should !«• treated equally 
and alike. The position is untenable. It mighl a- well I*- 
urged that in order not to discriminate the plain soda-lime 
method for the determi nation of nitrogen Bhould be used on all 
fertilizer-, those containing nitrate- as well a- those containing 
organic nitrogen alone, when every one knows that it is inade- 
quate in the presence of nitrates. So a total method which i- 
adequate for some kinds of fertilizers, but not for other-, cannot 
he applied to all on the above ground or any other ground, with- 
out manifest injustice to those fertilizers for which the method i- 


The Association of Official Agricultural Chemists in their 
official methods (Bulletin 24, United State- Department of Agri- 
culture) give three alternate method- of determining total pi 

phoric acid. There is no distinction made between them, no 
indication that either is better adapted than the other for any 
particular class of fertilizers. The presumption is, that they are 
given as interchangeable and equally allowable for all classes of 
fertilizers, at the pleasure or option of the operator. It is the 
purpose of this article to show that one of them, at lea^; 
entirely inadequate for fertilizers that contain cotton seed meal, 
and that any chemist who uses this method on such fertilize: 
in almost certain danger of doing these fertilizers a great injustice. 


The method referred to i- the second of the three given, namely: 

"Solution in thirty c. a of concentrated nitric acid with I small 

quantity of hydrochloric acid." The writer baa not extended 
his investigation, except imperfectly, to the other two methods, 

It is only with this one, a- applied to cotton seed fertilizers, that 
this article has to do. 

Cotton need fertilisers are comparatively unknown in the 
North. It seems, therefore, that the Southern members of the 
A. O. A. ( '. must not have been very wide-awake to the interests 
of a class of fertilizer manufacturers peculiar to their own - 

tion of country when they failed to have attached to this method, 

at the time when it was adopted by their Association a- one of 
three alternate methods, the limitation "not applicable to : 
tilizers containing cotton seed meal." 

CottOO seed meal i- readily and entirely soluble in eitli 

"nitric acid with a small qoanity of hydrochloric acid" or in 

nitric acid alone. lint such a §oluUem d >j> its vk 

phorio acid (<> molybdie solution. It would appear that certain 
nitro-organic oompounda are formed which prevent the phos- 
phoric acid in the solution from being yielded up to the molybdic 
precipitant. Whether this is effected l>v in aonie way rendering 
the menstruum a solvent for the phospho-molybdate of ammonia 
that ought to he formed, or, by holding the phosphoric acid in 
check, serves thus to prevent such a combination, i* not eh 

Bui the fact remains. The attention of the writer wag first for- 
cibly directed to it when a -ample of cotton seed meal was sub- 
mitted to him for a determination of the available phosphoric 

acid it contained. A nitric acid solution of two grams of it was 

made (using alao a little hydrochloric acid), the solution being 

perfect, and a total phosphoric acid percentage of 0.51 found. 

A duplicate made in the same way yielded <>.o4 percent. ]>eing 
convinced that there was much more phosphoric acid in the meal 
than this, and recalling that a short time previously a gentleman 
had remarked that a friend of his had found materially more 
phosphoric add in the ash of cotton seed meal than by acid solu- 
tion, two grams of the meal were ignited to perfect ash, the ash 

H .joiiCNA). 01 TBI 

dissolved in ;n'id, and I percentage of 3.2 \ of (OfoJ pho-ph<,rir 

acid found ; ■ duplicate in the hum manner yielded 3.20, though 
in thii cms tli«' incineration was not qnite m perfect, a little '-liar 
being left. The true per « -« - 1 > t . of total phosphoric acid in the 
meal then waa 3.24. a solntiou of two gnuna made by bydro- 

ohloric arid with chlorate of potB*fa BUM failed by something 

more than half of getting the full amount. Thii yielded 1.46 
per cent. Next two grams of the meal were taken, washed with 

cold water in exactly the MUM manner a- when extracting the 
xnhihlf phosphoric add from an ordinary fertilizer, then d 
with citrate solution and again washed exactly a- ifl done in the 
determination of in.solnhlr phosphoric acid. The n-idne 

ignited and the phosphoric acid determined. It was found fa 

0.24 per cent. So not only did a cotton seed meal which showed 
only half a per cent bf total phosphoric add to a nitric acid 
solution contain in reality three ami a qusrter per cent., but tl, 

per cent, of this three and a quarter per cent was available by 

the methods of analysis. 

A cotton" ^\-i\ meal fertilizer may easily contain one-third 
cotton seed meal, and, if the meal had the composition of that 

examined above, would owe one per cent, of its available pi 
phoric acid to the meal. If, therefore, such a fertiliser were to 
be analyzed by the nitric; acid method, it would theoretically 
show a shortage of nearly one per cent, of available phosphoric 

acid (0.90 exactly). While none of the experiments herein given 
exhibit as great a disparity as this, some approximate, it, and it 
is believed that a disparity fully equal to this is quite possible. 
Whether the entire disparity is always due to the retention of 
the phosphoric acid of the meal alone, or whether in some Cfl 
the meal, while holding some of the phosphoric acid of the 
phosphate in check, gives up more of its own, or whether, in 
other cases, the phosphoric acid of the phosphate in precipitating 
carries more of the meal's phosphoric acid down with it than 
would otherwise go and thus lessens the disparity, is not clear. 
I am inclined to think that new and fresh meal will exhibit this 
peculiarity in a greater degree than old meal, though of that I 


cannot gpeak definitely. However that may be, then- -eem- to 
be not much doubt that the disparity will be greater or le-- 
according to various eonditione not well understood, and may 
vary from a third or a half of a per cent. to even M much a- 
one per cent. 

Six fertilizer- containing cotton seed meal were cho-cii. They 
were not laboratory mixture-, but DOM fide commercial fertili/ 
on -ale in North ( 'arolina. They will l>e distinguished II 
76, 77, 78, 1 10 and o7. In etofa the pho.-phoric aeid wa- deter- 
mined by dissolving two grams in nitric- ACld plus a little hydro- 
chloric acid with protracted heating. This i- designated in the 
table below ai "acid solution." Then in each the pnosphoric 
acid wa- determined by incinerating two grams and dissoh 

the ash in nitric acid. Thi- i- designated in the tab* 

"incineration. 11 Following are the results: 

Total I'lios. Add... 



g it 





Acid Solution 

9.16 j 9.93 



I titferenoe 



No. o7 was an old cotton seed meal fertilizer that had 
carried over from last season. The meal bad completely changed 

color to a dark brown, SO that to the eye the fertilizer would 
never have been judged tO be ■ cotton seed fertilizer. In this 
one alone was there no difference in the re.-ults of the two 

It is believed that the disparity in all these probably 

not SO great as it should be; that i- to -ay, that the incineration 
method as here used probably does not give the full content of 
phosphoric acid, for th«s reason. The inferiority of the solvent 
power of nitric acid for phosphates to that of hydrochloric acid 
is well recognized. I believe that this inferiority is greater when 
the phosphate has been ignited. To test this an acid phosphate 

In JOURJTAL "F i in. 

was chosen, of which two grams were dissolved in nitric neid 
and hydrochloric acid, and the total phosphoric arid found to be 
I 1.66 percent. Another two grama were then ignited (br about 
the aame length of time that it requires to incinerate two grama 
of b ootton aeed meal fertiliser to complete ash, and t Ik-m di— 
solved in nitric :i<id. The determinations were parallel, bo thai 
each received the mom amount of heating with acid, which wan 
protracted. In the case of the ignited phosphate, undissolved 
portions were plainly manifest to the eye, and the percent 
found was only L3.62. The undissolved portiona were filtered 
out and readily yielded to hydrochloric acid, giving fulaome p 
cipitate of phosphoric acid. Next, another two grama were 
ignited and dissolved in hydrochloric add, when the full content 
of phosphoric acid was readily yielded. Hence, it i» concluded 
that had hydrochloric acid been need to dissolve the ri% inciner- 
ated fertilizers employed in the above experiments, higher per- 
centages would in all probability have been found. Fusion 
would have furnished an absolutely certain mean- of arriving at 
the undoubted maximum content of phosphoric acid, but time 
was limited and simple incineration vras resorted to on account 
of expedition ; and solution in nitric acid instead of hydrochloric 
acid was employed after incineration because, a- the results were 
to he compared, it was advisable to employ the same solvent 
power in each case. 

In addition to the six experiments described above attention 
is called to the following: Two samples of cotton seed fertilia 
were procured in which another chemist had made determinations 
of total phosphoric by the nitric acid method. His total* were 
9.13 and 9.33. I found by incineration and solution in hydro- 
chloric acid 9.85 and 10.13, a difference of 0.72 per cent, and 
0.80 per cent, respectively. Taking his own determination- of 
insoluble, the available by his analysis was 0.72 percent short in 
the first instance (7.40 per cent, when it should have been 8.12 
per cent.), and 0.80 per cent, short in the second instance 7."-"i 
when it should have been 8.30 per cent.). The disparity here is 
excessive, but the fault' is not due to the chemist but to the 


method. Being one 1 of the alternate methods of the A. < ). A. 

('., he had no reason to doubt its adequacy. 

Having looked at one side of the determination of availabl* 
phosphoric acid in fertilizers containing cotton seed meal, let OS 
turn to the other, namely, the determination of maohtbU. As 

almost the entire content of phosphoric acid in tlie meal has b 

shown to be available, it might be anticipated that there would 
be likely not to be much difference in the determination of 

insoluble whether the citrate-extracted residue IS first incinerated 

or dissolved directly in acid. Such was found by experimenta- 
tion to be the fact. Jn fact, in every ease but one (and this was 
the same fertiliser that was the exception to the total rnle. 
namely, the old one brought from the previous . slightly 

higher inaohtbU was found by dissolving in acid directly than 

after incineration. 

The details of the two methods of determining the msohM* 

wilt- these: Alter filtering from the citrate and thoroughly wash- 
ing, the filter and contents were in the first instance incinerated 
and the ash dissolved in nitric acid (designated in the table 
below as "incineration"), and in the second instance the filter 
ami contents were introduced directly into flasks and completely 

dissolved with nitric acid ami a little hydrochloric acid (the 

"acid solution 1 ' of the table below). The samples used P. 
the same as those used in the total experiments, with tie 
tion of l lt>, which was not used. 

Insoluble Phosphoric 












I llriiltlilliiil) 

1 59 

Acid Solution 

1 4"» 


Whether the excess of insoluble by direct acid solution was 
due to mechanical loss in the incineration by the other method 
(which in these instances is not at all apprehended, though it i- 
believed that care is necessary to with certainty guard against 


such loea), of whether, as i- modi more likely, it eras due to 

imperfect -< >l i] t if >i i of tin- ignited pho-phate by nit ri<* acid I 

danger already pointed out), ia not positively shown. But it 
should be remarked thai in the oaae of 77, which i- the caee of 
greateel diaparitj, the nndieeolved portiona were menifeel to the 

eye, and it is the writer's conviction that had hydrochloric aotd 

been used inetead of nitric, there would have been no material 
difference i" the reaolta of the two method-., either in theae nar- 
tionlar determinationa, or in any other determination-. It ia 
regarded a- certain, therefore, that there wdi be found no mate- 
rial difference in the tntohbU by which ever way determined. 
Una being true, the availabU will vary directly and exactly 

the total i and, therefore, l>y ju-t -o much ai a total II short on 

account of the inadequacy of the nitric acid method when need 
on cotton aeed meal fertilizers, by just so much will the avoMabU 
be short. 

Now a few words as to what method i.s adequate and a \<-\y 

few experimental determinationa on this point, and the subject 
will for the present be laid aside. It ia a matter of regret to 
the writer that the time waa not at hi- disposal for more extended 
experimentation on the subject. Nevertheless he i- none the less 

convinced, on account of the limited number of experiment- bete 
presented, of the truth of the point urged. 

In order to compare the total as made by several different 
methods sample 110 was chosen. This sample was sent by a 
fertilizer company, who took a fair sample of a large lot of goods 
at their factory, thoroughly mixed the sample and sent one-half 
to the writer and one-half to a chemist in another State. The 
total was determined first by fusing two grams of the fertilizer 
with a mixture of equal parts of carbonate of soda and nitrate 
of potash, as giving with certainty the maximum content, and 
furnishing a standard for comparison. It was then determined 
by incineration and solution in hydrochloric acid, by incineration 
and solution in nitric acid, by solution direct in hydrochloric 
acid with chlorate potash, and lastly, by solution direct in nitric- 
acid and a little hydrochloric acid. Following are the result- : 


Fusion, ...... lU. 14 per cent. 

Incineration and solution in IK'I., . 10.09 

UNO,. . . 1007 

Solution direct in HCI. 4- KCK) . . 10.11 

BNO, + little IK I.. 

Prom the above it -rem- that in thin case all the method* 
the nitric acid methtxl were adequate, but it i- not apprehended 
that this will hold ^ihi I in all oases. For, while here inciiw 
tiini and solution in nitric acid sufficed, then- ii certainly the 
danger of im per fed notation already referred to; and while here 
also solution in hydrochloric acid with potassium chlorate suf- 
ficed, it has already been shown that this method tailed to extract, 

from the meal alone, more than half it- content of phosphoric 

acid. Fusion is, of course, always adequate, hot too time-con- 
suming", if any other adequate method [ess SO is at hand It 
seems probable that incineration and solution in hydrochloric 

acid furnishes all that could be desired. 

It is in point to add that in thifl case the writer reported to 

the manufacturers a total of 1 < » . 1 1 per cent., this being an aver- 
age of the first four determination-. '1 'he intolubU found !>y 

incineration and solution in hydrochloric aeid was 1.47, making 

an available of 8.64. It i- not known what method the chemi-t 

used to which the other half of this sample was sent, but bis 
total wa- t>.72, bia intotuble 1,50 and hi- availably therefore, 
8.22. Note that the two inaoluble§ are practically the same, and 

that, therefore, hi- ttVOilobU i- less than the writer'- l>\ practi- 
cally the same amount that the writer'.- t<>Uil i- greater than his. 

vv \i \ . i ■ w Lai u i>ky, 
Kai i 

II JOUBM \i. OP i hi: 

mmiwi i mi , \\»i i in *i < iimnTir, 

\ M IV| I ' A K T 



i:v .1. & ( \l.l.i-<>\ 

Attention wu Ural drawn t«» tin- possibility of f >< »i-:t«i<- acid 
oooorring u a normal constituent in certain plants by its discov- 
ery in normal < klifornia wine. 

Baumert" Brat drew sttention to this in 1885, snd his results 
were confirmed by Etitiingi snd Crampti 

These observations were extended toother vino by Baumert,! 
Soltsein|| and KipjK?r.^[ 

It was shown by Baumert and Ripper, especially, to be almost 
invariably present in wines of all countries, in the -talk-, and 
even in the wild vim- (Soltsein). A- Crampton says, "There 
<-ai) no longer be any question, therefore, in view of this man c»f 
evidence, that borscic acid is a normal and frequently occurring 
constituent of the grape plant." He then asks the question, if 

borecic is SO universal a constituent of the grape plant, why not 
of other plant- as well? In answering this question he exam- 
ined certain plants, as the peach, water-melon, apple, -ngar-lx-et 
and sugar-cane Thinking this distribution of boracic acid to 
he a question of decided importance, I have extended the exami- 
nation, to many other ashes than those mentioned by Crampton, 
coming from other classes of plants than fruits, though including 
also some of the fruits. 

The results of my work have confirmed the conclusions that 
boracic acid is very widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, 

*Land\v. Versuchstat. 33, 39-88. 

■(•Report of Sixth Vitieultural Convention, 1888. 

JAmer. Chem. Journal, Vol. II, 227. 

{ZeHschrift fur Naturwissenchaften, 1887, and Ber. d. deutseh. Chem. Ges. 21, SSM, 

UPharmaoeutische Zeitung 33, No. 42, p. 312. 

fWeinbaa and Weinhandel: Organ des deutschen Weinbauvereins, No. 3G, 1888. 


and that there seem-- to be a power of selection on the part of 
the plants, some having DO affinity for and not taking np the 
boracic acid, though growing on the -ame soil from which other 

plants absorb it. We an- forced to the belief that it is contained 

in the soil and that the plants draw it from that source, yet in 

no case could I detect it- presence in the soil, and in no well 
water examined could I ^t a test for it. It is easily possible 
that other waters might contain it. It would he of great interest 

to extend this examination of natural water- BO SS to see w h. th. r 

the horaeie acid in the -"il is in a soluble form or not. It may 
he present in a form soluble in plant solvents and insoluble in 
natural waters. Of course it i- possible, also, that it i- present 

in such great dilution that the amount of water evaporated failed 

to give the qualitative testa My examination of different fer- 
tilizing material- revealed the tact that several of the commonest 
contained boracic acid in appreciable amounts, and heme, l>v this 
means, it is being constantly added to -nil under cultivation. 

Of course stable manure, coming from grain and straw, 

restores t<> the -oil the boracic acid contained in tl 

A further important tact brought out by this research i- that 

every sample of eau-tie alkali examined contained boracic acid. 
These Bamples were from the beat known manufacturers, and 
were marked chemically pure. As the-c alkalies, especially 

potassium hydroxide, are u-ed in most ot the method- tor deter- 
mining boracic acid, it i- manifestly of great importance to secure 

them free from it a- an impurity. I think it possible that the 
boracic acid in these samples, or at least in some of them, may 
have come from the glaae of \e— el- used in their manufacture 
or from the bottles containing them. 

The method of testing was that used by Meisell for the detec- 
tion ^>t' boracic acid in milk.* About one gram of the ash was 
treated with strong hydrochloric acid and boiled a few minute- 
to insure solution. It was then filtered from the unburnt car- 
bon, insoluble silica, etc. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness 

ungamlttel \i. 


on a Band-bath and the heat continued until th of acid 

was driven off mix I the residue assumed n white ap| 
This was then moistened with very « 1 i 1 1 1 1 < • hydrochloric acid 
(I : 100), a few drops of tincture of turmeric were added, and 
the entire mass dried down on i water bath. The appearand 
the cherry-red <>r cinnabar-red color was taken an an eviden© 
boracic acid. The residue »^ then used for the flame tests. 
This was made by placing i part of it upon i strip of platinum, 
moistening with alcohol and igniting. The green flame flashes, 
best observed by blowing out end relighting the alcohol, s 
regarded a>> confirmatory of the turmeric teats. The flame teat 
is, however, not so delicate as the latter, is has ilao been obsei 

by < lamptiin. 

The relative ami absolute delicacy of t h- was also 

approximately determined, The flame reaction was -till clear 
with .<>I gm. of boracic acid, but could n<>t be gotten with .001 
gm. This latter amount gave the color reaction, but .0001 _ 
failed to give it. 

These figures apply, of course, only t<> boracic acid treated 
under like circumstances to the ash. 1<» cc. of a solution of 
boracic acid of known strength was evaporated in a small poi 
lain dish and the residue manipulated exactly a- in Meisell's t 

The porcelain di-hes used in this research, and other apparatus 
where the presence of boracic acid might be suspected, were care- 
fully tested and shown tree from anything that could conflict 
with the tests. 

The appended table gives the substances examined and the 
results of the tests. In many eases the tests wen- carefully 
repeated to insure accuracy. The specimens were chosen so as 
to represent as many different classes of plants as possible. In 
the case of caustic alkalies the evaporation and testing were done 
in platinum vessels. 

The experiments with various chemicals, pure and commer- 
cial, were begun with the idea of seeing whether those which 
might have come from some plaut source, contained this sub- 
stance so generally present in the plants themselves. The caustic 



alkalies were examined with a view to their use in 1 1 1 « - quantita- 
tive determination of boracic arid. Sonic other chemicals, as 
ferric oxide, were examined to Bee if thcv would in any way 
interfere with the teat when present 

The table which follows will need no further explanation. I 
wish to express my obligations t<> Dr. F. W Venable for his 
guidance and supervision of my work in this research. 


(■.milium N 


lame Rl 


Fig, | 

Ficus Carica 







Diospyros Virginians Yea fainl 

i | 


1. -lives 


Pear, bran 

PyniS Communis 





Apple, pulp 






Peach, braaebei 

I'rnnns ( ..ininunis 



lea , 

\ M 


Honey Locost, pods 

< Heditecbia triaoaa* 


Lemoa, pulp 

(itrns Limooum 



i sj 


< hrange, pulp 

l itrns Anrantiiun 

\ . - 








Musa Sapienlum 

i .- 


l>aies, dried 

Y. - 






i taint i 


Cherry, branefaei 

Pruotu Ceracut 





very taint Ye* 

. fainl I 


Coonanut, shell 





Raspberry, leaves 

Rnbus Btrigoeos 

. i 


Blackberry, stalk 

Ktibns Villosus 






Strawberry, leaves 

Pragaria V 




Grape, Concord 


Vitis Labrueca 


Y. - 




\ St 

2 S' 

Wild, les ■ 

Vitis Cordifolia 








.MH i:n \i. (ii i m: 

Vegetable* <in<l Grains. 


1', ■ 

l'istuii Arv. 


Bast, nint 

Beta. Vnl;' 



Salsify. roOl 

Fragopogon Porrife 


(very fai 


Ira . 


( rlirv 

A pi urn QrareoletM 


Wheat, grata 

Triticnm Vulgar* 

i stall 


Oats, grain 

\ \. hi Saliva 




■TCW stalk 


Corn, grain 

'/.<■ \ M 











Maple, branohai 

Acer Kubriim 


lea I 


Willow, branches 

Balis Nigra 



Mulberry, wood 

Morns rubra 






Walnut, branches 

Julians Nigra 




Sumach, berries 

Kims oopallioa 




Pine, long leaf, 


I'iiius Australia 







short leaf 

Pinus Mitis 







Dogwood, branches 

Corn ns Florida 

Yes (faint) 



Cedar, branches 

JnoiparOfl Virginian 



lea rea 



Oak, branches 

Quercus alba 











i faint j 


Sycamore, branches 

> Plantanus Occidentalia Yes 



Elm, branches 





Black How, 


Viburnum PrunifoliumYes 








67 Hickory, branches Car pa Yes 

68 nut Yet faint; faint) 

69 Magnolia, brandies Ma-nolia GrandiHora Ye> 

70 Iea\ Ym 

71 Holly, branches Ilex Opaca Ym 

72 lea\ Ym Y«- 

73 berries 

71 I'aiilonia, buds I'aulonia imperials "i • - 

7") poll V. - 

70 < )sage Orange Madura Aurautiaea Y'es 'faint) 

• Plants. 


. Tobacco, stalk 

Nil -ulian:! Tabaeillii 







Cotton, lint 

vpiuin berb.ii iiiiii Y( 


very faint) 



\ • 






Azalea I ml ic:i. 


Azalea linlica 

faint i 




( In \ santbeiniini, 

(In vsantbeinum 




Y. - taint | 






brant li.-s 



Sin i lax EtotnodifolinmYw 


is Stricta 


Ifcd B tiva 

Clover, red 

Trifoliuin Pral 




Trifolium Re| 

Y. - 


( Orchard < 1 

1 toctyfit (iluinerata 

Y* - taint; 



BltM I 

P(W C nip 


Sni/s, Water* "/<</ Fertilizers. 

Comuoa N 

Kern | 


> tion. 




'2 kilos taken 




Sanity, rich 




Sandy, pour 





Red ( lay 




Well Water, No 


4S l'ners taken 





;„; •• 




.lot KNAL "I I II I. 







1 26 







Water from lOtftll 

Bom and Paravian 

( inaiio 

Peruvian < ruaoo 
Boat A -l» 

Bodium Nitrate 
Muriate of Potaafa 



Potaaainm Nitrate 
Potaaainon < iarbooala 
Potaaftiuno < Shlorata 
1'mi leaium < larbooata 
Potawiutn Phoapbate 
Sodium Nitrate 
Sodium Carbouata 
mi < larbooata 
Porric < > x i « 1 « - 
Oooceotrated Lye 
PotMRiam i larbooata 
Potaaaium Hvdroxide 

:u\ i it i 

< rude 

Pof IVriii 

( hemioaU. 

i r 
C. P. 

< . P. 

< Sooamercial 
I P 

I . P. 
- P. 

< . P. 


ni Vi- 

( oinmereial 


< '. 1'., Troiiimsdorf 

" " by alcohol, Ifarquart 

" " by baryta, Bchachardt 

" " Einier iV Amend 

" ( . I\, free from A I . ' 

SiO, and BO 
Kimer A Amend 
Bodinm Hydroxide C P. 

126 Ammonium 






No " 







tint Ye- 
very faintj 


University of North Carolina, 




In the course of a reNearrh upon the distribution of boracic 
acitl in (he ashes of plants, it was derided tn make boom quanti- 
tative estimation* of the boraeic acid present. The reagent* 
be used were first themselves tested for boracic acid, and, much 
t(» our surprise, no sample of the caustic alkalies could be pro- 
cured free from it- Sj>ecimen8 coming from some of the moat 
noted manufacturers, Schuchardt, afarquart, and Troramsdorff, 
purified by alcohol or by baryta, were found to eontain l» ■ i 
acid, and sometimes in decidedly appreciable amounts, 
quantitative determination has been made, but, judging from 
the known delicacy of tin- qualitative teats, the amount must h 
often exceeded 0.1 per eent., and iras probably much greater. 

As the can-tic alkali' illy potassium hydroxide, an 

frequently used in the methods for the quantitative determina- 
tions of boracic acid,* tlii> presence of it as an impurity nun 
a serious source <>f error. The knowledge of it is important on 

otlicr "round- as well. 

■ . for instance, M i hem. Jour. X, 1 • 


(JxiTCItStTI "*' NoBTM Cm;i.iiva, 
M a> 

22 JOURNAL 01 i hi: 



This was begun to a s cert a in, if possible, tome of the can* 
the discrepancy in results obtained by different chemists fur 
crude lilicr. The -ample- were Timothy hay ind cotton 
meal. They were nut extracted with ether previous i" treat- 
ment with alkali and acid, a- is customary in ordinary analyi 
Except when so stated, the solutions used were l 1 per cent. 
II.s<> 4 , ami i| per cent. Na 2 o solul ion-, the time of boiling 
30 minutes, and the result* in per cent, calculated on the dry 


The following questions were considered : 

1. Amount of* Na 2 < > neutralised. 

By titration befbre ami after treatment, an average of ~> dif- 
ferent determinations gave an equivalent of .114 grams Xa 2 
neutralized by Timothy hay for every gram of substance taken, 
showing that only a very -mall portion of the Na 2 added enl 
into chemical combination, ami part of this is in the saponiBca- 
tion of the fat which would usually be extracted with ether, 

2. Sulphuric acid neutralised. 

Residues from Timothy hay, after treatment with Xa 2 solu- 
tion, were taken. It was found that for each gram of substance 
originally taken, .01 gram of H 2 S( ) 4 wa> neutralized, showing 
that the H 2 S( >4 does not center into chemical combination at all. 

3. Effect of different strengths of Xa 2 () solution. 

This was tested on Timothy hay with the following results: 

Time of treatment 45 minutes. lh lionrs. 

NaO (grams) used per gram of) 2 34 ] 27 1 -~>7 ] 00 

substance / 

(33.67 35.26 33.34 35.06 

Residues ^ 33.28 35 36 33.70 35.30 

( ... ... 3388 

Average 33.48 35.31 33.64 35.18 

Differenceduetodifferentstrengths 1 - „~ ... 

of Na20 solution / 


This shows that the Btronger the solution, or the mora of the 

same solution used, the smaller is the per cent, of fil>er. 
4. Effect of time in treatment with Na*0 solution. 

In the filtration a hi tuple asbestos filter aras used. After boil- 
ing the suh-tancc for ■*}<) minutes with I he alkali, the residue \\a- 
det ached from the filter as completely as possible, and subje 

to another similar treatment with a new portion of the reagent. 
This method avoids very largely errors of analysis that woukl 

he shown had different samples been taken and treated for dif- 
ferent lengths of time. Duplicate determinations .A and I> a 

made : 

Tkkatmi n N 

Al.K Ml. 





Tim-oii v II IT. 






31.85 1 f.4 






.7 'J 


With H, 



•J. 41 

These treatments represent about •"><> minutes contact with the 
alkali, l>ein>; about 1<> minute- to raise to boiling, 30 minutes 

boiling, S minutes standing, and 5 minutes filtering. The first 
treatment required from 10 to lo minutes in filtering, thus 
making the contact longer. In the case of Timothy hay, th< 
fort', this difference is about .<'" per cent, of fiber per minute, and 
of cotton seed meal .01 per cent. 

5. Effect of time in treatment with H 2 S() 4 solution. 

The residue after treatment with alkali was treated in the 
same way as above. Timothy hay was used. 

'J I .loi RNAL OF I HE 

treatment with 

Mid 1. 29.10 

2. 28.20 


27 60 


The time of contact with acid waa about 10 minutes, which 
makes a difference of nearly ,02 per cent. »>f fiber for every min- 
ute of treatment with arid. 

Ladd (5th N. Y. Ex, Sra. Rep.) baa shown that tbedegn 
heal employed causes a difference in reaulta. The above work 
shows thai differences are ; « I — * » doe to amounl and t<> the con« 
centration of the different reagenta used, and to the time ofcon- 
tact. To aeoure agreement in reaulta, uniformity in ;ill these 
conditions must !>«• attaint I. 

( Granting this can be done with different vrorkerM, the question 
uf accuracy of reaulta confronts ns. Without going into a review 
of the work of different chemists bearing on this point, I should 

like to call attention to the above tables Under 1 ami •">. ( )ii" of 
two conclusion- inu-t he drawn from this work, viz.: 1-t, That 

if half an hour's treatment with each alkali and acid is sufficient 

to give the |>»i' cent, of crude fiber, then crude fiber is soluble in 
both alkali and acid, and that to a somewhat considerable ex- 
tent ; or, 2d, that it' crude fiber is not soluble in tip ots, 
then <) treatments with alkali, and '■) subsequent treatments with 
acid, are not sufficient to separate it. Prom either of these con- 
clusions it is evident that the method lacks accuracy, and is at 
best only a rapid method of rough approximation to the truth. 

6. Ash in the residue. 

Six samples were taken for this : 

2 treated with alkali 45 minutes and acid 1 hour. 
2 " li 1J hours " " \ " 

2 " " " " " •' " 1 " 

In no case was any ash found in the residue. 

7. Nitrogen in the residue. 


The albuminoid equivalent of this was found to vary from I 
per cent. to ■"> per cent, with one treatment with alkali. The 
acid subsequent treatment did not remove any more, bat subse- 
quent treatments with alkali left DO nitrogen. 
Chemical Ltsoa i 

■■ill. I M\ I 11811 Y. 



With the method now in use ror determining orude fiber 
(vide Bui. 19, 1888, I 8. Dept of Ag.) there m little trouble 
in the manipulation, except in cat ding-stuffs, in which 

the percentage of albuminoids id rather large. In all such 
<-a-es, however, the albuminoids precipitated by the treatment 
with II..s<> 4 seriously impede the filtration, rendering it \ 
slow, and from this longer contact causes a part of the crude 

fiber to he dissolved. 

This difficulty can Ik- obviated by treating tin- substance with 
the I lution before rather than after the treatment with 

1 1 .St ) 4 solution. 

To te-t this modification, I compared it with the ordinary 

method, on samples of Timothy hay and cotton seed meal. In 
both cases clear filtrates were secured by the modification in 
from 1 o to ;!() minutes, while with the ordinary method the fil- 
tration with the hay required about the same time; hut the 

cotton seed meal from is to 24 hours, and then the filtrate was 

not clear. With Timothy hay the two methods gave practically 
the same results. With cotton seed meal the ordinary method 
gave 2.68 per cent, and 2.91 percent., an average of 2.80 per 
cent., while the modification gave, with five determination-. 
3.63 per cent., 3.58 per cent., •'».'>!• per cent., 3.49 per cent., 

26 JOURU \i. OF i in 

3. 1 1 per ••••lit., an average of 3.57 percent The determine! i< 
in hay show the modification given reliable result*. In the i 
of cotton seed meal, however, we we thai 77 per cent erode fiber 
is dissolved by the ordinary method, on accouiil of th<- Ion 
cootad produced by the slow filtration, being more than 20 

Cent of ill' 1 whole amount. 

For accuracy and, therefore, agreement of results, ai \\<-ll a* 
time-saving, this modification seems t<> recomroend itself. 

/!nj>i<l I-'i/fi r. -The asbestos filter given good results if covered 
with a layer ofglass woo!. Qsrs should be taken, however, not 
to add too much li«jni<l at s time, as this may cause the gl 
wool to become displaced. Tin- coarse eebesti 

Ladd (N. ST. Ex, Bta. Rep., 1887, p 378) finds thai when the 
asbestos filter was returned with the residue a larger per cent of 
fiber wa> foundj and the two reasons given are thai it prevents 

so thorough « taoi with the reagents, and that it necessitated 

lowering of the temperature to prevent bumping. When, how- 
ever, the substance is Aral treated with alkali there is no tend- 
ency to bump in the acid treatment, and consequently no need of 
lowering the temperature. As to how much the first mentioned 
cause will affect the result-, I have not tested. 

Prevention of frothing in Hoi/in;/. — This can be done by direct- 
ing a moderate blast of air into the flask through a small gla-- 
tube (1.5 mm. diam.). The constant level of the liquid can lx- 
maintained by adding boiling water from time to time, or by a 
reflux condeuser. 

Chemical Laboratory, 

Cornell University. 



[Fiiom iiik. Amebu an JoOBVAl 01 Band VM. XXXVI. < 'ctobeb, 1888.] 
Akt XXIX. 



1. )Iih nric Iron from I/tmill, Mountain, linrki I'mudti, Xofth 


A 1 1 1 n — of meteoric iron" was found on Linville Mountain, 
Burke county, N. C. (long. 31 35' W. of Greenwich, hit. 

JO' N.), tbout tin- year 1882. It WM handed U) I country 

blacksmith in the vicinity, who sold it to a tourist miner, and 
by him it was gold to Mi. Norman Spang, of Ktna, l'a., who, 
not being a collector of meteorites, ha- kindly allowed it to 
oome into my po sse ssion. 

This meteorite weighs rjs grams; the original freight was 
1 12 grams(l5J ounces), the remainder having been used for an- 
alysis and foretelling; it i- 2] indies (65 nun.) long, IJ i n«ti«- 
nun.) high, and 2\ inches (38 mm.) wid m rather 

rough, and the other pitted with very -hallow pittings. Ti 
of the black crust of magnetic oxide of iron are -till vfcible, and 
although the mass i> nut rusted, yet small drops of chloride of 
iron have collected in the deep clefts ; in one of these was also 

found a spider's egg-cae< ting that the iron is either a 

recent fall, or had been found on the surface of the ground. 

in cutting a piece from the lower side, the blacksmith has 
destroyed a good ileal of the surface a> well as the crust, on 
account of the toughness of the iron. The iron admits of a 
very high polish, yielding a rich nickel color, which, under the 
glass and by reflected light, shows an apparent net- work of two 
distinct both 

•Exhibited at the New York Ao;i<lemy of Scien 


When bromine water or dilnted nitric arid ii applied t.> i 
polished surface of the iron, it blackens and does not ibow the 
Wldmanst&tten figures. If tlii- black deposit is wanned off, an 
orientated sheen appears, which resembles thai of the < ireen county 
iron, described by Blake,* and tin- iron in the Port Orford,< 
•run, meteorite, a^ figured by Breaina and ( loheu in " I He Structur 
u ix 1 Znsammeusetcung der Meteoreisen, <t.-.' - ; Almost th<- 
entire surface has, under the glass, the appearance of a mesh-work 
(it* which the irregularly rounded centers have been eaten out. 
At a few place* on both sides of n crack is i -mall piece oftroi- 
lite •*'» nun. by 1 1 mm., through which are scattered -mall jtatcbes 
of meteoric iron that after etching exhibit henmifiil octahedral 
markings so delicate a- t<» be invisible to 1 1 • « - naked eye, and 
somewhat like those of the Tazewell, Claiborne county, meteor- 
ite, though not more than one-tenth tin- thick ru 

The following analysis was kindly furnished by Mr. J. Edward 
Whitfield, of the United States Geological Survey, through the 
courtesy of Prof, 1-'. W. < llark 



I I-..M 84 66 

Nickel 1406 1462 1406 


Copper 0*0 "''it; trace 

Sulphur 0*12 

Carbon trace 

Phosphorus " 19 021 

Magncaiam 0*24 

Silica none 0*84 

9996 99-57 9812 

Dr. F. A. Geuth has kindly furnished the following analysis 

Iron 8 

Cobalt .. 073 

Nickel 1344 


*Amer. Journal Sci., Ill, Vol. xxxi, p. 41. 
tStuttgart, 1876, Lieferung I, Tafel VI. 
^Original Researches, 1884, p. 439. 
gAmer. Journal Sei., II, Vol. xix, p. IfiS. 


It most closely resembled the Tazewell, Claiborne, and 
< 'nek, Col., meteorites in composition. I herewith take pleas- 
ure in thanking Mr. Norman Spang for his kindness in allow- 
ing me to secure the iron and for the facts of its discovery; 
also, Mr. J. Edward Whitfield and Prof. F. W. Clarke for the 

//. On the M'/<"ri<- 8totu /"/"//< Fergiioon, Haywood County, 

North < '<tr<)/iii<t. 

Mr. \\ . A. Harrison, of Ferguson, North Carolina, says that 
about six o'clock, on the evening of July 18, 1889, he noticed a 

remarkable noise west of him, and that fifteen minute- later he 
saw something strike the earth, which, on examination, proved 

to be a meteoric stone, so hot that be could scarcely hold it in 
his band five minutes after it fell. Two-thirds of it- bulk was 

buried in the earth when found. This -tone wa- NBl to tin- 
writer, and was unfortunately lost in New fork City daring the 
month <»i 1 December. 

The -tune was slightly oblong red with a deep, black 

crust, which had been broken at one end, showing a great choo- 
dritio structure with occasional specks of iron. It- weight was 
about eight ounces, and it vary closely resembled the meteoric 
stone from Aloes, Transylvania. It remained in the writ 
possession so short a time that it was not properly investigated ; 

but still the mere mention of a fall, which had been SO carefully 
observed, i- thought to be well worthy of publication. 

///. McUorie loom from Bridgewater, Burhe County, North 


The Bridgewater, Burke county, meteorite was found by a 

negro plowman, two mile- from Bridgewater Station, in the 
Western part of Burke county, near the McDowell county line 
in North Carolina. Latitude, 35° 41'; longitude, 81° 45' \\\ 
of Greenwich. The negro thought that it must be either gold 
or silver, and took it to some railroad laborers, who broke it in 
two pieces, one of which weighed ten-and-a-half, and the other 
eighteen-and-a-half pounds, together 30 pounds, equal to 1 

.K»i i:\ai. OF 'i in. 

kilos. The iron measures 22.5 i 15 j l" a 

Traces of black crust very much oxidised are -till vfaible on 
the surface. The iron in highly octahedral ia structure, and the 
maaf was readily broken by tin- laborers who found it. Betw< 
tin' cleavage plates sohreibersite is visible, 

( )n etching S polished surface of thi-> iron with dilute nit i i«- 

;icid, the characteristic Widmanst&tten figures irere shown. The 
iron belongs t<» the caillite group, and res em bles those of 1 1 » * - 
Cabin ('reck and Glorietta Mountain in strnctui 

The specific gravity of a fragment was found to l><- ti.'ilT. 
The following analysis was kindly furnished by Prof. F. P. 
\'« nable, of the I iiiv. -r-itv of North < Carolina i 




a "ii 


The nickel is the mean of two determinations, !'." 1 and l (, .l 1. 
on different parts of the sample. 

The cobalt also of tun determinations, .85 and .<i7. 

The iron is the mean of four determinations, some of which 
were not very closely agreeing, as tin- crust could not he entirely 
removed from the samples taken. 

The phosphorus and chlorine are single determinations. 

The author takes great pleasure in thanking Mr. T. K. lim- 
ner for his courtesy in obtaining the information and the iron 
for him, and in thanking Professor F. P. Venable for furnish- 
ing the analyM-. 






Tin- mass was reported to have fallen about the year 
Dear the old " Mansion Mouse," Deep Spring* Farm, in Rock- 
ingham county, N. < '. < >ne of the old rvants related to 
Mr. Liudsay, the present owner of the farm, that "the rock fell 
on a dear morning, and struck the ground about a hundred 
yards back of the garden. It frightened every one verv much. 
Colonel Jaa. Scales, the proprietor at that time, and Mr. Dillard 
took a man and arent to the spot, dug in about four or Bve 
and got it out." It layabout the house as a ouriosit] reral 
year-, w Imii it ceased to be of any more interest, and waa thrown 
aside. After Mi. T, B. Lindsay bought the farm be kept the 
meteoric mass for nveral year- upon hi- porch. In the fall of 
188!» be presented it to the State Museum. The indentation in 
the earth, where it i- reported to have -truck, i- soil] pointed 

The weight of the ma— wai 11.6 kilo-. It had aomewhat 
the outline of a rhomboid, measuring 270 \ '-'lit mm., and having 
a thickness varying from 10 to 70 mm. It is coated with oxida- 
tion products to a depth, in pit veral millimetres. Tl 
give the whole mass ■ dull, reddish brown color. The surface 
is irregularly pitted with broad -hallow pita. It is aomewhat 

concave on one aide. < hi being polished and etched it D 

faintly the Widmanstatten figure-. It belongs to the clast 

sweating meteorite.-, heads of deliquesced ferric chloride appear- 
ing on the surface. I 'his lawrencite. so-called, is evidently un- 
evenly distributed through the mass. Analyses from different 
portions gave different amounta of chlorine. In one boring it 

was noticed that the metal near the surface ( within '2'" 1 ) gave 
a decided percentage of chlorine, while that coming from the 
deeper part of the drill hole (8 — 5 cm. from surface) gave no appre- 
ciable amount. 

■ VI JOUBVAL <•! i Bl 

The analysis gave • 

I ■ 

P ... .04 

BiO« n 

CI .. 


I'm i 45 
II. I l:<»\( BBHS1 I "i MV, v.\. 

This meteoric iron rnu f! d by Nathaniel Murphy, in Henry 

county, Va., abort four miles from the Pittsylvania county line, 
and one-half mile north of the dividing line between North < laro- 
Una and Virginia, near to Smith River. Murphy found the 
stone in a ploughed held in the latter pari of tin- s\ 
L889. H< gave it to Colonel J. Turner If orebead, of Leaks- 
ville, N. C. Together with Colonel nforebead beaearcbed over 
the farm, I >ut could find nothing limilar to this niece. Colonel 
^forehead sent the mass to Dr. II. B. Battle, of Raleigh, N. C. 
It weighed 1.7 kilo-;, and the detached pieces, mainly cruet, 
weighed <>.-"2 kilos. This crust broke off along certain lines by 
a Bort of cleavage, and the main mass is permeated with cracks, 
not irregular and aigsag, 1 >nt as distinct sod regular, almost, ae 
if it were a piece of crystallized gypsum. Tin- cleavage is in 

two directions. The laminae vary in thickness, but many 

about \ mm. The color of the surface i- dark bluish black, mixed 
with much red-rust coming from the lawrencite. Part- of the 
soil apparently still clung to the mass. It measured 60a 70 x 
75 mm., taking the greatest lengths in the three direction-. I [ere 
and there scales or spots of bright silvery sheen were to be seen. 
It contains a good deal of ferric chloride, and is rapidly crum- 
bling. On polishing one of the faces, the Widmanstatten fitr 
(coarse) came out very plainly, no etching being necessary. 
The analysis resulted as follow- •. 

Fe 90.54 

CI 35 

Si0 2 04 

P 13 

Co 94 

Ni 7.70 


University of North Carolina, 
May, I8S0. 




So far as can be learned, twenty-three meteorites h 
reported as found in North Carolina. Facta with regard to these 
have been collected under many disadvantages and with great 

difficulty. A i ipleto list of references in scientinc literature 

bas proved an impossibility; still ■ great many such n 
are given. It uj also impracticable now to tract- all of the pos- 
ors nf portions of these meteorites, They have been divided 
often into many piece-, and widely scattered. <)n! ,nal 

clues to their whereabouts can be gotten at the pr e s en t time. 

One fad is made apparent, and that i<, that nearly all have 

pa— ed out nf the State, not even fragments beii ved 


It will be noticed that, with ti lion of one from 

county, all of the reported meteorite-, have come from Western 
North Carolina. That many of these came to the light at all 
has been due to the intelligent energy of < ieneral '1'. L. Cling- 

man, to whom the State owes so much already for bringing to 

notice her minerals and other possessions. 

It has been thought beat to include in tin- list all reported 
falls and finds. In the ease ofall proved to he non-meteoric, or 
about which doubt exists, note i- made under the proper bead- 
ing, If these doubtful ones be eliminated, as well a- those not 
belonging properly to the State, the number is reduced to about 
twenty. There is doubt, however, whether the number should 
be as great even a- this, as there i- cau-e for thinking the Madi- 
son county, and, perhaps, some of the Buncombe county finds 
may belong to the same fall. Still the number is large when 
we bear in mind the comparatively small number of recorded 
meteorites for the whole earth. Huntington in his catalogue 
(1887) places the number at 424. 

.'II JOURM \i. «»i i in 

I mutt ezpreti my acknowledgment! to Mi . S ' II. Bailey, 
of N<'\v York, for mosl valuable assistance rendered in flii- com- 


A LEX \ s DEB M ii i.' mm i i.. 

/ I i.n < nrk, Alc.x:iinliT i-iuiiiiy. Not an;ilv/i-<| 

This iron, weighing about fifty-six grama, wai given by Gen- 
era] T. L. < 'lingnura t<> M r. B. C. II. Bailey, of New York, ■boul 
the year 1875. It baa not been analysed, not have I I ** -« - 1 ■ able 
to learn more of it- origin. The piece, Mr. Bailey writes, is evi- 
dently :i fragment from i larger mass, and i- sufficiently chai 
teristic to be distingnishable from any other iron, though it 
more nearly resembles the Barents (Russia) iron. 

Litirnhire — 

Possessor — Bailey (66 BTMBl). 


Ashe MLeteobh b. 

/ '///v A-lic foiiniy. Analyst — Bhepard 

The only reference that can be found to this mass ifl the fol- 
lowing, coming from the American Journal of8cien< 

'• A fragment of meteoric stone from A>he county, N. ' !., exam- 
ined at the same time, was found to contain a marked quantity of 
this principle (chlorine), the presence of which, however, was 
accounted for by the fragment having been in contact with a 
bag of salt as it was carried home by the person who found it." 

It is possible that this is the same as the Grayson county, Vir- 
ginia, meteorite. 

Literature — Am. Jr. Sc, 1st Ser. xlviii, p. 169; Rep. Am. Met., p. 34: Bacli- 
ner, p. 168. 

Possessor — Unknown. 



dity — Abbeville, Buncombe county. Analyst — Shep 

This meteorite was presented by Dr. .J. F. K. Hauls- to Dr. 
( '. U. Shepard for examination. It weighed between nine and 
tea ounces, and had been detached from a rounded ma— near! 
large as a man's head, which mass was found loose in the soil shoal 
live or six miles weal of Aaheville, on the farm of a Mr. Baird, 
near tin- Bouth-westera base "fan elevation of land live hundred 
feel high. Dr. Hardy was of opinion that other m sted 

at the same place. 

The specimen had a distinctly crystalline structure, approach- 
ing a flattened octahedron. Tin- surface bad a dissected or pitted 
appearance, occasioned by the removal of portions of the external 

lamina' during its reparation from tin- original mass. The <-av- 

ities were perfectly geometrical in shape, being rhomboidal, 
tetrahedral, or in the figure of four-aided pyramids. Section! 
the external lamina' loosened broke up easily into regular octa- 
hedra and tetrahedra very exact in form. Borne of the nl 
separated into leaves nearly as thin a- mica, and delicately >ti- 
cated in every direction. 

The specific gravity of different pieces varied from 8.5 t>. 

and even as high as 8. 

AN \\ 

1. II. 

In. n MJb 

Nickel 1.6 5. 

Rilieon 5 0.3 

Chlorine "J 

Chromium I 

Sulphur • , 

1-11. in 1 1 

Artaic J 

99.8 99.8 

Analysis I is taken from Am. Jr. 8c, Vol. XXXVI, p. 81, 
Analysis II is also credited to Shepard, and is taken from 
Clark's List, p. 55. It seems to be an analysis of the original 
lump, from which the smaller fragment described above was 

36 JOURNAL 01 i HI 

IMeraturt Am. Jr. Be, l*t wwi, p Bap Am M 

1848, i- Mj Bnchnar, p. 168; Partook, p. 110; Jahi 
Huntington, p. 60; Baitbaoniaa Report, p. 2»'>l : Min. tod Mia. Loe., p. 14. 

I'rixrnt naUflMOII Ann I llingen, ! m 

National Ifnaanm, 2.95; London, 1149; Vianna, J7 1 ; Berlin, 18,1 

N;il lli~l .i, ~i'l\ :itnl ill privntc OOlltetioni 

Patartbnrg I. 


BLA< k Mm main M i.i B0R1 1 B. 

in Black Mdiintain, Bonoomba oonnty. 4na , ird. 

The Black Mountain meteorite was found at 1 1 * « - bead of the 
Swannanos River, mar the bane of Black .Mountain, towards the 
eastern side of Bancombe county. It was given by Dr. Hardy 
to Colonel Nicholson, of South Osrolina. By the latter it was 
given to Dr. Barrett, of 1 1 » « * same State, and from him it was 
secored by Dr. Bbepard. It seems to have been picked up about 
1839. The fragment weighed twenty-one ounces, and wu evi- 
dently a porti< f a larger mass. It- texture was bighly ci 

talline, having all the lamina' (which were usually thick) 
arranged conformably to the octahedral faced of a single indi- 
vidual. There was evidence of the existence of very minute 
veins of magnetic iron pyrites. The ma— contained several 
rounded and irregular nodules of graphitic matter, with which 
again were found large pieces <>f iron pyrifc 

Specific gravity, 7.261. 


Nickel 152 

Cobalt tra. • 

Insoluble matter, sulphur and loss.. 1.44 


Literature — Am. Jr. Sc., 2d Ser. iv, p. 82; Rep. Am. M , p. 28; Jahresber, 
1847-48, p. 1310; Buchner, p. 180; Clark, p. 34 ; Huntington, p. 56; Kerr 
Appendix, p. 56; Min. and Min. Loc, p. 14. 

Present Possessors — Amherst, 243 grams; Yale, 15; London, 71.5; Vienna, 
45; Paris (Nat. Hist.), 5; Dorpat, 19; Neville (now Calcutta), 29; and in 
private collections: Baumhauer, 44 ; ISiemascho. 


Hominy ( i:i:kk MeTEOBI I 

Locality — Hominy Creek, Buncombe county. Anal - ird and Clark. 

The Hominy ( Ireek meteorite, sometime 1 t<> -imply as 

Buncombe county meteorite, wu secured for Dr. Shepard by 
Hon. T. L. Clingman. The original discoverer was ■ Mr. 
Clarke, and the date of the d if tato have beeu 18 

It wan found in a field near the baae of Mount Pisgah, some 
ten miles west of Abbeville. Another much larger |>i« < «• iraa 
reported to have beeu found in the same field. The man 
weighed twenty-aeven pound*. It was rather flat on one -id.-, 
while it:- other sides were irregular, with cavities and various 
inequalities'. Externally, it b iblance t" a cinder from a 

blacksmith's fire. It measured eleven inches in leng ven 

in breadth, and was four in thickneas at the thicker end, win 
the other extremity it i- not above two and a half. On the 
lower edge it thinned down to about one inch. lt> surface was 
rather jugged than pitted with regular depressions, [n color it 
was various shades of brown to black, and somewhat variegated 

with an ash colored earthy matter, derived undoubtedly from 

having served for a considerable time as a Bupport for fuel in the 
fire-place of a farmer's kitchen. Upon the under aide there 

adhered over a tew inch*'- a oruet of an earthy, black amygdaloid 

nature, scarcely distinguishable, unless freshly broken, from the 
iron it>elf, and in one spot a few grains of a dull, yellowish g 
olivine were noticed. Etched surfa< pting where the 

structure is highly vascular, exhibit the moat delicate Widman- 
Btatten figures. Specific gravity. 7. 

Slill'AKD. \UK. 



( liioiinmn and Cobalt In "99 

Nickel 0.28 



Si 50] 

Carbonaceous, insoluble | ;, ■ 

matter and luet 



Graphite , - .. 

Scbreibersite i" ' 

."{8 .101 i:.s w, of 1 in. 

The yellowish olivine grains consisted <»!' silicic acid, lime, 
magnesia and ferric oxide. 

This is placed among the pseado-meteorites in 1 1 > * - British 
Museum, and does noi seem to be recognised as ■ meteorite \*y 
other authorities, 

/,/'/. nilurr \ III Jr. Sri, 2<l Scr. IV, |> 79 j R*|>. Wll. M, |i. 

her, is 17 '48, p, 1810; Buchntr, p. 17Sj CIsHt, Si; ftfin and Kin I 
1 I ; Kerr Appendix, p 

,i Potaemort -Yale, British Mnaewn. 


Ll.w il.l.i: M i.i BOB! i r. 

Locality -Linville Mountain, Burks eonnijr. '' Whitfield. 

A mass of meteoric iron was found on Linville Mountain, 
Burke county, about the year 1882. It *ra* handed to a country 
blacksmith in the vicinity, and, passing through several bands, 
finally came into the possession of Geo. I". Knnz, Esq., of New 


The original weight was 142 grams. It was 2| inches long, 
1-| inches high, and 2| inches wide One side was rather rough, 
and the other pitted with very -hallow pittings. Traces of the 
black crust <>f magnetic oxide of iron were still visible. The 
mass was not rusted, and small drops of chloride of iron a 
noticed in the deep clefts, and in one of them was found a 
spider's egg-case, suggesting either that the iron was a recent 
fall, or that it had been found on the surface of the ground. 

On being polished it gave a rich nickel color, and showed an 
apparent net-work of two distinct bodies. The Widmanstatten 
figures were not given on etching. The analyses gave : 

Iron 84.56 

Nickel 14.95 

Cobalt 0.33 

Sulphur 0.12 

Carbon trace. 

Phosphorus trace. 


Literature — Am. Jour. Sc, 3d Ser. xxxvi, p. 275. 
Present Possessor — Geo. F. Kunz, Esq. 


Bbidobwateb Meteobi re. 

Locality— Bridgewater, Burke county. iMa. 

This meteorite was described by Knnz. It was found by a 
negro two miles from Bridgewater Station, in the western part of 
Burke coifnty, near the McDowell county lint-. It waa broken 
by some laborers into two pieces, one weighing ten and a half 
and tin* other eighteen and a hall* pounds. The original lump, 

therefore, weighed thirty pound- or 13.63 kilo-. The iron 

measures 22.5 x Lfix 10 em. 

Traces of black orust, very much oxidized, air -till visible on 
the surface. The iron i> highly octahedral in structure. B 
the cleavage plates schseibersiie is visible Wtdmanstltten 
figures gotten on etchii 

Imn >8.90 




Literature— Trans. (J. 1 \. m Bd Jan ISA Mil -I. vn, |>. 



CaBABBI - Mil BOB] 1 1:. 

• Hiy — Pott Farm, CabarrtM couaty. 

The fall of this meteorite was described by -I. II. Gibbon, 
Esq., of the United State- Branch Mint at Charlotte. On 
October 31, 1849, at 3 P. at., a sudden explosion, followed at 
short intervals by two other reports, and by a rambling in the 
air to the east and south, was heard in Charlotte. Five days 
later news was brought of the fall of a meteoric mass on the 
t'arni of a Mr. Hiram Post in Cabarrus county, some twenty-five 

miles distant. This stone weighed nineteen and a half pound-, 
was bluish and gritty in appearance, of irregular form, eight 

10 .MM UNA I, <»| I IN. 

inches long, -i\ broad and Poor t J ■ i < - 1< , bearing mark* in 
reoenl fracture, bul otherwiae black, as if it bad been exposed t<> 
heal and smoke, 1 1 » « - blaek color being relieved vrherc th<- « 
had been broken, and a little <<f the clayey -oil in which it vrai 
buried in it» deacenl -til! adhered to it Lustrous metallic pointa 
appeared through the ground color. Mr. Pud had heard the 
explosion and beard the stone strike about three hundred rardfl 
off with i dull, heavy jar <>f th<- ground. The stone had splin- 
tered a pine log lying <>n the ground. It vrai buried under - 
ten inches <•(' soil. 

It is further described in the Huntington Catalogue m i 
"atone— dark gray with light grains and thickly sprinkled with 
iron. Fragment showing dull black cr rrirtg to th<- fi 

ment in the I [arvard collection). 

The specific gravity was 3.60—3.66. 

Nickcliferona Iron (witli cliromi 

I roil sulphide 


Ferrooa oxide 18 

Magneeia 10.408 

Alumina 1.707 

Lime, toda, potash and loss 

Literatim Am Jour. Bei., 2d s.r.,j\. p. lj:j; x, p. 127; Bncbner, p. 
79; Kerr Appendix, p. 56; Huntington, p. 69; Bmitbaonian Bep., \> - 
Min. and Min. Loc, p. 16. 

Present Poi teu on — Amherst ma* larger that) two li-t> : Harvard. 168 grains; 
National Mnsiieii) iSliep. Cab.), 848.6; London, :3s-").. ">; Vienna. 188; Berlin, 
133; Gtittiogen, S8; Parte, it; Dorpat, 29; Draadeo, 7; Bologna, S; Yale, 
2.31; Calcutta, 52; Gregory, 152; Baum baiter, 51 ; Bieoaaecbo. 

Caldwell Meteorite. 

Locality — Caldwell county. Analyst — Venable. 

A small piece of iron was found among the specimens for the 
State Museum, labeled, in Dr. Kerr's handwriting (roughly, on 
an old piece of paper), " Meteoric iron from Caldwell county." 
The reference in his note-book said it was received from a Col. 
Scilly. It has proved impossible to learn anything further 


about it. It was probably set Mld€ by I>r. Kerr for examina- 
tion, but the coming on of his final illness prevented it. Tbep 
is about the size of a silver dollar, is -till fairly bright; has t-vi- 
dently been hammered oat thin and weighs five grama. 
no figures on etching and a qualitative analysis revealed iron as 
the only metal present It is probably of terrestrial ortgio. 

/' -laic Mii-i-iim. 


• -wki.i. Meteorite. 

iij t iMwell county. 

This -tone fell at 2 i'. If. "ii 30th January, l*l<>. It \\a- 
described by Bishop Madison (of Williamsburg, Virginia 
resembling other meteoric ston ally the one which tell at 

Weston, Connecticut, in 1807, It was not only attracted by the 
magnet, but was itself magnetic 

Whether the stone IS -till preserved anywhere ami who 
possesses it is SS little known a- anything further with regard to 

its characteristics, 

LitsnittuY— Qilb. Ann, 41, Hiuluu-r, L'7 ; Krrr 

A pp., 66; Mill, ami Mill. Loo, |>. 18. 


DAVIDSON Miii-»i;m:. 

ity — Lick Creek, Dtvidaon county. - ith ami Ifaokinl 

This wa- found on .Inly 15'. 1^7!'. by Mr. Gray W. Hai: 
his land near Lick Creek, Davidson county. It wa- somewhat 
pear-shaped and weighed 2| pound-. Its outward color i- dark 
brown, not rusty. The original CTUSt was almost entirely ham- 
mered off by the tinder, but a little remaining showed a peculiar 
slaty lamellar structure and readily broke into Hake-. Bome 
cavities in this crust were lined with mammillary forms, and it 
had many seams with a vitreous luster. It failed to give the 
Widmanstatten figures. 

42 JOUBH LL Ol i in. 

The analysis gftVC ! 




Sulphur iii. 

< 1 1 1 < » r Im traa 
< toppw 

< ':i I If in HOI ili'l<Tlliilliil 

From four analyse! by Smith and Mackintosh. Meteorite in 
the possession of I lidden. 

ilure — Am. .lorn Min. ami Mm. \.>,i . p. 17. 

■ i r<>*Maaora — Main mm in Vienna London, 20 

Nal. Ill-I.i, II ; Marvar.l, i',; liailry, 88; Hidden.'.' Nal Mu 



( Iuilpobd Meteorite. 

/ ' I .lilford county. ml. 

This was secured by Prof. Olmsted iu 1820 from a man who 
told him that it had been detached from a large mass weighing 
twenty-eight pounds, which was irrooght by :i blacksmith of the 
Deighborhood into horse nails. The fragment weighed seven 
ounces. It was a distinct crystal in the form of an octahedron. 
The axis measured three inches, the angle at the summit was 
60°, that at the base 122 . [ts structure was distinctly foliated, 
the lamina 1 being uniformly one-twentieth of an inch in thick- 
ness and arranged parallel with the planes of the octahedron. 
The exact locality of the find is not given, but it was stated that 
it was found some ten or fifteen miles distant from the locality 
where the Randolph county specimen was found. It exhibited, 
when etched on tarnished or polished surfaces, very perfect 
Widmanstatten figures. 

Analysis : 

Iron 92.750 

Nickel 3.145 

Iron sulphide 0.750 


Literature — Am. Jour. Sci., xvn, p. 140; xi., p. 369; Clark, 61 ; Ke|>. Am. 
U ., p. 24; Piutscli, p. 114; Huntington, p. ~>'1\ Min. and Min. Loc., p. 13; 
Kerr Appendix, p. 56. 

/'/../,/ Poisesmra— Aiuhersl, 9.16 gran,- , Ion, 15; Vienna, 8; 

(iottingen, 8; Calcutta, Id..",. 


Haywood Meteorite. 

/ •nliiij Haywood county. Analyst — Shepard. 

This fragment, weighing one-eighth of tn ounce, was sent to 
Dr. 8hepard by Il<»n. T. L. Clinguaan, accompanied by th<- fol- 
lowing remark: "It was given me by ■ person in Hayw 

county whose father had obtained it ill that region, but without 

his being ahl«- to designate the locality, it is evidently meteoric 
iron, but is perhaps from some ma-- already known." 

The fragment was highly crystalline and somewhat tetrahe- 
dral in form. One aide was polished and etohed. It displa 
a marked character, and one which has no analogue am< 
meteoric iron-, it was irregularly veined by ■ black ore, which 
was not acted upon by acids and which pr esen ted all the proper- 
ties of magnetite 

Specific gravity 7.11!». It contained iron, sulphur, phos- 
phorus, chromium, and was rich in nickel. 

Littnttuif Am. Jour. BoL, U Bar. \\ u p SJ7| Min. and Min. 1. 

Kin- Appendix, p. 56; Buchner, p. I 

/' tor — Amherst, 10 grain>. 


II AN Wool. M K I BOB1TE. 
Locality — Ferguson, Harwnod county. 

Mr. Barrtiton, nf Ferguson, N. ('., noticed about 8 p. m., 
July 18, 1889, a remarkable noise west nf hitn. Fifteen 
minutes later be saw something strike the earth, and thi> on 
examination proved to be a meteoric Btone, so hot that be could 

scarcely hold it in his hand live minutes after it fell. Two- 
thirds of its bulk was buried in the earth when found. The 

I I .H<r una I, OF i Bl 

stone wm slightly oblong, covered with I deep black cruel which 
bad been broken at one end, showing a great chondritic struct 
with occasional specks <•( iron. It- weight was about eigbl 
ounces and it very closely resembled the meteoric stone from 
Moos, Transylvania, It was unfortunately lost in New fork 
before examination. 

Umre Mitchell Sm-., Vo\ vn, p. % i\>. 

1.-,. Mi, 17. 

M ai-i-.n M ETfiOSJ I 

Locality I ►in-1 Hill, lladiiton conotj. 

There are several meteoric maases attributed to Duel Hill and 
to Jewel Hill, Madison county. The similarity of these names 
in pronunciation, and apparent confusion between them, led to 
inquiry as to their exact location. The result <»( the inquiry i- 

that at present no .lewd Hill is known in this county. There 

Was a Jewel Hill, at (me time the eoimt y-<eat. hut it- name 

changed t<> Duel Hill and the county-seat removed t<» .Mar-hall. 
These two are therefore one and the same locality. 

Several ma--e- have been found there. 

No. 1(5. Pound in 1856 and recorded a- preserved in the 
Amherst collection. It weighed forty pound-. No analysis has 

heen found. Amherst has two pieces — one of *ii)<J grams and 
one of 167i grama. 

No. 17. This meteorite was presented to Dr. Smith in the 
year 1854 by Hon. T. L. Clingman. It came from Jewel Hill, 
Madison county, of that State. There was a great deal of thick 
rust on the surface, with constant deliquescence from chloride of 
iron. Its form and surface indicated that it was entire. Its 
dimensions were 7 by 6 by 3 inches, with a number of inden- 
tations. Its weight was eight pounds thirteen ounces. The 

analysis gave : 

Iron 91.12 

Nickel 7.82 

Cobalt 43 

Phosphorus .08 

Copper trace. 



Literature — Scient. Res., p. 317, 410; Min. and Min. Loc., p. 15; Kerr 

Ap()., p. of} ; Huntington, p. 

Present Possessors — London, 130.2 grams; Vienna, 4 ; Paris ( Nat. Hi-t. ,1"4; 
GSuingen, 88; Dorpat, 17; Harvard, 160; Vale, 5.610; Nat. Una, 91; Nat 
Mus. (Step. Cab,) 81.86; Calcutta, 16; Bailey, 11.4; Qrtgorj, 40. 


Locality — Duel Hill, Madis.m county, ttyat — Bur: 

This mass wa> found in August, 1873, on the land of Robert 
Farneaworth, near Duel Hill, Madison county. It was lying 
on ;t hill-side where it bad been used in rapporting ■ oorner of i 
rail fence, which was quite decayed at the time of finding. It i- 
said to bave weighed, when first found, about twenty-five pounds. 
Two or tin*-*' pounds were hammered off as specimen! before it 

fell in the hand- <>f Prof. BurtOO, who analyzed it. 

Mr. Farnesworth reported that ■ similar mass weighing sboot 
f'ortv pounds had been found about a rails farther west, probably 
about l*r>7, and had since disappeared. Efforts to find it again 
were unsuccessful. 

This meteorite was of :» rounded irregular sha] 

inches, and weighed twenty-one pounds. 0« being etched, it 

gave the usual markings, though indistinctly. Distinct pan! 
<>t' schreibersite were irregularly disseminated over the sort 
Deliquescent head- «>f lawrencite were also to he seen. 
Specific gravitya=s7.46. 

Iron H4.-24 



PbotpbortM 14 

Copper i 

BeaidM 6.18 


Tlie residue contained BIO i ., Ni. and 1'. 

Literature — Anier. Jour. Sci., .'1.1 Ser. Ml, p. 489 ; Min. and Min. Loc, |>. 15. 
- — London, 18 grams; Vienna, 168; Harvard, Jl'2 ; Haunt- 
liauer, 89; Bailey, 3; Gregory, 1. 

Hi JOUBJTAL Of i in 

\ \-n M i.i BOB! i i . 

LomtUp (iistaii.i, Nash ooaotjr. Joritk 

r Fliis meteorite fell May l L, 1874, el 2:30 p. m, seer Ceetalia 

(lat. :;•', i r, long. 77° SO*). Its fall «ru accompanied l<y suc- 

Ive exploeiom end rambling noises, lasting eboal (our min- 

ates. The stones thai Ml mast h.-r. led e doeen or man — 

three only irere found end they gave evidence thai the territi 

over which the fragment! fell fTM ten mil* - loog l>v 0Ve? ill 

miles wide. Although oeourring in the day, the body appeared 
luminous to tome observers. The three stones found weighed 
n speodyely, one kilogram, ims and five and one-half kilo- 

The exterior ooeting vrai doll. The interior in many parts is 

of a 'lark gray color, and in other part- quite lii:ht. The prin- 
cipal cause of the dark color i~, doubtless, the larger amount of 
nickclii'croiis iron in that part. The specific gravity eras 2.601. 
It> composition was 

Nickeliforoot iron 15.91 

Stniiy rnilicraU - 

The niokeliferous iron oonaisted of 

Ircn 9S.19 

Nickel 6.90 

Cobalt 41 

Copper and phosphorus not estimate.). 

The stony part, when treated with a mixture of hydrochloric 
and nitric acids, gave: insoluble part, 47.02 j soluble part 

The former consisted of 

Silica 52.61 

Alumina 4 80 

Ferrous oxide 13.21 

Magnesia 27.31 

Alkalies (soda, with tracesof potash and lithia) 1.38 



and is essentially bronzite. The soluble portion 
silica 88.01 

I ■ ■ funs oxide 17. ->1 

Magnesia 41-27 


Sulphur 1.01 

This IS evidently olivine, with a small amount of -ulplc 
iron so dis-eminated through the -tone that it i- not easily -<pa- 

rated by mechanical means. The meteorite then eonaiata of 
nickeliferous iron, bronzite and olivine with -mall particles "t 
anorthite and eustalite. 

Literature — Amer. .luiir. Sei., Sd Bar. \, p. 147; M in. and BUBVi L<h-., I' lf >: 

Bmithaou. Bap., 1885- , 88 I I'art n, pp. 858, 808; Haotiagloa, . r, p. 

314; Smith 
/*,. Harvard, 811 grama; National Muaauia idoo, 

"Jil.l; Vienna, | umliauer, | 



dity — Randolph county. Analytt— Shepard. 

This was firat deaoribed by Trot'. ( Hmated in 1822, in a descrip- 
tive catalogue of rooks and minerals collected by him, dot 
his geological survey of North Carolina. It is then spoken of 
as occurring in the vicinity of a bed of argillaceooa iron 
It is distinctly foliated, the lamina) being thin and much inter- 
laced. It weighed originally about two pounds. When etched it 
presents very fine, almost invisible, feathery lines much resem- 
bling hoar frost on a window-pane. Hardness equal to that of 
the best tempered steel. Specific gravity =7.61 8. The only 
metal detected, besides iron, was cobalt, which was present in 
traces only. A reddish brown powder, insoluble in CUpta r<</ia, 
was considered to be silicon. 

Lilemtun — Amer. Jour. Sci., 1st v, p 288; 2d iv, p, BS; Jain. - '48, 

p. 1811; Clark, (>. To; Min. and Min. Luc, p 13; Kerr Appendix, p. 56; 
Buchner, p, 160. 

Present This is reported by Buchner as in collection of Aiuer. 

Geolog. Society and in London. 

L8 .MM'K.VU. 01 I hi; 


Bookings im IfanosiTS. 

I,urniit,/ -8mith'i Mi , Rockingham county I tenth tod Baths. 

This WSJ lo mid in 1866 at Smith'- Mountain, two mile- north 

of Madison, in mi old field grown up with pines, bo( cultivated 
ten or fifteen years previous) 1 /. It fell probably in the Interval. 
The original weight was eleven pounds. It i- highly crystalline 
ami on etching gives fine Widmanst&tten figures, showing that it 
oonsisti of probably three kinds of iron. It contain- also 
sohreibersite in short, very minute quadratic crystals, ami, socord- 
ing to .1. L. Smith, solid chloride of iron. Specific gravity, 7 

Ir-.n 90.41 

Nickel) -. 
** ' 

Copper tl 

In. ii 

, , . , i Iron 

lnsollllilc ' v i i , i i. 

.,, , • , Nickel (O .ill i... ..-53 

I liii-iiliulf j ... ,. 

1 I l' ni>|ili(iriis .14 

hcephoroa 14 

100.00 99 40" 

Literature — Min. and Min. Luc. \>. 16; Kerr, p. 313; Kerr Append!] 
Scient. K< -.. p 626, 

Present Possessors — N. C State Museum; Janlin del Ptantea, Pari* 
don, 77.3 grama; Vienna, 184; GoUingen, 54; Harvard, 321; Nat. Mus., 
58.8; Gregory, 8; Bailey, 128. 

Rockingham Mstbobitb. 

Locality — Rockingham county. AnnlyM — Venable. 

This mass was reported to have fallen about the year 1846 on 
Deep Springs Farm, Rockingham county. Its tall caused much 
terror among the negroes on the place. It was dug out imme- 
diately after falling, being buried four or five feet under the sur- 
face. After lying about the house for many years, it was in the 
fall of 1880 presented to the State Museum. 

The weight of the mass was 11.5 kilos. It measured "270 x 210 
mm., having a varying thickness of 10 to 70 mm. It is coated 


with a crust of several millimetres thickness. The surface if 
irregularly pitted with brood, shallow pits. On being polished 

it gave faintly the \Vi<linati>t;"ttteii figures. It belongs t«- the 

class of sweating meteorites. 

Analysis : 

Iron - 

Phoaphortu ... ."-1 

Silica f 


Nickel 11.69 


Literature— Anier. Jour r., 1890, p. ltil ; Mitchell So&, VII, p 

P . ~, nt Pomu 9tata Momob. 


Locality — Rutherford ton, Kut lie rfbrd 

This was analysed by Shepard, who found I '< 
13.67, P.=l. 31. He called il "ferrosilictne." A partial analy- 
sis made in Wohh-r's laboratory gave Fe. s 7.l, Bi.=l< 
( '. 0.4. Rammelsberg on examining it declared it to be noth- 
ing more than a piece of white pig iron of inferior quality. 

This is placed smong pseiitlo- meteorites in the Catalogue "t 

the British Museum. 

tii'torahire Amur Jour. sd., Id xvxiv, p. 198; Kerr Append!*, p 
Chirk, p. t>7 ; J. prakt. them., l.ww 
it Possessor — Amhei- 


Rutherford Meteorite. 

ity — Ellenhoro, Rutherford county. Analyst — Eakin-. 

This iron was found in the latter part of 1880, on a farm near 
Ellenboro, Rutherford county, N. ( '. It- nature remained 
unknown until February, 1890, when it was brought for exami- 
nation to Mr. Stuart \Y. Cramer, of the l\ S. A—ay Office at 
Charlotte, N. C. It seems to have weighed about 2\ kilos. In 

60 JOURNAL "i i mi: 

shape it was roughly two globular ends with n connecting bar, the 
total li'n<j;tli being about 160 nun. with end diameters 76 nun , 
ami 60 mm. in the middle. 

The iron ii very tough and highly crystalline, tlw Widman- 
st&tteu figures showing distinctly on s polished, *nnetched i 
and after etching they are uuusually strung, Small, irregularly 
distributed patches of troiliie are visible, and sohreiben 
seems to be present. The analysis is a- folic 



!• n 


si h 

Literature — Amer. Jour. Bel., I s ' 1 " 

Present Possessors — Charlotte AaMJ (XBm Mid Geo, I . Kunz. 


Some of these works are referred to from citation- only. The 
limitation of library facilities prevented direct reference. 

—American Journal of Science and Arts. Thl 

Jahretberieki — Jahretbericht iiber die Fortschritte der, etc., Cheruie, etc. 
Liebig and Kopp. 

Rep. Am. M. -Report OB American Meteorites. Shepard, 1> 

Clark — On Metallic Meteorite*, (lark, 1- 

JIuntiiH/ton — Catalogue of all Recorded Meteorites, 1887. 

Sntithson. Rep. — The Meteorite Collection in the U. S. National Museum. 
P. \V. Clarke, 1889. I Vol. II, 1885-'86, Smithsonian Report . 

Min. and Min. hoe. — The Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Caro- 
lina, 1- 

Scient. Researches — Mineralogy and Chemistry, Original Researches. J. L. 
Smith, 1873. 

Kerr — The Geology of North Carolina, Vol. I. Kerr, 1875. 

Kerr Appendix — Appendix to Kerr's Geology. 

Mitchell Soc. — Journal of Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 

Partsch — Die Meteoriten in Hof-Mineralien-Kabinette zu Wien, 1843. 

Buchner — Die Meteoriten in Sammlungen, 1863. 

Gilb. Ann. — Gilbert's Annalen der Physik. 

Chladni — Ueber Feuer-Meteore und iiber die mitdenselben herabgefallenen 
Massen, 1819. 



■ i » 





















Quilford " 
















Rutherford M 



Hlm-k Mounl 

k.... •• i 


Jewel Mill 

1HU-' Mill 

fell 1n7! 



found l- 



52 JOUBJN \i. OF i 111. 



- rBENG in OF I. M i» am M \M> OI HEB FBI P 

i: \ i in\- t)I OPIT M. 

Prepare an officinal tioctore of opium with assayed opium. 
You will know the morphine strength of tin-, ti not ore 
Ifake three dilution* of it with dilute alcohol, as follow 

OmI (MM tincture : 1 1 1 • i 1 |i:irl dilnte :iIi-..IkiI. 

I " " " -1 ■ 

()„,. i " « B " 

Put 12 cc of tlif tincture and of the dilutions in vials, 
iiiid add to each 12 oo, dilute alcohol — cork irell and I 
them as standard dilutions of known strength. L*bel them 
\i'-. 1. ■_', ;'. Mini 1. Let the dilute officinal tincture be No. 1. 
Dissolve 0.04 gram potassic ferridcyanide in 500 cc. water, 
and add to it fifteen drops liquor ferri chloridi. Call this 
Ferrideuanide Mixture, ( ltd* mud be freekty "prepared). Pre- 
pare it in a glass-stoppered bottle, with water perfectly free of 

Place four 50 cc clean glass tumblers or vrine-glasses on a 
white surface, ami deliver with <i pipette (about one-third filled) 
one drop of the dilutions in the glasses, commencing with No. 4 
(the weakest), blowing out the pipette after each dropping. 
(The pipette should be about four inches long, and made of one- 
quarter inch 'tubing, and should deliver drops of the dilutions 
weighing about .016 gram or one-fourth grain. To test the 
pipette, see how many drops will balance a .200 gram weight. 
The reason for using so small a drop, and for diluting the tinc- 
ture, is because a full drop of the undiluted tincture would 
develop too deep a blue color). 

Now add to each glass about 5 cc. ferridcyanide mixture 
(it is convenient to use a homeopathic vial as a measure), and in 


about one minute add 15 or 20 oc. water, and observe the 
shades of color. This observation must be made within fitn 
minutes, as the air and li^ht will goon cause all to be uniformly 


By comparison with the shades of color produced by these 
standard dilutions, you can easily estimaje the strength of any 
sample of laudanum with much accuracy. The -ample must, 
of course, be diluted with an equal pari of dilute aloohoL The 

presence of tannin interferes with this method, but opium does 

not contain tannin. Tannin i- easily detected with a solution 
of a salt of iron. The ferridcyanide mixture su etAfjf 

prepared ami the glasses must be c/,nn and dear, a- the slight' -t 

bluish tinge interfere-. Wash them with CSUStic soda and then 
with hydrochloric acid and rinse if they are -oiled with Turn 
bull's Hlue. 

The ferridcyanide mixture is probably the beat confirmatory 

test for morphine. If one drop of water containing .000001 
gram of morphine is mixed on a white -lab with one dl"OJ 

the ferridcyanide mixture a blue color will be developed within 

one minute. With water alone the mixture will become of a 

bluish shade in about ten minute-, owing to the action of air and 


1*. s. — To estimate tin- strength of vinous or aqueous com- 
pounds of opium they must be brought to about the same spe- 
oifio gravity as the "standard dilutions" with alcohol, that the 
drops may be uniform in size. 


Dissolve o.o l gram potassic ferridcyanide in 500 ec water, 

and add to it 1.5 CC (about 22 drop-) liquor ferri ehloridi. 
( 'all this Iron Mixture. 

Dissolve 0.04 gram "pure tannin (gallotannic acid) which lias 
been dried at 212* F. in 500 vv. of water. Call this Tannin 

.") 1 .loi un \i. OF i in: 

Exhaust 0.8 gram oak bark \% i 1 1 1 boiling water, tod make it 
iij) to 500 oc. with cold water. 

Place six two-ounce clear glaai turn blew (or beaker gl i 
white surface, and io one of them, with a dropping/ p ■ mi 

four inches long and one-quarter inch wide) about half filled, put 
jin dropt of the infusion nf bark, and in the other*, with 
pipettt (after rinsing), pin I, ■>. 6, 7 and * drop* of the "tannin 

solution." (The dfopfl <»l the infusion ami of the tannin solu- 
tion must lie uniform. The USC of the MOM pipette, aboul half 
filled, insuns that). 

Now, add t<> each 5 <•<•. of "iron mixture," and in aboul one 
minute add to each tumbler aboul 20 <•«•. water, and within ti 
minute* observe tin- -had*- of color. The number of drop- of 
"tannin solution*' used in tin- tumbler which corresponds in 
shade of color to the tumbler containing tin- infusion of hark 
indicate* the percentage of tannin in the bark; i. >■., if it i- the one 

in which seven drops were placed, the tannin Strength of the 

hark is seven per cent 

It is best to observe the -hade- of color horizontally, rather 
than vertically, ami to hold up the infusion tumbler, with the 

one which iuo-t nearly corresponds, opposite to a white wall, 
with your hack to the light. 

The above is written for oak bark, hut the same process will 
answer for any suhstanee containing lees than ten per cent, of 

For substances containing between about 10 and 20 per cent., 
it is best to dilute the infusion with an equal part of water and 
proceed as above, usiug Jive drops of the dilute infusion, and for 
the answer doable the remit. Thus, if the diluted infusion of 
tea required eight drops tannin solution to correspond, call the 
percentage sixteen. 

For substances containing less than one, or one and a half per 
cent., exhaust 8 grams instead of 0.8 gram, aud take one-tentli 
of the result for the answer. For substances containing more 
than twenty per cent., as galls, sumach, catechu, etc., you may 
dilute the infusion with two, three or more times its bulk with 


water, and calculate as above (as with tea), or you may use 1. '-'. 
:', ar 4 drops of the undiluted infusion in the first glass and 
make the calculation thus, i. > . : As tin- Dumber .if drop- of 
infusion used is to the number of drops "tannin solution" used 
(to correspond), so is 5 to the answer— thus, suppose two di 
infusion were used ami tin- corresponding tumbler contained fif- 
teen drops tannin solution— 2: 15:: 6, answer 37.5 per oemX 

The object in diluting the infusions is because the infusion 
glass may be of too deep ■ blue -had.', h is better that it should 
just produce a light W 

The tumblers must be perfectly dear and clean. 

The "iron mixture," "tannin solution" and infusion must 
be freshly prepared and not exposed to the rays of the ran. 

The water need must be fret of itfon and tannin. 

The results are necessarily in terms for commerciaJ gallotannie 

acid, and not for those of pure tannin, Of of the particular tannin 
in the material assayed. 


A solution of neutral sulphite of soda containing a little 
pyrogallic acid bat been proposed as a test for copper. A 

drops of it mixed with a dilute solution of a salt of copper 
produces a red color similar to that which is developed by the 
addition of sulphoeyanide of potash to B solution of a pet-alt of 
iron. The tot is much more delicate for Uron t a- the following 
experiment will show : 

Dissolve 0.7 gram ammonia ferrous sulphate (= 0.1 gram iron) 
in a liter of water; it will he 1 part in 10,000. To In 
of this solution add water to make 100 OCj this will he 1 to 
100,000. Dilute some of this by adding four time- its hulk of 
water; it will then he 1 in 500,000. 

Make a saturated solution of sodium sulphite, and separately 

a solution of pyrogallic acid 0.5 gram in 50 CC. water. Put 
some of the iron solution in a wine-glass, add 4 drop- of the 


solution of Bodium sulphite tod irterward 2 «lr<>|»- <>f th<- j.. 
gallic solution :iinl a pnrple color will be developed. 

This test with distilled water alum' develops s light pink 
shade, which, however, soon fades. This Is doe to the trace of 
free ammonia which it usually cootaioe. [ron produces s pur- 
ple tint. The tc~t i~ -<» delicate thai it will detect Iron in 100 
oc of water, in which ■ bright cambric needle has I 
immersed (br in boor. 

I \ i > 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 N I 








CHAPEL Hill v 

k M r/./.i I.I., VTKAM ruiNTEK and bindkk. 




i — • 'i >. 


H. T. BAHX801T, M. I) Salem, N. C. 

II I: BATTLE, I'll : I> Raleigh, N. C. 

Kl MM M \ H 1. MtSSIDl 

J. A. Holmes, B A.G8 Chapel Hill, N. C. 


V. P, Viinaiu.k, Tii : I) Chapel Hill, N. C 


J. \v. Gore, C. B Chapel Hill, N. C. 






Some Erysiphese from Carolina and Alabam Lkinaon 

The Proper Standard for the Atomic Weights. P, P. Venable 

The Action of Phoaphonu upon certain M< tallic S ton Battle, 

■ I Chloro-bromidea. l'. P. Venable 
Lead Bromo-nitratea, II. I. .Miller 
Adulterated Spirits of Turpentine. S J Hinsdale 
Mineralogical, Geological and Agricultural Survey ith Caro- 

lina. J. A. Holmes 

ds of Meetings 1 18 

Report of Treasurer for iVk' 120 

1 honors to Library 

l,i>t of Members 

List of Exchangee 121 

[ndex loi VII 


Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 



Dining the past four years the writer has collect* >na)ly 

species of this group iu parts of North and 8onth Carolina and 
Alabama, some of which arc of interest in showing the extended 
range of species found elsewhere, while others throw some light 
on the relationships of imperfectly known forma, 

The descriptions of the species enumerated are iu reality notes 
upon the forms collected in this comparatively circumscribed 
region, m> that in some oases the specific description may seem to 
lack the broader character which would be given from a descrip- 
tion based upon a comparison of specimens from widely different 
latitudes and on a mnch greater variety of host plants, 

The paper is not monographic, but professes the simple char- 
acter of being ■ contribution t<> a knowledge of some Southern 
forms, Bearing this in mind, it is hoped the small contribu- 
tion given \ ill not be devoid of interest to students of this 
fascinating grouu of microscopia plants. 

A list of the works consulted will be found at the <|. 
the article. In prescribiugJthe limitation- of the species I have 
tried to follow the admirable work of Professor Burrill on the 
Erysiphea of Illinois* so far i tent with the characters of 

the specimens. 

•Parasitic FaBftof [llinoic, Part II. hi null 11! - 

»;•_' JOUBJUL "i 1111: 

Perhaps the chief point <>i' departure from thai work i- in 
regarding Mieroaphara Van Bruniiann Ger. as ■ ilietind 

eies and not one of thfl many BVnotiyms of M. Afni (I> 

W'init r. The appendage! are totally different from th<- descrip- 
tion there given «>r from t !»«*—«- <.t' the other aftedes planed a^ 
syiiiiiivni.s. ( >n the other hand, an examination of a lai . • 
of specimens of dfierotphcgra on different specie* of oak only 
confirms the oorreotneei of the judgment displayed in uniting 
Peck's r.rhiisn ,t <>/,/,,< rinttr into our- variable aperies. It i» 
doubtful, however/lf Mlerotphara Querdma (8chw.) Burrill ean 
be morphologically distinct from .'/. iM(DC.) Winter, ainee 
many of the intermediate forms between Peck's cxtensa Habb 
rinia agree perfectly with the d e s cr iption of .'/. Alni (I» I 
Winter, ami have constantly been referre d by various autli 
ami to M. Hedwiffia at pemdUata which erenow regarded by 

many as synonyms of M. Alni (I) ('.) Winter. 1 prefer, how- 
ever, to suspend a final judgment on this aubject, eonsidering the 
local character of this contribution. 

There seems to be no necessity for a full presentation of the 
synonomy of all the species, and where synonyms are given it ia 
only because of the peculiar value of these expressions in inter- 
preting a few of the forms. 

It is hoped that to members of the Society, and other readers 
in the South who are interested in microscopic Study, this contri- 
bution will prove a .stimulus and aid in the study, collection and 
determination of this common, easily recognized and interesting 
group of plants. For this reason the note* arc - > arranged as 
to enable one to determine the species presented here. 

The Erymphece, or, as they are commonly called, the powdery 
mildews, are parasites growing generally upon the surface of the 
leaves, often on the stems, occasionally upon the fruits and 
deformities of plants. The vegetive condition from which they 
obtain the name of mildew consists of a loose wefi of white fun- 
gous threads distributed over the affected parts, sometimes cover- 
ing a large part or all of the leaf surface, or again confined to 
definite spots. The fungus derives its nourishment through the 
medium of short suckers, or haustoria, which here and there 


pierce through the epidermis of their host. The conidial Stage 
consists of short branches arising perpendicularly to the weft 
of mycelium which abjoint serially oval or oblong conid'ur, which 
in numbers give a powdery appearance to the mildew. 

The mature condition of the fungus i< manifested to the 
unaided eye in the form of minute oonceptacles of I dark color, 
which can be seen here and there to dot the surface of the leaf, 
.sometimes very numerous and quite evenly distributed, or again 
loosely aggregated or very few in number. 

It is outside the purpose of thi- paper to describe the rather 
complex development of these vptaeles which result from 

sexual organs. With proper magnification they are seen to be 

of a blackish, or various shades of a brown, color, the surface being 
more or less definitely reticulated, and in a single plane of the 
periphery they have a number of filamentous appendage- of 
various forms of development, either hyaline or colored. The 
interior of a OOnceptaote, Of ptHthecium, is occupied with one or 

several sacs, or «*<•/, which themselves contain a variable num- 
ber, two to eight, of one-celled spores. 

It is a source of regret to myself that a greater uumb 
species have Dot been collected, and the absence of .some common 
ones will be noticed. In I number of 01868 the conidial stag) 

Erynphe granUma and QpharoUuoa panacea have been v< 

abundant, but I have not collected the fruit in the past four \t 
During the past year the conidial stage of 8pkantkeoa pait- 

fl6*a has been very injurious to roses in Auburn, Ala. 

The measurements are given in terms of the micromillemeter. 
To serve in distinguishing the genera the following brief kev 

will be found serviceable: 

I. Appendagei simple. 

a, Irregularly BexuotM. 

1, ( )ne asi-tis — Sphirrotft- 

2, So vet ml MC i —Erysiphe. 

b, Coiled ai the ti|»s — Vminula. 

c, Needle shaped, .swollen at base — Phyllaetinia. 

II. Appendages dichotnmoaalj branched. 

a, One Mou» — Podotpktmrm. 
6, Several asci — Mientpia 

III. Appendages perenrrent, primary branching opposite— Microsphtera. 

6 I JOl i:n w. "I I BE 

sni.i:i;oiin;c\ l, v 

Peri theci urn < taiuing only one axcus; appendages simple, 

irregularly Bexnous, frequently interwoven with the mycelium. 

S. ( Iaotagnei, I /v. 

Amphigenoos; mycelium thin, evanescent. Perithecia 
tried or suhgregarious, numerous, small, 70 60, cbeatmu l>rown, 

reticulations large, distinct, Appendages few, flea i*,of utu 

diameter, colored, in length «>ne to four timet 1 1 1 • - diameter of the 
peritbeoium, interwoven with th<- mycelium. Asei oval t<> sub- 
orbicular 15x60. Spores eight, oval, small, II I ■>. 

On Bidmu, Auburn, Al;.., Ctetob i >, 1020. 

s. Hi mi i.i (I) <\) Bnrrill(T). 

Leaves of the common hup plant were collected at Auburn, 
Ala., in tin- autumn of 1889, which bore number* of a specimen 
probably of this specie*. My laboratory not being ready at that 
time, the specimen was l«>-t. 

ERY8IPHE iIIki-u | 1. 

Peritheciura containing several a-<-i ; appendages simple, irreg- 
ularly Bexuous and frequently interwoven with the mycelium. 

E. communis (Wallr.) Vv, 

Amphigenous; mycelium dense, persistent. Perithecia scat- 
tered <»r subgregarious, 80-120, reticulations distinct. Append- 
ages li'w, 1 « » 1 1 lt , hyaline when young, strongly colored when 
mature, frequently lying upon the mycelium. Asci three to eight 
o< )-:>") x 4"j-i!o, ovate, shortly pedicellate. Spores three to eight, 
1 5-20. 

On Oenothera biennis, Auburn, Ala., June •'», 1890, 1144; 
Columbia, 8. C, November 25, 1888, 635; Champiou of Eng- 
land peas, Auburn, Ala., June, 1890, 1135. 

This is sometimes very injurious to cultivated peas in this part 
of Alabama, entirely covering the vines, leaves and fruit with 
the dense mycelium. In mature specimens the appendages are 
very dark, clearly showing that the form on peas cannot on 
account of hyaline appendages be separated from this species. 

K. ( frCHORACEARUlfl I > < '. 

Syii. K. spadieea B. A C. Grev. IV, p. 159. Amphigenous; 
mycelium abundant, persistent. Perithecia numerous, scattered 
or gregarious 100-140. Appendages numerous, two to three 
times diameter of peritheeium, woven with the mycelium, col- 
ored. Asci six to ten, 30-40 I 50-70, ovate or oblong, pedicel- 
late. Spores two to four, variable in size, oval t«» elliptical, 

On Ambroiia bifida, < lliapel Hill, N. < '.. September 15, 
626; Uniontown, Ala., July, 1890; Ambroiia artemiskefolia, 
Auburn, Ala., Juue I, 1193; Verbesinn v hio, 

( lolumbia, S. < '., Novemb 1 1 ; Xanthwm < kmadt 

Chapel Hill, N. ('., autumn, 1885, »'>27 ; Auburn, Ala., October 
21, L889, 1018; Hdianthut, Chapel Hill. NU nber 7. 


The specimens on Xanthitm Oana illected at Auburn, 

No. 1018, -.(in t'> agree with Erytiphe si><i>i'<<-<i I!, a < .. i 
that the perithecia arc gregarioos, and the sp ►res vary to leas 
than four. Berkeley's description is a- follow-: 

"Perithecia Mattered, rich l>r«iwn, appendage! Bexuout, tliree timet longer 
than their diameter ; iporidia Pmr." Xauthium, Car. Inf. 

The notes taken from my 1018 areas f«>ll«>ws: Amphigenous.; 
mycelium persistent, abundant, perithecia gregarious, 120-1 10, 
appendages two to three time-, diameter of peritheeium, woven 

with the mycelium; perithecia and appendages rich chestnut 

brown. A-ci nix to ten i t;o-7<», pedicellate. So 

two to four, very often four, variable in siae. For several of 
the first examinations the -pore- were quite uniformly four. 
Recognising this variability which is known to occur in the spe- 
cies there is no reason why E. gpadieea 1>. & C. should not belong 

to this ,-pecies. 


1 specimens of this species were collected in the autumn of 
1888 at Columbia on young twigs of Liriodendron tubpifera. 
The mycelium was very abundant both on the leaves and twigs. 

liC JOUBVAL Of mm. 

The perithecia arere only found <>n the twigs, imbedded in the 
dense lilt of mycelium. 


Peritbeoion containing several tact; appendage* coil© 
incurved at the tips, free from the myeelinm. 

I I'IKAI.I- B. A < 

*Syn. U. apiraSt />'. <\- ( ' Berkeley, [ntrodoetioa t<> < frypto- 
gamie Botany, 1867, |». 878, IV 64. 

/'. Ampeloptidii Peck, Trail*. Albany [net, Vol. VII, p. 
216, 1H7-J. 

U. Americano Howe, Journal Hot . 1872. 

r.Huhfusm B. AC. Grev. IV, v . 160, 1876N 

Epiphylloos; myoalinn thin, eva ne scent. Perithecia Dumer- 
(»us, Mattered, blaek, 70-400. Appendagee twenty-five to thirty, 
three to four time- tin- diameter <•»' the perithecinm, eoloi 
faintly septate, tips looaely coiled. Asci five to eight, 30-40 a 
50-G5, ovate, pedicellate. Spores four t«. six, -mall. 

On cultivated grape, antnmn, Auburn, Ala., 1889, 1030. It 
appears to come too late to do barm, so tar a- I have obaerved 
here for two year-. 


Amphigenoua, mostly epiphy lions; mycelium thin, persistent. 
Perithecia numerous, scattered, 100-1 20, globose biconvex, reticu- 
lations evident, but not very distinct, small. Append) 
thirty to fifty, about equal to diameter of perithecium, radiating, 
or ascending to erect from crown of upper side Asci fi\ 
ten, ovate or elliptical, pedicellate 25-30 x 60-<J5. S\»>r<^ two 
to three, large, oval, 25-30. 

On Ulmus Americana, Columbia, S. C, Octol>er 28, 1888, 
622; Ulmus, Auburn, Ala., August 6, 1890, 1788. 

U. flexuosa Peck. 

Hypophvllous; mycelium thin, evanescent. Perithecia scat- 

*Prof. B. T. Galiowav, who has receutly made cultures of this species to determine the 
different hosts, kindly furnished me with the synonymy of this species. 


tered, 100-130, black, wall tissue hard, brittle, reticulation- 
obscure. Appendages twenty to fifty, hyaline, rough, short, 
flexuous and enlarged toward ends, coiled at tips. Asei five to 
ten, .'50-35x50-65, ovate, pedicellate. Spores six to eight, 
about 20. 

On Aesciitut, Wright'- Mill, Lee county, Ala., Jul) 
1223 j August 6, 1890, 1535. 


Hypophyllous; mycelium thin. Peritbecis globose, lenticular, 
80-100, soft, reticulations distinct Appendages numerous, fifty 

to one hundred, or more, about equaling diameter of the perithe- 
cium, or less, arising in crown on upper side, somewhat scattered 
toward center, hyaline, slender, tips well coiled. Asci four to 

five, 36-40x60 »; (| . ovate, pedicellate. Spores four to eight, 
about 20 long. 
On ( feflu oeridmtaUt, ( lolumbta, s. ( '., November 8, 1888, 621 ; 

Auburn, Ala., autumn, 1889 (Wright's Mill). All the speci- 
mens were collected on shrubs. 

I'. !'«)[. Yrll.KTA B, A < . Mm 5, 11, PI. I). 

Syn. Erytiphe potycktta B. A ('. Orev. 1\'. 159, 1876. 
Unoinvla Lynckii 8peg, Pong, Arg. Pug. II, p. 17. 
Pleoohata Curtisii Sacc. a Fung. A.rg, Pug, II, p. 44; 

Sace. Syll., Vol. I, p. 9 (in part). 

PUockata Lynckii Speg. Sacc. Syll., Vol. 1 1 , Addend., p. 9. 
I'ncinuhi jjo/ychatu KM. dour. Mycol. 188(1. p. I:; tin l 

Pieochata Curtisii Sacc, A Speg, II. Addit., p. 2 (in 


UhtinuLt jjolyehivta T. A G. Bot. <i:t/., XIII, p. 29 (in part). 

riu'inuld potyckata Masse, Grev. W'll, p. 78, 1889. 

Cncinuia polychata Kav. Fung. Car. ex. fa-c. 4, 68. 

Hypophyllous ; mycelium in dense, definite patches, or dis- 
tributed over a large part of the leaf surface. Perithelia gener- 
ally numerous, scattered, brown, becoming black, globose, lentic- 
ular, 225-280, reticulations minute. Appendages uumerou-, 
two hundred or more, hyaline, about equal to diameter of perithe- 

88 JOl una i. OF TBI 

cram, arising in circle toward one ilde, straight when young, 
to incurved <>r coiled at the tip^ when matni i about fii 

cylindrical, clavate or rarely oblong, ovate, abruptly contra* 
into a prominent pedicel, 3 < : > 50. Spores two, abouf 


On Cr/lis ni-cit/riiftilis, Coluilll. lUtllinil, "and 

63 I. Very common. 

Plate I, Fig. 5, ii From ■ camera lucid* drawing of :i mature 
perithecium on leaves <>t' C, tara from Buciw 3. A., 

which was kindly loaned me by Rev. J. Ii. Ellis. A majority 
of the perithecia were young and possessed straight appendaj 

. 6, 7 and 8 are from tbe same specimen. Figs. 9, 1" and 
11 arc from a South Carolina specimen; all from camera lucida 


Perithecium containing several asci; appendages needle- 
shaped, abruptly swollen at the base, free from tin- mycelium. 

P. siii ti/ia (Reb.) 8 

ETypophyllous; mycelium abundant, persistent. Peritliecia 
scattered, large, 180-200, reticulations small, distinct. Append- 
ages seven to twelve, one to tour time- diameter of the periihe- 

cium, hyaline. Asci eight to twenty, irregularly ovate to obi 
or elliptical, 25-30x70-80, pedicellate. Spore- two to thi 
30-. o »"). 
On Ubnus Americana, Columbia, 8. < '.. October 13, I 

619j Uhnua, Auburn, Ala., October .', K>17; Ah 

Columbia, S. C . November, 1888, 623. 

Var. maerotpora f perithecia 200-250; asci elongated, curved 
or straight, 40-50 x 70-120, long pedicellate; spores two, 35-50. 

On Quercus nigra, Auburn, Ala., February, 1890, 1103; Q. 
nigra or aquatioaf Auburn, Ala., November L'"., 1890, 17 
Q. phellos et aquatica, December, 1890.. 

Thereds a second kind of appendage on the perithecia of this 
species, i They are hyaline, knobbed at the end, the knobl>ed 
end bearing; numerous slender flexuous short filaments. On 



specimens from elm these appendages are quite equal to one-half 
the diameter of the perithecium; on specimens from oak they 
are quite short and apt to be overlooked. 


Perithecium containing one ascus; appendages dichotomoosly 
branched, free from the mycelium. 


Epiphyllous; mycelium abundant, thin, diffuse. Perithelia 
black, numerous, scattered, -mall, 65-70, reticulations rather 

large, distinct. Appendages five to ten, three to five time- the 
diameter of the perithecium, hyaline, faintly colored at the base, 

rough, once dichotomous, tip- rather long, Btrongly divergent, 
slightly recurved. Asci glob ee or oval, sometimes with a short 
bmad pedicel, 15-60 j Spores eight, 15-18. 

On Il<iinumcli.s Vtrginiana, Blowing Rock, Wal mnty, 

\. C, August 24, 1888, 613. 

P. «,xv.\. win i: (1) C.) 1> By. 

Amphigenous; mycelium thin, not very persistent. Perithecia 
numerous, scattered, small, 85-70, dark brown. Appends 
eight to twelve, about twice the diameter of the perithecium, 

dark brown for over half their length, three i.» four times dich 

mously branched, branching compact, tips incurved. \-'i sub- 
orbicular, 55 x *io, thick-walled, Spores eight 

On Cratcegtu punctata, Blowing Etock, Watauga county, N. 
('., August, 1889, 663. 

UH'Kosi'iLKKA Lev. 

Perithecium containing several asci, appendages dichotomously 

branched, or percurreot and then the primary branching oppo- 
site, tips of the branches dichotonious. 

.M. -i.Miio-i \ T>. A C. (see Figs 12, 13 and 14, PI. I ». 

Hypophyllous; mycelium thin, evane-cent. Perithecia 
tered, usually numerous, small, black, about .SO, reticulations 
obscure in age. Appendage- rough, five to ten, about the length 

70 JOUBM m. <-i i hi. 

of the diameter of perithecium or sometim little long 

• lark brown for about half tbeir length, lometimei the color 
ceasing abruptly midway m it theappenda roe- 

tiroea extending to near the tips, four to five timet dichotomoua. 
A-i-i four to liv<-, obovate, about ' abortly pedioell 

Bporea three to four, mostly four, -mall, about 15. 

On Cephalanthut oeeidenkUU, Auburn, Ala., autumn, I 


Amphigenoua or mostly epiphyiloua; mycelium thin, p- 
••lit or evanescent Perithecia numeroua, acattcred or rabgn 
rioua, black, small, 100-120. Appendagee ten to twenty-five, 
long, two to five timea the diameter of the perithecium, aome- 
timea colored at the base, loosely aeveral timea dichotomoua, 
tips straight or flexuous, Asci five to ten, ovate or elliptic 
30 k) x 60-60, pedicellate. Bporea six, small, 16-18. 

( )n DetmodiuMj Auburn, Ala., autumn, 1889, 1019; I 
fria/ii, November, 1889, 1<»1 \. 

On Desmodium the apecimena were mostly epiphyiloua, while 
on Letped&a they were common on both aulea of the leaf. 

M. Vaocinu C. & P. 

Amphigenoua; mycelium thin. Perithecia numeroua, scat- 
tered, black, 100-130, reticulations distinct. Appendages -i.\ to 

fifteen, three to four times the diameter of the perithecium or 

longer, hyaline, colored at base, rough, slender, three to four 
times dichotomous, tips incurved when mature, branching usu- 
ally compact, sometimes the first branches strongly divergent. 
Asci six to eight, 25-30x50-60, oval or elliptical, pedicellate. 
Spores four to six, 17-20. 

On Vaccinium, Blowing Rock, Watauga county, N. I .. 
August, 1888, 616. 

M. Euphorbia B. & C. (see Figs. 1-4, PI. I). 

Amphigenous; mycelium dense, persistent. Perithecia numer- 
ous, scattered, soft, 80-100, reticulations distinct. Appendages 
five to fifteen, roughened, hyaline, two to six times the diameter 
of the perithecium or longer, short ones usually not branched, 



longer ones irregularly dichutomous, tips sometimes enlarged, 
sometimes irregularly lobed. A.-ei four to twelve, ovate to ellip- 
tical, pedicellate. Spores four to six. 

On Euphorbia (several Rpecies), Chapel Hill, X. ('., autumn, 
1885,628; Auburn, Ala., November, 1889, L023; June, IS 
1143. This species is quite common throughout the greater part 
of the vear. 1 have collected it maturing its fruit in January. 
M. Van Bbuntiana Gar. 

Syu. M. A/nl Burrill, Bull. III. State Lai,. Nat. Hi*., Vol. 

II, Parasitic Fungi <>f III., p. 121 (in part). 

.1/. Van Bruntiana Ger. Torr. Bull., Vol. VI, p. 31. 

Amphigenousj mycelium abundant, rather thin and covering 
large part of* the leal* surface, nr in >p..i-, persistent Peritbecia 
numerous, scattered or subgregarioua, 90-100, reticulations dis- 

Appendages tea to sixteen, 
about equal to diameter of the 
perithecium or little longer, rough, 
slightly colored ;it base, rtout, - 

eral times dicbotomoUB, tips long 
and Hexuous, or short and Mount, 
sometimes toothed, never recurved. 
Asci four to ti \ . 60, 

ovate, pedicellate. Spores four to 
eight, 18-20. 

On Sambueut Canaden»i», Blowing Rock, Watauga county, 
N. (\, August, 1888, 615, 
M. Ai.m .1) C) Winter. 

Amphigenous, or epiphyllous; mycelium abundant and per- 
sistent or thin and evanescent Perithecia numerous, scattered, 
small, 80-100, black, reticulations rather distinct. Append- 
ages eight to fifteen, one to two times diameter of perithecium, 
colond toward bane, four to i\\^ times regularly dichotomous, 
tips incurved when mature. Asci four to five, oval, 30-46 X 
50-70, pedicellate. Spores six to eight, about 20. 

On Caatanea satwa, Blowing Rock, Watauga county, N, C, 

72 .Mil UNA I. OF I Mi; 

A Dgugj , 1 889, n'l 7. The a-ei are «| • i it <• regularly eighl tpored and 
larger than in the two following specimens. Syringa, [Jnioo 
8priDga, A l:... May, 1890, 11 1 * ;. (8eo1 b\ Bev. J. L Moul- 
trie). Asei liz-apored, Cbryfai Awn-innm*, Blowing Rock, 

Watauga county, N. ( '., August 24, 1888, 'JI J. A-ei uix-spored. 

These BpeeimeiM do m»l represent the variation in numb i 
asei in :i peritheotum (two to eighl I nor spores in an aacus (four 
to eight) given by Burrill (/.&). This i- probably owing 
the -mall number of hosts represented. 
M. Quebi in \ (Schw.) Burrill. 

A.niphigenous, sometimes entirely epiphylloua or hypophyl- 
lous, persistent <>r evanescent. Perithecia generally numen 
ami scattered, mostly -mall, 80 I"" 130, dark brown or black. 
Appendagi - eight to fifteen, from leas than to three or lour ti 
the diameter of the peritbecium, colored at tin- base, rough or 
smooth, lour to five time- dichotomously branched, branching 
regular ami compact, or open or sometimes quite irregular, tips 
of mature specimens incurved, frequently an incurved tip 
unpaired, its mate having divided ami formed a pair of incurved 
tips. A-ei three to eight, shape and -i/" variable, 35-50 
usually pedicellate. Spore- two to eight, 20-30. 

Var. externa, appendages three to five time- diameter of the 
peritbecium, branching regular, compact; a-ei three to G 
45-50 x 65-70. Spores four to eight, '2^-l'>. On Querent nigra, 
mostly epiphyllous, Chapel Hill, X. < '., autumn. 1885, 630. 

Var. abbreviata, appendages about equal to diameter of the 
peritbecium, branching open ; a-ei three to eight, 40-50 x 60-70; 
spores four to eight, 20-30. On Querent nigra, mostly bypo- 
phyllous, BMCi three to five, spores four to five, 30, Auburn, Ala., 
December 22, 1890, 1797; (J. nigra, bypophyllous, asei four 
to six, spores eight, Chapel Hill, X. C, autumn, 1885, 631 ; 
Q. falcata (Q. triloba Michx), amphigenous, mostly bypo- 
phyllous, branching appendages open and irregular; asei three 
to eight, spores six to eight, 25, Chapel Hill, X. C, autumn, 
1885, 629; Q. falcata, bypophyllous, asei four to six. Spores 
four to eight, Columbia, S. C, October 13, 1888, 636. 

Forms intermediate and varying to M. Alni (D. C.) Winter. 


On Quercus ateUata, amphigenous, mycelium dense, append- 
ages one to two times diameter of perithecium, aaci three to five, 
spores lour to five, 25-30, Auburn, Ala., October, 1889, 18< 
Quereua rubra f epiphylloua, appendages one to three times diam- 
eter perithelium, rough, asci three to five, 50-60 x 7< >— ^< ►. -p 
two to six, 30. Auburn, Ala., December, 1890, 1798. 


Svii. M. dauusima E. & M. Journal Mycology, Vol. 1. 
1886, p. 101. 

M. demimima E. A M. N. A. F. No. 1538. 

.1/. denaisaima Bacc. 8acc. 8yll. Addit., p. 2 (in part). 

Hypophyllous, mycelium thin, diffuse, or in orbicular patches, 
dense. Peritheoia scattered, blaok, rather stout, 10 ' l l". reticu- 
lations rather distinct. Appendages one to two times diameter 
of the perithecium, percurrent, primary branching oppositi 
nearly so, branches dichotomous, tip- incurved, some of tic tip- 
unpaired a- in M. QuercinaJ* Aaci four to six, (T2) 

ovate or elliptical, pedicellate, 35-40x65 

Spores >i\ to eight, 20 molar. Through 

the kindness of Dr. Charles Peck I have had 
tic opportunity of examining specimens of M. 
dmaiaaima (Sohw.) Peck, The specimens are ft^^^l ^^ 
very distinct from those of M. denaiaaima I 
M. The appendages arc dichotomous throughout and the orbicu- 
lar [tatches of the mycelium are very different. The specimens 

in X. A. F. No. L538 perfectly with those I have col- 

lected except that the mycelium is in orbicular patches, and more 
dense. This, however, i- a very common variation in a number 
of species. 

Some might think this specie- deserving to he the type of a 
new genus from the character of the appendages, but the dichoto- 
mous branching of the branches -how- it- close relationship to 

On Querent aquation, Columbia, tatober, 1888, 618; 

Auburn, Ala., December, 1890, 1*04. 

•This is not a peculiarity of the tip- trf tpeeimeM on oak. 1 have noticed it in M. 
Alui on Syrinya. 

7 I JOl RNAL «>i nil. 


Bi kxi urn On r. Vol IV, If 

Bi iiimi.i. Paraaitk Pttagl of m . Perl n. \n. \'i, Boll. Ill ^i* Lab. 
Nat. Ili-i . \',,l. II, ]- 

COOKI '.nv. Vol. XI, p .lour. IfjOOl. Vol. II, p 

l.i i i-.v Maktin— Jour. IfjeoL Y..I. 1, pi 101, IM 

Q] i:m;i. Itorr. Boll. Vol. VI, p. 81, 18 

Mill A: 

Mas-i i <.r.-v. XVII, | 

I; w i mi. Pong I nrol. Bxsie, (eac 

Tbaosi A G olowai Bo( Qaa. Vol. till, i 

II. Fung. Vol. I, p. '.>. Vol. I I. Addend., p. '.»., :uni Addit. |>. '2. 

Winter— Die I'il/.-. Bab. Kry|.t. Flora., I 


Mii-rn.<jihn rn l'.in>lu>rbia B. & ('. from Alabain 

Fig. 1, IVritlierimn with appendage*. 

Fig. -', End of appendage qaita evenly branched Ibar lo Ire tii 

Fig. 8, Bod of appendage qoite unevenly braoebed. 

Fig. 1. A-ci. 

nilu polyehcFta (B. & C). Massee. 
Fig. 5, Peritbeeion from Buenos Ajrea, B. A 
Fig. (i, Asci from E if 
Fig. 7, End of well coiled appendage of tame. 

Fig. 8, Bad of incurved appendage of same. 

9. and 10, Asci from specimen from South Carolina. 
Fig. 11, End of well coiled appendage of same. 
Micro.<phirra temUotta B. ft, C. (from Alabama). 
Fig. 12, Two perithecia. 
Fig. 13, Ascus containing four spores. 
Fig. 14, End of appendage. 

All of the figures were drawn with aid of camera lucida, and the plate then 
reduced one-half in length and width in the process of photo engraving. 
Figs. 1, 5, 12 and 14 drawn by objective A A and compensation ocular 12. 
Figs. 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10 and 13, objective D, comp. ocular 4. 
Figs. 7, 8 and 11, objective D, comp. ocular 12. 
Zeiss microscope used. 



ijy f. p. venable. 

Among the important questions attracting the attention of 
chemists to-day is that of the proper standard to be adopted for 
the atomic weights. It is a question whose settlement cannot be 
much longer postponed without injury. It must Ik- settled by 

careful consideration on the pail of associations and individuals 

and then by general usage — a sort of majority vote. I therefore 
venture to bring the question in it- present status to the atten- 
tion of chemists, asking a careful, thoughtful discussion and 

consideration of it. 

Two elements lay claim to the position of standard for all 
other atomic weights, hydrogen and oxygen. I [ydrogen if called 
by .Meyer and Beuberl the Dalton-Gmeliu unit and oxygen the 
Wollaston-Berselius unit. The contention is an old one then, 

and first one then the other ha- been forced to give way in the 

struggle. For a long time oxygen was the accepted standard of 
the only approximately accurate atomic weights — those of B 
zelins. It was then displaced by hydrogen, and this element has 
BO fixed itself in the literature that it cannot well be in turn dis- 
placed BS the unit. lint I would make a careful distinction 
between unit and standard. To make a radical change now would 
he inconvenient and difficult, ami should be done only under -t 
of absolute need. When one considers the difficulty and tedi- 

ousness of becoming accustomed to new numbers and thedecn 

in value and intelligibility of all the literature iu the old nota- 
tion that would follow a change of unit, one can properly realize 
the cost of such a change. 

We arc closing a century's labor, however, and a century's 
history, and it is important that we should come to some agree- 
ment on this point, and so be in a position to confer some degree 
of constancy upon our so-called constants. As it stand- now 

78 JODBJTAL <>i i BE 

each revision, or redetermination, ii calculated by two standard*, 
and the individual chemist it left to choose between them at hi- 
own sweet will. There m m. n e c essi ty for this, snd it i- s blot 
upon our science. < kher sciences, notably electricity 
their standards in order, their loins girt, si it were, for the i 
of the twentieth century. W« must settle this question, a- well 
as others, if we would move freely in the grand onward march. 

The beat settlement comes, a- i- often 1 1 1 * - <•;!-••, in tin- wa 
:i kind of compromise. Let oxygen !>•• the standard ami hydro- 
gen practically tin- unit. This reduces the changes to the l< 
possible, ami tables arranged <>n tin- basis have been in n* 
longtime. In (art, it was only with tin- idea of securing 
accuraoy that this arrangement was ever changed. Th< 
O— 15.96 a- a factor for calculation appeared about the time of 
th«' first appearance of Meyer'i work on tin- Modern Theories 
Chemistry, and is mainly due to his instrumentality. The pur- 
suit of accuracy in that direction has proved an ignu /"' 
and the necessity for something more fixed becomes every day 
more and more apparent. 

The extent of tin- need impressed me greatly while studying 

the various recalculations of' the atomic weights a- made by 
Clarke, Meyer and Setihert, Sehelien and Ostwald, and led 
to an article on the subject first published by the Eligha 
Mitchell Scientific Society, and afterwards by the Chemical 
New§ and the Journal <>/ Analytical Chemutry* This seems 
to have been the first article published in the discussion, 
but to Dr. Branner, of Prague, belongs the credit of arous- 
ing the discussion which was carried on in the Berichte of the 
German Chemical Society during ItiHi), and which was partici- 
pated in by Ostwald, Meyer ami Senbert, and Brauner.f Meyer 
and Senbert alone opposed the adoption of O = 16 as the 

*See Vol. Ill, p. 4s. 

tSee also Chem. Zeit. 18W, No. 13. where Dittmar says: " Ich wage zu hoffen d 
jenigen Chemiker, welehe seither, nachdem sie die Ueberzeugung gewonnen hatten 
dasa 0:H kleiner ist als 16, darauf bestanden haben, da- - einheit fur die 

Alomgewichte festgehalten werden musse, dese absurde Praxis aufgeben und die M 
Theil des Atomgewichtes des Sauerstoffs als einheit adoptiren werden. 7 ' 


Without dwelling separately 00 these articles, or the argu- 
ments adduced on one side and the other, I shall content myself 
with trying t<» state clearly the reasons for adopting 0= 16 as 
the standard. Were ir a inert- matter of sentiment, of securing 

a larger number of integers in the table of atomic freights, or 

something of that hind, I think all will agree with me that the 
chauge would be mere tolly. Such men asOstwald and Hrauner 
would not waste time quibbling over anything so insignificant. 
There must he and is something deeper, and it is strange to me 
that Meyer and Seuberl seem unable to see the true point 


The facts of the case are a- follow-.: Hydrogen, as having the 
least atomic weight, seems, at first sight, the most appropriate 
unit lor measuring the other-. It admit- of all being represented 
by numbers greater than unity, anil none of them of such incon- 
venient size a- in the Berselius table with = 100. \i we could 
determine the ratio of the other elements to hydrogen directly, 
that is, if their atomic weights were determined by meant 
hydrogen, and heme were directly dependent upon this as unit, 

there would he nothing further for US to desire. Unfortunat< 

very lew such direct ratios can be secured. Only three or four 
have been determined. 

1 ruder these circumstances, two thing- are possible. First Hud 

the ratio between hydrogen and oxygen, then, using this a- a 
factor, calculate the other atomic weight-. Could we Hud this 
ratio absolutely, there would be no objection to this method, but 
it is impossible to eliminate or allow tor personal and experi- 
mental errors. The ratio found can at best be but an approxi- 
mation. Evidently, by using an approximation to calculate 
other approximation-, we get further and further from the truth. 
As Ostwald has -aid, we are introducing totally uncalled for and 
unnecessary errors, and he i- light in styling it, in this -tage of 
our science, a barbarism. A- luauner has pointed out ti 
errors can easily amount to several integers in the higher atomic 

It is not for lack of skilled workers to undertake the deter mi- 

7K JOl RMAL "I I hi: 

nation of this ratio. Much excellent irork hai lieea dooe upon 
it, and es|>ecially in tin- last two or three years. Ortwald 
Rammed these np, and -ays tliere i- an error of at I per 

cent, which bai no( lieen removed by recent workers. Brauner 
agrees with him thai the variations are irreconcilable, and though 
Meyer and Seuberl think the ratio can vary but little from that 
assumed by them a- justifiable by the best determination, it U 
manifest)? a point on which tin- best authorities differ and h< 
one «>t' uncertainty. 

Why s| |,| w,. ihcn make use of the number 15.96 if it la 

not fixed by incontrovertible, unerring, universally aco pted 
experiments? It makes the matter no whit better for Meyer and 
Seuberl to profess their willingnesi to recalculate their table 
should a change in the number 15.96 prove necessary. It i- 
merely ;i confessionof the insecurity of their own position. W- 

do not \vi>h any recalculation. W'c ui-h a standard by which 
the calculation- can he made once and tor all, one that will give 

us the least possible error and i- itself independent of other cal- 
culations. The present use of the doable standard 15.96 and 

Hi seems puerile ami leads to all manner of inaccuracies. 
The Kecond possibility i- to u-c oxygen a- the standard. 

The question reduce.- itself, then, really to this: Shall we use 

0=1. ").!•<; or = 16? For oxygen must be used from \ 

necessity. [f O = 15.96 is not the absolute ratio or is not gen- 
erally accepted as such then the reason for its use oeai 

It is not necessary to bring forward argument- a- to the rela- 
tive convenience of the two, nor as to their effect upon the peri- 
odic law. Such arguments have little weight or significance 
when it is seen that the question lies bet ween O = 1 5.96 and 
0= 16, and that hydrogen can never be the actual standard or 
factor from purely chemical reasons. Xor yet is there much in 
any argument from analogy with other standard- and units. 
Such only lead us away from the one all-important considera- 
tion — the avoidance of unnecessary errors. 

I have said that the present proposition could be looked upon 
in the light of a compromise. If oxygen takes the place of 
hydrogen as standard, what falls to the share of the latter ele- 


ment? If oxygen were made 100, a- in the Bereelius table, or 
10 or l,aa have been proponed, then the present numbers, 
referred to hydrogen, would he entirely changed and lost ?~ i ^r 1 » t 
of. The plan is to change them as little as possible, giving oxy- 
gen the number sixteen, which was once regarded as the ratio 
between it and hydrogen, and, according lo the view- of soma, 
mav still be it. Then the number for hydrogen will vary verj 

little from unity, and the whole table 18 nearly based upon it at 
the unit. This number will change from time to time with I 
determinations, but such changes will involve no others. Oxy- 
gen, the standard, will then be fixed, and our task lies in the 
accurate determination of the other* by it. 

Mever and Seubert cling to the idea that if oxygen be adopted 
it must be taken equal to unity, maintaining that 0=16 i- 
neither flesh nor fowl, and by no means a unit. It is true that 
the standard or ba-i- of a leriea of physical oonatanta has in the 
past usually been taken equal to unity, but I cannot conceive the 
power of thin habit t<> be sufficiently strong to force ua into 
inconveniences or inaccuracies, That it i- nut regarded aa a bind- 
ing rule ha- been shown by the choice «>f -dine recent Standards, 
especially in the new science of electricity. 

The atomic weights aie but relative numbers. To be in any 
roped constants, they must be relative to but one single element. 
With but few exception- the ratio to oxygen can be determined. 
In revision of atomic weights, then, thi- should receive the 
chief attention and the oxygen ratio should be nio-t carefully 

and directly determined. 

Where the intermediation of another element is made use of' 
(even though thi- be one which "may be counted among tl 

of which the atomic weights arc already known with the nearest 

approach to exactness," a- Dr. Mallet recommends) it must be 
borne in mind that the result is subject to a certain error, which 
is generally multiplied several times and hence cannot give con- 
cordant results with the direct oxygen ratio, and less stress niu-t 
be placed upon it. If the well determined ratio H :() is subject 
to an error of 0.3 per cent., how much greater i< the error in the 
case of ratios less well known? 

HO .km i:\ XI. • * I l III. 


BY G \-l'»\ i:\TI II 

The action <>f phosphorus upon solutions of copper sulphate 
Ikis been examined with some detail. 4 The precipitate 
with certain metallic solutions by phospborue dissolved in carbon 
bisulphide have also been noted.! Bui n<» account could 
found of any r e s ea rch upon the prolonged action of phosphorus 
upon aqueous solutions of the ordinary metallic salts. 

An investigation of these changes was, therefore, begun h<it 
interrupted and finally finished nnder pressure for tim< 
qnently it cannot U- looked upon as complete or satisfactory and 
is reported only to show the progress made and to place on 
record whatever new facta were observed. The solutions experi- 
mented upon and the results were a- follow 

(St. -1 xohilum of Sj/nr \ifr- 

The phosphorus was added in thin shavings and the whole 
placed in the dark. On the first day needle-like crystals w 

formed. By the third day these had lost much of their lu-tie 
and a dirty white residue began to be formed. On the fourth 
day a heavy spongy mass bad formed over the phosphorus. 

Qualitative tot- showed the presence of nitric, phosphoric, 
and phosphorous acids in the liquid and in the solid residue silver 
and silver phosphide. A quantitative analysis gave !>'.». ]!* p. c. 
of silver. These tests were made after the solution bad stood 
two months or more, and show that the silver was almost per- 
fectly reduced from .solution. 

2d. >S>luiion of Potassium Bichromate. 

After two months' standing of a dilute solution of this salt 
over phosphorus it had turned greet) and there was a dirty green- 
ish deposit over the phosphorus. The excess of phosphorus was 

•Cornpt Rend. 84, 14.54. This Journal, Vol. II, p. 57. 
tZeit. Chem. IV, 161. 


removed from the solid by washing with carbon bisulphide, and 

on analysis gave : 

l>. c. Cr = 21.98. 

p. c. P 2 () 5 = 29.20 or p. c. P.=11.34. 

Th<- liquid contained both adds of phosphorus, chromic aoid- 
potassinm and chromium. Unfortunately the condition of the 
phosphorus in this residue was not determined. The amount 
on hand was insufficient and the changes took place too slowly 
for another supply to be secured, [f possible the reaction will 
be investigated more closely at some subsequent time. Another 
solution exposed for a shorter period gave i brownish deposit 
which yielded an analysis 

,.. cCr w ■ 

p. e i p. & I'.=3.47. 

3d. Solution <</* /•'.//•/> Chloride, 
A very slight precipitate was given after standing 
days. Finally a whitish pasty precipitate settled to the bottom. 

After washing, drying and powdering the color was yellowish 


Much iron was left in solution along with hydrochloric and 

phosphorous acid>. The dried precipitate contained 

p. a iv AS 

p. C. V- -13.17. 

This approximates to I Fe P0 4 . The drying was done 

at 115° 0, and the precipitate was possibly not entirely dried. It 

can only lx* definitely stated then that a basic phosphate of some- 
thing like the above composition was formed. 

Phosphorus placed in a solution of ferrous sulphate became 
covered with a black, soot-like deposit which seemed to be iron 

4th. Sot at ion of Mercuric ( hloride. 

A white precipitate was formed within the first twelve hours. 
This increased with time and proved to be inercnrous chloride 
The usual oxidation of the phosphorus took place and its oxy- 
acids con hi be detected in the solution. 

M2 .roi i:\ai. <»i i in 

When :i soluti >f mercuric sulphate was used instead of the 

chloride a blackish deposit containing mercury :in«l phnspbo 
was gotten ;in<l :ii the tame t inn- much metallic men 
formed, showing ■ complete reduction. 

A number <»t' other solutions were tested in t li«- same way, l>ut 
lack of time prevented ■ thorough examination. No effect 
noticed in the case of antimony chloride, bismnth nitrate, chro- 
mium sulphate, titanium chloride, manga nous sulphate, *~« »* I i iiti* 
tungstate, sine sulphate, potasaium chromate and coImIi sulpli 
with nickel sulphate a green amorphous deposit was gotten, con- 
taining nickel and phosphorus j with potassium permanganat< 
dark, heavy, green deposit was obtained; with lead acetati 
white deposit, containing lead, and acetic and phosphorii 
with uranium acetate there seemed t<> lie first an oxidatiou of the 
phosphorus to phosphoric acid, 1 1 1 i -> precipitating uranium in the 
well-known way. No phosphoric acid could l>' detected in the 
solution above the yellow deposit. In the case of ammonium 
molybdate the liquid went through many changes of color, indii 
ing the stages of reduction, but the resulting products were not 

closely examined. This, then, cannot l>e looked upon as a report 

of work finished, but rather of work interrupted and necessarily 
given up for the present. The examination of these chai 

more thoroughly offers much of interest, and will be taken up 
again when opportunity off 

The reducing action of phosphorous acid upon metallic solu- 
tions is known and often quoted. The formation of phosphorous 

acid is most probably an intermediate -rep here and the reaction- 
are to be accounted for by it- presence. 

Chemical Laboratory l". N. C, >I:iy, IMA 




The double compound* of the halogen salts of lead have com- 
monly very simple and regular formulas assigned to them, often 
as if they occurred only with equal proportions of the constitu- 
ents. In some previous work upon these compound** it was 

seen that in several classes of compounds, at least, this m Dot 

the case. As a contribution to our knowledge <>f thi> combining 

power of lead some further experiments were tried upon the 

chloro-bromides of lead and the results an given in detail. 

First Experiment. In the first experiment 13. '1 gm. of lead bro- 
mide and 5 gm. of lead chloride were dissolved in h<>t water. 

This is in the proportion of two parts of bromide to one of 

chloride. A very small portion, less than one-tenth of a gram 

remained undissolved. Three crops of crystals were gotten from 
this. The following percentages of lead were obtained on 

analysis ■ 

tat Fract 63.48: :: Pb Br,. 2 Pb (I, baa 68.41 |>. e, lead; 

2.1 Fraction 64.80: Ph Br r Pb Cfa haa r.4 14 |». o. lead. 
3d Fraction 68.50: I Pb Br.. -J Pb Cl a haa 68.41 p. a lead. 

On evaporating further on a water hath three more crops of 
crystals were gotten. 

4ili Fraction contained 60.86: ;: Pb Br 2 . Bb c\ 2 has t"x>.4-j p. ,•. lead. 
5th Fraction contained 68.48: 4 Bl> Br 2 . Pb t'i 2 haa ">i».'J'i i«. a lead. 
6th Fraction contained 58.09: 5 Pb Br 2 . Vb Cii lias 58.71 p. c. lead. 

The next crop of crystals gotten on further evaporation was 
very evidently lead bromide mixed with a few crystals >imilar 
to fractious 5th and 6th. 

Second Experiment. Two parts of chloride were taken to one 
of bromide. Four fractions of crystals were gotten and the per- 
centage <»f had in them determined. 

♦This Journal, V, Hi. 

8 I JOUEH \i. «»i I in 

1st I "i .«. t i .11 contained 6460; PbB I \i\> <■ U 

Id Practloa oontaitMd 14.76: Pb Bi P 

8d Fraction contained 66.34: SPbCI, Pb Br ba 66.16 p. < k 

4lli I'r.Kti.ui oonUinnd 66 11 : B Pb < I,. PI 

W'lifii it i- remembered that these various crops ol 
caoool he thoroughly washed end purified because of the i 
with which they are usually decompiled by water, and furth 
more dint there ia no probability <>r procuring ahxolutel) dis- 
tiuct crystallization from one fractionation, the variation* betv 
calculated and observed numbers in the analyse* will not app 

Of course it cannot be absolutely maintained from the a\ 
menl of (lie analytical numbers vrith those tor certain formulas 
that such inn! such compoundn were obtained. But t h<- fad thai 
these were well-formed crystala and that uot even the magnifyii 
ela-s could reveal evidences of mixing lends strong probability to 
the view that l»;ul chloride and lead bromide have the pow< - 
uniting in a great many distinct proportions, depending upon the 

relative amounts in solution and perhaps upon other factor-, such 

as concentration ami temperature. 
That the crystals were very similar in appearance in .-ill i 

make- the soluti >f the question ol* the actual existence of 

these various compounds more difficult. It is hoped that some 
other double compounds may be found which lend themselves 
better to the decision of the question. 



A solution of lead nitrate, containing also some lead bromide, 
on standing and slowly evaporating gave handsome clumps of 
needle-like crystals very different in appearance from crystal- of 
lead bromide. Some of these were collected, washed, dried aud 
on aualysis gave 33.05 per cent, of bromine. 


Attempts were then made to prepare this compound and BO by 
determining its method of preparation and by further anal 
to decide whether it could be pallet! a definite compound or 
not. Three grams of h-nd nitrate were dissolved in hot water 
and ten grama of lead bromide added. The whole was tilt 
hot and allowed to cool. The bromide (as judged by the appear- 
ance of the crystals) crystal licet] out with very little admixture 
of nitrate. 

i :i saturated solution of lead nitrate was taken and lead 
bromide dissolved in it while hot in Mich amount that it did not 

crystallise out immediately on cooling. Pour crops of crystals 
wen- gotten from this mixture on its glow evaporation. These 
presented very much the same appearance, t bat of stellated groups 
of needle-like crystals. 

On analyzing these after drying at 100° the following results 
were obtained : 

l-i Crop percentage bromine- 41. SS. 

4tli ■ 

There are reasons for thinking this last analysis faulty a- the 
amount of Bubstanoe at command was insufficient. 

The percentage of bromine in lead bromide is 
Pb K PbBr, it u 36.92, in Pb(No 3 PbBr, it 

The first crop of crystals then contained only a small amount 
of lead nitrate ami this amount increases with each subsequent 

♦ •rop, approaching nearly to two definite compound- a- far as the 
analyses can point out. It i- of course highly improbable that 
one could secure pure compounds by one such fractional crystal- 
la/.ation, but the tact that figures approximately corresponding 

to l'lt (No,),. (Pb Br ). were obtained in each of the two experi- 
ments certainly afford- ground for believing that such a com- 
pound is formed. 
Cm cm ic At Labokatoki r. N < . \i., 

hi; journ \i. of the 



IN IPIRJ m OJ li uri.MlNK. 


I'm tin dropi of 1 1 »« - -pirit- i" be examined in ;t (moderately 
concave) witch glass, tod float t li»- glaai on :» l>< >t it ;i quart of 
water which has a temperature of about 17" I'. It the iptriti 

is pure it will evaporate and leave the L r la — quite dry it 

minutes. 1 f the -pii it- < tain- even live per cent, of petroleum 

it will not have completely evaporated in that time. 
This experiment will prove the absence or presence of \- 

leum in the -ample. 

To estimate the pertenlag* of petroleum, weigh a watch j 
and put into it ten drops of the mixture, and weigh again. Put 
into another glaai ten drops of pure spirits of turpentine and 
float both glasses <>n about a quart of water at about 17<» I'. 

As soon as the pure spirits ha- evaporated take off the glaai 

which contained the mixture and weigh it. Tin- difference 
between this weighing and the weight of the glaaa will iudi< 
the amount of petroleum in the mixture. Knowing the vreigbt 
of the ten drops, the percentage can l>e calculated. 

A bent loop of wire is convenient to place on and remove the 
watch glass from the water. 

The hydrometer will detect adulteration with benzine or 
petroleum, but it cannot be used to estimate the amount of adul- 

The specific gravity of pure spirits of turpentine is about 0.865. 

Petroleum is the usual adulterant. 

Fayetteville, N. C 




In his Geological Report of the midland counties <>f North 
Carolina" Dr. Emmons says, concerning the origin of the gold 
in the [Jharie Mountain region of Montgomery county: 

"One of the most interesting instances of the oocurren 

gold in consolidated sediments is at a place called Ziou, twelve 
miles from Troy.' 1 Ami agaiu in a following paragraph: "The 

gold which lias been obtained wa- derived from the debris <>f the 

rook, but the rock itself sometimes shows particles of gold " ; and 

further, " notwithstanding the evidence- there are of tie- sedi- 
mentary origin of the gold it i- a curious and interesting fact 
that it is visible in seam- which traverse the rod 

These quotations and the context -how clearly Dr. Emmons' 
opinion to have been that the gold of the gravel of this region 
wa- deposited as a -elinient contemporaneous with the rock, and 

along with the subsequent pi 't' weathering of the rock 

and the formation of the deposits that the gold which was form- 
erly distributed in finer particle- through the rock, later by the 
segregating process collected into larger particles and nne._ 

From observations made during the past summer at the Sam 
Christian Gold Mine and vicinity near /ion I am led to doubt 
the correctness of tin- opinion ami to believe rather that at |< 
much the larger part, if not all, of the gold found in these 
gravels came from the numerous small quarts veins which tra- 
verse the region in a X. \V. by S. K course and with a nearly 
vertical dip. 

The reasons for this belief are a- follow-: Xo gold of any 
consequence ha- ever been found in places where there were no 
evidences of quart! veins either broken down or intact. The 

•North Carolina Geological Surwy, Emmons, NVw York and Raleiu 

88 JO! liN \ r. OF Tin: 

gold ia generally round in 1 1 ■ « - immediate proximity of tli 
broken down qnarti veins or flown, never up, the slope from 
them. In aeveral ca sized nuggets have l>een found in 

the veins themselves. Large nuggets have been found with tin* 
edges sharp and angular, showing very conclusively that they 
had not been tranaported any distance by water. Quite a num- 
ber of small nuggets have been found attached to fragmenti of 
tin- vein quarts. 

These ousts -how that the larger |>ait, if not all, of tie 
of this region first occurred i" the -mall quartz vein-, ami that 
with the breaking 'low u of the veins the gold ami the vein qu 
settled down into ami formed part of th<- gravel in the 
immediate vicinity or below it, and not. a- I >r. Bmmona had sup- 
posed, that the gold found in the graveis had exiated originally 
in the country rook in minute quantities on a sedimentary 

The Sain Christian Gold Mine property lie, among the hills 
at the southern end of the I'harie Mountain-. The character- 
istic rock of the region i- quartsite in place.-, quite cherty and 
so thoroughly altered a- to leave the original bedding in pi 
quite obscured. Here ami there these rocks, every where quite 
obdurate, rise into steep ami irregular hill- traversed by numer- 
ous quartz vein-, the great majority of which are -mall, but a 

few of which are several feet in thickness, though quite irregular. 

Only a few of the large, many of the small vein- are gold-beari 

In depressions ("channels") on the -lope, of these hill- lies the 
auriferous gravel one to four feet thick, composed of numerous 

irregular angular fragments of vein quartz and a larger propor- 
tion of quartzite of from very small size to two feet and more 
in diameter and with a matrix of gritty sand, with a small por- 
tion of clay. These gravels lie on the irregular surface of the 
country rock and are in turn overlaid by one to six feet of a 
gravelly loam soil. The origin and distribution of the gravels 
has been due largely, if not entirely, to frost action.* 

*Kerr, American Journal of Science, May, 1881 (reprinted as Appendix C, Ores of North 
Carolina, 1888, p. 329). Also Transactions American Institute Mining Engineers. Vol. 
VIII, p. 462 (reprinted as Appendix A in Ores North Carolina, 1888, p. 321). 







Vanaxem'i Mineralogies] Bad Geological Toon 

Ruffin's Agricultural Survey 

Tuomey'i Geological :< n<l Agricultural Survey 

Lieber's Geological, ftfiueralogical and Agricultural B 

Bibliography of tha Several Surveya 113 

Biographical Notea ...114 

IN l BOD1 I I i 

Several years ago, under instructions Prom the Director of 
the United States Geological Survey, the writer undertook the 
collection of materia!- for an historical sketch of the scientific 

surveys of North ami Smith Carolina. 

• ids relating to such surveys in the firsl named of these 
State- were found to Ite fairly well preserved, and an historical 
sketch of these surveys was prepared in 1888, and an abstract 
of the same was published in this Journal, Part I, for l v 
But the records relating to such survey- in South Carolina have 
been imperfectly preserved, and the collection of material for the 
following Bketch has involved a considerable amount of labor, ■ 
large part of which has been attended with unsatisfactory results. 

Nearly all of the citizens of the State who were intei 

in Buch matter- during the surveys <»t' Ruffin and Tuoiney 

(ISC', -'(7) have since passed away; and, although Lieber's sur- 
vey (1856— '60) came at a later tlate, thi- was immediately fol- 
lowed by the civil war, during which Lieber him-elf was killed, 
and many of the records of the survey destroyed. Moreover, 

the thoughts of the citizens of the State were then drawn in 
other directions with such intensity that the details concerning 
scientific survey were seemingly forgotten beyond recall. 

'Published by pannlaaloo of the Director of the L'. s. Geological Survey. 

90 JOUBJfAL OF mm: 

Nevertheless, by applying to several hundred of 1 1 j • - cider 
citiaens of the State, I have secured :i considerable amount of 
information that could ant otherwise have been obtained. 

Among those who have contributed most to the supply of 
information, it is but just thai I should mention the names of 
Prufessor l>. K. Gibbes, of Charleston; th<- late Dr. II. W, 
Ravenel, of Aiken, and the late Col. James H. Rion, of Winns- 

The writer lins in preparation slso n sketch of tli«' earl) 
graphical surveys of the Carolina*, but thi^ is not yt ready for 
publication. Of the State surveys in South Carolina beat 
on Mineralogy, Geology and Agriculture there have been made 
three that deserve consideration in 1 1 ■ « - p re s en t sketch. I I 
me in the order of their occurrence ; The Vanuiem Geological 
and Mineralogies! Tom- (1826-'26), the Ruffin-Toomey Agri- 
cultural and Geological Surveys I .mikI tin- Liel 
logical, Mineralogical and Agricultural Survey 

Vam \i:\i Survey (1825 and 1824 

The survey by Professor Vanuxem deserves special considera- 
tion mainly by virtue of it- early date, it having been preceded 
by but one of the State surveys, ;i- far as I am informed — the 
Olmsted Geological and Mineralogical Survey iu North Caro- 
lina (1824-'26).* 

It may be considered as a geological and mineralogical tour 
through the counties (then called districts) iii the upper portion 
of South Carolina. These tours were made by him during bis 
vacations while he was connected with the Smith Carolina Col- 
lege as Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, during the yean 
1825 and 1826. 

The survey was originated in the following manner: Lardner 
Vanuxeru was elected Professor of Geology and Mineral 
in the South Carolina College in December, 1821, on a salary of 
$1,000 per annum. Iu April, 1824, he tendered his resignation 

*See Jour. Elisha Mitchell Soc., 1889, Part I, pp. o-S. 


(to take effect in December following) on account of the insuffi- 
ciency of* the salary paid liirn. In the meantime, however, it 
was suggested to him by members of the Board of Trustees that 
there might arise an opportunity for him to make a geological 
and mineralogies] survey of the State and thereby have his sal. 
sry increased. Accordingly he indicated to the Board of Tin— 
his willingness to ad <»n the suggestion and outlined the 

proposed work of the survey in a letter, of which the following 
is an extract :* 

This idea I liiul meets witli the sanction of many of the member-, of I lie 

Legislature ;and it is thought thai an application for funds for thh 

from your Honorable Hoard would meet witli little <.i no opposition from the 

Legislature; I therefore requeat yon, Qeotleeaen, before aeeepting nj 

tion to consider the propriety and expediency of making said application. 
1 propose, (ientlemcn, to make a thorough examination < ■: : the 

State, as to it> K.xk-, Itinera -'I-- To colled ■perfeaeoi 

different kind that OOmea under notice in the different District-.; ami to 

arrange the same by ! S ilk Carolina Onllege, girinf 

specimen its niun> and its itoa ti tm. Likewise |o mark on the map of the B 
the rocks as they exist, and also Mich valuahle minerals as may have !>een 
noticed. As the mineral history of the State will be interesting at home and 
■broad, it is a part of my plan to prepare a work of the kind. It is thought 
that an examination of the State in the manner af >rementioned, would occupy 
three years; giving to each year ahout six months, or a- much of my tin. 
could with convenience he taken from my present dot 

A tier consultation with Professor Yannxcin the Board of Trua- 
tees recommended to the General Assembly that he be placed "on 
equality with the other professors in point of -alary and that he 
be required to perform the additional duties of a Geological and 

Miueralogical Survey of the State by District-, collect and 
arrange the specimen-, a- proposed in his communication, during 
the summer month 

The result of the above action eras the insertion into that part 
of the appropriation bill for 1825, relstiug t-> the Booth Caro- 
lina College, the following: "* * * For the salary of the 

•MS, Minutes of the Board of Trustees of the South Carolina College, 30th November, 
1894, now in the College Library, Colombia, 

f.MS. Minutes of the Board of Trustc - ,th Carolina College; proceedings 

of December 1 and 8, 18*4, now in the College Library, Columbia. 


Professor ol Geology and Mineralogy, one thousand dollars ; and 
five hundred dollars for making i Geological and Ifineralogical 
Totir during the rem illege, and furnishing specimen! 

the same";* :i ' M ' ''"' appropriation of :i like amount for the 
year I82< 

After 1826 the appropriation of the $500 for the support of 
the survey was discontinued. In November, 1827, P 
Vanuxem resigned his connection with the South < Carolina Colli 
to accept a lucrative position as auperioteudent of a gold li- 
near the < Sty of Me\; 

Concerning the extent and character of ProfeMsor Vanuxem's 
work and his methods of operation, we are lefi largely to con- 
jecture! M '"" little information has been lefl >>n record. But 
as baaed upon the data given above and in the record* 
to, the following statement may !>e considered as substantially 
correct : 

The work nt' the survey extended over two years, occupying 
about one-half of each year.l Daring this time Professor Van- 

nxeni was regularly connected with the Smith ( aiolina < lollegi 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy and the remainder of hi- 
time was give to teaching work; and, indeed, hi- work on the 
survey w;is regarded as a part of hi> college duties. To his 
regular college salary of |1,000 per annum, the -urn of $500 per 

annum was added for making the survey; and out of this addi- 
tional $500 a year, or (1,000 for the two years thus added to 
his salary, Professor Vannxem Wore the entire expense of the 


Thus limited in time and money, working alone, with t In- 
science of Geology in its infancy, and with organized geological 
surveys almost unknown, but little could have been expected in 
the way of methods and results from the survey. It was in 
reality but a mineralogies! or geological " Tour" or series of tours 

•Laws of South Carolina, 1824. 

flbid., 1825. 

JLaBorde's History of South Carolina College, Revised Edition, 1874, pp. 138-143, gives- 
a brief sketch of Professor Vanuxem and his connection with the South Carolina College. 

Jin a letter dated March 29,1845 (LaBorde's Hist. S. C. College, 2d Edi., p. 141), Pro- 
fessor Vanuxem alludes to the "only year given to the survey of the State," out be here 
probably refers to the two halves of two years. 


through some of the Piedmont counties of the State (portions of 
Abbeville, Pickens, Spartanburg and York, and perhaps also of 
Pendleton and Greenville), during which Professor Vannxeni 

examined in a superficial way the rock- and various important 
mineral deposits which he found in tie OS, and collected 

more than 500 specimen*, which he placed in the cabinet of the 

A- a further result of his work, be located on a copy of the 

State map* I he characteristic rock formations over which lu- 
passed in making his explorations, and also published them in 
Milfs Slatutics of South QaroMna, 1828, pp. 

No formal report al' Id- survey i- now to be found, or was 
probably ever published other than this list. He subsequently 
presented a copy of his report, probably in manuscript, to .Mi. 
Tuomey, who describes it as "little more than a descriptive cata- 
logue of the rocks and minerals collected 

His work doubtless stimulated the search for valuable min- 
eral* among some of the citizens along the line of hi> toura; 
and his map and collections of specimeiiH added to the teaching 
facilities of the college. But other than a* to th< tl points 

there is little to he -aid as to the beneficial results or additions to 

Science resulting from the survey. As to this latter point, how- 
ever, it must he added that at some time during his Stay in South 

Carolina Mr. Vanuxem determined the post-plioceni the 

deposits underlying Charleston, and along with Dr. Morton, in 

lcS-Jil,^ he pointed out the existence of tertiary formations in the 
eastern portion of the State.|| 

Ruffin Agricultural Survey, 1843, 

The establishment of this survey, near the close of the 
1842, was "due to a movement altogether agricultural." 

•A» early m 1845 this map and ma 

l<'«o cabinet. (Laboava'i 11 >. p. 141). All the 


tSee alao Tuotn nth Carolina, 1848, Appendix, pp. XXXI and XXXII. 

tTuomey'a Report on the (Geological and Agricultural Sun IV. 

tSilliman' l 8 Journal, July, 1829, pp. 254-250. Jour. Phil. Acad. Nal 

r further diaousaiona "!' Profeaaor Vanuzem's life and work -ee LaBorde'a H - 
s. C, College, 1874, Revise i, pp. 138-143 i Silliuan'a Journal of Scien< 


For i decade :m< I more previous to this date the more intelli- 
gent planters in South Carolina btd become deeply interested in 
(In- recent improvement! of modern agriculture. A number of 
agricultural societies were organised in different regions of the 
Stuff, and here these planters met together for discussion* "f vari- 
ous topics relating to their profession. Tin- doctrines of modern 
agricultural chemistry concerning soils; the adaptability of en 
manures, and especially calcareous manorei (marls, etc.), ■•• 
taking rout among :i few of the more intelligent planters; hat 
they li'lt the need of more information ami of having some bet- 
ter informed person show how to put tin-'- doctrines into pracf 

For several yean an agriculture] and geological survey of the 
State had been advocated by 11. W. Roper, chairman of the 
legislative committee on agriculture; and now tin- demand lor 
Buch a survey hail become quite extended. Accordingly at the 
session of tin- Legislature of November and December, IS 
Governor .lames II. Hammond, one of tin- more intelligent and 
progressive planters in the State, in bis annual message to the 
Legislature, urged the establishment of such a survey, ami bis 
recommendation was seconded by memorial- from several of the 
agricultural societies (S. < '. Agricultural Society, Wateree Agri- 
cultural Society and Milton Laurens Agricultural Society). 

In December* (1842) the General A s s e mbly authorized the 
establishment of an "Agricultural Survey of tin- State, * * * 
for the examination of our soil, discovery and application of 
marl lime, and developing all other resources and facilities of 
improvement"; and "as a means of testing this salutary meas- 
ure," appropriated the sum of §2,000 a year for two years, auth- 
orizing the Governor to appoint the surveyor, "who shall report 
all geological information which may be incidentally collected." 

It was further authorized in the establishing act that the results 
of each year's survey be reported to the Legislature, and that 
copies of the reports be distributed to every agricultural society 
in the State. f 

*Dec. 14, in the House of Representative?, and Dec. 17, in the Senate. 
fExtraets from the Acts of South Carolina, 1842, pp. 92 and 93. 


Soon after the passage of the above act, Governor Hammond 
appointed to tin; position of "Agricultural Surveyor for the 
State" Mr. Edmund R tiffin, of Virginia) who, early in the year 
1843, assumed the duties <>f his office. 

A word nr two will suffice to show the fitness of the appoint- 
ment. It was Mr. Ruffio, who, in 1818, hail dit the 
agricultural value of marl anil other calcareous manure-, by the 
use of which the producing capacity of much of the land in 

Eastern Virginia was marly doubled. In 1832 he published bis 
say ou Calcareous Manures," which soon panted through 
three editions and was widely circulated. From 1832 to 1- 
he edited and published the Farmers 1 Register, an agricultural 
periodical, which had a wide circulation and exerted an imp irtaut 
influence, (specially in Eastern Maryland, Virginia and North 

Carolina. In all of his writings Mr. Ruffin advocated the 

improvement of soils by drainage, by use of manures of all 

kinds, and especially by the use of marls and lime; and his opin- 
ions were based upon the fact that by the use of marl he and his 
neighbors in Virginia had nearly doubled the productive capac- 
ity of their lands. 
All of this gave Mr. Ruffiu a reputation second to none in the 

South Atlantic Slates in matters pertaining to agriculture. 

In South Carolina a feu leading planters, among them I 
ernor Hammond, under the guidance of Mr. Ruffio'fl advice, 
had begun to umq marl extensively ami with succee a . It was 
believed that marl existed in abundance over the eastern part of 

the State, but a general ignorance prevailed with regard to it, 

and it was especially desired that the agricultural surveyor Bbould 

examine this region and show the people where marl existed, 
and how to procure and use it. 

Mr. Ruffin's appointment was then in every way a suitable 
one; and he accepted it for one year with the understanding that 
he should "direct his efforts, for the most part, to discovering 
and examining the beds of marl and other calcareous deposits, and 
urging their use' upon the people of the State."* He devoted the 

•DeBov'a Rev. 0. s.. Vol. XI, 1861, i 

96 JOI i:n \i. OF i in: 

year to this work, and :tt the end of the year fie resigned and 
returned to Virginia. Hit work met with popular favor, and 
it was generally regretted thai heeonld not be induced t<> < 
tinue it longer. 

Ili- methods of operation irere simple. The occurrem 
marl being limited t<> the eastern <>r southern half of the 8 
(the coastal plain region), lii- wrork aras largely confined t<> this 
area, all portions of which he traversed in search of marl, shell- 
rock ami other sources of lime, end in explaining their use t<» the 

In locating marl beds be used (1) a long auger, boring through 
the overlying soil; and in some c attached 

to the end of s long meaauring rod; in -till other be 

had holes dug through the overlying soil with ordinary farm 
tools; occasionally supplementing these methods by search 
along the hank-, of creeks and larger streams. The presence or 
absence of carbonate of lime in specimens was determined by 
use of muriatic acid or vinegar. For i Dumber of samples the 
percentage of lime present was determined by chemical analyi 

made in part by Mr. Kutfin himself', and in part by Dr. J. I. 

rence Smith," who subsequently became so well known w& ■ 

The following extract from a letter written long afterwards by 
the late Dr. II. W. Ravenel, of Aiken, 8. C, well illustrates 
Mr. Ruffin's general mode of procedure. He says: 

At t lie time of Mr. Ruffin's survey I was a planter in St. John's, Berkley 
Parish, about forty miles north of Charleston. We had a flourishing agricult- 
ural society, and my first acquaintance with him was at one of our anniver- 
sary meeting*. He attended this meeting by invitation pn r pot e lj to consult 
with the planters and to urge and recommend the use of calcareous marls, 
which were abundant in that region. He made a long address (or lecture) on 
the subject, and remained in our neighborhood for some weeks, going from 
place to place and assisting and suggesting how and where to obtain these 

Thus he traveled about from county to county, neighborhood 
to neighborhood, urging upon farmers the use of marl and other 

*Prof. L. R. Gibbes, of Charleston, S. C, in a letter to the writer. 


manures, a better drainage of the land an 1 other improvements 
in agricultural methods. 

In the prosecution of the survey Mr. Rnffin labored alone, 
except during December (1843), when other duties and ill health 
rendered necessary his stay in Columbia, he employed an ass 
ant to examine for him calcareous deposits along the norths 
border of the State. I am unable to obtain any information as 
tothe name and history of this assistant. Mr. Iviitfin says con- 
cerning him in a letter to Governor Hammond published in 

Tuomt v'> Report for 1844:* "But having had latterly the - 

vices of an assistant in whose care and accuracy I could implic- 
itly rely, he was gent with special and particular instructions, t>> 

examine the most extensive and important of the omitted loeali- 
ties, as soon a- it w a- certain that I could not perform the duty. 

The ground left for these last intended observations, and where 

calcareous deposits were expected to be found, wa- along Lynch'- 
( leek, the Waecaiiiaw Etiver, and any other place- on and :i. ai 
the line of route to the not th-ea-tern border of the State, in which 
marl might be discovered, or heard of, mi the journ. 

\o claim i- made for additions t«> science resulting from this 

survey. Mr. Rufliu was an intelligent and careful observer, but 
he had enjoyed no training in any department of science, and his 

entire aim here was economic results; though in the prosecu- 
tion of his work he added materially to the then existing knowl- 
edge as to the boundaries and character of the tertiary deposits 
and corrected many errors as t<> localities for characteristic fossils, 

A- to material benefits resulting i<> the people of the State 
from his labor, it may be said (J) to have awakened a more 
general spirit of inquiry and experiment among the planter-; 
(2) to have led to the more general adoption of some improved 
methods, such as ditching the lowlands, using green manure 
for a supply of vegetable matter, and (3) it led to a more 
general use of marl, which, in many cases at least, proved highly 

'Report on the Geological tod Agricultural Surrey of Smith Carolina, 1844, i>. ".: 

99 .mric.vw. OF i m: 

It 1 1 1 1 1 - 1 be tdmitted that the dim of marl among tbc planters 
of tbc State has of lute yean been largely discontinued, i»« 
to the cheapening of lime end tin- vride-epread ase of phospli 
iiikI other concentrated commercial fertilisers, end further that the 
oae of mar] by many phinteri in yean immediately follow 
Mr, rluffin'e vrork proved :i diaappointmeol \ but then- uaa '*• but 
little doobt that <>n the whole such nee was beneficial when the 
marl was judiciously applied. 

The entire axpenae of conducting tin- survej iras borne by 
Mr. Ruffin, the only eppropriation made by the State l>eing the 
12,000 referred to above. 

The publication* of the survey contacted of ■ report of 175 
pegee submitted by Mr. Eluffiu Novembei nd pub- 

lished by the State, end a supplemental report of seven peg* - sub- 
mitted January 12, 1844, and published as a part of Tuon* 
first report, 184 I. 

Tuomby's Geological utd Agbicultubal Subvby, 

l844- , 47. 

When at the dose of the year (1843) Mr. Ruffin resigned his 
position as Agricultural Surveyor to the State, he recommended 
as a suitable person to succeed him M. Tuomey, of Virginia. 
Mr. Tuomey was accordingly appointed to this position by the 
Governor (James H. Hammond) near the beginning of the next 
year and began t<> discharge the duties of his office about the end 
of February following (1844). 

From the account which follows it will be seen that, notwith- 
standing the fact that the law under which Mr. Tuomey was 
appointed was that authorizing an agricultural survey, upon 
the assumption of his duties, and with the approval of the Gov- 
ernor, he at once began a geological exploration of the Piedmont 
region of the State, and that throughout the prosecution of the 
work of the survey he regards the geological examination as the 
more important part of his work and subordinates the agricult- 

*See Bibliography, p. lis. 


ural work to it. Hence I have considered it more appropriate 
to treat of these as two different surveys, having different obj< 
in view, notwithstanding the fact that legally one was a continu- 
ation of the other. 

This difference between the two surveys grew naturally out of 
the difference between the surveyor-;. Mr. Buffin was ■ planter 
whose ambition was to improve the agricultural condition of the 
country by the introduction of better methods, and especially by 
the use of calcareous manures. Mr. Tuomey, on the other hand, 
was 1)V profession a geologist and | I also a tail 

knowledge of chemistry and botany. In his first Report on the 
( reological and Agricultural Survey of the State 
"Geological Surveyor"; and his work during this first y< 
connection with the -urv«y wa« devoted to the examination 

mainly of the general and minio gy of the Piedmout 

region of the Slate. 

In his Report of 1846*1 be gives the following statement of the 
objects of the survey : 

In the renewal of my oomaiisaino, hy his Kxcelleney, Got". Aiken, in 
is H, 1 was directed t<> make a Geological ami Agricultural Survey of the 
Stale. Such a survey, tj it is at pretMM to he understood, includes the fol- 
lowing objectt. 

1. The determination and description of the various minerals and h 
the State. 

2. Their examination M to extent and relation to each other in their order 
of superposition, as well as their influence upon the physical features of the 

3. The discovery of metallic veins, and heds of other useful inhstsnOTS, SHOh 
as lime, rock, marl, etc., that they may contain. 

4. The relations of the roeks to tolla, and their chemical examination, to a 
certain extent. 

5. The pointing out of such improvements in mining and metallurgy, m 
may he though I useful to those e ng a g ed in tttOSC operations. 

Concerning the methods of operation followed by Mr. Tuo- 
mey in the prosecution of the survey, there is very little informa- 
tion to he hail. But the following extract from his letter to 

•Columbia, 1844. 

of S. C, Columbia, 1848, p. II. 

I ( >" JOURNAL 01 TBI 

Governor Hammond transmitting his report for ixir thi 
some light on hia opera turns during thii the first yeai nf his i 
oectiorj with the survey \ 

In Boonrdanoc with my ioatrnetioaa, I la tbc •prfnf, widi all 

pmwiblc despatch, to the upper portion <<( the Stoic, ti" 
labor*. Bat before proceedloa la a minute iad ijretematic exploration, li 

thai I ^li' hi Id make m v-.*-| f tOqOliiOtod with tllC general g 

character df the i. gion in I..- examined, f'ir without him h knowledge, I could 

>-ly know what to l<» k for, ami in »» i.-ni <•. it i- a maxim that "what i» not 
looked for [• seldom found. " B» tracing ■ uninher I ' at right :" 

with tin' general direct ion of the strata, ami i.v determioing carefalli 
strike of the n-ck> passed over, ami l>v connecting theic observations, I wa» 
saabled t * > determine, vita aorM accuracy, the boundaries of the diSereol 


While making this geological reoonnoiuanct of the " liill coun- 
try" of tin- State (the region of crystalline rocks) many obi 
vations were made as to the occurrence, distribution ami extent 
of various ores and other minerals ami rooks of economic value, 
and as t<> the character of the soils, .Many specimen* of o 
minerals ami soil- were collected for foture analy* 3 eial 
attention was also given to tin- gold mines of the region. 

During the cm <y trs following 1845 and 1846) Mr. Tuomey 
extended liis explorations into every portion of tin- State, in the 
"hill country" continuing the work as indicated above, while in 
the •• low country " or coastal plain region, he devoted himself 
mainly to a study of the stratigraphy and paleontology of the 
recent geological formations, his predecessor, Mr. Ruffin, having 
already investigated with considerable thoroughness the marls 
and soils of this latter region. 

In his studies of the fossil forms found .-• abundantly in the 
coastal plain region of South Carolina Mr. Tuomey had the vol- 
unteer assistance of Professor F. S. Holmes, of Charleston, and of 
several other occasional collectors, and also of Professor Louis 
Agassiz, who visited Charleston in 1846, and who, during the ten 
years following, took great interest in and rendered great assist- 

*Report on the Geological and Agricultural Survey of South Carolina, 1844, p. III. 


ance in the identification anil description of the fossil forms. 
The results of the combined labors of these gentlemen were pub- 
lished in two large and beautiful volumes, Pleit and 
Post Pleiooene Fossil* of South Carolina | 1857— '6 

In his study of the Boi Is of the several r. \ the State. 

Tuomey colleeted a number of samples, and i»f many of tl 
chemical analyses were made. In his reports be pablisbei 
considerable number of these analyses of both soils and marls, 
made in part by himself and in part by 1 >r. .1. Lawrence Smith, 
and Dr. Charles LT. Shepsrd, of Charleston. 

The economic results of Tuouiey's works cannot perhaps be 
fairly or intelligently discussed at a time bo long after th 

Was made. But there can be n > ilotibt that his survey \\:i 

considerable and lasting benefit to the State. 

In the line of agricultural improvement] be encouraged the 
farmers to adopt the improved methods which Mr. Buffi n had 
introduced. I d person, as he traveled through the State, and in his 

reports, he instructed them a- to the character of soils and their 

improvement by rotation <>t' oropsand manures of various kinds. 
He located and described the various one rook 

in the " hill country," and instructed the people a- to building 
furnaces and burning lime for agricultural and architectural pur- 
poses. He investigated with considerable thoroughness the gold 
mining interests of the State, and the results of this work pub- 
lished in his reports helped in bring i-;d table amount of 
capital into the State and in properly directing the iu vestment 
of home capital. And SO, also, hi- examination ami advertise- 
ment of the iron ore deposits, building materials, material for 
millstones, and. potter-' clay deposits ha- at various time- brought 

capital in considerable quantity into the State, and baa saved 

to its citizens equally a- great an amount by directing their own 
investments and thus preventing waste of money. 

The results of the Tnomey survey are not rich in additions to 
science, but nevertheless some valuable advances were made along 
this line, especially as a result of the work done in the coastal 

•See Bibliography at end of ih\> paper, p. US 

102 JTOl i:n.\i. Of i m: 

plain region. I li^ work among the crystalline rocks of the " liill 
country" left t<> the public ;t better knowledge of the general 
character and distribution of these rocks, bat 1 1 m- results involve 
nothing of importance in the form of either data or principles 
new to geologic science. 

As to legislation relative to 1 1 * « - Toomey survey, it will be 
remembered (see p. 94) thai tin- ad of December, tab- 

lishing the Ruffin survey, provided for a continuation of this 
survey R»r two years; and that Mr. Toomey, having been ap- 
pointed early in Pie year 1844, pros e cuted hi- work during 

that year under the authority ol'thi- act. 

Jn December, 1844, sundry petitions from the people of the 
State were suliinit ted to the General Assembly, asking for a con- 
tinuance of the "Agricultural and Geological Survey," mid the 
Qeneral Assembly authorised "a continuance of the survey 

under the direction of the p re se nt Incumbent, for a period of 
two yean, and at an annual salary of two thousand dollai 

In December, 1845, s resolution was adopted by the Qeneral 
Assembly authorizing a continuance of the Survey during 
the following year.t And again in December, 1846, a 
resolution was adopted authorising that the "Geological Survey 

of this State he continued for four months from the tir-t day of 
January uext.| * * *" According to this, the existence 

of the survey appears to have ended with the la-t day of April, 
1847. Soon thereafter .Mr. Tuotney left the State and went to 
Alabama, where he was elected to the professorship of Geoli 
Mineralogy and Agricultural Chemistry at the State University. 

The annual appropriation of two thousand dollars for the sal- 
ary of the geologist, was the only appropriation made for the 
prosecution of the work of the survey, the geologist being 
expected to bear all of the expenses incurred, except for publi- 
cation, out of his salary. 

The publications of the survey consisted of two reports ;§—(!) 

♦Proceedings of House of Reps, of S. C, Dec. 14, 1844. 
tReports and Resolutions of S. C, 1845, p. 195. 
{Ibid., 184(5, p. 203. 
gSee Bibliography, p. 113. 


the first a small report submitted for publication November, 
1844, which contains, in addition to Tuomey's report of I s 
pages, an appendix giving the "Prixe Report of Agricultural 
Experiments, submitted to the State Agricultural Society of 
South Carolina," November, 1S4 4, by F. 8. Holm,-, constating 
of 7 pages, and a "Supplement to Mr. Ruffill'fl Report/ 1 by 
Edmund Buffin, 7 pages. (2) The second, a "Report on the 
Geology of South Carolina," is a volume of larger proporti< 
It was submitted for publication November, 1846 (though not 

published until 1848), and contain- a summary of what WSJ 
known at that time relative to the geology of the State. In 

addition to Tuomey's report, covering 293 pant-, it contains a- 

an appendix a Catalogue of the Fauna of South Carolina, h\ 

Professor L. R. Gibbes c-'l pages); Meteorological Tables 
((> pages); and several leaser papers, among which i* an abstract 

of " Yanuxcm's Report" on minerals and rocks collected in the 
State, taken from "Miff* GftatitttOt of South < \iroliita."* 

Libber's Gbologk m., Mixeraxaxw ax and Aork i li i km. 
Bt BVB\ . I856»'60. 

The results of the surveys by Rutlin and Tnoraey were such 

as to arouse a deeper interest in the development of the agri- 
cultural and mineral resources of the State. Among these 
results, and accompanying them, the development and successful 
working of various gold deposits of Chesterfield, Lancaster, 

York, Abbeville, Edgefield and other counties, and iron de- 
posits of York and Spartanburg, served to increase this itiU n 
And it was doubtless this growing interest in the mineral wealth 
of the State which lex! to the inauguration of the Lieber survey. 
The immediate tdabtuhmeni of this survey is explained in the 
following Report and Resolutions adopt. d by the General 
Assembly of South Carolina, December, 1855: 

The Committee on Agriculture ami Internal Improvements, to whom whs 
referred the memorial of sundry CtttSeM of St. Helena Pariah, on the sul-jeet 
of an Agricultural and Geological Survey of the Slate, and also a resolution 

•Columbia, s. r, isj. s j«. S& 

KM .MM IINAI. <M i in: 

of the Senate oo ilx- prop) lectlng a anitabh 

effect ;i mineralogical survey, reepectfnlly I hnl they li 

the tame, :mil BOW -uhmil tin- following rep., it v* i 1 1 1 MCCoro) 

Tin* limits of i report on i fu- prevent cm 
attempting anything mora than »n eibibition <>f ti ilta arbich 

have beeo derived from lb* ao m e roa i examinations and exploration* which 
all the Go?eramente of Europe sad maay Btatea of tha Union ha?< 
niiilcr ill-- guidance of nun of high edeatife attainn* 

In 1828, oor8tate took the Iced (North Carol ion onl 
direction for I Geological aareey in charge of l Vanuzem, 

although hie aaploratloue were anacomnpanied by any of th< 
ooveriea, which tend todivereify the iadnatrial pan 
■abeeqneol labon of e Raeaa end ■ Tnoa ill of hope in the ful 

thai the State iboald feel encouragement in preaecuting immediately arhal 
haa already en well b eg an. * * * 

Believing, then, that tbeae enlightened ezaaaplei of othei eaa be 

advantage ily imitated by on, your eoanmittae reoommend the adoption of 

the following reeolntiona; 

Betafeed, That tbia Oeneral Aamably aatboriae the appointment of 
logical, Mlneralogical and Agricnhnral E eball be 

engaged for fonr year-, and wboae doty it •ball be to explore the at reral db> 

triits, make a geological map, analyze minerals, or< I manures free 

of charge, and aobmit an annnal report to the Legielatnre for general circula- 

Thel tkh officer iball receive | -alary of three tbonaand dollars, 

to l»e appointed by joint reaolution of the two hoaoee, and that it shall In- the 

duty of the joint committees of Agriculture and Internal Improvement- of 
the Senate, and of Internal Improvements of the House, to nominate a suit- 
able person to till this office.* 

In accordance with the above resolutions, and within a few 
days after their adoption, Oscar M. Lieber eras Dominated by 

the committees and unanimously eleeted by the General Assem- 
bly Geological, Mineralogical and Agricultural Surveyor of the 
State for a term of four years, and his election was confirmed by 
the Governor December 22, 1855. 

As to other legislation concerning the survey, the following 
may be noted: By a resolution of the General Assembly, 
December, 1856, the State Geologist was instructed to endeavor 

*This Report was adopted by the Senate Dec. 13, 1855; concurred in by House of Rep- 
resentatives Dec. 19, 1855. See also Repobts and Resolutions or S. C. for 1855, pp. ?.24-:i2T. 


to discover a "hydraulic limestone" which could supply lime 
au<l cement for use in the building of the new State House at 
( blumbia.* 

At the annual meetings nf the General Assembly, December, 
1856, '57, '58 and 1*-"*!', resolutions were passed ordering the 
printing of the Reports of the Survey, and comroeuding the 
work of the Geological, Brlineralogical and Agricultural Sur- 
veyor, f 

The survey having been established in December, 1855, for a 
period of four years, was to l>e discontinued after 1859, un 
otherwise ordered by legislative enactment. At it^ annual • 
sion in December, 1859, the General Assembly ordered the con- 
tinuance of the survey for another year, with Mr. Lieber in 
charge. At a later date in the same session, liowei lu« 

tic aking the usual appropriati iary and 

expenses of the geologist for the year I860 failed to pass the 
General Assembly; and the survey was rily discontinued. 

Lieber did not resign his position, however, until April 2, 1" 
for reasons which can best I in his own langu i 

My resignation has been postponed until the present time, U> 
desired lirst to complete my la^t Reptirt in such a manner tliat it might, 
together with those previously published, embrace the ttatemt ning 

everything of any Importance which had i red or effected during the 

four years of* my service. This fourth Report, ti 
chapters of s general character, ami others referring to portions of tlie v 
where the survey had not yet advanced to completion. Believing that such 
work of reference would be of little practical value without a glossary and 
index, I have prepared one for the fiwir Report*, and now append it. 

The arrangement and writing these matters, and Seeing the entire Report 

through the press, has occupied me three moot I 

My way of further statement of the object* of thin xurcey, I 
cannot do better than insert here a few extracts from the Intro- 

*See Lieber's Seoond Annual Report, 1857, p. 117; ■ larnaJ for U 

anil 14a. At the same session of th< , the 

Senate, instructing tlie 8tate Geologist i" deposit in tl 
plete and duplicate set- .>t' tl 

all to be properly arranged and labeled. But 1 find 
of Representatives concurred in the resolution. Journal, 1- 

fReportsand Resolutions ol 115. 

t Fourth Annual Report (1859), p. V. 

jThe General Assembly, at its session in December, 18fln, appropriated the m i 
Mr. Lieber for his i iditioual th: 

106 Joi i:\.\i, <»i mi: 

(] act iun to Lieber's Fourth Annual Report, tbm giving htg own 
staterut m of the opinions' wbiofa ^r 1 1 i < 1 « -< 1 liim in the prosecution 
of the survey. He sey*:* 

The object of ■ -invi-v of thi> description appears lo m< 
wiili various ;hi<1 entirely diattbd foatnrea. The primary cause nt 

tion is unquestionably idt development of our natural I (In* 

Intention of its originator! »hou)d alwayi continw i it* pmiai 

position. Jiut yet thia commendable object by no opriaca all that 

ibould be embraced aritbia the dutfc laejial I think bcabould 

not merely endea vnr to discover mora occurrence! of uaefol min< 
here and there, labor in repress aad pr ev en t espenditnre ot i iw in 

the eaareh for raeb ftfia of nature, where there la really no promise of sutfi- 

oienl importance to warrant it. Attentive aa ht ght to be to tl 

practical duties, whether of a positive or negative ad in 

hi- own atudies, lie aboald tn.t re-t aariaflod with th< H 

powers linn with the mean- of attending :i knowledge of the current pro. 

of his siienre, ami of aiding, often in no InccsMtderable degree, in that ti*-l«i 

of research ami exploration of nature, in which he ha- norc particularly 
(levnted his attention. For tilis purpose he uiu-l endearnr to oht I 
inforinalion ni' the latent developments in hi- department of id of 

the neweat results of contemporary axpiormtkM liaraeter. 

Impressed with the conviction that the object* of a fjeogixetic lurvey -huiild 
he (bin diversified, I bavfl endeavored to explore and define our natural 

resources, to contribnta ."s moefa aa possible in the enlargement <>f knnwi- 

in the particular department of science concerned, ami to enable i 
Report! to become the vehicles for the distribution of that information on 
connected subjects, both tecbnologica] and acientific, which is gradually 
accnmnlating elsewhere. * * * * 

The only subject, apart from running note* mi petrolofV, which I have 
deemed it expedient to enlarge upon more fully, on account of its immediate 
technological hearings, and the ahsenee of its notice in alasoat all American 
and English hooks on geology, is t he study of veins; and in this particular 
branch, I believe, indeed, that at least the general outlines have !>een pre- 
sented in the different Reports. 

The special character assumed by the survey was the resultant 
of the following conditions: 

(1) Mr. Ruffiu's work related to the agriculture of the "low 
country" more especially. Mr. Toomey's work extended in a 
general way over the entire State, but a large share of his atteu- 

*Repovt on the Survey for S- C. for 1869, pp. 1 and 5. 


Hon was given to the stratigraphy ami paleontology of the Low 
country. It seems now (1855) to have been generally conceded 
that the time had coaie for a more thorough survey of the gen- 
eral ami economic geology nf the "up country" — the region of 
crystalline rocks. 

(2) Mr. Lieber'fl early training as a geologist and the work to 
which he seemed most devoted orae petrology and " vein g< 
nosy." His studies in Germany with Humboldt, Yon Cotta 

and others, and his work on the geological -urv.y in Alahaina, 
under Tiiomey, were along this line. And these features of his 
work in South Carolina were prominently in view during the 
entire existence of the survey. 

(3) The Bmallneas of the appropriation* prevented the em- 
ployment of any regular assistants, hy the aid of whom a hu 

amount and greater variety of work could have been accom- 

A- to the area covered by the Borvey, Lieberthal left on 
record the follow ing statement 

Tin- Districts (counties] which] bave nov enrveved and niapped oat are : 
Chesterfield, Lancaster, Cheater, York, Union, Spartanburgh, Greenville, 
Pickens, Anderson ami Abbeville — my plan having been first to proceed slong 
the North Caroline line from the margin nf the sand raj oar meta- 

phoric rocks strike very uniformly north-east, this plan enabled me to i. 
the heads of the columns as it were. Having effected this, ami thus facili- 
tated the mechanical part of the operation, I w ling down 
the Savannah, intending this year to have Co mmenc ed tilling up the interme- 
diate Districts, when the Survey •*■ stopped. 

field has been partial It surveyed and elan, in part, repoited upon; but 
I could not yet prepare a map. 

Other Districts in which cursory or partial examinations have been made 
are: Lexington, Richland, Laurens, Newberry, Fairfield, and the Districts 
along the coast from the mouth of the Savannah to Bull's Bay. These obser- 
vations on the coast were made during a portion of the winter (1859), but 
they are, as yet, quite incomplete. 

Concerning the methods of operation followed by Lieher dur- 
ing the prosecution of the survey, but little can be -aid other 

*Sa,(N>ti per annum. 

tFourtli Annual Report, I860, p. left, 

108 JOtTBXAL OF i mi: 

than i^ given in bio Reports, supplemented by private let* 
ten from persons who came in contact with bini mon 
during this time. A feu int< jiveu in 

the extract ju~t quoted, and also in the extract quoted below 
relative t<> the making of maps. 

The resolution establishing the bui 104), in enumerat- 

ing the duties of the State Geologist, specifies that he shall 
"explore the several Districts :m<l make ;t geological m 
analyse minerals, ores and manures, free of chaise," etc. The 
chemical work here specified, Lieber does n"t appear to I* 
undertaken ;it all. He was no! :i chemi*t by profession nor by 
training, and furthermore, realising that the performance of thin 
part of the work would require the whole time uf :i competent 
chemist, be proceeded with thai cart of the work for which he 
was the better qualified, and which. In- believed, would result 
more beneficially to the State the field explorations, and mak- 
ing the geological maps. During the progress of the sun 
however, be collected, from time t<» time, numerous specimens of 
rocks, minerals, ores and soils, with the hope that the General 
inldv would further provide for their analysis by the <-m- 
ployment of a chemist.* This, however, was never done, and 
the specimens were subseqnently destroyed by the burning of 
the capitol building at ( Columbia during the civil war. 

In prosecuting his field explorations, Lieber traveled on fool 
or in a wagon. During much of the time he had as his head- 
quarters a tent, which was removed from place to place at) his 
field work demanded. His only constant assistant was a ser- 
vant, usually a negro or an Indian, who served as cook and 
general attendant. 

In the following notes concerning the maps, accompanying his 
reports Leiber suggests some of his methods of operation :t 

A word in regard to the maps may be suitably added. These have been 
engraved with so much care and beauty by Mr. Colton,* that it has been « 

*See Report for 1856, pp. 101 and 10$: Report for 1857, p. 117: Report for 1858, p. VIII. 
jFourth Annual Report (185rf), pp. 6-8 

JMr. G. Woodworth Ccltou, formerly of the firm of J. H. Colton 4 Co., now (1859) of 
that of Thayer & Colton, New York. 


great stimulus to nie in seeking to increase to the utmost the accuracy of my 
portion of the labor. The manner of preparing the manuscript maps, by 

noting the points where different racks present themselves, and afterw ards 
connecting such points in accordance with nature, is too readily comprehended 
to demand farther explanation. 

But there are instances where the maps might possibly engender the belief, 
that an amount of accuracy had been attained which would, under no circum- 
stances, be within the reach of an examination of the surface. Where solid 
rocks are observed oat-cropping near the margin of their area, the c 

of solution; nor is the difficulty of the determination of boundaries much 
increased, where a conspicuous variation in the soil is seen, and the mother- 
rock of such soil is known; but many soils, ( Wi red from distinct rovks, are 
very similar in character (thoae of granite rocks and mica slate, for inetai 
while some again, from their lightness, are drifted into the area of another 
rock. In these instances we are forced to reat satisfied with the utmost uttain- 
»(///# accuracy. But as a uniform rule, precision in all details has been aimed 
at. Hence, the region around Limestone Springs, who- otitic and 

technological interest appeared to demand the utmost care, was first drawn on 
a scale of one statute mile t" two inches. From this manuscript, the plate 
All was reduced by Mr. Colton. The ordinary scale on which the manu- 
script maps are ilmvn is that of two miles to the inch, the subsequent reduc- 
tion being to ■ scale of five miles to one inch. 

As the maps of Report I Were the first regularly printed in colors in the 
United States, it wai to make a number of experiments in regard to 

the manipulation of the work, before arriving at that degree of excellence 
which, I certainly think, Mr. Colton has now successfully attained. A | 

difference it even observable between the mapa accompanying the different 

Reports. Those of the First w red on stone; those of the Second on 

zinc, and those of the Third and Fourth on copper, without anv inert 
expense, the recent improvements in the art of engraving having rendered 
the latter sufficiently cheap for the purpose. In comparing these maps with 
those colored by hand, the incomparably greater accuracy of the printed 
Colon will appear at once, and it is, therefore, with gratification that we may 
perceive our State to be the first to introduce a new system, as it were, in a 
branch of engraving in which, until recently, almost all other countries have 
1'ar surpassed us. These eolois are applied in such a way that the blue, for 
instance, is employed for the blue, purple and green; the yellow for the yel- 
low , orange and green ; the red for the red, purple and orange— so that the 
impression of one and the same color applies to different rocks, by being used 
alone or in combination. In the maps of the present Report (f _'reat 

additional improvement will he seen in the representation of the gradual 
sage of one rock into another — a highly important feature, which it would be 
impossible to indicate with uniformity anil precision by hand-coloring. The 
colors employed throughout have been the deep and decided ones seen in the 
OOStic maps of continental Europe, which appeared to me far preferable 

I 10 .lot i:\ \i. OF tin; 

10 tli«' weak, watery and indefinite color* hitherto employed in our ri.unfrr 
Mini I ,ii'_'I;iimI, irhOM iliflii uliv of • 1 i — # - r i m i n:>l i>>ii and earlv .mlv 

vi rv objectionable lea 

The r.rjit ax" iucQired in conducting the Mirvey were borne l>v 
Lieber ool <>!' the annual appropriation of $3,000 for the ••-al- 
ary n of the geologic ; ind the total eosl of carrying on the - 
vey (including the salary of tin- geologist) during the four \< 
and three months of its existence amounted to the turn of si •_'., 

The personnel of the Lieber survey can l>«- briefly stated. No 
provision wai made in the establishing ad or in the appropria- 
tions for tli«' employment of assistsnti on the survey; and in 
reality the survey was oondncted by Lieber himself, working 
alone doringtbc larger pan of the time. I have found mention of 
only two persons who rendered him professional assist 

follows : 

During a portion of the year 1866, Mr. Abraham Hardin, at 
Lieber's request, made I "geodetic survey" of the itacolumhe 
region of York and Spartanburg countM 

Lieber has left on record the following note concerning the 
assistance rendered iiim by Mr. J. Priedeman during a portion 
of the year 1866 :f 

To J. Friedcman, Ks<j., I am, however, certain] y most Indebted, as lie kindly 
accompanied me throughout the main portion of the field duties, which the 
great heat of last summer rendered more arduous per ha pa than might be 
expected in other years. Mr. Friedeman's thorough knowledge of mining 
engineering, and mining geognosy— a fact which his having pa-sed through 
the whole course of tuition, practical and theoretical, at the far-famed mining 
school of Ctamthat, and elsewhere in Germany, would of itself insure — and his 
extensive experience in the mines of North Carolina, specially in the talcose 
slate mines, were of the greatest value in the investigation of the analogous 
occurrences of metals in our State. It would he difficult and, indeed, scarcely 
possible to distinguish his labors from my own since he attached himself to the 
survey, and I am under still greater obligations to him as his valuable services 
were gratuitously rendered, a fact which was unfortunately made necessary on 
account of the inconsiderable amount of the appropriation and the necessary 
outfit expenses which, of course, fell somewhat heavily upon the first year. 

*Lieber's First Annual Report, Survey of S. C, 1856, p. 23. I have no information a 1 - to 
the exact amount of time devoted to this work by Mr. Hardin. It is presumed that lie 
was paid for his services by Mr. Lieber. See Biographical Notes, p. 115. 

TFirst Annual Report, S. C. Survey, 1850, p. 4. I have no further information concern- 
ing Mr. Friedeman,s career. 


The report* of this survey* consisted of four Annual Reports, 
one for each of the years 1856, 1857, 1858 and 1859. Ti 
were published ID editions of 2,000 copies each, by the State 
printer, and distributed in accordance with the following resolu- 
tion :f 

Revoked, Thai two thoUMDd copies of the Report be printed; that . 

member of the Senate sod of i he House of Representatives be allowed one 
copy, and tliat the remaining copies tie placed in the bands of the Qofcrnor, 
and that he he requested to have twelve copies deposited in (be Legislative 
Library, two copies in each collage ami Public Librarv in th. E I the 

remaining copies in the hands of the booksellers of Columbia and Charl. - 

ami in one itore at each Court BovainthaBtstv, tobeaoldatflfij cents a copy, 

the same commissions to be allowed them as on the Statu'. and they 

would further recommend that the copies now on hand* shall be sold at a like 

( )t the Report for 1856 at first only 1,000 copies were printed, 
but at the session of the General Assembly for 1857 1 ,000 addi- 
tional copies were ordered, and were printed m ■ second (and 

somewhat revised) edition, in 1- 

During the civil war many epic- of these reports eren 

in the burning of Columbia and other towns and they are now 
exceedingly rare. 

The economic rtmtMt of the l.ieber survey were mainly in the 
line of mining enterprises. His investigations of the character- 
istics and distribution of metalliferous veins in the gold iv^ion-. 
of South Carolina (and the neighboring portions of North Caro- 
lina), and the best methods of working the same, helped in 
bringing about the successful working of a number of tl 
mines, such as the Brewer, Hale, 1 torn, etc, and would have 
resulted much more advantageously in the development of these 
mines but for the untimely interruption of all such undertak- 
ings by the civil war. There Was then every indication of 
growing industrial progress. Mr. Lieber's discussion of agri- 
cultural and other industrial matters in his reports ex ercise d a 
beneficial influence, through the "hill country" especially. 

*See Bibliography, p. 1 14. 
♦Third Annual Report ill. 

{Copies of the Etepoi had formerly been sold "at cost," distributed 

as above slated. 

I 12 .for BJIAL <>i nn: 

Something limy be -aid l>y way of conclusion concerning tbe 
additions to toience TGuilting from the Lieber survey, though it 
will be dilliriilt to discuss these intelligently until the regions 
and problems he itudied '-an he worked over again in tin- light 
of more recent investigations. Tbe region in irhich he labot 
embracing a considerable irea of the crystalline rocks of tbe 
south Appalachian region, ii one of great geologic end economic 
interest and importance. Tie' general problems thai ii 
Lieber more especially were tin- c h a racteristics, classification, 
nature ami origin of the metalliferous veins, the character and 
of metamorphic rocks, incloding tin- age ami history of the 
Appalachian moontaia region ami especially of the itacolumite 
formation, ami the character ami relative age of tbe eruptive 
rocks. It must !><■ home in mind that tin- science of petrography 
was in its infancy, ami tbe use of the microscope in tin- study of 
crystalline rocke almost unknown at the tine- of* Ljeber'a work; 

ami yet it may he fairly claimed that he added considerably to 

our knowledge and understanding of these problem* connected 

with the crystalline rock- ami "vein geognosy" <>f the Bootbern 
Appalachian regions. Those int er e s ted in the subject should 

read his four annual Reports where hi* conclusions an- Btated at 
length, as the limits of the present .-ketch preclude a full state- 
ment of them here. One of his conclusions — a- to th<- sge of 
the itacolumite series of rocks and the neighboring crystalline 
schists of portions of upper South Carolina, Western North 
Carolina and upper Alabama — may be stated here a- of special 
interest; and it will l>e better to state it in his own words 

If, then, we remember that in some localities the itacolumite, or rather the 
quartzite stratigraphically identical with it, has already been established to he 
of lower silurian age, and also take into consideration tliat appearances cer- 
tainly favor the view that the crystalline slates of Alabama belong to that 
geologic period, we may, it is true, still justly regard the proof as imper- 
fect, but we cannot deny that the weight of evidence is greater for than against 
the supposition that the itacolumite rocks of the South are lower silurian, and 
that such also is the probable age of all the crystalline slates of the Allegha- 
nies in general. 

*See The Itacoixmite and its Associated Rocks — Supplement to The Third Annual 
Report of the Survey of S. C, (1858) p. 149. 


Lieber devoted hut little time to the investigation of geology 
of the coastal plain region, but, as Stated above, during the win- 
ter of 1859 lie examined tbe coast region from the Savannah 

liver to Bull's Bay, and he has added somewhat to our knowl- 
edge of the recent geologic history of this region. He distin- 
guishes five or six " prominent effects of change" :* 

l. An ancient depression along oar o 

1. A total change in the coarse of the portioaa of the rivers near Um 

S. A more reCCDt superficial elevation of the eoa-t, ami 

l. Consequent gradual seaward extension of the land. 

5. A present depression of the coast, ami 

6. A southward translocation of our littoral [alaoda. 

Bibliography o* thi Sevebal Si rveye 

L. Vanuxem. Report on Geology, published in newspapers, 
and most of it in Mills 1 Statistics of South Carolina, I8S 
pp. 2o-;;tt; and in Tuomey'ti Geology of South Carolina, 1848, 
pp. xwi and xxxn. 

Report of the Commencement and Pro g r e ss of tbe Agricult- 
ural Survey of 8oath Carolina for 1843; by K Imunil Kullin, 
Agricultural Surveyor of the State. Colombia, 1843, 8 vo., 1l'<» 
and 55 pp. 

Report on the Geological and Agricultural Survey of the State 
of South Carolina ; byM. Tuomey. Columbia, 1844. Bvo., iv, 

and fi.*! pp. 

Report on the Greology of South Carolina; by M. Tuomey. 

Columbia, 1848. s \'"., vi, I'M."!, and Ivi pp., plate and 2 map-. 

Pleiooene Fossils of 8outh Carolina: containing descriptions 

and figures of the I'olyparia, Echinodermata and Mollusca; by 

M. Tuomey and F. S. Holmes. Charleston, 1867. Quarto, 152 

pp. and 30 phi 

l'ost-Pleioeene Possils of South Carolina; by Fratu 

Holmes. Charleston, 18rJ0. Quarto, 122 |>p. and 28 plates.* 

•Fourth Annual Report (1859), |>. 117: slao Am. .lour. Sci , XXVUI (UM), pp. :: 
*\ more elaborate list of publication! relating to the geology, natural history and 
resources of South Carolina will be published In a future Dumber of thi* Jon: 

{The propriety of placing these t w i > publications among the reports of the - 
may be questioned, bat they were published largely si -'ate, and 

nuteh of the material was originally intended for Tuoim y's Report 

1 I 1 JOURNAL <>i THE 

Report on the Survey of South < 'arolina : being the Brtl annual 
report to the General Assembly; b M. Lieber. Colom- 

bia, 1866. 8vOw, viii, fend 136 pp. :ni<l '.» pint 

Report "it the Survey of South Carolina: being then 
annual report to the General Assembly ; by Otcar M. Lieber. 
Columbia! 1*")S. Bvo., viii, and 1 16 pp. and 6 |Ual 

Report on the Survey of South Carolina: being tbe third 

;i al report io tlir General; by Oscar M. Lieber. 

Columbia, 1859. Bvo., sv, and 223 pp. and '■'> plat 

Report on the Survey of South Carolina: being the fourth 
annual report to 1 1 * « - General Assembly; by <>-':u M Lielx-r. 
Columbia, I860. 8va, i\, and 194 pp. and 1 platen. 

[ The last four reports air bound in one volume, with the title, 
Reports od the Geognostic Survey of South Carolina; h I l 
Montgomery Lieber, State Geologial of s. C., I, II. Ill, IV. 
1856—1860. Columbia, I860, irith an index and glossary to 
the four Reports. J 

Biographic ax N<»i 

Lardner Vanuxem. — See note- and re f ere nc es, pag 
above Be was born in Philadelphia, 23d July, 1792, and died 
in Bristol, Pa., 25th January, 1848. He was graduated at the 
Boole dea Mines, Paris, 1 819, and soon thereafter (l 8 
his position in the South Carolina < College. While connected with 
this institution be devoted bis vacations during 1825 and 1- 
to making geological tours through various portion- of tl 
After his return from Mexico, during 1 v "_'7-' - _'>, under the aus- 
pices of the State of New York, he studied the geological fea- 
tures of the States of New York. < )hio, Kentucky, Tennessee and 
Virginia; and in 1836 tbe geological survey of New York was 
established and Vanuxem was placed in charge of the third _ 
logical district, where he remained in active service until 1841, 
and published his results in the Geology of New York. Third I >-- 
trict (Albany, 1 842), Subsequently he spent some time in arrang- 
ing the collections of the survey, in Albany. In 1838 he sng- 

*A second (and slightly revised) edition of this report was published in 


gested a meeting of geologists from Virginia, Pennsylvania and 
New York for the purpose of devising and adopting a uniform 
geological nomenclature for use among the several State geolo- 
gists, which meeting was held in 1840, when tin- Association of 
American Geologists was organized. He published numerous 
papers on scientific subjects in the American Journal of v 
Journal of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 8 and 

"An Essay on the Ultimate Principles of Chemistry, Natural 
Philosophy and Physiology" (Philadelphia, 1827). 

Edmund Ruffin. — See pi above. He was by 

profession an agriculturist; born in Prince county 

5th January, 1794; died at Redmore, Amelia county, Vir- 
ginia, 15th June, 1865. During L810-'12 be attended Wil- 
liam and Mary College. In 1813 he took charge of the estate 
left him by his father, at a time of general agricultural dept 
sion; and at once began various experiment! looking to the 
improvement of soil-. In 1848 lie tried tin- first experiment in 
the use of lime (marl) tfl a supposed cuinteractant of the acidity 

of the -oil, and found the results greatly beneficial. 

During the few year- following this the u-e of marl, through 
Mr. Ruffin's exertions, extended rapidly throughout Eastern Vir- 
ginia, generally with like beneficial effects. During 1841 and 
1842 he was a member (and Secretary) of the Hoard of Agri- 
culture of Virginia, and for several yean he was President of 
the State Agricultural Society. During 184.'} he served a- 
•■ Agricultural Surveyor" of South Carolina, and published a 

report of his results (Columbia, 1848). Prom 1882 to |842 be 
edited the Farmers 1 Reoiafer, a journal which exerted a wide- 
spread and beneficial influence on the agriculture of Virginia 
and other Southern States, He was also the author of "An 
iy on Calcareous Manures" (Richmond, 1832), an u Essay on 
Agricultural Education" tehee of Lower North 

Carolina" (Raleigh, 1861 . 

Michael Tuomey, — IV 03, above. Born in Cork, Ire- 

land, September 20, 1805 j died at Tuscaloosa, Ala., March 30, 
1857. Came to New York, and studied at the Troy Polyteeh- 


nic School, where he graduated in 1835. He subeequently con« 
ducted ■ school in Petersburg, Va., irbere he lived when early 
in is 1 1 he wai appointed State Geologist of South Carolina. 
In Is 17 he resigned this latter position nod \\a> elected IV 
iur of Geology, Mineralogy ami Agricultural Chemistry in the 
University of Alabama. Prom 1848 to 1864 be acted 
Geologist in addition to hia dnttea at the University ; 1864 and 
1856 he gave ;ill of hi- time to 1 1 » * - survey, and afterwards 
returned to hia professorship :it the University, which he held 
until the date of bip death, [n addition to hia two Reports on 
the Geology of Sooth Carolina (1844 and ie publiahed 

two Biennial Report! on tin- Geology of Alabama mil 

l 868) and several papers on geological subjecte. At the time of 
his death, in connection with I'm!'. — r I . 8. Holmes, he lia<l in 
hand the publication of I " splendid work on the Fossils of 
South Carolina, which has not been lurpaeaed in the country for 
the beauty of its pataontological illustrations. Geological 
science is greatly indebted to Profeeeor Tuomey'a zeal and 

Professor Tuomey was ■ member of the I ty of 

Natural History and the American Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. 

Oscar Montgomery LUberj — Pages 103-13, above. He waa 
born in Boston, Mas ruber 8, 1830; was educated in 

Boston, at the South Carolina College — when- his lather. I 
Lieber, was a member of the faculty — and at the Universities of 
Berlin and Gottingen (l!S47-'48). In 1861 be was elected 
Assistant Professor of Geology in the University of Mississippi, 

his duties being confined to the work of making a geological 
survey, and extending over but seven months, when he resigned. 
In 1854-'o5 he was Assistant Geologist on the Alabama surv 
under Tuomey. In December, 1855, he was elected by the 
Legislature of South Carolina Geological, Mineralogical and 
Agricultural Surveyor of the State, which position he held for 

•Am. -Jour. Sci., XXIII. Isvr. p. 44>. 

tA more elaborate sketch of Lieber will be published in a future Dumber of t. 


four years and three months, the survey being discontinued by 
the failure of the Legislature to make the neces-ary appropria- 
tion. Jn July,'o, he accompanied the U.S. Astronomical 
Expedition to Labrador as Meteorologist and Geologist, under 
Professor Charles 8. Venable. At the breaking out of the late 
civil war in 1861 he joined the Confederate army, was fatally 
wounded in the retreat from Williamsburg, Va., and died in 
Richmond, June 27, 1862. 

In addition to his South Carolina Reports Lieber WW the 

author of "The Assayer'a Guide" (Philadelphia, 1862); "The 
Analytical Chemist's Assistant/' translated from the German of 
WdhJer's "Beispiele cur Uebung in der Analytischen diem 

with an introduction Der I tacolumit, Seine Begleiter 

und die Metallfftlirung desselben, in \'on Cotta's Gangstudien 
(Freiburg, I860), Vol. Ill, pp.30 and numerous pa; 

on scientific subjects published in the Seu York MhUng M<uja- 

r.iuc. and other journals in this country and in Germany. 

Abraham II<ir>lin. — 9 110 above. Born in what is 

now Cleveland county, \. < .. 22d June, 1789; died at Black's 

Station, S. ( \, 11th July, 1881. In 1836 he was sleeted to the 
islature of South Carolina and served lor three tcnib. In 
1 856 be was employed by Lieber to make tic sorv* 

of the King's Mountain and adjoining itaoolumite regions. 
J. Friedeman. — Bee page lit' above. 

1 IX i'>i i:\ \i. OF I m: 


mi i ii i ii mi i.i mo 

Pi I - •'. II Ml., January 1 1. I 

Holmes called (lie meeting tO OrdtT 'I'd'- folio 
lead : 

1. BoH tin' DittSOOl Between [lie Sun Md Ivirtli i l'rofe«eor 

J. W Q 
•2. A Sketch of PartMir'f Life sad WToe* Mr. W. II BheJb 

Wr*l Treatment of BftMcS. |f| \ - |W vanl. 
The following were rca<! by title: 

I. Some Modifications of the Method for Determining Crnde Pib< 
lessor W. \ . With.i -. 
•"). The Deieminttioa <>f Crude Fiber. Professor W. A. With 

I'h. -e are published in this nnmher of the Journal. 
i •> i 1 1'.- 1 M 

I m.i., February 18, I 

6. TlieCliemical Problem* Of To-day: A BoSOmO* of Professor Victor Mo] 

Addre-s. i- P. Venahle. 

7. Thfl Keccnt Geologic Formations on the Roanoke Kiver. J. A. Holmes. 

8. Recent P r og r em in Electricity. J. W. <;<>re. 


PmOl Hai.i., March 

9. On the Great Ship Censls. Wm. Cain. 


Person Hall, April 1, 1890. 

10. Note on Work on New Elements. F. P. Venahle. 

11. Abundance of the Elements. J. s CellisoQ. 

12. Occurrence of Boracic Acid in the Caustic Alkalis. J. S. Geliieon. 

13. On the Suez Canal. Win. Cain. 

14. Exhibition of some Minerals from the Mica Mines and of some Fine 
Crystals. J. A. Holmes. 


Person Hall, May 7, 1890. 

15. Sanitary Disposal of the Dead. H. L. Miller. 

16. Inter-oceanic Canals Crossing the Isthmus of Panama. Wm. Cain. 
Read by title: 

17. On the Determination of Available Phosphoric Acid in Fertilizers Con- 
taining Cotton Seed Meal. F. B. Dancy. 


!8. The Distril)iition of Boraeie Acid Among Plants. J. S. Callison. 

19. Three New Masses of Meteoric Iron. Geo. F. Knnz. 

20. Two New Meteoric Irons. F. P. Venahle. 

21. New ainl Improved Methods of Analysis. S. J. Hinsdale. 

22. List and Description of North Carolina Meteorites. F. P. Venahle. 
The Secretary reported as the result of the meeting of the Council the 

election of the following Corresponding Memh. 

Marcus Benjamin, E/tq., New York City. 
F. Kunz, 1 York City. 

Profess.. i A. Oiard, Paris. 

By order <jf the Council ail officers were to continue holding their 
until the December meeting, so that in the future their terms should ; 
and close with the year. 

! Y-FIFTH Mil 1 

Pntoa II \i .i.. Septe m be r 16, 1> 

23. On the i termination of 8 me of tbe I the paper 
by Brown and Morris, 1 P, Venahle. 

2 1. Report on tin f the American Association for the Advance- 

ment of Science. J . \V. I I 


Pbmou Ham., Oetober 14, l- 
M, The Discoverer el Oi m of Bertbelot'i paper and 

Thorpe's reply. F. P. Venahle. 

27. A Raining Tree in the Campus of the University. P. Dalrvruple. 
Some Notes on Aluminium. ,L V. I i 

29. The New Object (ileal fur t >pe at the Cuiver-i; 

South California. J. \V. < . 

3D. Exhibition of Specimen* and Photographs. ,J. A. Hole* 


l'i i;- .\ Hail, Novemher 11, 1 H 
31. Reports as to Koch's Lymph. \'. S. Bryant. 
82. Improvements in Explosives. F. P. Venahle. 

The Croton Aquedoet. Wm. Cain. 

34. A New Method of Propelling Ships. J. \\\ Core. 


• s II u i„ December 2, 1890. 

35. Problems of the Atlantic Coastal Plane. .J. A. Holmes. 

36. Some Brysiphece from Carolina and Alabama. Ceo. F. Atkinson. 

37. Action of Phosphorus on Certain Salts, Caston Battle. 

38. Lead Bromo-Nitrate. H. L. Miller. 

.'.'.I. On Lead Chloro- Bromides. F. P. Venahle. 

40. Adulterated Spirits of Turpentine. S. J. Hinsdale. 

120 JOURNAL OF l hi: 


i nl in. in ntociate membership fi 
ii| from lull membership :• > 
Uficivi i| from iiihsci iptions 

red fr -|M-ci,il contribnti ! I 

Balance unexpended frooi 1889 

$289 87 
Expended for postage 

Expended for express and freight 16 II 

Ex pended for engraving .... 

Expended fur printing 


Expended in >m > 

P VIA .1:1.1. 


UniiAKi- P. RoTHH I New York. 

Mabcui I'.kn.ia.min, Eaq New York. 

I)n. H. Cauimm.Ii.n BOLffOV. New York. 

New York. 

Dr. Wm. B. riin.i.ii-s Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

I'kokkssok J. A. Hni.Mis Chapel Mill. 

Professor P. P. \'knaki.k Chapd Mill, N I . 



Professor A. Giard Paris, France. 

Geo. F. Kcxz New York, N. Y. 

MARCOS Benjamin New York, N. Y. 


Rev. John H. Clewell, D. D Salem, N. C. 


Alston, Howard Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Andrkws, A. B., Jr Chapel Hill, N. C. 



Andrews, W.J Chapel H 

Claflin, Geo. II Chapel H 

Edwards, A. .J Chapel H 

Ellis, Caswell Chapel H 

Gaitiikr, J. F Chapel H 

Gr] in, B. T Chapel B 

Kenan, \V. B Chapel R 

Lewis, J. V chapel II 

Little, \V. K Chapel H 

Miller, II. I chapel II 

MoBEHEAD, I. M Chapel H 

Patterson, A. II Chapel H 

Pears all, M.J chapel II 


Shaw, H. B Chape] H 

Smith, T. C Chapel H 

Toms, C. I' chapel H 



, N ( '. 
. N <'■ 

, n. a 

list OF i:\ciiav 

UNITED >1'\ . 

ALBANY New York Museum of Natural History. 

Boston American Academy of Arta and B 

Boston Scientific Society. 

Society of Natural History. 
BaOOKVILLE — Society of Natural History. 

Cambridge — Entomological club. 

CHAR] ESTON Elliutl Society of Science ami Arts. 

Cincinnati -Society of Natural History. 
Davenport— Academy c»f Natural Scien< 
DEN VEB —Colorado Scientific Society. 
GRAN VI LI 1 Deniaon Scientific Association. 

i s City — Academy of Science. 

Madison — Wisconsin Academy of Arts and Science* and Letters. 
Manhattan — Kansas Academy of Natural Sciences. 
M ERIDEN — Scientific Association. 

Milwaukee— Wisconain Natural History Society. 
Minneapolis— Academy of Natural Sciences. 

New BRIGHTON — Natural Science Association of Staten Island. 
New HAVEN — Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciei 
New Orleani — Academy of Seienc 
Newport — Natural Hiatonr Society. 

122 .mm l:\.\l. 01 mi. 

N l.\\ Vm:K Acailcmy ol 

American Moeeum of Nataral 1 1 

I.imii • : 1 1 j Society. 

Microeoopical Society. 
Torrey Botanical < lull. 
I'i mcia Science Aasociation. 

I'lllI.Al.l.l.l-lll \ \i inlcmv of Natural Sri. 

American Philosophical Society. 

nklin [netitute. 
Wagner Free Enetittiie ol 

I'i:.. vii. km ■ franklin Qeological Society. 
Kuril i •> 1 1 c \. ailfiuy of Science. 
Boi i \ Baoealanreu 

I Millie. 

Bali m 'American Aemciatiow for tin- Advancement 
Peabody Academy * ■ r Science. 
San Dikoo Bodaty of Natural Riatory. 
San Pravcuoo— California Academy ol S 
St. I. "i i- Academy of Science. 
ion -Natural Hiatory Society. 
jLOoaa Alabama industrial and Sdeotiftc 8ociety. 
Urban* -Central Ohio Scientific Aeaneiatioa. 
W \-iiiN<ir(iN — Chemical Bocisiy. 

National Academy ol 3 
• Philosophical Society. 

I I - 1 • AXIOM VI. I N.-TI'I I 1 I 

Johns Hoi-kins Univkkmt v — Circulars. 

Studies from Biological Laboratory. 
Harvard University — Museum of Comparative Z ».|. . 
CoRMKLIi University — Bulletins. 
Columbia School of Mink — Chemical Society. 

VVasHBUBN College — Laboratory of Natural History. 

Dknison I'nivkksity — Scientific Laboratories. 

University of Michigan — Reports, etc. 

Iowa State University — Engineering Society. 

UNIVERSITY of Virginia — Philosophical Society. 

.Massachusetts Institute of TECHNOLOGY — Technology Quarterly. 


Harvard University' Observatory — Cambridge. 
Leander McCormick Observatory - — University of Virginia. 
Lick Observatory — Mount Hamilton. 
Meteorological Observatory - — Blue Hill. 


If AVAL Observatory — Washington. 
Warnkr OBSERVATORY — Rochester. 
Yai.k OBSERVATORY — New Haven. 


Tin. ENGINEERING and MiMMi Jock.nai. — New York. 
Botanical Gazette — Crswfordaville. 
Modern Language Nora Baltimore. 

Tin-: N \i tii. i - Philadelphia. 

Tin: WESTERN Nati rai.i-i Minneapolis. 

North Carolina IfjEDICAX* Joi REAL Wilmington. 

boari>s c.i hi urn, i 

Maine — Augusta The Sanitary Inspector. 

■ iir-iii- Boatoo state Board of Health. 
Michigan — Lansing— State Board of Health. 
Natiuna l — Washington. 

N i W York — Albany — State Hoard of Health. 
Nku Yokk — The Sanitary Era. 

North Carolina -Wilmington Bute Board of Health. 
onto —Columbus — Sanitary Record. 
Pennsylvania— Philadelphia state Hoard of Health. 
Soutb Carolina— Colombia— 8tate Board of Health. 

Tenni ard of Health. 

Wisconsin— A ppleton state Hoard of Health. 
North Carolina Medical Bogiett— Wilmington. 
NORTH Carolina I'iiakma. i i 11. u. 8< M Heme. 

awrhtlii | \i. i:\ri.Ki H ETC. 

Alabama — Auburn. 
Abkans vs -FajetteriUe. 
California— Berkeley. 

Colorado -Fort Collins. 

Cowi me i 1 Ne» Haven. 

Cornell University Ithaca N V. 

Delaware— Newark. 

Georgia — Athens. 

Illinois — Champaign. 

Iowa —Ames. 

K \ s- \- Manhattan. 

Kentucky — Lexington. 

Louisiana — Baton Rouge. 

M iryland —Agricultural Colli , 


Michigan — Agricultural College. 

121 .mi i:\ai. QI mi; 

Mimnum Agricultural C»ll< . 

M i.i ( 'olinnliia 
-K \ Lincoln. 


Xi:w II \ Mr-in 1,1 Hanover 
N i u .1 bbbbi N'-w Branawick. 

\'l\\ YlilIK I • ■ 1 1 • • v : I . 

ii ( .MKii.iNA -Raleigh. 
(Mini Columbus. 

ObEQOM < "i -v.-iIIih. 

\ \i \ Stats < allege. 
Sou i ii < lbolim \ Columbia. 
Bob mi l>\ kota — Brookiri 
Storm School Matwftekl. 

! NEK — Knoxvillc. 

it College Station. 
Vermont —Burlington. 
Virginia — Blscksburg. 
West Vibgini \ Morganton. 

Illinois Si \ i i I. \ moratory ok Natural IIi-iory I han»| 
Marbai mi -i 1 1- Hoimk ri.nKAi. Sot ikiv 'Boston. 
Michigan IIoktk n.rrit vi. Society. Qrand Rapids. 
Minnesota rloBTioi LTUBAL BociBTT— Minneapolis. 


KOBTH Carolina HoKTK i lukai. So. tBTT— Ralalfb. 

Virginia DBPABTMBBT "i A..rhtlturk— Richmond. 

Depaktmkn r or AOBICOXTUBB Washington. 


A i. \u ama — Tuacaku 

Arkansas — Little Rock. 

California— State Mining Bureau, San Francisco. 

Illinois — Springfield. 

Indiana — Indianapolis. 

Minnesota — Minneapolis. 

New Jersey — New Brunswick. 

New York — Albany. 

North Carolina — Raleigh. 

Ohio — Columbus. 

Wyoming — Cheyenne. 

L. S. Geological Survey— Washington. 


Fish Commission— Washington. 
National Museum — Washington. 


Big v At Bebviob Bubeao — Waahington. 

Smithsonian In^tiiition — Washington. 
Coast and QeODKTIC Sikvey — Waabington. 
Burgeon Gbbebal'i Onrrcs— Waabington. 
Department of Stats— Waahington. 

(JKIMSBY — Fruit (Jr .elation of Ontario. 

Halifax — Nova Bcotian Institute of Natural 8 
Montkkw, — N'alural Hil • :y. 

Ottawa— Field Naturalists' dab. 

Koyal Society (.[' i .iiiada. 

Geological Survey of Canada. 

Entomological Society of Ontario. 
Pout Hope Canadian Entomol 
Tobonto Canadian Institute. 

WlNMi'Ki. Historical nod Scicniih - 

i k i i;ki t ain ami 1KB] wi>. 

Bl i FAil Naturalists' Field Club. 

BbJSTOL Naturalists' Society. 

Dim. in -Royal Dublin s. 

|)i miiiii- Natural History ami Antiqa 

KuiNiii Ki.ii Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

< i I. \s, ,,,\\ ! Society. 

Natural History Society. 

Halifax YorltHhii d and Polytecha 

l.i ids — Philosophical and Liti :y. 

LlVl BPOOL — Geological Aieociation. 

London — Loyal Society of England. 
M \ sen btkb — Qeol 

Literary ami Pbiloaopbical Society. 
\sii i .North Staffbrdebtre Naturalists' Field Club. 
Pkn/.am k Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 

Loyal Geological Society of Cornwall. 
ROTHAMSTBD —Agricultural Experiment Station. 

Ti;i bo— Royal Institution of Cornwall. 

utsnrruri urusuo. 
Buenos \vi;ts l.i Bociedad Cientifce Argentina. 


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Caustic Alkalies. Boracic Acid as an Impurity in VII, % 











130 .InlkNAI. OF I HI. 

Changes in Bottled 8amplee of Acid Phosphate \ 

Chlorinstion of Anriferoos Sulphides \ 

Chord Common to ■ Parabols ind the < Irak of ' nmtfttre *t any 

Point \ n 

circle of < 1 1 r v.-i 1 1 1 1 <-, Chord Common i<> the Parabola nod V, 14 

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taining VII 

toting of Wood wit li Wood Creosote * >il VI, .' 

Crode Fiber, Determination of \ !! 

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Dane?, P. B.— 

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Eliaha Mitchell, Breetioaof Monometitto ,i - 

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Qenua Ilex, Partial Chemical Examination of \ 

Geological Bonrey of N. c. Historical Notes VI 

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( irave-, R. II. — 

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.Method of Finding the Kvolnte, etc V, 

Halogen Compounds of Lead, New V, 10 

Heptane, Brominatioo of \ 

Hidden, W. E.— 

Addendum to Minerals and Mineral Localities VI 

Hinsdale, S. J.— 

Improved Methods of Analysis.. VII 

Adulterated Spirits of Turpentine VII, 86 

Historical Notes Concerning the N. C. Geological Survey VI, 5 

Holmes, J. A. — 

Temperature and Rain fall, etc V, 31 

Historical Notes Concerning X. C. Geological Survey... VI, 5 

Historical Notes Concerning S. C. Geological Survey VII, 89 

Hypocycloid, Method of Finding the Evolute of the Four-ens ped.... V 

Kunz, Geo. F. — 

Three New Masses of Meteoric Iron VII, 27 

Lead, New Halogen Compounds of V, 10 

List of Exchanges V, 50; V, 134; VI, 155; VII, 89 


List of Members V. 46; VT, 161; VII, 89 

Manning, I. H. — 

The Creoaoting of Wood, etc VI, H 

i thy, Gerald- 
Botany as a Disciplinary Study \ I, 33 

Meteoric Iron, Three New Masses of. VII, - _'7 

Meteoric Irons, Two New VII, SI 

Meteorites of North Carolina, List and Description of VII, 33 

Mica Mining in North Carolina I 

Miller, H. L.— 

Lead Bromo-nitrates NIL M 

Minerals and Mineral Localities of North < aiolina. A<lilendiun to... \' I 

Monument to Elishi Mitchell, Erection of V 

■forehead, J. M. — 

Occurrence of Gold in Montgomery County, \ I VII, 87 

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Necrology \ 1. 161 

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Oocnrreoce of Gold in Montgomery Ooaol 

Parabola and the Circle of Curvature. Chord common to any point.. V, 14 

Parabola, Focal Chord of l \ 

Phillips, W. b\— 

Changes in Bottled Beaaptea, etc \ 

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Three Crystallographio Axes V, 66 

Mica Mining in N. C V, 98 

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Phoaphoric Acid Available in Fertilizers Containing CottOO - 

Meal VII, 5 

Poteat, W. L — 

rth Carolina I>esmids V t 1 

Tube-building Spider \ 

Protective Resemblance In Spiders, Nee [aatanossof \ 

Rain-fall and Temperature at Stations in \ I V, 31 

ilculations of the Atomic Weights \ 

Records of Meeting! V. 131; VI, 38, 147; VII 

Reports of Officers V. IS; VI, 150; Vll 

Respiration, Aquatic in the Musk-Kat V, '_'l 

Root-Galls, Nematode ■ VI, 81 

Rosin, Turpentine and VI, 19 

Soaring of the Turkey Vulture V, 59 

Spider. Lycosa Patifera Rents? . Tube-inhabiting V, 30 

Spider, Tube-buildm- VI, 134 

spiders, Protective Resemblance in N 


Bpoon, VV. I. 

Respiration in Um Musk B V, -l 

Sulphides, ChlorinaUoa of Auriferous ... ^> 

Superphosphate ■ in V, 111 

Temperature Mid Rain fall ;ii Various Stations in N ' \ 
Thies, £ A — 

(^lorinstion of Aurifernos Sulphides . V, 68 
Thorp, H — 

New Halogen Compounds of Lead V, 10 

Three Crystal lographic Ax« \ 

TiiIm- -building S|.iil.-r \1 

Tobe»inhabiting Spider v > 

Turpentine and Rosin \ I 

VciimI.I.-, K. P.— 

Bcpminatioo of Heptane \ 

Becalculatioos of the Atomic Weight* V 

Examination of Qeaos Ilex \ 

Two New Meteoric [rooa VII, M 

Ij-i :hhI Description of Meteoritei VII 

Lead Chloro-bromideN \' 1 1 

Proper Standard for the Atomic Weight! VII, 

Vulture, Soaring of the 

Withers, \V. A.— 

Determination of Crode Fiber VII 

Modification of the Method for Crude Fiber VI! 








RAI.HK.H, N. C. 



I i v FIC E I ; 8 

LSOO l -' 'l 

II. 1 NT 

GBORGB P. Atkin Anburn, Ala. 

VU I I'RI sll.F.NT : 

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Wii.i.iam Cain, C. B., Chapel Hill, N. C 


P. P. Vi.naiii.k Chapel Hill. N. C. 




List of < tfficen 2 

Demonstration of the Method of Least \\'<>rk William Cain 5 

Additions to the Avifauna <>f North Carolina. J. \V. P. Smithwick 16 
Tin- Alexander County Meteoric Iron. s. C. H Bailey 17 

Treatment of Zircons in Preparing Zirconium Oxychloride P P 

Quantitative Analysis of the Zircon. J. M. Morebead 24 

Records <>f Meetings 
Additions to Exchange List 




Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 



1!Y W.M. CAIN. C. E.; -M A.M. SOL". C. E. 

i. A new method of ascertaining the il in elastic 

structures by means of the principle of u Least Work*' 
has been elaborated by Castigliano, in his "Thlorie de 
I'Equilibre des Syst£mes &lastiques" (Turin, who 

claims to have given the fust complete demonstration of 
the theorem of least work, though several authors h 
touched upon it from 1S1S to the present time. 

Iii tlu- "Transactions of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers" for April, [891, the writer published an article 
entitled "Determination of the Stresses in Elastic Systems 
by the Method of Least Work," in which two new and 
complete demonstrations of the principle of least work are 
given, both being founded on the well-known principle 
"virtual velocities" of mechanics "applied to framed 

The following article is an abstract of the briefer demon- 
stration, given in the article by the writer before men- 
tioned, and is based on "the theory of deflections," which 
will first be given. A few preliminary articles on "elastic 
work" of a bar in tension or compression, "superfluous" 

6 JOURM \i. OF TH1 

ban in trusses, etc, are added to make- the paper suffi- 
ciently complete in itself; especially as the aim is to mi 
the demonstrations as simple and elementary as possible. 

2. If we call <i the length of s prismatic bar, <v its i 
section, g its modulus of elasticity and /• its changn 
length under th< r, then, by the fundamental lav. 

elasticity, when tin- resultant itn along tin- axis 

and the limit of elasticity lias not been exceeded, we hs 

a s 
k = = c s ( i ), 

C \v 

if for brevity, we put, c = — . 

e w 

If the bar lengthens or shortens the amount k by the 
action of a load P, acting in the direction of its axis, which 
gradually increases from o to its greatest value P, the stn 
likewise increases from to its gre a t est value 5, and at any 
instant the stress is exactly equal to the load. If in any 
small interval of time the average Stn . whilst the 

length changes an amount d /-, due to a slight increment 
of load, the work done is s. d k; therefore as the load 
changes from o to P, the total work done is the limit of the 

k. d k 
1 (s. d k) 

(k. d k v 

between the extreme values k = o and k = k, correspond- 
ing to s = o, and s = s. 

. \ The total work of deformation for a gradually applied 
load is, 

J r , i k 2 i . i 

-( kdk= = -cs 2 --sk....(2); 

C * o c 2 2 2 

or since load P = s, work = ^ load X change of length. 


For a suddenly applied load P, causing a change of length 

k 1 and maximum stress y, the work of the load is P k\ and 
since the stress gradually increases from o to f, the work 
of deformation, by (2), is V s k 1 , and since these arc equal 
B = 2 P, or the maximum stress is double the load; hence 
by (i) the change of length is double that for a gradually 
applied load. After a series of oscillations this change 
ultimately becomes that due to a gradually applied load 
and s reduces t<> 1*. As, in what follows, « ily con- 

cerned with the ultimate or statical aall alw 

compute the work of deformation of a bar, . lu- 

ally applied load, by the formula 12), 

1 1 a 

- C * •*<...< 

2 2 e w 

3. Superfluous dors. When the figun trail has 

more lines than are strictly necessary to define its form; 1. 

c. y to fix its apices when the length ol given in 

order, the- extra sides are said to be ' * sttpet flitou 

The relation between the least number of sides at, or 
the number of " necessary M bars in a truss and the number 
of joints or apices //, for strictly defining the form of a fig- 
ure of invariable form, is easily arrived at. 

Thus for plane figures (which we shall alone consider in 
this article) assume the position of one side, thus fixing 
the two apices at its ends. From these apices we can fix 
another with two new sides, then another with two new 
sides from two apices previously fixed, and so on; there- 
fore to each of the (n — 2) joints other than the first two 
corresponds two sides, so that the total number of ne 
sary sides »/ 2 (11 — i = 2 n — 3. If the number 

of sides exceeds (j a — 3), the extra number are "super- 
fluous" to strictly define the form. A less number will 
give a figure that can change its shape without changing 
the lengths of its sides. 


It is well known that the laws of statics alone Rtlffii 

determine tin- stresses in any truss, whose pie 
to moveal the joints, when the numbei is just that 

necessary to strictly determine tin- form. When th< 
superfluous bars <>i continnoui memben without free play 

at tin- joints, the theory of elasticity must Ik- used to give 
the additional equations, which, added to those furnished 
by the ordinary laws of statics alone, give as main equa- 
tions as unknown Stresses , from which the latter are ob- 
tained 1>\ elimination The theory of "least work " ofl 

a direct solution of snch problems. 

It may be observed, if a truss is subjected to snch con» 

ttitions, that more than two joints are fixed in position, 

that there may he more bars than are strictly necessary to 

define the form, even when in 2 n — 3. It is always 1 
in snch cases to ascertain the number of "superfluous 
bars'' by Supposing the truss built out from two joints 
taken as fixed, apex by apex, towards the other fixed joints. 

The number of bars just sufficient to fix the position of 
eacli apex, other than the fixed ones, is easily seen; all 
other bars are superfluous to this end and must be so treated 
when applying the method of least work. 

4. Derivative of the Work of Deformation with n.\f><</ 
to an external force. Deflection. Consider a truss of in- 
variable form, without superfluous bars, and let a force 
unity act in the direction of and along the line of action of 
any external force P. Then when all the original exter- 
nal forces, such as P, are removed and we have only the 
force unity acting on the truss, with the corresponding re- 
actions, if any, call u the stress in any bar due to the force 
unity in question. Also call the length of this bar a, its 
cross section w and modulus e, and let us conceive it as 

a s 

elongating an amount A 1 = , or the exact amount 

e \v 


caused by the stress s due to all the external forces such as 
P (the force unity being omitted), and that this elongation 
alone causes the displacement p 1 of force unity in the 
direction of that force. In applying the principle of vir- 
tual velocities we have the right to suppose any displace- 
ment / 1 we choose, and for convenience we take that the 
bar actually sustains when the truss is fully loaded and not 
what it would sustain from the force unity. 

Now assuming // to be tension, the displacements of the 
ends of the bar are in the opposite directions to tl: 

acting, so that the virtual velocity is negative. We shall 
assume the displacement p 1 to be in the direction of the 
force unity until otherwise ascertained. 

We have now by the principle of virtual velocit 

I. p 1 — u. 

p 1 *= 11 . 

e w 

If // or s are compressive, it is evident that they must 
have the minus sign in the above equation. Should p' 
thus become minus in any case, the displacement will be 
contrary to the direction of the supposed force unity. 

Continuing thus to find the displacement of force I, due 
to the change of length of each bar in turn, the other I 
remaining unchanged, we have for the total displacement 
of the force unity, acting in the direction of external force 
P, the formula, 

Ap= 4'. 

\ e w / 

the sum extending to all the bars of the trUS 

Hut since this displacement is that caused by the actual 
stresses in all the bars due to the original external forces, 
it must equal the actual displacement of force P along its 
direction or the deflection of the truss in the direction of 
force P. 


This is a known formula, by means of which tin- defleC' 
Hon of anj truss containing only "necessar) " barn in the 
direction of any given external inppoaed force, can 

be computed. In using it, strict attention must be paid to 
the signs of u and r, pins for tension, minus for compi 


We shall now put this formula in a different shape and 
from it eventually deduce the theorj of least work. 

It we call X the stress ( for tension, — foi compres- 

sion) in any bar due t<> all the loads and their nd- 

ing reactions, when I' is omitted, we have tin- stress in an\ 

s = X + u P; 

whence, taking the derivative, since X is entirely inde- 
pendent of P, 


d P 

/ a s d s y d i /a . 

p = 2 (—.—) = 1 — SK 

\e w d P/ d P 2 \ w / 

in which it is understood that I must be replaced by X 

r a S 1 
n P. Xow by eq. (3), represents the elastic work 

2 e w 
of one bar, so that in words (5) shows that if we express 
(lie work of deformation of the bars as a function of the ex- 
ternal forces, its derivative with respect to one of the forces 
gives the displacement, in the direction of the force, of its 
point of application. 

This is called by Castigliano "the principle of the de- 
rivative of work," or it may be termed the theorem of 
deflection. If we call the work of deformation of the sys- 


tem, F, it is plain, from the above that when = J p is 



plus, the displacement is in the direction of the force; when 
minus, in a contrary direction. When two equal for* 
directed both toward or both from each other, along the 
same line (as in the case of the horizontal thrusts of an 
arch hinged at the abutments), are designated by the same 
letter P, if we call P and F 1 the two forces and F the work 

d F d F 
of deformation of the truss, then and Jjive the ae- 

d P d P« 

tual displacements of P and I", along the directions of the 
forces; both minus or both plus, according as the motion 
is opposed to the direction of the force or with it; so that 
d F d F 

1 gives the total relative displacements of P and 

d P d P 1 

P 1 , In ease- we can regard the apex, at which either !• 

d F 

as P 1 acts, as fixed, then ivjirt.-st.iits, as usual, the dis- 

tl P 

placement Of one apex with respect to the other. 

If a truss has superfluous members, we can suppose them 
removed and that two opposed forces act at either end of 
each bar, each equal to the final stress in the member and 
acting in the same direction. Then if we designate by P 
and P 1 , the forces replacing the action of any one bar, at 
either end, upon the apices, then if F represents the work 

d P d F 
of the necessary bars, ■ gives the total relative 

d P d P 1 

displacement of the apices. Now as we can regard P 1 = P 
as a function of P, the total derivative of F with respect to 

d F d F d P l d P 1 
P is ; but since P = I", = I, there - 

d P d P 1 d P d P 

fore the total derivative of F with respect to /'is equal to 
d F d F 

+ ; 

d P d P l 

12 JOURNAL 01 I'm. 

which, from precedes, is equal to the total relati 
displacement <>t the apices, where I' and P in applied. 
Hence, in an) case, to find the relative displacement 
two apices, between which two equal and opposed for© 

I' and P 1 , act, wc have only to take- the total derivative 

F with respect to one of the forces 1', bo that it is not n 
essary to designate the two oppo lifierent 


5. Demonstration "i the Theorem <»i Ueasi Woke. 

Lei us suppose that we have a truss of any kind, with 
superfluous bars numbered n, u 1, . . . , whilst the 
(n — 1) necessary bars (system X) are numbered consecu- 
tively, 1,2,..., (II— I). 


K„ X .. . . . X„_, = St: D hats I, a, ... , ( n — I) 

of a frame supposed to consist of necessary bars alo 
tem X 1 subjected to the actual loading. 

u,, U„ .... ii„_, = stresses in bars 1, 2, . . , (n — I 
system X alone, by forces unity acting towards each other 
from either end of the original position of superfluous bar 
//, all the superfluous bars being removed. 

v,, v,, . . . v n _, = stresses in bars 1, 2, . . . , (n — 1) of 
system X alone, caused by forces unity acting towards 
each other from the apices of superfluous bar (n + 1 1, all 
the superfluous bars being removed. 

Similarly we proceed for other superfluous bars, if any. 
The stresses X, //, r, . . . , can all be found by the laws of 
statics alone. Now designating the length, cross section 
and modulus of elasticity of any bar, by a, w and e, re- 
spectively, with the same subscript as the number of the 
bar, we have the total elastic work of deformation of all the 
bars, including the superfluous bars, expressed by 


a n S u " a n 4" 1 S n 4" 

G = •) 1 2 r 72 

e n w tl en + jW,,-}. 


in which the sum - extends to the necessary ban alone, 
or bars 1,2,... (11 — 1). In this expression it is under- 
stood that for j, the actual stress in any bar, we must sub- 
stitute expressions of the type, 

S = X U s :i • V S.+ , • . . • , 

on supplying the proper subscripts pertaining to the bar 


The last expression follows at once from the princip' 

41 superposition of effects." 

On designating by F the elastic work of the oea 
bars alone, we have 

F = 


the sum including only the necessary bars and s being ex- 
pressed as a function of s 1: , s, i + a > above. 

We shall next regard the superfluous bars n,n - i, . . . , 

as temporarily removed and replace their action by two 
forces for each bar, each equal to the stress in the SU] 
fluous bar and acting towards each other, as all bars 
assumed to be in tension until otherwise determined. 

It has been shown above that treating thei 
s n + ,,... , as external forces ami independent of each o//n/\ 
d F 

that represents the increase in distance betwi 

d s u 

the apices at the extremities of bar //, the minus sign being 
used, since the two forces s n , s n , replacing the tension of 
the bar upon the joints at its ends, act in the opposite di- 
rection to the displacements. Similarly for the other deflec- 
tions. Again, since s n is supposed to equal the actual 
stress in bar ;/ in the complete structure under the loading, 

d F 
it follows that must equal the elongation of the bar 

d s n 
;/ under the stress s„ when all the superfluous bars are in 
place, since the real change of length of any superfluous 


bar // is a necessai of the real chati 

length of the u ban alone, and it can be found 

above, without knowing t lit- changes of length of the 
superfluous bars beforehand. The increase in distai 
between the apices at the e x tre m ities of superfluous bar //, 
,i- determined from m X," must there f ore exactly 

equal the- elongation of bar n under the stress s M when in 

(1 F a„ s„ 

d s„ c. w„ 

d F a„ s„ 
or, --- O 

(1 S„ e„ w„ 

A similar expression obtains for each of the superfluous 
bars, so that we always have- as main equations as there 
are superfluous bars. 

Now each equation of the type above- (6), can f>e found 
by taking the partial derivatives of the expression for G 
above, successively with respect to s„ , s„ 4. „ . . . , treated 
as independent of each other, and placing the results sep- 
arately equal to zero, so that the equations needed will be 
of the type, 

dG dG 

= o, = 0, 

d s„ d s„ 4- , 

From these equations we find, by elimination, s„ , 
s„ + n . . . , and then substituting these values in equa- 
tions of the form, 

s = X -f u s n tvs n f, + ..., 
we find all the stresses, s M s 2 , . . . s n _ x . 

Theorem of I^east Work. Therefore, to determine the 
unknown stresses, we express the work of deformation of 
the whole system as a function of the stresses in the bars 
taken as superfluous, then treating these stresses as inde- 
pendent in the differentiation, we express that the work of 


the necessary bars and one superfluous bar at a time be a 

minimum; or preferably, that the -work of all the bars 

minimum, provided we assume the fiction, that the 

of the superfluous bars are entirely independent of each 


It is this which constitutes the method • <rk." 

When there is but one superfluous bar, the tnu 
correspond exactly to a minimum of elastic work, but tor 
a greater number of superfluous liars this is not necessarily 
true, since the stresses in the superfluous bars are fund: 
of each other and not independent, as we assume in form- 
ing eqs. (7). This consideration has not been pointed out 
by any previous author, as far as the writer kn<>. 

The theorems of u deflection " and w li rk" have 

now both been proved by aid of the method of virtual 
velocities, which, it is seen, is especially ada; the 

object in view, as it leads easily and unmistakably to the 
theorems, and leaves, no doubt, whatsoever as to the exact 
interpretation of results. 

The theorems are easily extended to solid beams, com- 
posed of molecules, resisting any change of distance apart 
by forces varying directly as the changes of distance, 
cording to the law of elasticity first assumed; for such 
bodies can be treated, th« irticulated systems, 

whence the above theorems directly apply, the unknown 
stresses between certain molecules taking the place of the 
stresses in the superfluous bars of the preceding demonstra- 
tions, The theorems are therefore perfectly general and 
apply to solid beams, articulated structures, or combina- 
tions of the two, including structures having certain mem- 
bers continuous over certain apices ; but it would tak^ 
too far in this article to give the most convenient metfa 
of dealing with such composite structures, which may be 
found, however, partly in the article by the writer in the 
April, 1 Si; 1, Transactions Am. Soc C B., and very fully 
in Castigliano's very exhaustive treatise before mentioned. 




i. Alca fordo. Razor-billed auk. The head, wing and 
foot of one of this species were sent to the Department 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C, tor identification by 
Lieut Foley, U. S. N. It was taken at Lookout Cove on 
February 15, 1890. Others were seen. (Auk, April, 

1 890). 

2. Urania Uucopsis. Barnacle Goose. " Has been taken 

in North Carolina." (But Am. Mils. Nat. II Vol. I, 
No. 7, July, (886; Allen in u Birds of Massachusetts"). 

3. Porzanq jamaicensis. Black Rail. Rare summer vis- 
itor in the middle and western sections. Found breeding 

in both places. 

4. ColumbigalHna passerina. Ground Dove. Accidental 

summer visitor in the mountain region. So far two speci- 
mens have been seen and identified. (Cairns). 

5. Arckibuteo lagcpus sancti-johannis. American Rough- 
legged Hawk. Seen occasionally in the winter and spring 
in the west. (Cairns). 

6. Strix pratincola. American Barn Owl. One taken at 
Newport, N. C, by James Moore, Esq., November 7, 1889, 
and sent to Brimley to mount. 

7. Empidonax flaviveniris. Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. 
Rare transient in the middle section; one was taken 
August 11, 1890, in the mountains. 

8. Empidonax pasillus traillii. Fraill's Flycatcher. One 
was taken in the mountain region in September, 1889. 


9. Otocoris alpestris praticola. Prairie Horned Lark. 
Rare winter visitor in the middle and western sections. 

10. Qit i scu hi s qui sen la cnuus. Bronzed Grackle. Tol- 
erably common transient in the mountains. ( Cairn - 

11. Ammodratnus henslowii. Henslow's Sparrow. One 
female taken in April, 1890, in the- western section. 

12. Antmodramus maritimus. Seaside- Sparrow. One 
taken by myself, May 15, 1891, in a marsh near Plymouth, 
N. C. No others were seen. 

13. Chondestes grammacus. Lark Sparrow. Rare sum- 
mer visitor at Raleigh. Breeds. (Brimley). 

kj. Clivicola riparia. Hank Swallow. Rare- transient 

in the- middle- and mountain Sections. 

15. Hilniiiitliopiiila baclinuiui. Bachinan's Warbler. 

Probably a rare summer visitor. < >ne- taken at Raleigh, 
April 27, 1S91. (Britnli 

16. Helminthopkila Uucobronchialis. Hie. War- 
bler. Rare- transient at Raleigh, X. C. (Briml< 

17. Dendroica pahnannu hypochrysea. Yellow Palm 
Warbler. Tolerably common transient at Raleigh, X. C. 

18. Turdus alicuB. Gray-cheeked Thrush. Transient 

visitor, rare at Raleigh; tolerably common in the- w 


Sans Soi ci 



About the- year 1875, General T. L. Clingman, of Ashe- 
ville, presented me with a small piece of meteoric iron, 
concerning which he was able- to s^ive- me little information 
further than that it had been found some years before in 


Alexander county, and had been given to bitn In a Mr. 
Andu-ws. The piece was evidently a fragment that had 
been broken from a larger mass, tioothly 

rounded upon its broadest surface, and, though wholly de- 
void of a proper crust, tin- exterior was quit ted 
from further oxidation upon that ride b) th< tion 
produced from weathering. It did not in any part si: 
any evidence of the pittings common to all of me- 
teorites. Its structure i> coarsely granular, or made up 
polygonal fragments, lightly adherent, with intervening 
thin folias of Schreibersite and crack ins of iron 
oxide, cementing the mass together. In some install 
the- Schreibersite also forms small blocks, with rounded out- 
lines. The limited area of the surface cnt is only sufficient 
to show that it belongs to the Iiraunite type of Mennier, 
or the u Grobe Lamellen of Brc/.ina." It has a densit 
7.635 and its composition, as shown by Yenable, is 




-- 5-86 





( Oxygen and los-^ 



Where the iron is free from the Schreibersite it cuts 
ily, takes a* good polish, is very light in color, and upon 
etching it shows neither the Xewmann lines nor the figures 
of Widmanstadt, but it quickly blackens upon applying the 
acid, and is very slowly corroded. In grains it is quite 
malleable, but rather brittle in mass. It is most probable 
that the fragment in my possession came from near the 
surface of the main mass, and it may present different con- 
ditions from the interior portions, which have been pro- 
tected from the action of the soil or atmosphere. From 
comparison with examples of the other North Carolina 
meteoric irons, it is seen to differ essentially from all of 


them, the only one which it at all resembles being that 
from " Duel Hill," found in 1H73, but several marked dif- 
ferences are apparent upon direct comparison. While the 
Alexander count) was found some years prior to that from 
Madison county, the places of find are widely apart, and 
the densities and analyses do not nearly approximate. 
This iron does not seem to be especially prone to oxidation, 
and while it belongs to a class that is not very compact in 
structure, yet the condition of a part of the surface of this 
specimen above mentioned would indicate that even when 
denuded of its natural crust its exterior (unless exposed in 
a very damp soil) would form a new protective coating of 
oxide which might preserve the parent mass for many 


Unless it has been so destroyed, the original mass must 
still be in existence, and as has been the case with other 
meteorites found in that State, it may now be lying, un- 
recognized, about some farm building, instead of being 
where it properly belongs — in the State Cabinet. In a 
vState that lias been so favored in the number of its me- 
teoric falls, it would seem to be natural that its people 
should be alert to gather and preserve these interesting 
objects. Professor Vcnable has recently shown that the 
authenticated fall within the State bears a strikingly large 
ratio to the entire number of all recorded meteoric falls. 
The recognition and preservation of the earlier North Caro- 
lina meteorites is almost exclusively due to the commend- 
able zeal of General Clingman, and now that the intelligent 
effort o\ some <4~ her citizens is directed to the subject it 
may safely be predicted that the list will soon be much 




Linnemann (Sitz. Ber. Rait. Akad. d. Wissens., Vol. II, 
[885, translated in London Chemical News, LI I, 233.-111(1 
240) has published an account of th< itment and 

Qualitative Composition of Zircons." All previous meth 
of breaking up the zircon and purifying the zirconia ha 
presented numerous difficulties and proved decidedly un- 

Having occasion to prepare some of the compound 
zirconium in considerable quantity and of chemical purity 
I adopted the methods of Linnemann. In the course of my 
work I have found it advisable to modify the process in 
several respects, and I make this publication in order that 
my experience may be available, and perhaps serviceable, 
to others. 

In the first place, I have found the mechanical prepara- 
tion can be simplified. I have used North Carolina zircons 
and have found it sufficient to pulverize them roughly in 
an iron mortar and then grind in an agate mortar until the 
powder passed through a 100 mesh sieve. The preliminary 
exposure during ten days to vapor of hydrofluoric acid and 
the grinding until the powder passed a silk sieve seemed 
both unnecessary. The fine powder was repeatedly boiled 
with strong hydrochloric acid and washed with water. 
Five hundred grams treated in this way lost seventeen 
grams, the hydrochloric acid thus dissolving 3.40 per cent, 
of the whole. The fusions were made in nickel crucibles, 
which are very much cheaper and less attacked than the 
silver recommended bv Linnemann. The loss comes chieflv 


ill the cracking of the crucibles during the cooling after fu- 
sion. The crucibles used measured 10.5 c. m. in diameter 
by 8 c. m. in height and held a charge of 100 grams zircon, 
400 grams sodium hydroxide and 20 grains sodium fluoride. 
This is one-half the amount of sodium fluoride recom- 
mended by Linnemann, but proved sufficient. The sodium 
fluoride should be dried beforehand. The sodium hydroxide 
is first thoroughly melted and the fluoride then added. The 
mass should be brought to a Curly high temperature and 
then the zircon powder added. A rapid evolution of 
follows the introduction of the powder. The mass should 
be well stirred by means of a nickel stirrer — a narrow strip 
of sheet nickel fastened to a j^la^ rod answers the pur; 
and keeps the hands U yond the reach of hot alkali occasion- 
ally thrown out. If the bubbles threaten to r*e over the 
edge temporary removal of the lamp secures their subside:. 
The crucible should not be allowed t<> cool too far, h- 
ever. Much seems to depend upon carrying through the 
reaction rapidly at a high temperature. I have at times 
doubled and even tripled the length of fusion at a lower 
temperature without securing the thorough breaking u; 
the zircon secured at a higher temperature. After the first 
violent boiling a quieter period follows. The end of the 
reaction is shown by a thickening of the mass and the 
rising of large bubbles here and there, also sometimes bv a 
fine spitting or spray. In several instances where weights 
were kept the undissolved or unattached portion of the 
zircon powder amounted to less than five per cent. 

The melted mass was poured out upon pieces of sheet 
nickel for cooling. After solidifying enough to handle 
with tongs it was broken off and plunged in a beaker of 
cold water. Water was also put in the crucible after it 
had cooled, to dissolve off the portions adhering to the 

The water separates the sodium silicate from sodium 

2 2 JOURNAL "]■ THE 

zirconate, leaving the latter undissolved. This is di 
in dilute- hydrochloric arid and evaporated 
to dryness with fresh amounts of acid in order to di 
the hydrofluoric acid. The separation by means of ws 
is far from perfect, some of the zirconate going Into solu- 
tion, though not enough, usually, to make- it worth while 
t<> attempt to regain it. There is s good deal of silica left 
with the undissolved portion. This is 
evaporation to dryness. The dried mass is reached with 
dilute hydrochloric arid. There is difficulty sometimes in 
extracting all of the zirconium chloride in this way. 
course the solution contains large quantities of salt, besi< 
other substances. Zirconium hydroxide i- precipitated 
away from these l>y ammonium hydroxide, and then thor- 
oughly washed in large jars by decantation. The crude 
zirconium hydroxide is next dissolved in strong hot hydro- 
chloric acid, using as small an amount ible. This 
solution is evaporated to dryness and the crude zirconium 
chloride obtained placed in a large funnel and washed with 
a mixture of strong hydrochloric acid and four parts of 
alcohol. This mixture is poured upon the mass in the 
funnel and allowed slowly to drain through. Some zir- 
conium chloride is dissolved, but can be recovered by 
evaporation. The mass in the funnel is left white and 
fairly pure. To complete the purification this mass is 
taken and repeatedly crystallized from boiling hydrochloric 
acid until the acid gives no test for iron, which seems the 
most persistent among the impurities. I have commonly 
found it well to repeat this crystallization more than twenty 
times. The pure oxychloride is gotten in well- formed crys- 
tals of glistening whiteness. This method of crystallizing 
from hydrochloric acid, used by Linnemann, is the only sat- 
isfactory one for purifying the zirconium chloride. I have 
tried the precipitation by hydrogen dioxide, as recom- 
mended by Bailey, but the consumption of pure dioxide is 


very large and a heavy source of expense, and the pent- 
oxide or mixed oxides yielded is not nearly so convenient 
as the chloride for further working with. The method 
described above is shorter than the tedious and expensive 
treatment with hydrochloric acid, alcohol and ether. 
Judging from an attempt at carrying it out on a small 
scale, the amount of ether required in purifying the prod- 
uct from a kilo of zircons would he very large indeed. 

The modifications in the proce ss have throughout the 
aim of cheapening and shortening Linnemann's pro© 
and were successful in both directions, at least under the 
conditions under which I worked. 

A qualitative analysis of the different products obtained 
while thus decomposing the zircon was made under my 
direction by Mr. John M. Morehead. It differed in - 
eral noteworthy particulars from that made by Linnetnann. 
In the first place, the hydrochloric acid used in the prelimi- 
nary treatment of the zireon powder extracted a large 
part of tlie total tin present Linnemann >W> not men- 
tion tin as occurring in this solution. No lithium was dis- 
covered in any of the solutions, nor any bismuth and zinc. 
The list of elements found by Mr. Morehead is tl. 
shorter than Linnemann, who rep been. The list 

found was sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, alu- 
minium, iron, lead, tin, uranium, erbium, silicon and zir- 
conium. Undoubtedly a large proportion of these come 
from foreign matter mixed with the zircons and sifted into 
the cracks in the crystal, so as not to admit of separation. 
A number of the rare elements were looked for without 
finding them. No thorough spectroscopic examination 
was made, however. 

Mr. Morehead also made several quantitative determina- 
tions of the iron, silicon and zirconium, resulting as fol- 


Per cent. Zircoaia 
Pi i i (in. Bilka 

i'< i cenl i ei i Ic < >\i'l<- 

or, taking the means, 

ZSOi fa.83 

I<*>. to 

It is not right to calculate the iron as all in the oxidized 
condition, as mnch of it comes from the iron mortar and 
ran Ik easily separated with a masmet 



In the- following analysis it was found most convenient 

to fuse a portion of the zircon by the* Linne-mann proa 
as modified in the preceding article, and from that portion 
to make the determinations of zirconia and iron. For the 
siliea a second portion was fused with sodium hydroxi 
without the use of fluoride. Several other modes of fusion 
were first tried without satisfactory results. 

The method recommended by Classen was tried. One 
gram of the powdered zircon was fused witli five grains 
each of sodium and potassium carbonate. Heating for one 
and a half hours with the blast lamp failed to effect thor- 
ough fusion. The cooled mass was leached out with 
water, acidified with hydrochloric acid and filtered away 
from the unattacked residue. This process was repeated 
four times, fusing in each case with the same weights of 
carbonates. It was then found that out of the original 
gram of zircon .36 gram remained undissolved. This 
method was abandoned. 


The method finally used was to fuse one gram of pow- 
dered zircon with ten grams of sodium hydroxide in a 
nickel crucible, the fusion continuing with an ordinary 
burner for one-half hour, and then with a blast lamp for 
twenty minutes. The contents were then poured upon a 
piece of sheet nickel and cooled. During fusion the m 
was occasionally stirred with a nickel stirrer, which must 
be thoroughly dry. The caustic alkali left on the rod 
rapidly attracts water on cooling. The cooled mass on the 
sheet nickel is transferred to a beaker of water and the 
crucible is rinsed into the same. This was acidified with 
hydrochloric acid, and in one case only was a residue left. 
This hydrochloric acid solution was evaporated to dryn 
and the siliea determined in the usual way. Treatment 
with ammonium fluoride and weighing of the residue not 
volatilized is essential, as a small amount of zirconia . 
always found with the silica. 

Por the iron the solution freed from silica was made up 
to a known volume, definite portions withdrawn, and the 
iron determined by titration with a potassium permanga- 
nate solution. 

In determining the zirconia, measured portions of the 
solutions were taken, rendered nearly alkaline with sodium 
carbonate (this is best done in the cold solution); sodium 
acetate was then added and the whole heated to boiling. 
After boiling ten minutes the main part of the zirconia 
will be found precipitated. This is filtered out. The 
filtrate is acidified with acetic acid, again raised to boiling 
and boiled for twenty-five minutes with sulphuretted hy- 
drogen bubbling through. The nickel, coming from the 
crucible, is thus precipitated and is filtered off. The filtrate 
is acidified with hydrochloric acid and boiled until no fur- 
ther smell of sulphur dioxide is noticed. Then precipi- 
tate with ammonium hydroxide, wash thoroughly, dry and 
ignite. From the weight of this last precipitate must be 


subtracted the known weight of iron present The sum 
of the weights of the first precipitate from the sodium 
tate, and this lust, as . 1, <;iv<- the amount of sir- 

colli. i. 

The analyses were made from several fusions. Th< 

suits were as follows: 



Xll> MIU. 1. 


62. 82 



Mean 13.98 3.29 



l'i kson H.\i.i„ January 1 6, 

, Reservou Dams. William Cain. 

2. Progress in Chemistry. P. P. VenaWe. 

sixth:'] h Mi:iTr. 

Person Hai.i., Pebruary io, 1891. 

3. Vegetable Butter. H. L. Miller. 

4. The Welabach Lamp. J. M. Morehead. 

5. Multiple Telegraphy. J. W., Gore. 

6. Koch's Treatment of Tuberculosis. R. H. Whitehead. 


Person Hall, March 10, 1891. 

7. A Geological Trip Into Hyde County. B. E. Shaw. 
S. Aluminium. J. V. Lewis. 

9. Modern Myths. K. P. Battle. 


Person Hall. April 21, 1891. 

10. The Electric Motor. J. W. Gore. 

11. Applications of the Electric Motor. A.H.Patterson. 

12. Photograph}- in Natural Colors. F. P. Venable. 

13. A Brief Sketch of the Pea-nut Plant. Gaston Battle. 




National Department of Agriculture 


Budapest R. Hungarian Academy of Seieni 
Prag Die Gesellschaft, "Lot< 

< rLAND 

Birmingham -The Philosophical Society. 
Burton oh Trent x. aural History Society. 

Touloush I. ei Physiqu 

I M \ N \ 

Rostock Verein der Preundeder riatnrgeschichte in Meckle n b ur g. 


Bologn \ R. Accad. dell 9 

Brescia Ateneodi Brescia. 

Gbnova Societa Letture e Conversazioni Scientificbe 

Nvi'tn.i Societa di Naturalisti. 

Pavta — Bolletino Scientifico, R. Dniv. ili Paris. 

i.i'xi:mi!iii k«. 
Li xi.Miuji rg Verein Luxemburger Naturfreunde. 

r l 




j i i.v i )Iai:m i m :\< 




KAI.KH',11, N. C. 


LQOO 1 -'•! 

i-ki.sii'i »T: 
GBORGB 1' Atkinson, .... Auburn 

VICE i-KJ.siiH 
P. B. DAHCV, R; ' ; ' 

Ki. Mm. nt \ m. masiDi 

William Cain. Chapel Hill. N 


P. P. Vin Ain.r. Chapel Hill. N 




Some Cercosporss From Alabama. Atkinson 

A North Carolina Catalan or BtoaUI H 1.. II 

Notes on the ivmliu of PhrM Heterostropha Saj W. I. Potest 7" 
Occurrence of Zirconium. P. P. Veuable 

oetic lion Ores of Ashe County, N C. H. B 
on the Development of S H. V. Wilson 96 

Tlu- Transition Curve William Cam 

The Occurrence of Platinum in North Carolina i P Venable taj 

Treasurer*! Rtporl 1*9 

Council Meeting l M' 

Recordi of Meetings > >" 



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 



The genus Cercospora Fres, com;- great number 

of species of leaf fungi producing effects in their hosts fre- 
quently termed, in common parlance, "blight,* 1 or "leaf 
blight. 11 The species are all probably more or le 
sitic, varying in different <! >f intensity, as oblig 

parasites, from the forms occurring in d\in^ parts of lea\ 
languid leaves, upon plants physiologically dis « of 

low vitality, induced sometimes by overcrowding and thus 
preventing necessary circulation of air among the parts or 
entrance of sunlight; at other times through imperfect 
assimilation caused by defective drainage, careless pn. 
ration and care of the soil, so that the unfavorable physical 
condition of the soil prevents proper nutrition; by impov- 
erished soil which predisposes the plant to a hastened and 
unnatural maturity: to perhaps a few cases of a more viru- 
lent nature where quite healthy plants are injured from 
their attacks. 

The nature of this parasitism, in general as above 
described, would suggest to the thoughtful and prog: 
ive cultivator of the soil the necessary remedy in each 


The genus belongs to one of the great groups of fungi 

known as tin' Hyphomyceti members, along with 

many others, nnetimes termed M imperfect fungi,' 1 

because they are not autonomous; i. < ■•. , they re] i 
supposed, not complete individuals in themselves, but only 
a transitory form, or stage, of a polymorphic fungus, the 
perfect condition of the individual being 
Sph&rella or other ascomycetous fungus. Thus they stand 
only as the conidial stage of more of (ess complex life 
cycles, It is quite probable that in this respect they 
analogous to other conidial forms, of the nature of which 
we have more positive knowledge, for example the Powdery 
mildews {Erysiphe<B\ Downy mildes oospores), etc., 

s<. that the conidial stage can reproduce itself successively 
for several generations without the intervention of the p 
feet, or ascigerous, stage. Therefore there is not a true, 
or strictly obligate, alternation of generations such 
obtains in the Mitsci/ica-, Filices^ etc. 

In but few of the species has the perfect Stage been dis- 
covered. The writer has given an account of the perfect 
stage of ( 'ercospora gossypina in the Bulletin of the Torrey 
Botanical Club, Vol. XVIII, p. 300 {Sph&rella inn 

Atkinson). Pammel (Bulletin No. 13, Iowa Agr. Exp. 
Sta., May, 1891 ) is of the opinion that Ccrcospora angulata, 
on currants and gooseberries, is connected with Sphcrrella 
< r)ossitIaria\ and that Septoria Rihis is also connected 
with the same perfect fnngns. If this should be con- 
firmed, then we have here a Ccrcospnra forming one of the 
stages of a trimorphic fnngns possessing conidial, sper- 
mogonial, and ascigerous stages. Cercospora aria* Fkl. 
is considered the conidial stage of SpJicrrclla cinerascens 
Fkl., and C. radiata Fkl. of S. Vulneria Fkl. (Sacc. Syl. 
Fung., Vol. I, pp. 493, 503). Probably one reason why 
the perfect stage of but few has been found lies in the 
fact that in many cases this stage is only developed after 


the leaves have fallen to the ground and become more or 
less disorganized or fragmentary and the evidences of the 
Cercospora have disappeared. 

While the species are not autonomous, and we thr. 
only fragmentary evidence, as it were, of the character 
the complete individual, the peculiarities of form, group- 
ing, markings, color, din; and effect upon their 
hosts are snch as to offer comparatively satisfactory data 
for the systematist to characterize and arrange them. It 
is fortunate that this is so, because of their parasitic habit 
it is quite important that we can arrive even approximate!) 
at the limitations of the Species On the differen' 

It may seem surprising at first, to one unfamiliar with 
the growth of these forms and the reactionary influena 
their hosts, that so many spec nt known, 

and that the probability is the number will even yet be 
increased. The specific physiological differen the 

various hosts as well as the structural variations of their 
leaves, the differences in texture, thickness, and the varying 
power which the different specie 5 through their vital 

processes to resist the growth of the parasite, all exert a 
powerful influence upon its form and characteristics. Here 
we have the coincidence of several quite effective agem 
all which tend to produce variations in the parasite. It i> 
quite possible to conceive how during a long period of time 
a few forms widely distributed - eat number of 1: 

have become more and more unlike each other and finally 
more firmly fixed in the possession of peculiar characteris- 
tics. This is even more probable when we consider that 
quite likely during much of this time the hosts themselves 
have been differentiating more and more so that now well- 
marked specific differences appear in hosts that lon^ 
were alike and harbored the parasite which has kept pace 
with them in descent. 

The action of the Cercospora parasite on the host results 


in most cases in the death of the affected pari of the I' 
producing a marked appearance in contrast with the unaf- 
fected portions, usually termed a "spot." Oneormon 
these spots occur on a leaf, their form varying from cir- 
cular to angular, or irregular to very indefinite. In mi 

- the resulting color changes, due to a partial disorgan- 
ization of the chlorophyl, to a development of erythrophyl 

»ther coloring substances, gives variety to the* circumfer- 
ence of the diseased areas or to surfaces of the leafoppo 
that on which the fungus is located. In a number of ca 
then- are no well defined spots, hut the fungus is diffu 
over small or large areas of leaf surface, giving to th 

anas the characteristic color peculiar to th' nig 

roseate in ( '. ejffusa 1 B. & C. ) Ell., ferrugineous in ( '. laieritia 
Ell. and Hal., etc In the cast.- of C. catenospora Atkin- 
son the fungus is diffused over large areas of leaf surface 
and quite injurious, producing a decided "leaf curl." 

The vegetive portion of the fungus consists for the 1 
part ot colorless mycelium made up of filamentous, septate 
bodies irregularly interlaced among themselves and the 
cells on the interior of the diseased portions of the h< 
These contain protoplasm, they grow by longitudinal 
extension and division of their end cells and by branching. 
Further formation of cells probably takes place by the 
division of older cells. Their nourishment is obtained by 
absorbing materials from the cells of their host. 

Following the vegetive condition is the conidial stage. 
Provision is made for the production of conidia and their 
easy dissemination by means of specialized fungus threads, 
or fruiting hyphae, properly ccmidiopliorcs, usually termed 
briefly by systematists hyphce. These arise in more or less 
divergent or compact fascicles, which stand perpendicularly 
to the leaf surface and project beyond it. In a few cases 
some of the vegetive threads ramify on the surface of the 
leaf and produce conidiophores in a diffuse manner. The 


fascicles, or tufts, of conidiophores arise from a more or I 
compact fungus body termed a stroma. This is formed at 
various points on the vegetive mycelium within the leaf 
tissue by a lateral growth of certain of the cells together 
with a conjunction of cells of adjacent threads. In 
Boehmeria Pk. this consists of a prominent globose body; 
from this there are different degrees of compactness and 
rotundity down to a few closely associated cells which bear 
only a few conidiophor. 

The conidiophores themselves vary greatly in length, 
size, general direction, markings and color. They may be 
continuous, septate, geniculate, flexuous, toothed, or cylin- 
drical. The genicnlations, the denticulation and much of 
the flexuous condition is brought about by the maniu • 
growth of the conidiophore while it is bearing conidia. In 
nearly all the species the conidia are, as termed in some 
cases, lateral and acmgenous in their production on the 
conidiophore^; /. ft, they are borne both laterally and termi- 
nally. This is not, strictly speaking, true, but only 
app to be affc al conidia have been produced 

from a single conidiophore. Probably all of the conidia 
are primarily acrogenous and only later appear to be lateral 
after the conidiophore has grown at one side beyond the 
apex on which the coiiidium was developed. If the 
conidiophore is growing very rapidly the new growth, 
which pushes out at one side oi the apex on which the 
conidium is situated, will extend to a considerable distance 
before another conidium is borne at the n< This 

again grows out past the new conidium, and so on. If the 
new growth of the conidiophore has been quite divergent 
from its primary direction a geniculation, or abrupt bend, 
will appear at the point where the conidium was attached. 
After the second conidium is borne the conidiophore will 
usually diverge in a different or opposite direction, giving 
a somewhat zigzag appearance. At each one of these 

38 JOURNAL "!• TIN- 

angles will be a tear left by tin I conidium. If the 

onward growth of the conidiophore is not divergent, Imt 
follows its primary direction, then a shoulder will I 
quently appear where the conidium was abs< j the 

new growth may OCCttr BO soon as to turn the apex with its 
sear to one side, when the conidiophore will he m 

cylindrical with sears distributed along its sid< 1. In some 

cases like the latter the production of eonidia ; ipid 

also, so that no sooner has the conidiophore begun to g] 
past the conidium than it hears another conidium, and thus 

two or more sears may he left very near each otl 
cylindrical conidiophore. It several eonidia are tin 
very near one place the conidiophore is apt to he somewhat 
enlarged at this point, especially if it is characteristic 

the species that the left on a minute protub 

A case of this kind has come under my notice in (". papu- 
losa Atkinson. When the growth of the conidiop] 
beyond its fruiting apex is not very rapid and at the same 
time in a direction divergent from its primary direction it 
will appear denticulate or jagged. 

The conidiophores are farther marked by vacuoL 
guttula in some cases, as well as by the possession 
coloring substance, brown, reddish, olive, fuliginous, etc. 

The eonidia are usually elongated and filamentous, hya- 
line or colored, usually septate, cylindrical, terete, obcla- 
vate, or tereti-fnsoid. In their early development from the 
apex of the conidiophore they are marked off from the 
latter by a strong constriction, the union between the two 
being quite frail. If it does not meet with any mishap it 
continues to grow by elongation, receiving its nutrition 
through the small point of contact with the conidiophore. 
At first it appears as a small oval or elliptical or clavate 
body, which as it grows elongates, loses it clavate form, 
and assumes one of the forms described above. The great 
variation in length of the eonidia of the same species is influ- 


enced partly by the length of time during which it remains 
in communication with the conidiophore, but probably 
more by the climatic conditions, rainy, or damp, weather 
conducing to a very long growth. Even when conidia are 
separated from the conidiophores and placed under suitable 
conditions for germination they will frequently increase in 
length by apical growth or extension. 

The conidia germinate readily in an abundance of 11: 
lire, a germ tube being put forth by any or all the cells. 
In my observations, and they have extended . eral 

speeies, usually the cell first to produce a germ tube is the 
basal cell, and the primary direction of this tube is in a 
line parallel with that of the eonidium but in an - 
direction from the apex. This is not universal, but occurs 
in such a great majority of - to be worthy of to 

Since Writing the above, in examining conidia of I 
pora /'(tc)sii(U. & C.) from Raw Fung. Am., [I win- 

thosporium Petersii B. & C. ), kindly loaned me by Pi 
B. T. Galloway, I found a COnidium which had germi- 
nated, a single germ tube from the basal cell was dire*, 
in the way mentioned above. 

I have made several attempt! :iidia of I 

pina in nutrient agar, both with and without an infusion 
of cotton leaves, Mycelium is formed abundantly, which 
forms a dark olive-brown mass, many of the fungus thn. 
cohering into stout compact strands several millimetres in 
length, but in no case have conidia been produced in such 
cultures with me. 

Some remarks are necessary here upon one anomalous spe- 
- described in the present paper, viz., C. caJenospora. 
This is the first species of L ercospora that has been described 
with catenulate spores. Confined strictly to the limitations 
imposed by Saccardo (Vol. IV, pages 381 and 38a, of his 
Sylloge Pungorum) this species would be placed in division 
C "conidia catenulate" and would there constitute a new 

40 JOURNAL (.]• T!IK 

genus, since it differs too widely from Sporoschis ma 01 Den- 
drypkium to be placed in tho ra. It might with equal 

propriety be placed as i new genus among the- phragra 
porous division of the Family Mucedinea (p. i88), i. 
Ramularia or ( - < //</, the conidiophorea being promi- 

nent and quite distinct from the couidia. With the 
tion of" this last character it agrees well with Srptotylin- 
drium. Here we encounter one of the difficulties of the arti- 
ficial system of Classification which exists to a great extent 
in the arrangement of tome of the I lypliomycctt s y where 
such genera as Ramularia and Cercosporella structurally 
very closely related to Cercospora are made to do duty in an 
entirely different family. If we consider th ion 

allowed, and justly so I think, in the genus Ramularia^ 
where the couidia are either single or catenulate, this 
species, in all other respects a true Cercospora y is properly 
located in that genus. This variation between catenulate 
or not catenulate couidia exists in this one spec: 

The species enumerated and described below have 
collected in Alabama during the last two years, mostly in 
the vicinity of Auburn. For a short time during the sum- 
mer of 1891, Mr. C. L. Newman was engaged in my labor- 
atory and some of the collections were made by him. I 
have been greatly aided in the work of collecting material, 
preparation of notes and determination of host plants by 
my assistant, Mr. B. M. Duggar. For the determination 
of some of the more troublesome hosts I am indebted to 
Dr. Geo. Vasey, Botanist to the Department of Agriculture 
at Washington, and to Professor S. M. Tracy, Director 
of the Miss. Agr. Exp. Station. 

Of the seventy-nine species enumerated twenty-eight 
are here described as new and three varieties are added. 
One European species (C. cerasella Sacc.) and one South 
American (C. Bolleana (Thiim) Speg.) are here described 
for the first time, I believe, in the United States. The lat- 


ter I reported in the April (1891) number of the Agricul- 
tural Journal, Montgomery, Ala. Two species, one cred- 
ited to Cooke & Ellis and the other to Ellis cc Everhart, 
are, I believe, also described for the first time. One other 
species is added by reducing Hclminthosporium Peiersii 
B. & C. to synonym\'. 

One other species, heretofore described as Cenospora 
persica Sacc and later as ( rnosponl/a persua Sacc. (Fung. 
Ital., tab. 67;Sylloge Fung., Vol. IV, p. 2; eluded. 

During September, 1890, 1 collected it at Gold Hill and 
recognized it as a Fusarium. It should read F. persicum 

The measurements of couidiophores and conidia are 
(riven in terms of the inicroinillimetre. 

There are a few references tO numbers of specimens col- 
lected by Langlois in Louisiana. These specimens were 
deposited in the herbarium of the Ala. Polyt. Inst, by C 
I,. Newman, who received them as exchang 

Mr. J. 1>. Ellis has kindly favored me with several 
specimens for comparison and has examined notes and 
specimens of a few species. Like favors from others are 
mentioned in connection with the sped 

1. CerCOSPORA CERASEU Spots amphigenous, rustv 

brown, brighter above with dark border, 2 — 4 mm. 
llvplue amphigenous, fasciculate, fascicles clustered in 
center of spot or in two or three clusters in different pla 
olive reddish brown, continuous, Subgeniculate or dentate 
toward apex, 30 — 5*' 3.5 — 4. Conidia same color but of 
a lighter shade, obclavate to acuminate, 5 — 10 — septate, 
guttulate, 40—75 < 3.5— 4.5. 

I have compared my specimens with Xo. 16 fascicle 1 of 
Brioso et Cavara's Funghi Parassiti delle Piante Coltivate 
od Utile, and they agree in all essential respects except 
that the spots in the latter are not well defined, but this 
may be due to the fact that the leaf in the fascicle I have 


had access to was probably quite well matured and some- 
what yellowed when attacked 

On cultivated cherry (on heart) leaves {Prunux avium?) 
1835a, Gold Hill, Septemb . Atkinson; 1968, Au- 

burn, July, 13, 1891, Newman. 

2. Cercosfora Zinm 1 K. & M. Spots small, whitish, 
with broad indefinite dirty brown border, or numer< 

small white spots in large Confluent brown Hyplnc 

epiphyllous, loosely fasciculate, 40 — 80 ■ 4 — 4, 5, reddish 
brown, straight <»r abruptly geniculate and denticulate 
toward apex, septate. Conidia obclavate, hyaline, multi- 
septate, 50 — 100 x 4 — 4, 5. 

On leaves of Zinnia nutliijlora, 2156, Auburn, summer, 
1890, Atkinson. 

3. Cercospora cercidicola Kll. Spots amphigenous, dark 
brown to blackish with indefinite border of dirty yellow, 
suborbicular, veins of leaf prominent, 3 — 6mm. Hyplue 
mostly hypophyllons, fasciculate, lower half closely and 
compactly parallel, spreading above, where they are sub- 
flexuous, subnodose and prominently denticulate, reddish 
brown, septate and multiguttulate, 70 — 160 X 4, 5. Co- 
nidia faintly colored, obclavate to tereti-fusoid, 1 — 5 sep- 
tate, guttulate, 30 — 50 X 5 — 6. 

Agrees with X. A. F. 1246, but spots of the latter are 
darker bordered; the raised border seems to be due to the 
prominent veins which frequently limit the areas. 

On leaves of Ccrcis Canadensis, 2016, Auburn, August 
7, 1 89 1, Newman and Duggar. 

4. Cercospora omphakodes E. & Holw. Spots brown, 
black bordered, circular, 2 — 3 mm. Hyphse amphigenous, 
fasciculate, subgeniculate and denticulate, bright reddish 
brown, 30 — 60 X 4. Conidia slender, terete, dilutely 
reddish, 4 — 6 septate, 50 — 60 X 3. 

On leaves of Phlox Floridana, n 90, Auburn, June 23, 
1890, Atkinson. 


5. CERCOSPORA personata (B. & C.) Ell. Spots am- 
phigenous, circular, dark brown, ususally darker below, 
frequently arched below, 2 — 4 mm. Hyplue mostly hypo- 
phyllous, frequently also epiphyllous, densely fasciculate, 
reddish brown, usually short and continuous, toothed, or 
50 — 70 long, septate and subgeuiculate 5 — 7 in diameter. 
Conidia obclavate, 30 — 50 X 5 — 7, or up to 70 Ion-, | 
olive brown, 3 — 10 — septate. Agrees in all respects with 
X. A. P. 2480. 

On leaves oi ArackU hypOgeOy 2157, Auburn, September 
7, 1891, Atkinson, also collected at Columbia, S. C. . 
November 17, 1 


C. personata, hyplue amphigeiious, paler than in Specimens 
of personata. Conidia vary more, being up to 1 70 long, 
paler also in color and frequently cylindrical. The oblong 
Bpores are not all uniseptate as stated by Berkely (Orev. 
Ill, p. io6) but frequently 3 — 5 or more septate and the 
long obclavate ones are multiseptate. Thunien's specimens 
(1964, C. personata var. Cassiof Thi'un. Myc. I niv. ) a 
agree with mine, the obloii. not being one septate, 

but usually several times septate. I consider it quite 
distinct from C. personata. 

On leaves of Cassia occidentalism 1547, Auburn, July, 
[890, Atkinson; 212^, Duggar. In the latter the clusters 
of hyplue are in small patches or widely diffused, no dis- 
tinct spots. In this respect all the specimens I have seen 
differ move or less from those of C personata on Arackis 
hypogi a. 

7. CERCOSPORA MORICOLA Cke. Spots brown, 1 
irregular. Hyplue hypophyllous, fasciculate, few in a 
cluster, reddish brown, septate, denticulate toward apex, 
40 — 70 X 4, 5 — 5. Conidia hyaline, long, slender, ten 
10 — 20 — septate, straight or curved, 70 — 200 X 4. 

The leaves are injured by another fungus and the spots 

44 JOURNAL 09 ill i . 

cannot Ik- well defined. The oonidii tontei than 

described b) Cooke (Grev. XI I, p. 30) and Bllia(Jour. My- 
col. I, p. 34) and main timet more septate, but th< 
tion of long conidia is very variable; It If probably only 
a variation of Cooke's sped 

8. Cbrcosfora Di'M.i 1 cv.r. Spots amphigenous, light 
brown with narrow raised border bounded by dark brown 
above, suborbicular or semicircular on c-<lj^t- of leal 

phae epiphyllons, rarely hypophyllotu also, in dense tnfts 

from a tuberculate stroma, short, 10 — 30 X 4 — 5, reddish 

brown, Longer ones septate and toothed. Conidia slender, 
terete, rasddnlons, 3 — 5 — septate, 30 — coo /. 2, 5 — 3. 
On leaves of Diodea Ures % [987, Auburn, July 10, 1 
Dnggar and Newman. 

9. Cbrcosfora Tephrosla n. sp. Spots amphigenous, 
small, angular or snborbicular, 1 — 2 mm., elevated, black- 
ish brown. Hyphae epiphyllons, fasciculate, fascii 
crowded, reddish, flexnons or dentate, 50 — 100 / 4, 5 — 5. 
Conidia obclavate, snbhyaline and tinge of same coloi 
hyphae, 5 — 8 — septate, usually straight, 70 — 130 X 4 — 

4, 5- 

On leaves of Tephrosia hispidula, 2105, Auburn, Sep- 
tember 14, 1891, Atkinson. 

10 Cercospora truncatella n. sp. Spots amphigenous, 

snborbicular, whitish with narrow light brown border, 
2 — 4 mm. Hyphae amphigenous, fasciculate, reddish 
brown, septate, geniculate or nearly straight, conidial scars 
distributed along at geniculations, 70 — 250 X 4, 5. Coni- 
dia hyaline, faintly septate, tapering very gradually from 
truncated base to obtuse apex, rarely rounded at base, 50 — 
150 X 3, 5 — 4. Very different from C. fusco-virens. 

On leaves of Passijlora incarnata, 2025, Auburn, August 
26, 1 891, Atkinson. 

11. Cercospora Agrostidis n. sp. Spots amphigenous. 
broadly elliptical, very light brown center with broad bor- 


der of dull red brown, 3 — 5 mm. long. Hyphse amphige- 
nous, loosely fasciculate, tufts irregularly scattered and few 
in a spot, bright reddish brown, septate, nearly straight to 
Sllbflexuous and sparingly toothed near apex, 40 — 65 X 
3, 5 — 4. Conidia hyaline, 1 — 7 — septate, terete, straight 
or .little curved, 10 — 60 X 2, 5. 

On leaves of Agrostis, 2036, Auburn, July 23, 189!, 
Duggar and Newman. 

12. CERCOSPOHA ( 1 iki i.i.ina Cke. On leaves of water- 
melon [Citrullus vulgaris)^ 1581, Sept. 3, 1890, Atkin- 
son. Specimens are not now at hand, not having been 
preserved. It agrees well with Cooke's description (Giev. 
XII, p. 31). The only notes I have in my record an. 

follows: "Amphigenous, conidi .1 times (5— 

tate. Affects leaves near base of stem first and gradually 
progresses toward other extremity." 

13. CERCOSPORA CUCURBIT* B, & B. Spots suborbicu- 
lar, amphigenous, snboehraeeons, then whitish bordered 
by brown, 2 — 4 mm. Hyplne epiphyllons, fasciculate, 
dull olive reddish brown, lighter toward apex, septate, sub- 
geniculate and sparingly toothed or scarred toward a] 

70 — 200 X 4 — 4, 5. Conidia hyaline, slender, terete, 
straight or curved, multiseptate, 50 — 120 — 200 X 3 — 4. 

On leaves of "dish-rag" squash, ( Qucurbita /) 2154a, 
Auburn, 1X90, Atkinson; Lagenaria vulgaris^ 2154, Sep- 
tember 10, 1891, Dnggar. 

This may be identical with < '. citnillina Cke. 

14. CBRCOSPORA PACHYSPOJLA K. & K. Spots amphige- 
nous, dark brown with concentric elevated lines and indefi- 
nite yellowish border, suborbicular, 4 — 10 mm. Hyplue 
amphigenous, more numerous below, fasciculate, stout, 
dilutely ochraceous, septate, tlexuous, when young nearly 
hyaline, 50 — 100 X 5 — 9. Conidia hyaline or dilutely 
yellowish, obclavate, 3 — S septate,. 25 — 100 X 8 — 10. 


< )n Leaves of Peltandra alba^ 8193, Auburn, September 
26., 1891, Duggar. 

15. Cercospora i'.i.ihoi.a Sacc Spots amphigenoua, 
possessing a blistered appearance, grayish with dark bord 

1 — 3 mm, Eiyphas fasciculate, cylindrical, fuscidulo 
continuous, nodulose or scarred at or mar apex, 70— a 
x 4 — 5. Conidia slender, terete, hyaline, multi 
70—140 x 3- 

On leaves of cultivated sugar beet {Beta vulgaris 1832, 
Auburn, November 2s, i<s</>, Atkinson. 

16. Cercospora \'i I-'., & K.? Spots amphige* 
nous, dirty greyish brown with irregular, indefinite bord 
variable in size, Hyphae epiphyllous, fasciculate, mostly 
hyaline when young to rascidulous, subnodose and toothed, 
20 — 40 x 4, 5. Conidia hyaline, obclavate, slender, 3 — 
12 — septate, 70 — 120 X 3, 5 — 4. 

< >n leaves of Vemonia noveboracencis y 2073, Auburn, 
August 29, 1 891, Atkinson. 

17. Cercospora plagellaris B. & M. Spots amphige - 
uous, at first small, whitish, 2 — 4 mm., with raised and 
blistered margin, bordered with indefinite red, later larger 
and often then confluent over dead parts of the leaf and 
marked frequently with concentric lines. Hyphae am- 
phigenous, fasciculate, pale reddish brown, septate, nearly 
cylindrical, undulate and nodulose above, 30 — 50 X 4, 5. 
Conidia long, abruptly slender from near the base, hya- 
line, multiseptate, 30 — 120 X 4. 

On leaves of Phytolacca decattdra, 1947, Auburn, July 
11, 1 891, Newman. 

18. Cercospora Acalyph.e Pk. Spots on leaves am- 
phigenous, small, numerous, with a 1 — 3 mm. white cen- 
ter bordered above by dark purple, below by light brown. 
Hyphae amphigenous, loosely fasciculate, nearly straight 
or subflexuous or geniculate, prominently scarred, septate, 
olive brown with faint reddish tinge, 80 — 140 X 4, 5 — 5. 


Conidia hyaline, terete, straight or curved, multiseptate, 
50 — 200 X 3 — 4. On the stems the spots are elliptical to 
oblong, dirty white with dark border. 

On leaves and steins of Acalypiia caroliniana, 1998, 
Auburn, August 6, 1891; 2102, September 12, 1891, New- 

19. Cercospoka POLYGONACBA K. & E. Spots ochra- 
ceous; suborbicular, 3 — 10 mm. % parts of the leaf often red- 
dish. Hyplue amphigenous, fasciculate, tufts nuiuenms 
in center of spot, scattered toward border, when young 
faintly fuliginous and nearly cylindrical, in age plainly 1 
dish brown, septate, subfiexuous and denticulate, 30 — 80 
X 4, 5. Conidia hyaline, obclavate, straight or cur\ 
faintly septate, 50 — 100 X 4 — 5. 

On leaves of Polygonum dunn forum var. SCatuUns^ 222 5. 
Auburn, October 14, 1891, Duggar. Specimens were sub- 
mitted to Ellis. 

20. Cercospoka LOBBU B K. «.\i S. Spots amphigenou>, 
dirty white with dark indefinite purple border, usually 
small, irregular, 2 - 6 mm. Hyplue amphigenous, more 
numerous above, fasciculate from tuberculate base, strongly 
denticulate, olive brown when young with reddish tinge 
to reddish brown in age, 10 — 150 X 4, 5 — 5, long one> 
subgeuieulate. Conidia faintly colored obclavate, septate 
and sometimes constricted, 50 — 100 X 4, 5. 

On leaves of Lobelia amama, 2226, Auburn, October 
14, 1 89 1, Atkinson. Specimens of this were submitted 
to Professor Kellerman. 

21. Cercospora RHUINA C. ec B. Spots amphigenous, 
above dull reddish brown bordered by black, or entirely 
black and often with indefinite red border, in age some- 
times becoming greyish in center, light brown below, fre- 
quently arched upward, with or without a narrow elevated 
border. Hyplue densely fasciculate, amphigenous, from 
tuberculate stroma, dull reddish brown, irregularly flexu- 


oils, torulose, or denticulate 30—150 • 3—4- Conidia 

marly cylindrical to very narrowly tercti-fusoid, or obi 

vate, and curved, 3 5 — multiseptate, faintly oliv( 
cidulous, 25 — 120 > 3 — 4. 

On leaves of Rkms copallina, 1178, Auburn, June 
1890, R. toxicodendron^ A81, June 
[304, Snorter's Station, July 16, 1890; Rhui sp. un 
termined, 1565, Auburn, August 6, Atkinson; Rkui 

glabra^ 3014, Auburn, August 7, 1891, Duggarand N< 
man. On A', toxicodendron both the hyphae and conidia 
are more slender than on the other and the conidia 

longer, many times more septate and vers frequently gut- 
tulate The variations, however, considering other \ 
striking resemblances, do not seem sufficient to separate it. 

22. Cercospora canbscens K. & M. Amphigenous, in 
large dead areas, or spots 2 — 6 ///;//., brown or dirty grey 
with narrow dark border above. Hyphae amphigenoi 
fasciculate, brown, septate, nearly cylindrical, stout, 50 — 
100 X 5. Conidia hyaline, obclavate, 3 — 8 — septate, 
nearly straight, 30—120 X 4, 5—5, 5. 

On leaves of cultivated bean [Phaseotus viti 1 983, 

Auburn, July 25, 1891, Newman. 

23. Cercospora avicularis Wint, var. sagittati n. var.? 
Spots amphigenous, light brown with narrow elevated 
margin frequently bordered by reddish brown, 2 — 3 /;/>//., 
Hyplne olive brown, frequently with reddish tinge, fas- 
ciculate, septate, sometimes subgeniculate to denticulate, 
70 — 170 X 4. Conidia faintly colored, septate, 100—300 

X 3, 5- 
On leaves of Polygonum sagittatum, 2201, Auburn, 

October 1, 1891, Duggar. 

24. Cercospora Liquidambaris C. & E. Spots am- 
phigenous, dirty white above, brown below, small, numer- 
ous, irregular with a blistered appearance. Hyphs fas- 
ciculate from tuberculate base, dark reddish brown, short, 


flexuous, torulose, septate, and minutely guttulate, 20 — 
100 x 4—4, 5. Conidia subhyaline or tinged with olive, 
terete, straight or curved, 45 — 150 X 3, 5 — 4. 

On leaves of Liquidambar $tyraciflua y 2227, Auburn, 
October 14, 1891, Atkinson. In Jonr. Mycol., Vol. I\\ 
]>. 115, as a note appended to ('. tuberculans E. & E., Ellis 
says: "This is very different from Cercospora Liquidambaru 
C. & E., which is oil definite Spots." This is the only 
published notice of the species of which I have any knowl- 
edge. Ellis writes me that he does not know whether a 
description has eve? been published, but that th 
specimen in his herbarium marked ' '. IJquidamba 
C. & E. This is probably the same as X<>. 77 of Lang!' 
collection, of which I have a specimen marked < '. Liquid- 
ambarii E. a ]■'.. At first sight it would appear quite 
different from my specimens, f>i tlit- spots are brown abo 
orbicular and quite large. There are, however, nnniei 
whitish, small, blistered spots, and a few of tl; 
changing to brown. I should say that Langlois' speci- 
mens were in a more advanced condition than mine. The 
chief difference in the fnngns is that in my specimen 
the conidia are much longer and more nearly hyaline. 
This can be accounted for by the fact that I could find no 
conidia in my specimens until I had placed them for 
twenty-four hours in a moist chamber, where the condi- 
tions were favorable lor rapid growth. 

25. CeRCOSPORA ANTHELMINTICS n. SD. I mall, aill- 

phigenous, 1 — 3 ww., white with narrow raised margin 
surrounded by dark border. Hypha* epiphyllous, fasci- 
culate, spreading, snbflexnous, subnodnose and profusely 
toothed, septate, fuliginous with faint reddish tinge, 30 — 
100 \ 4 — 4, 5. Conidia hyaline, terete, 4 — 10 septate, 
25 IOO < 4 — 4, 5. Different from C. Clunopodii. 

On leaves of Chenopodium ambrosioides var. antkelminti- 
cum y 2037, Auburn, August 27, 1S91, Duggar. 


Cercospora Ji — i.i'. i 11. sjt. Epiphyllous, small 
white spots surrounded by indefinite h purple border. 

Eiyphee fasciculate, reddish, septate, geniculate and denticu- 
late toward apex, 40— 120 } — \, 5. Conidia hyaline, 
obclavate, 3 — to — septate, too — [50 j. 

On Jussuta leptocarpa^ 3159, Auburn, September 2, 1891, 
Duggar; J. decurrens^ 2191, Auburn, Septetnh 91, 


27. Cbrcosf Spots amphige- 

nous, light brown bordered by dark brown, broadly 
fusoid or elliptical) 3 — .} mm. long, frequently confluent 
Eiyphss epiphyllous, fasciculate, olive reddish brown, 
straight, subgeniculate or nodulose, sparingly denticulate 
toward apex, septate, 50 — 100 > 4 — 4, 5. Conidia small, 
hyaline, 3 — 4 septate, tapering little toward each vi\(], 
25 — 40 X 2. 

( )n kaves of Panicum dickotomum, 2054, Auburn, 
August 15, [891, Duggar. 

2N. Cercospora Si. 1 wki.k n. sp. Spots amphigenoua, 
dark with indefinite pale border, elliptical. Hyphae epi- 
phyllous, dull reddish brown, fasciculate, sometimes very 
dense, others divergent, sometimes branched from near 
base, septate, with a few small guttuke, scars small, giving 
denticulate appearance near apex, 50 — 100 / 4, 5 — 5. 
Conidia hyaline, 1 — pluriseptate, cylindrical or obclavate, 
straight or curved, 20 — 150 X 4 — 5. 

On leaves of Setaria glauca^ 2120, Auburn, September 
17, 1 891, Duggar. 

29. Cercospora asterata u. sp. Spots araphigenous, 
about 6 mm. in diameter, generally in edge of leaf, dirtv 
grey bordered by black, exterior to this effused with red- 
dish purple. Hyphae amphigenous, fasciculate, dull red- 
dish brown, subhyaline at tips, septate, geniculate, sub- 
flexuous, torulose to denticulate, minutely guttulate, 70 — 


120 4, 5. Conidia hyaline, nearly cylindrical, tapering 
gradually to each end, septate, 30 — 50 X 3. 

On Aster, 2365, Auburn, November 25, 1S91, Atkinson. 

30. Cercospora richardlecola n. sp. Spots amphige- 
nous, black with small white center and concentric li 
suborbicular, 2 — 6 mm. Hyplue epiphyllous. fasciculate, 
faintly fuliginous when young with reddish tinge, reddish 
brown in age, usually straight but sometimes geniculate 
or subnexUOUS to denticulate toward apex, 10 — 8 
Conidia hyaline, obclavate, 4 — 10 or more septate, - 
[OO 3—4. 

( )n leaves <" Richardia Africana, 2x11, Auburn, 
tember 7, 1891, Atkinson. Very different from C. CalUf 
Pk. & Clint 

31. Cercospora Alabamensis n. sp. Spots amphigenons, 
dirty while definitely limited by dark purple or black with 
raised margin, 2 — 3 mm. Hyplue amphigeno sely 
fasciculate, fascicles numerous, faintly septate, dilutely red- 
dish brown, nearh straight, denticulate, or abruptly 
shouldered and prominently scarred at angles, 50 — 

4, 5. Conidia long, slender, straight or curved, hyaline, 
Closely multiseptate, terete. 70 — 25O 3 — 4. This 

quite different from specimens collected by Prof. Galloway 
in Missouri, which have been referred by Ellis to 
Ipjnm-if Winter, and specimens of which have been kindly 
furnished me by Calloway and Kllis. 

On ipomcea purpurea^ 124s, Uniontown, July 12, 1890, 

32. Cercospora plageujfera n. sp. Spots amphige- 
nous, suborbicular to angular 3 — 4 mm. or large and 
indefinitely limited (this may be due to presence of other 
fungus), dark brown above, lighter below. Hyplue amphige- 
nous, rather compactly fasciculate or spreading, reddish 
brown, prominently scarred and flexuous and denticulate 
toward tips, or cylindrical, 40 — 150 X 4, 5. Conidia 


hyaline, very long and slender, inulti 
2, 5 — 3 at ba 

< )n leaves of GalacHa pihs< Auburn, September 

<>, 1891, Atkinson; Lespedi at j 11 7. September 17, 1891, 
Duggar. The spots are different <>n LespetL ing 

angular and nearly black above, and rather small, wh 
in Galactia pilosa they are quite- large and indefinil 
limited. The fungus, how. ems to be the same. It 

is quite different from ( '. fattens. 

2,2>- ( PORA PAP1LL0SA u. sp. Spots orbicular or 

irregular, sometimes in edge of leaf, dirty white, 2 — 5 
mm. Hyphse amphigenous, fasciculate, nearly straight, 
denticulate to papillate, the imetimes being on 

minute protuberanoeS. In some cases I have seen them 

several in a whorl, reminding one of the appearance of 

some sexual shoots of some algae of the family /.rniiii 
fuliginous with very faint brick-red tinge, 50 — 70 }. 5 — 

5. Conidia hyaline, long, rather stout at base, usually 
tapering rather abruptly into slender, thread-like apical 
portion, multiseptate, sometimes faintly so, 80 — 2<x> X 4 — 
4, 5 at base. 

On leaves of cultivated Verbena^ 2376, Auburn, Decem- 
ber 24, 1 89 1, Atkinson. 

34. Cercospora Hydrangea E. & K. Spots large, 
angular, limited by veins, blackish above, frequently 
becoming whitish in center, light brown below. Hyphae 
amphigenous, fasciculate from tuberculate base, olive 
brown with dull reddish tinge in age, subgeniculate and 
denticulate, 40 — 70 X 4 — 4, 5. Conidia hyaline, long, 
slender, terete, curved, multiseptate, 70 — 150 X 3 — 4. 

On leaves of cultivated Hydrangea, 1013, Auburn, 
1890, Atkinson. Specimens of this sent over a year ago 
to Ellis were marked C. Hydrangea E. & E. I think 
this is the first published description and Ellis' name is 


35. Cercospora Desmodu K. & K. Spots small, 2 — 3 
mm., angular, amphigenous, light brown, numerous, fre- 
quently confluent. Hyplue mostly hypophyllous, fascicu- 
late, 4 — 8 from tnberculate base, light reddish brown, sep- 
tate, undulate and sometimes geniculate, 40— So 4 — 5. 
Conidia hyaline, terete, slender, faintly septate, 30 — 80 X 

On leaves of Desmodium y 1241, Uniontown, July 12, 

1890, Atkinson; Cultivated Desmodmm (Florida clover). 
Auburn, 1890, Atkinson. 

36. CERCOSPOR A SOLANICOLA n. sp. Spots small, white, 
dark border, or indeterminate on dead areas of the V 
Hyphae fasciculate, olive brown with faint reddish tinge, 
straight to llexuons or geniculate toward apex, 3 — 5 
Septate, 40—130 5. Conidia hyaline, terete, obt;. 
IO -30 septate, ioo — 23" .}, 5. 

( )n leaves of Solatium tuberosum^ 1922, Auburn, June 
19, [891, Atkinson. 

37. Cercospora K. & Hoi. Spots amphigenous, 

irregular, large, greyish brown. Hyplue amphigenous, 
fasciculate from tnberculate stroma, septate, fuligin. 
short, 15-20 4~5- Conidia straight or flexuons, 

faintly 1—6 septate, diltttely yellowish, terete, 40— 70 


On leaves of Galium pilosum, var. pundiculosum^ 1318, 

Auburn, July 22, 1890, Atkinson. 

38. Cercospora \ Spots amphigenous, 

white, 2—0 mm.) suborbicular, sometimes confluent. 
Hyphffi amphigenous, fasciculate, nearly straight, long 
ones sometimes snbflexuous and subdenticulate, fuliginous, 
sometimes with reddish tinge, 30 — 70 4 — 5, in rainy 

weather frequently 150—300 long. Conidia hyaline, 
long, slender, terete, multiseptate and nearly straight, 
IOO -2C*> 3, 5—4. 

On leaves of Viola odoratQ) 1946, Auburn, July 25, 
1S91; Viola citcullata, 2372, December 14, 1891, Atkinson. 


Pi >\: A N VM I'll EA( I'.A I 

nous, subcireular, 2 — 4 /;////., nearly the entire disk ii 
a leaden color from profuse development of the fungus, 
bordering this is a narrow ring of <li: 
gined l>v indefinite purple, which is separated from the 
grey ring by slightly elevated ring. Hyphae epiphyllo 
densely fasciculate, fascicles crowded, short 10—20 3, 
fuliginous with olive tinge. Conidia verj slendei 
ing very little toward apex, hyalii ine, 

8 — multiseptate, curved or fiexuous, 2, 5 — 3. 

On ka\ Vymphea odorata y 2160, Auburn, Septem- 

ber 2, 1 891 • Duggar. 

40. Cercospora Saururi K. ».\: E. Spots black ab 
light brown below, suborbicular, 3 — 6 mm., with a bro 
ill-defined border of yellow. Hyphae amphigenous 
culate, short, nearly straight, faintly fnligin 

4 — 5. Conidia hyaline, terete, straight <>r curved, few 
pluriseptate, 30-140 / 3, 5—4, 5. 

On leaves of Saururus to units, 1303, Snorter's Station, 
July 16, 1890, Atkinson. 

41. Cercospora Ri bi Sacc Spots amphigenous, brown 

with frequently a light center, bordered by led above, 
irregular and frequently confluent. Hyphae epiphyllous, 

fasciculate, spreading from tuberculate base, short, con- 
tinuous, faintly fuliginous, tufts black, numerous, 3, 5 — 4 
in diameter. Conidia acrogenous, terete, slender, faintly 
colored, 30—100 X 2, 5 — 3. 

On leaves of Rubus auicifolius, 11 30, December, 1889; 
1536, August 8, 1890; 1764, September 4, 1890, Auburn, 
Atkinson. In 1536 the red border of the spots is suffused 
with yellow. 

42. Cercospora Bcehmeri.i; Pk. Spots amphigenous, 
at first limited by the veins of the leaf, in age sometimes 
orbicular with indefinite yellowish border, 3 — 6 mm. 
Hyphse hypophvllous from rotund tuberculate stroma, 


fuliginous, nodulose, continuous, usually short, up to 50 
long by 4—4, 5. Conidia fuliginous with faint olive yel- 
lowish tinge, 3 — 5 septate, guttulate, tapering little toward 
each end, but more toward apex, 40 — 75 4—-! 

On leaves of Bcehmeria cylindrical 2321, November 7, 
1891, Auburn, Atkinson. Also collected at Snorter's 
Station, July 16, 1890. These latter specimens w 
young and the spots distinctly angular. 

43. Cercospora Hydrocotyles E. & E. Spots amphige- 
uous, light brown, orbicular, with narrow elevated mar- 
gin and indefinite border of dark brown, 34 MVH*., some- 
what arched upward. Hvplue amphigenous, fasciculate, 
tufts evenly distributed, faintly fuliginous, continuous or 
sometimes faintly septate, straight or subgeniculate to 
toothed near apex, 30— 50 - 4 — 4, 5. Conidia hyaline 
or subhyaline, slender, terete, multiseptate, sparingly gut- 

tulate, 30—70 a, ^,—t,. 

On leaves of HydrocotyU itmbiilata, 130S, Shorter' s 
Station, July r6, [890, Atkinson. 

44. Cercospora Mali E. & E. Spots amphigenous, 

light brown below, greyish above, subcircular, 3 — 4 mm. 
Hyphffi amphigenous, fasciculate from dark tuberculate 
stroma, very short, fuliginous, 3, 5 — 4 in diameter. 
Conidia hyaline, very slender, terete, 3 — 7 — septate, 30 — 
75 2, 5—3. 

On leaves of Pirns ma/us, Cold Hill, September, : 
Atkinson. These specimens do not agree very well with 
\. A. R 247N, the hyplne being much shorter and the 
conidia not colored. The material is scanty and it does 
not seem best to separate it. 

45. Cercospora Elephantopodis E. & H. Spots 

brown with dirty yellowish indefinite border, orbicular, 
less distinct on under surface. Hyplne epiphyllous, very 
short, scarcely raised above the tuberculate stroma, faintly 
fuliginous. Conidia long, very slender, straight or curved. 

56 JOURNAL 01 'I'm. 

pluriseptate, dilutely yellowish, 25- tao 2, 5 — 3. 'I 

is probably a young stage, since- in X. A. F 1757 the 
hyphee arc amphigenoua and well developed 
On leavea of Elephanlopux tomtniosus^ iij<j, Auburn, 

June- 30, [890, Atkinson. 

46. CSRCOSPORA a 1 kam.u B. 8 SpOtl 
amphigenoua, suborbicular, \ 8 //////., light brown to 
nearly black. Hyphae amphigenoti ulate, tufts dis- 
tributed thickly over the spot, divergent, sometin 
branched, subflexuoua, irregular in outline, denticula 
septate and guttulate, olive fuliginous with reddish ti: 

in age, 30 — 80 4. Conidia very narrowly tereti-fusoid, 
or narrowly lanceolate, 3 to septate, guttulate, faintly 
fuliginous, 20 — 70 3, 5 — 4. 

On k-a\ ia /'<>ni, 2129, Auburn, September 

io, [891, Atkinson. 

47. CeRCOSPORA CRUENTA Sacc. Spots orbicular 
mottled by blood-red splotches. Hyphae amphigeuous, 
fasciculate, tufts distributed over spot, short or quite long, 
faintly olive fuliginous, not reddish brown when long, 

in C, Doliclii, septate, fiexuous, simple or branched, 40 — 
150 x 4- Conidia faintly olive, frequently guttulate, 
septate, 40 — 120 X 4. 

On leaves of Dotichos sinensis, 1238, July 1 
Phaseolus (cultivated), 1236, July 1 Auburn, 


48. CercoSPORA VITICOLA (Ces.) Sacc. Spots sub- 
orbicular with indefinite ragged border, blackish above or 
brown in center with black border, light brown below, 
affected parts of leaf outside of the spots frequently 
changing to yellow. Hyphae ainphigenous, parallel and 
densely fasciculate in compact column 100 — 300 long, indi- 
vidual hyphee septate, free for short distance at distal end 
where sometimes subclavate, abruptly subflexuous, jagged 
and denticulate when having borne many conidia, sometimes 


divergent at distal end, though not nearly so niiieli so as in 
C. cercidicola and C. Petersii(B. & C. ), though the sterile 
part of the fascicle is much more compact than in the lat- 
ter species. Hyph >, where- compacted into bundle 3, 5 — 4 
in diameter, usually somewhat greater, 4 — 5, at the free 
ends, dark olive brown. Conidia obclavate, abruptly 
tapering at base, usually curved, 3 — 12 septate, sometimes 
very distinctly so, same color as the hyplne, though 111 
dilute, 40—; -7. 

Common on cultivated grape leaves (Yitis), Auburn, 

jo. Cercospora Petrrsii il''. <S: C. ). Helminlhospt* 
riiiiH Peterm I>. & C, Grev. III., p. 102 [ex-park 
Helminthosporium Petersn^ Rav. Fung. Am. Ex., 166. 
Spots amphigenons, light brown in center, with blackish 
border, orbicular, 2—3 mm. Hyph:i> amphigenons, mostly 
hypophyllous, fasciculate, very dark olive brown to nearly 
black, septate, 100 — 300 < 4 — 4, 5, lor about two-thirds 
their length parallel and quite closely compacted into 
bundle, not so mnch so as in ( '. :itico/a, distal one-third 
divergent and very profusely subflexuous, denticulate, 
torulose, jagged, and diameter somewliat greater than the 
straight portion. Conidia obclavate or narrowly tereti- 
fusoid, abruptly acuminate, resembling in form those of 
( '. ccrastlla, but much darker in color, dark olive brown, 
2 — 6 septate, 30 — 70, even sometimes to too 5 — 6 at Ik 

This is very different from C. smilacis, Xos. 1676 and 
1768 Myc. Univ., the conidia there being much narrower, 
the hyphse shorter and otherwise quite different. It differs 
also from X. A. F. No. 1251. It also seems to be quite 
different from Saccardo's description of his C. smilacina 
(1. c.) and the figure in F. Ital., No. 681, but may be 
identical. I have not seen specimens of Peck's C. Snii- 
lacis and cannot say whether or not it is the same as 
this species, but I am inclined to think it is; the 


spores in a young condition may sometimes be hyaline. 
Prof. B. T. Galloway, Chief of the Division of V< 

Pathology, lias kindly permitted in mine tip 

men of Helminthosporium PeUrsii in Rav. Pung. Am., 
[66, from Smilax. It is identical with my specimens from 
Alabama. I have no donbt that B. & C.'s specimens on 

Smilax are the same. I haw ft tin- fungus <>n 

Lauru* Benzoin and I have arranged the synonymy for the 

specimens on Smiln \ . 

On leaves of SmUax ^/<r// t ,r, [288, Snorter's Station, 
July [6, [890; 2375, Auburn, December 20, 1891, Atkin- 

50. Cbrcospo&a I,ri)\vi<;i.K n. sp. Spots amphigeti 
subcircular, irregular, reddish brown or purple, sometiii 
with white in center, 1 — 3 WIS, Hyplue epiphyllo 
densely fasciculate from tnbercnlatc Jive 
bro.wn or faintly fuliginous, straight or flexuous, 20—30 

4, 5. Conidia slender, terete, straight or curved, some- 
times gnttulate, 3 — 10 septate, faintly colored, 25 — 100 

2, 5—3- 

On leaves of Ludwigia a/trriii/o/ia, 2190, Auburn, Sep- 
tember 29, 1891, Atkinson. 

51. Cercospoka D. Virginians n. sp. Spots amphige- 

nons, brown or dirty white with a broad, ill-defined purple 
border above, 2 — 5 mm, Hyphse amphigenous, fascicu- 
late, tnfts numerous, fuliginous, nearly straight, denticu- 
late, 40 — 250 X 4 — 5. Conidia hyaline, stout at base, 
tapering to long, slender apical portion, mnltiseptate, 80 

—350 X 4. 

On leaves of Diodia virginiana, 2186, Auburn, Septem- 
ber 26, 1 891, Duggar. 

52. Cercospora crinospora n. sp. Hyprne fasciculate, 
3 — 6 in a tuft, undulate, sparingly toothed and nearly hya- 
line at apex, dark brown for nearly the entire length. 
Conidia very slender, straight, terete, hyaline, 4 — 6 sep- 
tate, 20 — 60 X 1, 5 — 2. 


On dead parts of leaves of Rkyncospora gtamerata y 2034, 

Auburn, August 27, 1891, Atkinson. 

53. CERCOSPORA atkamai«.ixaijs u. sp. Spots am- 
phigenous, orbicular, 4 — 6 ww., light brown or dirty grey 
with black border above. Hyplue hypophyllous, fascicu- 
late from stroma, short, flexuous or denticulate, continu- 
ous, faintly fuliginous, 10 — 30 > 4 — 4, 5. Conidia obcla- 
vate or cylindrical, 1 — 10 septate, guttulate, yellowish. 
— 70 < 4 — 5. Different from C. PhysaUdis E. & E., N. 
A. F. 2299, and from other fornix on Solatium. 

On leaves of Solatium nigrum (?), 13591 Auburn, 1 

54. Cbrcospora Tkdi'.i;oi.!ii. sji. Spots ampnigen 
very light brown with narrow elevated margin above, sub- 
orbicular, 2 — 4 nun. Hyplue epiphy lions, few in cluster, 
stout, short, faintly fuliginous, 2<> — } 5, dentate. 
Conidia hyaline, rather stout at base and quickly tapering 
into long, >lender apical portion, reminding one of C. jla- 
gellartSy raultiseptate, 50 — 150 3, s — \, 5 at base. 

On leaves of cultivated Tro/uwolum, 2110, Auburn, 

tember 7, 1891, Atkinson. 

55. CERCOSPORA TBSSBLATA n. sp. Spots indefinite 
above, usually narrowly oblong, nearly black below with 
bluish tinge caused by numerous black tufts and bluish 
cast of leaf tissue affected. Hyplue hypophyllous, densely 
fasciculate, fuliginous, short, 10 — 12 2,5 — 3, denticu- 
late, tufts in longitudinal and usually transverse ro 
giving a checkered appearance to the group. Conidia 
slender, hyaline, terete, curved, septate, 50 — 90 X 2 — 2, 5. 

On languid leaves ol Elusine .li^yptica, 2306, Auburn, 
November 6, 1891, Atkinson. 

56. CERCOSPORA SBRIATA n. sp. Spots amphigenous, 
cinereous with definite brown border margined by indefinite 
yellow, irregularly oblong, sometimes confluent. Hyplue 
epiphyllous, fasciculate, faint reddish brown, in age darker, 


flexuous and toothed, 20—50 • 4, tufts in parallel r<> 
Conidia hyaline, nearly cylindrical, itraight or cun 
faintly 2 — 6 septate, 30 70 3 — 3, 5. 

On leaves of Sporobotms asper^ Auburn, July 24 

and August 7, [89X, Dnggar and Newman. 

57. Cbrcospora Davtsii K. & E. Spots brown, sub- 
il.t!. Hyphae amphigenous, brown, nearly straight, 

denticnlate near tips, fasciculate, 30—90 5. Conidia 
subhy aline or very faintly yellowish, nearly straight, 5 — 8 
multiseptate, cylindrical «>r terete, 80 — 1 ; 5 — 4, 5. 

On leaves of AieHloita aida, niontown, July 12, 

[89O, Atkinson. 

58. Cbrcospora alth i ina Sacc S]*>n angular, am- 
phigenous, dirty white with narrow black border, 2 — 3 ;/////. 
Byphfle amphigenous, fasciculate, fascidulous, geniculate 

or toothed at apex, continuous, 30—50 X 4 — 5. Conidia 
hyaline, slender, terete, multiseptate, straight or lightly 
curved, 30—100 X 3, 5—4, 5. 

On leaves of AUha . 1253, Uniontown, July 12, 

1890, Atkinson. 

/ r ar, Modiol.K, 11. var. Spots same but little smaller, 
with narrow raised margin. Hyplue amphigenous, fas- 
ciculate, fuscidulous, continuous, cylindrical, 30 — 70 
4, 5. Conidia hyaline, slender and tapering to very nar- 
row apical portion, multiseptate, 50 — 100 X 3 — 4. 

On Modiola multifida, 1253*7, Auburn, 1890, Atkinson. 

59. Cercospora Silphii E. & E. Spots angular, am- 
phigenous, black or dirty grey with black border, 2 — 4 
mm. Hyphffl amphigenous, fasciculate from black base, 
tufts numerous distributed over the spot, fuliginous with 
reddish tinge, toothed, longer ones septate, usually 15 25, 
but up to 70 X 4 — 5. Conidia obclavate, usually some- 
what curved, faintly olive, yellowish tinted, 3 — 6 — septate, 
.50—100 X 3, 5-5. 


On leaves of Silphium composition, 1198, Auburn, June 
30, 1890, Atkinson. 

60. Cercospora Thaspii E. & E. Spots angular, 
black frequently bordered by indefinite yellow, in age 
becoming lighter in center, bordered by veinlets frequently, 
thus giving the appearance of a narrow raised margin, 
2 — 3 mm. Hypha amphigenous, subfasciculate, 3 — 8 in 
a cluster, dark reddish brown, stout, 5 — 8 — septate, guttu- 
late, 70 — 160 ■ 5 — 6, irregularly flexuotis, geniculate and 
sometimes branched. Conidia obclavate, hyaline, stout, 
closely multiseptate, 60 — 120 • 5—6 at baa 

( )n leaves of Angelica kirsuta % 1540, Auburn, Jul;, 
[890, Atkinson; 2042, July 23, 1891, Duggai and New- 

61. Cercospora depazeoides (Desm.) Sacc 
amphigenous, angular or suborbicular, light brown below, 
black or greyish above with raised margin. Hypha am- 
phigenous, fasciculate, not strongly divergent, distantly 
septate, dull reddish brown, irregularly fiexuous, 100 — 200 

4, 5. Conidia faintly tinged with same color, obcla- 
vate, septate, guttulate, 50 — 100 x 4, 5. 

On leaves ^i' Sambucus canadensis, 1700, Auburn, 
tember 9, 1N0", Atkinson. 

62. Cercospora Sagittari^ B.&K. Spots amphige- 
nous, angular or suborbicular, light brown, then blackish 
with indefinite border of a lighter color. Hyplne epiphyl- 
lous, fasciculate, tufts few, fuliginous, simple, denticulate 
above. Conidia hyaline, straight or curved, obclavate, 
septate, stout, 40 — 100 < 4 — 5. This differs considerably 
from \. A. F. 1502, but is probably only a variation from 
that form. 

On leaves oi Sagittaria variabilis^ 2039, Auburn, Julv 
24, 1891, Duggar and Newman. 

63. Cercospora Bolleaxa (ThSm.) Speg. Spots yek 

lowish and indefinite on upper surface, rusty beneath and 


angular, darker in center. Hyphae hypophyllous, fascicu- 
late, light olive brown, flexnom or toothed, obscun 
tate, 40 — 7" i, 5 — 5. Conidia lanceolate or tercti* 

fusoid, 1—5 — septate, obtuse, faintly olive yellow, 20- 

5— a 

< )n languid leaves of Ficui carica, 1772, Auburn, 

tember 4, 1 891 >, Atkinson. 

64. Cbrcospora Ci.rroki! n.sp. Spots angular, rather 
large, 3 — 6 mn£\ black or nearly black above, brown belo 

1 1 > 1 > 1 1 .- 1 ■ epiphyllons, fuliginous, short, projecting little 
above the tuberculate stroma, 5- i<> long. Conidia long, 

slender, terete, faintly colored, straight or cur era! 

times septate, 50 — 70 x 3. 

On leaves of CUtoria mariana^ 2009, Auburn, August 
29, 1891, Atkinson. 

65. Cescospora efi & C. ) IjC 1 1 _ Hypophyllous, 
diffuse, giving roseate color to large patches or entirely 
Covering the under surface of the leaf. Hyphae fasciculate, 
individuals sometimes creeping and producing uume: 
branches, geniculate, dentate, reddish, hyaline at t 

45 — 100 X 4. Conidia cylindrical, tapering at each end, 
1 — 3 septate, subhyalinc, multiguttulate, 25 — 40 / 4 — 

On leaves of Lobelia cwucna, 2214, Auburn, October 
11 and November 3, 1891, Atkinson. 

66. Cercospora Dolichi E. & E. The leaf possesses 
suborbicular or angular spots mottled with blood-red much 
as in C cruenta. The hyphse are not confined to them, 
but distributed over the green areas of the leaf as well. 
Hyphn amphigenous, loosely fasciculate, olive fuliginous, 
short, subflexuous, subdenticulate and usually somewhat 
pointed at the apex 20 — 40 X 4 — 4, 5, or up to 80 long, 
then with reddish tinge and plainly septate. Conidia 
.olive, terete, 3 — 15— septate, curved, usually guttulate, 
30 - 100 X 4. 


On leaves of Dolichos sinensis, 1246, Uniontown, July 
1 1, 1890, Atkinson. 

67. Cercospora DlOSPYR] Thiim var. FERRUGINOSA n. 
var. Hyphae tufted, tufts numerous, collected into olive 
black orbicular patches on under side of the leaf. Leaves 
pale green above at the affected places. Hypha- ferrugi- 
aeous, irregularly flexuous, closely septate, often branched, 
rough, jagged, strongly notched and papillate, 50 — 150 

4, 5. Conidia obclavate, tapering abruptly toward ba 
more gradually toward apex, faintly olive yellowish to 
ferrugi neons and dark brown, 1 — 12 or more septate, septa 
close and more distinct toward base, in age strongly con- 
stricted at septa and nucleolate, 20 — 80 X 4, 5 — 5, 5 at 
base. The conidia are much Stouter than in 1273 Myc. 
Univ. and darker colored even when young. Hyphae 
there more slender and continuous as described by Kllis 

(Jour. Myc, Vol. 1, ]». 51). His description is apparently 

taken from specimens in Thuenien's Mve. Univ., since it 
agrees with the ones 1 have examined from that work. 
Specimens collected by Langlois, 6oo, in Louisiana, agree 
with my specimens from Alabama. 

On leaves of Diospyros : ir^iniana, 2254, Auburn, Sep- 
tember 26, 1891, Duggar. 

68. Cercospora sordida Saoc Tufts of Hypha 

forming angular patches limited by the veins, or covering 
larger portions of the under side of the leaves, dirty grey 
or nearly black, upper surface yellowish. Hypha sub- 
fasciculate, divergent, subtiexuous, nodulose, denticulate, 
septate, guttulate, olive reddish brown, 20 — 70 X 4 — 4, 5. 
Conidia faint olive reddish tinge, multiguttulate, multi- 
septate, terete, curved or flexuous, 20 — no X 3, 5 — 4, 5. 
On leaves of Tecoma radicans, 2149, Auburn, Septem- 
ber 13, 1801, Atkinson. 

69. Cercospora puscovtrrns Sacc. Hypophyllous, 

spots colored by hypha' dirty yellowish green, limited by 

(>.\ JOURNAL Of 'ill). 

the veins, indefinite yellowish spots above. Hypha fascicu- 
late, faintly olive reddish brown, septate, frequently 
branched, Bubflexuous and denticulate toward spex, 30— 
70 x 4 — 4,5. Conidia dilutely yellow, multiseptate and 
multiguttulate, very long and slender, tei 
300 x 3, 5 — 4, obtuse at distal end, abruptly tapering 
bast'. The spores differ, greatly in size from Ellis' and 
Saccardo'fl descriptions, but the great length of the conidia 
is probably due to different climatic conditions. 

On leaves of Passiflora incamata y 2198, Auburn, 
( October 2, (891, Duggar. 

70. CBRCOSPORA JATROPHJ3 n. sp. Spots indefinite, 

at first yellowish above and dirty yellow below from hypha 
first developing below, when badly attacked and old 

hypha are amphigenous and then the spots dirty grey with 

indefinite yellow border. Hypha fasciculate from yell< 
ish brown stroma, dilutely yellowish brown, short, sub- 
oexuous, IO— 20 3. Conidia long and slender, hyaline 
or subhyaline, 5 — 12 — septate, tapering little to distal end, 
50 — IOO X I, 5 — 2. 

On leaves of Ja tropha stimulosa, 1171, Auburn, July 2, 
1890, Atkinson. 

71. Cercospora macroguttata n. sp. Hypophyllons 

forming small oval or larger narrowly oblong pate; 
olive brown in color, from the profusion of the develop- 
ment of the fungus. Hypha* long, flexuous, geniculate, 
sparingly toothed near apex, multiseptate and multiguttu- 
late with large guttata, dark brown in age with olive 
tinge, growing tips and young ones decidedly olive green 
tinge, 100 — 250 X 5 — 6. Conidia nearly cylindrical, very 
narrowly tereti-fusoid, dilutely olive green, 3-8 -septate, 
10-80 X 4, 5—5. 

On leaves of Chrysopsis graminifolia, 2138, Auburn, 
July 13, 1891, Atkinson. 

72. Cercospora pixxul.ECOla n. sp. Diffuse, hy- 


pophyllous, giving dirty appearance to under surface of 
the pinnules, which are usually paled above. Hyplne in 
loose tufts distributed over affected area, reddish brown, 
septate, minutely gut folate, irregularly flexuous, genicu- 
late and profusely denticulate, 100—200 X 4, 5. Conidia 
obclavate, hyaline, multiseptate and multiguttulate, 50 — 
150 X 4—5. 

On leaves of Cassia nictitans % 2197, Auburn, October i, 
1891, Duggar. 

73. CERCOSPORA ERYTHROGENA n. sp. Hypophyllous, 
spots indefinite, usually reddening the leaf above, giving 
dirty appearance to large portion of under surface of the 
leaves. Hyphse scattered, frequently creeping, often 
branched, septate, dull reddish brown, flexuous, denticu- 
late, 50 70 • 4, 5. Conidia slender, usually curved. 
longer ones terete, faintly olive brown, multis and 
usually guttulate, 30 — 1 . 5 — 4- 

On leaves of Rhexia mariana y 1541, Auburn, July 22, 
iSi,o; Rhexia sp. 18*9, October, i^<-/>: A', virginica^ 2066, 
August 29, [891, Atkinson. 

74. CERCOSPORA RIGOSPORA u. ip. Spots indefini: 
absent, but parts of leaf affected, usually obscurely yellow- 
ish above. Hyphre hypophyll .iculate, divergent, 
in sooty patches sometimes very indistinct, or distributed 
over large areas, fuliginous with olive tinge, subflexuous, 
denticulate or torulose, longer ones faintly septate and 
multiguttulate, 50—60 3. 5—4. Conidia straight or 
curved, subcylindrical, abruptly tapering at each end or 
terete, 3 — 10 — septate, multiguttulate, dilutely olive yel- 
low, 50 -~^ 3^4- This is very different from C. 
Solani Thiim as shown in Myc Univ., 270, and also from 
C. diffusa Ell., specimens of which I have seen, both of 
those being much stouter and the conidia quite different in 
texture, easily collapsing, while those of C. rigospora are 
quite firm. Ellis' diffusa seems to me on comparison 


66 JOURNAL Of Tin-: 

identical with Tbfimen'fl Solani. Specimens 
Langlois, 1322, in Louisiana and marked ('. Solan, 
quite well with Bliss 1 diffusa and are quite different from 
111 > specimens, 

( )n leaves of Solanum nigrum Inborn, July 

5, 1890, Atkinson. 

75. CERCOSPORA ( 1 in 

irregular patches <>r over large sm 

leaves, giving dirty green color. Hyp", culate fi 

stomata of leaf, divergent, 20 -30 op t< 

septate, nearly cylindrical, often toothed, bearing conidia 

laterally as well at the apex, olive yellowish, ra: 
darker and inclined to faint reddish tin lidia lati 

and acrogenous, concatenate or single, cylindrical when 
concatenate and then abruptly tapering each w nail 

truncate end, terete- when single, more rarely slightly 
clavate, dilutely olive yellowish, often guttulate, 1 
septate, 20 — 100 X 4 — 5. 

On leaves of Sambucus canade* js. Auburn, 

A-UgUSt 27, 1891, Atkinson. The leaves are severely 
injured by the fungus, which causes them to curl and fall, 
so that in many cases the shrubs are entirely denuded of 
their leaves. 

76. CBRCOSPORA BRECHTITIS 11. sj). On dead parts of 
the leaf. Hyphffl epiphyllous, fasciculate, reddish brown, 
geniculate or scarred, in which case hyphffi are cylindrical-, 
frequently guttulate, 50 240 X 4. Conidia hyaline, 
septate and guttulate, 70 — 230 X 3 — 4- 

On leaves of Erechtiies hieracifolia, 2303, Auburn, 
November 5, 1891, Duggar. 

77. Cercospora gossypixa Cooke. Spots light brown 
or dirty white, irregular, often bordered by a dark or 
purple color, frequently without spots appearing on large 
dead or dying areas of the leaf. Hyphse amphigenous, 
fasciculate, brown, geniculate or toothed, 70-450 - 5 — 7. 


Conidia hyaline, few to multiseptate, terete, 70 4* n 

3 4- 

On leaves, bracts and cotyledons of Gossypium hcrba-- 


78. CERCOSPORA LlRIODENDR] Ell. & Hark. I have 
not collected good specimens of this, but my notes rea 
follows: "Differs from c'. Liriodendri (as described) in 
having conidia 70 long and several times septate." 

On leaves of Uriodendrom TuHpiferay 1951, Auburn, 
July 11, 1891, Newman. 

79. Cercospora Ckphalanthj K. & K. I have 

eral times collected specimens of this with characteristic 
spots, but the hyphffl and conidia were so poorly developed 
it was impossible to take any notes worthy of record. 

On leaves of Ophii/authits OCCideutaHs. 




This forge is situated on Helton Creek, near its union 
with North Fork of New River, in Ashe county. It is 
remarkable as an example of a process for obtaining iron 
which is now becoming extinct. Briefly, it is the pro* 
by which a mass pf malleable iron is obtained by heating 
together in an open hearth a mixture of a pure ore of iron 
with charcoal, until the carbon monoxide from the char- 
coal unites with the oxygen of the ore and reduces the ore. 
There were formerly a number of such forges in that 
region, but all others have long since disappeared. 

This forge was built perhaps fifty years ago by John 
Ballon; was rebuilt by W. J. Paisley in 1S71, and has 



since been in operation by him, supplying sufficient 
iron for the local demand for wagon tii 

The plant comprises a ' hammer am 

ore crusher, the- two latter being operated by sepai 
overshot water-wheels, while the blast for the I 
supplied by a third water power arrangement Ti: 

f'^3- Crp Ctu^Kct 

is an open hearth, rudely built of stone fragments. The 
tuyere communicating with the blast pipe enters this fire 
space from one side, and the hearth piece consists of a 
superannuated hammer head built in with the rock frag- 

The blower, said to be similar to the Catalan blower, 
is a large box, placed 8 or 10 feet below the water supply, 
and communicating with it by means of a wooden conduit 
which enters the blower from above. 

The blast pipe, also of wood, leads from the upper part 
of the blower to the tuyere, and near the bottom of the 
blower at the end is an exit slit for water. When the gate 


above is opened and the water allowed to enter the blower, 
air is drawn in with it from openings arranged in the con- 
duit above. 

Once in the blower, the water escapes under pressure 
through the slit, while the air collecting above is forced 
through the blast pipe and tuyrre into the forge hearth. 

The hammer is a mass of iron, weighing perhaps 600 
pounds, and mounted on the end of a beam, the other end 
of which is pivoted in an upright post. This post is 
deeply buried .and braced with a heavy beam. The anvil 
is a similar mass of iron fastened in a wooden block, which 
is buried in the ground. 

The hammer is raised by wooden cams fixed in the 
periphery of an iron ring mounted as a drum upon an axle. 
This axle is also the axle of a small overshot wheel, 
that when the wheel is set in motion the drum revoh 
and the cams engaging the hammer raise it to the height 
of ten or twelve inches and allow it to fall upon the anvil. 
The force of the blow is augmented by a spring beam 
acting downward upon the hammer as it is released. A 
similar arrangement of earns s L -t in a drum and operated 
by a separate water-wheel works the ore crusher. This 
consists of an iron shod beam of about a hundred pounds 
weight, standing on end in a strong wooden trough, and 
having a vertical movement, in guys, of about one foot. 
The trough has an iron grating in the bottom through 
which the crushed ore (which has been first roasted) falls, 
and whence it is raked out. The accompanying figures 
give dimensions and show mode of operation. 

Soft ore is washed in an inclined trough by stirring in 
gently flowing water. 

About 100 bushels of charcoal is required to run 250 
pounds of ore. Each tire will make three loops a day, 
each loop yielding from 75 to So pounds merchantable bar 
iron. The iron is wagoned over the surrounding countrv 


over a radius of i" of 15 miles, and is tnu< med for 

its good working qualities. The whole- thing is rude in 
construction and arrangement and is entii I to 

the weather. The water supply is abundant and no 
attempt is made to economize in that particular. Suitable 
ore is found as friable magnetite in the near neighborly 
but the forge fa worked only as the demand ma) 



In the essay on the "Duration of Lift" WeismatM 
remarks that while the length of life of many molltUM 
species is well known, "any exact knowledge is still want- 
ing concerning such a necessary point as the degree of their 
fertility.*'* Binney remarks of the family Limiueidae, to 
which our snail belongs: "Prom the fact of my finding 
young individuals only in the spring and numerous dead 
full-grown shells during the late autumn and winter, I pre- 
sume they arrive at maturity in one season.""r Of Physa 
heterostropha in particular he says that it deposits eggs the 
beginning of May. 

In view of these statements I have thought it perhaps 
worth while to record in this place some observations made 
by me in the year 1886. 

On the 8th of March I collected from a marsh near 
Wake Forest two specimens of Physa heterostropha Say.t 

*Heredity. p. 14. 

tLand and Fresh-water Shells of N. Amer.. p. 23, Vol. VII. Smiths. Misc. Coll. 

^Kindly determined for me later by Dr. Stearnes, of the National Museum at Wash- 


On the 1 6th three thick nidamenta of some forty i 
each were seen loosely attached to the walls of the glass 
aquarium. A few days later four others had been de; 
ited. Up to June 15th the aquarium was examined at 
intervals nearly every day. After that date it was not seen 
again until July I2th, when the water was changed The 
next day both the snails were dead, probably as the result 
of the change of water. 

In the period of four months — say March 12th to July 
1 2th — the pair produced 43 nidamenta, which contained, 
on an estimate certainly not too high, an av< f 30 

eggs each. So that the number of their offspring for the 
period mentioned amounted to 1,290. There was no well- 
marked decline of the reproductive function toward the 
close of the period, which is perhaps another indication 
that they came to their death by violence. 

Prom March 31st to June 6th inclusive, the pair were 

observed in coitu as many as 15 times, at hours ranging 

from 8:30 a. u. to 6:15 P. if., the coitus lasting sometimes 

,1)111 20 minutes, sometimes more than an hour. The male 

function was performed alternately by the two snails. The 

rs appear to have been laid only during the night.* 

It was important to determine, if possible, tin 
which sexual maturity is attained and reproduction begins. 
Accordingly, on the (2th of July I took out of the aqua- 
rium two of the largest of the young snails and put them 

It may be mentioned, however, in vu m of the similarity of the ha! I and 

of I.immeus, that I once observed a specimen of the latter depositing a nidameiitum 
Dii the glass wall of the aquarium -. was alwut half done when 

it caught my eye, and I judge that two minnti - imed in completing it. The 

1 ml the protecting jelly emerged at the tame time from under the right side of 
the shell aperture and at right ang irgin, the snail moving slow'. . 

in the opposite direction, When the uidamentum was completed, the snail turned 
■lowly round on the glass, made two or three rather aimless grazing movements of the 
mouth, and then crawled slowly over the uidamentum in the direction of its longer 

completely covering it with the foot. That position was maintained but a mo- 
ment or two; nevertheless the snail remained near by. When I lightly touched the 
nidameiitum and the snail at the same time, the latur shrank a little, but immediately 

During the fifteen minutes that I watched 
further, the snail remained close to the nest with the view of protecting it? I thought 
I detected that the jelly of this one freshly m. t than that of an 

older one near bv. 


into another aquarium. They were presumably memb 
of the first brood, the eggs of which were deposited i. 
March [3th. Their a; oning from the time tl 

were hatched, was about ,}'.• months; size — length of shell, 
5 nun.; length of foot, 6 mm. In two days one of the 
snails was dead. < >n the 25th of July another snail 
about the same size was introduced from the- first aquarium. 
The next entry in my notes is under daft 
11th, when six nidamenta wen . <-d attached to the 

fibrous roots <>f a water plant They were, however, small, 
containing only from one to four t h, showing 

that the reproductive fuction at that age was feeble. Some 
of the eggs were already hatched, and the tiny grandchil- 
dren of my first P-hysas wen- going about the aquarium in 
search of food. Allowing, say, fifteen days for the intra- 
capsular development of these snails of the third gem 
tion, I estimate that the isolated pair of the second gen< 
tion attained sexual maturity at five month The 

same day — September 1 ith — in the first aquarium I not: 
a confirmation of my observation in the second, nam- 
the pairing of two of the oldest brood. 

The maintenance of a species depends on the equilibrium 
between the forces tending to its destruction and tl; 
tending to its preservation. We may embrace the former 
under the general phrase, adverse external conditions. 
There are two different ways in which the destructive 
tendency of these adverse external conditions is opposed. 
The first is by adaptations of structure and habit. The 
second is by the production of new individuals to take the 
place of those that have been overcome. Xow, as differ- 
ent animals exhibit varying degrees of ability to adjust 
themselves to their environment, so also their reproductive 
power may be small or great. In estimating this repro- 
ductive power four factors, as Herbert Spencer points out,* 

*Biology, Vol. II. p. 395. 


are to be taken account of, namely, (1) the age at which 
reproduction commences, (2) the frequency with which 
broods are produced, (3) the number contained in each 
brood, and (4) the length of time during which the bring- 
ing forth of broods continues. 

Accordingly, for the special case of Physa heterostropha 
we have the following results: 

1. Age at which reproduction begins, 5 months. 

2. Frequency of broods, 1 in about 2^, days. 

3. Number in each brood, 30 average, 

4. Reproductive period, 4 months, March to July. 
Some addition ought to be made to this actually observed 

period, inasmuch as the snails had certainly already entered 
upon it at the time of their capture, and, further, instead 
of closing normally, it seems to have been violently inter- 
rupted. Just how much the period of reproduction is to 
be extended I have no means <>: determining, unless the 
feet that the young snails of the first brood were obsen 
reproducing themselves in September warrants an exten- 
sion of at least two months, making it six months instead 
of four.* 

Assuming, then, that the reproductive season extends 
from March to September, and assuming, further, some- 
what arbitrarily, that the snail lives but two years, we have, 
On the basis of facts above mentioned, the following esti- 
mate of the total number of the offspring of a single pair: 

At close of first season 1.900 

950 pairs at dOM of second MMOB I,8o5,000 

Original pair at close of second season 1,900 

Total number offspring in two years 1,808,800 

'Packard (Zoology, p that the "eggs of P. heterostropha are laid in the 

early spring, and three or four weeks later from fifty to sixty embryos with well-formed 
shells may l>e found ill the capsule " The apparent inference that only a single brood 
is produced must of course be dutnil 

\v\kk Forest College, x. C. 



BY I' I' Yi;.\ AIW.K 

Zirconium ocean principally in the forai of silicate in 
the hard, heavy mineral known as zircon. 

That this mineral was known in very early tin* 
highly probable from the number of localities where it n 
be found and its striking physical properties. Vet it is dif- 
ficult to assert positively that Theophi to it 
under the name lynourium, or Pliny under the various terms 
chrysolithos, melichrysos and crateritis. The evidence for 

the first is based niainh' on the fact that it is spoken oi 
a material from which to CUt cameos. Theophrastl 
the lvncnrinm was used for engraved sij^ii' trie 

On friction and was often amber-colored. 

Whether the ancients distinguished the zircon from other 
minerals and knew it tinder any of the above names or not 
it is certain that intagh' of zircon are not at all uncommon 
among ancient gems. 

Agricola and [nterpe speak of the jacinth. The first 
mention of the Ceylonese name Jargon seems to be by 
Cronstedt in 1758. DeLisle in 1783 writes of the *'Dia- 
inant Brnt on Jargon de Ceylon." This name Jargon was 
long used for-the colorless and yellowish and smoky zircons 
of Ceylon in allusion to the fact that while resembling the 
diamond in lustre they were comparatively worth'.' 
From this comes the'name zircon. The colorless or only 
slightly smoky kinds seem to have often been sold for 
inferior diamonds. 

Brownish, orange and reddish kinds were called distinct- 
ively hyacinths (topazes and garnets were sometimes called 
the same). 


Tliese zircons occur in crystalline rocks, especially in 
granular limestone, in chloritic and other schists, in giu 
syenite, and also in granite and sometimes in iron ore 
beds. Zircon syenite is a coarse syenitic rock containing 
crystals of zircon along with oligoclase, aegirine, claeolite 
and epidote. 

Crystals of zircon cue common in most auriferous sands 
and sometimes are found in volcanic rocks. 

In Ceylon they are mainly found in the alluvial sands. 
In the I'ral .Mountains mainly in the gold regions. In 
Norway sometimes in syenite, sometimes in the iron min 
Zircons are also found in Transylvania, in Bohemia, in 
Saxony and in the Tyrol. 

The occurrence at Bxpailly, near Le Puy, in Prance i> 
well known and of especial interest. Fourcrov says "the 
hyacinth from Kxpailly was formerly placed in collections 
of the Materia Mediea t<» he used ill some pharmaceutic 

In Auvergne it is found in volcanic tufa. On Vesnvius 
it occurs with rvacolite in white and blue octahedrons. In 
Scotland it is found at Sealpay and in Ar^yleshire. In 
Ireland with the auriferous sands. In Greenland, in New 
Granada, and in the gold regions tralia, it also occurs. 

Coming now to North America we have a long lit 
localities. In Maine, at Litchfield. Paris, Mt. Mica, Green- 
wood, Hebron. In Vermont, at Middlebury. In Connecti- 
cut, at Norwich ami Haddam. In New York, in Essex, 
Orange, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Warren and other conn: 
In New Jersey, at Franklin and Trenton. In Pennsylvania, 
near Reading, in magnetic iron ore; at Kaston, in tab 
slate. In California, in auriferous gravel in various locali- 
ties, and in Canada, at several places. Very large crystals 
weighing as much as fifteen pounds have been found in 
Renfrew and adjoining counties, but they are so isolated 
that it would be impo>sible to obtain a large supply there. 


( Opaque green zircons have been found an inch long by one- 
half inch acrou in St. Lawrence county, N. V., and I 
black oiks of equal size neai Franklin, N. J. < >m- of the 
\i w York ipecimem was over four inchei in length and is 
now in the United States National Museum. An inten 
ing form of zircon is found mar the Pik< k road, 

almost elm- west from tin- Cheyenne Mountains, following 
a vein-like mass of white quartz in granite. The crystal* 
are generally deep reddish brown, pink, or pale honey-yel- 
low; and a few crystals of deep emerald green a: led. 
The largest observed were about one-third inch, but gi 

crallv they arc not more than one-tenth to one-sixth inch 
in length and would only cut into minute ^eins. They 

are, however, perhaps the most beautiful cr I zircon 

known, owing t<> transparency, brilliancy and perfection. 

The finest gem stones come from Ceylon, sludger, and 
New South Wales (Run/.). 

The chief States for yielding zircons are South and North 
Carolina. At Anderson, S. C, the zircon is found 1<< 
in the soil and in large quantities. The containing roek 
is granulite, or gneiss devoid of mica, and according to 
Lieber this zircon-granulite corresponds to the zircon-syen- 
ite of Norway. 

In North Carolina the zircon is abundant in the gold 
sands of Burke, McDowell, Polk, Rutherford, Caldwell, 
Mecklenburg, Nash, Warren and other counties in very 
minute yellowish brown and brownish white, sometimes 
amethystine, pink and blue crystals. It is mainly found, 
however, in large greyish brown crystals on the south side 
of the Blue Ridge near Green River, in Henderson county. 
Here, in a few weeks in 1869, General Clingman collected 
one thousand pounds of crystals. The presence of zircons 
there was known many years prior to this. The occurrence 
is mainly on what was known as the Freeman and Jones 
farms, about two miles distant from one another. The 


deposit runs north-east and south-west, and formany miles 
zircons can be found, but only at the Freeman and Jones 
mines in sufficient quantities to work. These are situated 
on a high ridge. The zircons seem as plentiful on the sur- 
face as lower down. The mines have been worked to 
about the depth of fifteen feet. Before i860 the zircons 
were collected from the surface and sold to collectors for 
about ten dollars a quart. From sixty-five to seventy 
thousand pounds have since been raised and sold at prices 
varying from fifteen cents to one dollar per pound. The 

principal consumers of zircons assure me that there is at 
present no demand for them, they themselves having 
number of tons in stock, all they will need for some y< 
They are worth about SJ50 a ton in large lots. 

At the Green River mines the dirt is placed in rockers 

and washed, the zircons and grains of magnetic ore sorting 

out easily. The latter i> separated by means of large mag- 
nets. The zircons are from the smallest sand to a quarter 
of a pound in weight They are somewhat smaller than 
the zircons from Anderson, S. C, and easily distinguished 
from the latter by their form. 

When zirconium began to be used a few years ago in 
incandescent lamps, it was thought to be a comparatively 
rare mineral. The new application and consequent demand 
caused a search to be instituted which has shown that in 
reality it is widely distributed and in places very abundant. 

It is to be found in many cases along with titanium, which 
was to be expected from the chemical relationship existing 
between the two. Sandberger has observed transparent 
crystals of zircon in granite of many places; also in j^n 
and mica, in drorite'and porphyry. Microscopic crystals 
are widely distributed in the sedimentary rocks, the mate- 
rial of which has been mainly derived from the older rocks; 
for example, in the variegated sandstones of the Black For- 
est, in carboniferous limestones and in the sands of the 
valley of the Maine. 


Thurach has shown tlut micr 
absent from the archaean and sediment 

incurs iii very man) eruptive rocks, and it is widely dis- 
tributed in basalts and <! 

ie reports m here it is found in I 

anion- them tin- auriferous sand of Ticino, vol- nd, 

and the shore sands of the Tyrrheni 

The world's main supply, bo if the demand 

increases, must coine from the enormous quantities in the 
Ural Mountains and in Norway, and from tli 
easily workable deposits of Green River, X. C, and An 
son, S. C. Hitherto il id to have b 

mined in more than one Ipcalil n River, X. I 

As to other minerals besides tin- zircon containing zir- 
conium, we have a few, but they are rare and apparently 
exist in small quantities. 

First there arc the- altered zircons: Atari- 
com-, Cyrtolite, Tachyaphattite, Oerstedite and Bragite. 

It is also found in Eudialite, Polymignite, Aeschinite 
and Fergusonite. 



At a time when the mineral resources of the Southern 
States are attracting such wide-spreatl interest and atten- 
tion, I have thought it appropriate to give a short general 
description of the iron-ore deposits of a territory concern- 

Tublished in Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engine* 


ing which little is as yet known and nothing published, BO 
far as I am aware. 

The data used here are due to the preliminary examina- 
tions of the North Carolina Geological Survey, on which 
work I was engaged during the past summer, and my 
acknowledgments are due to Professor J. A. Holmes, State 
Geologist, and Messrs. Harris, Ashe and Lewis, of the sur- 
vey, for their co-operation in the work; also to Messrs. A. 
S. McCreath and C. B. White for analyses which they 
kindly furnished. Other analyses were made by Mr. 
Charles Baskerville, assistant chemist to the survey, and 
this may be understood where the name of the chemist is 
not mentioned. 

All samples for analysis were dried at 21a P. 

The accompanying map has been prepared from the 
revised sheets of the United Stab !cal Survey by 

Mr. 11. L. Harris, and will he referred to throughout this 

Ashe county lies in the extreme north-western p 
North Carolina, bordering on Tennessee and Virginia; it is 
drained principally by the north and south forks of Xew 
river and their tributaries, and is therefore on the eastern 
edge of the great Mississippi drainage-basin. The country 
is exceedingly rugged and mountainous, having an avei 
elevation of about 2,900 feet above sea-level. 

Jefferson, the county-seat, near the center of the county, 
is forty-five miles nearly due south from the Norfolk & 
Western Railroad at Marion, \'a., and thirty miles north- 
west from the Richmond & Danville Railroad at Will. 
boro, X. C. 

Geologically the ore-deposits described in this paper are 
situated in the area of the crystalline rocks, consisting 
chiefly of gneiss, hornblende-schist, and micaceous schis 

These iron-ore deposits, owing to their present inacc 
bility, are practically entirely undeveloped. During the 


summer of [890 considerable private- prospecting 1 
ried on throughout the county, and much of our ku< 
concerning the ore-beds is due to this. Many of the oj 
ings, however, have caved in to such an extent that but 

little can be seen at present. More than fift; 
there were a number of Catalan forges throughout the 
county, which smelted these ores into a verj superior tough 
iron. One of these now known as Paisley's forge, at the 

month of Hilton creek, instill in operation, and made in 
[890 from twenty t<> thirty tons of bar-iron, used locally 
for wagon-tires, horse-shoes, etc At present there are no 
mining operations whatever going 1 j >t i 11^ in a \ 

small superficial way to supply the Helton forge. 

The territory to be described in this paper, as including 
the principal ore-deposits of Ashe county, embi bout 

150 square miles. The ores arc- principally magnet:- 
chemically suitable for the- manufacture of Bessemer pig- 
iron. Some brown hematites and red specular ores arc- 
also found; but, although of excellent quality, their quan- 
tity will hardly place them in the category of economic 
raw materials. 

The structure of the magnetic beds is decidedly lenticu- 
lar, and as such they are distributed over a rather undefina- 
ble area, though there is some regularity in the direction 
of their outcrops, which have a general trend north-east 
and south-west. 

In the following I shall divide them into three main 
belts, called according to the local nomenclature: The Bal- 
lou or River belt, the Red Hill or Poison Branch belt, and 
the Titaniferous belt. 

Starting along the north-eastern extremities of these 
belts I shall describe the openings along the outcrops in 
regular order towards the south-west. By reference to the 
accompanying map their locations and relation to each 
other can be more easily comprehended than from mere 




Of Ashe County, .V. C. 

Scab of Ullrt- 

S < 

Name* of owaan or oocujwdU In i uVi . 



This, the most easterly of the three ore-belts, crops out 
along the north fork of New river, and has been opened 
at several points on the farm of William H. Brown. 

Opening No. i on the west bank of the river at the falls, 
about one mile north of Grumpier P. (). , is a targe cut, 
exposing probably 30 feet of ore-material, composed of 
hornblende, gneiss, and epidote, which is split up at three 
points by lenticular masses of magnetic '.' m the con- 
dition of the exposure it was not possible to determine the 
true thickness of the ore. 

An analysis of an avera pie from here sho 

I't-r Cent 

llic iron 53-99 


Phosphorus 0.063 

The ore crosses the river north-easterly from here to the 
property of John C. Hummer, but no Openings have been 

Opening No, 2 is located about half a mile west of the 

river, near Mr. Brown's house. 

This cut was also partialh caved in and filled with 
water, so that a clear inspection was not practicable. The 
exposed material shows : 

1. About 4 feet of soft decomposed schistose gangue, 
carrying finely disseminated grains of magnetite; ar> 


2. About 5 feet of decomposed mica-schist and quartz ; 
and above these, towards the face of the cut, 

3. About 12 feet of mixed material containing strips of 
harder, richer ore, 2 feet and more in thickiu 

Of the soft ore it has been found by washing that fully 
50 percent, is magnetite, an analysis of which by Mr. A. 
S. McCreath shows: 7 



Metallic ir<ni 

The unwashed matt-rial shows | it. of metal- 

lic- in hi. 

Ad analysis by Mi. Baskerville of an average sample 
across the entire bed shows: 

Metallic iron 


Phoaphoroa ti 

South-westerly the ore the rivet about one mile 

from here, and makes its appearance in a very prominent 
outcrop over the property of X. B. Ballon, known as the 

" Home- Place," On the east side- of the river, between the 

mouths of Helton and ( >ld Field creeks. It i< the 

river, which makes a large bend at this point, about half a 
mile from here, near Uriah Ballon's house, and near this 
second point of crossing some work was done a number of 
years ago for one of the old forges, showing the approxi- 
mate thickness of the bed to be 12 feet. The dip is about 
37 S. E., and the strike X. 45' K. 

The ore is a hard, compact, fine-grained magnetite dis- 
seminated in a gangue of hornblende, epidote, and quartz. 
Higher up on the hill some small, superficial openings 
expose several smaller ledges of richer ore, comparatively 
free from gangue. But it is believed that the following 
analyses will represent the quality of the ore as it must be 


1. 11. in. 

Silica 20.79 17.88 

Metallic iron 45-5Q 4906 50.68 

Sulphur .- 0.002 trace. 

Phosphorus 0.024 0.018 trace. 

Analysis I. is by McCreath. 

II. is from U. S. 10th Census Report. 
III. is by Baskerville. 


Towards the south-west the ore crosses and recrosses the 

north fork and becomes thinner-bedded. It crops out 
about one mile from Ballou's on the farm of Dr. Gentry in 
a 'high bluff along the east bank of the river, showing a 
maximum thickness of 2 feet, and apparently pinching out 

to considerably less than that. An analysis of an aw: . 
sample taken here show 


Metallic iron 

Sulphur "063 


There is a second line of outcrop, about half a mile south- 
east of the above main OUtcrop, which lias been tra* 
from Brown's on the north fork, about half a mile at» 
the river opening at the falls, in a south-westerly dii 
crossing the river at Shubal Lunceford's, almost one mile 
due north from Crnmpler I\ ()., and continuing through 
Ballou's and Gentry's lands. This has been opened on 
Lunceford's place, about a quarter of a mile north of the 
river, exposing a bed of soft, granular ore, disseminated 
in mica-schist, which measures 13 feet in thickness, and 
dips 53 S. E. An analysi imple taken across the 

bed shows: 

lVr Cent 
Metallic iron .; . 


This belt extends from the north-eastern corner of the 
county in a general south-westerly direction, its several 
lines of outcrop crossing over Grassy creek, Helton knob, 
Red Hill, Helton creek, McClure's knob, Old Field, Si 
Piney and Horse creeks, a distance of some ten mile-, 
far as traced. It lies from two to three miles north-west of 
the river belt, and approximately parallel to it. 


It has been opened at numerous points along its out* 
beginning at its north-eastern end on the laud of Lee Pugh 
on Ben's branch, about \ mile north of Men river, wh 

a bed at least several feet in width is i not 

fully uncovered. The ore is a friable magnetil his- 

tose structure. The dip is from 35 to \o s. K 
An analysis of an latnple shov. 


Metallic iron | 



About 400 yards S. 40 W. from lure the bed has 
exposed 011 the land of John I.. Ptlgh, on the summit of a 
high ridge, by a CUl I lonj^, the south-eastern end of 

which tra\' soft mixed ore and gangl 

reported to be 40 feet thick, while the north-western end 
cuts through about 30 feel of similar material, though 
harder. Between the two is a decomposed feldspathic m 
probably a local horse. 

The cut was partially caved in, so that exact m 
urements could not be taken. The ore is a coarse-granu- 
lar, friable, manganiferous magnetite, and the ganguc 
hornblende, epidote, quartz, and feldspar. Several analy- 
ses show the ore to contain: 

1. 11. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Silica 21. II 

Metallic iron - 43.17 44'3 

Metallic manganese 4.62 1.42 

Sulphur .. .-. (1048 0.126 

Phosphorus - 0.006 0.006 

I. by Baskerville. 
II. by C. B. White. 

The bed is again opened on the properties of W. W. 
Smith and Noah Dancy, lying successively to the south-west 
of Pugh's, but the exposures are incomplete and offer no 


definite data. Several analyses by Mr. C. B. White show 
the quality of these ores to be: 

Iron. Phosphi • 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

"Smith" ore 55.76 0.040 

" Dancy " ore (surface sample 63.49 0.176 

The next notable exposure occurs on the Black prop- 
erty, on the north-eastern slope of Helton knob, on the 
waters of Grassy creek, where several old lk forge" banks 
are located, whence the Paisley forge still draws its limited 
supply. The old Openings are now completely fallen in, 
and nothing can be seen excepting the fact that there seem 
to be two beds about I apart, the upper one of which 

is reported to be 2 feet thick. The oft and decom- 

posed, in a friable, schistose gangue; and it is on account 
of this softness that it was particularly prized by the 

Higher up on the same hill similar float-ore is repeat- 
edly met with, scattered over the surface, and it seem 

cover a large area. 

About ' 4 mile slightly south of west from these old 
irge/' -Openings is a very prominent outcrop of horn- 
blendic gneiss, at least 40 feet high, containing lenticular 
masses of hard, compact magnetite, showing a thicks 
ni 3 feet at one point; and about 200 yards S. 6o c \Y. 
from here, on another ridge, some heavy and exceptionally 
pure masses of float-ore were observed, indicating the exist- 
ence of another parallel series of ore-beds. Unfortunately 
none of the analyses <4 these ores were completed in time 
for this paper. 

The '"soft" ore, as used in the Paisley forge, is first 
washed in an inclined wooden trough by a gently-flowing 
stream of water; and an analysis by myself of this washed 
product shows: 


Sill' I [f.0 

Mi ! i II it irmi 


In explanation <>i the formation * 
"soft" <ni-, such as occur on thi Red Hill, and 

other properties t<> be described hereafter, it n 

here that all indications go to show that they arc nndoubt- 

edly due- to tlu- breaking down of tin- original outer 

of magnetite and magnetic rocks, subsequent to tin 

of tht- more readily decomposable surrounding strata, and 

their consequent spreading ov< superficial . 

comparatively limited depths. At the same time th 

replacement may have been SO regulated by nature that they 

still exist in workable de] and the original b 

might be expected either directly beneath or in 

imit\ to them; but this can only Ik- definitely settled by 

further exploitation. 

A- shown in several places much of this "soft" on 
be concentrated to a comparatively high-grade material by 
simple washing alone, and there is no reason why, by 
means of magnetic concentration, a highly desirab' 
net should not be obtained. Even the hard ores, high in 
silica, are susceptible of concentration, after previi 
crushing- by this process ; and at the well-known Cran- 
berry mines in Mitchell county experiments are being very 
successfully carried on in this direction. 

By means of the dipping-needle the ore was traced 
across the summit of Helton knob, which rises to an alti- 
tude of 3,410 feet above sea-level. On the south-western 
slope of Helton knob several small openings on the prop- 
erty of Joseph Jones expose the ore-bed, but not sufficiently 
to furnish much definite information. On the western 
foot-hills of Helton knob, on Robert's branch, a tributary 
of , Helton creek, an opening on David Blevins' land 


exposes an ore-bed, showing three streaks of ore, respectively 
lYi, \Vi<, and 2 feet in thickness, separated by a gneissoid 
material, probably a local horse. The dip is 40 S. E. 
The ore isa compact magnetite in a gangne of hornblende 
and epidote. 

An analysis of an average sample show 

Per I 
Silica . 29.901 

Metallic iron 36.350 


Between here and Helton creek, a distance of about one- 
quarter of a mile across, is the Red Hill property, over 
which a number of openings have uncovered a rather in- 
tricate and distributed ore-formation. 

The main opening, No, 1. is a trench through the comb 
of the hill, over 300 feet in length, through a decomposed 
schistose and argillaceous material, carrying almost through- 
out its entire extent mixed masses of soft ore, hard ■ 

and crystalline sandy ore, distributed irregularly through 

the gangue; it is evidently one of the broken-down re- 
deposits, before alluded to. 

At the eastern end of the cut some pyrites was mixed 

with the material. An analysis of an average sample 

Per Cent 

Metallic iron 51-55 

Sulphur 0.137 

Phosphorus 0.042 

Opening No, a, about 30 yards W. S. W. from theal 
exposes a solid bed of magnetite in epidote and quart/., 
over five feet thick, dipping south-east. No pyrites 

observed here. An analysis shows: 

Per Cent. 
Silica .. 31.26 

Metallic iron 36.21 

Sulphur .. 0.07 

Phosphorus trace. 


Opening No. 3, on the north-wesl tide of the hill, shows 
a broken bed of ore in a gangue of hornblende and epid 
with concentrations of pyrites a( ' p<>i nts. The 

entire thickness of the bed must An 

analysis shows: 


.Metallic iron ;'» Ji 



On the immediate northern hank of Helton 
small opening exposes a broken bed of compact magnetite, 
irregularly distributed through a gangua of hornblende 
and gneiss, split by a lens of pyritiferous ore about ,5 

thick. An analysis Of a sample taken across the 

Pi r ( 

Silica ;'i3 

Metallic iron 23.39 
, Sulphur 1 

Phosphorus a 109 

The conclusion is that there are streaks of pyritiferous 
ore throughout this part of the bed, which increase iu 
sulphur with depth. 

On the south side of Helton creek the on over 

McClure's knob, where a number of openings expose a 
series of three parallel beds, none of which show over 3 
feet in thickness so far as developed. A number of analy- 
ses of samples taken from some of these openings show: 










Metallic iron . 

— 44-87 



45- 87 


.. 0.036 





— 0.053 




To the south-west the ore crosses Old Field creek, and 
has been opened again at the Poison branch bank, on the 


divide between the waters of Old Field and Silas creeks, 
where considerable work was at one time done for the old 

The main opening exposes a bed of magnetite consisting 
of two parts, the upper one being visible only in the upper 
end of the cut just below the surface-soil, where it nieasu 
about J} 1 ., inches in thickness of friable crystalline magne- 
tite, comparatively clean, below which is a bed of argil- 
laceous schist and clay, of a deep vermilion color, con- 
taining fine shot ore disseminated through it, probably 
firming a more decomposable part of the same bed. Un- 
fortunately the cut had not been extended far enough in 
this direction to determine its true thickness. The lower 
bed is seen some 30 feet below hen.-, at the bottom of the 
cut, near its mouth. It is partially filled in here, but I 
have from good authority that its thickness t, about 

3 feet of which was visible at the time of my visit. It : 
hard ore, and the gangue is entirely hornblendic, while in 
the upper bed it i> micaei The dip is about 50 

E., and the strike X. 40 H. Several analyses of the lower 

bed show: 


Metallic iron 
Titanic acid 











I. by McCreath. 
II. by C. B. White. 

111. from l'. S. loth Census Report. 

Not over 100 feet south-west from here another old 
Opening exposes the same bed 25 feet lower. 

In a south-westerly direction the ore has been traced to 
Silas Creek, but no openings of importance have been 

Some 2 miles S. \Y. from Poison branch bank a bed 



of soft schistose ore has been opened on the land of John 
Parsons, on Little Grapevine creek. The opening i 

Very narrow and shallow one. It shows not less than 3 

feel of on-, but the bed is not fully expo 

Less than half a mile north-west from here, on Douglas 
Blevin's land, an opening on the top of a high ri< 
exposes another ore-bed at least 8 feet thick. Tin 
extremely hard, in a gangne of bornblendi The 

dip is 1.5 S. K. 

About half a mile south-west from here, on Pin 
i '.. miles above its month, at Ballou's mill, a large bee 1 
manganiferous magnetite has been uncovered. Th< 
very coarse-granular in a matrix of brownish-black manga- 
nese oxide. It is exceptionally pure and practically free 
from gangne throughout its entire extent. The upper part 
of the bed shows 6 ' _• feet of solid hard ore, beneath which is 
about i foot of soft manganiferous ore. The bed is proba- 
bly even thicker than this, as its full extent has not been 
uncovered. Several analyses show it to contain: 


Silica 3.20 

Metallic iron 65.40 

Metallic manganese 2.58 


Phosphorus o.on 

I. by C. B. White. 

II. " Hard" ore by McCreath. 

III. " Soft" ore by McCreath. 

IV. "Hard" ore by C. Baskerville. 

Crossing Piney creek, the same bed has been uncovered 
about half a mile S. W. from here, on the land of Rob- 
ert Francis, wdiere a slope, 20 feet deep, exposes 10 feet 
of soft manganiferous ore on the outcrop, pinching out to 
considerably less than this at the face of the slope. 
Throughout this soft material are scattered grains of 
hard magnetite. There is evidentlv a roll or fold in the 

















bed at this point, the dip being abnormally 20 c north of 
east, and the strike X. 34 \V. The foot-wall is a decom- 
posed feldspathie material. The ore carries an excessive 

amount of hydroscopic moisture. Analyses of the natural 
and dried ore, by .Mr. A. S. McCreath, show: 

Natural Ore 





Metallic iron 


47 ■ 

Metallic manganese 



0. 1 

Moisture at 21 2 J 1\ 


About half a mile doe west from here, a bed of very hard, 
compact, crystalline magnetite has been opened at two 
points, differing 100 feet in elevation, on Jacob Si 
land near the summit of Turkey knob. The gaUgU< 
hornblende and quarts. The openings were filled in, but 
the ore was reported to be 5 feet thick. 

An analysis by Mr. White shows: 

I'cr * 
Metallic iron 63 

Phosphorus 0.006 

Titanic aeiil trace. 

The ore has been traced half a mile north-east from here 
to the William Hainin place. 

About three-quarters of a mile sonth-west from the 
Francis opening, on the wat Hd Field creek, a tribu- 

tary of Horse creek, a number of openings on the south- 
western spur of Turkey knob, on the land of Joseph Gray- 
beal, have exposed a bed of magnetic ore, which . 
worked a number of years ago for some of the old fore 
One of these old openings shows a great deal of soft, mixed 
shot-ore disseminated in decomposed schist, with a streak 
of manganiferous earth in the front part of the opening. 
The main opening is a cut about 50 feet long, exposing 
two beds of ore, respectively 4 and 18 feet thick, separated 
by a horse of clay. The 4 feet of ore in the front part of 


the cut showed Bonn solid magnetite. The 

ore in the upper part of the cut was mixed with horn- 
blende gangne. Between these two openings some man- 
ganiferous float-ore was observed, resembling verj mnch 
that at the Piney creek and Francis opening 
Several analyses of the Graybeal ore show: 

i ii in 


lie Iron 53*55 

Sulphur Ii.. 

Phoapbonti t r.i 

I. by Baskenrtile. 
II. by White 

in. iioni c. s. loth Centra k«|><>rt. 

On Horse creek, about one mile above its month, a bed 

of magnetite, precisely similar to that at Piney creek, 
been opened. It is a i rannlar magnetil rui- 

nated in a manganiferons matrix, which decomposes on 

long exposure into a soft, rich shot-ore. The opening 
in the shape of an under-cut in the side of a hill, into which 
it extends perhaps 20 feet as a slope, the lower part of 
which was filled with water, preventing a close examina- 
tion. As far as exposed, the thickness of the ore is at 1< 
6 feet, the lower 2 feet being the harder. Analyses show: 

1. 11. 

Silica 4.12 1.96 

Metallic iron 64.58 62.48 

Metallic manganese 2.21 3.66 

Phosphorus 0.011 0.019 

I. by White. 
II. by Baskerville. 

Over one mile south-west from here the ore-body rises 
over 500 feet above the level of Horse creek, on Hampton 
knob, over which it has been traced for considerable 
distance by the dipping-needle. But none of the openings 
give any idea of the size of the bed. Several analyses from 
the local it v show: 



Metallic iron 



I. by Haskerville. 
II. by White. 




61.. SS 




Starting at the northern edge of the county, on the 
Virginia line, on the waters of Little Helton creek, this, 
the most north-westerly ore-belt of importance in Ashe 
county, has been traced in a south-westerly direction, 
crossing Helton creek near Sturgill P. <>., a distance of 
some 2 1 .- miles. It lies, approximately, 3 miles north- 
west of the Red Hill belt, and parallel to it. 

On the property <»i William Young, 150 yards wi 
the Jefferson-Marion road, and about > 4 line south of 
Virginia State-line, a very heavy outcrop of magnetite 

extends east and west along the crest of a ridge, with a 
width of at least 25 feet. There are no openings here, but 
all indications point to the existence of a large deposit 
The ore is a coarse-granular, compact magnetite, practically 
free from gangue. It is titaniferons, and has a bright 
silver> luster. An analysis by McCreath shows it to 

l J er Cent. 

Silica ; 

Metallic iron 52. S5 


Titanic acid s.Soo 

This outcrop is traced for over 150 yards in a westerly 
direction across Shippy branch, where it is opened on the 
McCarter place, showing a bed from 9 to 12 feet thick, 
dipping almost vertically. The local magnetic variation 
was 1 1 ° W. 

An analysis by McCreath shows: 



.Metallic iron 51 


Titanic acid 9 17 

The- bed is again uncovered, about 350 vanK west from 

here, in front of Mr. McCarter'a house, by ;i shallow cut 
showing about three- feet of ore; hut the bed is not fully 

About half a mile farther south-west, an opening on the 
Bauguess place shows 5 feet of ore, having a reddish 
an analysis of which by myself shovi ; per cent 
titanic arid. 

The next notable opening, about one mile south 
from here, on Wallen's creek, a tributary of Helton en 
on the Pennington place, exposes a bed 8 feet thick, an 
analysis of which by McCreath show 


.Metallic iron 52.45 

Pbosphonia 0022 

Titanic acid 9 1 1 

About half a mile north of v Sturgill I'. <>.. on the waters 
of Helton creek, on the Kirby place, a broken bed of hard, 
fine-gained magnetite of steel-gray color has been uncov- 
ered. Its extent could not be determined from the condi- 
tion of the opening, but its thickness appears to be not 
less that 15 feet. 

I am indebted to Mr. A. S. McCreath for the informa- 
tion that these titaniferous ores carry a small amount of 
chromium, and an average analysis of a number of samples 
shows 0.480 per cent, of chromium. 

This concludes a description of the location and some of 
the economic features of the principal ore-deposits of Ashe 
county; and it is hoped that this region may become an 
important source of ore-supply in the near future. 


In general, the quality of these ores is good; low in 

sulphur, and below the Bessemer limit in phosphorus. 

The mined material will, in many cases, be high in 
silica, but there is no reason why, by means of magnetic 
concentration, a high grade product should not be obtained. 

The titaniferous belt is by far the most persistent, and 
shows a large quantity of ore, but the percentage of titanic 
acid condemns this material for blast-furnace use, at least 
in competion with iron-ores less difficult to smelt to pi<;- 

There is little doubt that there are valuable, workable 
beds of ore throughout the other two belts, such as at 
Ballou's, Piney creek, Gray Deal's, Horse creek, etc., but it 

will require much more extensive exploitation to define 

their true extent. 

Other beds of ore have been uncovered throughout the 
county, but they are rather out of the range of what is con- 
sidered to be the principal ore-region. 

Such aie, for instance, a bed of magnetite 9 feet thick, 
on the Ben Greet place, 011 the waters of Little Horse creek; 
and a belt of brown hematite along the north-western 
slopes of Phoenix and Three Top mountains, which is sup- 
posed to be a secondary formation, and of little importance 
as compared with the magnetic ores. 

Nearly all of these ore-deposits, being situated on tribu- 
taries of the north fork of New river, would be accessible 
to a railroad built up that stream, which is a very feasible 

Note nv Tin: Skckktaky -Comment* or criticisms upon all papers, whether 
private corrections of typographical or other errors, or communications for publication 
M Discussion," or independent papers on the same or a related subject, are earnestly 

>,<> JOURNAL 01 THE 



The following notes deal with the getmnule 
ment <>i" Esperella fibrexilu (n. sp.) and Tedania Bru 
(n. sp.), to which are added a few observations <>n the • 
development of Tedanioru foetida (n.g. ) and Hircinia acuta. 

Esperella ///>>; t. is a small silicious sponge abundant 
near Wood's I loll, Mass. The others are Bahama tonus 
found a; Green Turtle Cay, tin- two silicious spong 
Tedania and Tedanione, being closely related. 

During the summer, 11a and Tedania contain 

numbers of embryos in all sta levelopment, and if 

the sponges are kept in aquaria for a few hours, some 
of the embryos will pass out through the oscula The 
embryos thus set five- air solid oval bodies covered with 
cilia, and are quite like the egg larva- of many silicious 
sponges. They swim about for a day or so and then 
attach themselves to the wall of the dish, flatten out and 
undergo a metamorphosis. When the embryos inside 
the mother arc examined, they are found not to be e 
embryos, but true gemmules; i. / ., internal buds. 

I will first describe the development of Esperella. The 
mesoderm of Esperella contains cells, which differ greatly 
in size and general appearance, though they shade one 
into the other. Some of the cells are much larger than 
the rest and have plump bodies, which stain well. Such 
cells congregate together and form irregular groups, in 
which the cells are rather closely packed. The group of 
cells rounds itself off, the outer cells becoming flattened 

^Published by permission of Hon. Marshall McDonald. C S. Commissioner of Fish 
and Fisheries, in the Journal of Morphology, Volume V, Xo. 3.* 


; ¥; 

jp.c V Zf 

Pig, i Portion i mt-vxli-rni. showing two gemma] 

nirrounded by follicle of Battened eellf f mmule; g", considerably 

)U1< i i .. canal wall Hated chamber 

Pig. j. Longitudinal section through the swimming larva of Esperella The 

nuclei of the columnar ectoderm evils form a conspicuous zone. Ill the outer end* of 
these cells is orange pigment. The inner mas- of cells (pareuchyme), ill the region of 
non ciliated pole, differs from the i>arcnehvme in the rest of the body. 



and forming a follicle. The gemniule, as thus formed, is 
at first quite small, often showing not more than five cells 
in section, though a considerably larger gemmule may 
be directly formed from a group of cells. The cells 
of the gemmule, once the follicle is formed, are very 
closely packed. 

The increase in size of the gemmule takes place by means 
of cell growth and division, and by the fusion of neigh- 
boring small genimules. The latter process throws into 
shade the seemingly important question, Does a gemmule 
ever start as a single cell? In regard to the actual occur- 
rence of such an origin for geniiniiles, I may say that, 
after looking ovet ■ great number of preparations, my 

conclusion is, that perhaps a little group of mesoderm 
(gemmule) cells is so derived in very rare instances, but 
the case occurs so seldom as not to be worth consideration. 
The gemmule continues to increase in size, without any 
striking change in its structure, until it is nearly as large 
as the swimming larva. In this condition it may be spoken 
of as the ripe gemmule. The ripe gemniule is sphe- 
roidal and is made up of cells so closely packed and 
filled with fine yoke granules that the cell boundaries 
are indistinct. The nuclei of the cells are very small. 
During the growth of the gemniule the surrounding tis- 
sue becomes largely incorporated in the follicle; and 
whereas the gemniule in its early stages lay in the m< 
derm of the sponge, in its ripe condition it lies in one 
of the larger canals, suspended by strands of tissue which 
now bind the follicle to the canal wall. The ripe gem- 
mule next undergoes a process which presents a super- 
ficial analogy to segmentation. The solid gemmule splits 
up into irregular masses of cells. These continue to split 
up into smaller and smaller masses, the gemmule mean- 
while increasing in si/e, owing to the absorption of fluid, 
so that the several masses of cells are distinctly separated 

98 JOl UN A I. OF Till. 

from one another. The splitting np continues until 
the solid gemmule has been plain!} 

rtituent cells. The out nmnle, v< 

early in this pi 4 "segmentation," arrange th- 

selves so as to form a continuous !. und 

tin- periphery. This I nvenience's sak< 

be spoken of as the the 

close ol Dentation" is found a mass of amoeboid 

cells connected together by their ; 1 ited 

by fluid. The flat ectoderm cells next become long sli 
der columnar cells, having pigment in their outer ends 
and bearing cilia. The metamorpl ctoderm 

cells docs not, however, take plaa 1 >ver 

this pole the ectoderm cells remain flat and without cilia. 
Further, the inner mass of cells at. this pole becotn< 
ily denser, until this region .of the embryo is occupied by 
a mass of irregularly polygonal cells closely appressed. 
In the mass of polygonal cells a bundle of long spier. 
lying in the direction of the main axis of the enibl 
is developed. In the remainder of the inner contents 
the embryo, the cells are less closely packed and are 
various shapes. The unciliated pole is made the more 
conspicuous because of the pigment (orange) which cov 
the rest of the embryo. In this condition, the embryo 
breaks" through its follicular wall, and passes out of the 
parent through one of the oscula. 

The first step in the metamorphosis of the larva con- 
sists in the flattening of its ectoderm. The flattening 
begins before the sponge attaches itself, and gradually 
travels from the non-ciliated or spicular pole backicards. 
While there is still a considerable remnant of the colum- 
nar ectoderm, the larva attaches itself by the spicular 
pole, but obliquely, so that it lies somewhat on its side. 
The rest of the ectoderm then becomes flattened, and 
the lava is transformed into a thin, flat mass, circular in 


outline. The bundle of spicules, formerly at the non- 
ciliated pole, become distributed all over the body of the 
little sponge. The attached larva, at first circular in out- 
line, speedily grows irregular in shape, and b< stir- 
rounded by a thin ectodermal membrane. The subder- 
mal cavities and canals appear as lacunae in the substance 
of the larva, the surrounding cells becoming flattened 
form the epithelioid wall. The various canals and cavi- 
ties, originally independent, (men one into the other, and 
to the exterior, by simple perforation of the intermediate 
tissue. The oscula and pores are at first indistinguisha- 
ble, and are scattered over the surface of the - 
with no attempt at arrangement. Even in the adult I can 
see no morphological distinction between the pores and 
oscula. The difference e is the only dili 
and that loses its significance because of the occurrene< 
apertures, which hold several intermediate positions in 
this respect between pores and oscula. 

The flagellated chambers arise as independent struct- 
ures, which subsequently acquire connection with the 
canal system. 

There are in the larva, when it first atta< 

number of mesoderm cells, distinguishable from the i 
by their size and bulky shape. Such cells I may call 
formative cells. They diminish greatly in number, and 
grow smaller in size during the metamorp! The 

formative cells contain as a rule several nuclei, and are 
destined for the most part to split up into much smaller 
cells. The particular way in which the flagellated cham- 
bers are formed in any larva depends on the behavior of 
the formative cells. (All the cells of the larva, I may add, 
are connected together by fine processes). In some larva.- 
the formative cells arrange themselves round & central cav- 
ity (intercellular space) so as to form a hollow sphere. 
Numbers of such spheres, consisting; of comparatively large 


Cells, art- found in fome larva-. Division of the Celll then 

ensues, and the hollow sphere gradually assumes the 
nature- of a flagellated chamber. In some larvae, on the 
other hand, all the formative- evils may break up into fine 
cells before the marking <»ut of any flagellated chamb 
Tlu- mesenchyme of such larvae consist did mai 

fine- cells, with here and there a formative- cell. The flag- 
ellated chambers of inch a larva must Ik- formed directly 
from a group of fine cells, probably by some- rearrangement 
of the- cells round a central cavity. In other larva-, both 

processes go 0U at the- same- time-. Some of the formative- 
cells arrange themselves in hollow spheres and form cham- 
bers directly, others break up into solid m >f small 
cells, which subsequently acquii rity. That a single 

formative- cell itself ever forms a chambe-r, I do not belit 

In whichever way the- flagellated chamber is formed, it 

at first has no connection with the canals. It, like any 
particular canal, is, in its origin, a lacuna, its cavity being 
an intercellular space. 

In deciding pbylogenetic questions, perhaps not much 
weight should be attached to a development like this; but 
whatever weight it has, is in favor of MetschnikofTs 
theory of the solid ancestry of sponges. The solid swim- 
ming larva itself, and the details of the metamorplv 
(the origin of the flagellated chambers, excurrent and 
incurrent canals, and subdermal spaces, as independent 
lacunae in a matrix of amoeboid cells) are all understood on 
this theory. Conversely, if we hold to the view which 
regards the calcareous sponges < Ascons) as the primitive 
type, the development of Esperella may, of course, be 
regarded as an extreme case of coenogeny. 

The development of Esperella, it seems to me, has per- 
haps a bearing on problems out of the range of pure mor- 
phology. Without discussing the matter in detail, I may 
point out the striking resemblance betw r een this asexual 


development and the egg development of many silicious 
sponges. As in the c^ embryo, there are formed in the 
gemmule embryo two germ layers. In the two einb: 
the layers are alike in many details of structure. The i 
larvae, again, are characterized by the absence over one 
pole of the columnar ectoderm (Isodyctia and Desmacidon, 
Barrois (i) ; Reniera, Marshall (2); Chalinnla, Keller (3) ; 
Esperia, Schmidt (4), etc. ). The account according to 
which the endoderm protrudes at this pole, is probably not 
correct, but it is likely that the ectoderm is only greatly 
flattened over this region. It is this characteristic more 
than any other, which I should piek out as a point of exact 
resemblance between the sexual and asexual larvae. Bar- 
rois has described the egg development of two forms, in 
one of which (Isodyctia) the non-ciliated pole of the plan- 
nla is never covered with columnar cells. This is par- 
alleled by tin.- Bsperella larva. In another form (Desmaci- 
don), the larva has at first a complete covering of columnar 
ectoderm (and cilia), which then disappears over one pole 
(and much later over the whole surface). This 
more or less similar to the gemmule development of 
Tedania; in this form, the embryo has at one time a com- 
plete covering of columnar cells (uneiliated howe\ 
which flatten out over one pole, while over the rest of the 
body they acquire cilia. In the metamorphosis, also, the 
gemmule development resembles the egg development, in 
that the ectoderm of the larva is flattened to form the ecto- 
derm of the adult. As regards the formation of the 
chambers, canals, etc. , the egg larvae differ too much ami 
themselves to permit any such comparison as I am carrying 

Such a resemblance between the sexual and asexual 
larvae as I have indicated, can, I think, only be explained 
on the supposition of some essential likeness between the 
mesoderm cells, which make up the gemmule, and ova. 


If for convi adopt the point of vie* 

Weismann, and regard the i I by the 

session of a "germ plasm/ 1 the gemmul un- 

less the resemblances between the gemmule and egg*embi 

[dental) have souk- claim to the po 'his 

plasm. By making a little further use of Weismann's tl 
ory, the nature of the gemmule cell 
which, together with others, forms a gemmuli 
haps be stated with some precision. Of the two p 
bodies found in non-parthenogeneti< n tnn 

believes that the first plasm, the 

Mid carries off one-half the germ plasm. In the 
the sponge gemmule, a i in cell does not it 

become differentiated into an ovum, but the n< 
amount of nutriment for the embryo IS got by the . 
tion of numerous such cells. Hence there is in the gem- 
mule cell no special histogenel tic) plasm, and 

consequently no first polar body. There i no 

fertilization, therefore no second polar body. The gemmule 
cell, according to this view, must be regarded as a true 
germ cell, in which all the germ plasm remains undiffer- 
entiated, viz., in which none of it is transformed into < 
genetic plasm. Further, the gemmule cell pursues the 
parthenogenetic course of development — it keeps all its 
germ plasm. 

Gemmules apparently develop anywhere in the sponge 
mesenchyme. It must, therefore, be assumed that any 
mesenchyme cell may become a gemmule cell, and cor. 
queutly that it contains germ plasm. The same conclu- 
sion is reached by the study of the Qgg development, for 
it seems that any mesenchyme cell may develop into an 


The gemmule development in Tedania pursues much 
the same course as in Esperella. The early stages in the 
formation of the gemmule, owing to the extremely small 


size of the cells, cannot be followed with the same accu- 
racy as in Esperella, but the process can be seen to be 
essentially the same. The "segmentation," or gradual 
dissolution of the gemmule into its constituent cells, takes 
place in the same way. The swimming larva is, except 
in a few details, like the larva of Esperella, and the 
metamorphosis takes place- on the same liiu 

In the egg development of Tedanione, there is a total 
segmentation, resulting in the formation of a solid morula. 
The larva, when set free, is a Bolid oval body, completely 
covered with a layer of columnar ciliated cells. The 
metamorphosis was not observed. The segmentation of 
Hireinia is likewise a total segmentation, resulting in the 
formation of a solid morula. The development of the 
ovarian egg in these two forms is essentially alike. The 
follicle during the growth of the surrounded by a 

large number of comparatively densely packed mesen- 
chyme cells, the duty of which is presumably to bring 
nourishment to the growing *egg (compare Piedh >unt 

for Spongilla), The nucleus of the very younj on- 

tains a single large nucleolus more or less centrally placed. 
While the egg is comparatively small, before it has reached 
more than one-half its ultimata two small spherical 

masses of densely staining chromatin are found adhering 
to opposite sides of the inner face of the nuclear wall. As 
a rule, in eggs which have reached the full size, only one 
or neither of these chromatine balls is present. 

< Occasionally, however, an egg is found of the full size 
and still with both of the chromatin balls. One of the 
masses is probably lost (thrown out?) about the time when 
the increase in - ompleted. The remaining ma- 

thrown out of the nucleus, and may sometimes be observed 
lying- in the egg yoke near the nucleus. The nucleus of 
the ripe egg thus left without chromatin mass, is a poorly 
defined bodv in which neither nuclear membrane nor 


chromatin is visible. The- maturation gg in thi 

two sponges is seen to be very like- that of Spongilla, 
described by Fiedler (5). Fiedlern 

tin balls a.s polar bodies; bnt as an objection to this view it 

must be urged that they an I (though not dis- 

charged) long before the egg has reached its full sii 

My observation that layers similar to germ I 
developed in the asexual embryos of certain spoi alls 

the account given by Dezs6(6), of the formation of buds in 
Tethya. Dezsfi claims that these budsdevelop from single 
cells, and that in them germ la; formed. The con- 

struction he puts upon certain cells seems, however, an 

arbitral) one, and I find it difficult to carry out a detailed 
comparison between his observations and my own. 
Schmidt, a.s DezSO calls to mind, described in 1 nii- 

nal layers in the buds soma, and emphasized the 

biological significance of the phenomen on . 

In his paper, "Zur Orientirung fiber die Etwicklung 
der Schw&mme" {/a it. /.' w. Z, [87 I i ar Schmidt 
makes the statement that in the silicions (and horny) 
sponges there is no true segmentation, the ovum very 
early losing its cellular character. To many others 
besides Barrois (1) this must have seemed a remarkable 
statement, and it would be interesting to know if the 
observations which led Professor Schmidt to this view 
were not made on a gemmule development resembling 
that which I have described. 

University of North Carolina. 

Chapel Hill. X. C. October 17. 1891. 


1. Barrois. Memoire sur l'enibryologie de quelques Eponges de la 

Manche. Ann. d. Sri. Nat. 1876. 

2. Marshall. Die Ontogeuie von Reiniera filigraiia. Zeit. f. w. Z. 



3. KELLER. Studien iiber die Organisation und Entwicklung der Chal- 

ineen. Zeit.f. W. Z. 1S80. 

4. Schmidt, Oscar. Zur Orientirung iiber die Entwicklung der 

Schwiiinme. Zcit. /. <c Z. 1875. 

5. Fiedler. Ueber Bi und Samenbildung bei Spongilla fluviatilis. 

Zeit. f. w. Z. 1 88a 

6. Dezso. Die Histologic und Sprossenentwicklung der Tethyen. 

Archil) Mikr. Anat., lid. 16 and 17. 1879 and 1 


1SY WM. CAIN, 1. 

The ideal transition curve for railroads, to pass from a 
tangent to a circular curve of given d< one wh 

degree of curvature is zero at the point where it leaves the 

tangent (P. C. ) and increases directly as its length, m< 
ured along the curve from the P. C, to where it conn< 
with the circular curve, at which point it should have the 
same tangent and rate of curvature as the circular curve. 
\\\ the use of such curves on railroads, street-car lines, etc., 
to ease off the ends of circular curves, the super-elevation 
of the outer rail is gradually attained without shock; and 
the sudden change from the tangent to the circular curve 
so often experienced on unadjusted circular curves, with 
its annoying and damaging lurch, is avoided. 

Mr. A. M. Wellington (see Engineering for Janu- 

ary 25th and February 8th, 1890) was the first to proj 
this particular curve, which he regarded as practically 
identical with the cubic parabola. Recently, Mr. Conway 
R. Howard has published in his Transition Curve Book an 
analysis of the subject founded on known principles of the 
cubic parabola, which this curve closely approximates to 
(or flat arcs. 10 


In this paper an exact and thorough solution of the 
problem will be given, which is believed to be simpler and 
more satisfactory every way than the approximate solu- 
tions hitherto presented. 
Referring the- curve above defined, to rectangular 
•L C K r k 

X and Y (figure i), call the co-ordinates of L, X and y % the 
length of curve SEL being called s. At the point 
(x -f- ir, y | ,\v) the length of curve from S = s + ss; the 
tangent at the last point making the angle a -f- &a and at 
(r, r), the angle a with the axis of Y. Then by the defi- 
nition of curvature, the curvature at the point (x y y) is 

sa da 
represented by limit — = — and this by the definition of 
^5 ds 

the curve, must equal a constant (2a) times s. 

da 1 
. •. — = - = 2 as (1); 



a = as- 



since a = o when s = o. Also from (i) r = co when s = o. 
From the differential triangle we have, 

dx = ds sin a = sin {as 1 ), ds . . . . (3), 

dy = ds cos a = cos (as 2 ), ds (4); 

but unfortunately we are not able to integrate these 
expressions in finite terms, so that the equation of the curve 
in terms of x and y cannot be obtained. 

In practice the curve SL will be run by measuring X 
chords of c feet each along the curve. When these chords 
are sufficiently short they can be regarded as of the same 
length as the arcs subtended by them, hence we shall 
always write, 

s- .. .( 5 h 

for the length of curve from S to any tangent point con- 
sidered as L. 

The degree of curve at L, D° being equal to the radius 
of a i° curve divided by ;, we have, since the radius of a 

i° curve =? a (as the sines oi small an- 

sin { ' { 


gles can be taken as equal to the arcs themselw 

1 S( >oo 36000 
1 ) = = as (6). 

~r ~ 

To express the arc a (eq. 2) in minutes, we notice that 
its ratio to a seini-circumicrence whose radius is one, is 

— and multiplying this by 180 X 60 we find a in min- 
utes. Hence from (2) and (5), 

a 180 X 60 
a (in minutes) = — 180 X 60 = a 1 

108 JOURNAL OF I'm-'. 

We shall assume with Mr. Howard, no matter what the 
length of chord < is, that, 

a (in minutes) 6 X- (7). 

This assumption is warranted by the previous equation, 
as a varies as X-; hence equating these two valtu 
we deduce, 

" .0017453 

a = » .... (H). 

1 800 c* 1 : 

()n substituting this value of a in (6), we h 

100 - 20 s 20 Si ft 1 X 

D° = . .s= = = ( 9 > 

n 1 800 c 1 t 1 c 

This is a fundamental equation of the- transition curve 
and gives the degree of curvature at any point of the 
curve. Where it "connects" with the circular curve, of 
course D° must be the same for both CUr 


By multiplying both sides of eq. (9) by we have, 


D° s D° NY 20 N NY N J 

200 200 c 200 10 

6 N 2 X- 

But a in degrees from (7) = = — ; hence, a (in de- 

60 10 

grees) is given by the formula, 

D°.y D° NY 

a (in degrees) = = .... (10). 

200 200 

In figure 1 at O, the center of the circular curve DLM, 
having at h the same tangent and degree of curvature as 
the transition curve or spiral SEL, drop a perpendicular 
OC upon the tangent SY, cutting the spiral at E and the 
circular curve produced at D, and draw the chords SL and 



DL. Then LOC = a = LTK and = number of 100 


arc DL 

feet stations in arc DL .". D° = total angle turned 



in length DL = a = by (10); whence, 


arc DL = % s = *4 length of spiral SKL ....(11). 

From this we have, since for flat arcs, LD = LE nearly, 
LK — l /z SEL, or point E is nearly at middle of spiral. 
The distance CD q between SY and the circular curve, 
may then be regarded as the onset at the middle of the 
transition curve from circular curve to tangent SY. 

By aid of (9) above we can deduce two more useful 

20 X 
C mt (12), 


20 x- 

N* = s = 113). 


Prom eq. (3) we have, developing sin (as 2 ) by a well- 
known formula, 

dx ds (oj 1 — £ (as*? + ^ (as 2 ) 5 — , etc.); 
whence integrating and noting that the constant is zero, 
since x = when •>- = o, and placing for brevity a for its 
equivalent as 2 (eq. 2), we have, 

a* a* 

t = sa ( l } j , etc.) ( 14). 

42 1320 

Developing dy = ds cos (as 2 ) we deduce similarly, 

a- a* a 6 

y = S (I 1 r, etc. ) (15). 

10 216 9360 

i m JOURNAL 01 'I'm. 

From (8) a as ; hence a in eqjs. (14) and (1 

gfivcn (in length of arc on a unit Circle) by 

a = as* = ac* N 2 = X 2 - .00 17453 


. •. log fl — 7.3418774 — 10 -• log(N*) (1 

The above value of a can be obtained likewise from e<j. 
(7). It is independent in fact umed from 

the Inst; but since s = Nc, the values of both t and y 

above, vary directly 

Therefore if we compute from (14) and (1 
values of 1 and y for c too, corre s p o nding to N : 1, 

2, 3, 4, ... , 15, and denote these values by, 
X|, A,. \ 3 , . . . . , A 15 , 

v v v v 

x V x 2' » 3» • • • • * 151 

the subscripts denoting the station to which they refer; 

then when C has any other value than 100, we have by (14) 

and (15), 

Kc 0.2 XX 

1 ■ = = (17K 

100 D° 

Ye 0.2 XV 

y = — = (1$ 

100 D° 

the last forms being derived by substituting for c its value 

20 N 

given by (12). 


The results of the computation are given in the adjoin- 
ing table under the corresponding values of X given at the 
tops of the columns. 








5 6 
7.27121 12.5628 










399 969 

499- 9°4 599- 763 






.25000 .25000 

.25001 .25002 






23561 1 


1. 81785 3.7692 6.982 

II. 910 






2 3O / 3°36 / 


6°24 / 





5<>' I°I2' 

i° 3 8' 

2°o7 / 59 // 












8°o6 / 


2°4i / 58 // 





58.Q5] ...07S 127.024 158.310 

996.958 1095 104 1192.44.' 1388.735 13S 

.25026 .25038 .25056 .25077 .25104 .25137 

29.056 42.519 60.1s [g 1 1 1.378 146.44S 

;' i6°54' I9°36 / 22°3Q / 

2° 4 i / 58 // 3°i9'57 // 4°oi , 55' / 4°47 / 5' // 5°37'45" 6°3i , 37 / 


The numerical values in the table were computed by me 

and checked by Mr. H. B, Shaw, SO that it is believed no 
error exists in them. 

In computing the values of X given by (14) it was found 
that the results could be found correctly to the last figure 
given, tor X 1, 2, by taking only the first term of the 
parenthesis and neglecting the others; for X = 3 to 1 1 
inclusive, two terms are needed and for N = 12, 13, 14, 
15, only three ternrS are required. For the values of V, 
two terms of the parenthesis in (15) were used up to N = 9 
inclusive; for greater values of X three terms only are 

A six figure table of logarithms was used except for the 
larger values, where a seven place table proved desirable. 

1 12 JOURNAL OF I'm. 

The series is. very converging for the small valnei of <t 
used, and in fact would answer for much larger values of a 
if desired; hence we see that w aed here witl 

very converging series; in fact, the same in 

computing a table <>f sines and co-sines, k> that 
find r and r accurately to any desired number of decimal 

The angle made by a ehord from station to station ;/ 
with the axis of V will be designated by a„. This a:; 
is readily found from the formula, 

tan a„ a . 



Thus for a )2 , we have tan a 12 sa , whence a 12 = 

i [92.44 

4 4/ .s 1 • 

The angles made by the chords from sta. s to the suc- 
cessive stas. 1, 2, 3, .... , 12, with the V axis are given 
in the previous table, and the values of a = 6 X" (in min- 
utes!, eq. (7), are placed above for comparison. 

It will be observed from this table that if we expt 
to the nearest minute that we have, except for N = 15, 

a = — = 2 N" (in minutes) 

If we include N = 15, the extreme error made by using 

the formula a — — is 35 seconds corresponding to X = 15, 

a matter of no practical importance. ' 

If we should continue the table for greater values of X 
than 15, we should find the error in using (19) to increase, 
which explains why N = 15 is taken as the extreme limit 
of the table; besides we rarely have need for more than 15 


stations of a transition curve. For greater values of X, 
(19) should not be used at all and the angles a mnst all be 
computed by the strict method. 

The angle made by any chord connecting any two sta- 
tions of the curve with the- V axis, will be designated by i 
with two subscripts, giving the station numbers through 
which the chord is drawn; thus / 3 _ y indicates the angle 
made by the chord joining stas. 3 and 9 with the V axis. 
Its value is readily found from the- equation, 

X — X y .. ; 

tan /. .. ( 

v — y 

to be, /■ , Similarly we find the inclinations 

of the chords, t<» the Y mnecting any two stations. 

In the general table given at the end of this jKi]>er the 
values of X, Y, <i, a and i are inserted corresponding to 
the stations given at the topi of the vertical columns. 

TE. — The general table dots not give the quantities 
X, Y, and (J as closel} as the preceding table, and the 
values of a and / in it are only expressed to the neai 
minute, j 

The angles given below the horizontal row a, are the 
values of i for the chords joining the stations in the verti- 
cal columns to which they refer. Thus line (2) column 
angle o°56' = /.. A or the inclination of chord 1 _• 

The angle <? s = 3°30' is that which the transition curve 
at >ta. (^) makes with SK. Also the angle between chord 
(51 (S) and tangent at sta. (5) = 4 is' — 2°3o' = 1 
and the angle between chords (5) (8j and (2) (5) — 4 
— i°i8' = 3°oo'. 

Similarly we can find any angle needed in running the 

The quantity Z of the table = D°s = 20 X-, whence 


ri4 JOURNAL Of Tin-. 

z z 

J = _,D° = -, (2. 

I) s 

Line- C gives tli«.- semi-chord of the- sue <»f a i circular 

curve, of which <i subtends half that arc . \ C 

sin a. ' Pot a l> carve, divide by D° e xpres s e d in degr 

and decimals. 

Line Q gives the prodncl q D°, where q is the distance 
CD (fig. t)and D the ircular enrve LA. We 

find this product as foil II, for brevity, R, the radius 

of a i° curve (5729.65 was. used), then in fig. I, R — — 


and q = KI, OP — OD i ; R AM — R. There- 
fore, from (17), 

.2 XX R, R, 

q = ( cos a 

D° D° I ) ■ 

.-. Q = q D° = .2 XX R, am <r — R, 

Hence, calling the ratio of q to x (the ordinate at L I", 
we have, 

q q D° Q 

F = — = = (22) 

x .2 XX .2 XX 

from these formulas, rows F and Q of the tables were com- 
puted. It is seen that this ratio is )/ x or nearly so through- 

From the above exact formulas, the table of ^Equiva- 
lents" given below is made out. They are identical with 
the formulas given by Mr. Howard, though the latter were 
deduced in a totally different way. 

s Z 20 N 20 ~Sq 100 x 100 y 

N D°X D° Q X Y 

Z 20 X 2 200 a 

D° D° D° 


Z Q 20 N 200 a 

s q c s 

cK .2 XX <Y Q 

= tan a = 

too D° 100 D°F 

ell .2 XV eX 

y = = = cot a, 

100 D° 100 

Q PX* sQ cQ .2 NXF 

9 = — 

I) 100 Z 20 X Jj 

In these formulas, 
c = chord length between consecutive stations; 

/ x 1 v 

X sss , / is , arc the co-ordinates of stations COT- 


responding; . 

j = length of curve from S to station X. 
When c = n»u, 1 X and r V. 


i. By offsets from the tangent* 


Example, Let c = 20, X = 8 . \ y = Y = 


x = X — \ X; where V and X, for X w 1, 2, 3, 


. . . , 8, are to be taken from the general table. 

. \ i', = i(ioo) = 20, y t = \ (200) = 40, v 3 = \ (299.99) 

= 60, etc. ; 

.r, = \ (.06) = .oi, z M = I (.47) = 09, r, = I (r.57) = 

.31, etc. 

i t6 JOURN \i. Ot Tin-: 

Having computed all the ordinates foi the eight stations, 
measure the successive valu n S and 

the corresponding ordinates or offsets r, at righl angU 
SY, until all tlu- stations tted. 

2. By deflection angles. 

Tlu- method is similar t<» thai «>f running in a circular 
curve with transit and chain. 

Example. Let < 25, N 

Deflect from tangent SY, with transit at S. ively, 

a, = 2', s. 8', a is'. a 4 
a 7 = i°3' s ' and measure S 1 25 feet, 12 and 

SO OU, to fix the stations 

The degree of the circular curve connecting at station 7 

is, D° = - = = 5°.6 = 5036'. 

N< 7 x 25 

If instrument has to be set at si ad the balani 

the curve run in from (3), clamp vernier at a i8' bei 
removing from S; then set over (3), verify reading and 
sight tf> S with angle t8' on plate, deflect to a a 
sight on tangent if desired; then reversing telescope and 
taking from table, angles 14', 

i°38', 2°o6' and 2°38' respectively, deflect successive! 
these readings to locate stas. 4, 5, 6 and 7. At (7) with 
angle 2°38' on plate, sight to (3) and turn off to a 1 = 4 
for the common tangent at (7). Reversing telescope, we 
run in the 5°36' circular curve as usual from this tangent. 

The curve is as easily run in backwards. Tims having 
run the circular curve and turned into tangent at 7. set 
vernier at a 7 = 4°54', so that on turning to o°oo' we sight 
along a line parallel to final tangent SY. 

We then set vernier to angle 4_ 7 = 4 14' to fix (6), / c _- — 
3 ° 3 8' to fix (5), 1- = 3 °o6' to fix . 4; , /._ 7 = 2 ° 3 8' to fix (3), 
etc. If we cannot see beyond (3), remove to (3) and with 
vernier reading as before /,_ 7 = 2°38', sight to 17;, reverse 


telescope and set to a 2 . — 38', a lr ^ — 26', a^, — a, = 
successively to fix stas. 12), (1) and 

Lastly, at sta. or S, with last vernier reading a, = 18' 
on plate, sight to sta. (3) and turn to o°oo' to sight along 
tangent SY. 

Always set the angle off, that any chord makes with the 
V axis, on the proper ride oj the pointy so that when we 
sight along that chord and then turn to o oo' the li iu 
sight will be parallel to the tangent SY. This is best done 
by leaving the last angle turned clamped on plate, when 
we move up to a new station, at which point verify angle 
and telescope to Bight hack to last station at which 

transit was set 


By referring to the general table, we see that the ordi- 
nate X at the middle of any length of curve is nearly 
that at the end. Thus the ordinate X 13.56 and 

X ss 12.51, also X md this is equal ' X 

I.57, etc. 

If we use- the approximate formula X '< <t\\ found 
from (14) by neglecting all terms after the first and des 

nate by 1 the ordinate corresponding to s a = — we have 
1 I — I or }4 the extrenu ■ ordinate r. 

■< i 

The equation 1 = % arv* is that of the cubic parabola, 
and we see that the eq. closely approximate 

it for the very fiat arcs considered, thus furnishing the b 

for the approximate solutions before referred to. 

Again in fig. 1, for fiat arcs, we have seen that radius 
OI) produced, drawn _L Sk, nearly exactly bisects the curve 
SEL, hence SG is nearly equal to LI) (where G is the in- 


tenectioo <>f chord SI. and OD), and since arc a nearly 

OG a I'D a 

= and arc — = DI,F (in arc) = and a = — 

SG 2 1,1) 3 

have, nearly, 

a O ! 

a PD 


KI. . 

ot since CX> =3 — = — . •. KD = y A 

2 2 

and DC PC — I'D = -v — Y\ x — % x = f. 

From the tabic we sec- that Q = — = % nearly through- 



We have shown above likewise that CK = x = 
nearly, and as q \ % nearly, we have, nearly, 

CE = ', CI) = >, q; 
so that the curve SKI, nearly bisects the gap? between the 
tangent and the circular curve. 

We shall now deduce an approximate formula for finding 
the successive angles i in terms of N and N„ the numbers 
of the stations between which the chords are drawn. 
Neglecting all terms of (14) after the first, and calling 
.r 1 the approximate value of .r, we have 
.r 1 

— = i/£ a = A (to nearest minute of arc). 
We should naturally infer, within this same limit of 
accuracy, that the arc i can be expressed by a similar 
approximate formula, 

x 1 ' — x x 

2 = ; 

s t — s 


where x x ' — x l is the difference in the ordi nates computed 
by the approximate formula above and s t — ^ = length of 
arc between them. 

We have just seen that this formula is true to the near- 
est minute of arc when x l and s are zero, in which ca- 
reduces to A, and we shall now reduce it and express i in 
terms of N and N, and test it for other values. 

We have, 

a 1 == « 3 as - '. «* 1. <n" S ; 

'—a 1 a -X s ) a* 

. \ i = = = — (N, - XX 

j, — s 3 c(N t — X) 3 

Replacing <n- by its value (eq. 8) and multiplying 


I St . x 60 
both sides of the equation by to reduce to mini: 

we have, 

1 (in minutes) 2 (N, ■ - X X X-i (23). 

We find that this formula is correct to the nearest min- 
ute, or as accurate as the formula & = '; </, which is cor- 
reet up to N = 14 (and practically to X = 15) to the near- 
est minute. 

[n the above, N, has been taken as the number of the 
forward station and X of the one nearest S; but if the 
reverse obtains, on interchanging X, and X in the first 
formula, we shall arrive at the same formula (23), which is 
thus perfectly general and applies whichever is the forward 

As an application compute /, ,, : we have, putting X 
10, N = 5, 

= 2 (10 s + 10 a 5 -f 5 2 ) == 350' = 5° 5 o', 
correct by the general table, and in fact differs only a few 
seconds from the exact value. 


It is moi r, to compute th< 

ive values of r 1>\ differences. Tims, if wi chan 
N i in (23), we get the angle 1 made b; the chord from 
sta. (X i) to sta. N with the Y axis, Subtracting 
from this we have the angle made l>> the two chord 
X to X| and (X 1 ) to X. equal to 

1 st diffen u, N 1 N 1 ) mi nut, 

As X in one at a time, the Inst diffei 

lour at a time, 

. •. 2d difference j minutes. 

We observe from 23) that lor X o, i =2 

which agrees with (19); also for X N . tin- right mein- 
ber reduces to 6 X-', which I ictly equal to ti. 

corresponding to the station. 

Hence, starting with X in (23), which gi\< 
increasing X one at a time, we compute the corresponding 
/'v until X X, when the a at sta. X, is found As X 
again increases one at a time, the following i's are found. 

The formula (231 is found to he exact to the nearest min- 
ute, when compared with exact results, and is more nearly 
correct the less X and X, differ and for X = X. it 
Intel y exact. 

As an application, let X, = 5, whence first difference by 
(24) = 12 4 X and second difference — 4. 

For X = o, angle between chords 65 and 15 = 12'. 
X i, u " u 15 *' 25 = 16'. 

X T = 2, " " " 25 " 35 = 20'. 

Similarly for the others. 

Starting with _. = 2 X, - = 50' and adding the sm 
ive differences above, we find, /,_- = 50 — 12 = 62', 
= 78', / 3 _ 5 = 98', / 4 . 5 = 122', / 5 _; = a $ = 150', i,^ = 182, 
and so on. 

As (23) reduces to a for X = X,, the method of differ- 
ences above evidently applies in finding rt s from / 4 _. and i^ r 
from a r . 


We shall close by calling attention to one more hit-. 
ing result. The angle / that a chord from station X. — i 
to station X, makes with the V axis, is found from (23) by 
changing X to X, — 1 . ■. / — 6 X 2. Sub- 

tracting this from the a at X, 6 X. - and we have a — i 
= 6 N, — 2. If we regard X, as the point of connection 

with the circular curve, we have I>" = and the first 

deflection from the tangent on the circular curve for a 

chord of ( feet is ' _. 60 I> = 6 X, minutes. Tin- 

always greater by two minutes than the angle between the 
tangent at station X, and the chord from station X, — 1 to 
station X,, as we have just found the last angle to equal 
(6 X, — 2) minutes. We should naturally expect such a 
result from the definition of the curve. 



fOI RN \I. 01 Till 







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The statement that platinum has been found and hence 
occurs in North Carolina is made in a number of text- 
books on chemistry, mineralogy and metallurgy. State- 
ments so wide-spread and often repeated naturally lead to 
inquiries as to where it has been found, who found it. 
That is, upon what authority is this claim made for the 
vState and who can voueh for. or has seen, the platinum. 
I have, tor a year or two, carefully inv< I this ij 

tion, and as I seem to have gotten all the information 
obtainable on the subject, I venture to present it bel 
the Society, however unsatisfactory it may be. 

It will be proper here to republish the first mention in 
a scientific journal of the* finding of platinum in th< S 
Among the u Mineralogical Notes" appearing in the 
American Journal of Science for 1847 (2d S Vol. IV, 

p. 280), Dr. Charles Upham Shepard reports the follow- 

u Native Platinum in North Carolina. — In November 
last I received in a letter from Hon. T. L. Clin^man. 
Asheville, X. C, a small renifonn grain of native plati- 
num, with the following remark: 'The enclosed metallic 
j^rain was given me by a friend, who says it was found 
among the gold of one of his rockers. It looks like plati- 
num. ' 

'•Its weight was 2.541 gTS. There was no difficulty, by 
means of its physical and chemical properties, in identify- 
ing it with the substance above suggested. Its specific 
gravity = 18. In a subsequent letter, dated January 3d 


(written 1h ' eiving my reply), Mi. C odds >till 

farther: 'Mr. T. T. Brwin, who presented it torn 
that his overseer, in wh< city he has the fullest con- 

fidence, gave it to him with the gold obtained from the 
rocker, and that he (Mr. Brwin) does not entertain the 
smallest doubt of its having been found in his mine in the 
north part of Rutherford county. Should it prov< 
platinum, it is of interest to me as the fii 
that mineral found in the United State 

"Fearing, however, that the grain might have- origi- 
nated in a foreign locality, I addressed particular inquii 
to Mr. C. on this head and received from him the follow- 
ing additional statements: 'The platinum specimen 
formerly scut yon was taken from the gold rocker by Mr. 
Lyon, tht- overseer <>f Mr. Brwin. Mr. L. is a man of 
good character, and all persons who know him entertain no 
doubt whatever of his having obtained the specimen as 
represented. Mr. L. had no suspicion of its being any- 
thing more than silver, which was known to he found with 
the gold. The place at which he obtained it was in 
Rutherford county, near the line of the new county of 
McDowell. I would have sent you his certificate, but I had 
no doubt that other specimens would be found. In fact, 
almost every miner to whom I described it said he had 
seen just such specimens, but they had supposed them to 
be fragments of steel or iron that had been broken from 
the edges of the mining tools.' M 

In a foot-note referring to the above, Dr. Shepard adds 
the following statements. The foot-note is headed: 

ik Bismutkic Gold. In the letter from which the above 
is extracted, was forwarded to me a few grains of which 
the largest weighed only 0.907 grains of an alloy of bis- 
muth and gold, to which faint traces of mercury were 
adhering. Concerning their origin, Mr. C. observes: 
'They were brought me by a friend, Mr. Willis, under 


the impression that they might be platinum. They were 
mixed with the gold of several days' work, and I assisted 
him in picking them out from a parcel he brought to the 
bank in this place. They are evidently not grains 
platinum.' " 

A description of the grains is given: Structure, sub- 
fibrous; Hardness - 2.5 — 3.0; Gr. = 12.44 — IJ 
color that of palladium; malleable, etc. 

I think most will agree with Prof. !•'.. S. Dana, who 
writes, in a letter re^ardinj^ the above note of Dr. Shep- 
ard: "Tin- evidence upon which the statement 
you will see, is not very conclusive 

I have been unable t<» fmd anywhere, eitb< nally 

or through friends who have kindly searched for me, any 
other publication of a definite kind of platinum. All 
other public mention seems to refer to or rest upon the 
one given above. 

In his Geology of North Carolina, Vol. I, Dr. k 
on page 55 of his appendix: 

"The occurrem .ins of platinum among the sands 

of gold-washings of Rutherford and Burke count 
first brought to notice by General Clingman, who sent half 
a dozen grains from a mine near Jeanestown to Prof. C. 
r. Shepard. It has also been found on Brown Mountain, 
in Burke, according to the information received from Mr. 
K. Bissell. It is reported as having been found n 
Burnsville, Yancey county." 

These statement :>ied in all subsequent repo: I 

the Minerals of North Carolina. Kven in the last report 
by Prof. Genth, published as a Bulletin of the United 
States Geological Survey, No. 74, 1891, the same wording 
is followed, but Prof. Genth adds, "Hidden, after much 
searching, failed to discover platinum at any of the reported 
localities." As to palladium, which Dr. Kerr rep. 
as occurring in Burke and Rutherford, Genth says "very 

I 2<) JOURNAL. Of TIM-. 

Taking Dr. Kerr's statements about platinum in <!■ 
tin- first must refer to the account already quoted of Shep- 
ard' s identification of one grain sent him by Clingman. I 
can find no account of other finds. Nor is any published 
mention to be found of Bisaell's di no 

record of a scientific examination nor any scientific 
authority supporting it. Mr. Bissell is himself long sii 
dr. id. There is the- same lack of authenticity and scien- 
tific authority for the report from Burnaville. 

It is a great pity that these- reports, et< not 

examined into and definitely settled as to authenticity 
while those finding or acting as experts were yet alive. 
Dr. Shepard seems to have left no trace of his connection 
with tin- find beyond the note (plot' 

Something so unique as the only specimen of native 
platinum found in the United States up to that time would 
surely have been preserved in his collection of minerals. 
yet Prof. Harris, of Amherst, where the collection is pre- 
served, writes me that there is no record of it tl; 

General Clingman, now very old, has kindly written me 
his recollection of the matter: 

•"In the year 1846 I found platinum in the gold wash- 
ings of Rutherford county, and sent specimens to Prof. C. 
I'. Shepard, then in Charleston, S. C, and part of the 
year in Connecticut. I also sent some to Prof. Dana. It 
was found in small pieces among the gold grains. I also 
obtained some in McDowell and in Burke, also some in the 
western part of Rutherford, now Polk county, and a little 
in the eastern part of Henderson county, near the Polk 
line. I am told that some was also found in the southern 
part of Jackson county in the washings of the Gold Spring 

Prof. E. S. Dana has written me that his father, Prof. 
J. D. Dana, who is referred to above by General Clingman, 
lk has no recollection in regard to the subject.'" 


Dr. F. A. Genth, who has done so much for the miner- 
alogy of the State, and is so thoroughly conversant with 
it, writes: 

"I regret that I cannot give you any additional informa- 
tion about the occurrence of platinum in North Carolina. 
I have no personal knowledge- of any find, and it seems 
that General Clingman is the Only person who can authori- 
tatively speak of its occurrence. I would like very much 
to see and examine some of the grains which 1 
have sent to the late Prof. Shepard." 

Dr. C. D. Smith I do not know of the ocenn 

of platinum anywhere in the State. Many j o it 

was claimed to have been found in some gold placers in 

the Piedmont region of the- State. I, however, have no 

knowledge of just ground for sueh claim. I very much 
desire that it might he found in North Carolina." Dr. 
Smith has spent his working years among the mineral 
Western North Carolina and has had every opportunit 
hearing of such a find if one had been mad 

Mr. Edisotl was attracted by the reported occnrreiu 
platinum here and hoped to find a source of supply of the 
costly metal for his incandescent lamps. He adveiti 
for large quantities, hoping thus to stir up private invi 
gators, and at the same time sent trained to look 

for it. The following brief note, received from his labo- 
ratory, gives the results: 

"Mr. Edison has instructed me to inform you that his 
assistants panned in every gold stream in North Carolina 
without ever getting a color of platinum." 

Mr. Hidden, who was one ot th Stants, has given 

me a short account of his investigations: 

" As to platinum in North Carolina and my search for 
veins of it in 1879: The localities visited comprised ti. 
mentioned in 'Dana,' and nearly all the 'placer gold dig- 
gings' of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and 

Alabama. I was most thorough in and around Ruth 
fordton and uj> to Jeanestown and Brindletown. The 
lamented Prof. Ken gave llu ' personal instruction at the 
time, and through him I learned of the Shepard 'find' 

a few small nuggets of platinum), at a plat old 

Whitesides settlement, 'mot far from Golden P. < >., Ruth 

ford county. Neither panning nor chemical teats show 
any platinum in tin- concentrations of the auriferous g: 

ids wherever operated. * * I found no platinum on 

Brown Mountain. I know of no authentic finds of plati- 
num in North Carolina and have no knowledge of any out- 
side of the Clingman-Shepard statements, which are 
universally quoted as fa< 

"Do not understand nic as believing for a moment that 
platinum docs not exist in North Carolina, but only that 
I do not know of such occurrence. The extraordinary 
development of chrysolite-serpentine rocks in North Caro- 
lina may yet he shown to contain platinum in commercial 
quantity — who knows? When a nugget of platinum can 
be found enclosing a large per cent, of chromite, as was the 
case near Plattsburg, N. V. (Collier), I begin to think that 
the chromite deposits of North Carolina may be profitably 
searched for the now very valuable metal. 

"In 1879 I saw a good deal of lead (weathered bullets 
and shot) that passed as platinum from the gold gravels, 
but I repeat that I saw no platinum." 

I have presented all the information that I can get on the 
subject. Only one scientific examination of the reported 
finds seems ever to have been made, and that of one grain 
"given by a friend" to General Clingman and sent by him 
to Dr. Shepard. 

It is exceedingly strange that the other "finds" reported 
were not subjected to the examination of an expert, and 
that the specimens cannot be found in the museums of the 
country. General Clingman's reports would show it to be 



widely scattered through the #old region of the State. If 
so, some ought certainly to have been found since. Finds 
are indeed frequently reported now, but 4 the gi mis- 

takes are made. Is it not probable that General Clingman 
was mistaken? 

One cannot deny that platinum may occur in North 
Carolina, but the evidence for it is very slight. And this 
is said without any intention of throwing discredit upon 
General Clingman, who has done so much to make known 
to the world the mineral re.source^ of thi 


vol from fees of memben 
ived from fi ociate memben 

ived from sales of Journal* 
Received from contributions 

Expended for 1 
Expended for expn 
Expended for binding 
Expended for lamps, etc. 
Expended for priming 

Balance on band 


J 50 


$ 14 45 




The reports of officer* were accepted and approved 
The following officers were elected for 18 


First Vice-President 
Second Vice-President 
Third Vice-President 
Secretary and Treasurer 

W. L. Pot 

W. A. WlTHlKS 

J. W. Go*] 
F. P. Vknablb 

Chapel Hill. 

.Chapd Hill. 
Chapel Hill. 




i'i ksi.n u \i.i., s« ptembei 
1 1. P r e parat ion of Pure Zirconium Chloride* from North c 

colls. 1'. I'. Ycll.lble. 

15. The Alexander Count; Meteorite 8 * H Belli 

[6. Additionato 1 1 1 * - List ol Birda Pound in North Carolina Smith 

17. Phoaphon Hi. n V. Wilson 

is. T h e orem of Leant work. Wm. Cain. 

The Secretary reported 553 booki and pamphlel 
report and thirteen additional exchanges. 


Wm 1 \i-i.i.. October 23. 1 

19. A North Carolina Catalan Furnace. H. I.. Harris. 

20. Twilight in High Latitudes. J. P. Lannean. 

21. Tin- Development of Certain Sponges, H. V. Wilson 

22. Rain-making Kxpcrimcnts. L. K. Mills. 

13. Notes <.n the Fertility of Phvsa Hctcrostropha Say. W. I.. 1 

24. Drudgery in Science. I'. P. V enable. 


I'jckson Hai.i.. November 17. 1S91. 

25. The Sun's Way. J. W. Gore. 

26. A New Cosmic Theory. Chas. Baskerville. 

27. A New Theory of the Origin of Petroleum. R. B. Hunter. 

28. Metschnikoff's Theory of the Action of Phagocytes in Diseaai 
V. Wilson. 

The Secretary reported the receipt of 231 books and pamphlets and also 
the following new exchanges: 
Colorado— College Studies. 
Buffalo — Society of Natural History. 
Hamburg — Landwirthschaftliche Rundschau. 
Dublin — Royal Irish Academy. 
Roma — Rassegua delle Scienze Geologiche. 
Societe Francaise de Botanique. 
Marburg — Gesellschaft z. Beforderung d. Naturwisserischaften. 



]'i;kson IIai.i., Decembi 

29. The Tunnel Under the St. Clair River. II. R. Shaw. 

30. Does Platinum Occur in North Carolina? P. P. Venahle. 

31. Some Cercosporae from Alabama. 

32. Transition Curves. Win. Cain. 

The Secretary reported ro8 hook- and pamphlets received. 

The total uumher now in the library 

The following additional associate membe rs have been enrolled: 

A.M)Ki;\vs. A B., Jr., 

Baskkkvii.i.k, Ch llKkkis, H : 

CiiNNok, Htm 

BDWABDS, A. J., \ 

Smith, i 
A report of the Council Meeting announcing tl 

officers for the year 1 


op Tin: 



JAM :akv )i fNE. 





i 90s, 

Josbpb A Hoi.mi.s, ----.. Chapel Hill 

MUST \ U l.-l'l 

W. I. POTBAT, - Wake 1 

si .1 < ).n ] 1 V tc E- PS ESI 1 >J 
\\ . A \\ 'minus. Raleigh, N. C 


J. W. Cork. Chapel Hill, N. C. 


P. P. Vknahi.k, - - Chapel Hill. N. C 




On the Fundamental Principles <>t the Differential Calculus. 

Win. Cain 

Remarks on the General Morph 
Record of Me< tings 




Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 



There are probably no students of the infinitesimal cal- 
culus, \vlu» have seen its varied applications, that 
i in pressed with its immense scope and power, "constitut- 
ing, as it undoubtedly does," says Cointe, "the most lofty 
thought to which the human mind h I attained.' 1 

Ii was not to be expected that a science of reasoning, 
involving so many new and delicate relations I 
infinitely small quantities, should appear perfect, in its 
logical development, from the beginning, even with such 
men as Newton and Leibnitz as its 
time mathematicians were more concerned in extending 
the usefulness of the transcendental analysis than in "rig- 
orously establishing the logical bases of it 
though it has given rise at all times to a great deal of con- 
troversy, which has been of great aid to those geometers 
who concerned themselves particularly with establishing it 
upon a logical basis. Of this number none are more 
prominent than the French author, Duhamel. He pro- 
ceeded by a rigorous use of "the method of limits," wb< 
thorough comprehension be regarded as so important that 


he devoted the first half of his Differential Calculus to its 
numerous applications. 

In the United States, after the appt of Bled 

"Philosoph) of Mathematics" in 1867, calling 1 
attention to Duhamel's elegant treatment and contrasting 
it with the false logic of various other schools, there h 
appeared a few good elementary hooks, nearly free from 

errors, though sometimes Showing B trace of them; thus 

illustrating the tenacious grip of errors induced by early 

vicious training. With these fairly good books have ap- 
peared some as had as have ever heell written, from a |< 
ieal stand-point, as well as others, where ingenious soph- 
istry has done its utmost to try and blind the student (and 
possibly the author) to the false logic involved. The 
English as a rule have followed in the lead of Newton, 
perpetuating his error that a variable can reach its limit, 
and they have occasionally introduced a number of er: 
from the Leibnitz school, whose teachings still pervade n. 
of Germany, the place of its birth. 

If the above is true as to the persistent perpetuation of 
false logic in the treatment of the first principles of the 
calculus, it would seem that no apology was needed for a 
critical review of those first principles, particularly as no 
matter what school is followed in learning the calculus the 
scientific student will be sure to come across the teachings 
of various schools in the applications and thus should be 
prepared to take them at their true worth and modify them 
in statement or otherwise when necessary. 

Although a good deal of old ground is gone over, it was 
essential to do so to bring out the points criticized in strong 
relief. The grouping of subjects is intended to be such as 
to enable the beginner in the calculus to see at once its 
truth and to catch on to its true spirit. The methods of 
Newton and of Leibnitz, with criticism, is given in fine 
print to avoid confusion, and can be omitted the first read- 
ing, without detriment to the rest, if preferred. 


Definition of tlie Limit of a I ariable. When a variable 
magnitude takes successively, values which approach more 
and more that of a constant magnitude, so that the differ- 
ence with this last can become and remain less than any 
designated fixed magnitude of the same species, however 
small, whether the variable is always above or always below 
or sometimes above and sometimes below the constant, we 
Say that the first appxnnlu s indefinitely the second and that 

the constant magnitude i-> the limit of the variable mag- 

More briefly, this is often stated thus: The limit of a 

variable is the constant, which it indefinitely approaches 

1)U t never reaches. 

Definition of an Infinitesimal. An infinitely small quan- 
tity or an infinitesimal, is a finite quantity whose lum 
zero. Hence the infinitesimal approaches zero indefinitely, 

but can never attain it, sine its "limit." As an 

illustration, take two straight lines incommensurable to 
each other. Mark the ends of the first line A', IV, the 
ends of the second A, B. Mow as we can always find a 
unit of measure that will go into A 1 IV an integral num- 
ber of times, apply such a unit to AB from A to 
many times as possible, leaving a remainder over CB 1 
than one of the parts. Then the ratio, 


A 1 IV 
is less than the 'ratio of the two lines, but approaches it 
indefinitely as the unit of measure decreases indefinitely, 
since CB being always less than the unit, tends towards 
zero but can never reach zero; hence CB is an infinitesimal 
and AC approaches AB indefinitely without ever being 
able to reach it. By the definition therefore, the limit of 
CB is zero and the limit of AC is AB, hence the limit 
of the ratio above, * 



B 1 A'B l 
is what is called the incommensurable ratio, AI'»:A'r.'. 
It is assumed, of course, that the su 
ure all exactly divide A 1 I'.'. It ma) happen that on< 
these units applied toAB will cause the point C to lie v< 
near the point B, but for a smaller unit the distance CB 
will be greater than before, so that the variable CB 
sometimes decreasing and then again increasing, but as it 
is always less than one of the parts into which A'B 1 has 
been divided, it can "become and remain' 1 less than o 
of the parts or less than any finite number that may be 
assigned, however small; hence zero is its limit by the 

If in the ratio above- we take- A' !'»' as i four foot sai ), wi- 

have, limit AC — AH from the last equation. AB and 
AC ran thus be regarded as incommensurable and com- 
mensurable numbers respectively, and we see from the 

above that an incommensurable number, as AB, is the 

limit of. a commensurable number as the number of parts 
into which unity is divided is indefinitely increased. 

The student of algebra and geometry is familiar with 
many applications of the theory of linyts, such as: limit 
of (i -J- y 2 -f y x + yi -f . . .) = a, as the number of 
terms of the series is increased indefinitely; the circle is 
the limit of a regular inscribed or circumscribed polygon, 
as the number of sides is indefinitely increased, etc., etc.; 
so that no more illustrations need be given if these are care- 
fully studied in connection with the first definition given 
above to show that it is complete and meets fully every 
case that arises. 

It may be observed, too, that although we can express 
the length of a straight line or the perimeter of a polygon, 
in terms of the length of a straight* line, taken as a unit 


of measure, we are confronted with the difficulty, in the 
case of any curve line, that we cannot apply the unit of 
measure, or any fractional part thereof, to the curve. We 
can apply it, however, to the inscribed or circumscribed 
polygon, and by taking the limit to which these polyg 
approach indefinitely as the number of sides is in< 
indefinitely, we *^et what is called the length of the curve. 
Similarly no meaning can be attached to the expressions, 
area of a curve or area of a curved surface, unless we define 

them as the limit of the area of the inscribed or circum- 
scribed polygon in the first case, or as the limit of the ai 
of the surface of the inscribed or circumscribed polyedn 
in the second east.-, the number of sides .is the I 

may be, increasing indefinitely. In tin of volumes, 

too, neither the unit of measure nor an\ fraction of it can 
be directly applied when the bounding surfs curved, 

so that a volume must be defined as the limit of the varia- 
ble volume of some inscribed or circumscribed polvedron 
as the number of faces is indefinitely ir. The dif- 

ficulty of measuring curved surf olumes, urs 

to every reflecting student, and it is strange that none 
our geometries give any definitions but only methods 
finding lengths, areas and volumes of curved lin 
ami volumes, BSStfming that the student will find out in 
some way what is meant by such terms. 

The "Theory of Limits* 1 will not be entered into here 
as it is sufficiently exposed in many text-books. Some 
Strange definitions of infinity, though, appear in some" 
excellent books. The following is a sample: "When a 
variable is conceived to have a value greater than anv 
assigned value, however great this assigned value may be, 
the variable is said to become infinite; such a variable 
called an infinite number." As an ned value" 

means some finite value, it follows from this definition that 
an infinite number is only some number greater than some 


finite- number, however large; in other words, an infinite 
number is a finite number] If such quantities have to be 
considered they should be given a different name and >\m- 
bol to avoid confusing these with absolute infinity. The 
letter G is suggested to distinguish such finite quantit 
from absolute infinity so. We get our id infinity 

from apace and time, for finito our capaciti 

cannot conceive of apace or time ever ending; Ik i 
speak of infinite apace and infinite time. However far, in 
imagination, one may travel in a atraight line in apace, it 
is impossible to conceive of ever arriving at any point 
where there is not infinite space beyond. The considi 

tion of a row of figures, lOOOO . . . , extended without 
limit, gives one an idea of an infinite number. 
Consider the quotient, 


= .ooooi;/, 

where a is finite. 

The number of noughts in the right member is one less 
than the number of noughts in the denominator, and suc- 
cessive divisions by ten show that the same law holds, no 
matter how great the denominator. 

If we conceive the number of noughts in the denominator 
to be increased to several billion, the quotient is extremely 
small, as in the right member we have the same number 
of noughts less one before reaching the i ; thus as the 
denominator increases indefinitely the value of the fraction 
approaches zero indefinitely, and this is all that is meant 

bv the abbreviated notation, — = o. 


Similarly it may be shown, if — = y and x decreases 



indefinitely, that y increases indefinitely, and this is the 

meaning of the notation — = do, which has no sense by 

itself. Although the limit of x above is zero, the limit 
of y is not infinity, since if y had a limit it could be made 
to differ from it by as small a quantity as we wish, whc: 
any finite quantity ( r) will always differ from infinity by 
Thus the principle of limits, "if two variables arc equal 

and each approaiht s a li))iit, their limit 

not apply, as both variables do not approach limits. 

Therefore the singular forms mentioned must always be 
regarded as abbreviations, having the meaning attributed 
to them above and not as meaning anything in themseh 
We have an illustration of such forms in trigonometry. 

sin t 

tan r= 

- i 

As t approaches 90 , sin 1 ches 1, . and 

the left member, though always finite, increases indefi- 
nitely. The latter is said to lx- infinite for x = 90 , 
though strictly, according to the usual definition, then 
no tangent of 90 , as the moving radius produced, being 
parallel to the tangent, can never intersect it. As parallel 
lines are everywhere the same distance apart, they cannot 
meet, however far produced, SO that the statement that two 
parallel lines meet at infinity is essentially false. 

Similarly we can reason for all the functions that inci 
indefinitely, without ever ceasing to be finite, where the 
angle approaches some limit, or fixed value it can never 
attain, with any meaning corresponding to the functions. 
The above is still more evident when we regard the ratio 
definitions first given in trigonometry, for then, there can 
be no function without a right triangle can be formed and 



there is do triangle when one acute angle ii either i 
90 ; therefore we can only say thai sin rappn 

its "limit" as t indefinitely diminishes, and tan 1 in- 
creases indefinitely as t approa< ' 

With this meaning to be given such expression 
sin = 0, tan 90 oc , they can be safelj used (and will 
In- used in what follows), though therein really do sine < 
responding to <> and no tangent for 1 

The next subject treated will he the general one of find- 
ing tin- limit of tin- ratio of two related infinitesimals, 
which is the principal problem of the differential calculus. 

Aj a special example, consider 
the circular arc ABC, li.^. i . of ra- 
dius unity, whose length in circular 
measure is 21. Divide it into two 
equal parts, x AH AC and 
draw tangents AD and CD, inter- 
secting on radius OR produced. 
Call the chord A R chord BC = c. 
Then since the radius is taken as 
unity, EA = sin x and AD = tan x. 
Xow by geometry we have, 

AC < 2c < 2x < AD DC; 
whence, dividing by 2, we have, 

sin x < c < x < tan x. 
Also since, 


sm x 

sin x 

= cos X 



tan x tan x 

as a - indefinitely diminishes, since then, lim. cos x = 1, as 
cos x indefinitely approaches unity without ever attain- 
ing it. 

Xow since c and x are always intermediate in value be- 
tween sin x and tan .r, it follows that the ratio of either to 
the other, or to sin x or tan .r, approaches indefinitely unity 
as a limit. 


sin a sin x sin x 

. • . lim. = lim. = lim. = 1, 

c tan x 

C ( x 

lim. — = lim. = lim. = 1 ; 

I tan x tan x 

and it is the ? line for the reciprocals of the above ra: 

Any one of the above ratios approaches the form - indefi- 


nitely, but can never attain it, as the functions 1 
exist when x — o and the ratio 1 -t; but the con- 

stant value which the ratio appr< indefinitely but 

never attains (/. t ., the limit) i- found to be unity. 

A function of .1 is soni- rfon that contains x and 

is designated by some lettei . . . , with x in paren- 

theses following. Thr. 

function of r, large P function of If in any func- 

tion >f 1 , the variable t i^ changed throughout 

h) so that the same operations are indicated for 
as in the original function were indicated for t, the result 
is written / (.t //). 

Tims if, 

( ) 


(- > 

• f{x k) = (.r + A) ■ cos I 1 , log (x - h). 

The increase in . is called the increment of r and 

IS generally written in the calculus At, SO that // = CkX. 
The symbol a (delta) indicates a difference, A.r signifying 
the difference between two states of x and the symbol tx is 
regarded as an indivisible one and not composed of two 
factors a and x that can ever be dissociated. Similarly 
for ai\ a:, etc., when the letu etc., occur in any 



expression. If r /( < ) and we arbiti to 

(i //) (i ai|, then r will take a new value, desig- 

nated by V A 1 '' where &y ifl the i: in y due to the 

increase in i . 

Thus, if V /(I), <■), 

v ty ./(■<■ + h) = 

./■ is here called the independent variable and V the 

pencU nt one, since the value of y depends on that of a?, which 
we shall suppose to increase at will or independently of any 

other variable in the fornmla. 

It is important to note hen that although x is generally 

increased so that &.r is pins, yet the new value of yi 

may be either greater or less than before. In the I 

Ai' will be minus. Henee, if in an \y is found nlti- 

mately to be minns, we shall know how to interpret the 


In equations ( i ) and (2), let t be first supposed to have a 
fixed constant value, then y will have a corresponding con- 
stant value. Subtracting (1) from (2) and dividing by as, 
a)' /(.'• ass) — /(.'■) 
- = (3>- 

AT A.r 

We shall presently show that this expression generally 
has a limit as &x approaches zero. From (2) above, av ap- 
proaches zero indefinitely at the same time that &.r does, so 

o &y 

that (3) approaches indefinitely the form -, but the ratio — 

o AX 

can never reach this form, for where Ay and at are both 
zero there is no ratio. We can however find the limit, or 

*y j 

the constant value to which the ratio — = 

tends indefinitely without ever being able to reach as a 
ratio, and this limit is known as the derivative, derived 
Junction or differential co-efficient of the function f(x) with 


respect to x as the independent variable. We have hitherto 
supposed x to have a constant value, but the above method 
of finding the derivative is the same whatever value of 
giving real values to y in 0, we start from; hence the 
method is perfectly general. 
As an illustration let, 

y =/(*) = 

If ./• is changed to (3 //) = 1 . . y will be chanj 

to y -f &y. 

. ' . y \v /(./• • k) (a kf h. 
Expanding the right member of the last equation and sub- 
tracting the preceding equation from it, we haw 

Dividing by // = a r, we have, 

— = 3 *X) LX 


The limit to which the right member ap] - indefi- 

nitely is 3 1 ■-, since as ai diminishes indefinitely, 
the term (3 t At) ai in which At is a factor. Then : 
the derivative of f{x) with respect to t is, 

A.r ./ I . a. ) — 

lim. — — lim. = 3 

At _vt 

This limit ($x*) is true, no matter what value of x we 
start from, and its numerical value depends upon the value 
of t. It is seen to be perfectly definite and finite and to 
vary from zero to plus infinity according as x changes from 
zero to infinity. For a given value of 1 as 2, the limit 
has only one value = 12. Similarly for any other value. 
It is only in the case o\' the simpler functions that f{x 
can be developed readily, so that the derivatives can be 
easily found, but after rules for finding the derived func- 
tions of products, powers, etc, have been deduced (as given 
in elementary treatises on the calculus) the work of finding 


them by these rules is comparative!) simple, hoi im- 

plicated the functions. 

A]' /(» A)— J 
As lim. — , lim. , arc- cumbersome sym- 


bols it is usual to put — for them. 

dy *y f{x k)—f\ 

.-. — - lim. — lim. . 

d.r A'' // 

Iu this expression dy is read differentia] of y and d£ dif- 
ferential of ■'■, and both dy and dx arc- to l>c- regarded 
indivisible symbols, so that d is not a factor but a symbol 
of operation. The- differentials dy and dx arc- regarded as 
finite- quantities, whose ratio, for any value- of •'-, is exactly 


equal to lim. — . 


Thus even for the same value of this limit, dy and dx 
can be supposed to both increase or both decrease at pl< 
ure, the only restriction being that their ratio shall always 
equal the value of the limit for the particular value of ./• 
considered. There is thus great flexibility in this cori< 
tion of differentials. As a rule we shall consider the dif- 
ferentials as having appreciable values; in other cases it is 
convenient to treat them as infinitesimals or finite ijuanii- 
ties whose limits arc zero, but which consequently never 

become zero themselves, as then the ratio — has no sig- 


nificance. In the same way &x and Ay are infinitesimals. 
In the equation, derived from one above, 

dy Ay 

— = lim. — = 3^, 

dx ax 

it is understood that we can clear the equation of fractions 
and write, 


dy = I lim. — \dx = yfda 


From this equation we see why y& (in the particular 

example) or lim. — generally, is called a differential co-effi- 


On referring to the right member of eq. (4), we see that 
regarded by itself, it has no limit, since it is an essential 
requisite that a variable can never reach its limit, when 
by making \x = o, the right member becomes at once 
but considered in connection with the lift member^ we 
that although y.v must tend towards zero indefinitely, vet 
it can never be supposed zero, tor then the ratio a 
has no meaning. With this restriction, then, the right 
member can approach 3 se without 1 

being able to reach it; henee 3.'" IS the true "limit' 
the right member when \.r is regarded as an infinitesimal 
whose limit is zero. 

It is evidently immaterial by what law, if any, ac di- 
minishes towards zero. YYe Can, if we choose, sup- 
to diminish by taking the half of it, then the half of this 
result, and so on, in which case v will tend indefinitely 
towards zero, but can never attain it; or we can supp 
a.c to diminish, in any arbitrary way, indefinitely I 
zero without ever becoming zero. In any case the right 
member as well as the left has a true limit according to the 
strict definition. 

It is to be observed, too, that this limit is found on the 
one supposition that a.c tends towards zero, for then ai . 
a consequence, tends towards zero indefinitely without ever 
being able to reach it. 

We have emphasized this point, because some of the best known Eng- 
lish writers, as Todhemter. Williamson and Edwards, following the lead of 


\\!. OF III i 

tin- great Newton, have saeumed tl 
thai ' 1 1 above should " ultimatelj 

That .Vinton failed to establish a true theory oi litn 
Bledsoe's Philosophy of Biatbemai 

ovt i previous methods; but now that s correct theory of limits is so nni 
iih known, there can be not later writers in perpetuating 

the satin tned Inevitable in ihedawuoftbi 

method. The French m lowing the lead of Duhamel), and 

some American w ri te r s, have been more logical in tb< pmentof 

the infinitesimal calculus. 

The problem of tangents is one which gave rise to the 
differential calculus and needs to be carefully consider 

In fig. 2, let r /(.;•) be the equation of the- curve DPS 
referred to the rectangular axes a? and ^y. Suppose we wish 
to find the tangent of the angle PEX made by a tangent at 
a point P of the curve with the X axis or tin slope of tin 
curve at /' whose co-ordinates are x and y. The co-ordi- 
nates of a point S to the- right of I* arc r • ai\ 
that, PQ a/\ SQ av and, 


— 4= tan SPR. 


This equation gi 
the slope of the secant 
PS which varies witli 
the values of &x and 
av. If PS regarded 
as a line simply, but 
not a secant, is re- 
volved around P, in 
one position only, it 
coincides with the tangent, where it touches the curve in 
but one point. If it is revolved further, it cuts the curve 
on the other side of P whether the curve in the vicinity of 
P is convex to the X axis as drawn or concave. If the 
curve is convex on one side of P and concave on the other, 
the line PS will cut the curve in three points when it lies 



on one side of the tangent, and in one point when it lies 
on the other side of the tangent When it coincides with 
the tangent it cuts the curve in but one point. 

But in all easts, it must be carefully noted, that the 
'/// PS as it revolves about P can approach the tangent 
PT as near as we choose, but can never reach it; tor then 
it would cease t<» be a secant; hence the tangent is the lim- 
iting position <»f the secant. Therefon and con 
qnently at) diminish towards zero indefinitely, the point S 
will approach the point P indefinitely and angle SPR ap- 
proaches indefinitely angle TPR as its limit; whence torn 
vSPR approaches indefinitely tan TPR as its limit. 

Therefore, taking the limit of the equation 

,\v dy 
lira. — = — = tan TPR . . 
±r dx 
Hence if v / (x) u ///, <i/ituti<>>i <>/ the curve, tk 
rivative of f (x) with qualtoh 

of the curve at the point Thus the tan- 

gent of the angle made by the tangent line of the cubic 
parabola r .< ilready considered, with -the axis 

», equals T,.r at the point wl; 

This value was determined above and its meaning is that 
for .<• equal to 1 the cm 

; 4 , 3, etc., and it increases indefinitely as .<• ii. 

In Edwards' Differential Calcnl I edition, 1S92 

read, changing the letters to >uit fig. _\ to which the theor;. 
"When S travelling along the curve, approaches indefinitely near | 
tlie chord PS becomes in the limit the tangent at 1'." In «. 
the author, in getting the final equation, again say>: 'When S COOK 
coincide with IV etc. It is plain from th that this 1 

recent English author considers a variable to actually reach its limit — a 
fundamental eno> we have exposed above. The chord cannot reach the 

tangent without ceasing to he a chord, neither can the ratio (—slope 

of chord) reach its limit — without the ratio ceasing to exist. 

Let us take- as another illustration the common parabola 


When '■ increase! to x a*, y changes to v av 
Subtracting the first equation from the second 

2y AY 2/> ax 

*& 2)' + At' 

As as approachea zero, .\v tends in the same time towards 
/(.to, a limit which neither can attain however. The right 

member similarly approaches indefinitely the constant — 


without ever being able to attain it, which is therefore its 

limit by the definition. Hence slope of tangent at point 

(a?, v) is, 

av dy /> ] p 

\x d.r y * 2-r 

From this equation we sec- that the slope of the tangent 

varies from plus OT minus infinity for X = o to plus or 
minus zero for x = oo. 

a i o dy 
As, lim. — = — = — , 

A.r O dx 

the dy and d.v would appear to replace the zeros in the 

singular form -, which gave rise to Bishop Berkeley's wit- 

ticism that the dy and dx were "the ghosts of the departed 

quantities Ay and ax. " As we have defined them above, 

dy and dx are finite quantities, of the same nature as y and 

r, whose ratio is always equal to the derivative, this ratio 

being variable when the derivative is variable. As y =/{x) 

can always be represented by a locus (since for assumed 

values of x we can compute and lay off the corresponding 


values of y) and since dy : dx represents the slope of the 
locus at the point (.<\ y\ we can represent dy and dx by the 
length of certain lines. Thus in fig. 2, from the point of 
tangency P, draw PR parallel to the axis of* any distance 
from P to R to represent dx and from the point R draw RT 
parallel to the axis of y to intersection T with the tangent, 
when RT will represent dy ; for then 

dy &y 

— = tan TPR = lim. — , 
dx Al- 

as should be the case. 

If we choose to make dx a I PQ, then dy = QI, which 
is less than &y when S is above I. for a convex curve to X, 
and greater than A_r when I is below, or for a curve > • 
to X, just to the right »>f P. It is only in the :ere 

y / ( t ) is the equation of a straight line that for dx a I 
we have dy = ai\ for here w i tx represents the slop 
the line. 

Other important form n las can be deduced from fig. 

If we call the length of the curve from some point I) to 
P, v, then the increment of the arc P£ ponding to 

the simultaneous increment a i of i will be called ay. Call 
the length of the chord PS 

Then we have, 


= cos SPQ, 




= sin SPQ. 

A A' 

Now we have seen before that lim. — = I, SO that the 



a i AY 

middle terms above approach — , — indefinitel) and the 


right members approach, as their limits, cos IPQ, sin IPQ 

respectively, as ai and consequently at and &j approach 

zero indefinitely without ei bingit Hence taking 

a i <t\ Ai- dy 

limits and designating lim. — by — and lini. — by — 

AS i/\ A^ dx 


a \ (h 

lim. — = coi TPQ = — . . . 

as dx 

av dy 

lim. — = sin TPQ = —.... (j). 

These equations are satisfied by representing 'A by the 

hypotenuse of tin- right triangle of which </\ and dy 
the other two sides. Thus if PO = da and QI rfp, then 
PI = ds; but if PR = dx and RT = rfp, then PT =- 

In any cast, we have the fundamental relation, 
ds 2 = dx 2 + df 

It is usual to represent the derivative of fix) with re- 
spect to x by/" 1 (a). 

av dy 

.-. lim. ■— =f l (x) = —. 

At dx 

If we call W an infinitesimal that tends towards zero in 
the same time as ax, we can write, 

— =/»(*) + » (9), 


for taking the limits of both sides, we reach the preceding 
equation. The variable w is indeterminate and may be 
plus or minus. Clearing of fractions, we have, 
Ay — f x (x) ax — w ax . . . . (io). 
In fig. 2, since f l (x) ax — ax tan IPQ — IQ, we see 
that the term w Jx must represent IS. 


Comparing the last equation with 
dy =f l (x)dz, 
obtained from an equation above, we sec that when dx = a r, 

dy = ay — wdx. 
Thus we have proved analytically, when dx = t\x that 

dy is never equal to A)' (except when / (.1 ) represent 
straight line) and the difference is exactly represented on 

the figure by the distance IS. 

Mam of the older writers, following the lead of Leibnitz, — ■ inner! that 
dy and a)\ as well ai ds and a>, were identical when da a r, and the 
error is perpetuated tothia day by possibly the majority of the mo 
writers; thus Williamson, in his Differential Calculus (6th Bd., i v 
3, says, "Wlun tin- increment or diffet ted infinitely tmall 

it is called a differential." Similarly in a recent American ti> 

the calculus by Bowser, the same definition is given. 
Professor Bowser definea "consecutiw fa function 01 1 

lines which differ from each other by less than a> '<le quan- 

tity." He tlun add-. "A differential has been defined a- an infinitely 
small increment or an infinitesimal; it niaj also be defined as the d: 
ence between two consecutive vain riahle or functioi 

A- there an- an infinite number of value- lying b< 

assignable quantity," however small, it follows that such differential* 
■imply quite small finite quantities. 

The differentiation of a function, a- f t', would then pro- 

ceed alter the method of I.eibnit/. BS follows: 

y = ax* 4- b. 

Give to 1 and ) the simultaneous infinitesimal increments dx and dy. 
y 4 4- *• 

Subtracting the first equation from the last, we have, 

i xdx 4- i 

NCw from the nature of infinitesimals, it is regarded by the follower! 
Leibnitz as evident that dx* can be neglected in comparison with 2 xdx, 
because the square of the infinitesimal dx is infinitely small in compari- 
son with the variable itself, whence, 

i dx. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark to the reader that, for an exact result. 
we cannot make dx ~- in part of an equation without making it zero 
throughout; so that the equation is fundamentally wrong. 

When we go to the applications to curves, however, another error is 
made, of an opposite character to the first, so that by this secret compen- 
sation of errors the result is finally correct. Thus a curve is regarded as 
a polygon whose sides connect "consecutive points " and a tangent line 

24 JOURNAL OP Tin-: 

.it .in \ point 1-- the chord product <l throt 

point," so that dy : dx ilopeof the tangent at the potnt Tins 

course wrong, but it exactly balatN 
the last equation we find the it i th< cni \ ■ 

to be .' a i I, which we know to I" I method • 

The great Prench author, Lagrange, aays la this connection, "In 
iny; a curve m s polygon of an infinite n u m b e r of si 
small, and of which the prolongation is th 

clear that we make an trroneom supposition; but this error finds ii 
coi rected in th<- call ulna by the omission which is made of Infinitely small 
quantities. Tbiacan beeaailj ahown in examples, i>ut it would 
bapa, difficult t<> k'^<' ■ general demonetratiou 

Bishop Berkeley, long before I showed tlii-> 

tii. n of errors In ■ particular example, hie endeavor l*ing particular: 
"show how trrot m*y bring /">th truth, though it cannot bring /<->/// 

Leibnitz, in attempting ■ defeneeof his theory, stated that "be ti 
infinitely small quantities as incomparabUs, and that lit- neglected them 
in cotnpariaou with finite quantities 'like grains of s; ""l '" eompai 
with the sea'; ■ r.ew which would have completely changed the natnn 
his analysis by reducing it to a mere approximative calculn 
Comte'a Philosophy of Mathematics, Gilleapie, p. 99. 

The demonatration given above in the case of/ 1 nx* + b can be 
made general, as follows i 

Prom the exact equation 191 above, following the notation of Leibnitz 

where i/v ami dx are taken a-- identical with Av and &X, we have exactly, 


— — /l .. + .v. 


The followers of Leibnitz, in differentiating, throw away the term B 
nothing and pretend to write exactlv, 


but as they make another error by calling the ratio of the increments dy 
and dx the slope of the curve, we thus find the latter to equal/ x (*), which 

was assumed above to equal lim. — or the slope of the curve; so that the 

two errors, for any function, balance each other and we reach a correct 

As the truth of any result, as given by the Leibnitz method, can only 
be tested, in a similar manner to the above, by comparing with a result 
known to be correct by use of the method of limits, it would seem to be 
inexcusable not to found the calculus upon this latter method. After- 


wards a true "infinitesimal method" can l>e easily logically deduced 
Dnhatnel and others have shown | that will offer all the advantages and 
abbreviated processes of the Leibnitz method, with none of its error 

It is well to remark just here that because y = / (r) can 
alwavs be represented by a locus, and since its derivative 
with respect to 1 represents the slope of the tangent at the 
point (r, i'), it will generally be finite. It is only at the 
points where the tangent IS parallel or perpendicular to the 
axis of x that the derivative is zero or infinity. Hence the 
ratio of af to At, whose limit is the slope, has generally a 
finite limit. 

We have studied now, with some thoroughness, the 
theory of tangents and will next take up, a no less ini; 
taut subject, the method of rates. When a variable char. 
so that, in consecutive equal intervals of time, the incre- 
ments are equal, the change is said to be uniform; other- 
wise variable. For uniform change, the increment of the 
function in the unit of time is called the rate. Thai in 


the case of uniform motion, velocity - rate — . 


For a variable change, the rate of the function at any 
instant is what its increment would become in a unit of 
time if at that instant the change became uniform. 

In looking for an illustration to show clearly the spirit 
and method of the calculus, perhaps none is 111 fac- 

tory to the beginner than the consideration of falling bod- 
ies in vacuo. If we call the space in feet, described by 
the falling body in / seconds, j and - the acceleration due 
to gravity, we have the relation between the space and 
time, as given by numerous experiments, expressed in the 
following equation, 

s= tfg fi\ 


26 JOURNAL <m tin. 

g is a variable for different latitude* and is 
slightly over 32. Take it 32 foe brevity. 

In tin- time 1 a/ the sps ribed would 

be 1 a^ (aee fig. 3), and by the tame law, 

diJj ^ (s AN) l6 (/ A/ 

. Subtracting the preceding equation and divid- 

7 ing by a/, 

= 16(3/ A/). 


This gives tin- average rate or velocity with which the 

small space &J is described 

As the rate or velocit) is changing all the- time, call 
<-', and v, the least and greatest valuesof the- velocity in de- 
scribing the space a.v; then the spaces which would h 
been described with uniform velocities 1 , r in time a/ 

<-, a/ and v t a/, which are respectively less and greater than 
the actual space as. 


Hence .--,, — and v t are in ascending order of magnitude. 


As a/ (and a.v consequently) is diminished indefinitely, these 

three quantities approach equality and the exact velocity 
the body has at the beginning of the space a^ is given by 

the constant to which they approach indefinitely but never 

attain. But lim. :', = lim. v 2 = limit — = velocity or 


rate at the instant the space j" has been described (see Ed- 
wards' Differential Calculus . 

Hence in the particular example above, the velocity the 
falling body has, at the end of / seconds, when it has de- 
scribed the space s, is, 

ds as 

— = lim. — — 32/ (12); 

dt At 


i. e., the body at the end of i, 2, 3 . . , seconds is moving 
with a rate of 32, 64, 96 . . , feet per second. The same 
conclusion follows if we give a decrement to / in eq. ( 1 1 ). 


(S A-*) = l6 (/ — 


. • . H111. — = lini. 16 (2/ a/) = 32/. 
The average velocity in describing the space a^ jnst above 
the point considered is 10 (2/ — a/\ that belov. md 

above, is i(> (2/ a/); the true velocity lies between thein 
and is equal to tin- limit 16 (2/) of eithi 

The above general demonstration can be adapted to the 
rate of increase of any function, // --/"(/), which does not 
change uniformly with the time, u representing a magni- 
tude of any kind, as length, area, volume, etc.; for if a// 
is the actual change of the magnitude in time a/, ami 
/, and r, the least and greatest values of tlu 
of it in the interval .v ponding to the increments 

r, a/, > , a/, of the magnitude, if these rates were uniform 
for the time a/, then /-, a/, a// and r, a/ are in the ascend- 

i 11 j-2, order of magnitude; also r„ — ami r t are in the same 

order. Hence, as these quantities approach equality in- 
definitely as a/ tends towards zero, the limit of any oin 
them is equal to the actual rate of increase of the magni- 
tude // which is thus represented by lim. r„ = lini. r 2 , or, 

lim. — = — . 
a/ dt 
Thus the derivative of any function, which varies with 
the time, with respect to /, gives the 1 rait rate of incr<. 
of the function at the instant considered. 

If it and 1 are both functions of /, connected by the 
relation u = K (a), then 


tin dt rate of change of u 

d\ i/\ rate of chan 

As an illustration, find the rate at which the- volume // 
of a cube tends to increase in relation to the in : an 

edge i, due to a supposed continuous expansion from h< 


It B t"' . • . S3 V ■'. 


Therefore tor t = i, 2, 3, the volume tends to inci 
at a rate 3, 12, 27 times a-, fast as the edge in< 
Numerous examples could he given of the application of 

the differential calculus to the ascertaining of relative- ral 
hut the above will suffice to illustrate the principle. 

It has been shown above that if // =-/(/), — represents 


the rate of change of //, if at any time /, the rate is sup- 
posed to become uniform; hence du represents what the 
increment of ;/ would become in time dt. 

As time must vary uniformly, dt is always a constant, 
though it is entirely arbitrary as to numerical value; hence 
the differential of a variable can be defined, as 'what the 
increment 0/ the variable would become in any interval of 
time if at the instant considered, the change becomes uni- 
form or the rate becomes constant. If // is a function of 
several variables, then the differentials of each must be 
simultaneous ones, corresponding to the same interval of 

Newton, in establishing his calculus of fluents and flux- 
ions, conceived a curve to be traced by the motion of a 
point, an area between the axis of .r, the curve and two 
extreme ordinates, to be traced by the motion of a variable 


ordinate to the curve and a solid to be generated by the 
motion of an area. 

I point traces a curve- DPS (fig. 2), when it reaches 
the point P, it has the direction of the tangent PT at that 
instant; for we can make only two suppositions: (i) the 
direction coincides with that of some chord passing through 
P, whether the other end of the chord precedes or foil. 
P, or (2) it coincides with the tangent; but it cannot 1) 
the direction of a chord at the point P without leaving the 
curve; hence this supposition IS false, and as one must be 
true, it follows that the direction of motion at P must coin- 
cide with the tangent PT. 

At the point P therefore, b) the definition ah 
differential, the simultaneous differentials of t, y and j 
what their increments would become, during any tinu 
at P their rates of change should become constant This 
can happen only where the motion talc e uniformly 

along a straight line and this line must be the tangent at 
P, as that is the direction of motion at that point. The 
differentials dx, dy ami ds can thus be represented by | 
Q] and PI respectively, or bv PR, RT and PT, for a uni- 
form increase along the tangent would * 
uniform rate horizontally and vertically. This ,vith 

what has hitherto been established. 

The rates of increase, horizontally, vertically and along 
dx dy 
the tangent, are — , — and — respectively. 
/// dt dt 

The differential of an a> 
CDPA .7, then if At - dx \\\,du ydx ; for although 
a// = area A.PSB, the increase of area will not be uniform 
if the upper end oi the ordinate AP moves along the curve, 
but it will be uniform if it moves uniformly along PQR; 
for then equal rectangles, as APQB, will be swept out by 
the ordinate AP as it moves to the right, in equal times. 



Therefore by the definition of differential above, du 
.\l'()i', y<i\. This is readily proved by the method of 
limits thus: Note that, 

y& t l\u \v) *X\ 

hence dividing l>v -Ji and observing that as J\ diminisl 

indefinitely, (y Ay) and hence — (which is still nearer^) 

approach y indefinitely in value, 

. ■ . Km. — = — = y . . . . (i 
a t dx 
Similarly we can prove, by cither method, that if V 
represents the volume generated by CDPA revolving about 
oX, that rfV is rep res e nted by the volume generated by 
Al'oli about OX.*. d\ - - y - <ix. 

Referring to eq. (in and tig 2 it i-^ seen that it for any curve « 
CDPA can be expressed a- a function <<f x, or u J • . then by the 

usual notation, 


lim. =/' 

and this equals r by 1 1 . 

On calling rr an infinitesimal that tends towards /.ero in the same I 
as ax, we can write, 

A" i/ 1 (») -f W) A/, 
since on dividing by a/ and taking the limit, we are conducted to the 
preceding equation. But by the Leibnitz method the term ( w&z) is thrown 
away, on differentiating u =_/'( r), when $r and aw are infinitely small, 
so that A« =y" 1 j-AJ' = JJ'A''. 

Another error is made, however, by regarding the area aw = APSB as 
equal to APQB, which, combined with the preceding result, gives cor- 
rectly, area APQB = va/. As Leibnitz regarded du and (//as identical 
with aw and &z, when the latter were infinitely small, they should replace 
the latter in the above equations to express them by his notation. 

Thus truth is again evolved from error, and it can be similarly shown 
in other cases, though a general demonstration seems difficult, if not im- 

The "Method of Indivisables " by which "lines were considered as 
composed of points, surfaces as composed of lines and volumes as com- 


posed of surfaces, has not been alluded to, a> it is not now found in any 
text-books. It is an exploded theory. Cavalieri, the author, was led to 
it by noticing, e. g. t that in fig. 2, art a A.PQB was never exactly equal to 
area Al'SH; hence he made \r and regarded the area A* a- a line 
AP, so that U - area CDPA Rtt made up of an infinity of lines, etc. 
This is analogous to the Statement that a variable can reach its limit. 

In conclusion, let us nope that soon, the conceptions 
concerning the fundamental principles of the calculus may 
Ik- eliminated from all text-books. The world is still 
waiting for the treatise on the calculus that is simple and 
clear and at the same time rigorous in its logic. 


HV 11. V Wll 

I have .shown: that in Ksperclla and Tedania the sub- 
dermal cavities, canals and chambers dew 
lacunae in the parenchyma or mes-entoderm of the attached 
sponge, subsequently becoming connected into a continu- 
ous system. As regards th< pment of the canal - 
tern such varying accounts are given by different auth 
that were it not for the help lent by comparative anatomy 
it would be quite impossible to form any idea of the fun- 
damental morphology of sponges. Fortunately for' the 
student entering this puzzling domain comparative anatomy 
has, in the hands of Hueekel, Schulze and Polejaeff, pro- 
vided a stand-point from which the varying phenomena 

*TheM remarks were originally written as part 
sponges, which it is expected will >o<>n go t.. the press It lias not been ton 
to insert in the present text tin- wood cuts with which the intention was to illu- 
inanv of t! .red to. The omission oi the cuts, while it is to be regretted. 

will iiot be found to interfere with the intelligibility of the views expn 

tNudes on the Development of Some S] 


development and structure 1 1 1 - » >■ be viewed witl 

partially understanding be that au ii 

ing accumulation * »i" facts will show that Eiaeckel's con- 

Ception of the relation of the- siin as Spotl] 

to the complex horny and silicious forms is not well 
founded, and that Schulze!s view of the parts played by 
the embryonic layers in producing the adult anatom; 
not the- true one. But at present it is only with the aid of 
these theories that one- can form any clear conception of 
tlu- sponges in general, and so provisionally at l< 
arc bound to accept them. 

Comparative anatomy points in no undecided manner to 
the phylogenetic path along which sponges have develop- 
oped, and so permits us to construct a standard of ontogeny, 
with which we may compare the actual devclopmen: 
each species as we witness it to-day, and so be enabled to 
note the amount and kind of divergence | 
hibited. That coenogeny is exhibited to a great degree in 
the embryology of sponges is evident from the vari 
tvpes of development described, and in the future much 
may be hoped from the study of a group like this for the 
understanding of the laws of development. For the pres- 
ent all we can do is to accept what seems the most probable 
phylogeny, recording the instances of supposed coenogeny 
as they are observed. Adopting this method, I have to 
regard the development (/. c. , the later development or 
metamorphosis) of Esperella and Tedania as far removed 
from the phylogenetic path. Before pointing out the fea- 
tures in which the development of these sponges is 
strongly coenogenetic, it will be worth while to review 
briefly the evidence on which rests the current view of 
sponge morphology. 

Ei- i deuce from Comparative Anatomy as to Sponge Phy- 
togeny. The strongest evidence offered by comparative 
anatomy lies in the series of forms, passing by gradations 


from very simple to complex types, found in the calcan 
sponges,* and in the little group of silicious sponges, 
the Plakinidae, described by Schulzct A comparison of 
these forms goes to show that the simplest Ascon sponge 
(Olynthus) must be regarded as the ancestral type- of the 
group, and that by the continued folding of the wall of 
this simple form were produced the more complicated 
sponges. Further, the exceedingly complex silicious and 
horny sponges must he interpreted as colonies in which the 
limits of the individual can in many 10 (ongei 


The calcareous sponges offer a seri< :s of increasingly com- 
plex forms, which Haeckel divided ii. 11s, Syo 
and Lencons. Haecke'. on the relationship of tl: 
forms must in great measure be accepted to-day, though in 
certain respects lly as regards the anatomy of the 
Leucons, later researches (Polejaeff, /. c.) have shown that 
he was not always in possession of the real facts of t! 

The simplest calcareous . which - 

as the basis for Haeckebs hypothetical spon. tor, the 

Olynthus, are too familiar to call for any description. The 
interesting form, Homoderma sycandra (von Lendenfeld) 
may, however, be mentioned, in which the body is sur- 
rounded by radial tubes, after the fashion of a Svcandra, 
but with this difference: The central cavity as web 
the radial tubes is lined with collared cells. A figun 
this interesting sponge is accessible in Sollas's article on 
Sponges in the Encyclopedia Brittannica, or in the Zool. 
cal Articles by Lankesler, etc., page 

Homoderma bridges the way from the Ascon type to the 
simplest Sycons, in which the radial tubes are distinct from 
one another. A surface figure of such a Sycon [Sycetta 

♦Haeckel, Kalkspongien. Polejaeff, Challenger Report on the Ca 
gchulse, Die Placiniden, /.tit fiir w 

34 j ( " 01 im 

primitiva) is given in Vosmaer.* In the majoril ras, 

however, the radial tribes are not distinct, but .. 
nected together more or less by strands of mesoderm i 
ered with ectoderm. The complicated ectodermal 
thus formed, which lit- between the radial tabes, arc- known 
as intercanals. Water enters the intercanals through the 
openings in the surface (surface pores) and ■ into the 

radial canals through the openings in their walls the primi- 
tive pores — so-called chamber pores). The embryo 
the Sycons, as far as known, confirms the belief that they 
are derived from the Ascons. Thus Sycandra raphanm 
passes through a distinctly Ascon phase, the radial tul 
appearing later as outgrowths. The actual development 
of complicated intercanals, Mich as those just mentioned, 
has never been witnessed, but the comparison of a lai 
number of forms in which the connection between the 
radial canals varies within wide limits makes it pretty cer- 
tain that they are homologous with the simple ectodermie 
spaces between the radial tubes of Sycetta. It is exceed- 
ingly probable that the actual development of the compli- 
cated Sycons will show that the radial tubes are in young 
Stages distinct from one another, and only later become 
connected together by bridges of ti- as to form com- 

plex intercanals. And so we must at present regard the 
intercanals as lined with ectoderm. 

Coming now to the Leucons, we find that Polejaeff's de- 
scription of the anatomy of this family accords with their 
derivation from the Sycons, quite as well as did Haeckel's 
more imaginative conception of the structure of these 
forms. Taking one of the simplest of Polejaeff's tyj 
Lencilla connexiva (PI. VI, fig. la, Polejaeff /. c.\ let us 
compare it with a Sycon. Such a form is obviously de- 
rived from a Svcon bv the evaluation of the wall of the 

*Vosmaer. Bronn's Klass. and Ordnunaren. Spongien. Taf. IX. Schulze. Zeit. fur 
Wiss. Zool. Bd. 31. 


paragastric cavity at certain points. These evaginati 
give. rise to numerous diverticula of the central cavity, 
which constitute efferent canals. The radial chambers are 
at the same time thrown into groups, each group opening 
into one of the new diverticula. The intercanals penetrate 
as before between the several radial chambers, bringing 
water to the chamber pores, the complexity of their arra:: . 
ment naturally being increased by the folding of the wall 
of the paragastric cavity. 

The increasing complexity in the Leucon family is 
brought about by the ramification of the primitively sim- 
ple efferent canals, the radial tubes growing shorter and 
becoming in the most complicated types spheroidal cham- 
bers quite like the flagellated chambers of the non-cali 
sponges. In Leucilla n(tt\ for instance i I'olejaeff, PI. VI, 
fig. 2a), the efferent canals exhibit branching of a simple 
character. Hut in sueh a form ;i> Leuconia multiformis 
(I'olejaeff, PI. VI, fig. 3«) the ramification of the efferent 
canals becomes exceedingly complex, and the radial tu 
here appear as spheroidal flagellated chambers. The inter- 
canals (or afferent canals, as they are called in all 5] 
but the Sycons) follow the efferent canals in all their wind- 
ings, bringing water from the surf to the pores in 
the walls of the flagellated chamln : 

The chief conclusions to be drawn from this anatomical 
comparison of the various forms of Sycons and Leuc 
are that the afferent canals of helicons are homologous with 
the intercanals of Sycons and are lined with ectoderm; 
that the flagellated chanib- homologous with the 

radial tubes; that increasing complexity is brought about bv 
the ramification (or folding o\ the wall) of the efferent 

The canal system of a complicated Leucon, like Leu- 
conia, is essentially like that of a common silicious or 
horny sponge (having flagellated chambers, afferent and 


efferent canals)except in theont I that in the Leu 

there is a single central cavity opening l>y a terminal 

osmium, while iii most silicious and horny sponges th< 
are several orcula leading into as many spacious effen 
cavities. But here the disposition of tin 
to form indubitable colonics helps us out, for if w< com- 
pare the silicious or horny sponge with a colon) 
cons instead of with a single one, wc find that its deriva- 
tion from such simple symmetrical forms is mad 
We must suppose the complex non-calcareous sponge to be 
a colony, in which the limits of the individuals have b 
lost or obscured by the increasing thickness of the walls. 
This increasing thickness would finally result in a more 

less complete fusion of the members of a colony into an 

undivided mass with oscnla scattered the surfa 

Each of the main efferent canals of the non-calcareous 
sponge is homologous with the paragastric cavity of a sin- 
gle Leucon. Both the canal and its set of branches, though) 

are extremely irregular, having completely lost the sym- 
metr\ of the ancestral type. The flagellated chain' 
still bear the same relation to the efferent canals as they 
did in the Leucon; /. *., they are simple diverticula of the 
canals. The system of afferent canals is obviously homolo- 
gous with the same system in the Leucons, bearing identi- 
cally the same relation as in the latter group both to the 
flagellated chambers and the efferent canals. The sub- 
dermal cavities (which are only modified portions of the 
afferent canal system), communicating with the exterior by 
numerous pores, though a late acquisition, are found in cer- 
tain Leucons; c. g., Eilhardia Schulzei (Polejaeff, PI. IX). 
In many of the Xon-calcarea the colonial nature of the 
sponge is indicated by the presence of elevations (oscular 
tubes or papillae), bearing oscula on their summits. But 
the number of oscula is not always to be taken as indicating 
the number of individuals of which the sponge is com- 


posed, for the colonies of calcareous sponges show plainly 
that the budding individuals do not always develop oscula. 
And on the other hand, there are certain indications in the 
silieious sponges that in the adult oscula may h :>ed 

almost anywhere. In spite of the difficulties, however, in 
fixing upon the limits of the component individuals the 
higher sponges arc best regarded as colonies. Perhaps the 
nearest approach made in other groups to the formation of 
such colonies, in which the personality of the component 
individual is so nearly lost, is found in corals like Macan- 
drina, in which the united gastric cavities of the pol 
form continuous canals perforated at intervals by mouths. 

We therefore reach the conclusion that the higbei 
(non-calcareous) have been derived from colony-producing, 
symmetrical forms, in which the evaginations of the primi- 
tive paragastric cavity had already taken the form of 
efferent canals and flagellated chambers; that is, from forms 
allied to the existing Leucons. And we further com* 
the conclusion that the subdennal cavities and afferent 
canals are homologous with the intercanals and 

hence phylogenetically, at least, are infolding* of the e 
derm. The whole efferent system (canals and flagellated 
chambers both), on the contrary, is homologous with the 
same system in the calcareous sponges, and is endodermic. 

This conclusion as to the parts played by the germ layers 
in producing the adult non-calcan the one 

enunciated by Schul/e in his classical paper on the 
Plakinidae (p. 438), In this little family of silici 
sponges Schulze finds a genus, Plakina, the three 
of which form links in a chain of increasing complexity, 
showing quite as clearly as did the calcareous sponges that 
the afferent system is derived from ectodermal infoldii. 
and the efferent from endodermal outfolding 

The Plakinidae are Tetractinellids. The three .species 
of the genus Plakina are small encrusting sponges found in 

38 JOURNAL Of Tin-. 

the Mediterranean, on the under ride ol 
In the simplest species, /'. monolopha y there is a continuous 
basal cavity crossed by strands of tissue. From tin- cavity 
run more or less vertical efferent canals, which arc simple 
or very slightly branched, and into which open the flagel- 
lated chambers, The afferent canals are spacious 
opening on the surface by wide mouths. The periph 
of the sponge forms a continuous rounded rim, the "ring- 
wall," and the oscula, one or several, arc situated h< 
The surface of the sponge inside the "ringwall" isdivided 
up into low rounded elevations, caused by the upper ends 
of the efferent canals, between which lie the wide apertu 
leading into the- afferent canals. Schnlze was fortunately 
able to observe the main features in the development of 
this interesting form. There is a solid swimming larva 
which settles down, forming a Sat circular ma^->. A 1 
tral cavity appears in the in;i^, the lining cells becoming 
columnar, and the Sponge is thus transformed into a flat, 
three-layered sac, the three layers being respectively ecto- 
derm, mesoderm, entoderm. The flagellated chambers 
appear in a single layer round the central cavity into which 
they open. They are very probably formed as diverticula 
of this cavity. wSchulze did not follow the development 
further, but a comparison of the adult with the sac-like 
young form makes it pretty certain that the young form 
undergoes a process of folding, which gives rise to the 
efferent and afferent canals of the adult; or, in other words, 
the efferent canals arise as vertical evaginations of the sac- 
like stage. The afferent canals are consequently to be re- 
garded as lined with ectoderm. 

In the other two species {P. dilopha and P. trilopha) the 
oscula are not situated at the periphery as in P. monolopha, 
but at some distance internal to it; and the efferent canals 
do not form projections on the surface as in the first species. 
A comparison of the canal systems makes it evident that 


/'. dilopha has been derived from P. ))io)iolopha by an 
increase in the thickness of the mesoderm lying beneath 
the surface of the sponge. The wide afferent canals of /'. 
monohpha become transformed into the narrow afferent 
canals of P. dilopha. 

Plakina trilopha goes a Step farther in the direction of 
complexity than does /'. dilopha. It has probably been 
derived from the latter species by the appearance 
ondary folds in the radial efferent tubes; by the trans- 
formation of the basal cavity into a system of laetr. 
owing to the increase- in the number of the connecting 
strands of tissue between the basal layer and the part of 
the sponge containing the flagellated chambers; and b 
complication in the afferent canals, in consequence of which 

they do not open each by a single aperature, but by a num- 
ber of small apertures the surface p" 

Schulze's conclusion that these species all lie in one line 
of descent — that is, that the second species has been de- 
rived from the first, and the third from the second — : 
as much support from a study of the spicule! the 

canal system, but here reference will have to be mad 
the paper. 

from comparative anatomy, then, we conclude the phy- 
logeny of the sponges to be somethia The 

Olvnthus is the ancestor of the group. The Outgrowth of 
radial tubes gave vise to the Sycon type. The growth of 
the mesoderm and development vi~ new eudodermic diverti- 
cula, coupled with the metamorphosis of the radial tul 
into flagellated chambers, produced the Leucons. The 
non-calcareous sponges have been derived from types more 
or less like the Leucons. And the conclusion with regard 
to the germ layers is that the efferent system is entirely 
eudodermic, and the afferent system entirely ectodermic. 

Embryological Evidence. Let us see now how far the 
known facts of development support the above conclusions. 


The evidence from the calcareous spong 
through Olynthus stage) has already been given. 

Of the mm ircllti Inhitltin r, Reti 

filigrana^ < halinulafer tilts, Plakina monolapha) run through 

a stage known as the rhagon (Sollas , which it is permissible 
to regard as the ontogenetic representative of the Sycon t\ 

The rhagon of Oscarella* is a three-layed sat- with a 
terminal osculum. The flagellated chambers form a single 
layer round the central cavity opening into it b 
mouths, and opening on the surface by pon ling 

this form, as seems best, as equivalent to the- Sycon type, 
it will be noticed that the- radial tubes of the Sycon 
coenogenetically replaced by flagellated chambers, The 
rhagon <>t" Oscarella is formed as an invaginate gastrula, 
which attaches month down. The gastrula niouth cl< 
and the osculum is a new formation. The flagellated 
chambers rise as true diverticula from the central cavity. 
The adult Oscarella, the canal system of which is not far 
removed from that of Plakina monolopha, is very probably 
formed from the rhagon, by the development in the latter 
of a number of simple diverticula from the central cavity. 
These diverticula are the e ffe rent canals into which open 
the flagellated chambers. The ectodermic spaces betv. 
the efferent diverticula become the afferent canals. The 
adult ( )scarella, like I\ monohpha, is directly comparable 
with a simple Leucon. The development of Oscarella, in 
large measures, confirms the conclusions drawn from com- 
parative anatomy, and may therefore be considered as 

The development of Plakina monolopha (Schulze, /. c. ) 
has already been described. The sac with its single layer 
of flagellated chambers round a central cavity is a rhagon, 
and may be taken as representing the Sycon stage. The 
adult Plakina itself is the Leucon stage. 

*Heider. Zur Metamorphose der Oscarella lobularis. Arb. Zook Inst. Wien. Bd. 6. 


In Reniera filigrana* there is a solid swimming larva, 
which after attaching acquires a central cavity with an 
apical oscnlnm. The flagellated chambers arise as diverti- 
cula from this cavity. Tims in this sponge also there is a 
rhagon stage. But in one matter we strike upon a coeno- 
genetic modification. The afferent canals instead of being 
ontogenetically formed from the ectoderm, as they seem to 
have been phylogenetically, are really formed from endo- 
dermic diverticula, which grow outwards, meeting the sur- 
face epithelium. 

In Chalinnla fertilisf there is also a solid larva in which 
a central cavity is hollowed out lint in this the 

flagellated chambers of the rh do not . 

endodermic diverticula, but are formed independently from 
solid groups of mesoderm cells. This origin of the flagel- 
lated chambers must be regarded logenetic. The 
fact that the mesoderm mav take upon itself the function 
of forming organs ordinarily formed by the entoderm, 
would seem to indicate that the two la\ of much the 
same nature. This essential similarity between the two 
layers has always been maintained by MetschnikofF, not 
only on the ground of development, but for physiological 
reasons as well. Thus in young Spongillas when the water 
became bad he witnessed the entire disappearance of the 
flagellated chambers, tlu then consisting of ectoderm 
and mesoderm alone. With a fresh supply of water the 
chambers re-appeared.! Again, after feeding carmine in an 
excessive amount to Halisatca pontica y he found that the 
canals and chambers entirely disappeared, the whole 
body oi the sponge inside the ectoderm consisting merely 
of a niass of amoeboid cells full of carmine {ibid., \ . 

rshall. Die Ontogenic von Reniera 6Hg 
tKeller. stud, uber die Organisation and die Bntwick der Chaliuctn. Zeit. fur 
Wiss. Zool lid. 33. 

schnikoff. Spong. stud Zeit. fur Wis*. /<>,>! 1: 

42 JOURNAL OS Till-. 

The development of the afferent system in Cbalinula a 
not worked out with certainty. 

The embryology of the pn >nges in which ■ 

rhagon type is developed agrees pretty well with our gi 
era! notions of sponge phylogeny. But then ther 

sponges, the development of which has bee;; . dy 

modified as do longer to be of any use as fin i to 

phylogeny, but which afford an excellent field for the study 
of what may be called the methods In 

Halisarca Dujardimi{ Afetschnikoff, /. < . ), for instance, th 
is a solid larva in which the canals a]. pear as 80 many 
separate lacunae surrounded by parenelr -entoderm) 

cells. The canals only subsequently acquire' a connection 
with each other. In Kspcria the subdcnnal sp aals 

and chambers arise separately as lacunae in the parenchyma. 
The chambers are formed from aggregations of small cells 
in the parenchyma, which Maas believes, on what seems to 
me insufficient evidence, to be ectoderm cells of the larva 
that have migrated into the interior. The efferent canals, 
Maas thinks, are formed from similar cells. In Kspcria, 
according to Yves Delage,t the chambers arise by division 
of special mesoderm cells. The epithelium of the canals 
comes from the larval ectoderm, which has migrated into 
the interior. In Spongilla, according to the same author,^ 
the ectoderm cells of the larva are engulfed by mesoderm 
cells and then become the lining cells of the flagellated 
chambers. The observations of Delage on these points 
need to be confirmed before they can be taken as the basis 
for generalizations. 

In voting Stellettas§ the subdermal cavities seem to arise 

*Maas. Die Metamorphose von Esperia Lorenzi, etc.. Mith. aus dem Zool. Sta. zu 
Neapel, Bd. 10, Hept. 3. 
fSur le developpement des Eponges siliceuses. etc. Comptes rendus. T. no. 
JSur le developpement des Eponges (Spongilla fluviatilis;. Comptes rendus. T. 113. 
jiSollas. Challenger Report on Tetractinellidae, pp. XVI. XVII. 


as lacunae in the parenchyma. And in the external buds 
of Tethya m lenka believes that the subdennal cavi- 

ties have a similar origin. 

In Spongilla, according to Gdttef, the subdennal cavities 
and canals are formed as independent lacunae in the 
parenchyma, and the flagellated chambers are formed from 
groups of cells, each group 'and chamber being produced 
by the budding of a single large mesoderm cell. This 
account of the development of these structures in Spongilla, 
which is not very different from my own for Bsperella and 
Tedania, is contradicted by Maas,} who brings Spongilla 
in line with the forms having a rhagon. Maas ii> 
in the larva a central cavity from which the chamlk 
as diverticula, the central cavity persisting in a modified 
shape as the efferent system of canals. The subdennal 
spaces arise as ectodermal invaginations, from which the 
afferent canals are formed as ingrowths. Thus, according 
to Maas in the ontogeny of Spongilla, the whole afferent 
System is formed from the ectoderm and the whole efferent 
system from the endoderm. Ganin's earlier accounts like- 
wise describes the chambers as diverticula from a main 
endodermic cavity. 

In the metamorphosis of a larva which probably be'. 
to Myxilla, Vosmaer finds that the subdennal cavil 

:n as fissures which gradually become wider, and that 
the canals and chambers likewise appear as intercellular 
spaces. Finally in the gem mule development < rella 

and Tedania, I find that subdennal cavities, both sorts of 
canals, and the flagellated chambers, all arise as inde- 
pendent lacunae in the parenchyma. 

Accepting as ancestral the development of Oscarella and 

: Bd \w111. 
tUntersuchungen *ur Rntwicklungs-gcschichtc von Spongflla fluviatili- 

ter die Bntwicklun) .turns. Zeit. fur Wiss. Zool. 1 

i/ur Sntwickhtng <lcr Spongilla fluviatilis. Zool. Anaeigei 


fHakina monolopha, the vari nogenetic modifications 

which appear in other sponges ma) 

i. The efferent canal system, instead of arising 
single cavity which throws out diverticula, maj tied 

as so many distinct cavities, which subsequently uu 

perella^ Tedania, Esperia lorensiimd lingua, II 
Dujardiniiy My villa). 

2. The flagellated chambers, instead of arising as endo- 
dermic diverticula, may be formed from groups of mesoderm 
cells {Esperella, Tedania^ Chalinula fertility Myxilla and 
probably in Esperia lorenn and E. ling* 

3, The afferent canals, including the subdermal 
instead of being formed as invaginations from the ectoderm, 
arise as laennae in the mes-entoderm ( A'yV/v /A/, Tedania % 
Esperia lorensi&nd lifgua, Stelle/ta, Myxilla). In Renx 

filigrana they are formed as entodermic diverticula. 

The coenogenetic development of the flagellated cham- 
bers and efferent canals suggests, as I have said, an 
essential similarity of nature in the so-called entoderm and 
mesoderm of sponges. This belief, so long upheld by 
Metschnikoff, derives some of its strongest support from 
this author's physiological investigations (see ante, p. 10), 
as well as from the fact first emphasized by Metschnikoff 
and Barrois, that in the most common sponge larva, i. 
the solid larva, the mesoderm and entoderm form a single 
indivisible layer. 

And likewise the development of the afferent system of 
canals in some sponges from the ectoderm, in others from 
the mes-entoderm, may possibly be taken as meaning that 
even these two primary layers (the outer and the inner) are 
not distinctly differentiated from each other in the sponges, 
or, in other words, that the mes-entoderm is still enough 
like the ectoderm to form organs ordinarily produced by 
the latter laver. 


There is another (hypothetical) way of explaining these 
phenomena, which consists in supposing that ectoderm 
cells of the larva migrate into the interior, and though in- 
distinguishable from the surrounding mes-entoderm cells, 
alone take part in forming the afferent canals. Similarly 
we may suppose that in the solid mass, which constitutes 
the parenchyma of Bsperella, there arc two radically dis- 
tinct classes of cells, one of which is potentially gifted 
with the power of forming efferent canals and ited 

chambers, while the other has not the power, and must 
remain as amoeboid mesoderm. But this is pure hypoth< 

The result of this critical examination seems to be that 
the Olynthus must be regarded as the common 
sponges (Haeckel, Kalkspongien), and that the entoderm 
and mesoderm are not sharply differentiated from one 
another as they are in the higher animals (Metschnik 
Spong. Studien, p 3; 

Origin of the Olynthus. The prevalence of the 
larva in sponges and Hydromedusas, coupled with the wide- 
spread presence of intracellular digestion in the 
metazoa, led Metschnikoff the belief that the 

solid larva represents the ancestral form of the nieta/ 
while the gastrula is a coenogenetic modification.* To my 
own mind all the facts that we know indicate that Metschni- 
koff's conclusion is well founded. This hypothetical an- 
cestral form is known as the Parciichymella (Phogocytella). 
I may be permitted to recall its leading features as deduced 
by Metschnikoff. The animal consisted of an outer layer 
of flagellated cells and an inner mass of amoeboid cells. 
The digestion was intracellular, the food being taken in 
through intercellular openings (p. ittered over the 

surface. A central cavity having a special opening to the 

'Metschnikoff Spongiologiache Studien. Zcit t \vi» ZooL Bd. ja. Metschnikoff. 
Bmbryologiache Stuilicn au Mciluscn Wicn 


exterior (oscnlum) w;is a later acquisition, the osculant 
being in all probability one- of the- small apertures 

ecially enlarged. Bven after tin- formation of this 
cavity tin- division of tin- parenchyma into entoderm and 
mesoderm was not (and is not) in the sponges a rigid 
division, tin- primitive power of digesting food intra' 
lnlarlv having been retained by both la only 

with tin.- appearance of the higher animals that the separa- 
tion of entoderm from mesoderm became a perfect one. 
(Spongiologische Studien, p. 37*). This solid ancestor of 
the- metazoa, Metschnikoff derivea from colonial forms like 
Protospongia. Barrois as early aa 1871 lief 

that the ancestor of the sponges was a solid animal, com- 
posed of two layers, the outer representing the ectoderm, 

the inner mass representing a parenchyma from which 

have developed the entoderm and mesoderm of higher 
animals (p. 78). 

According to this view the early development of I'lakina 
(or Reniera, Chalinnla, etc.) gives the first chapters in the 
history of the group of sponges more faithfully than di 
a form like ( )scarella (or Syeandra). In the former spoi: 
it will be remembered there is a solid larva hollowed out 
to form a three-layered sac, which then breaks open to the 
exterior, forming the osculnm. In the latter there is an 
invaginate gastrula, which settles mouth downwards, the 
gastrula mouth subsequently closing and the osculum ap- 
pearing as a perforation at the upper end of the sac. In 
these forms (Oscarella, Syeandra) we have to suppose that 
the Parenchymella stage is skipped, the central cavity 
(which properly belongs to the Olynthus stage) being pre- 
cociously developed coincidently with the immigration of 
the entoderm. The blastopore of the sponge gastrula, on' 

*Memoire sur l'embryologie de quelques Eponges de la Manche. Ann. Sci. Nat. T. 3. 
VI Ser. 


this view, does not represent a primitive organ (Unnnnd), 

but merely conies into existence owing to the special, and 
highly modified, method of forming the entoderm. We 
do not, therefore, have to construe the Oscarella develop- 
ment (with Heider and Sollas) as meaning that a gastrnla 
ancestor settled month downward, and that the month 
gradually became fnnctionless, finally closing up, while a 
new series of openings, pores and OSCUlnm, were estab- 

The only remaining point I wish to speak of is the rela- 
tion of the sponges to the Coelenterates. That the I 
groups have had a common ancestor in the I'arenehvmella 
is highly probable, bnt the similarity between the Olynthus 

and the simplest Coelenterates inclines further, 

and at any rate hoinologi/.e tlu- paragastric cavitv of the 
former with the gastric cavitv of the latter. This, of 
course, is done by authors like Sollat, who derive both 
groups from a common gastruli ancestor. Whether the 
osculum of the Olynthus is also homologous with the d 
trnla month, as Ilaeckel originally held. uestion 

which needs for its answer more facts relating to the actual 
use to which the oscnlnm is pnt in the simph 
Sollas and Heider 111 Mist the homology the fact that 

the Coelenterate larva attaches by the pole O] the 

blastopore, while in the sponge larva the blastopore ii 
the pole of attachment. Bnt this I cannot regard at 
very strong argument, for (with MetsehnikofF) I do not be- 
lieve that the opening into the gastrnla cavity repn 
primitive organ (month of an ancestor). And if it d 
not, but is merely an incidental product of a particular 
mode ^i entoderm-formation employed by the animal, it 
has no bearing on the question of homology between oscu- 
lum and mouth. Consequently the fact that in the attach- 
ing coelenterate and sponge larva.' the blastopore is at oppo- 

|.s l< ii R \ \ i. | ,\- 'I'm-. 

site poles is a curious phenomenon, l>ut one aside- from the 

I doubt verj much, however, if any .such radical dis- 
tinction can be drawn between the larvae of the two 
for it is a question whether an) sponge larva has a : 
ticular pole by which it must attach. Even in Sycand 
Schnlze (/. c. % p. 270) records that exceptional 1 1 ur, 

which cannot be regarded as pathological, in which fi 
tion takes plaos not by the gastrula month but on tl 
Fixation may also be delayed until the gastrula mouth has 

closed and spicules have begun to appear, in which case it 
is not stated by what part the larva attaches. In the solid 

larvae of silicious sponges the variation is much greater. 

Such larvae attach in some cases by tin- posterior pole, in 
others by the anterior pole, and yet in others on the side. 
All these variations may occur in larva.- of the same 
For instance, Maas records that in Bsperia h ved 

fifteen individuals attach by the posterior pole, seventy in- 
dividuals by the anterior pole, and five or six on the side. 

It thus appears that in the larva: of silicious sponges at any 

rate there is no constant point of attachment. 

Cnivkksity of North Carolina, November J, I 




Pbmom Hall, January 19th, 1 8 
President Holmes in the chair, 
1. The Oyster Question H V Wilson. 
.>. Magnetic Iron be County. H B C. Nitze. 

Report of tin- Secretary One hundred snd twenl 
phlets received and the following new exchanj 

New York Mathein iety. 

I. a Soci6ti d 'Ill 1 ! 11 

si VIA I lt.HTH \l 

Pkrson h M.i.. 1 

Called to order by the President 

Grc< a wood Process for the 1 1 
snd Hydrochloric Acid. kerville 

j. The Determination of the Standards ol Length. J. \\ 

5. Chinese Salt-making. P. P V 

(>. The Plan and Limitations of the Survey. I \ 


Report of th . Sevenl nd pamphl ed. 

New exchange: B M. Museum of Princeton Coll 

Sl\l\ NINTH Ml I 1'1N<. 

Person Hall. April 12th. 1 
Professor Core presided. 
7. Common Roads. Win. Cam. 
S. [gneous Roek Formation of North Carolina. J. A. Holmes. 

New exchange: Institut Roval Grand Ducal de Luxembourg. 





V< (I.I 'MI- IX l'AKT Ml' >\I> 

j i i.y i )ix i ; \i i *ER. 






i - 


Joseph a Holmes, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

i IK si VICE PI 
W. I,. POT] \T \V •, N. C. 

COKD \ H l. I'ki-.sliM 

w. \ Withers, Raleigh, N. C. 


J. w. Gore, Chapel Hill, N. C. 


P. 1'. VRNABLB, ------- Chapel Hill. N. C 




P U.h 

Statistics of tlit- Mineral Product! of North ( 1 1 Ii 

C. Nitze 
Additions to the Breeding Avi-fauna in Ninth Carolina Sunt- the Pub- 
lication of l*i * ► t G 1- Atkinson \V P 

An Example of Rivei Adjustment. Cta Iterville and K. H 

Character and Distribution ol Road M 
To Sit Slope Stakes when tin - nifannly. 

J. M Bandy 
On tlu- Development and a Su] 

in tin- Sun-animalcuU [oho M 

Some inn-: ol Blowing Rock, N ^ 

liiiinii Sihn.nk 
Record of Meetings 
Report Hi Treasurer 



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 


BY H B C NIT/.I-; 

The difficulties attending the collection of 
tics of the various mineral productions arc ven 
often insurmountable; and especially difficult to obtain 
those of the gold, corundum and niica mines, which form 
the greater part of North Carolina's mining industi 

The following statistics have been collected from the 
most reliable- sources available, under the direction of the 
North Carolina G w and although often 

lacking in detail the) will show v ly what 

the mineral production of the State has been for the ; 

()\ the metallic prodm I and iron stand alone. 

Under the list of non-metallic products we have iron i 
Clipper me, bituminous coal, corundum, mica, talc and 


During 1892 there were fifty-six gold mines, distributed 
over eighteen different counties, in operation in the State: 
Of these, fifteen were placer and forty-one vein worki: 

NAI 01 l 1 1 1 

The total number of stamps in operation is estimated at 
310, the total amount of labor at 500 men, and the total 

pig IKON. 

There was but one blast furnace in active operation in the 
State, namel) , thatat Cranberry, Mitchell county, belonging 
to the ( 'ranberry Iron and ( oai ( ompany. This \a a small 
brick stack of the following dimensions: Height 
diameter of bosh to feet 2 inches, diameter of hearth 

3 feet, capacity 1 } to i.S tons per day. It uses the low 

phosphorus magnetic ore of the Cranberry mine situated 
close by, magnesian limestone from Carter county, Tenn., 

and coke from Pocahontas, \\'. \"a. 

The- total output of this furnace for iK^2 w 
-loss tons, of which 313 tons were charcoal and 2,S' s, y tons 
coke iron; the total product was valued at 1 at the 


The quality of this product was a special Bessemer iron, 
averaging less than I.OO per cent, silicon, and less than 
O.025 per cent, phosphorus. It was shipped to steel works 
in Ohio and Pennsylvania. 

The total production in gross tons (22,401 pounds) of the 
Cranberry furnace for the past nine years is shown in the 
following table: 



















The small amount of forge iron made for purely local 
purposes at Pasley's forge, in Ashe count)', is rather of 
historical than commercial interest. This forge is situated 
at the mouth of Helton Creek, and consists of one fire 


blown by the water trompe, and one hammer operated by 
water-power. It is the only forge now in operation in the 
State, and makes annually about twenty to thirty ton- 
bar iron for local uses. 

iron ORE. 

The total production of iron ore during 189a is esti- 
mated at 23,433 gross tons, valued at $43,306.20 at the 
mines. Of this amount 17,' ons, vaha-d at 

$34,423.20, were shipped out of the State; the balance 
was turned into 2,902 gross tons of j»i^ metal. 

The only two mines in operation were the Cranberry 
mine in Mitchell and the Ormond mine in Gaston county. 

The Cranberry Mi>n\ operated by the Cranberry Iron 
and C<-al Company, produced [8,433 ^ r " ,> • >, tons, valued 

at the mines. Of this amount 1 .. MS, 

valued at $16,923.20, were shipped to furnaces in South' 
west Virginia. 

The ore is a magnetite, of which the following analysis 

by Mr. Porter \Y. Shinier shows the quality of the run of 


I tat 


Metallic iron 

Metallic maganeae 0.44 

Alumina 1.01 


Magnesia 1.51 



The total output of the Cranberry mine in yross tons 
for the past nine years is shown in the following table: 

iSS.j. 1885 

3,998 1: 19.S19 30,29c :S,45: 


Hi, Ormond Mini, situated in Gaston county, on the 
Charlotte & Atlanta Air Line, produced during 1892 about 
5,000 tons of ore, valued at at the mines. It 

was shipped to Birmingham, Ala., and Richmond, \ 
for the fettling of puddling furna< 

TIr- ore- is a mixture of hard, block hematite, or rather 
turgite, porous limonite, and soft, Mark, powd< 
slightly magnetic, of which the following arc some re] 
sentative analyses: 

1. 11 in 

Silica 9.72 r.51 1.55 

Metallic iron ,^2.39 47.10 

Phosphorus *-o57 

I I.uiii]. ore; .inalysis by N 

II. Lump ore; analysis by Carnegie Bros. ..v c<>., Pittsburg 
ill. Limonite; analysis by C l» Lawton. 
IV. Black powder <>n-; analysis by Carnegie Bn 

The mine was closed down in September, 1892, on 
coming into possession of the Bessemer Mining (0»i/><i>i\\ 
which is remodeling the plant and making preparations tor 
a large output in the near future. 

The North Carolina Steel and Iron (onipany completed 

their furnace at Greensboro in June. 1S92. The height of 

the stack is 70 feet, diameter of bosh 16 feet, and the cal- 
culated capacity 100 tons per day. The plant is fully 
equipped with all modern improvements, and, together 
with ore lands, town-site lands and other improvements, 
represents a total investment so far of $305,000. It is now 
expected to have this furnace in operation by the coming 
spring, the delay of putting it in blast having been caused 
by a deficiency of the necessary funds; and the present 
low price of iron has deterred the company from 
endeavoring to procure the requisite capital sooner. It 
is also proposed to erect a merchant mill, machine shops, 
foundry and car works during this year, the latter to have 
a capacity of ten (10) freight cars a day. The principal 


supply of ore will be obtained from the mines of the com- 
pany at Ore Hill, Chatham county, about forty miles dis- 
tant. This ore is a brown hematite of very fair quality, 
as shown by the following analyses, made in the laboratory 
of the North ( 'arolina Geological Survey: 






Metallic iron 




■ 069 

... : 


These deposits have been partially developed during the 
past year and about 700 tons of ore taken out. 1 
this source magnetic ores from the western ; the 

State will be used. Limestone will be obtained from Vir- 
ginia and coke from the Flat Top region in the same 

In Granville county some recentl) discovered d< 
magnetic iron ore <>f good quality have been ted 

with encouraging results, but no regular mining op< 
ti^ns have yet been started, and no ore has been shipped. 

iPPKR 01 

Thi Blue Wing Mine in Granville county was the only 
producing mine in the State during ,! 

when the mine and concentrator closed down indefinitely, 
the production of concentrates, shipped to the ( )rford 
Copper Works, X. V., was valued 

The ore i> chiefly bornite in a quartz s^an^ne. Tin 
lowing analyses show the quality of the ore and concen- 

Per Cent Os. Per Tun 

Run of mine ore 

Col>l ltd on. 

Jig concentrates 

Frue vanner concentrates 




(>( ) |l >UKNAL "l I III 

The Egypt ( oal Company ^ operating the Egypt mine in 
Chatham county, shipped during i ms of bitu- 

minous coal, valued at $7,475. Misfortunes b ind 

water cut down the output t<> nearly one-half of what it 
was the year preceding. The company has been engaged 
in improving and increasing its plant during the past y< 
by the addition of three pumps underground and farther 
hoisting capacity. A second shaft. 8 by 12 feet, is being 
put down, to be used exclusively tor ventilating purpoa 

The following analysis by the North t 'arolina Geoh 
Survey represents the qualit) <>t this coal: 

Moisture I 2.S 

Volatile- matter 33 

Fixed carbon 4 49 18 

hah 10.22 

Sulphtu '72 

Specific gr a v ity 1 294 



The total corundum product for [892 is estimated at 560 
net tons. No estimate of the value can be made. 

The chief producers were the Corundum Hill and 
Ellijay mints in Macon, and the Hogback mines in Jack- 
soil county. In Iredell county some private prospecting 
was carried on during the latter part of the year, two 
miles west of Statesville, and several veins were located, 
from which about 9,000 pounds of corundum were taken, 
but no regular operations have as yet been instituted. 


During 1892 there were in operation some ten or twelve 
mica mines, situated principally in Mitchell and Yancey 
counties. The total production of these mines is estimated 


at 10,000 pounds of cut mica, valued at about 535,000. 
The average price of 3 by 5-inch cut mica, at the mines, 
is put at $3.50 per pound. 

During the year three mills, manufacturing ground 

mica from waste scraps, were in operation in Mitchell 
county, but no estimate- can be made of their output. 


The total production <»i prepared talc (shipments from 

mills) for \S<)2 i> estimated a! net tons, valued at 
about $i9,(x>o at the mills. 

The two principal product wsoti- 

dated Marble, Iron and Talc Comf>an\\ of Cherokee, and 
Messrs. Richard and Hewitt. of Swain county. 

K . A 1 1 1 . 1 .\ . 

The total production of prepared kaolin foi 

mated at 3,900 net tons, valued at - rks. 

The principal producers wire the work Sylva and 

Dillsboro, in Jackson county. 


• i8i 


1. Great Blue Heron [Ardea kerodias\ Young ones 
have been seen and taken in all sections. 

2. Little Blue Heron {Ardea arrular). Reported 
breeding in the west by Mr. John S. Cairns, Runcombe 

62 |OI RN M «»i I HI 

3. Red-tailed Hawk {Buteo borealis). One nest con- 
taining two •.-l;.^^ was found bj myself in Bertie connty, 
1 888. 

|. Broad-winged Hawk [Buteo tatissimus). Breedi in 
middle and western sections. (Brimley and Cain 

5. American Sparrow Hawk {Fako xparverius). Nests 
have been found in all sections; I have- noted several in 
the east 

6. American Osprey [Pandion kaliatus Caroline* 
Have noted two nests in Bertie county and seen young 
ones several times; reported breeding along the lai 
streams of the west by Cairns. 

7. Black-billed Cuckoo [Coccyzm erythrothalmus). 
Reported breeding in Wake county by Brimley; Cairns 
says that it breeds during some seasons in the mountains. 

8. Belted Kingfisher {Ceryle alcyon). I found a 
containing seven eggs in 1889, which was placed at the 
end of a burrow in a hank on the Cashie River near its 
mouth; breeds in the west. (Cairns). 

9. Hairy Woodpecker {Dryobates villosus). Said to 
breed in the higher mountains of the west by Cairns. 

10. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker [Sphyrapicus varias). 
Reported breeding 1>\ Cairns in Buncombe county on 
higher mountains. 

11. Red-headed Woodpecker [Meiarrerpes eryphroceph- 
alus). Found commonly breeding in all sections. 

12. Red-bellied Woodpecker {Mclanerpt s carolinus). 
Rather rare breeder in all sections of the vState. 

13. Chuck-will's-widow [Antroslomus carolinensis). 
Three nests, containing two eggs each, were found by 
myself in Bertie county; one in 1888 and two in 1891. 

14. Night-hawk {Chordreils virginianus). Found bleed- 
ing in the eastern section by myself. 

15. Least Flycatcher [Empidonax minimus). Reported 
as a rare breeder in mountains by Cairns. 


16. American Crow (Conns americanus). Pound 
breeding in all sections, common. 

17. Boat-tailed Grackle {Quiscuius major). One nest 
containing lour eggs was taken in Plymouth from an old 
elm overgrown with ivy, in [889, by myself. 

itt. Towhee (Pipilo erythrothalmus\ Reported by 
Cairns, as breeding in Buncombe county. 

19. Rose-breasted Grosbeak I labia tudovician 
to breed on craggy mountains by Cairns. 

20. White-bellied Swallow ( Tackydneta Incol % 

eral nests containing eggs have been taken by my cousin 
(T. A. Smitbwick) and myself in the last tew \< 

21. Logger-head Shrik mius ludovicianus\ 
Reported breeding in Iredell eountv by McLaughlin. 

22. Warbling Vireo (/ Reported 
ing along the rivers in the mountain section by Cairns. 

23. Yellow-throated Vireo (Vii I have 
taken two nests in Bertie COUUty; no others ha\ 

24. Mountain Solitary Vireo {Vireo soiitarms alH 
Found breeding in the higher mountains by Cairns. 

25. White-eyed Vireo [Vireo noveaboracensis\ Bi 
throughout the State, common. 

26. Prothonotary Warbler {Protonotaria i). I 
found one nest in 1888 in Bertie county which contained 
three eggs; this is the farthest north that any nest has 
been recorded on the Atlantic slope, so far, I think. 

Worm-eating Warbler {Helmintkerus vermin 
One nest was found in Bertie county by T. A. Smithwick 
and one in Buncombe county by Cairns last spring; this 
shows that it may breed in all portions. 

28. Blue- winged Warbler [Helminthophila pinus). Said 
to breed in the mountains by Cairns. 

29. Magnolia Warbler [Dendroica maculosa). Breeds 
in the west; young ones have been seen in July by Cairns. 

Oj 01 Mil 

30. Oven-bird {Seiurus aurocapillus). < >n<- aesl 
found in Bertie county in [89a by myself. 

xi. Hooded Warbler {Sylvania milrata). I found one 

nest in iS.XK, and since that tim it inaiiv nests li 

been found 1>\ my cousin and myself in Bertie county. 
Not reported from an) other section. 

32. Winter Wren fytes kiemalis). Two 1 
were found 1>\ Cairns on the- Black mountains in the 
spring of [8« 

33. Golden-crowned Kinglet {Regulu 
Reported breeding on Black mountains by Cairns. 

34. Olive-backed Thrush [Turdus ustulatus twain- 
sonii). One nest has bun reported, it being found 
Black mountains by Cairns. 

Conrantmani nun Gbologicai m c.\koi.i>a. 

Wa 1. 



One could scarcely find an example which more fully 
illustrates the principles involved in determining the 
courses of streams than the Jackson River in western Vir- 
ginia. This is a small stream rising near Monterey, High- 
land county, flowing south-west through Bath into the 
James River at Covington, Alleghany county. 

The existing topography is the result of the denudation 
following upon the great Permian deformation, which 
gave rise to the main ranges of the Appalachians. From 


this upheaval dates the beginning of the history of the 
rivers of this region. 

Jtt ftrinc tl 

I Ji/uno r% 
« / in J)ir»Hi* »» 
\(l* If" Ca^tmifft^t 

Diagram I gives a rough perspective of this immediate 
region, together with a vertical section in a north-west and 
south-easterly direction, just south of Warm Spring. In 
the vertical section the unbroken lines represent the 
geological structure of the present topography I heavy 
line CD) and the dotted lines the same in Permian 
time. The perspective shows the drainage consequent 
upon the deformation, and combining the two, it can be 
seen that the Jackson River flowed down a syncline in a 
south-westerly direction on a bed of the lower carboniferous 
rock. Parallel to this, and in a similar syncline on the 


sanu- stratum with lower level, flowed n< 
formerly Meadow Fork of the Greenbrier River, W< 
ginia. Tributary A of Back c d account oi 

ness of slope, gnaws hack, capturing bead* 
son River b> tributary A 1 , causing the sanu- to have its 
outlet in a north-westerly direction, thus throwing the 
water-shed cast (GF) between Cowpasture and I 
Rivers, which previously (EF) was between Jackson Ri 
and Back Creek. The base of tin- syncline, then the bed 

of Back Creek (Meadow Fork), Was nearer 

than base of Jackson River syncline, consequently the 

softer Devonian slates wire reached first In the latter. 
With conditions thus changed the tributary B of Jackson 
River captures in turn the headwaters (B")of Meadow Fork 
(Back Creek), and the water-shed (HF) as now exists - 
shifted wist between Greenbrier River and Meadow Fori 
same and Back Creek. Diagram II shows the present 
flow of waters of Jackson River. 
r.Nivi-.Hsnv hi North Camolma 




In the following discussion of the character and dis- 
tribution of road material in the State it is thought best 
to avoid the use of technical terms as far as possible; and 
the names of rocks here used are those applied by the 
engineer rather than by the geologist. The character of 
the materials is discussed with a view to their fitness for 
use in the construction of broken-stone pavement, as used 
by Macadam and Telford on the public highways. 


"In considering the relative fitness of the various mate- 
rials," says Byrne,* "the following physical and chemical 
qualities must be sought tor: 

"(i). Hardness, or that disposition of a solid which ren- 
ders it difficult to displace its parts among themseh 

"(2!. Toughness, pr that quality which will endure li^ht 
but rapid blows without breaking. 

"(3). Ability to withstand the destructive action of the 
weather, and probably some organic acids produced by the 
decomposition of excreta! matters, always present upon the 
roadways in use, 

"i.| . The porosity, 01 water-absorbing capacity, i 
considerable importance. There is, perhaps, no m 
potent disintegrator in nature than frost, and it ma\ 
accepted as fact that of two rocks which are to be | 
to host, the one most absorbent of water will be the U 

The following table show- absorptive power 1 

common stom 

•<vl 1'C' 

Granites 0.06 to a 153 Limestone* 


Something of the quality and suitability of different 
materials for use in broken-stone pavements is shown in 
the following tab. 

M \ti:ki u.s 

I IK lKN'I - 
Wl-.AK. . Ckl SHIM,. 

Basalt ' 1.2 12. 1 to 16. 

Porphyry 14. 1 i<> 1 '.v> 16.3 

Gneiss to 14 S 

Granite to 15. S 

Syenite 1 1.6 to i: 12.4 •. 

Slag 14.5 to r« to 1 1 . 1 

Quartzite to 21. h 

Quartzose sandstone 14.3 to 26.2 9.9 to 16.6 

Quart/. to 13 2 

Limestone 6.6 to 15.7 

'Highway Construction, p. 24. t/£/'</.. p. 2t> \Ibid \ 


These "co-efficients," showing the relative qualil 
various road materials, were obtained by French engii* 
as the result of an extended series of tests, and ind 

to agree fairly well with the results arrived at bj actual 
observation of the wear of materials in the- n The 

co-efficient 20 is equivalent to "excellent,' 1 10 to "suffi- 
ciently good,' 1 and 5 to " had." 

Stones son Suitable \- Road Materia] Befor< pro- 
ceeding to the consideration of the stones found in North 
Carolina adapted to use- as roud material it may he well to 
consider briefly some of those that are not suited to this 
purpose. In general, it may hi- said that all tcAislose and 
s/dty rocks, I. ft, all rocks which split or break easily into 
layers or Hakes, should Ik- discarded. No rock of what' 
ever species which is already in the advanced stages of 
decay, so as to become crumbly and soft or porous, should 
he used in macadamizing roads, as tin.- result in all such 
casts will he that, under the action of the wheels and 
hoofs, these materials become ground into fine powder, 
which becomes mud when wet, and dust when dry. There 
are many places, however, where a decayed granite or 
gneiss rock, when highly siliceous, will make a good foun- 
dation for a Macadam road, and will he found useful as a 
covering on clay in the improvement of dirt roads. There 
are other materials, like quartz ( " white flint"!, which are 
hard enough, hut which are quite brittle, and hence easily 
crushed to powder, and which, consequently, should not 
be used when better material is available. Sandstones, as 
a rule, are unfit for use in macadamizing roads, as they are 
easily crushed and usually porous. 

Stones Suitable as Road Material. — "The materials 
used for broken-stone pavements must of necessity van- 
very much according to the locality. Owing to the cost 
of haulage, local stone must generally be used, especially 
if the traffic be only moderate. If, however, the traffic is 


heavy, it will sometimes be found better and more 
economical to obtain a superior material, even at a higher 
cost, than the local stone; and in cases where the trafli 
very great the best material that can be obtained is the 
most economical."* In the middle and western couir 
of the State, in many places, stones now covering the cul- 
tivated fields will be found satisfactory for use on tin 
and in order to get rid of them fanners will haul and sell 
them for low pri< 

Stones ordinarily used in the construction of Macadam 
and Telford roads are the following: granite, 

gneiss, limestone, quartzite, ind. The I 

three of these names are used here in a 

and include several sj. :k which, in technical 

language, would be known by other names. In general, 
it may be said that they rank in importance about in the 
order named, but several ^>i them, lly the granite, 

gneiss and limestone, van so much in quality that this 
general statement is subject to modificati 

The term //<//>, as here used, includes not only the black, 
rather fine-grained, igneous rock known as diabase, which 
occurs in long dykes in the sandstone basins of Deep and 
Dan Rivers, but also the somewhat similar material which 
is to be found in the older crystalline rock of many other 
regions. In this State it is often known locally under the 
name of lt nigger-head" rock. This rock does not usually 
split well into paving blocks, but when properly broken it 
is the most uniformly good material obtainable for macadam- 
izing public highways, though sometimes it does not 
"bind" well. 

Syenite^ sometimes called hornblende granite, varies 
somewhat in quality and composition. It is a widely dis- 
tributed rock in the midland and western counties of 

■Hvriif. Highway Construction 

[OURNA1 < >| i ii I 

North Carolina, and is an excellent road material. The 
varieties which are finer in grain, and those having the 
larger proportion of the black mineral known as horn- 
blende and are consequently of darker color, are b 
adapted for this purp 

Granites vary considerably, both in quality and ap] 
ance, and in their vain id material. Those which 

are verj coarse- in grain, containing large and nutner< 
crystals of feldspar, are, as a rule, more- easily crushed and 
decay more rapidly, and should not he used in road con- 
struction when better materials arc available. Th< 
which contain a large proportion of mica split and crush 
more easily into thin flakes and grains, and for thi- 

arc also less valuable. Those varieties which are of fine 
grain and contain an admixture of hornblende are ; 

road purposes. 

Gneiss^ which has the same general composition as 
granite, also varies very greatly in its quality and adapta- 
bility to road building. It usually has the appearance of 

being somewhat laminated or bedded, and when the la] 
are thin and the rock shows a tendency to split along tl. 
layers it should be discarded for road purposes. In addi- 
tion to this, the statements made above with reference to 
the granites will apply also to gneis 

Limestone suitable for road purposes is not an abundant 
rock in North Carolina, but it is found in a few of the 
eastern and a few of the western counties. It is a rock 
which varies very greatly in character, from the hard, fine- 
grained, compact magnesium limestone, which is a most 
excellent material for the Macadam and Telford roads, to 
the porous, coarse and partially compact shell-rock of 
recent geological formation, which is less valuable mate- 
rial. Practically all limestones when used as road material 
possess one valuable qualification, that of ''binding"; the 
surface material which becomes ground bv the action of 


the wheels settles among the fragments below and consoli- 
dates the entire mass. For this reason, in many cases, it 
has been found to be good policy to mix a considerable 
quantity of limestone with some siliceous and igneous 
rock, which though hard and tough does not consolidate 

d ravel and Sand are not used in the construction of 
stone roads as formed by Maeadam and Telford, except 
an excellent foundation, for which purpose they po 
very great value; and as a binding material, in .small 
quantities, they are sometimes spread over the road surfi 
between the layers of crushed stone. When used in this 
latter connection, however, the gravel must be qu 
from round pebbles. Gravel is, however, d nsively 

in the construction of what are termed grav< 
there is no attempt at macadamizing tl: but where 

the gravel itself is spread uniformly over the turfai 

foundation road-bed which has been properly shaj>ed and 
drained. Gravel like that which occurs so abundantly in 
many Northern States, where glaciers exist >t found 

in North Carolina. But river gravels are found in a num- 
ber of our counties; ami, SSSUg ibove, in the middle 
and western counties there are to be found in pla \ ed 
siliceous granite and gneiss which, though not suited for 

mixing with crushed stone in macadamizing roads, yet 

will be found to serve a useful pur: 1 foundation for 

the broken stone on day roads, and also as a top dressing 
on clayey dirt roads. 


A line drawn from (iaston to Smithfield, Smithfiekl to 
Cary, and from Care to YYadesboro, separates the State into 
two general and well-marked divisions, the eastern of 
which may be called the Coastal Plain region, and the 
western may be termed Piedmont and Mountain regions. 

72 OF THE 

In rHfc Coastai Plain Region. — In the eastern counties, 
except along the western border of this Plain 

region at irregular intervals, we find none of the 1; 
crystalline rocks suitable for broken stone roads. < i 
the larger part of the- area we have sand, clays and loams, 
tin- sands becoming coarser and m< ivelly along the 

western border and finer towards tli a. At a num- 

ber of points along some of the rivers and in some inter- 
vening areas is to be found a limestone rock which will 
serve a fairly good purpose in road-building. 

Gravel. — The gravel along this western border can be 
used successfully in making a fairly g d-bed, and 

should be used extensively where the hard crystalline ro< 
cannot be obtained. It may be found at main- places in 
counties between the line mentioned above, extending from 
Gaston to Wadesboro, and a line drawn to the east of this 
from Franklin, Virginia, by way of Scotland Neck, Tar- 
boro, LaGrange and Clinton, to Lumberton; and in a few 
places also considerably to the east of this latter line. The 
gravel is more generally distributed along the borders of 
the river basins, where it occurs in extensive beds, a few 
inches to twenty feet in thickness, though along the west- 
ern edge of the Coastal Plain region it is often found on 
the hill-tops and divides between the rivers. 

In many places the gravel is suitable for use on the road- 
bed just as it comes from the pit, containing pebbles of 
the right size, from an inch down to a coarse sand, and a 
small percentage of ferruginous clay, just enough to make 
it pack well in the road-bed without preventing proper 
drainage. In many cases, however, the proportion of clay 
and loam and sand is too large and must be reduced by the 
use of fine screens; and in other cases many of the pebbles 
are so large that they must be separated by means of a 
one-inch mesh screen, and those too large to pass through 
this screen broken before they are used. 


The railroads passing through this region long since dis- 
covered the value of this gravel as a road material, and 
have used it extensively as a ballast on their road-beds. 
The small percentage of ferruginous clay soon cements the 
gravel into a hard, compact ma 

Limestone. — In the south-eastern portion of this \\ 
limestone rock and calcareous shells from the oyster and 
from fossil moll usks from the marl beds constitute the only 
hard materials to be found there for road construction. In 
some places the limestone is fairly hard and compa* 
Rocky Point, on the Northeast Cape Fear Riv< 
Hayne and elsewhere, and this roek will make an excellent 
road. In other places it is made up of a mass of sh< 
firmly cemented together, as on the Trent River, p. 
Newbern, and elsewhere. At man) other poil 
shells are so slightly cemented together that the material 
may hardly be called a rock, as the term is ordinarily used, 
and in this condition it is of less valm id material, 

but may be used for this pp. advantage. A careful 

search will show limestone of n\w of these grades to occur 
in considerable quantities at many points in t! tern 

counties, between the Tar Rivei and the South Carolina 
line. The harder, the more compact, and finer grained 
this rock, the more valuable it road material; but 

the loose shells from marl beds, when free from clay, and 
the oyster-shells from the coast, when placed on a 1 
surface and ground into fine fragments by travel, will 
solidity into a hard, compact road, as may be seen in the 
case of the excellent "shell road" between Wilmington 
and Wrightsville, which was built of oyster-shells. 

Clay and Sand. — The admixture of a small percentage 
of clay or loam with the sand on the surface of the road- 
bed will solidity it, and will thus very greatly improve the 
character of the road; and in this connection, and only in 
this connection, clay may be considered a useful road 


material. In whatever region the cli bun- 

dance the road will be greatly improved by the proj 
admixture of land ii < »m an adjoinin i, and by pro] 


Granite* and other Crystalline Rocks, — Tin Found 

outcropping at intervals along the western border of the 
Coastal Plain region, and wherever found ble this 

mate-rial should be used in the construction of 

ir the northern border of the State they arc found 
exposed in considerable quantity; along the Roanoke Rii 
between Gaston and Weldon, in Northampton and Halil 
counties; mar Whitaker 1 s Station, at Rocky Mount, just 

south of Wilson, and again a few miles north of Golds- 

boro on the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad. Another 
isolated and interesting occura granite is near the 

junction of Pitt, Wilson and Edgecombe counties, w: 
it is exposed over a tract of several acres. \\ the 

Wilmington & Weldon Railroad, in the counties ol Hali- 
fax, Nash and Johnston, the streams have removed the 
surface sands and clay in narrow Strips along their bord< 
and have exposed at intervals the crystalline rocks; and in 
many places these rocks will he found to make good road 
material. Further south-west, in Wake county, on the 
Cape Fear River, and Upper Little River, in Harnett 
county, and again along the banks of the Pee Dee River 
and tributaries in Richmond and Anson counties, granitic 
and slaty rocks occur in considerable quantities, the former 
especially suitable for road material. 

In considering the materials for good roads in the coun- 
ties of this Coastal Plain region it must also be borne in 
mind that several large rjvers connect this region with 
ample sources of granite and other good road materials 
which occur at the head of navigation on these streams 
and can be cheaply transported on flats; and further, that 
a number of railroads pass from the midland counties 


where the supply is abundant directly into and across the 
Coastal Plain region. 

Plank Roads. — As suggested above, in deep sandy regions 

where timber is abundant the plank road may prove the 
most economical good road that can be built for temporary 
use, and some of them last six to ten years. But the great- 
est objection to them lies in the fact that when the timl 
decay, whether this be at the end of four or ten years, the 
road is gone; and the entire cost in lab<»r and money must 
be repeated. 

In mi Midland and -Throughout 

the midland and Piedmont counties of th) \\ of 

the Coastal Plain region, rocks suitable id pur]" 

arc- abundant and widely distributed, SO that no one can 
claim as an excuse for A/</ roads that the materials are not 
at hand for good roads. It will serve our present pur] 
to discuss these in the order of th< raphic distribu- 

tion, with but little regard to their geologic relatioi 

Trap Rock in //it Sandston 
sandstones j materia 

cially when broken into fragmenl . in making 

Macadam and Telford roads, but fortunately in this rev, 
the sandstones of North Carolina are quite limited in their 
distribution. The larger of the two areas begins a 
Oxford, in Granville county, and extends south-westward, 
passing into South Carolina below V. >ro. It has its 

maximum width of about sixteen miles between Chapel 
Hill and Caiv, and its average width is less than ten mi. 
It occupies the southern portion of Granville county, the 
southern half of Durham, the western border of Wake, the 
south-eastern border of Chatham, and portions of Moore, 
Montgomery, Anson and Richmond counties. The other 
sandstone area is much more limited in extent. It I 
mainly in Stokes and Rockingham counties, along the Dan 
River, between (. lermantown and the Virginia line, a 

j6 [OURN \l. 01 I HI 

length of not more than thirty miles, and a maximum 
width of not more- than five mil* 

Fortunately for the- roads leading through these sand- 
stone areas there is an abundant hard, black, touj 
fine-grained rock, known as diabase, or traj rring in 

dykes which have broken through the sandstone and now 
appear on the surface in lines of more or less rounded bl 
masses of rock running nearly north and south. Tl. 

dykes vary in width from a few feet to more than one hun- 
dred feet, and are separated from one- another by distai. 

varying from a few yards to two or three miles. A dozen 
or more of these dykes a; d by the wagon road 

between Chapel Hill and Morris vi He. Several dykes occur 

at and near Durham, and the rock lias been used upon 
roads leading out from Durham, but unfortunately it has 
not been crushed into small fragments, as should have been 
done, and hence the result has not been altogether satis- 

There is, probably, in both these sandstone areas a suf- 
ficient amount of trap rock to properly macadamize every 
prominent road that crosses them, and, after this lias been 
done, to furnish a top dressing for all public roads which 
are likely to be macadamized in the adjacent count:' 

Trap Rock in Other Areas. — Fortunately this excellent 
road material is, in its occurrence, not limited to the sand- 
stone regions. Dykes quite similar to those which abound 
in the areas just described are also found extending across 
the country in many of the midland and Piedmont coun- 
ties, and also the region west of the Blue Ridge. Hereto- 
fore this black, "nigger-head" rock, as it is frequently 
called, has been regarded as a useless encumbrance of the 
ground; now, in connection with the move for better roads, 
it must be regarded as one of our most valuable rocks. 
The city of Winston has already made extensive use of it 
in macadamizing its streets, with excellent results. 



77ic Eastern Granite Belts. — Granitic rocks are abun- 
dant over considerable areas in the midland and Piedmont 
counties, and especially in the former. One of these 
important areas may be called, as a matter of convenience, 
the Raleigh granite belt; which, in a general way, may be 
described as enclosed by lines drawn from Gaston to Smith- 
field, thence to a point midway between Raleigh and Cary, 
and thence a little east of north to the Virginia line. This 
belt occupies a considerable part of Wake, including the 
region about Raleigh, of Franklin, and practically the 
whole of Warren and Vance counties. The principal 
rocks of this belt ait.- light-colored gi :nparati\ 

fine-grained, granite and gneiss; on the whole a fairly gi 
material for road construction. The rocks vary in com- 
position and in appearance at difl 

fairly uniform in character <>\ iderable In 

some places the black or biotite mica panting, 

and the rock assumes a whitish feldspathic character, 
other points the mica becomes abundant, and the rock 
assumes a dark gray color. In places the mica um- 

dant that the gneiss becomes somewhat schist 
laminated, and in this condition crushes hence 

should not be used on the roads. I >\ k<^ of trap rock 
isionally met with, and these should be used in prefer- 
to the gneiss and granite wherever accessible. 

The somewhat isolated patches of granite lyin_ 
this belt in Halifax, Mash, »mbe and Wilson coun- 

ties have already been referred to. 

West of the Raleigh belt there i> another granite area 
of limited extent which occupies the extreme north-eastern 
portion of Durham county and the larger part of Granville 
county. This may be called the ( )xford granite belt. The 
rocks of this area resemble to some extent those of the 
Raleigh belt, but there is a larger proportion of syenitic 
and trap rocks, which make excellent road material. 

7<s of mi 

'////■ Central Granite Belt. — This belt extendi obliquely 
across the State from neat Roxboro, in P< i 

the South Carolina line along the- southern bordei ol M< i 
lenburg. Its width varies from ten to thirty miles, and it 
upies a total area of about three thousand square miles 
in the- following counties: Western half of Person, including 
the region about Roxboro; tin- south-eastern portion 
Caswell, the north-western half of Alamance, tin- la: 
part of Guilford and Davidson, south-eastern portion! 
Davie and Iredell, Lincoln and Gaston and the larger pa/t 
of Rowan, Cabarrus and Mecklenburg. In this belt 
throughout its entire extent road material of most excellent 

quality i> abundant The prevailing characU 

an- syenite, dolerite ( trapi, greenstone, amphibolite, granite 
and porphyry; and, as will be seen from this list, the tough 
hornblende and augite rocks predominate. Dykes "I ' 
rock, some of them of considerable extent, are to be found 
in almost every portion of the belt. So uniformly tough 
and durable are these materials that one could hardly go 
amiss in making selections for road construction. 

flic c 'entral Slate licit. — This region lies just east of the 
central granite belt, and extends obliquely across the State 
from Virginia to South Carolina. Its eastern border lies 
against the Deep River sandstone basin described above 
(p. 23). It varies from twenty to forty miles in width and 
includes all or portions of the following counties: The east- 
ern half of Person, the north-western part of Durham, the 
south-eastern part »of Alamance, nearly all of Orange, 
Chatham, Randolph, Montgomery, Stanly and Union; the 
eastern part of Davidson and Rowan, and the north-western 
part of Anson. A considerable portion of this area is rich 
in other mineral products, but the entire belt, as compared 
with the central granite belt, is poor in road materials. 
The rocks are mostly siliceous and clay slates, with a 
considerable admixture of chloride and hvdromicaceous 


schists; all of which are at best inferior for road construc- 
tion. Here and there, however, trap .dykes are found in 
this belt; and in places the siliceous slates become some- 
what massive, passing intohornstone and a quartzite, which, 
when crushed, will answer fairly well for macadamizing 
purposes. In other places the chloritic schi- >me 

somewhat massive and tough and can be used in the same 
way. In still other pla< ibout th uty, 

and along the eastern border of Orange county, the r< 
is a fine-grained, tough syenite, accompanied ] 
dykes, and is eminently suited tor roadpurp tin, 

as mar 1, granite occurs in a limited area. Vein 
quartz ("white flint") is abundant in many \ the 

belt; and, though not usually recommend* 
material, is worthy of consideration. While, then, on the 
whole tlu- rocks of this belt are not suitable for 
material, yet a careful search will show th< 
sufficient quantity of material of fair quality to macadam- 
ize all the public roads. And should this supply e 
prove insufficient, excellent materials are to be found in 
abundance in the granite belt along the western b. 
this region, and in the trap d\kes of the sandstone on the 
eastern border. 

The Gneisses and Otlui dmont Coun 

— West of the central granite belt as described above, and 
extending back to the foot-hills of the Blue Ridge, is the 
region occupied by the Piedmont counties — Rockingham, 
Stokes, Forsyth, Yadkin, Surry, Wilkes, Davie, Iredell, 
Alexander, Caldwell, Rurkc, McDowell, Rutherford, Polk, 
Cleveland, Catawba, Lincoln and Gaston. The i 
this region resemble in main respects those of the Raleigh 
granite belt. They consist of a succession of gneiss 
schists and slates, more hornblendic toward the east and 
more micaceous toward the west, with here and there 
masses and dykes o\ syenite, trap and other eruptive rocks. 

So |in i<\ \i 01 rHE 

In places, as at Mount Airy, the troe granii incon- 

siderable abundance. The granites and ^mi~ 
where the latter tend to split into thin layers and cmsh, 
are fairly good materials for road construction, improving 
as they become'finer in grain and as the of horn- 

blende increases; but the best material for road construc- 
tion is to be found in the trap dykes and syenit* 
which at intervals traverse this region, m^ iallj its 

eastern half. 

The Gneisses and Other Rocks oj tin Mountain Counties. 
— The rocks of this region are not greatly unlike thoa 
the Piedmont counties just described. Over much the 

larger part of the area rock fairly well adapted to road con- 
struction is abundant, indeed SO abundant that the laborers 
on the public roads in that region during the past half 
century have expended the larger part of their time and 
energy in endeavoring to get this rock out of the u 
Had they expended this time and energy in crushing the 
rock and spreading it over a well-formed foundation, this 
region would possess at the present time a number of 
excellent macadamized highways. 

In the more northern counties — Alleghany, Ashe and 
Watauga — the predominating rocks are hornblende gn< 
and slate, but massive syenites are abundant, especially 
between Rich mountain in Watauga and Negro mountain 
in Ashe county, and elsewhere. Further south-west, through 
Mitchell; Yancey, Madison and Buncombe counties, horn- 
blende schists still continue, but they are more massive, 
and the gneisses predominate. These are, on the whole, 
compact and sufficiently tough for use in the construction 
of good Macadam roads. And the statement just made 
concerning these counties is also applicable to Henderson, 
Transylvania and Haywood counties, and. in a measure to 
Jackson, Swain and Macon counties and the eastern half 
of Clay count}-, in all of which the supply of good road 


material is ample; but in these last three counties mica 
schist partially replaces the hornblende slate-. In the w < 
era part of Swain, in Graham, Cherokee and the western 
part of Clay county good road material is not so abundant 
as in the other counties named, but nevertheh be 

found in considerable quantities. The rocks over a con- 
siderable portion of this last-named area are mil and 
hvdromicaeeous in character, and are practically worth', 
for the purposes of road-building, but the quartzifc 
and beds of limestone in these counties will furnish ample 
and suitable material. 

In conclusion, it may be said that in the middle and 
western counties <»f North Carolina material suitable for 
macadamizing the public hi^hw abundant and 

generall) accessible. It will be the exception, rather than 
the rule, that this material will ha\ ated for 

any considerable distance In the eastern counties mate: 
suitable for this purpose are inferior in quality and only 
moderately abundant in quantity, but tin ive and 

intelligent use of even these materials would very greatly 
improve the public roads ami thereby increase the pi 
perity of the people. Ami in many places where the 
Macadam road is at present out of the question on account 
of the laek of stone, other mater: \el, clay, loam 

and plank will be found in sufficient abundance to make 
the construction yA better roads practicable able 





Let tnn re p res e nt the surface of the ground. Let ( 'repre- 
sent the position of the centre peg, and let CD «, the 

value of which is 
found from the- level 
notes) represent the 
centre cut. The 
width of the road, 
I '.A. is />. 

It is proposed to 
find what engineers 
designate as cuts at I\ P 1 , S, and T. 

In the direction of P, and in connection with C, one 
setting of the rod determines the slope of the ground ;;///. 
Call this slope m. Now, since the cds. of C are (0, a), the 
equation of the surface, mn y is 

y s= nix a, ( 1 ). 

The quality of the soil determines the slopes of PA P'B. 
Call this slope m\ Then since the cds. of A are (J, o), the 
equation of PA is 

m l b 


m x — 


Combining (1) and (2), the cds. of P are known. Hence 
the cut at this point is known. 

Designating the cds. of P, just found, by (.r 11 , y n ) and 
the cds. of C by (x\ /) [=(*, a)], 

cp = Vcr 11 - xj + ry -yy, ( 3j . 

Then measure this distance, CP, and fix stake at P. 


The equation of SA is 



Substituting this value in ( 1 ), the cut S is at once 
obtained. Denoting the cd by u", v 11 ) and the ( 

of C by (a 1 , r 1 ), and substituting in known. 

Measure this distance, and fix stake at S. 

The same course of reasoning applies in finding the cuts 
at 1" and T. 

The writer has found this method more expeditious than 
trial and error when the sui - much inclined. The 

numerical computations did not require as much '. 
raanceuvering with the rod and level. 

Since he has not seen the above method in any of the 
books which have fallen under his eyes, he h.. 
induced to give it in the hope that it might pi fill, 

as well as suggestive, to others under similar circumsl 

T K I N I 1 \ I 




Early in March my attention was called to an aquarium 
which had been standing in my window during the winter, 
and which contained anacharas and algae in greatabundan 
but which now suddenly presented a quantity of light pink 
substance on the sides of the jar. It was the appearance of 
this pink-colored material among the debris of decaying 
and growing algse that attracted my attention. Accord- 

*Amcr. Soc. Microaoopisb 

|( M KN \l OF ill I. 

ingly a small piece of the substance m id out o\ 

slide and examined, when, to mj surprise, it was found to 
be composed of sun-animal culse of variou among 

which win- othet bodies, tin- true nature of which I did not 
at fust quite understand, hut which on close examination 
proved to hi' the young of the larger heliazoa. So numer- 
ous, indeed, were the young heliazoa that not a single field 
of the one-fifth objective and n ocular could he chosen in 
which there were less than half a dozen, and usually the 
number was very much greater. 

Such an unusually great and rare opportunity to study 
these animals could not he neglected. Fortunately they 
were discovered in the morning, and by Close and constant 

observation for several hours their true relations to the 
numerous small bodies were satisfactorily demonstrated and 
proven to be different stages of the same animal. 

For a description of . /. Eichornit and of its habiti 
11 Fresh-water Rhizopods of North America," by J. Leidy, p. 

259. Plate XU. 

We will pass at once to the special subject in hand, 
beginning, for convenience, with the simplest or youngest 

Development. — Let it not be understood that the order 
in which I am now to describe the different stages of devel- 
opment is the order in which I observed them. On the 
contrary, what I shall first describe really came about last 
in my observations, since I did not at first take the young- 
est stages of this heliazoau to have any connection with 
the larger heliazoa. My observations began with an 
undoubted heliazoan of this species (Fig 13 of my plate), 
and from that I worked both ways, but principally to the 
younger. It would have been impracticable to have 
watched the development of a single heliazoan from the 
very youngest individual to the full-grown animal, since it 
would have required not only a constant observation for a 


much longer time than I could spare, but would also have 
needed souk- little care. As it was, I could watch a young 
heliazoan until it had developed a few stages, and had con- 
siderably lessened the near supply of food, and then I could 
find another heliazoan of the same stage as the one just 
discarded, but which was in more favorable circutnstai 
for further growth. As indicated, the number of helia 
was enormous, and the different were r e presented 

the score. Had I suspected these vari 

been what they were, there would have been no trouble in 
finding a coinpl idation from the 

est to the adult was present in great quantiti< rtu- 

natelv there were quite a number of worms — Dorylaimus 
Stagnalis — in the water, and their constant wriggling about 
kept tin- heliazoa and other animals in perpetual mot: 
so that they came in contact with oik- another, where other- 
wise they would not have done 

ir greater number of ol made than I 

shall here describe. Enough were chosen, 1 to form 

a complete scries, and accurate drawings made of them. I 
shall, therefore describe only th0S4 itions which I 

have illustrated, hoping that th full enough 

for our purpose. 

I think it is sal that were this minute mat 

protoplasm which constitutes the youngest helia/ 
observed by itself for a little while, no one would mistrust 
its true nature or relations. Indeed it was only after a 
long and continued observation, and that under the w. 
favorable circumstances, that I became convinced oi 
true nature. It is nothing but a minute spherical mass 
finely granular and hyaline protoplasm, 14.5 // in diameter, 
with a contained nucleus and a distinct nucleolus (Fig. 1 ). 
In appearance it resembles white blood corpuscles with a 
distinct and sharply defined nucleus. Later, howevei 
vacuole appears in its substance, and, increasing in size, 


often becomes larger than the original n protoplasm, 

»o thai the latter forma but a thin layer surroundinj 
(Pigs, 2, i6, r2). In this stage a pseudopod< 
ma) be presented (Fig. 12). 

Two heliazoa of the first si 
gether, which, however, as in nearly a 
the agitation of the water by the worms, and immediately 
upon touching one auoth< . to fuse and run 

together just as a drop of water fuses with another dro| 
water. It is impossible to say which of tli 
devoured; both appeared to play an equal part, the vacuole 
and nucleus of both being present, and tin- whole im- 
mediately assuming a spherical form and appearing I 
much like any one of the- two of which it is now composed, 
except that it has two vacuoles and two nuclei. In the 
course of five minutes this young, two-vacuoled, heliazoan 
had developed a ray, and in its interior the character: 
axis thread could he distinctly seen (Fig. 20). The absence 
or the number of raws when present in the young helia. 
is of no special value, and varies with different individi 
of the same age, as will be seen from the figur< 

Whether this fusion of two individuals of the same 
cies be called eating or not does not concern ns, and I shall 
not attempt to discuss the subject here. As a matter of fact, 
however, it is not conjugation for purposes of reproduction 
or rejuvenescence, as will be seen later; and, since we have 
these animals developing by this method of increase as well 
as by that of an undoubted eating of other animals, it 
matters not, so far as development is concerned, whether 
they appropriate material so near like that of their own 
bodies that it needs no change to form a part of them, or 
whether the food be different and hence have to be changed 
or digested before it can be so appropriated. I have ob- 
served farther advanced heliazoa capture infusoria and 
amoeba and surround them, and draw them into their 


interior, where they remained to be digested; and at the 
same time I have observed those same heliazoa capture 
Other heliazoa, and instead of drawing them into their in- 
terior and surrounding them as they did other bodies, thej 
would draw them in until the two heliazoa touched, when 
there occurred a fusing and blending of the two animals 
into one just so much larger. My only explanation is that, 
as indicated, the protoplasm of the two animal ictly 

alike and hence there can be no need of digestion. \V 
one of the heliazoa dead when it came in contact with 
another which would otherwise have fused with it, I li 
no doubt but that the dead heliazoan would be surroun 
and drawn into the interior of the live one the sanu 
other animals are and there digested, it being not exactly 
like the protoplasm of the oik- which is all . | if this 

were not the ease, if the dead heliaaoan upon contact with 
the living heliazoan were to form a part of it as the 
living heliazoan did, then we should havi where 

simple contact of the living protoplasm with the same but 
dead protoplasm would impart life to the dead, just m 
piece of iron which is magnetised, if brought in contact 
with one which is not, will impart magnetism to it. Hut 
it is needless to say that such a phenomenon of life has 
never been observed. 

While watching the heliazoan d : vhich we 

have just described as being the result of the union 
of the youngest individual the water 

stirred by a worm, and another heliazoan, o{ about the same 
size as the one under observation, but with three vaeu 
and no rays, was brought nearer and nearer until finally 
they accidentally came in contact with one another and 
immediately united (Fig. aoj and assumed a spherical form. 
Presently the single ray disappeared and three more vacu- 
oles made their appearance in the mass of protoplasm 
together with the development of a contractile vesicle 

88 |OI l:\ M "I I lil 

^'•k r - 5)- This individual was watched until it had 
developed three rays and several more- vacuoles (Fig. 6 
process repairing about twenty-five minutes, during which 
time it had eaten nothing except one of the younj 
heliazoa without a vacuole. Under tin- one-twelfth oil 
emersion I was able to detect the axis cylinder in two 
the rays, but not without some doubt in the third m 

Very near this individual (Pig. 6, 26) was another helia- 
zoan of a much greater size (Fig. 25), and by touching the 
cover-glass with a needle I soon brought the two so near 

that the ti]> of one- of the rays of the smaller heliazoan 
touched the larger animal. Wishing to observe the result 
of this contact I waited a few minutes, when it became 
apparent that tin- smaller individual was drawing in its 
ray, which was in contact with the larger helia/.on, and 
was thus drawing itself towards it. The larger animal, 
offering the greater resistance, did not appear to move. 
Five minutes from the time the ray first touched the other 
heliazoan the two had come in contact, whereupon a union 
occurred and immediately the two blended into one. The 
smaller animal appeared to flow into the larger and to dis- 
perse itself through it in a manner which is common to 
all these animals, young as well as full-grown, and which 
will be described later when we reach a nearly mature 
heliazoan. Before the union of these two animals they 
appeared alike except in size and number of vacuoles, but 
shortly after the union the granules in the protoplasm 
gradually moved towards the center of the animal, where 
they became more numerous, and instead of being evenly 
distributed throughout the granular protoplasm now formed 
a central, more granular portion with an outer, clearer, 
and less granular zone. Three more rays were also 
developed, and the animal presented the appearance shown 
in figure 7, which, at this stage, would probably not be 
mistaken for any other species. Hundreds of individuals 


were to be found of tliis size and appearance, and hence it 
was not necessary to watcli the development of this single 
individual longer, as other fields promised better results. 

There was almost an unlimited supply of heliazoa inter- 
mediate in size between the two whose union produced the 
one just mentioned. They differed in no respect from one 
another or from the two just mentioned, except a slight 
difference in size, and every gradation between them 
to be found. Merely for the sake of filling up the gap 
which exists in regard to size between the two individu 
whose union we just referred to, I will cite one example 
out of many which I have observed. Two similar indi- 
viduals, slightly larger than the smaller (Fig". 2(>) of the 
two just united were seen to come togethei ind, 

l result of their union, a heliazoan was produced SO nearly 
like the larger (Fig. 85) of the two of the former indi- 
viduals, that there was practicall) no difference between 

Another field was now chosen in which were a number 
of heliazoa, similar in all n '.'> the one representing 

our last stage (Fig. 71. I had not waited long before it 
evident that two of these animals were gradual] tch- 

inj; one another from some cause which I was unabh 
discover. When within a very short distance, in : 
almost ready to meet, there occurred a very singular m 
ment on the part of both individuals — a movement which 
I can hardly account for — in which th product 

swelling, as it were, in that part of the sphere of both 
animals (Fig. 8, 9) which was just about to touch the 
other, and by continued enlarj;in^ with in< rapidity 

soon met one another, thus uniting the two individuals 
much, more quickly than they otherwise would have done. 
Immediately upon touching one another the at first narrow 
neck uniting them rapidly enlarged Kijj. 10), the proto- 
plasm of the one flowing into the other and r$a until 

()t > SAL OF THI 

the two animals bad united into an oblong-shaped ma 
The flowing of the protoplasm from one- to the otl 
a most interesting sight, and could be distinctly seen, 
owing to the numerous granules which it contained. Both 
animals played an equal part in the union; a current 
protoplasm could be seen streaming from the fust into the 
sic nid, and near it another current from the- second into 

the fust. There were as main- currents as there w< 

threads of denser protoplasm uniting them. Like all the 
observed Cases the- denser and more granular portion- 
the protoplasm separating the- vacuoles from one another 

never mixed with anything but the- c or re s ponding pro! 

plasm of the individual with which it united; hence there 
was no destruction of vacuoles, Imt merely an addition 
or union, and, moreover, the peripheral layer of vaen* 
always remained on the periphery, while the central to 
of vacuoles flowed to the center of the united mass. The 
helia/.oan now gradually changed from the oblong or ellip- 
soid shape to that of a sphere ^Fig. n), and here I left it 
to seek other fields. 

A nearly identical individual to the one jnst mentioned 
was found and seen to capture by one of its rays another 
but smaller heliazoan. As a result of a movement of 
the water the smaller individual chanced to come in con- 
tact with the tip of a ray of the larger animal and there to 
unite with it, whereupon the larger heliazoan gradually 
drew in its ray and the smaller creature with it. It was an 
interesting sight to see this process. The ray seemed 
rather to flow into the spherical mass or body of the animal, 
since a stream of protoplasm was rapidly and constantly 
flowing down its center into the animal, and the smaller 
heliazoan was likewise flowing into the larger by this 
means; but, nevertheless, the ray grew shorter and shorter 
until finally the heliazoa came in contact (Fig. 13), and 
then a union took place similar to the one described above, 


except that here the flow of protoplasm appeared to be 
solely from the smaller to the larger animal. Before the 
animal had become entirely spherical, the denser inner 
portions of the smaller heliazoan had united with that of 
the larger and appeared as a swelling upon it, while the 
peripheral zones of both animals had united. This ap- 
peared to be such a <^ood example of the mode of union of 
the protoplasm of two helia/oa that I figure it(Fij4. 

I have observed a number of large heliazoa capture the 
youngest individuals, and in all m as the young 

animal touched the rav of the larger it appc 1 to 

speak, to form a part of it, and would so m etimes assume 

an oval form and remain on the rav, looking exactly like 
the little knobs of protoplasm which are frequently - 
there, except that it would Ik- larger; and then again I 
have seen them flow down the center of the ray, while the 
ray itself suffered no appreciable change. In one tnstan 
however, which came under my observation, a moderate 
sized heliazoan (Fig. 171 captured by the tip ol one 

of the youngest individuals (Fig. 10), and while watching 
to see what would happen to this young one, the | 
large heliazoan [Fig. 18) came in contact with the lai 
of the former animals. Out of curiosity merely I watched 
to ^e the result o\ this extraordinary union, and found 
that the largest heliazoan drew its captured brother to i*. - 
and united with it before the smallest individual had 
touched the body of the one to which it was attached; the 
smallest heliazoan then appeared to be I to a ray of 

the largest animal, which, however, soon drew it to itself 
and the two united. 

Quite a different process from the one we have been dis- 
cussing occurs when the heliazoan encounters food con- 
sisting of other animals or plants. I have no doubt but 
that the youngest heliazoan, as well as those ot all 
are able to and generally do develope and reach maturity by 

92 [OUKNAL 01 mi 

the use- of no food other than that of other animals and 
plants; but there is also no doubt that this is a pro 
quiring considerable time as compared with that which 
occurs when the) chance to meet with their own kind, 
since in the former case the- food has to be digested, while 
in the latter it has not. It was m\ good fortune to find a 
large beliazoan which had just captured an infusorium and 
partially surrounded it. In a few minutes the infusorium 
was completely enclosed, a clear space remaining around 
it, however, and gradually it was moved near the center of 
the animal, where it could be seen slowly moving its cilia 
in the little water which immediately surrounded it and 
which separated it from the protoplasm of the beliazoan 

(Fig. [9, 21). Presently an amoeba came in contact with 

the beliazoan and appeared to stick to it more or less and 
to constantly try to move away from it. The heliax 
made several efforts to surround it, but the amoeba in ei 
cast- moved out before being fairly imbedded, and finally, 
after several minutes of hard struggling to ascertain which 
was to be victorious, the amoeba escaped. It was but a short 
time, however, before another amoeba chanced to touch 
the beliazoan, and this time with better success to the 
beliazoan. The amoeba, as soon as it touched the belia- 
zoan, spread out a little on it, and at the same time the 
protoplasm of the beliazoan began to flow around and to 
enclose the amoeba, which now made several efforts to 
escape, but in vain, for within a few minutes a fine film of 
protoplasm had surrounded it, and the amoeba was within 
the beliazoan (Fig 19). A quantity of water was also en- 
closed with the amoeba, and in this it exhibited consider- 
able activity, even after it had been carried nearly to the 
center of the heliazoan (Fig. 21). It was not long, how- 
ever, before the amoeba had assumed a globular form and 
become motionless. I mention this instance in wdiich the 
heliazoa eat other animals merely to bring out the strik- 


ing difference between the process and that observed when 
they eat their own specie 

Dr. Joseph Leidy* speaks of having found several glob- 
ules of granular protoplasm with vacuoles and rays, and 
alludes to their probable connection with this species of 
heliazoa. I have reproduced in figure 24 one of his figr. 
of these bodies, and think that tli very reason to 

believe that they are what he suspeeted them to be. 

Reproduction. — It is not uncommon to find heliazoa in 
the process of reproduction by fission; in fact, if heliazoa be 
kept for any considerable length of time they are aim 
certain to be found in the act of reproducing by this means. 
I have observed them divide by keeping them in a watch- 
glass under the mici and in one instance I watched 
uninterruptedly the process, from an oral heliazoan before 
the- constriction began to appear, Up to the division and 
entire separation into two animals. A complete set of 
drawings was made to illustrate the different Steps, and I 
find by referring to my notes that out- of the drawing 
almost identical with figure i<>, which represents the helia- 
zoan in the process of union. 

As regards reproduction in the heliazoa outside of the 
well-known process of fission, all I can say is from a philo- 
sophical stand-point, as DO direct observations have been 
made outside that of the finding of the young. But the 
presence of young has got to be explained in some v. 
Prom Dr. Leidy's "Fresh-water Rhizopods," p. 260, I find 
that "according to Stein, Carter and other authorities, _ /. 
Eichkornii contains many nuclei, large individuals having 
a hundred or more." Whether this has any connection 
with the heliazoan's having devoured individuals of its 
own species and thus to have retained their nuclei, and 
by continually adding to the number every time it captured 

*" Fresh-water Rhizopods of North Ann 

() I |< H K \ 11 01 I III 

another beliazoan, to have finally attained the number of 
one hundred, or whether it u connected with the pro* 
of reproduction, I cannot say. It seems to me very pro 
ble that, in the fall at least, the full-grown beliazoan 
becomes encysted, and that its protoplasm then divides and 
subdivides, until it is converted into a mass of minute 
bodies, which, when the cyst is ruptured, make their 

ipeinto the surrounding water, and then appear as rials 
spherical masses of granular protoplasm with a nncli 
It may be that the minute bodies acquire a covering 

they escape from the mother cyst, and that they then 
as spores, ami an- carried about and developed similai 
the spores of infusoria. 

Of course this m<xle of development has never been ob- 
served in the helia/.oan, but it seems to me to be very 
probable that it does occur, judging from the observed 
young individuals, and from the fact that it occurs in 
certain infusoria. 


All the figures were drawn from life except Fig. 24, which 
is a reproduction of a figure from Dr. Leidy's work on the 
Rhizopods. Fig. r, which is a helia/.oan, Actinosphaerium 

EichhomU) of the very youngest stage, is in nature 14.5 it 
in diameter. The other figures are drawn with the same 
magnification as Fig. 1, and hence they all bear the same 
relative size in nature as is here represented, excepting 
Figs. 25 and 26, which are a little too small. I take it to 
be of much more value to the reader to have the figures 
drawn so as to preserve their relative size, and then to 
know the natural size of one of them, than it is to have 
the figures of various magnifications and know the mag- 
nification of each separate figure. I do not wish it under- 
stood that the figure taken from Leidy is relatively of the 
same size as the other figures. 

Trinity College. N. C. 

/*4£ St adman. He I 




During the month of August for the summers 
and 1889 it was the good fortune of the senior authoi 
this paper to spend that time in the enjoyment of the 
invigorating atmosphere and fai tuty of tin* 

point in the Western North Carolina mountains. 

To the greater number of the readers of this Journal 
Blowing Rock is not unknown. It ma) be a mattei 
interest to others to know that this nou coining 

popular summer resort is found in W - county, and 

reached by "staging it" twent) miles up the mountain 
from a point, Lenoir, the northern terminus of the Ch 

ter & Lenoir Narrow Gauge Railroad, which connects with 
the main line of travel from the east and west at Hickory, 
on the Western North Carolina Railroad. 

Even a botanist can cherish commendable curi< 
his first trip to the place, concerning its "entitlement 
Upon reaching the summit near the villa sped 

through an unpretentious drive of nearly one mile when 
the road curves to evade a steep hill. H iddenly 

presented to view the grand panorama of the great John's 
River valley below and the lofty peaks of the Black Moun- 
tains be) ond. 

When one has become disengaged from travelling para- 
phernalia, and when rest and refreshments have dispelled 
fatigue, there comes an irresistible desire to join others in 
the pilgrimage to the u Rock." Once there the meaning 
of "Blowing Rock" becomes apparent. The rock juts 
out upon the west side ol the cliff, forming a bold precipice at 
the north-east ol the John's River valley. The currents of 

96 |OURN \l "I I ill 

air from the farther end of the valley conv< 

at this point, favored by the cliffs at the- north and east, and 

on an otherwise calm day quite a strong breeze u bl 

over 1 1 1 c- rock. Throw your hat, walking-stick, or what- 

not over the precipice an 1 the wind brings them 

you. Legend has it that a despairing lo\ iped 

from the side of the fair one over the rock and the cruel 

winds picked him up and brought him back to her feet! It 

is proper to say, however, that when the writer visited the 

spot the winds did not seem to be "getting in their work" 

properly and there was no inclination to jump. 

But legends and levity l><>th aside, Blowing Rock is 
prodigal with flowers and "mushrooms." To one who 

visits the place- in June the profusion of thickets painted 
with Rhododendrons and Kalmias arc a "joy forevi 

Later in the season " Black-eyed Susans " wink at yon here 
and there, and various species of interesting Orchids are 
frequently met with. Eupatoriums and other vigorous 
growers vie with each other in their effort to hide the fences 

which line the roads or cross the fields. 

The great prodigality of the fleshy fungi tempted the 

writer, during portions of two short months, to form the 
beginning of a closer acquaintance with the Hymenomy- 

cetes than had been gained from a general study of struc- 
ture and relationships. Accordingly collections were made 
of fungi chiefly in this group. Not wishing to be 
encumbered with books, no efforts were made at the time 
to identify the specimens. A few notes were taken on the 
more evanescent characters, the specimens were then dried 
and preserved for future determination. 

The greater number of the Hymenomycetes were after- 
ward determined by Mr. A. P. Morgan. Dried agarics are 
very difficult of determination and it is a matter of some 
interest that more than half of the Agaricacecc were in a 
recognizable condition, though some genera like Cortina- 
riits were complete failures. 


One point of interest in making the collections was the 
observation that quite circumscribed areas for several days 
in succession would yield fresh and abundant specimens 
the same species. Near Pair View and Sunset Rock Boh 
americanus was abundant both seasons. A trip down 
the damp slopes of Glen Burney was almost sure to be 
rewarded by gorgeous Thelephoras. Partly down the 
John's River valle\ road, in rather open woods, several 
species of Hydnum would always insist on over loadin 
basket. That lovely plant, Milremyces lut, - hwein., 

cropped out continually along certain of the shady i 
road banks dripping with water. From the same situati* 
where there was less water, clammy Amanitas lifted their 
heads. One point on the \ id yielded S 

bilomyces tfrobilaceus. Wonder Land produced inon 
clusters of Clitocybi iliudens. At one time I could h 
picked more than a bushel without moving from the s] 
This plant is remarkably phosphorescent, the phosphoi 
cence being confined to the hymeniuiti. Sometimes this 
plant is taken to the hotels, and at night the guests amuse 
themselves delineating various figures in the dark with the 
aid of this "fox-fire" mushroom. Another phosphorescent 
plant, Panus stjptiatSy is common upon dead stum 
Close by the roadside at Wonder Land, also, Cyclomy 
o><( >iu was found. In an open fieli the Morris | 

tare the parasol, Lepiota pi jvw in abundance, and 

here and there the Ox-tongue, -leak i\\\. tfu- 

lina Jit'pa/iiti, offered its juicy meat, [jactarii were ev< 
where and so the daint) Afarasmii. Marasmius capilla 
was taken, just a bit of it. from "Flat To Iiui^ 

inquinanS) Spatlutlaria velutipes^ Leotias\ were very com- 
mon. The Geoglossums were rarely seen. ///// 
Walteri was collected by Miss Etta Sehaffner down in the 
John's River valley near the foot y>\ Fair View. Down in 
the far depths o\ this valley was a profusion of the maiden's 
hair fern, Adiantum capillis-vem 

98 IOURNAI "I Mil 

The junior author, Mr. Schrenk, a student in botan) in 
mv laboratory, has rendered valuable service in making out 
the list presented below and in a careful examination <»i 
the specimens for the purpose of verification of the identi- 
fications, in order to lessen the chances of error. This has 
occasioned no inconsiderable labor on his part. 

In the arrangement of the list the system :d in 

cardo's Sylloge has been mainly followed. No effort 

has been made at changes in nomenclature, since- it did not 

seem to be called for in a bare li^-t of n<> more than 254 


The Sacckaromycei Pyriformu and Bacterium vermi- 
forme* were symbiotic organisms composing small ami 
colored -rains termed "moss seed," "California b 
seed," used by sour- of the mountain people in brewing 
beer by placing the -rains in water sweetened by mi 
The -rains were given me by Dr. Carter, a resident phy- 



i. Amanita casarea Scop. 

2. A. muscaria Linn. 

3. A. paiitJu rina DC. 

4. . /. phalloides Fr. 

5. A. recutita Fr. 

6. A. sol it aria Bull. 

7. A. z'crnnk Fr. 

8. Amanitopsis vagina t a (Bull. ) Roz. 

9. A. volvata (Pk.) Sacc. 

-"bee \\ nrd. The " Ginger-beer plant,'' and the organisms composing it: a contribu- 
tion to the study of fermentations— veasts and bacteria. Proceedings of the Roval 
Society. Vol. =o. pp. 261. 26s. 


io. Lepiota cristata Alb. et Schwein. 

ii. L. procera Scop. 

12. Armillaria mellea Vahl. 

13. Tricholoma fulvellum Fr. 

14. T. portentosum Pr. 

15. A. saponaceum Fr. 

i(>. Clytocybe cyathiformis Fr. 

17. C. illudens Schwein. 

18. ( '. in fundi huli for mis Seine ti. 

19. ^ '. laccata S< 

20. Colly bia confluent P< 

21. C radicata Relh. 

22. Mycena corticola Sehuni. 

23. .1/. galericulata Scop. 

24. I/, minor Batsch. 

25. .1/. stifularis Fr. 
Omphalia fibula Hull. 

27. 0, scab) iu sat I a Pk. 

28. Plntrotus appiicatus Batsch. 

29. Hygrophorus cantherellus Schwein. 

30. Lactarius albidus Pk. 

31. A. chrysorrkeus Pr. 

32. A. (ili(ii)i(lcs Fr. 

33. /.. iiiit r, US Pk. 

34. A. cormgis Pk. 

35. A. fuliginosus Fr. 

A. litlrus Fr. 

37. A. hysginus Fr. 

38. A. iusulsus Fr. 

39. A. lignyotus Fr. 

40. A. pergamenus (Swart/.) Fr, 

41. A. piperatus (Scop. ) Fr. 

42. A. pyrogallus (Bull, t Fr. 

43. A. rufescens Morg. 

44. A. /-/////.v (Scop.) Fr. 

45. A. subdulcis (Hull.) Fr. 

. \l III I II I 

I'i. /.. utbtomentosui B. d Rav, 

i;. /.. subpurfmrem Pk. 

|.s. /.. (hciogalui (Bull.) Pr. 

CI. /.. torminosus (Schaeff) Pr. 

50. I.. voU in us Pr. 

51. Russula furcata (Pers 1 Pr. 

52. Cantherellus aurantiacus Pr. 

53. ( '. c ihm ins Pr, 

54. C 1 in, > 1 us Pr. 

55. <■ '. fioccosui Schwein. 

56. C. »Vj/fc ndibuliformis (Scop. 

57. A. minor Pk. 

58. ( '. prittcept B. et C. 

59. ( '. wrightii B. c! C. 

60. Afarasmius anomalms l'k. 

61. .J/, archyrcpus 1 Pers. | I 

62. J/. lapillaris Morg. 

63. .1/. ferrugineus Berk. 

64. .1/. melanoptts Morg. 

65. M. pit itopliyllus M..11! 

66. J/, pi nun nf its Ellis. 

67. .1/. rotalis B. c-t Br. 
.1/. salignm Pk. 

69. J/, viticola B. et C. • 

70. Lnit inns lecomtei Fr. 

71. A. Irpidms Pr. 

72. /.. strigosus Fr. 

73. /fe/ou stiplicns (Hull. ) Fr. 

74. Lenzites betulina (Linn.) Fr. 

75. A. cookei Berk. 

76. /.. cratcrgi Berk. V\ ' 

77. Pholiota squarrosoides Pk. 

78. Crrpidotns fulvo-tomentosus Pk. 

79. Pax i (Ins flavidus Berk. 

80. Agaricns caniprsicr Linn. 



Si. Boletus, americanui Pk. 

82. B. a it ri poms Pk. 

83. B. badius Fr. 

84. />'■ castaneus Bull. 

85. A', chrysenleron Fr. 

86. />. coll in it us Fr. 

87. //. /;•//<■//.> Bull. 

88. /A fiavidus Fr. 

89. //. gracilis Pk. 

(j<>. B. granulatui Linn. 

91. />'. leprosu s Pk. 

92. />'. pin pit) 1 

93. /A raw // ( /// B. ct * 

94. /A /7///0 R et C. 

95. //. spa i os u.s Fn 

(;(>. />'. suhtonit ntosus Linn. 

97. /»'. variegatus Swartz. 

98. Strobilomyces strobi rk. 

99. Boleiinus decipiens (B. et C.) Pk. 
roo. Fistuiina Inpatn a Fr. 

101. Polypoms borealtS ( \\'ahk-nh. ) Fr. 
/'. dichrous Fr, 

103. /'. elegans (Bull. ) 1 

iu| /'. elegans var nunimularius 

105. /'. 1 pih inn s Fr. 

/*. fiavo-virens B. et Raw 

107. A. fumosm Fr. 

108. /*. /lirsutti/tis Schwein. 

109. /'. iiirosus Berk. 

1 10. /'. sii/p/ntniis (Hull.) Fr. 

111. Forties appianatu W'allr. 

1 12. /\ 1 arm us N\ 

113. A. curtisii 'Berk, 


|oi KN \l i»l I III. 


1 1 ). / . fuliginosui Fr. 

1 1 > /■• salicinui ( Pers. j Fr. 

i id. Polystictus abietinui Pi 

1 1 7. /'. circinatus Fr. 

1 1 s. /'. decipiem Schwein. 

[i 9. /'. littesci 11 \ I'( 

1 20. /'. montagnei I 

[21. P.parvulus Klotzsch. 

1 22. /'. pergantenus Fi . 

123. /'. perennh ( Linn. | Fi 
ij). /'. sanguineus (Linn.) M< j 
1 25. /'. tomentosm Fi . 
1 26. /'. . ' 1 ticold) ( Linn. » Fr. 
127. Cyclomyces greenii Berk: 
1 2.s. Favotus canadensis Klotzsch 
1 29. /•'. tesseliatus Mont. 


[30. Hydnum auranliacum Alb. et Schwein. 

131. //. adusium Schwein. 

132. //. candidum Schmidt. 

133. //. fragile Fr. 

134. //. glabrescens B. et Rav. 

135. //. gracile Fr. 

136. //. graveolens Delast 

137. //. levigaium Swartz. 
[38. //. pulcherrimum B. et C. 

139. //. repandum Linn. 

140. //. rufescens Pers. 

141. //. squamosum Schaeff. 

142. //. zonatum Batsch. 

143. //. velutinum Fr. 

144. Tremeilodon gelatinosum (Scop.) Pers. 

145. Radulum pallidum B. et C. 



I \6 (ratcreUus canthrri Hits f Schwein. ) Fl. 

147. ('. cornucopioides (Linn 1 vv\\Ar 

148 ('. odoratus Schwein. 

1 \<j. Thelephora anthocephalaVx. j^ 

151. /: ,/,,,/nnia Srhwein. 7 V^ 

152. 'A. dis&ecta \.~ AjJ^ 

153. 7". sclin'i initzii W. ' v *•' 
1 5.}. A sebacea Pers. 

155. 7". spiil a hilis 1 . 

156. Stereum frustulosum i-'i 

157. .V spidiitton l : i 

1 5<S. .S'. siihpili alum B. et C 

1 s«>. >> versicolor (Swartz) 

160. HyiHi ihuhit't, rubiginosa (Schr.) I. 

161. // /.?/> rrrmi (Son 
I, //. itmh) in a I>. el 

163 /■ i ''' tsidium 
Rhododendron maximum. 


1 64. 


avaria abietina Pers 



iint tin Hull. 



crista t a I' 

( '. 

/A .-■(/ Schaeff. 



tiformis Sowerb. 



rn/w Pers. 



'. i I lima Pk. 

I 7 I. 

( '. 

grisea Pers, 



pelersii B. et C. 



pinophi/a Pk. 

1 7 4- 


letragona Schwein. 

17s Pterula densissima B. et C. 
17'). Typhula muscicola (Pers.) Fr. 

io.J 01 III! 

I Will \ I I<1 Ml I I A< I I . 

177. Dacryomycti chrysocoma (Hull.) Till. 

17S. D. involute* Schwein. 

ij(). Guepinia spatkularia (Schwein.) I 

1 So. fformomyce* fragiformis Cke. 



1 Si. Itlivpliullits impudicu* (Linn.. 


1S2. Cyatkui siercoreuA (Schwein.) Ik Ton. 

183. ('. striata* (Huds.) Eiofftn. 

184. Crucibuium xmlgaretvX. 


i, ' ' <• 185. Mitremycefyutescens Schwein. 

186. Povista pita 15. et C. 

[87. Lycoperdon calyptriforme Berk. 

188. A. echinatum Pk. 

189. /.. gemmatum Batscb. 

190. A. m 11 scorn m Morg. 

191. /.. perlatum ( Pers. ) Fr. 

192. A. subincarnatum Pk. 

193. A. lurneri E. et E. 

194. Scleroderma lycoptrdoidcs Schwein. 

195. 5". verrucosum (Bull.) Pers. 

196. .5. vulgare Hornem. 


197. Puccinia circcrer Pers. On Circaea alpina. 

198. P. mentfuB Pers. On Labiate species. 

199. P. tenuis Bnrrill. On Enpatorium. 



200. Plasmopara viticola (B. et C.) Berl. et De Ton. 



201. Miirosplurra a/fit (DC.) Winter. On ( 

and Corylus americana. 

202. M. grossularue (Wallr.) \J\ M. vanbruntiana 
Ger. On Sambucus canadensis. 

203. .1/. vacciniiC & P. On Vaccinium. 
Podosphara btuncinaUk 1*. On Hamamelis 


205. P. oxyacanika (DC) D By. On us punc- 


family bph 1 1 

6. Hypoxylon /> ' Ov C. 

207. Daldinia . S< hwein. 1 Ccs. et D. 

iria carniformu I 
A comu-danuB (Schwein. | Berk. 

210. Ustulina vulgaris Tul. 


211. Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link. 

212. ( '. ophioglossoides 1 Ehr. ) Link. 

213. Hypomyces banningii Pk. On Lactarins. 

214. //. lactifluorum (Schwein. 1 Tul. On Lactarius 

215. //. viridis (Alb. ft Schwein.) Karst. On undeter- 
mined agaric. 



216. Helvetia macropus (Pers, ) Karst. 

217. Mitrula lutescems B. et C. 

I I )< I I ll I 1 1 1 

2iS. Geoglossum hirsutum Pen. 

, G. Walteri I;. 

22< >. Spathularia veluii A 


221. Geopyxu pallidul Pk. 

222. Otidtta onotica (Pers. ) Puck. 

223. Lachnea cubensu B. it C. 

224. /.. fustcarpa < rcr. 
5. A. ////-A/ Schura. 

226. A. theleboloide* Alb. et Schwein. 

227. Helotittm citrinum (Hedw.) Fr. 

225. //. epiphyllutn Fr. 

229. Phialea scutula (] rill. 

230. Chlorospleriium ceruginositm !>■ Not. 

231. C tortum (Schwein.) Fr. 

232. Phcsopiza icabrosa (Cke.) Sa< 

I- \mii.y i',ii.(.Akii:.i:. 

233. Leotia chlorocepkala Schwein. 

234. A. lubricata (Scop.) P 

235. Ombrophila clavus (Alb. et Schwein.) Cke. 

236. Calloria xanthostigma (Fr.) Phill. 

237. Bulgaria inquinans Fr. 


238. Arcyria punicea Pers. 

239. Didymium farinaceum Schrad. 

240. /}. squamulosum (Alb. et Schwein.) Fr. 

241. Fuligo scptica (Link) Ginel. 

242. Hemiarcyria varneyi Rex. 

243. Leocarpus fragilis (Dicks.) Rost. 

244. Stemonitis ferruginea Ehrh. 

245. 6". maxima Schwein. 

246. Tilmadoche nutans (Pers.) Rost. 

247. Trichia chrysosperma (Bull.) DC. 



24<s. Isaria farinosa Pr. 

249. /. tt nuipes Pk. 

250. Zygodesmus fuscus Corda. 


251. Phyllosticta viola Destn. 


252 Pestolozzia funerea \ar multiseta Desni. 

j, Saccharomyces pyriformis Ward. 

254. Bacterium »t< Ward. 



t.i kkaki> Hall, Septembei 
Southern [ndustri s 1 >r. William 1>. Philli] 


n>. The Work of Science Charles Baskerville. 

11. Early Manufacture of Iron in North Carolina H. B. C Nitze. 

13. Bncysttnent ol Earth worm*. H. V. W 

13. Experiments on Halving Eggs. H. V. Wils 

14 Effect o) the Earth's Rotation on the Deflection 
Collier Cobb. 

15. Note on Traps and Sandstone in the Neighborhood of Chapel Hill. 
Collier Cobb. 

loS .1 01 ELISH \ MITCH ELI -mini ii 

I'i i<s<>\ H \i Jut is. •■ 

[& A N< w S< i < > 1 1 < 1 . 1 1 \ Cell J V. 

17. Some Curious Products from tin- Willaou Aluminum Wo 

is. On tin- Production Of Bfl Annual Without An 

ietics. 11. v Wilson. 


[9. Work of the N. c. Geological Survey J A. Holmes. 

211. Cerebral Localization. EL H. Whitehead. 

Tin- following officer! win- elected for 
President Prof. J a Holmbj : Hill. 

First Vice-President Prof. H. 1.. Smith Davidson. 

Presidenl Prof. J. W. <".oi<i Chajx--1 Hill. 

Librarian Prof. ColLiks Cobb Chapel Hill. 

Secretary and Treasurer Prof. P. P. Vbnabir Chapel Hill. 

The Secreta ry reported 1,17" i><>oks and pamphlet during the 

year, making the total number 9.94 s . 

Two new membe r s were also reported: Prof. Stedman, Trinity c < 
Prof Handy, Trinity Col!' 


By balance from 1891 - $ 40 02 

By fees for 1892 . .. -6450 

By contributions 100 00 

By sales of Journals .. ._. 1 50 

. 02 

To postage $ 15 65 

To engraving 1082 

To express __. - . - 2 75 

To printing ... ... 19300 

>222 22 

Deficit .... - $1580 







If, l //I 1.1.. STBAM l'KINTKR ANI> HINDER, 
KA1.KIGH, N. C. 



~i r 

I'Kl.M Dl 

JOSXPB A. Hoi. mis, Chapel Hill, N. C. 

FIRST VK 1. I'Kl.sIli 

H. L. Smith, Davidboa, N. C. 

mm. viCH I'KI-.sidknt: 
J. W. Go**, Chapel Hill. N. C. 


Couxxb* Cobb, Chapel Hfll, N. C 


F. P. Vi-.NAiii.i:. Chapel Hill, N. C. 




Notes on the Forest Resource! of North Carolina w. \v. A-lu- 5 

Notes on the Deflective Bflect of tl»<- Earth's Rotation ss Shown in 

Stresjns. Collier Cobb 
The Stoue Arch. William Cain, C B 


OF mi. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, 




North Carolina can he divided topographically into three 
fairly well-marked divisions: 

i. An eastern 01 coastal plain region, extending inland 
from the coast a distance of one hundred to one hundred 
and fifty miles and having an aggn ipproxi mat- 

ing 24,000 square niiks. Its surface is that • :itly 

undulating plain of less elevation (ten to twenty feet above 

sea-level) and a more nearly level sir. stwasd, and 

becoming more elevated (three hundred to five hundred 
feet) and rolling along its western border. Its soil is gen- 
erally a sandy loam or sand, though in limited areas clay 
predominates. In the more eastern portion of this region 
are numerous extensive swamps or marsh areas surround- 
ing small lakes or bordering the streams. In some of these 
the soil is mainly an admixture of sand and vegetable 
mold, while in others it is a fertile loam. In this district 
the normal annual temperature is about 61 ° F. , and the 
normal annual rain-fall about fifty-five inches. 


2. A middle district, which extends westward to the 
Blue Ridge, two hundred miles beyond th< I plain, 
and extend* across tin- State parallel t<» it, having 

of about 2 2,000 square miles. In the east it is rolling, but 
towards the western border is rugged and hilly, and in 
places even mountainous, being penetrated 1>\ mountain 
spurs from the Blue Ridge. It lias an average altitude 
eight hundred and fifty to nine hundred feet, but 
its highest peaks to a little over 3,000 feet, while along its 
extreme eastern bolder it is not over Tour hundred to five 

hundred feet. On the uplands the soil may b< 1 in 

general terms as a loam, which becomes sandy in some 
places and claye) in others. Along t; ms then 

usually a rich, dark-colored loam with an admixtun 
humus. This region has an average temperature of about 

58. 5 or 59' !•'.. and an annual rain- fall of about fifty 

3. Tin- western district is an elevated, mountainous 
region, with an average altitude of 3,500 feet, but rising 
(at Mt. Mitchell) to 6,71] feet. This region includes the 
Blue Ridge, which forms its genera] eastern boundary, and 
the Great Smoky Mountains, which border it on the west. 
Numerous cross ridges, separated by irregular valleys, con- 
nect these two mountain ranges. The area of the region 
is about 6,000 square miles. Though the mountain slopes 
are often steep, and the valleys quite narrow, the soil is 
exceedingly fertile, being a loam generally rich in organic 
matter. The average temperature for the counties of this 
western district probably approximate 50 F. , varying from 
57. 8° at Hot Springs to an estimated temperature for the 
top of Mt. Mitchell of less than 38°,* and the normal 
annual precipitation is about fifty-seven inches. 

There are three fairlv well-marked botanic divisions coin- 

* Climatology of .Xorth Carolina — N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Report. Raleigh, 1892: p. 166. 


ciding in general with thes graphic districts. The 

lower botanic division, however, extends a few miles w< 
of the sandy coastal plain boundary line, and the third 
botanic division begins in the damp ' and the higher 

mountain spurs lying just east and south-east of the Blue 

It must not be inferred from the abovi nent that 

these botanic divisions are separated by any sharp lino on 
the two sides of which radically different conditions 
and climate and vegetation exist, for while th 
tain places where these conditions do ch bruptly, 

generally such is not tbi but, <<n the contrary, th 

divisions arc separated by what may be called transition 
zones, in which the conditions of the two adjacent : 
commingle to a greatei Thus in the fol- 

lowing counties we find transition conditions between the 
eastern and middle districts: Northampton, Warren. 

Franklin, Durham, Wake, Chatham, Moore, Wontgom< 

Richmond and Anson. And the ti 

of the Blue Ridge ma\ be regarded as the transition I 

between the western and middle botanic districts. 1: 

in the valleys we find physical conditions and plants such 
as characterize the middle district, and on th 
the higher ridg< 'and a climate and vegetation much 

like those of the mountain district. 

These differences in topography and elevation, with 
accompanying differences in soil, corresponding in a general 
way to geological formations, have given this Si 
wonderful variety of woods, and have placed in ju* 
tion trees normally separated by man\ of latitude. 

Thus are found in North Carolina eight species of pines 
out of the thirteen given in the Tenth UniU - Census 

Report as Occuring in the United States east of the Mis 
sippi River; twenty oaks out of twenty-three; all of the 
six maples; three elms out of four; all seven magnolias; 


five hickories otit of eight, and lour ont of the six 

Of ash. 

Eastern District. — The eastern or lower district, 
having its climate tempered 1>\ the Dear approach of the 
gulf-stream, has a decided southern or subtropical flora, 
pronounced in the larg I growth as among minor 

plants. The trees confined to this district, or l>ut slightly 
entering the others, arc: Magnolia grandiftor a /.. (Mag- 
nolia); M. glauca I.. (Sweet Bay); Prunus ( aroliniana Ait. 
(Mock Orange); Bumelia tycioidei Ga?rt.; Gordonia I 
anthus L. (Hull Bay); Nyssa aquatica L. (Black Gum); N. 
uniflora Walt. (Tupelo Gum); Tilia pubescent Ait. (Linn.); 
Carya aquatica Mutt.; Planera aquatica Gmel. (Planer 
Tree); Quercus laurifolia Michx. (Laurel Oak); Q. cinera 
Michx. (High Ground Willow Oak) • rem Ait. (Live 
Oak); Q. aquatica Walter (Water Oak); Q. Catesban Michx. 
(Turkey Oak); (J. macrocarpa Michx. (Mossy Cup Oak); 
Q. lyrata Walt. (Over Cup Oak); Q. Mickauxii Null. 
(Swamp White Oak); /'inns Australia Michx. (Long-leaved 
Pine); /'. Tarda Linn. (Rosemary, Loblolly, or Short- 
leaved Pine); P. serotina Michx. (Pond Pine or Savannah 
Pine); Chanurcyparis splurroidea Spach. (Juniper or White 
Cedar); Taxodium distichum Rich. (Cypress); Saba I Pal' 
melto 7 odd. (Palmetto). 

Middle District. — In the middle section the prevail- 
ing growth is the hickories, oaks, elms, and short-leaved 
pines, common to all the Atlantic States, and these extend 
into the other sections and enter largely into the composi- 
tion of their forests. The common trees through this 
district are Magnolia umbrella Lam. (Umbrella Tree); 
Asimina triloba Dunal. (Papaw); Liriodendron Tulipifera 
L. (Yellow Poplar); Amelanchier Canadensis L. (Sarvice); 

*The names used in this paper are. with few exceptions, those given in Curtis' Woody 
Plants of yorth Carolina; Raleigh. 1S60. 


Cornus florida L. (Dogwood); Gleditsckia triacanthas I.. 
(Honey Locust); Acer dasycarpum Ehrh. (Silver Maple); 
A. ntbrum L. (Red or Swamp Maple); Negnndo aceroide* 
Mcench. (Box Elder); Ilex opaca Ait. (Holly); Oxydendrum 
arboreum J). C. (.Sour Wood); Nyssa multiflora Wang. 
(Black Gum); Diospyrus I irginiana L. (Persimmon); Frax- 
inus Americana L. (White Ash); F. pu Lam. (Red 

Ash); F. viridis Michx. (Green Ash); licinaJ/e 

Nees. (Sassafras); Platanus occidentalis L. (Sycamoi 
limns fulva Michx. (Slippery Elm); U. Americana /.. 
(Elm); U. aiata Michx. (Winged Elm or Wah 
alba Nutt. (Shell-hark Hickory); ( . tomenlasa Xutt. 
(Hickory); C. glabra Torr. (Pig Nut); C. microcarpa NutL; 
Juglans nigra L. (Black Walnnl phellos /.. 

(Willow Oak); Q. nigra /.. (Black Jack); Q. tind 
Ban . (Black < >ak r. ' cinea II 
falcata Michx. (Spanish Oak); Q. obtusiloba Michx 
Oak); Q. alba /.. (White Oak); i lit. 

I Beech ); ( arpinus Americana Mnh i . | Hornbeam ); ( istrya 
Virginica Willd. (Iron Wood, Hop Hornbeam or Water 
llneh); IU tula nigra I.. (Black Bircln; Salix nigra Ma 
(Willow); Ropulus angulata Ait. (Cotton Wood); P. i; 
rophylla /.., /'. monilifera Ait. y Pinus mitis Michx. (Short- 
leaved Pine); P. rigida Mill. (Bitch Bine); Juuip, 
Virginiana L. (Red Cedar). 

MOUNTAIN District. — In this district occur, as eh 
teristic forest trees: Magnolia acuminata L. (Cucuinl 
M. macraphylla Michx. (Magnolia); M. Fraseri Walt. 
(Wahoo); Pninits scrotina Ehrh. (Wild Cherry); Robinia 
Pseudacacia L. (Locust); R. Vent. (Clammy Loci. 

Ciadrastis tinctoria Rat. (Yellow Wood); I lex monticola 
Gray; Fraxinus Americana Linn. (White As! ulns 

fiava Ait. (Buckeye); Tilia Americana L. (Linn.); T. 
hctcrophylla Vent. (Linn.); f/alcsia tet rapt era L. (Snow- 
drop Tree); Stnartia pentagyna V Her. ; ffefnla lutea Michx. 

I i" 1 RNAL Ol I ii i 

(Yellow Birch); B. lenta I.. (Sweet Birch); Querent im» 
bricaria Michx. (Water Oak); Q. rubra L. (Red Oak); 
prittus I.. (Chestnut Oak); Castam I.. (Chestnut); 

Populut grandidentata Michx. (Aspen); Pinus / 
Michx. (Table Mountain Pine); P. Strobus I.. (White 
Pine); Abie* Fraseri Lindl. (Balsam Pir or She Balsam); 
Tsuga ( anadensis ( arr. (Hemlock); '/. i aroliniana l-.n 
(Hemlock); Picea nigra Link. (Black Spruce or II< Balsam). 
In addition to the above there are to be found in one 

or more of the botanical divisions of the Stati two 

hundred minor trees, shrubs and vines of more or I 
value for fruit culture or floriculture, etc. Th 
species of grape i / 'itis aestivalis^ I '. tabrusca y I '. \ utpina y 

I '. cordifolia\ from the first three of which cultivated varie- 
ties have sprung. There are also found in these several 
sections of the State several hundred herbs, various p 
of which are extensively used for medicinal put] 
discussion of the more important of which will appear in 
a future number of the JOURNAL. 

ECONOMIC woods. 

In the above statement a small number of the trees named 
as occurring in the different regions have timber of but lit- 
tle value, owing to a lack of strength and durability, and 
are of such small size as to have little economic value, and 
there are a few others of such infrequent occurrence as to 
be commercially unimportant. But in each region there 
are many valuable forest trees, and the following notes will 
contain a brief statement of their distribution, abundance, 
size, and uses: 

Magnolia acuminata L. (Cucumber): Two to four feet in 
diameter, eighty to one hundred and twenty feet high. 
Frequent in the upper district with Yellow Poplar. Xot 
over 5,000,000 feet standing in the fifteen counties through 
which its distribution extends. Has the same use as Yel- 
low Poplar. 


M. Fraseri Walt. (Wahoo) is a small tree, one to two 
feet in diameter. Very common in western district; used 
medicinally, rarely for lumber; very ornamental. 

Liriodendron Tulipifera /.. (Yellow Poplar): Pour to 
eicrht feet in diameter, one hundred to one hundred and 
twenty feet high. Occurs in all districts; •. union in 

western. Lumber is used in building very extensively, for 
interior wood- work and cheap furniture. The chief bod 
standing are in Watauga, Vancey, Mitchell, .Swain, north- 
ern Graham, Macon, Jackson, Transylvania, Wilkes and 
Alleghany. Altogether th< plar 

lumber in these counties. The trees have been removed 
adjacent to the large rivers and around towns, as it is the 
building material of this section. Still abundant in the 
western tier of the midland con:. the 


Tilia Americana A. (Linn.): A middle-sized tree, fre- 
quent in the higher mountains and mixed with T. hit 
phvlla I '<>/t. (Linn. ), which is very common throughout the 
mountains, except around thick settlements, where it has 

been cm in winter, so cattle could feed upon its buds. Very 

abundant in Swain, Jackson, Macon, Transylvania, Yan- 

. , Mitchell, Watauga and Ashe. The wood is light, 
soft and white; rarely sawn for ceiling. It is useful for 
making paper. 

T. pubescent Ait. (Linn. >: Very frequent in rich alluvial 
places along the coast. Same uses and character as the 
above species, but smaller. 

. Esculus flava .lit. (Buckeye): Very abundant as a large 
tree on damp soil throughout the mountain district. It is 
not used commercially except around Bryson City, Swain 
County, where it is manufactured in: -ior. 

Acer saccharhinum Wang. (Sugar Maple or Sugar T 
Very common throughout all mountain counties, where it 
reaches a height of ninety to one hundred feet and a diame- 

I 2 JOI i:\ai. 01 i in: 

ter of three to Four feet; and it is found alto in the swamps 
of Pender and < mslow and in low grounds of other eastern 

counties. It has been cut to a small extent for flooring 
and furniture, and in tin- northern counties small quanti- 
ties of sugar an- made- from the- sap. 

. /. dasycarfmm l-'.luh. (White or Silver Maple): A small 
tree, rarely more than two (Vet in diatnet ely dis- 

tributed in all portions of the State, usually in m< 
places; more abundant in the mountain counties. 

. /. rubrum A. (Red or Swamp Maple): Tree two to three 

kit through and rarely sawn, and then for ceiling; abun- 
dant, especially in moist places, in all portions of the 

Robima Pseudacacia A. (Yellow I."' usi : Once very com- 
mon through the mountain counties, though it has been 
very largely used up for posts in thickly settled regions. 
It is still widely distributed ami abundant in Rutherford, 
Polk and other south-western counties, and occurs spar- 
ingly in the middle district. In Haywood and Swain there 
are factories making from it insulating pins for telegraph 
poles. The trees are one and one-half to two and one-half 
feet in diameter; sixty to eighty feet high. The wood is 
yellow, hard, and resists exposure and decay. 

Cladrastis tinctoria Raf. (Yellow Wood): A small tree, 
one and one-half feet in diameter; forty to sixty feet high, 
with a deep yellow hard wood; it is mostly confined to rich 
"coves" of Graham, Macon, Clay and Cherokee counties, 
but is very frequent through these. It has been used in 
Cherokee county for making furniture. 

Prunus serotina Ehrh, (Wild Cherry): Occurs all over 
the State, but only in the mountain counties does it reach 
sufficient size and abundance to become a valuable timber 
tree. There in rich, cold "coves" it becomes a tree two 
to four feet in diameter and eighty to one hundred feet high. 
It is a fine-grained, medium hard, red wood, taking a fine 


polish; largely used for furniture and interior work of all 
kinds, and is one of the first trees removed, when easily 
accessible, on account of its high value. Large quantities 
of it still remain in certain regii in the north-western 

part of Ashe county and around Grandfather, Beech and 
Roan mountains. About the head-waters of Caney river 
there are probably i . ' standing; in north Swain, 

especially on < toona-Lufty River, about 

OOO feet; small quantities are found in other mountain 
regions; and in the north "coves" of the east slo{>e of the 
Blue Ridge there is still some cherry timber remaining. 

Amelanchisr ( ana dens is I.. (Sarvice): ( >ccurs abundantly 
in the mountains, where it is a small tret-, and is used tl 
in turneries in some of the towns. 

Hamamelh Virginia /.. (Witch Hazel): A sbrul 
small tree, very common throughout the middle and up 
districts. It is use medicinally. 

Uquidambar Styracifolia I. 
uiDii throughout the middle and lower dist nn^ 

in the swamps and low grounds of the latter I 
tree, four to five feet in diameter and ninety to one hundred 
feet high. It forms with cypress and black gum about one- 
half of the growth of the deeper swamps in many port: 
of the eastern counties, and has been cut out in only a lew 
places, as around liladenboro, Wilmington, Xewberu, 
Goldsboro, Hub, and in limited portion- of Northampl 
Perquimans, Pasquotank and Camden counties. The w 
is hard and heavy, line-drained, red; used for furniture. 

Cornus florida L. (Dogwood) is common over the whole 
State. It is a small tree, with hard, compact, white w< 
has been largely removed in main portions of the middle 
district, around larger towns, for shuttle-blocks, etc. 

Nyssa multiflora Wang. (Black Gum): A middle- 
tree, found all over the State, in all soils. Its wood is very 
compact, with libers interwoven, and is rarely used, except 
occasionally for hubs, mallets, etc. 

1 I .km i:\.\i. 01 i in: 

A', aquatica I.. (Black Gum) is a very I ir to 

five feet in diameter, common throughout d 

the lowei district. Tin- wood and its nsrs are much the 
game as X. multiflora, 

Nyssa uniflora Walt. (Tupelo Gum): A medium* 
tree-, common in deep swamps in tin- section along 
south of Neuse river. Its wood is very light, white, but 
with fibers interwoven as in the other s] ind heno 

very difficult to split, tasteless; used for wooden-ware of all 
kinds. Very little- has been removed and only in a I 

Oxydendrum arboreum />. -mall 

trtf, very common through mountains and tin- middle dis- 
trict. Its wood is firm, fine-grained and of reddish color, 
and is being used for making certain parts of furniture — 
chair rounds and legs, newel p'<sts, balisl 

Kalmia latifolia L. (Ivy): A large shrub, very common 
in mountains, growing generally in dense thickets; its 
matted roots, forming large "stools or burls," are gotten 
out around Cranberry, Elk Park, Magnetic City, and in 
several counties south of the French Broad river, and Q 
for making tobacco pipes, handles, etc., and the branches 
are used for rustic furniture. The wood is hard and fine- 

Ilex optica .lit. (Holly) is a small tree one to two and 
one-half feet in diameter; common in wet, sandy soils of 
lower district, but found also in the other districts. The 
wood is very fine-grained and white; it has been largely 
removed in the north-east counties, but has not been 
touched in the south-eastern counties. 

Diospyros Virginiana L. (Persimmon): A small tree 
with very hard, tough wood. It is common through the 
eastern and middle counties, but has been largely removed 
from Wilkes, Surry, Caldwell, McDowell, Lincoln. Ca- 
tawba, Guilford, Forsyth and Union counties, being used 
in the manufacture of shuttle-blocks. 


Fraxinus Americana L. (White Ash) was once common 
in wet or damp places over the entire State. A large tree 
two to four feet in diameter and eighty to one hundred 
feet high. Its wood is white, very elastic, and strong; and 
in the western counties it is used for making wagons, fur- 
niture, and especially the curled wood. In the eastern 
counties it is used for oars, barrel heads, and lumber. In 
the middle district it ffHsed for making paper and lumber 
and furniture. It has largely been removed from the fol- 
lowing mountain counties: Ashe, west Yan nth 
Madison, Buncombe, Haywood, north Jackson and north 
Macon, Graham (except along TusV >kee 
and Henderson. Has been removed in middle district 
when accessible to railroads and larg DM, 

F. pialycarpa Michx. (Water Ash) is abundant in many of 
the larger swamps of lower district, to which it is confined. 
The counties of Pender, .Sampson, Hyde and Pamlico still 
have very large bodies, but it has been removed wl: 
turpentine orchards have been worked. 

F. viridis Michx. (Green Ash) and F. />// Lam. 

(Red Ash) are middle-sized trees, found only in middle d 
trict and used for lumber and making paper. Along lii 
of transportation they have been largely i but in 

inaccessible places they are still abundant. 

Carya alba Xutt. (Shag-bark Hickory) is frequent in the 
middle and upper districts. 

tmara Xutt. (Hitter-nut Hickory) is common in wet 
places in the upper districts. 

glabra Ton . (Pig-nut Hickory) abounds in dry soils 
in all portions o\ the State. 

C. tomentosa Xutt. (Common Hickory) is very common 
in dry soils through the lower and middle distru 

All of these hickories have been cut away, mon 
around towns for tire- wood, and for the manufacture of 
spokes, handles, and wagon material, especially around 
large towns in the middle district. 

hi JOURNAL OF i in-: 

Juglam nigra L. (Black Walnut) is lai 
all mountain countii ]>t Wilkes and Madison and in 

■x other counties where it has been especially pn 
on limited arras; and in neither of these counties is it \ 

abundant, though there arc in It 

is also found occasionally in in nties of the middle 

and lower districts, at a distance from means of trail 
tion, hut it is there a tree of medium si? 

/. cinera I.. (Butter Nut) is frequent in most mountain 
counties and extends hut a short distance below the moun- 
tains. The curly wood is used for furniture and interior 

Quercus alba A. (White Oak) and (J. obtusiloba M 
It Oak) are common over the whole State except in 
the extreme east, although they have been largely removed 
in middle district for fuel, cross-ties, wagon materia! 
and lumber. But large quantities yet remain, and a vig- 
orous second growth of equal density and strength to the 
original is coming on, so that it appears that there will be 
an abundance of both at all times over the larger part of 
the State. 

Q. Tinctoria Bartr. (Black Oak), Q. coccinea II 
(Scarlet ( )ak), and Q. falcata Michx. (Spanish Oak) are all 
most abundant in the middle district on dry soil. They 
are generally not used where good white oak can be 
obtained; rarely used for staves and wagon material; more 
frequently for fence rails, furniture and clap-boards. 

V. macrocarpa Michx. (Mossy-cup Oak), Q. Lyrata Walt. 
(Over-cup Oak), and Q. Michauxii Nult. (Swamp White 
Oak) all occur in swamps of the eastern section, and where 
contiguous to large turpentine orchards have been used for 
staves, and they are also used to some extent for rails, clap- 
boards, etc. 

Q. laurifolia Michx. (Laurel Oak) and Q. aquatica Cates. 
(Water Oak) are trees still very common in lower districts, 


where they are rarely used, except for rails, the timber being 
open and porous. 

Q. Rubra L. (Red Oak) occurs in the cool, fertile soils of 
the middle and mountain districts, and sparingly in the 
eastern counties. It reaches, under favorable conditions, 
a diameter of four feet and a height of seven: hty 

feel; the wood is reddish, open, and rather (. lin, but 

Strong, and is used extensively for clap-boards, COO] 
and articles of furniture. 

(J. imbricaria Michx. (Water < >ak, Laurel ( >ak or Shin- 
gle <)ak) is infrequent, occurring only in counl »t of 

the Blue Ridge; a medium size tree, with rather open, 

porous wood, rarely used, where better material can 
obtained, for clap-boards. 

Q, Prinus /.. (Chestnut ()ak) is common on dry i. 
through mountain and more elevated parts of the middle 
section. It is used for furniture, wagon material, and the 
bark is used for tanning. It has been largely removed 
around Cranburv, Abbeville ami Morganton. 

Castttm /.. (Chestnut) is very abundant through 

all mountain regions and is found sparingly in some of the 
Piedmont counties, though the best trees have in many 
places been removed for rails. It is sawn for lumber at 
Dillsboro and Asheville, and has been removed largely from 
Graham, Ashe and Buncombe counties. 

Populus grandidentata Michx. (Poplar), /'. InteropJix 
(Cotton Wood), /'. angulata Ait. (Cotton Wood), and /'. 
monilifera A. (Cotton Wood): All except the first occur 
frequently in lower or middle districts, though in the neigh- 
borhood .of turpentine orchards they have been used for 
making barrel heads. The first named species is confined 
to the upper part of the middle district. 

Of the eight pines occurring in this State five are of the 
first economic importance. They are Pinus Sirobus L. 
(White Pine), l\ auitralis Michx. (Lon^-leaved Pi: 

.i"i i:\ \ i. <>i i hi. 

P. Taeda I.. (Short-leaved 01 Old Pield l 
Mill. (Black Pine), and /'. mitts Mn/ix. (Shoi i or 

Yellow Pine). /'. s, 1 ntuhi Midi \ . is very rarely used /' 
pungent and /'. r«q^j . /// are practical 1) worth leu for tim- 
ber purp 1 

/'. Strobus /.. (White Pine) extendi in a narrow belt 
along the Blue Ridge from southern Ashi 
occurs in Graham, north Haywood, and adjacent pari 
Madison, and in northern Madison and western Mitchell 
It is locally used for shingles. Has been removed only 
around Marion, iii parts of Jackson, Transylvania and 
Macon counties. 

/'. aus traits Midi v. (Long-leaved or Turpentine Pine) 
extends over a large part of the sandy land of the lower 
district, but occurs only sparingly north of Roanoke river 
and west of Wake and Richmond counties. It formerly 
existed as a pure forest over the sandy lands of this area. But 
the inroads which have been made through it for the | 
century to supply naval store products, ship timber and build- 
ing material have removed or destroyed most of the forest 
adjacent to the railroads and immediately along the larger 
water courses. The largest bodies still standing are in 
Montgomery, Sampson, Robeson, Harnett, Cumberland, 
Johnston and Richmond counties. Large bodies of virgin 
pine forest are rare except along the extreme western bor- 
der of the pine belt. 

P. Tdeda L. (Rosemary, Loblolly, Short-leaved or Old 
Field Pine) is found over the whole of the eastern district, 
but growing originally on wet clay lands and often form- 
ing considerable clumps in small swamps. When the 
long-leaved pine is removed this species takes its place on 
the sandy land and is there called old field pine. In its 
original growth in swampy places it is decidedly the largest 
pine in the State, having a height of one hundred to one 
hundred and twenty feet and a diameter of from three to 
five feet. Here it has a fine, even grain, heart very large, 


with but little resin, and a strong, durable wood. The 
high price paid for large stocks for ship material causes its 
removal .where accessible, even in advance of P. australis; 
but it is still abundant where transportation facilities at pi 
eut are not suitable for its removal. Its second growth on 
dry, sandy land is a smaller tree, sappy, with ver. 
grain, and little or no heart, the wood decaying rapidly on 
exposure; but as it makes a beautiful wood for interior finish 
it is largely sawn around large towns and kiln-dried for 
that use. The general character of the ti ring on 

dry, sandy soils is so different from that of those growing 
about the wet lands that the two trees are usually (though 
erroneously) believed by lumbermen to bel< liSerent 


/'. serotina Michx. is common over wet lauds in the south- 
east counties and i^ sometimes sawn with /'. but 
the lumber is gummy and of poor quality. 

/'. mitts Michx. (Short-leaved or Yellow uerly 

common over the whole a' the middle district and 

extends through the southern part of the mountain distriet, 
being mixed with deciduous trees. It has been largely 
removed for lumber around the larger towns and thick - 
tlements, and along the lines of the railways; and through 
Catawba, Lincoln and Gaston counties large quantities 
it have been eut and used for making charcoal. Will. 
Caldwel inder and Rutherford counties contain the 

finest bodies of this timber to be found in the middle dis- 
trict. This tree frequently reaches two to three feet in 
diameter and seventy to eighty feet high. 

/'. rigida Mill. (Black or Pitch Pin tree slightlv 

smaller than the preceding and making inferior lumber, but 
largely used along with it. Surry, Wilkes, Caldwell,.Burke, 
.McDowell and Polk counties contain the larger part of 
what is known to occur east of the Blue Ridge; but there 
is also a great deal in the mountain counties south of the 
French Broad river. 

20 JOI l:\ it "I I III. 

Tsuga ( anadensh Carr, (1 [emlock | ia a larg< bun- 

daiit in moist regions through nearly all of the mountain 
counties. It has only been removed in northern Mitchell, 
where it lias been barked tor tanning purposes, and al< 
tlu- Little Tennessee ri\ 

/: ( aroliniana Engel. (Hemlock) is frequent on n 
along the Blue Ridge from. eastern Ash< m. It 

been cut in only a few localities, tor frames for hou 

Picea nigra Link, (Black Spruce or II in) forms 

twenty square miles of virgin forest in Watauga, Mitchell, 
Yancey, Haywood and Swain counties. Has been cut only 
in some places about Roan mountain. It is a tnr oft!. 

feet in diameter and sixty to ninety feet high. 
Abu ri Lindl. (Balsam, or Sh< overs the 

summit of the highest mountain peaks. 

Chanuecyparii spharoidea Spach. (Juniper or White 
Cedar) occurs in many of the large swamps in the eastern 
district, especially in Harnett, Tyrrell, Gates and m 

of the other extreme eastern and north-eastern conn* 
It has been largely removed from Pasquotank, Perquimans 
and Camden counties, and about the larger eastern towns. 
It is a medium-sized tree and is very valuable for making 
pails, tanks, boats, shingles, etc., for which purposes it is 
largely used. 

Taxodium distichum Rich. (Cypress) occurs abundantly 
in the swamps of the eastern section. It has been worked 
up around larger towns and in the north-eastern counties of 
Currituck, Perquimans, Hertford and Camden. It is a 
very large tree, four to five feet through and from eighty 
to more than one hundred feet high. Its wood is light, 
and is used largely for lumber, shingles and boats, and to 
a smalL^extent for furniture. 

Saba/ Palmetto Tj)dd. (Palmetto) occurs somewhat 
abundantly on Smith's Island, at the mouth of the 
Cape Fear river. It is a small tree about one foot 


in diameter and thirty or forty feet high. It has been 
found to serve an excellent purpose for piling, and this is 
about the only use to which it has been put. 
Juniperus Virginiana L. (Red Cedar) is a common but 

rather small tree throughout the State, but most abundant 
in the south-eastern counties. It is used mainly for DO 

and posts. 

Transportation Facilities — Railroads penetrate the 

vState in every direction, there being but few counties which 
are not touched by them. For marine shipment material 
from all north-eastern counties readily 

Norfolk. For counties drained by the Tar and Neil* 
bern is the natural shipping point, while for the wh 
southern and cent! »ns Wilmington is the central 

point, vessels drawing over twenty feet being able to enter 
its harbor. 

Accessibility <>!■ Existing Forests. — While thei 

no large body of timber in the State value! ant 

of its inaccessibility, there are main so situated that removal 
is not feasible with the existing means of transportation. 
Rut the experience of the past ten \< sufficient to 

prove that these large bodies of virgin aid 

in the State will be penetrated by railroads in the near 
future, as the demand for the timber in. The hard 

wood forests in some of the counties west of the Blue 
Ridge are naturally tributary to Tennessee, and the timber 
in the form of logs is being removed by floating down the 
creeks and rivers with the aid of flood dams. Many of 
these mountain streams sufficient size and rapidity to 

afford ample means for logging. East of the Blue Ri 
tracts not adjacent to large streams or railroads are being 
reached by short timber roads. A number of such re 
are now in operation and others are being constructed. In 
the eastern district, on pine lands where the country is flat, 
wooden and iron tramways are laid to be operated by ho: 


.Mil |;\ \|. o| I III. 

power 01 narrow i engines. In the 

swamps, to get at tl 

the- plan adopted by I impanies is t<> di^ 

1)\ band <>r with di irallel to th 

of the swamps. Thelo floated through tl 

ime central point and there worked up. 


Up to within the past few years forest management in 

North Carolina was deemed quite a useless business, but 

lately prudent individuals have placed larg 

foresters, one of whom was trained in European school* 

forestry. As yet, however, this is little more than an 


During the past two years the North Carolina Gi 
Survey has made a careful examination of tl the 

State with a view to the inauguration of modern meth< 
of forest management, and the securing of such law- 
will best encourage forest protection and improvement. 

During the present year (1893) the Survey, recognizing 
the fact that the long-leaved pine {P. palustris Miller, 
or P. australis Michx. >, a most valuable tree in this v State, 
does not, under the existing conditions, extensively reproduce 
itself, has begun an examination of the causes operating 
against its increase and means by which it can be planted 
and economically cultivated, so as to make use of the waste 
lands formerly entirely occupied by this tree but now bar- 
ren or covered with the loblolly pine [Piuus Tadea L.\ 
Experiments are now under way for the purpose of deter- 
mining the relative fertility of its seed as compared with 
those of other pines; causes why other species are so widely 
disseminated over cleared lands, while the long-leaved 
pine does not appear to be so; methods of planting, rais- 
ing and protecting young pines; insects and fungous ene- 


mies, and the damage done to the young pines by hogs, cat- 
tle, fires, etc. 


A few facts, taken largely from the u Hand-Book 

North Carolina,* concerning wood-working establishments 
should be stated in this connection. Although little of 
the lumber sawn in North Carolina, other than for build- 
ings, is worked up in the .State, yet the number of 
working factories is constantly on the increase. The m 
numerous concerns are manufactories and 

buggies. "Of these Alamance count) I 

two, Ashe one, lieauioit one, Bertie th '.dwell one, 

Chatham one, Cleveland one, Cumberland two, David 
two, Durham one, Forsyth lilford t 

Haywood one, Halifax one, Hertford tin 
Lincoln two, Moore two, Pasquotank one, Randolph \> 
Sampson two, Vance one, Wake one, Warren three, Wash- 
ington three, Wilkes two, Wilson one, Yadkin four — in 
all fifty-eight, established in thirty out of the ni'i: 
counties ol the State, and representing ev< n in it. 

Among them there is wide rang* led 

and governed largely bj experience and time. Man) 
them are new, the product of the new industrial revolu- 
tion. A few are old and are meritorious, not only for the 
character o\ the work done by them, but of the 

courage and foresight which gave them existence far in 
advance oi similar enterprises in the State. 

"Not less important, and o{ much wider application, is 
the manufacture of wagons, carts, etc., conducted by thirty- 
two different establishments in almost the same number 
of counties, as follows: Alamance has one, Alexander two, 
Anson three, Cabarrus one, Caldwell one, Catawba one, 

*Hand-Book oj North Carolina — RaU-u 

2 I km i:n \l. 01 I HI 

Clay one, Cleveland one, Cumberland two, Pamli 
Pender one, Rutherford one, Sun*) one, Stanl) one, \Y 

three, Yadkin one. < me of the- largest of these is at Waugh- 
town, near Winston-Salem, founded in i Vnother 

large one is at Hickory.*' 

"Of furniture I ire twenty-five, of which 

one is in Ashe, three in Buncombe, one in Davie, two in 
Forsyth, one in Gaston, two in Guilford, one in I lender 
three in Lincoln, one in Macon, one in Martin, one in 
Mecklenburg, one in Montgomery, one in Mo i in 

Rowan, one in Snrrv, one in Wake, one in Wayne, and i 
in Yadkin. 

"For the making of hubs, spokes, and handles the! 

six factories, viz.: Bertie has one, Guilford one, Mecklen- 
burg one, Montgomery one, Rowan one, Rutherford one. 
"Of sash, door and blind factories {'. twenty- 

fnnr, viz. : Buncombe has two, Burke one, Cabarri 
Caldwell one, Catawba two, Davidson two, Durham one, 

Forsyth one, Gaston one, Guilford three, Johnston one, 
Rowan three, Stanly one, Snrrv one. Wake two, Wilkes 

"Of another variety of wood- working factories is that at 
Xewbern for the manufacture of plates and dishes made 
out of sweet-gum, and also berry baskets. 

"At Wilmington a somewhat similar establishment was 
operated by steam and employed one hundred and twenty- 
five people. The material chiefly used is gum logs, and 
the product is butter plates and baskets, berry baskets and 

"Of the other simpler and ruder establishments for the 
conversion of the product of the forest there are, as nearly 
as can be ascertained, in operation in the State one hundred 
and fourteen steam saw-mills, eighty turpentine distilleries 
(undoubtedly below the actual number); and, as largely 
connected with the products of the forest, a very large 


number of tanneries, the best and largest equipped of which 
is the one at Morganton, constructed and conducted on the 
most advanced scientific application of theory to intelli- 
gent practice. 

11 In connection with paper manufacture it may be 
that originally using only the waste of textile fabrics, the 
immensely increased consumption of paper demanded other 
raw material, for the supply of which human ingenuity 
was heavily taxed. The additional material has been found 
in wood-pulp, mechanically or chemically prep The 

abundance in North Carolina suitable for 

such purposes has led largely to the combination of wood- 
pulp with cotton, flaxen and hempen liber; and the fa< 
ries now in operation in the State are able to supply 
a material for book, printing and wrapping pap n be 

made elsewhere. There are three principal paper-mills in 
North Carolina — that at Salem, in Forsyth county, at Fall* 
of the Neuse, in \\ iunty, and at Long Shoals, in 

Lincoln. The product of these mills is b: ad, 

writing paper, book and newspaper, and wrapping paper 
of all kinds." 

Nun laei hum the bottom sppi 

nates. Ami on page n, eleven lines from the top 

li<i JOI RNAL <»l l III. 


hv om.i.if.r i 

So carl) aa 1837, Poisson prod': ral equations 

for determining tin- influence of the earth 1 tion and 

rotation <>n tin- apparent motion of a projectile, and he 
applied them to the ease of a material point constrained to 
move on a given curve and attached to tip 

earth, Omitting the n and the : 

the air. 

In 1859, Perrel published in RunkWs Mathema 

Monthly his celebrated paper on the Motion* oj Fluids and 

Solids on the Earth's Surface^ in which he stated that, "In 
whatsoever direction a bod) moves on the .surface of the 
earth, there is a force arising from the earth tion 

which deflects it to the right in the northern hemisphere, 
but to the left in the southern." 

Karl E. von Baer, in a paper, Ueber ein allgemeines 
Gesetz in der Gestaltung der Flussbetten, published in the 
bulletin of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of St. Peters- 
burg, in i860, showed that the observed changes of p 
tion in streams might be explained as a consequence of the 
earth's rotation ; yet the makers of our scientific text- 
books have not taken the pains to give a correct, or rather, 
a complete, statement of the true value of this deflective 
force. Dana states it clearly and correctly in his Manual 
of Geology;* but Geikiet speaks of it as an easterly, a 
westerly deflection, seeming to regard it as a getting left 
behind, and the same expression is used by Reclus^ in 
speaking of the rivers of Gers. 

Von Baer's explanation does not account for the fact that 

♦Third edition, p. 650. fThird edition. 1S93, pp. 15, 16. \ La France, pp. 115, 116. 


rivers flowing east or west have their banks worn away in 
the same manner as those flowing north or south. A 
body at rest upon the earth, and free to move in any direc- 
tion upon it, "is maintained in equilibrium by attraction 
directed towards the earth's center, and centrifugal fi 
directed away from the axis. If the centrifugal f< 
ceased, the body would evidently move towards the nearest 
pole as down a hill. From the poles to the equator may 
therefore be regarded as uphill — bodies free to move being 
prevented from ^oinj^ down towards the poles by centrifu- 
gal force. Suppose now a body to move from w< -t — 
that is, in the same direction as the earth revolves; the 
centrifugal force of the body is in< and th< 
tendency to move uphill towards the equator. If the 
motion be from easl otrifugal force is dimin- 
ished and the body tends towards the pole. In each I 
the tendency is towards the right in the northern hemi- 
sphere and towards the left in the southern. 

Admitting the sufficiency oi the terrestrial rotation for 
the deflection of streams, we must look for our example 
those regions where the strata are essentially horizontal and 
horizontally homogeneous. McGee, in his paper on the 
geology of the Chesapeake Ba "It may be noted 

in passing that, throughout it Susquehanna 

River hugs its left shore the in sely, and aj«: 

the hypothesis of the dextral deflection of rivers by ten 
trial rotation (commonly known in Eui .wi, 

specifically applied by Kerr to the water-wax s of the Mid- 
dle Atlantic slope, ami recently discussed in more general 
terms by Gilbert, Davis, Hendricks, Bains, and others, it 
may be mentioned that the different water-ways of the Mid- 
dle Atlantic slope are not only inconsistent in their behav- 
ior at and above the fall-line, but in many cases the same 
stream has not behaved uniformly since the excavation of 
its gorge was initiated.' 

•A e. Bains, in a paper read before the Philosophical Institute of Canterbury New 
Zealand, October 4. IN;;. 
t Seventh annual report of the Director of the United - ideal Survej 

28 lot l:v\l. 01 I III. 

McGee's objection is done away with by the 
the Snsqnehanna Rivet is not situated in the 

required horizontal homogeniety, and that if it now sh< 
a preference for its left bank, that pr< 
an inheritance from the time when the favoring conditi 
did exist, before its superimposition upon the Wi 
and Tuscarora-Mahanoy synclines, when thi the 

river was the reverse of what it is now, and it- 
bank was its right haul 
Turning now to the regions of horizontal homogeniety, 

we see that their streams all show this right or left 
tion, according as they an- north or south of tin- equal 
Such a region is that where the phenomenon « 
observed, in the middle and lowei the Vol 

Here all of tin- conditions arc most favorable; the river I 
a considerable length of course, and the mass of water is 
powerful enough to clear away any obstacles; "then 
enormous floods which periodically increase the fore- 
erosion in the currents, and the cliffs are composed of fria- 
ble rocks. "'■ Two centuries ago the principal mouth of 
the Volga flowed directly to th if Astrakhan; since 

that time the great current has successively hollowed out 
for itself fresh beds, tending more and more to the right, 
and at the present day the branch navigated by 
turns to the south-south-west. The Volga, up to its near 
approach to the sea, has a high right bank, and the erosion- 
valley, which slopes gently on the left, is bounded by 
rather abrupt cliffs on the right. 


Fig. I.— The Volga and the Rwjaga. 

* See Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania. W. M. Davis, National Geographic Maga- 
zine, Vol. I, p. 47, 1889. 
t Von Baer. 



In the diagram, which is taken from von Baer, we have 
at X the Volga. Its left bank is flat, or only gently slop- 
ing; the ri<*ht rises irregularly to a considerable height 
and falls down on the other side, not nearly so far to the 
river Rwjaga at V, and then rises slowly again. The Yolj^a 
is flowing from the observer, and the Rwjaga towards him, 
and there is barely room for a habitation between them, 
"where it depends upon the whims of the kitchen maids 
whether the dish-water which is daily poured out tl 
immediately into the Volga, <>r whether it reaches the same 
destination in a round-about COttrse of tour hundred ve: 
This statement may seem rated, but it is literally 


: I — RJTBM 

In the southern part of France, in the province of* 
we have a gently sloping plain, an old river delta that has 
been lifted up, where streams can flow off in every direc- 
tion down the slope, and take such courses as they may. 
Here the right-hand tendency is shown to perfection. The 
streams have their longer tributaries on the left, and their 
ri^ht banks rise in bluffs. 

*\'on Baer, >t Petersb. Bull. Sci. n., i860, ool 

t From la CorU d' Etat-Major, reprinted in K HU Geographic . 

selle, i. 


.Hil l; \ ,\ I. ( »| 

Turning to tin- United States anil selecting a few pi 
when- the necessary horizontal homogeniety is found, 

have mi trouble in pointiii "The- south 

side- of the island of Long Island is a plain of remarkable 
evenness, descending with gentle inclination from the 

morainic ridge of the interior to the Atlant. It is 

crossed b) a great number of small streams which ha 

avated shallow valleys in the homogeneous modi: 

drift of the plain. Bach of these little valleys is limit 

on tin- wast or right side b\ a bluff from ten to twenty I 

high, while its general slope on the left side merges imper- 
ceptibly with the general plain. The stream in each c 
follows closely the bluff at the right.*** 

The peculiar to- 
pography of the < 
eru portion of the 
linas, where the 
exist, has been point- 
ed out by Tuoiney 
and by Kerr. 1 I 
the streams have cut 
through the Quater- 
nary and Tertiary 
formations, and well 
into the Cretaceous, 
and in every instance 
they present the high 
right bank, with the 
low sloping country 
on the left; and, as 
may be seen by the 
sketch-map, the 
tributaries of the 
Roanoke, the Tar, 

*G. K. Gilbert, Am. Jour. Set. 3d scvii, 43L 



the Neuse, and the Cape Fear run well back to the streams 
lying to the northward. In the ease of these streams the 
dip of the strata is not such as to aid in the making of the 
right bank higher. Such conditions are represented in Fig- 

Pio v 


ure IY. In Figure V the arrangement of the strata is such 
as to hinder rather than help the deflective effect of r 
Hon; and yet this is the structure of the Carolina region 
shown in Figure VI, which is taken from Kerr.* Hut the 
rocks here are imperfectly lithified, and so friabK eld 

readily to the influence. 

The Mississippi River does not act consistently through- 
out its course, but in most instances its right bank is higher 
except where the prevailing winds are from the north-w 
At Burlington, Iowa, the east or left side is low, and the 
trains of the C, B. & Q. Railroad reach the bridge over 
embankments ami trestle-work, but run directly into the 
town on the high right bank of the river. At Dubuque 
just the opposite conditions exist. 

Turning to regions south of the equator, we find in the 
plains iA' Canterbury, New Zealand, the requisite condi- 
tions. The Rakaia River cuts through Quaternary strata 
and into late Tertiary, and its left bank is its steeper bank. 
This is also shown in all the rivers entering Tasman Bay 
through strata of the same age, and there are doubt 
many other cases in the same region. I have not at hand 
the maps and geological report for that region. 

♦Geology of North Carolina, Vol. 1. iS;s, p. 10. 

32 JOURNAL "i mi. 

Those- who are familiar with the map of South Aim 
where the older rocks have been decomposed for gi 
depths in situ, and where tin- younger rocks are but im] 
Pectl y lithified over great areas, must recall the fact that 
nearly all the streams have- their louder tributaries on the 
right, showing a left-hand deflection of tin- main streams 

The casts cited serve my purpose of showing that wher- 
ever tlu- conditions permit tin- influence of the earth's ro 
tion is perceptible. 



The theory of the voussoir arch has long exercised the 
ingenuity of mathematicians, and it may prove interesting, 
before giving the results of some recent investigations by 

the writer, to give brief statements of some of the leading 
theories that have been proposed, from time to time, 
indicating the path followed in such original investigations. 

As we should naturally expect, the theories proceed from 
the simplest, where the arch is assimilated in its action to 
a wedge, to the most complex, where the deformation of 
each individual stone under stress is considered. 

In most of the theories hitherto proposed the arch 
is regarded as inelastic and the stones infinitely strong, so 
that the resultant thrust of one part of the arch against 
another can take place along the very edge of a joint with- 
out crushing ensuing. 

These simple hypotheses unfortunately do not express 
the actual conditions, which involve the consideration of 
the elasticity of all the materials entering into the con- 
struction of the arch,' the fit of the stones, thickness and 


degree of hardness of the morter joints (if any), settlement 
and time of striking of the centers, the manner in which 
the loads are transmitted to the arch ring, the relative 
density of the various stones, and finally the dynamic effect 
of moving loads. The true conditions are thus seen to he 
so complex as to make the true solution of the stone arch 
one of the most difficult, if not the most difficult, in all the 
range of the application of the laws of mechanics to 
engineering structure 

The latest theory, given further on, includes the most 
essential of the conditions just outlined, but not all 
them; so that it is not proposed as a final and complete solu- 
tion of the problem, hut as one sufficiently near to in 
the results of decided practical value, approximating to the 
exact truth, as the kypotlu more m-arh 1 in 

the construction of the arch ring. 

Recurring now to earlier th< f the arch, Lain: 

the beginning ofth< idered that the arch 

would break along "joints of rupture," half way I 
the crown and the springing, and he assimilated the action 
of the upper part to that of a solid wedge, tending to slide 
downwards along the joints of rupture, which la- 
considered perfectly smooth, so that the pressure th 
directed normally to the point 

This very crude hypothesis was adopted by Kytelwein, 
who, however, found that joint of rupture for which the 
pressure exercised against an abutment maximum. 

As a matter of fact, friction can be exercised at any plane 
joint, which Kytelwein only imperfectly considers; but 
admitting it, the direction of the thrust at any joint of 
rupture becomes indeterminate, so that apart from other 
detects, the theory gives no definite solution. 

Coulomb, in 1773, made a great advance by considering 
that an arch could not only fail by sliding along some 
joint, but also by rotation along th< i certain joints. 

3 I JOURM \i. 01 mi. 

He assumed the horizontal thruat at the crown always to 
pass through either the nppei or the Ion the 

joint and found its minimum value, to thai no rotation 
would occur about the lower or upper ed| ny joint 

below the- crown and such that no sliding could occur along 

any joint. 

It is not necessary to explain the ingenious method by 
which the true thrust, after his theory, v. :taincd. 

Tlie theory was a marked improvement over tin 

theory, and it has been followed by a host of authors, with 

various improvements, even Up to the present d 

As the thrust either at the crown joint or the lower joints 

oi rapture cannot act along an edge without crushing 

ensuing, it is evident that the true positions of the thru 

at these critical joints has not been correctly ascertained; 
further, there is nothing in the theory to raise the inde- 

The next advance in the theory was made b\ certain 
authors who used a funicular polygon in studying the resist- 
ance at the various points, a method which is still the 
basis for the analytical treatment of the arch. 

It required but an additional step to see that the curvt 
connecting the centers of pressure on every joint of the arch 
ring (to which the proper "funicular polygon 1 ' approxi- 
mates for segmental arches) was a surer test of the stability 
of an arch ring and that, in a stable arch, it must always 
be possible to draw some "curve of resistance" (as the 
curve connecting the centers of pressure is called) within 
the limits of the arch ring, or, for safety, within much nar- 
rower limits. 

The exact location of this curve, for an}- arch, loaded in 
any manner, will completely solve the problem for that 
arch; but where an infinite number of possible curves of 
resistance can be drawn within the arch ring (or narrower 
limits), all varying in the point of application, direction or 


intensity of the thrust at the crown, it is evident that some 
additional principle must be introduced to enable us to 
choose the true one. Mosely introduced for this pur] 
the principle of the least resistance^ which at once fixed the 
true curve as the one corresponding to the minimum hori- 
zontal thrust. This caused the results to agree with thi 
of Coulomb, in most cases, though not in all, as the curve 
so determined does not, for some arches, pass through either 
edge of the crown joint, as Coulomb's theory requn 

In this and previous theories the arch and load were 
taken as symmetrical with respect to the vertical through 
the crown which thus restricts the theory to struct 
having fixed loads and rendering it of little service in the 
investigation of the strength and stability of road or rail- 
road arch bridges subjected u> a moving load, which | 
duces a maximum distortion when placed over one haunch 
of the arch; further, the tin manded incompressible 

voussoiis of infinite strength, which do not exil 

Scheffler developed vcrj completely the theory of curves 

of resistance for the least horizontal thrust, for both sym- 
metrical and unsymmetrical arches and loading; but as his 
theory requires the thrusts at the critical joints to i 
through the very edges, it cannot apply to ordinary 
where crushing would result, as a matter of course. X 
as crushing does not occur at the joints in well-designed 
arches, it follows (without other considerations) that 
Scheffler's theory must, at least, be modified. The writer 
did this in introducing the theory to American readers in 
1874, by empirically limiting the curve of resistance to the 
middle third of the arch ring. With such a restriction, for 
a joint with mortar, there would be no tension exerted 
anywhere along the joint, and for a joint without mortar 
there would be a compression throughout the whole length 
o\ the joint, so that no joint would open. Such restric- 
tions had already been suggested by Rankine, Woodburv 

36 .l<>( i:\.\l. <»l l in 

and others, as leading to sain results in proportioning in 
arch. The writer, however, called attention to the I 
that, as in most well-built arches, the joints did not o\ 
therefore, b) experiment on a big scale, it shown that 
the true curve of resistance in arches, as generally built, 
did not leave the middle third; hence, for usual depth 
key-stone and usual loads, the true cun 
found somewhere in the middle third, [ta position in the 
middle third of the arch ring could be provisionally found 
by the principle of least resistance, though it was admitted 
that its exact position was dependent on the deformation of 
the arch ring under stress, due to its elasticity, the 
which wen- not known at the time. 

However, after mathematicians had developed a true 
theory of the solid elastu arch^ "fixed at the ends 11 in 
position and direction, it seemed possible to apply it to the 
VOUSSoir arch, and thus locate accurately the true curv 
resistance, provided the following conditions were fulfilled : 

i. Xo mortar was to be allowed between the arch stones 
or voussoirs; 

2. The arch stones must be cut so perfectly that they 
will fit exactly, when not under stress, in place on the 
"center" — supposed unyielding; 

3. Under these circumstances the curve of resistance, 
determined after the theory of the solid arch for the full 
sections of the arch ring, must lie in its middle third. If 
this last condition does not obtain, the solution is still pos- 
sible, though the full sections cannot be used at certain 
joints, which involves a tentative method of finding the 
parts of the joints under stress and the resulting resistance 
curve, which makes a practical solution of the case much 
more difficult. 

Under the conditions assumed above the deformation of 
the voussoir arch is exactly that of the solid arch and 
there can be no question as to the theory applying. 


It is admitted, however, that it is difficult to cut the 
Stones witli the exactness demanded, and in addition, there 
will be a slight yielding of the centers, though the 
can easily be CUt to bear alon^ the whole length of joint 
when placed in position <m the centers after they have 
yielded somewhat, as it only requin se lit of the b 

stone after the other stones are in pi 

If thin cement mortar joints be used, that are allowed to 
harden perfectly before the centers are removed, the arch 
ring is assimilated completely ' id arch, except that 

in the theory the successive blocl ment and arch 

stones with their different moduli of elasticity m on- 

sidered, making the solution very complex. It would 

seem though that !• thin joints the the. lin- 

ing to a homogeneous arch of stone should approxim 
sufficiently near to the truth to give results 

For thick mortar joints of common mortar or for brick 
arches the theory proposed may be a rude guide, but it 

not pretended that it can be anything but a rou^h appro 
mation to the truth, so that the depth of kev lor such 
arches had better be iiu empirically over the depths 

given by the theory above for a homogen* id arch. 

The theory of the solid arch supposes immovable abut- 
ments and it requires three conditions to be fulfilled when 
the arch ring is under stress from its own weight and the 
weight of backing, roadway, etc., and any loads that may 
be placed on it in any position: 

i. The end tangents, at the sprin^in^, to the center line 
of the arch ring, must remain fixed in direction; 

2. The deflection of one end of the arch ring below the 
other, due to its deformation under stress, must be zero; 

3, There must be no change in span due to the deforma- 
tion of the arch rin^. 


Analytical theories <>f the solid arch have been d\ 
oped l>v Winkler, < rreene and others, and the graph i< 
tion has been given by Prof II. T. Eddy, to which the 
writer has contributed his mite. 

In Van NostratuTi Engineering M January 

and November, [879, the- writer claimed that the ti. 

the solid arch was tin- mosl solution of the \ 

arch, and a graphical treatment was given in the last named 

article. In the same year Castigliano, Winkler and 1 
referred tin.- treatment of tin- voussoir arch to that of the 
solid arch, and finally, in 1893, the writer, in the second 
edition of "Theory of Voussoir Arches,' 1 has given 
extended applications of the theor) of solid arches to vous- 
soir arches by two distinct methods, one founded on the 
analytical method in part and the other entirely graphi- 

These methods w*.re independently applied to a number 
of stone arch bridges, whose rise was one-fifth the span, 

for a loading known as Cooper 1 tra Heavj 

so placed as to produce the maximum departure of the 
resistance curve from the center line of the arch ring, and 
the results appear to be of such importance as to offer some 

apology for writing this article. 

In the stone arch bridges examined the specific gravity 
o( the voussoirs was assumed at 140 pounds per cubic to 
and the density of the spandrel backing was taken at eight- 
teuths that of the voussoirs. The weight of this backing 
and any loads on the bridge was assumed to be transmitted 
vertically to the arch. It is true that this may not be 
exactly true; in fact, the spandrel may act as an arch itself 
to some extent, still such additional security may be sup- 
posed to neutralize the dynamic effect of moving loads, the 
static effect of the loads being met by designing the arch 
ring, supposed of constant section throughout, so that for 
the most unfavorable position of the load, for any joint, the 
line of the centers of pressure on the various joints should 


be contained within the middle third of the arch ring, and 
for the joint where the departure was 5t this line 

should just touch the middle third limit. A slight deer* 
iu the depth of key would thu the true nee 

curve to pass slightly outside the middle third at some joint 
or joints. 

The proper depth of key to meet this last condition was 
found tentatively by a&SUtnil e depth 

the same span until one was found in which the trtU 
ance curve could just be inscribed in the middle third 
the most unfavorable position of the live load. ( »::'.. 
trials were needed in an . 

It was found for the arches igned th 

could occur along any joint. The maximum stress, in t< 
per square foot, at the most compressed ed from 

nine for the twenty-live foot span to thirt\ 
foot span. 

Thus the arch ring ed the requ 

an arch of Sandstone or limestone and an e\ ility 

for granite, whose weight per cubic fl 
assumed. For material weighing over 140 pom 
cubic foot the depth of key given below can be slightly 
diminished or a heavier load cm be assumed. 

The live load assumed is known in C ifica- 

tions as "Class Extra Heavy A 

We give below the distances in :n the front pilot- 

wheel ta> each pair of wheels in turn, and on the same line 
the weight of the pair ot wheels in tons of 2,000 pounds: 

Pair of Pilot-wheel* feet 

Driver wheel- " 



15 " 

Tender- wheels.... 9 


p.4a •• 9 " 

" • 45 -25 " - 

Pilot-wheels 54-^5 " s *' 

40 .i«»i RNAL "i i m: 

The second locomotive can be located from the last pair 
of pilot wheels. 

For spans of fifteen feet and nnder, a pair of wi. 
tying forty tons was nsed as producing a more hurtful 
effect The above load was placed over one-half of the 
arch, roughly speaking, the heaviest part being over the 
center of the haunch. Its exact position, howe^ 
determined very carefully so as to produce the most hurtful 
effect upon the arch ring. 

An approximation to this load was made by omitting the 
pilot-wheels in some of the computations. Also In- the 

independent partly analytical treatment, used as a check, 
the load on drivers was supposed uniformly distributed 
well as that on the tenders, and for convenience the lengths 
of each portion were slightly changed to suit the divisions 
of the arch required in the theory. The pairs of wh< 
were supposed to hear on cross-ties eight feet in length, 
that only one-eighth of this load was supposed to hear on 
a slice of the arch contained between vertical planes per- 
pendicular to the axis of the arch and one foot apart. 

The depths of key SO determined for arches of constant 
section and rise = I span arc given in the followi notable, 
the determinations for the spans 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 
125 and 150 having been found directly, the others by 
interpolation from these values. All dimensions are in feet. 







































































5-6 5 



Stone arches of the dimensions given should be perfectly 
safe against rotation or sliding anywhere for the very 
heavy rolling load assumed; but the depth of key should 
not be less than the values given, as the true line of 
resistance, for certain positions of the moving load, will 
then pass outside the middle third at certain joints, and 
although the arch may be stable, the factor of safet\ 
reduced too mueh and the joints of rupture may open, thus 
admitting the infiltration of water, which is not des 
besides, for the larger arches, the maximum intensit 
stress at the edges of the joints of rupture ma\ 
limits. In fact, this intensity for the 150-foot .span for a 
7-foot key is 36 tons per square foot — an admissible value 
for good solid voussoirs, well laid, though not at all 
rubble construction »>r for brick, except, perhaps, the \ 
best pressed brick. Prom experience it would seem that 
an outside limit foi this intensity U>r good granite should 
be about .p> tons per square : 

The arch can preferably be built by increasing the : 
length of joint as we go from the crown to the spring:: 
as is done in arches ai large span, in which case the depth 
of key-stone can In -d somewhat below the tabular 

values with the same security against overturning, sliding 
or crushing. 

In case the abutments or piers \ ield somewhat at the top 
from defective foundations the depth of key should be 
greater than as given in the tab. 

The formulas that have been proposed for depth of key 
by many authorities are not founded on theory, but on the 
successful practice of the past, particularly for common 
road bridges and railroad bridges subjected to the lighter 
loads of several decades ago. 

The writer has been convinced for a number of years 
that the dimensions given by many of these formulas (in 
current use to-day ) are very inadecpiate for stone arches sub- 
jected to the very much heavier rolling loads of to-day, and 
that arches so proportioned probably are saved from destruc- 
tion only from the extra resistance afforded by the span- 


.KH l;\ \l OK III): 

drels. On that account he w.i Ice tin- v< 

serious labor of computing the depths . 61 a Dumber 

of arches after tin- theory proposed, and to compare with 
tlie results given by some of the empirical formulas. 

The results are shown graphically in the figure, the line 
through the small circles (which is m tight) being 

plotted from tin values given in the tah!' 


u ' 

5 6 

u 5 




U J 


, i 




---^ .» 


















The depths of key proposed by the following authors are 
given by the ordinates to the various lines for the corre- 
sponding spans ^iven by the horizontal lines: Trantwinc 
(line T), Croizette-Desnoyers (line C-D), Perouet (lint 
Scheffler, by interpolation from his tables (line S, dotted) 
and Dejardin (line I)). 

These results refer to materials of only average strength 
(second-class masonry for the Trantwine line) and vary very 
greatly; thus for an arch of 160 feet span and thirty-two 
feet rise Trantwine gives a depth of key of 4.3 feet, 
whereas Dejardin requires eight feet and then increases the 
radial length of joint according to the secant of the incli- 
nation of the joint to the vertical as we approach the abut- 

The theoretical depths of key agree more nearly with 
those of Dejardin and Scheffler than with any of the others, 
though it is in excess for the smaller spans over any of the 
empirical results, as should naturally be expected. 


It is respectfully submitted to constructors that mo 
the formulas in current use are inadequate to give a proper 
depth of key for the very heavy rolling I 
although it is thought that such formulas may still serve 
the purpose of a rough guide in the design of common 
road bridges, unless heavy concentrated I am 

road-rollers, are to pass over them. In all cases it is best to 
use the formulas for an assumed key and then by a tin 
retical treatment determine the proper key by one or two 


<>V THK 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 


J i : I . v--i >i :<^ i ; \i i ii i 2 

!K« >3 




I'M. I.. 

A Comparison of the Methods of Separation and estimation 

of Zirconium. Chas. Baskerrille 45 

Primitire streak and Blastopore ot the Bird Bmbryo. EL v. 

Wilson >•>> 

Additions to the Brysipheae oi Alabama. Geo. F. Athiaaoa.. 74 

Bome Septoria- from Alabama. Geo. F. Atkinson 76 

Additional Note on the Pungi of Blowing Ko»k. N. C. 

K. Atkinson 78 

An Examination of the Chlorides of Zirconium. F. I*. V.-n- 

ahle 79 

Some attempts at the Formation of Ethyl Glucoside. J. K. 

On the Geological History of Certain Tojx.^raphical Fea- 
tures east of the Blue Kid^e. Collier Cobb 94 

Do Snakes Charm Birds? Collier Cobb 98 


OF T11K 

lilislia Mitchell Scientific Society. 



The object of the research, whose results are recorded 
in this paper, was to compare some of the more prom- 
inent methods in use for the determination of zirconium. 
The directions, as found in the literature of the subject, 
were as closely followed as possible. At times however 
they were so indefinite that wi 1 • limits were given the 

analyst. In such cases, several experiments were car- 
ried out under varying conditions. BO that the accuracy 

of the method might be fully tested. 

It was further desirable in this work to examine any 
suggestion arising', by which a new method of deter- 
mination might bfl devised and its accuracy as well 

tested. Whenever it seemed necessary the purity of 
the reagents was carefully proved. 
Two solutions were used: 

1st. A solution of zirconium chloride purified bv crys- 
tallisation from hydrochloric acid. This con- 
tained free acid. 

2nd. A solution made bv saturating dilute sulphuric 
acid 4:1 with zirconium hydroxide. This solu- 
tion was acid to litmus. 


Tlr ;!i of each was determined by evaporating 

todr) ii' nd weighing the '/. 

obtained. Amount it •., nts w i 

measured from these solutions by means of a calibrated 
standard burette with a small outlet. 

/. Experiments with Ammonium Hydroxide, 

Ammonium hydroxide precipitate <1 the zirconium com- 
pletely from a cold solution in cither a small or l.'i: 
excess. If the solution be hot, however, th lof 

ammonium hydroxide musl 1»' boiled off, i.e., the p 
cautions taken when aluminium hydroxide is precipi- 
tated must be heeded, The pre i, white and 
flocculent, settles quickly, is easily filtered and washed 
with hot water. In most of the experiments carried 
out this precipitate was washed until the wash water 
gave no further precipitate, or only a slight cloudiness, 
with silver nitrate. The precipitate was ignited and 
heated over the blast lamp until there u;h no further 
loss of weight, the residue weighed being taken as 
pure zirconium dioxide. 

The following results were obtained: 
































N<... 2> 2s> inclusive were made from the chloride 
solution and Noa. 27 28 with the sulphat< . N< . 2" was 
carried out in the cold with a Large ex( ammo- 

nium hydroxide. The solution was diluted to about 
150 c.c. and the precipitate washed with cold water. 
No. 21 was also cold, the precipitate being obtained 
by ammonium hydroxide sp. gr. 0.97 drop at a time. 
( )n addition of the fourth drop the precipitation was com- 
plete. No. 22 had also only a slight 
nium hydroxide, but the zirconium was precipitated 

hot. No. 2.^ shows the necessity for fo the 

ess of ammonium hydroxide. It w.. pitated 

from a hot solution by a UUlge of ammonium hy- 

droxide 10 c.c sp. p Nos. 21 

respectively contained a slight as ..m- 

mon.a, hut the boiling wai sued lor fifteen min- 

utes in each case. No. 2<> was diluted toabo 

tiie others were diluted to a K>ut 150 C.< 
of concentrated ammonia w. >. gr. 0.92 ad 

and that boiled for fifteen minul 

ried out hot, the slight ex, ammonium hydroxide 

added being boiled until there was only a faint odor of 
it left. No. 2' 1 was precipitated by adding 50 CC con- 
centrated ammonia water sp. gr. 0.92 . The whole 
solution in this case amounted to about 1<>*» c.c. This 
was boiled twenty minute the ammonia had 


Since zirconium is frequently precipitated in a chlor- 
ide solution when the alkaline chlorides are also present, 
it seemed advisable to note the effect the presence of 
these substances had on the determination by means of 
ammonium hydroxide. Experiments were there i 
made with the zirconium chloride dissolved in ten per 
cent, solutions of ammonium, solium, and um 

48 j< .ikxai. of tui-: 

chlorides. These solutions srere at first clear, but on 
boiling 5 15 minutes, at first ■ slight turbidity s 
noticed. This increased <>n boiling until a good j >r« -«. i j »- 
itate was formed. With potassium chloride this pi 
cipitate was curdy and incomplete. Paykull' 

of the formation of double chlorides in the (\v\ way. 

These precipitates which are very probably similar 
compounds are now being investigated in this labora- 
tory. It was noted that ammonium chloride did 

not interfere with the determination, as it was easily 
volatilized when thecrucible was ignited <>wr the blow- 
pipe. The fixed alkalies however interfered, giving 
high results. These compounds are <>t interest. 

The following determinations were made in tin- pres- 
ence of ammonium chloride: 










n. K»77 


//. Willi Sodium Thio&ulphite. 

Sodium thiosulphite, if added as solid crystals to a 
zirconium chloride solution, previously neutralized with 
ammonium hydroxide, and then boiled for several min- 
utes, caused complete precipitation. The solid thiosul- 
phite was added up to ten and even twenty per cent, of 
the solution. The precipitate did not form immediate- 
ly on addition of the solid thiosulphite, even if the so- 
lution was hot, but was rapidly produced after a few 
moments heating. The precipitate, which settled 
quickly, was filtered hot and washed with hot water 

(1) Ber. VI. 1467. 


until the wash writer amounted to about twice ;i> much 
as the original solution. This amount of washing was 
arbitrarily chosen, as it was found that if it was consid- 
erably less the results ran high, showing imper! 
washing, due to the presence of sulphite, no doubt. The 
presence of free acid one per cent, and less interfered 

considerably, preventing complete precipitation 3 ( > and 

4<> vid. below . Moreover the precipitate was finely 
divided and ran through very close filter paper S and 
S. No. 590 along with much free sulphur. The 
precipitation was made in the cold as well, but in that 
case, it was found necessary to k-t the solution remain 
Covered for at least twenty-four hours with occasional 
Stirring. The larger portion of the floCCUlent precipi- 
tate collected well at the bottom of the beaker, but a 
small portion clung persistently to the stirring rod and 
sides of the beaker, refusing to come off, even on the 

most vigorous rubbing with a "policeman." 

This reagent will not serve as a precipitant for the 
Zirconium sulphate solution, since the precipitation was 
found to be incomplete on addition ot as much as twen- 
ty per cent, of solid sodium thiosulphite to a thorou^h- 
lv neutralized solution. Preliminary experiments were 
made with more or less free sulphuric acid present and 
varying amounts of the thiosulphite two to twenty pei- 
cent. in solution ami solid form, hot and cold. 

These determinations were made: 



l W. 




o.lioi V 



























o.l oso 





Noa. 41 and 44 arried oul aa oral recommended 

above. Noa. 33 and 34 were in the cold, the former 
with one percent., and the latter with thre nt. 

oi sodium thioaulphite. No. 36 had also three per cent., 
1 mt was boiled. N<>. .^7 shows that a ?ery small amount 
of sodium thioaulphite will throw down mosl of the air- 
conium, as only five drops of a ten par cent, solution 
were added in the experiment. The precipitation waa 
complete on addition of the thioaulphite up to two per 
cent. No. 38, bu1 the precipitate crept and only a 
portion settled well. Noa. 39, 40 and 42 show the vary- 
ing interference of five- hydrochloric acid, and No. 45 
was a neutralized sulphate solution with twenty per 
cent, of solid sodium thioaulphite. 

///. With Potatassium Sulphate. 

The very old method for separation, which Berzelius 1 
used for want of a better, and one recommended for use 

in a great number of text books now, is the precipitation 
of a zirconium sulphate solution as a basic zirconium po- 
tassium sulphate, which according to Pavkull* may have 
the formula, K 2 S0 4 .2[Zr0 2 .Zr S() 4 J + 14H.O. "This 
would be best brought about by adding- an excess of a 
saturated potassium sulphate solution to a neutralized 
concentrated solution of zirconium sulphate. , The pre- 

3. Pog-g-. Ann. III-208. 

4. Ber. VI-1467, and XII-1719. 


cipitation however was incomplete even in neutral solu- 
tions. The text hooks vary in regard to the properties 
of this double sulphate; some* state the precipitate to 

Ik- insoluble or sparingly soluble in either water or hy- 
drochloric acid; another" state- it- solubility in water 

alone and points out the danger of loss in the necessary 
washing. Hose' referring to Berzehus 1 avoids this loss 
bv washing with dilute ammonium or potassium hy- 
droxide. These contradictory properties were all noted 
in Watt's Dictionary. 

An experiment was carried out to learn the actual 
deportment of this salt in the presence of water. A 
fairly concentrated solution of zirconium sulphate, con- 
taining ten per cent, of ZrOj, was completely neutral- 
ized with ammonium hydroxide until a permanent pre- 
cipitate wa^ formed and thi> dissolved in two or tli 
drops of dilute sulphuric acid. This was done with a 
boiling solution. To this was added an ei I a 

saturated potassium sulphate solution. The bea] 
was placed in cool water. When cold the supernatant 
liquid, the flocculent precipitate having' settled well, was 
decanted through a tared filter. This filtrate, was 
tested with more potassium sulphate, boiled and cooled, 

but no further precipitation occurred. < >n addition 
however ot some ammonium hydroxide a white precipi- 
tate was thrown out. showing either that the i>otass-ium 
sulphate did not precipitate the zirconium completely 
or the precipitate was soluble in water. The precipi- 
tate was washed several times by decantation and the 
filtrate in each case showed the solubility of the salt. 

5. Rotcoe mul Schorl, vol. II, part II p. 271., and Ke^nault Chimie 

II 285, ami Wdhler Handbnch An<>r^\ Anal. p. 117. 

6. Pelmise et Freniv Traite de Chimie Generate III 523 2nd Ed. 

7. Analyt. Chein. translated by lirirrin. 

8. PoggendoriTa Annalen, IV. 136, 

52 JOURNAL Of Tin. 

Then- remained to lram the completeness <>i the pre- 
cipitation, Another experiment similar t<» the ah 

was carried out bearing 1 in mind the suggestion <>t wash- 
ing with a solution <>t ammonium hydroxide, at tir^t 

with potassium sulphate to be sure thai there was an 
excess of thai reagenl present and then with ammonium 
hydroxide. The precipitation had not been compL 
Alter several washings, when the original solution 
might well be presumed to be removed, or the major por- 
tion at Least, the wash water very dilute ammonia 
water; gave no evidence of the presence <>f zirconium. 
Several experiments were earned out, but in onlv one 
case was the double salt weighed. It gave about nine- 
ty per cent, of the zirconium really present. The fil- 
trates from several W( mined and it was learned 
that from one to ten per cent, was always lo>t, the 

amount depending on the exact condition-, of precipita- 
tion and the amount of washing succeeding. The ob- 
jection to using ammonium hydroxide a^ wash water 
when it was desirable to separate zirconium from iron, 
aluminium or titanium, is easily seen. 

The conclusion arrived at was, that the precipitation 
of zirconium as a double sulphate with potassium afford- 
ed no quantitative means of determination for that metal, 
nor of separation from aluminium, iron or titanium. 

J\\ By Sodium Carbonate. 

Sodium carbonate precipitated solutions of zirconium 
salts completely. A great difficulty arose, however, in 
the exceeding - slowness of filtration and practical im- 
possibility of washing the precipitate free from the 
alkaline carbonate. A single result, obtained from sev- 
eral analyses, was 


Found. f - 

ZrO a 0.1* 0.1723 

/ '. By Ammonium Carbonate. 

When a saturated solution of ammonium carbonate 
was added gradually to a zirconium chloride solution, 
at first a white flocculent precipitate was thrown down. 
This seemed to he produced by the free ammonia pres- 
ent, but on a further addition the solution became clear 
again. If this was boiled, a clear flocculent precipitate 
came down. '\ he boiling w;i> continued for about fif- 
teen minutes, when the carbon dioxide had ceased to 
come off. The appearance of this precipitate was 
exactly that produced by ammonium hydroxide, yet 

the filtration \v:i> wry slow, a^ in the case with the 
other alkaline carbonate. In some hundred and m 
precipitation-, by mean i of ammonium hydroxide, I h 
never failed to secure th um hydroxide in such 

a condition as to tilter rapidly. This was very likely 
a basic carbonate, which required continued heat with 
the blow pipe for constant weight. Such a precipH 
when ignited gave 0.1733g. ZrO a when 0.1723 g. 


VI. By Ammonium Oxalate. 

L. Svanberg, 1 because oxalic acid failed to i 
complete precipitation of zirconium, thought the solu- 
tion contained a new element, which he called norium. 
Sjogren 1 ' in his analyses of the mineral catapleiite said: 
*■ Einenicht same Losungder ESrdeausdem Katapleiite 

'». Ofversigt of K. V. Akad. Kurhand!. 1845, p. 37. 

in. Poffg A.nn. 1853, Rrffiasnag, III. i>. 4fift J. Prak. Ch. 5S 



wird wuh 1 iron 0x3.] aiit«iii A.mmoniak gfefallt, aberdii 
Niederschlag Ldssl »ich nichl nurin einem [JberHchu 
des ETaUungsmittels, Bonderc aucfa in einem geringen 
Zusatz voa Oxalsaure." Berlin," h< aid: 

■• <!.ls> d(. t duivh dioser Sal/, ammonium oxa- 

late) in einer Ltdsung von Zirkon ler- 

achlag bei einem CJeberscho se des ET&llungsmittels 
wieder versehwindet. An- dieser Auflosung 

schlagi A.mmoniak die Zirkonei id g nieder." 

Eermann" repeated all previous < 
only corroborate l 1> Tlin's oba 

the besl conditions for thi-> precipitation'. He no1 
that in an excessof the precipitanl ammonium oxalal 
only four-tenths of all tin- zirconium was precipitafc 
Such has been the result of my own experimenl 
the determination of the rate of precipitation as done 
by Hermann, 

17/. By Potassium Hydrogen Oxalate. 

Behrens 13 in bis l * Contributions to Micro-Chemi- 
cal Analysis " note-- that zirconium can be deb cted with 
extreme delicacy 0.0005 by that means. For 

quantitative purposes, however, potassium hydrogen 
oxalate could not be used, as the precipitate formed was 
soluble in an excess of the precipitant, but an incom- 
plete precipitation took place on boiling'. 

17/. By Hydrogen Peroxide. 

(See Separation Zirconium and Titanium.) 

IX. By Sulphur Dioxide. 
Because of the analogy of the elements, I was led to 

11.. J Prak. Ch. 58—145. 
12. J. Prak. Ch. 96—332. 
(13) Zeit. Anal. Chem. translated in Ch. News, XLIV— 124. 


try a method commonly used with titanium, viz.: i 
longe 1 boiling of a potassium hydrogen sulphate fusion 

in dilute solution with sulphur dioxide in excess. < >n 

application of this method, however, on the prepared 
sulphate (see above ■ I failed even after boiling four 
hours with an excess of sulphur dioxide, to <>l>ta 
precipitate, if the solution was acid. If the solution 
was nearly neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, and 
then boiled with an of sulphur dioxide, alter 

being greatly diluted a precipitate was produced. This 
precipitation, however, was incomplete, even after b 
ing six hours or passing steam through the same for 
two or three hours. The precipitate t»>o was very 
finely divided, running through the closest filter 
papers at my command. Therefore this method could 

not be used. 

But on addition of sulphur dioxide to the chloride 
solution, even in the cold, and if it wa- a dense 

white precipitate was immediately noted. On boiling 

with an excess of sulphur dioxide in a neutralized solu- 
tion. /. (., the chloride solution, neutralized by ammo- 
nium hydroxide until the slight precipitate was 
longer dissolved by boiling, and this precipitate then 
taken up with two or three drops of dilute dydrochl< 

acid, the separation of the zirconium was comph 

The accuracy of this method is shown by the follow- 
ing" result-. : — 




0.1074 » 

1 > »77 












The precipitation took place immediately an addition 
of sulphur dioxide and after two minute* boiling 1 the 
precipitate settled quickly and was easily filtered. 

This method then is applicable to the chloride only 
and a sulphate would have t<> be first changed to chlo- 
ride l>v precipitation with ammonium hyhrozide and 
resolution in hydrochloric acid. This was done and 
0.28l5g. ZrOj was found when 0.2812jg. was used. 

The pr( amounts <»! sucli salts a^ am- 

monium chloride did n<>t aid the precipitation of the 
sulphate. The presence of free hydrochloric acid musl 
be avoided and it is besl to u olution of sul- 

phur dioxide or the gas dir< 


/. By Ammonium Sulphide in an Ammoniacal Tar- 
trate Solution of their Salts. 

Rose" knew the property tartaric acid pos 
rendering solutions of a number of metallic oxides inca- 
pable of precipitation by alkalies. However he made 

use of just such a solution, by adding to it an excess of 

ammonium sulphide, to separate iron from zirconium, He 
said, "If to the solution of these two bases a sufficient 
quantity of tartaric acid has been added, the addition of 
an excess of ammonia produces no precipitate. "I 
found five times as much tartaric acid as iron present 
was a "sufficient quantity," but an excess, five per cent. 
of the whole solution, had no ill effect, although such a 
large excess is not necessary. If the iron was present 
in the same amount as the zirconium, the separation 
was found to be incomplete, if only one precipitation of 

14. Analyt. Chern. translated by Griffin, p. 58. 


the iron was mack-. The zirconium dioxide could not be 
obtained perfectly white, but possessed from a yellow 
to a brown color due to the iron present. However, if 
the amount of iron be small, five per cent, and less, as 
it occurs in the mineral zircon, the separation was 
thorough and the ignited zirconium dioxide obtained 
was snow white and iron tr 
Two analyses are given : — 


>. 0.1119 




The process was as follows : To the solution oi the 

salts, tartaric acid, best solid, to five times the amount 
of iron present, was added, and this neutralized by an 
excess of ammonium hydroxide, and then ammonium 
sulphide in excess. This was warmed slightly, covered, 

and set aside to settle. The supernatant liquid must 
acquire a yellow color before filtration. To avoid this 
delay, one experiment war* carried out by boiling and 
direct filtration. Time was thereby saved. The pre- 
cipitated iron sulphide was washed quickly with a di- 
lute ammonium sulphide solution. The filtrate was 
evaporated in a porcelain dish on a water bath until it 
became of small bulk, when it was transferred to the 
crucible, in which the final residue was to be weighed. 
Sometimes it was noticed that there was a further sep- 
aration of iron sulphide during this evaporation. This 
was filtered off before the concentration became too 
great without causing any error in the final result. The 
crucible when apparently dry was heated for several 
hours in an air bath at 100 C. ami then ignited, top on. 
Alter the volatile portion of this residue was driven off, 
the lid was removed and all the carbon burned away. 

5S JOURNAL <»!•• : 

The crucible was then heated with the blow pipe until 
the weighl wa tant. This required al leasl an 

hour it a porcelain crucible was used. 

The method was carried out by the wri .i\en 

above and accurate results, as noted, obtained, when 
the iron was no more than five tit oi tin- two 

metals present. The iron was not determined. The 
greal amount of time required was tin- onlyol 
to be noted. 

//. By Ammonium Hydroxide^ Ammonium Sulphide 
ant/ Sulphurous Arid. 

Berthier" said that if a mixture of the salts of iron 
and zirconium in solution !><• precipitated l>\ an 
of ammonium hydroxide and then an excess <>t ammoni- 
um sulphide be added, that the ferrous sulphide formed 

could be dissolved out with a sulphurous acid solution. 

Several experiments were carried out. The solution 
was precipitated by an excess of ammonium hydroxide. 
— in one the excess was boiled away then an excess of 

freshly made ammonium sulphide was added and the 
whole allowed to settle. {Experiments were made with 
both the colorless and yellow ammonium sulphide). 
The supernatant liquid was drawn off, or the whole 
filtered, and the precipitate boiled with a strong sul- 
phurous acid solution. Most of the black sulphide be- 
came immediately decolorized. After a five or ten 
minutes boiling - , the solution was filtered and washed 
with hot water and a weak sulphur dioxide solution. 
The precipitate remained brown however, strongly 
colored by the iron which had not been dissolved. In 
one experiment this impure precipitate was redissolved 

15. Booth's Encycl. Chem. 


in dilute hydrochloric acid and the process repeated. 
There was only :i slight diminution in the amount ot 
iron left. If the hydrochloric acid solution of this pre- 
cipitate was neutralized by ammonium hydroxide and 
then an of sulphurous acid added, the zirconium 

Beparated out perfectly white and free from iron. 

Found. J. 

Zr<>, 0.1070 0.1070 

The method of Berthier as 1 carried it out did not 
j^-ive satisfactory results. 

///. By Sodium Thiosuiphite. 

With proper precautions zirconium was completely 
separated from iron by means of -odium thiosuiphite. 
The directions given for this method were not always 
specific." It was noted by the writer that unless 
the solution he neutralized, the precipitation would he 
incomplete; also if it he neutral ami the boiling long 
continued, the precipitate might be very finely divided 
and hard to catch on the filter paper; also if all or the 
greater part of the sulphur dioxide he boiled away the 
oxide of iron separated immediately on ao the air 

after the removal of the clock glass used to cover the 
beaker. No accurate separation was obtained if the 
solution was rendered neutral with ammonium hydroxide 
or the precipitation was made when the solution was hot. 

But the method of Chancel' and Stromever'" gave 
accurate results. By this method the solution was 
rendered neutral with sodium carbonate, the beaker 

tt>. Ro«C. and Schorl. II— si - 271., ami Miller"-, Cheat. II— p. 043. 

17. Ann. Ch. Pharm. CVI1I 237. 

18. Ibid, CXI 1 1 127. 

<><> JOURNAL «»!•' THE 

placed in cold water, and when the solution was 
an excess of sodium thiosulphite was added. After tin- 
solution became decolorised, it was boiled, and the 
white precipitate eircouium hydro ling to 

Stromeyer settled out well. This precipitate was easily 
filtered, washed with hot water, burned and ignited 
to constant weight. 
These results are i I : — 


/mill J. 






0. (155 J 




0.1640 1 
0.1613 * 


Nos. 14(> and 141 were in solutions in which there 
was present free acid No. 14<> hydrochloric and No. 
141 sulphuric. No 143 was not properly neutralized 
and on addition of the sodium thiosulphite, a heavy floc- 

culent flesh-colored precipitate settled out. This on 
warming became white, but when the precipitate was 

burned showed the presence of some iron. No. 145 v. 
carried out exactly according to the directions given 

IV. By Ammonium Sulphite, 

As I carried out the experiments, I failed to succeed 
in perfectly separating - iron and zirconium by this 
method, which is also recommended by Berthier." 
lutions of the chlorides of these two metals were made 
with equal and varying - amounts of each, then an ex. 
of freshly prepared ammonium sulphite was added. 
The zirconium sulphite precipitated was soluble in an 

19. Booth's Encvcl. Chem. 1850. 


excess of the precipitant, but zirconium hydroxide was 
thrown down on boiling'. If the boiling was kept up 
until no more sulphur dioxide came off, immediately on 
permitting the liquid to come into contact with the air, 
a scum of oxide of iron formed. Next, the boiling 9 
not continued so long the precipitate when burned. 
however, still contained some iron. B the results 

obtained were low, a-- may be seen by these analyses: 


. nil. 










The hydroxide is, doubtles?, partly soluble in an ex- 
. of the sulphite, even after boilini 

J '. By Sulphur Dioxide. 

The method of precipitation of zirconium from a 
chloride solution on addition of sulphurous acid in 

ce>s affords an excellent means of separating zirconium 
from iron. The /.irconia precipitated by sulphur d 

ide in large excess and boiled two to three minutes, 
was, after filtration, washed four or five times with 
hot water. The further necessary precautions ha 
been given above. The iron was titrated in the filtrate. 
The experiments gave these results. 



160 \ 





••■« | 





162 1 





1 Zrl 1 





1 ZrOa 









/. By Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate, 

Having noted the property <>l zirconium of beinj 
precipitated from a solution a1 first precpitated hut 
soluble in an excess of sodium hydrogen carbonate on 
boiling with ; ammonium chloride, Pelouse and I 
proposed it as a metho that metal from 

aluminium. Severale 'xperiments were carried out by 
the author of this paper, but the conclusion arrived at 
was that it was a qualitative separation, which 
could not be used for quantitative purposes. 

//. By Sodium lodate. 

Davis" gives a neat and accurate method for the sep- 
aration of zirconium and aluminium. The directions, as 
given by him, for the process must be most carefully 
followed in order to obtain accurate results. Moreover 
the process is inapplicable when iron, he it in a ferrous 
or ferric condition, is present. The method therefore 
offers hut little of practical value in ordinary analy 

"Their 22 (aluminium and zirconium; solution in hydro- 
chloric acid is treated with sodium carbonate until a 
permanent precipitate is formed. This precipitate is 

20. Traitd de Chimie G£nerale. III-523, 1854 Edition. 

21. Am. Ch. J., XI-26. 

22. Ibid. p. 29. 


dissolved in the smallest possible quantity of dilute 
hydrochloric acid and sodium iodate ' Nal< >, added 
in excess. The solution ia heated for fif- 

teen minute-. It is then allowed to stand twelve ho 
filtered, washed down with boiling water, d 1 in 

hydrochloric acid and finally pre< I amni 

ia, ignited and weighed." I found in an anal-. 
0.05l5g.ZrO a when I had used 0.0520 

Analyses were made also according to htS recom- 
mendation of the use of from five to ten percent. 
sodium chloride. The results obtained were high, 
doubtless due to imperfect washing. An example : 

ZrO 696 <>.<> 

The numerous experiments m I merely to 

confirm Davis' work. It was n< 

far neutralization with sodium carbonati the 

separated zirconium was contaminated with \ 
amounts of aluminium. The permanent precipifc 
formed 1>\ the solium carbonate was difficult 
redissolve in a small amount of dilute hydrochloric 
Vet an i if acid mu-t Ik- avoided, for it was learned 

by experiments, a- Davis had noted, that the presence 
of even P. 1 per cent, by weight of hydrochloric acid 

would cause low results. Four hours was a sufficient 

time for complete separation however. An experiment 
with the sulphate solution showed no action whatever. 
Even the small amount of sulphuric acid in an alumin- 
ium sulphate solution was found to interfere, hence the 
necessity o( having a hydrochloric acid solution, free 
from sulphuric acid, was apparent. Davis evidently 
noted this as he was particular in having a pure solu- 
tion of aluminium chloride in his experiments. 


///. By Sulphur Dioxide. 

Sulphurous acid may be used for the separation ol 
zirconium and aluminium as well. The process ie 
sentiallj the same as for the on of iron and zir- 

conium see abo 1 

The analvM's proving this are il o given. 

Number, Found. 

, n1 l ZrO a 0.1042 0.K 

- ' I Al.O 0.0608 0.0610 
,- \ Zr< I o.KiTo 0.1070 

- ' J Al,<> 0.0316 0.0305 


As is well known, titanium and zirconium are metals 
possessing many properties in common. Their deport- 
menl with reagents is v< ry similar, varying only in de- 
gree, as a rule. This tact, and that of the properties 
of each being further altered by the presence of the 
other in the same solution," renders their separation 
extremely difficult. An example of this alteration of 
properties was noted on boiling a solution of sulphates 
of these metal-. < >n long continued boiling titanium 
sulphate, when in solution alone, is completely precipi- 
tated. Zirconium sulphate, under the same conditions. 
produces no precipitate, whereas a mixture of th< 
permits of only a partial precipitation of the titanium, 
the larger portion remaining undissolved [Berzelius 

/. By Potassium Sulphate. 
It was not found possible to use the precipitation of 

23 Rose Analyt. Chem. p. 172. 
24. Pog-g. Ann. VI.. 232. 


the zirconium as the basic potassium sulphate, i<>r the 
reasons above noted. For want of a better method, 

however, this was for a long time used. 

//. By Boiling an Acetic Acid Solution. 

Franz and Streit claimed complete separation it the 

solution, neutralized by ammonium hydroxide, were 
rendered strongly acid with acetic acid and boiled 
sometime. The usual preliminary qualitative experi- 
ments were carried out by the writer, and he obtained 
a precipitate in both cases. The titanium was precipi- 
tated directly and in large amounts, whilst the zircon- 
ium was aKo precipitated, but in small amounts. ( )t 
course solutions of approximately known strength w 
used in the riments. When this was noted the 

completeness of the titanium precipitation was not 
tested. This method, therefore could not be recom- 

///. By Ammonium Oxalate and Ammonium Car- 

The experiments of Hermann were very carefully 
repeated. The zirconium chloride solution was diluted 
to contain one part in one hundred parts of water, and 
to this was added double the weight of zirconium 

ammonium oxalate. I did observe, as he says, "' Dabei- 
enstand anfanglieh eine Trubung, nachdem aber die 
ganze Quantitat des < hcalats zugesetzt worden war. 
klarte sich die ITlussigkeit wieder vollstandig auf. Man 

25. J. Pr;ik. Ch. "'7—338. 

26. Ibid, 337: 

66 JOURNAL l i 

gass jrt/.t ung von oxalsa Ammoniak- 

Zirkonerde in eine concentrirte Losung von kohlensau- 

rem Ammoniumoxyd." But I did wo/ ol 

blieb die Flussi jana klar und 

langerem Stehen keine Spur eines NTiederschlags ab." 

A chloride solution of titanium, 
manner as above, gave a heavy prei the 

double oxalate formed an addition of the ammonium 
oxalate, was poured into a saturated solution of ammo- 
nium carbonate. As noted above a pi was 
obtained with the zirconium chloride soluti< ell;' 
nevertheless an analysis was made and (5.0327 g. tita- 
nium was found when 0.0302g. had been used. This 
proved to the writer thai advantage could not b 
ot this for a complete separation of zirconium from 
titanium. Hermann" noted this incompleteness in his 
further remarks concerning an experiment lie performed: 
"Die geringe Different von <>.1S Theiler. zu 
SVenig und 0.18 Theilen U3ed 6, found (». ' :n>. ; iure 
zu viel kam daher, da>s die Titansaure beim Fallen durch 
kohlensaures Ammoniumoxyd ein geringe Menge Zir- 
konerde mit nied »sen ha: 

//'. By%Hydrogen Peroxide. 

So no good and accurate method was known until 
Bailey" noted the effect of adding hydrogen dioxide to 
a zirconium solution. This is the only thoroughly accu- 
rate method yet proposed. Its neatness and rapidity 
in application are to be especially noted. At the same 
time consideration must be ,°;iven to the difficulty in 
obtaining- perfectly pure hydrogen dioxide. 

27. Ibid. 439. 

28. J. London Ch. Soc. Trans. 1886. p. 149. 


He proceeded" l>v adding an excess of hydrogen diox- 
ide to a moderately acid solution of a mixture of iron, 
zirconium and titanium. After twenty-four hours 
standing in a stoppered flask, the precipitated oxide 
Zrj< >.- was caught and filtered, washed and ignil 
In carrying out this method the writer noted the ne< 
site of having an acid, yet not t<><> a, <\. solution. It 
the solution was first neutralized with ammonium hy- 
droxide or sodium carbonate, the precipitated zircnium 
oxide was highly contaminated with iron, which could 

not he washed out. 

Analyses gave these results: 



i ^r< ), 



* \\- 



/ TiO 






The precipitation was found to be complete on boiling 

the solution two or three minutes to avoid the twenty- 
four hour- delay by standing cold. After filtering from 
the zirconium oxide, the filtrate was rendered alkaline 
with ammonia water, filtered and the ] ite dis- 

solved in dilute hydrochloric acid. The tcid 

was neutralized and the titanium determined 1>\ precip- 
itation on boiling with sulphur dioxide." The iron was 
determined from the filtrate from this. 

The hydrogen dioxide obtained from the manufac- 
turer' was found to contain a large amount of silicic 
acid in solution along with the other ordinary impuri- 

29. Ibid p. 482, 

30. The author J. Am. Ch. s. 

31. Dr. Merchand, 28 Prince -t., W-w York. 


ties. The strength oi this solution wa» 72 volumes, being 1 
broughl to this strength according to The*nard*s 
method Bufarchand . I further purified and i 
trated thia to 111 volumes by distilling in partial 
vacuum, according toTalbol and Moody, 
potassium sulphate present interfered very much with 
the reaction by the formation of the mo: *g solu- 

ble basic zirconium potassium sulphate. So nothing 
definite could be learned from m\ experiments, which 
were many, with either the 111 or 72 volume hydro, 

To avoid tin- formation of the compound with potas- 
sium sulphate, hydrochloric acid" was used. By this 
method was obtained a solution of the dioxide pra 
cally free from silicic and sulphuric acids, but one 
weaker, being 1 only 53 volumes. It was with this solu- 
tion the analyses above reported were ma 

This method of using hydrogen dioxide is the only 
accurate met In »d givenjfor the separation of zirconium and 
titanium. It is direct and rapid, delicate and elegant, 
but expensive and by no means always convenient. 

I cannot close this summation without expressing my 
great indebtedness to Dr. K. P. Venable, for his ever 
ready sympathy with and kindness to me in this work. 
I wish also to ex] tress my thanks to Dr. Chas. Mar- 
chand, 28 Prince st.. New York, for six pounds of 72 
volume' hydrogen peroxide, with which he kindly ] 
sented me. 

33. Mass. Inst. Technolog-y Quarterly, V 123. 

34. Ibid, 131. 

32. Armeies de Chemie de Physique, [2] 10 114. 335. 11 85. 




Embryologist >, with but few _rnize 

in the bird embryo a gastrula stage. There is, how- 
ever, a very considerable d . ol opinion as to ju^t 
what constitutes the gastrula. Leaving aside certain 
interpretations for which at present there seems no 
good ground, we find there are two very different views 
held regarding the nature of this embryonic 

According to the older view, advanced by Balfour 
and Rauber, the essential difference between the bird 
gastrula and the fish gastrula is that a part of the 
original edge of the blastoderm, is in the bird turned 
in to form the primitive streak. Thus while in the fish 
the blastopore is represented by the blastoderm edj 
in the bird it is represented by the primii ik plus 

the b!:i itoderm edge. This theoretical view recer 
tin- support of the well known research 
the germ layers of birds 1 . Duval finds that the very 
young blastoderm of the bird i- similar to that of fishes. 
In both, the ectoderm a itinuous 

round the edge, which therefore corresponds to the 
blastopore. But this precise similarity is only tran- 
sient, tor in the bird the primitive stre; makes 
its appearance. The manner in which the primitive 
streak is formed proves conclusively that it is only a 
modified part of the blastoderm edge. The young 
blastoderm (fish-like stage grows centrifugally at all 

1. De !a formation da t>Ui>ti>dertiu- dans I'oeni dY>i>cau. Annates 
des Sciences Nat. Zoologie. T. XVIII.. 19 



points excepl at that which corresponds to the future 
tail end of the embryo. Bj this m. . tin por- 

tion "l th>- blastoderm edge becomes turned in on each 
the median line in tin wo 

portions running 1 forwards side by side to tin- po 
aln-ady mentioned, where no centrifugal growth occurs. 
These two portions fuse and form the primitive 
which thus at i'n ads to the ve\ the 

blastoderm. X<>w. howe 1 ntrifugal growth be- 

gins at the posterior i the blastoderm, ami the 

primitive streak gradually take-, up it^ well known 
position at a distance from the edge. 

In opposition to this view Oscar Hertwig, Rabl, and 
others claim that the blastoderm edg< 
the gastrula mouth, bu1 is a peculiarrl rtainme 

blastic ova, and that the blastopore i^ represented i 
clusively by a structure known as the sickle plus the 
primitive streak. This doctrine is based on tin- belief that 
an ingrowth or invagination of cells takes place only in 
the region of the sickle and streak, and not round the 
edge of the blastoderm. In a paper on the develop- 
ment of teleosl fish I have already attempted a criti- 
cism of this view', -and will only add that it is to my 
own mind in direct contradiction with the admirable 
account given by Duval of the formation of the primi- 
tive streak. On the other hand it receives support from 
the discoveries of Kupffer on the reptilian embryo, and 
from Roller's description of the way the streak- 
formed in the bird embryo. 

According to Roller's account 1 , which is adopted by 

2. The Embryology of the Sea Bass. Bulletin U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion. Washing-ton. 1891, pp. 268-271. 

3. Beitrage zur Kenntnissdes Hiihnerkeims in Beginne der Bebru- 
tving. SB. der Konig. Akad. d. Wiss Wien. 1879. — Untersuchungen 
iiber die Blatterbildung in Hiihnerei. Archiv fur Mikros, Anat. 
Bd. XX. 1881. 


Hertwig in his text book, there very early developes a 
sickle-shaped thickening which lies between the area 
pellucida and the area opaca, in the p<> iterior region of 
the blastoderm, A groove, the sickle groove, is pre 
in this thickening, and in the median line there is a short 
anterior projection called the sichel-knopf. T'i prim- 
itive streak is produced by the continuous growth in 
the median line, oi the sichel-knopf^ and is therefi 
an outgrowth of the sickle. kle 

nor the primitive streak is at any time connected with 

the blastoderm edge, the latter structure cannot be 
regarded as a part of the 1>! e, which is repre- 

sented exclusively by the two former structtu 

Tin- contradict .on between Duval's and Roller's 

count concerns a fundamental feature of the pro 
gastrulation, and more (acts on the earl j history of the 

bird blastoderm are much to red. Duval him- 

self, in his criticism of Roller's papers l. c. , state- it 
as his opinion that the sickle is an incon -taut i 

ot no morphological importan .\\i in the same 

category as other local thickenings of the blastoderm. 

1 may mention that I haw- myself looked through \ 
young blastoderms, in which the primitive strea 

from one-halt to two-thirds the length of the a 
pellucida, without discovering in the majority of them 
any trace of the sickle. I am aware that Roller 
describes tlu- sickle as becoming much less conspicuous 
with the continued growth of the streak, but his figures 
of blastoderms 4 corresponding in aye to mine, show an 
evident remnant of the sickle, while I can find no trac*.- 
of such a structure in the majority of mv embr\ 
Roller, it will be remembered, kept h at a 

4. SB.d-Kdnig. Akud.d. Wits IV. ;J . IV.b. V. 


temperature below th normal temperature <»t incuba- 
tion, in order to lessen the rapidity o\ development. A 
certain percentage <>l abnormalities was to nave been 
. -.|m> ted from I be a • oi low the 

normal, and I have satisfied myself thai at 35° various 
kinds of abnormalities do occur. Out of a considerable 
number oi young blastoderms, incubated at 35°, while 
the majority showed no trace of the sickle, in a F< 
cases tin- primitive streak exhibited abnormalities sug- 
gesting more or Less strongly th< Sun 
views of two of these blastoderms are given in Figs. 1 
and 2. In the primitive streak i 2, I could not 
make oul the primitive groove, bul the groove was very 
evident in the sickle at th ► po end of the streak. 
Kupfferand Benecke'give a wood-cut figure of a chick 
blastoderm, quite like my figure 2. e» pt that the 
primitive groove is shown. While they incline to the 
belief that the sickle in such a blasto U rm is of morpho- 
logical importance, they admit that it was only rarely 
that such blastoderms were found. In the blastoderm 
shown in Fig. 1, the groove was conspicuous, both in 
the streak and in the trans tutgrowths of the 
streak. This blastoderm was sectioned longitudinally. 
A median section through the streak is shown in Fig. 
3. The transverse groove is deep: the hypoblast is 
differentiated as a distinct layer: the epiblast and m< 
blast are indistinguishably fused. In Fig. 4 is repre- 
sented a section lying in the plane x-v of Fig 1. In 
this regfion the transverse groove is as deep as in the 
median section, but the three layers are separate. 

My failure to find the sickle in blastoderms where, 
according- to Koller it should be present, and the obser- 

5. Die ersten Entwicklungs vorgang-e am Ei der Reptilien. Kbnigs- 
berg. 1878. p. 11. 




vation of abnormalities resembling 1 in a measure the 

sickle, incline me to accept Duval's view of thi> struc- 
ture, and with him to regard it as an inconstant feature 
of no morphological importam 

Hertwig, in his paper on " Urmundrand Spina bifi- 
da" l' s<, 2 , touches on the question of meroblastic gas- 
trulation, and it would seem that he no longer belies 
in the existence ol Roller's sickle. For in his brie! 
sketch of the manner in which the primitive streak 18 

formed, he follow-, Duval, and represents the streak as 
arising by the coalescence the blastoderm edges. He 
therefore comes to regard the edge of the young bl 

to derm as the blastopore. 

Hertwig does not look on the entire edge of the 
young blastoderm as the blastopore, but for some 
reason unknown to me divides it into a blastoporic part 
and a part designated as the Umwacnsungrsrand, by 

which name he formerly te\t-b<><>\ meant the etc 

blastoderm edge. The edge of the teleost blastoderm 
is likewise divided into blastopore and umwachsun^ 
rami. This division is surprising, for round the entire 
edge of the teleost blastoderm there i> an ingrowth of 

cells, just as there is round the blastopore lip of the 
amphibian embryo. And the existense of such an in- 
growth is undoubtedly a very strong argument for re- 
garding the whole edge as the blastopore* It would 

be interesting to learn tlu- facts that have induced Pro- 
fessor Hertwig to divide the edge of the teleost blasto- 
derm in this manner. 

But if Hertwig has come to regard the edge of the 
blastoderm, or any part of it, as representing the iir- 
mundrand in the bird embryo, it would seem that he 
must have abandoned his former views on erastrulation 


in the Sauropsida, and have ta long step towards 

the position of Balfour and Roub 

I'll \M-.I. I I I 1. 1.. N'dK I II (' \Ki>j.|\ \. 

Explanation of the figures Illustrating Mr. Wilson's pa- 
per on "Primitive Streali and Blastopore "t tin- Bird Em- 
bryo ": 

Pig. l. Surface view of abnormal chick blastoderm. 

Fig. :. ■■ r 16. 

Fig. 3. Median longitudinal section through the primi- 
tive streak of Fig. l. > 

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section through Lii I Fig. l. 

• 90. 

a. anterior. 

p.- posterior. 

ep. epiblasl 

mes. mesoblast. 

hyp. hypoblast. 

l'r. str. primitive streak. 



Iii Vol. VII, II, of this Journal was published a list 
of the Krvsiphea 1 . collected by the writer, from the 
Carolinas and Alabama. During- the following year 
several more species were collected in Alabama by the 
writer and one of his students. The former list was 
accompanied with quite full notes of a descriptive 
character. In the present list only such notes are added 
as seem necessary in addition to the characterizations 
found in descriptive works: 


Sptserotheca castagnei Lev. 

On Erectites hieracifolia, Nov. 5, 91; and Bidens 
frondosa, Nov. 3, 91, B. M. Duggar, collector. 
S. lanestris Hark. 

On Quercua alba, Dec. 91, G. F. A. The conidial 

stage only was found. 
Erisiphe cichoracearutn DC. 

On Helianthus annuns, Oct. 19. 91, B. M. D. Aster 
fcradescantia, Nov. 31; A. drffnsus, Nov. 30; Mikania 
scandens, Oct. 2(>. and Solanum carolinense, Nov. 10, 
91, G. F. A. 
/ . g-alcopsidis DC. 

On Verbena urticifolia, 91, B. M. D. 

/.'. liriodendri Schwein. 

On Liriodendron tulipifera, Oct. 28, 91, B. M. I>. 
Phyllactinia suffulta Reb. Sacc, 

On Cornus florida, Nov. 3; Cornus sp. andtd, Oct. 
Podospara biuncinata C. & 1*. 

On Hamamelis virginiana .. B, M. Ik 

P. oxacantha DC . 

Prunus americanua var. mollis, Oct. 31, ''1, B. M. D; 
Crataegus, Nov. 9, I). 11. Benton. 
Microsphcera semitosta H. & C, 

Tecoma radicans, Oct. 19, 91, G. F. A. This sp 
has heretofore been reported only on Cephalanthus occi- 
dental is. The perithecia arc a little larger than tk 
I have observed on Cephalanthus. measuring (> <» to 115. 
The appendages in well matured >jteeimen^ arc wrv 
.!/. euphorbia B. & C. 

On Euphorbia preslii, Oct. 21, 91, H. M. D. 
J/, ravenelii B. 

On Gleditschia tricanthos, Oct. 13. 91, G. F. A. 

7<» RNAL <»!•• THE 

.1/. vacciniiC. & P. 

On Vaccmium, Oct. L8, 91, B. M. I>. 
M. grossularice Wallr. . 

( >n Sambucus canadensis, Oct. 13, 91,G. F. A. In 
the previous List this occurred as was given as M. van- 
bruntiana < rer. 

The measurements are given in terms of the m 

Hot \ \ u \ i. I >i.i' \ i : i.i. I ' n i 


\\Y (iK<». I\ ATKINSON. 

The species of Septoria enumerated in this list were 
collected during my connection with the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute at Auburn, Ala. The list is not lai . 
perhaps from the fact that no especial effort was made 
to collect the members of the genus. Where no name 
is given ns collector they were collected by myself. 
Where no locality is given Auburn should be under- 
Septoria brunellce K. & H. 

On Prunella vulgaris, July 1<>. 90, Snorters. The 
specific name of this plant was given from a mistaken 
spelling of the <jfenus Prunella which has crept into 
many American botanical works. See Coville, Bot. 
Death Valley Expedition, p. 17<>. 
S. cerastii Rob. et Desm. 

On Cerastium arvense, Mar. 25. ( >1. Perithecia not 
very black, probably because they are not very old. 
The spores are a little stouter than the description calls 
for, and are faintly 1-5 septate. The spores in the 


specimen in Roumg. Funu-. Gall. Bxs. 2485, are also 
faintly 1 5 septate; the perithecia arc wry black but 
agree with the Alabama specimens in being rather an- 
gular in outline. 
S. rubi West. 

On cultivated Rubos, Aug. B, 90. 
S. rubi var alba Peck. 

On Rubus trivialis, Apr. 91, Mobile, Zimmer B 
The leaves are also affected with Cercospora rubi W< 
and Caeoma nitens. 
S. virgaura Desm? 

On Solidago aeratina. There is some doubt about 
the correct determination of this plant. It seems Dear 
this species, but the spores measure .^ n 4<> and are 
faintly 3 5 septate. Perithecia small 50 75. S| 
small, whitish, depressed, dark bordered. 
S. erechtites K. A K. 

On Erechtites hieracifolia, Sept 10,91, B. M. Dugj 
S. Oenothera West. 

( )n Oenothera biennis, 

S. dia lit hi West. 

( >n Dianthus barbatus, 
.s'. specularuB 1 1 

On Specularia perfoliata, Mar 2s, ( >o, 
S. jussia << K. & K. 

OnJusstaea leptocarpa, July 24. 91, Duggarand New- 
S. sambucina Pk. 

On Sambucus canadensis, Aug 24. 91, H. M. D. 
S, sonchina Thiim. 

On Sonchus oleraceus, Feb. 25. 91, B. M. 1» ' 
S viola West. 

Viola primulsfolia, Julv 1(>. 90, Shorters. 

78 RNAL OF 1 

.s. xanthii Desm. 

( )n Xanthium, July 11. 90, Dniontown. 
S. graminum I tesm. 

Ob Panicum sanguinale, Aug. 19, 91, B. M. I). S 
brown, elongate, irregular or involving the larger part 
of the terminal portion of theleaf. Perithecia amphi- 
genous, more abundantly epiphyllous black, frequently 
depressed whendry, 80 ,,( >. Spores hyalines, slender, 
larger at base, soon tapering into a long, • nder, 

strongly curved flagellum, 2 L< Very young 

are narrowly obclavate with the smaller end little 
curved and 1 2 septate, 1 \\ in diameter al 
30 70 long. 
S, alabamensis n. ->p. 

OnNepetaglechoma, Jan. 2 ( >. and Feb. 27. 91, Spot-, 
indefinite, occupying irregular portions of tin- leafc 
Perithecia > s, » (>< >. Spores 2<> 30 i 1 or less, some- 
times faintly 1 3 septate, staighl or slightly curv 

The measurements an- given in terms of the micro- 

Botanical Department, Cornell I'mvkksitv. 



In making out the list of fun«a from Blowing Rock, 
which was published in Part 2. Vol. IX, of this Journal, 
two species were overlooked. They are as follows: 
Cordyceps acicularis Raw 

On larva of elaterid beetle. 
C)iomo)iiclIa coryli (Batsch. ; Sacc. 
On leaves of Corylus. 

Geo. F. Atkinson. 



BY J'. P. \'i 

A chloride of zirconium of definite composition would 
prove a valuable compound for determining 1 the atomic 
weight of the element. ' are several difficult 
in the way of securing such a result: 

1. The tendency to form basic chlorides. 

2. The ease with which hydrochloric acid is lost 
through the action of heat and of dehydrating a 

3. The presence <>{' free hydrochloric acid. 

4. The deliquescent nature <>t the chlorides. 

It is particularly desirable that the conditions under 
which a definite chloride can be formed should be dis- 

•red, as zirconium seems to yield no very satisi 
tore compounds lor the determination of the atomic 
weight. There have been many efforts at finding out 
these exact conditions. 

Most text-books state that anhydrous, pure zirco- 
nium tetra-chloridecan be prepared bj passing dry chlo- 
rine over a mixture of charcoal and zirconia heated ' 
high temperature. Hermann used this sublimed zirco- 
nium chloride for the determination of the atomic 
weight. As Clarke says, however, little confidence 
can be placed in his results. ! I hat 

even with great catv to avoid the presence of moisture, 
he was unable to prevent the formation of o.xych! 
He also says that in no case was it found possible to 
prepare the chloride free from iron and silica. The 

*Chem. New*. LX.. 17. 


necessity for the presence of these in the materials 
used or in the resulting compound is not very apparent. 
I haveasyel had no opportunity of repeating 1 his experi- 

The chlorides most commonly worked with have been 
those formed by the solution ol the hydroxide in hydro- 
chloric acid, followed by precipitation or crystallization 
from concentrated hydrochloric acid. 

Berzelius attempted to remove the excess oi hydro- 
chloric acid by beating the sail to 60° C, bul was not 
able to obtain a definite compound. Two anah 

Zr(). 0.332 0.4* 

AgCl 0.661 1.076 

Tlu- silwr chloride should be about two and one- 
third tinit's as much a> the oxide. 

Paykull dried the salt between filter paper and found 
the composition oi the crystals to be ZrOClj. 8H 
the amorphous form precipitated by hydrochloric acid 
being 2ZrOCl* I3H O. 

Kudemann has described basic or oxychlorides 
Zr,()Cl 4 ; ZrOClOH, and Zr*0 8 Cl 7 (OHj 9 ; Troost and 
ELutefeuille have described others, ZnCbCb and 7^r z - 
OC1,,. In fact water is so easily taken up and hydro- 
chloric acid lost that a large number of such indefinite 
compounds might be prepared by slightly varying the 

Nylander* made a series of attempts at dehydratin^- 
the chloride. He prepared the chloride by dissolving 
the hydroxide in hydrochloric acid and evaporating to 
crystallization. The salt formed white needles, easily 

e Bidrag till kannedomen om Zirkonjord. Inaug. Diss. Lund 1864. 


soluble in water. They were washed with alcohol and 
for analyses I. and II. were pressed between filter 
paper. III. and IV. were dried over sulphuric acid. 
The results were as follows: 










Loss 1 1 < » 





or calculated on a dry basis: 









1 1 , ~ 



Again preparations were made as before. I. was 
dried between alter paper, II. over sulphuric acid, III. 

was pressed between filter paper and then dried over 

sulphuric acid, IV. was dried a long time over sulphuric 
acid. The analyses gave the Following: 















or calculated on a dry basis: 

Zr 56.93 57.23 59.34 14 

CI 43.07 42.77 40.66 


Lastly he allowed a solution of the chloride to evapo- 
rate over sulphuric acid, washed the crystals obtained 
with alcohol and pressed them between filter paper. 
Analyses erave: 














or, calcula ted i m a <lr\ ba&is: 




I'). 44 


4 , ».'»(, 



The above results show thai his prepai 
indefinite oxychlorides <>r mixtures, in varying 1 propor- 
tions of zirconium tetrachloride and oxychloride. 

Bailey repeatedly crystallized the chloride from hy- 
drochloric acid, washed it with bydrochlori* and 
then removed the free acid. 

1. By washing with a mixture- of one part alcohol and 
ten parts <>i ether. 

2. \'>\ gently heating the salt. 

3. I>\ exposing the finely divided salt at ordinary 
temperatures in a vacuous dessicator over potash, until 
no hydrochloric acid appeared when air passed over it. 

The analysis was performed by dissolving the salt in 
water and precipitating the zirconia with ammonia, 
then acidulating with nitric acid and precipitating the 
chlorine by means of silver nitrate. By method 2 a 
constant and progressive diminution of chlorine was 
observed. Therefore no analyses were made. For the 
other methods he gives the results of the analyses by a 
statement of the ratio of ZrO : to AgCl: 

Ber/.eliu's determination 1 

Bailev's method 1: 1 




Method 2: . 1 

Method 2 without washing: 1 



ZrOCl, 1 






Those preparations are evidently mixtures also. 

Hermann- states that the hydrated chlori. en in 

crystals on evaporating its aqueous solution, becomes 
opaque at 50° C, giving off part of the water ami half 
of the hydrochloric acid, ami leaving 1 a basic chloride 
or oxychloride, ZrCU-ZrOj. Isll.o',,,- ZrOCl a .9B 
The same compound is obtained in stellate groups 
white silky prisms on evaporating a solution of the 
chloride, These crystals, when heated, become white 
and turbid and are converted into the anhydrous dioi 
chloride ZrCl 4 .2Z. 

The conditions here arc in. id though Hermann 

may have obtained these compounds, he would find it 
difficult i<> prepare them again. While it is perfectly 

true that an oxychloride is Formed OH the evaporal 
of an aqueous solution of the chloride. I have been 
unable to obtain the compounds he mentions. Linne- 
mann 1 maintains that crystallization from hvhrochloric 
i sp. gr. 1.17 and treatment with alcohol and 
ether i^'ives a line, crystalline, snow white, silky DO 
leaving 50 per cent, of its weight on ignition, and there- 
fore very nearly pure ZrCU which should leave 52.5 • 
cent. He claims that this is ''chiefly a neutral, not a 
basic compound.* 1 

My own experiments on the dehydration of this 
have extended owr the past two years, as opportunity 
was afforded. Several series of experiments were un- 
dertaken; some along the lines attempted by others, and 
others by methods not tried before. In all the purified 
chloride, obtained by repeated crystallisation from hy- 
drochloric acid was used, the salt being still wet with 

tts Diet. V. p. 
ICheni. News. LII. 224. 


the excess of the acid. There was no attempt .it dry- 
ing this between filter paper. The method of prepar- 
ing this salt has been fully described in a previous pa- 
per in tin- Journal of Analytical and Applied Chemis- 
try, 5, 551. 

In the firsl experiment this chloride was washed once 
with water and then put in a dessicator and dried o 
calcium chloride porous dessicated , It remained in 
the dessicator aboul seven months. Even after this 
lapse <»!' time it still continued to --how a slight loss in 
weight. It yielded, on analysis, 48.84 percent. '/<• 

Another portion was placed in a jar over solid lumps 
of sodium hydroxide. Aiter six weeks the loss was 
very slight. Careful ignition left a residue oi '/. 
equivalent to 42.99 per cent, of tin- original weight. 
There was found to be 24.44 per cent, of chlorine 

Again a portion was placed over calcium chloride and 

dry air was drawn over it at the rate of about fifty 
litres in the twenty-lour hours for six months. After 
the first two months it was examined weekly by the 
interposition of a flask containing silver nitrat. 
whether hydrochloric acid was still coming off. Even 
after the lapse of so lon<^ a time as this it was found 
that the loss of hydrochloric acid continued, although 
it was slight. On analysis this gave ZrOj 42.28 per 
cent, and CI. 24.35. Although the results in this, and 
the experiments immediately preceding, correspond fair- 
ly well they are unsatisfactory, as they point either to a 
mixture of chlorides or an oxychloride of very compli- 
cated formula, and hence unsuited for the ultimate aim 
of the research. 

Lastly a portion was placed over concentrated sul- 
phuric acid and the atmosphere above it exhausted occa- 


sionally. This was kt-])t u]> during two months of sum- 
mer weather. The loss in the last fifteen days was 
about .02 per cent, of the whole. The mass was pow- 
dery, with a slightly discolored crust. It was all sol- 
uble in water, however, and yielded a clear colorless 
solution. It contained 53.30 per cent of Zr< )_.. This 
corres]x>nds very nearly to the formula ZrCU and i> 
altogether at variance with the results obtained by Xv- 
lander and with the assertion made by Hermann, that 
half of the hydrochloric acid was lo>t over sulphuric 

This last experiment showed the possibility of secu- 
ring' pure zirconium chloride, provided the excess of hy- 
drochloric acid could he removed. It was thought that 

this might l>e done by heating in an atmosphere of hy- 
drochloric acid. A weighed flask was so arranged that 
it could be kept at a definite temperature while a stream 
of dry hydrogen chloride was passing through it. The 
temperature ranged from loo° to llo° C and the chlo- 
ride placed in the flask melted, solidifying again after 
the loss of the water and excess of hydrochloric acid. 
It the drying was done slowly enough fine crystals of 

'zirconium chloride were gotten which lo^t no further 

weight on being kept at 1«»<>° C, A more rapid drying 
left a hard white mass which was quite hygroscopic. 
Seating this mass for several days did not cause any 

diminution in weight, provided the flask was kept full 
of hydrogen chloride. If the mass was heated even a 
short time in the absence of hydrogen chloride then 
further heating caused a continuous losso( weight even 
in the presence of a rapid stream of hydrogen chloride. 
After this it was impossible to secure a constant 
This method of drying has been tried repeatedly on 

86 rorjRNAC of the 

various preparations, and I regard them as'sbowin^ con- 
clusively that a neutral chloride <»f Birconium van be 
prepared .'in<l dried. 

Ajialyses of this chloride gave the following percent- 
ages <»t Zr( ) z : 

52.7(1 52.' 1.63 

Experiments have already been begun witha view <»f 
utilising this body in a aeries of experiments looking t<> 
a revision of the atomic weight of zirconium. 

In connection with this subject it m;i\ be well to 
mention some improvements in tin- method <>l purifying 
zirconium chloride. See Journal of Analytical and 
Af>p/ici/ Chemistry, 5, 551 . 

Inthr first place the separation from silica by evapora- 
tion to dryness i-> not complete. It is impossible to b 
this chloride t<> the necessary temperature without such 
a decomposition as will render tin- /.irconium chloride 
also insoluble. It is best then to make this preparation 
as thorough as possible by heating, then to change the 
chloride into oxide by ignition, and to treat this several 
times with hydrofluoric acid until the trace of silica is 
all driven off. This silica is too small in amount to 
interfere with ordinary uses hut would have to he re- 
moved where perfect purity was demanded. 

Again, where the hydroxide is dissolved in dilute hv- 
drochloric acid, or contained so much water that the 
acid was greatly diluted by it, it will be found that 
more or less of a white insoluble powder will form on 
evaporation as recommended on a water-bath and on 
subsequent treatment with boiling strong hydrochloric 
acid. By a careful arrangement of glass wool in a 
hot water funnel the dissolved chloride can be filtered 


away from this soluble ma>s. It scorns to be quite in- 
soluble in hydrochloric acid though easily dissolved l>y 
water. Analysis shows that this mass is ZrOCla and 
with it was found as an impurity whatever silica the 
separation by beating tailed to remov< 

Lastly, my assistant, Dr. Baskerville. ha> shown 
that much time and hydrochloric acid will he saved if 
in the solution containing much iron the zirconium hy- 
droxide be first precipitated out by means ol sulphur 
dioxide. This precipitate can then be dissolved in acid 

and purified by crystallization as already recommended. 

Of course it need scarcely be mentioned that it silica 
has been removed by ignition and treatment with hydro- 
fluoric acid, it will be necessary to fa more with 

caustic alkali and repeat the ordinary purification. 

I'MVI-.WSITY <>}- NfOKTH ' \h 'I. 



Glucosides are substances ocurring in nature in plants 

and are supposed to be ethereal derivatives <»t the 
glucoses. Under the action of dilute acids or ferments 
they break up into glucose and other bodies. A num- 
ber of these ethereal derivatives of glucose can be pre- 
pared synthetically in the laboratory. 

A. Michael' obtained them by the action of alcoholic 
solution of acetochlorhydrose upon the alkali salts of 

1. Compt. rend. s i ». 355. 


The Formation of Helicin according to the Allowing 
equation would be an example of this method: CII. 

C1Q C II <) , • CtH <>K ■ u- H G H .<> KC1 I 
4C«HgCaB I I 

Knnl Fischer 1 has recently discovered i new method 
ol Forming these derivatives, and has prepared com- 
pounds of methyl, ethyl, propyl, amyl, isopropyl, 
ally! and benzoyl glucose. Also analogous compounds 
of arabinose, methyl-arabinoside. 

These do not reduce Fehling's solution; the; break 
up into glucose and the corresponding alcohol on treat- 
ment with dilute acids or ferments, and behave in 
ever; way similarly to the- natural glucosides. 

I proposed to form them by the action of alkyl 
iodide u\»m the solium glucosate according to tin- fol- 
lowing equation: 

C„H n Na() ( , + C 2 H 5 I - C ( ,H n O ( ,C 2 H 5 + NaL 

For this experiment, the ethyl glucoside was chosen, 
as the materials for its preparation were already on 
hand, and because in all probability the method, would 
work as well for this one as any other member of the 

The insolubility of sodium glucosate in all neutral 
anhydrous mediums on hand, was recognized at the 
outset of this work to be a great obstacle in the way 
of the successful operation of the method. 

As a preliminary test, 15 grs. of anhydrous glu- 
cose was taken and gently boiled for some time 
with 150 c. c. of about 97 per cent, alcohol. This so- 
lution, when saturated, was poured off into a larg-e flask 
in which the precipitation was to be made, and kept 
warm by standing in a water bath, in order to prevent 
the glucose from crystallizing". 

2. Ber. 26, 2400. 


Another portion of 150 c. c. of alcohol was poured 

upon the residue and gently boiled as before. When 
the hot alcohol seemed no longer to have any solvent 
action upon the residue, it was carefully decanted off 
into the precipitating 1 Bask. 

About half the amount of glucose taken went in solu- 
tion by this treatment. 

The alcoholic solution was then precipitated with an 
excess of sodium alcoholate, and allowed t<» stand over 

night. An amount of ethyl iodide equivalent to the 

sodium alcoholate used was then added direct to the 

alcoholic solution containing the suspended precipitate 
of sodium glucosate. The mixture was now gradually 
warmed up on a water bath, with a reflux condenser 
attached to prevent loss ot ethyl iodide. 

At about 75° C, the mixture began to deposit a red- 
dish brown substance upon the bottom of the flask, and 
the solution to change to yellow color. At aboul 
the mixture boiled, and the deposition on the bottom of 
the flask was more rapid, it being complete in about 
twenty minutes, leaving a dark brown supernatant 
liquid. A portion of the liquid was taken out ami 
allowed to stand tor some time over freshly ignited 
potassium carbonate, but no absorption of iodine was 

This, and the remaining portion in the flask, was 
then filtered through animal charcoal. A liquid of 
a pale brown color was obtained, which reduced Feh- 
lin«r's solution. 

It was not thought that the change would be com- 
plete, so it was impossible to tell by this means whether 
or not the glucoside had been formed. It was then 
evaporated in a water bath to a syrupy consistence, and 
the syrup extracted several times with acetic ether. 


The acetic ether extract was i ited in adessicator 

over sulphuric acid. 

r>\ tlii — » means beautiful crystals were obtained, how- 
ever, colored somewhat by the brownish syrup. 

These crystals were tested by the flame tesl for 
sodium, and starch paste for iodine. They were clearly 
shown to be Bodium iodide 

The glucose used in thi-> experimenl was thought to 
be impure, and besides it was probable that another 
test, under somewhat different conditions* would gfive 
more satisfactory results. 

In hi^ work on glucosides, Fischer* dissolves the g'lu- 
cose in ;i little water, and besides, water is formed in 
the rraction which he made use <>t. hence I concluded 
that it was not absolutely essential tor the materials 
used to be water free. I accordingly started another 
experiment, using pure anhydrous glucose 4 of my own 
preparation dissolved in a little water. 

Fifteen grams of glucose was dissolved in 5 c. c. of 
hot water and the solution added to 300 c. c. of 98 per 
cent, alcohol. This solution was precipitated by an 
equivalent amount of sodium alcoholate. The preeipn 
was rapidly filtered off by means of apump, exposed to 
air as little as possible, washed with ( KS per cent alcohol 
and transferred to the precipitating Bask. 

The precipitate was now suspended in 300 c. 
per cent alcohol and an amount of ethyl iodide added 
equivalent to the sodium ethvlate. The mixture was 
now carefullv heated up on a water-bath, with frequent 
shaking - . 

3 Ber. 26, 2400. 

4. Made by the method of Soxhlet J. pr. ch. 21. 245. as given in 
Eniil Fischer's book on Organic Preparations, and purified by recrys- 
tallization from strong alcohol. 


It was noticed that the change began [to take place 
a-> before, at about 70° C, by the brownish deposit 
at the bottom and sides of the flask, as the flask wras this 
time immersed in hot water, taking care that the 
mixture should not come to boiling. 

The greater portion collected on the bottom as a dark 
brown semi-syrup at that temperature, and the super- 
natant liquid was straw colored. 

Tin- change was complete on heating for 30 minutes 
just below the boiling point of the mixture. The liquid 

in the flask HOW had a strong smell of ethyl iodide, and 

reduced ETehling'a solution. 

About hall was poured into a smaller Bask provided 
with a reflux condenser and gently boiled in a water 

bath lor three hours. At the end of this time the 
smell of the ethyl iodide did not seem to have dimin- 
ished, and it still reduced Fehling's solution. 

It was then evaporated on a water bath to a syrupy 
consistency, and the syrup extracted with a mixture of 
equal parts alcohol and ether, ben/.en. petroleum ether 
and acetic ether. No crystal of sodium iodide could be 
obtained, and only a thick syrup which powerfully re- 
duced Fehling's solution. 

The other portion of the liquid was then transferred 

to a distilling flask and fractioned. A few c. c. came 

over between 74° and 78° C. and was mainlv C_H< HI. 
Most of the alcohol comes over between 78° and 82° ( 
leaving a dark brown syrup behind in the flask. The 
dark brown substance obtained as a deposit in the ope- 
ration was set aside for examination. Meanwhile an- 
other experiment was started, varying the conditions 

Fifteen grams of anhydrous glucose was dissolved 
in 400 c. C, boiling absolute alcohol. The solution 


cooled somewhat, and an equivalent amount of sodium 
ethy late added, and rapidly cooled to the name tempera- 
ture. The precipitate wan filtered off by means of pump 
and washed with absolute alcohol, avoiding all exposure 

to the air possible. It was thm transferred to the pre- 
cipitating nask and an equiralenl amount of ethyl iodide 

The mixture in the flask provided with a reflux coo- 
denser, was gradually wanned up to boiling. The 
changes first noted wen' the formation of a dark brown 

deposit on the bottom of the llask at about 70° (J., a 
coloring <>t the liquid, and at the same time a diminu- 
tion of the precipitate. Finally, at the boiling jM»int 

of the mixture, the precipitate appeared to become 
sticky, and to collect into one mass, instead of being 

tlocculent. and to gradually get smaller and smaller, 
both going into solution and coloring it a dark brown 

and melting down to a scmi-svrup on tin- bottom of the 


The, time, in this test, for the change was one hour; 
much longer than in the former experiments. Tin- 
liquid in the flask was divided into two portions, one of 
which was boiled in a flask with a reflux condenser for 
several hours, and no change was observed. 

It reduced Fehlin<f's solution and had a strong smell 
of ethyl iodide. The portions were now combined and 
submitted to fractional distillation. 

About half of the amount of ethyl iodide used was 
recovered in the fraction coming over between 74° and 
78° C. 

The alcoholic fraction emitted still a strong- smell of the 
iodide. Hence it seemed that the ethyl iodide had 
played no part in the chang-e underg-one b}' the sodium 
g-lucosate. The residue left in the flask from the experi- 


ment was treated with benzen, ether, p troleum ether and 
chloroform, but none of these had any appreciable sol- 
vent action. It was then dissolved in water, a port 
of the solution evaporated to dryness in a platinum 
dish, dried to constant weight, and then ignited at a 
low red luat. 

Weight of dish and substance, - - 24.9115 gr. 
Weight of dish. ------- 2 

Weight of substance taken, - - 1.0383 

Weight of ash and dish. - - 24.127' 

Weight of dish. - - . 23.8732 

Weight .»f ash. ... - 2644 

To ash. 34.50 per cent. 

This was recognized as sodium carbonate, and is 
equivalent to 10.63 per cent sodium. 

The percentage of sodium calculated for sodium glu- 
conate is 11.37 per cent.; found in this syrup 10.63 per 
cent. Hence it must be a modification of glucosate. 

In conclusion it is hardly necessary to saj that the 
negative results of the above experiments do not prove 
the impractibility of the reaction proposed. It remains. 
however, to find some neutral anhydrous medium in 
which sodium glucosate is soluble ami by which it is 
not decomposed, as in most chemical reactions of this 
character the reacting bodies must be either liquid or 
in solution. 




The peculiar forma of the topographic outliers of 
the Blue Ridge, extending across North Carolina from 
King's Mountain on the south to Pilot Mountain on the 
north, attracted my attention when a boy, and in May, 
1892, I visited the region and began a study of the 
King's Mountain district under the direction of Pro: 
Mir N. S. Shaler. The entire summer was spenl on 
the Held, as wall as the larger portion of th»- follow- 
ing summer and two ..! my winter vacations. 

The precipitous faces of the mountains, lying at two 
well-marked levels, suggested to me wave action, and 
I began my work upon tin- hypothesis that these out- 
liers had hem islands in a sea of no great depth, at a 
date comparatively late, when the age of the roeks com- 
posing the mountains i> taken into consideration. The 
accompanying geological section, from what was form- 
erly known as Bird's Quarry, in the present village of 
King's Mountain, westward across the mountain, I have 
adapted from Lieber, putting in the quartzite which 
forms the crest of the mountain, lying above Lieber*s 
" mica slate." The order of succession of these rocks 
is, beginning with the newest, limestone, talc-schist, a 
white sandstone passing into a slightly flexible variety, 
micaceous shale, diorite-schist. talc-schist, quartzite, 
and micaceous shale, the last resting on a granitic 
rock which outcrops on Crowder's creek at the eastern 
foot of the mountain. 



[There la ■ marked unconformity b et we en the limestone* end the 

schists n«it shown in [*ieb*r'a lection.] 


King's Mountain, Crowder's Mountain, ami the hills 
to the north on the old Lincolnton road, arc the western 
members of a southward plunging syncline while the 
hills to the east of High Shoals, Dallas and Gastonia, 
are the eastern members, the same hard crest making 
the crest of them all. On the eastern side of the 
syneline the dip t<> the wrest is not great, avera^in^- not 
more than iil teen degrees; while the eastward dip on 

tin King's Mountain side is usually between thirty 
degrees ami forty-live degrees. Th< rn hills are 

low, rising wry little above the surrounding COUntl 

which varies little from nine hundred feet above title, 
and they show none of the topographic feature- 

prominent on the western side, where King's Mountain 
rises to a height of L692 feet, and Crowder's Mountain 
1<>0<> feet. The level of nine hundred b | base- 

level of erosion, clearly marked, and extending entirely 
across the State, from north to south, and just at» 
" the fall-line " to the base of the Blue Ridge moun- 

The evidences of wave action upon and at the base 

of these cliffs is clear and unmistakable. They con- 
sist of sea-caves, pinnacled rocks many of the Devil's 
Pulpit type washed-out dykes, crevices of the spout- 
ing horn sort, below which may even yet be made out 
the old beaches which lay below the cliffs. These 
wave-markings are shown in the photographs of va- 
rious portions of King's and Crowder's mountains. 
These features are nearly all on the west side, the side 
away from the dip. The best marked of these old 
sea-benches varies little from 14<M» feet above sea-level. 
The next one that can be made out distinctly at all 
points is about 10<>»» feet above sea. 

I then made a search for the fragmental material that 


bad accumulated during tin- island existence of tin 
mountains. There ia a good talus all around, rather 
more on the eastern side, where it is shingly, than 
the west. A search for the stratified deposits imme- 
diately around the mountains was not at first so suc- 
cessful; but in the -nt of tin- Charleston, Cincinnati 
and Chicago railroad, at Blacksburg, S. C, jus1 bach 
ol the Cherokee Inn. is a ver) good exposure showing 
two oi- three tret of quartzite pebbles ! with 

about the same thickness of mottled clay closely resem- 
bling the Miocene clays oi eastern North Carolina. 
Later. I found the same strata of <|uart/.itr pebbles 
and clays in the old cutting a1 the Catawba Gold Mine, 
about one mile from tin- mountain, and also pebbles, 
clays and regular stratified sands in a basin like region 
on the road from All Healing Springs to Gastonia, two 
mik-s southwest from Gastonia. The general absence 
of these deposits, however, is to be explained by their 
Looseness, and the ease with which they could be washed 
away by the currents. The taluses have in ever;, case, 
1 think, been formed since the sea departed from the 
region, as the materials composing them are angular 
fragments, and never the round pebbles to he found in 
the deposits mentioned above. Not only have the de- 
posits of this time been largely washed away, but the 
older crystallines, which are here decayed to great 
depths, have yielded readily to the rains wherever the 
land has been deforested. The accompanying photo- 
graph, taken on the Gastonia road two and a half miles 
from All Healing- Spring, shows a tfully twenty to 
thirty feet deep made by the rains since the Civil War 
when the field was abandoned. It may be noted that 
the trees which have come upon the field since its 


abandonment are none of them more than thirty years 
old, as shown by their rings of annual growth. 

I could find in the King's Mountain region no means 
of determining the approximate age <>t" these deposits, 
but when I extend my observations across the State 
to the Dan River and Pilot Mountain regions, I found 
there the same pebbles of quartz and quartzite resting 
unconformable upon the brown sandstones of the New- 
ark system, while above the pebble-beds, and con- 
formable with them, were the same mottled clays that 
I had found in the King's mountain region. This 
established their date as certainly post-Triassic, and I 
should have been inclined to call them Cretaceous, had 
not an examination of the border of the Cretaceous in 

Harnett, Cumberland and Moore counties, convinced 

me by the coarseness of the materials there that there 
was the western border of the Cretaceous, and that 
the beds of that age could not have extended as far 
westward as the region under consideration. It led me 
to the belief, however, that the base-levelling of the 
piedmont region must have been accomplished while 
the shore-line lav near the present western border of 
the Cretaceous rocks, or in Cretaceous time. And, 
while I am as yet unable to determine the exact age of 
these deposits, 1 have at least found out that the pecu- 
liar shaping of these topographic outliers was the 
work of waves, and that it was accomplished in jntst- 
Cretaceous time. 



• < >LLIK1 I « >BB. 

( )n the 15th of May I happened upon an interesting 
thing which throws some light on the alleged power o( 
snakes to charm birds A few days before t hi^, ;i snake, 
a garter, Eutceuia . about the site ol a man*s anger and 
little over eighteen inches in length, had been killed in 
the walk leading from the New East Building to the 
eastern side of the Univei tnpus, al Chapel Hill. 

The head of the snake had been pushed into the b< 
made by the end of the cane with which it was killed, 
and the snake was in thi-> position with its head pressed 
down in the hole, when I came upon it, surrounded by 
seven quails Oriyx virgfiniand). The quails w 
gazing upon the snake, very much as "charmed *' 
chickens will gaze upon the chalk line or tin- crack in 
barn floor, taking no notice whatever of my presence 
until I lifted the snake up with a stick. They remained 
in the position in which I found them long enough for 
a boy to run from the Episcopal church to the walk, 
which must have taken two or three minutes. Th':^ 
observation is valuable as showing that, in this instance 
at least, the "charming" is in the bird itself, and is 
not a power possessed by the snake. 



or THE 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 


|.\\i :ak'\ -jui.v 

IMi » '. 


CHAPEL nil. I.. N. C. 

CHAPEL Mil. I.. N. C. 




The Lontf Leaf Pine and its Struggle f'-r Kxi-t.-n. <•. \V. W. 

Ashe 1 

Nitrification. J. R. Harris If. 

The Exhaustion of the Coal Supply. V . P. Venable 25 

Sulphur from Pyrite in Nature's Laboratory. Collier Cobb. . 30 



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 


I1Y \V. \V. ASHE. 

As a country increases in population the relative 
of its woodland and Forests, From which both timber and 
a large part of its fuel must be drawn, deer n like 

or even greater propor t ion. The cut and propagation 
of timber trees en mmttt beco me s a feature oi 

nomic administration; and in all cases the inauguration 
of the policy of forest cultivation has emanated from 
the government. The cause of this dependence on the 
government lor the initiation is patent. Although indi- 
viduals may see, as forest materials become scarcer, 

that some definite plan, in regard to forest mai 

meat, should be followed, they arc. as a body, unable 
to put on foot a general line of action which will in any 

measure tend to increase the supply. 

This inaction of individuals is due to two causes: (1) 

A disregard for tin- future, since the benefit of any re- 
form, or at least the realization of increased income 
from any reform which may be made in the manage- 
ment of forests will be derived only after manv years: 

broadly speaking will be of advantage only after the 


passing of ;i generation. For t h i > same reason then 
an increasing' tendency to cui all marketable tr© 
even of the smallest ^i/.r, thai returns tnaj l>» had at 

(2) Even when some desire is evinced i<> so care for 
woodland that the return therefrom ma) be regular and 
the condition of the \voo<ll,in<l ma\ not deteriorate, either 
in reaped to average size or choice oi trees, there is 
greal ignorance shown of all requirements for tree 
growth and oi the action demanded to secure desired 

The larger and more thickly settled European • 
ernments, recognising these facts, have many years 
ago undertaken to place all their own forest lands un- 
der systematic management and at the same time sup- 
ply, by means of their schools of forestry, the knowl- 
edge of these methods to private land-holders <«r to 
trained officers who may serve them. In manyoi tli 
schools series oi experiments, analogous to those made 
upon grains, etc., in the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tions of the United States, have been carried on upon for- 
est trees, todetermine the conditions of light, soil, moist- 
ure and density of tree growth which they reqn 
for their best development, and the age they should be 
allowed to reach before cutting, the diseases, fungous 
and other, to which they are subject, their destructive 
insects, and the trees, naturally and those mo 4 advan- 
tageously, associated together in fore- 

What has been done by these governments for their 
forests will have to be repeated in modified forms by 
the federal and various state governments for their re- 
spective forests as soon as the great bodies of standing 
timber which have required the uninterrupted efforts 
of centuries to accumulate, are destroyed or thinned 


out. Conditions will be presented analogous to those 
experienced in Europe and these must be treated along 
tlie same lines and finally resolved by the application ol 

similar methods and by considering 1 the general ef& 

upon our trees of their environments, the soils, atmos- 
pheric changes and the various forms oi plant and ani- 
mal life. It will be understood from this how neces- 
sary it is that the pathological characteristics ol ti 
worthy oi extensive culture for their timber, should be 

As \ct we art in the dark about the demands ol even 
our more common trees. As a people it has scarcely 
become known to us that our forests are exhaiistable, 

much Less thai there are large waste areas, now entirely 

unproductive oi commercial timbers and that these 
areas less than li 1 : k ago were wooded, in some 

instances heavih wooded, with valuable trees. Th< 
are such tracts oi waste land in North Carolina in what 
known as the "pine barrens*' ol the eastern coun- 
ties. In the course of an examination oi the timber 
lauds oi eastern North Carolina undertaken last y< 
1893 i>\ the North Carolina Geological Survey some 

inquiry and research was made into the extent ol t!i 
waste areas ami a more extended discussion oi the re- 
sults of this examination will be found in Bulletin 3, ol 
the North Carolina Geological Survey, now being pub- 
lished. These areas were found to include considerably 

over 4lH>,0(>0 acres and to be increasing so rapidly that 
the causes leading to them were Bought i<»r. This en- 
tailed an analysis oi the life histor y oi" the lonj^- 
leal pine and of the other pines with which, in this 
region of North Carolina, it is most intimately associated. 
While these observations are by no means either ex- 
haustive, or even lull, they will show in a general v. 

4 Inl'KXAl, OF THE 

wiih what difficulties ;i tree Has t<> struggle, under the 
changed condition of civilization, in order to grow up 
and reach maturity. They also show the pressing 
seed for a more efficient, or at leasl common tense, 
method <>t dealing with our foresl lands il there are in 
the future t<» be any forests. 

A brief statement <>f the facts noted in regard to 

pine lands, summarized from the same bulletin, 

will serve to show the deplorable condition <>t these 

lands at the present time and how they were when 

covered with virgin forests. 

There are four nines found in th< on oi 

North Carolina. Only two of these are, ho geu- 

erally enough distributed to be of economic importance. 
These are Ptous patustris (Miller) the long leaf pine 

and FHnus tarda 'Linnc, the loblolly pine, called in 
eastern North Carolina short leal or old field pine. 
The loblolly pine has numerous close allies in eastern 

America and Kurope, though it is a very distinct tree 
from any of these. Ik gr o w t h in the virgin fori 
confined to the wet margins of the swamps, to "ham- 
mocks" in the swamps and to the moister lands with 
sand or loamy soils, even when sometimes immersed. 

The long leaf pine has in North Carolina reached 
the farthest northerly extension of any pine in its sub- 
section of the genus Pinus. Taking the sum of like 
morphological characters as expressing the greatest 
relationship and starting with the white pines, which 
are the most northerly distributed pines of America, it 
will be found that the sub-section of the g-enus Pinus, 
to which the long - leaf pine belongs, is farthest from 
the white pines, i. c, has fewer like characters in com- 
mon, and at the same time has the most southerly ex- 
tension of any pines of America. The congenitor of 


the lon<r leaf pine is the Cuban pine, Pinus ctibensh 
(Goert) which is found in Florida, Georgia, and the 
West Indies, while other nearly allied species are found 
in Mexico and the tropics. 

Byrd, Lawson,* and the other early historians and 
eulo<rizers of eastern North Carolina unanimously as- 
sert that the long leaf pine extended over all the higher 
■audy land from Nansemond county, Virginia, south- 
ward. It was abundant in Hertford, lYniuimans and 
Gates counties, where a tree of thi-. species is rarely 
ever seen now, ;md through Bertie county which was 
then called the 'i'ine Forest" ami which is n«»w c«»v- 
ered with a heavy growth of loblolly pine. Long hat 
pines must have been common in the Pamlico peninsu- 
lar as tar kiln mounds, now Covered with larj^e trees 
of other species, are frequently Men as one rides along 
the road. Within the last fifty years the upland for- 
ests of Wilson, EtfdgeOOfllbe and the northern section oi 
Wayne counties were composed almost entirely oi long 
leaf pine, while at the present time the loblolly pine 
has gotten possession of this land wherever the soil 
was sufficiently moist to support the growth. South 
of the Neusc river over the rolling dry sandy soil of the 
"pine barrens" the long leaf pine held undisputed BSS- 
session. These lands are two poor and dry for the 
loblolly pine to grow Upon until the soil has been cul- 
tivated and fertilized. The only tree which disputed 
the control of these lands, with the long leaf pine, wa- 
a small oak, the sand black jack oak, J^WtTCUS catc*- 
bcei (Miduc) which is worthless tor all timber purposes. 
As the Long leaf pine after having been worked for tur- 
pentine was burnt off of these tracts or was cut for 

• Byrd writlag in LTV, Law-sun in l~oi. 


lumber, the only tree which replaces \i was this sand 
black jack oak. 

These waste tracts, either naked 01 covered with the 
sand black jack oak, lie south oi theNeuse river and 
to !»*• found in count) from New Hanover \\< 

ward t<> Richmond and M with a viem 

ascertain the feasibility oi restocking thesi lands with ;i 
valuable tree~and preventing the enlargement oi tfa 
waste acres thai this examination was made of the 
habits, characteristics and relative adaptability 
isting conditions, both natural and artificial, of th< 
two pines, Pinu&taeda and P. -pains tr Is. 


Prom tli'' preceding it appears that there is a I; 
amount <»l waste land lying in the southeastern pari oi 
thi> State. There are now over I(mi,(km» acres of such 
land, and the amount oi it, from various causes, is con- 
stantly increasing. This land consists of high rolling 
or hilly Band barrens, formerly covered with extensive 
forests of long leaf pine. These foi ielded tur- 

pentine abundantly, but on account of the larg 
amount of sapwood and the coarser grain of the wood 
of trees growing on these poorer sandy lands the lum- 
ber, though of good quality, was of a grade inferior to 
that from trees grown on fertile soils. Now, however, 
owing to the grossest neglect, large portions of th< 
forests have either been destroyed entirely or reduced 
to such a condition that there is neither mill nor tur- 
pentine timber on them, and no regrowth of the lon«- 
leaf pine has been allowed to take the place of the old- 
er trees as the latter were being gradually extermin- 
ated. The soils of the barrens on account of their 


sandiness rind poor quality will produce very few kinds 
of trees which have any economic importance. No val- 
uable broad leased trees (oaks, etc. thrive on these 
lands, and among the conifers (pines, etc) the long' leaf 
pine is the only one growing naturally on them. The 

short leal' pine, where the loam sub-soil lies near the 
surface, is rarely found, and it is only after the ground 
has been cultivated and enriched and the moister 1 
of earth have been brought to the surface that the lob- 
lolly pine will grow there. So it seems that the long 
leat pine is the only native tier of much value which 
flourishes on these barren sandy lands. Their art 
very lew, if an\ other, forests in the eastern United 
States <• peculiarly limited as to the variety ol valua- 
ble tree growth as the long Kaf pine forest, particu- 
larly when it grows <>n the sand barrens, and then 
no other forests which demand such care to obtain a 
regrowth ol the original dominant species. Many 
kinds «»f trees alter being lumbered or burnt out are 
succeeded by smaller and less valued species, but the 
original growth in time again takes j on of the 

land. This is the case with the spruce forests of 
western North Carolina, and the white cedar (juniper) 
in the eastern section of the State. However it mav 
have been primarily in the long leaf pine forests, this 
is not the result under the present management of 
these pineries. After the removal of the pine the land 
quickl} becomes waste land, and passes from a growth 
of sand black jack to utter barrenness. Xo where is 
there ;m\ general sign of either the long leaf or any 
other pine again forming a prominent part of the growth 

on these sand hills. 

Unless there is some radical change in their manage- 
ment, these lands may even cease to produce the few 


sand black jack oaks which now flourish on them. 

There is even a possibility and in fact it can be said a 
great Likelihood that this valuable tree, the long leal 

pine, will beCOOM extinct in North Carolina unleae 

■erne stepe are taken t<> seance ita taoae general propa- 

Ration. It has already become extinct over large tra 
lying 1 to the north of the Neiise river which were for- 
merly QCCnpied either exclusively by this pine or by 
mixed foreatB <>| it and hard woods and loblolly pine. 

TIIK KKASnN WHY LnNG I.KAF 1'IXK 1 • K \« »T i»kui«agati: 

The caneeo which have operated to prevent the long- 
loaf pine from propagating itself an ral, and all 

of them are important and act uniformly throughout 
this sandy area. A brief statement of some of the pe- 
culiarities of this tree may enable us to see more clear- 
ly why it needs more special protection than must ne- 
cessarily be accorded other trees to enable the fori 
to reproduce themselves. The chief causes which have 
influenced and tended to retard the general regrowth 
of this tree at the present time arise from a highly 
specialized form of seed and plant structure and a de- 
cidedly unique manner of growth when compared with 
the other pines of this same region. These character- 
istic peculiarities lie chiefly in the young pine seedling, 
in the seed, and the structure of the leaf buds. 


Although the writer has not yet carried on system- 
atic observations, on (1) the frequency of seeding- of the 
long leaf, (2) the relative abundance of its seed as com- 


pared with those of other pines, and 3, the fertility oi 
boxed and unboxed trees of the same species, long 
enough to have obtained accurate result ob- 

servations of different persons, thor >ughly familiar, 

for many years, with the pine of the barrens, will, he 

thinks, for most of these ca found sufficiently 

accurate, their results being supplement in- 

clusions drawn from ;i personal investigation extend ^ 
over several years. Although there wer 
in a virgin long leaf pine forest, just as thei rith 

all othei trees, when there wa 

these were rare and the yield of seed w illy 

abundant. Wm. Byrd, writing in h* the 

mast of this tree is very much i r fattening 

hogs through all of Albemarle County, North East- 
ern North Carolina) on account of it> greater abundance 
and the greater certainty of (than 

that of the oaks). The forests of which he w t-. speak- 
ing were largely virgin at that date. There arc to be 
found frequent statements mentioning the same fact by 
other historians, ^i both an earlier ami later date. 

So far as could be ascertained the ma- the seeds 

of this pine are called have not been as abundant 
the past fifty war-- as they formerly were. There 
seems to have been only three large long leaf pine ma 
since 1845. One oi these occurred just about that 
time, the next one was in 1872 and there was one in 
L892, which was not a>> large, however, as either of the 
preceding. There is a fairly abundant mast about 
every four or five years, and on intermediate years the 
production is small and localised. In North Carolina 
most of the trees which now bear seed are boxed and 
have been in this condition for from 50 to 100 years, 

* History oi the dlridlaf :iue betwi-eu Virginia and N.>rth Carolina, p - 


and the opinio* prevails throughout the pine barrens pirn- Qiaste arc less frequent and less abundant 
DOW than before the pines were so largely lx>xed and 
thinned out. The removal of a great part of the ttf 
may explain, in part <>r wholly, why masts air l< 
abundant. It would naturally be inferred that th> 

would ho a lar^e decrease ia the productiveness oi box- 
ed trees, whose vitality, measured by the rate oi accre- 
tion between them and unboxed trees, has I" tly 

impaired by the practiced niann. t<>| boxing. Qowev 

from a tabulated record of observations carried on dur- 
ing several years, there as vet appears so marked dif- 
ference between the productiveness of boxed and un- 
boxed trees, similarly situated. 

There are several important differences between the 
reproductive capacities of the loblolly and long l< 
pines, all of them to the advantage of the loblolly pine. 

The fertility of the long leal pine is much less than 
that of the loblolly pine, its most frequent associate. 
The loblolly pine bears cones at an earlier age, and 
usually produces more seed, both perfect and imperfect 
ones, and the great variety of soil, on which the loblol- 
ly pines grow, causes a slight difference in the time of 
flowering - of different trees, making this pine less lia- 
ble to have the entire prospect of a seed yield dstroyed 
by frosts or by heavy rains during ]>olination. While 
this may possibly explain why the loblolly pine has 
come up as a regrowth over so much of the moister 
loam land, it has affected the growth of the pine bar- 
rens very little. 

The seed of the long- leaf pine ore very larg-e, 3 to $ 
an inch long", independent of the wing-, while no other 
pine of this region has seed over \ an inch long - , but 
there is a smaller proportion of abortive and otherwise 


imperfect seed in a long" leaf pine cone than in the cone 
of the loblolly pine. This would he decidedly to the 
advantage of the Long leaf pine in seeding old fields, 

etc., were its seed not too heavy to be carried far by 
the wind. They usually fall within fifty feet of the 
parent tree, while the light winged seed of the loblolly 
have been known to scatter thickly over fields from 
trees over a quarter of a mile distant ; and single seed 
are reported to haw been blown several miles. Fur- 
thermore, is described more fully beyond, the m 
of the Long leaf pine are much more extensively destroy- 
ed by hogs, fowls, squirrels, rats, etc* Another rea- 
son for the exclusively loblolly growth in fields may be 
that even when the seed of tin- two pines fall on the 
same land the loblolly pin«- 1>\ its rapid growth during 

the first few years overshadows and effectually crowds 

out the more slowly growing Long leaf pine ; and the 
latter, during this early slow growt h are easily de- 
stroyed by tires and by live stock. The two are, how- 
ever, rarely seen associated together in second growth 

woods. The seed ripening in October, fall to the 

ground rapidly and if there is a warm moist season 
Sprout immediately. In the event of a long warm rain 
just after the seed are matured, they will frequently 
sprout in the cones and the entire yield will be thus 


The young long leaf pine seems to be specially adapt- 
ed by the form of its root system for growing on a 

sandy soil. By the end of its tirst year's growth, its root 
system, which has grows rapidly, consists of a large 
tap-root which extends (> to 1<> inches deep in the sand 


from the bottom oi it branch out the smaller roots 
which draw nourishment from the soil. It ia this d< 

ited root Bystem, ien1 thus early Ear down into the 
soil, which enabled this pine to grow on the sand bar- 
rens, and it is doubtless !>• cause the roots oi the loblol- 
ly are small and divide for the first year or two infc 
great many small divisions, lying near the surfs 
that it dors not get sufficient moisture and nourishment 
from the dry surface sand t<> enable it to thrive- on the 
sand barrens before this land has been cultivated. 

This long- tap root of the long leaf pine frequently g< 
through the sand into the loam soil and seen the 

a firm anchorage againsl storms and enables it to 
thaw its nourishment from a UK rtile soil. Tin 

stem parts of the long leaf pme are as peculiarly adapt- 
ed for growing on a sand soil a- the root system 
Instead of the stem branching or growing the fii 

year, it only puts out a great number of v\ry Longtfc 
leaves, exceedingly close to the ground. These lea 

soon spread out and help to shade the ground ( 
the plant and keep it moist. At the end of the £h 

season's growth the single (terminal) bud is not over 
an inch and a half above the earth and the bud ii 
nearly an inch long, so that it can be said that the stem 
of the seedling does not grow any in height during 
the first year, all the energy of the plant being diw 
ed to increasing the root and producing the great tuft 
of long deep green leaves which spread out immediate- 
ly below the bud and make the plant resemble more a 
tuft of some marvellous kind of grass than a young - tree. 
Some of the lowest leaves usually die during the first 
year ; most of them remain on for two seasons. 

The second and third year growth of the stem in 
height is slight, though it increases in thickness, but 


alter that, at least in a forest, its growth is wonderful. 
Frequently in a thick wood where young trees have 
been allowed to grow, they will in eight or nine years 
after height growth has begun, have reached a height 
of 18 or 20 feet and a diameter of no more than thr 
four inches, and will have grown each year from only 
one bud, the terminal one, at the end of the woody axis, 
there being no branches and no sij4"n of any having been 
formed. For leaves there will be only a single broom 

like hunch terminating the slender stem. The rapidi- 
ty with which this stem is raised and the fewness of its 

branches until the natural height <>f the tree is reached 
makes one of the nine qualities of the timber. It gives 

long stocks which have no knots in them, even small 
ones, to produce any uniformity of quality OT to make 
weak places OH the interior of an apparently perfect 
piece of timber. This feature which is the cause of BO 

fine a qualitj of wood is a great drawback to the de- 
velopment ot tin young trees. This single terminal 
bud is a very large anil complicated structure, and 
when once destroyed in any way no other bud is usually 
ly formed by which the growth (»f the young seedling- 
can be continued. It is true of most conifers (/. e. 
pines, firs, cypress and cedars) that they do not form 
buds readily and that they rarely sprout from the stump 
and. are very difficult to reproduce from cuttings, etc.. 
but with thr long leal such budsare formed and sprouts 
developed even more rarely than with most other coni- 


The long leaf pine has a severer struggle for exis- 
tence than any other of our forest trees, for the n 

14 lolK.NAL Of THi; 

thai in .'ill stages <>f its reproduction and growth it it 
more severely and continuously attacked b iter 

variety <>f enemies than any other. Besides the natural 
drawbacks to its development from th*- peculiar manner 
of forming several of its parts, and the fact that th< 
parts when destroyed are not replaced, its large and 
Bweel Beed iten in large quantities by fowh 

various kinds, rats, squirrels, and by swine, which pre- 
fer tlnin to all other kinds of mast, and when then 
enough long leaf pine mast become very Eat on it. If 
the destruction caused by swine ceased here fchi 
would doubtless still be sufficient seed left to repro- 
duce Borne parts of tin bs as the mature tires are 

gradually thinned out, for one year old seedlings 
are common 12 months alter heavy masts. No sooner, 
however, has the young pine gotten a foot high and its 
root an inch in diameter than the hog attacks it, this 
time eating the roots, which until two inches in diame- 
ter, are very tender, juicy, pleasantly flavored and free 
of resinous matter. In the loose sandy soil tin; piny 
woods hog or "rooter" finds little difficulty in follow- 
ing and devouring these tender roots to their small 
ends. Many small trees are destroyed in this way ; 
and cattle, furthermore, are said to frequently bite olT 
the tops of the small plants, and with it the terminal 
hud, in the early spring. This is doubtless done while 
grazing, more accidentally than otherwise. 

Fires often destroy all the young pines that escape 
the hogs. They kill the small pines by burning the 
highly inflammable bracts around the bud and so stop its 
growth, or in high grass f re([uenth T burn all the leaves. 
Larger trees, even until they are three or four inches 
through, are easily killed in spring - , when the sap is 
rising and the outer layer of wood is growing rap- 


idly, by a hot fire which will hum the thin exfoliated 
layers of bark all over the trunk. The loblolly pine is 
less Injured by fire because its hark ia thicker and so 
offers more protection to the growing wood, the hark. 

too, lying* closer to the wood in firmly ap prcasc d layers, 

does not so easily take lire. 

So far as has been observed, young long leai pines 

are attacked by no injurious beetles <>r hark borers or 
by any fungi sufficiently to injure them. The mature 
pines, however, have in the past years several tin 

been attacked by hark beetles in such numbei 
destroy the pines over large areas. A lew trees which 
'have been killed from their attacks can be seen at any 
time around the edges of districts when lumbering is in 
progress, or about districts which have been recently 

The chief agencies, then, which prevent a regTOWtfa 
of thi' long leaf pine on the high sandy lands, are the 
hogs and the tires; and the attacks of the hogs are di- 
rected against parts which seem to have been develop- 
ed to meet requirements of a plant growing on a dry 
barren soil of loose sand. These peculiarly developed 

parts are the seed, large for a pine, which contain 
abundant nutriment for the young plant to enable the 
root to push itself rapidly into the sand ; and then the 
long succulent root which gro w s for a considerable 
distance straight down without branching. Since the 
first settlement of these sandy lands the "ranging*' of 
swine has been allowed in the forests, and while there 
were enough pines standing, and frequent masts, thev 
fed a large number of hog 

The practice of firing the barrens, has been adopted 
in many cases with a view to improve the pasturage : 
while in many other cases, after the trees were boxed. 


the leaves and trash pulled away from around them, 
the Forests were burned over to prevent, in a di 
son, a chance conflagration getting from under control 
and burning the faces ol the turpentine boxes and the 
timber. That this policy ol burning the barrens it< 
very bad one and calculated to do far greater datnaj 
than thai immediately apparent has perhaps been ma 
evident. Thai sooner or later the present manag 
mentor lack of managemenl which has characterized all 
dealings with the barrens for the pasl H<» years, must 
be changed if the long Leaf pine forests are to be made 
self-propagating, no one who ha their con- 

dition, or fully realizes what it is, can possibly doubt. 
Tin- logical result of these burnings in the past has 
been the destruction of millions of feet of standing pine 

and the prevention of the growth of young trees; which, 

had they started even 50 years ago, would now be larj 

enough for small timber and turpentine trees ; while. 

the burnings <>f the present and future, if not soon dis- 
continued, will mean the final extinction of the long 
leaf pine in this State. 



The changes which nitrogenous organic matter, or 
any form of nitrogen, undergo in nature in being con- 
verted to nitric acid, or nitrates, is called nitrification. 
Nitrogen is one of the most abundant, and at the same 
time most important, elements in nature. More than 


three-fourths of the atmosphere around us consists ol 
nitrogen, and it enters as an essentia] constituent into 
all forms of animal and plant life. The complex nitl 
genous organic compounds found in nature are not as- 
similated as such, but are in BOme way formed within 
the plant from simpler nitrogen compounds taken in 
through the roots. 

When these complex compounds are d to the 

decomposing agencies of the air and soil thej readily 
return to the simpler and m<>st stable forms which can 
exist in nature. The nitrates, as tlie last and highest 
state o! oxidation of nitrogen, are known to be the most 

stable compounds. As an evidence of this, vast deposits 
of sodium nitrate have been stored up and preserved in 

the rainless regions of Chili, Peru and other countries, 

Minute amounts of nitrates are almost universally pi 
ent in soils and water*. They have been found 

many experiments and practical field testa t«> be the 
form of nitrogen most acceptable plant i<*.d and 

to an application of which the] most readily respond. 
Nitrates would seem to have been indicated by natl 
as the most convenient starting point for the forn 
tion of all nitrogen compounds 

A knowledge of their wide-spread existence in nature 
and the very important relation which thev bear to 
riculture has long been known. Chemists have per- 
formed many experiments and advanced numerou - | 
ories as to the manner of their formation. This natur- 
al phenomenon was evidently a Oxidation 
brought about by means of atmospheric and n- 
cies. Simple oxidation was n<>t sufficient to explain the 
notable nitrate formation in compost h 1 nitre 
beds. The process was known to \)j much more act 
and to take place near the earth's surface. Calcium 

IS JOUKNAL 0* thk 

carbonate of wood ashes were absolutely ind, 

contrary to all oxidation process--., ;i limited supply 
air gave the besl results. Carbonates evidently aided 
in some way, probably is decomposing the organic m li- 
ter, l»nt rapid decay hindered the process, and in com- 
bustion, which is moil' rapid oxidation, the production 
of nitrates was indeed very small. S<» that chemists 
puzzled over this apparently inexplicable question tor a 
long time before ■ true suggestion was offered. 

It is only within the pasl twenty years thai a satis- 
factory theory has been advanced and only within the 
p.-ist three 01 four years, after the mosl careful and 
painstaking experiments by some of the most eminent 
physiological chemists has the theory been accepted. 

A. Mullrr (Landw. Versuchs-Stat, 1<». 27.}. Jour. 
Chem.Scc. 1873, 12<>7 observing the rapidity with which 
the ammonia of sewerage and certain waters changed to 
nitrates and that purr solutions of uiva and ammonium 
compounds were not susceptible to this change, sug- 
gested that it was due to the action of ferments. Tin- 
truth of Muller'^ suggestion was firsl shown by the 
labors of Schloestng and Muntz (Compt. Rend. 85, 
1018). They studied the action of heat upon the pro- 
cess and soon found that varying temperatures exerte 1 
a remarkable influence. A temperature of 100*C. for 
one hour was sufficient to destroy the nitritiable power 
of certain soils and vegetable moulds in which nitrifi- 
cation was known to be most actively taking place. 
The addition of a little unheated mould however, served 
to again start the process. This was very strong evi- 
dence that nitrification was in some way connected with 
organized life. A powerful microscope revealed to 
them the existence of numerous organisms of the mo,t 
varied kinds, being most abundant in vegetable mould. 


Nitrification could be started or stopped at pleasure 

and was clearly seen to be due to the life action <>l 
these microorganisms. The observations of Schloes- 

1 11 *_i" and MuntZ were soon followed by the publication 

of the experiments carried out in the Rotham->ted 
laboratory by k\ Warington J. Chem. Soc L878, 44 . 

In addition to confirming the previous experiments of 

Schloesing and Muntz, Warington added many proofs 
establishing 1 the ferment theory and showing it- rela- 
tion to nitrification. The results of his experiments 
extending over a period ol about fifteen years J. Chem. 
Soc. 1S7S, issi, 1SS5, L889, 189] are published with 

all the minute details. An 1 it is to the labors of War- 

ington moii- than to any one else that we owe our pres- 

ent knowledge of the nature and results of the life ac- 
tion of these microscopic organisms. The fact that 
they were really lower forms of life was not generally 

accepted, though the chain of evidence establishing this 

theory now seems to be complete. They possess all 
the attributes of organised life requiring a suitable 
temperature lor their devel >pment and suitable food for 

their existence. The mosl favorable temperature is 
about 100° F; above 120° or below 40° they are rend- 
ered inactive, and are destroyed at 212°. The pres- 
ence of organic matter and phosphates are essential. 
They are destroyed by the action of disinfectants, in- 
secticides, and the presence i>i any considerable amount 
of alkalinity is detrimental to their growth. Just as 
calci mi carbonate or wood ashes were required In 
n t v heaps so it, too, is necessary for the growth. 

These organisms are found much more abundant in 
the surface layers of the soil, a fact which confirms 
observations, long known to be true, that production of 
nitrates was mainly confined to the surface. Even in 

2 > toiKXAi. Of Tin; 

warm c wntriea where the natives colled tin- nitrai 
accumulated as an incrustation <»n tin- soil, th 
aware of ( thai the efficiency «»t the bed depends 

on removing only tat nppercrast. Warington found 
the following amounts <>! Nitrogen as nitrate in two 
fallow soils .it K >t hams ted: 

I i :li. fir t nine inches 2r>.r>, 4o.l ll.s. 
• "second " M 5. 0, 14. 3 M 

•■ M third " " 5.5. M 

Portions taken at different depths ware added to di- 
luted, sterilised solutions oi nrine containing a little 
calcium carbonate and gypsum. The formation of ni- 
trates was' accepted as evidence of the presence of the 1 
organisms. In this way Warington succeeded in de- 
tecting their presence at depths of six feet from the 
surface, below this he was unable to find them. It hi 
especially note-worthy that there was always a period 
of inactivity followed by a period of activity after the 
introduction of the ^oil portions. This he regarded as 
due to incubation, and the time required was much [< 
in the case of surface portions. We would natural lv 
expect to find any forms of life near the surface, and 
especially so, since the conditions most essential for 
their growth exist in greater abundace in surface soils. 
While Warington*8 cultures were made in solutions, in 
which the conditions were not the same as those of the 
soil, he was better able to control them, and to make 
the experiments of any desirable composition. But lit- 
tle is known of the way in which they act, only certain 
products are obtained as a result of the organisms' ex- 
istence. When a suitable uitrifiable solution is seeded 
with either a portion of a nitrified solution or of a sod 
or soil infusion, nitrates are usually produced as the 
final result. In some cases notable quantities of n:- 


trites were formed and they were noticed always to 
precede the formation of nitrates. This led Waring- 
ton to suspect the presence of two different organisms. 
And various attempts were made to isolate them. 

The Prankland-, (P. F. and Grace C.;Chem. News, 
March 21, 1890) were unaMe to isolate them by gelatin 

cultures. The organisms either did not grow on gela- 
tin or, when bo grown, tost the power of producing ni- 
trates. They finally succeeded in getting an attenua- 
tion, one millionth of the original solution, by means of 

the dilution method, which produced nitrates in suita- 
ble solutions and had the microscopic appearance of 
bacilli. Warington J. Chem. Soc 1891, .ally 

succeeded in isolating the two organisms, the presence 

of which was indicated by his previous experiments. 

Thev are very similar in appearance and belong to the 

same family. The nitrous organism, isolated through 
successive cultures in ammoniacal solutions made per- 
manently alkaline with sodium carbonate, and contain- 
ing phosphates, oxidized ammonia to nitrous acid only; 
it produced nitrous acid in solution of milk, urine and 
asparagine, and could apparently assimilate carbon 

from acid carbonates. The nitric ferment did not pro- 
duce either nitrites or nitrates from ammoniacal solu- 
tion-,, in fact ammonia hinders its action. It rapidly 
changes nitrites to nitrates. 

Previous experiments »«1 Warington (J, Chem. £ 
1884, (o7 had shown that in all experiments in which 
nitrogenous organic compounds were used, the forma- 
tion of ammonia preceded that of nitrites and nitrates. 

Warington believed that ammonia was the only nitri- 
fiable substance, and only such substances as were 
capable of forming ammonia through the action of soil 
organisms could form nitrates. More recent investi- 


Ration has shown thai the process takes place in at 
leasl three different stages, :tn<l is probably due t<. the 
action ol different organisms. Smile Marchal [Bui. 
Acad. Belgique 18" ; . 7J7 .it.-. Chem. Cent. BUtt. 

1894 2. 97 isolated some of the most prevalent ^<»il or- 
ganisms and studied their action upon organic matt 
Hi' was enabled to isolate by means of alkaline gelatin 
;m<l peptone souk- thirty different sf> 11 of which 

changed organic nitrogen into ammonia. Fifteen of 
the number were energetic in effecting this chair. 
The Bacillus Nycoides, one <»t the most abundant in 
nature, produced ammonia from egg albumen, Legumen 
and gluten. A temperature of about thirt) degree* 
and a slight alkalinity was most favorable t<» its devel- 
opment. Messrs. A. Muntz and 11. Condon Ann. 
ron. 1" \o. 5 page 209 found that Bacilli, 1: 

teria, Micro-cocci, and yeasts produced ammonia in 
sterilized soils from nitrogenous fertilizers. The pro- 
duction of ammonia then is not due to tin- action <>t any 
one species, but a great number of organisms have the 
power effecting this change. Ammonia once formed 
passes very rapidly into nitrates. This is shown by 
the facts that although these organisms are continually 
producing ammonia, yet only minute amounts ol" its 
compounds can he detected in soils. It is also formed 
in numerous other processes of putrefaction and decay, 
the greater portion of which escapes into the air to be 
again brought to the soil by snow, rain and dew. It 
is, however, generally admitted that plants may al)- 
sorb some ammonia through the leaves, but the amounts 
obtained in this way are believed to be very small. 
When any considerable time has elapsed after a heavy 
application of ammonium compounds to the soil, only 
traces are found, whereas nitrates can be detected 


in fairly large amounts. Xitrato are continually 
formed according to Berthelot and Andre (Storer, 
Vol. 1, pp. 307 8) in certain parts of plants. Here 
the plant cells promote oxidation in a manner anal- 
ogous to that of the micro-organism. They pro 
thi> by inserting portions of the stems of the amaranth, 
plant into washed and sterilized soil. After a time a 
notable nitrate formation had taken place in the soil 
containing the plant stems, while none was found in 
other soils similarly treated l»ut containing none of the 
amaranth. Small amounts of nitrates are formed from 
the action of electricity upon the nitrogen and oxygen 
of the air. Rain water collected immediately altera 
thunder storm invariably contains a greater percent- 
age of nitrates than at other times. There are also 
various oxidation processes continually producing small 
quantities of nitrates. They can usually be detected 
in certain metallic oxides as ferric-oxide and mangam 
dioxide, though it has not \et been explained in what 
way these substances aid in the formation. The ac- 
tion of all these agencies is necessarily slow, and some 
nitrogen is lost t * » the soil, being given off in the free 
state. In other changes, too numerous to mention, 
great quantities .»! nitrogen yearly return to the air. 

There must exist somewhere in nature a means ol 
supplying this deficiency or the visible supply of avail- 
able nitrogen would annually become less and h-s^. 
The experiments ^>\ Lawes and Gilbert ami Pugh in 
England and Boussingault in France, in which combined 
nitrogen was excluded by a series ol wash bottles, were 
long ago accepted as proving that a plant could not 
utilize free nitrogen of the air. Recent investigations 
show that this is not true of leguminous plants when 
aitled bv the action of certain soil organisms. It is be- 

21 JOUSMAt, Of 'I'm; 

d l»\ some that tin- equilibrium between free and 
available nitrogen in in pari preserved in this way. 
When leguminous plants are gr o w n nnder normal con- 
ditions there are formed upon the n><>u small nodular 
or wart like protuberances varying in size from that oi 
a pin hca<l to a pea. They air generally called tuber- 
cles. Microbes are found associated with all tubei 
and are plainly tin- cause of their formation. I. 
miaous plants, when grown in sterilized soil, have no 
tubercles ami require nil rogenous food tor their growth. 
Ii soil infusions are added t<> tin- cultures in sterilized 
soil, tubercles an- formed ami tin- plants thrive with- 
out the addition of nitrogenous manures. It is then 
clearly not an inherenl power of the plant, luit depends 
upon tin- presence of tin- tubercles, which an- caused 
by the soil organisms. A.twater and Woods Conn. 
Station Ann. Report, 1889), found in a aeries oi eighty 
nine experiments that, in all cases, where there was 
tubercular formations there was also an increased gain 
of nitrogen, being the greatest where there was the 
greatest number of tubercles. So far as our present 
knowledge extends root tubercles are confined to the 
Leguminosa*. They are readily produced on the roots 
of any member of this family, either by inoculation, 
the addition of small portions of crushed tuberch 
soil infusions containing the organisms. The concur- 
rent opinion of all the investigators of this subject is 
that the formation of tubercles is caused by th> 
microbes, and upon their formation depends the power 
of the plants to assimilate free nitrogen of the air. 
Here the agreement ceases. There are about as many 
different opinions in regard to the way in which this 
nitrogen accumulation takes place as there have been 
investigators of the subject. Howevtr it may be, it is 


evidently a step in the process of nitrification, in that 
nitrogen is fixed in a form available to the plant. If, 
indeed, nitrates are neither produced by the organisms 
before this absorption takes place, nor within the plant 
by the action of the cells, it is certainly converted into 
a nitrifiable compound. It is only from a study of the 
results of the life action ol theM micro-oryanisnis th;it 
the important role which they play in the many chaiiL 
taking 1 place in nature has been discovered. 


F. P. YKNAH1. 

Bodies of scientific men, as the British Association 

for the Advancement of Science, and various public 
prints have for some time been discussing the problem 
of the earth's coal supply and its probable exhaustion. 
There is a growing uneasiness on the part of the pub- 
lic that the end of our supply of coal is in sight and 
that we are in danger of running short of fuel. If the 
agitation of the question would correct the present 
enormous waste of fuel and lead to proper economy in 
its use, the gain would be great, The vast waste in 
coke ovens, the loss in crude furnaces, in imperfect en- 
gines and wretched heating appliances is enough to 
make any thoughtful man stand aghast. B*OT instance, 
a hi<^ii authority tells us that the loss in our heating 
stoves, grates etc., is 80 or 90 per cent, that is, one 
ton of coal should last us nine or ten times as lonj^ - as it 
does now or do that much more work. A familv now 


using ten t« »n-> u! imhI lor heating purj>oses during the 

winter could get along very nicely with one ton if the 
heating arrangements were perfected. Any one who 
baa watched, on a Mill day, the long lines of smoke left 
by passing trains «»i- the black trails stretchtnj 
miles behind ocean steamers can realise onr prodigal 
wasfc "t nature's generous gift. Still I do not think 
t ht i e is much reason for the dread that we arc hastening 
to a time when the coal question will had to a new 
struggle I"! existence, a painful illustration of the 

principle styled "the survival of tin- fittest." Many 

estimates of the coal supply and its probable rai 

exhaustion have been given. These are based on 

imperfect data and vary greatly but they all agn 
giving us a respite of from on.- to two centuries. Tak- 
ing these estimates as approximately correct and agree- 
ing to tin assumption that the use will increase at the 

rapid rati <>( the past quarter of a century, does not a 

greater danger threaten thaa the comparatively slight 
one of being forced to eat our food raw and winter in 
the tropics? 

Geologists tell us that these coal deposits were laid 
away at a time when the proportion of carbon dioxide 
in the air was much greater than it is now. These 
masses of coal represent carbon dioxide decomposed and 
so made available by plant life and then stored away. 
We dig it up and burn it back to the original form, re- 
storing the carbon dioxide to the air. These processes 
of decomposition and reoxidation go on side by side at 
present and Saussure has supposed a sort of equilib- 
rium between the forces removing- the carbon dioxide 
from the atmosphere, such as the growth of plants, the 
washing of rain etc., and those restoring - it, as the 
breathing of animals, combustion of organic matter 


and decay. That such an equilibrium exists is not 
above question. The changes in the amount of carbon 
dioxide would he so slight from year to year, however, 
and accurate analytical methods are so recent an ac- 
quisition that there is no experimental proof to settle 
the question. Still, it isclear that if the present propor- 
tion of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is dependent 
upon a sort of equilibrium between, in the main, the 
formation of carbon dioxide by combustion and its re- 
moval by the growth of plants, this balance- cannot be 

kept up if we enormously increase combustion, at the 

same time cutting down our forests and so limiting 
plant growth. The removal of this prejudicial body 
from the air by the formation oi earthy carbonate - 
too slow to materially affect the result. This means 
then that the total amount of carbon dioxide in the air 
must increase and of COttrse its ratio to th 
It is well known that this ratio does not bear much 
increase before- the danger line is reached. 
One of the calculations of the present total amount 

of carbon doxide in the air, or carbonic acid, as it is 
commonly called, places it at some four billion tons. 

Now taking one of the estimates Mr. Winter's of the 

Consumption of coal for one hundred years, namelv, 
840,000,000, 000 tons, we tind this is cjuivalen* 
about 3,000 billion tons of carbon dioxide. This would 
give 30 billion tons a year, or seven and a half times 
the- present estimate of the total amount in the air. 

This amount added to that breathed out by the increas- 
ing population of the earth makes it manifest that, be- 
lore the huudred years are out, we will be in the serion^ 
danger of asphyxiation. 

Though the above estimates may be somewhat be- 
yond the mark, and, of course, they are offered as ap- 

28 JOUXMAL Of tin; 

proximations only, one cannot help thinking that two 
of the great problenu of the immediate future will be, 
devising' less wasteful methods for using oar fuel and 
freeing the air from the imparities ire so recklessly 
pour into it. 

As to the question of our supply of fuel, the gi 

strides in the knowledge .'ukI use of electricity lea 

little doubt that it will furnish the Light, and mo- 
tive power of the future. We will not have to rely 

upon the etherise force of Keely or others. 

torrent, eve r y waterfall, the motion of the tides, the 
• piiet (low of the rivers, reservoirs of pent-up rainfall, 

all will be called into requisition to generate for ns 
this force, so beneficent when tamed. Who would have 
believed a few years ago that it would SO SOOfl have at- 
tained its present position as motive and lighting pow- 
er? It is already usurping the place of fuel in extract- 
ing the metals from their ores and we have scarcely 
entered upon the era of i& use in the manufacture 

If, however, we must have fuel we need not seek- 
very far for inventions which mig-ht supply our needs. 
It is not conceivable that we shall g-o on for another 
hundred years with the inconvenient and wasteful use 
of fuel in the solid form, any more than we would now 
be willing- to return to the torch and tallow dip of our 
fathers as a source of lig-ht. Gaseous fuel will be the 
only form marketable in the next century and the soon- 
er we come to this the better. The advantages in the 
use of g*as for heating- and industrial purposes have al- 
ready been experienced by those dwelling - in the natur- 
al g-as region and they are loath to gave it up. 

The g-aseous fuel of the future will consist mainly of 
hydrog-en and carbon monoxide. The first we can easi- 
ly obtain by decomposing- water by means of electricity 


and it is only a question of cost that interferes with its 
present use. The second constituent, carbon monoxide, 
can be prepared by the same agency from the carbon 
dioxide or carbonic acid, of which we have been speak- 
ing 1 and, if the demand justified it, the methods of pro- 
duction for both of these substances could doubtless be 
so improved and cheapened as to become entirely prac- 

We must bear in mind that there is no destruction ot 
matter possible on the face of the globe, and our us. 
the coal means only that we change it into some not 
immediately useful term from which, as we have jual 
seen, it is possible to recover it, thus bringing it into 
u^<- again. In this we would be but imitating nature 
in her cycle of changes. Man dies, his body dec 
and its constituent materials come into general circula- 
tion once more and are ready to be utilized in the build- 
ing up of a new man. Men burn a plant, some living 
growing plant somewhere gathers together the mate- 
rials thus once used and scattered, and gets them into a 
shape in which man can use them again. 

We have not taken into account the possibility, &fl 
shown by repeated experiments, of utilizing the sun's 
heal and the immense amount of energy scattered by 

it over the earth's surface. We are told that the total 
amount of this energy poured out every year upon each 
acre of the earth's surface is some 800,000 horse-power. 
As Crookes says, what a waste is here ! A flourishing 
crop grown upon that acre utilizes only some 3,200 
horse-power and consequently 786,800 horse-power is 


Even a small part of this caught, concentrated. 
to work, changed into electricity <>r stored up against 

a rainy day when clouds come between us and our 

30 JOUXNAL Off thk 

source of energy, would tuffice for all man's present 


Of course, the coming of a time when irater-power 
and sunshine will he the force-giving, and hence wealth 
producing conditions, will work many changes among 
the nations and the advice given by tome t>> such coun- 
tries aa England, srhich can hope for but little under 

these new conditions, to pay off their national debts 

and so relieve posterity from all possible burdens, is 

not without just foundation. 

The outlook is, therefore, noi bo bad as it seems at 

first sight and we may get along very comfortably. 

Long after our supplies <>t" natural gas, petroleum, and 

coal have been exhausted. Still economy should be 

insisted UpOfl and these grand gifts of nature not 




An interesting occurrence of native sulphur in York 
county, South Carolina, came to my notice in connec- 
tion with the work of the University Summer School 
of Geolog-y, at King-'s Mountain, in the summer of 
1893,and having- visited the place ag-ain with the class and 
made a careful examination in 1894, I deem the occur- 
rence well worthy of note and record. Sulphur crys- 
tals have been described by G. H. Williams" from the 

*Johns Hopkins Univ. Circular, No. 87, April, 1891. 


Mountain View mine, Carroll county, Md., and Weed 
and Pirssont have described the occurrence and form 
of crystals from the Yellowstone National Park ; but 
so far as I am able to learn this peculiar occurrence is 

On the Greene place, opposite the home of Mr. lv I>. 
McSwain, near the north-east corner of York county, 
and about two miles from the King's Mountain battle- 
field, South Carolina, is a well-marked vein -onsistin^ 
of two bands of iron pyrite about one inch in thickm 
with a band of calcareous quarts, from one to three 
inches in thickness, lying 1 between them. This is the 
condition of things in the unchanged portion of the vein. 

Following the vein to the northward and dow n w a rd, 

we find the quartz honeycomed by the leeching out of 

the calcite, and later the interstices are tilled with na- 
tive sulphur, that portion of the pyrite lying next the 
quartz having been changed to iron oxide. I was un- 
able to find any dikes in the immediate neighborhood, 

and though the vein was in a portion of its course fold- 
ed with the schists composing the country-rock, the 
folded portions were in most instances entirely un- 

fAin. Jour. Bel., xlii, 4<H 



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 


fULY-Dl \l I n ; ! x 

i . — * > \ 

POST nil 


CHAPBL hii.i.. N. C. 


i ..... 

Hi- ..t th.- Atlaiitir ShOTC Line. Himt.r L. Harris 

An Examination into the Nature of Pala<>tP»iii>. Chart 

H. White 

The Atomic Weights and their Nauiral Arrangement. I' P. 


Improvement in the Method of Preparing Pure Zirconium 

Chlorides. Ch&a. Haskerville 

A New Post Oak and Hybrid ( »ak>. W. W. A -he 


T^s /". i_i= ^ ■-_ 

^;_ ,_ - ' C/.»<<>"*<" 

5^ \ CaM&?iUi iMortt. -— 

) CffLTAUOUi h il 'I 




Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society 



The history <>t a shore line consists in an exposition 
of the changes which have taken place in it; these 
changes consisting chiefly in its migration across the 
land surface on which the body <■! water re^tN. If 

this body of water he an ocean or in direct and open 

communication with an ocean these changes of po sit ion 
may be effected in two possible ways: 1 ■ By an 

actual depression or elevation of the water surface. 

By depession or elevation of the land mass along 

which the shore line OCCUTS. 

Without discussing the reasons for such a conclusion 

we may say thai in the great majority of cases the 

tirst of these two causes need not be considered as a 
factor. Usually it is the oscillation of the crust about 

* This paper is .1 thesis prepared in the second course in GSeologj 
at Harvard College, and has been furnishrd me by Mr. J. IJ. Wood- 
worth, the Instructor under whose direction the work was lone. It 
is an admirable compilation, ami >> .m introduction to the 

more extended work upon which Mr. Harris had entered at the time 
of his death. — C. C 

3+ rOURNAL Of tiik 

the margin of the ocean thai causes the migration. II 
this be in the nature of an uplifl the sea will • 
the shore line successively occupying positions further 
and further out upon what was formerly sea-bottom, 
[f on the other hand a subsidence of the land but! 
takes place, the sea will transgress tin- land and the 
shore line will successively occup) higher and higher 
parts oi the land slope, thai is, further and further 
inward from its former position. 

Slight changes in the position of a coast line may 
take place in other ways than by bodily movements of 
the land ma^s, namely by the deposition <»f material on 
the margin of the sea-bottom, thus causing the shi 
line to recede from the land and by removal of mai 
rial from the shore, thus causing the sea to transgn 
the land. These causes are however productive only 
of comparatively small migrations when acting alone. 
Evidently we must look upon oscillations oi the land 
mass as the chiel cause oi change in the position of 
shore lines. 

In order to get at the history of such a shore line as 
that of the Atlantic of North America, we must know 
how to read the evidence of its former presence in 
places other than that now occupied by it. What are 
these evidences? Probably the most direct, as well as 
the most exact, evidence is furnished by the actual and 
characteristic marks left in the form of raised beaches 
or bench marks. Another evidence is furnished by the 
position and character of sedimentary deposits, — 
though the absence of evidence of either kind does not 
necessarily mean that shore conditions were never pres- 
ent there. While the presence of beach marks fur- 
nishes more exact evidence of shore line position in cer- 
tain cases, the application is not of so wide extent as 


the more general evidence of sedimentary deposits, on 

account of the greater ease with which the former arc 
effaced. The burden of the evidence then lies in the 
sedimentary deposits of the Atlantic slope, or, m 
accurately, of that part of North America whose sedi- 
mentary deposits can not be referred to some other 
oce; n or water body. 

To decide what should be taken as evidence of prox- 
imity to shore line we must be familiar with the prin- 
ciples governing" the deposition of sediment. Running 
water is the principal carrier of fra<j mental materials 
such as go to make up secondary deposits. These ma- 
terials var\ greatly in coarseness and in composition. 
Far the greater part, however, is mineral matter, re- 
sulting from the decay and disintegration of the rocks 

of the land, and the fragments which compose it vary 
from an impalpable powder to the greatest site which 
can be swept along by water in motion this latter de- 
pending upon the velocity and volume of the current. 
It is by means of this principle oi the carrying power of 
water that we explain the sorting of those fragments 
which find their way into moving water. A current of 
high velocity will transport comparatively large pieces 
of rock material, until, by decrease of slope or l>\ en- 
trance into some other holy of water, its velocity is 
lessened; then the materials will he deposited, the coai s- 
est first and others in turn as the stream continues to 
lose velocity. The finest may be deposited a great way 
out in the ocean, sea or lake, which receives the trans- 
porting current. 

Since the ocean serves as a receptacle for all the 
drainage of the land, there is being deposited, within 
its minor depths and out to a distance of perhaps a 
hundred miles from the land, all the solid materials 

36 K.IKXAI. <)I' Till. 

brought into H by streams. Ami since the oceta pro- 
vides the gradual retardation of currents which make 
their way into it, we have a perfect fulfillment <>t the 
coaditions <»i water sorting', and, hence, we may declare 
the general rule thai the coarser Materials are depos- 
ited near the shore Bad the liner out. Indeed, wh 
we find undoubted marine deposits including; fragments 
of large sise such as gril or pebbles, we may reckon 
with certainty upon the proximity of the sea sh 
during the tim<' when they were deposited. 

So then the presence in ai m oi such fragmen- 

tal deposits a-> may be judged from their nature to be 
marine declare unmistakably the present of the 

ocean at such a date in geological history as our study 
of these deposits may refer them to. For instance, if 
we were to find in Western New I narine deposits 

of Cretaceous age, dipping gently eastward, we should 

conclude that during the Cretaceous period the Atlantic 
shore line lay west of that point. How far west it may 
have stood we must determine by other mean-,, perhaps 
by actual shore marks, such as a wave cut bench, or a 
series of beach gravels or sand dunes. Or else from 
from the coarseness of the sediments near their inner 
border we may conclude that they mark the actual 
shore line of that period. 

Other processes of reasoning are often brought to 
bear which cannot be dwelt upon within the narrow 
limits of this paper. We should remember always 
that such evidences as have been mentioned do not ne- 
cessarily indicate the greatest amount of encroachment 
of the sea within an}' <^iven period, for deposits made- 
further inland may have been removed by the general 
erosion of the surface: so also shore marks are compara- 
tively seldom left as enduring monuments, and their 


absence may be no evidence of the absence <>t shore 

Of the relative position of land and water (and con- 
sequently of the shore-lines) of pre-Cambrian times we 
know almost nothing'. Those changes, which we call 
metamorphism, have progressed so far, by virtue of tin- 
great age of these sediments and their position at the 
bottom of the stratified series, that it is extremely diffi- 
cult to read in them the conditions under which they 
were deposited. We are quit< sure that there existed, 
at the beginning of Cambrian times, a land area, made 
up of pre-Cambrian sediments, lying somewhere alone 
the Atlantic COaoi region of North America. A sei 
of very old, highly altered and disturbed sediments 
now exist as a land area forming an almost COtttittllOUB 
belt between the Appalachian mountain system and the 
present Atlantic border from Canada southward to 
Georgia. This area, which is in the main supposed to 
be pre-Cambrian in age, is plainly shown by it> struc- 
ture to have been once involved in a aeries of compli- 
cated mountain building movements, and was in fact 
pari "1 a great mountain system. Where this land once 
rose to mountain heights it is now a low, gently sloping 
and undulating surface made up of hills of gently 
rounded outline, all rising to about the same height and 
having in the distance the appearance of a Hat country. 
That is to say it has -.< i kmg been subjected to the 
forces of denudation that the mountain ridges which 
once existed have washed, away and finally disappeared, 
leaving a land surface ot low relief and weak topogra- 
phy. What then became of all the material thus re- 
moved? It found its way into the borders of the ad- 
joining ocean and was laid down as sediments, and so 
to the east, south and west of this pre-Cambrian area 

38 JOURNAL OF tiik 

lie now upon its edges where thej were deposited, the 
later sediments of the stratified series. 

Having found oul something of the position of tin- 
land of the Atlantic coast region al the initiation of the 

Cambrian period, we may begin to formulate our 
knowledge oi the shore-line history from that dal 

t let us observe thai the evidence of former shore- 
Lines given by actual marks of tin- shore itself is of 
Buch a transitory nature thai we must not exped 
find such evidence in the older rocks. While they may 
retain a perfectly characteristic form through the 
Quaternary period or even longer, tin- chances of their 
preservation from earlier times becomes less and less 

we <n> back into the geological past. In the Cambrian 

then we are forced to reason almost entirely from the 
nature of the sediments, that is, their texture, and com- 
position, and their position with respecl to the sou 
of the materials forming them. 

There are very few undoubted Cambrian rocks in 
North America which can with any degree oi certainty 
be ascribed to the Atlantic Held of deposition. In the 
Cambrian Correlation Papers of C. I). Walcott, a series 
of rocks of Cambrian age, including slates, quartzil 
conglomerates and limestones, are located and briefly 
described under the general name of the Atlantic coasl 
province. These areas are rather small and discontin- 
uous, and extend in a general southwesterly direction 
from the southern coast of Labrador, across Newfound- 
land, Nova Scotia, and ending in eastern Massachu- 
setts. The age of each district has been determined by 
fossils which occur, however, only in restricted zones 
within the formation. The other members are often 
classed as Cambrian only on conjecture: hence arises 
considerable difficult}- in interpreting- the conditions of 


deposition. This difficulty is increased by the removal 
of the greater part of these rocks by erosion, leaving 
widely separated patches which can scarcely be placed 
in any reasonable relation with each other. Usually, 
however, the series lie upon the eroded surfaces of pre- 
Cambrian rocks, Laurentian and Algonkian, and often 
show basal conglomerates formed from those rocks. In 
such cases the materials seem to have been brought 
from the west or northwest, and from no great distance. 
These areas lying about the Gulf of St. Lawrence 

seem to show by the gradual change in the character 

of the sediment from basal conglomerate to limestones 
formed at a moderate depth, that the sea transgressed 
the Algonkian land westward, allowing the accumula- 
tion thereon of the Cambrian deposits, first in shallow 

bays and afterward in gradually deepening water. 

Regarding the Cambrian slates and quartzites "I 
eastern Massachusetts, Prof. W, 0. Crosbj In 

general the quart /.ite is more and the slate le^s abun- 
dant northwestward, indicating that the ancient sb 
line along which these slates were deposited lay in that 
direction, and originally the Primordial strata were 
probably spread continuously over all the region to the 
southwest of that line. " Also, "'It is very clear that 
the quartzite, north and west <•! the Boston basin. is 
the source of the quartzite pebbles which play such a 

prominent part in the composition of the conglomerate, 

especially in the central and northwestern sections ol 
the basin." 

Of the Cambrian section of Bristol county, Massa- 
chusetts, Prof. N. S. Shaler says: "The frequent 
return of conglomerate layers and the coarseness of 
the pebbles show that during most of the time when 
the beds were accumulating the region was near shore; 

40 .MH'KNAI. Of THE 

so too the large amount of sandy matter even in the 

slates affords a pri rsump tinn that tin- region nran ne4 

remote from the QQait line. The rocks from which 

the pebbles were taken were mainly identifiable in the 
western portion of the held above described. 

The general inference is then that during a 1 
part <>f Cambrian time the shore line \va> in a general 
way coincident with the |mvmm1 shore-line from Mass- 
achusetts northward; that a gradual subsidence <»1 
parts of the o>ast region ensned by which the ocean 
transgressed the land, accumulating, as it moved 

inward, a sheet of coarse deposits which were in turn 
covered by line argillacioiis and calcareous sediments 
forming slate and limestone. These seem to have 
been formed in a sheltered sea, hence the opinion is 
that the land harriers existed somewhere to the east. 
During - this inward march of the shore-line there must 
have been many partial returns to its former position 
but the general result was an inward extension, amount- 
ing in some places to fifty, and in other places to one 
hundred miles, from its present position. 

When we attempt to reckon upon the southward 
extension of the Cambrian shore-line we are entirely at 
a loss, for, in the first place, we have no known Cam- 
brian deposits south of New England which can be 
clearly ascribed to the Atlantic field of deposition. 
Apparently the Cambrian, as well as the whole of the 
Paleozoic rocks are entirely missing- from the southern 
Atlantic province. This has led to the belief, which is 
supported only by neg-ative evidence, however, that 
during- the whole of the Paleozoic era the eastern 
extension of the continent was much greater than it is 
now. There is really little doubt that this was the 
case, and the evidence of land barriers lying- to the 


east of the New Kngland section during- Cambrian 
times, leads to a conjecture which may here be stated. 
A persistent and connected series of Cambrian out- 
crops lies along- the Appalachian mountain system from 
Alabama to tin- river St. Lawrence. These are known 
to have been deposited in the great continental sea 
which covered the central portion of North America 
during- the whole of I'aleo/oic time and even later. These 
Cambrian rocks with tin- other Paleozoic sediments 
were involved in the orographic movement which gave 
rise to the Appalachian mountains. Their present 
outcrop, however, is adjudged to mark in a general way 
the eastern border of the continental sea in which they 

were deposited. To furnish this enormous thickness ot 
l'aleo/.oic sediments a much larger laud aria must 
have existed toward tin- easl than now remains. The 
fact that the denuded surface of much folded p 

Cambrian rocks is seen now to disappear eastward 

under the present continental shelf, in some measure 
bears out t his idea. 

The conjecture now follows, that the Cambrian 
rocks of \Yw Kngland heretofore described as b el on g - 
ing to the Atlantic coast province form really a part of the 
Appalachian province; that is, that they were deposited 
not in the Atlantic, but, along- with the not far distant 
Cambrian rocks of eastern New York in the continen- 
tal sea. This satisfies the conditions which have been 

predicated of them, namely, that they were deposited, 

not in the open ocean, but in a more or less sheltered 
sea. The elevation of a part of this area in the pro- 
cess of Appalachian mountain building and the sub 
queut denudation of the whole of New Kngland, reduc- 
ing- it almost to base-level, would account for the 
existence i^ the Cambrian rocks onlv in isolated 


patches, while the disturbance oi their original strati- 
graphic position would make it impossible to read any 
of their history by the stratigraph 

[f this conjecture be true, the '"land barriers lying 
to the east M of New England would !>•• bul a part of 
the broad pre-Cambrian land strip which extended 
front some pari of the North Atlantic in a southwest- 
erly direction almosl to the preseul shores oi the Gulf 

of Mexico. In such case all ideas of the Atlantic 

shore line previous to the Triassic period are in vol 

in the statement that it existed at some distant 

of its preset// position. 

Taking up the thread of the history at the begin- 
ning of Meso/.oic time we find a series ol elongated 
basin deposits of Triassic (Rhaetic ? date consisting 
chiefly of red sandstones and conglomerates. Th< 
rocks form a Long train of detached areas stretching 
from central Massachusetts southwestward to South 
Carolina. They lie unconformable upon the denuded 
surface of the pre-Cambrian crystallines, and app 
to have accumulated either in shallow inland seas or in 
sheltered embayments of the ocean. All of them are 
separated from the present ocean by older rocks, 
except that of Connecticut, which itself communica 
with it only by a narrow neck. 

We have, then, in Triassic times very little evidence 
of the position of the Atlantic shore-line itself. If the 
Triassic rocks of Connecticut and New Jersey were, 
as has been thought, deposited in embayed portions of 
the ocean waters, or fronting - the open sea, then we 
must have had a coming" in of the shore-line by sub- 
mergence of the greater part of the pre-Cambrian land 
area, by which the Triassic sediments accumulated 
even upon the edges of the Paleozoic rocks of the conti- 


nental province. Such a submergence must have 
brought the ocean to the very foot of the Appalachian 

mountains which had received their initial uplift just 
before the beginning of Triassic time. But, if on the 
other hand, the deposits were made in lagoon-like 
baisins of inland waters, the ocean shore-line may still 
have stood as far out as at present, or farther. The 
evidence i^ lint tho*e areas south of the New Jer* 
area at least, were accumulated in inland seas. It 
such was the case audit is the most probable the- 
ory j the Triassic ocean extended inland in a great 
bay with its center somewhere near the mouth oi the 

Hudson River and its shore-line reaching to the ba 

of tin- Appalachians in westers New Jersey ami east- 
ern Pennsylvania whence it swung gradually south- 
ward to somewhere near the position of the present 


The conditions <,| depositions of these sediments have, 
however, always been difficult to reconstruct. No 

lution has ever been ottered which proved generally 
satisfactory. The Connecticut l>asin seems to rep 

sent the estuarine phase of a river which was the an- 
cestor of the Connecticut. Prom analogy, I would 
offer as an explanation of the elongated similar basins 
to the southwest that they also represent drowned 
portions of consequent rivers which may be reasonably 
supposed to have existed at so short a time after the 

folding of the crust which formed tin' Appalachian 

system. The character of the deposits would accord 

well with this supposition. 

Following the Triassic period of deposition came an 
emergence causing a retreat of that part of the shore- 
line south of New England, by which it assumed a 
position coinciding with the present shore in Lono- 

44 JCVtOfAk 09 Tin; 

Isl.'uid Sound, but gradually departing therefrom to* 
ward the south. In Mary/laud the departure amounts 

to one hundred miles inland from tin- present coast and 

it continues at about that distance to Georgia, wli 

it swings rapidly westward and northward forming tin- 
Mississippi embavment of tin I m. 

The extensive denudation, which had been long going 
on over the permanent land area, now extended 
those Triassic rocks which wnv above sea level, and, 

l>v the beginning el Cretaceous time, this area 
dtued to surface of low relief, much as it appears to- 
day, but somewhat nearer base -level. 01 the condi- 
tions existing during Jurassic time we know nothing 
since we hare no distinctly Jurassic rocks in this prov- 
ince. But of Cretaceous depo s i t ion we have a good 
record in at least two formations whose inland exten- 
sion is marked by the Cretaceous shore-line aire 

A study of the earlier of these two formations by 
W.J. McGee shows that, after tin- base-levelling of 
the ancient land area, which was achieved just bet 
Cretaceous times, a shoreward tilting of the area took 
place by which the streams were revived to such a de- 
gree that they rapidly sank into deep narrow valleys. 
A submergence then caused the sea to invade tli 
estuaries, the coast assuming in general the position 
which marks probably the greatest transgression dur- 
ing- Cretaceous time. Then followed the accumulation 
of the Potomac sediments which, with their equivalents, 
extend from New Jersey southward, certainly as far as 
North Carolina, and probably as far as the Mississippi 
embayment. A period of emergences and retreat of 
shore-line then intervened before the deposition of the 
gdauconite beds of later Cretaceous which are seen to 


overlie the Potomac. During later Cretaceous then the 
shore line returned nearly to its former position. Close 
study of the different members of each of these forma- 
tions would probably reveal signs of shore migrations 
of comparatively small magnitude besides the SWeeg>- 
ino- changes herein mentioned. Moreover it is not defi- 
nitely made out that the inner bonier of existing Cre- 
taceous deposits is the limit of encroachments ot the 

sea in Cretaceous time. Great denudation, going on in 

Tertiary time, caused ;i second base-level to spread over 
a considerable part ot the ancient land area which had 
been uplifted at the close of the Triassic; and it is to 
be supposed that much of the denudation took place in 
the relatively soft Cretaceous beds, by which larj^e 
areas may have been entirely removed. 

Coming now to the Tertiary, we find that while there 
were undoubtedly many oscillations of level during this 

period, the principal Tertiary shore-line corresponds 
closely to that of the Cretaceous from their most north- 
erly occurrence off Cape Cod) as for south as Virginia. 

Between these points the two border lines are never 
more than twenty miles apart. In Southern Virginia, 

North Carolina, South Carolina, and part«d' Georgia, 

the Tertiary bonier overlays that of the Cretaceous; 
but from Georgia northwestward into the Mississippi 
cm bay men t, the Tertiary lies further out, allowing an 
exposure of the Cretaceous beds in a strip perhaps fifty 
miles wide. 

In the Tertiary of the Atlantic coast province, Kocene, 
Miocene, ami probable Pliocene, sediments occur, 
though in the case of one or more formations it is difli- 
CUt to discriminate between Miocene and Pliocene. 
Hence the term Neocene is often used to describe the 
Lafayette ; Appomattox, Orange Sand) formation of the 

4(> JOURNAL <>!•' THJS 

middle and southern Atlantic, which baa been carefully 
studied by Mr. McGee. Th< ually more or 1< 

unconformity between the three or more formations oi 
Tertiary, and often they are nol continuous over the 
whole Tertiary field, 1 nit thin oul and disappear from 
some portion-, while they reach greal heighl and thick- 
ness elsewhere. It is difficult to say more than th< 
were a1 leasl three migrations of the Tertiarj coast- 
Line caused by uplift and subsidence whicb took- pi. 
rather unevenly bu1 never causing any considerable 
transgression over the border Line already described. 

It is reasonable to expect thai thecharact >rmi 

caused by the persistence ol shore conditions at certain 
levels \\<»uld furnish evidence in the case of such recent 
deposits as the Tertiary, and doubtless thej would if 
sufficient study had been made even ol these terraci 
shore cliffs and raised beaches which arc known to . 
ist. Such shore marks would enter very promincntk 
into the investigation of the Quarternary shore-lin< 
which our attention must now be directed. 

It should be remembered that there has been a suc- 
cessive addition of essential land surface along the At- 
lantic slope from Cape outhward through all the 
geological time from Triassicdown to Quaternary, and 
a consequent recession of the Lihore-line eastward. 
From Cape Cod northward, however, the reverse has 
to some measure been true, that i>, there has been an 
excess of subsidence over the constructive process 
by which all the deposits from the beginning of the 
Mesozoic to the Quarternary, if formed at all, are now 
buried beneath the sea. 

The most marked feature of Quarternary time was 
the great ice invasion. A prodigious accumulation of 
ice in the northern half of the continent was accompan- 


ied by a spreading out of its mass on all sides no that 
it extended southward far into temperate lattitud 
reaching at its greatest extension the middle courses 
of the Mississippi River. On the Atlantic coast of 
New England the glacial covering spread into the sea 
and probably floated oil' as icebergs. As a result 
the abrasion and transport of rock material by the ice, 
the glacial field is covered with deposits of irregular 

distribution and possessing the peculiar characters by 
which they are readily distinguished from ordinary 
aqueous sediments. During the formation of some ol 
these glacial heaps, the land along the North Atlantic 
coast must have stood somewhat higher than at present. 

Some of these deposits, which were evidently made 
upon the land, now lie as small wasting islands oil" the 
present shores. Indeed it has been claimed that the 
central part of the glacial field must have stood much 
higher at the beginning of the glacial period than now, 
the difference amounting to thousands of feet in the 
region JUS< south of Hudson's bay, which was sui>- 
posed to have been the glacial centre. This has been 
supposed a necessary condition to account for the accu- 
mulations of snow and ice in such enormous quantities, 
and its descent into lower latitudes. There is 
evidence of such a condition in lCurope in the Horded 
Scandinavian coast, as has been pointed out by Dana, 
and the submerged valleys extending out from the 
Hudson and other rivers may be cited as an American 
evidence of a similar sort. But we have much clearer 
evidence of submergence during a later part of the 
glacial period, which amounted to only a few feet at 
New York City but increased northward, — reaching 
200 to 225 feet off the coast of Maine, 500 to 000 feet 
at Montreal and 1000 feet on the coast of Labrador. 

46 lor K.N A I, OF TIN. 

These approximate figures are takes from careful 
measurements by various observers of the heights "I 
certain shore cliffs and marine deposits show a t<» be <<l 
Quarternai I have omitted measurements <d 

various points between, and have gives is the plai <■ ■•! 
exact ngures a sort of general average of the observa- 
tions <»! several persons, arranged is such a way as 
to show the gradual increase is the amount <»| sub- 
mergence going northward. 

It is difficult to reconcile the views held by various 
geologists «>f tin- amount "I subsidence which took 
place at several points along the New England coast 
and northward. The differences depend on different 
criteria used in the discrimination of shore-lines, dif- 
ference in opportunity tor and general incompletes) 
of observation, etc. Th« wis of opinion, how- 

ever, as regards the Atlantic shore-line is about as I 
have represented it. The result of such a subsidence 
must have been the submergence of parts of the Maine 
coast, parts <>l Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and 
Labrador, and of a large area extending up the St. 
Lawrence River to the Great Lakes. 

Of the middle and southern Atlantic coast little has 
been done in discriminating and tracing the many 
shore-line terraces of Ouarternary age which undoubt- 
edly exist as distinct features. Some mapping of the 
Ouarternary deposits has however been made. Of 
these, one formation has been studied by McGee and 
named the "Columbia" loam. It belongs especially 
to the middle Atlantic slope and is older than the 
moraine deposits of the glacial epoch. It is both 
fluviatile and marine and is scarcely observed south- 
ward from North Carolina, where its inner border 
approaches the present coast. It represents a brief 


glacial submergence amounting to 400 feet in tin- 
northern part of the field (New Jersey) and almost 
nothing at its southern limit. 

Other Quarternary formations occur in the southern 
held, of which the shore-line limit lies 10 to 5<> miles 
inland, from South Carolina to Florida. Here the 
Quarternary forms one third of the peninsula the 

southern end) and thence the division line swings 
alonjjf the Gulf coast where it marks off a border 
formation almost equal in width to the similar strip 
along the Atlantic stai 

Far the largest area of land surface which has been 
added to tin- Atlantic border i> seen to to be of Terti- 
ary age. On the inner border of this a narrow strip 

of Cretaceous and on the outer edgt a thin layer 
of Quarternary sediments, make up, taken with the 
Tertiary, practically all that the continent has gained; 
and the area represents the final amount of recession of 
the Atlantic shore-line during recorded geological 
time. North of Cape Cod tin- result of oscillation 
so far has been on the other side, and the coast-line 

now probably stands farther in upon the land than at 
the beginning of recorded time. Here we have lost 
rather than gained continental area. 

The subjoined map attempts to represent the Atlan- 
tic shore-line history in the order in which I have 
attempted to compile it in this paper. The study has 
necessarily been crude and incomplete in its nature 
and is offered as an introduction to a more critical and 
extended study which may be undertaken later on. 


LeConte. — Elements of Geology. 3d edition. 

Walcott, C. D. — Cambrian Correlation Papers; Bulletin 81, U. S. 
Geol. Survey, (Atlantic coast Province). 

50 KXAL Of tiik 

sii.iicr, x. s. On t/i, nbrian /> 

('•>., Jlfass. Boll. Mtu. Comp, ZooL xvi.. pp. 24 2/.. 

DarU, \v. M. The Geological Date* oj Origin oj Certain 
frapkU /■onus oj ike Atlanth Slope of the U. S. Bull. <,. 

A hum i. .i, II.. pp, H 581. 

sii.iicr, x. s. ' Geology oj Mount Desert Island. Hth An. Kept, 

U. S. ( reologic&1 Survey. 

BdcGee, W. J. — TAret Formation oj to* Middle Atlantu Si 
Am. Jom*. s. -i. xxxv. 

DeOeer, BaroU Ger ard . — On Pleistocene Chan 
em North America. Prw , B ■ . xxv.. 454 477. 




While Professor ESbenezer Emmons was "Geologist 

to North Carolina," be discovered a singular form in 
Montgomery county which he believed to be a fossil. 

He announced the discovery in 1856, and owing to the 
low horizon in which he found it, regarded it as the 
oldest representative of the animal kingdom on the 
globe, and gave it the name paUsotrochis ; old mes- 
senger. At this time he wrote a letter to one of the 
editors of the American Journal of Science in which he 
said: "It is evident that the fossil is a coral," and de- 
scribed'it as follows: "Form lenticular'and circular and 
similar to a double cone applied base to base; surfaces 
grooved, grooves somewhat irregular but extended from 
tiie apices to the base or edge." 1 

In his Report of the Midland Counties of North 

1. American Journal of Science, Vol. XXII. 2nd Series, p 390. 


Carolina, on plate 14 opposite page xx., he gives a 

lion of the region in which the palaeotrochis is 

found, which is reproduced in Pig. 1. On page 61 oi 

the same is the following descriptive section, enumer- 
ated in the ascending order: 

1. Talcose slates, passing into silicious slates, and 
which are often obscurely brecciated. Thickness un- 

2. Brecciated conglomerates, 300 !-<><> feet thick, 

and sometimes porphyri/.ed. 

.}. Slaty Breccia, associated with hornstone. 

4. Granular quartz, sometimes vitreous, and tilled 

with fossils and silicious concretions of the size ol al- 
monds; 2<>o 300 feel thick. 

5. Slaty quartzite, with a wry few fossils, about 50 
feet thick. 

(>. Slate without fossils, 40 feet thick. 

7. White quart/., more or less vetrified, filled wit i 

sils and concretions; 700 800 feet thick. 

S. Jointed granular quartz, with only a few fossils. 
( ). Vitrified quart/., without fossils; .><> feet thick. 

10. Granular quartz, no fossils, ami thickness very 
great, but not determined. 

Be says that some of the rock beds in which these 
forms occur consist almost entirely of them, and are 
intermixed with almond shaped silicious concretions 
14 which frequently contain the fossil." He speaks of 
their occurrence from the size of a small pea to two 
inches in diameter, but by far the greater number be- 
long to oneor the oilier of two sizes; the smaller size 
represented bv Figs. - 4. and the larger by Figs 
and 9. The smaller he calls palaeotrochis minor, and 
in addition to the characters given above, "the apex of 
the inferior size is excavated, or provided with a small 


roundish cavity, with a smooth inside, or sometin: 

marked by light ridges, whu h may be accidental; the 

Opposite side is supplied with a rounded knob, from 

the base of which tin- radiating gtOVt* begin." 1 In tin 

larger, or palaeotrochis major the rounded knob and op- 
posite cavil \ ;ui- absent. 

"This fossil isasilicious coralline, and not silk 
from petrification, [t seems never to have badacal- 

eareoits skeleton like- most corallines: but, during its* 

istence, to have been entirely composed oi the former 
substance. The animal was gemmiferous the germs 
being sometime* east off, in which ease sew and inde- 
pendent individuals were produced; <m others, tin 

germs adhered to the parent. These start from the 

circular edge at the base of the cones; their growth 
produced a change of form which is illumrtated in Pigs. 

2 and 4. 2 " 

"The palajotrochis is found at Troy, Montgomery 
county, at Zion about twelve miles south-west of Troy, 
where the fossil occurs in the greatest profusion. It 
has also been noticed on the road from Troy to Bir- 
ney's bridge."' 

Shortly after the description of the palajotrochis 
was published, Professor James Hall, in a letter to 
Professor Dana, 1 suif^ested that these forms were 
merely concretions. In 1868, Professor O. C. Marsh 
in an article on this subject in the American Journal of 
Science says that he suspected that they were inor- 
ganic and an examination of the interior clearly indica- 

1. Geological Report of the Midland Counties of North Carolina 
E. Emmons, p.62. 

2. Ibid page 63. 

3. Ibid page 64. 

4. American Journal of Science Vol. XLV. p. 218. 


ted that they were not corals, and as soon as microscop- 
ical sections could be prepared, they were more care- 
fully examined, but no trace of organic structure could 
be detected, the entire mass being evidently a finely 
grained quartz. It follows therefore, he says, that 
this name should in the future be dropped from the 
genera of fossils. He says further: "Admitting the 
inorganic nature of these remarkable forms, their 
origin becomes an interesting question and it is certainly 
not easy to give a satisfactory explanation of it," bat, 
that it seems to have some analogy with cone-in-cone 
structure which is probably due to the action of pres- 
sure on concretionary structure when forming. In some 

respects the two an- quite distinct, but evidence of 
pressure is clearly to be seen in both. ' 

With this the matter serins to have been dropped ex- 
cept a general unrest among scientists, into wh< 
bands the specimen-- came, that the results obtained 
should not be final. 

The late Professor W. C. Kerr, State Geologist, 
made a collection of these specimens with a view to 
making an examination of them but did not live to do 
the work. That the subject might be further investi- 
gated. Professor J. A. Holmes, State G eo l ogist, vis- 
ited the region and collected a large number of sp< 
mens. For the same reason. Professor Collier Cobb, 
at whose suggestion ami under whose direction I make 
this examination, obtained an original specimen col- 
lected by Professor lCmmons, from the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

With this brief history of the paLtotrochis, let us 
examine its character, mode of occurrence, etc. 

1. American Journal of Science, Vol. XLV. p. 219. 


The specimens I have used are those collected by 
Prof essor Kmmons and Professor Holme red to 


The rock mass in which the specimens occur is gran- 
ular quartz of a dark color and splits roughly along 
apparcnl planesol bedding. The weathered surfa 
of the rock is wry rough, consisting of the protruding 
fossil-like forms and - « mt oi which they have 

weathered, interspersed with more or less even patches 
o!" weathering concretio 

These protruding forms are composed <»f quartz of a 
light gray color, sometimes brown from oxides of iron. 
Around each <>f these forms there is a rinji 
grayish white matt-rial, which in many cases has 
weathered below the general surface of the rock, leav- 
ing the tonus standing up apparently in little cups. 
The concretions in weathering are also grayish white 
and arc circular in section, showing concentric struct- 
ure about very small neuclei. The fossil-like tonus of 
the palaeotrochis are larger than the concretions. I 
counted in an average specimen, twenty of the palaeo- 
trochis exposed in an area of nine square inches, which 
averaged about three-eights of an inch in diameter, 
never varying much from that size. The concretions 
were somewhat more numerous and considerably 
smaller. The palaeotrochis is not distributed evenly 
through the rock nor does it occur in definite planes of 
stratification. The individuals are turned in no definite 
position with respect to each other, hut with very 
rare exceptions one apex or the other of the double cones 
rests on bedding planes or on planes parallel to t!; 
not with the axis perpendicular to the plane but inclined 
at a varvint>-anu-le depending- upon the flatness of 
the form. Inother words, their general position is 


that which they would assume if left under the influ- 
ence of gravity to collect under water. Figure 1<> i-> a 
section at right angles to the bedding planes showing 
their mode of occurrence. 

The rock mass clearly shows evidence of considerable 
pressure at right angles to the bedding planes. This 

is not only shown by the mass, hut often by individual 
specimens as shown in Ki<4". 11, which, lying in the posi- 
tion it would naturally assume, received the pressure 
from above, giving it its present form with the verti- 
cal plane of fracture which has since been filled. Owing 

to the shape and position of the specimen, the pressure 
would be unequally distributed, fracturing it in the 

direction shown for the obvious reason that the great 

stress was in that plane. Lines of fracture are also 

found in microscopic sections of specimens which do not 

show it externally. Pig, 12. 

In form, isolated specimens and those exposed on 
the weathered surface of the rock, answer to the de- 
scription of E&mmons, given above (pag 51, an 1 52; 
also sec figures 2 7). But when the weathered surface 
is broken away and a fresh surface is exposed, th 
forms are enveloped in a gray, translucent, radial 
fibrous mineral, which under the microscope proves to 
be an impure chalcedony. This, as we would expect, 
weathers gray-white on exposure ' and is washed awav 
faster than the surrounding rock. The interior, or 
palaeotrochis proper, I find is granular quart/, as did 
Marsh. The small concretions prove 10 be chalcedonv 
throughout. There is a definite line of separation be- 
tween the chalcedonic formation and both the surround- 
ing rock on the outside and the enclosed pala*otrochis. 

1. Seepage 54; also Text Hook of Ceolog-y. A. Geike — Third Edi- 
tion. 1893, p. t> l ». 

56 JOURNAL <»!• tiik 

The concretions art- also distinct from the rocli mass, 
Figure 13, taken from a mici I tion, roughly 

Illustrates t bese points. 
Having the general characters of palaeotrochis before 

us, tet us now compare it with the tonus that it has 

been thought to resemble ami examine more carefully 

tin- more minute details. 

1 Is it a concretion? "There is a general tend 
in matter, when solidifying to concrete around centn 
These centres ma\ be determined 1 bj foreign sub- 
stances which ad as nuclei, or _' by the circumstan< 
of solidification, which according eneral law, fa- 

vor a commencemeni of the pro certain points 

in the mass, assumed at the time. As tin- solidifying 
condition is just being reached, instead of tin- whole 
simultaneously concreting, the process generally be- 
gins at points through the mass; and these jxmits are 
the centres of concretions into which the mass solidi- 

"The concretions in the same mass are usually nearly 
of equal si/.e; hence the points at which solidification 
in any special case begins are usually nearly equi- 

"In a concretionary mass, the drying of the exterior, 
by absorption around, may lead to its concreting first. 
It then forms a shell with a wet unsolidified interior. 
The interior may then dry, contract, and become 
cracked; or, it may Undergo no solidification, and remain 
as loose earth; or, it may solidify by the concreting 
process, forming a ball within a shell, with loose earth 
between. "* 

If the forms we are considering- were even spherical, 

1. Dana's Manual of Geology, page 628. 


the most general concretionary form, we should still 
have no difficulty in deciding' that they do not belong 
to the last class, since the interior is a compact mass 
of semi-crystalline quartz, often showing the layers in 
which it was laid down by the ordinary process oi 
deposition. (Fig. 14.) From what has been said of 
their distribution (p. 54 . they could not belong to the 
second class. The chalcedonic envelope is distinctly 

concretionary, and regarding the palaeotrochis as a 

nucleus, they ran belong to the first class. Hut the 
palaeotrochia itself is no ordinary concretion, which 
Marsh admits and tries to find some analogy between 
it and cone-in-cone structure. 

(2) Is it stylolites or cone-in-cone ? "Stvlolites are 
cylindrical or columnar bodies varying in length up to 
more than lour, and in diameter up to two or more 
inches. The sides are longitudinally striated or 
grooved. Kach column usually with a conical or rounded 
cap of clay, beneath which a shell or other organism 

may Frequently be detected, is placed at right angles 

to the bedding of the limestone's, or calcareous shales 
through which it passes, and consists of the same 
material. This structure has been referred by Pro- 
fessor Marsh to the difference between the resistence 
offered by the column under the shell, and by the sur- 
rounding matrix to superincumbent pressure. The 
striated surface in this view is a case of * slicken- 
slides. ' "« 

It is true that the pakeot rochis shows signs of pres- 
sure, but, as already pointed out (p.55), the pressure had 
a tendency to deform the structure and obliterate the 
grooves or striae instead of forming or constructing 
them, while the layers of deposit of which the forms 

l. Text Hook of Geology. A Geikie. 3d. Edition, 1893, p. 316. 

58 JOURNAL OF thk 

are composed, »how thai there wan no pressure when 

forming, (p, ?(>, also B*ig.l4. Neithi they in 

the slightest degree similar in form* 

"Undoubtedly few of the structures classed under 
the genera] head of concretions are more curious than 
cone-in-cone. The name is descriptive, the structure 

asisting of corrugated or crenulated conical layers, 
one within another, and in the more complex specimens 
ii is seen thai thin layers of the rock, a calcareous and 
sideritic clay, is composed of the closi wded ne 

of cones, the axes of the cones being transverse t<» the 
bedding planes. The heigh 1 <>f the cones measures the 
thickness of the layers, which ia commonly one to four 
inches. It seems necessary i<» suppose that during the 
compression of the layers of clay by vertical pressure 
it is divided by an indefinite of conical gliding 

urfaces, which are corrugated by the intermittent 
character of the movement. "' 

"Clay iron stones sometimes exhibit the regular 
structure known as cone-in-cone, in which case the 
seam has a tendency to divide into cones, the bases of 
which are towards the top and bottom of the bed, while 
their apices are directed towards the center. 

By comparing the character and mode of occurrence 
of paUeotrochis with cone-in-cone, it is seen that ti; 
is no similarity between them, but the quotations are 
given in full to show that no inorganic form has yet 
been described which explains the origin of pakeotro- 

The palceotrochis is not two cones applied base to 
base, that simply roughly su<™-ests the general form, 
and its failure to conform, even approximately, to a 

1. Dynamical and Structural Geol., W. O. Crosby, p. 278. 

2. Ore deposits, J. A. Philips, p. 165. 


geometric figure and its freedom from rigidity in its 
appearance, either in form or marking's, suggests that 

it is not of inorganic origin. And yet the persistence 
in conforming to a general outline, in the radial groov- 
ings, and the rounded knob at one apex with the 
smooth cavity at the other makes the conclusion irre- 
sistable that it is not "accidental, " that they were all 
formed under like conditions and in accordance with 
certain laws, and no mode of crystallization or wholly 
inorganic arrangement can be conceived that will sup! 
ply the conditions or suggest the laws capable ot imi- 
tating these forms. The rounded knob and the cavity 
opposite are very striking. 1 have examined many 
isolated specimens and without exception the knob and 
cavity are present. Those exposed on the surface ol 
the rock, as has been pointed out, generally show one 
of the apices, and of those 1 have examined upwards 
of 300 in all not one failed to present either a knob ..i 
a cavity, ' with the exception of not more than four 
whose apices had been so cm- lied by pressure that 
these characters had been destroyed, or the knob sim- 
ply broken off as in figure 11. 1 have never yet found 
one that hail a knob at each apex or a cavity at each 
apex. These two markings seem to be as persistent 
and as characteristic as the two valves of a brachiop d. 
The- cavity has tin- exact appearance of the socket 
of a ball and socket joint. The inner surface appears 
perfectly smooth under a magnifying j^lass and viv- 
idly suggests that it has been the seat of an organ or 
of an organism. 

It has been shown solar that the palaeotrochis 

1. This statt nit nt applies only to th» M which present an fcpes and 
not to thOi <• rare exception! that do not present either apex. 



is not similar to any concretion or class oi concreti «• 
heretofore described and that it has no anol< 
cone-in-cone <>r stylolites. Let. us now examine the evi- 
dence by which Professor Marsh came to the conclu- 
sion that it is not a coral and see if he wras justified in 
that conclusion. 
His conclusion, given on page 52 of this paper, is 

not drawn from the form or external markings, but 

when he examined the interior with a microscope and 
found no organic structure he deemed the evidence suf- 
ficient and concluded that in the future this name 
should be dropped from the genera of fossils. If In- 
had found organic structure of course the proof would 

have been direct and positive, bul the absence of or- 
ganic structure is by no means a proof that it is of in- 
organic origin, for Nicholson and Lvdrkker say, in 
speaking of replacement by silica, the following': "In 

a large number of cases of silicification, the minute 
structure of the fossil which has been subjected to this 
change is found to have been more or less injuriously 
affected, and may be altogether destroyed even though 

the form of the fossil be perfectly preserved. This is 
the rule where the silicification has been secondary, 
and has taken place at some period long - posterior to 
the original entombment of the fossil in the enveloping 
rock." 1 

Therefore it appears that Marsh's determination can 
not be relied upon. 

(4) Was Professor Emmons justified in his state- 
ment that it is a coral? It is true the general form, the 
radiate striae, or grooves, and what he took to be 

1. Manual of Palaeontology — Nicholson and Lydkekker. Vol. 
p. 7. 


the method of reproduction as described above p. 52 
might have seemed to him more suggestive of the coral 
than of any known form, organic or inorganic, yet the 
proof is not positive and lean find no just ground for 
his position. ' 

Admitting the organic origin of palaeotrochia, how 
could it have been preserved? Considering its distri- 
bution through the rock mass and the position assumed 
by the individuals, with the material in which they are 
imbedded, the explanation is possible by different meth- 
ods. The first that occurs to me, and which is offered 

merely as a suggestion is this: The indviduals dropped 

to the sea floor and were imbedded in OOCe. This oo/.e 
being largely calcareous but containing a considerable 
amount of silica on be^innino- to solidify would haw- 
lonned in it, silicious concretions, just as they are 

found in the chalk beds of England. Their origin is 
explained as follows by LeCoute: "Nodular concre- 
tions seem to occur whenever any substance is diffused 
in small quantities through a mass of entirely different 

material. Flint nodules in chalk. Carbonate of lime 
modules in sandstone, &c< 

As concretions start around nuclei which are gen- 
erally of ;i different material from the concreting sub- 
stance, and are particularly favored by decaying Or- 
ganic matter, it is quite natural to expect these bodies 
of organic matter to be encased with silica at the same 

1. I have found several Specimens that answer to Professor Em- 
mons's description of the proCCM by which they are reproduced, and 
at apparently different stages <>f the pro cci <>f the, 
which was not in Emmons*! collection, I have shown in Fij{-. 15. 
This answers better to his description than his own figures. 2 
and 4. 

2, EeConte's Clements of i 


time the small spherical tionsare being formed 

about minute nuclei. Chalcedony often enclose* or- 
ganic forme and so tly thai the colors of the 
plants thus i are preserved. ' After a 
lapse oi time let .-ill the call matter ol the de- 
posit be replaced by silica, and then follow 1 of 
pressure and uplift and you have the form as it 

That solutions pass through chalcedonic envelopes is 
shown in water geodes and in geodes containing bitu- 
men. a [n this view we would >f silica 

in .the shell of chalcedony to be purer than that which 
surrounds these forms. This is observed to In the ^ 
with palaeotrochis. (p. 51- . And from theruleof 
placement by silica pp, <>n, <,i wt would be surprised 
to find internal organic structure. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to assign these 
forms t<> any class or order, not even to show whether 
they are animal or vegetable. Hut in passing we may 
note certain classes of organisms, to one of which it 
may be referred at some future- time. 

(1) It might have been a calcareous sponge whose 
spicules were destroyed by replacement. Though as 
no spicules have yet been found, it can not In- put down 
as a sponge. 

Figure 16 represents a sponge similar in form to the 
pakeotrochis. 3 

(2) It may belong to the class bydrozoa. 

1. Transactions of the Geological Society, Vol. II. First Series, 
p. 510. 

D 2. Dynamical and Structural Geology. W. O. Crosby, p. 275. 

3. Ward's Catalog-ue. p. 205. For description see Transactions of 
the Geological Society. Vol. 1. p. 337. 


3 It may be an organ of sonic animal. The form 
represented in figure 17 is a "cast of what Nathorst 
considers to be the radial canals of a species oJ ;i cras- 
pedot Medusa, belonging to the family JO [uordae." ' 

They may prove to he of vegetable origin; an- 
other variation of the many and striking forms assumed 
by sea plants. 

Prom the peculiar nature of the knob and cavity. I 

offer as a hare suggestion that in their original growth 
thej were probably joined togther as in Fig. is. 

These are mere suggestions to show that the pakeo- 
trochis is not wholly unlike ;ill organic forms, 
though it can not yet be assigned a definite place among 

The purpose of this examination has been to call at- 
tention to the work clone on the pakeotrochis, to in- 
vestigate the methods by which the results were ob- 
tained, and to see if the conclusions readied would 
stand the test of .in examination made in the light 
of more recent discoveries and by more modern meth- 

I claim (1) that neither Kmmons, Hall, nor Marsh 
made that careful ami scientific investigation of t'l 
forms necessary to justify the conclusions reached, and 
that these conclusions should not he accepted. And I 
claim 2 that the weight of evidence in the present 

state of knowledge indicates that the pakeotrochis is 
of organic origin. The reasons briefly summed up are: 
(1) Its distribution in the rock. (p. 

1. 10th Annual Report, l'. B. Geological Survey, 18.s8-'s<>. Plate 

!>j). p. t>7<>. 


Positions assumed In the individuals, (pp. 54, 55). 

Their conformity in shape to a general 

persistently as that <>l any class of organisms, [pp. 51 

(4) The failure to conceive of anv inorganic pro 
by which such forms could be produced. p. 

(5) That they attract concreting material and are the 
nuclei <>i concretions, (pp. 54, 56). 

((») Their general resemblance t<> determined organic 
forms. pp. <>2, <> 

(7) An apparent method <>l reproduction, pp 
«.i . 

It may take yearn of patient examination to find 
direct and positive evidence by which the palasotrochis 
may be referred to its proper place among organisms, 

and such evidence may never be found, vet I believe the 
importance of the subjecl justifies a much more extend- 
ed and careful examination than it ha- \-t received. 



fig. 1. 
fig*. 2 
Fig's. 5 
lier Cobb 
Figs, I 
Kitf. 10. 
fig. 11. 

Fig. 13. 

fig. 14. 


rigr. i5. 
ri ff . i6. 

fig. 17. 
Fig. is. 

Section through region «>f Paheotrochia Beds. After Boun 
3 and 4. J'aitrotrochis mtnor. After BttMMMW. 
(>, 7. Specimen found by Emmons, in ■ 

and ( ». I'al.cotrochis major. After Kmn; 
Showing poeition of fossils in t»ed. 

ttrockis deformed ami fractured by pressure. 
Micro tion showing fracture, 

aficroacopic section showing chalcedonic envel 

hed surface i f rm'k showing layers <>f deposition in 

vtrochis showing what Bounona described aa budding. 

An organ of medua 
Suggestion as to i> >asible arrangement of palcsotro.his. 




re j/. 



It is proposed in the following paper to emphasise 
the necessity for the acceptance <>f oxygen as the stand- 
ard tor the at«»mic weights, to point oat the fact that 
their absolute determination is not within the bounds of 

reasonable hope; to show the folly of speculations as 

to the primal elements in the present state of our knowl- 
edge; and to suggest certain changes in the Periodic 

Arrangement of the elements as given by Mendelejeff. 
In L888 the writer of this paper published in the 

Journal of the E&lisha Mitchell Scientific So- 
ciety, Vol. V. 98, a plea for the adoption of Oxygen 
as the standard for atomic weights- a return to the 
very wise and scientific usage of Bercelius. A reprint 

of this paper Was sent to the London Chemical .\\ 
and must have been in the hands of the editor of that 
journal when there appeared in its pages a paper by 
Dr. Bohuslav Brauner, of Prag, upon the same subject. 
The reprint mentioned was published in the Chemical 
News a week or so later. The same standpoint was 
taken in the two papers ami largely the same argu- 
ments used. Indeed it seemed almost incredible that 
the two could have been written entirely independentlv 
of one another. These facts were adverted to by Dr. 
Brauner in a subsequent paper in the Berliner Beri- 

JOURNAL Of 'nil'. 

chte (Ber. deutsch. chem. Ges. XXII. 1175. when 
the question was being discussed between Meyer and 
Seubert, Ostwald and himself. 

This was six wars ago. The matter baa nol ; 
much discussed in tin- mean time. Still the 
result has been partially attained. Many chemists 
seem t<> have «- 1 < 1 < > i * 1 1 • < 1 the oxygen standard and it is 
made use of in most recent work in this line. Some 
have spoken of this as only a temporary abandonment 
of tin- hydrogen standard. This can be true only in 
case the chiel argument tor the oxygen standard a 
to he valid. This argument is. that, in the majority of 
cases the atomic weight determinations involve combi- 
nations with oxygen and hence tin- use ot its atomic 
weight in calculations. This weight should b 
means he fixed and not dependent upon determin- 
ations of the ratio to hydrogen or any tiling else, to he 
upset every few years by new and "more accurate" 
determinations. Only in two cases can hydrogen re- 
place oxygen as the standard. First, in case suitable 
compounds of the various elements and hydrogen can 
he obtained. This does not seem very probable. The 
second case is where absolute accuracy of determina- 
tion is conceded as impossible and the final atomic 
weights can be settled upon by some methods of math- 
ematical calculation. Such methods have been sug- 
gested but their adoption docs not seem probable. It 
is scarcely necessary to point out that the use of O as 
1(> or O as 15.96 would make a very marked difference 
in the cases of elements of high atomic weights 
eral integers for uranium for instance. Oxygen as 16 
must remain the standard for the present and it will 
be so considered in the remaining portion of this paper 
and uniformity in this regard is very earnestly to be 


pressed upon all who desire the advancement 


WEIGHTS attainable'' 

The atomic weights arc generally considered the 
most important constants in chemistry and yet so im- 
perfectly are they known and so varying the miml>< 
assigned them that it has not been possible so far 
settle finally whether they really are constants or vari- 
ables within narrow limits. The probability, howev 
is BO greatly against this latter view that there are I 
who are inclined to accept it. As more than th 
quarters of a century of work has been expended \x\ 
them, work engaging the utmost efforts of the m 
of the science, as Berselius, Duma-,, Marignac, St 

and many others, it may with perfect justic Iced 

whether absolute accuracy i-. attainable. 

Some have hoped that the more perfect know-L 
of the chemists of the present, the better met!. . 

separation, purification and general manipulation, and 

the line balances, would enable them to attain to the 
desired accuracy. There have been, oi 
improvements but any one who will carefully exam 
the determinations of BerselittS will find many of them 
in marvellous agreement with the finest work of I 
times ami when he goes over the list and sees for how 
many of these atomic weights the work of Berzeliu 
still relied upon as the best, he will be less boast fr. 
the progress and less hopeful of results from it. 

Certainly, if accuracy is to be attained, then the 
usual method of those who re-calculate these w 
and in fact the only allowable method at pi 

70 journal of tin; 

namely, of taking tin- work of different authors, 
and critically averaging it, must be rejected, lor this 
would never secure concordanl result* a> they would 
have to depend upon the judgment of the critic and 
calculator. All of this bach work must l- l out 

of existence, except for historical use, and we must 
begin anew with every conceivable refinement of 
method and apparatus, perhaps devoting, as has been 

suggested, some central endowed laboratory to that 
work and that alone. 

Calculations of " probable i rr< *n " have given a seem* 
ing accuracy to many atomic weight determinations. 

In this chemists have followed tin- lead <»t Stas. It 

seems to me that this is very misleading, these calcula- 
tions often being made upon small series in which the 

possible error, as shown by the variation in individual 
experiments, is ten times that shown by the calcula- 
tion. In the proposed new determinations this method 
of calculation should only be allowed in the ca- 
several hundred closely agl ieterminations. 

Of course, it might as well be confessed that abso- 
lute accuracy is not to be even hoped for. The best 
methods and appliances which can be devised or man- 
ufactured will always be imperfect and there is besides 
the personal error of the observer to be allowed for. 
To what extent shall we demand accuracy, then ? 
Where shall the line be drawn ? Is it to be at the first 
decimal place or the second ? It seems useless or hope- 
less to speak of the third. There can scarcely be 
said to be an atomic weight at present known correctly 
to the first decimal place. Take the numerous deter- 
minations for oxygen, exceedingly modern and excel- 
lently well carried out, and see how they vary between 
16.0, 15.9 and 15.8 and look at the original series from 


which these results were calcalated and see how they 
are but the means of series with decidingly varying 
figures — a balancing of errors perhaps. ( hie is induced 
to think that for many years, at any rate, the high 
attainment to be hoped for will be a correct iirst dec- 
These being tin- tacts, it is hut false pedantry in 

the present state of our knowledge to write these fig- 
Ores beyond the integer in most cases unless the deci- 
mal is a large One. In a few cases the first decimal 

might be used. In no case is the second justifiable. 
What would be gained by a knowledge of the absolute 
atomic weight beyond the satisfaction of having secured 
that much knowledge of the truth? Do these costly 

labors promise results sufficiently valuable to justify 
them or are the energies of many of the most skilled 

chemists misdirected and wasted? Of course n<> I 
labor is wasted, but an energy which would accom- 
plish grander results in some other direction is wasted 
if turned into trivial channels. All will acknowledge 
that no good to practical chemistry would result from 
Weights known to the second decimal place. If known 
approximately to the first every requirement of the 
analytical chemist would be satisfied, 

Two things may be gained tor science however by 
such knowledge. First, the question of constancy of 
weight would be settled, beyond all reasonable doubt, 
and secondly, data would be obtained for the discovery 
or continuation of underlying laws. 

Some dim presentiments of such laws were - 
when these weights were in their most chaotic state. 
The vision of them was obscured by the confusion of 
standards and the disagreement in determinations. Afl 
these difficulties were partially removed the way 

72 .lol'KNAI. Of TIIK 

became clearer for the d iscove r y of 1 1 1 « - inter-relation] 
of the elements and Hie dependence <>l their propeti 
upon their atomic weights. It must !»«• re m e m b e i 
that lor several of the elemenl reightsare 

unknown and lor others are very poorly determined. 
It is extremely important that these be 
dete rmin ed, and work spenl upon them is far from 
wasted, bul I must c on f es s thai I can not but Peel that 
further e fforts bo discover tin- ratio between hydro- 
and oxygeu are "i little value t<> and that chem- 

ists generally would be more grateful were tin- musm 
labor deroted to such elements as thorium, cerium, or 
nickel, ami many others. 

The question of tin- variation of tin- elements in their 
atomic weights is a verv elusive one and scarcely 
capable of being finally settled by even the most accu- 
rate work of the chemist. The supporters of tin- 
hypothesis have always a loop-hole of escape in tin- 
limits within which these numbers may be supposed to 
vary. This variation is now narrow, d down to the 
decimal places. As the determinations become more 
accurate, it is easy for the limit to be moved from 
one decimal to another and so defy pursuit. Nothing 
but absolute accuracy, an accuracy shown in every 
experiment, with all sorts of varied proportions, and 
not an averaged result, could finally end the discussion. 
But with a settled standard and the atomic weights 
known to the first decimal place, the way would be 
clear for laws dependent upon their inter-relation. 


Speculations upon the numerical relations existing 
between the atomic weights began almost with the 


first imperfect list of these weights. These took two 
directions. First the ratios to some common standard 
or unit as hydrogen, and secondly the relations between 
the weights of elements of the same group or family. 
The first subject was looked into simultaneous!)' in the 
year 1815 by Prout in England andMeinecke in Ger- 
many. The second was naturally taken up some years 
later, the first to suggest numerical regularities being 

Dobereiner in 1817 and he has been followed b\ 
number of others. 

Prout's hypothesis has always attracted the n 
attention. Jt may well be divided into two pai 
first, an assumption that the atomic weights are all 
whole multiples of hydrogen. This was afterwards 
modified so as to read that they were all integral mul- 
tiples of the half atom of hydrogen. This half atom, 
or rather body having half the atomic weight, was 
Called pantogen. The second was a deduction from 
the first assumption. If they were multiples of 
hydrogen, then they must be composed of hydrogen or 
of pantogen. Why this should be the case or was at 
all a necessary deduction BO one seems to have attemp- 
ted to show. 

The lirst assumption has been examined and worked 
over bv many investigators with a view to proving its 
truth or falsity. If proved true, it would be inters 
ino- and useful, but it could never justly be claimed 
as showing that the elements were formed of hydrogen 
or the hypothetical pantogen. If we take the list of 
atomic weights as calculated by Ostwald and select 
those in regard to which we can feel sure that the 
weight is approximately correct and if we disregard 
variations of less than one tenth from the unit, then we 
find that, twenty-three out of thirty-five are integral 


multiples of hydrogen. Clarke claims forty-one oaf 
of sixty-six but includes smell as niobium, didymium, 
gallium, tungsten, thorium. &c. A little critical 
examination of his list will easily cul the whole num- 
ber down i<» little more than halt <>t the forty claimed. 

The best that can In- said is that about tWO in three 

arc whole numbers ami tin- remainder run tin- lull 
range of decimals from .1 to .') and no halving of the 
atomic weight can possibly hit upon them. When it 
is considered that about as man) of the elements are 
whole numbers when hydrogen is taken. as 1.0025 as 

when it is equal to unity, it will he seen how little 

bearing upon hydro - tin- primal element the 

facts of integral atomic weights would have. 

mai. ELEMENT. 

I hesitate t<> discuss this question because I scarcely 

think it is seriously urged but a few thoughts may not 
be amiss. The supposition of a primal element having 
as its atomic weight half or any other fraction of the 
weight of hydrogen is based simply Upon the incr- 
number of coincidences of the atomic weights with 
whole multiples and can have little weight. Such an 
hypothetical pantogen escapes all serious argu- 
ment. But against the supposition that hydrogen is 
the primal element many things may be urged. 

In its favor there is little beyond the fact that some 
two-thirds of the different atoms, so far accurately de- 
termined, have approximate!}' integral weights and 
that, in the table of elements, hydrogen occupies a 
most anomalous position and refuses to be satisfacto- 
rily arranged in an}* of the groups or periods. If, 


however, we are to judge of this matter by ordinary 
rules, it seems highly improbable that an element of 
such definite, postively marked characteristics can by 
any kind of condensation or combination be changed 
into such markedly opposite bodies as as fluorine and 
sodium or chlorine and potassium. We are coming 

more and more to regard an element a-> represent] 

an assemblage of properties. Thus chlorine stands 
for a form ol matter, gaseous and most energetically 
negative whilst a slight increase of weight brings us 

to potassium a solid metal and most energetically po 
tive and it is quite unlikely that this should be due 
merely to a small additional condensation of such a 
body as bvdtt It is contrary to the gradual 

change of properties observed in case-, of polymerism 
or even homology in organic chemistry. 

The supposition of two or more primal element-, 
condensed in varying proportions, i^ in accord with 
phenomena known to us but «>i course is so far without 

experimental or other basis if we exclude the mathe- 

matico-spectroscopic work <>t Grunwald. Take for 
instance, the widely different results obtained 
by varying the ratio bit ween nitrogen and hydrogen 
in their compounds. Thus 3N and Hgive a well char- 
acterized acid and N and 3H give an equally definite 
base. This complete reversal of properties can no more 
be attributed to the hydrogen alone than to the nitro- 
gen. The primal elements might act in this way in 
their condensation into the common elements. 

There is no basis for the formation of anv hvpothe- 
sis as to the primal elements and speculations on this 
score are as idle as the dreams of the early Greek phil- 
osphers. The future may bring such knowledge as 
will afford the needed data. Certainly we are a lon«- 

7(» Jiil'KXAI, Of Till; 

step nearer bo it in the recognition of tli • fact that I 
properties of the elements are dependent upon and de- 
termined by the atomic weights. 


A quarter of a c entur y has passed since the firsl 
announcement of the Natural Law and the publication 
of Mendelejeff'a table. The truth of the law in a gen- 
eral w.t\ seemed to !>«• accepted very readily by chem- 
ists. It was incorporated in text-books and th 

plained, hut comparatively little use has been made of 

it in teaching th.- science. Even mendelejeff himself. 

in his Principles of Chemistry y has not made the full- 
est use of it. Victor Meyer, in his lecture before the 

German Chemical Society more than a year aj 
showed how it might be used and how he used it him- 
self, and probably, this, will do much toward j>opular- 
i/.ing- its use. 

There must be some reason why so great a help to 
scientific study is not made more Use of. Does it lie in 
a lingering distrust of the law itself or failure to accept 
it or is it because of the imperfections in the arrang 
ments of the elements offered by Mendelejeff and 
others? It is most probably due to the latter and this 
paper is presented with the hope of clearing up some 
of these difficulties. 

The modern chemical world has recognized in the dis- 
covery of Mendelejeff the greatest step forward since 
the announcement of the atomic theory. It is too much to 
expect that so great a discovery should spring - full-pano- 
plied from the head of its author. It has been accepted 
by chemists in all lands and is the basis of present chem- 
ical thoug"ht. Doubtless man}- have observed the im- 


perfections of the law's original form or rather the table 
as first brought out. Probably some have ventured to 
comment upon it. Such criticisms have escaped me with 
one or two exceptions. 

It is with much hesitation that I venture to point out 
what seem to me t<> be imperfections and blemishes in 

so great a work. Pew may agree with me in calling 

them imperfections, f do not purpose to detract OOC 

particle from the greatness and importance of the es- 
sential truths contained in this discovery. Mendelej- 
eff's table, as we have it at present, is a great advance 
upon the first "tie published by him in 1869 which must 
be pronounced tentative only and decidedly unsatisfac- 
tory. The table of Victor Meyer is far behind it in 
presenting the bets of the periodic law. There 

have been many attempt at devising a graphic repre- 
sentation of this law. I know of none which can be 
called real aids to the student or which do not intro- 
duce new ideas which, to say the least, have no bat 

in the facts as known to u^ at present. None of them 

can be regarded as a safe substitute for the simple ta- 
ble of Mendelejeff. 

Taking that table I would venture to point out some 
obstacles to its present full acceptance. These have 
been in part revealed to me by the effort at an hone>t 
presentation of this great truth of nature to honest- 
minded, clear-sighted young men. Before mentioning 
these difficulties which lie here in the path of a teacher, 
1 must preface that my criticisms are aimed at what I 
may be allowed to call the (inessentials of the law. 
Mendelejeff's great feat was in seeing clearly and an- 
nouncing intelligently that the properties of the ele- 
ments were dependent upon and determined by the at- 
omic weights. This is the essential of the periodic 


law and is in accord with our fullest knowledge. The 
second pari of the law as usually stated, that tfa 
1 > i operl ies are periodic functions, attempts in a measure 
to define th< dependence, It may also be true t>ut it is 
not fully proved and is open to objections. It m 
in ■ thai this hypothetical portion could well be left in 
abeyance until fuller knowledj it a stronger foot- 

ing', meanwhile substituting something less open to crit- 
icism and which cannot weaken the central truth. 

Take this table and examine it. First we find 
kinds of periods made use of periods containing seven 
elements and those containing - n. It it had 

only been possible to arrange all of tin- elements in 

ens as Newlands attempted to do, tin- periodic idea 

would have been most convincing and the law of oct- 
aves running through nature would have seemed most 
wonderful. Hut these elements do not admit of being 
arranged in this way and the use of periods of dill' 
ent lengths is to fresh young minds, unacquainted with 
mathematical expedients, somewhat forced. 

Secondly, there is a very anomalous position assigned 
t<» the triads or, as sometimes written, the tetrad-. IV. 
Co, Ni, (Cu,) etc. They have been set off to them- 
selves, clearly so as to make the other elements fall 
even approximately into their places and into the proper 
sevens. I say approximatelv, for the student soon si 
that although there is a similarity there is also a wide 
difference between the elements of the first and of the 
last seven in any period of seventeen. 

Thirdly, in the lower periods, in order to get ele- 
ments to fall into their places a great many unknown 
elements have to be interposed. Thus between cerium 
and ytterbium, the next element in the list, there are 
blank places for sixteen elements. The third large 


period of seventeen has only four known elements in it 
and the fifth has only two. Of the five periods only 
one is completely filled out. To say the lea>>t, this 

shows a very imperfect knowledge of the elements, or 

a great deal of guess work. In the table there are 
sixty-four known elements and thirty-five blanks 
elements yet to be discovered. I hardly think it p 
Bible that the majority of chemists believe that after all 
of our diligent search for tin- pasl century less than 
two-thirds of tlie elements have been discovered. 
Where are the others in hiding? Will they be discov- 
ered by the spectroscope in the rare earths? There i-. 
tainly hope of finding some but the number to be 
found i> appalling. The average student thinks, in all 

honesty, that the coincidences of the first part of the 

table will scarcely justify such forcing and wholesale 

interpolation. [f our knowledge of the elements is as 
imperfect as that, we have no rijjfht to force them into 
periods. Some of them seem little inclined to fall into 
these periods of their own accord. How do we know 

that the remaining two-thirds may not upset the entire 
calculation? Certainly we are venturing a good ileal 
upon a very imperfect knowledge of the remainder. 
Let us see how the matter stands. The periodic idea 
may be true but we do not know enough about these 
elements yet to be able to give this idea a very promi- 

;t place in the natural law, anil we oujLfht to avoid 
the assumption of so many unknown elements uii!> 
absolutely necessary. 

As 1 do not intend to tear down without some effort 
at re-building, I would, with much real diffidence, fori 
realize that I may be looked upon as one who would 
rush in where only the great masters of the science can 
safely tread, offer the following table as a substitute: 



o ?= 


X z 














PQ- -^ 




O « 

— < X - 

: C 


-CH N? 'J 





O « ffi 


Q - < 



My first suggestion is that the wording of the Nat- 
ural Law he so changed as to read: M The properties 
the elements are dependent upon and determined by the 
atomic weights. " The somewhat difficult idea of func- 
tion is simplified and periodicity is subordinated. Then 
I would substitute the following table for that ordi- 
narily j^iven. It is nut greatly changed, and not much 
originality is claimed lor it, but however slight the 
changes 1 would insist upon their value, because t! 

do away with the dependence upon periods, and t! 

Certainly make the table an easier, more intelligible, 
and more useful OttC to the student. Th- 

effort at rounding off any period or group. There is 
room for additional elements when discovere I, bul the 

table is not dependent upon them. 

Lastly, the inter-relation is more clearly brought 
out. I do not maintain that this table could ever have 
been discovered without the idea of periods, though I 
think it night. The periods still underlie it, but they 

are out of sij^ht for the present and are not necessary. 
The table is not dependent upon them. 

There are seven group elements having a mean in- 
crement of two in their atomic weights. It is by no 

means essential that there should be just seven of tin 
At present we do not know more, but I think then 
possibly a place for one more having the atomic weight 
21, differing widely from the others as it occupies a 
singular position. 

These group elements are also to be called bridge 
elements as they show marked gradation of properties 
from one to the other and so serve to bridge over the 
groups and connect one with the other. Linked to 
them by an increment of sixteen are seven typical ele- 
ments. These show the distinctive properties of ' 


groups to which th« j belong and a wider divergence 
from the nexl group to them. Prom them can be de- 
duced the properties for the remaining elements <>f 
the group. Thus in group I Li is the bridge <>r group 
element and Na the type, Prom this type two lines of 
elements dtverj raging I the line. Th< 

triads would ot course be changed into tetrads or pen- 
tads by t! elements. No impor- 
tance is attached t<> the fact that at present they 
in threes. There is a distinct increment for each line 
of elements. These can be averaged thus; Pig. 1 rep- 
resenting the arrangement and increments for the first 
three grouj s, an 1 fig. 2 the arrangement in the 1 
four groups, the increments varying slightly. Th< 
increments could Ik- averaged in all except one ca 
and the agreements with known atomic weights would 
be close enough to admit of the easy arrangement of 
the elements in the prescribed order. Naming the 
triads Right Triad and Left Triad respectively we 
find that thes averaged increments would be as fol- 
lows: the increment from group to type element is six- 
teen; from the type to the iirst element in the Left 
Triad L. T. is 18 ; to second element L. T. is 63 ; to 
the third is 112 ; — to the first element to the Right 
Triad (R. T.) is 41 ; to the second R. T. is 88; to the 
third is 177. 



Fig. I. 

Fig. 2. 

1 6 


to it 



« I 




I V 

o <» 

The one exception is in the increment from Type to 
III L. T. from group IV to VII. Instead of being 112 

this is 141. 

To the right of Group VII we have three triads 
which have nearly the regular increments belonging to 
the Right Triads, namely, 47 and SS. They are without 
any type element, it seems most likely that they be- 
long to one group. The Group element would have an 
atomic weight of 21 and the Type oik of M. 

The arrangement in the table then is partly one 
based upon regular increments in the atomic weights, and 
since these are BO poorly known, partly upon our knowl- 
edge of the chemical properties of the elements. When 
it is recalled that about one half of the atomic weights are 
imperfectly known it will be evident that these aver- 
aged increments are approximations only. It is impos- 
sible to bring out such perfect symmetry as obtains in 
the homologous series in organic chemistry. And 
yet these groups should Ik- something of the same 
kind. Following - the analogy to the organic hydrocar- 
bons a little further, may not the existence of a l ele- 
ment in two different conditions as to valence, &C, as, 



for instancy copper or mercury or iron be looked upon 
ai .1 sp !( ies of isomerism. Such speculations arc of lit- 
tle use, however, «ljh! quite apari from our present pur- 

I have found this table very useful in teaching' ele- 
mentary chemistry and it can most profitably l>e made 
the basis of the entire course. Thus in the tirst four 

groups the left triad contains the elements most closely 
resembling the Types. In the last three they are to 
be found in the right triads. As to natural occurrence 

of the elements, in the first four groups those in the 
left triads occur in the same compounds and generally 
in connection with the type; those in the right triads 
occur as the type or as sulphides or are free. In the last 
three groups this is reversed. The right triad ele- 
ments occur at] the types and the left triad as the type 
or as oxides. So too the properties of the elements 
show this relation to the types. Take as an example 
the specific gravities in Group II. 

Be 2.1 

Mg 1.75 

Cal.5 Zn6.<) 

Sr2.5 Cd8.6 

Ba3.6 Hgl3.6 

It is not necessary to pursue this part of it at great- 
er length. The careful teacher will easily work out 


all these comparisons for himself and will iind that 
chemistry taught by the table is shorter so much repe- 
tition being saved) and is easier for the pupil and its 
symmetry and beauty is much more easily brought out. 
There is no special claim for originality made here. 
The germs of such a table or arrangement can be found 
in several text-books but I do not know of any in which 
the idea is fully developed or such a table as this is 

given.- I offer the whole a- a suggestion. Perhaps 
some may find it useful who have met the same difficul- 
ties which 1 have encountered. < Hhers may have over- 
come these difficulties in a still better way than this, 
and yet others may see no difficulty at all in the pres- 
ent table. I think, at least, all will agree with me 
that there are difficulties and very genuine ones also 
in the use of MendelejelTs or Meyer's tables as given 
by the re s pe c tive authors. 



The preparation of pure zirconium chlorides from 
zircon is a rather long and tedious process. Linne- 
man's method, [Sits. J>cr. Ken's. Akad. d. Wisset*- 
Scha/t. Vol. II, 1SS5, translated in Chemical Kews 

LII, 233 and 240. on "Treatment and Qualitative Com- 
position of Zircon."] which is very long, was much 
shortened and simplified bv Venable \Journ. Anal, (uui 

* The arrangements of Bayley, Hinrichs. and Wendt an 
what similar but the ideas which I would make prominent, are ob- 
jured by other considerations and speculations. 


Applied Chem, Vol, I' p. ■ , Bailey's method [/oum, 
London Chem, Trains, rSS6 % />. /./v] of precipi- 
tation by means of h tide is very cxp en" 

live, aside from the difficulties one encounters in pre- 
paring 1 the reagent ptu 

Having Learned that zirconium could be precipil 
completely, freed from iron and aluminium, [Baskerville 
J. Am. Chcm. Soc, A '/'/, />. 475. j by means of sulphu- 
rous acid, when working with the small amounts usually 
employed in analysts, I proposed to apply tin- same 
treatment to quantities in hulk for tin- purpose <»t 
obtaining a pure salt of zirconium. 

The powdered zircon, washed with hydrochloric acid, 
(100 grams) was fused and treated according to the 
directions given by Venable [loc. citJ\ up to the point 

where the impure zirconium chloride had been freed 
from silicic acid and was in a dilute hydrochloric 
acid solution. 

This solution was nearly neutralized with ammo- 
nium hydroxide. A strong stream of washed sulphur 
dioxide gas was then led into the cold solution to thor- 
ough saturation. This required about fifteen minut 
Partial precipitation occurred in the cold, but other 
experiments had shown that the precipitation would be- 
more complete if this solution saturated with sulphur 
dioxide was diluted largely and boiled. Five to ten times 
as much distilled water was accordingly added and 
the whole boiled half an hour in large evaporating 
dishes. The zirconium precipitated out and settled 
nicely. No bumping occurred during the cooking — 
while hot, the liquid was rapidly gotten away by 
means of an unglazed porcelain suction filter. The 
precipitate was washed two or three times with 
hot water, then boiled in w r ater and again washed after 


filtering 1 . This precipitate was then dissolved in di- 
Inte hydrochloric acid and boiled to expel most of the 
sulphur dioxide. The solution was re-precipitated 
with ammonium hydroxide. The precipitated hy- 
drates were washed free from ammonium >.alts and 
then dissolved in concentrated hot hydrochloric 
acid. Five crystallisations from the strong acid were 
found to be sufficient tO remove the small amount oi 

iron remaining. 

Investigations are now in pi ning the 

composition and nature of the precipitate produced by 

the sulphur dioxide. 



During the past two years, 1S')J> and 1894, I have 
observed during several trips through the eastern sec- 
tions of Virginia, North and South Carolina, a la: 
number of oaks morphologically different from any 
scribed species, and in most of thecases, where mature 
fruiting specimens have been secured, the characters 
have required that they be referred to tin 

list of oak hybrids. One of them, however, is a new 
form of the post oak. distinct enough to merit 
place, and -><• described. The other forms, which I 
have examined, from which late fall leaves, winter buds 

and fruit were secured, have proved to be hi un- 

described hybrids; while a large number are hybr 
previously observed by others in different parts of the 
United States ami to the elucidation of which n: 


gre notes can add hut litt! I not think the follow- 

ing hybrids haw- been previously reported from North 
Carolina: Quercus Rudhinii % Q. sinuata, Q,agiuU& 
x Q. Catt'slxci, o. minor i Q. o/6a. The last one I 

find in the middle section of both North and South 

Carolina. In Mecklenburg county I found a fine spet 
men of Q. coceinea \ Q. pkellos % hut its characters do 
not agree at all with the Q. heierophylla a> described 

by Michaux in the Sylvaor by Mr. Martindale. I hi 
a large number of other forms from these and other 
states which I have not yet looked over or from which I 
have not yet succeeded in obtaining fruit or Bowers* 

To several of these 'hybrids, which are most constant 
in form, distinct in character and which are not inter- 
mediate in form between the parents, I have ventured 
to apply specific designation. 

The following" are the forms in my herbarium which 
I have looked over, with a few brief notes describing 
them : 

Q. cinerea x Q. Catcs!>«/.—F<>rm /. — The se 
leaves, 3 to 5 inches in length, are narrowly oval to ob- 
long^ rarely oval in outline, with three short bristle- 
tipped lobes at the summit ; or oval and entire. They 
are either rounded or acute at base. Above they are 
smooth and shining" ; below, whitened with the close 
white stellate pubescence of cinerea. The veins are 
straight and prominent while those of cinerea are ob- 
scure. The twigs and buds are coarse and large like 
those of Catesbaei ; but the bark and general appear- 
ance of the trees is that of cinerea. The persistent 
leaves turn, in the fall, first a yellow and then by De- 
cember a dull brown, at which date the foliage of 
Catesbaei is scarlet or partly green. The fruit, however, 
is that of Catesbaei, frequent!}', with a tumid base to 


the cup, or the wall of the cup rolled inward around 
the margin. These trees are frequent. Ten or twelve 
were seen, which were essentially alike in foliage; and 
those which had Iruit agreed in that. 

Form 2. — The leaves are longer than in the above, 
4 to 6 inches long; mostly oblong in outline; alw; 
three lobes at the summit, usually with long fak 
lobes; either dentate or lobed on the margin*. Thi 
are some scattering white pubescence of cineiva over the 
lower surface and tufts of coarse hairs in the axils <>I 
the veins. The bark is rough and black. The t: 
usually fork and have the general appearand 
ba-i. The leaves turn scarlet in the fall like tttOSl 

Catesba-i. The ■corns n ood deal but are m 

generally like those of cineiea. Several of these tt 
were seen. 
Q. cinerea i Q. kutrifolia. ' tl or obi 

1.5 to 2 inches long, acute at each end; deep green and 
shining above, below lighter and covered, especially on 
young shoots, with a scattering appressed tomentum. 
The leaves of young shoots are variously lobed, et 
cially towards the summit. The midrib is very prom- 
inent, an 1 also o:k- or two pairsof lateral \ 

tufts of hairs are in the axils of the leaves. Twiga 

covered when young with a thick white pubescence. 
The trees are small, 15 to 25 feet high, with broad, 
spreading, globose crowns, rather resembling laurifo- 
lia. Leaves remain bright green, or partly turn 
yellowish bv December 0. Nut is brown, smooth, 
obscurely ribbed, sttbglobose; cup deep, covering from 
one-third to one-half of the nut: scales smooth, tirmlv 
appressed. Acorns are almost intermediate in charac 
between those of the parents, except in pubescence. 
The fertile embryos ire largely atrophied. Several 

'><> JOU»HAL <»K tiik 

tree-, were found in different places, bat always n 
t he coast. 

Q. cinerea i Q. aquatica. The leaves 2.5 to 3 inches 
long, l .5 to 2 inches broad, are broadly spatulate; round* 
ed or Unci.' lobed at the summit; rarely rounded at ba 
Above they are smooth; In-low varying from tin- thick, 
white pubescence ol cinerea to nearly smooth, with 
small tufts of coarse pubescence in tin- axils of * 

veins. The wnation ia mostly obscure. They art- 
small trees, 2<> to 25 feet in height, with drooping 
branches and rather smooth gray bark. Tin- twig* are 

pubescenl save where the pubescence has worn off. On 

December 2 the trees arc nearly naked of have--, the 
leaves still persistent being yellow, whil< - ol 

aquatica are green. The nut is globose, brown, not rib- 
bed, tomentose, as are the scales of the shallow or d< 
cup; enpe persistent on the twigs as those of aquatica 
frequently are. Several specimens of this hybrid w 
seen, all near the coast. 

Q. petiolaris. — Q. cinerea i Q. tincioria .''--The 
leaves are oblong - or elliptical, 4 to 6 inches long and 
1.5 to 2 inches broad; sinuate or crenate on the margins; 
mostly three lobed and dilated at the summit; truncate 
or subcordate at base. The lobes at the summit arc- 
usually bristle-tipped. Leaves are smooth above or 
with glandular, septate hairs along- the midrib; the 
under surface covered with a close, brownish tomen- 
tum, wearing - away with age; tufts of coarse pubes- 
cence in the axils of the primary veins. The venation 
is that of the black oaks (tinctoria and coccineaj with 
4 to 6 pairs of prominent, impressed primary veins. 
The petiole is one-half inch long". The long - buds, 
.3 inch, are lanceolate. The slender twig-s are covered 
with the brownish tomentum of cinerea. Five or six 


such forms were seen; all small trees with the kirk 
and general aspect of cinerea. By December 1 the 
leaves have turned a lij^ht brown and are mostly p 
sistent. The deep, nearly sessile cup, enclosing 1 nearly 
one half of the nut, is top shaped and acute at base. 
The large, obtuse, pubescent scales are appressed or 
usually so. The cup is strongly spreading just below 
the margin. The nut is about one third larger than 
that of cinerea, oval, pubescent; the persistent base «»i 
the style is prominent. Only one tree was lound 
in fruit and its nuts wen- mostly imperfect. 

The character of the pubescence on leaves, twigsand 

fruit, the oval and entire form of a fewoi the leaves and 
the genera] appearance of the tree indicate ci» 

one parent. The other parent is one of the long-peti- 
oled leaved black oaks. Rubra, which probably A 
not occur, or rarely, where this was found, would be 

excluded by the deep cup. The shape of the leaf 
points to cuneata, but neither nut, cup or bud agrees in 
any particular. The forms of nut and cup are clearly 
toward those of tinctoiia or COCcinea, and ally 

does the thick wall of the cup and the angle made by 
the outer surface just below the margin indicate ow 
these species. I am inclined t<> aay tinctoria. 

O. cinerea i Q. nigra. The leaw-s are 3 to 4 inches 
lon^\ 2 to 3 inches broad. Usually broadest at the upper 
end. In shape they var\ from elliptical to ovate, rarely 
slightly three lobed at the summit. The oval leaves 
are acute at base and usually acute at the summit. The 
others vary from rounded to cordate at base. Old 
leaves are smooth above except on the midrib which is 
covered with the close septate, stellate, brownish- 
gray pubescence of cinerea; below they are covered 
with a down of the same color. There is a d ; s- 

( »2 JOURKAL Of tiik 

tinct petiole one-eighth of ;in inch Utog. The 

nation shews th«- dichotomous forking so char 
teristic of nigra. The upper bud scales are pah 
emit. The leavea are thick and stiff. In the fall 
they first turn yellow ami then dull brownand persist. 
They are small tr< in height, with droop- 

ing branches and rough bark. Only a few nuts could 
be found, only a few trees fruiting. These were oral 
and black ribbed, somewhal larger than the nut 
ctnerea, and had dispropor t ionately enlarged hemispher- 
ical cups, covered with coarse pabes lies. The 
trees in Nov em b e r have the g eneral appearance of 
nigra after the leaves have turned. Perhaps ten such 

trees were seen, all in the neighborhood Of tlie coast. 
(J. aquatica X Q. nigra* — The leaves are 2 to 4 inches 

long, 1.5 to 3 inches broad; broadly ovate or deltoid in 

outline, broadest above the middle. They are scolloped 
or slightly 3 rarely 5) lobed and short bristle tipped; 

sessile and usually acute at the base. Above they are 
glabrous and also below, except in the axils of the prin- 
ciple veins where there are tufts of coarse hair. The 
leaves are thick and linn, and on November 24, w 
mostly green or the lemon yellow which withering 
leaves of aquatica turn. The venation is that of nigra. 
The buds are small but hairy at the summit as are 
those of nigra. The twigs are slender and warty. 
The pubescent — scaled cup is hemispherical, and en- 
closes one-half of the ovate, obscurely ribbed nut. 
The nuts are imperfect, often with the fertile embryos 
but slightly more developed than the abortive ones. 
The branches are drooping; the bark is slightly gray. 
Only a single tree was seen, about 20 feet in height 
and with a broad spreading crown. Imperfect nuts 
and cups were abundant, the latter usually remaining 
on the tree. 


Q. dul>ia.—Q. phellos? x o. . Leaves arc en- 
tire, 3 to 7 inches long, and i.5 to 3 inches broad. They 
vary in shape from lanceolate and linear lanceolate 
broadly ovate or elliptical. The lanceolate leaves are 
shaped like those of phellos, broadest at the tower 
third; the larger ones are obtuse at each end and symmet- 
rical. All are tipped with a single bristle. Above 
they are smooth; below there is some scattered pub 

Cence over the entire surface and a line of C< 

alon<^- both sides of the midrib, as is th- Usually 

in phellos. There are many pairs of prominent straight 

lateral veins. The venation is something like that of 

tinctoria. The stout petiole is nearly one-fourth of an 

inch long. The slender buds, .15 inch long, are pu- 
bescent, but the twigs are smooth. The distinctly pe- 
duncled CUp 18 top-shaped or hemispherical, with in 
lute margin; scales small, bright brown, closely ap- 
pressed, almost smooth. The cup is .(> to .9 inch broad, 
.4 to .5 inch deep, ami encloses one-half of the nearly 

globose, black and brownstriped, hoary nut. It fruited 

Only a single tree of this remarkable form was seen. 
This was in the open, and was about 25 feet tall, with 
a spherical crown and spreading branches. The trunk, 
10 feet long, Inula rough, dark bark. The leaves were 
partially green and yellowish on November 20. They 
all turn a dark brown and drop. When green it re- 
sembles the evergreen magnolia. Although the shape 
of the leaves does not bear me out, I think this tree 
will prove to be a hybrid between phellos and tinctoria 
or COCCinea. The texture of the leaves, however, is 
firmer than in any of those trees. There is no phy- 
siological debarment, that I know, which mij^ht pre- 
vent a third species from entering this combination. 


That is, a hybrid phellos i tinctoria might in turn 
fertilized by cinereaor nigra, .'uul this tree be th< 


Q. falcata. Q. phellos a Q. cuneato. The 1- 
3 i<» 5 inches long', and 1 t<> 2 inches broad ; oval or 
oblong t<» lanceolate in outline. The smaller lea 
entire, ovalin outline, and acute at each end and Hi 
a very short petiole ; while the I 
with s -vt.iI shallow \ >'> ■> tow ir Is the base an 1 a long 
terminal, frequently falcate Lobe, tipped with a single 
bristle. The petioles arc from one-fourth to one-hall 
an inch long. The nearly sessile cup i» saucer-shap 
.5 to .6 inch in diameter and .2 inch deep with the close- 
ly appressed scales tubercled at base. The cup en- 
closes only the base of the globose or suh globose nut 
which has the light brown color, in ilea 1 specimens, 
and wartiness peculiar to cuneata. Nuts are mostly 
imperfect and many, only half-formed. A large ti 
(>() to 65 feet in height with a large and spreading crown; 
bole 18 inches in diameter, with a rough dark bark re- 
sembling that of phellos. The foliage was a light 
green on November 2 > ; dead leaves turn at once a (Jull 
brow n. 

Quercus minor par. Margaretta. — The leaves are 2.5 
to 3 inches long-, and 1.5 to 2 inches broad. They are 
oval in outline ; entire, wavy-margined or with three 
spreading- lobes at the summit. They are mostly acute 
at base, rarely obtuse or truncate. Above they are 
smooth, below they are soft downy. The slender pe- 
tiole is from one-fourth to one-half inch long-. The 
twigs are slender and smooth. The buds are acute and 
bright red, sharply 5 angled and larg-e, .15 to .2 inch 
long. The cup is top shaped, rarely rounded at base, 
sessile or nearly so. The cup is .4 to .55 inch deep, 


.45 to .5 inch broad and covers one-half or more of the 
slender brown nut which has a length of from .7 to .8 
inch and a breadth of form .4 to .5 inch. The nut is 
silky canescent at the summit and is persistently beak- 
ed with the long and slender base of the style. This tree 

fruited abundantly in 1 ( )'H. and was the only high ground 

white oak in eastern North Carolina that did do f 
They are small tree-, 2<» to .}<) feet in height, growing 
in the high pine barrens of eastern North Carolina. 
When trees are killed by tire the root-- usually sucker 
freely. The bark is similar to that of th 


'* 1 




v. 7-il 

Physical & 
Applied Sci. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific 
Society, Chapel Hill, N.C. 



St ORa