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1 -.iirs^-^ : . 


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^Hi"»Mm«IHM>l.>»Mfftl*mHWIMim \" > 1 



1788 — 1796. 







AinHOR or DIB ucarroBT op rkulakd ruo» ms puoe or initrcitT. 


. 4t K M •• ■ 

"■ -^ 


1 1 J 1/ 



1788— 17B9. 

llL'Htinj: of PuIiDiaoQt — Bpport from IhePrivjCounial^Dr.Fnuida 
WlUU^PIi.raioiuia vsamiuenlby FatliumvaUry Coiniuitttvi — Fttt 
propMC* > Canunittcc to wnich Cor piccnilonU — Foi'a ohJeotJaoa — 
C>ui&utl<« MppoiuUJ — lulrigun ofTliurloK' — twill's BrBolnfiom 
~ Frsa g,tt of lOO.UOOI. olTvrvJ to Pitt, bul diicliiicil — Pitt't'Ro- 
gcuej plan — QrcavUlo olDcted Speaker — Itcport of now Onm- 
miltvo to i-iiuiuuu llie pliygiviuiu — Pitt's Kcaulutjoiu iCEtrietiiig 
tha Rcg'Rnrj — Saltii^ of Iliiikc — Bckkiicj Bill jiHUcd the CuDi- 
mou* — Bcstomtion of tU« Eing to Ltulth .\ P^e 1 


1799 — ITdO. 

Wit llivn"'"' tncattmefl — Wilb««farcc'« Spewch oci lh« S\itj« Tni« 
-^Hr, Aildlngton oloctod 8pMknr — Promotion* In tlui Focrago 
— Duel botwoon tbo Duku of Yotk and CoIoudI heauoi — Natiaiul 
MbnoM — Lord Diutkinithfiiu'B «vliih fur a I>iik«doni — R«Atti«<lby 
tlie King — Lord Wcitroatlaiitl a{>poiQt<<d Locd-Lioiilamuil at Irtr- 
ImiuI — Trial uf S(«;kiJal(i — Fnnich Kcialnliov — Ofdnioiu of Pox 
«mcl Burb«— Polli-y of PiU— AAiIr of Noiitka Sound— 1>1mvIii- 
tioa of PotliuoiPDl — Tbc WcrttDinatcO' Election — Oontiiuied dif* 
ItaMUV wilb 8|iulu •> &:-.'.ri>t nvf'Uotiou at Pari* — Convmtioa 
dffood at Mulria — Dr. Prico nnd Loid StMUio|«— E^Mjr on tho 
FfCQob BuvulnCion bjr Burko S2 


ITOO — 1T9J. 

ng of tho Dew Parllnniont — Gronrlllo CTi^nted a Poor — 
IMm of BidunaDd* letter of oompkuit— Tbu Biiil^— TrnU 
of Huttniia — Tcatitnoii}- of Wilbutfcro* and Biirk« to I'ilt'n do- 
qOBOoD — RMtifiWonoo of Er«biiio !u Parlbunont — The ICiug ofTcra 
PiU the OaiM; irbieli he deduio«-> Wilberibrou'a niotiou on Uic 


- Slave Tntde — India and Oanaila — Diflsenaion batween Fox and 
Burke — Eighla of Juriea — Bill ia favour of Soman CatholicB — 

-- Pitt's flrst check in foreign policj': the Bngaiaa aimamenl — Re- 
trospect of eTentg in Turkey — And in Sweden .. .. Page 72 



Policy of England — " The Euaaian Armament " — Conce«aion of Pitt 
to tbe popnlar feeling — Death of Prince Potemkin — Lord Gren- 
ville appointed Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs — Lord Chat- 
ham and Mr. Pitt compared by Lady Ctiatliam — Marriage of Qie 
Duke of York — Correflpondcnce with the Bishop of Lichfield — 
Pitt's patroDBge of bnmble merit in the Church — Commutation of 
Tithes — French Revolution — Declaration of Piluitz — Biote at 
Birmingham — Destruction of Dr. PriesUey'a houae .. .. Ill 


1792 — 1793. 

The Budget ^ ReducUon of forces — Pitt's great Speech on Hie Slave 
Trade — Improvements in the administration of the law — Pitt's 
Loan Bill — Opposed by Thuilow — His dismiBaal from ofRce 
— "The Friends of the People" — Mr. Grey's notice on Parliar 
mentary. Reform — Resisted by Pitt — Death of the Emperor 
Leopold — Assassination of the King of Sweden — The French 
declare war against Austria — Seditious publications— Negotia- 
tions with the Whig party — Death of the Earl of Guilford — 
Pitt appointed Warden of the Cinque Ports — Invasion of French 
territory by the Prussians — Partition of Poland — The Allies de- 
feated at Valmy — Retreat of the Duke of Brunswick — Na- 
tional Convention — Victory of Dumouriea at Jemmapes — Riots 
in England and Scotland — Counter-demonstrations — Prosecution 
of Paine — Lord Loughborough Chancellor — Execution of Louia 
XVI. — The French declare war against England, Holland, and 
Spain 139 



Retrospect of.the&st part of Pitt's (kdministration — Controversies on 
the second part — Pitt's speech on the Address — His li>(3*eh 
policy supported by Parliament — Conunencement of campaign — 




Dcltnt n&d d«feoUoa of Diimonrioi — BofcMpl«m> — Belgu of 
Turrur — RfaEny In lot Vonddo — Surrender of Condl^ VHl«nd- 
vmm, mod Mkjinic« ^ Siogi! of TouIod — UupcnioD and ikuglitfrr 
of tlis T«sdiku onuy — Oun'|ut«M ont ut KiiK>pv — PulJtii.'gil 
Trkb PagolWl 

1793 — im. 

tuliremeiil of Mr. Ellnt — Trial of ntuuiiltcii Itovaa — Pablloappmril 
of tlin HIala Trials nni) tlio proiRcrntlan nf tbn wu — Sohouta 
ogniait the GdvonuDEiil — SuipciieioD of tiia HabLiiii Curpun Act 

— KiH'ivy of llii- Fri-iirli tl«iiiit>lk-tirui — Oprrutioiia of tli« Allius 

— f!«iigiilniiiT Dwrco of thn ConvRnlloQ rogardlng jiritonpni of 
wnl — Ihike of York's Gi-licml Order— CorHii-uu rvvuK — Ilmiiem 
of [I'HXl Hiid Ni'.l>iia — VitUirj of tli* Vin-t of Jun« — Ai'i'-iunion 
to cdDen nf the Dnko of rortland uid Iiu frieiuli — rmvurion for 
Ur. Untko — Dnatli of liis «in — Mt. Windham — MUiindcr»land- 
iog witli llic Duke of t'ortljiiid — Clotv of tliu tbiuii of Ttrror 
la FntiM — KiMiilimi of RolMnplvrni — lUvoll of tho n%t» of 
YOTk 2W 



tlo(> tn Tiondoii — Ctliiipn mul RvctiilU — ProMcntloiut fx nig;!! 
TrcUBon - Trialu of Ibnly. Home Tookc. aai Tholwtll — Dw- 
ooniflttin] <if Uit (ti>vt<riiiiiviit — Mr. Pitt'ii odbild lo atrangtbeii ]dt 
ftdminiitntiou — Italrofpcct of Irlili offiklr^ — Iiib-rri^w botncBii 
Rtt Qud Omttftn — OotruEpondcuce of Pitt wid Wiudluua — Pitt* 
oUemonuidam" — Botiieniuit of Iicrd Wotimirliktid aud aiifioiiil- 
mcnt of Lord Fitiwniiiun di Lord Lieuteniuil of Irfland — Meeting 
of Pitrli mil tilt — Kiiigii Spt'tcli — Wilberfor«i'» Ainwidiin'ut — 
8a)>JD0iliuii of Ilollimd by Uio Fronpk — Lord ComwnlUii Kld«cl 
to Hiu Oktiinel S6S 



'ledpllAtq ineMDTtitorLord FllzwitUftiu — Diimlmil of Mr. Bsncfotd 
and Mt. Oookc -• Addrctscs from Itomiui Calholio nnd ProtcstMii 
DiaMulera — Mr. Urattsu a BUI — buall o( Laid i'tttwUUUB knd 


t^ipointment of Lord Oamden — Biot in Dablin — OontentEona ia 
the Insb Hoose of Cominaas — Bejecljon of Mr. Grattui's Bill 

— Faundstjon of Maynooth — Trial of tbe Bcv. W. JachKm-— 
Brothers tlie Prophet ood his disciples — Hairiage of the Prince 
of Wales — Acqnittal of Warren Hastings — Provisioii for Bpike 

— DistrcBS iu Fnutco and England — Aniie^ of Pitt Page 299 



CongresB at Basle — French advaiitagf s in the West Indies — The 
Maiooa wax — Eogliah conqnosts in Asia and Africa — Projected 
descent oa the western ebores of France — The Chouan» — De 
Puisaje — lAnding at Qoiberon — Fatal inaction — Bout and dis- 
tress of the Boyalists — Eieculiotia — Comte d'Aitois — New 

;; Constitution proclaimed in France — Insurrection iu PariB — 
OMupoign upon tbe Bhine — Depreciation of Ajsignats — Heet- 
iug of Parliament — Attach upon the King — Debates on the 
Address — MeesiiTcs to nUeviate BCardtj and to represi seditioo *- 
The Dube of Bedibrd aad lord Lauderdale — Pitt's desire for 
peace 330 


1796. . 

Birth of the Princess Charlotte — Separation of the Prince and Princess 
of Wales — Legacy Duties — Dog-tax : Mt. Dent — Failure of 
attempt to negotiate Hilta the French Directory — Pitt's anxie^ 
for peace — DisBolution of Parliament — Austrian Subsidy — Vic- 
tories of Qeneral Bonaparte in Italy — Eoglish troops withdrawn 
fhim Corsica — Capture of Sir Sidney Smith — Treaty betncea 
Fiance and Spaiu — English conquests in the West Indies — Lord 
Chatham President of ilie Council — Lord Ualmesbury's Embassy 
to Paris — Projected intadon of Ireland — Pitt's measures of defence 

^ — Loyalty Loan — Debates on the Budget — Htt'a Poor-Law Bill 

— Eiperimonta in Steam Navigation — Failore of the negotiation 
at Paris — Death of the Bmpresa of Russia 367 


Letters and ^btroots of Letters from King Geo^o the Third to 
Mr. Pitt i-xixii 







17SS — 17B9. 

IKootlnr; n( PnlikinDnt — Ri^port from tho Privy nound] — Dr. Fnia«ii 
Willis — PhfiiRiniu cxiuniunl by Fnrliummtary Comniitl«'4"PiU 
f>ro|K>Hfl « Cuiiiiuilki>- Ui i»«ri'li (.>r invnoilnnM — JVi?('» lilijrolinnii — 
Comiiilttiut ftppointfd — IntripiL-j ofTliuiloir — Pitl'a ItcsalDtiuiiB 
— Prw gift «f im.nml. vfTrn-l lo Pill, l"it .I.hIIh"! — Pitl"« R»- 
punc^ tilaii—GreDnlle clcchxl Spcokci — Bcpoit of now C<m- 
niittiv (u I'XBiiuuv Ibe pbyiiobiu* — Pitt'* ItiMoIiitioM iiwUipti»|{ 
Ibo H^stincj — 8iIUci of nurlio — Bcgfrncy Dili pnsed the Coio- 
tnuiu — BoatamtiDn of till' Kiu^-lu bonllli. 

On tlic 4th of Ucccmber the Parliunient met in most 
Aikxioiiit expectation. Sir. Pitt id the one nouse and 
liord ('itnulen in the other laid apoa the Tftble the 
fieport of thfl Examinations l)(>fore the IViry Council, 
and moved tliat it should bn taken into consideration 
on tho 8tli, At tlm sntne time tho Prime Minister garo 
notice that he should propose tho appointment of a 
(^cunmittee to search for precedenta 8[r. Fox sa^et>led 
a doubt (ns Mr. Vyner had before him) whether it waa 
quite consistent with the dignity of Parliament to make 
In Report from the Privy Coimcil the gtoAiidwork of 
their proceedings on a (]iiestioD of such extreme im- 



jjortanct!. Pitt (loclort*tl that lio was unxions to afford, 
tht) most ample information, but poiiitoJ out tlial tho 
IVivy Comitcil could take evident'o upon ofttli, whicli a 
Commiltt^t* of the CommouB could not. 

McttDwhile it liad becouit- iipjmreiit to tbe Binnll circle 
tli(,' King's coulidentiid servants, tliat, omiiient aii.. 
wore tbo pLji«idiiTig in attcuilnnce, they had up to^^his 
limo altogetlicr failed in offectiug any milig«iioii of his 
symptoms. Might not givftti^T binicfit fullow fiiim the 
treatment of some on© who had more spwially applied 
himself to tlie cure of mental maladies? Foremost 
among such jtrartitionnrs in jmblie famo stxxid Dr. 
Francis Willis, a clnrgymnn and Kector of Wapping. 
Sy a somewhat unusual combination of dutie» he had 
during twen^-cight years kept nn H.sylnm for insane 
persons at tiis residencg in LinooUishii'o. His name 
wae firat brought forward by Mrs, Harcoiirt, the wifo of 
one of the Equerriea, General afterwordB Earl Harcourt, 
She drew up a papor stating her knowledge of his 
merit fi'om big succcsafnl treatment of her mother. On 
the 28tli of November this paper being laid before the 
I Prince, the Duko of York, the Chancellor, and Pitt, it 
was determined tiint Willi;; eliould be sent for.^ Accord- 
ingly Iio wivs summoned by expreMs to Kew. He enmo 
nccompimii'd by Iiis two sumt, one of wfiom. Dr. Jolin 
Willis, was a profusaed physician ; (uiil on llie 5th of De- 
ciember he bad his first interview with tlio Royal s-offerer. 
From the first. Dr. Willis formed n highly favourable 
opinion of tbe case. " Had 1 been consulted in the 

> Diary of Mm. Uiutourt, aa cited tty Ui. Mum? m tii« Uutoi? a( 
Engkofi: *oL 111. pp. 070 nod MH. 









instance," he fnutkly »aid, " Hia MaJcrty'B illnewt 
would have been af vory ehovt darntiou." Hv a<lo]>te(t 
at once a different oounsc of tioutmcnt. Up laid asido 
all false pretences, nil petty v<.-XHtiont<i, all uiiutwcfKar^' 
reiitrflint^. IIu tlion^lit tlitkt iu this <vw no vifilencc 
need be appreltondLxl, uuti lliat tio eUHpioiuu should bu 
shown. The Kiu^ tuul liecn (Iboicct a nuor at Im toilet, 
And H kuifi- and fork at hiii ta)>k^. Thevit were at onee 
restonvl to him. nn<l in Dr. Willis's prwcnee yvrt' freely 
U!M!d. Thif (^(xi fffect* of this altered treatment 
speedily Appeared. Am yet the dolutdons conttnned na 
abat«d, bill far grt>Atcr calmneas and 4!oaipofinre, aa also 
better health, were attained. 

IJndor ihese cimumstancea both the Qneen and Jfr. 
J^ were disposed to place great conSdeoce in Dr. 
Willis. He was considcroi) as mainly n.«[H)usibli- for 
the conduct of tJie case. Taking up his rcsidi-nt-t' with 
Ilia sons in the palace at Kew, lie had the constant care 
of the King's person, while the other phyacjam only 
pnid their visits by rotation and at staled timcB. 

On the 8tli, at the next meeting of the Honae. Pht 
adverted to the BUggtstion wliich had been nijwlo of 
appointing a IWlianientaiy Committee to examine tho\ , 
phyaic-iaus, and dcclan-d himself willing to nconle to it. 
observing that thcro itas now a atruiigcr roatKtn for it 
than at tho liud. debate, Kirioo 8omc now phyxiciniis had 
been rc<cently called in. Accordingly tlicrc was named, 
.with gDnera] assent, a Cotnmtttoe of Iwentj'-ijne, com- 
prising tlie DHBt distinguished Hfembera from butJi liides. 
A similar motion was mode and carriod in the Lords, 
and uach Committee completed Its examinations in a 

B 2 


Cuw. XII. 


rniglo day. AH the physidana, in tlieir evidence, 
agr(,i.'d that there were good hopes of the King's re- 
covery, hut that no probable pi-riod for it could be 

■iL Yet tho dt^eo of these hope 

iiut tho 

iianic-iL let ino ut^eo 
mine in all. and hero again party spirit crept in. Dr. 
WeiTon iras closi-ly coDui-ctt'd with Fos and Fox's 
friends, Olid it was observed that his proguoslics wero 
far loss aaugtu'uc than tlioso of Ur. Willis. Tlina Iho 
nainf^ of Hivuv. two physiciaus became, as it were, watxjli- 
words on oaoli side ; the Ministerial party relying ou 
tho cpecial <')tperience of Willis, while the OpiKisitioa 
party might uHugo tho high authority of Warreu- 

On the lOtli of Uewinber Mr. I'itt pn^ented to the 
lL>ii*o tiio lieport of these examinations, and observed 
tliat Uie Kiiig'B present incajiaeity for liasiuoss hATJag 
now been nscortointKl by a (Jommittee of their owa 
Members, he should proceed aei^orfling to liis notice, 
aad move that another Committee be appointed to 
eeorob for precedents. But at tins point commenced 
tJie tug of war. Fox rose and objected to the jtroposetl 
Conunittee^ although be oaid he tJiouId not ri^sist it. 
In effect he Baid, tliough not in intent inn, .that Ootn- 
mittee would be an utter waste of time. It wa^i per- 
fectly well known that there existed no precedent what- 
cTer whicli could bear upon tlie present case. But 
thcro was then a |>ersou in the kingdom different from 
any other person to wbum existing precedents could 
refer— an Heir .\pparent of full age, and capacity to_ 
exereiiie tlie RoyaJ power. In his fStr, FosV) firm 
opinion His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales Iiad 
as clear, as express a right to assume Cbo reins of 

lUtt^. LIFE OF riTT. & 

GoTftrnment, and exeit^ the powew at Sovereignty, 
(luriii>{ the Ulueas and inoapnrily of tlifi Kin^, aa in the ' 
case of Uis Majesty's natural demise. 8iich was his 
right, bnt His Royal Ilighneaa was not himself to judge 
whoa ho was ontitk:d to cJEercise it. Tlifi two Hoiises 
of Parliament, as the organs of tlie nntion, were ulone 
entitled to proDOtmoe when the Prinne ought to take 
poBsession of and exercise his right. 

The Tieirs of Mr. Fox upon this question, as he tims 
^''Unfolded thorn, Beemed in Mrildng M>ntrnst with the 
general tenw of bis " Itcrolutioa politic&" Ileie he 
was denying the supreme authority of the two lloosefi 
to dval as they tlioaght 6t with the cclijue of tite Kingly 
powur. He was asserting an inherent, and as it were 
Divine, right in the Ptinoe of Wales. Thus he seemed 
to be ttvjuliit^ in tiw I'lwtsloiw of Kitiner ami Snucroft 
rather than of Somers and Buniet. I'itt, as he intently 
listened to Fox's enunciation of liif principles, could 
scarwly, it is raid, conceal his triumph at tha indi«L'Tu(-t 
|i08itjun which lus rival had aasumod. No sooner had 
the sentence which RrA onuDiincod it been coucltid^ 
than Pitt, slapping his tliigh triumphantly, t(iriit>d 
rvKiud lo Uic friend next him on the Treiisnry JJeucli, 
and w)ii«|ion<d, " I'D uttwht'ff tlto gentlcmnu fur llie n»l "'^ 
of his tile " ! ' He started up as soon as Fox sut down. 
The doctrine, he said, which llio tCuiiso hud juMl hcnitl 
wiut of itself, if any udditionul ground were ni.><.-e;«»ry, 
the strongtMt und most unatawemhlu rca«un for ap- 

' B^lnt'tl by TliOTDiis Mw>rv, 
nho (tntra Itat bo tci^i'in'il ttic 
aloi7 (huu an lUKintnliuiiublv 

source, aad tlint iU ikntlivullrily 
iiinj bf n'liiil Qjinii. I'Uctiiain of 
Slictiaai>,T<)l.U. p.S8.> 




)inltug the Committ'Ti:; that hv bud propoenl. If a 
]sim of right was ijitimatf^d, cvou ttiough not Ibnually, 
on the part of the Priuco of Wales to aivuine tjn 
government, it becanio of tb» utmost conscqucucc to 
ascertain Iruni prticedijiit ami liislory whether there was 
I any I'oniiilution for tiiis uluim, wliicli, if estahliKhed, 
inu8t preclude the Houae fiora the powtibility u( uU (icli- 
beration on the miijjtMit h> the menu tinie he must 
laaintaiu, that to 6.'<^rt m<:h a right in the Priuec of 
WftlcB or any one else, indeiieutleiit of the decision of 
the two Hoii80», wAd little less tliau trea«ou to the Cou- 
stitutioii of the oounliy. I' ideas by Uioir deeision, Uio 
Prince of Wales had no more riglil^ — s-jfejiidug uf striet 
right — to assume tho govonimeut tiwin aJiy other iudi- 
vidiutl gabjuct of the rcttlin. What Parliament ought to 
detomiine ua Uiia [Miut waa a question ordinijrt'lioii ; and 
however strong the arguments might bo on that grouud 
in favour of tJie Prince of Wales, into which he wouhl not 
enter at present, it did not afieet the question of right. 

Thus the gauntlet was fiiirly and on both sides east 
down, Tho doctrine of Fox soemod to be received with 
much disfavour by tho Hoump, and Burke rose with 
generous warmth tu Mupport hiit frieud ; but be sbowed 
iu this debate, its in severui others on tliis Rc^etiey 
question, an iuteniiiemneo and ill tasto that were 
luucb deplored by his party at that period, us they 
must be to this day by rU true admirvni of his fame, 
llius he went so lar as to cidl Pitt " one of tho I'rince'a 
oompctitont," and in another part of his speech be de- 
Bcribod bim aa " tlie Prince opjwsite." For tho first of 
these expressions Burke was called to Order ; for both 


■was rclmkod Ly Rtt in Ills replj-, " I nppwil 1o tho 
said tho lUiiistor, "upon thv deccnry of suoli u | 
cbaigo. At that period of our history, when our Con- 
fltitutioi) was MtHled uu its present fouiidHliuiis, and 
when A[r. Soiuon and oUior gront incu d«plured thni no 
person harl a rij^lit to th« Crown ti]di>[»cii<lcnt of tht> 
consent of tito two Hoosce, would it have b«cn thonght 
either fair or deccrrl for any 5Icn>l«^r of oither Hon»e 
to have pmnotniccd Jlr. Vomers u penwiial competitor / 
of King \\'il!i(ini tlie Third ? " 

Thus appointed without a division, the Committee 
completed its Iniiiines!! in a single sitting, and prodacwd 
good store of precedents, though of limited application 
iind of slight Constitutional value. The disc-ussiou on 
Fox's doctrine was renewed in diwrs fonns and ou 
wveral days, but the doctrine it«-lf gnincil no eronnd 

•e HouHc, and it uxcitcd great alarm throughout the 
tiy. Tho [u-ivilogc cloimod for the Heir Apparent 
wu commonly regarded a» both an invasion of popular 
rights and a dethronomcnt, as it were, of Uie afBicted 
King. Fox found it nocemory to explain, in the clt-imsst 
terms, thai ho luul itpoken only of himself; without th« 
aotliority of any |>ftrsijn whatever, much less from the 
uutliority of llis lloyal IlighneSB the Prince of Wales; 
but yvt the ill inipre«iion was by no means romoreiL 

A lively comment on tliese doUates miLy be gathered 
from the (vinfidential correspondent-e of William {irt^n- 
ville : — '• Only tliink of Fox'a want of judgmuiil to hring 
himself and his Iriends into such a »cmpo as ho hoA 
done, by maintaining a doL-triuo of highor Tory prin- 
ciple tliau could hare boon found anywhere aiut.'c Sir 



Ciup. XU,j 

Robert Sftwypr"* spceclics ! Foi fonnd iJml liy whaf 

lie had said boroiv^hw liail offoiidefl so muiiy jipopli:!, thai 
lie was obliged W take Ilie vory first luuuient of ex- 
plaining it Hwiiy. After lliis rewmtution was ov(?r, tl 
day Teas closed by such a blunder nf Sheridan's as 
never knew any man of the meanest talent guilty of 
before. During: tbe whole time that I liave sat in Pai- 
Itament — a pretty warm time — ^I never remember such ' 
an uproar as was raised by lii« threatening us with ■ the 
danger of provoking the Priat© to assert his right/ 
which were the exact words he used. Yoo may con- 
ceire what advantage all this gives us. Bspecially when 
coupled with the strong bo])0!> eutertuinod of tho King's 
recovery." ^ 

In tho Lurdx a motion fur ii similar Cummittcc of 
Precedents was made on the llth of December. Th« 
the viewrs which Fnx had put forUi the day hefor 
were coutniverted by Lord f.'amden and defended bj 
Lord liougbborongh. The Chancellor delivered liiui- 
eelf of a tem]w>risiiig speech, as though not yet Uxed il 
his opiuion. But he began to fear that he might 
a loser instead of gainer by his projected act nf 
treachery. The reports of Dr. Willis were in due 
conrso submitted to him. He might observe that day 
by day they expressed a confident hope of the ICiiig's 
recovery. lie might observe that on the 13tli tlio 
Queen and the PrinceBBes, whom the King had not 
«ccn since the Sth of the laat month, wore brought 

* lietlfira tii LoH BnclimtTliani, Bac. 1 1 nnd iS, 178& lu pnblitlicd in 
tlio Oaurta nud OnbiM-U of Ouoirge III. 

ITS3. ura or prrr. 9 

Iinto his presence vitlunit danger. Tie mwiA TTor 
VtajeeAy'a hand, kissed it, and held it in biii during 
the whole iuterriew, which last«d half an honr. The 
litlie Frincesa Amelia, w]io from her infancy had been 
hia farourile child, sat upon his lap.' 

The Chancellor felt that be cotild temporise no 

II(Higer without great risk to his own position. With 
I the new hopes of the lung's recovery which Dr. Willis 
' gave, ho detcmunod to take a bolder oourse on the * 
next ocmsiuu in tlie Hoimp of Lords. That next occa- 
sion catnu on tliv 15th of Deoembur, Tbon the Doko 
of York mudt^ m f^ood and sfiisiblv Kpoi^-ch (liis first in 
^- IWiauivut), diKUVowiu^ moM cxpre^ly iu hi» bruthL'r's 
^■yuatue any citttm not derived from tbo will of the 
^M ' peoplQ. Tbo Cbanocllor upon thi? loft the Woolsack 
^r iind iuldrt>t>«e(] Uie Hix^e. H« began by oxprwiirt^' his 
H gniat giiti.-itaclioQ that no claim of rigbt was to Ni I 
rais^ by tho Prince of Wale& But aa he next pro- 
ceeded to the afflicted condition of the Ein^ Iur 
emotion Manned to gmw nncontroUnble, his voice lal- 
tored, and be burst into a flood of tearsL Recovering 
himself, lie declared his fixed aii<l nnaltenible n)tu> 
I lulloii to stand by a Sovereign who, during a reign 
of Iwenty-^even years, had proved lils sacred regard 
to the principles which seated bis family upon the 
Throne. Tbeir first duty, he said, was to prewn'e the 
rig'lit^ of that Sovereign entire, so that, whoa God y'1 

El permit him to recover, bo might not find / 
kuc USS, M dted by Ur. Uunw}- la liia Hbtory uf Bugkutl, 
p. 387. 




Ca*i-. XU. 


himsi^'lf in a worse sitiiutioti than iKrforo Jiis illiio^. 

' The Chancellor dwelt on his own ffelingfi of gi-iet' 

eaid gratitude, and wnmght himself up ot laitt to these 

celebrated wonU : " mid when I forgiet my King, uiay 

my God forget me !" 

'" It siVTM searocly possible to exaggerate the Btnmg 

^-^ — imprr'ssloa which this half sentenoe made. Within 

b the Home itaelf the effect ivaa not perbapa §o Batis- 

' iJfBCtory WilliOB, who waa standing under the Throne, 

t^Ueyed tlie Chancellor askanee, and muttered, "God 

I J| forget you I He will see "you d first I" Burko 

at the same moment exclaimed, with equal wit and 
with no profanenoas, " The best thing tliat can happen 
I to you!" I'itt also was on the steps of the Throno. 
On Lord Thurlow's imprecation he is said to bavd 
rushed out of tho House, pxclaitniug sc^vf'ral tim< 

(;i "Ob. whutariwcall"* 
f But in the eountry ut largo the iutri^es of Tburlow 
were not knovru : they were not OTcn Buspectcd He 
I wuH looked upon a» thu feurlciw (UiKf<rtor of lii:i Hovc- 
I rt^ign's ri;^it!t— as a strictly hoiiost man, pregjurL'd, 
I need sliould be, to HufTer for liiit hont^ty ; and the ii: 
ll prORstTC half sentence wliicli ho bud just pruimuuood full 
m in exaetly with the current of popular feeling at the 
I time. The words flew from month to montli. They 
were seen far and wide in EngUind, printed around 
I portraits aud wreaths, emboeaed on snuif-boxes, or 
b 1 embroidered on pocket-books. It can scarcely be 


' Xaekot H88., clt«>l in tho Uituiy of KngUnd by W. MaMej. E»i^ 
«L iii. p. 488. 





1788. LVrS OF PITT. 11 

doabt«(l that in the ParJiamPntarj- conflict tJicy ho- jf 
came a ralunble auxiliary on the Minister's sido. ^ 

M«u)wbile, in the House c^ Commous I*it1 was I 

stMuliiy ptuming the course on which he h»(l fmni tlie 
firet dftenniiiwL On the lOth he hrtinf,^!! Tnrwapii 
titti}0 Braoluligiis; the tirst a formai ono, tUioIaring 
tfa« riu!t of tlio King's iUncfis, hdcI thv Mtcond aaaertin^c 
in tlie clearcet t^-mxt Ibitt it wiu biitb tli« light and 
duty of the twu House* to ppovitlc the Ri««nii of sup- 
plymg the defect in th« K<iyiil ftiiihorily. For thin 
purpose— iw said the tliinl Iterohition — it was nerie** 
ESiy that the two Honfw^ sbonid determine tlie nieantt 
of giWn^ the Royal Assent to Riich a Hill of Ile^ncy 
as thoy were about to pass. Being called upon to 
state what was meant by tlus last Resolution, Pitt 
(aplninnl th»t tho CbaBcollor should bo Dtupowered 
by a joint Yotu of both Uousca to put thu Gri-ut S«al 
lo • Coniniimion for giWug tJie Ituyal Ameut to Ibo 
intended Itili, 11ib( dovicc — or thi« "rhnuluDi," as 
tlio OpfDMition called it — to use tho Ureal Koal witlioat 
the Kiu(:'ft nnihority, and to give the Koyul A)«cnl. 
witliunt thu Koyal knowledge, was no doubt a struiigij 
anomulr ; yet it im Imrd to ny, under mtcli iniprec«^ 
donb^ difliculties, uliat lesser anomaly or wbnl belter 
expedient could liave l>een derLted. 

It was against the second and eesentia] Resolation, 
containing tlie pith of the scheme, that the main 
Opposition stand was made. Wo find, as we might 
expeot> some complainla of " rots " in the Ministerial 
correspoodence of that time. The chiefs of Oppo> 
Bition bad whispered that the reign of George tlie 



Third was now, m fact, al nu fud, niid tlift Prinw had 
condcsecndcU to lussuiui- tlie i>art uf u ouivasser 
votes. Ho wrote himiiolf to Uie Hatl of liUiiMUU 
lioliL'itiiiK as a pui'»>Dal fiivour hie aid on tliis occi 
siuu. The Kitrl issued liis mtindute ncconlingly, an 
"Lurd Lonsdale's peupU-i" i»8 Blr. Urouville 
thom' — that is, tho Mcmburs whoui ho nomimtt 
declared thoiusolvcs, rt^luclantly perhaps, iigiuust tt 

lu t\m d«b«tt', on Uie Kith of December, Lord 
North apoki' i4{uin«t the GoTcnminut [iinposal wiUi 
,t tL-mper and greot (d>ility. Fox also, thoiigli 
Bboiiriog under severe iiiiiisjiOBitiou, put fortli his 
adioirable powers. "Onij of the best BjierH-hes I ever 
hoard from him," writes Mr. Grenville the next day. 
Thai great spoedi may, howcvGP, ha justly cbftrped 
with indiscretion; for lo one jiassage Fos bitterly 
inveighed against his rival, alleging that Pitt would 
never have proposed any limitation on the Prince'* 
power, had be not been conscious that ho did iiot 
doservo the Prince's confidence, and would not bo tho 
Pri nce's Minister. But this unworthy taunt exposed 
him — and pGrhajw not him alone — to a most severo 
reply. " I dcchirc," eaJd Pitt, '■ Uio attack which the 
lU(|;ht Ilun. gcntlcinuii bus jimt now OLad'-- to be ui 
fouiidud, arrogant, and prcsiinipttiuus. As to my beii 
conscious that I do not deiMriTo tliu favour of tl 
Prince, I cun only say that I know but ono way 
whidi I or any man conld deserve it — by having 

' Letter to Loid BuoUiiigliiim, Deci'mbET 17, 1788. 




uiiifomily ftinlcflvouifd iii a |>uhli« tn'tnAtion to Ao my 
<i«ty 10 iho King hi* lintlivr, anri to Uio ooiintrj' nt 
targe. If, in Urns endwiTouring to tlesfirre iho oonfi- 
d«nM of l)ie Prinoe, it alioiild npjiesr lluit T, in fart, 
hare lost it, howt>vflr pain fill and mortify ing tlint 
circinnstance may U* to me, and from whatever cause 
it may proceed, I may indeed regret it, bat I wDI 
boldly say it is impoBsible I should ever repent 

Of this reply from Pitt, Grenrille says next day 
to his broth«r, "J neror heard a finer bunt of elo- 
qnvnce, nor nitncssnl euch uu impre^ciou as it pn>- 
duccd." That iiupn?s«iou van iiitk-vd ix.TO.'plibli; iii 
tlie divifiiou ivhic-h oiisuo<L Th.iin, in Hpitu of all 
tJio vObrt« of all the Prince's )>arty, the sttcoud 
BetotiitioD was aflirmed by 2t]8 vcAuk a^ninitl 204. , 
"The divifiion exceeded our expDctation.s" writes Grv-n- 1 
Tille. "All the neutrals, and many of the warering * 
people, and some of the muet timid of our friends wero 
against us." 

The Itesolution vos again debated, but with no 
different iafue, in ite further etage& It is painful on 
OQo of Ihnu.) occasions lo view so uiighty on intL>llect 
OS Burke's exposu itSL'If by its bursts of passion to thi> 
coutompt of far inferior iiiiiuU. Kveii t>ir William 
Young, a Buckiag)iaiii«)iin> Member altogether un* 
known to fume, eoulii spi-nlc of him in one di^tmto a» 
" ypUy persouitiod ." Itiirko luid m far forgot liimst'lf 
OS to compare iho (Imncellor to one of the least decent 
of the I'a^iiu dcitlef, (tud to draw a caricature de^rip> 
tion of his face. " It in intended," he said, *' as I 



cbxp. xa. 

have liPftrH, to set up it maw with bl«fk brows Biid a 
Iai^ wig ; lio in tlio fit [ifi-BOii ; Inist none of tho 
Koyal fHiiiily: he will h<; a kind of scarecrow to tho 
two HoRSCs; lie is to givo a lictitious as^nt in the 
King's iianic, and tliis in to be bintliug on the people ! 
.^1 do not approve of any robbery, whether house- 
breakin^ highway robbery, or any other; yet each 
of them in my apinion is more es<!iisahle than tliia." 

In writing to Ixivd Buckingliam. Sir William Young 
goes on to say of Ciirke that "he tioiiihed liie wild 
spc'ucth in a manner next to madncsa." Burke was 
thuu inveighing against the supposed intention to 
restrain tlie Itegent from any grant of peerages. " It 
is not very decorous," he cried. "Suppose, for in- 
etance, the Prinne wished to bestow honours on the 
liou»o of Cavendish, wotdd any person in tliiii Hoc 
hflvc the aiulncily to dU-pvitc the propriety uf such 
honour? Or, siippono Miit lioyal Highuess sliould bo 

disposed to revive the UUo of BopIdughaiU' ." 

Strange that so piofoimd a reiisoner did not perceive 
that here he was striking a vtToug chord! Strango 
that he conid expect any public sympathy to liiis inero 
personal grievance I Strange that he should not ant 
dpato the philosophic reBigriation witli which the 
country would be disposed to bear the calamity tha 
some months or some years must ohtpso beforo 
honours could bo huaped on one or otbor of tlio 
Great Whig Houses ^ Htruugcr still Umt ho fiiiled to 
see around him lliu un.\iety of h)» own frien<ls to 
restrain him. and tho eugerness, u8 wo find it recorded, 
of his opponents to uhuor him onwards as hoping to 



hi>ar bom his locitiacity tbn entire Vtst oT tl)C intended 
JVxrTS ! A {terfect iiurricaite oi liiniiilt vd* raised by 
such contcwlitig emotiaoa, and to this, in nearly his 
concluding sentence, Burke referred. "In vocifera- 
tiou iind nwse," lie cried, "some persons are very 
great, but I know a set of bouiuls that would eclipee 
B thom." 

The three Itewlutions of Pitt being earned titrongh * 

tho Uuu«e of Commons, wem neJct sent up for the 

coneurrcnoe of the Uouee of Ltmls. The debate upon 

them stood fixed for the 26th d* Decofaber. Cp 

almost to that time Lord Thuriow does not seem to 

liaru wlioUy lost the hope of making some terms with 

the Pnnoc ; but on Christuias Day he sought a secret 

interview with Fox, and expressed his desire that the 

negotialion bc>twa-Q them might be considered at an 

end. As Fox next day reports tho matter to Lord 

Ixiaghltoroogli : "It wb« mueh the pleaBaotcst eon- 

vereatioii I hare UoA nith liiut for miuiy yeon^ Upon 

H the buHiiie^ of our inten'iew he w«s perfectly open 

Bfiud explicit, iind diiaui«s«d the subject a:* soon its 

Hl>os8iblo with perfect good huiuour, in order to talk 

^ ujKin gcDernl oqoh in our old miinner of conTereing, 

He wns in a talkative vein, and Frauoe, Spain, 

Hustings, I>omo«lhcnei*, and Cicero nere all talked 

ver aa if between two friends who liad neither political 

contention nor enmity."' 

The Chnneellor being thus set &eo from his late en- 

7 Soo turi Ouiipbeiri Urvt ot tbe Cluucullon t«1, vI. p. 200. 



Chap. XII 

fcjngletuent, to'ik n rfcciflcd part, in tlie impcndiug de- 
bate, and gave liatUe with gpi'at force to Lonl Lough- 
borough. Ill vain (lid Ixirrl llawdon, as a personal ad* 
herent of the Prince, interpose witli an amendment 
tending fo avoid a dei^ision on the alwtract point of 
right ; tlie original itesolutions were ailinued by 90 
Peers agaiust 6(!. 
■ By those Tplea of the Commons and the Lords the 

gTOimd was cleared for I'llt's (iroposHl with respoct to 
the JRegency Bill, a proposal hitherto kept sucriL-t, and 
indeed not yet fully maturwL But during the interval 
he leceived a most signal token of tlie public esteem 
/ and approbation. 

It was well known by tbo public tliat l*itt would not 
be continued one hour in offico by the Itegent. It was 
kno\rn tliut Li> liud already token measures ti)r rcturo- 
iuK to bis lir*t iinit'esaion. U wiu< also known, ]>orlin]M, 
tliftt. liis iiuglw-t of his private afi'm» had involvctl him 
in tome debts, which ho tru»ted to diflcbarge by an io- 
(]u8tnoii-i a])pliration of his lalenta at the Bar. Al this 
very time, however, theio was held, by public adverluw* 
meiit, a meeting of the principal bankers and moneyed 
men of London, anxious to tender him on liis retirement 
from office a eubstaotial mark of their esteem. The 
Bum of aUjOUOA was finrt, proiioacd, but so great was tho 
enthnaia^m, that in the space of forty-eight hours this 
Bum waa doubled, and 3Ir, George Rose, as his Secre- 
tory of tbo Truasurj', was rLitjHL-sle<l to press ujiou him, 
in the manner most likely to be Bcceptoble, a free gift 
of lOy,UOUf. But Mr. I'itt answered his friend aa fol- 





>ws: "Xn consideration upon cartli Rhall < 

me to accept it,"' 

Sarelj- it wfls not vitlioat i«a<ion, nor merely from the 

■warmUi of pri\'stc frivodsliip, that n« Bud William 

tlrenvillo at ulmoet the same date exchiim (o his broUior, 

" Tilers certainly never was in this ooimtry at any piTiod 

I such a Mtuntiou as Sir. Pitt's." * 

H As rcgardtnl tho |*lan of the im[>eudiilg Regency, it 

Hva« uu full dflihorutiou the jndgincut of Die Tilmister 

"that the care of the Iloyal Person, together witli tho 

dirc-ctiun and appointsieut of all oQiceB in the Itoyul 

Household, Bhould remain with the Queen ; that the 

IMucc of Wales, as Regent, should bare no power to 

ij^grant pfcnigi-s exwpt to his brothers on thoir attainiugl 

^the ttgif of tweuly-one ; that His Royal HighueBS shtnild 

not be enablwi lu gntnt the real or persoiiul property of 

llio Kiii^, nor uny olllce iii reversion, nor, for any olhor 

term tlmu diiniig His JIajusty's pleasure any ptmaon 

or Any ofiiee whatsoever esccpt such as must hy law ho 

gnmluil for life, or during good hchAvUmr. These rr- 

■ KtriclioiiK, as Mx. Pitt explained, were all founded on 
the hope of the lung's recovery at no dislaut pcriotL 
But if unliappily the reverse should provu to ho tho 
ease, it would, he said, be open hcntttfter to tlie irifldom 
of l^rliiuneut h> reconsider tho urmngomeut it had 
I r made. 


' CompBro on tiii* tmnsaolioii 
tbe l«tli>r cf Sir Williuin Yuuni; ((.< 
uril llui'kititltiiuii ut 1>«r>iiiiliM' 23. 
rs^ Willi tlu^ iLikinunl or Air. 
ia tiiv Uuuiv uf Uoumiuiis 

nfter I'itt'* d«C«MO, Fdltowiy 3, 

" Sw tho Courts ftnd Ont^nct* 
or Gwt^ 111.. vuL ii. Ik SI- 



CKiP. Xlt. 

The first step of Mr. Pitt towaixLi his Regoncy Bill 
was to anuounce its pmvisioim in a letter to the IVinco 
«f WuIbs. This he did on the :Kith of DewimbpT. " My 
dc«r Lord," thus at once wiote the Prince to Loogli- 
boroiiph, " I have just received a letter from the MJnii!* 
ter with such restrictiouB as no Dictator could jioesihlr, 
1 think, ever have hoeii barcfiuM.4 oiiough to have 
bronght fuinuird. Pray come to Charles's as soou us 
yon po«i»ihly can, to hike tlicso inaltcrs into considera- 
tion." Several other [)crsons bctitdc:; Fox and Longh- 
horoiigli witrc drawn by tJio Prince into council, and 
Ilia reply to, Pitt having been framed with great care, 
W88 on the 2nd of January, l"8it, despatched in tJie 
name of Hia Royal nighness. This letter, wliieh has 
been often printed, is certainly one of the bcel HtuUf 
papcra in the KngliFili Imigua^'L 'MoA stately 6itA 
courteous in its tone, wtiilo uiimt severe and searching 
in its commont^ it cenipriBc* in its (>regnant brevity 
all the argumcnii) that c>ou1i] f>e urgi^rl against the HiiUB- 
terial meanurG. This miuttcrly performance came from 
the pen of Burke, and it may iv<rll enhance our just 
admiration of Eiirke'a traiiscendc-ut [Ktwers when wo 
find him on ao lofty an occasion enabled to adopt a wholly 
difl'crent style, lay aside his gorgeous imagery, and rise 
clear Irom those gusts of violence in which he had ao 
recently indulged. 

Two days afterwai'ds Mr. Pitt, in the name of tbo 
whole Government, replied as follows to the Prince'* 
letter ; 

" Wliitohidl, Jan. 5, 1789. 

"The King's servants have received the paper which 




)-oi]r Hoyal Highneis wns ]ilenseil to commauicate to 

UitMi> tliruugh Uui Lijnl Ouuicullur. 

H " They beg leave respectfully to assaxe your Boynl 

"Higlintisd llmt if lln> pinii uliii-Ii llioy tix)k tin- li'bttrty 

of Kultmittiug U> VMir ICoyal Uigtmess had appealed to 

them in tha light in ffbich they Kavo ^^^f ijiijrfiffmiriftn 

to obficrvft that it is oi>iwi*ii^ri-(l hxyoiir KovaI Hi^hu«w,l 

it would never luiveoci:unBdtothemtopro[mee it. The 

Kiog's servants, in forming tliis plan for the intonuediate 

Bcttlcmeiit which Iho pn.-9H;at calamity requires, havo 

had oouHtantJy ui view that object of which your Roj-al 

Bighnivtii cxi)t'«:<«e» llii; ftilK-st u[>prohation — restoring to 

the King, whenever Uis JIajeetj-'s health is sufficiently 

recovered, the j«rsoiiaI «xercit»o of that gOTenmu-iit 

which in rjf,'hl and law still re!<ides with His Ulajcrty, 

and also the providing in a eompetent manner for the 

iutcmuxliatc [iivsarvulion of that dignity which onght 

not to ho separated from the Boyal Person. In ihin 

^^view, while they considered the temporary excrciiio of 

^■hu itoyul authority on His Slajeiity's Uiludf and during 

' Ilis Majesty's illness as a-tientially different from tho 

actual pu«M«sion of tlie C'n>wn, tht-y hare at tJie same 

time hcon anxiuiis to extend tliat autliority to every 

artiete wfaicli they could conceive eiwonlial or necessary 

^Jor tJie toiaporury nduiiiuatmtion of the Kiiit^'s power. 

^■Tbey linvfl deeply to regret that a phin formed to the 

Hbest of their judgment, for thi>«o puqio^i'ii, xhntdd have 

VappCAred liable to the oheL-rvattous cutitaiiitfl in the 

papiir which your Royal Highness lias been plcued to 

eommuiucalc. But as on the fullest deUljeratiou tJiey 

Cunaot but consider the principles of tJ)ut pliui aa re- 

Bolting from their iodispeiL'sttble duty to their Sovereign, 

ftnd as there ia no jxirt of the subject on which your 

1 Royal HigliiM-JW lin* tritiuiated yonr jileasure for reoeiv* 

^kng any particalar explanation, thoy tind they slwll not bo 


LITE or riTT. 

Ca^. XJI. 

. tln'iiglil wftiitirg in the ifsixji-i wliicli tlicy owv, and 
wliifh tlu'V must always be aasioiis to certily, to your 
Royal Highness, if they stjll feel tht-inpit'Ivei* hrnjnd to 
ftiihi'iL' to thi.'SL' |iriiii'i]>!i:s in tlic |ii'u[joBiliuiis to be 
offered to the cousideratiou of Pailiament." 

On the Komo day as the date of the Wnce's letter, 
tlic 2iid of Juniiary. aud aftei' a short illness, the Speaker, 
Mr. Corawall, died. As might be exported from the 
sttitw of parties, a contest ensued. The Govermnent 
pnoixised Mr. Grenville, and the Opposition Sir Gilbert 
1E3liot ; but tJio former wras elected by a large majoii^-, 
215 tigniiit;t l-l-L It was hoped, however, by tlie luttcr 
pftrty that a now source of ombamiii»uieiit to tlK' Miuig- 
t*irs had here arisen. The Duko of York, xvho iii (liesc 
truii!«a(.-tions had taken part warmly with his ^dcr 
brother, cxprcs^fHl in nil companiea bin exultation that 
now the immediate ajtpointment of a Regent was in- 
eritahle, since the new Speaker could not be coutirmed 
without the Royal antliority. But Pitt was not the num 
to be baffled by a mere obstacle of form. Th« new 
8pc<akcr stated the case to the House for their iuittruc* 
tions, and expi-eaw^d hitD desire to follow the prucedcnt* of 
the Restoration aud the Revolution, in neither of which 
cases was the Speaker presented for thy Royal ujiprovaL 
The House acquiesced lu tliis course, luid Uiii liusinvM 
of Parliament proceeded as beforn. 

Next, however, there came imothur obstruction frott 
the propfwal whieJi Fox warmly jtresaod of a new <_\im- 
niitleii to examine the King's physieiauB. He hoped to 
elicit some Inter evidence uiifavourablw to Ihe prospect 
of His Majesty's recovery, and tlii-reforo mifavourable 




aUo to tlio pcstrictiojis'proposcf] on Hi* Royal Highnon. 

Pitt Krantoil tiie (!(immitti;e, niid it sat for a week. Dr. 

W'iliiit, who apponnxl before it, ondonvent n long and 

ikitter cross-exftminatioQ bf the Opposition chicB^ who 

coiiU not forgivfl his sanguine hope». AVith signal want 

^^cif ,iud^ment they ventured on a Hcandalous and n'holly 

^Kiufouuded insinoatton, reflecting not only on Idmsnlf, 

^Bnit on the Qneen. They liinted, and the charge was 

^re-ochoed by the Oppwsiliou prtiss, that the Queen and 

Dr. Willis wore in coUusion for the purpose of misre- 

prctfentiaf^ the health of tho King, and of defeating the 

claims of the rrinco. Such an alli^tion could only 

n>coi! upou itn author^ km llicy spciodily discovered by 

)t() cffix-t upon tho public out of <loor8. 

When at luxt iht; CuniitiilU-o lutd given in ita Beport, 

lot at all in tlie »ease that Fox hat] OJcpocle'L Pitt 

able on the H!th of January to niovo &ro Koeolu- 

ions einbotlying tliosc nistrictionfl on the Hogcncy 

rhich he luid announced in his letter to tlie Prince. 

In hit (>]>eniiig speech he referred witli just resientiiient 

the calumniouii in^inuatiou nhich bo liod beard in 

! Committee op-atairs, and dared any one to bring it 

irward in n direct and tongiblo farm. It was a charge 

9( no cx)mraon gravity on uny physician that he sliould 

ibmit to I>e undiUy iulluencod by a great petBonage, 

ind consent to give an iintnie account of Hta Kbtjesty'a 

houlth. It was a charge of no common gravity on an 

illuotriou.'* Indy, " who had lived for olmuet tliirly yeara 

in this country without l>lam<.- of any kind, a pattern of 

donio-stic tendernesa and virtue, agaiiiA-t whom die br«ntli 

of calumny bad nut dared to eoud forth ovou b whisper. 



Chap. Xlf. 

Hud wlio could merit it kast of all at a moment whvn 
vidtvd by the huaviiiit affliction." And Pitt mii^lit 
luivu wlilttl, but bo did uot, Iww doublj^ hard, liuw 
doubly cnicl, the clioi^ Bgtunst her if it had beeu atuc- 
tioDol by one of htr onu sons. 

lu thi: d«but4^« that uow erimcd the principal epokea- 
mun gu thu IVince'i) ^ide was Sheridan, and the chief 
straggflo was on tho Gflh Resolution, which rclatod to 
the Royal Hoiisi-hold. But hero tlie Bliuistcr again 
prevtiiled. A modomtn amendment, moveil by Lord 
North, to in.*ert the words " for a limited time," was 
iwjeclod on the 19th of January by 220 votes against 

I'he five Itesolntions l^in^ commimicated to the 
liorda, were by them aitirmed, tlioiigh not without a 
keen debat«, a division, and a protest, tlie laH«r signed 
among others by Uioir Royal Highnesses of York and 
Cumberland. The next step was to open Parlianicnt in 
form byfl Commitifiiou uudor the Groat Seal, and the 
U6lt, on the 5t.h of tV-bruari,', to iiitroduco in tho Kongo 
of Comnione the K<?gcDcy Bill founded on tho procwling 
KeitulutioUH. Tho Bill pn^fiod rapidly through uU ita 
stages. The Oi>[Hi«itioii were dispintL^d by their recent 
flitlnrcs. Fox was ill, and hud gowe to Batli. Burke 
nioue indulged in socni^ new Nallie:^ of poi^ion. Thus 
one day vie find liira inveighing agaiust the Miiiistor, 
who he said was "acting ti'pa.^ou. By his Bill hu ia- 
tetids not only to degrade the Prince of W'alo^ hut 
to outlaw, excom m tm icate, and attaint the whole House 
of Bnmawiek." 

But here, amidst loud cries of ** Order," Mr. Htt rem. 






" In say attacks upon myself," ho said. " I seldom tlnnk 
it wortii while to iatexrupt the Bight Hon. gcntlcinnu, 
or, indeed, to make bim any answer. But when thu 
acts of the Ilouse ore called in qaeertton, and a Bill, 
avon-mlly founded on tliose acta, is described in sih;!] 
tcnns as we have heard, 1 do hope that the House will 
interpose its aathority." 

Still Bnrke vob by ao moons chMkod in his wild 
career. On a later day ho pave still uiuoh more offence 
by KUmc words tbat sci-mod un iusidt lu the Kiiip. Ho 
spoke uf his afflict(»d Sovereiiru as " baving been by the 
Almin-lily biirlotl fn>m hut llirone nml plunged into a 
Rondttion which dniw rlown u[>on hira tlio pity of the 
meanptit pt>iuuint in hia kiiig:doin ! " Bnt hero n storm 
of indignation rosa Lord Graham spmng n]i and d^ 
dared he would allow no man to say the King was 
hurled from the Throne. " Take down llis words ! " 
cried other Menihors. Burke attempted to explain, but 
ivith ttlight effect upon the Housa 

The IJotjeney Bill finally passed the Honse of Com- 
mons on the 121h of Felmiuiy. On the 17th and IStii 
the Peers discaswd it in Committee. Tho Third Bead- 
ing WA« close impoudiug, und thu Chancellor was ready 
to give immediately aAcrwoixIs tho substituto for tho 
RoyaJ Atwont. 

But a change -was now at hand in the Kiug'i« lioaltli. 
Ou tho 2nd of February 3ili.«i IWney met tlie King by 
aoci'leot for the Arst time since tli« 5th of Novemlier. 
He was walking in Kcw Garden? between tiio tn-o 
DocleiH Willis, and engagecl her in conversation for a 
considerable time. Sho observed some wildnees in his 



Cn^r. XH. 

eyes, and a great deal of introherence in Iiis language. 
Frwm the (Jtli the improvcnient grow rapid and deeided. 
Dr. Willis, who iras in doily commuiiieation witli llr. 
Pitt, declared himat-If t-Iearly of opinion tlint after a 
sliort (>enVid no part of His Majesty's meTilal disorder 
woidd ri'iimin. For some time Dr. Wiu-ren was reluc- 
tant to acknowl«dge nny real imjjrovenieiit in tlie face 
of liis gloomy predictions. But ero lung lie wns overpow- 
eivd by the force? of fact?. Tliy public bulletin of the 
12th of Febnuiry mentioned " prugiiissive amendment)" 
and thai of the ITth '■ a slate of cnnvaleflcenco." 

Stitl Pitt and Lord Thiirlow, feeling the magnitude 
of the point at issue, hesitated. But Dr. Willis was 
clear in his own opinion. He sought an interview witli 
Lord Thnrlow, and repeated that opinion in the strongest 
terms. As the story was afterwards told by one of hia 
' sons, Dr. Willis actually " bullied " the Cliancyllor be- 
fore be could make him stir in the matter. 

On the lOth, however, a Cabinet was bcld, and in 
consequence of thu dinrision wlijcli wa^ there adopted 
tlio Chancellor that samo evening rose in the IIoiiho of 
Lords, and nnuoiiucjiig the auspicious news propose! 
that the Committee on ihe Reponcy Bill Rhoulrl be put 
off till the 23rd. "And," Sliss Bumey adds, "this 
evening, for the first time, tlie Iving came u]>staiix to 
drink ten with the Queen and Princctses in the drawing- 
room. Huzza ! huzza ! " 

Oil that afternoon alflo Pitt wrote to his mother. aft«i 
sovemi weeks of silence, to gire her the good news. 




" Thtm«iaj, Fc-b. 19, 1789. 

*' You will li«YO *ccn for stonie days how con- 
stantly the uewB finom Kew baa been improriug. Tlic 
public aoooiint this inominj^ it ihat the Kin^ continnca 
atlvancing in rfcoTcry. Tlie [irivttt« one is tiiat ho is 
to all appearance perfectly well, and if it wi-ro thw ca»e 
of a privat<> man, wonid bo immediately declared so. It 
reuiains only to consider L«w fur liv cwii Ixwr tlie ira- 
|>re8Eion of the state nf public buKinese ; but in curtsif 
qiience of thew cirv'iimstaiK'os tJie Hill will pnohably bo 
pustponod in Uk- Houh'j of Jyonln loiUiy iJII Monday; 
and if the prospect is then confiimed, the plan of tlio 
Begeni>y miint jirohably W altered with a view to a 
Terj- short interval indued, or pcrhap« wholly laid ft.*ide. 
Tbi» intelligence will be welcome enou^ to oxcuBo 
asbort letlrr, and I could not resist the pleasure of 
communioalbig it. though not In a moment, lut you may 
ima^ne, of nia<-h more hti.'iTire than even for some tiinir 
past tttider dinrnnl cinnimiftjinoos. 

" Ever, my doar MotJier, &c., 
" W. Pitt." 

On the 20tb tlie (.'haneollor went himself to Kow. and 
b«d an inletview of an hour and a quartor with Uio 
King. He was with His Majesty again on tlio 22nd, 
and rqwrted to Pitt tlmt he never at any ]M»riod had 
seen him more composed, collcc-tud. and di^tin<^ On 
Uie 23rd — Urns writes Mr. Grcnvillc to his brother at 
Dublin Ouatle — " the two l'rinct'9 v/em at K<'w, and saw 
^_ the King Ii. dm Queen's apartment. Khe was present 
^M the whole time, a precaution for which, God knowf^ 
^M there was bnt too much reason. They kept him waiting 



a consTiidmlilc timo before tJiey arrived, and after tbcy 
left him drove immediately to Mrs. Armistead'a, in Tark 
Street, in liojies of finding Fox there, to give him aa 
account of what had passed." 

Later on the same day, the 23rd, the King wroto his 
first letter sJnRp bis iUnoss to Pitt; an exeollent letter,- j 
OB Wilberforoe, to whom it waa shovm in iL'oiifi(lenee> 
calls it in hie Diary. On tlie morrow ensnod the first 
interview between the Monarch and the Minister. Pitt 
on his return from Kew called upon Greuville. and gnve 
him in perfect nnreservo an a^-couut of what had piiased. 
"I was with the King," lie said, "abovo an hour this 
morning. There was not the smallest trace or npiienr- 
Kuce of any disorder. His manuer was uuusiitdly com- 
posed aud difjuified, but tliere was no other dill'ervuco 
wlint«ver from what I had Itoen used to see. The King 
?poke of bin disonler as of a tiling past, and which harl lell 
no other impres^on on liis niiud than that nf f^ratitudd 
for bis recovery, and a sense of wliat he owed to thoBO | 
who had stood by him. He spoke of these iu such . 
manner aa brought tears into hia eyes, but with that 
degree of affection of mind tliere was not the least ajv 
pearance of his disorder. After I had left His Mnjesty 
I conrerscd with Willis, who told me that ho now 
thought the King quite well ; that he coiild not per- 
ceive the least trace remaining of bis malady," 

Thus foU to tlie groond at once tho Regency Hill, 
and all that airy fabric of hopes which tho U)iioeitio» 
had reared upon it. The solo remainhiir ^"fBiion was 
whether tlio King's resumption of authority sboiihl be 
by lu8 own act or through an examination of physioia 


tlfE OF PITT. 



The htiet cmiTW. wi^wli) hare been the more logical and 
I'arlJami>iitAry, but thv formiT was most m aoponlance 
viiih [w>r!)i>nat iv^pecl and public ft-oliiig, and tliid was 
accordingly prefwned. 

The exultation <>r th*^ great body o( the peo[>lo «t tils 
good news of the Kitig'x recovery wiw mort wamJy 
abown. On the day wbcti hi: reeuucd hii* nnthority 
there waa, nnbiddejt by tlie GoTvrnmont, a geni^ral illti- 
mination of Ijondnn. His domostjc virlu«4 cotild not 
bnt be conItsste<l in the minds of all by-standers with 
the character and recent oondiid of the Prince of Wales. 
As a day of puUic Thanksgiring the 23rd of AprH was 
appcrint'-d, imd it vas kc])t with crcry token of heartfelt 
joy uiid gratitude iu all the ehurchex and chupols uf the 

TIio public joy whir'h nppeari:^ throughont the land 
on the 2:Jrd cpf April attained its highest pitcli, its most 
etuinent uianifestatiou, in IxHtdon, where the Kiog and 
Queen, attended by the Royal Faniily, by the two 
Hoosea of Fuiiament, and by the great Ofliceni of 
State, went in prooeasion to attend the tialenin service 
of Thauksgiriog at St. Paul's. Tike streets along the 
line of route, the wiudowa and the platforms which had 
been rained beside them, were tbroageU witli an inau- 
meiable concotnse of spectators ; uod within tlie i-utiic- 
dral no sooner had His Majesty r«Acli«d the open tipaco 
under tlio great dome, than tho organ, ocoODipnnioil by 
Uio voices of above fivo thotiKuiul children of the City 
Charity Rchooht, began the liundnvilh psalm. The 
aimplo melody jtnned to the spectacle much aSected tlic 
King. Uo hod walked in between the Bishop of Jjon* 

a 2 




Oup. XU. 

don vad tile Bisbop of Lincoln as Dean of St Paul's ; 
iind turning to tlie liitt«r, lie suid with groat emotion, 
" I now fei'l tliitt I have l>ten iU." In tlie ovening tliere 
ensiled a Bectmd illaniination, general ttud brilliant 
beyoml all fonner example. 

Till' Any of Tlmnksginng at St. Paul's is rtigiirded by- 
Lord Maiyiiiliiy as tbo zenitb in the politiciJ liCo of 
Mr. Pitt. " I'o such a height of power and glory," ha 
sayg, "Lad this extriiorilinary man risen at twentj'-uiue 
j-ears nf age. And now," he odds, perhaps less lastly, 
'• the tide was on the turn." 

The joy in England at the restoration of the King, 
though ils raaiiisi:iriiig was tlio ualiwnnl loyalty, uiiglit 
no doubt be further heightened on cousidoring what 
would have boon the results in Ireland had bin malady 
continued. The most eminent momberB of the Irish 
Ijegiftlalui'O had conic to London in DoiiembGr. Mr. | 
<(ruttau hfid closely watched the proceedings of tbo" 
Jlouse of Cominons from heueatli ihe Gallery, but had 
given no puhbc iudituitiou of hia views. In truth, how- 
ever, so far fts the question of Eogeucy wiw oonciTned,'! 
he hafl thoroughly espoused the opinions of Fox. Wien, ' 
thorcfore, the Irish Parliament met in Febnuiry. Grattan, 
fur from following the precedent set in England, moved 
an Address to tho Prince of Wales inviting hira to 
assume, during the King's illness, the Government of 
Ireland, with full Idiigly powons. Tbii; Address vms 
(Mtiried in butb Honees. Being then in due form laid 
before tbo Lord Lieutennut, His Kxcelluoc>' teplieci 
that a eonsc of hU official duty as a sworn servant of 
the King must preclude him from transmitting, ns was 




Kqnested, this Address to Englund. Tboii t)io twn 
Hotisce, again urged on by Gnitton, resolvod to «!nd 
over thoir Addietso by di'logutes of their own. For tias 
mission tho Commons i-liose four of llioir members, and 
the Pe'.-re Ihv Duko of I .cinstcr niid I .ord Charlt^mont. 

It follows, therefore, tliat had not Goor(!;e the Third 
at this Tcty period resumed hi* Koyal fimrtions, ti»e 
Regency in the two conntries would have been held on 
wholly differc-nt tpuures — in England with reirtiicted, 
ill Ireland with unrestrictod authority. Hard it BeomK 
to wiy whether sucli a result, if carried to its full oouaN 
qucnix's, would hnvo been attended w ith most of incon- 
venienco or most of ridiculo ; uud this iustanco is alone 
sufficient to oust tho (^\b»t dunlils in an Ini]>crifll jKiint 
of* view on th« wisdom ami ]K)licy of tliat Legi^lutivo 
EqnuUty whieh Grattan Iiad achieved iii 1782. 

Ou roriewing the whole of theee Parliamentary coo- 
flicts, they will he found, I think, to reflect liigh honour 
on yir. ritt He bad certainly an up-hill battle to fight. 
\Vitli the general belief, in the first instance, that Iho 
King's recovery was hopeless, ihero was also a general 
di!«ir« to find favour with tlio I'rineu of Wales. And 
tlu> question being wholly now, thoro wax tio iuoon* 
sisti-ney involved in any vote that miglit bo pven on 
the side of His Koyul Highness. Notliing hut tlie 
consuuiniftto skill and unconquerable firmness of Pitt 
oould have waged so unequal n conflict with succewt 
Even these might not have prevailed, had they not been 
aided by tho faults of his opponents. The whole con- 
duct of the l*riuce's friends, fron» the first claim of 
right by Fox down to the last gust of passion from 



Chap. XII. 


Burke, does indeed disijhiy au extruordiaaty eeries of 
erroTH. Had they iloue wimt W)i8 prudont, or, what 
is tjfteu must prudent in dillifnlt niutTguiieiiis, doini 
nothiiip At ftU, the majority of Pitt might have 
wavered or broke asunder, and th» retttrietioiiii whidi 
ho deemed reqni^te might not hare been imposed. 

But the argiiiueat may be carried fiirtlier still. We 
may observe that all the delays and obsti-uctiono whtdi 
took place ia the appointment of a Regency, came, not 
from Mr. i'itt. but from his opponents. Had they not, 
besid«(! putting forward thulriuadniissilile claim of right, 
moved for new Committee!) and fresh examinutions, tJio 
Priufo of Wale* must liuve nssiimed the trovemmeut 
soon after CliristmiLs. Tho King after his ret'overy more 
than onee deelarod tliat. had ho then found u IVgonc}" 
established, he sliould have regarded it as au Act of 
Luuary against himself, and mhould have n-Hifled b> 
resume his power. But in any case the authority of 
tlie Frinco as Begent, and of Mr. Fox as Minister, even 
bad it endured only u few wuck^, would have been of 
no slifjlit iinportauoo. A great number of Members of 
Parliament desirows of sup]jorling tho Government of 
the day would have ptuwed over to the uow standard 
and become committed to it;/and if Mr. Pitt had then 
come bach to olliee under the^vingaif^iiined authority, 
it would havi) been aa shorn of no nnall purl of his pufit 
ascendanL I 

It may be a<lded before I quit thiei subject, that the < 
King's recovery, though complete for all pui-|)osc« of 
gorenuuent, itaa n«t clear of all clouds, nor free from 
all danger of rclapEu. Uis lettem to Mr. Pitt iluring i 




titu mmttiudcr of the Sefisioa contain nunv compUinte 
tliat h*i did not fuel welL It appears also that Dr. 
Willw and tiis sou Dr. Jobn paid occasional Tiats to the 
Eiii^, both at Kow and VVindBor, daring tha months of 
April, 3I«y, and Juno 

W« may also obsmve that on the King's recovery 
his uttHchment to his CbanceUor appeared the samo as 
hbfore. Perhaps Mr. Pitt may have been unnilliD); to 
agitate His Majesty, and forbore from stating to him 
the treacherous t-onduvt of Lord Thnrlow during tlic 
Kuyid nuilady. Porhups the Kiiigi in spito of such a 
ststoment, nuiy have rel«iu«vl his formur fc«UngH. 
Certain it m thut we tind him, iu writing to Mr. Pitt, on 
April 21, .1789, strongly press for a cordial conceit 
betvroou hia two principal Ministers. But tlie Chan- 
cclh)r prured tlio trut^ of the Tigoroua lines, 

** Foi^TflSiom to the injured does belong : — 
Bat ihey n«'er pardon who liavfl done tho wrong." 

It Vina he who, ever since the King's recovery, showed 
aveisioE and bitterness to Mr. Pitt, rather than Mr. PitI 
to him. 


CB*r. XIU. 



Pitf» lluiiuoiul loeamuM — WUtwrforoc'* Spoeoh on tho Slnvc Tmdo 
— Mr. Addln^D Bleottiil Spt'iibi^r — Promotions Sii tlio Pocniga 
— DuulbotncpQllic Duke of York luiil Colonel Leimoi — Ntttionnl 
defeooos — Lonl Biu.'kiui;li'kiu'B winli for u Dukwiotn — Rffuewl by 
Uio Kiug — Lord WiatmorlftDil njipoiiil.ed Lfirct-Lientonaiit of Ira- | 
land — Trittl of Slixikdulo — Froucb llcvolution — Opiniong of Fox 
nnd Bmke — Poliny .jf Pitt — Affair of NooLku SoimJ — Diaaolii- 
tiua of I'nrluuiiput— The Wettmln^r F.lectlon — Contimicd ilif- 
rnrenoo wllli 8[Biln — Siiumt nt-jrouiiilicu ut PariB— Cunyeiitiou 
eigtu.-!! at Madiid— Dr. Prine nii'l Lord Ktanhope — Ewnj on llio 
Prtiriuli Bevolutiou by Burku. 

On the restoration of the Kiug to hwiltli, tho deliates in 
i'arUament, no long confined to tlie single topic of bia 
illness, reetuned their ciiBtomary course. In finance, 
Pitt consented to remit tho SLop-Uix, wliicli lie liad 
iinpoMjd In 1785. It liud grumi higlily nnpopulur, 
abore nil in London and WuHtuiiu^tor, nliicli \»iv\, R9 
u nllt^d. three fourths of tho whole tax ; and Fox 
hud hrou^'it forwanl aniiii»t motioiis itgiiin^t it, which 
Pitt bud sucocHsfully rosiHtud, but in which his uio- 
joritios Iiixd declined. 

Another HnanciHl nieoAiire of this year related to the 
tax upon toba«co, Pitt luul calcnlati^d that twelve 
million.-) of jiounds were annually oinBumed iu the 
kingdom, while the legal importation was only of 

ren millions; .so that no less than five millione 
he smuggled, at a loss to the revenue of 




300,000^. a year. To remedy this penunons grsbnn. 
Pilt [iru]K>»t.-c! uutl cfirried a Bill, tmit^femug the 
grvnicr purt of the duly from tlu) Cnstoms to the 
Excise, and tliorofore, of oounto, tmbjcctiiig tlw manii- 
fkctnrer of tobocoo to tlie survey of llic Exoisviuun. 

In 17Si*, owing chiolly to llie delays ])roilu(N.-d by tlio 
King's illn««H, Uw House of Lords could allot only 
(leTi^nteeD diiys to tlio trial of Hastiiijp*, m tlmt lilllo 
progress was made, lint the velienioiice of liiirlio 
exposed th« party of the pro««ctUon to coimidvrublo 
disadvantage. In opening the Charge rclntiTO to 
presents, on tJio 2l8t of April, he travelled far b<>yond 
the limits of tliat Charge, asaertdng in express terras 
that Hastings bad murdered Kiuicotnar by the hands 
of Sir Elijah Impey. Upon tiiis Mr, Hastings drew up, 
and Major Scott pr«!cnt<Nl, a jjctitioii to tlie Iloiiiie 
of Comnioiiti, complaining of sut'h annuthoriiu'd alloga- 
tions on the part of those who profeiised to speak as 
the repivseiitatives and from the instmetions of the 
House. SiiTpral warm delmtes ensued. Fox did his 
best to vindicate bis friend; but with better reason 
Pitt maiotuioed Uiat it was utterly unjustifiable in tho 
Uanagcrs to bring forward accii^tioiis against. 3Ir. 
Hastings whioh woro not poutain«d in rho Articles 
of linpi-arhmeiit, and whidi eould not tliercfore lie 
ooDipTiii^l in the directioni* of the House. And linally, 
on the motion of the Marqois of Graham, one of the 
Lords of the Treasury, a rote of eensure was carried, by a 
lat^ majority, npoo the words which Burke had used. 

On the 8th of Slay Itr. Henry Beaufoy renewed the 
motion for a repeal of (be Test and Corporation Acts. 

c 3 


jJFE OF prrr. 

Chip. XDI. 

Tfioiigli witiiBtooil both by Tilt and J/ord North — a 
present anil a litte Primo MJiiiHter — there was but 
a KmaU majority (igaiiist tli« motion; Uio uiunbore 
being 122 ami 102. Tliis deserves io be noticed as 
one of the last occasions wlien tlie C-onimuns' debates 
display to us the onre familiar name of Lord Kortb. 
His health had become impaiied, aud next year 
he succeeded \us fiitber as Karl of CruUford. 

Another proposal mado in this Sossioa by Mr. 
Beaiifoy was to set apart by Act of Parliament a day 
of iiniinal TimnksgiviTig for the Revtiiiition of 1088. 
The Bill for tbin pur])Oi^e passed tho t'onmions with 
little notice or remark. But in tln.^ Lords it. stirred up 
RO much indignation in tJio breaist of at kiast one PreUto, 
Bi.-iho]) Warroii of Ban^jr, thiil liis Loidehip woidd not, 
acoonling ta the usual lorm, await the Second Reading, 
but opposed it even on tbo First lliis Bill, the Bishoj) 
eaid, wa« quite unuucL^sary, sineethe great event of tlio 
Revohitioii was already eommumorated by the Church 
iu the Secricc of tlie 5tii of November — "a SorviiH.%" 
addi-d his Lrjrd(Jii[>, " drawn np with great gravity and 
uisdom,and »s utiexoeptioiiable a Service as any in tho 
whole Book of flommon Prayer." On tlie otiier lumd, 
LonJ Stanhope, replying to the Bishop of Bangor, found 
great fault with tlie Serrie© of the 5tli of November. 
But tlio Ciianrellor declaring his full agreement with 
the DLihop, tlie Bill was thrown out, iu a thin lloutie, by 
thirteen Peers to six. 

On the 12th of May Mr. Wilberforoe brought forward 
the question of the Slave Trade. Bis speech of tlirei^ 
hours and a quarter wan acknowledged as one of 




tlie ablest and most poworftti ovm- licanl in Pariiament. 
He WM wHnDlj snpporU>(l both by Pitt find Fox. 
Yet, RtTsnge as it may wem, lh« enn«e for wbinh 
Hiifb tn«ii r>oinbiiu^, iasteatl of making further tray, 
receded. Tbe exertions of the planteni, the criee of 
Liverpool and BristcJ, had succeeded in cfeaticg a 
vague, but preralent feeling of sJann. The Abolition 
of tbo nefarious traffic had began to be commonly 
looked upon as a fine-spun theory ; Bounding well 
ill siMxtiics, but likely to be ruinous in practice. All 
that cotild be done this year was to avmd an open 
dpfeat by (-idling for furtlier oridonce at the Bar of tlio 
Bouse of Commoni). 

Bcforu lh« cIosB of tko Session there was another 
vnriiucy iu tbo Chair of tho Houfio of Commons. 
Inuring tlm Kiug's illucat Greiiriilo had iLf^cd to flU 
tliat post, as a t«iDpomry mewnire at a diflimlt crisis, 
and n-ith u clear undenilnnding that it was "not to 
prejudice his other views," InJuneac(?onlingly hewaa 
uamed Secretary of State, in the plane of Lord Sydney. 
He was fflicceeded as Speaker, on the nomination of the 
Gorertunent. by Uenrj' Addington, son of the physician 
and friend nf Lord Chatliam, and Iiiniself a friend of 
Pitt It proved an excellent choice, though question- 
able at the outset on the ground of youth an<I incx* 
pcriemw. sboe Addin^n bad but jui>t cumplctod his 
thirty-second year. 

Lord Sydney did not retire from Downing Street with- 
out some ftubatantial tokentt of the lrten<Iship and esteem 
of Kit He received a sinecure office for life, as Chief 
Justice of Eyre, which had recently fallen vacant, and 



Cmp. XIII. 

was worth 2ri00?. a year.' Moreover h« was adTaueed a 
step in the Peerage aa Viscount Sydney, and Us eldest 
eoii WHS made u Ijord of tlie Admiralty. Tlie wishes of 
the Earl of SidiMlmry, I/>rd Chamberlain, and of Viscount 
W't'ynioiitli wen.' also giatiJied tty a like pramotitm. Tho 
former became Marquis of Salisbury, and the latter 
Marqiiis of Rath. Lord Fortescao having represontod, 
tbrougli Mr. Pitt, that he stood high in the list of Itarons, 
and that an Earldom had already heea held in his family, 
lie was advanced to that dignity. The King, in thw letter 
wliioh expressed his assent to tbefiefavours, proposed of his 
own acoord aiiotlior Earldom for Lord Mount Edgcumbe, 
which was coufornrd acconiingly. A liltle lat<?r iu tlio 
year, WiUium Edeu, now amhu!i«adur at the Hague, 
was raised to the Irish Peein^o ax Lord Aueldiind. 

In tJie spring of this year was louylit a duel between 
the Dulie of York and Colonel Lennox, nephew and 
hcii'-prosumptivo of tlio Duko of Itichmond. The 
Colonel hud gone Up to Hit Royal Hjghnoss, on tho 
parade »t >St. Jiunes's, and ai^ltal for an e.\p1nnation of 
soma dispnraginfr words, relative to liimsclf, which tho 
Duke was reported to have need elsewhert'. The Duke 
with great propriety ordered the Colonel to return to 
his post; but when the parade was over, His Koyal 
nighness went into the Orderly Itoom, eent for Colonel 
Lennox, and in the presence of all the otliei' oflicers 
said to him, " I desii'e to derive no protei;uon from my 
rajik aa a Prince, or my station as commanding oiHcer. 
Wbea not on duty I wear a brown coat, and shall be 
ready as a private gentleman to give you eatisfactiou." 

I .Cofuvmllla CorrcFpaiidoDoe, voL il, p, 0, 




In consequence a meeting took place at HVimWedon, 
both paitiea to fire upon a Rignal given. The VkiU of 
Colonel Lennox grazed one of the Duke's curls, but 
His Boyal Ilighneae did not fim in return, and tlio 
Geeondi) then put a close 1o the afiair. Tbu rt-sult 
was nuiiuly to exhibit iu struuii; cuIouik tho unliappy 
cstranguuiout which lute crcntti hud wrought iu tho 
Koyiil l-'umily: lor a hall huing given at St. Jamog'a 
«hurt!y nftwrwards, Colonel Leiinox received an invita- 
tion from >lcr MnjoBty ; and it is ad<)od, not perliaps on 
sufficient grOuiidN. tliat on coming he vas treated nith 
marked attention.' 

In the Slimmer, the King being advised to confirm 
bis health by some Eea-hathing, went to Weymouth, 
accompanied by the Queen and IVinccsses. His mode 
of life u]K)D the coast is tliii8 dustTihcd ; — " Ho UMially 
risoM lit rix, walk:* tlie I'flriwli- till eight, takes breakfimt 
bi-fon.- tun, rides till three, diuL's ut four, aud ii^iimea tfao 
prumeiiadu with the Qu<.'en and IViuccssi^ till late in 
thoureuiiig, provided the wctitlier be iiiie." Humetimes 
the eceue wu» varietl by a isoiling iiarry ou tho wa, or 
an excursion inland ; and their Majesties visited Itutli 
Exeter atnl I'lymouth before tliey returned to Windsor.' 

Towardii tlie same period we find Pitt uTite to Lady 
Cliatbam, and refer nith great interest to tho events iu 
France. It was on the Yury day of the taking of tho 

) Sod on ttila point tlic Fox Uo- I voL W. [ip. SEUj^, iu»l Uiu Kiiig'a 
uoriutn. vul. JL p. SOS, own ftocouiit of hi* liiutUi in n 

* Cainpnnt tUo Aim. Rog., 1780, note loPit^d>tt)dE!xol«T, Aug.ST, 
p. £01, Willi nan liuiiuj « Dittij, I 1780. 




" tkiwning Street, Jtdy 14, 1780. 

" I find at last a little leisxire for iisiing my pen, 
fwHii the drniiustance, which the papers would inform 
yon of, of my being vithin these two days a prianner 
from a InriieiiOJ^s, wliii.-li is just encngh to cinifinc 
me, and to justify aomo pretensiouB to tlio name of gout. 
Lost it i^liould he ititigniltrd into more tlian it is, I am 
anxiouE that you should loceivt- from myself a ccrtificftt© 
of my being in all otljer respects perfectly well, 
and feeling very little inconvenience indeed from this 
slight sfiofimou of what I haro long been very well 
entitled to. I am veiy happy to be able to tell yon 
that we draw witliiu gij^lit of the close of the Session, 
not very long after wliich I hope to find myself at 
lil>erty to extend my exoursion as far as Burton. 
Indeed I flatter myaelf the King's stay in the West will 
give me a very good opjjortnnily of rtimainiiig in that 
jwrt of the world !*omiithiri{j ncurtT a rcaeouablo linio 
than has been i\\u faso in any of my visits lately. You 
will easily believe this makcR me not tlie less im- 
patient for the Uecfiss, which )ironiii«cs at jiroBent, in all 
reapecls, a good share of holidays. Our neighboure in 
France seem coming to actual extr*'mes, the King 
liaviug snddonly dismissed M. Necher. and appearing 
(lotenuined to support his authority against the f«atiouaI 
Aflsejnhly. Thia scene, added to tlie |irevaiMng gearcity, 
makes that country nn objoct of compaBsiun, even to a 

" Believe me ever, my dear Mother, &c.. 

« W. Pitt. 

"Let mo add my affcctiotiato compliments to Mrs. 
Stapleteu, and kind remembrances to Mrs, Sparry, I 
IcMig to see your sweet little com])anions, whom I can 
hardly expect to know again," 


Lirs OF PITT. 


Tlio "little companmns " mcntionod in this letter 
were Pitt's tliree nie^tsti, the Ladies Stanhope, who were 
then on a Tint to their graodmother. Owing to Lord 
Btnnliope'fi estrangement from liim, be faad Dot Been 
them for a conaiderablo time. 

The following letter from tLo ]>iike of liiclimoud in- 
dicates not Lis own xivves merely, hnt those of I*iU, at 
tliis period in respect to uatiooal defences. 

' Sir DEAR Sir, 

Goodwood, Sept. 13, liS9. 

" I perfectly agree with yon thAt the popnlar prejn- 
diec in fiivour of the N'avy nnd a^iut fortifiealious is 
HO greitt, that it would be much L'^sier tourml oneself 
of the former than to combat the latter; and I think if 
all wus reudy to set thoise people at work imnK^liatcly 
oa briuging water into Plytnonth Dock town for the use 
of tlie navy, it woiUd bo best eo to employ ihem. But 
the misfoiltino is tJiftt ooilber the plan i» mifRcieutly 
settled to be able to proceed upon inimediutoly, nor the 
ground through which the fltr«iam must lie brought pur- 
eha^-d, so ifaat until un Act of IVtrliament is poatod to 
buy tlio land, nothing material enn be done. Bat if 
tliu works on Sfeker could be gone on with, they might 
in to-morrow. I ouggei'led tlit.4 a« an idcia wliicli 
iit puiuihly Ihi meutioued to the Western mcniben; 
if they approved of it aa a remedy for such a dan- 
arouft ca^e, 1 think it might be adopted ; but nhilc 

ings are <]uii-t, peoplu are Tcrj- apt to negk-et tho 
means of keeping them so, and the same idea will pre- 
Titi! more than it ouglit on account of Fritnoe's jiresL-nt 
situation. It will make us too secure, and neglect the 
going on with tJio^ fortiSeatinns whicli, take my wonl 
for it, wo sliall some day regret not baring punsued; 



CflAP. Xlil. 

but I am seusible Iiow cliOicult it is to itriprcss this idea 
geiierftlly, aud tlieref'oro, like mfist other tiling!*, it must 
take its chaiiCL', and Ije govornccl liy tliat great ogeut 
accident, instfad of pradence. I shall, however, prepare 
tlie plait tor getting the water to PljTDfuitli Dock as you 

*' I sliall at all times be happy to see you, and am 
only sorry it is likely to be sk lati; us u mouth hence, 
as I wish to show you two very loug letters I have had 
from the Chancellor, and ray answer. He is by no 
mcuDB ill good humour, and there are some points I wish 
much to talk to you upon. 

" I urn ever moat truly aud ginceruly yours, 

" Richmond." 

During tlie NoTemUr of this year we find Lord 
Buckingham in a most resentful mood. Early in the 
BpriiijT he had been muoli incensed in the matter of a 
military promotion, wliieh the King thought tlni right 
of Colonel Gwynn, but which the Marquis claimed for 
a kinsman of Iiis own. lu the snmmor Lc came over to 
take the waters of Bath, and in the autumn ho finidly 
resigned his Vice-ltoynlty on the ground of illness, 
"The wretched state of my liealth, sacrificed in the dis- 
diarge of my duty :" sricli was his language at the time 
to Mr. I'itt. But he declared that the obloi|uy which 
he Irnd incurred in Ireland during the King's illness 
etHed for " somo distinct and special mark of Hia Ma- 
jesty's farour." The mark of favour at wliich he pointed 

, wae a Dukedom. He pressed it in the strongest manner 
both on \m brother William aud ou Mr. Pitt, and the 

, }«tter promised to do his utmost iu tJte Clottet after the 
next Drawing Itoom. 




Id pursuance of the sniue object ve find on ihv 6th 
trf November WiUiam (Jrenrille writ©: "Tbe Pravring 
Room was t>o verj' late restenla^, that it was impoMtdo 
for Pitt to go into the Clo!)et aftenranls, »» it was not 
over til) jiaat iire, and tb^ King had to go )iiu<k to 
M'indiMir afterwardit. This being the case, we have 
t^jeed that, to prevent anjr fbrtber delay, Rtt shall 
write to the King upon the subject stating all the a^^nu- 
mcuntiv ... I owu I am by no means sony that 
ihfi latc-nc«s of the Drawing Itoom haa given a ple« fiw 
haritig recouisu to this mode, as I have always observed 
it to iniO(».'ed best uiili the King. All the points may 
be more forcibly urged by being eolIecti-d and stated in 
reference to each other in a manner which Uie Kiiig'8 
desultory way of «pea)dng makes almost impo^ble." — 
These laet words deserve partienUr attention. They 
8ii[^)Iy an answtT to the question which is sometimes 
put why in 1801 Mr. PJt*> when Ik- was pleudiiig for 
the Roman Catholic claims and staking the existenco 
of lib SliuiNtry tijton Uiom, ihuiight it best to write 
to tlie King iuste«d of asking on audience of His 

It waa impossible to write a more pressing letter tliaa 
did Ur. Pitt to forward the wi»heti of Ixtrd Buckingbam. 
The King, however, refused. lie had no ohjoction, as 
we have seen, to create Marqoises and Earls, but ha 
was dotomiiiied to rLveivo the rank of Doke (or the 
Princiv of his family. 

At this refusal tliu " puin and mucry" of Lord Book* 
inghom (sucli are liis owu wotds in his letter to Pitt) 




were great indeed. Ho luinoiinoed to the Minister \m 
fixed Jiitwrinination, as a sigti of his displcaKurc, to rt'- 
sign theLord Lieutonancy of tlic county. "I liope you 
will forgive my adding." so answcrwl l*itt on the I2lh 
of NovomliiT, " that tiie step wliidi you mmlitftfi? in 
Ronsftqueiiet! is not ordy piiinCuI to me for u tliouwuiid 
rea»onf) both public and p<-rHon)J, but is one which ^»ms 
likfily to produce effects in the public impression the 
reverse of everything yon would yoiu^df wish. . . , 
I raally feel so anxious on tht- tmbject that I cannot 
help bftving a wiah to be able t^ t«tate to you in conver- 
sation, before you take your final resolution, all that 
occurs to me on the subject ; and if I thought it would 
not be inconvenient to you, I abould be very gliid to 
take the first day of leisure to come to you at Stowe for 
tlittt purpose. I ftm pretty suro that I diould have no- 
thing to prevent my doing it on Snnday ne.\t." 

Mr. Pitt went accordingly to Sti»wo on th« day Le pro- 
pofied, and be appears to hnvi- in grcut niuastun; par itied 
his conain. Witli praiseworthy caution on biipIi delicate 
topics we find bini, in writing to Lady Chatlinm, speak 
of this as though it had been only a trip of pleasure. 

■' Dolwood. Nov. 21, 178ff. 

" My exeurrtioDB all proved extremely p]oiu^«.nt. TIio 
last has been to Stowe, where I went last Sunday, and 
found Lord Buckingham getting much better." 

The selection of a now Lord Lieutenant for Ireland 
was a nuittor fo gnmt perplexity. At Icngib Pitt 
pitched upon John Fano, tenth Karl of Wvelnioiluud, 






who was born IDc© himwlf in 3759. FewpiWio men 
hare l>e«u lousor iii high office. Thirty-seven yfnirs 
frtan Uie limo when he wiw dent to Iiflanil we find him 
still a inf!mb«r of liord LiTerpool's Cabinet "There 
are several points," m writes Sir. fJrenville in October, 
1789, " in which \Vefit]norUin(l would do perfectly. 
There are llioae in which he bilts but God knows the 
list to choose out of is not long." 

In the same month of November, the Kiuij, perwiv- 
ing tie continued alienatiou of the Chancellor from 
the IMmo Mjuister. luldreesed a letter to the first npon 
the Mibject. Uo rL>coiTed a moat Mtufaetory replv. 
I^rd Tliurlow appi.^itrs to have pn)iiii«.-<l tliat he notitd 
gire Mr. I'itt uo i'urtht-r grounds to complain. Cut the 
{iTonme WAS not fnlfilled. 

On the ihli of December came on before Lord Konyon 
the trial of llr. John Slockdule. lie had bouu the pub. 
lUber, two yean before, of a panipldt^ which contained 
somo violent language against tlio promoters of fina* 
tings'* trial. In February, 1788, Fox had brought it 
before the Hooso of Commons as an boinoin co^e of 
libel. " I admit tlio libel," eaid Pit], "and 1 (Jwerrc 
tliat I am myaclf coinpriiiod in it, yet I mn' nothing so 
peculiarly heipoiw o» to warrant o»r singling out this 
publication from the gonorol inas^" Nevertheless Fox 
prevailed. lie movetl and canrted an Addresb to tho 
King, desiring that the author and publisher might be 
prosPL-uted by tho Attonioy- General. Wlieu thv trial 
camo on, Krskiue was counsel for Stockdale, and deli- 
vered one of tho most masterly of his many imietLTty 
specclica at the Bar. The result justified tlie prudence 



Ciup. xni. 

of Pitt, for the Jory, after some deliberation, brought in 
s Terdict of Not Guilty.* 

Ww are now come iu onier of time to thut ^oat 
Freiieli Revolution, doomeil iu its speedy coiiHequeiiccs 
to siiMiie tlio greater part uf Europe, and to try to the 
utmost the euiirjjy of Pitt, tbo streugth and s]>iri( of 
Eugluud. For many yoars past bad that mighty sl«rm 
beea gathering; ita sign^ unheeded by the world at 
large, but surely di8ceme<l by the b-uding gpiritm of tbo 
age. Thus wrot« Cheatertiebl in 1752 : " But this I 
foresee in France, that before the end of this century 
the trade of both King and Priest wiU not be half an 
good a one as it has been." * And thus wrote Rousseau 
in 17IJ2 : " We are approaching a state of crisis and an 
ago of Revolutions." ' 

Of tbo French Kevolutiou, however, I elutll not 
attempt in any detail *;ither to oxamine the can80B,orto 
rolttto tho progress. Let it here siifnce to say, tliut the 
Assembly of Notables, as planned by M. do Calimne, fail- 
ing in its object, drew on, by its failure, the long-dreaded 
convocation of the States-General. That important 
body, which bad lain donnaut sinco 1614, aud whicli 
had grown the more formidable from its long disuse, 
met again on thi- 5th of May. 17S9. Not long content 
witli tho traditions of tlie past, it speedily proclaimed 
itself *' tho Nationid A.sseml Jy." 'ITien tho diamLwal of 
Nci'kcr, and tho uupopularily of the King and Qiieun, 

* TrinI of 'tulin Stadcclal«v " 
(akt>n III Hlini'l IihiuI liy JmiiiiIi 
Giinicy. iinJ [iiil>lljihiid by Stoab- 
dnle Uim«ar, 1700. 

■ liettor to tilB Bod, April 13, 
* 8eo the EmlU, Uv. iii. 





precipitated a catostroplio wlii^h do ikill pcrliapa could 
haw quitu averted. First did the [iopulur fury turn 
&guiD»t tlie nncioat Ktato-Pri^n on tli« Boulevards 
of I'liris. On the memorable 14ll) of July tlie multi- 
tude, riiung in amui, a^^ailed and tnnk the Uaxtillir, and 
put to death iu cold lilood the chief men of its feeble 
garrisDiL Tumult and riot ensued in sereral other parti> 
of tbe kingdom. Tumult sad riot may be aaid to have 
preraUed even in tJio Xoliooal Assomblr ; for there, 
on tbe night of the 'Itli of August, in a giddy nhirl of 
enthusiasm, and without a word of deliberation, with no 
thought for existing interests, and with no provision for 
current bu&ineae, tbeso raw Icgislatoni swept awuy tu a 
uagle vote tb« complicuU-d pririlugeit of a tbuusnud 
years — the rights of tlie Clergy, tlie ngblx of tiiu Nobler 
tlio rights of tho Ftrliomeut, an<) the rights of tlie 

Yet, euormouA aa was the amount of these inctm- 
siderate concessions, the mob of Paris was not willing 
to acquiesce in any coiubo of regular government. 
Elated with their past sucx;e8s as destroyers of the 
Bastille, and instigated by a secret Society, which 
BOOD afterwards took the name of "Jacobins," they 
i^ain rose iu anus ou the 6th of October, amidst loud 
cries— "To Vursaillra! to Vcrsaillee!" oud Uiitber 
Uioy mardtod ncoordiugly, in yelling itroccMion. Tlio 
unfounded «olf-reliiinec of Gononil do Lafayette, as 
Commander of the National Guard, combined 1o their 
triumph with tlie irresolution of Louis the Sixteoutli. 
They broke into the palaf^e, butchered two of tlie Oaidc** 
du>Corps ; and 6imlly brought back the King and 
Queen, stUl in name and title their Sovereigns, hnX. \\^ 






trutli their captives, to Paris. Even at tliat time it 
became apparent that neither the King, nor yet the 
Assembly, nor yet the peopio of the country, but only 
the mob of the capital) had tho true diretrtiuu uf HfTuira. 
Even then might have been njiplieii tliose words which 
the Miiiistor of the United 8t«tes, in Friince, afterwards 
ubihI as summiug up his esporienoe of the BevolHtion 
in that kiiijrdom : — " It has appearwl to me that Paris 
decider tor lJit> nhole of France, and that the popuUoo 
dcfidos lor Paris." ' 

It was natiu^ tliat even at the outset these great 
events should be regarded from opposite point* of view- 
Men wlio considered <miy tlie abuses of the old French 
Monarchy, might rejoice in its probable overtlirow. 
Other men, who saw those abuses as clearly, might 
ntvcrtholesa abhor gpoliiition too, and distnigt mob- 
violence as an iii.^truitient of retbrmatii^u. And from 
Ihevery first, as it chanced, the two lenders of the ^\ big 
party i» the House of Commons, Fox and Burke, 
inclined to these opposite sides. Thus only a few days 
after the taking of tlie Bastille we find Fox esultingly . 
exclaim : — " How much it is tho greatest event that h 
over lukppened in the world I And how mucli th« beet ! " * || 
And here, on tho contrary, are somo oxprusaions of 
Burke a few weeks later, whLti writing 1o a fritiid in 
Frftnce: — "Ton hope, Sir, that I think tJii- French 
deserving of Uborty. 1 ccrtaiiily do. I certainly think 
that all men who desiro it, denervo it. It ie> nut tliu 
reward of our merit, or the acquisition of our industry. 

' G(mvpnii:HT Moms lo Han- ] 
dolpli. Aiitll U<,1TU4. uafiiihliKiiuil 
to iloriis's Life aiid Oumspoad- 

* He^iorlalt of Fm, tcI. li. ^ 




It is onr toberitoiiw. It is the birtb-rigbt of our Bpeck«. 
Bnt irheiiPTer & soparatioD ia uuulo liberty and 
juslicu, ncitlicr ia iu my opiuion safo."^ 

This diveigODCO of opioioQ wiw not long confiiiucl to 
priraU- Ictti'm It broko forth publioly in tbo 8«8sion 
whi<:h ooiiiiuvnc-c<] in the Jauiuiry follon-iu^. TheKinfr, 
who ofiencd tbiil >Sc««oii in person, stalcil in tliv Sjxvx'h 
from tho Throne, that the oQJiirs of the C'ontinont Imil 
eagaged hid mort corious nttenlion ; l«it he pA$»e(l no 
otht^r jixlginont upon th^ni. Nor niitt any increase, 
however moderate, proponed in the Army I^imatDe. 
The number waa still oa last year, for between 17,000 
and 18.000 effective men. Fox nevertheless unjed 
some tedurtion, thuugh not, aa ho ofknovr Icdgi-d, on any 
Constitutional ground. For tho example of a noigh* 
boitring nation, mU] he, had proved that former impiitA' 
tions on a standing amy were nrifuiinde<l adiimnies; 
tind it wiw uow known UirouglKitit K>mi|ie, that, by 
becoming a soldier, n man did not omae to be u rilizen, 

Thette and aonie otlier snch pxpreRsionii on tlie part 
rof the ftloRiber for ^^'^e3tminster called forth on a 
Anbsequent day tlie llember far ^laltou. T^iroiring, aa 
was his wont, his whole heart into the subject, Burke 
delivered tho first of his heautiful philippics, spoken or 
written. agftiuKt tlio French itcvolutioii. " Sinco thu 
Honsu," ho said, " nas pmroguod in tho tmmmiT, much 
work hiu been done in FrQUc«. Tbo French liuvo 
Kliown thnrageives tlie ablest (ircliitf-cts of ruin that hud 
hitherto existed in tlie world. In that ver)- »lkort Kpuco 

' C«im«poiideiico of Biait, vol. Hi. pp. 103 ubl 107. 



CRiP. Silt. 

of time tliey have wjinpletely pulled ilown to tlie 
ground their Moiiftrcby, their Church, tlieir uohility, 
their law. their revenue, tlieir army, their uavy, their 
commerce, their arts, luid their mannfftutiires. They 
h«TO done their husineRs lor tisi as rivals, in ft way 
which twt,*iity Rftmilios or Bh^uhtiims iwuld uever have 
done. Were wo ulisoliite conqueron*, and France to lie 
prostrate at our feet, we sltould bo ashamed to send 
a Commission to aettJe thdr aflaii-s ivltidi wouh! impose 
80 hard a law upon the Frenfh, and so deBtnictive 
of all their consequence as a nation, as that they 
had impoeed ujkiu themselves." 

Such were tlie discordant opinions proclaimed on fliis 
subject and at this period from the main Oppositiou 
bench. Fox in his views was supported — perhaps eveu 
outnm — by Slier! Jan ; Rnrke in his by Windham ; and 
the breai'h thue bcgiin, seemed far more likely U> widen 
thiin to close. 

The views of Pitt at this period, while greatly 
difierin^ from Fox's, were by no means altogether the 
same as Burke's. " The present con^Tilsious of Franco," 
he said, ''must sooner or later terminate in general 
harmony and tegular order ; and though such a sihia* 
tiou might make her more formidable, it might also 
make her less obnoxious as a neighbour. I wish forth© 
restoration of tranquillity ia that country, although it 
appears to mo distant. Whoucver hor system shali 
become restored, if it should prove l'rce<lom rightly 
uuderMtood. freedom resulting from good order und good 
guvenimeiit. Franco would stand furward as one of the 
most hriiliaut Powers in Euro|>o. Nor can I regard 




n-itli enrions eyce any approximarinn in neiglihouring 
States to tlit»M> Rendmonlti which are the rliaracteristics 
of every ILritinh snhjwt." ' 

It waa not, howerer, upon FraQoe that the main 
ntt^ntioQ of our Jlintstew was then cUrected. Still 
moro unxioualy did tliey turn their eyes to Spain, where 
» eciiou« difference bad arisen, threatetuog a poeitive 
war. Captaii) Cook in one of his Toyagea had explored 
un '.-xtonsive Sound, colled by the natives Nootka, 
un tilt' tfuast, as bo 8up]>osed, of tho North Americun 
contiriunl, but in truth of Vaucoun'T's Island. It »eL-inod 
a poKittoti wuU udapti'd to mipply tlto Cliiuceo murkut 
nith furs, and kiiico I78(i i^onie Kngliithmen in India 
had oommvuoed tliis trade. IVIore reoentJy two ithipi« 
of larger size had been deRpatehed, and some grantA 
of land were obtained from the native ebiefs. But these 
proL-uedingB had been viewed with the utmost, jc-alousy 
by the Spinish oilirors iu Mexico. Witli do just cluitn 
wpon this district, either bj- discovery or occupation, they 
htui roeuunu) to an amount boust. They asserted that 
Ihuir Soverui^i was ontitlod as of ri(;bt to all lands on 
tlic weHtcrii coast of America between Cnpe Horn and 
the sixtieth <lcgrec of north lutitudo. 

In the sprint; of I789,»('eonIiii{^]y. an K'lfi'lisli veswel, 
the Iphigeitiu, iukIlt Cnptaiii Duiit^Ia-s wiis peitcciibly 
anchored in Nootka Ki>uhd, and the o[H-rationR of tnido 
were in quiet progreaa, when there appeared two Spanish 
shijB of war sent from the port of San Bias, anil rom- 
manded by Don Estevan Martinez, For some days 

8prMhofFoU.9, 1790. 

\0U a. 



ciijp. XI I r. 

notliinf; Irnt civilities passed between tliem, till of a 
Buddon the IptiigeniB wa« seized in the rame of the 
King of S(>Jiiii ; tlie officers and crew being oouviiyod oil 
board tlic Spanisb Mliips luid put iu iroiiH. Nor was tbo 
Ipliigenia restored, iui<t piTniissioii grautod them to f*ail 
uwiiy to tbo Swidwich Luanda, until after the entire 
plunder of hpr cargo and tlieir pi^perty. The Itritisii 
flag on tbe new settlement was pulled down, and the 
Spanish hointed in its place ; and at a later period three 
other smaller vessels were likewise seized and detained. 

So grievous an insult could not fail to be resontod 
by a country like England, and u Minister like Pitt. 
Prompt and vigoi-ous rcprL-sentatious on the sulijeet 
were addressed to tlio Court of Hadrid. The Spanijirds 
ttusworod thnt the Iphigoniu, with her oQicers and crew, 
liad been nlroady telcajned by an order from tlie Viceroy 
of Mcxioo, but solely on account of thn presumed 
ignorance of those officers, who had, tJiough unknowingly, 
t/eapaased on the dominion of 8pain. That dominion 
— that cxcluHive right of trade and na\-igation on the 
north-woat coast of America — was still pertinaciously 
Uiwortcd at Madrid, but no Iohh pertinaciously resisted in 
London. jVnd iutelligencu wan now received that on 
flndiug the EiiglLth Cabinet thutt firm, tiio SpauiardH, 
rather than yield, wore <;olIccting their llootii at Cadiz 
nud -Ferrol, and otherwise preparing tor war. 

Up to tills time the secret of these critical iiCff^tiationB 
had been earefidly kept. But on tho -ItJi of May thu 
cooDtry was wirpriseJ by an Order for the general 
impressment of seamen; and on the following day 
a Message from the lung, announcing tbe prospect of 





w(ir, was pr«Mnt«d to both Houses ; ti> the Common* 
liy Mr. PittiAod to the Ixirds Itythe Dnke of Leodit. for 
to t)u^ Dukedom of Leedii hfld liord Csniiarthi-ii now 
Aucceeded. In reply, there were AddnesM Msariog 
Ilia Majesty of tlie support of Parliament ; und a TOte 
of credit for a million was parsed. The«c were all 
ciirried with one voici?, ulthough some chiuf men in 
Opposition — ^Fox, Fnmcis, and Grey — mAd« objections 
uu<l nused debntea on some oollnl^TEtl jtolntf*, tat tlie 
uImciiCi' of our ambuaiuidor ftx>m Madrid, uud liia trifling 
vnliio of th<; trade to Nootko Sound. 

Tbe«e debates ou foreign policy mny bo deemed tJie 
moot itii)v>rlHnt, of flint. Setwion. There wa<i also a 
motion by Mr. Flood for a Kefnnuin IWIiament, which 
was lost withont a divinon, and in wbtdi Flood did sot 
tillogothor Husbun tho high repulutiou wliirh tiu luul 
canicd in Ireland. Further, there was a tnotioa by 
Fox for the repi'sl of the Teet Act. Ho wug oppontcl 
not oi&Iy by Htt, but by tiurko and Wilberforro, uud ' 
defeated by n majority of almost three to onu. Tliu 
speech of Burko above all excited great attciitioii. He 
owned (hat ten yearn before, be should, far from opposing, 
have supported thia motion ; but he pointed to the 
growing influence uud dangeroiiaexampleof the French 
KcToluUon, and Ijo read passages from tho ntitings of both 
Dr. IMco and Dr. IVieetley to ebow tbut tliu total Gub- 
vursion of the Church had become the avowed objcc-t of 
8omo ItMuling I liKStrntirrs. 

8ix years hnil tbc I'arUameut now cndtircN], and 
its Prorogation on the 10th of Jnn© wae immediately 
followed by its Di^ssolutiou. There was little of impular 


UFE OF riTT.' 

ciup. xm. 

itcinent in tlie now elpctions. It was fell, by the 
ifttina at largn that wlieu Pit! lind (ieclanx] dftrller in 
tlio Sossion that " wo am addiuj^ duily to oiir strength, 
wealth, and prosjwrity," ' he had uttered no vain or 
empty boast ; and that our flouriahiiig condition was in 
no small degree the work of hia able lianda. ITnder the 
impression of these feelings the triumpliant Ministeria! 
majority which the old elections had given waa more 
than confirmed by the new. Fox waa eniibled to 
maintain his seat for Westminster, but not us before 
with Towushond for a eollLHigue. Lord Hood appeared 
oucd mora as tLi» MinistiTiHl caudidiit^. No other 
canif forward, on <iitber tho ri'i^uliir Government or 
regular Opposition tutlc, but only Home Tookc- on tho 
"ludepeiideut iiiteii>st," so that Fox and Hood were 
easily returned. 

The caiisH of the tranquillity of Westminster and 
retireraoiit of Towusliend mil best appear from the 
following Irtemorandum written in Mr. Dundas's hund) 
and preserved among Mr. I'ilt's papers:— 

*' On the liith March, 1790, Lord Lauderdolo and Mr.' 
Pitt held a eonversation nn the subject of the West- 
minster ulectioii, Mr. Diiiidos proaent 

"They agreed titat. each party should propose and 
snp|iiirt only one candidate respectively at the first 
gDiit-nil uledion, and during the whole of next Par- 
liament, so long ae itilhor the Duke of Portland or 
Mr. Fox ou the one part, and Mr. I'itt or Mj-, Grenville 
ou Uiu oUier, arc alive, and including eve-ry other contin- 
gency of death, vacancy, and cliaagc« of administration. 

' Speech of F«b. 5, 17S0. 





*' It) this oonvora»lioii Mr, I'll! agreed in tlio name of 
the pi-eseat adniiaistralioB or any of wliicli hu or Mr. 
Grenville should b« a member. 

" Lonl 1 4iiidi!riiii1i! aftr^cd in tlic iiaino, nnd aa 
authorised by tlie Duke of PortJaiid or Mr. Fox, or any 
adminiittnition of wliieb viUi«r should bo a member. 

"It wiie understood that this a{irct>mfnt biw nothing 
to do with any <iut*i*tiini reapei^ing iJie right of olucUou 
for tl»e city of Wostiuiustor." 

In tlio midst of the elections wo fiud Ktt write 
to liudy Cbatbtun and aiuiouDuo their prospuroiis pro- 

"Downing Street, June 24, 1790. 
" Mt deab Mother, 

" I i-annot yet say thnt 1 ain nrrivod at a period 
of mach leisure, though it is comparativdy suniuNiii^; 
like it, and tJie occupation arising from tbo olt^dions 
is diminisbing fa,tt every day. As far as we have yet 
any account of Lliu returns, Uii-n; have not been above 
three or four instances of disappointment, wbioli aro 
pounterbnlancod by succitss in other qnart^^ra wliich we 
liardly €.\pi-eted. and upon tbe wbolo 1 luire uo doubt 
of our being considprably stronger than in tlio last 
I'arliftiuciit. We Imve not yet beard the event of tbe 
eontost in your noigbbourbood at Taiuitou, but I imsf^inu 
it will be favourable. Our foreign busineBS remains still 
in gUHpense, and I hunlly Icnow what to cnajecturo of tbe 
probability of peace or war. In tbia situation I cannot 
vonturo to look witli nuy eort«in1y to tlic time when I 
i*luill be at liberty to move westward, but I hope it may 
not 1)0 very distant. I hope ynn have had your sbare of 
the true summer weather wbicli buii prevailed bere for 
some time, ajid have been able to profit by it. Two or 
tlireo Hhort visits to Uulwuud are all that I have yet bueu 




Cail-. XUL 

able to aooomplish. I am just Bolting out tliithortcwlay 
with my brother, to return to the I^vee to-morrow. 
" Evor, my dear Mother, &c., 

"W. Pitt." 

In the apprehension of an impending \vnr with Spain, 
Pitt WI18 at this time dei-pl y intent on our whole systt-m 
of Fort-igu jiolicy. Sometimes he- mvr rcitsou t4> find 
tault with thf! more iinmeiliate 'i^omluct of it, as will 
appear from a letter as follows to the Duke of Leeds. 

" Saturiluy night, June 10, 1790. 

" My dear Lobd, 

"I have jniit seen in the Plandera maU of 
yesttirday Mr. Wilson's despnttrh of the 18th, encloging 
a memorial which ho had presented at Brussels, and 
referring to instnictious trom ywit Grace of the 8th. I 
do not reoollofit to have seen those instmctions, or 
to havo heard anything htifore on the subject; and I 
own the raeasiue seems to me no inconsistent with the 
wbolo liin! we Iiave taken respecting tlie Low Countries, 
that I fear it cannot fail to bo productive of great 
embaria«traent. I shall be gliid to see the instructions 
of iLo 8th ; aiid tlie materials on whicrh thoy were 
founded will probably tlirow lurther light on the subject ; 
but I could not avoid stating my present impreadon on 
it to you. "I am, my dear Lord, &c., 

*• W.Pitt." 

During this timo a gcntJcman of groat diplomatic 
skill, Mr. Alk-ync Fitidierbcrt, had buen aont to Madrid 
to bring tJio negLitlation to an issue. He was insti-ucted 
to make every effoK to settle tlie points in dispute, but 
firmly to insist on ftUl refioration to tlie parties injiiretl. 




fbefbre consenting ovonlo *.>ug»gciu any diecuKiton opcm 
the abstnic-t right. At home I'itt did not allow hi« 
anxiety for peuco to rulus liie preparations for war. 
The marlift) enorgy of Challuim i«comAd now to be re^ 
nowed in h» t>uii. A cou8idt>rah1i« laiKl-fonie vaa raised 

,iud mustered. A powerful fleet was made ready for 

at a Tast expenae and with almost unprecedented 

aed. Plans were formed for attacking the Spanish 

'^'possossions both in the West Indies and South America. 
J"'ull inslructiona were sent out to Geueral O'llara, who 
commanded at Gibraltar, to the Cansuls of the Bnrbary 
Ooa^, and thu Governors of the Wvst India lalandti. 

Not woro our Anil's forgotti'ti. Applii^tious wcru 
addressed both to Uulliuid and PruA.''ia. claiming thu 
fiuccoum wbich in sueh cases ttiey had bound themselves 
by rocoDt twaty to aflbrd. Both, in reply, expreessd 
tlidir rtadiness to fitltil their engagementa. Not quite 
80 sutisliictory wero the commanicationH with France, 
'f hero wo found oarselroB grocted by a Decree of the 
4^ational .Xssembly to fit out fourth*)) t»H of the line — 

'these, iu all probtibility, (U'^igiied to be usi-d against as. 
M. (le J[onlmoriii, then the French Minister for Foreign 
AfTairs, proteated, however, to Earl Oower, the Kuglish 
AnibiiflAador. that this was nnly a measure of precaution ; 
and he let fall some hints of the desire of France to act 

Vaa Mediator. But the National Assembly, though cheer- 
fuUy voting tlio supplioB required for the armament, 
eeizi^d thu opportunity to wrvKt from tho King hit 
pivrogutivu of puture and war. On a Government bo 
feeble, and a Legislature so gnuping and capricions, 
it was inipoi^ible to place any, uvou the Bmatlest, 



ClliP. XIII. 

reliance. NevertheleBs Mr, Pitt was anxiotis to piiraiiB 
a most conciliatory course wdth both. 

Tlio views of Pitt dt this time will, however, best be 
shown by wue of bis ovru kittcrs, wbidi I here subjoin. 
It wus addrossed to Mr. Hufih Elliot, the brother of ^ 
Sir Gilbert and of Lady Auckland. Tbia gentleman, 
who had been our Minister at Copenhagen, had gone 
tft visit FariB of his own accord, and without any diplo- 
matic character. As an individual holding very |x)pular 
opinions he came into irequcutund familiar intercourse 
with the vhic& of the popular party at that time, us 
MirabcKu and Bamave; and bo received from thoin 
strong iissuranccs of their amiciiblc dispusitJoii to 
England. Tins was the more important since thuy had 
formed what tboy ctdled w " Diplomatic Committee " 
iu the National .\sseiobly, drawing to theMselwfi the 
entire conduct of Foreign Afiairs, Mr. Elliot, there- 
fore, with the sanction of Earl Gower, made laiown to 
Mr.Pitt the friendly profesaions wliich ho had received; 
and Pitt replied to him as follows early in October, 

" Dear Sir, 

" 1 am pjctrcniely glad to find by your letter 
that yon have .sueccoded no well in opening a confiden- 
tial intercom-Bo with the leaders of what appears t<> be 
the niliiig paity in France. Creat aflvaiitng(» may 
pcrbajis be derived from thi* circunistaiiee in the 
present critical situation. I imagine indeed, from yonr 
account, tliat wa can haidly hope, in case war should 
take place with Spain and shonld lost for any Ham, 
tliat l-'rnnev will not ultimately take part in it. 




" Bui I tliinl; Mi(Ti> set- in« to lift a rrasoiuiblp prospt><;t 
that the personfi with whom you communicnto iii»y lie 
binnght to make Kiieti repreeftwtnlions to the Spanish 
Coortr oven if a riiptiiri' should hiivo tiikon plaro, as 
may lead to u upw^dy rr-stonit ion of jM^aiw hy a settli"- 
nii^nt of the points in dispato, conformnbly to the 
priiioiplfts on which wo hare hitherto insist^fl. At 
Ifta«t it way ho fairly exp<>ct<,-<i that no iniiiitKliato 
doL-i&ion will be taken in France to give actual sucooni- 
to Spain on the comnieiin^mcwt of hostilitits; ami 
this ]K)iiit nlouc-, if uot.htiig more should timilly be 
obtained, will be of groat conseqaence, as it will 
give ua consiilerablR advantage in our fii>t uperatioDH. 

" With rt-spcct. however, to the steps to be taken ior 
bringing Spain to eonede to our terms, great care mmt 
be taken tJiat the French «ha]l not iipiK-iir as MfiUatorn, 
Htill [e«s a» Arbilratora; and ou this ]Hiiiit I wuil with 
great impatience for the more particnlar account which 
you promise t<i send me of I^ord Gower'a iileas and 
yours iiftur tlio next interview which you were to liavo 
with the niemberaof tlie Diplomatic t'ommitte<i. I am 
iuclined to think it may be iidvi^blo that Lord Gower 
should bi- em|ioweri'<i, on the firet oows of a niptnre. ta 
CM>niniiinieato to the French MinistiT a Htatem«M)t of tlie 
temiH on which Mr. Fil:dierbert ltii8 been uLstructed to 
ingiot, and of the groaiulH on which they are supported. 
1 1' Hiieh slatenicDt should he laid by the Ministry brrfore 
the Diplomatic Committee or the Niitiuiial ,\!(s<:nibly, 
and n dccroo oould be obtained declaring that thoeo 
terms ought to be aocepln] by Spain, such a meaauro 
woitld be highly natisfnetory. But 1 can hardly 
imagine that anything so decisive cad be obtained 
unloffi they should be so far salinited with oiir coniluet 
08 to detonniiie not Jii any case to support S{]uiD until 
she is willing to accede to the terms which we luivo 


LIFE OP pirr. 

ciup. xni. 

propoReil, Even, however, if tliiB ehould happen, it is, 
to by observed, tliat tlie wiir liftviug onot! tukeu place, 
these terms may not appear to us sufficient uiiIpsb they 
shoiihl Ijy nocepted hy S[miii within a very nkort penod, 
Th« desire of rust'iriiig tnuiqidllily would, in all events," 
incline this country to great moderation ; but if the 
war should Inst any time, flnd oiu- operations should 
have been Buccessful, we shall hardly be exjjpijtod to 
make peaoe without gaining somo farther advantage 
to compenwftti^ for our expense. This, however, must 
be a point wholly of eutiweijueut consideration. If, 
instead of a decisive approbation of our terms, the 
AiHembly or tho Committee hIiouIiI approve Ihem only 
in part, and should suggi^st any different terms which 
they may think reasonable, the situation will be much 
more delicaU!. Very little good «m follow from such 
a measure, except that by tho time which would pro- 
bably be Diwessary for fttiswora both from this eomitr>' 
mid 8jiain, any hostile decision on tJie part of Franco 
would bo rt-tarded, whinh I have already stated to be a 
comridorabh- advitiitago to ns. No pi'op:rciKB. howovor, 
will he mado in thin way, cither (owaiids the n^storation 
of peace (auppriMiig a ruptuio to have tHkon place), or 
towards keepinf; France uilimnlely out of tJio war; as 
it must be iinpo88iblo lor us, at the suggestion of a third 
power, to recede in any point from the tenus of the 
idtimatum wti have sent to Spain. 

" There are two other point,') to wliidi it is essential 
to attend in the whole of this btwiuosi. 

"The first of tlieso ia, what seems indeed by your 
letter to bo aheady fully underslood, that whatever 
confidential communit-at ion« may take place with tho 
Diplomatie Oommittoo for the sake of brioguig them 
to promote our views, no ostensible iiit^^rcourse can 
bo whnitted but through the medium of occroditod 





Ministers, or Uie Soeretwy of State for Foreign Affairs, 
and tlmt in the name of the King. 

"The Bocornl point, wliidi is of still moro import- 
ance, is, that no atisurances shall be given, diret-tly or 
indirtKtlly, whioh go farther Hum that this country 
means to persevere in the neutrality which it has 
hitherto stTupulou»!y ohscrvecl with rnspect to the 
intt'.rnal disscnaions of France, and from which it will 
tu)v«r depart unless the conduct hold there ithonld make 
it indisponsahli! as an act of eolf-defeuce ; and tliat we 
are sinoerely desirous of preaerving peace, and of cullj- 
vatiug, in general, a Irit-ndly intvrcouriic and good 
undt!rstanding botwoen the two nationo. But the 
utmost care is necessary, under tlie present circum- 
Btuuce^, 1o use no language whieh can lead to uu expec- 
tation of our takui<; measures to forward tlie interiinl 
views of any pohtical party, or d" our being ri]>e to form 
any alliance between the two countries, whic-li, even if 
such a tiling should bo regally wished in franco, various 
events might make it impossible for lis to accede to, 
and wlii<-h would, lu any case, at least toquiro great 

" I am, with truth and n^ard, &c, 

" W. Pitt."" 

llere are some exbttcta &om Sfr. Elliot'^ very long 
letter in reply : — 

"Dear Sir, "Bir!», Oetohor2«, iTflO. 

" I aciptaintfid you in ray last Icttur that I vma to 
have a priruto confcn'occ with a Select Deputatitni of 

■ Tbu l«ttor of Ur. Pitt boa 
emiy jiubliBliud En bis Lifo 
1 Tiiiiiliiitt (vi.>l. lii. p. 131 1, 
ultboDgh the luiuu uf Ur, Elllut la 

tlinn) «iipf>naH'(l. IblRinenltimuil 

only us " It gi:^utlDiDan ofconiiilfir- 
abl<7 lUpluuuUu cx^neaae." 



cuAv. siir. 

tiie Biplomafic Committeo. Tbo persoiw appointed to 
m.^et un- were M. Menou. M. I'redMiii, and >!. lifirimve 
• — siuce elcL^ed Prosiilout of the Natioaal Asscinljly- 

" I shall not attompt to lay Tihfore yon the speeclt I 
maile to those gcDtJemeii iu the presGiieo of the Vicomt<? 
de Noaollee, who has takttu an acttvu part in favouring 
my progress here. But I must entreat you will not be 
surprised at the word tpeeo/i, as nothing is to be aceom- 
plinhc^ in Fraut-o without zagulur oriitorieal debate. 
Mine kated about an hour. M. Bornave replied, and 
madeeeveral objoctioiif, which I *'X|ilftined to his full 
BatiMfiictiiin. It was then determined that n rfrportof 
whfit had passed should be made to the Diplomatic 
Committee in pli^o, imd timt M. lleuun shonld let me 
know the result of their deliberations, 

"The Committee, after assembling in form, unani- 
mofisly oamti to the resohition of waiting upon M. de 
Montmoriu «i eorp», and of acc[uainting tliat Minister 
with tfieir intentions. . . . M, do Montmorin agreed in 
the propriety of this representation, and M. Menou was 
depnteii to toll mv. . . , M. Meuoa executed this com- 
iniii^iou in tho handsomest manner, and I eousentod to 
go to England to lay the whole stat« of the butdiieits 
! you. 
' In my speech to the Select Deputation I dwelt first 
upon the motives which had induced me to come to 
l^'mnce. . . . That I was not sent to look for the Olive 
Leaf, but that I had voluntarily taken my Hight for 
that purpose, . . . That 1 apjirehended the leligion of 
Uio National Assembly had been surprisfd wh<;ii they 
passed a precipitate Decree founiled upoTi the giossest 
miaxepreReiitfttiong coneeniiiig the British Government. 
Iteyejigw for tliu loi«8 of America, desire of conquest, and 
enmity to the promoters of the Frcnch KuvuUition, were J 
supposed to be the real motives for our armaments. 




AOfr combating efu-h of the«i^ iminto, T ftttablifiltetl, I 
bfliL'TP, upuD tlic wuvioHoii of tiiosc niio liiurd uif. tlw 
probability that the Court of Spain sought for war in 
QOiieort with tii<! French nialeonteutj*, 

" I am aissrt to endeavour to open the eyes of the 
British CiOvcrTiiiieiit to the solidity of the French Kiv 
voltiliou ; nnd 1 add with itcrft-ot siuotrity iind Ihonxigii 
conviction that the jiresenl (■ovornmonl of Fraut'e are, 
in my opinion, beut upon cultiratiuf; the most un* 
bounds fricndiiliip with Great Britain. They will be 
frank and cordiul in all their conimiinic-ationH, and their 
object 18 ct«nial PoiU'V niid Frii-riil«hip uith IJiiglaud. 
If they meet wiUi pncounig^niout, the Commercial 
Treaty will be conlirmed, and no oh6tai'l» he thrown in 
tilts way of settling lh« cqitililiriiiiii of Knrope upon the 
most liberal princi|ik-t!. Om* conduct iu the North and 
in the East is approved of, and will be hecouded, 

" I Iiave desjmtclied this courier with Lord Gower's 
approbation, in order to lot yoii know my deterinination 
of followuig him ut twenty-four hours' dietunco. and of 
giving you ihRearlieNt notice of w hut IiiispiLSticilbetiveeD 
mo uuU tlio Cummitt^-c. 1 shall drive from Dartl'unl to 
Beckeuhum without goiug to London, and Bhall then 
meet yon either at Holwood or in Do^ruiiig Stnjet, 08 
you shall be pleased to direct by Bending u letter to 
wait for me at Ijtad AuctclADd'8. 
"Believe me, with intinite attacliD](>nt and VB^pcct. i!tc.> 

•' II. Elliot. 

"F.S. I miut obaorro that there h no such thing as 
a private negolintioD to be oarriud on hero. Evurything 
like a secrt^t ia avoided as dangerous, and likely to ex- 
pose thnw! cone^mod to the Lanttrne." 

Meauwliilu, at Aladrid, Mr. Filzliorbert had for a ]tmg 



Ckap. XJIi. 

time been encownteied by a. dijwm-iglit reftiaal, or by 
new uiadmisaible sdiemes. Yet in the summer he h<ui 
seemed on the very point of succena. On the Zith of 
July the Count da Florida Blanca, as the Spanish Prime 
Minister, had sent to Mr. Fitzherbcrt a preliminary 
Declaraliou, stating that thu King lua mastt-r engaged 
to make restitution of the British vessels and property 
seized at N'ootka Sound, and to indt-mnify tbt' parties 
mtflro«t*)d for tlio losses whicJi tliuy liad siistjiincd. 
But no sooner wan the Derlamtion traiismilted than tlie 
Spaniah statesmen seemed eager to recede from its 
terms. The Britiah Minister became convinced that, 
rather than yield, the Court of Spain was resololely bent 
OB war. Ere long, however, the formidable fleet, (ar 
superior to the Spanish, which we hail with so much 
expedition made ready for ma. produced a powerful 
I effect. Nor did the Spaniards tail t:0 notice the doubtful 
' proepecta of the piomiBed French alliance, liathor 
[suddenly at last, on the 2Sth of Oetober, the two MiuUt«T8 
Rignod a Convention, by whieh it was agreed that the 
landn and buildings of which British gubjeeta had been 
dispossefised in North America should be restored to 
, them ; Uuit British subjects should not bo disturbed or 
molested in carrying on their Gshories in llic South 
Seas, or in making suttloment^ for the piu-|>ose of 
commerce on the oou^M of tJiuso sotu in places not 
already oc'eiiiiii?id ; iind that i«i the other hand the King 
of Brit^iin should engage to take the most eifectual uiea- 
I faros tliat these BBheries should not be made a preteit 
for illieit trade with the Spanish settlements ; and witli 
that view it was farther stipulated tliat British Eub- 





jccts should not carry on their iiiiheries wiUiiu ten 
leogiicis front any part of tlie coast already occupied by 


Dy these meant) was this painful tnmaic-tiou, aming 
from a mnst wBotoQ outrage, happily coufluik-ii witJinut 
any actual appeal to arms. The gciitliimou in t)i>iK*ti- 
iion might endeavour, when the Houwas mut again, to 
censure the ConTention tw oot Hitfficietitly dcBnite aud 
ample in ita terms; but they certainly found no echo 
on either side of the ChannoL In England the I'urlia- 
ment pronooDoed, and tho people felt, that botli the 
hnunnrft.nd tht> iuttirests of the nation bad been worthily 
maintained. On the Continent the reputation of the 
Englisli Cabinet, high already, was still further exalted. 
We may obaerre Lord Auckland, at that time the 
ambassador at the Hngue, v-rito to Mr. Pitt as fullomi : 
~-" I am cooTinood tliut il' less flrmnoBS, onorgy, and 
ikctirity bnd bL-«<n shown on our part, or vvl^u that if our 
Hoet bad not been found in tlie nmdiv^t oiid most 
]ji-rfoct state tliut has been known in the annals oi Groat 
liritaiu, Iho niparution made to us would have been 
incouiplotu. .... In short, tliere never ««s a 
Ibusiuess better conduutcd or better conoluded, and 
there iiC'Vcr was a moment in which oar oonntjy held 
encii pre-T'ininency anintig nations." 

The vigilant attention whicli Mr. Pitt gave to the 
conduct of our Foreign policy did not n>lax after the 
paci6c ftrroiigemont with Spain. The alTnir^ of Fmnoe, 
and their groniiig iuflucnco on the atTiiirs of England, 
churned on tho contrary his must o-arnest care. 

Through tlio year 1790 tho National Assembly con- 



Oiiip. xm. 

tinui'd td IioI'I their sittings ttt Van*. Cei-lainly thny 
haJ nboli.sLod or leroi-iucd sumo grievoiia abnaes. As 
certainly t!iey bad swept away some usofiil uiHtitutiouH. 
But besides the merit or demerit of their rotos, thcro 
wore many points in tlipir deliberations to cuusc at (ho 
least Biirprise, All their fiivonril*; argniuent* wero 
derived in the maanor of RunsNotin Jroni vrhnt nuiu 
might do, or desire to do, in liitt primitive (condition as 
they iissunied it to he — the wild hunting stjite. Of 
praetituil espericDCH! tboy were wtterly i-egardleas, at 
l«a^ imtil it came ton late to help them. Thus their 
HNiial odHrse wws to (issiinie instead of aseertaiuing facts, / 
Evi>u the fow men of real genius, such as Mirabeau, 
who ap])fiftred among tbein at this jimctnre, were com- 
pelled in great measure to adopt the follies of those 
whom they soiii^rht to giiido, 

1 thodoclrinea then in vogue thern were strong 
irosts and also Btroug feelings arrayi^. The chief 
nobloB, and, as wo should call them, couiitr)-gentlemen, 
had emigrated from the kingdom — at their hejwi the 
King's youngest brother, ('havlea Conite d'Aitois, who 
fixed his Iicad-quarters ut Coblenti:. The most respoct- 

• able memben of the clergy might have acquiesced in 
the confiscation of their domains, but they eould not 
brook the new EccleBiastical Coustitution which was 
decreed by the Assembly, and which made in fact a 

, tchieiti in the Church, Moneyed men were offended and 
alarmed ut t\u: [jrofuso issue of a»si(ptat». tlie new jjbjmt 
circidution basi^l ujjon the confiscated lands, Loj-al sub- 
jects viewed with bitter nuguieh the danger and degiiuln- 
tion of their King ; but ou the othur side thero wim the 






rismg ferment of the masses — of those irhn li»(l little to 
loee and everything to gain. 

lu Eii^ltuid the French Berolution bad found a con- 

sidomblc . number of frit-nds, who cvught much of its 

iuluucc. and hocamo more and more ardent aa it pro- 

icdcd. There were at this time among us two smal) 

,bodieii, which osciled liir more attention than their 

poriancc apjHMirs to have deaorved. The first bore 

ic name of tho Cunstitiilioniil Sooietr : it had been 

formed some years earhcr for the diffusion of useful 

iks, but now desired to manifest its sympathy with 

Tho oth(;r wiui a elub, till then of little note, 

hicli cullod itsflf the Uovolutioii Society, and which 
had a yearly featival in commemoration of tho events 
of loss, 'lliia Society IumI been new-modelled and 
enlarged with a view to tho ti:ansactlons at Pari.4, but 
still retained ita former name to inijily a elose coune*^ 
tion between tho prineiples of lf!88 in England, and tlie 
principlesof 178!) in Fmnce. On the 4th of November, 
1789, it had held its aniiiversaiy meeting at the London 
Taveni, with Earl Stanhojio in the Chair. The mem- 
bers then jiroceedod to a meeting-house in the Old 
Jewry, where they heard a sermon or discourse from 
Dr. Price, denouncing in inflammatory terms "all 
supporters of sluxish governments and slavish hierar- 
chies." Next they carried an Address of congratula- 
tion to the National Assfnibly, framed by I>r. Price 
OR movf'f, and signed by Lord Stanhope »s Chairman. 
TIii« Address being in due course tmnsmilted to Parli. 
was n>(!eived with much enthusiasm, and acknowledged 
by a vote of tlie Assembly. KteanwhUe the proceedings 


Cup. XUl. 

of the two Societies, but eapepjally the latter, and. abovo 
all, the discourse of Dr. Price at th« Old Jewry, afforded 
a largo scope to the eloqaeuce of Burke. 

Burke, aa wo have already seen, took the occasion of 
tho Army Estimates in February, 1790, to condemn in 
atrong terms tho course and toudoncy of the events at 
Paris. But feeling himsolf uillod upon to make a 
further ofiurtt ho bogiio to inditu a more careful com* 
poaitiiin on tLo same siibjoot. TJie fruit of his 
labouriri apppured in Ocl<>ber of the aime year, and 
waa entitled " Reflections ou tho Rnvolution in Fvanoe." 
This masterly essay had been for 9omo time aiioQUDced, 
and the expectations of tbe public had been highly 
raised ; but tbeso exjiectatioiia wore murJi moro than 
fulfilled. In his argument Burke chiefly applied liim- 
m]i to onsner tbo aMscrtious of Dr. Price, and to point i 
out tho Mscntial diffurcnco in principle between tho 
KngliitU and tho Frt^nch itovolutjons. Argoniunt, 
however, did not in this i«m\ Ktand alono ; everywhere 
it was enforced Hn<l adorned — winiiitiuicH, pcrbapii, 
war|)ed mid <lmwn iittido — by tlio eroutions of a niostj 
brilliant fancy. And tunong tlic bouutit'ul illuHtrutioiu 
which Burko so profusely pounn forth, there is none 
belter knoivn, or better desorvirif; to lift so, than hi« 
picture of the Queen Marie Antoinette as sixteen years 
before he hatl seen her at Versa.illes "glittering like 
the morning star, full of life and nplendour and joy; 
but," he addfid, bitterly, " tlie age of rbivalry is gone ; 
that of siijihliteis, ct^oiioniists, and ralrulators has suc- 
ceeded ; and the glory of Europe is estinguiabed for 




It wan t1ii» pnssagv nhicb, in un cHiHcial dcgret-, 
rouHud Uio wrulii uf ituiki'M u^ipunoiite. Philip Fraum 
might llippuutly ufJc him : " Aru yuu mtiii u di'UtriuiuuiJ 
uhiuupiuu of bunuty us tu draw your sword iu dutVtuco 
of any jiide upon earth, p^^Tided she be liandsoine ? " * 
Many others of inferior note, nhile carping at Burke's 
expression of " the age of chivalry," 8e«m«d nerer to 
hftT« heard of any other knight hesidea Don Quixote. 
Thns, in hopes of assailing Burke, they borrowed, and 
they spoiled in borrowing, the satire of Cervantes. 
Others again took great exception to a oubeequent 
phnue, where Burku ex|>rv«80ii hi« slann that " along 
with its uului-iil guirdiaiui mid protccloni Iciiming will 
l>u cuHt iutu thv. niiro, and truddi'U dowu uudtr tbu hw>& 
of a swinish multitude." It is plain from thu cuut^-xt 
that Bm-ke desired to speak only of such rabble aa bad 
dragged their prisoners to La LaMeme, and yelled for 
the blood of their Queen. But miBrepreseiitalion ever 
follows closo in the wake of genius, hud the phrase of " a 
swinish multitude" rnw now busily bc-ld furth as the 
gro»iS(.-ct of iusults to the lower or Uiu labouring cliu«e«.* 

This en.'uiy, thougb never otTerud to tbu public for s 
lefjs price tlian Ave sltitlings, is said, perluifM with itonie 
exaggerHtioo, to have renehed iu \t» sule tliv w* yet 
unprecedented number of ytl,0(JO copies. InimeiitH) 
certainly was the impression which it made. That 
impression is to be traced alike on Burke's friends and 
on his foes. The graduates of two greiit UiiiveriuticM 
(Oxford and Dublin) sent him their tokens of high 

* CoTTeqwniicaaoof BurlcQ, vol I ■ Sen a note in Prior"* Life of 
!ii. p. 1»1. I Buiku, i>. S19, eil 18M. 


Cbu-. Xlll. 

respect. Thp French Princes at OoMeiitii, and the ntlier 
leatliDg men ul' tlic Rojulii^t paj-ty, njuvpyiinl, either in 
messages or letters, their wnrmest timtiks. Only ti tew 
moiitlis Rl'terwiirdf, whc-u liia son liad j^one to BriiMselB, 
and was atteuding an assombly at tiie MftrqniB de la 
Queuille's, the chief among the Emigraiits at tlmt. plitce, 
be found, as he says, to his surprise, a circle feather 
round him with every mwk of honour, while M. de la 
Qucnilkf thus addR'«scd biui : " Too 8t-e, Hir, the ea;;er^ 
BOSS of tht'su geutlcm^-u to ex|ire8» to yon how much all 
good Frenrihmen owe to your iliustrioua father." ' On 
the other liand, the partisans of the i'rcnch Revolution, 
both abrottd and ut home, manifexted tlieir diaappoint- 
mout and vexutiou in e\ery funn. Tho ussay of Burke 
became a fiivoiirite topic of invective with the Jacobin 
Club of Paris, There oven the Bible itself wa» not 
more freqnently scoffed at. In England the halU of 
debating societies rebounded with orations, and tiie 
newspapers were filled with paragraphs, denouncing tlia^ 
great statesman as the friend i^f tjTants, and tJiej 
chnmpioii i>f ahiises. Many men uf various merits 
pidilitthcd essays in reply, either to bis spL-ucb on'tho 
Army Estimates, or to his *' Reiloctions." Among these 
writers may be mentioned Dr. Priftstley, Mr. Cnpi-I I.offt, 
and Lord Stanhope, and above all Mr. MackJntoiih, 
afterwards Sir James. Uis work on this oocu^ion. the 
Vindicus Oallicce, though marked by some fanlts ati 
youth and of party-spirit, gave high promise of future - 

* ComapoDdcooe of Burkes toI Sil. p. S12. 



It would not be juBt to class any of these writers witJi 
ttnotlier, tliougli on tho sum« sul)j(>(-t, and at the same 
period — Thomas I'aiiie. I have related in anotlier 
work tiis firet tipiieariuiec in Americu in 1774. iind hiif 
first publication in 1776, uutitlud " Common S«iibc." 
That publication luid there jirodueed a utrouff vflVH.'t. 
He had heon not only jiriiised by the popular Iwulers, 
but rewarded with grunts of htnd. But bj' dvf^os Lo 
littd beeonic- better known, wid of course Ie»« e»t*-eiti«l. 
FiiudJy, finding hJiii^'eU' fulkn iuto obwurity, ho liad 
rf!tiiru(;d ttt Eiu-opo towards Uio y«ar 1787. Thero tlw 
troiihlec iirat of Holbind, and next of Franeo, Itud 
attriwrted his attention. The work whii^h ho now put 
forth in answer to Burke was called " The Rights of 
Man." Coaree and unfrramoiatieal in its language — as 
whoro it iuvoiglis aguiiist " the Quixote ago of eliivalry 
noii8i^u.<(t " — it wiia, however, commended to many 
miideis by its bold and thoroiigii>goiiig tone. Thus, for 
exAuipIo, it dciiouitces not only rank and title, but 
horeclitary monarchy at lea8t, if not all monarchy, as 
manifi-st ahiiwa. 

, Tliat Mr. Hiirko was aoBoetJmes blindcil and bfitroyod 
by his own ardent imagination— that thiti essay, and 
still more perhaps Uio essays that followed it, ooutaiu 
great exaggorationa — seems tome notmfounded charge. 
It will come out mure plainly if we eomparo the news 
of Mr. liurko in 1790 and 1791 with the views of Mr, 
I'itt. Wliilo condemning the cxcvases of th« French 
lievolution, even at that e«jly jieriod, and ajiprcheudin^ 
its results, Pitt never lost the hojte thiit lunong the 
friends of that Berolution the more modeiuttt ]>arty 


lira OF PITT. 

Chap. XIII. 

might prerail. In public he held forth as the rulo of 
his iidministration strict neutrality as to the intoroii] 
contests; ui priviitc, hy moreover fioufjlit, m wu havo 
seen through divers and uot only diplomatic chaiincls, 
to «icliiino;e paoifio csiiIariiittoTis irilh the IcailorM of 
the popular party ; and lie was dct*rmbio(l t« mjiiutain 
against all obstacles, H» long as prissibli^, thiit. peace so 
oeeential to tbe welfare of hia country, and on which 
de[»ende(J his own roiirso of financial retrenchmento and 
retorms. The voice of Burke, on the contrary, was for 
open war. Hold no intercourse with rebols 1 Mnko no 
terms with traitors 1 Appeal to neighbouring Sove- 
reigns, and place year main relianue on the aid of 
foreign armies ! Such was the tone of Mr, Burke cveu 
fa the last months of J790. And in eomequ^ice we 
liiid h!iu itiso disMitiMficl and launniirlng at the line 
ofMr. PittJ 

But d.ies it follow, from this divergence, tliat we are 
bound to censure one or other of these two great men? i 
Observe how different their positions at the time. Mr. 
Pitt was a powerful Minister, reaponaiblc for the poaco 
of the world. Mr, Bnrke waa an eloquent essayist, 
anxioua above all things to rouse the spirit of the 
people. And in the latter point of view, if we consider 
Sir. Bnrke aa addressing not merely one European 
nation, but all, may not even his unconscious exaggera- 
tions have been one cause oft^his great success ? The 
bow had been so strongly bent in one direction, that to 

' 8t« la Burkc'a CoriMpondeaee Mpecfi^, VoL iU. pp. 183, SOT, 




brinj; it straiffht ugiiii), tliero wus nocd to bend it almuttt 
as strongly in tlio otimr. AjrHJiist tlio cnlliiL'^iEisni of " this 
now poliiit'ol Toligiuu," ue it in wl'U k^rmcil by Etieim« 
DuiDout, and against tbc fiory zed of its upOKtlos, no 
mere eoM gtateiiienti* nf ron-son and duty niigbt perhaps 
have i^iiRlced. (t might pt^rhaps be reqiiiitili^ to evoke 
something of n^w entlinsiasni, or something of old 
chivnlry, upon the other »ide. Certainly it va.i no light 
crisii) which could induce the writer whom Ijnst now 
cited — no enemy of large refonna, but Gtionne Dnmont, 
the cosnmoDtator upon Bentham — aai tlmt at no 
moment of boat, but mimy yeara afterwards on a csHm 
retmepect of all the circumBtancen — to use these mej»i> 
rable wonte : " It i« possible that the ireeaf of Burko / 
may have boeu the miration of Earope.'** ' 

• BoimidaMr MinbMU, p. OS, «d. tiruxellw, ie33. 


LIFE OF pnrr. 

Chip. Xir. 



Meting of Ihe i»w nutiuinEiil — Gr^rmllc erentpil n Peer — 
DiJie of BioliiDfiiiii"* Ixllcr of oomjilflint — Tho Biicl(;i.t — Triol 
of Hosting" — Testimony of Wilbttforci? nnd Bnrka to riU'B tlo- 
ilnuuci' — R«i])iKiiniHDL'of Kruliiupin Piirlmiwut ^ Tlio King aSctt 
Pitt tlifl Gartnr. which lio clcnline* — Wilkcrfiirce'g niuluin on Uiu 
Sluvu Trndo — India nm! Oaciktlu — DiaH^mtiun bulwoan Fox nnd 
Biirku — Ri^litt of JuriiM^Hill in fuvimr of Itniiiuu CiithtiliuB — 
Pilt* flnt chonk in fomign poUejz tlio Itiurion aniukmiiiit — B>i- 
troupct't <fC uvcuto in 'Fiukcy — And iu SwedoiL 

The mootinp of the new Parliament had been fixed 
for tlio 25tli of November. Preyiously, hfiwever, Pitt 
look a mroftil review of his position. In (lift Commons 
he htd 00 reaaon to doubt hia continuf^d lisceiidency ; 
bilt m ihc liDrdit tbere was a etiunbling-block Sum the] 
wnyward temper of Thurlow, Although the Chan- 
cellor was cbargntl, or supposL-d to be tUargcd, with 
th« conduct of the Government biisiuess in the Upper 
Ptotisu, Mr. Pitt dwlnnid llmt ho wdx nnvor quite 
certain what [Wirt in debnte woultl \hj tiikcri by his 
Jxirdship. Evi'u wlicii ho forburi' from insidioiis oppo- 
sitioD, he ptve no real aid. During tJic whole HcaaioD 
of 1790, «»ya his biographer, " he never, except on one 
occiwion, opened his month," ' 

Lord Oatnpbell'i Lives of the C^anoellon, vol. v. p. C02, 




Under such drcniniitftiici>it Pitt re^ijtved to plana 
(UDung the Peers as leader itoino ndlierent on whom he 
could thoroughly rely. With that view lie selected 
his ouusiu Williuin GrcuTtiU% tlio nvwly-a])[KiiDt«d &e> 
cretary of Sttttti, whom he proposed to the King to 
create Lonl Orenville. The auswer of His Majesty 
is dated the 21at of XoTember, He readily agi'eed to 
the proposed airangenient, exjicctiiig, as he Hays, that 
the ronoiUatory tem|>er of 3Ir. tlronville would aid in 
keeping matters smooth with tlie Clianixdlor. Btit 
His Majesty's expectations were by no n^wns ftiltllled. 

Two letters of Pitt to his niotJier at this ]»i*riixi are 
written with evident pleasure — tJie one annonnruig the 
pacification with Spain, and the other the jwerage to 

•' SowniDg StKot, Nov. 5, 17ft0. 

" I am iiDpntieut to send you an early an poa- 
siblo the sutiafactory newa which we received tlus 
momiiig thiit ever)~lhiug is at length settled on the 
dtibjei't of our di«put<.>i; with Spuin exactly ia the 
maimer we wished. Mr. Fitxherlit'rt ha^l brought Iho 
SpoDtsh Miniater to wmscnt, on llie 24th of last month, 
to u CoDveutioa uccedtng to iiU our tcmis; and it 
waa settled that it should bo aigncd in throe ilnys 
from that tiino. Among a tliousand reasojis for rt-- 
joicii^ in tlii« event, it is uot ou« of the last which 
occurs to me tliat it will give both my brolbur and 
myself a chance of fitill rojicliing Iturtun tor a few 
dayo before Uio Scouoo, and tliat wo shall feel no 
mixture of aiLxiety in doing «o. You will imagine, 
however, tluit, though our business has taki-n eo 

[>Io a tuni, the pre&surc oi' it is not for th« 
n. «. 



CKip, nv. 

moment diminieliiHl, atitl yoii will tlierefore not wonder 
at the haste of this letter. 

" Ever, my dear Mother, &c., 

" W. Pitt." 

'■ Downing StTMt, Nov. 24, 17i)0. 
" My beab Motheb, 

" I have a piene of news to commiiBinato to- 
day wtueh will, I beiievo, be very unexiieete'l, but not 
im welcome, 

" It is that GrenTille h&s just kissed htinds on being 
removed to the Hntiee of Lords, where there are many 
Ti'^i-?ons f(ir wiisliiu^ his tusistaut-e ns Iloiiie Secn'tnry 
of Htivte. By tho help of tliis nrriingfoifnt, I think 
we shall open tlie new Fiirliamcut with mure strt'Dgth 
tbari bus belongud to us ainfo the beginniiig of the 
Government; and it is a very pleasant circimistaiici: 
in the bnitiness that all [larts of Goverumeut aro 
highly rtatiallcd with thu mcaoiur, and Unit tlunie wlm 
pk-afiu tbemselres with the reiwrlo wliit-h you u-ill bc>u 
of divisions among as will lind themselves completely 

" Yuu will not have wondered that I found it not m 
easy ivh I imagined and hoped to accomplish my excor- 
siou befiiro the bt»gimiiiig of the Spasion. 1 ninst now 
look to tho ChristmuM holidays, when I thiidc myMolf 
very sure of being at liberty. 

" I must not ud<i Jiioro, as I have barely had tim« for 
what 1 have written sinro (.-omiug trom St. Jamt^s's, unci 
before sitting down to n formal dinner whiirh always 
pr&cudv« the opening of tho Session, 

" Evt-r, my dear Mother, &c., 

" W. Pitt." 

Mr. Fitt, however, was moch mistakcu whon hci 

or PITT. 


thought himself ahlo to ADDonnno " that all parta of 
Government are higUy HatisEcd with the mttiBuro." 
On the same tiny ttiitt ho wroto to Ludy Chathtun, 
th« Duku of Bichmoud wrote to him. That k'ttur of 
complaint — vt^ry ahlo dad very angry — I shall here 
mgort at length. 

" OoodTtwd, Nov. 2i. \-!90. 

" Mv BEAK Sib, 

" I cannot but very mn<^h regret that Mr. Gren- 
villo'e being cidlod up lo tbv House of Lords appfun-d 
to you to press for such an immedisto decision as to 
prevent tlie wish you had of oonvflrsing with me npon 
tiie wibjtict from taking [>hivic, hw-iiasn? 1 should ut 
l«uBt have had an opportunity of prcvioui^ly giving you 
my most serious advioe not to adopt a plan which 
to me 8»cm8 likoly to bo attended with many bad 

" I rnUHt oouiilude from your Icttor on well as from 
all thi- circUTOBlances attending this mmsure, that it 
ytiH have boon carried into execution boforo my auoWer 
can rcaoli you. But i will (nko my chance of tbo 
pofflihility of a delay, and strtt© to you fairly eomo of 
the principal ohjedions that strike me. 

" in the lind pluc^ I think it ruin to Mr. Gren- 

villo. Hu lias in the sjiace of a very few years gone 

thMUgh many groat oftitreii, and now holds tlie second 

. poltticii] situation in tho UouHO of Commonis. In case 

. of any accident Imppcning to you or your brotlier, 

ho wonld naturally bocome thd first servant of the 

. Crovni in that House ; and the circumstunccs of the 

times, joined to liis own abilities, juatify, in the eyes 

of tlm public, his being wliero lio is. Hat, by romoving 

liiin from tho House of Cammonx, you deprive him 

of all the prospects of fiiture lulvantages wliicb talcttts 

E 2 



Cs4K SIT. 

CBQ miiko tlioir way to in that place. He now Htunds 
ill every li^t in an ndvruitagemw sitnatioii both for 
himscli' and fur Wis rriumlN; ia it tlicn wi«e tu riak a 
change? He has succoijded admirahly weJl Iiitherto; 
hilt it may be very niicortiiiu whoflit-r hu will suciji-iil 
80 vii'U in iinotlii.T sil.iiiiHur, ccrfiiiiJy a very different 
one from tliat which ho is now in. To call np a 
younger brother to the House of Ppers for the eviilont 
]>iu-jKJ8t! of giving him the leji.d there, is a dfgroe of 
rofloction u[ion tho whole House of Loixls tJmt there is 
no one there fit for such a situation, whieh will hn folt, 
and may eansii liim to tiil in that for which alone you 
[ihice him there, 

" If tJiis should be lie case, or by any otbitr mt'ai)8 
a cliauj^e happen, a Lord Grenville without a fortuni.' 
would be but a poor situation ! 

" Hut of nil thii, to bcj sure, Mr. Grouyille must be 
tho best Jnd|;e ; and I must snpjMjse that he likes tho 
risking all this for the sake of being made a Peer 
and baviii]^ tlie lead in the House of Lords, rather 
than remain second in Uio House of CooimoRS. For 
wbaterer his attachment may be to you. no man with 
that laudable dep'ee of ambition which Mr, Grenvillo 
bait, can be supposed to baznrd such an entire pulitieal 
sttcriflce of himself as he ia exposing himself to without 
ho e&w Kouo considc^rablo gratifieation to ImuHi^lf in 
80 doing. But the wisest men bare their wi^akncGses, 
and I fear this is a Tory fatal one in Mr. Grenrille. 
However, sineo it in his eboire, there is nothing more 
to be said mK>n bis uccoimt ; but on your aecount and 
that of the iK-mianency nf the present Goveninient, in 
whieh the King's liappiiiess and the pruspi.Tlty of the 
kingdom are, I think, deeply intoroKted, 1 do nppre-". 
hend the worst consequenees. 

" It would be iucousiutunt with Uic friend^ip I 




tnist I have upon all orrcasions sliown yon. an<! with 
the f'airni'sfl I will alwayn act with, not to suy tliut 
J b".4iV'vo tills wuntry will not bo satisfiwl to eeo you 
two yoiioKer brothers take the lead of the two IlfUKw-s 
of l*iirliftJTient, uiiil liy yfnirwlven {(ovorri (lio romitry. 
With your abilities — ^whicb, without a complnnent, are 
vt^iry traiiMCondlD^ — yoa mar takfi that lead in the 
IIoiuw of Commons; hut Mr. Grenville. whose parts, 
liowever solid and ni«ot\il, art}, oorlaiiily not njion it 
levi'l witli yours, caiinot, u« I coDceive, sucwcd in 
taking tht' lead in the Ilonae of Lords, where some- 
thing of higher rank and more fortiii»> and di},^lity is 
required ; and ] do apgimhuod that Iwth uf yuu being 
in Buuh situntioiis, so nwvrly related with Lord Chatham 
at the Admiralty, n-ill ho thought eugiviswng too much 
b one lliniily. You will considor, too, thiit at the 
same tim« that you deprive youreelf of Mr. Grenville'a 
support find that of a OaLinet Minister in tlio IlfiUBO 
of Oommous, wliifh vrtin the roajwu for which you 
mado him Secretary of 8tiit«s luid Iheroby rcmiuii 
almost singly thoro as to speakers uf any weight, you 
will place Mr, Grenville as singly in tlio FIoiLse of 
Lordx. The Duko of Lccdtf, who ncvu- took n very 
active ptirt in debates, will probably not bo ver^' 
desirous of standing forward when he is so evidently 
set uside. Lord Chatham hits nov«r yot i«poki3u. LoM 
Camden is idle, and gmws old. LonI Staflbrd will 
mldoin epeiik, and but a few words. Your arcouut of 
the Chancellor makus it more Hkvly tliat he will bo 
adverse than otherwise ; and us to inysiilf, 1 niu^t con< 
foss that I do not see how I can be of any use. It 
is not, thoniforo, from your Cabinet that Mr. Grenvillu 
oan derive much support, and I do nofc imagine that 
Lord Hawkesbury will feel much dis[Kt8ed to a*'t under 
hiiD. Tboro romoimt Lord ^Valsiugham, and tlio ohanco 



Chap. XIV. 

of what the Duke of MontroBe may turn out so a 
spOttktT in tho House of Lorda. 

" This sgaiofit tha present speakers in Opposition, 
and poHsibly the Chancellor, will form but a poor line 
of (lobiitf^rH to defiin<l the ermrs of Cioverumout tliat, 
from the present way of carrying ou businees, unuvoid- 
ably fu'ifle. and which it falls to tlie lot of the House of 
Lords to [)i.: afterwards obligiil to support. 

" I have eaid that I eould be of little use ; [wrliiips 
in no aituation could I Imve been of mucli ; but fo be 
of any us n speaker, a man must feel soinvtliiug for 
himself, and not appear to the world in an tmbecoming 
situation. I trust I hiiTc not ^howu myHolf a difficult 
man when, after haATng had for many years a con- 
siderable share in the deliattts in the House of Lords, 
I first wished to support your Govommeut aa an indi- 
vidual, aud afterwanl.t di'fendod your moasures us u 
Minister luulirr Lord Sydney imd the Duke of Leeds. 
But to eoiitinuo to at't it second ^Nirt imdor every 
diaoge, and particulaily nnder oue which is avowedly 
made for the solo ])urjiofte of giving the House of 
Lords another Iwidor, would be depriving myself of 
every sort of coudderatiun which I may hope to hava 
in that House, and rendering myself totally iLtelcss 

" 1 must say, too, tliat, afh^r having been of late so 
particularly cnlleil upon to trtkc a very m;1ive port in 
u businosH of Homo oonscqnonco whoro it was thought 
I could be useful, and having shown a disposition ta 
occommotlatr, as fur us it Wii;* possible, my Kitnation to 
your wii-hes, I cumiot but J'luI myself somcwhut ne- 
glected by your deciding upon this measure without 
my consent or even knowledge; for when we con- 
versed on this subject some time ago, I li«d cxproRsed 
my objootioDtf to it, aud afterwards understood you had 




entirely droppiMl tlie idcii. Tou will also recollect my 
having often fjprtaspd tliat., although I iW\ very tittle 
interest i» th« dispcx^al of 6m]>lo>inDOt8 or lltu mnkitig 
of Peers, yet I could not Oiink it right that your 
collcagnefl of the (''uhinct ithotilij never Itvar uf what 
is doing in thcso respct'ts till the things were done. 
Those with whom I have formerly beon poimected id 
lH>Iitici* nnd in friiiixlMliip usuil to In-at mo with more 
uttcntiou ; and, ludilTcrent as I am apon those Bnbjccts 
in general, I cannot be entirely so when they t«nd to 
provewt mo from being of that use, tlunigh small, which 
othu'wiso I might po»ribly be of in the House of Lordj 
to the King's adminiiitratton of which I have the 
hononr ti> form a jxirt. 

" If 1 had any [loiitiral nnibif.ion, I might fep-I dis- 
appointed and hurt at such a conduct ; hut having ivotus 
it only adda to that desiro oi retiring from public 
bnBinflss whicli ynu laiow I have long had in view. In 
ao doing I flhall *!ii'li/avoiir not to give it the appear- 
auco of any diHuatiiifnctioD with you> for iu troth I 
feel none, behe^ing. a« I do, that your iwnduet docs 
not proceed from any intentional want of kindness 
toward/4 mc, but from (you must forgive me for eaying 
so) an idleness in your diHposition that too often makos 
you neglect to ndtivate the friendsliip of those who 
are most attached to yon. and which makeii ynu 
expose your judgment to bo biaased by the opinioa 
of the narrow circle to wliich you .cmfine your inti- 

*' I have before obeen-ed that I think Mr. GreuviUo have some strong predilection for t)iis measure, 
tLud pui'1iii|iM Mr. r)un<i4i#, vrliiim you mention to have 
had Hume concern, at least, in what has led to it, may 
not be sorry to have Mr. Grenville out of his way in 
the Uooso of CommoDH. The hurry and uuinner in 



Cdap. XIV. 

which lliis biisiD6RS was condimlr-d. uot nUowing twelve 
hours for th<> return of your meascnK"''- h.ia<i mo to 
these mispi((irtns ; and, as the French say, T tlonbt your 
rclrgiou tiud gooil senee have. Iieen Burprisiid. But of 
all things this is a measure the least calculated to 
conciliate the Chancellor, who is not fond of Mr. Gren- 
vill», and who, with some rt-Jison, will think he oiiglit 
to have been consulted as to the person who is to 
have the lend in the House of I^nJs. But perhaps 
Mr. Oreiivillo and Mr. Piiiidas, who know that the 
Chancellor does not like either of them, may not Im 
sorry ix) force him out. I wish this may not end in 
breaking up that odministnition ou which they both 

" With eveiy aiaoere wish for yonr pn>a2>erity, 

" I am, my dear Sir, &c 


Commoncmg in November, 1790, and dosing in 
June, 1791, the first Session of the new Parliament 
nprisod many important debates. Within three 
^weckit of tho meeting Pitt brought forwiud his Budget 
for Ihu year. It was no longer like his Budget of Uio 
19th of April laiit, a pictiu-c of unmixed pros[)crity. 
Then he might cxpmse his satiBfarl ion that the average 
iueomo of the country for tlic Inst two years, amouiituig 
to sixteen millions and a quarter, had exceeded his 
own estimate wluch tho OpjwBilion had formerly cen- 
Buied tia Uiii liigli. He might point out that, since 
ITStJ, various eslraordimiry exiieuse.* beyond tho re- 
gular peace establishment, and caleulat>ed at nix mil- 
lions, had been deli'ayed with the assistance of a loan 


tIF8 OP riTT. 


of only fwe million, whilfi within ihnt pericvl more 
than fire millions of the National IMn \iiu\ Ikh-ii i)ni<l 
off. "The country At this moment," Mr. Pitt might 
then conolade, " is in a state nf prosperity far pvatt-r 
than at any period, evpn the most flonrishing, l»i>ri>ro 
the late war; and this I can incontestaUy prove fmm 
a comparative view of the exports and imports of that 
period compared with those of the present " — so fiilJy 
and so mpitUy had the loss of tho American colonies, 
deemed irrepamblo hy all our wisest statonnen, been 

t^iicli, tlum, yns thu picture which the Frimo Minister 
vuuld draw iu April, 1790, But in the Dci-ember 
fotlowiug ho liad thu more jmiitftd tusk of computing 
«ud jirovidiiig for the expense of lh« rticcnt armament 
AI! included it came to no lets a sum tJiari 3,1S3.0()0/. 
Mr, Pittj relying, as he justly might, on the buoyancy 
of the national resourceF^ determined that this sum 
should not reiDAin as a ponnHiicnt addition to the 
natiunnl debt, Aoconlingly lie hiid fnimi*<l u sclicinu 
for [Ktying ofl' th« wlmle, principal and int^Tcat, wiUiiu 
four years by the aid of temporary taxeo. He propoainl 
new dutieet, gome to endure four years and others only 
two, upon spirits, sugar, malt, and other articles. He 
also desired that ttio public should for tliu Gnt time 
derive some advantage &om the large bnUnce of 
unclaimed dividends romuning at the Uank of Kng- 
knd. Id 1727 that bahweo had been only iSfiOOt.; 
in October, 1790, it had gromi to UliO.OOOt Surely, 
said Mr. Fitt, it would be fair and right to apply half 
u miltioti of tills balance towurda the discharge of tha 



diAF. rir. 

debts incurred l>y tlie late arniaiDGut, makiug the Cou- 
flolidatetl Pimd unswerable for liiose (iividendu if at 
any time they should be cUiined. By Hub measure 
ihe nation would obtain the immcdiiite nee of half s 
million without iiitflrewt, wliilo llio security of the 
national creditor would be in no degree lesBened or 

Tliia or'lietne, which was nnfnldfd by Pitt in a 
liuniaotis speech, was received with geneial anseut, 
excepting only the praposal as to the uueluimed divi- 
d«nds. Fears were expreH»ed lest it should " give a 
Btab to public credit" — lest the fiindholdere, neglect- 
ing to inform themselves, flUould suppose their fleourity 
lessened. Finally it waA ananged that, instead of the 
Government taking direetly any proportion of the 
imdairaed dividcDda, tbs Bank Directors should lend 
half a million without intfrest, thus giving to the 
public exactly Uio Hiiue advantage as the first schcmflj 
Ctiotomplatud. ' 

Tlw Trial of HH^tings wn^ nnothcr subject \rbich garttl 
luo to long debute;^ Hero the question raisi'd wag' 
whether in law and form the Discolution of Parliament 
{jut an end to an iinpcuehment before the IIoasQ of 
Lords. On this point the kwyers might revel in a 
long army of doubtful precedents. And umoug thum- 
BolvcH tbu bL-)^t opinions wvre much divided. Ak against 
the Abutomi-ut might be cited tlio great namca of 
Uumden and Man^eld; as for it numi^s of scarcely 
inferior legal (-miuonw, Thurlow and Kcnyon. But 
while the heads of the law were thus at issue, there \ra» | 
tnuch more of unanimity among the leading stuteHmon ; 



for wliilo Fox and Burke, nod Shcridui oixl Orcy 
cagtsrly prus^iM forvrard tlie Inipoiu^hriiciit, Pitt mid 
Dondas in Ivng iui<) ai^inientative speeches tlirtiw tlioir 
weight into the same scale. 

Th» HptMinh of Pitt on (his occoaion is commemorated 
by Wilberioreo with high pnuso. "This was lUmoiit 
the finest speech Pitt over dtflivonxl. It was one which 
you would my at owu hv dcvlt <Y>uld Iisvf> taaAe if he 
had nut been a nuithcuiAticion. lie put tliiti^ by on 
bo ptxx-i!vik-d, UQii tlioii retunM>d to thu very [Hiint bvta 
urltioh ho bxul irtarted with the mo^t aj^uLshiug clcar- 

Burka also was greatly pleased with this speech. 
"Sir," he said, "th« Kight Ilou. gentlemnu aud I ita\eii 
^lea been opposud to ooo another, but his sjieechLw 
lo-oigbt has nDutralizcd ray i^poatdoQ ; nay, £»r, lie baa I 
duK'ilk'd till!." 

Knikiii«, who had now nttunied to Parliament as 
membcT ft^r Port'nnoulti, DTt|>uu«(!d with vfiUomeoce, and 
in upp<j«it)uu to all liis friciKU, tliu »iili^ uf the Abate- 
iDOnt. His long qieecb on tbU c>i-cii»iou up[wani to 
havo borne no traces of liis wonderful gonius at (ho 
Bar. Uo acknowledged tlmt in thoMi di-batcti ho did 
uot fool " at home ; " and he drew dtmii upon bimself 
tone biting taunts trom Iturke. "The l(«mod geutle- 
mun," ^lid Ihirke, " has decLtrad hinutelf nervous, and 
has modestly docUnod all elaim to elotjuenoe. Why 
should the kiinK.>d gcDllomaa decline that to w]iii<h all 
tho world aUow0 him cuUtliMl, and to w^ch alone he 


tilv ot WUbi'crotcio. by Ills Soiut, rol. i. p. 986. 


LIFE OF Firr. 

fB*P. XIV, 

lias lifltl rpffiiiraf- in tlm present dpliat^? It is pUiu 
he trusted iu that, and in that only. He confesses that 
he has not examined the Jniinwla of the House of 
Commons ; iind is pleased to assort thitt ho had no 
ai'ceBs to those of the other Ilonae, which neverthfli'ss 
ore printed and accessible to the whole world. He 
only produced in his hand a [laniphlet, to whose cont^-nta 
if ho trusted to supply him wiOi argument, it ia not 
easy to boo on wlmt lie could possiltly rely cxor-pt his 

own eloqneuce For my [lart I miiKt own that I 

wish the country to he governed by law, but not hy 
lawyers I " * 

Thus did Erskine reeonimenco his career in Parlia- 
ment — cei-taiuly under no favourable auspices. He 
continued iu the following years to speak on various 
Biibj(?Pt«, bnt seldom with (iny auceesa. And whilo 
thus by bis Puilinmentary eset-Uons h« cjjiild render 
little Berviee to his friends iu puhlic life, be was 
Airther apt to wear out their patience, even in pri- 
vate oonverBB. by his most garrulous lliough ever 
good-bumoured vanity. '• Iteeollect " — ^tlins writes Fox 
to Grey — " the impossibility when Erskine was in his 
in<Mt tallcativd vein of any thing like deliberation."* 
Still far more eonteniptuous is the cliaracter drawn 
of him by Fox's ne])li'nv and Erakine's own Cabinet 
colluQ^e. "Ho tidkwl much uonscnBo:" this is 


* Tvo «pOMliB« or Mr. Butlce, 
l)oth Dou. S3. ITBO. 

< Lutkr (luted 1 799. UkI pub- 

l[«li«i] in lliu Mciuoriula of Fox, 
vol. ill. |i. i'jS. 




among ib^ ematler imputations which Lord Ilolland 

So fnr ux rugurds tlie subject of (lie Non-Abatemfint in 
Doccmticjr, 1790, tlie unexpected aid of Erskine to 
tho fi-i«^nd« of Hiwtinp^ liiid no ufTfct, Tbo union of 
all the great i*tAt('«mi.*ii iu Iho House of Commons 
prevailed ; and tlic continiuince of the Trial van votin] 
by orerwhehning numbers. 

There were also before Christmas and in botJi ITotiitrti 
long debates on the recent Convention with Spain. 
Addresses in upproval of it were carried by Teiy large 
majorities — in tbi- Futirs by 73 votes against *M, and 
in the Commons by 2)7 aguiiut 123. So much time 
u'us taken up in thi>»<e manifolil diM'u^siouM that the 
early part of the Si>seion continued till the 2yth of 
DGcembor. Tlicn tho IIdiiscs adjourned till tliP be- 
g jiiniii ]^ of Februar}'. Tlion a\so I'itt set olT on a 
Tisit bu Iturton Pyn»ont. 

By tho votes of botli Houses tho Spanish affair was 
BssOiIly roiii^-bulet). For lus part in the 
Mr. FilRbiTbrrt was raised to the Irish 
peorago 08 Lord tit. Helens : he gurviTod till 1S39. 
A more splendid reward was desigued for Mr. Pitt. 
Tho King bad for some timi* pnat desireil to invest 
liim with the Gaiter; and ho renewed the offer of 
it on this oecusion. But it was rospccll'ully declined 
by the MinistL'r — the only instance, so far ns I know, 
since the Itevolution, besidi's that of Sir Boboit Feel, 

' Mnmoin hj Uonrjr Lonl Uolluul. and «(ip««iiijly ouo potMget vnL ii. 
p. 181. 



in wJiifJi a Commoner has been offered and baa i-e- 
tu^d I.liis prize ; »ud a Btriking contrast, ti) the eagei'- 
nem with whitsh it often has been sought and solicited 
by many great Peers, Pitt, howevoi", obtained tbo 
Itoyal iMMTnisBion to bestow it on his brother, Lord 
CUatham/' ,/- 

Od tlm <»»»embling of the Houses in February tbo 
Trial of HiLStings did not, aa waa liopwl, rnakn any rajjid 
pnip-ess. The Lords were very delibi^iate in decid- 
ing the point of Non-Abatement. On receiving a com- 
munication from the otlier Ilouse, they appointed in 
the first place a Committeo to search for precedents ; a 
t;ivourite course with both Houses. CBpocially, perhaps, 
when it is kaonn that no prewdeats at nil are to bci 
fonnd. It was not till the Kilh of May tluit Lord 
Porchester moved oiid ciirriid by n Urge mnjority a 
Itesolntiou as follows: — "That a Me«siige bo sent to 
acquaint the Commons that this House is ready to 
proceed in the Trial of Warren Hastings." 

Even thus, w) fnr u» i^-^iirdud any active progress 
in the Trial, Uto whole, or nearly tlm whole, of this 
Session was already oon.'nimed. Nor ooiild it fail to 
be noUncrl tliat ttie hearing of only three out of tlio 
twenty Charges sent up to the Houso of Lurda hsd 
taken ii]> three years. At that rat4>, and allowiug also 
a proportionate timo for the defence, scarcely ono of 
tho promoters of tho finsl Impeachment wonhl have 
Burvived to sou ittt terminution. Under these ciiciim- 
Btances Mr. Burke oii tlie 14th of February brought 

■ Pec ttl th« cluiD or tlie voliimo the notes tiom the King to Mi. Pitt, 
dalui Dtc U, 13, uul H. 1700. 




forward a moHon to limit the proBWiutiou to a singlu 
Charge more, namely, thnt relatittg to contracts, peo- 
sions, and ii,llowaiu-c8. The motion was oppotted hy 
Jdajor Bcott a»d otJicr portigatu of Ilastingti, wliooo 
desire w»» to bring tLu Trial to an immediate close; 
but it olitrtined the snpjHirt of Mr. Pitt, nnd was carried 
by an immense majority. The hopet) of the Munagors 
were once again revived. It was thought that the 
ardour of politics might — ai; Bomctimtw, though rurcly, 
huppiiDH — overcome tho downoss of tho law. 

Of late the steps for the Abolition of tJie Slave Trade 
had been almost as tardy m those for th« Trial of 
Hastings. I'he wholo of thv prL-t-4nling aod a ^mt part 
of the present Session bad beou ttikcn up in tho exaini- 
iiatiun of witnesses, wltioh 3Ir. Willwrforne co«Id not 
prfvent, w)u(^h he indeed dtvsiri^d, but which is its 
remit served only to pei^ilex and overlay tho question. 
Uuder cover of these oooilicting testimonies, Membem 
of Parliament found themselves much &eer than before 
to vote as the interests of the Liverpool mert-huntti 
or of the Jamaica pliuitors might iuclino them. 'Iliere 
wero other disuourttgomouts altto. I'ho cxtraragiuK'L-s 
of tho Jacobin Clob at i'arii), and of Thomas Foiuo 
in liis"Ki^its of Man," were iu.iidioiuily awriWrd to 
the Moods of A-botition by ita enemiai. With better 
reason might tlioy puiut to tho rising f«nnont of tbe 
UWest India HbiTOK — to the revoluti<m which )iad already 
' oommoiieed in St. Domingo, and was markeid by 
horriblo rcprianlH of the Blacks against the ^Vhit^tt.' 

I 0'»ikiKia'i m^Uirj ot tile Alxilitian of ttio Slttrc Tnile, toI. ii, 
pp. 20S-2]a. 



CasT. XIV. 

It vfivs UDfler such iiiifavcmrablo circmiiBtftiiwa that 
Sir. Wilberfon-e on the If!th of A)>ril moved for lenve 
to bring iii a Bill to prevent the fiirther importalion 
of shives into the British Colonies in tiie West Tudies^ 
TliB del>ate lasted two days. Pitt and Fox, for once 
on the same Mtle, put fortli all their jifiwerii. Nor was 
it whoI]y without efl'ect even so far as the immediate 
miitibers were ooneeniod. Two yoiuig Members of 
Piirliiimcut. — llr. Joba Thomas Sbndey, afterwards 
Lord SttiiJey of Alderley, and Mr. Dudley Ryder, 
afterwurds Earl of Hfxrrowby — declared, much to their 
honour, tlint they had hilberto been adverse or in doubt 
iw regftrdt'd the Abolition of Slavery, but should 
HOW give hearty votes in iU favour, Ou tlic; whole, 
however, the raajonty against it was ImmonHe; the 
Noes Wing 163, and the Yeaa but 88. 

Both India and Canada wort^^ hi this Session subjects 
of debate. Li 1790 I-ord Cuinwwllis had found it 
aeeofwary to declare war ugainat Tippoo, Snltau of 
Mysore, During that year General Medows at tlio 
head of 15,(l00 inoii fjained Heveral advantaf^es. Hut 
early in 17(il Lord Cornwallis took the field in person. 
He besieged and took tlte town and fort of Bsmgalore, 
th.0 secoud pUee in importani-'o of Tippoo's kingdom ; 
and piu-Buing his march until near the outworks of 
the first, Seriugapatam, he there guiued a vietory over 
Tippou himself. But ho did not consider his force 
sufficient to rediu-e tho eapilal. defended as it was by 
estunsive fo rtili cations ; and thus the conelnsiou of the 
war WHS resorvid for another eanijiaign. 

In the House of Conunona, and in February 1791, 





Philip Francis broiigtit forward some Resolutions toiid- 
iiig to » oon»iiro of tli« war. Tlicy wore opjios*?d by 
DniidaR and Pitt, ami rtyeotod witlioiit n division. 
Not SAtifdind with this negfttive victory, DuiidHS two 
days nIV'.TWunJs movftl, wiliioul nmkiag a siuffk' i)r*'- 
limiiituy obHermtioti, othor Hctkilutiunii in uppn)V»l of 
the- witr. Fox ni>d FraiH'is made some (mgry 8po«cbc8, 
bnt did not vcntnrc lo dividi-. 

A Bill for the lietter govcniniciit of Cunada was 
brought forward liy Mr. Pitt, Sine© tho coiHjmst of 
1759. and still more sinm the Aet of 1T74, tlH>re liad 
been gritat and growing differeni^ps between thfi new 
English Hott]<;r8 and the old French inbabitantft ; the 
latter in goiivrul etationcd at or near Qtiebeo, nhile the 
fOTmer, for the most part, proceeded liighor up the 
etreani. It was now proi)OM;d to divide tiie pnivinoe 
into two part^ under the denoniinatioiiH of Upper and 
Lower Canada ; the Upper for the English and 
American Bettlere, the Lower for the French Canadians, 
and with a local legielature to each part. '• Tliis divi- 
sion,'' said Pitt, " coald, I hope, bo made in such u 
manner as to give each a great majority in their own 
particular fdrni-e, although it cannot be expected to 
draw a line of comjilete Separation. Any i noon veil ieneeA 
to be apprehended from ancient Ciuindians iM^ing in- 
eluded in tlitt one, or British wltlont in tlio other, 
would be remedieil by the double leigialatare which I 
mt^k to itrtJkbliitli, by appointing in each a Ilon^ of 
Ai4»einbly, and a Ooiineil, w> a» to give them the full 

advantages of thu Britittli Condtitution If llie 

proriueo were not to be dindcd, there would be only 




one IToHse of Assembly ; and there being two parties, 
if tliGBf> partioB had beon equal, or nearly eiiutil, iu 
tho ABsembly, it would have beon tha source ut" jk^i-* 
petuol faction; whilo if one party hud been nmch 
titrorigi.T tlian the otlier, tlie mintirity might not without 
some JHstieo ejill itself oi)pressed.'" 

Besides thin diviHiun of the province, which might be 
i-egarded as the main feature of the scheme, there were 
other dausea proriding that the descendants of those on 
whom the King might bcatow hereditary titles shoultt 
hold hereditary 8«at« in the Council, and that there 
should be a |icrmaneut upjjroprifttion of lands for the 
maintfunnee of the Prok-staut Cler|iy. To the first 
introduction of this measiu-t> Fox ofltTod no resistance. 
And there fell from him on this occasion a maxim which 
hflj of kto bocone almost a eottlcd rulo in onr Colonial 
govCTument, but which, in 1791, it rwiuired both dis- 
cernment to perceJTe and courage to avow. " I do not 
hesitate to say," said Fox, " that if n local logislaturo 
be liberally foimpd, that circumstance would miioh, 
incline me to overlook defects in the other regidations ; 
beoanae I am convinced that tlie only method of 
retaining distant Coloaiee with advantage is to enable 
tliem to govern themselves," 

It was not till after the Committee that the opposi- 
tion of Fox began. Withhisusual powereof eloquence, 
he pointed out some strong objections to the achemo of J 
Cloigy Kosor%c9: and while liuidiiig the priiici|do of^ 
uistocnKy in the government of England, denied that 

■ Spcoolic* oT Mr. Pitt. Jlurvli 4 eiiA April % '^l- 




it was npplicAliIe to the govfranictit of Ctuuula. Not- 
withHtaniliiig hut argument.'*, t)iu Bill — like moototbor 
Bills opposed by Fox at this juncture — wa* curricil wiUi 
little altoratioQ through boUi Hnusea. But it is worthy 
uf nolo that one urgument of Vox, though not allowed 
ill thuory, has prevailed in pracUoe. For slthongh 
tbo Bill did euublu tJiu Hoveruigu to grant faoredilar)' 
houourH ill the provinci} of Onnudu, nut one Bucb here- 
ditary houmir was in fart cou/orrcd. 

Tiie prt)gietw of thin Bill, bovfovor, wiuj fmugbt with 
an interest lar beyond its own. It was made nipmorablc 
by a rollateral inciileut which it produoud — ^by the 
utter hreadi and la.«tiii£ u«tnuigiuueut of tho two great 
leadera of the Oppo^itiun ranks. 

In u^aing against the Canada Bill, Fox had not 
ftcrnpled to draw eome lUnstrfttionfl from the rocent 
changes in Franco; nor had be Ibrbume from some 
reflections — or what seemed so — on the rownt writings 
of Burko. A dubato on a different eubjoct, to whicli I 
hIulII preHcntty eomo, the llUHHiuii annamont, ha<l f^iveu 
Fox aiiuther uppurtuiiity for goinf^ over tiie same 
ground. Un this eecoud occasion, Durko, nlio was not 
pitwnt on the Drat, bad lisen wltb signs of strong 
•-mutinu; but tlio hour being tat«^, and the Iloiise ex- 
luiuHted, he was stoppe<l by load cries of " Question ! " 
chiefly trora the &iends of Fox. At a later period Fox 
is known to bare regretted the injudiciout) zeal of Ilioso 
who would not allow Burke lo answer bis ruuiarks u[mu 
the spoL " Tbo contention," bo said, " might have 
heon fiercer and butter, but the remcmbrnnco of it 
would not have settled so deep and ninkled su long." 



CuiP. xir. 

It is however cortaiii. thowjfli Fos's lU-wishcw might 
»ometimr» mniiiUun the cunlrarj-, that Fox had noin- 
tcDtiou to iiigult or woimil liis friend. On the con- 
trary, he Jipiwjnrs to have regretted that the ardour of 
delwito had hurrifd him too far. On tho day that had 
been Rxod for the re-commitmont of tho Caoada Bill, 
he, in company with a common friend, paid n. risit to 
Burke. SomBthing of their old coniiiJity seemed to re- 
vive between them. A po1iti»il ciremnstMni.w of great 
delicacy ««s mentioned and discussed — ji report, nninely, 
that the King had let fall some exijre**ii)ns favoumUle 
to Mr. Fox. Bnrkft made no secret of the topics which 
lie designed to line for his own defence in the House of 
OomnionH; and Fox expressed the wish that at least 
the discussion might not take place on the re-commit- 
ment of the CuDudn Bill ; hut Burke (leclntvd thnt lio 
cotUd not consent to forego uii opjiorliinily whidi he 
couhl not hope to Imd uguiu in huv other hni^ineitd then 
bofora I'brhiiment, or likely to come before it. Nut* 
witlistanding thi^ rofiisul no present bronch of frieudship 
unmiecl. At the close of their convcrsiition Uie two 
Btatosmen walked to Westminster together, and together 
entered Ihe House. It was tho last time in their lives 
that they were tlnia ann in ano or hand in hand.* 

On entering the House of Commons the two states- 
men found that t^hc^idlUl hud, in the mean time, movod 
the adjournment of the dirtciiesiou until uftiT the Easter 

' Id mj aopnnnl of tliia traiu- 1 
tii.iliiiii I liuvi' cluicly fiitl'iwi'il 11 
pnmgo iti tlia AdiiuuI Rfgiilor 
for 1791 Cl'p. 1 1*-1 18\ Which -TOM I 

certainly dmwii up undor Durko'n 
iliti!i'lio[i, nliil j»jr1iii|>M ill Miuld 
piirt vvi)\i Iry Biulli' liiiiiitlf. 




holiilajs, to vrliicli l^itt had iigriM^ Both Fox Aud 
Hiirkf mid ii tew wordt", thv- iatUiT annouscJag tliat at 
tlio iioxt opportuiiily, tliiit i« on tlio 6th of May, hu 
slionld Ih; prciHin^ tu i-x])]ain Iiiiiuolt' Mly on the 
nfTuir:* ol' Fimice. 

Uii tint (;i,}i uf M«y ncoordingiy the expectation of 
thu HuiiMO vfta wuuiid up to the highc«t pitch. But by 
that time thn ilrieuds of Fox hiu] discorcred thnt it wa» 
highly iri'i-giihtr iukI hIanic-AViIe t^ foiot reRections u]ioii 
FniDTO iiito dehntes upon Canada. This in«giiIaTity, 
which ha<l not atnidc them wliile the praetiee van con- 
tinued by Fox, appeared to them in the strongest light 
tile moment a reply was anntmuced hy Burke. When, 
therefore, on the 6th of May, Burke rose in hia phir*, 
and WHS proceeding with solemn ourncHtneHB to inveigh 
ugiiiiist the error and evil of the Prencli Bovolutiuo, 
thiTu uppeiiieil a fixed design to intornipt him. Sleniber 
after MumU-r from his own, the Uppiwition tiidc, 8turt«d 
up to call liim tu Order. Fimt, tliero waa Mr. Baker, u 
country gentleman of considerahle note, from Ht-rtfurd- 
Khirc. Nfxt came a Memlier whonlso took wame part in 
the dt'Uites, Mr, MicJiael Angeh) Taylor, Others of the 
rank ajid file tbllowed, and a tiunultuoua scene ensued. 
'i'horo woR, aa Bmlte said, a most diaordorly mgo for 
tlrder, Whfn. at Uist, ho wim GufToiod in some mcusuro 
to piTM'efd, eliafed and goudod as ho had been, and even 
at k-ngtli hy Pox among tho rest, he, no doubt, spoke 
nv:auist " the Kight Hon, gentleman " (for now ho 
npped the uimc of friend) much more bitterly and 
ongly than ho had at Srat designed. "Certainly," 
he said, " it is indiscreet at any period, bat especially 




nt my time of life, to provokt! fncmies, or give my 
&ieiidK ocuasiou to desert me. Yet, if my firm and 
steady adhorence to the British Constitution place me 
iu 8upTi a dilemma, I am ready to risk all, and with 
my last words to exclaim — ' Fly from the FreiicU 
Constitution I ' " Vox lioro wliisportd across to him 
t)i«t there was no loss of friends. "Yes," rejoiiM'd 
Burke ; " yes, there is a loss of friend*. I know the 
prioe of my conduct. I biive don«! my duty nt tli8 
price of my friend. Our friemlsliip iii at nn end." 

^Vhon Burke, aftur eomc ftirtlior imptmi^ioncd linrsts 
of I'loquenco, hud sit down. Fox rose tfl reply. But his 
mind wiis so {Hiinl^illy afft'cti-d hy wh«t had pmiwcd, that 
for some minutes he wna UFiablo to proeoi'd. Tears 
rolled down bis cht^eks, and ho strove in rain to ^rivo 
uttenuice to hie thoughts. The whole Honse seemed 
to sympatJiize with this generous gush of feeling, mid 
taany eyes wero moistened besides bis own.' Recovering 
himself at. hist, be adt'urte<I with maidy and becoming 
k-ndeniess to the Right Hon. goiitlL-mnn so lately hia 
familitir friend. He re]>outed what he had said iu the 
prewdinp year, that he hml Icurucd more from Mr. 
Burko than IVom all hiMks and all other men pat 
together. All bi« pulitieiil knowU^dge was derived from 
Mr. Burke'tt writinps, fl[xtiche3, or familiar conversation, 
and his sevcnuice from n man to whom be owed so 
many ohligntious would be painful to him to the last 
hour of his life. £till, however, he was bound to avow 

' Sro Monic'n I.lfii of SllOTl<bLQ, 
/min tlRi iiifaruiiitfon "of purwio* 
wlio v«TO in tiia Onllorr at the 

tioie " (vol. U. p. 185). " Fos." it 
is nddod, "wcpl cvun to tobbiiis." 


Lira OF PITT. 


his opimona nn pulilit- aflaira, and hn mnat look Tipoi) 
the Freiidi CRiistitutJon aa a nioRt Btupt^ndous and 
glorious fahric of liberty. The old d^tipotiitiii was anni- 
hilated ; the new system had the good of the pefiple for 
itB object ; uad tlutt wuji tho point ou which iie took hi« 

Still iititired, Burko roBC again and spoko ones moro 
with aiigmoutod v«lioinoDCO,d«noancingthoD6wFr«ndi 
Coiutiluliou ns qo stupendous or g'lonous fabric, but 
ratlwr " us n buildini; t-omposcd of uiitvuiptfiXKl mortar — 
OS tho work of Gotiis un<l Vaitdals, whore everything 
WM (liitjuiittixl uad iuvortcd." Fox mudo yet another 
tOiort rujily, wu\ tliun tho dismissiou «i)d«d. And tbiu 
eiid*^ abio a friendship of fwonty-firo yeow— « frieud- 
sbip fraught with (pwat Tesalt« on the politics of Evg' 
Ieuh], and ronowiied througliout the world — o friondship 
which tbo Revolution iu America ocmoatod, and the 
Kovolutiuu of Fmuco broke anmdor. 

la tliis momorablc quarrel, which hod beca for some 
lime forosooii as impoTidiiig, there wero many of tlio 
Whigs disposed in secret to sympathize with Burke 
Such, for example, was the tendency of tho Duke of 
Portland, in former years their uomtual Prime llininfter. 
Hut all of them, fmm the bigliettt to the lowc-Ht, felt 
fi natural ivpugnanoe to break with their real chie^f. So 
long as they could, they had laboured to urge that tho 
difference between linrko aud Fox was spoculativo only 
— Umt ilurke might well Icavo tbo alluKious of Fox and 
Bheridan without reply — and thjit Ihcro was uutbiug to 
prevent thoir continued coucurreaco in tlie field of 
practical action. Wbeu at last tho breach <)id come, 



Chap. XIV. 

all, or nearly all, the Wiig JfemberB of Piirb'anieiit, 
always escepting Windham, espousc-d the side of Fox. 
And, as coiiuaionly happens tu parties, tbonyli thwe 
nuKht bo soma hesitaticm iii deciding, yet, when the!_ 
decision wfts taken, tboy nislied at ouoe into an ongr} 
extreme. I have alreaiJy related tlieir iiwidting, andgj 
as it were, systematic interruptiMtis (if Burke ou the titl 
iif Miiy. Witbin the wtsck a siguilicant liint woa con^ 
veyed him in thu iwlumnsnt'a WM{^ newspaper, that he 
was expected lo i-elire from the Uonse of Coramons.*', 
Thus far then Burke remained almost alone. Even at' , 
the close of this summer no immediate effect appaars to 
have teen produced by hia masterly trotrt " An Appeal 
from the New to the Old Whigs." But tbe prof,'roas of 
afffiira in France was surely, though slowly, working in 
hie favour. Monfli nfU-r month during thf uest two 
years the nowi^ thikt oamo fnim across the Channel 
lvD<led moro and more to fulfil bi.s prcdic-tionji, und to 
ClUsify the hopes of Fox. And thus, an wnll be sbotm 
hercJifter, a great majority ol' bis forumr frientU ended 
by noming round to hitt (Ieclare<l opiniixu^. 

But meanwhde the iwliLtion of Burke in public ltf^| 
manifested in the clearest manner bow high and 
honourable were the motivPB by wbit-h be was swayed. 
For it is to he observed, so fai* as the coutettdin^ 
partiea in JCngland were concerned, that in losiug old 
friends, be Imd by no means acquired oew. Ue hud } 
indeed, from time to time, some eommtmicatiotis witlt 

' ■■ Tilt <.-ulli!«|Ui!noi.' (of tfiia 
dlapuW) U tliut Mr, Biirlti' n-tircot 
fruui rutkuivut," — BIoniiugCliTO- 

uiolc. May 12. 1701. Htto uliu 
friur's Lift of Biirlic, vol. ii. p. 


the Ministry on bnsinees coiiiii?cted witli the Fivnch 
Eini^nmtti. Bui thiMie n-ummunic-atioss were oa both 
Ki(Iei4 culd itu<] uui^^niiU, Mr. Burke sought no 
1 jimctiuD upon other pointit wilh the part)- that he 
hnd so loD^ oppuKud. On th(> other liand, ilr. Pitt 
At this period u|i{K-ars tu liave regarded the vebe- 
rneuco of Mr. Btirke ugftiuet the rulers uf Frauoe as 
iiuNifu and cxtreiuo. When uppenled to in the debates 
of thv House of (.'uiamuD^, tiic IViine IkUiuBter, while 
commvudin}^ the ])ut<riotic spirit of Burke, hud advised 
him ruthor to oxtul thv Eugh'»h Constitution than to 
nttuck tliu Frvneh.* Thoreforc, in the course which 
ho hiul {JiuMiii, Hiirk<; wvnt on alotu^ He might 
jii&tJy fi!«1 at this jurK-tnre thnt liu hud siK-rifired for 
Booscionoo enko not merely tiuy ambitious riewa of 
hia own, hfit wlmt ivm fiu* ileitrt^r to liim, tlm umbitJotu 

1 views of bis Mill and ouly chibl. Ho luifrlit juutly 
write us followii 1» ono of tlie Frenob fcntlcmoii in 
Englftod, toi agoni from the Princes at Coblciitx : " la 
the disintftw^stfid part we actively take in your iin*uirM, 
we want no apology to any human creature- Wo have 
made many enemies here, and no &iend«, by th(^ pnrt 
we have token. We have, for your saltee. mixed with 
tliom^ with wliom we have Iiad no natural intercourse. 
We Imve quitted our busiueea; wo have broken in Ujwn 
Dttt eiigagemeutB. For one mortification you liare 
endnred, wo bavu endun-d twenty. Aly son hus crossed 
land and sea with mudi trouhlc, and at au expense 


> Btc the reiniLrla ot Biirk^ en I Old WliI^*.' {Vt'otia, toL vL|i.!}1, 

thia lulviua io Iiig " A|>iH>al to tlur | cd. 1812.) 

VOL. II. 1 



above his means. Bat the (.'aiisp ')f liumanity requires 
it ; hii does not murmur ; and is roatly U> (it) as much 
Hiid moro for men wlioso faf«s ho has not seeu."* 

The limits to the rights of Juries, and the stfltements 
of Judges in rtTorcnco t« them. Iwwl ol' late yi'tirs at- 
tructed some attention. Jii 1784 there was llie Ifia! of 
Dr. William Shipley, Doan of St. Asaph, on the charge 
i>f publishing a libel whicli mia written by Sir \\'illiam 
Jonea, and entillnd "A Dialogue Iw^tween a Gentleman 
and a Farmer;" and the verdiet in this case had been 
V Gnilty of publishing', bat whether a libel or not the 
Jury do not find." In ITS!) there was. as we have 
seen, the trial of John Stockdale, when the Jury re- 
turned a verdict of Not Guilty. In 1790 there was the 
prosecution of Jolm Luxfunl, printer of the Morning 
Honild, for a iiarHgmjili limding to fmhroil lis witli 
our nearest ncighbrnirs, aiiiee it lioldly aKgerted that in 
the annain«Dt resulting &om the affair at Nootka Sniuid, 
ijio j^linisteni hud in view not on open contest with 
SlHiin, l>Ht ralher a trcoolicrouB attack on France. Here 
the defen<laiit pleaded Guilty, and vao seutvuced to 
twelve months' impri«onmont. 

In such eases, tlie JiidgL>, when he had to charge Uie 
Jury, was wont to rely mainly on a wdemn deelartttien 
from the Court of King'K Bench us presided over by 
the Earl of Manstield, and as called forth by the anibi- 
iguous verdict in Dean Shipley's trial. In this argn- 
- loent Lord Iktansfield had clearly lai<l down the position 
that the Juries were to decide the tiicl and not the 

< Corrcipoudenecr, vol. iil. p, 3S4, ed. IS44. 



law — whether the dfifl;n<lniit liuil ur had not puHished 
the )Wimiilil(^t, and not whulUcr the {Miiiiphlet w»8 vr 
was not a libeL W'heii in 17S8 MuukSl-M had ratired 
from tho DeiH'Ji roll of years tutd hoooiirs, his decisions 
(■Diitiiiuod tw lie cited wilh deserved n-njMX't. Nor 
indei'd was it alleged by men of w«ight thai ho had 
foiled to lay down the law correctly uncKirding to the 
latest precedentj^ In May 1701 eiren ErHkiii«, kiX'u as 
ho was for the rights of Juries arJnknwIedgcd iii tho 
House or Commous that if he were called to fill u judi- 
cial otSoe, ho (thould find it difficult on this Kubjec-t to 
resist tho inirn?nt of decisions; 

Thw Juries on their |i(irl wor« by no means always 
inclined U> actjinivice in this liuiitjttion of thoir right. 
And it «ceiDcd ino^l (h-^'irtiblv Ihat »11 doubts should be 
romowd, and that tliL>y should obtain beyond diMputo 
the full powers that they claimed. Twenty years before 
Curke had framed a Bill for that purpose. Tho subject 
was now resumed by Fox, who moved for leave to 
iiitroduco lus measure on the 20th of May, and who 
rttc«ived on that occasion the cordiid support nf I*it(, 
But Fox had stirred too late in the Session for imm«- 
iliato succ«B8. Though the BiU was Lurried through 
tht; Commonf! witli all possible despntcJi, the Second 
Ii<.wliug could not be moved by Earl Stanliope lu the 
Lords until tho 8lh of June, the Prorogation being de- 
ngncd tur tlie 10th ; and tlio Chanocllur might therefore 
safely and on sufficiunt grounds gratify his diahke of 
tho measuro by moving and obtaining its rejection fiw 
this year. 
There was another subject this Se^aion on which Pitt 

Y 1 




and Fox concurred. Mr. John llitford, n lawyer of 
rmiiifiiL-e, and al'torwnrds llic fiist Lurd Et-dfsdaJe, 
produced a BUI in favour of tlie Romiui Catlidics. His 
object, as he expkined it, was by no means ia enuble 
them to sit in Parliament or to fill any oiBco from which 
tliey were before excludod, hut to provide thai sut-hl 
among them as should take nn oath proscribed by the, 
Bill Hhouid be exempted from Borne of the severe pe- 1 
naltjes which at various times »iufc the Keforniation 
iiiid been passed iigaiiist tlieni. These peualtieis — ai 
mmt just roproach to the nge and'rtiee by which tbey 
wei-e eniMjt^^d — were gunutnythat the mere eunmcrntiitn 
of them iu Bum's work on Ecclesiastical Law tcHik 
np seventy pages. Pitt declared himself friendly to 
the measure, and Fox only complained that it did not 
go far enough. The relipf. lio said, oiip:]it to pxtond to 
cvury Kuman Ualhulic, and nut to the oulh- takers alone. 
in thu uimc s[>u-it Pitt expressed au earnest wii^h thiit 
the obnoxioUH Statutes might be not only suspended, hut 
repealed. Meauwhili*, huw«vcr, the Bill of Mr. Millbrd 
Vfts carriwl through tiie Commons unopposed, nnd in 
tlie Ijords was »upportpil by the Pritnato nnd the Bench 
of IHshops. the Chancellor on that dny heiug absent 
from illnefls. And thn.<, with Dome amendments, the 
uiea>«ure passed into law. 

It may well he supposed that the Boman Catholics — 
and above all with aneh weighty opinions on their side 
— did not deem this concession liual and conclusive, but 
desired to press tlicir fiuiher cluiniB. A C<jmniittee 
had boon formed, aud wu« Hittin):; at l^ublin, witli a view 
to legixlativu action on their bclmlf in both kingdoms, 



Lira OP PITT. 

and as Secretary tbey bad rhosen Richard Bmko, tiio 
eon of the great philosopher aud statesman. 

Vfi to this tune I liave shown ihe Prime Miimlar 
triumphant in nsarly all his Tnt^siires, and upheld in 
cvury coutert by the pablic approbation and uppluuiw. 
Wo are now to tKiiitemplate abnost tho first i'he(>k to 
that lofty will, (timust. tho firat i^loud uitou thai brilliant 
sky, in tlio ill recoption of his schenie tor the Itussiaii 
armajiient. But horo a rctrospetl will b« required. 

'file vinws with res|>oft to tho riifing em- 
pire of Biutna biwl grt'iiHy varied in Enghind within sixty 
ycATS, ercn ataoag those sttitCHineu who agreed on other 
(jiieslioLs. Tlins, in 1719, the policy otStanhopo, nt that 
time Prime Minister, hail bi»en drttinod "to drive the 
llnsoo«tt*asfaroffaft iKwsible." On theotherhand, we 
Bad in 1773 Chatham write to Shelburae : " Tour Lord- 
Bhip knowg I am quite a Rnss," Of theac two opinions, as 
time proL-Godcd, Pitt oL-rtiiinly inclined to the former. 
And bu watched with anxiety the progreiss of the war, 
commencing in Augiist, 1 787, which the Court of Petera- 
biirg litui tukugbtily provoked, find the Porto imprudently 

Even at the outeet of the«o boHtitities tlic Emprc«> 
Ontbcrine felt secure of a powerful ally, i^hc hod re- 
cently met, on a journey to the Crimt-a, her brulher 
Emperor Joseph the Second; thi>y had tmvellet) for 
the moRt part in the same carriage, exchanged many 
compliments, and discussed many schemes of ronqneel.* 
AJid among these stood foremost the destruction, or at 

■ LrIItm «t FWu4e« da IVlnoo do Ligno (who wu pTMoat «iUi 
tli«mi>, voL L II. 03, ed. 1809. 


tirs OF riTT. 


leust the disineinbtirmoDt, of the Ottoman empire. 
Joseph thfi Second, with many good and some great 
qualitiiiii, was misled by an iueoa%iderate desire of 
rivalling Frpderii'k the Owat Thirsting for military 
lame, and careless of |)olitioiil wnsoquencea, he issued a 
DwJaratiou of War against Turkey in February, 1788. 
His Maniffsto on tliat occasiim required some skill to 
druw, since in truth he had not the smallost grievunee 
agtuDst the Sultan to allege, and could only plead hi« 
wish to Buwour his good friend tlio Czarina. 

But tJie rosiill to Uiu Emperor, when he appeared at 
the hi»8d of liiii 8oldior«, by no moaux corresptmded with 
his hope*. He ha<l cwllecied &n army of 2(K),0(3O men, 
the largest porliaps tliat the House of Austria had yet 
brought into flu^ Hold) but it va» imakih'iilly distributed 
along the whole line of the Turkish frontier. One mahi 
body, under the Prince of Coburg, was designed to co- 
operate with the RuifflianB in Moldavia ; another, under 
Joseph liiuself, moved along the Save. At the head of 
lliis lost force, from wliich such great things had been 
OXpoetcd, Joseph might indeed reduce the petty bonier 
fortress of Sabaest, but he eotdd not prevent, the (Irand 
ViKier b-oin invading and laying waste the liannnt of 
Tum«8war. llo fonod it neeosiMiiy to order a rctreBt, 
whieJi was made in haste and iU-eniidui'tc-ii, iiikI at the 
(dose of the year he i;aiiio back U> Vienna riicit hi body 
and dejected in mind. 

Catherine the Second had entrusted the prineipal 
direction of the war to hei- favomite, Frince Fotemkin. 
Under him Count Romauzow commanded the army on 
the Frath. Under him the Prince de Nassau-Siegen, 


utra or fitt. 

with whom ihc. a(ivpjitur<'r Pan) Joiw)* had tiikoii ser- 
vice, coraniatKletJ the Hotilla in this Eiisiue. The Tiirks, 
on their ]iart, nJietl on their fonnidablo fleet of eigliteen 
shipa of the line, and on their renowned Ca]>itAn Parha 
IlaRaan, the hero of I^mnoo. Iliisitan did indited ditj- 
jtlay all bia former daring, not qneiiohi-d hy the snows 
of fourscore yeare, bnt there was neither Hkill nor dis- 
cipline in moet of his c^ceni or men. In the autumn 
at 17^8 his onnament was Smt repnbed hy Pdol Jones 
at Gluboka. then all but annihilated at Kinbum by 
Jones and Sii^en united. Emboldened by tliiti success 
I^nt^o Putc-mktn prucuL^od to invoKt the iitiportjint 
fortnjsa of Ockzakow. 

Turning Irom the Eimue to the Bttltic, tliero ap- 
[leiirc-d to tho Turkish side a wholly unexi>ected ally, 
(iustiivns of Sw«don was, through bis mother Ulrica, 
Uf^])hcw to the great King of Prussia, and like the Km- 
|>eror Joseph he felt a perilous ambition to rival that 
consummate mast^T of the art of war. He liad as littlo 
|)lw for assailing Runsia as Joseph for n.<sai1ing Turkey ; 
nevertheless he piihli.'Jied a Manifesto in the snmmer of 
178S, and at. onee nuTinu'nefid hostilitiesL On proceed- 
ing to ptit hims^^-lf at the liead of his force.** in Finland, 
tho parallel with Joseph might be still further (;on- 
tiiiui'd. for he enraiimtered nothing but discimifituro. 
Admii'ai Oreig, a Scotchman in the RuBsiaua' scn'ite, 
and commanding their Baltic fleet, proved an OTfi*- 
Biateh to the Swedish. The prinoipfU officers and 
nobU>8 of Oustaviis were disaffected to him from tho 
violent subversion of their privileges which liu had 
made in former years, and tho Banes, at tho instiguliou 



Caxr. XIY. 

of Catherine, jtudtlenly ftssnik^d liis doiniiiioDu ou thcir 
side. It. beriarae iiiw«ts,ii«ry lor tititi to return from Fin- 
land ill all liflste, and opposo liimsolf to tUt-se ukw ud- 
Teraaries. The King of Sweden was then beyond all 
doubt in a moi^t criticAl position, and he owed Im de- 
liverance only tn the active nipasiires of Pitt 

The object of Pitt, whether in the north or south, wna I 
the same — to uphold the balance of power. For this 
object ho had just concluded and he relied upon trt-atics 
of alliance witli Ilolland and Pruiwia. Tie now deairod 
that the tlireo Allies ahonid by a joint ItemonHtraucc 
arre«t the progi-oaa of the Danes and RusBiaus and mve 
Sweden, It was no easy matter on tJiis octaaion to 
oren-ome the conscientious scruple of Georgu (he Third, 
who apprehended any risk of war. It whs no easy 
matter on this occasiou or on any othvr to nniinate the 
indoK'nt lt'ui|»or of Frodurick WiHiiun. Ihit tiie requi- 
site Maiidion nt lisist for iho iirst steps being gmntCHl, 
Sir. Hui^b Elliot, «iir Miuistor iit Copenhagen, received 
the de.'iired instriK-tionis. Without losing a moment he 
cjvisseii ft\rT into Kwe*lt'ii und hastt^iied to the caniji 
of llie TJuiiikIi army bi'fure GutheiibTirg. There he met 
the yoimg Print* Hoynl, nephew of George the Third, 
and virtual Regent of Denmark tlirongh his father's 
incapacity. To him Mr. Hlliot at once presented a 
Remoiwtranoe in the name of the three Allies, threaten- 
ing him u'ith their resentment if the war with Sweden 
were further pursued. Un<Ier this prensure a prelimi- 
nary truce WM signed on the Ktli of October, first for 
only a week, and at the close of that period fur u 




The aim ol" Pit* v,m now to curry out tliifl jtolipy to 
its full extent — to bring the Dniifis from a preliminary 
to a final paciflcalinn. Hvm ^ain there were some 
coDBcit'JitioUB diflirultu?« on tlio part of George tlio 
Third, over whom the (diarlow of hU gi-e«t mahwly wiw 
just beginning to be cast, ilj readers may themsolvcs 
teoDBiilt tlie King's toiK-hing letter of October 25, Nr. 
[Pitt's answer ofTering some modification, and tbe King's 
' rejoindi>r of November 3, 178S, The result was m com 
plete acmtrdance with the wishes and the expectations 
of tbe British Hinister. England, without incurriug luiy 
warfare of her own, arrested the warfare of anotbcr 
Power. The Danes marched bock tlieir troops to Nor- 
way, aad siibseqnently were peisuaded to resume thtsr 
position as neutrals in the war. 

On the sitiL- of Turkey llio armies bad for the most 
part witlnlniwu to winter (piartura. Kutlhe invostment 
of Oekziikow wn* »lill uonliuuod by IViucc PoU-mkin. 
The Turks, well aware of tlio iiopoi-tiuice of this po^rt, 
liad (hrtiwu into it a pirri-son of twenty lbou»niid ohown 
tjciojis, A scftn;oly less i-fleetiial protcc-tioii socm'>d to 
Iw aftbrded it by Uio oxtrcino severity ot tlto winter 
which ensued, Nevertlieless Prince Potemkin, eager 
to signaiLse himself at wiiatever cost of lives, paid no 
regard to tJie hundreds that daily pc-riahed from vx- 
posore to the cold, but still kept bis forces in tbe field 
and began to bombard the city with red-Jiot balls. One 
of these fell on the great powder-uagazine* which blew 
up with a terrible esplotiion, killing tivo tbonsaud [jeople 
iind demolisliiug a |>ortion of the wall. A gcDera) as- 
sault being ^veu iu oonsei^uence on the 17tb of Do- 




Chap, XIV. 

cembcr, 178S, tlio plwfo was tiiltt-u by si'H'm aitpr a 
limve resislftiico aii<i vast uliiiighter on IkjIIi sidijs. The 
fall of tliia imiiorlniit bonlcr-forti-ess was liilt as a great 
uliock not only til rtmgli tlii'TiirldsIit'iupirc*, liiit tlircmgh- 
out all Enropir, It whs tlit; tiist Sitioiighciiil ftfqnired 
by liie Russiiina ou tht; Emiue, und it lillud a, Bpaoe in 
tlie popniar aj>[)reli(!n«ioii8 of those times nut less tlian 
in oar own ilnyfliil Sebastupiil. 

In April of the* u<*st yenr, 17S!1, occiuTcd the sudden 
(li'iiiiiie of thfl Siiltun Alxhil Unmet, ancceitdfid I>y his 
nephew Soliin. Tlie new Sovereign ohaugeil the Mi- 
nisters and Genei'als, biit inaiiitaiued tlie warlikfi jioliry, 
of bis predeoesaoi". When, however, shortly afterwards 
the campaign cnmmenced, it was rawked by a long 
train of diHanters to the Ottoman empire, Joseph tlie 
Second, bein^' dttiiincd by illness at Vienna, had surn- 
toOQOd from rt^lininont thu VL-k-run commuudcr Luu- 
dolin, whosu high uiililury liinio bad up to tliat timu 
escitod bis jealou»>y rather tbau bis confidence. Ad- 
vancing along tho SavL', Lnudoltn rcduct-d Gradiscu. 
and in spitft of ii!l opposition lottii.'god and took tbo im- 
portant eity of llelgradu. In AloLdnvia Suwarrow ba<l 
tiOcceeded lioniiinzow a» leader of tbo liussiitns, and 
displayed ut onoo the uncnltivated geiiini<, tbw burliariati 
vigour for wbicij hi.i itame has becomo rL-uowned. Con- 
certing mpaani-ea with tli« Prince of Coburg, tb«y 
inftTc-bed beyond the Screth, and uttorly dcftjatod tho 
'I'nrlti* in two bloody battlus at Fockslmn and at Itimnik. 
'I'lio Turks wrru driven in L-oufu^ion across tbo Danube, 
while not only lliu eity uf Bucbareitt but the whole pro- 
vince of ^^"llllaehia becume tbo spoil of the victors. 




Alwig the wide extent of nmtJiern ftontipr tliere was 
yet space for another HigTinl reverse to the Turkish arms. 
One of the chongos mado by tbe u«w Sultan had been 
to transfer the Higli Ailinirfil, Kosmn Paeho, from bis 
own element f> tlie Ittiid-sfrvine, ijiviiig him the com- 
mand of Bomo f(jrc<.-rt. with whi<?h he was directed to 
march into Bt^ssomliio, there to aim Al ihe reoivery of 
Oclczakow and the pnitt-ction of Bender. Ilaasan htid 
[>as8ed the Bannbn and reached the village of Tobak, 
when he wa« en<:oinili'recl by a Kiiiwian army led by 
Prince Fotemkin, and after a hard-fought action was 
ntterly defeated, 

Thns on all points had the Tnrks been put to tho 
rout n-ith heavj' loss. Another sucb cumpajgu might 
have driven thorn beyond tho iJo^phoriu. Itul u» in a 
fonnor yoar from Sweden, m in the iioxt Iliiire came to 
them ati imjiortant diversion from tlie NeUierlanda and 
nungary. In botli tho Kni]>cror JcK<eph Iia^l attempted 
to establisli refbrms, good for the most part in them- 
selves, but ill-timed, precipitate, aiul urged with arbi- 
ttary violence. In both tliere was a reaction not less 
violent, extending in Hnngary to the very verge of 
dril war, and in the Netherlands to Emcceealiil ini^ur- 
recdon. Joseph, already on his death-bed. friiiud it ne- 
oestary to revoke all the mi3st clierir^hcd meui^urtit of his 
not long but laborious lifu ; and on the 20th of February, 
1790, h« i-xpiivd. 

Joiscph wax succeeded iti the Hereditrtry Htntcs, as 
afterwards iti iho Imperial Ci-own, by bis bruthcr I^co- 
pold, the Grand Duke of TuBcnny. lA-o]>old iit odco 
applied himself, and not without suocusn, to h(%I ihu 



LIFE or riTT. 

CukP. XIV. 

wpuiidH wbii*li Jasi'ph Tiad iuUiolod. Both Hungary 
and Belgium wen- Jiy tlogrws rpstorixi to quiet, 
tJiough still for a long time heaving with their recent 
agitrition. Meaiiwhilo ou the Danube the Austrian 
Ltroops had doin- little nioi't? than reduce Orsova and 
Fbesiege Widdin. Leojiold did not sfipk new victories, 
but e3qie(;ted to derive some fruits from those already 
gained. He thought it only reasonable that the Turks 
ehoidd be prepared to make oousiderable cesaioue iji 
any treaty of jjeace. 

It was at this point that the thrco Allies — the Cabi- 
nets of London, the Hague, and ISerlin — were ablt; to 
interpose with signal effeet. Already, a few days only 
befuFL- the demise of Joseph, Prussia had concluded a 
treaty of aUiaucs with the Porte, and commenced ncHvo 
pr*'I"iriitioii(t for war. It vm» now imiiic ploar to Loopold 
that unless he^ would ri'iioiinci- tJie cuierrt of nif-aaurcs 
with Russia, and the Bt^hejneB for the partition of Turkey, 
lie must be prejiared to encounter on the otlier side tJlO 
whole fore^i of tlie PruBsian monarchy. England and 
Holland, though closely Unlied with Prussia in theee 
negotiations, wre admitlwl to take [>art as mediators 
in tht! Ckuigivss which was held at Reichenbach, in 
Siteida, Ktw(!«n the nval States. Through their joint 
exertions Jjcopold was induced, seehing moreover to 
Ibqcutc th<.^ votim of Brandenburg and Hanover at the ap* 
proaching Ini[H.-i'ii(l election, to conclude in Jidy. 1790, 
thij Convention called of Jteiclienbacli, rcnoimcing Iiis 
nllianuo with llnxsia, providing for u speedy poace bc- 
twoi-n himself and tlio PortiJ, and consenling U> give 
bock all the eonquesla mode on his part dui-iug tlii? war. 




The relief which this Convention afforded at A most 
Heasonafalo time to tho tott'^nn;^ Turkish era{)ire was 
leesened in some degree by another treaty of jieaee con- 
cluded at nearly the same time between Itusna and 
Sweden. The eain))aign on the fdde of Finland had 
been marked by nimierons enconnlcrii both by land and 
sea, and with varying fortniie, but even their su(;eeBSG8 
bi-ought heavy loaa in men and in sliip to the Swedes. 
Under tliese circumstances Gustavm rushed into peace 
with as mui^h preci[dtatioD as he had into war. 
Without the smallest regard to his alU«8, or to hia 
}ilij(l^-s, lie gi^cd a tit-aty at his camp iu Augui^t. 179Q| 
fixing lii^ £runt)i>r» with ]iib»a exaotly iw Ibvy stood 
before tho war, and leaving th« Knipw-wi (.'athi'rine at 
liberty Ui turn her entire and nndivided foroea against 
the Turks. 

Of this liberty tho EmpiL-ss was rt.'iaolvud to mako 
l\ill use. Her onnios had n-inuinod almost stotintiiiry 
on the IJaiiiibu tlirongb thu spring and «iimm«r, while 
Austria whk in Auspetisu ajid negotiations woro in pro- 
g;rt««. But it was hopi^l that, as at Ockwikow, the winter 
f)ea-tnn would not preclude an ini[)nrtant blow. The 
object now in view was the reduction of Ismail, a strong 
town on the left arm of tho Danube, near its mouth, 
and into which the Turks had thrown almost an army 
for a garrison. I'riuco Potemkiu sunt his instructioiui 
to General Suwutdw in tlicso few words : " You will 
take Ismail at w)ui(«ver co«it." HaWng mode hi.<4 dis* 
positions ateordiiijjiy, Sawarrow on the morning of tho 
22nd of Deccnibor, 1790, led up hia troops to tlie as- 
sault. The reeistaoco was obstinate, but unavailing, the 



Cbap, XIV. 

I«]*ngliter lirrible, «ud coutirned long after the re- 
eiatance lnnl oetised. It is coirpnied that on tlic day 
of tie storm, and oa the two following, Ihv- nmobtT of 
the Turks that pcriBlied, men, woniea, and cliildrea 
together, amouuted to do less thim four iiud thirty 






Pulicy of Eiiglriinl — " Thi- Buniiin Annuiuntt " — Connc^rion of Ktl 
to the (lujuJiir feulirig — Diuitii o( I'riin'o I'otcBikiQ — Lonl Groti- 
<rillc appointnl Rornitorf of Rtikto Tiu Fnriiljrn Airnini — 1«ril Clmt- 
liwa Olid Mr, Pill oomputvil by Lody Cl.aUuim — Uonjntp: at tho 
Diiho of York — Correiip(nKl«iu.v willi tli.i Bi»lio;) uF Uuliti-til — 
Pitts putnuiagB of hmnblo morit its thcCbnrch— Ccmmntftliuij et 
Titlii.-s — Fri'iiiiti Rvvuhitiun^Dvi'luniliou of Piliiiti — Kiut« ut 
Binmiigluim — Dutnictioa of Di. PnontlKj'* Uoaan. 

In ray last QhayiUsr I yavc a slight, but iwrhnjis for my 
lHir|iwst' Kuilk-iciit skeUih of tho OYuiit* iii Knstom wtd 
Korthcni Europe since 1787. That ekeColi lias iww 
hrouglit me to the comm^iceiu^nt of 17!>1, Aiid will 
serv« to explnin the policy in Umt year of ilr. Pitt. 
He ootilil look back with gmtilicntion to thn euccesA of 
tho tlireo Alliei). lie was proud to think lliat thoy had 
)>oen nhlc! fimt to arroat tho progroiui of Denmark in 
the North; next to curb the luubitiou of Austria, and 
compel her to renounce tho conqiieets slie had already 
inudt'. It v&ft his opinion that precisely tlie same 
coume nhnnld lie pursued towaidii ItiuMia. liut the 
ucgotiation^ with that Tiew, conducted through tho 
autumn and wiuter, proved altogether unsatisfactory. 
The Empre^ resented as an insult any interference of 
the NeulriJ Powers. Blie would lioar nothing of mode- 
ration and forbearance. She was fully dclpmiined, even 
before the taking of Ismail, and atill more fidly after it, 
that in any treaty of poiwc with tho Porte, ehe woiild 



CbaP, XV. 

retlua » ronsiderable portion of Lcr comjiu-ats. aiul, 
ftbove all, tlie foi-tresa of Ockzakow as her tirel opening 
to the Euxiiie. 

All rvmyiistrannfis against this detcrmiiintirtn being 
Iiitujrlitily ri'jecteii by the Court of Putcwburg, Pitt 
thouf-ht that the tinif Iiiid coiiib for more deoisivo 
metU9iirL-K. Alrowdy with that view had he kept in 
cwminissioii wsvernl ship* bovoiid the regular jjeace 
c^tablishniont- He now sent orders to increase tho 
iiuinbt^r, and ruaiu them with all dusiwlch rfiadyforsea; 
and thin, in tho language of tho time, wa» called " tho 
liiisi^ian nnnitmoBt." As at Itoichvidwch it was tho 
muster along tlif frontior of a I'nissian army veady for 
aetion that mainly woigbod witli Austria in oonrediug, 
EH) now, in all probability, might with nnstua the aspect 
ofaBritisIi fleet. Bm if not — if UieEmprpasCntborino 
■ were bent on trying her Rtrength against the country- 
men of Hawke and Boecawen — tlien, as Pitt believed, 
Iho prcwmt balance of power, and the future security of 
Europe, nvro considerations of fully suflicieut im]iort- 
Buoce to justify a war. 

On tJio 27tli of March Pitt held a Cabinet upon 
this «ubject He did not carry through liia views with- 
oatsomixliffictdty, as wtU apptiur from a letter a(l(Irea.ied 
to him in the course of the same night by Uie Dvke of 

" Whitehall Sunday night, 
"Mt DEXK Sir. March 27, I7P1. 

" AltliuugU it is next to impossible lor two persons in 
tJie course of a Tariety of OTcnt« alwa>'8 to we tho samo 
things in tho mno point of riuw, yet I cannot but foci 



Itnrt when I happen to differ from you in any eesctiUal 
point. At the miae. tiiuo I uin surv tlmt in oiw of such 
importance as tliat we tUscussed this morning in Cabinet, 
jou would not wiiib me to keep back my real senti- 
meutti : aii<] the more I tluak ot tite mibjuct Hm moro L 
am onofirmed in my opinion tJiat milees ve have IIol- 
Ihiii), ill siiiuo ostoiisibli) ^Iiapc at lea^t, iritb ns, and the 
BvreJish ports open to our fleet, with an afw-ssion of 
Poland tfj our allianr^, we riak too mucli in pledging 
thitt Country to Pmmia to nuiko war agftinst Itii«iiiin in 
order to compel hor to inako peace with the Porto upon 
tile status qiw. I have duly weighed all tJie ai'gnmenta 
yon made uko of, wliifli luidniditudly have gniit forco, 
but I cauLot say tlioy have convinced me. 

" I have not the presumption to wish tliat my ideas 
Rhould prepondetate )'oiir8 and tlio majority of 
the Cabinet, and I by no means wish to enter any foruial 
dissent to the measure, but merely to be understood by 
you that my npinion^does moI po with it. When onoe 
it is adoptc-d, X shall coutribato tlio Ultlu 1 can to iU 

" I am OTfir tuoet tmly and sinci^rely yours, 

" RlCnMOND." 

Next Hay, however, Monday tho 28th of March, Pitt 
proNentcd to tho Huusci of Commons a MusMgc in tlic 
name of tliu Kiug, stating that the eiidoarourv which 
Hia Maj>8ly \im\ itnird, in conivrt with hi.4 .\llies, to 
cfTert a n'couciliation InHweeti Uui^sia and tlie Porte 
having hitherto been tmsooceasfnl, lie judged it reqainito 
to make some further augmentation of \ui naval force, 
and he trustM tliat his faitlitiil C-ommona would be 
ruady to make good the expenses that might be 
incurred. No sooner was the Jtoseago delivered tlian 



Chap. XT. 

Vox started np to declare }iis opposition to iU purport. 
On the foUowiog day, and on sevenil enbsequfut iwifi- 
eiong, he argued n^iiiDst it with lii« nsnnl forue, ably 
seconded by sovimil of Iiis friiinds : in thu Coimuons by 
Orey, Sbcridiin, and Wbitbrfad ; in the Fecre by Lords 
Loii{;lilniroiigh and Stiirmont, jmd Lnrd North, now Eail 
of Giiilt'wiJ. Was it really of wiifh va*t importance to 
English interests whether Itii^ia did or did not retain 
the terriljiry between the Bong and Dniester, or even 
the strong-hold of Ockzakow? Was it really worth 
while to incur all the costs and all the ciilamitiefli 
of war for a desolate tract of marshes, and for a fortress 
liulf in ruinH ? 

Tho great oloquoncse wlueh Fox displayed upon this 
Knhjcct was not greater than of late yearn hu hud dis- 
played npon many other suhjet-le. But he had the 
pleasure to find that it made far more impression on his 
hearers. The evils of liussiau ambition we-re contingent 
and remote ; those of increased expenditure plain, pal- 
])ahle, immediate. But, moreover. Fox having no 
official consicIeratiouB to rpstraio him, could discuss the 
question boldly in all its bearings. Pitt, on the other 
liand, deemed it inconsistent with his duty to reveal tlie 
exact state of the negotiation, or even to mentlou 
Ockzakow, and thus he could only, as it were, meet a 
rapier with a foil. 

The BuEsian armament, therefore, found no favour 
with the public. On tho day tttfer the King's Message, 
and when tho Opposition had mored an Amendment to 
the AddrL'S;;. the liiiiisters prevailed by a majority of 93 ; 
but on tlio next oct^'asiou, and in a much fuller Uoiise, 



that tnajority dccliu«<l t<j 80. Out of doore tliQ vmunn 
grew (iiiily uwrt; TUiimpiJar. Even iu tho mnks oT the 
majority tlit-ru were niftiiy (ioiibtlhl or roInctAnt Tot«e. 
Pitt felt that ho must ^ouiul a rotreut. 

Once ooDTiiicod of tlie iiecesaity of yielding, I'itt diW 
not procmstinalo or linger. It was, ho saw, of pre^wing 
unportiuico that tlio vountry slioold not btooHJO luoro 
deeply coinmilted oti tiiia qnb»lio». Be dettpatched to 
tusda with all possiljlo speed a Messenger, who fortu- 
tiat<?Iy arrived in RUfKcient time to withhold our Mininter 
from presenting to the Court of Petersburg a new and 
threatening Not© which waa already prepared. And in 
relinquishing the warlike measures which he had oom- 
inc'uced for the recoTory of Ocfezafcow, Pitt was anxioue, 
by means of a secret letter, uddreaaed to JSIr. Ewart, to 
explain to the Court of Berlin tho urgcoit reaaons for 
t]i»t ohnnge. Thnt lotter, ae dorivcd ^m the draft in 
Pitt's own writing, has boon already printod iu tho Lifu 
by Bishop Tondiue, but I mIiuII heru print it agniu. It 
18 necosmry to [trcuiise that Air. Kwart hud lately been 
)D Eugland, aud was only jiiet ri-turued to his post. 

"Mr DBAB SlE, » Holwofxl, May 24, 1791. 

" You are bo fully apprised, from your own observu- 
(iou, and from our repuited convereations. of uU which 
baa passed here in rolntioQ to a:ft'aint abroad, and of 
every ^cntinn'nl. of mine on the i^ubjeet, that I can hjivo 
uotlung fresh to add in tlii« letter, 

" I wish, however, to repeat my earnest and anxious 
deeiie that you sliould find means of informing tlio 
King of I'russiu, as openly and expUoitly as possible, of 
the real etate of the buaineiin, and of tlie true motiTes of 
our conduct. Ue knows, I am ^i%a».de&.,\]»>N<^^«k 



Chap. ST. 

effect which opinion and public impression must alwuj-s 
have in this country, I'ilht-r t<j complain of our cliange 
of nieit8ui'<-s or to wondt^r iit it, if lh« tnio ainxc bo 
fully explained to him. You perfectly know that no 
man coiilil lio more eagerly bpnt tlian I was on a steady 
adhen-ni^e to th© lino which wo hud Mt first proposed, 
of going all lengths to enforce tllo terms of the strict 
status quo; and I am still as much persuaded a^^ ever 
tliat it' we could have carried the siip|«irt of the country 
with us, the rinh and cxponso of the struf^frle, even if 
Kusfiia bad not subniittod without a struggle, would not 
have been moro than tho oliject was worth, 

"But notwithstanding this was my own fixed opinion, 
I saw with certainty, in a very few days after tlio 
subject wjis first rlisoussod in Parliament, that the 
pn.wpcct of obtaining a support sutlicieut to «irry this 
lino tliroiigh with vigour and effect was abaolutely 
desperate. We did indeed carry our question in iha 
Housi! of Cominonit, by not an inconsiderablu raHJority ; 
and we shall, I am jieniuiuled, cuntinuu tiucceasful in 
roaifa-ting all tho attempts of (Opposition as long as t]iH 
negotiation is dejiending. But from what I know of 
the Hontimeiitd of tJic groftti.-st part of that majority, 
euid of many of the warmest friends of Government, I 
am sure that if, in persisting in the line of the »ttUua 
quo, wo wen^ to come to the point of actuiilly calling for 
suppliui to support tho war, and wore to stale, an would 
then be indisi>eiiaable, tho precise ground ou whicli it 
arose, tliat we rihonlil cither not curry such u question, 
or carry it only by ao weak a division as would nearly 
amount to a defeat. I'his opinion 1 ccrtiiinly formed 
neither hnj«ti)y nor willingly ; nor could I ctisily make n 
sacrifice moro painful to myaolf than 1 Iiave done in 
yielding to it. But feeling the circumstjincoii to be such 
A8 I hare Htatod them, tbo only qncetiou that remained 
was, whether we should persist, at all hazard^ in pushing 




our firat determination, tboii^li witLoot A chance of 
nMi<toriiig it, effei^tual to its objoct. or whether we ahttiild 
endeavour to do what appears to W the next bc8t, when 
what we wished to do hociiinti iiiipractifttblc, 

" To itjMak plainly : tlie obvious effect of our pervrfsting 
would huvc hfM>n to risk the existenoe of the i)rf»L-Dt 
Govemment, iiud with it thu wholo of our systt-m both 
ut home iind abroad. The personal part of tliia oon- 
sidcniliuii it «rtuld have I>ceii our duty to o^nrlook, 
and I trust we should all havo been rrody to do so, if 
by any risk of our own we should have contributed to 
tho ttttitiniiient of a ^jeat and ini^xirtant objirpt Cor this 
country aud il« ftllios ; but th<j consuquvnco must 
evidently bare been the rereree. The overthrow of 
our BvaU'ra here, at the Hamn time tliat it hnzarded 
di-iviug the finveimuent at Imnie into u slatti of absolute 
confiiHiou, must have shtdceu thu whole of our Hyatem 
ubruKiL It in Bot difficult to foresee vhatmust haro 
been the (.•oii.*eqnenee to I'nLii&ia of a chaogu (iffwrtod 
by au opposiliou to tlio very inco»un'« taken in conceit 
with that Conrt. and resting on the avowed ground of 
our j)n;seiit nyrtteiii of allianee, 

** On those couKidcrutJonK it \« that wc have felt tlio 
necCiwity of changing our plan, and endeavouring to 
find tliv bc-st expedient we can for tenninntiug the 
bosiuL-iis without estreniitiiM, Fortimittely, the having 
sneceeded in Btopiiing the pro[H)3ed representation to 
liusxia hitii prevented our heing an pointedly conmuttinl 
as tht're wan rfn.s(in to apjireliend we might hitVL' been. 
The modifications which have been euggeated, tho 
rceomnn-ndation of them from Spain, the prospoL-t of 
bringing that Court to join in a snbweqiient ^arantce of 
the Tuj'kiah po8Bc«aions, and the ehoueo of, perlmp», 
bnnging the Emperor to accede to our sygt«iu, aro all 
circumstfincvJt which give an opening for extricating us 
J from our prescut difficulty. You are so fully mu^^vx "A 


the whole of those details, that I shall not enlnige iipoii 
them. My great object is, tluit, you aliyiild be able to 
satisly the KJDg of Prussia of the strong necessity under 
which WQ have acted, and that we really liad no othi^r 
choice, with a. view uUier to hia intt-rwsls or to tJiose 
which WD are mot;! bound to i-onsult at home. 

" 1 am, &e., 
" W. Pitt." 

The conceBsion htre made by Pitt in good time (for 
on that in a eonceeiuou everything depends) lo the 
popular feeling averted his Piirliaaicntary danger. Bnt 

I the whole transaction tended to dim his Parliumentary 
renown. Here was inamfeetly a miscalculation and a 
failm%, — the first on auy foreign question that he had 
over known. Men began to whisper that his fall 
might be near at hand — that tliP iinhlic confidence was 
lost — that the King's favour wiin diieliiiiiig — that His 
majesty had boon heard to say at his I,eveo that, 
i^hould any change beeonie requisite, be tiad no per- 
sonal ohjertions to Mr. Fox. It may Ukowisn hn 
(observed that rumours of this kind were not nithout 
their effect on the diseeasion which broke forth directly 
aftejwards between Pox and Bnrke. Even such poli- 
ticinns of the Opposition side as at heart agreed with 
Tlurke on tbe t«rrora of the French Revolution, deemed 
it impolitic to side witli tlie philosopher just retiring 
from thesta^, and to break witli the state.-aiian pr^rlta[)8 / 
on the vt-ry point of being <'alled to the head of aHiurs. 
On anotlier jioint also was Bnrke mixed np in thi* 
tjansaetion. He had taken part with Fox in P|)ealdng 
and Toting against the Kussian urmament ; but suh- 
sequeotiy lo tiieir quarrel he staled a charge against 



his former friflnd in a privata letter to Ihe Dnko of 
i^oitlaDd, which, eome yeare hiter, was Horreptitiotisly 
and without his leave made public The charge was, 
that Mr. Fox, withoot in any manner consulting bis 
party, had sent Jlr. Adair (at a later period Sir Itobert) 
on a secret mission to Petcrsbm^ with the riew to 
ootmteract the efibrts of the King's Envoy, Mr. Faw- 
Icener. Such had been the mmoar at the time. Mr. 
Pitt bimHetf, though be did not acnise Sir. Fox of any 
sbai-e in this transaction, tn-ice in the Ilouse of Cinn- 
mons intimated an idea tliat the presence of Hr. Adair 
nt the KusHian Court had Iwcu injurious. "Better 
t«nn«," lie mid, " migbt hnvo be«o obtained at l'ct<^'n»- 
boi^, bad it not bui:;ii for o^rtaiu cirL-umstaiK-es of noto- 
riety bostilo to the jiolitical intcn«t« of Euglund." In 
the hetit iif party ccm(li('I. ii must b« owoed that thpw 
appeared some grounds of probability sullicient to jus- 
tify the charge. 

PMnny yours aftt^rwurdi!, however, that is in 1821, the 
cliurgc was ruvivod by Bishop Toinliuc: in a more deli- 
1^^ beiutv form. The Bishop said Uiat its aceniacy vias 
^P attested by authentic documents among Ur. Pitt'tt 
' jMipuTa. But, when publicly appealMl to by Sir Hubert 

I Adair, be did not pnjdncc any. I certainly have not 
found any 8iu-li nruong the papera whioli were then in 
the Bishop'^ tuin<U and which are now in mine, and 
I bolievo that tlie BiBliop's memory must luive entirely 
(teceivcd him on tliis point. The final vindication of 
Sir Bobtrt. — iliiti?d in February, 1842, and published 
in the Fox Memorials — appears to me complete. It 
clearly shows that tlie joumej- to Petersburg was Mr. 
Adair's own act, without any euggcstion of Mr. Fox. 





Crap- XT, 

aitJ witliout auy treachetous (Icsifjn of either. Mr. 
Fox wen! no fartlior tluin to my, as iie most rea^ 
eonabi y might, when Mr. Adair took IcMive uf him, " Well, 
il' you nre detcrmiued to gu, sc^rid iia nil llio iil-vvs."' 

The Cztiriiiu, Iiowcvlt, received Mr. Adjiir with high 
liououFB as tbi.i friuiid of Fox, and toot jiaiiis to coii- 
trust her demewtiour to him with that to Mr. Faw- 
tentr. Slio iirot'essDiI the highi'Mt regard for the great 
orator in consfiqiiencft of his recent course ; and haying 
obtained his from Kngland, pbiced it in a gallery 
of her palace between those of Demosthenes and Cicero. 

Abroad, it became necessary fur the PriisMnw Minis- 

rs to follow the nmrse of Enghtiul. 'i'hey coidd not 
persei-ere with eSeat ia rexisting the pretensions of 
Uueaia ou the side of Turliey ; and the Porte itself had 
no alternative but to yield. It waa ngieed tlial the 
Czuriiia sliuiild retain iho fortress of Oolizokow, aud tlio 
territory betwuuu tlio Bowg and tlio Dntestor ; the latter 
stimm to bu hi-nec-furth tho limit bctwa-Q tho two 
empires. The I'rclimiiiArieti of I'ratcc wwre eij^ned on 
the 11th of August, and a Coiign*-* wa« Appoiiit4.'d tubu 
held at Ya'wy tor the coitipletion of the tii'aty. 

lu October, and before tliis peace wils linally adjusted, 
died Prince Potemktn, one of the most ^.ealous pro- 
motera of tjie war. His ascendency Hilh the Empress 
liad recently declined under the influence of a 
younger livid. lie was tntTelling to Nicolayeff for 
change of air, in company with his niece llie Coimtess 
Bnmiska, when he felt himself so ill that he desired to 
be lifted from the carriage and placed on the grass 
beneath a tree, and there — like the humblest wayfarer 
on the I'oad-side — did this favourite of fuiluue expire. 




Cha^in and anxietj' had combuuid ta mia hia health 
with exceeees of the table. "His usual breakfant at 
this time ima a smoked goose, with a larg» quantity 
of wine and spitits, and he dined m the same man- 
ner." So, at least, says the biographer of Paid Jones.' 
Paul Jones himaelf at thia time naa no longer in the 
Bussian service. So early as April, 17S0, he had found 
it necessary to leave Petersburg in disgraee under a 
Leuvy pergonal charge ; and he died at Paris in great 
olisciirity in July, 1702. 

There had been rumouis in England of Ministerial 
obMDj^-a couiwqueut u[)oa the Ituasian anmunent But 
the only real resignation tliat ensued was that of the 
Ihike of LtJeds. Hia Grae«, in n highly honourable 
S{)irit, reeolvod, rather tlum cunsout to modify tho 
pulley recnmmniideil in his nwii oflirc, to throw up 
the SeaU. The place thus left vacant was supplied 
by transferring Lord Groiiville from the Home to the 
Foreign Depnrtmeut ; while Dundas, although still 
retaining the Pret^dency of i\u> luditi itoaid, was 
appointed Home Secretary. -His appoiutmont, how- 
ever, was regarded as only temporary. It was tlie 
wish of Pitt, to which he obtained the King's a'«ent, 
tliat Lord ComwallL^ ahoidd retniTi from India and 
become Ilome Secretary. The offer went out to 
Caleutta, but Lord Conmallis esplfimed in the first 
place tliat it was impossible for him to quit his post 
while the war with Tippoo coutuiut»d. Subsoqucutly 
it further appeared that Lord Comwallis, consdoua t^ 

> Uemoln of PftiU Jomt, vul. ii. p. 13T, «d. 1630. 

VOL. n. a 



Ciur. SV, 

nnd witliout any tioacheri>Ha design of either. Mr. 
Fox went no favtber tliftn to say, as he most rea- 
sonably might, when Mr. Adair took leave of him, " Well, 
if you are determined to go, send us all tho news." 

The Czarina, however, recoived Mr, Ailair with hijjit 
honours as the friend of Fox, and took iiiiius t*) cou- 
trast her demeauour to him with that to Mr. Faw- 
kener. She profesawl tliu Iiigliest re-jard for the great 
orator hi cous'-^'iuoiice of his ntt^i'iit ijouise ; and liaving 
obtaiui.4 hi« bust from Knglaud, jiUced it in a grillery 
of her pAlhoc betwceu tlioso of Demosthftnes and Cioeio. 

Ahromi, it l^ivanu? nwi'ssary fcir Ihn Priiasian Minis- 
U-Ts t<i follow the oomw of Enghmd. They iroiihl not 
IJCrsfiovere with effect in rc8i«tiug the i)rfitensio«8 of 
Russia on the side of Tiirki-y ; and tho Porte itself had 
no altcniatirc but to yield. It was agreed that the 
Czarina sliould rt-lain the fortress of Oekzakow, mid the 
territory between tho Boug and the Dniester ; the latter 
stream to bo honceforth tho limit hL'tween tho two 
impiros. The Proliniinaries of Pcaeo wore wgnml on 
tho 11th of Angtib't, and a Con^rens was appointitd tu bo 
hold ut Yorii^y for tho completion of the treaty. 

in Oetobor, and before tliispeiL(?e was finally adjusted, 
diud Prineo Potenikin, one of the most zcalons pro- 
nwtcurs of tho war. His nsceudeney with the- Euipresti 
bad rccontly deelined imder the inflnence of a 
younger rival. Ho was triivelling to Nicniayeff for 
change of air, in oompany with his niece the Oiunteas 
linuiisku, when he felt him»elf m ill that he dexired to 
ho Iift0(i from Uio carriaf^ and placed on the grass 
beneath n tree, and iberc — like the humblest wayfarer 
on tho rood-sidL — did this favourite of fortune expire. 




Chagrin and anxiety lutd coinbiuod to ruin his health 
with eicesses of the tal>Ic. " Hie luuul bruukfu^t &t 
this time wns a siaokcti goojio, with a largv quantity 
of wine and spirits, »ad iw dint-d in tho saino man- 
ner." So, at least, my* (he biof^phcr of Paul Jouns.' 
Paul Jonps hiuDHi'lf ul this tlmo was no longer in tho 
Guaaiau seirice. So ewrly ae April, 1789, ho had found 
it neoeesary to lenvo IVtersburg in disgrace tmdc-r a 
heavy pei-»onnl chttrgo ; and h« died at Paris in groat 
obscurity in July, 1792. 

There had been nimours in England of Ministerial 
changes conHeijneiit upon the Russian arntaiucut. But 
the only real resignation that ^tmicd wan that of tlic 
Duke of Leeds. His Grace, in a highly honourable 
spirit, reaolved, ratlier than consent to modi^ the 
policy reoonunended in liis own office, to tiirow np 
the Seals. The place thus left vficant wa« supplied 
by tmnsfurring Lord Grcuville &um tho Homo to the 
Foreign Dupartmeut ; while l>uuda«, although still 
retaining tlio Presidency of tho India Jtoard, was 
appointed Homo Secretary. Hix appointment, how- 
ever, was regarded as only temporary. It was tho 
wish of Pitt, to which he obtained the King's assent, 
that Lord Cornwullis should return from India and 
become Home Socrctaiy. Tho offer went out to 
Calcutta, but Lord Cuniwallis explained in the flrst 
place tlint it wiis im])0»<ible for him to quit his [rast 
while tho war with Tijipoo eojitinned. Subsequently 
it I'mthor appeared tbut Lord Cornwallis, conscious of 

■ Mcmdn of Puul Joiu.iv vi>). ii. p. 137, ed. 1B30. 
VOL. IL a 



CaAP. SV, 

his defifioncies as a debater, vraa UDwiUIng to accept 
auy l^rliamonlary office that should require specehe» 
on Lis part. And thus tlie appointment of Dimdas, 
tbougli provisional at first, vraa finsllf looked upon as 

Lonl Greuvillei as roistid to the Upper Houae and as 
placed ut tho Foreiga OlHce. Imd uow an ndeijuato 
and well-adnptod field for Lis eminent abilities. The 
Peers found in Mm a leader of whom they migiit l)W 
proud. They aploiowledged his constant appUfiiitiou to 
all the details of puhlie business. They listened with 
unvarying respect to his grave and well-poised, his 
Benteotious and sonorous elo(juenfte. At the Foreign 
OflSce lie showed at all times a lofty English tfpirit 
and a watchful jealousy of the national honour ; aud 
tlie despatohfls which ho efltcfully propnrcd vkk ox- 
colleiit Slate pupL<rs. As a politician, huivevor, ho had 
ono doHciency, which, in aprivato letter of a later period, 
he candidly avowed : " I am not competent to the m&- 
sageiacut of men. I never was so naturally, and toil 
ttoA ansicity moro aud moru unfit me for tt." ' 

At this time and for many years suhsequontly Lord 
GrotiYtllc was ou most coidiul and intimnto turms with 
Pitt. They troatod each other not only us Cabinet 
coUcaffucs. but tu) the near kinsmen that they were. 
That bond of kiiiamauship wan drawn still closer wlieo 
in Jtdy, 1792, Lord Grcnvillu married the Hon. Anno 
Pitt, only daughter of Lord Oamolford. At tho moment 

' Lsttn to Loti BuoklnBliun, <Iol«d Huoli 7, IS07. 




I am writing (snrty-eight vMire later) that laily still in 
lufwt lioLoured ol<l ag«> Riiirive*. 

In tho course of thi^ spring titcre was also some 
change in the leeacr ofRoe^ Of the two Seorelnrie^ of 
tho Treasury since 1784, Nr, Steele and Jlr. Uosp, tlie 
Cornuir hecamo Joint Ptt}'Buist«r, v, ilh tlie nuik of Privy 
Oouiioillor, and with tho Hon. DiuUoy Ryder, tho eldest 
eon of Irf)rd Hurrowby, for a ootleoguo. Ho was 
sueeoodi'ii in bis firat jMst hy Mr. CbarlcA Long, an 
attaciii-d friouil of Sfr. Pitt, and an oxcbilp&t man of 
business, who vas raised to the peerage in 1826 as 
Lord Ffimborougii, ainl who in hi» lalor years wiis lUx- 
tinguii^hcd by his kuonlodgc of Art. Sir. Kosu on the 
other hanil remained Secretary of the Treasury through 
tlie whute Hmt administration of 3I>. Pitt. 

At Uiti dose of June, and whih' Pitt was atitl de- 
tained in London, v/o find Wilbfrforco pay a visit at 
Burton Pynsent, and describe tlmt visit in his Diary. 
" June :tO. Gut to Pynsent at night Old I^ady Cliatliani 
a nobis autit}uity, very like Lady Han-iot, and the 
Pitt voice. — July 1. AtBnrton all day. Walke«l and 
talked with Eliot. Lady Chatham aaketl about Fox's 
speaking — ts much interested in politics. Seventy-five 
years iitd, and a very active min<l." 

Lady Cfaathaia, though at that time in retirement 
and old age, vraa indeed, as Lord Hscaiilay says, 
"a woman of cuostderablo abilities," She had been 
the main stay of her husband in sickness and sorrow. 
She had aasiated in unfolding tlio early promise of 
her son. I once aaked Sir Robert Peel whether ho 
could remember any other instance in modem history 

Q '1 




where a woman had almost equal reason to l>e proud in 
two reltttiona of lifo — of her sou and of her hiuband. 
Wlion next I saw Sir Robert, he told me that he had 
thought over the tiueation with care, and could produce 
no other inetance quite in point ainoe the days of 
Philip of Macedon. The neanist approach to it, ho 
eoid, would h& that of Mr. Pitt's own rival; since 
Mr. Fox would well sustain one half of tho parallel, | d 
bnt the first Lord HoIIniid, although a man of great I 
abilitieB, y/as wholly unequal to the first Lord Chatham, li 
Perhaps I may presume to add an aneedot*; which I 1] 
cived at nearly the same time from Laxly Chatham's t 
surviving grand-daughter, my aunt. Lady Urlsolda ', 

Here ia the inquiry which I addrensed to her :— 

"Grosvonorriftce, Fob. 1. 1850. ' 

"I have a favour to ask of you. My father 
once montionod to me a little anecdote of much in- 
terest which he hud heard fmri) you at a formtsr time, 
to the effect of Lady Chatham being ashed whetJier 
she thought her husband or her son the greater states- 
man, and of her having answered — certainly with 
excellent taslC' and judgment as a wife, however the 
comparison might be held by olhere — that there could 
be no doubt at all as to Lord Chatham being far the 
'Superior. Might I request of you to put down on paper 
exactly what you remember of this story, and (o let me 
hare it? I thiidi tliat a trait so curious ond »o ere* 
ditablo to tho person concenied ought to bo preserved 
iu the most authentic shape." 

Lady Grisolda answered me bb followfi : — 




*• Frimloy IVk, Fob. 8, 1850. 

" With roffpoct to tbo question you put to me 
concCTning what my gtandmother. Lady Chatliam. said 
nf tho ability of her htutbnnd, J did not consider it tut 
reliiting to his cbamcter as a Bt&tesmaii, but to his 
general talents. When I was nbout fifteen I was on 
a visit to Burton Pynsoiit, and one day lukod hor in 
rather a childish muuiicr, 'Which do you thitdi tho 
devereat, Grand]Mi|)a or Mr. Pitt? To which her 
answer waa. ' Your Grandpapa, without dDubt,' or BOmo 
equivivk-iit vxpresnioii. Her owb uudon<4uudiiig was so 
superior, lier judgment on this p<»nt carries great 

Li July, 1791, we find PiU — as ngual at ih« cIom 
of tho Sc!»on — turn his thoagbtH to Somenetshire. 
And, OS it chADcec], the King's residence at Weymouth 
during many weeks of this autumn enabled the Minister 
to i<ay not one yiiut only, but two, at Burton. 

Hftrt! ore his letters at tlmt time. 

« Mt dkab Mothkb. " Wimblodou. July 2. 1791. 

"I heartily wish I could gratify Mr. Reid in 
an object so interesting to him ; but I htno not yet 
been ablo to ascertain dearly in whoso recommendation 
the lirtng iu question is. I much fear it will prove to 
be in the Cluincclloi's. If it should bo in mine, I 
trust tlioro can be nothing to prevent my giving it 
as he wishes. I was not a little dimppointixt at 
being prevented from coming to you ut ti© time I 
exjiected, and the dieiappointment is not the less from 
drcumstouees hitherto having followed one another 
so at) to loavo me very nucertaiu when I may ba 



Ckap. Xf. 

at liberty. It is not impossible that I may find ten 
days or a fortnight before the end of this mouth, but 
08 yet I hariUy dare reckon upon it. We uro all 
snxioua Bpeetatora of the Btronge scene in France, 
and still in entire sospenBe as to the isstio of it, wilh 
rc«pcct tu tbo personal i«ituati»n of the King and 
Queec, and the fwra of their foture government. 
No material newa liaa arrived from thence vntbin these 
few days, and it ia very diffitrult, in such u 8t»t<.>, to 
haro any accoimtD on which we can rely for accuracy as 
to pai'tioidars. 

" The resolt of o«r own negotialionB on the Continent 
ia also stall nncertain. This situation makes the idle- 
ness of our holidays not quite eoinjiletc, but it allows 
time for exciitsioiii* during half the week eilhor to 
this pla(?e or Holwood, and tbo weather for some days 
luis nintie every bimr in the country delightful Have 
the giiodues3 to tell Eliot that I received liitt letter, 
and will write to him in a day or twa Atfectiouate 
compliments to Mrs. Sta[>leton, and love to Utt)e girl. 
"Ever, iny dear Mother, &c,, 

"W. Pitt." 

" Downing Stroot, July 21. 1791. 

"I am still in the samo state of suspense with 

regard to the events which are to decide whtm I may 

reckon on a tfliill(.'ient interval of holidays to roach 

' Btirton. It caimot, however, bo much longer before I 

' Bhall be able to judge. In the mean time I am enougli 

at liberty to m^dilate an exenrsion for a couple of days 

at iho end of this week into Dampshire, from whence I 

hope by stealth to get a view of tli<? Iloct, which is an 

object well worth aei-ing, and which I hopo after this 

summer there will not bo an opportunity of seeing again 

for some time." 




*• Uowning Street, Sept. 24, 1791. 
"My deabMotheb, 

" You will wondfiT to receive ft letter from me 
dAtcd bvia boucc, uii<l I writv UGrc-Iy tliut tlie news- 
papers may not give yon the first infommtiou of my 
Wrival, with wliatever may be their ingcaiovu spccula- 
tiuiu! on the ecfaeion of it. Tho ri-al cause iis u diffi- 
Jty of form re^ctmg the Duke of York's marriage, 
rhicli has been prtteijiitately fixed at JJerliu for next 
week, witliDUt wftiting for the regular agoifii-ation of 
the Council as required by tlw famous Marriage Art. 
We found it tho shortest way to come to town, in 
order to «xjic<lita tlie necessary forms as mucli aa 
poesiblo : but it is hUII doubtful whether unytblug 
we can do will be in time to make the marriage valiil, 
aud wliether the cereiuouy must not be performed 
again. I slmll stay no loiiKer than U nfwtHsiiry for 
tliiti biiMiues^, Olid tihull prubitbly bo ut ^^'eymolIth 
again on Tuesday or Wednesday, a very few days after 
wbich will bring mo to Burton. 

"Ever, my dew Mother, &&, 


" Downing Street. Oct, 4, 1T91. 

"I am veiy sorry the uen«papcr8 liave done so much 
honour to my gout. I had in fact just vnongh for a 
fow dfty.s to fui'iiish materials for a paragraph, but 
it V'iis very litlle iuconvouieuco while it lasted, and has 
left none behind it." 

The marriago of the Duko of York, to which Pitt 
in these letters refers, was solemnized at Berlin on 
the 29th of September. His bride was UiB Princess 


OF Pi 

Chu-, XT. 

Fiwlerioa, el^leat tlnughter of tlie King of PriisBia. 
'* Slic i« fiir ImmlBouie," wrik-a Lord MabnesbHrj", 
" Iiiit lively, seiisiljle, and very trachible ; and if only 
one tenth port uf the tittoclunent they now show for 
each other remaiiiB, it will be very suiBcieut io make a 
most hapjiy marring." ^ But from the evente of siibse- 
(jiient years it may be feure<l tliut even that tenth part 
did not remain. 

Passing to another Buhjert, 1 may observe tLat the 
papers of Mr. Pitt tend in many respect* to prove the 
nnsatia£fM!tory condition, at that time, of tlie Chiirch of 
England. There was then, es some of its best friends 
have owned, but too mncli ecope for the great and 
general impi-ovement which has since ensued. There 
was then, at least in some cases, a low tone of feeling, 
Kich &8 in the present day we Bhould dcom scarcely 
poesible. Here, for example, are some letters that passed 
between the Minister and tho Bishop of Lichfield and 
I Coventry, the brother of Earl Comwallis. 

" Sib, *' Wimpole Street, June 10, I7i)l, 

" After the various instances of neglect and con- 
tempt which Lord Cornwallis and I have experienced, 
not only in nolation of rejieated aHsuraiices, but of the 

j^Btfongest ties, it is impossible that I should not feel the 
iftte disftpiiointinitiit very (Iwi)Iy. 

" With rcspL'L't to tho pi-opomtl concerning Salisbury, 
I bare no hesitation iu saying that the Seo of Salisbury 
couuot be in any resju^ct an objc<^t to me. The only 

^•nBiigcniont whicli prumises an accommodation in my 
favour is tho promotion of the Bishop of Lincoln to 

' To tho Ttnke of Portluii], Cublenti:, Out. 11. 17»I. 


SaliBbury, which wonid o-mble you fo coofer the Deanery 
of St. Paul's upon mc. 

" I have the hoaour to bo, Ac., 


■ Downing Street, Satard«y nif^t, 
« My Lord, Jane 11, 1791. 

" On my roturn to town this aftemoon I found 
j-our Lordship's letter. I am wilUng to hope that on 
further oORBideration, and on recollecting till tho rir- 
cumstances, there are pcute of tluit letter which you 
wonid yonrself wish never to hiivo wiiUen. 

" My respect for yoiir Lordship's situation, and my 
regard for Lord Comwallis, prpvt^nt my saying more 
than that until that \<-iu-r U recalled, your Lurdfilup 
makett n.iiy ftirther intfruuursi> Ix'tween you and mo 
impo««ible. cj have the honour to be, Ac, 


"SiK, "Wimpote Street, June II, 17«1. 

" TTiider the very great <lisap)X)ir)lnir.-ut which I 
have foil npon the lato occasion, I am much roncc-med 
tliat I waa induced to make use of expreflKionss in my 
let1»!r to you of which 1 h«v(i since rept-ntf.'d. and which 
upon cuneidoratton I beg Icavo to retruct, and I liope 
that they will make nu unfavuuruble impression upon 
your mind. 

"Wliatevcr may be your tlioughta reBfieeting the 
subject matter of the letter. I txust that you will haro 
i\u>. ciiDdour to pardon thoee parta of it vhioh may ap< 
pear to be wantlDg in duo aud proper respect to you, 
and believe me to have the honour, &0., 

U 3 


Ckap. rr.- 

" Mt Lord, " Dawning Stre«t, Jnne 12, 1791. 

"I hare fliis niomiiig received tlic hocour of 
your LordaIiip'« li'tkir, datc-tl the 11th, ami have great 
satisfantioQ in being enablcrl to dismiss from my mind 
any iiHiirt-sriion ocodsioned Ity a paragraph iii the former 
letter which I rEfceived I'rom you. 

" With respect to any further axraugemerit, I ca« oiily 
«iy that I havo no n^ason to helieve that the Bishop of 
Liiieohi wonhl wish to riMnove to SiiliMbnry ; but ii' he 
were, I should certainly have no hesitation ui recom- 
mending your Lordaliij) for the Deanery of S(, Paul's. 
" I bave the honour to lie, &c^ 


It has Romctimos been allegi^'d tliat Mr, l*itt was not 
judicious in his Ecolesiasticul apptiiutments or prefer- 
ments. Perhiips iiidL'ed ni^ither Mr. Pitt nor yet nny 
other Minister in the reign of George the Third showed 
sufficient care to seek out or to call forth rising talents 
in the Church. But on the other hand there were 
many imtauces in which Pitt rejected the most jiowerfiil 
lOOOmmtiudAtiuns ruther than fail to reward an humble 
oourso of jwrish dutins. Here is one letter in proof 
which 1 select from a Intor yeur. It is addressed to the 
Earl of Carnarvon. 

"Mt Lord, " Downing Sti«et, Jan. 2], 1797. 

"I ought to make viiry many apologies for hav- 
ing in the successi'jii of business left your Lorrli^hip so 
long in suspense on the subject of the applioatious which 

* OnthaSOiofFeljnuiT, ITM. 
wc find the Bidutip of LichBekl i 

iinni;iuiici>il in tboOuietloM Dean 
of Durlmni. 




I hiul tlio honour of recpiving from yon relatire to the 
Living of Kewlmrj*. AUnw me to assnre yuu Ibut it 
would alTonl me very sincere Hitiafuotion if I felt mTsdf 
ftt liberty to bIiow my attention to yonr wishes, and os- 
pecially on an opcsBion when they are so iiatumlly vw 
titled to it. lint I trust you will allow for tli« druum- 
stauot"» wiu'cli [iroclndo mv from doing w, when I say 
that Mr. Itoe, a gentlfinan who has for some time 
officiated there, ha» on thot (ground bwn recoromendwl 
to mc with EUch jwculiar tcstimomt>); of liis exemplary 
conduct and of tho good eflV-ets produced by it in the 
town, that I slionld not feel j»8ti6cd in proponng any 
other [wrson to His Majesty in profisrcneo to him- I 
certainly should not on any less urgent gromid have 
hesitated to support your Ivordship's recommenidation. 
** I have the honour to he, &c., 

" W. Pirr." 

At the close of 1791 Mr. Pitt wrote as followa to the 
Archhinhop of Canterbury (Dr. John Moore sbce IIUS) : 

"My Lobd, " Downing Street, D«o. 16, 1791. 

" I took tho liberty of mcntjouiiig to your Grace 
not long siiiee that some suggoetionB had been brcjuglit 
undtT my view rcitpevting n general commutation tif 
Tithes for o Com Kent conformably to n plan which 
was adopted in the instance of two or throe jiarislies by 
gepnmtu KiteIo»<ure Hills in the course of the last Session. 
A paper has been drawn up at luy desire, stating shortly 
the principal considerations which seem to arise out of 
this proposiJ. and according to your Grace's permhisioa 
I have the honour of enclosmg it. 

I am verj' far from Tentnring to form a bedded 
opinion respecting iho jMJSsibility or expediency of a«y 
now arrangement, or the merits of thi« particular plun. 



Chip. XV., 

But tlie whole subject w^eine to me, ospt^cialiy at the 
present moment., to be of the most serious imporljince, 
and tliere are appearances which bnt too strongly inth- 
cate that it ia likely to be agitated in different parts of 
the country. 

"It seenae, therefore, very desirable that any pro- 
poBal whifh fiims at obviating the present complaints, 
and at the same time securing the interests of the 
Ohnrclt, should engage the early attention of those who 
wish well to the Establiahmenl, in order that they may 
be enabled to give a proper Hireetion t^o the linsiness, if 
it can be put into any practicable shape, or after liill 
examination to reaiat on the beat grounds anythuig of a 
mischievous tendency. With this view 1 felt anxious to 
submit tbia idea to your Grace's eonsideration. 

" If tJiere are any persons with whom your Gnw* 
may think proper to consult confidentially on any part 
of the business, I would beg that the communication 
with whir;h I have troubled yon may be understood to 
bo entirely a private one. 

" Possibly as tlie Archbishop of York is now at Bath, 
your Grace may have an oxipurtiuiity of convcrsinp with 
him and of showing him the papers, which I should ba 
very dedroas of his seeing. 

" I have the honour, &e„ 
" W. Pitt." 

I do not find tho Archbishop's reply among Mr. Pitt** ' 
papers. Siocot however, tb« measure in question wa^ | 
BO further pursued, it is plain that the answer mustill 
have been discouraginj;. All Gienda of the Church will, 
I think, join me in lumenUng the error of judgment 
tliat was here committed. Why sliould the general 
Commutation of Tithes — a measure accomplished with 






Each geneml assent and nidi exc«ll«at rosiilt iome forty 
years Inter — ^haTO been without mwessity, and ttirough 
maiiy serenes of etrife, laid aside whea a public-«^int«(I 
Minister proposed it? 

Most anxionsly through the nhole of 1791 did the 
uyes of Europe continue fixed on France. At the be* 
ginning of the year it was hoped that some main leaden 
of the Itevolution, alarmed at its excessea, might be 
fonnd both willing and able to restrain them. It was 
on Mirabean, above all. that such hope* depended. But 
hia untimely deatli. which occurred on the 2nd of April, 
left the vessel of the Stat« with no competent pilot, and 
driiting to the shoabt. 

Not many months elapsed ore the King, provoked 
beyond endonmce by almost daily insults and wrongs, 
determined to make an ufibrt for his dolivemnco. Ao 
companiod by tho Qiiu^iu and \m two children, and 

(bearing a passport under a fei^^cd name, he secretly set 
out frum Pitris uu the Slat of Juno, by no means de- 
signings as hia enemies have alleged, a restoration of tJie 
Ancien R^(jime, but rather the establishment, nnder 
better auspices, of a limited Ooastitutional Monarchy. 
Had lie succeeded in reaching tho frontier town 3[ont- 
medy, tbe destinies not of France only bat of Burope 
might probably have beeu changed. Uutmppily at 
Vareunea the features of Ixmis wore recognised by the 
post-master, Dronot ; tiic Ko^-al party was arrested and 
led back to Poriti i» mob triumph. Henceforth the 
King had little choice. In the month of September he 
aoceptod tlic new Conirtitution which tho Assembly had 
&amed, and took aa oath to its obsen'anve. Then, as 



Ceup. XV, 

had Ijeen prerionsly <letermi»e(l, the Assembly dissolved 
itself, as coiisideriug Us work completed, and making 
way for the new legislative budy. 

One effect of the troubles in France was a concert (rf 
measures between the Emperor Leopold and the King of 
Pniseia. The animoaity tliat once esiatod between them 
had now ceased, partly from the Convention of lUnehan- 
bach, which removed the causes of disputo, and partly 
from tbc retirement of Count Herfabei^; who of all 
the Pruaaan Miniators was the most averse to the Aos- 
trion cause, In the month of August tlio two Sovereigns 
mot at Pllnitz, a oountry pidace of tJie Elector of Sasony. 
Their main object was to confer on the nfiuirs of Poland, 
but they had iikowise begun to feel that the eanse of 
Monarchy itself might be imperilled by the issue of 
events at Parur. On thi* lagt point the Royal dehlKiro- 
[ttona were quickened by the arrival at Dresden of the 
'Comtv d'Arlwia and M. do Cnlonuc hi the name of the 
Emigrant party. The two Sovereigns agreed to publiHli 
tthe celebrated DecJai'ation of Pilnitz. In tliiit doci> 
'^ment it is stated tliat the situation of the i'^ing of 
Fianee v&s a matter of eommon interest, and tliat to 
set right that situation, even by force of arms, they 
would invoke the concert and assistance of the other 
European powers. 

lie^ides this open and avowed declaration, it waa 
immediately alleged by tlte leading Froncbmen on the 
Revohitioiiary side, that there were other and secret 
articles providing for the partition of France. But 
there appears to have been no just ground for such a 
charge. " As far as wo havu been able to truce," uaid 




Mr. Pitt, on a long subsequent occasion, "the RivUirR- 
tiuo of l^ilnitz referred to th<? imprisonnic-nt of Louk tbo 
Sixteenth. Its immediate view was tu effect li)8 deli- 
verunco, if a couecxt isufiSviently vxtttusiro could bo 
formed for tbut purpose. It Icll tbo interual stiito of 
Franco to be dvcidml by tlio K iug restored to lii» liberty, 
Willi tbo Iroo oousent of Ibe 8tttte8 of tbc kingdom, and 
it did not contain one word rclatirc to the ditonember- 
ment of France."* 

The Declaration of Pilaitz raiited to a high pitch the 
apirits of the Kmigranta. Tb«>ir obief mt», now rein- 
forced by the arrival of Mannieur, the KingV next 
brntlier, from France, held tlifiir councils at Coblentz, 
and set on foot negotiations with several other Poten- 
tateti. Doth the Empress of Itussis and the Eing of 
Sweden showed u strung dispoxitiou to take up arms in 
their cunsc. But when it ouuic to that positive i^ue, 
the prudenoo of Lcoi<oId, and his ahirm for Flundcn;, 
wore prouf ogaiiutt their violent counsels. Froderielc 
WiUium, in Ulco uuinner, wavered aiid drew back. 
Neither of thexo Sovereigns was iti truth willing to act 
without Englttnd. And though tlto jtorsoual wi«hoB of 
George tlio Tliird might bo with them, tlio Cabinet of 
London hud tVom tJie firiit eicpre^ed itself dotenuiucd 
to observe a strict neutrality. 

Thus, in its result, the fiunoiis Declaration of Pilnitz 
bore litUa or do fruit. And when a few weeks uStttr- 
wrtrds M. de Ctdonne, in tho name of the Htnigrant 
I'riuces at Coblentz, stated to the Court of London u 
pltui which they bad formed for the invasion of FntnoOf 

Speecli oT Feb. 3, IBOO. 




and for the effecting of a counter-IleTolation, mid wiicu 
he most earnestly imjilored the loan of threo or four 
hundred thousand pounds to assist them in that object, 
he met with a positive refusal on the part of Mr. Pitt.* 
In England the confliRt of opinions between the 
&iends of the French Revolution and its adversaries 
(27ew keener and keener. Unhappily they cam© to a 
violent issue at Birmingham, in the person of Dr. 
Priestley, who, since the recent death of Dr. Price, 
might be regarded 'as the leader of the Unitarians in 
England. Joseph Priestley was a man of coiiBideriiUe 
scientific as well as controversial fame. For a long 
period he had been the librarian and chosen friend of 
Lord Shelbume, The breach wlu'ch ensued between 
them has been ascribed to the increasing licence of his 
published specnlations. Oti leaving Bowood he hod 
fixed Ids residence and built his meeting-house at Bir- 
mingham, where ho was further known as an ardent ad* 
mircr of tlie Revolutionaty principles of France. He 
dengnvd, in ooujimctiou willi several other persons in 
1791, to celebrate tlie 14Ui of July, the anniversary of 
the taking of llie Bastille, by a public dinner. 

On the other hand, the people of Birmingham, for 

from concurring in his scntimentfi, either religious or 

political, were at that time staHcli for Church and 

King. They viewed the proposed cntertaimucut with 

Igreat disfavour, and they were further incensed by the 

[•ppearance, some days Ixtforiiliand, of a si-ditious liond- 

iiai inviting them to fiim-, and " tyrants to beware." It 

■was not known from wliom that hand-bill proceeded, but 

* Lifu b; fiulio]) Tomlinti, ml. uL p. MO. 




its nflections upon the Kin^j and tlie Purliainont WRre 
of i*i>(.'h a kiml, tliat a rewai-d of 1001. was offered for tlie 
detectioii of the Jiuthor and priutcr. 

TioIcDce like this (.-sllcd forth a moat luijiistiftnble 
reaction. When on the appointed day eom» eighty 
piTaniis (Priestley hiinsflf, howwvw, not lunong tht-m) 
rf|iiuri'd 1« the choBcn t^nurn to eat tlwar dinner and 
mako their speeches, they found the doors beset by an 
angry crowd, which received them with hisRing and 
yelling. TownrdR evening a riot began, Firat the 
windows of the inu were broken. 'ITien proceeding from 
outrage to outrage, the mob deaioli*tbed Dr. Prientley'ti 
and another meeting-house, as also the dwellings of 
Dr. Priestley and of several nf his Mends, both iu the 
town and neighbourhood. Drunkenness, as is almost 
inrariably the case in English riots, mingled laigoly 
with (leatruKtion ; and, in other cases, the rioters levied 
sums of money ns tho price of their forbearanfe. The 
magistrates were for some time unable to supprt-ss tlieao 
tumidts, and commencing as thoy did on the Tliureday, 
they continued at iiit<^'rv'iils until tho Sunday evening, 
when tJiTce troops of horse urrivml. 

Dr. l'rie«thiy, by«e dostruetiro outrages, lost not 
only his houf<L^hold furniture, hia valuable librtiTy and 
his philosophies! instruments, but also manuscripts 
wliich thu toil of bis remaining years might not suffice 
to restore. At the assizes, held in the enduing month, 
great pains were taken to bring the offenders to justice. 
There were fifteen jw^rsons apprehended, four wHivictcd, 
and thrco luuigi^d. Next spring the other persons, 
eleven in number, whose property had suffered most. 


brought actions for damngc? ngainst the neighbouring 
Hundreds ; and they reeovered, on the whole, in Wor- 
cesterahire 5,5041., and in Warwickshire 2l,ii}Gl. These 
Boms, large aa they appear, wore below the amount timt 
hoi been claimed ; and load complaints were heard 
o^tutt the " ignorant Juries " which allowed compen- 
sation only for such objects as chaii-a and tables, but 
not for maniiflcripta or philosophical instruments whose 
value tliey conld not understand. 

Nor were other reproachea wautingr against both the 
Magistrates and the Clergy of the Birmingham district. 
It was alleged that in their horror of Dissent, they bad 
some secret sympathy with the riots, and bad failed to 
show su6!ci(fDt heartiness, either in their euppres^on or 
their punishment. A charge of this kind is easily madew 
In tho cnKi4 bL-furu n^ it appears to me not in the least 

Dr. I'ricslley, though stx-uto from further sttucks or 
\oa9i'» in London, found cto« tlioro the nationul fifliug 
80 strong iigiiiuiH him, t)iat uJter no long inU^rral ho 
embarki'd for the United State*. As in Fianou tho 
Revolutionary lenders ascnbi'd every evil tlmt bofclt 
them to the villanous machination of Pitt, so did their 
frirauLi in England not scruple to declare that the Bir- 
mingliam riota had been purposely srirred up by tlie 
flame abominable statesman. Mr. Coleiidge, then one of 
that party, begins a sonnet a^ follows: — 

" Though, rousod by that dark ViKior. Riot nulo 
Ilavi- ilrivtw our PriuHlJc-y uVr tho oct'im bwoU, 
Though Snporstidon and hor wolfish brood 
Bay liiii mild miliaocKi " 





Tlie Bodgrt — Ecdnclioooflbw** — Pilfucn-nlSpeeohon tl»e8l»»* 
Tnulc — luipiovi'mciita iit tln» »duiiiii"lniti'jii "f tin* Uw — Pitt'» 
LoDD Dill ~ 0[tpotDd b; Tlimlow^Uu <iiimiuul fraiu offieo 
I — '■The Priciiil» of tbo I'ooplu" — Mi. Oii.j'ii iinlicn im Piirlla- 
DDDtoi? Keform — ]ti»i{»t(id b; Fttl — Vcnih at llw Empcnir 
old— AMtuMuntion of tho Eing «t Kwvdcu — Tbf Vmudt 
ua nar n(|>Iiu>t Auitrlii — titKlittaiu jiul/tlcutioD* — Ncgotiii- 
tioiu Willi llic Will;; party — Dciitti of lie Kitrl of fiiiilford — 
. Pitt ftppolntotl WftiJori of tlui Ciii<n«i I'mU — Inrnjilon at French 
lilcRHorf by Uio Pniwiam — Puiition of Poluod — Tiiu Allies do- 
'ftialpd at Valiuy — Botri.'Ht of tho Unku of BtiuiBwiek — Na- 
liotuiJ Oouvcntion — ViElor^ oT Dumouritas at Jumniu|K* — Bioti 
In KiigLuiJ utid t<o:itlaiul — ODUntur-<l4<inouiilrulioiu — I'cutvcaUon 
of Pniae — Lnrd Lougliboroogb Cliaiiuttlar — Elocution of Luuis 
tVI. — Tlio FrauoL ilucknt w&r uji^iUiiat Engluuil, Uvlbiid, and 

PaRliamekt mot again on Die last day of Januaty, 
17£^. It was opeii<;d l>y tlio I^>>ig <■) person. Bis 
Majesty began by aiiiK>iiiiciiig the bappy event of tbe 
marria^ of tbe Dokn of Yoric. lie promised the 
production of pnpeiB to explain tbe former negotiations 
ivith tbe Court of Petersburg. He expressed a conBdoot 
hope of the maiDtenance of peace, and as tbo bi;st pledge 
uf that coufideiic'c'. rccommoiidod an imniL-diato iWtiction 
in oiir navnl luid miliUiry c»t(iblii^buiont« and n propor- 
tionate ndit^f of tho puujilo from tlio ^T(^igllt of taxation. 
To submit tbosu nioommendattona in a more dcfinito 
ttha[>G, I*itt brought forwmrd hi^ Budget aa tlic fii^t 
busiacM of tho Seesion. The rereuue, ho said, bad. 


Lira OF PITT. 

Crap. XVI, 

been Constantly increftsing undor tbe inflaenpe of the 
imtiortal prosperity during tJie last few years. Its 
BTcnigo f<.ir Uie last four was 16,2U0,000i., or 400,000^. 
in «zceB8 of tha annu»l expenditure for the same 
period. Of tliis surplus hfi proposed to add 200,000?. 
yearly tfl the Sinking Fnnd, 'and to tako off taxes to 
the amount of the other DM»iety. The taxes which he 
proposed to i-epeal were the additioniJ tax upon malt 
laid on last year, and the imposts upim female sorviinls, 
carts and waggons, houBcs having less thjin sevea , 
windows, and the last half-penny por pound uponj 
candlea. He held out a moat encouraging prospect of 
Btill fnrther relief from ths repeal of taxes within the 
next fifteen years; "for although," said he, "wo must 
not count with certainty on the continuance of our 
present prosperity during hucIi an interval, yet tmquea- 
tionably there never was a time in the liintory of this 
country when from the situation of Europe we might 
more reaaonahly expect iifteon years of peace than we 
may st the present moment." ' 

Proceeding on this conviction, Pitt asked the Houbq 
Ivote only 16,000 seamen, being 2,000 less than last 
year. A» to the land-forces, ho proposed not to ronoi 
but on tho contrary allow to cxpirii the 8ub8idiai 
treaty with Ilesse. By this and by aomo other saTing 
which ho explained, he trusted to reduce the cost 
the military establiahments by 200,000?, a-year. 

From these reductions and from the prophecy of 
peace which he bad hazarded, it is plain liow firmly 
the Prime Minister was set against any interferenco 

' Pul. Hi>L vol. nix. p. 32G. 



with FraiK^e. So Li'd-h was then tho public credit tJmt 
at the beginning of the yoar Pitt intended to pnipata 
a reduction of the Fonr per Centa. to Three-aftd-a-Half 
per Centa. The draft of a Bill for that purpoeie was 
found among hia papers. But on further consideration 
he rusolved to defer tJie roeasura until the next 
Session, wfaoQ he hoped to be able to reduce these 
fund!) to Thrf« per Cents. Little did he think what 
that Lest SuKiion would bring forth, and that not only 
DUiny ycnrs but U-as of years would |wae ore any oppor- 
tunity for reduction would rtMWCur. 

Ill \m i^piifch on the Budget this year — one of the 
gTVtttest and mo«t comprehensive Snancial etatcmenta 
that ho ever madu — it is iftriking to £nd tho I*rime 
Mint»t4;r tiscribo tho merit of his system in no small 
dt'greo lo the author of tho 'Wealth of Nations'— "an 
author," Boid l*itt, "now uuhupiiily no mor«; whoso 
extensive knowledge of detail and depth of pliiloBO- 
phical research will, I bolieTe, funiiflh tho best solution 
to eviiry question connected with tho hi«toty of ciHa- 
merce or with the systems of political economy." 

The financial policy of Pitt had been crowned with 
so much sDceeaa in the past^ uid seemed so full of 
promise for the future, as to leave little room for 
objection to Fox and Fox's friends. They hoped to 
succeed better on the production of the Ockziikow 
papers. Upon these a direct motion of ceusuru of the 
Govenunent was founded by Mr. WliitbreHi.L Tho 
debate was continued with greiit Tchoniencu and fiin- 
^BT ability for two nights. Bnt it soon a]i[)Ciu\'d 
tluit the sanio gentlemen who Iind been willing to roto 
with thu Oppoeitiou in the preceding year uu puriiose 




to AToid ft war, weio hy no lu^aTui iiiiJined to repeat 
that voto wbei-e the objoot van only to dUplace a 
Minister. Tims iu the divinion Fox found no increase 
to his alrearly (Jiniiiiished and atill diminishing forces. 

The fJebatft which thus concluded is chiefly memor- 
able — and will bo so to the latest ages — from Fox's 
own share in it Ilia speeuh upon the Itusuan arma- 
ment on the Ist of March, 17i)2, hiw boen ranked by 1 
best judges with that on the Wostminater yurutiiiy in" 
17S5 and that on the Froudi urmameut in 1S03, as 
tlie three biglivst cfTurt^ that bin admirable powers of 
oratory ever achioved- 

In that dixciutsiuu there alao took part — and it was 
the firet time tliat he spoke in Parliurncnt— a very 
young man, llr. Itttliprt Banks Ji-nkiiisou, the eldest 
3on of Lord ilaffkoslmiy ; lq after yeai-8 1'rinie Sliuislcr 
and Earl of Liverpool. In closing the debate- that 
evening, Mr. Pitt took occasion to pay a high and 
just compliment to that apeech, "as a specimen of 
door eloquence, strong sense, justness of reasoning, and 
DXtomiive knowledges" 

On one question of great importancu the oratory of 
botli Pitt and Fox even though combined could not 
provuil. This was tlie immediato abolition »f tho 
Slave Tnule, for which on the lind of April 3Ir. Wilbor- 
force moved. There was no longer any direct opposi- 
tion. Tlmt, if not coDscience, decency forbade. Botli 
Mr. JeiilcibBonand Mr. Dundas acknowledged tlie Slave 
Trade to be indefensible. Yet each in different ways 
sought to vlutle the proposal before them. ^{t. Jen- 
kinsnn said titat he (lenired to render the Slave Trade 
unnecessary by a progressive improvement iu the 



tXH^nent of die davoR, aod hy thoir comioqiiently 
more prolil^n marrisgisi. He liail fmiiied some R*r:sa- 
liitioDs with that viev, for which 87 Members vot«il. 
But far ^eatcr fovoar attended Uie more moderate 
luotion of Mr. Dmidas that the word "gradtuiUy" 
should be insertoth Both the Prime Minister and tho 
chief of his opponents stood up warmly for the origiiuil 
words : aud tho speech of Pitt on lliis 'occasion is re- 
garditd as one of tlio very greatest that he erer miidc. 
Only a few hours oftorwarda Wilberforoo wioto a^ fol- 
lows to a frieud : " I take up my pen to inform you that 
after a very long deUtte (we did not ecpatatu till ucjir 
Btiveu this moruing), my motion for imtncdiAto abolition 
was put by, thongh «uppi>rtpd 8ti«uuou»ly by Mr. Fox, 
uud by Mr. Pitt witli morn cnot^ aud ability than ^Tcre 
almost eyer exerted in tlie Home of ('omnKiiiti. Wind* 
bam, who has no love for Pilt, tells me that Fox and 
Orey, with whom he walked home after tiw debate, 
agreed witli him in thinking Pitt's speech one of tho 
most extraordinary diqiliLvs of olutjuence they had ever 
heard ; fur tJio ]a»t twenty minutes he really Hoem^i to 
bo inspired. .... Ho was dilating upon the future 
proBpccta of civitixing Africa, n topic which 1 had sng- 
gcstod to him in Uio morning." 

Here (ire iiome extracts, though abridged, of tli» justly 
oelcbratt^ peroration : — " There was a timc^ Sir, when 
tho very practice of the Slave Trade prevailed among 
U8. iiJiAVCfl, m we may read in Henry's 'Ilisl'iry of 
Groat Britain,' were formerly an established orliclo in 
our exports. ' Great numbers,' he says, ' were iixportcd 
like cattle &om the Britisli coast, and were to be soen 



Chu>. XTL 

exposed for sulo in the Itoman market' But it is the 
shivery lu Afrim which is now called ou to furniMli the 
allegod proofi) tluit A&icii htbours under a lULtural 
ineapaeity for oivilizaticm ; tluit Providoiice never 
iiitvudwcl her to ri»e aliove a statu of bflrbariani ; that 
Providejice Uas irrecovttruhly d<ximed her to be only 
a uiu'»ery for slares for us free and civilized European)!. 
Allow (if this principle as applied to Africa, and I 
should be glad to laiow why it might not hIbo liavo 
been applied to ajicient and uncivilized Britain? Why 
might not 8omp Ronmn Si-utitor, reasijniiig on the prin- 
ciples of some Hcu. gentleiufu, and pointing to Briliah 
barbarians, have preilictwl with equal boldueas, • There 
is a people that will never rise to civilization ; there is 
a people destined never to be tree'? We, Sir, liavc 
long since eniergi^d IVuiii barbarism ; we have almost 
forgotten that we were ouco barbarians. There i«, 
indeed, one thing wajiting to complete the contnut 
and to clear na altogether from the iniputatiou of 
oetJug (*ven to this hour as harbariane ; fur wo oon- 
tinae even to this hour a barbnroufl traffic in ntave^. 

"Sir, 1 trust we shall no longer coiitintio thiti com- 
meree, to the destruction of every impi-ovement on that 
wide continent; and i<hnll not eon.-iider oitr8eIv<.-ii as 
conferring loo great a boon in I'estoriug it» iuhabitanta ' 
to the rank of human bdnga. I trust we shall not 
think oiiraelvee too liberal, if, by abolishing tlie slavo 
trade, we give them the same common chance of civili- 
zation with other parts of the world ; and that we shall 
now tdlow to Africa tha opportunity — the hope — the 
prospect of attaining to the sumo blessings which we 




ourselves, through the fevourabla diapen^ations ©f Di- 
vine Providence, have been permitted, at a much more 
early period, to enjoy. If we listen to the voice of rea- 
son and duty, and pursue this night the line of conduct 
which they jiresoiibe. some of us may live to see a re- 
verse of that picture from wliich we novr turn our eyes 
with t;hu,mc and regret. AVo may live to behold tho 
natives of Afirica eugaged in the calm occupations of 
industry, in the pursuits of a just uu<l legitimate com- 
merce. We tuny behold tho beams of scivnco and phi- 
losophy breakiug io upou thuir hind, which, at some 
happy period in still lut^-r times, may bluze with full 
lustre ; and joiiiiug their iufkicucu to lluit of ]>uru reli- 
gion, may illuminHtc and iiivijromt^ tite most ili^luut 
extremities of thut iiiimeiiso contincut. Then may \r« 
hopo tlint cvEin Africii, Uiough \mt of all tlie quarteK uf 
the globe, shall enjoy at lengtli, in the evening of her 
day*, those blessinga which liave descended so plenti- 
fully tipou us in a much earlier period of the world. 
Then also will Europe, participating in her imiin>vi> 
meut and pro^rity, receive an ample recompeuso lor 
the tardy kindness, if kindness it ran bo called, of no 
longer hindoriug Duit continunt from extricating herself 
out of the darkness which, in other more fortunate re- 
gions, has beun to much moro Hpt-odily dispdlod. 

' Nos . . . prfmiui uquis Oriens afflavit anhelis ; 
Jllic nam nibuiui acoeudil lumina Vesper.' " 

I have heard it related by some who at Uiat time 
were Members of Ptirliiuuent, that the fiist beams of 
VOL. 11, a 



Ciur. XVT. 

t&e rising siin shot tliroiigh iho winrlnws of the HoiiMt ■ 
in the mirlst of ttiis fiDal ]ififesflgi>, ftnd eeemei!, as Pitt 
looked upwftni*, to suggest to liini without premeditn* 
tion the elotjiient eimilo and the nfl)>l6 Latin lines with 
whicli he concIudefL 

Biitiill this atid niuph more was in vain. Dividing nt 
near seven in the moniing, the Hotuo adopted tlie " gra- 
dually " nf Mr. Dundas by 103 against 12.'). Tlie result 
of the whole was, therefore, a long and weary poet- 
ponetnent. For this result besides tho strength and 
the exertions of the West In<Iia plantrare there or© two 
other main canses to ho asBigned. First, tJie warning, 
as was supposed, held out by tlie recent bloody scenes 
in St, Domingo ; and next, the strong ohjections. now 
coming to he generally known, of the King. 

In this SesBitjn tha Legisliturp, to its liononr, iichiovod 
two grt-ftt iniprovenients in tJie ftdmtiiistratioti of tha 
Jaw. Th« duty of a Magistrate in Middlesex lind bcrama 
very different from the duty of a Miigistralo in othor 
counties. It had gi'own so irksome and laborioiw that 
few gentlemen of property and diaracter were foiuid 
willing to undertake it without emolument. Thus it 
had fallen into Iho hands of inferior persons who acted 
in tlio expectation of foes, and wore known hy tho 
name of " trading justices." To remedy Hie com- 
])laints which thoy justly proroked, a Bill was now 
introduced under tho sanction of the Government 
onubling the King to establish seven puhlic offices for 
tlie mbninistrutiun of justice in different partji of 
London, tho City cxccpti;<], and to apfmint throo 
Jlagistratea to each of them at stiittd sulariea. These 
Slagistrates were to employ a limited uumbor of cou. 



stiblea, who Rhoiild h«TO power to appmlipiid reputed 
thieves. 'J'lio »ica*mro iu iU prujfrt;** wb» warmljr 
withstood liy Fox, who olijected first thiit th« influenco 
of the Crown woiiM be i»crea»(.-J by the appointmont 
of Ma^iittratoB with ftalaricii, anil iiost that uiulur tJm 
vague tfirra of reputed thieves the liberty of the sul'jcct 
might b>> invaded. NevertholeAK, the meaaoro pHSscd, 
but as a mere experiment, to remain in force only lor 
folic years, ot tho end of which term it was witli very 
general aaseut ns-ciuMited. 

The second and far greater improvement achieved 
tliia year in legislation was from tJie renewal of Fox's 
Jiibel BilL It was supported by Pitt, and passed the 
Commons with uiuo. But iu the Lords it had to eo- 
counter the hostility of Tburlow. At first his hostility 
WM in some nuiwurc dis-somhled. Ho took refuge in 
tlu! mivins which in his pn>fession eJ'o termed "dilatory 
pleas." He wait anxious to consnlt tlie Judges ; he wits 
luuuoim to deliberate more fully. At length when after 
long delays tlie Second Iteading rami^ he endeavoured 
to tlirow out the liill, combining for lliat ot>jt>ct with 
Lord Uftthnret, Iiia predecessor on the Woolsac)^ and 
Lord Koiyou, his friend the Cliief Jostice. Chi the 
other hand the Second Beading was moved by tho ve- 
nerable CamileD, still tliu l^rL-sidcijit of tho Coimcil. Ho 
now almost founcore, auil buwwl bouvsth lliu in* 
frmities of ago ; but as ho spoke, leauing on his tttaff, 
maintaining to the Uuit those: rights of Juries wbicli he 
had so constantly defended, his [lugging g\nnt seumud 
to rerivB and his former oloqucuce to kindlo. 

lias debate, which biigiui on tho lUlU of Slay, wa« 

n 2 ' 



Cbap. SVt. 

coiic'luclod on tlic 21 »t. when the Bill WM parried by a 
mnjtirity of 57 votes nrjainst 32. " Fox tind Pitt," says 
Lord Miicatday, " aro fairly ciititU-d to dividp the lugli 
honour of Laving uddod to our Statuti'-Book the inesti- 
mable law which pliicc-K llio liborly of the Preas imdor 
the protection of juries." 

On the day when this debate commenced, Thurlow 
was fram other circumstances in the very crisis of his 
MiniNterial fate. We have alrca<Iy seen how irowHrd 
and r(-si'oirul his conduct lo Pitt had grown. It dofis 
not appear that ho had or oould havo any nettled plan 
to join oi' tn form any other Govornnicnt tlian Mr, I*itt's. 
But while indulging to the ntjiiost his jealous spleen, 
he reckoned on the contiiiui^d favour and forgiveness of 
the King. 

In the pwsont Sefwion it had been part of Pitt's 
financial policy to frame u Bill in respect to fiitum 
loHJ)8. Ho dcBircd for the sake of the public credit 
to enact tJmt in borrowing hereafter, one per cent, 
besiiles the divtdi-nd» iijion the new Stock shouhl bo 
paid to tJie Coiuniisntoneri* for the Kcduction of tho 
National Debt, so that every n«w (nan might be ac- 
companied by ita own .Sinking Fund. The. Bill for this 
object ]iassed the CominoTis without difllculty. In 
the Ltirdx there was nn notice either in publie or in 
private of any objection on the part of Thiirlow. 
Suddenly, the Bill being in Committee, on the 1.5th of 
May the (.'hahcellur started up and ridiculed tlie idea 
of binding n future Minister by the dircctioiis of 
the present Parliament. " In short." Baid ho, " tlio 
Bcheme is nugatory and impracticable; the inaptncss 



nf the project is equal to tLo vanity of the attempt." 
And finnlly oalling furn division in a thin Uotuw!, tlie 
<'laii»<e iu nih-Hti<iii vas coiricd by u nuijarity oS ouly 
Being immediately nppriwd of these proceedings iu 
ItoHso of Lonis, tlie King wrote tiw i«ain(» evcjiing 
Mr. Pitt, Btrongly contWinning tho fouduct of tho 
Chancellor, yot still lioping Ihnt ai> ciitin; bn-uch 
would ha avoided. Rut thtt bounds of cndntUDce had 
Ijeew far outst^-pped. Next moniing Mr. Pitt wrote to 
the King in moet decided terms, and at the same time 
Annoimced to Lard Tburlow ia the following leUer tlie 
course which lie bad felt it bis duty to pursue. 

" Downing Stirct, Wednesday, 
" Mv LoiiD, May 16, 1792. 

"I think it right to take the earliest op{<orttuiity 
of acquaintini:; your Ijurdiiihip thut beiiijL; convinced of 
the impossibility of His Jlajesty'e service l)cing any 
loiijrer carried mi Ut advautwgo wbiio your Lordship 
and iiiyHi'If butli rcniaio in our present Eituatii)ii«, I 
have felt it my duty tn submit tliat opinion Ui Ilia 
Slajesty, humbly refincsting His Miijosty's determiiMi- 
tion tberQupoQ, 

"I have the honoTir, Ac., 


The King'x decision was promptly taken, Ou tho 
same day be uddrcswil tit Mr. Secretiuy ]>uiidiM the 
following lutU-r, wiuclt I have found Aiuotig the pupcis 
of Mr. Uuiidas of Arniston, 


llfE OK PITT. 

Cbap. XVT. 

"Quceii's House, May 16, I7fi2, 
40 m. past 6, p.m. 

*' From tlte sorrow T feel ut lulling: up my pen 
to direct Sir. Bundiie to ivait on the I^ord Chnucelinr, I 
ean easily conceive how nnpleasaut the convtsyingl 
the following nipssnge must Iw. 

" Mr. DiUKlaii is to acquaint t.lio Lord Chimcnllor 
that Mr. Pitt has this liay stated the impossibility 
of his sitting luiy longer in Coiuicil with tho Ixinl 
Chnnccllor: it remaiuB therefore for my deoisiou whieh 
of the two shall retire fi'om my service. The Chan- 
cellor'i* owu pt'uetmtion must convince him that how- 
ever strong my personal regard, nay affection, is ior 
him, that I mu^t feel the removal of Mr. Pitt impni»>i[>l<t 
with the good of my service. I wish therefore that the 
Great Seal may be delivered to me at the time moat 
agreeable to the Loril Cliancellor, and least ineon- 
veiiioiit to either the hiisiiiesfl of tlio Hoiiso of Lords 
or Court of Chancory. Perhaps tho Long Vacation 
might be the time most proper; but of this the Lord 
Chancellor must he the best judge. " GiJOIKiB R." 

In lliia manner fell the arrogunt Thnrlow, a victim of 
his own arroguiioo, without support from any ono 
of his colloagiies, without sympathy from any oection of 
.the people. Wc are tohl that bin complaints wcro 
lowd, though mirely most uureusunable, of tlie in- 
gratitude and fiiitlili-ssjinsi* of I'rinceH. He was allowed 
to remain in offico a tfv/ weeks longt^r to give judgment 
in aome causca which he hod nlrcady heard. Hut 
immediately after tfie Prorogation ho was directed 
to repair lo Ht. James's Palace and give back to the 
King the Great Seal, whicli wiw forthwith placed in 





the hands of tlir^ CnmmisAi<»>er8. Thurlow received, 
however, a porting fevour fmia his Suvereigii — a new 
puteut of peerage, with reiiminder to hiti nephen^ 
Of his own lie liail only illegitimate children. 

Am<mg those who in Etigland bjul Luclineid to 
8ch(>iucs of Parliamentary Eef<vnu, tiie greikt majority 
wtu) alienated and akrmed by tlin progrraa of eveata in 
France. On the minority those events produced an 
opposite effect, and thus, as woft often .occurs ia 
8uch cases, the Itef'onners inen>ased in vehcmoDeo 
precisely as they diiuiuUhed in naniborik Ouring 
this winter there was formed in London an nssociatton 
of about one hundred persons, comprisbg twenty- 
eight Slembers of Parliament, and calling themselves 
tho Triends of the People." Fox himself did not 
belong to litis new body, but his mijst intimate friends 
were among its founden. There wuro Grey, Slmridwi. 
and Juiiiiis J^rd Maitland, who, bom in 1759, Iwd 
Biwceeded his father in 1789 as Koi) of Lauderdale, 
and was now the pnnci]uil spokesman of Fox in the 
House of Lords. " For my part," writes tho King, 
" I cannot hog any substantial difference in their being 
joined in debatu by Hr. Fox and his not being a 
memhor of that Society." They issued an Address 
declaring their aim to bo a more equal system of 
representation, and passed a Resolution calling <m Mr. 
Grey to intruduco tho <}itestion in the enming year. 
Mr. Groy accordingly guvo notice in the llouse of 
Commons tliut in tho course of the next Scadon he 
would bring furvrurd a motion in favour of Parlia- 
mentaiy lieform. Even the mere notice gave rise to a 



keen deliate. The subject, it was thought, would 
prnve embarraHaing to Mr. Pitt; bat he delivered 
bis sentiiiienta upon it candidly and clearly. "I retain 
my opinion," he said, •' of the propriety of a Iteform 
in Parliament, if it could be obtaineil without mischief 
or danger. But I confess I am not sanguine enough to 
hope that a Iteform at this time can safely be at- 
tempted At tliis time, and on this subject, 

every rational man has two things to consider. These 
are the probability of success, and the risk to be ruu by 
the attempt. Looking at it in both views, 1 see 
nothing but disconriigcmcut. 1 sco no clumco of 
succeeding in the attL>m]>t in the first phicc; and I 
sei! grcut danger of u.nwrcby nufi coiifasion in the wc()nd." 
Tlii* dcbati' toiik place on Mn' last day of April, at iho 
threshold of serious public tlniigere, and when upon tbo 
Continent iit least a war had already begun. Enger 
as wpi-e the Fmigrantfl and the Sovereigns in coiiiiiiuni> 
cation witli them to march against Revolutionary 
France, there was mi equal eagerness for conSiot on the 
|»art of the, Jacobin chiefs. They bad complained to the 
Court of Vienna of the prusence of the Koiigiimts near 
their frontier, and were incensed at not receiving the fiiU 
satisfaction tliey demanded. But above all the Jacobin 
leaders »iiw that a tinilliot would give tliuni the best 
chance to prevail in Uicir ultimate ends — to overthrow 
the established Monarchy and religion of t'rance — and 
to -set up a levelling republic. Otliere, siieh an Goocral 
Dnmouriez, might bo less keen for internal obangCK, btit 
looked forwar<l, as tlioy justly niiglit., to personal 
tlistinclioQ tu a foreign war, War then became a 




favourite cry with tlie Clults at Paris — war above all 
against Li-i)]»ol(l tt8 tlit- liroUier df ]\[ario Antoinette 

yufh heinff ulroady tlie tamper, for the most part, 
of the ruling men in Fraotie, thape occurred in tho 
mouth of Slarvli two t'vont« that tended Ktill furllic-r 
to flate thou. Tho EuijKTor Loujiold diud at Viuiiiia 
in tiie priiiio of Iif« atid aft«r only a few hours* illue»». 
His eldest son Kiancis hucntne Kin;; of Hungary and 
Bohemia, and, before lii8 (Aiwcr was yot established 
or his election na Kmperor i<ecuretl, might seem a 
far less fonnidahlij enemy. 

Of all the Sovereigns at that pariod, Gustavns of 
Sweden was by fax the must ardent and active in his 
«(«! H;i;uinst tho French Revolution. lie waa fully 
proparr.'d to put himBelf at tho head of an inniding 
army whvn liis uoreor was cut tthort by tho rettentcnvnt 
\\c hud provolcod at homo. In the niid^t ofniaatked 
bull ho roooivcd a mortal wound. A pistol-sliot struck 
him from tho baud of AnkarsLmin, until ruo»ntly a 
captain in his urmy. It may servo to show tho feiilings 
of tho time among the Jm^ubina at Pari» that th(-y 
loudly oxtoUud this assu^ination u£ a nobiL- and jjraise- 
wurthy d<:cd, anil that tlio buiit of the ii«sasain was 
placed in the hall of their mL-eting, side by «de with 

Tilt' King of Sweden w«« suoceedcd by his only son 
GuslaviH the Fourth, who was not yet of age; nnd 
hia brother, Uie Dnke of Sntlerniania, who undertook 
the Regency, immediately renounced nil aggrcssiro 
schemes. Kxultiiig at tho secession of 8\vcdcn, and 
still moro at the bluw wliicU bad produced it, tho 



Chip. XTT. 

French nilers mslioil Kc«<ilnng into hostilities with 
Aiistiift. The ill-fiit«<l Louis was indiiretl himself to 
recommend that course iu a speech to the Asserubiy; 
and, on the 20th of April actonlingly, the Assembly, 
in virtue of those Boverdgn rights which it Imd 
usurjjt-d, iHBiied a IVflaration of Wtir against (he King 
of Himyftiy and Unhemia. The King of Prussia was 
not mentioned, yet he had already announced, tlirough 
his envoy at Pflria, liis determination to nutko common 
cause with (he Empire if attacked. 

It was by no means upon fleets and armies that Iho 
chiefs of the French Revolution mainly at this time 
relied. They hnilt far higher hopea on the discontents 
and insiirrectinna which they hoped to stir np in otlier 
countries as they had alrearly in their own. "Our 
maxim ia a clear one," said Merlin do Tliionvillo, a 
Bhort time afterwards: "war with Kings and pcacBi 
with nations," " To those Inst," cried another patriot, 
" wu must oDer one plain choiw^ — La FraUamite 
PM la MorC." It was tho old Mahometan option — the 
Koran or the aword. 

Nor did they hy iiny nn>an8 confine their ffforts to 
those nations with whose Kings they were already at 
strifo. As pcgardod England, a whole host of traet« 
and hnndliills, paragraphs and prunphk-ts, was. within 
a few weeks, poured forth by the English prens. Mort 
of them seem to have been framed in eoiiformity with 
the examples set at Paris, and circulated by the agency 
of two politieal Societies in London. 

The first of tJiese Societies was newly formed, and 
bore the jiame of the " London Correspojiding Society." 




It vras computed at n later period to Lave about 6(100 
memliors, nearly aU of lh« lowor raiUun. But it was 
absolutely goveraed by a Keoret C'ointnilb>c of only five 
or ax, whose names were not madu koown to the 
Socioty at large.' 

The Heoosd body, mucii lesB niimcroiut and mtKb 
less fonoidHble, was called the " Soeioty I'or Ci^nslitu- 
tiooal Information." "This," said Lord Chief Justice 
EjTe, " seema to me tn be a mere club." * It bud be<.'n 
founded some time sinRs by Major Jobn Carlwripbt, a 
gentleman of gieat zeal in the cause of Porliniru^ntury 
Iteform. It waa not led by secret nileis Dor did it ruly 
on illiterate force, bnt bad among its membcn many 
persons of education and accomplishments, as Johu 
Home Tooko and Capcl Lo0t, Kicbard Sbarpe and 
Tlioma« Holcroft, not all of whom, howevor, continued 
to attt'nd tlio snlisequi-jit meetings. 

But, whotcYcjr might be tho ongin of tlie pablj- 
catiouK a1 this poriod, tbeir object was always the 
samv. I'hcy app(;ared to have no other view tban 
the incitement to tumult and Hxlition. AU KingH were 
represented as tyrants ; all Mini«ters a» venal and etw- 
nipt ; and all priests aa hypocrites ; while every kind of 
rule and subjection was denounced us slavery. Frequent 
Iti'inpts were made to distribute writings of thut lund 
uioiig the British soldiL^r^ or the Itritish nailor*.* And 
as to the other closaos, the rick were held forth tia tho 

■ Seetl^eikccdimtnftlibBooIo^ 
U given in tTUf b)r Kir John Mit- 

fiinI,UiunSulieitur-Uuii('tnl. (Row- 
cll'sSbili) TtiuJ*. vul. MV, ji, «T.) 


* Hcv va this point t>m Speech 
of Lord OrenvUH May 81, ITDS, 




oatnrul cnomii-s of the poor, who wore coiifiec[nenlly 
mrg(!d to riet! unci cust off their (-Imiiii^ hi the srinie 
8]>irit and at ihc tuimo [iL-riod did Tliouiiti* Pniiic seiid 
forth llia socond ptirt of hiB " liif;ht« ol Jf ftw." 

So oiitmgooiM were thi'ao pultlicatious, and more 
eBpcoiiiUy this lust, that. Mr. Pitt f.'lt il his dnty to 
(idvioe an author! tjitivo 9t(']i against them. Ob the 
2Ut of Miiy thoTf! appt-apt^d a Royal Proclamation 

r"8olemidy warning all oiir loving subjects" againirt 

'** divers wicked and Heditimia writings." 

The remilt of theso writings, Itowcver, was not 
wholly for evil JIany men might be stirrod and 
incited to spdition, but many others wert- Bhoi-kcd luid 
terrified, and rallied round the trovcmmeot. Many 
oaa who, though not disngrccing with Borke, hftd 
hitliorto looked coldly on liis efforts to stem ilie Revo- 
liitioiiiiry 1iiiii-iit, flJid regarded him mainly in the light 
of a dicltirher to th(?ir party polilici*. nuw for the first 
timt^ fult — or for tlie llrst tiinb mouifeHtod — sympathy 
with his opinions. So well known, indefld, wore their 
just and juitriotic alarms, that, her()re tlie Prochimation 
was isimod, Mr. Pitt sent a copy of it to sereral 
Members of tlie Oj)po8ition in both IIouBea, and ra- 
questcd their iidvi«> and luwistanco.' Do wislied some 
of theiM3 gentlL-meii to inori^ itiiil second the Address 
in reply ; but this, though they cxprut^ud their appro- 
bation, they dbclluod to do. 
This widi-ning achiiim in tlie Opposition ranks waa 

• Coiupimi Ixiril Malmwibiiry'it I Tomlinea Lifo of Pitt, »ul, lii, p. 
Di(iryotJiuKii:J.17[i:!,wil)il««Uop | 31T. 




pkinly nhovm s fow ilays aftervranle, when Pepper 
jVrdcn, tliv.n Mairtcr of lltu Holli;, movt^ na Addreiis to 
tht> King iu thf.' Uuiieu of Conimuus, llniuking Iiim fur 
his ituyal Fruolumatioii, and lUiSuring him of tb«.-ir 
warm eupiKirt. Fux and Gruy s|)uk6 witb f^-nt T«hc- 
meuce agiiinst llie ProcIain«tion ; tlio lattor adtiiiig 
noma bitkT pfcreouiil inveiitivos on llie Jlinirtcrs. But 
otliop Members from tlie eame btai^hcts — Lord Tilcb- 
fi.-Iil, t-ldes't, wm of the Duke of I'orllaml, Ijitrd North, 
eldisst. son of the Earl of Gnilford, Mr. Windbam, 
and Mr. Thomas Ctrenyille — rose to declare their 
approbation of the coorsti which the Govcnunent hai] 
taken. 80 strong BOi-nicd to he this feeling in the 
lIousL-, that iirvy, though Itv hud nn^vcd un amend- 
laviit, did not mil for a division. 

The Address thus carried was sent to the Lords, uid 
their concurrence to it was requetft^d, so tlint it might 
be presented to the King as the juiut Address of tho 
two Houses. In the debute which ensued tlie Prince 
of Wftlud, rising for the Rnt time in lliat asAombly, 
exjfrosw^d, in some gmcpfnl scntcncefi, hia abhorrcnoe 
of the recent publirafioiis and liia npproYiil of tJio 
Iloyal Proclamation — a course not a. littJe signilicnut 
when wo romember the close conneicion of Fox with 
His Itoyul Highness. To tho same effect spoke also 
the luuliiig Momburs of tho OpjwsitioQ of that day — 
tho Duke of Portland, Lurd Hpencor, Lord Slormont, 
Lord IJAwdon, niid Jjord Porchcslor. Ou the other 
huud. Lord I^iudcnhUe moved nearly the mate amend- 
mont OS had Mr. Orey, bat he did not divido, and in 
the debute was supportod only by Lord Lonsdowne, 



Chap. XVI. 

who, 8uic« his retiremont from office, (ttood nn- 
iConnocfe-id with purty, bnt who of late Imd plinwn 
fliimBolf inclined to gu nil lergtha witli the Frtmoli 

The spL'Cfh of Lonl T-aTnlerrlale on this occasion was 
mitrlicd by cspcciiil ftcriiuony. He ftfil with u kinil 
of riigc upon the Duke of Ridiinond, who, hiiving 
once BUpported Aimwil Parliaments luid Unrestricted 
Siifl^nge, and heiug now disincliuod to jjU Refiirm, 
miglit aecni, no doiiht, « tcDii>tJnji: ohject for ultticV. 
"Thcro is a Ciunp," eriod Lamicrdale, "to lie. formed 
at Bfigshot to ovcmwe the people of the capital wmI 
to stifle their effurls for Reform. I declare I m» glial 
the nolile Didto is to command tliat camp. If apostacy 
can justify promotion, he is the most fit jjerson for 
that command, Genenil Arnold al<ine excepted," Tlio 
Duke started up at once, and denounced these " luijipr- 
tineiit pei-aonalitics." The consequence waa that Lord 
Luuderdalo ehallen^^ed the Duko of Rtcltmond, and was 
himHcIf challenged hy GtMieral Arnold. In the former 
Cftse the (jtmrre! was adjusted by tlio interposition of 
fritiiulH, but in the latter ui-scnduel ensued. General 
Arnold came attended by Lord Hawke as second, and 
Iiord' Lauderdale l>y Mr. Fox. Tlie General fired first, 
without efl'cct, luid the Earl dediucri to retiun the shot, 
upon whieli tlic geconds interposed and the matter top- 
The concert between Mr, Pitt and some members of 

* Ann. Be^ilor, 17D2, fixrl ij. I mciillon wlinUntr of this duclin 
p, 30. It u sbaii^ lo find no | Mr. Spuikt's Life of Arnold. 


ixrz or PITT. 


the Opposition wns ftirther continued. It was liis wish, 
by their ac-ccasion to office, to give new strength to his 
Govemment in the stormy times which he sow approach- 
ing. Burke urged this junction with zea!, though 
declaring that ho would acocpt no office for iiimself. 
Another wann ausiliiiry appeared iu Lord Lough- 
borough — above all, since the Great Seal had been 
vacant by the dismissal of Lord Thurlow. 

Lord Loughborough liud several confenaioes (as 
relat^ed in Lord nialmc8bur\''s Journal) with Pitt and 
Duudas. Here Pitt cicplnincd bis views with entire 
frankness. Ho ussurvd Loughborough that " it was his 
wish to unite cordially uud lunrtily, uot in the way of 
bargain, but to form ti strong and uuitcd Alinistry. His 
only doubts were about Fox, who he was afraid had 
gone too far." £vcu om to Fox, Pitt dvclorod tlint ho 
had no ])t.'rsoual objoctioii, if Fox would really toko 
part with the Duku of Purtlsiid. Fox, Iiowcvit, sliowcd 
himself avcrsy to any junction ; the l>uk« of Purtlaod 
owned a junction to be the rtglit course, but could not 
make u]> Iiis mind to it ; the etAt«8mcQ vf^^it out of 
awn, and thus for tlio time iho matter «nded. " Yoa 
how it is," said Uurko ; " Mr. Fox's ooacli etops the 

The S«^on vna eloRod l>y the King on the Lnth of 
Jun«. His SfnjeRty said that h^ had se«u with great 
concern the commonc^mcnt of hoatilities in diflereut 
]}art« of £uro|>o, but nhould make it bis princi[)al caro 
to secure to his iwoplo the uninterrupted blcauogs of 

In August of this year died the Earl of Guilford— if 


m PITT. 

Ch*p. XTI. 

uot the greatent or tlie firmest, certainly tlie moat 

amiable of Miiiistera, He left vacant tlie Lord War- 

dcnship of tJie Ciuqiie Ports, a pW^o for life, and with 

a sftUry at that time of 3000^ a-year. The King;, on 

the veiy day that he received the news, WTote to Mr. 

Pitt, clf;flariiig that he would receive no recommendation 

from him for the vacant office, being determined to 

liestow it on Mr. Pitt tumsolf. Knowing that Mr. Pitt 

had gone to Burton Pynsc-nt, tht^ King sent hlu letter to 

Mr. Dtmdas for transmission, ami added the following 

linea : — 

" Windsor, Aug. B, 1792. 

*' Tho onclosed is my letter to Mr. Pitt, accinainting 
liim with my having fixed on him for the office uE 
Warden of the Cinqne Ports. Mr. Dnndas is to forward 
it to the West, and accompany it with a few linos ex- 
pressing that I will not admit of this fuvonr being 
declined. I deaii-e Lord Chatham may also write, and 
''tliat Mr. Dundas will take the tlrst opiiorliuiity of 
acquainling Lord Grenvillc with tho stop I have taken. 

"O. E." 

Ill thi^ case, perhnpn unprecedented in our miiials, 
we tii\d u8 great a jireajmre upon a Miniator to aeeejit, 
as there ever was upon a Sovereign to bestow nn ofliec. 
Mr. I'itt gratefully accepted the offer so kindly mad*! ; 
and on his return from Somer.-<i>t«hire, ho hastened to 
expretw hia tlinnks to IIi.s Majesty at Windsor. From 
thoncc, where he appears to have been General Hur- 
court's gucM, he wrote to Lady Chatham : 

"St. Leonard's IliU. Aug- 13, 1792. 
" I arrived horo ytslurduy after a vcty pluasuot 
journey, but from the heat of the weather too late to 




pay my duty ftt Windsor before dinner, os I liad 
iuicnded, I had un uppurtiinity. howt-vtr. of doing bo 
on the terrace in the evening, and of . receiving a |>er- 
fonnl cuiiHriniitiuii of every iiriU'ioiiB Bcutiment wliicJi 
liad been ro fully oxprc^od already. I am h«re on a 
Bpot whicli ajijiears Ijcaiitifiil even after Utirton, but 
wiiicli conld not make Riirtou uppear less so in recol- 
lection, even independent of erery thing else which it 
has to endear it, niid wluch can Lc found no wlioru 

The disposal of tlie racant office was in an cRpecial 
manner gratifying to the King. Mig MajeKty liad for a 
lung time past been anxious to eceure a proviftion for 
his Minister in tJie event of his own deceaw?. AMien in 
May, I'W, Mr. Pitt askeil by letter for the reversion of 
a rich sbecure, a Tellership of the Excheqaer, in 
favour of one of Lord Auckland's iions, the King granted 
the request, bnt observed in hut reply that he should 
have been better pleased if the apjjointment could 
liave been of ase to the Prime ilinister hiin^f. 

The appointment of Mr. Pitt to thcCinqne PortAnlao 
gave great pleasure to Mr. Pilt'it folluvrem and friends. 
But there was one exception, whicli l^isliop Tomline 
thus relatea: "A noble Duke who then held a )ugh 
ritimtion in Hia Majesty's Iloiisehold applied to Mr. Pitt 
for Uiis office, and took every opportunity of expressing 
his resentment that Mr. Pitt would not decline it in his 
&votir. Three years afterwards he refused to give his 
vote for a Professorship at (Cambridge, which vote ho 
had in right of his official situation, according to I^Ir, 
Pitt's wishes, assigning bis disappojiitmeut with respect 




Ciur. XVI. 

to the Cinque Ports its bis reason. Yet tlic Nofcle Duke 
vfiis Bufforod to retain liis Bitiuitioii in ttie Tlouseliolil till 
Ilia dtstttb in 1799." Bishop Tomliiie has witbhelti tlie 
tutuui. liat I B«e no just grounds for tbut suppression ; 
and it becomes a mere form where, witb a man of bigb 
nmk — ami with Collins'* Peerage on the table — sucli dates 
aud dotaib are ^ven. It iriuf tlio Duko of Doreut, oiico 
ambassador at Piuis^ and afterwards Lord Steward. 

During llii^se summer moutbs the f»to of Friuicc — a 
Monarchy or h Republic — was decided. The King had 
preBmnv'd to use the prerogntivc l«ft bim by tht; Con- 
Btitntion for the dismissal of )u« Ministers. He had 
also by the same prerogative 'refusod to Eanction two 
Decrees whifli bad been passed by the Assembly : the 
one for the fommtion of a camp round Pari*, tho other 
for the trausportiition of tha non-juring prieHtK. Thus 
provtJced, tlic mob of Paris ro»i! in ficrco tumult on tlio 
20th of June. Bands of the lowest orders incit<3<l by 
the Jacobin Club assailed the Tnilorieti, and thronged 
file by file into the presence of their Sovereign, who 
[bad ordered bis Swiss Guards to ibrbcar from aJl 
fvedstauoQ. During iteveml hours was Louis exposed to 
• weiy form of insult ; compelled to di'iolc a health from 
a hottJc which was (ondurod him, and to put on a red 
woollen cap which liud become the emblem of tlio 
Jacobins. At length towards the evening PiitJon, 
i Uayor of Paris, came to his tardy rescue, and addressing 
lo tho rabblo a fow words not of rebuke, but commen- 
ttatJou, budo thimi diBpentc nnd go home. 

tlt'ucral La Fuyetto was at this time commander of 
tb* army on tho oorthom frontier. The insulta to the 




EjDg and the inrouds upon thu Constitution 6110(1 liini 
with juHt concern. His fvulings wuro tUosu of au 
liouciantblo man, but his condtivt wiis tliut of tt very 
wfiik one. Ho iidilntwcd a letter of reinoDStranco to 
tile Assembly ; ho came to Pans und appeared with a 
speech at their bur ; but took dO' ineftsUMU to giro efTect 
to liix opiuione, and he vouglit no concert with the more 
AetJve adhereiitsof the King. On hii) return to bi» iirmy 
ho continued the same coureo of loquacious inilecisiou, 
iind Hjieedily censed to b« an object of either hopo or fear. 
Misled by ovemuening self>relianee, he still supposed 
that, like the su[KTior gctiius of ItlirabcHa, ho might stem 
tho l-orreut whicli, on tlie contrary, hurried him along. 

On the opposite sidij Fnuiciit King of Huiigiiry ImmI 
been eleetrsl Emperor on the .'ith of July; and the 
King of Pnisaia combining witli him had declared war 
againift France. It was resolved to invade the Frcncli 
teiTitory from the norihem frontier with a targe and 
weU-ilidciplined army, and the command was entrusted 
to the I)uke of Brunswick, the nephew and the {Kipil 
of Frederick the Great. With this army the Emigrants 
were intended to co-operate. But instead of placing 
them in the front ranks with the banner of the Flemns 
do l<y8 unfurled to tlio friends of Monarchy in France 
they were rattier thnist to tJie rear as mere accessories 
to the war. Tho Prince de Condc with six thousand 
men was directed to act on the udo of Alsace, and tho 
Duko of Bourbon with four thousand on the aide of 
I'^laiiJers, wlJIe another body was subsequently reserved 
for the siege of Thionville : all alike shut out from tho 
prominent pkce — the proposed advaoco to Puriii. 



Still fur moro grierods vpto ihe errore of tlie Srani* 
JWto which thi; Duke of PrnDsnick, agninst his own 
better jucigment, wos iutlDi'^d to i«8U0 ou tlie 25th of 
July. Fai- from «ny giiueroui* amnesty on the jiort of 
the French Princes, liir lh>ni any rwjiectl'nl Appeal to 
the loyalty of the French people, there wa« tliroiiglioiit 
a tone of arrogant giiperiority and Tindietive riolence. 
It drew moHt unjustly a distinction between tlie soldiers 
of the lino and tho National Guards ; for those last, if 
taken with arms in their hands, wore forthwith to be 
ptuiishcd »a ri'hclB, nliilat all the rigours of war, with 
tins hurning of tbotr houses, were denounced agaiust 
the iuhubittuits of towns or TtUages who should 
doro to defend tbcmsclves against the troops of the 
Allies, if the lung and Quceu were exposed to the 
smallest violence — ^if they were not at ouce placed in 
safety and restored to freedom — tlie city of I'aris was 
to be givfiii up to military execution and cxixjscd to 
total destJiictioii. Such Uiveats fi'oui any foreign 
General, far indeed from nt nil intimidating, could nut 
litil to stir tip tlie utmost rLsentincnt and reaistanco in 
BO martial a nation <« Iho French. 

At Paris tberct was no ccHwition in the ondoavoura of 
the Jacobins to inflame the public mind moru and more 
against the Itoyal Family. Mob-law wus almost 
Bapremc ; another eflbrt made it wholly so, A new 
inmrrcction which had been for »umo time past con- 
certed broke forth on Iho 10th of August. The palace 
of tlie Tnilerii'ft was ossailed by a furious niuUitudc; 
the faithful Swiss were either sluin in the defence or 
subsec^uently butchered in cold blood, as wcro also thu 




Boyal seiranU and rotniners. To swcli a dinmal fate 
had Jallea tlie pnmd inheritance of LouiR tho Fonr- 
teonth ! The King — in truth a King no longer — 
became a fugitive &om his jialaco ; and, acoompanicd 
by his Consort, by his two children, and by hia sister 
the Princess Elizabeth, he took refuge in the hal! of 
the Assembly. There he found, howerer, only another 
daae of foemen. Decrees were passed to su^nd him 
from his Hoyal fimclions, and to summon a new legis- 
lative body under the name of a Conrentiou, and as 
tlie next step to a UepubU(?, Meanwhile the Koyal 
Family were sent 'as closu prlainers to tho anc-ient 
8lroii{;hol(I of tliv Templar Knights at Pari& 

TIk'so evoiiln wor* foliowod at the comiuonopmont of 
Scptembor by atrocities wliich even amiibit the many 
&ril deeds of the first Frenoh Revolution have attainfcd 
a pre-eminenee of shame. It was tlie massacre in 
the ])risonB of Paria. During four whole daj-s did 
bands of miscreants proceeding in regular array &om 
dmigeon to dungeon draw furtJi the cuplivi's one by one 
and put them to duath witli hideous gibes. Six tliousand 
pereouB at the lowest computafJou are stated to have 
perished ;' and tho aseassins, as though proud to dii^lay 
some proofsof merit, eagerly besmeared tliemselvcs with 
tlic bloixi of tht^ir vietJina. Above all did thcy gloat over 
the dettth-pangs of luiy Catholiv pricat« thcy found, nor 
wero tliey disarmed even at the suiut-liko charity of 
, some of those pmying in their lost momoots Jbr tlieir 

* Soi} on tliofo numbcn W. I Some bnvo leckoiuid them kt 
Thiers HUt BeT., nH. ii. p, S5. | lwdTi» UioiuAuil iu Huu gJonc. 



Chap. XVf. 

mnrderera. The clnims of sex, of youth, of beauty, were 
allowed — but they were dainiR only for smperior refine- 
ments of cruelty. Thus in the case of the Princesso de 
Lamballo, young and l>eautiful, of exemplary life and 
of devoted friendshiji to the unhappy Queen, her head 
and heart were fixed upon a pike, and borne in saTage 
triampb round the windows of the Temple, no aa to 
meet at every turn tlie eyen of Uis Royal captives. 

But where, it may be asked, was I*a Fayette? Where 
was he who liad so loadiy professed liis res|iei"t for tJie 
Constitution — his zeal for law and order ? These prin- 
eiples were Rtill alive iu his mind, but so dnitlied with 
doubts and miggivinga as to deprive tlium of all prac- 
tical effect, 
Three Commissioners had been sout from Paris to 
army, ostenfiibly to remouKtrate with tho General, 
'^bnt with a secret mission, aa was thought, to supersede 
Iiini. La Fuyetto auticipatcd their purptee by arrest- 
ing them. But l.lii!! wn^ a solitary and unavailing act 
of vigour. Already by liis vacillatiotu! hud ho lost hi* 
ini1aenL-e alike wilh soldier and t'ivilirin, with Ri!]iiibli- 
can and RoyalLit. In perhaps too hikfty despair ho 
reai^cil the contest, and on the night of tlie lUtli of 
August fled beyond th<^ frontier with only a handful of 
partisans. He desired to para to liolland and embark 
for the United States, hut witliin a few hours the small 
party was seized and made prisoucrs by an outpoet of 
UiQ Prussian army, 

Tlio trcutmcut of La Fayette and of bis principal 
oompaDioiiH by tho two Alliud Sovereigns was certainly 
in tho higheitt dt^'gruo hotli uugoueruus and unwise. 




Instead of n'^ltwiiung their tardy but honest Mai for the 
libenitloa of LoiiU Uie Sixteenth, tiiey were detained 
us prisunera of State. They were traniiferred from ono 
daugoou to another, and closely confined, first at Wesel, 
and lastly at Olralitz. What temptation had now oth«r 
meu in Franca nhn had joined iu the first enthusiasm of 
tha lieTolution to take part against its Umt uxcc-s^-s ? 
What better treat misnt conhl Ihey expect from the Allies 
than Jji Fayette had fotnid ? 

There was another ftjigravution to the nogry feelings 
arou»0(l ill France^ Bnt by the 3laiiif<^sto of Uto Prus- 
sian, and next by tlio imprisunmcut uf tlio Frt-uch, 
General. That ug^avation came from the east of 
pjiirope. Might not tho diMm(;mbt.'rmGut of Fraoce by 
the Allied Sovereigns bo .ju»tly apprehended, when at 
the very saino jumod thu dismetnbermpnt of Poland km 
aotiially e(leete<l? 

There hud been in the preceding year a reforro of 
the Cotistitutiou of Fohiud, framed on sotiud priiu^iphu^ 
and vrilJi warm u&seiit from Uie people. But a smiUl 
and si^lltsh baud, inuruinring a^^nst it, had appealed 
to RuAsia for wd ; and Oatlierine had eagerly seized 
tliQ pretext of dictation to her weaker neighb«HU8. In 
the 8pnng and ctiimiiier of 1792 dte Kent to I'oluiid first 
a haughty Declaration, and next a ijowerful anuy. Oil 
the other hand tlie Poles fiom Kuig Stanialaa down* 
wards diaplayod a noble spirit for their national rights. 
A iiu^e body of troops was muBtorGd wluch in two 
pitched actions encountered the JtuHaians with great 
bravery and somo success. Tho Gcucial-in-Cluef was 
FriDce Joseph Foniatowski, but liir tito highest reootvn 




was gniacHl by Xoi^ciiisko, the socoud in command, who 
had alroiidy distinguished himself in the American 
contest iindor the ordora of Wnshington. Unhappily 
at tliiB juncture the King of Prussia was indaced by the 
lure of Thorn (iivl Dantzic to make common cause 
witli Cuthfriiie. 'Hum tiw Poles bocjime greatly over- 
matched iu nnmbor? ; and Kin;^ Stuuislas. losing heart, 
had rei^ourso to uegotiutions instead of arms. 'Ihn 
iguoniiniiius rnsult was tlio second partition of PolHnrl. 
The King of Prussia ac^nirod Thorn nnd Dantzic, and 
the Empreaa onc-fanlf of Littmnniu. It is dear bovij 
much this iniquitotu fonfi'ileraey was aided and itecur«cl 
from foreign iute.rniptiou by th(! clamoar raised it few 
months ixifore aguinst the ItuHsian armament in 

Beeidos iiw several eausee oi fiuspioion and r^ei^nt- 

meiit which I have now cnumcniled, tho tardiness of 
the JDuke of Brunawiek was another fatal olutaele to 
tho causft of tho AUtea. His Alimifesto was dated the 
25th of July ; and its only c-hiLnc>cs of sueceBs lay in 
prompt and euergetie action. Yet. ut this most critical 
period four weeks more oluptic^d ero tho Duko entered 
tlie French territory at tho head of fifty thousand' 
Pnissian troops, nnd in cona-rt willi nii Austrian corps 
iiniier General Cierfait. King I'"redorit'k William iii 
person acoompanittd, though he did not command, the 
army. On the 23rd of August Longny opened ibi gates 
to the FrosanuB after a eilight re»iiitance, and on the 
2nd of Septomber Verdun. ITad they becu premising 
forward only u few days sooner, when tlio Freucb cAmp 
was all confusion and uncertainty &om the Uight of 

LIFE OF pirr. 


I<a Fay«tt«, it is difticiilt t» see wliut power could buve 
|3ffovented their advance to Paris. IJut Oi-ucrul l>umou- 
riez, who meanwhile had sucoooded to the cliicr com- 
ronnd ngainHt them, was nnw straining every nc-rve to 
revive the spirits of the mldiets and to defend the 
paAiies of the forest of Argonne. 

DumourieK luul also summoned to his aid General 
Eellej-mann, with two and twenty thoosand men — "the 
finny of the Ilhine." On the 20th of Septemher Kel- 
lenomia (>ucountered a great division of the Allies at 
Volmy ; and after a brisk esnoontido of ^reml hoars 
nmttiiK'd lutiHti-r uf the- field. It 8ix.-itK-d h slight action, 
y<.'l it dctudt^d this cainiittigu. 'Htv doiibtit of the l>nke 
of BruDswiok now retJiruod with double forco ; oabiiU 
of various kinds were busy in his camp, and many 
thousauds of his sildierg who luul eiigerly dCTonred tie 
niiripe grai>e8 were stmck dowii by a raging dyacnttry. 
Under these circtiuistancts tlio Duke, to tlio gonL'XiU sup- 
priw) of Europe, not only deteruiinod to rutirK, but opcued 
a negotiatiiiu willi ihe eucmy that h-- ndglit retire umno* 
lested. Before the eiul of tlie moutJi thh retrejit began, 
and in n few days moro the Frugaioii army, relintjiuiih- 
iiig Verdun and Lougwj', was again Ix-youd the Irouticrs 
. of France. 

It may readily be supposed how much ttie friends of 
le French Ilevolution exulted at this most Btiango 
event Mr. Fox in his familiar letters of tlmt [toriod 
declares that not even tlie revei'ses of his own ooiintry- 
meu ill America had pleased liim so well " Nol " he 
cxelaims, " no public event, not oxocptiug Saratoga and 
Yorktown, ever happened that gave loe so much delight 

VOL. u. 1 



Ciur. XTf. 

I wonid not allow myitc-lf to beliera it for some dayG. 
for fear of disappoiutiueut."" 

Tho otlicr Sovcruigna not yet at war Tvith France bad 
recallnil their Aliuistiire from Parin on the sttspeosion of 
the kingly office Bad imjiristiiituent of thn Kiiig. It was 
the- natiiml course to tukowbeu tho eolo Power towbicb 
they wero accretUtcd hfu\ ct-aj«e<l to exist, Among^it 
others Enrl (ioMcr, theEitglLdi nmbn.«»ador in Franoe, 
vm sommoncil liomo Ity the Englitdi Cabitiet. itiit liis 
letter of tucaU, wliich he was tliret^twi to show to the 
Minister for Foreign AJTaiis, coutniuod a renewed am- 
BuraDce of ueiitrwlity in tlio- domestic »ir«in« of Fnuioe. 
In tho same spirit 51, de ChAurolio, the French Ambus- 
sEichiriu England, was at his reciuest permitted by the 
English Cabinet fo continue to reside in London with- 
out uffiL'iftl ehameter. And be received a farther hwup- 
aiLce txom Lord Gretivillo that Hhiiiild tie hi: dosiroUH of 
making any communications of n ]>acifio tendency, no 
obstacle of a merely formal nature should be iiiterf)08od. 
It is clear that Mr. Pilt at tbis period wao 8till nr80> 
Intoly bent against any participation in the war. 

Karly in September were elected the deputies to tbo 
newly summoned Katiooal Couvrutiou. Tho modu of 
election was nearly universal suiliage, and tho choice in 
genfiivl fell on tJio most violent iiud tborotigh-gom;; 
moo, or <Mi tho most tunid, which in times of popular, 
intimidatiou amounts to the 8umo thing. I'aris sent, 

Letter tn Iiii nnpliow Land 
uu], Oct. 12. 17S2. Uii Uk 
bn bonil it i» jiut to notice tlmt 
Hi. Fox. in Ibe vumu torrcupoud* 

once a montli liprcro, hail ipcikni 
Vfitli lilt! iitmiut borror <j' tlio 

lUbUGBillH of till! prlnuUI'TB— Uicfqi- 

Umbritmrt — at Paiit. 




amongst otliers, Robowpiorrw und Daalon, iJio two fhiiiia 
of the c!tti-emo lU-pabliuini; ; BiLlaud VajietiDM, wlio luul 
st Itf^orc diiitingui«lHxl himiuiLf id promoting the mas- 
of tilt; priVMiors ; and the Duko of Orleans, wbo. 
^iioiincin)^ Uh titl<!S uud Jamlly name, called bumutlf 
Fhilippi) KguliU'. In otlivr pbuiies there were two 
Eiij^IiMluQoii choseii, Tboimui PaJuo and Dr. Priestley, but 
only tlie fonnor cumo to France and took hia seat The 
OouventioQ met for (he iiri>t time on the 2l)th of 8ep- 
tcmbvr, the suno day that the onoies fought at Valmy. 
X«xt morning, by on unammous TOte and witbont the 
smallest dJMcuiiaion, they decreed to i^lisb the insti- 
tution of Koyally iu Fniueo. 

On th4> retreat of tho PruatiaDs from ChamjKigne, 
Damouri^ rcpuiied to Pnrijt to I'onevrt moa^ures for hi^ 
fiiTourito object, the invasion of the Netlierlauds, Thoy 
were at thin time fci>lily defended by tJie Duke of Snxe- 
Te«chen at the head of iusnfficieDl Aiutriao forre*. 
Bumouriuz having; obtained tl>« n>qu>Bito powen and 
croBscd the frontiers with liis army, gare battle to ^axe- 
Teschen on the Gth of Novombor at Jeniinap«.«. The 
i-esult v;wi a complote victory on the side of the Prt'neh. 
A]>d now appeared the rosultfi of the policy of Joseph 
tbeSocond in demolishing the fortifimtioni^ No barrier 
rouainod against the invading army. Dnmoariex on- 
Cored Brumsls ic triumph, and all IJelgiam to the Mcuso 
was subdued. 

Iu other fjnartfw also tJie l-'reneli arms wvro crowned 
with tmexpocted snccess. Advtuiciiig from A]«aOL>, Ge- 
neral de Cuatinu took Wonns hmI Maycnee, and oren 
pushed fon\-ard to Frankfort Towardti the AI|i6 the 

I 2 



Cnjp. XVI. 

King of Sardinia ha\'in^, with more zeal than pni- 
deiice, joinwi the Coalition since the lUth of August, 
a IxMly of Fnainh trooiia i-utta-rtl Savoy and ajjeedily re- 
duced tJio province in concert with a Savoyard insiirreo 
tion. Anothpr body set in movement irom the Var took 
Nico and Villafranca mi h equal ease. 

These Micceasea, so little looked for at a period of so 
much internal strife, raised to the bight^t pit^ii the 
arniganoo of tlie Convention. Aa defying public opinion 
in all otJier countries, they resolved to bring to a public 
tiial their deposed and imprisoned King. Theyiiasued 
on the lOtli of November the famous Decree by wliich, 
in the name of the Fi'ench i)eoplp, tliey offered fraternity 
and asaiatance to every nation tliat desired to recover 
their freedom, or in other words, to cast off the sway of 
Royalty ; and they ordered tliia Decree to bo translated i 
and printed iu all lan^iEi^^es. By another Decree on 
the 21st, they proclaimed an accession of territory to 
themHcives, France bad boen recently divided into 
eighty-throe depiirtraenta, iu the place of its ancient 
])roviuces, and Savoy was now declared the eiglily- 
fourth, uudr^r the name of the D^j^artement du Mont 
UloQC It was plain tliut, like the first folluwors of Ma* 
Jiomet, tbey suujjht to make cou»[ue8ta partly by cod- 
versiou and partly by the sword. 

But further atill tlicy showed an ntter disregard of 
the rights of neutral imtioDH. On their conquest of Bel- 
gium they sent u pereiiqitory order that their General 
ekoidd obtaiu frcudom of navigation to the sea and even 
for armed vessels on both the rivers Scheldt and Mouse. 
Against this order stuwd the privileges secured to Holland 




by treflty, and dlsto our own obligations to aid noUand 
whenevfir tmsailed. 

It was ill rfiffreiioe to the rights eqiectally oT HoUimd, 
and only a few days (leffiro tJw famoas Decree of the 
IQtk of November, which entirely altered the upoct of 
affairs, that we find Mr, Pitt write as follows to ono ot 
the most respected of hig coHt-aguea, the Marquis of 

» Downing Sireot, Not. 13, 1792. 
" Mr DEAB Lord, 

*■ The strange and unfortunate events whidi have 
followed OIK! another so rapidly on the Continent are in 
many views matter of sorions and anxiuus twnsideration. 
" That which preaaes tho moet rvlalcs to the iiitnatlon 
uf Holland, as your lordship will find from the enclosed 
desjiatch from Lord Auckland, and ub must indeed be 
the case in conserjuonce of tho events in Fliuidore- 
However unfortuniitit it would be to find this country in 
any shape committt.'d, it sooma ubsoUitoIy impocbiiblo to 
hesitat'j ii* to supporting our ally in caso of uoeesaity, 
and the explicit declaration of our stntimeata in Ilii; 
ino8t likely way to prevent the case occuning. Wo 
havit, therefore, thought it best to wttd without delay 
instructiona to Lonl Auckland to pa-si-nt a memorial to 
the StateJt, of which I enclose a copy. I likewise cdcIosu 
a copy of infitructiona to Sir Morton Eden at lit'riiu, 
and Uioec to Vienna are nearly to Uie naniee^uct. Thoao 
are necessarily in very general terms, as. ia the igno- 
rance of the designs of Austria and Fruseia, and in the 
uncertainty as to what events each day may prodwcc, it 
seems imposdblo to decide deHnitiroty at present on the 
line which we ought to pursue, except as far as rolatea 
to Holland 



cn4p. ivr. 

" IVrliaps some opcuiug may arise whioJi may cnablo 
us to coutribufe to the teruiination of tlie war between 
difi'crent powers in Europt^ leaving Fran<:e (wliich 1 
bcIioTO ii tlio best wuy) to arrange its own iutt^rnul 
affairs aa it can. 'ITie whole situation, however, becomes 
BO delicflti: and iTitieal, thwt I Iiavi- thought it light lo 
request the presonco of all the members of the Cnbinet 
who ran, without too miioli inr/oiivciiifii(?(?, give thfir at- 
teticifiiice. It will eertaiuly be a >]jreiit Hiitisrut'tioii if 
"your Lordship ahould be of that number. At all events 
I wish if) apprise ywi m well as 1 ctui <if what is paiwitig, 
BTiJ sliall bo happy to receive your sentiments upou it 
either personally or by letter. 

" I am, with the gre«lost rogtinl, &c., 

"W. i'lTT." 

It was not merely as Allies tlint we felt at tli)H p^od 
tho ag^^rcssire spirit of France. M. de Chauvelia; and 
Btill moiv hi» far abler Secretary, M. do Talloyraud. 
were accused of caballing with the nmlcontont party in 
Englan<L Hut it is most probable that in many cuseE 
secKt emissuric-s of the Jacobins actod in thoir name. 
Addresses of oonj^rutulation on recent ovcuts in France, 
and especially on tlio "glorious victory of llio 10th of 
August," were voted and sent over to the National Con- 
I TentioQ by several of the Soeiflties fonned in London 
within the Uat three yeare. 'llio tide of «L-ditious pub- 
lication.'?, which had been checked in tho pruvious spring, 
now llowed anew. Amongst tlio rest wo may observe 
a new edition of that eloquent inci;utivu to tyraimicidc, 
the tract entitled " Killing no Muriler," which hud been 
written by Colonel Tilus, and is said to hiive disturbed 
the last days of Oliver Cromwell. It hud alcio boon ro- 



printed hy some desperate adherents of tlic Stuarte in 
1743, and it ih striking to find tliut un thii! ou« and 
only pnint tlio tixtrftnies of lirn partita diametrically 
o|ij)a9cd in their ceaet« — tbe Jocubites and the .Taco- 
bins — agreed. 

Still more alarming were the distorbaoiciw that now 
broke forth in aeTeral parts of Kngland. 8uoh was the 
cnse, for example, at Yarmonth and at Shif^Iil^ In 
SbeEBeld there was appointed a tiny of rejoicing to 
celebrate the cticcprb of the French armsL An ox was 
in the lirst place roaatett whole and eaten, after vtiicb 
the numbera assembled walked in procession with the 
Pri?nch tri-colors flying, and with a pictare attlie end of 
a pole which ropresented Diindas aud Biirke stabbing 
Liberty. An ofScer quartered at HheRield wrole as 
I'ollujre to hia brother u«!xt diiy :— " Ttiuy tire us resolsta 
and dbtemiiued a net i^f villiiioA as I over saw, and 
will gain their objeet if it i;« lobe gainod. They have 
dubdting Hociutiex iiiid regular correspondence with the 
other towns ; they have nuliscribed to piirclnisD firc-artns, 
and are endeavouring to corrupt tlio nuldiors.'* • 

From Scotland tliorc nunc no better tMing^ Tbeio 
had been riots at Dundcu, t'ortli, luid Ahenluc-D ; and in 
all three places it hud been nx^uisite to send for 
military aid. At Dimdee the first occasion or pretext 
of the tumult tiud been tlie high price of meal, bnt it 
was not lung ere cries of " Liberty and E^juality ! * 
arose &om every quarter of the mob. Some vvvu 
cuUod out "No Kxcise! No King!" and they con- 

* B«i> Uie Uta uf Pitt, by Tontlincv tdL fiL p. 456. 

LIFE OF vnr. 

Cbap, XVI. 

eluded with planting a tree of Liberty, flCicording to 
the piittem of France.' 

Dandns Lad hini«e!f guue to Sixit.lniid at this time, 
and oa hia way back received at NortbuJlorton the 
followinf^ letter from Pitt. The original is among the 
Aniiaton Papers. 

" Downing Sfroot, Tnesday, 
"DkAB DuSDAB, Dec. 4, 1792. 

" I huve received your letter of last Saturday 
morning, and all thoBo preceding it; aiid am very 
glad to flunk that on the whole you will have left 
everything in Scotlmid in a better train than could 
hiive been expected. The impression here from calling 
out the Militia i» «» favouroble as we could wish, and 
people who a fpw days ago wore inclined to despond 
begin to t^^'U lis that we shall only be attacked for 
having made «u great an exertion when there wa» bo 
little peal danger. 1 believe myself tliat the chief 
danger at home is over for the present, but I am sure 
there ia stiU mischief enough ailoat not to relax ony 
of our preparations, and things abroad still wear such 
an aspect that nothing but our being ready fur war can 
preserve peace. On all this, however, we shall soon 
converse at large. The reason of my sending this letter 
is to ask whether yon have or ran procure a complete 
narnitivu of all that paitsed rtrlativo to the disturhanoes 
at Dundee, showing the exact extent of tho outrages 
conuiiittLiI, as I think we have not at present in the 
Oftic* as particular a statement of that transaction os 
one should wish. The calling out tho Militia was 
BO clearly right and necessary tluit ])eople will not much 
bo iuolined to caril as to tlie a])plication of ttic term 

Speeuh of Duuiliu, Pw. 13. 1?J2. 


LTPB or pnT. 

Insurrection, which was the ost^nHible f^ound of our 
taking the roeflanrc. I haw, however, somo renson 
to tiupposo that some purt of Oppo§itioB will try to 
criticise the meftsure io that respect ; And us wu liiivc 
hitherto lookeil nioro to tho sulstdiico than to the form, 
I doiilit whether wo oould, from our present nintorJals, 
give as precise on answer ag wu Khuuld wish to ciivila 
of this nature. "Hie proceedings at Yarmouth and 
at Shields certainly both miioiititecl to inimrrectiorm, 
but they were not on pohtical qui-stious, and ihcrt-for© 
what pHHsed at Dundee furnishea the specific ground 
which seeiQs beat to ha relied on. Aftt-r nil there 
will be no difficulty in Hvowing that at any riito wo 
thought it necessary to take this measure for the public 

" I scud this to m«ct you'ou the road, bi-caiiw you 
would have no time to write to Scotland, should it be 
necessary, and to reoeire an answer before Parliament 
meets. "Yom's ever. 

•• W. PtTT." 

All this time the English conspirators were, it wouhl 
seem, supplied witli, and instif^alod by, money from 
abroad. Shortly aft«rwardj« it was boasted by one 
of the Republican leodciw in France, Citizen lirissot 
(Bar the title of Moubicut wns discarded aa savoiu-ing 
of arintocrncy), Uiat even beforo the Declaration of 
War largo nums had bctai at intervals sent over to Eng- 
land from France. But although largo Hums may 
indeed have been abstracted from the French treasury, 
it seems highly improbable that tho same amount 
ever reached the opposite shores. Then.- was also, on 
ttie other hand, some reason to suspect that money 

1 3 


"Life op ti 


Lad heen traiigmitted from IrelwDd to Frtmch agunts 
and i'lir Fienfh uses.' 

Ou tlie opiKisite sidetlie loyid miijorltyof Englinhmen 
began in London to rooko some coTiTiter-denionstrtttioiig. 
Till.- peTOon who ftppeuis to bave taken the lead in tbu 
movement waa Mr. John Ri^cvea, a barrister, and Law- 
Clerk in Lord Hawkcebury's Oflice. Tbrniigb liiw 
tneann there was Htimiuoned by ptihlio advertisement 
n meeting at the Crown and Anchor Tavein en the 
2!lth of November, when it was aiiauinioiialy agreed 
to form an association " for the defence of liberty and 
property gainst llepublicans and Ijevellers." This waa 
followed by another meeting of bankers, traders, and 
other iuhabitaut« of London, held at Merchant Taylors' 
Hall ou the 5tb of December. There a Declaration 
expressive of warm attachnteut to tbo Constitution was 
friiinuiland li^ftopen for signatures. It wan in fact signed 
by vast uuinbers of the middl<? ulosiBotf, and the example 
wa» followed in most of the large commercial towns. 

Nor was the Law inactivi-- The Attorney-General 
movod a oi-iminal information against Thomas Paine as 
ftutiior of the " Itights of Uta," and in due course the 
trial eume on before IjonJ Kenyon, when, in Hpito of a 
long and most able <Iofen(X! horn Krakine, the jury 
witliont besitatiou brought in a verdict of Guilty. 
Paiiiti had gone to Paris to attend tlie sittings of the 
French Convention, and did not pre^eut liim^L-lf to 
rc(^r-ive the judgment of the Court, but a sentence of 
outlawry was pronounced against him. 

* Oa lliin lust point «ihi the King'* lotlcT to Ur. Pitt, Hny 1. 1T92. 




The GnTemTiu>nt ftt tJiis critioftl period was certainty 
not wanting in most active messnres oi' precaution find 
defence. Steps were taken to iucTciwe our forc^a both 
Ly land and sea. Several regiments wore couconfxated 
iiour London to (iruvidv- ugninsl any Kuddeii risiitj^. The 
luilwArkis of tlio Towi-r wero rvpuiruL TKe guard at 
the Itimk wan reinforotd. 

Not was this all. By advice of Mr. Pitt a Koyal 
Prodni nation wm it«uo<] on th4> Ist of l!)«ceniber, callii^ 
out a jturt of the }|]ilitia, ttnd (a» tlie law in that case 
ntfjiiiFud) suiuraoiiing Parliament to meet within fnar- 
Ueiiia,y», On tlie I3th accordingly the^Session wan 
ojiened Ly the King in pt?renn. His Majesty's B]>eech 
waa unURnally long and explicit. lie expressed his 
aincere desire for peace, but abto his Hcrious oouceni at 
the disposition which hod been iibowB in Frauce b> 
cx<-it« disturbtuiocs in other countries, and to diucgtird 
Uie rights of nentral nstinns. jVnd he declared that he 
iiuil tlioiight it right to take eonie Rt«ps for tbe augmen- 
tation of both liis navjil and military fotoes^ 

Ihiriugthr- flmt dayfloftliis early se^on Pitt was ab- 
sent from the House on account of his new office ns Loni 
Warden and hi:« consequent rv-electioo; l>nt Dundos sup- 
plied bis place ud lcadj:-r. It was announeed Umt besides 
the measures for natinnal defence, tJie Min)st«re had pro- 
[>ared an Alien Bill, laying, for the first time, eertaiii 
testriations and liabilities upon all foreigners in Engbmd. 
Two otJier Bills were brought in with special reference 
to France; the one rostraiiiing the export of arms and 
ammunition, the other prohibiting the export of oont. 
In all these measures tlio friends and followers of the 



cn»p. sn. 

Duke of Portland, compmiag the greiifer part of the 
Oppositiou in both Houses, ehonod a strong ilispositioii 
to support the policy of th« Government, Fox, ou the 
other hand, warmly de(;lared against it. On the very 
first BTBoing he moved an Amendment to the Addroes, 
and had the mortification t<) find himself in a minority 
of no more than fifty Members. Nor did any better 
Bueeess attend him wtH>i], two days afterwards, he 
moved to acknowlfdge the Trench Kepubllc, and to 
accredit n Ministtir at Paris. As Lord Malmesbury in 
his Joiiraal stalvs it : " Thu cry nguiu;^ him out uf doors 
was excessive, and his Irieuds were hart beyond measure: 
severtd left Lutid<m.''' 

In the other House Lord Stanho]>c though altogctlier 
imcoimected with Fox's party, espoused with great 
ardonr the cause of the French Revolution. He had 
wholly estranged himself from Mr. Pitt, but was still on 
terms of fritmdly intercourBo with Lord GrenviUe, tho 
imcle of his wife. To Lord GrenviUe at this time ho 
wrtjte as follows : 

"My dead Lobd, "Mannfield Street, Dec. 19, 1792. 

" I have written to Mr. Stono to send yon herewith a 
copy of tho Decree of tho NatioruU Couventioii. and 
also of the Questions of the Committee for the C-olonies; 
They explain thfmselvPB. Mr. Stone is an Knglish- 
mnn. well neqiiiiiiitod witli tlie Minittters and leading 
men in France, and whom yont Lordship will do well 
a1 Ifitst to SO"*, as lie can conviuee you of their friendly 
diwpusition towards this country. Good God ! my dear 

■ DiMj, Dec. 15, HSS. 




Lord, you have no conception of tlio miBfortiinGS you 
may bring upon England by going to war with France. 
For (M lo France, I Ik-Iicvo all Europe caniutt snhduo 
thorn, whatever eflbrts may bo made. It will only ix)u»i< 
them more. 

" BeUeTe me ever, my dear Lord, &e,, &c., 

« Stasuope." 

This letter Txan ttn indoisemcut in Lord GrcnvillcV 
baud, "To be circulated" — that is, among the Ciihinet 
Ministers, llins it must havo como bcfori' Mr. Pitt. 
But I know not whether auy or what ftimwer it received. 

Another letter uddreesud to Pitt about thiM time 
would have excited no small lunastcmeut in any Fu^lish 
Minister half ft century bt-rere. An iijutlicatiou for 
pecuniary aid from the Pretender's Queen 1 Thus 
writes Lord Camelford :— 

" My DKAE Sib, "FJoronco, Dec. U, 1792. 

*'I write to acquit myself of a commiasion I hate 
receivi^^d from the (^omtiisfle Albany, who d^'sires to 
assure you that the kind part you were eo good to take 
in her businsBB, both when she If^ft Engtiind luid since, 
lays her under obligatiuu8 tliat she hIiuII never forget. 

" After what is past, 1 conclude it is in vain to hope 
the subject can bo renewed in any tthape hereufk-r. It 
is iinpowible for me, Ijowever, to bo wttni^s (o the 
nitantion of that itnfortunato lady n-ithout refleeting 
upon the effect her present diittivsH must prcidnee upon 
every fouling mint) in Europe. By her Bight from 
France, where, had she remained two days longer, licr 
certain imprisonment had been the eonecqaonce, and 
she would have been included in the general maBsacre, 
she has lost every reaource fi'om that country. Driven 




oftprwards from her Euiuly at Brussels, from tim iipprc* 
lioii^ioiin of wliiil has actually talit^u place itumediately 
BftLT, »ht> has takaa reTugv licro m tliu only ORyluiu that 
(iiHilil afford her any promiM? of safety : and Lbi-l- bIio 
Htos \i\nm iho iUhris ut' wliiit shi> oyiiM cave out of her 
fortune at a sequin a day. I need make ao commenls — 
your generous mind will supi'ly thorn. If she had a 
jieusiou of 1000^., she woidd lii> htijipy. Pdiilon me, 
my dear Sir, if I cannot resist the impulse tlutt bos 
iiiaiie me state this \a yon, luiTing no means of laying it 
before the person whoso good h<'«r1. ivinilil, I nm sure, 
be not insensible to it, if he could be witness to it as I 
am. It is a strange worlil, nud the vicissitudes of it are 
striking in a manner never before experienced. 
"Ever most affectionately yours, 

" Camelfobd." 

Lord Camelford did not long survive the datti of this 
letter. He died in tho January following, and the 
letter was forwai'ded by Lord Horrey «f(«r liis death. 
It doo8 not nppear that any present aid was affordeil to 
tlie widow of Charles Kdward. But when in 1800 
Cardinal York, in consequence of the French invasion, 
had foiind it requisite to leave Rome, and to ftwego bis 
ceelesiastical revenne-s H»o Kiiip, on tho rccommondo- 
tion of Mr. Pitt, giaiitt-d a yearly pension of 4000^. to 
tho htst of the 8tiiarta. The Cardinal died in 1807. 
Then Lord Hiiwkeshnry wrote to announce tliat a part 
of this pension, namely 1(!00?, a-year, would bo con- 
tinued by His Majesty to the Countess of Albuny.' 

* Soc M. 3c Dcatncmt'a Vi-rj ui- 
lumtliii); Itio^rujih^. in Oi-ruuiii. 
of Iho CiJniiti'iui <it Alljftny. foI, i. It appiata Oom 

tills linok tliut sa Intcly lu 183:1 
till.' DuL'hi'Ss of Devoiuliirc iu«] lo 
siMroKN hurus Caraltrgiim, or Cora 



In December, 17i)2, tlie i»>i^t»aUoiB witli the Dnkc 
of Portland and laird Ij(iiigIilM>roug!i were r»*umed. 
'Jlie Pake was en-ayed tlironghout by niost honourable 
motives, but from bis racUlationa played a very unsatis- 
factory part He was toaaed like a tennis ball tram 
sido to eiAo ; ulmost quite detennined to join tbe 
Ministry nbttncrvcr be nurt Lord MalmsstNiry ; almost 
qaita dutormined not wheuoTor be Diet Itlr. Fux. Lord 
Malmcttbury. ill bis JoumuJ, liai; duscribcd onu «coiiu to 
tbe life ; bow ou tb« day aftur Cbnslnuu tbc Duku bad 
jjrumificd to lonkc a e{)(>CL'b of udb«)iou; bow bu went 
duwD accordingly witb bis diplomatic friend to tbo 
Houtie of Lords, and bow, at tbe but moiuciit, be 
laltorvd and tat still. 

Lord Lougbborougb, though not rjoite so dieiiitc-roHtod. 
was much more steady in his view ; that Ttew being 
merely, an I pre-fume to tJiink, a great office forbiioself. 
Finding Iliat a more general concert could not at this 
time he compnaaed, he agreed to become Lord Cliancellor 
bt once, leaving the accet^isioQ of otbero to tbe eBecta 
of time. The Great Seal was acconliugly plured in his 
handa before tbe e&euing mouth of Jimuary had cloeed. 

Tbo muinteDanoe of peace was not yt-t to be despaired 
of. M. Cbuuvclio bod remained in Loudon, and desired 
to prt)»cnt bis cred«iitial« as JiUnister of tbo French 
Ilcpublic ; aud tbero aUo at ttiii juncture i:»uic from 
I'unK, though witliout official charoctur, il. Marct, better 
kuuwn iu subsequent years as the Duke de Uassauo. 
But tbo French Government, Ouithcd with iU late 
victories. WU8 ill-iacliucd to rulinqui^ its ambitious 
views on Holland, which wo were bound by treaty to 



Chip, Xn. 

protect. And meanwhile there took pWe at Pam a 
transaction which, beyond any other oanse, rent Trance 
and England aannder. Tlie dethroned Iving, after 
being harassed during many days by the fomia of n 
mock trial, under the nicknanio of Louis Capet, was 
declateJ to be guilty, was condemned to dentb by a 
narrow majority of the Cnnvention (that majority in- 
cluding his craven kinsman Fhilippo EgnlitiS), and his 
head fell beneath the gnillotino on tbo morning of the 
2l8t of January. An micnntroUable thrill of horror ran 
through the nations of Europe. Mourning was com- 
monly worn in England in grief for this judicial murder. 
"An event," said Lord Loughl)orough a few daya 
afterwards in the Hotwe of Lords, " which lia9 not only 
changed the garb of tlie nation, but seemed to impress 
every imlividual in it with sorrow." * 

In London, on the 24th of January, immediately after 
the first tidings, there was issued an order of the King 
in Council comnuinding M. Chauvelin to depart within 
eight days from His Majesty's dominionft AsitchancedJ 
a jwisitive recall had likewise on the preceding day been 
des[iatched to him by his chiefs at Paris. Both parties, 
indeed, were now equally convinced that a conflict had 
become not only inevitable, but close impending. On 
the Ist of FebrUftiy the Fi-ench Government took the 
final step by a Declaration of \\''ar against England and 
Holland. A similar Declaration against Spain followed 
ou the 7th of Marcli ; and thus, the last hopes of peace 
departing, did tbo trumpets once more souud to battle. 



'SpeooliufFt^b. 1. ItilS, 







Ectronpoct of the Ant port of Pitt's Admiiuitrntion — Controvprde* 
en tho miponcl pail — riltR^pcocli on tliu Addirm — Hk Frcuuli 
policy BUppoH«i by Purliument — Coiuiui'in'i'iiieiit wf Ottiiipiilgpi — 
Di.'ftuLt aii'l ili.-ftt(<tivn i>r l>iiiiioiiriox — Itobi-fpirrnt — Kdfpx of 
TtfTor — Riling in La VnndAi — BnrrwuJot of Ooudiv VolRnciviuitiN, 
Mill Miiji.-tiiip— Blege of Tbulou — Dinpiiniicin wiil »l»n)tlil«r of 
Uin Veoiluin SLriii]r — OouifiiMt* oat of Enropi; — Political Trkli. 

With Uie Declarations of War by Franco in Fobniary, 

17it;i, or with tho prejHiralious for that wur o. few 

weeks bofoii^, the fiwt and tho peaceful [mitI of Pitt's 

adminiittratifiD ends. It was a jioriod of nine yoara — tho y* 

most prosperous and happy, perhiijis, thitt Kngland erer 

yet had laiown. I have rehiti^l how the coQsumtuato 

finauciitl skill of thu yowig Prlnie MttUKter (.■ODvertcd 

r deficiency to siirpliu, uud aiigmeDtud tlio rovcnuc while 

lesscuiiig Iho tuxes. I bavu related how & Htm and 

most resolute tone to foruign powora — us to Fnuico Id 

the cag» of Hulluud, and to ItussiiL in tlio cnse of 

Oekzttkow — was found not inconsistent with tlic- rajiid 

I expansion of coniinorco and tho almost luifXiimpled 

I growth of credit at home. And let me odd, thut the 

I benefit of those meanirea was by no meuna limited to 

I the period tbiis described, since it was mainly the Kttp 

land strcuigth impArtcd by them which enabled tho 

iDfttion to sustain nod Hually triumph over the perils of 

I thu cuuilict that uueued. 


Lire OF PITT. « 

Chap. X^II. 

Tlie i«!Cond piirt of Pitt's admin istrfttion, commencing 
in iT,)li, was of Diurly Ilie siimt- Icngtli as tLi> i'nrmer. , 
" FVnm this time," snys Bisliup TomJiiie, " to the ead I 
of his life, wq ithall have to follow him in the wlsoil 
and vigorous condnct of n war atteudvtl with circiim-l' 
. stjiuffs and (Jillicwltios niicximipleil in the bisfjiry oflj 
'^ th<i world." Bidhui) Tomliiio did nut live to fulfil hfeV 
design, and the sentouce from which I have quoted 
16 Iho lust Unit he t^vcr puUiiihcd. lint, as I conwive, he 
has riyhtly di-stribed tho iiatarc of the ta^k hi^fore him. 
At the timo Die fint purt of Pitt's ailmluistration 
was, as 1 have shown, invoighod against by Fox and 
Fos'jj £ri<>nd8 on many groiiuils of ocnsnre and with the 
Htuiiist force of invective. At [iresfjit, on the contrary, 
Fox's followers in politics seem rather incliiu'd to 
repre-^ent it iia frtse from Wtime — nay, even as entitled 
to praise. They reserve their fire to assail tlie position 
of Bishop Tomline as to the " wise and vigorous con- 
dact of the nur." Thus it la almost exclusively the 
ffwond part of Pitt's administration on which the more 
recput controveraips tnm. IVo aecTisutions of c^podal 
weight have been brought against it by Lord Macaulay. 
His ahort biography of Pitt, to which I have already 
more than once referred, seems to me, when taken aa 
a whole, diHtinguishod by candour and judgment as 
much as by eloquence and genius. But oven from 
such a qnarter grave imputations aro not to bo impli- 
citly received. In the task which I bavi- undertaken thoy 
ought to be frankly disenased. Therefore, thouf^h with 
ft]] duo deference, nith all the nvpect titat I uwo t^i 
tlio memory boUi of a groat bietoriau and of a departed 







friend, I ehall here insert some o1»eiTations nritten 
in his life-time, and designed to meet bis own cjre in 
rcfcrouoe to both hia heads of charge. 

lu the first place, then, l*itt is nccufled of showing 
110 undue sererity. Hu is chftrged (let me give the 
Tery words) "with hnr«h laws harshly pxecwted, vritli' ^ 
Alion Bills and OaggiiigllilU, witli vrm\ piintahmenta 
jnflictt'd on eom<4 political agit^itore, with mijusititiahle 
prosecutions institnttvl againxi others." These acta of 
tl«i"lA^giBhiti»e or of the Kxiinitivo Powers niny perhaps 
ri;(|n)ro to Im; sejiarati^ly judged. Tliey will Iw tt<)on and 
they may be estimated one by one in my tnibfli^nent 
pagc«t. I by uo mt^na tttaiid up for them all as carried 
into practioiil effect llirfiiighont Ui« countiy. I do not 
conceive the fiiiue of Sir. Pitt involved in everv act 


of erery lUa^tistrate or every Judge. I do not eren 
tliink it bound up with all the judicial dodaious of 
Lord Chancellor LoiighborougK, In several cuse^ ; 
then, which the adversajies of this Govommont have 
held forth and selected out of many, I do not deny, 
and on the contrary inteud to diow, that tho xeal 
of some men and the fears of others transported 
tht'm beyond the bounds of right. Uut that is not 
tim point which Lord Alacauluy puts. Uo pusses seifc* 
tonoe on thorn together and as a whole. Taken 
togotJitT, thun, it may be asked — wfaon, oven at the 
onteot of tho stmggle, mcb aceuos oocurrod u I 
have commemorated, for example at Dundee — a tree 
of Liberty planted and a crj- of "No King!" laised — 
it'hen the frenzy of tlie Jacobins, like some foul iiifeo 
tiou, spread from ahore to shore — when thousanda upon 



Ca»p. xnt 

thouHniKla of well-meauiug and till than soUep-miiidetl 
men were iinhajipily misled and oftiight the fever of 
the times — when French gold wits ns lavishly emjiloyed 
to oorrupt as were French doetriues to iuflamo — 
whether the same mild and gentle mensuron would 
still Riiftice as in mild aii<l gentle times? It is the 
well-known saying of a Frenchman at that period 
active on the side of the new ^stem, and zealous to 
excnse its excesaes, that Revolutinns are not to lie mado 
with llcise-water. This plea will not hold good for deeds 
of massacre and robbery, Init in a more limited and 
lawful- senBe it must be acknowledged to have tnith 
on its siilo. Bnt if thi« be truth, surely it is fiill e» 
trae that RevoliitJons are not to be put down with 
Rose-water. Tliereare tinien wb^n new iinii uiipiiniUeled 
dangers are only to be met by rigorous and extraordi- / y^ 
nary stretches of power. There are times when the / i 
State could be saved by no other means, r J 

I may add that tlie view of the snbjeot which I hare 
just expressed was in thorough accorrlance with tbo 
temper of the times. This, 1 thmk, can scarcely in any 
quarter be denied. The gieat majority of the people of 
England in 17^3 and 17iJ4 felt everything that they 
most prisied imperilled by the French Revolutionary 
school, and far from deprecating, they demanded a 
couKO i)f most rigorous repression. 

But there is another charge no less heavy which the 

I same critic, s^peulcing of the same period, alleges. Pitt 

I Is accused of showing too little vigour. It is said that, 

"since he did not choose to oppose himself side by 

side witli Fox to tha public feeling, he should havo 




taken tiie advice of Burke iind should Iihtc avuilod 
himself of that feeling to the full uxT*iit. IFe should 
have pioclaimed a Holy War for relipou, morality, 
property, order, public law, aud elioiihl bare tliiia 
opposed to the Jacobius au energy equal to their 
own." Lt>t it, LowoYcr, be remi.!iut>ered to what tlie 
policy of Burke iu its fiill cxteut would lead. Look 
lo his " Thoughts ou a Rfgieide Peace." See how we 
might dcduco from them tlie duty of making no terma 
with Franco unless the Bourboue were restored— of 
shuuuing an a pestilence rach a pacification as we 
attempted at Lille and actually Bchii^red at Amiens. 
Surely that is not thq course which a philosophic 
historian of the nineteenth o*?ntury, writing with a 
cktir view of the siicccvdiug events, 13 prepared to 

Hor should it be forgotten that he who preaches a 
crusade glirs up not only the good but ahio the evil 
pai^sious of a [leople. Had Pitt choeeQ to exchange tlie 
port of stateiuuaD for that of Peter the Hermit, he 
might no doubt have aroused in England a frenzy 
against the Jacobins almost et^oal to theint against 
priests and Kiugs. Bat could this object Eiave been 
cted without numerous outbre3.k» of that new frenzy 
'—without such conflagratioiiH of chapels an<i dwelling- 
houiit:ii as the political dissenters had already sugtained 
at Birmingham ? Would not, in snch a case, tJio 
memory of Pitt be deeply tarnished with blood — blood, 
not i^ltud in foreign war^e, but in strife and seditions 
at home ? 

There are still some further questions to be urged 


UfB or mr. 



An- Uu- Smt auil tW aettani of UiMe dtngee in iraA 
quilt- i;viuic<t'jni MiUi atcb other? Wonlil HIwtp beat 
}Ma8il>lt> to " pnMjkiin ■» Holy War," wJiicli Ktt is me- 
auguvd fur uot pnx-]iii[uiiig, Hud at tlip aftiue tzBs to 
ttVuMl-'tlw Alien Bills aud Ui^^giiijr Bilk " wludiKcLs 
•rmigoed for bBviug ptinud ? 

£at Ibore is vet auoUier bmodi of Has mtaad 
i^ti^ga. Wf ail' luld tluit " Uu* "P^pliBb snnv ttailer 
Pitl vru tlvj IiiU{;hiug«tud£ uri:UirDpc'° We kiv lold 
Uutt, " gnsut m PillV abilitiee wutu, liie tniUurv ■lUniB- 
wUutiuu wat) Uut of b dtivelloc* We sie nqnirad 
to believe tbat » stahMnao ai^owled^ed M fSe- 
«tiuiieutlT gnatt is pwtce, Ipcante at once lidioB- 
kiiuljr littlt ID war. Xet, in tralli, Histmy Iwars oo 
V^g^i""'" waud, sod di^sTB soaroe aof of sdcL md- 
deo and tnupmio^' cbaugec No doubt thit dnnS 
PittV admiiuMtratjuii tikore vere many nuKaniageB 
ty Uud U) wf i^aiast uur rictoriee at sea. ISw 
aaloc iato ottoodod all tbe lunueti which at that iioriod 
wen- UTRijrvd ngiunirt Fniooe. It was no easy nnthr to 
provaiJ uvur a uutton ut all timcw most biave and war- 
likt, Bud tlwo iullaua<i to « pRftematim] atm^tli br its 
fer^Jationary ardour. Wbes, tliendare, tbe Sd^HA 
Httay u deidated to faaTo bees at iJiat pmod di* 
taughing-fltook of Euiope, it maj* be aaked what other 
Europeuii armjr bad pennanently eujo^'ed better fiw> 
tone or <miB justly entitled to omile at oora? 

It is ali<» to Ix) bonw ia mind tliat the militKiy faihtrw 
lure laid M/K-ly to the charge of Pitt, eootniDed kmg 
after Iltt bad v«as»l to be. With the greatest of all. 
UiA oxpoditioo to Walchcren, be wm not at all, exix-pt 






jin kindred, conuc<eted. The tniUi is ttiat out Geiicnils 
[ftt Uiat period woro for th« tnc«t ))art anything tut nton 
Wgonim. Lord GrenriUe, writing to his hmtlier id strict 
•confidence on the 28th of Jannary, 179!), asks : '■ WTmt 
officer Hiive we to oppose to onr domestic and external 
enemies? . . . Some old woman ia a red rilHind." ' 
Xlie truth is then that these tuiscarriages in our militury 
eut«i-itrisea, far from being confined, as Iiord Slacanlay's 
'8t«teni<>nt would imply, to Pitt's administrstioD, went on 
■ with lew fixceptiona in regular and mortif^ng series, till 
happily for us and for £un:^ tbore arose a man as great 
in the field as w»8 Pitt in the Council — till the valonr 
which had never failed our troops, even in their worst re- 
verses, was led to victory by the surpasattig gvnius of 
Wellington. If then itcaa beshown that PittasPrime 
Uinii4or slrovo wltli uiireniittiug toil by day and night 
for till- success of that war in wliich ho had rcluct^iiitly, 
but on a Jiigh sense of duty, engaged — if in his plans 
he consulted the most ekilfut officers ui his power 
— if in his diplomacy lie laboured to build up new 
coalitions when the first liad crumbled away — if for 
that object he poured forth subsidies witli a liberal, 
nay, ae his enemies alleged, a laviah band — ^if he 
lUKht to strike tj»e enemy wbcnerer or wherever any 
■Tulucrablo point lay bare, on tho northern frontier 
whvu in concert with tlio Austrian armies, on the 
ifouthom coast when Toulon had risen, on the west- 
coast when a civil war broko out in l-a Vendee 
Jt fieoms bard that, having striven bo far as a civilian 
luld strive for tho success of our arms botli by land 
[and sea, tho reverses on the former abonld be ra^ upon 

un: OF PITT. 

Chap. XVII. 

Ilia momoiy, whilst n( the same lime hfl is allowcil iio 
laorit for our triutuplis ou the latter. Thftt merit u 
deelnr«d by tlie Bame (-ritic to belong to "one of lliose 
cliii-^fs of tliu Wliig jMirty, who, in the great schism 
f-au^uil by tlie Freuf^b Revolation, bad followed Burke," 
Tliis wiU! Earl Speuoer, as First Lord of the Ailmiroltj 
since the close of VJSi, " To him," continneB Lord 
Hocaulay, " it was owing that twice iu the short epuce 
of eleven months we had days of thfinksgiFJiig for great 
victorii'B." Thoro is no doubt that Loi-J Si)fitci.*r nt llio 
Admiralty waa an excollout administrator. There is no 
doubt thut Lord Cliutham was far from a good one. 
Still, however. Lord Macaulay* atatemeLf, m I have 
cited it, does not seem to recognise the fact that 
tile greatest of our oaTal victories, at that period — 
the battle of the First of .Tune — was foiiglit not with 
Lord Spent'er but with Lord Chatham at the bend of 
the Admiialty lioard. But, waiWng that jioint, is this 
the one weight and one measure? When our armies 
retreat, the Prime Minister is solely tn be blamed! 
When our fleets prevail, the Prime Minister is to have no 
sharo in the praise I 

These few remarks, which I make unwillingly, may, 
however, tend to show tliat Mr. Pitt iu bis conduct of 
the war against llevolutionary France waa as far re- 
moved from the "driveller" that Lord Macaiilay calli 
him, OS from the " demon " whom houb French writeis 
have pnrtrayetL But from this more general surrey I 
now resume the progress of my narrative. 

On the dismiasion of M. de Chauvelin, papers were 
presented to both Houses iu the name of the King, 




allowing tie grcttt probiibiUty of an imjx^niliiiz nipluro 
with France. A(ldro)«»s in r(ij>ly to asHiire Ilis Maj«sty 
of tbeir corJial assistance were moved in the ComnKms 
by the Prime Minister, and in the Lords b)- the Foreign 
Ht'L^rftary. It was the Isl of Febmary — the samo day 
u» it chanced on whicJi at Paris war waa actually de-' 
dared. Mt. Pitt began his speech by an eloquent de- 
nunciation of the calamitous erent of the 2l8t, "the 
fimlest and most atrocious deed," he said, ** which the 
hietoiy of the world has yet had occasion to attesti." 
And he recited against it some Iin«s of Statins, whidi 
the great historian Be Thou had formerly applied to 
another dark scene in his country's annals, the Massacre 
of St. Dartlioloincw :— 

" Excidat ilia dies ffivo. noo postera crcdnut 
Stectda; iius ceii^ laceamua et obruta multil 
Nocto Icgi iioMtnu pntiuiuur criniinii gondii," ' 

With no less oloquejice he went on to coutntst the ruio- 
uufl anarchy of Fruucci with our own prosperity and free- 
dom. He conijmrod tli« eitnatioa of Kngiaud — a vom- 
parisnn which since Iii* tjino lias been frequcotly ro* 
peated — to the situation of Uio tomjierate Jtowo on the 
Boiftce of th« jrloU.', " forniod by the bounty of Provi- 
dence for hfibitntion and o-njoymeiit, being tiqiially re- 
moved from the Pohur IVosts oa tho one bond and the 
scorching heats of tli« torriil rcg;ion on the othor. In tht^ 
coontry," ho added with jugt pride, " no man in ixmao- 
quence of his riches or rank is so high as to be above 

' TheM Uuoa are from the Sglmrwa ot StDtioi^ lib. t. div. 2, 

vol. n. ' K 



cnij. xvrr. 

tho rejicli of tlie Iflwi*, oiid no man is m poor or iDcuDsi- 
titrable as not to be witliiu tlu-ir protectioii.'' 

TL^cuuree of Mr, Pitt towunla Eevolulionftry France 
receivGil the cordial support of by tiir tho {jreuter part 
of tliL- Opposition iu both Houses. In llii- Lords scarcely 
mure than four Pcor« voted or sigiwd proti.wts uguiiifit 
it — the Eftrlfi of Luudt'rdalc, Derby, and Stanhope, nnd 
tho Marquis of Laiisdownc. In the Common)!, bofore 
thU Session closed, Jfr, Fos brought forward two luo- 
tioiis for pence, and on uoitbcr uccosJoii coulii hi; muster 
80 muny us fifty votos. 

Thus also a BUI, which Fox with groat warmth de- 
nounced, providing uew rcHtrictioim nnd pcnaltiee on 
any traitoious corrt'aiwndcnce with tlie euemy, wu* iie- 
vertholtiss carried through Parliament with a liigb baud. 
It was introduced on the pai-t of the Grorermueut by 
the Attomey-Geueral. Since tlie begimiing of tlie year 
that olUco was no longer hijld l>y.Bii' Au-liibnld Mac- 
donuld. He had been jtromoted to th»s Ilonch and been 
tuccocdctd by Sir John Scott, while tlie new Snlicitoi^ 
fiencral was Sir John Mitford, afterwanU Lord Redes-, 

The aimpaign commenced early on tlie Kido of Flan* 
ders. Scarce a fortnight from tlio Declarations of War, 
Dumonriez crossed tlio frontier and invaded n<i]hiDd, 
but he was soon recalled to the Meuso by the advaueo 
of the Prince of Sase-Coburg at the head of some Ana- 
Irian foreca. On the 18th of Blareh the two ivnm*» 
engager! at Neerwinden, when, in spite of great cxcrtiuu^ 
DumoiiricK found himself defeated. Tho result of the 
battle was that the Austiians recovered the whole of 



Bel^um almost as rnpktly as they bad lost it. From the 
Lower Rliino also tlie l''ren<^I] were driven back to 
Aliiacp. llie city of ilayence, in which they left a coa- 
siderable garrisou, woic beedeged, and after an obstinate 
resiatanoe taken by the PriKsians. 

The roiml of Diiniinirii'z waa flUed wilti chagrin at 
his rererae yf fori uiits wliich bo ascribed wholly to the rul- 
ing Jacobios. "Sees" heori«l to aU comers, "how thene 
fooliRb men ii«glect<.-d my roqiUj«itiou8 and iv>ntroll«i(l my 
I>Iaiis ! " He detur ruined to make tt stand Uf^nst Uxar 
luithiirity, and to n-store tlio Constitution of 1791 with 
a Prinoe of the House of Orlean« at it« head. His first 
step was to entor into secret con)miuiieHtioii.-i witii the 
ohiefs of the Austrian army — the Frinw of Hiixe-Coburg 
and Oenoi-al Mack. His next was to seiat; »»"1 send 
brer to hia new fiends as captiveii BeomonTille, tbo 
Hinieter of War, witli four de[iutie>i of tlie Convention 
who had come to lii^ camp nod who 8imimon»l bim to 
Paris. But the Freneli troops were now far U-tier in- 
clined to tlieir own (Juvenimont tfian tliey liad bin^n 
Burae montlis Ix^fore, I*«mouriez found it imjMissihle to 
draw the great mass along with him, mid tliiis, with 
abilities ko far superior to Ia Fuyett<;'s, he was reduced 
to the same poor |>art tliat La Fayetlo luul played. On 
the 5th of April be iwiie away into the enemy's country 
attended only by a single regiment and by a few pe> 
Bonal friends, among whom vras tlie young Duke de 
Chartred, in after years King Louis Philip]>& Dumouries 
was received with great re-siwet by the Atuliinu chiefs, 
but refused to take any furtlier ]>ftrt with tliem, or to 
serve anywhere unless at Uio head d" a Freuch army. 



Biiring tJie greater part of his remaining life, which 
extendod in \S2H, tJie victor of Jemmapes fixed his resi- 
(ieat-e in England, and received a yearly pt-nsiou ol" I'JUU/. 
from tlie Engliith Government. Some writers in Franoe, 
ratlititr than iiliow any merit to tlie Duke of Welling^,on, 
luivo been inclined to give Dnmoiirifz the houi>ur of 
conducting i'mm hia English diir cliief 
Pouin^nlar battles, as some learned Counsel eittiug in 
hi* London chambers might direct a trial at Es^-ter 
or Cnrlisle. So that when viewed tliroiigti these Pa* 
risian glasses, niir great victories in trutli were not 
won by an English, bat by a French commander I ' 

The dpfection of Ihimouriez led to tlie downfall of the 
less extreme party at Paris, which was known by the 
Damn of the Uironde, Every man who desired to stop 
short of thu must furions cxceiwes wa^ l>oot«d at as a 
friond of the fugitive Guucral. as an adhcrpnt of "Pitt 
and Cuburg," for by tliat stranger amalgum was tho 
foreign Coalition oxprcHsod. Tho JucobioB BUcccieded 
in vipsting all the powers of the State in a small Oom- 
mttteo of the Convention called the " Committee of 
PiiWic Safety," and in that Committee Kobesiiierre had 
the main ascendant. Bobcapiorro waa now in truth the 
master of France, and his ferocious reign is well de- 
scribed in the oxjireMive phrase which his countrymen 
have ever since applied to it — the Keign of Terror. Ilia 
r^vtem of government as against hia enemies was clear 
and simple, and invariably tho same — the Guil!otin& 

* *■ On Iiu tttWlmn 1ft muilU-urc 
portio des (lll«ll^» 'Iv Vltli>riii," .^c. 
Boo in Out Nauvulln Dio|^pUJc 

O^n&nle of Didot the utlole Dh- 
iiimirifi by M. Foul do Cluun* 



LIFE OF pirr. 


No rank, no age, no sex iraa spared. In October were 
sent to iJie acafTold the young and eloquent chiefs of 
the (J^irondo, in the same mouth QIarie Antoinette, once 
Queen of France, ^n NoTember Philippe Egalite, <mco 
Siiko of Otleiuis^ vho met his doom in otter Bilenoe ; * 
in Xovemlier &\mo Madame Itoland. who in pafsing by- 
bowed her heod before the statue oi Lilierty, aud spoke 
these memorable words : " Oh I Jlierty, how many crimes 
are coumiitUxl in thy name I " 

Tlie Guillotine was by no means tlie only expedient 
for clearing the prisons in France. Not, of course, that 
there was any release or meicy to the priaouera. But 
in the provinces the executions were marked by ogrd-ablo 
varieties denoting a plaj-ful wit. l^hus at Nantes, for ex- 
am[d^ the pt^tical prisoners, taalo and female, being 
drawn from their cellx and piniunod, two luid (wo to* 
gcther, were cast into the river, tlieBu exvfutioiu being' 
known by a JDOulor byword an tJie " Mum'u^'s of tho 
Loire." By confiscatioDii and heavy fines upon tJio ricli, 
as well as by largo issues of depreciated Assignat«, 
it was sought to supply the failure of regular taxes 
and the ruin of public credit. The Cliristiaii Ueligion 
was declared to be aboUalied with all its rites and wre- 
monies, and in their plafo vna mibstituted the worship 
of the Goddess Beusou. To personify this Goddess a 
courtesan not too much enciunbered witli attire waa 
conducted in solemn state to the high altar of Kotre 
Bame, tliere to receiTO tbo homage of the crowd. 
The bust of Horat, one of the vilest of the mob- 

• Sm Um Jonmul of Mn. DolryiujiU Elliott. i<. iS). ed. 16HI, 




l>anipliIetoots, wlio Imfl been stabbed in his bath by 
Charlntle Cmilay, an entbiisiaat on the opjiosite si^e, 
was carried round as auutbei' filting nbjcct of devfttum, 
And thii among the eouiitiyiueD of'I^]a^id audFt^clou ! 

Yet in mauy planes of J""r)inoe and l)y many persons 
this abominable Heigii of Terror was most bmvely op- 
posed. The gieat commercial cities of Lyons and Mar- 
Bfiilles, the important maritime fortress of Tonlon, cast 
off the yoke of tlie Jacobins, though without proclaiming 
Koyalty, and sooner than submit prepared to stand a 
6w^, Still more important was the rising in La. 
Vendue. There Borae forty thousand of tlio peasantry 
fpithered in arms for the defenre of their ChunJi and 
Ivitig, mid they gained some brilliant sueoesses in their 
first conflicts with the Ilepubliean troopt. Tlieir leadens 
woro in part of their own rank, like Stofflet, who had 
borae H gun as gamekeeper, and Catlielineau. who bad 
drivoii a team of horses ; and in part of nobles from iho 
ii»ighboiiriHg efutteaux, as Messieurs d'Elb^e, do Leecaie, 
and uboTu all Ueuri do La Itoche Jaqudein. But all 
of whatever rank disjilayed the most ardent and duvuted 
courage. Onco as 1* ItocJie Jaqaelein le<l on somo of 
his now luvies, equipiied witli litHe beyond Kcythes and 
»tav«8, ho pointed to au advancing wgimunt of " th& 
IJluei;," for so they always called llie regular troops^ 
"I promised you," he cried, ■■arms, ammunitioii, and (ir- 
tillory. Yonder they ore — let ns rush forward and take 
thrni ! " And take them they did. 

Such was the yoiing hero, let me say in passbg, who 
when struck dead by a miukct-ball before he had 
attained the ego of twenty-two, left hfhind him, even at 


OP pii 


that early age, ii dear flud imperislmWo inciiifliy anoDg; 
his fuiintrjincn of Im Vcudei-. " Kvoii now," so wrote 
iu ISII) one of tiie [>artAkers of bin perils, ''there b not 
s pendant whoso eye does not light up when he«s 
how he wervetl under Monsieur ffeitri."* 

Still, however, in many parts of Franoe, and espe- 
ciaUy iu Paris, which was peimitt^d 1o giudc them all, 
the frenzj' of the multitude kept pace vith the frenzy 
of thfir i-uIerR. .Ah the df^dly axe fell &om day to 
day ou hun<Iredi( afti-r hiitidn-cls of iuaoocnt Tictinis, 
th<?re waA no wjt't^iiing of coniiwssion lowtmls thi^in, but 
only the louder pries agaiust "Pitt and Coburg" — 
fi^uinst the tynmiiy of Kings — the i]t9o[(»H<e of the 
Nuhk's — find the juggler's play of the FrieHthood! 
AgftiuMt the English ^Iiuistt-'r eepeoiiUly the violence of 
popular declAiiiution Ieduw do kounaH. Evon anion^ 
the morp niodemk- Glroodias wv find him dt^'sig- 
nsted as " tliat monster PitU" But uUbough the 
democratic mgc ngaiuMt liim coutiuut-d iu full force 
during thv next few yearti, it iti lumarkublo that the 
grountU of accusation wt-rt- from tiaio to liniL- ix>ui- 
pletf-Iy changiicL During tlit- JJa'gu of Torror it wae 
Huid that be had tn his piiy all thv diief Koyulivts of 
Franct^ exciting tlu^ni not only to 0[)(^ roustunoo o» iit 
LyouB and Toulon, but also (•> »\iv]\ ovil AcmU ns the ast' 
sassiutttion of Marat. Aft<T tlio It'igu o! Terror ilwns 
tmid that be had in his |)ay aJl t}i« chief Jn«obiiis 
of FmnL-o, urging them forward by dint of KngliHli 
guint-os, aud truirtiug by their excegses to cost m\av aud 

* Mtfmolrei Je HiatlMita iltt k RuuIja JuqutJuiii, p. i&. 



p. XTU, 

more disgracL- ou tli« Eerolntionary wn]8t>. Aixl bq far 
as we irnw ciiu gwf.lier, tht.w 0|)jii.isilt3 L'hargea were 
received by the samo piililic witli &u equal credulity. 

It may be ustwl Low with Frnnoo tliii* distrarttd and 
divided tho Coalitinu «j;winat Let coiild fail of rapid 
and com|ili'ti> siioci-ss? But the Cualition was by no 
means Hi:> Iiirgi- or m t'oruiidablu as at flrst sight it 
Heomed. Ihis-sia and Sweden stood aloof in an ambir 
guous Htat» between p?Jii^ and war. SpaiD and Sar- 
dinia did no more than nibble at the sontbern frontiers. 
I'riisaia appeared to be tiiUy satisfied with the sieg« «f 
Mayenne, and resolutely bent against any new aggres- 
sive operations. The Dntoh looked only to the pro- 
tection of their own tenitoiies. And thus tlie brunt of 
tliu war fell mainly on the Auatriana and the English. 

A^ H^anU thii latter tlioro were about ton tbou;«ttnd 
troojis ri;-^(dy for the defence of Ilollaiid when invrtdwl 
by Duuiyuriox. Bfing now troe of llwt iliity, tliey 
were desigiie*) to tJike imrt in tJio esuipiiign of Fluudera, 
and aoeordingly thvy wctre biud^'d at Osteud. Their 
OCHuniander wiis Frtderiirk Diikv i)f Ymk, who fifim 
early yonlh hud (ij>plierl hiiow-lf witli a-iil to the mili- 
tary service. It was liojiod tbnl hie [wsition as one trf 
the King's sons would cliccr and pk<ase llie ti-oops, while 
ki^ want of oxjierieuoo miglit bo supplied by older 
officers at his eido. 

The Duke of York having joined the Prince of 
Coburg, the two Commanders t'oiind tlieinselves opposed 
to General Dampicrre as snccestsor of IJiimoim'eit. Ue 
had taken post at the camp of Famars in front of 
Valenciennes, and desired to remain ou tlie defensive 



till rouiforcemouU sliouM arnTO ; bnt being uiged for- 
>ranl I>y doputios from tht' Couvoulitm, hu utftuked tho 
Allies oil tile 1st, and agaiti oii tlic 8tli of May. Oa 
both ocoAsious Win troops ynin rcpuhcd : on tbc last he 
was mortally wounded. 

The French omiy, iniiuli weakened, retired KkorUy 
t)ftefward& to another position iii Iroul of Jioucliain, 
called from some old intreuchiiicut^ tho Camp of 
Cffisar; and tlie Allied Chiefs hold a Council of War. 
There Gouenil CkTfuit. and tlio I>iikc of Yoi-k strongly 
pressed an immediate ndrauco into tho lioai-t of Franco. 
On tlie other hand it was ooateiidfd by tho I*riiico of 
Coburg and General Mm-k that tiio safer «jid surer 
Iilaii, and suoh as was pix'seribed by " the best writers,' 
would be in the flr*rt [ilaoo to reduce the bimler lor- 
t i-osaos. Theeo counsels of dry routine prf vailed. With 
one body tho Prince of Coburg undertook to obserre 
the French in Cssar'a Camp, wbUe another division 
was to blockade Oonde, and another to befiiege Valen- 
ciennes. The latter and most important operation wan 
ontrustetl to the peKonol command of the Duke of York, 
lint Valeni^icimt^, tliough moet i^'amily attacked, vas 
with equal ardour defended. The French Commauder, 
Goneral Forrand, sustained forty-one days of bombard- 
ment, until tho greater part of the town wan laid in 
BshoE Hiid nmrly half liis gnrrifion hod pcnHhed. He 
did not surronder until towards (bo close of July, when 
bin remaining troops were ollonod to march out vritli 
tho bouours of war. Shortly before, iJio small town 
Conde, closely blockaded, had been compelled to 
yield to famiua 


MFB or PWT. 

Cajip. : 

Evpn after fhe Bticcessfiil brmination of theso sieges 
tli« Allipd fliioffl pmild not decide on any movement in 
advance. They did, indeed, by a joiut operation drivo 
the Prenoh from the Camp of Cicaar, as Uicy Ltul 
already from tlie Camp of Fumnre. But tlien tbcy 
-OUce more divided. With the English, the Haiiovo- 
riaue, and some regiments of AuitlrianH, the Dokc of 
York undertook t[i« idcgo of Dunkirk, wliile Gt^ieral 
Oitrrfait led another body to the sicgi^ of Lf- Qiie-snoy. 

But bi'hidcs ttic lu-aitaUon of the Allies u|Kiti tho 
frontkT, tliLTo iVL-re oth<^r pi^nl.t in their condnet moat 
till fit vourabU; to/heir cause. The eity of Mayeuoe had 
eurrendpted on nearly tho same day as the town of 
Valenciennes. From Mayence there marehed out a 
garriflon of twenty tbouiwnd excellent troojw; from 
Valenciennes ft {jfarrison of eight thimsond. On both 
tho 9«nie teriri!* liad l»i!en imposeil— freedmn to go home, 
with an engagement not to serve against tho Kniperor 
or hLi allies for the period of one year. But no thought 
waa taken, no condition made in behalf of those brare 
men who in I-a Vend«e or along the Rhone had risen 
against the tyranny of the Convention. Against them, 
aa though nnworthy the care of the Allies, tlie two 
garrisons were left at full liberty to turn their anna. 
Berere, as the mouth-pieee of the ruling Jacobins, 
liaMened to [»gint out and to gloat over this omission. 
The garrison of Mayence was despatched by forced 
inarehcs to La Vendee, and the gairiEon of Valen- 
cieimes to the Ithone — with what fotal effect will pre- 
eeutly bo shown. 

Still worse in its moral influence, if woroo be pos- 




fiible, was aoothei' act of the Auelridu cliiufs. Oii tlio 
smretider of Comic and of Vulcucieuiif« lliey had takim 
poexemion of both tovms m solciuu, iiay, oslimtatious 
form, not as plocea to he hold duriug tlic war — not id 
thu uamo of the eaptivo Eiiig Louiit tJio Sevcutoeuth, 
but as vonquvslsoi their own, iw pomianont uddilioim 
to the AiLstriiui Nctlii^rlnuilK. Iii vain did Itloii^ioiir 
iit thu uumv of tho French PriQC(« pn>t«xt ngiuust thii* 
lurt; in vain did DumouriL^z, thou at BruMvli^ arouse 
tho iudiij^mtiou of the latt-r ojulcw. It was pluiu tJiat 
tho cnrly views of nioileratiun hail bccii laid OMda by 
the Auijti'ian Cubiuct; that th« couneols of Pitt had 
not prcvuilcd ; that tho curlailnieiit ol' the French ter- 
ritory at least, if not tliu partition of Frauc".-, wa« now 
ill view. 

Buppofing for a momnnt that the Allien had pursued 
no such »iiii-idal Roune — that tlie spirit of gn>rtly »elf- 
iuterast hud ket^n wiUihcld — timt tlie syRlom of old 
routine in tlw frontier singi'S had. be«i oast aside — 
what result, it may be a»ked, wouhi have attended a 
foruard movement to the capital? In all probability 
it would hiive boen crowne<l with complete siiceetis. 
With Eiigligli, Dutch, and Ilanoverians, in atldition to 
the Imperial troops, the IVinco of Cobwg could have 
mustered full eighty thousand men. The French in 
the Camji of C-iRsar had scarcely mors than hnlf us 
many. First, then, defeating the French army, or 
loaring behind a large division to keep it in cliock, the 
n^maining forces might hare boldly advanced, and 
woidd havh found nn obstafle of any kind on tht-ir road 
to Paris. Paris itself at their approach would have 



Cb«P. XTlt. 

probably rieien, in part at least, ftgaiiist ita lyrants. At 
all events, it iuuJ tJien no fortifieil works Riid no rejrular 
troops to ddend it. And tor the Allitti to enter Paris 
would be to end tlie IteToIution. To put down the 
bawlora of the Jacobin Club and the pikemen of tho 
Faubomg St, Antoine would be to pnt down at that 
time the acknowledged rulers of France, 

It must be owned, however, that the project of n 
rapid advance into the he-trt of France as urged in 
1703 seemed wild and rash, and in fact did startle the 
common run of politicians &n jvaM as the common nm 
of Generals. When in April, 17i)4, Mr. JenkiuscHi 
ventured in the llouain of Coiumona to declare his 
approval of it, tlic ideal was roci-ivtnl vritli derision. 
Long ftfturwtinU, uuil »ine« by tlm pruniotioa of bis 
fiather to an Earldom in ITi't! he bad become Lord 
Hawkesbury, tlie ivords " Ixird Hawkesbniy's march to 
Paris " were Uie bnrtlien of iimny a jest or sattrii-al song 
against Mm. 

It must likewjae bo ownvd that the most fuvonrablo 
opi^ortunily to strike t)iii> blow, like all favonrahlo op- 
]>ort unities, quickly pu««vd iiwuy. Thu indi^utioii 
arousL-d by th« conduct of tlio AUivs on tlio eurroiidvr 
of Maycncc and Vak'nciouut* IobI. them tlic pro«[K;ct of 
French adlicsions, aud tended in uo suiull (Ifjiroi- frt 
recruit the oi)[»oaitc ranks. Mi^nijvtT us regards thy 
last point wo mubl bear in mind thnt tbo cfTiMrtH of the 
French Itevohition bad been in part for good, Tbo 
, ttbolitiou of griudiug tiiscs liko the Oahelle, and of 
arbitrary arrests as by the LeClrea ifc Cachet, and the 
substitution of L-ijuality before the law in tlic place of 


iu^ignorial privitcge8 nud immnnities> luul sUm^ vp in 
loany |iliici-x » [lowcrftil outliuauum, abuvu »U with the 
youug ttinl tlio bold. Uuilcr uU tliceu oiroHnistanoes 
m'w ]e\iiis in great numbers flocked to the Tricolor 
standard, and fillod tho nmks of tlie BeTolutionarr 
armie.^ Firc<l with no common ardour, and nevvr for 
a moment belyin;£^ tbo martiul spirit of thoir raoi>, 
they 8«cmed ciiriilcss alike of danger, pHvution, and 

Tli<- Iriiits of ihix new spirit ntnt appeared, ^^'l1en 
the Didu'of York iin>cocdi4l with the etege of Dunkirk, 
he found two limve GcueraU agoinKt him — HooJie 
within and llouchard without thu walls; and he was 
assailed both by Ratlins from the garrison and by 
attacks from the large rt-lioving forw. Ills own army 
was dinded iuto two corps: the one of obg^-atiun 
imdtT tlio Hanoverian MarshftI Frej'tag and the Hered- 
itary Prince of Orange; tlie other of siego, which was 
eommauded by himself. Rut witli the latter he could 

ike no real progrvss for the want of a battering train 
%rl)idi he impatiently oxpwted from England. On the 
I8th of August th<9 Prince of Orange gained an advan- 
tage over titu Fruueh ut the village of Lincollcs, but ou 
the 8th of SoptenibtT wtus woretod at the Tillage of 
llondaclioota This action ami tli*- cnntinm«l want of 
heavy canuen compelled the Duke of York to raise the 

Nor bad the Prince of Cuborg any better sncoeai. 
The snmll [ilace of Ijr Qiicsnoy did inde4?d aiinemler to 
Gen o ml Clerfait, Imt immediately ai'terwanU the 
French, having received large accessions of new levies. 




compelled Imtli Clerfait an'l Coburg to raise ihe Bicgeof 
Maubeiige and to fall back behind the Sambre. Some 
smitUer operations followed with but slight result. And 
thii8 iud(M;iidvely imded tills canipuijjii. 

Meouw-hilo tho ciiicfii of the C'ouvcntJon di^iilayed a 
teitiblt! otiei^ against tbc insiir^^nta within the limits 
oi France. Lyonei was retaken and laid waHte with fiie 
and swonL ltd buildingB were ordered to be razed to 
(be fj^ound ; lia very name was declared to be oUitemtcd, 
iiiid changed to Commune AffrancMe. Marseilles in 
like manner wait coninttllaitii vifldtothc Revolutionary- 
troops; and Toulon only for a time escajitid the same 
fate by proclaiming Louis the Seventeenth, and falliug 
in tlie aid of an English flijnadron under Admiral Lord 

Lord Hood could laud no more tlian fifteen 
huu<lri.'d mon eui nvuiluble for the dcfonce of the 
town. But, l)Ctiidu8 Borne small eueooim from thn Sar- 
dinian and Neapolitan Hnni<!«, the Spaninli Admiral 
Langtira brought three thunsand mou from the coast 
of Catalnuia, and Genvrwl O'naru two fuot regimenta 
from the garrison of Oibrultur. Sir Gilbert Elliot 
also arrived fVom England for tlie civil direction of 
afiuirs, being nssociAted in that object with O'llars 
and Hooil. The tlireo Comniissiomirs loitt no time 
in ittsoing a joint Deolnruliou eoutauiing a solemn 
pn>migt> iti Itie Majesty's name, tliRt on thu restoration 
of monarchy in France, and the conclusion of a treaty 
of peace, tlie fortress of Toulon, with all the ships and 
Bupplies, should be faithfully restored. 
, Sut honeTerin^>iri1iug might bu tliis proruise to the 


Boyaliels of Toulon, they found ibemselrra by no 
means able to maintain tlieir ground. Their iU-assorted 
ftlli«s — Englitib, Sardiuiaus, Neapolitans, and Sponianls 
— even when added to themselves, were far ontnum- 
hered by tlieir Kepablioan besiegers. And Rlthough 
the great importance of assisting tlw^m was both felt 
and acted on by the English Gorernment, their fato 
Cftme to a decision before freab snccour eould nirive. 
The attacks made upon their pa»ts were freqnent and 
formifUlile; and Uie artillery against thero was under 
the dirculion of a young Corsican officer, whose name, 
then first risiug to distinotiou, was ere long to resound 
with Borpassiug fame tlirouj^buut the world. This was 
Kttpcloon Bonnparto. 

Gcucritl O'Hiini, beiHgcloaoly pressed, triod a sudden 
and TigoroDs sally, but he wa« wounded and takon 
prisonw, whilp hut troops were ropuUed On the ItJtli 
of Doi^mber tlie hosifgnre ohtaincd possession of llie 
fort which eoiniuandftd iJie inner luubmir, and tho Allied 
ti-oops foiind tWniselves compelled without delay to 
rclinqiiiifli llie Xovrti and re-enilNirk. Hy jjir-at t'Xvriioii* 
on tile part fif tlie HpaniHli and l'^ngli»li Adniirnlis scvend 
thoiii<nii<U of tlie lt<.yalist!*— and tho ]toyali)4« hail 
flocked to Toidon from all partu of Pn>Tonce — were put 
on board, and secured from Ilie voiigcnnci! of their coun- 
trymen. Some Fruncb ships ready for sea ttailed forth 
under Admiral Trogoff, one of their own chiefs; tlie 
n'inainder, with the areenal and stotea, were committed 
to the flamen. It was a night of terrible hnroc and 
affright, and of slaughter also whiiu tho infuriati'd 
Itopublieans marched in, ' 




Not less afflicting: were the Bcenes in La Vendi'e. 
Tbo ferocious troops from IVrayeuco had been let looae 
upon tbo opun country, and Itad treated it nsudi as 
a trib« of Mohawks might have done. At C'hollet they 
hod gircn battlo to tho iiisiir>^L-ut army, when the latter 
had been woreted. D'EIWc, Bouelmmp, Lescuro, nearly 
all the insurgent fliicfs, woro mortally wounded. Tho 
remainder, dniwinf; uloug with them a coufusod multi- 
tude uf women uud cbtldreu, who ivoidd bavo been 
slaughtered had tliey stayed, croiwed the Loire and 
luarebed, half fugitives and half iuvader8, through 
Anjon, There might be eighty thousand in all. Their 
object wdB to rca<^h some point upon tho northern eoast, 
where they might receive tlio expected suecour« bom 
Kuglaiid. Accordingly they rcpuked their pursuera 
at Laral, and pui^lied onward to tho fortiHed scia-jwrt of 
Granville, which lh»?y atteinptvd to ri'duco by a omp d» 
main on tlio 14th of Nuvenilter, 

In Englftud tlieir intertwts were not fotgottcn, ne they 
had been at Mtiyenoeand Valcncioimes, Au expt^ditioii 
for their aid wa« ftttfid out under Lord J^loimVcuntmiind. 
But whether from any delays that might have beua 
avoided, or from tlie inherent diflicnllics of tlie fierviotf^ 
lliat i*xpf.-dition citmo too late. When Lord Muira at 
Joet appeared off the const of Normandy, be found that 
the Vcndeans had left it ten days before. 

Failing in their attempt upon GranTille, and sus- 
pecting their chie& of a design to eecape by sea, these 
anntul peasants, never at any time very amenable to 
discipline, insisted with loud cries on uiardiing back to 
the Loire, Henri do In Hoehe Jaiiuoloiu strove against 




them m vain. He boldlj' marched forwai^ and took 
the town of ViUeilioii, hnt he fonud no more than a 
thoiLiand mon heside liim, and was compelled to rejoiu 
the main body iu retreat. Famished and footsore they 
were overt^en at I^ Man» by tho main Itepublican 
array, including a r)ivn<ioii from Mayence. An action 
ensued ; the Vendoans were utterly routed, and great 
nombera of them put to the svord. The remainder 
continued their dirininl flifjlit Itcyond Kuitt^ to Savenay. 
Thei-e, in a second action, the ronl was renewed and the 
work of slaughter ronipleli-d. Little mercy was ithown 
even to the women and chiliiron ; and of the raat mul- 
titude which had croieed the Ix>it« a few weeka siiH«, 
only a few snattered fogitiven ever agaiu set foot apoa 
the southpm shore. 

By Hea there vhb not in the course of this yoar any 
g^eneral action, but many a sbgle ship of the Freuoti 
Bt^puhlic after a gallant Bght stTUck its flag to ouk. 
And out of Europe we made sereral coD<]ues1fi. In 
India we took Chandemagure and Pondichcny, in 
North Amortca St. Pierre imd Miquelon, and in the 
Wi^t Indies Tobiigo. whilo St. Domingo and Miirtini<.'0 
were attempted in vaiu. But tht^o couqueitts, though 
important, were easy, and did not suftico to coimtor* 
hulauco the ill-impreasion whieh had been jirodiu'ed by 
tho indocisire European campaign. 

At homo, and us regards the members of the socrot 
eooietius and thoir abettors, the years 17U3 and 17iH 
were marked by a vigorous, nay i^vere exertion of the 
law. So rifi; and unrc»lruiDed hud btcome the projects 
of treason, tliat thu titrougcet meoeores of repression 



»p. XVII, 

seemed to be required by tlie public eafisty, ns most 
certainly they wore ciilled foi- by th*? public Toice. Tbo 
licence of tlie press, above all, had far oulruii uU ens- 
tomary bounds Henne in every part i>f thu isluid 
ihere ensued frequent proseeutioiis for ptJitica] offouoea. 
Hence tbroughont the ooanlry many persons eoiiwniod 
in the book oriiewiipa]W-r trades were brought t*t trisl, »iid 
convicted for eitlier reprinting or selling Tbomaa Vaine'B 
" Rigbtii of Man," and liij* "Address to tJie Addrwwcrs." 
Amongst tliem wi're Mr. James Ridgway of London, Jlr. 
Daniel Holt of Newark, and i\r. Rirhard PhilUpB of 
Leicester. A Dittsenting Minister of Plymouth, Mr. 
William \\'interbQthani, was found guilty of eomo 
seditious exprei^^ions in two seiinons which tio bad 
preached. Anotln-r proMMnition was directed against 
Messns. Lambert, Perry, and Gray, as printers luid pn>> 
])rictorB uf the Morning Chronicle. The cbarge against 
llmm wua for inserting the Address of a political Society 
at Derby, which heaped opprobrious terms on all the 
institutions of iJie ixmntry. Sir Johu Scott, the Attonioy- 
OenL-ml, exerted himself on llie one side, us did Mr. 
Erskine oa the other, and finally, after long deliberation 
luid many doubta on tlie part of the Jurymen, a renlict 
of Kot Guilty was retui-ned. 

In bcpTOb of these transactions it ia hard entirely to 
vindicate the cunduct, or at least the languiigo, of Lonl 
Chancellor Loughborough. He had alleged his horror 
of the Frendi RoToIiilionary principles as his only rw- 
eon for joining the Gowmment in advance of his party 
IriendR. 'j'u justify liis politics be a llttlo Etraiiied his 
bw. Uo rather ineliucd to fall in, at least as to minoc 



casea, witli nny st'Terity to whioli that horror in tho 
niintU nl' otlit'rs might give riiie. The strongflst of alt 
sTieh casus perhaps is one which oc«irred in Kent, An 
hoM-st ycomsn> most certamly dnuik, was ptmhed aside 
by a constahle as drunlc as liimseir, and ordered to keep 
ihe peace in tJifi King's name. Tlie answer was in 

these words : " Ti ytiu and ibe King too!" For this 

foolish expression the Quartcr-Scssiong eondenined the 
IKior man to twelve luontliit' iniprisoniueni, aud the 
Chancellor on being apptalt-d to rofustii to iulcifere. 
"To »«Ti> tliu coiuitry from Ilcvolntiou" — Dius Mpokc 
tiifl Lonlship — '* tlie aolhority of nil triburuds high and 
low must be n]iUeld." * 

But it was in Sootlnnd that wc find the most of 
violt-nco, both in the neTolutionary spirit and in the 
meamrcs against it ; and all the other trials of ITl^S 
are cast into the shade by the saperior interest of the 
eaaes of Mnir and Palmer. 

Thomas JMuir was a Scottish Adrnmte, tfae Mm t^ 
a bookseller at Gkagow. He liad lakf^n an active jiart 
in poUtioa as a speaker nt pnblie meeting)^ and as a 
member of the Society called "the Friends of the 
I'eople." Finding a cliarge of sedition brought against 
liim, he had retired to Prance and undergone a sentence 
of ontlamy. Bnt in the couri^ of tli« tmmmer, coming 
back by the way of Iralutid to his tuitivo oonntr)*, l>c 
was disouvcTod and am'Stod at Port Ptatrick. Next, 
he was indictvd for liavJng ])ubIiTiiu,>d by diiitrihutitig 
sevoral mxlitioiis works, ]iitrticularly tho^ of Thomas 

* Seo Lord QuDplx.'!!'* Livce of Uic CliaiieeKon, toI. ri. p. tUS. 


Ciri». SVII. 

Paine, and also for seditions words and speecheB. In 
llie trial wliioli eiisiiwd ni Ediiibui^h he conducted 
his own dffenofi. Overiooking, since he could not vin- 
dicate, somo language of a seditious tendency wliith was 
certainly brought home to him, he declai-ed that his ob- 
ject had only been to effect a Reform of the House of 
Commons, and he quoted — as was the usual courso of 
the defendants for sedition at this period — the early 
seeches of Mr. Pitt and the Buke of liiclunond in 
support of the same cause. On the whole he defended 
liiniwelf with eloquence, skill, and courage, and when 
he sat down the Hympathy of the audience was shown 
by repeated bursts of cheers. 

Ou the other hand, the I.ord Justico Clerk — uud 
hcia not merely the office which ho sulliod, but ttiso' 
liis name and title should bo recorded ; it was Jiobort 
MucQucL'u of Braxfield — iu suiumiug up tlie evidence^ 
with a strong bias ugutiist tliu prisoner, uft-d «ome most 
unjastitiable exprcsHiunt). Uo said that the Uuveriunuut 
of the couutry was mudo up of the landed interest, 
" which aloue hud a n'ghl to be ropresciitcd. As for tho ■ 
robble," he continued, "who have nothing but i)ur8onKlj 
property, what bold has the nation of them?" &oni4' 
months later. BIr. Fox, witJi his usual force, dououucod 
in the House of Commons this most discreditablo. 

At Edinburgh, however, the Jury returned a verdict 
of Guilty, and the Judges concurred in a scubonco 

'HoflfeIl'n8lat«TriHlA, vol. Mf!!. p. 211I.iiiuI Dcl^tn on Mr. Adam'* 
notioQ, Miircli IU, I79t. 





Hukt Thomas Muir slioold Ik- traiiKportod beyond seas 
for the term of fotirtefMi ycurs. Aud hero anotber 
gnive charge arises ^^uiiist Jy^rd ISmxJiold. It ap- 
pears from his speech, that the cheers at t3ie close 
of the prisoner's address were admitted, most unjuBlifi- 
«Wy, «« an argnnieiit against tlie pristmor himsolU 
"I muiit observe" — thus ^oke Lord iSraxfield — 
"thnt the indecent applause which vas giren Hr. 
Miiir Uud lu^lit coarinci's tnc that a spirit of dis- 
ooiitent f^ill lurks in the minds uf thu people, and 
thnt it would be diiTi^croiiiK tu allow him to remaiu in 
thiii country. TLurt (-ircnnustfiiiee, I mast my, has do 
little weight nith ni« when considering of the pvnidi* 
meut which Mr. JMuir desfirvo*"." 

In fiillilmfnt of thii* eentonce, Mr. llnir, after being 
confined for some months in theTolbuotb at Edinbui^, 
was transported to Botany liay. There he had fresli 
opportunity to show hia courage and skill. It wan 
a matter of extreme difficulty to escape from that 
settJement, visited at that time by scarce any beiiides 
convict and strictly-guarded ships. Mr. Mnir, however, 
found means to embark undiscovered for NmlJia Sound, 
thence travelling along the coast to Panama, and aerosB 
the Isthmus of Doricn, and after a short detention 
in tlie i^^lanil of Culm, finding in a Biuini^b frigate a 
safe conveyance to Europf. But during tliis Itist 
possngo he received a wound that was never jii'j'fi-ctly 
cured, and to which wns asrrilxxl Win d(-»tl> at Pari* 
in thu yitir 1799.^ Wolfe Tone, who saw him there 

r Ann. B^Un, IT1I7.P. U : and 1799, p. 0. 




in the preceding yeare, describee him in far from 
favourable tenus : " Of all the vaiD, obstinate Uork- 
htrndn tliat ever I met, T never saw bis equal." ' Since 
hia death, mi tbe contrary, aoiqe of bis own countrymen 
in SoDtland have been disposed to look on him witb 
eat vfineration, as " one of the Mai1.yrs." 
' A niuf h shorter statement will suSice for tbe case 
of the Itev. Thomas Fyslie Palmer. He was of an 
old gentleman's family in I!erkdure, but baviiig re- 
nounced the tenets of tJie Church of England, bo 
became a writer and preacher of tlie TTuifarian party, 
and a reHident of Dundee. IJaving distributed some 
papers of a Heditious character, he was brought to 
trial in September l>efi>re the Oiri'-iiit Court of Justiciary 
at Perth. His Counsel greatly relied on the objection, 
that on tbe record liis name was spelt Fische instead 
of Fyshe, and to an Engliish lawyer of that period 
tbe objccliou would have seemed insuperable. Bat 
in Scotland it was witli better reason overruled. Tho 
main dcfcjioe of Mr. Palmer was made up of tho 
usual topics — utifiortions that bis objects were limited 
to Fnrliamcntury Kulurm, and extracts from the early 
flpocchos of Mr, Pitt and the Uuke of BJcbmond. 
'rill* verdict was " Guilty." and tliu sentence, us in Mr. 
Muir's ciuw, was of transport ution, but for a leaser 
period, namely seven years. It is allegc-d llmt in 
this caw us in Mutr's, thoro hod been strvtcJiex of 
the law on other points bi'sidrs the Bcntcnce— jury- 
men admitted in sjiite of jiwt grounds of ciiallt-nge^ 

• DJurj, Fcl. 1, 17D8. 




wiliii>S8es nnduly heard for the prosecutioD, or anduly 
niiut uut from the de&nce. 

Ill tbe mine part of tbc oountry, nud before tlie cloeo 
of tbo mtiM yeur. there was a fiuliicr u;^;gmTatioD of 
tlip |K>|)riIitr violfuow, UfU-gnlia froui various ptirts 
of Sixil.taiid iiiMtuDibM ut Eiiinbuigh at tho cull of 
the " Friends of tlic Pcfjplc," and in oonwrt with tli« 
Loudou Corn^^poiiditif^ Soeiely. At ttwir first meet- 
mg one bundretl and tifly-three duly qualified ai&a- 
hiits afpeaKA. Kjubaequeutly there rame to be added 
a feiT more. Among them wero Maurice Margarot 
and Joseph Qerrald, who were th« Agi-ubi of the Lon- 
don Aswciation, and who (|uicldy took the lend iu the 
proc-cwlii]g» of thin ut-w btjdy. Among tbcm there 
was iiltio uno punon of raiik mid fortune. Lord Uacr, 
eldext HOD of tho Karl of S^Jkirb, a young mau of 
iii'dont tontpt'r and oxtrcnio opinionti. Coiidorcct, in 
his Will, dat«d ^larch 17U4, ineutions I^rd Dacr as 
one of the two persons in Orent Britain on whom 
hht infant daughter might lie tliought, rely.* So* 
Teral of liis contemporaries f<\M}tik of his aI>iIitii-« ia 
very high tcnns, and ho might not irupixibnbly have 
[ilayetl a considerable |>art in the politics of tliis period 
liad bo not been snatched away by a lingering illness, 
wlitn ou his voyage to Madeira in the coiirso of the 
tiuHuhig your. The Dulcgut^<s ut Cdiuburgh assumod 

■ "Eucai<]i> i)&:«iil^(-Ue tnm- 1 petit ftls do Fnuiklin, ou ab<s 
vandt dd rn|ipiil m Aiiifli'teiTe Jeffennu." ((Eiirren d« Ooii<lor- 
ohM Hylunl ttbinliujjp uu Mf timl uel, vul. t. p. OHi, ed. IMS,) 
Deiu,«teQ Aiu^ti>iuc chcx Biuhe, I 




the Hume of Convention, and snnght in nearly all 
reepects to ape the Convention at Paris. Tlnis 
because tbe Fronrb liad proscribed all titles, even that 
of JfonBieur, they gave to every Member's name the 
prefix of '■ Citizen." Thus (igain, because tlie French 
had ostnbliidied a new liepiililicnii Era, they datod their 
own re]jorts in the samo style, "First Vr-ar of the 
British Convention, One and Indivieible." Biit there 
was line difference strnnglyebamcteristie of the eountry* 
men of Kuox. Wliile the Kepnblicaiis of Paris in their 
new CnlcndflT Imd abolished the observance of Sunday, 
and instituted ijj its place a tenth day of rest, the 
Republicans at Edinburgh adhered to tlioir ancient 
forms of worship. They would transact no business 
coi "the Sabbath." They began and ended every 
meeting with pmycr. And when a clergyman juinctl 
them, luid xeut in u present uf books, tliey blended 
hiti old title with liiM new one, ajid returned tliunks 
to him ns " the Bev. CitizeJi Douglas of Dundee." 

The Minutes of tbe Edinburgh Convention Lave 
been published, and display a eurious mixture of 
simplicity atid Rlirewduess.' Cousidenible jealousy ap- 
pears to have been felt by the (Ie1eg:iite8 at any delega-^ 
tion from themselves, " It will lie projier," siiid Lord 
Daer, " to ovoid an aristoerotieal dependunco on Com- 
mitteos." On the other bond. Citizen Uerrald, not 
perhaps wiUiout a side-blow at Lord Daer, warned Uio 

' TbccL' Minutfls wre pialncpd I IJnm Sklrviiig. Sue Ilnwcira Sloto 
DS (ivMuticD Oil llie Iriul i;>r Wil- | TriaJi^ lul, xxiii. p. :i91-'lT]. 




CouventioTi agniiiitt "the clioice of «i»y otlier thau 
known uiul plsiii inca liku ourwlvos ; mcii unconttiDti* 
Dated t>y the [X-etiluQtial uir of Courts." It tuul l>ocu 
pmpoiieil to hold tliu next Couvculiun ut York, as a 
central iH>iiit wliicli might «iml>iue di'Icfnites fnim 
Scotland with delegates from cvciy part vf Eiigliiud. 
But here an important objuctiou vas started by Citizoa 
Gemild : — " I cau aaunro ywi," ho «id. "that tho city 
of York is the scat of ik proud aristocracy — tlic seat 
of au An-hbiiihop ! " UoneTer, ou reflection. CitJKOn 
Gemild thought that this difficulty might be waivvd. 
He might perhaps bo prerailed on to meet even tho 
Aff hhishop himself. " I would not object," Iw addttd, 
" to go llifrc, bc-causo tho Saviour of tho wor!<l una 
often fuuud in the company of sinucre. . . . Ixit as 
then, followH-ilizL'us, unite luiart ami Iiaud to bury Htd 
hatcliot of natural uiiti[>uthy. which thuwiekvd policy of 
Courts once in»tigittud us to wield." 

.\iiothi^r favourito topic in this Convention was tho 
alleged tyrixiiny ofthecluofain the llic;hland.s. " I<etnie 
give >m iiistauee," said Citizen Wright, " A Highland 
gentleinon had an avenue about a mile lung, into wlu'cli 
none of )iis tenants dared to enter vritUout takuig off 
his bonuDt; and if thfiy had opcafiion to go to Uiw 
faouEo, though in the midst of a hurricane, they wore walk all the way bare-headed 1 " Sueh were 
tho Mother Goose tales that found credit with these 
foolish men. 

The Convention continned its debates for upwaidJi of 
a month. But early in December these were cat short 
by the magistrates. The Lord Provost entered the 




CllAp. XVII. 

room with a BufSrrient foK^e, bid the "Citizen Fre«i<lent " 
leave the Chair, and diBHolv^d the meeting. Skirviug, 
who had acted as Secretary, with Margarot wid Gerrald, 
the delegates from London, were brought to triaL All 
three were found Guilty, and sentenced to be transported 
for fourteen veais. 

un OF riTT. 


17S3— 1T94. 

Hcfirpmtut of Mr. Eliol — Triiil of lliimiltoa Buwdii — PnI)U(^ opproTuI 
of till- Stut;' TrinU and tlio |)mRr<-iitliFii uf llie «iu — Hcli«lu«« 
agniniitr tho GoTornmcnt — Stupcnsioii of tlio Ilnbros Carpiu Acl 
— EuL'r^ (rf tl* Frr-uilli RuiiiiblreiniB — Oprmtiuaii ut ILe AlliM — 
SftPj^iiiniiry Dporcn of the Conicntian rcgarUini; jir'uKiwn of win — 
Ihikv of Yiirli'ii Ociit-ml Ordn — Cornk'iiu rovoll — nvroimi of 
H.mkI iiiul NelnciB — Viutiiry i>t tlin Fimt iif Jiiiin — Al'Oi-«b!iiii 1<i 
olHeo of the I>iik« of Porllnnil nnil bb ftieutb — Pioviiion for Mi. 
Burke — Driitb of I'is nou — Mr. Wiiullvjui — Mijiui'kin)t4unllii)i 
Vflth tho Dulto (rf Porlliuiil — Glow of thn Roign of Terror in 
Fnince — Cscuutinu of Bolmpivint — Jtvouil of the Duke of Vork. 

Ik Jane of tilts year Mr. Pitt veM grieved at tbe retire- 
ment of a cli;ar fn'orKl and ttiusirinn. A sii-itt at llio 
Bonnl of Treasury whs given h[j by Ulr. Eliot. Deiiaito 
lieultli, fttiJ a tDorc serious tvmpcr nt^tiltin^ from lita 
lantily Wreavonicitt, led liiin to this stop. Yvt titi did 
not a1tug«tbor witlulniw ttimi^eir fmm jmblic life, Kince 
Le continued in tho Huusc of Cotiuuous. 

Bo full of ansictios was t)i« whole uf tin's year Hunt 
Jtr. Pitt coiilJ not ventwre to Icnve Londou for any long 
time. Sctiuetimes lie luid a day, ftoinotlmcs only u few 
hours, at lio! wood. Thus writtis Wilberforce : "Juuo22. 
To llolwood with Pilt in bk pliacilon — early diinicr, and 
back to tiiwn." We can innigiiie tlie AliniHtur most 
froti^ueutly in DowuiDg tftceet, as another entry of tbd 
Baiiie journal d<!.scribe8 liim, "To town, 1-lth of Sep- 
tember, to ttec Pitt — a great niap t^pread out before him." 

L 2 


CBip. XVOI. 

In Aii^iBt, liowevfir, Pitt w«r ftWe to go for a few 
daVH to Burton Pynsont, ami in Septemlier to his new 
poaaession as Lord Wardou of the Cinque Potts, Walmfir 
Caatle. TLo King hail some fears for his Jlinister thus 
in the very sight of the French coast. Without Mr. 
Pitt's knowlofigc he sent nrdore to Lonl Auihc'tst to 
stockade the ditch of the castlo, and station in it a 
picket of soldiers.' 

At that busy [loricNi the private letters of Pitt are but 
brief and few. Here are some to his niothi=ir, either in 
exti-act or entire : 

" Holwood. Jnno 7. 1793. 

"I have just received your Ittter, and must liisohey 
the kind injun<?tion it contains by writing a single line 
to tlunk you for it, and to tell yon that the gout, after 
having made a visit in due form, and stayed a reasonable 
time, is now taking its loaro. I was able without any 
ill convenience to come here yesterday evening, and your 
letter found me enjoying a fine day from my window, 
so much aa almost to be glad of my present excuse for 
being out of Loudon. If I was to ascribe entirely to 
Ihci Btime eirciimstcmco tlio delay of my vi*it ty Burton, 
I should think of it very difforontly. I believe, however, 
that in fact if I had not I»oen a iirisoner to gont, the 
state of things in Klamlers wonld hardly have left moat 
liberty at the tlmo 1 flnrt intendod ; as we are fluttoring 
ourselves that a few days may possibly bring us very 
favourable news from ValcncicnttcH ; and I should 
hanlly bo able to absent myself till the consequences 
are more ascertained." 

< Tho Ktng to Mr, Pill, July 13, 1703. 



" Holwooa, July 2, 1793. 

" I am sti]l kept from wpck to week in the expecta- 
tion of mmv tnulauclioly vvcut oithcr ou sea or luiid, of 
.■which 1 should not like to be out of the way of rj ceiving 
[the oarliost news. Tlie siirrewdi^r of \'iiIein^ioHnes wmi 
liLonl Howe's sailiug. both of wliich will probnbly hiippt-n 
very soon, may set me more at liherty. 

" III tho mcHU time I have hoUduys oiiough for a 
good de&l of countty air, and have the adrantage of 
hnvitig [mrli'd with my gouty shoe, aiid found th« ftiU 
Ujto of my legs." 

*'Mr DEAn Mother, " Udwood, July 15. li&s. 

"I niii very eniry that I huvt- hrtd uti «p]>Iicafion 
eome time since about Lampeter, which will perhaps 
not itself be succesEfiil. bnt being from one of my con- 
etitiiitnts, would mnke it impowible for me, to inti-rcede 
in favour of Mrs. Lewis's rt-quest. Lord Stanliope's 
iiotiflcation of hiB visit' certainly comes at a singular 
^timc, but HO miiny miles from thci Hoiisu of Lurd«. he 
bo very harmlees and well-Lehaved and 1 cannot 
help rejoicing on account of tho compsiUons of his 
jonmey, B&^idiyt answering these two points, I have 
another reason for muking use of the leii<iirti of VloU 
wood to write to yoo. A vacancy has just hapfioned in 
the office of honflekeeper ti> tho Excise, which is 
Gxwrutcd by deputy, and worth iihave 300?,, 1 bolicvo 
l^OL per annum. This is eo much better than that 
which is now held by poor Mrs. Sparry, that I think tJie 

' To UnriflD PjriifCDt, OD fotoraliig with bw daogbtera from » viait 
to Lii utiiti; iu DoToniUiiro. 



offer of an exchange would probably be very agreeable 
to tier, as a murk of attuatiou ttiid rciuunibraiicc-, tlioiigli 
in any otlier view I am a&aid tlio prosfiect of her 
enjoying it cannot maki- it nuicli nii object. I litivc, 
therefore, in my own mind destined it for her, and I 
conc-biJi) yoH would wish Mrs. Ardi-u, whom yon men- 
tioned §omf time ago, to siioceed to Mrs. Sparrj''s office 
at the IVeasnry. I should add that the last house- 
keei»er of the Exciae was a widow of one of ibe Coniruis- 
liioners, and her predecessor on old Mrs. Cavendish, 
who was, 1 beliovo, a distant connection of tlie Devon- 
xhirce. This gives a sort of credit to the office which 
may make it the more welcome ; at the same lime it 
jioes not iimko the way of dispaiing of it et ;dl inijimper. 
"The fall of Condi will, 1 hope, socm bo followed by 
Valenc-ionnefl, but the prospect is not yet certain enough 
to let me ilx my plans jMuitively. I tliiiik 1 niity bo at 
liberty in about a fortnight, but I should wish to regulate 
my motions a little by Eliot's and Loi-d Stanhope's, 
tlKJiigl) not i.'Xnctly in the samo way by e»ieb of them. 
I havo written to Eliot, and take the chance of my 
letter finding him in Cornwall, to tell him that, it is of 
no consequence whether he cornea to town a littlo 
sooner or later. 

*■ Your dutiful and afiectionate non, 

" W. Pitt. 

" I have been enjoying a groat deal of this iiniuunt 
summer, and should lilco it still better if it had not 
burnt all my grass, and parched a good many young 

' ■' Downing Strwt. Aug. 31, 1703. 
"After the interval of a wci-k's holidays, and pro- 
paring for another, 1 have not till now found time for 


tiFE OP pnr. 


writings though I haro intended it every day. It wotild 
now be rather late to tell yoii tlint I pt^rfomicd my 
.jourut-y oud arrived 08 I lutcudc-d ; for probably the 
newspapers will have told that for tnc akeady." 

" Downing Street, Nov. 11; 1793. 
"My DEAR MoTBKii, 

" 1 tni!>t 1 ni'L'd not say thut my first niiih 
must always be to contribute to your ease and conve- 
nience, and I am uuly iiorry you should Iiavo giren 
yourself so much troiible, where a tiingle word to convoy 
your wi»h would have boon tmltlcicnt. T ran fiimiiih 
without liitlifuUy Ihrco huudrt-d poimdj^ and will im- 
moJiately desire llr, Coutts to place that sum to your 
account. Indeed, I aliunld not feel sntitfied with 
myself in not namiug »t onirv a larger sum, tf it were 
uot that my acceasion of income haa Jiitberto found sa 
much employment in the didcbaJ]ge of foiTuer arreais 
' as to leave no very large fuud nhich i cuu with pro- 
Ipriety dispoeo of. This, however, will mead every 
Eiy ; and at all events I trust' you will never scruple to 
toU mu when yon huvo tbo iiUglitest occBMOD for any 
aid I can supply. 

" Kver, my dear Mother, tftc, 

" W. Pirr.' 

To the State tiiali) during 1 7Q3 as l(4d in my lost chap- 
ter may be added anoUier at the beginning of i79-i — that 
of Hamilton Itownn. It waa bronght before the Court 
of King's Bench at Dublin by Arthur Wolfo, th« Iiidi 
Attorney-General. Mr. Rowan had a<!tGd as oecretarj' 
of the new political combination first formwl iii 1791 
under the influence of Frcueh cxuniplQis and calling 




iUself "The Society of United IrishmetL" As sccretury 
Mr. Rriwan bail sipnwl iinil Jssnwl aii uddress of sedi- 
tioiw clinrncter to thu \Viluntwrs of Diibliu, and of tliis 
act lie uow stood nocnsod. His Coiiiwel, John Phil|)ot 
C'lUTun, condactcd his di-fence wit)i grt-iit oloquence 
and imiliitinti.-d Hjiirit, tliiis luvtng the foundiitions of h)8 
own wiiltfiiimieut renowii; but Huniilton Rowan was 
fonnd Guilty. The eentenoc jiRi^sed npon hiui wa9, lo 
be imjiriMoned ior the terra of two yeare, WilMn 
four months, however, he found miaus in escape 
from Newgate CJftol in Dublin, and mudi; his way to 

Although in a few of tliese cases an eloquent address, 
09 of Muir or Currwu, on th« defendant's side might stii- 
liie audience to apjihiiwe, and alibongh undoubtedly some 
Judges, tlie Chaiiccllor included. didBornGtimes degene- 
rate to partiHaus, it does not appear tliat the main courso 
of tht'Sir pruw^cutious in any degree outran the general 
temper and oplniiin of these tiuies. Among tlie middle 
and uj)pcr classes more especially, as also in the entire 
rank of yeomen, tliere was a detestation of the l*'rench 
excesses; and drefl,d inif^ht vrell be felt wlien they saw 
euch excesses held up fur examples. Among tlnwo who 
in England or in Sctitland still for safety called thi-m- 
Belves RcfomiiTS, their open violence was jilain to view 
and their secret conspirucy was feared ; and the public 
voice was loud in calling for activity and llrmuess, nay, 
eren for rigour, against them. In fveh exti'aordinaiy 
circuniatajiccs can wc, it was asked, exi»ect that mere 
ordinary mcasores woidd suftice? 

This temper of tho public b reganl to the State 

tIfE 01 



Triala was further raaoifested in the deliberaliona of 
the Legislature. Parliament met on the Slat of 
January, and within ten days Zjord Stanhope np])ea1ed 
to the Upper Hoiiwt upon the case of Miiir. A ffiw 
weeks later Lord Lauderdale brought forward tbo 
cases of Muir and Palmer conjointly, and in thn Com- 
mons tliere were uo less than three motions on tho 
same snltject from Mr. Adam. But they met witb no 
RUGcess. In the motion of Lord Stanhope, whioli was 
irregular in point of form, tho morer stood nlon^, and 
Lord Lftudei"dale did not venture to «all for a division. 
Mr. Adam, tliough warmly Bupporttwi by Fox and 
Bhci'idriD, was as warmly wilhst^iod by other members 
of the old Whig party; and tlio hifjhugt uimibcr of 
votes that he could<!r was tluiiy-twa 

Nor had the same politicinnH any bett«r sitccees in 
their endeavouis to put an end to tlie war with France. 
Ijorrl Stanhope brought forward two motionx with tliat 
view, couched in speeches go extrftmo n« in a great 
meaapre to defeat themselves. The Bomo object 
Wiw zoalousiy presiied by I>ord Lnnsdowno and iJie 
Uuko of Bedford among the Peers; in tho Commons 
by Fox, Sheridan, and Orey. But they had loft to 
them only a handful of adherents, Tho minority on 
Fox's motion was no more than tii'ty-fiv^. 

On the other hand, there was a clieerftil acquit^cence 

in all the measures proposed by the Prime Minister for 

tlie vigorous prosecution of thn war. AN'lien lio lud 

|1i[>on the Table subsidiary Treaties with several Foreign 

'Poivors, tliey were ajiproved. AVhen he asked a loan 

of eleven millidns, it wna voted, \Vhea he oi^cd for 



Chap. Sviil. 

some additional duties) ou furious articles, as rum and 
spirits, bricks aur] tilths. platu>j^!iu» iind aUuritDy:^, not 
even the attorueys coin|i]riiiiod. When, a King's Mes- 
sage keiug fiTut i)Tesi;uted, )i« called Tor oil angmonta* 
tioa of the land-rurcus, llmt augmcntalioa wus agreed 

Oa all these questions Mr. Pilt could rely on the 
l>uke of l'orthmd'8 fri<Mid» as mucli as ou hie own. 
Still, however, llio c\iivf6 of the rt'Uiiiiiiiiig Oj>iiMsiti«u 
struck at liira boldly wlicucvcr lliey saw, or fancied 
that tbey saw. nuy vulncrublo point. Thus Sir. Dun<]as, 
as Secretary of Statu, bud setit round in circulars a plan 
"to protide more nompletely for the security of the 
country." He rcconimeuded ihat budic-s of volimteer^ 
both infantry and cavalry, should be fcrmud, and tliat 
fur tht^e objects a pubtte subscriptiuu might be raised. 
Hereupon Nv. HhL-riduu in the one House, and Lord 
Ltiuder<lale in the ulhur, brought forward motions 
dcclariug that it was a dangtitous and unconstitutional 
measure for the Executive Government to solicit money 
for ])iiblic puifoees without the consent of I'arliament. 
But witli every exertion Mr. Sheridun could muHter no 
thau tltirty-four votes, and Lord Lauderdale no 

"Inorc than seven. As zealously, but witli etjuiil ill 
6UCC0S8. was the progress of the Volunteer Coriw jJiU 

Id like manner, whon gome Ilessiaii troops in liridiih 
pay were landed in the Isle of Wight, or when a Bill 
was brought in enabling the Goveimment to enlist some 
of the French Itoyalists in the British aniiy, the Op- 

kpodtiou raised a loud cry of Constitutienal alarm. " I 



firmly believe," eaid Colonel Tarletou — this eager 
I Jtolitjcitin afterwarda became Sir Buaastre aud a 
Oen«^rtd OfScer — " tliat the pemiuog this BUI will destroy 
the privileges of MagDS Cliarta, uudormine (be Bill of 
Higlits, and fitially annibilate the British Consti- 

An argument of real weight against the Bill vaa, 
however, supplied by Mr. Sberldao. "Snppose," he 
said, "any of tlio Frrach emigrants in our itarvice are 
taken prisotiera imd am put to death. \Vl)at then? 
Are we t*j «Tfng<! thfjr fate by retaiialiun?" — Hero 
aarof» the House Mr. Burke exclaimetl " Yes." — "Good 
Ilfavcns ! " eriod Mr. 8)iertdan, " connder that the 
lives of millioiLft niny dcjKMid upon thnt single 


On a subsequent day the Bame nrgtunent waa farUier 

Fpressed by llr. Fox. " If," he said. " tlio French were 

' to land in this kingdom, and tbere clinnccd to be any 

body of the people so Innt to nil aenite of daty as to join 

them, should we pardon those who produced Commift- 

sions from tlie Convention? We Rhould not. Nor 

would tlie Freneh in the like rase respect Conuaii«ions 

granted by our King. Then if we determined not to 

retidiate, in what a calamitous sitiution did we place 

liose whom we employed ! And if we did rutsliate, 

I'good God! in what horrors would Ktiropu bo in- 


Ns. Burke in reply — nod thi« spoeeh doBorrcs tlio 
more attention as the Iimt of Uiirkc's great efforts in 

» Purl. Oiti. wJ. xxxU p. aw. 



Chap. XVIII. 

Ifie ITrtuse of CommonH — ilefended his former cry of - ] 
" Yes," and boldly avowed tliat in tho case supposed 
his voice woiilil be for retaliation. " God forbid." he 
said, "that the authors of murder should not find it 
recoO on their ovm hcada. But fears arc expressed 
that we may inflame the Jacobins by stwerity. liiflurae 
a Jacobin I You may se well talk of Bolting ilrtf to 
HeU: Impossible !" 

It is not ea5y to set' how any Government couh) have 
displayed greater energy in all its Parliamenttiry me«- 
Biires for f.hc cQoetual prosceution of the war. Xor was 
there less of vigour for the repression of treasi >uiible 
]iractief3 at home. Early in April Thomas Walkir, ft 
merchant of note at ManclieBter, with six other pi-rsons 
of inferior rank, were brought to trial for oonspiraey, at 
tho Lancaster Assizes. But tliis prosecution most 
»ig;Dally failed. The principal witnoiis was Tliomas 
Dunn, n weaver, who was shown to have forswoni him- 
jsetf on several {Hiint>s, and tu bo wholly uodeflerving of 
credit. Jtr. Law, as Counsol for the Crown, threw up 
the ca^e, and the Jury retiinied an immediale verdict 
of Not Uiii! ty, while Dunn, being detained and indicted 
for perJHry, was soon afterwards eonvieti.'d. The sen- 
tence passed upon him was, to stand once in the pilloiy, 
nnd be imprisoned for two years in Laneiwtor Castle. 

It is worthy of note that among the records of the 
first of these Lancasliiro trials will bo found, dat^ 
1703, a letter of reproof and admonition from Mr. Wil- 
liam Cartwright, of Shrewsbuiy, "who," it is addud, 
"is a surgeon and apothecaiy, and a non-jurinf^ 
Bishop." Here, aceordiug to Mr. Hallam, is the latest / 





It trace in our Li^tory of tLcsc sucnf^urs lu Saacroft and 

fint this last of tlio nou-jurors hiul novr become u 
moet loysl subject to Kiug GiHjrgc. In Iiis Ictt«r be 
says ; " The one family being at good as entirely 
extinct, and thi' other hariii'^ bc'cn t>o long in unintcr- 
rtiptod possession. Burcly wc niixl not now li<.-»itat6 
which of these God has chos«u to rwign OTcr us." — Then 
why not conform ? 

Of all tiie schemes againiit tbc Cioverumout, bon- 
ever, London was the main luid directing point- 
There tho two Socielies — tiie " Coriviepoadinp," and the 
Society " for Constitutionai Information " — had bitely 
combined their cflbrts and extended tbeir designs. It 
was desired to call a Convention of tlic jwople to ait in 
London, and to HUporsodo ax fur as pustiiljlo the autho- 
rity of ParliamLiit. With thiii view, not merely were 
the workmen instigated to liold meetings at tho chief 
' maniifiLctiiring towns, and delegates sent down to attend 
them — ^not merely were the most inflammatory topica 
mid the most malignant niisrepresentutions urged in 
their harangnea — but songs were put in circulation 
d(«igned for popular impTesaioii, and breatlung the very 
spirit of the Itegicides,* Take, for instance, Uie song 
which had for chorus : 

•' Plant, plant the tree, fair Freednio'a tree, 
Midst dangora, woiindfi, and xlnnghtor : 

Kiich ]>atriut'ti broust its soil abivU be, 
And tyrant*' blood its water." 

* Btiit«Til(ili^ToI.xx>u.p.1073; 
CuiuUtutiounl Hislnr;, Tul, ill. )>' 

* Sue llie i]viil(<iine kdduocil on 
thatilLlorThiimiuIIarct;. (Slttto 
TriiU), TuL xxiv. p. 977.) 



Ctttr. XVIIL 

Such more moral woapons were not olone relied on. 
Arms — as muHlceta aii<l pikes — were also, it nppearB, in 
8um«> places collected and kept ready ; And a Reiziire of 
each was made at Has time b; the Govenimeut at 

But this did not suffice. It was not cnftngh that 
the leu^Ien; in such projects should be stopped short in 
their wnivfiC. The Go\'ernment d«*m«i it fiirlhcr iiidis- 
peiisable, as a warning to others, that they shoidd be 
brought to trial for High Treason. Early in May, 
therpfore, eight members of the (wo Hocii-tics wero 
Hppn-liendcd aud, uftcr an oxamiuation befon; the Privy 
tCooiifil, sent to the Tovfcr. At the same time the 
^ boob« aud papers of the two Societies wore securod. 

The eight piTsons tbnjs oomuiitt^d for trial wore us 

follow: Tliomns Hurdy, secretary to tJio Oorrcspoiiding 

ilSociety, and a shoemalter by trade; Diuiit-l Adams, 

' cecretiiry to the Onstilntioual Society, and lately ft 

cleric in tlie Auditor's Office; John Homo Tooke, en 

%?ell known from lii.i former controreTtties in the days 

of Junius ftud during the Ameriiaiu War; iho Rot. 

Jeremiah Joyce, private secretary to Lord tjtaiihope 

(uid tutor to his Bons. Mr. Joyce is utill rememtfored 

as the ftiithor of tl»e "Scientitlc Dialogms," iu four 

,voIumeB, which appeared betwrsen 1800 and 1802, ntid 

rhioli convey a great amount of knowledge in a very 

kgreenble form. There was also John Tliolwall, of 

aome note as a political lecturer. 'I'he other* were 

John Augustus Bonney, John Ilicliter, and Jehu 


The books and papers thus seiitcd were announced 



ia a Message Trom tlie King to ilte Honse of Commoiu, 
and K'feiTed by Mr. I'ilt to a Conimiltw of Secrecy. 
That GuiimiUt^e, tw consist of twcjityHine menilxTS, Vitus 
seloctj-^ by liallot. Wilhin (oiir-and-twenty hovn tliey 
pregented thoir first Report, declaring themselvoB ecu* 
vijti'iil tlint tli<? papers before tbem affonUxl ftiii|)lQ 
jiroofs of (1 Iraitorous conspiracy. "However," they 
added, *' at different pt^riods tlie term of PArliainciitjiiy 
Ueforra may bave been employed, it is ob\'ioiis tLat 
the present view of these Sofirties ia not inb'itdc-d to 
be proiieeuted by any ajiplieation to Harliiimeiil> but, 
on the eontrary, by an open attempt to tiniKmedo tbo 
Honse of 4'ommona." 

Fortitled by this Report, and, it may he added, by 
the public feeling out of doors, Mr. Pitt deemed it 
hia impemtive duty to bring io, witbotit a moment's 
delay, a Bill for the auBpcnsion of the Uabeaa Corpna 
Act. Tlmt Bill received the ruady and rapid concni^ 
rence of the lloiise of CuntmonH, tltough resisted with 
tlie utmost enurgy by Fox and Sheridan. On the day 
when it ivas presHod forward through its various stages 
they tried no \efs tlian deren divisions against it> 
though their highest numbers in any of tlieno were but 
thirty-nine. In the other Bouse the ]JiII waa opposed 
only by Lords Stanhope, Laiiderdide, and Lansdowne, 
and six Peors present bcsidee. 

Shortly afterwai-ds the Committee of Secreoy pre- 
sented a second Iteport, compriidng copies of many of 
the original papers seisted. The tetters fmm various 
parti" of the country, as here produced, are a strango 
amalgam of treasonable schemes witli silly gossip. 



CaiP. xvnr. 

Thns, on the oue hand, from Shefiield :— " J-V-Uow 
^ffitizeuH, tlio barefiic'i^d aristocracy of the prcKuut nd- 
' ImiiiHtration liaa made it necessary that we aliould be 
pruparcd to act on the defcDBive. A ploa liait boen 
hit uixm, and. if oneoaragfd siiffit-icntly, will, no doubt, 
liiivo the effect of furnishing a qumitity of jtikps to 
the patriots. The blades are made gf stfel, t«m]iered 
and polished after an upprDvcd form, and each, witU 
the hoop, will be cliar^d one shilling," And thns, ou 
the oilier hand, from Tcwktabury : — " The burning of 
ThoiDus Paiiie's effigy, together with the blessed effi'Cta 
of the present war, has donv more good to the cauao 
thiiii thi:^ most i^ibMantial uiginnent-s. 'Tis uoiazing the 
iiiertiuse of triemis to Liberty and the spirit of im|uiry 
that L8 gone abroad. Scarcely au old woman but is 
talking polidca."* 

Tlirougliout this winter the roost fftreniioUB exor- 
tioDS had been made in France tor the pronoontion 
of the war. The Comniitt«e of Piiblio Safety, with 
KolK«pierre for its leader, seemed to imjirint its savage 
cnerj^' on everything around it. Above a niilliim of 
Prenchnien — ao, at least, waa computed or guessed at 
— ^took up arms. Thus evoy frontier of Uio new 
Itepublic was luied irith numerous and ardent lerics. 
The Army of the North, us it waa termed, that is, in 
front of Flanders, was, iucludiiig the garrisons, of 
two hundred and fifty tliousaud men. Its command bad 
been entrusted to General Pichegra, wliile (liencral 
Joordan was at tho Iiead of the Army of the iUosi/llc. 

* Sco tim PutUuiuuiitury Utatoij, vol, kxxI pf, GS3 and 821. 




On the side of the Allies tlie I)ukc of York had, in 
the month of .Tanuary, returned to Loudon for frosh 
iastrurdons, accompanied hy Gt-ncml Mack, un gxt'cU 
lent ofBcer on paper. By Mack thcro vas formud a 
plan, most ingenious and most impracticable, for the 
next campaign. The siege of Landiecii?s was first to 
be undertaken, and then a combined march to Paris 
was to be made. Great hopes were, moreover, fotinded 
on tlie arrival of the Emperor at Bmssels. It was 
ihnnglit that hia preaenco might fierre lo restore the 
loyalty of liia ill-aflectod subjects, and to compose tho 
(Ussuwiioas of lus jarring Gcui-ralfl. But noitlior of 
tht^-»u aims wiis effccluully uttuiuod. 

In llic middit; uf April Ihu ymmg Kmi^ror n'viewed 
hit army in Ibo jilains of Catoan, wliero it is said 
tliat no less than one hundred and forty thousand men 
wore mustered before him. But immediately afterwards 
these troopB wei-e ported for artive oporations. The 
Prinoe <)f Sase Cobnrg, as Commandt'r-in-< 'Kief, led the 
main body to the siege of Landrecies; the Duke of 
York with one division covered his right flank in the 
direction of Cambray ; while General Clorfait, to pro- 
tect the frontier, took post on the side of Lille. 

While Landrecies was thus invested the Ropublicana 
vere not at rest. Tliey made several attempts to raise 
the dege. AVith great spirit they assaik-d tb« lines of 
the Prince of Coburg, but altogether failed in piurciug 
tliem. Stall muro unsuccessful was thoir onsot on 
tlie poaitiou of tho Uuko of York at Troisvillo, when 
they lust thirty-five pieces of oanuou and at least tlirco 
thousand men, their chic( Chappuiu, buiug himself 


LIFE OF rrrr. 

Chap. XVIII 



Utton^ the prisoners. On tlie other hand. General 
Clerfait, being ftttaekoil,' by fiouham anf! Moreaii, was 
defeated and driven hack with leis to Toarnay. Still, 
liowi'Ver, Landrecies, not being relieved, was compeUed 
to gnrremler, with its garrison of four tlionsaud men, 
after ten dnys uf opt'ii treuolies. 

Tlio Froni^h were far from dispirit^^'d. Confident in 
tlieir superior genenilMliip «nd growing nnmlters, tlioy 
resumcil the otTcueivu and crossoiJ tlie Siirubn'. TItey 
gaiiKMl an advwntago at Turroiug on the 18th of May, 
itnd auofhisr on the 2Und atl'ont-a-cLiu. lu th« former 
engagement the Dulco of York was ueiwly siirroniidcd, 
and owed hia wifety to the Jleetness of hia horse, a 
I faet wliieli, with a ironkuess well betwining a bravo 
* soldier, was adiuowlcdgud by the Dukw liimaeli' in liis h 

It was at this period that the French Convention by 
' the instigation of Carsre passed a JJecree well worthy 
tho Mohawk IniliaOR, from whom indeed the first idea 
of it may liave been derived. It waa argned that " tha 
elavts of York and George " ought not if tAken m battle 
to escape with life. It was commanded that Iieiiceforth 
no quarter sliould be given to any English or Ilono- 
verion soldier. No sooner had this eangaiaary Bocrt-o 
reaehod the KngUsli camp than winie exeellejit General 
Orders upon it were issued by the Dnke of York. " His 
Royal Highness anticipates tlie indignation and horror 
which have naturally arisen in the mmdii of the brave 
troopx whom he addresses. He desires, liowever, to re- 
mind them that mercy to the van(juish(id is tlie brightest 
gem in a eoldior's character, and exhorts them not to 





soSer their rosontm^itt to leuil them to nny )iri>c)pitat6 
act of cruelty. . . . The British and HaDOvorian unoicfl 
will not believe tlmt the French imtJDn, even under 
tiieir present infatoation, can so far forget ihvir cha- 
racter as soldiers as to pay any nttentiun to a Decree as t 
injimous to themselves aa it is dii^raceful to the persons / 
wlio passed il." ' 

The generous confidence expressed in thi» laKt »en- 
tenri! wait most justly fonnded. It is gratifying to leorn 
that this inhuman Decree raused nearly as mncli dis- 
gust ill th<i French aa in the Knglish eamp. "Kill onr I 
prisonent ! " said an honest serjeant to his oiHcer, " nt^ I 
we will never do that fktnd any prisoner we make to 
the Convention, and let the Depnties sliofit him if lliey | 
will, ay and eat liim too, savagea as they are." ' Thus, ' 
to the honour of the Ilepuhlican army, tliia order was 
nCTcr executed, and on the fall of Robespierre it was 
ono of the first to bo rcHcinded. The whole Iraosaction 
may sorrc to show how much thirst of hlood tliere may 
often bo in a civilian's breast, and how much gentleness 
in a soldier's. 

in the middle of June the Emperor set out on his 
return to Yionoa with slight hopes of retaining tho 
dominion of tJio Netherlands, and leaving his troops 
oiifuumhercd btkI diBlieartened. General Ck-rfoit and 
tliL' Diikf of York wlto in West Fhindt-rs, whero thoy 
could not prevent Pichogni from n>duciiig Ypres, and 
tho l*riiico of Cobnrg was recalled to the Sambre by 

' ThNU OwK-nvl Onlort. wliiph 
bL-nrdiilc Jmip7, 1791. nm printi^d 
ol Tull It'uglli in tlic Autiuul Bo- 

pal«r f<ir tliat juortiHirt ii. p. 108. 
■ TUien, HInL Bevol. Vul. iv. 
p. f.6. 


the advance of Jourdan from the Mense. FiDding the 
French army invest Charleroi before him, Coburg de- 
termined to fight for its relief, but the battle which he 
gave upon the plains of Fleurus on the 26th of June 
proved adverse to him and decided the campaign. 
Pichegru and Jourdan advancing in concert entered 
Brussels, and the recent conquests of the Allies, Lan- 
drecies, Cond^, Valenciennes, and Le Quesnoy, were 
rapidly recovered by the French, 

In the Mediterranean and in the Channel we had more 
success. The Corsicans had risen in revolt against the 
French Republic. They had once more at their head the 
veteran patriot General Paoli, returned from his exile 
in London, where during twenty years he had enjoyed 
the intimate friendship of such men as Johnson, Bey- 
nolds, and Burke, On his journey homewards, at the 
commencement of the French Revolution, he had 
passed through Paris and been presented by La Fayette 
to the Conatituant Assembly. Both there and in Cor- 
sica, averse as he was to civil war, he had shown an 
honourable willingness to accept the dominion which 
he found establiahed. But the atrocities of the Reign 
of Terror stirred up his countrymen and himself to 
arms. A meeting of deputies under the name of a 
Consulta was held at Corte, where Paoli was proclaimed 
General in chief and a military force was provided. Of 
the principal men in the island, some, like Pozzo di 
Borgo, took the part of Paoli, while others, like the 
Booapartes, adhered to France, / 

In the first instance the success of the insurgents was 
complete. They drove the few French troops from all 

1794. IIFE OF PITT. 237 

the open country, and confined them to the three ma- 
ritime posts of San Fiorenzo, Eastia, and Calvi. And 
to complete their conquest they solicited aid from Eng- 
land. Accordingly after our evacuation of Toulon, it 
was to this quarter that the next effort of our forces 
was directed. Lord Hood with his fleet appeared off 
the northern coast. Sir Gilbert EUiot, as the King's 
Commissioner for the Mediterranean, went on shore 
and held a satisfactory conference with General Paoli, 
In the result the English ships co-operating with the 
Corsican levies reduced first San Fiorenzo; next, in 
May, 1794, the important town of Bastia, the capital of 
the island ; and lastly, after a long resistance, Calvi. 

It should not be omitted that in these three sieges 
much prowess was shown and much distinction acquired 
by an officer destined to become the greatest of our 
naval heroes, but as yet plain Captain Nelson of the 
Agamemnon. His zeal and energy — as also the vete- 
ran Lord Hood's — stand forth in striking contrast 
to the indecision and slackness which at this period 
had beset too many chiefs of our land service. Thus 
before the walls of Bastia General Sir David Dun- 
daa, who commanded the troops, appeared upon* the 
heights, but, satisfied with having reconnoitred the 
place, returned to San Fiorenzo. " What the Ge- 
neral," said Nelson, " could have seen to make a 
retreat necessary I cannot conceive. A thousand men 
would certaifily take Bastia ; with five hundred and 
Agamemnon I would attempt it. My seamen," he adds, 
"are really now what British seamen ought to be — 
almost invincible. They really mind shot no more than " 


CffB or PITT. 

Cur. XVIU. 

Ilie advance (rf Jourdan from tiie Meuse. Finding the 
Frpneh army invest Charleroi before him. Coburg de- 
termiued to fight for its relief, but the battle which ho 
gave upon the plains of Flourus on the 26th of June 
proved adverse to him and dwided tho campaign. 
Piclietfrii and Jourdan advancing in coiieort eiitorod 
Brussels, and tliu roc-cut conquests of the AUies, Lau- 
drecies, Ooud4 Valenciennes, and Lw (Juesnoy, wcro 
rapidly recovered by the French, 

LitlieMediterrimeanand in the Channel we had more 
Biicwijis. Tho Consi<!aas Iwid risen in revolt iigaiust the 
French Republic. Tboy had once more nl theii' head the 
veteran patriot Genera! Paoli, returned from his exile 
in London, where during twenty years lie had enjoyed 
the intimate friendship of mich men as Johnson, Rey- 
nolds, and Iturke. On his joumoy homewards, at tho 
eorameiiucmeut of the French Rovolution, he luul 
{)iuwed tliruugli Paris and been presented by LuFaycttu 
to the Oonstituant Assembly. Both there and iu Cur- 
sictt, avLirsu as he was to civil war, he had sliowu aa 
Itouuiuublu willingness to ut^cept the domim'on which 
he found eiitabliehed. But the atrocities of the ik-igii 
of Terror Btirted up his countrymun and himself to 
Arms. A meotiog of deputies under the name of a 
Oonaultawfts held at Cortc, wlierc Paoli was procluuucd 
Geuural iu eliiof oud a inilitury force was provided. Of 
the priiieijial men in iJie island, some, like Pozzo di 
Boigo, took the part of I'aoli, while others, Uko the 
Bouapartes, adbered to Kranw. i 

In the first instance the success of tho insur{j:eut4 was' 
oomplole. They drovo the few French troojis troru all i 





ibe open country, and condabd tlicni to tbo tlirec miu 
ritime posts of Sau Fiorenzo, IlnstJu, and (!alvi. And 
to complete ihfir oonquoBt ihvy xolitilcd aki from Eug- 
land. Accordingly uftcr our eviicuntiuu of 'Foulon, it 
was to this quarter lliat tho ntitt effort of our finw* 
was direet«d. Lord Hood witli his fleet appeared off 
tho northern coast. Sir GUIwrt Klliot, iiti the Kiiig'e 
Commissioner for the Meditorrancuu, went on shore 
and held a satisfactory conforenco with General Paoli. 
In the result the EngUsh ships co-operating with the 
Corsican levies reduced first San Fioreuzo; ucxt> in 
May, 179-1, tho important town of Bastia, ilio aipitul of 
Iho island ; and lastly, after a Ion;; rc»i»ttiiiee, Calvi. 

it shuidd not bo onulted thnt in tlnise ttiree sieges 
much prowess was xliown aud wueh di»tiiictiun acquired 
hy an officer destined to become tlie greatetit of our 
oaval heroes, hut a* yet plain Cnpliiin Nelson of the 
Agiuufmuoii. liig zeni and energj' — as also the vete- 
ran Lord Hood's — stand forth in Htrikiug contrast 
to the indecision and Rlackness which at this period 
bod beset too luiiny chic-ftt of our land Rervice. Thus 
before tlio walls of Ba,4tia Gfiiieml Sir David Dun- 
j das, who comniandod the troops, appeared upon* tho 
' Jieights, hilt, sati.-iBed with having reconnoitred tho 
place, returned to San Fiorenzo. " What tho Ge- 
neral," sail! NeUon, " could have seen to moke a 
rclrcttt nec4f«sary I cannot conoeive. A thousand men 
would certainly take liastia ; with five hundred and 
Agamemnon 1 would attpinpt it. My seamen," he adda^ 
"are really now what British seamen ought to be^ 
almost invincible. They really mind shot no more than ' 





tlio advance of JounJan from tlie MeustJ. Fioding tlie 
Frencli iinuy iuvcst. Cbarleroi b^foro liim, C'libiirg ile- 
termined Ut fif^iil for its nib'ef, but thi- liattle wMoli be 
gave n|>oii the [ilains of Flciims ou tki:; 2Gtli of Jima 
proved advorse to liim and derided the campaign. 
Pichegni and Jmirdan ndvaiicinf^ in ponnert ont<*red 
Brussels, and the recent conijiieats of the Allies, Lan- 
drecieB, Cond^, Valenciennes, and Le Qiieanoy, were 
rapidly recovered by the French. 

Ill the Mediterranean and in the Channel we had more 
Buccesa. The Corsicans had risen in revolt against the 
Prontth Bepabltc They hod once more at their head the 
vettiran patriot Goneml PaoU, returned from liis exile 
iu London, whoro during twonty years ho had enjoyed 
the intimuto fJioiid»li]p of auch raeu us Jolmsou, Eey- 
noldd, and Ilurke, l>u liia journey homewards, at the 
commencement of the Fren(Ji Revolution, lie Iiad 
passed throngli ParU and been presented by La Fayette 
to tiia Constituant Assembly. Both there and iu Cor- 
fiica, averse as he was to civil war, he had shown an 
honourable willin^ess to accept tlie dominion which 
be found establisJied. But the atTocities of the Reign 
of Terror stirred up his countrymen and himself to 
amis. A meeting of deputies under the name of a 
Consiilta was held at Corte, where Paoli was proclaimed 
General in chief and a military force was provided. Of 
the prmdpal men in the island, some, like Poirao di 
Borgo, took the part of Paoli, while otJieiB, like tho 
Bouapartes, adhered to France. , 

In the first instance the sncceae of the insurgents was ■ 
complete. Thoy drove the few French troops firom all 


1 da 

1794. tlFE OF PITT. 237 

tJte open country, and confiued them to tlie three mu- 
rititno posts of Stin Fior<>nzo, Bastia, and Calri. And 
to cnmjilet^f tlicir con<iue«t tliey ttolioited aid from Eng- 
land. Acconliugly after our evomatian of Toulon, it 
was to tliis qiiarttir that the next efToi't of our forces 
was directed. Lord IIoo<l witii his fleet appeared off 
the nortiium cuiist Sir Gillioit Klliot, as the King's 
Comnii»tioncr for the Jfediti'rranefiii, went on »hore 
and held a satisfncton,' corifei-ence with General Pnoli 
In the ri'Riilt tlic ]>ngli:«h »Kii>» oo-oiiernting with the 
Ooisican levies rwlufcil first San Kiorenzo; next, ia 
May, 1794, the iniportdnt town of Ikstia, the capital of 
(he inland ; and lastly, aftor a long resistanoe, Calvi. 

It sliould not be omitted that in these three itiegi» 
much prowess was shown and much distinction aequired 
l»y an officor dualint-d to become the greatest of our 
naval herons, but as yot plain Captiiin Xelson of the 
Agampmnou. Ilia zeal and energy — as also tJio vute- 
rau Lord Uood's — stand furth in Htrilcing contrast 
to tba indecision and slackness which et this period 
bad hoset too many chiefs of uur land service. Thus 
before the walls uf liasUu General i^ir Uitvid Dtio- 
das, who commanded the troopit, appeared iipoiw tlio 
bdgbts, but, satisiiod witli having recounoilrod the 
place, rehmied tu San Fiorcnzo. " What tho Ge- 
neral," said Nelson, " cutild have seen tu make a 

treat necessary I cauiiut coucoivtt. A tltoutiaiid nion 
irould certainly take Bastia ; with tivu hundred and 
Agamemnon I would attempt it. My Aeiuneii,'' he adds, 
"are really now what Britisli seauR-n ought to be — 
almost invincible. They really uiiud rJiut no more thaa ' 



[ / peaa." General Duntlas was far &om liaving the same 
|/ oonfidenoe. "After mature cousidGnition," tJins ho 
WTott> at this time to Lord Hood, " and n pcnviiial in- 
Bpectinn for several fla)'8 of att circiiroatnnoefi, ]ocaI aa 
well as othera, I consider the siege of Bastia, with onr 
present mi^ans and force, to be a most vi^omiry and 
'rash altf^mpt^ such as no officer would be jualllicd in 
nndertftfciDg." Lord Hood replied tliat he was ready 
and williug to undertake it at liis own risk, lie did 
undertake it accordingly, but umtlier from Dundas nor 
from another oJScor who at this time succeeded to the 
^^hief commund could li« obtain any aid except only 
some ai-tillcrymen. "We are but few," said Nelson, 
"but of the right sort; our General at San Fiorenzo 
not giving us one of tho Sxe regiments be has there 
lying idle." 

Yet liven uitassistt'd so© wliat Hood and Nelson 
could achieve. "Ou the ^-Itli of May, at daylight," 
thus ftgoia writ«8 Nvlsou, " ttwyw was exhibited tho 
most glorious sight Uiat an Englishman could oz- 
perii^ut'L-, and that 1 believe noue but an Kti^Oishmaii 
could bring about — four thousand liviihutiilrcd men (tho 
gorrfeon of Baslia) kying down their arms to loss tbaa 
one thousand British soldei-s, who were serving as mi^ 
rioesi" All tliis while General I>undas might be iio 
doubt composing a most able desjiatch to tJie Secretary 
of State proving, by irresistible argimients, and on a 
full review "of all circumstances, local as well as others,* 
such an exploit to bu btiyoud all bouuds of possibility.' 

' 800 ttie Lifo of NcliKin, by Soutliay, p. 71. eJ. 1857; aiul by 
rnttigtew. vol. i. pp. iU-5t. 




Oa the Ml of Bastifi cspressiun was fortliwilli given 
to the common, nay, ulmost unaniiuoiu u'isli of the ia- 
etu^eBta Thuy dninid thut tlio ulaud shoiiltt liuii«o- 
fc^tii bo annexed to Uio Throuo of England, but 08 
HUOtLer kingdom, aiid wiUi a free Constitution of its 
own. A Council wna employed in framing tlie articles 
of tJiat Coustitution witli ample powers to a roprcscn- 
talive osi^emlily, nml tLe ttovoieigiity tl)UH tenderod nitit 
tlio title of King wna aci.T-)ited in His Mftj«8t}''s iuubc 
by Sir Gilbert Elliot. In his despatdl on th)« oocttsioa 
Sir Gilbert (iius (tunis up the affair, or nitlicr his own / 
hopes of it : " His Majesty basacqiiircd a Crown — tboao ^/ 
who bestow it hare acquired liberty." ' 

In tlw Britiali Chonncl a formidable French anna* 
mcitt was cnusiug. It had kft the harbour of Brest in 
pursuance of onlera iroui Fari:^, niul for the pnrpOM of 
protvotiiig a liu-go convoy ladon chii'ily witli flour which 
wan expected from America. The armament oonsiiitod 
of twenty-six sail of the line, equipped with groat care, 
and hariiLg fur its cliicf Admiral Villaret Joyouse. But 
his authority was ol'teu ovi^miled by u Coinmii«iouor 
' ftotu the terrible Conrentiou — Jeuti Bon St. Andr^, 
who, tliough wholly ignorant of seamnniihip, and indued 
I time a Calvinist Divine, bud come on board and 
the toue of a great commaudi'r. \or was the 
Admiral adequately supported by all tlio caplaintt aad 
crews. The French Revolution had been Jlie means of 
driving tho bent sea-officcni from the seiTice ; for 
luider the inilueuco of thu now ideas every attempt at 

I BcD Ihii di'vpiitch, nith uriiue Miet [laiicn on llic aRiuo fiitjwt, la 

the Aiui. Ueg. 1701. iip, 95-111. 



Clup. xvur. 

inatntaimng tllscipline in a sliip of war was denuuQtied i 
by Jacobins at the seaports sib sHvouriiiy of aristwjiac")'- 
asan inroad on tht" rights of tht- people. It litis booucal-l 
culated that even before tlio close of 1791 tliree-fourtha ' 
of the ofiipers of the Koyal Murine had cither rutirc'l or 
been dianiissed Tli<?ir place wns supplied Irom th« , 
merchant service, with a very searching test as to | 
politics, witJi a vory slight test a^ to science and skill.' 

The eomtnander of our Channel Fleet was at this 
time Eai'l Itowe. Like Lord Hood, that veteran chief 
had now reached the verge of threescore years and ten ; I 
but it might he said of him on Nelson at the iwuric period] 
ilocs say of Lord Hood, that, " upwards of seventy, ho 
pessesses the mind of forty years of age, aad he hasJ 
not a thought eeparat^d from honour and glory." Lorll 
Howe had also und(!i' him aeveral gallant admii-als, ss\ 
another Hood, Sir Alexander, aftorwnrda Lord Uridport,] 
and Graves, and Gardner, both mibsequently raised to] 
the peerage. In tbc action which endued the FrcuclLl 
were superier to the Eiigbi^li by one line-of-hattle sliij; 
and considenible weight of metal. That action, unlthuj 
most others at sea, does not derive its name cither frc 
tht) chiefs in command or from tlie coast iii sight, 
is known in history tis the battle of the First of June. 

Soon aftur daybreak the English ships bore dov 
tog«tlier for eloec action, and the onset was begun hyl 
the Eugh'sh Admiral. His object was to repeat thai 
manoouvrc of Itoduey in US2, and break the enemy's 


* Sou on thno jiaUiU llic "Sou- I dea Ueiu McriidcB, 8<'pt IS, ISOE^j 
Tonin il'na Muriii, pur rAminil ile I p. 2-13. 
Xa Qravitro." pnrt 11, In tlio Berao | 


tm: OF MTT. 



line. On the Fn-ncli Mid« ft Iiciivy firo was opciieil 
againat tJie En;;)t»li ta hood as tlit^y ciiuiv uitbm mti^, 
But Howe in Uh own aliip, the Quocu CbiirlotUf, of 100 
guns, Ibrbudc bis muu from roturnlng any of the volloys 
poiirod iipuu tliL-m until liLt pilot could [ilaco him nioug* 
dido of tbo French Admiral's ehip, fiio Moutuguo, of 
120 guns, tUti Inrgi^t f^iRjt;*;! ut ihiit time in tlio whole 
French navy. Thus piercing tlirougtt the French line 
of battle, and closely followed by live »h\i>» of hb own 
fleet, ho drew nigh to tlio Moiildgnf. So torrifli? was 
the siglit and Hoiind on boiird the ^.-ni'iiiy'it tlag-ithip that 
Jean Boq St. Andre, who was wholly wanting in the 
high spirit of hia coimtrj-meii, ran clown for aafety to 
the hold. It h to thitt that Mr. Canning alludes in his 
uell-knowu song n^mn i^t. j:Wlr'e:^ 

" Poor John was a gallant captain, 
lu battles uucb dulighting : 

Ho tied full soon 

Chi the first of Jiiuo, 
But he bade the lost keep fighting !"' 

The hattio now raged furiously, both ])arLics striving 
with their cuatotnary ardour. But after an hour's con- 
flict llio French AdminJ goro way, and followed by all 
his MhipH still in eufiicicnt order, nuido Hail. One of 
his scvonty-fours, he Vengeiir, went down during the 
action with many lumdrod men on board, as alao somo 
other nearly diciablcd ships tli&t might [H<rlmps have 
boon secured ; but i<itiU firo were left Bi [xi/vs, ftud 
brought home in triumph by Howe 

' Pootr; or tlio Aiiti-Jaeobifi, p. tM, ed. ISIS. 
VOL. ir. Tt 


lira OF fTPT. 

Catv. xnii. 

Tlii^ victory nas most scasonaklp in its iuJlui'uoe on 
Eiigl»inl. It proved our cuutiniKM:! asci^udcncy ou our 
Own element, us vre low tu call it, lliu Kut ; aud it 
revived the spirits that were drooping from the advene 
or indedsive results of the last Continental campaigns. 
The joy in Loudou and in some other cities was mani- 
feeted by a general Ulunuiuitiou for three successive 
nights. The joy at Court vras maJiifestod by a visit 
which the King, tho Quven, and some of the rtiucessM 
paid tu Lord Howe and the fleet at Spithead, whea 
His Majesty presented to each Admiral and Captain a 
nifditl struck iu eouimumuratiou uf tlic! day. Lor 
Howe himself received on that occasion the further gL 
of n sword richly ^t iu diamonds. Parliament was'' 
still fitting when there came the news of this success, 
and of that at Bnstia. Votes of Thanks were most 
cheerfully pasaed, and there was a Toto also for a 
monument in Westminster Abbey to Captain Montagu, 
the only one of Howo*s Captains who had fallen. 

On the 11th of July tliu Session closed, and on the 
samo day anotlier uvL'ut of importance was uitnuuuecd — 
the long expucled aecuBsion to office of the Duke of 
Furlluitd and hi« friends, Tlii^ wiui auuthi-r tuken of 
the general dettire for an united and vigoroiis [>roHecu- 
tjuu of tlio WOT. Tlii» Wits unolJier token of the general 
disapprubiitiuu of the doctrines which Mr. Fox had 
recently professed. 'J'he third Secretaryaliip of State, sup* 
pressed at tlio Peace of 17S2, was on this occasion 
re«t«.ired. Tlius while fxird Grenville continued to be 
charged with Foreign Aflaii-s, and Mr. Duiidas with 
War and Colonies, the I>uke of Portland received the 




Gctin for the Iloine D«|iarttneiit Earl Fitzwilluim 
beoame Lord Preadent, and Earl Spencor Lord rrhTr 
Seal ; thefie vacancies being rau»ed by the death of 
Earl Cnmden, and the retiremeut of the Marquis of 
Sfcafibrd. Mr. Windham became Secretary at War 
with a seat in tho Cabinet. In the first iustance he 
had been designed for Secretary of State, and the 
n^otialionB had for a long time continued on that 
footing. But at the vary last the fnonda of the I>iike of 
Poilland gi-ew ansioua to give greater proinioence to 
their furmer Premier ; Mr. I'lt* acqiuoiced ; and HJs 
Grace was prevailed upon to accept the arduous poet, 

Besides these appointments, two or three peeragec^ 
and two or three plaocs of lees amount, gratified some 
less leading membera of the same connection. Tliua 
Wolbore Ellis bocamt! Lord Meudip, and Lwd Pop- 
chuster Earl of Curnftrvon. Among tUoHi^ who now 
becamo )ni|>]K>rler» of tlio Miuiistry withont accepting 
uu}' prumotiou for tbciiuelve^, was a gentleman of 
mo«t acooR)pli«bud mind and moat amiablu manners, 
Ur. Thoinns Ort^invillc, brother of Lord Buckiugliam 
and Lord Urenville, who u)> to thi^ time liad dutoched 
liiniHelf tVom the politicit of tm family, nnd boen num- 
hered among the adhcrentaof Mr. Fox. Aa fiirtlierand 
ontward tokens to the piiblic of the new alltRiico, the 
Duke of Portland was invested with the Garter, and his 
eldest son. Lord Titclifield, received the Lotd-Li«u* 
tenancy of SUddleecx. 

It was moreover intended, and with no more than 
striel jiislicf, to make a suilnWe provision both in rank 
and in furtuue for Mr. Burke. Some time since he had 



CiiA sviii. 


annoimcod \us iiiiproiicliinf; retirement froiti llio House 
of Ooitimou^ Hu liac! ilci-lared that ln> ouly liiigt-mii to 
8tie coiieludod ttie grwvt(.'!*t oljoctot'liispiililic lilV- — tlio 
pRisccutiuu of Wttrn'ii Ilnstiiigs. Arcurdiugly, liia last 
uiijifaraiifi! in tlic Houso w«s on the 2ntli of June, when, 
aftt'i- hmg debate and two divisiona, thanks were 
returned from the Chair to thia Managera of the Im- 
peachment (they Btauding ap severally lu tht>ir places) 
for their faithful disciijir-jo of the truBl rejiosed in them. 
Imiuediately afterwards Burke took tlio (Jhilt<;m linu- 
dreds. Thtiii tha Writ for Mallun wag moved, ami in 
that representjitiou, thruugli tlio continued friundsJn'p of 
Lord Fitzwilliam, liis son w«s i-honeu to snceetnl hiui. 

It was nowdosirt'd — I cannot say willi truth toliouour 
3Ir. Burko, but rather to honour the peerage hy his 
acoession to its ranks. Tliorc was aUo, a8 Ihuve heard, 
the design, as in other oasts of rare merit, to aiuicx hy 
an Act of Parliament a yearly income to tiie title during 
two or three lives. Already was the title chosen as 
Lord BeaconsGeld. Already was the patent preparing. 
Just then it pleased Almighty God (o strike the old 
man to thw very earth hy tlie untimely death of Ids 
beloved »on, hia only child. Itichard Burko expired on 
the 2ud of August, 1701. There ended 13urke'« whole 
\ share of etirthly hnppincHs. Therconded nil ht!idream8 
I of earthly grandeur. Theucefortli u Coronet yva» to 
I bim u worthier hikuhlu which ho mu«t de«liub to wear. 
|\ But of the Milliliters Iio 8peaka as follows, in one of the 
I [ Ia«t and greati?st of hi« works ; *' They have administered 
I \ to m<! the oidy consolation I am capahte of receivuig; 
) which ia to know that no iiidi^-iduol will sufier by niy 




thirty j'car*' gervico to the public."' In that long tonn 
he had voutmcted dii'&rs debta and ohli^tioiu; which 
hia own scauty means ponld not discharge. And more- 
ovor, how doubly hard under the prtssurB of sonow to 
hs^'e to cut down eipfiiisns and retrench from personal 
ciiise I Hb thfirefore gratefully took what was freely 
Hud honourably tendered — a signal and Kiiitable ti^ken 
of the Royal bounty. But the oourse that was designed 
will best appear from the oorrespondence that ensued. 
Hore is Ktt's first letter to Burko : — 

" Downing Stroot, Aiigrwt 30, 1794. 
" Beam Sir, 

" I have received the King's [icrmiseion (o nc- 
quaint you tbat it is His Mujesty's intontiou to propoae 
to Parliament in the next Sesaion to confer on you nn 
Annuity more proportioned U> Hia Majesty'i* ut'-nso of 
your public merit than any which Itis Majesty can at 
present grant. But being df-airous in the inti:!rval not 
to Iwrv you without eumi^ lliou^^h un iniid(.'quatc% mark 
of lliG sentiments and disposition which Ilia 3[aj<.'i(ty 
enttirtaiiis txmardn you, he has further directed ino to 
propose an imnicdiutr grant out of thu Cirtl List of 
liOUl. a-year (being the largest sum which His Majt.'*ty 
is enabled to fix), either in your own name or that of 
Mrs. Biirkti, as may be most agreeable lo you. I shall 
be happy to leam your decision on this subject, that I 
may have the satisfaction of taking tJie noci-ssury steps 
fur canying Kis Alajesty's tustruclions into immediate 

"1 have the honour, A-c, 

"W. Pitt." 

* Fnl Lcttcv OJI a B^glciOe Pence, 1T8S. <n'<irks, vol. vlij. p. 20S, 



ciiAp. x^in. 

Mr. Bnrko rei)lie)I in two letters— tlie firsi o«li"-it<ibIe 
and intpudeil to I* liiid iK^t'wM tliii King, wliile tho 
nocuud exjireBSOtl liU i»ei»jmil tlutnks to Mr. Pitt, 

" Beaooiw6(Jtl. Aiigiwt 31, 1794. 
" Deak Sir, 

"This morning T received yotir very oltUging 
letter of the SOIh of tMs niontli, acinaititjnj* inc 
with His Majesty's most gradons dispositions towards 
the ri'miiins of this afihVtiid family, 

"You will bo eo kind iw to lay nie, with all posAihlc 
humility, duty, and gratitude, at His Majesty's fe«t, 
and to express my deep and heartfelt Hense of Ilis Ma- 
jesty*!* houuty iiud bfiii-finmue, and tlio gracious cou- 
descension with which His Majesty has heisn pleased to 
distinguish me ; at a time too when neither I. nor any 
person to rcproHcul mo, van iispire to the Iionoiir ftiid 
happiness of rendering L!m any service whatBOfVor. 

" 1 have never prestimed to apply for anything, I 
never eoiild so fur iliitler niysoli' as to think Uiat any- 
thing done by me, in or oat of I'arliuinenl, eould iittract 
tlie Koyal observation. In some instancee of my public 
conduct T might Imvo envd, F<tw have tieen so long 
(and in times and matters so arduous and critical) en- 
gaged in alTairs, who can be certain that tJiey have 
never ma<lo u niistftko. Uut I am certain tliat tny in- 
tentions have boeu always puro with regard to the 
Crown itnd to the eoiintry. It is upon tliese intentions 
that His Majesty has bwn pleoA^d to judgft of my con- 
dnet, and to rewan! them with his Royal acceptance 
and Koyal muiiificeuce. 1 could wish for ability to 
dcmonstrato the sincerity of my humble gratitude by 
future active service. But I am denied this witi.'ifao 
tion. My timo of life, my bodily infirmity, and my 
broken state of mind, leave me no other capacity than 




that of prayinft. which I do most fervently, for the. 
pKHiXfrity Hiid glory of Hi* }ifujcHty'8 ro^, ftnd that 
he muy he made th« gnad ia^aameat in the hand of 
ProT;dt>nce for delivering the vforiii from tlip gmnd 
evil of fi«r timo, Iho greutest with which the race of 
man was erer menaced. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., 

"Edu. Bdbke. 

'* P.S. For obvioua reasons, if it is indiffepcnt to His 
Majes&r's service, J Kliuuld wish tho pension on the 
Civil List to be made for Mi&. Burke's life." 

*' Beacoiuifield, August 31, 1794. 
"Deab Sib, 

"I do iiot know whether in propriety I could 
raakft my pcrBonal ncknowIfdHTiieiilft t*} ii subject in a 
letter in which I was to return my thanks to the King 
fi>r n favour dorivod from the Crown. But it would bu 
full as contrary to propriety, and moro contrary still to 
tho dictates of toy heiu1> if I were to omit my tiianks 
to yon Tery particularly for the kindm-SM^ tho gunero 
sitj", the <lnlicacy with which yoii liavo conducterl tho 
whole of tlii« busiuesK. 1 um obligr^l to »ii<;Ii nii archi- 
tect as you are for uiidprtuldng. not the rcrparatiun (that 
is ini[)0!ttiiUe), but the conservation of a miu. 

" 1 cannot diMSomklo that what you have dono is not 
only convenient hut necessary to me. Nothing short 
of -what I hear it is your plan to execute can give me 
guoh quiet 118 I nra capable of enjoying during the few 
H melancholy yean, mouth», or perhaps week» tliat I may 
^1 have to linger here. I should be sorry to louve just 
^P cTL-^Iiton unsiitinficd, arid jiut obhgatious wholly unnv 
H turned. 1 ahould be more miserable still than I am if 




I were obliged to mix very Qtisuitftble 9olic'itnd(*8 mid 
very mortifying orz-iijiations in ray struggle with other 
less degrwlitig but mucli »orer grJot'B. Biit you have 
done evorytliing for me which can bo done by nay 
human liands. From these additioiuU vexations {wliich 
hnd ahwvdy begun to bt^wit me) the )irc»oiit jilan— that 
JH, the gracious message proposisd to Parliament said 
what the King is by law crinblod to grant— will afford 
la what will be dtt-mcd a security for the advance of 
rsome of the money which will he necessary for my 
present repose, as tJie rest will suffice for my vomfortar 
ble retreat itfter the meeting of Parliament shall have 
enabled yon to propose the larger plan for niy liberation. 
If I were to presume to snggo^t auyttiiug, it would be 
the antedating the grant of the pension on tho Civil 
List, for othorwiso the state of the juiymeuts there will 
liardly make the relief so immediate ue 1 am sure yoQ 
wish it. My mind \s much troubled, so that I do not 
know whether I express rayself with any tolerable elear- 
neK& But be assured that, express myself how 1 will, 
I feel just a^ I ought to do for your very noble proceed- 
ing on this occasion, and that it is JmjKissible for any 
ouc U) wieh more wueeroly honour and sulci-bs to your 
administration, and everything wliich can be satisfaotory 
to you as a man or as a statesman. 

"1 have the honour to be, with seutimenta of tlie 
most jierfect gratittidu lUid regard, i&c, 

" Edm. IJURKE." 

Rome further explanations pa-ssed oh the dctaiii* of the 
iutcnd<^d arrangement, the chuonol of co»inim)ication 
being tlie Itev. Walker King, n porsunul frit-nd of 
Burke. In consequence Pitt addressed to Burke a 
second k-tter in the following terms : — 



" Downing Stroot. September 18, 17&4. 
'■ My deab Sib, 

" It wft» not till yesterday that Mr. King had on 
oppttrtuiiity of sliowinp ine yonr letter to luta of llie 
14tlj, I flutter inyself I shall liavu b(«t mot your 
wishes with respect to the present grant out of tho Civil 
List by directing it to be mwie out to yonrself, for your 
life anil tliat of Mrs. Burke, to commence from the 
5th of Jaimary, 1783. With respect to the remaining 
part, of tlie arraugemont. wluch requires tbc astsistance 
of I'urliament, my idea of it has been exactly what you 
understood, and it will I>o a very lionnurablo and gratify- 
ing part nf rny duty !*> take tho firel opp<irtnnity of 
conveying thw King's recommc-udation for carrying it 
into e£rect. 

" Believe me, dear Sir, 

" With gretit regard and esteem, &c., 

"W. I^lTT." 

liurke replied as follows :— 

" Boaconcfiold, SoptddlMr 19, 179-k 
" Dear Sir, 

*' The unfortunate inhabitant* of this hoaae ore tniicb 
ohUgeil to you for the vi-ry kiu<l and consolatory letter 
which I" received from you tlii« niorning. You have 
conceived ever^'thing in n very kind rikI lilieral 
fiumner, with regard to tlie lives, to tho date given to 
the jWDsion on tUe Civil List, and to your resolution 
to bring tJio message from His MajeMty early in tlie 

" A8 for na, though we can feel neither this nor any- 
thing else with real phiifiuro, wo feel it with very sincere 
gratitude. If I were to consider myself only, whatever 
vos the most obscuro and tho Iceet ostwiitotious woidd 
be most suitable to the present temper of my mind, 

u 3 




and wlint mnot onntinno Tliu sotnit (/) tho mid of my 
short t'xisteDco. \\'liilHt my dear sou lived, there w«ro 
certainly objects which I had nt heart, the eiualleat 
desire of which, iu my pn^wiiit furkim ettite, wviuld only 
argue the most contemptible vanity. As to other tilings 
I cannot be equally in<ii lie rent, nor indeed ought I. 

" My first object is the [iiiymeut of luy deht^ (hrtt I 
may Bt^nd as clear with individualg as I trmt I do with 
the public!. I know this objei-t enters into your plan. I 
am to say that these debts wore Btated by my mu 
below their real amount. When I came to examine 
them with aceunu-y I found it so. He tuo w«*i aentiihlo 
of this. But ho was delicate with regard to you and tlio 
public ; and having a reenlnte and Banguiue miud, he 
was willing to take his sncceMsIon a litlJe encumbered, 
and to trust to good management and good fortune to 
euppoix thoHe debbi, or to clear them off. I hope, how- 
ever, this affflir liftB Lol been so much below the mflrk 
as to make any serious difficidty in your arrangements. 

" Ab to the provision to be made by Parliament, I 
wish for no augmentation in this rc-siieet. K the whole 
pension be made up to twenty-five hundred clear, to 
our personal eaae it is anfiioiBUt, without obliging us late 
in life to change its whole scheme, which, whether 
wise or juiijfiuhle or not, is now liabitiial Ua ns ; and, 
in truth, we are little in a condition to make any new 
arrangetaent. Without therefore troubling you further, 
we leave the whole mutter entirely to your gcneroitity, 
and your libcrul SGntiments. 1 um heartily sorry to be 
thus troublesome. 

■• I hflTB the honour to be, 
" With the most sincere rei«i)(ict and gTatitn<lo, &e., 

" Edm. Burke." 

To J\tr, Htt these new allies wore of high imjiortauce. 




T)i«y rallied for the time aroimd bis standard oiip. and 
that the larger, share of the Whig party. They gave 
him fre-flh strength in the country to resist the advance 
of the Republican arms abroad, aud of the RepubUcon 
dectrmed at home. They gave him also in somo atuca 
the acoesBJon of considerable talents. The Uuku of 
Portland indeed, riewed either as a statesman or an 
orator, was certainly not in the first class. But he wa« 
justly respected as a man of probity and honour, and he 
had oonajderable woight as once the chosen Minister 
of the united Whiga. Therefore though the King, 
referring to the Gart*r, might at that time write, " I 
caunot see why on the Duke of PortJand'a head favonrs 
are to be heaped without measure," " yet certainly it 
was of high importance to connect His Grace witli the 
Goronimoiit Lord Speiieer wiis not conspicuona in de- 
bet«, but, as I hure already stated, ho had very great 
ability in admioistratioii ; and Mr. Windham hod already 
uttainod a foremost rank in the House of Commona. 
Bom in 1750. of an old family in Norfolk, and Mcmhcr 
for Xorwich since 1781, ho had also fiUed the office of Se- 
cretary for Ireland in the Coalition Government. In his 
character Wiiidhitm has been dtjscnbed, and with trutti, 
08 the moditl of a tnie Eoglish gentleman. Foml of 
field-sports, and of aU ninuly exortrisos, he applied him- 
self with zeal at his seat of Felbrigg to the coimty 
bnfiinesi^. But in tovru ho showed other tastes and 
taloiitK not always combined with these. He delighted 
in 8C'holar-Iike studies and in Uterar}* friendships and 

» To Mr. Kll. WmOwr. July 13. 17W. 



Crap. XTUT. 

attaobod tiiiURelf in an ecppcinl mftniiCT first to Johnson 
and then to IJiirke. To all ftfiiiirs, whetlie-r of public 
or private life, he brought a high, nay chivalrous sense 
of honour. His oratory was diatingniahed not only by 
graces of manner, Bet off by his fine person and beam- 
ing couutemint'o. but by in(;;cnuity in his arguments and 
fearlessness i»his opiuJoua Sometimes he might be 
mrcused of iifiecting xiiigulanty, but never of courting 

This alliani'« of statesmen, formed with considerable 
difficulty, wus in peril of dismptiun aluiost as soon as it 
was formed. Thcro was u misimdoretJinding on the 
part of th« Duke of Portland, tt'heu the third Secre- 
taryship of mate was roiiewed, Pitt Lad resolved to 
divide a» follows the duties and the jmtronRgo of late 
combiuetl : — Dimdji-s was to liave the Colonies and iLe 
Eixst ludiii 1 )epart.m(tnt, with tlie conduct of tiio war, 
Tbc- Duke of Portland was to have Great liritaiu and 
Ireland, that is abovo all the care of the internal pence 
and police of tho country. But either Mr, Pitt di^l not 
clearly explain tliie niattfr to the ];)ukc, or the Duke did 
not ek'jirly uiidiTHtand his cx])lunutioii. It ap]>eai'ed at 
the lait moment that His Grace oxpcctod to have the 
whole power aii<i patronage which Dnndas had lately 
possessed. Under tlipse cirniiH.stunces Duudas, in a 
geucroiis spirit, desired to give way. But be declared 
that be should resign tho Seals, and relinquish the 
conduct of tlie war. J'itt, in groat anxiety and distress, 
wrote to Dnndas as follows. The original is now pre- 
served, not at Melville Castle, but at Ami!«ton. 




" Downing Street. "Wednesday, 
« Deab DuKDAS, July (ITM), S past 1 1. 

"The Chancellor has sent me the letter whieli 
he had received from yoii, and I really iviuiiot csprcsi 
to yoii the uceasinoss it has givc>n me. I shall give 
. up all hope of ojirrying on thu hiisinuss with comfort, 
and be really completely heart-broken, if yon at^lhcre to 
yuur resolution. Had I had the KUiallcst idea that 
it would be the consequence, no consideratiou would 
have tempted rae to agree to tlie measure ivliicli has 
led to il ; and yet, after all that hni now p«sst>d, it 
seems impOBsiblo for me to rocwle. ITnder tliese cir- 
c-iiui9:1anccs you must allow me to make it a pumonul 
request in the stiongtat luanuer I can, that you will 
consent to continue Secretary of State iu the way 
propoawi. On public grounds, and for your own croilit, 
X feel must sinceroly convinced that you ought to do 
80 ; but I wimIi to ask it of yuu as tho i;trongest proof 
you can givo of friendship to myself; and of that yuu 
Itave given me bo many proofs already that 1 do ilatter 
myself you cannot refuse this, whtu you know bow 
iinxioualy I have it at heart. At all i-ventst, let ine 
bog of you to give me an oj>iH>rl«nity of talking it over 
with you. I dino at tho Choueellor's. roseibly you 
can contrive to come to town to dinner. And return 
iu the evening. If you do, be so good us to call here, 
and wo may go to IJcdford Square* together. 

" Ever yours, 

" W. TlTT. 

" I hope, if poseiblo. to get your answer before I go 
to St. James's, and to be relieved by it from the anxiety 
I shall be under iu the interval." 

* Tho Cbitncvllai's liou*e, IS, BciLfurd SqvBK, 



Chap. XVIir. 

Here is Diindaa's reply : — 

" My deab Rm, "Wimbledon, July 9, 1794. 

"The letter I havft jiist, received from you has 
given mo the moat poignant connern. My only conso- 
lation is, that iiiKin Iho perusnl of llu- lotliir I wrote 
to yoa this momiug, you must be satisfied that neither 
the public service nor your ovrn comfort arc at all 
ooncenicil in the matter, whereas my feelings tuwi 
public estimatioa wonld be deeply wounded by the 
line of conduct you suggest. As for your receding, 
it is quite on( of the (juestion. Indeed, the moinoiit I 
heard the probtihility of a uiisuudLTstaiiding', which I 
firet did from Nepean. he can inform you that my 
resolutiou vms taken to render it impossible that there 
sbonld be any tjnestion about my situation. 

" Yours ever, 

" IlESitr DCSDAB."* 

Mr. Pitt, however, did uot yield the point. Going to 
St. James's, ho iuducud the King himself to address 
Mr. Diindas. 

The King (o Mr. Dimdat. 

" St. James's. July % 1794. 
" Mr. Pitt lias just informed me of TAr. yecretai^' 
Dundu's mont hamlttomo cundnct on the want of tho 
Doke of Portland's clearly understanding the foot on 
whioh he is to hold tlie Seals nf llio Home DepiirtiuenL 
Thongh I do not quit« approve of tho West Indies 
being added to tho Home UepartmeJit, I will reluctantly 
acquiesce in the arrangement ; but I at the same time, 
in tlje strongest uianner, call on Mr, Secretary l>uiida« 
to contiuTio SccrLitary of State for tho War, namely, 
to keep up the correspondence wherever the war in 




carried on. I ha^'O ileeirL-d Mr. l*!lt, who will furtbcr 
speuk on tlie subject, to deliver tliis to Mr, Sacretary 
I>anda8. " Geobge It." 

Going Iiinuolf witli tliis letter to IhttAss, whom 
lie found nt diuuitir wiUi i» family, Pitt Again ino»t 
eaniostly api>ealod to his fri«nd, and he prevailed 
" Hero, then, I am still,'"— »o writes Dondas to his 
kiiisDiaD, Robert Dimdos, Lord Advocato, — " I miut 
rt'iuaiu a very responsible Minister willi a great deal of 
trouble, and witlioiit power or patrunuge, all of wlui'li I 
h»To resigned into tlit lianiis of tlw Didto of Portland." 

There were aUo other friends of Pitt to whom hi« 
new alliance gave sonifi concern. " Have you no 
fears upon the aubject ? " said the Speaker tn him. 
" Are you not afraid that you might be outTOted in 
your own Cabinet?" The reply of Mr. Pitt, as long 
afterwards recorded by Lord Sidmouth, was as follows : 
" I am under no anxiety on that account I place 
much depeudonco on my new oollcaguos ; and I place 
Mtill more dopendenco on myiself." ' 

The month of July, 1791, in wliich the English 
Governmoat wiia strengthened, beheld tho French sub- 
verted. For eome time past the authority of Bobes- 
pienv had boon in fuct supremo. But WTcrnl of his 
own colleagues in the C'ommitteo oC Pubh'c Safety had 
become hia secret enemies. Collot, Bilknd Varennee, 
and Barfero were jealous of his power. Many othors, 
both in Uitf Convention and outside it, were weary of 

Ute of Lord Sldmoatb. by Dmui r«llew, nt. i. p. IS). 



Cdap. SVIII. 

liis cruelties. At last tlio day of doHvoratipe came. It 
WU8 loug rf>menibGrwI iu France hh the "Ninth of 
Tlicrmidor" iicconliiig lo tlio now Rn-jiuljUcan onleudar, 
or nucording U) ours the 27th of July. Tallien lud the 
nttni'k on tlie tyraut, Evcu llie recent abijttors of liig 
tTinies sluiik one by ow fnim his side. With t!onthon 
and St. Just, the two i:oUeagiie8 of the Conimittfo who 
atill ndlieri'd to him, RubespieiTe wiib oiitvotcil iu the 
hftU of the .\ssi:!mhly, nnil ovi-rjifiwered at the Il&tol de 
Ville. A pistol whi«h hf. disi-hatgeil at liia own head 
fitiled of its fatal effecta. Next dfty, still half alive, bis 
broken jaw tied np in a erinifloniMi handkerchief, he 
waa drawn amidst the roar of hljerated thousands to 
the avenging Guillotine. 

With this Man of Blood the Bcign of Terror feU, 
The Government wliii.-h sucweiled might not indi'i?id 
deserve iu othta- eountries or at cither times to he called 
either merciful or wise, but it was both in a high degree 
when compared to the rule of Robespierre. The prison 
doors were opened. The Guillotine eeased its daily 
work. The worst of the recent Decrees were annulled. 
The Jacobins, who more than once rose in arms and 
fought in the strt-'ots of Paris to recover their lost sway, 
were put down with a strong hand. And thus iu some 
measure, though slowly, the public confidence returned. 

Bat whatever might be th« Government of the Re- 
public, there was no change in the martial and entlio- 
eiaatic spirit of its armies. Towards the Pyrenees one 
body of French troops invaded Catalonia and another 
Biscay, putting the Spanish forces to the rout, and 
pushing forward, tho ono to Figueraa and the other to 



Tolaia. Tims ere long tlip Gtrnrt of liloilrid, complMfly 
hiiiiiljlod, w»» rccliicod to sue for iir-Jica Towanls Italy 
the Hardiiiians wwre driven frnni tli<> jiaa»es of tlio Alps. 
In Belgium, Generals Jourdan an<l Piclu>{p^i, already 
possessed of Brussels and of (Ihflnt, panned only while 
the strongholds in their r«ar, as Ijandrecies aud Conde, 
were besieged anil taken. In the beginning of Sep- 
tember they agnin pnithed forward, compelling: the 
Daks of York to retire heyond the SteURe, and General 
Olerlait beyoud tbe Roer. 

At this period Oeneral Clerfait was in full com- 
mand of the Anslrian army, having re[>lfioed tlie I'riiice 
of Coburg, who was held responsible for the failure of 
tlic previous spring. But the evils of divided and not 
very cfi'ective leadership were only too apparent. They 
were strongly felt by Mr. Windham, who had gone to 
visit the English heaJ-quiirtprs, and by Lord Com- 
wnllis, who had roeeutly relurued from India, aud who 
had been roquestt-d by Mr. Pitt to confer with the 
Imperial Miuiitt«rs at BruBsele. From neither were the 
reports in any degree re-assuring. 

UiidtT theau niiwolTOme circumstancee a scheme waa 
iVameil by the English Cabinet tliat Lord Coniwallis, 
AS eiijri)'iti>r, and justly, a considerable reputation, might 
Ije named Comiitauder-in-Ciiief of all the f^^^co8 that 
lately occupied Vhmdurs. The now Lord Privy HoiJ, 
uho htid been sent on a special ombiwsy to Vi^^uua, was 
instnicted to make this proposal to tho Auslrian I'ritno 
Jlinister. This was no longer Knunitx, but Thngut. 
He was born in 17S!I ; tlic sou of a )<lii]>pt.T at Ltnx. 
The real name was Thu-uig-gut (Do no good), but lliis, 



chu-, xnu. 

aB of ill omen, had been changed by Mnria Tliei-esa to 
Thn-giil. (Do good).* 

To this scheme, howevept two obstacles arosn. la 
the fiist place, the Duke of York doclarod that in such 
a raae he must quit his post and retnm to England, 
and the King warmly approved the detcrniimition of 
his favourite aotu* Next, tho Court of Vieiinn showerl 
ji strong though not perhaps inTincible rej)ngnuoce to 
plac? a foreigner ivt the head of its armies. But 
perhaps the best summary of the state of aSuir^ nt that 
juuctiiro is comprised in the two foUowiug lettere from 
Mr. Pitt; the earliest in date, with only one exception, 
that I \uive> f'oinirl ttmong liis papers as addressed by 
him to Lord Chatham : — 

" Downing Street, Monday, Sept. 22, 1704. 
"My dear Beotheb, 

" I encloso you a letter which was left with me 
this morning by Piigent, who is just come tlirongh 
Jersey from the army of the ChoimnB. The letter, I 
unch'rstuud, ia from Captain D'AuvoTgna. Prigeut hafl i 
brought mth Jiim the Count da Puisy,' one of the 
RoyaJist Generals, whose arrival is of course to be kept 
if [XKisihlo an entire secret. As the Count de Pnisy is 
unwell, I have not yet seen lum ; but Lf^rd BaJcjirres' 
letters speak of him in high terms. If ho is to bo de- 
pended upon, his iuforraalion will be very valuable. 

" Prigent's general aeoouute are that the Koyaiista 
ore m great force, and the Republicans in very little. 

■ Soo tlid Oftt^irtiiA of Dr. S. 
VtliKvvol. ix.p. 78. 

» Tlif Duko ofYoik to the King. 
Sept *, mill tli« King tu Mr. Pilt., 

Sept, », 1704, botli in tlic Pitt 
MSS., 011(1 tlio liut ill my Appcu- 


' TUis slionid lio Pirij^yo. 




He ia to put tito particalars in writing. In tlio in«SQ 
lime I rather iowpect exa^eration in his account, whidi 
wtts c-lc-iirly Uie case in that which W" luiil jiwt reodTed 
when I last vrrote. Indeed tlie U-axcr of tJiat iutolli- 
gencie turned out to bo » persiin on whom there could 
bo NO roiiauco. When I kuowtlio rcsiilt i>f tLf prwsvnt 
intelligence more precisely, I will send it joii. In 
thif riK-ao time 1 am not wire whether I am to nnder- 
stand from youi answer to my furim-r letter tiiut tho 
throwing in supplies wonld prolMbly be execnfed by 
mmu uf tlie cruising gqiiailroun without Aduiiml Vand«- 
pat being employed in that service, or wUetlier you 
meant that a part of any of thoae squadrons might be 
put under bis (Uroctlou Tor that purpueu Potwibly tbe 
circumstanceB we may now leam may be material tu 
deciding on that point as well as every other port of 
the subject. 

" Yours affectionately, 

" W. Pitt. 

"Tho accounts from Flanders continue, a» you see, 
unfavourable; and though the Duke of Yofk's 
•t wa«, J believe, piirfcctly »ccc»»iry, tboru a 
more and more reason to fear Uiat liis general manage- 
ment is wimt tba army has no ooiifiileiioe in, and while 
that Im tho eatto there is littlu clumce of xetUug things 


'■ Downing Stroot, Sept. 24, 17&4. 
•' Mt dear Brotheb, 

"Tlio Count iU: V.'e infonnutioo, tho detail of 
wliicli he hiis promised to give me in writing, seems 
likely to be Tery material ; but it will relate only to 
Urittauy, and not to Poilou. SuppIiL* for the latter will 
litill, I conceive require a Beporate ^■x])etlition. Wilh 



respert to Brittany, he says he can point out priwlicalile 
plapps of Iftnding eitlipr for Irwips or utoTCs, botli in tha 
neighljoiirliooil of i^t Ctist and Ht. Hnfiix, utid will' 
undcrtuko tluit tlie Itoyalists shall brin^ a comidi'nil>le 
force near thfi oorbI to p^roive th<tiii. He gives very 
strong rcivioiis for attcraQ^ii^ to land some forci!, even 
a few thousand men, before the winter, and with that 
aid lias no doubt of the Koyiilists iriHititHioiug thera- 
selves till spring, whon we may act on a larger scale. 
Considerahlo facility will certainly arise from these 
operations bfing m neiir home, and 1 think the pros- 
pect soeros at first view a tempting one, if we can find 
the foree, wliich, though diHieult, is, I Inist,, not impoa-i 
siblo, Wiudliam will probably be back in a few days. 
It seems clear tJiat if Lord Comwallia has the chief 
pomniiuid, tlie Duke of York will eoine away entirely. 
All the aecoimta, however, whirli we have riH-eived of , 
the Austrian Oabinet and anny since wo formtid thej 
idea of sending Lord Onruwtillis have made us doubt 
whetiier, even if we piircliaso tlicir aei^uifstruiico in that 
arrttngcment, we shall be sure of any active exertions. 
Lord Spencer has therefore been instructed, if thS' 
Court of Vienna had not aceepte<i the projHwal, not U>\ 
press it further ; and in that case we think we must 
look to more limited exertions on the side of Flanders, 
luid turn our principal ellbrts to the French const. 
" Tours affectionately, 

« W.Pitt." 

Ab r^:arded the accounts from the Continent, no- 
thing, indeed, could ho more unpromising than tho 
prospects of tliis niiconloscing Coditioti. Fnisriia openly 
witlidrew from any active sliaro in llie war, and songht 
to open negotiations for a t>eparnto puace. Austria, 

or Pirr. 


dt^imiriug of the retention of Flanders, required 
u» U. won; to be brihed to lier own definico. It was 
OJJy by numiisof i.ijormoii8ftiid n>|ic« aiil'sidic« trom 
Euglond— oue about iliis time of no lesii thiiu G,000,000f. 
— tbat any Aiislrian army after the firet campaign was 
sent into the Held. 

Meantime tlio French, in two main divisions, were 
pursuing their successes. On the 2tul of October 
Geueral Joiirdan, giving battio to Clerfait at Itupe- 
moitde, obtuiucd a (.-umplotu vietuiy. Tke Austrians 
wore driven iu diaurray across the Hhine, while the 
French in triumph took posHession of Cologne and 
IJoiui. To the left, Ovintnil Pi(;h(;grii. jiatMing the 
frontier of UoUand, bc^iogud and reduced tlie iuporlant 
foitJ-es8 of HoJM le Due ; aiirl tho Duke of York, after 
several checks, found it necessary to fall hack behind 
tlie Wiuil. Holliind was now iu imminent peril. The bwit 
chiuioe of gavLug it vi&s, as Mr. Pitt conceived, to placu 
tile mih'tary opemtioiu imder one general diroction. 
Witli the King's sanction lie proposed to the Dutch Go- 
vernment, ewrly in October, to oITim- to the Duko of 
Bnmswict the joint command both of tbo King's troops 
and of theirs. Under him it was utuletstuod Oiat 
the Duke of York was still willing to aerva, Tho 
Batch acquiesced, and Llio uller ytas nuide accordingly, 
but the Dulco of Brunswick declined. 

Six moro weeks pas»ed in Hollantl — fttx wecki; marked 
by increasing diflicultiejt from tbe rank and prL'terudona 
of tlie Duke of York, combined witli his youth and 
inexid^rienee. At this most critical junctupe Mr. X'itt 
determined to risk the displeasure ratlier than neglect 


LIFE or prrT. 

Caw. XVIll. 

tbe at>rvico of hia Slastor. H<> addreseod a k4t«r to H 
King, no copy of wliicli ia praeeired smon^ bis pupcrs,^ 
bat the drift of wliich may be disoowred from the 
Eing'a reply.* Tii« object was to urge upon Hi» 
Majesty tha nieall of bis «oii froia the command. The 
King received tliis comiuniiieuliou witli pain, nay even 
snguisb of mind, but diJ not oppose it Barly in 
December accordiogly His Roynt Ilighness came bock 
to Englaud, leamg tbe English and lIanoTi?rian troopsi 
under tbc eominnnd of Ibo HanoTetian General Wal-« 

In tlio West Indtui llie war coutiuuod to bo wugod. 
An Eni^liuh armament bad been tiCDt tu this quorteTfj 
tho bMjis under Admirul Sir John Jcrvi», uud tin* troO| 
wider Genenil Sir Charles Grey. By tlioir joint 
exerdonfl Martinieot Su Lneio, and Oiiadeloupe were 
successively reduced. But some regimonts betug then 
detachi^(i for a doiioent U]>on i^t. IXimingOi an cq)eiuiig 
was left to a Btjiindjon whioU hml been dc&patelit'd 
France with about fiftfr-n bnnilred soldiers on I>oanL 
Theea were under lite direction of Yictor Unqiips, a 
delegate of the Conrention. On tbc other luuid. the 
British troops in Guadeloupe were thinned, not merely 
by tbe detachment from l)ieni, but by the dire ofToctai 
of the yellow ferer, Under such eirciiinittauces Victor' 
Ilugnes succeeded in recovering tJint iiiland, iuflictiug 
dreadful severities on the membcm of the Hoyaliet 
party who {iM into Lis handd, or, whenever he tailed to 
soizu tJicm, burning aiid laying waste their cstat43«. 

* 800 at tbo cloM ol thin volume Uic Klug'* letter, bearing dii 
Not. 21, 1 TW. 




lilota ill T-ondon — Criinpi nnd ItecruiU — Prononnltc-ns for Hiicli 
TruBaon — Triulii of Hunly, Horiiu Tookc, uad ThclwnJI - Dinocim- 
Btiire of lli<> (>uv<Tiiiiiiiiit^ Mr, Pitl'i tlTorti hi xlnju^bini liU 
nilmiiititnltion — BctiiHpcvl of Iiub oitura — Intrrrviirw l»<lwix<n 
Pill iliilI (Jrikttiitt — CiicritiponilcncK of Pitt uul Wiiiillimu — Pitt'« 
" MuDKirnudmn " — K(<lrn*iiii.'iit iif l.urd WnliuutLuiil uoil appoitit- 
lOOnt of iMtd Pilznilliniii at I^nl-I.lciitfinnnt of Irrlaixl ~~ Mitct- 
iiig of Purlmmcnt — Kiiig's Speech — Wilborforof's Amcndmrait 
— ^iiljngntlon of Hollanil dy tbe Fiwicb — Lord Con>nttlli« wbSM 
to the OnUnet. 

In LoudoD tJiu Kntuinur wag marked by Bcvoral riots, 
c&ii8e<i, if not b; tbe reality, at loAst by tbo nimuar, 
or "crimping houses." Dens of this land, in which 
men were caught and forcibly enUsted as soldien, luid 
existed in England Bince tlie commencement of the 
war; as in Holland they existed even in time of 
pence for the service of the co1<»ie9. There the vrimjs 
were known by the expreesive namo of Seetnit'Va-' 
iSiffer, the "sellers of sonts." There the horrors of 
the system bare been deacribed with teirible force in a 
well-known work of Nicolui.' 

In Lbndon, as it clmoced, a young man named 
George Bowo threw himsolf from on appcr window 
in a court near Charing Onws and waa killod on the 
spot It was alleged that this was no other tban a 

> StMdiu ^'otliankir. Tol. iU. p. iS, tc„ id. 1T09, 


crimpiug house, and tlie report was implicitly believed. 
At till! Coroiif?r's Inquest it appeared that thia was a 
liouso of ill-faiuo, and iutd no conuesioa of any kind 
witli the recniitinp servico. But meanwlule the mob 
had taken the law into their own hands. They domn- 
lished tho uitiid<:- of thi" houso and damaged several 
others, iuid wt^re p^vL-et'dins' to other acts of violence 
whuu thoy wurii, huppily without bloodishod, dispersed 
hy a party of 8oldit^^». 

Ttiffiy rioti wcro renewed by auothor iucidoitt of a 
siuiildr Idiid. At Banbury outs Edwiinl Barrett wa« 
brougbt up as ii duly c)ili«tod recruit. But on being 
presented ho declared thiit ho hod been mAde drunk 
by two reeniitiiif? oflieera iu Luiidoii, iuveiglcd into ii 
publiohouse ctilksl tbo Whito Horse, iu ^Vliitcorub 
Street, compelled to sign an attestation, and robbed 
of his silver ivatch and silver slioe-bnckles. This 
complaint being made in due form, the two recruiting 
Serjeants whom it involved wcro sent in custody to 
London. Thoro won first an extunination in Cotv 
Street, and subsequently a trial at tlie Old Bailey. 
Upon the first tidings, liowover, of tliis case the mob 
rose s^in. They wTeakod their vengeance not only 
on the HNIiile Horse in Whiteonib Street, but on otlier 
houses kept for the recruiting service in Eolboni, Bar- 
bican, and ClerkonwolL These disturbances, though 
stopping ^ort of bloodshed, contuiued diirmg several 
diiys, aud had ihey not been met with 6rnme&s might 
havii Icrl to tliu Nimu results as in 17S0. But on iii'is 
owasiou tlie gi-ent eity was ell'ectually protected not 
merely by regular troops, but by the ncwly-associnted 




Tcilnnteers — "thosse AriMncnOs," as the Rcvolutiotiaiy 
party termed theni. For »t (his poriod, in Etigland 
as in France, "Aristocrat" was tlto luckuiimi- they 
commonly gave not only to any mcQ or rank and 
fortune, but also to any friendti of law and order, 
rhesu ou lUdr part ruttwrted with the tuckname of 
" Jacohin." 

The reader will not fail to have obfierred tliat in 
Barretl's phbg as in Howe's, there waa, as exerted by 
the multitude, truo " Jedburgh Juatice," ae It usod to 
bo (.'tilled upon the Borders. First comes the oxouution 
— then the cliarge accunitely sUited-nitid lh«n. at last, 
tlio evidence ! When in due course the oa^ of Bturett 
was brought on for trial, it then plainly appeared how 
much the anger of the multitude had been misdirected. 
It was shown, for example, tliat at the time when Barrett 
declared himself to huvo bouu robbed of his watch and 
buchlen, lie liad neither watch nor buckles upon him. 
At last the Jury, declaring tbcmselTes quite eatiiified, 
requested the Judge to spare himself the trouble ol' 
snmming up the evidence, and returned a verdict of 
Kot Guilty. Barrett being then in hia turn sent t<> 
prison to be tried for iierjiu-y. 

The Revohitioiiurj' ferment in this countiTF", as t<K> 
plainly derived from Fmiico, was by do meaus most 
dangerous when it broke forth iu riot« and tumults; 
it was ftir more to be dreaded nheu lurking in plot;; 
and eonspinieies. Agiunst the leaders of these, so fur 
OS tliey could bo dotecte*! or oonrictod, the Govcni- 
ment bad delenniued to proceed with Uie utmost rigour 
by bringing them to trial for High Treason. Two 

VOL. n. « 


UFB OF pr 

Ciur. XIX. 

cnaes of this Itind — those ot James Watt and Dftrid 
Dowaie— came before the High Court at Edinbu 
in August and September. Botli prisonen 
to the Society of the Friends of tlie People actingf 
in secret concert with the Corpesponding nnd Consti- 
tutional Bociolit's ill London. ISoth prisoners, as was 
ehown. had boun lu-tivu iu the preparation of pikes 
and oUii^r meastiies for a combined popular rifdng. 
Both wx't* fonnd gnilty, but Downio was recommended 
to morcy, a rtcommondation which was of coops© 
comp!i«<l with. Watt, on the contrary, was hanged in 
front of the ToH-ooth. 

In Eug]»iid tho prospfntions for High Treason 
begun mucli earlipr, but were cloggird by greater' 
delays. Besidfis the eight persons sent to prison on 
this charge in May, thero were in September firo 
included in the samo iudiclmenl. Among llicm was 
Thomaa Holcrof^, who had been a member of the *' Con- 
stitutional Society," and who, a» a dramatio writer, )U 
still remembered.* 

While the trials wero tbns delayed, tho party [o 
Opposition did its utmost to ducry them. All th««e 
plots, it wan 8i«d, wore but imaginary — the mere 
uSspring of popular credulity and Ministerifd malice. 
And, OS it clianced, there was just bcforo tlio triul an 
incident which ^cine<l not nnfavourablo to theso Wews, 
and which a* such was ef^rly improved. Informa- 
tion was brought to tho Gnvemmont that certain 

* 8m on tills mlijocl Ui* Tetter I Sept, flO, ITHI. nnil In8i>rb>r1 Su tlio 
of Bolcroft Id liii dauj^itct, dnted | Moinuint hy Huilitt, [i. im. 


tiFE or pnr. 



persona, obecurc mcrubcis of tlio Correqwndiiig So> 
ciety, ha^ formed n project to OEeossitiatc tlw King by 
diwhargio^ at liim n {Hniaoned missile dirongh an air- 
tnbe. Tbo persuiiM tiiiui accuBod were taken np and 
etatnined before the Prirj* Counci], but no evidence 
vas found sofficieut to support m lioavy n charge. 
From the flrst tJio rtory' wm r»c»tved willi thu greatest 
ridicule. Porliajis it had even been il«vi«ed with that 
view. It va8 called in derision iho **Pop-gim Plot," 
and may ho deomed to have had considerahle though 
indirect influence npon the paljlie mind with regard to 
the now impending State Trials. 

Of these trials, the £r»t to come on vas that of 
the shoemalier Thomas IlardT. It began on the 2Sth 
of Octohtr before a Special Jury. Sir John Scott> as 
Attomcy-Geaeral, opened tlio case. Hia speocli, iu- 
clodisg tlio papers read, was of oino boms. It may 
be doubted — li^t me my in parir^iug — wlipthor speeches 
of Buch «*t Itiiiglh are ever of service to tlifir cause. 
Many yca» nUtt^rwaids a gentleman who hod eorvcd 
on this jury saiil to I^Ir. Adolphus, "Sir, if even the 
evidence had been much xtmnger, I should have had 
great difficulty in convicting men of a crime when it 
took the Attoniey-Ocneral nine houra to tell un what it 

In ttiis long bat able i>peech Sir John Sentt dectarvd 
that ho would stiow the real object of llio Corre- 
sponding Society, whoso penman Hardy had been. 
That object was no other tlian to abolisli tlto Kiugly 

* Ailulphiu'i Wiiocj of EuglaaiJ, toL vj. p. 79, ed. IMS, 

K 2. 



Cbap. XIX. 

office and to set up a National Coiivention as in 
Franco. For Iiis proofs Sir Jolm rcUod iu tlio first 
plape on the paptTs wlik-li luid bcou seized. These 
were for the most port of practical business and in 
guarded termn. 3nt there were also among them 
some base and infamous jeeta There wna, above 
all, a mock playbill, wliich announced "a new and 
entfirtaining farce called La Guillotine, or George's 
Head in a Basket Vive la Liberty! Vive la JUpub' 

Secondly, Sir .Tolui relied on numfirous witnesses who 
had once belonged to the Society or been present at 
its meetings, luid who stated what they had hcanl nnd 
Been. Tlit-ro waa John Camnjage, for example, who 
could s[>t^ak as to the preparation of pikes at Sheffield, 
and who had been shown the model of another epiked 
iustrumeut called a "nipht-cat," intended to ho cost 
into the streets and there to arrest the progreRS of tho 
cavalry.* There was George Sanderson, who answered 
ag followB, in reply to Mr. Law; — "AVas any piece 
of good news or anything they eulled good newa 
announced at that time by ono of the members?^ 
Yea, there wee some good news, as they termed it, 
announced that vm-y night What was it? — A defeat 
of part of tile Uritish array ; I do not recollect 
what." " 

Another witness, Edward Gosling, deposed as to tlie 

■Imjlu to the crow-tou of Soot- | RowoU'a Stkto Triuio, vul, uiv, 
ijtttd rnlMI. DCuoTiliiig lo SirWi^ltvr pp. 5S5 and C70. 
'Sontt, duA up &aiu tine to time | ■ Ibid. p. TOT. 




language a«!ilresRe<l to him by Baxter, a most aetivo 
inemljtT of this Society. "For ray own part," eaid 
Itiixter, " 1 do not wisJi the King or any of his family 
to lose tlieir lives, hut 1 think they might go to Hanover. 
As to other persons, it must Iks expected that eomo 
blouii will he 8he<l. Somo particular persons have offered 
Hucli iiisnlts to the ]ieo]>le, that human nature could 
not overlook tliem." — " Did he," asked IFr. Garrow, 
"namo any of thoso persons ?— He named several; I 
cauuot reeulloct ail; Mr. Pitt was one, Mr. Dundas 
another." * 

All these witnesses, however, Mr. Erskine, as Ooimsel 
lor the prisoner, cross-examined with his nsiial skill. 
Some were involved by him in apparent contradictifins ; 
of others he blasted the credit by branding tliem with 
the name of spies. In the cms of Goorgo Sanderson, 
whose evidence I just now cilod, ho framed one of his 
questions thus : " Wiat date haro you taken, good Mr. 
Spy?"— «I do not think." replied the witoesa, "that 
on such an occasion being a spy is any di^race." And 
hero the Lord Chief Justice Eyre interposed: "Mr. 
Erskine, theSB obacn'atious will bu more proper when 
you como to address the Jury.'* 

It is Kuid that lip to this time tliere had been scarce 
nuy instnticu in England of a triul for Hii^li Trousou 
that had not been finished iu a mingle day. but liuro 
tlie hour of midnight came before any great progress 
had been made with the Crown witnesses. It bccamo 
necessary to adjourn, and the Court sat day by day 

* nowell'i BUtto Triali^ toI. xxiv, p. 717. 

tlPB OP priT. 


from the Tuesday to thf Saturday. On Saturday, the 
Ist of Novembtir, at two in tlio aftcnioon, Erskiiio rose 
for the defence. lie spoko for eoven hours, until «t the 
last Ilia own voice, his owu strcugth foiled him, and 
leaning for supporl on tlni tiihle, lie could only n'iiis|)er 
to tlic Jury. But amidst tho br(?fttliless sil^^noe eTcn 
hia faint wliii*]K>rs could be heard. Is ever was the public 
pxpetitatioD, though high, more fully answered. Nover 
did his admirablo talents as an advocutc sliino fortli 
with brighter lustro. It may bo tMitd, iudet-d, that iu 
these State Trials hia great forensic fame attuiuod its 
calminating point. Besides many collateral issace., all of 
which ho cjirofully wrought out, tho main drift of his 
arguiueut was to show tlutt tho ll^w of High TroasoQ, 
inflicting as it did Buch tremendous penalties, required 
to be most strictly and HtoraU'y construed. It had been 
framed for tho tuifuty ot thu Itoyal life and person, iiot 
for the defence of tlio Koyal government. To ounspiro 
agaius.t tho King's lawfid authority — supposing for a 
moment such a conspiracy proved — was a crime of great 
magnitude which tho. law was open to punish, but it 
was not tile crime allogi^d in the indictment — ^it was not 
High Treason as defined by the Act of Kdward the 

On the Monday an<l the ensuing days the triiJ was 
reaomod. The Duke of liiclimond was summoned as a 
witness to admit the authenticity of his letter to Ooloocl 
Sharmau in 17^3, from which strong exprcesious ui'giDg, 
a Kcfurm of FaiUameut bad bei>n often aud triumph- 
antly quoted in tho Corresponding and Constitutional 
Societies. Lord Lauderdale, Sir. Sheridan, Mr. Philip 



UrB or PITT. 


Francis, and some otiien t»oro witneSA to the peaceable 
coiidiK-t (if Hardy and Iiir frit'ndB so far as they liad 
observed them. A ai«ond speech in behalf of the pri- 
soner was made by Ids second Coansel, Mr, Gihbs, after- 
wards Sir Vicary ; and the Solicitor^eneral, Sir John 
Mitford, in au address of ten honrs replied on tho [Ktrt 
of the Crovni. 'l%e Lord Chief Justioesammed up the 
case with strict impartiulity, kihI then qn the eighth day 
of the trial l!n; Jury, after retiring for three hoars, 
brought iu a Turdict of Xot Gnilty. 

It has been usuhI iu Htato Prosecutions, when seTerat 
pfirsons hare been sent to prison on the same cliarge, 
and when the trial .of llie first has resaUcd in Ida ao- 
ijuittal, to consider that deoision as inrolying the late 
of the nest. Jlnt at this most critical period the mag- 
nitude of tho interests at stake led the Govcrumout to 
a diflcrcut courso. It vraa determined to proueed with 
the trial of John Home Tooko on tho sauo charge, and 
nearly the sanio evidence. 

The second trial accordingly commenced. Drsluno 

was again the Counsel for Hie prisoner, hut the priBonw 

hern took an active part in his own defence. With 

^iKtti delight did the old opponent of Jonius and of 

H Tliurlow rcnon- hiM intellectual war& Ho showed hiu- 

Bclf &g ever, readf, quick-mttud, un»bitshcd. Whothor 

in tliu croBS-QXAminfttioD of witnc8K« or iu r«|wrtee« 

against the Court, he indulged iu many humorous 

sallios whidi thu authority of llie Jndg«a coold not 

B check, and which were rovF»rdi<d by the laughter of the 

H audience. £r»kiiio, however, uiude as beforo on oAmost 

H and impressive epeech for the dcfcuoo. Then eaue a 

L • 


LIFE OP prrp. 


wbolo host of witneases, miiatered perhaps for show 
nitlicr than for use. Mr, Pitt aiid th« Duke of Ricli- 
muiid wore summoned to state tho part they bad 
formerly taken in meetings and aBsociations for the 
refonn of Parliament. Earl Stanhopo and tho Kev. 
Chriatoplier Wyrill gave teHllmony to tho same Irans- 
actioiiB trom a different point of vieiv. Major Cart- 
vrright Hpoko of tho foundation and first stops of the 
Constitntioual Society. Mr. Fox, Mr, Sheridan, Mr. 
Philip Franc-is dt-jMsod that they hud known llr. Tooke 
for many years, anil bad never foimd his opinions upon 
politios dialoyal, nor even extreme. He was wont, it 
seems, to excusLi lumsclf for acting willi men of mncb 
more vfhemoiit views by an iugeuioQH tlioiigh inconijii- 
sivo illustration, which, since bo £ii'st devised it> has grown 
into common iise. '* If," said Mr. Tooke, " 1 nnd aeveral 
wen are in the Windsor s1age-coaL-h, we travel together 
lulong as it may miit us. When 1 tlnd myself at Houns- 
low I get out ; tliey who want to go iarther may go to 
Windsor or where they like; but when I get to Houns- 

!nw, there I get out ; no tarther will I go, by ;" 

and hero the former clergjTnan uttered an oath 1 ' 

In thia case tlie Jnry, having retired for only eight 
minuted, came back with a verdict of Not Guilty. Moat 
of the remaining prisoners were now discharged without 
any e«dence being offered against them. Bnt the 
Crown Lawyere resolved to proceed ^-itli a third trial, 
that of John Tbelwall, who had taken a moeli more 
ae^re part in the Societies than either Hardy or Home 

t SMthotfridoiiceof MujorCactwrigtit (.S'tutu Trials vol. UT. p. 380). 




Tookc, He was vain of liis repntHtioii as u lecturer, 
aud it is said that liu proved h very troublesomo client. 
At one time 1i6 wns m much di«siitisfiod that he wrote 
on a piece of jMiper which he threw over to Erekiuc, 
" I'll be hanged if I don't plead my own canst- ; " upon 
whit'h his Counsel returned for answer, "Vou'll he 
hanged if you do ! " The rcjsult of the Trial, howo?er, 
was t)ie same. A^iu wh» Ernkino tho chief Counsel, 
luid nyain did tho Jury acquit. 

Tlius ended tliese Crown prost'cutJons, Tliion«;li the 
whole course of tiiem the fef;Iing of tJie multitude run 
strongly in favour of the accused. On the hwt nigfit of 
the trials thoro were bonfires and hliuing torch e« 
thi'ongh the streets, while the horses of Erakino being 
taken from his chariot, he was drawn home amidst the 
loudest ncclamatioQB lo his bonse iu Sorjeftnts" Inn. 
There, with Gibbs by his side, he indulged in the plea- 
Ruro of one more parting speeeli from the windows. 
When in after years ho was wont to boast of this ova- 

3n, some of his frienrls sought to niurtiiy Idm by as- 

rting — perhaps nutnily — that the putrioLs who took 
the horses from his carriage had forgotten to return 

The result of these triaLi was of eoutso a great 
triumph to the Opposition and a signal discoiiititure to 
the Government. Judgbg from their result, most of 
the later writers have orniignod tlieir policy. Yet it 
may he doubted whether such language and such acts 
us WL-re proved against menibcre of both the Societies 
could under any Gfovenuneut have been left unnoticed. 
It may be doubted whether oven the prosocutiou <rf 

n 3 




them, ending ns it did iu &tlare, was nut better for (jio 
'^ate tbaii mere aOciice or neglect would hare been. 
Tlie loyal at heart, some of whom wore misled nud 
doccivod, liiui now cleair evidence laid l:icforo them of 
the tnio intent and moaning of ono at loavt of these 
Societies. The BeToIntionmy leaders ntight exult tlint 
tlicy had, acoonling to the decision of a Jvry, kept 
witliln this hiw, bnt. they must have felt that there 
were some further limits ivhich they would not be 
allowed to overstep trithont imminent peril to them* 
selves. And thns it may perhaps be snid of the whole 
resoll tlidt though the traitors were iinpnnished, the 
treason was prt'vented, 

Mr. Pitt at all events allowed no signs of disapp(»nt- 
ment or vexation to CRcape him. He earnestly applied 
liimeelf ou the returo of Lord Speucer Smvo. Vienna to 
give new strength to liis admiuistratiou. His brother, 
placed in 17SS at tlio head, of tho naval service, bad 
certainly in no Bmall degree disappouited tho public 
hopes. But he was personally a favourite with the 
King. Indeed ou several points of politics htii opinions 
approached mut-h nearer to those of George the Third 
than to tJioseof Mr.Pitt. Thus, for example. Lord Chat- 
ham was uo friend eitlier to the Abolition of the Slave 
Trade or to the enfranchiBomeut of tho Roman Catholics. 

In the autumn of 1794, however, a new orrangoment 
wds efteeto^. Lord Chatham was tmnsferred to tlie 
easy post of I'rivy Seal, wliiie tlie direction of the 
Admiralty was catrosted to Earl Spencer. 

Another change of no lees importance had been ibr 
some wcuka in contemplation — a change iu the Lord- 



Lieatcouuicf of Irelaiitl Bnt aa it proceeded tliia d»- 
i^gn WB» firtttight nitli tiiotit serious dilHculties, and aJ> 
most A disroptiou of tho uew political alliance. 

Here, liowcTer, some rotKwpoct of Irish affairs will 
l>e reqiiirod. 

Ever sineo tlio advaiice of tlio French lU'Tolution, 
Irddiid had bcou oao of the uumy houtc'cs of ausioty 
to Iho English Govemmeiit. [ have already hod oc- 
casion to show in tlie trial of Hamilton Rowan how rife 
the secret xocietics had grown. Bnt beaidea thmo the 
whole body of Boman Catliolica, many of them most loyal 
liiibjecta, deemtKl not unjustly tho moment favourable 
for urging their pretensions. Tliey had for their prin- 
cipal agent Mr. Theobald Wolfe Tone, and for their 
81>okesman in the Irish House of Commons Sir Hercules 
Laii<pisbo. From Englitnd tJicy received all tho aid 
that the geniiid and iiiitliority of Burke could gire. In 
Jiiuuary, 171*2, he pulli-fliecl his celebrated letter to Sir 
iierouW ]>oiiitJug not the impolieyof the routiuuod ro- 
strictiotiK on the Ii-ish Itoiuan Catliolic body. At the 
same time he scut over his son, Ricliard Burke, ns So- 
cretaiy to their Committee in Dnbliu. Great ability was 
shown by the fullier, and great iteal by the son. 

Thna supported, Sir Hercul<)» Langrishe, oven before 
the same montli of January, 171)2, ha<l cloHpd, brought 
in a Bill to remore some, the more pi-ominent, griev* 
anees of his Roman Catholie fellow-Hubjeets. He pro- 
posed that marriages between Protestants and Papists 
might ho solemnized by Protestant dei^ymen, and 
should no longer incapacitate the husband from voting 
at elections He proposed tJiat attorneys might, if thej* 




pluaaed, take Ronmn Catliolit'S for clerics — Ihal Rcbools 
might bo opened witliout lictmce bom tlie Ordiiiarj'— 
(iiwl tluit otLer sut-li burbariius rL'Struints upon education 
should cease. Al Iho buoio tiim.- he left Hnionched the 
higher qTiestion of t.tio Romnri Ciit.hc^lic francluaG. 

Tho justice i>f the mae wiis i^lmr. Clearer still, if 
possible, wiia Hio. pressure of tlie timos. The mtption of 
Sir Hercules was secondefl by tJie Secretary for Ireland, 
Wr. IIi>bart; and in Bjiiti' of 8ome High rmtestant 
inunuurs, the Bill passed both Housi^* with ease. In 
this result wo may readily trace the resolute will of 
the Prime Minister of Eiiglnud. To the niin<l of Pitt, 
indeed, the whole system of peDal laws wus utterly 
abhorrent. Ho had reflecttid luuch on the position 
of the sister idand, and de^cd to see both islands 
closely bound togetber on the footing of eqiuil lavrg and 
equal rights. It is not too much to say of him, as Lord 
Mociiulay has not forborne to say, even at the risk of 
some implied reflection upon Fox, that " Pitt va« tho 
first English Ministor wlio fomied gi-eat designs for 
the beiielit of Ireland." 

Wilh tJiesG convictions, and oTerruling all whispers to 
the contrary, Mr, Pitt urged forward the far from vrilUug 
Government of Ireland. The Earl of Westmorland, at 
that time Lord Lieutenant, was, as tliroitgh life, on op- 
ponent of the Catholic claims, and leaned for suppurt 
mainly on tho High Protestant famihes. Yet, nndor tlie 
influence of the mastcr-apirit hi Downing Street, tlio 
Lord Lieutenant opened the Session of 17!>3 wttli n 
speech expraBBire of the King's desire for "agenemi 
uniou of seutimont among all classes and descriptioua of 




His MfiJL'aty'a subjects;" nnt! lio added: — "With these 
views His Mnjosty trusts tliut tbo sittuitiou of liis Catlio 
lic subjeoto wUl engage your scriouK uttcatiou." It \s 
wortliy of note tliat (he Address of tJi« Homw of Com- 
muiis in answer to this speech was st-coudwl l>y Bfr. 
Wesley, who was afterwards Sir Artliur Wollosley, (uid 
at a later period the {jrcat Duke of Wellington. 

In pureuance of tbo inteutioDS thus sluidowcd forth, 
3Ir. Huburt, on tbo dth of rebruary, 1793, moved to 
briitg iu H Bill for tbo further reliuf of tbo Komftii 
Catholics, ^ir UcRiuIcs Laiigrislie, in eceouding the 
motion, used some langmige wortliy th« comepoodcnt 
of JJiirke, nndalnioflt wortbv of Burke himself. "Give 
tliom the pride of privilege," ho said, " and you will give 
tbeu tbc principle of attachmont ; admit them within 
tlie walls of the ConsUtutiou, and lliey will delend them." 

I'lie Bill of Mr. Uobart was of a large and conipre- 
beiiaive kind. It repealed all tlie j>enaltics and dis- 
abilities affecting the educatioD of duidron, or the 
mccewiion of estates. It admitted the Roman Catholics 
to vote at elections, taking only the oaths of allegiaiioe 
and abjuration. It enabled them to hold civil or 
military offices, with the exception of a certain nundtcr 
that were specified in the Act. That list of exceptions 
was still too great, comprising as it did, for oxamplo,- 
i\w ofllces of chief or puisne J udgo and of I^ird Ltcu- 
touant of connties. Still, as compared with the 
previous system, the progress was immense. 

So great, indeed, was tliis improvement, that it could 
not pass into htw witboat considerable oppositioD. Dr. 
Patrick Duigeuan, Professor of Law in the University 



Cbap. SJS. 

of Dublin, and a intui of couisMlciaUlc Icuruiug, cxorted 
himself agiuiut it rigurouHly, but in vuiu. None 
perlinps, wore less woU pltMiacd nitli it tlian some 
membcra of tlio GuTorumcut itself, oud c«pocially tlie 
Cbaucellor, Lord Fitzgibboii, n luau of powerful tiitGlIect, 
vvlio bud made muuy rnVntb iii bis vifa, and many ene- 
mies ill the opposite rankig. As, however, Ijord Fits^ 
gibbou Lad no iDteutioii of resigning tbe Great Sea), he 
fould oiiiy, for Uie present, mutter his displeasure and 

lu )!ptto of Uieso coucesaious — or rather, as Dr. 
Duigonun would Iuitc snid, on aoeonut of thorn — 
Iroltiiid wus lar from tnuiquiL Thuro, as iu Euglaad. 
llio learuu uf tile Fn-'uch KcToIution was at work. 
!Etcu the Comioitteo for tbe GomtLu Catholic claims 
wliidi sftt in Dublin, intent ui>oti a common object, 
did not remain united. Bidiard Burke raaigned his 
oiHc-o of secTutary, and returned to England in disgnst 
Even before the Bill of Sir Hercules LaBgrisbe, sixty- 
four of the most resiicc'tablo members, including Lords 
ringal and Kenmare, alurmod at the violence around 
them, witlidrew from the Committee. Other membera, 
among whom tbe Hon. Siuion Butler and Mr. Wolfe 
Tone were consiiicuous, with no more roserve than 
tlieir own safety demanded, ajipear to have aimed at 
lliB establishment of a liepubUc on tho model and by 
the aid of Franco. 

Beaidi-'B this schism of Uio Iloman Catliolic body, 
there were many other sections in Ireland, some nitbin 
and some without the law. There was the party of the 
'Whig Club in Constitutional opposition to the Miuistiy, 




and having for its leaders tL« Dtiko of LeiIlRte^ Uio 
Earl of Cliarlcmont, aud Mr. Grattan. Tlicro was 
tlie faction of the " TJiiitod Irisbmon," irhicli sought to 
blend the Romitn Catholics htIU the Protestant Dis- 
sfintern, and to iHako of tho whole au engine against 
England. At Dnblia there was an active band of 
agitators, at its head Air. Hamilton Rowan and Mr. 
Xapper Tandy, 8<M»king to wrest the city into their own 
control, and with tliat view attempting the formation, 
on the French [^an, of a Xational Guard. At Beliaet 
there were gatherings &om every part of Ulster to 
celebrate the anniversary of the taking of the CaHtilla 
At Dungannnn delegates from the province come 
together and concerted measures /or a National Coaven- 
tion to meet in the following September at Athlone, 

All tliis timo, IB many parta of the opon oouhdy, 
guDgs of dopredaton prowled. These were formed bom 
tho lowest class of the Ilomaa Catholics, complaining 
of various grioTant-M, as of hearth-money, oomity-ceeetis, 
and titheu; and known by divers naioos, especially 
" Peep of Day Hoys " and " Defenders," The latter, as 
their name implies, claimed to act only for their own 
protectioD, and on this plea, assembling at night and 
marching tn small bodies, they broke into the houses of 
i'lBtBrtunts and took their anus. 

To these caoseB of diiitractioQ in the deter island 
we ought, ia iaimeea, to add tho unsoundness of some 
pai-ts of the system which England was called on to 
defend. It was more easy to abolish the penal laws 
than to iwit out the feelings and tendencies which 
tliey hitd produced in botit the snbject and the mling 





pIuhs^ There were defects and abuses, many and 
grievous, in every department of tlie State, such as 
oould oiJy be eradicated in tbe course of years. Take, 
for instance, the case of tbe Established Chnrcb. There 
the spirit was as different as possible from that of the 
present time. The Duke of Korfolk himself, a convert, 
though certainly not a keen one, to the Protestant faitli, 
declared in the House of Ijords that in many districts 
of the aonth or west of Ireland the Clergy, far from 
seeking to form a congregation, rejoiced in their 
exemption from any. It was, said the Duke, a coramou 
i-emark amongst them, " Yon have got a good living, 
tor there is no Chnrch in your pailsh ] " ' 

Under all these difRcnlties the inling men in (rolaud, 
Ets instructed from Downing Sti-ept, sought to bli;ad 
con<!iliatioa with finanegg. In tlie aanie Session of 1793, 
in which they carried the Itotnan Catholic Relief Bill, 
tlioy passed on Act to prevent tlm importation of anna 
or military BtoreH, and anotlior Act to prohibit tbo 
appoiutmi^int of dek-gatt'S to tmlnwful tuscmbltas, which 
was U^vfUcd against tlio iiittiodcd Convention at Athlone. 
Karly in 1794, as 1 havo already shown, Mr. Hamilton 
Itowau wius indicted for n seditious libel and fonnd 
Quilty. In April, thu Humc year, tho Kov, William 
Jack^u, «ho wiw acting as an uaiiii«ir}- of France, was 
arrested on a cluirge of High Tn-usou, and, pending his 
(rial, was detained mniiy months a dosu prisoner in 

UeoDwhUe, tltroiigh the country districts the oonduct 

SpOMth ia th« UoUK of Lords, May B, 1T95. 



of tJie " DofL^udore" grew more and more oatrag^us, 
ttiiil lc«8 EDtl less ill afc'«rilniii.'e with Mieir imiiie. In 
tliu (.■ounly of IjODgford, iiud iwino otbcrs, the gi.'Utlemeii 
and Iraclioldeni found it uocca^ry to combine and 
|irotect tliemsolvfs ; and tbcy obtiiinod leave to levy 
a sum of iiiojioy by eubscriptiou, in order to raise snd 
to maintain a troop of lioree. 

In tbis RiixioDK Htatu of Ireland it Bcemed to Mr. Pitt 
ttiat whilu avoiding any abrupt olianges, great Advantage 
to tbat eountry migbl be derived from the «ciN>«8ion to 
offiee of the Wliig eliiefs in tbe summer of 1704. SiwJi 
an Acces»ou led almost an of course to a cmiicert of 
mfiasuifs witb Mr. Gruttan and bin friendii. Grattan 
had unhappily pledged himself not under any circum- 
stances to accept of office, but there might be a new 
Govornmeut of Ireland formed with his approml and re- 
ceiving biii support. M'ith this view it vma Loiitvmpbitt^'d 
to rctull iJie Eurl of Wetitmorliind. if aomo other office 
could bo foimd for him In Kug]aud, and to »cn<l iu his 
plaoo tlio nowly-mado President of the Coimoil, t'arl 
Fit;^wiIIium. Tiiis trus a uoblcman of t-xcelk-nt cha* 
meter and upright inleutionM, but whose itbililies were 
ectimated far too Iiighly by his friends. It will appear 
from a lileniorniulum which I .iball presently insert, tlint in 
appointing him to Ireland, Jlr. Pitt consulted theopiniona 
of otherB much rallier than bis own. There was also an 
idea in nome qnarteTS that tbe son of Bnrko might go 
out a.1 Secretary, but the untimely dcaOi of that yojing 
man in August, 17!)4, threw tbe appointment into the 
hands of Lord Milton, eldest son of tlie Earl of Dorches- 
ter. There was a furtlier idea that Mr. George Pon- 


iiFE OF pnr. 

Chaf. XIX. 

aonbj", a* a chief of the Irish Whigs, uiight, in the event 
of u, vftoaiicy, become Attomey-Gi^uonil of Irt'luiid. In 
any Kuch cnae, the Duke of Portland as Homo Sec-re* 
tary would bo the Minister iu direct coiumuiiicAtioa 
with his espociiil fricmlK. 

In the luuuth of Oclobur, wliilo these airangt^menta 
were pending, Mr. Orattan come to London. He mot Mr. 
Pitt for the first tiioe at a dinner-party given by the Duke 
of Portland. According to Grnttan's report, "Ht. Pitt 
6ftt by Sir John Pamell, talked a good deal to liim, and 
seemed to like him much ; but the Ponsonbys and the 
GrcQvilles were cold and difltant, and looked as if the; 
woald cut eacli otlier'a throat*" Thei'e is one remark 
of Mr. Pitt here recorded whicli tends to i»rovo that 
although he desired to eufraneliise the ICoiuau Catholics 
(tf L'tiluud, lie wuB not quite ot case us to tltt^lr future 
condiK-t. 8ir Jolm Paruell v,-a8 talking of iJie It 
Cutbolics, uud rejoicing at their uuion with the Protest 
atit^ when Mr. Pitt eaid, " Very true. Sir ; but the ques> 
tion is, wboBO will they bi> ? '* ' 

II was soon found, however, that Mr. Crattan, aiu 
through liiui the MTiig chiefs, required laige cm»c«-'1 
Bions. They wished to recall Lord Westmorland at 
once, whether or not any place could be found for him 
at home. Tlicy wished to remove the Chancellor, Lor 
Filzgibbon. They made a set at some other stead] 
SQpporteiB of the Government To these temia Pitt 
felt that he ooidd not in honour or iu justice yield. 
We find him write as follows to one of his most 
trustod friends : — 

* Life and Timof erf Gnttui, tif liu Km Ueatj, vol. It. p. Yti. 


rtrm or pitt. 


Mr. IHtt to Mr. Jhndat. 
" Deak Dcsdab, 

SomiiDg Street, TuceiUy nigbt, 
{Oot H), 17«4. 

"Nearer home tbau Hulkiid eTerjtbiiig loolis 
ill. 1 eucloHB you a letter vrliicb I liad from M ixitUium 
to-day. His letter to Lord Fitswilliftm contained «vcry- 
tliing thill I could have desired him to write ; but I have 
seen htm since, and I do not see that aoy progress is 
made towoixU gettliug the biuiuoiis ou terms in which I 
ought to «Of|uicii(!e. 

"I am fully detennin(>d that I will not give way 
either to Lord WcntmorlKnd'» re<>a1I vithout a proper 
ftiiiiatioQ fill' him horti, or to Lord FitKgibbon'D roiDOval 
oa auy terma. But though I cannot determine other- 
wise, it is dreadful that anything like personal considc- 
rations (though in fact they aro not all bo) should seem 
to mix at buch a crisis as this. 

*' Yours ercr, 

" W. P." 

Lord Grenrille in this transaction showed vciy great 
goneroHity and public epirlt. He was then at hi* newly 
acquired seat of Dropmore — a domuiu which in after 
year* was so hij^hly unibullisliod by his taste. Here 
it! a k'lttT sent from thetioo which Pitt receired on 
the morniiiff of the very day that he wrote, as we have 
just wen, to Hnndas. It will bo noti««d that in one 
passage Lord Grenville refers to a rioh oflicc for life— as 
Auditor of the Exchequer — which Mr. l^itt had shortly 
before bestowed upon him. 



Ch«p. sex. 

"My DEAB Pitt, " Brajjni^re, Oct, 13, 1794. 

"In ruminftting over the Irish difficiihyjii tlie 
COTirse of my ride Lere, and tliiiikiiig of Uio various «i>- 
lutioiis wliicli might be tound, it occHiTed to me that 
&up]>08iug the imuciiiid point, that of the change of 
system, to be aeltled, ns I tliink it may be, by explaua- 
tion, the other might be aolveil hy Lord SfaTiafield's 
taking my oflice. He is <iiiit« cqnsd to the olUciftl biisi- 
vvss, iind has wiWs enough itt command to talfo the 
osteufiihle lead in the UoiiRe of Lords. Whatever ser- 
vice I can do there to you or to the cause we are em- 
bftilivi) in, you would etinally command, and you mi^t 
depend on my not neglei-ting that part of t.\u; bngincss 
there which might be nofcssary in order to kcejj toge- 
ther ^oiir pai-ty ia that Jlonae, 

" I ara not igrioraril that the plan in liable to sonio 
objection, but it is out of all compBrison preferable to 
the inGnite mischief of brcaldng np a system ititli tits 
maintenance of which the tato of tlie country geems to 
me to bo in great degroo eonuectcd. 

"It would be wasting time to ti.-!! you bow readily I 
should make such a sacrilicc. You have put me in u 
situation to be able to do it without bringing distrcBS or 
even inoonveniuuoe of any kind ujion myself, or one 
still dearer to mo ; and even if you had not, I shoidil 
not, at least I ho[K! not, liavc thought that I ought to 
licsitate. Tho only tiling I should feci in it that re- 
quired exphination would be just to he able to tell 
enough of the story to show tlmt 1 n'tJred for accommo- 
dation, and not to avoid the dillicultics of the moment ; 
and if I could explain this in the lirst iuAtancc, I could 
sufticiently show by my public conduct afterwards Hint 
] should uot bo backwai'd in taking my share of the 
puhliu difficulties, whatever they mv or may hereafter be. 

1701, LIFE OF PITT. 285 

"Pray consider this sevioualy, I am coofijciit if yoii 
do so, you willtlii>il< tliii* arTai)g6mf>nt much more l>eiie- 
ficiul to the publi(^ iutcK-st nt tliis cmh thau siiflering 
youi'sell' fi-om any predilection or partiality to me to 
inc^ur thu hazard and certtLin evil that must attend the 
breaking up such a q'stem as you have juirt formed. 
"Ever most offuctiouatvly yours, 

The genwous offer of Lord GrenvDIe was uot ao* 
Opted, nor even for one moment enleriaiued. It scorned 
to Mr. Pitt, however, that a pereomd inter\-icw botwoon 
Gratttm and himself woidd bring matters to a clearer 
issue. Next morning therefore bo wrote tLiii uoto : 

" Mr. Pitt presents his compUmenta to Mr. Grattan. 
Hg vmhm mutb. if it in not disagreeable to Jlr. Grattan, 
to havo an opporlimity of coaveraiig witli liini cunfi* 
deatially on the subject of an arraagomeat in Ireland, 
and fur that purposo wrould liike tim libr-rty of request- 
ing to see Iiim, either at foiu- to-Jay or any time to- 
morrow morning most convenient to Sfr. Grattan. 

" Downing Street, Wfldno!»day, 
Oct. 15, 17iH." 

The interview thus proposud took placp on llio eame 
day. Grattan found I'ltt, asbu dcsmbed it. " very plain 
and very civil in hts manner." An to thu Lurd-Lieu- 
tonancy, Mr. Pitt observed, "Tlie question I^lkow Bludl 
Lord Westmorland bo providod for?" A:< to nu-uguros, 
and above all thu Kuman Catholic question, Mr. X'itt ii 
alleged to have Htatod his resolution as foUowa : — " Not 
to bring it forward us u Govoromuut measure ; but If 




Oovenunent were pressed, to yield it." In tlie biogra- 
phy of Mr. Orattan, by his son, it is stated that such 
were " the identical expressioDS," But I think it cer- 
tain (althongh with the fairest intentions on Jfr. Grat- 
tjm's part) that the latter claose must hiivc bo«n either 
imperfectly heard or imperfectly rL'membered. It is 
(juite clear from the other documeufs upon this question, 
some of them dated only the next day, that Pitt was 
fully determined not to pledge liimitelf or hia Cabinet 
positively aa to their future course. It ht quite clear, 
on the bent testimonies we can now obtain, that the aa- ' 
eurances given to varicus persons by Mr. Pitt in tho 
winter of 1704 with reapect to tho Roman Catholic 
question went only, at the utmost, to his own favourable 
bias, bnt reserved in express words to bts colleagues 
aud limiHcIf full liborty to consider and dccJdo on, as 
ut tho timu Ki-omi?d \K;»t, imyuivosuro that came to thorn 
from tho Parliament of Ireland. 

Indeed I must observe that there is not, nor dooe 
there purport to be, any ortmpleto report of this im- 
jiortant conversation between the Irish )iatriot and tho 
Britisli Illinister. In the passage referring to it fVom 
the biogiaphy of Grattan, the statements of the father 
are greatly intermingled and blended with the reflections 
of the .ton. Now I am bound to say that these two things 
ate to be very differently viewed. The statements of 
Henry Grattan the elder de.ierve our utmost respect. 
The reflections of Henry Grattan the younger all 
tlu-ough bis five volumes are marked beyond all other 
things by the greoteat possible degree of invectire and 
vituperation against all whom he dislikes. Tmee in 




this very passage docs Hr. Gmttan tho youii^r clocJaie 
Im i>ersnasioD tluit Ur. Pitt iutcndix] " to cheat,** and 
tLut lie IIUlIlt^;efl tho House ot Commons onl^ " bjr arts 
and laoatiy." I Iu>po that it n-ill not he thought ia- 
catnhent on me, as the hiographor of Mr. Pitt, to add 
to this lust ptissago oven a siaglo word of comment or 

Ou the Rime afteraoou, with a most Bcrupulous sense 
of hoooar, Mr. Fitt addressed to Mr. Grattaa a second 

" Mr. Rtt presonts hJs compliments to Mr. Grattan. 
Having requostod that the couTcrsation which Mr. 
Grattan hau had th: gooducsa to allow him might bo 
considered confidential, he does not think himself at 
liberty to refer to it mtkout being 8ur« that hi> has 
Mt. Grfittan'e ppmuBBioii ; hut ho rather imagme* he 
will have no objection to Mr. I'itt'a doing tio aa &r as 
may be necoRwiry in any explanation on tlio mbject 
wiUi the Duke of Portland and any other of his 

" Mr. Pitt's anxiety to aroid any doubt on tliis point 
will bo hh a^wlogy for giving Mr, Grattan that addi- 
tional troubles 

"Downing Street, Wefliiestlay, Oct 15, 17M, 
J past 6 P.M." 

That Pitt was firm in his purpose will fully appear 
from tho HdPi-ot correspondence which passed next day 
between Windham and himself. 

air. Windham to Mr. PiU. 

" DSAB Sm, (EDdmwd Got. ll>, 17M.} 

"Jhavo Hkovue talked with Mr. Gratlau stnco 
hia conversation with yon, and I had hoped for some 




Chat. JtlX. 

opening of better prospeffj*. A very little would, T 
j)0T»iiadc4l, contvLt them — I mi-Aii Mr. Grattnu 
his friends, if the matter could be fairly brought 
fts a qiif-slioii of tlicir inoilcrtttiiiii. \Vli«t migbt givo 
Bn nnfavourablf ajjptamnco to Mx. Grsittau's couvcrsa- 
tion was a suspicion in liis mind that more iras meant 
than fieeuied to be- declariMl ; tliH,t tbero was an objwl ifni 
to tbo eysttjm moro tban a tendcrneBS about piirticuljir 
persons. I really brieve that if the 0, ' could be given 
0[), — ' might bo wived. But T don't Imow, nor should 
I think, that thcro could be any socrot artiflo tibuut 
that, and any undemtanding upon the subject would be 
too delicate and dantjcTous- If you cuunot make up 
your mind to expose Iiim to the risk, I fear the thing is 
despenite, ami with it, I also fear, any hoiie of quiet 
or safety in Ireland. Tlie acquiescence of men ui the 
situation of G, and his friends would be an efibrt of 
virtue too great to be long continued. 

" 1 ought not to disguiBe from you either the probfiblo 
effects here, great or small: it is ]ii'opfr thoy should 
be before you. Though 1 could say nothing positive 
about myself till the return of Lord Spencer, yet it 
does not apppar to mo that it would be possible for mo 
to stay on the grounds on which the D, uf P. and Lord P. 
would go out, nor do I conceive that Lord S. would 
be, with respect to himself, of a difTerent opinion. 
How much I deprecate such aq extremity on the public 
ount, you will easily conceive. I assure you I 

Duld hardly do so leas on nccotmt of the perfect 
entisfitction that I huvo found in the connexion as it 
has liitlieiio eubsisted. 

*' Yours, dear Sir, with groat truth, 


• The CTinnoellor (Fitipibbonl, 

* In the US. au iultiul, or )]«rliai« two leltera, tint lllcgCblo. 


Mr. Pitt to Mr. Winiham. 

" Dear Siii, " Downing Street. Oct. t6. 1704. 

" Tlio more I ooiisidcr ovory )>art of ttiia unfortu- 
nate Biibjoct, the more I am confirmed in the impoitid- 
bility either of consenting to the t'hanprtllor's i«nioval 
or of Icuvtug cither htiu or uiiy of tbu tsupportoni of 
Government expoHed to the risk of the new srsteni. 
What y(ni any \vith rf!*|n:-('t to yourself, cmhittvr* liit- 
ri'-griit wliich, even without it, I should feel at the 
probable conseqnencea of what has pa&ied. Bly con* 
Huln.tioii uiiduT all th« difUcnltioR will hi; thai I hnv« 
nothmg fo reproach myself with in wluit has led to tliia 
misunderstauduig ; but I most struggle as well aa I can 
with H diWe38 wliich uo meatia aro hfft mo to aroid 
nithuut a itacrllice both of oharuut^ir und duty. Allow 
me Dtdy to add, that hoforo you Gually decide on 
your own line of conduct, I Ixiiat yoii will give uie on 
opportunity of discussing with you without a-si<rvo the 
grciat public considoratioas which at this moment aiu 
iuvolvL'd in it. 

" Youta, with great tnitli and regard, 

"W. Pitt." 

Mr. J'itt to Mr. iri)i<tt<rwi. 

" Downing Sixwtl, Oct JO, I79J, 

" Dear Sir, * pMt 5. 

" Strongly as I stated to you my feeliugs in 
my Itist letter, I foor, on looking at your letter ogaio, 
that I have stated them in one renpect imperfectly. 
Besides the im)X)eeibility of xacrificing any supporters 
of Goromment, or exposiiig them to the riek (if a new 





eystoni, I oiiglit to add tbat the rory idea of » w/w tj/t'' 
tem (oB far as I uiider^Uud what ia meant by that tenn), 
and especially oiip fornuHl williuiit iirovious cuniumni* 
cation or (.-onccrt with tho r«it of the luiig's son-Ants ) 
here, or witli the friends of Government in Ireland, 
is in itself what X feed it utterly LmposeiUu to uccede 
to ; and it appeare to me to be directly caiitiary tO 
the general priuei|ili?8 on which our union was fomwd 
and has liithertu subsisted. 

" Painful as the whole subject is, I foel ncvcrlholesa 
that it is materia] to leave no }mrt of it liable to l>e 
misundei-stood, and I therefore give you tliis uddiliuuid 
ttoiJ>le. « Yoni«, Ac., 

■' W. Pitt." 

It will be seen that Pitt wan fully determined to 
risk the resignation of his now collcagnos rather than 
act with injustice to his old HUpjioi'ters. To act his 
determiiiatluu on the several [lulnts heyoiid <Iunbt, and 
to muke utte of iu di^ussion, he drew u]) tlio following 


" Much the best evout of tho present discussions 
would be some arrangement which avoi<ied Lord Fitz* 
willium's going to Ireland. Uut if salisftietiou is giveu 
on the other poitits, it is impossible to put a uegalire on 
his going' If it were right to do so at all, it could oiily 
have been done by fonning and notifying that detenni- 
nation ns mon as it was fully loiowu what had been the 
conduct of llio ])arty rospecliiig tins burunc^. Not, 
having (>een done at first, tiiero is no tenable ground ouj 
which it itin be done now. Even if tljo decision wopsi 
still iu our power, inueh »» I nhoiild wii<h to avoid hit' 
going, I do uot think it woidd bo wiso to break on that 


isre or pitt. 


ground. If so, it also follows that factlity miisf be 
given to auy reaijouttblo turangemout. But before 
Lord Fitzwilliam can go, iheae four things ore (iulii<- 
penwiMo : — 

" Ist. A full esplanatJoa that all idea of a new aystf-m 
of iin-asurt-s, or of now priuciiilos of govcmmont in 
Ireland, us well as of auy scpurut^) au<l exclusive right 
to condnct the department of Ireland differpnllr 
from any othi>r iu the King's sorrier, is disclaimod and 
relinquish od. 

" 2rii]. Complete security that Lord Fitagibbon and 
all the siipportom ut' Govtrnmfciit sliull not be displaced 
on tlie change, nor while they continue to act fairly 
iu supjiort of snch a system as shall be approved here. 

" Srd. That a situation sbull previously bo found 
for Lord Westmorland, such as may show on the fao© 
of it flittt ho tjuiU Inland with his own fi-oe eonsunt 
Thii^ can only be from his Imving u ^timtion in tti« 
Cabinel, or one of tlio great Court offices, or some re- 
spectable office wliich liaa been held liy persons quitting 
those situations. 

" 4tli. An adeqmite and liberal provision for Douglas, 
if the office of Secretary of State in not graiitud to him. 

" If these points are arranged, and the change of 
the Loi-d-LieuteuAut is settle I, Lord Westmorland 
must be prevailed on not to proes his reeonunciidatioiu 
to the Provostship and Secretary of State. 


For aboTO a fortnight longer tbo question continued 
in suspense. We find Lord Auckland — who was now 
residing at his house of Beckenham, and who, iu 1103, 
had i-eceired an English in addition to hts Iri«h peerage 




Chap. SIX. 

— csprosB hiniHelf with coiisi<It7raM» bitternesH. and, as I 
think, coiiaideral>le injustice, to his old political frieads : — 

"I have said we are like the man in tlie nigbt- 
mare ; we fe«l the weiglit and horror, nnd y^t sleep 
on. The scramble of the rortland set is all in that 
style; tliey look with horror towards Jac-obiuiBtn, but 
in the meau I'unv uru iihsurbcd in tho old and sivopy 
game of patrouugc, iu tli« pursuit of wliich thoy aru at 
this instant rigkiug tlie coiiTtdMion of Irelaiid." 

These words an? bdceu fioni a \ett<-T to Mr. Joliu 
licrtsfurd, dut<'d OettilKtr 23r(I. On ih*^ othor side of 
tlie qasHtiou Mr. Grtttton wrutti an follow.< U> a private 
Iriend : — 

" Ms DEAR M'CAtr, 

'Oot. 27. 1794. 

" Had I anything to ivrite, I aboiild have 
writi'Mi. All I can say i)<, that nothing is detL-nninod 
nt prvKeuL Mr. i'itt don't aji^ree to those extMiuivo 
powors which we were taught to believe Uio Duke 
of Portland had. However, 1 «honld not be siir]irist?d 
if it were settle<l well at last, nnii thut Lord Fitzivilliiiiii 
went over; nor yet would tho contrary surprise me. 
This woek will decide. 

" Desiie them not to write from TiuDcIiinch, for I 
Lope to leave this on Monday or Tuesday next. 

" Yourx most siucerely, 

" H. GitArT.iil." 

In this eontroversj-, ss finally settled, Mr. Vilt pro- 
railod on every point, the Duko of Torthind nrul his 
othor \\1iig colleagues remiiiniiig in their pIiwNrs. The 
retirement of Lord WostJuorUuid was delayftl untQ 


ItFE or PITT. 


he oonld be inveBted with it lii;;h Conrt offloe as 
Jlaster of the Hono. Then, atnl not till then, was 
Lord Filxwilliiim Bwom in liefore the King ua Lord 
U«utenfttit. The TriflK Cbancellor was not to be 
romovt-J, nor yet any otlier holder <rf office in Ireland, 
nnl<)ss fi'r any act of inRiiljordinat.ion in ofBco. It 
seems, hdwever, probable that the Duke of Portland, 
wlio was ulvfays sparijig of wnrda and expressed himself 
with gff^at fiiflicnlty even in priTOte conversation, may 
liBve I'lit very imperfectly explained this last stipnla- 
tion to Lord Fitzwilliam, Certain it is, as we sliall 
fiud, that Lord Fitzwilliam ou reaching Dublin began 
to act at once in utter tUsriigiird of it 

By the appointment of Eiirl FitzwiUiani as Lord 
Lieuti-nunt thcns reiuftined tlie office of Lonl President 
to fill. The King was gratified by the Gelectioa for 
thnt poiit of one of his pen<onal friends an<l followers 
of the Cuiilition period. Lord Stormont, who hml re- 
cently succeeded 118 second Karl of Mati«liuld. The 
following letter will best i^xphun by what armngcmcnt 
that nomination and Lord Westmorland's woro com- 
bined. It is addreaaed by Mr. Pitt to tho former Lonl 
Gmham, now Duke of Montro»e and Master of tho 

" Mr DEAR PcKB, " Holwood, Nov. 31, 1794. 

" Understanding that yon ore oxjiocted in town 
to-day, I tttko the iirBt o])portmiity of writing to 
luention a propoaal which I Hatter myself has nothing 
in it likely to be nnoeccptablo to yon ; oud i know 
yon will bo inolinod to give it n fnvonrable considera- 
tion when I tell yon that it will furnish tlie only 



Chap. XIX 

meaoH ("or relicviiig Government from an enibar 
mt'iit oi" the most serious rnihire. Willi u vi«w 
Lord Fitzwilliam's going to Ireland, tlitTo are circum- 
stancas tlint rcudiT it uewasary for me to be ftble to 
. open some situation of <listiuction fur Lord West- 
morlanil. I^ord Mansfield would be to succeed Lord 
FitKwilliaru (i» l*resi(lont of tiie Council, and would 
rttoquish his offico of Justice Geucral in Scotland. 
Considering the rank and Taints of the Iatt«' ofiioe, I 
nm led to hojKS tJwt you would uot cousiiicr n ^auCi 
of it for lifo as au noTavourahle «schaugo for the 
situation which yoa now hold, and to which Lord 
Westmorland might Haccced. I wi»h, however, rathee j 
to make the projKjftal to you on the ground of affurding 1 
me ot a very anxious inomunt tt vorj- Gm>ntial accom- 
modation, which I shall feel as an additional proof olj 
the fricudship and Iduduuss ivliieh [ have always espo-l 
rienccd from yon. 

" Beliore ms j-onra sincerely, 

" W. Pitt." 

Thns reinforced the adroini^rafion mot the Parlia-I 
ment on the 'Mth of De<!einlier. The King in bit 
opening Rpecoli declared tJitit, uotwitlistAO'liii^ the dii^ 
Appointment!) and reverses of tlie last cttmiiai<(n, ho 
retained a firm conviction of the necessity of itcmigting 
in a rigorous proxecutioii of Uio war. Ho announood. 
his ai-eeptance of the Crown of Corsica, and the coo- 
clnsion of a treaty for Urn marriage of the Prince of 
Watea with the Princess Caroline of Briinswiok. 

The Addresses in reply gave rise to warm dobatcs 
with some eircnmstances not wholly in favour of the 
GoTCmmont Among the Peere, indeed, there wcrafl 

lirE Of PITT. 


only the usual speakei-B of Opposilion, h» Lords LoDe- 
downe and Htaiihope, and tlio usual minority of ten or 
twelve. But in tbe Commons scveml mciuWn o( 
gi'oat n'eight bad become iuclinetl to peaoe from tfao 
reverses of the last cainpaign and from Ute fall of 
Itobe^ierre. Foremost H,mr)ng Ihese stood ifr. Wil* 
berforcsi !□ opite of the personal frienilship which had 
long connected him with the Prime Minister, and of 
which he foresaw the too pn>lial>!e severance, he moved 
an amendment tn the Addrea.t, odvi-ting an ondeaTonr 
for peace. He was seconded by Jlr. Dnneoml>e, his 
colleague in the representation of Yortclbi^'>, and sop- 
portt-d hy Mr, Baakea of Dorset In the division vrliinh 
etuui'd, at four in the morning, the amendment had 
only 73 voUs against 216. But the secession of such 
men was of itself no inconKidorablo ag:gnivutio]) to the 
troublea of the Ministry, and no lij^ht blow to tJio war 
party throughout England. Mr. Wilberforco Ims noted 
in bis journal, " When first I went to the IjCvcc after 
moving my Amendment, tiie King cut me." * 

Th« doubts and mii^i^ingn of Mr. WillM^rftireo had, 

waa Car grwiter weight with ihu public than 

Rthe continued denunciations of the war by itA original 

pponents. Thus, on the tith of January, Barf Stan- 

[hope brought forward a motion against any interference 

fin the iiittrnal iiffaira of France, but with eo much of 

ardour and so Uttk' of concert, that on dividing the House 

he was not supported by any other Poor, In oonee- 

<)uence of tlijs diBappointmont Lord Stanhope, though 

I LMn ol WUborbicc. W hu Sao*, vol. JL p. 73L 


CiiAr. SIX. 

ap to that time one of tlio most fwtive members of 1,lie 
House of Lords, wholly seceded from it during tho nest 
five years.' 

Wliile thus in the House of Commons the war par^ 
was eiii'eehled hy the aecesaion of 3[r, WillK^ri'oree and 
his frif'ttds, n blow still far moro sfrioiis, still far moro 
iinexpeeted, wan dealt on it in Holland. It was known 
tliut the armies had withdrawn to wint4jr qnrvrterg. It 
was thought that tJie campaign had conelnded. But 
as it chanced, the winter in that region set in with 
extreme §everity, sucli as had not been felt for many 
years. The great rivers which form the harrier of 
Holland to the southward wore frozen over, and 
jieenied to invito rather than to guard agiiinst iaratdon. 
General I^ichegru, who was ill ut BruHsohj, hastened 
haek to his post. The French soldiots, displaying 
their iiaual ftlaerity for action, came forth with s^-anty 
clothing and rent shoos, but without a inunnur, from 
their comfortable quarters. The ice being 8tax>Dg 
enough to bear them, tliey crossed with the greatest 
ewe both Ihe McHso and tlio Waal. General W'al- 
TTodcn with the Ku|;;lii»h mid Hniioveriaus fell l)nck 
towards I)event«r to effect their retreat by way of 
Westpliidin. Tlio Prince of Orange with the Dutch 
fell I«ick towards Utrecht and Arasterdnm. He sent 
to ask for a suspenBion of hostilitiai and to offer terms 
of peace, but both were diFdainfuUy rejected. Then 
no other resource was left litm. The I'Vcndi troops 

' Sfo tliB "Public Olmnifli^ni " 
Df 1800-1801. p. 125. Anifilnlwrw 
StniclE oil iliin oocniiiuii in Iiih 

Iioncur witli u motto, "Tbo Mino- 
rily of Otto. 170.V' 





pressed fotward in riverw}iclinbgr onmbere; and (ho 
Fwiifli party, wliicli liad Ixc-n struck down in 1787, 
ngaiii raiseii iU IieaiL Tbe l*riiic« roliiiquiHli^d tlio 
contest and embftrked for Euglaud, while KcLcgra 
enterod Amsterdam in Iniitnph on llie I«t of Plnvioses 
as he termed it, or t]ie 2(lth of Joiinary. 

Nor was thia a)I. Tbo greater part of lh« Dutch 
fleet vaa ioe-bound ui the Zaydta- Zea Against it 
some repiments of cavalry and light artillery were at 
once despatched by Piohogru ; and for the first time 
pLThnpa in the annalx of vrnr did ships surretider to 
liorst^mcii. Only a sitmll ninnhcr of annud rc«Mls 
that lay in tlie otit«r ports conid Kail away to P^ngland 
as adhering to the House of Oiaiige. A new Consti- 
tntion Vfoa Uien proclaimed thronghout tite country, 
abolUbiug the dignity of Studtliolder, and setting up 
a deinocTutic Bepublic uodur tbo dictation of t)io 

The rapid subjugation of tlio Dntch afforded two 
freidi ar^imcnt^ to the friends of [wuco in Englaod-^ 
ug evincing the ponder of tlic 1'n.iRch amis, and m 
freciit;; UH from tlio obligations of tiurtheiiBOine allies. 
Nevertheless, large tnajorittes in lK*th Houses of Par- 
liament continued tit^a/ly to the MiuisttiT. Motionti 
tending to a cessation of the war were brought forward 
by the Duke of Bedford in the one House and by Mr. 
Cirey in the other, but without tlie smallest success. 
A loan of 18,000,000^., requisite to carry on the war, 
was cheerfully voted, and was negotiated at tlio rate 
of loss than five per cent. Another loan of 3,000,000?., 
for the use of the Court of Vieoua, vras assisted by the 




Ciur. SIX. 

gnArantee c^ England. Several now taxes -were also 
imposed ; one especially of a guinea a year upon every 
person who wt>ro halrpowdcr, un JinpoKt wliidi. bom 
the prevalcnco at tlio tiinoof tlmt silly liisliiun. would. 
according to Mr. Pitt's calculation, produce annually 
the net sum of 2 10,000/. 

In February of tliis year them was n change in the 
iVlastprship of the Ordnance. It had been decided that 
tlio Duke of Richmond should he removed from it for 
the sake of concord in the Cabinets But Ilia Grace 
waa coutinaed on tbo Stitff, and continued to give hia 
general support to Iho adiniuistration.' Indeed, not- 
withstanding their ditlbrenoc fruui tiint^ to time as col- 
leagDeR, lie retained tlio deepest respect for Mr. Pitt. 
Four yesra after Pitt's death, we find the Duke 
the Presidency of the I*itt Club, and write as follows to 
3lr. lioso : " Thcrw 18 notJiing I pride rnvBoif on so much 
as hiiving been tlit* intimate friend of such a man."* 

The vacant office of the Ordnanco with th« Cabinet 
pcat were conferred on a meritorious public sorvant^ 
Lord Cornwallis, who had also received some time before 
the Garter and a Marciiiisate. At ttie same time that 
Lord ComwftUis became Master General of the Ord- 
nance and a Cabinet 3Iinist«T, the Duko of York waa 
named Commauder-in-ChieE 

170S. I aw. Bow, vol. ii p. 320. cd. tSQO. 






rropipitnte mcuiniTCi of Lord Fitiwillinm — Divniwol of Mr. Bt resfoi 
mid Ui. Cuohti — Ailitri.>«flM rriiiii Knitiuti Catbollc* luiil I'ml^ant 
DlKsonUTs — Mr. Graltnn's Bill — Bponll of Lord Fltxirillinni and 
r.pfHniitmpnt <rf Lonl Ciindiiu — Rio! iu Dublin — Coiitrntiiioii in 
till) Tn*!i)i Hovine iif Commona — Iti^jcntlon of Mr. fJrnttftn'a Bill — 
Fountliition of Mnynwjtli — Trinl of llii" Hot. W. Jwluon — Hro- 
tti(-r» ll>« l'r<ip!t<;t iLnd lifa diaclplcs — Mnrrlngo of t1i« Prineo of 
. Walcw — Acijuttbil of Wnrcou Hnntiut^ — Provisiim for IturlM — 
iijm ii] Fniuoe tuiJ EiiRUud— Aiuiotj of Pilt. 

Wk must now after this brief interTal revert to the 
Lopd-Liontenaiiey of Ireland. Tlioro is no doubt tliat 
tha intenttoos of Lord FitzwUlium were upright and 
liigh-miaded. Bat some persona, porimpa less disin- 
terested than himself, vwre btisy at his Bid& Ev<m 
in Deocmbu, 1794, before tho new Viceroy liad left 
England, wo Gii<l Ixird Aacklund predict that his new 
S'lppottcn; would be " roetlees to get a larger share of 
patronage." It was again and again represented to 
Lord Fitzwilliam that certain iwrKons hohling offict-a in 
Ireland hud too mudi [Ktwcr — Lbut tbcy ^rould obstruct 
the now aduiiuistration and ovendiitdow the new I^ord- 
Lieutenant — and that thoy ought to bo removed. 
Tlie persons thus aiiued ut wora especially JiIt. John 
Bercsford, Chiof Commissioner of tbo Kevwiiic, and 
directing sevoral other kinsmen in place, and Mr. 
Edward Cooke, the Secretary tit War. 



Ciur. XX. 

Under these rircumstunccs the course for Lord Fita- 
wiUiiim to pursue seems dear ami pUiiii. Be should 
have coujuiciieed his government and judgod for him- 
sdf. He should have fairly tried whether the gentle- 
meu in qiieetion were in truth, or wished to b«, ohstapleSj 
in hiB piith. K m, he might. Imre laid tlieirronduct* 
before the Cahin«t in Engltuid, or even perhapR after 
full trial have di»iii88cd tliem himself. IiiKlead of 
this, he chose to rely dolely on the reprpsentatioiis of 
oUiere. There really ia no answer to tlie plain state- 
ment of this part of the oaae as marlc in a private letter 
from the Cltanoellor of Ireland. "One hrood fact," 
writes liord Fitigihbon, " mnst damn him on this sub- 
ject for ever. lie landed here on Sunday evening 
(January 4, 1793), and was confined to his room by in- 
disiiosilion for the whole of tho noxt day. On Wednes- 
day Mr, Bowes J>iily was sent to you (Sir. Beresford, 
with n notice of iuti-nded di»^D1iH!^nt). 8o that he had 
one day only to inquire into tlio multi|il>ud ads of mal- 
veisatiou which he alleges against you HB bis justifica- 
tion for n-ishiug to remove yo>L" ' 

In sending notice of dianiaatd through big Sccrctory 
to Mr. Uorettford and Mr. Cooke, ]><)rd Fitzwilliam did 
\iU he.^t to K)(ten the cominniiicatioii. To tho first boj 
otl'ered the full nmouut of hia salary as n-tiriug allow-* 
ance, and to the latter n pension of 12O0/. n-ytar. But 
both these gentlemen, then in the prime of life, were 
by no means disposed to rctiro from activo sorrice. 

' Letter of Yimh 80, 170.1, oapiibluhcil in Uio Bw*«foni Coirciponid* 
•ooe^ vol. a. p. DS. 




Still less wore they diapoticd to limnk any impntation, 
LBxprpsi* or implied, iijion thflir public rharaoter. Mr. 
fBerarford sot out for Ijondnn, tliere took counsel with 
Lord Auckland «n<l Iiis other friends, and earnestly np- 
, pealed by liittor to tlie jnaticp of Mr. I*itt. ** I hope," 
' Baid Sfr. Pitt to lUwe, " there may be some mistake in 
I tho Blatemenf, biwaiise it wonld lii> an cipen brf-aoh of 
la most suleiun promise." The Whig friends of Ixird 
' Fitzwilliam in the Cabinet <x)nld by no means approve 
liis cundiiot. It had been — so Lord Longlihomugh ex- 
plained to Mr. Grattuii — even apart from tho merits of 
the quostiou, moat disconrtooiiR ti> Mr. I*itt. " Sn]>poaing 
Mr. I'itt merely the First Comniiiwioin'rof the Tri-iisnry, 
without the inlluence Uidmlly attat'ticd to that oflicc, 
to hftTC removed an officer in his departmi-nt by ft 
letter from tho LorJ-IaButonant's Secretar;-, woald 
not have been agreeable to tiiat respect which Ministeni 
owe to each other." " 

In public measurea Lord Filxwilliaro was cqnntly 
headlong. The state of the Itoman <^!atholics had boeti 
the snbject of many anxious oonvenaitions in Kn<;liuid. 
By the Acts of tlio two last years they were freed IVom 
the Ptnal Slatutos, but tlioro still weighed upon tliem 
prcat ]ioIitienI disabilitios — above all as excluding tliem 
from Jfarliamfut and restricting tlioir possession of 
arms. A measure for tlieir cumpleto oqnalit)' on all 
points with the Frotestaiits n'as now desiretl, thougli 
not as yet publicly propoeed. 51 r. Grattan was cspocJally 

* Ltittw from I>anl Lougli- t iniUUhed iii tli^HtrmoiMorGmt- 
lNirociKb, datfd Fvb. 'id, ima, luid 1 tan, by iiis Son (toI. i*. p. ISS). 




AtttgeA with the conduct of tlicir caiisp, and had preat 
power either to press furwnrtl ur ikday it. The Prime 
3[inister, tliongb j^ianVil in his language, wns fiieadly 
and oomprflheusive in hia views. Indeed it may be 
doulrtpd whetlier any one singlfi nipraber of the Cabinet 
WHS at thia time hostile to the measure ou its merita 
The diflioulty with all ^as only as to the means and 
tame. But these were not mere detaila. On the con- 
trary tJioy wera matters of paramoimt imporlanco. It 
might bo a cause of peri), it would certainly bo a cause 
of alarm, to make such momentous cbaDgoe in tJie midst 
of a critical war. Nor could a measure of coniplvtc 
Iloman Catholic emancipation bo carrivd tltroiigh at 
tliat juncture without the n»sput, or at ItMsl tho Bcqui- 
cecence, of ihiy mniu Protestant party. The feoluigs 
and wiiOies of that party if directly expressed could not 
be set aside at a time when bo much treason waa astir, 
when 80 many Republican conspiracies were brewing, 
when so much of combined oxortion was ncoded to up- 
hold thu ThrouLv 

Under thcBo difficulties Mr. Pitt and the Duko of 
Portland conferred with Lord Fitzwilliam before he 
wout, and. as I liare already in part exjdainod it, came 
to tlie following result Tin- n«w Viceroy was oa 
no account to bring forward tlie emancipation of the 
Roman Catliolics of hiuiRulf or as a Ministerial 
mcaitnrc. It was highly di^sirahlo that thiH question 
sliould be deferred imtil more tranquil timen. If, how* 
ever, the Roman Catliolics tliemselvee, or Mr, UrattaQ 
as their champion, insisted on preoeing it at once, the 
Mlnistere in England would deliberate on tlie provislonB 




of tlie Bill m intimlnced, and onnsider how for they 
could in prudence or in polirr pve it their support. 

Here again, liad Lord Fittwilliam boem u man of 
ability, acting from dGliberate judgment ntfai^r than 
from sudden impnlse, the coutbd which ho should have 
taken scema very clear. On aniving in Ireland he 
should have felt his way. Ho ought either to have 
diunned any public deelarationa on the point nt issno, 
or have expressed in them hia de&io to reserve hrra- 
self nntil after some personal experience of the conntry 
and of office. Such was the couree that be might have 
tahen ; the very reverse was the coarse that be took. 
vVlmost immediutely upon his Inoding he received ad- 
<lrt'»<:8e» from budiL-s of Koinitu Catholics uod Protestant 
Diseetitors, and iu Lis khhwviswus midcretood as iuti- 
mating his agreement to tiuiir wiahes. The conse- 
quence was tliat fur from allaying he stirred the flaine. 
Petitions to the Iritili Ilouae of OommoDii pmying for the 
complete emancipation of the Catliolica poured in from 
every county in Ireland. By the middle of Febraaiy 
it was computed that the number of signatures to these 
exceeded half a million.* Mr. Grattan, even had be 
wislicd it, had no longer the power to hold back. On 
the 12th of Febniary he morod to bring in a Bill enu- 
merating all the exccj'tintt.'' to complete equality and 
abolishing them all. 

The rash precipitation of Lord Fitzwilliam both in 
' dismissing statcgmcn and iu deciding moaeuns was not 

' Sob coi Uii« pouit the letter of Dr. Huiucjr in Barkc't OHTC^Nind- 
enoe. vol. ir. p. 3T7. 




Bg in bcarijig bitter fniils. Resfinlmpnt and alarm 
took po«$PSi<iun nf tlio iniuiU uf the Iri&h Protestaots. 
They looki-tl ou tlio riisumi^ of their jiohtical friends 
as casting light apan tlie mun^iiire traniBd for their reU- 
gious opijoueut*, tis revealing its truo sjiiril ami ile^igii. 
All hojie of their (•oiinert or evou their unfjuiescenee 
was gone. Only two clays after the motion of Orattan, 
the Cliannellor wrote to hia friend in London declaring 
that the King could not give his assent to the measure 
" without a direct breach of his Coronation Oath. 
Whenever," be added, " Mr. Grattan brings in his Bill 
and it ia |irinted, I mean to send it over to England 
witJi eomments in referenee to British Statutes which 
certainly bind the King npon this subjeot." * 

The lung himself, it may be added, conceived from 
the first the etrongeut disrolish to the selieme. In s 
Privat*? MomorauduiD drawn up for Mr. Pitt, and dated 
on the Ctli of February, wo liud him argue at length 
.og^st it, and call it (but might not that be in 
truth its praise ?) *' a total chftngo of the principles of 
gOTOmmont which have been followed iu thut king- 
dom siiico the ubdicatiou of King James the Second." 

Such scruples were by no Dittans confined to the King 
alone. Thoy ustcudcd to many of l*itt's moat noaloua 
followers. Thoy extended to many oven of thoso who 
held office under him. Thc«e gentlemen had ttom the 
first viewed with jeidousy the aecossion of the Portland 
party, and that jealousy was now inflamed to the biglK^t 
pitch. As one sample, among eevenkl others, of this feel- 

' Letter In the Uoreslbrd ConoipoDiloiict^ vol. tt. p. 73. 




iiig on thfiir part, I shaU here insert a letter which the 
Solicitor-Oeneia!, Sir John Mitford, addresst-d to Mr. 
I'itl — a letter which erincea, let mo say, in pufising, 
tho upright and independent spirit of the vmter. 

" Dear Sik, " Adelphi, Feb. 14. 1796. 

" It is with much pain that I prevail on myficlf 
again to trouble you on a subject wbicli perhaps you 
wiah, if itossibtf, to bunieb (rom yowr tlioughts. But 
the evident difficulty of your presoat situation, the soli- 
tude in nhieli yon seem to be placed amongst a tliruug 
ill' CabiMBt Miiiistors, the iirnnranco in which I believe 
moBt of your friends are with roapcct both tu your real 
situation and your iDtA^'Ution^, and their ftpparcnt un- 
certainty whether you are not acting upon the impuUo 
of tho moment bonause yon aii' unwilling to look at the 
tvil ill itj* i'uU extuiil, givo nic th« groatoM nneasineHB. 
Thiii uncafiineKs is increased by knowing that yuur con* 
ihict ot" lato ham turned som« wai-m friendti into cold 
tVicnds, or jicrbnps bittor tmcmics, I confess Vhi that 
I I'eel not merely on yonr account, but in some degree 
on my own. I have perhaps too much pride, and am 
not much disposed to brook disgrace, which I think I 
800 fa.^ approaching. As long us 1 shall hold the place 
I have, I will endeavour to disehaigo its duties to the 
best of ray power ; and though conscious perhaps that I 
LiUfjIit not to have UiUvn it, and wishing ardvutly tlmt 
I had declined it, I slmU be unwilling to f|uil il in « 
manner distressing to yon. But I fhall not like to be 
ttiid tlidt I have kept it too long, and I per^-vivo that 
the Attoniey-General'B mind is labouring imder the 
sumo di flic nit it's. You must bo aware that almost all 
your frienda feel Bometlnng of the same mtetuiin4>$& 
Slany of then* apprehend tluit what they long ago foro- 



C«Af. XS. 

told h«8 at lou^ hnppcoed ; tlmt yoii are completely 
eurToanded, that yoa stand in el)(:«t nloni>, that yon 
are no longer yotir own inuBtn-r, itnd that if you ciin 
extricato yourself from tlie chains propared for yon, 
you liave not a nioinoiit to lost-, Wlint bas ImppcutHl 
in Iroluiid sccmH to be generally considered as a death- 
blow, I speak in somn degree from nintoui', iu »oino 
degree from conjecture, but not «ntiroly. 

" In fiiirly giving you iny tbonghts, I believe I beet 
prove myself 

" FaitlifuUy yours, 


But lot us for a moment waive the scniplea of the 
King, or of a portion of liis sorrants — acTUples which then 
wcra not publicly known. Let us oesunie (no light 
nsRumjltioii) that tbo Ministors could luivp overcome 
thofle scnijiles, and bad br>cn able to give to the Bill of 
Sir. Grattan their active aid. Even on that ouppnsitiott, 
considering how the Irish nooso of Commons was at 
that time composed, I do not think it probable that 
the Bill could "bavo been carried through. Carried, at 
all events, it could not have been mthont n tremendous 
|iarty battl&— without a politioal conflict shaking Ire- 
land, and perhapa Great liritain also, to the very 
centre. Would it be possible to hazard that political 
conflict st a time when there were daily threats to 
Ireland at least of a foreign invn^ton? Might it not, 
on the other hand, bo hoped that in siicli n fermt^nt an<l 
against such obstacles the loyal majority of the Itomaa 
Catholics would themwlves feel the propriety of a panw 





on tlio part of tlie admiuistralion — of a dcsiro to ubJdc 
foi* t)ic prcsGUt by the largo cutive»tou8 of tliv two last 
ywirs ? 

3Iuvc(I b; coiisklcrutiuD!! saoli as tliosi^, ftml acting 
witli entire aiuiuiniity, althou^li viith greot regret, 
the Crtbinet in Englfind ramu to the decision tJiftt 
Loi-d Fit^william niiiet lie at once re^'allnd. Lord 
FitzwiUiam himself had been maclt ch&fed eren by 
the first ohjectiniiii both to the dismissal of Hr. Bpresiford 
mid ia tho Bill of TsU. Orattan. On the 21st of 
Febmary Mr, Pitt addressed to liiro a private letter, 
etatmg courteously but firmly bis fixed resolution on 
both points, lleceiving fJiat IftttT, His Excellency on 
tlio 25th summonod tlio Cbaucollor to bis presence^ 
and uimouucod his detorminiitiou to lay down liia 
govemmont and return to Riiglnnd within « very few 
iluys. Tlio ncn-D wa8 qni^^ltly noiited on all eidfi«, to 
ihe joy DO doubt of the I'rotv^lant, but to titc »*rKnr of 
thu more numerous R'>maii Catholic party. 

Ijord Filzwilliain, howoYer, did not fulfil Ids tluxMt 
of immediate dt^pnrtune ; ho lemaineil at Dubiiii until 
tho 25th of Morcli. The day of his departure was one 
iif general gloom: tlie shops were shut; no bosineas 
of any kind was tranaacted ; and the greater part of 
the citizens put on moumiug, while some of the most 
rospectable among them drew his coach domi to ibe 
water-side.* A corresponding degree of aTersioii wns 
sJiowed a few days afterwards when tite now Viceroy, 
l^ord Camden, arrived. Yet, as lltTr, Oratlati owned. 

* Sou the Auuuul BcgitMr. 1TS5, p. SS6. 



Lord Camdt'D had cMjnsiderable olairas to public leg 
irom the exalted character of liia father, and ho broaghf ' 
uith him a living sign of mnrlei'ntioii in the person 
of his Secretary, Thomas Pelliam, a gentleman whol 
Im<i been bred in Whig principles, and who hiwl filled 
the same office during the administration of the Duke 
of Portland. 

Suoh considerationa have no weight in troubled timea. 
When the new Lord-Lieatenant was awom in at Dublin 
(Castle there was a fonmdable riot — which, however, 
the populace directed against their own coimtrymi'ii in 
(^oe. Tliejr assailed the coaches of the Chancellor 
and Primate with volleys of sttones ; one stone strihing 
the Chancellor on the forehead, and slightly wounding 
liim over the left eye. Another party attacked the 
new Custom-EouBS, but witliont success, dcsinms, a^i 
they phrased it, " to extinguish " Mr. Beresford. Their 
cry was " Liberty. Equality, and uo Lord-Lientonant ! " 
nud they wcro decked with green cockades. 

In the Irish Uouse of Commons thare were fierce 
oontciitioiiK. The course of Lord Fitmrilliam was 
eagerly discussed ; and Mr. Grattan spoke with anlonr 
in defance of his absent friend. Yet he quickly found 
that the majority was by no means upon his side. 
When at last, on the 4th of May. there came on thai 
SecoDil Reatling of his Bill, it was, after long debate^' 
rojocted ; 84 mombers votmg in its favour, but against 
it Ids. Somo writers, not well versed in the pmotJcoI 
working of our Parliamentary system, have aiBUtned 
that a complete change had come over the Wsh House 
uf Commons, since, as they observe, on the 12th of 



Febniary no more than tliree members spohe against 
the first introduction of the Bill, and nince they did not 
cjdl tor a division. Tliese writers bavft overlooked 
tlie fact tliat tlie motion for ]vn\a to introduce a Bill 
often gives rJBO to hostile speeches, but very aeldom 
to a hmlilo division ; Ii:-.a«t of all vhm that motion 
pT00ecdi< from a mau of cmiuout famo. 

In JOiigluiul, Lord ifilxwilliain, nppcAling lo the 
jndgiut'iit of the nation, publiHlied two Iett«?r8 of great 
leuglb wluoli ho bad addroswii lo Lord CaHinle. There 
wero iilso two motions in I'ariitimctit on tlio subject 
of hia recall, ouo by tlio Duke of Norfolk m nhich 
{'^tzwiliinni binuH-lf spoke, th« other by Jlr. Jckyll, 
backed by Mr. Fox. Lord Gn'iivillc conductiitd tlie 
dcfouco of tlio Govcnmiont in tlio House of Peers, 
and Sir. I'itt of course iu the lloiiee of Commona. 
lioth deelinod a di8Cu»«iou of the circ)un»t4in<:(« n» 
injurious ut that timo to tlio jmblic Horvicc, and look 
tlioir fttuud on the uuduubtcd prerogutiTo of tliu King to 
ii[>|)oint or to dismiss his confidontial si-irants. 

It sueuicd ]»robabIe at one time that Ibis contrOTei»y 
would liavo been contlnaed with even sharper weapons 
than tlio tongue or pen. A passage of Lord Kitzwilliam's 
publiidied lottors applied to Sir. Beresford the words 
" im|nit<;'l mulvoreatiou ; " Sir. Beresford gnvo bis 
Lordi<liip tho liu direct; a challenge enmod; M>d it 
was only by tbo quick iuterpositioQ of magidtntes that 
n duel was prevented, when the parties had already 
mot with pifttols ill bund.' I,ord FiU«illiam, after 

• 8oc Mr. ItiHrcftfonl'* ova 4(xo<iut <ti tiiiii affiur iu lUn Cjrrvtponiknce. 
Tol. ii. y. Hi. 



tUo duel was prevented, aaid he need no longer scruple 
tu mnkti an apology, and mado it in generous tonus. 
Jlauy pampliluts also came forth in confutation op 
corroboiation of Lord Fitxwilliam's, and diai^^es of 
ill-£uth and treachery were freely lerelled at the Goveni- 
mOiDt. But when cabuly viewod, the ground fur thrSG 
olinrgos 18 1^0 »li{{lit tlutt tlioy do not te*iia Ut reqmrc 
any moi-o rlutail»l usaiiiiuutiou. A single fact may 
BUfllce ill answer to tlieiu. The Duko oT P«rtlan<l, 
Lord Spi-ncer, niid Mr. Windham were mtin of liiyli 
jtwling iind uuhk'iiiiithtHi buuour. They had long 
friends and allii« of Lord I'ifzwilliaui. Yet thuy, 
with whatever n^'luctancM, concurred in Uio neoce^ty of 
liis rccidl, und rt<muiuud in oOicc as thu cuUcagueft of 
Mr. I'ilt. 

Tims was the proftpect of equal laws in Ireland 
marred by precipitation an the one ^de and by pre* 
judice on tlie other. Thus did the hopcH of a better 
ByRtem vanitdi like an airy dream. In one roRpect, and 
one refipect only, were tlie st^mea of Lord Fiu- 
villiam'it Oovemnient fullilled in Ivord Camden's — in 
the et^tnbli.-Otnient, namely, of a College for tlie edui'u> 
tiou of the Roman CatJioh'o prieHtliood. A Dill lor 
that pur[K)8e was brought into the Liidi Uoaae of 
Coinmons on the part of the Gorormneiit during tho 
mouth of April, and it posned witli little op[)osit»oa. 
Tho result was the foundation of I\Inynooth. 

Up to Ihia time, and nndinr the harah repression of 
Uie Penal Laws, tlio young men designed for Holy. 
Orderrt in llio Jtonian Catliolio Church had been brought < 
up iu foreign ooll^^ Some few, wlio nttamed great | 


LIFE or nTT. 


eminence in after years, had gone to Fortugnl and 
Spain. Tims, for example. Bishop Doyle (best known 
as J. K. L., from tlie signature wbicii he adopted in 
his political writings) had bwn trained at Coimbta, and 
Archbishop Curtis at Sahimanoa. But by far tfao 
greater uiimljor went to Donay, Rl Omer, and other 
colleges in France. The Bcvolnlionary torrent had 
swept thego colleges away, and no others nearly as 
fouveuiont oould bo found. Under these circumatances 
Archbifjliop Troy, oil behiilf of himself and the other 
Konian Cnthoiio priJutes, had preaented, iu 1794, a 
memorial to the Earl of Westmorland as LokI Lieu- 
tenant, representing iJie absolute necessity of eomo 
place of education for the Roman Cnlholio Clergj-, 
and praying a Royal Licence for the endowment of an 
ccelegia»tical aeademy iu Irolotid. The Sloinorial vua 
favourably ontortaiuod, uud the Oc^cgo of Maynooth 
wax iustitutLd in the Hpriu;^ of tlie following year. 

Tlio Ibuuders of this College, besid** the manifest 
necessity of the case to tlie Itoman Catbolies, looki-d 
forwHrd to great national benefit;. They hoped th»t 
the Irish pricatd, if trained within tlie confines of 
the kingdom, would be the more certainly imbued 
with attaclimen) to the King and Constitution. They 
hoped that this estabUahmentt voted by l*rofe3tnnt8 
for the sake of their Itoman CatlioUc fellow-Bubjects, 
trould be a pledge of peace and good will between the 
two communions. Certainly, at Itast considoring the 
(:eQeraI assent ivith which the mcaauru passed, they 
could not foroEco that in after years it woold be eo 
bitterly denounced. 



CiiAi: XX. 

But among tbe mauy who liave Ibus on abstract prin- 
ciplfs deuomicoil it, there are some, at least, who have 
paid regartl in a epirit of candour to tJio spocinl cir- 
ciiinstuuces of the case. Tlit^y have hoon ivilliug to 
coiiifider liow far in tlii* t lansactum tlie lutliouiU failli 
miyht ho eiigageiL Tlicy have fmuid tliat it was 
prolKired as a boon to lliu Romiiu CiiUiolics of Irelftiid 
at (he Ttry time wlicu their hope of oqual rights 
deriyi:-d Ironi Sir. Umttaii's Bill ^vas du»hu<l to tho 
gi-omiil^at tho very time whou thoy were called on 
to make common cause with their Prot«»tHjit breUircti 
and join in metuiirfii of roftistatioc to the thruatoncd 
Fri.'iich iiivasioi). Pitted ut siioh a time, and nx-rivc-d 
in such M spirit, I hclit^ve that the foundation of Mfty- 
uooUi duos hear many Itiatures of a compromise or 
comiinct. I am 8iu% that it could not be cancelled 

. Avithont Ronio breach of the English honour and some 
diB[>ai'agemeut to tlie English name. 

In the midst of this political agitation of Ireland 
there came on at Dublin, after long dekr, tlie trial 
fur High Treason of the Rev. William Jackson. He 

'was a native of Ireland and a clergj-nian of tho 
Estahliahed Church, hut for suveral years past a resi- 
dent at Paris. It wae hia objt«ct to establisli a Donc«rt 
of meaeums between the rulers of France and the 
ualponteuts of Ireland. But in his negotiations ho hud 
relied on an attomciy of ill repute, named Cockayne, 
who betrayed him to tlie British Government. When 
bo was brought to trial at Dublin Uurran Btood forth 

'*M his Counsel, but Cockayne appoaR-d against him as 
a witness, and lie was found Guilty, ^\lle^, on a 




suV)sef[uoiit day. lie was ii^m brought up )o ret't-ivo 
judgment, tlie unhappy man, who had svalluned poison 
tliut same morning, sank down in the agonies of death 
and expired in the presence of hia judges. 

A Himilar pondomnalion might have probably awaited 
his confederate Wolfe Tone, had he not, in June this 
year, anticipated an arrest by a timely escape to 

It is worthy of note how oft<>n we find the tidings 
of slate njvoliitiou go 8id« by aide with tides of super- 
natural power. The former seem to have a tendency 
to stir uj) in tlie Iiuman mind a craving or a creduli^ 
for the laitl. Thus, at the very height of the Reign of 
Torror, the cold heart of Robespierre warmed to the 
prophecies of a female entliuHiast, Catlierine Theot. 
And thus in England, fit nearly the samd momentous 
period, the public attention was seriously attracted by 
a male fanatic. This was Richard Brotliers, a native 
of Newfoundland, and at one time a Lieutenant in the 
Navy. Hia imagination had become disoixlered by 
ponilcriug vvoj* somo dark booktt on llie Apocalyptic 
pniphf c-iea. ^up[>ngiiig liiniHelf to have received a Di- 
vine Commisaion, he assumed some lofty titles — "Ne- 
phew of God" and "Prince of the liehrews." lie pre- 
dicted the speedy and complete destruction of London ; 
but on the otlier hand he promised to estabUsh hia 
kingdom in Jeruealem before the dose of tlie year 
I'iiiS. For the support of these views he relied on 
divers signs, visions, and portents. Ilius, for e-xnuiplo, 
he declared that on one occasion he plainly saw the 
Devil sauuteriug in London streets. Uere ore his own 

VOL. 11. p 




Tords: "Alter ihis I was iii s Ti&ion, having the AngcI 
or God ncur m«, wtd suw Satuu wnlkiug IcUurely into 
Loodon." ' 

Strange tliougb it may Hoem, it is jrot ft coiniuon 
casp, that pa'tenHions ovon m wild as thmw foiuul 
fiume ready boliuvcnt auiuij<^ odiR'alcd aud O'lcotnplishcd 
meiL Thus ouo of thy grvutcst artists of Ihat agei 
pretiontcd to tho world a fiuu priut of Urotlwis with 
thusc! words l)i;iit!atli :— " I'>illy bolicviiig tliis to lift tho 
man whom God has appointed, I engrave his likeness. 
—William Sharp." 

TliuR again, Mr. Nathaniel Broatey Halhed, a gentle* 
man who had Sited an office of tnist in India, who bad , 
publiithe<l a iTantJation of the <jlentoo Code of Laws, ' 
and who was now Member of Parliament for Lyming* 
(oD, avowed bimsttU' a follower of the new Prophet. 
Twice in the Session of 1795 he brought the claims 
and the sofierings of Jlr. Brothers before the House of 
Commons ; but, having no seconder, his motiotiB Call 
of course to the ground. 

So long as the viidous of Mr. Brotliers were confined 
to tbo world of spirits or to the land of Judieo, thc^ i 
might bo disregarded by the Govenuneat; but the 
case was altered when they took tlio form of a printed 
notice to HLi Majesty in tho following terms : — ' 

" Tho Lord God eommatids mo to nay to you, Ocxnge 
the Third, Kiug of England, that, immediately upuu 
my buiug revealed iu London to the Hebrews a^ their 

' Brathcn'i PrapheclM, piirt LpiHiUiiiuoUvl in u not* lo Bouttiejr'a 
VmuK. vol. 111. !>. n. Da. 183S, 





I'riuco and to all nations as their Governor, your 
Crown mu*( be delivered up to me, that all ywit 
powxT and iiutliority may cense," 

Ou tliu 3nl of Itlurch thu X'ropbet was brDugbt befora 
flic Privy CuuncU under a vrarrant from the Secretary 
of Btate. Subie(|uent]y a ooininissioii was mui^ii to 
inquire into the state of his mind ; and tlio v«nU«t uf a 
Jtuy having declared him a hinatic, he wa» sent to 
Bedlam. In ISOti he was releaAed by an order from 
Lord Chancellor Eiakine, and he Biu-rived till 1«24, not 
Bven then wholly dcBtitute of fulIoweK. One of the 
last of these, John Fjnlaysou by name, pub)ish«.>d, so 
lately a» JS^S, a tract cutiUvd " The Last Trutnjiet niid 
l-'lyiug Augcl;" and iu tlu* tract nu find liira urito 
us follows : " God f>uvo me a droam and a Ti«ion of 
Mr. Brothers, who tol<l me tlint he approved of all 
I had done, and lifting Iii8 two hands high over bis 
head, he rejoiced mightily at all 1 had written and 

On the Sth of April the mnrriugc of tho Prince of 
Wales with the X'riocon CoroUne woti solomnized at 
the Chupol Itoyal, St James's. Somo months before 
Lord Malmodbury iuul boeu doepatcliod to Brun^irk 
to ask in dne form the hand of the Princeea and 
bring' her over to Eugtaiid. He fomtd the Duchess, 
a n^vr of George the Thinl, not a tittle elated at her 
daughter's prospects. All the young German Prin- 
cesses slie said, bad learnt Dnglisb in hopes of be- 
eoDiiiijr Princess of Wales.' The bride herself, then 

Lonl Malmabut;'* Diary, Hot. H, l7tM. 

P 2 



■Ciii». XX. 

tweaty-eix years of age, made so very favoarable 
iinpi-essiou on the experienced diplomaUnt He Uwiiglit. 
that ahe bad naturally in some degree both gtjod 
temper and good BenAe, but was tipailed by ill examples 
and a faulty education. 

On the other side the prospect was i]ait« as far from 
satisfactory. The Prince, in his conversation willi the 
King which decided tlie proposal of uiarrtAgo, Iiud ox- 
pres.sed his desire to lead a moral and regnlar life.* 
But he had little constancy in his good re^lutioas even 
if they wei-e sincerely fomied. It was rumoured by the 
public that a lady of high rank held over him at tJiis 
time a paramount influence. With signal icaiit of 
propriety in any point of view, the Prince selected this 
very lady to meet his bride at Greenwich on her fintt 
landing, and to attend Her Royal Highness in the siunu 
coach to St. James's. 

His orni tlrst interview with the PiinceBS ynB by no 
mcAus such as could be wished. Lord MulmoBbur)', the 
only oUier pQisuu preaout, hu« describod it. Ho sayB 
tlmt the Frinccet!, according to the estubli^bcd form, 
att«mpt«d to kneel before the Prince when he came in, 
that he raised her gracefnlly enough and embnuwd her. 
But immediately afterwards he turned round, retired 
to a distant juirt of the niinrtment, and calling Lord 
Mrtlmc^bury to him said, " Hnrritt, 1 am not well ; pray 
get me a glass of brandy," 

Surh then was the unpiomiging outset of this most 
unhappy murriage. 

* The King lo Ur. Pitt. Aug. 24, 1791. 




In Ajiril Pitt wtis confined Ly an attack of gont, whi<!li 
howover in his own lettera is treated rery lightly. 

" Wimbledon, Monday, April 20, 1795. 
" My dear Mother, 

"Yoiir letter, whicli T received on P«timlay, 
found me ropovoring from a very moderate and rtgulat 
gout, and ablo on tliat day to remove hither. Two 
days of quiet and country air havo c<iiii|ilcled my cure, 
witii (Ik; ixcoptioii only of being probably obliged to 
wear rather a larger shoe for some days to come. This 
ta.'<t circiini»taui>e will perhaps (■.\cm])t me frotn the 
crowded dniwing-rooms and bails which are to be r^ 
peated in the course of this week. Jf it baa this effect 
in addition to having already mado me much better in 
gcQoral licuHh, 1 aliall bare ttu ruUHou to quarrel with 
my confinement I bare nothing very new to tell 
exactly at the present moment, and so many iutercflt- 
ing occiirrencea of difterent aorta have been crowded 
into the In^t four or iivo niontliM, that one should be at 
a losfl where to begin or end the reflections they lead 
to. I look forward wiUj mmli impolicnce to an interral 
of leisure miflicient to have the comfort of talking over 
with yo« the long hiiitory of tJiis short period. It is 
too early yet to »iy whetlicr 1 can promiso myself tliat'aetitin in the course of this KUinmcr. 1 truKt, 
however, it is not imputwible, especially if the wouknces 
and distruetion of Franco, which seems likely tti lead 
to the best eohition of all our dillicultics, goes on in* 
creasiug as rapidly m it hnti done lately. 

" Ever, my dear Mothej, Ac, 




Chat. XX. 

Oil tlio 23r<l of April the Honttn of Lords brought to 
a coHcUmion tlio long-ponditig trial of JTastings, The 
Indian topiVft wliifh it involvfid had wbnUy ci;Bsod to 
attract the piiblin intorwtt. There was only somo etir 
from time to time at the able speeches mado by ihe 
Managers of the Impeachment, and by Mr. Law. tlio 
chief Counsel for the defence. There had grown to be 
a general feoliBg that the Charges against HnBtings 
wore not sufficiently proved, or that oven if tlicy were, 
t}ii) length of the trial was of itself uo »M'Oii*i<lorabIe 
penalty. Burke indeed retained against tito culprit, 
for so be deemed him, all his early ztiul. Ho tlcpro- 
cated with tho greatest w»nnth all idea of concession or 
of clfuioncy. So early as llw sjiriugof 17M we find 
biin «rg« Mr. Pitt " not to suffer Xhn Honsft of Com- 
mons to be dishonoured by the Indian faction." ' But 
almost every one olso was weary of the trial and impa- 
tient for its cloae. No morcf than twenty-nine Lords 
had of late attended to hear the evidence. It va^ 
indeed, as Burke in his letter catU it, "a miserable 
remnant of the Peeis." No more than twenty-nine 
Lords therefore ibonght tliernselves entitled to appear 
and vote when summoned in due state to gire sentence 
in Westminster Hall. Of these, only six pronounced 
Hastings guilty on the Charges relative to Cheyte Sing 
and to tbc Begums of Onde. On some points the nin- 
jority in bis favour was greater stilL On some others 
his acquittal was uoauimous. Upon tliis the prisoner 
(for DO iu logol phroso ho contianod to be called) vna. 

> Utter of Mr. Biitb«, dulcJ SLuoli 14, ITM (Pitt Pttp«n). 





directed to oomo into court. He came, and as on iLc 
first day of liis trial, he knelt down, Tlien the Lord 
Cbiiiioellor Loughborough desired him to rise, and ud- 
dro8:<^-d him in these words : " Warren Hasting*^ yiAi 
are acquitted of nil the Chaif^es of Impeachmont hrouglit 
agiiiii^t yuQ liy tho Commons am] of all the inallvtv 
ountuiued thuroin. Yon and your hail therefore at« 
lUscLarged." Mr. Hoi^ingH then Urwed and withdn>w. 
Tliiis did Hastings prevail nt last over his ucciuers. 
But from the lengtli of Iiin trinl hi» victory hon> along 
with it nearly all the roncomitAiiti* of a dof<!ftt. It was 
not only that his mind had been liara.'uu-rl and ooured — 
that hia fair hopes of Home high ofI!<^e had been dashed 
— that tho Coronet tmvu rising in near prospect liod 
wlioily t'addd frum hia view. His own private rortuiw 
Hn<l the hoards, as llioy wore termed, of Mr*. Hastings, 
hnd U'ounie exliaustc^l by liti) Iawy<>r»* bills and the 
other charges of lite long dvfouce. Whun ho I«ft tho 
Bar of the House of Lords acquitted and st;t fit-o, Iw 
was almoiit a rutuod man. Thou it was that Uio Di< 
rectors of the East India Company displayMl tlio go* 
nerous s]iirit which has seldom, if t^ver, hoeu found 
wanting to any of Ihuir groat public st>rvanls. Th«y 
proposed to repay to Ha^tingia all tlio It^al cottts of his 
trial, iind to settle on him moreover a ])ci»8ioii of ^OOOL 
a-year. Dundas, however, a» President of tho Uoard of 
Control, refused to give bis consent It coold not be 
expected that a statesman who bad taken a fomard port 
in presaing the accusation of ItastingB should readily 
agree to schemes for hLi reward. There was a long 
controversy and a final compromise. The Cwnpany 



ckiAP. xx: 

was permitted to grant Hastings un annuity' of 40OO£r 
and to advanre to him a sum ()f money without tutcresW ■ 
The retired Gftvernor General had, however, coDtinctad 
in India some habits of expenso and carvlcssness. On 
several subsequent ooeasions ho found it uecfssary to ap- 
ply to the Company for fiirttier assistance, wlu'oli w8» on 
each occasion cheerfully affordod. Books and gardening 
gftve him all tho solace that thoy con to an ambi- 
tious rriind. Ho lived almost entirely at Dayksford, 
aud survived to tlio great age of eighty-five, dying iu 
.\ugiifit, 1818, of II gnidiial and gentle deeay. 

Iu tbi» Session Mr. Pitt did not, us lie bad designed, 
bring down a Message from the King for a grunt to 
BIr. Burke. He di>.sired, if he couhl, to spare to tho 
retired statesniau the uneasiness of an angry debate. 
And the means were, he foand, in hia power. Certain 
West India Duties called tlio Four-and-a-Ualf per Centa, 
— the same on which Lady Cltiitliam's pension stood— 
were still su far at tlie disjiosul of thu Crown tliat a 
further annuity o( 25i}0l. to Mr. Burku eould bo ss- 
eigued upon tlieni without the need of any vot« from 
tlie House of Commoua.' There was no delay iu the 
|)ayinent«, altliough the neeesjary forms worn not com- 
pleted ontil October in this year. Then did Borke 
write again to the Prime Minister, l>otli to expreis liis 
thanks and to convey ins counsels, uud both in his ever 
nduiirabic style. 

* Lifu cf Burke, hj Prior, p. 409. (d. ISM. 




" B«»oonsJield, October 20, 1705. 
" I>BAB Sm, 

"I send yoti witJi tJiis a letter of aokiiowledg- 
mcnt throDgli you to the King for his pxtran'riliimry 
guoducKs to me. It is oslausible, if you tliiiik it of any 
use that it fihoiild be ko. 

" Toil luivc Bigtifilly obligi-'d me. 1 iim u. jhtbi'U iu- 
«ii)iiblo of any active return for the services I receive, 
but IitiAko some sort of amends for the inofScicney of 
n feeble }x)dy and an exhaub't«d mind by the seotimeutB 
of a gi-ateiiil heart. 

"Ton lave ]nx)vi(lod for me oil I am ctipable of re- 
ceiving in the last stage of my declining life — that is, 
ItepoBe. I have only to wish you all thoiie gi^od thitigg 
which you can or owj^lit to look for in iho vigunr of 
your years nndin tht- great place you fill — ^mnch manly 
exertion and much glory attendant on your InUmw. 
IndtH'K! you have tlift [iro«|ieet of a long and hiborious 
day bufoTd you. Kverj'tliing is unluouii about you. But 
you are called to that situation, and you have abilities 
for it. I lioiie iu God tiiut you will not di«tnb^t your 
faculties, or your cause, or your country. Our people 
ijavu muro in them than thoy exactly know of tliera- 
selvos. They iiet on the condition of our nature. We 
cannot If^ad, but wo will follow if we are well led, and 
till) Kjtirit that ie really in us is jiroperly and powerfully 
exercised. There is one thing 1 prny for in your favour 
(for in you is our last human hope) — that you may not 
full into th« one great error fVom wlicncu there is no 
reltirn. I trust in the mercy of God to you, and to u.^ 
all, that ytiu may never be Ifd to think tliat this war is, 
in ttfi principles or in anytliiug that belongs to it, the 
least resembling any other war ; or that what i.'f called 
a peace ivitli the n>bbery of Fiiiuce can by oiiy plan of 
policy be rendered reconcilable with the inward re- 

p 3 




p<wp, or with the extei-Dal slrength, powi^r, or inlluenco 
of lliit; kiug<lorn. Tlik, (ti mo. is as ulotir n« tlie light 
utuier tiie meridkn siiit ; and this convictinn, for Hvsms 
five yean pa^il aiul in thi; mi'l»t of other <loep and pierc- 
ing grie&, hr\B cost me tnnuy an anxious hour at mid- 
day and at midnight. 

" I tnist jon (irc too (lisofmiiij^ uud too pcin-rous not 
to distiugaish the faiihs of ton eanioiit a ste^il fnnii iin 
uubuconiitig pTOHuiDptiott, tho»{;li both seem to take the 
name course. My anxiety has Jed me from the depth of 
tills nielanolioly retrtMit {which, howerer, tJw King's 
goodiK-Hs uud yours renders more (juiet to eq«) to inter- 
fere by obtruding my poor opinions on a person whom 
I conform and must fcul to bo, no lew by uuturu than by 
situation, much more capable of Judging than I am. 

" 1 have the hoimnr to be, with the most pc-rfoct 
respecrt and attachment, Ac, 

"Kpm. Burke." 

Both Franc© and England in this year were endar^ 
ing great distrois, even apart from the war which they 
waged against each other. There was the crash of 
paper creilit in Fiaiioe. There was the pressure of 
heavy taxes in Kngland. But moreover both natioas 
at thie time sutVered grievonaly from dearth. The 
luLTDc of war had laid wusto great part of the corn (li.<«> 
tricts on the Vistula and Ithine, and the harvest of 
1794 had proved scanty in other parta of Eumpe. 
Thus at Paris " Bread, Broad I " became the favwirite 
watch-word both of the poorer claRsea and of all who 
desired to overthrow the existing Oovemmcut. In 
England the price of provisions continued to rise ; th«re 
was ttovere dietre^ through the winter, and in the spring 





inftuy a dADgeroos riot. Thus at Birmin^liam in the 
month of Juuc a mob of a tliousand people i^iUicrod 
before n biiki-house and mill, which they jirocceded to 
break open and plmidor, crying " A lai^ loaf! Are we 
to be starved to rleatli?" It was neoe**arT to call in 
the military force, and the cUMiirluuicc coiild not be 
quelled witJiont the lanieulablc lo^ of one life- Other 
disturbances, sliniliur in kind, though loss in degive, 
took jiliice in Coventry. Xottuighiim, uud olhor toning, 
and there was one upon the Sussex court whcru the 
Oxford^re Militia was stntioutid. and iu which dkh 
from tliat rt'gimcnt joined. 

Ill July ihert? were tuiuults in London arising from 
another provocation, or at Itinst putting forth another 
plea. There wax tho cry of illegal dctuDtiou at the 
recruiting, or as ttiey were called, tho crimping hoDsea, 
and tvfo of these w«re on two separate ereninga at- 
tai.-ko'] by a large mob. The doors were btirst opeo 
niul tlic nimitiirc was burnt in the streebi, wliilc another 
bund seized the upportuuity to break, as the tiewKjiAjicrs 
roportod, tho windows of Mr. I*iM in Downing Street; 
but furlhiir misi' was prevented by the timely ar- 
riral of the City Associations and the Lninbnth volun- 
teers, besides a party of the Koyal lloi-se (Junrda. Xo 
Hto-b w«e loBt, bu^ soveral pentons ii'ere wounded and 
others trampled down. 

Tlie newspaper paragraphs of the attack in Downing 
Street gare dome alarm to Lady Chatham at Burton. 
She addressed to her son an anxious inquir^^, and he 
wrote at ODoe to re^aasure her. 



Ciul-. XX. 

" My DEAB MOTIIEE, " Holwood, Jnly J8, 1796. 

*' I have tliis moment reccivt-d your Icftir, jttst] 
in time t<i save the posi by the return of the messenger.' 
I take sliamtt to myself for ntrt reflecting how mach a 
mob is magnified by rpjtort; but that which vlsitwd my 
window witli a i^iTigli! pi'bblo was n-tilly ho young and so 
little versed in its buHincsN, that it hardly merilud the 
notice of a newspaper. The ceremony has not been 
rc'peftfed since, Biid when I luft town ycst^jnlay after- 
noon there was reason to believe that the disposition to 
dist.nrbftnee which has flppenrcd in some parts of the 
town was over, at least for the present, if it should 
revive, the pre^^autions taken will, I am sure, preveot 
any serious miKcliicf. 

" This wind must soon bring accounts from Brittany, 
far which oue rmwt wait with auxiinis iinpatieuKO. 
though with every reason to hope that they will be 
goo<l. When I parted with my brother yesterday after- 
noon, he had not ijuitfl fixt>d his day of stttting out- 1 
wish I could Geo a nearer pro8p(?ct of fibcing mine. 

" In great haste, as you well see, 

" Your dutiful luid nfioctiouatt'' 
u w. Pitt." 

It is plain tliftt the real root« Bt this time of tlie 
populur dimatiefiiction wcro fintt the high price of 
provisions, uid secondly thi< improKperous conduct of 
tho war. But tho flnmo which had i^prung &om liigli 
prices vias induiitriuusly fanned by the triends of French 
princjple-s in Kn).'liinrl. The Corresponding Society 
iigitio TL-itrii^d its head. Tlie London press again jiourod 
fortli a T<Jley of publications — from pamphlets 
to broad-sheets or placards — levelled at the Government 




in Chiirch flnd Stato, and armigniiig it as the cftuso 
of tho diittrefls. Tn irtinicHs it dioiild bfi acltiiowlcilged 
thiit tlie great majority vrliicli look part in tlifw publi- 
natioQs, or in the si]bee(|tit>iit proceedings, desired to 
assail only what they had been taught to oonsider 08 
abuses of the syst*™. They had no wisli to strike at the 
root either of the social order or of the Chri«tiau faith. 
Kevertheless there were some among tJiem, and tlioae 
not very few, willing and eager to go the extremr«t length. 
Tliere was, above all, Thomas Paine, who had now 
rftunifd to Engloud, having buca cast into prison and 
most narrowly escaped thu Guillutiue during the sway 
of iiobespierre. Hi« own darigur had not sobered him, 
nor yet Jill the swm^ of wou which ho had bc-hold. 
On the contrary, his great object isceniud to be to 
bring England into the Minio condition, civil uiA 
religions, an nndt^r the Koign of 'I'error in KniiKW, The 
worst and most unbridled of all liis publicationH — the 
" Age of Reason " — was scut forlli at this critical time. 

On tl)e 2E)th of June, iu the midst of tlio riots through 
the kingdom, ii public mcutlng was convened by the 
Corresponding Sut-icly, and held in 8t. Goorgo's Fields. 
There many thoiuiandg oNsetnblcd. A vehement de- 
claimer, Mr. John dale Jones, was phi^ed in the Cliair. 
As a kind of symbol, bisaiits were distributed, oinlxMSod 
on one side witli tho words '* Freedom and Plenty, or 
Slavery and Want," Addresses to the nation and to the 
King were movfd and carried, as also a string of 
Iteaolutions. In these they predictcil, Tory much in 
the style of Bar«ro, that " the voice of Reason, like tlie 
roaring of the Nemoan Lion, shall issue even from the 



CiMP. XX. 

iMvenis moulli." They demitoded annunl Parliaments 
nail iinivcrsul suffinge as llio nudoubtvd righto of the 
people. T)uiy deplored thu bigli ]iric« of prorisions, 
which they ascribed mitircly to the pn^eot cni«l and 
unneneswiry wir ; the owly fiiu'dy Cor this and othi;r ills 
being iniimMlJatfly " to uckuuwlodgu tlio bnivu French 
Bupiiblit^ aud to obtoiu a epoody and lusting peace." 
Tliuy voted Dmnlcs to Citixons Entkine iind Gibbs for 
tlieir elninieiit dtifeiie© nf tin? prisoners in th« rocont 
trials, and tlianks also to Citizon Earl Stanho]>» and 
Citizen Sheridan for showing tliem that tlicy had " one 
honettt man in each House of PiirUameut." It ia dear 
from this Inat vut«' thitt ^)ieri<lnii w\is nt tiiis time 
consiflered to go much gri_'a(er lengths in his politics 
than did his couiljutors Fox and Grey.* 

Up nearly to this time it Knd been hoped tluit a 
plentiful harvest might remove the main raiise of 
milTeriug aud distrcHs. But notwithstanding the mid- 
eummer eeoson, ve oro assured that intense cold set in 
on the 18th of Jono. This iu the fintt place destroyed 
the sheep and lambs, more espeeinlly on the ojmn ptaiuR. 
ItvfOM compute<l that iu Wiltshire not less thun one-^ 
fourth of the floohs had prrislied,* 

}tut this was iK.t all. 'I'lio inclement weather con- 
tinued, and exerted it^ inlliieiieo on the arable ns on tlie 
pasture lands, llic inferior kind.-* of grain were indeed 
not deficieut, nnd barley, above all, Wfui rcajH-d in abuu- 

' A full ii«count nr Ilic*> I'in- 
eci'dliijM uiA uT tfau lutci OIIC4I uii 
Iho nvtiiu (He, in lo tin roiiixl in 
Ibe History of Two Act^ &o., ni 

publlnhnil tn 1796, 8«» ttpodtHiy 

[.p. aA-ms, 

' Auii. BceittcT. 1T93: 01)K>> 
ulal«, p. 27. 




(lance ; bat as regards vrli^t there was a second scanty 
harvesL The price of wheat, which in February b»d 
been at the Iiigh rate for thoHo timc-e or 5i^. » quarter, 
ro«e in August to tho fumiuo pric« of lUSc, and in 
Sopteml)(ir wiw rtill at 78«. 

NotwithsfAinUtig tho alaniis of this period, Pitt waa 
cmibhHl in tbo ootuye of Soptcnihor to pass n few Hays 
w-itli liis mother at Burtou PjiiMnt. Ho addrc«<ed a 
lively letter to heron the very day of hiii rtytnni. 

" Downing Slntel, Sc|iL 30, 1795. 

" My DKAtt Mother, 

" The engagemente I found on my an-iva! leave 
nic just tinii! for one line to say that I Irouji'ht the 
spoils of the Commerce table safe lost nif;ht to Bugsbot, 
and reached town tliia momiikg &n 1 inteiidci], aAcr a 
j'mnmy vt-ry successful, and roiidcred very [feasant by 
the recollection of all the comfort and satisfafrtiou of the 
few days preceding it, Aceounts fn>m Bnrton will, I 
hope, soon give inc the plco^urt) of knowing that you 
remain at least as well as I left you. You will probably 
tutvu ruecivod by this lim« a full otipount of tite oaval 
campaign from Lonl Bridport, whom I met on tho road, 
ami iliiiiid ili.spofled to c»nnpiiiin a little of the length 
uf his vruiso, but looking, as I thoii-^ht, much thu Letter 
for it. Pray remember me tcindly to all your com- 
jianinnijt, ainoug whom I'lliot, I roekon, k by this time 

oiie- " Ever, my dear Mother, &^ 

« W. Pnr." 

At nnariy the same time Pitt wrote a letter to his 
friend tlio Speaker, which closed witli tJie following 
words; — 

328 IIFB OF PITT. Chip, XX. 

'< Sunday, Oct. 4, 1795. 

" I am BtOl Bangtiine that the line we 

talked over will bring us speedily to a pro^roue issae. 
I am going next Thareday for a week or ten days to 
Walmer, and hope to return with my Budget prepared 
to be opened before Christmas ; and if that goes off 
tolerably well, it will give us peace before Easter. 

"Ever yours, 

" W. P." 

But although Mr, Pitt desired to calm his mother's 
anxieties, and although he might look hopefully to the 
prospects of the foreign conflict — expecting to awe 
France into 'peace by the magnitude of his preparations 
— he viewed in truth the internal state of England at 
this time with deep anxiety. It was his opinion that 
unless a strong arm were extended, the people might be 
hurried by a temporary frenzy to excesses not far un- 
like to those of France. Only a few weeks from this 
I time, as he was supping at his own house in company 
I with two close friends — Momington and Wilberforee — 
|he let fall this expression : " My head would be off in 
Isix months were I to resign." " 

In this anxious and perturbed condition of the 
labouring classes, it seemed to Mr. Pitt and to his 
colleagues that Parliament should be called together 
at an early period to consider every practicable measure 
of relief. The Eecess had only begun on the 27th 
of June, and was allowed to continue no longer than the 
29th of October. 

Diaiy of Wilberforee, Not. 16, J795. 

i.iPB OP pmf. 


On the 2f!tli, tbreo dnys before tlio iuU'Uiluil opening 
of the SoKiJii'Ti, oiioUicr Mcctiug, uDdt-r tho dirccliou of 
the ConxMfpoiidiiig Society, was ht-ld in a wJdo opcD 
spa<!6 witJi B tuvcm nnd tcu-gunli'u cullo4 Copcn* 
hagen Koiwe. It wfis Haid, though no doubt with 
niut'h exaggeration, thut no loss thnu om< huudrod imd 
Kfty thousiind persons Hofkfd togL-thL-r." Mr. Thelvroll, 
Mr. Gale Jonea, and other orators mad» inflammatory 
spetfclies; and divers Resolutioni!, calling for "exe- 
cration " on tlie prcsL^nt Miiiisten!, and demanding 
UniTersitl Suffrage with Aimual PurUameuts, were de- 
clared to he passed. 

* 8w th« Uisb»7 of Two AoIa Ice., p. M. 



Ckap. SSt. 


ConRtraB ftt Bulo — Frnnrh udmntngni in the Wopit Indiw — Thi" 
Muroon wur — ^Eualisti i-ouijumite in Ajuit nnJ Alricii — Projected 
dosennl on tlio wfulwrn sViomii of Pmncn — Tlio Oiioiuuis — 1>* 
Puiaufc — Liinding bI Quibcron — Fiitul inaction— Ruul Hriil ilia- 
tntiw irf thi> Rojuliirt* — KiwiUIoiik — Coniti.' <rAptoi< — N«w Con- 
»tilQttcri proeUimeiJ io Fmncc — InnrrMtion in pHrU — Cunpuign 
ligioi] lliv Uliimi — i)ii|i[\niiiitioii of Aeirigimta — Mevtlii); of Pai- 
Ibmmt — Attnfk npou tlwi King — Diilatca on tlio AddrMii — 
MtuHuroB Id ulli^viDte coarFity uuil to roprcn B^dition — Tb« Uoke 
of liudfoiU ami buni t^iuilvriliilu — Pitt's doKiru fur (leww. 

DuRiNO the spriu" (itifl siimraor of 1795 there wwi tor 
the most part a lull in tlnj inilitaiy opr^rationa. Tlie 
French mini's scorned to bo ^tit^etl with the rapid coti- 
qu(>«t of Hollnnd and 1h« formal ahnosatioa of the 
Belgic provinces. Thoy UstfiiiGd to ovortiipefl of peace 
from seTeml Powers, and opened n Congrees for fnrlheT 
negotiations at Baale. At home they were mainly iu- 
tent on iraming a new and lees democratic Coniititution 
— on pacifying La Vfnd<3c — and on cruntuDg Uio iomr- 
rectionary movomfuts of tbt; Jacobiiifs. 

Of all the PrbccB who had declared war agaiit«t ibe 
French Republic, the first to conclude peace was the 
Orand Duke of Tuaoany. The treaty between them 
was signed at Paris on tlie Oth of February. On the 
5th of April there followed the signature at Basle of a 
peace with Pnissift. By th«t treaty, far from honour^ 
able to the Court of Berlin, the Freuch remained in 
full pusse^^ton of their contjuests to the left of tlia 




Rhinp. Another comy^wt, «l«o signod at Basle, a few 
weeks aftern-anlii, stipulated the iieutnility of the norlli 
of Gernisny, On the I2th of Jniie tlx; King of Sweden 
ncce<Jed to the Peace of Ila«1o, und iIjc Kamo L-ily on live 
'22n<\ of July beheld the concliiidou of u scjianitu treaty 
with tile King of Spain, liy this lutrt tho Froiieli K©- 
publiu ii^ecd to restore all its ooDqueets beyond the 
Pyrenees, while the Court of Madrid in return gave 
up its rights to the Bpanish portion of the isle of 8t. 

On the other hand the Eiiglish diplomacy was not 
nuielive. TImj Court of Vienna wa« certainly gnttificd, 
and p«rha]«s »timnlated, hy a new Conventiwt of Subridy, 
and gr«>t effort* were made to obtain the aptire co- 
opetation of the Court of Petersburg, There was Mim 
signed a. Triple Alliance, less, however, for use than 
for show. 

Tlie nntninal cession of the Spankh half of St. Do- 
mingo was hy no mentis the only advantage gained by 
the Freneh tbia year in the West Indioa. Victor 
Hugne-s at Onadelonpc diRpUyed a true Jacobin enei^y. 
Turning hia viewa of conquest to the English islands, he 
succeeded in kindling the tlame of revolt among the 
negroes, tie Maroons, and the Caribs. With tlieir aid 
the French gained posse^on of St. Lucia and St. Vin- 
cent's. In Grenada and Dominica tbeir attacks, 
tliou^h at first EiiccesEfii], were finally repulsed. We 
might almost fancy that tlio scene lay in AVeatem 
I'-urope during the days of KobciqiierrL', ne wc read of 
tliu butchery of dtifoncolcss pri^unera, and tho violation 
of cnomie»' graros — of red caps and tricoloorcd coekadee 



—of flags msLTibed with "Liberty, Equality, or Dtfatli," 
— and of [iroL'lamiitions against " the vilo satellites of 
Guorge — those iufamoiia promoters of eveiy kind of 
robbery I For rob they roHst," adds the di^ccniing 
Victor Hup^oa ; " that is the very principle of the 
English military service. In such a forrupt goveru- 
ment no preferment can be obtaUiod but for money, 
aJid money must be had, no mattur by what means." 
The Declaration of Victor Hugues and his two col- 
league? lit Guudoloupf. from which I extract (lii« pa»- 
SBge, is dated us follows : " Port of Liberty, the 3rd 
day of Veutoso, or 2l8t of February according to the 
style of elavos, in the third year of the French Hepublic, 
Ooe and Indivisible ■'* 

JamuiL'iL at the same period was exposed to constant 
alarm from the desultory but destructive skirini^hea of 
the Maroons. TIiei«c, tlie dcsceudautA of tlio otwly sot- 
tlcre in the Spanish times, were no slares, but on the 
<!ontiary had maintained their freedom in the moiiutain 
fastnesBes towards the centre of tlie isknd, their chief 
settlement being called Trelawney To\ni. There were 
now some grievances on the part of the Englisli, aitd 
some lures on the part of the French. On tliese tha 
Maroons had at once recourse to arms. In vain did tho 
Earl of Balearres, as Governor of Jamaica, make every 
effort to reduce them. He was foiled again and again 
by their nimble escape and rapid re-appearance. Then, 
ia concert with tho local Legislature, ho adopted a re- 
«0i)rei3 wliich the procodeut of the Sjianiarda is wholly 
i&BuRjcient to excuse. They sent over to C'nba and im- 
ported tt hunthcd blood-hounds with thirty huntauieu 




to trace and pursue the f\)gitive Haroons. It cloes not 
jtt'em, Ijcjwever, that this savage expedient, thou^ re- 
solved oa and prepoi-eil, waa actuaUy employed. Some 
reiiiforcemenlii liom England arriWng at thia very 
period, tlie Maroons grew inclined to peace, anil a treaty 
was rnncliided. 

In A»ia and in Africa during the courae of this 
year our arms were also felt. The subjugation of 
Holland by the Fronch led tlie English to reduce the 
ancient oolouios of that Republic. Ceylon, the Mo> 
hiL^eas, and some others surrende-red without a blow. 
To the C'ajte of Good Ilope we sent a small expedition, 
th(.« siiips commanded by Sir George Elplunstone, and 
the troop by Sir Aliired Clarke. No more than sixteen 
hundred men of all arms could be set on shore, and 
the Dutch forces were much larger, but consisting in 
great part of bnrglier guards and Hottentots. Their ir^ 
regular rL'iuiitu.nco was quickly ovcrpowurcJ, and so this 
important colony was gitiucd. 

But the hopes of Mr. Pitt at this time principally 
t iniR'd to u pruJLictcd descent on thu western shores of 
Frunec. In Lu Vendee, over since the fatal rout of 
Saveuay, the civil war had smouldortid rather than 
burned, and the Itcpublic had lately concluded terms 
of pacification flrat with C'liarottc and al^rwards with 
Stnfllrt. It was buliovi-d, however, that a now insur> 
Tcctioii would reailily burst fortli, iucluduig oven the 
reconciled chiefs, as soon as a Bntish fioot with a body 
of land forces on board tihould apptmr in sight of the 
French coa«t«. And meanwhile the civil war ha<l spread 
on the uorth of the- Loire. There had been to soue 




extcut a pc)[>ulitr rising in Brittuiiy. Tiic insurgoittJt 
of tbat provinco wero knotvii by Uio imme of lea 
(Jhouans, a word of doubtiul origin, hut suit! to bo 
COTrupted from chfU-huant, the night o«\, to dcDoto 
Iheir socrct signal in tbi-ir nightly uxpuditions. 

Thu ntiuio WHU not ibv only ditTuntncu Uitnccu tho 
iDsnrgi'ul^ of \m, Brotogno uud thoso uf \a Vi-iidde. 
lu Lbs latter it hud Iil!i--Ii tbu r«ToIt of » braro aiid loyal 
[(oasaii try stirred buyond I'Tidiirtinco by the crtiel wrongs 
of tliiiir priuMtboo^l and their King. In the former the 
peasants wei-e no k-st; brave and iiu le» loyal. But 
witii these there was a large odniixtnro of nutiaws aud 
mariiuders, over ready for some deed of rapine or of 
private vengeance. Upon the wliolo thou llio insur- 
gents north of the Loire did not master tfn ttuuae, 
to fbnu aa army, hnt prowled about in auuiU lianda for 
some iipedal object It vim not so muoh a province 
which bad risen im a province ntiicli was ready to rise. 

In the ranks of Les Cbouons tho leading influence 
belonged to Comte Joseph de Piiiiiaye. Ue had been 
at one time a member of the National Assembly, and 
voa distinguished both for conduct and courage. Boon 
dtscerniog tbat tbo bunds of lirittany could not of them- 
selves achieve any groat Itoyullst cud, he hud tixctl )iis 
hopes on the co-oporatiou of £ugluiid, and villi that 
view, bidding hid Jriondi! bido their time, hinuelf re- 
paired lo Loudon iu the atitiiDiit of 1T!J4. Mr. Pitt^ 
who has beeu aceiued of eolduess and di8tni.«t to 
Emigrants in general, Fallowed to tlie Comte do Puitny^l 
both esteem and cojkfidence. l>c Piiisaye becauie tjic 
rohog (tpirit of the iutcuded enterprise, aud bis papers 



even now nflord tb« best mitU^rials for its history. 
Havfaig been bequcutlied by him to the Bntisji Mq- 
aeum, they were received by that iDHtJtiitioii in the year 
1829. They form no less than one hundrwl and eigh- 
teen vohimes, comprising some few tetters of Mr. Pitt, 

The plan of M. de I'liisaye was to ooniiuot nu Ku;jli»h 
sijiiftihon ffl the eoaat of Brittany — that M}iiadroii to 
have on hoard some French Itoyalitit troopei, and at 
their liead a French Prinee of the Blood. In turtiier- 
ance of tiit«e views the English Government luut taken 
into its pay 8(*Tei-«l bodies of French Eniigmiilj* — now 
g^evously reduced in numbers — tliat had lately been 
serving on the Rhine. An active officer, 51. d'Heriiliy. 
enlisted tiome more &am among the fugitives of Toulon 
and the Breton prifionors of war. On the whole there " 
were ready to embark upwards of threo thousand men, 
besides a second division of about twelve hundred which 
had not yet arrived from Germany. The Knglieh Go- 
vernment, in addition to ita earlier DdraneeB, Hnjiplied 
ten thonsand gtiiueas in gold for the mihtary chesi, and 
there had been fabricated hy order of M. de PiuEaye a 
large number of Ai^ignats, distinguinhed by a private 
mark and designed for a ready circulation. 

To obtain a IViuco of the Blood might seem a much 
easier, but was in tniUi a more difticult tusk. The exiled 
Koyal Family of Franco was at thin time much dividt;d. 
Alonsiuur had retired Irom the lihino as the tiepiiblican 
aniJbs advanced, and had fixe<l hia resldenee in the 
states of Venice, at Verona. lie continued to take the 
title of BegX'ut during Ih© minority and the captivity 
of fits nep)icw, Louis the Seventeenth ; and ho sent 




fortli US lij's Envoys to the vdrious capilaL* men of the 
highest raiik umoug the EmigruutuoljIU)y,H3 the Duke 
d'Harcourt to Loudou, iirid tLo Vxikv il'Havrt to Ma- 
drid. With diren WAlcontunts ut Puris he carried on 
an aolive corresjjoiiduuue, und they had tonavd tliem* 
Helves into a soerut Comiuitt»e fur the inatiAgcment <^ 
Ilia affair.^. Tbo Oomte d*Artois, uu Uie other hand, 
was ever moving from Court to Coart or from cam|> 
to cam[>. Thua, i'or instauce, lie hud travelled to Pe- 
tersbiug, where the Empress Catheriue showed liim 
great marks of bonoiir, hut gave him do substjiiitiol aid. 
He did not hy any means hold tlio same opiiiioos nor 
yet eorreejiond witli lliu same persoijg us his brother. 
Detaclied froiti botli of tliese, the Prinre of Condi5 had 
still under his command some three thousand Entigrauta 
in arms, and coiitinned to wage war upon the BJiinc 
with more spirit than Buccess. 

It waa the wiah both of Mr. Pitt and of M. de Puisayo 
that tbo Comte d'Artob should lead the projected ex- 
pedition. The Prince did not refuse, but niailo difti- 
culliuH, and hung buck. Many of tlie oilicers arouud 
him wishi^d to land in La VendeG rather than in Brit- 
tany, and acomed to think it beneath them to go nigbt- 
owling — de eJtouanner — a^ they said 

It w)is also wii^hed that, except as regarding tho 
Comte d'Arlois, tJic strictest (k^crecy might bo observed. 
But this secrecy, though absolutely cseential to eaooom, 
gave great umbrage to the other chief EiuignmtcL' •Stilt 
more did it olfend the manifold intriguers who under- 
took to manage the lloyalist cause at Parts. Aji for 
these last, indeed, they appeared iar less intent to 





ftcliieve ft ReatorafioQ than to prerent its bviug 
acliiered by any otlier hands except their own. The 
(lirectJons niiich tliey seat to tlie chief men ia Brittany, 
both before the landing of the ammment and after it, 
were docigned to thwart, and did thwart, its objects in 
the highest degree. 

The CiiglLih squadron tot this enteqmse was iutriitit«.-d 
to Sir John Borlaee Warren, a tried and excuUcut 
seaman. Tbere were pat on board large supplies of 
all kinds, not merely erery requisite for the Itoyalist 
troops embarked, bnt eighteen thousand uniforms and 
stands of arms fur thu insurgonts who were expected lo 
join thoiu. itcforc Ihu middle of Juuo the prcpurulious 
in England wore complvto. Tho second division uf 
tliu Emigrant rogimuuts, commanded by I)e Sombronil, 
hiu) not yet arrived; stttt lata His Royal Uighnoes 
of AjtoLt. nut any i\]rlht>r dolay, in orilcr to uwuit 
tlieiD, would haro fbtivited all prospect of surpritie 
and mipcns^ The annamont ncoordingly out sail, 
yi, de Poisaye liaring the gu[Kreme direction, and M. 
d'Hervilly tJie iminediste command of the troops. 
There were also a Breton prelate, the I^^iop of Dol, 
nod aboat forty gentlemen of nuik, who sori'od as 

Tho place for landing which had boea selected, 
but wliich luwl been kept most carefully aecrftl, was 
tlie poniiisula of Quiberon, in front of the bay of the 
'msAe name. That buy, it was thought, would afford to 
)be English ships a secure anchorage, and that peninsula 
to tho French troops a conunanding station. Tbe 
expedition began well. Xearly off Brest it was joined 

VOL. U. (t 


CnAi-. .XXI. 

by tlie squadron of Lnrd Btidport, and fell in with the 
enemy'a fleet un<ler VilJaret Joyeuse, vhen Lord Brid^ 
port, by superior manosnvring. cat oft" and captured^ 
Le Formidable and Le Tigre, each of dgbty gone, and 
L'AIes^andre of aeventy-fonr. 

On the 27th of Juno the Emigrant chiefs with their 
Boldinis were safely disembarked near the Dnu<i stones 
of (larnac, and within the bay <tf Quiberon. They 
stepped on shore ftiU of exultation, rejoicing at their 
return to their natire land, and not foreboding the 
diamal fiite which impended o\'er thorn. The news of 
their lauding fiew like wildfire on every side, and tho 
Cboudiis eiigorly flockud in to swell their ranks. With- 
in three days they were joined by ten thonsand men. 
It was desired by St. de I'tiisayo to lose no time, to seinte 
the favourable moment, to iidvanco rapidly upon Yannes 
and Geuues, ami to raise the whole of Brittany in ami.4. 
Here, if over, was a case in which boldness was thu 
truest wisdom. 

But more timid counsels prevailed. Though tho 
r^ommiHsion of the British Government to DTIerviUv ha<l 
been limited to the period of tho voyage that offieer 
continued to claim tho direction of tho troope. He 
reftued to obey the superior orders of Poisoye, and 
rendered necessary im appoal to tlio UiuiMters in 
Loudon. Meanwliilu iiu udvanco was made. After 
Bome days, however, Puisaye prcTniled upon hia 
colleague to attack the small fort Pcnthiu\-re, which 
commanded the cntruncu to tho pitninsulB of Quiberon. 
The garrison of a few hundred men surrendered after a 
slight rosistanca M. do I'msayc then brought over hU 


17WC tIFE OF PITT. 339 

troopa to the pemnmila, and landed his stores fniin the 
Bhips, ooouiiying in ihis manner a atixmg pcmiUon of 
defenc«, while the ChonAns took up a forward line 
heyoiwl the fort on the main land. 

The injnry of tlie inaction thus enfoioed upon Puisaye 
was not merely to be ueasured hj th« ktt of time tn 
himself, or hy the gain of time to his eninni^!*. It gave 
leifflire for dtACord and }«?alouHy to fi[>nu]; up in his own 
ranks. Tlie Emigrant oflScprs could not alwayn eonceal 
their «com of the peasant rhiefs, nor the peasant chjefe 
their suspicion of the Emigriuit offiwrs. " Where," said 
the Chouans, " is that Prince of the Blood who had l»e«u 
promiaed na ? Wliere 18 that rupid ad^-anoe of whi^h 
M. de Piiisayo spoke ? Is it possiblo that the English 
are striving only for some conquest to thoinsclveti ? " 

Tho command for the llepublic iu this proriueo had 
beoQ Te«t«d in Gonend Hoeho, a young and taosi ahlo 
officer, tho same who vta designed as boud of the pro* 
jectcd expedition to Ireland. At the time when tlio 
Itoyalifits landod ho bud under him only some fire 
thousand troops, hut, through tho leiaure left him, he 
found means gradually to double his numburs ; and he 
acted througliout with liiiigular spirit un<l viguiu*. Sud- 
denly ftsniling tlie adranecd position of tlio Cliouatw, 
lie put them to the ront, driving tJiem in utter confusion 
Ix-yond Fort Pentlii^vre into the peninsula of t^ibcron. 
There they found themselves cooped up side by side 
with tJio Emigrant troops in a narrow space, and n-itll 
scanty food. 

Fuisayo and D'Horrilly, however, made a vigorous 
eSart to rctriovo this checlc Ou the IStli of July, at 

. q2 

_ Fuisf 
H eSartt 


Lira OP PITP. 

daylrcob, thoy marclieil out from Fort Penthibvre, and 
in tliirir turn iwwiilutl the trofips of Hoclie. But they 
did iiot succoed, D'H^-rvilly him^lf waf mortally 
woundod ; the signals were miaimderstood ; a body of 
ChouoDB. wfucli had been &ent round to the enemy's 
ruiir, fiulud to »rrivi> ; and valour was in vain. Great 
numbers of tin; Royalists were slain ; tlw resl, protoctod 
by a »harp tire &oin the Englisti gim>boats, were driven 
back to the tonj^ie of land. 

Jleanwiiile tJit-ro hail coma from England a second 
itmaller squadron, bringing M. do Sombronil and liui 
diviMiou of eleven hundred men, and bringing also a ftill 
confirmation of the snperior powers which bad been 
vested in IL de Piiisaye. These Ruccours, tlietw powera, 
all arrived too late. M. de Sombreiiil at once dii^irabarkod 
his men, eager as tliey were for action, but tliey wero 
only in time to be partakers of the final di»ast>.>r wbioli 

On tho first taking of Fort Pentlu'ivre, M. d'TIervilly 
had induced the Ilepablican garrinon to enliat in his 
own rogimeut. The coiiaetinenneR of tliia imprudent 
8tcp may bo roudJly guosBcd. No sooner liad Fortune 
ttuemed to declare against M. de PuJBaye thau tlieaa 
ntiw-mado lloyalists went over to General Hochc. In 
concert writh iLom the Goneral, during tho night of 
the 20t]i uf July, mNdu a sudden attack upon tlio fort 
and carried it swuni in hand. Next morning, U)c 21at^ 
he pursued his advantage agaim>t tlio remaining Emi- 
grant troops, now scattered along the tongue of land. 
Inferior as they were in number^ harassed ns tliey had 
been by the night aaaault, they could otTor uo effectual 




rosistnnce ; and as it cLaiiccd, th« ica was rolling high, 
and greatly imjiedcd the EnglitJi koaU and Blupo in 
their efforts to aid tbe-m. 

GrieToHS iodeed was the scene ihnt now di«j)!uyi-d 
itselt Thare was some of the bext blood of France— 
the deecendanta of its Eniglits and Barona in Ilie olden 
time, of the men full of cliivttlrous darinfj, of tho men 
who had marched to freo tlie Holy Sopnlchro beneallt 
the banner of Godfrey de Konillon, or wlio, in Poitou 
and in Picardy, had Htriveo face to face and hand to 
hand with Edward the Black Prince — pre»fiod logotlier 
on the desolate beach of Qniberon, with tttonny waves 
behind and implacable bayonets before tliem — with no 
choice but between the pitiless sea and their still more 
pitilesB foe I Many of the officers in despair threw them- 
selres upon tlieir own bwuhIh. Many others worn seen 
to ptungo into the ragins surf brMist-hiph, or oren neck- 
high, as they sought to gain the ulrfady overburdened 
boats. Yet even thuti thoir heudg abuvo the water - 
afforded a sure mark to the musketry of Hoclio, nliilo 
many more wore swept down for ever by tho an^ry ml-us. 
Some few, on tlie coutrary, Bucceoilcd and caught hold 
of one or otlior of tlte fishing barks that contintietl to 
hover off the coasi Bnt their fate was, if ponaible, 
more dreadful still. The boatmen were dismayed 
at the number of the barks wliioh, as loaded with many 
of the ^gitives, they |^had lately seen to nnk ; and 
acting, as they tliought, in self preservation, they 
hewed off with their cutlasses the hands of tlio drowning 
wretcbes that clung to them. Seldom in any war lias 
there been a scene of more uuminglod horror and distress. 



Chap. XSl, 

It IS panifiil to fiml. twn <l«j*3 after tliia total rout 
of tluj Kovali»t«, Sir. i*i(t wholly iiii«ii(!j>ii;imis of it, nud. 
on the cwiitJftTv, writing to oongrattiliito M. Ae Piiisftye 
i]|>on Uieir success. I will here insert Jiiti letter, as 
dorived from tlie Piiisaye papers, mainly for the sake of 
eihowing the corroctnesa of hia French. 

" MONSIEUE, " Downing Slieet, le 23 Jnillet, 1"1>5. 

" J'ai ftpprJs nvoc Irt phis vive satisfaction ]mr 
VOB differeuts rapports (dont le dernier nous a ctcrcmis 
liinr pur le Oajiitainc Hertie) Ujtit ce que vons et V08 
bnivts L'ompatriotcs out fait dopuis votro arrirec en 
Bi-eta^e pour la eniise que Tons swutenex avec tant ele 
f^loiry. J'tjsiicre que vons uurt'Z lieu d'etre coutcnt 
dn zele et de ractivit-i qu'on ne i^essera d'employec 
\d pour seconder vo» offort^ A mwns quo le Teot n'a 
oontrarie 1' expedition, nii renfort de trois mille Imnpcs 
Britantiiquos et des sccourH qui pounout supplcur k voa 
phiB pressanta besoius doivent etre d^ja pr^ de ros cot«fl. 
Nous ffiisoiis tout ce qui di-poiid de nous d'aceclirer 
IV'uvoi de Miiord Moira avee nne force beaucoup plu« 
considerable. Soyex peisiindE, Afonsicur, quo nous 
ticntoiis toiite riniportauco de la crise aotiielle, et que 
nou3 regardoDH la r(5nssite de votre entivpriso comme 
le grand moyen de terminer les mulhctirs de la France, 
et de retublir la sflrete et la tranquillite de rEumpe. 

" CrojX'z lonjuiiri^ MoimJem-, nux HetitirueuD d'uttache- 
meiit ot de consideration avec lasqueb je ne oei^crui 

" Monsienr, Ac, 

" W. Pitt. 

" J'ai donni I'ordre de fotimir lea fouds pour I'acliat 
dee cheraax que vous detunuderox." 

i:«s. LIFE OP Pirr. 313 

But let me hasten to the doec Some of tlio oliicft. 
as M. de I^jiaaye, did find ineam to rescb tlio KuglMi 
Equadron ; tuany more, as M. de Sombrcuil, noro com- 
pelled to remain art titftt &tal shore. These, vith 
about a thoiteand Emigrantfl, laid donn their arms. It 
ia snid tiiat there waa »>me kind of capitnlatioi] with 
Cieaeral Uumherb— that a vei'hal promise was made to 
them tliat tlicir lives should be spared on their mir- 
render. Tim was moeft caroetttly asserted by Sombreiiil 
even in his dying momentx, but van an \ee& earnestly 
denied by Hoche. 

It can&ot be said, however, that the yoimg General-in- 
Oliief for the Republic took any part in the matter of 
the prisoners whicli DiiiilK.-cume eo bmvo a mno. If be 
luailc uo c-flort to sure litem at thitt period, he is quitu 
clear of any step to |ved{>itAl4> llicir fata In truth he 
cuusidcrod thnt fate as bi-yaud hiaqihoro, and Ua did no 
more tbuu refer it to the deci«ioQ of the Govemmcut at 

Alauy considenitioiis m^lit have di8|io«ed tlial 
Govonuncut to mercy. It bad ovorthrovru Itobe> 
spiurrc, and ought not to tn-wl in his steiii. Uubappily, 
for sumo time post, it had bcou seeking to conciliate 
the Men of Ulo»d. It uos afraid of being denounced 
us Cnvonrablo in secret to Uie lIourbomL It was alVaid, 
according to the fclicitoits plirase of that era, lest il 
Bbould bo »<nip^tn6 d'itre tuapeet. It often hap- 
|>cu6 in iiuvolutiuiiory limes, thiit men arc sujijweod 
to sliovr & forocioos energy who in Imth liare beconio 
cruel unly liecans© they were not oouiageoua. Tudcr 
l\uyiQ circumstance^ the ruling men of the Kiutli of 




ITicrmidor resolved to put in force one of the ino^. 
ean^iiuary Decreos of tlio Kt-ijj^Q nf Terror — that «ver\" 
Emiip^nt taken with armn in his hands should be put to 
dfiith without further trial They sent orders) into 
Brittany to execute this kw npou all who had siirren- 
dered. excepting only the recent KcpubllciLD prisonera, 
who wero Kii]>|>osed to bo enlistud against their wilL 

The just horror inspired by this sentience was by no 
IU0IIII3 confined to its victims. Srnuy of the common 
soldiers in the B«publicau army showed u fur more 
huumno and civilized spirit than <lid their political 
chieik They assisted, or connived at, the escape of as 
many sbgle prisoners as they could. StUl upon the 
whole tho orders of the Convention had to be obeyed. 
A band of captives was led forth, drawn out in order, 
and shot; at theirheadM. doSombreuil and the Bishop 
of DoL Next day the same execution was repeated, 
and next day nj^iiiu There was no intermiiituoa until 
fifteen days liad jmBsed, and upwards of Hovcn hundred 
prisoners hud pericihcd. In vain did ilocho write vonl 
more than ouco to tho Convention tlmt. his ooldiers were 
weary of being used as hutphers.' No eign of mercy 
came until after tho executions were completed. 

To this day the soeuo of these executions is still 
pointed out to tho pasaiiig traveller— a meadow near 
tliv small town of Auray ; and to tliis day the peasants 
call it U champ J4!» martt/m. It 'm marked at present 
by 6 Giedan tomple as a monument, the first stone of 

t "llocho ut l« CoiiventiuDtjel 
Htttliliju ucrivirciit plndoura fuia 
qnu loi DuUUta M la«»ale&t do 

fairo It) mJlier do bourmnx." 
vDo Dnninli', Hint, do bk Couveti* 
tiup, vol. V. p. Gil, ud. 1833.) 

5r PITT. 


trLich va9 laid by tho Duchess of Angouleme iu 

At th? TB17 time wben tliis ill-fafod expedition haA 
been ready to set out from the porta of EDgUnd, there 
died at Paris the young Prince in vhose name it was 
prepared. The nomiiml King, Louis the Seventeenth, 
espireii on tho Hih of June, 17J*.'>, lie was only eleven 
years of age, brought down to his early grave by a 
oourso of systenmtie ill-usngc, sure tis the nioaketry of 
Quiberon ; by bodily priratious, and by nnguinh of 
miud. At tho uowh of hit decease Monsienr oisiinied 
thp title of Louis the Eighk^jnth, King of France and 
of Navnrre — an empty title, only to bo realised after 
nineteen years. 

On retiring from tlie bay of Quiberon, the wretched 
survivors of the expedition took shelter in the storm- 
beaten islet of Honat. There, when all was over, ihey 
were joined by His Itoyal Highness le Comte d'Artois. 
Bat Pttisaye, chafed by his diaaster, and liamssed by 
the recriminations of bis comrades, threw himself almost 
alone ni>oii tiie cnast of Brittany, there to rejoin tlie 
Choiiiiii bands. Hud Hi.s Royat Highness followed the 
example — had he laniiod without delay on itome point 
of the Frencli const — tho name and the prcfience of a 
French Prince might still have wrought wondeni for his 

Instead of such wise temerity, the Comte d'Artois, on 
receiving furthfr «iief>oiiTn from England, toolt posses- 

* Mr. Mounlcno; JfphMii, in hit i*"* drwiclfolly URly liimdlnt; " fpL 
Itvel; uitl uuU-rlaiiiin^ 'Walk- 1 IS!^ uil. 1S,S0). On Ibc ardiitmiu 
tn)[Touri'dmoribM till* tcmploiu j Ucntvcd: Qaltia mngtmijiotuiL 




sicm of the iilaud of Bcilleisle, mid thora Kmained at 
gamj for wjuvarda of six wt-t-ks. lie received divcre 
dcjiiitatioti!! from botli Brittany and L» TvudJe, and 
eriij)l(iyed liimsi^U' iu dtscuaBing u grent Turicly of plans. 
Even Uie worst of Uii-tiR*. if at ouuo nilopUil, wotild Iiara 
been far preforablo to tbe best so long delavf.'d. Cep- 
taiDly CLarles Comto d'ArfoLs lun- bat littlo rtwcn)- 
blnitce to PriDce Cbarlos Edwanl Btnart; aod altlioo^ 
ivitli ndlnjreuts t^'jitally ile\x)(«d, " the Niiicly-fiv« " of 
Fiance ctui uever bo raiikod with " the Forty-tivu " of 

General Hoche ditring this whole jti'riod liud been 
iiiiremittiiig in his excrlioiu. Uo had drawn together 
110 \vss than forty-four thonsiind troojis for tho proteo- 
tion of I<a Yeudt-o. Wheo therefore ul lust, towanUthe 
middle of October, thn Conite d'Artois eJiowed some 
i-eadiness to land nu the VendiSan coast, &nd to joui with 
bis Emigraata tlic peasantry under Charette, tlierx'> wore 
obstucles that might have daunted even a mucJi luor^ 
enterpriaiug chief. In the &Lce of such obsladva tbo 
most prudent course seemed to be to do nothing at ulL 
MiiL'li against tho wish of the officers, both Emigiuut and 
English, the Prince relintjuislied all idea of a Imidiiigt 
and sailed back with the squadron to England. 

The chief result of tliLi abortive enterprise was to 
draw down ruiu on the principal Itoyalist chiefs. Cliarctta 
had risen onoe again in onus on the project of co- 
operation from the Prench Prince and the EugUsh 
squadron, but being left alone, was quickly overpowered 
and taken priaoucr. Nearly tlie same was the falo of 
StolQiit in another district. Both bemg brought to 



IIFE or tlTT. 


rttpkl (tiaI wcro coiKloimicd and exocutcd, ilio one at 
Kaiit^fs, tin- oilier »l Aiifjcr*. 

Tims puded this most unf'ortiiiiato expedition. Cora- 
jilute 03 Iiod been tiie failure, the cauaes of tliat failure 
suomcd plaiu nnd open to yiew. Not so, howt^Tor, h&Te 
tbcy 8i!eme<! to all writers. Sevoial, and alioTo ell 
Freuelimcu iroin tLe most opposiw parties, diflering on 
CTory other point, have Alleged an occult caiine as tJie 
true one. Tliey Iraoo the wholo to the fiendish malig- 
nity of the Eiiglisli BQnister. They <loclare that Pitt 
secretly wished the (jspedition to fail, and contrived it ac- 
cordingly. Ho hated all Frt^^nchmeu, Bcpnblicans and 
JtoyaUsts alike, and desired notliiug m niiich oa to see 
tliom d(«troy each other with their on-n hands. For 
this purpose: he had sought and found a fitting instni- 
ment in M. do l^iisuyo, who was io reality a trdtor 
bought by tho gold of perfidious Albion.' It ia of course 
lumeceesary to wastt? a single word in refutation of these 
charges. It may seem as utinecussary to record them. 
Yet they deserve to find a place in llistorr as a striking 
instance how far, under certain circnntstanoes of party 
hatred, the noblest miais taay be traduced. 

The news of the disaster at Quiberon reached Itr. 
l^tt on the 1st of August, as did other ill tidings two 
days aftcrwanU . On both occasions we find him write 
as follows to Lord CliutJiam. 

* See tx iotbuuw tli« U^viri>« 
eta YAbhi Gcor^l, vol. v. p. 3US ; 
■uij Uio lUfno in Frcdfria Oiul- 

Jmuntv pu Bi'giir, toL iU. pp. n 
and £25. 



" Do\vntng Street, Airgwrt 1, 1795. 

" My dear liRoniEE, 

" I have wielied to write to you every day these 
thrco diiye, but liavo not been able to find time. In the 
mean time j-ou will Imve limi llie inortiiioitioti of 8c«mg 
the uTiexperted bad aoooiiiits from Brittany, thy pubUc 
roportH oi wlii(.li, Ihougb Noint-wliat nxnggerut^d, are in 
flubstancf! but too truw. The Gaiiotte of to-day (which I 
]mvt: <l('sired xx> l>e sent to yon) oontain» a short state- 
mout of tbi; result of our iiiTormittioD, as far us relat<« to 
this uufortuuate event. Wo have, on tlie other hand, 
ren^n to heh'evo that everything *lia8 been going on 
lis well as uould l>o wished iu the intoriur ; aud nltliough 
their spirits must for a time be damped by this misfoiv 
tuni', tlieru is tlie greftt(!*t roasou to hope that if wo 
nan establish some other point of ooniinnnicatioii, our 
(lisfl]ipoiutineiit may soon be repaired. 

" Jiord Moirn rctuaiuB eagorfor Uio ontorpriao, and I 
hope will bo unablbd to moko a fresh attempt witU 
a very cmiaiderable fi>rce in a vnry short tini<!. 

" By I'liris piipiTs, it apinwrs from an ufficial report 
to the Convention, that on the 13th of last month the 
Freiioh lleet of eighteen sail of tliu lino foil iu with ours 
of twi'iity-thrco, ttouth of Hiores : by their own account 
thoy got away as fast [as] they could, and ni-cm very 
pruud of haviog reached Frujus Itay. though not without 
the loss of the Alcide, which they r«prei^-nt tu have 
been burnt. I hi>pu you bare found ull well at Burtoo, 
Pray givu my duty to my mother, and love to Lady 

" Ever affectionately yours, 

" W. Pitt." 




" Downing Straot:, Angnst 3, 1795. 

" lu (wlitition to th« bml ncns wLich vns tbe 
Bnbj(>ct of my last letter, I am very sorry to have to tell 
you timt we have received from Paris accoutita of pcuvo 
being ooucliulod with Bpuiu at Ita«lo on tbo 22nd of 
July : the terms are the reslitntion of all C0DqiR«tf^ 
niadu on Spain in EuropL>, in oxc^lningu for tbe cession to 
Franco of the Spanish part of St. 1 >oi)iinga This varies 
60 much t)i« wholo state [ofj things, both irom Hctting 
at liberty so large an additional French force, and from 
the impression which it may produce on other Powers, 
that it makes it a new qnestJon whether any Britiali 
force can, withont too grc«t a ri^k, l>o hamrded ou tlio 
Continent of Fruncu. 1 iucliuu to think that our plan 
mnst now be changed, and that tlie only great pan 
mu»l bo in the West Indies, where I trust enough may 
yet bo gained to counterbulauco tlie Fronch fcucccasen 
in Europe. 

" Ever affectionately youra, 

" W. PrrT." 

Thw GroTommont of Franco at this time nnderwent 
au entire cbungo. A new Constitatiun was proclaimed, 
called " tbe Coustitutiou of the Year Three," from its 
date in the UejmbliniD calendar. lustoAd of u stnglo 
Chamber as lieretorore, tn-o wcn> intituled, tbe one 
designed as a Senate to bo ctdlcd "the Council of 
Aueicnts," and the other " the CouncU of Five Hun- 
dred." Tho ozociitivo power was entrusted to a Council 
of Five, with tho title of Dircctora, one of Ihem to 
retire every year, Thcitc cliieb took up their njsiduuoo 
in the palace of tlio Luxomboui^g, gave audicoocs wwted 




on gilt vliuirE, and affected on all occasions a kind of' 
Remi-regfii statt". There were thea or 8}«Jrtly after- 
wunU among tlicm men of most undoubted sbiliiy 
and patriotism, such as Carnot. But in general it may be 
said of tliis now Governmeut tliat it djowed the vices of 
tlio old Monarchy far more than those of the recent 
Uvpublic. Tho civiUaus in office at this period were 
n<*t Mcu of Blood ; tlioy did not sock to roviire the 
Ilt'iga of Torror, hut tlicy were for tko most iwirt c<h^ 
rupt, dissolute, and slothful; either ill-qualifiod for 
[mblic nlTuirs, or intent upon personal objeoU. 

In frauiinj; tliia now aysUim, tho memben of the 
Convention had by no moans forgotten thoir own t>pcctal 
iutereats. Thoy had passed a Uocroo that in tho new 
Legislature two tliii-ds should consist of men who had»atly eat iu Uie Convention, and tlial only one-third 
should bo nen'. That meaKiire, though it niiglit RpriDg 
from selliiih motived, had strong groundii of public utility 
to recommend it. There was little opposition to it ia 
the greater part, of France. But at Paris it was nt06t 
fiercely resented, both by the old Ilepublicftna and tbo 
secret lioyultttts ; and at the bL'ginuiug of October 
these parties oombiiiing roec in c^n iDaujTcction. 

The UoTcrmncnt and tho Convention liad been long 
forewamixl. and wore in some degree at lout propifed. 
Thoy had bn>ught into I'uris a body of five thoiuaud 
ohoseu troops, and ae their chief (liey relied on Qonenl 
Meuou. But Menuu at the docisivo hour allowed him- 
self fct-blc, faltering, tuid unccinal to hh i>osl. 'Iliere 
BOomcd Komo prospect that Uie iiuiiurgi:>Tit« might provBO. 
SoTOnd of the newly named Uircctors b^an to turn 




pale and look ngliHst. JJamts, who took the lead 
nmoD^t' them At this jiinctui-e, bid tliAiii fcnr iiutbiiig. 
"I have the very man we want," li« crit-d, "ft littlo 
Corsican (ffiicer vhom I knew at Toulon.*' And witli 
theae words he introduoed lo tl>em tlic filtiire !£m[)erOT 

General Bonaparte, on being invested with tbe chief 
command under Ban-as, juRtiSed the rlioico bj his 
promptitude and skill, tip. dealt with thft insurgents of 
Pam as with the iuBurgeuts of Toulon. lie had for^ 
])ieces of artillery, reemied only in time, and he 
well knew how to dispoeo thtan. As the *■ Sections," for 
so they oiUed tliemseiv<?8, u<l\-ant^ to inTest the kail of 
the Convention, a trwmcudous firo both of musketry and 
pnipe-shot was opened on their long and dense ooluuuw 
ill the narrow etrotis. Aft^^r u shurj) conflict thoy were 
put to flightt utterly di»j>urwd. and snceoBdvcly dt»* 
urmeiL This viuiory, wliicli secured tke power of the 
ucwiy-namcd Diroctory. took pUce on tho 5th of 
October, and is couimouly known from its dftto iu tlio 
lEepublicun calendar us tho " 'IV-izi' ^Vuiduiuiairo." ' 

'i'lie campaign upua the Kiiiue hud not opened till 
tbe month of Suptomber. Tbon GonenU Jourdun 
crOB^od the river near Duitseldorf, and Ucnorul Piclicgru 
near Mannhciio. But tho former chief was soon re- 
pulsed by General Clerfait, and the latter by (icnenil 
^Vur^u«r. Both with some disodTAiitage found it ne- 
cessary to repoHB the IChine, while Clerfnit by a bri]> 

■ X tUvax Olid oxccltcnt ncoount 
of thin iiKiirroctloD U givMi hj 
Kii])ulcaQ Linuolf iu tlie Uemaln 

dlctnt«d (o Ooiuto Montholoa, 
Scu Tol. Ui pp. U5-T5, wi 1823. 



CiiAf. XXI. 

liftnt manccuvrti mado himsolf mnster of the \mea borore 
Blayence, and misoil tlie Uwkatlo of tlmt important 
city. All this wbile tbore was a latent Jioiio of a far 
more considemblo gaiii. Tlie Prinoe of Condu l»ad 
mado flomo «ecrftt riT^^rtiires lo Pi«b«gra by means of 
Faiiohe Itorel, a 1>ook8eUer from Neiich&tel ; and tho 
General, after i<onie coy domnr, vas found well tncliuod 
to the Royalirt cause. He wfts willing, if poMiUle, to 
engage his army with him, to assume the white cockado, 
and to march hack ujioa Paris ; but ho would by nni 
means give np in tJie first instance the fort of Hnniiigen, 
as Oon(I<5 required. So there was no actual agrceuteot 
com-lndod, ami 8liU logs any active co-operation begun. 

A Ii3S3 secret source of hope to the enemies of tho 
French Republic was nt this time afforded. Her Guancea 
seemed on the very brink of ruin. So onormous was 
tho depreciation of the Assi^imts ehc had issued, that 
in October, 1795, it wiis computed aa HCTOUty to one,* 
Indt-cd tills vatioiwl bankruptcy (for so in truth it may 
be termed) ii ranked among the causes of tho tntoodod 
defection of PJchegru. Ho was fond of pleanire and 
expense, and bis pay, wiien given in AtMlgnal^, umoontcd, 
even before the lowest point of depression, to less than 
two guineas a week.* 

In England, as wo have se*n, the meeting of Par- 
liament hud been fixed for an c«irly day — tho 29tJt 
of October. On that day the combined effect of popu- 
lar distress with democratic agitation was soon appa- 

* PmL Hi»t^ voLxsxii. p. ISO. 

* TliJcn, Hint. Bi.<T. Fmu.. roL ir. p. U6, 




rent As tite Einj; wciit domi iu Stato to deliver his 
c^pcuiDg Speech, he found tlio loyal 8hoiil« wliich were 
wout to greet him cxctiaiiged for liootinf;:^ and hi8se«u 
Tho cries WCTC " Br««i I " " Peace ! " " No War ! " " Ko 
Famiuol" "No Pitt!" Some Toices wcio cren lioArd 
to utt«r "Down with George I" Wh^ru Hh ^lajeHty'^ 
coach cMne opposite the Ordnance, a pi^bble or Uillet, 
proeccdisg as was supposed from an air^n, stnick the 
window glos^ tlirowgh which aanall hole was broken. 
It vf»s not improlwibly the retdintlioii of thut very con* 
8])iraey iu tlio prtreJiiifj yeur which the Upjio^lioi) had 
deridcHl audcr the mc1(*iiainv of the " Pop^nn Plot," 

Thron^^hont this In'ing KCeoe the King t>l)OKcd per- 
fect euinposureand ecn-uity. Oh entering the Honso 
of Peen he calmly swd to the Chaucellor, "Aly t-onl, 
I have been shot at;" and be proceeded to read the 
Itoyol Spoech iu hi? asnnl clear and deliberate tones. 
On luH way back there vas a renewal of the former criea, 
and more llian a reueu'ul of the fomier violcnee. 
Stones were thrown, biuaking the pannels and another 
window of tho coa«li. And when the King quitted tliat 
Slate coach at St, James's J*ftlaee, »im1 proceeded to 
Bnckingham Hoase in his private CArriage, His Majesty 
being then almost nithoiit guards, found lumself most 
closely besft by fixasjirrrfttwl niinihftvs. It was fortunate 
that some of the lloi-io; (iiiard.i, who had been di-imissed 
from duty, returned of their own accord and lent their 
timely aid. 

With niurh good sense the King g»TO a speedy token 
that, iiotwitlistandiug such cxtxttses ho felt that ho 
could rely ou the attachment of tho great body of the 




people. On the -very next eTCiiiu); bo went to CorcDt 
Gorili'U TbL'atro avo«)iupmiio(l by the Queen and thre« 
of thy I'rlucu^seit. Tlio Kojml imrty was reoeited witli 
a loud burst uf niipluuse, aud tbo air of " God save the 
King " tbreo tiiuus repeutixL 

lu tlio House of Lords tlie ingult to tte Itoyal person 
was ooiisidoiiid before auy of Uie topics in liie Boyai 
Speech. Some witucKios to the fnut were examined, aod 
on Addrei*[j movod by Lord Gwuville, nnd afterwards 
coiicun-ed in by tbe Commons, cxprussed the indignation 
of both Houses «t \iu6 "dBriug outrage." But so liigb 
bad party-spirit ri^ou at thiit tiuio, thut Lord liansdowne 
in bis plucc wius Ijitard to doolurc tbat this alleged At- 
tack was only " iJie alanii-bell to ten-ify tlje people into 
weak eompliftnces. Hotbouglit it was a sciieme planned 
and executed by MinLaters tliemselveB for tlie purpose 
of contiuuiog their power 1 " ' 

On account of the new tepio thus nnospoctedly 

brought forward, the PeerB postponed until tho nest 

liigbt their conaidemtionofthe Speech from tho Throne; 

Lbut peodmg the Hesaage irom timt Houso on the other 

■subject, the Comoions made tho liuyol ^pi>uch u usual 

tlicir first matter of debate. 

The Itoyal Speech on tliis occasion hod esqtresaod 
ae KingH 8iLti:<riicUun at tho I'ecent HUcceesfa of tho 
liUitriane iu (jvriuany uiid Italy, but adduig UU hopes 
t)ist then! might soon arise iu France s di»iioutioa to 
negotiate for general peace on jiirt and suilaUe terms. 
It further stated that His Majesty had viewed with tho 

' rod. Uisl., vol. uxiL p. 135. 





greatest nnxipty the Tery Iiigb priw of grain, and the 
eti'oa*; prububility of an inBiiflicient harveat. In the 
Gouimuiui tliu AddreHS was seconded Ly a foung Mem- 
ber speaking for the first time in that Assembly which 
at a later pen'od lie was to lead : this was the Hon. liu- 
bei't Stewart, soon aflerwanhs hard Costlerci^h. "Pitt 
8{ioke cafiitolly and as distinct bb possihte ou the main 
|K>)nt " — that is s wish for peace — so writes Wilberforce. 
Ou Iho otJier side both Sheridan and Fox inrei^hed 
witli their itsual elociuence against the whole cotidoct 
of tlie war. With great force did Sheridan coutnut the 
former proposal of Mr. Jenkinson for "a nuoch to 
Paris " with our actual achievoineDtti on tlio coasts of 
Brittany and Poitou, "where," he said, "Britiab blood 
iudeed haa not flowed, but Brititih houour lias blod at 
every porel" And Fox, at the conclusion of his |>owor- 
ful iuToctivo, moTed an amendment untruiUng, among 
otLer tilings, Uis Mu}csty " to rcflisct ujkiu the e\'idvnt 
improctirubility of attaining in the i)rct<ent contest what 
have hitherto boon oODtsidorral as tlie ohjoctn of it'' 
l^tt was mure briuf but not b'^ masterly in thr sjicccb 
replying to both thu Oppusiliou cbit-fs, and on u divi- 
sion the amendment was rtrjectcd by a majority of four 
to ouo— 240 votes againrt S9. 

Next day in the House of Lords the sunc unond* 
merit which Fox Imd oftered wns moved, but witli quite 
us little success, by Francis, Doko of Jtcdfonl. Kis 
Grace was gntndsoa of the TkliuKitcr vho liod eiginxl the 
Peace of I'aris, aud luiving roeoutly come of ago after 
a long miuunty, bogau [xiblic Ufo with mach zeal m a 


Lin: or pitt. 

Ciur, XXI. 

follower of Fox. He iipoke otlnn, and with consider- 
able weight, iu the House of Lords. 

The iitteutioQ of tha I^egislatnre vtts now directed 
upon, two subjects of jjarnmonnt importauce — ^tlio mea- 
auros to ftUeviate scarcity, and tlie measures to repress 

As regards the former, Mr. Pitt brought forward tho 
qufetion m enrly as the 3rd of Novemlxir. He proposed 
tli« npiioiotment of a Select Committee to inquire into 
the cauees of tlie high price of com, and ho gave at the 
aame time on outline of tho divers steps that he de- 
sired to fake. He proposed to amend tho law ou the 
Aasize of Brcntl, >vhich up to tliat time was governed by 
the depositions pcriodiciilly hiiil b'.-fore the Lord ]lIuyor 
of LouddU. Ho proposed to proliibit the use of wheat 
flonr in the manufatrture of starch, and to dear away 
all obstructionB in tho transit of grnio. He proiweed 
that biikeiB should be no longer bound by law to make 
bread from wheat of tho first quality, but should bo 
authoriHcd to run.' an admixture of lofmor grain, as also 
porhsps of ludiiin cum and potatoes. Hererol ex* 
porimeotB, said Mr, Pitt, had been already made, giving 
hopes that a mixed bread of tliis kind would be both 
uutritiouH oud palatable. Ttiere had been on Act in 
the lost Session prohibiting for a Umited Umo tlio use 
of wheat iu the di)itil]en(>K, uud tliii) Act, at whatever 
loss to the revenue, mij^ht bu renewed for anotber year. 
In like manner the King had been empowered last 
Session, for a limited time, to prohibit tho exportation 
luid allow the import duty-free of various kinds of food ; 

ira o¥ ni 


an<I this prerogative also niiglit lio ognin enacted. But 
as ufterwardg apjioarod. the Ministw was preiiore<l to go 
even furtlior, and to grant a bouuty on the iinport of 
these mneh nei^ilcd supplies. 

The Kcport of the Committee whcu pnwented 
expressed a (ijeueral concurrvnt'O iii tiicsu views; 
aud Acte of Parliament wore piuased acccHiiingly. M>. 
Fox etatod some doubts whether the loead from 
tlwBo mixed materials woiild prove sufficieBtly nutntioos, 
but owned tliat he had iiothiug better to suggest, and 
iudcL-d WHS but little ut home on tbcee fluaucial or 
commercial topicM, A. bouuty of twenty sliilliugs was 
;j:nkutcd ou the import of each qnart<;r oS wlteat, and 
thcro were boutities in proportion on other artieles of 
food.* Jint tlio lieport of the (Jonimitteo sIiokhI, that 
in addition to legislative measures, great advantage 
might ensile from private and voluntary efforts. An 
agreement which it reeommended became of general 
adoption, pledging the p(iiw>uR who adopted it to reduce 
the cnnsimipUon of wheat in tJieir families by the use <£ 
mixed bread and the disuse of flue pastry. 

Nor were peraniary flacTiflces wanting far the same 
benevolent object. The East India Comjiany imported 
and disposed of greatly under cost several cargoes of 
rice, itiid the City of London gave bounties for the solo 
iu Billiugsgato market of eod and buddoi'k at two- 
pence a puimd. It b gratifying to add tliat by this 
tunely combination of mL-asuroa tho object in view ap* 

' Sco Sic ■onle, with an ooooimt | turjr of Ounuucrac^ toL iv. pp. 359- 
of till? utlioT mntmrM •doptod on 303, 
tliio aubject, In Uaqdunon'i W^ \ 




peftw to have been flilly nMaiiwJ. The Advnnco of 
public distresn woii am<8to<], and the price of wlieat< was 
refitraiQed within moderate bmindg. 

The next most pregtuug Kuhjoct was how sedition 
might be pnnished or prevented. A Royal Proclftma* 
tionhad bcenissiiMnn the Sltt of October, inparsnaneo 
of the wish csprcj*»ed by both Honset* in tlieij- joint 
Address, ofloring £1,0(H) as a reward t« discover the 
perpetrators of any act by which the Itoyal person 
was endangered. But no mich discovery ensnwL It 
wan never known by whom t)io air-gun was diachmgetl, 
or the missile Qang. Only one person, a journey- 
man printer uanicd Kyd Wake, was tried before Lord 
Keuyon, and eoiivict<^td of huviog' hissed and hoat«(i 
ronud tho Iving's Btatw-carriRgc, and having oriod 
" Doivn with George ! " He was eentenced to stand 
nn horn- in the pillory, and to be imprisonDd for five 

On the 4th of Norember there came forth a aecond 
Proclamation referring to tlie recent meetings in the 
open air — denouncing hilh the harangues and the publi- 
mtions whieli had tiendixl to distnrb the public pcoce— 
and calling on the magi-itnitc^ tooxcit th('m.''eIvcsto bring 
to justice any pei'sons wlio niipht again offend. Eje- 
protBtons likotln'se did not pass witliout comment from 
both sides. It was warmly maintained by Jtr. Fox and 
by bis friends that there was not tho eniallcst connection 
between the outriigeoiis acts at tho o]>ening of Parlia- 
ment and the violent liingnage in Copenlmgen Kields. 
3Jut far otlierwUe tliouglit the natioti at large. They 
considered tho seditious laogiuigc and tlio seditious acts 




to slaad to eiuix otiier in tlio prccieo relation of nmaa 
and effect ; and they expected from tlw Kiiip's Servants 
some more etringent. measDios for tbo pablk peace. 
Such aJso, in the eyca of Mr. Kit and of liis collcaguee, 
was iboir own opinion of their diity. "It is notorimis," 
said Lord tirtiuvillo, "tirnt tho evil wo are seeking to 
correct has attained un alarming lieight^tho mtj^ 
seditious papers circulutcd and Oie most inflAmmatory 
discoiu-sea delivered to public iisscinbliott. To this is 
to be ascribed tho outn^o that has lat^-ly taken place. 
It is no longer tho flimsy allegation uf some imagiuur)* 
grievance, or tho slight prct«xt of a wish for Purliamen- 
tary Reform, that can bu set uj) aa tho motive for such 
meetings. That thin veil has been lately torn away, 
and in the face of broad daylight an attempt has been 
mado directly on tho person of tho Sovoroigo." 

Sach were tlio words of Ijoril Gronvillo when, on the 
flth of November, ho presented to the House of Lords a 
Bill defining and extending the Law of Treason. The 
old Statute of Edward the Tliird had looked mainly to 
attacks intending the King's death, bnt hero wen» 
penalties also on attacks intending any bodily harm. 
It viTis further declared that any person who, by writing, 
preaching, or speaking, should stir up the people to 
hatred of His Majesty's person, and of the established 
Government and Constitution, shoold be liable to the 
penalties of a high misdomeaaor, and on a second 
conviction might bo transported for Boren years. 

Xor was this all. On the 10th of the same month 
Mr. ritt laid before tho House of Commons a Bill 
against seditious meetings. A summary power was 



Ca*r. XXt. 

given to the m^Istrates to disperse ench meetings, eren 
by force if uecussary, and a Uccnt'e was roqiurrd for 
houses, rooms, or fields where money vaa taken for 
admission to hear lectures or discourses. Tbe dui-ation 
of tlii» Bill — as also of thti last eltiuses in the former — 
was afte^rwardH in Conimittee restricted to three years. 

Li common parlaiico theee two measiu'es were known 
as the " Treason " and tho <• Sedition " Bills. Taking 
them ton;ethcr, and laying aside what was no roalj 
matk>r of dispute, the increased security to the Ttoyot 
Person, they were, no doabt>, as the Opjwsition eallud 
them, an alarming infringement of the public liberties. 
The question is only how far such an infringenicut 
might be justified by a peril to tlio Btat« more aUnniug 
stilL "Say nt once" — cried Mr. Fox, in a ittnuu of 
most I'errid eloquence, and on the rery first night of 
the Sedition Bill — '■ say nt once, that a free Coustitutiou 
is no longer suitable to us ; say at once, iu a manly 
mannor, that upon au ample review of the state of the 
world, a free Constitution is not fit for yon ; conduct 
yourselves nt once as the senators of Denmark did ; 
lay down your treedom, and acknowledge and accept of 
despotism. But do not mock the tuideistandings and tho 
feelings of ninukind by telling the world that you arc 
free — by telling me that if out of Uiis House, for Oio 
purpose of expressing my sense of Ihe public adiuinin* 
tration of this coimtry, of the calamities which this war 
has occasioned, I state a grievance by petition, or 
make any declaration of my sentiments in a manner 
tiiat a magistrate may think seditious, I am tu be sah- 
jected to penalties hitherto unknown to the laws of 




Ilngland Did evor a freo people meet so ? 

Did over a free Ftate exist so ? Good God Almiglily I 
Sir, is it possible that the feelings of tlio people of this 
country should be thus insulted ? " 

Thcjse wordu were ftdl of urdour, and no pains wure 
sjKiryrl to ttrouBO uu cquitl mkIout in tln' |>i.'o[iIi,'. 'Jlie 
Whi'fi; CInl) mot and protested with tlio Uuke of Bedford 
in the Chair. Thv Corrospoudiug Society met and did 
their boMt to diHscmblo thoir Ilcpubliouu Icndcneies. 
rffirobating in strong terms the recent uisulta " offered ta 
the person of tlie Cluef Magistrate." There was a 
meeting of tho iuhubitnittH of Westioiustor in Palace 
Yard, with llr. Fox 113 their Memher presiding over 
thi^m ; it produced somo angry Bpeeeht'S, and u petition 
to Ifio House of Comniuuii. There were meetiugs of 
the same kind at divers places both in England and in 
Scotlamt. At Kdinburgh goveral vehement Resohilions 
were moved by l[<?nry Krskine, tlie Dean of Fiieiilty, 
and like \m brotJier I'lionia.'t, of tlie highest for«>nsib 
renown. In consequence of tliis step on his part, his 
brother advocates dispoRses^ed him of the ofHce of Dean 
at their ensutu^ annual election ; and they wero theni> 
selvca denounced a» peniecutorB by all the Whig 
speakers and writers of the day. 

Notwithstanding all the pains that were taken, it may 
bo questioned if there was much efl'eet produced. 
Within three weeka after the ])riuting of the second 
Bill, Mr. Abbot might observe in the House of 
Cnuimons that of all tlie English counties only four had 
met and petitioneil againftt the meaBiiro, namely 
Jliddlesex and Northumberland, Surrey and Hampshire ; 



CiiAP. XXI. 

and in tiie two lost there were coonter-petitions on Ihe 
other side.* Siil>Beqiiontly there were a few more 
county meetings And petitions ; one, above all, of some 
contest and importance, m tJie county of Kent. In 
theee, ns was nsual, the Sheriff or prerading officer 
signed in belialf of the wlml« ftflsemltloge. But in otlwr 
cases, where individual signatnres uro reqniretl, Uie tottil 
numbers may be asc^ertflineiL It uppears, Uien, oil a 
peeapitiilation of Uio whole, that agninst the two Bills 
there were prcsentwl ninety-four petitions, and that the 
number of siguatures was 131,2S4.' So email n frag- 
ment of the entire population as opposing, tiut'mii to 
indicate that the great mass did not disupprovvi. It 
ia scarcely too much to say that in ordinary times ftveu 
the titho of sat-li rigorous eiiMctments would Imve 
aroused ten times more clamour. 

Not far dissimOar was the rosntl within the walls 
of Parliament. Thiire tho debates wcie purjiosely ppo- 
traetod liy the Opposition, to give time for the exertioiw 
out of doors. Fes again put fuHh his groat talents in 
eevcnil splrit^tirring ^pooches. He was seconded iu 
the Peers hy the Duke 'of Bedford and the Eaj-1 of 
Lnudei'dale, nn<i (a new ally) Lord Thurlow ; in the 
Commons by Ersklno and Whithroad, by Sheridan and 
Grey. Yet the bigh<>st luluority among the Peere 
was only 21. In the Commons ihe minority did not, 
on most oeca^ioiis, much excood double that nnmbcr, 
and only once, on an nmetidmeut for delay moved by iXr. 

• Purl. Iliirt., vol. simii. p. 4*7. 

' Sec till) fuoi>)iltulaliuu in ttiu ISntorf of Two AvU, 





Ciirwen — roae to 70 ; there being eyea thou, IioweTcr. 
267 arrayGtl on the otJier side. Thus both the ISilla 
w(?re ciirriud through befiwe ChristnuiB ; it may he md 
with a high hand. 

In the ffourae of these debates there were anno slips 
of expreasion on both aides. Dr. lloraley, Bishop of 
Rodiester, speoldng in support of the first BiU, deelnred 
that he "did not know what the mass of tlie people 
in any country had to do with the Laws but to obey 
them." — '"If I litul been in Tnricey," began Lord 
Lauderdale, " and had heard such a dedaratioii fi-om 

the mouth of a Jliifti " On another day the Bishu^ 

explained away the phrase by the hit^eet reserves in 
favour of petitions and elections; still, however, the 
pbraso, as he had first used it, became a kind of watdi- 
word oil the Oppositiou side. 

ThiUi agaiu, in tho Commons Mr. Wiudluiui wo; 
hurried on by tbo (uxlotir of dcbnto ioto ditclaring that 
"tho liight Hon. gentleman (Mr. Fox) would find 
tiiat Mioib'ters were determined to exort a rigour beyond 
the law." Hero he was interrupted Ijy loud cries of 
"Hear" nml "Take down bis words." It sn» only 
after sonio delay that he could complete his Beatcnoe — 
"as exercised iu ordinary times and uiwlor ordinary 
circiunstaucea." But here ogaiu the first words were 
frequently alleged, nitlioat tlieir context, to inflame the 
public mind. 

On the other aide, Mr. Fox laid himself open to 
uttfick. " If," he cried, " Ministers are determined, by 
moaus of the corrupt iiifhienpe tlioy pos*083 in the two 
Houses of IWUamout, to pius thu Billit in din-ct 

V. 1 



Chap. XXt. 

opposition fo the decJared sense of a great majority 
of the people, an<l if they ehnuld be put in force with 
a]l their rigorous provieionn — thon, if my opinion were 
uskvd by the people a^ to their obedience, I should 
tell them that it was no longer a queettou of moral 
obligation and duty, but of prudence." The Minister at 
onco saw iiud seized tlie advantage afforded him by 
these hasty words. lie started up and in bis loftiest 
(one deooniiccd thorn, " with hoiTor." ho said, " and 
indignation" — "as opc-nly advisiiig an appeal to the 
8W0T(L" l\rr. Fox rose again and dediirtid ihttt he 

should retract nothing. Yol. in cxpluiiatiou, he 

certuiidy qualified tery much. "Th« casu 1 put was 
thftt thtise Bills might lie pulsed by a corrupt majority 
of PjirliaDieut coiitrurj' to Ihv upiuivn and svutunvuts of 
tlie great body of thn nation. If the majority of Iho 
people approve of these Bills^ I will not be the person 
to inflame their minds and stir tliem to rebellion.** 

The mortification which Mr. Fox and lis friends must 
liave felt at §eeing the two Billa camt;d through in 
spite of all their eloquence and exertions was, porhaps, 
in aomo degree alhiyed by the steps which thuy were 
able to take against Mr. John Keeves. In the autumn 
of i7ii'2f as we hare seen, that goiiUeman had founded 
the Asaociation " against Kopublicuua and LovuUcru," In 
the autumn of 1795 he camo forth witli a paiuphlL-t 
designed in like umuiier for the support: of the Govi-ni- 
ment, bat most fuuliahly exalting the monarchical 
branch of tho (.'oristilittion at the expense of every 
other. " The I'arliamont and tlie Juries," so he wmt*, 
" were mere a<ljuuvts, tiubsiiUiiry and occasional poweiu" 




"II«re," saiil Mr. Fos, " i« a ivm-jti- libfO tlian any tiltcged 
against the Oont'Spouiliug Society." " llfirc," said Mr. 
Sheridan, "is a case for tho most solemn iDttTpusilicn of 
the House of Commons," Consequently he pnijiosed 
llial 5Ir, Keovfs sLtudd bo ilismipwod from all hi.'t em- 
liloymenls — that his ])ai»]ihka shuuhl Iw huriicd before 
the Itoyal Exchange by the common hangman — and 
tliHl the Attorney-General should Ix' dirocti^d to com- 
mence a proseeution agiiuii>t it. Of tiiesc three not 
quite coherent propoaals, tho Govornmeut rt'eintod the 
two former, hut not tho hiat. The trial <'amo on Ijcforo 
Lord Kenyon early in tho onsuiuff year, whoD l1u* -hiry 
(litclarc-d that they ihougtit Mr. K<'evt>9'8 jiaitiithlot a 
very improper publii.'nlioii, but tliat not <li!(!iiuiig his 
motivfis eucli as were Bllegefl, they found him " Not 

In the same spirit, and as seeking to oppose rehe- 
mence of one kind to vehemence of another, the t'uke 
of Bedford took occasion in one of the debates ujKin the 
Treason Bill to anaail Biirke, or rather to a<Hail Uie Min- 
iatei-H for having gntnt^d Bnrke a pension. In theee 
obaervatJons he vna wcoiided by Lord Landerdale, and 
answered by liord Gronville. The debate in itsolf 
seems little worthy of commemoration. But the genius 
of Burko haa made it immortid. His pumphlet in 
reply, entitled " A Lettoi- to a Noblo Loi-d," though not 
free &om somo defoc^lti, will ever lio nuikod among tho 
master-pieces of tho En^sh languiige. With woiidroue 
fertility of illustration ho dcfunda tho cuiwo of tho 
British Constitution, whil? socmiug only to plead his 
own; and ho retaliates still more powerfully llian Ik- 




It 18 mueh to Fox's honour that these puny nttocks 
on fi gKhi man were in no degree cotiiitcuuuc<:-(l by 
liim. The cxpKieions of Lord LandonlHle and the 
Diike of IV-dfonl, us aiiplied to Bnrke in Xoveai!>cr. 
179o, stand forth in ^rong contnist to those of Fox 
himself in May, 17[Hi. 

In tliis sliort Imt most active Session before Cliristmas 
therrtwas still other hnsine-ss. Oiithe "tliof Pcccmber 
Mr. Ktt tn-ought forward Ms Budget. Ho proiKwed a 
second loan of 18,U0O,U0UZ., and st^^veml new taxes, one 
above all npoa Legacies, whrther of nionny or of land. 
The loan was at once negotiated, but the new toxos 
Wi-re roserv^^d for snhs'itnunt debate.". 

Next day, and no doubt with a view to the public 
credit, Mr. Pitt briinght down to the House of Conintoiis 
a MesHage from the King raforring io the newly settled 
form of Grovemment in Franco, and expressing his 
" earnest deaire to concltulo a treaty for general poacp, 
wbeuevor it can be effectod on jnat and suitable teniig 
for hiinsL-If and his allies." Thia aiinouiicement in tliu 
King's name appears to liaro produced a highly favour- 
able imprcission on the public. Yet, in tnith, the King 
was as keen as er^ for the prosecution of the war ; and 
his fptdings ou this subject were among the principml 
^fficulties with which his Kliiiisters had to contend. 


LlfE OF PlTf. 




Birtli or till- Prinecia Charlntl« — Scpomtion of tlio Priucc luwl 
Piliiiiuwi or WhIi'K — Legiify "DiiHun — Dojj Tai: Mr. Diiif — 
tlrulure (tf nltompt to nrRotiato with the PrtmRh DirftCtory — Pltt'« 
MixiK)' for jKitcc — Uimiolulioii of Furtiumont — Aimtruui Subnyy 
— Tinturio* of Ooriftral Biifiajiartfl in Italy — Kn^lwlj trm)|«i«ith- 
ilnmn from Corsica — Onpture of Sir Sidney Siaith^Tivntj h&- 
twiwu Fmuuu Hull SjjiLiii — i^iigliiilt curiquvtito in tlu> UVsl IhiUm 
— I.oi^d Cluttlittin Prriidniit of tlin Comwil — ^Lnril lliifmonlintj'* 
EmlBUBy to runs — Proj(vt«l iuvmion of Irt'lund— Rtt« in«ft- 
nuTPM uf dufetioo — Luyull)' Louh — DdIibIoi on tli« liuiljcvt — 
rilt'i Poor-Liiw Bill — F.xporimciilainStrnto Nnvigotiim — FalliiMi 
of tlio ui'goljiitiuu tit I'nria — DiiiUi of tliu Eoiprcn of tluiiidii. 

Os llio 7tli of JaiHiftry in tbc ensuing year tLc l*riiiccss 
i)f Wiilca wiw di'liv(>r«i! of a daiigliter, wlio rei«ived Uie 
immes of Charlotte Aagusta. The people nynined at 
tlie appi^arance of an heiress to the Tluone. But their 
joy was ilaiJipd by the tidings which speedily follotved 
it of the complete estrangement of the Prinoe of Wales 
from his con:^rt. lie wrote her a letter in civil hut 
cold aiid unfeeling iarms to announce their final sepa- 
ration. Leaving her husband's house, the PrincefiS witli 
her infant daughter went to Tcxidc at Blaoliheatli. The 
King showed a strong dia[ioeition to pity aiwi pn>tect 
her, and thus did dissensions break forth anew between 
the father and son. 

The Seioion of Parliament which was resumed in 
Fehniory continued imti! May ; and several mattere of 
liigli importance weie discntmed. General StacLeod 
brought foiward Uie en)|>loymeQt of blood-hounds 


lire OF PITT. 

ftgu'Dst the Mamnna; wlien 'Mi. BuncUs owned Uiat 
mcli iiu order ha^l been givt-ii in Jamair^a, but mfimatpd 
that it was uo sooner made known in England thau it 
was disapproved hy the Govenunent and counter- 
manded. Under Uicse circumstancea the motion was 
no fiirtlier [H-esaed. 

On the I-egacy Duties the diBcussiou vbb eagerly 
resumed. To frame any new tax at such a junetui-o 
had been no mean trial of Fitt's fiuaueial skill. How 
impose further imposts on a pooplo abeudy daggering 
under tin? heavy burdens of war, aJid moreover in that 
year the lamino price of cflm ? Yet how maintain the 
public cre4it if there were to be a vast incroasv of debt, 
and no corresponding effort to add to the revenue ? 
tax upon BiKvessions soomid to st«cr between tin 
oppotiit^ difQculties. It was not in any case a prcK^ure 
upon [wverty, but rallier a deduction from much lar 
sums to be received. Not merely the widow, but tho^ 
children were to be exempted from any payment at all ; 
while with regard to others, tlio tax was graduated from 
two per cent, on brothers or sisters, to ax ikt oont, on 
strangers ill blood; thus maintaining, it wan hoped, a 
juj^ distinction between naliirnl and fortuitous chums. 

It was difficult, nay almost impossihlc, to estimato 
what this uew impost might produce ; by Pitt, however, 
it wjw lukon at mily '2'iU,OQ0l. a-year. lie had dechired 
his iutention to include all kinds of property in a singto 
coinprehensiTe measure. But the reception of hts 
Uudget enabled him to appreciate more justly the strong 
rcpugnunco of the landed gentlemen. Thus when he 
ponued liis project in the spring, he found it expedient 




to bring il forward in two Bille, the one for [xireonal 
and tbt- other for ri^a! property, 

Botli the Bills were stoutly opposed by Fos and Fox's 
fri(.'uU«, As rogardiug the legacies on personal pinperty 
they bud nothing of much weight to urgv. Their 
priueipHl argument turned on the alleged har>]ehi[> to 
illegiliuinto ehildron, who would have to pay the highest 
rnto us «trangerst though i<ntilled to indulgence ns 
objocts of natural affection. But in tlio diiirioii the 
minority was only IG Hguiust G-j. 

The second Bill, toncliiiig the legocienon real estates, 
was mot by much stronger ar^iinient^. So at least they 
seemed iu the apprehension of the country gentlemen. 
The greater part appear to have stayed away, unwilling 
eitlier to support the Bill or to oppoiw the Minister. 
But tbe Members who remained were most equally 
divided. After two other neck and neck voice tlio eame 
evening, tho final numbers were 51 against 5-1, The 
Hpeakor gave his 'casting ^-ote to the Yeas; but l^tt 
declared that soedng so many gentlemen unfriendly to 
iho Bill, ho would move to postpone it for throe 
months. In other wonlsi ho rutiignod it altogether. 
Nor was this iae<iuulity in tlie law rcdrbSi»od until tho 
Budget of fl[r. Gladstone in IS53. 

'J'ho ill-!*ucee89 of this proposal, and the pressure of 
public expense, onnipc'lh'd Pitt to have roconrso to a 
further loan of seven millious and a half. The otJior 
points of his Budget — as an increase of the duties on to* 
baoco, and on horses kept for pleasum, and a regulntiou 
of the duties on sugar and salt — appear to Iiave pa-tsed 
with little difhe-ulty. Bat the Ilouse of Commons was 

B 3 



Bmiucd by an iiTiexiiofted coadjutor to tho Mmister in 
till? CUU8U of taxiitJuu. This wbh oqp of llii'ir Slemben:, 
Juliu Dcut by aamo. lie availtv] liimiielf uf a pi'titioti 
which tnmo from LoicL'storxhiru complitiniiig of the 
gTDftt tiuiuber of dogs kept in Iicuiiels for the recreation 
of the ricli. Ou thi^ fouTidittiuu Nt. Dcut proposed a 
duty of half-a-crown on every dog kept cither by rich 
or poor, excepting only ihoKs dogs which ocnred as 
guidcH to tlie blind. 

Pitt, wdl pleased to see liis Exchequer supplied, 
doeluroil timt hit saw uuthiug improper iii luying uome 
tax on tho keeping of dog», pruridcd u disliuclion were 
drawn between the opulent and the indigent classes. 
Thus the pro].Mj»iil of Mr. Deiil hcamie tho ground-work 
«f a iDCHSure which v/as enrri<-il in n subsequent ^H■0»ion. 
Sui At- the time the priiicipal result van ridtoiile. Mr. 
Dent — ever afterwards sumanied " Dog Dent " — ai^xjikrs 
to have argued against thi3 entire canine race with most 
extraordinary passion. Wo are toTd in the reports of 
Lis speech, that he " proceeded to gtate, from documents 
in his po§flesHion, the raragPB which were committed by 
dogs— the quantity of provisions consunied by them — 
and the incroaso of hydrophobia." * " We might have 
imagined," cried Mr. Wuidhom, "that Actffion Imd 
revired I " 

If such w«ro th« jeetB oven of tlio Ministcre to wboii) 
Mr. Pent garo Ilia general support, it may bo imagiDcd 
how much keener were the shafts of Opposition. " 1 
know not," said Sheridan, "wliether the Hou. Mover 

> FuL Hist., Tcl. xxiii, p. S95. 




is stimulated upon Pj-tbagoreaji principles to pnrsne 
at pn>8ent those reseutments or aotipatliies wliiob 
Lb may haro conoeired in a former state of existence 
u<;utDi;t a race of oiiinuits so long distingnisbed as the 

fricntU of men But. will not the charge of ingra- 

titudo lie agBiDst its for such a decree of massacre 
oguiiist these useful animals at the very time when wo 
acknowk-dge them as allies of the Combined Pon-civ, 
and when their bretliren form part of that army in 
Jiiiruticiv which is fighting Buoiesafully against the 
Mtiruons, and supporting the cause ctf social order, 
humanity, and religion?" 

Ill thii same strain did Mr, Courlouav follow, lie 
dcridod the idtu'ms i>xprcssed by BIr. Doat at the increase 
of bydropbobin. " To uUeriatc that borror," said he, "I 
beg leave t«> snggcst tliegroat advantagcn which some- 
times residt fi'oni a 8t«te of inmnity. Th<! Itito Ijord 
Ohcfrtorfit'bl Iftid it dmm as a muxiiii tJiat the ouly pua- 
sJhle process by which a Duldiman could bcc4>mo a wit 
wius by htiii^r bit by a nmd dog ; and m nmbitiuus wa» a 
kto liurgu-niflgter at Amslordfun of being di>itinpitsbod 
by this sliining accompliiibnicnt, that ho htid biibniittod 
to the operation. Here, then, is encoitrngcmcnt for tbo 
Hon. goutli^niiiQ J " 

'I'ho pn)i*poet of negotiation which Pitt had opened in 
the King*8 ItCcssagt! of Urn 8th of December, was sought 
by him to be carried out in the ensuing month of 
Man'li. Mr. Wickbam, onr Xtinister in Switsterhmd, 
applied in writing, m instiaicted, to M. Bartlu-Ieniy. ibii 
French ainbawador at Basle. ITe inqnired wh<'thei- 
Franco was forouniblo to a Congrvsa of the Belligerent 



Ciup. XXII. 

Powt'ps for the conclusion of a general peace ; and what 
^vcre the gniimds of tlie pacifioation which France would 
Ll' willing to propose ? The answer of M. Barth^lomy 
was delayed a fortnight to consult the Government at 
Paris. It proved most nngracioiis and cold. Tlie 
l>irectors stated thcit doubts of the sincerity of Englnud 
—wore not inclined to a Congress — and would not 
alieuate thoso of tbo conquered territori(>s whivli tlieir 
Legislature hud already annexed to the French Bepublic. 
This, in other words, was to declare that they must n-tuin 
the Belgian pmrinccs. And this was alao to forbid 
the negotiation, fdnce England had bound herself by 
treaty at the commenoeiuent of the war to make no 
peace without the assent of the .\nBtrian Govemmont, 
or without inaintdiuiug the integrity of the Austrian 

It 18 probable, indeed, on considering the terms of 
this answer, and of another an-swer to the same effect 
returned to an agent of the Court of Vienna, that tbe 
Directors did not nt this period desire peace. They 
might seek to establish their newly-founded power by 
a victorious campaign. Even now they wcrc busily 
planning the conquest of Italy and tho invasion of 

The failure of tho overtures at Basle, and tho publi- 
cation by England of the docuineutfi containing them, 
g»ve Pox tlie ground for an attack in tho Houm of 
Commons on the 10th of May, In a spooch of nearly 
four hours — one of tlie greutost of his many great Pbr* 
liamentftry offorta — ho reviewed and arraigned tho outiro 
conduct of tho war, and moved an Address to the Crown 

1796. LIFE OF PITT. 373 

in its condemnation. Witii equal ability did Pitt hurl 
back the charges made. No speaker beyond these two 
took part in the debate ; and it was thus, as the public 
said, an intellectual duel between them. Considering 
how many other able and aspiring men were at that 
period in the House of Commons, we may wonder at 
their silence upon such a theme. But the wonder ceases 
when the two great speeches are perused — each so full, 
Bo cogent, and so luminous as to leave apparently little 
to answer and nothing to supply. 

A division ensued, when Fox Could muster only 42 
votes against 216. 

There is no doubt, however, that al this juncture Pitt 
was most earnestly intent on peace. In the course of 
the past year he had seen at Basle the Confederacy of 
the Great Powers melt away. He had seen at Quiberon 
the best blood of France poured out like water, and all 
in vain. He had seen with still more poignant feelings 
of concern the increasing strain of the war on the 
finances and commerce of England. Therefore, though 
for the present baffled in his overtures of peace, he was 
determined to renew them at the first favourable 
moment. But in this course be had great difficulties 
to contend with. The King was extremely adverse. 
Windham and some others were much under the in- 
fluence of Burke. And Burke on this question had 
heated instead of cooled. He came forth at this period 
with the last of bis great productions, the " Letters on 
a Regicide Peace," of which the very title shows the 
tendency ; a piece of surpassing eloquence, but extreme 
and impracticable views. He speaks even of the wish 


to treat as of something " that threatened to fail within. 
To a people," he adds, " who have once been great and 
proud, and great because they were proud, a change in 
the national spirit is the most terrible of all revolutione." 

The Parliament had now approached its Septennial 
period, and on its prorogation in May it was dissolved. 
In the elections which ensued, the main interest cen- 
tered at Westminster ; Fox, in his address to his late con- 
stituents, describing the recent legislature with much 
graphic force, as " having taken more irom the liberties 
and added more to tBe burdens of the people than any 
other Farliament which has ever sat," He expected to 
be returned without opposition, together with his late 
Ministerial colleague, a gallant Admiral, and one of 
Lord Howe's fleet, Sir Alan Gardner. Nor indeed (as 
in pursuance of the late agreement) did any opposition 
arise from the Government side. But the extreme 
section of his own party brought forward Home Tooke ; 
and the polling was continued for the full period of 
fifteen days. Fox and Sir Alan were returned by large 
majorities, but the contest gave Home Tooke oppor- 
tunity — and this was probably his main inducement for 
embarking in it — to deliver from the hustings many 
scurrilous personalities and quick retorts. 

Other cities were not so favourable to Fox's friends. 
Indeed, if we examine in detail their last division in 
the Commons on the 10th of May, we shall find ^lat of 
the forty-four Members, including Tellers, who voted on 
Fox's side, no less than twenty-three sat for Nomination 
Boroughs, such as Camelford and Calne. It was to 
these that they again recurred at the Di^olution which 



ensued Tho lurgest and most popniiu eonstitiieot 
bodies tliroiigliout tlio countrj- showed in gcDeiikl a firm 
determiuattuu iii such ilifticult times to aupport the 
GoTiMiimcDt. I^lictrgooil liiiniour vas enhanced by the 
&TO)irable proE[MM:t, soon aAbrwaiils falflUed, of an 
abundant liarvt'st, Tims tlie new fIei.'tion« made liUlc 
OP no cimngti in the struiiglb of political parties, and 
tlie great mnjority of Pitt wo* not at all impaii-eKl. 

Notwilhstaiidiiig tUo pressure upon our own Ex- 
cJioqutT, the Blinisti-in did not refuse, by a further 
subsidy, to aid the Austrian. It was represented by the 
Court of Vieimn tJiat witlioiit some aiiccoiirthey shoald be 
wholly unable to continue the arduoua contest vhich the 
French were waging against them both in Germany and 
Italy. So urgent was the case that — Parliament not 
then sitting — Pitt fousoatod to send, on hia own respon- 
sibility, the sum of 1.200,000/., to bo legalized by a 
eubtiequent Tolo of tliu House of Commons. 

lu Gcmiuiiy thcro wait a chaiigu of ticneriil«. Clcrfait 
bad but^n rocalled, notwithstanding Iiis brilliant suoccesee 
at the clone of the last campaign ; and Ju hi:; place was 
«cnt tho Kmperor'd brotlter, thv Archduko Charles, a 
young prince who had already given signal proofs of 
his genius for war. In like manner the Freneh Gorem- 
ment ha<l superseded General Pichegru on a ragne 
isu^pieion of bis KoynU^t iutriguoH, Morcau now com- 
manded on the Upiier, and Joardun on the Lower 
Khine. The first cronseii tlie river at Strasbarg, and 
the second near Newwied. In August we tind Jonrdou 
advanced to Wurzburg au<l Bamberg, and Moreaa 
beyond the I,ech. Several of llic earlier cugugemeute 

376 LIFE OP PITT. Chap, XXII. 

had been greatly in favour of the French. But the 
Archduke giving battle to Jourdan in the direction of 
Worzburg, gained over him an important advantage, 
and Moreau was in consequence reduced to a retreat. 
That retreat across the Black Forest, and with foes on 
every side, has been often extolled as a master-piece of 
military skill. Finally at the close of the campaign 
the French were again beyond the Ehine, and com- 
pelled to relinquish their blockades of Mayence and 

Italy, however, was the scene of by far the greatest 
achievements. There at the beginning of this year the 
command of the French army had been entrusted to 
Napoleon Bonaparte, not yet twenty-seven years of age. 
Within a few weeks the young General astonished the 
world by a succession of brilliant victories. Ascending 
from the coast at Savona, and gaining liis two first 
battles in the gorges of the Maritime Alps, he compelled 
the King of Sardinia to sue for peace, entered in 
triumph both Milan and Bologna, and drove the Austrians 
from the entire plain of Northern Italy, while their 
remaining stronghold of Mantua was invested before 
the close of July. I rapidly pass over this campaign 
as not in truth belonging to the Life of Pitt, nor even 
to the History of England. Yet how hard to compress 
in a single sentence the notice of exploits upon which 
whole volumes might be worthily employed ! 

For the relief of Mantua the Austriana made strenuous 
exertions. Marshal Wurmser with a new body of forces detached from the scene of war in Germany, and 
sanguine hopes were entertained of his prevailing against 




General SonapEtrte. "I Tfill give a good account of 
that yoimg man I " said Wurmsar, a veteran of fom-score, 
deajiifiing an adversoiT' not yet ono-third of Iiis own age. 
But on the contiaiy in sevenil onoounters — as at Lonato, 
at CaHtiglioue, and on tho Br«nta — ho waa routed 
with heavy loss, and he had no rosouit-e but to throw 
liini^elf into the beleaguered city and tako part in its 
defence. Meanwhile tho Frcndi wcro foimiug tho 
torritories of Modcua ami BoIo;^im into a new slate, 
with the title uf the CIsptiduuu Iiui)ublic ; and to tLu 
South the King of Napl«« was led by thuir 8ucci!ss<.« to 
ofVfr Lis 8ubiui:<«io[i, and condu'le a treaty of iieuc-c. 

Nor wfre the virtories of Bonaparte without great 
influ-'neo on Iiis native island. Proud of his fanio, tlie 
Corsicaiis began to inciino to his party. For Bome time 
patit, moreover, tlioro had been a grovring alienation 
etween tliem and tJ>e Viceroy of George the Tliird. 
may jX'rbapH )>e imputed tn each side; some 
I of Hclilcnefls to the Conticans, nud some degree of 
misnile to the Knglish. Sir Gilbert Elliot hod con- 
ceived an iinpniitin jealoa'iy of General Paoli, and had 
visited witli his displens^ure one of his own best ofii(;en). 
Colonel John Moore, for his friendly communications 
vritli tliat eminent man. It nas natural that the 
partisans of General Faoli shoidd cease to be very warm 
partisaius of England. To this it may bo added tliat 
the new Constitution, framed in some measure CQ 
the model of ouni, waa not found to accord with the 
wants and wishes of the people. There were already 
some partial risings Bud it beenme quite cbtar that iJiu 
Corsicans, far from opposing, would laoet probably 

376 LIFE OP PITT. Chap. XXU. 

Iiad been greatly in favour of the FrencL But the 
Archduke giving battle to Jourdan in the direction of 
Wurzburg, gained over him an important advantage, 
and Moreau was in consequence reduced to a retreat. 
That retreat across the Black Forest, and with foes on 
every side, has been often extoUed as a master-piece of 
military skill. Finally at the close of the campaign 
the French were again beyond the Ehine, and com- 
pelled to relinquish their blockades of Mayence and 

Italy, however, was the scene of by far the greatest 
achievements. There at the beginning of this year the 
command of the French army had been entrusted to 
Napoleon Bonaparte, not yet twenty-seven years of age. 
Within a few weeks the young General astonished the 
world by a succession of brilliant victories. Ascendiiig 
from the coast at Savona, and gaining his two first 
battles in the gorges of the Maritime Alps, be compelled 
the King of Sardinia to sue for peace, entered in 
triumph both Milan and Bologna, and drove the Austrians 
from the entire plain of Northern Italy, while their 
remaining stronghold of Mantua was invested before 
the close of July. I rapidly pass over this campaign 
as not in truth belonging to the Life of Ktt, nor even 
to the History of England. Yet how hard to compress 
in a single sentence the notice of exploits upon which 
whole volumes might be worthily employed ! 

For the relief of Mantua the Austrians made strenuous 
exertions. Marshal Wurmser with a new body of forces 
was detached from the scene of war in Germany, and 
sanguine hopes were entertained of his prevailing against 




this flimsy plea they treated him as a prisoner not of war, 
but of stat€. He was a«nt with John ^^ 'right, ono of 
bis midshipmen aad fellow captives, to the Tour du 
Temple at Paris, where they were confined in separate 

At tho lime when 1h« head of Louis the SistwnCh 
rolled iipontlie block, it was certaiulv not fori'sevfi that 
th(i chief of tho still reigning Ituurbon l*riur>v« would bo 
the first to eouclndo a trL-aty of alliaoce with tho 
"Kcgiddo llepnhlic." Suoh mis now the ca&e with 
Spain. There a wcuk-iniudi'tl monarch, Charles the 
Fourth, was wholly govvruod by Ids Queen, Lotusa of 
rarrna, anil she in lit^r turn by lic^r favouriK", Don Mannol 
(Joiioy, crfatod Pi-ineo of the Poaco. Jloved partly 
by dread of the French anus, and jtnrtly by inihicciuents 
still Ifiss worthy, a treaty of oUiiince with France waa 
sigued at St Ddefoneo on tho I!lth of Augn.=!t ; and 
in pursuanco of this concert of measures a Manifesto 
declaring war against England was issued on the 5th of 
October, — a Mauift«to truly described in tire Eugli^ 
Kply us grouiidud only upon " frivc^ous pretexta and 
proltndod wrongs." 

Nor was thoru any brighter gloom in the diplomatic 
tidings from Borliu. Ou tho 5th of August the King of 
Prussia had coucluded with the FR-iich Itcpublic 
two CoQveutioDs, not indeed of ulliaiico, but uf amity. 
Py th« second, wbicti was for ^me time kept secret, 
His Slajesty engaged, on due oomjicnsations to himself 
and others at a general peace, uot to oppose the full 
cession to France of the territories to the left of the 
lUiine. In vain did Pitt rcraoastratc ; in rain did he 

380 LIFE OP PITT. Chap. XXH. 

send Mr, Hammond on a special mission to Berlin, and 
endeavour to draw the King of Prussia to a juster eenBe 
of his duties to the German empire. 

On the whole, the events of the war in Europe, so far 
as England was concerned, might almost justify the 
fine metaphor of Burke, where he calls them "the 
disastrous events which have followed one another in 
a long unbroken funereal train, moving in a procession 
that seemed to have no end." It was only from beyond 
the bounds of Europe that good tidings came. The 
Duke of York and Mr. Dundas had hastened to repair 
the injustice done by Sir Gilbert Elliot to Colonel 
John Moore. Tliey sent him to the West Indies with 
the rank of Brigadier General, and as second in com- 
mand to Sir Ralph Abercromby. The arrival of these 
good oiBcers and of a large body of English troops 
entirely altered the aspect of affairs in that quarter. 
The tide of conquest was turned at once against the 
French. Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent's were 
successively ivrested from them after a stout resistance ; 
and Demerara and Berbice more easily from their 
Dutch allies. And although no impression could be 
made on St. Domingo, yet it might be said that of all 
the Sugar Islands Guadeloupe alone remained in the 
enemy's hands. 

Early in September Mr. Pitt travelled to Weymouth, 
desiring to speak to His Majesty on several points 
of public business. From Weymouth he wrote to his 
brother, and irom London on his return fo his mother, 
in letters that will speak for themselves. 



" Weymouth, Saotloy, Sept. i, 1796. 

" Mv DE,vH Brother, 

" 1 ftrriverl here yesterday aftenioon, in cottar 
queuce of Bcvonil ofeurrciicos wliicli iimili; idw uuxioiu) 
to fiee the King ; and I am bo pri3s«ied to retiim to town, 
that i cauuut Gud tb« necessary time either to take 
liurtou ill my w«y, wr to wnjt till tcj-moirow for th« 
chaiico of sL'eiiig yon lit-ro. Aiuoiig luaay tliiugs «liii-li 
I liuTC to miiulinn to yon, one relates to yourself. You 
will of courst^ Iiftvo *vi:n t.Iir nowunt of Lwtl lilanKfivhi's 
dealli, and you will probably receive from tbe King 
himself the proposal (wliidi hu siurgostod to mo before 
I could mention it) that you should succeed as President. 
The dilltTLriice Itctween tlie inoonie of that and your 
ITiBPini* situatiuu i» uut oh couMiilurablu an I wiEh it 
iwlout as lar as it goes, it ia ou the right side, and 
enoiigli (to to be some object iu point of convenience. 
In tlui vruy iu vrlitch it i» propuwd, it will ul»o, 1 
trust, be not unpleasant to you as n mark of the 
King's sentiments towai-ds you, and I am sore the 
arrangement will be very u^ircL-ablu to every body. 
^^1lllt wilt be in that ca«e the best way of di^jiosing 
of tlie Privy Seal will require some consideralioii. 
Be KO good us to let uio httur from you on this itubject 
as soon aa you couveuioutly cau. The other eubjents I 
wanted to speak of are too lai-ge for a letter writtvn 
in hftrtf;, but I mnclndu we shidl mi'i-t *jou in town. 
Hammond'^ miBxiun has produced uolhiug effectunl 
at BerliiL We therefore see nothing left (in ordor to 
bring tlirt question of peace and war to a jwiut) but 
to s(!ud directly to rariH, The step of applying for 
a paBS]K)rt will be taken immediately, but Uio iiistmc- 
tious to tho pciisou seut will nut be fiually resolved 
OD till next week, by which time you will luxibally bo 


CaAr. XXtl. 

in town. As immediate 8jHiniM)i witr, tbough'not yet 
foimally annotmcei), seeroB cortain, but this does not 
iviuu imexpectetlly ; and (if wo can SAlisfy llio country 
that wo have don« ciiough towanb gem^ml peace) it will 
not, I trust, produce mach emlmmtssnipiit. Our great 
apparent difHcuIty is finanui;, wJiich i-au only Im> ro- 
moTod by bringing people to a temper for rery unusnal 
exertiona. My lore to Lady Cliatham. 

" Ever affectionately yours, 

" W. Pitt." 

" Domiing Strocf, Sopt 6, 170C. 

"irfv DEAR Mother, 

"I entertained till within these very few (Ibtb 
UiB boi>o that my visit to Weymouth would Imvo af- 
forded me the oppurtimily of taking Burton in my way 
baolc. But it has hn|ipened very nnluckily that a 
number of very pressing point* of hnHiuess arose just nt 
tlie moment of my M'tliiig out, and mode it i[npm»ible 
for me to extend my absence from London longer than 
from Fridiiy aflernoon, whon I set out, till yoslcrtlay, 
when I returned. I am afriiid too. tliat as things now 
Bland, 1 can hardly flatter myself with tlie t>osiiii)il)ty 
of finding a moment for any distant excursion between 
thi^ time iiiid tlio meeting of Parliament, which will 
probably take place on the '27tU ; or if it is jxwtponed 
ut ollt it will only bo for a very ehurt time. ) must, 
ttiierefore, very reluctantly give up the prospect of 
Psceiug you till after our Session, which 1 trust will not 
bo very long, and will I hope [irove n very useful oims. 
The appareut ditlieultios of the present moment will, 
I am persuaded, when they are {li.icuesed prove touch 
loss tliiui many per^ns seem now disposed to think 
them ; and I am in great hopes of being able to come 
to you before the end of the year, leaving cvorythisg in 



n more promising traia tlian it has app<>an>il to be 
latfly. Tlie »t<it* oF Fratiw, as r)i:!»i;rib(Kl in l!io last 
manage of tb« directory, in of it^i.-If very encom-aging ; 
and wo have to-day accountii (through Berlin) of a re- 
cent victory of tlic Arcbdiikf, wLich, if lliey sliould be 
oontiniiftd in tlieir full extent, will matorially iniproTO 
the picture. 

" Von vfill, I am suic, br pl<?ased to hear that on my 
fttTi^nl at WVymoiith it was immediatoly proposed to 
mo tbiit my brotiior »tioiiUl ^ncoctxl, on the present va- 
cancy, to the PrcsidtnUhip of the CounciL I eouhl not 
ivait tijr hia arrival, tliougb ho was expoctod ftlotiday ; 
but loft a k-tttT fL>r lu'iii to mvution the airaugemt'iit, 
which I tbiuk he cauuot but like, as very flatteriDg in 
tho way in whiiL'}i it coiner, anil it lis also luuti^rially 
lietl^T in point nf income than his present office. I 
ahiill prwbnbly htive his answer to-morrow, I hope the 
I3i)ihop of Liufoln mny bo able to iin<l an opportimity of 
making the provision Mr. Graves appUcs fot 

" Evvr, my dear Mother, Jcc, 


1-onl Chalhnra in }«« ntply readily aooeptod the Pre- 
sidpucy of tliu Couni;)], and tbo offlce of Privy Seal was 
left vacant for soino time. Not till Febrnaiy, ITfJS, 
was it conferred upon liord Westmorland. 

In proceefling; to WeVTnonth, the main object of the 
Prime Minister was to Uy before the King a project of 
itegotiatioa. The reduction oi the French settlements 
in tlif^ Went Indies had given Pitt strong hopes of peace. 
By offering to restore tliem to France, Franco on her 
part might be indwed to restore the Low Countries to 
the Emperor. With these views tho English Miuisttf 



resolved to attemjjt a direct ne^tiatiou. Subscqucutly 
he and Lord Grenville proposed that Lord Miilrnt«l>un- 
should bo the persou to proceed on a special ombnssy to 
Paris ; and to this nomination they obtained, though not 
given without some reluctance, thy asst-ut of Goorge tho 
Third. The Directory sent tho rccjuisife ptiKsports, nud 
thus, on opening the new I'arhauent on the tilii of 
October, tho King's Speech might complaceutly an- 
QoUDce tho renewal of negotiation. Tho ombai^ndor 
himself arrived at Paris a fortnight afterwards. 

But while tlic Uirectons thus expressed tlieir willing- 
ness to treat, thoy were actively pursuing a project for 
the invasion of otir sliorea Ireland, above all, was tho 
object. A large fleet had been 0(|uip])ed at Brest, to 
which was now expected tho accession uf some 8pauisli 
vessels. Considerable land forces were collected, and 
General Hoche was appointed to thechi(>f command. 
Eai'lier in ilie. year a man of no eommon ability and 
ardour, Theobald \VoIfe Tone, )jad haMeiied over fit>ni 
America to lake port in the expected enterprise. lie 
received the rank of Adjulant-Genera! and Chef de 
Brigade in the French service imder the aaumed nnme 
of Smilh, and hold conferences both with M. Camot 
and General, Clarke. The latter, described by Tone in 
1796 as " o handsome, Binooth-fiieed young man." was 
better known in ailer years under tho title of Duko de 
Fettre, and as Minister of War both to Napoleon and 
Louis the Eighteenth. At this time he stood high in 
tho favour of the Directory. Bcijig boni of Irish iiareuts 
— nay, as bo used to boast, of tho blood of the Irish 
EJuge-gand having once travelled for a few wcek« in 



tlPB OP 


Iroluud. Lp claimed to have an intimate knowledge of 
Irish uffiiirs. Yet, according to Tone, ho esliibitpd the 
most astounding ignorance upon them. One day he 
uskod Tone whether, in the event of a French invasion, 
the inTodere might not hope for the aid of the Lord 
Cliflucellor. "Anr one who tnows Irehiud," writes 
Tone in his journal, "will readily believe that I did 
not find it easy to mate a serious answer to this ques- 
tion. Yes — Fitzgibbon would be veiy likely, from his 
situalJoii, his principles, his hopes and his feara, h»B 
property and the general tenor of big conduct, to begin 
a revolution in Ireland I "* 

'IV Ihi* prciji>rt of invasion the King's SpM>rli at 
the opening of the new Parliament adverted — "at a 
time," said His JMujwty, " whvn llie enmiy has openly 
DtRiiiftintcd the intention of attempting a descent on 
these kingdoms," And tlie ^finisten loKt no time in 
bringing forward thpir mea^irra of defence. " Our 
navy," said Pitt, " is the natural defence of this king- 
dom in case of invas^ion : in thLs departuionti however, 
little remains to t>« done, onr fleet at this moment being 
jnoro foitaidable than at any former period of our 
hislOTy. . . . But I woidd jiropose in the first place a 
levy of fifteen thousand men from the different parishes 
for the sea service and for recruiting the regiments of 
tlte line. ... Of all the modes to obtain a further force 
thiere is none ao expeditious, bo clTectual, and attended 
with so little exponso as that of raising a eupplcmoutaiy 

9 DiaiT. Msrol) 11, 1706. Tliis 
pnlilioAtiOTi (iihioli thoidd he tend 
in tliB American vdition of IKtC, 


Hit iK'ttor aiul inorp o(iinpt(rl« Ihun 
the Engl islil hn-ebiixiiueiiofitvkt 
hiiloriuu) iuU>tvtrt luiil value. 




CujU-. XXII. 

body of Militia to be pmfted upon tbo prcsi'nt estAbli^lw 
meat. I would propoBs tbat Uiis supplcmt'iit sball oou- 
siflt of sixty thousand men, not to be immediately called 
out, bat to be eiirolled, offlcei'od, and gradually traiuud, 
soaa to befitfor semfoatatimoof danger. . . Another 
measure! wlucli I would suggest to tho Committet; is to 
provide a cousiduruble force of irregular cavaliy. With 
a view to repealing ait iuvasion, tlio mort; tliiM s))ocica of 
force is t'xteuded tbe g'reater iidvautuge in liltitly to 
accrue from it, as au iuvodiug outimy, who mu^t be de»* 
tituto of borstts, cau bavu uo nieaus to meet it upou 
equal tenus, ... By tlie produce of tlie recent tax wo 
find tliat tlii; number of borecs kept for pleasure in 
Englauil, Scotkud, and Wales, ia about two hundred 
tLountnd. It certainly would not be a very serere re- 
gulation, when compared witli the object to be accom- 
plishod, to require one-tenth of these borsee for tho 
public service. Thus might we raise a csTalry force 
of twenty thoueaud. . , . There is still another rceourco 
which ought not to be neglected. The licoacca to 
shoot game talcon out by gamekeepers are no fewer 
than seven thousand. Upon the supposition of an in- 
vasion, it would bo of no small importance to form 
bodies of men who, from their dexteiity in U-iing fire- 
arms, might be highly useful in harassing the operations 
of the enemy." * 

Against these mcofiuree of defqoco — ^whicli are here 
most briefly BkiUbed — ^bnlh Shcridau and Fox in- 
vcighiid with great Aviiruitb, though but little success. 

SpDBok In thu Uounu uf C't^iiiiixniP, Lkt 1^ 1T9S. 

una OP PITT. 


"I believe," swJ Fox, "that tlio Fit-ncli have no jfltt*n* 
tJon to iiivadu as. 'Tlioy hiivo a Gkivcriimcnt too well 
intbrmud uf tlio diiipositioa uf tbo people and tlto situa- 
tion of the oountTy to hopit for mucouss in such uu outer* 
prise. Supposing tlie^ do maku that dospL-nitttutloinpt, 
I hav« DO doubt as to tlic issau. l^ut vrbut ouf;)it wo 
to do iu the mouu timu f Whnt is ibo duly of lliis 
Hoose at this moment? To cherish tLo sjitrit of free* 
dom iu the pooplo ; to restore to tlicni that fur which 
tl«?ir ancestors have bled ; (o mnko the MjnisteTS rt-ally 
rei'^HiiiHiblc. Kot to bo conHding in the Mrranta of Um 
Crown, but watclifiil and jealous of the exercUe of their 
power. . . . Then will you bare no occasion for adding 
U> your iiit«mikl niilitftiy force, for then even an invasion 
wouKl never bo formidable." 

Sucli was the advice tliat Fox — at a momeDt of great 
pubUe daugLT, an<l when t!io very c«i«t«nce of the king- 
dom might bo u1 sluke — deeine<l it consistent with his 
duty to address to the House of Uominons. Such -mia 
the spirit with wliicb on subsequont dayti ho continue<l to 
Gtir]inttbo Ministerial m6ii.-nire!4 for defenee. Ko wonder 
if tJie spleen of iniloixsndeiit Jlnnibere was aroused. " I 
will not," said Mr. Wilberfoi'oe, "charge these gentle- 
men with doairing an invasion ; but I cannot Iiulp tluuk- 
ing that they would rejoice to see juat bo muoh mischief 
befall their country aa would bring theuusol ves into oCBce." 
Tbeee Mxinls iu the debate were resented, with muck 
fierceness by Sheridan, with much good temper by Fox. 
"I fear," says Wilberforce iu his Diary, "that I wont 
too fer." "Xo," wrote to him hia friend Dr. Cooksoa, 
'* yon did not go too far. What you said is what every- 

s 2 



Vmt,p. XXIT. 

bod}' thinks, but wliut nobody else bad tb« courage to 
gpcak out."* 

Uj. Wilbcrforco hud, however, auothor ^ierauoc of 
bis own. In one of tho new Bills H was proiridwl that 
th« supplemental corps of Militia should bo tiainod on 
Sunday afternoons. Against this clause the Member for 
Torkshiro protest*^^, awl fintdJy pre\'nikKL In tus 
Diary be writca as follows: "Dundas is now dear that 
it would shuck tbu geueral monibi of Scotland to exer- 
cifie their vobmtccre on Sunday ; but 1 can BCiune p«r- 
8uade Pitt tlutt in Engluitd it would ovcu in eorious 
people excite any (lisgust.'* 

Nest in order came tho iiunncial meaeuret^ Here 
was ample scopi? for tbe most gloomy apprt^heusions. 
Tbo Nutiouul Debt liad now risen to upwards of fonr 
bundrud millions, aiiil the strain npun the publto re- 
sources wM iiidicftti^^d by tbo progreesivo rlocline in the 
price of Stocks. In JKnimry of this year tlu> lowust 
point of the Tliroe jmr Conte. Imil been 1)7; in tJhe 
ScptetnbtT following they fell at oue time to SS. Nevcr- 
tbcless a new lean of at least ojgbteeii millions was ro- 
qnired by tho pressing exigencies of tlie public serrica 
Pitt, ill tbo mxit&.t of the autumn, held long an<l anxious 
consultations witli the Bank Direetots. lliey agreud 
that to atti.'niiil. to raise tho new loan in tlie ottliiiary 
manner would be an operation of exceeding cost at 
Tory doubtful success. Under those circinostance 
Pitt, it may Justly be said, evinced his own pnblic 
spirit when he relied on and appealed to the pnbltc 

' Life of ■Will>orfijro«, by bis Syne, voL ii. f. 181. 




Bpirit of the people. He annountwi r loan of 
lS,000,000i. at flvo per cent., to be iaktix at 112/. 10a 
for evt>ry lOOl. Slock, and with an option to the pro- 
prietors to bu paid off at par v,-itIiiD two yeiirs aRt-r u 
treaty of peom. Thcgo tormBf wWcli in our own day would 
8oom osorbitant, were but scanty at that time of daoj^ 
and distress. "From tJie very first," says a highly 
competent judge, "the undertaJcing was a source of loss 
to the subscribers, so far as the market value was con- 
comed."* This statement I derive from an excellent 
Kany by Mr. Nen-march. on the Loans raised by llr. 
Pitt — an Essay to which in my review of his financial 
I>oIiry I sliall liaro mon'' ample occasion to refer. 

Under thoso oirciinistiiuet's, then, the Sub«cription 
List for tho Lmm of 1796 could never liave boon filled 
had not Pitt in proponing it addren^HHl himsolf to litgbor 
motives than the lovu of gain. It was by no mciuu w 
It profitnblo 8i»0('ulHtion that ho iir^vd it, but as a |in- 
triolic duty. And hence it was called "thu Loyuity 

Not every govommont wotdd lluis appeal to the 
peoplo. Not ovcry people, I o<M with pride, would 
t]i»» ro^iond to the gov^^mment. For notliing eoiihl be 
more etitliusiastic than the mauuer in whieh that re- 
spouso was made, liere are the very words of a non- 
tfimporary writer: — " On the first day of tho now loan 
(Thtii:s<lfty, tlie 1st of December), before the close of the 
books, .^OOO.OOO/. were SDbscrihed by merchants and 
others. .\t t«n o'clock this morning, Monday, tlio 5th,of 

■ Baor bjr W. Mflvaarab, Ktn, Jlm^ ISOS. p. ISO. 





December, the parlour doors uf tbo Bonk were opemocl ; 
boforo which time tlio lobby was crowdotL Numbers 
ooulil not fi^'t nctir tbo biHiks at nil, while otiiers, to 
lectify llicir xao], called to thu pL-rsons ut the books thoa 
signiug to put down their jinmi'H ror thorn, as tbey were 
fearfid of being shut out At about twenty miaates 
past cloven tho subscription wiut declarod to be ci^m- 
pltftely full, niid hundretU in thu rooui were reluctantly 
coinpollvd to go ftwuy. Uy tins jvjbI iunumentblu orders 
C*mo from thu ennntry for itiiliMcri]>t ions to bo put down, 
wftKrcly OHO of which pould he oxocutud ; ud<1 long 
aftvr tlic subi*criptioti4ii<t was eIo«ed porwni* coiitiouod 
comiugi and w«re obliged to depart disappointed. It it 
a oiirifiiis fact, aud we!! wortb stating, that the snb«cri|> 
tioQ wascomjilutuly fillttd in fiftr«!fu bourtt aud twenty 
minutes, luiniely, two Iiours on TlmradftT, six on 
Friday, six on Saturday, and onw hour aiul twenty 
minutoson Monday. The Buke of Bridfrewater actually 
lendered a ]>i-aft at sight: on bia banker for lOO.ODO/., 
which lie subscribed to the new loan, but wliich of 
course could not be acceptod, since tJje .\ct is not yet 
passed."* It may he added that another man of 
princely fortune, namely the Dnke of Bedford, thotigh 
in strenuous opjioaitiun to t]to GoTernmeat, &tibficribed>j 
in due time an equal sum. 

The tokens of such a spirit — a spirit wliich miiicfl 
and digniiles and well-niph hallows the comnion-plaro 
arithmetic of the Stock Kxcliange — may make tlie hetu-l 
of auy Englishman tlirill. Hud the French been duly 
appruicd of all these circunistauceB, they would surely 

* Ami. Ri^gist,, ITOO, port ii. p. H. 




have abated of their cagemeas for projects to invade us. 
The clangour of their equipments at Brest would liavo 
died awiiy ; aud tho sails already swelling to the Kust 
wind would have been furled. They would hiivc ac- 
kuowledged that a people with such a spirit, unshnkon 
ill llie jtioat tryin;^ timiis, could never be sulxluod. 

Ureal as wns tho triumph of Pitt, he could not indulge 
it. A. moet pniuful, hut, oh lie doomed, a hounden duty 
was before liim. Kven with tlmt pressure on tha 
resources of tlio people, he mas n'^olved to lay on new 
imjiosts providing for the payment of the intei-est of tho 
new loan, nud for tho operation of the Sinking Fund. 
Uia own feelings at that period are be«t portrayed in tho 
words of his principal collesgue, Reviewing thia whole 
question thirty-two years aftenrards. Lord Grcnvillo 
adverts to Mr. Pitt as follows : "Witli an nrdont and 
generous spirit, devoting all his eneipoa to the national 
prosperity, he risked, and in no small degree: eurrcndered, 
his luglily-valued popularity to .the necessity of u Urga 
additional taxation which tliat measure (thv Sinking 
Fuiid) compelled him to establish iuhI maintain. This 
was no light sneri&ce, nor did he fuel it siicli; but he 
anticipated in return with unspeakable delight tJio Mi 
tide of wchltli which, in somo distant but «»»>piciouB 
moment, tlu^ riwults of ihi-m dii*iiit(?rested exertions were 
to pour upon the country. Wlial Ito M ardently wished 
he willingly boJievod."^ 
On tho 7th of Decomber, the day bat one aAor the sub- 

T Ebbv oa tho wippored AdyontB£t» of a SlnUsg Ftaiul, by Laid 
}ruuvilli.>, Morult 13, 1SS8. 




scriptjona to the Loyalty Loiiii had cloeod, Pitt lironglit 
forward bis Budget iu li.w Hou$o of Conunons. He 
I)ryposcd now tdxiw ftiauuMting to upwards of 2,000,000/., 
dorivcd from a grout variety of sources, as higher rates 
DD tlio iltio kiiids uf tea, on ealea l>y anction, on Britiah 
nud forbi)^ Rpirit^ on sugar, on hoiisea, on etage- 
coaclio^, and on jtostnga Ilf- also anuonnoed the sob- 
eicly of 1,200,000^ wliioh, dnring the TiecejE^ be had 
remitted to the Emperor without coufient of Pai-Uament. 

Agaiust this esponditiire, against tin's subsidy, agatust 
all the "falgcanddc-c^;!!!!!! statements "(for so Mr. Gi-ey 
tornied them) of the Minister, both Grey and Vox most 
bitterly inyeijjbed. Nor diii Fox forbetir from exalting 
by cwtnpurisoii the financial crodit of tlie eonntry of 
AsaiguHls. " Only bist year," he said, " the Minister had 
spoken of Franco aa ' on the verge, nay in the golf of 
bankruptcy.' These had been his very words. Now," 
eaid Fox, " 1 should like to know whether the French 
have yet pasaud tbo pu!f of bankruptcy ? I hope they 
have, for certniuly wbilu thoy were iu it they were most 
drtmdfiil enemivs to this country 1 " 

The conduct of I'itl iu hu^Tug granted a snbddy to 
Austria without the eonsoiit of I'arlianiont excited tmao 
diiqiluuMuru both iu tho City and the House of Oonumnu. 
Thu citizens, UHHunibliiig in their Coinmou Hull, called 
upon tlipii- Mfiubers to support a vote of cousure. Hiut 
8amo evening, the 13th of DLiccmbor, the censiiro wnai 
moved by Fox in the Lower House. Without any moro 
{Hirticulur iiarratjou wc> uiny rcarlily conceive how in tlio 
debate, tlm ono party niuiiitiiincd tliat the (.loustitotion 
had been violated, nnd the other tlmt the public interests i 




had beon served. In the dirbioii Fox well nigh donHed 
hk cugtoinary numbers, mustering 81 agniust 285. 
However, when a few days iiftorwurds PUl broufjlit down 
a Ulessi^p) from His Hajt-sty, stntii»g tlic necessity of 
l'iirUieruf!vaiie«B to tlio Emporor, and when tbo Minister 
pr"[nwed the vote of another lialf million for that 
(>ur[iosf, tbo vote passed, with great objection iodeodt but 
little diffieulty. 

Another motion that fonehed the Court of Vienna waa 
brought forward by General Fitupatrick, He renewed 
the proposal which ho had made almost three yeara 
before, that the Kiug should bo entreated tfl intercede 
(vith bis ally for the delivomiieo of General Iji Fayette 
and his eompauious lu eaptirity. lu his lipc'ceb he 
drew a most toueiiing picture, not only of the rigours 
iuilicted on the Genenil in tlie dungeons of Olmiitx, but 
of the merits and suffprings nf ^ladame de La Fayolto, 
whom he jflBtly tenned an admirable pattern of female 
virtue. " I readily admit. Sir," tlms Pitt began, " that 
a more striking and pathetic appeal was never made to 
the feelings of the Hnuae Neverthele^, how- 
ever much our humanity may bo interested, yet, con- 
sidered as a question of poUUeal relations, it is not one 
which cumeH at all within our euguiKnuco. .... Ho 
instance of such interference as in now proposed has 

ever taken place at any former period nor could 

Buch iut«rfercDco be attempted witliont oatabliHhing a 
principle of the most uuwartantablo kind — u (irinciple 
inconsistent witii the intornal policy and independent 
rights of Foreign States." 
A long debate ensued, whidt even at the present daj 

s 3 


tire OP pirr. 

cutr. xxn. 

han by no mean^ lost ita interest. WilbprForce, after 
iniK^li doubt in his own mind, decljircd !iini*firfaviiarable 
to Iho object of the motion. Wo fiml in liis journal : 
" Never did I rise to speak with mow relactance. I 
expected all the riditiile wlik'li followed; and when 
I>undas, with a happy pwciiliiirity of expreswion. talked ol' 
mvAmeadaioiitiusdL-itigncd tocfttchthfistraa^rKj/hmna- 
nity of the nouw, there vras a poriixit rout of Imightor."* 
Fox. Grey, and Shcridmi iilJ >i|H]ke clocnienlly in 
tmpport of the motion. Then \Vin<lhiint rose to rcisist 
it. But the {ground which he tix>k was wlioUy diBervnt 
from Pitt's. U» inadt; Lis stand itltogeUtor upon Knrke'e. 
For tho objections wliii;h b<! iirgi-d «gaitu<t th.> motion 
rested in groal meusure on tJi« ])riiM'ii)if-* and proceed- 
ings of La Fayette ia France. " As tho mt're suffering 
of as individual," said lie, "the cose of La Fayett* 
miial; certainly excito pity. There is no atao of (.-nlaniity 
whatever, whi<:h if abstracti-d from other constdfrutiom, 
but muiit awaken the feelings of every one deserving 
the name of man. .... Dnt if La Fayette luM fallen 
into misery, be has fallen a victim to lii^ own udM nod 
hi» own priucip1<«. He has betrayed and ruined his 
countrj' and hia Eiti^, an<l taken relhge for bis character 
and eonseiejice in his own defeat ; claiming merit for 
stopping jiiat at that jioint beyond which it was out of 
Ilia power to go. and when he became tlie enemy of 
(hoee whom ho had made the instruments of his designs 
u])on the King. .... Sliinkind arc not formed to pity 
at once the oppreeaod and tho oppressor." 

■ DIai7. Dmt. 18, 1790. 




In the division whinli ensued, the minorit^r, notwith- 
Htanding tlio ai<l of Wilberforrxi, could mnsler no more 
tlian fifty votes. • 

In DeoembpT, 1795, Mr. Samuel Whitbread> the 
aptive and ftble Mfimber for Bedford, and the h«ad 
of a ilouiishing brewery, bad bronght in a BUI to 
rogidate the vagee of laboorers in busbandry. His 
plan waa to give the JusUceo of tliu Peu«« i>ow«r to 
fix tho minimitm rato at tlio Easter Quarter So-88ion«. 
When in the t'ebttiarj- following the Bill canie on fora 
second reading, it waa oppusod bj- Pitt. H« doclared 
that ho bud inc«t carefully cousidcrod llio subjoct. and 
ondeaviiurnd to obtain th« k-st information upon it- 
But ha took hii* staiul ou tlx^ iinankovurable gniundi^ ua 
ws now aoknowUtdgn them to h&, of Adnm Smith. 
" Will it not bo wiaer for the IIouso," he said, " to 
Consider the operation of general principles, and rely 
upon tlio eflectof tlieir unconfined exerdse? I conceive 
that to promote the free circulation of kbonr, to remove 
the obstacles by whicli industry is prohibitc^l from 
arailing itself of its reaourcee, would go far to remedy 
tho uv-ila and diminish the necessity of applying for 
relief to the pooi^rate. But," Mr. Pitt continued, " I 
ahuuld wish that an opportunity were given of nstoring 
the origiunl purity of tlio Poor Jiawa, nud of removing 
tlioau cumiptiunfl by which tliuy liuvo bcfU ubacored. 
.... Thetto great points of grunting relief aocordiog 
to tlio nnmhur of children, i>rov«iilitig n.iiuovaU at tlio 
capnuo of tho parish oJlli?t;r, and inakir)g tliLim subseribo 
to friendly Bocictiet, would tend in a very great dvgrm 
to remove every ground of coinplaiut All tlus, 



Cbap. SXU. 

however, T will conri'-ss u iii>1 enough, if we do not 
engraft upon it Itc-sohitioiiM to disci^urago reUef where 

it is not wanted Thit exteufiion of schoi^B of 

induatry is also an objoet> of material imporianca The 
su^gfstion of tJjeae schools iias originally drawn from 
Lord Halo and Mr. Locke, anti upon snob aiilliority 1 
have no heeitatiou in recommending the plan to tlie 
encouragement of the Legislature:. .... Such n plan 
would convert the relief granted to the poor into an 
ent'ouragemcnt for industry, instead of Leiug, as it is by 
the present Poor Ltivfs, a premium for idleness, and a 
Hchuol ibr sloth. There are also a uumber of eubor- 
dioatti eircumstances to which it is necessary to att^iiid. 
The law which prohibita giving relief where any rutible 
property remains should be abolished. That degrading 
condition should be withdrawn. No temporftry owMion 
should forco a British subject to port with tlio lu«t 
hIi Tilin g i)i liis little capital, and to ikscvud to a Ktjito of 
wroIclivdnc^Nii: from which ho could ti«vor r«covur, mctoly 
that lie uiit;lit bo entitled to a cosuiil supply." 

The outline of Uio Uill which JVI r. Pitt drew on thus 
occasion seemed to meet with decided approbation. 
Accordingly, in tho ooui^e of the summer and autumn, 
ho applied liiiuHelf to frame a Hill on the [iritieiplca , 
which h<? hud uuuouuced. Uu the 2^nd uf DoceinlMr ' 
lie laid it before the Houi«6 of Oommonx. It wtudrawu 
up witli great care, and consi^ifted of sixty-eight clauses, 
A copy of it is still preNfii-ved in the Library of tko 
Hoit^ of Lords. Ad abstract of it> claii«d by clause, 
an derived from that source, was given in the TVjjm* of 
Jiarch 19, 1S'6S. 




Tlie object of air. Pitt in hijiiiij his Jlill upon tlie 
Tabli! lx>f{)re Christmas wns, "tbat during the interval 
of rarliament it might he circulated in the oountrr, and 
uudcrfjo the most eerioua and mature mvestigation." 
Kut the result was uot favourable. So many objections 
wero started, and so mnob repugnance xhown by tlie 
Members of the House of Commons, that there was no 
eui-ouragement to prees the measure farther, and uu 
liopo to jmss it into law. 

lu 17£)ij, 118 iu iho preceding year, there were some 
experimeuts in Steam Navigation set on foot by Earl 
Stauhupe, nud imuctioiied by tiio Lords of the Admiralty. 
He hud induc.oif them to ix>uslruct ti ship iti the IHiamea, 
iiud liud ei^ucd u bond, dated Juuu 30, 17D4, with a 
penalty lu lu'uisolf of DOOOI., "to iudcmmfy ttic public 
in case th« said ship Hhould not ansirer the purpo>«e of 
GoTenmient." The subject miLit be owned to be a 
curious one, as tending to throiv some light ou the fint 
steps of a gigantic change in the British navy; and tlic 
origin of the scheme is summed up as follows in a let- 
ter which Earl Stanhope addressed to the Lords of the 
Admiral I y. 

"CbeTCning, Doo. 22, 1786- 
" My Lords, 

■Your Jjordships no doubt aro all of you informed 
that an Ainhi-Nav!ifaf.or sliip (cHllrd tho Ki-nt) has been 
conrtrucled by government for the purpOBo of asoer- 
taining the efficacy of the im|)or1ant plan, invented by 
me, of navigating ships of the largest nizc without any 
wind, and vwix against wind and waves ; and tiiat on the 
^Uth day of June in the year 179i I gavo a boud to 



cbxt. xxn. 

His HTftjpsty relfttivo to Uint shipand plon. T1h> sfeam- 
eoginv apparatus {.-onstrucUxl uiider my tlircctiuu, aud 
iDtended for moving that vessel, ii bow on board her in 
Orp-eiilaiid Doclt. Vor si'vcral muulUs past 1 havo hf^on 
itiuking (L-tUL-hud exporimetita in tho sliip on ^'orious 
partR of the apparatus: for I da not intend to content 
uiy-'fir with iiiCTf'ly jirodui-iiig a romilt, hut my wrioK of 
expfiriipt'nljs is such at to lie intr-ndod la t-M»h\iAi pvf.ry 
part of the subject on clear and irrefragable proofs, and 
to ascertain demonstratively what is the best possible 

" The subject being a new ou«, the woriauon have 
had everything to learn, and it has tahen more timo to 
complete the work than »^is at first expeof^d. The 
time mcutionod in my bond to be allowed for Ihc 
making of the experiments is nearly oKpired, I there- 
fore ri^iiuest your Iiordships to add a tew more montliR 
(snch «8 eight, ten, or twelve) for tliot piJr[)0«o, 08 I 
take for granted iJiat your Lordships would not deem it 
either prn{>er or expedient to Htop experiineiilti of Mich 
conscfiueucti in tlieir progri«#^ and at the eve of theii' 

" I have the honour to bo, &0., 

" Stanuope." 

In reply, on the part of the Board of Admiralty 
(l>ee, 28, 1795), the Seeriitary, Mr. Evan Nepeaii, in a 
liberal spirit, granted the iLHigcfit period of extension 
tlmt hiwl been suggested, namely twelve months. TImj 
correspondence which I horo select and subjoin look 
place, a» mill be seen, near Ibe close of that furtlicr 



Harl Speneer to Earl Stanhope. 

" My Lobd, " Aamimttj. Nov. 6, 17%. 

" The delay whirh I allndfd io in my fonnpr 
letter arosi* from sotue duulit whollivj tliw c-x[HTiun'Ht 
»liic1i bos Hlrcftdy been made was eofficieDt to ascortcuQ 
(ho properties of the Kent, In order therefore to re- 
move any donbt upon that tmliji^ct, the Board of Actini- 
mlty liavo dotenoinvd on trying suolhur ex/teriiiitfiit 
for that express purpose ; for which (if your Ijordsliip 
ha8 no objection to it) directions will be immediately 

y'^^"^ " I have the honour, &t., 

" Spekcer." 

^rl Statdutpe (o £arl ,Speiiecr, 
" My Loed. " IioikUi, Xov. 8, I79fi. 

" The Kent a at present (wliaterer it may he 
hereafter) a Government Teit»c]. 'l*he Hoani of A<lmi- 
rnlty thurvfuro liavo n ri<;ht, uud will do ri;;hl, to make 
with her atich experiments aa they shall deem proper. 
]\[y conaeut is not necGSsaiy, nor should I refuse it if it 

■' Two things no doubt your Lordship will Uiink it 
expedient to do. First, that the nei!<!.'4sary directions 
nmy bo immodiatdy givon for mukiu;; thoso expori- 
monts respeoliiig which I fJiali not interfere. Secondly, 
that thoy may be made within « short (tfpoco of timi*, 
inasniueh at your Lordship must ha seiisibW tlmt whilst 
the vessel is out, uo adjustment can lie made in tJie 
steam apparatus, iu order to make tlie iut<,-uded fxpcri- 
inont« witli ste-am. 

" That eubjoct ie of far moro importance tlian the 
Board of Admiralty fieemti to he awaix; of, 

" I havB the honour, &c., 

•' Stashopb." 




J5h*^ Spencer to Earl Stanhope. 

" Mv Lord, " Adinimlty, Ubt 17. 1797. 

" The Report of the Navy Board 

(dated the 8th of this month), to which tho Adiuirnlty 
tiitist finy some altciiliou, \» )Wi!itiTDly iiguiiut youi- 
Lorilsliip's [iroposal of renewing your bond; but I be- 
lieve th^ fairest way trill bo to transmit to yon a copy 
of it, thut your KordMhip umy huvv &d op|Kirtunity of 
explaining some points wluch it is possible they may 
have misconceived. 

"You may depend npon my not feeling th« most 
distant intcnttuu of trilling with you on tliis or any 
other subject, though I certainly do not yet see any 
reason to alter the opinion I have already esjireated, 
that the method you have iinagini.-d of moriug ships, 
independent of wind and tide, will not be fuund (o 
ver the very great expectations yonr Lunlidiip ap- 

Atm to have funned of it. 

" I have the honour, &c., 

" Spencer." 

The experiments made by tlie Kent wero satisfactory 
to Ijord Stunliope ; not 80 to the Navy Buiinl. On tJio 
whole the Lords of the Admimlty dcemrKl this tna 
of Steam Navigation to be conclusive against it, and 
they required of Lord Stanhope the penalty stipu> 
lated in his bond. Their correspondence wiHi him 
from first to last was conducted in a most honourable 
spirit, and with perfect fnimcss of intontion. But I 
think that we may deduce from it thoir early dis- 
trust and di;ircli^b of tho scheme. Wo may, I tliiuk, 
infer that tho trial was not freely accepted, but was 


T.IFE or PflT. 

ratlior hy somo extraaeoos caoso imposed upon them. 
If so, the qti4!(itioQ arises, wLo impascd it? CoDsideriiig 
tlio political hostility of tlio projector to tlio admiiii*- 
tratiun, and liis persona) ostraDgement from Mr. Pitt, 
110 party and no family influence are here to be im»- 
gined. No other aUeniativi", iu> far as I can eeo, re- 
inainR, than that tliti Prluie Atinister, wh^n onnBulted, 
Tirge:! thfl trial of the i«cht.-uie froni his own impression of 
its possible moritiii. There is, therefore, as I oonceire, a 
strong probability that ililr. Pitt was the earHest of alloup 
Btatesmun in oflice who discerned, however dimly iu tJiQ 
distance, the coming importance of steam to navigation, 
and who desured to bring it to the test ; and tliis at 
the very lime wht-u his own First Lord of th« Admi- 
ralty, iu other rufipQcts a most JuLUciuuM mlmiiiifilraUir, 
lookcil down upon llie project na an empty dream. 

The muru huavily, at thia juiioturc, did tho ctaea of 
finance and utato press on I*itt, tlio more unxiously did 
lio tiirn his eyt-s to the proKpocts of tb« now nogotiutioii 
which tho King had sauctiuuod, and which the Ministers 
had already commenced. 

If thu negotiation thus eommcnced did not end in 
succuHs, it wa» uertiiiiily from no want of ability in thueo 
who conducted it uu tho part of EuglauiL Pitt him^-lf 
gave assiduous attention to each gti-p in this great 
matter. Lord GreiiviUo continued to lie l^cretarj- for 
Foreign AtVairg. As Under Secretory the Prime Min- 
ister had in tho couiso of this veiy year appointed 
a young man of the htghust Pnrliamentaty promisL'. 
tulfiUcd by his subsequent renown. Tins was George 
Canoiug, who, bom in 1770, aad oDtciiug thoHoiue 


Lire OP PITT. 

cbap. xxn. 

of Commong under the Mimrter'e auspices in 1793. had 
•Irwidy won lanrola in debate. To Pitt the young 
orator attached himself not merely with party zefti, but 
with ftll the Marmth of peirsonal n'^rd. " In his 
gTS.Ye," he said long afterwards, " my poUtieal allcgiauco 
lies bnricd." 

For the foreign part of the negotiation Htt lit firet 
designed that Mx. JaciMon, who had commenced, should 
still pureue it But Mr. Jackson, though an ablo 
public servant, did not fill a snfBcicnt space in the 
pulilic uyc. "Evi'rybody fwls it," writes Wilberforcc. 
" but fow daro tell l^lt any such thing, ruoplc will 
not so much believe him in earnest in the ticuty as iC 
n muro impurtjint chantcler were employed." I'itl 
yielded at hist to tliesc represeutntions, obttunod also 
tlie a»iient or the King, and, as I hare sliown in a pro* 
ceding passage, eutruBted Uuh high commiseion to Lord 
Hahnesbury, then beyond all doubt at the head of oiir 
diplomatic serrice. 

Yet the inherent difficulties of the task were in truth 
iusiiperuhle. So long ns tliey remained in general 
terms — so long ns "eumValents aud restitutions" were 
vaguely talked of — there might bo liopea of a favonr- 
ablo issue. But when it camo to close qunrtcrs- — when 
Lord Urenvillc in phiin terms sent iiistnioliou^ us 
follows — " On this jjoiiit therefore of suffering tJio 
Netherlands to remain ii part of Franee, j-our Lonldiip 
must not give the i<niii)le»t Impe tluit llis Majesty will 
he induced to relax*" — it became rJear at once tliat 

> To Lord Halmobarj-. Van. II, ITDO. 

Mulini-tbury 0<in»p.TOl. 



LIFE or prrr. 


tho Fn>noh Govftnim^nt wore wholly avewe to mii^h 
a socrifico. They were ftlso much displeased 'ot tho 
frcMjuiTQt wfwrcnefs for orders nnd iniilruclions made hy 
the English Aitilias^ndor to hi* Court; nnd at last, 
iu & salty of ill-hiimaur, th«y put an end to the whole 
negotiation. On the lJ)th of Deccmher JI. Charles 
Delacroix, as Minister for Foreign AflJiirs, wmte to 
Lord MalnieAl>UTy re^jiiiring him and his suite U> depart 
Ooni Parig within fotty-eight Innim, and to lose no time 
in quitting the temtory of the French Repuhlic. The 
Directon, he Raid, nvuld listen to no propoeal contrary 
to tlie edicts wliicli had fixed the Umita of that territorj-. 
I^ added M. Delacroix, tJie English GoTeminent reaUr 
wished for peace, tiro French was ready to conclwle it 
oa such s ixian nndhy thv men; iutvrchiingu of couriers. 

On the rapture of this negotiation, tlie |Mipers rchiting 
to it were ininiedintely laid before Parliament. I*itt 
in the oDi.' UouMe, nnd Lord Grcuvill« in the otluv (each 
on tho 30th of Dceemljer), niored ait Addr<it!i pledging 
tJiom to support His Mnjesly in the neeesttnry prcseca- 
tion of Uio wnr. " In fact, " said Pitt, ns he condiided 
II iniwt ulilo Hpeech uf tJtree hours, "the qnestioa b 
lint how niucli you will give for peace, bnt how mndi 
disgrace you will tnifTer at the onteet of your negotia- 
tions for it. Id these drcumstancos, Uieo, are wo to 
persevere in the war with a qiirit and energy worthy of 
the Itritish name and of the British chBTact4.'r ? Ur are 
we, by sending couriers to Paris, to prostrate ohtmIvos 
at the feet of a stubhnrn and supercilious GoTcrument ?" 

No sooner had Pitt concluded than Erskino t!turt«(l 
up, eager to assail tho negotiation, the Ulliubitcrs, oad 


Ciur. xxn. 

everything nppcrtAmirig (o them. Biil after a tew 
seatonffcs, ho foUereii, l-niko down, and r«*iinie<l liis seat 
in confusion. TIibh I-'ux with his iisunl nwrfiness stoixi 
forward in tht> place of his friend. "Sorry' indeed 
am I " — thiis he began — " on account of my Hon. and 
Learned friend, whoso indisposition has ftuddenly com- 
pellt^d him to sit down; sorry for tlio sake of tho 
Huiuo, whosu mforiDutioB has beun iiius nnplcMtsanUy 
interrupted; and sorry for tbo Cause of peace ax\A 
Great Dritain. which 5Einisti:TB seem det^^ruiiuod to push 
to the Inst verge of ruin." >'ox then proceeded to 
clmrgc upon tbo Goronmient a long saocesalffli of 
"Uttlo tricks and artifices." He said that tbey bad 
not desired peace, but only to obtain the credit of pacific 
intcntIoD& Their deiilienite object had bt>en, by un- 
reasonable proposals and vexatious delayii, to rou^ iJm 
pride of Uie DLreetory, and cmnpel Ujeni to break off 
tho negotiation. Siieh wore the statcniento ofSlr. Fox ; 
but is there at tlio proneitt day eren one man wiih'ng tu 
eudorae tbem? Or are there many iofitaucoA on record 
of iiiittreprtstentatJons eo extreme? 

On this oecw^ion, liowever. Fox was not followed into 
tho lobby by a DUineruiw train. Tito ameadnieut 
whieh Itu moved obtained but thirty-seven votOM; and 
the same amendment, moved by the Earl of Guilford 
in the I'l-ers, no more than eiglit. 

Id this abrupt di.-4mi»sul of tlio Hritish Minister, 
aiid, aa Pilt declared it, "tliix iftnilied iiijiult" to tbu 
Dritisih [>eu|ile, it was the opinion of Lord Malmeelnuy 
that the Freneh Ooverament had been partly swayed 
by the lidiugs from Petersburg. On the ITtli of No- 




Tember the Eupreas Catherine died. Tbere luid been 
no Bigu of illuess till bIio was found streti^hod upon the 
floor, and slio had bet'D in good spirits till tlio very 
morning of tUnt day.' It niuy bu obsvrvi'd tiiut tbu oir* 
cumstancee of her death bear a great reeemblanoe to 
those (if Cioorge the Seooiid'jt. 

Ou the BiLme night thut thu news had rDOchod hiui, 
Pitt announced it to Uimdnsas follows: — 

"Downing Street, Simday, i put 11, VM, 
(December, 17D6.) 
" Dkab Dckdab. 

" A new 80000 is opened on 'tb<t Continent by 
fin Dvent of which tlic uct-oiint is jn»t t«)ino — th« do«ttIi 
of th« 1-JmprGSs of Russia on the 17th of last month. 
Tho despijtnhiw are not yet oome to the Offico. Wo 
cannot theroforo yot toll In whnt etute our treaty was 
left, but I luii afrai<l mudi good is not in any case to 
be expected from tho now Emperor. It » difHcult 
to nay whether one ought to regret the most that eho 
had not died Hoouur or lived longer. 

"Yours ever, 

"\V. P." 

At Potersburg the only son of tho late Empn-ss was 
ut onco proi'liiinied her ancceesor, undur the titlo of Paul 
the First As may bo infcnvd from tlio prw^eding let- 
ter, th« new Sovereign was not thought to incline to the 
English interest. It. was not yet known how weak, nay 
even disordered, wa8 his intitllect ; and hnn- little 
relinnco could be placed on any reeolutiou that he 

* UijrtoiiD do Cikllioriiie U, pat Ooiten. toL Ul. p. 171. 



Juno r>, 1788. 
T ah&W not objoot to atlvnDciiig Sir Jnuics Horns t» u 
gOHt ill tli« House of Lords, provided lie ia iwcomimiiicd 
by Sir Joseph Yoike. For though the latter may Dot 
have tlifi aanic cliiiui tn fnviior from Administration, he 
certainly iias it for forty years from the fuiitittiiii of 
bouour. If I do not remember puat service, and only 
think of the moment, I shiill not act the part I ought, 
which is the mucmboring that, jnstiec is thw first duly 
of a Sovereign. Had not Sir Jamea been recom- 
mended, I slioiild not bovo thought of Sir Joseph ; but 
(ht favour to the oue makes the other indispensable, 
though never solicited. (j_ jj^ 

Kew. June 12, 1788. 
A. pretty smart bilious attack prevents my coming 
this day to town. I iini rertainly hotter llian y<«UTdiiy, 
and if it goes on mendin^^ this day, I slifiU hope to sco 
Btr. Pitt in town to-morrow. Sir Greorge Biikcr a])proveB 
of what I have donpi and 1 trust his ad^nce will remove 
the remains of this complaint On rotuniing from lh« 
ruviow I was forced to take to my bed, us tbc only 



tolerable posture I oonld QaA. To be rare I nm wlint 
one ctJls ti cup t«o low, but wbcu thoroughly cleared I 
bopo to feet folly e({ual to any busineeii that may occur. 

Kw, JniK!l2, 1768. 
SiDce writiog thi» moraing I hare aeen Sir Geoi^ 
Baker, nho, ttiuugh he lliinks CTon-tliing goc« oa well, 
yet veiy fairly told me tlint quiet: is essential to re* 
ntoving uiy complaint, niid that 1 must »eit]>6r go tu 
London to-monow nor n>ttiru to Windsor. I therefore 
{^ve tliio information to llr. Pitt, that he may not think 
my nut a)>pcariug to-uiomiw a Migu of Wing Vfotve, 
I certainly mood, bat have been pretty well disciplined 
this day. I am suirry the Chaiu^ellor has not ^iiita ro 
muTud the troublu hv hus i-xcitod iii the Lan anuiige- 
ments ; it is niclanfholy that superior characters now 
and tlien let temper iuatead of roasoQ guide tliem ; but 
1 trust Str. Pitt's good teniiwr will make him fc*l for 
weakness, and nn thu pixipoiK.'d ammgemeDt will be 
effected, not feel for the manner. q_ jj_ 

Cheltenham, Aiig. 14, 1TB8. 

I am ibis ia'ttant retunmd ^om seeing the most 
beoutifu] sight I urt-r hohcld, namely, the wUiory 
conntry near Stroud : abnvo forty thoiL^aJid people were 
osBomblcd, and tlicy all cunlV-'>is the trade i? now britikvr 
tban the oldest person ever reninmbert 

Friday the 'iiJnd is th« first Ijovcc, and consequently 
tlift proper time for Lord Amherst and IjotiI Ho^nud 
to kiss hands. I hope I eball «cc 'Sir. Pitt in goo 
bealtli on Uiu cvcuiug of the VJth at Windsor, 

G. R 



Kew, Oct. 20, 1788, Six o'clock P.M. 
nave not been able Ut auswiT Mr. Pitt's letter 
nooner tliis Aay, having had a vety iDdifferent night; 
but the medicine which Sir Geoi^ Biiher fuuud noces- 
aary to he taken to remove the spasm has now greatly 
rc^bY'vctJ nio. ludpai I tliink niyst;Il' iioarer gHtiug rid 
of my comfdaiut thuu einco thu tittttek. If I should 
have a good night, I will write and desiro Mr. Pitt to 
como here provions to t)i« moeting of the Cubiiivt. 

Wo happily got throu^ thv bnsfaiees Isst year, bat 
then our enemy wns weak indeed, and the Pmostau 
anna (njcceeded beyond expeolalion. lu the prawnt 
seone it is tho contrary. Tho King of Sveden fieems to 
have what often go tt^etber — great want of ronrago, 
and as littlo good faith. The NonliiiiiMit.s i>f h'u KnVijucie 
lire not known here; for Sir. EUiut's dci^pittches are. I 
beUeT(>, yet to hn composed, and the Banish troops 
have advanced mticli farther than any one Hiippijsed; 
even Bemsdorf owns it in a. letter 1 bolievo tlrawu up 
for our inHpuction. All I mean by this is. that wo must 
try to save Sweden from becoming a province of Unsida ; 
but I {lo not think this object enn only bu obtained by 
a general war, to run the risk of mining the finances of 
this country, whicli, if onr pride will allow us to b6 
quiet for a f(>w years, will be in a Hitnutlon to hold a 
language which does not become the having been driven 
out of America. 

To speitk openly, it is not the being considerably 
weakened by illness, but tlie feelings that never have 
day or night been ot ea«o tiince tJiis country took that 
di^igrat-eful atop, that has niado mn wiali what years I 
liave stilt to reign not to be drawn into a war. I am 
now within a few days of twenty-eight years, having 
lieen not on a bed of mnea. I began with a successful 
war; the people grew tired of (l>at> and colled out for 




pt'flicc. Since that tlie most JHstifiablfl war uny country 
ever waged — tbcre in few oatopaigns. fixim being popular 
Again peace was called for. Afur such wofnl cxamploe, 
I niuFtt lie a siocnnd Bon Quixote if I did not wixh, it 
poeatWc, [to avoid] fiiHing ttgiiiu into llie game xituation. 
The ardonr of youtli may uol admire my ralmnosa, but 
I thiulc it laircr to spoak out thus early tlian hy silence 
be sii}>posed to }iuYO churigod my opinion, if things 
should hear a more warlike appearance than I now ex- 
pect, and if I should then nbj«ct to a gcnonil war. 

I am afraid Mr. Pitt will perceive I am not qaite ii 
a fiituatitin to writo at pi-eaent, but I thought it bi'tt«r 
even to write as loosely ss 1 have hc^re tlinn to let the 
box return without an answer to bis letter. 


K6W. Oct 25, 1788. 

Mr. Pitt really seemed distressed at seeing i«y 
bodily stiffnfa» yesterday, wliicli I alone esiiiliili'^l to 
stop fiirther Hos and any fall of the Stocks. For this 
kindnc»s I shall desire Sir George Baker (who is to call 
hero p^e^'ious to my setting out for Windsor tliis morn- 
ing) on his rfitiirn to town to call in DoMniug Street, 
that if Jlr, I'itt is at k-iinire ho may know exactly how 
Sir Geoitjo fiiiind me. 

I am certainly weak ami stifl', but no wonder. I 
urn certain air and relaxation are the ijuickeet restorn* 
tives. Hilt thiit nothing nuty W- delayed by my present 
sitiuttion, 1 aiithorine Mr. I'itt to acquaint the C'abiaot 
that tJiongh 1 can never think whether Sweden is go- 
Tomcd by a corrupt King or a corrupt Simato a i<ubjc-ct 
worthy risking the being drawn into a war, yet that if 
they wish to hold any liui^^uftgo (that is never meant to 
bo followed up to tJieao druadl'ul lengths) which may 


pCrlutps tend to keep Sweden iu ibi present sitnAtion, I 
do not object io it. 

Mr. Pitt is desiKd by me to acknowlwlge the receipt 
of thi^, uiid to jifftvent all politisa! papers bfing sent to 
mv till 1 mcot liini on Wednesday at HL James's. 


Mr. Pitt to ^Ae King. 

Downing S(r.;el, Oct 25, 1788, Rj r.U. 

Mr. Pitt did not receive your Majesty's commands 
till liis airival in town, having missed the nie:«»en- 
gcr ill iii« wiiy Iruiii the coiintTy ; and he has iducv de- 
ferred ncknowludji^iiig tbcui, tliiiikiiig il would be more 
satisfactory to write after tbo Cabinet. 

Wishing to tn-spasa as little a^ iwasiblp on your 
Mtij(,;#ly'B time, he will only say that, iitttwitliKtanding 
thi! general opinion which hu vetitun^d U> 8iibinit to 
your Majesty on tJie present state of aSaira in the Nortli, 
there sennii uu absolute iieoa-<itity to say auylhing in 
tlie doeputches now tu bu wnt which could tinally com- 
mit this country to tlie extent of going to war iu sup- 
port of Swo<lL-n, and tbut Uiu uiHtructtuiia to lilr. Enart 
vill be framed on tins idea. 

Mr. Pitt feeU «« ho ought your Sfajeaty's conde- 
scension and goodnoM in giving hint an opportunity of 
receiving a particular aocount trom Sir Georgo linker, 
and from liii* stat(tuient flutters liiniBfdf tliat a few (hiys 
will remove the efiecls of jo>u' Majesty's complaint. 

Windsor. Not. 3, 1788. 
The King thinke it must give ifr, Pitt pleasure to 
reooivo a line team liim. This will convince him the 
King can sign warranto without bconvenieuce ; there- 


fore he desires any tbat are ready may be sent, and he 
has no objection to nw^ive any large number, for he 
shall order the mtswc-ugor to return to town and Bball 
sign tliem at hia leiittire. lie attempts reading tho 
dtfSpatcbes daily, but as yet vrithoat success ; but ho cnts 
well, sleepti wi^II, and i» not in the least now fatigued 
witli riding, though be cannot yet litand long, and is 
fiitigued if ho Kulks. Having gained so much, the rest 
will bioon follow. Mr. Pitt is desired to be at Kew at 
two or three o'clock, whichever suits him best. 

Kew, Fob. 23, 1789. 

It is with infinite Batis&ction I ivuew my ocorcspoiid- 
eiico with Mr. I'itt by acquainting him of my haring 
seen the Friiiccr of Wales and my sql'oiu] soil Care 
was taken tlmt the conversation should bo general and 
cordinl : they seemed perfectly satisfied. I chose the 
meeting should bo iit tlio Queen's afifirtmcnt, that all 
parties might have that caution which at tho present 
hoar could but be judicious. 

I desire Mr. Pitt will couferwith tho Lord Chancellor, 
that any steps which may bo neoeasary for raising the 
aniiniil supplies, or any measures tliat the interests of 
the nation may rnqiiiro, should not be unnecessarily 
delayed ; for I feel tlio warmest gratitude for tlio sq^h 
port and anxiety sliown by the nation at large dnring 
my tudiuus illiiesx, Iwhivh I should ill requite if 1 diil 
not whib to prevent any further delay in tliose puhlic 
measures which it may be necessary to bring forward 

' Tho kttfw of Oct. 2a nml 
Not. S. 1T8S. litm givua entire, 
nre Uio two lut iul<lrew>c(l by Uiu 
King to Mr. Titt pr«viou« to Iilii 

lp«at illneu ; and Qio <vrK*poiid- 

(inuN wild out Touc-irod till Fob. tS, 




tlii» year, tboiigli 1 must ileclme entering into a pres- 
earo of buanees, nnd indeed for tliu R-i<t of my lifi* sliall 
expect otliers to fiilltl tim duties of their employments, 
and only keep that ttuporintunding eye which con bo 
cfieoted without labour or fatigue. 

I am anxious to ace Sir. I'itt any hour that may fioit 
liim to-morrow morning, as his conataut attuchment to 
nty inti^rfist and that of the public, whidi are insepara- 
ble, must ever place him in the moitt (ulvftntageoos 

light- G. E. 

Kftw, Mareb 10, 1789. 
Mr. Pitt's account of the unanimity on fbe proposed 
Address is rci-y consonant to what I expectpd. I have 
rwcuived from Lurd Sydney tbt- cn]]jtif8l aoBwor to the 
one to bo presented to-morrow by the Lords with Whit'i 
Staves, [so] that I must pat down vtords more agrae- 
ftblo to my feelings on thu warm luid steady support I 
have mot with during my severe and tedious illness. I 
tnist Sir. Pitt, who in fortimate in putting his thoughts 
on paper, will bo atti-ntive in forming tht^^ one I am to 
return to the Privy Councillors on Thnrsdiiy fur the 
Hoiim* of Comiiionif. I dciriire Ijord Courtown may bo 
uppoiutud to uttcud with it on Tliuniday at half>past 



April 12, 1789. 
I am very sorry Mr. Pitt returns to a thcmo tliat Iiaa 
ever given ine pensoniil uiinuunoss;. The conduct o( 
the Lord Lieutenant of IivIuikI in tliu whole bustaees 
of Colonel Owynn was so perfectly inattentive, if not 
personally disresiwolfid to me, na well as eontmry to 
every idua of what hu purticuhirly i<bo)ild have done 
considering his baac conduct in ll&i, that I certainly 



«(iutiot easily forget it The vacancy now occasioned 
arises irom removing Colonel Gwynn to the liritish <:«- 
tabliflliment : tbereforo it is but wasonablo tbut it »bouId 
opou ("or ftclraucfiinent in tliia servioe. Tbe utmost I 
can do out of attontiuii to Mr. Pitt, not Ix>nl Uuckiiig- 
bara, is not to hiiny tJie conclusion of the bosiaeee, 
lliough thuroiigbly determined not to yield to my dt^ 
puty in Ireland. 

Kew, April 16. 1789. 

Mr. I'itt may rely on my delaying any uppuintuionts 
to tbe Tacancies occaaioned by tlie death of Lieutenaat- 
Geni;rft] Mackay, that 1 may see if any airangomeut 
can bo found tbut may Ix; of any nso in tlio prueoiit 
state of things. I certainly meant to delay the vacancy 
occtwione*! by the removal of Liout'Cnant-Culouol Gwyiin 
if HtijurTaylor cuutiuuod lodeclinu; but after all I bad 
done, it was impussibltf I could ilolay it when ho on 
bettor consideration apcepted. To say the trutli, though 
1 am rocovoriiig, luy mind ix not etrong onougli as yet 
to stand littlo niffleH, and Etill uoro so when they relate 
to Lord Buckiughara, who does not stand well in my 

1 sliiill rt^tura to-morrow morning to Windoor ; but if 
Mr. Pitt can call bore before ten, 1 shall certainly 
gladly see him. 

G. a 

Windsor, April 21, 1TS9. 
The degpateli of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland on 
the iultiudcil rc-NignittJoii of thu Lord Chancellor of that 
lungdom m a matter of too much consequence and re- 
(jitires too much delibemtion for me to wish to keep it 
mmecc»iiiiarily irom the ini*|)oction of tbo Lord Chan- 
cellor and of Mr. Pitt. ISosidcs, I must candidly oon- 



fess that tliuugli uow witliout complnint, I fvel more 
strongly thi.1 effects of my late severe and f^dirmsillmsM 
than I IiM'l expt'eteil ; though but what had hecu in- 
sinuated, I mean n certain las^ituile «iid want of energy 
Loth of miud and body, which must reciuire time, ro 
hixatiun. and ch)int;« of scf^ne to rertwro any enorgy. 
Indeed 1 have, amon^ other bl«8«ir]gj?, the ndvanla^e of 
having in tlie Lord t.'hanceUor and Mr. Fitt two men 
tliornughly fit to condurt the biiiiinees of their two 
Houses of Parliament, whose attachment to my person 
and til tlie tnio eonstitiition of this realm i» nnduubted, 
and who mu;^ iu.'C tho neci.wilty to my ease us well aa 
the real stability of the State requires tJieir rvpdially 
acting tpgetiiRF, and tliey must acknowUtdgo the utility 
of Ottriy conferring tofjetlior on matters of importance, 
that t.licir opiuidii* umy ho iin it were mutually formed, 
and that no difficulties may arise irom having sepai«tely 
arranged their opinions. 

I 8(!« the evil of ajip'iintinp^nn Trtshman in a more 
forcible degree uow than when England had a proper 
lead over Ireland, hnt I really have not at present u 
vigour of mind to dismiss the <|U<.'4tion. Tlierefore I 
rest secure on their gi\nng it all the nonsideratton tho 
({Ucstiou requires, ant) Klmuld liope Ihcy would also 
confer uHlh l^ottls Camden and StufTord. after which it 
will be right to take tlie opinion of the Cabinet. 

1 trust thi^ candid explanation of my ei-ntimcnts to 
Mr. Pitt, which he should commimieate to the Lord 
Ctiaucellor, will Ixt a pn>of to them tliat the public 
service is over in my mind, and thiit as an hon<-«t man 
when unable to act I am desirous of deriving assistance 
ttam thoso who are inonjudile of siiparutiiig interests 
thnt must and ever shall be wbikt I live tho mme. 




Windeor,May6, 178&. 
I luivu just rec^Tsd Mr. Pitt's letter. Before I coa 
give litm any directions for fixing tlio alloK'uuce on 
William, I murt we CoIodbI Hotbam, to know the exact 
stiite of tho sum tliat jointly reganis ttioso sttcndants 
and servants tliat beloiigod joiiilly to him and Edward. 
lu tnitli tlie liui»itnde and dejection that lia^ accout- 
panicd me Htucu free from all fever jirt-vtmlD my being 
able to decide either quickly or satisfactorily to myself 
on any object, and oonsequeutly makes mo require 
tJiao on uU iauU«i« tbMcoue before mo. q, jt. 

Wevuioutli, July .10. 1789. 
I perfefttly approve of the moda proposed by Mr. Pitt 
of filling up the vacant offices, and am glail Mr. Uop- 
Idna romaina at (ho Adrnindty Hoanl^ whcru he k cer- 
tainly a uaefnl member. Tho patents of 3(arqm8Cfl 
^hou]<l alio bo prepared for Lords Salisbnty and Wey- 
mouth, and the Earldom fur Lord Fortcscue. Ulight 
thi.t not also be a good opportunity for iudnlgiog Lord 
.Mount Edgcuiidie with a similar promotion ? 

Kxelor, Aug. 27, 1789. 
The warrantH in favour of Dr. Willis and his eon I 
have sitpied, and think thld tlie proper lime of men- 
tioning to Mr. I'itt Mr. Thomas Willis, who certainly 
has the most merit in having supported the old Di>ctor 
tlirough his difliculties with tlie otJior jihyKiciang. \Mmt 
Beins the natural pronsion for him is the first vacant 
bendary of ^Vorce8ter. I have seen so much of bim 
that I can answer fur hi» principles being such u will 
do credit to my patrom'idng him. The narrant for tlio 


ilier phyBidans Boomii very large, 
not ; liut I viiW not enter on a subject that csjuiot but 

pve mo piiin, fur I uinuot say 1 Gad myself citlior in 
rongtli or spirita so mvsh recruited aa I sboald h&xo 

bped. G. R. 

VTindsor, Not. 24, 1789. 
The last ovoning 1 reofilvftl aiiaiiswor from llieChnn- 
pellor to the letter 1 bad wruU) to bim. It ia so very 
proper, thiit I oannot belp giving tliis information to 
Mr, Kit, tbouyli I sliall tomorrow sbow bim the t'opy 
of my letter m well as tbis very handsome nnswer. I 
bare not the lunalleei di^ree of doubt but that, with 
tlio mutual desire of acting agreeable to my vriKlie-^ I 
sbnil biiTi' the KHtisftictiuu of Kuoiii<^ you liotb much mora 
cordial than at any time since you bare been together 
iu Ministry. ITie good of the whole rniist l)« the real 
object to fill both yourniiude; and littlo diffon>iici.«, 
whether occasioned by want of temper or by inadver- 
t«ncie», must, be forgot as nnworthy of notJcti nlicre 
such imperior cau^g ought alone to deserve the atten- 
tion of exalted minds. q_ q, 

Wiadaor, May 17. 1790. 
I have just received the two copies of tho meeaages 
to the Houses of Parliament for granting the pension to 
Dr. Willis, and have signed them. I .ihould imagine 
Lord Auckland's unmo would not come forwani in so 
iigrowiblo a manner, and therefore do not ohji-ct to 
Mr. Pitt's offering the reversion of thp ToUeKhip of tho 
Exchequer, bocomo vacant by tJio d«ath cf Lord 
Hardwicke. Had Mr. Pitt proposfd some m«ans of 
rendering it of utility lu liimMi.-lf, it would liuve been 
plMsing to me, as I do not feel easy at not having liad 




on opportmuty of Bemring a proTiHion for him in cmtf 
of my puyiii^ tliat tribute to wliicli overy ouu is eocHier 
or later subject. (j_ K^ 

Windsor. Nor. 21, 1760. 

I h&ve carefully perused the coireapondencA, trails^ 
iiiitted to nu> tliifi inoi-ning. wliii-li lias arisoti on a vucant 
ofllw ill Scotland, and wliich ofiitaiuly tihoHv tliat the 
Ctumcellor'M t«nip«:^r Hotuati-H liim moru thuu tLo good- 
Dca^ of bis bcart and uf his head tttiould permit. Tint 
au ixiKTioiice of tJiirty yuars cotivinotw riii: timt iu 
most men tlit> former too frequently bas the advantage. 

]\lr. Pitt's amount of the conversatinn that has siin-o 
bet-n hcdd by tbi- t^ttmjellor with Mr. Duudas, t8 a pi'oof 
that he is open to join cordially (which I look npon as 
ei^suntial to the public 8ervio*')i provided thu old 
comphiint on tht- subject of Mr. Host! could bo removed. 
Mr. Pitt must do mc the justice to recollect, that tboagli 
I look on this as a very diflioult point, yet tliat 1 Iwve 
duelared inysi-lf ever roady to contribute towards 
removing it, if any meana can be pointed ont. 

My sentiments eau be conveytHl on Ih© whole of lIiiH 
matter iu a few worrls. Tlio Mdito of the House of 
\tli0rds ia such that Ojniosition hare many speakers, 
and on tlie side of Government only the Loitl CliaiiceUor 
and Lord Uawke^bni-y ; for the Chid' Justice, though a 
worthy man and able lawyer, does not siiwieed as b 
debater. This allows bow iiec<\s»ary it is to reniovo 
every cause of mifiundcrstandiug with the Chancellor, 
who is certainly to be gained by afleetion. With all his 
appearance of ronghneHi*, bo has n feeling heart, aud 
that alone can guide him in cuntrudiction to bis temper. 
I/>rd Sjjillbril, ifhewill heartily engage to talk with tlio 
Chancellor, can certainly do much good, and »(hoiUd 
point out to him that the promise of supjwrt given to 



me last Session is not ndc] up to, if ho brings up the 
subject of Mr, Hose. 

ThouKb I think ihe IIotMe of Peers is ceitaiuly 
bocoming too numerous, whiolt, I fuur, wiU be found 
rather iiiconvenieiit. yet it is impossible for me to 
object to removing llr. firenriUe to tliat Hoiimc ; ub Iuji 
ubilitri^H will bc' of uiiitiTiuI use, and bi» conciliatiug 
teinpt.T will in future aid in keeping amtlers smooth 

with the Chaucollor. 


Dm. 12. 1790, 
n«Ting summoned a Ch/kptcr of (ho Gart«r for 
Wbduiijfiifty, and .Mr. Pitt not baling been at St James's 
in the cx>ureo of the last week, I think it iioccKsary 
by this means to remiud liiin of my baring offered liim 
ono of the Taoaucios of tliat Order. '\\'hen last I y 
montionod it, h* seemed to dwline it; but pcrliup^ ^ 
the conclusion of the duiputc witli Sfxtiii may iitako him 
see it in a difTi>rent view, namely, as a public testimooial 
of my approbation. 

I)«c. 13, 1790. 
I Iiuvo just received Mr. Pitt's lottor declining my . 
offer of of the vacant Garters, but in eo luindsome a "^ 
manner that I ramot help expressing my sensibility. 

Dc& 14, 1700. 
Mr. Pitt's note is ju»t nrrired,intinmtiu^ n that I 
would confer the tJiird vacant Garter on bis brother 
Lord C'liutlmm. I tni.4t he is too well convinced of 
my sentiments to duubt that I with pliTn^rc .sliiUl to* 
morrow give this public testimony of sjfprobntion, 
which will bo uuderglootl ua ucout to the whole family. 



Frf>. 22, 1791. 
Th« sitnntJon Afr. lty<1eT \io\Aa, and the part be takes 
in debfito. fieem k> piva him very fnir pretensions for 
being ndvanoed with Mr. Steele to joint Paymafiters. 
I ii|>prtiro of ihi^ir vacating to-mormw tlieir eents, and 
desiie Mr. Pitt will take the neccssar}' etepA for that 
purp<»e. 0. K. 

April 23, 1791, 
Tli« Uukc of 1*0(18 haWng dcliverefl np the SenFs of 
his office on TlwurBday. I have deponitod tlicm with Tjord 
Grenville, so that Mr. Pitt may calmly weigh how tJie 
office of S()cn>tary of State cnn \}t»t, bo filled. I own 
I think Lord Grenville baa ii claim to change deport- 
ments if agreeable to liim, and it may Iw easier to find 
one for the Home thnu for the Fon-ign Deportment 
Having said thus much, I leav« it to Sir. Pitt maturely 
to weigh the subject, as I do not intend to come to 
town during the next week, and tho new Secretary 
cannot be sworn in till tlie following. q_ j^ 

May 1. 1792. 

The moftt daring ontrago to a regular Goverumcnt 
oommittod by the now Society, whigh yesterday pub- 
liahed its Manifesto in several of the newspapers, could 
only bo ci^uallud by rtumu of its loaders standing forth 
tile same day to avow their similar sontimcnls in the 
HooBO of Commons ; and I cannot see any substantial 
difrer»'nce in Hmt lx;iiig joined in dcbntc by Mr. Fox, 
an<l his not hc'iug a member of that Society. 

I reeeived la^t night the enclosed [>aper from tho 
Dnke of Gloucester; it is drawn np by the same pen 
from which intelligence was sent on Siitniilay by Lord 
Sydney to Mr. Uiiudus. It deisorvos the attention 



of admlnistj-atioii ; and it aeevas highly worthy of iuquii; 
^lietlier any lur^* etiitt of inoDcy has been procured for 
France from Ireland, and whether Irishitieu uru 
connected wilJi the Jfrenclt emusftrius in ^s coontry. 

May 16, 1792, 6-3X PJt. 

llr. SecFfttary Diinilfts has acted very properly in 
pa'^tpttning (he publishing an extraordinary Gazette, if 
tliero ia the Hmallcflt dnnbt of the anthonticity of the 
news he rwejveil this <loy; Imt I own I cannot willingly 
give up fitditing tlit> pood account. If it in & forgejy, 
it has been ably conducted. 

I tni8t he vnll follow up tho idea of showing Mr. Pitt 
that ho lias a real victory over the Chancellni; if ho 
keeps his temper, and that my serrioo roqtiiros hia 
tesiftliiig any warmlli, find tliiit however improper the 
liiii'piiiE.'c may bavo been, public reasons ought to 
jircvcut bU tahing any step ; though I think Mr. 
Hecretary Dundns ought to speak some truth to tho 
Chancullor on this occasion, tmd ])oint out how much 
bis conduct on tbU occasion, if encb as has been statod, 
is detrimental to my atl'iurs and thoeo of the notion. I 
cannot but think that the Clianoellor roust be ready to 
own Uittt it is wnliecomiiig in tho liighest degree to bo 
woslJng the present hour in personal disputes, and I trust 
an explanation will be made that will heal any present 
uneasiness. (j_ g^ 

Aug. 6, 1792. 
Having this morning received the account of tlie 
death of the Eart of Guilford, I take the fii^t ojipor- 
tunily of ue<]uaiutiiig Mr. Pitt tiiat the WnnlcuHhij) of tho 
Cinque Ports ia an office for wliicb 1 will not receive 
UDy rccomuicndstioiui, having positively n^6olvcd to 



coufc-r it on liiin as a mftrk ol tlutt regard wliioli Lis 
eminent seniors Iiaro (ifimrvtai from me. I Hm w> bent 
on tliis. iJiat I shall wriously be oA'cJidcd at any altempt 
to decline. I have iutiniut^-<l tlicite inr intt-ntiuiiK to 
tlie Karl of Ohatliam, Lord Grenville. and Mr. Dundas^ 
As to tli« Liouk-nancy of SoiuRrsetiJure, the very 
steady support of tht; Karl uf Paiili^rtt, added to its 
having Won usimlly enlnifit«d to his ancestors, makes 
u(! think 111! can liave no just competitor; und as lie is 
in tlie iioighbciurhood of Btirluu, Mr, I'ilt's ucijiiainting 
him thnt it liai heea spontaneously conferred upon l>im 
will not he thrown away. q_ |j^ 

Windsor. Nov. 2fi. 1792. 
Mr. Pitt's letter is just arrived, enclosing that aod 
the postscript ho roccived from Lord Irfm^hlMnrmgh. 1 
cannot help statinii; some ideas to wiiii'h they linvo 
given rise. The tunor of these pnppra, and of the 
esplaiifitory (ronversation, (loiirinn mo in tlio belief that 
Lord Luu^hburoi]{;h in diMppointed the party have not 
permitted him to accept tlie sitnntion jmiposud for 
him, and I fairly lHi])e, thcrefuro, that ho wiU both in 
thu Htmao of Coniiiions, and on parliciilar cases, where 
his opinion as a counsellor may he required, give lus 
genuine Nenttmeiits; but I tliink it shows the I)uke< of 
Portlaud and his advisers are much less fixed in tlieir 
reeotntion to KupjKJi-t, than thi- iiiia<;iiiation uf Mr. llurko, 
or the mure ^yMtciiiutical judgment uf Mr. Wiudhum, 
gave reason to expect. 

Windsor. Jhb. 26, 1793. 

In consequence of Mr. Pitt's note, I iiiithorizc him to 

direct Sir George Yong« to imstjionc sending the letters 

uf servici" to the Gt-ncral Officers for a few dayR. 1 

shall certainly be ready to hear what Mr. Pitt may have 



to stat<MH|^ calling forward Lord Townshrud ; but I 
think itiTgii't'to apprise [hi«i] uf the reiieons that mado 
irif ttiiiik it a dLsirablc mensurp, bis being th*> orij^^jufd 
father of tJio Militia, and as such a most popiUar 
cliaratitfir with that corps, and thnt his raak a little drew 
off the attcutiou of the army from sui-iiig auotlier 
General Officer called forth (whom I thiiik it best on 
pajifir not to tinnii% Uiuii^b Mr. Pitt's penetration must 
undtirstaiid), which appointment certaiidy ia not popular 
with the array. q j> 

Windsor, Feb. 2, 1793. 
On rutiiniing from hunting I have found 3Ir, Pitt's 
note, by which I learn that Lord Iteanchamp seoondt^d 
tlio motion for an Addross, wliich was only opi>uM<.^ by 
Ijjrd Wyeombe. Mr. Whitbread. Mr, Fos, and Lord 
William ItuBsell. The iniptoNsion of tlic ]louso seeing 
just what conld hare been expocteJ ; for if tbo ocoudon 
ovor could oci-ur that every power for the prcsorvation 
of society must stand failh in ojiposilion to France, the 
nucossity sccma to be at the presi-nt hour. Indeed my 
natural sentiments are so strong for ponce, tliot no 
event of less moment timn tJio present could have made 
mo decidedly of opinion thai duty ati woU as interest 
calls on us to join against that most savage as well as 
ouprijic.ipled nation. q_ j{_ 

Feb. 13. 1793. 
I am rather surprised that Mr. Percy Wyndliam 
should have supported the umcndmcnt of Mr. Fox to 
the Address movi>d by Jlr. Pitt, as it had been thon^^ht 
that Lord Egremonl'a )ieutinicnt« were very deeided in 
i'avour of the line of conduct which has been pursued. 
I am glad to find Mr. Thomua Grutirillo has taken a line 
so becoming of him. (j_ H_ 



Feb. 19.1793. 
9Ir. Pitt's account of Sfr. Fox's five lieflolsfiona 
haling fallen by the previous Qiivsliou hUoik)<x1 by a 
(ItiisioD, has given me iofimto pleasure ; and I doubt 
th« Forty-Fonr tlwt voted in the minority are the 
vrholi; Duuibcr Mr. Fox cun at Iho present hour muster. 
I am glad the friends of tho Duke of Fortlaud in 

general joined the majority. 


May 8, 1793. 
It is with infinite satisfaction I have received Sir. Qtt'g 
note eommnnieating the senaeof lli« Honse of Commons 
on tlto remcwed debate on tho motion of Mr. Grey, 
which was ao clearly shown by tho division of 2S2 
agftinxt 41 ; and I moist devoutly pmy to Hitiron that 
this Constitution may remain unimpHired to the latest 
poBterity, an a proof of the wisdora of tho nation, und 
its kuov>'lcdge of the suponor blessings it enjoys. 


Jane 18, 1793. 
This instant I have reopiv«l Wp. Pitt's note commu- 
nicating that Mr, Fox's Motion for a negotiatioD of 
peacu with Frmiuo on the tsi'ms of hep evacuatiDg tho 
places she has coaqnepeil iiad lx^orl last night iit-f^ativcd 
by A division of ISl to i7. I cannot help okeerving 
that it Guems repy oxtrnnrdinary that any one could 
advance so strangu a propoxition, and I trust ono ao 
contrary to ihc guud sc<nfie of the majority of the ivholo 
nation, and such as no one but an advocate for tbo 
wicked oonduot of tho leaders in that unhappy country 
can subscribe to. q_ jj^ 

sns OF 


Windsor, July 13. 1793. 
1 retiim to Mr. Pitt tho wRrraiits, having dgu^ 
them. By my or(Ii>r8 Lord Amherst has cUre*t<>d the 
ditc;h at Walmer Castle to be stockaded, asd a pioket of 
tw™ty-five men to ht> posted there to prBvcnt any Borprise, 
which will (tnahia Mr. Pitt to go stalVdy tliere whenever 
tlio piihh'u hn»iiicss will jK^nnil. I did uot chooeo to 
meution it till I had giren Hie aoceaaiy oiders. 


Windmr, Scpi 14, 1793, 
The misfortTiM of our situation ie that wo haro too 
many ohjects to attend to, and oar force consequently 
muMt bo too tmiall at each place. Yet it seems to mo 
that tho Ucssiau infantry oro tJjo only coips we can 
soon get at to send to Toidon. 

Wiudaor. Nor. 17, 1793. 
^On tlio whole, as to active service, I incJine much 

ro to Flandere, as being mora e-asily gHppliod from 

hence, and also, if enahlod to move forward, being more 
able to advance to Paris. 

May 17, ITS*. 
|Tbe Gondoct of Oppoeition on the pn-sont oecagion 
most uiiwi^. The uttuntion of thu public at 
large is awakened at the present cnsis, and certainly 
iQiLtt see with horror and dit<dain any nat of mou trying 
by more elnciinu lu clog the iUL'aHUri}s of Government. 
After what ha^ piuued in the House of Comojous, I bavo 
not tho 6iiiulle«t doubt but that Lorda Lnnadowne, 
L»a<lerdale, Stanhope, and Derby will hold s similar 
conduct this day iu the House of Lords. 




I believe thero cannot be an iniparUftl man who, 
when the papr:rii are brought to light, nill not see that 
if (icivcniuii-ut has urr^Mi it Liw toon iu not etvpptng 
forth oaiiior. And yet perljapa the time that has been 
given wat neccssarv to jmish tui tlii> fadion to Mich ovott 
ucts that authorise the nieiisuTL-H now punuiug. 

G. B. 

Windsor, Jnly !3. 1794. 
If Mr. Pitt can find that a SlartjutRale wonld l>o tks 
u^Guablo to liOrd Ilowc as u Gartor, I will ooaseot to 
it; but having with Mr. Pitt's knowledge ncquainted 
Lord Hiiwe with, my intention of conferring the Oi'doc 
on him, it ia iui|)ot!siblc, unloss Lord Hotvo chuo^s the 
former mark of favour in preference to the lattiT, that 
I can propose it. Besides, 1 cannot see why on the 
Duke of Portland's head favours arc to bo lioapod 
without meoaiire. G. U, 

Wej-mouth, Aug. 24, 1794. 
Agreeable to what I mentioned to Mr. Pitt bfforo I 
came here, I have this morning seen the Prince of 
Wales, who has acquainted mo with his ItHving broken 
o&'n.U connection with Mr.'t. Fitxherbert, and his deiiire 
of entering into a moi-o crwlituble line of life by marry- 
ing, ospresstng at the same time tliat his wish is that 
my niece, the Princess of Brunswick, may be the pet^ 
sou. Undoubtedly shu is the person who naturally 
must bo most agreeable to mo. I expreased my appro- 
bation of the idea, provided his phui whs to leftd a lifo 
that would itmko him appear res2)ectablo, and conse- 
quently render the Princess Iiappy. He assured me 
tliat he perfectly coincided with me in opinion. I tbun 
mii\ that till r^Iiamont assembled no arrangement 
coidd be taken except my sounding my sister, that no 
idea of any other marriage may be encouragc^d. 

G. H. 




I encloBO to Mr. Pitt « copy of the Iptter I rw<>iv«I 
yesterday from the IJiike of Yoik in coii«e(iiiciK'i' of tJie 
orertiirc m&Aa to biiu by Mr. Windlmiti, and am happy 
he 8GPH the appoiotmeut in tho same liglit I do of llie 
Martjuis ComwiilHa, miniely, of nec<>S8ily obliging him 
to retire. I have uTot« liim an unswer approring of 
Jiia determination, aa it so perfectly concurs witli what 
I cxpn:?s»i'd in my Icltt-r Id Mr, Pitt; and mldiug that I 
had uot written, that he might have fall lilierty, slmnlti 
the event happen, ta take the line he tlioughfr Ijl-sI ; 
that I trust hu will during thu Mit!<pitu»e act with the 
i^mo zeal as if hiH (.-ommund was permancot ; but that 
jh my - opinion th<; Emperor will never agree to m novel 
ax fthut] tliv Imperial truu^w should be com- 
mandcid by a foreigner: that therefore I look on his 
rentaioing at the head of tiio troops iu Britirdi pay an 
most nrobablu. 


Windaor, Nov. 24, 17«4. 

Mr. Ktt cannot l>e surprised at my being rerj- much 

hurt at tho oontente of his luttiL-r.* Iiidi-od hv kmmiii> to 

expect it, but I am certain that nothing but the think- 

it hie duty could havo imstignU'd hint to givo nic so 

re a blow. I am neitiier in a situation of ntind nor 

from inclination iuclinod to entur mors minutely into 

eveiy part of his letter ; but I am fully ready to answer 

tho inntorial part, namely, that though losing Tory 

much my oon^ and not forgetting how he saved tho 

Republic of XloUand in 1703, and that hia DndcavouiB 

lo ho of Bervioo liave nerer abat«>d, and that to the cou- 

Tliete l» uu ilraft of that luUer prMorTvil. 



The above irniposal is contrary to ihe roodact of~ 
every Eiiro[K-«n Gorfniroeut, ami I boUove to that of 
every State on tJie globe. In tJie Stales oT Germany, 
the Lutheran, Calvjnist, and Rouiuq Catholic nilinioiis 
tin! imivfreully i>ennilted, yet each rt.':*|ii^;tive State lias 
but one Church C!jt«bIiMhuK-ut. to which the &lat«s of the 
cU^try luid thotie hoIdiQg any civil eiDplnynu'Dt must 
be cunrorn]i«l;«; Court «fllc>e« and lutlilar)- commissions 
may be held also by yeraana of either of thu other 
persnnsions, but the nurol>er of Buch is very small. The 
Dutch provtucutt udioit LutlK-runs tmd lEoman Cailiolics 
in some subsidised regimeut^, but in civil employments 
thb Culviui«t« are alone capable of holditi<; thum. 

Ireland varies from most other cuuutrics by proficrty 
residing almost entirely in the hands of the Prcpti!Slant«, ^ J 
whilst thu lower clnsjce of the people are chiofly Roman 
Cfttholica The chungo proposed, ihorcfore. must dis- 
oblige the greater number to bti 
ordera not being of rank to ;: 
change. That they may also hi' 
that HUi army he kept 
of yeomanry, wliich 
police corps, eatab 
testaiit iDti-rLiBt nnd 

It i^ but lair to 
the flti-ougost justi: 
Crown in Ireland, 
iudulgencea that ha' 
tended tbeso have ai 
chauj^e of politiciil prJ! 

Knglish Uovernment 
givcB any cneouragemem 
fail sooucr or later to se] 
way of etntabliHhing a s 
kingdom adopt measures to 



uary but tienous proposal the Duke o( Pordasd 
is fo^norrow to lay before tlie Cabinet, wbidi I mean 
uiorely tor Mr. Pitt's own infonnutiun. q^ -j^ 

Feb. fi, 1785. 

Having yostcrduy, after the Dmwiiig Kooin, seen 
the Duke of Portland, who mentiosed the receipt of 
lotti^re from tJu) Lord-Lieiitenant of Ireland, whicb, to 
my gTeuteb-t aHtoniiibiuout. propose tlie total cluiugu of 
thp pnnoipbis of goverunieut wbicb liav© bwn followed 
by every itdmiiustrutiou in that kiiigdum siucv ibo ub- 
dicatioQ of King James the SeciHtd, and conseciuently 
overturning tho fabric that tlio wimioni of our fon^^wtiieis 
estoomed ucei^siairy, kihI which tbe lavrx of this country 
have directed; and tbiu, after no longer ataythan three 
weeks ill Ireland, venturing to eoudeuin Ibe latxiuni of 
ages, and waiitiug; au iinuiL-diatu (ulujitiouof id«aswbic-h 
every man of property is Ireland and every Qriend to 
the Protestant R«>ngion raUKt feel diametrically contrary 
to thosi_' he ba» irtil>ibi-<l from liis eurlie«t youth. 

Undoubtedly the Ihake of Portland made this com- 
tntiniaili'in to nound my eciilimeiit8 provioiii* to the 
Cabinet ^looting to bo bold to-morrow on lIuH wcigbly 
subject I expressed my STirprine at the idea of admit- 
ting the Roman CatJiolio> to vote in Parliament, but 
chose to ftvoitl onloring further iuto the subject) and 
only houn] tho substaueo of thu pro]ioidtiun8 without 
giving my sentimentji. But tho nioro I reiloct on the 
subject, llio wore I feel the danger of tho propa'ttd, and 
therefore should not think myself froo from biHino if 1 
did not put my thoiighb) on papw even in the present 
coarse shape, tliu moment being so proMirig, An<) not 
sofflcient time to armnge them in a more digc^ed shape 
previous to the Duke of i'urtJaud's kying ihu Mubjevt 
before the Cabinet. 


The aboYe proposal is contrary to the conduct of 
every European Government, and I believe to that of ' 

every State on the globe. In the States of Germany, . 
the Lutheran, Calvinist, and Boman Catholic religions 
are universally permitted, yet each respective State has 
but one Church eatabliBhment, to which the States of the 
coflntry and those holding any civil employment must 
be conformists ; Court offices and military commissions 
may be held also by persons of either of the other 
persuasiona, but the number of such is very smalL The 
Dutch provinces admit Lutherans wid Eoman Catholics \ 
in some subsidised regiments, but in civil employments '. 
the Calvinista are alone capable of holding them. f 

Ireland varies from most other countries by property, i l^ 
residing almost entirely in the hands of the Protestants, 1j 
whilst the lower classes of the people are chiefly Roman 
Catholics. The change proposed, therefore, must dis-ii 
oblige the greater number to benefit a few, the inferior: | 
orders not being of rank to gain favourably by the;! 
change. That they may also be gainers, it is proposed' \ 
that an army be kept constantly in Ireland, and a kind 
of yeomanry, which in reality would be Eoman Catholic 
police corps, established, which would keep the Pro- 
testant interest under awe. 

It is but fair to confess that the whole of this plan ia 
the strongest justification of the old Servant* of the 
Crown in Ireland, for having objected to the former 
indulgences that have been granted, as it is now pre- 
tended these have availed nothing, unless this total 
change of pohtical principle be admitted- 
English Government ought well to consider before it 
gives any encouragement to a proposition which cannot 
fail sooner or later to separate the two kingdoms, or by 
way of establishing a similar line of conduct in this 
kingdom adopt measures to prevent which my family 



yraa invited to moniit the throne of tbia kin^om in pre- 
foreiifo to th« House of Snvoy. 

One miglit stipposo tlio autliurs of this scheme bad 
not viewed the toodcucy or extent of the q««etion, bat 
wore actuated alone by the peevish inclination of hu- 
mJlintiijg UiH ohl frieiitlit of Kiif^Ii^h Govcnimcnt in 
Ireland, or from the desire of paying implicit obedience 
to the heated imagination of Mr. BnHte. 

Bc!iid<?8 tho discontent and ohuugi-e which miut be 
occasioned by the derelicrtiou of all the principles that 
have btion hulii as wiite by our anccslon*, it is inipORsiblo 
to foresee how fiir it may ahcuate the minds of this 
kingdom ; for though I fear religion is but little at- 
teudi'd to by [>erso»s of rank, and that the word telero' 
tion, or rather indifferent^ to that sat-red subject, has 
been too much admitted by them, yet the bulk of the 
nation hae not been spuilod by fon^igii travels and man- 
ners, and still fools the blessing of having a fixed prin* 
ciple from whence the source of every tie to society aii<l 
government must traou its origin. 

I cannot conclude without expreesing that the subject 
is beyond the decision of any Cabinet of Mjnisl<^'r8 — tlmt, 
could they form an opinion in favour of such a measure, 
it would he highly dangerous, without prenom ooDceit 
with the leading men of eviry onier in the State, to 
send any encouragement to Uio Lonl Lieutenant on tliis 
Bubjoet ; and if received with the same Bnspidon I do^ 
I am certain it would be safer oven to chiui^ the new 
ndraiuistratian in Irehind, if its continuance depends on 
tlio SI1CCU8S of this proposal, than to prolong its oxi»t- 
ence on grounds that must sooner or hitcr ruin one if 
not both kingdoms. 




Feb. 10, 1795. 

I received yesterday Mr, Ktt's note of that day, but 
did not choose to answer it till I had written to Lord 
Amherst and received his answer. Nothing can be 
more honourable than his conduct. He has t^;ain de- 
clined the ranlc of Field Marshal as well as that of an 
EarL I have in consequence directed Mr. Windham 
to notify the Duke of York as Field Marshal, and 
place him at the head of the British Staff, and ac- 
quainted him that my son is to stand exactly in the 
situation tiU now held by Lord Amherst. I approve of 
the Marquis of Comwallis being presented to-morrow. 

I do not say anything of the temporising directdona 
to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. 

G. E. 

Feb. 22, 1795. 
I cannot lose an instant in answering the not« I have 
just received from Mr. Pitt, expressing what he has col- 
lected from Earl Spencer and Lord Crrenville of the 
Luke of Portland's wish in writing to Earl FitzwiUiam 
to offer him in my name to continue to attend Cabinet 
meetings on his return from Ireland. The whole con- 
duct of the Duke of Portland in this impleasant busi- 
ness la so handsome, that it is impossible not with satis- 
faction to gratify his feelings on this, occasion. I there- 
fore authorize Mr. Pitt to acquaint him with the sug- 
gestion having been laid before me and with my cordial 
consent, though I doubt much whether Earl Fitzwilliam 
is in a state of mind to accept it. 


Windsor, March 10, 1795. 
I am much pleased with Mr. Pitt's account that both 
the Earl Camden and Mr. Pelham are willing to accept 



the oBSccs of Lord-Lioutouant of TreUind aud Sticretwry 
for that kinjrdoni, which have been rendered moro 
diSicult by tim Ktruugc oouduct of £Iiir! Filzwillmin. I 
approve of Darl Camdea bem^ nominsted ia the Great 
CouriciJ Kuom to-morrow, and I trust lio ivill nnder- 
stond that ho is to reinstate all tboeB who Lave boon 
roiiiovf'd by hix [iredeoesHor, and to support tlio old 
Euglisli interest aa w«ll as lh« i'rotuHtuut Kdigion. 


Kay 28, 1795. 
Mr. Pitt's aocoont tliat the motion of Mr. Wilbep- 
forve oxprcKsing an iucliniition for a gontintl padll- 
cation was got rid of by the moving tbo Order of the 
Day, which waa carried by liOl to 8li, iei highly ^reeable, 
[laiticuliirly as tho touipcr of tb(? iniijurity appeared to 
be strongly in favour of perseverance in tbo war. The 
recent accounts from France certainly show the pro- 
priety of tlie otiiiiion : but nliovo nil, till tlif bad prin- 
ciples propBgatt'd by that mifortuimti^' luition aro giron 
up, it «aiuiot bp eaf<H for any civilized port of the globo 
to treat or trust tliat people. 


Eew, July 17, 17Q«. 

By some mistake of the metnenger in going to Wind- 
sor tnt«toad of bringing llr. I'itt'a Iftt^^r and the in- 
structiontf far the Karl of Moira liero, his return i» so 
much retarded. I think the instructions are very projwr, 
but doubt whetJuT tlio {mmiiw of cavalry in the letter 
that is to accompany them doea not go furthor than 
perhapH can be effected. 

I approve mtioh of the n>sulutiuiis printed in tho 
papers, to whicli I bavo the pleasure of seeing my 
Sliutstcrs have uLl suhsi'ribiHl ; but wiuh Ur. Pitt wonld 



propose to tliem on account of the present dearness of 
provisions adding a resolntion of having no ejUremets 
nor second course during the present pressure. This I 
am certain would meet with umversal applause, and 
everything necessary might as well be served at one 
course, and without the smallest inconvenience to any 
one much unnecessary waste prevented. 


Windsor, Nov. 13, 1795. 

I shall now, as briefly as I can, state the subetance of 
the information I have received. 

General Walmoden reports to me of the 4th inst. 
from Nienburg that having sent Captain Berger to 
Brunswick to acquaint the Dube that his troops were to 
return home, the Duke upon this opened his ideas iiilly 
to this officer, and wrote the General a letter, of whicli 
the annexed is a copy, aa a credential of the matter 
Bei^r had to communicate. 

The 1(^ declarations of M. Barth^lemy that France 
will no longer regard any lines of demarcation she had 
agreed to, nor any neutrality, and that under pretence 
of marcliing through the various countries she will lay 
all under contributions, the Prussian and Hesse Cassel 
dominions not excepted, but that the other Princes 
shall repay Prussia and Hesse Cassel, the only two with 
whom she has concluded peace, the quota laid on their 
dominions: this shows how impossible it is for any 
country to treat with that unprincipled nation. 

The Duke's ideas tend to his being authorised by 
England to go to Berlin, and try to bring back the King 
of Prussia on this strange declaration and the change of 
appearance by the Austrian auccesses (which he is aware 
will raise the jealousy of Prussia), and thus attempt to 
get an army formed to secure the Hank of the Austrians, 



which ho is willing to ootnmand, with a view of pro- 
VRiiting the French from overranning Germany, not oa 
any plan of ofienaivo but defensiro operations. 

Mr. Pitt to the King. 


StTX^t. Nov. H, 1795. 

Jowuing : 

Mr. Pitt was honoured yesterday with your Majesty's 
oommfUKls, accompnayiug the copy of the lottcr from 
the Duke of Bruu8wii:k, «ii<l UwV. iLo first i>p[wrtiiiiity 
of mentioning the iiiti^rosting subjocl to wliioli it i\tlul«s 
to your Majesty's confidflntial Hervanta at tioir meeting 
this morning. 

Mr. I>uu(]iis not having then received tho Icitor to 
H.R.U. the Duke of York, which has ance oome to 
hi.4 haodi), your Majesty's servants did not ft-ul them- 
selves enahleii fully to di-souss du tinpurtaut a subjoct, 
and tlie ooii,<!<lomt!oa of it will bu re«umed with as 
littlo (loluy 08 poasible. In the mean time Mr. i'iU. 
cannot help submitting to your Majesty tho »trong 
a)>[>rehenHiou whicli be ontortains that tiie immense 
additional expense wbieh would probably bo incurred by 
again collecting and maiutuiniug an army to defend the 
lino of demarcation, added to the imp^isflibility of de- 
pending on any eonpcrt in which Prussia is to bear 
a material part, will hardly admit of any oucouiugemoiit 
being given to the Duke of Brunswick's pmposaL 

Dec. 4, 1796. 
It \a wiUi much satisfaction I have learnt frrim Afr, 
I'ilt's noto that tlio Bill for preventing seditioun a* 
Bembliea has been passed this moniiug ou a division of 
266 to 51, and that Mr. Abbot, who spoke for the first 
time, delivered his seuUmeuts with great ability and 
effeetv (-.r. 


Jan. 27, 1796. 
It 18 but natural that I must feel much interested that 
every measure of magnitude ahould be well weighed 
previous to any decision being adopted. I have there- 
fore put on paper the objections that seem to me most 
conclusive against any step being taken to open a ne- 
gotiation of peace with France, of which I have taken 
a copy, which I desire to deposit in the hands of Mr. 
KtL G. B. 

Mr. Pitt to the King, 

Downing Street, Jan. 30, 1796. 

Mr. Pitt was honoured with the commands which 
your Majesty bad the condescension and goodness to 
send him on Wednesday last. The present circum- 
stances had necessarily led to repeated consideration 
among your Majesty's servants on the line proper to 
be pursued with respect to negotiation. The result 
of the best opinion they can form on the subject is 
so fully stated in the draft of a despatch to Sir Morton 
Eden, which will he submitted to your Majesty by 
Lord Grenville, that Mr. Pitt does not feel himself 
obliged to trouble your Majesty with much additional 

The return of Admiral Christian with a large part of 
the convoy to Spithead {of which accounts were received 
this morning), and the advanced season, make it now 
impossible that operations on a large scale can be 
prosecuted with full effect (though they may still be 
successfully begun) till the close of the year ; and it 
cannot be expected that PaxlJament or the country will 
wait to go distant a period for some pacific explanation. 
It seems equally clear that if Government takes in time 
steps to remove the possibility of cavil on ite real desire 



ix) make peaco in conjunction with yDiir Sfajpety's 
AUii'i*, uri i<iiitabl« tt-nus wheuevcr iLey oin bcobtauiod, 
that tiiia will <^'ii«urc tUi: (Xintiiiiianco of a zealous 
Riipport in and out of Farlimnent. 

Ou tlio utlicr liiuni if Government delay faking stppa 
tliemselveH ho Into ii» to ht.- obliged at lust to tuk<; tlieia 
in conneqnence of any declaration of the aeose of Parlia- 
mont> all hope of goi>l terms would be at nn end. In 
the Gnit case, the issue of tho wur (thongh fur fruoi 
eqnal to all that might at some periods have beeo 
hopfid) would ftlill bo lionourable and probably ftd- 
vantugL'otw ; in the other case, it can luirdly be ex- 
pected to bo otherwise than tho revorso. 

Beside!^ thifl, it is. to be considered that if on explana- 
tion Fmuoo tibould avow tho iiiudmi8»iblo Oud extra- 
vagant preteoBJons contained in the papers lately 
ctrculutod by the French Agents, nothing would con- 
tribute more to a cheerful and rigorous t<iip[)ort of tbo 
war ; and in tlio iutL-rval any I'lLrliuiueulary difficultiefl 
wilt be avoitled, and the undisturbed management of 
tho negotiation iu it» future progress bo secured to 
Govemmout> by their being enabled to hold a language 
which muut Kilencv all opposltioiL 

Jan. 31, 1796. 
I xliould not hare f«]t eiuy hod I not fully Htatod my 
aentiments ogaitist any step from hence being taken for 
applying to Franco for peaee ; and it id not the retiini 
of the force sent to tho West IndicH that can in the 
least alter my optniona aa to the propriety of holding 
out till Franco takes some avowed step for attomptiog 
to treat; but I do not in the least mean by this to make 
any obstinate reAisIancetolhe measure proptimed, though 
I own I caimot feel the utility of it My mind is not 
of a nature to be guided by the obtaining a little ap- 


planse or staring off some abuse ; rectitude of conduct 
18 my sole aim, I trust the rulers in France will reject 
any proposition from hence short of a total giving up 
any advantage we may have gained, and therefore that 
the measure proposed will meet with a refusal. 

G. R, 


Kew, Oct S, 1796. 

Mr. Pitt's account of the maimer with which Lord 
Morpeth and Sir William Lowther conducted them- 
selves in moving the Address this day, and the general 
impression of the House, is as could be wished. I can- 
not help expressing that I was better pleased with the 
opinion held yesterday by Lord Grenville that no man 
of note ought to be sent to France, but some mere 
official agent, than with his thought this day of offer- 
ing the commission to Lord Malmesbnry, who having 
been advanced to a seat in the House of Peers, will pro- 
bably not feel flattered with the proposal. 




VOL, I. 
p. 101, latt UnCf/br " oppose," nad " be opposed." 
P. 264, lioe 18, add " after " empire." 
P. 310, first line, /or " 1751," read " 1741." 
P. 333, line7,/w"hoiK^"read"hor»es." 
P. 358, liae 28, for " Elliott," rvm! " Elliot." 
P. 403, note, /or " Dairy," rtad •' Diary." 

VOL. n. 

p. 19, iMt line, /t)r" find," rmKCtnut." 

P. 130, line 4, far " IfBprBBsion," read " iinprcBjion.' 

P. 280, lioe 6, date comina after " himeflf,"