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Ertbubd according to act of Congress, in the year 1843, by Edward C. Bxdolk, 
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 

• • •• • 

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•• • • • 
• • ••• * 

•••• • 


raufTSD BY T. E. it r. a. ooluh*. philadblphia 


It will be natural to ask, why this hook is offered to the public. 
The translator knows not how to introduce the reasons, in a better 
way, than by first allowing the author himself to explain the design 
and character of the original work. For this purpose, the reader 
is requested to peruse the following extracts from the Prefaces of 


From the Preface to the Fifth Edition. — Twenty-seven yean ago, I wm indaced 
to commence a reTirion and enlargement of that portion of Hkpsrick's Introduction 
to the HtMtorical Sciences which treats of Claasical Literature, Mythology, and Ro- 
man Antiquitiea. In doing this I expected to aid an esteemed friend, who had been 
requested by the booksellers to prepare an improved edition of the whole work. But 
what determined me to the attempt, was a conviction that it was undertaking a work 
of very osefol tendency, and a hope tUlt by it a want, long felt in elementary instruc- 
tion, might be supplied. Other duties hindered the seasonable accomplishment of 
this purpose, and I was led to enlarge the original plan, so as to inclade the Grecian 
Antiquities, and what is embraced under the head of Archaology of Literature and 
Art Thus it formed a complete Manualy furnishing the most essential aids in read- 
ing the classical authors, and with sufficient fullness for all elementary purposes. 
My work so designed has, therefore, now scarcely a trace in it of the treatise of 

My aim, in this work, was to furnish both Learners and Teachers with a book 
whidi might at the same time serve as a general introduction to the reading of classi- 
cal authors, and likewise afford further and constant help in understanding and ez- 
pUining them. It surety is unnecessary to prove that a knowledge of Greek and 
Roman Mythology and Antiquities, and some acquaintance with the Archeology 
of Litentuie and Art, and also with the general History and Criticism of the An- 
cient Authors, are not only useful, but absolutely indispensable, in the pursuit of 
rlassifal study. And it appears to me, that it must greatly facilitate the acquisition 
of this knowledge to have the whole range of it brought into one collected system, 
as it is in this work, and all digested with one common end in view, and reduced as 
far as possible to one uniform method, with a careful selection of what is most essen- 
tial, and omission of what is comparatively unimportant, and a constant reference 
to its appropriate use. The Teacher will find presented to him throughout the work 
occasions and hints for further illustrations and additions ; while the Learner has in 
the book itself what is of indispensable importance, and in such a form that he may 
eaaly le-peruae and review it. 

The Archaeology of Idterature and Art had never, previously to tho attempt in 
this work, been exhibited in a form adapted for general instruction. Yet some such 
aoqnsintance with the subject as this work may furnish is of the highest importance 
to the scholar. It may be expected that the glance which he will here obtain of the 
rich monuments of antiquity, will lead him to seek the pleasure of a more complete 
and lull knowledge, especially of Grecian art And certainly the classical teacher 
needs to be in some degree fiuniliar with the objects presented in this field of study, 
in Older to do justice to his pupils.^ — ^The View of the Claetieal Authors was neoes- 
saiily eoafined within brief limits. I preferred to arrange them in Departments, in- 
itead of following purely chronological order, because I could thereby more conve- 


niently introdnoe the brief remarks I wuhed to offer respecting the form which each 
deparbnent of writing assumed among the Greeks and Romans. In giving the edi- 
tions of the classics, and the works helping to illustrate them, I confined myself 
chiefly to such as are most suitable for sdiolars, and best calculated in my view for 
their advancement In describing the authors, only a short and condensed summary 
could be given, not including a complete enumeration of their works, but merely 
naming the most important — ^The sketch of Greek and Roman Mythology is that 
which I first drew up for use in my own lectures, and which has been separately 
printed. Here I have endeavored to separate the circumstances most important 
for the scholar's notice from those of minor consequence ; introducing the historical 
or traditional part of the fables, without saying much of the theories and speculations 
employed in solving them; yet presenting hints at explanations worthy of the scho- 
lar's notice. The references to the Metamorphoses of Ovid are added, because . 
deem it highly useful to connect a reading of these with the study of Mythology. — 
A new system of Greek and Roman Antiquities might seem, at first view, less 
needed than the other parts of this work, since there are other systems and compends 
easily accessible, especially of Roman Antiquities. But it was necessary to the com- 
pleteness of the Makual to include these branches. Nor was this all. I hoped 
here, as in the rest of my work, to furnish something especially valuable on account 
of its embracing all that is most essential to the subject, with the exclusion of ex- 
traneous and unimportant matter. 

Since the last edition of this Manual, there have appeared some performances of a 
similar kind, in which I thankfully find evidence of the utility of my own work, and 
am ready to acknowledge their excellence in some particulars. These works might 
render a new impression of mine superfluous ; but the very frequent call for the 
Manual, the urgent request of the booksellers, and the apprehension of a second 
counterfeit emission of the work, have persuaded me to prepare this fiflh edition. In 
the emendations and improvements, I have been guided by the same considerations 
which controlled me in the preceding editions. In the additions in the part treating 
of the classic authors, I have received very friendly assistance from Professor Schkf- 
JLSB, of this place. 

From the Preface to the Sixth Edition. — ^In a former pre&ce, the occasion, de- 
sign, and plan of this Manual have been stated. In each successive edition I have 
endeavored to make useful improvements; but have throughout adhered to the 
original design, and confined myself, of course, to substantially the same limits. Al- 
though much progress has been made in classical studies in Germany during the last 
thirty years, and there are now several books of great merit which may serve as 
guides and introductions to such studies, yet the demand for another impression of 
this Manual has compelled me again to take it in hand, and to perform the renewed 
labor of revision. In this labor I must again gratefully mention the assistance kindly 
rendered me by Professor Schbfplsb. 

The sixth edition was the last published during the life of the author. But the 
work has been printed once or twice since his death. The following is taken from 
the Remarks prefixed to the seventh edition (Berlin, Nov. 1, 1824). — ^The con- 
tinued acknowledgment of the great excellence of this Manual of Classical Litera- 
ture, which is proved by tlie constant demand for the book, renders it unnecessary to 
say much by way of preface to a new edition. After the death «/f Eschenburg, the 
society of booksellers employed a well qualified editor, who has revised the work, and 
superintended it with great care and fidelity. An examination will show that, in 
doing this, advantage has been taken of the important results of modern classical 
researches. It is, therefore, confidently believed that this work will still be found one 
of the most useful of the kind ; perhaps the very best manual, both for the Gymnasia 
and other Seminaries, and also for private use. 

In view of this account of the character, design, and reputation of 
the original work, it is easy to see the reasons why it should be pre- 
sented to the scholars of our country. Many instructors have felt 
the want of a Comprehensive Text-book in the department of Clas- 
9%cal Literature and Antiquities. After much inquiry, the trans- 


lator has been able to find no work, which, on the whole, seemed so 
well adapted for the object as Eschenburg^B Manual. 

It wOl be seen, by a mere glance, that the general design and 
plan of the work, in its present form, is to exhibit in a condensed 
bat comprehensive summary, what is most essential on all promi- 
nent topics belonging to the department of Classical liiterature and 
Antiquities, and at the same time give references to various sources 
of information, to which the scholar may go when he wishes to pur- 
sue any of the subjects by further investigations. I cannot doubt 
that a Manual on this plan, thoroughly executed, would prove one 
of the greatest aids to the classical student which it is possible to put 
into his hands ; and I cherish the hope that, in the entire want of a 
book of this sort, not only in our country, but also in the English 
language hitherto, the present attempt to introduce one from abroad 
will meet with a candid reception ; especially as it is one whose 
value has been so fully attested in the land most of all celebrated 
for classical attainments. 

Here it may be proper to mention, that some years since this work was translated 
into the French. The translator, after some preliminary remarks, says, " from such 
considerations, I supposed I shoald render the public a service, by making known in 
France a series of elementary works univtrsaUy esteemed and eireuUUed in Ger- 
many, I begin with the Manual of Classical Literaiure, by Escheitburo. This 
author is Councillor in the Court of the Duke of Brunswick, and Professor in the 
public seminary called the Carolinum, As estimable for his moral character as for 
the variety of his attainments, known as editor of the posthumous writings of Le»- 
sing, and dear to all the celebrated men of the country ; living also in the vicinity 
of one of the richest libraries ; he united, along with these advantages, all the light 
and experience derived from a long series of years devoted to instruction, and that 
good judgment, admirable but rare, which knows how to avoid the superfluous with- 
out omitting the necessary and the usefuL I shall not attempt an encomium on the 
book, of which I here offer a translation ; it is sufficient to refer to the public suffrage 
and decision, by which this Manual has been adopted as the basis of public and pri- 
vate instruction in a major part of the universities and colleges in Germany." — Sub- 
sequently to the time of this translation, in a report made to the French Institute 
respecting the literary bibors of the Germans, by Charles Villers, the distinguished 
author of the Essay on the Reformation of Luther, the Manual of Esehenburg was 
noticed as a valuable gift to the world. 

I feel at liberty also to state, as evincing the value of this work in the estimation 
of competent judges, that the present translation was commenced with the warm ap 
probation and encouragement of Prof Stxtaht, of Andover, and Prof RoBiirsoir, 
now of Boston. In fact, under the advice of these eminent scholars, Mr. Jsaae Stu 
arty Professor of Languages in the University of S. CaroliTia, had made prepara- 
tions for translating the same work, and wholly without my knowledge, but had been 
compelled to renounce the design just before I consulted their views of the utility and 
expediency of my attempt It is likewise worthy of notice here, that, from li con- 
viction of the great value of the Manual, and of its fitness to be useful in our country, 
it bad actoally been translated, before I entered upon the work, by Mr. Crusij whose 
Cranslation of the part pertaining to Roman Authors is introduced into the present 

No more needs to be said respecting tbe design and merits of the 

original work, and its claims to be introduced to the knowledge of 

• blteOnlediUoa; «• lb* aoM en pif* {z. 


The following statement will enable the reader to know in general what ia from 
the author and what from the translator. A star annexed to the number of a section 
always indicates that the section is added by the translator. The Italic letter t always 
denotes that the section or paragraph to whose number it may be ann^ed is altered 
so as to differ more or less from the original. All the matter in the largest of the 
four sizes of type is translated directly from Eschenburg, excepting such sections as 
may have one or the other of those marks. All the matter in the smaller type is added 
by the translator, with the following exceptions: (1) sections or paragraphs having 
the Italic letter u annexed to their number, which are all translated from Eschen- 
burg; (2) the first paragraphs of the several sections on the individual Roman 
authors, which are also translated from Eschenburg, unless their number is accom- 
panied by a stetr or the letter /, as above described ; and (3) part of the mere re- 
ferences to books and authors, a majority perhaps of which are taken from him. As 
to these references, it did not seem of much consequence to discriminate cuefully 
between those given by the author and those introduced by the translator; if any one 
should find some of them irrelevant or unimportant, he may safely charge such upon 
the translator rather than Eschenburg ; if any inquire why the numerous references 
to German works are retained, a sufficient reason is furnished by the feet, that it is 
becoming more and more common to import such works into this country, and more 
and more important for our scholars to be acquainted with the German language ; 
and if any deem it superfluous to have given so many references, let such consider, 
that the same books are not accessible to all students, and an increased number of re- 
ferences must increase the probability of presenting some to books within the reach 
of every reader; and it should be borne in mind, also, that some references are given 
chiefly as bibliographical statistics, which is the case especially with respect to some 
of the editions of Greek and Roman classics : moreover, some of the references,. it was 
supposed, might be of special service in studies pursued after the completion of the 
academic and collegiate course; since the work is designed to be useful to the student 
not only during that course, but also in his subsequent life.* 

In using this book, the student will find that he is firequently referred from one 
place to another ; and the division into Parts, sections, and sub-sections, all sepa- 
rately numbered, makes the reference very easy; thus, e. g. the abbreviations c/. P, III. 
§ 182. 4. direct the reader to the paragraph numbered 4, under section 182, in Part 
in. Instead of the word see^ or the abbreviation v. (for the Latin vide), the abbre- 
viation ef. (for the Latin confer) is commonly used. In order to facilitate the turn- 
ing to any passage, the number of the Part lb continued as a sort of running title 
on the top of the even or right-hand page ; in following the reference above given, 
e. g. the reader will first turn to Part III^ denoted by P, III. seen at the top of the 
right-hand page; then, under that Part, will look for § 182; then, under that sec- 
tion, look for the paragraph numbered 4. Whenever the section to which a reference 
is made belongs to the same Part with the section in which the reference is made, 
the abbreviation for the Part is omitted ; thus, e. g. the abbreviation cf. § 3, occurs 
on p. 40 in § 136 of Part I., and it directs the student to § 3 of the same Part L In 
aome instances, a subsection is itself divided ; thus, cf. P. V. § 297. 4. (c), directs to 
the paragraph marked (c), under the subsection 4. in § 297, of P. V. The references 
made to the Plates need no explanation, except the remark that the abbreviation Sup. 
always indicates one of the Supplement&l Plates, contained in a separate volume, 
which the purchaser of the Manual may obtain if he chooses. 

A copious Index was essential to accomplish the design of this book; and in order 
to secure greater copiousness, and at the same time give the student the advantage 
of a very obvious and useful classification, four distinct Indexes are furnished at the 
close of the work: an Index of Greek Words; an Index of Latin Words; a Geo- 
graphical Index; and a General Index; besides which the Contents (in a systema- 
tic view prefixed to the body of the work) are exhibited so fully, that the inquirer 
may easily ascertain in what section any topic is noticed. When one seeks informa- . 
tion on a particular point from this volume, he is requested not to conclude that it 
contains nothing on the subject, until he has carefully examined the Indexes, the 
Statement of Contents, and the Description of Plates. 

•*< WlmwTar It h porehued bf a itadant, b« itwolil ntatn <( of otwo/fte teeft* of kli ptrmanmt lOnrf. Threqgb life 1m bm^ 
aBBkfl Itanort onfol MBpulan of his Umry lolb tad ncnaUon." {Tnm a mOm of ite work Ihtht North Jm^. Arwik) 




Whbn the second edition of this Manual was issued, it was ex- 
pected that a more full view of Roman Literature than the work 
then contained would be prepared for separate publication by the 
author. Circumstances, which it is unnecessary here to specify, 
delayed the execution of the plan until the last summer, when the 
publisher of the Manual requested an immediate preparation of a 
third edition. The design of a separate publication was then re- 
nounced, from a conviction that the convenience and advantage of 
the student would be better served by incorporating the whole into 
one work. The present edition, accordingly, contains a new trans- 
lation of that part of Eschenburg which relates to the Roman Au- 
thors, with large additions. 

Besides this essential improvement, a considerable quantity of new 
matter is also introduced in other portions. The value of the work 
is, moreover, augmented by the insertion of numerous illustrations. 
These are carefully combined in Plates to avoid the loss of room 
occasioned by scattering single cuts separately over the pages ; and 
the whole printing is executed in a very compact style ; so that, 
notwithstanding all the additions and the accession of several hun- 
dred cuts, the sensible bulk of the volume is scarcely increased. 

The author would here make a general acknowledgment to those 
friends who have favored him with remarks and notes. With spe- 
cial gratitude he mentions the very valuable assistance received 
from Prof, Sears, of the Newton Theological Seminary, who freely 
famished critical remarks, corrections, and additions, for the whole 
of the part on the ArchsRology of Literature and Art^ and also the 
History of Greek Literature; to his generous attentions much of the 
improvement in these portions of the work is entirely due. 

The work of Eschenburg still enjoys high estimation in Germany, 
as is evinced by the fact that a new edition has very recently been 
published at Berlin. It is believed that the American Translation 
is not rendered less truly valuable by the large amount of various 
matter which it now contains in addition to the original. 

Anhent College, September, 1839. 



Since the publication of the third edition, the American Translation 
of Eschenburg's Manual of Classical Literature has been introduced 
into some of our most distinguished colleges and literary institutions ; 
this circumstance, while it has afforded encouragement under the 
toil of revising the sheets for a new edition, has added much to the 
author's regret that paramount engagements and duties would not 
allow him to accomplish more towards perfecting the work. Some 
important improvements, however, have been made ; respecting 
which it is unnecessary here to speak. Among the valuable recent 
publications, from which help has been derived, the Dictionary of 
Antiquities^ by tV^ Smith, ought to be specified. In the order of 
the Five Parts, of which the Manual consists, there is a considerable 
change ; for this a sufficient reason will be seen at once in the obvious 
propriety of the present arrangement. 

. The additional illustrations by cuts, and especially by the engrav- 
ings on copper, and the several tabular constructions, now first 
inserted, will be found to enhance greatly the value of the work. 
References are given also to engravings contained in a volume of 
Supplemental Plates, which, it is believed, the purchaser will never 
regret having taken with the Manual. 

The author must not omit to acknowledge his increased obligations 
to friends who have kindly furnished corrections and hints respecting 
improvements ; especially to Prof. B. Sears and Prof. B. B. Ed- 
wards: from whose eminent scholarship and earnest labors in 
classical and sacred literature, the public, already enjoying much, 
may expect to realize still more and richer fruit. Perhaps the author 
will be pardoned for taking this occasion also to make a respectful 
request for suggestions from any who may think the book worthy 
of their least contribution to its utility. 

The work is now again offered for the service of scholars, and 
committed to the blessing of Him to whom belong the treasures of 
science and the fullness of the earth; may it hold some humble 
place among the means of advancing classical learning, and of pro 
moting thereby the knowledge of God and of Jesus Christ, " whom 
to know is eternal life,^* 

Amherst College, July, 1843. 





Introdueiionf p. 3, 4. 
^^ 1-5. s=^ 1-3 Portion of earth known 
to ancients. ^ 4, 5 Ancient divisions. 
I. Op Eukopk, p. 4-43. 
%% G-I48. » ^ 6, 7 Extent and bounda- 
ries. ^ 8 General subdivisions. $ 9-15 
yartkem eountriea of Europe ; Scandina- 
via, Cimbrica, Sarmatia, Gemiania, &c. 
^ 16-26 MiddU amntria of Europe ; Gal- 
lia, Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, Illyri- 
com, Moesia, Dacia. $ 27-129 Southern 
eamutries of Europe. ^ 29-31 Hispania. 
% 32-50 Italia. ^ 51-71 Tapograj^y of 
Some, ^51, 52 Gales and roads. ^ 53 
Bridges sod hills. ^ 54 Districts. Re- 
fetences to writers on the topography of 
the city. $ 55 Campi. ^ 56 Streets. 9 57 
Fora. % 58-60 Temples and groves. 
^61-63 Curis, basilics, circuses ; theatres, 
^ ^ 64 Baths. ^ 65-67 Schools, por- 
ticos, columns, trophies, &.c. $ 68 Aque- 
ducis. Sewers. % 69 Monuments to the 
dead. ^70 Dwellings. $71 Villas. Sub- 
urhs. ♦ 72-75 Thracia. ^ 76 Four na- 
tural divisions of Gnecis. $ 77-81 Mace- 
donia. ^ 82-^85 Thessalia. ^ 86-68 Epirus. 
( 89-103 Hellas. ^ 104-116 Topography 
ufAthtns. ^ 104, 105 Its situation. ^ 106 
The Acropolis. $ 107 Parthenon and 
other building of the citadel. ^ 108-110 
The lower city and its temples. $111 
Porches. Odea. Ceramicus. $ 112, 113 
Forums. Aqueducts. Stadium. $ 114 
Areopagus. Pnyz. $ 115 Theatres. Cho- 
ragic monuments. $ 116 Harbors. Re- 
ferences to writers on the topography of 
Athens. $ 117-125 Peloponnesus. $126- 
129 Topography of Sparta. $ 126 Form 
and situation. $ 127 Forum. $ 128 Co- 
lamns and statues. $ 129 Hippodrome. 
Harbor. References to writers. $130-148 
European hlands. $ 130-136 Britannia 
and adjoining islsnds. $ 137 Balearic^. 
Corsica and Sardinia. $ 138-140 Sicilia. 
$ 141. 142 Ionian islands. $ 143-148 
JBgean islands. 

II. Of Asia, p. 43-53. 

%% 149-172. = $ 149, 150 Extent and 
general division of Asia. $ 151-155 Coun- 
tries of the Ea$tem division. Scythia, 
Sins, India, Persia, Media, Parthia. 
^ 156-171 Countries of the Western divt- 
§ion. $ 156 Sarmatia, Colchis, Albania, 

Iberia. $ 157 Armenia. $ 158-165 Asia 
Minor. $ 166 Syria. Phcenicia. $167-169 
Palsstina. $ 168 b. Topography of Jeru- 
salem. $ 170 Mesopotamia, Babylonia 
and Assvria. $ 171 Arabia. $ 172 Asia- 
tic islands. 

III. Op Africa, p. 53-57. 
$$ 173-183. = $ 173 Extent and divisions 
of Africa. $ 174-176 Egypt. $ 177 An- 
cient ruins and remains ot Egypt. Works 
on the subject. $ 178 Ethiopia. $ 179 
Libya. $ 180 Africa Propria. $ 181 Nu- 
midia. . $ 182 Mauritania. $ 183 Africa 
Interior. Atlantis. 


Preliminary Semarlu, p. 59. 
$ 184. Importance of the subject. De- 
sign of present sketch. Two parts. 

I. Of measuring time and adjusting its 
divisions, p. 59-63. 

$$185-196. = $ 185 The three natural 
divisions of time ; day, month, and year. 
$ 186, 187 Ancient customs as to be- 
ginning and dividing the day. $ 188 De- 
vices lor marking and making known the 
parts of the day. Dial, Clepsydra. $ 189, 
190 The month. The Grecian svstem. 
$ 191 a, 191 b. Roman method of reckoning 
the months, and the days of the month. 
The week. Names of the days. $ 192 
The year. The Grecian ; Roman ; Ju- 
lian. The Gregorian Calendar. Old and 
new style. $ 193 Cycles. $ 194 The 
lunar cycle. $ 195 The solar. $ 196 The 
cycle of indiction. Julian Period. 

II. Of fixing the dates of historical 
events and arranging them in order, 
p. 63-79. 

$$ 197-215. = $ 197 Topics noticed in 
this part. $ 198-201 Methods of ascertain- 
ing dates. 1. Successive generations; and 
successive reigns of kin^s. 2. Celestial 
appearances. 3. Coins, inscriptions, &c. 
4. Historical testimony. $ 202, 203 Epochs 
and eras. Era of Olympiads ; of Rome ; 
the Christian ; the Mahometan ; of the 
French Republic. $ 204-207 Systems and 
tables. $ 204 Claims of the Egyptians and 
Babylonians. $ 205 The Hebrew and 
the Septuagint chronology. Newton*s. 
Usher's, f 206, 207 Various plans for 



charts. The best. ^ 208^15 Actual dalet 
f^ moit prominent eventt, ^ 208 Common 
complaint of students. Remedy. $209 
Brief outline of General Chronology. ^ 210 
Systems of artificial memo. y. $211 Chro- 
nology of ancient states ; eight principal 

states of Asia ; references to works on their 
history ; Assyrian ; Jewish ; Trojan ; Ly 
dian} Persian; Syrian; Parthian. $212 
Of the two principal in Africa ; Egyptian ; 
Carthagiblaji. $ 213 Of Greece. $ 214 
215 OfRome.* 



Introduclum, p. 83-90. 
$$ 1-12. s=3 $ 1 Circumstances calculated 
to give^ fabulous., character to early tradi- 
tions. *$ 2 Mythology in the Greek, and 
in the modem sense of the term. $ 3 Dif- 
ferent points of view in contemplating my- 
thological fables. • $4 Changes and addi-, 
tions m mythological stories. $ 5 Different 
sources ot mythological fabrications. $ 6 
Advantages of an acquaintance with my- 
tholoffjr. $ 7 Eastern origin of the Gre- 
cian dejties. $ 8 The Roman eods bor- 
rowe4 jfrom the Greeks. % 9 The Greek 
\ and Roman system of classifying their gods. 
$ 10 The four cUutea under which they 
are ai^nee'd -in this work. $ 11 The no- 
lions of deity entertained by the Greeks 
and Romans. Abode of the gods. $ 12 
References to works treating on the subject. 

I. Myt?iologieal Hiatory cf the Superior 
gafo, ip. 91-113. 

$$ 13-67. = $ 13 Gods included in this 
class. $ 14-17 Saturn. $ 18 Janus. 
$ 19-21 Cybele or Rhea. $ 22-25 Jupiter. 
$ 26-28 Juno. $ 29-31 Neptune. $ 32-34 
Pluto. • 5 35:-37 Apollo. $ 38-40 Diana. 
$ 41-43 Minerva. $ 44-46 Mars. $47-50 
Venus. Cupid. $ 51-54 Vulcan. $55-56 
Mercury. $ 57-60 Bacchus. Silenus. 
$ 61-64 Certs. $ 65-67 Vesta. 

II. Myihologieal History of the Inferior 
gods, /p. 113M24. . ... 

$$ 68-96.*=$ 68 'Gods indjuded in this 
class. $ 69, 70 CcrIus; $71, 72 Sol or He- 
lius. $ 73 Luna. $ 74, 75 Aurora. $ 76 Nox. 
$ 77 Iris. $ 78 ^blua, $ 79, 60 Pan. 
$81, 82 Latona. $^83 Themis. Astnea. 
Nemesis. $ 84 'iBsculapius. $ 65 Plutus. 
$ 86 Fortune. $ 87 Fbme. $ 88 Deities 

peculiar to the Greeks. $ 89-95 Deities 
peculiar to the 'Romans. $ 90 Tiber. 
Koma. $ 91. Terminus. Priapus. Ver- 
tumnus. Flora. Feronia. Pales. $ 92 
Gods presiding; over various conditions or 
pursuits of meo^ '.Bellona, Jutuma, &c 
$ 93 Victoria. ': $ '94 Deified Roman em- 

g^rors.. $ 95 Virtues and Vices. $ 96 
gyptian deities v^biped among the 

III. Mythical heingi, whose history is 
intimately connected with that of the gods, 
p. 124-132. 

$$ 97-117. = $ 97 Titans, $ 98 Giants. 
Pygmies. $ 99 Tritons. $ 100 Sirens. 
$ 101 Nymphs. $ 102, 103 Muses. $ 104 
Graces. $ 105 Hours. $ 106 Fates. $ 107 
Furies. $ 108 a. Harpies. $ 108 b. Venti 
or Winds. $ 109 Dsemons. $110 Manes. 
$111 Lares. $ 112 Penates. $ 113 Sleep, 
Dreams, and Death. $ 114 Satyrs and 
Fauns. $115Gorgons. $116 Amazons. 
$117 Minotaur, Ghimiera, and yarious 
other monsters. 

IV. Mythical History of Heroes, p. 

$$ 118-133. = $ 118 Three periods of 
Grecian story. $ 119 General cause of the 
deification ot heroes. $ 120 Two classes 
of venerated heroes. $ 121 Inachus, Oz> 
gyges, Cecrops, and several others, ho- 
nored specially among their own people. 
$ 122 Perseus. Atlas. $ 123, 124 Her- 
cules. $ 125, 126 Theseus. $ 127, 128 
Jason and the Argonauts. $ 129 Castor 
and Pollux. $ 130 Heroes of the Theban 
war. $ 131 Pelops and his descendants. 
$ 132 Heroes of the Trojan war. $ 133 
Deified Roman einperors. ... 



Introduction, p. 140-145. 
$$ 1-14.==$ 1 Origin of the name 
Gnecia. $ 2 Countries included under it. 
$ 3 Most important Grecian cities. $ 4 Po- 
litical changes. $ 5 First inhabitants. $ 6 
Their early intercourae. $ 7 Early forms 

of government. $ 8 The Spartan system. 
$ 9 Athens. $ 10 Causes of Grecian im- 
provement. $ 11 Utility of study of An- 
tiquities, and of Grecian m particular. $ 12 
Original sources of knowledge on the sub- 
ject. $ 13 References to authors. $ 14 
Defects in the common treatises on Greek 
antiquities. Early and later ages distinct. 



L €f the Earlier and Usb aiUivated 
AgeM, p. 145-160. 

% 15 The period incladed. Subject di- 
vided into foar bnnchee. 

I. Reuoious Affairs. 
%^ 16-32. = ^ 16 First tracea of the reli- 
gion of the Greeks. ^ 17 Form and mode 
of religious instruction. ^ 18 Influence of 
the poeta. ^ 19 Number and character of 
the gods. ^ 20 Temples and sacred places. 
% 21 Images and statues. § 22 rriests 
and Priestesses. $ 23 Rites; ablutions. 
$ 24 Prayers. ^ 25 Sacrifices ; the ma- 
terials; the origin. $ 26 Altars. $ 27 
Sacrifices ; the ceremonies. $ 28 Gifts and 
ofieriogs. ^ 29 Worship rendered to he- 
roes. ^ 30 Funeral solemnities. ^ 31 
Burning of corpse; monuments. ^ 32 
Oracles and divmation. 

n. Civil Affairs. 
% 33-1 1 . =» ^ 33 Early rudeness. $ 34 
Power of the kinss. ^ 35 Their retinue 
and councillors. 9 36 Courts of justice. 
^ 37 Laws and punishment. ^ 38 The 
Cretan laws. $ 39 Successive forms of 

fovemment at Athens. ^ 40 At Sparta. 
41 Commerce and Navigation. 

III. Military Affairs. 
W 42-51 . =^ 42 Early Greeks warlike. 
% 43 Their armies, how composed. ^ 44 
Weapons; Defensive. ^ 45 OfTensive. 
^ 46 The materials of which made. ^ 47 
War-galleys. ^48 Camps. $49 Order 
of Battle. $ 50 Division of Spoils. Bar- 
barous stripping of the slain. Combat of 
chiefis. % 51 Treaties. 

rv. DoxESTic Affairs. 
i^ 52-63 = ^ 52 Common food. Daily 
meals. ^ 53 Social repasts. ^ 54 Dress. 
S 55 Practice of bathing. Cultivation of 
the Hair. ^ 56 Houses. ^ 57 Hospitality. 
% 58 Employments ; agriculture ; hunting. 
i 59 Employments of women. ^ 60 Amuse- 
ments. % 61 Marriage. ^ 62 Education 
of children. % 63 Slaves. 

n. Of the Later and more faurithing 
Aget, p. 160-223. 

I. Relioiocs Affairs. 
♦^ 64-90. = ^ 64 Number of gods in- 
creased. $65a. Temples more splendid, 
i 65 b. Altars. ^ 66 Sacred groves. Asyla. 
i 67 Clasies of priests. Purification, i 68 
Sacrifices and attendant ceremonies, i 69 
Oaths. Leagues. ^ 70 Oracles. Im- 
posture at Argos. $ 71 Oracles of Jupi- 
ter; atDodona; in Crete; African desert. 

4 72, 73 Of Apollo at Delphi ^ 74 Of 
Tropbonias; of ^sculapius, and others. 
) 75 Arts and methods of divination. $ 76, 
77 Festivals ; notice of the principal ; of 
Adonis, of Bacchus, of Ceres, of Minerva. 

5 78 Games. ^ 79 The race. $ 80 Leap- 
ing. % 81 Wrestling. $ 82 The discus. 
% 83 Bonng. % 64 Foor sacred games. 

Olympic. ^ 85 Pythian. ^ 86 Nemean. 
^ 87 Isthmian. ^ 88 System of athletics. 
^ 89 Theatres, and dramatic representa- 
tions. Masks. Chorus. $ 90 Theoric 
money at Athens. 

II. Civil Affairs. 

^^ 91-134. = $ 91 Athens and Sparta 
distinguished by peculiarities. ^ 92 Draco 
and Solon at Athens. ^ 93 The tribes and 
classes at Athens. ^ 94 PiaiBtratus, and 
his sons. ^ 95 The thirty tyrants. Form 
of government after them until death of 
Alexander. ^ 96 Buildings of Athens. 
^ 97 The free citizens of Athens. ^ 98 
The foreign residents. ^ 99 The slaves. 
^ 100 Magistrates. ^ 101 The Archons. 
^ 102 The Eleven ; Orators ; Ambassa- 
dors ; Notaries, &c. ^ 103 Athenian re- 
venues. ^ 104 Officers of the revenue and 
treasury. Expenditures. ^ 105 Amphic- 
tyonic council. % 106 Assemblies of the 
people. ^ 107 Athenian senate. ^ 108 Areo- 
pagus. ^ 109 Athenian courts of justice. 
The EphetiB. ^ 110 The Heliiea. ^ 111 
The Forty. The DiaBtetBB. ^ 112 Dif- 
ferent kinds of actions. $ 1 13 Punishments. 
^ 114 The Ostracism. ^ 115 Modes of in- 
flicting death. $116 Public rewards and 
honors. $ 117 Attic laws. $ 118 Natural 
situation of Sparta. $ 119 Spartan tribes. 
$ 120 Treatment of children at Sparta. 
$ 121 Spartan slaves. $ 122 The kings of 
Sparta. $ 123 The Senate. Ephori. $ 124 
Nomophulakes and other magistrates. 
$ 125 Assemblies of the people. $ 126 Pub- 
lic repasts. $ 127 Judicial affairs. ^128 
Punishments. ^ 129 Laws of Sparta. 
^ 130 Cretan constitution. ^ 131 Cretan 
laws ; public meals ; slaves. ^ 132 Con- 
stitution of Thebes. $ 133 Constitutions 
of Corinth and Syracuse. ^ 134 Of Argos, 
of iEtolia, and Achaia. 

III. Military Affairs. 

^ 135-160. = ^ 135 The warlike character 
retained; especially by the Spartans. ^ 136 
Persons liable to military duty. Their 
support. ^137 Classes of troops. The 
infantry. ^138 Cavalry. Use of Elephants. 
^ 139 Armor. $ 140 Various officera. 
^ 141 The divisions of the army. ^ 142 
Forms of Battle-array. Manceuvres. ^143 
Declaration of war. Treaties. ^ 144 
Camps. ^145 Standards and ensi^s. 
Signals for battle. $ 146 Art of besieging. 
$ 147 Military engines. $ 148 Defence of 
cities. ^149 Treatment of captured places. 
$ 150 Division of spoils. $ 151 Military 
rewards and punishments. ^ 152 Means 
of conveying intelligence. $ 153 Crossing 
of rivers, f 154, 155 Ships; Names of 
their principal parts ; Vessels of war. ^ 156 
Rowers, sailors and marines ; Manner of 
placing the seats of rowers, i 157 Instru- 
ments employed in naval battle. ^ 158 
Naval officers. ^159 Manner of naval 
battle. ^ 160 Naval victories and monu- 
ments. Naval pimishments. 



IV. Affairs of Private Life. 
^^ 161-187. = ^ 161 Food. Use of wines. 
^ 162 The different meals. Manner of 
epending the day at Athens. $ 163 Enter- 
tainments or feasts. ^ 164 Customs at 
table. ^ 165 Substances eaten at the prin- 
cipal meal. ^ 166 Officers and attendants 
at an entertainment. ^ 167 Drinking ves- 
sels. Customs in drinking. Amusements 
accompanying a feast. ^168 Customs of 
hospitality. Officers called Proxeni. Inns. 
^ 169 Dress, for the body, head, and feet. 
Use of silk. Adorning of the person. ^170 
Bathinc and anointine:. $ 171 Houses. 
$ 172 Commerce and Agriculture. ^ 173, 
174 Grecian money and coins. Ratio of 
Gold and silver, i 175 Greek system of 
notation. $ 176 Grecian weights. $ 177 
Measures. ^ 178 Social amusements. 
^ 179, 180 Music and musical instruments. 
i 181 Condition of females. ^ 182 Laws 
and customs respecting marriage. ^^ 183 
-186 Funeral rites. Anniversaries held in 
honor of the dead, with orations and games. 
1 187 Sepulchral monuments. 


Introdvctiont p. 225-229. 
n 188-198. = ^ 188 Oricin of Rome. 
% 189 Principal events whicn affected the 
appearance of the citv. Comparative 
splendor of ancient and modern Rome. 
^ 190 Population of Rome. ^ 191 Extent 
of the Roman empire. ^ 192 Proportion 
of soldiers and other citizens. $ 193 The 
time of the regal government. $ 194 Most 
brilliant era otRoman history. ^ 195 Con- 
dition under the emperors. $ 196 Utility 
of studying Roman antiquities. Original 
sources of mformation on the subject. ^ 1 97 
References to modern works and authors. 
^ 198 Division of the subject. 

I. Religious Affairs, p. 229-248. 

^§ 199-239. = ^ 199 Use of the term re- 
Iff^o. ^ 200 Origin of the religion of the 
Romans. ^ 201 Its connection with poli- 
tics. ^ 202 Design of Romulus and Nuraa. 
Gods of the Romans. ^ 203 Temples. 
^ 204 Statues and offerings. Groves. ^205 
Altars. $ 206 Vessels employed in sacri- 
fices. $207 Several orders of priests. $208 
Pontifices. $ 209 Augurs. Various me- 
thods of augury. $ 210 Haruspices. $ 21 1 
Epulones. $ 212 Feciales. $ 213 Rex 
sacrorum. $ 214 Flamines. $ 215 Salii. 
$ 216 Luperci. $ 217 Galli and others. 
$ 21 8 Vestal virgins. $ 21 9 Fraires Arva- 
les, Curiones, and others. $ 220 Customs 
in offering prayers. $ 221 Sacrifices and 
attendant rites. $ 222 Vows. $ 223 De- 
dication of sacred buildings. $ 224 Expia- 
tions. The lustrum. $ 225 Oaths. $ 226 
Oracles. $ 227 Lots. $ 228 Divisions of 
time. $ 229, 230 Festivals. $ 231 Public 
games. $ 232, 233 Ludi Circenscs. Nau- 
machia. $ 234 Ludi Seculares. $ 235 
Ludi Gladiatorii. $ 236 Ludi Florales. 
$ 237 Ludi Megalenses, Cereales, and, 

others. $ 238 Theatres, Masks, &e 
$ 239 Amphitheatres. 

IL Civil Affairs, p. 248-270. 
$$ 240-274. = $ 240 Regal government. 
$ 24 1 Consuls. $ 242 1 niperial government. 
$243PnEtor8. $244.ffidiles. $245 Tri- 
bunes. $ 246 Questors. $ 247 Censors. 
$ 248, 249 Extraordinary magistrates; 
Dictator ; Decemviri ; Military Tribunes ; 
Pnefects. Interrex, &c. $ 250 Procon- 
suls, and other provincial magistrates. $ 251 
Tribes. $ 252 Six classes of citizens. Cen- 
turies. $ 253 Patricians and plebeians. 
$ 254 The populace. Patrons and clients. 
$ 255 Roman nobility. Right of images. 
Curule office. $ 256 The Equites or 
Knights. $ 257 The Senate. $ 258, 259 
l*he Comitia. $ 260 Right of citizenship. 
Government of conquered cities and na- 
tions. $ 261 Judicial proceedings. Public 
actions and trials. $ 262 Private actions. 
$ 263 Penal offences. $ 264 Punishments. 
$ 265 System of laws. Body of Roman 
civil law. $ 266 Regulations respecting 
grain. $ 267 Revenue. Saltworks. Mines. 
$ 268 Various Pursuits. Commerce. Me- 
chanic arts. $ 269 Agriculture. Carriages. 
$ 270 Money. Coins. $ 271 System of 
reckoning and notation. $ 272 Modes of 
acquiring property. $ 273 Auctions. Con- 
fiscations. $ 274 Measures of extent, dLc. 
Modes of determining the Roman ybo(. 

in. Affairs of War, p. 270-285. 

$$ 275-309. = $ 275 Authorities on the 
subject. $ 276 Military establishment of 
the kings. $ 277 Persons liable to duty. 
Time of service. $ 278 Consular army. 
Exempts. $ 279 System of levy. $ 280 
Classes of troops. $ 281 Subdivision into 
maniples, &c. $ 282 Standards. Music. 
$ 283 Weapons. $ 284 Wages. Rewards. 
$ 285 Punishments. $ 286 Order of battle. 
$ 287 Modes of attack. $ 288 Light troops. 
$ 289, 290 Cavalry. $ 291 Cohorts. $ 292 
Auxiliaries. $ 293 Attendants upon the 
army. $ 294 Order of march. $ 295 Forms 
of array. $ 296, 297 The Camp. $ 298 
Watches. Exercises of soldiers. $ 299 
Sieges. Engines. Mounds and towers. 
Battering ram and other engines. $ 300 
Modes of defence in a siege. $ 301 The 
fleets. $ 302 Method of naval battle. $303 
Construction and parts of Roman ships. 
$ 304 Different kinds of vessels. $ 305 
Rewards of generals. $ 306 Laws on the 
subject. $ 307 The triumph. $ 308 The 
ovation. $ 309 Military system under the 

IV. Affairs of Private Life, p. 285-304. 
$$ 310-343. ==$ 310 The free-bom and 
the free-made discriminated. $ 31 1 System 
of applying proper names. $ 312 Regula- 
tions respecting marriage. $ 313, 314 
Marriage contracts. $ 315 Nuptial cere- 
monies. $ 316 Divorces. $317 The right 
and power of the father over his children. 
$ 318 Emancipation of sons. $ 319 Adop- 



tjott. % 320 Legitimation. ^ 321 Educa- 
tion of youth. ^322 Slaves. ^ 323 Slave 
tnde. ^ 324 Emancipation of slaves. 
% 325 Dwellings. Parts and ornaments of 
a Roman bouse. % 326 Country seats or 
vilUs. ^ 327 Manner of life. Morals. 
^ 328 Daily routine of emplovment. Bath- 
ing, i 329 Food and meals. Furniture 
for eating. ^ 330 Different courses at 
supper. Roman hospitality. ^ 331 a. 
Drinking and games at banquets. Dice. 
^ 331 6. Wines. ^ 332 Dress. The toga. 

$ 333 The tunic. Badges. ^ 334 The 
stola and other garments of women. 
^ 335 Various outer garments. Use of silk. 
^ 336 Coverings for the head and feet, 
i 337, 338 Dress of the hair. Personal 
ornaments. ^ 339 Funeral customs. Ex- 
posure of the corpse. $ 340 Funeral nro- 
ceseions. Eulogy. ^341 Burning. Place 
of burial. Tombs. Phials of tears. ^ 342 
Mourning for the deceased. Games and 
sacrifices. ^ 343 Consecration, or deifica- 
tion of deceased emperors. 



Introduction, p. 307-321. 

♦^ 1-32. =3^1 The orieinal capacity 
and knowledge of men. f 2 Develope- 
menc of the same. ^ 3 Aided by language. 
% 4 Origin of arts and sciences. ^ 5 First 
character of the same. % 6 Attainments 
made before the Deluge. ^ 7 Effects of 
the dispersion of the human fiunily, by the 
ooofiision of tongues at Babel . ^ 8 EarHest 
eaployments ; food. ^ 9 Efiect of cUmate 
and otner causes ; influence of agriculture 
OQ arts. ^ 10 Rise of architecture and 
uae of metals. Tools of stone. ^11 Imi- 
tative arts. ^12 Origin of Language. 
i 13 Origin of Writing. ^ 14 Previous 
methods of communicating thought. ^ 15 
Picture-writing; by Mexicans; N. Am. 
Indinus. § 16 Hieroglyphics. ^ 17 Ab- 
breviated pictures. Cl8 Sjrllable- writing. 
Chineee; Cherokee; Persian, dLC. ^19 
Alphabetic writing. ^ 20 Materials and 
implements. $ 21 Contents of eartiest 
wntingB ; writings of Moses and Job the 
most ancient; claims of the oriental re- 
eorde. i 22 tlie earliest sciences. ^ 23 
Origin of Medicine. $ 24 Of Arithmetic. 
% 25 Of Astronomy, t 26 Of Geometry. 
^ 27 Of Geography. 1 28 Egypt and Asia 
the cradle ofthe sciences. f^29 High cul- 
ttire ofthe Greeks and Romans. Impprt- 
anee of classical studies. % 30 Object of 
the present treatise. ^ 31 Utility of the 
same. % 32 References to works illustrat- 
ing the subjecu included. 


L Cf the origin and Jirtt ilepa of Grc 
nan cmiture, p. 323-328. 

i% 33-44. »$ 33 First population of 
Greece. The Pelasgi. ^ 34 Early state 
of society. Colonies from the east. $ 35 
Oriigin oi Greek language. Various theo- 
lies on the subject, f 36 Language of 
Noah ; nature ot the Confusion of tongues. 
Langiiagve of western Asia. Semitic and 
SaoMrit families. % 37 Japheth and de- 
■eendants. i 38 The probable foundation 
ofthe Greek. % 39 Causes of the great 
perfection of the Greek. ( 40 Fnrst un- 
to Grecian civilization. $41 In- 

fluence of eastern nations on the religion 
of the early Greeks. ^ 42 On their arts. 
^ 43 Influence of the Greek bards. ^ .44 
Ofthe Greek games. 

II. Of the Alphabet, Method of Writing, 
and Books, p. 328-334. 

^^ 45-60. = ^ 45 Letters introduced by 
Cadmus. Resemblance of Grecian and 
Phoenician alphabets. $ 46 Number of 
letters in the alphabet of Cadmus. ^ 47 
C bangles in form of Greek letters. ^ 48 
Direction of letters and Unes in writing. 
^ 49 Uncial and Cursive characters. Ab- 
breviations. % 50 Breathings. ^ 51 Ac- 
cents. $ 52 Punctuation. ^ 53 Materials 
used in Greece for writine. ^ 54 Instru- 
ments. $ 55 Material usea for ink. $ 56, 
57 Form of books. $ 58 Copyists. ^ 59 
Infrequent use of writing in early times. 
Whetner Homer committed his poems to 
writing. $ 60 Instruction given orally. 

III. Of the mo9t flourishing period of 
Greek Ltterature, p. 334-340. 

^^ 61-77. = $ 61 Circumstances favor- 
able to progress in letters. Different cha- 
racters of omerent Hellenic tribes. Actual 
studies and attainments. ^ 62 Design of 
the author under the present head of the 
subject. ^ 63, 64 The Grecian system of 
education ; Gymnasia ; Music. ^ 65, 66 
The Musical and Dramatical contests. 
^ 67 Rehearsals public and private. ^ 68 
Professed Readers. ^ 69 The Symposia 
or Uterary feasts. ^ 70 No learned pro- 
fessions among the Greeks. ^ 71 Gram- 
mar as a part of education. ^ 72 Philo> 
sophy ; Esoteric and Exoteric. ^ 73- Me- 
thods of teaching; Socratic. ^ 74 The 
great public schools ; Academy, Lyceum, 
Porch, Cynosarges, Garden. $ 75 Regu- 
lations and discipline of the Gymnasia and 
schools. ^ 76 Greek hbraries. ^ 77 Tra- 
vels of learned men. 

IV . Of the decline of Greek Literature, 
p. 340-343. 

%% 78-85. «$ 78 Causes of its decUne. 
^ 79 Greek language still extensively used. 
i 80 Greek letters cultivated at some 
places; Rhodes, Pergamus, Alezan- 



dria, &c. % 81 Greek letters patronized 
by some of the Emperors. $ 82 Schools 
01 Athens suppressed. ^ 83 Opposition 
between Christianity and pagan literature ; 
influence of Christianity. ^ 84 Loss of 
Classical manuscripts, in various wavs. 
^ 85 Political condition of the Greeks alter 
the Christian era. 

V. Of the Remaint and Monuments of 
Grecian Literature, p. 339-357. 

^^ 86-108. =$ 86 Division of these into 
three classes.— I. Inscriptions, ^87 
References to works on Greek inscriptions. 
^ 88 General design and character of in- 
scriptions. ^ 89 Qualifications requisite 
for mterpieting inscriptions. ^ 90 Notice 
of some of the most important inscriptions 
of a date prior to Alexander. ^ 9 1 f those 
of a date between Alexander and the 
Christian Era. ^ 92 Of a period subse- 
quent to the Christian Era.— II. Coins. 
^ 93 UtiUty of an acquaintance with coins, 
i 94 Uncomed metal first used. ^ 95 Ear- 
liest Greek coins. Chronological classifi- 
cation of Greek coins. ^ 96 The coins in 
most common use among the Greeks. 
Number of ancient coins preserved. ^ 97, 
1)8 Forms of letters on Greek coins. ^ 99 
References to works on Numismatics. — 
III. Manuscripts. ^100 Utility of 
them. ^ 101 Their antiquity. How made 
and preserved. Palimpsesti. ^ 102, 103, 
104 Marks by which the age of a MS. is 
-known ; or criteria of Palaeography. ^ 105, 
106 Importance and advantages of collating 
manuscripts. ^107 Notice of some of the 
oldest and most curious manuscripts ex- 
tant ; Greek Scriptures ; Herculanean 
Rolls; Egyptian Papyri ; Hebrew Penta- 
teuch. ^ 108 Libraries containing Greek 


I. Of the Mourcee of Roman culture, 
p. 359-362. 

^^ 109-114. = ^ 109 Origin of the Ro- 
mans. Two different theories respecting 
the inhabitants of Italy. Early tribes. 
Uncertainty of the early history of Rome. 
^110 Origm of Latin written characters. 
$111 Intercourse of the Romans with the 
Greeks. ^ 112, 113 State of culture be- 
fore the Punic wars. $114 Origin and 
progress of the Latin Language. Monu- 
ments of its early character. 

II. Off he Alphabet, WrUing, and Books, 
p. 362-365. 

W 115-118. = $ 115 Number of original 
letters. $ 116 The early and later ortho- 
graphy. $ 117 Forms of letters. Abbre- 
viations; Nota Tironiana. $ 118 Form 
of books. Materials and instruments for 
writing. List of names and terms used in 
relation to writing, &c. 

III. Of the vu>$t fUmrishing period t/ 
Roman Literature, p. 365-368. 

$$ 119-127.=$ 119 Influence of the 
Greek colonies in Magna Gnecia. $ 120 
Introduction of the Greek philosophy. 
$ 121 Most brilliant age in Roman letters. 
Causes. $ 122 Branches cuhivated. $ 123 
Change in the system of education. $ 124 
Instructions of the Grammarians and Rhe- 
toricians. $ 125 Public schools. Athe- 
neum. Literary exercises specially prac- 
ticed by the youth in the course of educa- 
tion, &.C. $ 126 Libraries at Rome. $ 127 
C ustom of finishing study abroad. Places 
visited for the purpose. 

IV. Of the decline of Roman Literature, 
p. 368-370. 

$ 128 Causes of the decline. Com- 
mencement of it. Exertions and influence 
of some of the Emperors. Effect of inter- 
course wirh provincials ; of the removal of 
the seat of government to Constantinople. 
Schools of learning in the empire ; Byzan- 
tium, Berytus, Massilia, Augustodunum. 

V. Remains and Monuments of Roman 
Literature, p. 370-377. 

n 129-143. = $ 129, 130 Roman In- 
scriptions; References to works on 
the subject. $ 131 Abbreviations and ini- 
tial letters on Roman coins. $ 132 Pecu* 
liar advantages of study of Roman inscrip- 
tions. $ 133 Notice of some of the most 
important inscriptions that are preserved. 
$ 134 Roman Coins; when first struck. 
Connection between poetry and medals. 
$135 Division into Consular and Imperial. 
$ 136 Legend on coins. Peculiar forms of 
writing on early coins. $ 137 False coins. 
$ 138 References to works on Roman coins. 
$ 139 The must valuable collections of an- 
cient coins. Symbols on coins and medals. 
$ 140 Roman Manuscripts; few exist- 
ing of a very early date. $ 141 Successive 
changes in the manner of writing. $ 142 
Zealous search for manuscripts on the 
revival of letters. Petrarch, Poggio, and 
others interested in it. Depositories of La- 
tin manuscripts. $ 143 Some of the most 
ancient Latin manuscripts known. 

Preliminary Remarks, p. 379-381. 

$$ 144-153. = $ 144 Meanings of the 
word Art. $ 145 Divisions of the arts into 
the Mechanical snd the Fine. $ 146 The 
plastic arts. $ 147 Objects represented by 
them. Allegorical images. $ 148, 149 
Requisites in the artist, connoisseur, and 
amateur, severally. $ 150 Utility of some 
knowledge of the nistory of art. $ 151 AlIi- 
ti(]ues and the study of them. $ 152 Ori- 
ginal design of the monuments of ancient 
art. Science of .Esthetics; references on 
the same. $ 153 Object of the present 
treatise. Four branches of art paiUcalBrly 



I. Seulplure, p. 381-398. 
W 154-191. = ^ 154 Comprehensive 
mMiuDg of the teim. $ 155, 156 Origin 
of Scolptore. Character of the first speci- 
mens. Image of Cybele. ^ 157 The ma- 
terials used. ^158 First soft ; clay, &c. 
^ 1 59 Varioaa kinds of wood. ^160 Ivory. 
^161 Marble and stone of different kinds. 
^ 102 Bronze. % 163 Classes of Statues ; 
rosirume ; attitudes. ^ 164 Busts. The 
kind of figure called Hermes. ^ 165, 166 
Bas-rehet9. ^ 167 Mofaie. ^ 168 In- 
scriptions on statues. ^ 169, 170 Egyptian 
sculpture. $ 171 Sculpture among the 
Asiatica. i 172, 173 Character and remains 
of Etruscan Sculpture. ^ 174 Rise of 
sculpture in Greece; circumstances favor- 
able to its advancement. Diedalus. ^ 175 
The four periods of Grecian sculpture. 
% 176 Its character in the first period. ^ 177 
Different schools. ^ 178 Frequent demand 
for statues in Greece. ^ 179 Grecian 
frulpture in the second period. Works of 
Phidias. ^ 180 In the third period. Sco- 
pas. Preziteles. Lysippus. $ 181 In the 
fourth period. ♦ 1 P*2-l 84 Sculpture among 
the Romans. 9 185 The most celebrated 
remains of ancient sculpture. $186 Of 
Statues. $187 Of Busts. $ 188 Of Bas- 
relief. $ 189 Of Mosaic. $ 190 The most 
famous collections of ouch remains. $ 191 
References to works on this subject. 

II. Lythoglypky or Gem- Engraving, 
p. 398-409. 

$$ 192-213.=$ 192 Explanation of the 
term. $ 193 Gems early known. $ 194 
Respecting the nature and classification of 
gems. $ 195 Notice of some of the prin- 
cipal gems employed in this art. Murra. 
Alabaster. Pearls. $ 196 Manner of 
ibrraing the figures on Gems; tntaglion; 
camtm. $ 197, 198 Various objects repre- 
sented. % 199 Origin and earliest instances 
of the art. % 200, 201 Gem-engraving of 
the E^ptians. Scaroban. ; AhraxoM. $ 202 
This art among other nations, especially 
the Etrurians. $ 203, 204 Among the 
Greeks. $ 205 Among the Romans. $206 
Uses made of sculptured gems. $ 207 
Mechanical operations in engraving. $ 208 
Fictitious gems. $ 209 Advantages of 
some knowledge of ancient gems. $ 210 
This stndy facilitated by the use of paste 

imitations. The impressions of Lippert; 
of Wedge wood; of Tassie. $211 Some 
of the most remarkable ancient gems. 
$ 212 The most celebrated collections. 
$ 213 References to works illustrating the 

III. Painting, p. 409-416. 

$$ 214-226. = $ 214 Explanation of this 
art. $ 215 Date of its origin. $ 216 Its 
early existence in Chaldaea and Egypt. 
$ 217 Earliest pictures among the Greeks. 
$ 218 The colore employed by Greek 
paintere. $ 219 Methoos of painting. In- 
struments for painting. Fresco pamting. 
$ 220 Encaustic painting. Painting on 
Glass. Mo»aic. $ 221 Merit of ancient 
painting. Perspective. $ 222 Schools in 
painting among the Greeks. Celebrated 
mastere. Four periods. — Comparative 
number of paintings and statues. Portraits. 
$ 223 Etruscan paintings. $ 224, 225 
Painting at Rome. $ 226 Monuments of 
ancient painting. References to works on 
the subject. 

IV. Architecture, p. 416-431. 

$$ 227-244. = $ 227 Both a mechanic 
and a fine art. Its origin. $ 228 Leading 
principles, or causes affecting its character. 
$ 229 Materials in early times. Tools and 
instruments. Influence of materials on 
the style. $ 230 The grand branches 
of Architecture, Civil, Military, Naval. 
$ 231 Egyptian Architecture. Tultecan, 
in Amenca. Cyclopean. $ 232 Archi- 
tecture as exhibited in Homer. $ 233 Most 
flourishing period of this art in Greece. 
$ 234 Description of ancient templet. $ 235 
Of Theatres and Odea. $ 236 Of Gym- 
nasia. The Stadium. $ 237 Of Porticos. 
$ 238 Of pillars and columns; and the 
several orders of Architecture. $ 239 Or- 
naments of ancient Architecture. Carya- 
tides, Atlanlides, &.C. $ 240 Most cele- 
brated Greek architects. $ 241 Tuscan 
and Roman Architecture. Antefixa. 
$2410. Merits of the Romans in Archi- 
tecture. $ 2416. Description of ancient 
Baths. $ 242 Remains of ancient Achi- 
tecture. $ 243 Works illustrating the sub- 
ject. $ 244 Notice of a style of Archi- 
tecture, more modem ; the Romanesque. 
$245 Other styles; the Saracenic, Chi- 
nese, Gothic. 



Introduction, p. 435-447. 
$$ I'lO. = $ 1 Circumstances favorable 
to literature among the Greeks. $ 2 Ex- 
oelleooe of Greek classics; importance 
of acquaintance %nth them. $ 3 Beauty 
and perfection of the Greek language. $ 4 
Its dialects. $ 5 Pronunciation ofGreek. 

$ 6 Principles and methods in studying. 
Analytical and Synthetical methods. In- 
terlinear translations. Grammatical and 
logical analysis. Other exercises. Use of 
Reading-books. $ 6 ft. System in the Lon- 
don University. $ 6 c. Hints of a method 
of logical Analysis. $ 7 List of various 
helps in the study of Greek. $ 8 Plan to 
be punued in the present view of Greek 



literature. $ 9 Six periods in Grecian po- 
litical history, very conveniently applied 
to the history of literature. ^ 10 The se- 
veral departments or classes of writers to 
be noticed. 

I. Foet9, p. 448-482. 
%% 11-81. = ^ 11 Subjects of earliest 
Greek poetry. % 12 Poetry first cultivated 
in the northern provinces of Greece. % 13 
Poetry originally connected with music 
among the Greeks. References on the 
origin and process of Greek poetry. % 14 
Kinds or varieties of Grecian poetry. M5 
Sacred. % 16 The Sibyls. % 17-20 Evic. 
^ 21 The Cyclic poett. The Homendse. 
Iliac Table. % 22-26 Lyric poetry. % 27 
The ScoHon. ^ 28, 29 Elegiac. % 30 
Bucolic or Pastoral. ^ 31, 32 Didactic. 
$ 33 Erotic, % 34 The Epigram. % 35 
Anthologies. ^ 36 Dramatic poetry. 
^ 37-40 Tragedy. ^ 41-43 Comedy. ^ 44 
SeUyre. ^ 45 Different forms of Sa- 
tyre. $ 46 Farces and Mima. ^ 47 Pomp 
and expense of representation. Instructing 
of the actors. ^ 47 f . References to works 
treating of the Greek poets generally. ^ 48 
Orpheus. ^ 49 Musoeus. ^ 50 Homer. 
^ 51 Hesiod. ^ 52 Archilochus. ^ 53 
Tyrtsus. ^ 54 Sappho. $ 55 Solon. 
^ 56 Theognis. ^ 57 Phocylides. $ 58 
Pythagoras. ^ 59 Anacreon. ^ 60 Pindar. 
^ 61 .^Bchylus. $ 62 Sophocles. ^ 63 
Euripides. ^ 64 Empedocles. ^ 65 Aris- 
tophanes. ^ 66 Menander. ^ 67- Lyco- 
Shron. ^ 68 Theocritus. ^ 69 Bion; 
foschus. ^ 70 Calliraachus. $ 71 Ara- 
tus. ^ 72 Cleanthes. $ 73 Apollonius 
Rhodius. $ 74 Nicander. ^ 75 Oppian. 
^ 76 Nonnus. ^ 77 Coluthus. ^ 78 Quin- 
tus Smymteus or Calaber. ^ 79 Tryphio- 
dorus. % 80 Theodorus Prodromua. % 81 

II. Oro/or«, p. 482-489. 
$^ 82-107. = ^ 82 Oratory as an art not 
known in the heroic ages. { 83 Eloquence 
much practiced after time of Solon. % 84 
History of Grecian eloquence short. $ 85 
Chiefly confined to Athens. % 86 Three 
aspects in three different eras. % 87, 88 
Era of Themistoclcs. § 89-91 Era of 
Pericles. . % 92-94 Era of Demosthenes. 
^ 95-97 Subsequent decline. School of 
Rhodes. % 98 Three branches of ancient 
oratory. ^ 99 References to works illus- 
trating the Greek orators collectively. 
^ 100 Antiphon. % 101 Andocidea. ^ 102 
Lysias. % 103 Isocrates. ^ 104 Isteus. 
^ 105 Lycurgus. % 106 Demosthenes. 
% 107 .£schines. Hyperides. Dinarchus. 

HI. Sophists and Rhetoricians^ p. 490-496. 

%^ 108-128. = $ 108 Description of the 
Sophists. ^ 109 Their performances. 
^110 Names of some of the more eminent 
in different periods. $111 Distinction be- 
tween Sophists and Rhetoricians. $ 112 
Rhetoricians in different periods. ^ 113 
General references. H14 Gorgias. $115 

Aristotle. $116 Demetrius Ffaalereus 
$117 Dionysius Halicamaascus. $ lift 
Dion Chrysostomus. $ 119 Herodes At 
ticus. % 120 .£hu8 Aristides. $ 121 Lu- 
cian. $ 122 Hermogenes. $ 123 Athe- 
naeus. $ 124 Loneinus. $ 125 Themistius. 
$ 126 Himerius. ^127 Julian the Apostate. 
$128 Libanius. 

IV. Grammarians, p. 496-500. 

$$ 129-147. =$ 129 Time when writers 
of this class first flourished ; place. $ 130 
Their various performances. $ 131 Some 
of the most distinguished before the time 
of Constantine. $ 132 Grammarians at 
Constantinople. $ 133 General references. 
$134 Hephaestion. $ 135 Apollonius Dys- 
colus. $ 136 .£lius Heroaianus. $ 137 
Julius Pollux. $ 138 .£Iius. Mceris. 
$ 139 Harpocration. $ 140 Hesychius. 
$141 Ammonius. $ 142 Photius. $ 143 
Suidas. $ 144 The Etymologium Magnum. 
$ 145 Eustathius. $ 146 Gregorius Pardus, 
or Corinthius. $ 147 Thomas Magister. 

V. Writers of Epistles and Romances^ 
p. 500-504. 

$$141-165. = $ 148 Extant letters as- 
cribed to ancients, in part spurious. $ 149 
Romances unknown in best periods of 
Greek literature ; reason. $ 150 Erotic 
and Milesian tales. Imaginary voyages. 
$ 151 Some of the authors of Romances. 
$152 References on the writers of this di- 
vision. $ 153 Anacharsis. $ 154 Phalaris. 
$ 155 Themistocles. $ 156 Socrates. 
$ 157 Chion. $ 158 Aristsenetus. $ 159 
Alciphron. $ 160 Heliodorus. $ 161 
Achdles Tatius. $ 162 Longus. $ 163 
Xenophon of Ephesus. $ 164 Chariton. 
$ 165 EumathiuB. 

VI. Philosophers, p. 504-517. 
$$ 166-201. = $ 166 The poets of Greece 
her first philosophers. $ 167 The next, 
her priests and legislators. Subjects of 
speculation in the early religious philoso- 
phy. Political philosophy. Seven Sages. 
$168 Origin of schools in philosophy. The 
earliest of celebrity. $ 169 The Ionic. 
$ 170 Th6 Italic. $ 171 The Socratic. 
$172 Sects derived from the Socratic. 
Three Minor. Cyrenaic. Megaric. Eliac. 
$ 173 Four Major. Cynic. $ 174 Stoic. 
$ 175 Academic. $ 176 Peripatetic. 
$ 177 Sects derived firom the Italic. Elea- 
tic. Heraclitean. $ 178 fjpicurean. $ 179 
Skeptic. $ 180 Periods of^Greek literature 
in which the several sects arose. Grecian 
philosophy after the Roman supremacy. 
$ 181 The New Platonisis. Eclectics. 
$ 182 Christian philosophy. Peripatetic 
philosophy after time of Constantine. Its 
propagation in western Europe. $ 183 
References to sources of information on 
the Greek philosophy. $ 184 iEsop. $ 185 
Ocellus Lucanus. $ 186 Xenopnon the 
Aihenean. $ 187 ^schines, the philoso* 
pher. $ 188 Cebes. $ 189 Plato. $ 190 
TimsBus of Locri. $ 191 Aristotle. $ 192 


% 193 Epietetus. ^ 194 
S 195 Phitardi. S 196 Mirras 
^197SeztiisEmpincns. ^198 
Plodnus. ^ 199 Porphyry. 4 20O Jamb- 
bdiiis. ^aoOb. ProdoB. Olympiodorna. 

Vn. yfthrtmfiritimB amd Gtmgrmfktn, 

M 209-221. = $ a02 Mathenntics re- 
dveed io8cieDti6c form by Greeks, bat de- 
nted from oiber mnooB. $ 203 The foan- 
datioa for phiSaBophy. Views of Piato. 
S ^M, 205 State of Greek mathematics in 
diderent periods. S 206, 207 Degree of 
knowledge amoo^ the Greeks respecting 
Geography. % 206 Treatises on Tactics. 
$ 206 r. Geneiml references. S 209 Euclid, 
i 2 10 Archimedes. $ 2 1 1 ApoUonius Per- 
gms. $212Pappas. $213 Diophantus. 
f 214 Hanno. S 215 EratosiheDes. % 216 
Strabo. $217l>ionyBiii8Penegetes. $218 
Claodhis Ptolemy. $ 219 Paosanias. 
$ 220 s. Stephanos of Byxantiam. $ 220 
Cosmas IxMlioo-pkosies. $ 221 Onesan- 
der. Polycnos. 

Vm. MyikogrejAert, p. 523-525. 
$$231s-231. = $221a. Principal soor- 
ces whence the traditionary febles of the 
Greeks may be learned. $ 222 Palepba- 
tns. Eahemema. $ 223 Heraelitos. $224 
ApoUodoms. $ 235 Conon. $ 226 Par- 
tfaenins. $227 Phnmntus or Comutns. 
$ 228 Henbaestkm. $ 229 Amoninus Li- 
berafia. $ 230 Sallnsdas, the Platooist. 

IX. HuUriamM, p. 525^536. 
$$ 231-260. =$ 231 Earliest history in 
a poetical form. Earliest writers of history 
in prose. $ 232 The compositions styled 
UfpogiufkitM. $ 233 The diatingnished 
historians in the brilliant period of Greek 
fitflratore . $ 234 Writers on Attic history. 
$ 235, 236 Chief historians between Alex- 
ander and the Roman supremacy. $ 237, 
238 Principal writers daring the next pe- 
riod nntil time of Constantme. $ 239 a. 
Ifistofieal authors after time of Constan- 
tiae. The Byzantine Historisns. $ 239 b. 
Gredan biography. $ 240 General refer- 
enoea. $ 241 Herodotus. $ 242 Thucy- 
dides. $ 243 XenophoiL $ 244 Ctesias. 
$ 245 Potybius. $ 246 Diodorus Siculus. 
$ 247 Dionysios Halicamasaeus. $ 248 
FIsTios Josephus. $ 249 Plutarch. $ 250 
Arrian. $ 251 Appian. $ 252 Dion Cas- 
sias. $ 253 iBiian. $ 254 Herodian. 
$255a. Dic«enes Laertius. $ 255 b. Phi- 
kwiratua. $ 255 c. Eunapias. $ 256 Zo- 
■mns. $ 257 Procopius. $ 258 Agathias. 
$ 259 Zonatas. $ 260 Dares Phrygius. 
Dictys Cretensis. 

X. Writen en Medicine and Natural 
Hittary, p. 536-541. 

$$ 261-277. =»$ 261 Greeks less emi- 
nent in these sciences, ^sculapius and 
hin descendants. Hippocrates the first 
$ 262 The Dogmatic school. < 

$ 263 Dissections. Empiric school. Me 
dicine first practised at Rome by Gre<Jc 
stares. $ 264 The Methodic school. The 
Eclectic school. Chsracter and influence 
of Galen. $ 265 State of medicine after 
time of Coostantine. $ 265 h. Branches or 
dirisions of the science. $ 266 Physics in- 
cluded under studies of the pliiloeophere. 
$ 267 Aristotle founder of Zoology : Tbeo- 
phrastus. of Mineralogy and Botany. Ca- 
binets of the Ptolemies at Alexandria. 
Chief writers before the time of Constan- 
tine. $ 26S Stale of natural soience under 
the emperore of Constantinople. $ 269 
Collections of Greek writers on medicine 
and physics. $ 270 Hippocrates. $ 271 
Dioscorides. $ 272 Areisus. $ 273 Ga- 
len. $ 274 Aristotle. $ 275 Theo- 
phrastus. $ 276 Anii^onus of Carystus. 
$ 277 j£lian. Apollomus. Dyacolus. 

yofke eftke HEBRrw-GRECiAX and 

CiTEiSTiAX a^ings^ p. 541-547. 

^$ 27S-293. = $ -278 The Stpfuaginf. 
$ 279 The Apocrypha. $ 280 Works trom 
ChrisMan authors. $ 281, 2^2 iiooks ot 
the Saw Testammi. Their moral author- 
ity. Their literary influence. $ 283 
Works of the Apostolical Fathers. $ 281 
Spurious or Apocryphal writinga $ 285 
Opinions of early Christians respecting 
himian learning. Christian Mmmaries. 
Philosophy adopted by the Fathers- $ 286 
Biblical writings. Versions of Bible ; 
Origan's Hexapla. Harmonies. Com- 
mentaries. $ 287 Controversial writings. 
Iremeos, Justin Martyr, Tatian, Athena- 
goras. $ 288 Historical writings. Euse- 
bins. $ 289 Doctrinal. Origen. Atha- 
nasius. $ 290 Homiletical. Character of 
the ancient homilv. Few remains of early 
sacred oratory. $ 291 Homilies of Ori^n. 
$ 292 Distinguished Christian orators just 
after the time of Constantino. Basil, Gre- 
gory, and Chrysostom. $ 293 References 
to works givini^ information re9pe€tiog the 


Introduction, p. 549-554. 

$$294-302. = $ 294 Rank of the Ro- 
mans in literature. $ 295 Utility of stu- 
dying their language. $ 396 The four 
ages commonly assigned to it. Works on 
its orisin and history. $ 297 Pronuncia- 
tion ofLatin. $ 298 Methods and exer- 
cises in studying. $ 299 Various works 
useful as helps. $ 300 Plan followed in 
this treatise. $ 301 Five periods of the 
history of Roman Eteratore. $ 302 Chissea 
of authors. 

I. Poels, p. 554-586. 

$$ 303-389. = $ 303 Eariiest poetry of 
the Romans. $ 304 Hjrmns of the Fratrea 
Arvales and Salic Priests. Fescennine 
verses. $ 305 Tuscan Histriones. Atel- 
lane Fables. $ 306 Early national ballade. 



^ 307, 308 Introduction of regular dramatic 
forms. ^ 309-312 Tragedy, % 313-317 
Comedy. ^ 318 Alellane Fables. ^ 319 
Mimes. ^ 319 b. Pantomime. $320 Ori- 
gin of modern dramatic exhibitions. Plays 
at fairs. Holy farces. Mysteries and Mo- 
ralities. ^ 321-325 Epic Poetry. ^ 326- 
329 Lyric ^ 330. 331 Bucolic. ^ 332, 
333 Elegiac. ^ 334-336 Didactic. ^ 337 
The Fable. ^ 338-341 The Epigram. 
^ 342 Anthologies. $ 343-347 Satire, 
i 348 General references. Collections of 
Roman Poets. ^ 349 Livius Andronicus. 
^ 350 Naevius. ^ 351 Ennius. ^ 352 
Plautus. $ 353 Pacuvius. ^ 354 Accius 
or Attius. ^ 355 Terence. ^ 356 Luci- 
lius. ^ 357 Lucretius. ^ 358 Catullus. 
^ 359 Cornelius Gallus. ^ 360 Tibullus. 
^ 361 Propertius. ^ 362 Virgil. ^ 363 
Horace. ^ 364 Ovid. ^ 365 Cornelius 
Severus. ^ 366 Pedo Albinovanus. $367 
Gratius FaUscus. $ 368 Publius Syrus. 
$ 369 Marcus Manilius. $ 370 Caesar 
Germanicus. $ 371 ^niilius Macer. $ 372 
PhcBdrus. $ 373 Persius. $ 374 L. An- 
noeus Seneca. $ 375 Lucan. $ 376 Va- 
lerius Flaccus. $377-Silius Iialicus. $378 
Statius. $ 379 Martial. $ 380 Juvenal. 
$ 381 Flavins Avianus. Festus Avienus. 
$ 382 Dionysius Cato. $ 383 Nemesian. 
i 384 Calpumius. $ 385 Ausonins. Proba 
Falconia. $ 386 Claudian. $ 387 Pru- 
dentius. $ 388 SeduliuB. $ 369 Rutilius 

IL Orators, p. 586-592. 
$$ 39(M06. = $ 390 Eloquence in the 
earliest ages. $ 391 Influence of Greek 
teachers. $ 392 Civil honors acquired by 
oratory. $ 393 Eloquence of the Gracchi. 
$ 394 Increase of speakers. Eminence 
of Crassus and Antony the Orator. $ 395 
Study of the art of speaking. Schools. 
$ 396 Two eminent orators. Sulpitius and 
Cotta. $ 397 The two great rivals, Hor- 
tensius and Cicero. $ 398 The kinds of 
oratory. ^ 399 Decline of Roman elo- 
quence. $ 400, 401 Principal orators in 
the later ages. $ 402 Panegyrical oratory 
of the Romans. $ 403 General references. 
$ 404 Cicero. $ 405 PHny the younger 
(Caius Caediiius Secundus). $ 406 The 
Fanegyrists; Claudius Mamertinus, Elu- 
menius. Nazarius, Pacatus, Symroachus. 

III. Rhetoricians, p. 592-595. 

$$ 407-415. =5 % 407 Distinction between 
Rhetoricians and Grammarians. $ 408 
First rhetoricians at Rome. Opposition to 
the Grecian teachers. % 409 Schools of 
Roman freedmen. $410, 411 Principal 
authorsin this department. $412 General 
references. $ 413 Cicero. $ 414 Marcus 
Annseus Seneca. Rutilius Lupus. $ 415 

IV. Grammarians, p. 595-600. 

$$ 416-434. » $ 416 Studies and influ- 
ence of the Grammarian. $ 417 The an- 
cient grammarian and modern philologist. 

$418 Principal grammarians down to the 
death of Augustus. $ 419 Chief gram- 
marians of tbe next period. $ 420 High 
rank emoyed by grammarians in later 
times. $ 421 Names of the more eminent. 
$ 422 General references. $ 423 Varro. 
$ 424 Asconius Pedianus. $ 425 Aulas 
Gellius. $ 426 Censorinus. $ 427 No- 
nius Marcellus. $ 428 Pomponius Festus. 
$ 429 .£lius Donatus. $ 430 Macrobius. 
$ 431 Charisius. $ 432 Diomedea. $ 433 
Priscianus. $ 434 Isidore. 

V. Epistolizers and Romancers, p. 600- 

$$ 435-^45. = $ 435 Number and value 
of Roman epistles extant. The earliest 
specimens. $ 436-438 The principal au- 
thors. $ 439 Romance scarcely found in 
Roman literature. $ 440 Cicero. $ 441 
Pliny the younger (C. Ciecilius Sectm- 
das). $ 442 Lucius Anneeus Seneca. 
$ 443 Fronto. $ 444 Symmachus. $ 445 
Sidonius Apollinaris. 

VI. Philosophers, p. 604-^14. 
$$ 446-474. = $ 446 Origin of Roman 
philosophy. $ 447 Numa a philosopher. 
$ 448 rhilosophers introduced by Paulus 
^milius and Scipio Africanus. $ 449 Date 
of the rise of philosophy at Rome. $ 450 
Diflference between Greeks and Romans 
in respect to philosophical studies. $ 451 
Comparative number of Roman philoso- 
phers. $ 452 Patronage of Lucullus. 
$ 453 Philosophy in the time of the em- 
perors. Introduction of oriental views. 
$ 454 Example of Marcus Aorelius. In- 
fluence of Christianity. $ 455 Sects of 
philosophy at Rome. $ 456 Academic. 
$ 457 Stoic. $ 458 Peripatetic. $ 459 
Cynic. $ 460 Epicurean. $ 461 Skeptic. 
$ 462 Pythagorean. $ 463 New Pytha- 
gorean. $ 464 New Platonists. $ 465 
Eclectics. $ 466 Phik)Sophy of Christian 
Fathers. $ 467 General references. $468 
Cicero. $ 469 Lucius Annaeus Seneca. 
$ 470 Pliny the elder (Caius Secundus). 
$ 471 Apuleius. $ 472 Petronius Arbiter. 
$473Capella. $ 474 Boeihius. 

Vn. Maikemaiieians, Geographers, and 
(Economists, p. 614-622. 

$$ 475-501. = $ 475, 476 Merit of the 
Romans in mathematical science. $ 477- 
479 Principal writers in this department. 
$ 480 Knowledge of geography among the 
Romans. Survey of the Empire. $481, 
482 Principal writers and works. $ 483 
Class of writers termed (Economists. 
Greek and Roman agriculture. $ 484, 485 
Roman writers on husbandry. $ 486 The 
Culinary art. $ 487 Surveying of land. 
$ 488 Treatises on the art of the agrimen- 
sores or land-surveyors. $ 489 General 
references. $ 490 Vitruvius. $ 491 Fron- 
tinus. $ 492 Vegetius. $ 493 Julius Fir- 
micus. $ 494 Pomponius Mela. $ 495 
Solinus. $ 496 Vibius Sequester. $ 497 
The Roman Itineraries. $ 498 Marcus 



PordnsCato. ^499Vano. 500 a. Cola- 
mella. ^500b. Palladiua. MartialisGar- 
gilina. % 501 Colius Apchu. 

Vm. Mytkagraphen, p. 622-€24. 
H 502-509 =» ^502 The tales of Roman 
mfthology aunilar to those of the Grecian. 
^ 503 The writeiB few. Collections. ^504 
Hjginiis. ^ 505 Fuleentius. Albiicos. 
i 506 Lactantios PlacuKo. 

IX. HiftormmMttmdBwgrapker9,p.62^ 

H 507-542 = ^ 507 Metrical annals. 
S 506 The Pontifical Commentaries and 
other evij records. ^ 509 Legal docn- 
menta. Family memoirs. Funeral ealo- 
gies. % 510 Loss of early historical re- 
cords. Dispute respecting the authenti- 
city of the common history of Rome. 
% 511-513 The Annalists. ^514, 515 Prin- 
cipal writers in the third period of Roman 
Literature. > 516 Offiaal documents in 
this period. % 517-522 Historical writers 
after the time of Augustus. ^523-526 
Roman biography. Several classes of bio- 

fmphical works. ^ 527 General references. 
528 JnUus Cesar. ^529Sallnst. ^530 
Comehus Nepos. i 531 Titus Livius. 
^ 532 Velleitts Paterculns. ^ 533 Vale- 
rius Majdmus. ^ 534 Tacitus. % 535 
Qumioa Curtios. ^ 536 Floras. ^ 537 
Suetonius. ^ 538 Justin. % 539 Sextus 
Aurelius Victor. ^ 540 Eutropius. % 541 
Ammianus Marcellinos. % 542 Authors 
of the Augustan History. 

X. Writert on Medieuu and Natural 
Seiemee, p. 638-642. 

%S 543-557 = ^ 543 Sdenoe of Medicine 
in low estimation at Rome. ^ 544 Early 
notions respecting the nature of diseases. 
% 545 Greek sIstcs the first physicians. 
^546 Regard paid to the Greek physicians. 
^ 547 a. Csto's book of medicine. ^547b. 
Roman medical authors, from the time of 
Aoffustus to that of the Antonines. % 548 
Medical writers in later times. ^ 549 
Rank of physicians under the emperors. 
% 550 Opportunities for advancing natural 
•cience enjoyed bj the Romans. ^ 551 
Principal authors m physics. % 552 Ge- 
neral references. % 553 Aulus Cornelius 
Celsns. ^ 554 Scribonins Largus. ^ 555 

Sereiras Sammonicus. $ 556 Theodoma 
Prisdanus. ^ 557 Marcellus Empiricus. 

XI. Writers tm Law and Jurignrudeneet 
p. 643-647. 

^^ 558-771. => $ 558 Number of works 
in this department lost. Reason for it. 
^ 559 Various classes of works. $ 560 
Design of the notice here to be taken. 
^ 561 Earliest collections. The Jus Pa- 
pirianum ; Twelve Tables ; Jus Flaria- 
num ; Jus ^lianum. ^ 562 Writers in 
the second period of Roman literature; 
Manilius, Mudus Scevola. ^ 563 Emi- 
nent writers of the next period ; Sulpidus 
Rufiis; Ciceroj Alfenus Varus; Cascel- 
lius ; £lius Tubero, &c. $ 564, 565 
Chief dvilians and authors in the |»eriod 
between Augustus and the Antonines; 
Mssurius Sabinus, and Sempronius Pro- 
cuius ; Cocceius Nerva, Juventius Celsus; 
Neratius Priscus ; Salvias Julianus ; 
Gains, dec. ^ 566 Rank of the legal pro- 
fession in the time between the Antonines 
and Constantine. Encouragement under 
the system of Constantine. Law- School 
of Berytus. ^ 567 Papinian; Ulpian; 
Julius Paulus. ^ 568 Cooez Hermogenia- 
nus. Codex Theodosianus. Code of 
Theodoric. Breviary of Alaric. $ 569 
Arrangements of Theododus for reducing 
to order the Roman law. Labors of Tn- 
bonian. Constituent parts of the Body of 
Romttm Lam. % 570 Influence of the 
system of Justinian. Revival and sway 
of Roman Jurisprudence. % 571 Genenu 

Chrutian Writinga in the Latin Lan- 
guage, p. 647. 

i 572 Names of some of the authors. 
References on the subject. 

Appshdiz to the History (f Greek and 
Soman Literature, p. 649-652. 

^$ 573-575. = ^ 573 Editions of the 
Classics in regular sots. ^ 574 Collections 
of Translations. ^ 575 History of clasn- 
cal studies. ^ 576. 577 Biography of the 
most eminent clasncal scholars. % 578 
Progress of daadcal learning in the United 


1. Fmownmnwcw. View of Delphi sod tbe 
Jli^f Altf •/ PmruoBMuSt as fiyen by Boerngt in 
Bmnk»Umnf*9 AnacHanto. See tbe ▼olune of 
rutes, p. 71, u cited P. V. ( 153. 3.-<r. P. I. 

H Rbtkbsb or TiTLB. (Fftcing Page v.) 
BtwrtMmiMtMm •f Om OneU «f AflU, Cf. P. 

I. Map or Akcibht Wobld. (Page S.) Tkt 
Wwrid m£€0rding tm PuUmf, aa given in Jlur- 
r«f*« EscyciopKdia of Geography. Cf P. I. ^ 3. 

4. Plats I. (Page 14.) PUtu ^ JWun* mnd 
JImm. Sec P. 1. |« 51-71. 104-llA. 

5. Platb IL (Page 16.) Tbe TSier, and the 
City of JUme, gfmMuMd. Cf. P. II. ) M; P. IV. 
^tt6. 1. ' 

6. PLATBin. (Pace 18.) Tk*Pmmthecn. Cf. 
P. I. ) 59- 

7. PlatbIV. (PagetS.) Plela and jier^r*- 
iMt »f PkUini. Cf. P. I.«80. 

6. Platb IV «. (Page 30.) Aatii* ut jStknu 
of tbe Temple of Neptune and that of Minerva 
PandroMM. Cf P. 1. 1107 ; P. HI. ( 90. 

9. Platb IV b. (Page 35.) Rniiu at Ctrrimtk. 
Cf. P. I. ) IM. 

10. Platb IV c. (Page r.) FiUo^c •/Jlfi». 
frs; near the ancient Sparta. Cf. P. I. ( 120- 

II. Platb V. (Page 39.) CeUnen TempU 
«f TkMMmUmiM. Cf. P. I. $ SO; P. II. ( IS9. 1 

11. Platb VI. (Page 4^) C»U»mI Sutn* 
•/ a« Skb. Cf. p. I. ( 147 ; P. II. 1 7S; P. IV. 
» 180. 1. 

13. Platb VI «. (Page 45.) rattcy «/ a« 
mmatnt TTuhmrm^ CfP. I.|154ft. 

14. Platb VU. (Page 49.) Figw/Browa, 
tkM rnmtinu Brum. CfTP. I. ) 100. ^ 

15. Platb VII. (Page 50.) TmvU^fJmmuB 
•I Amm, and Oaf •/ tk« Saa a< HdufHM. Cf. 
PI. ) 106,160; P. IV. (SS4.3. 

16. Platb VIII. (Page 55.) 7k« £;ryr<^* 
S^taz, Jke. Cf. P. L 9 177 : P. II. ) 117, { 96. 

17. Platb Villa. (Page 56.) A P^rtum of tk» 
PtmtimftrUn TmkU. Ct P. V. \ 497. It is pre- 
•ented here as given in H. Jhtrrmff't Encyclo- 
pedia of Geography (Phil. 1838, 3 vols. 4), from 
whkh is taken tbe following explanation of the 
figarca and letters on the Plate; with no change 
except that of adding in parentheses the coni- 
Moo Latin form of some of the names. 

NoBTB Past. 


la. hrtJtn (PinalMa 
17. Ai;.t1«a. 

1*^ (H .lis. 

I9L Al lao (AltiamV 
SO a<«iae (R^m). 
it. TndM'v (triiMla 
& PtacMtU. 
XS Aq«» hip«lo«l« 
%L Tifwrotek TMcanai 

381 CioHO (Cloriam). 
M. VoMai (Vyisinii). 
as. Aq«M-Paauii. 

36. hmwM. 

37. AruDiaook 
Sa. GraalKa. 

aSL C«alaaCcl1» 

4a Aqaw-Tnari. 

41. AoeoM (Aneom). 

4SL C^tto-VomtCutrvmV^ 

431 AofM-ApolUatf a^ 

4& Ptolleatik 

4A, Rnte. 

«7. CatfdlorirMBi(CHlrui 

4& AdSB&rwm. 

43. Ramau 

ML Hn«th(OMU). 

31. Ctomnae (Cafftaico). 

38. Uiica CaloaU. 
6S. Aqais. 

S4. Ippoota D'nrilo. 
60. drMCol 
M A4lM«l 

37. ThdeoSc Col. 
3". TbroMT^ 
53. Sicca-Vtrii. 
A AdAqwCMvia. 

n. Uau.. 
& PiUia. 
Ik Anaialli 
q. Mwta. 
r. TSbcrm 

t Nrlun 
«. Mmlaoa. 

T. Mi«o. 

J. NerniaaiB. 
■b Hal. B. Aaio. 

South Pabt. 

Citia. cam, 

I. Ad PrHorum (Prctoriua 34. r«fenlwia. 

ia PiniMB.aj. S&. lUacum. 

S. Btrvirium. fitf. Corfiaw (CofftaimX 

9. Ad Pratonia (Frdoriaai 37. Mamibio (MaiT«biaae . 

ia Oarnixtia). 39. Tra TabcrMB. 

4. MfliM Major. SO. Canuln (Carwoli?). 

6k Indvim. 60. Oi'n ftoai. 

3. TiriolMirRa. 6i. Plana. 

7. Ra<urijw S3 Cattro-NovoCCaatramNck 
8L Sidis. Tuai. iw Uw Hadrian^. 

9. SaloM. 33. Pnroealc. 

la Epdio (EpcthUB). 3t. Roma. 

11. M^moa. 6a. Hoalk (Oltia). 

12. Sirmroa. 63. Chanaciac (Caffkaao). 

13. HATom. 67. Maxola. 

14. Taurvoo (Tkaraaam). 68. Ad Aquaa. 

I3w Ad Matricrm. ««. M«m Clipna. 

13. iMBciduaa C^incidoBBin). 70. Gum. 

17. Cpibiaro (£f idaurui). 

18. SUocdi. 
13. LUHM. 

21. Dfmi'to (DTmchiniD). 

22. Aulnnia (ApalkiBia). 

23. 0»Cot 

24. Sabrata. 

25. Rc«M>(RhafmniorB^tiai). TSl 
33. CauloB. "^ 
27. Lutnium. 
28L Caatra MiaamB. 
29. VibooaValeatia. 

50. Team (Trmpaa). 

31. TarcDto (Tarenttim^. 

32. Brindiu (Bnaldaiuai). 

33. GratJc. 

34. Narnioa (Nmlaan). 
33. SaJerao (Salanuia). 

36. Nacrria. 

37. Opioalia. 
98. Beoeveal 
33. VeaoaU. 
4a Ncapoli (NaapoUa). 

41. Capua. 

42. CiiBtaa (Cu«). 

43. bylla. 
4(. Aeraa. 

4S. Prvioniam Laarrianam. 
43. ^ipooto (itipoolum). 

47. Eaernie. 

48. Tcano S<v>iinDO (Teaaot 

49l SinucM. 
Sa Mio'iirnia (Mintaras) 

51. Fuadi* (Fnadi). 

32. Tcnarina. 

33. Faraeliaiuii. 

71. Ad Homa. 

TL Leptprainaa(Lepliilfiaa() 

73. Thtfofo Col. 

74. AdAquaa. 

75. Taf arara (Tkpbfwa). 

76. Tacape. 

77. DK|«Bia (Dnpaaasi). 
78L LilHwo (LtlyboBoa). 
73. A|rigeiito(A«ri«aalui). 
sa Siraoiau njnriiiil 
81. £taa Mam, 

a. Daaubiah 
K DriBUOk 

c. SavQB. 

d. Marsw. 

C Hapnm (^ 


L Silaniak 
i. CoJor. 
k. AveldioB. 
L Attfricaaa. 
m. Larioun. 
a. ClocoDL 
a Saanan. 
p. Creawrm. 
q. Ncraooi. 
r. Anw. 
a. TibariiL 
t Safo. 
a. Vulinraoi. 
V. Himrra. 
w. NiraauiL 
I. Anaera. 
y. Garia. 

18. Platb IX. (Psge 69.) Symbolic Rtfrt- 
g^tatutiu of the Stasont. Cf. P. I. ( 191a; P. 
IV. n^8. 3; P. II. ^ 105. 

19. Platb IX a. (Paee 80 ) Fiew ofJlike%M^ 
from tbe foot orMt. Anchefnitis ; reduced from 
HobkoMoe's Albania. Cf. P. I. ^ 105. 

90. PL4TE X. (Page 82 ) Mwtkologieal lUuo- 
trationt.— Fig. 1. Saturn ; cf P. 11. } 14-17.— 
Fig. t. Cybeie; cf P. II. ^ 19-31.— Fig. 3. Pluto; 
cf P. II. i 32-34.— Fig. 4. Vulcan j cf. P. II. 
^ 51-54.— Fig. 5. Neptune: cf. P. II. ( 39-31.— 
Fig. 6. Venus, with attendants ; cf P. II. ^ 47- 
49.-Flg. 7. Diana ; cf P. II. > 38-40.-Fig. 8. 
Bacchus: cf. P. II. J 57-60. 

31. Platb XI. (Pnge 92.) Mfthologieal 11- 

/v#(nitt0iw.— Fig. 1. Juno; cf P. II. ^ 26-38 — 

Fig. 2. Mercury ; cf P. II. ^ 55, 56.-Fig. 3. Ju. 

Piter ; cf P. U. « 2»-95.-Fig. 4. Apollo ; cf P 




n. J S5-37.-Flf. S. Cerei ; cf. P. II. ( 61-64 - 
Fig 6 Mlnervn : cf. P. II. } 4M3.-FIE. 7. Mars; 
cf. P. II. ^ 44-46 -F\t 8. Janu* ; cf. P. II. ^ 18. 
— Fif. ». Ctipitt ; cf. P. II. ) 50.— Fig. 19. Ve«ta; 
cf. P. II. } 65-67. 

M. Plate XII. (Page 97.) The Hindoo 
Triad. Cf. IMI. }25. 4. 

S3. Platb XIII. (Page 103.) The JtvatarM 
•/ F-isknu. Cf. P. II. ) 25. 4 ; 9 37. 2. 

24. Platb XIII a. (Page 111.) Festival of 
Juvgemaut. Cf. P. II. ^ 59. 4. 

&. Platb XIV. (Page 121.) Mytkehgieol 
Illustrations.^ Fig. 1. Sol, as represenled on a 
coin of the Rhodiana ; cf. P. II. ^ 71-72 —Fig. 2. 
Noz, aa repreaented on a gem ; cf. P. II. $ 76. 
—Fig. 3. Luna; cf. P. II. ) 73— Fig. 4. Hebe; 
P. II. i 27.-Fig. 5. Flora ; cf. P. II. $ 90. 4«.— 
Fig. 6. ^vculapiua : ct. P. 11. i 84.— Fig. 7. 
Pan ; cf. P. n. ( 79.-Flg. 8. Spea, or Hope ; 
rf. P. II. i 95.— Fig. 9. For\una ; cf. P. II. 
d 86 —Fig. 10. Victoria ; cf. P. II. $ W.—Fig. 11. 
Concordia ; cf. P. II. $ 95.— Fig. 12. Paz, or 
Peace ; cf. P. II. ^ 95. 

26. Plate XV. (Page 134.) Representations 
from the Isiat TabU. Cf. P. II. $ 96. 

27. Plate XV a. (Page 138.) ThhU of Greek 
and Romnn Deities elassi/ied Cf. P. II. ^ 9, 10. 

28. Platb XVI. (Page 140.) Crowns, Oar- 
lands, 4-e.— Flga. 1, 2, S, 4, 5. Roman crowna or 
wreathe, bestowed aa niilita ry rewarda. Fig. 

6. Imperial crown. Cf. P. III. 9 284. I.— Figa. 

7, 8, 9, 10. Crowna or garlanda received by vic- 
Inm in the garoea ; cf. P. III. $ 84-87, ( 233.— 
Fig. A. Plan of a Gymnaaium or Paleatra after 
A'iiruTiua, aa given In Barik«Umy*s Anacbar- 
sis : cf. P. IV. ^ 236.— Fig. B. Victorioua cha- 
rioteer; cf. P. III. ( 233.-Fig C. A golden 
crown found in Ireland ; cf. P. III. ( 34. 

29. Plate XVII. (Page 155.) Military Wea- 
pons, 4-c. For particulara, aee P. III. (1 45, 137, 

30. Plate XVIII. (Page 161.) Tombs and 
Sepulchral Remains.— Fig*. 1, 2, 3. Tomb of Cy- 
rus, AhRalom'g pillar, and Pyramid of Cestius; 
rf. P. III. 9 187. 5.— Fig. 4. Galea of a tomb; cf. 
P. III. i 187. 5.— Figs, a and dd. Lacbrrmatory 
and iinguentary vanes ; cf. P. III. ) 341. 7. — 
Fig. B. Egyptian Paychoataay, or weighing of 
the soul; cf. P. IL ( 34 b. 4.— Fig. e. Funeral 
couch; cl. P. III. ( 340. 1.— Fig. hk. Coffin and 
urn8, tc; cf. P. III. J 341. 6. 

31. Plate XIX. (Page 166.) OraeU of Tro- 
pkonius. Cf. P. III. ( 74. 

32. Platb XX. (Page 168.) RepresenU- 
tions of Pri\'ts and Pritstesfes presenting Liba- 
tions and bacrifieen. Cf. P. 111. « 24, ^ 221. 

33. Platb XXI. (Page 179.) TempUs.— 
Fig. 1. Parthenon; cf. P. III. J 96, P. IV. 
^ 2.14. 3, P. I. J 107— Fig. 2. Temple of the 
Winds; cf. P. HI. ( 9«. P. I. $ 110.— Fig. 3. 
Temple i.f Theaeua; cf. P. 111. $ 96, P. 1. $ 109. 
— Fijfs. a, fr, e, rf, e,/i jr< A, Ground-plana of the 
dhTvrcui kiiiils of temples; cf. P. IV. $ 234. 2. 

34. Pi.^TK XXII (Pagp 195.) Various Arti- 
rUf of .^rmor.— Figs, a, b, e, dtc. Helmeta;^cf. 
P. 111. i 46.— Figs, r, s. Mail and breaatplate ; 
cf. P. in. ( 45, 139.— Fig. ». Greavea; cf. P. 
III. $ 44, 45.— Figa. 1, 2, 7. Grecian warriors; 
cf. P. III. $ 45.— Fig. 3. Persian warrior; cf. 
P. III. i 45.— Fig. 4. Trophy; cf. P. HI. « 150.- 
Fig. 5. Warrior in mail, with an armor-bearer ; 
cf. P. HI. d 283.— Fig. 6. Egyptian archer; cf. 
P. III. 9 45, ^ 288. 1.— Fie. 8. Soldier in com- 
plete mail ; cf. P. III. ^ 263. 

35. Plate XXHI. (Page 201.) J^aval JUus- 
tratians.— Fig. 1. Piiirace or light boat for rapid 
moving; cf. P. HI. $ 304.— Fig. 2. Vessel from a 

Cilnting at Pompeii ; cf. P. III. i 304.— Fig. 3. 
Iburnian galley; cf. P. HI. ) 304.— Fig. 4. 
Merchant vesfel; cf. P. HI. ( 155— Fig. 5. 
War-galley; cf. P. HI. ) 155.— Fig. A. Hexi- 
reme as ezplained by Uolwell ; cf. P. III. ) 155, 
156.— Fig. B. Views of the relative position of 
tlie rowera, according to the explanations of 

some ; cf. P. III. ) 156.— Figi. a, 5, e. Differvnt 
forms of prows : cf. P. HI ( 155. 3, 4. 

36. Plate XXIV. (Page 205.) Psrtaining 
to housekold Af airs.— Fig. 1. Plan of a Grecian 
house; cf. P. HI. } 171. I. -Fig. 2. A Grecian 
key; if. P. III. ( 171. 2.— Fig. 3. Yoang man 
wearing the peusua; cf. P. HI. 160. 3.- Fig. 4. 
A bride altting with a mirror held before her ; 
cf. P. HI. $ 169. 6. I 171. 2.-Fig8. 5 and 10. 
Grecian aofas; cf. P. HI. ( 171. 2.— Fig. 0. Pe- 
culiar bead-ornament, worn In oriental coun- 
tries ; cf. P. HI. ^ 34.— Fig. 7. Grecian lady, 
from Boyd's Potter; cf. P. HI. H^. 5 ; ( 171. S. 
-Fin- »> 9. Chairs ; cf. P. IH. ( 171. 2. ( 52.— 
Figs. a. 6, c, &c. Various forma of coveringa for 
the feet ; cf. P. HI. ( 169. 2; ( 336. 

37. Plate XXV. (Page 211.) Costume.^ 
Figs, a, b, e, d. Modern Egyptian and oriental 
dreasea ; «, /, Greek Bacchantea , f , an Egyp- 
tian spinner; A, t, Grecian female fluters ; i, 
Grecian lady in the more ancient costume ; w, 
peculiar head-dreaa; «, o, Egyptian princess 
and priestess in transparent garments ; y, w, 
veila and head-dreaaea. See P. HI. $ 169. 5.— 
Fig. 1. A box worn on the neck ; cf. P. HI. 
^ 337.— Fig. 2. A lady*a puree, from Egyptian 
monuments ; flgs. 3, 4, toilet-table and mirror ; 
cf. P. III. $ 338. 

38. Plate XXV «. (Page 215.) TakUs •/ 
Oreeian Moneys, fcc. Cf. P. III. (( 173-177. 

39. Plate }^XVI. (Page 219.) Musical In- 
struments. For particulars see P. HI. ( 180. 

40. Platb XXVI a. (Page 224.) Takular 
visv of Civil Institutions of Athens. Cf. P. III. 

41. Plate XXVH. (Page 231.) Altars and 
Sacrificial Apparatus.— Figa. a, &, e, &c. Various 
articles aa given in Montfaucon; fig. A. including 
1, 2, Jtc, articles drawn from sculpture at Pom- 
peii; flg. B, representation of a sacrifice, from 
the same source ; cf. P. HI. d 206.— Fig. C. Sa- 
crifice to Bacchus ; cf. P. HI. ^ 205. 1 ; $ 67.— 
Fig. D. Sacred utensila from Egyptian re- 
mains ; cf. P. HI. \ 206. 2.-Fip. £, H, Aliara ; 
cf. P. IH. $205. 1. 

42. Plate XX Vin. (Page 236.) Priests and 
Priestesses. Cf. P. HI. | 219; P. II. $ 07 a; 
P. V. $ 16. 

43. Plate XXIX. (Page 840.) The Sweer- 
taurUia, from an aneieni bas-relief. (^ P. HI. 

44. Plate XXX. (Page 245.) Oladiatorial 
Contests. — Fig. 1, two andabatm or horsemen ; 
fig. 2, a horseman and footman (cf. P. HI. 
$ 283); flgs. 3, 4, two gladiators on foot; fig. 5, 
wounded bull; fig. 6, two seeutsres and two 
retiarii: aee P. HI. $ 235. 2, 3.— Fig. 7. Plan of an 
amphitheatre at Pompeii ; cf. P. III. $ 239.— 
Fig. n. A Dacian horseman in scale-armor: cf. 
P. 111. $ 283. 

45. Plate XXXI. (Page 255.) Pertaimnit 
to topics noticed under tke kead of Roman Civil 
Affairs.— FigB. 1 and 3. Roman fasees^ and 
Egyptian scepters; cf. P. HI. $ 240. 1.— Figs. 2 
and 9. Roman oflDcial chairs ; cf. P. IH. $ 255. 
2.— Figs. 4, 5, 6. Chariots ; cf. P. III. $ 269. 3.— 
Figs. 7 and 8. Steelyard and weight ; cf. P. III. 
$ 270. 1.— Fig. 10. Sedan ; cf. P. IH. $ 255. 2.— 
Fig. A, a kind of stocks; flg. B, the Mamertioe 
prison at Rome ; cf. P. HI. $ 264. 1. 

46. Plate XXXII. (Page 265.) Pertataiir^ 
to Housekold and Agricultural Affairs.— Fig. I, 
plan of a Roman bouse ; flgs. a and ft, a key 
and bolt from Pompeii ; cf. P. III. $ 325. 6.— 
Fig. e, Egyptian door; cf. P. IV. $ 231. 1.— Fig. 
d. Couch ; fig. E (Including 1, 2, 3, &c). Lamps ; 
cf. P. HI. $ 325. 7.— Fig. ii. Roman plow; fig. 
iii. Syrian plows; figs. Iv. 6, 7, instromenta 
for threshing ; figa. 5, 8, sickle, pruning-loilfe. 
&c. See P. IH. $269.2. 

47. Plate XXX Ha. (Page 269.) Tables of 
Roman Moneus, l-e. Cf. P. HI. $ 271, $ 274. 

48. Plate XXXIII. (Page 273.) Armor, Mi- 
litary Standards, ^'c— Figs. 1 and 2. Legionary 



•oldlcn with shield and sword, baggage, &c. 
cf. P. III. ^ 983.— Fig. 3. A Medo-Penian, from 
scalptttres at Peraepolis; bearing a son of ham- 
Bier, or battle-az, probably a token of some 
military rank, perhaps however of some civil 
oAce ; the two hands of another are seen bear- 
ing the same token ; fig. 4, another from the 
soilptures at Persepolis, with a sword and 
other accoutermenis. Cf. P. | V. ( 171.— Figs. A, 
B. C &c A ▼arleiy of standards and flags ; 
er P. III. « 9dS. 1— Fig. B. Part of the ui- 
aaphal procession represented on the Arch of 
Titos; cf. P.IV. }188.a. 

49. Pi^TB XXXIV. (Psge S79.) War-an- 
gimtM^ R0m»n CaM^, ^c— Fig. 1, t§»tMd0; fig. S, 
wirnem ; 3, movable tower ; 4, 5, 10, battering- 
ram ; 6, sMrpttf ; 7, balista ; 8, plntnu ; 9, falx 
mmrmliM ; see P. III. $ 299.— Figs, a, b. Archer 
and slinger ; cf. P. III. ^ S88. 1.— Fig. P, plan 
of a consular camp ; R, sectional view of the 
afy«r aad/MM ,* see P. III. $ 997 1. 

k, Pi^TB XXXV. (Psge SOI.) PtrUhuHff 
u F—§u •nd the luc •/ M^tas.— Fig. 1. Plan and 
Yiew of a tricUninm found at Pompeii; cf. 
P. III. I 379. 9.— Fig. S, carriage and vessel for 
transporting wine; fig. 3, a patera^ used in 
libations: cf. P. III. ( 331 b.— Fig. 4. Two per- 
sons interchanging the pledge of hospitality; 
rf. P. III. i 330. 3.— Fig. 5, a Bacchanal revel- 
lag alone, taken from remains at Pompeii ; fig. 
6. a wine press, from Egyptian monuments; 
fig. 7, two glasK cups elegantly cut or cast; fijis. 
a, h, r, d, e. f, Itc., various caps and vessels ; 
cf. P. III. i 331 b. 

51. Plate XXXVI. (Page 309.) Monumen- 
tal Strmciure, lUdieated to tlu Dii Manes; Re- 
prtmrnULtunM «/ Death, ^e. Cf. P. II. <$ 70, 83, 

S9. Plats XXXVII. (Page 306.) JIndent 
Bseb, aad Implements used in Writing and in 
(Ae ^rts.— Fig. 1. A painting on the wall of a 
chamber, found at Herculaneam ; it shows a 
bag of money, tied, lying on a table between 
two heaps or coins, with an Inkstand and reed, 
a parchment or pspyrus manuscript with Its 
title appended, a style, and tablet!.— Fig. 9. 
Tablets connected by a ring, pugillaree; cf. 
P. IV. ^ 37. 9; $ 118. 3.— Figs. 3 and 4. Styles ; 
cf. P. IV. » M.— Fig. 9. A reed.— Fig. 5. A roll 
showing the manner of writing.— Fig. 0. Two 
tablets, and the eajM^s, or bookcase ; cf. P. IV. 
I lid. 3.— Figs. 7 and 8. Tools employed In ar- 
chitecture, kc. I cf. P. IV. i 929. 9. 

53. Plats XXXVIII. (Page 399.) Jtndent 
Writimg, MamueeripUt and Imseriptions.— Fig. a. 
FiBc* specimen of the ancient MS. roll ; cr. 
P. IV. ^ 118. 9.' Fixs. d, «,/, are from remains 

fonad at Pompeii; cf. P. IV. $ 118. 9. Figs. 

i. iL ill. specimens of writing in Greek MSS. ; 

cf. P. IV. ^ 104 9. Fig. D. Inscription copied 

from a Babylonian orick lately deposited In the 
Bttmn Atkenenm; the brick is about 11 Inches 
square and 3 Inches thick ; it Is here (merely 
for the sake of convenience In forming the 
Plate) cxbibited so that the lines are perpen- 
dicolar, but their actual direction is horiaon- 
tal ; they are to be read from left to right, the 
bottom of the figure being the left, and the top 
the nght. Cf. P. IV. ^ 18. 4.— Fig. G. Several 
specimens of writing in the arrs»-A<ad charac- 
ter: Mo. I, nart of an Inscription found on a 
pillar near Ifurghab or Mourgaub, supposed 
by JVerasr to be the site of the sncient Pssar- 
gsda; H is the name of Cyrus, KusaucsH, in 
Hebrew Kereek, in Greek Kuroe: No. 9, pert 
of an inscription on a monument at Persepolis ; 
the name o( Darius, DABHSUscn, in Hebrew 
Dmnavith, In Greek Dureiee: No. 3, part of an- 
other inscription, containinr a title often as- 
•nased by Persian mnnarchs, Khsghbrioh 
KBocaiHioHTCH, i.e. King nf Kings (cf. £zrs, 
vii. 19); No. 4. the name of Xerxes, in the al- 
almbet of the Zend language, KHscHHsaacHB: 
il«. 7, the same name in the alphabet consi- 

dered that of the PekM language : No. 8, the 
same, in a character supposed to be more mo- 
dern: No. 5, Hieroglyphic inscription noticed 
by Champollion, on an Egyptian alabaster 
vase, as being the name of Xerxes, and read 
by him Kbschbabbcha; No. 6, the same name 
in the Persepolitan character, as found on that 

vase. See P. IV. ^ 18. 4. Fig. H. Specimen 

of phonetic hieroglyphical writing; two car- 
touches of hieroglyphics, from one of the co- 
lonnades adorning the first court of the palace 
of Karnac, a part of Egyptian Thebes; the 
name of an Egyptian king, supposed to be the 
one called in the Bible Shiskak (1 Kings, 
ziv. 5); the left cartouch expresses, it is sup- 
posed, the surname, interpreted as signifying 
** approved of the sun;** the other on the right 
(In which the corresponding Roman letters 
are. In the cut, attached to the hieroglyphics by 
way of explanation, is read Amnmai Shsunb, 
and interpreted ** Dear to JSmmon^ Sheshonk**; 
this name is thought by some to be the same aa 
the Sesonehis C^fiooyxis) of Manetho. Cf. P. IV. 

H6. 1; 9 91. 7, 8. Fig. B. Ancient British 

writing on movable sticks; cf. P. IV. $ 53. 

Fig. C. The papyrus, growing on the banks of 
the Nile; cf. P. IV, $ 118. 1. Fig. E. Com- 
parative view of several corresponding letters 
in eight different alphabets (cf. P. IV. $ 45. 9); 
forming as nearly as the alphabets will allow, 
the words of the Hebrew inscription. Holiness 
TO THB LoBD, whlch wss cMgraved on the 
golden plate attached to the miter of Aaron 
{Exod. xxviii. 36, 37);— the line a is in Hebrew 
old coin letters ; b, in the Hebrew common let- 
ters, as in the modern printed Hebrew Bible; 
e, in the Egyptian hieratic or priest's letters; 
d, in the Samaritan ; e, in the Egyptian phone- 
tic hieroglyphics; /, in the 0)plic; the next 
line gives the corresponding Roman letters, as 
formed in modern printing, being the same as 
ours; jT, the common Greek, as nearly as the 
alphabet seems to allow; the last line. A, is the 
Sepiuogint version of the Inscription. This cut 
may serve also to illustrate the ancient custom 
of engraving an Inscription In different lan- 
guages on the same monument; as, e. g. the 
Roaetu stone (cf. P. IV. $ 91. 7); the Egypto- 
Perslnn Vase noticed above in explaining fig. 
G; and the memorable threefold inscription 
placed by Pilate over the head of the Saviour 
on the cross (Luke, xxiii. 3b; Jokn, xix. 10). 

54. Platb XXXIX. (Page 335.) Muses as 
represented in the statues of Christina. Cf. 
P. II. i 103. 

55. Platb XL. (Page 350.) Oreeian Coins — 
For particulars, see P. IV. $ 93. 9; M5. 1; 
P. III. 9 173. 3. 

50. Platb XLI. (Page 354.) Specimen of 
Ornaments in ancient MSS. : a painting of the 
Ooddess of Jfigkt. Cf. P. IV. $ 104. 3; P. II. 

57. Plate XLII. (Page 358.) Roman Coins. 
—For the details, see P. IV. ^ 134. 1; $ 139. 9. 
P. III. $ 970. 

58. Platb XLIII. (Page 875.) Representa- 
tions of Keptune, ^e., on Coins. Cf. P. IV. 
$ 139. 9. 

59. Platb XLIV. (Page 378.) Speeimsns of 
.ancient Semlpture. -Fig. 1. Dying Gladiator; 
cf. P. IV. $ 166. 9.-Fig. 9. Head of Antinous; 
cf. P. IV. $ 186. 10.— Fig. 3. Apollo Belvlderei 
cf. P. IV. ( 186. 4.— Fig. 4. Gladiator Borghese ; 
cf. P. IV, $ 186. 8.— Fig. 5. Laocoon ; cf. P. IV. 
i 166. l.-Fig. 0. Hercules Farnese; cf. P. IV. 
$ 186. 6. 

00. Plate XLV. (Page 384.) Speehmsu of 
Sculpture in Bas-relief. Cf. P. II. 3 91. 9. 

61. Plate XLVI. (Page 305.) The 7Vi- 
umphal Sacrifice of .Surelius : a marble ana- 
glyph. Cf. P. IV. ^ 188. 3. 

69, Plate XLVII. (Page 399.) JemeU and 
Sculptured Oems. Figs. 1 and 2. Specimens of 
thejl»ni«4s; cf. P. IV. (900.9; )106j P. 11. 



) 90. 6.— Flir. S. A Roman leal; cf. P. IV. 
^ 906.— Fig. 4, and flgi. m^ A, U 0» and r. Jewels 
for the ear and breait; ef. P. III. \ 338. S.— 
Fig. 5. Cupid, ai on an ancient gem ; cf. P. IV. 
1^ 198.— Fig. 6. Dvdalua, aa on an ancient gem ; 
cf P. IV. \ ig8.-Figi. 7 and 8. Oemi bearing a 
Nermts and HTwteraeles ; cf. P. IV. ) 104. 1— 
Figt. «, ht e, d, <,/. Finger-ringi, with gema in- 
serted ; cf. P. IV. ^ S06. 

ft3. PL ATI XL VIII. (Page 406.) SpeccMsw of 
Rnrmvim^r on Otmo; Bacchus, Satyrs, ^c. Bee 
P.TV. )Un.5; P. II. J 60. 

64. Plate XLIX. (Page 411.) THmatntwrna 
pertainwr to the Tkeatre,— Fig. 1. Plan of the 
Grtsek theatre ; cf. P. IV. ) Sas.-Fig. «. Plan 
of the Roman theatre; cf. P. III. $ S38.— Fig. A. 
Edifice called Choragic Monument of Thrasyl- 
lus; cf P. IV. ^ 66. 3; P I. * 115.— Fig. C. 
Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, called also 
Lanum of Dovwotkenet.— Fig. B B. A repre- 
sentation in Mosaic^ found at Pompeii; cf. 
P IV. ( 189. 1. 

66. Platb L. (Page 417.) ArekUeetnrui lUna- 

(rofioiw.— Figi. d, &, e, if, $. Colamns, Egyptian, 
&c. ; cf. P. IV. ) 238. 3.-Figs. /, ,, A. i, j. », I. 
Grecian and Roman columns, exhibiting the 
different orfion, dec. ; cf. P. IV. $ 336. l.-Figs. m 
and n. Arches upon pillars; cf P. IV. ^ 944.— 
Figs, pt f , «, «. Grecian capitals ; cf. P. IV. 
( $38. I.— Figs, s, r, (, v. Pillars ; r and v. 
Gothic ; •, Saracenic ; c, Chinese ; cf. P. IV. 

66. Platk LI. (Page 412.) The TempU of 
Dioma, tU Epkoouo. Cf. P. I V. ( S34. 3. 

67. Platc LII. (Page 495.) Compmntno 
Flow of eolobraUd Kdifieet and other Stmeturao. 
Bee bottom of the Plate. Cf. P. IV. $ S34. 3. 

68. Platb LII a. (Page 43S.) Tke Ruhu of 
a* Portkonon; from Hobkouoe. Cf P. I. ^ Vrf; 
P. III. ^ 96. 

69 Platb Lin. (Page 434.) Ortemk Bugts, 
with names annexed ; taken ttom the Higtorie 
GaUoiy, cited P. IV. ( 187. 

70. Platb LIV. rPage 548.) Roomu BbsCs, 
with names annexed ; taken from the Biat^nt 
CMUry and Union, as elted P. IV. ) 187. 





i 1. The earlier Greeks must hare been very ignorant of the neighboring coun- 
tries, for the scenes of some of the wildest fictions of the Odyssey were within a few 
hoars sail of Greece. The account of the Areonautic expedition furnishes a stiJl 
stronger proof of this, for these adventurers are described as having departed by the 
Hellespont and Euxine sea, and as having returned through the straits of Hercules ; 
whence it manifestly iqipears, that at that time the Greeks believed that there was a 
connection between the Palus Meotis (sea of Azof) and the Ocean. In those early 
aees the earth was supposed to be a great plain, and the ocean an immense stream, 
which flowed around it and thus returned back into itself {dxpdfi^ooi). 

In later tinws, however, the commercial enterprise of the Atheniane corrected these errors. 
Their ships sailed through the seas to the east of Europe snd brousht home such accurate infor- 
BWtioa, that we find the description of these seas and the neighboring coasts nearly as perfect in 
ancient as io modem writers.— The expedition of Clearchus into Asia, related in the janaka$ia 
of Xenophon (cf. P. V. (843), and still more that of Alexander, gave the Greeks opportunities of 

becoming aeqaainted with the distant regions of the east.— The west of Europe was visited and 
described by the Phmatcians, who had penetrated even to the British Islands. 

^ 2. All the astronomical and geographical knowledge of the ancients was embodied, 
in the second century after Christ, m two principal works by Claudius Ptolemy ; one 
fctyled M*)ra>f? Soyra^cf, and the other Vtoiypa^iKh 'X4>^yii<nt. From the latter we de- 
rive oor chief information respectin^^ the limits of the ancient world, and the attain- 
merits of the Greeks and Romans in geography. (Cf. P. V. ^^ 206, 207, 216, 218, 
4«0— 183.) 

♦ 3. The northern parts of Europe and Asia were known by name ; an imperfect 
sketch of India limits their eastward progress ; the dry and parched deserts of Africa 
prevented their advance to the south; and the Atlantic ocean limited the known 
world on the west. It must not be supposed that all the countries within these limits 
were perfectly known; we find, that even within these narrow boundaries, there 
were several nations, of whom the ancient geographers knew nothing but the name. 

Let US attempt to trace a line, which would form a boundary Including the whole of the earth 
that, was known In the time of Ptolemy. We will begin at Fbtto, one of the Intnla FortMiuUa 
(Canary Islands), which, because it was the most westerly land known, was taken by Ptolemy 
fur bis fixed meridian. Our line extending hence northerly would include the British Isles and 
the Sbetland Isles ; the latter are probably designated by the Tkule of the ancients, according 
to d*Anville, although some have supposea it was applied to Iceland. From the Shetland Isles 
tbe line would pass through Sweden and Norway probably : perhaps around the North Cape, as 
h has been thought that this must be the Rubea* Promontorinm of Ptolemy. The line would, io 
either case, be continued to the White Sea at the mouth of the river Dwina, which seems to be 
described by Ptolemy under the name Carambueu. Thence it would extend to the Ural Moun- 
lains. which were partially known by the name of ffyptrborei; near which the poets located a 
people of the same name (.Firf. Oeorg. i. 940), said to live in all possible felicity. From these 
■toantains tbe line would pass along through Scythia to the northern part of the Belur Tag 
■MHintains, the ancient /msits. Crossing these, it enters tbe region of Kaahgar (in Chinese Tar- 
tary). called by Ptolemy Casio RMgio; a region of which, however, he evidently knew little. 
Oar line would be continued thence to the place called by the ancients Stru; which is most pro< 
bably the modern JTea or Kan-Uheou^ near the north-west corner of China and the termination 
of tiM immense wall separating China and Tartary. From Sera or JTan, it must be carried over 
a region, probably wholly unknown to the ancients, to a place called TkfiuB in tbe country of 
the Situt; this place was on the Cottaris^ a river uniting with the Senus, which Is supposed to 
be tbe modern Gamboge. On the coast, which we aow approach with our line, tbe most easterly 
^iai (that is particularly mentioned) Is thought to be PoitU Condor^ the southern extremity 
•r Cambodia ; this was called the PremnUorium Satjfrerum, and some small isles adjacent In- 
#■!« 8atfr0rmm^ because monkeys were found here, whose appearance resembled the fabled 
Satyrs. The general ignorance respecting this region Is obvious from the fkct, that It was ima- 
fined. that beyond the PremonUry of Sdlyra the coast turned first to the south, and then com* 
frteiely tn the w^st. and thus proceeded until it joined Africa. From the point or cape Just 
BSMed, tbe boundary we are tracing would run around the Aitrta Ckersonesntt or peninsula of 
Jfatejra or Malacca, take in the coast of Sumatra, anciently called Jabadti fusulOj and pass to 
TkfnkamA or fifties, tbe modern Ceylon. Thence sweeping around the Maldives, called by Pto* 


lemy Tnittlm anU 7\iprohanamt and croMlngthe equator, it would itrike Africa at Gape Delgrado, 
supposed to correspond to the Prtumm Promontoriumt being about 10 degrees 8. latitude. The 
boundary would exclude Madagascar, as the ancient Mtnutkiaa designates, not Madngascar as 
has been conjectured, but most probably the modern Zanzibar. It may be impossible to trace 
the line across Africa; of the interior of which the ancients knew more than one would suppose, 

iudging from the ignorance of the moderns on the subiect. The line would pass south of the 
[ountains of the Moon, Luna MonUn, which are mentioned by Ptolemy ; and also, in part, of 
the river Niger, which, as d'JinvilU remarks, was known even in the time of Herodotus. On 
the Atlantic coast the line would come out a little south of Sierra Leone at Cape 8i. Ann's, about 
10 degrees N. latitude: this point answering to the ancient JWft Comu, Southern Horn, off 
against which lay the islands called Insula Huperidum, From this cape our line passes up the 
shore of the Atlantic to the Insula Fortunatw. 

From this it is obvious, that the portion of the earth known to the ancients was small in pro- 
portion to the whole. It has been said, with probable accuracy, that it was scarcely one-third 
of the landy now known, which has been estimated as 4S or 44 millions of square miles : and of 
the 159 millions of square miles of v>aUr, covering the rest of the globe, they knew almost no- 

Ob tlM komrlcdcB of tha uidaBti raqMcUag Hm ailh, aaia, Jman. t. 108. Lc ISS. — Tvt the priiid|»I bBl|» ia rtodyiaf Clas- 
rial OaosnplVi oaanXi tlw nfcnneei siT«a in P. V. § 7. T (ft) i m abo F. V. §« 206-108, 37 1 ■.-Ob Hm bntacy of Qflognpby, 
eC P. IV. h 27- 

^ 4. The division of the earth into the large portions, Europe, Asia, and Africa, ia 
of very ancient date ; but although the names have been preserved, the boundaries 
in several particulars differed. Egypt v^as formerly reckoned among the Aaiatio 
kingdoms : at present it is esteemed part of Africa : Sarmatia was esteemed part of 
Europe : a great part of it now forms one of the divisions of Asia. 

^ 5. The division of the earth into zones has remained unaltered ; but the ancients 
believed that the Temperate alone were habitable, supposing that the extreme heat 
of the Torrid and the extreme cold of the Frigid zones were destructive of animal life. 

Another division, introduced by Hipparcbus, was that of climates. A climate is a space in- 
cluded between two parallels of latitude, so that the longest days of the inhabitants at one 
extremity exceeds that of the inhabitants of the other by half an hour. Of these, eight were 
known. The parallels pass successively through Meroe on the Nile, Bienne, Alexandria in 
Egypt, Carthage, Alexandria In the Troas, the middle of the Euxlne Sea, Mount Caucasus, and 
the British Islands. 

NOTE —In •tadrtog Ibh Epibne, it b lodhpcaiftble to racceM tbat mmt Atht ■boold be and. TlMt of BvOtr is wj nletbl* 
for lb« porpow. The editor of tliis Mmooal bas it in ooDtoBptolkM to ptepu* aa Atlaa adapted to the Eirttomeof Geapapby bare 
pnaaotod.— The ttudeBt need not ooBunit to Bieaorj in tbe oraal way. Let him flnt leani iba geoenl diTnioiw aod aauMi of tb* 
oovBtriea or provincei indiided ia tbe leaKW, and next earef ullj nad over tbe whole lenoo, tndng nay thing, as (iir as pcniMe, 
on Ut mopv. For recilatioD, let the Teacher qoeaUon bim on the maps of the Atlaa, or on large Biaps in mere outline, prepand tor 
liiB parpoee^ which will be br better. 


^ 6. EunoFS, though the smallest, is, and has been for many ages, the most import- 
ant division of the earth. It has attained this rank from the superiority in arts and 
sciences, as well as in government and religion, that its inhabitants have long possessed 
over degraded Asia and barbarous Africa. — It derives its name from Europa, the 
daughter of Agenor, a PhcBnician king, who being carried away, according to the 
mythological t^es (P. II. ^ 23), by Jupiter under the disguise of a bull, gave her 
name to this quarter of the globe. 

^ 7. The boundaries of ancient Europe were nearly the same as those of modern 
Europe ; but we learn from Sallust that some geographers reckoned Africa a part of 
Europe. The northern ocean, called by the ancients the Icy or Satumian, bounds it 
on the north ; the north-eastern part of Europe joins Asia, but no boundary line is 
traced by ancient writers; the remainder of its eastern boundaries are the Palus 
Maaotis, Cimmerian Bosphorus, Euxine sea, Thracian Bosphorus, Propontis, Helles- 
pont, and ^gean sea ; the Mediterranean sea is the southern and the Atlantic ocean 
the western boundary. 

^ 8. The countries of the mainland of Europe may be arranged, for convenience, 
in the present geographical sketch, in threo divisions; the nortJiem, middlet and 

fouthem. The islands may be considered m a separate division. The north of 

Euroi>e can scarcely be said to have been known to the ancients until the unwearied 
ambition of the Romans stimulated them to seek for new conquests in lands previously 
unnoticed. From these countries, in after times, came the barbarian hordes who 
overran Europe, and punished severely the exccsaeB of Roman ambition. — The 
southern division contams the countries, which, in ancient times, were the most dis- 
tinffuished in Europe for their civilization and refinement. 

The Northern countries, with their ancient and modem names, were the follow- 
ing ; Scandinavia, Norway and Sweden ; Chersonesus Cimbrica, Jutlandj or Deri' 


mark; Sakhatia, Runia; Gexmanta, Cremuiity.— The Middle countries were 
tbe following: Gallia, France and Switzerland; Vivdelicia, Suabia ; Rhjbtia, 
ooantry of Dke Grisons ; Noricum, Au9tria ; Paivnonia, Hungary ; Illyricuu, 
Croatia and Dahnatia ; Mjbsia, Botnia^ Servia^ and Bulgaria ; Dacia, Transylvania 
and Waiaekia. — In the Southern division we include Hispani a, Spain and Portu^ 
gai; Italia, Italy; Thracia, Macedonia, and Grjbcia, all lately comprehended 
under Ue Turl^sk Empire. 


% 9. ScAironcATiA, or Scandia, by the Celts called Lochlin, was falsely supposed 
to be a large island. The inhabitants were remarkable for their number and ferocity ; 
they subsisted chiefly by piracy and plunder. From this country came the Goths, 
the Heruli, the Vandals, and at a later period, the Normans, who subjugated the 
south of Europe. 

^ 10. The Chersonesus Cucbrica, a large peninsula at the entrance of the Baltic, 
was the native country of the Cimbri and tne Teutones, who after devastating: Gaul 
invaded the northern part of Italy, and made the Romans tremble for the scJety of 
their capital. They defeated the consuls ManUua and Servihus with dreadful slaugh- 
ter, but were eventually destroyed by Marius. 

^11. Sarxatia included the greater part of Russia and Poland, and is frequently 
confounded with Scythia. This immense territory was possessed by several inde- 
pendent tribes, who led a wandering hfe like the savages of North America. The 
names of the principal tribes were tne Sauromate, near the mouth of the Tanais, 
and the Geloni and Agathyrsi, between the Tanais and the Borysthenes. The latter 
were called Hamaxobii from their hving in wagons. Virml gives them the epithet 
jNcCi, because they, Uke the savages of America, painted their bodies to give them- 
selves a formidable appearance.-Hrrom these districts came the Huns, the Alans and 
Roxoianians, who aioed the barbarians formerly mentioned (^ 8) in overthrowing the 
Roman empire. 

The peninsula, now known by the name of the Crimea, or Crim Tartary, was 
anciently called the Chersonesus Taurica. Its inhabitants, called Tauri, were 
remarkable for their cruelty to strangers, whom they sacrificed on the altar of Diana. 
From their cruelty the Euxine sea received its name ; it was called Euzine {favorable 
to ttranger§) by antiphrasis, or euphemism. — The principal towns of the Tauric 
Chersonese were Pantieapmim (Kerche), where Mithndates the Great died ; Saphra 
(Procop), and Theodatia (KafTa). — At the south of this peninsula, was a large pro- 
montory, called from its shape Criu-Metopon^ or the Ram s Forehead. 

^ 12. Ancient Germany, Germania, is, in many respects, the most singular and 
interesting of the northern nations. In the remains of its early language, and tlio 
accounts of its civil government that have been handed down to us, the origin of the 
English language and constitution may be distinctly traced. The inhabitants called 
themselves VF^-men, which in their language signifies TFar-men, and from this 
boasting designation the Romims named them, with a slight change, Ger-men.^— 
The boundaries of ancient Germany were not accurately af>certainea, but the name is 

Ssnerally applied to the territories lying between the Rhine and the Vistula, the 
altic Sea and the Danube. 

^ 13. These countries were, like Sarmatia, possessed by several tribes, of whom 
the principal wertf the Hermionft and Suevi, wno possessed the middle of Germany. 
-~— The tribes on the banks of the Rhine were most known to the Romans. The 
chief of these were the Frieii, through whose country a canal was cut by Drusus, 
which being increased in the course of time formed the present Zuyder Zee ; the 
Ckerusei, who under the command of Arminius destroyed the legions of Quintilius 
Varus; the Sieambri, who were driven across the Rhine b^ the Catti, in the lime of 
Augustus ; the CalU, the most warlike of the German nations, and most irreconcila- 
ble to Rome ; the Mareomanni, who were driven afterwards into Bohemia by the 
AUemnnni, from which latter people Germany is, by the French, called Allemagne. 
—-—Near the Elbe were the Angli and Saxonet, progenitors of the English, and the 
Longobardi. who founded the kingdom of Lombardy, in the north of Italy. The 
nations on the Danube were the Hermundurii, steadfast allies of the Romans ; the Mar- 
comanni, who retired hither after their expulsion from the Rhine; the Narisci 
and Quadi, who waged a dreadful war with tne Romans during the reign of Marcus 

^14. The Germans had no regular towns, and indeed a continuity of houses was 
iorbidden by their laws. The only places of note were, consequently, fons built by 
the Romans, to repress the incursions of the natives.— —A great part of Germany 
was occupied by the Hercynian forest, which extended, as was said, nine days' jour- 
ney from south to north, and more than sixty from west to east. A portion of the 
Sylva Hercynia is now called the Black Forent, which still has its fabled terrors. 

^ 15. I'he largest river in the northern division of Europe was the i?Aa, now Wolga. 
It was called Atei or Etd by the Byzantine writers (P. v. % 239a) and others m the 



middle o^es. It hod 70 mouths discharging, and with more water formerly than now, 
into the mare Catpium. It was in part ihe eastern boundary of Europe, separating 
Sarmatia from Scythia.-^The river next in size was the Borygthenett called in the 
middle ages DanaprUf whence its modem name Dnieper. Just at its entrance into 
the Pontus Euxinutf it was joined by the Hwanis, called in the middle ages Bogus, and 
now the Bog. The long narrow beach at the mouth of the Borysthenes was called 
Drcmus Achillei. — Between the Borysthenes and the Rha was the Tanais, the 
present Don, which separated Harmatia Europea from Sarmatia Asiatica, and flowed 
mto the Falus Maiotia or modern sea of Azof ; near its mouth was a city of extensive 
commerce, called Tanais Emporium. The strait connecting the Palus Msotis with 
the Euxine was called Bosphorus Cimmerius. — Another nver discharging into the 
Pontus Euxinusy was the Tyrat, the modern Dniester : it flowed between Sarmatia 
and Dacia, and formed in part the southern boundary of what is included in our 
northern division of Europe. — Two rivers, from sources near those of the Tyras, 
flowed in a northerly course to the Baltic, the ancient Sinus Codanus ; they were the 
Vistula^ still so called, and the Viader or Oder. The principal streams mschareing 
into the Oceanus Germanicus were the Alhis, Elbe, and the Rhenutt Rhine, which 
formed the western boundary of the division of Eurooe now under notice, dividing 
Germania and Gallia. 


^ 16. We will hepn with Gallia, which is at the western extremity of the division. 
The Romans calledthis extensive country Gallia TransalpinOf to distinguish it from 
the province of Gallia Cisalpina in the north of Italy. The Greeks gave it the name 
of Galatia, and subsequently western Galatia, to distinguish it from Galatia in Asia 
Minor, where the Gauls had planted a colony. 

Ancient Gaul comprehended, in addition to France, the territories of Flanders, HoI« 
land, Switzerland, and part of the south-west of Germany. Its boundaries were the 
Atlantic ocean, the British sea, the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, and the 
Pyrenees. — The country, in the time of Julius Caesor, woa possessed by three great 
nations, divided into a number of subordinate tribes. Of tncse the Ceh<B were the 
most ntmierous and powerful ; their territory reached from the Scquana, Seine, to the 
Garumna, Garoime ; the Belga lay between the Sequana and lower Rhine, where 
they united with the German tribes ; the Aquilani possessed the country between 
the Garumna and the Pyrenees. 

^17. Augustus Cssar divided Gaul mto four provinces ; Gallia NarhonensiM, Aqui 
tania, Gallia Celtica, and Belgica. 

Gallia Narbonensis, called also the Roman province, extended along the sea 
coast from the Pyrenees to the Alps ; including the territory of the modem provinces, 
Lanffuedoc, Provence, Dauphine, and Savoy. It contained several nations, the prin- 
cipal of which were the AUobrogeg, Salyes, and Volcae. The principal cities were 
jVrir&o Martins^ the cai^ital, (Narbonne) ; MassiluB (Marseilles), founded by an Ionian 
colony, from Phocsa, in Asia Minor; Forum Julii (Frejus) ; Aqua Sextia (Aix) ; and 
Nemautut (Nismes), whose importance is manifest in the grandeur of its still existing 

AoMXf (h* lnlcrHllaf mooimwols it NkoMt an, (he SfMort flbiiat, ud the Jmui; fbe Utter bdn^ «a amphitbatra, or eiicoH 
of tb« Doric order, with milt eoaipand of e aw o w wuammot Ooam ooitod with woDderfol Aill, 1100 fc«t in circwafereBce, cspaMo 
of holdioft it bMid, 18/)00 or 17,000 penont ; Ihe ibraier, » temple, 76 feei 1onc,98bRMd, and 4Shi«b; adorwd with 90 bnatifBl 
CeriBthiaacolaaiiia. (Ct Aymt aad Jimard; died P. IV.f US. Sl-ifilKn, Voyaie daM lea Ddpartneali d« Midi.) 

A q u i t a n i a extended from the Pyrenees to the Liger (Loire). The principal 
nations were the Tarbelli, south of the Gammna, and the Santones, Pictones, and 
Lemovices, north of that river. The chief towns were Mediolanum (Saintes); 
FotUm Sanionum (Rochelle) ; and Uxellodunum. 

GalUa Celtica, or Lugdunensis, lay between the Liger and Sequana. — The 
country along the coast was called Armonca^ the inhabitants of which were very fierce 
and warlike.^The principal nations were the Segusiani, ^dui, Mandubii, Pansii, and 
Rhedones. The principal cities were Lugdunum (Lyons), founded by Munatius 
Plancus after the death of Julius Csssar; Bihracte^ called afterwards Augusiodunum 
(Autun) ; Alesia (Alise), the last city of Gaul that resisted the arms of Caesar ; and 
Portus BrivateM (Brest), near the Promontorium Gobaum (Cape St. Malo). 

LwMta Parialoram (hrb) was baOt bf tlia hriail, eo a awuapy iilaDd, befora the time of Christ, Iwt wu of no Impoftaaea 
oalil A. D. MD^ when Oa EBparor JvIiaB want iafo wlalar qoaHan there, and erected a pehoe for hiajaciC 

The remamder of Gaul was included in the province Belgica. This contained 
a great number of powerful states ; the Helvetii occupying that part of modern Swit- 
zerland mcluded between Laeua Lemanun (the lake of Geneva) and Locus Briganti- 
nus (the lake of Constance) ; the Setfuani, possessing the present province of Franche 
Comte ; and the Bat am, who mhabited Holland.— 'That part of Belgic Gaul adjoining 
the Rhine below Helvetia was called Germania, from the number of German tribes 


who had settled there, and was divided into Superior or Upper, the port nearer the 
Krarces of the Rhine, and Inferior or Lower, the part nearer its mouth. The principal 
of theae tribes were the Treveri, Ubii, Menapii, and Nervii. In the country of the 
Trereri was the extensive forest Arduenna (Ardennes), traces of which still remain. 

% 18. The principal mountains of Gaul were Gehenna (the Cevennes), in Langue- 
doc; Vogesus (the Vatige), in Lorraine; and Alpes (the Alps). — The Alps were 
subdrrided into Alpes Id^rUima, joining the Etruscan sea ; Cottusr over which Han- 
nibal is supposed to have passed ; GrtBca, so called from the passage of Hercules ; 
Fennina, so called from the appearance of their tops (from penna^ a wing) ; Rhcstica, 
joining Rhctia; Norica, bordering Noricum; Fannonica ; and Julia, the eastern 
eztremitv, terminating in the Sinus Flanalicut (Bay of Camero), in Libumia. 
. The chief rivers of Gaul were Khenut (the Rhine) ; this river, near its mouth, at 
present divides itself into three streams, the Waal, the Leek, and the New Issel : the 
last was formed by a great ditch cut by the army of Drusus ; the ancient mouth of 
the Rhine, which passed by Leyden, has been choked up by some concussion of 
nature not mentioned in history ; Bhodanua (the Rhone), joined by the -4rar (Saone) ; 
Garumna (Garonne), which umted with the Duraniut (Dordogne) ; Liger (the Loire), 
joined by the Elaver (Allier) ; and Seqitana (the Seine). 

The principal islands on the coast of Uaul were Uxantos (Ushant) ; Uliarus (Oleron) ; 
Casarea (Jersey) ; Samia (Guernsey) ; and Eiduna (Aldemey) ; on the south coast 
were the Slaehadet or lAguttides insula (isles of Hieras). 

1 19. Tbe fovemmeat of ancient Gaol, previoai to the Roman Invailon, was arlttoeratleal, 
and lo great was tlieir hatred of royalty, that those who were even tuipected of almlnf at iove- 
rclffa power, were instantly put to death. The prieets and noblea, whom they called Dniide 
aad kaifbte, poeseeeed the whole authority of the itate ; the peasantry were esteemed as slaves ; 
lo OMMt of tbe sutes an annual maaistrate was elected with powers similar to those of tlic Ro- 
■WB eonsul, bm it was ordained that both the magistrate and tbe electors should be of noble birth. — 
In person, tbe Gaols are said to have been generally fair-complexioned, with long and ruddy 
hair, whence their country Is sometimes called Gallia ComaUt or Hairy Gaul. In disposition 
tbey are described as irascible, and of ungovernable fbry when provoked ; their first onset was 


imjietoous, but if vigorouslv resisted they did not sustain the fight with e()ual steadiness. 

, The history of Gallia before the invasion of the Romans is involved in obscurity ; we 
only know that it must have been very populous ft-om the numerous hordes who at dlflferent timet 
emlgnted from Gaol in search of new settlements. They seized on the north of Italy, which 
was from them called Cisalpine Gaul ; they colonized part of Germany ; they invaded Greece ; 
aad one tribe penetrated even to Asia, where, mingling with the Greeks, they seized on a pro- 
viaee. from thence called Galatia or Oallo-Grecia.— Another body of Gauls, under the command 
of Brennas, seized and burned Rome itself; and though they were subsequently routed by Oaroil- 
Ins, the Romans ever looked on the Gauls as their most formidable opponents, and designated a 
Galltc smr by the word TmmmUms^ implying that it was as dangerous as a civil war. 

) SI. Tbe alliance between the people of Massiiin (MarteUlu) and the Romans fhmbhed the 
latter people with a pretext for intermeddling in the aflkirs of Gaul, which they eagerly embraced. 
TlM firac nation wbom they attacked was the Salyes, who had refused them a passage into Spain; 
the Salyes were subdued by Caius Seztius, who planted a colony called aAer his name, Aqua 
BeztiK; about four vaars after, tbe greater part of Gallia Narbonensis was subdued by Quintus 
Martios Rez, who founded tbe colony Narbo Martius, and made it the capiul of the Roman 
proirince. — After the subiugation of Gallia Narbonensis, the Gauls remained unmolested until 
the time of Cesar, who after innumerable difllculties conquered the entire country, and annexed 
k lo tbe Romaa dominions. 

d by a« Boons |o««non, tha 0«ab iind«r Ibo enparan OMda npid tinaern in dvUtetkm { tbejr 
I is do q um m aad law. A enriooa circaawlaDee of iha mode lo wbidi then itadiat wcra 
i bf Buay biitorfaM; aa aoaal eoaltat in aloqatiioe taok plac* at LngduDam, aad tte vanqaiahad wera cdoh 
laOad to bM a«C tbdr ewa nnpaahiaiii, and wiit» mw ontieas ia pntaa of tha vktan, orain ba wbippad and plaagwi iato tba 
Imv-awntavyh Hktoira AaGaaMh hr. ISBa Svola. a 

^ 22. The country called V i n d e 1 i c i a was situated between the sources of the 
SkenuM (Rhine), and the Danubius or Ister (Danube). Its chief town was Augusta 
Vimdelieorum (Augsburg, celebrated for the confession of the protestant faith, j>re- 
sented b^ Melancthon to the Diet assembled there-at the commencement oi the 
Reformation). — Between VindeUcia imd the Alps was Rhjbtia, containing rather 
more than the present territory of the Grisons. Its chief towns were Curia (Coire), 
and Tridentum (Trent), where the last general council was assembled. — Vindelicia 
and Rhstia were originally colonized by the Tuscans, and for a long time bravely 
maintained their independence. They were eventually subdued during the reign of 
Angustus CaBsar, by Drusus the brother of Tiberius. 

% 23. NoRicuM lay to the esst of Vindelicia, from which it is separated by the river 
JEmms (inn). Its savage inhabitants made frequent incursions upon the Roman terri- 
tories, and were, after a severe struggle, reduced by Tibenus Caesar. The u>on of 
Noricum was very celebrated, and swords mode in that country were highly valued. 
— East of Noricum was Pannokia, also subdued by Tiberius. It was divided into 
Superior^ the chief town of which was Vin^dbona (Vienna) ; and Inferior, whose 
capital waa Sirmium, a town of great importance in the later ages of the empire. — 
Aoticum is now called Austria, and Pannonia. Hungary. 

% 24. The boundaries oT Illtricum have not been precisely ascertained ; it occu- 


pied the north-eastern shores of the Adriatic, and was subdivided into the three 
provinces of Ittria, Libumia^ and Dalmatia. It included the modern provinces, 
Croatia, Bosnia, and Sciavonia. — The chief towns were Salona, near Spalairot where 
the emperor Dioclesian retired after his resignation of the imperial power i Epidaurut 
or Dioclea (Ragusi Vecchio), and Bagusa, 

The Illyrians wore infamoue for their piracy and the cnielty with which they treated their 
captivea ; they poeaeised great nktll in ahip-building, and the light galleys of the Liburnians con- 
tributed not a little to Augucitus'e victory at Actlum.— The Roroane declared wer agatnet the 
Illyrians, In consequence of the murder of their ambiiMadors, who had been basely mnMacred by 
Teuta, queen of that country. The Illyrians were obliged to beg a peace on the most humiliating 
conditions, but having again attempted to recover their former power, they were Anally subdued 
by the prietor Anicius, who slew their king Gentius, and made the country a Roman province. 

^ 25. McESiA lay between Mount Hcmut (the Balkan) and the Danube, which after its 
junction with the Savug was usually called hter. It was divided into Superior, the 
present province of Servia, and Inferior , now called Bulgaria. Part of Mcesia Supe- 
rior was possessed by the Scordiitcij a Thracian tribe ; next to which was a district 
called Dardania ; that part of Mcesia Inferior near the mouth of the Danube was 
called PofUuB, which is frequently confounded with Pontus, a division of Asia Minor. 
— The principal cities in M<je»ia Superior were Singidunum (Belgrade), at the conflu- 
ence of the Save and Danube ; Nicopolis, built by Trajan to commemorate his victory 
over the Dacians ; and Naiasus (Nisea), the birthplace of Constantine the Great. — 
In Mafia Inferior were MareianojpoliSf the capital ; TVroit, the place of Ovid*s banish- 
ment ; Odefsus, south of I'omi, and JEgittus, near which was the bridge built by 
Darius in his expedition against the Scythians. 

$ 26. Dacia lay between the Danube and the Carpatea, or Atpea £a«f<imtr<K (Carpa- 
thian or Krapack mountains) ; including the territory of the modern provinces, Tran- 
sylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. I'he celebrated Hercynian Forest, Siflva Hercynia 
(cf. ^ 14) , stretched over the north and west part of it. Dacia was inhabited by two 
Scythian tribes, the Daci and GetcB^ who for a long time resisted every effort to deprive 
them of their freedom ; they were at length subdued by Trajan. 

After having canqutnd the eoantiy, Tnjaa Joiqcd it to Mcnw hf i awfBifloeiit bridg* mrer the DiBabe,tnoa of whkli aKni 
eziiL Hk w c c wi r, Adrian, infltwneBd either bjr Jealmny of hi« prrdecenor't rlorjr, or bdievinf it OKire cxpedieot to cootnet than 
to eitod the beanda of the empire, broke down the bridfe, and left Dacia to id fate.— Thii eoontry waa of eoneidemblc iaiportaace 
to the Rooiaiia on aoeonnt of {is fold aad tiiver niaea. In 1807, an inlerwtiag noBttmeat of Boaaa whtli« waa foaad in one of 
thcae mince. (Cf. P. IV. § 118. 1) 

A people haa been ftnmd asnonf the Wallaebiaoa, that now ipoak a lanicnage very umihr to the lAtin, and are fhareftm eappoiad 
to be dcaceadad from the Roman eolMiialL— Mr. Brewer aayi he fmod ao many wwda eenunon to the Latin and the WallachAn, 
that bf meana of the Latin he eeold eonteiie on eonomn rabjecta with a Waliaehbn merchant at CoMtoBtinopIn —J. Brmmr, Eea- 
deuce at Comtaatineple in IflST, fee. New Haven, 18Sa lt.-Cf. WUatf$ Jovmay from Cenataatiaople. 


% %1. In treating of this division we will also commetice with the most western 
country, which was Hisfania. This name included the modern kingdoms of Spain 
and Portugal. I'he country was also called Iberia, Hes|>eria, and (to distinmiish it 
from Italy, sometimes termed Hesperia, from its western situation,) Hesperia Ultima. 
The Romans at first divided it into Hisvania Citerior, or Spain at the eastern side of 
the Iberus, and Hiapania Ulterior, at the western side ; but by Augustus Cesar, the 
country was divided into three provinces; Tarraconesig, BcBlim, ^nd Luaiiania. Like 
the provinces of Gaul, these were inhabited by several distinct tribes. 

$28. Tarraconensis exceeded the other two provinces together, both in size and 
importance. It extended from the Pyrenees to the mouth of the Durius, on the Atlantic, 
and to the Oroapeda Mona separating it from Bsptica, on the Mediterranean ; and re- 
ceived its name from its capital, Tarraco (Tarragona), in the district of the Cosetani. 

The other principal towns were Saguntum, on the Mediterranean, whose siege by 
Hannibal caused tne second Punic war ; some remains of this city still exist, and are 
called Murviedro, a corruption of Muri veterea (old walla) ; Carthago Nova (Carthagena), 
built by Asdrubal, the brother of Hannibal, also on the Mediterranean: in the interior, 
north-east of the capital, Ilerda (Lerida) , the capital of the Ilergetes, where Cissar 
defeated Pompey's lieutenants, Afranius and Petreius ; Numantia, near the sources of 
the Durius, whose inhabitants made a desperate resistance to the Roman invaders, and, 
when unable to hold out longer, burned themselves and the city sooner than yield to 
the conquerors; Bilbilia, the birthplace of Martial, among the Celtiberi; Ccaaarea 
Augiiafa (Sara^ossa), capital of the Edetani; Toletum (Toledo); Complutum (Alcala), 
and Kibora (Talavera) , in the same district ; Calagurria, in the territory of the Vascones, 
whose inhabitants suffered dreadfully from famine in the Senorian war, being reduced 
to such straits, that the inhabitants (as Juvenal says) actually devoured each other. 
Near the modern town of Segovia, retaining the name and site of Segovia among the 
Arevaci, are the remains of a splendid aqueduct, built by Trajan. CalU (Oporto) , at 
the mouth of the Durius, was also called Portus Gallorum, from some Gauls who 
settled there, and hence the name of the present kingdom of Portugal. The north 


of Tmnaoonensk was ponesaed by the Cantdbri, a fierce tribe, who for a long time 
mwarrd the utmoet efforts of the Romans ; their territory is the modern provmce of 

% 29. The soathem part of Spain, between the Anas and Mediterranean, was called 
Bctica, Irom the river Bstis. Its chief towns were Cordtdta (Cordova), at first 
called Cofafiia Patrieui, the birthplace of the two Senecas, and the poet Lucan ; in 
this town are the remains of a splendid mosoue, built by the Moorish king, Alroanzor : 
it is more than 500 feet long, ana 400 wide ; the roof is richbr ornamented, and supported 
by 800 columns of alabaster, jasper, and black marble : HUpalix (Seville) ; Jtaliea, the 
native dty of Trajan, Adrian, and the poet Silius Italicus ; Custulo, called also Parnassia, 
because it was founded by a Phocian colony; all on the Bstis.— The south-western 
extremity of Baetica was possessed by a Phoenician colony, called the BastuU Poeni, to 
distingniah them fi-om the Libyan Pceni, or Carthaginians; their capital was Gades 
(Cadis) , on an island at the mouth of the Bcetis ; near it were the little island Taries' 
ms, now part of the continent, and Juwmis Fromontorium (Cape Trafalgar). — At 
the entnmce of the straits of Hercules or Gades, stood Carteia, on mount Ca2pe, which 
is now called Gibraltar, a corruption of Gebel Tarik, i. e. the mountain of Tarik, the 
first Moorish invader of Spain. Mount Calpe and mount Abyla (on the opposite coast 
of Africa) were named the pillars of Heradea^ and supposed to have been toe bounda- 
ries of that hero's western conquests. North of this was Munda^ where Ceesar fought 
bis last battle with Labienus, and the sons of Pompey. 

Lusitania, which occupied the greatest part of the present kingdom of Portugal, 
contained but few places of note ; the most remarkable were Augusta Emerita (Merida), 
and Olinppo (Lisbon), said to have been founded by Ulysses. 

S 30. Tne principal Spanish rivers were, Iberus (Ebro) ; Tagut (Tajo) ; Duriut 
(Dooro) ; B^Btis (Guadaiquiver) ; Anaa (Guadiana). — The promontory at the north- 
western extremity of the peninsula was named Artabrum or Celticum (Finisterre); that 
at the south-western. Sacrum^ because the chariot of the sun was supposed to rest there ; 
it is now called Cape St. Vincent 

1 31. Spain was first made known to the anclenta by the eonqueits of Hercules. In later times 
Um Carttwftnlaae became masters of the greater part of the country; they were in their tarn 
eipelled by the Romans, who kept possession of the peninsula for several centuries.— Dur- 
iBf ibe civil wars of Rome, Spain was frequently devastated by the contending parties. Here 
Sertorias, after the death of Marias, assembled the Aigitlves of the popular partv, and for a long 
tiflie resisted the arms of Sylla: here, Afranliis and Petreius, the lieutenants or Pompey, made 
a gallant stand against Julius Cssar ; and here, after the death of Pompey, bis sons made a 
fruitless eflbrt to vindicate their own rights, and avenge their fkther*s misfortunes.— Upon the 
overthrow of the Roman empire, Spain was conquered by the Vandals, who gave to one of the 
proviaccs the name Vandalosia, now corrupted Into Andalusia. 


% 32. Italy, Italta, has justly been denominated the garden of Europe both by 
ancient and modem writers, from the beauty of its climate and the fertility of its soil. 
The Italian boimdaries, like those of Spain, nave remained unaltered ; on the north are 
the Alps, on the east the Adriatic, or upper sea, on the South the Sicilian strait, and 
on the west the Tuscan, or lower sea. By the poets the country was called Saturnia, 
Ausonta, and CEnotria; by the Greeks it was named Hesperia, because it lay to the 
west of their country. 

Italy has always been subdivided into a number of petty states, more or less independent of 
each other. We shall treat it as comprehended in two parts, denominated the northern and 
§»mtMem ; and as the chief city and capital of the country is of such celebrity, shall enter into a 
more particular description of Rome ; adopting the following arrangement; I. The Geography 
of the iiortfa«m portion of Italy ; S. The Geography of the southern portion ; 3. The Topography 
oftbecity of Rome. 

^33- (1) Geography of the Northern portion cf Italia. The principal ancient divi- 
sions of this pan, were Gallia Cisalpine, Etruria, Umbria, Picenum, and Latium. 

Gallia Cisalpine, called also Togata, from the inhabitants adopiin?, after the 
Social war, the toga, or distinctive dress of the Romans, lay between the Alps and the 
nrer Rubicon. It was divided by the river Eridanus, or Padus, into Transpadana, at 
the north side of the river, and Cispadana at the south ; these were subdivided into 
several smaller districts. 

North of the Padus, or Po, was the territory of the Taurini, whose chief town, 
Augusta Taurinorum, is now called Turin; next to these were the Insubres. whose 
principal towns were Mediolanum (Milan) ; and Tieinum (Pavia), on the river Ticinus, 
where Hannibal first defeated the Romans, after his passage over the Alps ; the Ceno- 
manni, possessing the towns of Brixia (Brescia); Cremona; and Mantua^ the birth- 
place of Vh-eil; and the Eoganei, whose chief towns were Triienium (Trent); and 
Vtrona^ the birthplace of Catullus. — Next to these were the Veneti and Carni ; their 
chief towns were Pataoium (Padua), the birthplace of Livy, built by the Trojan Anie- 
noT^ alter the destruction of Troy ; and Aqutleia, retaining its former name but not 


former consequence ; it is celebrated for its desperate resistance to Attila kinjz of the 
Huns. Next to these was the province Hisiria, or Istria; chief town, TergeMU 

South of the Po where the territories of the Ligures ; chief towns, Genua (Genoa) , 
on the Sinut LiguBtieug (Gulf of Genoa) ; Portus Herculis Motutci (Monaco), and 
Niata (Nice); the territory of the Boii, containins Bononia (Bologna); Mutina 
(Modena). where Brutus was besieged by Antony ; Parma, and Plaeentia; and the 
country of the Lingones, whose chief town was Eavenna, where the emperors of the west 
held their court, when Rome was possessed by the barbarians. 

$34. Cisalpine Gaul contained the beautiful lakes Verbanut (Mag^iore); Bemutu 
(Di Gardi), and Larius, the celebrated lake of Como, deriving its modem name from 
the village Comum, near Pliny's villa. 

The nvers of this province were the EridanuM or Padus (Po), called by Virgil the 
king of rivers, which rises in the Cottian Alps, and receiving several tributary streams, 
especially the Ticinus (Tesino) and MinciuM (Mincio), fails into the Adriatic; the 
Athesis ( Adige), rising in the Rhaetian Alps ; and the Rubicon (Rugone), deriving its 
source from tne Apennines, and failing into the Adriatic. 

9 35. Thfl Inhtbiunts of Cisalpine Gaul were, of all tlie Italian ttatei, the moat hottlle to the 
power of Rome; they Joined Hannibal with alacrity when he invaded Italy, and in the Social 
war they were the rooet inveterate of the allied atates in their hostility.— When the empire of 
the west fell before the northern tribes, this province was seized by the Lonyobardt, from whom 
the greater part of it la now called lAtmbarti/. In the middle ages it was divided into a number 
of independent republics, which preserved some sparlta of liberty, when freedom was banished 
from the rest of Europe. 

$ 36. E t r u r i a extended alone the coast of the lower or Tuscan sea, from the small 
river Macro, to the mouth of the Tiber. 

The most remarkable towns and places in Etruria were: the town and port of Luna, 
at the mouth of the river Macra ; Pisa (Pisa) ; Florentia (Florence) ; Portus Herculig 
Lebumi (Leghorn); Pistoria, near which Catiline was defeated; Perusia, near the 
lake Thrasymene, where Hannibal obtained his third victory over the Romans ; Cluaium, 
the city of^ Porsenna ; VoUtinii (Boisena), where Sejanus, the infamous minister of 
Tiberius, was bom ; Falerii (Palari), near mount Soracte, the capital of the Falisci, 
memorable for the generous conduct of Camillus while besieging it ; Fett, the ancient 
rival of Rome, captured by Camillus after a siege of ten years ; Care, or Agylla (Cer 
Veteri), whose inhabitants hospitably received the Vestal virgins, when they ned from 
the Gauls, in reward for which they were made Roman citizens, but not allowed the 
privilege of voting, whence, any Roman citizen who lost the privilege of voting was 
said to be enrolled among the Carites; Centum CetUt (Civita Vecchia), at the mouth of 
the Tiber, the port of modern Rome. 

^ 37. The principal rivers of Etruria were the Amus (Amo) , rising in the Apennines 
and falling into the sea near Pisa ; and the Tiber, which issuing from the Umbrian 
Apennines, and joined by the Nar (Nera) and Anio (Teverone) , running in a south- 
westerly direction, ^falls into the sea below Rome. 

The Etrurians were called by the Greeks, 7)frrk»ni; they are said to have eome originally 
from Lydin in Asia Minor, and to have preserved traces of their eastern origin, to a very late 
period. From them the Romans borrowed their ensigns of regal dignity, and many of their 
superstitious observances, for this people were remarkably addicted to auguries and soothsaying. 
They attained distinguished excellence in art (cf. P. IV. ) 109, 110;; interesting monamenu of 
which still exist (cf. P. IV. \ 173). 

% 38. Umbria was situated east of Etruria, and south of Cisalpine Gaul, from which 
it was separated by the Rubicon. The principal river of Umbria was the Metaurus 
(Metro) , where Asdrubal was cut off by the consuls Livius and Nero while advancing 
to the support of his brother Hannibal. Its chief towns ; .Ariminum (Rimini) , the first 
town taken by Caesar, at the commencement of the civil war; Pesaurum (Pesaro); 
Senna Gxdliea (Senifaglia), built by the Galli Senoncs ; Camerinum; Spoletium (Spo- 
letto), where Hannibal was repulsed after his victory at Thrasymene. 

Tba memory at this npulis ii itUl p rew n e J in u ineriplien over om of Um gkiei, Utcnn ealled Porta di Fugm. ** Bcnals a 
a b«otiral »qu«iact cwrM mtm a «mll«y, thne haadrad feet bif h." fV. FMe, p. 943, u cited P. IV. f IML a 

^39. P i c e n u m lay to the east of Umbria, on the coast of the Adriatic. Its principal 
towns were, Atculum (Ascoli), the capital of the province, which must not be confound- 
ed with Asculum in Apulia, near which Pyrrhus was defeated ; Corfinium (San Ferino), 
the chief town of the Peligni ; Sulmo, the birthplace of Ovid ; and Ancona^ retaining its 
ancient name, founded by a Grecian colony. 

CkNe to the harbor of Anoona to a beautiful triwnphal aivh araded <d bonor of TnJaB ; Ibo pillar* an of Pirka marUe, and ttill 
reiaia tbeir pure wbiteacw and esqaiaila poliab, aa if freib from tba worfcawa^ band*. Tba odcbntal chapel of Loretto ia aear 

South of Picenum and Umbria, were the territories of the Marsi and Sabini. The for- 
mer wore a rude and warUke people ; their capital was Marrvbium, on the Lacue Fvcinus. 
This lake Julius Caesar vainly attempted to dmin. It was afterwards partially effected 
hy Claudius Caesar, who employed thirty thousand men for eleven years, in cutting a 
passaj^e for the waters through the mountains, from the lake to the river Liris ; when 


cveiy thing was prepared for letting oflT the waters, he exhibited seTerel splendid naral 
gameii, sliows, 6Lc.; but the work did not answer his exnectations, and the canal, being 
neglected, was soon choked ap, and the lake recovered its ancient dimensions. — The 
Sabine towns were Cures, whence the name Quiniea is by some derived (cf. ^ 53) ; 
Eeatt, near which Vespasian was bom ; Amitemum^ the birthplace of Sallust ; Crus- 
tu meruu m, and Fiiata, Mon* Sacer, whither the plebeians ot Rome retired in their 
contest with the patricians, was in the territory of the Sabines. In these countries were 
the first enemies of the Romans, but about the time of Camillus the several small stales 
in this part of Italy were subjugated. 

^40. Lati u m, the most important division of Italy, lay on the coast of the Tuscan 
pea, between the river Tiber and Liris ; it was called Latium, from lateoy to lie hid, 
because Saturn is said to have concealed himself there, when dethroned by Jupiter. 

The chief town was Rome (see ^ 51 ss). Above Rome on the Tiber, stocd T3mr 
(Trvoli), buiit by an Amve colony, a favorite summer residence of the Roman 
nobility, near which was fforace's fovorite country seat (P. III. ^ 326) : south of Rome, 
Tuseuimm (Frescati), remarkable both in ancient and modem times, for the salubrity 
of the air and beauty of the surrounding scenery ; it is said to have been built by Tele- 
gonus. the son of 1 1 lyases; near it was Cicero's celebrated Tusculan villa: east of 
Tnscttlora, Fr^uaie (Palestrina), a place of great strength both by nature and art, 
where the younger Marius perished in a subterranean nassage, while attempting to 
escape, when ttw town was besieged by Sylla : south of Tusculum, Ltmga Alba, the 
parent of Rome, and near it the small towns Atgidum, PiBdum,and Gabii, betrayed to 
the Romans by the well-known artifice of the younger Tarquin. — On the coast, at the 
month of the Tiber, stood Ostia^ the port of ancient Rome, built by Ancus Martius; 
south of this were LauretUum, Lavinium (built by ^neas and called after his wife La- 
vinia), and Ardea^ the capital of the Rutuli, where Camillus resided during his exile. 
Sooth of these were the territories of the Volsci, early opponents of the Romans ; their 
chief cities were Autium, where there was a celebrated temple of Fortune; SuesMa 
Pamttiia, the capital of the Volsci, totally destroyed by the Romans; and Carioli, from 
the capture of which Cains Mardus was named Coriolanus. 

South of the VoUci, were the town and promontory of Ctrceii, the fabled residence 
of Circe ; Anrur (Terradna), on the Appian Way ; the town and promontory Caieta, 
deriving its name from the nurse of iCneas, who was there interred ; Formue, near 
which Cicero was assassinated bv command of Antony ; and, at the mouth of the 
Liris, MiniunuKt near which are the Pontine or Pomptine Marshes, in which the elder 
Marios endeavored to conceal himself when pursued by his enemies. The Pontine 
Manhes extended through a great part of Latium, and several ineflectual efforts have 
been made to drain them. The exhalations from the stagnant water have always made 
the sorroanding country very unhealihy . — On the confines of Campania were Arpinnm, 
the birthplace of Manus and Cicero, the rade soldier and the polished statesman ; 
A*fuimum, the birthplace of Juvenal; and Sinuegwa^ celebrated for iu mineral waters, 
on^inaUycalled Sinope. 

^41. The principal rivers of Latium were the Anio (Teverone) ; the AUia, on the 
banks of which the Gauls defeated the Romans with dreadful slaughter ; and the 
Cremem, where the family of the Fabii, to the number of three hundred, were de- 
rrroyed by an ambuscade, while carrying on war at their own expense against the 
Veieotes ; these three rivers fall into the TAer ; the LiriM (Garigliano), which divided 
Larium from Campania, falls into the Tuscan sea. — I'he principal lakes were named 
Lactts Aibm2u9 (Sol&tara). remarkable for its sulphurous exhalations, and the adjoin- 
in? erove and oracle of Faunus ; Lacus Regilluty near which Posthumius defeated 
the Latins, by the assistance of Castor and Pollux as the Romans believed ; and La- 
cvv> Albanus. near which was Mount Albanua where the solemn sacrifices called 
Feri£ Latinse were celebrated. 

The cnpHsl of Latram, in the refgn of Kinf Latlnav, wa« Laarentnm ; lo the reffn of iEn«iis, 
Laviniam; In lh« refm of AManius, Loncm AIha; but all the«e w«>re ecHpsH by Ihf^ fiuperior 
framlcor of Rome. The several ladepeadeat states were subdued by the Bomaas Sa the earlier 
afesof the rcpublie. 

^ 42. (2) Oeofrraphy of the Southern portion of Ttalu. The southern part of Italy 
was named yiaena Gracia, from the number ofOreek colonies that at different periods 
settled there, it was divided into Campania, Samnium, Apulia, Calabria, Lucaiiia, 
and Bruttiom. 

Campania, the richest and most fertile of the divisions of Italy, extended along 
the shores o( the Tuscan sea, from the river Liris to the river Silarus, which divided 
it from Locania. 

The chief city was Cofwa, so named from its founder Capys, celebrated for its riches 
atd luxury, by which the veteran soldiers of Hannibal were enervated and corrupted. 
North of "it were Teanum, celebrated for the mineral waters in its vicinity, and Vena- 
frmm, fiunous for olives.— South of Capua was CoBUinum, where a garrison of Pre- 
n^stines. after having made a most gallant resistance, and protracted the siege till 
they had endured the utmost extremity of fiimine, were at last compelled to surrender ; 


next to this was LUemumt at the mouth of the little river ClaniuB, where Scipio Afri- 
canus for a long time lived in voluntary exile. — Farther south was Cunue, founded by 
a colony from Chalcis in EubcBa, the residence of the celebrated Cumean Sibyl, and 
near it the town and promontory Misenumj so named from Misenus, the trumpeter of 
^ncas, who was buried there. — Below the cape were Baite, famous for its mineral 
waters ; Puteoli (Puzzoli) , near which were the Phlegnei-campi, where Jupiter is said 
to have vanquished the giants ; Cimmeriumt whose early inhabitants are said, by Ho- 
mer, to have lived in caves. After these we come to Parihenope or Neapolis (Naples). 
This beautiful city was founded by a colony from Cumie, and for a lon^ time retained 
the traces of a Grecian original ; it was called Parthenope from one oftfae Sirens said 
to have been buried there. Close to the town is the mountain PamUypu9 (Pausilippo), 
through which a subterranean passage has been cut, half a mile in length and twenty- 
two feet wide ; neither the time of making nor the maker is known ; a tomb, said to 
be that of Virgil, is shown on the hill Pausilippo ; here also are ruins called the villa 
of Lucullua. — At the southern extremity of the SinuM Puteolanut (bay of Naples), 
were StahuSf remarkable for its mineral waters, and Surrentunif celebrated tor iis 
wines ; near the latter was the PromorUorium Surrentinum or Athetutum (Capo della 
Minerva) ; east of Naples was Nola^ where Hannibal was first deiieated, ana where 
Augustus died. In the south of Campania was Salemum (Salemo), the capital of the 
Piccntini. — Between Naples and Mount Vesuvius wero HierciiIdiMttm andPompeft, 
destroyed by a tremendous eruption of that volcano, A. D. 79. 

The ranuuM of tb«M town wwn aeddaatelly dboovand in (he lMfiaala( of Om lait MDloiy, wad (ht oanwoiH and vahaU* 
rtmain of antiquity gnt w a grealer aicbt into tba donaiUe habili of the Bonaaa Ibaa eovM prevloaalj be ohteiafad. "Above tbiiij 
•treed of Fonfieli are now (IS4IQ) reatored to li^t. The walb which fonned iti aaeiear OMkeitiw have beeo peoofniaed j a nac* 
Difieeat amphitbeatreb athaatr^ a btWB, the temple of bia, that of Veims, aad a namber of other baiMiacn hara been deand.^ 
HooHi, ibopa, oellan, with all their farioM furaitore, are found Joat aa they ware when buried onder the vokaaie waei Sue the 
works on BemlaaMini aad FoBpali cited P. IV. ( 849. 2.-CL P. UL {829. 

^ 43. The principal Campanian rivers were the Vultumva (Vultumo) ; SebelAvi 
(Sebeto), now an inconsiderable stream, its springs bein^ dried up by the eruptions of 
Afount Vesuvius ; and the Samus (Samo). — The principal lakes were the Lttcrinus, 
which by a violent earthquake, A. D. 1538, was changed into a muddy marsh, with 
a volcamc mountain, Monte Nuovo de Cinere, in the centre ; and the Avtmua, near 
which is a cave represented by Virgil as the entrance of the infernal regions. It was 
said that no birds could pass over this lake on account of the poisonous exhalations ; 
whence its name, irom a (not) and SpwU (a bird). 

Upon the invasion of the northern nationi, Cannpania became the alternate prey of different 
barbarous tribes ; at length It was seised by the Saracens In the tenth century. These were ex- 
pelled by the Normans, under Tancred, who founded the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. 

$ 44. East of Latium and Campania was S a m n i u m, including the country of the 
Hirpini. — The chief towns were SamniSf the capital ; BenevcfUum (Benevento), at 
first called Maleventum, from the severity of the winds, but when the Romans sent 
a colony here they changed the name, from motives of superstition ; near this town 
Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, who had come to the assistance ot the Samnites, was totaUv 
defeated by the Roman army, commanded by Curius Dentatus ; Caiii/tum, near which 
are the Caudinoi FuvcuUb (Forchia d' Arpaia), a narrow and dangerous defile, in which 
the Roman army, beine blocked up by the Samnite general, Pontius, were obliged to 
surrender on disgraceful conditions ; and Alfenuz, remarkable for its manufactory 
of earthenware. — Among the Hirpini, were Equotulicumy whose unpoeiical nanie is 
celebrated by Horace ; Trixicum and Herdonia (Ordonia), on the borders of Apulia. — 
Near Herdonia was the celebrated valley of Anuanctus, surrounded by hills, and re- 
markable for its sulphurous exhalations and mineral springs ; on a neighboring hilt 
stood the temple of Mephitis, the goddess who presided over noxious vapors, whence 
the valley is now called Moffeta. 

1^ 45. 'fhe principal rivers of Samnium were the Sabatun (Sabato), and Color (Ca- 
lore), both tnbutary to the Vultumus. 

The Samnites were descended from the same parent stock as the Sabines, and for many years 
contended with the Romans for the empire of Italy ; at leni^th, after a war of more than seventy 

S^ars, durlnff which the Romans were frequently reduced to great extremities, the fortune of 
lome prevailed, and the Samnites were almost totally extirpated, B. C. S72. 

^46. Apulia, called nlro Daunia and Japygia, but now La Puglia^ occupied the 
greater part of the east of Italy, extending from the river Frento to the Bay of Ta- 

Its chief towns ; Teanumt named Apulum to distinguish it from a town of the same 
name in Campania; Arpi^ said to have been built by Diomede, after his return from 
the Trojan war ; north of Arpi is Mount Garganu» (Saint Angelo) , in the spur of the 
boot to which Italy is commonly compared ; east of Arpi were ZJrta, which gave the 
ancient name to the Sinus Uriua^ and Siponfum (Manfredonia, which gave to the SinuM 
Uriua its modem name, Gulf of Manfredonia) ; on the borders of Samnium stood 
Lnceria, celebrated for its wool; Salapia (Salpe); and Aseulum, called Apulum, to 
distinguish it from a town of the same name in Picenum. — Near the river Aufidua 


gnod dw TiUage of Cannm, where Hannibal almost annihilated the power of Rome ; 
through the fielda of Canne runs the small stream VergelluM, which is said to have 
been so choked with the carcasses of the Romans, that ine dead bodies served as a 
hridfe to Hannibal and his soldiere; CanusiMmt a Greek colony, where the remains of 
theRoman army were received alter thcar defeat. — Venmna (Venosa), near Monnt 
Vuitor, the birthplace of Horace ; JBaniuR (Bari), where excellent fish were caasht in 
neat abondanoe ; and EgiuUia, on the Matinian shore, famona for bad water and good 

Toe principal Apuliaii riven were Cerialtu (Cerbaro), and Aujidtu (O&nto), remark- 
able ibr the rapidity of its waters : both fiilling into the Adriatic. 

^47. Calabria, called also Messapia, lay to the south of Apulia, forming what is 

ciUed the heel of the boot. Its chief towns on the eastern or Adriatic side, were 

Bnndmsimm (Brindisi), once remarkable for its excellent harbor, which was destroyed 
ia the fifteenth century ; from ihis the Italians who wished to pass into Greece gene- 
rally floled : HydnaUum (Otranto), where Italy makes the nearest approach to Greece ; 
Caftnmi HiinerviM (Castro), near which is the celebrated Japygian cape, now called 
Cm Santa Maria de Lmea. On the west side of Calabria were Taremium (Tarento), 
bult by the Spartan Phahmthus, which ^ves name to the Tarentioe bay ; Rmdia, the 
birthplaoe of the poet Ennins ; and CaUipolis (Callipoti), built on an island and joined 
to the continent by a splendid causeway. 

The princqial liver m Calabria was the Gaienu (Galeso), which falls into the bay of 

^ 48. Lucania lay south of Campania, extending from the Tuscansea to the bay of 
Tarentum ; in the nuddle ages the northern part vraa named Baaiticata, from the empe- 
ror Basil ; and the aouthem part was called Calabria-citre by the Greek emperors, to 
peipetuate the memory of andent Calabria, which they had lost. 

The princqial towns on the Mare Tyrrkenum (Tuscan sea), were, Zaaw, on the 
river of the aame name flowing into the Suuu Loum (Gulf of Policastro) ; BuxentMm^ 
called by the Greeks Pyziu, on the Laoaine bay ; Vdia or £Zea, the birthplaoe of Zeno, 
the inventor of logic, founded bv a division of the Asiatic colony, that bmlt Marseilles 
fcf. ^ 17) : in the vicinity of Eaea, near Mount AWumut (Posti^lione, or Alburno), 
rasiuw^ called by the Greeks Poaidonia, celebnted in ancient tune for its roses, in 
modern for its beautiful ruins. 

Ommtmmti r ^\ tm ^ n ,«L W ^ i i . »cilDd F.IV.f MBLL- ITI ii iii \ n, BSadn,tt^yitLnL m dim T, If. jM, 4.^ Ih- 

lttmimi,lmmamm^rumm,m L 

To the interior of Lucama, were Atimun, on the Tenagrus ; Alemnm, on the Silarus ; 
(TfssKufiiai, on the Adiis ; and Lagaria, said to have been founded by Epeus, the 
framer of the Trogan horse.— On the shore of the Smut Tarentmttt (Tarentine bey), 
were Metapomtmoiy the residence of Fythsgoras during the latter part of his life, and 
the head-ouartere ol Hannibal for several winien ; Seraelea, where the congress of 
the Itafo-Uiedan states used to assemble ; 5«Aam, on a small peninsula, infemous for 
itsloxnry ; and Tkurium^ at a little distance, wnither the Sybarites retired when their own 
dty was destroyed by the people of Crotona. The plains where these once flourishing 
dnea stood are now desolate ; the riven constantly overflow their banks, and leave 
behind them muddy pools and imwholesome swamps, while the few architectoral re- 
maina contribute to tke melancholy of the scene, by recalling to memory the days of 
former greatness. 

The principal riven of Lucania were the Tanagrtu (Negri), which, after sinking 
in the earth, breaks forth near the beautifal valley of Albarnus, and anittng with 
the SQanu fells into the Sinug PwUtnus (Gulf of Salerno) ; Melpus (Melfa), which 
empties itself into the Loom Smug (Gulf of Policastro, so called from the number of 
ruins on^its shores) ; the BradanvB, dividing Lucania from Calabria, and felling into 
the Tarentine bay ; the AariM (Agri), and tne Sybarig (Coecile), small streams on the 
Tarentine coast. 

% 49. The south-west of Italy, below the Sybaiis, was named Bruttia-telliis or 
B ru 1 1 i u m, but is now called Calabria-ultre.— The principal cities of the Bruttii, on 
the Tuscan sea, were Pamdogia, where Alexander, kin^ of Epirua, who waged war in 
Italy while hia relative and namesake was subduing Aaia, died ; Congenita (Cosenza), 
the capital of the Bruttii : Termo, on the Sinug Terin^u* (Gulf of St. Euphemia) ; 
•nd Vibo, or Hippo, called by the Romans Valentia (Monte Leone). — On the Sicilian 
biiait, were the town and promontory Scyllaum (ScvIIa), whoee dangerous rocks gave 
riae to the feble of the sea-monster ScvUa (c£ P. II. ^117); opposite to the celebrated 
whiripool Charjfbdig on the coast of Sicily : Bhegium (RegKio). so named by the Greeks, 
because they believed that, at some very remote period, Sicily was joined to Italy, and 
broken off here br aome violent natural concussion ; it was founded by a colony from 
Chalcis, in the island of Eubcea, and the surrounding country was celebrated for its 
fertility ; not far from Rhegium were the village and cape J^eueopetra, so named fit>m 
the whiteneaa of its rocks, now Capo dell' Arnai. 

On the Tarentine bay were PetUia, the city of Philoctetes ; Crotona, founded by 
some Achcans on their return from the Troian war, where Pythagoras established hn 



I. THieiilrc ut Bacobu*. ID. P^n-ilt. 

I, Odi-ufN. II. Ti-fwp1*'r"f _ 

i. Pryt*nrum- lit OljfntpeHim. 
0. AnxipiM^t- 

i;i,>».t to VI-^r.rh.H. 

MiHiiil Ancbe»in«»- 

llitrliiirr •►! Hhdltrritnt, 

Jf»rlj<iT III' IV<r«tU»- 


(According la tliat ^iv<ni in liirtlielntny'a AM»chftrBi«.) 

f Aqua rinnllA. 

I'll. AfiUi Anptft 

tl. Aqim M'Tfit 

EL AqtiJ Jm»^« 

b Triuinplial Bn *r- 

PAUlllie tlrnlf, 


I. rppioi, 

k TiTttpk or Apofloi. 
n. r<<r>iin A uc >■«'»- 


'^A* p<ibli*hel Uy the Stciet/ Tm Iho nirrtMioti of llsrful Itiinwledi^'e.) 


eelebrmted school of philosophy ; the people were so famoos for theu* skill in athletic 
eierdaes, that it was oommonljr said *'the last of the Crotoniates is the first of the 
Greeks": south of this was the Promontorium Laciniumt where a very celebrated 
temple oi Juno stood, whence she is frequently called the Lacinian goddess ; from the 
remains of this temple, the promontory is now called Capo della Calonne ; ScylaetBum 
(Squillace), founded by an Athenian colony on a bav to which it gives name ; Caulon 
(Costel Vetere), an Achsean colony, almost destroyed in the wars with Pyrrhus ; south 
of it, Neryx (Gerace), near the Promontorium Zephyrium (Burzano), the capital of the 
Locrians, who at a very early period settled in this part of Italy.— The cape at the 
southern extremity of Italy was named Promontorium Herculisj now Spartivento. 

The Drindpal rivers of the Bruttii were the Cratke$ (Crati), and JVe«8/A«#<Neti), which 
received its name from the Achsan women having burned their husbands* ships to 
prevent their proceeding further in search of a settlement. 

1 50. A mreat proportion of tb« Greeks who colonized the tooth of Italy, were generals, who, 
on ibeir retnrn from the Trojan wars, found that they had been forgotten by their subjects, 
and that their thrones were occupied by oihers. The intestine wars that almost continually 
devastated Greece, increased the number of exiles, who at diffbront times, and under various 
leaden, sought to obtain, in a foreign country, that tranquillity and liberty that had been denied 
them ai home.— These different states were internally regulated by their own laws ; but an 
annaal conrress similar to the Arophictyonic council of Greece, assembled at lleraclea, and 
united the several communities in one. great confederacy. 

Sybaris seems to have been, at first, the leading state, but aAer a bloody war, it was destroyed 
by ihe jealousy of the people of Crotona ; the Sybarites did not yield to despair ; five times they 
rebuilt Ibeir cuy, but at length it was leveled to the ground, and its wretched inhabitants, forced 
to rplmqtttsb their native place, built a new town at Thurium.— The Crotoniates did not long 
preserve their supremacy, for the vices of the Sybarites were introduced into their rity, and 
they coDseqaently fell an easy prey to the Locrians.-*-To secure their superiority, the Locrians 
entered into an alliance with the kings of Syracuse, who by this means obtained considerable 
infloence in the south of Italy, until the attempt of the elder Dionysius tu secure to himself a part 
of Che country by bttildtng a wall from the Terincan gulf to the Ionian rea, and still more the in- 
gratitude of the younger Dionysius, gave them a distaste for the connection.— After breaking 
fttr their alliance with the Sirilians, f he Locrians united themselves to the Romans ; during the 
war with Pyrrhus, they adhered to the fortunes of Rome with the most unshaken fidelity ; 
bfit afterwards becoming J u«tly alarmed at the restless ambition of their allies, they readily Joined 
Hannibal.— It Is remarkable, that in all the other Italo-Grecian states the people, embraced the 
Carthaginian side, while the nobles sided with the Romans, but among the Locrians the division 
of parties was directly the contrary. 

The Tarentines ruled the ahores of the Tarentine bay, but being enervated by riches and 
loxnry, they were obliged to put themselves under the protection of Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, to 
i^ecnre their city from the Romans. After the disgraceful termination of Pyrrhus's Italian 
campaign, that monarch returned home, leaving a garrison in Tarentum, under the command 
of Mito, who betrayed the city to the Romans. 

After the termination of the second Punic war, these states, though acknowledging the su- 
periority of Rome, retained their own lawa and private Jurisdiction, even to the latest periods 
of the Roman empire. 

^51. (3) Tkt Topography of Rome. This city was originally, it is stated, nearly m 
the form o( a square, ana its whole perimeter was scarcely one mile. In the tithe of 
Pliny the walla were said to have been nearly 20 miles in circuit. The wall built by 
Belisarins to resist the Goths, still remaining, is about 14 miles in circumference. — The 
Gates (Porta) of Rome were originally four ; in the time of the eider Pliny, there were 
thirty-seven ; in the reign of Justinian only fourteen. The following were the most 
noted; Porta Carm/entalis, CoUina, Tiburtifuit Calimontanaf Latina, Capena, Fla-' 
Bujsaa, Ostienaitt, 

Fm a pinor ndcat fliwM,w« oar ]1ateI.,ri«B vhicb ths raada- ataj tatn fbe podtloB of Buy of fte inpoitut ol^acti 

^ 52. Thirty-one great Boadn centered in Rome. Some of the principal were Via 
Sacra, Appia, Emilia, Valeria, Flaminia. These public roads *'is8umg from the 
Forum traversed Italy, pervaded the provinces, and were terminated only by the fron- 
tiers of the empire." Augustus erected a gilt pillar in the middle of the forum, called 
MiUiarium aureum{,TQC. Hist. i. 27), from which distances on the vanous roads were 
reckoned. '* This curious monument was discovered in 1823." ButUr's Geogr. Class, 
p 39) 

■^ They nsvally were raised some height above the ground which they traversed, and proceeded 
In as straight a line as possible, running over hill and valley with a sovereign contempt for all 
the principles of engineering. They consisted of three distinct layers of materials ; the lowest, 
stoiies. miied with cement, staiKmen ; the middle, gravel or small stones, mdera, to prepares 
i^vH and unyielding surface to receive the upper and most important structure, which consisted 
of larce masses accurately fitted together. These roads, especially in the neighborhood of 
cities, had, on both sides, raised foot-ways, mareineg^ protected by curb-stones, which defined 
tbe extent of the central part, argtr^ for carriages. The latter was barrelled, that no water 
nicbt lie npon it.*'— **The public roads were accurately divided by mile-stones. They united 
Use sabjfcis of the most distant provinces by an ensy intercourae ; but their primarv object had 
Keen to facilitate the march of the legions. The advantage of receiving the earliest intelligence, 
and of conveying their ordere with celerity, induced tbe emperora to establish, throughout their 
exivrnaive dominions, the regular Institution of posts. Houses were every where erected only 
at the diaunce of five or six miles; each of them was constantly provided with forty horses, 
•od by the help of these relays, it was easy to travel a hundred milea In a day along the Roman 


road& The me of the poets wai allowed to thoee who elalmed It by an imperial mandate ; Init 
though originally intended fur the public aervice/it was aometlmee indulged to the bueineaa or 
conveniency of private citizena."— Dr. Robinstn noticed three Roman mile-atones on hie route 
(in 1838) from Tyre to Beirut in Syria; one of them, ** a large column with a Latin inacription 
containing the names of Beptimiiia Severus and Pertlnaz?' Traces still exist of a Roman 
road leading from Damascua to Petra, and thence even to Ailah. The most ancient and cele- 
brated of all the Roman Vie was the Appian way, called Regime Fiaresh the Queen of Roads. 
It was constructed by the censor, Appius Claudius, in the year of the city 441, and extended 
from Rome to Capua. Afterwards it waa continued to Brundusium, 300 mites. At Sinnesaa it 
threw off a branch called the Domitian way, which ran along the coast to Bala, Neapolis, Uer- 
Cttlaneum, and Pompeii. 

iir. Arritf-.HHtdMgraMbehmiBidwllandiM. Pur. 179B. Svoh. 4— D^Aioilli^oBffaecilBalaructMtBancaBd thcgraad 
mda IflMliiic fh» it, is tbs Mam. Aead. hmr. voL uz. p. M8L-& Bobiiuon, BtbLB&vol.lU.p.4Uk4ai;«oLiL|».5a<,s 
died fin. 

^ 53. There were eight principal bribes over the Tiber, which flowed through the 
city from the north ; rons Milviu* ; JElius, still standine ; Fabriciut : Ceatitu ; Pa- 
latinu9 or SenatoriuSf some arches of it still remaining ; Sublkitu or Mmiliut ; Jani- 
cularitt still existing ; Triump/taliM or VaticanuM. 

Rome was called Septicollis, from havine been built on seven mountains or hills. 
These were Mons PahUinuSi Capitaiinus, &quilinus, CoeZtiM, AverUinut, Quirinalis, 

The foundation or commencement of the city waa made, according to the common aceoanta, 
on the Mons Pakuinu» or Palatium, Here Romulus bad hia residence. Here the emperors 
nsually abode, and hence the term Polotiitm, palace, applied to designate a royal or princely 
dwelling. The hill first added was probably the QuirinaUs^ on which it has been supposed waa 
a Habine settlement called Qatnem : this addition being made when the union was formed be- 
tween the Romans and Sabines, before the death of Romulua, and the Romans took the name 
of QntritM. The double Jttnus on the earliest coins is by some supposed to refer to this union. 
Next was added the hill CorftM, on which a Tuscan settlement Is supposed to have been planted. 
The other four hills were successively added, at least before the close of the reign of Servius 
Tullius, sixth king of Rome. Two hills on the north of the Tiber were also connected with the 

city. The Janieulum was fortified by Ancus Martius, fourth king of Rome, as a sort of out-post« 
and Joined to the city by a bridge. The other, the Vaticanus, so called perhape from the predic- 
tions uttered there by soothsayers, vales, was added at a later period ; it waa rather disliked by 

the ancients, but is now the princi[Nil place in Rome, being the seat of the Pope's palace, flt. 
Peter's church, and the celebrated Vatican library. A UnU hill, CoUis Aerta/amai, called alec 
i^nctM, was taken into the city by Aurelian. 

Od the lida or the CupiialinM bUI toward! tiw Tiber wu tb« Tlvptten JBodL Johnno mjt, On bh Phik$. tif TrvoA. eilad P. IV. 
} leO). «*or all that tresiwDdoaa pradpioa, painlad in audi Iwrifle onion by Smoea, imvmenm aUitudinU aaptctm, only lAfrty feel 
of iti aammit now «vci1ook tbo eonaolidaM dwt of aadont tenptaa and Um aeenniaUtBd filtb of uodera hovaia.'^Tbe apot wm 
vWladlalSBbylwoAinerieaa feattamaa, aaiiaent aehalan, oaa of wbonirritea, ** after very cautkma eatimalea we botb Jodfod 
the oriKioal height to faa?* beaa aboot 80 fett, of wbidi aboot twenty maj bo filled up, lattiac "tent tO br ill praant altituda* 

^ 54. Rome was oriffinally divided into four districts. From the time of Augustus 
there were fourteen. The last division is followed by most topographers, and affords 
the most convenient order for mentioning the objects worthy of notice in the city. The 
names of the districts were as follows; 1. Porta Capena; 2. Calimontium; 3. isiM and 
Sera^ or Moneta ; 4. Templum Pads or Via Sacra ; 5. Esquilina cum turri et coUe 
Vimtnalt ; 6. AUa Semita ; 7. Via Lata ; 8. Forum Rcmonum ; 9. Circus Flaminiut ; 
10. Palatium; 11. Circus Maximus ; 12. Piscina PuUica ; 13. Aventinus ; 14. Trans 
TU)ervm. To describe only the most remarkable objects in each region or district would 
trespass on our designed limits, and we must be content with merely naming some of 

rt of Oia objeeli indoded In the fcttflMB r«iaaa ii gives h AwMtft Aatlqiilttea, eh. iL at cHcd p. UL i 197. 8. 

See Q. C. Jdlw'f anrfBrticbe BeMhreibang der Btadt tarn. AHona, 1781. 4. wffh engraviiiga. The badi, Biainly, h the 

amngaaaotflr Seztoi RnfoB asd PoUiia Victor with theadditiooi of Nardiai and olharh (CL OrceaTbenom, Tola. Saod 4.) 
Akrditit^ Itallaa original waa pobliahad aaew by 4. NtUy, Boma, 1880, 4 tola. & witti p1atia.-DaMriiioae di Roma Antka taiM 
BBvameate eon le Aotorila di Bart, MaHiamy Ono/. Faminio, kc with plataa. Ren. 1887. 8 vola. 4.-C fte, Nuon dacriaioiN 
di Boiaa antlea a noderaa. B091. IBUl S Tola 8. with platea.— C. Burton^ Moaaments and CarmlHca of Rome. Oxf. 1821. Ttaari. 
Into Oemiaa by SteUar, Weim. 18BS. 8.-Pcmif», Oeoerisioaa topografiadelle aaliehita di Roma. ed. by Fveonti, 1803, with Pialt^t 
Kelce. Rom. 1884. 2 Toh. i.—Burgm, Ttopography and Aatiqaitke of Rome. Lond. I8SI. 8 Tola. S^Fkarom, Vmligia di Roma. 
"Plabm, Amuoi, Otr*sH, aad KtltO, BoMfareiboiig der Stadt Rom. TQbiag. aod Smftg. 188^^. S toIi. with a BOdtrh^ (or 
NuBiber of pktea).— K JBhom, Her Italienm. BaUe, 1888. 4 Tela. t.—t)a Om remaining moaiimeiila of andent Rome, ct P. IV. 
H 186, I881 191, 888,919. 

^ 55. There were large open places in the city, designed for assemblies of the peo- 
ple, and for martial exercises, and also for games, termed Campi. Of the nineteen 
which are mentioned, the Campus Martius was the largest and most famous. It was 
near the Tiber ; thence called sometimes Tiberinus, but usually Martius, as conse- 
crated to Mars. It was originally the property of Tarquin the Proud, and confiscated 
after his expulsion. In the later ages it was surrounded by several magnificent struc- 
tures ; and porticos were erected, under which the citizens could exercise in rainy 
weather. It was also adorned with statues and arches. Comitia were held here ; 
and there were Septa or Ovilia (P. III. ^ 259), constructed for the purpose. 

^ 56. The main streets of the city were termed vies. On each side were connected 
blocks of houses and buildings ; these being separated by intervening streets and by 



Unes or aUeys, woald form separate divinons, or a sort of squares ; the portions occu- 
pied by boiloines and thus separated were called Viet; of inese there were, it is said, 
424. They had particular names; e. g. Vicus tdbuttjugarius, lanarius, TtbertinuM, 
Jumcmis, Minerva, dtc. 

^ 57. The name of Fora was given to places where the people assembled for the 
transaciion of business. Although at first business of every sort was probably trans- 
acted in the same place, vet with the increase of wealth, it became convenient to 
make a separation ; and toe Font were divided into two sorts, Civilia and Venalia. 
The Roman Fora were not hko the iy^fiii of the Greeks, nearly square, but oblong ; 
the breadth not more than two- thirds of the length ; the difference between the length 
and breadth of the chief Forum discovered at rompeii is greater. 

Until the time of Julius Caesar there was but one Forum of the first mentioned 
class; that generally called Forum Ramatium^ or JForwm simply, by way of eminence. 
This gave name to the 8th re^on (^ 54), and was between the Capitoline and Palatine 
hills ; it was SOD feet wide, bult by Romulus, and adorned on all sides, by Tarquinius 
Priscus, with porticos, shops, and other btiildings. On the public buildings around 
the Forum great sums were expended in the architecture and ornaments, so that it 
presented a very splendid and imposing spectacle : here were the Basilicas, Curia, 
and Tabularia ; temples, prisons, and public granaries : here too were placed nume- 
rous statues (cf. P. IV. % 182. 2), with other monuments. In the centre of the Forum 
was the place called the Curtian Lake, where Currius is said to have plunged into a 
mysterious gulph or chasm, and to have thus caused it to be closed up. On one side 
were the elevated seats (or suggettiu, a sort of pulpits), from which magistrates and 
orators addressed the people ; usually called the Mo»tra, because adorned with the 
beaks of shms, taken in a sea-fight from the inhabitants of Antium. Near by was the 
part of the Forum called the Comitium, where some of the legislative assemblies were 
held, particularly the Cmniiia Curiata. In or near the Comitium was the Puteal 
Auii ; a puteal was a Uttle space surrounded by a wall in the form of a square, and 
roofed over : such a structure was usually erected on a spot which had been struck 
with Ughtnuig. Not far from the Puteal Attii was the rraetor's Tribunal, for hold- 
ing courts. There was in the Forum, near the Fabian arch, another structure 
marking a place struck ^ith lightning, the Puteal Libonia, near which usurers and 
bankers were accustomed to meet {Hor. Sat. ii. vi. 35). The mtUtanum in the Forum 
has already been mentioned (^ 52). 

BeaUlet this ancient Fomm, there were four others built by different emperori, and deeif ned 
for civil parpoMS ; the Forvm JmUum, built by Julius Cawar, with ipoilB taken in the Gallic war; 
the Frmm JhurutH, by Auf ustua, adorned with the ttatuee of the kings of Latium on one side and 
the kinfa of Rome on the other; the Pomm JttrvtB, begun by Domitian and finished by Nerva, 
bavteg statues of all the emperon ; and the Furwm, Trajani, by Trajan, the most splendid of all. 

The Fora Venalia were fourteen in number ; among them the Forum Boarium, ox 
and cow market, adorned with a brazen bull ; Piacarium, fish market ; Olitorium, 
v^etable market ; Suarium, swine market, &c. 

f 58. In speaking of the temples of Rome, the first place belongs to the CapUolium, 
The Capitol was one of the oldest, largest, and most erand edihces in the city. It 
was first founded by Tarqtunius Priscus, and afterwar(U from time to time enlarged 
and embellished. Its gates were brass, and it was adorned with costly gilding ; 
hence the epithets aurea and fuleena, applied to it. It was on the Capitoline hill, in 
the highest part of the city, and was sometimes called arx. The ascent from the 
forum u> it was by 100 steps. It was in the form of a square, extending about 200 
feet on each side. Its front was decorated with three rows of pillars, the other sides 
v/ith two. — ^Three temples were included in this structure ; that of Jupiter Capitolinus 
in the centre, one sacred to Minerva on the right, and one to Juno on the lett. The 
Capitol also comprehended some minor temples or chapels, and the Ca»a Romuli, or 
cottage of Romulus, covered with straw. Near the ascent to the Capitol was also 
the asylum, or place of refuge. 

TUe celebrated structure was destroyed, or nearly so, by fire, three times ; first, in the Marian 
war, B. C. 83. but rebuilt by Sylla : secondly, in the VUelUan war. A. D. 70, and rebuilt by Ves- 
l«sian; thirdly, about the time of Vespasian's death, after which It was rebuilt by Domitian 
with greater naf niflcenee than ever. A few vestiges only now remain ; respecting which there 
has been macb diacnsslon. 
iMfcritW^ Diet flfAmiqnitha, lit OiyitairMm,iBdiraitotb«r» died. 

% 59. The temple next in rank was the Pantheon, built by MarcoB Agrippft, son-in- 
law of Augustus, and consecrated to Jupiter Ultor, or, as its name imports, to all the 
fod$ iwatFTtam 9tur). It is circular in form, and said to be 150 feet high, ^nd of about 
the same breadth within the walls, which are 18 feet thick. The walls on the inside 
are either solid marble or incrusted. ^ The front on the outside was covered with 
brazen plates gilt, and the top with silver plates ; but now it is covered with lead. 
The gate was of brass, of extraordinary size and work. It has no windows, but only 
an opening in the top, of about 25 feet in diameter, to admit the light. The roof is 
cuiioasly vaulted, void spaces being left here and there for the greater strength. 
3 b3 


*' The yestibule is supported by sixteen Corinthian columns, fourteen feet in circum- 
ference, and thirty-nine feet in height, each shaft beine an entire block of red oriental 
granite, having bases and capitals of white marble. The Pantheon is one of the 
most perfect oT the ancient edifices remaining at Rome. It is now called the Botunda, 
having been consecrated by Pope Boniface 4th, A. D. 607, to the Virgin Mary and 
aU the SaifUt. 

Dr. df Am, in his aecount of the Pantheon, tayt, **they need to ascend to it by IS itepe, bat 
now tbey go down ai many." On thia point the gentleman mentioned in $ AS, wriiec, ** the 
■Utement that it wai orikiaalW entered by tevtn etept is doubtless correct. At present one 
oMetndt tw9 steps to enter ft. The statement of twelv* $up$ ofdesomt can only have been true 
four centuries ago, before the place anterior to the Pantheon was cleansed. This took place 
ander Pope Eugene IV., who was elected in 1431."— For a view of the Pantheon, see Plate III. 

^ 60. There were many other temples in ancient Rome (cf P. III. ^ 203), which 
cannot here be described. The temple of Saturn was famous particularly as serving 
for the public treasury; perhaps thus used because one of the strongest places in the 
city ; although some ascribed it to the tradition, that in the golden age, imder Saturn, 
fraud was unknown. In this temple were also kept the public registers and records, 
among them the Libri EUphantinu or ivory tablets containing lists of the tribes. 

The temple of Janua was built, or finished at least, by Numa ; a square edifice, 
with two gates of brass, one on each side ; which were to be kept open in time of 
war, and shut in time of peace. 

Ro eontinnally was the city engaged in wars, that the gates of Janus were seldom shot ; first. 
In the reign of Numa; secondly, at the close of the first Punic war, B. C. S41 ; three times In the 
reign of Augustus; the last time near the epoch of Christ's birth ; and three times afterwards, 
once under Nero, once under Vespasian, and lastly, under Constantius, about A. D. 3M>. The 
gates were opened with formal ceremony (Firjr. JSn. vil. 707).— For a view of the temfrie of Ja- 
nas, see Plate VII. 

The temple of Apollo on the Palatine hill was celebrated on account of its library, 
(P. IV. ^ 126). — The temple of Vesta yet exists in a small circular church, on the side 
of the Palatine hill towards the Tiber. — Besides these, we may name the temple of 
Concord ; of the goddess of Peace {Fad atema) ; of Castor and PoUux; of Valor, 
built by Marcellus. 

The Romans were acctistomed, like other ancient nations, to consecrate groves 
and woods to the gods. As many as 230 sacred groves iJLuci) are enumerated, chiefly 
within the city of Rome. 

^61. The Curici were public edifices, or parts of public edifices, and appropriated, 
some of them for assemblies of the senate and civil councils, others for meetings of 
the priests and religious orders for the regulation of relio;ious rites. To the former 
class the Senacula seem to have belone^a. The following were among the Curis ; 
viz. Curia Ramana, Vetut, HostUia, VaUensis, Pompeii^ &.C. 

Th« ttrai Curia, a* d«ufintiii( an «diflee or ^mtneat, wanM lo km bcaa ericiudlj appliad to ttn ktlti or pbcH wbav* Hw 
eiUMM or the raqwetin Cuna (cC P. UL f tl9 a. i 2SI} iMmbM for rdigbia awl oOiar purp^ 
BMW hftU or plMv of ■ 

The BasUiccs were buildings of great splendor, devoted to meetings of the senate, 
and to judicial purposes. Here counsellors received their clients, and here bankers 
also had rooms for transacting their business. There were fourteen (according to 
some, twenty or twenty-one) of these buildings; among them, Basilica vetus. Can- 
stantiniana, Sieiniana, Julia, &c. — ^Both the BasiiicaB and the Curiae were chiefly 
around the Forum. 

It ibMdd to rannikid ttMt dM tvB teOta WH applied to nu7 flf tiM ttciOBl ClvMh^ 
fgwrnbled tiie BaiOiem Jit dai eriheJ . the eariiart ehardiei toarlac Ihie mme wan erected ander CoMtaBUaob Hefiaebiiowa 
palaflBODtbcCGBliaBliiUtoooaitraetoa ik die a cimrch, which la lacepilaBd aa tto noal aaeient Cbrbtiaa BaaUka. Mastwae 
that Of St. Frter eo the Vatkan bill, erwted A. O. 9U, OB the kite and with the ruioa of the leaaplei or Apcrilo aad Mars j it tteo^ 
abeot twelve ceatories ead waa then polled down bjr Pope Juliua 8d, and on iti aito baa ariaan the modara ehorcb oT the aaaie M«a. 
-OBthoalvvdaioortheaariy(%ri8tiaaehareha%iee£.CMMwn,AatiqaitieioriheChriatiaaCbarc^ And. 1841. 8. chapL is. 

^ 62. The Circi were structures appropriated to public spectacles, to races, and to 
fighting with wild beasts. They were generallv oblong, having one end at rijjht 
angles with the sides, and the other curved, ana so forming nearly the shape ofan 
ox-bow. A wall extended quite round, with ranges of seats for the spectators. There 
were ei^ht of these buildings, besides the Circus Maximus, described in another place, 
situated in the vicinity of the Forum. For an account of these, see P. III. ^ 232. 

The Stadia were stnictures of a similar form, designed for contests in racing, but 
less in size and cost (cf. P. IV. ^ Q^G.y^Hippodrami were of the same character, and 
seem to have been sometimes built for private use. 

^ 63. Ancient Rome had also a number of large edifices constructed for the purpose 
of dramatic exhibitions, and for gladiatorial shows. Those for the former use were 
termed theatra (cf. P. III. % 238). The first, permanent, was that erected by Pom- 
pey, of hewn stone, capable of accomodating 40,000 persons ; near this, in tne vici>- 
nity of the river, were two others, that of Marcellus and that of Balbus ; hence tho 



phnae applied to them, iria tkeatra, — The Btructures desiffned for the gladiatorial shows 
were lermed An^itktatra (P. III. % 239), of which the most remarkable was the 
CciiaeMm^ still remaining, a most stupendous ruin. — The Odea were buildings circular 
in form, and ornamented with numerous seats, pillars, and statues, where trials of 
muaical skill were held, and poetical and other literary compositions were exhibited, 
after the manner of the Greeks (P. IV. ^ 65). Those established by Domitian and 
Trajan were the most celebrated. 

% 64. The buildings constructed for the purpose of bathing {baJnea) were very 
numerous ; such as were of a more public character were called IkernuB. In the time 
of the republic, the baths were usually cold. Mscenas is said to have been the first 
to erect warm and hot ones for pubhc use. They were then called tkemuBt and 
placed under the direction of the oddeM. Agrippa, while he was edile, increased the 
ntmiber of iharwtm to 170, and in the course of two centuries there were no less than 
fOO in imperial Rome. The ihemuB Viodetiani were especially distinguished for their 
extent and magnificence (cf. P. IV. ^ 241. b). Those of Nero, I'itus, Domitian, and 
especially Caracalla, were also of celebrated splendor. 

% 65. The name of Ludi or schools was given to those structures in which the 
various athletic exercises were taught and practiced ; those most frequently mentioned 
are the LMdus Maenu», Satutinutt DaciaUt and JEmilius. There were also several 
structures for exhioitinff naval engagements, called Naumadiia ; as Naumachia Au- 
gMti, DomilianL (Cf. P. III. ^ 233.) 

Finally, there were large edifices sacred to the nymphs, and called Nympkaa; one 
particularly noted, which contained artificial fountains and water-falls, anuwas adorned 
with numerous statues of these imaginary beings. Cf P. II. % 101. 

% 66. The Porticos or Piazzas (porttriw) were very numerous. These were covered 
cokHinades, adorned with statues, and designed as places for meeting and walking for 

Eure. They were sometimes separate structures ; sometimes connected with other 
buildings, such as basilicas, theatres, and the like. The most splendid wss that 
jwllo's temple, on Mount Palatine ; and the largest, the one called Milliaria or 
MRliannsiM (i. e. of the 1000 columns). Courts were sometimes held in porticos ; 
andgoods also of some kinds were exposed for sale in them. Cf. P. IV. ^ 237. 

The city was adorned with Triumpnal arches (areu» triumphaleB), to the number of 
36, having statues and various ornaments in bas-relief (P. IV. % 188). Some of them 
were very magnificent ; as e. g. those of Nero, Titus, Trajan, Septimius Severus, 
and Constantine. These were of the finest marble, and 01^ a sqiuure figure, with a 
lam arched gate in the middle, and a small one at the sides. 

% 67. There were single pillars or columns, columruBj also erected to commemorate 
panicular victories, e. g. those St Duillius, Trajan, and Antoninus. Ruins of the 
first, as has been supposed, were discovered in 1560 (cf. P. IV. ^ 133. 1). The last 
two are still standing, and are reckoned among the most precious remains of anti 
quiiy (cf. P. IV. ^ 188. 2). — With great labor, obelisks were removed from Egypt, 
of which those still existing, having been conveyed there by Augustus, Caligula, and 
Consiantius the second, are the most remarkable. 

Innumerable also were the statues, which were found not only in the temples, but 
also in many public places, in and upon large edifices. More than eighty of a colosral 
size are mentioned. 

There were Ukewise erected at Rome a few trophies, tromra. These were trunks 
of marble, sometimes of wood, on which were hung the spoils tnken from the enemy, 
especially the weapons of war. There are two trunks of^ marble decorated like tro- 
pliies still remaining at Rome, and supposed to have been erected by Marius 'for his 
victories over Jugurtha, and over the Cimbri. 

% 68. Among the memorable things of Rome, the Aqueducts, iujnatduetu$, should 
be mentioned. Their design was to furnish the city with a constant supply of water, 
and great expense was laid out in constructing and adorning them. There were 14 of 
the lai^er sort, besides others of less importance; the Aqua Appia, Marcia, Virgo, 
Claudia, Sfplimia, and AUitiina, are the most known. The smaller reservoirs (Jacut) 
were commonly ornamented with statues and carver's work. 

flooM of the aquedncu bronrht water more than 60 milei, throufh rocks and mountains, 
asd over Talleyt, supported on arches, sometimes ahove 100 feat high. The care of these orlgl- 
vally belonffed to the sdlles ; under the emperors, particular oAcers were appointed (br It, called 
emrwtTts «f mnrai. 

afUMM.DcAqHdwtibaiTCMritaaM. Rom. ISHl 4.-V. JloNAirf, VraBCli TraMhtoM of Fraatlaai oa fht AqMdoels of 
%m». Ctr.V.|4M^rArBHr,1teCrgtoBMM<MtiwllkMAeeauNofiiailarW«teAMtMtudMod«a. M.T. 1843. 

The Ctmem were also works of great cost and of very durable straeturo. They were a sort of 
sewers or drains, some of them Terr large, passing under the whole city, and discharging its 
ywhoam tepariiles Into the Tiber. Many private houses stood directly upon the cloaca. These 
wen aader the charge of oAcers styled cvrsterM ciMeerms. The principal was the CUmta 
Hi lias, bailt by Tarqninlns Priscus, cleansed and repaired by M. Agrippa ; it was 10 feet broad 
and 10 feet high, formed of bloeks of hewn stone. The Pantheon (( M) was over ft. 

aHaMr<*Dicl.«r AMMfctan^eilid P. FT. ) m a~mri«JkH» Birt. of Rom, £« Tnuri. Phil. ISH. «•!. I. p. Ml 

% 69. Splendid tombs and monuments to the dead were sometimes erected (cf. P. III. 


i 341). We mayr name here particularly the Mausoleum of AuffustoB, of a pyninidical 
form, 385 feet high, with two obelisks standing near it; the Mole» Hadriani: and the 
Tomb or Pyramid of Cestiue (cf. P. IV. % 226, P. III. ^ 187. 4). 

^ 70. The number of private buildings amounted, in the reign of Theodoeius, to 
48,382, including the domut and the insula ; the former of whicli classes comprised, 
according to Gibbon, the ** great houses," and the latter the "plebeian habitations" (cf. 
P. III. $325). Among these buildings were some of great splendor, partly of marble, 
and adorned with statues and colonnades. 

I. TlM iBor* critbntad »tn tb* pdMW of Jnliw Camr, Musonm, JoDiM ▼«», Cknv, aod Augi^tn, the foldM hoaM of Nam, 
tha pkbea of Uaum Cn«w, Aquiliia, Cfttaloi, fmiliw teurnt. Tnlu, IfailriMi, Ac-^ The Imf^tml |»Uc« {JV^ntm) wm 
dw iMMt dntinintahad. It wu built bjr Aogmm npoa di« PklatiM bill, ud fsra um to tb* tMlh Kfioa at the ciiy. The fraat 
WM n lb* ViaSMti. ud beftm it were pluted oeka. Witbh the pelaoe \*j the temple of Tceie, aad tin that of 4poilo, whkh 
ABgwtai eadeaTond to aiake the ebief loiipie !■ Hoowl The aoeeawlinf enperan extaiadad aed heaotifled ihta palaea. N«e b«rat 
it. bat leballi it of aneb extent that It oet only aahmeed all the PalatJM hill, bat alao the pUia baiiraea that aad the C«liaa aad 
EaqaOina, aod nm a port of thaw biUa, in ita llmilb Uo ornaawoled it ae richly with pnekNa ataMa, fold, ■iltar. aialnea, pwat- 
lap, aad tteaaonioreverjr deacriptioB, that il raecivod the mwe of rfa iwal wgee. Tbo ioUowi^ eoiparan atripped it of itootaa- 
■eala ; V aapaala a aad Titaa caawd arMBO paiti of it to bo polled down. noBiliaa afterwnnfa daitrorod the naia bofldii^ lathe 
reifn of Coauaodna, a (rant part of it wm baraA ; bnt it waa nalorad bjr bin and hn tnetenon. la the tiaie of Tbeodoric it naeded 
atill further repair* j hot Ibii ba|B edUko aabiaqueatly bocaoie a mia, and on ib iite aow alaad the Fana« palaea aad farlenab aid 
the Villa Spada.» 

I. Bcfbro the ceoSegnCioa of the ritj nador Nopb, the ilraati wore aaaow aad irrefoUr, aod the private booMO wore ineeaa* 
■ndioai, aad aiaae cvoa daagnrooi from Ihoir inperfcet architecturo aad the heifbi of thrro UAty tHorim. la ihe tiaif of Nem, 
Biora thaa two^hirdB of the city wie burat Of the IkmrtaM diatricli, only liMr naMinod eotim. The city wm lohailt with ■«•• 
regvlarily, with ftfoelB broadar aad ka cnekod (et Tac Aaa. zr. 48) ; the areaa iar houaaa wave aieaioiod out, ud Ibo heighC 
loatrktad to aeveaty IhL 

) 71. Tbe luburbs of ancient Boms were lo eztenilve that itn nelirbborhood was ilmost one 
linmente villnge ; but at preepnt, the vicinity of Rome called Cnm^agna di iteM«, Is a complete 
ileeert. Modern Rome Is built chiefly on tbe ancient Campus iMartius. The accumulation of ruins 
has raised very sensibly the soil of tbe city, as is evident from what has been said respecting tbe 
entrance of tbe Panibeon ((59), and tbe height of tbe Tarpeian rocli (iS3). 

Par aoHew of Modeta Rom, aea P ktm mi , Vodoto di Boaa, « toli. fcl. (Ct P. IV. § Ida 1 )-am» im Om Nlnrn tn t h C mdm p. 
— miUi,MeitBdP.IV.|IH.C--AicyBl4pk^aw«MM,aadarJbdAMi%aad aader 7>«oato m /fofy i aad iha werte then 

% 72. We proceed now to what remains to be described, in the south of Europe (cf. 
^27) ; and we mi^ht include the whole under the term Graciat taken in a very com- 
prehensive sense, m which it has sometimes been iKed. For it has been made to cover 
not only the Peloponnesus and Greece Proper, but also Epirus, Thessalia, Macedonia, 
and even Thracia. The victories of Philip having procured him a vote in the Amphic- 
tyonic council, his Thessalian and Macedonian dominions were consequently ranked 
among the Grecian states. The valor and policy of the Epirote kings procured the 
same nonor for Epirus not lon^ after; and finally, Thrace waa raised to tne same dig- 
nity, when it became the habitation of the Roman emperors. But Grecia is rarely 
used in so large a sense : and we shall first consider ancient Thrace separately, anil 
include the other countries under GrcBcia. 

Thracia was bounded on the north by the chain of mount Hsmus, which separated 
if from Mopsia ; on the esst by the Eiucine sea, I'hracian Bosphorus, and Hellespont, 
which divided it from Asia ; on the south by the iGgean sea ; and on the west by the 
river Strymon, dividing it from Macedon. In consequence of the conquests of Philip, 
the river Nessus became the mutual boundary of Tnrace and Macedon. the interme- 
diate district being annexed to the latter country .^The peninsula contained between 
the Bay of Melas and the Hellespont was called UtracioB Chergonesue ; celebrated in 
the wars between Philip and the Athenians. 

^ 73. The capital of Thrace, and at one time of the civilized world, was Bytantium, 
or Cbnstantinopolis, built on the north-eastern extremity of the Chersonese, called from 
its beauty Chrysoccras, or the golden horn. Bv whom this city was founded is a mat- 
ter of dispute ; but it was greatly enlarjged ana beautified bv Constantino the Great, 
who, in tne fourth century of the Christian era, transferrea the seat of government 
hither from Rome. On the division of the Roman empire, this city became the capital 
of the Greek or eastern part ; it retained this distinction for many years, until from 
the vices of the inhabitants, and the imbecility of their rulers, it ¥raB captured by the 
Turks on the 29th of May, A. D. 1453. 

OatholopflcraphyorB7aaBlhanaadlhoeb«acaaBMdobyCaBrtBB(fBa,eaei)MeBR«i,H)ator.Bywi(lBa. Fbr.NB0.lDl.-4l.Oe- 
Mnu, De AatiqallaUha Coaetaatiaep. Tu. l6at.-<«tM. BmduH, Inper. Orieal. aea Aatlqallaiaa Coo8teBtlaopolllaa» hr. 171 1. 
• foth iol—Then woitiainincladed in tbo OorpM •/ J^Mmfina AMwy. aoliced P. V. 1 001.-0: OMm, ch. irtf. Jm$m 
flairaieap, CbaalaaHaopla, aadeat a^ MdofB.— JVinra dfnM-. Jbo. 16th voL or Tth of Now Sarlaa, p. 4U. 

The Other principal towns were, Salmydeesue (Midiieh), celebrated for shipwrecks ; 
Thffnia, a town and promontory, whence came the I'hyni, who colonized Bithynia in 
Aaia Minor ; Apottonia, called afterwards SixopoliM (Sizeboli), and Meeembria, built by 


a eolony of Mmrenaaoe; til on the Eozine sea. — Sdymbria (Selibiia), and Pertnlkits, 
or HeraeUa (Crekli), on the Propontis. — CallmaliM (Gallipoli), at the juoction of the 
Proponiis and Hellespont ; the small towns Madytoe and Ciasa, near where the httle 
nwer JEgm Fciamum joins the Hellespont, the scene of the battle in which Lvaander de- 
sooyed the naval power of the Athenians i and Sestoi (Zenunie), where Xerxes built 
his bridge of boats across the Hellespont. — Sestoe and Abydos on the Aaatic side are 
also celebrated for the loves of Hero and Leander. 

1W i iM JI i i i lj rf I iil— ht mavm ifc» HJlT—t w» fcr » lot ti»e Ji i iriMrf, btjttwm i iwl w l by ^ Irti Lart Bp—^ 

On the bay of Metas, so named from the lirer MeUu, that empties itself into it, were 
CarduL, deatroyvd by Lysimachos, to procure inhabitants for a new town ; Lyaimadkia, 
that be had built a tittle farther south ; and Eiau, which was burned by its governor, 
Boges.— In the interior were TraianopoHs, built by Trajan ; and Adrianepolu, its suc- 
eesnul rival, built bv Adrian, ana now the second dtv of the Turkish empire. — ^At the 
cast mouth of the nebrus, stood JEnoa, said to have been founded by £neas, near the 
tenitory of the Cicones; on the west sale, Dori$au, where Xenes reviewed his im- 
mense armament after passing the Hellespont, and it is said that his armv were so nu* 

eroos as completely to drain the neighboring river Lessus. At the mouth of the Nes- 
SOS was AJbdera, the birthplace of the philosopher Democritus, near which were the 
stables of DioroiDde, who is said to have fed his horses on human flesh. 

^ 74. The principal rivers of Thrace were the Hebrus (Mariua), celebrated for the 
clearness and rapidity of its waters ; Neuut (Nissar), and Strymon (Jamboli.)— The 
principal mountains were Mount H^mus, extending from the Euxine sea in a weatem 
directKm between Mceaia and Thrace ; Rkodape, extending from the Euxine ses to the 
sources of the Nessus ; and Pangtnu, extending thence to the north of Macedon. It 
was on the Pangitus that the woixiers ascribed to the lyre of Orpheus were said to have 
been performed (P. V. ( 46). Two precipices of this mountain, now called Caatagnas, 
approach to the sea nearly opposite to the island Thasus, and form very narrow passages, 
which were defended by walls. — ^The principal seas and bays adjoining this extensive 
maritime country were, Pontua Euxinut, Botpkama Tkraeiun^ Proponiia, HeUetpontuat 
MdamiM Sinus (Gulf of Saroe), and StrymonieuM Sinua (Gulf of Contessa). 

1 75. Tbraee was aDeleoUy poMcaed by Mveral indepeodent tribes } one of these, Ibe JhUmti^ 
setag bard preMed by the Mtfmtki, tbelr aetf hbore, tent to Delphi* to eontalt the oracle about 
the evpHt or the war. The ambamadora were directed to choose aa leader the penoa who ehoald 

first mvitc thesB to hie house. While passing through Athene they were hotplubly entertained 
by M iltiades, tlie eon of Cypeeliie ; they Immedistely requested him to accompany them to the 
CbtnoneauB^ aad M iltiadea, having conaulted the oracle at Delphi, accepted the invlution.— On 
his arrival he waa immediately created king, and the Aba yntbians were aoon after defeated. lis 
fortified the Cheraonesoe by building the long walla acroea the lathmua, and after a proaperous 
reign beqaeathed the crown to bis nephew Stesagoraa.— Steaagoraa dying after a short reign, 
hia bfother Miltiades was aent from Athena by the Pialatratlda as his successor. He had not 
reign«d long, when Darius, king of Persia, aent a fleet of Phmniciana against ths Cheraonsae, 
nad M ihiadea, asable to make any effective resistance, retired to Athens.— The Cheraonese, after 
the defeat of the Persians, was principally posaeaaed by the Athenisns, who colonised sU the 
cnast. The interior of Thrace remained aubject to the native prlncea, aatil the whols country 
was aaited to Macedon by Philip and Alexander. 


76. What remains to be described in Europe we shall include, aa already remarked 
(#72), under Gkjbcia, using this name in what is commonly considered its most 
comprehensive sense (cf. P. fil. # 2). The extensive region thus included in Graecia 
presents four genenl divisions, which are obviously suggested by the natural face of 
the country. The 1st is that part which lies north of the chain of mountains called 
Cambunii, which are connecteo by the Stjrmphiei Montes with the Aero Ceraunii : the 
2d is the part between the Cambunii on the north, and another line of highlands and 
mountains on the south, which may be traced from the Sinus Maliacua on the east, to 
the Sinus Arobraciua on the west ; in its eastern extremity it forms the pass of Ther- 
mopylse, and the chain is in this portion of it called (Eta ; as it stretches back in a 
nonberiy and then westerlv direction, it is called Pindua; this sends down a spur horn. 
the sources of the liver Acnelous to the Sinus Ambracius, where it forms another pass 
corresponding to that of Thermopylae on the east : the 3d is the part between the 
mountains just traced and the gulfs on each side of the isthmus of Corinth, iSinas Co- 
rimikmeua and Smus Saronicus : and the 4th is the peninsula connected to the main 
by that isthmus. The JirH is Macedonia; the aeamd, Epirus and Thessalia; the 
Ub'rrf, Hellas ; the fourth^ Peloponnesus. 

^77. (]} Macedoitia, considered as including the first of the natural divisions above 
described, was bounded W. hyXhe Mare Hadriaticum; N. by Illyricum and Moe- 
sia; E. by Thracia, from which it was separated by Mt. Rhodope and the river Nes- 
tus flowing from Rhodope ; S. by the ^gaeum Mare, the Cambunii Montes and the 
cDther mountains forming the cham already mentioned, which terminates in the Aero 
Ceraunii on the weatem extremity. 


In noticing the physical features of Macedonia^ it "vnW be observed that Mt. flmux 
and Mt. Riwdapet meeting on its N. E. corner, stretch along on its north in a single 
chain ; this was called Orbelus Mons ; a spur jfrom Orbelus will be noticed running 
down south through Macedonia, and forming a connection with the Stymnhai, or Mons 
Stymjiha, already named, between the Cambunii and Aero Ceraunii. Tue waters east 
of this spur flow to the ^gean ; those west of it, to the Iladriatic. 

^ 78. The principal river of ihe west was the Dnlo (Drino), which runs through 
liake Lychnidut, and empties into a bay of the Hadriatic, north of the point called 
NymphcBum Fromontorium. — One of the most important places in this western por- 
tion was ApciUoniat on the Hadriatic coast, celebrated in the Roman a^e of Greek 
hicrature (P. V. ^ 9) for its cultivation, and said to be the place where Augustus ac- 
quired his knowledge of Greek, and finished his education. Another place is worthy 
of notice, Emdamnus^ further north, called Dvrradtium by the Romans, the place 
where travelers from Italy to Greece generally landed. This portion, west of the 
spur, was taken from lUyncum by Philip (/?o/Zin, B. 14. ^ 1). 

^ 79. The country east of the spur is principally champaign. We notice three most 
considerable rivers; the Jlrdiacnum (Platemone), in the southern part, flowing east to 
the Sinus Thermaicus (Gulf of Thessalonica, or Salonichi) ; the Axium (Vardari), rising 
in the heights between Macedonia and Mcesia, and running S. to the head of the same 
fi^ulf. receiving on its way many tributaries, and uniting with the Eri^on on the west 
before its discharge : the Strytnon, rising in Mt. Rhodope, and flowing to the Sinu» 
Strymonicus (Gulf of Contesso).— Between the two gulfs or bays just named, was the 
peninsula sometimes called Chalcidice^ and presenting peculiar features, having a 
cluster of mountains on its neck, and being ^plit into three smaller peninsulas by two 
bays, the Toronaient (G. of Cassandra), and the Singeticus (G. of Monte Sancto). The 
western of these smaller peninsulas was Pallene or Phlegra, the fabled scene of the 
battle between Jupiter and the Giants (Ov. x. 151); the eastern was marked by Mt. 
Atho$, extending several leagues upon and projecting into the sea, and was celebrated 
for a canal said to be cut across its neck by Xerxes to avoid the passage around Mt. 
Athos, that passage bavins proved so fatal to the fleet of Darius. 

$ 80. This portion of Macedonia had numerous subdivisions, many of which are 
not important, even if thev could be accurarely traced. Paonia was m the northern 
part. The part between tne Sirymon and Neatus was called Edonis. The southern 
part on the west of the Sinus Thermaicus was Pkria. EnuUhia was north of Pieria, 
and of the same gulf. 

E m at h i a was the most important province. In this was situated Ede$ta, the ori- 
ginal capital of the country, on the Erigon ; also Pella, on the Lydias, subsequently 
made the capital by Amyntas, the father of Philip. Further east, on the Sinus Ther- 
maicus, was Therma, afterwards called The$»aIonica, the place of Cicero^s banishment, 
and the capital of the country as a Roman province. 

At TlMMsloDic* there dill rcnaini aa uwicot HxvOan which ta luppoMd bj mM to have hen ■ CSsMrim ImpU (dL P. IL 
i 129. f; i a Tieiv of it U fivea ia oar PUto V. 

On the peninsula which has been describedf (^ 79) were Potidaa, or Cassandria, on the 
neck of Pallene, celebrated for its splendorunder kingCassander ; Olynthus, memorable 
for its siege by Philip, who after much labor captured it by treachery ; Chalets, which 
gave name to the region; Stagira (Stagros), on the eastern coast, the birthplace of Aris- 
totle. — In P i e r i a, one of the most memorable places was Pydna (Kitra), where Olym- 
pias was murdered by Cassander, and where the Roman general Paulus ^mihus made 
a pri.soner of Perseus the last king of Macedonia, B. C. 168. Nonh of this, on the 
coast, was Methane, at the seige of which Philip lost his right eye.— In Edonis were 
two important towns ; Amphwolis, originally on an island in the river Strymon, an 
Athenian colony; Philippi, further east, near Mons Pangaeus, a branch from Rho- 

Thfi latter was built by Philip, for the same purpote for which the Athenians built Amphipolis; 
to tecure the valuable gold and iiilver mine* found in this refH^n. It ii celebrated for the battle 
1ft which Brutus and Cassiuii were defeated by Au^uvtus and Antony, B. C. 4S; and memorable 
as the place where Paul and Silas, hnvini^ been " thrust into the inner prison, with their feet 
Tist in the slocks, {Jiets zvi. 25) at midnight sang praises unto God." 

The (tie of PhCippi it (till oiaricod by mizn {Mtn. Hernid. Srpt. 1^36. p. SS4).— IJke moit of the Oreclia dtica, it wu at the bo( 
nf \ hill or mount nn which «ru it* Acropolit- A ? iew of the Acr'>p'>lii and of the pUio below it pvcn in oar PlMe IV. A trmvricr 
on ktoreeb&ck it adTincioK on the rogul from Neapnlii to Pbilippi ; he ii Jutt pusint; > modem Torkiih baryinc-sroaml od hit right 
luoil under a near hill ; the Aeropolii, vlth ill mint, appmn oo the emineoce beyond at the right ; at the bue of thii saJ—ncei, wu 
the lower citj, oo the loiitb aixi Knith-wMt ; briber to Uie aoolb ia u open plain ; the aouatain on the left ia tlie aOQtban axtrani^ 

^ 81. The kingdom of Macedonia was said to be founded by Caranns, a descendant of Her- 
cules, B. C. 814 s but It did not acquire consequence until the reign of Philip, who ascended the 
throne B. C. 360. It has been sUted, that 150 dififerent nations or tribes were finally inciaded 
within its limits. 

^ 62. (2) EriRUs and Thessalia, embraced in the second natural division pointed 
aut (^ 76), are next to be noticed. 
Thiessalia ia described by Herodotus as a very extensive plain, embosomed in 


VJJfifll' III ,,, ... 

|liilhiiil' iii'iir"i'"iiliii"" 



. ,iyiNp''iih!„|i' V'" 



moantainB. The Cambunii and Olympui were on the north ; Fdion and Ot$a on the 
east ; Pindui on the west : and C^ on the south : so that only the small portion of 
coast between the Sinu8 Pdatgieut and the Sinus MaliacM is without the guard of 
mountains ; and even this has a suard a little in the interior, by Ml. Oihryg, which 
strikes across from Pindus to Pefion. 

Tbe estentiwB plalna of Tbetnly were peeullarly faToreble to the breediny of bones ; and the 
Theasaliane were the flnit wbo introduced tbe use of cavalry, borses having been, ai first, only 
used for draof ht. Hence, perhaps, aroae tbe fable of tbe Centaurs, a people of Th«s»aly, who 
were auppoeed to have been half man and half horse. The Tbessalian cavalry maintained 
their superiority lo a very late period, and to them Philip was Indebted for many of his victories. 

\ 83. The northern part of Thessaly was called Pelasgiotis, from the Pelasgi, on 
Asiatic wanderine tribe, who are supposed to haye been the first inhabitants of Greece 
(P. IV. ^ 33). The principal cities in Pelasgiotis were LariMta, the capital of the 
province ; Gosip&t, destroyed by Cssar ; Gonnus and Gyrtona^ near the entrance of 
the vaiU of Tempe, so celebrated for its natural beauties ; Scotunga, near which are 
some hills, called, from their shape, Cynot CephaUy where Philip was defeated by 
Quintus Flaminius ; and Pharsalut^ near which, in a plain called PharBolia, Pompey 
was overthrown by Caesar.— The eastern part of Thessaly was named Magnesia; 
the most remarkable places were Sepia$, a small village on a promontory of the same 
name, where the fleet of Xerxes received an omen of their final overthrow, being 
shattered in a storm ; DemeirioM (Vloo), built by Demetrius Poliorcetes, and which, 
from the commercial advantages of its situation, almost depopulated the neighboring 
towns ; Melibcea, the city of rhiloctetes ; /o2cof , the residence of Jason and Medea ; 
Pagasa, where the ship Argo was built, from which the Sinus Pelasgttus is some- 
times called Pagas^us: Apfteta (Fetio), whence the Argonautic expedition sailed ; 
Phera, the residence of the tyrant Alexander ; and Theba, near the river Aniphrysus, 

where Apollo fed the herds of kine Admetus. 'In the southern parts of Thessaly 

were Afa/ia, which gives name to the Maliac bay ; Larissa, called Cremaste from its 
sloping situation, the capital of the kingdom of Achilles ; Alos^ at the foot of mount 
Otnrys, near which the combat between the Centaurs and Lapithse took place ; PAy- 
lace on the sea coast, the residence of Protesilaus ; Dorion^ where the musical con- 
test between Thamyris and the Muses took place ; Hypata, famous for the macical 
arts of its women (flor. Ep. 5) ; Lamia, where Antipater was fruitlessly besieged by 
the Athenians; and Tradtis (Zeiton), celebrated for its desperate resistance when be- 
sei^ed by the Romans. 

9 84. The mountains have been mentioned above (^ 82). The most remarkable 
river was the Peneus . which flows through the vale of Temj» into the iEgean sea. This 
river is said to have overflowed Thessaly, until Hercules opened a passage for the waters 
between motmts Olympus and Ossa. The principal inlets of the ^gean sea, on the 
Thessalian coast, were Sinus Pelasgieus or Pagasaus (Gulf of Volo), and Sinus Ma- 
liacus (Gulf of Zeiton). 

) 85. Tbe Inundation of Theassly, during tbe reifu of Deucalion, is one of the first events 
recorded in profhne history; all the inbabiiants, except Deucalion, and bis wife Pyrrha.are said 
tn have been destroyed. Perplexed to discover by what means the human race might be re- 
stored tbey consulted the oracle of Themis, and were ordered to throw stones behind them ; 
those thrown by Deucalion became men and those by Pyrrha women. In this fable tbe history 
of some partial Inundation seems to be confounded with the tradition of the universal deluge. 

The next remarkable occurrence was the Argonautic expedition under Jason, aided by the 
bravest heroes of Greece, in tbe ship Argo (P. II. ^ 177).— Achilles was the most remarkable 
Thessalian prince after Jason ; he was the son of Peleus and the sea-nymph Thetis ; an oracle 
had foretold that he would perish if he accompanied tbe Greeks to Troy; to prevent this, his 
mother concealed him at the court of Lycomedes, king of Scyros, by one of whose daughters he 
begat Pyrrhos, or Neoptolemus, afterwards king of Epirus. Achilles was at last discovered by 
Ulysses and brought to Troy, where he was slain by Paris, one of tbe sons of Prism. 

During the supremacy of Athens and Sparta, Thessaly seems to have been of little importance. 
The greater part of it was annexed to Macedon by Philip and his successors. It was cruellv 
devastated in the wars between tbe Romans and the Macedonian and Syrian kings ; it also suf- 
fered very severely in the civil wars between Cssar and Pompey. 

% 86. Under Epirus a greater extent than we have assigned to it is oflen included. 
We have suggested as its natural boundaries on the north the mountains Cambunii and 
Aero Ceraunii, and on tbe south, the Sinus Ambraciua ; but the region called Orestis 
between the Aero Ceraunii and the river Aous is commonly termed a province of Epi- 
rus ; and Aeamania, within the proper limits of Hellas, is also often considered as 
another province. In all descriptions, it is separated iix>m Thessaly by Mt. Pindus ; 
while the Mare Ionium bounds it on the west. Within the compass here given, it included 
the provinces Chaonia, Thesprotia, and Molossis. 

^87. Chaonia was the portion under the Aero Ceraimii on the south, said to be 
named from Cbaon, the brother of Helenus son of Priam. These mountains were so 
called from their summits i^pa) being often struck with lightning {npayufdi) ; they were 
remarkable for attracting storms, and were dreaded by manners: the rocks at the west- 
era extremity of their southern branch, Aero'Ceraunia, were called infamous {infames), 
—The principal towns were Oricum in the extreme north, on the coast between the 


brandies of the moantains just mentioned ; and Andugmui aJao on the coast and in the 
eztreme south of the province. 

Theepr otia extended on the coast from Chaonia to the Simu Ambraciiu (Galf 
ef Arta). Its principal places were,BtttAro(«m on the river Xanthus, near which JSneas 
is said to have landed on his flight from Tjoj to Italy ; and Epkyra^, on the river Acne- 
ron, flowing to the harbor called GlyegsLunen (yXwit Aift^f). The river Acheron is 
joined at its month by the Cocytos. — These two streams were ranked in the ancient 
mythology amon^^ the jfrnnma xnferorum, or infernal rivers ; three othera had the same 
rank ; i£e Sttp, m Arcadia ; the Lethtt in Bosotia probably ; and the PhUgeihonj the 
location of which, as an actual river, is unknown, although it is represented sometimes 
as uniting with the Acheron. 

« Slpfcyw WM rtMHWlly qlM Ck>ywii thi t^mattkwtlkan mM to b« rtUl TklM^-giyto^ TmOt iaOww tM 
AtHmm. Lm<. IBS S ««k. 4. 

M o 1 o s s i s was east of Thesprotia, and north of the Sinus Ambracius. The Mo- 
lossian dogs were highly esteemed by the ancients. Among the principal towns were 
Ambrada, the residence of the Epirote kings, on the river Aradkus or Arethon ; and 
Pa*9aro, where the kin^ of Epirus took tl:^ coronation oath. 

Dodoma, fi&mous for its oracle and temple of Jupiter (cf. P. III. ^ 71), at the foot of 
Mount TMMinif , is placed by some in Moiossis ; by others in Thesprotia ; it was in the 
Hdiopia, not far from the river ThyamU, which rises inMt. iStymp*« and flows through 
Thesprotia to the Mare Ionium. 

r MsqMvilk fawd to Brilo|i^tafbeiiMidOTBdiilric<orJulm,Mtf Ilwvillv0udlkl,««rtiri7ft^ 
■ «f CTdopaa ckuMlv, whidi be Jttdfnl to bt Ite raia of Dodona ; iadadiag f iilwofUie taBplt 
m3wti»nmil^mamtmdma9tinmMI!L-^a.Ptmqimak,Yoj»t»im)^Qi^m. r)w. IM. tpob. a voL L 
L I. p^ Sil. 

1 8B. We meet bot casual mention of the Epirotes In history until the Macedonian Empire 
was divtded after Alexander's death. It wai then that this people, who had hitherto been 
looked OD as barbariana, and held In labjection by the Macedoniane, befan to take a lead in th« 
aAifs of Greece.— The fblty of Pyrrhne, who hoped by hia vlctoriei In the west, to rival the 

eoaqaeste of Aleiander In the east, weakened their forces and diminished their authority. 

On tba invasion of the Romans, the Epirotes adhered to the cause of Grecian liberty with a 
desperate fidelity, worthy of better success. When the conquest of their country had been 
achieved by Paalns JEmllins, enrased at their resilience, he ordered seventy of their cities to 
be deatmyed, and 150,000 of the Inhabiunts to be sold as slaves ; an instance of atrocious re- 
wafe acarcaly to be parallelled in history. 

Wka *• ■iiiiiirf CoBtfMttwpla Ml Mbn tt* fklariiMi uni of tto MahooMtaM, fba nanurti of lbs Chrniaa farai 
i^wliitpttofcaa— of tbaiMoliiHicf Mi— JUwte>raef Pm« ia Mm torriioty.— Hw SolbM^ aftar pMfamaai f«ato of 
«alv «d»r •» be pwaUalW is Iha bfitbicr da|« of OmiaB ftvadfl^ wen dapad bf All rKha aal tavacbare^ 
fnp^^kmmmif widmimlm, Ml aadarttapowar et Twfeajr.— Far an aeeooat of ?u^ d. Land, qmrt Jbn. uiU. p. 111. 

S 89. (3) Our third division of Greece includes the portion between Mt. (Eta and 
the large gulfr. Sinus Corinthiacus and Sinus Saronicus. It is what is properly termed 
Hellas, and is also called GRiEciA Propria. 

This divison is washed on every side but the north by the sea. On the east are first 
the waters of the Sinua Maliaeut^ then of the Sintu OpuntiMs and those between the 
mainland and Eubcea, which are called in the narrowest place Eurinu$. Leaving these 
and drawing near the southern point of the country, you enter the Myrioum Mare^ and 
having passed that point, Sunium PrfmotUorium^ with the splendid temple of Minerva 
in signt, you proceed up the Sinua Saronicu$ (Gulf of Egina) ; at the end of which you 
most take a land carriage, but of 5 miles only, over the i»thmu» of Corinth (Hexa-Mili), 
when Toa reach the ^tfiva Corinthioeua {Gulf of Lepanto).— This opens into Hellas 
several bays, one at its eastern extremity called Hdkyonium Mare, ana another central 
and opening to the north called Sinus CrU$<BU8 (Bay of Salona). — Continuing the sur- 
vey of the coast of Hellas, you pass out of the Sinus Corinthiacus through the strait 
called DardaneUeM of Lepanto between Shium on the Pelopoimesns, where is the tomb 
of HeakMl, and Antirrhium on the opposite side. Issuing from this strait you enter and 
eootinoe in the Mart Ionium^ till having gone through tne artificial channel separating 
LemtoM from the mainlind, vou turn round the Promontorium Aelium and enter the 
Simau Ambraeiua, which ends the tour, and the eastern extremity of which is not more 
than 70 miles distant, across the moantains, from the Sinut Maliacu$, where the ima- 
ginary tour began. 

9 90. If an observer could take an elevated station in the air, and thence look down 
iqaon Hellas, his eve would rest upon an almost countless number of hills and moun- 
tains, with rich vales, and small pure streams. At first its summits might seem to rise 
up over the cotmtry in disorder and confusion, but soon he would trace some obvious 
fines of oomiection. He would perceive one line of summits stretching from Mt. CEta 
at T^crsMpyfa down parallel to the eastern coast and to the island Eubcea as £u- as 
to the strait Eurimu. — ^He would observe another of more lofty and attractive summits 
prooeeding from jPmdug (in about the centre between the SinuB Maliaeu$ and Sinut 
A m b nudiu ) running quite southerly a short distance, and then sending off on its right a 
fine of minor simimiis down to the western extremity of the Sinut CarintkiaeuM, but 
kaoif benfing to the south-east, and at leiigth verging along the shore of that gulf to 


its eastern extremitv, and there connecting with the Gennii Montet and Mons OneiuM 
on the isthmus, and with Motu Citharon^ which proceeds directly east to the sea south 
of the straits of Euripus. — The part of this line joining Pindut includes probably the 
moantains in which the ancient Diyones dwelt. The first part of the branch which 
it sends off to the west, is the Conu chain, and the termination ot this branch at the 
gulf is in the summits called TapkiasMus and Ckaici*. — ^In the main line bending to the 
south-east occur first Partuutua, which although of barren soil was celebrated for its 
men valleys and shady ffroves suited for meditation ; then Helicon, with its fountain 
Hippocrene, which started into existence (sccording to fable) from the stamping of Pe- 
gasus (cf. P. II. ^ 117./). — ^Afterthis, as you turn eastward, appears Citharon, which 
has a summit in the eastern part, called Pames. — In the territory south of these, were 
several summits, particularly PetUelicu$t famous for its marble, north-east from Athens ; 
Hytnettutj celebrated for its honey, east and south-east of Athens ; Laurius, containixig 
the silver mines, in the southern extreme of Attica.^^racyfilAttS was a chain in 

^ 91. Hellas contained eight small, but independent provinces or districts. These 
were, beginning on the west, Acamaniat JEioLia, Dori$, LocHt, Phocit, Bcaotia, itfe- 
garui, Attica, 

The two western districts Aeamania and JEtolia were very inferior to the rest in 
fame, although nature presented herself in a grander and sublimer aspect than in some 
other districts. 

$92. Acarnania was marked for its woods and forests, and its inhabitants were 
noted for their attachment to sensual pleasures. We have alluded (^ 76) to the natural 
boundaries between this district and Epirus, viz., the Sinus Ambneiug and the ajmr of 
mauntaim running from Pindus down to that bay. This line of highlands is now 
called Makrinoros, which name is also jg^ven to the narrow pass under their abrupt and 
steep termination near the bay, a pass similar to that of ThermopyliB. The boundary 
between Acarnania and the next aistrict of Hellas, .£tolia, is the river AcheUmg, rising 
among the valleys of Mt. Pindus and flowing to the Mare Ionium. 

Of the places in Acarnania^ we mention Argot Atnjphilochiutt on the river Inacbus 
emptying at the eastern extremity of the Sinus Ambracius; Anactorium, on a peninsula 
forming the north-western comer of the district ; Aetium, a little further to the east, on 
the Promontory of the same name. At this place Augustus gained his great naval 
victory over Antony and Cleopatra^ and to commemorate it, bunt a town called Nico- 
polii, and institatea games celebrated every third year, called Aetia. — LeucoB was on 
the northern point otthe island Leucadia, which was a peninsula before the Pelopon- 
nesian war, but after that separated by an artificial channel. On the south part was a 
temple of Apollo on the Promontory 2>tica/e, from which the despairing Sappho is said 
to have thrown herself (cf. P. V. \ 54). — Stratus, once its metropolis, was on the 
Achelous which is now called Aspro-potamo. 

$93. iE t o 1 i a was east of Acarnania, separated by the river Achelous ; it is now 
called Vlakia, from a tribe of barbarians to whom the Greek emperors gave this pro> 
vince. Its other chief river vras the Evenus (Fideri), falling into the Corinthian bay ; 
this and the Achelous are the largest rivers of Hellas. 

The following are the chief places ; Calydon on the Evenus, under Mt. Chalets ; 
a9sociated with the story of the Caledonian boar (destroyed by the son of the king of 
.4Ctolia), whose tusks were said to have been preserved in Greece until Augustus carried 
them to Rome as curiosities ; Thermus, the ancient capital, in the interior, or between 
the Evenus and Lake Tridumis.^-Naupactus^ on the Sinus Corinthiaais, under il//. 
Taphiassus, was not included in the proner limits of ^tolia, but was given to this pro- 
vince bv PhiUp of Macedon ; it was saicl to have its name from 'o^c and v^^vv/it, be- 
cause the HeraclidsB built here their first ship to invade Peloponnesus. 

$ 94. D oris, a very small district, lay under Mt. Pindus, between (Eta on the cost 
and the mountains of the Vryopcs on the west, having Parnassus on the south-west and 
being separated from Phocis oy elevated hills on the south-east ; thus wholly sur- 
rounded by mountains. It was called Doris from Doras, son of Deucalion, ancient 
monarch of Thessaly. It was a rocky, mountainous region. Its towns were situated 
on the river Pindus, a branch of the CephiFsus, which also rises in the hills of Doris. 
From its four towns Pindus, Erineum, Boium, and Cytinium, it was called Tetrapolis ; 
and flomctimes Hexapolis, the two places LUaum andf Carphia being added. 

$ 95. Locris consisted of two parts separated from each other.— The larger part 
was on the Sinus Corinthiacus, having yEtolia on the west, and Phocis on the east | 

(partly separated from it bv the Sinus Crissaus). The inhabitants of this part were ■. 

called Western Locri, or Locri Hesperii and Jjxri Ozola. Of the origin of the latter ' 

name, different accounts are given ^ the people are said to have disliked the name i 

exceedingly.— -One of their principal places was Ampkissa, in the interior, where 
was a temple to Minerva. — Naupactus (^ 93) originally belonged to them. ' 

% 96. The other and smaller part of Locris was on the opnosite coast of Hellas, on | 

the waters separating it from Eulxea. It was north-east of Pnocis and Bceotia, divided i 

from them by a cham of moantains, and extending from Mount (Eta on the north to I 




the Platanhu, a 801011 river flo^nn^ to the chanoel of Eabcea, and separating Ijocris 

from BcBotia, on the south. 1'hjs part was inhabited by two tribes. — The OpwUii 

were in the southern region, so called from their principal city Opuit which gave 
name also to the bay adjacent, Sinus OpuntiuM^ containing a small island, Atalonta, 
The port of Opus, called Cyno*, was north of it, on the bay. — The other tribe or 
people were the Epicnemidiit so named from Mount Cnemis. On this there was a 
small towD of the same name : other places of note were Naryx^ the city of Ajax, 
too of Oileua; Tkronium; and Anlhela^ where the Amphictyonic council assembled 
aanuaJly in a temple of Ceres or 'fhesmophora {the lawgiver) as she was here called, 
in allusion to the council. 

Close to Anthela were the ever-memorable straits of ThermopyltBi deriving their 
name from some hot springs and fortified |;ates that were there. This celebrated 
pass, usually reckoned the liev of Greece, is about sixty paces wide, and is situated 
between the ridge of Mount (£ta and the Malian gulf, at the iunction of the three 
countries, Locris, Phocis, and Thessaly. Here Leonidas, with a handful of men, 
bravely resisted the countless myriads of Persia, and died rather than violate the 
Spartan law, which forbade flight to the citizens. In the same place Antiochus, king 
oi Syria, was defeated by the consul Acilius. 

DataV ^ ^ri«glaor tht Mdm GrMk molaHoD (c£ p. IV. I ai ^. two licBd MamplM 1^ 
fkw Ttefeiih «fVMMM« OB tte ■»« iagpirinf ■pot«>A pUa of llM pMi, UlMftntiac Ite ooolMl batwtn I^^ 
■ p«tB ■■ JtarCMmy^ ilMdnnb, cit«I P. V. i isa B. 

^97. Phocis extended between the two parts of Locris, from the Corinthian 
gulf to the borders of Thessaly. 

The capital was Blatea, on the river Cephissus, the capture of which by Philip first 
swakenea the attention of the Greeks to the dangerous ambition of the Macedonian 
monarch. West of £latea was Dtljtki, on mount Parnassus, celebrated for the oracle 
of Apollo (P. III. ^ 72), and for the annual meetings of the Amphictyonic council 
(P. III. ^ 105) held in the temple. It is now a mean village called Castri. Pamas- 
fus (Halioooro) had two summits, one sacred to Apollo, and one to Bacchus; the 
town stood at the foot of the mountain, and the tefnple was built on a neighboring 
eminence*, close to the fountain Cantalia. Near the town, the Pythian games were 
celebrated, in memory of Apollo's victory over the serpent Python. — Cirrha, on the 
small river Pliftust falling into the Corintnian gulf, was esteemed the port of Delphi ; 
near this was CrUm, from which an inlet of the Corinthian gulf, and sometimes the 
whole gulf, was called Crissseus ; and Anticyra, celebrated for the production of hel- 
lebore. — The principal river of Phocis was the Cepkissua^ which is sometimes con- 
founded with a river of the same name in Attica. 

• A view of ndpU Ml ltebaixhtierFlw«a««b |wt««iladinllwI>Tmlhpic<»of thbliuaia,u(ivMbf JI«»A 
lob*^ iMM^tuwM i ^laa of IMpbi, wilb ucpbuiioia, it Ibvnd in DiMttnU Piudar, toU ii. p. S18, m cited P. V. ^ 6a 4. 

^ OB. At the time nf the Fenian invaaioo, the Phocians etrenoouRly exerted themselves for the 
roiomon liberties of Greece ; in revenire, Xerxes despatched a large army to lay waste the 
country and plondnr the temple of Delphi. The greater part of the men were destroyed by 
ranbqraakes and lightning; the inhabitants, encouraged by these appearances of a divine assist- 
ai»r«, rose «■ «««■«, and completely destroyed the remainder.— —About S80 B. C, a large body 
of Ginls. under the command of Brenniis, invaded their country, and were defeated under cir- 
caiBBiaacce eimilar to the defeat of Xerxes. 

^99. BcBotia occupied the north-east of Groecia Propria, on the shores of the 
Ennpus, a narrow strait between the island of Eubcea and the continent. 

The capital was Thebes, built by Cadmus, the Phoenician, who first introduced let- 
ters into Greece (cf. P. IV. ^ 45). The city stood on the river Ismenus, and was 
ornamented with seven gates, whence it is called Heptapvlos. It was the birthplace 
of the demi-gods Hercules and Bacchus, of the poet Pinaar, and of those illustrious 
warriors and statesmen , Pelopidas and Epaminondas. The citadel was, from its founder, 
called Cfulmea. — ^Sonth of this was PUUma^ where the Persian army were totally 
destroyed by the united valor of the Athenians, Spartans, and Plateans : it was after- 
wards destroyed by the Spiuians in the Peloponnesian war. We mention also Leuc- 
tra, near lake Copais, where the Spartans were defeated by Epimiinondas ; Coronea^ 
near mount Helicon ; Charonca^ where Philip, having defeated the Athenians and 
Thebans, became absolute master of Greece ; Lebadea, remarkable for the temple 
of Trophoniua ; and OrekomenuSf near which was the Acidalian fountain, sacred to 
Venus. — Near the Corinthian gulf was Thespim, sacred to the Muses, having a port 
named Creusa ; and Atcra, the birthplace of the poet Hesiod.— *0n the Euripus were 
AuUs, the rendezvous of the Grecian fleet in the Trojan expedition, and the scene of 
Iphigenia's sacrifice ; Tanaffra, where the celebrated poetess Corinna was born ; and 
Delittm, a village which derived its name from the temple of Apollo, built in imitation 
of that at Delos, and was the place where Socrates, in the Peloponnesian war, saved 
the life of his pupil Alcibiades. 

^ 100. The chief motmtains of BcBOtia were He/icon,- with the fountains Aganippe 
mnd HJppocreoe, sacred to the Muses ; Ptmjvfo, on the borders of Phocis, dedicated 


10 the same divmities ; Diree, near Thebes ; and CitluBronf on the borders of Mega- 
ris, sacred to Bacchus. 

The peopi« of B<BotU wera nsnally deacribed At naturally atupid, but wltb apparentlj Ihtle 
Juaiica ; for It fave birth to many roan uf auparior lalenia, and the barbarona cuatom of ex- 
lioalng children, common in the reat of Greece, waa here totally prohibited. They have been 
accuaed of nouriabing a deadly hatred for triflina cauaea. In (he heroic agea, Thebea aeema to 
have been one of the moat powerful of the Grecian atatea, but Ita hlatory la ao involTed, that the 
diacoTery of the troth la very difficult. It certainly declined in after timea ; probably the miafor- 
tunea and cItU diacorda of the poaterlty of Cadmua had weakened the power and deauoyed ih« 
aplrit of the people. 

$ 101. M eg ar is was a small territory, said not to be more than ei^ht miles square, 
south of mount Cithaeron, near the isthmus of Corinth. Its chief city was Megam, 
situated midway between Corinth and Athens, built on two cliffs not hr firom the 
Sinua Saranieut; its port was NutBOj taken and destroyed by Pericles. The only 
other place of note was Crommyont near the Scironian rocks : these were said to be 
very dangerous, and to have derived their name from Seiron, a notorious pirate and 

^102. The remaining province of Hellas was Attica, east of Megaiis, and south 
of Cithsron. The district so named was of a triangular shape, not 30 miles wide at 
its base on the north, and tapering until it terminates in (he point called Sunimmi pro- 
jecting into the Myrtoum Mare^ east of the Sinut Saronieus (gulf of Eneia). It was 
also called Acte idxrii) from its maritime situation. The capital was AtherUt a more 
full description of which we shall give below. 

^ 103. About ten miles north of Athens is Marath&n, where the first Persian in- 
vaders, under the command of Datis and Artaphemes, were completely routed by 
the Athenians, commanded by Miltiades. North of this was the village Ehttmnus, 
where a statue, formed of the marble that the Persians had brought to raise a trophy 
of their anticipated victory, was erected to the eoddess Nemesis : a little to the east 
was PkyUt a strong fort, which was occupied bv Thrasybulus, in his expedition 
against tne thirtv tyrants. On the Euripus was Daphinuntf and Oropu$, where there 
was a celebrated temple of Amphiaraus. Nearer to Athens, on the north side, was 
AehartuBt where the Lacedemonians encamped when they invaded Attica ; ana /)«• 
celia^ which they fortified by the advice of Aicibiades. — East of Athens was Brauron, 
where the statue of Diana, brought from Taurus by Orestes, was preserved until 
taken away by Xerxes ; and Sunium, a town and promontory at the south-eastern 
extremity of Attica, celebrated for a splendid temple of Minerva (from the ruins of 
which it IS now called Cape Colonna), imd is in modern times remarkable as the scene 
of the shipwreck beautifully described by Falconer. — West of Athens was EUutii, 
where the Eleusinian mysteries in honor of Ceres were celebrated. There are two 
remarkable temples at Eleusis ; that of Ceres and that of Triptolemus. 

^104. Topography of Atuess, The city of Athens was founded by Cecrops, an 
Egyptian, who led thither a colony from the banks of the Nile. At first it was called 
Cecropia, from the name of its founder ; and afterwards 'A^ffvai, Athens, in honor 
of the goddess Minerva (whom the Greeks called 'A^^yf), because she was the pro- 
tectress of the city. In its moet flourishing state, it was one of the largest and most 
beautiful cities of Greece, and is said by Aristides to have been a day's journey in 
goins around it ; according to other and more exact computations, it was about one 
hundred and seventy-eight stadia, or rather more than twenty-two Roman miles ; and 
Dion Chrysostom reckons it to have been two hundred stadia, about twenty-five Ro- 
man miles in circumference. — Col. Leake considers the ancient city to have been much 
larger than the modern, and estimates the circumference as not less than 19 miles at 
least, reckoning the sinuosities of the coasts and walls. — The number of gates is not 
known ; thirteen are named by Robinson ; the largest was called A^rvAori and was near 
the Ceramicus ; the *bp& was that leading to Eleusis. 

rorapluorAtiim,tMewriat«l.,t7wbidi llwmdtfnaylwrailMaMiMtioBortba priadpil puti aad MUii«k~Tte 
iiTii|i»ww IHM givM, ■ dimtm chicflf fram Ao6<naon% AichMlaci» Gnen. 

$ 105. Athens lies in a valley, extending fi-om mount Penteliau on the east to the 
Sinu9 Saronieut on the west, between mount Fames on the north, and Hymettus on 
the south. In the plain of this beautiful valley thus surrounded by natural ramparts, we 
behold the very sineular geological feature of six insular mountain rocks standing in regu- 
lar succession, ana gradually diminishine as you descend fixim Pentelicus westward to 
the sea. The one nearest the sea is callea the hUl of Mutatis. On the next is the Aero- 
polis of Athens. The one next to this on the east is Mt. Anchesmus, on the summit 
of which was a temple and statue in honor of Jupiter; fi-om this eminence an observer 
could survey the whole of Athens and its environs. — Two streams fiimished their 
waters to the city. One was the Ilissus, which flowed to the east and south of the 
city, and which is supposed, from the appearance of its channel and fi'om the allusions 
of the poets, to have been anciently much larger than it has been seen in modem 

times. The other, Cepkissus, was still smaller and ran on the other side. Athens 

nay be described in twq parts ; the Cecropia, built by Cecrops on the summit of the 


hill termed Acropolis (liipAioXiO, and called the upper ciey^ h Stw viXtt ; and the part 
built afterwaid, k xim «^, or the lower city. 

TW hin ar Ac w>pnli«. m a^ifidwJ iMmlhtkmm put. h diallaetly k« iatbaFifW^jfrtaWflfMilD oar FUla IXa,aa 
ft^ »i wbicb ■ takM froM /. C. Bakkatuf* Jonmr (hreog^ Alteaia ud oOmr pimrioca of Tarkcf, kc UmL lllJl 
I ««ii. «^na OraciH MMlnd «f lk«i CPMMdK M iUnpoUi with IbMT towoi, to tin Un^^ 

% 106. The dtadel, or upper eiiy, was sixty stadia in circumference, and was fenced 
with wooden {mIcs, or, as some say, was surrounded with olive-trees. It was fortified 
oo the south side by a strong wall, which was built by Cimon, the son of Miltiades, 
from the spoils taken in the rersian war, and which was called Kifttivtow rttxos. The 
north wall was built many ages before by Agrolas, or according to some, by Euryalus 
and Ilyperbius, two brothers, who first taught the Athenians the art of building houses. 
This wall was denominated lUXavyitiv or lltXapyiKdw, from the Pelasgi, the name of 
its fbanders. I'his wall was beautified with nine gates, from which it is sometimes 
called *E¥attirvX»p; but thoueh there were several lesser ^tes, there was one grand en- 
trance into the citadel, the I^«v6Xai«, to which the Athenums ascended by steps covered 
with white marble, and which was built by Pericles at great expense. Over this en- 
trance is one of those enormous slabs of marble called '* marble beams*' by Wheeler, 
and to which Pausanias particularly alluded when, in describing the Propyiaea, he 
says that, even in his time, nothing surpassinff the beauty of the workmanship or the 
macniiude of the stones used in the building had ever been seen. 

The inside of the citadel was ornamented with innumerable edifices, statues, and 
moDuments, on which the ancient stories were fully described. The noble statues of 
Pericles, Phormio, Iphicrates, I'imotheus, and other Athenian generals, were here 
intermingled with those of the gods. 

Here was the temple of Minerva, called Nfc^ or Victory, constructed of white mar- 
ble, and placed on the right of the entrance into the citadel. 

% 107. About the middle of the citadel was the statel]r temple of Minerva, called 
Parthenon, because that goddess preserved her virginity inviolate, or because it was 
dedicated by the daughters of Erechtheus, who were jmrticularly called «a/>^<yoi, vir- 

f:iris. It was also denominated 'Exartf^rcJey, because it was one hundred feet square. 
t was burnt by the Persians, but restored b^r Pericles, who enlarged it fifty feet on 
each side. It was of the Doric order, and built of that beautiful white marble foiuid 
in the quarries of Pentelicus, a mountain of Attica. Within this temple was the statue 
of Minerva, so celebrated for its size, the richness of its materials, and the exquisite 
beauty of the workmanship. The figure, the work of Phidias, was twenty-six cubi's 
high. This temple still remains a noble monument of antiquity, being 229 feet in 
length, 101 in breadth, and 69 in height. 

Affi^«r(h«r^r1hMaBb|iMaiaoarl1ai«XXLflcl-cCP.ULiM. OBltota»rilWliknfhMBttbrLor4£lglB,ei: P. JV. 
IM. teifea««toarrkUiH,cf.P.IV.f im 

Here also was the temple of Neptune, sumamed Ereehtheut. This was a double 
bmldiiijg, and, besides other cariosities, contained the salt spring called 'Epcx^ctf, which 
was feigned to have sprung out of the earth from a stroke of Neptune's trident, when 
he contended with Minerva for the possession of the country. Tnis part of the temple 
was consecrated to Neptune. l*he other part belonged to Minerva, surnamed IIoAiaf, 
the protectress of the city, and niv^povof, froni one of the daughters of Cecrops of that 
name. Here, so late as the second century of the Christian SBra, was the sacred olive- 
trve, which was said to have been produced by Minerva, and to have been as old as 
the foundation of the dtsdel. Here also was the imsge of the goddess, which was said 
to have &llen from heaven in the reign of Erichthonius, and which was guarded by 
dragons, called 'mvpol ^k, and had a lamp always burning with oil, and an owl be- 
fore it. The whole structure was called 'E^tx^ctar. Both these buildings still remain. 
The smaller edifice, which is an entrance to the other, is 29 feet in length, and 21 feet 
3 inches m breadth. The larger is 63^ feet in length, and 36 feet in breiulth. The roof 
is supported by chaimeled Ionic pillars. See Plate I V a. 

Behind the temple of Minerva stood the public treatury, which from its situation was 
called 'Ori«ddJ«|iOf, and in which, besides other pubUc money, a thousand talents were 
deposited for any very sreat exigency of the state. 

In the citadel were also several other edifices, as the chaoel of Jupiter ZdrrJ^p, and of 
Minerva Z^^'fi^f the temple of Agraulos, the daughter ot Cecrops, or rather of Mi- 
nerva, who was worshiped under that name, in the front and steep side of the rock ; 
and the temple of Venus, 'IvnXtircf a, consecrated by Phedra, when in love with Hyp- 

S 108. The lower eiiy, which contained all the buildings that surrounded the citadel, 
with Mnnychia, Phalerum, and Pirseus, was encompassed with walls of unequal 
strength, built at different times and by different persons. The principal parts of tho 
walls were the JUaapk rciyv, which joined the harbor of Pireus to the city, and which 
being about five miles in length, were sometimes called Ma«pA atclXn, long legs, and 
frrad^M Untfta, \ong arms. I'ney consisted of two sides. The wall on the north side 
was boiii by Pericles at great expense, and continued forty stadia. That on the south 



■de wwM cdfed N^TMv rnx^f* or «^ ^t»9* vs^cv. to diMingiMh it from the south wall 
of the citadel, end eoiiieiiiiies rtlx^ faAff <cir, beceoae it included the port of Pbelemoi. 
It WM built by Theuniiodee, of hnge aquue stooes, not oemenied together with inor- 
, hmt fiuteoed on the oaiade by in» end leedeo ommpe. The height of it wee forty 
' , b«i Themiitoelee wished to rsise it to eighty cubits. Its length wss thirty-five 
_ Upoo both of the walls wae erected a great nmnber of tnireis, which, after 

the Atheniuie became so nomerons that the dty ooold not contain them, were con- 
verted into dwelling-hoases. The MMvixcw, or wall that enoompaased the Munychia, 
and joined it to the Piivos, contained sixty stadia; and the exterior wall on the other 
aide was fioitT-three stadia in length; and hence it appeals, as has been before ob- 
sened, that the whole drcnmferenoe of Athens was 178 stadia, or rather more than 33 
Roman miles, 

^109. Of the boildings of the lower dty, the principal and most remarkable were 
the Mhiwinip.— II*fmrM was a stately edifice, in which were kept the sacred utensils 
used at festivals, and in which were prepared all things necessary for solenyi proces- 
■HNiSL— The temple of Falooa, or of Vniean and Minerva, aitoaicd not for from the 
CcFsmieas within the dty, was a public prison. — ^Near to this building was the temple 
of the Heavenly Venn* ; for the Athenians had two deities of the name of Venus, of 
which one was designated Oipmwim, and the other ni»^^f•t^ the former presided over 
chaste and pure love ; the latter was the patroness of lust and debauchery. — ^'Ar«jrci»p 
was a temple of Castor and FaUms, who were called <v«n(. In this place slaves were 
ezMsed to sale. 

The temple of The$em» was erected by Cimon in the middle of the dty, near the 
pbee where the youths employed themselves in wrestling and other bodily exercises. 
This temple was a sanctuary tor alaves, and for all persons of low condition that fled 
from the persecution of men in power, in commemoration of Theseus, who, when 
ahve, was the guardian and protector of the distressed. 

Spcektefof tke tenpte ofTbewas, Dr. CIsrke otoerves, that thit beaotiAil Dork tenpie more 
rsMlUhif, ta the style of iu srcliilcctare, tbe temples of Pnian itan of Minerva In the Acro- 
pnlte, and tke Boet enilfe of any of Um remainlnf Mractares of ancient Greece, were it not fnr 
tbe dajDage whicli the ■calptnree have saMmtaed, may be considered m still perftct. The entire 
cdiftre i» of Penlelkaa marble ; it sunds east and west, the principal front Acinf tbe east ; and 
H has a portico of six colamns In eaeb froat, and oa each side a range of eleven columns, ex- 
dasive of tbe eolonas oa tbe angles. 

A «a* tf Am taHVit ■ (Mb is fiMB XXL %. a. 

♦ 1 10- 'OX«|i»isr, or 'OX9iiwii99, was a temple of Ionic architecture, erected in honor of 
Jwjnier the Olvmtpian^ and was the most magnificent structure in Athens. The area, or 
peribolus, witnin which it stood, was four stadia in circumference. It was con- 
structed with double rows of columns, 10 feet in front, and 21 in flank, amounting in 
all to 124 ; the extent of the front bein^ 171 feet, and the length of the flank more 
than 400. These nillara are the majestic ruin of this sumptuous and statelv temple. 
The foniMlation of this edifice was hud by Pisistratus, whose sons continued the work ; 
but it was not completely finished till the time of Adrian, 700 yeare after the structure 
had been commenced. 

Tbe temple ofApoUe and Pan stood on the north side at the bottom of the dtadel, 
in a cave or grotto, which was called Mampai Hrpei, or Kuporisi vcrpsi.— The temple 
of Diana, sumamed Awi^MMf, because in it women, after the birth of their firet chUd, 
dedicated their girdles to that goddess. 

nsv^wir was a temple consecrated to aU tke gods, who, as they were united in one 
edifice, were honored with one common festival, which was called Ocs(cvca. This was 
also a very magnificent structure, and was supported by 120 pillars of marble. Oil 
the outside were curiously engraved the deeds and story of all the gods ; and on one 
great gate two horses were carved by Praxiteles. 

The temple of the Eight Winds was a tower of eight squares, of marble, on eveiy 
side of which was carved the figure of a wind, according to the quarter whence it 

■iiMfc. lyiM <te ■MwM ti irMA W iinHil » btwm truoa. baMin 'm hw right b— J aiwilA or wtai. Ite trilM «a w phcdl 
Art fekfowtfiMBlwilh a* «ri^asl|wtaiid with Iht wind to Ika triad whidbtew. ^A mw onha tfraeta* ■ chv ia ow 


$ 111. ZriMi, porticos, were very numerous at Athens; but the most remarkable 
vraa that called HMsisvdcrisc, and afterwards IIsMrAs, from its containing a variety 
of curious pictures, drawn by thoee great mastere, Polygnotua, Mycon, and PansBnus, 
the brother of Phidias. At the gate of the IIsmcaii was the statue of Solon. — To the 
north of tbe Acropolis, not &r from the temple of Theseus, are the ruins of a atruc- 
ture once evidently very splendid, supposed by Stuart to be the ruina of this celebrated 
Stea or Porch. Some travelera hove mistaken them for the remains of the temple of 
Jopirer Olytnpius already deacribed, which waa in the southern part of the dty, near 
the fountain Calirrhoe. 

JlssscTsir was a fort near the dtadel, which rscdved its Dame from the poet Museus, 


the scholar of Orpheiu, who used to repeat hia verses in thia place, where he was alao 
buried. — 'i^tov waa a muaic theatre, built by Periclea. The tnaide of this buiiding 
was filled with aeats and ranges of pillara ; and the outside roof or covering was gra- 
dually bent downwards. The roof, which was constructed of the masts and yards of 
the vessels taken from the Persians, and in ita form resembled the tent of Xerxes, 
was supported by columns of stone or marble. It was burnt by Sylla at the siege of 
Athens, but afterwards rebuilt. This Odeum was situated on the south-east an^le 
of the citadel. The Odeum of Herodes Atticus has sometimes been confounded with 
that of Pericles, but the Odeum of Herodes waa situated at the south-west angle of 
the citadel. This last was built by Herodes in memory of his wife, and was con- 
sidered as far surpassing^, in magmtude and in the coatuness of its materials, every 
other edifice of the kind m all Greece. The roof of this building was of cedar. 

The Ceramicua (Kipaiuinds) received ita denomination from Ceramus, the son of 
Bacchus and Ariadne ; or more properly dir6 riis upaiuiKiif rixvirf, fi-om the potter* a 
art, which was invented here by Coraebus. This extensive space was divided into 
two parfs, one of which was situated within the city, and contained a great number 
of temples, theatres, porticos, &.c. : the other was in the suburbs, was apublic bury- 
ing place, and contained the Acaoemy, and several other buildings.— -The Lyceum 
and the Cynoearges were also in the suburbs on the north-east. 

BM|Mdii« Om Aad«i7 ud alh«> OyMuia «l AthMi, M p. IV. H 64, 74. 

^ 112. 'Ayopat, forums, were very numerous; but the most remarkable were the 
old and the new forum. The new forum was in a place called 'Epcrpfo, which it is 
probable was near to the portico of Zeno. The old torum was situated in the Cera- 
micua within the city, and was called 'Apxala dyopi. It was extremely spacious, and 
was decorated with building dedicated to the worship of the gods, or to the service 
of the state ; with others which sometimes afforded an asylum to the wretched, but 
which were often a shelter for the wicked ; and with statues decreed to kings and in- 
dividuals, who had merited well of the republic. In it were held the pubuc assem- 
blies of the people ; but every trade had a different place assigned as a market, and 
the forum was divided into different parts, according to the wares exposed for sale. 
Thus KilrXo; denotes the place where slaves were solo} 'AX^irtfruXi; dyoph, the bakers* 
market; Ix3^<»wX<j d^ophj the flsh-monger*8 market; VwaiKtla dyopi, the market for wo^ 
men*s apparel. The time when goods were exposed to sale waa called »X^«wa dyopi, full 
market, from the great number of persons assembled ; and different hours of the day 
seem to have been appointed for the sale of different commodities. To this place the 
inhabitants resorted every day. The Scythians, kept in pay by the republic to main- 
tain order, were encamped in the middle of the forum. Collectors also attended to 
receive the duties imposed on every thing that was sold, and magistrates to superin- 
tend what passed. 

BovXcvr/ipia were public halls, in which each company of tradesmen met, and deli- 
berated on matters relating to their trades. At Athens trade was very much encou- 
raged ; and if any one reproached another, even the lowest citizen, with living by the 
profit of his traffic, he was liable to an action of slander. 

^ 113. Aqueducts were not common at Athens before the time of the Romans ; al- 
though one is said to have been built by Pisistratns. The want of them waa supplied 
by wells (^piara\ some of which were dug by private persons, and others at the pub- 
lic expense ; but as good water at Athens was extremely scarce, frequent quarrels 
arose among the citizens. Adrian laid the foundation of a stately aqueduct, which 
was finishea by his successor Antoninus, and which was supported by Ionic pillars. 

The itadium was an oblong area, semicircular at one end, designed originally for 
the foot-race, but used for other ^mes and exercises ; and for the accommodation of 
spectators, who resorted thither m great numbers, it was built with steps above each 
other, in order that the higher ranks might look over the heads of those placed below 
them. The most remarkable at Athens, and indeed in all Greece, was the stadium 
iJlTaSiov Uava9rivaiKd9)f erected near the river Ilissns by Lycurgus, and afterwards en- 
larged by Herodes Atticus, one of the richest of the Athenians. It was built of Pen- 
telic marble, with such magnificence that Pausanias did not expect to be credited, 
even in his brief description of this work, and says that it was a wonder to be taken 
for a mountain of white marble upon the banks of the Ilissus. It was about 125 geo- 
metrical paces in length, and 26 or 27 in breadth, and was therefore called a stadium, 
a measure in ordinary use among the Greeks, being the eiehth part of a Roman mile. 

^ 114. The Areopagus was a small eminence a little to the north-west of the Acro- 
polis. On this, the court or senate of the Areopagus usually held its meetings. (Cf 
r . III. ^ 108). A rfpace was leveled for the purpose on the summit of the rock ; and 
the steps which conducted to it, were cut out of the natural solid stone. There was 
originally neither enclosure nor roof; but merely an altar to Minerva, and two stone 
seats for the accuser and defendant. The court waa occasionally protected by 
temporary erection.— The Pnys, nwif, was another, eminence, opposite the Areo- 
pagus, not far from the citadel, celebrated as the place where the AUienians 
neld their assemblies. Almost the whole of the structure, as appears from a 


noent remoral of tlie eanh in this place, was an excavation of the rock. The 0fln^, 
oo which the oraton stood to address the people, was carved from the stone, and yet 
Rinains. Before this was a semicircular area, of which the part most distant from 
the orator's stone consists of masonry. In the perpendicular surface of the rock, 
fking this area, are niches for votive ublets. North-east from the Acropolis, on the 
street of the tripods (cf. % 115), was the Ilpvrarcloy, where was a public hall, and where 
the laws of Solon were deposited. Near it was the BovXtUv or senate-house. 

i 115. Athens had theatres besides those termed Odea. One of the most celebrated 
was the theatre of Bacchus, capable of accommodating 30,000 spectators. (Cf. P. IV. 
i 23Sl) Thia contained statues of many of the tragic and comic writers, and was the 
place where the dramatic contests were decided : it was near the Acropolis, at its 
soath-east anele. Nothinff of it is now seen except the circular sweep scooped in 
the rock for tne seats. Above it, in the rock of the Acropolis, still appears a cavern 
or grotto, formerly termed the Cave of Bacchus, but now converted mto a sort of 
chapel. — Close by this cavern stands a building, called the Ckoragie monument of 
Thrasyllos ; having on its front three inscriptions recording dramatic victories obtained 
in the theatre. Over this buildins, and higher up the rock, are the two Columns of 
du tripodM, or Chorogie pillan. There were several other edifices in Athens, erected 
for the same purpose ; one, exquisitely wrought, is near the eastern end of the Acro- 
polis, commonly called the Lantern of DemoBthene$, but proved by its inscription to 
be a ekomgie monument erected by Lysicratea. This edifice stood in the street of the 
tripods, so called from the circumstance that in it were erected (on choragic monu- 
ments or piUars, or otherwise located) numerous tripods, which had been obtained as 
prizes in the musical or theatrical contests. 

^VH^ Ito AoHlfe ■*! MMieri ee^Mi ibot* alWfd trs M p. IV. f M.-A vltw of lb* MowoiMl ol ThiMf Dm b |lt« 
hW^XIJg.iB.CiMi«fl^af L|»kwlM^tot>»««wFbl%at.At «Wd«i<gMtio»Iaiii«rii«/ilwiii<iiiiwti»MI»i»y« 
liiBiHliiibf lhi«<d««Owit%«^M-t>«cwM<lwii»ppBritiMt!irtitwMthitt«JyofttHMtrioM«iiHr. 

^ 116. Athens had three harbors for ships : — 1. Uttfioit^d PirentSt which belonged 
to the tribe of Hippothoontis, and was about 35 or 40 stadia distant from the city, 
before the btiildinff of the jiavpA rtlxn or long walls. After that time, the Athenians, 
by the direction of Themistocles, rendered this their principal harbor. It contained 
three <p^i or docks. In this hsrbor were five porticoes, wmch being joined together 
formed a very large one, called on that account Umgpi oro^ The FiraBus abo con- 
tained two forums. Here the productions of all countries were accumulated ; and 
this was the market not of Athens only, but of all Greece. In this harbor three hun- 
dred gaUies have aometimes been collected at once ; and it was sufficiently capacious 
to contain four hundred. The advantages of this place were first observed by The- 
mistocles when he devised the plan of giving a navv to Athens. Markets and maga- 
linea were presently erected, and an arsenal capable of fumishine every thing neces- 
sary for the equipment of a great number of vessels. — 2. MovnxTa, Munyehia, which 
was a promontor^r not far distant from Piraeus, and extended not unlike a peninsula, 
and was well forufied both by nature and art. It received its name from a person 
called Munychus, who dedicated in this place a temple to Diana, sumained Movy«x^s- 
— ^3. ^oXiipiv, PkaUrum, which belonged to the tribe Antiochis, and was distant from 
the dty 35 stadia, or as some say, only 20 stadia. This was the most ancient of the 
three harbors ; and from it Theseus is said to have sailed for Crete, and Mnestheus 
for Troy. 

Wm taiftw OMa» MpwH^ lb* Mmrttef dbJMto la rbk NBOwaH dty, w* nfer to Iha »orki dt«d P. HT. f US. I. ; P. V 
|T (k).— We MBf aM HMdtaffonli VuH toOtwoc-AifAv. Trt««lt h Oiwn, ftc. Load. ItU. 8 toU. 4.-rrwM, BcIIm, irftr 
ItaiMriiHi Om alln OriwbialiiidM, Sc LaipBi llSfc 8 voh. & la tbii work vmj ba bood u Meoant of Lml Elfin^ pro* 
w^i^tcL P. IV. I MOl 4); akoof fbo fariooi BodMV workt nhMtfatiag iba raoMiaior Oneba art ie fmaraL.-€r. Anarf** 
tttf. af AfCbilart aster Mkmion JtdUUelvn; cf. ain ChmtMutnmiUta TnvcU. ia /fKradHrtton.— £. O. Clarle, Travelt ia 
I. *«. hrt IL act. S^Saf t Jy f wwy t Aaacfcawh, «b. xH., a bravtifal dewnptira.-ff: M. LtaJm, Tbfioffraphf of 
m. irttfc aa AS. ItL Ct Tba—ihwii tf IJW Jtoyal Sodtlf tj Lil^ttun ^ Out Unittd Mmgdom, vol. iil. p. in. 
, AlbMi aad JMta^ K m U tw, Topocnpbto vea Alb« (a Garaaa traarialiOB t4 Laaka). Balle, 1MB; with 
aota at MaSar aa< Umm.-C. a JfUII^, Da Maa»oMii JkXkumtuat, kc GMt 1»7. 4. wiib plaia.— £. Jlwfmaim, Oia 
Akiibaaiii vw Anm,taA Snmt mi Mmm,tu. WaiaMr, lOa Ml pkloi^irM% Pba da Albtb-Snidk f Outer, Bacf. 
il |iii^aaiarJMaa(wi<ttoabyinilhrX-Tbf faajfaneaataoiaaof Iba boH lataMllac al4octo,iB IT. Oatton, ?iait toCoa. 
<aiiiiw|te arf atiaM R. Torfc, UM 11. dk II, la 

^ 117. (4.) The PsLoroKiTEsus, the fourth .division of Grecia (^ 76), remains to be 
noticed. In looking at the physical features of this peninsuU, we perceive in the 
interior a circular chain of mountains, almost surrounding an included tract of country 
which was called Arcadia. From this circle of elevated summits, various branches 
are sent off towards the sea; and we find a hne running out to each of the principal 
promontories ; to Ekium Prom, at the entrance of the Sinus Corinthiacus ; to Chelonu 
tes Prom, on the western side of the peninsula ; to Aeritas Prom, west of the Sinus 
Mcseeniacas ; to Tttnarum, to Malea, and to Seyllaum, the other points, which occur 
in passing round the peninsula to the east. — Between these several mountains were 
frmtfnl valleys, watered by numerous streams descending from the mountains in 
every direction. 


^118. This country was originally called Argia and Pelasgia, but after the con- 
quests of Pelops was called the island of Pel^, n^Xons viiant ; it was also called 
Apia. Its present name, Morea, is said to be drawn from its resemblance to a mul- 
berry-leaf in shape, or from the number of mulberry trees that it produces. — It may 
be considered in six divisions : Achaia, Argolis, Elis, Arcadia, Messenia, and Laco- 
nia. Sicyonia and Connthia are sometimes added to these ; but they may be included 
under Achaia. 

^119. Achaia, in the extent we have Just jgiven to it, includes the whole north 
coast of Peloponnesus, and the isthmus of Cormth, by which it is joined to Hellas. 
Exclusive of Sicyonia and Connthia, it comprised twelve towns, each independent, 
and possessed of its own little territory, which were from a very early time united 
in a son of confederacy called the Achflsan league ; they were Dyme, Olenus, Phane, 
Tritaea, PairtB (now PalnuY Rhype, JEgium the place where the deputies of the 
league met, Helice, Bura, ^ge, jEgina^ and Pellene. In the resistance to the Ro- 
mans made by the Achiean league in the later ages, the cities of Sicyon and especially 
Corinth took part. 

It was from the opposition made in Achaia, that the Romani, whtn Hammiiu redneed Greece- 
to a BUbJect province by the capture of Coriath, B. C. 146, applied the name Achaia to the whole 
eountry. Of. (S13. L6. 

$ 120. Sicyon was the most ancient city of Greece, said to have been founded 
B.C. 2089. — ^But Corinth has obtained greater notoriety : it was on the isthmus, at 
nearly an equal distance from the Saromc and Corinthian gulfs. It was once called 
Ephyra. Its citadel was on a hill called Acro-Corinthus. It had two ports ; Z«eA«- 
»m, on the Sinut Corinthiacut, and Centhrem^ on the Simu Saronicut. Althoujgh 
destroyed by Mummius, it afterwards recovered its splendor, being rebuilt by Jubus 
Cassar, and became more famous than before for its luxury and licentiousness. 

The iithmai of Corinth was an important pan. Several attempts have been made, at differ- 
ent periods, to Join these two seas by a canal, and from the (kliure of them all, *' to cot throu|rh 
the Corinthian isthmus" has become a proverbial expression for aiming at impossibilities. Here 
the Isthmian games, in honor of Neptune, were triennlally celebrated : anil here a stand has 
fysquently been made against foreign invaders, the narrowness of the isibmus easily admittiog 
of regular Ibrtificatlon. 

^121. Argolis occupied the north-eastern extremity of the Peloponnesus. Its 
chief town was Argot, on the river /noefttia, more celebrated in the heroic than the 
historic ages of Greece. When Perseus had accidentally slain his grandfather Acri- 
sius, he transferred the seat of government to Mycena ; this latter city retained its 
power to the end of the Trojan war ; but after the death of Agamemnon, the Argives, 
through motives of jealousy, besieeed, captured, and leveled it with the ground. — 
North of Argos wss Nemea, where Hercules slew the Nemean lion, and instituted the 
Nemean games in memory of his victory ; and TtrynlAii«, a favorite residence of 
Hercules, whence he is frequently called the Tirynthian hero. — On the Sinut Argo- 
lieut (Gulf di Napoli) were, Nauplia (Napoli di Romania), in ancient and modem 
times the principal port in these countries ; Epidaurus^ remarkable for a celebrated 
temple of ^sculapius (P. II. ^ 84) ; and Troesene, whither the aged inhabitants of 
Athens retired when their city was burned by Xerxes. 

$ 122. Elis was a small province south of Achaia, on the coast of the Ionian sea. 

Its chief tov/n was Elis, the residence of king Salmoneus, who is said to have pro- 
voked the indignation of Jupiter, by his attempts to imitate thunder and lightning ; it 
was on the Peneus (Belvidere or Igliaco), a principal river of the province. Pisa, de- 
stroyed at a very remote period, was on the Alphevs (Rouphia or Rufeas), a larger river 
flowing from Arcadia. Not for from Pisa was blympia, the place near which the Olym- 
pic games were celebrated. 

Otymjna was the name not of a city, but of the sacred site near which the games were per- 
formed. Here was the grove jfitw, with splendid roonumnnts scattered in it ; the temple of 
Olympian Jupiter, with its celebrated statue (cf. P. II. ) S4); the Cr^iuasi or Hill of Saturn ; 
also a famous hippodrome and stadium. 

Atf lAetony. efo. ntviii. m died P. V. ( tas. t^-CkaimuMou]^, Bar raippodiMM dVlrraiMK, in Um JTcm. JUad. Inmr. tol. 
>1U. p. 1&— DiMoi'* Pindtr, vol. ii. p. 690, when b a plu wiUi cxpUaaliouv-i'toMfURNlb, Voyvfv 4» Ia Oitee, voL v. p. 401. 
-J. S. Stmdup*, Olynpia, fte. h cited P. fV. § 84S. I. 

^123. Arcadia occupied the centre of the Peloponnesus; and being entirely de- 
voted to agriculture was said to be sacred to Pan. — Its principal towns were Tegtta^ the 
capital ; Ordwmenust near the lake Siymphalus, where Hercules destroyed the Harpies, 
on the river Ladon, which flows through Arcadia and joins the Alpheus in the eastern 
part of the province ; Mantirua, where Epaminondas fell, near the ruins of which is 
Tripolitza, the metropolis of the Morea ; Megalopolis^ near the Hdissus, a tributary to 
the Alpheus, built by Epaminondas to repress the incursions of the LacedaBmonians. — 
From the ruins of Phiealia (Paulitza), in the territory of the Parrhasii, were taken the 
bas-reliefs called the Phigalian Marbles (cf. P. IV. ^ 179, ^ 183. 4). 

The mountains of Arcadia were greatly celebrated by the poets ; the principal were 
CyUenCf the birthplace of Mercury ; Erymanthus, where Hercules slew en enormous 



boar} Manalttgt sacred to the Muses: Partheniut, where Atalanta resided ; Parrha- 
Miu9 and Lyc<Bu$j sacred to Jupiter aud Pan. From the hill Nonaerit flowed the cele- 
brated river Styx ; its waters were said to be poisonous. 

$ 124. The south-western division of the Peloponnesus was Messenia, of which 
Mtttene, a strongly fortified town, was the capital ; the citadel was called lihome, and 
was supposed to be impregnable ; these were in the interior, west from the PamisuM^ 
which IS the principal river of the province, and flows from the mountains between 
Messenia and Arcadia into the Sinut Messeniaau. — The other principal towns were 
PyloSf the city of Nestor, now called Navarin; Methane, where Philip defeated the 
Athenians ; and CEchalia or Erytopolia, conquered by Hercules. 

The Meaieniani, after a deiperate restolBDce, were aubdued by the Laeederooniane, and the 

greater part compelled to leave the country. Subeequently tbeir city lay long in ruini : bat 
when Epaminondaa bad destroyed the supremacy of Sparta, be recalled the descendants of the 
exiles and rebuilt Meseene. Aner his death, the Spartans again became matters of the country, 
but did hot expel the Messenlans from tbeir restored possessions. 

^ 125. The south-eastern and most important division of the Peloponnesus was 
L a c o n i a. Its capital was Sparta, which we shall describe in the following sections. 

The other towns of note were, AmyeUg, on the Eurotas, the residence of Leda; 
Therapne, on the same river, the birthpUce of Castor and Pollux { Gytheum, the prin- 
cipal port of Laconia ; Helot, whose inhabitants were enslaved by the Spartans ; and 
SeUasia, where the Achseans, by the defeat of Cleomenes, liberated the Peloponne- 
sus from the power of Lacedsemon. 

The Sinus Laeonicus (Gulf of Colochina) was bounded by the capes Malea (St. 
Angelo) and T<Bfiarutn (Matapan). Near Tfonarum was a cave represented by the 
poets as the entrance into the infernal regions ; through this Hercules is said to have 
dragged up Cerberus. 

The Pelnponneslan states were first subjected by Pelops ; but about eighty years after the 
Trojan war, the Heraclids, or descendants of Hercules, returned to the Peloponnesus, and 
became masters of the different kingdoms. This event, which forma a remarkable epoch in 
Grecian history, took place 1104 B. C. 

^ 126. ToMgraphy of Sfarta. The city of Lacedsemon, which was anciently called 
Sparta, is saia to iiave been built by king Lacedismon, who gave it the latter oenomi- 
nation from his wife Sparta, though he designated the country and the inhabitants 
from his own name ; but some think that this city received the appellation of Sparta 
from the Sparti, who came with Cadmus into Laconia. It was situated at the foot 
of mount Taygetus, on the west side of the river Eurotas, which runs into the Laconic 
gulf. It was of a circular form, and forty-eight stadia or six miles in circumference, 
and was surrounded to a great extent with vineyards, olive or plane trees, gardens, 
and summer-houses. 

Anciently the city was not surrounded with walls { and its only defence was the 
valor of its inhabitants. Even in the reign of Agesilaus, and for tne spdce of eight 
hundred years, this city was without any fortifications ; but after it fell into the hands 
of tyrants, it was surrounded with walls, which were rendered very strong. It had, 
however, some eminences upon which soldiers might be posted in case of an attack. 
The highest of these eminences served as a citadel; its summit was a spacious plain, 
on which were erected several sacred edifices. Around this hill were ranged five 
towns, which were separated from each other by intervals of different extent, and 
each of which was occupied byoneofthe tribes of Sparta. 

^ 127. The great square or forum, 'A^yoph, in which several streets terminated, was 
embellished with temoles and statues. It also contained the edifices in which the 
senate, the ephori, and other bodies of magistrates assembled. Of these public edii- 
fices the most remarkable was the Portico of the Persians, which the Lacedaemonians 
erected af^er the battle of Platea, at the expense of the vanquished, whose spoils 
they shared. The roof of this building was supported by colossal statues of the prin- 
cipal ofiicers in the army of Xerxes, who had been taken or killed in that battle, and 
wno were habited in flowing robes. — The Seias was a buildins not far from the forum, 
in which assemblies of the people were commonly held. The Chorus was a part of 
the forum, where dances were performed in honor of Apollo in the Gymnopasdian 

Upon the highest of the eminences stood a temple of Minerva, which had the privi- 
lie^e df asylum, as had also the grove that surrounded it, and a small house apper- 
uuning to it, in which king Pausanias was left to expire with hunger. The temple 
was built with brass (XaActoiroj). Within the building were engraven, in bas-relief, 
the labors of Hercules, and various groups of figures. To the rignt of this edifice was 
a statue of Jupiter, supposed to be the most ancient statue of brass in existence; of 
the same date with the re-establishment of the Olympic games. 

The most ornamented place in Sparta, however, was the PcBcHe, which, instead of 
being confined to a single gallery like that at Athens, occupied a very considerable 
extent. The Romans afterwards took away the superb paintings in fresco which had 
»een employed to decorate the walk.— Farther advanced in the city appeared differ- 

IV t. 


boars M(Bnalutt sacred to the Muses; Partkenius, where Atalanta resided ; Parrha- 
»iu8 and Lycautf sacred to Jupiter and Pan. From the hill NonacrtM flowed the cele- 
brated river Styx ; its waters were said to be poisonous. 

$ 124. The south-western division of the Peloponnesus was Messenia, of which 
Messenef a stronely fortified town, was the capital ; the citadel was called Ithome, and 
was supposed to be impregnable ; these were in the interior, west from the PamituM, 
which is the principal river of the province, and flows from the mountains between 
Messenia ana Arcadia into the Sinut Me»»eniacu». — The other principal towns were 
Pylo8t the city of Nestor, now called Navorin ; Methonef where Philip defeated the 
Athenians ; and (Echalia or Erytopolia, conquered by Hercules. 

The MeiMDiani, after a desperate reslsunee, were lubdued by ibe Lacedsmoniani, and the 
greater part compelled to leave the country. Subeequently their city lay long in ruins: but 
• "" '" a, he . . - - -- 

when Epaminondae had destroyed the supremacy of Sparta, he recalled the descendants of the 
exiles and rebuilt Messene. After his death, the Spartans anln became masters of the country, 
but did hot expel the Messenlans from their restored possessions. 

^125. The south-eastern and most important division of the Peloponnesus was 
L a c o n i a. Its capital was Sparta, which we shall describe in the following sections. 

The other towns of note were, AmycUe, on the Eurotas, the residence of Leda; 
7%erapne, on the same river, the birthpbice of Castor and Pollux ; Gytheum, the prin- 
cipal port of Laconia ; Helot, whose inhabitants were enslaved by the Spartans ; and 
SeUasia, where the Achaeans, by the defeat of Cleomenes, liberated the Peloponne- 
sus from the power of Lacedsmon. 

The Siniu Laconicua (Gulf of Colochina) was bounded by the cttpes Malea (St. 
Angelo) and Tafuirutn (Mata{)an). Near Teonarum was a cave represented by the 
poeis as the entrance into the infernal regions ; through this Hercules is said to have 
dragged up Cerberus. 

The Peloponnestan states were first subjected by Pelops ; but about eighty years after the 
Trojan war, the HeraclidB, or descendanu of Hercules, returned to the Peloponnesus, and 
became masters of the different kingdoms. This event, which forms a remarkable epoch in 
Grecian history, took place 1104 B. C. 

$ 126. Tojfography of Sparta. The city of Lacedsmon, which was ancientlv called 
Sparta, is saicTto have been built by king Lacedsmon, who gave it the latter denomi- 
nation from his wife Sparta, though he designated the country and the inhabitants 
from his own name ; but some think that this city received the appellation of Sparta 
from the Sparti, who came with Cadmus into Laconia. It was situated at the foot 
of mount Taygetus, on the west side of the river Eurotat, which rune into the Laconic 
gulf. It was of a circular form, and forty-eight stadia or six miles in circumference, 
and was surrounded to a great extent with vineyards, olive or plane trees, gardens, 
and summer-houses. 

Anciently the city was not surrounded with walls ; and its only defence was the 
valor of its inhabitants. Even in the reign of Agesilaus, and for the space of eight 
hundred years, this city was without any fortifications { but after it fell into the hands 
of tyrants, it was surrounded with walls, which were rendered very strone. It had, 
however, some eminences upon which soldiers might be posted in case of an attack. 
The highest of these eminences served as a citadel ; its summit was a spacious plain, 
on which were erected several sacred edifices. Around this hill were ranged five 
towns, which were separated from each other by intervals of difierent extent, and 
each of which was occupied byoneofthe tribes of Sparta. 

^ 127. The ^eat square or torum, 'Ayep^ in which several streets terminated, li^as 
embellished with temples and statues. It also contained the edifices in which the 
senate, the ephori, ana other bodies of magistrates assembled. Of these public edi- 
fices the most remarkable was the Portico of the Per$ian», which the Lacedsmonians 
erected after the battle of Platsa, at the expense of the vanquished, whose spoils 
they shared. The roof of this building was supported by colossal statues of the prin- 
cipal officers in the army of Xerxes, who had been taken or killed in that battle, and 
who were habited in flowing robesi — The Scias was a building not far from the forum, 
in which assemblies of the people were commonly held. The Chorua was a part of 
the forum, where dances were performed in honor of Apollo in the GymnopsBdian 

Upon the highest of the eminences stood a temple oi Minerva, which had the privi- 
iiege <if asylum, as had also the grove that surrounded it, and a small house apper- 
taining to It, in which king Pausanias was left to expire with hunger. The temple 
was built with brass (XaActoi/roc). Within the building were ensraven, in bas-rebef, 
the labors of Hercules, and various groups of figures. To the right of this edifice was 
a statue of Jupiter, supposed to be the most ancient statue of brass in existence ; of 
the same date with the re-establishment of the Olympic games. 

The most ornamented place in Sparta, however, was the PcecUe, which, instead of 
being confined to a single gallery like that at Athens, occupied a very considerable 
extent. The Romans afterwards took away the superb paintings in fresco which had 
Doen employed to decorate the walk. — ^Farther advanced in the dty appeared dUTer- 

IV f. 


ent ranges of Portico* ^ intended only for the display of different kinds of merchan- 

^ 128. Columns and statues wero erected for Spartans M'ho had been crowned at 
the Olympic games ; but never for the conquerors of the enemies of their couniry. 
Statues mieht be decreed to wrestlers ; but the esteem of the people was the only 
reward of the soldiers. It was not till forty years after the battle of Thermopylae, that 
the bones of Leonidas were conveyed to Sparta and deposited in a tomb near the 
theatre ; and at the same time also the names of the three hundred Spartans who had 
fallen with him were first inscribed on a column. — The theatre was m the vicinity of 
the forum, and was constructed of beautiful white marble. Not far from the tomb 
of Leonidas were those of Brasidas and Pausaniaa. Funeral orations and games were 
annually given near these monuments. 

Of the edifice! and monument! of Sparta it may be remarked in freneral, that th^y were not 
diBiinguiibed for architectural beauty ; and the city bad nothing impoiing or aplendid in iu ap 

^129. On the south side of the city was the 'UwuSpo(toft or course for foot and horse 
races, some vestiges of which are still visible ; and a httle distance from it was the 
Plataniftast or place of exercise for youth, shaded bv beautiful plane-trees, and en- 
closed by the Eurotas on one side, by a small river which fell into it on the other, and 
by a canal which opened a communication with both on the third. The Platanistas 
was entered by two bridges, on one of which was the statue of Hercules, or all-sub- 
duing force, and on the other that of Lycurgus, or all-regulating law. 

The place which served Sparta for a port or harbor, was Gytheiuntj T^ttov^ situated 
west from the mouth of the Eurotas, and distant from Sparta 240 stadia, according to 
Strabo, and 30 [300?] according to Polybius. It was early surrounded by strong 
walls, and had an excellent harbor, in which the fleets of Sparta rode in security, and 
where they found every requisite for their maintenance and security. 

The ruins of Rparta are fuund, under the name PaUnochoH or old town, about two milee distant 
from the modern town Mieitra^ near a Bjwt called Magonla. "The whole aite,'* aays Chateau^ 
briand^ *'!■ uncultivated; when I beheld this desert, not a plant adorned the ruins, not a bird, 
not an insect, not a creature enlivened them, save millions of lizards, which crawled without 
uoite up and down the sides of the scorching walls. A dozen half-wild horses were feeding 
here and there upon the withered grass ; a shepherd was cultivating a few water-melona in a 
corner of the theatre ; and at Magoula, which gives its dismal name to Lacedsmon, 1 observed 
a small grove of cypresses." 

Oo th« topopipbjr nd n\m ot Spute, tn Chntmutrimd'i Tnv\t (p. 94, ed. N. T. Itl4).— 1« JM, MaavMw At U Grace.— 
Sir or. Ota, Itiomtj of Um Mom.— ImAc'i Tnvalt in Um Mar«SL Lond. 1830. t *ala. 8b-Oanwr, DodtotU, ^ ■• <iiei P. V. 


^ 130. It was mentioned (^ 8), that having considered the mainland of Europe under 
three divisions, northern, middle, and southern, we mjght notice the islands together 
under a fourth. The European islands known to the ancients were in the Atlantic or 
Mediterranean ; of those in the Baltic they knew but Uttle. We will speak first of 
those in the Atlantic. 

^ 131. Of these, Britannia was the most important. It was scarcely known to 
exist before the days of Julius Ca;.sar. Being peopled by successive migrations from 
(raul, the Britons naturally aided the morhor country when invaded, and thus pro- 
yoked the vengeance of Rome. The eouih-westcrn shores are said to have been 
visited by the Phoenicians at a much earlier period ; and that enterprising people have 
been described as carrying on an e.Ttensivo trade for tin wiih Cornwall and the Scilly 
isleH, which, from their abounding in that metal, were called the Castiterides Insulir 
or Til islands. 

$ 133. The enumeration of the several tribes and villages being a matter rather of cnriosity 
than utility, we shnll only notice a few of the more reomfkable. — The Cantii occupied the south 
of the island ; in th«>lr territory were Rutnvia (Richboroueh), celebrated for its oysters by Juve- 
nal ; and Partus Lenranig (Lymne), where Cirsar landed, B'. C. 55.— The Triwobantts possessed the 
country north of the Cantii ; their chief town wns Londinum (London), the most flourishing Ro- 
man colony in Britain.— The Silures possessed South Wales, and appear to have been a very 
flourishing and warliice tribe. Caractacus. one of their kings, is celebrated for having bravely 
defended the liberties of his country ; and fur a long time baffled the utmost efforts of the Ro- 
mans: he was at length subdued by Ostorius Scapula, A. D. 51, and sent in chains to Rome. — 
On the eastern coast were the /cent, whofie queen Boadicea, having been cruelty abused by the 
Roman deputies, look up arms to avenge her own and her country's wrongs ; at flrst she ob- 
tained several victories over her oppressors, but was Anally defeated by Suetonius Paulinuc, 
A. D. 61.— The north of Eneland was possessed by the Bri^anten^ the moat powerful and ancient 
of the British nations; their principal towns were Eborucum (York), and Jsttrtitsi (supposed to 
be Jtldboroughu the capital of their tribe. 

^ 133. Scotland was still \c»n known than England; five nations on the borders, 
known by the general name of Meatat, were subdued by Agricola, and became nomi- 
nally subject to the dominion of Rome. 

When Britain became a Roman province, it was divided into the five following 


1. The RoruntU of Frilotjicri, IT-" nticUml THitflj^lrttjfca. Ii is ax\pixmed to 
iHircheenft Cafn'rifin TeiupSe, Py iht riiriaiiBtis (l wrut ror^vpru-d into a 
chnreh t.f Paul Aud Paifr. Thi* Turlcs ha^ r» iumtd fl fiitii a. mn<^i\ne. ; am) 
•reeled liie minari^r, which apptJip^ iiitarlN'd t** ii, afnd in Ui* ^Hllerv nf 
wtiichi ti ■een a jVuefZin, wUtute uiTice is lo aniiouikCfl from ihv gallery Ibe 
hcMfT odT pmycr. 

2. A rouTitii:i for ihe MiiBiiilinan aljluliou bf!ri*re prayers. 


( 143. We may inclade among the JEgean Ulandt all that remam to be noticed. 

The Thracian islanda occupy the northern part of the £gean, and were named 
Thaaufl, Samothrace, and Imbrus. — Thatut (TasBe). opposite the mouth of the Neseus, 
yras in the earlier ageii of Grecian history named ^ihria. It produced wine and mar- 
ble, and the inhabitants were at one time so powerful as to dispute the mastery of the 
sea with the Athenians, but after a severe contest of two years they were compelled 
to surrender at discretion. — Samothrace (Samandrachi) derived its name from Samoa, 
by a colony from which it was first peopled. From this place Dardanus brought the 
worship of Cybele to Troy. — Imbnu (Embro) lies lo the south of Samothrace. 

^ 144. Tenedos stands at the entrance of the Hellespont, opposite the Troad. It 
contained but gne city, and a celebrated temple of Apollo, here called Smintheus, be- 
cause he delivered the inhabitants from a pbgue of mice, called Sminthse in the Phry- 
gian language. 

South-west of this was Lemnos (Stalimene), dedicated to Vulcan, who, when thrown 
out of heaven by Jupiter, is said to have fallen on this island. It contained two cities, 
Hephcestia or Vulcatia, and Murina. — Farther west, on the Macedonian coast, was 
Halonuesui (Droma), which is said to have been at one time defended by the valor of 
the women alone, when all the males were slain. South of these were Seiatku$ (Sci- 
atia) ; Scopdos (Scopela) ; and Seyrog (Skiro), where Achilles vna concealed by his 
mother Tnetis, to prevent his going to the Trojan war. 

South of Tenedos, and opposite Ephesus, was Lesbos (Metelin), the birthplace of 
the philosopher Pittacus, the poets Arion and Alcseus, and the poetess Sappho ; its 
chief towns were Methymna, celebrated for wine, and Mitylene, from whence the island 
hos derived its modern name. — South of this was Chiot (Scio), celebrated for its wine. 
The slaughter of the inhabitants of this island by the I'urks, in 1822, excited great 
public sympathy. 

% 145. The largest island of the ^gean was Eubcea (Negropont), opposite the coast 
of Boeotia, from which it was separated by a narrow strait called the Eurivu9, Into 
this strait Aristotle (P. V. ^ 115), according to the accounts of some, threw himself, in 
a fit of frenzy, because he was unable to explain the cause of its ebbing and flowing. 
The chief towns were Chaleii, joined to Aulis in Bceotia, by a bridge across the Eun- 
pus; Eretriot an Athenian colony, founded before the Trojan war; Oreug^ on the 
Euripus ; the town and promontory of ArtemiBtum, in the northern part of the island, 
where the Greeks gained their first naval victory over the Persians ; and Caryifus, in 
the south, between the promontories Gcnestus and Caphareus, remarkable for the 
quarries of marble in the neighboring mountain Ocha. The history of Eubcea is not 
very important, as the greater part w*as subjected to other Greek states. 

In the Saronic gulf were ^gina (Engia), anciently ^none, strongly fortified by 
nature, and at one period the rival of Athens at sea ; here were discovered the monu- 
ments called the ^ginetan sculptures or marbles (cf. P. IV. % 190. 3). The ^gine- 
tans were the most distinguished of the Grecian aUies at the battle of Salamis, and 
obtained the prize of valor. — Next to this is Salamis (Blimi), the island of Telemon, 
father of Ajax and Teucer. Near Salamis the Greek fleet, commanded by Euribia- 
des the Spartan, and Themistocles the Athenian, totally defeated the immense navy 
of Persia.— On the coast of the Peloponnesus was C<Uauria (Foro), where Demos- 
thenes poisoned himself that he might not fall into the hands of Aniipater, the suc- 
cessor of Alexander the Great. 

^ 146. South-east of Eubcea was the large cluster of islands called the C yc lades, 
from their nearly formmg a circle round the island of Delot, This island, also called 
Ortygia, is celebrated by the poets as the binhplace of Apollo and Diana; on which, 
near Mount Cynthus, stood the celebrated temple of the Delian god, to which pil- 
grimages were made from all parts of Greece. A sacred galley, called Faralu* 
(4 »&pa\oi)t was annually sent from Athens to Delos Math a solemn sacrifice, and dur- 
ing its absence it was unlawful to punish any criminal in Athens capitally. I'he other 
reinarkable islands in this group were Mifconuft GyaruM, and Serrpfm$, small islands 
whither the Roman emperors used to banish criminals ; Androt and Teno9^ south-east 
of Eubcea; Ceot (Zea), and Helena, on the coast of Attica; Cvthu$^ Siphnu$, and 
Meloe (Milo), south of Ceos ; Paros, celebrated for its white marble, the bmhplace of 
the statuaries Phidiaa and Praxiteles ; Naxoe, sacred to Bacchus, where Ariadne was 
ungratefiilly deserted by Theseus ; Jos, where Homer was said to have been buried ; 
Thera, tnd Anapke, 

^ 147. The islands in the eastern part of the ^gean were called the Sporades, and 
more properly belonged to Asia, but they are enumerated here as thev were possessed 
by the Greelu. The chief of these were Samos, sacred to Juno, the birthplace of Pv- 
thagoras ; learia, which mve name to the Icarian sea ; Patmos (Palmoesa), where toe 
Apostle John wrote the Revelations ; Co$, the native country of Harpocrates ; Car- 
niM«« (Scarpanto), which gave name to the Carpathian sea ; and Ekodus (Rhodes). — 
This latter island contained three cities, Lindus, Camyrus, and Rhodus. 

At the harbor of Rbodui stood the Colnteaf, an enormoui statue, dedicated to the son (P. 11 
I 7S). It held In one taaad a Ufhthouse. This splendid statue (cr.P.IV.) 180. 1) was throws 


BJFWKiZzi^' mi" :^'-wmm:^^i 

M 1'- ."^^ 



dowa hf «■ Mrtbqimk* aboot B. C. SB, and having loog lain proitrate wai broken np by the 
Saraceae vben ibey became maetefe of the lalaDd, in the seventh century. 

% 148. C rata {CreU or CoHdia), at the entrance of the .£gean, was the most cele- 
brated island of ancient times : it is said to have contained a hundred cities, the princi- 
pal of which were Gno§9Ugi near Mount Ida, on the north side of the island ; Gortynia, 
on the opposite nde, where stood the celebrated Labyrinth, built by Daedalus ; and 
Cydonia, by some esteemed the capital. 

The lint inhabitants of Crate were the Idal Daetyli, who lived near Mount Ida, and exercised 
■wcbanieal aru ; nearly contemporary with these were the Curetes, who directed their attention 
to agrienltare.— Minoe, a descendant of Jupiter, was the legislator of Crete, and from his laws 
the lasiitutions of Lycurgus are said to have been principally borrowed. The fabulous legends 
respecting this monarch, his wife Pasiphae,and his daughter Ariadne, are mentioned in another 
place (cf. P. II. ^ U7. (a),and ) 18ft). 

Tte Ctwu UtTriMb ■ fHMaUy i«pi«nlid to taf« bM anr OMMi ; M «»• MippoM It to batt bMS fe^ 
•kte«KamJaMiirc»MraiaMrGart7^flOMi«iacorNv«idehuBbmuid(illOTi«i It to Mt iaprahabto tb»t mom n^ etvara 
MW Gmhm flBW raa to ite rtofj flf M Mlileial kbTTtah.'-SM H<:c*A>« CMl>.--Oodl««B, OB tht Cn^ 


i 149. Asia, the largest and most populous of the divisions of the globe, is cele- 
brated 88 the birthplace of the human race { the quarter where the true God was wor- 
shiped when the rest of the world was sunk in superstitious barbarism ; the scene of 
oar Savior's life and sufferings ; and for the great monarchies, the Assyrian, Baby- 
kmiao, and Persian, which possessed extensive sway (cf. ^ 211) before the commence- 
raeot of authentic European history. — From Asia tne first principles of the arts and 
sciences were imported into Europe, and there civilisation had attained a high degree 
of perfection, before the western countries had emerged from barbarism. 

^ 150. The countries of Asia may naturally be considered in two divisions, the 
Rastem and Western ; the boundary between them being the river Rha or Wolga, 
the Mare Caspium, and the mountains extending thence towards the Sinus Persicus. 

The SoMtern diviMion includes Sctthia, Sinarum Reoio, Ivdia, Persia, Media, 
and Pabthia, with the countries north of the mountains called Paropamiiut. — ^The 
Wegtem includes Sarmatia, with the countries between the Mare Caspium and Pon- 
tos Enzinus, Armritia, Asia Minor, Stria, Arabia, and Mesopotamia, with the 
cooDtries in the valley of the Tigris. 


^151. Sctthia was the name applied to all the northern and north-eastern part of 
Asia. Very tittle was known respecting it. It was divided into Snfthia intra imaum^ 
and Scytkia extra ImoMm, separated by the moimtains called ImauSj now Belur Tag, 
^htch unite with the modem Altai on the north, and Himmaleh on the south. — Scy- 
iliia extra Imanm included the Regia Casta (Kashgar in Tartary), and the Regto Se- 
run (the north-west part of China) ; in the latter was the city iSeni, the thoroughfare 
of ancient commerce between eastern and western Asia. 

T*twfc»>OM—ca< r i f W illi iwpwtlocifcomltWMllqBBgthO Mdwt ftKa fc Ct lyLftwOm^ QiWMWn, ■» h aorigue 
Sn lorioM , ia ft* itmm.JlBai.Imr. toL ssaU., aad slii. p. Tit -Clow, Jbwmoi, foL ti. p.a}4. vii. tt>-ilMiton-j 

The SiHJB occupied the most eastern portion of Asia known to the ancients} sup- 
posed to be the country now named Cochm China. Their capital was ThyfuB, on the 
CidiartM, a branch of tne Senut. 

S 152. IimiA included the territory extending from the mountains called in their 
northern part Parueti, on the west of the river Indus, to the river Serus or Menon, 
which empties into Magnus Sinu$ (Gulf of Siam). It was divided by the ancient!^ 
into India intra Gangem, and India extra Gangem : the boundary between them be- 
in^ the Ganges^ which discharged into the Sinua Gangeticus (Bay of Bengal). This 
country was but little known before the expedition of Alexander. The southern part 
of India intra Gangem, or Hindostan, was called Promontorium Comaria (cape Como- 
rin). Several pkices on the coast were known. North of the river Chaberis (Cavery), 
was the Begio Areati, the modern Arcot: — ^In India extra Gangem was the Aurea 
Chersanesus (the peninsula of Malaya), its southern point being called Magnum Pro- 
atonlarimm (now cape Romania). 

S 153. Persia, in its more limited meaning;, was the country lying east of the river 
Tigris, between Media on the nonh and the Persian gulf on the south. But the name 


is sometimes, and is here, employed to coinprehend the whole territory soath of the 
Faropamisut chain of mountains, from the Zagro$ chain and the river Tigrig on the 
west, to the Parueti and Arbiti Montea separating it from India on the'eaat. Thus it 
includes several provinces. 

Susiana was the most western on the Tigris, containing the cities Elymau and 
Sum; the latter, called in the Bible Sktuhan, was the winter residence ot the Per- 
fiian kings; it was situated upon the nver ChotupeSj which flowed from the OrtnUes 
mountains into the Tigris. — Fersis was directly east of Susiana, bordering upon the 
Sinus PersiaiSt and corresponding to Persia in its limited and proper sense. Its capi- 
tal was Per$epoli8f represented as a city of great splendor ; the royal palace w^as set 
on fire by the order of Alexander, when inflamed with wine and insiigaied by his 
mistress Thais. 

The ruins of Pertepolia Btill excite admiration. It was situated on a beautiful plain six miles 
wide and 100 long from N. W. to S. E. which is now crowded with numerouit villaycs.— Through 
this flowed the jfrazM, now Bendemir or Bend Emir di«charging Into Lalce Balciegian. The 
principal ruin is Ihe palace called by the natives Chtkul-Minart ChU-JUinar, or SAeAei-JIfiMr, or 
palace of forty eolutnn*. 

See a depcriptioB, with plata^ fai Rob. Etr ParUr'a Trnvda^O. Keppd^ Junnaj tnm India to Ztufiani, hj fmm, kc. in 18M. 
Load. laST. A.— J. B. Jkxandm, Travel* fixMn Iwlia to Eaglajid, thrDUgta Penia, Alia Minor, ftc in IMS. Land. 1837. 4.-CL 
fiMer, The t/niv. ffutory, kc dtad ) til. VL 

Previously to the founding of Persepolls, the royal reiidence was at PaaarguiAy which wsi in 
Cople-Persls, on the river CyruMt flowing southerly into a imall lake ; here king Cyrus is said to 
have erected a tomb for himself, in a high narrow tower. 

A monuBMDt alill cxiata, which haa baen tnppoaed to be lb* tomb of Cyrui : it v nptmutad la onr Plata XVUL fig. 1.— Ct 
P. m. i 187. 4. 

The other provinces were Carman i a (Kerman), south-east of Persia, also border- 
ing on the Sinus Persicus ; G e d r o s i a (now Mekran), lying on the Erylhraum Mare 
and extending from Carmania to India ; Arachosia and Drangiana, which in- 
clude the whole remaining territory on the north and east between Gedrosia on the 
south and the Paropamisus on the north. — 'i his latter territory was watered by the 
Elymander^ which, with tributaries from the mountains on the north, east, and south, 
flowed into the Aria Paliu, a lake or sea on its western limits ; the whole territory was 
often included under Aria, which properly belongs to the contiguous country north of 
the Paropamisus. 

^ 154 a. Media was situated south of the Mare Caspium; its northern limit was the rivei 
Araxes flowing to that sea from Armenia ; on the south were Susiana and Persis. Its 
principal river was the Mardu* or Amardufj rising in the south-western part, where tha 
Orontes chain of mountains is connected with the Zagros chain, and flowing by a cir- 
cuitous course into the Catpium Mare in the country of the Mardii. Media was sepa- 
rated from Armenia on the west by Mont hnbanu, a chain extending from Mt. Ararat 
on the north to the Zagro$ on the south. The capital was Ecbatana (now ilamadan), 
in the region south of the mountains termed OrofUes. 

Ecbatana was made the summer residence of the Pereian monarchs, and afterwards of the 
Parthian Two tombs, with inscriptions in the Hebrew character, are still shown to travelirs 
as being those of Mordecai and Esther.— As^«, or Rages, mentioned in the apocryphal book 
of Tobit, was a place of some importance, north-east from Ecbatana. 

See Rmrua, G«of. of Bend. aecL t. II, u cited P. V. 1 241. 6.-A2!di, Vet. Med. et Fen. MooomeDte, cited P. rv. ) n\^Mat 
cc/m, ai cited § Sit. VL 

^ 1546. The northern portion of Media, lyin^ on the river Araxes, was formed, after 
the death of Alexander, into an independent kingdom, by the satrap Atropates, and 
tlience called Atropatene; having as its capital Gaza (now Tebriz or Tabreez). 
and next perhaps in importance Airapalene or Atropalia on a stream flowin£[ into the 
M^rdus. In the western part of this province was the Locus Spauta or MarcianHs 
(lake of Oroomiah), near which on its western side was Thebarma (Oroomiah), said 
to be the native place of Zoroaster or Zerdusbt. 

Thit region, now a part of Adarbijaii, and belonging to Penia, hai beeeoM iatenelr lotaraitinib O" mcoooI of the AnMricaa nU 
•ion ettabliihed among the Naitorian ChrialiaBi, who mide in the plain of Oraomiah and in Ihe ■WMataioa on tha weal, aad whM 
ezitlBaee wai fini made liBOwn to the weMern world about the year m8.— Sea Smith and Dtetgkt, Reaearchca, Jlc. aa died P. IV. 
f M. U—Mui. Btraid, to(. uL p. 11. uaiv. p. 889.^d. Qnmt, The Kestoriao% or tha LmI Tribee. N. York, IS4L I2.~y. i\r- 
Ainf Aecouot of a RMidenca in Penia, Ac Boet. 1843. a with ooloied plalea. Ofee Plate VI a.) 

% 155, Under Parthia we include the region lyin^ at the south-eastern comer of the 
Caspian sea; between Media on the south and the nver Oxua (Gihon), which flows to 
the north into the sea of .\ral, although it was once supposed to flow into the Caspian, 
and is so delineated on some maps. It was originally but a part of Hyrcania, a pro- 
vince belonging to the Persian empire. By Arsaces, after the time of Alexander, it wa.-% 
made the sent of a new state, which under his successors, called Arsadda, grew into 
a considerable empire, and oppo{»ed eflectual resistance to the Romans ($211. viii.). 
One of its principal places was Nisaa (Nesa), on a northern branch of the nver OcAm» 
( Morgab), which empties into the Caspian. Hyrcania (Corcan) was a considerable place, 
on the small river Socanda. — ^But the royal residence of the Arsacide wbs Hecatmnpyliu, 



in the south-western {Hirt ; althoagh the later Parthian monarchfl aometimes resided at 
CtetipkoH on the Tigris. 

The remaining countries, between Parthia and Scythia, were Aria, Bactriana, and 
SoKdiana.-— Aria was east of Parthia and Media, and north of the Paropamisus, al- 
though the name was often extended, so as to include ($ 153) a large region south of 
that chain of mountains. The principal place was Artacoana (now Herat). — B a c t r i- 
ana was east of Aria and south of the river Oxus ; its capital was Zariatpa or Bactra 
(Balk), on a tributary of the Oxus. — S o gd i a n a includes the territory between the 
OxuB and the Jaxartes or Sir; corresponding nearly to the modem country Al-Sogd. 
Its chief place was Maracanda (Samarcsind), on the PolytimeluBt a branch of the Oxus. 
Cyropolia was a place founded by Cyrus on the Jaxartes. Various tribes occupied this 
rtigion ; in the north-eastern part were the Saca, 


^ 156. Beginning on the northern limits we notice first S a r m at i a, called Asiatics, 
to distinguish it from the country of the same name in Europe, from which it was sepa« 
rated by the river Tanais. Its boundary on the south was the Caucasus. It was inhabited 
by roving and uncivilized tribes; panicularly the Alani^ and the Cimmerii: from the 
latter, the strait connecting the Palus Moeotis with the Euxine received its name of 
Bosphorus C Unmerieui. '—Sovith of Sarmaiia, and between the Pont us Euxinus on the 
west, and the Mare Caspium or Hyrcanium on the east, were the three countries, Col- 
chis, Iberia, and Albania. Colchis was on the Euxine ; one of its chief places waa 
.^'a, on the river /'Aii«i« (Faz-Reone).— A I b a n i a was on the Caspian, extending south 
as far as the river Cyrug (or Kur). An important place was one of the two celebrated 
passes of the Caucasus, called Pyla Albania or Caucasia, between a northern spur of 
the Caucasus and the Caspian, as is generally supposed ; afterwards the strong city 
of Derbend. — I b e r i a was between Colchis and Albania, a high vallev, watered by 
the Cyrus and its numerous tributaries. The other celebrated pass oi the Caucasus 
led from this valley over into the declivity of the Euxine; it was the defile through 
which the river ^ra^us (Arakui) flows into the Cyrus; it is now called Z7ari>Z. — 
These passes, and others in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea, are sometimes termed 
Pyla Caspia ; but the pass properlv so termed, is supposed to be the modern pass 
ofGurdock, about 90 miles from Teheran. 

Oa tiMM puM, ef. WaUkmOr, d« FBftM CwpieDDO, CuKMi«iDM, ct AlbuiedMi, ke. ia Om Han. db PlnMitmtf CImm d'BiMt. 
tt lit. Jtne. vol. viL p^ 210^ with a map.— ^tU, AiKwitary, No. zxU. p. S70. 

% 157. Armenia was immediately south of Colchis and Iberia, extending to mount 
Ma»iu9 and the Carduchi Montes on the south, and from Media on the east to the 
northern branch of the Euphrates, which separated it from Asia Minor. It presents 
three great valleys, extending nearly east and west; first, that on the north-east, 
watered bv the Araxest also called PhasU (now Aras), flowing to the Caspian ; second, 
the central, separated from the first by the chain of mountains in which is the summit 
called Ararat, and watered by the southern branch of the Euphrates, which rises in 
its eastern part and flows westerly, containing also the lake called Arsiasa Pabis ; 
third, the south-western, smaller, separated from the central by the NivhateB Montes, 
and watered by the Tigris, which rises in its western part and flows through it in an 
easterly course. — Some of the principal places were Artaxata, on the Aroxes, the an- 
cient capital : Ana (Erze Roum), near the sources of the northern branch of the Eu- 
phrates ; Amida, on the Tigris near its source ; and Tigraiioccrta, taken by Lucullus 
m the Mithridatic war, and plundered of vast riches. 

TiM lOBmit ealM Araimt b camamily tuppoMd tD b« that oa which Noah'i aik rarted ; tfab b aaid to have haea aMndad, fer tte 
flnt ttoM, hj rntf. Prnnt, in ia». 8aa BiU. Stpoa. No. uii.^. 30a 

^ 158. Asia Minor is a term not used by classical authors, but invented in the 
middle ages. In general, the Roman writers confined the term Asia to the countries 
bordering on the Propontis and Mgenn, and divided it into Asia intra Taurum and 
Asia extra Taurum. The large peninsula which is known by the name of Asia Mi- 
nor, included a great numbeT of petty states, whose boundaries varied at difi*erent 
Periods. — The northern provinces of Asia Minor, beginning at the JE^ean sea, were 
'hrygia Minor, M^sia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus. — The middle provinces 
were Lydia, Phrygia Major, Galatia, Lvcaonia and Isauria, Cappadocia, and Armenia 
Minor. — The southern provinces were Caria, Lycia, Pisidia, and Pamphylia. 

SaeJl0ifMB.O«osnpb]rof WHtmAib. Load. 1831. 8 vob. S. 

^ 159. Phrye^a Minor, or Troas, is celebrated for the Trojan plains at the en- 
trance of the Hellespont. The lapse of ages has produced such changes, that modern 
travelers are not agreed about the situation of the city of Troy, called also Ilium. 

Ilhini was built at some distance fhMn the sea, above the Janetion of tba Semmsmdtr, or Xaa- 
thut, and SimoiM, two tmall streainB, rlainf from mount Ma, and falling Into the Helleiponi ; the 
dudsl was calted Psrgmmus, and was erected oa a litUa hJIl Included within the wails. The 


fiMim between the city and the ten wat interaected by tbe riven Scamander and Simoit, and 
there tbe batile« menlioDed in the Iliad were fougbi. At tbe eaitern extremity of tbe plain was 
tbe monnt Ida, tbe summit of which was called Garearu$ ; tbe west was bounded by the Helles- 
pont, whkta here forma an extensive bay, between the promontory of RkaUum on the north, and 
Siftwm on tbe south. Here lay the Grecian fleet, and at a little distance on the shore was the 
ramp. Ajax was burled on tbe Bbstean and Achilles on tbe Sigean promontory. 
Ska p. n. $ ISi^Bvl p. V. } GO^JbMMB,iad ollMn,«DllMTo|x«m|ib7 of Tror.McitMl P. ▼. fM. 7. 

Mysia, divided into Minor and Major, extended from the Hellespont to Bithynia. 
The principal towns of the former were, Abydog (^ 73) ; and Lampsacus, dedicated to 
Priaptis, celebrated for its wealth and luxury. — The principal city in Mysia Major 
was C^ieug, situated on an island of the same name in the rropontig, and joined by 
two bridges to the continent ; celebrated for the gallant resistance it made when be- 
sieged by Mithridates ; near this is the nver Grranieus, where Alexander defeated 
thearmy of Darius, and where LucuUus obtained an equally important victory over 

^160. Bithynia, at first called Bebrycia, lay between the Thracian Bosphorus 
and the river Panhenias. Its chief towns were, Apamea^ at the mouth of the river 
Rhmdatut; Kiemnedia, on a gulf of the same name ; Chalcedon (Kadi Keui, or Cadi's 
village), called the City of the Blind j because its founders neglected the more eligible 
site Bjzaniium, at the opposite side of the Bosphorus; ChrysopoUs (Scutari, directly 
oppoeate to Constantinople), where the Athenians stationed a fleet imposing tribute on 
all vessels from the Euxiue ; LibyMsa^ where Hannibal was buried; Calpas and Hera- 
den, on the Euxine ; Niasa (Nice), where the first general council was assembled ; 
and PrufOj at the foot of Monnt OlympuM, where Hannibal for a short time found 
refuge with king Prusias. 

Pnaa afiained fiat imporlaiiee aodcr tiie bum of JhifM, when Oibiran, foaikler of tb* OHdriu enpira, mdc it hit apilal. ft 
cnttiMad to b« tbe ehM mkinw* of th* SulUm uatil tbe captnn nf CooitaatiBOpte in liSSb It ttjll retiiiH, ia lb« aodcni Brooa, 
uimportaatnakanooK the cilia of AnatkTufkvy. (SnPlaie,TIM 

Paphlagonia, lay between the rivers Panhenias and JTalys. The chief towns 
wore Sinope (Sinuhc), the birthplace of Diogenes, and capital of the kingdom of 
Mithridates ; B:id Carambig (Karcnipi), near a promontory of the same name, opposite 
the Criu- Met upon, a cape in the Tauric Chrrsoncse. 

P on t us, the kingdom of the celebrated Mithridates, extended from the river Halys 
to Colchis. The pnncipal towns were Amisus, near the Halys ; Eupatorioy on the 
confluence of the Iris and Lycus, named by Pompey Megalopolis ; Amasia, the birth- 
piace of the geographer Strabo; Themi'scyra, on the river Thermodon, where the 
Amazons are supposed to have resided ; Cerasut^ whence Lucullus brought the first 
cherry-trees that were seen in Europe ; and Trapexus (Trebisond), on the borders of 
Colchis, greatly celebrated by the romance- writers of the middle ages. Near the river 
Halys the Leleges and Chalybes, famous for their skill in iron-works, resided. 

Tbe CbrMrfu wbobr will IbcI ■ peeulMir iDlerMt nafmelvat Pontw tnd BithrDia, fraai iba etreonabuib tbat bera oecamd thaw 
ti«vr pKnecattoM of the aariy OMwrlt to CbriHiuiitjr wbicb are oofticed in tbe lelten of Pliajr tbe ytMeger, (Oferaer of tbtM pro- 
«i*c»cnda-tbeCaptrarTn^ SecP. V.§44l. I. 

^ 161 . L y d i a, called also Mxonia, lay to the south of Phrygia Minor and Mysia, and 
to the east of the ^gean sea. The northern part of the coast was called JEoliti, and tho 
southern loiua, from the number of Greek colonies which settled there. — ^Eolia wan 
colonized by the Cohans, soon after the termination of the Trojan war ; its chief 
towns were Adramyttiumj founded by an Athenian colony; Pert^amus (Bergamo), the 
capital of a small territory, greatly enlarged by the Romans after the defeat of Mithri- 
dates, and bequeathed to them by Attalus its last king; its port was called Elea; be- 
tween Elea and Adramvttium was Lymessus ; soutn-west from Pergamus, Thya- 
lira : and Cana, a town built on a promontory of the same name, near which are the 
.Cginusan islands, where Conon, the Athenian admiral, completely defeated the 
Spartans. — ^Iokia contained several remarkable cities, of which the principal were 
Smyrna, on the river Mcles, near which Homer is said to have been born ; a cave 
here used to be shown to travelers as his birthplace, and another as the spot where 
he wrote bis poems (cf. P. V. ^ 50) ; north and east of Smyrna was Mt. SipyJus, the 
rc-»idence of Niobe (cf. P. II. ^ 131); Clazomen<p, on a peninsula of the same name. 
celebrated for its wealth ; Erythra, near mount Mimas, the residence of one of the 
Sybils ; Corycut, near which the fleet of Antiochus was defeated by tho Romans; 
T^tw, the birthplace of Anacreon. — South of the peninsula of Clazomens, were Colo- 
p/ion, on the nver Halestu, celebrated for the ^rove of Claros, sacred to Apollo, 
Ep?iffM9, on the river Caytter, the most splendid of the Asiatic cities, now degene- 
rated into a paltry village, remarkable for the splendid temple of Diana ; Mycale, 
oppoeate Samos, where the Persian fleet was totally destroyed by the Greeks; P'riene] 
on the Mtrander, a river noted for its winding course ; and Mileiua, the birthplace of' 
Thaies. — ^In tbe interior of Lydia was Sardit, the capital, situate at the foot of mount 
TmoluM, on the river Paelclut, a branch of the Ilermus, Not far east from Sardis 
was Tkymbra, celebrated for the victory there gained by Cyrus over Crossus. On 


the HermuB was MagfUMia, where AntiochuB, king of Sjoia, was OTeithrown by the 

WithiB tiM liiBito whkh »t ta«t abota glfftB to I^rdiK, wara aiz or til* MOT ekiffiAet odAvM^ 
oHar in which the upotO* John telrodaeoi thorn— Ephwin, Soqrraa, Forfwas Thyatin, Soidk, oad Philadd^ia ; the odMr, Lm- 
diew, wu io PhrygU MaJorv-SM JfOMr. Halory of the Sovoo ChoidMh Lood. !«. &-.ArtiiiMt, VUt Id Iho itevoa Ctancha 
ofAsia. Lond.l8&8.~OBlh«nilaior8u4^cf:jAM.£rflr«U,brl8M^p.S08L 

^ 162. East of Lydia was Phrygia Major, extending from the river Ljfcut on the 
south to the Sangariut on the north. Its chief towns were FeatinuM, near the foot 
of moant DindymuM, sacred to Cybele, the mother of the gods, whose image was 
conveyed thence to Rome at the end of the second Punic war (P. II. ^ 21) ; Gordium, 
celebrated for the Gordian knot cut through by Alexander ; Apamea, on the river 
Manwu, where Apollo flayed alive his musical competitor Marsyas ; Laodieea, cele- 
bratea in sacred history, on the river Lycus; and Co2o««a.^— -Gal at i a, or Gallo- 
Graecia, lay north of Phryeia, of which it originally formed a part. The chief towns 
were Aneyra (Angoura), wnere Bajazet was aefeated and maide prisoner bv Tamer- 
lane ; Gangrat the residence of kins Deiotarus, a great friend of Cicero ; ana TaviuM, 
the capital of the Trocmi.— South-east of Phrygia were Isauria and Lycaonia. 
The principal towns of the former were haura^ the capital ; Lystra ond Drr&e, men- 
tioned in tne Acts of the Apostles (xiv. 6). The principal town of the latter was 
leonium. Both of these provinces were intersected bv the chain of Mount Taurus. 

^ 163. Gappadocialay between the Halys and the Euphrates. Its most remark- 
able towns were Comatta, celebrated for a temple of Bellona, plundered by Antony ; 
TyatWy the birthplace of the impostor Apollonius (cf. P. V. ^ 255 b); and Mataca, 
named by Tiberius, Catarea ad Argaum, to denote its situation at the foot of Moun^ 
Argautt from whose summit, as ancient writers assert, the Euxino and the Mediter- 
ranean might both be seen.—- The north-eastern part of Cappadocia was known by the 
name of Lesser Armenia, and contained Cabira or Sdtaate, a well fortified city captured 
by Pompey ; the strong fortress Novaa^ where Mithridates kept his treasure ; and Ni- 
capalU, built by Pompey, to commemorate his victory over Mithridates. 

The Greeks described the Cappadoctans as the worst of the three bad KappoM^ or natloaa whose 
nanfes began with that letter ; the other two were the Cretans and Cilicians. 

^164. The south-western province of Asia Minor was C a r i a. Its chief towns were 
Hahcamassust the capital, celebrated for having eiven birth to the historians Dionysius 
and Herodotus, and for the Mausoleum, a splendid monument, one of the seven won- 
ders of the world, erected by Artemisia, queen of Caria, to the memory of her hus- 
band Malleolus ; Cnidutt in the peninsula of Doris, sacred to Venus ; Alc^nda, on 
the Mseander; and Stralonieeat on the southern coast. 

L y c i a lay to the east of Caria. Its chief towns were TeZmessus, on a gulf of the 
same name, called also Sinus Glaueus, from the river Glaucus flowing into it ; Xantkus, 
celebrated for its obstinate resistance to Brutus, the inhabitants having destroved them- 
selves by fire to avoid surrendering; and Patara, sacred to Apollo. — Near the gulf of 
Telmessus ran the chain of Mount Cragus, sacred to Diana ; in this chain was tlie 
volcano ChinuBrat fabled by the poets to nave been a monster subdued by Bellerophon 
(cf. P. II. ^ 117). Some hills at the Promontorium Sacrum were usually esteemed the 
commencement of Mount Taurus, and a little beyond it is a part of the same ridge 
adjoining the sea, round which Alexander's army were compelled to march up to their 
middle in water. 

Sao AttouMt, Aecouat of DiMovariaa io Lreia.-Ct JmA*. lUedte, Jan. 1841. 

^ 165. Next to Lycia were P i s i d i a and P a m p h y I i a, two mountainous districts, 
whoso boundaries are indeterminate. The chief towns of Pisidia were Antiochia; 
TermessuSt the capital of the Solymi, a people mentioned by Homer ; and Crtmna^ a 
Roman colony. The principal towns in Pamphylia were Perga^ the capital ; Aspendus, 
on the river Eurymedon, near which Cimon aefeated the Persian fleet ; and Coraceaium, 
where Pompey destroyed the nest of pirates who had so long infested these seas. 

C i li cia lay to the east of Pamphylia, and south of Isauria, and was divided into 
two portions, the western called Tracheotis or rough, and the other Campestris or 
level. — The chief towns of Tracheotis were Selinut, where the emperor Trajan died ; 
Anamurium, opposite Cyprus ; and Seleucia (Seletkeh), oh the river Calycadnus. — ^In 
Cilicta Campestris were Solif a colony of the Athenians ; Tarsus, said to have received 
its name from one of the wings of the horse Pegasus being dropped there ; the birth- 
place of the Apostle Paul ; Issus, where Alexander obtained hu second triumph over 
the Persians : and Alexandria (Scanderoon), erected by the conqueror to perpetuate 
the memory of his victory. — On the confines of Syria was the mountain Amanus, be- 
tween which and the sea were Pyhx SyritB, a celebrated pass. — The river Cvdnus is 
remarkable for the coldness of its waters, by which Alexander was almost killed, and 
for the splendid festivities celebrated on its banks when Antony visited Cleopatra. 

^ 166. Stria was bounded on the north bv Mount Amanus ; on the east by the 
Euphrates ; on the south by Arabia ; and on tne west by the Mediterranean. It was 



divided into five provinces, Comagene, Seleucis, Coolo-Syria, Phasnicia, and Judea, 
or Palestine. 

The principal city ofComagene was Samosata, on the Euphrates, the birthplace 
of Lucian. — In Seleucis, or Syria Propria, were Hierapolisj the city of the Syrian 
goddess Astarte (cf. P. II. ^ 48), on the Euphrates ; Berasa, previously Chalybon (now 
Aleppo), on the Chalcis, flowing into a small lake ; ^n/ior/iiVi, where Christians first 
received their name, on the river OrotUct; near it Daphne, with its delightful grove 
sacred to Apollo ; Apamea (Famieh), hichcr up the Orontes, which rising in the ele- 
vated regions on the eastern side of Libanus, flows bv a north-west course to the 
Mediterranean ; still further up, Emesa, the city of iTeliogabalus, the worst of the 
Roman emperors ; and "on the opposite side of the Orontes," near the limits of this 
province, Heliopolia (Balbec), sacred to the Sun, whose magnificent ruins still attract 

rrom tiM taap of SyrU aeenrnptDyiiic Robifu«n*t Retnrehc*, Bttbce appcan to be on tha Laoateb— ^ Anoiif <!>• dt*n which 
an nnoMnted bjr Gnefc tad oriAotil Mmet Id tha (eofnpby ot Syria, we nty dwlin^ish Emen or Hema, and Hdiopolia or Bal- 
hoc. Uofler the laai of the Oman, tbej war* ttroag and popttloas ; lh« tarrete glittered rnm afar; as ample ipac* waa eonred 
with public and printo buiidinp ; aad ibe dtiieiw ware illiHlrioui bjr tbair ipirit, or at laaat bjr their prlda ; bv Ihair richea. or at 
leaat bjr their luxury. la tlie day* of pagaoinB, both Eiwm and Haliopolii were addicted to the wonhip of Baal, or the no ; but 
the daeliBO of their aeperatitiaa aad apleador baa boea aiarked by a aiogular variety of ftirtnoe. Not a vertige mnaiu of the tempi* 
of Emem, which waa eqoalled in poetic ityle to the •ummita of oioual Libanut; while the raiaa of Balbec, inviiible lo the writcn 
of ealtquity, excite the eurieaity aad wonder of the Europeao tiarelcr. The meaeurB of the temple it two huodnd feet ia leagtb, 
«i^ our haadred ia breadth : the front ia adoraad with a double portieo of eight columna ; fourteen asay be ceaoted oe either aida ; 
aad each eoioma, (brty^five bet ia height, ia eompoaed of three naaiy bloclH of auible. The pnportiooa aad omanwta of tb* 
Corialhiaa order eiproa the arebilectare of the Oreeka.'*— See the view given io Fuite VII.— A. ITood, Raiaa of Balbec Lo^. 
1757. fcL-C. B. CUott, Trarela ia An•tri^ RinaU, and Turkey. Lood. I8S8. 8 vola. & 

Coalo-Syria was so named because it lay between the two parallel chains of 
mountains, Lffmnus and And -Libanus: and the name is sometimes applied so as to 
include the valley of the Orontes, and also the whole valley of the Leontes, which 
rises near the western sources of the Orontes, and flows by a south-western course 
to the Mediterranean. But it is limited, in our division, to the upper part of the latter 
valley, north of mount H^TTrum, the principal peak of Anti-Libanue ; including also 
another vallev on the east (now called Gouteh Demesk, or Orchard of Damascus), 
watered by the rivers Chrysorrhwu (Pharphar) and Ahana, flowing into a large lake 
below Damascus, which was the chief town of the province. — The territory east and 
north-east of these valleys as far as the Euphrates, is mentioned in connection both 
with Seleucis and with Coelo-Syria; but more commonly under the cenerul name of 
Syria; some places in it, on the Euphrates, should be mentioned; as Thapsacua 
(El-Der), the celebrated ford, passed by Cyrus In his expedition against Artaxerxes, 
by Darius after his defeat by Alexander at Issus, and by Alexander in pursuit of Da- 
rius ; and Orouro» (Gorur), fixed by Pompey as the boundary of the Roman empire 
when he reduced Syria to a province ; but the chief place in this extensive region was 
Palmyra^ or *• Tadmor in the desert," said to have been built by Solomon, the resi- 
dence of Longinus (cf. P. V. ^ 124), and of Zenobia, who so bravply defied the em- 
peror Aurelian ; it Lb yet marked by celebrated tu'chitectural ruins. 

On the mlaa of Palnyn, tea JL IToorf, aa cited P. IV. \ f 43. S.-The MoiUrn TractBa-.-hbf aad Jfbitfto, Travela in Egypl. 
Syria, ac Load. 1K3. 8. 

Phcenicia contained the cities of Tyms (Tyre) and Sidon, famous for their exten- 
sive commerce. The siege of Tvre "by Alexander is celebrated for the obstinate 
defence made by the besieged, ana the unconquerable perseverance of the besiegers. 
Beryiua (Beirut), north of Sidon, was .the seat of a distmguished school for the study 
of law in the age of Justinian. 

Beirut hm been Ibr aeveral yeara a Tery inferestiag miwionaiy station. In iti vicinity, on Bwunt Letaaoa, dwell the Maretftei 
and the Dmaeh— See JovatWt Rncercbaa.— Jtfuiionory Herald, from the year l(B3, paMJai.— Amd*! Memoir of Pling Fiik. 

^167. J u d es a, or P a I le 8 1 i n a, is called in Scripture the land of Canaan, of Israel, 
andof Judah. It was at first divided among the twelve tribes; it was afterwards 
separated into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah ; and finally the Romans divided it 
into four regions, Galilaea, Samaria, Judsa Propria, and Persa or Transfluviana, the 
country beyond Jordan. 

Galilsawas again subdivided into Inferior, chiefly inhabited by Jews; and Su- 
perior, which, from its proximity to Coplo-Syria, was called Galilee of the Gentiles. — 
The chief towns of Upper GaUlee were Cmsarea Philippi, so called to distinguish it 
from another town of tne same name in this province ; its original name was Laish, 
afterwards changed to Paneas, and finally called Caesarea Philippi, bv Herod's eon 
Philip ; Gahara and Jotopata, bravely defended by the historian Josepnns, when be- 
sieged by Vespasian. The principal cities in Lower Galilee were Ace, or Ptolemais 
(Acre), memorable for its sie^c bv Richard Coeur de Lion in the time of the Crusades; 
Cana ; Sevphoris, afterwards called Dio Caesarea ; Nazareth and Jezreel.— A large 
lake in Galilee was called the Sea of Tiberias or Gennesareth ; at its northern ex- 
tremity was Chorazin; at the western side were Cnpemaum, Tiberias, and Bethsaida; 
on the opposite side was Gadara. — The chief mountains of Galilee were Carmel and 



/«r "^. 


iMSffiFiyi^ m^ )ya^^>ji^^m: 


Jl^ijriMa or Tabor, the scene of our Lord*9 transfiguration. — Between Galilee and 
Sanuma stood Beth»an^ the chief o\ the ten confederate cities called DtcapoltM, which, 
dreading the power of the Jews, entered into a confederacy against the Asmonean 
princes, who then governed J udea. 

$ 168 a. Samaria lay south of Galilee. Its chief towns were Samariat the capital, 
destroyed by the Asmonean princes, but rebuilt by Herod, who called it Sebaste, in 
honor of Augustus ; Cttsarea, first called Turns Stratonices, a celebrated seaport, the 
residence of the Roman governors ; Joppa, a seaport south of Coesarea, where An- 
dromeda was delivered from a sea- monster by Perseus (P. II. ^ 122) ; Siehem, in the 
interior, the ancient capital, between the mountains Ebal and Gerizim; it was in later 
times called Neapolis; Lydda, called by the Greeks Diospolis; and Arimathea. 

Judaea was situated south of Samaria, between the Lake Asphaltites, or Dead 
Sea, and the Mediterranean. — The capital was Ilierosolyma (Jerusalem), which we 
shall notice panicularly in the next section. North-west from Jerusalem was Em» 
Moat or NieopoliSf where the Jews were defeated by Vespasian ; directly north was 
M<tkel; north-east was Jericho; south from Jerusalem was Bethlehem, the birthplace 
of Christ ; further south, Hdtron, where Abraham was buried ; still further, some- 
what to the west, Beersheba, often mentioned as the southern limit of the country of 
Israel ; south- west, Eleutheropolis, a very flourishing city in the time of Eusebius. 

( IflB b. Hier0g«lfwtat or Jerusalem, orif inaily belonged to the JebniUes, flrom whom it was 
ukcn bv David, who made it hii residence. The Arabians now call it El-Kuds, the Holy.— It is 
sitBated on a broad elevation, havinf higher hills all around it ; the ^0iiii( of Olive* on the east ; 
OQ the north a ridse extending from the Mt. of Olives and bending around to the west, at the 
dictaaceof more than a mile: on the west, hllli at a greater distance sloping gently, beyond a 
plaia ; on the south, the Hill of Evil Counsel ri«ing directly on the further side of the Valley of 

It is snToanded by walls presenting a stately appearance, of hewn stone, with towers and 
battlcsaeBts, of a height varying according to the ineqaalities in the ground, from twenty to fifty 
feet; In circumference about two and a half geographical miles. The mneint walh formed a 
Urg«r circuit of about three and a half geosraphical miles nccording to Josephus ; snd Jerusalem 
is laid to have been anciently fortified by tkr** walls ; but this statement must not be understood to 
mean that there were three walls around the whole city, one within another ; since the two 
laner walls were merely walls intersecting the city and Joining the outer wall ; the hill of Zion 
was firft of all enclosed within a wall : then Moriah, with Ophel, was added, and afterwards 
Akia, and a second wall wss extended from the old one so as to include these ; subsequently 
Bcaetha was annexed, and to protect this a third wall was constructed Joining the others. 

Of tbe eight former gates, only the four larger are now open : the Oat* of the Pillart or Da- 
■aaen Gate, on tbe north ; the Chi* of tM* PUgriau, or Bethlehem Gnte, on the west ; tbe Oate 
of Dtni, or Zinn Gate, on the south ; snd the OaU of the 7Vift««, or St. Stephen's Gste, on the 
CAst. The principal streets now run nearly at right angles to each other. 

Tbe sor&cc of the croond is diversified by five hills : the Isrgest is Zi<m, in tbe southern part, 
riciBf abraptiy from the Valley of Hinnom ; north of this and in the western part of the ciiy is 
.^fc^tt, separated from Zion by the valley of the Tyropmon ,- north-east from jfikraand east of the 
JP^mMMcuu Rale is BezetkA, in the north-western part of the city ; south-east from this and in the 
eastern pan of the city is JVerisJk, which, with Bezetha, rises from the Valley of Jehoshapbat ; 
»-'• .Th of Mortab, and at tbe south-eastern comer of the city, is Ophol : Bezetha, Moriah, and 
Cr>^ Bar be considered as paru of one ridge which extends to the south beyond the walls. 

TVse b'lUs axe closely encompassed on three sides by narrow valleys ; on the east the fmllof of 
J'h»0ha9kai ; on ih" west, tbe yaJle^ of Oikan, which is continued into thr Fs/ley of Hinnom on 
tse s>«tb : ai some disunce from tbe south-eastern corner of the city, the Valley of Jehoshapbat 
aad that of Hinnom are connerted. Tbe Brook Kidron is but the bed of a torrent which during 
the niDf of winter fl >ws throof h the Valley of Jehoshapbat to the sooth. The valley in which 
vas tbe bed of the ancient Tfrvpaon commences in tbe depression between Zion and Akra (near 
the west«ra or Hrbron or Betbkbem gate), and descending eastfrly bends to tbe south between 
Z->s&bj O^hel, and m<>ets with the other two valleys at tlieir common point of Junction. 

TV &^ Zi-tn was \hK part first occupied by David, and hence called " the city of David." 
f^'f tse T'rikem part of it is now within the walls ; much of the rest is literally **a ploughed 
^A'" » the son *i- western part U the present ciudel, the lower portions of the walls of which 
we pr-'^iiMT toe remaios of tbe ancient Tower of Btppiens.— On the summit of Akra is the church 
of tv H-. r^?-i'c&re. no the spot designated by doubtful tradition as bring the Oolgetka and 
t> lovy of t!»e }^ri?t ares.— Bezetha u mostly covered with low buildings or hovels, with no 
c*-Ti -..« :r«c«s of ntif ent ruins.— On Moriah, which at tbe first was apparently a mound *tf solid 
r> c '.le Ti'mT't •f ^■'■mvn. was built ; the surface of the rock being leveled for the purpose ; 
>*i '.%«i 'im-b^no*' wil • were erected from the base of the rock on the four sides, and the 
:* r<-is. s^veee S'fd in with e^nh or built up with vaults so as to make on tbe top a large 
*''^ V- 't %"rmtt tr.e Cmr* •/ lU Temple. To this tbe present area of the grand M<isque of 
•»' -' V »^t.riojrf t-' *4 ** C:-Haram-esb-8herif,** nearly if not wholly corresponds; being a 
'f. -r^'-r'ac« b^^; ,• *r t^* f^rmof a paralklosram, supp^trted by and within massive walls 
> ' -. '"■ :%* t'w*-r tt 'ui.d on ail sides: the lower portions of the walls are probably the 
**^ ■■•. "S '• •■^Ka t>e a'.<>*-f»i Temple rested ; as s^ems to be shown by some remains of an 
'' ""^^^ »rth "wr <ri tcp^-nH the Bndfe that formerly extrnd^*! from the Temple across the 
Ti- ^i*-* t a "t^'jn'-4 Xrttmt or portico on Mount Zion.^^In the northern psrt of tbe present 
t'*» ' '»► M *qto«. rX 4 ^-^ar was the fortress called tbe Tower of AmUmta, rendered menKirabie 
.? ->► 9"^ • Z»rv*> ' Hy Tno«, who captured the city, A. D- 70; at whieb tiaw the Temple 
*u V- fr.; otgiTjj^i i.} fire. Ibe Mosqne now oo Itt site was built by CMnar la Hie seventh 

Tie ukcm »b%k«a«ts de pe nd e d 1m water, as do the modern, chiefly on etsCrras ; alroosC 
T^r*^^ aartr mvm "»♦ or mm^ excavated ia the limestone rock oa which tbe city stands. 
immam oacom sjm auJ exist mukm tbe syacs mm^et the ana of the Tesnplc. Large opes 


reierrotra or tanki, or pools, were llkewlie conetructed In and around tbe city. The Uj^per p9tH 
and tbe Lavctr Pool ■till exist ; tbe former west of the city, in the Valley of Gihon ; tbe latter, 
OQ tbe sotttb-west, in tbe Valley of Hinnnm. Tbe Pool of Bathshtba^ tbe Pool of Heiekiak^ and 
the ^002 ofBetketda, are names fh^en to three reservoirs within tbe present walls : the latter is 
at tbe north-east corner of the Haram-esb-Sbertf ; but there is no evidence that it is the pool 
mentioned in the New Testament by tbe same name (Bfi&eoia), having five porches.— Tbe only 
FounUuno of living water now accessible are three; that now called tbe Well «/ JVaAcsuaA, pro- 
bably the En-Rogel of the Old Testament (Jo:»b. xv. 7, 8; xviii. 16), a deep well Just below tbe 
Jnnction of the valley of Hinnom with that of Jehoshapbat; the Fountain and Pool of £i/oaat, 
which is in tbe vallev of the Tyropceon, Just above itsjunction with the Vailevs of Binnom and 
Jehoshapbat; and the Fountain of the Virffin^ which is some distance from that point of Junc- 
tion, up tbe Valley of Jehoshapbat : the water of the latter is accessible only by descending 
sixteen stepe down an excavation in the solid rock; and an artificial subterranean passage 
extends from it through Mount Opbel to tbe Fountain of Biloam, winding so as to make tbe 
distance 1750 feet, by which the waters of Biloam proceed from the Fountain of Mary tbe Vir- 
gin.— A fountain is said to exist at the depth of seventy or eighty feet ttelow tbe area of the 
grand mosque, flowing by some artificial passage. 

An JSmtodueif supposed to be ancient, carries water acroei the Valley of Hinnom, around the 
sides of Mount Zion, and conveys It, as is supposed, to the Uaram-esh-Bberif, or area of the 

East of Moriah, on tbe rocky elevation Just beyond the Brook Ktdron, are the sepulchral 
monuments called the T^omb of JIbealom or JSbsalom*e Pillar (cf. P. III. ( 187. 5), and Tomb of 
ZocAsHm.— South-east of these, on the south-western declivity of ihe Mount of Olives, are tbe 
excavated sepulcbri^s called the Tombt of the PropheU.—Thoae called tbe Dombo of the Jmigee^ 
are further up the Valley of Jehoshapbat, rather west of north from the city.— Tbe remarkable 
excavations commonly called the Tombo ofthoKinge^ are al>out north from tbe city, on the nearer 
side of tbe valley : they arfe probably the celebrated sepulcher of tbe mother of Constantino, tbe 
Empress Helena, wbo, having embraced Cbristianltv, spent the latter part of her life at Jeru- 
salem, and died there at tbe age of eighty, about A. D. 335. 

Tb* atom oatliiw of tto Topography of Jcnwlen will be of ■errice to Ow itadMit ia icidiai tbe Seriptura, and ttw iatenKly 
latorwtiac atofy or tbe liege and deMnielm of tbe city by tbe Bonaoi.-8ee /im yfcia (cC P. V. § 848).— Aftiman, ae cited ( 811. H 

For failer dctaila aa to Ibe TDpognpby, wmF.Q. Crorm, Jcrwale^ in i>tck umd Ontha^ AmycfflpariM.— & JbAinoon, 

Biblical Bwairthei, u died « 171. Ia fot. Ui. ia a Aill liat of wofka on Mertine. Par detalh i«pectii« tbe 'Tnple, wHb Flaw, 

fcc, tee A PKdMus, Conwakwa, Jtc N. Tork, IB4a 8 fola. 8. widi aogratii^a.— Colmtf, Diet of tbe BiUe, Fn«iBeDti 24i- 
84aivol. ULp.3«& Charlert. ISiai 4 Tola. 4^Par Flaa of tbe Cbareb of tba Holy Sapalebra, &&, aee aho Colmct, vol. iii. p. l<i. 

^ 169 a. The southern district of Judaea was called Idumea, or the land of Edom ; 
the chief towns were Gera, Zoar, and Bozra at the foot of Mount Scir. But this dis- 
trict, or the principal part of it, is included, perhaps more properly, under Arabia Pe- 
traa (^ 171). — The sea-coast was called PhilislcBa, or the land of the Philistines, from 
whom the whole country is now called Palestine ; its chief towns were Gath, Ekron, 
Azotus or Ashdod, Ascalon, and Gaza. 

^ 169b. P erica is separated from the other nrovinces by the river Jordan. The 
chief towns were Ramoth-Gilead, in the land of the Gileadites ; Gadara^ on the tor- 
rent Hieromas, where the Christians were severely defeated by the Saracens; GauUm, 
a fortress of remarkable strength ] Gamala, near the Sea of Tiberias ; and Rabboth- 
Ammon, in the district Ammomtis, afterwards called Philadelphia. — The Jordan 
rises in Mount Hermon, and passing through the Sea of Tiberitu, falls into the lake 
Asphaltites, whence there is no exit for its waters. 

This lake Is supposed to occupy tbe situation of tbe cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. It has 
been said that, from its extreme saliness or other properties, it is destructive of animal and 
vegetable life, and that neither fish nor weeds are found in its waters. Dr. K. Robinoon, who 
visited the region in 1838, states that the water is intensely salt and bitter : but that trees and 
bushes grow by it ; no pestiferous vapor was perceived, and many birds were singing among 
the trees, and some flying over tbe waters. Bibl. Rcpoe. Apr. 1839, p. 419. 

^ 170. Mesopotamia was south of Armenia, between the rivers Tigris and Eu- 
phratea, whence it derives its name. Its chief towns were Nisibis, on a branch of the 
Tigris, the great bulwark of the Romans asainst the Parthiaiis ; Edesta, near Syria ; 
Sdeucia, now Bagdad, on the confluence of the Tigris with a branch of the Euphra- 
tes; and CarrhtB, called in Scripture Charran, for a time the residence of Abraiiam, 
and the scene of the miserable overthrow of Crassus. On the borders of Chaldsea 
were the plains of Curuuca, where Cyrus was slain by his brother Artaxerxes, and 
where the ten thousand Greeks commenced that retreat so memorable in history. 

Babylonia and Chaldaea were districts separate from Mesopotamia, Iving below it 
to the south-cast. Their chief town was Babylon, the most ancient and remarkable 
city of antiquity. 

BeluB, Its founder, commenced his building near the tower of Babel, which by profhne writers 
is called after bis name ; but to Semirarois, the widow of his descendant Ninus, the grandeur 
of Babylon is attributable. She enclosed the city with a wall of brick celbenied by bitumen, of 
almost Incredible dimensions, and ornamented it with one hundred brazen gates. The circuit 
of the city was said to have been more than sixty miles ; and so great was its length, that when 
Cyrus had captured one extremity of the city, the inhabitants of the other were ignorant of the 
event until the following morning.— The river Euphrates flowed through the city, and Cyrus 
having diverted the river into another channel, led his troops through the vacant bed, and sur- 
prised the Babylonians, who, with their monarch fielshnzzar, were at that moment celebrating 
a feast in honor of their gods, and consequently made but a feeble resistance.—The Cbatdcans 


were Mlebnted istronomen, but th«y debated tbe eeience by the ftdmiztore of Jndlcitl utro- 
logy, for wbkh perrenion of inleHect tbey were greatly celebrated. 

Ob Qm ippognphy nri niim of Bibyloa aad tiimewh, tm J. M. Xinmir, G«ofnpliical Manoir oo ftnlau—Avnidl, lltmuti 
m *• l^pofniiky of BtbjUtm. LamL l8l&~Jtefc, Mtmoit oa flibjioo, && LoniLISia^AtL M^oi, Mo^ uii. 386 ; No. uiU. 
lS^aM;lia.xzw. UB. 

East of the Tigris lay Asstria, now called Kurdistan from the Carduchi, a tribe 
that inhabited the northern part of the country; they are mentioned by Xenophon aa 
having opposed the retreat of tbe ten thousand ; they are supposed still to exist in the 
modem Koords, Tsrious tribes of whom occupy the mountains of this country, and 
who are geperally of a savage character. — ^Its chief towns, Ninu» or Nineven, fre- 
Quently mentionea in Scripmre ; the ruins of this celebrated city lie opposite the mo- 
dem ihTonU ; and Ariela^ near which is the village Gaugamela, where Alexander 
overturned the Persian empire, by the defeat of Darius. 

) 171. The only country of Asia remaining to be noticed is Arabia, which was the 
large peninsula between the Sinus Persieus (Persian GulOi and the iStitiw Arabieus 
(Red Sea). It was divided into three parts ; Deserta (desert), Fetrtsa (stony), and 
Fdix (happy). 

Arabia Deserta la^ between Syria and Chaldsa, and extended along the Sinus 
Persieus, — Arabia Felix, celebrated for its fertility, was in the southern part border- 
ing on the Sinus Arabieus and the ocean. The most remarkable among its inhabitants 
were the Sabai, who cultivated frankincense. Maeoraba was the name by which the 
Greeks knew Mecca, which is illustrious in the Mohammedan history ; here is the 
fiunoos building called Kaba or Kaaba, with the fabulous Uack stone of Gabriel. — 
Arabia Petroea was a smaller portion lying south of Judea and at the head of the 
Sinus Arabieus or Red Sea, which is here divided into two bays, the eastern called 
.Elanites Sinus, and the western Heroopolites Sinus, Between these bays or arms 
were the mountains Horeb and iSiiwit. On the eastern was the seaport Bereniee or 
Aaioneaber, the Ezion-Geber of Scripture. The most remarkable place was Petra 
(called 5e2a by the Hebrews), embosomed in rocky mountains just south of Judea, in 
tbe district called Iduwua. 

Tbe mine of Petra have been diecovered recently, and bave excited great Intereet from tbeir 
•triking pecoliaritiea (being entirely ezcavatione from ibe aolld rock), and from tbe evidence 
tbey famish of the flilfilment of prophecy. 

8Mlai»«k JewM7 to Anbte PMrm. Load. ISM. 2 vob a with 6S plain -Cf. Land. Quart. Bn. Vo. cx^i—Svtk Jmcr. 
a» hr Ju. tnr—AU. Apoitory, vol. is. p. iSL-Sl^AcM^ IkUmH of TntcK kc^E. BMnmm, BiMkil Hi—inhw la 
PiiartiMb Ml Sinai, ud Anbia FMnw, Boat. 1841. S vob. 8b 

Iht iilM nlM» aaa fawylrhi of Robiawa wnm to havo mttOtd Iba qaaalioa m to tho BKMatala oa which tha Tm Coannurf. 
■cak ««n gim hy God to Mom; thoviac ntiitetorily that it was aot tbe lomBit poinlad eat by Uadiliaa aador Iho naaM of 
SiaaiorJebrilMn, btrt aaolter aaMott a Uttla aortbHrart tnm it, bataniac to wbal la caltod BonL'Set Iba vary iatanrthi 
■rrnt. vol. L p. t7-«ia 

Tba nUbt Had SmmiHe tmoi^ioiu, wbidi haaa aH»c(ad tba aHa1io« of t»awlaw, hi aa aahaawa aad pacaliar alphabat, hata 
l^dy baaa datitibwail by Jay, of Laipaie.-ao> SaMiiaaw, toU L p. 188^ 888.— Oiy, ia tbo Trantati. qf flto Soyal Sac •/Lttmm' 
hm^wLiiL Laad.iaaB. 

% 172. The Asiatic Islands were not very important, except those in the Mare 
^gaeum already named (^ 147). The principal other in the Mediterranean was C y- 
prns, sacred to Venus; the chief towns of which were Paphost where stood tne 
celebrated temple of Venus, infamous for the debauchery and prostitution it sanc- 
tioned ; Citium, the birthplace of Zeno, the Stoic, on the west coast ; Salamis (Fama- 
ffusta), built by Teucer, on the east ; Lapethu$t Arsinog, and Soli, in the north ; and 
Tamassus, celebrated for its cooper- mines, in the interior. — The other islands were 
Prooonnesus (Marmora), in the ProporUis; TapnAane (Ceylon), and Jabadi (Sumatra), 
in tbe Indian ocean. 


% 173. The name Africa was applied strictly and properly by ancient i^ „ . 
at least until the time of Ptolemy, to a small part of that vast peninsula oT the eastern 
continent which it now designates ; and by them Egypt was reckoned among the 
Asiatic kingdoms. But we here use the term as including all that was known to the 
ancients of that whole country. We shall consider it under the following divisions ; 
JP^dTrrvs, or Egypt, .Sthiopia, Libya, Africa Propria, Nitxidia, Mauritania, 
and Africa Interior. 

% 174. The general boundaries of ^oTPTrs were the Mediterranean on the north, 
Svria and the Sinus Arabieus on the east, Ethiopia on the south, and Lybia on the 
west. The limit between it and Syria was the Torrens JEgypti, or river of Egypt as 
called in the Bible, which flowed into the arm of the sea call'ed Pahis Sitbonis. The 

■ 3 


limit between Egypt and Lybia on the west was the great declivitv and narrow mm 
termed Catabat/unos (<Qrafi^iidi). Its southern limit was the smaller cataract of the 

One of the most striking features of Egypt was its river, JV»7ii». This has two prin- 
cipal sources; the eastern rising in the mountains of the country now called Abys- 
sinia, and the western in the Luna MonteSt or Mountain* of the Moon. Having passed 
through the ancient Ethiopia, it flows through the whole length of Egypt to the Medi- 
terranean ; not receiving a single tributary for the last 1000 miles of its course, and at 
last dividing into two great arms and forming the triangular island called Delta from 
its shape. It had seven mouths ; the most western was the Ostium Canopicum ; the 
others in their order proceeding towards the east, were the Balbytinum, Sebenpiti- 
cum, Phatnicum, Mendesium, Taniticum, and Pelusiacum. — Its annual inundations 
were the great cause of fertility, and reservoirs and canals were formed in great num- 
bers to convey the water over the whole country ; where the land was too high to 
allow canals to convey it, pumps were used for raising the water ; almost every vil- 
lage, it is said, had its cansi, although there were in the narrow valley of Egypt many 
thousand ri'ies and villages. 

% 175. There were three principal divisions of Egypt ; the northern part on the Me- 
diterranean was called JEgyptu$ Inferior; the southern part on the confines of Ethio- 
pia was JEgypfu* Superior or Thehais; and the portion between these, HepUxnamiM.-^ 
The capital of Lower Egypt was Alexandria, the great mart of Indian merchandize ; 
during the middle ages, caravans continually passed from thence to Aninoe (Suez), 
on the Red Sea, whence goods were conveyed by sea to India. In front of the har- 
bor was an island named Pharo§, on which a celebrated lighthouse was built ; south 
of the city was the lake Mareotis, in the vicinity of which the best Egyptian wine was 
made. In Alexandria was the celebrated library, said to have been burned by the 
Saracens. (Cf. P. IV. ^ 76). — In the interior of the Delta was Sot», the ancient capi- 
tal, remarkable for its numerous temples. Between the Delta and Sinus Arabicus 
were Heroopoli», the city of the shepherd kings ; and Onion, founded by a colony of 
Jews, who fled hither under their high-priest Onias, from the cruelties of Antiochus, 
and, by the permission of Ptolemy, buih a city and temple. 

Id Lower Egypft, m«I of the IMta, wu the lonrf of OatAm, aeeoriinf to the Tie** of (be beil Modva mhon.— Ct X. AdMuor, 
aathrExodaeorthetarMlUa,acJiU.Apof.vaLIL744. Alt, B wff hw, foL L 

% 176. In the middle portion or Heptanomis, one of the chief places was Memphif, 
near the spot where Grand Cairo now stands; it was the ancient metropolis of all 
Egypt ; in its vicinity are the stupendous pyramids. Artinoi south-west of Memphis 
was an important place ; near this was this famous lake Marig, said to have been exca- 
vated by order of^an Egyptian king as a reservoir to contain the waters of the Nile 
conveyed into it bjr a great canal, now the lake Birket-el-Kurun, and believed to have 
been wholly or chiefly the work of nature ; at the southern end of this lake was the 
still more celebrated Labyrinth.— Oxyrynr*M« was a considerable place, said to have 
derived its name from a stiarp-nosed hsn m^i pvyxos) worshiped by the inhabitants. — 
In Upper Egypt, the most important place was Thebes, which gave the name of Thehai* to 
this division ; called also by the Greeks Diospolis, and Hecatompyloe ; although de- 
stroyed by Cambyses 500 years before Christ, its ruins still excite admiration, occupjring 
a space of 27 miles in circumference, including the modem Kamak, Luxor, and other 
villages; near it was the famous statue of Memnon. — Tentyra (Donderah). was north 
of Thebes, and also presents interesting ruins ; especially the large temple of Isis, 
from the ceiling of which was taken the famous Zodiac transported to France and 
made the subject of much speculation (cf. Amer. Quart. Rev. vol. iv).— Between 
Thebes and Tentyra, nearer the former and on the eastern side of the Nile, was Cop- 
tog; from this place a road was constructed by Ptolemy Philadelphus across the desert 
to Berenice on the Sinns Arabicus. Considerably to tno south of Thebes was Omfn, 
made notorious by Juvenal (Sat xv.) for its quarrels with Tentyra respecting the wor- 
ship of the crocodile. Syene was the extreme town on the borders of Ethiopia ; the 
place of Juvenal's exile ; where also was the well sunk to mark the summer solstice, its 
bottom being then illumined by the vertical rays of the sun directly perpendicular over 
it. Not far fixim Syene was the island on which Elephantine stood, of which interest- 
ing ruins still remain. Near Syene was also the Mofis Basaniles, mountains of touch- 
stone, from which the Eg^'ptians used to make ornamentaUvases. — South of Syene 
were the Cataracts of the Nile ; mighty terraces of red granite {Syenite) cross the bed 
of the river, and throw its waters into an impetuous and foaming torrent. In this region 
were the ouarries whence the vast obelisks and colossal statues and blocks of the Egyp- 
tian temples were taken. There were three places on the Sinus Arabicus, wruch 
should be mentioned ; Berenice, in the southern extremity of Eeypt ; Arsinoi (now 
Suez), at the head of the Sinus Heroopolites, the western arm of the Red Sea; and 
Myosharmus, called also Portus Veneris, midway between them ; they were commercial 
places, goods being transported from them to the Nile. A canal, called Fossa 7Vq;ani, 
connected Arsinoe with tnat river. 



p. I. AFBfCJk. .nVBM^A. 

K CB^nt : vR «aa ^ m-w 's««x a a- :irT. 'i^ ?e 

:fe MSBt »a(w« «« rw J ^-^'Jf Om 9zjty*'^xt os^ ui* t»»; cc«-.:2i«s 
r JV'fi>^<9 x£ AjEXiaiCra. xar Ftmavf's Ft-ttr. ajsh it AjexaoxsrtM^ Am 

E tarr. bv Lo«s Pii^xpe. — 2. Ts* rt — ifi rsrsAad :y ^» Gs«c»f aoaarf u« 

v«MEza. T^er wxm ijuub* x t^.Tzm. «r Gze. vbt Csr» mac tte aocaHX 

■Bs. sad K L'tfc.LU e a - I? awri <c G3«l Tasae «c Ga* k« tM zijse r«je- 

Oae It "^nc be Ve«r r^w* i-xs. :2tf carb?«c •..j.a.f .c w^^i-i. w« lajw *iwic:i> 

Ci. P. IV. I 231. r IL's ih. J —3. tVir«««. T«s« 
I :«-»^«r r»artaL_ T^pt ■» ^nzif at «rt>K»I z>.kv!«: Z'xr. :ae bcec ?e^ 
V Ti-Tif*. wt a Tiiaer r»?«r cur; Gmrrutt- a "rar: c* rvoks k li* ixe 
of t^ iMOMBCaaB vest st :h» N Je. Tbr vic*?« are ex-atraonf -^ :*» ncfts. Kid *^r-i>*^f 

■■■cvaiB B a L < gLiaj ea« r=srr- V-v ^e«raf< aa :y> ti - .Tvg ix '^r and : «cvr ibeae was 
■a B^Haae pje at lywaair ? t i :. i. xii» S^cse rxss 3f i2j« K^jLiig e i 
I ITT ksw keea d a t uig ' wL — 4. '.'mmmi mm^ii cW ftcfvaL f.*Tie 
■■I ihlf «f tbe a>>»BB: ■■■..ijE*a of •-» -c^ji i P. fL * 1 IT b j 
laaAs. A acfT ceaecraSBd oticohb s t^i: cc'S'src.^ o-ifd aa srara? cf Mes-^XL tL 
r. JL S TA f . IV. S l€9 2. 4 231- i — T» EcT^aa BaDxaaeats are c«yiYx«<i w-i 

g»^r.ia-ta*.i>taai.iaa.a.tMi i i- A fc^^i<. ff i ji jtaw-»pim«jLyh*r»K j^ii i .i^i.<^.g5B> 

% ITS. ^Taiona waa tka aaaM ctvb br tba 9a:i-*rr9 tctt aidf £:£:«> » tb« ctxxs- 
twf lyias aa«k of Ecrpc ; tbe modetrs coosivs ot N -^« azd Arinsarja par-Art^jirlr 
were iih a ifd — Vnaaa aacrr^sed rrbes are rFpnf9e—«*i as dwt* -^ jfc nt in arorn: 
faaea: aa the coast were zbt Tnaff^^vf^. f^d to r-bi::: cares of rbe earh. It sv^cas 
aiB0 u> kave u a aiiiw! iobabciaass tqxi.\r adTa->r«i =: re£->er3ec: v-.-h 'b/e Efrpdarii. 

TW HMBt JBBportaiB piaoea wcte Xapaia. Meroe. Acxanse. aad Adi-^s^-^Amswae 
(Anaa* vaa oa oae of the aovces of tbe AsSmbm'^ms Ta>rarze\ '.be^ ea9$«ni bnacii of 
1^ NBeu Ita raiaa aoH ezac "■ In one sqaare. Brace k<g'^ 40 oSp^^ks. e»rii imned 
«f a aaeSe piaee of graaere. wrb ars' :' - n e a and Hs»rr:?->xai. ba: no j^r^e'Tph-*-^ One 
of the obefiaks araa 60 feet Ii:z*l" — Htre wa.< i^yz-^ :k# n>x:uxer.t u«-i..T ca^.lei the 
Imaer^mm ^ Armm fH. P. IV. $ ?» 5. .— J^r:i* Arkio was on a bar of the Sinas 
Aiabeeaa; iBvia^ aoaK eelebrrr from two ie«i-r7r'*r» »h*»e tousd ci. P. IV. 4 $:i 
5 . — 3f«T«r waa oo or near the Nile soc-h ot its j-i-v-Km wi-h »he .\3fa>?ras; aear the 
aaiifau Skemdf. aa ia wif po wed . It wm« ''■^ nn-il of a karsre tract bet w ^ n these 
man ealJed br the aaaie name, and w«s re'^^r%'t^ -n atrirn: r.mea, bes-e the crand 
eaipui i aia of the caravan trad^ be f ^t ui E**;:-:*-* ard Ervp* and d>e nonfi o( Africa. 
The it-awaw of 'err^'^?* and other e^ -:r<^ of sa-yisr-^ne *-!.: zntrk rs «i:e. — ^^o^a araa 
r aonh or >ywer down oo the Nile, and was cejt in rank to Meroe. 

: f^MB. C^B ^r. iT. tHI.».M*i ■■lytfCiWiiH^-CLlj^Q^Afc. 

fa I ^i^iA.w>>. 

% 179. Uader Lrara we inciode the wix>ie eit«rt from JErwvtwt on the east to the 
Sjrtia Jfiaar (Guix of C^^es;. together wnh an tndednite portioo go the aoaih. Tha 


term was used by the ancient poets to signify Africa in general. In its strict and most 
limited sense, it included only the region between Egypt and the Syrtis Major (Gulf 
of Sidra). — In the latter sense, it comprised on the coast only the two distncts Mar- 
tnarica and Cyrenaica. We include under Libya also the portion farther west called 
Hegio Syrticat from the two Syrtet on the coast already named. 

Marmarica was on the east nearest to Egypt. The inhabitants were said to 
possess some secret charm against the poison of serpents; some of them, named 
jPaylli, made it their profession to heal such as had been bitten, by sucking the venom 
out of the wound. In an Oasis, now El Wah^ south of Marmarica, stocM the cele- 
brated temple of Jupiter Ammon (P. III. ^ 71), and near it the founiain of the tirn, 
whose waters were said to be warm in the morning, cool at noon, hot in the evening, 
and scalding at midnight. Alexander, after having encountered great difficulties, suc- 
ceeded in visiting this oracle, and was hailed by the priest as son of Jupiter. 

•** Belxonl, prevloaily to bis leavinf Egypt, made a tour to El Wah (tkt hu9ke*\ the northern 
OaiU. He found, aa Hornemann had, the tops of the bills of the deeert encrusted with salt, and 
wells of sweet water rising out of a surface overspread with masses of salt, as Herodotus related 
two-and-twenty centuries aso. He found also the remains of what has been considered aa the 
temple of Jupiter Ammon ; but the natives were as Jealous and as unwilling to let him see this 
'work of the infidels,' as Hornemann had found them to be. The fine rivulet of sweet water, 
whose source this traveler describes ss being in a grove of date trees, and which Brown was told 
by the people, was sometimes cold and sometimes warm, was also visited by Belxoni ; who says 
be proved the truth of what is stated by Herodotus, that this spring is warm in the mornings and 
evenings, much more so at midnight, and cold in the middle of the day. Had Mr. Belxonl pos- 
sessed a thermometer, he would have found that it was the temperature of the air which had 
changed, while that of the founuln of the sun remained the nmt.'*—Lond. Quart Rtv. xzilL S5. 

Cyrenaica, or Fentasoli* (Barca), lay between Marmarica and the Syrtis Major, 
or altars of the Philieni. It contained five cities ; Cyrrite, founded by a Greek colony, 
the birthplace of the philosopher Cameades ; ApoUonia, a celebrated seaport ; FtoU- 
xnau, at first called Barce ; Artinoif and Berenice or Hegperia, near which were the 
gardens of the Heaperidea, famous for their golden apples, and the residence of the 
Gordons, so celebrated in fable. (Cf. P. II. ^ 115. Ed, Bev. No. 95, p. 228).— West 
of this was Regie S y r t i c a, also called, from its three cities, Tripolitana( Tripoli) ; 
its cities were Lepti$, called major, to distinguish it from a town of the same name 
near Carthage ; CEa, the present city of TripoU ; and Sabrata, a Roman colony; and 
TygdruM, now Elgem. A people called by nomer the Lotophagi dwelt on this coast ; 
he says that they fed on the lotos, a fruit so delicious, that whoever tasted it imme- 
diately forgot his native country. On the coast were the Syries, two dangerous quick- 
sands, which frequently proved fatal to hapless mariners ; here, also, was the lake 
Trilonis, sacred to Minerva. 

** There are interesting ancient remains In these regions, particularly at Lepfu and Cyrms.— Tbe 
situation of Cyrene is described as exceedingly beautiful.— ** It Is built on the edge of a range 
of hills, rising about 800 feet above a fine sweep of high table land, forming the summit of a 
lower chnin, to which it descends by a series of terraces. The elevation of the lower chain may 
be eotimated at 1000 feet ; so that Cyrene stands about 1800 feet above the level of the sea, of 
which it commands an extensive view over the table land, which, extending east and west as 
far as the eye can reach, utretches about five miles to the northward, and then descends abruptly 
to the coast. Advantoge has been taken of the natural terraces, to shape the ledges into rnada 
leading along the face of the mountain, and communicating in some instances by narrow flights 
of steps cut in the rock. These roads, which may be supposed to have been the favorite drives 
of the citizens of Cyrene, are very plainly indented with the marks of chariot wheels, deep fur- 
rowing the smooth, stony surface. The rock, in most instances rising perpendicularly from these 
galleries, has been excavated into innumerable tombs, generally adorned with architectural 
facades. The outer sides of the roads, where they descended from one range to another, were 
ornamented with sarcophasi and monumental tombs ; and the whole sloping space between the 
palleries was filled up with similar structures. These, as well as the excavated tombs, exhibit 
verv superior taste and execution. In two instances, a simple sarcophagus of white marble, 
ornamented with flowers and figures in relief of exquisite workmanship, was found in a large 
excavation. In several of the excavated tombs were discovered remains of paintings, repre- 
senting historical, allegorical, and psstoral subjects, executed In the manner of those of Hereu- 
lanenm and Pompeii. (Cf. P. IV. ( 220).— In the region of Cyrenaica are several caverns con- 
taining stalactites, presenting of course various fantastic shapes. It has been supposed that 
this fact, together with the existence of the ruins and excavations in the vicinity of Cyrene, may 
have given rif>e to the story of the petrified city, of which, under the name of /Zoe 5cm, marvelous 
accounts have been related to travelers in Africa." 

SMJIToArnlVaMfar.— BeacTliy'i TVncb. 

At 7)f8drv$ are still found ruins of Roman strnctures ; particularly of a spacious amphitheatre, 
" consisting formerly of four rows of columns in tiers one above another, and sixty-four arcades.*' 
The inner area is ssid to be 300 feet in length and 900 in breadth ; and the whole circumference 
1570 feet ; the height is estimated to have been at least 105 feet. The upper tier of columns is 
nearly fallen ; the three lower are preserved. 

Sm Rav. C. r. Aoobfi Diary. A dnwinf b flTeii ia Tht Anny Jlfiif ottiM, Jan. IS, ISM. 

^ 180. Next to TripoUtana was the province of Africa Propria, of which the capi- 
tal was Carthago. Tnis city was founded by a Tyrian colony, led by queen Dido, and 
by its extensive commerce became one of the most opulent cities oi antiquity. Its 
citadel was called Byrsa, because it was said that Dido, on coming here, purchased 


I grmmd as she could encompaas with a 0ipoa, or hide, and then, having cut 
the hide into atripe, took in the apace originally covered by the city. 

GwtlMfa li inoioruliMd by poets and hlatorlaDi on account of the three ware which it sus- 
ttlaeil a^^net the Romans. The last of these wars resulted in the total destruction of the city 
by Scipio ACricanos the yonnf er, B. C. 146. The city is said to have been above twenty miles 
ia dicunfinvBce ; It being set on flre by the Romans, the conflagration lasted seventeen days. » 
A new city was bnilt by the emperor Augustus at a small disunce from the site of the ancient. 
The new Oarthafe was taken from the Koroans by Oenseric, A. D. 439, and for more than a een- 
tary afterwards was the capital of the Vandal empire in Africa. It was Anally destroyed by the 
Sancens towards the end of the seventh century. A single aqueduct is said to be the chief trace 
of It fooad ia modem times. 

The other remarkable towns in this district were Tunet or Tuneta (Tunis), where 
Regulus was defeated and taken prisoner ; Clupea, near the ProtnofUcrium Mereurii 
(Cape Bona); Adrumetum; TkapsuSt where CaBsar defeated Scipio and Juba; and 
Ctiea, where Cato the younger slew himself; near Utica was the river Bagradat, 
where Regulus slew an enormous 8eri>ent, that had destroyed many of his aoldiers. 

^181. NuMiniA was at one time divided into the kingdom of the Massyli, ruled by 
MiswnisMt and that of the Masassvli, under the government of Syphaz ; but after 
the third Punic war, they were united into one kingdom under Massimssa. The capi- 
tal was Certa. The principal towns on the sea-coast were Tabraca, remarkable for 
its groves ; Hippo Jie^ius, near the small river Rubricatui, the episcopal seat of Saint 
Augustine ; ana Suswade. In the interior were Vaga; Sicca; and Zamat where Han- 
nibal was defeated by Scipio. On the confines of tne desert were Thala and Capga. 

S 182. MAiniiTAiriA was separated from Numidia by the river Ampsagas. — Its 
chief towns were Casareot whence the eastern part was called CsBsariensis; and 
TmgtM (Tangiers), from which the western received the name Tin^itana. This 
country extended from the river AmpeagoM, separating it from Numidia, to some dis- 
tanee oa the Atlantic coast. The Komans, after theu* conquest over these regions, 
planted in them numerous colonies, and constructed fortresses and roads, of which 
some traces yet remain. The most southern Roman settlement was that called £x- 
flanuio ad Mereurium, on the coast of the Atlandc. The waters west of this terri- 
tory were named OceanMM AUanticuSi from the chain of mountains called Atlas, 
wluch bounded Mauritania on the south, and terminated at two different points on 
tHe coast, the northern ridge being termed AtloM Minor, and the southern Atlat 
Major. — Mana Abyla was the elevated summit near the strait connecting the Medi- 
terranean and the Atlantic. This and Calpe on the European side formed the fabled 
pillars of HeretUes iffereuli» Columna). 

S 183. All the remaining countries of the land may be included under Africa In- 
taioK, to which it is impossible to assign any definite boundaries.— The Getuli, and 
Gaiaouuites, and other tribes, are represented as dwelling within it. The Nigriua 
were placed about the river Niger. The Great Desert was called Deserta Libya /n- 

teriorig. ^On the coast west of this were the lusulm FortunaUe; called also Cana- 

ne, from the number of large dogs, as some suppose, found upon them, and thence 
their modem name Canaries. — South of these were the InsuUe Hetperidum, the mo- 
dem Cape Verd ielande, on which some have placed the gardens of the Hesperides 
ict ^ 179). — West of this coast the ancients also placed the island Atlantis, said to 
have existed once, and to have been afterwards submerged in the ocean. It was re- 
presented as larger than Asia and Africa, and as very fertile and powerful. 

Bome have considered the whole account of Atlantis as a mere fkble ; others have conjectured 
that the Canaries, Madeira Isles, and Azores, once formed parts of a vast island thus described ; 
•Bd others bave maintained that the land referred to must have been the continent of America. 

IW Itfkr upoioa itaHiatatiied a •■ Eaiy aolilM a fbllowt: An JUtmft to atuta tkat Jtmriet nmui U kmnen to Vm 
■linii^ H W a* ^mmiimn DngtiOmmn, FMor of % Cknrtb is Borion. Ila•fOl^ New Ei«luil, MIX:CLXZIIL-5oib« bin 

m^/mA ^ iMi akrf wm •UmlmA to the Nthtni repoat ; S«flly, Lrttf mt PAflMUd« <■ PlOia, fcc F&tm, 1779. I. 

IH JUb.Sb«AO««npkr.— Sory rfc SL Vmemt, Eami nr l^ottoM Attutida. Pw. 1804. 4.— Tba ucmt ^Uxj k |iT« in 



divided into five provinces, Comagene, Scleucis, Coelo- Syria, Phcenicia, and Judea, 
or Palestine. 

The principal city ofComagene was SamoaatOt on the Euphrates, the birthplace 
of Lucian. — In Seleucis, or Syria Propria, were Hierapolis, the city of the Syrian 
goddess Aslarte (cf. P. II. ^ 48), on the Euphrates ; Beroea, previously Chalybon (now 
Aleppo), on the Chalcis, flowing into a small lake; AntiocJiia, where Christians first 
received their name, on the river Orontef; near it Daphne^ with its delightful grove 
sacred to Apollo; Apamea (Faniieh), higher up the Orontes, which rising in the ele- 
vated regions on the eastern side of Lioanus, flows by a north-west course to the 
Mediterranean ; still further up, Etnesa, the city of Heliogabalus, the worst of the 
Roman emperors ; and "on the opposite side of the Orontes," near the limits of this 
province, Hdiapoli» (Balbec), sacred to the Sun, whose magnificent ruins still attract 

FiDBi tb* itep of Sfria ueompanyinc Robiiuon^i Baararehci, Balbee appcsn to be oo fte Leonttii—'* JLataag fbm dldn which 
an cnamented bf Gnek and orientil Dtmea in the geofrapby of Sjrrta, we nxf dwlinfuiah EnMM or Hemi, ud Hetiopolii or B«l> 
bee. Under the laat of tbe Ccan, Ibey were •tronc and popalooe ; the torrrU glittered fiani afar j an ample apace wae oovend 
wi'b public and priTate builditupi ; aad the eitiaaa were ilioetrious bjr their ipirit, or at leaal bjr their pride ; bjr tbeir ricbea, or at 
Icait by tbeir luxury. In the day* of paKaaim, both EmcM and Hcliopotis were addicted to the wonhip of BaaU or the nn ; but 
the decline of tbeir enperatilidB and tpleDdor hat been marked by a Mogular variety of f.jrtUBe. Not a «eali|e remaiM of the temple 
of Cnicm, which wai eqaallod ip poetic ilyte to the mmmita of moont Libanui ; while the mint of Balbee, i nvitible to the writers 
of aatiqiiity, excite the evrioeily and wooder of the European traveler. The measure of the temple it two hanJred feet in length, 
And one hundred in brmdth : the fraal la adorned with a double portico of eight columai ; foortrtn may bo eonnled on eithnr atde i 
and eneb oolamn, lbrty*fiv« feet in height, b eompoaed of three maay blocki of martile. The proportiom and ornafflenli of tba 
Corinthian order ezprm the architecture of the Oreeke."— See the view given io Plate VU.— & ITood, Rnina of Balbee. Load. 
1T6T. UL-C. B. Ematt, Traveb in Anetria, Rnmia, and Turkey. Loud. 1838. 2 vola. & 

Coslo-Syria was so named because it lay between the two parallel chains of 
mountains, Libnnus and Anti-Lvbanus: and the name is sometimes applied so as to 
include the valley of the Orontes, ana also the whole valley of the LeonteSt which 
rises near the western sources of the Orontes, and flows by a south-western course 
to the Mediterranean. But it is limited, in our division, to the upper part of the latter 
valley, north of mount Hiermort, the principal peak of Anti-Libanuf ; including also 
another valley on the east (now called Gouteh Demcsk, or Orchard of Damascus), 
watered by the rivers ChrysorrhouB (Pharphar) and Ahana^ flowing into a large lake 
below Damaxcut, which was the chief town of the province. — The territory east and 
north-east of these valleys as far as the Euphrates, is mentioned in connection both 
with Seleucis and with CcBlo-Syria; but more commonly under the general name of 
Syria; some places in it, on the Euphrates, should be mentioned; as Thapsacus 
(El-Der), the celebrated ford, nassed by Cyrus in his expedition against Artaxerxes, 
by Darius after his defeat by Alexander at Issus, and by Alexander in pursuit of Da- 
rius ; and Orouroa (Gorur), fixed by Pompey as the boundary of the Roman empire 
when he reduced Syria to a province ; but the chief place in this extensive region was 
Palmyra, or " Tadmor in the desert," said to have been built by Solomon, the resi- 
dence of LfOnginus (cf. P. V. ^ 124), and of Zenobia, who so bravply defied the em- 
peror Aurelian ; it is yet marked by celebrated architectural ruins. 

On the rain of Falmyn, mo R. Wood, as cited P. IV. \ (43. S.-Tbe Mtdtm TraodUr.-Jrbg and ironffai, TisveU in EgypU 
^yria,ac Lend. 1822. S. 

Phcenicia contained the cities of TyniB (Tyre) and Sidon^ famous for their exten- 
sive commerce. The siege of Tyre *by Alexander is celebrated for the obstinate 
defence made by the besieged, ana the unconquerable perseverance of the besiegers. 
Betytus (Beirut), north of Sidon, was the seat of a distmguished school for the study 
of law in the age of Justinian. 

Beirut has been br levcral yean a very ioteresling miwionary rtation. In He vicinity, on moont Letanon, dwdl th« Mammta 
and the Dnoea,— Sea /oiecU'f Rraeaichek— JIf ittionary Htraid^ tmn (be year 1(03, ptmiau— Bond?! Memoir of Pifny Fiak. 

^ 167. Judiea, or Palsestina, is called in Scripture the land of Canaan, of Israel, 
and of Judah. It was at first divided among the twelve tribes ; it was afterwards 
separated into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah ; and finally the Romans divided it 
into four regions, Galilaea, Samaria, Judsa Propria, and Peroea or Transfluviona, the 
country beyond Jordan. 

Galilaea was again subdivided into Inferior, chiefly inhabited by Jews; and Su- 
perior, which, from its proximity to Coelo-Syria, was called Galilee of the Gentiles. — 
The chief towns of Upper Galilee were CeBsarea Phiiippi, so called to distinguish it 
from another town of the same name in this province ; its origiiial name was Laish, 
afterwards changed to Paneos, and finally called Cssarea Philippi, by Herod's eon 
Philip ; Gahara and Jotoonta, bravely defended by the historian Josephus, when be- 
sieged by Vespasian. The principal cities in Lower Galilee were Ace, or PtoUmau 
(Acre), memorable for its siege bv Richard CoBur de Lion in the time of the Crusades; 
Can(B ; Semikoris, afterwards called Dio Caisarea ; Nazareth and Jezreel. — A large 
lake in Galilee was called the Sea of Tiberiaa or Gennesareth ; at its northern ex- 
tremity was Chorazin; at the western side were Capemnum, Ttheriaa, and Bethsaida; 
on the opposite side was Gadara. — The chief mountains of Galilee were Carmel and 



..•A_Ji_ _Jl. 

/\, ^^ 

- ;? -iJ u. 


It4Ayriu9 or Tahor^ the scene of our Lord's transfiguration. — Between Galilee and 
Samaria stood Bethsan, the chief of the ten confederate cities called DecapoliSf which, 
dreading the power of the Jews, entered into a confederacy against the Asmonean 
princes, who then governed Judea. 

^ 168 a. Samaria lay south of GaHlee. Its chief towns were Samaria, the capital, 
destroyed by the Asmonean princes, but rebuilt by Herod, who called it Sebaste, in 
honor of Augustus; Cmtarea, first called Tiirn> Stralonices, a celebrated seaport, the 
residence ol the Roman governors; Joppa, a seaport south of Coesarea, where An- 
dromeda was delivered from a sea-monster by Perseus (P. II. ^ 122) ; Siekem, in the 
intexior, the ancient capital, between the mountains £bal and Gerizim ; it was in later 
times called NeapolU; Lydda, called by the Greeks Diotpolia; and Arimathea. 

Judaea was situated south of Samaria, between the Lake Asphaltites, or Dead 
Sea, and the Mediterranean. — The capital was Hierotolyma (Jerusalem), which we 
shall notice particularly in the next section. North-west from Jerusalem was Em- 
moMM or Nieopolis, where the Jews were defeated by Vespasian ; directly north was 
Bethel; north-east was Jericho; south from Jerusalem was Bethlehem, the birthplace 
of Christ ; further south, HAron, where Abraham was buried ; still further, some- 
what to the west, Beerttheba, often mentioned as the southern limit of the country of 
Israel ; south-west, Eleutheropolis, a very flourishing city in the time of Eusebius. 

1 10S b. HuroMlfWiat or Jeruulein, originally belonged to the Jebntltei, fVom whom It was 
Ukea by David, who made it hit residence. The Arabiant now call it El-Kmdts the Holy.— It Is 
situated on a broad elevation, having higher hilla all around It s the Mount of Olwea on the east ; 
on the north a rldre extending from the Mt. of Olives and bending around to the weit, at the 
distance of more than a mile : on the west, hills at a greater distance sloping gently, beyond a 

Bain ; on the south, the Hill of Evil Counsel rising directly on the further side of the Valley of 

Il is surrounded by walls presenting a stately appearance, of hewn stone, with towers and 
battlements, of a height varying according to the inequalities in the ground, (Vom twenty to fifty 
feet; in circumference about two and a half geographical miles. The anetenC waUo formed a 
larger circuit of about three and a half geographical miles nccordingto Jonepbus ; and Jerusalem 
is said to have been anciently fortified by ihr— walls ; but this statement must not be understood to 
niaan that there were three walls around the whole city, one within another ; since the two 
Inner walls were merely walls Intersecting the city and Joining the outer wall ; the hill of Zton 
was first of all enclosed within a wall : then Moriah, with Ophel, was added, and afterwards 
Akra, and a second wall was et tended from the old one so as to Include these ; subsequently 
Beaetha was annexed, and to protect this a third wall was constructed joining the others. 

Of the eight former gates, only the four larger are now open : the OaU of the Pillar, or Da- 
■Baacus Gate, on tlie north ; the Oafs of Uu Pilgrtmo, or Bethlehem Gate, on the west ; the Oato 
of Dmvidt or Zion Gate, on the south ; and the OaU of the Tribes, or St. Stephen's Gate, on the 
east. The principal streets now run nearly at right angles to each other. 

The sorfbce of the ground is diversified by five hills : the largest is Zion, In the southern part, 
rising abruptly from the Valley of Hinnoro ; north of this and in the western part of the city Is 
^kra, separated from Zion by the valley of the Tyropoeon ; north-east from Jlkraand east of the 
Dtmascos Gate Is Sezetka, in the north-western part of the city ; south-east from this and in the 
eastern part of the city is Moriah, which, with Bezetha, rises from the Valley of Jehoshaphat ; 
south of Moriah, and at the south-eastern corner of the city, is Opkel : Bezetha, Moriah, and 
Ophel may be considered as parts of one ridge which extends to the south beyond the walls. 

Tbese hills are closely encompassed on three sides by narrow valleys ; on the east the Falley nf 
Jehookaphmt ; on the west, the Falley of Oihon, which is continued Into the Vallejf of Hinnom on 
the south : at some disunce from the south-eastern corner of the city, the Valley of Jehoshaphat 
and that of Hinnom are connected. The Brook Kidron is but the bed of a torrent which during 
the rains of winter flows through the Valley of Jehoshaphat to the south. The valley in which 
was tbe bed of the ancient Tpropaon commences In the depression between Zion and Akra (near 
the western or Hebron or Bethlehem gate), and descending eaitfirly bends to the south between 
Zion and Ophel, and meets with the other two valleys at their common point of Junction. 

The hill Zion was the part first occupied by David, and hence called " the city of David.** 
Only the northern part of it Is now within the walls ; much of the rest Is literally **a ploughed 
field;'* on the north-western part Is the present citadel, the lower portions of the walls of which 
are probably tbe remains of the ancient Tower of Hippieme.—On the summit of Akra Is the church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, on the spot designated by doubtful tradition as being the Oolgetha and 
the Calvarf of the Scriptures.— Bexetha is mostly covered with low buildings or hovels, with no 
obvious traces of ancient ruins.— On Moriah, which at tbe first was apparently a mound of solid 
rock, tbe Temple of Solomon was built ; the surface of the rock being leveled for the purpose ; 
and then Immense walls were erected from the base of the rock on the four sides, and tbe ' 
Interval between filled In with earth or built up with vaults so as to make on the top a large 
area, which formed the Court of the Temple. To this the present area of the grand Mosque of 
Om«r, or enclosure called ** EMIaram-esh-8herlf," nearly If not wholly corresponds ; being a 
plateau or terrace neatly in the form of a parallelogram, supported by and within massive walls 
baili up from the lower ground on all sides; the lower portions of the walls are probably the 
very whils on which the ancient Temple rested ; as seems to be shown by some remains of an 
immense arch which supported the Bridre that formerly extended f^om the Temple across the 
Tyropieon to a celebrated Xfetne or portico on Mount Zlon.-«-In the northern part of tbe present 
area of the Mosque of Omar was the fortress called the Tower of Jintonia, rendered memorable 
in tbe siege of Jerusalem by Titus, who captured the eityi A. D. 70; at which time the Temple 
was utterly destroyed by fire. The Mosque now on its site was built by Omar In the seventh 

Ttie ancient inhabitants depended for water, as do the modem, chiefly on detenu ; almost 
every house having now one or more excavated in tbe limestone rock on which the city stands. 
laseose cisuriis also still exist within the space under tbe area of tbe Temple. Large open 


divided into five provinces, Comagene, Seleucis, Coclo-Syria, Phcenicia, and Judea, 
or Palestine. 

The principal city of Comagene was Samo9a1a, on the Euphrates, the birthplace 
of Lucian. — In Seleucis, or byria Propria, were Hierapolis, the city of the Syrian 
goddess Astarte (cf. P. II. ^ 48), on the Euphrates ; Bercta, previously Chalybon (now 
Aleppo), on the Chalcis, flowing into a small lake ; Antiochiay where Christians first 
received their name, on the river OrotUes ; neur it Daphne^ with its delightful grove 
sacred to Apollo ; Apamea (Famieh), higher up the Orontes, which rising in the ele- 
vated regions on the eastern side of Libanus, flows bv a north-west course to the 
Mediterranean ; still further up, Emesa, the city of Ifeliogabalus, the worst of the 
Roman emperors; and "on the opposite side of the Orontes," near the limits of this 
province, Hdiapolis (Balbec), sacred to the Sun, whose magnificent ruins still attract 

From lb* ntap of Sfria tteampuiyittg Robituon*» Reanrehet, Balbee appcan le be oo the Laooto.— ^ Anoiif fh« dUn whieh 
Rra caomcratfld bf Graek and orieotai names ia iha grognpby of Syria, we nay dtftinsniab Emcaa or Heon, and Heliopolit or Bal- 
bee Uniler the laat of tbe Cnaja, Ibey were Mroag and populou ; the tarreto glittered from afar ; to ample apace waa covend 
with public and private boildiaiti ; aad the dtiaoa were illuatriaui by their tpirit, or at Icait by their prU« ; by tbeir ridiea, or at 
least by their luxury. Is the dayi of paianiMD, both Emm aad HcliopoUe were addicted to the wonhip of Baal, or the wo ; but 
the deelise of their flupentittoo and aplendor baa been marked by a aiogular variety of fortune. Not a veetige remaina of Ibe teni;d« 
of Emem, which waa equalled ip poetic atyle to the aummiti of moaot Libanus; while the miBi of Balbee, iDvisibie to Ibe writen 
of antiquity, excite the curioaity and wonder of the European traveler. The meaaore of the temple ii two hundred feet in length, 
And one hoodred in breadth : the front ia adoned with a double portieo of ei|^ht columns ; fttortccn osay be eoonted on dthcr aide ; 
and each cotsma, forty-live feet in bdght, ia oompoaed of three maaiy blocks of marble. The ptoportioos and omamcnla of the 
Corinthian oHer expraa the arcbiiectnre of the Gredce."— See the view given in Plate VU.— JL tVood, Buiaa of Balbee. Lo^L 
1757. foL-C. B. EOiett, Tnvels in Austria, Rrnaia, and Turkey. Load. !B3a 2 vole. & 

Ccslo-Syria waa so named because it lay between the two parallel chains of 
mountains, Libnnus and Anli- Libanus: and the name is sometimes applied so as to 
include the valley of the Orontes, and also the whole valley of the Leontet^ which 
rises near the western sources of the Orontes, and flows by a south-western course 
to the Mediterranean. But it is limited, in our division, to the upper part of the latter 
valley, north of mount Herman^ the principal peak of Anti-Lihanuf ; including also 
another vallcv on the east (now called Gouteh Demesk, or Orchard of Damascus), 
watered by tne rivers Chrysorrhoat (Pharphar) and Ahana^ flowing into a large lake 
below Damascus^ which was the chief town of the province. — The territory east and 
north-east of these valleys as far as the Euphrates, is mentioned in connection both 
with Seleucis and with Ccelo-Syria ; but more commonly under the general name of 
Syria; some places in it, on the Euphrates, should be mentioned; as Thapsacus 
(El-Der), the celebrated ford, passed by Cyrus In his expedition against Artaxerxes, 
by Darius after his defeat by Alexander at Issus, and by Alexander in pursuit of Da- 
rius ; and Orouros (Gorur), fixed by Pompey as the boundary of the Roman empire 
when he reduced Syria to a province ; but the chief place in this extensive region was 
Palmyra, or " Tadmor in the desert," said to have been built by Solomon, the resi- 
dence of Longinus (cf. P. V. ^ 124), and of Zenobia, who so bravply defied the em- 
peror Aurelian ; it is yet marked by celebrated architectural ruins. 

On the mini of Palmyn, aaa B. mod, ae died P. nr. ) S43. 8.-Thfl Madarn TnmOtr.-hbf and Uanfia, Tnveb in Efypt. 
Syria, he. Lood. IB22. (I. 

Phoenicia contained the cities of Tynts (Tyre) and Sidon, famous for their exten- 
sive commerce. The siege of Tyre "by Alexander is celebrated for the obstinate 
defence made by the besieged, and the unconquerable perseverance of the besiegers. 
BerytuB (Beirut), north of Sidon, was .the seat of a distmguished school for the study 
of law in the age of Justinian. 

Bdrut haa been for several years a very interailing misaionary station. In its vicinity, on mount I>banon, dwdl the Maroaita 
and the Dnuea.— Sea /oukU's Betearcbea.— If in ionary Herald, from the year ItBS, paasim.— i^oiuPf Memdr of Pliny fiak. 

^ 167. J udae a, or P alte 8 ti n a, is called in Scripture the land of Canaan, of Israel, 
and of Judah. It was at first divided among the twelve tribes ; it was afterwards 
separated into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah ; and finally the Romans divided it 
into four regions, Galilaea, Samaria, Judaea Propria, and Persa or Transfluviana, the 
country beyond Jordan. 

Galilaea was again subdivided into Inferior, chiefly inhabited by Jews; and Su- 
perior, which, from its proximity to CoDlo-Syria, was called Galilee of the Gentiles. — 
The chief towns of Upper Galilee were C<Bsarea Pfiilippi, so called to distinguish it 
from another town of the same name in this province ; its original name was Laish, 
afterwards changed to Paneas, and finally called Cssarea Pnilippi, by Herod's son 
Philip ; Gahara and Jotovata, bravely defended by the historian Josepnus, when be- 
sieged by Vespasian. The principal cities in Lower Galilee were Ace, or PtdUmai* 
(Acre), memorable for its siege bv Richard CcEur de Lion in the time of the Crusades; 
Canen ; Seppkoris, afterwards called Dio Ca^sarea; Nazareth and Jezreel. — A large 
lake in Galilee was called the Sea of Tiberias or Gennesareth ; at its northern ex- 
tremity was Chorazin; at the western side were Cnpemnum, Tiberias, and Betksaida; 
on the opposite side was Gadara. — The chief mountains of Galilee were Cartnel and 


t 5' ''^ 

i^. -hI ij- 




luAyrhtM or Tabor, the scene of our Lord's transfiguration. — Between Galilee and 
Samaria stood Bethsan, the chief of the ten confederate cities called DecapolUf which, 
dreading the power of the Jews, entered into a confederacy against the Asmonean 
piinces, who then {governed Judea. 

% 168 a. Samaria lay south of GaUlee. Its chief towns were Samaria, the capital, 
destroyed by the Asmonean princes, but rebuilt by Herod, who called it Sebaste, in 
honor of Augustus; Casarea, first called Turrit Stratonices, a celebrated seaport, the 
residence ot the Roman governors ; Joppa, a seaport south of Cossarea, where An- 
dromeda was delivered from a sea-monster by Perseus (P. II. ^ 122) ; Sichemj in the 
inteiior, the ancient capital, between the mountains Ebal and Gerizim; it was in later 
times called Neajnli*; Lydda, called by the Greeks Diospolis; and Arimathea. 

Judca was situated south of Samaria, between the Lake Asphaltites, or Dead 
Sea, and the Mediterranean. — The capital was Hierotolyma (Jerusalem), which we 
shall notice particularly in the next section. North-west from Jerusalem was £m- 
wunu or Nieopoligt where the Jews were defeated by Vespasian ; directly north was 
Beikel; north-east was Jericho; south from Jerusalem was Bethlehem, the birthplace 
of Christ ; further south, Hebron, where Abraham was buried ; still further, some- 
what to the west, Beertheba, often mentioned as the southern Hmit of the country of 
Israel ; south-west, EletUheropoliSf a very flourishing city in the time of Eusebius. 

9 166 b. nuroaplfWM, or Jsrasalsin, originally belonged to the Jebnsttes, ft'om whom It was 
Uken bv David, who made it hl» residence. The Arabiam now call it El-KudB, the Holy.— It Is 
sicaated on a broad elevation, having higher hills all around it ; the Mount of Olives on the eaat ; 
on the north a ridce eitending from the Mt. of Olives and bending around to the west, al the 
dtsUBce of more than a mile : on the west, hills at a greater disUnce sloping gently, beyond a 

Bain ; on the south, the Hill of Evil Counsel rising directly on the further side of the Valle|f of 

Il is sarroonded by walls presenting a stately appearance, of hewn stone, with towers and 
battlements, of a height varying according to the inequalities in the ground, f^om twenty to fifty 
feet ; in circumference about two and a half geographical miles. The •neient wMo formed a 
larger circuit of about three and a half geographical miles according to Josephus ; and Jerusalem 
is said to have been anciently fortified by tkjrw walls ; but this statement must not be understood to 
mean that there were three walls around the whole city, one within another ; since the two 
inner walls were merely walls intersecting the city and joining the outer wall ; the hill of Zion 
was first of all enclosed within a wall : then Moriah, with Opiiel, was added, and afterwards 
Akra, and a second wall was attended from the old one so as to include these ; subsequently 
Besetha was annexed, and to protect this a third wall was eonstructeiJ Joining the otheri. 

Of the eight former gates, only the four larger are now open : the Oaio of the Pillar, or Da- 
mascus Gale, on the north ; the Oato of the Pilgrime, or Bethlehem Gate, on the west ; the Oate 
of JDavid, or ZInn Gate, on the south ; and the Oate of the 7Vtfre«, or St. Stephen's Gate, on the 
cast. The principal streets now run nearly at right angles to each other. 

The aurfkce of the ground Is diversified by five hills : the largest is Ztoa, in the southern part, 
rising abruptly from the Valley of Hinnom ; north of this and in the western part of the city is 
^krm, separated from Zion by the valley of the Tyropmon ,* north-east from jfjirraand east of the 
Dimascus Gate is Beietka, in the north-western part of the city ; south-east from this and in the 
eastern part of the city Is Moriah, which, with Bezetha, rises from the Valley of Jehoshaphal ; 
sonth of Moriah, and at the south-eastern corner of the city, is Ophel: Bezetha, Moriah, and 
Ophel may be considered as parts of one ridge which extends to the south beyond the walls. 

These hills are closely encompassed on three sides by narrow valleys ; on the east the FaUey of 
Jekoohmpkmt ; on the west, the valley of Qikon, which is continued into the Valley of Hinnom on 
tile south : at some distance from the snnth-eastem corner of the city, the Valley of Jehoshapbat 
aad thai of Hinnom are connected. The Brook Kidron is but the bed of a torrent which during 
the rains of winter flows through the Valley of Jehoshapbat to thi> sonth. The valley in which 
was tlie bed of the ancient Tyropaon commences In the depression between Zion and Akra (near 
the western or Hebron or Bethlehem gate), and descending easterly bends to the south between 
Zion and Ophel, and meets with the other two Talleys at their common point of Junction. 

Tbe hill Zinn was the part first occupied by David, and hence called *' the city of David.*' 
Only the northern part of it is now within the walls ; much of the rest Is literally **a ploughed 
field;** on the north-western part Is the present citadel, the lower portions of the walls of which 
are probably the remains of the ancient Tower of Hippieue. — On the summit of Akra Is the church 
of the Holy Sepulchre, on the spot designated by doubtful tradition as being the Oolgotka and 
th« Calvary of the Scriptures.— Bexetha is mostly covered with low buildings or hovels, with no 
obvious traces of ancient ruins. — On Moriah, which at the first was apparently a mound uf solid 
rock, the Templt of Solomon was built ; the surfkce of the rock being leveled for the purpose ; 
and iben immense walls were erected from the base of the rock on the four sides, and the 
interval between filled in with earth or built up with vaults so as to make on the top a large 
area, which formed the Court of the Temple. To this the present area of the grand Musque of 
Om'ir, or enclosure called ** EI-Haram-esh-8her!f,*' nearly if not wholly corresponds ; being a 
plateau or terrace nearly In the form of a parallelogram, supported by and within massive walls 
butt! up from the lower ground on all sides ; the lower portions of the walls are probably the 
very walls on which the ancient Temple rested ; as seems to be shown by some remains of an 
immense arch which supported the Bridre that formerly extended ftom the Temple across the 
Tyropmon to a celebrated Xyetue or portico on Mount Zion.'^ln the northern part of the present 
area of the Mosque of Omar was the fortress called the Teu>er ofJintonia^ rendered memorable 
In the siege of Jerusalem by Titus, who captured the city, A. D. 70; at which time the Temple 
was utterly destroyed by fire. The Mosque now on its site was built by Omar In the seventh 

The ancient inhabitants depended for water, as do the modern, chiefly on eieteme ; almost 
every house having now one or more excavated in the limestone rock on which the city stands, 
e cisterns also still exist within the space under the area of the Temple. Large open 


that the principal helps or sources are four. Firsts tve will notice that furnished by 
observations on generations of men or auccessians of Rings. — It has been supposed 
that the average leneih of a king's reign, or of a generation of men, may be estimated 
by comparing a sufficient number of lacts. — When this average is taken, and we are 
told by a writer how many generations lived, or how many kings reigned, between two 
events, we can at once find the time between them ; and if the date of either event b 
known, the date of the other will follow. This is the only Chronology of the earliest 
writers, and is used in the Bible. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans used it. Gene- 
rally they reckoned a generation and a reign as of the same length ; three of tliem 
equal to 100 years. Sir Isaac NeuAon employed this means of ascertaining dates, and 
maintained that the average for reigns of kings is onW 20 years ; and for generations. 
29 or 30 years, if reckoned by eldest sons, and 33, if reckoned by others. On these ^ 
principles he attempted to rectify ancient chronology, giving to many events a date ' 
more recent than other authors. 

It may be desirable to give a farther explanation of this method by two Ulusiratioms. (s) The 
date of the return of the Heraclide to Peloponneani ta disputed ; but the date of the Battle of 
Tbermopyla is settled, B. C. 480. Now between these two events there reigned at Sparta a suc- 
cession of 17 kings; 17 multiplied by SO gives 340 years between the events, making the return 
of the neraclidiB B. C. (480 plus 340) 820 ; a date 8S0 years later than as given by other chrono- 
logers.— (6) The date of the Argonautic Expedition is disputed ; but the beginning of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War settled, B. C. 431. Now it is found, that Hippocrates, living at the beginning of 
the Peloponneslan War, was descended the 18th Oom ^sculapius by father's side, and 19ih from 
Hercules by mother's side, and that JEsculapius and Hercules were both Argonauts ; that is. 
there were 17 generations In one line and 18 in another, between the two events. Taking the 
medium 17^ and multiplying by t9 gives 507; making the date of the Argonautic Expedition, 
B. C. (431 plus 507) 996 ; 326 later than by other chronologers. 

But there are two grand objections to this method of ascertaining dates. Firsts the inaccuracy 
and uncertainty of the avwag* ; It cannot be very satisfactorily or exactly determined. Seeondlv. 
the fkct that ancient writers, in naming a succession of kings or giving a genealogy, often omit 
several of the series. This is done in JKoftAeio, ch. i., for the sake of reducing the number of 
generations between the great epochs mentioned in the 17th verse, to exactly /vHrCeen. 

$199. A second help is found in celestial awpearances and changes. This method is 
in general more safe and certain, as it depends on strict astronomical principles perfectly 
settled. The appearances employed are eclipses and the precession of the equinoxes. 

(a) Eclipses, The ancients were very superstitious as to eclipses. Many are re- 
corded, and mentioned as happening at the same time with important events in history, 
and described so that they may be recognized by the astronomer, who can calculate 
with perfect accuracy the time of every eclipse that has happened. 

We will give illustrations. Thucydides, in relating the attempt of the Athenians on the Syra- 
cusans, says that Nicias, finding the Syracnsans reinforced and himself in danger, determined 
to sail nut of the harbor of Syracuse; but when everything was ready for sailing, the moon was 
eclipsed, for it was then full moon ; by this appearance the Athenian soldiers were filled wiih 
alarm, and besought Nicias not to proceed ; and in consequence they almost to a man perished. 
This event is generally supposed to have been about B. C. 413.— Now it is found by calculation, 
that the moon vas full at Syracuse the 27th day of August, B. C. 413, and that there muil have 
been a total eclipse there, visible from beginning to end, and likely to produce on the soldiers 

the effect which Thucydides mentions. The date of the era of Nabona«8ar, B. C. 747, is also 

determined by a record of an eclipse of the moon in Ptolemy's Almagest (cf P. V. $218). 

In a aiiniUr way, Fergutan, In hi* A^naomy, propoMt to fix the tim* of the birth of Chrict. It U evideat fraiu Matthew ii. 13- 
IS, SO, 21, that Cliritt wu born only ibiDe mooibi before the dnth of Herod ; and fmn Joaephus (B. xvii. ch. £>) we leirn that there 
wu an eclipie of the moon at the time of HeRMTt last aicknen ; aatrommical calculation thamt that the eriipw occurred March 13. 
in the year 4710 of the Julian Period ; hence the birUi of Chrnt eonld not have been later than aboat the eioee of Uia 470Mi of the 
Julian Period.— The lame author refen to the mention made by Phlefon (cf. P. V. ( 238) of a oMMt eitnordinary eelipac of the bud 
aa occurrioc in the 4th year of the 20ld Olympiad, and would employ it aa a help In dctermioing the date of Cbriit^ death ; aincc on 
natunl eclipie could occur the year tpecifird, which oorreipoada, accord ing to Fcrgu«», to the 4746(h of the Jnlian ftriod, ha Uiinb 

the event mentloDed by Phlegon waa the rapematttral dariineai that marked the Savior^ cnieifLaion. In nnffaa*t Syalaa of 

Chrooology, cited P. V. § 7. 7. (c), ii a liit of eclipaes that were obaerred before the Chrnlian era, alio, in F^rgiucui'i Artrooooiy. 

Mere Lunar oppcaranm may be employed in the nme way. By comparing Bilark iv. 42. Luke xxiii. 64. and John xviii. 28, 
it would aecm evident that the crucifixion wu on Friday, and at the time of the Pamover ; it is known from other Miarrea (c£ JoU' 
joMtf, Ant B. iii. eh. 10) that the Paasover waa kept on Uie day of the fint full moon after the vernal equinox. Ferpaon nyi he 
found by calculation that <* the only Ruaover full moon that fell on Friday, for nvcrai jeara before or after the disputed yew of the 
crucifixion, waa oo April 3d, in the 4746tb year of the Julian Period.*— Cf. Fkrgtuon, aa cited § 203. 

(b) Precession of Ike Equinoxes. The equinoxes^ being the points where the equator 
crosses the ecliptic, are not precisely the same from year to year ; but they move back- 
ward (i. e. to tne west) 50 seconds every year, or 1 degree in 72 years. If, then, the 
place of the equinox in the ecliptic at the time of any event is stated, we may determine 
the date of the event, by noticing how far the equinox has now receded from the place 
it then held, and allowing 72 years for a degree. The only objection to this method is 
the^ difficulty, perhaps impossibility of decidiiig what point the equinoxes actually did 
occupy at the time of particular events in ancient history. 

Sir I. Newton applied this principle also to settle the time of the Areonautic Expedition.— A 
sphere, representing the heavens with the consteUatinns. is said by ancient writers to have been 
formed for the Argonauts, by Chiron ; on this sphere. It is also said, the equinox was placed In 
the middle point in the sign Aries. In the year 1669, the equinox had gone back from that point 


the jcar lOM i 

V AecRCi 44 aia«te« : this, allowiBg 7t jean for a decree, givea a period of tM5 Tears between 
IflM aad ilM Bxpeditioa ; making ii B. C. 9S5 ; oearly tbe nme aa by the calcalation 

I by cbe muae aatbor. If it be suted bow a star riaea or mu in relation to tbe 

■aa, tbe pfacc of tbe eqahwx may be found, and dates aacertaincd, in tbe way juat mentioned. — 
6u laaac Xewtoa and otbers bave employed this to aacertain tbe time when Ueeiod lived. In 
a pamafe in the WgrkM and Dmf» [▼>. 564], Heaiod says, tbat jffrrtiini* ro«e at •noset, GO days 
after tbe san entered tbe winter solstice, a point 90 degrees disunt from tbe equinox.— But the 
pUc* of tbe equinox cannot be settled with certainty in this way ; because it cannot be cer> 
tamly knowa wbetber tbe ancient writer means bis own time and residence or not, whether he 
means trae or apparent rasiaf , or even what constellation or stu be means exactly. Cf. CtUri, 
ia tbe Fhtlmmpk»iml TV— sffi— , vol. xlviii. p. S. 

% 200. A third belp in the fixing of dates is fottnd in the coins, medah, tiumHments, and 
iatcriptiofit, which are preserved for the benefit of succeeding ages. 'I'hese olten ihrow 
£rea( iigbt upon histcmcal events, and aiford important aid in ai»certainii>g the time of 
ilieir occurrence. Interesting facts are sometimes first made known, and tbe period 
« jen they took place is often indicated, by the face of a medal, or the representauons 
oa a pul'llc moDumeni. — Inscriptions are of still greater service. As one of the most 
\-!'jaD;e of thes« we must mention the chronicle of FaroBj which fixes tbe date of the 
r\jL'i events in Grecian history from Cecrops down to the time of Alexander, (^ee 
P. IV. ^91.4.) 

^ 201. The fniJih source is furnished by the testimony of historians, who state the 
d.<tance between events, or between events and an epoch. 1 he early historians paid 
T'.ry bitle attention to the subject of chronology; it was not until a comparatively iaie 
pcnod, ibai they began to think of dates and distances of time. The principal frag- 
inrnts of the earlier writers, Eratoslheues, Apollodorus, and Thrasyllu?, are s!ill to le 
I- lid in the ChroKicon o( EuseUus, and the Strumala of Ch-mcmt AhxuHdrittus. Tbo 
writings of the Bvznntine Chroniclers are aUo of service ; particularly the chronologi- 
c:.! work (EcAi.^^ Xoorsyoa^ias) ot 5>yncelius. It is chiefly Iroin this and the above- 
r. enrjoned work of Eusehius, that the detaiU of the ctmttnonly rcctittd Chronology have 
U^n caibered. (Cf. ^ 205; and P. V. ^ 236, 239. 2v^S.) 

^ 2t/2. ^B; Epochs njid Eras emvloytd in Chronclosy. — It is essential to correct and 
exact chronology that there should be some fixed epoch, to which all events may bo 
T' terred and be measured by their distance from it. But it is of comparatively lit lie 
coDfequence what the epoch is, provided it is fixed ai:d acknowledged, as it is perfectly 
easy to compute in a retrograde manner the time before it, as well as in a direct man- 
rer the time after it. An epoch is distinguished from an era. Epoch is the point of 
time which is taken as a starting- place from which to reckon, and taken u^ually be- 
cause signalized by some important event. Era is the space of time, that follows the 
epoch ; the series of years computed from it. — The two terms may be interchanged as 
nearly synonymous, because every era has its epoch and every epoch its era. 

^ 203. The following are the most important eras, which are noticed in Chronology. 

— (a) Era of Olympiads' The Greeks for a long time had no fixed epoch ; but aUti- 
wards reckoned" by Olympiads, periods of 4 years. 1 ht y be can 776 B. C. A new 
< olympiad era, however, came into ufrc under the Roman eniptrors, beginning A. D.— \6) Era of Rome. '1 he Romans otten reckoned by lusirums, often by the vrar 
of tbe consul or the emperor. The building of the city was their grand epoch. £his 
vas 752 B.C. fit is placed by some 753 or 754.)— (r) Era of yofonassar (or Belesis . 
I'sed by some historians; the commencement of Nabor.a-sar's rei<:n at BaI»yIon, 747 
B. C— (<f) Era of the Sileucidcr.. From the reign of Seleucus and his desrendanls in 
Svria. The Jews chiefly u^ed this. The Nestonans still compute from it. (Rercarchcs 
ot itmiih and Dvigftf. vol. ii. p. 257.) It is usually dated 312 B. C \yhen t^eleucus 
reco\erod Babylon, 10 years before the real commencement of the kir.pd«»m of Syria. 

— '■; Era of IJinclctian. This was founded on the pcrsecuiion of Cliri>tians in the 
r€:gn of Diocletian. It was used by Christiana until the Chriyiian era N^as adopted. 
Ir began 2-4 A. D.— (/) The Mahometan Era or If giro; founded on the tli^ht of 
.'•laliomet from Mecca to Medina, A. D. C22.— (i:) 1 \^e Persian L.a. or Era of Ytzdf.- 
J* rd; fijunded on the reign of a Persian king, named Yezdt jerd. A. D. (332.-^//) The 
CaKi>TiA.f Era ; Annus Dom ini ; the ytcr of our Lord. This era is founded on ' 
the birth of Christ, but chronologcrs are rot agreed as to the year of his birth ; some 
placing it srven years before tbe received epoch, others four years. This, however, is 
of DO consequence as respects the utility of the era in chronoli)gy, because all, who 
adopt tbe Christian era, agree to call the same year by the same numerical dale ; all 
meaning (e. g.) identically the same year by A. D. 1S30. The era began to be used 
about A. D. 360, according to some writers; but others state that it was invented by 
Dionysins, a monk, A. D. 527. 

Ob fta CbriilMa Era. Me /. Prw/Oof, L«c1am o« Hilary, I* shr — J. Ou*L Jani, HMoria Xne Dioav*aii» —G. Ravdtrger, Da 
r»whw CkrHtMBS orta at aaEtora.— Mmnc Di^rrUtioa ab tlw Ibrth of Clirirt.— Cf. Lardntr, CraJibllitT of IIm Goipal, ke. Put L 
«oL U pL nL—ftrgumn^ AatraoMnr, Ij D. BftuHUr^ Pbil. 1917 8 tolL S. i. ^OlMUw 

l^tafw «« Aoald BBtm hm Iha fra o/ lAc /VcneA JUptiUie, whtch the renriutioank attrmpted to nfabltab. This was totro- 
A«ea4 m tTSt^ witk a fiiiwit ic|Betioa of the Sabballi aad of the bebdooiiaal week, and a aonl arranfeiaait aad padaatic aomco- 
ctriCsM at Ifea awathiu Hm tw en ty M w ad oT giytfNr wae fixed »• t2ia bcf ioainf of the rear. The year eomiitcd of twelve 
MoaOi a/ thirty daja aKfc ; whkb woe diiidad, aoC by wacka, twt ia!o (hiaa dasotte, or penui* of tea dap. Am ttu woald con- 

9 f2 


priM bat 900 di ji, Jto WOT* add«d at flM doM of Om l«rt Bimlb itf Ow ym. ailid «Mii^laiM^ 

foanb or bitKxtil* ywr, a «tatfA, called the day of tk» RapuUie. Ttta ejreic of Iba tnar jmn waa trmod Um Franeiada Tbo 
three noailw of A Ml am a wtrenamad Pm^cmiovc, JBHtmairc, fViniairfl; ibowof Winter, Jl^hxM,i^itmiM,F«iileMf Am* 
of Spr iac Oemtmol, flerioi; Pnaridti tboM of Summer, MBMuTi/r, Titarmidor, JVuctidor. Tbia infidri alenter vm Mti 
about Itorlr* yeam The Qniortaa waa rattored Jaooary 1, IB06. 

^ ^ 204. (C) SystMis of Arrangement and Chronological Tables. — There iB a great 
discrepancy between the various systems of chronology which have been advocated in 
different nations and at different times. Among the oriental nations there was a strong 
desire for the honor of the earliest antiquity, and hence each carried back its chronolo- 

g'cal dates into the regions of mere fable or absolute falsehood, and the Egyptians, 
abylonians, Hindoos, and Chinese, present a list of events happening hunareds or 
thousands of years before the creation. Such systems need not be particularly noticed 
here. (Cf. P. IV. ^ 21.) 

^ 205. There are two systems, one derived from the Hebrew Scriptures and the 
other from the Septuagint Version, which are highly deserving of the 8tudent*s atten- 
tion. They differ from each other considerably; that drawn from the Septuagint 
assigns to many events a date much more ancient than that which follows the Hebrew ; 
e. g. the former places the flood some hundred years further from the Christian era, 
and the Creation at least 600 years further from the Flood, than the latter. There has 
been much discussion among the learned, concerning the respective claims of these two 
systems. We only remark here, that the Hebrew chronology is generally adopted. 

The system of Archbishop Usher is the basis of the principal systems for chronolo-' 
gical tables and charts which are commonly used. The system of Usher is in general 
accordance with the evidence drawn from the Hebrew Bible, the Arundelian Marbles, 
and the Chronicon of Eusebius. 

The •yRtem of Sir fsaae Jfewton has already be«n menlioned, and iome of the methods em- 
ployed by him for fixing dates. Thii tystem nssigna many iinporiant events, particularly of 
Grecian history, to periodi considerably later than other aystemi. Hi* cbronoloiry was at first 
received with some favor, but ia not usually regarded, although Mitford adopts it. 

On tbU, me MUfar^t HiaL OrBaee, ch. iii. Appeod.-Cf. SAudk/cnf* Pref. and Sac. Hiat. Cmm. bk. vi. Praf.— Ftor fbe Kfla of 
aome of the moat importaat hclpa on tba aobjcct of CbreaoloKj, ice P. V. § 7. 7 (0 ; ^ 99. &— Par olbcrs we rafsr le Barm't 
Inlre. to Grit Study of Holy Script toI. ii. p. 7M.— A labored dcfooce of Iba Septnainnt Chroaolafy b made by Rer. /. /. /•otoon. 
in bii Chnmolofical AntufuUia.—Sgit alao Frtd. JVoIon, on (ba antiquity and oooneeiion of Iba early cyclei, and Ibalr otiliiy i-i 
aelUtns the diflbreneat of cbroaolopala, in Trrnn. o/ Aoyai Soc o/ Lilenhart, vol. iii. Loud 1837.— Lend. Quart. So. *aL t. p. I. 
—Jl. B. CM^ptn, AsreameBt of Iba tme Biblical, E^ypllaa, and Cbaldean Cbranologiah Neir Haven, 1830. pp. 10.— Cf. Obiic. 
Bptd. Jaae, 1837, and Dec l83I^Ar«a*ain, aa died P. V. ) 8a& 

% 206. Tables and charts are among the greatest facilities in the study of history and 
chronology. They bring before the eye, at a glance, what can be presented but gra- 
dually and slowly by description ; the locality of events and dates on the pAper also 
helps to fix them more firmly in the nieinorv. Every student ought to avail himselt 
of the aid of a historical and chronological chart, either by purchase or (which is bet- 
ter) by actually forming one himself. 

( 307. A great variety of plans for charts have been adopted, possesslqg greater or less degre<'<« 
of utility.— (a) One of the most simple and obvious plans is to form two perpendicular columns ; 
one for evtnts of every, kind ranged promvfeuouBlff in order of occurrence ; the other for their cor- 
responding dates. Sometimes a third column is added to this plan, for Biography. — (6) Another 
plan of similar nature, but improved, is to form several perpendicular columns; onefordate», 
and each of the others for a elats of events: e. g. sovereigns in one, remarkable events in an- 
other, battles in another, &c. Such is the plan of IVorceater*$ Charts. Both the plans men- 
tioned may be marked for centuries by horizontal lines. — (e) A third plan is the contrivance of a 
sort of tree, whose branches represent nations ; and events are ranged in them according to 
their dates, the earliest at the bottom. Snch is the plan of liddf*» Chronology delineated. Con- 
quests by a nation may, in devices of this kind, be exhibited by one branch receiving others into 
itself, and the origin of new states by branches shooting out from others. — (d) A fuwrtk plan is 
marked by the peculiarity of being divided into periods, limited on each side by prominent event?. 
8uch is Ooodrich*s Chart.— (r) A. fifth plan, worthy of nmice, is that devised by Emma IVilUrd. 
called " Perspective sketch of the course of Empire." It is essentially the Chronological Tre<' 
inverted; the earliest events being placed at the top of the chart, and diverging lines being sub- 
stituted instead of the trunk and branches. Light and shade are employed to indicate the cooi- 
parative rank and culture of difierent nations. {fViUard^s Atlas. Hartford, 183ff.) 

But it Is worthy of remark, that in all these plans there are two grand faults ; 1. equal length 
of time is not represented by equal spaces on the chart ; 9. duration is represented by perpendt- 
eular lines, while the horizontal line is altogether the most natural and most satisfactory repre- 
■entatlon.— (/) A siztA plan adopts these two important improvements, with the division into 
periods, and the several columns for diflf^rent classes of events, allowing, where the scale U 
large enough, each event to be located in its exact place in the line of time. The chief objection 
to this method is the difficulty of using a scale sufficiehtly large to include all the important 
events of some periods without Increasing too much the size of the chart, and rendering it hi- 
convenient for portable use.— (^) A seventh plan unites geography with the history and chrono- 
ingy. This method is exhibited in Priestley* » *' Specimen of a New Chart of Ilistory,'* given in 
his Lectures on History.— (A) The device of a combination of streams or rivers is employed in a 
recent chart by /. /. Hiuheock^ called History made visible^ Phil. 1839, M inches by 37. 

^ 208. (D) Actual Dates of the most prominent events. ■ Nothing occasions more per 
plexity and discouragement to the student in cla.«isical history, than the difficulty of re- 
membering actual dates. Many have found this so great as to give over in despair. 


Bat, ■• haa been npeatediT lemsrked, aocoraie dironology is essentia] to the utility, 
acd it is DO leas eo to the pleasoie, of reeding history. And the difficulty oompleined 
of ie by no means iDsopenble. 

Vahoos expedients to aid the memory have been inrented () 210) ; hot on the whole, 
ibe witer knows of none better than to take a fflance over the whole 6eld of past time, 
celect a few giaial events which stand oat as nndmarks, associate these events w^ith 
Their datetu and oonmiit them to memory with perfect exactness, making them as 
Umifiar as the letters of the alphabet. Anw person of tommon eapaeity eon do this ; 
and the student who wishes to lay any foundation at all for historical knowledge must 
do at least as ranch as this. This being done, he will find it comparatively easv to 
locate the varioos events, which he may read about or learn from time to time, in tlieir 
proper plaee between theM erand events whose dales are thus fixed in the memory. 

S **309. With these views the following outline, in which it seemed desirable to include 
modem cfanmology, is oflered to the student, to be perfectly committed to memory. 

The leanMT is adviacd lo draw ta offoa a roll of paper prepared for the parpose ; osinff a hori- 
snatal liae to represeat the flowing or propren of time. Let thi« {»• h* diridtd imlm t^uml 9pmtt», 
each rrprpvealioc aa cqaal length of time; let the dni«* of the events he dtstincily written 
exactly ms tht pmimts la the line mkgrt tkty UUmg accordiaf to this eqaal division ; and let the 
fvceta also he wriitea duwcdy aiw* mr mwdef the dates. 

BaiBV Orruaa. Chmaolocy is Ancient or Modera. Ancient iaclndes the whole time hrfitrt 
Cimc, compreheadiaf 40M years. Modera iacladea the whole time timu Christ 

L Aneieat Chroaoloffy is divided mtotwo portioas hythe Flood; AntedUoviaB ages, the 
portioB hefiMC the flood, and Pootdilovtaa ages, the ponloa aAer the flood.— The Antediluvian 
ages BMy he coaaidered as coatainiag only sms period ; the Postdilaviaa agea aa conuiaing npkt 
fciioda. Tke grand eveats aad periods are the followlac. 

Of the Aatedilaviaa ages. 

The OM petted is flhMB CasATioM B. C l«M. 

to DBi.eoB B. C. OI6. 

or the Paalditaviaa ages, the 
Ui pt rmd^ ta frem Delage . to CALuaeof AaaAHAM B. C. 19SI: 

U p t rmd , from ChUiag of Abraham . to EscAPa of laaABuras . . B.C. 140S; 

id p t i m d , from Eacape of braelitcs . to BDii.DnoofTBiiri^ . B.C. lOM; 

V* ps nmd, Oom Baildiag of Temple . lo Fovanisoof Hoaa . B.C. 7St; 

Sch pcrwd, from Foaadtng of Roam . to BAVTLBof MAaAvnoa B. C 490; 

6a ptrwd, from Battle of Maraihoa . lo Rataa of ALKXAaaaa . B.C. S36; 

TrA pe rimd^ from Beign of Alexander . to CApruasof CAarBAea B.C. 146; 

6th peimd, firosa Chptare of Carthage -. . to Coniao of Chriat. 

IL Modera Chroaoktgy ia divided into three diatinct portioaa by the FhJl •/ Rams aad the 
FmU tf ComMtmmiimsfIs: Korif Sgss^ the portion before the FSIl of Rome ; Jiiddis Jtgss^ the por- 
lioa btf twcea the Fkll of Rome and the Fall of Conauntinople ; Rtsent Agas^ the portion since 
the P^il of Coastaatinople.—Tbe early ages may be eonaidered aa containing twm periods ; the 
middle ag«s,^c« periods ; aad the reeeal ages fiss periods. The graad evenu aad periods are 
the foUowing. 

Of the Early ages, the 
l*f p srjjd, is from CHaiev to the Raioa of CoasTAMTiss . A. D. .106; 

Stfpcrw<fkomReigaof Coastaatlae to Fall of Rons . A. D. 476. 

Orthc Middle sges, the 
IsC pcTMtf, is ftom Fall of Rome . to FLienrof Mabombt . A. D. 699; 

U pmW, from Flight of Mahomet . to CaowaiaoofCHAaLBitAORB . A. D. 6M: 

Sd perwd, from Crowning of CharleouiCae . to Labdiso of William A. D. 1066; 

Ath perimd, from Landing of William . to OvaaTHaow of Saiaceks . . A. D. lS3(j ; 

StM f s ri md, ttom Overthrow of Baraceas . to Fall of CoRSTAariKorLB A. D. 1453. 

Of the Receat ages, the 
Ut perisd le fhmi Fs 11 of Constantinople . to AaDiCATiOBofCHAaLBs Fifth . A. !>. 1SS6; 
ti fsr im d , from Abdication of Charles 5ih . to RBaroBATioa of Chablbs Skcond A. D. 1660 ; 
3d psHsd^ from Restoration of Charles id . to Irdbpbbdebcb of Uicrrci> Statls A. D. 1776; 
VA psrimd, from Independence of United Slates to DowxrALL of Borapabts A. D. 181ft ; 

5rA psrisd, from Downfkll of Bonaparte . ,io the Fbxsbrt Timb. 

# SIO. Bat It is perhaps dne to the scholar to mention here some of the eipedients, above 
aniided to () SOS), which have been deviled to assist in the recollection of dates. We will 
briefly notice thr^e diSf*r^nt systems of artificial memory. 

L The first is that of Dr. Grey, whose JUsmsrU Tleehmieo haa generally met with the meat 
(arorable reception. **As this method,'* aays Priestley, ** is so easily learned and may be of 
aach aae in recollecting dates, I think all persona of a Uberal edacatioa laexcasable, who will 


not take the small degree of palm that ii neceiaary to make themselvei matter of h." Tbe ex- 
pedient is to substitute letters for figures, and form of these letters a syllable or word, and aiso- 
ciate it with the name of tbe persons, the date of whose birih, reicn, death, or tbe like, yoa 
wish to remember, or with a prominent term or word connected with an event to be remem- 
bered. The following is Dr. Grey's rubttUutien ulphabett in which each of the ten nnraerical 
characters has its cofMtfiiaiit and its voioej or <fcpikfA4>ii^; l.afr; 2,«if; 3,ei;4,/o; 5,{«; A,«a«; 
7, s 0< ; 8, jk 01 ; 0, n a« ; 0, z y. To remember the date of the founding of Rome by this system, 
BUiMtitute for 752 such letters as will, according to the above alphabet, represent 75S; e. g. ^«^ 
and Join the syllable thus formed to tbe word Rome, or a part of the word, thus Rom-^vd. Tbe 
very oddness and uncouthnessof this combination will sometimes impress it on tbe memory. To 
remember the date of the Deluge, *4t348, we may form the word Del-etok; of the battle of Mara- 
' thon, 400, Marath-0«y, or JA^n-fout. Where a series of dates of successive events are to be 
fixed in memory, this system recommends the uniting of the barbarous words thus formed ia 
Hexameter verses ; which, however, the student must understand, are to be commitud it m$- 
mory ; these are called mtmoriai lines. 

SMB.Orcf% ir«Hrw2ViAi«Ka, or Method of artifieU Bloaery. (Wtth Low A MnmanitM.) Laoi. HO. i. CLLmd. 
Quart. An. iz. laS. 

S. The second method is a system of topieal memory, including also the substitution of letters 
for figures. The principle of the topical method is to conceive a certain number of places in a 
room, or in some limited space marked by sensible objects ; and conceive these placfs as ar- 
ranged in a certain fixed order ; and then whatever successive events or objects one wishes to 
remember, throw, in imagination, some pietureg of or coneeming them, in their proper order, into 
these conceived places. Such is the principle of F e 1 n a i g I e's Art of Memory. By this a fonr- 
sided room is divided into ^ty ideal squares ; these who wish a more capacious memory may 
take also a second story having 50 squares more, numbered up to a hundred ; and one may go 
on so asce^nding through as many stories as he chooses. JVHiie squares are to be placed on the 
floor of the room, and niite on each of the four walls, thus making forty-five ; the other jSr« on 
the ceiling above : tbe squares on the floor number from I to 9; the square numbered 10 is pat 
on the ceiling over the wall supposed to be on your left hand, and the next nine squares from 11 
to 19 are on the left hand wall under it ; tbe square 20 is on the ceiling over tbe wall opposite in 
front of you, and the next nine from 21 to 29 on that wall under it ; tbe square 30, and the next 
nine from 31 to 30 are put in like manner on the right hand ; and the square 40, and the next 
nine from 41 to 49 behind you ; the remaining square 50 is placed in the centre of the ceiling. In 
each of these squares a picture of some visible object is located ; e. g. in 1, a pump; in 2, a sv>an ; 
in 3j a man using a spade. This scheme of squares, numbers, and pictures is first to be eommiued 
to memory. Then if one would remember by aid of the system the date e. g. of the kings of Eng- 
land, he would create in his mind a picture in connection with each one of them, throw these 
pictures in imagination into the squares in the exact order of the regal succession, and associate 
the picture pertaining to the king witt> the picture fixed in the square to which he falls ; in form- 
ing the new picture ttoe things are important ; it should be so conceived as to have some casual 
or slight association suggesting the name of the king, and suggesting at the same time a word or 
phrase; which is devised by the person along with tbe ideal picture, and which expresses the 
date according to an alphabet of letters substituted for figures. E. g. to remember the date of 
Henry 7th, it is said the ideal picture of 7 hens is a good one for the purpose ; the square to 
which he is assigned is 29; the picture fixed in this square (in the engraved Illustration of the 
system) is a woman spinning en a smaU wheel ; these two pictures then are to be somehow bound 
together, and It may be thus, the woman svinning s e e a 7 hens ; the next thing is to form a word 
or phrase indicative of the date; and by the alphabet adopted in this system, " The oajkrai/" 
is such a phrase ; the remaining step in this process of storage in the mentory, is to bind the 
phrase to the pictures, which may be done by imagining that the woman spinning ue en 7 hens 
on The oak rail.— Tbe following is the substitution alphabet; I, be; 2, df; 3,gh; i,j kx; 5, <; 
0,mn; 7,yq; 8,r«; 9, Cv; 0,wx; and 100, 5c; 1,000, Th; 100,000, Y. 

SaerteJVnoJH<!f Arcniary,(imidcdoBtbepriacipletof Feinai|le,IUiHtnt«l l^eo^ lind. 1813. 8. 2d ed. CL 

Land. Quart. Rma. u above cilod. 

It is worth V of remark here, that the ancients, particularly the Roman orators, made use of a 
system of topical memory. Quintiiian gives an account of a system, in which the various parti 
of a spacious mansion are employed somewhat as the several squares in the method of Feinaigle. 
The things to be remembered were connected by association with certain types, and these being 
arranged in order were assigned to the different parts of the house; '*thoy assign,*' says he, 
** the first idea they wish to remember to the portico, the second to the hall ; then they go round 
the inner courts ; nor do they only commit these associations to the bedrooms and anteroom?, 
but even to the furniture. When they wish to recollect these associations, they recur mentally 
to those places in order from the beginning, and regain every sensible type, which they had en- 
trusted to each particular spot, and this type nt once suggests the idea connected with it." 

3. TJie third system is the Efficacious Method of Mr. Hallworth. In this plan a substitution of 
letters for figures is employed. Its peculiarity consists In this, that instead of forming mere bar- 
barous and unmeaning words, like thkt of Grey, or words artificially associated with some imase 
or picture, like that of Feinnigle, a significant sentence is formed, which slates the event to be 
remembered, and concludes with a word or phrase that expresses something characteristic of 
the event, and at the same time, when interpreted according to the substitution alphabet, denotes 
the date. The alphabet of H&ilworth is the following ; hbc; %df; 3,g,h,gh; 4, A 2 ; 5, m n ; 
fi> Pi f : 7^8 sh; 8, t, eh; 9, v wj, used as consonants ; 0, th ph wA, and also q x y z. In forming 
words the vowels are used just as may be convenient, without having any siirnificancy ; the con- 
sonants alone being considered in expressing a date ; thus eh u reh [chrek] signifies 80S; troo ;f 
{t r p], 860. To recollect by this method the date e. g. of the Flood, the following sentence is 
(irmed ; The deluge comes and wen die guilty: the phrase die guilty expresses the date, as the 
consonants dglt represent 2348.— For greater convenience and scope in forming the character- 
istic phrases, the plan admits articles, prepositions, and conjunctions to be used, like the vowels, 
without significancy ; e g. Mel fell a aacrijice to Cain*s hate and sin: h i s n, 3875.— Mr. Hall- 
worth has taught his system by lectures in diff'erent parts of the country, and has published 
several little books in which its principles are explained and applied. 
See r. HaUwrnKt Efllcacious Metb^ of acquiiing, re'jiuiog, aod csuuiuiivathig Iltit^rical and Cti.-oDolosicil Koo^vled^ 

r. u KKST ntuupjkx. «r axb of asa. 69 

T Tbe A»«yrlma. T^ » «os»;-nhi is bi-r-- ■?•—::=•? -of •£ w-_ \ •*< ' *~t 

fc A» ^mt ic^». ' I tfcp K^ i ilni ' F > L 'l ^j Srr- raer, *•»-»**— -^ T-t* T-r-?— Vr ^ft rm. • 

ac cc -?< Ptaifl^ K«>;a. as4 e»ctra.xi . r r irs j^ ;«-»,«■■<-<;:.; .1. tt j*. >i-a. 1 1 
Asm S -Berts sfte ■ecz'macAm. r^-i ^.'.fi .« lie i»:-i 1 t xt V . • « .n.-^.*^ «'•< . t *t 

Tx ad pfood sax b< t^K iwa Xf««» » SiirATAFAi-r:^ « j>> iifc B C. T«T. 
Tks taw^ p ii ii t. «f a>r«t ?3CV Tt«ff«w ■ WM-v*^ a crrv 'lAwrs* ;t l^.-^es « TS k ■•» Arv 

Mxd tS» .Miiiii, VXA Kr*, 1'* xs u;*^. li bat m fCftT, 2^«e*«f. w ccxs^ei Vi« 
AJvvTaa ■■■■ri^j ■■ ac cjq^^ l-x^ : ^Mt 
Tbe 3d penod sar Se •=*: r-?c Sc-r r^rtwr.'i* -o E-iT^iArrv.x. B. C ^^;. 

iisvm km^Aam^ til ite Ajv?ta« mad BaJi%*:^iiM. 
Tie 4'j aM last per>?d eitrad* i-ca Il^f-ici^-a ro Ctxt? *lt G-t^i. B. C. 5>\ 
U Ctas t^K thr wf^»4 fc ^ g ft — »»» »•>**— 4 »» p^—^ — %t tw mve n*^. tiji^v C>-^* 

r ■- ]■&. S«a^ •.— TW fcfh* r« y f^s-^ Ln^ .— Vj& » b»«. k i ma. .jK«n£ ««. r li—i. 

' ■ - ■ «# <te C Ml 9L T«M«Mt. «r te •!«■ «r^ avskoww «» C<-><<. — Ti ■■■. ke i Cry. cart P T • 2«.— 

J gi^ I aHMiAa «« ftc PkJa BBi : ■■ II I tf -te Ck.- iAr«riM. I T.rv.«ak £«^.aak ftc ."al SV. t ««m. ft. 

T'^A fcaa ^ iMOk ettC P. fV i .1 > i ■ w-vsl Lb •«(■> w ftu« <>«> a "ir J*-^ .iisc >v?>. wk &<•«» ^ I. Av 

It loaj be (firidrd into e-.zhi perxxl*. The Ir. penud ex:cz^ ticm ^indUa to the 
emaace into C«Mac» osidcr Jo^eva. B. C HoI. 

DariiBCtM»p i i i > < tfcgy ii MiMi l > ariihr mnca. 

Tbe 3d period incl^ides ibe tiiae trca J^kua ro tl>e dnth of Sajt^-ti-. B. C. 10?iX 

via Ike Imk ofifcejaifn <«W, tke £m Ixv va« aA.,^;eJ as tuca awsc i-ac be£^f« Sas^acl's 

The 3d period is from Sc»»W to •h<' «rpar2':3« of the m'*^-»n into :he tiro ki-icioms 
of Jodah aifed Unel bj tbe Revolt u:>ier Je^-cboax, B. C. ^75. 

Tka wwB tke bpM •©•r»k:-« perir>d of tbe Jrvt»b »-■«»^^^T. eirtt^ •'t :V reir*s «f I»aT>t 
aW Sotoacm, aW by ibc teldirf c( t^ Teapte At i€r*n^m, tbe CAp<uL— &«.»»>iecu&f tbe*e 
Ki^M, OTC CArwC W>TlTir. ir. 131 ; T 53S. 

Th^ 4tli penod mar inclade im hrr.orr feooi tbe Etvol: a=iil :h« Restoeat:.>x frctM 
tbe Baftybwin C<:ptiniw, B. C. oxi. 

TW two Ma<iB— a>«tn*«cd wvante WFtU th*ir d^-^troct^" »»t :»»^ ra»»T:owur», TV t*n 
titfw.1 of br mt i^ -m-htnr npitinrit -"iinir-i rrrrr ni — -- -:-ri;"T"» M <^ <:•• i' ari-. B T "t* ; 
ibeiwolnb««*fy»^«l, by »^e<haiii*rr»r. B r A 6. Dj' -« tS » '.a * r r*:-*- i- r« r^-rr^l 
orrr Jadab at Jerwales. Tbe jcvrmty yean oT ibe capc.vitj are i,\te^ fix-a lae rorqacst ci' 

The 5ih period rearh«» from the Eestcratitm by Cyms, to the ?rEx:5S!ox of the 
Jews to ALdAyrEK. B. C. ^i2. 

I>an«fr tbw werwi Ike icva bad eoatiaaed ia a itaXe of at least partial depeadeoce oa lb« 
ib iu a e of P«nia. 

The fth period is from AhsonHrr to 'he RE-i5TArLisEXE.TT of an iaskpendent 
monarchf aa^/r fi« Maccabees. B. C. It^?. 

Afirr tbe d««tb of Al^xaader and the diristnn of bi* ewptr?. iiridr B. C *»!. Ibe J^w« wrre 
rliiarrf by Syna aad by Ejjyn, aod CApoaod to tbe isTasioa or c ^^pression of bcib.— Tbe perae- 


cution of Antiochuf Epipbanea provoked the general revolt ifrhicb led to the re-eetabliehnient of 

The 7ih period is from the Maccabees uniil the time of the Roman interference under 
POMPEY, B. C. 63. 

During thia period tbe monarchy was maintained, but with many unhappy diisensiona. 

The 8th and last period is from the first conquests of Pompey to the final Destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem by Titus, A. D. 70. 

For Iba J«w'Hh huUaj ; The huloricaJ booki of Iba a TastUBcnt-JiMpAw (d P. 7. § S4S.).— Hervycr, HHtoin da people de 
Dieo, ke. fax. I74S. lO Toh. S.—Batnagt, Hisinin d« Juib, Ac. Hajra, ITIft. 15 tok. 11.— PrictcBux, CawMcU of Ite a ud 
N. Tntaineat Tbe Freneb tnwUliop, nid to be better ttaaa thr Engliib oricinal, ■ eatillfld Hatoin ia Juib el im p«a|*lea 
voiilM depuk U decadeaee dci Rojruinee d'lenai et de JoJa, Ac Anat. 172S. i Tob. &—/. L. Batta^, Hiadboeh der Geichif^tc 
dcr Bebr. Naiioo, kc NanA. 1800. S tola. %. valuable.— £r. H MUman, Hiatorjr of tbe Jew*, (Am. ed.) N. T. IBM. 3 toll. IS. 
CL North Jtrntr. Bto. toL xxui. p. 834.-VaAn, Bebrcv CoumonweAltb. Tnari. from GaraAa, by C £. SIoml A^. IBU 8. 

III. The Trojan. Its origin is involved in darkness and fables, but is placed as 
early at least as B. C. 1400. Of its chronology we can only say that the state was 
destroyed by the Greeks in the reign of Priam, about B. C. 1184. 

Tbe history of Troy eonsiau of traditions preaerved by tbe poeu. Cf. P. n. ) ISl.—MUford's 
Greece, cb. i. 

IV . The L y d i a n. This commenced about B. C. 1400. Three dynasties of kings 
are said to have reigned, yet Uttle is known of the history until the reign of CstESus ; 
and under him the kingdom was destroyed by Cyrus, B. C. 536. 

The capital waa Bardie. The kingdom waa in the lime of Croeaua very rich and powerful ; ita 
fkte waa decided by the batUe of Tkymbra. 

Fur tbe Lydian bhtory ; Tbe Bngliah Univirtal Batory, vol. it. aa aboT* cited.— /Vm<, on tbe betlle ot Tbjaibra, wift a plate, 
io Uie Man. dt FAead. da Inter. voL vi. p. SJ& 

V. The PhcBnician. This was in existence in the time of David, under a king 
named Abikal, B. C. 1050. I'he state continued until the Capture of Tyre by Alex- 
ander, B. C. 332. 

PboBnicIa aeema not to have formed properly one atate, but to have contained aeveral citiea 
with petty kinga or princes, uf which Tyrt stood at the head. 

Oa tbe PhooiciaB bialeiy ; ScmconiaXAon, Ae. ct P. V. § 2S8.— iZeo, Cydopatlia, ander Phamieu—Migtiaif Sar lea Pbeokleas 
(aereral daaertktioos), io tbe Jim. Jkad. Inter, vola. zuif-zlii.— Tbe Englith Unto. fTirt.— Alao, lltb voL of Bttrtn'i Worfca. 

VI The Persian. Its history is obscure and its power insignificant until the time 
of Cyrus the elder, B. C. 536. We may include the whole history after this date in 
two periods. 

The 1st period extends from Cyrus to Xerxes, who invaded Greece, and was de- 
feated in the famous Battle of Salamis, B. C. 480. 

In thia period, under Dariua Hystaspes, tbe flither of Xerxes, the Persian empire attained its 
greatest extent ; reaching to the Indus on tbe east, to tbe Jazartes and Mount Caucasus on tbe 
north, and including Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Libya. The capitals were Babvlon, Busa, 
Ecbatana, and Persepolis (cf. ^^ 153, 154, 170;, tbe royal court being held sometimes in one and 
sometimes another of these places. 

The 2d period extends from Xerxes to the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alex- 
ander, in the reign of Darius Codomannus, B. C. 331. 

About the middle of this period occurred the expedition of the y0«tii^#r Cyntx, described in tbe 
JInabasi* of Xenophon; Cyrus fell In the battle of Cunaza, B. C. 401.— Alexander completed tbe 
subjugation of Persia by tbe victory at Arbtla^ B. C. 331. 

For tbe Pernaa biitoiy ; BMinU Ane. Hiat. bk. It. and fullofriof — AfOtor^ Elemnta, vol. 1. p. 88, ed. before cited — ^The Unt- 
voml BiHury, before cited, vol. it. and lx.-~Brimmiui, de regno Penanim. 1601. i.—Bydt, Rhodt, 4«. cited P. V. ) 163. i.— 
Bwrda'i Penepolis ia bit fFur4«.— Ibovn, aa above eited.-Crotc/mi, Ac dted P. IV. % 18. 4.-^. B. Fnur^ HiiL of Ffetsia, is 
Iiarper^f\MB.Ubfaf7,No.lzz.--Sir/.irflieairn,HMCarPeniarftMntbeearliaatp«iod,Ae. Load. ISOl > wla. aidad. 

VII. The Syrian; or the Kingdom of the Seleucida, This was one of the four 
monarchies formed out of the empire of Alexander. It was commenced after the 
battle of Ipstu, by Sbleucus Nicator, B. C. 301. We may include ita history in two 

The 1st period is from Seleucus Nicator to the time of the collision with the Romans 
in the reign of Antiochus the Great, B. C. 190. 

The capital of this kingdom was Antloch. Tbe territory under ita away included tbe northern 
part of Syria ; all Asia Minor, except Biibynia ; Armenia, Media, Partbia. Bactriana, India, Per- 
sia, and tbe valley of tbe Euphrates.— Antiochus was brought Into a war with tbe Romans espe. 
daily by protecting Hannibal. His defeat, in tbe baitU of Magnesia, B. C. 190, deprived him of 
part of bis territories and greatly weakened tbe kingdom. 


The 2d period extends from Ataiochu* the Cheat to the complete conquest of Syria 
br the Romana under Pompey, in the reign of Antiochus Asiaticus, d. C. 69. 

Id the flrat pan of this period occurred the revolt of the Jewi under the Haccabeet, B. C. 168, 
in ooaeequenca of the peraecution of Anllochua Epiphanea.— The throne of thia kingdom, on ita 
orerlhrow by the Rouwaa, had been held by twenty-three aucceaaive Itinga, moat of them lawful 
heirs of tlie house of the Beleucida. 

fv^m9ffiMa\iMarf',Vaamd,lmfmrmMnaia^ Viraa, 1754.— 

Tfae CWsral HiaL alma cHad, foL Kb of tha AaeiflHL 

Vm. The Parthian; or Kingdom of the Anaeida. The Parthians occupying 
the coiuntry on the south-east comer of the Caspian, were subject to Persia when con- 
quered by Alexander. On the division of his empire, they fell to the share of Seleucus 
Xieaiar. But under the third kine of Syria they revolted and established an independ- 
ent kingdom under Arsaces, B. C. 256. 

The Parthiana were conatantly at war with the Syriana, and afterwarda with the Romana ; 
bat eoald not l»e conquered. They obtained dominion from Armenia to the Indian Ocean, and 
from Syria to tlie river Indua ; including Bactriana, Peraia, the countriea in the valley of tho 
Eaphratea, and Armenia. Their capital waa HuatompyloM. 

The Parthian kingdom continued until the revolt of the Persians, who dethroned the 
Arsaddae, and estabUshed the kingdom of Modekn Persia, A. D. 223. 

For the rtethiaa hUmy ; FoOlmf , m dtad P. IV. § SL-C. F. RuMtr, HutariMh.kritMebBr Yanoch Qbar dia AmeldeD-uiid. 
t,ke. I«8.1S04. 

% 212. We will notice next the states, wliose capitals were in Africa. Of these we 
have bat two of im^rtance ; the Egmtian and the Carthaginian. 

I. The Egyptian. The first king named in the Egyptian dynasty is Menes, 
ct^nexally supposed to be the same as Mizratm, son of Ham and grandson of Noah ; 
he settled in Egypt about B. C. 2200. With this date the real chronology of Egypt 

A high antiquity, la part aurely (kbuloua, waa aaaigned to thia Icinedom by two Egyptian 
vorka now loav one waa the Old CkromkU, cited by Synceliua (cf. $ 901); the other, the work 
of JKaiMtte, cited by Euaebiua (cf. P. V. ) S36). 

The lat period in the Egyptian history may be that extending from Menes to the 
Escape tf the Israeutes, B. C. 1492. 

Of thia period profane hiatory givea ua no connected or aatisAictory account. Moat that can 
b« relied on ia to be drawn from the incidental noticea found in the Bible. Some chronologera 
place the celebrated Sesottrit at the cloae of thia period ; aome conaider him to be the Pharaoh 
that waa drowned in the Red Sea. 

The 2d period includes the time from the Exodus to the reign of Psammeticus, B. C. 
670, when the history begins to be authentic. 

No connected hiatory haa been preserved of thia period, and we are here alao much indebted 
fr>r what we know, to the accounta in the Scripturea.— Twelve dlflTerent governmenta under 
twelve different chiefa, are aaid to have been united under Paammeticua. 

The 3d period extends from the time of Paammetiata to the conquest of Egypt by 
the Persian king Cambtsbs, son and successor of Cyrus, B. C. 525. 

The Egyptian hiatory now Iwcomea more luroinona. Herodotua ia the principal authority. 
The ait of writing and the uae of the papyrua aa a material were now common. 

The 4th period includes the portion of time from Cambyses to the conquest of Egypt 
by Alexander, B. C. 332. 

Aftf>r the time of Camhyses, Egypt had been made a Peraian aatrapy, and, with the exception 
of a few inatancee of revolt. In one of which the throne waa partially re-eatabliahed, had con- 
tinued aobjeci to Persia until it now changed maatera. 

The 5th period is from Alexander to the subjection of the country to the Romans, 
resulting from the victory of Augustus in the battle of Actium, B. C. 31. 

AIenn<ier appointed Ptolemy, one of hia generala, governor of Egypt ; and Ptolemy, after the 
death of Alexander, became kmg of the country, B. C. 323, and commenced the dynaaty of the 
PTnlemiea, who retained the throne until Cleopatra, aaanciating her fortunea with Antony, lost 
It by the eneceaeof b«rlover*a rival.— Thebea and Memphia had been thecapitala in the previoua 

rerioda. In thia, Alexandria, founded by Alexander, waa made the aeat of the new court. 

Eerpi remained a part of the Roman empire until it waa wreated away by the Saracena. 
AD. 640. ' ' . ' 

Fnr te E<fp<<u liMoTT ; »eBin*i Aee- HM. bk. l—tbnkam, ai dtod P. V. ^ 238.— CkampaBum It Jtmu, I/EcnMa •ooi 
iM PInnaaa; kc Par. iai4. S vol*. R (far pwlod batm Caaiti|aak)— For Iba period aftar Alexaadar, VailUmt, Hbloria PioI». 

•««nm, atei P. IV. \ flSl l^Oamfeaim Figtat, Amalca d«a U|M«% fee fu. ISIR S mla. R Cf. Min»*» Uaivarm! 

Bi»orf.tt4. L (ad. N. T. I80C BS vola. lS.>-AbO| Uw Onimrml Bittary bafara dtad, tqL i. aad fUL— Jf. Bund, Viaw olSmL 
~CL i IT7, atao P. IV. | If; } 91. 8; { SSL 

IL The Carthaginian. The chronology of Carthage may be naturally divided 
into three periods. 


The Ist period is from its Foundation by Dido, B. C. 860. to the beginiung of the 
tear* of Syraaue in the time of the Syracusan king Gei^n, B. C. 480. 

In this period the follnwing pointi are worthy of notice : <a) the trifin ^ftk* eitf Cmrthmft^ by 
a Tyrian colony under Dido, in whose story much fable is mingled : (b) the fmrmUa af th% pt0pU ; 
commercial, lil^e those of the PhmniciaDs ; they bad intercourse by sea with Britain and Guinea, 
by caravans with the interior of Africa, and through Egypt with the eastern world ; (c) tbeir 
conquettt; their commercial pursuits led them to seek possession of the islands and coasts of the 
Mediterranenn, and they gain(>d Sardinia, Corsica, the Baleares, also the Canary Isles and 
Madeira in the Atlantic, and many places in Spain, and the northern coast of Africa; the chief 
conquests were effected by JUa^o, and his sons and grandsons ; (d) the form of foventmtmt ; It 
was a republic, but of a strongly aristocrstic character : the executive consisting of two chief 
magistrates called Suffettt^ and the legislative consisting of a SenmU of select grandees, and an 
Atatmbly of the people s as at Rome, there was a continual strife between a popular and an 
aristocratic party; (e) the rtventu; iu sources were, 1. tributes from the subject cities and 
states or tribes; 8. customs paid on goods at Carthage and all the poru; 3. proceeds of the mines 
in Spain. 

The 2d period extends from the beginning of the ware with Gdon of Stfracuse to the 
beginning of the contests with Rome in the First Funic War, B. C. 264. 

The principal thing which marks the history of this period, is the long continued strugf^le to 
obtain complete possession of Sicily. The Carthaginians and Syracusans were involved in 
almost constant wars. 

Tlie 3d period is from the frat tear wUh tlte Romans to the final Destructiox of 
Carthage, B. C. 146. 

The contests between Rome and Carthaee grew out of mutual ambition. Sicily, which both 
desired to own, furnished the occasion.— Th<H>e were three wars called Pumie ,' each difastrnus 
to Carthage. The flrst lasted 23 years. The second was marked by the bold invasion and 
splendid victories of Hannibal ; ended by the battle of Zama, B. C. 23S. The third lasted only 
nbout three years, and terminated in the entire destruction of the state and city. Carthage had 
existed nbout 700 years. 

For the C&rthafiDlan biitory ; RoliinU Am. Hht. bk. ii— AirnA^ De Repnblka CanhaifBiflBuan. 1084.— ITvai, •■ cited 
«ibuv«.— The Untemai BwUiry^ vol- xj. of the Aacieot.— .BUriifff't Hitt. of Carthige. iood. ISS7. wi.h a luep. 

% 213. The ancient states which were sealed in Europe remain to be mentioned. 
Without naming singly the various minor states, our object in this sketch will be ac- 
complished by a glance at the Chronology of Greece and Rome. 

I. Of Greece. The whole extent of time to be considered is 15 or 1600 years, 
from the permanent settlements in Greece to her final reduction to a Roman province. 
This whole space may be very conveniently and happily presented by a division into 
9ix successive periods^ each limited by distinguished events, and characterized by pro- 
minent circumstances. 

1. The Ist period comprehends the whole history fi-om the Dawn of civQixation to 
the Trojan War, 1184 B. C, and from its peculiar characteristic may be denomi- 
nated fabulous. 

Much which is related in the accounts of this period must be rejected as idle fiction ; 
jet a few important events mav be selected and authenticated. — Civilization had its 
irst impulse m the arrival of colonists from Egypt and Phoenicia, who Uid the founda- 
tions of some of the principal cities, as Arffos and Sicyon about 1800 years B.C. Lit- 
tle advancement was made, however, untu, after the lapse of more than two centuries, 
other colonies were planted, at Athens by Cecrojis and at Thebes by Cadmus, about 
the time of Moses (P. IV. i 34). Between this time and the Trojan war considerable 
proorress must have been made in cultivation. 

We find some of the peculiar institutions of the Greeks originating in this period ; 
particularly the oracles at Delphi and Dodona, the mysteries at Eleusis, and the four 
sacred games^ the court of Areopagus at Athens, and the celebrated Amphictyonic 
CounciU — The arts and sciences likewise received considerable attention. Letters had 
V)een introduced by Cadmus. Astronomy was sufficiently studied to enable Chiron to 
furnish the Af^onauts with an artificial sphere exhibiting the constellations. The ac- 
counts of the siege of Thebes and that of Troy show that progress had been made in 
the various arts pertaining to war. — But the whole history of the period exhibits that 
singular mixture of barbarism with cultivation, of savage customs with chivalrous 
adventures, which marks what is called an heroic age, 

2. The 2d period includes a much shorter space of time, extending from the Trojan 
war to the time when the regal form of government was abolished, about 1050 
B. C. From the most important and characteristic circumstances it may be called the 
period of cohnixation. 

The first governments of Greece were small monarchies, and they continued such 
without encountering peculiar difficulties until after the Trojan war. Soon after this 
we find the country mvolved in fatal dvil wars, in which the people, imder a number 



of petty cfaieftaiiis hostile to each other, suffered extremely from calamity and opprea- 
man. These evils seem to have led to the change in the form of Govenmient, and the 
sobethatioii of the |Mtpa»2ar instead of the re^al system. The same evils also probably 
co n trib u ted to the spirit of emigration, which so strikinely marks the period. The 

I emigranta vrho sought foreigp setUements are distinguished as of three separate classes. 

I The earliest were the JEoHantt who removed from the Peloponnesus to the north- 

western shores of Asia Minor and founded several cities, of which Sm}[ma was the 
principaL The second were the loniaiu, who went from Attica (originally called 
looia), and planted themselves in Asia Minor, south of the Cohans, where Ephesus 
was one of their chief cities. The third were the Dorians ^ who migrated to Italy and 
Sicily, and founded numerous flourishing settlements. Syracuse in Sicily became the 
most important. — In the period of colomzation we notice the origin of the four princi- 
pal dialeeU m the Greek language. (Cf. P. V. ^ 4.) 

3. The 3d period comprehends the space (of five hundred and fifty years) from the 
abdition efmonardtjf to the Beoiknino of the Persian War, about 500 B. C. 

In this period two of the Grecian states are chiefly conspicuous, Athens and Sparta; 
and from the special attention of these states to provide themselves with a suitable 
political constitution and civil code, this portion of the history may be designated as 
the period of laws. 

Sparta found in Lycurgns her lawgiver. His institutions gave a permanent cast to 
her character, and were not abolished until the last ages of Greece. — Many vears 
later, Athens received her constitution from the hands of Solon, who executea the 
task unsuccessfully attempted by Draco. (Cf. P. V. $ 167; P. HI. ^^ 8, 9.>— The 
other principal incidents in the history of this period are the repeated wars of Sparta 
with her neighbors the Messenians, and the usurpation of Pisistratus and the fate of 
his sons at Athens. — ^In the war Sparta at last was completely triumphant, but suf- 
fered much from the devoted skill and patriotism of Aristomenes, the Messenian 
general. It was in this struggle that the Spartans were so much indebted to the lame 
poet of Athens, Tyrtaeus. (Cf P. V. ^ 53.) 

In the verv time of Solon, Pisistratus contrived to obtain at Athens a sort of regal 
authority, which he transmitted to his two sons. The father used his power to pro- 
mote the glory and welfinre of the state. Of the sons one was assassinated at a public 
festival, and the other, being subsequently expelled, fled to Asia, and sought revenge 
by instigating the Persians to invade his native country. 

4. The 4th period extends from the beginning to the Close of tJie Persian War, 
4fiO B. C, a space of almost 50 years. To this age the Greeks ever after looked 
back with pride, and from its history orators of every nation have drawn their fiivorite 
examples of valor and patriotism. The Persian invasion called forth the highest 
energies of the people, and gave an astonishing impulse to Grecian mind. It may 
properly be called the period of military glory. 

The design of subjugating Greece originated in the ambition of Darius the Persian 
long, the second in succession from Cyrus the Great. He foimd a pretext and occa- 
sion for the attempt in a revolt of his Greek subjects in Asia Minor, in which Sardis, 
the capital of Lj^dia, was pillaged and burnt. The war was carried on by three suc- 

* * ' ' I did it " 

save kings, Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes, but on neither of them did it confer 
any glor^; while the battles of Marathon, Thermopyhs, Salamis, Mycale, and Plataea, 
secured immortal honor to the Greeks.-— A succession of splendid names adorns the 
history of Athens during this period. Miltiades, Themistocles, Aristides, Cimon, and 
Pericles, acted distinguished parts in the brilliant scene. Sparta also justly gloried 
in the self-sacrifice ofijeomdas and his three hundred brave companions. — The period 
of the Persian war was the age of the highest elevation of the national character of the 
Greeks. Before it, there existed little union comparatively between the different 
states, and it was not till Athens had alone and successfully resisted the strength of 
Persia at the battle of Marathon, that other states were aroused to effort against the 
conunofi enemy. In the confederation which followed, Sparta was the nominal head, 
bat the talents, which actually controlled the public affairs, were found in the states- 
men of Athens. To Athens, therefore, the supremacy was necessarily transferred, 
and before the close of the war she stood, as it were, the mistress of Greece. 

5. The 5th period includes the portion from the close of the Persian v>ar to the 
SrpBEXACT ef Philip, B. C. 337. At the beginning of thb period the general affairs 
of Greece were in a highly prosperous condition, and Athens was imrivaled in wealth 
and magnificence under the influence of Pericles. — But a spirit of luxurious refine- 
t soon took the place of the disinterested patriotism of the preceding age, and the 
10 G 


manners of all classes became signally marked by corruption and licentiousness. This 
may be designated as the period of luxury. 

The history of the period presents several subjects of prominent interest. — One of 
these is the protracted mar between Athens ana Sparta, termed the Pcloponnesian. 
Pericles was still in power when it commenced, but he soon fell a victim to tae terrible 
plague which desolated Athens. The unprincipled Cleon and the rash Aicibiades suc- 
cessively gained the predominant influence. The war was continued with slight in* 
termissions and various successes for nearly thirty years, and was ended by the battle 
aiM^os Potamos, B. C. 405, in which Lysander, the Spartan king and general, gained 
a final victory over the Athenians. By this event Athens lost her supremacy in 
Greece, and was deprived even of her own hberties. Her walls were thrown down, 
and a government of thirty tyrants imposed upon her citizens. To this, however, the 
Athemans submitted but a few years. In 401 B. C. the Thirty were expelled. 

The same year was remarkable for tvoo other events. The nrst was the accusation 
of Socrates t one of the greatest and the best men of which paganism can boast. The trial 
for some reason was delayed several years, but the result was utterly disgraceful to 
the city and to all concerned (cf. P. v . ^ 171). The other memorable event was the 
expedition of Cyrus ike younser^ the satrap of^ Lydia, against his brother, the king of 
Persia. Ten thousand Greeks accompanied him in this enterprise. The march from 
Sardis to the Euphrates, the fatal battle of Cunaxa, and the labors and dangers of the 
10,000 in returnmg to their homes, are recorded by Xenophon with beautiful simpli- 
city. — The assistance which the Greeks eave in this revolt of Cyrus, involved them 
in another war with Persia. Sparta had, by the result of (he Peloponnesian war, 
gained the supremacy in Greece, and the other states, especially Athens, Thebes, 
Argos, and Corinth, refused to aid her in the struggle which followed. They even 
united in a lesjgue against her, and Athens furnislied the commander to whom the 
Persians were indebted for the almost entire destruction of the Spartan fleet. This 
war was terminated by a treaty, B. C. 387, which weakened and humbled Sparta, 
and was alike dishonorable to all the Greeks. 

The two states which had for ages been pre-eminent in Greece, Athens and Sparta, 
were now both depressed, and oppormnity was afforded for a third to seek the as- 
cendancy. This for a short time was secured to Thebes, chiefly by the talents of two 
distinguished citizens, Pelopidas and Epaminondas. — But a war with Sparta shortly 
consummated her glory ana exhausted her strength ; she gained a brilliant victory in 
the final battle of Mantinea, 363 B. C, but was in the same instant ruined by the 
death of her general Epaminondas. — The successive downfall of three principal states, 
Athens, Sparta, and Thebes, and the jealousies and dissensions connected therewith, 
reduced Greece to a miserable condition. The general corruption and licentiousness, 
already mentioned, increased the degradation. In a few years we find the Grecian 
states embroiled in the Phocian or Sacred war, B. C. 357. (Cf. P. III. % 72.) This 
commenced in the jealousies between the Thebans and the Phocians. The Spartans 
and the Athenians, and ere long the Macedonians, became involved in it. Shortly 
after this contest was terminated, a new Sacred war arose, called the Amphissian ; in 
which the council of Amphictyons appointed Philip, king of Macedon, as general and 
leader of their confederacy. Amid such dissensions, the ambitious Philip eagerly seized 
a favorable moment for entering the Grecian territories. At Athens the single voice of 
Demosthenes was Hfied to warn the Greeks of his ultimate intentions, and to rouse 
them to united resistance. A feeble alliance with Thebes was effected, but in vain. 
The battle of Chseronea, B. C. 337, made Philip the master of Greece. 

6. The 6th period extends from the supremacy of Philip, gained by the battle of 
Chsronea, to the Capture of Corinth, 146 B. C. By the disastrous defeat at ChaB- 
ronea the genuine fire of the Grecian spirit was extinguished, and the subsequent his- 
tory exhibits Uttle else than the steps by which the country was reduced to a dependent 
province. We may therefore denominate this the period of decline and fall. 

Alexander, who succeeded his father Philip os kin^ of Macedon, and autocrat of 
Greece, cast a sort of glory on the first years of this period by his extensive conquests. 
Those, who love to trace the course of conquerors, will follow with interest his march 
from the Hellespont to the Granicus, to Issus, to Tyre, to the Nile, to the desert of 
l<ibya, to the Euphrates, and the Indus ; but every reader will regret his follies at Per- 
eepolis and be disgusted bv his beastly life and death at Babylon. — For twenty years 
after Alexander's death the vast empire he had formed was agitated by the quarrels 
among his generals. By the battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, B. C. 301, these contests were 
terminated, and the empire was then divided into four kingdoms, one comprising Ma- 
cedonia ond Greece ; a second Thrace and Bithynia ; a third Egypt, Libya, Arabia, 
Palestine, and CoRlosyria ; and a fourth called the kingdom of Syria, including all the 
rest of Asia, even to the Indus. 

To the first of these the Grecian states belonged. Patriotic individuals sought to 


arouse their countrynien to cast off the Macedonian yoke ; bat jealousy between the 
states and the oniTersal corruption of morals rendered their exertions fruitless. All 
that is really honorable and memorable in the proper afTairs of the Greeks at this 
period, is foand in the history of the Achaean league. — The Achcan league was origi- 
nally a confederacy between twelve small cities of Achaia, established very early, 
when the Grecian states first assumed the popular instead of the regal form. It took 
scarcely any part in the perpetual conflicts between the other republics, and was neutral 
even in the Peloponnesian war. 

The Macedonian kings had dissolved it, but it was revived about 280 B. C. Subse- 
quently it was enlarged, and Corinth became the head and capital. Under the presi- 
ceucy'of Philopcemen, B. C. 200 to 160, it rose bo high in power and reputation, that 
i;5 alliance was sought by some of the governments of Asia. Had the other states at 
thL< time risen above the foul and mean spirit of envy, the independence of Greece 
might probably have been restored. But unhappily the Romans were requested by 
one of the states to aid them against the Macedonians. The Romans gladly embraced 
ibe opportunity, and shortly alter this a Roman general led as a captive to grace his 
triumph the last king of Macedon, 167 B. C. 

Nothing but the Achaean league now preserved southern Greece from falling an in- 
stant prey to Roman ambition. The remaining vigor of the confederacy averted this 
de^iziy for twenty years; then it came, under the pretext of just punishment for insult 
upon Roman ambossadon. The legions of Rome poured upon Achaia, Corinth was 
r-iken, and with all its wealth and splendor committed to the flames and consumed to 
a<>iies. This completed the subjugation of the country, which became of course a 
prarintt of Rome. 

TV rrncifial bdr« m the etodj of (be Grccun bittorx ir« mntioned, P. V. S 7. T. (d).— A good alflnartuy wmil b ifimoeJA 
m^f-rrmA edtjca of G o I d ■ Di i t h*i Hiatory of Gran. Ite. Philad. ieS6. 12>— A valaable t«Kt-boA ud guide to deeper namrA ; 
.i. H. L. Hwawn. S^atae at A'itiqnitjr, tnailated fnun Gcnuii by Q. Bmtrvft, NortfauopL IfBgL &— Par Ibe later periodt of Gn- 
t \. tt^twy; J. Gaii;Hdt. of Greece from aceewua or Alexander Ull Ibe fiMlfubJcctian Id the BoBUB. Lewd. ITSL 4.— Jheafs- 
idiiCb,Ge«bi..bleder Adder and ibfCiBaDdea. Lpa. 1782. 

^ 214. II. Rose. The history of Rome extends through a space of more than 1200 
yean; which may be divided, like the Grecian history, into six periods. 

1. The 1st period includes the time from the Buildiho of the City, B. C. 752, to 
the Expulsion of Tasquiit, B. C. 509. It may be called the Period of the KingSy or 
of Regnl Power. 

The Roman historians have left a particular account of this period, beginning with 
the very foundera of the city, Romulus and Remus, >» hose descent is traced fi'om 
.^neas the hero of Virgil. But manv have doubted whether this portion of the Roman 
ht&tory is entitled to much credit, and some have even contended that it is altogether 
l-ibulous. (P. V. ^ 510.) — Seven kings are said to have reigned (P. III. i^ 193, 240). 
« )ne of the most important events of this period, was a cTiange in the constitution 
<:}f4.ctcd by the sixth king, Servius Tullius, introducing the Comitia Centuriata. He 
divided the citizens into classes, and subdivided the classes into centuries, making a 
Diuch lar^r number of centuries in the richer classes than in the poorer. (P. III. i 252.) 
— ^The reign of the second kin^, Numa, is remembered, on account of his influence on 
the affaire of religion ; as he instituted manv of the religious ceremonies and several 
classes oi' priests. — During the period of the kin^s, 244 years, the Roman territory was 
of very Hmiied extent, and the people were oTten involved in war with the several 
•tatcs in their immediate vicinity. Tarquin the Proud, the last king, was engaged in 
i.He aip^c of an enemy's city only tixteen miles from Rome, when his son committed 
the outrage upon the pereon of Lucretia, which led to the banishment of the family and 
the' overthrow of the regal government. 

2. The 2d period extends from the expultion of the Kitigt to the time when the Ple- 
bua:ts were admitted to the Offices of state, about 300 B. C. At the beginning of 
thi) period the government was a thorough aristocracy, but at the close of it had be- 
come a full democracy. It included over 200 yean, and may be designated as the 
period of the Plebeian and Patrician contents, or of Party itrift. 

Two consuls, chosen annually, firet took the place of the king, and exercised almost 
precisely the same power. All offices of state were forbidden to the Plebeians or com- 
mon people, and filled exclusively by Patricians or descendants from the Senators or 
Patres. — The first step in the undermining of the aristocracy was the Valerian Law, 
which allowed a citizen condemned to a disgraceful punishment to appeal from the 
magistrate to the people. Under the protection of this law, the people, discontented 
wi'h their poverty and hardships, ere long refiised to enrol their names in the levies, 
which the ware with the neighboring states demanded. This difficulty led the Patri- 
ciaiM to invent a new office ; that of Dictator (P. III. ^ 248). But the dissatisfaction 


of the Plebeians was not to be thus removed. They united with the arm? and with- 
drew to Mt. Sacer, B. C. 493. Reconciliation was effected by creating tne office of 
Tribunes, who were to be chosen annually from the Plebeians, and to poesess the power 
of a negative upon the decrees of the Consuls and even the Senate. (P. III. ^ 245.)— 
This arrangement onlv led to new dissensions, the Tribunes generally making it their 
object to oppose the Consuls and the Senate, and the Plebeian interest gradually en- 
croaching upon the Patrician. — ^In a few years another fundamental change was effected. 
The important business of state had, from the time of king Servius Tullius, been 
transacted at the Comitia Centuriata, or assemblies voting by cerUuriei. It was now, 
B. C. 471, decided that such business might be transacted in the Comitia Tributa, or 
assembUes voting by Tribes, in which the Plebeians held the control. 

The next office created at Rome seems to have originated in the jealousy between 
the two parties, the Patricians opposing, and the Plebeians favoring it. l*ms was the 
Decemvu^te, B. C. 451, which supermded both consuls and tribunes, but continued 
only three years, and then the two other offices were restored. — ^In a few years the 
people made another advance, the Senate conceding, that six military tribunes, three 
Patrician and three Plebeian, might be substituted instead of the two consuls. — Another 
office was created during this period, the censorship ; two Censors being appointed to 
take the census of the people every five years, and to watch over the public morals.— 
But this office does not appear to have originated in party animosity ; nor had it 
any influence in faeaUng the dissensions between the higher and lower orders (cC 
P.m. ^247). 

One ^nd obiect with the Plebeians yet remained unaccomplished. They were 
not eligible to tne more important offices of the state, and to remove this disability 
they now bent all their energies. The struggle continued for many years, and occa- 
sioned much unhappy disturbance, but termmated in their complete success ; as they 
ffained admission to the consulship, the censorship, and finally to the priesthood, and 
uius obtained a virtual equality with the Patricians about B. C. 300. 

During this period, so harassed by internal contests, Rome was engaged in fre- 
quent wars. Three of them are most noticeable. The first was with the jStrurians, 
under king Porsenna, shortly after the expulsion of Tarquin, " a war fertile in exploits 
of romanuc heroism.*' — The second was with the city Veil, a proud rival of Rome. It 
was at last taken by Camillus, B. C. 390, after a siege of ten vears.— The last was 
with the Gauls, who invaded Italv under Brennus, and are saia to have taken Rome 
and burned it to the ground, B. C. 385. Camillus, who had been forced by the cla- 
mors of the populace to go into retirement, unexpectedly returned, and put to speedy 
flight the barbarian conquerors. 

3. The 3d period in the Roman history extends from the final triuwtph of the Pie- 
heians to the Captuke of Carthaob, B. C. 146. 

Rome had hitherto been distracted with intestine feuds and dissensions, and had 
extended her dominion over but a small extent of territory. The admission of Ple- 
beians to all the high offices of trust and distinction promoted the consolidation and 
strength of the republic, and the career of conquest was soon commenced. This may 
be'remembered as the period of the Pumie Wart, or of Foreign Conquests. 

The first important conquest was that of the southern part of Italy, which resulted 
from the war with the Samnites. Southern Italy was settled by Grecian colonies 
(^ 50), and contained at this time several cities, flourishing, wealthjr, and refined by 
letters and the arts. On their invitation Pyrrhus, the kin^^ of Epirus, passed over 
from Greece with a large army and a train of elephants to aid them against the Ro- 
mans, and was for a time successful, but finally, being totally defeated at the battle 
of Beneventum, B. C. 274, fled precipitately to nis own dominions. The allied states 
and cities immediately submitted to Rome, who thus became mistress of Italy. 

She now began to look abroad for acquisitions, and the island Sicily became an 
object of desire. The pursuit of this object broueht Rome into contact with Carthage, 
which was now flourishing and powerful. The Carthaginians had settlements in 
Sicily, and desired as well as the Romans the dominion of the whole island. Hence 
sprang the first of the three Punic Wars. Sicily was chieflv settled by Greek colo- 
nies. These colonies preferred independence, but, situated between Rome on one 
side and Carthage on the other, were in no condition to resist both, and had only the 
alternative of joining one against the other. They chose the side of the Romans in 
the first Punic war, which began B. C. 264, and was ended B. C. 241, by a treaty 
exceedingly humiliating to Carthage. Sicily was made a Roman province, yet Syra- 
cuse, the principal city, was allowed to retain an independent government.— -The 
tragic story of Regulus belongs to the first Punic war. 

After a peace of twenty -three years, the second Punic war began in the siege of 
Saguntum in Spain, by Hannibal, B. C. 218. Having taken tnis city, Hannibal 
crossed the Pyrenees and the Alps, and marched down upon Italy with a victorious 


armT. The Romans were defeated in three engagements before the memorable 
battle of Canns, in which they were completely conquered, and 40,000 of their troops 
lett dead on the field. But after the battle of Cannoe the Cartho^nians gained no ad- 
Tantages. A king of Macedon came to their aid in vain. — Scipio, a Roman general^ 
having conquered Spain, passed over to Africa and carried the war to the very walls 
of Carthage. Hannibal was recalled from Italy to defend the city, but was utterly 
defeated by Scipio in the battle of Zama, B. C. 202, by which the second Punic war 
ended even more disastrously than the first. In this war Syracuse in Sicily look part 
i*-nh the Carthaginians, and was on that account besieged by the Romans. It was 
ab!y defended by the scientific genius of Archimedes, but at length taken by Marcel- 
Ilh. and made a part of ihc province of Sicily, B. C. 212. 

The result of the second runic war may be considered as the occasion which car- 
rii J ihe Roman arms into Asia. Hannibal, after the battle of Zama, fled to the pro- 
t< ction of Antiochus, king of Syria. This led to a war which compelled the king to 
fnif to the Romans nearly the whole of Asia Minor, B. C. 190. — The interference 
f>: the king of Macedon in the second Punic war also furniflhed the ground for a war 
v>vh him, which was the first step towards the conquest of Greece. A few years 
t.n«r,ihe Romans, on the pretence of aiding the iEtolians, subjected Macedonia, B. C. 
h'7. The Achaean league preserved the southern portions of the country a little 
linger ; but in twenty years these hkewise fell under the dominion of Rome by the 
capture of Corinth, B. C. 146. 

Carthage fell the same year with Corinth. The Romans had waged a third Punic 
war, when the Carthaginians were greatly weakened by an unfortunate struggle with 
the Numidians. The third Punic war continued but about three years, ana termi- 
nated in the entire destruction of Carthage, under circumstances of aggravated cruelty 
and fiuthlesaness on the part of the Romans. 

4. The fourth period extends from the Capture of Carthage and Corinth to the 
establishment of the Ixferial Govebnmekt by the battle of Actium, B. C. 31. 
Daring this whole time the Roman history is a continued tale of domestic disturb- 
inccs. This may justly, therefore, be termed the period of the CivQ Wart. 

The Tcry commencement of the period is marked by the disturbances which grew 
o*Jt of the attempts of the two Gracchi. They successively endeavored to check the 
growing corruption of the Senate, and to reheve the circumstances of the people ; but 
both feu victims to their own zeal and the hatred of their enemies, Tibenus 133, and 
Caiae 121 B. C. Some have ascribed their efforts to ardent patriotism ; others to 
mere ambition. (Cf. Niebuhr's Rome, cited P. V. % 299. 7.) Not long after the fall of 
Gracchus arose the Social war, by which the states of Italy demanded and obtained 
of Rome the rights of citizenship, B. C. 90. — Scarcely was this ended, when the Ro- 
mans began a^n to imbrue tneir hands in each other's blood in the fierce war of 
Sylla and Manus, rival leaders in the republic. Two horrible massacres signaUzed 
thus contention. Sylla finally triumphed, and was made perpetual dictator, yet re- 
signed his power at the end of four Jrears, B. C. 78. The death of Sylla is soon fol- 
lowed by the famotis conspiracy of Cataline, detected and subdued by the vigilance of 
Cicero. B. C. 62. 

Still Rome was distracted by parties, headed by ambitious men. — ^The first trium- 
virate, a temporary coaUtion between Pompey, Crassus, and Cessar, repressed the 
flames of discord for a few years. Pompey had already added Syria to the Roman 

?)««es8ions; Caesar soon added Gaul. Crassus lost his life in an attempt to conquer 
arthia. B. C. 53. The death of Crassus broke the bond which held Caesar and 
Pompey together, and they hastened to determine in the field of battle who should be 
master of Rome. The contest was decided in the plains of Pharsalus in Thessaly, 
bv the entire defeat of Pompey, B. C. 48. Pompey fled to Egypt, but was beheaded 
tl:e instant he landed on the shore. For five years Caesar held the supreme power at 
Rome, but was assassinated in the senate, by a company of conspirators headed by 
Bnitus and Cassius, B. C. 43. 

A second triumvirate was now formed, on the pretext of avenging this murder, be- 
tween Antony, Lepidus, and Octavius, each aspiring to the power of Caesar. A horrid 
proscription sealed in blood this compsct. A war with the party of the conspirators 
necessarily followed, and the battle of Philippi, B. C. 42, put an end to the hopes of 
Bratus and Cassius, at the head of this party. Octavius, who was the nephew of 
CspMT, easily effected the removal of one member of the triumvirate, Lepidus, a man of 
Iceble talents and insignificant character. His other colleague, Antony, infatuated by 
love for Cleopatra, queen of Eeypt, soon furnished a pretext for open hostihty, and the 
&te of battle a<rain decided who should be the master of Rome. The armament of 
Antony and Cleopatra was wholly defeated by Octavius at Actium, B. C. 31. This 
battle subjected Egypt to Rome, and Rome, with all her possessions, to the power 
of Octavius, by whom the imperial government was finally established 





The Roman history, from the fall of Carthage to the battle of Actiam, presenta bm . 

a melancholy picture, a blood-stained record of sedition, conspiracy, and avil war. I 

5. We may include in a 5th period the time from the establishment of the Imperial I 
Government to the reign of Constantine, A. D. 306. As Christianity was introduced | 
into the world in this period, and was opposed until the end of it by the Roman govern- 
ment, we may designate it as the period of the Pagan Emperorg. 

The reign of Augustus, the name taken by the first Emperor Octavius, has become 
proverbial for an age flourishing in peace, literature, and the arts. It is distinguished, 
also, for the birth of our Savior ; as the next reign, that of Tiberius, is, for his cruci- 
fixion and death. — The four reigns succeeding, viz. those of Tiberius, Califfula, Clau- 
dius, and Nero, are cliiefly memorable for the tyranny of the emperors, and the profli- 
gacy of their families and favorites. 

On the death of Nero, A. D. 69, follows a year of dissension and bloodshed, in which 
Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, successively gained the empire and lost their Uves.— The 
Flavian family, Vespasian and his two sons, Titus and Domitian, next in order receive 
the supreme power. Titus is celebrated as the final conqueror of the Jews, whose 
obstinacy provoked him to rase their city to the ground, an event exactly fulfilling the 
predictions of Christ. His reign is memorable for the eruption of Vesuvius, which 
buried the cities Herculaneum and Pompeii in ruins. Domitian, the last emperor of the 
family, provokes his own assassination, A. D. 96. 

Passing the reiens of the feeble Nerva, the martial Trajan, and the peaceful Adrian, 
we arrive at a brilliant age in the imperial history, the age of the Antonines, extending 
from A. D. 138 to 180, a space of about forty years. Tneir reigns appear in the midst 
of the general sterility ana desolation of the imi)erial history lixe the verdant oasia in 
the desert. Literature and the arts of peace revived under their benign influence. 

After the death of Marcus, A. D. 180, there follows a whole century of disorder, 
profligacy, conspiracy and assassination. The army assumes the absolute disposal of 
the imperial crown, which is even sold at public auction to the highest bidder. Within 
the last fifty years of the time, nearly fifty emperors are successively proclaimed, and 
deposed or murdered.— In the year 284, Diocletian commenced his reign, and attempted 
a new system of administration. The empire was divided into four departments or 
provinces, and three princes were associated with him, in the government. This sys- 
tem only laid the foundation for rivalship and contention in a new form, and in a tew 
years Maxentiue and Constantine, sons of two of the princes associated with Diocletian, 
appealed to the sword to decide upon their respective claims to the imperial purple. 
The former fell in the battle, and Constantine secured the throne. 

This period is memorable in the history of Christianity. Under the Pagan Emperors, 
those who embraced the gospel were constantly exposed to persecution and sunering. 
Ten special persecutions are recorded and described, the first under Nero, A. D. 64, 
and the last under Diocletian, commencing A. D. 303, and continuing ten years, unto 
A. D. 313. But, notwithstanding these repeated eflbrts to hinder the progress of the 
gospel, it was spread during this period throughout the whole Roman Empire. 

6. The 6th period includes the remainder of the Roman history, extending from the 
reign of Contiantine to the Fall of Romct when captured by the HeruU, A. D. 476. 
The reign of Constantine the Great imparts splendor to the commencement of this 
period. He embraced the Christian faith himself, and patronized it in the empire, as 
did also most of his successors ; on which account this may be called the period of the 
Christian Emperors. 

One of the most important events of his reign, and one which had a great inflaence 
on the subsequent affairs of Rome, was the removal of the Government to a new seat. 
He selected Byzantium for his capital, and thither removed with his court, giving it the 
name of Constanlinople, which it still bears. He left his emiMre to five princes, three 

Apostate, is memorable for his artful and persevering attempts to destroy the Christian 
religion, and his unsuccessful efforts to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem, with the ex- 
press purpose of casting discredit on the predictions of the Bible. 

From the death of Juhan, A. D. 363, to the reign of Theodosius the Great, A. D. 
379, the history presents Uttle that is important to be noticed, except the jealousies 
between the eastern and western portions of the Empire, which grew out of the re- 
moval of the court to Constantinople. Theodosius was the last emperor who ruled 
over both. In 395 he died, leaving to his sons Arcadius and Honorius separately the 
east and the west. — From this time the Eastern portion remained distinct, and its his- 
tory no longer belongs to that of Rome. 


The Western portion languishes under ten successive emperors, who are scarcely 
able to defend themselves against the repeated attacks of barbarian invaders. At length, 
under Au^iistulus, the 11th from Theodosius, Rome is taken by Odoacer, leader of 
the Heruh, and the history of ancient Rome is terminated, A. D. 476. 

The whole of the perioa from Constantino to Augustulus is marked by the continued 
ioroads of barbarous hordes from the north and the east. But the greatest annoyance 
was sufiered in the latter part of the time, from three tribes, under three celebrated 
leaders; the Goths, under Akiric; the Vandals, under Genseric; and the Huns, 
under Attila ; the two former of which actually carried their victorious arms to Rome 
itself (A. D. 410 and 455), and laid prostrate at their feet the haughty mistress of the 
world ; and the latter was persuaded to turn back his forces (A. D. 453) only by igno- 
ble concessions and immense gifts. 

^ 215. It may be proper to add here, that the flastem Empire, called also the Greek 
Empire, was sustained under various fortunes, for a period of almost 1000 years after the 
overthrow of the Western. After the fall of Rome nearly sixty different emperors had 
occupied the throne at Constantinople, when, A. D. 1202, that city was taken by the 
crusaders frt>m France and Venice. By thb event the Greek emperors were forced to 
establish their court at Nicsa in Asia Minor. After the lapse of sixty years, their 
former capital was recovered : and, subsequently to this, eight different emperors held 
the sceptre there ; although the empire was gradually reduced in strength and extent, 
until it consisted of but a little comer of Europe. Its existence viras prou)nged to A. D. 
1453, when Constantinople fell into the hands of the Turks, who have retained it to 
the present day. 

r^ tte pffiDcipd iraAi M tfaB Ronu biriofy, M p. V. ; 209. 7.— Wa nanttoa iMra tt Mlmblt^ Jb^ 
Edmy. Bart. ISK. iTotai &— Tte •tadmt in ucMat balory will dariva tdvul^i ahofnm Bif laBAL«f^«onfA«aiidy 
nrf Cm ef BManh Bod PritMnft Ltdum en Bulory ; alao, JZUAV PioiAdeulik dai butorbcbcB Studiuma. Bed. 1811. I. 

IX a. 









^ 5«. The foundation of very many of the fictions of mythology is laid in the idea, 
which arose from the simplicity and inexperience of the first sees, conversant only 
with objects of sense ; viz. that every thing in nature was endued with an appropriate 
activity and spontaneity like that in man. In consequence of this idea, wherever an 
unusual appearance or agency was observed, it was ascribed to a distinct being or 
existence operating direct^ or immediately. This creation of personal existences out 
of natural phenomena, this personification of physical objects and events was, in all 
probability, one of the most prolific soiirces of nble and of idolatry; for which the stars 
and the elements seem to have furnished the first and the most common occasion. 

Kiaj of the pactt iteries u« iBfeoknalyarfTCd bf nfarriat thair origtB to qvdi^ 
ctplaudehugM. Ct P. IV. §41.~0b lb* riNondoUtiy, w* nfor to/tatar,Ori(iaaf PipuiUola^- Lo^ 1816. S nta. 4. 
CL aln Uudk/ord; Smx aad FnC BtaL bk. v.-Auritr, dtod § 12. B. (a).-.S« rafa^^ 

TlM foUowiiiff remarks, on tbe •ources of /oUa, ar« fVom the TVatt^ du Etuda of Rattin, Tbey 
were tranelated by Mr. fVMinftpu ff. TjfUr, wbo hai conaented to tbeir inaertion bere. 

1. ** One source of Fable is the perversion or alteration offaete in Sacred History ; 
and, indeed, this is its earliest and principal source. The femily of Noah, perfectly 
instructed by him in retigious matters, preserved for considerable time the worship of 
the true God in all its purity. But when, after the fruitless attempt to build the tower 
of Babel, the members oi this family were separated and scattered over different 
countries, diversity of language and abode was soon followed by a change of worship. 
I'ruth, which had been hitherto intrusted to the single channel of oral communication, 
subject to a thousand variations, and which had not yet become fixed by the use of 
writing, that sure guardian of facts, became obscured by an infinite number of fables, 
the latter of which greatly mcreased the darkness in which the more ancient had en- 
veloped it. — The tradition of great principles and great events has been preserved 
among all nations ; not, indeed, without some mixture of fiction, but yet with traces 
of truth, marked and easy to be recognized ; a certain proof that these nations had a 
common origin. Hence the notion, dimised among all people, of a sovereign God, all- 
powerful, the Ruler and Creator of the universe : and consequently the necessity of 
external worship by means of ceremonies and sacrifices. Hence the uniform and 

feneral assent to certain great facts ; the creation of man by an immediate exertion of 
divine power ; his state of felicity and innocence, distinguished as the golden age, in 
which the earth, without beins moistened by the sweat of his brow or cultivated by 
painful labor, yielded him all her fruit in rich abundance ; the fall of the same man. 
the source of all his woe, followed by a deluge of crime, which brought on one of 
water ; the human race saved by an ark, which rested upon a mountain ; and after- 
wards the propagation of the human race from one man and his three sons. — But the 
detail of particu^ actions, being less important, and for that reason less known, was 
soon altered by the introduction of fables and fictions, as may be clearly seen in the 
family of Noah itself. The historical &ct that he was the father of three sons, and 
that their descendants after the flood were dispersed into three different parts of the 
earth, has given rise to the fable of Saturn, whose three sons, if we may beheve the 
poets, shared between them the empire of the world.'* 

On Nvenl of fhe polati ■bovc ■oggMM by BolliD, ttw pi(iii nytbelogy eiUbiti ■triking coioeideBcei witb lkd> in nerad hiifory. 
TbeM an pointed ont bj wvml writan ; we mnitkm pnrtieolniijr Onthu, Dn veritate Ral. Cbrirt. (L. L e. 17.)— Di Lnmn^ Hi»- 
toira da la FUUe coatMa avae PBUoira Saiatew AmaL 1731.— /ote^, Bona Moakm— OoBycr, Ladiini oo Seriptafa Facta. 2d ed. 
Lood.ia»--^8MIIiii(^lMl^Ori(iiwiSaerfc-CtAraiirMi^Hiatei7(^ Load. 182a 2 vola. 4. (bk. i.) 

2. " A second source of Fable was furnished by the ministry of aneds in human 
affairs. God had associated the angels with his spiritual nature, his inteUigence and his 
immortaUty ; and he was farther desirous of associating them with his providence in 
the government of the world, as well in the departments of nature and the elements, 
as in reference to the conduct of men. The Scripti/res speak of angels, who, armed 
with their glittering swords, ravage all Egypt, destroy by pestilence in Jerusalem an 
innumerable multitude of people, and entirely extirpate the army of an impious prince. 
Mention is made of an an^el, the prince and protector of the Persian empire ; of 
another, prince of the Grecian empire ; and of the Archangel Michael, prince of the 
people ot God {Dan. x. 20, 21). The visible ministration otangels is as ancient as the 
world, as we learn- firom the Cherubim stationed at the gate of the terrestrial paradise 
to guard its entrance. — Noah and the other patriarchs were perfectly instructed in this 
truth, which to them had an intense interest : and they took pains, no doubt, to instruct 
their families on a subject of such importance ; but these by degrees losing the more 
pure and spiritual notions of a divimty concealed and invisible, attended only to the 
i^nts through whom they received their blessings and punishments. Hence it is 
that men formed the idea of gods, some of whom preside over the fruits of the earth, 
others over rivers, some over war and others over peace, and so of all the rest ; of 
gods whose power and agency were confined to certain countries and nations, and who 
were themselves under the dominion of the supreme God. 

3. " A third source of Fable may be in a native principle deeply fixed in the minds 
of all people ; this ia tbe persuasion which has always prevailedi that Providence pre- 


niet over all human events great and smaU^ and that each, without exception, expe- 
riencea his attention and care. But men, frightened by the immense detail to which the 
Divine Being must condescend, have felt bound to relieve him, by giving to each of a 
number of deities some particular, appropriate, personal duty ; Singulis rdut propria 
dispertientes c^cia numinum. The oversight of the whole field would devolve too 
maoF concerns upon a single deity ; the sod was intrusted to one, the mountains to 
another, the hills to a third, and the valleys to another still. St. Augustin (de Civitate 
Beit iv. 8) reconnts a dozen different deities, all occupied upon a stalk of grain, of which 
each, according to his office, takes a special care at different times, from the first mo- 
ment that the seed is cast into the ground, until the grain is perfectly ripened. — Besides 
the crowd of deities destined to perform the inconsiderable auties of such affairs, there 
were others which were regarded as of a higher grade, because supposed to take a 
more noble port in the government of the world." 

The nnmber of godi admitted In the Greek mytbology was immenie, if we may take Hesiod's 
testimony for aulbority. He uyi tkert art 30,000 gedt on »a,rtki jntardian* of men. 

Warborton (in the work cited P. IV. ) 19. 3) contende that the lablee retpectiDC metamorpko»u, 
which are recorded by ancient author*, had their origin in the common belief or the doctrine of 
metempofchotu ; and the latter he affirms to have been a ** method of explaining the ways of 
Providence, which, as they were aeen to be unequal here, were auppoeed to be rectified here- 
after ;** thus, he aaye, ntetempoj/ehotis naturally suggeeted mUamorpkooit ; **ae the way of pu- 
Btshinf in another elate was by a tranmigrstion of the mouI ; so in this, It waa by a trantforma' 
tiom of tko bodg,** 

4. " A fourth source of Fable was the corruntion of the human heart, which ever 
strives to authorize its crimes and passions. Tne more important and renowned of 
these gods are the very ones whom Fable has most disparaged and defamed by attri- 
buting to them crimes the most shameful and debauchery the most detestable, murders, 
adulteries, incests. And thus it is that the human heart has been ready to multiply, 
distort, and pervert the fictions of mythology, for the purpose of palliating and excu.9ing 
practices the most vicious and frightnil by the example oi the gods themselves. There 
IS no conduct so disgraceful, that it has not been authorized and even consecrated by 
the worship which was rendered to certain deities. In the solemnities of the mother 
nf the gods, for instance, songs were sung at which the mother of a comedian would 
iiave blushed ; and Scipio Nasica, who was chosen by the senate as the most virtuous 
man in the republic, to go and receive her statue, would have been much grieved that 
his own mother should have been made a goddess to take the place and honors of 

5. *' I do not propose to introduce here all the sources fi'om which Fable takes its 
rise, but merely to point out some of those best understood. And as a fifth source, 
we may refer to a natural sentiment of admiration or gratitude, which leads men to 
associate the idea of something hke divinity with all that which particularly attracts 
their attention, that which is nearly related to them, or which seems to procure for them 
some advantage. Such are the sun, the moon, and the stars; such are parents in view 
of their children, and children in that of their parents ; persons who have either in- 
vented or improved arts useful to the human family ; heroes who have distinguished 
themselves in war by an exhibition of extraordinary courage, or have cleared the land 
of robbers, enemies to public repose ; in short such are all who, by some virtue or 
by some illustrious action, rise conspicuous above the common level of mankind. It 
will be readily perceived without further notice that history, profane as well as sacred, 
has given rise to all those demigods and heroes whom Fable has located in the heavens, 
by associating, with the person and under the name of a single individual, actions 
widely separated in respect to time, place, and person.*'— 'Cf. P. Y. ^ 222. 4. 

f 6. The adyantages of an accjoaintance with mythology are many. One of 
the most important, aside from its aid in reference to ancient philosophy, re- 
lie^ion, and iuatory, is the better understanding it enables one to obtain of the 
Greek and Roman writers and of the works of their artists. It is obviously ne» 
cessary to the cultivation of classical learning, which is of such acknowledged 
ifflpoTtance in modem edacation. — Gf. P. IV. § 29. 

On the benefits of studying the ancient mythology we add an extract from RaUin, as 
cited under the last section. 

1. *• It apprizes us how much we are indebted to Jesus Christ the Savior, who has 
rescued ns from the power of darkness and introduced us into the wonderful light of 
the Gospel. Before his time, what was the real character of men 7 Even the wisest 
aaod most npright men, those celebrated philosophers, those great politicians, those 
renowned legislators of Greece, those grave senators of Rome 7 In a word, what 
were all the nations of the world, the most polished and the most enlightened 7 Fable 
informs us. They were the blind worshipers of some demon, and oowed the knee 
before gods of gold, silver, and marble. They ofliered incense and prayers to statues, 
deaf and mate. They recognized, as sods, animals, reptiles, and even plants. They 
did not blush to adore an adulteroui Mars, a prostituted Venus, an incestuous Jimo. a 



Japiter blackened by every kind of crime, and worthy for that reason to hold the first 
rank amon^r the gods. — See what our fathers were, and what we ourselves should 
have been, nad not the li^ht of the Gospel dissipated our darkness. Each story in 
Fable, every circumstance m the life of the gods, ought at once to fill us with confiision, 
admiration, and gratitude. 

2. " Another advantage from the study of Fable is that, by discovering to us the 
absurd ceremonies and impious maxims of Paganism, it may inspire us with new 
respect for the majesty of the Christian religion, and for the sanctity of its morals. 
Ecclesiastical history informs us, that a Christian bishops, in order to render idolatry 
odious in the minds of the faithful, brought forth to the light and exposed before the 
eyes of the public, all which was found in the interior of a temple that had been 
demolished ; bones of men, limbs of infants immolated to demons, and many other ves- 
tiges of the sacrilegious worship, which pagans render to their deities. This is nearly the 
efiect which the stud;r of Fable must produce on the mind of every sensible person ; and 
this is the use to which it has been put by the holy Fathers ana all the defenders of 
the Christian religion. The great work of St. Augustin, entitled ' The City of God,' 
which has conferred such honor upon the Church, is at the same time a proof of what 
I now advance, and a perfect model of the manner in which profiine studies ought to 
be sanctified." 

• Thiibiritfp »u IViqpMhtf oTAloiBdriai rapMUac whan, lee JTunlKft^ TMiriatioB of MdAeim, L 9gL 

We would here refer to a very able and intereitlng treatise by Tkolmtkt on 7^ nature and wtarul 
iitjluenee of HeotktnUm among eik« Oreeka and AomaM.— "Whosoever/* eayi Tholuck, **ttanda on 
a lofly mountain ehould look not merely at the gold which the morning lUil pours on the grass 
and flowers at his feet, but he should sometimes also look behind him into the deep valley where 
the shadows still rest, that he may the more sensibly feel that that sun is indeed a sun. Thus it 
is also salutary for the disciples of Christ, at times, from the kingdom of light to cast forth a 
glance over the dark stage, where men play their part in lonely gloom, without a Savior, with- 
out a God !" 

See a timaUtioB of Tliolaek** Trcttin by PraH Amnon, Id BOL Safetitary, vol. IL 

3. " Still another benefit of very great importance may be realized in the tinder- 
standing of authors, either in Greek, Latin, or even French, in reading which a per- 
son is often stopped short if ignorant of mythology. I speak not of poets merely, 
whose natural language is Fable ; it is often employed also by orators, and it fur- 
nishes them fi^quently with the happiest illustrations, and with strains the most 
sprightly and eloquent. Such, for example, among many others, is that drawn from 
the story of Medea, in the speech of Cicero {Pro Leg. manU. sect. 9), upon the sub- 
ject of Mithridates, king of Fontus. 

4. " There is another class of works, whose meaning and beauty are illustrated by 
a knowledge of Fable ; viz. paintings, coins, statues, and the like. I'hese are so 
many enigmas to persons ignorant of mythology, which is often the only key to their 
interpretation."— "It should be added, that mythology, at the same time, itself re- 
ceives new light from the study of such remains or imitations of ancient art, so that 
these two branches of classical pursuits reciprocally aid each other. 

$ 7. Greece having been settled by colonies from several eastern countries, 
and having derived her religious notions particularly from Egyptians and Phoe- 
nicians, the origin of most of the Greek deities is to be sought in the religions 
history of those countries and nations. But many changes took place, and 
this original derivation was greatly obscured through the vanity of the Greeks, 
who wished to claim for themselves and ancestors the merit of their whole re- 
ligious system. This motive led them to confound the history and alter the 
names of the primitive gods. 

Some traditions may have come from India. There are certainly many points of 
resemblance between the mythology of Greece and that of India. 

See Karl RitUr, Die Vorludle EaropUaeber Volkeivaebiditeii wr HerodotiM am dan KankuoB gml la dm OeeMea dcs FMaiQi. 
Berlin, 183a & Cf. JSmnofy, as cited § 12. 8. (f). Alio Moon and Mauriet, as (bera died. Also the Works of Sfr fTm. Jona, 

cited \ iS. 4. On the inflaence of the Fboeoicians, lie. on the early culture of the Greeks, cf. P. IV. § 40-48 ; P. V. § 12. On 

the cbangci aueoasaivelr WTm«ht in the njiholonr of the Greeks, Mayo, toI. iii. p. 1-9, aa cited § 12. 2. (i). ^ 

§ 8. The religious system of the Romans gives clearer evidence of its Gre- 
cian descent, being in scarcely any part of it a native growth, but borrowed 
chiefly from the Greek colonies in Italy. Yet the Romans likewise changed, 
not only in many cases the names of the gods, but also the fictions of weir 
story, and the rites of their worship. They also derived some notions and 
usages from the Etrurians. (Cf. P. IV. § 109.) All the religious conceptions 
and institutions of the Romans were closely interwoven with their civil policy, 
and on this account exhibited some peculiarities, particularly in their system 
of aaspices, auguries, and various omens. We fina therefore in Roman mytho- 


logj mach which the Greek had not, and mach which was hoirowed from it, 
but altered and as it were molded anew. 

5 9. Thas the general diTision or classification of the ^s was not the same 
with both nations. The Greeks made a three-fold diTision into Superior gods. 
Inferior godt, and Demigod* or heroes; the Romans a twofold, into gods ihtpt- 
Hot and Inferior (Dii majorum et minorum gerUium). Their first class the 
Romans distingnislied as Omsentes and Seluti ; their second class, which in- 
claded dnnigods or heroes, they also distinguished as Indigeies and Semones, 

1. In the Roman classification the Cmttenlen^ so called because they were supposed 
t<t ibrm the great council {cotuentiente*) of heaven, consisted o{ twelve, 6 males and 6 
t- males; Jupiter, Neptune, Apollo, Mars, Mercury, Vulcan; Juno, Minenra, Ceres, 
Diana, Venus, Vesta. These were the ^reat celestial gods. — The Selecti were nearly 
equal to them in rank, and consisted ot eight, Saturn, Pluto or Orcus, Bacchus, Ja- 
nus, Sol, Genius, Rhea, and Luna. These (the Consentes and the Selecti) were called 
Dii majontm gentium^ and all the rest Dii minorum gentium^ in allusion to the division 
oi the senators {patres). 

2. The Indigetesj called also Adscriptitii^ were heroes ranked among the gods on 
a<*coant of their merits, and included particularly Hercules, Castor or Pollux, and 
Qoirinus or Romulus. — The Semones included those deities that presided over parti- 
cular objects ; as Pan^ god of shepherds, Flora^ goddess of flowers, &c. — Besides 
these there were among the Dii minorum gentium a numerous class of miscellanei, 
iricluding the virtues and vices, and other objects, personified ; and also a number 
called rfit peregrini, foreign gods introduced at Rome from abroad, or at least tole- 
rated, although perhaps worshiped chiefly by foreigners residing in the city. 

3 t. The gods were Ukewise classed according to their supposed residence. When 
thus classed, four divisions were made of them ; the celestial gods (cf. ^ 11){ the ter- 
restrial; the marine; the infernal. 

The Consentes in the Roman division corresponded to the class which the Greeks, 
when denominating the gods by their residence, termed the Celestial and Olympian, 
cnvpavcot, iX^purtoi ; which were also called &i ncyaXoi ^e6t, and hi iioScxa ^tdi. The 
Athenians liad an altar consecrated to thes:e collectively, /7cki/itfc nip JoSJcrc. 

4 1. The gods are sometimes arnnned according to their descent in the fabulous 
genealogies. But the genealogy of several of the gods is given variously by diflcrent 
prxrts and fi&bulists. 

The earliest Greek tbeofony was that of Orpheus (cf. P. V. $ 48). In Homer (cf. P. V. ) 50) 
are tracen of a lecODd theofrony, which baa been ascribed to Pronapides, said to have been the 
preceptor of Homer. Next is the regular schenie of Ilesiod (cf. P. V. ^ 51) in hi* poem entitled 
TSttgtnjf. Pans of a founb lystem are wrought by Aristophanes (cf. P. V. ( 65) into his comedy 
C'fihe CUmds. A partial theogony is minded by Ovid (P. V. ) 364) with bis Cosmogony. Cicero 
(cf. P. V. i 468) in his treatise on the nature of the gods gives the genealogy of some. — See ( IS. I. 

A (ncBlocM^ (*Mc, acewdiac to AriotT* rhtof Ofty, it appndad to Coakc't Haiod (eC P. V. | 61. 4)«— A («omlQ(icii Chart of 
KyUuLtf m cif«B is ow Plate, psf* SO. 

$ 10. Bot the differences in the systems of the two nations need not essen- 
tiallj affect a scientific treatment of the subject of their mythology. For the 
principal deities of each were common to both, and it will contrihute to brevity 
and compiehensiveness to include them all in one system of classification, 
pointing oat what may be peculiar in each case as it occurs. It is therefore 
proposed to consider the gods of the Greek and Roman mythology in four 
classes ; Tiz. (1) Superior Gods, (2) Inferior Gods, (3) Mythical Beir^gs, whose 
history is intimately connected with that of the gods, and (4) Heroes. 

In the Jirtt class will be noticed the twelve Consentes, or gre€U celestial gods, and 
alio, Janue, Saturn, Rhea, Pluto, and Bacchus. — In the second will be mentioned 
Uranus or Coelus, Sol, Lima, Aurora, Nox, Iris, ^olus. Pan, Latona, Themis. Ms- 
calapKts, Plums, and Fama. Here belong also numerous deities of the Romans 
which were not common to them and the Greeks. — The third class comprehends the 
Titans and Giants, Tritons, Sirens, Nymphs, Muses, Graces, Fates, Juries, Genii, 
Lares. Satyrs, and the like. — Under the fourth and last fall the names of Perseus, 
Ucrcules, Theseus, and various others, whose achievements led to their deification. 

$ 11. It maybe proper to remark here, that the ideas entertained by the 
Greeks and Romans respecting the nature of Divini^, were exceedingly im- 
perfect. A being possessing powers of body and mind superior to those of 
man, especially sa|>erior might, mainly answered to their notions of a god. 
The snpertority which they ascribed to their deities consisted chiefly in freedom 
from bodily decay, a sort of immortal youth, ability to move with wonderful 
celerity, to appear and disappear at pleasure with a noble and beautiful form. 



and to exert an immediate influence upon the condition of mortals. In these 
respects, however, their power was limited, according* to the general opinion, 
bein^ controlled by an eternal and immutable relation of things, termed Jatt or 

** The anri«>nt Greeks believed their frodi to Im of the Mme Pha|»e nnd form an themielvca, but 
frf far frreaier lieaiity, Btrength, nnd dlsniiy. They «l«o regarded theui aa lieing or much larger 
size than men ; for in thoie'timett great lize was esteemed a perfection both in man and woniHn. 
and consequently was supposed to be an attribute of their divinities, to whom they aflcribed all 
perfections. A fluid named Ichor supplied the place of blood in the veins of the gods They were 
not capable of death, but they might be wounded or otherwise injured. They could make them- 
selves visible or invisible to men as they pleased, and assume the forms of men or of animals as 
U suited their fancy. Like men, they stood in daily need of food and sleep. The meat of the 
gods was called Ambrosia Ufffpooia), their drink Nectar {vUrap). The gods, when they came 
among men, often partook or their food and hospitality. 

** Like mankind, the gods were divided into two sexes ; namely, gods and goddesses. They 
married and had children, just like mortals. Often a god became enamored of a mortal woman, 
or a goddess was smitten with the charms of a handsome youth ; and these love-tales form a 
large portion of Grecian mythology. 

** To make the resemblance between gods and men more complete, the Greeks ascribed to their 
deities all human passions, both good and evil. They were capable of love, friendship, grati- 
tude, and all the benevolent affections ; on the other hand, they were frequently envious. Jealous, 
and revengeful. They were particularly careful to exact all due respect and attention from man- 
kind, whom they required to honor them with temples, prayers, costly sacrifices, splendid pro- 
cessions, and rich gifts ; and they severely punished insult or neglect. 

** The abode of the gods, as described by the more ancient Grecian poets, such as Homer and 
Hesiod, was on the summit of the snow-clad mountains of Olympus in Tbessaly. A gate of 
clouds, kept by the goddesses named the Seasons, unfolded its valves to permit the passage of 
the Celestials to earth, or to receive them on their return. The city of the gods, as we may term 
it, was regulated on the same principles as a Grecian city of the heroic ages. The inhabitants, 
who were all the kindred or the wives and children of the king of the gods, had their separate 
dwellings; bat all, when summoned, repaired to the palace of Jupiter, whither also came, when 
called, those deities whose usual abode was the earth, the waters, or the under world. It was 
also in the great hall of the palace of the Olympian king that the gods feasted each day on am- 
brosia and nectar; which last precious beverage was banded round by the lovely goddess Ilebe 
( Youth), — maid-servants being the usual attendants at meals in the houses of the Grecian princes 
in early times. Here they conversed of the affkirs of heaven and earth ; and as they quaffed 
their nectar, Apollo, the god of music, delighted them with the tones of his lyre, to which the 
Muses sang In responsive strains. When the sun was set, the gods retired to sleep in their 
respective dwellings. 

*' The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, who drove each day In their chariots drawn by celestial 
steeds through the air, gave light to the gods as well as men.*' {KeigkUeyt p. 14-17.) 

^ 12 {. Before proceeding to notice more particularly the classes specified, we ^ill, 
in accordance with our general plan in other parts of this worJL, present some references 
to the sources of information on the subject ; alluding first to ancient authorities, and 
then giving the titles to more modem works. 

1 K. Almost all the Greek and Roman potti make use of, or at least touch upon, mythological 
subjects ; although these are not by anv means treated in the same manner in the different kinds 
of poetry, epic, lyric, dramatic, and didactic. We have properly mythic poetrv in the Theogony 
of Hesiod and the Cassandra of Lycopbron (P. V. ^ 67), the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and in two 
poems of Claudian, the Giganlomachy, and the Rape of Proserpine (P. V. $ 366).— Many kitto- 
Han* have introduced into their narratives mythological traditions, without presenting them, 
however, as fullv entitled to credence, while they have also recorded much that appertained to 
the worship of the gods and to works of art connected with mythology. Herodotus, Diodorus, 
Strabo, Pausanias, and the elder Pliny, may be mentioned particularly.— There were also ancient 
writers who made mythology their theme, or treated the subject more at length ; as, among the 
Greeks, ^po/i«don(j, Conon, Utpkaationy Parthenius, JSntoninua, Libereli*, Pal^rpkatus, Ileracli' 
tie$, Pkumutus (P. V. $ 231 ss) ; among the Romans, Hyginut and Fulgeniiua (P. V. ^ 509 ss). 
Notices OS this subject are found also in the works of some of the early writers of the church, 
and also in the notes of most of the Greek scholiasts. 

Sk. Of the numerous modern works on Mythology, some treat the subject more at large, others 
more compendiously ; some present the subject in an alphabetical order; there are also worlu 
accompanied with plates and drawings for illustration. 

(a) The fellowins are ■onw of the worin which (o iato more 
fall delaih on the whole nibjed, or on particular parta. 

Lit. Ong. OyraUi, Hutoriae Dcor. Oentil. SyntairinaU zvii. 
Baa. 1648. fol. Alao in hia 0pp. Ornn. (ad. /. JensiuM), Lufd. 
Dat. 1606. fnl. 

Vine. Carton, le Inasioi de(li del dcsll aatkU. LkMi. 1581. 4. 
Alw ia Lalia, Lofd. 1681. 4. oft. repr. 

Kataiit Comttif Mytholo^iae •. ExplicatioBis lUmlanm libri 
X. Qao. 1651. 8. 

Gtrh. I yi»*!uM, De theologia Oeniili et phjraiolof ia chriitiaoa, 
L de origtne et pmcrma idoUtria: libri IX. ArniL 16S9. fol. 

jfnfc Banter, Ia irjrtholofie et l«t fattlei espliqodca par IHiit- 
toire. Par. 1738-10. 8 Tolt. 12. In Gcrmaii, with additiona bj 
J. A. Sehlrgd and /. M SchrMh. Lpi. I7S&-65. 6 vol*. 8. In 
Eolith, AmieriMfUioloQr of (he Aadanta. Load. I7:». 4 tola. 8. 

JL Mayo, Sjitrm of Mjrthelocr. Fhilad. I8I& 4 vole. R 

P. Crnmr't Symbolik ond Mylbolopr d«r Alten Volker, bcuii- 
dert der Oriechen. Lpa. 1819-81. 4 Bde. 8. fld improved ed. 
commenced I83&— Same (abridged) bj O. H.Moht. Lpa. IffiS. 8. 

Ch. A. LoUtk, Aflaophamua, eive de Tlieolofic mjitiCKOT^ 
cortim cawia. Reg imontii (KOningitierg), lfU9. 2 tola & ofv 
poking MHue of tlw Ti««ra of Crvoaer : it kia been high] j ea» 

/. H. Van, Antiirmbolik. Stnttg. 1824. %. 

O Htrntann, De Mylbologla Orwoonim aotiquiviina. 1817. 

O. Hermnnu and P, Crmur, Briela aber Hosier uad Uetiodaat 
Het.ielk. 1818. 8. 

a. H, rniawH, Brief- ober daa Wcmb aad die Bchaadlvng dcr 
Mjrthnlneie. Lpx. 1819. 8. 

/. A. Kamic'i Myiboiog ic dar Griechca. Lp& 1(06. B,-~Bf 


Mjtbolo- I 
b t B«B. ■.-By MiM, ftatbaon d« aitatan 
> altar VMUr. Talk 1811. B. 

L i. Hmg, CMoneta^ca Ober d. Mytboi iL bMOtamten 
VAv4. all. Wdc, *araa«lichd. Oriceli. Fnyb. 1818. 4. 

K. a JtfUfar, riiiliipwiiM n wnt wiMeaiel»nUdMn Mj- 
ffaokCM. Gdaii«n, ISS> 8. 

jMffii— I, BftytbokfiM. B«L I8M. t tola. 8. 

&JLU RUH^, FtoBlMiw dai AltarthaoN, oder Saminl. 
■t5«.S^BB4crBdnaBem Boner, ftc. L|n. IIOS.*); 6 Bde. & 

Wamraidd/.B»9mC'«N«wSsrMaiofM]rtliota|7. Lond. 
Ur.Srafa. & 

Aqwii, OriciwdataakaCiiltaa. hr. 18B. 7 vola. 8. 

1. ^. SnarM, laqaiiy into the ^obolieal Laasuase of Andant 
Irtaid Mylbefaar, in dtflhnat N«a. of tha ClaaneaJ /oMmoi. 

C«al AGaMna, La Monte Primitir. Pfer. 1774-87. Svola. i. 
cif JvBiasbbtaa, tndhiaaai ^aiMa, and Uagnaia. 

OiafiM«l»BaijffMMdel'AatJqaUa. Ftf. l82S-9a dvola. 8 

Ca««BNC,OolBBal«sk«. Fw. I8a»-3I. 6 vola. 8. 
m Mei«eaMpaadioaatnatiaaa,arBiaaaak. 

C T. Damm, Mylholotio dar Grioehon oad BttMr (od. £aw 
awv BhI. 18201 8. with|dataa. 

K a a^mmmt, Ba^bwh dcr Mythoiosia aaa Homar and 
Band. BoL ITBfT-SS. 8 foh. &-By aome, Mylbolofie dar 
Gnalaa, ftrdia abw Blaiu, te. Baxi 1801. 8 Tola. 8. 

XJ% Jfsnte, G«na1«facR, odcr bjIM. Oidrtiuisaa dor Altea. 
BoL UtS. 8L wilh plataa. Alntnarf. by C F. /O^, N.Terk* 
ma. UL wkh piataa. Anm work m Eoflah, M ytbolocieal 
rc^sHoTGraakaaMlRoaaML liMk 

f r. Aa^Oaei, Alwia aiaar Myftotafia flxr Kamtlar. Bert. 
nCinila. 8L 

C X BOil«»^ OraadrlBW n Vetlainiaa ttbar dlo Mytholo. 
t*. Daaad. 1808. a— By mnu, Amaltboa odor Moacua d. 
tari»ytb«fa«»aBdbiUU.Alliai1taaMkoada. Laipi. I8SI. 

r. FmMtTy UjiUk^ dar Griechaa nd Ualacban Voiker. 

A^nto ndta, Tha nulkaoB; eonlaiBi^ tbo MylhotocKai 
■fiftuarteOnrttaaad Bomh. 88lhad. Land. 1881. 8. wlib 

yalfft niwHitiofMyttelecr. Loud. 1888. 181 vwy briaf. 
C. K. fWiwy, Biian iaHgoittaa and Aadaot Mytbokcy. 
T.Satt^^Mjih.vt<hmaetklbij. U. el Load. 1888. 8. 

(0 Dictkawiaa of llyf boh«y. 
J. nhfcrii>,MylM«8iKfcaa La»k— (ad. /./. Utaoate). tps. 

rroi 8. 

r. r.JL Jf«Cadmr««aayfhoL WflrlMbadi (ad. /. Q. A^Rfta^ 
Lb. m, 1 *ala. 8L 

IL n. Maitz, MythaL Wflrtoitadi fbr ScbQlar. Bert. 1817. 8. 

L & Ohiter, WOrtatboeh dar aliUaaaiadMa MyUtolocie nod 
BdififlB. Wato. 1810. 8 vola. 8. 

« C. Qtowyw, Oktiaaaaira abnp da la bMa. Fv. 1818. 12. 

Ft. H^ Dirtinaaaifa da k bblo, oa Myttaolofia Orecqiw, 
Laiiiaa, EgypOaaa^ Caitiqoa, PaiMBa% ladkaaa, CliiDOMa^ *c. 
rtf.iai.SMli. . 

STnu JUwaB, A Mfftelockal Didkaary, fte. (Eitnelid 
boml. »fnr» Naw fyrtan or Aaalyiiaor AaciaBl Mylhelo. 
gy.) Load. 1788. a. 

MI,Ilc«I>talliaa» Lofed.1180L8«ik4. 

AK^feyMM JWhiifctiw, Oa paH aalidad latiqaitia. MyAo- 
iB<pa,C1wnilniobfa,witehpartconaialiof8TOla.4. lOr. 

) ThefaUowincwQifacoofadn platea {UoatraOag tbo aob* 
Joda of nylbology, aeeonpanad witb ezplanatiooi. 

Jhmarrf it Moutfttueon^ L'Aotiqiutf azpliqada oi repmoaWo 

I tgam. Fax. 1719. 10 foii. in 6, foL Sapplem. Par. 1734. 
6 voli. ibi. Traoaiaiad Into Enfdiah by Danid llumj*nt^ 
Land. 1731. 6 mla. foi. with SapptooioDt, S tola. fi>L 

Joach. van Saiufrart, looaoloria deontn. MOnih. 168a fol. 

jjpanc^a PDiymetia, or an inqairy eooceraii^ tbe afreamaiit 
batweea tha worka of tbe Bomaa poato a^ the lenuuna of tbe 
aneiaalartlati. Lond. 1747. fel. 1756. foL 

Lfl 7)HRplt dbr AAiau, a mperb folio. 

XX Swrdoitf Tha Uavaa, roiifioai, ciTil, ftc, of the ABcleoti. 
Load. 4 Total & 

A. Birt, BiUerbudi tOr Mytholosio^ Arehlologie oad Kuart. 
BorL ia0&-16. 3 Tob. 4. 

A. L. Mmn^ Galeria nytboloiiqae, on Raeoeil dea nioaa- 
meoB poor aarvir a retode da la mylbologie, da rbtaloira da 
l^art, ftc. Fkr. 1811. 2 Tob. 8. oootaiiui« correct pietnra of 
about 800 aacieot awnaineDta.— Tnun. Oemu by Ttilktn. 

A. H. PAiaaUy Dcr Olyaip, Oder Mytbolofia dar Agyptar, 
Orieehea oad Boner. Beri. 1837. & Cthed. 

(<) Tbe imprceikNM oa andeat fona are of modi aarriee ia 
nioitrmtiBg mytholofy, to which part of tbe aubjeet beloo( tbe 
idlowiiK worin : 

JL C. Kknuing, Vemdi eioer nytholopadiaQ Dahtyliotbok 
(br ScbOlcr. Lps. 178L 8. (with 190 neat iiB|mMioBO of on* 
fiiTed fBoa.) I 

r.F.JMA'anytbologteheDaktyliotbak. NOnb. IMS (with 
90 imprened nodab of engraTod otonea). 

Abo Zippert'* Daktyliotbek (P. IV. 1 210). One thoooaad of 
bb inprcaaona beloog to mylholoKy. 

Tbe |cma of whidi mdgtwood ondBmtbg have (iTOn imita- 
thna, pertain, aoaay of theaa, to mytboloKy ; ea abo thoae of 
TbMM (P. ly. i 210). 

(/) Hare we may nane Ukewioe aoBBe worka on the Mytha* 
lonr of other iMtiona beaidei tbe Oreeka and Bamaaa. 

Moonfi Hindoo Ptatbeoo. 

JUfldle, Uaber die leUfidae Bildonf dor Hiadok Lpi. 1827. 

Jfomed^, Beaaardiea into tbe Natore and Affinity of AadcaC 
and Hindoo Mythology, a. Jiiatie Stttankm. 

Jfaanoi, ladbo Antiquitbe. Lond. 1806. 7 Tota. & 
fVMPt View of the Hblory, LitentarOk and BeligioB of Iba 

JfoRlf . Martin, Hiol. and Antiqaitba of Eaatem bdb. Load. 
1888. 8 Tota. 8. with aooM food piataa Ulortialiiiff Hindoo my 

C. CWoims Mythology of tha Hi^ok Load. 1882. 4. 

■ «ab.L 

AiafW, halheoa Cbinob (or PUalld between the rdigioaB 
wonhip of the Qfoeka aad tha Cbiaeae). Pkr. 18ia 4. CL Oau 
/own. i. 178. 

/. C. Prittarit Amiyab of Egypliaa Mythology ; In which 
the anpeiatiliona of the anctent EgypHaM are compered with 
thoee of the Indiaaa and other aatioeaof aatiquily. Lonl 1819. L 
abo 1889, wilh preliminary amy by Ton SeMifal; and pbtea. 

/irycn9,WflrtertHidider8candiaaTiaBMytholQgfe. Copenh. 
1816. IL 

B.i3Mte,MytholofyeadBiteaoflbeBritbhDniJda. Load. 
1808. 8. 

/.JCAniUr,9a»MiMy1holflgy. Ct BOL agpet- ^.Hn. 

For ioaie nmrka ea tbe natmbtaaea of ttw DiyCholegy of aw 
paitia JfyOobiifiM. Fbr. 188BL I Middle Agoa to the Claarieal, cH Editiw^ FrtfiMO to mrtfn*$ 
I Hbt EBf.FMry, TOLL PL 8Sa.ed. Loud. 1884. 



p. n. SUPERIOR 00D8. SATURN. 91 

l.'—Jl^thologieal Hittory of the Superior Gods. 

$ 13.* The Divinities which we include in the class denominated Superior 
GotUj are the following : Saturn, Kpovo$, Xporo;, Satumus f Janus ; Rbea or 
Ctbele, 'Pfo, *P«ta, Kv^iXrj; JuPiTER, Z«vj; Juno, "Hpa; Neptune, lloattfiwv, 
XepiunuMf PimVto^ Uxovtuv ; Apollo, 'ArtoTAjuv; Diana, "Aptf/itf; Minerva, 
noMtof; Mars, *Api;f; Venus, *A^po6itf^; Vulcan, "H^iuatoq^ VulcantUi 
Mercury, 'Epfti;;, Maxurius; Bacchus, ^ioyvoo^; Ceres, Ai^/t^s^p ; Vesta, 

§ 14. (I) Saturn. This was one of the most ancient of the sods, called 
Chronot by the Greeks and Saiurnus by the Romans. He was said to be the 
son of Urano$ and Titaea^ i. e. the heavens and the earthy and to have possessed 
the first government of the universe. His wife was Bhea^ who. was his sister. 
Saturn and his five brethren were called Titaru^ probably from their mother; 
Rhea and her five sisters likewise Titanides. Saturn seized upon the govern- 
ment of the universe by his superiority over his father and brothers; yet 
pledged himself to rear no male children ; accordingly he is represented as d&- 
voanng his sons as soon as bom. 

S 15. But this fate, three of them, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, escaped, 
through the artifice of Rhea their mother, who gave him stones to devour in- 
stead of the children at their birth. Jupiter aided Saturn in recovering his 
throne, after he had been driven from it by his brothers the Titans and bound in 
Tartarus. But soon he made war himself upon Saturn, and seized the govern- 
ment. According to Roman fiction, Saturn now fled to Italy (thence called 
Sa/vrma), and acquired great honor by teaching arts and morals to the people. 
Under him was the so-called golden age, which the Greek poets assigned to 
the reign of Saturn and described as smgularly happy. Probably an idea of 
the peHection and fecundity of nature, when just newly created, is the basis 
of this story. 

Su. Op. •( Di. m. in -^r^. Sn. TUk 91ft.— O0. Hatam. L 89-1 12. 

$ 16. From the Greek name of this god, which is the word signifying time 
(j^povo^), he has been considered as designed to personify time, and the first 
cause of the visible world. His Latin name also, as well as the story of his 
devonring his children, seems to have some reference to the idea of time, as 
satiated only by the destruction of what it has produced. 

1 ». This name, however, may have been given from the idea of fertilitv or produc- 
tiveness, as he ia said to have taught agriculture and the use of seeds. The word Sa- 
tumus is derived fi-om Satur, signifying /uZZ, statiated, and also /erf tZe.—— Saturn is 
termed Salor, Vitisalor, Falcifer (bearing a sickle or scythe), Sterculinus or Stercutius 
(having taught the fertilizing uses of manure), Canus and Leucanihcs {XcvKavOin). 

2. ^me have traced the fables respecting Saturn to the history of Noah. See 
Tooke^s Pantheon, Pt. ii. ch. i. $ 5.-^** Saturn was not unknown to the ancient Ger- 
mans, among whom he was worshiped by the name of Seatur ; who is described as 
standing on a fish with a wheel in one hand, and in the other a vessel of water filled 
with fiuits and flowers." HolwelVs Diet, cited % 12. 2 (c). 

$ 17. It was once customary to offer to Saturn human sacrifices, particularly 
among the Carthaginians, the Gauls, and the Pelasgic inhabitants of Italy.— 
His principal temples among the Greek were at Olympia, and at Drepanum in 
Sicily. The temple of Saturn in Rome served also the purpose of a treasury, 
in memorial, perhaps, of the general security and the community of goods m 
the Satnmian or golden age. -^-^^ The chief festival of this deity was the Saturn 
naUa of the Romans, which was, like the Peloria (n^Xupta) of the Thessalians, 
devoted to freedom, mirth, and indiscriminate hospitality. 

1. Tbe ccistoin of tacrificing children to Saturn seems to identify bim with MaUekt the Phoeni- 
cian idol, to wbom tbe apoaute Itraelites sacrificed their ofiiipriiig. 

S« JMh, BiM. iJtk h lU.—Diod. Sit. n. \4^Merin, ukI Fmtt, Dm Tictime* bunaiiici, Mm. JItad. Inter, volt. L and 
nia^-eiifia of koau amAcw. CUm. Jaum. ziv. 968. xvii. 104. 

2 ». Samm was represented by tbe figure of an old man having a scythe or sickle 
in one hand, and often in the other a serpent with its tail in its mouth in the form of a 
circle, both emblems of time. There are, howeveri but few ancient monuments of 
this deity. 



and to exert an immediate influence upon the condition of mortals. In these 
respects, however, their power was limited, according to the general opinion, 
being controlled by an eternal and immutable relation of things, termed Jait or 

** The anriiint Greeks believed their frod« to be of the Mine Rhape and form a* themtelvei, but 
ftf far frreaier Ueaiitv, Rtrenfrih« and dif^niiy. They also regarded them aa lieing of nioch larger 
size than men ; for m thoae times great size was esteemed a [>crfectian both in man and woniiin, 
and consequently was supposed to be an attribute of their divinities, to whom they ascribed alt 
perfections. A fluid named Icbor supplied the place of blood in the veina of the gods They were 
not capable of death, but they might be wounded or otherwise injured. They could malce tiienj- 
selves visible or invisible to men as they pleased, and assume the forms of men or of animals as 
it suited their fancy. Like men, they stood in daily need of food and sleep. The meat of the 
gods was called Ambrosia idfi$poirla\ their drink Nectar {yUrap), The gods, when they came 
umong men, often partook of their food and hospitality. 

*' Like mankind, the gods were divided into two sexes ; namely, gods and goddesses. They 
married and had children, Just like mortals. Often a god became enamored of a mortal woman, 
or a goddess was smitten with the charms of a handsome youth ; and these love-Ulea form a 
large portion of Grecian mythology. 

** To make the resemblance between gods and men more complete, the Greeks ascribed to their 
deities all human passions, both good and evil. They were capable of love, friendship, grati- 
tude, and all the benevolent affections ; on the other hand, they were frequently envious, jealouis, 
and revengeful. They were particularly careful to exact all due respect and attention from man- 
kind, whom they required to honor them with temples, prayers, costly sacrifices, splendid pro- 
cessions, and rich gifts ; and they severely punished Insult or neglect. 

" The abode of the gods, as described by the more ancient Grecian poets, such as Homer and 
Hesiod, was on the summit of the snow -clad mountains of Olympus in Thessaiy. A gate of 
clouds, kept by the goddesses named the Seasons, unfolded its valves to permit the passage of 
the Celestials to earth, or to receive them on their return. The city of the gods, as we may term 
It, was regulated on the same principles as a Grecian city of the heroic ages. The inbabitants, 
who were all the kindred or the wives and children of the king of the gods, had their separate 
dwellings; bat all, when summoned, repaired to the palace of Jupiter, whither also cane, when 
called, those deities whose usual abode was the earth, the waters, or the under world. It was 
also in the great hall of the palace of the Olympian king that the gods feasted each day on am- 
brosia and nectar; which last precious beverage was handed round by the lovely goddess Hebe 
( youtA),— maid-servants being the usual attendants at meals in the houses of the Grecian princen 
in early times. Here they conversed of the affairs of heaven and earth ; and as they quaffed 
their nectar, Apollo, the god of music, delighted them with the tones of his lyre, to which the 
Muses sang in responsive strains. When the sun was set, the gods retired to sleep in their 
respective dwellings. 

** The Dawn, the Sun, and the Moon, who drove each day In their chariots drawn by celestial 
ateeds through the air, gave light to the gods as well as men." {KdfhtUy, p. 14-17.) 

^ 12 1. Before proceeding to notice more particularly the classes specified, we will, 
in accordance with our general plan in other parts of this work, present some references 
to the sources of information on the subject ; alluding first to ancient authorities, and 
then giving the titles to more modem works. 

1 H. Almost all the Greek and Roman poets make use of, or at least touch upon, mytholnfrical 
subjects ; although these are not by any means treated in the same manner in the different kinds 
of poetry, epic, lyric, dramatic, and didactic. We have properly mythic poetry in the Theogony 
of Hesiod and the Cassandra of Lycopbron (P. V. $ 67), the Metamorphoses of Ovid, and in two 
poems of Claudian, the Gigantomachy, and the Rape of Proserpine (P. V. $ 366).~Many huto- 
riane have introduced into their narratives mythological traditions, without presenting them, 
however, aa fully entitled to credence, while they have also recorded much that appertained to 
the worship of the gods and to works of art connected with mythology. Herodotus, Diodorus, 
Strabo, Pausanias,and the elder Pliny, may be mentioned particularly.— There were also ancient 
writers who made mythology their theme, or treated the subject more at length ; as, among the 
Greek*^ ^poUodorus^ Conoa, Hephaatio-n, Panheniu»t JSntoninuSt Liberalu, PaLrphatus, Heraeli- 
Hes, PhumHtuM (P. V. ^ 231 ss) ; among the Romans, Hyginns and FnlgeMiua (P. V. $ 502 ss). 
Notices OS this subject are found also in the works of some of the early writers of the church, 
and also in the notes of most of the Greek scholiasts. 

2 u. Of the numerous modern works on Mythology, some treat the subject more at large, others 
more compendiously ; some present the subject in an alphabetical order; there are also works 
accompanied with platea and drawings for illustration. 

(a) The folloiriaf are tniBe of the trorka which go iaio more 
full detaik oo the whole nbjert, or on particular parts. 

Lit, Ong. Gyrdtdiy Hittorlc Dcor. Geotil. SjDtapnala zvii. 
Bu. 1648. fol. Also in bis 0pp. Omn. (ed. /. Jenmu). Logd. 
Hat. 1006. M. 

Vine Cartati, 1e imipoi d^i dei d^l aatiebl. Lion. 15SI. 4. 
Alao in Latin, Lufp!. 1581. 4. oft. repr. 

Satalit Comitit Mytbolofis *. EzpIicatioDii Fabulamm libri 
X. Oca. 1651. 8. 

OcrA. /. K(Mi'u«,D« theologia Oenlili et phftioIoKia Christiana, 
a. da online et prcgreara idoUtris libri IX. Anet 1668. fol. 

AnL Bonier, Ijk nijlhologia et let fablei ezpliqa^cs par Vim- 
toire. Par. 1738-10. 8 roll. 12. la Gcmaa, with addition Xtj 
J. A. Sefdegd and /. M SekrOchk. L\>*. nfiS-65. 6 vols. 8. In 
Eogliftb,.SanMr, Mythology of the Ancieota. Load. 1739. 4 voli. 8. 

R. Mayo, Sritnn of Mylholocy. Fhilad. I8IS. 4 vola. 8L 

F. Crtustr'i Symbol ik and MytboloKie der Altea VMker, bewn- 
der» der Griecben. Lps- 1819-21. 4 Bde. 8. Sd improved ed. 
cofflnteneed 1836.— Same (abridfrd) by O. HMour. Lpc I8S3. 8. 

C*. £. LoUdi, Ai^laophaniOB, live de Tbcolo^ic mystioe Ow 
eorom cauaia. Refiniontii (Kooingaberx), I8i9. 2 viris 8. of^ 
poaiog loue of tlu viewe of Creiaer : it hu bean highly ooi» 

J. H. Van, Antifymbolik. Stnttg. 1824. 8. 

O Iferntann, De .Mytbolosia Grrcomra antiquhaina. 1817. 

O. Hermnnn and F. Crmtir, Briefs aber HoBicr nod Henodab 
Heidelb. 1818. 8. 

a. HfrmanM, Brirf.* Qber das Wmea and di« Bclnuidlv«s der 
Mythnlncie. Lpt. 1819. 8. 

/. A. KamuU K!y)boi9|ie der Gricchea. tjp^ l8C6b SL^Bt^ 



«M^ mh Diknte dcr Gc«ychto, od« lUcamiiie M]rthelo> 
pt Wmft,IIIS.IBdB.I^B7Ma«i^FtotliHaitarUtMlai 
fciBphiliMtiMt Mm vaUt^. TaklSll. & 

/ L But, CatmactaacB aba- d. MjrtliM d. boftlmitera 
Fetor 1 att. Wdl, fortlflkh d. Orteeh. Fnyb. 1818. 4. 

IL a Mvov, PiiiliiiiiwiiM n aiMT wiMMcteftUdMB My- 
MmN. Gdttiiin,UK.& 

S.1.L tkU^t FteBlMiaD da iiterttoiiM, Oder SubbL 
■^SifadvBallauihBdiHr.ftc. Lpx. ITOS-flOl 6 Bde. & 

W«aiytdd/.J^yna*fM««rSyilmef Mytholoir. Load. 

Di9tt«0ri(iMdc taw to Coital. Fkr. ISB. 7 vek. 8. 

I. MmfM,Iaq«ir7 nto tlM lyiBbdMal L«i«tu«eof ADckat 
iit«id Mylbota(7, n dUBmat Nok of iIm Oaiikal Journal. 

C^uaAGtWM, U Movfa PkiBitiL Btf. 1774-«7. 9«ota. 4. 
«i7^aiaia|fiMa, tndiciaHt ■yntota, aad UagincB. 

Ou^MMl. RdisioM dc l'.*aUqiiita. Flu. Ifltt-SOL 4 vote. 8 
I, Del* Sdiciott. Tv. 1888-81. 6 ?ob. 8. 



« cMBpoMlkMa InatHHy or b 

C r. £mbm, Mxtbokigia dw 
awv Biri. Igai & withidatai. 

It G. AnMMs Baadtoeh dw Mjrtboloffte aw Roncr and 
Boiol BoL 1717-86. 8 fob. t,—Bj tmm, M]rtholo|M dw 
Gnrfaa),mrdi«0tenKlMM,*e. BarL 1801. 8 Tota. 8. 

CJt JMWte,G<NlifMia«. oda-nrtboL Dichtangai do- Altan. 
I«L ia«. & with platai. Atotimari.b7C/'./afcr,N.Tork. 
KSa. U. vjih ptatak Anw work ia EnglUi, M|1hola|ial 
FicruBierGiwfaudllaaaML 12ibo. 

fr. JteniM*. AlKto •!■« Mylbologle nr KOMtlcr. Bert. 

C X JMivi'4 GfVBdrtaH n VoriflmvcB Ober die Mrtbolo- 
pe. Oral 1808. 8L-lly mhw, ijnalibA odar Maaeoi d. 
lusteftketaiieairihndLlltaillnBMkQada. Leipa. 1821. 

/. fadto, Mjrtlnlape dv Qriaetai and Italbchaa Vtlkm. 

iDdm IVoH The Pkalhafla; eeataiDivg tte MTlhologml 
■ana. 861b ed. Load. 1881. 8. with 

(rf) Tbe fDUowiac worin eootata plafea tUartiri!i« (tm anb* 
jeda of n jtbolofj, aceompniued with azptaaatioBa. 

Bernard de Moiafmem, L'AaHqaild eapUqnfa at repraMBWa 
an figaraa. Par. 1719. 10 volt, ia 6, ioL Supplam. Par. 1724. 
f Tob. 161. Tnndatod into Eodidi by Daoid BumphnyB. 
IjM. 1721. 8 vota. fol. with Snppleamt, 8 vola. fol. 

Joatk. oon SonAvrf, Icoooiofia deortrnt. Mamb. 1680. foL 

apaaeft Folyinetit, or aa inquiry ooaearaii^s tba afreemaBC 
batwaaa tba worfci of tbe Bobuo poeti and the remaiai of Uia 
aaciaatarttati. Load. 1747. fol. 1768. foL 

U nmrUduMuim, a nperb folio. 

D. Bardon, Tbe Uufas rili(ioa% civil, ftc, of tbe ▲aeienta. 
Land. 4Toik & 

4. Birt, Bildcrbucb l&r Mytbologie, .Aitbtologie ««1 Kunit. 
BerL 1806-16. 8 vob. 4. 

J. L. Jfaim, Galaria mytbolociqne, ea Recoeil dea avma- 
meaa poor eanrir a l^tude da la oiytbologie, do l*hl«toiro da 
I'^rl, ftc. Fkr. 1811. 2 vota. 8. ooataiainc eorraet pklurei of 
about 800 aadaat moanmcota — ^Tnna. Oem. by Tvikm. 

JL H. PdtiaeuM^ Der Otymp, oder Mytbdogie der iBfypler, 
Grioebea aad Somcr. BerL 1837. 8. 6tb ed. 

(t) Tbe impreaieni oe aadent lena are of ameb Mrvica ia 
ninrtrayoc mytbology, to whieb part of tbe aot^ed bdoi« (be 
faliowiaK worfca: 

jf. C. f Isttriiif , Teranch einer mythoiociaebeB Daklyliotbak 
rur ScbOler. h^t. 178L 8. (with 180 aaat imprenioai of ea- 
fraT«dgta».) r 

T. J^. JBoCV« mythok«iNbe Daktyliofbek. NOnb. 1805 (with 
90 im p i m a d nodaia of engraved stoaei). 

Alw Linm*$ Dabtyliolbait (P. IT. \ 810>. One Onoud of 
Ua inprearioat bdoog to mytbology. 

Tbe gema of which fVtdgnDOod ondBtnaeg have ^vea imita- 
tieaa, pertain, maay of tbeai, to oiythdlagy ; ae abo tboie of 

(/) Hera we aiayaanw likewiie mae wiwfcioa tbeMylb*' 
logy of other Mtiona bnidai tbe Qreeka and Bomaaa. 

Moer^$ Hiadoo Pantbeoa. 

Akedi, Daber die icUgiaee BiUoag dM- Hladak Lpi. 1887. 

Emumi^t Beiearebei iato (be Natnra aad AlBaify of ladaat 
aad Hiadoo Mythology, a. JUiatie Bammhu. 

Jfourta, ladiaa AntiqoitJM. Load. 1606. 7 vobi 8. 

FTonP* View of (be Hilary, Utantarc^ aad Beligioa of tha 

Jfoitfg. MorMn, Hiat aad Antiqailto of Eaalera India. Load. 
188& 8vola. 8. irithioaie good pbtai Unrtntia« Hiadoo my 

faiffi Wrwta Bf Mylbelegy. Load. 18SB. 18. vary brief: 

tig. ISl U, 

7.1b«ia^|fy{b.orGfaBeefcItaly. Sd. el Load. 1888. & 
(4 DKHoaarHi of Mytbology. 

M. tt ilai l ^^Mytbak^iacbei Lexiooa (ed. /. /. fttaaate). Lpa. 
irt-. 8. 

f. P.J. saKk.NammmfOtLynrtmtnthiti.r. O. Bapfm)- 
LatlSI. 8*ata.8L 

£ A. Jliras, MylboL WflvtartocbftlrSebalar. Bert. 1817. 8. 

I G. Ondtr, Wavtavtaeb der altUawKhaa Mytboiegie aad 
lei cioB. Watak 1810. S vola. 8. 

*.C.OIeHyw,IMrtkioaaifaabiagedolafcbla. Pkr. 1818. 12. 

Ft. Nmt, OMtiMaaira da k foMe, on Mythokgie Orecqoa, EgyplkaMi, Cettiqaa, PcfaasM, ladkaw^ Chiaaieeb *c. 
hr.lgaSvrta. . 

»rm, AbtaaB, A Mylhokgiekl Dietioaafy, te. (Extaaetad 
im /. *yaA Kaw Sfataoi or Aaalyaii of Aadent Mytbolo> 
F.J Laad.n8a.8L 

«;y«wPMtoan. Load. 1780. 9 vote. 4. 

£«9dapMta IfciinAiw, fho part eatiUod Aatiqattfo, Mylho- 
tet, QaaHkgk, *c^ vrbkh pert eeaiirte of 6 vok 4. tu. 

Aap^Uc CTiiIiiiilli, partis MgtMog iq m. ftr. I88B. I Middio Agae to the Cfaarioal, ct £dilor^ PrrfMa to Wiirtpn*» 
t^L I Biet£a|.raatiy, 

of tba Biadoi. Load. 1888. 4. 

Ag«r, hatbeoB Chieoia (or Pardlcl betvreea tba religioaa 
woivbip of tbe Qraoka aad tbe ChiaoM). Par. 18ia 4. a. Ckft 
/flum. i. 178. 

/. C. Pridtvd, Aaalyiie of Egyptiaa Mytbology ; la whkh 
tbe Bopefatilioaa of the aneiaot Egyptiana are oompand with 
tboea of tha ladiaaa and other natiooa of antiquity. Load. 1819. &. 
abo 1889, with prelimiaary mmj by Fbn StMagal ; and plataa. 

Jfyon^WortafbaebderSeaadkaviaaMythologla. Copoah. 
1816. 19. 

£ikate, Mytbology aad Rttaa of tba BritbhDraidi. Load. 

/. M. Kkmttt, Saxoa Mythology. Ct BiU. Apaa. si. S«7. 

Jar eoBie lOBMrfca ca the weemhlaaoa of the ■ythalogy of flw 




3. In our Plate X. fig. 1, he appears in a sitting posture, with a sort of sickle in one 
band. In the Sup. Plate 3, he appears with the scythe, a long beard, and wings. — 
He ia also thus described : '* a decrepit old man, with a long beard and hoary head ; 
his shouiders are bowed Hke an arch, his jaws hollow and tnin, his cheeks sunk ; his 
DO0e IB flat, his forehead full of furrows, and his chin turned up ; his right hand holds 
a niaty scythe, and his left a child, which he is about to devour.*' 

$ 18. (3J Jakus. He was one of the Superior God8 of the Ronnans. They 
lepreeeot bun as of Thessalian origin, and as reigning over the earliest and so- 
called aboriginal inhabitants of Italy, in the time of Saturn. It was to Janus 
tbat Saturn fled, and under them was the golden age, a period of uninterrupted 
peace. To Janus, therefore, Romulus dedicated tBat celebrated temple, which 
was always open in time of war, and was closed with much solemnity, when- 
ever there was general peace in the Roman empire; a thing which happened 
but three times during 724 years from the building of the city (cf. P. I. § 60). 
From this deity the month of January was named, and the first day of the 
month was sacred to him. 

1. He was considered as the inventor of locks, doors, and gates, which are thence 
called /a iBiitf. His name was appUed to structures which were sometimes erected on 
the Roman roads where four roads divided ; a sort of gateway with an arch opening 
in each of the directions, and called a Janut. He was termed Father ^ and sometimes 
Gcd of godt. In sacrifices, prayers were first ofiered to Janus, and oblations were 
made toliim, as being the door of access to the gods. — His original name was Djanus 
or Dtaaiw, which some have derived from dies, day. He is called the Sun, and was 
the Sun-god or God of the Year, of the original inhabitants of Italy. The story of his 
friendly reception of Saturn is by some explained as referring to the agreement be- 
tween the old inhabitants of Latmm and the immigrating Pelasgi to worship the two 
gods in common. — Janus was not received among the gods of the Greeks. 

2 ». He is represented with a double, and sometimes with a quadruple face ; hence 
the epithets Biceps, Bifrons, Quadrifrons. He is also called Patulcius, Clusius, Con- 
Mivius, Cuttos, and Clatiger, 

3. The representation with two faces in Plate XI. fig. 8, and in Sup. Plate 3, gives 
his appearance on a number of consular coins. In Plate VII., on his temple, he ap- 
pears with four- faces. It is worthy of notice that the Brahma of the Hindoos is repre- 

semed with four heads. See Plate XII. Janus is also represented with a key in 

one hand and a rod in the other, wuh 12 altars beneath his feet, supposed by some to 
refer to the 12 months of the year. His statue erected by Numa is said to have had 
iu fingers so composed as to signify 365, the number of days in a year. 

$ 19. (3) Rhka or Ctbele. The common name of the wife and sister of 
Saturn, was BAea or Ops, Yet the histonr and worship of Cybeie were after- 
wards so entirely interwoven with those of Rhea, that both were considered the 
same person, and although Rhea was said to be the daughter of Earth, were 
each taken for Gaia or Tkllui, and often called Vesia, and the great mother of 
gods. The origin of Rhea belongs to the earliest periods of mythical story, 
and hence the confusion in the accounts which are given of her. 

Ctbele, properly speaking, lived later; and was, according to tradition, a 
daughter of Meon a king of Phirgia and Lydia ; or according to others, in an 
allegorical sense, the daughter of Protogonus. Her invention of various musical 
instruments, and her love for Mys, a Phrygian youth, whose death rendered 
her frantic, are the most prominent circumstances of her history. 

ObM, FML 4. 9Z3L— C^iuUuf , dfl At. et Bar. 

Besides the names above mentioned, she was called Mater Dyndymena, Bere- 
Cynthia, and Idsa, Pessinuntia, and Bona J)ta. 

$ 20. That this goddess was a personification of the earth as inhabited and 
fruitful, is supposed firom the manner in which she was represented. 

li«. Her image was generally a robust woman, far advanced in precrnancy, with a 
tiirreted mural crown on her head. Often E>he was borne in a chariot drawn by Uons ; 
eomerimes she rested upon a lion. 

2. On gems, she is seen in a car drawn by Uons, holding in her hand a tambourine. 
Such is her appearance, Plate X. fig. 2, taken from Montfaucon. In the Sup. Plate 
3, she sits in a chair, with keys in her right hand, attende4 by lions. — She was also 
formed with many breasts, with a key or keys in her hand, sonietinies a sceptre, and 
Irequcntly with two Hons under her arms. In Sup. Plate 5, is a remarkable repre- 
sentation, given by Montfaucon (Ant. Ex. 1. p. IS). Cf. P. IV. ^ 156. 2. 


A flgare In silver with tome parts plated with gold, and the whole elegantly finished, repre- 
senting CybeUt was found at Macun (ancient Matisco) on the Baone, in 1704. 

This wu pabiidMd bj Count Ca^m, voL tu. pi. 71.— JnMon'f LonprMrft.— .Bonier, rar la siKtiiM da Cybda^ in tta« Mem. 
dead. hucr. voL v. p. 841. 

§ 21. Her worship was especially cultivated in Phr7g:ia, bat spread thence 
through Asia. The celebration of her festivals was exceedingly tomultuoas, 
as her priests (called Corybaniea or GalH, and the chief one Jlrchigallua) went 
about with clamorous music and singing, acting like madmen and filling the 
air with the mingled noise of shrieks, bowlings, drums, tabrets, bucklers and 

1 u. The removal of her image from Pessinus to Rome, and the establishment of 
her worship in the latter city, was a remarkable event. The festival called MegaUsia 
(from iieydXtii the great mother) was maintained in her honor. 

Ltv. Hiat an 10, II, lA^FaL Ma. 8. 16. 

2. The place called Pettiuus was said to have derived its name from ncactv, to fall, 
because it was the spot upon which the ima^e of this goddess fell, being like the faoled 
AncUe and Palladium sent down from Jupiter. 

At her festival, the MegcUesiOf Roman matrons danced before her altar ; the ma- 
gistrates assisted in robes of purple ; a great concourse of people and strangers usually 
assembled, and Phrygian priests bore the image of the goddess through the streets of 
the city. The festival called HUaria was celebrated in a similar manner, and attended 
with many indecencies. 

8. There appears to be a strong resemblance between Cybele and Proeriej, the goddess of 
nature among the Hindoos. The latter is represented as drawn by lions, and her festival is 
attended with the beating of drums. 

See Mooeft Hindoo PuitheoD.>-Cat0min'f MylholoKy of the RiniloaB. 

§ 22. (4) Jupiter. The highest and most powerful among the gods was 
called by the Greeks Zev$, by the Romans Jupiter, It would seem, that by 
this god was originally represented nature in general ; afterwards, the superior 
atmosphere ,* and finally the supreme existence. Many tales of the early history 
of Crete were incorporated among the traditions respecting him. He was a son 
of Saturn and Rhea, educated in Crete. He robbed his lather of his kingdom, 
and shared it with his two brethren, so that Neptune received the sea, Fluto 
the infernal world, and himself the earth and heavens. The giants, sons of 
the earth, disputed the possession of his kingdom with him, and attempted to 
scale Olympus, but he aefeated them with thunderbolts forged by the Cyclops. 

Enraged by the corruption and wickedness of men, he destroyed the whole 

race by a vast deluge, from which Deucalion and Pyrrha alone escaped. The 
supposed date of this flood is not far from 1500 years B. C. 

Ovid^ Melam. i. 151, 96a— Gbnidion'i Oigeotoiiuichia. Cf. P. V. ^ 386. 

§ 23. The ordinary residence of Jupiter was upon Olympus, a mountain of 
Thessaly, which the poets, on account of the constant serenity of its summit, 
represented as a suitable place for the abode of the gods. (Cf. § ll.'J^His 
first wife was Mttis^ whom he destroyed, because it was foretold him, that she 
would bear a child that would deprive him of the kingdom. Afterwards the 
goddess Minerva was produced from his head. By his second wife, Themis^ 
he begat the Horx and the Parcae. — ^The third and most celebrated was Juno^ 
by whom he had his sons Mars and Vulcan. — ^Tradition, particularly the tales 
respecting metamorphoses, relate numerous amors of Jupiter ; e. g. with Eu- 
ropaS Danae, Leda, Latona, Maia, Alcmena, Semele*, and lo'. Apollo, Mer- 
cury, Hercules, Perseus, Diana, Proserpina, and many other gods and demigods 
were called the children of Jupiter. The name of son or daughter of Jupiter, 
however, was often employed merely to designate superior dignity and rank, 
and not intended to imply literal relationship. 

1 Ovid, MetuD. ii. 836 ^ lb. hi. 2t)fi. ■ Jb. i. 688. 

§ 24. The worship of Jupiter was universally spread, and numerous temples 
were erected to his honor. The largest and the most celebrated in Greece was 
that in Olympia in Elis, remarkable for its own magnificence, and for its colossal 
statue of Jupiter wrought by Phidias, and for the Olympic games held in its 
vicinity every fifth year. His oracle in the grove of oaks at Dodona was 
renowned (cf. P. HI. $ 71), and considered the most ancient in Greece. — In 
Rome the Capitol was specially dedicated to him, and he had in that city many 


1 V. Jupiter m generally represented as sitting npon s throne, with a thnnderbolt in 
his right hand, ami in his left a long scepter resembling a spear ; and the eagle, sacred 
to dim, standing near, or, as in some monuments, resting at his feet with extended 

2L The lep re scn tation in the Sup. Plate 2 corresponds to the above description. — ^The 
eagle sometimes is perched upon his scepter. Jupiter is also spoken of as weahns 
** golden shoes and an embroidered cloak adorned with various flowers and figures of 
ammals.** — ^In the Sup. Plate 1 we have his appearance in a noble statue mentioned by 
Moot&noon. — ^In the statue at Elis (see PL XI. fig. 3) he is presented as '* sitting upon 
his throne, his left hand holding a scepter, his right extending victory to the Olympian 
oooquerors, his head crowned with olive, and his pallium decorated with birds, beasts, 
and flowers. The four ooroen of the throne were dancing victories, each supported by 
a sphinx tearing in pieces a Theban youth." 
o»^oij«|Hiteff qmji . A QiMwy. dirf P. IV. j lan. 

3. As Jupiter Anunon, he was represented as having_the horns of a ram. Such 
----- 71). T'h ' . . ^ 

was the statue at his temple in Libya (cf. P. III. ^ 71). Thtis he appeare in the Sup. 
PlAte 29. On ceremoniaf occasions, and when ibe oracle was consulted, this statue, 
sparkling with precious stones, was borne in a gilded barge on the shouldera of twenty- 
four priests moving (it was preteiKied) just where the god impelled them, followed by a 
troop of women smgine hyirms. 

But the most angubr represenution is that given in the Sup. Pbte 10, exhibiting 
Jupiter Pluvialis, as found in a bas-reUef at Rome, designed to commemorate his in- 
terpoeitioo in sending rain on a certain occasion. 

$ 25. This god received a multiUide of names and titles derived from ciroam- 
stances of his history, or the places of his worship. 

1 V. The Greeks termed him Zrvf, and applied to him various epithets, as the Idaan 
d 'Ie«r»j). Olympk ('OX»^«cc*j), Dodonaan (AaxJwKar«j), thunderer («ptf<»iof), drliverer 
,iUv0iptoi\ kos^ahU ((^'<o<), punither of the perjured (o/iciof), &>c. The Romans 
styled him O^tmuM Maximuty Caviiolinut, Stator, DiefpUer, Feretriut^ &.c. As the 
avenger of cnme, he was called also Vcjavis or Vedius ; yet some consider these as 
names of another distinct divinity ; and others take them for names of Pluto. 

2. Among the epithets applied by the Greeks were also the following ; from his 
sending mm, i/iBpiof^ Uti9{, vc^Airxcplnyc, ifwirsifths ; from his darting thunder, dtrre- 
.Mair%7 0p9WT«Xoi, TifirtMipavvof ; firom his protection of suppliants, hci^ioi, htsrfvtof. The 
Romans also called him sometimes Inventor, Eliciutf Latialis, Sponsor^ Victor, Plw 
rMi/ij.— His Latin name Jupiter is firom Zcv narcp, Z being changea into J. From Zee; 
(in Doric 2^m and .£olic ^^f) came also probably the Latin Deus. The word is by 
some supposed to be of eastern origin ; othera say it is applied to this deity as the source 
of life from (*«•>• 

3. Very discordant opinions have been maintained respecting the meaning of the 
various fables about Jupiter. It is evident, that attributes drawn fi'om many different 
personages and probably eastern deities were associated with his name, in the descent 
of mjrthological traditions firom one generation to another. When the diflferent tales 
are united, they form a very incongruous mixture, combining historic narrative, poetic 
ornament, and philosophical allegory. 

4. Ar Waiiam J0iu»t with much iDfCDalty and learninf , has attsmpted to show that the Greeks 
and Romans embodied in their Jupiter the special attributes which the Hindooe sscritw dtstinc- 
tiveij to ibe three divinities of their famous triad, named Brakwtm, Fuknu, and Siva. In essen- 
tia! actribates, Brahma is said to be the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer 
and re-prodacer. Each of these offices is ascribed to Jupiter in the classical fables, according to 
Sir William.— The Hindoo deities are given in our Plate XIL as usuallv seen in BeniEal : Brabma 
irith four faces and four hands, holding a spoon, a rosary, a portion or a Veda or Hindoo sacred 
book, and a vessel of the water of ablution ; Vishnu with four hands, in one of which is a sort 
of ring or discos, which is said to send out flames of fire when twirled on his finger, and in the 
otb«rs a ahell used for a trumpet, a sort of clab, and a lotus ; Siva, having a trident in one band 
%nd a rope in another for binding offenders, with serpents for his ear-rings, and a string of human 
b«ads for his necklace. He has a third eye in his forehead. 

It is worthy of notice, that the Hindoo fkbles represent Fuhnu as assuming different forms by 
tiKcessive incarnations, in the exercise of his attributes as preserver. Ten incarnations, or 
Jtrttar9. are specially designated. These are represented by the ten engravings in onr Plate 
XIII. ** All the Avatars are painted with gemmed Ethiopian, or Parthian, coronets ; with rays 
•>nrirchnf their heads ; Jewels in their ears ; two necklaces, one straight and one pendant on 
their b'Moms with dropping gems ; garlands of many -colored flowers, or collars of pearls, hang- 
inr down below their waists; loose mantles of golden tissue or dyed silk, embroidered on their 
bests with flowers, elegantly thrown over one shoulder; with bracelets on one arm and on each 
wrist ; they are naked to the waists, and uniformly with dark azure flesh; but their skirts are 
brifbt yellow, the color of the curious pericarpium in the centre of the water-lily ; they are 
•cnneiisBrs drawn with that flower in one hand ; a radiated elliptical ring, used as a missile 
weapon, in a second ; the sacred shell, or left-handed boccinum, in a third ; and a mace or bat- 
tle-axe. in a fourth.*' Nine of these incarnations the Hindoo tales describe as having already 
nccvrred. The tenth is to take place at tome future period, when Vishnu will descend from 
beavcn on a white winged horse, and will introduce on earth a golden ace of virtue and peace. — 
It should be remarked in this coanectiMi, that CrisAsa Is celebntad in Hindoo mythology as an 


Incarnate deity. According to Sir Wm. Jone>, he la coniidered distinct flrom all the ^featerr 
these had only a portion or the divinity ; "while CrUkna was tho person of Vuknu himself in 
human form." In the Hindoo pictures, Crishma sometimes appears amonf the Avatars; he is 
**more splendidly decorated than any of them, and wears a rich garland of sylvan flowera as low 
as his ankles, which are adorned with strings- of pearls.*' 

Sm Sir Wm, Jonuy on Ibe godt of Otme** Itkly, nA India, in bia WorkM tod US* by Lord Teigmwwfli, Load 1107. 18 vfri*. 8. 
(vol. ill. p. 3I8.)-Ct UbiiMiy Papcn of tba J. B. Comm. for For. Mm., Not. ii. and viL May aod Oct 1832.— fTOTri, m died S ^ 

§ 26. (5) Juno. The wife and ^ister of Jtipiler, daughter of Saturn and 
Rhea, and as wife of Jupiter mistress of sods and men, was called by the 
Greeks "Hpa, and by the Romans Juno, Her birthplace was assigned by the 
Greeks to Ar^os, or the island Samos, and to other spots in Greece, although 
her story and ner worship were rather of Phoenician origin. The chief pecD- 
liarities of her character were love of power, and jealousy ; the latter passion 
was constantly inflamed and fed by Jupiter's infidelity. — In consequence of this 
jealousy she wrought several metamorphoses, as in the case of Calisto* and 
Galanthis'. Hence also her wrath against lo^ and Semele% and her ill-will 
towards the Troians because Paris denied her the prize of beauty in the contest 
with Pallas and Venus. By her jealousy she often aroused the anger of Ju- 
piter, who once, according to Homer's representation^, suspended her in the air 
by a golden chain. Ixion's love for her was punished by Jupiter with ever- 
lasting torture, he being bound to a wheel constantly revolving. 

L it. 474. • lb, iz. 308. • tb. L 668w ^« A. UL IfiC. > Iliad, it. I5» \%. 

% 27. The worship of Juno was far spread, and the number of her temples 
and festivals was very great. Her worship was especially cultivated in Araos, 
Samos, Sparta, Mycenae, and Carthage, cities which committed theroselves 
particularly to her protection. In El is were games, every fifth year, sacred tc 
ner, called ^HpoTa. This was the name also of her great festival celebrated at 
Argos and other places, which was likewise called £xafb/4i3oia, because it was 
customary on the occasion to sacrifice a hecatomb of oxen at the temple of the 

Jroddess. There was a similar festival at Rome, called Junonia and Junona- 
fa.— ^- From her, tutelary angels or guardians of females were called among 
the Romans Junones. The Roman women took their oaths in her name, as 
the men did in the name of Jupiter. Both Greeks and Romans honored her as 
the protectress of marriage. — The Romans dedicated to her the month of June, 
named^ after her. — She is of^en described by the poets as the Queen of gods 
and men. 

I Ooid, FatL n. ML 

1. Juno bad a great variety of names; as Argiva, Cingula^ Bgeria, Ju^a (Zvxta), 
Lucinia or Lncina^ Monetat Nuptialis {Tai^nKla)^ Opigena,t'opuloniaf SospUOf Unxia, 

2 u. Her daughters were Hehe^ goddess of youth ; and Ilithvia^ who presided over 
births. Her messenger and servant was Iria, the goddess of tne rainbow. 

3. Hebe was employed to hand round the nectar at the feasts of the gods. Her office of cop- 
bearer afterwards fell to Ganymedes. ^Vhen Hercules was admitted to Olympas, Hebe became 
bis spouse.— In fig. 4, PI. XIV. she is represented as pouring out the nectar, with the bird of Jove 
by her side.— In the beautiful tlesign presented in the Sup. Plate 7, she is alao seen pouring out 
the drink of the gods. 

$ 28. The ancient artists endeavored to exhibit the haughtiness and jealousy 
of Juno in their representations of her. Among the symbols of her attributes, 
the most remarkable was the peacock, held as sacred to her; and found by her 
side in many figures. Sometimes her chariot is drawn by two peacocks. She 
was frequently represented by Roman artists upon their coins, which, however, 
often contain the Empresses exhibited as Junos. 

1. She is usually represented as a grave, majestic matron ; usually with a sceptre in 
her hand, and a veil on her head and a crown decked with flowers ; sometimes she 
has a spear in her hand, or a patera, or vessel for sacrifices. The peacock is some- 
times at her feet. Thus she appears in our Plate XI. fig. 1. In the Sup. Plate 2, are 
seen two peacocks and the chariot, with Iris flying above. — Homer extiibits her in a 
chariot adorned with gems, having wheels with brazen spokes and naves of silver^ and 
horses with reins of gold. But generally she is represented as drawn by peacocks in 
a golden chariot. 

2. The fables respecting Jtmo are interpreted diflerently according to the meaning 
attached to those respectmg Jupiter. When Jupiter is considered as typifying, or 



aIIeg[orically repreaenting, the active productive power in nature, Juno is the passive. 
Theu: quarrels are then explained as physical aUegories. 

$ 39. (6^ Neptune.'^ The goyemment of the waters of the earth was, in the 
diyieion ot authority already mentioned (§ 22), assigned to the brother of Ju- 
piter, called Ho6it6uv, or Neptune, The idea of a god ruling the waters arose 
from the surprise of the first observers of the power of that element ; even be- 
fore Neptune, Oeeantu, son of the heavens and the earth, and husband of Thetis, 
was honored as god of the sea. Oceanus was, according to Hesiod, one of the 
Titans, and was considered as ruler of the exterior waters encompassing the 
earth, while the interior seas and rivers were assigned to Neptune. 

1. A itatae dag np at Rome about the eiiteeDth century, repreeente Oceanue ai an old mau 
■ittlDg on the wavee of the sea, with a sceptre in his hand, and a sea-monster by htm. On an 
ancient gem be is represented in a similar manner. In our Plate XLIII. he appears in a recum- 
bent posture. 

2 tt. The wife of Neptune was Amphitrite, a daughter of Nereus or Oceanus and 
Doris. He obtained Amphitrite by the aid of a dolphin, and in return honored the fish 
with a place among the constellations. The principal sons of Neptune were Triton, 
Phorcus, Proteus, and Glaucus. The chief characteristics of these minor deities of 
the sea were the power of divination and ability to change their forms at pleasure. The 
daughters of Nereus and Doris were the so-called lyereides, or sea-nymphs, fifty in 
number. They belonged to the train of Neptune and were subservient to his will. 

§ 30. The principal exploits and merits ascribed to Neptune are, the assist- 
ance rendered to his brother Jupiter against the Titans ; the building of the 
walls and ramparts of Troy; the creation and taming of the horse; tne rais- 
ing of the island Delos out of the sea ; and the destruction of Hippolvtus by 
a monster from the deep. He was feared also as the author of earthquakes and 
deluges, which he caused or checked at pleasure by his trident. -^^ The fol- 
lowing are some of his many names and epithets ; 'Aa^aXtc^, upholding the 
earth ; ^tt(fix^<^9 earth-shaker ; "Iftitttof, Peirasus^ Cofuus. 

1. Various etymologies have been given of the name lloffci^ and Neptune. The 
latter is by some derived from JYu&o, because the water covers or conceals the earth ; 
the former from rodf and iif»i as Neptune binds the feet, that is, man cannot walk on 
the water. But such speculations crnnot be relied on.— -The government and pro- 
tection of ships was committed to him. He also presided over the horse, which was 
sacred to him, and over horse-races; at the festival of the Consualia all horses were 
allowed to rest from labor. 

2 tf. The Greeks seemed to have derived the worship of this god not from E^ypt, 
but Libera. He was honored particularly in cities situated near the coasts, as presiding 
over their navigation. Thus at Nisyrus, on the isthmus of Corinth, he haa a cele- 
brated temple, and also on the promontory of Taenarus. Of his temples at Rome, the 
most noted was that in the ninth district (cf. P. I. $ 54), containing a suite of pictures 
representing the Argonautic vojrage. The victims usually sacrificed to Neptune were 
horses and bulls. In honor of him the Greeks maintained the Isthmian Games, and the 
Romans the Nfytunalia and the Consualiat which were afterwards, from the place of 
celebration, called Ludi Circenses. 

§ 31. His figure upon remaining monuments is in accordance with the dignity 
ascribed to him, commanding and majestic, with a front calm and serene even 
in anger. In his hand he commonly holds the trident, or a long antique sceptre, 
with three tines, with which he makes the earth tremble and throws the waters 
into commotion. He is often described as moving upon the waters, drawn in 
a chariot by dolphins or war-horses, and surrounded by a retinue of attendants. 

The representations of Neptune are various. Sometimes he stands upright in a 
large sea-shellt holding his triaent, and arrayed in a mantle of blue or sea-green ; as in 
our Plate X. fig. 5. Sometimes he appears treading on the beak of a ship. Often he 
is sitting in a chariot, or a shell with wheels, drawnl)y sea-horses ; sometimes accom- 
panied by his wife Amphitrite as in Plate XLIII. His image is very fipequont on coins 
and medals. He is described as having black hair and blue eyes. 

Of. y-irg. JEn. i. IS4. Bom. H. sUL 20. yirg. As. L 156. StoL AebIL I. VLSm Antoni, Lb Cdto d« dlf iBilH dn mm, 
b (be Mim. JUad. Inter. xiL p. S7. 

$ 33 a. (7) Pluto. He was a second brother of Jupiter, and received, as 
his portion in the division of empire, the infernal regions, or the world of shades. 
Under this idea the ancients imagined the existence of regions situated down 
far below the earth, and they represented certain distant and desert lands as 


Kma^ fat a palli md ontmiee to tbe oder worid. Heooe die fictions nmet" 
ing AetecB, Stjz, Cocjtna, and PUegethon, as beb^ imn of Hell. iWe 
Rfioot belov the earth vere considmd as the residence of departed sools, 
where after death tfaej reoeiTed rewazds or ponkthmpnts aeeording to their eon- 
doet apoB eaith. The place of reward was called £I^Mm ,• that of ponish- 

1. Theicadeaoe of deputed souk was tenned by the Greeks S^«t, Hmdeg. It is im* 
poraa to bear in ouDd tnis 6ct in resdiiig the pasBsges €4 the New Testament, where 
*J23 wQffd oocnza. The term, ahhoogfa sometimes rendered rmw, and sometimes AeU, 

perij Hi^mii e s the world ^ departed spirits, and includes Both the piace of happinesa 

[ ibe place of misenr. C£ JLsJke xiri 23. 
It «M a part sT Ike sAcs «r Memry to coadvct the stedes of tke desd in tke refioB csOcd 
JUc*. Ilrsfr ke a pfinirtiwin represeatsd as is tke set of ofmiat or skotUBC the doofs or 
ntcaof atoB«b: as oo ibe Moooaaeat fires is Plato XTIIL fig. 4. aad is the Sop. Ptaic 14. 
Tk» ffsfs ■ £§▼«■ is Tkjior't CSlaet to iUostfaic tke espreaaloa "Oats* #/ Hmdet," is JNtatt. 
in. IS. 

1 Dvforted ■nilih were sdjodsed to Elfshm or to TWterar by ths sestesec of Miaos ssd 
bi ka^m jsilf ■ (cL ( M), is the Fidd •f TyutM.—Klffimm ii described ss sdorscd with beaoti- 
fal pudeas, anOoif Beadowa, aad enchastisf proves; wliere birds erer warble ; where the 
nver FrUiass sisdi hetwesa banks friafed witk laarcl, sad *'di«iae Lethe" flidea ia a qsiet 
Ti;.eT ; vhere the ak ■■ always pare, asd the day aereae ; where tks h icsae d kave their de« 
Ucbtfal abode. — 7krt«r«« m repreaeated as a ** hideooe priaos of iauacase depth, sarrooaded by 
the marj bofs of Coeytaa, aad the rirer Pblefethoa which rolls with torrenu of tUsMo,** aad 
rcarded by ''Ikree rows of walla with braaea fatee ;" here the Fariea torsMat their wretched 
TicZBM. aad sH ike wicked safler sccordisf to their criaMO.— VIrfil apeaka of aevea ponioaa ia 

tbf rvfioM of Ike departed ; TSruras aad Elysian beinf tke auik aad asTeath. Althoach 

E] jsiaa aras towidmd by sU as the resldeace of the bieeaed, iu aitastioa ia ▼sriooaly ftated ; 
loae placed it ia tke eealer of the earth, adjoiniaf TSrtsras : others placed it ia the aiiddle ns* 
poas of the air ; othera, ia tke aiooa ; others, ia the aaa ; aiore coaiawaly, however, tke ana- 
noai of tke bleMcd were aaid to be ia tke Fortaaate Islaatds, hunU F^rimmu^ (cf. P. L ( 1S3).~ 
Tartaraa ia also Tsrioasly hxsted ; Boater pUees it is tke eonatry of the Cimaierisaa, supposed 
bjTMMK to have heca srovad Tartsaaaa ia Spaia, sad by otkera to kave beea aear Bahc is Italy; 
Virgd places Ike calrsace to it, or rstker tks estraace to Hadea, ia a cave aear lake Averaaa in 
kily ; oihen place Iks eatrsace at Iks pronoatory of Tvaaras ; otken, is Thospiotia.— Is the 
0ap. Piste U, ia a ooapositkMi desifsed to repieseat the Tartaraa of aacieat aiytholo^. Chaioa 
la hii boat, Plato wiUi hie aedplre, aad the three Jodfea appear ia the fore-grouad, with several 
annals swsiliBf tkeir aeateaee. The Fariea are lashiag two criaiaals Jaat irtvea over to their 
pr- wer; aad Tsricma oflfeaders 9X^ ssfl^risf tkeir pecoUar panishmeata aa asrrated by the poeto; 
f-'f whkh ace Ike hislory of Pioaielkeaa sad ockeis, especially Izioa sad tks oiker ollcaders 
■eaiioasd oader I 34 b. 

n_ ft, lifiii iBT I- I ^t^— ^-^- .-^^->-^^«. — ^ -• - .J. ^v.-.» .. , -^ 

Ttm r^i. ■ Mi ftaJB fVr-ffil^rii- i ■ ■ — ^-^«- ■• ■ " •, p^^-, ->--:-> ^4-^ .^ ^ « .^ ,^, 

-0»Um,m r»tflH M^ tJ, te limMim mm im m ITar*..— flfcy, Eif— i ■ bis mObam at Vuga — < HoiMr (cL P. V. ^ IS k 
• ML 4V-Clf. jrHiKa*. Dte niiwuBifci TtaDlofw m ibnm T— f b i i y i Nanfc. ISSL &— 2k Fmrmm t, U^tm 

n !■. ■ flu IfcH .^^ btm. ^tk. n. \ rhw Jiva. iu. >ia xL SIL 

1 32 a. The chief incident in the history of Plato is his seizure and abdactioo of 
n^^x^s, or Proserpine, who thereby became his wife, and the queen of the lower 
world. She was a daugfaier of Jupiter and Ceres. The circumstances of this event 
tR rdated iblly and poeticaUy by Clandian* and Ovid', and fiimisfaed the ancient artista 
whh frequent subjects lor their skill in device and representation*. 

I' r II ij-| .' " — «Mih» T.XI. •SmMmtfmmm, AM. Bqi. T.LfL Sf-U.-Sm aho aw Ftali X. a 

wdteSiS-rMaUi i»bl>wtechlb»MiwwMJi l iii rliw » | 1 I 

The BSBc of Fmeerpias wss soaetisMS sppUsd to Disss, whsa coaaidered ss a goddess of the 
lower world. Cf. < 38L 

^ 33 s. Pinto is represented both by poets and artists with an air menacing, terrible, 
tod inexorable. The latter usually exhibit him upon a throne, with a bifurcated seep- 
tre. or a key, in his hand. A rod is sometimes put into his hand instead of his sceptre. 
The device which places upon his head a son of bushel or messuring-vessel, instead 
of s crown, is of Elgyptian origin, borrowed from the imsges of Senpis. 

I. He appeare crowned with ebony; sometimes with cypress leaves; sometimes 
wi'h flowers of narcissus. He is also sometimes represented in the act of bearing off 

Pr^'s-rpine in a chariot drawn by winged dragons ; such is the appearance in our Plate 
X. 6i. 3. — In the Sup. Plate 11 he appears with a long besrd, in a sitting posture, rest- 
in;^ his head 00 one hand, holding in the other a long sceptre, with Cerberus at ins feet. 

t He is said to have possessed a helmet which rendered its wesrer invisible ; like ths magle 
nB« of the Lydiaa Gyges (ef. Cie. de Off. UL 9. J7crpd. L 8). 

$ 34 a. His worship was tuuTersal ; bat it was attended with special solem- 
nities ID Breotia, particalarly at Coronea. His temple at Pylos in Messenia 
vaa also celebrated. The Koman gladiators consecrated theroselyes to Pluto* 


The Tictinis offered to hitn were usually of a black color. Some of his prin- 
cipal names were Zsvs otvytof, Saramuy Summanuif Jt^Unruui. 

The Greeks named him UXo^raw as some suppose from »X©«Tot, toealth, which comes 
from the bowels of the earth. The Romans gave him the name Dis, havine the same 
sense. He is also called *A^fFc» Orcus, Juj^ter infemutt ^c— His chief festival was 
in February, when the Romans offered to hun the sacrifices called Febnta, whence the 
name of the month. His rites were performed by night or in the dark. The cypress 
was sacred to him, branches of which were carried at funerals. 

$ 34 b. Under the control of Pluto were the three judges of the lower 
world, iftfuw, Shadamanihus^ and JEaeus. These decided the condition 
of all the spirits brought into Pluto's realms by Ckaron. Minos held the 
first rank. They were sons of Jupiter. They appear in Grecian history as real 

1 II. At the entrance to the world of shades, in Pluto's vestibule, lay the dog Cerhe- 
rus, a three-headed monster, that hindered the spirits from returning to the upper 
world. The most memorable of thoee represented as punished in Tartarus were liiou, 
Sisyphus, Tityus, Phlegyas, Tantalus, the Danaides, and the Aloides. 

2. Charon is said to nave been the son of Erebus and Noz. His office was to con- 
duct the souls of the dead in a boat over the rivers Styx and Acheron to the realms of 
Pluto. As all were obliged to pay to him an oboluit, a small piece of money, it was 
customary to place a coin for that purpose under the tongue of the deceased before the 
funeral ntes. Such as had not been honored with a funeral were compelled to wander 
on the shore a hundred years before they could be transported. 

In the Bup. Plate 14, Charon ie leen ilttlng in hit boat, in the act of reeelving the oboln* from 
a moruL Introduced by Mercury. 

3. The fkble reepecting Charon it borrowed from the Egyptlani, who bad the cnttom of a trial 
and tentenee upon their deceaeed, before allowing them the honora of burial. For thit trial all 
were carried acroaa a lake in a boat, whoae heimeman wat called Charon. 

JbiBiii, Ane. Hirt. bk. L cb. 2. wcL S.— Of CMm /oum. toL zsiU. p, I^BtUMn du Stianm Hmariquu^ vol. iv. p. 3S1 

4. There are numeroua rnpretentatinnt on the monuments of Egyptian art which seem to refer 
to thit trial or Judgment of the soul. It appeart to be often aymbollaed by the figure of a pair of 
acalea or balancea, at If It were a weijrhing of tk§ tout (i/zoxo^rravfa); to which there may be an 
allution In the prophet*! Interpretation of the royateriout writing on the wail of Belihaszar'f 
dining-room (.Dan. ▼. S7). In fig. B. of our Plate XVIII. it a repreaentailon of thie Icind ; in 
which we see the Egyptian balances, and a number of prleata and allegorical or mythical per- 

Tkb dniriiv b mloead fitw OM (ivH ia lh« gnit IV«di work rt]rM nKHpMm A P^)^ ac c£ r^ 
di r/iuttfiil, CloM d'ffitto^ at J4{. Jnt. voL V. p. 84. Mr U FfeydnrtM^ M pari* dM aoM^ with pl^ 

§ 35. (8) Apollo. The earliest and most natural form of idolatry was the wor« 
ship of the stars, and especially of the sun, whose splendor, liffht, heat, and salutary 
influence upon all nature, were taken as Uie supernatural ana independent powers 
of a deity. Hence the ancient fiction ascribing personality to this luminary, 
which was worshiped by the Egyptians under the name of Horu$y by the Per- 
sians under that of Mttkroi^ ^1}^^ ^^^' Greeks and Romans under that of 
Phodfua (Ooi/3of ) and JlpoUo. The two latter people, however, considered their 
*'Kuoi and iSb/ as a separate divinity, and attached to the history of Apollo 
many circumstances not connected with his original character as the god of 

The worthipof the Persian Mlthrat ("Mitknu PgrMieus**)^ is said to have been Introduced at 
Rome in the time of Pompey ; altara being erected with the inacription, Deo Soli inviUo Mitkre" 
Some of the antique repreaentationt of thit god are very remarkable. On the engraved stones 
called Jtbraxat (cf P. I v. i 800), he often appears under the figure of a lion, or of a man with a 
lion't head. In the Sup. Plate 9, are two repreaentationt. The firat it (Vom a baa-relief found 
at Rome, about 1000 ; the image it a man draped below the loint, having two winga on each 
thoulder, with a head partly that of a lion, and a lighted flambeau in each hand ; a aerpent 
twinea around hit thoulders and winga, and from hit mouth iatuet a tort of fillet or ribin, 
which in the original monument floatt over a biasing altar.— The other la from a marble bas> 
relief, found at Rome in a houae near the theatre of Pompey ; in thit Hithraa appeart a vignroai 
young roan, with a turban on hit head, hit Icnee reatlng on a proitrate bull ; with one band h« 
boldt the nottrllt, and with the other plungea a dagger (aeinacoa) into the neck of the animal ; a 
dog leapt up to catch the falling blood, while another Ilea near by, apparently barkins ; a scor- 
pion adheret to the lower tide of the bull, and a tlain or aleeping terpent it atrelched at bit feet. 
The monument hat teveral accompanying imagea, tome of which are given in the engraving, 
although not in their original place ; two youtht appear with flambeaux, that of one being in- 
verted ; a man with a radiatea head occuplea a chariot with four hortet leaping in apparent 
fright ; Id another chariot ia a woman with bornt or cretcenu attached to her head, alnuwt 
thrown out by the ttnmbling of her hortet ; denoting doubtleia the tun and moon. 

Bm Manr/oMoan, Aatiq. Kipl. toL I. p. SS7-S84.>OMnr, SjmbolJk ud MTtholofM, ke. vol. L p. 946 a^-Ct SMdO, Dkt 


$ 36. AeeoHiap to both Gfedn and RoomiB, Apollo was the aon of Jupitar 
and Laiona, bon oa the ialaiid Delos. He was regarded as the god ot the 
scieDees and the arts, e^tedally poetry, mosict and medkine. Th^j aacHbed 
10 him the greatest sIdU in the use of the bow and anrow, which he provvd in 
killing the serpent Pytho, the sons of Niobe, and the Cyclops. Tho last 
achieTeoient f i ic^wrd Jopiter, and he was banished from Olympus. Durinjr 
his exile Apollo abode as a shepherd* with Admetus kin^r of Thessaly. He 
also assisted Neptnne in raising the walls of Troy, beguiling the toil of the 
hiboreis with his lyre and songs. His musical contest' with ran and Marsyas 
is refefred to the same period of his history. — Other memorable oircumstanct^s 

Hower of that name ; and for Cyparissus, also accidentally slain and changtHi 
into a tree*; the indiscreet request of his son Phaeton\ to guide his faiiior^s 
chariot for one day, and the fatoi consequences of the attempt. 

1 OtkHAiLMa S vi as. li. 148. > Ifct 1. tfL « iv.n%tt«. • I. ML • B. us. « 1. TflOl 

$ 37 a. The worship of Apollo was much celebrated among both Greeks and 
Romans. As the eod of inspiration and prophecy, he gave oracles at Didymn, 
Patara, Claros, and other places. His temple at Delphi^ and the oracle con- 
nected with it, was the most celebrated ; next in fame was that in Argoa, and 
the one at Rome on the Palatine hill, built by Augustus and adorned with a 
famous library. The Greeks celebrated in honor of Apollo the Pythian game»^ 
and the Romans those called htdi JpolHnartt and the ludi ueularei. The 
laarel and oHto, the wolf and hawk, the swan and grasshopper, the ravun, 
crow, and cock, were sacred to Apollo. 

1 u. The ibllowniff nsroea were applied to Apollo: C^nthiui, Dtliut, Nomiutt Pa* 
tareu$, Pytkius (n«0(of), Smintheut, Thymbraut, 

2. He ^d also the following names: Atffiaf, nai<r,'E«i)/9<Xo(,T9(e^4p«f, AAifUairm 
VuUuriuM, EpiddiuB, Lyciut, Ddphiniut, Delpkicut, Actius. 

i 37b. The image of this god, as expressed by poets and artists, was the 

highest ideal of himian beauty, a tall and majestic body, and an immortal 

▼OQth and vigor. Accordingly he appears on extant monuments with long 

hair, crowned with laurel, having in his hand a bow and lyre, and a quiver on 

his shoulder, naked, or but lightly clad. The most celebrated monument is the 

marble statue, called the Jpollo Belvidere. 

A view of this monament ii firen in oar Plata XLIV. flg . 8, drawn trota Winckelmann. Sea 
P. IV. 1 160. 4. Cf. nhmtt. L. ill. Ele. 4. t. 97. 

1. '* Sometimes he is painted with a crow and a hawk flying over him, a wolf and a 
laoreUtree on one side and a swan and a cock on the other, and under his feet gr&is* 
hoppers creeping." Sometimes be is exhibited in the midst of the Musca: cf. $ 103. 
He aJao appears, with a radiant head, in a chariot drawn by four horaea ; thua he is 
f^u in our Plate XI. 4. In the Sup. Plate 2 hia figure ia given aa repreaented on many 
moframenta ; here is aeen also an altar with a lyre aculptured on it.— A atatue of Apollo 
wood npon the promontory of Actiam, as s mark to mariners, and was aeen at a great 
di$;aoce at sea. 

3. Tba atoriea reapeeting Apollo reaemble those In the Hindoo mythology rcipeetlng CrUhna, 
«iM> !• ■ooetioies pslnted in company with nhu darotcli, who arr wbfmakally f roufNsd Inui ijia 
form ofaa elepliant, on which lie iita and piaya upon hi« flute. CrUhna ia alao fr«qu«ntly rapra- 
K«t«d aa the deatrorer of the grant aerpent ; in aome viewa be ia held in the fold* of th«) Mcrpant. 
which ii Mting lila Mn ; in others, be bolda the aerpent triumpbanUy in the g raap of bla banda. 
>ad eraihei iu tea4 beneath bla foot. 

a. am mm. Jmm^ — cifci < ». t^-Mititt Rmw j i m t, wL TiiU-€Mw<r'« Diet Sc. <pL Hi. ^ a« aC«l C!w<«>>wr«, l%\$. 

$38. f9) DiAJTA. She was a daughter of Jupiter, and was bom of Latona 
« the iriand Delos, at the same time with Apollo. As in Apollo the sun wss 
deified and adored ; so wss the moon (/ufui, <yrx^) in Diana, who was eslled 
by the Greeks *A(>ff/uf. She was slso recognised as tlie goddess of hunting 
or the chase, of which she was passionately tend in her youth. She was like- 
vise viewed sometimes as a goddess of the infernal regions, under the name of 
BtcaU. As piemdinff over the chase, she received from Jopiter a bow with 
arrowa, and a train of nxty nymphs. — She also obtained from him the grant of 
her pedtkn to live a virgin, and was therefore the goddess of chastity. HenM 



her displeasnTe at the transgression of one of her nymphs, CalistoS and her 
transformation of Actson' into a stag. The only one, towards whom she was 
not indifferent, was the shepherd or hanter, Endymion. She slew the nymph 
Chione^ from jealousy of 'her beauty, and the daughters of Niobe^ because 
Latona was slighted by their mother. 

1 Ov. IM. iL 4M. • m. IM. > Is. asi 4 vL l«4lt.--Ci: Ham, D. M^t^-Byg. hh. H 

The itory of Nlobe ftnd ber children (cf. ( 61, ( 131), afforded to poets ind mrtieu a rich ■abject 
for the erobelliahmeiiu of faney. The number of the children ie variouely ftated ; Homer pvee 
her lix eons and ae many dauKhten; while others say teven^ and some eren Un. In the splen- 
did group of statuary called Jfiob* and Jur Children (cf P. IV. » ]tfb. '2), seven jsons and seven 
daughters- are represented. Monifaucon gives an engraving from a most beautiful antique. 

found at Rome, in which Apollo and Diana appear in the air discbarginc their arrows upon the 
unhappy family; the youngest daughter clings to her mother; a horse is leaping in furv npon 
another daughter ; one son lies dead on the plain ; the other children are in attitudes of distress. 

In our Bup. Plate 17, this subject Is represented in a composition, in which Amphion km intro- 
duced, and a concourse of the citizens of Thebes.— A person dying by plague or pestilence was 
said to be slain, if a male, by the arrows of Apollo; if a female, by the arrows of Diana. 

8m Mantf. Aat. Ezpw vol. L p. lOT.— Jiiye, MTtbokfy, nt i(i. p. 109 «. 

$ 39. Nowhere was the worship of Diana so much regarded, nowhere had 
she a temple so splendid, as at Ephesus. (Cf. P. IV. $ 234. 3.) With this 
exception, that in Chersonesus Taorica was the most celebrate, especially 
through the story of Orestes and Iphigenia. Her principal temple at Rome 
was that erected by Serrius Tullius on Mount Aventinus. In Rome the festi- 
Tal of the ludi aeeulam were sacred to her in conjunction with Apollo, and she 
was particularly honored under the name of Lueina^ as presiding over births. 
In this view she was also called by the Greeks and Romans IHthyia (iftXci^ia), 
although this was the name (cf. $ 27) of a distinct divinity. 

1. The poppy was sacred to Diana. The Athenians eacrificed to her goats, or a 
white kid, sometimes a pig or ox. The inhabitants of Taurica offered on her altar 
strangers that were shipwrecked on their coast. 

2 u. Amone her names were FhcAet Cynthia^ Delia, Hecate, Dietymta, Amtem 
(dypsrfpa); Tvivsa (rpte^rric), from her sfataes being placed in crossways as ene pre- 
sided over streets; Chitone (x<ra3rii); and Triformia (rpi>ep0or), from her threefold 
character as goddess of the moon or month, the chase, and the lower world. 

" Diana is called TrifvrmiM and TVr^rsiiiM; first, because though she is but one goddess, yet 
she has three different oames as well as three different ofllces : in the heuTens she it caUed 
Luna ; on the earth slie to named Diana ; and in liell she Is styled Hecate or Pmeerpina : in the 
heavens she enlightens everything by her rays ; on the earth she keeps under all wild beasts by 
her bow and her dart ; and in bell she keeps all the ghosts and spirits in subjection to her by her 
power and authority: secondly, because she hss, as the poets say, three heads ; the head of a 
horse on the right side, of a dog on the left, and a human head in the midst ; whence eome call 
her three-headed or three-fkced : thirdly, according to some, because the moon has three phates 
or shapes ; the new moon appears arched with a semi-circle of light ; the balf-moon fills a semi- 
circle with light s and the Aill moon fills a whole circle or orb with splendor." 

3. Other names or epithets were applied to her: 'Kvx.Ua, cwiiydf, apceCnirec, tvxUio^ 
and To\o^6poi. 

$ 40. As goddess of the chase, she is represented in monuments of art, tall 
and nimble, with a liffht, short, and often flowing costume, her legs bare, her 
feet covered with buskins, with bow and arrows, either alone, or accompanied 
by her nymphs ; often with a hound near her ; often riding in a chariot drawn 
by two white stags. 

In oar Plate X. fig. 7, she Is seen In her chariot drawn by stags.— In the Sup. Plate 15, she i« 
given as represented in a beautiftil statue, supposed to have come from the same liands as the 
ApoUo Belvidere. 

1. " Sometimes she appears with winzs, holding a lion in one hand, and a panther in 
the other, with a chariot orawn by two heifers, or two horses of different colors." 

2u, As the gpddess of night, or the moon, she is represented in long robes, with a 
large starred veil, having a torch in her hand and a crescent on her headf. 

8m PUte XLI.— C£ Plata XIV. fig. 1— See \ 76. 

3 u. We have figures of the Ephesian Diana, in the Egyptian style, and in Greek 
imitation of it, in which she is exhibited with numerous breasts, and very similar to 
hi», whereby the iruitfiilneas of nature seems to have been represented. 

MontftQCOD gives several of these figures. One of the most remarkable is presented in our 
Sup. Plate 16 ; on the head of the statue is a double mural crown ; a large festoon to suspended 
from the neck, and within it are two Images of Victor) ; on each arm are two lions ; the body 
tapers to the feet like a Hermes, but to divided into four portions, the first of which Is occupird 
by numerous breasts, the second by heads of stags, snd the third and fourth by heads of oxen. 

4. In the Sup. Plate It, are three views of a statue of Diana Trtfonuto, from Montlkncon; 



presenting tbe tbree ftcet niceeMiTely; the flrat (kce on the rfght with a torch lo each hand; 
the next (hce, with a knife (eultntm) in the right hand, and a whip (JagMum) in the left; the 
third, with a l^ey in the right hand and a eerpent in the left. 

§ 41 a. (10) Minerva. Under the name of Mnerva among the Romans and 
of TlaMAs and 'A^a among the Greeks, ancient fiction personified and deified 
the idea of high intelligence and wisdom. She wa^ a daughter of Jopiter, 
sprang from his head. She is said first to have revealed herself near the lake 
Tritonis in Libya, from which circumstance she was called Tritonia, 

1. Some derive this epithet, and the Greek Tpiroyiwia, from the word rpirwsgni. 
fying head* 

S. Minerva ie by dome luppoied to have been originally tbe Egyptian deity worablped particu- 
larly at Sail under the nnnie of Neith or Netba. Various etymnlni^iei of the Greeic name ^KOriva 
have been given ; among them ie tbe conjecture which derives li from tbe name of the Egyptian 
deity, by inverting tbe order of tbe letters ; Netlia (yQ0a), being thus changed, would form aBuv. 

$ 41 b. The Greeks ascribed to this goddess the invention of many arts and 
sciencesS which had a great influence on their civilization. She was regarded 
as inventress of the flute, of embroidery and spinning, the use of the olive, and 
various instruments of war; in short, of most works indicating superior intelli- 
gence or skill. Arachne's contest with her in working with the needle, and 
consequent despair and transformation are beautifully described by Ovid.' 

1 Ov. Tmat. ai. 81&. »O0. Umtm. vL s. 

§ 43. The city of Athens was consecrated to Minerva, and boasted of receiv- 
ing its name from her. The splendid temple at that place dedicated to her was 
called Parthenon,^ in reference to her virpn purity (^of^iwj). She had other 
temples, at Erythrae, Tegea, and Sunium," and several at Rome. Her principal 
festivals among the Greeks were the Panaihenma^ the greater and the less, and 
among the Romans, Quinouairia, on each of which, games and contests were 
held. The owl was sacred to Minerva, and is oflen ^und on her Images and 
on the Athenian coins.' 

> BMpwtii«lheJitar<*0ion,MeP.Lt 107. Of. P. IV. f 234. a. § 242. ( 84S. I « Ob tha ramdu of tte taB|d« of Soaiom 

cf. «fiii. QiMrf. fto. foL Tb p. 834.— -• 8m On Anie coin (Ifm in FUte XL. fif. S. 

The following it tbe etory respecting the name of tbe city of Athene :— When Cecrope baitt 
a new city, Nep^ne and Minerva contended about its name ; and it was resolved in tbe assem- 
bly of the gods, that whichsoever of the two deities found out the most useful creature to roan, 
ahould give the name to tbe city. Neptune struck tbe ground with his trident, and a horse 
issued f^om tbe earth. Minerva caused an tlive lo spring up. The latter was pronounced the 
more useful thing, and Minerva therefore gave the city her own name, 'AOii»S. Dr. Clarke 
imagines that this story had its origin from tbe fact, that tbe plains of Greece were once covered 
or nearly so with water, which was afterwards removed by evaporation and other causes, and 
thus a cultivable soil was presented to the inhabitants. 

dark/* Tnwth in vanooi eooBlriM, ae. Fkit U. wet Q. cb. 12. 

$ 43. Minerva is usually represented in military armor, with a helmet, and 
the .^gu, or her peculiar cuirass bearing on it Medusa's head, and with a spear 
and often a shield or buckler in her hand. Her helmet is generally ornamented 
with the figure of the owl, but presents various forms. • 

1. In our Plate XI. fig. 6, she appears holding in her left hand an image of Victory, 
M'ith her right resting on a round snield bearing on it a Medusa ; her spear leans on her 
right shoulder ; the ^gis is seen on her breast. In the Sup. Plate 6, she is in a sitting 
posture, with her spear and buckler; the owl appearing at oer feet. In the Sup. Plate 
20, the owl appears on one side and a cock on the other ; the JEgia on her breast is 
here very distinct. 
Tbe term meis (ity(t) signifies literally a goat-skin. Homer represents tbe «gis as apart of 
be armor of Jupiter, whom he distinguishes r '" '"" - < ' - ■- .^ -- - . 

as using it (cf. il. ii. 447-449. xviU. 904. zxi. 

the armor of Jupiter, whom be distinguisbes bvtbe epithet dtylo^os ; yet he speaks of Slinerva 

2 u. The colossal statue of Minerva, wrought by Phidias, and the Palladium were 
much celebrated; the former on account of the per^ction of its workmanship (cf. P. I. 
^ 107. P. IV. ^^ 160, 161, 179); the latter on account of the superstitious confidence 
placed in it by the Trojans, Greeks, and Romans. 

The PaUadiitm was a statue of Pallas, with a spear in one band and a distaff in the other, 
about tbree cubits high. It was said to have fallen from heaven into tbe citadel of Troy or 
Ilium before it was completely built, and that the oracle of Apollo being consulted upon this oc- 
currence, answered, that **tbe city should be safe so long ss thatimage remained within it." 
When tbe Greeks besieged Troy, it was therefore thought of the first consequence to obtain this 
image. Ulysses and Diomedes succeeded in getting it by stealth ( FYr. ^n. ii. 163). It was said 
to have been afterwsrds recovered from Diomedes by £oeas, carried to Italy, and finally lodged 
in the temple of Vesu. 

p. n. SrPBftl«K 60BS» mAKk TESTS. If5 

tat 1>7a> W^Ktms-. sht M ate* > a.tJ JbsaioB, i*Mtf», a^ ikt 

TV foi if «v lai Isaacs wh a sob of ivxiv snl 

ia T^nc He vas »M^ t4 ai pres^iist; onsr lade tai 

.tkp cri^ia cf vtk^ vas axzfbei t» kim,vii> Maova kai tt># 

g?efa rf iatga e lii g nrtiei aai Ae prjycr ELliaiT an- Nccais^tiBCi^ ce 

kir^ Ma wkjca Hoafr rh« d c» sacar*-^ i^ kerst^ d Msa. ke icp=«^ 
ficatt Lib as tika p-iioHr Vr Otas aad Ep^ahes. aad anaa^i kj I>>:ib»- 
caz k vaa. konrer. ^T ikit W:*7 of Miaenra^. Besaies ikeae occcaBaDes. i^ 
2=3C9 VT2 Tccss sai i2$ dispels vna NepccBe* irtpfrrag ike acv ai ike 
ixoer. Hil.iTTtr-Z'as, wko vaa pet to deadi bj Mais, ftia i ia i e all tkit is r^ 
2z;k2i-> ^ ils kissoij. 

§ 45a. He vas boH v«nkiped ia Tkraee. vVk fsdba^ ^^ wh:it eoa- 
g»xti3a of sack a ysa ongianprt He kai ac«v^i« inpieK aii pdms ia boss 

-jfargwMBprfTafcyaraefecywiek AgBeZieraic tr^cgrf CiKCM, aaife» «ifeiy 
VIS oac:?an.'rre> »e-«:j«c9ed. . . . . Ix s kk <asv i» dackTrer tkc onpa «(' das ttcrr; 
:« fleeas id fisve :«e= aeriY^ ^ja tke Ft-jtf-^ at socae ocser mwe^ute aad b i k itw 
tr.:«. niAcr rraa £ff?e. He '»ea» a stj^^a^ tKat^zmatot w ikr Bar;kcia Odm^ aai 
prooai-JT was i:k x^ idcr saaer aaocaer na-Tf '' Tmin's PuEkeoc, I nni ed. i^cl. 

$4Sk. Tke Roaam lef apAeJ kiai ai Ae faker af KaBalat.i 
aad pr:Apr&or of tbeir bbikm. Tfaer crocked to kiai flnar leBplet, i 
tr k:JB a !zr«e p^ Jc place, ike Guapvt .llarfifa*. aad a pecalbr ofdcr of pdess, 
ux S^ix, vi^ eelfr'ikjated hk festival viih autsic aad d—r^w^ oi aokaaa p7»- 

1. 1: wM m foesal \ a pe. » of "iese pnsss to rsird ie cariTic. «r ttcred sfecli? ; 
rE<ot-r:.=:? wrx^ see P. liL ^ 2I>. — ^A ^rr aacjes: irrra saae =i bocwr ot Mmrs rr 
-^ iL :--iar» » s:-- preserved; see P- rv.^ 1:4. 4. — To Mais iras cdiend UK tarrSre 
n ^3 ^■M«;c«'uj« ; a icpreacataaoa cl vbca, as ioaac b hi aaoeat bat-ntJiei, is 

^^c9 =: OCT F^MX \\l\. 

z. Srvenj »»— ;i'.'< wtre cmsHzased lo Hm ; tke kane. ix Us vicor : tke wotf. av 
>^ anoeBesa: ibe bse. iv a« nr .iTrr MagpKs aad T-.£jaKs wese aiao odiacd to 

$ 46. Tbe aaeseat wx^s»b kave u^HLUJ l ed Man ia lall laaaly yngor^ viik a 
stTDO^ bai agi!e kod j, and aa air calm lod eolleeied, nsker tkan Tekement or 
paasioaaae. He eoauaaolT appeaia equipped ia armor; iMix'tiui^a aaked; 
■ wotliiiMi ia tke iniTpde of anickin^, as Man Grmiiwmai, 

1 . He is tlsD r€t»f€:3«:r:ed a» ninz in a chariot dravn by fzrk>«5 kcnes. cov e ted wiA 
v^-r ar/d bn.'«ii>riirx a sr^^^r c as? n^-t tarsi ; th-as be is seen m ocr Plare XL te. 7. 
> z^t jin-w Be-joca. tn<^ r'ci«e ot war. s^ar.- » m ner baad a iiam;-?tr :orck. drrreaTti* 
.--ranor ctpt proaa^te wamora ; saca b ibe represecta:>» znnea la lae Sep, P^are la 
^:"ae-r=<» ke k r ep rej ^ c^ed as ait*r«ded wrh a komd Tesri»e; Cbmor. Aneer. Db- 
r :rd. Fe^T, Terror, aad Fa=«. In ibe S::p. F.a:e 6. ite a^ipears as readj lior laarciuaf ; 
vrj£ ais plaaied kelmet. cvo: at mai.. f{>ear. aad sojejd. 

2. BriZ»^caBe4hTite Greeks 'ErvM.aaoMetineamdM fee Ihavife^aaMeciBeBlhBafiMar, 
I tte 4ftmr»:^ fltf Ihrv. 9he te4 a lempie ai Mmmt, aai Wfcve a m a pdbr 
ipear wkea war « 

3 ■. Man «as caL«d '.Ajir; br the Greeks : o>:ber naoKS giiea to him are Oi'-wMs. 
: I j^— fWff fa^aitac, Tlka'ta*, Qmirimms, Vtlmr. 

§ 47. (12) Tears. Tbe ideal of tke most perfect feiaale beaotr, and the 
lyr^ avakoied bj it, vas ia easten fiction ex p r essed aad penooified ia an 
i-aficary goddeas; she was called bj the Roomns reRvs, and by Ike Gie^s 
' A^co^.TT. Aerordin; to tbe eommoo etoTT« she was bora from the foam (a^^ooc) 
:f like set; ia Homer she is presented as a da^^titer of Jcpiier and Diooe. 
After ber birth she came first to C jtbeiea, and thence to Cypras. — Slany of the 
g:Mia aoagfat her; but V clean obtained her as his spouse. 

1 B_ Sbe. bowerer, Vored Mars. Memarr, aad Adorsis e«periaI!T. slthoar h wiUi im- 
r«<quiu<i paasMMi ; the cariy deadi of the laner she b:::erly lamenied. 



The ftory respectlnf Adonig, tba yooDf fkvorlta of Vemu, ia, that batng engafed In hootinf, 
of which be waa eiceulvely fond, he receWed a mortal wound from a wild boar. At this Venua 
was immoderately grieved, and Proierpina reatored him to life on condition of bia ipendiug ilz 
montba with Venue and eix with beraelf. It baa been explained tbui : JUonis^ or Jtdouai, waa 
an oriental title of the lun, aignlfying Lord ; the boar, anppoaed to have killed him, waa the em- 
blem of winter, during which the productive powera of nature being auapended, Venua waa aaid 
to lament the loaa of Adonia until he waa reatored again to life ; whence both the Syrian and 
Anive women annually mourned bla death, and celebrated hla renovation."— Adonia ia auppoaed 
to be the aame deity with the Syrian Tammuz (cf. Eiekul viii. 14).— Lucian (1>« Swris Dta) givea 
an account of the feativai Jldotua, held in honor of him at Byblua. Cf. P. III. ) 77. S. 

2 u. In her contest with Jano and Minerva, Paris awarded to Venaa the prize of 
beauty. Hence her memorable zeal for the interests of the Trojans. 

$ 48. The most celebrated places of her worship were Golgi, Paphos, and 
Amathus, upon the island of Cyprus, which was wholly consecrated to her; 
Cythera, Cnidos, and Eryz in Sicily; all sitaated near the sea, and in delight- 
ful regions. In Rome she was honored as the pretended mother of JBneas, the 
ancestor of the nation, although her worship was first formally introduced from 
Sicily, in the sixth century after the building of the city. 

1. At Hierapolia, in Bvria, waa a aplendid temple in honor of Venus, under the name of .<*- 
taru or Aurgatu^ the Jiaktaroth of the Holy Scripturea. 
See £tlctel^ D« Sriii DM.-4X JM^ Mrtt»ki|7, n>L iL---CWni< tcL ilL ^ SR. ad. Cbari^ 

2 «. The pigeon or dove, the myrtle, and the rose, were especially sacred to the 
goddess of Iots. 

3. The swan and the sparrow were also sacred to Venus. Her sacrifices were goats 
and swine, with libations of wine, milk, and honey. 

Some have eonaidered the worahlp of Venua aa derived flrom eormptiona of the tradltlona re- 
apecting the univeraal iilvf; her riaing from the aea being a type of the world emerging from 
the wavea of the flood.— JBryaiU*« Mythology.— J7oIweZr« Myth. Diet. 

§ 49. The poets and artists of antiouity endeavored in the description and 

representation of Venus to embody the niUest and purest idea of female beauty. 

The most distinguished antique statue of her is the famous Medicean Venus at 


RM|MClii« Ihk ililMk M p. 17. ( 188. S. 

1. She is represented on coins and gems, and in the descriptions of the poets, in 
various ways ; sometimes she is clothed with a purple mantle glittering with diamonds, 
her head crowned with myrtle and roses, ridmg in a chariot made of ivory, finely 
carved, painted and silded, and drawn by swans, doves, or sparrows. Sometimes she 
is attended with the Graces and several Cupids. At one time she appears like a young 
virgin, rising fi-om the sea and riding in a shell ; at another, she holds the shell m her 
hand. In our Plate X. fig. 6, she stands on a wave of the sea, supponed by two Tri- 
tons, with two attendant Cupids. In the Sup. Plate 6, she stands m a shell, with long 
tresses, drawing a mantle around her. In the celebrated picture by Apelles (cf. P. IV. 
d 222)i she appears rising fix)m the bosom of the waves and wringing her tresses on her 
shoulders. In some monuments she holds one hand before her bosom and with the 
other presses her mantle close about her limbs ; Montfaucon gives a figure very similar 
to this, from a statue formerly in the ^Uery of Versailles. In the Sup. Plate 7. she is 
seen in a reclining posture, with Cupid resting his elbow on her lap, while the Graces 
are adorning her person, and two doves conduct her car on a cloud. In an ancient paint- 
ing, given m the Sup. Plate 8, she supports in her arms the dying Adonis. In some 
representations she has golden sandals on her feet, and holds before her a brilliant 
mirror. The Sicyonians exhibited her with a poppy in one hand and an apple in the 
other. In Elis she was painted as sitting on a goat and treading on a tortoise. — She 
usually had a belt or girale called Cesiua, in wnich all kinds of pleasures are said to 
be folded. 

iTcync, fib« die Vflfiirila^aitaB te Vnoi, ia hta JnMfiMr. A(/riU&- JteHOk Ab^^ 
myMolertete Ow»M(8iMk. 

2 tt. Various attributes were given to her, under the difierent characters of Venus 
Urania, Marina, Victrix, &c. She was likewise known under the names Erycina, 
Anadyomene (dvaivonbii), Papkitt, Idalia. 

3. Her names and epithets were exceedingly numerous ; as, Cvpria, IIoi^MOf , CyOte- 
rra, $(Xo/i£t^, TfXcmrtya^, Verticordia, Eraipa, Acidalia, Zt&erfiika, Saligenita, 
BaXoffirm, dec. 

$ 50. The son of this goddess, "Rpco^, Jtmor^ or CupH was her common 
companion, and the god of love, which he was supposed to influence by his 
arrows. He is represented with a bow and arrows*, often with a burning torch 
In his hand. He was very frequently exhibited on ancient works of art, and 
in a great variety of forms^. Often several Cupids appear in company. — *Aptipiau 

p. n. SUPERIOR 00D8. TULCAN. 107 

JMerot, wbo is nsiiaUj eoosidered the god of motnal lore, was oiiginsUy tlm 
god thmt mveoges despised love. He is sometimes represented ss wrestlmg 
with Capid. 

• SM«»IlMXLif.& »a.ltaM%Mcili<i4i.l.-SMllitaX.%.I^Ml8iVfk**TwliL 

In. TheattaduDenKof CaiiidtoPmiiebthechief inckleiainhiBl^ 
ooe of the most besntiibl allegoiies of antiquity. 

The aDcfory te feoad ia ,armUmM (cf. P. V. 1 471. S). For expositioiM, cf. KdfhtUj, p. 148, u 
cited ) I9l £ (»).— PsTTbe ii nraiJlr reprcMnted with the winn of a butterfly ; as in the statae 
iPnchM km Urrwr tf ^tmmM) girea ia our Sap. PUle 8.— Sec aMo Plate XL VII. fig. 5; cf. P. IV. ^ 19S. 

2. Hymenma was alao ooe of the imaginary companiooa of Veona. He presided 
orer maniage. He was represented as of uir complexion, crowned with the amaraeut 
or iwtrt wMrjoram^ carrying in one hand a torch and in the other a Yeil of flame color, 
indicadng tiie blushes of a Tirgin. 

Ia the Sap. Plate fl, Hyneacaa is seea laadiag by achaia Oipid aad Psychs; frosi aa aatique 
•calptarc reprcaeatiac their aapilala. 

$ 51 . (13) y tJLCAii. In Dueidightened periods, the viotent agencies of the 
elements, as well as the appearances of the hearenly luminaries, excited a»- 
tonishmeiit and were deified. Traces of the worship of fire are foand in the 
earliest times. The E^ptians had their god of fire, from whom the Greeks 
derived the worship oftl^aiatof^ called by the Romans Fuiettmu or Fukan, 
Fable styles him the son of Japiter and Jano. On aocoont of his deformity 
his mother thrust him' from Olympus; or, according to another story, Juniter 
horied him oat, because he attempted to help Juno when fastened by the golden 
chain. He fell upon the island Lemnos, afterwards his chief residence, and 
was, according to the later fictions', lamed by his fall. 

« JbM. B. ariji. an. L aSQl^ sr«L flat. Mi§am. & 17. 

§ 52. To Vulcan was ascribed the invention of all those arts that a/e con- 
nected with the smelting and working of metals by means of fire, which ele- 
ment was considered as subject to him. His helpers and servants in such 
works were the Cyclons, sons of Uranus and Gaia, whose residence also was 
in Lemnos, and of whom there are commonly mentioned three, BrorUea^ Ste- 
ropes, and Pyrakman, These are to be distinguished from the Sicilian Cyclops 
or a later period. 

1. The epithet Cyclopean is kpplied to certain structures of stone, chiefly walls, in 
which huge masses of rough stone are nicely adjusted and fitted together. 

ClP.rr.iai.a fym(,Lniaaif«dMCyclapi, 

2 a. Mount JEtna was represented as the workshop of Vulcan ; so also Lipan, one 
of the .£olian isles, called likewise Vulcanian. — ^Worka requiring peculiar art and 
exrraordinary streiigth, especially when metals were employed as materials, were 
called by the poets Vulcan's masterpieces. Among these were the palaces of Phoebus', 
of Mats', and Venus^ ; the golden chain of Juno^, the thunderbolts of Jupitei^, the 
crown of Ariadne^, the arms of Achilles^, and of iBneas*, &,c. 

iQfc.3 i i H iii 1L\. ^*JM.Ttah.TiLSiL ■ ClmA EpftbiL BoMr. at Uw. v. C& • .ffaiwiib AM. c. 88. £MgB.Cl7. 

• a». Milw L WL • 0»k IM. iiL 6lSl 1 Am. D. zviiL 4A • Fry. £■. viU. «0T. 

J. Volcaa is nld u> bare Ibraied, by request of Jupiter, the first womaa ; she was eaUed Psa- 
^•r*, bceanse eaeii of the gods gare aer eoine preeent or accomplishment. 
U ^ SfL Wrti 4, b » WfiiiiliiM ii^iil IB oMbit dw nab ■■■ifilwl to Uitoir thair t«i aa ^ wbbm>.-Sw Batkd, 

$ 53. According to the earlier fictions, Vulcan had for his wife Charis, oi 
Aglaia; and according to the later, Venus, after Minerva had rejected him. 
Harmonta was his daughter, or the daughter of Mare and Venus. The Giants 
Cacus and Ceculus were called his sons.^He was worehiped particularly in 
Lemnos, and the Vulcanian isles. A temple was dedicated to him upon ^tna. 
At Rome the VukanaUa were celebrated in honor of him, and at Athens the 

I. A calf and a male pig were the principal victims offered in sacrifice to him. — ^Those 
who followed arts and employments requiring the use of fire, especially rendered honor 
and worship to Vulcan. " The lion, who in his roaring seems to dart fire from his 
month, was oonsecnted to Vulcan ; and dogs were set apart to keep his temple.** 

Sn. Some of his names are the following: Zesmtia, 3fii2cAer, CyUopoda (rvXXo- 
w4itK), Ampkigyeit (i^cr^^K). 

I Uomm writers dsrhrs the aaaia aad story of Vukan ftost Tubal-Caia, sMatlonsd by Moses 


(Gen. It. tl). Cf. JMvtlt, Myth. Diet. TIm anctanta gave Tarlout atymolofiaa of tba naow, 

Seirlai nyt it was derlTad Aroin mUcom, became the iparlu of Are fly tn the air; the accouat 
given by Varro to almilaf (lee ( 54. t). 

$ 54. Yolcan was UBaally represented as engaged in his work, with hammer 
and pincers in his hands ; sitting more fireqoendy than standing. His lameness 
is not indicated in any existing monuments, alUiough it was in some ancient 

1. Cicero, speaking of one of these statues, says (De Nat, Deor. i. 30), '* We ad- 
mire that Vulcan of Athens, made by Alcamenea ; he is standing, clothed, and apoean 
lame without any deformity." — Some of the common representationa of this goa are 
seen in our Plate X. fig. 4, and Sup. Plate 6. 

S. **That by Vulcan !■ understood iirt, the name iteelf diecoven, if we believe Varro, who layt 
that the word VnUamu Is derived from the force and violence of Are (Fvleetttu, quasi Folk*- 
fiw, quod igmU per aenm vlitatt vel a vi ae vUUniia tgntay, and therefore he is painted wiih a 

blue hat, a symbol of the celestial or elemeaury fire/* (TWte.) ** Vulcan wss represented 

covered with sweat, blowing with his nervous arms the firee of his forges. His breast was 
hairy, and his forehead blackened with smoke. Some represented him lame and deformed, 
holding a hammer in the air ready to strike ; while with the other hand he turns with pincers a 
thunderbolt on his anvil (oKfitov). He appears on some monuments with a long beard, disheveled 
hair, half naked, and a small round cap on his head, with hammer and pincers in his hand." 
(Ump.)-'The medals of Lemnos usuaUy bear a repreeenuiion of Vulcan, with the legend Di$ 

aTtei«prMra(aik»orVBleniA»wttulteaBvneruelwltiMi«MfaraMdlilDilbaaKMl«ni. R ww phMd ob ■ lui* btek 
i4 wood (4«fiM(ro*); tL Hm. Od. vliLSTC Firg. JRa. *U. «».~la mrtf ttaaa, H wm Bid* of briMB^ m wct««te th> 
buBONr aod pinom ; eC. Bam. Od. UL US. an^Va Dial. 4at. p. «i. 

$ 55. (14) Mrrcurt. The Greeks bonowed the worship of this god from the 
Egyptians, whose Mermen 'Dritmegisttu is so celebrated in their early history. 
According to the Greek and Roman fables, 'Rpft^s, Mercurius or MBrcury, was 
the son of Jupiter and Maia. Maia was a daughter of Atlas, found by Jupiter 
in the cave Cyllene in Arcadia, and afterwards with her six sisters placed by 
him among the stars, thus forming the constellation named Fldades from their 
mother Pleione. 

The principal characteristics of Mercury were cunnmg and dexterity, which 
he exhibited even in his childhood, and not always in the most praiseworthy 
manner. This appears from the tricks related of him, and from the circum- 
stance, that he was considered as the god not only of mercature, but also of 
theft; although the latter, in early times was not viewed so much as a crime, 
as an evidence of power and adroitness. Mercury stole the cattle of Admetus 
guarded by Apollo, Apollo^s arrows, the girdle of Venus, the pincers of Vul- 
can, &c. 

1 «. By his flute the guardian of lo, even the hundred-eyed Argus, was lulled to 
sleep. (Ov. Metam. i. 668.) — The principal means of hia auccesa in his feats waa bis 
eloquence ; this art was ascribed to bim in a high degree. He invented also the lyre, 
attaching strings to the shell of the tortoiset and presented it to Apollo. In return 
Apollo gave him the celebrated wand icaduceus)^ the origin of which is variously stated; 
its efficacy waa potent in calming the passions and stilUng contention. Mercurv carried 
thia rod as the measenger of the gods, and employed it to awaken dreams, ano to con- 
duct the shades of the dead to the lower world; lor he was called to offices and labors 
in that world, as well as on earth and in Olympus. 

%. The eadueeiu was a rod with wings at one end, and entwined by two eerpents in the form 
of equal semicircles. Originally It was nothing more than a rod adorned wlih green leaves, and 
witha skillfully tied knot as the symbol of traffic. In a later age these decorations were changed 
bv the poets into serpents and wings. Various interpreutlons of the meaning of it have been 
given. Prudence Is generally supposed to be represented by the two serpenu, and the wings are 
the symbol of diligence t both neceesary in the pursuit of business and commerce, which Mer- 
cury patronised." 

Ob tlw wytbfltattcri cbwartar ef Mwwbt, CI—. JomrnO, irL Md.— SWH^w** AmiOm, L Wi^-BdOitm^ ViwaeH, iL W. 

$ 56 a. Mercury is usually represented as a slender youth, holding his wand, 
almost always in motion, either flying or rapidly marching, wearing a winged 
hat {petaauM)^ and winged sandals (tahrid). Sometimes he holds a purse in 
his hand, as the god of commerce ; sometimes a tortoise appears by him in 
reference to his invention of the lyre. The cock was sacred to him, and appears 
sometimes as an attribute in the images of Mercury. 

1. In our Plate XI. fig. 2, we have a common representation of Mercury flying ; and 
another similar, in the Sup. Plate 2. — ^In the Sup. Plate 7, he is seen atteodtn^ on 
Jupiter and Juno.— In our Plate XVIII. fig. 4, and in the Sup. Plate U (illtifitrations 


named Door of HeU and CkaroH), he appears in hia office of conductor of the shades 
of the dead. Cf. ^ 32 a. 1. 

2 «. The monuments called Herma (see P. IV. $ 164) were originally stataes of 
Mercury. They had thwr origin when art was in a very imperfect slate, but were 
afterwards retained, and were used to represent other gods and memorable men. 

{ 56 b. The woiship of Mercnry was yery common among Egyptians, Greeks, 
and Romans, and many temples were consecrated to him. At Rome there was 
a particular festiral (Jeatum Mereaiorum) held for the expiation of merchants, 
in honor of Mercary. 

1. At this festival, held in the middle of the day, the votaries sacrificed to him a sow 
or a calf, and otiered especially the tongues of animals, and sprinkling; themselves with 
water, prayed to him to forgive all their artful measures or falsehoods m pursuit of gain. 

2 u. The more common epithets apphed to Mercury are CyUeniu$^ AtlantiadcMt'Ales, 
A^ontua (ayopatoj), Cadueifer. 

\ Other common epithets are 'A^tfivriK^ Sttumap, and Urry^; be is also termed 
i^A«f, crafty; K.-pdiSoq^ as presiding over wealth; rpulpaXoi^ because his statues were placed 
where three ways met. 

$ 57. (15) Bacchi7b. The Greeks and the Romans worshiped the inventor 
and god of wine, under the name of Baechua^ Bdxxo^; the former also called 
him Atorvtfo;. In the fictions of both, he was the son of .Tupiter and Semele, 
a daughter of Cadmus. In answer to her request, Jupiter appeared to her in 
his full majesty and divinity, the fiery splendor of which caused her death. ^ 
Jupiter saved alive the infant Bacchus not yet born, and carried him in his own 
thigh until the proper time of his birth. Hence, according to some etymolo- 
gists, the poets called him 6i^pafi^s^ as having been twice bom ; a name 
which was afterwards given to the irregular hymns' sung at his festivals. 

1 Ok. Met. tit asm ^•CtP.V.iXL P.iiLfTT.S. 

§ 56. The ancients ascribed to Bacchus manifold offices, and related a multi- 
tude of achievements as performed by him. Especially was he celebrated for 
his advancement of morals, legislation, and commerce; for the culture of the 
vine and the rearing of bees ; and for his military expeditions and success, 
particularly in India. He was universally worshiped as a god, and a miracle- 
worker, except in Scythia. 

1 «. The power ascribed to him is illustrated in the story respecting Midas, king of 
Phrygia, who restored to Bacchus his nurse and preceptor Silenus, and received as a 
compensation the fatal attribute of turning into gold > every thing he touched. — Some 
of the remarkable incidents of his story are, changing the Tyrrhenian sailors into dol- 
phins'; his residence upon the island Nazos, where he found Ariadne, forsaken by 
Theseus, and espoused her, but Ukewise forsook her, and after her death placed her 
crown among the stars'; his descent to Hades in order to convey his mother Semele 
back to Olympus, where she was deified under the name of Thyone. 

t Omi, MMn. xL flS. > Mat UL WO. > FIhL Ui. 469. 

1 Bacchus is also said to have traveled Into India with an army composed of men and women. 
The achievements of different pertonagee are doubtless ascribed to him. Diodoruf Siculus says 
that there were three who bore this name. Cicero says there were five. 

3 «. He is called by various names ; Lyaeus, Thyoneus, Evan, Nyctelius, Bassareus, 
Thiiambus, Thyrsiger (cf Ov. Met. iv. 11), Liber, Bimater, &c. 

$ 59. The worship of Bacchus, originating very eariy in the East, probably 
in India, was among the earliest and most general practiced in the Grecian or 
Roman territories. Pentheus and Lycurgus, who refused to participate in it, 
were punished with death ; and the daughters of Minyas and Orchomenos, for 
the same reason, were changed into bats. Thebes, Nysa, Mount Cithaeron, 
Naxos, and Alea in [Arcadia, were renowned for their festivals in honor of 
Bacchus. — The vine and ivy and the panther were especially sacred to him. 
Goats were usually offered in sacrifice to him, because they are particularly 
injurious to the vine. 

1. The Oscophoria, EpiUtnia, Apaturia, Ambroaia, and AaeoHot are named as 
festivals of this god. 

2 V. The most eminent of his festivals were the Trieleriea and the Dionysia (see P. 
III. % 77. 3), in which his military enterprises were commemorated. These celebra- 
Qons at length became wild and licentious orgies, and were finally on that account 
abolished (c7. Liv. xxxiz. 8, ss.) in Rome by the senate, in the year of the city 568. 

0« tbt wmiwtif «r BMchM, tM fnnt, Le Call* it ^tetbm, Mem. Jkmi. liuer. toL uiii. p. 842.— O. /. Cnusr, l»tmpm, t. 



eoBiiMnt. Acad, dc Renun Bacdiic orif iaibw at owb. Rcid^lb. 1808. A-^JUOtt tboimim Mr Ic Culte da Eudtm. Pari^ 
S rats. 8. 

S. In several pointg the story and worship of Bacchus resemble those of the Egyptian Osirin. 
There is also thought to be a striking rtrsemblance between Bacchus and the Sckiva ojf India (rf. 

Rkodf, as cited ^ 13). Sir fPwr. Jones (an cited J 25. 4), considers Bacchus and the Hindoo Rawa 

to be the same. *' The flrsi pttei of the Hindoos/' says he, ** was the great Falmk, and bis lU- 
wasan is an epic poem on ilie same subject, which in unity of action, magnificence of imagery, 
and elegance of stvie, far surpasses tlie learned and elaborate worlt of Nonnus entitled Diony- 
tiaca (cf P. V. ) 70), half of which, or twenty-four books, I perused with great eagerness when 
I was very young, and should have traveled to the conclusion of it, if other pursuits had not 
engaged me. I shall never have leisure to compare the Dionynaekt with the Affmayaii, but am 
conti<1ent that an accurate comparison of the two poems would prove Dionytog and /Uiwa to have 
been the same person." 
Cf. CoMMtant, D* la Bdligioo, voL iL— Fbff, ADtiiyDibolik.--yfnalK Rmanhm, voL vitL 

4. It it woHby of mnaik, Ibst the aboaiiualioiia of tba Dioiyriae teliTakkiv to this day pnetiead tl the l« 
HiodMlan. This «od hai two uwual folivala. At lb* en* called liw cmr-Jatital, bk im»n ** a Mock of wood, havtnc a frightful 
vkage painled Mack, with a diMcndad oiouih of a bloody atlor,** is brought out of the tonple ia gof^soos amy aod plaond «si a r u- 
paAom car risiog high like a lower, which rasli oo luw wheels aad is dtawa by the crowd of totarice, attcadad wiUi fh^i sod 
banoera, amid the sound of miwical imlnnneais and the shouts of an iauncMa multitode of pilgrims aiscmbled fnim nriom snl 
distaot regiooa. la oar Plate XIII a. ia a repnaaBtalion of this ceramooy { the bones, whkh appear attached to the car, arc wondeu. 
The car is covered with indacaol figures painted all over it. Al intamls the car is aloppod, and the priests and bop conoected with 
the temph nodar woiafaip by oteoeMSOi^ and lascivious aetJOH to plaaaa die god, as ttiBy say, and caasa him to owva.-^Sec Wmnt^ 
View cf the Baligioa, fee. of the Hindooa. 

§ 60. The ancient representations of Bacchus are much more dignified than 
those with which the later artists were accustomed to degrade him. By the 
poets and artists of antiquity he was exhibited as a handsome agreeable boy, 
just on the border of youth, with a form more resembling a female, than that 
of Mercury or Apollo, and with a joyful look. Of no other god have we a crreater 
number or variety of representations, in statues, bas-reliera, and eems, than of 
Bacchus with his train, Silenus, the Fauns and Satyre, and Bacchanals. 

1. Among the various representations of this god, we sometimes find him with 
swollen cheeks, and a bloated bodv. He is crowned with ivy and vine leaves, having 
in his hand a thynuB, an iron-heaoed javelin, encircled with ivy or vine leaves ; as in 
our Plate X. fig. 8, where he appears also as a handsome youth, holding a wine-cup in 
one hand, and attended by a panther. In the Sup. Plate 15, he is a youth holding the 
thyrsus and leaning upon a column, with a tiger at his feet. Sometimes he appears an 
infant, holding a thyrsus and cluster of grapes with a horn. Sometimes he is on the 
shoulders of Pan, or in the arms of Silenus. On the celebrated gem (cf. P. IV. ^ 211) 
which is-given in our Plate XL VIII., he appears a bloated yovmg man, borne by Satyrs 
and also attended by Cupids and Bacchanals. Sometimes he is in a chariot^ drawn 
by tigers, leopards, or panthers, surrounded by his retinue of Satyrs and Bacchee, and 
followed by old Silenus on an ass. 

For various other rapreseotatioos, sea Montjaucon, A»tiq. Ezpl. Tfd. L Plataa 14SI-I67. 

8. In our Plate XL VIII. we have also a representation ofSttennty as ifivcn from an antique by 
Montfaucon ; recumbent on the hide of a panther, with one hand resting on a skin full of wine, 
and the other on an inverted goblet.— An image of Silenus Is mentioned hy Pliny iHiMt. Xuf. 
xxxvi. 5), as existing in the marble quarry of Paros, said to be the worlt of nature. There ia 
now in the aame quarry a curious bas-relief, of which the image of 8ilenus forms a part. Dr. 
Clarke supposes this image to have been a luaua waturm^ and the other pieces now in the bas- 
relief to have been added to it by sculpture. " It represents a festival of Silenus. The demigr.d 
is figured in the upi>er part of it as a corpulent drunkard, with ass*s ears, accompanied by laugh* 
ing satyrs and dancing girls. A female figure is represented sitting with a fox sleeping in her 
Inp. A warrior is also introduced, wearing a Phrygian bonnet [fiee Plate XXII. fig. n and o]. 
There are twenty-nine figures; and below is this inscription: AAAMA2 OaPYZHI: NYM4^A12:." 

§ 61. ^16) Ceres. However useful the planting of the vine might be, agri- 
culture in general was much more so, and formed one of the earliest and most 
common pursuits of men. The observation of its importance and of the pro- 
ductiveness of nature occasioned the conception of a particular divinity, to 
whom its discovery and improvement were ascribed. The usual name for this 
divinity was i^i^/A^ri^p among the Greeks, and CSeres with the Romans. She 
was considered as one of the most ancient of the goddesses, and was called a 
daughter of Saturn and sister of Jupiter. Her native place was Enna, situated 
in a fertile region of Sicily. 

In this country she is said to have first taught men to cultivate grain, and to 
instruct them in all the labors pertaining to it. To her is ascribed also the 
establishing of laws, and the regulation of civil society. Aflerwards she im- 
parted her favors to other lands, and the people of Attica particularly boasted 
o/ her protection, and her instruction in agriculture and the use of the plough. 
She associated Triptolemus with her as a companion in her travels, and sent 




him oyer the earth, to teach husbandry, and thereby raised him to the rank of 
a god. 

S«e 0onur, HTma to C««.-'(Md, TM. iv. 607-60. Malam. v. 64S-06I. 

$ 62. The seizure and abduction of her daughter Proserpine by Pluto has 
been already mentioned ($ 33 u). Ceres sought for her with a burning torch 
* everywhere, and thus diffused universally a knowledge of agriculture and good 
morals. She at length discovered that rluto had borne her to his realms, sup- 
plicated Jupiter for her deliverance, and received a favorable answer, on con- 
dition that Proserpine had tasted of no fruit of the infernal world. But she 
had just tasted of the pomegranate, and therefore received her freedom and 
liberty to return to this world only for half the year. 

OtfJd, MitMa. Ir. 662.~Ciatt(fMn, Da Bapta ProMrpioa.' Ct P. V. § S86. 

1 u. To the history of Ceres belong also the following mythical circumstances ; her 
changing herself into a horse and into one of the Furies, to escape the pursuit of Nep- 
tune ; her transformation of Lyncus into a lynx on account ot his perfidy^ ; and her 
punishment of Erysichthon, who had violated a grove sacred to her, by afflicting him 
with insatiable hunger^, so that he devoured at last his own limbs. 

t Op Met. T. 649. * lb. tui. 738.~Caaim. Hjnm. in Cm-, t. 29.-«ee EnmtCt ExcnniM, in his ed. of Callim»dm (cttad 

F. v. $ 7a 2). f ol. L p. 282. 

2 u. Ceres bore several names and epithets, as Airu, ee9fitHj,6f»Si £<ru> ; and Eleutinia^ 
ErinnySt 6lc. 

3. I'he name Annfinip is by some derived from ori for y^^and fu'rnipf signifying mother- 

See KnigWi Enquiry bto the irmbel. Lug. Ac CUut. Joum. 

§ 63. One of the most celebrated festivals of this goddess was the 0etf/Aof»6pia, 
which was maintained in many Grecian cities, especially in Athens, in honor 
of her as having taught the use of laws. Still more celebrated, however, were 
the EleusirUan Mytteries, which were likewise sacred to Ceres, and which were 
of two sorts, the greater and the less, the latter held annually, the former only 
every fifth year. Besides these, the Greeks and Romans honored her with 
several festivals before and after harvests, e. g. the JI^>oi;pdata, and the *A?uI»a, 
the Cerealia and the Jmbarvalia, 

On tba 13cwinim Materia, tee P. HI. f 77. 4. P. IV. f Al—mirburton, in hk Dimru Legation of Mohm.—J. Mmnii, £!«•• 
•mil. Logd. Bit. 1819. 4.-5wVilc Crpix, Rechercfan hWor. et crit. >ur la Mjitera ISUv. dt Stuy ed ) Pkr. 1817. 2 vole *.— 
OuiMTOif, EmiI war 1m nyalcm d'Eleum. St Petanb. 1816. Sl— AwgoinvUic, ia the Mm. Aead, htta. xxi. 8S.— Ctaat. icwn. 
siiUaoe. ziv. 186. zv. 117. 

On (kc TVmopAorto, we* Duiktil, u cited P. V. § 6S. S. On (be Ambarvalim, tt P. MI. § 2l9i 

1. Among the ceremonies in her worship were the sacrificing of a pregnant sow, and 
the burning of a fox {vulpium comhustio). "A fox was burnt to death at her sacred 
rites, with torches tied round it ; because a fox wrapt round with stubble and hay set on 
fire, being let go by a boy, once burnt the growing corn of the people of Carseoli, a 
town of tno JBqui, as the foxes of Samson did the standing corn of the Philistines.** 

Cr OvU^ rut. if. m.-Judgu >«. ^.-OaMneal Jaunat, vi. iBS. 

%. The ruins of the famous temple of Ceres at Eleusls, where the Mysteries were celebrated. 
were contpicuouB when Dr. Clarke visited the »pot. He found also a fragment of a coioEsal 
statue of the goddess among the miildering vestij^ea of her once splendid sanctuary. With 
great exertion that traveler procured tlie removal of the statue, la order to its being transported 
to England. 

See aark^ TitTcb, Put It. Mct. 2. eb. \%.—Land. Quart. Rta. zvii. 302. 

$ 64. The symbolical accompaniments to the image of Ceres are ears of 
com, and the l>oppy, her usual ornament. She is ofUn exhibited with a torch 
in her hand, to signify her search after Proserpine. 

In some representations she appears a tall and majestic lady with a garland on her 
head composed of ears of com. a lighted torch in one hand, and a cluster of poppies and 

ears of com in the other. Thus she appears in our Plate XI. fig. 5, and m the Sup. i 

Plate 15. She also appears as a country woman mounted unon the back of an ox, | 

carrying a basket and a hoe. Sometimes she was representea as in a chariot drawn , 

by winged dragons. Her associate Triptolemus also appears occupying her chariot I 

(Or. Met. V. 646). | 

$ 65. ( 1 7) Vbsta. The ideas conceived in the Greek and Roman fables respect- i 
ing the earth as a person and goddess were exceedingly numerous and vanous. 
Besides Gaia, Titaea or Tellus, who represented the earth taken in a general I 
sense, they imagined Cybele to denote the earth as inhabited and cultivated; | 


Ceres more particularly signified the fertility of the soil ; and the name of 
Tei/a or ^Eoria was employed to represent the earth as wanned by internal 
heat The latter goddess also represented civil union and domestic happiness, 
being supposed to preside over the household hearth. She was called the 
daughter of Saturn and Rhea, and said to have first taught men the use of fire. 

1 u. jQpiter guarantied her vow of perpetual celibacy (Oo. Fast. iv. 249), and 
granted to her the fint oblations in all sacrifices. 

2. She is aomeiimes termed Vesta the younger, to distinguish her from Cybele (^19), 
who is also called Vesia the elder. Vesta the younger is the same with Ignis or fire. 

§ 66. The establishment of family habitations was ascribed to Vesta, and for 
this, altars were usually erected to her in the interior or front of all houses. 
The same was done in the buildings termed npvraycto, which were usually 
found in the Greek cities near their center; that at Athens (P. I. $ 115) was 
the most famous. More rarely were temples raised for her. In her temple at 
Rome the celebrated Palladium was supposed to be kept. 

The temple of Vesta erected by Numa at Rome was round, and without any image 
cf the goddess. It still exists. Cf. P. I. ^ 60. 

$ 67 a. She was represented in a long robe, wearing a veil, bearing in her 
hand a lamp, or sacrifical vase. It is, however, more frequently a prieatas of 
Vata that is thus represented. 

la Plate XI. fif. 10, froin a medal given by MontAueon, we have aach a representation. In 
the Sup. Plate 9. Vesta la aeen as represented in a lieautiful statue mentioned by Montfhncon 
(Vol. t. p. M). — Vesta Is sometimes exhibited holding in one hand a javelin or a Palladium; 
•oflwtioies also with a drum in one hand and an image of Victory in the other. 

9 67 V. Her priestesses among the Greeks were widows. But those among the Ro- 
maoa under the name of VettaleM, the vestal virgins, were much more celebrated ; the 
mother of Romulus havine belonged to the order, although their first regular institution 
is a&cHM to Numa. (CfT P. III. % 218.) Their principal duty was to watch and keep 
alive the tacrtdfire of Vesta, and guard the Palladium (cf. ^ 43). Their rigid seclusion was 
rewarded by various privileges, and a peculiar sacredness was attached to their persons. 

1. The extinction of the fire of Vesta was supposed to forbode sudden and terrible disasters, 
aad if it ever happened, all business was at once interruptf>d until expiation had been made with 
neat ceremony. Negligence on the part of the virgins was severely punished. The fire was 
every year renewed or replaced, pn the Calends of March, by fire produced from the rays of the 

1 la our Plate XXVIII. is a representation of a priestefts of Vesta, holding a pan of fire. In 
tbe same Plate la seen a Vestal holding the erihrum or sieve ; from a statue in honor of the Ves- 
rilToccia, who is said to have vindicated her innocence by bringing water in a sieve from the 
Tiber. Cf. Fmi. Max. vlll. S. 

te Vato m4 ttm VtBt»H ; Ltvy. I m^Ptutanh, Lift at Nimn.— Clow. Jewn. zr. 123, 257. rri. $L'-Nadat, Hntoira dM 
^«*la. >a lh« JUan. 4t FJcmd. ia hutr. wL iv. p. I«l, 277— Ltptiiu, de Vnta, ia hit fforAfc-Z^Hpuy, U Baaiar* doot Iti 
iir— nn«— ill k/w acra, *c ia tto Mian. lead. Inter, xzxv. p. 99S. 

II. — Mythological HUiory cfihe Inferior Gods, 

i 68. The divinities included in the class, which are here denominated Inferior ^oda, 
•re Cceloa or 'Oyat^; Sol or TJXtof ; Luna or liXfivri ; Aurora or 'Hwf ; Nox or rfi»(; 
Iris, 1^; .£olus or AtoXsr; Pan, (l^; Latona or Afir.'i; Themis or6n/it$; Macula- 
pius or 'AmcXfrrtdf ; Plutus or nWroy ; Fortuna or Tv\»? ; and Fama or ^nftn ; which 
were all common to the Greeks and Romans. But to this class are also to be referred 
several divinities, which were peculiar to the Greeks as difitinguished from the Romans ; 
ud also several, which were peculiar to the Romans as distinguished from the Greeks. 

{69. (n Caeltist Although this god was considered as one of the most 
ancient and the father of Saturn, yet not much importance was attached to his 
worship either among the Greeks or Romans. H is wife was the goddess of the 
earth, Titaea or Gaia ; their offspring were the TY/ans, the Cyclops^ and the Ctn^ 
Hmani, Throagh fear that these sons would deprive him of his kingdom, he 
precipitated them all to Tartarus, whence they were liberated, however, by the 
aid of 8atnm, who himself usurped his father's throne. Venus and the Furies 
were called daughters of Uranus, or Coelus. 

% 70 u. The fictions respecting this god perhaps had some foundation in the history 
15 k3 


of early nationi. According to the account of DiodorusS Uranus would seem to have 
been a king of the Atlantides^, the founder of their civilization, and the author of many 
useful inventions. Among other things he waH a diligent observer of the heavenly 
bodies, and became able to announce beforehand many of their changes. Admiration 
of such knowledge mi^ht lead to his deification. Perhaps it might occasion the use of his 
name (Ovpavd^) to signify the heavens. The idea, however, of a deity thus called, ap- 
pears to have been very ancient. 

t See Diod. Sic Hi. S& ▼. 44. > Tba Allutidw wen « paa|de of Africa, living dcw Mt Atlaa. 

§ 71. (2) SoL Although the Greeks and Romans worshiped Apollo as the 
god and dispenser of light, and in view of this attribute named him Phoebus, 
yet they conceived another distinct divinity, distinguished from Apollo espe- 
cially in the earlier fabies, under the literal name applied to designate the sun, 
viz. Sol or "Hjooj. These words, therefore, were employed to express not only 
the actual body in the heavens, but also a supposed being having a separate 
and personal existence. In the Homeric Hymn address^ to Helius, he is 
called the son of Hyperion and Euryphaessa. Ea^ and Selene are called his 
sisters. Many circumstances, which are mentioned as pertaining to him, are 
also related of Phoebus or Apollo, when considered as the god of the sun. 

See Ovid, MBtUDMpb. iL 

§ 72 a. The early prevalence of Sun-worship, which was one of the first and 
most natural forms of idolatry, renders it probable, that the worship of this god 
was early introduced into Greece. Many temples were consecrated to Helms. 
The island Rhodes in particular was sacred to him, where was erected his 
celebrated colossal statue. Among the Romans his worship was organized 
with special solemnities by Heliogabalus, who had been a priest of the same 
god in Syria, and afterwards erected a temple to his honor at Rome. 

Of his splendid temple at Heliopolis or Bialbec in Bvria, said to have been erected by Antoni- 
nus Pius, interesting remains still exist. Cf. P. I. i 166. 

§ 72 b. Sol or Helius is represented usually in a juvenile form, entirely 
clothed, and having his head surrounded with rays, and attended by the Hor«, 
and the Seasons. He is sometimes riding in a chariot drawn by four horses, 
which bear distinct names. 

1. Helius is represented on coins of the Rhodians by the head of a young man 
crowned with rays ; a specimen is seen in our Plate XIV. fig. 1. — A view of the colossal 
atatue of Helius erected at Rhodes is given in Plate VI. This was reckoned among 
the seven wonders. 

S. The seven wonders of the world were, 1. The statue of the Bun at Rhodes, 70 cubits hlf h. placed 
across the harbor so that a large vessel could sail between its legs; 9. The Mausoleum, or sepulchre 
of Mausolus, king of Caria. built of marble, above 4U0 feet in compass, surrounded with 36 beautifal 
columnsCP.III. ( 187.);8. The statue of Jupiter in Olympia by Phidias (cf. P. IV. ) 179); 4. The tem- 
ple of Diana at Ephesus, with 127 pillars, 60 feet in height, with a splendid Image of the goddess: 
5. The walls of Babylon built by Semiramis, 50 nr 80 feet wide, and 60 miles in circuit ifUUlin's 
Anc. Hist. bk. lii. ch. 1); 6. The pyramids of Egypt; 7. The palace of Cyrus. 

$ 73. (3^ Luna. She was the daughter of Hyperion and Theia, and was 
called XiXmij by the Greeks, being distinct in name, descent, and story from 
Diana or Apt* rfti;, who was, however, taken as sroddess of the moon. To 
Luna was ascribed great influence in relation to the birth of men. Pandia was 
said to be a daughter of Luna and Jupiter or Saturn*. In common with her 
brother Helius, Luna seems to have been especially worshiped by the Atlan- 

• Cr. Bomtr, Hjnna Id I^iaa. 

1 u. Both the Greeks and Romans consecrated appropriate temples to her, although 
the worship of Diana as the goddess of the moon was much more prevalent among 
them. She was represented like Diana in this character, as a goddess riding in a chariot 
through the skies, with the stars as her attendants. 

2. She is represented on coins by the bust of a fair young woman with a crescent on 
her head; as seen in Plate XIV. fig. 3. 

§ 74. (4) Aurora, A sister of Luna, of the same parents, was the goddess 
of the morning or day-dawn ; styled by the Greeks 'Ewj or *H^'pa ; by the 
Romans, Aurora. By others she is said to have been the daughter of the giant 
Pallas, and therefore called Pallantias. Orion and Tithonus were her prin- 
cipal lovers, and Lucifer and Memnon her most distinguished sons. The latter 


is memorable for the honors paid to him in Egypt, and for his famous vocal 
statue at Thebes. 

I. The etalne of Mrmnon !■ soppoted to be one of those existing at the present day among the 
iniot of ancient Tb«sbes, near the place now called Medinet Abou. A part of the body of it is said 
to be BOW in the British Museum. It is called by the Arabians Salanuitt the statue which bids 
good morning, a name evidently originating in a belief of the ancient and common tradition ; 
wbieb was, that this statue uttered sounds at the rising of the sun, when it shone upon it. The 
statue is covered with inscriptions by persons declaring that they had beard its voice at the 
Hfinrof the sun. — Mr. IVUkimson states, ft^om experiment actually made by himself, that if a per- 
aon in the lap of this colossus, which is in a sitting posture, give it a blow with a hammer, it will 
caasc a sound to a person standing at its foot as If from an instrument of brass. 

te /. 0. ITiUtfljiM, M Ibe eoBtrlTaaef bjr whkh iht tlitac of Memiwa wm inula vocal ; id the TVonmcliaiu o/ the Bof/at 
towy Y latvafvrc, toL ii. I/md. 18S4.— Jf. Liinmm, InKription GraequM ■( lAthin da Colomt de Mcnaoa, kc, in tame 
Trwmaimtt, vol. iiL Load. IBST.-^^timr. Quart. Bmno, No. ix. 

2 M. Cephalus wa« insensible to the love of Aurora towards him, although she seized 
and bore him away from his beloved Procris, whom, after his return to her, he had the 
misibrtiuie to kill through an accident occasioned by her jealousy.*— The early death 
of a youth was frequently called in poetic language, a seizure or theft by Aurora 

Ob dH rtory of C<plu)«, «• (M< MKam. Tii. an, 7IA. 

$ 75. This goddess was considered as the harbingrer of the son and of the 
day, and was sometimes called by the literal name of the latter among the 
Greeks, ^Hftcpo. By the poets she is represented as a beautiful young woman, 
whose chariot was drawn by white or light red horses, and who opened the 
portals of the Sun with rosy fingers. Homer designates her by the epithet 

She is described as rising from the ocean in a saffron robe {KpoKotrbrXoi)^ in a rose- 
colored chariot, and scattenng the dew upon the flowers. She was called the mother 
of the stars and of the winds. 

In the Sup. Plate 10, she is beautifully represented as driving in her chariot, accom- 
panied by the Hours, and a flying Cupid with a torch in his hand. 

S 76. (5) Nox, The night was personified in ancient fable and placed among 
the diTinities as a daughter of Chaos. On account of this early origin she is 
called, in the Orphic Hymns, the mother of gods and men. Generally, how- 
ever, she is an allegorical rather than a mythological personage ; and in such a 
sense, tkep, deaths areamM^ the furies^ &c. are called her children. 

I I. A black cock was the oflfering commonly presented to her. A black sheep was 
alio oflfered to her as mother of the Turies. 

2 u. According to the descriptions of poets, and in some representations by art, she 
is exhibited as enveloped in a long dark robe, with her head covered with a veil spangl^ 
with stars. Sometimes she has black wings, or is drawn in a chariot by two horses with 
a retinue of stars. 

3. Pausaoias describes a statue of Nox, holding in her right hand a white child, and 
a biack child in her left, representing sleep and death ; thus she appears in our Plate 
XXXVI. She has also been described as a woman with her face veiled in black, 
crowned with poppies, and in a chariot drawn bv owls and bats. In fig. 2 of Plate 
XIV., drawn from an ancient engraved gem, she fiolds a veil over her head, and three 
stars appear above it. In plate aLI. she makes a more splendid appearance with a 
large spangled veil, and a torch inverted ; thus she is painted in an ancient illuminated 

S TI, (6) /m. By the name of ^Ipi^ was designated among the Greeks the 
rainbow, as personified and imagined a goddess. Her father was said to be 
Thaumas, and her mother Electra, one of the daughters of Oceanus. Her 
residence was near the throne of Juno, whose commands she bore as messenger 
to the rest of the gods and to mortals. Sometimes, but rarely, she was Jupiter*s 
messenger, and was employed even by other deities. 

1. Bring the messenger of Juno, she was not tmfrequendy sent on errands of strife 
and distx>rd ; whence some have thought her name derived from Ifnit strife, , Others 
derive it from it^, to itpeak or declare. 

2 V. She had also sometimes in reference to dying females an office, which was 
i}9uaily assigned to Proserpine, to cut off their hair, and thereby effect their dllisolution. 
Virtf. i^n. IV. 693. 704. The rainbow was the path by which she descended from 
Olympus and returned thither. 

3. She is represetited with wings having the various colors of the rainbow, and often 
appeara sitting: behind Juno as waiting to execute her commands. In the Sup. Plate 


20, she appears descending on a cloud. In the Sup. Plate 7, she is seen with Mercuiy 
and Hebe, attending on Jupiter and Juno. 

§ 78. (7) JEolus. Under the name of iEoLUS both Greeks and Romans 
worshiped a god and ruler of winds and storms. He was called the son of 
Jupiter, sometimes of Neptune, and by others, of Hippotes, an ancient lord of 
the Lipari Isles. From Jupiter he received his authority over the winds, which 
had previously been formed into mythical persons, and were known by the 
names Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus, and Eurus, and were afterwards considered 
the servants of uEolus. 

1 u. He held them imprisoned in a cave of an island in the Mediterranean sea, and 
let them loose only to further his own designs or those of others, in awakening storms, 
hurricanes and floods. (Cf. Horn. Odyss. x. 1. — Virg. Mn. i. 52 j He is U3ually de- 
scribed by the poets as virtuous, upright, and friendly to strangers. 

2. The name Molus is thought to have come from atdXof , ckangeahU.^'lih& island 
where ^Eolus is said to have reigned was Strongyle CXrpoyytlAq), so called on accouni of 
its round figure, the modem SlromboH. 

See He^TUy Excurt. ad JBn. 1 61.— Of. Pliny, N. H. iii. 8. 

3. In the Sup. Plate 10, are two enKravings marked as representatione nf JEohn. In noe, a 
vigoroufi roan supporting htmeelf in the air by wings is blowing into a shell trumpet like a Triton, 
while hia short mantle is waving in the wind ; this is from a bas-relief on an altar, found near 
Nettuno In Italy, with the inscription ^ra Ventorum ; and it probably is merely the repreaeota- 
tion of one of the winds, perhaps Eurus; cf. ^ 108 b— In the other, we have a fragment of a 
square stone, which originally contained in bns-relief a representation of the circle of the Zodiac 
with its twelve signs, which were sculptured wiihin the circle; on the outer edge of the circle 
appear the busts of Jupiter, Diana, Mercury, and Venus; in the corner is the bust of a man with 
wings on the forehead, blowing with inflated cheeks, which probably represents one of the four 
principal winds, the other corners of the piece having had each a wind represented in it. 

See JWanl/Bucon, Aoliq. Bxpl. vol. L piate cczzIt. 

§ 79. (8) Pan, One of the most singular of the inferior gods, was Pan, 
whose worship was universally regarded. He was the god of shepherds and 
herdsmen, of groves and fields, and whatever pertained to rural affairs. His 
worship was probably derived frotn the Egyptians. He was said to be the son 
of Mercury and Dryope; but his genealogy was variously stated. His favorite 
residence was in the woods and mountains of Arcadia. From his love to 
Syrinx, who was changed into a reed*, he formed his shepherd-pipe out of seven 
reeds, and called it by her name. His pride in this invention led him into his 
unlucky contest with Apollo'. He also invented a war-trumpet, whose sound 
was terrific to the foe ; a circumstance* which gave rise to the phrase, panic 
fear or terror {itavixov $fc/ta). 

1 Otf. Metam. i. 6^ • Ih. x. 146. * Pmtmn. Phoc e. 23. 

$ 80. Pan was originally, among the Egyptians, worshiped in the form of a 
goat, and under the name of Mendes^ In Greece, Arcadia was especially 
sacred to him, and here he is said to have given oracles on Mount Lyeceus. 
His festivals, called Avxata by the Greeks, were introduced by Evander anion§r 
the Romans, and by them called Lupercalia'. Goats, honey, and milk were 
the usual offerings to Pan. 

t Hirtd. U. 4a ^ Op. FuL iL 81, 887. 

1 7t. His Greek name nay, signifying the whale or aU, had reference to the circum- 
BtAnce that he was considered the god of all the natural world ; or, according to others, 
it was derived from vata {to feed), and referred to his patronage of shepherds and their 
flocks. The Romans called him Ukewise Inuus, Lupercus, Mienahus, and Lycsus. 

3. ** The figure of Pan (cf. Sil. Ital. xiii. 326) is a rude symbol of the universe, and be appears 
to have been originally a personification of the Jtnima Mundi, or terrestrial soul, by which some 
ancient nations believed that the entire universe was directed."— This god does not appear in 
the poems of Homer or Hesiod. 

3 u. His imago was generally human only in part, having commonlv the form of a 
satyr, with ears sharp-pointed and standing erect, with short horns, a pat nose, a body 
covered with hair or spotted, and the feet and legs of a goat. 

4. Such is his image in Plate XIV. fig. 4, and in Sup. Plate 15 ; in both of which he has 
in one hand a crooked staff and in the other a pipe of reeds, and an amphora lies beside 
him. In some representations, hia head was crowned with pine, which was sacred 
to him. 

$ 81. (9) Laiona. She was called Arfw by the Greeks, and held a distin- 
guished place as mother of Apollo and Diana, and on this account was oflen 
ranked among the superior deities. She was daughter of Cceus or Polus and 

F. n. INFERIOR OOD8. THRMtS. A8C17LAPn78. 117 

Phcebe, and one of the objects of Jupiter^s love. The jealouBy and anger of 
Jano was excited against her, and she adjured the goddess of earth to allow 
Latona no place to bring forth her offspring. Neptune, however, granted the 
island Delos for the purpose. But here she found no sure asylum, and fled to 
Lycia, where^ she was hindered from quenching her thirst at a lake by some 
peasants. These offenders were in return changed into frogs. — Still more 
severe was her vengeance in the case of Niobe', a daughter of Tantalus and 
wife of Amphion king of Thebes. Niobe slighted the divinity of Latona, and 
the latter engaged both her children, Apollo and Diana, to avenge her; they, by 
their arrows, slew the seven sons and seven daughters of Niobe, who by grief * 
was changed into stone. 

a O^Ma(n.n.aa& ^s 0«. Uctam. zL SZl. SMalwilS. 

5 S'2, This goddess was honored particularly in Lycia, on the island Delos, 
at Athens, and in many of the Grecian cities. In Crete a festival was sacred 
to her, called *Ex6vaia. 

1 «. Latona is sometimes spoken of as the goddess of night ; and it is possible that 
her name originated in this idea, derived from X^, to be concealed, as nature was 
buried in profound darkness before the birth of the Sun and Moon or Apollo and Diana. 

2. She is usually represented as a large and comely woman with a black veil, so 
painted, or in engraved gems expressed by a dark-colored vein in the stone. 

§ 83. (10) Vkemia, The goddess of justice (eifui) was one of the most 
celebrated of the Titanide^y or daughters of Uranus and Titsa. To her is 
aseribed the first uttering of oracles, and also the first introduction of sacrifices 
into Greece. She had by Jupiter three daughters, Atx?;, 'Evko/uo, and 'Etpijvij, 
which were commonly called the Horm ("Qpcu), who are represented by the 
poets in various lights, but particularly as goddesses presiding over the division 
and distribution of time (§ 105). Astrea also was by some called a daughter 
of Themis. 

1 ». Attrcta was likewise a goddess of justice, or rather of property ; and, according 
to Ovid*8 account (Met. i. 149), was the last of the divinities to quit the earth. She 
wa« placed among the constellations of the Zodiac under the name of Virgo, anciently 
caUed Erigone. 

9l AatnM, who accordinf to tome wai the daughter of Titan and Aurora, was represented 
<cf. j^mL OM. Nocl Alt. xir. 4) as a virgla with a item counlenaDce, holding in one band a pair 
of balances, and In the other a eword or ecepter or a long rod or ipear; thus she appears in the 
Sap. Plate 18, drawn from an engraved gem. 

3 ». There was still another goddess, Nemesis, Nf/iori;, who was supposed to judge 
respecting moral actions, and to exercise vengeance towards unrighteousness. She was 
called Adrastia sometimes, from the circumstance that Adrastus first erected a temple 
to her, and also Rhamnusia from having a temple at Rhamnus in the territory of Attica. 

4. At her temple in Rhamnus was a large and beautiful statue, ranked among the best works 

of Pliidias.~In Plate XXXVI. are two representations of Nemesis, from ancient gems ; in each 
tb« svbeel appears at her feet; in one she has wings, and holds in one hand a branch with a 
nbin attached; in the other representation she holds a rod or scepter. 

^e« 00^*$ ZcnUMtan BUttcra, SunmL 2. p. SIS. 

§ 84. ni) Maeulapita. In proportion as men in the early ages were igno- 
rant of the efficacy and use or remedies for disease, there was the greater ad* 
miration of those who were distinguished in the art of healing, and Uie greater 
readiness to deify them. Hence the deification of iGscuTapius, who was 
▼iewed as the god of Medicine, and said to be the son of Apollo and the nymph 
Coronb^ Hygeia, the goddess of health, was called his daughter, and two 
celebrated physicians belonging ta the ag^e of the Trojan war, Machaon and 
Podaiirius, were called his sons, and honored like him after their death. iGs- 
cnlapius was killed with a thunderbolt by Jupiter, at the request of Pluto. His 
most celebrated grove and temple was at Epidaurus*, where he was worshiped 
under the form of a serpent. 

I rjv. MatuB. ii. Mlw • Ov. M«t. xr. W2. 

1, TtM rains of the temple at Epldaorus are still risible at the place now called Jero^ pro- 
««aiic«d Ter9, a corruption perhaps of 'Icpdv {toera mdu). There were at this ancient seat of 
tte cod of health mtdieal gprimgs and «0cU«, which may yet be traced. 

Clm^t Tm««b, put iL Mct-S. ch. sv.— Ffnl| Calte mda A JBwola|riai, ia tba tttm. Acad. buer. xxi. & 

2 a. The serpent was oaually attached as a symbol to the image of this god, either 
tree or woaod about a staiFi expressing the idea of health, or prudence and toresigbt. 


X In Plata XIV. Ilf . 0, JKtemUpiuM holds in one band a round vaie or patera, from which a 
serpent is eating. In the Bup. Plata Si, he Is seen as presented in an ancient statue delineated 
in Montfkucon ; on his left is the trunk of a tree, around which the serpent winds : on his rlRht 
stands T«Uapkar%», who was said to be a son of ^sculapius. and was considered as the god of 
convalescents ; Telespboros appears here, as In all representations of him, in a robe covering 
his arms and whole body, with a hood upon his head. JEsculapius and Telesphorus appear to- 
gether thus on a coin of CaraeaUa. 

4. Hygeia may be considered as tbe same with the Roman goddess of healthy Salus. 
The Romans honored Salua with a temple and festivals. One of the city-gates, bein^ 
near her temple, was called Porta Salutarijt. She was represented with a bowl ia 
her right bana and a serpent in her left. Her altar had a serpent twining round it and 
lifting his head upon it. 

In Sup. Plate tl, we have a representation of Hfftia ftom a beantifhl statue ; she sits on a 
rock, with one hand raised and holding a scepter, and the other holding a bowl, towards which 
a large serpent is advancing his head over her lap. 

$ 85. (13) PhUuM. The god of riches, mwrof, was probably of allegorical 
Tather than mythical origin, since his name in Greek is but the common term 
for wealth. His father, according to the fable, was Jasion, a son of Jupiter by 
Electra, and his mother was Ceres, who gave him birth in a beautiful region in 
Crete. Jupiter, as it was allegorically represented, deprived him of sight, and 
his usual residence was low beneath the earth.— By some Plutus is considered 
as the same personage as PltUo^ ruler of the world of spirits, and this may 
have been the case. 

1 II. It is not known by what figure he was visibly represented. Pausaniaa barely 
remarks, that in the temple of Fortune at Thebes, he appeared in the form of an infant 
in the arms of that goddess, and at Athens the goddess of Peace held him as an infant 
in her arms. 

2. ** Plutus was blind and lame, iqjudicioas, and inighty timorous. He is lame, be- 
cause large estates come slowly. He is fearful and timorous, because rich men watch 
their treasures with a great deal of fear and care.*' 

$ 86. (13) Fhriune* Of a like allegorical character was the goddess of /br- 
tune, Tvzv^ /br/ufui, to whom was ascribed the distribution and the superin- 
tendence of prosperity and adversity in general. Among the Greeks she had 
temples at Elis, Corinth^ and Smyrna; and in Italy, before the building of 
Rome, she was honored at Antium, and especially at Pneneste. The Romans 
made her worehip in general very splendid, and gave her various epithets ori- 
ginating from different occasions; as Fortuna Publica, Equestris, Bona, Blanda, 
Virgo, y irilis, Muliebris, &c 

1 «. In the temple at Antium were two statues of Fortune, which were consulted as 
oracles, and g^ave answer by vdnks and nods of the head, or by means of the lot. 
Similar divinauons were pracuced also at Preneste, where her temple was one of the 
richest and most celebrated. 

2. " The goddess of Fortune is represented on ancient monuments with a horn of 
plenty and sometimes two in her hands. She is blindfolded, and generally holds a 
wheel in her hand as an emblem of her inconstancy. Sometimes she appears with 
wings, and treads upon the prow of a ship, and holds a rudder in her hands/' 

Her image In Plate XIV. fig. 0, is taken fh>m an Imperial coin { in her leA hand h a born of 
plenty ; her right rests upon a rudder : a wheel is behind her. In the Sup. Plate 18, she appears 
without the wheel, with the images or the sun and moon on her head. 

f 87. (14) Fame, The goddess styled ^fiif^ or Fama^ was also of allego- 
rical origin. Virgil calls her the youngest daughter of Earth, who gave birth 
to this child, in revenge for the overthrow of ner sons, the Giants ( in order 
that she might divulge universally the scandalous conduct of Jupiter and the 
other gods. She had a place in the Greek Theogony, and was honored with a 
temple at Athens. She was viewed as the author and spreader of reports both 
good and bad. 

1 «. The poets represented her as having winss, alwavs awake, always fiying about, 
accompanied by vain fear, groundless joy, falsehood and credulity. 

Ct yirg. Mm. Iv. I7a-0lk Met ilL 98L--Mtf. Thak iu. 480. 

i. In the 8np. Plate 18, is a representation of Fame with her wings eitended as Jast ready to 
fly, with her finger poiailng upwards. 

$ 88. (15) Deities peculiar to the Greeks. Athoufih generally the same deities were 
common to the Greeks and Romans, each nation bad some peculiar to itself. These 
must be mcluded in the class of Inferior Gods. Those peculiar to the Greeks were 


t timiikasepeciifiu'totbeRoiimiB; aad neuly «D of thnn 
r oilier oC tbe four fcdlovnie diTisioiiB* 
I ra c es, livers. Domitauw, olc, pemxufied. AuDoet eteiv unpoftuit chy was 

r ooe or oiber oC the four fcdlovnie dirisJ 

ed. AmxMt ewrimpoi 
ror^-erred 3iu> a fuklesi, whfOBe iiaaee v'ss pUced oo its coiDa. AJmost ctvry river and 

s*>.zm aiso was made into a £od, oTwiioiD some fiibukMia taJe was rekled; tAiaa Ai- 

;/ '.» a said lo ba^c pui s u e d toe oymph AmiioBA from Greece to Skilj. 

I deified. The most important of ibe deities be lo m gii i g to this 

'2. EUnixkent persooages t ^ — 

d.ns.oo woold come soder the chaa deDominaiedlTrrsc* ; althoogh many ot them are 
9^..i^md ever thos daaaed, as Oniheus, Homer, TmphnniHB, d^ ; heasdea mnny of 
mr nroea. 

J. Virroes and vices penonified. The Greeks <fid not canx snch persanificstkms so 
fir IS :he Romans; jet imaginary deities were thus iormed, and altan were erected to 
tr.'-ai in Athens and other cities^ Some defied among the Greeks are not distinctly 
urr*:d among the RooMns; e. g, Chamee, 'A uM a u a; Fsrsriljr, Atf s^ ayC s ; Zasf, 
CI i^r tbe name o( Ktr-rrrw, C^ytt; a ixxorioas proetitnie. 

\. Panicuiar pitiscits and eooditions of lite ascribed to some gmnfian spoit. Thns, 
y*- x^ de^^nated a goddess of weaving. disrixKt hom Minerva, lo wbom this term is 
tr: I:ed. '£r^, tbe goddem of war, nariy corresponded to the Roman BeUama ; and 
K \,'*i, the god 6i fmMtimg, and lii>in, the god ai jtstimg, are recogniied in the Laxin 
Cert MM and ATasrss. 

: ■<9. Cl<>) Drkia peemliar tm the Bammu. These may be anmnged mder the lot- 
bwjig dirisioTO ; 

I. Places, riwrs, &«., p eis utiifi ed. — 2. Fnrraits and conditioiis of file ascribed to 
priirdan spiritaar— 3. Eminem persoos, especially emperors, deided.— 4. Virtnes and 
w:** persnnified. — 5w Foreign deiiies introdoced. 

-'• ^. Ot the first division. Roma and Tiber are tbe prirc^paL Roma was honored 
bv rne Romana with temples, sacrifices, and anneal tesu>i-als, and is one of the mcst 
cjrnroon denies on their medals^ 

la nafr IL is a wp i nd lA le p me ataiiPB pf the ged df Bwa,ftp» a paiatiaf Ibnseijy b el os ^ - 
hit v> tbe Bari»erini fiimllf . — la tbe sane Plate m firea aUo a represeaiatioa of the Tiber as a 
g-i^— f i< licaiar repreeeniatiana ofiulf, fmdrm, tbe Dmuube^ Jtc^ tee PL XLII.; d P. TV. ^ 139 S. 

' ?1. In the second, vaiioas mrcl drittrt are par:cu.any to be nouced. 

is. Terminosw In order to express and readier sr.ii more sacred the rights of 
properTT and rbe obii^tiocs oi fi^ed boundaries in landed pos^sessions, the Romans in- 
vr '^'ed a E^.id, who bad it tor bis peculiar province to guard and protect tbem, called Ter* 
r. /;.«#. His sfa!ue, in tbe tiorm ol tbcfie called Henaa^^ was employed usually to mark 
tiie '..rniis oi fields. Numa first inir*:Kiuccd this usafe. and ordained a particular festi- 
Til. T-e T^'mimAiHu whicb was ceiebra»ed m tbe monih of February by tbe occupants 
sri prM{>rje»ocs of con'urioos lands'- Ui>'»n tij€?c occasrcos oCe rings were presented to 
rr.«r zod en tbe h<nir«<i3r.e5 or saepararirs iiiics- He had a temple on ibe Tarpeian rock. 
— • 'T'ierr.roes 'he scarues of' other £rod«. particularly tbe rural, were placed in the ibrm 
Ol' Hemic to marc :i>e tir.ais of landed property, and Jupiier himself was SMnetimes 
rr 7 ".s^ under the nai».e of Termmas, or received the epiibet TermuMalig, 

I MS i sa. r. IV. i M4. 2^ — ■ ci. ''«< fm. a. cs. 

Ttu. Prispus. Tbe nomttns rankfd Prnums among tbe deities whose nrovince 
was the proccction of fields ar^ cuI::Ta*ed grounds. His imaee was twnally placed in 
gardens {Har. L L sal. &\ which were coDsidered as more psniculariy his care. 

Inafea of Piiapsa wers sssuriiuM worn as a aort of aaalet (/fjrmta) to faard afaiast evfl 
cbirais, aad baag apoa the doors of houses aad irardens. Th^ god whose special proviacc it 
vit to protect fraai tbe chaxB of the evil eve wu aaswii Akacmmc^Pitm. Hist. Nat. xix. 4. 
xxiv 4.-8ec P. IIL | tf7. X 

Priapas is asnslly represeated with a haaiaa free and the earn of a rnat ; he has a sicUe or 
•cTthe to praaa the uses aad est down the com. aad a dob to keep off thieves ; his body tenai- 
utcs ia a shaprlfss traafc.— As ass was renerslly sacrificed to him. 

B^preaeaUtioas of Priapas are fivea is PUic XLV. and ia the t*up. Plate & la the btier, 
wttb aa extended arm he holds a bell la his hand, la the fonaar, whcb is from a iarfe aaaflvph 
or bi»-re;i<^ffvea by Montlhacott after Botsaard, we bst observe tbe me* practiced at the fes- 
ttT«t of this sod. It is celebrated by woas«>a ; two priestesses are clfise bj the statue, one of 
vbnm is poariBf water or sois ocher liquid upon the iasafte from a bottle ; four others are 
enrared is sacrificiaf aa aas ; behind the animal stand taro others ia pecaliar costume, one 
br <<'icf apparently a wifinw. the other a bowl or round vase ; oa tbe left of the statue are two 
«'>a.en ptayinc on the doable eiHs, aad others bearirf Inskeu of frait and flowers and vessels 
of wine : on tbe right arc two piajiag oa tbe t^mp^^um, one dressed like a bacrhaasl with a 
cb.ld on her neck, aad others with their offerings of fruit. Cowers, aad wine. 

3 a. Veriomnns. Under this name an old Italian prince, who probably intro> 
dired the art of gardening, was honored after death as a god. The Romans considered 
i :'n z» fp^-ciallv presiding over tbe fruit of trees. His wife vras Psawno, one of tbe 
flimadryads (cf i 101), a goddess of gardens and finits. whose love he gained at last 
ar-^r rhanrirg him?elf into many forms, from which drcomstance his name (Oa. Met. 
x:v. 6*23) was derived. This eoddess is represented on some momiments of anaent 
art. and ib desigmied by a basket of frnit placed near or borne by her. 

** Vertsaaas is fssetally reprtscatsd aa a yossg sms. uo w s ed with flowers, covered ap is 


tbe WMiit, and holding In bis right band fruit, and a crown of plenty in the left."— In the Sup. 
Plate 83, the horn u in hie left hand, and the fruit in bia right : he ii fully draped, with the head 
and leg of a awine hanging from hia ahoulder. Thia maybe auppoaed to correapond to hie atatue 
mentioned by Cicero (.F'err. i.) and by Horace (£pt«. %) aa atanding in a atreet of Rome. 

In the aame Plate la a repreeentation of Pomona^ from an ancient monument; ahe ia without 
drapery, holding a flower in one hand and a melon in the other, reeling againat the trunk of a 
tree, from which a baaket of fruit ia auapended. 

4 u. F lora. The Romans had also a particular goddess of blossoms and flowers, 
whom they worshiped under the name of Flora. She is said to have been the same as 
the Grecian nympn ChltniB; although others maintain, that she was originally but a 
Roman courtezan. But this goddess seems not to have been wholly unknown to the 
Greeks, since Pliny (N. H. xxxvi. 5) speaks of a statue of her made by Praxiteles. 
She was represented as very youthful, and richly adorned with flowers. She had a 
festival and games at Rome, celebrated {Ov. Fast. v. 283) in the month of April, called 
Floralia; they presented scenes of unbounded licentiousness. 

Tbe indecency of thia festival waa checked on one occasion by the preaence of Cato, who chose 
however to retire rather than witneaa it {FaUr. Max. ii. 10). By aome the feaiival ia aaid to 
have been inatituted in honor of an infkmoua woman by the name of Plora. 

In our Plate XIV. fig. 5, Flora ia repreaented with a garland of flowera on her head, and a 
born of plenty on her left arm ; aa ahe appeara in aeveral antiquea. In Sup. Plate S3, ahe it 
given from a beautiftil atatue, once at Rome, and copied by Le Brun ; not however identical 
with the celebrated Flora Fanuse (cf P. IV. ( 186. 11). 

5 u. F e r n i a. Another goddess of fruits, nurseries, and groves, among the Ro- 
mans, was Feronia. She had a very rich temple on Mount Soracte, where also was a 
crove specially sacred to her. She was honored as the patroness of enfranchised slaves 
(P. III. ^ 324), who ordinarily received their Uberty in her temple. It was pretended 
that the real votaries of this goddess could walk unhurt on burning coals. Her name 
was derived according to some from a town, called Feronia, near jVlt. Soracte : accord- 
ing to others, from the idea of her hringing relief (fero) to the slave ; or from that of 
her producing trees, or causing them to bear fruit. 

6u. Pales. Another goddess of the same class, was Pales (from pahtlum), to 
whom was assigned the care of pasturage and the feeding of flocks. In her honor a 
rural festival (Ot>. Fast. iv. 721) was held in the month of April, called PalUia or 

On the festival of Pales the shepherds placed little heaps of straw in a particular order and at 
a certain distance ; then they danced and leaped over them ; then they purified the sheep and 
the rest of the cattle with the fume of rosemary, laurel, sulphur, and the like. The design was 
to appease the goddess, that she might drive away the wolves, and to prevent the diseases inci- 
dent to cattle. Milk, and wafers made of millet, were offered to her, that ahe might render the 
pastures fruitful. Pales is represented as an old lady, surrounded by ahepherda. 

7. Numerous other rural gods and goddesses of inferior character were recognized 
by the Romans. Among the minor rural goddesses, we find Buhona, haviiig tbe care 
of oxen; Seta or Segetia, bavins the care of seed planted in the earth ; Hivpona^^rt- 
siding over horses ; Vollina^ goddess of hills ; VaUonia, empress of the valleys ; Kun- 
cina, the goddess of weeding ; Volusia, with several other goddesses, who watch over 
the com in its successive steps to maturity (cf ^ 5. 3) ; MeUona, the goddess who in- 
vented the art of making honey. Among the male deities of the same class, we find 
Occator, the god of harrowing ; Stercutius, the inventor of manuring ; and Filumnus, 
the inventor of the art of kneading and baking bread. 

^ 92 tt. In the latter period of the Republic and during the first ages of the Empire, 
the Roman system of divinities was greatly augmented. Almost every profession and 
employment and condition in life had its tutelar god or gods, whose names thus became 
innumerable, but who never obtained a universal worship. For a knowledge of these, 
we are mainly indebted to the writings of the Christian Fathers, especially Augustinus 
{de Civitate Dei, 1. iv.), against polytheism. To this class belong, for example, Bellona, 
the goddess of war, corresponding in some degree to 'Evwoi amon^ the Greeks (^ 46) ; 
Jutuma, the i?oddess of succor ; Anculi and Ancuhe, deities presiding over servants ; 
Vacuna, goddess of leisure ; Strenua^ goddess of diligence ; LavemOf goddess of 
theft, &c. 

Diseases were exalted into deltiea. Fehris (fever), e. g. had her altars and temple, and was 
worshiped that ahe might not hurt; and ao of othera of thia sptciea.— Mephitis was goddeaa of 
noxioua exhalationa. Tae. Hiat. ill. 33. 

^ 93. Here we should mention Victoria, a deity of much consideration at Rome. 
The hall of the senate was adorned by her altar, and a statue in which she appears as 
** a majestic female, standing on a globe, with flowing garments, expanded wmgs, and 
a crown of laurel in her out-stretched hand." The senators were sworn on the altar 
of this goddess to observe the laws of the empire. A contest arose between the pagans 
and the Christians on this subject, the latter finally effecting the removal of this altar 
of Victory. 

Sm Pmdmthu, Adven. Symnifliain, et P. V. \ 387. 

In our Plate XIV. fig. 10, and in the 8up. Plate 18, Victory la seen aa represented in the statue 
mentioned above. 



94 u. D eified Emperors. To the gods already mentioned, we may add those 
which were constituted by the apotheosis of the emperors and their favontes. Thus 
a Cesar, an Augustus, a Claudius, an Antinous, and others, were elevated to the 
rank of gods. Sometimes this was done in their lifetime by the vilest adulation, but 
more frequently after death, in order to flatter their descendants. 

It would probably be ai proper to rank the deified emperors (cf. $ 133) in the fourth clan of 
our division. They should be mentioned in this place, however, as belonging suicily to the 
number of the Roman divinities, in distinction from Greek. 

^95u. Virtues and Vices. The poets were accustomed to give a personal re- 
presentation to abstract ideas, especially to moral qualities, to virtues and vices; and 
m this way originated a multitude of divinities purely allegorical, which were, how- 
ever, sometimes mingled with the mythological, and were honored with temples, 
rites, and significant images and symbols. Such were Virtut, Honovt Pietast -^a- 
vidioy Frausi and the like. 

ViHu* was worshiped in the habit of an elderly woman sitting on a square stone.— The tem- 
ple of Honor stood close by that of Virtus, and was approached by IL The priests sacrificed to 
Honor with bare heads. 

The temple of Fide* (good faith) stood near the Capitol. The priests in sacrificing to her 
covered their hands and beads with a while cloth. Her symbol was a white dog, or two hands 
Joined, and sometimes two virgins shaking hands. 

The temple of Sptg (hope) was in the herb-market. Her ima^e is on some of the coins. She 
is in the form of a woman standing, with her left hand holding lightly the skirts of her garments, 
and .in her right a plate, with a sort of cup on it fashioned to the likeness of a flower ; with this 
inscription. Spbs P. R. Similar to this is her appearance in Plate XIV. fig. 6, drawn from a 
Diedal of Titus. 

A temple to PietAs was dedicated in the place where that woman lived who fed with the milk 
of her own breasts her mother in prison. Cf. Plin. N. H. vli. c. 36. 

Concordia had many altars. Her image held a bowl in the right hand, and a horn of plenty in 
the left. Such is her appearance, sittinK on a chair of state, in Plate XIV. fig. 11, taken from a 
consular coin. Her symbol was two hands joined together and a pomegranate. 

In the later periods of Rome, Pax had a very magnificent temple in the Forum, finished by 
Vespasian. The goddess of peace or security is often represented on Imperial coins. In Plate 
XIV. fig. 1% from a coin of Titus, she appears as a woman resting on a column, with a spike of 
wheat in the left band, and a scepter like the wand of Mercury in the right, held over a tripod. 

Frau* was represented with a human face and a serpent's body ; in the end of her tail was a 
scorpion's sting. 

Invidia is described as a meager skeleton, dwelling in a dark and gloomy cave, and feeding on 
snakes. Oe. Metam. ii. 761. 

^ 96. Foreign Gods. It is proper to notice here some Egyptian deities, whose 
worship was partially introduced at Kome. 

1. Osiris. He is said to have been the son of Jupiter by Niobe, and to have ruled 
first over the Argives, and afterwards, leaving them, to have become an illustrious 
kin^of the Egyptians. His wife was Isis, who is by many said to be the same with 
thelo, daughter of Inachus, who was according to the fables changed by Jupiter into 
a cow. Osiris was at length slain by Typhon, and his corpse concealed in a chest and 
thrown into the Nile. Isis, after much search, by the aid of keen-scented dogs found 
the body, and placed it in a monument on an island near Memphis. The Egyptians 
paid divine honor to his memory, and chose the ox to represent nim, because as some 
say a large ox appeared to them after the body of Osiris was interred, or according to 
others, because Osiris had instructed them in agriculture. 

Osiris was generally represented with a cap on his head like a mitre, with two horaa ; he held 
a stick in his left hand, and in his right a whip with three thongs. Sometimes he appears with 
the head of a hawk. 

In the Sup. Plate 26. are two engravings marked as representations of Osiris. The first is ac- 
cording to a colossal statue, dug up at Rome, and taken by some for an Isis. The second is from 
another sculpture, and shows the hawk's head. In Plate XV. he is seen in a sitting posture.— 
Cf. Montfaucon^ Ant. Exp. vol. S. p. 378, 300.— -The image of a kavk with a vessel on its head, and 
that of the' ibis with a serpent in its bill, have been taken by some as emblems of Osiris; see 
Plate VIII. 

2. Isis. She was the wife of Osiris. lo after her metamorphosis is said, after 
wandering over the earth, to have come to the banks of the Nile, and there she was 
restored to the form of a woman. She reigned after her husband's murder, and was 
deified by the Egyptians. The cow was employed as her symbol, but more commonly 
the sistntm. 

Isis is often represented as holding a globe in her band, with a vessel ftill of ears of com. Her 
body sometimes appears enveloped in a sort of net. On some monuments she holds In her lap a 
child, her son Horvs^ who is also ranked among the deities of Egypt. , 

In the Sup. Plate 26, she is seen holding her son, on whose head is a cap surmounted by a 
globe ; her own head is formed into that of a cow, with a hawk on the forehead, surmounted by 
a singular cap. In Plate XV. she is seen as represented on the Isiac TabU. In the same Plate 
Horus is given as found on that Table. 

SooM ham eonidcrad Onrii and Uii u npnwolliiK IIm Mm aad the moon. Th«r iHimj is by olba« vinrtd aa oormpoodiiv 
to (hat of Vanm and Adoah. (Of KnightU Enquiry, ftc)— Some naamblancM bava b«en pointad out batwean Ua and Im, a deity 
ofUwHiadooi^apdZ>iM,agoddeH wonbipedamonsUta noctbara Uibei of BuropaCct TacGutuuV^ — Saa Onoo^ Synbolik. 

The Egyptians had numerous festivals which were connected with. the fables n- 


spe«ting lab and Osris. The chief festival adopted by the Romans was termed the 
itia ; which lasted nine days, and was attended with such licentiousness as to be at 
length prohibited by the senate. 

The Etmc T\Mt ii a carlAui monament, which receives Us name from tta being luppoied to 
repreMDt the royvteriee of leis. The original was obtained at Rome, A. D- 1535, and came after 
some time into the cabinet of the dulce of Mantua, where it remained until the pillage of ihat 
city, A. D. 1690; h is said to be now (1839) in the royal gallery at Turin. It is described as a 
toblet of copper or bronze, ** almost four feet lonsr, and of pretty near the same breadth ;'* and 
"coTered with silver moeaic, skilfblly Inlaid ;** *Mhe ground-work being a black enamel.** It 
it divided into three equal compartments by two horizonul lines of hieroglyphics ; the middle 
conpanmeni being subdivided by two perpendicular lines of hieroglyphics into three com|iart- 
nwDts, a larger one in the center, and a smaller one at each side or it. The five compartments 
tbvfl formed are crowded with figures, with hieroglyphics interspersed. The whole is surrounded 
bjrs border, also crowded with figures and hieroglyphics. The engravings in our Plate XV. are 
all drawn from this Table. In that Plate lais is given as seen In the center of the Table, sitting 
is a splendid gate-way. 

A l« e^fmriac «r ttM wbDle Tibto with MOM ciplMMliaa, h fivta by Jtfbnt/niOM, AaL ^ 
>4t ■ cma ilw m Oiylia, BwwU te laliqaltAH ml. nL p. 34, cited F. IlL § IS. <.-€(. SAicVar^ SMf. and Vnd. VLM. Con. 
ML vu..-CMyd. Jhntri. vd. vti. OL-Jiiya, Myttelofy, vol. iu K. 

AiBOBg the most remarkable ruins discovered at Pompeii, is a TVmpfs of Tns. The columns 
which surrounded it are almost entirely preserved. The temple itself was entirely built of brick, 
asd on the outside covered with a very solid stucco. It had the form of a square, and was not 
covered, but was surrounded by a covered gallery, which was supported by columns, and served 
for a shelter In bad weather. ** In this temple have been found all the Instruments which apper- 
tain to the religions ceremonies, and even the skeletons of the priests, who had been surprised 
ud buried by ibe shower of cinders In the middle of the occupations of their ministry. Their 
vettmenis, the cinders and coals on the altars, the candelabra, lamps, sistrums, the vases which 
contained the Instral water, paterc employed in the libations, a kind of kettle to preserve the 
iBtettines of the victims, cushions on which they placed the statue of the goddess Isis when they 
offered sacrifices to her, the attributes of the divinity with which the temple was adorned, &c., 
are itill shown. Many of these vases have the figure of an ibis, of a hippopotamus, of a lotus ; 
and what renders them still more important, they were. found exactly in the situation in which 
they were used, so that there can now be no dnnbt as to their reality and their use. The walls 
of the temple were adorned with paintings, relating to the worship of the goddess ; there were 
(ifures of priesu In the costnme of their order : their vestments were of white linen, the heads 
of ibe officiating priests were shaved, their feet covered with a fine thin lace, through which the 
mssdes aiigbt be distinguished." Stumrt, Diet, of Architecture, article Pompm. 

3. Apis. This is the name of the ox in which Osiris was supposed to reside, rather 
than a distinct deity. The ox thus honored was known by certain marks ; his body 
was all bhu:k, excepting a square spot of white on his forehead, and a white crescent 
or sort of half- moon on nis right side ; on his back was the figure of an eagle ; under 
k» tongue a sort of knot resembling a beetle icantharus) ; and two sorts of hair upon 
his tail. Thia ox was permitted to live twenty-five years. His body was then em- 
balmed, placed in a chest, or Tofdf, and buried with many solemnities. A season of 
mooming then followed, until a new Apis, or ox properly marked, was brought to 
Rght. — ^It is a curious fact that Belzoni, who succeeded in finding an entrance into the 
Mcond of the g^^at pjrramids of Egypt, found in the comer of a large and high cham- 
ber in the interior of the pyramid a Zopdr, which, on being carefully opened, presented 
the bones of an oer. 

M.vzvis is the name of the sacred ox consecrated to the Sun, and worshiped espe- 
cially at Heliopolis. He is described as being white. 

In Plate XV. are two representations, from the Isiac Table, supposed to be Jtpis and Mnnia; 
earh is attended by two priests ; under the head of eacl| Is a standard supporting something, 
perbsps the eating-trough of the sacred animal. 

CC Lcmd. Quart. A*, zis. »!.— Stoiwr, VOrig. du coIIb qoe la EKTpticH mdolmt aax aaianiix, is ths Mtm. Jkad. Inter, 
•L M.-Afae Sl0idk«< Dn aaionaz lapMlM «a Egypt^ in tb* JTcm. fe. ix. 9a-/VkJkar^ 

4. Sekapts. This was one of the Egyptian deities, considered by some to be the 
same with Osiris. Magnificent temples, generally called Serapea, were erected to him 
at Memphis, Canopus, and Alexandria.- Tacitus relates a marvelotxs tale of the re- 
moval of an effigy of this god from Sinope, on the southern shore of the Pontus Euxi- 
noB, to Alexandria. The worship of the god existed, however, in Egypt at a much 
ptiriicr period. The mysteries ot Serapis were introduced at Rome under the etn- 
fwrors, but soon abolished On account of their licentiousness. — Some derive the name 
trum TofOf and 'Arts, as having signified at first merely the chest or box in which the 
body of Apia was deposited. 

In the Sup. Plate t4, we have a very remarkable statne of Serapis; resembling as to the form 
of the body that of Cybele In Bnp. Plate S, and that of Diana Ephesia in Sup. Plate 16; around 
the body twines a huge serpent, whose tail is grasped In the hand of Serapis, while the head 
appears at his feel; on the portions between the folds of the serpent are various figures of per- 
"MM and animals.— In the Snp. Plate S5. we have another, more In the Roman style ; Serapis 
•its. in full drapery, with sandals on his feet ; one arm raised In earnest action ; given by Mont- 
Ikacoa as belonf ing lo the cabinet of Fauvel. In the same Plate Is another represenution from 
u jArasss (cf. P. 1 V. ^ 900. f) ; he holds a spear in his right hand, and points upward with the 

aUer; a Cerberas sUnds at his side. In all these images we notice the (bee and beard of a 

Jsplccr, and also the ulmtkut or basket on the bead which Is the mark of Berapls. 


It bM bM nppoMd bf HM^ ud Ite Mtkn b >do|iM b7 IV. B. D. avka^dMl Am 
Iktf the nriooi kfttdi CBBOMlid wich lh« wotriiip of tbh god gi«w oat or Ite hlrtoty or IM pitri^^ 
GcBtiU. AaMtl6a.-Cta»^TkBMl%P.iLMd.&f*.& 

5. Anubis. This was another deity connected in fahle with Osiris. He was said 
to be the son of Osirisp and to haYe accompanied Isis in her search after her husbaiid. 
He is represented as having the head of a aog. He is also called HermanubiM ; or, as 
others say, the latter is the name of another deity of a similar character. 

He appears to be represented in the monament exhibited in our Plate XVni. fif. B. Cf 
$ 34. 2.— In the Sup. Plate 97, we have imafes of Anubla. The first ie from a piece of marble 
sculpture given by MontAucon Arom Boinard ; be stands with one foot on a crocodile, boldini 
in his left hand a eaduetut, and In the right a short rod atucbed to a globe ; by bis bead on on( 
side is a palm-leaf, on the other a laorel -branch ; on his right is seen also the head of Serapia. 
and on his left that of Apis, from which circumstance the inscription on the original monument, 
BEOI AAEA^OI, is supposed to designate Berapis, Apis, and Annbis. The other image in this 
Plate is drawn from an engraved gem; presenting Anubis with the Roman coat of mail and a 
bow and arrow. 

Ctnocbphalus is by some considered to be the same as Anubis; but this name in Egyptian 
mythology merely designates the dog as converted into a divinity. The term CfnoeeptuUi is ap« 

gted by Greek writers to a race of beings said to eiist in Asia (Diod. Sk. iii. 34). The image in 
ip. Plate 97, is given by Montfaneon, under the name of CtrtipUktau, as being the monkey- 
god of Egypt. 

JELuaus designates the cat, as deified by the Egyptians, and especially honored at Bubastis ; 
whence the name Diawa Bdbastis, applied to the same animaL Their images are given in 
Sup. Plate 97. 

6. Harfocrates. He is supposed to be the same as Horusy son of Isis, and was 
worshiped as the god of Silence. He was much honored among the Romans, who 
placed his statues at the entrance of their temples. He was usually represented in 
the fi^re of a boy, crowned with an Egyptian mitrct which ended at the points as it 
were m two buds ; in his left hand he hela a horn of plenty, while a finger of his right 
hand was fixed upon his lips to command silence and secrecy. 

CL lyphyry, Ca«« of Nynpbi (d P. V. § 199. ii.-aam. Joum. UL l4SL^Mmtts, RccmO dm loliqaitib Pkr. I80«. 4. 

In Plate XL VII. fig. l,firom an jabraxas, we have Harpocrates sitting on the lotus flower; cf. P. 
IV. $ 106. In the Sup. Plate S5, the first image of ifarpocrates presents him with a singular 
head-covering, from which a large horn descends ImIow the shoulder. The second is remark- 
able, because he has the wing of Mercury, the panther-skin of Bacchus, the owl of Minerva, tHa 
hound of Diana, the serpent of .fisculaplus, together with the born of plenty. 

7. Canopus. He is said to have been the pilot or admiral of the fleet of Osiris in 
his expedition to India. In the Egyptian mythology he seems to be the god of the 
waters of the Nile. 

Nearly all the representations of him are formed by the bead of a person or animal appearing 
at the top of one of those voms in which the Egyptians kept the waters of that river ; the body 
of the vase is frequently covered with hieroglyphics. Two such represenUilons are given in 
uur Plate VIIT. 

in. — Afythieal Beings^ tohote hidory %$ iniimaUly cormeded with that cf ihe 


$ 97. (1) Titans and Giants, The enterprises of the Titans are celebrated in 
the ancient fables of the Greeks. They have already been mentioned in the 
account of Saturn ($ U), to whom they were brothers, being generally con- 
sidered as sons of Uranus or Coelus and Tit«a. The oldest was called Titan, 
and from him, or their mother, they derived their common name. ' The prera- 
lent tradition assigned to Uranus five sons besides Saturn, viz. Hyperion^ Goeus, 
Japetus, OitM, and Oceanus ; and likewise five daughters besides Rhea, wife 
of^Satum, viz. 7%«i?ks, Mnemosyne, Thya, Phcebe, and TVMys, called TStanides. 
On account of their rebellion against Uranus, in which however Saturn and 
Oceanus took no part, the Titans were hurled by their father down to Tartarus, 
whence they were set free by the aid of Saturn. With Saturn also they after* 
wards contested the throne, but unsuccessfully. The Cyclops, mentioned in 
speaking of Vulcan ($ 52), may be considered as belonging to the Titans. 

The number of the Titans Lb given variously ; ApoUodorus mentions 13, Hy^us 6. 
The number of 45 is stated by some.— —The name of one of them, Japetusj is strik- 
ingly similar to Japket^ mentioned in the Bible, whose descendants peopled Europe ; 
and it is remarkable that in the Greek traditions Japetus is called the father of matt- 
kind. Some have considered the Titans as the descendants of Gomer, the son of 



JaDllet^— They have also been supposed to be the Cushites, or descendants of Cush', 
and the builders of the tower of Babel. — Others think them merely personificationa 
of the elements^ ; and suppose their fabled war with their father CgbIus, or against 
Saturn, an allegorical representation of a war of the elements. 

Hesiod's Battle of the Titaiu is often named as a remarkable specimen of sublimitv. 
It ^ill be interesting to compare* it with Homer's Battle of the Gods, and Milton s 
BattUof the Angels. 

i Ct Asraa, Aatk|oiL im Caiio. > Brymnt, Atuijt. of Aaeieot MTthoIon » CC Benwmn, Brieft abw da Woen der 

lajnkakipc. 4 Cooiiwn Ham. U u. 54 a. Bu. Ttaeog. 674 m. HOI. Pmd. Lost, vi. 

$ 98. The Giant* were a distinct class, althougrh their name (ytya;, from y^ 
and yivui) designates them as sons of Earth, or Gaia, who gave them birth, after 
the defeat of the Titans by Jupiter, and out of venveance against him. The 
most famous of them were Enceladut, Halcyoneus, Typhon^ ^geon^ Ephialies, 
and Otut. According to the common description, they had bodies of extra- 
ordinary size and strength, some of them with a hundred hands, and with 
dragon^s feet, or serpents instead of legs. Their most celebrated undeitaking 
was the storming of Olympus*, the residence of Jupiter and the other gods. 
In order to scale this summit, they heaped mountain upon mountain, as (£ta, 
Pelion, Ossa, and others. But Jupiter smote them with his thunderbolts, 
precipitated some of them to Tartarus, and buried others beneath the moun- 
tains. Typhon or Typhoeus, for instance, he pressed down with the weight of 
.£tiia% under which, according to the fable, the giant constantly strives to lift 
himself up, and pours from his mouth torrents of Hame. 

1 0*. Mitia. L ISl. s 09. Ua. V. Uk—Ctaud Gigutoaaaeh.— l>ifHi Pvih. I SI .— Aftm 4a r/nHitiil, ClaM d'Hut. tt Lit 

Jhk. «pL vii. y& mv h nloic alkforiqw da ecoti nioM, kc—Banur, m Typboa, in the Jtfun- Jead. butr. vol. iiL p. 1 !& 

1. JEseon or BriareuM was another ^iant, eminent in the contest, with fifty heads 
and a hundred hands. He hurled against Jupiter a hundred huge rocks at a single 
throw; but Jupiter bound him also under .£tna, with a hundred chains. — This story 
of the war between the Giants and Jupiter is also explained by some as an allegon- 
cal representation of some great struggle in nature which took place in early times: 
This contest is to be distinguished from that of the litans, who, although often con- 
founded with the Giants, were a distinct class. 

2. Orion is by some also placed among the giants as a^son of Gaia or Terra ; yet 
the more connmon fable ascribes his origin to the joint agency of Jupiter, Mercury, 
and Neptune ; according to which some derive his name Irom the Greek word d^poy 
(urina). He was ranked among the attendants of Diana, and after his death his name 
was given to a constellation. 

tm yiamawi. w oled ( U? ( t).—lk fbwnionC, Le bb. d*Orioa, b tbc ibm. Jcad. Inaer. xir. 16. atleiDplin( to ibow a cob* 
Hdin af tte r^to with flw riety of buc tki HO of Abraham. 

3. Tbe Pf^mids of the ancients were fabulooa heinfru, of very diminutive size, sappofed by 
nae to dwell in Egypt and Ethiopia ; by others, in Thrace and 8cyibia ; and by others, In India. 

a OkL IfaL Ti. tOL^fbm. HaL NaL vik 1— MiyiM, ea Ham. H iii. «.~fleenn, lien, ral. i. aa cited P. Pf. « I71.-Jfall» 
•w.iatte.fknMlv dbt P'oya^TM, «et. i ^ aU,—Bmuiw, I^n Pjrsin^ in (h« Mtm. jtcad-httcr. toL v. pw 101.— CUncC, aa dted 
P.LJiaib^ voLiu. Zuwfj«ii,DaP]rfiBCM.f:tac^rije. Kil. 1724. 4. 

i 99. TrilonM and Sirens, TViton has already been mentioned (§ 29) as a 
son of Neptune and AmphUrite. From him, as most famous, the other various 
deities of the sea derived the name of Tritons. They were represented, like 
him, as half man and half fish, with the whole body covered with scales. 
They usually formed the retinue of Neptune, whose approach Triton himself 
announced by blowing his horn, which was a large conch or sea shell. 

A Triton is osually represented with the form of a man in the upper part, and the form of a 
Ssb In the lower. Sometime* tbe head of the fish is atao retained ; as in the Sup. Plate 19, from 
a Bralptare given by Montfaucon ; where Triton is seen bearing perhaps a Nereid, or more pro- 
bably Fcnui Marimm^ since the figure at the richt appears to be a Cnpid. In Plate XLIII. Tritoif 
is aaaoancinr with his horn the appr6ach of Neptune.— Cf. Ov. Met. i. 333.— Firjr. JEn. x. 900. 

There were other minor divinitie.«» of the sea under Neptune ; but Triton seems to 
hare had the pre-eminence, and under Neptune a sort of control among them. Phor- 
cus, Pro'eus. and Glaucus have been already mentioned C^ 29). Nereus was ranked 
among them as a son of 0ceanus, and the father of the Nereides. Ino and her son 
Palsmon or .Melioertes. are also said to have been admitted by Neptune as gods of 
his rerinue. Palxmon is thought to be the same with Portumnus, wnom the Romans 
worshiped as the guardian of harbors. 

$ 100. The Sirens were a sort of sea-goddesses, said by some to be two in 
oomber, by others, three, and even four. Homer mentions but two*, and de- 
scribes them as virgins, dwelling upon an island, and detaining with them every 



▼oyager, who was allured thither by their captivating music. They would 
have decoyed even Ulysses, on his return to Ithaca, but were not permitted. — 
By others they were described as daughters of the river-god Achelous, and 
companions of Proserpine, afler whose seizure they were changed into birds', 
that they might fly in search of her. In an unhappy contest with the Muses 
in singing, they lost their wings as a punishment of their emulation. Others 
make them sea-nymphs, with a form similar to that of the Tritons, with the 
faces of women and the bodies of flying fish. The artbts generally represent 
them as virgins, either not at all disfigured, or appearing partly as birds. 

1 Abm.0d.xiLaat81 •(^Mrt.v.66S. 

Their fabled residence was placed by some on an island near cape Felorus in Sicily; 
by others, on the islands or rocks called Sirennusae, not far from the promontory of 
Surrentum on the coast of Italy. — Various explanations of the fable of the Sirens have 
been given. It ia commonly considered as signifying the dangers of indulgence in 

$ 101. (3) Nymphs, The Nymphs of ancient fiction were viewed as holding 
a sort of intermediate place between men and gods, as to the duration of life; 
not being absolutely immortal,. yet living a vast length of time. Oceanus was 
considered as their common father, although the descent of diflferent nymphs is 
given differently. Their usual residence was in grottoes or water-caves, from 
which circumstance they received their name, Nv^t^xu. Their particular ofiSces 
were different, and they were distinguished by various names according to the 
several objects of their patronage, or the regions in which they chiefly resided. 

1 u. Thus there were the Oreades^ or nymphs of the mountains ; NaiadeM, Nereides 
(cf. ^ 29), and Potamide*^ nymphs of the fountains, seas, and rivers ; Dryades and 
Hamadryadegj nymphs of the woods ; Napepes, nymphs of the vales, &c. The Dryads 
were distinguished from the Hamadryads {Sfia ^^m^) in this, that the latter were sup- 
posed to be attached to some particular tree, alone with which they came into being, 
lived and died ; while the former had the care of tlie woods and trees in general. 

2. Places consecrated to these imaginary beings were called Nv/i^aia. Such was 
the celebrated spot in the vicinity of ApoUonia. famous for its oracle and the fire which 
was seen to issue constantly from the ground {Plin. Nat. Hist. xxiv. 7). Such was 
the place and building at Rome which was called NymjhtBum^ adorned with statues 
of the nymphs, and abounding, it \9 said, with fountains and 'waterfalls. Festivals 
were held in honor of the nymphs, whose number has been stated as above 3000. 

Sm FanUnu, Lt Cull* d« dmnitfs dM wu, in Jfcm. dead. Inmr. zU. n^-Ct. Land. Qwvtf. Jbs. xvii. I9S. 

They were ireneraily represented at young end beautiful virfrine, partially covered with a Tcil 
or thin cloth, bearing In their handi ▼asea of water, or thells, leaves, or graad, or having tome* 
thine as a ■ymlwl of their appropriate cfHcee. The teveral godf are represented, more or leei 
frequently, ae attended by nymphs of some class or other ; especially Neptune, Diana, and Bac- 
chus. Under the term of nymphs, were sometimes included the imaginary spirits that guided 
the heavenly spheres and constellations, and dispensed the influences of the stars ; the nymphs 

being distributed by some mythologisu into three classes, those of the «iky, the Und^ and the jtm. 

In Plate XLIII. Nymphs are seen accompanying Neptune and Ampbitrite.— In the 8up. Plate 

10, we have a Nereid upon a sea-monster which seems to consist of the lower part of a fish united 

with the heads of two horses, which she guides by reins ; one horse has two fins or wings instead 
of the two fore feet ; f^om a gem of MaifbT. In some representations, the Nereid appean a woman 
with the lower part of tba body in the form of a flab, thus exhibiting the nunmuul, 

$ 102. (4) Mtaea. The ancients were not content with having in their fic- 
tions a god of science and a goddess of wisdom in general ; but assigned to 
particular branches of knowl^ge and art their appropriate tutelary spirits or 

Suardian divinities, whom they called Muses, Movoat, and considerea as the 
auffhters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. They were nine in number, according 
to the common account, with Greek names, as follows : Kkum {IUu$trioua\ 
KaXKiottfj {Fhifvoiee), MeXytofUvi; {Singing), 0a>.cta {Gay),*EpatCi (Loving), 
'Evtipitrj (WtUrpkating)^ Tcp^i;top«7 (DanU'Umng)^ IloXv/ivta (Sor^u/), and 
'Ovpam (Cekatial). 

The Romans termed them Camanm. They were frequently called by common names, derived 
from places sacred to them, or tram other rircumsiaoc«s, as Fmidu, from Pieria, AmddM, SeU- 
eoniadest Panuutidu, Bippocrenidest VuMtaUden^ &c. 

^ 103 u. In order to represent the Muses as excelling in their several arts, espe- 
cially in music and song, the poets imagined various contests held by them ; as, for 
example, with the Sirens, and the daugnters of PierusS in which the Muses always 
gained the prize. They were describea as remaining virgins, and as being imder the 
uistruction and protection of Apollo. I'heir usual residence was Mt. Hehcon, where 


WW the foimtBB Hippocnne, and Mt. Panuaaui, when waa the fountain Caatalia ; 
tiie fonner in Bcsocxa ; the kner near Delphi* in Phods. Mt. Pindus and Mt. Pienis 
in Theasaiy were also sacred to the Muses. Particular temples were also consecrated 
to them among the Greeks and the Romans. Festivals in their honor were instituted 
in sereFil parts of G re ec e *, especially among the Thespians. The Macedonians 
ob s Mied a Hsttral for Jupiter and the Muses, which was continued nine days. 

W If aws ars anaOy rvprcsaaled as rirfiu with oraaaieBted dresses, and ci owaed with 
pmltm or Usrela. ** Accordiaf to the beat amboritics. Cue, HUurj, holds in her band a half- 
spgasd scroll ; M SLroMBirB, f>*£«if, b veiled, sod leaas npos a pillar, hoUinf in her left hand 
atnglcBask; Tbaua, CMMdy, holds in ooe hand a comic mask, ia the other a suff resembling 
a littoo or aafv's waad ; BirrsaFB, JMwie, bdlds two flutes or pipes ; TaapsiCHOsa, tks Dmuee, 
u repreoeotcd la a daacinf attitade, and plays upon a seven-stringed lyre ; Esato, JHuOtrjf 
Fmtn^ bsUs a nme-stringed iastrament ; Caixiopb, Epic FMCry, has a roll of parcbmeat in her 
hand, aad sesMtimee a straifbt trampet or tabs ; Ua^aiA, jUtrtmtmjf, liolda in her left hand a 
ftobe ; >a her ri<ht a rod, with which the appears to point oat some object to the beholder : 
PoLTWTasiA, £X«f ■«•«• sad iaiteCs^a, places the ibre-fincer of tlie right hand npon her month, 
«r else bears a scroll In ber hand.'* (jfii£A#a'« Xcmp.)— Generally accordant with this descrip. 
tioa, yet in sosm respects diflerent, are the fifvres in o«r Plate XXX IX. ; where the Muses are 
repreeeated as seen in the statues beloaiinf to the collection of Christina qneen of Sweden, and 
dwuibid by MafleL^A valnable monnment, to ffuide the critic and artist in distinfaisbinf the 
Manes, is a bas-relief on a saroophacus in the Capiioline gallery at Rome, in which the nine are 

•* The Mnses are often painted with their hands Jofaied dancing in a ring ; in the middle of 
tbem sits Apollo, their commander and prince. The pencil of nature described them in that 
msnsfr upon ihe agate which Pyrrbos, who made war opon the Romans, wore in a ring ; ft»r in 
k was a representation of the nine muses, and Apollo holding a harp ; and these figures were 
net driiueatsd by ait iPUm. L. zzxvii. e. 1), but by the sponlaoeous handy-work of nature." 
(TWfa's Paath.) 

rwi»i»ilii whtr.n ofslfcMb— M i f/ iii i ii,Atlip.w»I.Lplini W U m n mml^9 rk mm t tmn m t^6Ll 
platai iT-sa otL i*. pSna M. I&. 

(104. (5) The €haee$ and the B6ur9. To the retinue of Venus belonged 
tibe Gnees, Xopiff^ Graiim^ senrants and companions of the ^dess, diffusing 
cfaanna and gladness; They were said to be daughters of Jupiter and Enry- 
name, or according to others of Bacchus and Venus herself, and were three in 
number, 'AyXM {l^fkndor)^ Sdxtta {Pleature)^ and ^Ev^po^vwj (Z^)' Thej 
were honored especinll j in Greece, and had temples in the principal cities. 
Altars were often erected to them in the temples of other gods, especially Mer- 
cory, Venns, and the Moses. 

1 a. They are frequently represented on ancient SMnuaients as beantiAil young virgins, com- 
monly in a group, holdwg each otl^r by the hand, and without drapery 

A Thus they appear in the Sup. Plate 8, a represenution wbich very nearly resembles what 
is seen on two beantifhl antique engraved gems, given by O^fs, Ant. Exp. PUiPs 47, 48. In the 
BepL Plate 7, the Graces are employed in adorning Venus. An antique paiming found, with 
otber pieces, st Rooie, in a vault near the Coliseum, in 1G68, exbibiu tbem dancing, with slight 

J^ * rjB^ *i Aiv. iii. a 

{105. The ffwrm^ 'Opw, were the eoddesses of Time, presiding especially 
orer the seasons and the hours of the day, and were considered as the daugrhters 
and Serrants of Jupiter. They came at length to be viewed as tutelary patrons 
of beauty, order, and regularity, in reference to which Themis was said to be 
their mother. They were named Evro/iuh Aix^, Eiftri^, 

The Graces. Hours, and Muses, are all supposed by some writers to have had 
originally a reference to the stars and seasons, and to have afterwards lost their astro- 
nomical attributes, when moral ideas and qualities became more prominent in the 
Greek system of fictions. 

The Hours are usually represented as dancing, with short vestments, and garlands of palm- 
leafl and all of the same age. In some monuments of later periods, /evr Hours appear, corr«« 
spoadingtotbe four seasons.— In tlie 8up. Plate 10, the Hours are represented by four virgins 
■ttesding Anmra. 

Is representing the sessnns, the Roumns used the masculine gender: thus in our Plate IX. 
vUcb ethlbiu ibem as sculptured on the Arch of Aeverns, we see four laHii or young men, each 
web wints, and appropriate symbols of Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. The Romans 
also personiHed the Months, usually representing tbem by male figures. 

a \'i I -, BM. S«rAft.L i«. eh.S. «n.-JfiMl/m(ns Aat K>fk S^ipL nA.lp.nm. Bwn U «<«<• >ho. Ft»tai 

M*.fciwIj«i>wM,wti * t it »«ftt«i ni iw wto tiosioftW»<Ml^ii>^iSifyU7dBpklrfis»SMqKri|< h >l n i ^ 
miOmfurtammi Ttibnmrf •!«— b iiyiirtw ! by» twMte. 

i 106. (A) The A/et. The very common poetic representation of human 
life imder the fignrative idea of spinning a thread, gave rise to the notion of the 


Fates, called MoTpac by the Greeks ; by the Romans, Parca. They were three 
sisters, daa?htere of Night, whom Jupiter permitted to decide the fortane and 
especially the duration of mortal life. One of them Clotho (K9u.»2^), attached 
the thread; the second, LachesU (Aaj^cst^), spun it; and the thini, Jtropoi 
(^^Atponos), cut it off, when the end of life arrived. They were viewed as in- 
exorable, and ranl^d among the inferior divinities of the lower world. Their 
worship was not very general. 

The ParcB were generally represented a> three old women, with chapleti made of wool and 
interwoven with the flowen of the Narciiaui, wearing long robe§, and employed in their worlcs : 
Clotho with a diitaff; Lachesia having near her Bomeliroea several spindles : and Atropos hold- 
ing a pair of scistiors. Such is their appearance in th6 Sap. Plate 14, which is uot copied from 
any ancient monument, but designed after the description of the poets. 

Sm CWiifl. Epillnl. Pal. et Thet t. aOS.-JliBrtM^f AbbmU. T. Hnea. la bli J#ytteL ronidkoi.— Amur, Sor la FtoiiMi, b 
tba Mtm. Acad. htm. toI. it. 6i8L 

$ 107. (7) The Furies and Harpies, Among the divinities of the lower 
world were three daughters of Acheron and Night, or of Pluto and Proserpine, 
whose office it was to torment the guilty in Tartarus, and often to inflict ven- 

feance upon the living. The Greeks called them 'Epcmf$, Furies; and also 
y a sort of euphemism, or from design to propitiate them, EvjittWde;, signify- 
ing kindly disposed; the Romans styled them FurisB. Their names were 
Tisiphone (from tiai^ and 4>ovo(), whose particular work was to originate fatal 
epidemics and contagion ; J/ecto, (from aju^xto;), to whom was ascribed the 
devastations and cruelties of war; and Megaera (from /tfyacpco), the author of 
insanity and murders. Temples were consecrated to them among both the 
Greeks and the Romans, and among the latter a festival also, if we may con- 
sider the Furinalia as appropriated to them and not to a separate goddess Fa- 
rina, as some suppose. 

1 «. They were represented with vipers twining among their hair, usually with frightftxl coun- 
tenances, in dark and bloody robes, and holding the torch of discord or vengeance. 

2. See the Sup. Plate 14, where they are seen in drapery, with the serpent locks and acorpioa 
whips with which the artists represented them. On two vases in the Hamilton collection they 
have serpents in their hair. In the Sup. Plate 13, they are introduced as lashing a criminal with 
their whips. 

Cf. Virg. Oeor^ iii. 551. X.n. vii. 841, 416. zii. B46.-Oa Met l«. 474.~€f: C. Jt. BSUigtr, FuriannkeB im Tnacnfucl and 
auf (L Bildwerken d. alt Grieebeo ; mat mrehnd. UBtanudtaog. Worn. 1801. 8.— JBante, Mr la FurMi, is tte Mtm. Jeod. hutr 
TOL T. p. 94. 

§ 108 a. The fable of the Harpies, "ApTtvtat, seems to have had reference 
oriorinally to the rapidity and violence of the whirlwind, which suddenly seizes 
ana bears off whatever it strikes. Their names were Jiello (from cUxxa, storm), 
Celwno (from xfTuuvo^, dark), and Ocypda (from uixvr(i'tr^u flying rapidly), all 
indicative of the source of the fiction. 

They appear to have been considered, sometimes, at least, as the goddesses of storms, and so 
were called 9vcXXai {Horn. Od. xz. 66). They were said to be daughters of Neptune and Terra, 
and to dwell in islands of the sea, on the bordery of the lower world, and in the vicinity of the 
Furies, to whom they sometimes bore off the victims they seised. 

They are represented as having the faces of virgins, and the bodies of vultures, with feet and 
hands armed with claws, and sometimes as with the tails of serpents. See the Sup. Plate 14. 

ViT^. £u. iii. 210.-See Vau, Mytbolog. Briefc Stutlg. I8S7. 3 voh. \1.—U Clcre (id (he BiUiclhtqut UnivcntOt, vol. i. p. U!) 
•appoiM the HarpiM to be ntereiy lontMi ; a eonjeclttro which GiUcn wnam to tpprote (Bnm. Emp. vol. iL p. 71. ed. N. Y. 18C}. 

^ 108 b. (8) The Vcnti or Winds. It has been already remarked (^ 78) that the 
four principal winds were at an early period converted into mythical personages. 
Among both Greeks and Romans they gained the rank of deities. The Vt'«li, 'A»£- 
Itoi, were eight; Evpof, Eurus, South-east ; 'Ari/Xtr^irijf, Subsolanua^ East; Kauclas, CtBcias, 
Aquilo, Norih-east ; Bopraj, Boreas^ North ; £xipov, CoruSt North-west ; Zupvpof, Zeplty- 
ruSt Occidens, West ; N<JTt>j, Notus, Ausier^ South ; At»//, Libs, Africus, South-west. 

Little is handed down to us respecting the worship paid to the winds. An altar dedicated to 
them was found near Nettuno (cf $ 78. 3). PausaniHs spi^aks of one erected at the foot of a 
ninuniain near Asopus, where annual sacrifices were oflered to them at night. The most re- 
markable monument pertaining to these gods is the Temple or Tower of the eight Winds at 
Athens, still existing; said to have been erected about B. C. 150; a view of it is given in Plate 
XXI fig. 9; see also P. 1.$ 110. 

On each ofthe eifsht sides of this tower is represented one of the winds; Enrvt^ as a young roan 
flying freely and vigorously ; S^ubsoUinuSta young man holding fruit in the fold of his manlie; 
JlqifUo^ a venerable man with a heard, holding a diiih of nlives ; Bor(a$, with boots on his legs, 
muffling his face in a cloak, and flying eagerly ; Corug, nUn with boots and cloak, and holding in 
his hands an inveripd vnse of water; Zeph^rvs, a youth with naked brcRst, and carrying flowers; 
Jfotuet An ol<l n*BD wiiti gloomy face ; Jl/nciia, also with melancholy looks and heavy wiuga. 


la flv Bsp. Plato »» Ztpkfnu b Men tapported la tbe air, la company with Flora or Chloris, 
to whoa ht m laid to iiave be«D married. 

{ 109. (9) Tlie Jkemons or Gcnit, and ilbnef. In the earliest mythologies 
we find traces of a sort ofprotecting deities, or spiritaal guardians of men, 
called Aiufiorf {, or Genii, They were supposed to be always present with the 
penons onder their care, and to direct their condaet, and control in great mea- 
soie their destiny, haring received this power as a gift from Jupiter. Bad dae- 
mons, howcTer, as well as good, were imagined to exist, and some maintained, 
that erery person had one of each class attendant upon him. 

From the notion of an attendiii^ ^etitM arose the proverbial expressions indulgere 
gtnw and defraudare genio, signifying simply to gratify or deny one's $€lf. 

The d^mung of claancal mytbologT must not be coiuounded with the fallen spirit$ 
RTealed in the Holy Scriptures, and represented as possessing men in the time of 

r •■ lUI— SpMK bf Ctmwtfng. Btrikm, MML-Ct Mnmd m, ligltt 

§ 110. The Mana were a similar class of beings. Although often spoken 
of as the spirits or souls of the departed, they seem more commonly to have 
been considered as guardians of the deceased, whose office was to watch over 
their graTcs, and hinder any disturbance of their tranquillity. They were sub- 
ordinate to the authority of Pluto, on which account he is styled Summanm, 
Some describe a goddess, named MdmOf as their mother. 

1 u. The Romans desi^ated by the name of Lemures, or Larva, such spirits of the 
dead as wandered about m restlessness, disturbing the peace of men, issuing from the 
graves as apparitions to terrify the beholders. 

1 la Plata XXZVI. we have one fkee of a aqnare sepolehni moaoraeBt found at Brlzia, on 
vbkh two MnM are represented, eacb witb wlofs and an inverted torch ; a repreeenution not 

(111. (10) The Xaref and Penates, The system of tutelary spirits was 
earned further by the Romans than by the Greeks. The former assigned to 
each dweUing: and family its ^ardian deities, which were called Lare$ and 
Penates. Tbe Lares were said to be sons of Mercury and Lara, or Larunda, 
daughter of Almon. They reoeired a variety of epitfiets or by-names, accord- 
ing to the particular object, over which tiiey were in different cases supposed to 
preside, 9sfamiUttna^ compitak*^ viaks^ peieUarii^ jmbUci^ privati. 

I m. They were especially considered, however, as presiding over houses, snd had 
in every house their proper sanctuary (lararium) and altar. Tney seem to have been 
viewedT as the spirits of the departed ancestors, the fathers and forefathers of the 
&niily, who sougnt the welfSue of their deacendanta 

1 Pablie featlvala were held in their honor, called CMipifclia, which were made very JoyAil 
ooeaaiDne; the alavea of the fkmily ahared liberty and equality with their maatera, aa on tlia 

The dof waa aacred to the Lares, and an tmape of this animal waa placed by their aUtuea. 
IVte aiainea were aometimea clothed In the akinf, and even formed in the ahape, of dogs. 

r.Bi fd,Om,»L Zwimv. l«t6L a-JAfBer, at died § 112. 

$ 113. The Penates were also domestic or household gods, but they were not 
properly speakinflr a distinct class by themselves, because the master of the 
dwelling was allowed to select any deity according to his pleasure, to watch 
orer his family affaire, or preaide over particular parts of them. Accordingly 
Japiter and othere of the superior gods were not unfreqnently invoked in this 
capacity. The gods who nresided over particular families, were sometimes 
styled parvt Penates. While those that presided over cities or provinces were 
styled pofrtt or pubUd Penates. Adulation sometimes elevated to the rank of 
Penates even living persons ;; especially emperore. 

The Larea and the Penaiea are often confounded, bat were not the aame. **The Penatea 
wen oriffinally pods, the powera of nature peraonified ; the myMcriona action of which pro- 
4ecea and nphoida whatever ia neceaaary to life, to the common food, to the proaperity of fomi- 
t)«; whatever. In fine, the hsman apecwa cannot beatow on itaelf. The Larea were oriffinally 
tbcaiaelvea human belnn, who, becominff pare apirits after death, loved atill to hover round the 
4«eUiaf they oDee inhabited j to watch over Ita safety, and to ffuard It aa the flUthftil dog doea 


the poffienloni of hii master. They keep off danger from withoat, while the Penatea, reaidiag 
Id the Interior of the dwelling, pour blesaingi upon its inniatet." {Jinth. Lemp.) 

A number of amall bronze atatueii representing Roman Penates, were found the last eentury 
at Exeter, in England. 

Cr. Virg. JEo. ii. 717. iii. I4a.-I3itynt, EzcBii. Ix. ad VUf. Xn. il—T. Hempd, Din. de din UribiM, m dM ( III.— MUIkr, 
de dib Rom. Luibm et PfemtlbaiL Hafmc, 181 1. 8. — Tor a notice^ wiib pUtai, of ttw atataM bud at Exatar, aaa tbc Jinima- 
iogia, (etted P. IV. f 92. 6), vol. vL |Hil>IWMd 1788. 

$113. (11) Sleep, JDreamt, and Death, Among the imaginary beings sup- 
posed to exert an inflaence over the condition of mortals, 'T^tvo;, ^Ovttpoi, and 
edva/toi, gained a personification, being called brothers, sons of Nox or night, 
and ranked among the deities of the lower world. 

1 u. The residence of Sleep, "Ywor, SomnuM, was said to be in Cimmeria, on account 
of the perpetual darkness which tradition ascribed to that region ; and the poppv, on 
account of its soporific qualities, was his common symbol, lie is represented aa Hold- 
ing in his hand a lisht inverted and about to be extinguished. 

The last symbol was also employed in representing Oayant, or Death, who was 
often placed beside his brother Sleep on sepulchral monuments, and appeared in a 
similar bodily form, and not a mere naked skeleton, as in modern art. When death 
was the result of violence, or circumstances of a disgusting character, the Greeks ex- 
pressed it by the word id\p, and they fancied a sort of beings called c^/x;, who caused 
death and sucked the blood. The Romans made a similar distinction between mor$ 
and Icthum, 

9. In the representation of Sommif, given in our Plate XXXVI., he l8 a young man lying on the 
ground asleep, with one arm on the neck of a lion, and holding the capsule of a poppy. Tkanio^ 
tot, or Death, stands by him with a scythe and wings, in a robe bespangled with stars, aa be is 
teen in some paintings. 

The Romans imagined death as a goddess, M»rM. The poets described her as roving about 
with open mouth, furious and ravenous, with black robes and dark wings. She is not often 
found represented on existing monuments nf art; in one supposed to represent her, a small 
figure in brass, she appears as a skeleton, sitting on the ground with one hand on an urn. 

CC 09. Met si. 689, 834, 6tO.^Luting>i Uolcrnichaiic wie die Allen d. Tod pUUat B«L 1789. 4.— ftod^^ Abb. ia ha 
1 BUttera. Th. 9. tj^-apenia, Mymatii, eiled P. IV. § Iftl. 

3. The god of dreams was "Ovctpo; (7/om. II. ii. 56), more commonly called Tdop^vq, 
from the various images or forms (jtofxph) presented in dreaming. Morjtheus is some- 
times considered as the ^od of sleep, but was more properly his minister; Phobetor 
{(po0nTtop)^ sometimes considered as the god of dreams, was another minister of Som- 
nus, and Phantasua (^ird^o)) another. 

C( 7te»y(/i}rwm«,ae.,DhiatnladbrthaDiorticmarkabladf«ainaKCord«dlBHMo^ Load. 1808. II. 

$ 114. (12) The Satyrs and Fauna. The idea of gods of the forests and 
woods, with a form partly of men and partly of beasts, took its rise in the ear- 
liest ages either from the custom of wearing skins of animals for clothing, or 
in a design to represent symbolically the condition of man in the semi-barbarous 
or half-savage state. The Satyrs of the Greeks and the Fhunt of the Romans, 
in their representation, differed from the ordinary human form only in havin? a 
buck's tail, with erect pointed ears. There were others called Panes, which 
had also the goat's feet, and more of the general appearance of the brute. 

1 II. The Fauns were represented as older than the Satyrs, who, when they became 
old, were called Sileni. Vet the Romans represented the Satyrs more like beasts, 
and as having the goat's feet. The Satyrs, Fauns, Panes, and Sileni, idl belonged to 
the retinue of Bacchus (^ 60]. 

2 u. The name of Fauni was of Italian origin, derived from a national god Faunus, 
who was son of Ficus (kiiig of the Latins) and the nymph Conens (0». Met. xiv. 
320, 336), and whose wife Fauna was also honored as a goddess. 

Saa Mtym'f AUi. tcb tJalaraehiad. cwh^ao Faa& Sat. SUen. mid Pimra, ia b» SamnO. JnL AufOtu. FMad al» la Ifbic** 

etmanny Hiitoira da I'Art (catad P. IV. $ K) *oL L p. CBa Uabar Fann. Sat I>a. owl Siicna. BarL ITOMt. S^Fm, Myth. 


^ 115. (13) The Gorgons, Three imaginary sisters, daughters of Phorcjs and 
Cete, were termed Topydytf, from their frightful aspect. Their heads were said to be 
covered with vipers instead of hair, with teeth as long as the tusks of a boar, and so 
terrific a look as to turn every beholder into stone. I'hey ore described as having the 
head, neck, and breasts of women, while the rest of the body was in the form of a 
serpent. According to some they had but one eye and one tooth, common to them 
all, which they were obliged to use in turn. Their naiiies were Slketutt Euryale, and 
Medusa. Medusa is saia to have been slain by Perseus, who cut off her heaid, while 
they were in the act of exchanging the eye. 

They are sometimes ranked, with the Furies, amonjr the infernal deities. But their 
remdence is variously asagned ; some placing them m a distant part of the western 


ocean, othere in Lybia (cf. P. I. $ 179), and others in Scythia. Some have ex- 
plained the bible as referring to a warlike race of women, like the Amazons. Others 
suppose it to have had some reference to the moon as a dark bod^, which is said also 
to have been called Fopytfvioy, from the face believed to be seen in it. 

JfaMs w l« BM|Mrid«, i«l fv la Goffooii, is tbs Mnk Aod /tuer. ^ 

^ 116. (14) The Amaxtms, The Amazons were no doubt mythical beings, al- 
though said to be a race of warlike women, who lived near the river ThermcKlon in 
Cappadocia. A nation of them was also located in Africa. They are said to have 
burnt off their right breast, that thev might use the bow and javehn with more skill 
and force ; and hence theijr name, 'Afia^dvcp, from a and M<i(. They are mentioned in 
the Iliad (iii. 189. vi 186) and called (un-iovtipai. 

Various explanations of the fable are given. Some consider it as having a connec- 
tion orij^ally with the worship of the moon. Several statues of Amazons were 
placed m the temple of Diana at Ephesus {Plin. N. Hist, xxxiv. 8) , and may have 
represented some of her imaginary attendants, or some of her own attributes. 

A ifwe nNBfaluig la Awwrw. bat haviog bmr ufma, b wa in Um carwM of Elcpbuti.— In oar Sap. Pint* 2i; an Abudd k 

npna u/ t ti wift her bow ml qairar of vrowt. TnditkMH iwpoetinc ^ nc* ^ AmuoM an nid to be tUU auroit in ttw 

pBgioBofrtw CLBdinb.Mn.Ko.Wi.p.Ui. On the JkBaxon, mo Ownr** Symbolik. 

% 117. This seems to be the place for noticing more particularly several Monsterif 
which are exhibited in the tales of ancient mythology. 

(a) The Minotaur was said to be half man and half bull. The story is, that Minos, 
king of Crete, refused to sacrifice to Neptune a beautiful white bull, which was de- 
mand^ by the god. The anery ^od showed his displeasure bv causing Pasiphae, the 
wife of Mmos, to defile herself with this bull, through the aid of Dedalus, and give 
birth to the monster. Minos confined the Minotaur in the famous labyrinth. Here 
the monster devoured the seven young men and the seven maidens annually required 
from the Athenians by Minos. 

Theteus, by tbe aid of the king'a daughter, Ariadne, slew the Minotaur and escaped the laby- 
rioth (cf. ) lis>. 

(6) The Chimara was said to be composed of a dragon, goat, and lion imited : the 
middle of the body was that of a goat, the hinder ports those of a dragon, the fore 
parts those of a lion ; and it had the heads of all three, and was continually vomiting 
forth flames. This monster lived in Lycia, in the rei^ of Jobates, king of that 
country. This king, wishing to punish Bellerophon in order to gratify his son-in-law 
Praetos, sends him against the ChimaBra; but Bellerophon, by the aid of Minerva, 
and the winged horse Pegasus, instead of perishing himself, destroyed the monster. 

Thahblo b bf moo ■oppand tonbtto nvolcuue WNiBlabi ea dw Ljraan eooct— See Ctorki*! TravoU, pt ii. wet. U. «h. a 
(TgL OL pu Stl. ad. 21. Toik, 1815}.— Plin. N. HmU v. 87.-Bafiier, end Frtntf on Bdkrophon, in ttw Ifon. AeadL Jnir. viL 


(0 The Centauri were said to be half men and half horses. Some make them the 
oflspring of Ixion and the cloud ; others refer their origin to the bestiality of Centau- 
rus, the son of Apollo. They were said to dwell in Thessaly. The principal inci- 
dents related of them are their rude attempts upon the women at the marriaee of 
Pirithous and Hippodamia, and the consequent battle with the Lapiths, who drove 
them into Arcadia. Here they were afterwards chiefly destroyed by Hercules. ( Ov. 
Met. xii. 530.) — Some have imagined this fable to allude to the draining of the low 
parts of Thefi«aly, as the horte is in general symbolical of water. 

rnifir* bqury, ac. ia tbe Ctaff. /OMnML--CL JTiiybrrf, ch. L Met 8.-Jton»r, la Fable dci C«^ 

'<f) Geruon was a monster said to be the offspring of Chrysaor and Callirhoe, and 
to have tnree bodies and three heads. His residence was in the island of Gades, 
where his numerous flocks were kept by the herdsman Eurythion, and guarded by 
a two-headed dog called Orthos. 

Tbe destmctioQ of this monster formed one of the twelve labors of Hercales () 133). 

(e) The Hydra was a monstrous serpent in the lake Lerna, with numerous heads, 
nine according to the common account. When one of these heads was cut off, an- 
other or two others immediately grew in its place, unless the blood of the wound was 
stopped by fire. 

The destruction of the Hydra was another labor assigned to Herenles, which he aceomplished 
by the aid of folaus, who applied lighted brands or a heated iron as each head was removed. 
Tbe arrows of Hercules, being dipped in the Hydra's blood, caused incurable wounds. 

(/) PegoMua was not so much a monster as a prodigy, being a winged horse said to 
have sprung from the blood, which fell on the eround when Perseus cut off the head 
of Medaaa. He fixed his residence on mount Helicon, where he opened the fountain 
called Hippaerene (imof and Kpiiyri). He was a favorite of the muses, and is called "the 
modes* horse." The horse, having come into the possession of Bellerophon, enabled 
him to overcome the Chimera. Afterwards Pegasus, under an imptdse from Jupiter, 


threw off Bellerophon to wander on the earth, and himself aaoended to a place among 
the Btars. 

▲b ei«n*iiic h giw bj WiodMlnuB of a bauriifU bM-icltal ia wbila oMtiblc, nprMBUi* Bderapboo aad ft|MDi; Am 
origiml, pnnrTAd la the palac* of SpvU «t Boom, it of Uw aatonl ■ias.-SM fTmdkdmafm, HaLda F Art, fol. iL p. 8BI. iiL ttl. 
—Ct Fromtaa^t DiMngn|ihli M Tnito ElflBMnliin d'Atlnnoni& Fkr. 1818. & ceaUialBC Qw ucMat Ftbla rafiedi^ lb* 

(ff) Cerbenu was the fabled dog of Pluto (^ 34), stationed as centinel at the entrance 
of nades. He is generalljr described as having three heads, sometimes as having fifty. 
Snakes covered his bodj; instead of hair. None from the world of the Uving could pass 
him but by appeasing him with a certain cake, composed of medicated and soporific 
ingredienu. ( Virg, Mn. vi. 420.) 

To seize and bring up this moniter was auigned to Hercules^ one of his labors. 

(A) Seylla and Charyldu are the names, the former of a rock on the Italian shore, in 
the strait between Sialy and the main land, and the latter of a whirlpool or strone eddy 
over against it on the Sicilian side. The ancients connected a fabulous story with each 
name. — Scylla was originally a beautiful woman, but was changed by Circe into a 
monster, the parts below her waist becoming a number of dogs mcessantly barking, 
while she had twelve feet and hands, and six heads with three rows of teeth. Terrified 
at this metamorphosis, she threw herself into the sea, and was changed into the rocks 
which bear her name.-^Charybdis was a sreedy woman, who stole the oxen of Her- 
cules, and for that offence was turned into the gulf or whirlpool above mentioned. 

Cf. rJrfO, Sm. iiL OOhl-Opj^ Metam. zif. «.— iVi^Mri. UL ll.-iryr<mif, bh. IIB. 

(t) The Sphinx was the offipring of Orthos and Chimapra, or of Typhon and Echidna ; 
a monster having the head and breasts of a woman, the body of a dog, the tail of a 
serpent, the wings of a bird, the paws of a lion, with a human voice. This monster 
infested the neighborhood of Thebes, proposing enigmas and devouring the inhabitants 
who could not explain them. At length one of the enigmas, in which she demanded 
what animal it was which walked on four legs in the morning, two at noon, and three 
at night, was solved by (Edipus : he said that the animal was man, who in the morning 
of lite creeps upon his hanas and feet, in middle age walks erect, and in the evening 
of his days uses a staff. On hearing this solution, the Sphinx instantly destroyed 

In Plate Vin. are given two Images of the Sphinx. One is without wlnn ; having a pecnUar 
Egyptian head-dreei ; ftom a sculptured monument given by Boiesard. The other ia from an 
engraved gem, given by Maffei ; having the ealatkuB on her head, and the nttntm in her paw. 

Bc^reMotaUoM of lb* Sphiaz an raj oamuoa ■mong Eg]pptiaa nanviiMBti. A Tcry edebntod eoloml ilatM of a Sphiax jd 
raaains near ttw jiytmiDkii. It ii cut in tbe tolid rock, aod ta I8S fett ia taocttk— CtarJtff Ttetab, pLtl.MCl.Ldi. A.-'OmtiA 
Tranli (fol. L ^ 85^ Load. l8IM).-£«nd. Quart. Acs. sis. 19S, 40S a. 

(k) The Griffon iTpH^) was an Imaginary animal, said to be produced from a lion and aa 
eagle, and supposed to watch over mines of gold and whatever was hidden. Its image is some- 
times found on ancient medals ; the upper part resembling an eagle, tbe lower part a lion. 

Ct rirra,EcI.Tm. n^arodOtUt m. lia-Pliny, Bbt. NaL X. 49.-J. F. Or^tn von FAMm, Vn dn QiciraB dar AAca. 
HaliDit 1799. a 

(0 In the Greek mythology T^kon is ranked among the Giants ; by some considered to be the 
same as T^iphmu (cf. $ 06); by others distinguished from him; said to have been produced from 
the earth by Juno's striking it ; described as having a hundred heads like those of a dragon.— 
In Egyptian mythology the monster called Tfpkon holds an important place, being considered as 
the cause of all evil, "the Egyptian devil." (Fotbroke.) He is described and represented in va- 
rious ways ; sometimes as with a hundred dragon heads ; sometimes as a wolf; sometimes as a 
crocodile, and as uniting the tail of a crocodile with the head and fore-legs of the hippopotamus, 
as seen in our Plate Vlll. 

IV. — Mythical History of the Heroes, 

$ 118. In Grecian story three periods are distinguished even by the'ancients : 
the unknoum^adfjikwy of which no historical monuments remained to make known 
the state of society ; thefabulous^ uv^txov, of which the accounts lefl are mingled 
with manifold fictions ; and the historical^ letopixov, of which a genuine and 
trastworihy history is recorded. The first extends to the deluge of Deucalion, 
the eeeond to the introduction of the Olympiad into chronology, and the third 
through the subsequent times. To the second of these periods belonged the 
Heroes, as they are called, and it is on that account often styled the heroic age. 
These personages are supposed to have possessed extraordinary powers of body 
and mind, and distinguished merit \» ascribed to them as having founded cities 

p. II. HEROES. FERSErS. 133 

or coantries, improved their manners and morals, or otherwise exalted or de- 
fended them. 

§ 119. Gratefol sensibility to the merits of ancestors and progenitors was a 
most common cause of the sort of deification with which these heroes were 
pablicly honored aAer death ; a^d the disposition towards this grateful remem- 
brance was qaickened and sustained by oral traditions respecting their deeds, 
vhich were much adorned and exaggerated by the poets. Hence it came, that 
most of the heroes were at last viewed as sons or gods, and often of Jupiter 
himself. The veneration for the heroes was however less sacred and less uni- 
versal than the worship of the ^ods. To the latter, important festivals were 
established, regular priests ordamed, appropriate temples erected, and public 
solemn sacrifices offered. The heroes, on the other hand, received only an 
annual commemoration at their tombs, or in the vicinity, when offerings and 
libations were presented to them. Sometimes, however, the respect paid them 
exceeded these limits, and they were exalted to the rank and honors of the 
?ods. The introduction of solemnitiea in memory of heroes is ascribed to 
I admus. 

Ci. nry. JCs. ni. aOI.--5bUiir, IB the ifiM. dk rjeaiL dw AiMT. vol. if. p. 8991 

§ 190. The heroes of the Greeks were of different ranks. Some were viewed 
as a sort of household deities, such as after their mortal existence watched over 
tbeir families and friends and were honored and worshiped only by them. 
Others, whose services while they lived were of a more extended character, 
were worshiped by whole states and tribes, as demi-gods, and sometimes had 
their appropriate festivals and mysteries, and even temples and priests. To 
such was ascribed a more general superintendence of human affairs. It is the 
latter class that we are here to notice particularly, as they were the most illus- 
trious, and their worship was not limited to the Greeks, but was adopted also 
among the Romans. Of these only the principal can be mentioned, in doing 
which the order of time will be followed. 

f 121. The GianU and Titam (§ 97) might correctly be ranked among the 
Heroes, and regarded as the most ancient. To the same class, too, belong 
InaehuMj founder of the kingdom of Argos ; his son Phoroneua, to whom various 
merits were ascribed ; and Ogygei, a king of Bceotia, memorable from the flood 
which occurred in his reiffn. This rank also was ei^oyed, especially among 
their respective people ana tribes, by Ceerops, founder of the Attic state; Deu' 
calion^ a Thessalian prince, who with his wife Pyrrha escaped the general flood 
ihat happened in his times ; Amphictyotiy author of the celebrated council or 
confederation of the early Grecian states ; Cadmus^ who came from Phcenicia 
to Greece, and contributed so much to enlighten and improve the people (cf. P. 
IV. $34; />afkitM, to whom the kingdom of Argos was indebted for its advance- 
ment; JBeUerophon^ who was said to have destroyed the monster Chimera, and 
to hare performed other exploits ; Felopt, kin^ in filis, from whom Pelopon- 
nesus took its name, as his descendants occupied that peninsula ; and the two 
princes of Crete by the name of Mnosy one celebrated as a lawgiver, the other 
as a warrior. 

iaw vnten ar|W »f .ivt ttc tsktaM* of two indWidsds bj Omwtm at Utmat^-Sm B9dh Kicti. OOttiif. IfOO. % rdtu %. 

) 122. Pbrsccs was one of the most distinguished of the early heroe& He 
▼as the son of Jupiter and Danae, educated by Polydectus on the island Se- 
riphas. His chief exploit was the destruction of the fforgon Medusa, whose 
head be struck off with a sword given to him by Vulcan. From the blood 
ihat fell, sprantf the winged horse Pegasus, on which Perseus afterwards passed 
orer many lands. 

1 ■. Of h» gubsequent achieTemenrs, the most remarkable were his changing king 
Atisf into a high rock or mountain, by means of Medusa's head, and his deliverance 
of Aodroiiieda, when bound and exposed to be devoured by the sea- monster. In coti- 
section with the latter adventure he also changed into stone Phineus, who contended 
vith him for the possession of Andromeda. He inflicted the same afterwards upon 
Polydectes for ill treatment towards Danae. To Perseus is ascribed the invention of 
the discos or quoit, with which he inadvertently occasioned the death of his grand^ther 
Acxisja. Finally be founded the kingdom of Mycens. After his assassination by 


Megapenthea, he was placed amone me constellations, and several temples were 
erected to hira, besides a monument between Argos and Mycenae. (Cf. Ov. Met. It. 
603. V. 1-350.) 

i. The flibles respecting Perseus are by some considered as a modification of the story of the 
Persian Mithras (cf. ( 35), and a piece of ancient sculpture on one of the gates of the citadel 
of Mycene baa been thought to confirm the analogy.— Crsaxev, Symbolik.— GsU, Itinerary of 

3. Atlas, whom on account of his refusing hospitality to Perseus, the latter is said 
to have changed into a mountain, is described as the son of Japetus and the kiii£ of 
Mauretania. He owned numerous flocks of sheep and beautiful gardens abounding 
witli citrons and oranges. His seven daughters, renowned for beauty and wisdom, 
were called Atlantides from their father, and Hesperides from their mother Hesperis. 
The gardens called the gardens of the Hesperides were said to be guarded by a dread- 
iiil dragon that never slept. The name of Atlas was given to the chain of mountains 
in that part of Africa, and to the ocean on the west. Whether from reference to the 
height of those mountains or to the astronomical researches of the king, Atlas is said 
to have supported the heavens ; and accordingly artists have represented him as bear- 
ing an inunense sphere on his shoulders. 

ThoabebwaiBtlMSap. FUie82. Ob Kwae momMn—li, Bereutoi ti n prt i e aM in * MmiUr way ; b >C M tt , M m wJd, ha — d 
Atlas of hi* bafden.-Cr. Ogk, Aot £xpi. pUt« SS. 

§ 123. Of all the Grecian heroes, no one obtained each celebrity as Her- 
cules, son of Jupiter and Alcmena. Wonderful strength was ascribed to him 
even in his infantile ^ears. Eurvstheus king of Mycense imposed upon him 
many difficult enterpnses, which he carried through with success ; particularly 
those, which are called the twelve labors of Hercules. These were : to kill the 
Nemean lion; to destroy the Lemeean hydra; to catch alive the Stagf with 
golden horns ; to catch the Erymanthean boar ; to cleanse the stables of Au- 
gias ; to exterminate the birds of lake Stymphalis ; to bring alive the wild bull 
of Crete ; to seize the horses of Diomedes ; to obtain the girdle of Hippoly ta, 
queen of the Amazons ; to destroy the monster Geryon ; to plunder the g^arden 
of Hesperides, guarded by a sleepless dragon ; and to bring from the infernal 
world tne three-headed dog Cerberus. 

These various exploits were often made the theme of description and allasion In the poets. 
The first is detailed in the S5th Idyl of Theocritus. The twelve labors are described in IS verses 
In the 3d Chiliad of Theixst (cf. P. V. $ 81}.— The story of Hercules strangling the serpents while 
an Infknt is given in the S4th Idyl of Theocritus. 

^ 124 f*. Many other exploits were ascribed to him, by which he gave proof of his ex- 
traordinary strength, and exhibited himself as an avenger and deliverer ot the oppressed. 
Such were, his slaying the robber Cacus, so much dreaded in Italy ; the deliverance of 
Prometheus, bound to a rock ; the killing of Busiris and Antceus ; the contest with 
Achelous ; and the rescue of Alceste from the infernal world. Less honorable was his 
love of Omphale queen of Lydia, by which he sank into the most unworthy eifcnii- 
nacy. Hjs last achievement was the destruction of the centaur Nessus. Ncssus dying 
gave his poisoned tunic to Dcjanira ; Hercules afterwards receiving it from her, and 
putting it on, became so diseased that he cast himself in despair upon a funeral pile on 
mount (Eta. 

The worship of Hercules soon became universal, and temples were erected to his 
honor, numerous and magnificent. He received a great many surnames and epithets 
from bis exploits and from the places of his worship. Hercules and his labors arforded 
the artists of ancient times abundant materials to exercise their ingenuity in devices, and 
they very often employed them. 

Tiro of (be mott edebnted uiiqm •tftlna repraent Hercolei ; the Torn, or HercoleM Belvidere, ud the J9!emiilit Fkracw : rt 
F. rv. $ 196. 6, 7. The Utter rBpnMoti him leuing upon bit club, u it wen tfter hii Ubon. A view of it b ffivca in Plate XUV. 
fi$. 8, copied frem WiDcfcelBnim. An cngnTlDg of the «me a Kiven in the Sop. Plate 22. The other rcprewntatioB in tbi* PU*e 
•howi the infant Hereulei atrangliiig the terpeat ; from an antique Kulptore. 

For other priodpal rapreeeatationa of Hercuki, we Morttfavetm, Ant. Evpl. T. i. p). 123. 141, and OgVt Ant. Ezpl. No. Sl-4a— 
See alio Dtw. Ba(tri, Hereolei Btbnicomin, ex. nr aatiq. reliquiis detidcatui. Col. March. 17D& M.~-Htgn» Not ad ApoUodnr. 
p. 325 — /. Guriaei Frafnsent d. arch»>>. Abfaandl. Ob. Herculek hUgd. ItJOO. A—Pk. Buttmtmnj Qber d. Mjthos da Hcraklca. 
Berl. 1S10. ^—Dupuu, Orig. do toua lee colL vol. ii.— Reipictiog the aacieat wriien on tbe MythoL of Hercale^iee JtfW^a Biat. 
and Antiq. of Onr. Race. Oxf. 189a vol. i. p. fiBS. 

Annoiif thr variom eolatioaa of the alory of Herculea, tbeie if one which very ingrnioudy applies the aeeount of bia twidva labon 
to the lasuft of the mm thnrngb the iwdTO rigna of the Zodiac A view of this is given in JtnVtanU LeDpriera. 

§ 125. Theseus, a son of iEgeus and iEthra, or according to others a son of 
Neptune, was excited by the renown of Hercules, to engage in enterprises the 
most hazardous, and he successfully accomplished them. Among tnese was 
the extermination of a multitude of robbers and assassins that infested Greecct 
and especially the destruction of the Minotaur a terrible monster of Crete, to 


wbieh the Atfaeoians had pierioasly been compelled to send seven male yoath 
and as many yoang twids annually, to be devoured by him. By the help of 
Ariadne, a daogfater of Minos, Theseus was enabled to trace the winding or the 
labyrinth, in which the monster had his abode, and put him to death. Ariadne 
accompanied him on his letnm to Athens, bat he nngratefuUy deserted her on 
the island of Naxos. 

^ 126 «. The other principal exploits of Theseus were his descent to the lower world 
with his fiiend Pirithous, his Tictory over the Amazons ($ 116), whose queen Hippolyla 
became his wife, and the assistance he gave Adrastus, king of Argos, against the The- 
ban prince Creon. Great praise was awarded to him for unproving the legislation and 
the whole morals of Athens and Attica ; and yet he was for some time an exile. The 
manner of his death is varkmaly related, but it seems by all accounts to have been 
caused by violence. 

The honor paid to him was accompanied with unusual solemnities ; a superb temple 
was consecrated to him at Athens, and a festival was established called Onvaa, held on 
the eighth day of every month, with games, and a regular sacrifice termed Oy^WW. 
Provision vras made at the public expense to enable the poor to share in the festivities 
of this occasion. 

CL ftaC ia FSL 7%m.-Diod. Sdc. L. tv. e. «.-0«. Ifetam. vtL 4M; viiL 19; ziLna-lfirfMVanHi^^ LhcI l-IVit 
iv*wti1ktmmfl*ct1hmam,mtTiMleXXLfig X, 

$ 127. Jasoh and the JrgrmautM. One of the most celebrated enterprises of 
the heroic ages, one which forms a memorable epoch in the Grecian histoiy, a 
sort of separation-point between the fabulous and the authentic, was the Argo- 
naotic expedition. This was a voyage from Greece to Colchis in order to obtain 
the golden fleece, conducted by Jason, the son of iEson, king of Thessaly. 
The undertaking was imposed upon him by his uncle Pelias. He invited the 
most illustrious heroes of Greece to unite in the expedition, and among those 
who joined him were Hercules, Castor and Pollux, Feleus, Piriihous, and The- 
aeus. The vessel built for the purpose was named Ar^o, which after various 
adverse events arrived at iEa, the capital of Colchis. jEetes was then king of 
Colchis, and promised to Jason the golden fleece only on certain most difficult 

§ 128. Although Jason fulfilled these conditions, yet iEetes was unwillin:!: 
to permit him to take the desired booty, and sought to slay Jason and his com- 
panions. This purpose was betrayed by Medea, the king^s daughter, by whoso 
assistance and magical art Jason slew the dragon that guarded the fleece, and 
seized the treasure. He immediately fled, accompanied by Medea, but was pur- 
sued by her fiither. Medea put to death her brother Absyrtns, cot his corpse 
into pieces and strewed them in the way, in order to stop her father's pursuit. 
Jason was afterwards faithless to her, and married Creusa, or, as others name 
her, Glance, a daughter of Creon, king of Corinth. Medea took vengeance by 
causing the death of Creusa and also of tiie children she had herself bom to 
Jason. After death Jason received the worship bestowed on heroes, and had a 
temple at Abdera. 

Se* tbe patttm cm (he Ar^DO. Ezped. bj Orphna, SpcUcniuM RVdita, and Valtriiu Flama, (CL P. V. J^ 49, 73, 376.)—, 
-m t* Argaa. Ezped. hi Afam. d* TJktad. da Inter. \o\. i«. p. 54 ; xii. !2J ; xit. 41.— //ry>iii Not. ad Apollodor. p. 177.— C. P. 
U^^^vty Mr )e Bctoor da Arpntati, in the Afem. de rinstaut, C I asse d. &.-i€na» Jdx,T. tt PuL toL it. 

Various ezplaoations have been pat upon the Biory of the Arfronauts. One writer thinks tht» 
foMen fleece viras the rare nlk of the East. Haptr^ Pantheon Chinois.— Another thinks the phrnse 
ar>>?e from the habit of collecting ?old, washed down from the mountains, by putting sheepskins 
in tne channel of the streams. Jlitfordf cb. i. sect. 3. — Bryant (Anal. Anc. Myth.) considers the 
vbole story as a tradition of the hood. 

5 129. Castor and Pollux, who were among the Argonauts, were twin sons 
of Jupiter and L#eda, and brothers to Helena. On account of their descent, 
they were called Dioscuri (Acoffxovpot), although, according to sotne, Castor 
was the son of Tyndaros, the husband of Leda. Castor distingiiished himself 
in the management of horses, and Pollux in boxing and wrestling. The last 
exploit of the Dioscuri was their contest with Lynceus and his brother Idas. 
Castor was slain by Lynceus, and Lynceus by Pollux: and as Idas was about 
to avenge the death of his brother, Jupiter smote hiin with lightning. — Pollux 
obtained from Jupiter the honors of deification and immortality in conjunction 
with his brother Castor. Both were placed among the constellations and re- 
preaented by the Gemini or twins in the zodiac. Both the Greeks and the 


Romans consecrated temples to them, and they were especially inyoked and 
worshiped by marinera. 

1. They were said to be placed among the marine gods, from having cleared the 
Hellespont and the neighbonng seas from pirates. They were invoked as 'Av&rpnoi, 
avertert of evil : and wmte lambs were sacrificed to them. — The Romans honored them 
especial!}^ for services supposed to be received from them in pressing dangers, as in the 
battle with the Latins near lake Regillus. Thev constantly swore by their names ; the 
oath used by the women was ^castor, or by the temple of Castor ; that of the men 
was JEdepolt or by the temple of Pollux. 

BeprawBtitiaH of CMtor and Follox an feoad putkulariy on Boou ao ww i h . A Am w p rwf a t i nn, dnwB froB • lufe 
fem fiTOi by Maflai, it wtm is our Sup. Plata SI. 

2. The festival called Dioscuria {imnovpta) was in honor of these brothers, celebrated 
especially by the Spartans. On this occasion the gifts of Bacchus were very freeiv 
shared. It was amidst the drinking at the feast in honor of Castor and Polloz, which 
Alexander held in Bactra, that he madly slew his devoted friend Clitus.— -This festival 
is supposed by some to have had the same origin as the famous mysteries of the Cabiri, 
which were celebrated particularly at Samothraoe, and were thought to have great effi- 
cacy in protecting from shipwreck and storms. 

An aaeiml ■trncton now azbta it Salouea, which k auppoMd to haw baap a Cabirtaa T«B|da : aaa PUto V.-CL Q. S. Faltr, 
MyatarMi or the Cabiri. Ozf. 1808. 2 vola. a-Frmt, L» CaUra, in Uia Mem. Jead buer. fol. uru. p. • 

J 130 ». Heroes of the Theban War. In the early history of Greece, the war of 
Thebes, which is dated upwards of 1200 years before Christ, is much celebrated. 
Without relating its incidents we shall here only name some of the principal heroes of 
the time. Among these were Etiocles and Pol^nices, the two sons of (Edipus, king 
of Thebes, whose own private story was so tragical. The war arose from the dissen- 
sion of these brothers, who slew each other in a single combat, and were afterwards 
honored as demigods. Several famous chiefs, as CapaneuMf Tydeus, Hippomedon, 
FaHhettop<BU8, united with Adrastus, king of Argos and father-in-Uw of Poiynices, to 
take part in the war. The events connected with it furnished the poets with matter 
for numerous tragedies. — The second enterprise against Thebes, ten years later, was 
more fortunate in its issue, but less celebrated, ft was undertaken by the sons and 
descendants of those slain in the first war, and was therefore termed the war of the 
'E;riyovoi. The most illustrious of these were Alcmseon, Thersander, Polydonis, and 

The Theban war waa one of the favorite themes of ancl«fit'poets. Jintimaoktu of Colophon, 
a Greek poet, and contemporary with ChosriluB, wrote a poem In twenty-four books on the eab- 
ject ; the fragments have been collected. Cf. P. V. { 19.— The poem of the Latin poet Stadus la 
still extant. Cf P. V. ^ 378. 

CL fttti. ii. 9S.—JpoUod. L S.— AodL iv.— OiOte, BnL Graaea, ch. l—KeightUg^ Mytbolaiy. 

$ 131. Whilst the Thebans and the Argives were involved in contention and calamity, T^ntta- 
Im, and his descendants the Tantalidsa^ were equally afflicted by various misfortunes, occasioned 
by the Impiety of this prince, who was said to be a son of Jupiter, and reigned in Lydia. Being 
of immortal descent, he was honored with a visit from the gods during an excursion they made 
upon earth. In order to prove the divinity and power of his guests, be served up among other 
meats the limbs of his son Pklops, whom he had cruelly murdered. The gods perceived bis 
perfidious barbarity, and refused to touch the dish ; but Ceres, whom the recent loss of her 
daughter bad rendered inattentive and melancholy, ate one of the shoulders. In compassion to 
the fate of the young prince, Jupiter restored him to life ; and instead of the shoulder which 
Ceres had devoured, substituted one of ivory, which possessed the property of healing by its 
touch all kinds of diseases. 

As a punishment for his cruelty, Tantalus was condemned In hell (( S4) with an Insatiable 
hunger and thirst in the midst of abundance. — He had a daughter Niobe, who fell a sacrifice to 
her intolerable vanity. She was married to Amphion, a prince of Thebes in Bceotta ; and having 
a great number of children, she had the temerity to treat Latona, who had only two, with over- 
bearing arrogance. Provoked at this insolence, Latona applied to Apollo and Diana, who Q 3<) 
destroyed all her boasted ofldpring except Chloris (cf. ^ 38). Niobe, after the death of her 
children, returned to Lydia, and endrd her days near Mt. Sipylus; according to the fables, sbtf 
was so shocked at her misfortune, that she was changed into a rock. *' On Bft. Sipylus, accord- 
ing to Pausanias, was to be seen a rock which from a distance resembled a woman in deep me- 
lancholy, though near at hand It had not the most remote resemblance to one." 

Pelops quilted Phrygia and repaired to Elis, where he became enamored of Hippodamia, the 
daughter of king (Enomaus; but this monarch, having been informed that he should perish by the 
hand of his son-in-law, determined to marry his daughter to him only who could outrun him in 
the chariot-race ; and those who entered the list were to f»rfeit their lives if conquered. Un- 
daunted at this condition, Pelops boldly undertook the combat, and to secure his success, he 
previously bribed Myrtites, the charioteer of CEnomaus, who disposed the axle-tree of the cha- 
riot in such a manner as to break it on the course ; and the unfortunate kinr, being thrown to 
the ground, killed himself. CKnomaus thus left his kingdom and his daughter to Pelops, who 
acquired great celebrity, and gave his name to the peninsula in the southern part of Greece. 
Pelops, after death, received divine honors. He had an altar in the grove Altis at Olympia, and 
was much revered, even above other heroes (Pind. Olymp. i. 146. Pausan. v. 13). His descend- 
ants were called Pelopida. His two sons, Alreus and Thyestes, were celebrated for their mutual 
hatred and crimes. But his two grandsons, Agamemnon and Menelaus, the Atridmt acquired a 
more honorable renown. 


§ ]32«. Herota ef the Trojan War. Of all the wars of Grecian story, none is 
more famous than that of Troy, which was the first military campaign of the Greeks 
out of the limits of their own country. The immediate occasion of it was the seizure 
of Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Lacedoemoii, by Paris, son of Priam, king of 
Trof. The siege continued, according to the common account, including the prepara- 
tion and marches, ten years, with various successes and disasters, until at last the Greeks 
became masters of the city by strata^m. The chiefs who were engaged in this enter- 
priie acquired the highest renown m Greece, and the poetry of Iiomcr has secured 
t.ieir everlasting remembrance. The chief commander was Affamemrton, and the more 
Illustrious of the heroes with him were AchiilcSj Ulysser, Diomedes, JMetuhug, AJaj 
Fon of Telamon, and Ajax son of Oileu$j Jdomeneutf, and Ntslor, On the side of the 
Tr-jans, I£er*or, ^neas, and Antenor were among the most celebrated. 

The war of Troy was not more memorable in itself than for its consequences. Ir 
zave a new spring to Grecian culture (cf. P. IV. '^ 40). The arts of war were grcatly 
.niprovcd. Numerous and important civil revolutions took place in most of the siaits. 
Bii! all this pertains to authentic history rather than to mythic talcs. 

See 3i-Jf^r€, elL L MCt. A.—GtlUa, cb. L Hi Clam. Joum. v. N. IS. tL ZS. ii. 6n>, 626. zviii. 14\. —CharuPer, HUtory of 

Tny. Soe K fa w a c ei giren io P. V. ^ fiO. T— Bryant (Id a Dinertatlna on the war of Trof , Load. 1799. 4) hu DuiaUiucd that 
tte wkelc talc ■ m tutn (tbte, and ibat tben never was taj tuch war. 

<} 133. Although the personages specially called Heroes in Grecian story belonged to 
me period termed the heroic age (cf. ^ l\f^); yet under our fourth division of the suliject 
ot Mythology (cf. ^ 10) will properly fall the names of a multitude of personages ol 
la'er periods, including Romans as well as Greeks, who after their death were deified 
m ihc eountry where they hved, or had become renowned (cf ^ 88. 2, and M). 3) for 
memorable attainments or achievements. Merely to have been a king or rult-r was 
sufHcient to secure deification among a people fond of the pageantry of superstition. 
Ttijs servile and impious adulation was particularly practiced by the A sialic Greeks 
to^-ards the successors of Alexander. Mere governors of provinces were sometimes thus 
honored. After the Roman imperial power was established, it became a regular cus- 
tom (cf. ^ 94) to deify the emperors. 

The Roman senate mad« it their buiinera by solemn decree to place every deceased emperor 
in tbe nnmber of the gods, and the ceremonies of his Apotheosis were united with those of his 
funeral. Bai as the actions of each one were now faithfully recorded by history, it was impos- 
sible to eonnect with tbe deified name such fabulous and myiiterious tales as to give the divini- 
ties, tboa eatablisbed by law, much hold upon the popular feelings. The list of imperial demi- 
gods, tb«refore, ia of eomparatively little iruporiance in a view of the ancient mythology. 

7^ Mieatiaa of the SBtpcron, it n rery likdj, gave riM to Que Uaitfication ofiamtt, practiced bj the Roican Catbolici. 
Se* Jtfitftatoi** letter rram Room, tbowiog the coDfonnitr Utm eea I operj ami I'aipinisn). Loud. 17^. 4. 6lb ed. 182a. 8.<- 
Aim fa ha ifyntemwM ITarftiL Land. 17SS. 5 Tola. &-CC Ct/^ti, Drcl. and Fall, &c. cb. iti. 
mnni— attaiidtii( tbe Apothcoati, or Cotiturati'^ we F. IIL ^ 343. 

18 MS 


GodM of the Greeks aiid JRomarUf as classed in the preceding Sketch. 

1. Saperior 0-ods. 
Jupiter Juno 
Neptune Minerra 
Apollo Diana 
Mart Venus 
Mercury Vesta 
Vulcan Cerea 
Janut Rhea 

2. Inferior Gk)da. 


pviniliar In 

^OIUS (cf.§88)j 

Plutua Enyo 

iEsculapius Krgane 

I ftn tlntvttn 











Sfrtnl Oodi 
peculiar to 
the KonuuM 
(cf. 5 W) } 







Pales, &c. 

3. Mythical Beings. 

Titans Manes 

Giants Lares 

Pygmies Penates 

Tritons Satyrs 

Sirens Fauns 

Nymphs Oorgons 

Muses Amazons 



Seasons Chimera 
Fates Geryoa 










Chary bdis 



4. Deified 








The Gods as classed by the Greeks, 

Superior Oeda^ ealUd 

MtydXoi eeot. 
Jupiter Juno 








Infsrior Oodtt ealUd simply Ocol, and 
gometimea ^alfAovti. 





Helius or 















The Mydtirsl Be- 
inff Bftincd 
aboTAj TiUni, 

to the Grecln 

(cf.^ 88), except 
•uchuUU iuio 
the clw of !)•■ 
saipxi*. ' 

Dtmigods, eaUsd 'ButBtoi. 

H«ra Ml laa- Tba Tkebu Bwon 
cbDi, PenetM. m— 

aUmned Capaneufl 
Thersander, &c. 

abovB, I 

Reraabc* aoiiM. 
Iimaa Saturn, 
Baccha*, So- Tto Trojan B«oaa 
luL and olbcr «r»— 

fodi an puL A gamemnott 
AJax. 4tc. 

The Gods as classed by the Romans, 

Dii Majomm Gtontiiun. 

\. Consentes. 













9. SOecU, 

Dii Mtnonun Oentinm. 

]. Semones, 

Guard lam over 
partictilar ob- 

£olus, &c. 



and moat of llM 
Godi peculiar 
loibc Koniana 
Here alto the 
Mjthical Bo 
inp (cL i U). 

3. Mueellanei, 
PenoniAcaiiona of 









Victoria, fcc. 

3. Ptregrini^ 
Goda riom otbar 




Apis & HneTis 

Sera pie 



CanopOB, Jte. 

4. Tndigetes^ 


Romulus er 
Quirinus, &c. 

▲kodeiflad Emif- 

Gods of the Greeks and Romans ^ as classed according to supposed Residence. 

Jupiter Venus 
Apollo Vesta 
Mercury Aurora 
Mars Iris 

Vulcan Hebe 
Cupid Psyche 
HymencuB Horn 
Juno SeasouB 

Minerva Graces 
Diana Muses 

The MoMi aometSBMi nak- 
•d with Uie TnTMtriai. 

Terra Pomona 



Bacchusi Satyrs 
Terminus Fauns 
Vertumnus Lares 
Priapus Nymphs 
Flora Penates,&c. 


Oceanus Tethys 
Neptune Amphltrite 
iEolus Matuu 
Proteus I no or 
Phorcys Leueothoe 
Portumnus Sirens 
Nereus Nereids 
Triton Scylla 
Glaucua Charybdla 

Pluto Proser- 
Charon pine 
Minos Nemesis 
Rhada. Mors 
manthUB Manes 
^acos Ncaiai 
Cerberus Parca , 
Nox Furies 






§ 1. Gracia is hj some supposed to hare derived its name from Graicns, a 
50D o? Thessalus, his descendants being called Graici, Tpacxot. The Graici, 
however, ivere only a single tribe of the inhabitants, some of whom planted 
themselves in Italy. The country originally seems to have had no common 
name, comprehending properly all its tribes. Grecia was a name used by the 
Romans, not by the mhabitants themselves. It was called by them Hellas, 
from Hellen, a son of Deucalion, and also Achaia, Pelas^a, Ionia ; and the 
people were called by the ancient writers Achsans, Argivi, Danai, Hellenes, 
relasgians, and lonians. These names of the country and the occupants, 
however, were not employed always in a uniform sense, but seem to have re- 
ferred in their general application chiefly to the more important colonies or com- 
manities, which originally occupied and peopled the land. 

$ 2/. Gfeece, in the most comprehensive sense of the term, was bounded on 
three sides by the Mediterranean sea, parts of which were distinguished by the 
names of ^gean, Cretan, Ionian, and Adriatic ; and on the north extended to 
the chain of mountains called Orbeltu (cf. P. I. $ 77) separating it from M aesia. 
Taken in this extent, it is naturally divided into four parts ; Macedonia ; Thes- 
salia and Epims ; Hellas; and Peloponnesus (cf. P. I. $ 76^. Taken in a more 
limited sense, excluding Macedonia, it was sometimes divided into two parts ; 
Grxcia Propria (including Thessalia and Epirus, and Hellas^ ; and the Pelo- 
ponnesus. In the most limited sense, however, it included merely Hellas, 
which is perhaps usually meant by the restrictive phrase Griecia Propria. The 
name of Greeks was also applied to the inhabitants of Grecian colonies in 
Asia, in Italy, and in Africa. 

5 3. It may be well to mention the principal cities which were distinguished 
for their power and cultivation. These were Athens, in Attica; Sparta or La- 
cedvmon, in Laconia ; Arffos, Mycenae, and Corinth, in the territory of Argolis; 
Thebes, in Boeotia ; Megalopolis, in Arcadia. The more eminent foreign or 
colonial cities of the Greeks were the following; Miletus and Ephesus in 
Ionia; Mitylene, Chios, Samoa, and Rhodus, in the islands near Asia Minor; 
Byzantium on the Thracian coast ; Corcyra on the island of that name ; Ta- 
reotum, Sybaris, and Locri in Southern Italy; Syracuse, Agrigentum, Gela, 
and Leontinm in Sicily ; Syrene in Africa. In later times Alexandria in Egypt, 
Antioch in Syria, and Seleucis in Chaldea on the Tigris, were considered as 
Grecian cities. 

§ 4. The form of government in Greece underwent, in the course of its his- 
tory, Uiree remarkable changes. In the earliest heroic ages, the several tribes 
or communities obeyed petty princes or chiefs of their own choice. Subse- 
f;uently monarcAte* properly so called were established in Sicyon, Argos, Attica, 
Thebes, Arcadia, Thessaly, Corinth, Lacedaemon, Elis, iSftolia, iEgialea, or 
Achaia. But the Greeks were in the most flourishing condition during the 
time of the two republics of Athens and Sparta. — ^The Achaean and Etolian 
league, the kingdom of Epirus, and the political constitution of the Greeks in 
Asia Minor, are also very valuable portions of the Grecian history. 

$ 5. The first inhabitants of Greece, who probably came from Thrace and 
who were followed next by the Pelasgi (cf. P. IV. § 33, 34) and the Hellenes, 
lived in a very rude state, without any commercial relations or even common 
laws. They practiced upon each other constant robbery and violence) and 



were exposed to frequent attacks from the occupants of the neighhoring islands. 
Colonies from Egypt, Phoenicia, and Asia Minor, gare the first impulse to their 
culture, which was aided by the commencement of the navigation. The famous 
Argonautic expedition was one of the most memorable exploits in the naviga- 
tion of this early period, occurring about eighty years before the Trojan war. 
About fifty years before the same, the first formal state constitution was adopted, 
in Crete, under the direction of Minos ; not with the perfection, however, 
which was secured at Athens, through the influence of Cecrops, and after him 
Theseus. The people of Attica were the first to adopt a more peaceful, qniet, 
and frugal mode of life ; and this example influenced the inhabitants of other 
regions to renounce their irregular habits and predatory excursions. 

§ 6. Hereby was occasioned a more free intercourse between the different 
people of Greece, and a greater anion in regard to objects of common interest, 
particularly in reference to murders and depredations. A proof of this was 
given by the fact of so many states joining to avenge the injuries of Menelaus 
(committed against him by Paris in the seduction of Helen) and carrying on 
together the war agsunst Troy. This war became a means of the further 
achrancement of Grecian culture (cf. P. IV. $ 40), although it was also the 
occasion of many troubles and revolutions among the states at home, and thus 
led to the migration of many Greeks to neighboring islands and to Asia. Fi- 
nally they became weary of wars and tumult, be^an to love peace, law, and 
social ease, and united in adopting public solemnities and religious rites, and 
maintaining social and civil order. 

$ 7. Hitherto the form of government had been chiefly of a military charac- 
ter ; the chieftain who commanded in war was the civil head of his people; but 
now a more monarchical form was assumed. Soon however the kings abused 
their power, and by their tyranny forced their subjects to throw off the yoke. 
Love of liberty then became the ruling passion of the Greeks, and the very 
name of king was odious. It was this spirit which gave rise to a state of 
things in which the Greeks sustained an eminence surpassing all other nations. 
Through the mutual assistance rendered each other in acquiring independence, 
the jealousies and discords which had previously reigned were in great measure 
allayed. Araphictyon, third king of Athens, had united several of the states in 
a sort of confederacy (cf. § 105), and this compact afterwards became much 
more close and strong. An excess of population in this period of tranquillity 
and prosperity was prevented by sending out various colonies to Italy, Asia, 
and Africa. 

$ 8. Among the free states, Sparta or Laced aemon enjoyed first the advantages 
of a rigid and at the same time salutary system of laws, which however in 
some particulars evinced the imperfect culture of the age. Lycur^us, B. C. 
about 820, the author of this code, had previously made himself acquainted with 
the manners and institutions of the Cretans and Egyptians. Without intro- 
ducing any violent changes, or even abolishing in form the existing twofold 
regal office, he placed the relations of rdlers, magistrates, and people, in a new 
and improved attitude. His morals and precepts, which were in part very 
severe, tended, as did his whole political system, to form a brave, constant, and 
warlike people, and thus cause them to be feared and respected. His design 
was accomplished, and Sparta acquired in these respects a high pre-eminence 
over the other states. 

6«e /. K. F. Mama, Sparta, ein Vemeh nr Erklftmng d. Getchiebte und VerfiwiiDg dioei Sbah. Ln'px. 1800-I8G& 9 Th. S. 
— Cf. referenoo given P. V. § 7. 7(d). 

§ 9. Next to Sparta, Athens became distinguished. Being advanced in 
culture by the legislation of Solon, B. C. about 594, and subsequently acquir- 
ing glory and power from the defeat of the Persians at Marathon, she became 
more and more jealous of the superiority of Sparta. This jealousy led to mu- 
tual animosities and finally to the well known Peloponnesian war, which was 
carried on for eight-and-twenty years (from 431 to 404 B. C.) between Athens 
and Sparta, and in which almost all tlie other states of Greece took part on one 
side or the other. Sparta finally was triumphant, but her glory did not endure 
long after this. Athens rose far higher in political and literary character, and 

p. m. INTRODUCTION. 143 

became the resideace of refined mamiers, useful knowledge, and cultivated taste 
in the arts. 

Wm. Tmmf Mltkal BMoiy of AlbMfc«>Tniii. Into Garmn. Ldpe. 1777. 9.—JUkmian Ldttrt^ or the epUolary eoma> 
priB iTi of M lya of tt« kit ^ f^wia, Tqidiag H Allw duriag tha PHloponowlMi war. Lood. t7Wi8fol» 8.— Tnm. into 
Gnk »f F.Jmeeit^lmftM. ItOOi- AJiOBr, BIm and nU of Ai1mh.-C£ P. ▼. § 7. 7(d). 

$ 10. The progress and decline of culture in Greece we are to notice more 
particularly in the Archaeology of Literature (P. IV. $ 33s8. 61ss.), and here 
It is only necessary to allude to the causes, which conspired to render Greece 
so eminent in this respect. Some of the causes were, besides the highly pro- 
pitious climate of the land, its numerous population, whose very necessities as 
well as mutual emulation excited and fostered a spirit of actiyity and invention; 
its enjoyment of an encouraging and ennobling liberty ; its commercial inter- 
course, and the general prosperity which resulted. These, with other favorable 
circumstances, raised the Greeks to a nation which is even to the present day 
one of the most remarkable in history, and whose works m literature and art 
are still valued as our best models. 

§ 11. Hence our diligent attention is properly hestowed on the antiquities of 
the Greeks, by which we become acquainted with their religious, civil, military, 
and domestic institutions and customs. The general utility of such knowledge, 
especiallT as an aid in the investigation of history, language, criticism, mytho- 
logy, and art, commends the study of antiquities to every one, who engages at 
all in classical pursuits. It adds to the interest and value of Greek antiquities, 
that, among all the various objects of knowledge, the language, literature, re- 
ligion, history, and whole genius of the Greeks, hold so high a place in point 
of relative importance. Some acquaintance with what is denominated their 
Aniiquiiiet is essential to enable us to enter much into these subjects, to com- 
prehend well their spirit and character, or to contemplate the various menu* 
ments of their literature and art in a definite and correct view. 

On the utility of the study of classical antiquiiies, we introduce the following re< 
marks, abridged, from RoUm (as cited P. II. % 5u.)— '*To a ceitain extent, this study 
is iiidl'vpensable for all who make pretensions to education. Without it, there are 
a multitude of expressions, allusions, and comparisons which they cannot understand; 
without it, it is scarcely possible to advance a step even in reading history, without 
being arrested by difiiculties which a tolerable knowledge of antiquity would readily 
solve. Like all other studies, when carried too far, it threatens with its dangers. 
There is aomctimes connected with it, a sort of learning, abstruse and badly con- 
ducted, which is occupied only on questions equally vain and perplexing, which on 
every subject searches for that which is least known and most difficult to be compre- 
iiended. Seneca (de Brev. Vit. c. 14) more than once complains that this vitiated 
rus'e, which originated with the Greeks, bad passed over to the Romans. Juvenal 
also (L. iii. Sat. 7) ridicules the corru{)t taste oi his contemporaries, who required that 
a preceptor should be able to reply without preparation to a thousand absurd and ridi- 
mloos questions. It is to know very little of the worth of time, and grossly to mis- 
apply one*8 talents and exertions, to occupy them in the study of things obscure and 
dimcult and at the same time, as Cicero says (Off. L. i. n. 19), unnecessary and some- 
times even vain and frivolous. Good sense will lead the student carefully to shun this 
danger. He will remember the sentiment of Quintilian (L. i. c. 8), that it is a foolish 
and pitiable vanity, which prides itself in knowing upon every subject all that inferior 
writers have said ; that such an occupation consumes unprofitably the time and strength 
which ought to be reserved for better things ; and that of all the eminei^t qualifications 
of a good teacher, that of knowing how to be ignorant of certain things is by no means 
the least. 

After these precautions, we cannot too highly recommend the study of antiquities 
ei'her to students or teachers. High attainments in this very comprehensive branch 
«*i learning ought to be the aim of every youth, who proposes to pursue important 
studies himself, or to direct those of others. The extent or difficulty of the work 
fhfjold dishearten no one. By devoting every day a fixed portion of time to the read- 
ITS of ancient authors, intellectual riches will be amassed, Hi tie by little, which will 
at'erwards be a source of astonishment even to the possessors themselves. It is only 
necessary to make the commencement, to employ time profitably, and to note down 
observations in order and wiih accuracy. 

Most of the topics connected with antiquities mi^ht be embraced under seven or eight 
heads : religion ; political government ; war ; navigation ; monuments and public edi- 
fices ; games, combats, shows ; arts and sciences ; the customs of common life, such 
•s pertain to repastSi dress, && Under each of these divisions are included many 



Bubdivinoiu. For example, under the head of religion are comprised the gods, prieBts, 
temples, vases, furniture, instruments employed in different religious ceremonies, sacri- 
fices, feasu, vows and oblations, oracles and omens ; and so of the other heads." 

Sm K. H. MtUUum-, U«b«r Pbilolori^ AltertbamawMCBMbaa ud AHnthnaiMhrfiiui. Far Stodirmd*. I^m. 1B7. & pp. «. 
—Burgmtt Emy on Um SCady of AatiqiikJM. OxC 1782. a— i>lalf iw, m dtad k IM. S«.-Swiko P. IV. tOi ud wmto Ibm 

§ 12. The sources of Greek antiquities are in part the classical writers, and 
especially the historians, more particularly such of them as give details oif the 
whole constitution of Grecian society, the manners, customs, and modes of 
thinking and feeling. Among the classical writers, the poets also must be 
considered as sources of information on this subject, especially the epic poets, 
whose narrations, notwithstanding their fictitious ornaments, have some truth 
for a basis, and whose representations give much insight into the character and 
views of the people of the times. But another important source is found in 
the remaining monuments of art; inscriptions, coins, statues, bas-reliefs, gems, 
and vessels of various kinds. These, being sensible objects, give us a more 
distinct and complete conception of many points than could possibly be gained 
from mere verbal descriptions, and are, moreover, of great value as illustrations 
of beauty and taste. 

$ 13 tt. Various modern writers have collected from these sources scattered items of 
information, and arranged them methodically for the benefit of those who wish to gain 
a knowledge of antiquities, and apply it to ine study of Greek literature. Other wnters 
have investigated particular topics in a more full and extended manner. 

1. For to uooaot of wpffei of both kindi, no 
/. JL FUtrieU Bibliopxphw utiqauia. (Stud, at op. J". Sehaff$' 
hoMum.) HuDb. I780L 4. etp. iL 
Itiuaft BrndbnOnag do, te. wbkb n cUcd bdow (Th. L 

p. as.) 

JEVvte, Rudbocb der philoM. BOdwrkimdc (Bd. ii. p. 211). 
Cr. Suita*t AII9. Tbooric, Jttoi. 

Mmtd^ BJMiolbMa BMorie^ vol. 9d, m dM P. V. \ 840. 
mmasiM Iba writan oa AMtijtutim, 

S. Tbo moit importaot eoHeetioo of particnltr trcttita on 
Gratk Antiqailia b Jac Qrontmi Tbaaiuras Antlquiramm 
GneearaB. Lag. Bit. 1687-1708. IS voli. fol. Yen. 1732. An 
aceonat of tbo oonlcnto b (iven in Ibe work of Fabricnu, Jual 
citod.->A man of valuable mattor ralatia( to varioot brancha of 
OfMk Aatiqaitbi, with illoalimtiam taken rram aoeieot moou- 
■MBb, b foond in JWottf/ouconV Antiq. Eipliq. cited P. II. 
{ 12- S (d)> An abridgoMnt of tbii in German, bj J. F. Xalk, 
waa pobliAed NQrab. 1807. fol. with 160 plates.- We may men- 
tion h«n alw Cofbu, Racaeil dct AotiquiMa. Pkr. 1767. 7 vols. 4. 
eooiaininc Epptian and other antiqu it ica, with enpaTinfa.— 
Alao, F. A. Davids Antiquity Etraaqma, Qracquet, et Romaini. 
Par. 1787. S vob. 4. 

a AiMNic tte b«t MaoiMb vA Compcnb oa the aubject 
■ra Ilia Mlowing : 

JDaar*. AOhti Anflqoitatam HoMricania Lifari iv. (ed. A. 
aOh&i Aftoit 1743. a 

JV.Jbi»,AnickAatii|nlti«i. Mhnd. Lond. 1685. 4. 

/o. FML FM^% IJM iv. Aatlq. Gneeanni. Lpc. I7D«. 4. 

ImA, Botf Antiq. Oneennun, pneeipna Altieamm, DcMrip' 
tio bravb (with aba. of Ltiamr and Zamiut). Lps. 1787. a 
(Eng. tiuuL by Stoekdale) Lood. 1772. & 

Sig. Havan am p, Antiq. OracnnuB, piaeipaa Aiticnrnm, De- 
aeriplio brevit. Lng. Bat 1740l & 

P.F.A.IfitKk, Bnehraibonc dea hlnalichen, 9ottnd.eDttiicben, 
I, poliliaefaon, kriflcanaeben nnd wiiKOKhaftlichea 7u- 
tfcaalil von mpfner) Erf. I79I-I WO. 
9 vota. a with a 4lh voL b7 KUplm, Erl 1806. Of. CUui. 
Jamn. v. lOb 

P. F. J. KHaA (waa), Estwaif dar Oriacfa. AlteHhQmer. 
Altesb. 1791. 8. 

L. aekaaff, AntiqnIIUiB and Areblologia der Oriacben and 
ROmor. (abo in bta Ba^d. dar Ch». Aitartbnmsk). Magdeb. 

/. JbWNMH, Axdmdo^ Gnea, or tlia AatiquitJea of 
Omnbte. Lo^UV.a 

/. PotUr, ArchMlofia Graea, or the Aatiqailtoa of Oraeea. 
Ozf. 1690. 2 vole 8 -Same work, ad. O. Dunlar. Edinb. 1880. 
—with addiliona and cometions by Jintken. N. Tork, 16& a 
—with nntea, mapa, ke. bjr /. 5oyii Olaag. 1837. IS. vdoaMe.— 
Smmm work in Oeniaa, with addittana bjr /. /. Rambmck. Balie, 
I777-7& 3 vob. a 

A eompcDdioBi of Grecian AntiqniticB by C. D. O iaa f aw d 
Boat. 1831. la 

Abria dar Griech. und ROm. Alleflbamer, von C»r. Friid. 
Baackk Stendal, 1881. 11 (vcrjr bncf). 

4 The following are not datigaod for manoal^ hot eoobto 
highly inlereating picturei of Grecian antiquity. 

/. Joe. BartMemy, Vopge de Jenna Anachania en Gracci ed. 
Sttnot. Pu. 168a 7 vola. 12— Engl, traaal. by fT. Jfanownf. 
Lood. I80a Cf. P. V. ^ ISS.-In Gam. with aoto If J. E. 
BuMtr. Bcri. 17*8. 7 vola. a 

/. D. HmrtmtamH Veiweh einar Kultorgcachicble dor 
vomehmttea TolkerachafleD GriadMolanda. Lengo, 1716 nad 
l80a2Bde. a 

/. D. Loekhart, laqciry into the Civil, Moral, and Bdigioa 
loalitntiona of Athem, Ac. with the Tepognphy, and Cborogra- 
pby of Attica and Alhaah TrafliktBd frooi the Gcraaa of £ OL 
MulUr. Lond. 1842. a 

The Atbmim Lttttrt, cited i 9. 

6. The feUewing woika alao nay be eoaanltad wHfc adraa- 
taga on different poinb : 

WaeknnutK Hdbwadia Alterlhtaidraada. Halta, ISBL 
Tnm. i^e EagL (Hirtorical Aatiqaitiea of Giewe) Os£ 18ST. 
4 vola. a 

i7iir« Eavye on the ImUtatkMa of the QnOn. 

CHUiaf DiMOone on (ha Maonera of the Greekk 

W. Btchar, Charidaa ; Bilder altgriccbbeher Siltea. Lps. lS4a 
2 vola. a with platok A work illoatrating the private life of the 
ancient Qrreka. 

C. fiwmaim, Antiqaitadoai Laconlcaniai libdli itr. llaitw 
1841. 4. 

/. HhUM, Recherchea ear let Moan, lea Ungea, raligieui, 
dvile, at mililairea, dea Aacient Peuplca. Par. 1808. S vota. 4. 

B. Bam, The Public and Private Lifa of the aadant Graka. 
Tnail. from Gcraian. Load. IfSa a 

BtmnU FbUUca of Aac. Graeee. Tnnd. by O. JtmmartfU 
Beat 1824. 

C. O. JfUZbr** Hblory aad Aatiqaitiea of fhe Doric Baoa. It, 
by/KTV/WdaadO. ClMib Ozf. 188a f vela, a 

irfN.Jftiiai,8Mear8ocid7ialteageofB«iaar. . 




AM|ri0y«tti JAOodifM; M dM P. n. MS. I (O. 
P. XtaiMt, Dieiiaau7 of GrMk and Bgnu jLotiqaitiv. ] 
A. PatO^ Batl-EneTdopadte Am c 

nL LonL ISia S tota. 4. with phtek-^Abo Land. 1 
liol. iaiieflL 
Fr:AiiU,I>iclloMi7orOi«ikia«BamiBAiiliqaitlH. I 

teGra& ]>te. IBO. 8. 
Dl & liWi, JOTriA, QriWtol, wl CiMical AatiqolliM i e» 
tahaai BHbaatoM «r te Scriptarsi aad OaMOd Baeonb, f fOBi 
OriMBri Mven. Caa** UOi 8. (ct livM^ laL la Stod. 8. 

AAoi^ Am. Hirt. bk. z. 1«I aditSo^ Ifaar Tat, lOL 

r, F. fiU«r, BciMrtariaB d« rliiiirliM AHwAiiiiimwIm 
■eteft. Lf&ini. & 

$ 14. The subject of antiqoities cannot be treated in so strict accordance with 
chronological order as the events of history* because the sources of information 
aie not sufficiently minute. But still in describingr the antiquities of a people, 
one should not lose sight of the influence which political revolutions, the pro- 
gress and decline of refinement, and other circumstances, have exerted at sac- 
cessive times upon the constitution, manners, and whole national character and 
social state. Most writers have not been sufficiently mindful of this, and have 
also confined themselves chiefly to the most flourishing of the Grecian states, 
▼is. Athens, and so have described JUlie^ rather than Grecian antiquities. In 
order to avoid this double fault in the present sketch, the antiquities of the ear- 
lier and less cultivated times will be distinguished from those of a later and 
more enlightened period ; and in speaking of the latter, although Athens was 
then the most important and most eminent, we shall also notice the constitution 
and peculiarities of the other principal states. 

I. — Of the earlier and lees euUiwUed Jgee. 

i 15. It has been already suggested ($ 5, §10), that Greece advanced with 
very rapid step from a state of extreme rudeness m manners and morals to the 
hig^iest dmee of refinement. The history of this progress may be divided 
into three distinct periods. The JM extends from the original state of barba- 
rism to the time of the Trojan war ; this was the period of the peopling of 
Greece : the eeeond extends from the capture of Troy to the time of Solon, the 
period of the rise and formation of the Grecian constitutions and customs : the 
third extends from the age of Solon, to the time when the Greeks lost their 
liberty by subjection to the Macedonians (cf. P. V. § 9), the period of their 
greatest perfection and glory. 

Under the present head it isoroposed to notice what ]>ertains more particu- • 
larlv to the nrst and second or the above-mentioned periods ; and the subject 
will be considered in four general branches, viz. reUgioui^ civile military ^ and 
donutUc affairs. 


f 16. During the rude and unsettled state of society among the Greeks, their 
religion had no fixed or steady form : yet a great part of the popular belief 
originated in these times, which on this account have been called the mythical 
ages or fabulous period. The formation of this early popular faith was aided 
by the general ignorance, the predominance of sensual ideas, and the natural 
tendencies of the mind in an uncultivated state of society (P. II. $ Su). With 
the progress of social and moral culture, the traditions and fables grew into a 
sort of system, which was retained as a religion of the people, and augmented 
and modified by additions from Egyptian and Phcenician mythology. 

According to common accounts, Greece received new and better religious 
notions from Thrace, by Orpheus, B. C. about 1350 (cf. P. V. $ 12, $ 48^ 
19 N 


They were, howeyer, chiefly of Egyptian oriarin. The worship of animaU the 
Greeks never adopted ; but they embraced in common with roost of tne ancient 
nations, the worship of the stars, that early form of idolatry. They also prac- 
ticed the custom of deifying and worshiping men (P. II. § 118), who were 
^tyled heroes, having distinguished themselves by making new discoveries, 
establishing useful laws, or performing renowned exploits. 

On th* rdigieoi a&in of Gmoa, w« my refer to /. G. LaUmmcKa; Antiqaitatei GnBcoraae aene. Hdmst. 1744. 8.— CAr. 
Mrtiningii, Cempmisam Aotiq. Gnec « proEuii eKranun. Fnocof. 1758. S.-'JIil/ord, Hift. Oicc ch. iL erci l.—FJue/nr, war 
la rriigioa dee Graee, in the Kan. Jead. Inter, vole. luiv. zuv. uzti. xuviii. ud auu.— «lfili Fan IM% Diee. tie Oriciae 
M Pnfram UoUlrue el Sapentilkaimi. AtutU !«& 4. 

^ 17 u. Religious study and instruction among the early Greeks was the business of 
their wise men, lawgivers, and noets, who were mostly at the same time priests. The 
matter of these was confined cniefly to the dogmas and narratives of I'heogony and 
Cosmogony, which were of a mixed character, fabulous and allegorical, but based upon 
some real appearances in nature and roan. The various operations of the powers of 
nature and the movements of human passions, were the principal foundaUon of the 
tales and doctrines of the mythology. The origin of things, their vicissitudes and trans- 
formations, their nature, tendency and effects^ were the subjects ; and these were, by 
a Uvely fancy, changed into supposed or imaginary pergons^ to whom words, actions, 
and appropriate attnbutes were ascribed. The regular combination or assemblage of 
these in order was called the Theogony, or account of the origin and descent of the 
sods. This constituted the whole theory of religion, which one of the most ancient of 
tne Greek poets, Hesiod, reduced to a sort of regular form in his poem styled the The- 
ogony, and all the principal elements of which Homer interwove in his two epic poems, 
the Illiad and Odvssey. (Cf. P. V. ^ 50, ^ 51.) 

^ 18 tt. In the nrst ages the wise men, and especially the poets, made great exertions 
to imbue the minds of the people with reverence for the gods and respect for their wor- 
ship. On public solemnities, and in great assemblies of the people, thev were ac- 
customed to adapt their songs to this object. Even when the subject of these songs 
was not the history of the gods, nor any point of direct religious instruction, they were 
opened by a prayer to Jupiter, Apollo, or some inspiring deity. In this way thev fixed 
and strengthened a prevailing iaith in the power ana providence of the gocls, and 
formed the first ideas of right, virtue, and morality, and of future rewards and punish- 
ments. The songs of these poets constituted at first the chief means and subject of 
the instruction of the young. Hence arose on the one hand the great influence of their 
poetry on the moral culture of the Greeks, and on the other hand the great admiration 
m which the early poets were generallsr held. 

^ 19 tt. For an account of tne principal Grecian deities, their names, rank, history, 
attributes, and mode of worship, we refer to the portion of this work which treats of 
Mythology (P. II). Here we only remark, that the number of the Grecian gods con- 
stantly increased with the progress of time, yet the highest and most distinguished of 
them were introduced and nonored in the early ages, and it was chiefly in the class of 
heroes or demigods that this augmentation took place, after the lapse of the heroic 
ages, and by means of oral traditions. The more extensive the services of these heroes 
were while living, the more general was the reverence for them after death, while 
those, whose beneficial influence had been confined chiefly to a particular city or tribe, 
were deified chiefly by the same, and received a less general homage and worship. 

S 20. The sacred phee$, which were specially dedicated to the gods in these 
early ages, were in part, fields and grounds, whose produce was devoted to 
uses connected with religious worship ; partly groves and particular trees, the 
former being commonly planted in a circular form; and partly, at length, Ic/n- 
o/n, which were viewed as the seats and habitations of their respective eods. 
The temples were usually in the cities near the market or place of public busi- 
ness, although they were sometimes erected in the country, and in the conse- 
crated groves. The ground, on which they stood, was usually elevated either 
by nature or art, and their entrance or front was commonly towards the east. 
Some of them were dedicated to a sinprle deity, others to several. It was not 
uncommon to place the name of the god, to whom the temple was sacred, in a 
brief inscription over the entrance. 

$21. Originally the interior of the temple was entirely vacant, after the 
Egyptian manner, even without the image or statue of its god. And in the 
earliest times the image of a god (cf. P. IV. $ 156. 2) was nothing but a mere 
stone, which served to represent the deity, and to which oflferings were brought. 
This was the primary origin of altars. By degrees, these stones came to be 
formed into a human shapsy after which it was more common to place stataes 


{iy^Xfwfa) of the ^s in their temples. The postare was sometimes stand- 
ing, sometimes sitting. The material, at first employed, was of no great value, 
being stone, wood, or clay. There were, however, Tn the heroic ages, images 
of the gods of a more costly substance, such as ivory, brass, silver or gold, 
although Homer never exactly describes the material. 

i 22. The care of the temples and holy things was intrusted to the priesti 
and prieMiesaeM. The number of these varied in different cases, and depended 
generally upon the rank of the deity, on whose temple and worship they 
attended. The marriage state was not forbidden them, although it became 
afterwards customary to take priestesses mostly from persons unmarried, who 
either were obliged to perpetual celibacy, or remained priestesses only until 
maniage. In some instances the priesthood was hereditary ; but in others it 
was adopted in free choice, or by lot. The residence of the priests was usu- 
ally near the temple, or the consecrated grove, often within the limits of the 
latter. They derived their subsistence from what was offered to the gods, and 
were often in easy circumstances. Generally the office was highly honored in 
the eariy ages of Greece, and was held, in part at least, by the noblest and 
most distinguished personages, sometimes even by kings. 

$ 23. Some of the principal rsVes and tokmntiiea pertaining to the religious 
worship must here be mentioned. Among these were lusiratioru (xa^/iiOi, 
awtftfuti)^ which consisted in the ablution of the body, and a certain purification 
of the clothes, and of sacred utensils. For this purpose salt water was used, 
which was taken from the sea, or prepared by a solution of salt in common 
water. Sulphur and fire were also used on these occasions. These purifica- 
tions were considered as especially necessary for those who were defiled by 
murder and blood, and even for the places where such crimes had happenea. 
They were often ordered for the propitiation of offended deities. 

i 24. But prayers and sacrifices were the most essential parts of Grecian 
worship. The former were put up, especially, when some important enterprise 
or undertaking was commenced ; the object of the prayer being to secure a 
happy issue, in case of which very rich gifts were promised to the gods by the 
BQppiicant. Both prayers and vows were termed ivz^- In making them, the 
eyes and hands were raised towards the heavens, or in the temples directed 
towards the images. The posture was sometimes standing, sometimes kneel- 
ing {yowd^fo^M, yowrtftnv) ; the latter was used especially in case of earnest 
desire or peculiar distress, and often by the whole assembly in common. 

1. Supplicants usually had garlands on their heads and necks, and green boughs of 
olive or laurel (daAXoi or ic^a&n 'ucrnptoi) in their hands. In the boughs wool was placed 
vitboat tying, and they were hence called sometimes ffrifiuara. With these boushs the 
supplicants touched the knees, sometimes the cheek, of toe statue of the god addressed 
in their prayers. 

2 u. With the prayers were usually joined the libations, or drink offerings, omvidtf 
called also X»(/7di, x^i. These consisted generally of wine, part of which was poured 
cmt in honor of the gods, and part of it chunk by the worshiper. The wine must be 
pare (ducparov), and ofi'ered in a full cap. Sometimes there were libations of water 
>yucsoin^)^ of hooey {jttXiatrovda)^ of milk (yoXiMTdoirovda), and of oil i(Xai6airoif6a). 

In Plate XX. we have the representation of a priestess in the act of pouring out the libation ; 
in thit instance the liquid is poared upon the flame kindled on the altar; also in Plate XXVII. 
fif C. which is taken from Jtfsses, Antiqae Vases. 

$ 25. The saerifiees^ ^(tc(u, originally consisted merely of incense, ^o;, or 
some sort of fragrant fumigation, by cedar, citron wood, or the like. In very 
early times, the fruits of the earth, in a crude, unprepared state, were offered; 
arid subsequently, cakes, ovxm, baked of coarse barley, or meal mixed with 
salt. It was not until a somewhat later period, that the slaughter of living 
▼iciims was introduced. These victims were selected with great care. At 
first, bullocks, sheep, goats, and swine, were chiefly taken for the purpose. 
Afti'rwards certain animals became specially sacred as victims appropriate to 
particular gods. Sometimes a single victim was sacrificed, sometimes several 
at once, which were often of the same kind of animal, and often also of differ- 
ent kinds. The hecatomb (Jtxatofij^) properly consisted of a hundred bullocks 


or oxen; yet neither the number nor kind of animals was Teiy precisely re- 

The origin of oaerifUu If an interMtlog and important theme. Some flippant and inperfidal 
wrltera ascribe them wholly to mere ■uperetition and prieetcraft. Otbera attempt in a more 
■erioue manner to explain their existence by human origin. Several theories haye been pro- 
posed ; one is, that they were at first f\fU, a natural expedient for procuring the favor or the 
gods; another, that they wenfodoral riust drawn Arom men's eating and drinking together in 
token of friendship, and hence the sacrificial banquet (cf. ( S7); a third, advanced by Warburton 
(in his Divine Legation of Moses), is that they were ojfw^Ueat aetioiu, expressive of gratiiode 
in some offerings, and in others, of the acknowledgment of sin and contrition through the desth 
of an animal representing the death deserved by the worshiper. But a fourth account, which 
refers them to a divino ingtitution^ is more satisfactory. The Bible represenu the Hebrew sacri- 
fices as typical of the death of Christ as the great atoning sacrifice for sinners. (Cf. Ep. to HA. 
Ix. and X.) On supposition that God, when he promised a Redeemer to Adam, instituted some 
9towMrial and tfpe^ in an mmimal oaerifice, it is easy to see how by tradition the practice of offering 
sacrifices should be aatvarM/.— The subject is well discussed by 9V. Magto^ Dissertations on the 
Scriptural Doctrine of Atonement and Sacrifice. N. York, 1818. 8.— Cf.^. A. Spkott Easay on the 
Sacrifices. Load. 1748. 8. 

$ 26. The altars (fiJtfAoiS, on which the sacrifices were presented, were erected 
not only in the templeSt hut oflen in open places, as on the banks of riTers, 
on moantains, in groTes, and the like. 

The altar seems to have preceded the temple ; and, in the opinion of some, gave rise 
to the temple, as suggested in the following passage. 

'Throughout the whole of the Iliad no mention occurs of a temple in Greece, except In the 
second book, evidentiv incidental, and the interpolation of some vainly patriotic Athenian rbap- 
aodlst. The passage indeed might be condemned on the grounds of philological discussion, but 
It contradicts both the history of art and of religion in that country. In Troy, the temple of 
Minerva appears to have been a mere shrine, in which a statue was Inclosed, and probsbly, in 
Tenedoe, a temple of Apollo is merely alluded to. During the age of Homer, then, the primevti 
altar, common to both Europe and Asia, was the only sacred edifice known. This differed IliUe 
firom a common hearth ; the sacrifice being in (kct a social rite, the victim, at once an offering to 
heaven, and the food of man, was prepared by roasting ; the first improvement on their simple 
construction appears to have been the addition of a pavement, an obvious means of cleanliness 
and comfort. Yet even this appears to have constituted a distinction not common, since, in par- 
ticular Instances, the pavement is mentioned as a peculiar ornament. Subsequently, in order 
to mark in a more conspicuous manner, and with more dignitv, the sacred spot, while the rites 
should be equally exposed to the spectators, an open colonnade was added, inclosing the aiur 
and pavement. Thus the roofless temple might be said to be finished ; but whether this prime- 
val structure existed in his native country during the age of Homer does not appear. We 
remark here a very striking resemblance between the ancient places of devotion in Ureece and 
the Druidicai temple of the more northern regions. In foct, the astonishing remains at Stone- 
henge present the best known, and perhaps one of the most stupendous examples ever erected 
of the open temple. This species of religious erection appears to have been co-extensive with 
the spread of the human race, and not, as generally supposed, limited to the northern portion 
of the globe.*'— ^MM«, Hist, of Sculpture, A;c. p. 2SS. as cited P. IV. ( 160. 

S 27. Among the eeremoniea connected with offering a sacrifice, was the pre- 
Tious washing of the hands ($ 67. 2) and the sprinkling, hy the priests, of those 
who were present, with sacred water {z^pvt^). Then was placed upon the 
back and head of the yictim, in early times, un ground harley, in later times, a 
number of small cakes (ytdytova, 6\fk6xvta\ oflen meal mixed with honey, wine, 
or oil ; a little hair torn from the foreheaa of the victim was then thrown upon 
the fire ; next followed the preyer and libation ($ 24. 2) ; then the priest, or the 
xriftvif smote the animal on the head with an ax or club, and cut its throat with 
a sacrificial knife {<i^a/yts)» The blood was received in an appropriate vessel 
{(j^a/ynov). The victim was then flayed and cut in pieces. The next thing 
was to cover the haunches or thighs (j^f^poC) with caul or fat (xvCaiSfj), and to 
take small pieces from other parts of the animal and place upon them (wfto^ffrtv). 
Upon the portions thus prepared, wine was commonly poured, and tliey were 
then placed on the altar and burned. The rest of the victim was usually 
Toasted on spits, and eaten at the sacrificial banquet. Banquets of this kind 
were made especially on the sacred festivals. 

$ 28. Besides the sacrifices properly so called, it was common to bring to 
the gods other ?ifts and offerings (5wpa, aya^/M^a). Among these, were 
crowns or garlands {ati^voi, ati^oi), with which the temples, altars, and sta- 
tues were often adorned, and which were formed of the leaf sacred to the par^ 
ticular god to whom they were offered : e. ^. of tvy, for Bacchus ; of oak, for 
Jupiter. Curtains and vestments (jtcpiTtif oa/ioroh ytcpoi^/iara) wrought with 
rich embroidery were brought and placed upon the statues or hung in the tern- 


pies. Yeflsels of gold, silver, and brass were also offered, and tripods (f pt9<o6c() 
especially to Apollo. The spoils of war were often thus consecrated, dxpo^Vta, 
with shields and arms. Frequently the articles dedicated to the gods were 
marked by inscriptions stating the occasion and circumstances of their dedica- 
tion. From the custom here described, arose the great riches of some of the 
Grecian temples. 

The temple of Apollo at Delphi, particularly, became in the course of years pos- 
sessed of immense wealth. 

Stt MUhHT* HM. Givwa, di. zzzTti. wet I ; d. zzzvfiL net 1 ; dL sxziz. net. S.~BtmenfP» Beam, p. 901, u dtad P. V. 
n- a— !)■ KaIom, LMriehMMidtt Iwpi* 4c Ddpho, in tte Mem. Aoa. /fuer. iiLn. 

{ 29. In addition to the worship rendered the gods, there was a worship of 
the heroes as demigods ($ 16), which however was neither so general nor 
attended with so much ceremony. These had no festivals, properly speaking, 
but an annual funeral solemnity {ivwyi(jiia\ and were viewed as tutelary guar- 
dians of their countTy, tribe, or family. On these solemnities, the drink offer- 
ings ixoo*) were in common practice ; not only wine was used for the purpose, 
but often milk, and even blood. Sometimes victims were slain, and various 
offerings presented, and from these a trophy (fpoTtoioy) or a funeral pile, was 
constructeNd. In some cases, the first fruits of the season were offered. The 
osual place of such solemnities was the tomb of the hero, in whose memory 
they were held, near which it was customary to erect an altar ; often also to 
make a pit or hole (j3o^pof, xaxxo^), which had reference to their dwelling in 
the under world. (Cf. P. II. § 32.) 

$ 30. Funeral wlemnitieM were generally a part of the religious usages of the 
more ancient Greeks. These commenced immediately on the death of an indi- 
vidual, in the formal closing of his eyes (ovyxXf iccv rov$ dt^^Xjuovs), a ceremony 
usually performed by the nearest kinsman. The corpse was then washed and 
anointed, clothed in a white linen pall and placed on a sort of bier ^xixtpoy, 
ffpffpovV Aronnd this the kindred and friends of the deceased raised the 
funeral lament, which was often expressed in song by persons employed for 
the occasion, and accompanied by mournful notes of the ffute. The mourners 
also testified their sorrow by plucking off* their hair, and casting it upon the 
corpse. These ceremonies were continued, not always the same length of 
time, sometimes three, sometimes seven days, and often a greater number. 

{ 31. The burning of the corpse was a custom peculiar to the Greeks, as 
the Egyptians and the Peraians used to inter their dead. In the earliest times 
interring was practiced by the Greeks, although Homer speaks only of 

1 «. After the completion of the bewailings just described, the corpse was borne on 
a bed or bier to the appointed place, where a funeral pile (Tvpa) was erected. Near 
this, fnneral sacrifices were slain. Upon the pile were placed various objects, which 
had been particularly valued by the deceased, even animals, and sometimes human 
beings previously put to death. During the burning, the attendants uttered their wail- 
irtgs and funeral chants. I'he flame was finally extinguished by pouring on some 
It'^aid, and the ashes or remaining bones were collected by the nearest relative, and 
deposited in an urn, which was buried in the earth. 1'he place of interment was 
marked by stones and a mound (x<>y>o)} on which was commonly raised a pillar ((rrifXir), 
or other monument, with an inscription. The ceremonies were ended with a funeral 
rfpast (»ccpd(xt7»«y, iKpiUnrvoy), Sometimes games were celebrated in honor of the 

2. It is stated, that ainong the Thraeians wives were burned on the funeral piles of 
their husbands; a custom which is still prevalent in India, although the influence of 
Christianity is breaking it up in the portions of the country subject to England. 

$ 32. In speaking of the religious customs of the Greeks, we should notice 
their regard to oraetet and to divinations. The most ancient of the oracles was 
that of Dodona ; that of Delphi was still more celebrated, and also of early 
origin. The practice of divination and the interpreting of signs was a business 
of the priests in particular. It was done partly by observing accidental 
oeeorrences, as the flight of birds, or the breaking of thunder, in both of which 
the right side indicated good fortune, the observer having his face directed to the 
north ; and partly by consulting the entrails of victims. Sneezing was re- 



garded as a favorable prognostic. We may mention also the prophetic inter- 
pretation of dreams, and the belief of the multitude in magic, and in bodily 
metamorphoses, which they -supposed to afford various means of aid and pro- 

The religious /e«/ti?ai!i were numerous and attended with various ceremonies. 
—But on each of the topics mentioned in this section, we shall speak more 
particularly again. (Cf. §§ 70-77.) 


$ 33. It has been already remarked ($ 5), that the first inhabitants of Greece 
lived in a dispersed state, without civil culture or anjr social compact The 
family relations, the authority of the parent over the child, of the husband over 
the wife, exhibited the only traces of government. Phoroneus, a son of Inachus, 
is mentioned as the first author of association for civil purposes. Gradually 
the Greek tribes began to select leaders, who were called kings 03ouyixctf), 
however limited might be the extent of their dominion or authority. The choice 
most generally fell upon such as had rendered to their tribe or country some 
distinguished and meritorious service ; and then the dignity became hereditary, 
a thing rather rare, however, in the earlier ages. Sometimes the choice was 
determined by consulting an oracle, and in such case the authority was viewed 
as the more rightful, and as sanctioned by the gods. 

Ob Ifae wbjwl of tbe «tU aSiin of the mrlj Grceka, »• nujr refer to P. W. TiUtnaiuiH DuitBUiug dar (TMchbch. SUalsvnfa^ 
■ips. laS. &— Mtl/or^ cb. iL MCL S ; ch. n. wet. A—Het S «. 

$ 34. The kingly power, in the first ages, was far from being despotic, or 
unlimited ; the leaders and princes being bound by certain laws and usages. 
The principal duties of these chiefs were to command in war, to settle disputes 
between the people, and to take care of the worship of the gods. Valor, love 
of justice, and zeal for religion, were therefore reckoned among their most im- 
portant excellences. For their honor and support, a portion of the lands was 
assigned, the cultivation of which they superintended themselves. Certain 
taxes or imposts were also paid to them, which were increased in time of war. 
The signs of their office were the scepter and diadem. The former (ffx^^rf>o») 
was usually of wood, and in length not unlike the lance ; the latter {hMhr^fux.) 
was a sort of bandeau or head-band, rather than a proper crown. The general 
costume of these kings was distinguished by its richness, and was commonly of 
a purple color. 

In ancient times, one of the tokens of office and rank always was something attached 
to the head; a wreath, cap, crown, or the like. A metallic crown was common. 
David is said to have had a crown of gold with precious stones, of the weight (meaning 
probably of the value) of a talent (1 Sam. xii. 30). Athenieus mentions a crown, made 
of 10,000 pieces of gold, placed on the throne of king Ptolemy. 

In our Plate XVI. Ag. G, we have a curious golden crown, which it said to have been found 
in tome pan of Ireland, in 1603, about ten fent under i round. Near it in the Plate, fis. a, is an an- 
cient Abyssinian crown ; on tlie other side, flg. t, is the covering seen on the head of a conquered 
prince or general upon Egyptian monuments.— In Plate XXIV. flg. 6, we have tbejiiist and A«rm 
worn by governors of provinces in Abyssinia. ** A large broad fillet," says Bruce, ** was bound 
upon their forehead and lied behind their bead. In tii« middle or this was a conical piece of silver 
about four inches long. It is called kim or horn, and is worn especially in parades after victo- 
ries.* *-Bf«ef, Travels, ^. as citud P. IV. ( 118. 1. 

§ 35. The court and retinue of the first kings was very simple and uniropos- 
ing. In war, they usually had by their side a friend, who served as a kind of 
armor-bearer. Both in war and peace, they employed heralds (xirpvxf ;) in the 
publication and execution of their orders. The heralds also imposed silence, 
when the chiefs wished to come fonvard and speak in an assembly. The same 
officers assisted in relieious ceremonies, and were present in the forming of 
treaties. — ^The kings also selected councillors, of the most distinguished, ex- 
perienced, and brave of the people ; and in cases of doubt or difficulty, held 
with them consultations and formal assemblies, in which the speaker was 
accustomed to stand and the rest to sit. Both public and private affairs were 
discussed in these assemblies. 

$ 36. The courts of Justice were in public places ; and the whole assembly 


usually presented the form of a circle. The judges sat upon seats or benches 
of stone ; the men selected for the office were such as were much respected on 
account of age and experience. They bore in their hand a scepter or Btaff, 
The cause was stated orally by the contending parties themselves, and by them 
the witnesses were brought forward. The kings or chiefs presided in these 
judicial assemblies, sitting on an elevated seat or throne. For a period, equity 
and precedent or usage formed the basis of all decisions ; but aAerwards, the 
cottTts had for their guide particular laws and statutes, w^hich were first intro- 
duced by PhoTonens, and more extensively by Cecrops. 

§ 37. As the laws in the more ancient times were few and simple, so were 
the punishments. But few crimes were made capital. Murder was commonly 
pumshed by banishment, either voluntarily sought by the murderer, or expressly 
decreed by public sentence ; its duration, however, was but a year, and even 
this coald sometimes be commuted for a fine. The privileges of asylum be- 
long only to the author of accidental, unintentional nomicide. Adultery was 
punished severelv, commonly with death. Robbery and theft were very fre- 
quent in the early times of Greece, and originally were not considered as cri- 
minal, while the right of the stronger was admitted, especially if shrewdness 
and cunning were united with the theft. Nothing therefore was aimed at but 
to recover what had been taken, or to inflict vengeance by a corresponding in- 
jury. Afterwards, however, particular punishments were imposed for these 

$ 38. In as much as the inhabitants of Crete were connected with the Greeks 
by their having a common language, it is important to mention the Cretan laws, 
which were introduced by Minos. They are said to have been the most ancient 
written code, and were afterwards taken by Lycurgus as models. Military 
vaJor and union among the people seems to have been their great aim ; every 
ordinance of Minos was directed to promote strength of body, and to cultivate 
social attachment between the membere of the state. In order to impart greater 
dignity and authority to his laws, he brought them forward as having been re- 
vealed to htm b^ Jupiter. But the moral culture was not greatly advanced by 
iostitotions havmg ttieir primary and chief reference to a state of war. 

i 39. In the progress of time, the form of government among the Greeks 
underwent many changes, and at length became wholly democratic. The most 
celebrated of the states were Athens and Sparta. Of these in particular a few 
important circumstances respecting their government in the more early ages are 
here to be mentioned. 

Athens was ori^nally governed by kings. The power of these kings was 
more unrestrained m war than in peace. After the death of Codrus (1068 B.C.), 
it became a free state. The chief authority was jriven to officers styled 
Jlrthont^ who ruled for life. Thirteen archons of this description succeeded 
each other, all descended from the family of Codrus. After the time of these 
(752 B. C), the office of Archon ceased to be for life, and was limited to ten 
years, and was held by a single person at a time. After a succession of seven 
Archons of this kind, the office was made annual (684 B. C), and nine Archons 
were appointed to rule jointly, not all, however, of the same rank. — ^The civil 
government experienced changes under Drato, and others still greater under 
Sie distinguished legislator Solon, and in after times. 

% 40. Sparta was also originally governed by kings. Enristhenes and Pro- 
eles, the two sons of Aristodemus (one of the Heraclidie that invaded Pelo- 
ponnesus), reigned jointly, but not harmoniously. Under their descendants the 
kingly omce lost much of its authority. Lycurgus, the famous Spartan law- 
giver, changed greatly the form of government ; it did not become democratical, 
neither was it, properly speaking, aristocratical. Two kings remained at the 
bead, and a senate was established consisting of twenty-eight men, who were 
above sixty yeare of age. There was also the body of five Ephori, appointed 
annually. The people themselves likewise had some share in the administra- 
tion of the state. Notwithstanding many internal divisions and disturbances, 
this state enjoyed a long period of comparative rest and liberty. This it owed 


▼eiy mach to the wise regulations of Lycurgus, the salutary influence of which 
was aided by the limited territory and moderate population of Lacedismon. 

$ 41. One of the most eflTectual means of advancing the Greeks was their 
commerce and the navi^tion connected with it. In the earliest times, com- 
merce consisted chiefly in barter and reciprocal exchanges of native products, 
the use of gold not being introduced. Afterwards pieces of metal of different 
values were employed. (Cf. P. IV. § 94.) Navigation became more common 
after the Trojan war, and iEgina first turned it to the advantage of commerce. 
Corinth and Rhodes became most distinguished in this respect. The commerce 
of Athens finally became something considerable; that of Lacedsmon on the 
other hand always remained comparatively unimportant — On the whole, it is 
worthy of remark, that the extension of commerce and maritime intercourse 
had an important influence upon the civil and moral culture of the Grecian 
states. (Cf. P. IV. § 40.) 

JL Jtndermm^ Hhtorinl and Chfogologieil Dadnetioa of the OriKia of Omamtt, (rem the nrlieit Meamiti ; with Appendix b^ 
CoomU. Dubl. 1790. 6 voh. 8. 

'* Commerce, in the Homeric age, appears to have been principally in the hands of 
the Phenicians. The carrying- trade of the Mediterranean was early theirs, and Sidon 
was the great seat of manufacture. The Greeks were not without traffic carried on 
by sea among themselves ; but the profession of merchant had evidently not in Homer's 
time that honorable estimation which yet, according to Plutarch, it acquired at an early 
period in Greece. While it was thought not unbecoming a prince to be a carpenter to 
supply his own wants or luxuries, to be a merchant for gain was held but as a mean 
employment ; a pirate was a more respected character. 

Navigation had been much practiced, long before Homer, in small open vessels, 
nearly such as are still common in the Mediterranean ; and the poet gives no hint of 
any late advancement of the art. The seas, indeed, which nearly surrounded Greece, 
are singularly adverse to improvements upon that vast scale which oceans require, and 
which modern times have produced. Broken by innumerable headlands and islands, 
with coasts mostly mountainous, and in some parts of extraordinary height, the Gre- 
cian seas are beyond others subject to sudden and violent storms. These united cir- 
cumstances, which have made the Greeks of all ages excellent boatmen, have contri- 
buted much to prevent them from becoming seamen. The skill and experience of the 
pilot, in the modern sense of the term, are constantly wanted ; the science of the 
navigator is of little avail ; even the compass is comparatively useless in the JEge&n. 
The Mediterranean vessels now, not excepting the French, which are mostlv navigated 
bv Mediterranean sailors, never keep the sea there but with a fair wind. 1 he English 
aione, accustomed in all their surrounding watera to a bolder navigation, commonly 
venture in the Archipelago to work to windward. Sails were used in fair winds in 
Homer's time; but the art of sailing was extremely impei feet. The mariner's de- 
pendence was his oars, which no vessel was without. For in seas so land-locked, yet 
so tempestuous, the greatest danger was to the stoutest ship. Light vessels, which 
with their oars could creep along the coast, watch the weather, make way in calms, 
and, on any threatening appearance, find shelter in shoal water or upon an open beach, 
were what Grecian navigation peculiarly required. The Phenicians, for their com- 
merce, used deeper ships, accommodated to tlieir more open seas and longer voyages." 


§ 42. Military prowess was esteemed by the early Greeks as of the greatest 
merit, and was therefore an object of universal ambition. The first inhabitants 
were distinguished for their warlike inclinations and habits of life, although 
their wars were conducted without much method or discipline. They were 
constantly in arms, not only to defend themselves and their property, but to 
attack and plunder others. Thus they perpetrated violence, murder, and de- 
vastation in the extreme. It needed but a trifling occasion to excite a general, 
long, and bloody war; the siege of Troy furnishes a striking example. In 
such cases, several chiefs and people, sometimes of very distant provinces, 
united as in a common cause. 

Oa Orccian militanr affkira, wet I T. H A'sif, EiDteitnni la die friechitchen Krieiinltnfhaincr. Stullg. ITtQ. I. a valaabl* 
wott on Ihfl fCMnl rabjfct.— Aim, O. O S. ADpA«, Ober du Kriegiweiien der GriedieD im hefoiacbrn Zelialter, ke. Bart. 1807. t. 
cC Clow. Joum, ix. II.— C. GvUeard^ Memoim milibiirai war l« Grees d nir let Romaiak La Hays, 1758. 4. It coataim • 
tnnlation of Onoiandtr (cf. P. V. § 221), and plan of aoma aocient baUlea, 4k. CC. f 275.— Gamur, as cit«d ( 136.— Afd/orA 
HbL ch. U. aect. 9, 4. 


i 43. The Grecian aimies consisted paitlj of foot-soldiers and in later times 
of bonemen, partly of soeh as were borne in cbariots. Tbe footpsoldiere were 
distingnisbed as ligbt armed (4cXm) and heayy armed (otOaV at). The Thessa- 
lians were early and especially celebrated for their caralry (tK^»$). Still more 
ancient was tbe nse of war-cbariots, which were employed by the heroes of 
Homer. Two boraes, sometimes three, were attached to these cbariots ; each 
contained two warriors, one of whom guided tbe horses {^xo^)^ while the 
other pointed oot tbe direction (ftofMu^f ^0* discharged arrows, burled missiles 
from a sling, or fought with short arms, and when the action was close sprang 
from the chariot (fii^poi). Notwithstanding tbe inconvenience of these vehicles 
in battle, tbey were in nse for a long time, before cavalry came to be generally 
snbstitated in their place. 

la the Sop. naie 10 ii wen a war chariot with three hones and two penoai; BeiUum actina 
as charioteer, while Mm b hnrUiv the Javelfa. 

$ 44. The weapons of tbe Greek warriore were of two kinds, dtferuive and 
cfefuive. Among the /ormcr (axcfi^rpca, 9<po^fiara) was tbe kelmel (xwti^, 
spa»o$, ^fpixftaxoia, xofvi) made of hide or leather and adorned with a crest 
of hair or tofts of feathers (ta>MK« Xo^o^), and attached to the neck by a strap 
fefv^ ; the brauiplaU (^upat), commonly made of brass, sometimes of 
leather or linen ; tbe girdle ({^i^), mostly of brass and encircling the lower 
part of the body ; the greaves (amj/ujcf ), of brass or some more precious metal ; 
and the tkield (afftds)^ usually round, made of buIlock^s hide, and used for tbe 
protection of the whole body (cf. $ 139). 

1 a. The riiield was often adorned with figures, but not as much so as Hesiod repre- 
amis tbe shield of Hercules to have been, and Homer that of Achilles. 

t. Boaer*s deKripttoa of the ihield of AchUlee (H. xwM. 478) Is eoMidered ae one of the fiaett 
paaufce ia the Iliad. A delineatioB and model of tbe •bield wae formed by tbe celebrated artiat 
FUrmmm, and Mveral caau were made la ailTer gilt, bronze, and plaster. He brought tbe whole 
work withia a circle of three feet ia dlaoieter. It coataina apwarda of a hundred hoBiaB Agnrea 
CAhibUed is reliet 

Ct JMIi 1 ^ 1 DM, Wn f 9 m Qm^. A Quiiiq^ 9m U im i l|Hk iii <■ boodkr d'lckaK ftc. la tht Jfem. rAuL * rnM» 
CUtM rOAif XA Jnc «aL n. p. 101, wift a cdond plite^Zh C^phi^ BooclMn i'lckilla. #BOTcal«, « d*Bmm, *e. im 
te Itok AML J!m0-. zsffi. tl^-ClM. Aw». n. f i vUL «•. 

S 45. The affennve weapons were, the tpear (^w), commonly made of the 
asb-tvee (/WIU17), and of different lengths and fonns according as it was designed 
for combat more or less close; tbe nvord (|^0» ^® ^^^ of which bung from 
the shonlders ; tbe 6010 (fotov), usually of wood, witb a string (yfvpoy) of 
twisted horse-bair or of bide ; the arrow» (fJcXt;, dtdrd), of light- wood, pointed 
witb iron, and winged (icrtpofK Ui) witb feathen ; the javelin (dxc^v, dxovf u>v), 
of various lengths and forms ; and the »iing {a^tviomj), of an oval shape, with 
two leathern strings attached to its ends, by means of which arrows, stones, 
and leaden balls (juXv^^woa) were burled against the foe. 

The spear used for close combat was called ^ dperrdw; that for a distance, TaXr^y; 
the point, termed d<x^ and ecuri), was always of metal, ^vpoidxti was the name given to 
the box or case, in which the spears were deposited when not in use. — The term h\oi also 
designates tbe spear ; the epithet brazen (XA>«n>0 is usually applied to it. Cf. Ham, U. 

in. 380. ^The arrows were kept in a quiver {<(>afKTpa), which, with the bow, was usually 

carried on tbe back of tbe shoulders (or* uyMny). The quiver had a lid or cover {^ruina). 
Cf. lf<mt. D. iv. 116-120. 

Tartoas articles of andeat armor are seen ia oar Plates XVII. and XXII. Tbe bow and qnlver 
are given in fig. T, and L, of Plate XVII. In this Plate also, fig. Y, T. we have forma of the 
Grecian Jc««lf« ; in O, O, apear-heada : in tbe fits, a, a, tbe long #pe«r ; in H, a form of the eluhg 
(cf. ^ 13«) which in varioaa fi»nna were naed in early perioda; in fig. A, A, are given furma of 
tbe elmk or kcUU-w^Ut naed bj the Egyptians, which sometimea had leaden heads with handles 
four or five feet long; in fig. I, I, we liave the Orecian battleaz; in (ig. 8, and in the several 
figa. aiarked C, and tlmae marked D, are forms of the Grecian and Roman nrord ; in E, a Daciaa 
sword ; la those marked B, Persian swords.— In Plate XXII. fig. a, ft, c, rf, and e, are varieties 
of helmets foaad in Egyptian remains: /, /, A, and t, are Persian and Syrian belmeta; the 
kinga are aoowtimes represented with crowns of a similar appearance : «, and «, are given as 
Pbryigian : I, m, sre Oreciaa, and may represent also tbe Roman : p, and «, are Dacian : ft. Is a 
form ^aiie aimiJar to the latter, aaid to be naed also by tbe Byriaas. In fig. r, and on the Gre- 
ciaa vrarriora, fig. 1, and fig. 7, tbe thsrai ia aeen. and tbe girdle : «, repreaenta a fignre found 
Ccf :^*9e*s Life of Brant, vol. ii. p. S5, Appendix) buried hi a aitting poatnre, near tbe celebrated 
DifhXAn Rock, in Maaaacbnaetu, witb a concave breaatplate thirteen incbea long, auppoaed to 
be of caat braaa, and a belt of tbe aame material four and a half Incbea wide, having a reed-like 
appearance ; a brazen arrow-head, t, was foaad with It. In fig. a, and oa tbe warrior, fig. 7, we 


«ee the grttnu ; the §kieldt In fig. 1, 3, 7 ; the tpear in the handi of the Grecian warriort. In fi{. 
1, S; and of the Peraian, fig. 3: the bow^ &c. In fig. 6, which represents an Egyptian archer. 

$ 46. Most of the weapons of the ancient Greeks were made of brass or 
copper, which seems to have been used earlier than iron (cf. P. IV. § 10), and 
was often nsed after the introduction of iron. For defensive armor, iron was 
afterwards generally preferred. For the cuirass or breastplate, the greaves and 
the shield, tin or lead was sometimes used. To adorn the weapons with gold 
was considered as too extravagant and ostentatious. Yet they endeavor^ to 
give their armor the highest degree of brightness, not only for the sake of 
beauty, but to inspire fear in the enemy. On the shield they had a sort of 
field-badge, or military emblem, usually in bas-relief, the image of some god, 
or animal, especially the lion. The horses also were ornamented with much 

Respecting the military apparel little is ascertained. Lycur^us directed the Lacedie- 
moniana to clothe their solaiers in scarlet. — The Greek soldiers usually carried their 
own provisions, consisting chiefly of salt meat, cheese, olives, onions, &.c. For this 
purpose each one had a vessel made of wicker with a long neck, called yvXioy. MabiH' 
8m, p. 349. 

§ 47. In connection with the affairs of war, it is proper to notice the ose of 
ships or vessels, which the Greeks in early times employed partly in piracy, 
partly in transporting armies, and partly in actual combat. In later times the 
naval battles of the Greeks were frequent and celebrated. Their first ships 
were long (fcaxpac), and moved by oars. The number of rowers was yarious, 
often very considerable. Originally there was but a single rank on each side ; 
afterwards, as the ship was built higher, another rank of rowers was added ; 
vessels of the latter kind were called dcxpofo, those of the former fiovoxporth 
also /uoi^pci;, xixijfe;. At a later period they were built with three tiers or ranks, 
tpMjpct;, which continued to be the most common form, although there were 
vessels with four, five, and six tiers, and sometimes even more. 

It was early customary to place upon ships certain images and signs, from 
which they were named. The ship commonly bore the image or statue of some 
god, to whose protection it was especially intrusted. In the capture of a vessel, 
the first object of a victor was to plunder this image, and place it as a trophy 
in his own ship. 

$ 48. The Greeks early practiced in war the forming of regular camps. 
Their compass and extent were such as not only to include the whole army, 
but also the ships, which after the landing of the troops were drawn upon the 
dry land. It was customary to surround the camp with a wall or ramparts with 
towers and breast-works. Before the wall was a fosse or ditch, guarded with 
pointed stakes. For the principal officers separate tents were erected, of 
wooden frames, covered with skins. During the night, sentinels were stationed 
on guard, and beacon-fires were kindled. Spies and scouts were sent out from 
Doth parties, when hostile camps were placed against each other. 

** Tents like those now in use seem to have been a late invention. The ancients, on 
desultory expeditions, and in marching through a country, slept with no shelter but 
their cloaks, as our light troops often carry none but a blanket ; when they remained 
long on a spot they halted Achilles* tent or hut was built of fir, and thatched with 
reeds; and it seems to have had several apartments. (//. xxiv. 488. ix. 659)." 

§ 49. The order of battle was either to place the war-chariots in front, and 
the infantry in the rear, or to give the latter the front, and support them by the 
chariots from behind. The whole army was drawn into close array, although 
arranged in distinct divisions. On the commencement of battle they implored 
the aid of the gods, and made vows of grateful returns. Then the generals 
exhorted the soldiers to valor, and proceeded to set an example. The onset 
was usually accompanied with loud shouting and clamor to inspirit each other 
and intimidate the foe. The wounded were healed with care, having nursing 
and medicine ; but the slain of the enemy were left unburied, or their corpses 
even exposed to insult, unless their burial was agreed upon in some express 

$ 50. The spoils taken in battle consisted partly of arms, which the captor 



either appropriated to bis own use, or dedicated to the grods, and partly in other 
utensils and precious articles, which, together with their owners, became the 
property of the victor. By means of a ransom, however, the spoils, as well as 
the prisoners, could be redeemed. After battle, the remaining booty was often 
divided among the soldiers by lot ; the general, however, always received his 
portion first and without lot. Those who had distinguished themselves by valor, 
also received prizes and rewards, by the promises of which the generals often 
stimulated their troops before the action. 

" We find that, so early as Homer's time, the Greeks had improved considerably 
upon that tumultuary warfare alone known to many barbarous nations, who yet have 
prided themselves in the practice of war for successive centuries. Several terms used 
by the poet, together with his description of marches, indicate that orders of battle 
were in nis time regularly formed in ranks and files. Steadiness in the soldier, that 
foundation of all those powers which distinguish an army from a mob, and which to 
this day forms the highest praise of the best troops, we find in great perfection in the 
Iliad. * The Grecian phalanges,' says the poet (iv. 427), ' marcKed in close order, the 
leaders directing each his own oand. Thereat were mute : insomuch that you would say, 
in so great a multitude there was no voice. Such was the silence with which they 
respectively watched for the word of command from their officera.' 

Considering the deficiency of iron, the Grecian troops appear to have been very well 
armed, both for ofience and defence. Their defensive armor consisted of a helmet, a 
breastplate, and ereaves, all of brass ; and a shield, commonly of bull's hide, but often 
strengthened with brass. The breastplate appears to have met the belt, wluch was a 
considerable defence to the belly and^roin ; and with an appendant skirt guarded also 
the thighs. All together covered the forepart of the soldier m>m the throat to the ancle ; 
and the shield was a superadded protection for every part. The bulk of the Grecian 
troops were infantry, thus heavily armed, and formed in close order, many ranks deep. 
Any body, formed m ranks and nles, close and deep, without regard to a specific num- 
ber of either ranks or files, were generally termed a phalanx (XL iv. 332. vi. 83). But 
the Locrians, under Oilean Ajax, were all Ught-armed ; bows were their principal 
weapons, and they never engaged in close fight (dyx^ccoO. 

Riding on horseback was yet Utile practiced, though it appears to have been not un- 
known (U. juii. 722). Some centuries, however, paraed before it was generally applied 
in Greece to military purposes ; the mountainous raggedness of the country prevented 
any extensive use of^ cavalry, except among the Thessalians, whose lerntory was a 
large plain. [Cf. SaUierf cited ^ 138.] But m the Homeric armies no chief was with- 
out his chariot, drawn generally by two, sometimes by three horses; and these chariots 
of war make a principal figure m Homer's battles. Nestor, forming the army for action, 
composes the fust line ofcbariots only. In the second he places that part of the in- 
fantry in which he has least confidence ; and then forms a third line, or reserve, of the 
most approved troops. 

The combat of the chiefs, so repeatedly described by Homer, advancing to engage 
singly in front of their line of battle, is apt tp strike a modern reader with an appear- 
ance of absurdity perhaps much beyond the reality. Before the use of fire-arms that 
practice was not uncommon, when the art of war was at the greatest perfection. Caesar 
himself gives (De Bell. Gall. v. 43), with evident satisfaction, a very particular account 
of a remarkable advanced combat, in which, not generals indeed, but two centurions 
df his army engaged. The Grecian chiefs of the heroic age, Uke the kniehts of the times 
of chivahy, had armor probably superior to that of the common soldiers ; and this, 
with the additional advantage of superior skill, acquired by assiduous practice amid 
unbounded leisure, would make this skirmishing much less dangerous than on first 
consideration it may appear."-— 3fi(/bn2, ch. ii. sect. 3. 

"Another practice common in Homer's time is by no means equally defensible, but 
on the contrary marks great barbarism ; that of stopping in the heat of action to strip 
the slain. Often this paltry passion for possessing the spoil of the enemy superseded 
all other, even the most important and most deeply interesting objects of battle. The 
poet himself (II. v. 48, vi. 67) was not unaware of the danger and inconvenience of the 
practice, and seems even to have aimed at a reformation of it. We find, indeed, in 
Homer's war&re, a remarkable mixture of barbarism with regularity. Though the 
art of forming an army in phalanx was known and commonly practiced, yet the busi- 
ness of a general, in dfirectmg its operations, was lost in the passion, or we may call it 
ftsbion, of the sreat men to signahze themselves by acts of personal courage and skill 
in arms. AchiUes and Hector, the first heroes of the Iliad (xviii. 106. 252), excel only 
in the character of fishting soldiera : as eenerals and directora of the war they are 
inferior to many. Indeed, while the fate of the battles depended so much on the skir- 
mishing of the chiefs, we cannot wonder that the prejudice should obtain which set the 
able arm, in vulgar estimation, above the able head. But the poet obviously means to 
expose the absunlity and mischievous consequences of that prejudice, where he makes 

p.m. Moamc affaos n thk kailikb agks. 157 

Heetor (IL zzi. 99^, m a hie repentuaee, wtkatamledge the amiwi u g abifioes of Polyda- 
BUL Yet Hooter's own idea of the daties of an officer, thoqgh he pmafimiMiiJ very 
ateoHve aod rerj aecataie knowtedse both of the theory and piactiee of war of his 
0wa age, was sciti veiy nDpeiiect.'* — Ih. 

$ 51. At die cod of war the conquered party either sohiiiittBd wholly to the 
doniniai and laws of the conqneror, or a peace was made qdoq ecftain coii> 
didooa. This was effeeted throogh legates, folly rommiwMoned for the pupoee. 
la fonniBff a treaty of peace, Tarions ceremonifs were obserred, partly of a 
leligions ^aiader. A victim was abiii, of which however no meal was made, 
but its flesh was east aside; libatioiis were poured oot; the parties joined 
bands in pledee of good &ith, and called upon the gods as witnesses of their 
eorensntv and as avengen of its TiolatioD, especially npon Jupiter, whose 
UionderiK^ts were an object of tenor to the peijared. The restoration of plun* 
d€r was geneiallj a preliminary reqoisiticn ; and the eonqoered party was often 
eompelM to pay a snm of money as a fine or indemnification.— Sometimes the 
whole war was tetminaled by a single combat, the parties agreeing to abide by 

IT. Domsnc ArrAiBS. 

t 59. ^noe social life was hot gradually introdoeed in Greece, it is not to be 
expected, that the earliest ages should exhibit much refinement in what pertains 
to domestic affairs. During the heroic ages their mode of living was nearly as 
rwle as their morals. Their principal meat was the flesh of cattle, sheep, swine, 
(roatt^ and deer, which they were accustomed to roesu The flesh of birds and 
fish was more seldom used. Tlie most common food was milk, fruit, and vege- 
tables. The first and most common driok was vrater; wine, however, was in 
frequent use; but, generally, mmgled with vrater. Large diinking-vessels 
were employed at their repasts. O^inarily they had two ineals a day, at mid- 
day and evening, and in the earlier times it was the Greek custom to sit at 
table, not to tecune. The number of persons at one table was seldom greater 
than ten. 
It wBs a praverb, ascribed to Theognis (<£ P. V. % 31), that the persoos at a social 
t should not be less in nnmber tian the Graces, nor nioie than the Muses.— *The 

I Varro is said to have enjoined this rule, respecting the proper number at a 

(GdLzxiLll). Adtmu 
*■ Homer mentions three difierent sorts of seats : (1) A'^^i which contained two 
persona, oommooly placed for those of mean rank ; (2) 9p&^, on which they sat ap- 
reht, havine under their feet a footstool termed SfHrei ; (3) Kkvpiq, on which they sat 
leaning a htUe bockwarda." J7a6uwM».-<:£ Horn. Odya. i. 130, 131. 

$ 53. Social repasts or buiqiietB were often held, being occasioned by public 
solemnities, festivals, religious celebrations, marriages, and the like, some- 
times they were msde at the common expense of the guests f »fMivo$, cf. Orfvsi. 
i. ^6) ; soch entertainments, however, were viewed as of inferior rank. The 
feasts npon victims offered in sacrifice have been mentioned ($ 97). 

At table the guests sat according to a definite order. Tiie beginning was 
made by washing the hands. In eariy times a separate board was plac^ for 
each guest, and his portion of food thus divided to him. Wine was brought 
by youthful attendants, and the guests often drank to each other, and recipro- 
cally excbanged cups. Thev endeavored to heighten the joys of the banquet 
by conversation and wit, and also by songs and instrumental music. Cf. P. 
IV. § 68. 

% 54. The dress of the early Greeks was longer, and more ample, and more 
completely covered the body, than that of later times. Next to the bo^y they 
wore a long robe or frock (jt^fMr), which was kept in place by a girdle, and 
over this a cloak (j^ifo) of thicker materials, to protect against the cold. 
Instead of the latter they sometimes had a mantle ^topof). The women wore 
also long cloaks or over-garments, called yccKXoc, ouen richly embroidered and 
ornamented. They likewise covered their heuls, while the men seem not to 
h iv« done it in the eariier ages, except that they wore helmeta in war. Shoes 
or socks were not used constantly, but only in going out In war the men 
wore n sort of boot or greaves ($ 44). 



$ 55. For the sake of cleanliness and of bodily strength, the early Greeks 
practiced frequent bathing, and with it united the custom of anointing. In 
bathins they made much use of the sea-water, on account of its purifying and 
strengUiening properties. They also had warm baths in their houses. After 
taking the bath they anointed the body with oil ; costly ointments, expressly 
prepared for the purpose, were of later invention. They cultivated in eveiy 
way the growth of the hair, long hair being considered as essential to personal 
beauty and dignity. The color most esteemed was yellowish or light brown. 
They were also pleased with frizzled or curled locks, and employ^ artificial 
means to secure such forms to their hair. 

$ 56. Of the real architecture and arrangement of Greek houses in the earlier 
periods, we do not get an accurate view from the descriptions of Homer, which, 
aside from their poetical character, relate only to the palaces or dwellings of 
distinguished personages. (Of. P. IV. $ 232.) Respecting these we may 
remark, that they were ordinarily surrounded by some kind of a wall, not very 
high; between the wall and the house itself was the fore-court, in which an 
altar usually stood. Then followed a colonnade, a vestibule, and the main 
building or house, often highly ornamented without and within ; although the 
art of building at this time had not reached by far the perfection which Greek 
architecture afterwards attained. In the upper part of the house was the dining- 
hall, the sleeping-room, and the women's apartment The roofs were flat, as 
in oriental countries, and often served as places of resort both by day and by 

$ 57. The Greeks cheerfully received to their houses the stranger, and the 
needy; and the rites of hospitality were held sacred among them. Jupiter 
himself was considered as the god and rewarder of hospitality, and the avenger 
of all violations of its laws, and on that account was styled ScVto; (P. II. § 25). 
They had no public inns (cf. $ 168), but travelers found reception with those 
who stood related to them by ties of hospitality. This relation existed not 
only between particular persons, but also between whole cities and communi- 
ties. Kings and distinguished persons exercised hospitality towards each 
other by a sort of common understanding. The external tokens of a welcome 
reception of guests were joining hands and embracing with a kiss. Sometimes 
this was accompanied with offering the bath and unction. On separating, it 
was common to unite in a friendly repast, and renew their pledge of mutual 
friendship over the wine. Valued gifts were sometimes bestowed on the de- 
parting guest. 

§ 58. In speaking of the occupations of the Greeks, agriculture may be first 
mentioned. This was their most common pursuit and means of living. The 
boundaries of the fields were marked by stones, which served to guard the 
cultivators against mutual encroachments. The culture of the vine and of 
trees was also an object of attention. The raising of cattle was a common 
employment, and a principal source of wealth. These employments were not 
considered in any way de^ading or ignoble, but were exercised by persons of 
eminence and even by princes. The hunting of wild beasts should also be 
mentioned here, as practiced in order to secure the flocks and the fields from 
depredation. In the chase they made use of various weapons, as the bow and 
anow, and the spear, with the help of the dog. Fowling and fishing were 
likewise a frequent employment. 

The nets [iiKrva) employed in fowling, hunting, and fishing were made of flax (Xtra); 
the meshes iPpAxpO being of various sizes according to the use intended. In hunting, the 
nets were supported by stakes {vraXucts) and extended in a curve so as partly to surround 
a space into which the animals were driven. Several kinds of fishing nets are men- 
lioned, of which the most common were the dft(pil3XriffTi»y {retiaculum) or casting-net, 
and the aayifvri (tragum) seine or scan. 

an Opfimn^ Totwn oa fiihiDi ud Himlfa« dl P. V. § 1B.-^«iiirinaps Mr h ptefaa da AMicn, in IIm ifaii. db PJteltt^ 
01 a •• • 4« £«. tf Amcx .frtf^ vol. V. p. SSa 

§ 59. The employments of women consisted partly in die care of the hoose* 
hold, partly in spinnins, weaving, and needle- work, not only for their own 
clothing, but for that of the men also. Grinding, baking, cooking and wash* 
ing, were performed by the women. In genenu, the female sex among the 


Gredcs WS8 in a state of Kf^t, althoagti not slaTiah sobjeetion to the male. 
Hieie was comparatiTely Tittle intereourae between the sexes. The women 
lived ehieflj by themseWes in the apartment assigned to them, the rvMuxMr or 
Vvmauim^ which was in the interior or upper part of the house ($ 56). Seldom 
were they allowed to so abroad. In later times this close discipline and con- 
finement remained in force, and women shared even less than previously in the 
business and pleasures of men. 

^Btaa tani«ii^ Ifaa. Airf. /Moc wL nsvi. F IM^-Ct I Itl. 

$ 60. Among the most common amusements of the Greeks were music and 
dancing. Hie former consisted of vocal and instrumental, which were always 
united; and it was designed for instraction as well as gratification. Hence 
music, although in a more extended sense of the term, was an essential object 
in education. (Cf. $ 179, and P. IV. $ 63.) The lyre was the stringed in- 
strument the most in use, and of wind instruments the flute was the most 
common. The former enjoved the preference, because it was more easily ao- 
eommodated to song, and also left the perfonner at libertr to use his voice. — 
The subjects of song were chiefly mythical or historical. Music was most 
generally used at banauets and religious festivals, which were also the most 
commoo occasions of dancing. With dancing it was customary to join various 
sports and exereises of the body, as leaping, running, riding, wrestling, and 
the like. 

$ 61. Marriage and nuptial ceremonies are to be noticed in connection with 
the domestic a^rs ot the Greeks. The dowry of the daughter vras usually 
given by the fiither. It consisted of female ornaments, a portion of the flocks 
and herds, and the like. There were no degrees of consanguinity fisrbidden 
in marriage, except that between parents and children; yet it was considered 
as higlily censurable for brother and sister to unite. Previously to marriage 
tiie consent of the parents was to be asked. At the nuptials or wedding, the 
bride was with pomp conducted home by the bridegroom, who had previously, 
according to the common practice, built and made ready a new house. In this 
procession to the house, nuptial torehes were borne before the newly married, 
and bridal hymns were sung by a retinue of youths and virgins. Dancing 
usually accompanied the music; and the whole vras foUoweia by a nuptial 
feast. A vridow seldom contracted a second marriage, although it was not ex- 
pressly forbidden. At least, it did not take place until five yean or more after 
her vridowbood. 

$ 63. Parents of the better class took special care of the education of their 
ehUdreo, both physical and moral. The mother was accustomed to nurse her 
own children, and considered herself freed from this duty by no rank or con- 
dition. The aid of othen in this respect was sought only in cases of absolute 
necessity. In subsequent yeare the children had particular teachere and over- 
seers, who instructed them in bodily exerdses, in useful sciences, and in the 
art of war. Cf. P.IV. $ 64, $ 71. 

On the other hand, also, children considered it a duty to lore, reverence, and 
obey their parents. They rejoiced in a father's benedictioo, and considered his 
curse as the g r ea t e st of evils. They endesTored to repay y> parents in old 
aee the care experienced by themselves in childhood, a thing, indeed, expressly 
r^uired by lav. They looked upon it as their highest honor, to inflict ven- 
geance on such as had injured their fathere. 

0« n^Ml pm4 « tU i«> MMMi te mr cf Om. Avm. iiL 14f, MO; l«. tn.—Om fti mmmtn mi mmnSm tt tht 

Mrfj* a^a. tf. ««W/v<. M o«aa I S*.-^ A 1«M«M, Sw la Item «M«na «• iHfi nkM*% ■ tt* Jft» * r/MMa^ 
C 1 a • •# ^ &«*M» Mw. tl M. floL iL 

$ 63. The slaves (5oiAm) of the Greeks, male and female, were persons that 
bad been taken prisoneis in vrar (aizf^o3^*»tof^ drdpafco^or), or were purchased 
of others. Slaves of the latter class were not common in early times. The in- 
troduction of commerce or trade in slaves is ascribed to the inhabitants of the 
island of Chios, at a later period. The master had an almost unlimited power 


over bis slave, extending even to the right of life and death. Sometimes the 
gift of liberty was bestowed. 

Besides the actual slaves there was a class of day laborers, who were accus- 
tomed to let their services for hire (^f c$, yccxaf at), especially in the agricul- 
tural and pastoral employments, which were originally so common in Greece. 
A retinue of servants for mere display or luxury was not indulged in during 
the period of which we have thus far been speaking. Cf. $ 99. 

U.— or '^ ^''^ ^^ mortflauTuking Jga, 


§ 64. The number of the Grecian divinities increased with the advancement 
of civilization; although the mythology of the Greeks, in its elements, was 
chiefly of early origin, engendered and fostered by the ignorance, superstition, 
and sensuality of the first ages. The mythical fictions were enlarged, the 
modes of representing the ^ods were varied, the temples, festivals, and sacri- 
fices, and all the solemnities and rites of worship were greatly multiplied. 
The pomp and splendor of their religion became very imposing, especially at 
the period distinguished for the flourishing state of all their affairs. At that 
time the plastic arts were in a great measure devoted to the representation and 
illustration of religious story, and the ornamenting of religious edifices. (Cf. 
P. IV. $ 178, 197, 198,234.) This circumstance gives additional interest and 
importance to the study of this branch of antiquities. 

$ 65 a. The temples (voot, upa) were still built in a simple taste, yet in greater 
number and splendor. The interior had commonly two parts, of which the 
innermost was the sanctuary (ajv^ov), into which the priest only entered. The 
place where stood the statue or image of the god to whom the temple belonged 
was in the middle of the temple, commonly surrounded by a guard of lattice 
work or the like, and therefore termed of^xof. 

Originally the Greeks, like the oriental nations, worshiped on the top of mountains 
or hills, where the? afterwards first erected their temples. When in the common creed 
the gods were multiplied and assigned to valleys, rivers, &c., as their appropriate pro- 
vinces, temples were built in such spots as were supposed agreeable to the several gods. 
More than one deity, however, were sometimes worshiped in the same temple ; they 
were then called avwaot or wyouchai ; and when they had a common altar, cvpfitofm. 
Different stvles of architecture were used for difierent deities; Doric pillars, e. ^. for 
Jupiter or IVlars ; Ionic, for Bacchus, Apollo, Diana ; Corinthian, for Vesta the virmn. 

The temple usually stood in a space inclosed by a fence or wall (ipKos^ wepiSoXos)^ which 
contained, besides the temple, often other sacred buildings and a grove ; the whole space 
was called rcfupos, a term sometimes restricted to the space set apart in the temple for 
the image of the god. 

In the temple, some say at the door, others near the ahmf, was placed a vessel of 
stope or brass (nptp^nHptop) filled with holy water for the purpose of sprinkling those 
admitted to the sacrifices. The part of the temple before the miiris was called irpSfofOf ; 
that behind it oKtaBdioftOi. The outer porch was termed irp6in\a or npoirfXam. — There 
also belonged to the temple a treasury (dpxriov) for preserving its own property, or that 
of others intrusted to it. — The statues and ofierings to the gods found in the temples 
have been spoken .of (^ 21, 28). Statues called ^Mirtrii, fallen from JupUer^ were kept 
in the most sacred part of the temple, and concealed from the sight of all but the 

Fbr other putimlui rafwdinK the ttroctara of (be templo, see P. nr. ( SSL 

§ 65 b. The aUan (^/ioc) were placed towards the east, and had various 
forms, round, square, or oblong. They were ornamented with horns, partly 
that the sacrificial victims might be bound to them, and partly that supplicants 
might lay hold of them, when they fled to the altars for refiige. Perhaps also 
they were considered as a symbol of dignity' and power. The names of the 
deities, to whom the altars were sacred, were usually inscribed upon them. 
Altars, as well as temples, were consecrated to their proper use with solemn 
ceremonies, particularly by anointing. 



Different gods had aUan also of different dimentiona ; the altar of Jupiter Oljmima 
is said to have been twentv-two feet hiffh. The altara of the terrestrial ^ods were 
lower than those of the celestial. To the infernal, sacrifices were made in pits or 
trenches (^ 29) used instead of altars. The nymphs were worshiped in caves (Xrpa). 
Altars were formed of various materials; often of earth, or of ashes, as that at Thebes 
to Apollo lfr6iut( ; sometimes of horn, as that at Delos; sometimes of brick ; often of 
stone ; some were overlaid with sold (cf. ^ 26). They were either square or round ; 
and were often highly omamentea by sculpture. 

Different formi of altars are f Iven in the Bap. Plate SO, where are leea an altar of Japlter, 
one of Neptune, and one of Baccbue. Cf. ^ 909. 

$ 66. The practice of appropriating aaered grovti for the honor and eerrice 
of the gods was also retained m later times. Their agreeable shade, as well 
as the stillness reigning in them, was favorable to pious meditation. Althongh 
the use of groves was diminished by the multiplication of cities and villages, 
yet a grove once dedicated to the gods remained forever sacred and inviolable. 
As well as temples and altars, they were safe asylums for offenders, althoa^h 
this privilege was conferred upon them only by a special consecration for the 
purpose, and did not belong to all the places of reliffious worship as a matter 
of course. The privilege of being such asylums or places of refuge was some- 
times awarded to the statues and tombs of heroes.— Certain portions of land 
and cultivated ground were also assigned to the gods, which were likewise 
called tifuvfi^ the fruit of which was employed in offerings, or fell to the share 
of the priests. 

A particular tract of land, situated between Athens and Megara, was consecrated 
to Ceres and Proserpine, and called 'Opy^. — Trees were also set apart and with cere- 
monv consecrated to some god {Theoc. Id. xviii. 43). 

Tne privileges of the sacred temples, as a«y2a, continued until the reign of Tibe- 
rius Cssar; by whom they were chiefly abolished, or greatly abridged {Tac. Ann. iii. 
60-63), on account of the abuse of them by worthless villains. 

Sinms Lm ujrla, Mtm. Acad, hmr. UL U.-X. Mtfo, MTtholooT, vol. i. ^ U/L-8. ftm HMory anbs J^fhon, Sc. is the 
■ (M eltad P. IV. i 043. 9), VOL vUL p. I . 

$ 67. The three principal duties of the prieita (icpei;, called also Upovpyoit 
^covpyot, ^vf (u) were sacrifice, prayer, and instruction. With these were united 
sometimes tbe declaration and interpretation of oracles. The requisite qualifi- 
cations for the priesthood were a body free from all defects and blemishes 
(oXoxXrpof xai d^cx»(), lawful birth (yi^oio;), and an irreproachable course of 
life. Upon the ranlc of the god depended the number of the priests, who were 
employed to attend upon him, ana who shared each his part of the various 
functions of the service. In every place there was one superior priest, if not 
more {oLpxf'fpfii^ If^iBdoxaXoi,^ frfpo^vrot), charged with the oversight of the 
religious worship in general (df;t^fpio9vv97).— The office of the parasites (jtopa- 
6troi) was to collect the grain and fruits designed for sacrifices (^tpooo^iA 
/ufyoxa) into the storehouse appropriated therefor {9<apa(sitiov).^-The heralds 

Sxripvxti) were ranked among the sacred orders, and also the superintendents 
vtiixopol) whose business was to cleanse and adorn the temples. 

The clothing of the priests was usually a long white or purple robe, and their 
head was ornamented, especially at sacrifices, with a fillet and a crown of the 
leaf sacred to their particular god. 

In our Plate XXVII. flf . C, U a view of a Grecian pricit and prlenteif. In thefr robes ; each ku 
a thyrsua in one hand, indlcatinf that they are sflrvanti of Bacchus, and a veasel in the other. 
The prieitera Is pourinf a liquid upon the flame of an altar. It is a monament given In ^mw. 
Antique Vases, Altars, Ac. 

1. Priests holdinff their office by inheritance ($22) were called h^ aryiyoDt; those 
who received it by lot, KXripurel ; those by election, iuperoi or hpjipaftitfot. Some of the 
Athenian famifies, in which the priesthood descended by inheritance were the EtyiAX. 
9rt(^(. intrusted with the oversight of the Elusinian mvsteries; Kqpwrec, descendants 
of Ceryx ; the GaxXwi'iV^i, descendants of Thaulon. There was a sacred family at 
Argos also, called ' AKctnopi^ai. Priestesses (Upciai, dpfrrtipat, dpxiipetat, lrpo^miV() were 
taken from noble families. Those of Ceres were termed McXuwat ; those of Bacchus, 
Boiocac, et«d(^, MacvoVf. — Sometimes services connected with the worship of the gods 
were performed by persons not properly belonging to the priesthood («xwp<ff/'iw ^i 
lcpcixr«>n7;) ; 88 e. g. sscrificcrs (ifpontxot), oi whom ten are said to have been appointed 
annually at Athens, and who conducted all the usual sacrifices ; keepers of the tern* 
pie and utensils {yaa^Xajas) ; stewards or treasurers {raidai rw Uptar ^fLortMi). — Priests 


vbo were ooostantly in attendance on the goda to offer the prayers of the people at 
Mcrificee, were calJed np6n>M 3«mv. — All who served the ffoda were maintained out 
of the aaciifices and offerings. — ^At Athens, those intrusted with the care of religion 
vere required to render an account of their doings to certain civil officers appointed 
for the pnrpMe. The 'LywftM^/iui' seems to have been charged with keeping the sacred 
records. The priests had attendants called IcpAS»uX0t. 

OBai|raie«Bdif fh»OiMlB,M/.J&a<Mr,DvHillflHBPri«tanlul mit wnOflich RBctakbt nf 4i« HiMvdoleB. MaiaL 
-Om/Mva, sxxiB. aA-Boitt9i$imUa, Urn mlvMrm dm Oicu »AtlwB«, la 9m Mmt. Jhad. butr. xvUI. 60; oiu. 61.— 
I— uSiglwtoactfaMiMHiiiiB ■i,ae.hHh»JMtoi.*r/iM<aiit,Cl>t»«d*«i<.it£«..fcic;W.TLai. 

2. Purification has abready been mentioned (^ 23) as a rite of great importance 
among the Greeks. At some of their solemnitiee, the priests and prieetesses were 
obbged to take an oath, that they were duly purified. Every person attending the 
»>!einn sacrifices was purified usually by being washed or sprinkled with the water in 
the vt^f^wnrtpiov (cf. ^ 65 a). This water was consecrated by ];>utting into it a burning 
torch from the altar, or a branch of laurel (Sa^tnn) or olive. Purification was also some- 
times made by drawing roimd the person a sea-onion or squill (trc^AXa), or a young 
dog (»r»Xaf) ; sometimes eggs were used for the purpose ; sometimes the blood of a 
pi;. Some of ihe terms employed to designate punfyin£[ are mMp^nty, mptnamoSai, 
c^siVmr, iyristtM, iX«v^, hyvw^^ rtXrr^, &c. — Sometimes m purincations not only the 
hsods, but the feet and other parts of the body were waf hedf. 

$ 68. The sacrifices had different names according to the occasions of them. 
The tkank-^ering {xpj^iotvi^iA) was in recognition of some favor received, 
often in falfilment of some vow made; the nf^iffering (Ixaatixd) was in order 
to propitiate an offended deity ; the ifwotaiionroffering (dUf •jftxd) was presented 
in case of seeking some particular favor. There were other particmar sacri- 
fices, which were offered in consequence of the specific command of some god. 

The beginning of the sacrifice in later times was made by the Uhaiion 
('Mitnhfit $ 24. 2) ; then followed the xnun»t^ the burning of something fragrant 
(>t>uo^) ; and at length the tatrifice itself, properly speaking, or the slaying 
of the vidim (upfioy). The principal ceremonies have already been mentioned 
(S 37)* — Persons who had the right of bein? present at a sacrifice were termed 
o3«3i:XM, and those who had not, /Sc^^i^xoi. The latter were called upon by the 
heralds to retire before the ceremonies commenced. 

Different animals were offered in sacrifice to different gods, as has been mentioned 
in treating of the ancient mythology. One of the principal victims, however, was the 
01 (^%) ; hence the term 0otidonTy^ to sacrifice oxen : those assistants who slew the 
▼iciuBs were called finOirtu. Bulls (ravpoi), sheep (oi<(), and goats (atycf) were often 
offered. The bringing of the victims to the altar was expressed by such phrases as 
rfofOYtttr n* 0i,tftQ, or rapaor^oi hvlaif rots fffofwif ; they were often brought adorned with 

Sirlands (vr^m-a), and were always required to be free from blemishes (riXnoi). After 
eTictim was slain and cut in pieces, an inspection of the entrails (nXayx^'ommrla) 
was made by the soothsayer (ovXayxydrmrof), to ascertain the presages of the future. 

Animals were not demanded as sacrifices from the poor, who were allowed to offer 
cakes of coarse flour (vtfiraya, rtXmw^ iriftftan) ; these were sometimes made in the shape 
of animals. 

It doM not appear to have been ever an approved costom among the Greeks to offer human 
sacrMcea, altbough it was repeatedly done ; cf. P. II. ) 17. Themistocles is said to have sacri- 
Seed to the fods several Persian captives. (Plutarch, Them.) Human victims were sacrificed 
particnlariy to the manea and iofernal gods.— Cf. Lactamtiut, De Falsa Religione, c. H.—Eusebhu, 
Prrp. Evang. Iv. 16. 

$ 69. It is pertinent to notice here the Bolemn oeUhs of the Greeks, in which 
they called upon the gods to witness the truth or avenge falsehood or injury. 
They distinguished between the solemn or great oath (6 fuya^ opxo$) and affir- 
mations in ordinary cases. Jupiter was considered as especially the god and 
guardian of oaths, and avenger of perjury, although oaths were taken in the 
name of other gods also. It was common, e. g., to swear by the twelve great 
superior eods (^a d«^(xa ^fov$). Sometimes they swore by the gods, indefi- 
nitely and generally ; and sometimes by inanimate objects, vases, weapons, or 
any article of which they made use. Not unfrequently the oath was in the 
name of living or deceased men, such especially as had been highly esteemed 
tod loved. The oath was usually joined with a distinct imprecation of ven- 
pance on the swearer himself in case of falsehood ; and was sometimes con- 
finned by a sacrifice, the flesh of which, however, could not be eaten. Severe 
panishments were decreed against peijury {intopxia)* Yet the Greeks, espe- 


cially the Tbessalians, were reproached for this crime by the ancienlB. At 
least matual distrust was characteristic of the corrupt Greeks of later times, 
and among the Romans the phrase GrmeafideM was synonymous with perfidy. 

Leagues and covenantB were confinned by making oaths and elaying sacrifices ; 
hence dfMria r/^cu* signifies to enter into covenant. Notwithstanding tne great perfi- 
diousness of the Greeks, they considered one who kept his oath (^opag) u d* course 
a pious person irim0ns). *Arrucii nwrtt signifies honest faith. 

Ma m im, tmlm t umm h im Aadmt, tai te fTM. ^ iltarf. At /mv. voL L p. ttl; voLiv. 9.I, Swi^ ntet of A^i» 

$ 70. The opinion was very early entertained, that the gods honored certain 
men, especially the priests, with a particular intimacy. There were supposed 
to be two modes of revelation ; one immediate^ by direct inspiration ; aiid the 
other mediate or artificial, which was considered as the fruit of great knowledge, 
experience, and observation. Oracles (;tP'7<'^>7px^ fioirftia) were of the first 
kind ; and the second kind was divination (juufrCxri). — From oraeletj the Greeks 
were accustomed to seek, in important circumstances and undertakings, predic- 
tions of the result {x^fj^f^tn Xoyco, ftort cvfu&ra). It is obvious that Siey could 
he turned greatly to the advantage of the priests, to whose artifice their exist- 
ence and support are in great measure to be ascribed. The oracular answers 
were not given in any one uniform manner, but sometimes immediately, as was 
pretended, from the gods {xf^<ff*^ awtopcwoi)^ sometimes through an interpreter, 
{zv^f*°^ iyro^f cxot), or by a pretended dream, or by lot. 

Persons who consulted the oracles were termed dsrapdnoi, ^uapeHf Xfrnfo^^pm. \ the in* 
terpreters, x^r^/ioX^. Presents and sacnfices were always requisite before consulting 
an oracle, which could be done only on appointed days. 

The qaettion haa beso agltmtad, whether the reepoosee uttered twm the sncieiit oncles were 
the mere ioipoeture of priette, or proceeded from the agency of Saun makiof uee of their delo- 
■ioM. Fa* Dale in a learned treatise urged the former view. FuntamdU adTocated the same 
side. Ba<i«« with much leamlng maintained the latter view, in agreement with some of the 
Chrietlan Fathers. 

Dr. Clarke (Travels, P. II. sect. S. ch. xvl.) describes a contriranee, which he snppoMe was 
designed by the artifice of the priests to sustain the system of oracles. ** We found at the foot 
of the hill of the Acropolis, one of the most curious uUuJe remalne yet discovered amoof the 
▼esiiges of pagan priestcraft ; it was nothing less than one of the oraeuUr shrines of jUrgot^ 
alluded to by PauMniat, laid open to inspection, like the toy a child has broken In order that he 
may see the contrivance whereby It was made to speak. A more interesting sight for moderii 
cariosity can hardly be conceived to exist among the ruins of any Grecian city. In its original 
•ute, it had been a tempU: the (krtber part from the entrance, where the alur was, being an 
excKvatlon of the mek, and the front and roof cnnstructed with hmkei tile*. The alur yet remains, 
and part of the JEeitis superstructure ; but the most remarkable part of the whole is a secret sob* 
terraneous passage, terminaiing behind the altar; its entrance being at a considerable distaoce 
toward the riirht of a person flicing the alur ; and so cunningly contrived as to have a smaU 
aperture, easily concealed and level with the surfkce of the rock. This was barely large enough 
to admit the entrance of a single person ; who, having descended into the narrow passage, might 
creep along until he arrived immediately behind the center of the altar; where, being bid by 
some colossal statue or other screen, the sound of his voice would produce a roost Impoain'g 
eflfect among the humble votaries, prostrate beneath, who were listening in silence opon the 
floor of the sanctuary. We amused ourselves for a few minutes by endeavoring to mimic the 
solemn (hrce acted upon these occasions ; and as we delivered a mock oracle, ore ratmndc, from 
the cavernous throne of the altar, a reverberation, caused by the sides of the rock, afforded a 
tolerable specimen of the *wiU of the foHe^' as it was formerly made known to the credulous 
votaries of thb now forgotten shrine. There were not fewer than twoutf-Avo of these Juffting 
places In Pelofoniutvs, and as many in the single province of Beotia; and surely it will nerer 
again become a question among learned men, whether the answers In them were given by the 
inspiration of evil spirits, or whether they proceeded from the imposture of priests ; neither can 
ft be urged that they ceased at the death of Christ : because Pauoaniao (CorintL c U, p. 16&, ed. 
KukMi) bears testimony to their existence at Jlrgoe in the second century." 

Sm ran DatM, De Oraenlb vatmn Elboieonn. AonI. ITOa A.-B. FontmOk, HMolra 6m Ondah U Buf^ 179a 12.— 
/. P. BaUuM, AmwOT to FoatowlU'k Historf of Onu:l« ; tnwi. freoi Om Fmieh. LonL ITIOi I vola. a>Ct JbBm, hk. s. du S 
(p. aei. VOL I ad. di«d \ l9i.~.maAteoofi Magu. vol. ilv. p> Sn. 

$ 71. It may be proper to mention aome of the moat diatinguiahed of the 
ancient oracles. The moat ancient was that of Jupiter at Dodona, a city of the 
Moloaai, aaid to have been built by Deucalion. Before this time, however, this 
oracle, of Pelasgic origin Tcf. P. IV. $ 41), seems to have existed in that place. 
There was a groTo of oaks, sacred to Jupiter, and superstition ascribed the 
actual exercise of the gift of speech and prophecy to the treea themselTee, 
which were thence called fiai^ixai fiov* j. The priests, called aTto^fjttu and 
SfXXoi, concealed themselves upon ana in the trees, when they announced the 
pretended declaration of the gods. The sound of a brazen vase, placed near 
the temple, was also imagined to be supernatural. A fountain in the place was 

p.m. SBU6I0V8 ▲TFAIRS. ORACLES. 166 

likewise celebnted u poMessing the wondeiful power, not only of extinguish- 
ing a toieh, bnt of kinoling it again. 

I. The oracles in the grore of Dodona were also said to be delivered by doves, 
which arose from the circumstance that the priestesses, who sometimes announced 
them, were called in the Thessalian huigua|[e wtkuai, and vtXn&ks. There were also 
priests called i^vpot, whose business was to mterpret the sounds of the vessel on oer- 
lain occasions. Two columns stood by the temple ; to one of which the vessel was 
•ttsched ; on the other wss a boy with a scourge in his hand ; the ends of the scourge 
consisted of Httle bones, which being moved by the wind knocked against the metallic 
TMsel attsched to the other column. — ^From the use of the brazen vessel arose the phrase 
^w&MiM' xoXnrov, applied to talkative persons. — The temple is said to have stood ufxtn 
an eminence near a fountain.— In the Sup. plate 28 is a view of Dodona, in which 
many of the allusions to the oracle are represented. 

*aw.iDilk*«M^LKIncl»4»Dadan,iBlkiJfeM.jBiAJkuer.fitLv.p.afi. «nt. ^ aS.--Ow*i^ D« owflo DnilnMUP 
itttat.mLt^.jtmttk.XUbmim TkA m mU dmmtkimm. Wim, mx B^Lamautt, Dm IMH^iirlii Owkd dtt Z«m 
aOaiBH. Wart^l8«0Li. 

0»l^iSt«flS>f ph^ct BwfiwTh,McHrfP. HSI. 

2 «. Less celebrated wss the oracle of Jupiter Ammon, in a desert and almost inac- 
cessible region of Africa, chiefly known by the visit to it made by Alexander the 

3. The aite of the temple and oracle of Japiter Ammon waa discovered by tbe Enfltth traveler 
Browne in 170S, in the Oe»i» of Siwa. (Cf. RnnuWt Geog. 8yat. of Herod, aeci. SI.) Near It 
wu tbe fkmoaa /•mmtaim •ftht mn. Tbe ppot waa vlaited by Belzoni in 1810. (Cf. P. I. ) 179.) 
Tbe niina of the temple ladieate an Efyptlan orif in.— Wbea tbia oracle waa coneulted, a aplea- 
did tuiue of tbe fod waa carried in procesalon by nomeroua prieaU (cf. P. 11. \ M). A view of 
it i* fiTcn in ibe Sup. Plate S9. 

4. Several other oraclea of Jnpiter are mentioned. Herodotua apeaka of f«mr: atEeyptlaa 
Thebei ; at Libyan Ammon ; at Dodona ; and at Meroe in Ethiopia ; and aaye tbe one at Thebea 
wu tbe original. Beeldee tbeae, there waa an oracle of Japiter in Boeotia ; alao in Ella at Olym- 
pia ; and one In Crete, in a cave of Monnt Ida. 

i 73. Apollo, the god to whom inspiration and prophecy were considered to 
belong properly,, had namerous oracles. The meet renowned was that at 
Delpu, a city of Phocis, where he had also a temple illnstrious beyond all 
others on aocoont of its treasures, the abundance and costliness of the ^ifta 
bestowed there. The spot where the answer was given, was called Pythium 
(Qv^ior), and the priestess, who uttered it, Pythia (ilv^), from the surname 
which Apollo reoeived in consequence of killing the serpent Python (llv^v). 
Hus spot, or the site of Delphi, was regarded as the centre of the inhabited 
earth (d^cfoxo^ w)' According to common tradition this oracle was first dis- 
closed by a flock of goats, which, on approachinfr an orifice on Mt. Parnassus, 
were seized with singular paroxysms of shivering and jumping. The same 
happened to men, who approached this opening. This oracle was very ancient, 
being celebrated more than a hundred years before the Trojan war. 

1. Some derive the names applied to this oracle and the priestess from the word 
s^^of^, to mquire, or learn; but TlvOti appears to have been originally the name of the 
city of Delphi. — I'he temple was adorned with statues and other splendid works of 
art. Its walls were inscribed with salutary moral precepts ; among them the cele- 
brated one Tpufft vtmnv, (P. V. ^ 169.) Costly tripods were among the gifts conse- 
crated to Apollo here. One of the most famous was the golden one presented by the 
Greeks sfter the defeat of Xerxes. This was removed by Constantine and placed in 
the Hippodrome of Constantinople, upon the *' triple heads" of the three brazen ser- 
pents twisted into one pillar. 

TW pillar ilUliaMmtOUten, eh. IT. p SOL viri. iL N. Vwk, I8B).— Tte thrw hMdt an Mid to 1mt< baaa In sood pr«Mn«. 
tea vfeM CfllMtipopU WM tokm by fte Tarfcs ; IfaboaMt II. thra rode iaio tbe MipprtdnoM and •hativred ora of ihem with h« 
tatteu ; hi* wmn icwuainc lo 1100; bat Omt ww« rtoica about Hut lisM by ma» naknown dcpraUtor. (Of. Lmd. ^umrU 
SiiL ii. imy— Ott tfe« arigm of Ita Odphic ofadc, cf. Jfil/ord>f Gmc*, ch. a. MCL 8. 

2. The great wealth accumulated at Delphi (cf. % 28), and the celebrity of the ora- 
cle, and consequent influence possessed by the state which had the chief authority 
over it, occasioned much jealousy among the Grecian states ; in two instances par- 
ticularly they were involved thereby in actual hostilities, in the wars commonly called 

Jte/»#a Hitf. iiTOrMM, ck BSsrii-xliL— A raloia, fhmtm 9Mna» in Uk Mtm. Mad. hua-. vil. 9M. is. f7. lii. 177. 

5 73. The tripod (tpinwf X9V6tr,fnoi), upon which the priestess sat in otter- 
ing the answers, must be mentioned among the remarkable things pertaining to 
the oracle. It was dedicated to Apollo by the seven wise men of Greece, and 
has been yiewed as having a threefold reference, to the past, the present, and 


the future. The IIv^ henelf was esteemed as a priestess of peculiar dignity, 
and was obliged to prepare for the functions of her office by many ceremonies. 
In delivering the oracles, she appeared to be in the most violent ecstasy and 
couYulsion. In early times, the oracular response was commonly clothed in 
the form of hexameter verse ; often by a poet employed for the purpose. Ori- 

S'nally the oracle was consulted but on a single day in the year, in a month of 
e spring, called Bvtfto; or llvocof ; afterwards inquiry could be made on a 
certain day of every month. Whoever wished to consult the oracle was re- 
quired to make large presents and oflferings, to put on a wreath or crown, and 
to propose his questions mostly in writing, ana allow himself to be qualified 
for receiving the answer by many mystic rites. The answer was conmionly 
so enigmatical and ambiguous (xfl|d(, hence Ao|ta$), that it would apply to any 
result that might happen ; and whenever it was clear and definite, the priests 
had informed themselves of all the preliminary circumstances and the proba- 
bilities respecting the issue. — ^The Delphic oracle was suspended at various 
times, and became finally silent soon after the death of the emperor Julian. 

Originally, there was one Pythia (or irpo^rv) only at Delphi ; but after the oracle 
became more frecjuented, the number was increased to threes chosen from among the 
uneducated inhabitants of Delphi, and bound to the strictest temperance and chastity. 
They officiated by turns, and sometimes lost their lives in the paroxysms of the in- 
spiration. Those, who pretended to form into sentences their incoherent exclamations, 
thrte in number, were called irpo^ifnu ; who always took care to ascertain previously 
much about the history and characters of those consulting the oracle. The prophets 
were aided in the sacrifices and ceremonies, which preceded the placine of the Pythia 
on the tripod, by Jive priests called fotoi, who were under a chief called ioriwri|p.— The 
npnryirol were guides to those who visited the temple, employed particularly in point- 
ing out to them its curiosities. A great number of persons were required tor the va- 
rious services of the temple and oracle.-— See the Plate fiuung page v.) 

Ob th» omd* of AiMllo, M Aniian, OrMb d* Odpko, is tto JtfMb Inrf. Itaer. VOL itt. ^ m.--C /1 1^^ 
•t Onenlo ApoUinn Ddphid. Hafo. 1S7.— Xl D. HUUnmut, Woidif oaf dM OdpblMtai Ontoh. Bonn, laST.— IT. OSfti, 
Dm OdpbiMte (kakel, is Htaam politiNban, rriifiOMD, nnd rittlkhM ElofliM Lrips. lOa-E. K Bamam, ia &«* md 
Ontbtr, EncTdoptdiB, aakr OnJiO. 

$ 74. There were in Greece various other oracles less celebrated. The more 
important of them were the following: the oracle of Apollo at Didyma, which 
was called also the oracle of the Branchidae ; those of Delos, Ab», Claros, 
Larissa, Tegyne and other minor cities ; where answers were also eiven from 
Apollo ; the oracle of Trophonius at Lebadea in Boeotia, in a simterranean 
cave, said to have been the residence of Trophonius, into which inquirers des- 
cended, after performing solemn ceremonies, m order to receive a revelation of 
the future by dreams or oracles ; and the oracle of Amphiaraus in the vicinity 
of Oropus m Attica, where the answers were imparted to the initiated by 
dreams. — ^The number of the ancient oracles amounted to two hundred and 

1. Th« oracle of Trophonius li detcribed chiefly by Pausaniai (ix. 37), who layt he entered 
the cave. The oracle was upon a mountain, where was a grove, temple, and etatne of Tropho- 
Dluf. Within an inclosure made of white sionee, upon which were erected obelitki of bran, 
was an artificial opening like an oven ; here by a ladder the person consulting the oracle 


descended, carrying in his hands a ceruin composition of honey. On returning, the person waa 
required to write down what had been seen or heard.^In Plate XIX. is a representation of this 
oracle. — As there was a story that a visitor to the cave never smiled after his retnrn, it became 
common to describe a cloomy person by saying he had been to the cave of Trophonius ; see an 
amusing application of this. In JUdison*s Spectator, No. 559. 

Tha cave to itUI poinied oat to tn?dan ; ■too U» two touattlai jftMnwym tad ljHie.^-9af Clartta, Tnttk, ac— rtimwah, 
Vo)rm(^ ftc vol iv. p. 171. 

1. There were numerous oracles of Ascleplus or JEsculapias ; of which the most celebrated 
was at Epidaurus. Here the sick sought responses and the recovery of their health by sleeping 
(inctAstio) in the temple. It was imagined by F. A. Wolf, that what is now called animiU Majf- 
futism or Mesmerism was known to the priests uf those temples where the sick spent ooe or more 
nights for the purpose of recovering their health. 

CL F. A. Wvlf, Bertnc but G«Mh. dei Soainmbuliniai an dcm lltnthsn ; b bb VandtOtSt SOiriJIm, 

f 75. The pretended revelation of the future metUalefy (cf. § 70), or by means 
of some system or art of divinaiion (juuftixfi), was effected in various ways. 
The most important was by theomancy (^eo/iayf cun), an art possessed by a 
class of persons who were called ^eo^tci;, and claimed to be under divine 
inspiration. This class comprised three varieties; some were considered as 



intopretera of the demon by whom Ihey were poeeeesed, and called dac^iopo- 
itpttM or ftv^um^ ; olhen were ealled ir^ovoinatai or iv^aatiwoi, and enjoyed 
only the indmalions of some paiticalar diyinity ; and otben still were termed 
iz5rof UEOH and boasted of high diseoreries obtained doring a wholly sopem*- 
toral state <d mind, which they aooght to render credible by the pretext of a 
long tranooy insensibility, oi;^sleep. 

B«^es what was termed in general tMeomatcy, there were sereral methods of 
diTiianon, of wluch the lollowmff were the principal. — 1. By dreamM^ iKtftnXU. The 
Greeks ascribed ver^ mach to dreams as supematuial, and Tiewed them either as 
rpvelaiioos and wammgs from the sods or from demons, or as pictures and images of 
fcmre erents. The ezpoonderB of dreams were called tvapm^rat, dMn^MvAm, or 4»ci- 
pnW. Three Tuieties of the dream are named ; xy v >-H t t when a god or q>int 
conTeraed with one in his sleep ; t/w^a , when one saw a vision of fotnre oocmrences ; 
inimr, in which the fittpre was set forth by types and figures (aXXjr>«puwr). Two other 
Taiieties are also mentioned, b4mm and fnrrovpo, bm are not considered as sfibrding 
much help in dirinstion ; tftSkrm, imembust night-msre, was supposed sometimes to 
indicaie the fotnre. Diesms were supposed to be sent from the god of sleep (P. IL 
% 113;; and frmn Jnpaer {Hmm. IL L 63). A raldess called Bnxo ififi^up, to thep^ 
was thonsht to preaide over the interpretation of dreams, and was worshqwd particn- 
larlv in Delos. Dreams which occurred in the morning were most regarded in 


2. By aocriJUx9. This was called Hieromanty (icj^^^tfyraa) or Hiermeemf (&pnm><c). 
It compreheoded the observations of many pardcuiars connected with the offeiing of 
a Tictim, as portending sood or ill. One of the principal things was the inspection of 
the entrails, especially the lirer (' iiaj — t— £ •), and the heart. The fire of samfice was 
also noticed ( l y^a i it fa) ; likewise the smoke (cwoyiarrtia), the wine (4cMuvma), and 
the water { Vfu ^t iti m, wwypt^rria). There were, in short, Tarious kinds or forms of this 
dirinatioa according to the different victims or materials of the sacrifices and the dif- 

ferent rites ; e.g. there was AXi i»i y a nr t«, by the flower or meal used ; hfimttumim, by 
the entrails of uhes ; ion^rU, by eggs. 

3. By birds ^ iccdrwndk.. Those, who observed and interpreted omens by birds, were 
called if»tDOK6r9i, ipnO^pitrrus. Some birds were observed with respect to their Jligit 
fTwrr^-ycf) ; Others in respect to their tinjting {ti^anu). Unlucky birds, or those of 31 
omen, were called 2^u^m^, pemieioms, and cwXtrrucoi, hindering from designed imder* 
takings, and by similar epithets; smong this class were the Iwwk, the bustard, and, 
except at Athens, the owl ; the dove and swan, on the other hand, were considered 
»s lockv birds ; vod the crowing of the cock was auspicious. When the observer of 
the fii^^t of birds was watching for omens he looked towards the north, snd sppear- 
ances m the east, which was on his right, were considered as favorable ; hence the 
use of it^iik, right, to signify fortunate. — Omens were also drawn from insects and 
reptiles, and various ammab. Toads, serpents, and boara were of ill omen. Bees 
and ants were often thought to foretoken good. 

4. By si^iw in the heavens i^totm^Xa) and other pkysieai pketunmena. Comets, 

'blunder ana lightning VI 

eclipses, and earthquakes were all unluckv sisTis. Thunder and lightning were lucky 
d obsenred on the right band ; but unlucay if on the left. To be struck vrith thim- 
der i^fiamrk) was unlucky ; in pbces thus struck, altars were erected and oblations 
made to appease the gods, after which none dared to approach them. 

5. Bv lots. The two principal modes were those termed vrtx^forTtU and Khifopmrrtim. ; 
in the /ormer little pieces of paper, having fatidical lines (^rcxoc) written upon them, 
were drawn from an urn, ana were supposed to indicate the prospects of the person 
by or for whom they were dnwn out ; m the other, various small articles, as beans 
r>lack and white, pebbles, dice, and the like, which were all called cX%»t, and were 
coni^idered as being of different significancy, were drawn from an ran or other vesseL 
— Other modes were ^aS^o^arrda, bv rods, and 0tX»iimrreia^ by arrows, in which the 
lot was decided by the manner in which they fell from an erect posture or from the 
quiver. Another was by the use of the riM^ dYffru6(, on which certsin prophetic 
verses were inscribed, and the fate vras indicated by the verse on which the dice fell. 

6. By maeicai arts. These were said to have onginsted in Persia among the Magii, 
^iy9t. The decree of attention giyen among the Greeks to these srts (nptipya) is 
rrinced by a striking fact recorded in the Bible (Acts, ziz. 19), which seems to imply 
that a great number of books were composed on the subject. A few only of thie 
various modes need be named ; vapoporrtia, nwiimmia, and ^^ifxmm »nU , in which the 
dead were supposed to appear or spesk ; ymgrpofuumU, in which demons were ima* 
gined to speak from the bellies of men, or omens were drawn from the a^ppearaneea 
of water in the middle part (rwrpn) of certain glass vessels surrounded with lighted 
torches; aifOfowTuo, in whieh the perfinmen observed the forms assomed by drape 


of melted wax ; there were numerous other modes. — ^The dXcnipvayiAmM was a sort of 
divination by lot, yet classed among the magical arts; the letters of the alphabet were 
written in a circle ; a grain of wheat or barley was laid upon each letter ; a cock ¥ras 
placed in the center ; and the desired information was obtained by putting together 
the letters from which the cock picked the grains. — It is proper to mention nere some 
of the magical arts, by which mysterious effects were supposed to be wrought ; as, 
e- Km 'Hi^'^^i^f in which medicated herbs, minerals, and the like {(papfuua) were used ; 
and jSoffKayia, which was a sort of fascination or malign influence which certain per- 
sons were supposed to exert. 

8m AMMmy aal £• JbN^ te. M dtad I ».-0b dMatfka by Oa av^ cf. CtaM. /«urik z. BL 

7. Fmally, divination Mras also made from various things included under the general 
name of oment {oi/iffoXa). One class of these consisted of such as were drawn from 
the person himself, as «aX|«»t, palpitations of some part of the system : 0if^t a rinsing 
of the ears ; «Ta^, sneezings, &c. Another class consbted of those drawn from 
objects external to the person $ as the meeting of certain objects or animals on the 
road (,h6iia a4it0oXa)f or certain occurrences at home (t^ dMonmrutfy). Certain words 
were also ominous i such were called ^rrai^ «X]|jdyf(, Mim, The Greeks, especially the 
Athenians, sought to avoid words of ill omen, carefully substituting others, as, e. g. 
*Eo/icvUkc insteaa of 'l^wficr, and fiXaHis instead of «XiimK. 

Ob Iha aaciMi ut of divntliea, m Ciorv^ D» WtlHliawL— CL Wm*mmtk, B hUil M i Aa^qMrn, m dtad } ia^-J>M«r, 
JjcfanL One. bk. ii. eh. ll-U. 

$ 76. The fuUvah formed an important part of the religions worship of the 
Greeks. Their establishment and support was partly for the sake of honoring 
and supplicating the gods, and commemorating persons of merit, and partly 
for the sake of rest, recreation, union, and harmony of social feeling. Their 
number greatly increased with the multiplication of the gods and the progress 
of luxury and wealth ; the yariety and splendor of the accompanying ceremo- 
nies increased in the same proportion. JBepecLally was this the case at Athens. 
They were mostly held at the public expense, the means being drawn from 
yarious sources. 

8MJr.aAriMm^0i«yM«fgBBdlMbMatiMki>hllnD|*liehtaMMM aal MB iiilMil wA ihi— Sto iri ZwBct 
criAatort. Bwlia,IHa. 8Tb.& 

§ 77 /. Some of the most important festivals have been mentioned (P. II.) 
in the history of particular gods, under the head of Mythology. A slight 
notice of them here must suffice. The principal out of an almost countless 
multitude, will be named in alphabetical order, and then some particulars added 
respecting a few of these. 

Ik. 'A y^ 1 fd y I a, a nocturnal festival instituted in honor of Bacchus.-— ^'A jw r « «, 
dedicated to Venus and the memory of Adonis.— 'AX u» a, to Bacchus and Ceres. 

'Acdcffr^pta, observed at Athens three days, also in honor of Bacchus. 'A^na- 

rovpia, at Athens, in commemoration of a victory obtained by Melanthus, through 
stratagem, over the Boeotian king Xanthus, likewise in honor of Bacchus, and other 

?ods. 'A^podtff (<i, a festival of Aphrodite or Venus, particularly on the island ot 
lyprus.-^— Bpavptovia, sacred to Diana, in Attica, celebrated every fifth year. — 

Aa^vq^tfpi a, to Apollo in BcBOtia, only every ninth year. AfiXi a, also to Apollo, 

on the island of Delos, every fifth year.— A n it fir pi t^ sacred to Demeier or Ceres.—— 
A 1 1'lro Xc ( a, an Athenian lestival, instituted in honor of Jupiter, as tutelary god of the 
city (HoXiric).— — >A 10 vi Ota, to Dionysus or Bacchus ; a greater and more solemn festi- 
val in the cities i and a lesser one in the country ; the same that wos called by the Ro- 
mans BacchoMalia, There were innumerable forms of this festival.— 'E Kar6fi0atm^ 
dedicated by the Argives to Juno, to whom they sacrificed a hecatomb on the first day 
of this festival.^— ^ISXcvfff VI a, the most celebrated festival of Ceres, a greater and 

smaller, connected with the well known mysteries. ^'E p ^ a i a, a festival of Mercury, 

in Elis, Arcadia, and Crete. 'E^ivia, a festival of Diana atEphesus. ISpaia^ a 

festival of Juno at Argos.— 'H^ a (ortia, sacred to Vulcan at Athens, accompanied 
by races with torches. ■ c a ^ ^ tf p i a, the festival of legislation in honor of Ceres, at 
Athens and other Greek cities.— -Kdpyci a, sacred to Jupiter and Apollo, almost 
throughout all Greece, for nine days.— A <>« at a, an Arcadian festival in honor of 
Jupiter, instituted by Lycaon. [But this term usually designates a festival of Pan 
corresponding to the Roman Lupercal. Cf. P. II. ^ 80.]— -'Occo^tfp la, a festival 
of the Athenians instituted by Theseus, and so called from the custom of carrying 
branches about on the occasion.— n avaBijvata, one of the most solemn festival 
at Athens, dedicated to Minerva. The lesser was celebrated annually ; the greater 
every fifth year. Both were connected with various contests and games.^^acX<i*- 
p(«, a Thessalian festival dedicated to Jupiter, having some resemblance to the Sd- 
tumalia of the Romans.— 'a p«t a, a general name applied to solemn sacrifices, 


* 1 H 

. ' ' V-'.- 





r^ ^ 



Mtich wen bion^it to tiie gods in the difierent seasons, witli a ^w to secure good 


itfmk **• JIM. A^ J^KT. ««L d*. ^ 412; a^ zlrnk. p. SL 

2. *'The fcsdral ealled 'Ac-^na was celebrated in most of the cities of Greece. 
Th*> solemnity cooticued two days. On the nrst. certain images or pictures of Adonis 
i^d Venus were brought forth with all the pomp and ceremocies used at funerab ; the 
voipea lore their hair, beat their breasts, ami counterfeited other actions usuid in 
luLcntLns The dead. This laroenution was calied aLc»iacm»{ or metM ia. and hence JftBtay 
i}c» fignmes the eatroe as '^Aetumar cXouw, to weep tor Adonis ; and the son^ on this 
• - o^ion were denominated •JcbMu-'to. With the images were also carried shells filled 
«i:q eanh, in which grew several sorts of herbs, particulariv lettuces; in memory 
'hiT Adonis was laid out on a bed of lettuces. These were called crrvi, eardens ; anci 
vnce 'At'-'hcos cnrM were proverbially applied to thin^ unthiitiul and taking, because 
't'^se herbs were sown only so long before the festival as to be green at that time, and 
«rre presently cast out into the water. The flutes used on this day were called 
'.-^tt h-om 7>7'>P«Ct the PhcBnician name of Adonis; the music, ytyyfwr^iit; and the 
ao: 2s were called yryipmirn. The sacrifice was denominated ca^fM, because the davs 
•A moomin^ were called by that name. The second day was spent in aU possible 
demonstrations of joy and merriment; in memory, that by the nvor of Proserpine, 
Venus obtained that Adonis should return to life, and dwell with her one-half of every 
vear. This &ble is applied to the sun which produced the vidssitudes of suminer and 

a r. a f «L— jiM^, Ciriti jradni^ M ftt Jtak * rjM<. ^ Ahv. wL is. rw M. 

3. **Tbe Ai»»»ai« were sometimes called by the general name of 'Opyw, which, 
tho'zh fsometimes applied to the mysteries of other gods, more particularly belonged 
to those of Bacchus. They were also sometimes denominated BojcxeX*. They were 
oSserved at Athens with greater splendor, and with more ceremonious superstition, 
than ID any other |mrt of Greece; the years were numbered by them; the chief 
archon had'a share in their management ; and the priests who officiated were honored 
«i!h the first sea's at public shows. At first, however, they were celebrated vrithout 
splendor, being days set apart for public mirth, and observed only with the following 
ceremonies :— « vessel of wine adorned with a vine branch, was broueht forth ; next 
to!!oi»ed a goat ; then was carried a basket of figs ; and after all, the phalli. — At some 
of 'hem, the worshipers in their garments and actions imitated the poetical fictions 
concerning Bacchus ; they put on fawns' skins, fine linen, and miters ; carried thyrsi, 
cmms, pipes, flutes, and rattles ; crowned themselves vnth earlands of ivy, vine, fir, 
ind other trees sacred to Bacchus. Some imitated Silenus, ran, and the Satjrrs, and 
exhibited themselves in comic dresses and antic motions ; some rode upon asses ; and 
o'hers droye goats to the slaughter. In this manner persons of both sexes ran about 
tni' rails and deserts, dancing ridiculously, personating men denmged in their intel- 
lec*s. and crying aloiid, £t«< £^^, Em* BtLrxc, w Tarte, l6(3aio(fy or Tu> BoKxt. 

The great' festival, Atoyuna luyaXa, was sometimes called «m*a, or t« car' fi»T», be- 
czise celebrated within the city of Athens, in the beginning of spring, in the month 
DflO^vJoAawr. It vras sometimes by way of eminence called Atopics, because it was 
Uie most celebrated of all festivals of Bacchus at Athens, and was probably the same 

as ^torvatm d^oc^nyM. 

The less, Simrimm fUKpi, was sometimes called ra nr oypoof , because it was observed 
m the coimtry. It was a sort of preparation to the former and greater festival, and 
was celebrated in autumn, in the month n«rri&«jr or roftpXtuuf. Some are of opinion, 
*hat it was the same as Amnaia Xif^ua, which received its name from Xq»^, a n^-ine- 

There appear to have been four Attic festivals in honor of Bacchus ; the ^lavftrta 
rcr' oypor^, the Aii>«iA, the 'ApBtffHtptaf and the Aiovwia Kta-' Sen. Other festivals in his 
honor are also iiamed. 

la oar Plate XXV. fig. e,fre have a Bacrhante danciag with a tbyrsai la oue hand and a wine 
n? in the other ; in fif./, another Baccbanie with some mosical ioBtranieot in each hand, per- 
tAjm the erttaU. A male reveler is leeo on the altar of Bacchas, given In the Sup. Plate 90. 

a. MSB, Bat Un. Crtcqoa, vaLiLp.5>McilBdP.V.§7.9L-Onfertinl>of Bxccbai, ne al» P. U. f SS ; P. IV. ) «. l-Sr* 
*f*:.i^fif, la (kaAbtevtt. <krBcri.aad. IBll ; niJl. iOeU, Von Uaicncbiate dw Attkefaa Lvia, ABlbMlmc^ ftc is lbs 
AUMdL darloi Ac It)*. 

4. "The 'EXc«ff£via was a solemnity observed by the Celeans and Phliaaans 
every fourth year; by the Pheneatae, the LacedaBmonians, Parrhasians, and Cretans, 
bat more espteiaUy by the Atheniansj every fifth year, at Eleuritt a borotigh town of 
Attica. It was the most celebrated solemnity in Greece, and was, therefore, by way of 
eminence, called n ftmHipia^ the mysteries, and rtXtrfi. It is said by some to have been 
instituted by Ceres herself, when she had supplied the Athenians with com in a time 
<rf fiunme. Some say that it was institutea by king Erectheus ; and others, by 

« P 


It was divided into the ittK/A and /irydXa n^KrHipia, lesser and greater mysteries ; and 
then the Utter were in honor of Ceres, the former in that of her daughter Fruserpine. 
ISLtKpk nivrfifHa, the lesser mysteries, were observed in the month 'Ai^-njpuiv at Agrse, 
a place near the river Ilissus ; and the ftty^^^ ^t^yarfipia^ greater mysteries, were cele- 
brated in the month BoiHyw/ubw, at Eleusis, a borough-town of Attica, from which Ceres 
was called Eleusinia. In later a^es the lesser festival was used as a pret>aration to 
the greater, in which they could not be initiated till they had been puriiied at the 

About a year after purification at the lesser, they sacrificed a sow to Ceres, and 
were admitted to the greater mysteries, the secret rites of which (with the exception 
of a few known only to the priests) were openly revealed to them, and hence they 
were called tf*^ and Mrrai, inspectors. Persons of both sexes and of all ages were 
initiated at this solemnitv. To neglect the initiation into these mysteries was consi- 
dered a crime of a very neinous nature, and formed a part of the accusation for which 
Socrates was condemned to death.— 'All the Greeks might claim initiation into the 
mysteries ; but the people of every other nation were excluded by an ancient law ; 
and persons convicted of sorcery or of any atrocious crime, and especially if they 
had committed homicide, even though involuntarily, were debarred from these 

The manner of initiation was as follows. The candidates, being crowned with 
myrtle, were admitted by night into a place called nwrutAi nfiOsi the mystical temple, 
or ittjmMKos 6oi$dif which was an ediiice very capacious (P. II. ^ 63). At their entrance 
they washed their hands in holy water, and at the same time were admonished to 
present themselves with minds pure and undefiled, without which the external clean- 
ness of the body would not be accepted. After this, the holy mysteries were read to 
them out of a book called ircmd^a, from viTpa^ a stone, because the book was only two 
stones cemented together. Then the priest who initiated them, and who was called 
lefxMp&nfK^ proposed to them certain questions, to which they returned answers. Soon 
after, they beheld strange and frightful objects : sometimes the place, in which they 
were, appeared bright and resplendent with light and radiant fire, and instantly was 
covered with pitchy darkness; sometimes a hollow sound was heard, and the earth 
seemed to groan beneath their feet. The being present at these sights was called 
ainipta^ intuition. They were then dismissed in these words, Kdyf , X)fijro|. l*he gar- 
ments in which they were initiated were deemed sacred, and efficacious in averting 
evils and incantations. 

The hierophantes had three assistants : the first was called faio^xosi torch-bearer, to 
whom it was permitted to marry ; the second, «Jpaf , the crier ; and the third, i bn 
0o}iti5, from his ministering at the altar. 'UpK^atmK is said to have been a type of the 
Great Creator of all things ; d/fdoHxpSj of the sun ; Trjpof, of Mercury ; and & M /Tw/ku, 
of the moon. 

There were also certain public officers whose business consisted in seeing that all 
things were performed according to custom. Of these was ^curtXcd;, the king, who 
was one of the archons, and who was obliged to offer |)rayers and sacrifices at this 
solemnity, and to observe that no indecency or irregularity was committed during the 
festival ; four iir//tfXijrai, curators, who were elected by the people, and ten persons "who 
assisted at this and some other solemnities, and who were called Ufxnroiol, from their 
offering sacrifices. 

This festival continued nine days, and from the fifteenth to the twenty-third day of 
the month BondfiOftuiw. During this time it was unlawful to arrest any man, or to pre- 
sent any petition ; and they who were found guilty of such practices were fined one 
thousand drachms, or, as others say, put to death. 

On the fourth day of the festival, they made a solemn procession, in which the 
KoXaBtov^ holy basket of Ceres, was carried in a consecrated cart, crowds of persons 
shouting as they went, Xatps, Atiftlnp (Hail, Ceres). After these, followed certain 
women called Ktenxpdfiot, who carried baskets in which were contained carded wool, 
grains of salt, a serpent, pomegranates, reeds, ivy boughs, a sort of cakes called 
l^if, poppies, &c.— The fifth was called 'H tCw Xa/ord^y hf^cfa, the torch-day; because, 
the night following, the men and wMnen ran about with torches in their hands. It 
was also customary to dedicate torches to Ceres, and to contend who could present 
the largest ; and this was done in memory of the journey of Ceres, who sought Pro- 
serpine with a torch lighted at the flames of -^tna.— The sixth day was called Tflurx«>f, 
from lacchus. the son of Jupiter and Ceres, who with a torch in his hand accompa- 
nied the godaess in her search after Proserpine. His statue, crowned with myrtle, 
and bearing a torch, was carried from the Ceramicus to Eleusis, in a solemn proces- 
sion called loirxpj.— On the seventh day were sports, in which the victors were re- 
warded with a measure of barley, which was the first grain sown in Eleusis.'* 

Rsbimviu AkImb^I. Gnpca.— On the ElrahifftB Mjrs*erie*, ■•• the wfcreiicw f ifcn P. 11 1 A— A (all Meoaat of Ow Oraak wjw 
lariM b fi*«B is Undwi-Bnuwer, Rntolrc d« U Cirili«tioD, Mar. et Relig. dn OiWib 

5. The ecfffia^tfpia was a festival in honor of Ceres, surnamed daT^^io^^por {Ugifera 
or lawgivtr\ because she was said to have first taught mankind the use of lawa. It 


WW ctUbrwteA in mmnj Giecim cities; by the Spartans, tbe Tbebans in Bieotia, tbe 
Svnraaans in Sicilr. and otheis. — ** But ine Athenians observed this fesiival with the 
ffeaxesi show of derotjan ; the worshipers were freeborn women (it being unlawful 
it.vr asT of serrile oondition to be present), whose husbands were wont to defray the 
chajfvs ; and were obliged to do so, if their wives* portion amounted to three talents. 
Tctrte women were assisted by a priest called Zru^^t^^^ because his head was 
ai.'med with a crown ; and by certain virgins, who were kept under severe discipline, 
b« i-.z maintvDed at the public charge in a place called O BO fm ^a p ttmr, I'he women were 
c^ In white apparel. — Three days at least were spent in making preparations. Upon 
it^^ eleventh of PyanepaiMi, the women, carrying books upon their heads, wherein 
the laws were c<Hitaiced, went to Eleusis, wfiere the solemnity was kept ; whence 
this day was called 'Atmin, the ascent. Upon the fourteenth the festival began, and 
lasted until the seventeemh. Upon the sixteenth they kept a /aj(, sitting upon the 
groond in token of humiliation ; whence the day was called Xiyrraa, a/a«t.'* 

CLfimm,^rei€d.p,r7^^9namm^t)t'n ■. Wn'M.ltaa.K O^^Wmni^mamm,tmMtm'i»,VCm^ 

fc A^ ctaB ta JMia^ at. ■ A» Jfcn. * r.JaA 4> /M0-. niL n. PL an. 

6. ** The B•f•9^^m^m was an Athenian fesrival in honor of Minerva, the proiec- 
ZTf-^a of Athens. It was first instituted by Erich: honius. who called it 'A^nrmtm ; and it 
was afterwards revived by Theseus, when he had united into one city all the Athe> 
nsan people, and by him was denominated narae^^^mtm. Some are of opinion that it 
was the trnme as the Roman Quinvii4xiria. At first it continued only one day ; but it 
was afterwards prolonged several aays, and celebrated wiih great magnificence. 

There were two solemni*ies of this name, one of which was called M(>«LX« Ut»^iBriirmim^ 
the Great Panatberapa, and was celebrated once in five vear?, beginning on the twenty- 
second of Hecaiombaeoo ; the other was denominated Mun^ norof^taia, the Less Pana- 
ther.xA, and was observed every third year, or, as some think, everv year, beginning 
on the twentieth or twenty-first of Thareelion. In tbe latter were tLree games, ma- 
na^td by ten presdents who were elected trora the ten tnbes of Athens, aixl who con- 
t.cued m office four years. On tbe first day was a race with torches, in which first 
{oofmcn and afrerwards horsemen contended, and which waa also obsserred in the 
greater feadvaL The second contention was nai'Vo; «><>, a gymnastic exercise in 
which the combatants gave proof of their strength or manhood. The place of these 
games was near the river, and was called from the festival UcMtAvvcTctfr. The third 
waa a mnsicai contention instituted by Pericles ; the subject proposed was the eulogium 
of Hamaodius and Aristogiton. and ali$o of Thrasybulus, who had rescued the repub- 
lic from the yoke of the tyrants by Which it ik as oopressed. The poets also contended 
in r«>ur plays, which from their number were caliea rr^oKoYia. Besides these there waa 
a contenriou at Sunium. in imitation of a sea-fight. (Cf. Hmd, viii. 55. — Faufan. i. 27. 
^ 2.) The victor in either of these games was re«>'arded with a vessel of oil and with 
a crown of the olives which grew in the Academy, and which were called p^m from 
r^. death, or fiom /ttyi, a parU There was likewise a dance called Pyrrhichia, per- 
torrocd by bovs in armor, wSo represented to the sound of the flute the battle of Ali- 
nerva vrith the Titans. No man was permitted to be present at these games in 
dyed garments, nnder a penalty to be impotsed by the dyrM^trtK, president of the g;ame6. 
Lastly a somptnoas sanifice was offered, to which every Athenian borough contributed 
an ox; of the flesh that remained, a public entertainment was made for the whole 
aseembly ; and at this entertainment cups of an unusual size were employed. 

In tbe greater festival moat of the same rites and ceremonies were observed, but 
with greater splendor and magnificence, and the addition of some other matters. In 
particular, at this aolemnity was a procession, in which was carried the sacred nxXar, 
garmeot of Minerva. This rirXmf waa woven by a select number of vircins, who were 
called i^ymmai, from ipy*, a work, and who were superintended by two of the 
i^im^ ifmt^ and commenced their employment at the festival XaWia, which was on the 
thiniech of Pyanepsion. Tbe garment waa white, without sleeves, and embroidered 
with gold: upon it were described the achievementa of Minerva against tbe giants, of 
Jupiter, of the heroes, and of men renowned^ for valor and great exploits; and hence 
men of eonnge and bravery were said to be a^Mi rir^v, worthy of beine portrayed on 
the gannent of Minerva. The ceremonies attending the procession with the xrxi^ 
were as fbllowB. In the Ceramicus without the dty, vras an engine built for the pur- 
pose in the farm of a ship, open which the vcrXar was hung in the maimer of a sail, 
which was pat in motion by concealed machinery. The nrXap was thus conveyed to 
tbe temple of Ceres Eleusinia, and thence to the citadel, where it was placed upon 
Minerra*s atatae, which was laid on a bed strewed with flowers, and called rXanV. 
This procesaon was composed of a great number of persons of both sexes, and of all 
ages and conditions. It was led up by old men, and, as some say, by old women, car- 
rying olive branches in their hands ; and hence they were called ^oXX^^iSym , bearers of 
green bonghs. After these came middle-ased men, who, armed with lances and 
Docklers, seemed only to respire war, and who were accompani<Ml by the /liivMoi, so- 
joomers, carrying little boats as emblems of their being foreigners, and therefore 
called w a^ip ^ ip i , l^at-bearen. Then followed the women, attended by the sojoorneis' 


wivefl, who were called Upiai^t, from carrying water-pots in token of aendtade. Theae 
were followed by young men, who sang hymns in honor of the goddeaSt and who were 
crowned with millet. Next proceeded select virgins of high rank, whose features, 
shape, and deportment, attracted every eye, and who were called Katnrpdpoi, from their 
carrying baskets, which contained sacred utensils, cakes, and all things necessary for the 
sacrifices. These utensils were in the custody of one who, because he was chief ma- 
nager of the public processions, was called dpxtBctjpoi. The virgins were attended by 
the sojourners' daughters, who carried umbrellas and folding-chairs, and who were 
thence denominated wiaSni^i, umbrella-carriers, and lu^po^^t^ seat-carnera. It is 
probable that the rear was brought up by boys, who walked in coats used at proces- 
sions, and were called irav^uwi. The necessaries for this and other processions were 
prepared in a pubHc hall erected for that purpose between the Pinean gate and the 
temple of Ceres ; and the management of the whole business belonged to the vo^o^. 
Xojrcf , who were appointed to see that the ancient customs were observed. 

Tbe PanllMBaic pnomion b raprawoted or tha friew of tbe FkrtlMooB.— Sob Stuart^ Antiq. of Atbon, ritad P. Vf. \ S4S. 1 .— 
FiMonli, Sculphire du Fkrtheooo, dtod P. IV. % 180. 4.>-A imaU bat haadwaia mw of Iha Aeropolii and the PaBathcMic |Nocaa- 
■ioa ii (inn in Bay^$ Potter. 

On tha (citival, cf. Jlofttmon, Anh. Onee.-M(cr.— land. QihuI. An. zi?. S17.— 17. A. ATuacr, F 

Among the inonuroenta of ancient art still in preserration are certain vaaea called PaiMthenaie 
Ve»e$s^n they are supposed from inscriptions on them to have been actually employed to contain 
the sacred oil bestowed upon victors in these games as a part of their prise. 

Sae P. 0. Sivruttd^ oo tbe Pkoafbcinie Vam; in tha Tnauct. of the Roy. Soc. of Litentnra, voL ii. p. 108. Loud. ISSi.— A 
Cayhu, Vaaea dont lai aodana biaoient onge dui let fcttivei, in tha Mm. AauL huer. zziiu 3^ 

$ 78. The greni public games of the Greeks were also a part of their religious 
castoms. They were looked upon as sacred, and were originally established 
in honor of the gods. They were always begun and ended with sacrifices. It 
also entered into their desicrn, and was their effect, to render religion more 
attractive by association with sensible objects, to bring into nearer contact the 
several portions of Greece, and to stimulate and publicly reward superior 
talents. — ^The exercises of these games were of five sorts, and had therefore 
the common name Ilevf ol^Xoi'. They were running, leaping, wrestling, ihrou> 
ing the discus, and hurling the javelin, or boxing, which some put in the place 
of the contest with the javelin. 

See Burttte, m thaw eiereiwi, (U Lntte dea ancieni— Pof ilat, Courae, Diaqoe, Ac) in the Mtm. dt VJead. dm Ituer. vol. iiL 
p. 232 n.— O. F. PhUipp, De Pentathto aive Quinquertio. Berl. 1S7. 8. 

§ 79. The race (5odfu>0 was between fixed boundaries, the starting-place 
{au^sati, ^axpi$), and the goal or end {axoTto^, Wpjua), on a piece of ground 
measured off for the purpose (a/ifKo^, otdBiov), 125 paces in extent. The racers 
were sometimes clad in full armor (jor<uto6p6fioi). — ^There were also chariot- 
races and horse-races. 

Those who only ran once over the stadium were called vradioipSiMi ; those who ran 
over the space doubled {6lav\oi), that is, both to the goal and back, were called 6iav>a- 
ip6iioi ; those who ran over tbe space twelve times in going and returning, i. e. twenty- 
four stadia, or according to others only seven stadia {ddXocos), were termed Mocot^/iei. 
The goal was sometimes called Kaftirr^p ; because, in the iiavM^ and the MXixk^ the 
racers turned round it. — The prize (uSXov, (ipafiiiov) was commonly merely a crown of 

olive, pine, or parsley. The term KtS^rtm was applied to horses which performed in 

the horse -race single. Two horses were also used, upon one of which the per- 
former {avaiiaTrK) rode to tbe goal, and then leaped upon the other. In the chariot- 
race, two, three, four, or more horses were employed to draw the chariot (^fia) ; hence 
the terms ^wpoi, rc^ponrai, rcTpib}potj &,c. The chariots were sometimes driven over the 
course twelve times {Mxoiacaipdftot). It was an object of emulation among the wealthy 
to send chariots for the race to the public games of Greece. 

Oedoyn, Lea Cooiaea de Chaniu at de Chan daoa let Jeux Olyrapiquea, in the Man. Jieud. huer. viii. S14, 330; ix. SSOl— 
Quafhm. d* Quiney, Sur la Coune annee at lea oplitodromca, in the Mtm. dt Phutitutf C.l aiaa d*But. ef tit. Jhte. vol. ir. 
p. laS. irith ^m.-<— On tbe Oljnnpic Stadium, eL Lend. Quart. Rma. voL v. p. 277. 

§ 80. For the leap (aXfta) also boundaries were marked, the place from which 
(^of^p), and the place to which (crxajufia) it was made. This exercise was 
performed sometimes with the hands empty, but oftener with metallic weights 
in them, usually of an oval shape (axri^pc;), sometimes with weights attached 
to the head or the shoulders. 

The distance leaped over was called icavwv. The point to which the performers were 
to leap was marked by digging the earth ; hence its name from oK&imo, The phrase 
rriiiov vnip rh taKcumiva^ applied to signify excess or extravagance, was taken from thia 


$ 81. Wrestling {kouj, xato^nrrtan}) was commonly performed in a covered 
portico (tvofoi), Uie combatants being naked, and makinfir the most violent 
exertions to throw each other to the ground. When one had done this with his 
adversarf three times (o tpiaJ^ai)^ he received the prize. There were two modes 
of this exercise, one in the erect posture (dp^oTtaXij), the other in the lying pos- 
tars in which the parties contended rolling on the i^round {avaxxwoftaxtj and 
oXm^^k ot jrv3utfb(). — When wrestling was united with boxing, it was called 
lioTxportor or HaftfAdxu». 

After the names of the candidatee had been announced b^ a herald, they were 
matched by lot. For this purpose a silver urn was used oontaming as many balls as 
there were candidates. The same letter was inscribed on two balls, and those who 
drew the same letter were antaffonists in the contest. In case of an odd number, he 
who drew the odd lot was callea l^tipoft and required to contend with those who con- 
quered. A competitor confessed his defeat by his voice, or by holding up his finger; 
hence dXpe iamXuf became proverbial to signify confess that you are conquered. 

In the strict wrestling, blows were not allowedf. nor in boxing was it proper for the 
competitor to throw his antagonist ; but in the Paneratiumt both modes were prac- 
tioea by the combatants (myvpanotfrat or wimtaxpt). 

$ 83. The qnoit or discus (di.'tfxo(, 0oxo() was made of stone, brass, or iron, 
of a circular form, and was thrown by means of a thong {xaXuthiov) passing 
through a hole in the centre. He who threw the farthest took the prize. 

1. The discus was about three inches thick and ten or twelve in diameter. Some 
state that the Unof was of stone, and the o6\os of iron ; others that the former was 
carefuUv made and polished, the latter a rough mass of iron ; the difference may have 
been wholly in their form or shape. — The exercise is said to have originated with the 

2 u. The hurling the iavelin (^'i//tr, djrtfrrwiO was practiced either with the hand 
alone, or by means of a tnong attached to the shaft. 
In Plate XVII. flf . Y, is smii a Javelia with the thonr iamgntum) attached to it. 

$ 83. Boxing (jtvyfiri) was performed with clenched fists, around which they 
sometimes bound the cestus (t/ia;), i. e. a thong or piece of hide loaded with 
iron or lead. The chief art in this game was to parry the blows of the antago- 
nist, which were usually aimed at the face. 

The combatant was called IlilcnK, from iri>f, a fist. The cestus, originally reaching 
no higher than the wrist, was afterwards extended to the elbow and sometimes to the 
shoulder, and at last came to be used both for defence and attack. I'he lit&ints 
were of several kinds ; those termed ^lAt'xai gave the softest blows ; and the itvpitnns 

Gve the most severe. The exercise was violent and dangerous. The combatants often 
It their lives, and victory was always dear bought, uruises on the face by blows 
were called t/rJ^ia. 

Besides these excrci«M of bodily ttrenpth and af ility, there were at the pnhlic fames of the 
Greeb contests In miistr, poeiry, and rhetoric, of which mention ii made In the Archieology of 
Litesatore (cf. P. IV. ( 65. $ 66). 

i 84. The four most grand and solemn games of the Greeks were the Olympic, 
Pythian, Isthmian, and Nemean, which were called by way of eminence Sacred 
gamtt (d/ywyf ( icpoi). 

The first and most distinguished were the Oiympic^ named from the place 
Olympia in Elis, and dedicated to the Olympian Jupiter. By some, Jupiter 
was considered as their founder; by others, an earlier Hercules belonging to 
the Idaean Dactyli; bv others, Pelops; by most, Hercules the hero, who was 
the first victor in all the exercises, except in wrestling. They were renewed 
by Iphitus, a contemporary of Lycurffus, about B. C. 888, and afterwards by 
Chonebus, B. C. 776. Afterwards they were an object of special care to the 
people of Elis. Several inspectors (dxvf cu, ^f5doG;toO ^^^ charge of the ex- 
ternal anangements, under the direction of a chief inspector (aXvrap;)^!^^). 

1 ». Those who wished to appear as combatants were obliged to spend ten months 
at the Gymnasium in Elis, practicing the games and various preparatory exercises under 
the instruction of the judges, who were in the Olympic games especially termed 
'EXXai«<!fMi. The order in which they successively engaged in the contests was decided 
by lot. The prize was a crown or wreath of olive (ctfrwuy).— Among the Olympic 
victors, Alcibiades was one of the most celebrated; the names of thirteen others Pm- 
dar Ins preserved to posterity by his Olympic odes. Statues were often erected to the 
conquerors in the grove of Jupiter. Their fame was spread the more widely on ac- 



count of the vast multitudes of spectators, that flocked to the games from every pait 
of Greece, and from Asia, Africa, and Sicily. Originally females were not allowed to 
attend. The games were repeated every fifth year, in the month 'ExanitfiatCar^ an- 
swering partly to July, and continued five days. They gave rise to the custom of 
reckomnie time and dating events by Olympiads. Each Olympiad consbted of four 
years. The first Olympiad is generally considered in chronology as corresponding 
with the year 776 B. C. 

2. One judge at first predded over the ^mes; afterwards two; subsequently there 
were twelve ; then eight, one from each tnbe of the Eleans. The place, where these 
assembled and superintended the preparatory exercises (irpoynyiy^ara) of the combatants, 
was called 'EXX^Mduraroy. They took the most solemn oaths to adjudge the prizes im- 
partially. Although women were atrictlv excluded from witnessing these games at 
first, they were afterwards allowed not only to be present, but even to contendfin them. 
Originally the contests all took place in one da]^ ; but at length several days were de- 
voted to them, and sometimes a day to processions and sacrifices and to the banquets 
given to the victors. The Olympic ^ames were celebrated under the Roman empe- 
rors ; but were abolished A. D. 394, m the reign of Theodosius. 

3. Much has been said respecting the various favorable influences which these games 
exerted in Greece. They are said to have promoted peace and harmony between the 
different sections and states, as they drew together spectators from every quarter, who 
thus constituted the great assembly {UavfiYvptg) of Greece. Olympia was in fact called 
irayirofMr x^^f the common country of all. Hardihood and valor among the soldiery 
are also mentioned as natural eflects of the various athletic exercises performed at them. 
They could not fail to stimulate to literary exertion, as they furnished poets, historians, 
and orators, with the best opportunities to rehearse their productions. 

BtnenfPi Hmrm, p. m.-€. WiMtt Dim od (he Olympic fWM, Id hb Tiaari. of Piodw, dtad P. V. ) Mk S^-Cl ftitwrt lOf . 

TbMsria, clgia of utieto PiMitr.—TkxihoaXV» HkL of Grwea. For nor* pwtkalir aeeosato of ttw s*"Mi ft'—w, JMBim die 

AaordoaacdwOljrmpiKlMaSpMti in his JTicim Se*rt/fcfi.--lfraiiM, Oljrmpi* ote OmlcUiu« 4er groMo OtjniiiwhaB Spkk. 

~ u issa a 

$ 85. The Pythian games ^ilv^a) were celebrated upon the Crissiean plains, 
in the vicinity of Delphi, which was once called Pytho from the sarname of 
Apollo. The games were sacred to this god, and were a commemoration of 
his victory over the Pythian serpent. They were instituted either by himself, 
or by Amphictyon or Diomedes. Originally they were held at the beginning 
of every ninth year (lyfacti^pi;), afterwards, like the Olympic, at the beginning 
of every fiflh year {ttsptaetrjpii). The Pythiad was sometimes used as an era 
in chronology, but not commonly; it appears to have been reckoned from the 
3d 3rear of the 49th Olympiad, B. C. 582. As a reward or prize the victors 
received certain apples sacred to Apollo, oflen also a crown of laorel. 

1 tf . The contests appear to have been at first only in music, and to have been re- 
warded with silver, gold, or something of value. The song called HvOtKds v6fios, which 
was performed in these contests, celebrated the victory of Apollo over the serpem ; it 
consisted of five or six distinct portions, which represented so many separate parts and 
steps in the undertaking and achievement. Of the same import was the customary 
solemn dance, composea of five parts. 

2 u. All the exercises in use at the Olympic games were gradually introduced into 
the Pythian. The Ampkictyons had the oversight of them ; to these the candidates 
were required to present themselves. Nine conquerors are especially celebrated in the 
Pythian odes of Pindar. The spot where these games were held was a plain between 
Delphi and Cirrha, sacred to Apollo. 

S. The Pythian games were iometimea called A/i^i rrvovccA J0Xa, because they were under 
the care of the AmphiciyooB. The particular perions appointed to take the overaight of the 
games were called 'EiriucXqraf ; who also acted aa Judgea. They were aasiated, in keepint 
order, by the ikaartyo^ipoi. The Greek states sent, to attend these games, persons termed 
dcwptfi and IlvOaiordi. 

§ 86. The Nemean games (Nf/tfia or Nc/Mua) derived their name from Ne- 
mea, a city in Argolis between Cleonte and Phlius, in the vicinity of which 
they were celebrated. They were held every third year (rpccri^pixM) so as to 
fall on every second and fourth Olympic year. It was never common to com- 
pute time by Nemeads. The superintendents and judges were selected from 
the nei^hborinfir cities, Argos, Corinth, and Cleonee, and were persons distin- 
guished particularly for their love of justice. Their dress was black, because 
the games were first instituted as a funeral solemnity (dyiliy eyttt'o^to;) in honor 
of Opheltes, or Anchemorus ; although others state, that they were instituted and 
dedicated to Jupiter by Hercules, after slaying the Nemean lion. The prize of 


tke Tictor vis m enmn of pud«j (^dUMr). Ten cuaqotto w in the Neneu 
are eriebnted bj Piiidar. 

5 87. Hie Itikmutm friows (^I^^ma) were eo called from the plaee of their 
eelebntioQ, the CariDtluan isihnms, or the neck of land joiniiig Peloponnesus 
with the contiimit. They vere instituted in honor of Meliceites, a son of Ino 
3Jid Aihamas, vho under the name of Pabtmon was leceiTed bj Neptune into 
the Bomber of sea gods. Others represent llieseQS as the founder of the 
^ameft, and Neptune as the ^od to whom thej were consecrated. With the 
Corinthiaos, all the other states of Gieeoe (except the Eleans, who were ex- 
cloded bj some dieadfal execration,) united in celebrating these games. They 
were held at the beginning of erery third year (rpitrrpczoi), and were attended 
with the musical contests as well as those in all the athletic exercises. The 
prize was originally, and also in later times again, a crown of pine ; for a 
period between, it was a crown of dry parsley. The judges were at first 
se'.ected firom the Corinthians, afterwards from the Sicyonians. Pindar, in his 
IsthmiaB odes yet extant, has sung the praise of eight Tictors, mostly Pancra- 
tiasts, who gained the prixe in wrestling and boxing at the same time. 

Is cmw nate XTL are t««B rannvis forma of ascicBt crowns aad failaada. F1{. 8 repraeati 
tlsf IcthmiaB rrova; fif 9. il»e crown of myrtle : tg. 10, lh« laurel. 

^o*oB establff brd bj a Uw thai every Athenian, who 'mined a Ttctorj at the Isthmian ganes, 
9h^uid atao receiTe froai the public tressnrT (Pint. Sol ^) a reward of one hundred drachma. — 
The uiaaipbal odes, ni wbkh the praises of the tkiois were celebrated, were termed Efiwikm. 

8w ■ aa«Jfcii.Ai«dL*Mg.nLT.|L«8»ni !!■■■, k^ •<»»■» of Pm*w; A T.T. jl—J&M^ Pit Fjlhiifc 

yiBiii.^diii^ iM ct^n.!. 

% 68. On account of the great estimation in which Athletia were held among 
the Greeks, and their intimate connection with religion and the interests of the 
state, the subject deserres a few additional remarks. 

1 «. In the most general sense, the term included intellectual as well as bodily ex- 
ercises, parsued with earnestness and zeal ; but it was commonly used to si^ity those 
more frequent acd Tiolent bodily exercises, which were so much practiced In (^reeoe, 
csperiaily at the eames already described, and which were viewed as an essential part 
ut education, and constituted a great object of the Gymnastic system. Many of those 
who had enjoyed full instruction therein, made these exercises the main business of 
ihtir iiie. Such were called ati\rrii aod oywuerAt. The teacher of the system or art 
»as called ytpjf^er^ and (Mmi^iK, superintendent of a ivcro^^ which was a covered sal- 
iery where the exercises were performed in winter, and was so called from the floor 
b«>:ne made smooth and level. Although the Aihletae were not strictly in the service 
o! tue state, yet they received great ht>nor. Their whole mode of life was conducted 
wirb referei>ce to augmenting their bodily strength, and they submitted to many rigid 
precepts. In most of the exercises I hey were naked ; in casting the quoit and the jave- 
\a\ ihev wore a light covering. By frequent anointing, rubbii.g, and bathing, they ren- 
dered their bodies more strong and supple. In prtparaiion for a combat, they covered 
themselves with dust or sand, in order that they might take belter hoid of each other, 
and avcMd too great perspiration and exhaustion. Generally the ground, or surface of 
the area, on which they exercised, was wet and slippery. 

2 «. Before being permiiied to enter this area, they Mere subjected to an examination 
aod a rigid preparation. For this purpose judges (ayAo(?frai, d-.i^iitBtTm^ 'VX\eancinu) 
were appointed, whose number was not always the same, who decided concerning the 
prize, and excited the combatants by animated exhortations. The rewards of the con- 
querors were the applause and admiration of the people, the public proclamation of 
iheir names, the laudatory song of the poet, the crown of victory, statues, solemn pro- 
cesaons, banquets, and other privileges and advantages. 

F«r aMiiMMl fCBaito «■ fka nbiact, •>• P. IV. ) es, ^ M.— C. #*. A. HcKkMnmr, \tnaA rim Snttm <lcr Cnwbnac Am 
Gnec^ts, Dcm. VTfla. f nils. S. a wtwfe very ia^rraetirc m this topic aad on Grrci»a ednatioD KcnrnllT — Cf. JaMn't TmXme os 
Oyrf iMtOT, KortluipL IHa S-gffmar. Qmart, Mm. wL liL p. IISL-Siirtfta, Hi«Hi»i« dm AthlMa. ia Ibe a*M. * FAcad 4» 
hoar. ««L i. p. tlU—P. fUv, De b Athletics, kc Li«d. 16«Sw 4. ; aho in Onmmttt^ niL viiL—B. Mimr^aiu, Da Am G|«i* 
n#M. Amm. ten 4— #>. M. FadaudaiM, Db Atbfeianan Kvfkrr^m in Pila-rtn GrvcoruB. Ron. I75& A,—L B. JTrsMi^ 
irwHiiiw ; adtf wiMudk DanieliiiDC dar G^vaBriik, AfoMtik, and Fonpide der Hdlcafa. Halle, IfiSa. S with ptelaa. 

^ 69. Dramatic representations or theatrical performances, among the Greeks, be- 
Itmged appropriately to religious festivals; and had their origin, in fact, in religious cere- 
mom**:?. partJ<Milarly in the riles connected with the worship of Bacchus at Athens ; this 
nrcums'anre is more fully noticed in the Archajology and the History of Greek Utera- 
t'jrc : see P. IV. ^ 66. P. V. ^ 36. ^ 37, and 47. Some account of the structure of the 
Greek theatres is given tmder the head of Architecture ; see P. IV. ^ 235. Besides 


what is said in the sections referred to, a few remarks may be added properly in this 
place, respecting the machinery and the performers. 

1. In their theatrical exhibitions the Greeks employed various meehaniail e(mtrivanee$. 
Among these were the following : the eeoXoytroy, a platform concealed by clouds and 
supporting the gods in conversation ; the yinxopii and the Tipavof, instruments emploved 
to bring a god or other personage suddenly upon the stage, or withdraw him or lut him 
into the skies ; the Aiupai, ropes to enable him to walk apparently in the air ; BpmmXov 
and the KepavpovKomTov^ contrivances for imitating thunder and lightning. 

2. The number of actorg (^{moKptrai) in the whole of a play was of course various ; but 
no more than three at once appeared on the stage {(ncnyh) in the part appropriated to 
speakers (KaytTov). Although the author of the piece represented was sometimes obliged 
to be one of the actors, yet those who were actors by profession were, as a class, of low 
character and loose morals. — In order that the voices of the speakers might be aided and 
the sound spread over the whole of the theatre, artificial helps were employed; among 
these were the brazen vessels (^ta) resembling bells, which were placed in different 
parts of the structure. — In the rude state of the art the features of the actor were con- 
cealed or altered by smearing the face with wine-lees, or by some rude disguise, 
^schylus (cf. P. V. ^ 39, 61) introduced the regular mask (rptunmiov, penona) ; which, 
ultimately, was formed of brass or some sonorous metal, or at least had a mouth so 
prepared as to increase the sound of the voice. There was a vast variety in the form, 
color, and appendages of the masks, so as to represent every age, sex, character, and 
condition ; no less than twenty-five classes of tragic masks are enumerated by Julius 
Pollux ; six for old men ; seven for youn^ men ; three for male slaves ; five for female 
slaves; and four {or free uwmen. The tragic mask often had a great elevation of the head 
and hair (called Symf) to heighten the stature of the actor ; ana for the same purpose, the 
tragic actor wore a very thick-soled boot (rd6bpo(, if^ds). Of oomic masks- forty-three 
varieties are specified ; nine for o^ men; ten for young men; seven (or male slaves; three 
for old women ; fourteen for young toomen. The comic mask for the oldest man was 
called vajntoi irfKorof. Besides all these there were masks appropriate to the satyric drama. 

Repramtaliow of wranl tneirat mukt BuytM Men ia oar Plale XLIX et P. IV. f Itt. 1 Sao aekkgd^mtb* Dnw. Lad. 

iii.— JAnfiB, mr Iw bio«|o« dot Aodeai, io tbo Mem. dt PAufOtif, C I oaoo ^BiaL if £M. Jbte. «oL i. BBC vii. 8S.— Mmctf, 
(oa on of naalai «6r iaowiac tbo iKmor of Ibo voMo), in tlio Ifan. ^ r/iul., C 1 a i ■ do £«. fli Amuz dlMi, Kd. v^ 


3. The Choir (xi>pds) was composed of performers wholly distinct fix>m the actors; 
yet, by its leader, it often took part in the dialogue. The Chorus was maintained at 
vast expense ; one source of which was in the dresses and decorations, which were of 
the most splendid kind. See P. V. ^ 37, and the references there given. 

^ 90. As the theatre was opened at sunrise, or even as soon as day-break, the speC' 
taiors assembled very early in order to secure good seats, which, as the edifices were 
built at the public exoense. were at first free for every person. In consequence of the 
contest for places, which this occasioned, a law was passed at Athens, under which a 
fee for admission was demanded. This was fixed, for a time at least, at two obolL But 
under the influence of Pericles, another law was also enacted requiring the proper ma- 
gistrate to furnish from the public treasury the amount of this fee to every one who 
applied for it that he might attend a dramatic performance. The money thus used was 
termed OttoptKa xp^ftara^ and the magistrate, TapLlas ttSm Oooputdv. The number of specta- 
tors was often very great (cf. P. IV. ^ 235). Barthelemy has given a vivid description 
of their crowding to the theatre. 

TVoaali ofJhtadtanu (u citod P. V. § 16S. 2), ch. xl. CC alw rh. Izz.-Sa»CMcmy, Nombra d« pic«ei q9*tm rrjutm^ima to 
no Jour a AiImom, ia tbo Man. Mad. Inmr. xzxiz. ITS.— On Greok Uwatrieal wrfenaaacMb cfl P. V. H 9S-47.— londL Qmrt 
Mn. zil. I la-/. Proud/U, in ibo BiU. /Upoiitaiy, voL i. of fld Sorioa, p. 448.— JSMi'iv, m eitod P. V. ) K 


$ 91. Afler what has been already said ($$ 33, ss.) of the original circum- 
stances and constitution of the Greek states, we may confine ourselves now to 
their characteristics and peculiarities in later times. The account of the various 
changes of their constitution and the consequences thereof belongs to history 
rather than antiquities. The latter, properly considered, will treat chiefly of the 
civil regfulations of the most flourishing republic, Athens, without overlooking 
those of the other considerable states, especially the Spartans, who were dis- 
tinguished by many peculiarities from the Athenians, although they had also 
many points of resemblance. 

$ 92. The early political changes at Athens have been mentioned (§ 39). 
Afier the kings, whose power was greatly circumscribed by the chiefs of noble 
families, and of whom Codrus was the seventeenth and last (1068 B. C.), the 
chief magistrates were the Archons. When these became despotic, Draco 


(04 B. C) ■MlnJaaJ a code of lmw«, which ■ooo offMinwwi mm troubfas by 
their aefvemy. Rflcooae was then had to Solon (594 B. C.)« vho aboti:shcd 
»11 the laws of Dnco« empc the one re^ieetins moider. Solon dnn^ed the 
fens of goTcraBiem in many points, diminished Toy moeh the aothontj and 
power ol the AichonSr gave the people a shaie and roiee in jodiciai inquiries* 
sod tfaas tnasfotoMd the aiislociacy preTioosly existing into a mixed and mo- 
deiaie denociacy. 

tf C B I ■ . Dfcfcy^fia M 11 L^ fct. lOt. 4^-C- f. f i ■ ■ 1 1 1 1. »• ^ 
K.CIai«» in ScMMov Jlv. « Mi. ««L n — C / fli ii ■! i. L«>rt^rt iw G'^w>- 
andiii.Fs£'n:Asrk7kaasr Grace C>sC •«& 1. As Bvr«««< afij^ua ^ :te 

f 93. Originally the people had been dirided into four iribea (fiOLac), and 
also dirided, according to their places of residence, into a number of boroughs 
or waids (^ium). Each tribe likewise was subdiTided into three citrt> (<vor- 
fvOft, i^rr) accordinir to their coosan^initj, and each of the cone into families 
(^>vr, rpftoxajf (). But Solon divided the citizens according to their wealth 
into fbor classes; 1. rUff-raxo<Roai^,»ro«, those who gathered from their fields 
in moist and dry crops, at least 500 /u6*,um ; 3. 'htntis^ those whose groonds 
yielded 300 ^a«^yot, and who were able to maintain a war-hoise (ccnof n<AM^ 
m^rrptof); 3. Srryirasv those whose lands produced 900 (or 150) ^^jc^uroi, 
and who owned the space of one acre or ^ivyo^; 4. Orrf^, those who had any 
less income. All the citixens were admitted to the assembly of the people 
(^ 106), but only the first three of the aboTe classes shared in the bnidens and 
expenses of the state, and therefore they alone could receire offices, and from 
them alone the senate {SovXr, $ 107) was chosen, which at that time consisted 
of 400. Solon also advanced the authority of the Areopagus ($ 106), as ho 
gave it jnrisdietioo of the most important criminal cases. 

$ 94. Athens remained imder these re«:ulations only abont thirty-fonr years. 
Then, even before the death of Solon, Pisistratos became sole master of the 
state, and notwithstanding all opposition, continued such until his death, 528 
B. C. His two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, succeeded him. Hiese were 
soon stripped of their power; Hipparchus being slain by Harmodius, who was 
offended on account of his sister {Thue, vi. 544) and was aided by his friend 
Aristogiton ; and Hippias being driven into banishment by the people. After 
this, the constitution received a new form under the influence of Clisthenes. 

The number of the tribes (^vsuu) was now increased to ten. From each of 
these, fifty senators (JovXFvfw) were yearly elected, so that the Senate consisted 
of 500. AAer this the power of the people was still more increased. Aristides 
effected the abolition of the law of Solon, which excluded from offices the low- 
est of the four classes of citixens. Pericles, with the assistance of Ephialtes, 
deprived the Areopagnas of a great portion of its power ; he also occasioned many 
important changes in the constitution, which were gratifying to the lower 
classes, and by which the democracy became less gua^ed and restrained, and 
the way was opened for the ochlocracy that soon followed. 

$ 9& After various changes in the government, Athens was taken by Ly- 
Sander, B. C. 404. The supreme power was then vested in the thirty tyrants, 
who were, however, deprived of their authority after three years, by Tbrasy- 
hulas, and banished. In their stead, decemviri (JcxaW^t^^) were instituted, 
who likewise abused their power, and were exiled, after the former democracy 
was restored. This form was retained until the death of Alexander the Great, 
when it was overturned by Antipater, and the govemment vested in a certain 
number of nobles or chiefs. After the death of Antipater, Cassander committed 
the republic to a lieutenant; and under Demetrius roliorcetes, it enjoyed again 
freedom and popular power. With some changes, this state of things con- 
tbned until the time of Sylla, who in the Mithridatic war conquered Athens 
and subjected her to the Romans. The final destruction of the city happened 
towards the end of the fourth century by the hands of Alaric, king of the 

%96t. Athens was the most beautiful and splendid city in Greece. Its circuit was 
abont one hundred and seventy-eight stadia. Its topography is given more particularly 


in the Epitome of Classical Geography (cf. P. 1..$^ 104-116) ; here we shall only name 
some of the principal buildings and works. One part of it was the dtadel, wmch lay 
upon a steep rock ; this at first constituted the whole city under the name of Cecropia, 
and was afterwards termed Acropolis. The most remarkable buildings on the Acropo- 
lis were the npoviXata, PromfUBo, the UapOtvuw^ or temple of Minerva with the famous 
statue of this goddess by Phidias, and the joint temple of Neptune Erectheus and Mi- 
nerva Polias. In the other portion (which was cslled the lower dty), the temples of 
Vulcan, Venus Urania, Theseus, Jupiter Olympius.andtbe Pantheon sacred to all the 
gods, were among the most remarkable. Of the numerous covered porticos, the Pa- 
cUe (cf. P. IV. $ 74) was the most renowned, and adorned with the most ma^ificent 

fmin tings and ornaments. The Odeum, built by Pericles, was devoted to moaical and 
iierary exercises (cf. P. IV. $ 235. -3). I'he name of Ceramicus was given to two 
extensive spaces, one within and the other without the cit^, the former enriched with 
beautiful eoifices, the latter used as a burial ground. 1 here were several market 
places (dyopat), with different names according to their specific uses. The Gymnasia 
also, and the Baths, the S*adium ascribed to Herodes Atticus, the Academy, the Cyno- 
sarees, the Hippodrome, and the Theatres, belong to the remarkable and interesting 
works which adorned the city of Athens. The three harbors, Piraeus, Munychia, 
and Phalerum, should likewise be mentioned. 

For a view of the Parthenon, see Plate XXI. fig. 1 ; in the tame Plate, fig. S, is the temple of 
the Winds ; fig. S, the temple of Theseus.— A view of the Parthenon In lu rulnt ae given by Hob> 
house, is seen In the Plate on page 431— For ruins of the temple of Minerva connected with that 
of Neptune Erectheus, see the Plate on page SO.— For a plan of Athens, see Plate I. 

$ 97. The inhabitants of Athens and of the whole of Attica were either 
KoXif ai, free eitizeru ; /litoixoi^ free commonerB^ rendtrU aUem or sojourners ,* 
or dotixoi, slaves. The first class was the most respectable ; the last, the most 
numerous. The number of resident foreig^ners, however, was not insignificant 
The right of citizenship was, in the flourishing times of the republic, a higrh 
privilege, which was conferred only upon men of honorable descent and dis- 
tinguished merit, and upon such not without difficulty, since the agreement of 
six thousand citizens was first requisite. Free bom Athenians were those whose 
parents were bom at Athens, or at least one of whose parents was bora there ; 
and those of the latter class held a lower rank, and privileges in some respects 
less than the former. 

1 u. By Cecrops the Athenians were divided into four tribes (cf. ^ 93) as follows ; 
1. Kocpmrtf, from his own name; 2. 'Atrrd^Ouv; 3. 'Ateraia; 4. HopaXta. To each of these 
tribes belonged several districts, boroughs, or wards {iUffOt of which there were at 
length 174 in Attica, and which differed from each other in various points of manners 
and customs. The names of the tribes were afterwards changed, and the number in- 
creased to ten (cf. ^ 94), finally to twelve. 

Oa tiM ^^liotct Mtie^wea m M. Ltakt, in tb»Tnnmaian$ 1^ tkt Ro^ aodd^ cf LOataun^ ti Mt aeeooat, with a foad 
BUpw— A oomplela Ikt oT then b cim !■ WaAmtuUifi Hlgtorinl Antiqaitifli. 

2 tt. The number of citizens, noXfrai, in the time of Pericles amounted to 14,040 ; 
and in the time of Demetrius Phalereus, according to a censtis taken by his direction, 
B. C. 309, the number was 21,000. 

3. From the census of Demetrius, the whole population of Attica, including aliens 
(cf. ^ 99), women, children, and slaves (cf. ^ 99), has been estimated at 500,000. 

On Om popahlioq of Allio, Me SScWf Public Eoomnj of AUmm.— CUnlOfi** Fa«ti, Appaaia.~^atim. Qtmt. IbgUtv, m 
FofwIoanMB of Anekat Natimu. voL ii. p. US.— Au'nie Croix, Snr U pepulatkm de I'AttiqiM, in the Mrm. Jktd. Imt^. voL ziiiU. 
p. 147.— And iMnmm^ In the Mm. de Pliulitut, CI ni i« tPHiM. M Lit. Ane. tol. tL I8S. 

§ 98. The fiitoixot were those forei^ers, or persons not natives of Attica, 
who became residents in the city or territory. They took no part in the govern- 
ment, being admitted neither to the assemblies of the people nor to public 
offices, but were subject to all the laws and usages of the land. They were 
obliged to select from the free citizens a patron or guardian (ftpocrf afs;;)' ^^ 
whose name they could manage business and maintain actions in the civil 
courts, and to whom they must tender certain services. Certain services to the 
state were also required of them, besides which an annual tribute (jisroixtop) 
was exacted ; ten or twelve drachms for each man ; and six for each woman 
without sons; mothers with sons that paid beingr free from the tax. Some- 
times exemption from taxation ((Wixeta) was conferred upon individuals as a 
reward for meritorious services. Demetrius found, by his census, 10,000 of the 
class of foreign residents. 

^ The term (^( was applied to foreigners remaining in the dtj or country for a short 
time only, as distinguished from the foreign residents, although it was sometimes applied 



to the latter ; it was also applied reciprocally to persona who were mutually pledged, 
by former acquaintance, or in anv other way, to treat each other with hospitality. 

If a metic neglected to pav the imposed tax, he was liable to be sold for a shive. 
Diogenes Laertius was actually sold, because he had not the means of paying it; but 
was redeemed by Demetrius. 

Among the services required of the residents was the carrying of a vessel with water, 
iSptoupopia^ which the married alien women were obliged to perform to the married 
females of Athens in the ^rand Pannthenaic procession ; the daughters of aliens were 
obliged on the same occasion to render to the Athenian maidens the service of carrying 
parasols (o«tac^i|^pfa). See ^ 77. 6. 

$ 99. The slaves (5oiAoi) were of different sorts, those belonging to the pub- 
lic {6oifKot. STjfioaua), and those belonging to private citizens (dtxcrcu). The 
latter were completely in the power of the master, and were often treated with 
great severity. Yet they sometimes purchased fr^om by their own earnings, 
or received it by gift as a reward for merit. Pablic slaves also were often set at 
liberty, when they had rendered the state some valuable service. Freedmen 
very seldom, if ever, obtained the rights of citizens, and were still termed 
Mkoi, In general, the condition of the slaves in Attica, abject and miserable 
as it was, appears to have been in some respects less so, than in other states 
of Greece, especially in Lacedaemon. The slaves of Attica amounted to 
400,000 in the time of Demetrius. 

The term iiKtrtK signifies one living m ike §ame hauee with any one ; 6um^^, signi- 
fies one wtto oversees one's affairs, and is sometimes applied to designate a particular 
slave, since slaves were sometimes intrusted with the omce of stewaM ; ^phm, siffni- 
fving primarily a rower , and secondarily an attendant , is also sometimes applied to 
slaves. Xen. Mem. ii. 10. 

At Athens slaves were not allowed to imitate freemen in the fiuhion of their dress 
or the cut of their hair; their coats must be vnth one sleeve only (^npo/iaoxoXoc) and the 
hair cut in the servile form (V( dvipamAUrK). They could not properly bear the names 
of Athenian citizens, but must be called by some foreign or low name. They were 
allowed to bear arms only in extreme cases. The punishments inflicted were severe ; 
for common offences they were whipped {jtaernytaiS) ; for theft or running away they 
were bound to a wheel and beaten {bri rpoxfiit) ; for some crimes they were sentenced to 
grind in the mills (/f^XuM;) ; sometimes they received, upon their forehead or some 
other part, the brand with hot iron (crtyfta). In giving testimony in court they were 
also subject to torture (/?a(ra»«f).— Yet at Athens the slaves could bring civil actions 
against their masters and others for violation of chastity and for unlawful seventy 
i^ptutf 6itnf and duciof Siicri). When greatly oppressed, they could also flee to the temple 
of Theseus, from which it was held as sacrilege to force them. Slaves carried on 
the whole business of the Athenians ; even the poorer citizens depended on them. 
There was a sale of slaves on the first day of every month by merchants {dvipano^Ki' 
irrjXoi) ; usually announced by a crier standing on what was called the vender's stone 
infMrhp \ido;). The price varied according to their abilities. Many were skillful in the 
elegant arts, and versed in letters ; while others were only qualified to toil in the mines. 

Sm RtUtmekr, Gochichte nad Zotlind (ter SelaTwqr, kc (RUtoij tt Skvwy and Viilangs in Oraece.) Bert. 1788.-Cf. 
.tlhenma, vi. (cf. P. V. \ l9S^~Btntkardy, GnmdriH d«r Griedi. lit p. M—BiH. JUpm. and Quart. QbMnicr, No. xviL p. I3ti. 

§ 100. The magistrates at Athens were divided, in reference to the mode of 
their appointment to office, into three classes, the ;^etpotot^f ot, the xx^^purot.', 
and the atpstoi. The first named were chosen by the whole people raising the 
hand ; the second were appointed by lot by the Thesmothets in the temple of 
Theseus ; and the last were chosen by particular portions of the people, by the 
tribes and the districts, from among their own number. — ^The magistrates 'were 
required, on the expiration of their offices, to render an account of their admi- 
nistration to a tribunal, which was constituted by ten accountants (xoyiratcu) and 
ten directors or judges (iv^oc, called aliso iietaatoji). 

In choosing the Arcbons and other magistrates by lot, the ordinary method was to 
put the names of the candidates, inscribed on brazen tablets (vivoKia), into an urn with 
black and white beans (rvo/ioO ; and those whose tablets were drawn out with white 
beans were elected. 

Ob tha Atbaoian nacbtratea, cC Jbpvlani; io tha JTam. rfc FJead. <te hmr. viL 6L-CL Jidha PdOur, OMnaMkea. 

$ 101. The most important magistrates were the Jrehom (opj^ovrcO- There 
were usually nine Archons, chosen by lot (xx^pwroOi bat subjected to an exa- 


maaAmmto tfceir ^nliftcatkns* befixe thej woe admittBd to tike iht& mak 

1- Tbe exanrrarjoos of 'h* ArrSios ww two ^M ; cce is the snnfe caTjfd *A»«- 

Aawcz :.3e ph-cru ot eiar* j-a-:*mi were tbc t>Uowta£: wheiber tiKU- axKiestocs ibr three 
r*-::«rmr»c« ::a^ bvcn At.'^r.aa 'rr'Lzens; «;i«'cer :c«y had a oompecest escase; mad 

2 K. Tie sr« oc ti>f tL^-je ai rizk wi5 5*T.ed .•!•"- 1*« br w*t of em:nen>ce, i *-VtM» ; 
K^^^n^ies '-\jr. J -T-j* «jc. >rra:;<e tne vear w*s m v.rd ir>ai iiira. He »**€Qded ro 'he 
c tnesnc « o« ci-uer*. decui^ dj5rrc!3oe* wh rh aro^ h^rweea relan^es. had the 
CiT c«" mTC-yws, arc^xn-etl r-jarciir^ md -ook th«? OT€rsT:rh: oi «r.a:n te$::raL$ mnd 
5» £-3i-^.:jc». aiui a..*o of liitairipa;. — Tzx secccA was ci..«fd Kit^, or vc^oa k:.".^. 
-^«' Jar-vfi. To :L-Ta wcrs xsr .ziicd ctr.j-n d^j«f3 pertairia^ to ne^iciToas wocsc:p, 
»: -a were crlj--i:"i„T per«^rT:i<d by k:=^ ei'lusiTerv: be ^r^rai. orerstjerot 
r*.. z>'3» a£i-r5. — In* trLrd. ca=«i P«<<mjrri, w».--*-\«r. ar:eade<l to the domes'ic al- 
r* r» of fftnrz^TS ard «. ; -iTjers, pertonmrz the same duties m reierenoe to ibcm, 
»->ni t'ae dr*: arrnoi d-d ibr t-ie a Lr*rj?. la the rime oi :a<f Persan war, be had an 
:r >jc-ar.: *barp li n;i=A^ rz mi^tary airiirs^ — Tee xx remaining arrh-xs wvre called 
T 'smaik'^tt rrr^^r.-o. . a-d were chirHT occ \yxA ^lUi kjis.i-ire adaos: thej aiao 
l^^>i ci^j^^xr .•< oi' «u'h ;ii::-al marers as d.d no: ti" undtr o:ner J'^imck-axi. 

3. 1 ae ;cre*' pr."..;--!! ar.'i-rs u>-.*a^T .ei each two ass^'an:*, ca^ltd ri^f^'^S 
«**r»««-». mt:o sa: i>c r^e i^-ch wi*h '.he Archcn^, havicg bc^n su:';icted to :be same 
fxar:-.-.2-xr^ w/b .••:i^r n^^'r^srate*, aod \yt\r^ rc^^uired to render m the same way an 
a^i ^-iri: .. *•-'- ol iLtj'otTKe. 

S 109. Another masristrarT at Athens was that of tkt Hintm^ m HK^^fxa, t»n 
of whotD were taken one from each of the ten tribes, and the other was their 
secrelarT T- coauorf l,-). ITiej were prr.perij OTerseers of the prison&» and di- 
rected in the exrcuiicn of capital ponisb meets. In later times they were also 
ceiled »oooi^?u&x;c. — ^These were didferent from the Pkylartki (fv^ap;!:^), who 
were original !t ibe inspectors of the ten tribes, and aAerwaids command- 
ers in war. The Dtmuathi (Jrttopjrot) performed similar duties in relation to 
the districts {hw^axn.)^ — ^The .^^kOf^w bad the care of the public register (x«v- 
ao«a}, aod made scrutiny in the assemblies, and collected fines of those not 
present. Thej were six in number ; but were aided bj the To^otoa, who were 
a sort of bailifls or deputy sheriffs, to the amount of 1000. — The Xo^o^roA 
were also 1000 in number, and were charged with the examination of past 
laws to see if any were injuiions or neeless, and with some minor matters of 

Besides the ma^isrrares abore nanied, there were many others connected with the 
treasury, the Koare b'hI asser.iblr of the people, and the courts of justice ; the most 
unportaot of them witl ^e r.o'!«-ed in connection with tbo(« topics. There were also 
TarioQs other public funct.'jnahes. who were not, sthctly speaking, magistrates, but 
oj^t perhaps some of them to be named here. — ^The 'Pir?pr», oro/orr. were ten in 
ntimber. appoinied by lot to plead pubLc erases in the senate and aawmbly ; they were 
sometimes called •^ir/»»t. and were a dilferent body from the «»i>^«»c, who were ap- 
p'noted by the people. — The W^'^-U, amhas9adort^ were cboeen usually by the peo- 
ple, loinetime!" by the senate, to treat with foreign Mates. When sent with full power, 
tbey were called Il^oricr,- av-nK^n^^i ; generally their power was hmiied (cf. % 143). 
They were uffually attended by heralds ;r^\ -v i) ; this name bowerer was sometimes 
giTen to the persons sent on an embassy. — We may also mention the notaru^, ^pd^^a. 
^r^ ; besides the great number employed by the various magistrates, there were thrrt pub- 
licly chosen; one by the axsembly'of the people, to recite before them; «nd two by 
the senate, one to keep the laws, and the o'her the rerordt in ireneral. The office wais 
not at Athens very honorable, and was sometimes held by well educated slaves, called 

Afl|Mr« {cf, ♦ 99). 

§103. The ordinary rerenaes were of four sorts : 1. T«Xiy, renlt from public 
domains and other public property, and duties paid on articles of commerce and 
on certain porsuits and persons; 3. ^opot, tribule^^ or annual payments exacted 
from allied or sobjected cities and states ; 3. Te^f^/iaf a, fina^ which all went to 
the public treasury, except the tenth part deroted to the serrioe of Minerra, and 
one fifteenth appropriated for the other ^s and the heroes, that were patrons 
of the city ; 4. Xtvtov^a* iymtkuK^ periodical liturgies^ or services, in which in- 
diridnals were required, for a time, to perform certain duties or maintain certain 
pabUc estahlishmentB at their own expense.— Besides the ordinary, the neces- 


sides of the state sometimes required an extraordinary revenae; and then 
special taxes {i^a^oftau) laid upon citizens and residents formed an important 

Under the n^Xii, or rents, we may include the income from the mines ; the most im> 
poriant of which were the silver mines of Laurion ; the ore from these was termed 
dpyvpiTv ; they were regarded as a grand source of wealth to Athens. 

SceaOeU, oa Ita MioM of Uvioa, is ha Public Ecooomy. 

Under the ^6pot or tributes, we may include the duty of ten per centum (^unr, iua- 
•nvTiipiov) imposed on vessels passing from or into the Euzine ; which was exacted at 
Chrysopolis (cf. P. I. ^ 160), which the Athenians fortified for the purpose. 

Under Ti/in/*aro or fines, must be included the fees or deposits (irpurawo), which were 
demanded of both parties before beginning a suit in court ; these deposits were large 
in proportion to the sum brought into question by the trial. To the same head must Be 
referred also the proceeds of confiscated properly {6iint&rpara), 

Under the Liturgies (Kcmvpyiat) were included chiefly three, xppnyi^i yv^vana^iay and 
hHaaii. Those, who rendered the first named service, ixoftnyoi;) were required to pay 
the expenses of the whole chorus employed at the pubUc festivals and theatrical exhi- 
bitions (cf. % 89. 3). I'hose to whom the second was assigned were obliged to fumiph 
the oil and the various necessaries for the wrestlers and other combatants in the public 
games. In the third service mentioned, certain persons {Jum&npti rtSv ^wXw»') provided 
entertainment or banquets, on the public festivals, for a whole tribe. — These services 
were alwavs assigned to the most wealthy citizens. In the time of Demosthenes there 
was the following system : each of the ten tribes pointed out 120 of the wealthiest citi- 
zens belonging to it ; the 1200 thus selected were divided into two portions according 
to their wealth, the iravo irXoiwtoi and the iim» vAoiwiot ; these two parts were each formed 
into ten classes or companies, called wm/opiji; from the ten wnfttpiiu of the more 
wealthy, 300 of the wealthiest men were selected, who were required to furnish the 
republic with the necessary supplies of money and with the rest of the 1200 to perform all 
extraordinary duties in rotation. If any one of the 300 could name a person more wealthy 
than himself, he was excused. Tne residents (/ifrtwaoi) sometimes performed these 
services. — Besides the ordinary Xu-nvpyiai above mentioned, there were some extraordi- 
nary ; pariiculnrly two in a time of war, rptijpapxta and dctfiopd. The rptfipapxpt were 
obliged to provide necessaries for the fleet and building of ships. The Itxni^rrii were 

required to contribute money according to their ability for different purposes. The 

manner in which they performed such of these services as were assigned to them, and 
the degree of expense and splendor to which they went, became sometimes a subject 
of emulation among the rich and ambitious Athenians. 

Od ttM whols tabjcct or tbc Atbeniaa nfmon and upMidllnKt, m Jtuf. BOcUh 9tulflluiiriMiItiii« 4«r AtboMr. Mil « li- 
Kbiinaa. Deri. 1817. i voli^ a En(. Ti»nl. Public Eawamy of Atbeob Loud. ISia— Ct BtmrsfPt Betray ca. rat -Jfd- i 
Sard, ch. xx\. Met. I.— XciupAon, On Um aennuct of Attica {cL P. V. § IN. 2). 

Ob Um TrwnKby, BMJk*» UrkuodcB Qber du Secwawii dea Attiiebra Staatea. Bert. I840L | 

$ 104. The legislative control of the financial concerns belonged to the peo- | 

pie, and their administration and management to the senate. But a particalar | 

oflScer was at the head of the treasury, called rafiCa^ ^fji xoivfj^ ftpoaobov, be- i 

cause he had charge of the public revenue, and also rafua; ti^f 6iotx«Jcreu$, as I 
having charge likewise of the public expenditures. He was chosen by the 
people {z^LpotovCa) for four years. 

1 «. There were many subordinate officers in the department of finance. One class 
consisted of such as attended to the collecting of the revenue, and to the previous fir- 
rangements. To this class belonged the ffwXijrai, ten in number, one from each iribp, 
having the care of whatever the state sold or leased ; the rparropej, who received all 
fines imposed; the ^(ypa^sF^ , who as9es$;ed the imposts and tributes; the ^ay-pa^cU, 
who enrolled the names of families and individuals, and assessed to them their part in 
raising an extraordinary revenue ; the cjcXoyrFf , who collected the taxes, duties, rents, 
&c. TfXbiyat were, properly, not officers, but such persons as took leases of public 
lands or other public property, and paid the rent to the ofliicers. — A second class con* 
sisted of such oflficers as kept tne moneys collected, and distributed them for 
public uses. Of this class were the droSbrrat, ten in number, chosen by lot ; and the 
raftiai twv Irp'Sv xpnitdro}*', who had the care of the treasures in the temples (^ 28). — Such 
officers as were employed in keeping or examining the multifarious accounts of the de* 
partment may be considered as a third class, including the ypa/i/ianF;, clerks, and rs^ 
ypafifiartiSf under-clerkst and the dyriypa'PeTs, checking-elerka or auditors. Among the latter 
may be named particularly the dwivpat^c^ r^( itowrtautii, controller of the expenditure. 

2. Sdme of the causes of expenditure from the public treasury should be noted here. 
The puhlie edifices and other works were built onlv at a very great expense, and could be 
preserved in order only at a great annual cost. I^ericles expended many thousands d 
ulents upon works of architecture in Athens.**— The festivals were another soarcs 

p.m. Cim. ATTAIKL AXnaCTT73C3w 1S3 

Iff tbtar airrr«fr. xad ^tI. x t^ Mrt x *» ift:r:&eBii 

tiTt'-uirLTC ^ liu^w^T wTt* ij '2ai "^ ' -A. T :l&.rj . xc ^ lit? circii t? <'if-r ?cvc 
'• :•^"2 as tiMr-ir acctfy r-ti^jrt. :£ \ *•; — Vf^-:» :c rt-rc*^ ftr »•*$.' vx. isa.:«rti 

t^— saws *r:oi a* j»i' -1: "rrasarr, aa: 3:rrr«*c »Zi:«M«rr r^cr jc *x:*t;raif- — -I^ tiiii. j.c 

r-n « :=: aacif-' i"*: 3i:*>n •!=>** =.aic aoc be ct^taX^ic :;*:«. as likt w«r«. *; je.&s£. 

j U>5. Aaror t^ ;c't'j»f asseab'jescf ;bf Greeks* vhi.<^ t-vk isio cce^ 

A** xrvcwjv, A«r»txr««vh«^ 2* esp«iiI.T wrrr^ij ef bc<ki^. Acccri:=^ V) ccm- 
n-c r^:riD«. h was ir?i i=:?t:t::iec rr Azir^irCTco. soa ct" I>e«ral:-ii; *rccn4- 
:t r w s.:aip. t j Acn?i3S, k^z-z U Arr»- T"^*? twelve r^^!* or stitps ceiled m 
*-3 cccaril ^r» r^ 'Fjoj-^wit --r?*^?,.^:*^ esed to =:«*« by dseir dele^teSs r»T> 
ty^ tac^ citT occiainly. mt Titers. j^j\^i fr:ai tn^ ci;rcakstiDC« the Cele^ 
fi*^s w*^ m. <tf I1ii«7cvai. a»i i£* czc^rtl nself OcXaA. Socoetiaies they 
E*t « Evl7!:L Tbey ass^sirled cr'r tw:-^ s ywir. in spHa^ ^od actEi&B, 
'-'*» c« «.:'*^ ertraordiriTT orra5i:o- TV* <:«r^ra ^^ tt* cccDril was to 
*ri5t 2oi s«cLe pes.* canrcil c:5r::ies cc CLrrL-Uits, ind lae cel^^jaies bsd 
:\ ^'WfT » make salcurr chiczies a&i r*-r--i"?c3^ Scae Terr uapoctui 
':.>r^jes. ^ c $. becveen the Pla:aux&3 aad Lare«i«3: rsianss ukd beiveea tlie 
Tvt-oas isd TUe9(Si.:itt3;. were lenniriif^ by this dt«t, whx-ii was eoatinaed 
iu- ^-zaae tiae in the ftrst eeDtsiy after Clirist. 

<■■=* frr.en saTe taken a ddSer?^^ rxw 01* :b* criri arai d«cra ot tiis c^Jc-viK 
Ti-T i^-«tr: -iix: tac A=:z:^>rrTn« were oc.t aa associ»~«x: ot rfcr?»-s ts-.z-xs ^ismt 
7 r -- £.-: --^ or xrzs ctxr z a*^? : ti"» <-~*'^ t«r-^z r^ir.y o^^-r^-Ttr to jlj-^«~j#««; : 
i-.i Jiu •=>? xaBe'r-.T Wis rr^'-a .y h-:.i sr-? r vr *::•? pv^-rv^* c« sru'-a. rnnf.-a- 
■ ~ i-i r^ r'«:'2? >p<'-T-/y, "^. £ i>:- p-^*J5ie> c^f-re c:cir> a oc>:ct. a-«i r^ c-:"- 
>r-.-- 2r-<3 a ccciroen' <: h»r n: i'-,2- cVfV'o?. or a c""V£r««s toe ic-j'-zal de wtvrat^xaL 

TSm m 9» rmew <r ana i. ■ »• Lcftrtv^, ret » IL— Swbhv ■ -^v af f ia w ft >^«j;. Om iT— Triiii w fkifhn 

~-mx, »i-t >-Ci. 4 —CI &« Je-i^-n, i'wt -i >-ca!. ra. ^ ww. i— nt-'KttL^ F«R. at Ot-m*. 1.1.1.. .— r« •"a.M. <« 
/< 4.— . » -^-aik. a te JteL * .r.aa^ 4b J-nc. fte.«3i..u.^ac-aa£«. p. «&— r. Xab^ -^mw ps^ » ^s Zjfk ^ 

i l«j^ Jsmmkh'ta «f the perp'* 'frartj".-»i) were rery fipqsent at Atbecs^and 
hai an icporant inf ueiice. In tn-r-se l*^«* acts cf the si^cate were canrassed, 
laws were prcpcs^ aiui approred or re;-o:ei, ma^uaMfs appoioied, war de^ 
Wared, and the iiie. The place where ihey met was either tbe market-pisre 
('»;«9co), or a broBwl space near the mountain called the Pnjfi (nn|), or the 
ic»r2tre of Barch'=s. Tbe ordinary assen.':'.ies (fxxXjrr%iu xtv&o.) were btld 
ir..r.:h]y on establUh^ dajs; tbe extraoriinary (<3cx3Lrr*a« oi^xaLrrot) were 
c&.l«r<t on preaun^ and important emergencies. 

1 r. These ire-?r:-jr» were car-areti ard cocc:irted by the n*— wrx. tbe Ilior^, and 
•'^ f >.* - j -» ; . Be* Te e'.'enr^ uron :u«uxs>?. a sacnnce, usually oi a yoyj: r*^, was 
■ '1^7^ Tnen ine i>?r» i orcTreo «i>Tce, odcned a praver lo 'ce god^. ar«i s:a:ed. on 
'-.€ diT^rryya ot tiie IL^ *«, :ae *%-;•*« to &e discussed by the assembly, and *r.ase 
a. ?Te nny years ot ize w^rc nr*t ir.Tred to speak; arer wnich anv o'^e a.»\"e thirry. 
•>: a-r ofearacer bad '!ie 1 i-ery. Wh^'erer came beN>re the assemb.y had a^rv^dy be^n 
i-jc «*«ti m itie feia'e, wj>j«e deri'^wn a;»o i: T-j»>jr' ^^-^a, >«-»sva t*? *>!'>•; ■ rwived 
/f I i I ieeality ociy by the vote ot :be assem: iy, and was thea called etrnha'ioally a 
d^.-r«e, v-^-jTr**. C^ren. i»wc»er, a decs»a ol the senate wi:h»i"ji the ct>nnnna*>^a c4" 
tc a-i^embly was in l^>rce »r>ra year; ai least it was ao in thi.>$e cases m wr.:.->a. in 
t>rder to mwcid too fre«;-jent mee'-.rz*. the people had eran'ed an ir^lependent Ta.xiuy. 

2- The pip^'e vofed Sy enetc:: .-i£ Ujnh I'ats hands \rtr*,U\ axKl sometimes by a 
nxfde of balloting in wiiKh beans .<m^ and stooes ^^rv^i were cast into resc^U pee* 


pared for the purpose («ra^O>'— When the businesB was completed, the Upvravas dismissed 
the assembly. 

8m a. F. SeMmann, D* Conitib HhnteiiiiB, lib. Hi. Oryphinv. 1810. 8.— JL FFMKon, Ob On Atbaaian AamtMim, ia 
SmW* Diet, of Aaliq. p. Ml.-^riilo|Btan«i^ ib bic EncA^oidjovMi. 

$ 107. The senate or higher council (^ oivci ^<nfKrj) consisted, according to the 
arrangements of Clisthenes, of 500; and was therefore styled the senate or 
council of the 500 {ii fiovxri tC^ ftivtaxooUiv). In earlier times it consisted of 
400, and in later of 600 members. 

1 u. The 500 were chosen annually by lot, 50 from a tribe, which furnished a ready 
division of the senate into ten equal parts. Each of these divisions, containing 50 
members, took charge of the public business for 35 or 36 days, in an order of relation 
decided by lot : and the members of the division having this charge at any one period 
was called llpvraitets for the time, and the period itselt was called npvrayeta. 1 he 50 
Upwaveii were subdivided into 5 portions of 10 members. These portions attended to 
their business in rotation, each for a period of 7 days, and the members were called 
Up6effot for that time, the name being taken from their sitting in the senate as presiding 
officers. From the UpUipoi was elected the 'EnirranK, who was at their head, and of 
course at the head of the senate, but held the place only for a single day.— it was the 
business of the Ilptn-aivi; to assemble the senate, and propose the subjects of delibera< 
tion. They also conducted the meetings of the people, in which however they only 
presided in connection with nine npdt<5poi, who were chosen out of the other divisions 
of the senate and had an 'EiruTranTf at their bead. The Upvravtii had a common hall, 
where they passed most of their time daily, called the Frytaneum (Ilpirrai^ro*'), near the 
senate-house (Bow^Tov^ and BooXsvHtptoi'). 

2 11. The members of the senate expressed their opinions standing, after which the 
votes were taken. They received a drachma {fpoocH>t) per day for every day's attend- 
ance. The power of the senate was very great. 

3. The senate commonly assembled every day, excepting festivals and days consi- 
dered as unlucky. The senators were all required to take what was called the sena- 
torial oath (rdv PovXevTiKdif Spmv) to do nothing contrary to the laws. In voting, they 
cast each a black or white bean into the box or urn («aA)y, Ko^iaicoi) prepared for the 
purpose ; if the number of white exceeded that of the black, the decree or resolution 
was affirmed ; otherwise rejected. 

§ 108. No court of justice in Greece was more celebrated than the jSreopa- 
f;ua at' Athens. Its name, *Apeio;fayo{, signifies Hill rrf" Mars, and was derived 
from the circumstance, that the court was held on a hill so called, near the cita- 
del. Others derive the name from the tradition, that the god Mars was the first 
criminal tried before this tribunal. The time of its establishment is uncertain, 
but was very early, before the age of Solon, who did not institute it, but en- 
larged its jurisdiction and power. The members of this body ('Apsto^oyrfcu) 
were originally the most upright and judicious citizens of every condition, but 
afler the modifications made by Solon, only such as had been elected Archons. 
Their office was held for life. All high crimes, as theft, robbery, assassination, 
poisoning, arson, and offences against religion, came before this court, which 
inflicted in such cases death or fines. At first its sittings were only on the last 
three days of each month : but afterwards they were more frequent, and at last 
daily; they were always in the open air, and at night. 

1 u. The sitting was opened with a sacrifice, upon which both the accuser and the 
accused took an oath with direful imprecations. Then, either personally or by attor- 
neys, they urged their cause ; but no ornaments of rhetoric, no attenipis to move the 
passions, were ever allowed. After this the judges gave their decision by means of 
white or black stones. As the court always sat m the dark, the white pebbles were 
distinguished by holes bored in them. Two urns were used, one of wood to receive 
the wnite stones, which were votes to acquit the defendant, and one of brass to re- 
ceive the black, which on the other hand were votes for his condemnation. The sen- 
tence was immediately put in execution. In early times the dignity and purity of this 
tribunal stood very high ; but afterwards its character fell in tlie general corruption 
of morals. 

2. In their oath {ittaitoiria) the plaintiff and defendant swore by the Furies {nnval beat). 
In the trial they were placed upon what were called the silver stones (d^pov^), the 
plantifT on that of injury («/?p(f), and the defendant on that of Impudence (ivai^ta)^ or 
of Innocence (dvairia). — The brazen urn stood in front of the other, and was called b 
tftirpoo^ ; also 6 «^ior, because votes cast into it declared the accusation valid ; and 
h ^ay^rov, as it decreed death. The wooden was termed h Int'una^ h Arcpor, or 6 Qikv, 

Hmwrtiag lb* pcbUet OHd in dediioM, cf. JtathonU Note to FMtor, p. 71. On the ArMfM«iUMl tha other covk of Hbm, 


$ 109. The *E^Vo4 weie also penons of distiiigiiished merit, who eonstitated 
the coort ealJed *Ejti IIa>xo&'y from the sutue of Minerra f said by some to 
haTe been bioeght from Troy) in the temple* where it was held. Its origin is 
aicribed to Deraophoon, a son of Tlieseus, and by others to Draco, who, if he 
did not first institote it, certainly modified it anew. The judges were^^y-^me, 
selected from noble families, fiye from each tribe, and one appointed by lot, all 
over fifty yeais of age. Solon confirmed the powers of this court; bat referred 
to the Areopagas all the more important qoestions, leaving to the 'EffVw juris- 
dicdoQ only oTer homicide, injuries followed by death, wad the like. 

There were three other less important courts belonginpr to the class which had 
cognizance of adions eonteming blood {ini. r^r 4K>M>x«Irt»).— The court 'Eni 
A<x^W9 was held in the temple of Apollo Delphinius, and took cognizance of 
cases where the defendants confessed the fact but pleaded some justification.^ 
The coart 'Er Ufnrrainit^ was held at the Prytaneum (cf. $107) and inTesti- 
gated cases of deaths by accidents, unknown agente, or persons that had 
escaped^ — The court 'Er ^ptarroi was held upon the sea-shore in the Pineus, 
and heard the causes of such criminals as had fled out of their own country. — 
In all these coorts the 'Eftroi presided and pronounced the sentence. 

The mm^iatn.m called ^wX^SmciXtU «re Mid tn have had •ome duly in the coart ir ITpvrawiw ; 
rtp^ciaily hi the case* termed it tw d\in\fa9 iitmu in which ibe insimnwats of homuide were 
Mljeci«^ to triaL In the earliest tioM* there were (bar of iheee magistrales ; one perliape froB 
each oftae firar tribes. 

$ 110. Besides the courts already described, there was another class having 
jurisdiction only in eircV eaiet {ini xCmt 5f;/u>t»xwv), of which there were six. 
The most important was the *Hxuua. Its name was either from a)ua, muUi- 
tude, on account of the throngattending it» or from irxco^, run, on account of its 
being held in the open air. The nnmt^r of its judges {riXuKsra* hixwjrat) was 
not always the same ; the whole number amounted to 6000, who were chosen for 
one year by lot; out of these were taken the number requisite in each particular 
trial or action. The least number that sat was 50 ; sometimes the whole 6000 
were assembled ; the more usual number was 200 or 500. It was the province 
of the >t<ytto^Va« ($ 101) to introduce the action into court {httaynv 6ixfpf itf 
to &xa^r9;pftov), and full power was given by them to the judges to invesugate 
and decide the case. 

I tt. When the accused did not deny the jurisdiction (rapeYpatt:) or request a delay 
( M i ^i a), both he sod the accuser were put under oath. I'hen the parties deposited 
a ram of money as security (Tp^euua). and proceeded to bring forward the cause. In 
doing this they were Umited to a definite time, measured by a water-clock (cXn/^^). 
The decision was given in the same way as in the Areopagus (^ 108); and the de- 
fendant, in case of a sentence of death, was given over to the 'Fj^iua (^ 102), and in 
case of fine, to the npiKrop:^ or 'BcAoyci; (^ 104). If he could not pay the fine, he was 
cast into prison ; and if he died in confinement, not only the disgrace, but the punish- 
ment also, fell upon his son. 

2. The bailiff or deputy employed to summon {vpo9KaXtia9a) the defendant before the 
Thesmothetaa, or viritne<>8es before the court, was termed KXnrrjp ; sometimes one or 
two of the witnesses whose names were indorsed upon the declaration (M^i;, /ycXir/ia), 
together vrith the plaintiff, were the summoncrs (cXi|rqpr$). The oath of the plaintiff 
before the opening of the trial was called «pM.i/to(rta ; that of the defendant, dmjfiovia ; 
a name for both was &u/Mrca. Door-keepers (nycXtiko were appointed by a magistrate 
to guard the court from a crowd. The amount of the security money was, as has been 
hinted (^ 103), in proportion to the amount at stake in the action. In trivial cases it 
was a drachm, and called rrapa^rraats ; the deposit made by one who sued for goods 
confiscated bj the state, or for inheritances of a certain kind, was termed xapoKormioM. 
If ihe plaintiff (Stj:>Kb» ) failed of provine the indictment {iirU) against the defendant 
(^/bir). he paid a fine called :n0t\U. While the action (<^tu(iO was proceeding or was 
in suspense, a notice of it, inscribed on a braxen tablet, was hung up (jbrnXaOai) in one 
of the most public places of the city. The witnesses (/tapropes) were all put under a 
solemn oath, which they took together at the altar erected m the court-room. Their 
testimony was called for by the advocates (awrryopat) as ihcy wanted it in proceeding 
with theirpleas.> 

The omce of the judges, iumartu, resembled that of our jurymen j* they were 
Qsoally paid three oboti a day. They sat upon wooden benches, which were covered 
24 q2 


with rugs (t//ia9ra). In addressing them the advocates stood upon elevations called 
OfiitaTa, The namber of prosecutions and trials was very great. There were many 
in Athens who seem to have made it their business to discover grounds of accusation 
against the wealthy. These men gained the name of cMrp^yroi, a term which was 
first appUed to such as prosecuted persons that exported figs (<M too ovm ^iw), a law 
prohibiiine such exportation having been enacted at a time when there was a great 
scarcity of that fruit.' 

1 Sm Sir W. Jonk'B Prabei to hmm (d. P. V. ( 104. S). * Sm /. PMimfl, Enqoiiy into Ite Fndk* aadUM «f JoMUMif 

UwGrMbuidllaBUUM. Loud. I7aa 4. ■ Of. ITil/av^ Hut of Otwoa,ch. I. 

3. The judicial process was sabstantially the same in the various courts. — ^The 
five other civil courts besides the Helima were those called Uapa/3wj«p^ Tpiywiw^ T(i 
Katvdv, TJ ttri Avxoo, and T6 Mffrixoo. 
RM|MCtli«tlMMeowtKn» JftMr,MciM \ KM. 8.— &A9maiui, .Aat Jar. PoU. OrM.— AaiMr, FtacMi nd Klifca. 

$ 111. In addition to the ten public courts, there was also a judicial body, 
called U ^taoapdxwtoj consisting of forty persons chosen by lot, who held their 
Courts snccessively in the several districts of Attica having cognizance of cases 
where the sum or value at stake did not exceed ten drachmas. 

There was likewise a body of JrbitratorM^ Atcufi^tai, consisting of 440 aged 
nien, fifrty-fottr from each tribe, holding office for a year, and authorized to 
settle minor controversies within their respective tribes, but subject to appeal. 
These were called xxijpidtoc, being chosen by lot — Disputing parties were 
allowed to choose arbitrators for themselves ; these were called dtoAXaxr^fKot 
or xat* iTtitpoHriv Aimf i/rcu. Minor causes could not be entered in the superior 
courts, until they had been heard before some court of arbitrators. 

The number of public arbitrators or SiairiiTat K\np<i>To( itated above is drawn from a passsfre 
In Ulplan upon Demosthenes ; some writers have proposed a different reading of the passage so 
as to make the whole number but forty, /var from each tribe.— The private arbitrators were 
foroetimes termed Jiarqrac ^tpcrtfi. 

Clou. /gum. zsziz. Saa— Af. U. ButwaUm^ Udwr dro 8ebi«taricbtw DiUdM ia Atbn, «»1 dca Praeoi vor Jwiiiffiiii 
J«i». 1812. 

§ 112. Jettons or suits were divided into two classes; public (Stxot ^fAwtuu, 
^eofiTyopiaOt such as concerned the whole state; and private {6Cx(u idtot, and 
5ixai, simply), which concerned only individuals. Of the former class were the 
following : rpa4>i;, an action for the highest crimes, ase. g. murder {^vo^), poison 
(jpdpfAaxov), arson (Ttvpxoud), sacrilege (ifpo9vXi.a\ and many others esteemed 
less heinous; <^a<7i$, an action for the crime oi embezzling or in someway 
squandering public property ; ^EfSnlK, an action against persons usurping 
prerogatives not belonging to thpm, or refusing trial although confessing ^uilt; 
A^caywvi}, an action against a criminal taken in the act; 'E^ijyi^fftf, against a 
criminal found in concealment and there visited by a magistrate; 'Ai'5poXi;4ta, 
against such as concealed a murderer, which allowed the relatives of the mur- 
dered peraon to seize three persons connected with the concealing party and 
retain them until further satisfaction; 'EMToyycXta, an action for a public 
offence against the state, or for a breach of trust, or affainst the ^uuttitoi when 
one was dissatisfied with their decisions. — Actions belonging to the class called 
private were far more numerous, and were named according to their various 

Some of the pvMic actions included under the general denomination of yp^^n^ snd 
not named above, were the following : rpaifta ucnpefoias^ a wound given by design ; 0o<>- 
XevaiSj conspiracy; daqltta, impiety; ■npoioaia, treachery; desertion, whether from tlip 
army, XftirwrTpinoy, or the fleet, Xu-rovavTio^^ or fi-om a particular station, Xtiiroriif «y ; Iri- 
volous prosecution, vwo^vria ; bribery both against the giver, iacaaftdi^ and against the 
receiver, d(opoioKia, 

Some of the private actions or suits were the following : Kwciiyopias Hm^ an action of 
slander ; xp«>»j tf«wj, an action for usury ; Aixia; Miri, an action of battery ; 0Xa0iK, of 
trespass ; cXojr%, of theft ; xf/eviofiapTopioo, for perjury. 

$ 113. The kinds o( punishment were various, according to the nature and 
degree of the offence for which they were inflicted. Of those not ^pitalf the 
following were the principal : (1) Tt^i^/uafa, pecuniary /n^, called also Zfffua; 
this was sometimes aggravated by corporeal punishment: (3) 'Attfuojdisgraeet 
which was of three kinds; first, the loss of some privilege but not of posses- 
sions ; second, the loss of the rights of a citizen with confiscation of property; 


third, the Ion of mil privilegM eivfl and sacred, both by the criminal himself 
and his whole posterity for erer: (3) Aoi-Xfio, s/arery; this, however, by So- 
ioo*s laws, coold be inflicted only on freed men, sojounem, and snch as had 
been disgnoed (arucot): (4) Ir^yuara^ brand-marJIa^ by a hot iron on the 
forehead or hands, inflicted chiefly on runaway slaves or freedmen : (5) ZrrXip, 
in which the name of the offender and his crime were inscribed on a pi liar j 
fxposed to public view : (6) Af 9^10^, bonda ; of which there were several kinds ; 
as the arvfuv (also siuKOf), a wooden eo/Zar, which bent down the head and 
neck ; the x^fti^ a kind of stocks, in which the feet or legs were made fast ; 
the 'vovt^, a piece of wood to which the offender was bound as to a pillory ; and 
the rpo2o$, a sort of wheel, applied to slaves who were bound to it and tortured : 
(7) ^vyi:, ofifvyiA, bam$hmerU^ with confiscation of goods. 

RawiphflBCM is «aM to have bee« preferrH by tbe Greek covru to impmonnent, on account 
nf the expcaae oecaaiooed by the laiier. The prison at Athena waa termed itvitior^ptw, and by 
r«;>heaBiaaa, <«ci||i«. Priaona in different reriona were called by different naniea : in BoHiiia, 
th-re waa the 'Ava^retar ; at iSparta, the Ktlias; at Cyproa, the Kcpaftoc ; at Corinth, the Kb>£ ; 
•t Saowa, the F^pj-ipM, 

^114. The (htraeism, o'ttpaxt/ffihi^ was not, properly speaking, a judicial 
fmnishment. 1 1 was a banishment for ten years, of such persons as were thought 
to be dangeroas to the state. The votes were given by shells, oTrpaxa; each 
man marSed upon his 09-rpazor the name of the person he would banish ; if 
the same name was upon the majority of 6000 shells, the person was sentenced 
to banishmenL The most upright and most distinguished citizens fell under 
this sentence ; and the Athenians finally abolished it, as the Syracusans did a 
Mmitar custom among them. The Syracusan punishment was called II<raXi<v 
fM{, because the name was written on leaves, nitaXiu 

The oacraciaa la aaid by aome to have been instituted by Ilippiaa, eon of HiDparchns ; othera 
«! by Clistheoea, B. C. aboat 510, who waa first banished by it. It continued about one hun« 
4rrd yean ; it waa abolished B. C about 419, and becauce it wsa then degraded by being em- 
Hojed on a Tcry contemptible person by the name of Hyperbolus. Among the illustrious Athe<- 
Buns who were driven from th« city by this pernicioua cuatom, were Theoiisioeles, Thucydidea, 
€\mt n, and Aristidea. 

GsfMc LXknws^ i* fk« Jfan. * fJaiA da Auv. «oL xiL p. i4A 

$ 115. The pumshmeni of tUaih^ eomro;, was inflicted in several modes; as 
by the sword^ Bi^of-, beheading ; by the rope, Bpo;tof« strangling or hanging; by 
prnpufu, ^pftaxw, drinking hemlock (xwvftoy) usually; by the preetjnee^ 
Kpruvof, casting from a rock or height ; by the Kara9fom9fi6$, drowning. 

0:hcr modes of inflicting death were, by the Traopdi^ cntriftfing, a mode used by 
the Greeks less frequently than by the Romans; by the cud^eU, Tv^aia, or beating, 
ii which the malelactor was hung on a pole ; by thro^'ing iiiio a pit, Biua^'po/, which 
%%aj a noijk>nie hole with sharp spikes at the top and bottom (called also 'Ofy'^^a) ; by 

y'ofiin*, Ai«->oXia; and by 6iimtn^, II»p. The punii^hnient of death could not le 

h>%ti)!Ty inflicted upon any citizen of Athens duriiis^ the absence of the sacred i:al!ey 
. " '.$>a)^ rptripK) which was annually sent to the island Delos with a solemn sacntire. 

$ 116. Public rewards and honors were awarded to meritorious persons. 

r ^«/ jtfo/, in the 

'Eixwv, a statue, 

' the senate, or the 

people, or by particular tribes and boroughs upon their own members; thesu 
were most frequently a reward for valor and military skill ; (4) 'ArtXf la, ex" 
emptionfrom taxes, which was of Tarious degrees, but seldom exU>nded lo the 
contributions required for war and for the navy; (5) 'S,iTr,Oii iv Jlpt^rarfiu, 
en!er(ainmerU in the common hall, called Pryianeum ; originally limited to a 
single day; but afterwards daily and permanent in the case of some (afi9iroc) ; 
it was an honor bestowed on the most worthy men, sometimes upon whole 
families, and was viewed as a high distinction. After the death of such as 
had received special honors, their children and descendants enjoyed in some 
measure the benefit of the same. These honors were obtained with difiiculty 
in the better times of the republic, but became quite common afterwards, and 
lost their salutary influence in a state of corrupted manners. 

f 117. No people of antiquity was so much celebrated for the wisdom of their 
Utvn as the Greeks. The first legislation in Greece is ascribed to Ceres and 


Triptolemus (P. 11. $ 61). Afterwards, Theseub, Draco, Solon, Clisthenes, and 
Demetrius P|\alereus, were the most distingruished authors of the laws adopted 
by the Athenians. The number of the Attic laws Was constantly increased with 
the changing circumstances of the state. It was commonly the province of the 
Tlpvtdvsii to propose laws. A proposal adopted in the assembly was called 
either a decree, 4^cojua, when it had only some specific application, or law, 
vofMii when its obligation was universal and unchanging. An ordinance of 
Solon required an annual revision of the laws, to ascertam what alterations or 
additions might be necessary. His own laws were inscribed on tables of wood 
(cf. P. IV. § 63). 

1. The term v6itoi desiffnates what may be called a constitutional law, or established 
principle, as distinguished from a particular enactment ; thus it would be applied e. g. 
to the laws of Draco and Solon, although those of Draco were commonly called 
0w/m)i, in distinction from those of Solon called i^/mi. The term y6(iof is also sometimes 
used in the sense of 0^tf, a natural right or social usage or fixed custom. 

2. If one wished to introduce a law, he named it to the Tlprravtts, who brought it 
before the senate (/^ovKii); if the senate approved, it was called a ni»/3iwXn»/ia ; it was 
written by the npvrayetf upon a tablet, which was fixed up publicly at the statues of the 
'EiTuyv/ioi, some days before the meeting of the assembly (ixJcX^jia) ; from this circimi- 
stance, it was also called ff^p^pa/i/ia. 

It will not eonport with the Units of thh ■keleb to deUil |artioil«r AlheBlao Uwi.— Thne may be band ta Sam. /VHl, Leg« 
Attica (cf. P. V. 1 66 3), and in the work enriiled Juritprud^nlia Komona tt Jttiea, T. Ui.— Comp. Jo. Mnvvft TImb'm Attka. 

L. B. 1024. 4.-SM alM IVif r<r«t ArduBologU Gneea, bk. i. eh. szvi. Tha noat ramaifcaU* lawa of ika OiMka geMnlljr an 

ahibitod by KVpha is NiUcfift BaNhraibaBC, kc cited $ ISL 

$ 118. Next to Athens, Lacedaemon was the most flourishing of the Grecian 
states, and its most remarkable antiquities should be briefly noticed (cf. $ 40). 
The province in which this city lay bore the same name, but was called also 
Lelegia, (Ebalia, Laconia or Laconica, and wss the largest part of the Pelo- 
ponnesus. The city of Lacedemon or Sparta was situated in an unbroken 
plain, on the river Eurotas, and was in early times, according to the direction 
of Lycurgus, without walls. Its soil was fertile, and its internal plan and its 
edifices such as to be respectable, although they did not give a just idea of the 
power and resources of the state. 

Od ihe civil coMti'utbn of thti Male, we m»j refer to /. K. F. Jfonao, Sparta, ain Venoch war Avlklamaf dcr GeKhidtte md 
Verfamns dieaei SUala. Leipz. I8CI&-5. 8 vols. B.— Nitidk, Baw:breibaBC, he u eilad 4 \^.—MWkr^ Hiatnry and Anliquiljca of 
Dm Doric Race. TransL bf TufneU and Lewit. Ozf. ISSa S wla. 8.— (K Drummond, Beviow of the GoTerDnaoto of Sparia 
•Bd AOwnt.— C. P. Lnu^ut, Sur U Coortitutioii de Sparta, in the Mem, dt Plnttitut, 01 a ■ a e dcs Sdencn Mor. at M. vol. iii. 

Od Ihe topofraphj and mina of Spai^ ice P. L §§ 126-129.— A view of Ibc modem Tillage Ifufro, near iU aita^ b fivou hi lb« 
Plate on paj^a ST. 

$ 119. In Lacedemon the citizens were of two kinds, such as had received 
the rights of citizenship by inheritance from their parents, and such as had 
acquired them personally. They were together divided into six tribes, of which 
that of the Heraclidae was the first. Each of these was again subdivided into 
five classes, called Cj^, making thirty in all. The presidents or leaders of 
these were called repoaxtoc. 

1. The first class of citizens, being of free-bom parents, and having complied with 
all the Spartan discipline, .were called the o/ioioi, or equals; while the other class were 
termed wnfttions^ inferiors, including freedmen and sons of freedmen, and all such 
as had not fully conformed to the Spartan discipline. 

C. r. Arrmamt, De eoodiliona atqoa origiBe eoram qui Honeei ap. Lued. appellatt auL Marb. 1818. 4— fiimi oaMor, Da 
can«ia torbatc apod LaoednDOBioa agramiB •qualitalia. Marb. 1834. 

2. The division into six tribes, above referred to, was made by Lycurgus. Some 
state five as the number, not considering the HcracUcUB as a separate tribe. The 
others were the Ai/ivarai, so called from their residing near the marsh or morass (X(>>'i7} 
on the north side of the city; the Ktiwro-pfrj, so called from their vicinity to a branch 
of mount Taygetus termed KwSaoupa {dog's tail) on account of its figure ; the IliTOfa- 
fat ; the Mcotroarai ; and the Aiyitcai, who received this name because they resided near 

the tomb of Mgewa, Aiy^s. Mullfr asserts*, that in everv Doric state there were 

three tribes, 'YXXci;, Ilci^^oXoi, and tiv^tufarai or ^v^ivs^y or the JFfyUean, Dynianatnn^ 
and Pamphylian ; and says, we cannot suppose the existence in Sparta of^any other 
than these genuine Doric tribes. He represents each of these as divided into ten it^ai, 
and adds, that two and probably more, yet not all, of the C^ai of the HyUean tribe 
must have been Heraclida. Each of the u^ai is said to have contained ten rpiaxa^, 
which were communities comprising thirty families. — There was another division of 
the Spartans, into six it6pat consisting only of such> as were of a proper age for mili- 


tMTT Miiit e- — A wf.<£i"flMi << tru3«s i=ro < 

^ IdtX. It B kaow tl^ &e Spaitsas vne c^Iijed, en t&e berth of xhm 
fhC^Tf^ vy ssV-rt t&en to a close scnznnT as to tn^r Tir?r and sccnfoess ct* 
c^asuc^ii-fu abi so scboh is to the d^eisi^a cf the preskents ci ibe .lo*, or 
cLstm^ mz^'sier t^er w^n scitaD> to be pr^«^rTir<i and raisied ; a re^..^:;:a 
c^si^Dcd t-» prer-til a pr^-'ia-r-fi of weak ino sick.j ci:ixrcs. The e^vjcau-a 
cf tAe chil *r^a was treaied with the ffrra^est rinf. Ali fi^ c;t;xj?BS r:i ctIt e<;sai r.^au. bet also a comr&cciij of sr-*>^s ai>i priTile^ne^ The laaus 
Wer?, oj i&e law* cf Ljcnrsus, eq::A.lj app^icujoied a3k:ci£ t:^eal. 

A« so^c as a c— i was t»r::, E w^as cirr>:>i '"> i rlir* c-al-ec Lc<*:h<^ A-r^'» *o be 

in^e or »eai. <- '■-»•■ i> :^ n wi» ris* l-.*:* a r--'- v-i--- i- A-i -^« . r« r r- ^ ::: 1 at- 
-* ,s«w If acc"^T*i. a jiare of 'ii« pi:.:: .1- :? wis i5<?.^'\i ::> r.. xri :*. wi* iV<--3 
: .-k. *o Th* 11 --r"* h- ije a=d '^.i 02 a*ji:-.i \*.'ha >c«e3Lr rliv>: i r^\r ::. i li* 

r ..^ in '::* c.--*«e? 'frtDed -4jr^irf r-:»«s «>r v~«., W-»f^ : 5u 1 as nf!.:5*<i -h* Ic»5t 

:',«? c'c*rr 90C? m 'h*? k.^zs were or-jrefi to ?urr:- 'o *hi? orrv-iica ot' rh^ ma<*er 
ria-W.-iMA; - Th* c_«^-T oe was ii>:'re sfr.r. i:*frr :r.t- i^»? ol 'te.'rf. A: aV.2» $;jc:«f n 
♦r.*T were called «--^ 'X>. At rt^ii<r« 'h-^y en'er^d ::?e c!ss!!<s t«n::<:<l i\-.>«. and 
I'-oil raro re-irs al€r received th< arp^I.i:. -^ ot' /-*.-s- or wf-.r,-. and were ad:, ired •«> 
•Jie ? j': 1: : r ar. : .«•«. A: Ltirty tis^y were ra:iked as mea. *i '^>>*, aijd wen? allowed to 
wzdcT-ike pi. ..-• '-f:-*?. 

Cl JT-Sc a a>N> Ctoi. «;L i. ^ SSL 

§ 131. The slares among the Laeedvmomaixs were treated with sreat crnelty 
(cf. § 99). Tbeie appears to have been bot one class, rix. the Ht^M ('EAXi-rrc;}* 
who aecrrdins to the ccmmon account were derired from the maiitime town 
Helos (^3bof ) captured b j the Spartans. Others consider the name as deriTed 
from the Terb «%**, and signifring pritontn^ The cnhappy Messenians taken 
in the second Messenian war were incorporated amona the Helots. 

1 V. The He iocs were reqoired :o cul'iva'e the lard, ard perform :he moKt laborioos 
and danzenoa* scrrices ir: war. Thty were exp»>a«d !o tvcry >on of abu5e. ar.d even 
TO the nnri'.rocs aitack of the younz Spinan*. espv :ally in the cu?'om termed 
K » ■ ■! u *. wh:.h was an a'-.r.i^J leril-ifd h'lri: 3ij.^r.«t tlit«e d'srrsdtd subjects. Yet 
•ome amons them, as a reward of d.«':r.5r^t"ih*-d nierit. oS'si: t'd !:Vry ard ci'iien- 
?hip, on oerasion of re^TiTing wh: -h they wtre crowded wrh s-irl'^rds ard led a'tHnil 
tee temple*. They then were ca..^ rr:T»*r-»«, or »3k:-««. or »f9?«* <rjv-. The bsl epi- 
thet flee^ms to have designared snrh as er;oyed more of civil riirh's than the common 
freedmen, whose rank was iar bek>w that of the free-born. 1 he number of slaves in 
this stare was very large. 

2. The •.€^ were a class released probab!v from all 5enri»-e ; ^he t,."«-*«r were 
slares employed only in war; the 'orro8T».«f--j* served on board the tleet : the ^<Vjif«y, 
were domestic slaves brought up wi'h the youn^ Spartans and then etnancipated. 

3. There was ano'her ciass oi inhabitants m the province oi Lacedsemon. who al- 
tboneh not slaves were yet held in a sta'e ol surjec-ion by the Spartans. They were 
the nanves of towns reduced by the ia*ter to a tnt»u'ar>- ard dependent state ; they 
were called FeritKi 'TlcfiMxt). They were engtised in the navv and in the army 
alone with Spartan citizens, and sometimes were m* rusted wiih offices : at the battle 
of PlaTKa there were lO.OuO men of tiits class. 

i^fii ii-r r-T'— "T-"^^ — '*^- — ' " r '" ** ''ii — '^'♦— > — ^-^-r^^^- ^- >._ .-^ 

$ 193. At the bead of goremment were two kinas or leaders («xt);^<)f rcu), 
who mast be certainly descended from the Heraclidv, and mast possess an 
nnezceptionable exterior. They did not possess the full regal aothority (?ta«- 
^aafXfia)^ bat a power limited by the laws, to which they were accustomed 
every month to swear obedtcnoe. In war their power was greatest. They had 
also the oTersight of the worship of the gods, and sometimes performed the 
offfiee of priests. 

In peace iheir chief civil preroeatrre was to preside in the senate and propose the 
sabjecta for deliberation ; and eadi coold give hia vote on any question. In war the 


Spartan kings had unlimited command {orfMrrryii dvrwparwp), and could even put to 
death without trial (^v x^ipis v6fitii). They are Baid also to have had in time of war espe- 
cially a body-euard of three hundred of the noblest of the Spartan youths (tinrei$) ; 
from this number five were annually selected and employed for one year, under the 
name of dyaAvepyoi, in missions to other states. Many dissensions grew out of the 
double monarchy {iiapxh). The royal revenue was very great. Ci. Muller, vol. ii. 
p. 106. 

$ 123. LycurguB established a senate of 28 men, of blameless character, and 
upwards of 60 years old, which was called ycpovtrto, or ytpcavla. The members 
had an equal right of voting with the two kings, and rendered no account of the 
manner of discharging their office. — ^There were also five Ephori (l^opot), who had 
an oversight of the whole state, and whose duty required them to assert the 
rights of the people against the kings. They were chosen from among the 
people, without reference to condition. — ^The Bci5uuo( were a class of offi- 
cers, who were placed over the l^i^jSot, between the ages of 18 and 20. 

The Ephori enjoyed a power which was called ioor6/wif»«os, and were not required to 
ffive any account of their discharge of it ; but they were appointed only for one year. 
Their tribunal ii^psiov) was in the forum. — The Btiiiatoi were five in number, with a 
Bizth as their vpia&vi. They had the inspection of the gymnastic exercises, called 
rfXarMurra, because performed in a spot surrounded with plane trees ; it was their pro- 
vince to decide disputes arising at the gymnasia. They nad their tribunal or place of 
council also in the forum. The common name for the council-halls of these and other 
magistrates was dpxjLia. 

$ 124. The Spartans had other magistrates; as the No/io^xaxc(, who saw 
that the laws were maintained and executed ; the Ap/Aoswoc, to whom was en- 
trusted the oversiprht of the women, to observe their lives and manners and direct 
their exercises; the 'E/tTtcXupoi, who preserved order and decorum in assemblies 
of the people, and attended in general to the police of the forum or market ; the 
IIv^oi, four in number, appointed by the kings, and employed to consult oracles ; 
the npo^fvoe, who were also appointed by the kings, and had charge of the re- 
ception of strangers ; the npodcxoc, who had the care of the young kings as 
tutors ; the Iloudovo^oi, whose office was to oversee and manage the boys put 
under their care at the age of 7 ; the *Apfiootai, who were a sort of sherififs in 
the city and province; the noxc)iAap;totf ^^^ under the kings superintended the 
aflfairs of war, and also attended to some matters of police in the city ; the 
*l7t7taypif(u, three officers, who commanded each a chosen band of 100 horsemen. 

$ 125. The assemblies {ixxXrialai) of the peonle were similar to those at 
Athens. In some of them only native citizens of Sparta met; in others there 
were also delegates from the towns and cities belonging to the province Laconia; 
in assemblies of the latter class were discussed all afifairs of common interest 
and importance to the whole state. Originally the kings and senate had the 
power of convening the assemblies ; it was afterwards vested in the Ephori, 
who also presided m them. The votes were given by utterance of voice {^o^ 
xai od ^^^^ and the majority decided by the loudest acclamation, or by a 
subsequent division and counting of the two parties. 

The assembly composed only of the citizens of Sparta was called itucpi bcKknaia, and 
usually met once every month. Every citizen capable of bearing arms might attend, 
and, it above the age of thirty, might speak. The meetings were orimnaliy in the 
open air, but at a later period were held in an edifice, called (nttifj erected for the pur- 
pose. — The other assembly was called simply, or by way of eminence, UKXjtffia. It 
consisted of the kings, the senators, the magistrates, and the deputies of Laconia. 

§ 126. The assembly also, which was collected at the public and common 
meals and termed ovsaitla, ^EiStVca, and ^ckitva^ was desig^ned for the purpose 
of speaking upon matters of public importance. 

In this assembly, kings, magistrates, and certain citizens, met together in certain 
halls, where a number of tables were set, for fifteen persons each. No new member 
could be admitted to any table but by the unanimous consent of all belonging to the 
same. Every member contributed to the provisions from his own stores; a specified 
quantity of barley meal or cakes (/i^sat), wine, cheese, and figs, and a small sum of 
money for meat, was expected from each. A close union was formed between those 
of the same table. The regular meal was termed alx^ov ; after this was a dessert called 
briixXoy. The men only were admitted ; small children were allowed to sit on stools 
near their fathers and receive a half-share without vegetables {dfiaiifiaxsvim) ; the youth 


and boys ate in other companies. At table they sat or reclined on couches of hard 
oak. The chief dish was tne black broth (jtiXas ^ufOf).^ The Spartans had also another 
kind of solemn feast, called Kwis, to which foreigners and boys were admitted along 
with the citizens.* 

t Tba rawfar aay b> ammmi Vf Ow Mlewtac {««(• tnm ttrHmnf BUtinl, who tntdad Id Turkey, ia 16S4. "The Tnrtts 
fea*« a Mak ckIM wiiyti, aada of a bwry ■• bif m a hmU bata, drkd ia a furaaca aad beat lo powd<r, of a woty color, in 
taalaa little MItari*, thai Itef ntka lad driak, ho« •• aay bt aodDrod; il a good at all hoan of the dajr, bat opcciallj awniias aad 
evaaiai^ wlwa ta Ibal parpon Ihay caterttia thcnnlfat two or Ihm boun ia caapba-booMi, wbieb ia Toikey abound more Ihaa 
iaaaaad ale hooM with aa. » u OMigki to U m etd hiadt hralk umi to nmeh hf th» LaudmmonimM. It driath ill hiunourt in 
Ika nm I I I I. eoMfartetb Vb» braia, aarar caawth d mn k w iB W i, nor aayoChar larfeit^aBd m a barmlaw aatemia—at of good fallow^ 
Aip^» • JUnmmm*M ArehaoL Gnac p. I6a.-€C ifUOtr, ii. 28Sl 

§ 137. Jadicial actions were very summary among the Spartans. Eloquence 
found no place in them; no advocates were employed; every one was obliged 
to plead bis own cause. There were three distinct jurisdictions, that of the 
kings, the senate, and the Ephori, each of which formed a tribunal for the deci- 
sion of a certain class of questions. The most important questions, and particu- 
larly all of a capital nature, belonged to the senate. In minor disputes, the par- 
ties were allowed to choose arbitrators for themselves. 

CtA^mMa,bk.ii.eb.zxii.-OBUMaBlterit7oflbaEpbori,Jruilv,bk.ULcli. fii.; aad bk. iii. ch. U | ^ oa tba Spartan 

$ 128. The punishments were Tarious and in part similar to those at Athens. 
The most common mode of inflicting death was by strangling or suffocation.— 
Stealing was punished not so much for the theft committed, as for the want of 
shrewdness and dexterity betrayed by the offender in allowing himself to be 

1. Strangling was effected by means of a rope {Ppix^i Pp^o^) ; it was always done 
in the night and in a room* in the public prison called ^wuc. Death was also inflicted 
by casting the malefactor into the pit' called Katd/a; ; this was always done likewise 
by night. Aristomenes the Messenian was cast into this, but survived the fall and 
edectcd an escape, which was considered as very wonderful. Besides the punish- 
ments ZfT/ua, 'Ari/iia, and Kwp<M or KXotdf, mentioned among Athenian penalties (cf. 
% 113), the Spanans' had Moffri'ycivir, whipoingt which the ominder received as he was 
driven through the city, and Ktyrriats, goaaing, which was a similar punishment. Ba- 
nishment, ^vy^, seems not to have been a regular punishment inflicted by sentence ; 
but was voluntary, and chosen in order to escape death or infamy (an^ia). 

a ibtaWOT, Arcb. Grce. bk. iL eh. 24 • Cf. Thm. 1. lU.—Puua. W. !& f i.-^trub. vilL— Mt/iW, Hirt. of Gfaeer, ch. iv. 

■act. 4. * CL JAUtir, Hbt aad Aat Dor. toL ii. p. KS. 

2 ». Among the Spartans also various rewards and distinctions were bestowed on 
persons of merit, both while living and after death. 

3. Among the distinctions conferred on (he meritorious, the Upaiipa^ first seat in a 
public assembly, was highly honorable. Much value was attached to the olive-eroum, 
EXaim arhpavoi^ as a reward for bravery, and to the thongs, BetcAoirc(, with which victors 
in the contests were bound. But it was one of the highest honors of the city to be 
elected into the number of the three hundred constituting the three chosen bands of 

horsemen {% 124). termed Aoyd^*^. To commemorate tne dead, statues, cenotaphs 

(<o«ra^q), and Other monuments were erected. 

$ 129. The legislation of Sparta had Lycurgns chiefly for its author, and was 
marked by some strong peculiarities. The form of government was distin- 
guished from that of all the other states by its union of monarchical with aristo* 
cratical and democratical traits. There were in Sparta no written laws; they 
were transmitted orally from one generation to another; on* this account Lycur- 
gus styled them ^i^rpou. They were not numerous, and were chiefly designed 
to promote bravery and hardihood, and hinder all luxury and voluptuousness. 
Although they underwent many alterations in minor points, they retained their 
authority through a period of above 800 years. 

CL Jruikr, aibafofvcilad, voL U. ^ VT, S9S.— X«HV*on, on Ite Mily of fha LandcBoniaai (d P. V. f IBS).— Tba woAi dtad 

f 1 30. Next to the states of Athens and Sparta, the island of Crete presents a 
constitution the most remarkable. It is here, as has been stated (§38), that 
we find the origin of the institutions of Lycurgus. During the republican go< 
Temment which succeeded the monarchical, it was customary to elect ten ofli- 
cers annually as chief magistrates. These were called Cbfmi, xo<yfio», and were 
taken only from particular families. Under them was a Senate, which was con- 
•tilted omy on important questions; it consisted of 28 members, who for the 


most part had previouslj held the office of Cosmi. There was also an order of 
knigkUj who were required to keep horses at their own expense for the public 
use, and to serve in time of war. The power of popular assemblies was not 
great ; they usually did nothing butconfirni the decrees of the higher authorities. 

Cf. MWUr, vol ii. p. S0, \M.-iatK KnU. GoOii^. 109. S voli. I. 

$ 131. The Cretan laws were in general wise, as appears from some traces 
of them found in different writers. — Like the Spartans, the citizens of Crete had 
public meals, which they called di/dpf ra.-^lave8 were treated with comparatiye 

1. ** Curiosity is excited,** observes Mitford, '*by that system of laws which, in an 
age of savage ignorance, violence, and uncertainty among surrounding nations, in- 
forced civil order, and secured civil freedom to the Cretan people ; which was not 
only the particular model of the wonderful polity, so well known to us through the 
fame of Laced8emon, but appears to have been the general fountain of Grecian legis- 
lation and jurisprudence ; and which continued to deserve the eulogies of the greatest 
sages and politicians, in the brightest periods of literature and philosophy.*' 

Sm SainU Cnrix, D« AseiMi goararaamnto fodMrnUb, ct Icfiriafios d« Crali. Hr. ITU 

2. Three different classes of dependents existed in the ialand ; the public bondmen, 
called by the Cretans ityola; the slaves of individual citizens, d^peSrai ; and the tribu- 
taries, ^fitmot. Perhaps there was no Grecian, state in which the dependent classes 
were so little oppressed as in Crete. In general, every employment and profession, 
with the exception of the gymnatsia and the miiiiaiy service, were permitted to them. 
— Mailer, as cited ^ 1 18, vol. ii. 5. 

3. '1 he name d-^ia is supposed to have been.given to the public meals, because, as 
at Sparta, men alone were admitted to the tables. A woman, however, had the care 
of the public tables at Crete. 'I'he Cretans were distinguished by their great hospi- 
talitv ; with every two tables for citizens there was one for foreigners. — MnUer, 
ii. 225. 

The term dylXti was used to designate an assembly of young men, who lived toge- 
ther from their eighteenth year till the time of their marriage. These young men, 
called dycXwroi, were under the care of a person termed dytXar^, who superintended 
their military and gymnastic exercises. — Smithi Diet, of Antiq. 

§ 132. In Thebes, the principal city of BoBoHa^ a monarchical government 
existed until the death of Aanthus, and afterwards a republican. Yet this state 
did not rise to any great celebrity, at least for a long time; the cause was per- 
haps the whole national character of the Thebans. Besides a proper senate, 
there were in Thebes Bceotarchs, Botorap;t<U9 ^nd Poleraarchs noxifuip;tot ; the 
former had the care of the civil affairs, and the latter of the military. — Bceotia 
was divided into four grand councils, or senates, whose decrees guided all the 
other magistrates. Merchants and mechanics were adopted as citizens, but 
never raised to any magistracy. The exposure of infants was not permitted, 
but if their parents were unable to maintain them, it was done by the state. 
Pausanias has recorded in his description of Bceotia many remarkable features 
of the later condition of the Theban state. 

The IkBoiianii Imd a great national festival, n<i^/7oi{5ria, in honor of Athena Itonia, who bad 
a temple near Coronea, near which the festival was held. 

Cr. Mil ford, ch. T. wKt. I .—Rn ul-KoctuUt, Admiotttntion d« PEtat TtdtnXU d« Bontlem, in (h« Jftm. dk TMlf tfuf, 01 a ■ > c 
d'AM. tt LU. Ane. vol. viii. p. lU 

$ 133. Of the internal constitution of Corinth but little is known. It was 
at first governed by kins^s, of whom the Sisyphidae and Bacchiadae were the 
most distinguished. AfVerwards, when an aristocratical form was introduced, 
one chief magistrate was chosen yearly called ilpvran^ He was supported by 
a senate, rfpova&a. The assembly of the people never had equal authority ; 
their power was often very small. The city was once called Ephyra, and en- 
joyed a favorable situation upon the isthmus, which rendered it and its two 
harbours so famous on account of their navigation and commerce. It was de> 
stroyed by the Romans, B. C. 146, but was afterwards rebuilt by Caesar, and 
became again very flourishing.^-Syracuse and Corcyra were colonies of Corinth. 
The last city is specially remarkable, from the fact, that a dispute between itself 
and Corinth was the occasion of the Peloponnesian war. Syracuse was for a 
long time governed by 600 of the oldest men, called ycuj^pot ; but afterwards 
became entirely democratical antil it was subjected to the Romans. 

ct JffUkr, tt biiOMdlid, VOL H. ^ IML 

p.m. mnsTMMT awtajmb vs -m i^tsk agss. 199 

i 114. Jhgm^ like Ae ollwr Gieciw ttatos, Ind in cul j tuBM hs kii^[s. 
Ib later tines it wee yi i ueul bj tbe people diTided ttto foor tribes. It bad 
its sensle, sad asotker body of Bsgistzates eonsisring of eigbty M cmbe ra , and 
a elasB of pablie officen cslled a^nvob 
a JBi^. «rf. ■. fL iH ML 

Id tbe kistocj ol^ioam^we mxj meatioB as cbieflj rennrkable tbe league or 
coniederarj betveea tbe cities of tbat districL This coofedencj was called 
the PattxioUvm, It bad at TlienDas an amioal assemblj or meeting, in vhich 
tbe magistrates weie elected, and also a president of tbe conf«deracT, vho was 
c&lled <*rfor]7>3f, and was at tbe same time chief miiitaiy commander. This 
ofioer was sikbject to tbe assembly. The council of ibe Apocleti (a.toz>j^o() 
VIS a different body, who decided questions that arose in pressing emer- 

The cities of Jikmm also united themselTes in a leacrucN snd held their com- 
mon assemblies twice a year at ^gium. In these originally presided one 
rpojiaarfvif with two Sr^rirybi; and at a later period, one Zr^arr^of, besides 
whom there were ten :irjuoofr^ U> attend to the public atfdiis of the con- 


$ 135. That warlike spirit which, as has been obserred ($ 42), was a main 
trait in the national character of the early Greeks, was also conspicnous in 
their descendants of a later period. This is true of the Athenians, and more 
emphatically so of the Sparmns, who were inured to hardship by their educa- 
tion, bonnd by their laws and their honor to conquer or die, and inspired by 
their whole national system with a lore of war. These republics were ao- 
cordiogly tbe refuge and protection of the smaller states in their difficulties. 
The Tbebans, likewise, lor a certain period, maintained tbe reputation of dis- 
tinguished valor. Athens and Sparta, however, were always the rivals in this 
respect; and altboagh in tbe war with Xerxes they agreed that Athens should 
command the Grecian ileet, and Sparta the land forces, yet they soon again fell 
ioto dissension, and the Spartans stripped the Athenians, for a time, of that 
naval superiority, for which the situation of Athens afforded the greatest 

$ 136. The armies of tbe Greeks consisted chiefly of free citizens, who were 
early trained to arms, and, slier reaching a certain acre, at Athens the twentieth 
year, were subject to actual service in war. From this doty, they were released 
only by the approaching weakness of age. At Athens the citizens were ex- 
empted from military serriee at the age of forty, except in cases of extreme 
danger. Some were also wholly exempted on account of their office or employ- 
ment. Of those who were taken into service, a written list or roll was made 
out, from which circomstanoe the levying was termed xariv^pai^, or xaroxo^t)^. 
The warriors maintained themselves, ami every free citizen considered it a 
disgrace to serve for pay ; for which the spoils of victory were, in some degree, 
a substitute. Pericles, however, introduced tbe payment of a stipend, which 
was niaed, when necessary, by means of a tax on the coomionwealth. 

At first ibot-soldiere received two oboli a day ; afterwards four; whence Tr-f-'..?A»w 
3^ signified a soldier's life, and rtrpi^Mlta^ to serve in war. The pay ot a soiiiier in 
the cavalry, termed Mr«Wran(, was a drachm a day ; a seaman received the same, with 
an allowance for a servant. 

0>^Bt » i i iirftaiMH— y1 ll t iwi far tm baui J i aM j i n i i Mi,i»« lOS. KM. Oa Ite aiUlify malilMH, c£ O^ 

1^, Sv IM Ibu ailittim *m Gnc% • Ik* Mm. Jkad. Imv. *ot si*, pw S38l— CL \ O. 

$ 137. It has already been remarked (§ 43), that the Grecian soldiers were 

d[ three classes ; footsoldiers or infantry, to ycc^txor ; the cavalry, to iV lyryrur ; 

and such as were borne in chariots, to if 6jcr^fidtuv. The infantry comprised 

three kinds ; the wOurcu, heavy armed, who carried a complete and full armor. 

25 R 


and were distinguished particularly by a large shield (StOuov) ; the rtfXtaattu^ 
targeteers, who bore light arms, particularly a small shield {rtixttj) ; and the 
4«xoc, light armed, who had no shield and used only missile weapons.— -The 
war chariots were not much used after the introduction of cavalry. 

Tbe chariot!, termed Sptvavti^Spott were sometimes terribly destructive, beinf armed with 
sytbes, with which whole ranlcs of soldiers were sometimes cut down.— In Plate XVII. fig. K, 
one of these chariots is presented, drawn by two horses which are protected by a covering of 

mail. It may be worthy of remark here, that such chariots were used by ihe ancient Britons 

and Belgians, and are designated in the Roman writers by the terms eovini and e—edm. (£.i(ea«, 
Phars. i. 436.— ra«. Agric. xxzvi.— C««. Bell. GaJI. iv. 33.— Jfeia, iii. 6.) "The eovtnut was a 
terrible instrument of destruction, being armed with sharp sythes and houlcs for culling and 
tearing all who were so unhappv as to come within iu reach." R. Henry, History of Great 
Britain, (first cd.) Lond. 1771-03. 6 vols. 4. 

§ 138. The cavalry of the Greeks was not numerous, and consisted only of 
citizens of the more respectable class, and such as were able (cf. § 93) to maintain 
their horses. The iitTtsiq^ therefore, at Athens as well as Sparta, held a high 
rank. Those who wished to attain this rank were first examined in respect 
to their bodily strength and other qualifications, by the senate and a Hippaich 
or Phularch {iTtJid^xn^^ ^^^^xni) appointed for the purpose. They were called 
by various names according to the weapons of armor they used; as, e. g., 
dflEpo/SoXtfftiu, who threw missiles; Sopor o4>dpot, who carried spears or lances; 
ftTt^orototot, Ivfffo^opot, xovro^^opofr, ^pco^opm, etc. The following articles 
constituted their principal armor : a helmet, broad plated girdle, breastplate, a 
large shield, cuishes, a javelin and sword. 

The horsemen, as well as the infantry, were distinguished into the heavy-armed^ na- 
ra^poKTOi, and light-armed, fi»? <roni^«ufTO(. The former not only were defended by armor 
themselves, but also had their horses protected by plates of brass or other metal, which 
were named, from the parts of the horse covered by them,irpo/icrtiwj(Jia, rtfotmpviiia, vrapa- 
unpiiia, napatr\£vpi6ia, vapaxvniuiia, etc. The trappings of the horses were termed ^oXopa ; 
various and costly ornaments, including collars, bells, and embroidered cloths were 
often used. — The Aifiaxai were a sort of dragoon, instituted by Alexander, designed to 
serve either on horseback or on foot. — The "Af^anmt were such as had two horses; 
called also Ijra-aywyoi, because they led one of their horses. — After the time of Alexan- 
der, elephants were introduced from the east ; but they were after a short period laid 
aside, as they were found too unmanageable to be relied upon with much conBdence. 
When used, they carried into battle Targe towers, containing from ten to thirty sol- 
diers, who could greatly annoy the enemy with missiles, whue they were themselves 
in comparative safety. 

SaUkr aod Frtnt, Grig, de rcqniMinn dan la Grace, io the Mtm. Aead. Inter, vii. SS, 286.— Ik ATotarey, La Canlerie Grtc^oe, 
la tlie nine Jtfem. kc Jili. iM2.— ^orcAer, L'ordn eqtuatra chcx lea Grea, ia tbe aame Han. kc jdriii. 89. 

$ 139. The chief articles of armor used by the Greeks have been already 
described (§ 44, 45), and it is only necessary to remark here, that in later times 
there were many changes, as to the forms of the articles, and the manner of 
using them. 

1. The breastplate {^''pa^) consisted of two parts, one for a defence for the back, 
the other for the breast, united at the sides by a sort of buttons. When made of two 
continued pieces of metal, and on that account inflexible, it was called ^^'pal cradtos; 
when made of hide and guarded with hooks or rings, connected as in a chain, it was 
called dejpaf dXwiibjrds ; it guarded with plates like the scales of a fish, it was called 
^upa^ XnriSoyrdf. The h}tiB<opaKiov protected only the front part of the body ; Alexander 
allowed only this to his soldiers. — Within the ^^pal^ and next to the skin the Greeks 
also wore often a defensive armor of brass lined with wool, which was termed uirt^, 
Cf. Horn. II. iv. 137, 187. 

The thonx is mcb in fif . r, of Plate XXM. ; abo on the warrior, fig. 7. Io fie. S, tbe thonz Mcmc to be gurdcd with pbtea like 
the Nalc^or a fith ; alao in Plate XXXIV. fig. !>. 

2. The shield Oiinrly) when of wood was made of the lightest kind, as willow, beach, 
poplar, &c. When made of hide {jA/nriUi 06ttat), there were usually several thicknesses 
covered with a plate or plates of metal. Its chief parts were the outer edge or cir- 
cufnference, mfw^, trnq, kvkXos, mptiitcpeta ; the boss or prominent part in the middle, 
dfupdXds, ptaon^m ; the thong of leather by which it was attached to the shoulders, 
rcXa/iuv; the rings by which it was held in the hands, irdpiroiref, for which the handle, 
ixtunw, consisting of two small bars placed crosswise, was afterwards substituted. Lit- 
tle bells were sometimes hung upon the shields to increase the terror occasioned by 
shaking them. "Laypa was the name of a covering, designed to protect the shield from 
injury when not in actual use , the word also designates a packsaddle. Various epi- 
thets are appUed to shields ; dft(pipp6roSf dvipoiLfpoK, m6ri»tiKhi, indicative of size ; ewrwAot, 



navrcTt ftrai, of shape. The Tef^v was in the ahape of a rhombus, and first used by 
the Persians ; the Ovpedg was oblong and bent inward ; the Aaa^tov waa composed of 
hides with the hair on, and was very light { the IXiXn; was small and light, and, ac- 
cording to some, shaped hke a half- moon. 

loPlaeXXlLaraMTcnlforiMoribieldi} lee fig. S, fif. 4, fif . 7. ScealaoFUtoZXX. fig. l,fl(.4; tad Phi* XXZUL flf. I, 

3. Besides the offensive weapons which have already been named (see 4 45, and Plate XVTI.), 
we may mention the poniaril, called naf/a^iipUioift l^cipMiov, and /«ixa</>a; ii answered the 
purpoite of a knife. In later ages, the dKi^dxrii was borrowed fVom the Persians. This has gene- 
rally hpen considered as curved, and has usually been translated emittr; in Smith's Dictionary 
it is contended, that it was straight like the dagger; the writer quotes Josephus (Jtnt. Jud. xz. 
7-10) as saying of the assassins who infested J udea before the destruction of Jerusalem, that 
"they used daggers in size resembling the Persian aeinaeu, but curved, and like those 
which the Romans called ttcts, and from which robbers and murderers are called «tearrj ;*' the 
aeinaees seems to have been worn on the right aide. The K9ir\{ or faUkUn {en»u faicatus) was 
also used in battle ; as was likewise the battU-ax, d^ivti, and the vtXtxvi. The Macedonians 
had a peculiar kind of long $pear, called aapiaaa. The club of wood or iron, Kopwr/f waa a wea- 
pon of early limes.— We may mention among the offensive weapons the wvpo06\ot X<0oi, Jir«- 
balls : one kind ((rrvrdX fa) were made of wood and armed with spikes of iron, under which were 
fixed hemp, pitch, and other combustibles ; these, being set on fire, were burled into the ranlts 
of the enemy. 

In Plata XVII. fif. C, n Qir Mx«(w i >» "«>• XXXin. flf. 4, wa im hut^ng at the rifbt tbifli the WMpoo wtikh the wriltr 
BBeotiooad Above toamitn u tte dmvrfxqs ; the nme h wcs in tbe band of MiUin% la Uie Sup. Pl«le 9; d. elie fif. B, in Ftaie 

On Ihe variow artklee of uioor, ne FotbrokM'$ Eoqrclopeedla.— & R. JtAyridk, Critical loqainr IbId AbcIcbI Afonr, t«. widi a 
Glfwary of Namet of the Anaikif the .%liddle Afoh Load. 1814. S tola 4 ; a woit wliicli umj bs nwoBimwHled to Hie tladot 
dcsiroui of full iDformatiaa od Ibk sabji^t. 

$ 140. The commanders of the armies were in early times the kings them- 
selves, although at the same time certain men, eminently brave, were appointed 
to be poiemarcha or generdls. Subsequently each tribe chose its own com- 
mander, who was called of pafryof. At Athens it became customary to appoint 
ten, who had equal power, ana who held the chief command one day each in 
regular rotation, when they took the field together. Over these was a pole- 
march, whose opinion was decisive in the war-council, when there was an 
equal division amonpr them ; at a later period, however, this officer {ytoiJfia^x^) 
bad no share in military affairs ($ 101).— There were also ten taxiarchs, 
taiCapx<^i subordinate to the at^xktrjyoi ; their duty was to put the army in array 
for battle, mark out the camp, regulate the order of march, and in general 
attend to the preservation of discipline. Subordinate also to the Strategi were 
the two generals of the horse, r^rtap;t<^, who had under them ten ^vXap;toi, one 
nominated by each tribe. There were also inferior officers, as xo;t°7o^< ;t^>^ 
xoi, txatovtapz^t 5cxadap;to(>, rttfiTtdbapx^^ ^^® names bein