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Full text of "Medical lexicon: a dictionary of medical science"

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in 2010 with funding from '. 

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CAL LEXICON. 




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: I N A R Y 


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DUNGLISON'S 

MEDICAL DICTIONARY 



have been spared to make the work a complete 
expression of the science of the day." This 
statement our own examination of the work en- 
ables us to confirm ; every page of it testifying 
to the author's industry in cullingifrom various 
quarters and sources all that was, 
physiological contributions 
few y^rs. The careful a 
exhibi^d by the writer i 
qaestioml)^£«ailh^ 



1 AUTHOR. 

JOLOGY: 

ijsnme |ll«strati0ns 0n II00D, 

'FIED, AND ENLARGED. 

out 1500 pages ; leatJier, price, $7. 

^ jral science in almost every department, 
and the clear and happy style in which he pre- 
sents his views, render his Physiology one of the 
most reliable and attractive works in our language. 
To the practitioner and general reader, we can 
heartily recommend|Jt as an excellent resume of 
science. As a 
link it has no su- 
this object we 
ssly written. — 




^EMRALTHEMPEUTTCS-ICOTriSfciTffiftWffiMe^: 



ADAPTED FOR A MEDICAL TEXT-BOOK. 

WITH ABOUT TWO HUNDRED ILLUSTRATIONS 

SIXTH EDITION, REVISED AND IMPROVED. 

In (wo very handsome octavo volumes, of about 1100 pages ; leather, price $6. 

for the medical student. This gives to the treatise 
a clinical and practical character, calculated to 
benefit, in the highest degree, both students and 
practitioners. We shall adopt it as a text-book 
for our classes, while pursuing this branch of 
medicine, and shall be happy to learn that it has 
been adopted as such in all of our medical insti- 
tutions. — The N. Y. Journal of Medicine. 



The most complete and satisfactory exponent 
of the existing state of Therapeutical Science, 
within the moderate limits of a text- book, of any 
hitherto published. AVhat gives the work a su- 
perior value, in our judgment, is the happy blend- 
ing of Therapeutics and Materia Medica, as they 
are or ought to be taught in all our Medical 
schools; going no further into the nature and 
commercial history of drugs than is indispensable 



III. (Just Issued.) 

NEW REMEDIES: 

WITH FORMULJ; FOK THEIR PREPARATION ADD ADMINISTRATION. 

Seventli Edition, with extensive Additions. 

In one very large octavo volume, of 110 pages ; leather, $3.75. 

space the novelties and discoveries of the age. 
The present edition of this work is considerably 
enlarged and improved. The author, with his 
accustomed accuracy, has elaborated and amplified 
many of the articles but casually or imperfectly 
treated of in the former editions ; and he has also 
added considerably to the list of new remedies. 
About thirty new agents, or novel applications 
of old remedies, are introduced to the notice of the 
reader in this edition. — Va. Med. and Surg. Jour., 
Sept., 1856. 



It may be considered almost a work of super- 
erogation to enter into an elaborate criticism of a 
work which has reached its seventh edition. The 
public has pronounced, in the most authoritative 
manner, its verdict, and we are certainly not dis- 
posed in the present instance to dispute its de- 
cision. In truth, such books as this will always 
be favorably received by the Profession of our 
country. They are labor-saving productions, 
which, at the expense of much research and 
reading to the author, condense in a convenient 



THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE. 

A TREATISE ON SPECIAL PATHOLOGY AND THERAPEUTICS. 

THIRD AND REVISED EDITION. 

In two large octavo volumes, of about 1500 pages; Uather, $6.25. 

The student of medicine will find in these two I that will nerve him with courage, and faithfully 
elegant volumes a mine of facts, a gathering of direct him in his efforts to relieve the physical suf- . 
precepts and advice from the world of experience, 1 ferings of the race. — Boston Med. and Surg. Jour. 

BLANCHARD AND LEA, PHILADELPHIA. 



MEDICAL LEXICON, 



DICTIONARY 



MEDICAL SCIENCE; 



. / 



CONTAINING 



A CONOISE EXPLANATION OF THE VARIOUS SUBJECTS AND TERMS OF ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, 
PATHOLOGY, HYGIENE, THERAPEUTICS, PHARMACOLOGY, PHARMACY, SURGERY, OB- 
STETRICS, MEDICAL JURISPRUDENCE, DENTISTRY, Etc.; NOTICES OF CU- 
MATE. AND OF MINERAL WATERS; FORMULA FOR OFFICINAL, 
EMPIRICAL, AND DIETETIC PREPARATIONS, Etc.: 



FRENCH AND OTHER SYN0NYME8. 



ROBLEY DUNGLISON, M.D., LL.D., 

PROFESSOR OF THE INSTITUTES OF MEDICINE, ETC, 

IN THE JEFFERSON MEDICAL OOILEOB 

OF PHILADELPHIA. 



REVISED AND VERY GREATLY ENLARGED. 




PHILADELPHIA: 
BLANCHARD AND LEA. 

1860. 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, b^ 

BLANCHARD AND LEA 

m the Clerk's Offi"* of fhe District Court of the United States for the Eastern Listrict of Pennsylvania 

COLLmS, PRINTEK. 



/y-^-^ y<AOS 



(^w,,0^ lino 



P R E P A C 



/y/«r- 



On this new edition of his "Medical Lexicon,^' the author has bestowed 
more than usual labour. It is not more than four years since a friendly re- 
viewer, in one of the most learned of European medical periodicals, (the 
"British and Foreign Medico- Chirurgical Beview^' for July, 1853, p. 205,) 
in noticing a former edition, remarked, that the labour which had been bestowed 
upon the work had "been something prodigious;" adding — "the work, how- 
ever, has been now done, and we are happy in the thought, that no human 
being will have again to undertake the same gigantic task. Revised and 
corrected from time to time, Dr. Dunglison's 'Medical Lexicon' will last for 
centuries." 

Yet, in the present edition, not only has the work been "revised and cor- 
rected," but about six thousand subjects and terms have been added, which are 
not to be found in the one noticed by the "British and Foreign.''^ Many of 
these have been introduced into medical terminology in consequence of the 
progress of the science ; whilst others had escaped the author in the previous 
editions. These additions have necessarily required a great amount of labour, 
which — as on every former occasion of the kind — has been cheerfully bestowed, 
in order that the work might be rendered still more worthy of the vast favour 
which it has experienced. It has ever been the anxious desire of the author to 
make it a satisfactory and desirable — if not indispensable — lexicon, in which the 
student may search without disappointment for every term that has been legiti • 
mated in the nomenclature of the science ; and the present very carefully 
revised, greatly enlarged, and accurately printed edition cannot fail to be moie 
extensively useful, and to offer stronger claims to the attention of the practi- 
tioner and student, than any of its predecessors. 

The author is grateful for the opportunity again afforded him of expressing 
his acknowledgments for the reception which the Dictionary has met Mnth 
everywhere from the profession. 

ROBLEY DUNGLISON 



Philadelphia, 1116 Giraed St. 
July, 1857. 



(5) 



.^ivA)v\\;\ 



\^\\ 



EEFACE 



.J 



TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The present undertaking was suggested by the frequent complaints, made by the 
author's pupils, that they were unable to meet with information on numerous topics 
of professional inquiry, — especially of recent introduction, — in the medical diction- 
aries accessible to them. 

It may, indeed, be correctly affirmed, that we have no dictionary of medical 
subjects and terms which can be looked upon as adapted to the state of the science. 
In proof of this, the author need but remark, that he has found occasion to add 
.several thousand medical terms, which are not to be met with in the only medical 
lexicon at this time in circulation in the country. 

The present edition will be found to contain many hundred more terms than the 
first, and to hare experienced numerous additions and modifications. 

The author's object has not been to make the work a mere lexicon or dictionary 
of terms, but to aflford, under each, a condensed view of its various medical relations, 
and thus to render the work an epitome of the existing condition of medical science. 
In its preparation, he has freely availed himself of the English, French, and German 
works of the same nature, and has endeavored to add every subject and term of 
recent introduction, which has fallen under his notice ; yet, with all his care, it 
will doubtless be found that subjects have been omitted. The numerous additions, 
however, which he has made, and his strong desire to be useful, " by removing 
rubbish and clearing obstructions from the paths through which learning and genius 
press forward to conquest and glory," will, he trusts, extenuate these and other 
objections that might be urged against the work; especially when the toil, which 
every compiler of a dictionary must endure, is taken into consideration ; a toil which 
das been so forcibly depicted by the great English Lexicographer, as well as by the 
listinguished Scaliger : 

"Si quelqu'un a commis quelque crime odieux, 
S'il a tu6 son pfere, oa blasph^m^ les Dieux, 
Qu'il fasse un Lexicon: s'il est supplice au monde 
Qui le punisse mieux, je veux que Ton me tonde." 



EXPLANATION 



If the simple synonymy of any term be needed, a mere reference to the term , 
may be sufficient ; but if farther information be desired, it may be obtained under ' 
the term referred to. For example, the French word Tronc is said to be • 
synonymous with Trunk. This may be sufficient for the inquirer : should it 
not, the requisite information may be found by turning to Trunk. 



ABBREVIATIONS ARBITRARILY EMPLOYED. 



Arab. 


Arabic. 


P. 


Portuguese. 




Ch. 


Chaussier. ' 


Ph. D. 


Pharmacopoeia 


L of Dublin. 


D. 


Dutch. 


Ph. E. 


(< 


Edinburgh. 


Da. 


Danish. 


Ph. L. 


" 


London. 


B. 


English. 


Ph. P. 


" 


Paris. 


F. 


French. 


Ph. U. S 


<i 


of the Uni- 


F. or Fah. 


Fahrenheit. 






ted States 


Fam. 


Family. 


> 




ofAmerica. 


G. 


German. 


PI. 


Plural. 




Heb. 


Hebrew. 


Prov. 


Provincial. 




I. 


Italian. 


R. 


Reaumur. 




Imp. meas. 


Imperial measure. 


S. 


Spanish. 




Jr. 


Irish. 


s.g. 


Specific Gravity. 


L. 


Latin. 


Sax. 


Anglo-Saxon. 




Lmn. 


Linnaeus. 


Sc. 


Scottish. 




Nat. Ord. 


Natural Order. 


Sex. Syst 


. Sexual System 


. 


Old Eng. 


Old English. 


Sw. 


Swedish. 




Ord. 


Order. 


Vulg. 


Yulgarly. 





(7) 



DICTIONARY 



MEDICAL SCIENCE 



A. 



ABBREVIATION 



A, before s consonant; An before a vowel, a, av, 
hxve, in the compound medical terms, a privative 
or debasing signification, like that of the particles 
»"fi, im, ufij ir, in English. Thus: Sthe?ii'a means 
strength ;^sf/ieni'a, want of strength; AyioBrnta, 
want of blood, etc. Occasionally, in compound 
words, they have an intensive meaning. 
AACHEN, Aix-la-Chapelle. 
A, or AA. See Abbreviation. 
AANDB, Breath. 

AARZHIL, MINERAL WATERS OF. A. is 
in the canton of Berne, in Switzerland. The 
chief spring contains chlorides of calcium and 
sodium, sulphates of lime and soda, oxyd of 
iron, and sulphohydric acid gas. 
AASMUS, Anhelatio. 

ABACH, MINERAL WATERS OP. A hydro- 
sulphuretted saline spring not far from Ratisbon 
or Regentsberg, in Bavaria. 

ABAISSEMENT, Depression ; a. de la Cata- 
racte, see Cataract — a. de la llatrice, Prolapsus 
uteri. 

ABAISSEUR DE UAILE DU NEZ, De- 
pressor alsB nasi — a. de I'angle del llvres, De- 
pressor anguli oris — a. de la llvre inferieure, 
Depressor labii inferioris — a. de la langiie, Glos- 
socatochus — a. de la machoire inferieure, Digas- 
tricus — a. de I'cei'l, Rectus inferior oculi. 
ABALIENATIO MENTIS, Insanity. 
ABALIENA'TUS. Corntp'tus, Corrupted; from 
ah, and alienus, 'different.' Memhra ahaliena'ta. 
Limbs dead or benumbed. — Celsus, Scribonius 
Largus. 

ABANGA. Name given by the inhabitants of 
St. Thomas to the fruit of a palm tree, the seeds 
of which they consider very useful in diseases 
of the chest, in the dose of three or four, two or 
three times a day. 

AB APTIST'A. Ahaptis'ton or Abaptis'tum, from 
a, privative, and ffaim^eiv, 'to plunge.' A term 
applied to the old trepan, the conical shape of 
wh'ch prevented it from plunging suddenly into 
the cavity of the cranium. 
ABAPTISTON, Abaptista. 
ABAPTISTUM, Abaptista. 
ABAREMO-TEMO. A Brazilian tree, which 
grows in the mountains, and appears to be a 
mimosa. Piso relates that the decoction of its 
bark, which is bitter and astringent, was applied 
in that country to ulcers of a bad character. 
ABARNAHAS, Magnesia. 
ABARTICULATIO, Diarthrosis, and Synar 
tbrosis. 

ABA TA RBISSEMENT, Degen eration. 
ABATTEMENT, Prostration. 
1 



ABATTIS, Giblets. 

ABBECOURT, MINERAL WATERS OF. A 
chalybeate spring, six leagues from Paris, and 
one from Poissy. It was once much frequented, 
but is now abandoned. 

ABBEVILLE, MINERAL WATERS OF. An 
acidulous chalybeate at Abbeville, in the depart- 
ment of Somme, France. 

ABBREVIA'TION, Ahhrevia'tio, Brachyn'sit, 
Brachi/s'?no8, Ahhreviatu'ra. (F.) Abriviation, 
from brevis, 'short.' Abbreviations are chiefly 
used in medicinal formulae. They are by no 
means as frequently employed now as of old, 
when every article had its appropriate symbol. 
The following are some of the abbreviations 
which have been or are employed: 

R. Recipe, Take. 

A. AA, ANA. {ava) utriusque, of each. 
Abdom. Abdomen. 

Abs. Febr. Absente febre, In the absence of 
fever. 

Ad. or Add. Adde or addatur. 

Ad. Lib. Ad libitum, At pleasure. 

Admot. Admoveatur, Let it be applied. 

Altern. Hor. Alternis horis, Every other hour. 

Alt. Adstrict. Alvo adstrictd, The bowels 
being confined. 

Aq. Aqua, Water. 

Aq. Bull. Aqua bulliens, Boiling water. 

Aq. Comm. Aqua communis, Common water. 

Aq. Ferv. Aqua fervens, Hot water. 

Aq. Font. Aqua fontis, Spring water. 

Aq. Marin. Aqua viarina. Sea water. 

B. A. Balneum arence, A sand-bath. 
Bals. Balsamum, Balsam. 

BB. BBDS. Barbadensis, Barbadoes. 
Bib. Bibe, Drink. 
Bis ind. Bis indies. Twice daily. 
B. M. Balneum marim, (F.) Bain marie, A Witiee 
bath. 

BoL. Solus. 

Bull. BuJliat, Let it boil. 

But. Butyrum, Butter. 

B. V. Balneum vaporis, A vapour bath. 

C. Congius, A gallon. 
CjERUL. Ccsrideus, Blue. 
Cap. Capiat, Let him take. 
C. C. Cornu eervi. Hartshorn. 

C. C. U. Cornu cervi ustum, Burnt hartshorn. 
C. M. Cras manl, To-morrow morning. 
0. N. Cras node. To-morrow night 
C. V. Cras vespere, To-morrow evening. 
CoCHL. Cochleare, A spoonful. 
CoCHL. Ampl. Cochleare amphun, A 
spoonful. 

(17) 



lar^ 



ABBREVIATION 



18 



ABBREVIATION 



CoCHL. Inf. Cochleare infantum, A child's 
spoonful. 

CocHL. Mod. or Med. Cochleare modicum or 
medium, A dessert-spoonful. 

CoCHL. Parv. Coe/(/eare/(«rt'um, a tea-spoonful. 

Col. Cola, and Coluturm, Strain, and to the 
strained. 

Com p. Compositus, Compound. 

CoNF. Confectio, Confection. 

Cons. Conserva, Conserve. 

CsNT. Coutinuetur, Let it be continued. 

CoQ. Coque, Boil. 

CORT. Cortex, Bark. 

Crast. Cra«tinus, For to-morrow. 

Cr.T. C>ijt"<, Of which. 

Cu.M-sL. Cujuslibet, Of any. 

CvATH. Cyathus, A glassful. 

Cyath. The^, a cup of tea. 

D. Dosis, A dose. 

D. et S. Detur et signetur (placed at the end 
»/ a prescription). 

D. D. Betur ad, Let it be given in or to. 

Deaur. Pil. Deauretar pilula, Let the pill be 
gilded. 

Deb. Spiss. Dehita spisaitudo, A due consist- 
ence. 

Dec. Becnnta, Pour off. 

Decub. Decubitus, Lying down, going to bed. 

De D. in D. Be die in diem. From day to day, 

Dej. Alv. Bejectiones alci, Alvine evacuations. 

Dep. Bepuratus, Purified. 

Dest. Bestilla, Distil. 

Det. Betur, Let it be given. 

DiEB.ALTERN.Z^f'eii/aa^^erHrs, Every other day. 

DiEB. Tert. Biebus tertiis, Every third day. 

Dig. Bif/eratur. Let it be digested. 

DiL. Biliitua, Dilute. 

Dim. Bimidius, One-half. 

Div. Bivide, Divide. 

DoNEC Alv. Soldt. Fuer. Bonec alvua soluta 
fuerit, Until the bowels are opened. 

Drach. Brachma, A drachm. 

Ejusd. Ejusdem, Of the same, 

Enem. Enema, A clyster. 

ExHiB. E-rhibeatur, Let it be exhibited. 

Ext. super Alct. Extende super alutam, Spread 
^npon leather. 

F. Fiat, Let it be made. 

F. Pil. Fiat pihila, Make into a pill. 

F. Ven^s. or F. VS. Fiat vencssectio, Let bleed- 
iing be performed. 

Feb. Ddr Febre durante, The fever continuine. 

Pem. Intern. Femoribus internis, To the in?idr 
■ of the thighs. 

Fist. Arm at. Fistula armata, A bag and pi/n 
— a clyster pipe and bladder fitted for use. 

Fl. Fluidiis, and Flores, Fluid, and Flowers. 

Fkust. Frvstillatim, In small pieces. 

Gel. Qdavis. Gelatind qudvis, In any kind of 
jelly. 

G. G. G. Gummi guttm Gambim, Gamboge. 
Gr. Gran urn, A grain. 

Gt. Gulta, A drop. Cttt. Guttee, Drops. 

Gtt. or G0TT. QuiBCSD. Guttis quibusdam. With 
.'•ome drops. 

Gum. Gummi, Gum. 

GcTTAT. Guttatim, By drops. 

HoR. Decub. Hard decubittis, At bed-time. 

HoR. Interm. Horia intermediie, At interme- 
diate hours. 

H. S. Hord somni. At bed-time. 

Inp. Infunde, Infuse. 

Ind. Indies, Daily. 

Inj. Enem. Injiciatur enema, Let a clyster be 
given. 

In Pulm. /n pulmento, In gruel. 

JtJL. Jidepiis, A julep. 

Lat. Dol. Lateri dolenti, To the pained side. 

liH. and Lib. Libra, A pound weight. 



Lib. Llb. LibrcB, Pounds. 

LiQ. Liquor. 

M. Misce, Mis. 

Mac. Macera, Macerate. 

Man. JUanipiJus, A handful. 

Man. Puiii. i an^ prima, Early in the morniug. 

MiC. Pan. Mica panis. Crumb of bread. 

Min. Minimum, The 60th part of a drachm by 
measure. 

Mitt. Mitte, Send. 

Mitt. Sang. Mittatur aanguit, Let blood be 
drawn. 

Mod. Prescript. Modo pratcripto, In the 
manner directed. 

Mor. Sol. More soUto, In the usual manner. 

Muc. Mucilago, Mucilage. 

N. M. Nux moschata. Nutmeg. 

0. Octarius, A pint. 

01. Oleum, Oil. 

Ol. Lini, S. I. Oleum lini sine igne. Cold-drawn 
linseed oil. 

Omn. Bid. Omni biduo. Every two days. 

Omn. Bih. Omni bihorio. Every two hours. 

Omn. Hor. Omni hord. Every hour. 

Omn. Man. Omni mane. Every morning. 

Omn. Nocte, Every night. 

Omn. Quadr. Hor. Omni quadrante hora, 
Every quarter of an hour. • 

0. 0. 0. Oleiim olivcB optimum. Best olive oil. 

Ov. Ovum, An egg. 

Ox. Oxi/mel. 

Oz. Uncia, An ounce. 

P. Pondere, By weight, and Para, A part. 

P. and PuG. Pugillus, A pugil. 

P. M. Partes csquales, Equal parts. 

Part. Vic. Pariitis vicibus, In divided dosei. 

Peract. Op. Emet. Peractd operations emetivi. 
The operation of the emetic being over. 

Pil. Pilula, A pill. Pil. or Pill. Pilula, 
Pills. 

Post. Sing. Sed. Liq. Post singulcu aede$ 
liquidas, After every liquid evacuation. 

Pot. Potio, A potion. 

P. P. Pulvig patrum, Jesuits' bark. 

P. Rat. .^tat. Pro ratione atatis, According 
to the age. 

P. R. N. Pro re natd. As occasion may be. 

Pulv. Pulvia, A powder. 

Q. P. Quantum placeat. As much as may please. 

Q. S. Quantum sufficit. As much as is sufficient. 

QuOR. Quorum, Of which. 

Q. V. Quantum volueria, As much as you wish. 

Rad. Radix, Root. 

Ras. Basurce, Shavings. 

Rect. EectijlcutHs, Rectified. 

Red. or Redig. in Pulv. Itedactus in pulve- 
rem, or Jiedigatnr in pulverem. Powdered, or Lei 
it be powdered. 

Reg. Umbil. Eegio umbilici. The umbilical 
region. 

Repet. Repetatur, Let it be repeated. 

S. A. Secundum artem, According to art. 

Sem. Semen, Seed. 

Semi-dr. Semi-drachma, half a drachm. 

Semi-H. Semi-hora, Half an hour. 

Serv. Serva, Keep, preserve. 

Sesquih. Sesquihora, An hour and a half, 

Sesunc. Sesuncia, An ounce and a half 

Si NonVal. Si non valeat. If it does not answer. 

Si Op. Sit. Si opus sit. If there be need. 

Si ViR. Perm. Si vires permittant. If the strength 
will permit. 

Sing. Singulomm, Of each. 

SOLV. Solve, Dissolve. 

Sp. and Spir. Spiritut, Spirit. 

Ss. Semi, One half. 

St. Stet, Let it stand. 

Sub Fin. Coct. Snb finem coclionis, Towarda 
the end of the boiling. 



ABC^S 



19 



ABDUCTOR 



Sum. Sumat, Let him take; also, Summitatea, 
The tops. 

S. V. Spiritua vini, Spirit of wine. 

S. V. R. Spiritua villi rectificatua. Rectified 
spirit of wine. 

S.V. T. <Spm(i(suuu'(enMi'ov, Proof spirit of wine. 

Str. Syrtipus, Syrup. 

Temp. Dbxt. Tempori dextro, To the right 
temple. 

T. 0. Tinctura opii, Tincture of opium. 

Tr., Tra. and Tinct. Tinctura, Tincture. 

Trit. Tritura, Triturate. 

V. 0. S. or ViT. Ov. Sol. Vitello ovi aolutua. 
Dissolved in the yolk of an egg. 

VS. VeiicBsectio, Venesection. 

Z. Z. Anciently myrrh: now zinziber or ginger. 

S>, Libra, A pound. IK), Pounds. 

5, Uncia, An ounce. 

f §, Fluiduncia, A fluidounce. 

3, Drachma, A drachm. 

f 3, Fluidrachma, A fluidrachm. 

5, Scrupulum, A scruple. 

tlJJ, Minimum, A minim. 

8S, Semiaais, or half; iss, one and a half. 

j, one; ij, two; iij, three; iv, four, &o. See 
Symbol. 

The same system is not always followed in ab- 
breviating. The subjoined will exhibit the usual 
mode: 



B 



fgiss 

f^ss 
gtt. xl. M. 



Ivfua. Golomb. 

Tinct. Gent. eomp. 

Syr. Gort. Aurant. * 

Tinct. caps. 
Capt. coch. ij. p. r. n. 

This, written at length, is as follows : 
Recipe 

Iiiftisi Colombce sesqui-fluidunciam. 

Tinctura Qentiana Oompoaita fluidrachmam. 

Syrupi Obrticia AMra^itioriorasemi-fluidrach- 
mam. 

Tinctura Oapaici guttas quadraginta, 
Misce. 

Capiat eochlearia duo pro re nata. 
In the United States the directions are always 
written in English. 
ABGFS, Abscess — a. Aigu, see Abscess. 
ABGES EN BOUTON DE GHEMISE, Shirt- 
button or Shirt-stud Abaceaa. A deep-seated mam- 
mary abscess, following the septa of the breast, 
and appearing under the skin, so as eventually to 
give rise to one or more subcutaneous abscesses, 
without losing the original character of submam- 
mary suppuration. A cavity exists between the 
integuments and the gland — another, larger, be- 
tween the mamma and the chest — the two com- 
municating by a passage, which is generally nar- 
row — the whole having the exact appearance of a 
shirt-stud. — Velpeau. 

ABGES GHAUD, see Abscess — a. Ghronique, 
see Abscess — a. par Gongeation, see Abscess — 
o. Qoneecutif, Abscess, metastatic — a. Diatheai- 
que, see Abscess — a. Fr&id, see Abscess — a. Me- 
taatatique, Abscess, metastatic — a. Retro-uterine, 
see Retro-uterine — a. Scrofuleux, see Abscess — a. 
Soudain, see Abscess. 

ABDO'MEN, from abdere, 'to conceal;' be- 
cau3e it conceals the viscera; by some, fancifully 
presumed to be from abdere, ' to conceal,' and 
omentum, ' the caul.' Prom abdo is formed abdo- 
men, as from lego, legumen. Etron, Hypogas'trion, 
Phyace, Hypocoe'lium, Epia'chion, Lap'ara, Hy- 
pochoi'lion, Gaater, Hypou'trion, Nedya, Neia'ra, 
Nei'ra, Abdu'men, Venter, Venter imua, Venter 
in'fimua, Alvua, Wterus, The belly, (Sc.) Kyte, 
Penche, Weam. (Prov.) Baggie, Hag, Wem, Poole, 
(F.) Ventre, V. inferieur. Baa ventre. The larg- 
est of the three splanchnic cavities, bounded. 



above, by the diaphragm ; below, by the pelvis : 
behind, by the lumbar vertebrse ; and at the sides 
and fore part, by muscular expansions. It is dis- 
tinguished into three anterior regions, from above 
to below; viz. the epigastric, umbilical, and hypo- 
gastric, each of which is itself divided into three 
others, one middle, and two lateral: thus, the 
epigaatric region comprises the epignatrium and 
hypochondria ; the umbilical, the umbilicua and 
Jtanka or lumbar regiona ; and the hypogaatric, 
the hypogastrium and iliac regions. None of 
these regions has its limits well defined. The 
chief viscera contained in the cavity of the abdo- 
men, Coe'lia, Gavum Abdom' inia, are the stomach, 
intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, Ac. 
It is lined by the peritoneum. 

Abdomen, Pendulous, Physconia. 

ABDOM'INAL, Abdomina'lia, Ventra'Ka, Ven- 
tral. That which belongs to the Abdotuen, as 
abdominal muscles, abdominal viscera, &c, 

ABDOMINIS EXPLORATIO, Abdommos- 
copia. 

ABDOMINOSCOP'lA, Gastroscop'ia, Lapa- 
roacop'ia, Abdom'inia Explora'tio. Aldoii'inoa- 
copy. A hybrid word, from abdomen, the lower 
belly,' and crKOTTcio, ' I view.' Examination of the 
lower belly as a means of diagnosis. See Aus- 
cultation. 

ABDOM'INOUS, Ventrio'aua, Ventr /sua, from 
abdomen, 'the belly.' Big-bellied, Big-puunched, 
Ventrip'otent. Having a large abdomen. 

ABDUCENS LABIORUM, Levator anguli oris. 

ABDUCENTES, Motor oculi extemus. 

ABDUCTEUE BE L'CEIL, Rectus extemus 
oculi — a. de I'oreille, Abductor auris — a. du 
groa orteil. Abductor pollicis pedis — a. du petit 
orteil. Abductor minimi digiti pedis — a. court du 
poiice, Abductor pollicis brevis — a. longdupouee 
Abductor longus pollicis. 

ABDUCTION, Abduc'tio, from abducere, to 
separate, (ab and ducere, 'to lead.') The move- 
ment which separates a limb or other part from 
the axis of the body. 

The word has also been used synonymously 
with Abrup'tio, Apag'ma, Apoclaa'ma, a fracture 
near the articular extremity of a bone, with sepa- 
ration of the fragments. 

ABDUCTOR, same etymon. (F.) Abducteur. 
A muscle which moves certain parts by separat- 
ing them from the axis of the body. 

Abductor Auriculaeis, Abductor auris — a. 
Indicis pedis, Prior indicis pedis, Posterior indicis 
pedis — a. Medii digiti pedis. Prior medii digiti 
pedis — a. Minimi digiti, Flexor parvus minimi 
digiti — a. Minimi digiti. Prior minimi digiti — a. 
Oculi, Rectus externus oculi — a. Pollicis maniis, 
and a. Brevis alter. Abductor pollicis brevis. 

Abductor Auris, Abductor auricula'ria. (F.) 
Abducteur de I'oreille. A portion of the poaterior 
auris, whose existence is not constant, which 
passes from the mastoid process to the concha. 

Abductor In'dicis, Semi-interoa'seua in'dicia. 
A muscle which arises from the os trapezium and 
metacarpal bone of the thumb, and is inserted 
into the first bone of the forefinger. Its use is to 
bring the forefinger towards the thumb. 

Abductor Min'imi Dig"iti, Garpo-phalan'geun 
min'imi digiti, Garpo-phalangien du petit doigt, 
Exten'aor ter'tiiinterno'dii minimi digiti — (Dou- 
glas.) Hypoth'enar minor metaearpeua. See 
Flexor parvus. It originates, fleshy, from the os 
pisiforme, and from the annular ligament near 
it ; and is inserted, tendinous, into the inner side 
of the base of the first bone of the little finger. 
Uae, to draw the little finger from the rest. 

Abductor Minimi Digiti Pedis, Calco-sub- 
phalangeua minimi digiti, Calcaneo-phalangien 
du petit orteil, Parath'enar major — (By Wins- 
low, the muscle is divided into two portions, — 



ABDUMEN 



20 



ABOMASUS 



Paratheuar major and metafarseus.) Caleaneo- 
tous-phalangieii dii petit orteil — (Ch.) (F.) Ah- 
dueteur dii petit orteil. This muscle forms the 
outer margin of the sole of the foot, and is im- 
mediately beneath the plantar aponeurosis. It 
arises, tendinous and fleshy, from the outer side 
of the protuberance of the os calcis, and from 
the root of the metatarsal bone of the little toe, 
and is inserted into the outer part of the root of 
ihe first bone of the little toe. Use, to draw the 
little toe outwards. 

Abductor Poii'Licis Brevis, Abductor Polli- 
eis Manus, Scnpho-carpo-avper-phulangeus Pol- 
licis, Sus-phalangien da pouce, A. poUicis manus 
and A. brevis altei — (Albinus.) (F.) Abducteur 
'.ourt du pouce, Carpo-sus-phahingien du pouce — 
( Ch.) A short, flat, triangular muscle, which arises 
from the anterior surface of the os scaphoides and 
the annular ligament of the carpus, and termi- 
nates at the outside of the upper extremity of 
the first phalanx of the thumb. A particular por- 
tion, on the inner side of this muscle, is called, by 
Albinus, Abductor brevis alter. 

Abductor Longus Pollicis, A. I. P. Manils, 
Extensor ossis metacarpi.poUicis man^s. Extensor 
primi internodii — (Douglas,) Extensor jtrimus 
Pollicis, Cubito-radi-sus-metacarpien du pouce, 
Cubito-sus-mitacarpieii du pouce, — (Ch.) (F.) 
Abducteur long du pouce. A long, thin muscle, 
arising from the posterior surface of the ulna, 
radius, and interosseous ligament, and inserted at 
the outer side of the upper extremity of the first 
metacarpal bone. 

Abductor Pollicis Pedis, Calco-sub-phalan- 
geus Pol'licis. (F.) Abducteur du grus orteil. 
This muscle arises, fleshy, from the anterior and 
inner part of the protuberance of the os calcis, 
and tendinous from the same bone where it joins 
with the OS naviculare. It is inserted, tendinous, 
into the internal os sesamoideum and root of the 
first bone of the great toe. Use, to pull the great 
toe from the rest. 

The name Abductor has been given also to all 
those interosseous muscles of the hand and foot, 
which perform the motion of abduction on the 
fingers or toes, and to muscles which execute the 
game function on other parts of the body. 

ABDUMEN, Abdomen. 

ABEBiE'OS, from a, neg., and fieffaio;, 'firm,' 
Infir'vius, Deb'ilis. Weak, infirm, unsteady. 

ABEILLE, Bee. 

ABELMELUCH. Oneof the names of the Rici- 
nus, according to some authors. — Prosper Alpinus 
Bays that a tree, which grows about Mecca, is so 
called. Its seeds, which are black and oblong, 
are said to be a most violent cathartic. 

ABELMOSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. 
Moschatus, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

ABELMUSK, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

ABENSBERG, MINERAL WATERS OF. A. 
is a city of Bavaria, where there is a cold, sul- 
phureous spring. 

ABERRATIO, Aberration — a. Lactis, Galac- 
toplania — a. Mensium, Menstruation, vicarious — 
a. Menstruorum, Menstruation, vicarious. 

ABERBA'TION, Aberra'tio, from aberrare, 
(ab and errare,) 'to stray,' 'to wander from.' 
This word has several meanings. 

1. The passage of a fluid of the living body 
into an order of vessels not destined for it. In 
this sense it is synonymous with the Error Loci 
of Boerhaave. 

2. The flow of a fluid towards an organ difl"erent 
from that to which it is ordinarily directed ; as in 
cases of vicarious hemorrhage. Aberrations of 
tense or judgment are certain errors id the percep- 
tions, or certain derangements of the intellectual 
faculties. 

The word is used in optics to designate the 



I dispersion of the rays of light in passing througa 
a lens. 

Aberration, Chromatic, Aberration of Re- 
frangibility. 

Aberration op Refrangibil'itt, Chromat'io 
aberra'tion, (F.) Aberration de Refrangibilite, 
Chromatis me, exists, when, as in a common lens, 
the rays that pass near the circumference of the 
lens are decomposed, so that a coloured image is 
observed. This aberration in the human eye is 
corrected by the iris, which does not permit the 
rays to fall near the circumference of the lens, 
and also by the crystalline lens itself, which, 
owing to its structure, serves the purposes of an 
achromatic glass. 

Aberration, Spherical, Aberration of sphe- 
ricity. 

Aberration of Spheric"ity or spher'ical ab- 
erra'tion takes place, when the rays, as in a com- 
mon lens, which pass through the centre of the 
lens, and those which pass near the circumfer- 
ence, are unequally refracted, so that they do not 
meet at a common focus. 

This aberration of sphericity in the human eye 
is corrected by the iris and lens. 

ABESSI, Realgar. 

ABEVACUA'TIO, A])oceno'sis, from ab, and 
ei>ocr/are, 'to empty.' An evacuation. A partial 
or imperfect evacuation. By some it is applied 
to an immoderate evacution. — Kraus. 

ABllAL. A fruit well known in India, and 
obtained from a species of cypress. It passes for 
an emrnenagogue. 

ABIES, Pinus picea — a. Balsamea, Pinus bal- 
sam ea. 

Abies Balsamifera, Pinus Balsamea — a. Ca- 
nadeui^is, Pinus Canadensis — a. Excelsa, see Pinus 
abies — a. Galliea, Pinus picea — a. Larix, Pinus 
larix — a. Pectinata, Pinus picea — a. Picea, Pinus 
picea — a. Rubra, Pinus rubra. 

ABIGA, Teuorium Chamsepitys. 

ABIOSIS, Death. 

ABIOTOS, Conium maculatum. 

ABIRRITA'TION,^6i>/-i<o'<)"o, from a6, priva- 
tive, and irriiatio, ' irritation.' This word strictly 
means absence or defect of irritation. The disei- 
ples of Broussais used it to indicate a pathological 
condition, opposite to that of irritation. It may 
be considered as synonymous with debility, as- 
thenia. <fec. 

ABLACTATIO, Weaning. 

ABLASTES, Sterile. 

ABLATIO, Extirpation. 

ABLEPH'ARUS, from a, privative, and fiXt- 
(papov, ' eyelid.' One who has no eyelids. 

ABLEPSIA, Cfficitas. 

ABLUENTIA, Detergents. 

ABLUENTS, Detergents. 

ABLUTION, Ablu'tio, Aponip'sis, Catanlys'- 
mus, from abbiere, {ab and luere,) ' to wash.' A 
name given to legal ceremonies in which the 
body is subjected to particular afl"usions. Ablu- 
tion (especially of the extremities) with cold or 
tepid water is employed, therapeutically, to re- 
duce febrile heat. Also, the washing by which 
medicines are separated from the extraneous 
matters mixed with them. 

ABNORMAL, Abnormous. 

ABNORMITY, Anomalia. 

ABNOR'MOUS, Abnor'mia, Enor'mis, Abnor'- 
mal, (F.) Anormal, from ab, 'from,' and Jiornjo, 
'rule.' Not conformable to rule; irregular. 

ABOLP'TION, AboW'tio, destruction or sup- 
pression, from ab and luere (1) 'to wash.' A 
word, often employed, especially by the French, 
to express the complete suspension of any symp- 
tom or function. Abolition of the eight, e. g. is the 

I complete loss of sight. 

II ABOMA'SUS, Aboma'eum, Enys'tron, Fentne- 



ABOMINATIO 



21 ABSCESS 



(//»» iiitestina'lis, Rennet, (Sc.) Roddikin, (F.) 
GaWette. The lowermost or fourth stomach of 
ruminating animals. 

ABOMINATIO, Disgust. 
ABONDANCE, see Plethora. 
ABORSIO, Abortion. . 

ABORSUS, Abortion. 
ABORTICIDIUM, Foeticide. 
ABORT IF, Abortive. 
ABORTIFACIEXS, Abortive. 
ABORTION, Abor'itu, Abor'sus, Abor'sw, Bys- 
to'cia aborti'va, Oinoto'cfa, Paracye'sin abortus, 
Amblo'sis, Amblo'ma, Amblos'mns, Ec'bole, Em- 
bryotoc' ia, Dinph'thora, Ectro'sis, Examblo'ma, 
Examblo' sis, Ecfros'iiios, ApopaUe'sis, Apopal'sia, 
Apoph'thora, Phthnra, Coiivul'sio u'teri, Deper- 
di'tio. (F.) Avortement, Bhssure, Miscarriage; from 
ab and oriri, ' to rise,' applied to that which has 
arisen out of season. The expulsion of the foetus 
before the seventh month of utero-gestation, or 
before it is viable. The causes of this accident 
are referable either to the mother, and particu- 
larly to the uterus ; or to the foetus and its de- 
pendencies. The causes, in the mother, may be : 
— extreme nervous susceptibility, great debility, 
plethora, faulty conformation, &c. ; and it is fre- 
quently induced immediately by intense mental 
emotion, violent exercise, &c. The causes seated 
in the foetus are its death, rupture of the mem- 
branes, &c. It most frequently occurs between 
the 8th and 12th weeks of gestation. The symp- 
toms of abortion are : — uterine hemorrhage with 
or without flakes of decidua, with intermitting 
pain. When abortion has once taken place, it is 
extremely apt to recur in subsequent pregnancies 
about the same period. Some writers have called 
abortion, when it occurs prior to three months, 
Effluxion. The treatment must vary according 
to the constitution of the patient and the causes 
giving rise to it. In all cases, the horizontal 
posture and perfect quietude are indispensable. 

Abortion is likewise applied to the product of 
an untimely birth, — Abor'ttis, Abor'sus, Apoble'- 
ma, Apob'ote, Ecblo'ma, Amblothrid'ion, Ectro'- 
ma, Fruc'tm immatu'rus, Abortment, (F.) Avar- 
ton, Avortin. 

TO ABORT, Abori'ri. To miscarry. (F.) 
Avorter. 

ABOR'TIVB, Aborti'vHs, Ecbol'ius, Amblo'ti- 
cus, Amblothrid'ium, Ainbol'icus, Phthor'iiis, Apo- 
phthor'iua, Eetrot'icus, Abortifa' eieni, Acyte'- 
riuB, Expel'lens, Phthiroc' tonus, Phthoroc' tonus, 
Eebol'icHS, Contrac'tor u'teri, Accelera'tor Partus, 
Parturient, Parturifa'cient, Ecbolic. (F.) Abor- 
tif. A medicine to which is attributed the pro- 
perty of causing abortion. There is probably no 
direct agent of the kind. 
ABORTMENT, Abortion. 
ABORTUS. Abortion. 
ABOUCHEMENT, Anastomosis. 
ABOULAZA, a tree of Madagascar, used", ac- 
cording to Flacourt, in the practice of the coun- 
try, in diseases of the heart. 

ABOUTISSEMENT, Suppuration. 
ABO YEUSES, see Convuhionnaire. 
ABRABAX, Abrasnx, Abraxas. A mystic 
term, expressing the number 365, to which the 
Cabalists attributed miraculous properties. 

ABRACADA'BRA, Abrasada'bra, the name 
of a Syrian idol, according to Selden. This 
word, when pronounced and repeated in a certain 
form and a certain number of times, was sup- 
posed to have the power of curing fevers and 
preventing many diseases. It was figured on 
amulets and worn suspended around the neck. 



:i"IXDXTX3"IX 

1XDX1XD1S 

XDNTX3-IX 

D N 1 X 3 1 X 

X n N n "I X 

T X :3 "I X 

X 3 T X 

3 1 X 

1 X 

X 

ABRACALAN, A cabalistic term to which tbe 
Jews attributed the same virtue as to the word 
Abracadabra. 

ABRASADABRA, Abracadabra. 

ABRASAX, Abrabax. 

ABRA'SION, (Prov.) Fleclc, Abra'sio, Aposyr'- 
ma, Apoxys'mus, from abradere, (ab and radere,) 
' to rasp.' A superficial excoriation, with loss of 
substance, under the form of small shreds, in the 
mucous membranes of the intestines, — (F.) Ra- 
clures des Boyaux. Also an ulceration of the 
skin, possessing similar characters. According 
to Vicq d'Azyr, the word has been used for the 
absorption of the molecules composing the various 
organs. 

ABRATHAN, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABRAXAS, Abrabax. 

ABRE, Abrus precatorius. 

ABREVIATION, Abbreviation. 

ABRICOT, see Prunus Armeniaca — a. Sau- 
vage, Mammea Americana. 

ABRICOTIER, Prunus Armeniaca. 

ABROSIA, Abstinence. 

ABROTANUM, .Artemisia abrotanum — a. 
Cathsum, Artemisia abrotanum — a. Mas, Arte- 
misia abrotanum. 

ABROTONE, Artemisia abrotanum. 

ABROTONI'TES, (oii/oj, 'wine,' understood.) 
Wine impregnated with Artemisia Abrotanum or 
Southernwood. 

ABROTONUM, Artemisia Abrotanum. 

ABRUPTIO, Abduction. 

ABRUS PRECATO'RIUS, (from a&po?, 'ele- 
gant.') Liq'orice Bush, Red Bean, Love pea. (F.) 
Abre, Lianc d rSglisse. A small ornamental 
shrub, found from Florida to Brazil, as well as in 
Egypt and the West Indies ; Nat. Ord. Legumi- 
nosae. Sex. Syst. Monadelphia Enneandria; hav- 
ing beautiful scarlet seeds with a black spot. The 
roots and leaves are sweet mucilaginous demul- 
cents. The seeds of the American kind are con- 
sidered to be purgative and poisonous. They are 
employed to form rosaries, and hence called, in 
mockery, .Jumble beads. 

ABSCESS, from abscedo, (abs, and cedere,) ' I 
depart,' or 'separate from.' Absces'sus, Absces'- 
sio, Aphiste'sis, Aposte'ma, Ecpye'ma, Ecpye'sis, 
Reces'sus, Impos'thume, Gathering. (Old Eng.) 
Apostemacion,Apost'hume. (Sc.) HattreL (Prov.) 
Goul, Numpost, Pastime. (F.) Abces, Depot. A 
collection of pus in a cavity, the result of a mor- 
bid process. See Pyogenia, and Suppuration. 

The French have various distinctive terms f(r 
Abscesses?. 

Abces Chaud, Aigu, Soudain, is one which fol- 
lows violent inflammation. 

Abces Froid, Ghronique, Scrofuleux, etitd, 
chronic, or scrofidous abscess, one which is the 
result of chronic or scrofulous inflammation. 

Abcis par Congestion, A. diathesiqne, a sympto- 
matic abscess ; one which occurs in a part at a 
distance from the inflammation by which it is 
occasioned : e. g. a lumbar abscess ; in which the 
inflammation may be in the lumbar vertebrae, 
whilst the pus exhibits itself at the groin. 

Abscess, Alveolar, Parulis — a. Cold, sea 
U Abscess. 



ABSCISSIO PR^PUTII 



22 



ABSUS 



Abscess, Metastat'ic, Abaces'aua metastat'- 
icuH, (F.) Ahcas metastatique, A. consecutif, an 
abscess which forms suddenly, and sometimes 
without any precursory signs of inflammation, in 
a part of the body remote from one in a state of 
suppuration, and without presenting a sufficient 
reason for its development in the place which it 
occupies. It is a consequence of phlebitis. 

Abscess, Phrporating op the Lung, see 
Lung, perforating abscess of the — a. Perilaryn- 
geal, see Perilaryngitis — a. Psoas, Lumbar ab- 
scess — a. Retropharyngeal, see Retropharyngeal 
— a. Shirtstud, Abces en bouton de chemise. 

Abscessos Capitis Sanguineus Neonatorum, j 
Cephaliematoma — a. Cerebri, Eucephalopyosis — ' 
a. (langraenescens. Anthrax — a. Gangrsenosus, 
Anthrax — a. Lacteus, Mastodynia apostematosa 
— a. Lumborum, Lumbar abscess — a. Mammae, 
Mastodynia apostematosa — a. Metastaticus, Ab- 
scess, metastatic — a. Nucleatus, Furunculus — a. 
Oculi, Hypopyon — a. Pectoris, Empyema — a. 
Pulmonum, Pneumapostema — a. Renalis, Ne- 
phrapostasis — a. Spirituosus, Aneurism — a. Tho- 
racis, Empyema — a. Urinosus, Urapostema. 
ABSCISSIO PR^PUTII, Circumcision. 
ABSCIS'SION, Abscis'io, Abscis'sio, from ab- 
ecidere or abscindere, ' to cut off,' Apoc'ope, 
Apothrau'sis, Diac'ope. Excision or extirpation 
of a part, especially of a soft part. — Fabricius 
Hildanus. 

Fracture or injury of soft parts, with loss of 
substance. — Hippocrates. 

Diminution, or loss of voice. — Celsus. 
Sudden and premature termination of a dis- 
ease. — Galen. 

ABSCONSIO. Sinus. 

ABSENCE DU BRUIT RESPIRATOIRE, 
see Murmur, respiratory. 

ABSINTHE, Artemisia absinthium. 
ABSINTHI'TES, a^iv^irvs, Aps!nthi'tes,'Wme 
impregnated with Absinthium or Wormwood. — 
Dioscorides. 

ABSINTHIUM, (Ph. U. S.,) Artemisia ab- 
sinthium — a. Marinum, Artemisia maritima — a. 
Maritimum, Artemisia maritima — a. Ponticum, 
Artemisia pontica — a. Romanum, Artemisia pon- 
tica — a. Santonicum, Artemisia santonica — a. 
Vulgare, Artemisia absinthium. 
ABSORBANT, Absorbent. 
ABSOR'BENT, Abmr'bens, from absorbere(ab 
and sorbere,) 'to drinli, to suck up.' (F.) Ab- 
Borbant. That which absorbs. 

Absorbent System is the collection of vessels, 
Vasa absorben'tia seu re>s<iiheit'ti(i, and glands, 
which concur in the exercise of absorption. 

A medicine used for absorbing acidity in the 
stomach and bowels, as magnesia, chalk, &c. In- 
ver'tens, Reaor'beim, Sat'urans, PrcBcip'itans, 

Also, any substance, such as cobweb, sponge, 
Ac, which, when applied to a bleeding surface, 
retains the blood, and forms with it a solid and 
adhesive compound, which arrests the hemor- 
rhage. 

ABSORPTIO, Absorption— a. Sanguinis, 
Haemorrhophesis. 

ABSORP'TION, Absorp'tio, Resorp'tio, Iiiha- 
la'tio, ImbibWio, Anar'rhophe, Anarmphe'mg, 
Gntapt)io'8i8, Rhoebde'ais, Cittarrhophv'sis, Qa- 
tar' rhophe ; same etymon. The function of ab- 
sorbent vessels, by virtue of which they take up 
substances from without or within the body. Two 
great divisions have been made of this function. 
I. External absorption, or the absorption of com- 
po«ition, which obtains, from without the organs, 
the materials intended for their composition ; 
and, 2. Internal absorption, or the absorption of 
decomposition, which takes up from the organs 
the materials that have to be replaced by the 
ftKhalants. 



By external absorption is meant not only that 
which takes place at the external surface of the 
body, but also that of the mucous membranes of 
the digestive and respiratory passages. Hence, 
again, the division of external absorption into cu- 
taneous — resorp'tio cuta'nea seu cutis, inhala'tio 
cutis, — intestinal or digestive, and pulmonary or 
resjiiratory. 

Internal absorption is also subdivided into, 

1. llolecular or interstitial, nutritive, organic, or 
decomposing, which takes up from each organ the 
materials that constitute it, so that the decompo- 
sition is always in equilibrio with the deposition. 

2. The absorption of recrementitial secreted fluids, 
such as the fluid of serous membranes, synovia, 
&o. As these are constantly exhaled on surfaces 
which have no external outlet, they would aug- 
ment indefinitely, if absorption did not remove 
them in the same proportion as that in which 
they are deposited. 3. The absorptio^i of a part 
of the excrenientitial fluids, as they pass over the 
excretory passages. 

Absorption does not effect the decomposition 
of the body immediately. It merely prepares the 
fluid which has to be eliminated by the secretory 
organs. 

The great agents of external absorption are the 
veins and chyliferous vessels; of internal absorp- 
tion, probably the lymphatics. In the chylife- 
rous vessels and lymphatics the fluid is always 
found to possess the same general properties. 
In them, therefore, an action of elaboration or 
selection must have taken place. The veins, on 
the other hand, seem to exert no selection. Any 
fluid, possessing the necessary tenuity, passes 
through the coats of the vessel readily l)y imbibi- 
tion, and proceeds along with the torrent of the 
circulation. Watery fluids in this manner enter 
the blood when they are taken into the stomach. 
Substances that require digestion, on the other 
hand, must pass through the chyliferous vessels 
and thoracic duct. 

Absorption op Composition, see Absorption — 
a. Cutaneous, see Absorption — a. of Decomposi- 
tion, see Absorption — a. Digestive, see Absorp- 
tion — a. External, see Absorption — a. of Excre- 
mentitial Secreted Fluids, see Absorption — a. 
Internal, see Absorption — a. Intestinal, see Ab- 
sorption — a. Interstitial, see Absorption — a. 
Molecular, see Absorption — a. Nutritive, see Ab- 
sorption — a. Organic, see Absorption — a. Pul- 
monary, see Absorption — a. of Recrementitial 
Secreted Fluids, see Absorption — a. Respiratory, 
see Absorption. 

ABSTEME, Abstemious. 

ABSTE'MIOUS, Abste'mius, Aoi'nos, from aba, 
'without,' and temetum, 'wine.' (F.) Abslime. 
Used by the ancient writers, as well as by the 
French, in the sense only of its roots; one who 
abstains from wine or fermented liquors in 
general. 

ABSTERGENTIA, Detergents. 

ABSTERSIVA, Detergents. 

ABSTERSORIA, Detergents. 

AB'STINENCE, Abstinen'tia, from aba, 'from,' 
and tenere, ' to hold,' Abros'ia, Asit'ia, Liman'- 
chia, Limoeton'ia, Fasting. Privation, usucdly 
voluntary, as when we speak of abstinence from 
pleasure, abstinence from drink, &o. It is more 
particularly used to signify voluntary privation 
of certain articles of food. Fasting is a useful re- 
medial agent in certain diseases, particularly in 
those of an inflammatory character. 

ABSUS, a kind of cassia, 0. Absus, which 
grows in Egypt and in India, the seeds of which, 
pulverized and mixed with powdered sugar, have 
been employed in form of a dry collyrium, in the 
endemic ophthalmia of Egypt. 



ABULIA 



23 



ACCABLEMENT 



ABU'LIA ; from a, 'privative,' and /JouAi;, ' will.' 
Loss of the will, or of volition. 

ABU'LICUS ; same etymon. One who has lost 
the power of will or of volition. 

ABUS DE SOI-iM&ME, Masturbation. 

ABUTA (a Guiana name), Pareira brava. 

ABUTILON AVICENN^, A. Corda'tum, Si- 
da Abit'tiloii, Indian or Yellow llcillow, Velvet 
leaf ; Order, Malvaceae, (from a, privative,' /?ovf, 
' an ox,' and riXog, ' diarrhoea,' that is, ' a remedy 
for the diarrhoea of cattle ;') is naturalized, and 
common in most parts of the United States. It 
resembles common mallow in its properties, being 
mucilaginous and demulcent. 

ABVACUA'TIO, an excessive or colliquative 
evacuation of any kind. 

ACACIA, (Ph. U. S.) Acaeiae gummi — a. Cate- 
chu, Catechu — a. False, Eobinia pseudo-acacia — 
a. Germanica, see Prunus spinosa — a. Giraffse, see 
Acacise gumrai — a. Horrida, see Acacias gummi 
— a. Indica, Tamarindus — a. Nilotica, see Aeacise 
gummi — a. Nostras, see Prunus spinosa. — a. Sene- 
gal, see Senegal, gum — a. Vera, see Acaeiaj gum- 
mi — a. Zeylonica, Hgematoxylon Campechianum. 

ACACK^ GUMML Acu'cia, from aKr,, 'a 
point,' so called in consequence of its spines, G. 
Aca'cicB AraViccB, G. Mimo'scB, G. Arab'icum, G, 
Acanth'inum, G. Leucum, G. Theba'icum, G. Se- 
rapio'iiis, G. Lamac, G. Senega or Seneca, (see 
Senegal, gum,) Gum Ai-'ahic. (F.) Gomme Ara- 
hique. The gum of the Aca'cia seu Mimo'sa 
Nilot'ica, Aca'cia vera, Spina ^^yyptiaca, of 
Upper Egypt, Nat. Ord. Mimoseae. Sejc. Si/st. 
Polygamia Monoecia. It is in irregular pieces, 
colourless, or of a pale yellow colour, hard, brittle, 
of a shining fracture, transparent, soluble in 
water, and insoluble in alcohol, s. g. 1-43 17. 

It is mucilaginous ; but is rarely used, except 
in pharmacy. Sometimes it is administered alone 
as a demulcent. 

Acacia Horrida and A. Giraffes, of South 
Africa, yield a good gum. 

ACAJOU, (of Indian origin) Anacardium oc- 
cidentale. 

AcA.iuBA Officinalis, Anacardium occidentale. 

Acal'ypha Betuli'na, Cauda felis agrestis, 
(a, 'privative,' Ka\og, 'beautiful,' and Si(l>n, 'touch') 
is employed by the natives of India as a stoma- 
chic and in cholera. It is given in the form of 
infusion of the leaves. 

Acalypha Hispida, Caturus spiciflorus. 

Acal'ypha In'dica, 'disagreeable to the 
touch.' Ciipnmeni, Order Euphorbiaceae. A com- 
mon annual in the gardens of India. An infusion 
of the root, and a decoction of the leaves are 
cathartic. 

Acal'ypha Virgin'ica. Three-seeded mer'curi/, 
indigenous, flowering in August, is said to have 
expectorant and diuretic properties. 

ACAM'ATUS, from <i, priv., and Ka/ivui, 'I la- 
bour.' This word has been sometimes used for 
a good constitution of the body. According to 
(Jalen, it means that position in which a limb is 
intermediate between flexion and extension ; a 
position which may be long^maintained without 
fatigue. 

ACAMPSIA, Contraetura. 

ACAN03, Onopordium acanthium — a. Spina, 
Ouopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHA, Vertebral column. Also, Spinous 
process of a vertebra. 

ACANTHAB'OLUS, Acayi'tJiulus, Vohel'la, 
from axav^a, ' a spine,' and ^a\\u>, ' I cast out.' 
A kind of forceps for removing extraneous sub- 
stances from wounds. — Paulus of ^gina, Fabri- 
cius ab Aquapendente, Scultetus, <fec. 

ACANTHALZUCA, Echinop^. 



AC AN THE FAUSSE, Heracleum spondy. 
lium. 

ACANTHIA LECTULARIA, Cimex lectu- 
larius. 

ACANTHIUM, Onopordium acanthium. 

ACANTHULUS, Aeanthabolus. 

ACANTHUS MOLLIS, (uKav^a, 'a spin; or 
thorn,') same etymon as Acacia. MelainijhyV- 
lum, Branca ursi'na seu vera, Braiiktn-'sine, 
Bear's Breech. (F.) Pied d'ours. This plant \B 
mucilaginous like Althtea, and is used as a de ■ 
mulcent. 

ACAPATLI, Piper longum. 

ACAR'DIA, from a, priv., and Kaf>ua, 'the 
heart.' The state of a foetus withouJt. a heart. 

ACARDIOUiE'MIA. (F.) Acardiohhme, from 
a, priv., Kapiia, ' heart,' and ai/ia ' biood.' 'Want 
of blood in the heart. — Piorry. 

ACARDIONER'VIA, (F.) Acardionervie : 
from a, priv., KapSia, 'heart;' and vtvpov, 'nerve.' 
AVant of nervous action in the heart as indicated 
by the sounds ceasing to be audible. 

ACARDIOTROPHIA, Heart, atrophy jf the. 

AC ARE, Acarus. 

AC'ARICIDE, from acarus, and cadere, 'to 
kill.' A destroyer of acari, — as of the acarus 
scabiei. 

ACARICO'BA. The Brazilian name for Hy- 
drocot'yle umbella'tum, used by the Indians as 
an aromatic, alexipharmic, and emetic. 

ACARON, Myrica gale. 

ACARP'^, from a, 'privative,' and Kap-os, 
'fruit.' A division of the family of cutaneous 
diseases by Fuchs, in which there is no " fruit," 
(Germ. Frucht.) or production from the cutane- 
ous surface — tubercles, vesicles or pustules. 
Lentigo, Chloasma, Argyria, and Pityriasis be- 
long to it. 

ACARUS, from a, privative, and Kapri^, 'di- 
visible.' (F.) Acare. A minute insect, one spe- 
cies of which has been noticed, by several obser- 
vers, in the itch. The Acarus Scabiei, see Psora. 

Acarus Ciro, see Psora — a. Comedonum, 
Acarus Folliculorum. 

Ac'arus Cros'sei, Crosse mite. An insect sup- 
posed by Mr. Crosse, of England, to have been 
developed in a solution of silicate of potassa when 
submitted to slow galvanic action, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining crystals of silex. It did not, 
however, prove to be a new formation. 

AcARDS Folliculo'rum. a. Comedo'num, En- 
tozo'on seu De'modex seu Simo'nea seu Steatozo'- 
on folliculo'rum, Ilacrogas'ter j^lat'ypus. An 
articulated animalcule, discovered in the sebace- 
ous substance of the cutaneous follicles. Accord- 
ing to Professor Owen, it belongs to the Ara- 
chnida. 

AcARTjs Scabiei, Acarus, see Psora. 

ACATALEP'SIA, from a, privative, and xaru- 
Xafiliui'd), 'I comprehend.' Uncertainty in dia- 
gnosis. Its opposite is Catalepsia. — Galen. 

ACATAP'OSIS, from a, privative, and Kara- 
■iroais. ' deglutition.' Incapacity of swallowing. 
Vogel has given this name to difficulty of deglu- 
tition. 

ACATASTAT'IC, Acatastat'icus, from a, priv. 
and Ka^iaTji/ii, 'to determine.' An epithet given 
to fevers, &c., when irregular in their periods or 
symptoms. — Hippocrates. 

ACATHAR'SIA, from a, priv., and Ka^aipi^io, 
' I purge ;' Sordes, Impurities. Omission of a pur- 
gative. — Foesius. 

ACATSJAVAL'LL a Malabar plant, which is 
astringent and aromatic. A bath of it is used in 
that country in cases of hemicrania. It is sup- 
posed to be the Cnssytha filiformis of LinnaJUb. 

ACAWERIA, Ophioxylum serpentinum. 

ACCABLFJIENT, Torpor. 



ACC^L^RATEUR 



24 



ACEPHALOGASTER 



XCGtlLERATEUR DE U URINE, Accele- j 
rntor urinae. 

ACCELERATOR PARTUS, Abortive. 
Acceleba'tor Uri'n^, Bidbo-cavemo'eus, Bul- 
bo-uretral — (Ch.), EJacula'tor Sem'inis, Bulbo- 
Kyndeamo-cavernenx. (F.) Accelerateur de I'urine, 
Bulbo-cavenieux, Auo-caverneux, from ad and 
celer, 'quick.' A muscle of the penis, which 
arises, fleshy, froui the sphincter ani and mem- 
branous part of the urethra, and tendinous, from 
the crus and beginning of the corpus caverno- 
sum penis. In its course it forms a thin, fleshy 
layer, the inferior fibres of which run more trans- 
versely than the superior, which descend in an 
oblique direction ; the muscles of both sides com- 
pletely enclosing the bulb of the urethra. It is 
inserted into its fellow by a tendinous line run- 
ting longitudinally on the middle of the bulb. 
Its use is to propel the urine or semen forwards. 

ACCENT, S011U8 vocis, from ad and canere, 
eantum, to sing. Inflection or modification of the 
voice, which consists in raising or dropping it on 
certain syllables. 

The accent exhibits various alterations in dis- 
ease. ^ 

ACCES, Paroxysm. 

ACCKS'SION, Acces'sio, from aceedo, (ad and 
cedere,) ' I approach.' The invasion, approach, 
or commencement of a disease. 

ACGESSOIRE, Accessory— a, du longFlechis- 
seur commuH des orteils : see Flexor longus digi- 
torum pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — 
a. de V Obturateur interne, Ischio-trochanterianus 
— a. du Pied d' Hippocampe : see Cornu ammonis 
— a. du Sacro-lombaire : see Saoro-lumbalis. 

ACCESSORIUS FLEXOR LONGUS DIGI- 
TORUM PEDIS; see Flexor longus digitorum 
pedis profundus perforans (accessorius) — a. Pedis 
hippocampi; — see Cornu ammonis. 

ACCESSORY, Accesso'riug, (F.) Aceeasoire, 
Annexe, same etymon. A consequence or de- 
pendence on any thing; as accessory ligament, 
muscle, nerve, &c. 

Accessory of the Pabot'id is a name given 
by Haller to a small gland, which accompanies 
the parotid duct, and is commonly a mere pro- 
longation of the parotid itself. See Parotid. 

Accessory Sciences to Medicine are those 
which do not relate directly to the science of 
man in a state of health or disease ; as physics, 
chemistry, &c. 
Accessory of the Par Vagum, Spinal nerve. 
The term accessory is also given to several 
muscles. 

ACCESSUS, Coition. 

ACCIDENS, Symptoma— a. Consecvtifs^ Con- 
secutive phenomena. 

ACCIDENT, Ac'cidens, from aceidere, (ad and 
cadere,) ' to happen.' A casualty ; an unforeseen 
event. The French — like older English writers 
— use the term in nearly the same sense as symp- 
tom. It means also an unexpected symptom. 

ACCIDEN'TAL, AdvenWtious. That which 
happens unexpectedly. 

The French give the name Tissus accidentels 
to those adventitious textures, that are the result 
of a morbid process. 

ACCIP'ITER, i/t'ern.T, hpak, 'the hawk,' from 
accipere (ad and rapio,) ' to take.' Menec'rafis 
Accip'iter, (F.) ^^)e>t>!er. A bandage applied 
over the nose, so called from its likeness to the 
claw of a hawk. 

ACCLI'MATED, Clima'ti assw'fiis, (from ad 
and climn.) A word of recent introduction from 
the French, which means 'accustomed to a cli- 
mate.' 
ACCLIMATATION. Acclimation. 
A CGLIMA TEMENT, Acclimation. 
ACCLIMATION, Seas'oning. (F.) AccUmate- 



ment, Acclimatation. The act of becoming, accli- 
mated or accustomed to a climate. 

The constitution of a person, who goes to liv« 
in another and a very different climate, usually 
experiences changes, which are frequently of ai 
unfavourable character, and the study of whici 
is of considerable importance in medicine. 

AGCOMPAGNEMENT DE LA CAT A 
RAGTE, Accompaniment of the cataract. 

ACCOM'PANIMENT, Adjun'ction. (V.) Ac- 
compagnement, (compaguon, 'an associate'). That 
which is joined to any thing. 

Accompaniment to the cataract, (F.) Accom- 
pagnement de la cataracte, is a whitish, visci-l 
substance, which sometimes surrounds the opake 
crystalline lens, and remains after the operation 
for cataract, causing a secondary cataract. 
ACCOUCHEE, Puerpera. 
AGGOUGHEMENT, Parturition — a. Labori- 
ous, Dystocia — a. contre Nature, see Presentation, 
preternatural — a. Luborieux, Laborious labour, 
— a. Provoque, see Parturition. 

ACGOUGHEVR, (F.) Adju'tor Partus, Oh- 
stet'ricans, Obstetri"cius, ilaieu'ter, Maiexvtes. 
He who practices the art of midwifery. A physi- 
cian-Accoucheur, a Surgeon-Accoucheur, a Jlfon- 
midioife, &c. 

ACCOUCHEUSE, Midwife. 
AGGOUPLEMENT, Coition. 
ACCOUTUMANGE, Habit. 
ACCRE'TION, Accre'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
creseere, 'to increase.' Augmentation; (F.) Ac- 
croissement ; also, increase by juxtaposition. 
ACOROiSSEMENT, Accretion, Increase. 
ACCUSATIO, Indication. 
ACE'DIA, Incu'ria, from a, privative, and 
KrjSo;, ' care.' Want of care, neglect. Also, fa- 
tigue. — Hippocrates. 
ACELLA, Axilla. 
ACEOGNOSIA, Pharmacognosia, 
ACEOLOGIA, Materia Medica. 
AGEPHALE, Acephalous. 
ACEPHALH.E'MIA, (¥.) Acephalhemie, from 
a, priv., Kt^aKrj, 'head,' and aifia, ' blood.' Want 
of blood in the encephalon. — Piorry. 
ACEPHALIA, see Acephalous. 
AGEPHALTE, see Acephalous. 
ACEPHALOBRA'CHUS, from a, privative, 
Kc<pn\ri, 'head,' and ^pa^f^iav, 'arm.' A foetus 
without head or arms. 

ACEPHALOCAR'DIA, from a, priv., m0oXi7, 
' head,' and Kap&ia, ' heart.' Monstrosity in which 
there is absence of head and heart. 

ACEPHALOCHI'RUS, from a, privative, «- 
(pa>.ri, 'head,' and xeip, 'hand.' A foetus without 
head or hands. 

ACEPH'ALOCYST, Acephalocys'tis, (F.) Ace- 
phalocyste, from a, privative, KC<!>a\t], ' he.id,' and 
KViTii, ' bladder.' A hydatiform vesicle, without 
head or visible organs, ranked amongst the Ento- 
zoa, although possessed of few animated charac- 
teristics. In no organ of the body are acepha- 
locysts so frequently found as in the liver. Gene- 
rally it is the 'multiple acephalocyst,' A. socia'- 
lis seu prolif'era, which is met with. At times, 
however, it is the 'solitary acephalocyst,' A. 
eremi'ta seu ster'ilis. 

The acephalocyst is endog"enn has a firm coar, 
and is composed of diff"erent layers, which have 
numbers of smaller hydatids within them, and 
are thrown off from the interior of the parent 
cyst. This species has hence been termed en- 
dogena, to distinguish it from the A. exog"ena 
of ruminant animals, in which the young vesicles 
are developed from the exterior of the parent 
vesicles. — See Hydatid. 

ACEPHALOGAS'TER, Athoracoceph'alus. 
from a privative, Kt(pa\>i, 'head,' and yaanjp, 'the 



ACEPHALOPODUS 



25 



ACETONE 



belly.' A name given to monsters devoid of head, 
chest, and abdomen ; or to those which have an 
abdomen, but no chest or head. 

ACEPHALOP'ODUS, from a, priv., Kt<t>a\t,, 
'head,' and ttous, rro^oy, ' foot.' A monster devoid 
of head and feet. The condition is called Acepha- 
lopod'ia, 

ACEPHALORA'CHIA, from a, priv., KC(pa\,j, 
'head,' and ^o;^'^' ' spii^e.' Monstrosity in which 
there is absence of head and spine. 

ACEPHA LOS'TOMA, from a, privative, »:£(^aXi7, 
' head,' and orona, ' mouth.' An acephalous foetus, 
at the upper part of which there is an opening 
resembling a mouth. 

ACEPHALOTHORA'CIA, from a, privative, 
Kc^aXn, ' head,' and ^(i>pa^, ^a>paKo<:, ' thorax.' 
Monstrosity in which there is absence of head 
jind chest. 

ACEPHALOTHO'RUS, from a, privative, 
Ks<()a\ri, 'head,' and ■Sdipaf, ' chesi,' Apectoceph' alua. 
A monster devoid of head or chest. 

ACEPH'ALUS, from a, privative, and Kt<^a.\ri, 
'head.' (E.) Acephale. A monster born devoid 
of head. The condition is called Acepha'lia. (F.) 
Acephalie. 
ACER, Acrid. 

Acer Palmifolium, A. Saccharinum. 
Acer Pennsylvan'icum, Striped llaple, 
Striped Dogwood. A decoction of the bark has 
been used internally and externally in cutaneous 
affections ; and a decoction of the leaves and twigs 
is said to relieve nausea and vomiting. 

Acer Rubrum, Bed Maple; Indigenous. The 
inner bark is a mild astringent. The Indians 
use a decoction of it for sore eyes. 

Acer Sacchari'num, A. palmifo'lium. Maple, 
Sugar Maple. (F.) Erahle, Ord., Aceraceae. This 
tree contains a large amount of sweet sap, whence 
a considerable quantity of sugar may be extracted. 
When purified, this sugar can scarcely be distin- 
guished from that obtained from the cane. — See 
Saccharum. 

Acera'tes Longifo'lia, Long-leaved green 
Milkweed; Order, Asclepiadaceaj ; indigenous, 
flowering in June and July; has the properties 
of the order. See Asclepias. 

ACERATO'SIS, from a, privative, and xepas, 
KCfaToi, 'horn.' Defective development of the 
corneous tissue. 

ACERB', Acer'bus, Stryphnos, from acer, 
'sharp.' A savour, or taste, compounded of the 
acid, bitter, and astringent ; such as is met with 
ifl unripe fruits, &c. 

ACER'CUS, from a, privative, and KtpKos 'a 
tail.' A monster devoid of tail. — Gurlt. 

ACE'RIDES, Acero'des, from a, privative, and 
Kijpoff, * wax.' Plasters devoid of wax. — Galen. 
ACERODES, Acerides. 

ACERO'SUS, Achyro'des, Pithyri'nus, from 
a^vpov, ' chaff.' Furfura'ceous. An epithet used 
by Hippocrates for the coarsest bread, made of 
flour not separated from the chaff. — Foesius. 

ACERVULUS CEREBRI. See Pineal Gland 
— a. Glandulus Pinealis, see Pineal Gland. 

ACES'CENCY, Aceseen'tia, from acescere, 'to 
grow sour,' (aKis, 'a point,' acer, 'sharp.') A dis- 
position to acidity. The humourists believed that 
the animal humours are susceptible of this change. 
ACESIA, Cure. 
ACESINOSUS, Curative. 
ACESIS, Curation, Cure, Medicament. 
ACESMA, Medicament. 
ACESMIUS, Curable. ' 

ACESMUS, Cure. 
ACESODYNES, Anodyne. 
ACESOPHORUS, Curative. 
ACESTER, Physician. 
ACESTIS. Medicament. 
ACESTOR, Physician. 
2 



ACESTORIA, Medicine. 
ACESTORIS, Midwife. 
ACESTOS, Curable. 
ACESTRA, Needle. 
ACESTRIA, Midwife. 
ACESTRIS, Midwife. 
ACESTRUM, Medicament. 
ACETA MEDICATA, Acetiea. 
ACETABULA UTERINA, Cotvledons. 
ACETAB'ULUM, (F.) Aeetabute, from acetum 
' vinegar,' because it resembles the old vinega. 
vessel oxybaph'ion. A measure capable of con- 
taining the eighth part of a modern pint. — Athe- 
naeus. Galen. See Cotyloid. According to 
Castelli, the lobes or cotyledons of the placentae 
of ruminating animals have been so called. 

Acetabulum, Cotyle, see Cotyloid — a. Humeri, 
see Glenoid — a. Marinum, Umbilicus marinus. 

ACETA'RIA, same etymon. A salad or 
pickle. 

ACETAS, Acetate. 

ACETATE, Ace'taa. (F.) AcState. A salt 
formed by the union of the acetic acid with an 
alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. The acetates 
chiefly used in medicine are the acetates of am- 
monia, lead, potash, and zinc. 

ACE'TICA, Ace'ta Medica'ta. (F.) Vinaigres 
M6dicinaux. Pharmaceutical preparations of 
vinegar. 

ACE'TICUM AC'IDUM, Acidnm Ace'ticnm 
for' tins seu forte seu 2)vrum seu glacia'le, Aee'- 
tum radica'le, Oxos, Ace'tic Acid, Strong Ace'toiM 
Acid, Aeidiim Aceto' sum forte, Bad'ical Vin'egar, 
Spir'itus Ven'eris (when made from verdigris ) 
Spirit of Verdigris. Concentrated acetic acid, 
prepared by decomposing an acetate and receiv- 
ing the acetic acid by distillation, has a very 
pungent and grateful odour, and an acid and 
acrid taste. Its s. g. is about 1.046, and it is 
very volatile. 

It is stimulant, rubefacient, and escharotic, and 
is applied to the nostrils in syncope, asphyxia, 
headache, Ac. It destroys warts. 

An Aromatic Spirit of Vinegar, Ac'Hdum Ace'- 
ticnm Camphora'tiim, A. aceto'siim cajiiphora'tiim, 
is formed of this strong acid, i§x^ Camphor, ^j ; 
Alcohol, f^j. 

A strong Acetic Acid was ordered by the Lon- 
don pharmacopoeia, prepared from wood. It was 
called Vinegar of wood, Improved distilled Vine- 
gar, Pyrolig'neous Acid, Ace'tum Ligno'rnm, and 
its strength was such, that 87 gr. of crystallized 
subcarbonate of soda should saturate 100 grains 
of the acid. 

Ac"idum Ace'tictim Bilu'tnm, A. A. ten'ue seu 
debil'iiis, Ace'tum destiUa'tum, Acidum ace'ticnm, 
Acidum aceto'sum destiUa'tum, Distil' led vin'egar, 
(F.) Acide Acetique faille, Vinaigre distilU, is 
prepared by distilling vinegar, until seven-eighths 
have passed over. An Acidum aceticum dilutum. 
Diluted acetic acid, is made by mixing a pint of 
the strong acetic acid with seven pints of distilled 
water. — Ph. U. S. Its properties are like thofe 
of vineg.ar. 
Aceticum Martiale, Ferri Acetas. 
AOETOLAT, (F.) from acetum, vinegar. A 
liquid medicine resulting from the distillation of 
vinegar on one or more aromatic vegetable sub- 
stances, and which are formed of vinegar and 
essential oils, or other volatile principles. — Beral. 
ACETOLATURE, same etymon. A tincture, 
formed by digesting a vegetable substance cr sub- 
stances in vinegar. — Beral. 

ACETOLE, same etymon, OxeofS. A medi- 
cine, formed of distilled vinegar and medicinal 
principles dissolved in it. — Beral. 
ACETOMEL, Oxymel. 
ACETONE, Av"etoH, from acetum, 'Tinegar. 



ACETOSA ALPINA 



ACHILLEA AGERATUM 



Spir'itua pyro-ace'tictis ligno'eus, Pyrv-ace'tic 
ipirit, Pyro-ace'tia Ether, Mesit'ie Al'cohol, 
Bihydrate of Mesit'ylene, (F.) Acetone; errone- 
ously called Naphtha and Wood Naphllia. By 
others, however, the terms are ajiplied to Py- 
rnxylic Spirit. A limpid, colourless liquid, hav- 
ing a peculiarly penetrating and slightly empy- 
reumatic odour. Its density in the. liquid state, 
is alaiost the same as that of alcohol, 0.7921. Its 
taste is disagreeable, and analogous to that of 
peppermint. It is raiscible in all proportions 
with water, alcohol, and ether. It may be pre- 
pared by distilling a mixture of two parts of 
crystallized acetate of lead and one part of quick- 
lime in a salt-glaze jar (gray-beard,) the lower 
part of the jar being coated with fire-clay; and 
a bent glass tube, half an inch in diameter, 
adapted to the mouth by a cork, so as to form a 
distillatory apparatus. The jar is supported on 
the mouth of a small furnace, by which the lower 
part only is heated to redness, and the vapours 
are conducted into a Liebig's condenser. The 
product is repeatedly redistilled from quicklime, 
until its boiling point is constant at 132°. 

It has been brought forward as a remedy in 
phthisis pulmonalis; but evidently with un- 
founded pretensions. It is an excitant, and may 
be serviceable in chronic bronchitis. The dose 
is ten to forty drops three times a day, diluted 
with water. 

ACETOSA ALPINA, Rumex alpinus — a. 
Nostras, Rumex acetosa — a. Pratensis, Rumex 
acetosa — a. Romana, Rumex scutatus — a. Ro- 
tundifolia, Rumex scutatus — a. Scutata, Rumex 
scutatus — a. Vulgaris, Rumex acetosa. 
ACETOSELLA, Oxalis acetosella. 
ACE'TUM, o^og, Oxos, Ace'tuin Vint seu Bri- 
tan'niciim seu Gal'licum, Common Vinegar, Aei- 
dum aceto'sum, A'legar, Ace' turn Cerevis'icB, (F.) 
Vinaigre ; from aicij, 'a point,' ocec, 'sharp.' A 
liquor obtained by the acetous fermentation. 
Vinegar has a pungent odour, and a pleasant acid 
taste. One fluid ounce of the Acetura of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia is saturated by 
about 35 grains of crystallized bicarbonate of 
soda. It is refrigerant in fevers; antiseptic, and 
anti-narcotic; and externally is stimulant and 
discutient. 

Vinegar Whey is made by stirring a small 
wineglassful of vinegar, sweetened with a dessert 
epoonful of sugar, in a pint of milk ; boiling for 
fifteen minutes, and straining. Like tamarind 
■whey it is an agreeable drink in febrile affections. 
Ace'tuM Aromat'icum, A. Theriaca'le seu 
quatuor fnrnm, Acidum Ace'ticxim Aromat'icum, 
Thieves' Vinegar, Vinegar of the four Thieves, 
Marseilles Vinegar, (F.) Vinaigre Aromatique, 
V. dea qiiatre voleurs, {Rorisrnarin. caciim. sice., 
Fol. Salvim sing. .^j. Lavand. flor. sice. ^iv. Ca- 
ryoph. cont. ^^s. Acid. Acet. Oij. Macerate 7 days, 
and filter. — Ph. E.) Odour, pungent and aroma- 
tic. Used as a perfume. 
AcETUM Britannictjm, Acetum. 
Ace'tiim Canthar'idis, Vinegar of Canthn- 
rides, {Cantharid. in pulv. ,^iij. Acid. acet. f§v.. 
Acid. 2^!/i'olign. f,^xv: Eiiphorb. in pulv. crass. 
,^ss. Mix the acids; add the powders; macerate 
for seven days; strain; express strongly, and 
filter the liquor. — Ph. E. The London College 
macerates cantharid. ^ij in acid. acet. Oj. (Imp. 
meas.) for eight days ; expresses and strains.) It 
is used as a prompt vesicant. 

Ack'ti'M Col'chici, Vinegar of meadow saffron. 
[Colchic. rad. cnntus. Jij ; Acid, acetic, dilnt. vel 
Acet. destillat. Oij ; Ph. U. S. 1851. It may also 
be made by displacement.) It is used as a diu- 
ietic, and also in gout. Dose f.5^s. to f2[iss. 

Acetum Destillatum; see Aceticum acidum 
-^a. Gallicum, Acetum — a. Lignorum: see Ace- 



ticum acidum — a. Mulsum dulce, Oxyglycus — fk 
Opii, Guttae Nigras — a. Plumbicum seu Saturni- 
num. Liquor Plumbi subacetatis — a. Quatuor 
furum, Acetum Aromaticum — a. Radicale, Aceti- 
cum Acidum — a. Rosatum, Oxyrrhodinon. 

AcETDM SciLL>E, Acidum Ace'ticum ScillW- 
icum, Vinegar of Squills, (F.) Vinaigre acilli- 
tiqtie, (ScillcB contus. §iv; Acet. destillat. Oij; 
Ph. U. S. It may also be made by displace- 
ment.) Diuretic, expectorant, and emetic. Dose 
f^ss to gij as a diuretic and expectorant. It 
may also be made by the process of displacement, 
Acetum Thekiacale, Acetum aromaticum. 
ACEYTE BE SAL. A remedy for broncho- 
cele used in S. America. Roulin found it to con- 
tain a portion of iodine. 

ACHACANA. A species of cactus, in the pro- 
vince of Potosi in Peru. Its root is thick and 
fleshy, and of a conical shape. It is a good edi- 
ble, and is sold in the markets of the country. 
A CIIA L YBHEMIE. See Chlorosis. 
ACIIANACA. A plant of the kingdom of 
Mely in Africa. It is used by the natives as an 
antisyphilitic. 

ACHAOVAN, a species of Egyptian chamo- 
mile. — Prosper Alpinus. 

ACHAOVAN-ABIAT. The Egyptian name 
of Cineraria maritiina, used in female diseases. 
ACHAR, Atchar. 
ACHE, Pain. 

ACHE, Apium graveolens — a. dea Montagnes, 
Ligusticum levisticum. 

ACHEI'LIA, Aehi'lia, from a, priv., and ;^£jXoj, 
'lip.' A malformation, consisting in a deficiency 
of a lip or lips. 

ACHEI'LUS, Achi'lua: same etymon. One 
who is without lips. 

ACHEIR, Achir, De'manus, from a, privative, 
and x^'^P' 'hand.' One devoid of hands. — Galen. 
ACHEI'RIA, Achi'ria: same etymon. The 
state of being devoid of hands. 
ACHEROIS, Populus. 

ACHIA, Acinar. A name given in India t« 
ihe pickled shoots of the bamboo. 
AcHiA, Atchar. 
ACHIAR, Achia. 

ACHIC'OLUM, AcUt'ohia, Hidrote'rion, Sn. 
da'rium, Fornix, Tholus, Sudato'riiim, Su'datory 
Sweating-house, Sweating-bath. The sweating- 
room in the ancient bagnios. 
ACHILIA, Acheilia. 

ACHriLE, TENBON B', Achillis tendo. 
ACHILLE'A AGE'RATUM, A. visco'sa, Bal- 
sami'ta foemin'ea, Eupato'rium mes'lies, Age'ra- 
ttim, Cos'.tiis horto'rum minor, Maudlin, Maudlin 
Tansey ; (F.) Achillee Visqueuse ; Ord. Compo- 
sitas; Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Polygamia Super- 
flua, — has the same properties as tansey, bitter 
and aromatic, and is used in like aff'ections. 

Achille'a Atra'ta, Herba Geu'ipi veri, (F.) 
Achillee Noire, has similar virtues. 

Achille'a Millefo'lium, Achille'a Myrio- 
phyl'lon, Chrysoc'oma, Millefo'lium, Ghiliophyl'- 
lon, Lumbns Ven'eris, Common Yarrow or Mil- 
foil. (F.) 3Tillefcuille, Hcrbe aiix charpcntiera. 
The leaves and flowers have an aromatic smell, 
and a rough, bitterish, somewhat pungent taste. 
They have been used in dyspepsia, flatulence, 
hemorrhage, &c. An extract of the plant, made 
with proof spirit, has been called Achillei'num ; 
and is used by the Italians in intermittent fever. 
Achille'a Moscha'ta, an Alpine plant, has 
been esteemed diaphoretic and vulnerary (?) A 
volatile oil called Esprit d'lva, is obtained from 
it in Switzerland, which is much prized for its 
musky odour. It is said, by M6rat and De Lens, 
to be the Genipi of the Savoyards, which is usu- 
ally referred to Artemisia rupestris. 

Achille'a Ptar'mica, Ptar'mica, P. Vulgaf- 



ACHILLEE NOIRE 



27 



ACID 



I in, Paeudo-pj/'rethrum, Pyrethrwn sylves'tre, 
Draco sylves'tris, Tarchon sylrestris, Sternuta- 
mento'ria, Branin' cuius Prateit'sis, Sneeze- icort, 
Bantard Pel'litory. (F.) Herhe d, eternuei: The 
roots and flowers have a hot, biting taste, ap- 
proaching that of pyrethrum. Their principal 
use is as a masticatory and sialogogue. 

Achillea ViscosA, A. Ageratum. 

ACHILLEE NOIRE, Achillea atrata — a. 
Visqueuse, Achillea ageratum. 

ACHILLEINUM, see Achillea Millefolium. 

ACHILLE'IS. A beautiful species of barley, 
mentioned by Theophrastus and Galen, called 
after Achilles, a labourer. The decoction was 
used in fevers and jaundice. — Hippocrates. 

ACHILLEUM, Telepheum. 

ACHIL'LIS TENDO, Funis Hippoc'ratis, 
Corda seu Chorda Hippoc'ratis, Corda magna, 
Nervus latus, (F.) Tendon d'Achille. The strong 
tendon of the gastroenemii muscles above the 
heel : so called, because it was the only vulner- 
able part of Achilles, or because of its strength. 
Gee Tendon. 

ACHILUS, Acheilus. 

ACHIMBASSr. An archiater or chief of phy- 
ticians. A name given, at Grand Cairo, to a 
a»agistrate who licenses physicians. 

ACHIR, Acheir. 

ACHIRIA, Acheiria. 

ACHITOLUS, Achicolum. 

ACHLYS, Caligo. 

ACHMELLA, Spilanthus acmella. 

ACHNE. Lint. See Linteum. Also, small 
mucous flocculi seen in front of the cornea. — 
Hippocrates. 

ACHOL'IA, from a, privative, and ;^oA»;, 'bile.' 
Lieficiency or want of bile. Also, Asiatic cholera. 

A'CHOLUS : same etymon. One deficient in 
bile. 

ACHOR, Porrigo larvalis. 

ACHO'RES. A term often employed by the 
ancients to designate both crusta lac'tea, and 
Email superficial ulcerations on the skin of the 
face and head. See Porrigo Larvalis. 

AcHORES Capitis, Porrigo scutulata. 

ACHORION SCHONLEINL See Porrigo fa- 
vosa. 

ACHORIS'TUS, from a, priv., and x^pi^w, 'I 
separate.' Any sign which necessarily accompa- 
nies a state of health or disease. 

ACHOUROU. The Caraib name for a species 
of myrtle used in dropsy. 

^ ACHRAS AUSTRALIS, Sapota — a. Sapota, 
Sapota — a. Zapota, Sapota. 

ACHROI, Achromatis'ti, Achro'mafi, Achro'mt, 
from a, privative, and ^pwna, 'colour.' Pale indi- 
viduals. — Hippocrates. It is nearly synonymous 
with Xu^amoi, leiphcB'tni, persons without colour; 
bloodless. 

ACHRO'MA, Chloasma album, Leucopathi'a 
partia'lis acquis'ita. Partial privation of colour 
of the skin. 

ACHROxMASIA, Decoloration. 

ACHROMATI, Achroi. 

ACHROMAT'IC.^AcAromcii'j'cus; same etymon. 
A lens, so constructed as to correct the aberration 
of refrangibility of common lenses, is so termed. 
The Crystnlline is an achromatic lens. 

ACHROMATISTL Achroil 

ACHROMATOPSIA, Ackromatop'sy, Chroma- 
topseudop'sia, Chromatometablep'sia, Dyschroma- 
top'sia, Parachro'ma, Pseudochro'mia, Parora'- 
«!«, Visua de'eolor, Colour blindness, Idiopt'cy, 
Dnl'tonism, from a, privative, XP'^f'"' 'colour,' 
and oTTo/^iat, 'I see.' Incapability of distinguish- 
ing colours; a defect situate in the cerebral part 
of the visual organ. Persons so circumstanced 
have been termed, by Mr. Whewell, Idiopts. See 
Aoyanoblepsia and Anerythropsia. 



ACHROMI, Achroi. 
ACHROMODERMIE, see Albino. 
ACmWMOTRICHOMIE, see Albino. 
ACHRYSTALLOniAPHANIE, see C*ta 

ract. 

ACHTLO'SIS, from a, privative, and x»X*s» 
'juice, chyle.' Defective chylosis or formation 
of chyle. 

ACHYMO'SIS, from a, privative, and ;^vfiof, 
'juice, chyme.' Defective chymifieation. 

ACHYRAN'THES REPENS, Illice'brum po- 
lygono'ides. Forty Knot; indigenous. Order, 
Amaranthaceae. A decoction of the plant is 
drunk as a diuretic in dropsy, ischuria, <tc. 

ACHYRODES, Acerosus. 

ACHYRON, Furfur. 

A'CIA, from qkjj, a point. A word used by 
Celsus, which has puzzled commentators, — some 
believing it to have meant a needle ; others the 
thread; and others, again, the kind of suture. 
"Ada mollis, von nimis torta." — Celsus, Galen. 
(ChifBet thinks it meant ttie thread. — Antwerp, 
1638.) 

ACID, Ac"idtts, Oxys. (F.) Acide, Aigre, from 
uKii, am&oi, 'a point;' sharp; sour; especially as 
applied to odorous or sapid substances. The 
French also use the term aigre, when referring 
to the voice, in the sense of sharp and shrill: — 
as xtne voix aigre, vox aspera. 

Acid, Acetic, Aceticum acidum — a. Acetic, of 
commerce, Pyroligneous acid — a. Acetic, dilute, 
see Aceticum acidum — a. Acetous, strong, Ace- 
ticum acidum — a. Aerial, Carbonic acid — a. 
Antimonious, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. 
Arsenious, Arsenicum album — a. Auric, see Gold 
— a. Azotic, Nitric acid — a. Benzoic, Benjamin, 
flowers of — a. Benzuric, Hippuric acid — a. Bezo- 
ardic, Uric acid — a. Boric, Boracic acid — a. Cal 
careous. Carbonic acid — a. Calculous, Uric acid. 

Acid, Carbazot'ic, Ac"idum Carbazot'ieum, 
Carboni'tric or Picric acid, Welter's Bitter, (F.) 
Acide Oarbazotique. This acid is frequently 
formed by the action of concentrated nitric acid 
on animal and vegetable substances. It, as well 
as the carbazotates, is tonic and astringent. 

Acid, Carbonaceous, Carbonic acid — a. Car- 
bonitric. Acid Carbazotic — a. Carbonous, Oxalic 
acid — a. Caseic, Lactic acid — a. Chromic, see 
Chromic acid— a. Citric, Citric acid — a. Crotonic, 
see Croton tiglium — a. Cyanhydric, Hydrocyanic 
acid — a. Cyanohydric, Hydrocyanic acid— a. Ga- 
lactic, Lactic acid — a. Gastric, Gastric juice. 

Acid, Gallic, Ac"idnm Gall'icnm. (F.) Acide 
Gallique. This acid is found in most of the astrin- 
gent plants that contain tannic acid of the kind 
obtained from galls. It is in delicate silky nee- 
dles, usually somewhat yellowish, inodorous, and 
of a harsh, somewhat astringent taste. It dis- 
solves in one hundred parts of cold and throe 
parts of boiling water. It is very soluble in alco- 
hol, and but slightly so in ether. 

It has been highly extolled in internal hemor- 
rhage, especially from the urinary organs and 
uterus. Dose from ten to twenty grains. 

The last Pharmacopoeia of the United States* 
(1851) directs it to be made by exposing a thin 
paste of pondered galls and distilled water for a 
month, adding the water from time to time to pre- 
serve the consistence; expressing the paste; 
boiling the residue in distilled water; filtering 
through animal charcoal, and crystallizing. 

Acid, Hippd'ric, Ac"idum Hippu'ricnm, TJro- 
ben'zoic, U'rino-benzo'ic or Benzu'ric acid. An 
acid found in the urine of graminivorous animals. 
It is contained in human urine, especially after 
benzoic acid has been taken. See Hippuria. 

Acid, Hydriod'ic, Ac"idnm Bydriod'icum. 
This acid is made by mixing solutions of iodide 
of potassium and tartaric acid; filtering th« liquor 



ACIDE ACETIQUE FAIBLE 2 8 



ACIDUM ACETICUM 



to separate the bitartrate of potassa, and adding 
water to make the resulting hydriodic acid of 
definite strength. 

It has been used in the same cases as the pre- 
parations of iodine in general, but is rarely em- 
ployed. 

Acid, HYDnocHLORONiTRic, Nitro-muriatic acid 
— a. Ilydroeyanic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
•yanic, dilute, see Hydrocj'anic acid — a. Hydro- 
Kulphurie, Hydrogen, sulphuretted — a. Hydrothi- 
onic. Hydrogen, sulphuretted — a. Igasuric : see 
Jatropba eurcas. 

Acid, Iodic, Ac"idum lod'icum, (F.) Aeide 
/odiqiie. This is obtained by boiling iodine with 
nitric acid; or by decomposing iodate of haryta 
by dilute sulphuric acid. It is a white, transpa- 
rent solid, slightly deliquescent, and very soluble 
in water. It has been given with sulphate of 
quinia in hoarseness, scrofula, incipient phthisis, 
chronic inflammation, syphilis, etc. Dose three 
to six grains, or more. 

Acid, Lactic, see Lactic acid. 

Acid of Lemons, Citric acid — a. Lithenic, Uric 
acid — a. Lithiasic, Uric acid— a. Lithic, Uric acid 
— a. Marine Dephlogistieated, Chlorine — a. Lac- 
tic, Lactic acid — a. Marine dulcified, Spiritus 
ifitheris muriatici — a. Mephitic, Carbonic acid — 
a. of Milk, Lactic acid — a. Muriatic, see Muria- 
ticum acidum — a. Muriatic, dilute, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Nanceic, Lactic acid — a. Nitric, see 
Nitric acid — a. Nitric, dilute, see Nitric acid — 
a. Nitro-hydrochloric, Nitro- muriatic acid — a. 
Nitro-muriatic, see Nitro-muriatic acid — a. Ni- 
trous, dephlogistieated, Nitric acid — a. Oxysep- 
tonic, Nitric acid — a. Picric, Acid, carbazotic 
— a. Polygalic, see Polygala senega — a. Prus- 
sic, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyroligneous, see Ace- 
ticum acidum — a. Pyrolignic, Pyroligneous acid 
— a. Rosacic, see Porphyruria — a. of Sorrel, Oxa- 
lic acid — a. of Sugar, Oxalic acid — a. Sulphhydric, 
Hydrogen sulphuretted — a. Sulpho-hydric, Hy- 
drogen sulphuretted — a. Sulphuric, see Sul- 
phuric acid — a. Tannic, Tannin — a. Uric, Uric 
acid — a. Urino-benzoic, Acid, hippuric — a. Uro- 
benzoic, A. Hippuric — a. Urous, Uric oxide — a. 
Urylic, Uric acid. 

ACIDE ACETIQUE FAIBLE, see Aceticum 
acidum — a. Azotique, Nitric acid — a. Boracique, 
Boracic acid — a. Chromique, Chromic acid — a. 
Gallique, Acid, gallic — a. Hydrocyanique, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Uydiosulfurique, Hydrogen, sul- 
phuretted — a. lodique, Acid, iodic — o. Lactique, 
Lactic acid — n. Nitrique, Nitric acid — a. Phos- 
phorique, Phosphoric acid — o. Prussique, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Pyroacetique, Pyroligneous acid 
— a. Pyroligniqne, Pyroligneous acid — a. Sul/u- 
reux, Sulphurous acid — a. Sulfurique, Sulphuric 
acid — a. Sulfurique delaye, Sulphuricum acidum 
dilutum — a. Tannique, Tannin — a. Tartrique, 
Tartaric acid — a. Urique, Uric acid. 

ACIDITATIO, Acidities. 

ACID'ITIES, Aco'res, Acidita'tio, Ac"idum 
morho'sum sen prima'rum via'rum, Ox'ytes, Sordea 
ac'idcB, {¥.) Aigreurs. Sourness of the stomach, 
the result of indigestion, indicated by acid eruc- 
tations, etc. The afi"ection is very common in 
children, and must be obviated by absorbents, 
us magnesia, chalk, etc., and by regulated diet. 

ACIDOLOG"IA, from okis, oKtioi, 'a point, a 
sharp instrument,' and \oyos, 'a description.' A 
description of surgical instruments. 

ACIDOM'ETER, (F.) Acidometre, P^se-acide, 
from acid, and itcrpov, 'measure.' A hydrometer 
for determining the density of acids. 

ACIDS, Ao"ida, Aco'res, are liquid, solid, or 
gaseous bodies, possessed of a sour, more or less 
caustic taste, and the principal character of which 
is the capability of saturating, wholly or in part, 
the alkaline properties of bases. 



Acids, in general, are refrigerant and antisep- 
tic. Their particular uses are pointed out under 
the individual articles. 

To ACID'ULATE, (F.) A^gumer, Aciduler. 
To render acidulous, or slightly acid. 

ACID'ULOUS, Acid'idus, Suha"cidus, Oxo'des, 
Oxo'i'des, (F.) Acidule, Aigrelet. Substances are 
so called which possess a sourish taste, as tama- 
rinds, cream of tartar, etc. 

Acidulous Fruits. Oranges, gooseberries, etc. 

Acidulous Waters, Aqua Acidulm. Mineral 
waters containing carbonic acid gas suflicient to 
render them sourish. See Waters, mineral. 

Acidulous Water, Simple, Aqua Ac"idi Car- 
bon'ici (Ph. U. S.) Aqua a'eris fixi sen acid - 
ula simplex. Liquor seu Aqua Sodee efferves'cens, 
Aqua Carh'/na' tis Soda acid'ida, Soda water, Mi- 
neral water, (F.) Eau acidule simple, is water 
impregnated with fixed air. 

Water, so impregnated, is cooling and slightly 
stimulating. It is used beneficially in dyspepsia, 
and in cases of vomiting, etc. 

ACIDUM ACETICUM, Aceticum acidum— a. 
Aceticum aromaticum, Acetum aromaticum — a. 
Aceticum camphoratum, see Aceticum acidum — 
a. Aceticum dilutum, see Aceticum acidum — a. 
Aceticum e Ligno venale, Pyroligneous acid — a. 
Aceticum empyreumaticum, Pyroligneous acid — 
a. Aceticum glaciale, Aceticum acidum — a. Ace- 
ticum Seilliticum, Acetum scIIIeb — a. Acetosellte, 
Oxalic acid — a. Acetosum, Acetum — a. Allantoi- 
cum. Allantoic acid — a. Amnicum, Amniotic acid 
— a. Arsenicosum, Arsenious acid — a. Arsenio- 
sum (Ph. U. S.), Arsenicum album — a. Axoticum, 
Nitric acid — a. Benzoicum, Benjamin, Flowers 
of — a. Benzoylicum, Benzoin, Flowers of — a. 
Boracicum, Boracic acid — a. Borussicum, Hydro- 
cyanic acid — a. Carbazoticum, Acid, carbazotic — 
a. Carbonicum, Carbonic acid — a. Citricum, Citric 
acid — a. Gallicum, Acid, gallic — a. Hydriodicum, 
Acid, hydriodic — a. Hydrocarbonicum, Oxalic 
acid — a. Hydrochloricum, Muriaticum acidum — 
a. Hydrocyanicum, Hydrocyanic acid — a. Hydro- 
cyanicum dilutum, see Hydrocyanic acid — a, 
Hydrothionicum liquidum, see Hydrosulphurettcd 
water — a. lodicum, Acid, iodic — a. Jatrophicum, 
see Jatropba eurcas — a. Lacticum, Lactic acid — 
a. Ligneum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Ligni pyio- 
oleosum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Lignorum empy- 
reumaticum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Limonis, Ci- 
tric acid — a. Lithicum, Uric acid — a. Marinum 
concentratum, Muriaticum acidum — a. Morbo- 
sum. Acidities — a. Muriaticum, Muriaticum aci- 
dum — a. Muriaticum dilutum, Muriaticum acidum 
— a. Muriaticum nitroso-oxygenatum, Nitro- 
muriatic acid — a. Nitri, Nitric acid — a. Nitri 
dulcificatum, Spiritus setheris nitrici — a. Nitri- 
cum. Nitric acid — a. Nitricum dilutum. Nitric 
acid — a. Nitro-muriaticum, Nitro-muriatic acid — 
a. Oxalinum, Oxalic acid — a. Phosphoricum, 
Phosphoric acid — a. Picrieum, Acid, carbazotio 
— a. Primarum viarum. Acidities — a. Prussicum, 
Hydrocyanic acid — a. Pyroaceticum, Pyrolig- 
neous acid — a. Pyroligneum, Pyroligneous acid 
— a. Pyroxylicum, Pyroligneous acid — a. Querci- 
tannicum. Tannin — a. Sacchari, Oxalic acid — a. 
Saccharinum, Oxalic acid — a. Sails, Muriaticum 
acidum — a. Sails culinaris, Muriaticum acidum — 
a. Salis marini, Muriaticum acidum — a. Scytode- 
phicum, Tannin — a. Septicum, Nitric acid — a. 
Suceinicum, Succinic acid — a. Sulphuricum, Sul- 
phuric acid — a. Sulphuricum alcoolisatum, Elixir 
acidum Halleri — a. Sulphuricum aromaticum, 
Sulphuric acid, aromatic — a. Sulphuricum dilu- 
tum. Sulphuric acid, diluted — a. Sulphuris vola- 
tile. Sulphurous acid — a. Sulphurosicum, Sulphu- 
rous acid — a. Tannicum, Tannin — a. Tartari es- 
sentiale, Tartaric acid — a. Tartaricum, Tartaric 
acid — a. Tartarosum, Tartaric acid — a. UricaiB| 



ACIDURGIA 



2' 



ACONITUM 



Uric acid — a. DroUtWcum, Uric acid — a. Vitrio- 
iioum, Sulphuric acid — a. Vitriolicum aromati- 
cum, Sulphurieum acidum aromaticum — a. Vi- 
triolicum alcohole aromaticum, Sulphurieum aci- 
dum aromaticum — a. Vitriolicum vinosum, Elixir 
acidum Halleri — a. Zooticum, Hydrocyanic acid 
— a. Zootinicum, Hydrocyanic acid. 
ACIDURGIA, Surgery (operative). 
ACIER, Chalybs. 

ACIES, Chalybs — a. Digitorum manus. Pha- 
langes of the fingers — a. Diuxna, Hemeralopia. 
ACINE, Acinus. 

ACINE'SIA, Acine'sis, Akine'sia, Tmmobil'i- 
fa8, Quies, Requiea, Bequie'tio, Esych'ia, Erem'ia, 
from a, privative, and kivji&is, ' motion,' kivcu), ' I 
move.' Rest. Immobility. Also, the interval 
between the systole and diastole of the heart — 
Para8ya'tole. 

Under the term Acineaes, Romberg includes 
the paralytic neuroses, or those that are charac- 
terized by defect of motive power. 

ACINI OF MALPIGHI, Corpora Malpig- 
hiana. 

ACINIFORMIS (TUNICA), Choroid, Uvea. 
ACINUS, A. glandulo'stia, from ac"inus, 'a 
grape-stone,' (F.)'Actjie. A glandiform corpus- 
cle, in which secretion was supposed to take 
place, and the excretory radicle to arise. Acini 
are the gloh'idi arteria'rum ter'mini of Nichols. 
The term ac"ini glandulo'si has also been given 
to glands which, like the pancreas, are arranged, 
as it were, in clusters. Glands thus formed have 
been called glan'dulm acino'sa. See Lobule. 
ACIPENSER, see Ichthyocolla. 
ACIURGIA, Surgery (operative). 
ACLEITROCARDIA, Cyanopathy. 
ACMAS'TICUS, from aKnv, 'the top,' and o-rau), 
' I remain.' A fever which preserves an equal 
degree of intensity throughout its course. It is 
also called Homot'onoa. The Greeks gave it the 
name of Epacmas'ticoa, and Syn'ochoa, when it 
went on increasing, and Paracmaa'ticoa, when it 
decreased. — Galen. 

ACME, Vigor, Cor'ypTie, Cidmina'tio, Status, 
Faatig"ium. The period of a disease at which 
the symptoms are most violent. ArcJie, ApxVi is 
'the commencement;' anab'asia, avafiaaii, 'the 
period of increase;' and acme, axur/, 'the height,' 
(F.) mat. 

ACMELLA, Spilanthus acmella — a. Mauriti- 
ana, Spilanthus acmella. 
ACMON, Incus. 

ACNE, Acna, Ion' tkua partis. Varus, Paydra'cia 
Acne, Stone Pock, Whelk, Buhucle, (F.) Acne, 
Dartre puatideuse disaeminee. A small pimple 
or tubercle on the face. — Gorraeus. Foesius 
thinks the word ought to be Acme; and, accord- 
ing to Cassius, it is, at all events, derived from 
aKftri, 'vigour;' the disease affecting those in the 
vigour of life especially. 

Willan and Bateman have adopted the term in 
their Nosology of cutaneous diseases, and placed 
it in the order Tubercula. Acne, with them, is 
an eruption of distinct, hard, inflamed tubercles, 
sometimes continuing for a considerable length 
of time, and sometimes suppurating slowly and 
partially. They usually appear on the forehead, 
temples, and chin, and are common to both sexes; 
but the most severe forjns are seen in young men. 
They require but little management, and consist 
of four varieties : Acne indura'ta, A. simplex, 
(llaploacne), A. puncta'ta (lon'thua varus punc- 
ta'tus, Punctm muco'scB, Grino'nea, Comedo'nes 
or Maggot Pimple, Worms, Grubs), and A. roaa'- 
eea. — See Gutta Rosea. 

Acne Mentagra, Sycosis — a. Rosacea, Gutta 
Rosea — a. of the Throat, Pharyngitis, follicu- 
lar. 



ACNE'MIA, Akne'mia, from a, privatiTe, and 
Kvtinn, 'the leg.' Absence of legs. 

ACNE, Acne — a. Ilollusco'ide, Molluseum. 

ACNES'TIS, from a, privative, and Kvativ, 'to 
scratch.' The part of the spine which extends, 
in quadrupeds, from between the shoulders to the 
loins. According to Pollux, the middle of tho 
loins. The vertebral column. 

ACNESTOS, Cneorum tricoccum. 

ACOE, Audition, Ear. 

ACCE'LIOS, from o, privative, and icoi\ia, 'belly.' 
Devoid of belly. One who is so emaciated as to 
appear to have no belly. — Galen. 

ACOEMETER, Acoumeter. 

ACOEMETRUM, Acoumeter. 

ACOENOSI, Aconusi. 

ACOESIS, Audition. 

ACOGNOSIA, Pharmacognosia. 

ACOLASIA, Intemperance. 

ACOLOGY, Materia Medica. 

ACONE, Mortar. 

ACONIT A GRANDS FLEURS, Aeonitum 
cammarum — a. Salutaire, Aeonitum anthora. 

ACONITA, see Aeonitum napellus. 

ACONITE, Aeonitum. 

ACONITI FOLIA, see Aeonitum— a. Radix, 
see Aeonitum. 

ACONITIA, see Aeonitum napellus. 

ACONITIN, see Aeonitum napellus. 

ACONITINE, see Aeonitum napellus. 

ACONITIUM, see Aeonitum napellus. 

ACONI'TUM, from Ac'one, a place in Bithy- 
nia, where it is common. Cynoc'tonon, Parda- 
lian'ches, Pardalian'chum, Oanici'da, Ac'onite, 
Wolfsbane, Monkshood. Ord. Ranuneulaceae. 
Sex. Syat. Polyandria Trigynia. 

AcoNiTUM, Aconite, in the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States, 1842, is the leaves of Aeoni- 
tum napellus, and A. paniculatum. In the last 
edition, 1851, Aconiti folia is the officinal name 
for the leaves, Aconiti radix for that of the 
root. 

Aconi'tum An'thora, a. Salutif'erum seu 
Nemoro'aiim seu Candol'lei seu Jacquini seu Eu'lo- 
phum seu Anthordideum, An'thora vidga'ris, An'- 
thora, Antith'ora, Sal'iitary Monkshood, Whole- 
some Wolfsbane, Yellow helmet flower, ['F.) Aconit 
salutaire. The root of this variety, as of all the 
rest, is poisonous. It is used as a cathartic and 
anthelmintic. Dose Qss to Qj. 

Aconitum Anthoroideum, a. anthora. 

Aconi'tum Cam'marum, A. panicida'tum, A. 
macrun'thum, A. Kuanezo'vii, (F.) Aconit d 
grands fleurt, resembles Aconitum Napellus in 
properties. 

Aconitum Candollei, A. anthora — a. Eulo- 
phum, A. anthora. 

Aconitum Ferox, a most violent ranunculaceons 
poison, which grows in Nepaul, and is the Bish 
or Bikh poison of that country. Its eflfects are 
like those of the Aconitum Napellus. 

Aconitum Jacquini, A. anthora — a. Kusnezovii, 
A. cammarum — a. Maeranthum, A. cammarum. 

Aconi'tum Napel'lus, Aconi'tum Napel'lus 
verus, Common -Monkshood or Wolfsbane, A. Ne- 
omonta'num, (F.) Chaperon de Maine. The leaves 
are narcotic, sudorific, and deobstruent (?) They 
have been used in chronic rheumatism, sorofula, 
scirrhus, paralysis, amaurosis, etc. The active 
principle is called Aconit'ia, Aconiti'na, Aconi'ta, 
Aconit'ium or Aconitine. A form for its prepara- 
tion is contained in the Ph. U. S. (1851). It is 
made by treating an alcoholic extract of the root 
with dilute sulphuric acid; precipitating hy solu- 
tion of ammonia; dissolving the precipitate in 
dilute aulphuric acid; treating with animal char, 
coal; again precipitating with solution of amnw 



ACONUSI 



30 



ACRID 



nia; washing with water, and drying. It re- i| 
quires 150 parts of cold and 50 of boiling water | 
to dissolve it, but is readily dissolved by alcohol 
and ether. It neutralizes the acids, and forms i 
with them uncrystallizable salts. It has been [ 
used internally, and especially applied exter- 
nally, in neuralgic cases, iatraleptically and en- 
dermically. Dose of Aconitum, gr. j. to gr. iij. 

AcosiTUM Nemorosum, a. anthora — a. Neo- 
montanum, A. napellus — a. Paniculatum, A. cam- 
marum — a. Racemosum, Actgea spicata — a. Salu- 
tiferum, A. anthora. 

Aconitum Uncina'tum, Wild Monkshood, in- 
digenous, is said to have similar virtues with 
Aconitum napellus. 

ACONU'SI, Acoen'oai, Acoon'oai, from a/co»7, 
'audition,' and vouo-of, 'disease.' Morbi au'rium 
et audi'tds. Diseases of the ear and audition. 
ACOONOSI, Aoonusi. 

AC'OPIS. Same etymon as the next. Pliny 
gives this name to a precious stone, which was 
boiled in oil and used against weariness. 

AC'OPON, from a, privative, and xon-of, 'weari- 
ness.' A remedy against weariness — Foesius, Gor- 
raeus, &c. Ac'opum, — Celsus, Pliny. SeeAnagyris. 
ACOPRIA, Constipation. 
ACOPROSIS, Constipation. 
ACOR BENZOINUS, Benjamin — a. Boraci- 
ous, Boraeic acid — a. Succineus, Succinic acid — 
a. Sulphuris, Sulphuric acid — a. Tartaricus, Tar- 
taric acid. 

AGO RE BATARD, Iris pseudacorus — a. 
Faux, Iris pseudacorus — a. Odorant, Acorus 
calamus. 
ACORES, Acids, and Acidities. 
ACOR'IA, from a, privative, and Kopcui, 'I sa- 
tiate.' An inordinate or canine appetite. — Hip- 
pocrates. 

ACORI'TES. A wine made of Acorns.— Dios- 
corides. 

ACOR'MUS, from a, privative, and Kopnos, 
♦ trunk.' A monster devoid of a trunk. — Gurlt. 

ACORN, JUPITER'S, Fagus castanea — a. 
Oily, Guilandina moringa — a. Sardinian, Fagus 
castanea. 

ACORNS. See Quercus alba. 
ACORUS ADULTERINUS, Iris pseudacorus. 
Ac'ORUS Cal'amus, a. Venta seu Bi-azilien'sh, 
Gal'amtis Aromat' icus seu Odora'tus seu Vidga'- 
ris, Typha Aromat'ica, Clava Rngo'sn, Siceetflag 
or Ac'orus, Flagroot, Sweet cane, Myrtle Flag, 
Sweet grass, Sweet root, Sweet rush. (F.) Jonc 
roseau ou Canne aromatique, Acore odorant. 
Ord. Aroidete; Acoracese. (Lindley.) Sex. Si/st. 
Hexandria Monogynia. The rhizoma — Cal'amus 
(Ph. U. S. — is stomachic and carminative, but is 
rarely used. It is regarded as a good adjuvant 
to bark and quinia in intermittents. 

AcoRDS Palustris, Iris pseudacorus — a. Vul- 
garis, Iris pseudacorus. 
ACOS, Medicament. 

ACOS'MIA, from a, privative, and Kotr/ioy, 'or- 
der, ornament.' Disorder, irregularity in the 
critical days, according to Galen, who uses the 
word Kocjios for regularity in those days. Others, 
and particularly Pollux, call bald persons axoaiioi, 
because they are deprived of one of their most 
beautiful ornaments. 

ACOU'METER, Acouom'eter, Acoem'eter, Aco- 
Im'etrnm, Acu'meter, Acusim'eter, (F.) Acoumitre, 
from aKovii, ' I hear,' and iicrpov, ' measure.' An 
instrument designed by M. Itard for measuring 
the degree of hearing. 

ACOUMETRE, Acoumeter. 
ACOUOPHO'NIA, Gopho'nia; from aKovu,, 
•I hear,' and ^<avrt, 'voice,' "Aus'ctiltatory Per. 
tus'tion." A mode of auscultation, in which the 



observer places his ear on the chest, and analyic 
the sound produced by percussion. — Donn6. 

ACOUS'MA, an imaginary noise. Depraved 
sense of hearing. 

ACOUS'TIC, Acus'ticua, (F.) Acoustique. That 
which belongs to the ear; as Aeoustit) %erve. 
Acoustic trumpet. 

Acoustic Medicine is one used in diseased 
audition. 

AGOUSTICO-MALLEEN, Laxator tympani. 

Acous'tics, Acus'tica. (F.) Acoustique. The 
part of physics which treats of the theory of 
sounds. It is also called Phonics. 

ACOUSTIQUE, Acoustic, Acoustics. 

ACQUA BINELLI, Aqua Blnellii — a. Broo- 
chieri. Aqua Brocchierii — a. Monterossi, Aqua 
Binellii — a. di Napoli, Liquor arsenicalis — a. 
della Toffana, Liquor arsenicalis. 

ACQUETTA, Liquor Arsenicalis. 

ACQUI, MINERAL WATERS OF. These 
thermal sulphureous springs are in Piedmont. 
Their temperature is 167° Fahr., and they eon- 
tain sulphohydric acid and chloride of sodium. 

ACQUIRED DISEASES, Morbi acqma'iti, 
M. adventi'tii, M. epicte'ti. Adoentitioua diseases. 
(F.) Maladies acqnises. Diseases which occur 
after birth, and which are not dependent upon 
hereditary predisposition. 

ACRAI'PALA, from n, privative, and Kpaira^t;, 
' drunkenness.' Remedies against the effects of 
a debauch. — Gorraeus. 

ACRA'LEA, from axpos, 'extremity.' The ex- 
treme parts of the body, as the head, hands, feet, 
nose, ears, &c. — Hippocrates and Galen. See 
Acrea. 

ACRA'NIA, from a, privative, and xpaviov, 'the 
cranium.' Want of cranium, wholly or in part. 

ACRA'SIA, from a, privative, or 'bad/ and 
Kpacis, ' mixture.' Intemperance. Excess of any 
kind. Surfeit. 

It has been employed to denote debility, syno- 
nymously with Acratia ; but this may have been 
a typographical inaccuracy. 

ACRATI'A, from a, privative, and Kparos, 
'strength.' Impotence; weakness, fainting. 

ACRATIS'MA, from a, privative, and Kepav- 
vvfLi, ' to mix.' A breakfast, consisting of bread 
steeped in wine, not mixed with water. — Galen, 
Athenasus. 

ACRATOM'ELI, from axparov, 'pure wine,' 
and fit.\i, 'honey.' Wine mixed with honey. 

ACRATOPE'G^, Akratope'ga, from a, priva- 
tive, Kparos, 'strength,' and Trriyij, 'a spring.' 
Mineral waters having no marked chemical qua- 
lities. 

ACRATOPOS'IA, from acratum., and irowj, 
' drink.' The drinking of pure or unmixed wine 

A'CRATUM, axparov, from a, privative, and 
Kparo;, 'strength.' Unmixed wine, Acratum 
vinutn, Vintim inerum. 

ACRATURE'SIS, from acratia, 'weakness,' 
and ovptjai;, from ovpov, ' urine,' ' the act of dis- 
charging the urine.' Inability to void the urine, 
from paralysis of the bladder. 

ACRE. The extremity or tip of the nose. 

A'CREA, Acrote'ria, from axpof, 'the summit.' 
The extreme parts of" the body, as the feet, hands, 
ears, &c. 

Also the extreme parts of animals that are used 
as food, Acroco'lia. 

ACRID, from axpos, 'pointed,' or from axti, 'a 
point,' Acer. An epithet for substances which 
occasion a disagreeable sense of irritation or of 
constriction at the top of the throat. 

Acrid heat, (F.) Ghaleur acre, is one that causes 
a hot tingling sensation at the extremities of the 
fingers. 

Acrid Poison, See Poison. 

AcRiDS, in Pathology, are certain imaginary 



ACRIDOPHAGI 



ACT.EA CIMICIFUGA 



substances, supposed by the humourists to exist 
in the humours, and to cause various diseases. 
See Acrimony. 

ACRIDOPH'AGI, from aifpif, a»cpt5oy, 'alocnst,' 
and 0uytD, ' I eat.' Locust-eaters. Acridophagous 
tribes are said to exist in Africa. — Strabo. 

AC RIMONY, Aeu'itas, Acrimo'nia, from acer, 
' acrid,' axis, ' a point.' Acrimony of the humours. 
An imaginary acrid change of the blood, lymph, 
&IJ., which, by the humourists, was conceived to 
cause many diseases. 

ACRIN'IA, from a, privative, and Kpiva, ' I 
separate.' A diminution in the quantity, or a 
total suspension, of the secretions. 

ACRIS, a sharp bony prominence. Also, the 
locust. 

ACRI'SIA, Acri'sis, from a, privative, and 
«pi(Tif, 'judgment.' A condition of disease, in 
which no judgment can be formed; or in which 
an unfavourable opinion must be given. — Hipp, 
and Galen. 

ACRISIS, Acrisia. 

ACRIT'IGAL, Ac'ritos, (F.) Acritique, from a, 
privative, and xptaig, 'judgment.' That which 
takes place without any crisis, or which does not 
foretell a crisis ; as a critical symptom, abscess, &c. 

ACRITOS, Acritical. 

ACRIVIOLA, Tropseolum majus. 

ACROBYS'TIA, Acrojoos'i^ia, from a/cpos, 'top,' 
and j3uui, ' I cover.' The extremity of the prepuce. 
— Hippocrates, Rufus. 

ACROBYSTITIS, Posthitis. 

ACROCHEIR', Acrochir', Acrocheir'on, from 
axpoi, ' extremity,' and x"P> ' the hand.' The 
forearm- and hand. — Gorra;us. Also, the hand. 

ACROCHOR'DON, from oKpog, 'extremity,' 
and x^P^lt '* string.' A tumour which hangs by 
a pedicle. A kind of hard wart, Verru'ca pens'- 
ilis. — Aetius, Celsus. 

ACROCHORIS'MUS, from uKpo^, 'extremity,' 
and j^opeuo), ' I dance.' A kind of dance, with 
the ancients, in which the arms and legs were 
violently agitated. 

ACROCOLIA, Acrea. 

ACROCOLIUM, Acromion. 

ACROD'RYA, from aKpo^, 'extremity,' and 
ipsj;, 'a tree.' Autumnal fruits, as nuts, ap- 
ples, &c. 

ACRODYN'IA, Erythe'ma acrod'ijnum, E. 
acrodt/n'ia, OhiropodaV gia, (F.) Acrodynie, Mai 
dea pieds et des mains, from axpoi, 'extremity,' 
and o6vv>i, ' pain.' A painful affection of the 
wrists and ankles especially, which appeared in 
Paris as an epidemic, in 1828 and 1829. It was 
supposed by some to be rheumatic, by others to 
be owing to spinal irritation. It appears to have 
been the same as Dengue. 

ACROLENION, Olecranon. 

ACROMASTIUM, Nipple. 

ACROMIA, Acromion. 

ACRO'MIAL, Acromia'lis, Relating to the 
Acromion. 

Acromial Ar'tery, External Scap'ular, A. 
Arte'ria Thorac"iea humera'lis, Art^re troisi^me 
des Thoraciques,— (Ch.) Ai. Thorucique humi- 
rale, arises from the anterior part of the axillary 
artery, opposite the upper edge of the pectoralis 
minor. It divides into two branches : one,«»joe- 
rior ; the other, inferior, — the branches of which 
are distributed to the subclavius, serratus major 
anticus, first intercostal, deltoid, and pectoralis 
major muscles, as well as to the shoulder joint, 
Ac. They anastomose with the superior scapular, 
thoracic, and circumflex arteries. 

Acromial Nerves, Nervi acromia'les. 
Branches of the fourth cervical nerve, which are 
distributed to the acromial region. 



Acromial Vein has the same arrangement &8 
the artery. 
ACRO'MIO-CORACOi'DEUS. Belonging to 

the acromion and coracoid process. 

The triangular ligament between the acromion 
and coracoid process of the scapula is so called. 

ACRO'MION, Acro'raium, Acro'mia, Acro'mis, 
from aKpoi, 'the top,' and w^oj, 'the shoulder.' 
Oa Acro'mii, Hu'nierus sinnmus, Armus sununus, 
Mitero hii'meri, Bostrum porci'num, Caput Scap/- 
ulcB, Acroco'lium, The process which terminates 
the spine of the scapula, and is articulated with 
the clavicle. 

ACROMIS, Acromion. 

ACROMPHALIUM, Acromphalon. 

A C R M'P H A L N, Acrompha'lium, from 
axpoi, 'the top,' and op<pa\os, 'the navel.' The 
extremity of the umbilical cord, which remains 
attached to the foetus after birth. 

ACROMYLE. Patella. 

ACRO-NARCOTIC, See Poison. 

A'CRONYX, from aKpos, 'the summit,' and 
ovtf, 'the nail.' Growing in of the nail. 

ACROPARAL'YSIS, from okijo;, ' extremity,' 
and TrapaAvo-iy, 'palsy;' Paral'ysis extremita'twn, 
Palsy of the extremities. — Fuchs. 

AGROPOSTHIA, Acrobystia. 

AGROPOSTHITIS, Posthitis. 

ACROPSI'LON, from aKpos, 'extremity,' and 
i^iAof, ' naked.' The extremity of the glans penis. 

ACRORIA, Vertex. 

ACRORRHEU'MA, Rheumatis'mns extremita'- 
tum, from aKpoi, ' extremity,' and poj/ia, 'defluxion, 
rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the extremities. 

ACROS, axpos, 'extremity, top.' The strength 
of the Athletas, and of diseases; the prominences 
of bones ; the extremities of the fingers, &c. See 
Aerocheir, Acromion, &c. 

ACROSTIGHUM POLYPODIOIDES, Poly- 
podium incanum. 

ACROTERIA, Acrea. Bee Extremity. 

ACROTERIASIS, Acroteriasmus. 

ACROTERIAS'MUS, Acroteri'asis, from aKpc 
rnpia, 'the extremities;' hence oKporripia^uv, 'to 
mutilate.' Amputation of the extremities. 

ACROTHYM'ION, from oKpoi, 'top,' and 
&VI10V, 'thyme.' A kind of conical, rugous, bloody^ 
wart, a " moist wart," compared by Celsus to the 
flower of thyme. 

ACROT'IGA, from axpc;, 'summit.' Diseases 
aS'ecting the excernent functions of the externa', 
surface of the body. 

Pravity of the fluids or emunctories that open 
on the external surface ; without fever or other 
internal aflfection as a necessary accompaniment. 

The 3d order of the class Eccrit'ica 6f Good. 

ACROTISMUS, Asphyxia. 

ACT, Actus, from actum, past participle of 
agere, 'to do,' 'a thing done.' The effective ex- 
ercise of a power or faculty. The action of an 
agent. Aete is used by the French, to signify 
the public discussion, which occurs in supporting 
a thesis ; — thus, soutenir tin Acte aux Ecoles de 
Medecine, is, 'to defend a Thesis in the Schools 
of Medicine.' 

ACTA, Gesta. 

ACT^A CIMICIFUGA, A. racemosa. 

AcTjE'a Racemo'sa, a. Cimicif'uga, Cimicif - 
vga racemo'sa. Macro' trys racemo'sa, Bot'rophit 
Serpenta'ria (?), Serpenta'ria nigra, Black snake- 
root, Richweed, Cohosh, Squaw root, Jiattleweed- 
Black Cohosh. (F. ) Actee d grappee, Strpentaire 
noire. Ord. Ranuneulaceag. &x. Sysi. Polyan- 
dria Pentagynia. A common plant in the United 
States. The root, Cimicif'uga (Ph. U S.), is as- 
tringent; and, according to Barton, has been 
successfully used, in the form of a decoction, as 
a gargle in putrid sore throat. A decoction of 
the root cures the itch. It is acro-narcotic, and 



ACTE 



ADDUCENS OCULI 



has been used in rheumatism, acute and chronic ; | 
ehorea, Ac. 

Actje'a Spica'tA, Ckristophoria'tia spica'ta, 
Aeoni'tum racemo'siim, Baneberry, Herb Chris'- 
topher. (F.) Herbe St. Christophe. A perennial 
herbaceous European plant, the root of which 
resembles that of the black hellebore. The root 
lis cathartic, and sometimes emetic, and in over- 
ioses may produce dangerous consequences. 

Acta'a America'na, of which there are two 
varieties, A. alba and A. rubra, — white and red 
tohoah, — is indigenous in the United States. It 
Has the same properties as A. spicata. 

ACTE, Sambucus. 

^cr^.Act. 

ACTEE d, GRAPPES, Actsea racemosa. 
AG TIF, Active. 
ACTIO, Action, Function. 
ACTION, Ac'tio, Opera'tio, Energi'a, Praxis : 
from agere, actum, ' to act.' Mode in which one 
object influences another. 

The animal actions are those that occur in the 
animal body : the vital, those that are essential 
to life : the physiological, those of a healthy cha- 
racter : the pathological or morbid, those that 
occur in disease, <fcc. The ancients divided the 
physiological actions into vital, animal, natural, 
sexual, particular, general, &c. See Function. 
ACTIONES NATURALES, see Function. 
ACTIVE, same etymon. Dras'ticus, Acti'vus, 
Sthen'icus, Hypersthen' icus. (F.) Actif. This 
adjective is used, in Pathology, to convey the idea 
of superabundant energy or strength. Active 
symptoms, e. g. are those of excitement. In The- 
rapeutics, it signifies energetic : — as, an active 
treatment. The French use the expression Me- 
decine agissante, in contradistinction to Medecine 
expeetante. In Physiology, active has a similar 
signification, many of the functions being divided 
into active and passive. 

ACTON. A village near London, at which 
there is a purgative mineral spring, like that at 
Epsom. 

ACTUAL. Same etymon as active. That 
which acts immediately. A term usually re- 
stricted to the red-hot iron, or to heat in any 
form; in contradistinction to ihQ potential or vir- 
tual, which is applied to caustics or escharotics. 
ACTUA'RIUS. Originally a title of dignity 
given to the Byzantine physicians. 

ACTUS PARTURITIONIS, Parturition. 
ACUITAS, Acrimony. 
ACULEUS LIGNEUS, Splinter, 
ACUMETER, Acoumeter. 
A'CUPUNCTURE, Acupunctu'ra, Acupuncta'- 
/ton, Acupunctiira'tion, from acus, 'a, needle,' and 
ptinctura, a puncture,' A surgical operation, 
ranch in use amongst the Chinese and Japanese, 
which consists in puncturing parts with a very 
fine needle. It has been employed, of late years, 
in obstinate rheumatic aflfections, Ac, and appa- 
rently with success. Acupuncture is likewise a 
mode of infanticide in some countries ; the needle 
h«ing forced into the brain through the fonta- 
nelles, or into the spinal marrow, Ac. 
ACURGIA, Surgery (operative). 
ACUS, Needle — a. Capitata, Pin — a. Invagi- 
nata, see Needle — a. Ophthalmica, see Needle— 
a. Paracentica, Trocar — a. Paracentetica, Trocar 
— a. Triquetra vulgaris, Trocar — a. Veneris, 
J5ryngium campestre. 

ACUSIMETER, Acoumeter. 
ACUSIS, Audition. 
ACUSTICA, Acoustics. 
ACUSTICUS, Auditory. 

ACUTE, Acu'tus, Oxys, ofuj, (a«y, 'a point.') 
{¥.) Aigu. A disease which, with a certain de- 
ree of severity, has a rapid progress, and short 



duration, is said to be "acute." — Oxynose'ma, 
Oxyn'osos, Oxynu'sos. 

Diseases were formerly subdivided into Morbi 
aautis'simi, very acute, or those which last only 
three or four days : M. subacutis'simi, which con- 
tinue seven days : and M, subacu'ti, or those 
which last from twenty to forty days. 

The antithesis to acute is chronic. Acute, when 
applied to pain, sound, cries, Ac, means sharp. 

ACUTENACULUM, Porte-aiguille. 

ACYANOBLEP'SIA, from a, privative, Kvavos. 
'blue,' and /SXsiru, 'I see.' Defective vision, 
which consists in incapability of distinguishing 
blue. — Gothe. See Achromatopsia. 

ACYESIS, Sterilitas. 

ACYRUS, Arnica montana. 

ACYSTINERVIA, Cystoparalvsis. 

ACYgTURONERVIA, Cystoparalysis. 

ACYSTUROTROPHIA, Cystatrophia. 

ACYTERIUS, Abortive. 

ADACA. The Sphmran'thus In'dicus, a Mala- 
bar plant, which is acrid and aromatic. 

ADAC'RYA, from a, privative, and Saicpvu), 'I 
weep.' Defective secretion of tears. 

AD^MONIA, Anxiety. 

ADAKO'DIEN. A Malabar plant of the fa- 
mily Apocyneaj, used in that country in diseases 
of the eyes. 

AD'ALI, Lip'pia. A Malabar plant, which 
the Orientals regard as an antidote to the bite of 
the naja. 

ADAMANTINE SUBSTANCE, Enamel of 
the teeth. 

ADAMAS, Diamond. 

ADAMI'TA, Adami'tum. A very hard, white 
calculus. — Paracelsus. 

The first word has been used for stone in the 
bladder : the second for lithiasis or the calculous 
condition. 

ADAM'S APPLE, Pomum Adami. 

ADANSONIA DIGITATA, Baobab. 

ADAPTER, from ad and apto, ' I fit.' A tube 
employedin pharmaceutical operations for length- 
ening the neck of a retort ; or in cases where the 
opening of the receiver is not large enough to 
admit the beak of the retort. 

ADAR'CE, Adar'cion, Adar'cis. A concretvon 
found about the reeds and grass in the marshy 
regions of Qalatia, and hiding them, as it were : 
hence the name, from a privative, and hcQKw, 'I 
see.' It was formerly in repute for cleansing the 
skin from freckles, Ac. 

ADARIGO, Orpiment. 

ADARNECH, Orpiment. 

ADARTICULATIO, Arthrodia. 

AD CUTEM ABDOM'INIS (ARTERIA). The 
superficial artery of the abdomen, — a branch of the 
crural or femoral, which arises at the lower part 
of Poupart's ligament, and ascends towards the 
umbilicus, being distributed to the integuments. 

ADDAD. A Numidian plant; bitter and poi- 
sonous. 

ADDEPHAG"IA, Adephag"ia, from aiBriv, 
'much,' and 4>ayuv, 'to eat.' Voraciousness. 
Galen and Hoffmann have given this name to 
voracious appetite in children affected with 
worms. Sauvages refers it to Bulimia. Also, 
the goddess of gluttony. 

ADDER'S TONGUE, Ophioglossum vulgatum. 

ADDISON, DISEASE OF, see Capsule, renal. 

ADDITAMEN'TUM. A term once used sy- 
nonymously with Epiphysis. It i now restricted 
to the prolongation of two cranial sutures, the 
lambdoidal and squamous. 

Additamentum Coli, Appendix vermiformis 
cseci — a. Necatum, Olecranon — a. ad Sacro-lum- 
balem, see Sacro-lumbalis — a, Uncatum ulnae, 
Olecranon — a. Ulnse, Radius. 

ADDUCENS OCULI, Rectus internus oouli. 



ADDUCTEUR DE L'CEIL 



ADENONCOSIS 



ADDUOTETJR BE L'CEFL, Rectus inter- 
nns oculi — a. dn Gros orteil, Adductor pollicis 
pedis — a. Premier ou moyen, Adductor longus 
femoris — a. du Pouce, Adductor pollicis maniis 
— a. Second ou petit, Adductor brevis — a. Troi- 
»ihne ou grand, Adductor magnus. 

ADDUC'TIOISr, Adduc'tio, from ad, 'to,' and 
ducere, 'to draw.' Parago'ge. The action by 
which parts are drawn towards the axis of the 
body. 

The muscles which execute this function are 
called Adduc'tors. 

ADDUCTOR MEDII DIGITI PEDIS, Pos- 
terior medii digiti pedis — a. Oculi, Rectus inter- 
nus oculi. 

Adduc'tor Metacar'pi min'imi DrG"iTi, Me- 
taear'peus, Car' po-metacar' pens min'imi dig"iti, 
i? situate between the adductor and flexor, next 
to the metacarpal bone. It arises, fleshy, from 
the unciform process of the os unciforme, and 
from the contiguous part of the annular ligament 
of the wrist, and is inserted, tendinous and fleshy, 
into the fore-part of the metacarpal bone of the 
little finger, from its base to its head. 

Adduc'tor Pol'licis Manus, A. Pol'licis, A. 
ad min'imum dig"itum, Metacar'po-phalan'geus 
pol'licis — (Cb.) (F.) Adductenr du pouce. A 
muscle which arises, fleshy, from almost the 
whole length of the metacarpal bone of the mid- 
dle finger, and is inserted into the inner part of 
the root of the first bone of the thumb. 

Adduc'tor Pol'licis Pedis, Antith'enar, Me- 
tatar'so-auhpkalan'geus pollicis. — (Ch.) Tarso- 
metatarsi-phalangien du pouce. (F.) Adductenr 
du gros orteil. Arises by a long, thin tendon, 
from the under part of the os calcis, from the os 
cuboides, os cuneiforme externum, and from the 
root of the metatarsal bone of the second toe. It 
is divided into two fleshy portions, and is inserted 
into the external sesamoid bone, and root of the 
metatarsal bone of the great toe. 

Bichat has given the general name, Adduc'- 
tors, to those of the interosseous muscles of the 
hand or foot, which perform the action of ad- 
duction. 

Adductor Terth Digiti Pedis, Prior tertii 
digiti pedis. 

Adductors of the thigh. These are three 
in number, which have, by some anatomists, been 
united into one muscle— the Triceps Adduc'tor 
Fem'oris. 

1. Adduc'tor longus fem'oris, Adduc'tor fem'- 
oris primus, Triceps minor, Pu' bio-femora' lis — 
(Ch.) (F.) Premier ou moyen adducteur. Arises 
by a strong tendon from the upper and fore part 
of the OS pubis and ligament of the symphysis, 
at the inner side of the pectinalis. It runs down- 
wards and outwards, and is inserted by a broad, 
flat tendon, into the middle of the linea aspera. 

2. Adduc'tor hrevis, A. fem'oris secun'dus. 
Triceps secun'due, Sub-pubio-femora'lis — (Ch.) 
(F.) Second ou petit Adducteur. Arises tendi- 
nous from the os pubis, at the side of its sym- 
physis, below and behind the last muscle. It 
runs obliquely outwards, and is inserted by a 
short, flat tendon into the inner and upper part 
of the linea aspera, from a little below the tro- 
chanter minor to the beginniilg of the insertion 
of the adductor longus. 

3. Adduc'tor magmis, Adduc'tor fem'oris ter'. 
tins et quartns, Triceps magmis. Is' chio -femora' - 
lis — (Ch.) (P.) Troisi^me on grand adducteur, is 
much larger than either of the others. It arises 
from the ramus of the pubis, from that of the 
ischium, and from the tuber ischii, and is inserted 
into the whole length of the linea aspera. Near 
the lower part of the linea aspera it is pierced 
by a kind of oblique, fibrous canal, through which 
the crural artery and vein pass. 



ADEC. The inner man. — Paracelsus. 

ADECTA, Sedatives. 

ADELIPARIA, Polysarcia. 

ADELODAGAM. A bitter Malabar plant, 
used in asthma, catarrh, and gout. 

ADELPHIA, see Adelphixia. 

ADELPHIX'IA, Adelpliix'is ; from a&t\<poi, 
'brother.' Consanguinity of parts in health or 
disease ; Frater'nitas, Fratra'tio. Hippocrates 
used the word Adel'plda for diseases that re- 
semble each other. 

ADELPHIXIS, Sympathy. 

ADEMONIA, Depression, Nostalgia. 

ADEMOSYNE, Depression, Nostalgia. 

ADEN, a6r}v, 'a gland j' hence Adenalgia, 
Adeniform, &o. — see Gland. 

ADENAL'GIA, Adenodyn'ia, from ahnv, 'a 
gland,' and a\yos, 'pain.' Glandular pain. 

ADENECTOP'IA, from aivv, 'a gland,' and 
sKTOTTOf, ' removed from its place.' Dislocation 
of a gland. 

ADENEMPHRAX'IS, from ainv, 'a gland,' 
and efiippa^is, ' obstruction.' Glandular obstruc- 
tion. 

ADENIES, Adenopathies angibromiques. Dis • 
eases of the glands connected with the digestive 
tube. — Piorry. 

ADEN'IFORM, Adeniform' is, Adenox dcs, 
Ad'enoid, from Aden, ' a gland,' and Forma, 
'form or resemblance.' Glan'diform, or resem- 
bling a gland. 

ADENITE, Adenitis — a. Lymphatique, Lym- 
phadenitis. 

ADENI'TIS, from aijiv, 'a gland, and itis, a 
termination denoting inflammation. Phlegma' sia 
adeno'sa sen glaudulo'sa. (F.) Adenite. Glandu- 
lar inflammation. 

Adenitis Lymphatica, Lymphadenitis. 

Adeni'tis Mesenter'ica, diesenter'ic Gangli- 
oni'tis. Inflammation of the mesenteric glands. 

Adenitis Palpebrarum Contagiosa, see Oph- 
thalmia. 

ADENOCE'LE, from aSriv, 'a gland,' and kijX;?, 
'a rupture,' 'a tumour.' Under this term Mr. 
Birkett includes tumours of the mammae, 
which contain structures similar to, if not identi- 
cal with, the normal secreting tissue of the gland, 
and more especially the cysto-sarcoma, and 
chronic mammary tumours of surgical authors. 

ADEN0CHIRAPS0L0G"IA, from aSn^, 'a 
gland,' x^tPi ' tbe hand/ otttio, ' I lay hold of,' and 
Aoyof, 'a descriptioii.' The doctrine of curing 
scrofula or the king's evil by the royal touch. 

ADENOCHON'DRIUS, from aSr,v, 'a gland,' 
and x<"'^p°s> ' ^ cartilage.' Relating to gland and 
cartilage, — for example, ArthropJiy'ma adeno- 
chon'drium, a tumefaction of the glands and car- 
tilages of joints. 

ADEN0DEE3/IES SYPHILITIQUES, A. 
sym2)hyosiques, from a&riv, 'a gland,' and iipfia, 
' skin.' Syphilitic affections of the glands of the 
skin. 

ADENODYNIA, Adenalgia. 

ADENOG'RAPHY, Adenogra'phia, from a^„, 
' a glpnd,' and ypa(pij>, ' I describe.' That part of 
anatomy which describes the glands. 

ADENOID, Adeniform. 

ADENOIDES, Adeniform. 

ADENOL'OGY, Adenolog"ia, from air,*, ' 
gland,' and Xoyoj, 'a description.' A treatise oa 
the glands. 

ADENOMALA'CIA, from aSr,v, 'a. gland,' and 
na\aKia, 'softening.' MoUescence or softening 
of a gland. 

ADENO-MENINGEAL, see Fever, adeno. 
meningeal. 

ADENONCOSIS, Adenophyma. 



ADENONCUS 



34 



ADIPOCIRE 



ADENONCUS, Adenophyma. 

ADENO-NERVOUS FEVER, Plague. 

ADENOPA THIES ANGIBR OMIQ UES, 
Ad6nie8. 

ADE'NO-PHARYN'GEUS,froma5;?v, 'a 
gland,' and (pnpvy^, (papvyyos, 'the pharynx.' 
Some fleshy fibres, which pass from the con- 
strictor pharyngis inferior to the thyroid gland, 
have received this name. Their existence is not 
constant. 

ADE'NO-PHARYNGI'TIS. Same etymon. 
Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx. 

ADENOPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

ADENOPHY'MA, Adenon'cua, Adenonco'sis, 
from a&riv, 'a gland,' and ^vfia, 'a swelling.' 
Swelling of a gland, or glandiform ganglion. 
(F.) Glanduge. Adenophyma is used by some to 
signify a soft glandular swelling; — Adenoncus, 
one of a harder character. — Kraus. 

Adenophyma Ingdinalis. Bubo. 

ADENOSCIR'RHUS, Adenosdero' sia, from 
airiv, 'a gland,' and trKippos, 'induration.' Scir- 
rhous induration of a gland. 

ADENOSCLEROSIS, Adenoscirrhus. 

ADENOSIS SCROPHULOSA, Scrofula. 

ADENO'SUS, {Ahsces'ms). A hard, glandular 
abscess, which suppurates slowly. — M. A, Seve- 
rinus. 

ADENOSYNCHITONITIS, Ophthalmia Neo- 
natorum. 

ADENOT'OMY, Adenotom'ia, from airiv, 'a 
gland,' and rtfivia, 'I cut.' Dissection of the 
glands. 

ADEPHAGIA, Addephagia, Boulimia. 

ADEPS, genitive Adipis, Adeps SuiUu8,0xi/n'- 

gium, Pingue'do, Lar'idum, Lardiim, Lard. 

(Prov.) 3foi-t, Sallis, Sicinesame. Pig's flare. 

' The fat of the hog. In the Ph. U. S., the pre- 

j)ared fat of Sus scro/a, free from saline matter. 

Adeps Anseri'nus, Adeps an'serie or Goose 
grease, (F.) Graisse d'Oie, is emollient. It has 
been used as an emetic. 

Adeps Cantharidibus Medicatus, Unguen- 
tnm lyttse medicatum— a. Cortice Daphnes gnidii 
medicatus, Unguentum epispasticum de Daphne 
gnidio — a. Humanus, Liquamumia — a. Hydrar- 
gyro medicatus, Unguentum Hydrargyri — a. ex 
Jlydrargyro mitius dictum cinereum, Unguentum 
<jxidi hydrargyri cinereum — a. Hydrargyri muri- 
ate oxygenate medicatus, Unguentum muriatis 
hydrargyri oxygenati medicatum — a. Hydrargyri 
nitrate medicatus, Unguentum hydrargyri nitratis 
— a. Hydrargyri oxido rubro et plumbi acetate 
medicatus, Unguentum ophthalmicum — a. Lauro 
medicatus, Unguentum laurinum — a. Myristicae, 
see Myristica — a. Orilli, Sevum — a. Papavere, 
fayoseyamo, et belladonna medicatus, Unguentum 
populeum. 

Adeps Pr^para'tits, A. Suillus Preepara'tua, 
Mog'* lard, Barrow's grease, Lard, Ax'unge, 
Axun'gia, Axun'gia porci'na, (F.) Graisse de 
Pore, Saindoux, Axonge, is prepared by melting 
pig's flare, and straining it. This is called ren- 
dering the lard. Lard is emollient, but is chiefly 
used for forming ointments and plasters. 

Adeps Suillus Pr.«paratus, Adeps Prsepa- 
ratus — a. Sulfure et ammoniae muriate medicatus, 
Unguentum sulphuratum ad scabiem — a. Sulfure 
et carbonate potassae medicatus, Unguentum 
sulphuratum alcalinum ad scabiem — a. Tartaro 
stibii medicatus, Unguentum antimonii tartarizati 
— a. Oxido zinci medicatus, Unguentum oxidi 
zinci impuri. 

ADEPT, Alehymist. 

ADEP'TA MEDICI'NA. Medicine, which 
treated of diseases contracted by celestial opera- 
Hnns, or communicated from heaven. 
Adepta PuiLOSOPHiA, Alchymy. 



ADERMONERVIA, Dermataneuria. 

ADERMOTROPH'IA, from a, priv., itp^ 
'skin,' and rpof^r), 'nourishment.' Extenuation 
or atrophy of the skin. 

ADFLATUS, Afflatus. 

ADH^ERENTIA, Adherence, 

ADH^SIO, Adherence. 

ADHATO'DA, Jnstic"ia adhaio'da. The Ma- 
lahar Nut Tree. (F.) Noyer de Ceylon. Used 
in India for expelling the dead foetus in abortion. 
The word is said to convey this meaning in the 
Ceylonese. 

ADHE'RENCE, Adhe'sion, Adhceren'tia, Con. 
cre'tio, Atre'sia, Pros'physis, Proscolle'sis, Ad- 
hw'sio, from adhcerere, {ad and hmrevt,) ' to stick 
to.' These words are usually employed synonym- 
ously. The French often use adherence for the 
state of union, and adhesion for the act of ad- 
hering. 

ADHESION, Adherence. 

ADHE'SIVE INFLAMMA'TION is that in- 
flammation which terminates by an adhesion 
between inflamed and separated surfaces, and 
which was, at one time, supposed to be necessary 
for such adhesion. 

Adhe'sive is also an epithet for certain plasters 
which stick closely to the skin. 

ADIANTHUM, Adiantum. 

ADIANTUM, A. pedatum. 

Adiantum uSIthiop'icum. A Souiii African 
plant, Ord. Filices, an infusion of which is some- 
times used as an emollient in coughs, and in 
diseases of the chest. 

ADiAJiTOM Album, Asplenium ruta muraria — 
a. Aureum, Polytrichum. 

Adian'tum Capil'lus Ven'eris, A. Coriandri- 
fo'Uum seu Nigrum, Capil'lus Ven'eris, from a, 
privative, and <5taiva>, 'to grow wet,' from the 
leaves not being easily moistened. Maiden hair, 
(F.) Capi/laire de Montpellier, A European 
plant, of feeble, aromatic and demulcent pro- 
perties. It is used for forming the Siro}} de Ca- 
ptillaire or Capillaire. 

Adiantum Coriandrifolium, A. Capillus Ve- 
neris — a. Nigrum, A. Capillus Veneris. 

Adian'tum Peda'tum, A. Canaden'se sen Pa- 
tens, Adiantum, Capil'lus Ven'eris Canaden'sis, 
Herha Ven'eris, Filix Ven'eris, Canada 3Iaiden- 
hair, American Maidenhair, Rock/em, Siceet/ern, 
(F.) Capillaire du Canada, has the same proper- 
ties. Capillaire was once made from this. See 
Adiantum. 

Adiantum RuBRUM,Asplenium trichomanoides. 

ADIAPHANIE PERICHRYSALTIQUE, 
see Cataract. 

ADIAPHORO'SIS, Adiaphore'sis, from a, pri 
vative, (5ia, • through,' and ^pos, 'a pore.' Defect 
or suppression of perspiration, Adiapneus'tia. 

ADIAPII'OROUS, Adiaph'orus, Indiff'ererts, 
Neutral. A medicine which will neither do harm 
nor good. 

ADIAPNEUSTIA, Adiaphorosis. 

ADIARRHCE'A, from a, privative, and 6ia^ 
pciv, 'to flow.' Retention of any excretion. — 
Hippocrates. 

ADIATH'ESIC, Adiathes'icits, from a, priva- 
tive, and SiaScais, ' diathesis.' In the system of 
controstimulism, adiathesic diseases are such as 
occur without any antecedent diathesis. 

ADICE, Urtica. 

ADIPATUS, Fatty. 

ADIPEUX, Adipose. 

ADIPOCERA, Adipocire — a.. Cetosa, Ceta- 
ceum. 

ADIPOCIRE, Adipoce'ra, from adeps, 'fat,' 
and eera, 'wax.' The base of biliary calculi, 
called also Chol'esterine. Also, a sort of soap, 
formed from animal matter under certain circuna- 



ADIPOCIRE DE BALEINE 35 



^D(EOGARGARISMUS 



stances. (F.) Gras des Cadavres, Gras dcs Cime- 
tilres. The human body, when it has been for 
some weeks in water, assumes this appearance; 
and it has been a subject of legal inquiry, what 
length of time is necessary to produce it. This 
must, of course, depend upon various circum- 
stances, as climate, season, <fcc. 

ADIPOCIRE BE BALEINE, Cetaceum. 

AD'IPOSE, Ad'ipoua, Adipo'sus, from adejis, 
fat.' (F.) Adipeux. That which relates to fat — 
as Adipose membrane, A. veasek, &e. See Fatty. 

Ad'ipose Sahco'ma of Ab'ernethy, Emphy'ma 
tarco'ma adipo'sum, is suetty throughout, and 
enclosed in a thin capsule of condensed areolar 
Bubstance, connected by means of minute vessels. 
It is chiefly found on the fore and back parts of 
the trunk. See Sarcoma. 

ADIPOSIS. See Polysarcia. 

Adipo'sis Hepat'ica, Pimelo'sis seu ateato'sia 
sen malax'is hepat'ica, Hepar adipo'sum, Fatty 
liver. Fatty degeneration of the liver, (F.) Dege- 
nirescence graisseuae du Foie. Fatty disease of 
the liver. 

ADIPOSUS, Fatty. 

ADIPOUS, Fatty. 

ADIP'SIA, Dipso'sis expers. Absence of thirst. 

ADIP'SOX, Adip'siiiii, from a, privative, and 
h-i^a, 'thirst.' Any substance which relieves 
thirst. Applied to a decoction of barley to which 
oxymel was added. — Hippocrates. 

ADIPSOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

AD'ITUS, 'an entrance,' 'an approach;* from 
adere, adititm, 'to go to.' Pros' odos. The en- 
trance to a canal or duct, as Aditus ad Aqvaduc- 
tum Fallopii. 

Aditus ad iNFUNDiBULrw, Vulva. 

ADIULIS'TOS, from a, privative, and 5t«Xt?a), 
'I strain.' Unstrained wine for pharmaceutical 
Durposes. — Gorrteus. 

ADJUNCTUM, Accompaniment. 

ADJUTOR PARTOS, Accoucheur. 

AD'JUVANT, Ad'juvana, from adjuvare, 'to 
aid.' A medicine, introduced into a prescription 
to aid tho operation of the principal ingredient 
or basis. Also, whatever assists in the removal 
or prevention of disease. 

ADMINICULE, Adminic'ulum, (ad and ma- 
nua, 'a hand'). A prop, a support. Anything 
that aids the action of a remedy. 

ADNASCENTIA, Prosphysis. 

ADNATA (TUNICA,) Conjunctiva. 

ADNEE {MEMBRANE,) Conjunctiva. 

ADOLES'CENCE, Adolesc^n'tia, Juven'ta, Ju- 
ven'tan, Jnven'tns, JEtas bona, Youth; from ado- 
leacere, {ad and olescere,) 'to grow.' (F.) Jenn- 
eese. The period between puberty and that at 
which the body acquires its full development; 
being, in man, between the 14th and 25th years; 
and, in woman, between the 12th and 21st. 

ADOLES'CENS, Ju'venis, Hebe'tea, Hebe'ter, 
Hebe'tor, Hypene'tes. A youth. A young man 
in the period of adolescence. 

ADO 'LI A. A Malabar plant, whose leaves, 
put in oil, form a liniment, used in facilitating 
labour. 
, ADOR, Zea mays. 

ADORION, Daucus carotai 

ABOUOISSANT, Demulcent. 

AD PONDUS OM'NIUM. The weight of the 
whole. In a prescription it means, that any 
particular ingredient shall equal in weight the 
whole of the others. 

AD RAG ANT, Tragacantha. 

ADRAGANTHE, Tragacantha. 

ADRA RIZA. Aristolochia clematitis. 

ADROBO'LON, from abpoi, 'great,' and jSwAoj, 
'mass.' The bdellium of India, which is in larger 
pieces than that of Arabia. 



ADROS, aipos, 'plump and full.' Applied to 
the habit of body, and also to the pulse. — Hippo 
crates. 

ADSARIA PALA, Dolichos pruriens. 

ADSPIRATIO, Aspiration, Inspiration. 

ADSTANS, Prostate. 

ADSTITES GLANDULOSI, Prostate. 

ADSTRICTIO, Astriction, Constipation. 

ADSTRICTORIA, Astringents. 

ADSTRINGENTIA, Astringents. 

ADULAS'SO. The Juatitia bivalvis. A small 
shrub, used in India as a local application in gout. 

ADULT, see Adult age. 

Adult Age, Andri'a, from adoleseere, 'to 
grow to,' (ad and olere, olitwn, 'to grow.') Vi- 
ril'ity, manhood. The age succeeding adoles- 
cence, and preceding old age. In the civil law, 
an adult is one, who, if a boy, has attained the 
age of fourteen years ; and, if a girl, of twelve. 
In the common law, one of full age. Adult, 
Adul'tus, is also used for one in the adult age. 

ADULTERATIO, Falsification. 

ADULTUS, see Adult age. 

ADUNCATIO UNGUIUM, Onychogryphosis. 

ADURENS, Caustic. 

ADURION, Rhus coriaria. 

ADUST, Adtts'tus, from adurere, (ud and 
urere,) 'to burn.' The blood and fluids were 
formerly said to be adust, when there was much 
heat in the constitution, and but little serum iu 
the blood. 

ADUSTIO, Adustion, Burn. 

ADUS'TION, Adm'tio. State of the body 
described under Adust. In surgery, it signifies 
cauterization. 

ADVENTITIOUS DISEASES, Acquired dis- 
eases. 

ADVENTITIUS, Accidental. 

ADYNA'MIA, Impoten'tia ; from a, privative, 
and Svvaftts, 'strength,' Adyna'sia, Adyna'tia. 
Considerable debility of the vital powers ; as in 
typhus fever. Some Nosologists have a class of 
diseases under the name AdynamicB, Ec'lyses, 
Morbi asthen'ici. 

Ady.vamia Virilis, Impotence. 

ADYNAM'IC, Adynam'icus, Hypodynam'ic, 
Eypodyyiam'icua ; same etymon. Appertaining 
to debility of the vital powers. 

ADYNASIA, Adyni^mia. 

ADYNATIA, Adynamia. 

ADYNATOCOMIUM, Hospital. 

ADYNATODOCHIOM, HospitaL 

ADYNATOS, Sickly 

.ffiDOEA, Genital Organs. 

^DCE'AGRA, from uiSota, 'genital organs,' 
and aypa, ' seizure.' Gout in the genitals. 

^DCEAG'RAPHY, ^Edoeagraph'ia, jEdoR- 
og'raphy, from aiioia, ' organs of generation,' and 
yoatpm, ' I describe.' A description of the organs 
of generation. 

^DCEAL'OGY, ^doealog"ia,AEdoeol'ogy, from 
aiiota, 'organs of generation,' and Xoyos, * a de- 
scription.' A treatise on the organs of generation, 

^DCEAT'OMY, ^doeatom'ia, jEdwotom'ia, 
JSdoeot'ome, jEdoeot'omy, from ai&oia, ' organs of 
generation,' and Ttiivm, ' I cut.' Dissection of the 
parts of generation. 

^DCEI'TIS, ^dceoti'tis, 3Iedei'tis; from ai- 
Soia, 'organs of generation,' and itia, denoting 
inflammation. Inflammation of the genital or- 
gans. 

^DCEOBLENORRHCEA, Leueorrhoea. 

^DCEODYN'IA, from ai&oia, ' organs of gene- 
ration,' and odvvri, 'pain.' Pain in the genitals. 
Pudendagra. 

^DCEOGARGALUS, Masturbation, Nympho- 
mania. 

^DCEOGARGARISMUS, Masturbation, 
Nymphomania. 



^D(EOGRAPHY 



36 



AEROMANCT 



^D(EOGRAPHY, iEdoeagraphy. 
^DOEOLOGY, ^doealogy. 
' ^DGEOMANIA, Nymphomania. 

^DCEOMYCODERMI'TIS, from aiSoia, 'or- 
gans of generation,' fiVKog, 'mucus,' and 6tpna, 
' skin.' Inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the genital organs. 
^D«EON, Incmen. 
iEDCEOPSOPHESIS, ^doeopsophia. 
^DOEOPSOPH'IA, JEcloeopsophe'sis, from ai- 
ioia, ' organs of generation,' and \l/o0£iv, ' to make 
a noise.' Emission of wind by the urethra in 
man, by the vagina in woman. — Sauvages and 
Sagar. 
^DCEOPSOPHiA Utehina, Physometra. 
^DGEOS'COPY, JSdceoscop' ia, from ailoia, 
'organs of generation,' and oKoirciv, 'to view.' 
Exploration of the organs of generation. 

uEDCEOTITIS, -^doeitis— ifi. Gangraenosa, Col- 
pocace — £6. Gangrasnosa puellarum, Colpocace 
infantilis — ae. Gangrsenosa puerperarum, Colpo- 
cace puerperarum. 
^DCEOTOME, ^doeatomy. 
jEDCEOTOMIA, iEdceatomy. 
^DCEOTOMY, ^doeatomy. 
^DOPTOSIS, Hysteroptosis — 08. Uteri, Pro- 
lapsus uteri— se. Uteri inversa, Uterus, inversion 
of the — ce. Uteri retroversa, Retroversio uteri — 
£6. VagiuEB, Prolapsus V. — se. Vesieee, Exocyste. 
^EIG'LUCES, AeigHuces, from an, 'always,' 
and y\vKvi, 'sweet.' A kind of sweet wine or 
must. — GorrsBus. 

^GAGROPI'LA, ^5»a^ro/ii7u», from atyaypo?, 
'the rock goat,' and wAof, 'hair,' Bezoar d'Alle- 
magne, Pila Dama'rum seu Rupicapra'rttm. A 
ball composed of hairs, found in the stomach of 
the goat : once used medicinally. 
^GEIROS, Populus. 
^GER, Sick. 

^'GIAS, ^gis, uEglia, ^'gides, from aif, 
aiyo';, 'the goat;* why, is not known. (F.) Aige 
or Aigle. There is obscurity regarding the pre- 
cise meaning of this word. It was used to desig- 
nate an ulcer, or speck on the transparent cornea. 
— Hippocrates. 

Maitre Jean uses it for a calcareous deposit 
between the conjunctiva and sclerotica. 
^GIDES, ^gias. 

^'GILOPS, An'chilops, An'kylops, from at^, 
aiyog, ' goat,' and u>\p, ' the eye.' An ulcer at the 
greater angle of the eye, which sometimes does 
not penetrate to the lachrymal sac, but at others 
does, and constitutes fistula lacrymalis. — Galen, 
Celsus, Orlbasius, Aetins, Paulus of ^gina, &c. 

^GI'RINON. An ointment of which the fruit 
or flower of the poplar was an ingredient; from 
aiyeipog, ' the black poplar.' 
^GLIA, ^gias. 

.ffiGOCERAS, Trigonella foenum. 
JEGOLETHRON, Ranunculus flammula. 
^GONYCHON, Lithospermum ofScinale. 
^GOPHONIA, Egophony. 
^GOPHONICUS, Egophonic. 
^GOPODIUM PODAGRARIA, Ligusticum 
podagraria. 

^GRIPPA, Agrippa, 

^GRITUDO, Disease— ae. Ventriculi, Vomit- 
ing. 

^GROTATIO, Disease. 
^GROTUS, Sick. 

^GYP'TIA. An epithet for several medi- 
cines, mentioned by Galen, Paulus of iEgina, 
and Myrepsus. 

^GYPTiA MoscHATA, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

iEGTP'TIA StYPTe'rIA, KiyvTTTia arvTTTTjpia, 
Egyptian alum. Recommended by Hippocrates. 

^gyp'tia Ul'cera ; JSgyptian ulcers. Ulcers 
of the fauces and tonsils, described by Aretseus, 
u common in Egypt and Syria. 



^GYPTIACUM, ^gyp'tion, Mende'sion, 3fel 
^gyjytiarum, Phar'viaeum ./Egyptiacum. A pre- 
paration of vinegar, honey, and verdigris, scarcely 
used now, except by veterinary surgeons as a de- 
tergent. See Linimentum ^ruginis. 
^GYPTION, Jigyptiacum. 
^GYPTIUM MEDICAMENTUM AD 
AURES, Pharmacum ad aures. 

iEGYP'TIUS PESSUS: Egyptian pessary. 
A pessary, composed of honey, turpentine, butter, 
oil of lily or of rose, saffron, each one part; with 
sometimes a small quantity of verdigris. 
AEICHRYSON, Sedum. 
^IPATHEIA, see Continent (Disease.) 
ABIPATHIA, see Continent (Disease.) 
^MOPTOICA PASSIO, Haemoptysis. 
^NEA, Catheter. 
.aiOLECTHYMA, Variola. 
^OLLION, Varicella. 
^OLLIUM, Varicella. 

^ON, atoiv. The entire age of a man from 
birth till death. — Hippocrates, Galen. Also, the 
spinal marrow. See Medulla Spinalis. 
^ONESIS, Fomentation. 
^ONION, Sedum. 

MO'RA, from aiupcu, *I suspend.' Gestation, 
swinging. — Aetius, Celsus, &c. 
^QUALIS, Equal. 

^QUA'TOR OC'ULI. The line formed by the 
union of the upper and under eyelid, when they 
are closed. It is below the middle of the globe. 
^QUIVOCUS, Equivocal. 
AER, Air. 

AERATION OF THE BLOOD, Haematosis. 
AERATUS, Carbonated. 

AERENDOCAR'DIA, (F.) Airendocardie, 
from nrjp, 'air,' and endocardium. Presence of 
air in the endocardium or lining membrane of the 
hearty— Piorry. 

AERE, Carbonated. 
AERENTERECTASIA, Tympanites. 
^REOLUM, .^reolus, Ohalcus. The sixth 
part of an obolus by weight, consequently about 
2 grains. 

^'RESIS, aipcai;, 'the removal of any thing.' 
A suflax denoting a removal or separation, as 
AphcBresis, Biceresia, &c. 

AERETEMIE, Emphysema. 
AERETHMOPNEUMONIE, see Emphysema 
of the Lungs. 

AERGIA, Torpor. 

AERH.^MATOX'IA, (F.) Aerhimaioxie ; 
from avp, ' air,' ai/^a, ' blood,' and to^ikou, ' poison.' 
Poisoning by the reception of air into the blood- 
vessels. 

AERIF'EROUS, Aerifer, (F.) ASri/tre, from 
aer, 'air,' and ferre, 'to carry.' An epithet for 
tubes which convey air, as the larynx, trachea, 
and bronchia. 

AERIFLUX'US. The discharge of gas, and 
the fetid emanations from the sick. Flatulence. 
— Sauvages. 

AERODERMECTASIA, Emphysema. 
AERODIAPH'THORA, from avp, 'air,' and 
Sid(pdopa, ' corruption.' A corrupt state of the air. 
AERO-ENTERECTASIA, Tympanites. 
AEROHYDROP'ATHY. Aerohydropathi'a, 
from arip, ' air,' iSmp, ' water,' and ra&oi, ' afl"ec- 
tion.' A mode of treating disease, in which air 
and water are the chief agents employed. 

AEROL'OGY; Aerolog"ia, Aerolog"ice, from 



'air,' and Xo 



deseriptio 



That part 



of physics which treats of the air, its qualities, 
uses, and action on the animal economy. 

AEROMAN'CY, Aeromanti'a, from ar)p, 'air, 
and navrda, ' divination.' An art in judicial as* 



AEROMELI 



^THER 



trology, wliich consists in the foretelling, by 
means of the air, or substances found in the at- 
mosphere. 

AEROMELI, Fraxinus ornus. 

AEROPERITONIE, see Tympanites. 

AEROPHOB'IA, from at,^, 'air,' and fo&o?, 
* fear.' Dread of the air. This symptom often 
accompanies hydrophobia, and sometimes hyste- 
ria and other aifections. 

AEROPHOB'ICUS, Aeroph'obus ; same ety- 
mon. One afiFeeted with aerophobia. 

AEROPHOBUS, Aerophobicus. 

AEROPHTHORA, Aerodiaphthora. 

A&ROPLEURIE, Pneumothorax. 

AEROPNEUMONASIE, see Emphysema of 
the Lungs. 

AEROPNEUMONEGTASIE, see Emphy- 
sema of the Lungs. 

AERORA'CHIA, from arip, 'air,' and ga^ii, 
'spine.' Accumulation of air in the spine. 

AEROSIS, Pneumatosis, Tympanites. 

AEROTHORAX, Pneumothorax. 

.^RUCA, Cupri subacetas. 

iERU'GINOUS, Mrugino'siis, lo'des, from 
csrugo, 'verdigris.' (F.) Erugineux. Resem- 
bling verdigris in colour ; as the bile when dis- 
charged at times from the stomach. 

jERU'GO, cof, from as, 'copper.' The rust 
of any metal, properly of brass. See Cupri Suba^ 
cetas. 

^Ruso Ferri, Ferri subcarbonas — se. Plumbi, 
Plumbi subcarbonas. 

.fflS, Cuprum. 

.fflSCHOS, attsxoi. Deformity of the iftdy gene- 
rally, or of some part. — Hippocrates. 

^S'CULUS HIPPOCAS'TANUM, from esca, 
*food,'[?] Oasta'nea equi'na, Pavi'na, Horae- 
cheatimt, Buck-eye. (F.) Marronier ou Marron- 
nier d Inch. Ord. Hippocastanese. Sex. Syst. 
Heptandria Monogynia. The bark has been 
advised as a substitute for cinchona. Both bark 
and fruit are astringent. Externally, it has been 
employed, like cinchona, in gangrene. 

^SECAVUM, Brass. 

ESTATES, Ephelides, 

^STHE'MA, aiaQrifia, at(j6rifiaT0i, ' a sensa- 
tion, a perception.' See Sensation and Sensi- 
bility. In the plural, aathe'mata, the apparatuses 
of the senses. 

^STHEMATOL'OGY, uEathematolog" ia ; 
from aiadrijia, aicdniiaTos and Aoyof, ' a discourse.' 
The doctrine of, or a treatise on, the senses, or 
on the apparatus of the senses. 

^STHEMATONU'SI, ^sthematorganonu'si, 
from atcrOrjiia, aiadrjuaTo;, and vovaoi, 'diseases.' 
Diseases affecting sensation. 

^STHEMATORGANONUSI, ^sthe- 
matonusi. 

JESTRESIOG'UAFRY, jEsthesiogra'pMa, 
from aiaSriats, 'perception, sensation,' and ypa(j)rj, 
'a description.' A description of the sensorial 
apparatuses. 

^STHESIOL'OGY, ^sthesiolog'Ha, from 
ai(T^i)jif, ' perception, sensation,' and \oyoi, ' a 
discourse.' The doctrine of,' or a treatise on, 
sensation or the senses. 

^STHE'SIS, Aiathe'sis, from aiu^avo[iai, 'I 
feel.' The faculty of being affected by a sensa- 
tion. Perception. Sensibility, as well as the 
senses themselves. See Sense. 

^STHETERION, Sensorium. 

^STHET'ICA, from aiaBavofiai, 'I feel.' Dis- 
eases affecting the sensations. Dulness, depra- 
vation or abolition of one or more of the external 
organs of sense. The 2d order, class K'.urotica, 
of Good. Also, agents that affect sensation. — 
Pereira. 



.ffiSTIVUS, Estival. 

^STUARIUM, Stove. 

.^STUATIO, Ardor, Ebullition, Fermentation. 

^STUS, Ardor. 

^STUS Volat'ictis. Sudden heat, scorching 
or flushing of the face. — Vogel. 

^TAS, Age — 38. Bona, Adolescence — se. De- 
crepita. Decrepitude — ae. Mala, Senectus — ae. 
Provecta, Senectus — se. Senilis, Senectus. 

.^THER, Ether, from ai^ijp, ' air,' or from ajSu, 
' I burn.' Naj)htha. Liquor cBthe'reua. A vola- 
tile liquor obtained by distillation from a mix- 
ture of alcohol and a concentrated acid. See 
Miher sulphuricus, and Ether. 

^THER AcETicus, SCO .^thcr Sulphuricus — se. 
Chloricus, Chloroform, Ether, chloric. 

.^THER Hydriod'icds, Hydriod'ic or lodhy'- 
dric Ether, Iodide of Ethyle. (F.) Ether iodhy. 
drique : obtained by mixing alcohol, parts v. ; 
iodine, parts x. ; and phosphorus, one part, and 
distilling. It is used for iodine inhalation. 

.iExHER Htdrochloricus ,• ^ther muriaticus. 

^Ether Hydrocyan'icus, ^. Priis'sicus, Hy- 
drocyan'ie or Prussia Ether, Hydrocy'anate of 
Eth'erine, Cyan'uret of Eth'yle, (F.) Ether Hydro- 
cyanique, has been advised in hooping-cough, 
and where the hydrocyanic acid is indicated. 
Dose, 6 drops. 

^THER LiGNOSUS, Acetone — se. Martialis, 
Tinetura seu Alcohol sulfurico-Eethereus ferri. 

jEther Muriai'icus,^. Hydrochlo'ricus, Mit- 
riat'ic, Ghlorohy' dric or Marine Ether, Mu'riate 
of Etherine, Chloride of Ethyle. This ether, on 
account of its volatility, can only be kept in cool 
places. It has the properties of the other ethers, 
and when used is generally mixed with an equal 
bulk of alcohol. It has been employed as an 
anaesthetic. 

A Chlorinated Ghlorohy dric Ether, (F.) Ether 
Chlorhydrique ehlore, formed by the action of 
Chlorine on Chlorohydric Ether, has been intro- 
duced into practice as a local anajsthetic. 

.ffiTHER Muriaticus Alcoholicus, Spiritus 
aetheris muriaticus — ae. Nitricus, see iEther Sul- 
phuricus — se. Nitricus Alcoolisatus, Spiritus 
aetheris nitrici — £e. Pyro-aceticus, Acetone — as. 
Nitrosus, see ^ther sulphuricus. 

iETHER Sulphu'ricus, ^ther (Ph. U. S.), ^. 
Vitriol'icus, Naphtha Vitrioli seu Sulphu'rica, 
OJleum vitriole didce, Sul'phuric Ether. (F.) 
Ether, Ether sidfurique, vitriolique ou hydrati- 
que. Ether prepared from sulphuric acid and 
alcohol. 

Rectified Ether, jEtlier rectifica'tus, prepared 
by distilling 12 oz. from a mixture of sidphurio 
ether, fjxiv, fused potass, ^ss. and distilled 
water, i^i}, is a limpid, colourless, very inflam- 
mable, volatile liquor; of a penetrating and fra- 
grant odour, and hot pungent taste. Its s. g. is 
0.732. 

^ther Sidphuricus, Sidphxirio Ether of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States (1842), 
^ther of that of 1851, is formed from alcohol, 
Oiv ; sulphuric acid, Oj ; potassa, 3^J > distilled 
toater, f^iij ; distilling and redistilling according 
to the process there laid down. The specific gra- 
vity of this ether is 0.750. 

It is a diffusible stimulant, narcotic and anti- 
spasmodic, and is externally refrigerant. Dose, 
gtt. XXX to f^iss. When ether is inhaled, it is 
found to be a valuable ancesthetic agent: and is 
employed with advantage in spasmodic affections, 
and in surgical operations. See Antesthetic. 

The Parisian Codex has an ^ther ace'ticns, 
Naphtha Ace'ti, (P.) Ether acetique ; an ^the- 
jntiria'ticus se\x hydrochlo'ricus, (P.) Ether chlor- 
hydrique ; an ^Ether ni'tricua seu nitro'aus, (F^ 



^THEREA HERBA 



;8 



AFFUSION 



tther nitrique ou nitreux on nzoteux ; and an 
JEther phosphora'tus. They all possess similar 
virtues. See Anaesthetic. 

JSther Sulphuricus Acidus, Elixir acidum 
Halleri — *. Sulphuricus cuin alcohole, Spiritus 
tetheris sulphuric! — ae. Sulphuricus cum alcohole 
aromaticus, Spiritus iietheris aromaticus. 

iETHER Terebinthina'tds, Terebinth' inated 
ether, made by mixing gradually two pounds of 
alcohol, and half a pound of spirit of turpentine, 
with two pounds of concentrated nitric acid, and 
distilling one-half the mixture with a gentle heat. 
Employed externally and internally in biliary 
calculi, rheumatism, &c. Dose 20 to 40 drops, 
in honey or yolk of egg, 

^THEREA HERBA, Eryngium maritimum. 
^THE'REAL, JEthe'reus, Ethe'real, Ethe'- 
reous, (F.) Eth&ree. An ethereal tincture, (F.) 
Teinture ethiree, is one formed by the action of 
sulphuric ether, at the ordinary temperature, on 
medicinal substances. An ethereal oil is a vola- 
tile oil. See Olea Volatilia. 
^THERISMUS, Etherism. 
iETHERISATIO, Etherization. 
^THERISATUS, Etherized. 
^THE'REO-OLEO'SA(Remedia),from^<7ie- 
roleum, 'a volatile oil.' Remedies, whose pro- 
perties are dependent upon the volatile oil they 
contain. 
^THEROLEA, Olea volatilia. 
^THIOP'ICUS LAPIS, Ethiopian stone. A 
stone formerly supposed to be possessed of con- 
siderable virtue. — Oribasius. 

iETHIOPIFICA'TIO, uEtJiiopopoe'eis, uEthi- 
ojns'mvs, jEthiopio' sis, from yEthiojis, and/ace;-e, 
' to make.' The mummy-like colouring of the 
skin, induced at times by the use of mercurial 
ointment ; and seen in bodies poisoned by arsenic. 
^THIOPIOSIS, ^thiopificatio. 
^THIOPIS, Salvia sclarea. 
^THIOPISMUS, iEthiopificatio. 
iETHIOPOPOESIS, ^thiopificatio. 
i^'THIOPS, from ai^w, 'I burn,' and w^, 
'countenance.' A black or burnt countenance. 
The ancients gave this name to certain oxides 
and sulphurets of metals, which were of a black 
colour. 

^THIOPS Albus, Albino — ae. Alcalisatus, Hy- 
drargyrum cum creta — se. Animal, see Choroid. 

^THIOPS Martia'lis, Mar'tial Ethiojje, Ferri 
Deutox'ydnm nigrum. The black deutoxide of 
iron : once in repute as a tonic. See Oxydum 
Ferri nigrum. 

^THioPS MiNERALis, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
nigrum — £e. Narcoticus, Hydrargyri sulphuretum 
nigrum — k. per se, Hydragyri oxydum cinereum 
. — 33. Saccharatus, Hydrargyrum saccharatum — 
88. Vegetabilis, see Fuous vesiculosus. 

^THOL'ICES, from ai&io, 'I burn.' Fiery 
pustules on the skin. Some have considered 
them to have been boils. 

^THUSA AMMI, Sison ammi. 
^thd'sa Cyna'pium, Fool's Parsley, ('F.)Faux 
Persil, Petite Gigue. Family, Umbellifer£B. Sex. 
Syst. Pentandria Digynia. A poisonous plant, 
which has been mistaken for true parsley, pro- 
ducing nausea, vomiting, headache, giddiness, 
Eopor, and at times, fatal results. It resembles 
conium in its action. 

^THu'SA Meum, Ileum, 31. Athaman'ticum, 
seu Anethifo'lium, Athaman'ta Meum, Ligus'ticum 
Cap)illa' ceum seu Mexm, Ses'eliMeum, Meu, Spig- 
nel, Baldmoney. (F.) Ethuae, Mhim. The root has 
been advised as carminative, stomachic, <fcc. 

^TIOL'OGY, jEtiolog"ia, Etiol'ogy, Aitio- 
log"ia, from aina, 'cause,' and \oyoi, 'a dis- 
course.' The doctrine of the causes of disease. 



^TI'TES, or AETITES, from airoi, 'an 
eagle.' Eagle-stone, Pierre d'Aigle, Hydrate de 
tritoxide de fer. This stone was formerly sup- 
posed to facilitate delivery, if bound on the thigh ; 
and to prevent abortion, if bound on the arm. 
It was also called Lajns OoUymua. 

MrOI, or AETOI PHLEBES, Temporal veins. 
iETOLION, Cnidia grana. 
AFFADIL, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 
AFFADISSE3IENT, (F.) irom fade, 'insipid.* 
That condition of the digestive function in which 
the appetite is diminished, the sense of tasio 
blunted, and the action of the stomach enfeebled ; 
a state usually accompanied by general languor. 
AFFAIBLISSE3IENT, Asthenia. 
AFFAIRES, Menses. 
AFFAISSE3IENT, Collapsus. 
AFFECTIO, Affection— a. Arthritica Cordis, 
Cardiagra — a. Hypochondriaca, Hypochondriasis 
— a. Hysterica, Hysteria — a. Sarmatica, Plica — 
a. Tympanitica, Tympanites. 

AFFECTION, Affec'tio, from afficio or affec- 
tare (ad and facere,) 'to move or influence.' 
Any mode in which the mind or body is affected 
or modified. 

AFFECTION' TYPHOlDE, see Typhus — 
a. Vaporense, Hypochondriasis. 

AFFECTIONES ANIMI, Affections of the 
mind. 

AFFECTIONS OF THE MIND, Affec'tus seu 
Passio'nes seu Affectio'nes seu Conquassatio'nee 
seu Confusio'nes seu Turbatio'nes seu Perturba- 
tio'7ies an'imi, (F.) Affections de Udme include not 
only the different passions, as love, hatred, jea- 
lousy, &c., but every condition of the mind that 
is accompanied by an agreeable or disagreeable 
feeling, as pleasure, fear, sorrow, <&c. 

In Pathology, Affection, Pathos, Pafhe'ma, it 
synonymous with disease : thus we speak of a 
2)ulmonary affection, a calculous affection, &c. 

AFFECTIONS DE L'AME. Affections of 
the mind. 

AFFECTIVE. That which affects, touches, &c. 
Gall gives the term affective fa-ctdties, (F.) Facul- 
tes affectives, to functions dependent upon the 
organization of the brain, comprising the senti- 
ments, affections, &c. 

AFFECTUS, Passion — a. Faucium pestilens, 
Cynanche maligna — a. Hyderodes, Hydrops — a. 
Spasmodico-convulsivus labiorum, Neuralgia fa- 
ciei. 

AF'FERENT, Af'ferens, Centrip' etal, Esod'ic, 
from affero, (ad and fero, ' to carry,') ' I bring.' 
Conveying inwards, as from the periphery to the 
centre. The vessels which convey the lymph or 
chyle to the lymphatic glands, are called afferent, 
vasa afferen'tia seu inferen'tia. Also, nerves 
that convey impressions towards the nervous 
centres — nervi entobmnon' tes. 

AF'FION, Aff'ium, Of'fiwn. Opium. The 
Bantamese thus designate an electuary of which 
opium is the basis, and which they use as an ex- 
citant. 

AFFLA'TUS, Adfla'tua, EpipnoVa, from ad, 
'to,' and_^nre, 'to blow.' Any air that strikes 
the body and produces disease. 

AF'FLUENCE, Afflux, from affluere, (o(^and 
fluere, ' to flow,') ' to flow to.' A flow or deter- 
mination of humours, and particularly of blood, 
towards any part. 

AFFLUXUS, Fluxion. 
APFRODILE, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 
APFUSIO, Affusion — a. Frigida, see Affusion 
— a. Orbicularis, Placenta. 

AFFU'SION, Affn'sio, Pros'chysis, Epich'ysis, 
from ad, ' to,' and fundere, fuaum, ' to pour.' The 
action of pouring a liquid on any body. Aff'u~ 
aions, Rhyptolu' sics, cold and warm, are used in 



AFIUM 



AGGL UTINA TIF 



different diseases. The cold affusion, Affn'sio 
8eu Perfu' sio frig"ida, is said to have been bene- 
ficial in cutting short typhus fever and scarlatina, 
if used during the first days. It consists in pla- 
cing the patient in a tub, and pouring cold water 
over him ; then wiping him dry, and putting him 
to bed. The only precaution necessary is, to use 
it in the^state of greatest heat and exacerbation ; 
not when chilliness, or topical inflammation, is 
present. 

AFIUM, Opium. 

AFTER-BIRTH, Secundines. 

AFTER-PAINS, See Pains, labour. 

AGACEMENT, (F.) from aica^ny, ' to sharpen.' 
The setting on edge. 
• AGACE3IENT DES BENTS. A disagree- 
able sensation experienced when acids are placed 
in contact with the teeth, Tooth-edc/e. Setting 
the teeth on edge. 

AGACEMENT BES NEEFS. A slight irri- 
tation of the system, and particularly of the 
organs of sense and locomotion, corresponding 
nearly to the English Fidgets. 

AGAH, Intermittent Fever. 

AGALACTATIO, Agalactia. 

AGALACTIA, Agalax'ia, Agalae'tio, Agalac- 
ta'fio, Dejec'Uta lac'tis, Oligoga'lia, Oligogalac'- 
tia, from a, privative, and yaXa, 'milk.' Absence 
of milk in the mammee. 

AGALAXIA, Agalactia. 

AGAL'LOCHUM, from aydWu,^ 'I decorate,' 
Calambac, Calamhouk, Lig'niim Agal'locM veri 
seu Al'o'es seu Aspal'athi, Xylo'dlo'es, Aloes tcood. 
A resinous and very aromatic wood of the East 
Indies, from ExccBca'ria Agal'locha, Cynome'tra 
Agal'lochum, Aloex'ylon Agal'lochum. Used in 
making pastils, &c. — Dioscorides, Oribasius, 
Paulus. 

AGAMOUS, See Cryptogamous. 
'^ KG:' KRIG, Agar' icum, Agar' icxis. A genus of 
plants in the Linnsean system, some of which are 
edible, others poisonous. It is supposed to have 
been so called from Agaria, a region of Sarmatia. 
— Dioscorides. Among the edible varieties of the 
Boletus, the following are the chief: — 1. The 
Agar'icus edu'lis seu Arven'sis seu Sylval'icus 
eeu CamjJes' tris, (F.) Agaric comestible et cham- 
pignon de couche. 2. The Agar'icus odora'tus, 
(F.) Mousseron. The most common poisonous 
varieties are the Agar'icus neca'tor, (F.) Agaric 
meurtrier ; and, 2. Tlha Agaricus acris, {¥.) Aga- 
ric dcre ; besides the Auranite, a sub-genus, 
which includes several species. One of the most 
delicate is the Agaricua Aurantiacus, but care 
must be taken not to confound it with the A. 
Pseudo-aurantiaeus, which is very poisonous. 
The A. aurantiaeus is called, in French, Oronge. 
See Poisons, Table of. 

Agaric, see Boletus igniarius — a. Amadouvier, 
Boletus laricis — a. Blanc, Boletus laricis — a. de 
Chine, Boletus igniarius — a. Female, Boletus ig- 
niarius — a. of the Oak, Boletus igniarius — a. 
Odorant, Dsedalea suaveolens — a. White, Boletus 
laricis. 

AGARICUM, Boletus igniarius. 

AGARICUS, Boletus igniarius — a. Albus, Bo- 
letus laricis — a. Arvensis, ?ee Agaric — a. Auran- 
tiaeus, Amanitse, Bolites — a. Auricula;forma, 
Peziza auricula — a. Campestris, see Agaric — a. 
Chirurgorum, Boletus igniarius — a. Igniarius, 
Boletus igniarius — a. Laricis, Boletus laricis — 
a. Pseudo-aurantiacus, Amanitas — a. Quercfis, 
Boletus igniarius — a. Sylvaticus, see Agaric. 

AGARIFIED, See Feverish. 

AGASTRONER'VIA, (F.) Agastronervie, from 
a, privative, yaoTrjp, 'stomach,' and vcvpov, 'nerve.' 
Want of nervous action in the stomach. 

AGASYLLIS GALBANUM,Bubnn galbanum. 

AGATHIS DAMARRA. Pinus damarra. 



AGATHOSMA CREXATUM, Diosma cre- 
nata, 

AGATHOTES CHIRAYITA, Gentiana chi- 
rayita. _ 

AGA'VE AMERICA'NA, A. Ramo'sa, Amiri- 
can Agave, American aloe, Maguey, from ^yauos, 
' admirable.' Nat. Ord. Bromeliacea?. Sex. Syst. 
Hexandria Monogynia. This plant has been 
considered diuretic and antisyphilitic. The fa- 
vourite drink of the Mexicans — Pulque — is the 
fermented juice of this plant. 

Agave Ramosa, A. Americana. 

Agave Virgin'ica, Rattlesnake's master, False 
aloe, — grows in the Southern States. The root 
is very bitter. It has been used in tincture as a 
carminative in colic; and as a remedy for bites 
of serpents. 

AGE, ';jX»»cia, Heli'kia, JEtas ; — Of uncertain 
etymon. Period of life. Time that has elapsed 
since birth, &c. Five ages are often designated 
in the life of man : 1. First infancy (hifan'tia ;) 
2. Second mf&ncy {Pueri"tia ;) 3. Adolescence 
{Adolescen'tia ;) 4. The adult age {ViriV itas ;) 
5. Old age, (Old Eng.) Elth, (Senec'tas.) 

AGENEIOS, Imberbis. 

AGEN'ESIS, from a, privative, and ytvzci?, 
'generation,' (F.) Agenesie. Imperfect develop- 
ment of any part of the body ; as cerebral age- 
nesis, i. e. imperfect development of the brain in 
the foetus. See Monster. 

AGENNESIA, Impotence, Sterilitas. 

AGENNESIS, Impotence. 

AGENOSO'MUS, from a, privative, ytvvau), 
' I generate,' and cwfia, ' body.' A malformation 
in which the fissure and eventration are chiefly 
in the lower part of the abdomen ; the urinary or 
sexual apparatus absent, or very rudimentary. 

AGENT, Agens, from agere, ' to act.' Any 
power which produces, or tends to produce, an 
effect on the human body. Morbific agents, (F.) 
Agens morbijiques, are the causes of disease ; — 
therapeutical agents, (F.) Agens therapeutiques, 
the means of treating it. 

AGER NATURE, Uterus. 

AGERA'SIA, Tnsenescen'tia, from a, privative, 
and yripai, ' old age.' A vigorous and green old 
age. 

AGERATUM, Achillea ageratum— a. Altissi- 
mum, Eupatorium ageratoides, 

AGE'RATUS LAPIS, Ayvparog. A stono 
used by cobblers to polish shoes. It was for- 
merly esteemed discutient and astringent. — Ga- 
len, Oribasius, Paulus. 

AGES, Palm. 

AGEUSIA, Ageustia. 

AGEUS'TIA, Agheus'tia, Ageusia, Apogeus'. 
tia, Ajiogeu'sis, ByscBsthe'sia gustato' ria,AncB8the'- 
sia gustato'ria, Parageu'sis, from a, priv., and 
ytvaiq, 'taste.' Diminution or loss of taste, 
AncBsthe'sia lingua. — Sauvages, Cullen, 

AGGLOM'ERATE, Agglomera'ius, from ag- 
glomerare, (ad and glomerare, 'to wind up yarn 
in a ball,') ' to collect together.' Applied to tu- 
mours or glands in aggregation. 

AGGLU'TINANT, Agglu'tinans, Collet'icus, 
Glu'tinans, from gluten, 'glue,' (F.) Agglutinant^ 
Agglutinatif, Glutinatif, Colletique. Remedies 
were formerly so called, which were considered 
capable of uniting divided parts. — Paulus. 

Plasters are called agglutinants, (F.) aggluti- 
natif s, which adhere strongly to the skin. Cer- 
tain bandages are likewise so termed ; (F.) Ban- 
delettes agglutinativea. 

TO AGGLUTINATE. The French use the 
word agglutiner in the sense of 'to reunite;' as 
agglutiner les livrea d'une plaie, ' to reunite the 
lips of a wound.' 

AGGLUTINATIF, Agglutinant. 



AGGLUTINATIO 



40 



AGRYPNODES 



AGGLUTINATIO, Coition. 

AGGLUTINATION, Colle'sis, EincoUe'sis, 
Prosculle'sls, Glutina'tio, from arjglutbmre, ' to 
glue together.' The first degree of adhesion. 
Also, the action of agglutinants. 

AGGLUTINER, To agglutinate. 

AG'GREGATE, Aggrega'tus, from aggregare, 
(ad a.nd gregare,) 'to flock together,' 'to assemble 
together.' Glands are called aggregate which are 
in clusters. See Peyeri Glandulae. Aggregate 
pills, (P.) Pilules ag negatives, signified, formerly, 
those which were believed to contain the proper- 
ties of a considerable number of medicines, and 
to be able to supply their place, 

AGHEUSTIA, Ageustia. 

AGHOUL, Agul. 

AGIAHA'Lib or AGIHA'LID or AGRA- 
HA'LID. An Egyptian and Ethiopian shrub, 
similar to Ximenia. The Ethiopians use it as a 
vermifuge. The fruit is purgative. 

AGIHALTD, Agiahalid. 

AGISSANT, Active. 

AGITATION, Agita'tio, Done'sis, from agere, 
'to act.' Constant and fatiguing motion of the 
body, Tyrhe, Tijrha'sia, In'qnies, — or distressing 
mental inquietude, — An'imi Agita'tio. 

AGITATORIUS, Convulsive. 

AGLOS'SIA, from a, privative, and y^iuoaa, 
• the tongue.' A malformation, which consists 
in the want of a tongue. 

AGLOSSOS'TOMA, from Aglossia, and tjTona, 
' mouth.' A mouth without a tongue. 

AGLOSSOSTOMOG'RAPHY, Aglossostomo- 
gra'phia, from a, priv., y\uiaaa, ' the tongue,' 
arojia, 'the mouth,' and ypa<pu), 'I describe.' 
Description of a mouth without a tongue. — Ro- 
land, (of Saunuir.) 

AGLUTI'TION, Agluti'Hio, from a, priv., and 
glutire, ' to swallow.' A hybrid term, designa- 
ting impossibility of swallowing. — Linnaeus. 

AGMA, Fracture. 

AGMATOLOG"IA, from ayiia, aynaros, frac- 
ture, and Xoyo;, 'a description.' The doctrine 
of fractures. A treatise on fractures. 

AGME, Fractures. 

AGMINA DIGITORUM MANUS, Phalanges 
of the fingers. — a. Membrana, Amnios. 

AGMINATED GLANDS, Peyer's glands. 

AGNAIL, Hangnail. 

AGNA'THIA, from a, priv., and yvaBog, 'jaw.' 
A malformation, which consists in the want of 
the jaw, especially of the lower. 

AGNINA MEMBRANA, Amnios. 

AGNOI'A, Agnw'a, from a, priv., and yn'incKia, 
'I know.' State of a patient who does not recog- 
nise individuals. — Hippocrates, Galen, Foesius. 

AGNUS^CASTUS, Vites. 

AQO'GE, aywyj?. The order or condition of a 
disease. — llippoc, Galen. Likewise the state of 
the air. — Hippoc, Galen, Gorrseus, Foesius. 

AGOGUE, ayoiyos, ' a leader,' from ayu, ' I lead 
or expel.' Hence Cholagogue, an expeller of bile ; 
Hydragngue, &c. 

AGOMPHI'ASIS, Agom2yho' sis,, from a, priva- 
tive, and yojKjioia, 'I nail.' Looseness of the 
teeth.— Gorranis. See Gomphiasis. 

AGOMPHOSIS, Agomphiasis. 

AGON, Agony. 

AGONE, Hyoscyamus. 

AGONIA, Sterilitas. 

AGONISMA, Agonv. 

AGONISMUS, Agony 

AGONIS'TICA, from aywv, ' a combat.' The 
part of ancient gymnastics, which had reference 
to the combats of the Athletre. 

Also, very cold water, given internally to calm 
febrile he;it.— Paulus of ^gina. 

AGONIZANS. Psychorages. 

AGOXOS, Sterile. 



AG'ONY, Agan'ia, Agon, Agonis'ma, Agonis'- 
mns, 3Iochth)is, Ifogus, Psychorag"ia, Psyrlior- 
rhag'Ha, Angor, Throe, Throw, (Se.) Patient of 
death, from ayiov, ' a combat.' The last struggle 
of life. — Galen, Gorrseus, &c. The agony, which 
is of longer or shorter duration, is characterized 
by great change in the features, gradual abolition 
of sensation and motion, loss of voice, dryness or 
lividity of the tongue and lips, rattling in the 
throat, small and intermittent pulse, and coldness 
of the extremities. This state is not present in 
those who die suddenly. See Facies Hippo- 
cratica. 

AGOS'TUS, from aym, 'Head.' The fore arm 
from the elbow to the fingers. Also, the palm of 
the hand. — Gorraeus. See Palm. 

AGRA, aypa, from ayftm, 'I seize hold of.' A 
seizure, as Odontagra, a, iooih. seizure, toothache; 
Chiragra, Podagra, &c. 

AGRAFE DE VALENTIN. A kind of for- 
ceps with parallel branches, employed by Valen- 
tin in the operation for hare lip, to eflfect the 
approximation of the edges of the wound. 

AGRAHALID, Agiahalid. 

AGREGATJYES PILULES. See Aggre- 
gate. ^ 

AGREMIE, from agrie, 'gout,' (Piorry,) and 
diixa, ' blood.' The altered condition of the blood 
in gout. — Piorry. 

AGRIA, Herpes exedens. Lichen agrius. 

AGRIAMPELOS, Bryonia alba. 

AGRICOCCIMELEA, Prunus Spiuosa. 

AGRIE, Gout. 

AGRIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium. 

AGRIMONIA, Agrimony — a. Eupatoria, 
Agrimony — a. Odorata, Agrimony — a. Officina- 
lis, Agrimony. 

Agrimonia Parviflo'ra, Small-floK'ered or 
Sweet-scented Agrimony; indigenous; hsis simi- 
lar properties to A. Eupatoria. See Agrimony. . 

AG'IilMONY, Agrimo'nia, A. Enpato'ria seii 
odora'ta seu officina'tis, Caf'al, Lap'pula hepal'- 
ica, Cuckle-bar, Stickwort. (F.) Aigremoine. Ord. 
Rosace*. Sex. Syst. Icosaudria Digynia. A 
mild astringent and stomachic. Dose, in powder, 
from 9j to 3J. 

Agrimony, Hemp, Eupatorium cannabinum — 
a. Small-flowered, Agrimonia parviflora — a. 
Sweet-scented, Agrimonia parviflora. 

AGRIOCASTANUM, Bunium bulbocastanum, 
Lycoperdon tuber. 

AGRIOCINARA, SemRervivum tectorum, 

AGRIORIGANUM, Origanum majorana. 

AGRIOSELINUM, Smyrnum olusatrum. 

AGRIOTHYM'IA, from aypios, 'ferocious,' 
and ^vjios, 'disposition.' Ferocious insanity. — 
Sauvages. 

AGRIPALMA GALLIS, Leonurus cardiaca. 

AGRIP'PA, ^grip'pa, from a^er partus, 
' difl5cult birth :' or perhaps from aypa, ' taking 
or seizure,' and Kovi, 'the foot.' This term has 
been given to those born by the feet. It is pre- 
tended that the family of Agrippa obtained their 
name from this circumstance. Parturition, where 
the feet present, is ca.\led Agrippa partus, Agrip- 
pi'nus partus. 

AGRIPPINUS PARTUS, see Affrippa. 

AGRO DI CEDRO, see Citrus uKdica. 

AGROPYRUM L^VISSlMUM, Triticum re- 
pens. 

AGROSTEMMA GITHAGO, Lychnis githan-o, 

AGROSTIS, Bryonia alba — a. Yerticillata, 
Andropogon muricatus. 

AGRUNA, Prunus spinosa. 

AGRYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AGRYPNOCOMA, Coma vigil. 

AGRYPNO'DES, from aypvvvo<;, 'sleepless. 
Characterized by sleeplessness, as Felris Agryp. 
nodes, a fever accompanied with sleeplessness. 



AGRYPNOTICUS 



41 



AIRIGNE 



AGRYPNOTICUS, Anthypnotic. 
AGRYP'NUS, aypuTTvoj. Sleepless, vigilant. 
AGUA BE YERVGA, see Verugas. 
AGUARDIENTE, Brandy. See also Spirit. 
— a. de Italia, see Spirit. 

A'GUE, from Gothic, agts, 'trembling.' (?) In- 
termittent fever; often used in the same sense 
as chill or rigor. 

Ague and Fkver, Intermittent fever. 
Ague, Brow, Neuralgia frontalis. 
Ague Cake, Placen'ta fehri'Us seu eple'nica, 
Pliysco'nia sple'nica, Spleitis Tumor; (F.) Ga- 
teau febrile. A visceral obstruction — generally 
in the spleen — which follows agues, and is dis- 
tinctly felt by external examination. To a 
greater or less degree, it is not uncommon. 
Ague, Dead, see Fever, masked. 
Ague Drop, Tasteless, Liquor arsenicalis. 
Ague, Dumb, see Fever, masked — a. Face, 
Neuralgia, facial. 

Ague, Free, Laurus sassafras. 
Ague, Leaping, see Leaping ague — a. Quar- 
tan, Quartan — a. Tertian, Tertian fever. 
Ague Tree, Laurus sassafras. 
Ague, Third-dat, Tertian. 
Ague AVeed, Eupatorium perfoliatum. 
AGU'IOS, from a, priv., and yvtov, 'limb.' 
Mutilated or wanting limbs. — Hippocr. Weak, 
feeble. — Galen. 

AGUL, Aghoul, Alha'gi, the Hedisa'rum seu 
Eedysa' rum alharji. A thorny shrub of Persia 
and Mesopotamia, which affords manna. The 
leaves are purgative. 

AGYR'IAS, from ayvgi?, *a collection.' Opa- 
city of the crystalline. — Aetius, Par6. 

AGYR'TA, from ayvpt;, 'a erowd.' Formerly, 
a stroller who pretended to supernatural powers. 
Subsequently, a quack or illiterate pretender. — 
See Charlatan. 
AGYRTIA, Charlatanry. 
AHO'RA, from a, privative, and wpa, 'youth.' 
Tardy development of the organs : the opposite 
to Hyperho'ra. 

AHOUAI, Thevetia ahouai. 
AHUSAL, Orpiment. 
AHYPNIA, Insomnia. 
AIA UL T, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 
AIDE (F.), Ad'jutor min'ister. An assistant 
to a surgeon in his operations. 
AIDOIOMANIA, Nymphomania. 
AIERSA, Iris Germanica. 
AIGE. iEgias. 

AIGLB, MINERAL WATERS OF. Near the 
city of this name, in Normandy, is the chaly- 
beate spring of St. Xantin, much used in the 
16th and 17th centuries. 
AIGLE, ^gias. 

AIGRE, Acidulous — a. Voix. See Acid. 
AIGUELET, Acidulous. 
AIGRETTE, Rumex acetosa, see Typha 
latifolia. 

AIGREMOINE, Agrimony. 
AIGREURS, Acidities. 
AIGU, Acute. 

AIGUES-CAVDES, FUNERAL WATERS 
OF, Aigues-chaudes, Eaux chaudes, AqncB cal'- 
idce. Sulphurous springs, about six miles from 
Bonnes, Basses Pyrenees, in France : five in 
number, the temperature of which is, respec- 
tively, about 70°, 81°, 92°, 93°, and 95°. 

AIGUILLE, Needle — a. d Acupuncture, see 
Needle — n. d, Aj)pareil, see Needle — a. d Bee de 
Lievre, see Needle — a. d Catdracte, see Needle 
— a. de Desehamps, see Needle — a. Engainee, see 
Needle— a. d Fistule, see Needle— «. d Gaine, 
see Needle — a. d Ligature, see Needle — a. d 
Manche, see Needle — a. d Seton, see Needle — a. 
i Sxiture, see Needle. 

AIGUILLON (F.), Spina Helmon'tii. A 



term used since the time of Van Helmont tG 
designate the proximate cause of inflammation. 
According to him, an inflamed part is in the 
same condition as if an aiguillon or thorn were 
thrust into it. 

AIGUISER, To acidulate. 

AIL, Allium. 

AILE, Ala, Aileron. 

AILERON {¥.), Extre'ma Ala seu Pin'mda, 
diminutive of (F.) Aile, a wing. The extremity 
of the wing of a bird, to which the great feathers 
are attached. 

AILERONS DE LA MA TRICE. Three 
folds at the base of the broad ligaments of the ute- 
rus, which are occupied by the ovary and its liga- 
ment, the Fallopian tube, and the round ligament. 

AILING, Sick, Sickly, 

AILMENT, Disease. 

AIMA, 'aina, see Hsema. 

AIMANT, Magnet. 

AIMATERA, Hepatirrhoea. 

AIMORRHCEA, Hsemorrhagia. 

AIMORRHOIS, Hcemorrhois. 

AINE, luguen. 

AIPATHIA, Continent disease. 

AIPI, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIMA COXERA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIPIPOCA, Jatropha manihot. 

AIR, Aer, Pneuma, from au, ' I breathe.' 
Common Air, Atmospheric air, (F.) Air atmosphe- 
riqne, is an invisible, transparent, inodorous, in- 
sipid, ponderable, compressible, and elastic fluid, 
which, under the form of the atmosphere, sur- 
rounds the earth to the height of 15 or 16 leagues 

Air is essentially composed of two gases, oxy- 
gen and nitrogen, in the proportion of 20 of the 
former to 80 of the latter. Oxygen is the vital 
portion, but the nitrogen is necessary to dilute it. 
Air also contains a small portion of carbonic acid 
gas, and has always floating in it aqueous va- 
pour, different terrestrial emanations, etc. Its 
effects upon the human body vary according to 
its greater or less density, temperature, moisture, 
etc.; hence, change of air is found extremely 
serviceable in the prevention and cure of certain 
morbid conditions. See Climate, and Respiration. 

AIR ACIDE VITRIOLIQUE, Sulphurous 
acid — a. Alcalin, Ammonia — a. Atmosjiherique, 
Air. 

Air Bladder, Swim-Madder, Swimming-blad- 
der, The Swim, (F.) Vessie natatoire. An ab- 
dominal organ in many fishes, sometimes com- 
municating by means of a duct. Ductus j-jneu- 
mat'icus, with the alimentary canal, at others, 
not, which is considered by some to belong to 
the respiratory system. Its contents are the ele- 
ments of atmospheric air, but in different propor- 
tions; and its chief and general function appears 
to be to regulate the specific gravity of the fish. 

Air Cells of the Lungs, Bronchial cells; see 
Cellule — a. Chamber, Folliculus asris. 

Air, Dephlogisticated, Oxygen — a. Empy- 
real, Oxygen. 

AIR DU FEU, Oxygen. 
Air, Factitious, Carbonic acid — a. Fixed, 
Carbonic acid — a. Gate, Azote — a. Hepatique, 
Hydrogen sulphuretted — a. Inflammable, Hydro- 
gen, Hydrogen carburetted — a. Mephitic, Car- 
bonic acid. 

Air Passages, (P.) Votes aeriennes, V. ueri- 
feres. The larynx, trachea, bronchia, etc. 
AIR PUANT, Hydrogen, sulphuretted. 
Air, Pure, Oxygen — a. Solid, of Hales, Car- 
bonic acid — a. Vicie, Azote — a. Vital, Oxygen. 
AIRAIN, Bell-metal, Brass. 
AIRE, Areola. 

AIRELLE ANGULEUSE, Vaccinium myr- 
tillus — a. Ponctuee, Vaccinium vitis idaea. 
I AIRIGNE. Hook. 



AIRTHRET 



42 



ALBUGINEOUS 



AIRTHRET, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Airthrey is situate about two miles north of 
Stirling, Scotland. The waters are saline ca- 
thartics; containing chloride of sodium, chloride 
of calcium, sulphate of zinc, and chloride of mag- 
nesium. 

AISELLE, Axilla. 
AISTHESIS, iEsthesis. 

AITHOMO'MA, from aiSo?, 'black.' A black 
condition of all the humours of the eye. A. Pare. 
AITIA, Cause. 
AITIOLOGY, iEtiologia. 
AITION, Cause. 

AIX-LA-CHAPELLE, MINERAL "WATERS 
OF. Called by the Germans, Aachen. A ther- 
mal, sulphureous mineral water, which contains, 
in 1000 grammes, 28.54 cubic inches of sulpho- 
hydric acid gas, 18.05 cubic inches of carbonic 
acid gas, 0.1304 grammes of carbonate of lime, 
0.0440 grammes of carbonate of magnesia, 0.5444 
grammes of carbonate of soda, 2.3697 grammes 
of chloride of sodium, 0.2637 of sulphate of soda, 
and 0.0705 of silica. The temperature is 134° 
Fahrenheit. 

ThQ factitious water of Aix-la-Chapelle, A'qua 
Aqtiisgranen'sit, (F.) Eau d'Aix-la-Chajielle, is 
made by adding pure loater f^xvijss, to liydro- 
gulphuretted water f^iv., carbonate of soda gr. 
XX, chloride of sodium gr. ix. — Ph. P. 

There are thermal sulphureous springs at Aix 
In Savoy (98°), and some thermal springs at Aix 
in Provence (91°). 

AIZOON, Sempervivum tectorum. 
A'JUGA, A. pyramida'lis, Consol'ida me'dia, 
Bu'guln, B. j)yramida'li8, Teu' crium pyramida'le, 
Upright Bugloss, Middle Consound, (F.) Bugle 
pyramidale. This plant is subastringent and 
bitter. 

Ajuga Cham^pitys, Teucrium chamsepitys. 
Ajuga Reptans, Bu'gula, B. reptans, Common 
Bugle, (F.) Bugle ramjmnte, has similar properties. 
AKATALIS, Juniperus communis. 
AKATERA, Juniperus communis. 
AKERA TODIAPHANIE, see Caligo. 
AKINESIA, Acinesia. 
AKNEMIA, Acnemia. 
AKOLOGY, Materia Medica. 
AKRATOPEG^, Acratopegae. 
AKSIS, Intermittent Fever. 
ALA, Pinna, Pleryx, ' a wing,' (F.) Axle. A 
term often used by anatomists for parts which 
project like a wing from the median line; as the 
Aim nasi, Aim of the uterus, etc. See Axilla, and 
Pavilion of the Ear. Also, Pterygium. 
Ala Extrema, see Aileron. 
ALABAMA, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Tallahatta springs contain sulphur, and salts of 
iron, lime, and magnesia. But the most noted 
are ttiose of Bladen. See Bladen, Mineral Wa- 
ters of. Bailey's spring is an acidulo-sulphu- 
reous chalybeate. It is fourteen miles from Tus- 
cumbia. 

ALABASTER, Alahas'tntm, (F.) Alhdtre, 
Alahastri'tet. A variety of compact gypsum; 
of which an ointment was once made — the un- 
guen'tum alabastri'num ; used as a discutient. 
Alabaster likewise entered into several denti- 
C'-ices. 

ALABASTRITES, Alabaster. 
AL^ INTERNA MINORES CLITORIDIS, 
Kymphce — a. Magnae, see Sphenoid bone — a. Ma- 
jores. Labia pudendi — a. Minores, Nympha3, see 
Bphenoid bone — a. Muliebres minores, Nymphse 
— a. Nasi, see Nasus — a, Pudendi Muliebris, La- 
bia pudendi — a. Pulmonum, see Pulmo — a. of 
the Uterus, see Ala — a. Vespertilionis, see Uterus. 
ALAISE, AUse. 

ALAITER. from (F.) lait, 'milk.' To suckle. 
ALALIA, Mutitas. 



ALA3IBI0, Alembic. 

ALANFU'TA. A name given by the Arabians 
to a vein, situate between the chin and lower lip, 
which they were in the habit of opening in cases 
of foetor of the breath. — Avicenna. 

ALAQUE'CA. The Hindoostanee name of a 
stone, found in small, polished fragments, which 
is considered efficacious in arresting haemorrhage 
when applied externally. It is a sulphuret of iron. 
ALARES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles. 
Ala'res Ven^. The superficial veins at the 
fold of the arm. 

ALARIA OSSA. The wing-like processes of 
the sphenoid bone. 

ALA'RIS, Ala'tus, Aliform'ia; from ala, 'a. 
wine:.' Wing-shaped, winged. 

ALATERNUS, COMMON, Rhamnus alater- 
nus — a. Latifolius, Rhamnus alaternus. 

ALA'TUS, Pterygo'des, Homo ala'tus. One 
whose scapulce project backwards like wings. 

ALBA'DARAN, Aldaharan. The sesamoid 
bone of the metatarso-phalangal joint of the 
great toe. The Rabbis and Magicians attributed 
extraordinary virtues to it. — Arabians. 
ALBAGIAZI, Sacrum. 
ALBAMENTUM, Albumen ovi. 
ALBAN, SAINT, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
A French acidulous chalybeate, in the department 
of the Loire. 

ALBARAS ALBA, Lepra alphoides— a. Nigra, 
Lepra nigricans. 

ALBARAS, Lepra alphoides. 
ALBAROS, Lepra alphoides. 
ALBA TEE, Alabaster. 
ALBEDO UNGUIUM, see Nail. 
ALB IN B'CEUF, Albumen ovi. 
ALBINISM, see Albino. 
ALBINISMUS, see Albino. 
ALBI'NO, 'White.' Leucm'thiojis, JEthiopa 
alhus, Hondo, from alhus, 'white,' (F.) Blafard, 
Negre-Uanc. A Spanish word applied to indivi- 
duals of the human race who have the skin and 
hair white {Achromodermie and Achromotricho- 
mie. — Piorry); the iris very pale, bordering on 
red; and the eyes so sensible that they cannot 
bear the light of day. This condition, which has 
been called Leucmthio'pia, Alpha' sis jEthiop'ica, 
Albino'is'mus, Alhinis'mus, AVhinism, Kukerla- 
kism, Leucopathi' a, Leueo'sis, is seen more fre- 
quently in the Negro. Both sexes are exposed 
to it. It does not seem to be true that there are 
tribes of Albinos in the interior of Africa. 
ALBINOISMUS, see Albino. 
ALBOR OVI, Albumen ovi. 
AL'BORA. A kind of itch or complicated 
leprosy. — P.aracelsus. 
ALBOT, Crucible. 
ALBOTIM, Terebinthina. 
ALBVGIN£, Albuginea, Albugineous. 
ALBUGIN'EA, A. Testis, Tu'nica albitgin'ea, 
Perites'tis, Dura mater testis, Membra'na capsula'- 
ris testis. (F.) Albugine, Tunique albuginee. A 
strong, fibrous, and resisting membrane, which 
immediately envelopes the testicle, and has, at 
its upper part, an enlargement, called corpus 
Highmorianum. From its inner surface it sends 
off a number of flat, filiform prolongations or 
septa, between which are contained the semi- 
niferous vessels. Externally, it is covered by the 
tunica vaginalis testis. 

ALBUGIN'EOUS, ^Zi«^in'e«», 'white,' from 
albus, (F.) Albugiiie. A term applied to textures, 
humours, &c., which are perfectly white. 

Albugin'eous Fibre, (F.) Fibre albuginie. A 
name given by Chaussier to what he considers 
one of the four elementary fibres. 

The albugineous fibre is linear, cylindrical, 
tenacious, elastic, but little extensible, and of a 
shining, satiny appearance. It forms fasciae cr 



ALBUGINITIS 



ALCHEMILLA 



fMsciculi, which constitute the tendons, articular 
ligaments, and aponeuroses; hence the name 
Albii'jiiieuus memhranes, given by Chaussier to 
the fibrous membranes. 

Gauthier considered, that the rete mucosum 
consists of four layers, to two of which he gives 
the names memhra'na alhugin'ea j^rofun'da and 
membrn'nn albiir/in'ea supeificia'lis, respectively. 
ALBUGINI'TIS, (P.) 'Alhuginite. A term 
employed by some authors for inflammation of 
the albugineous tissue. Thus, gout and rheu- 
matism are regarded as species of the genus 
albuginitis. 

ALBUGO OCULORUM, Leucoma— a. Ovi, 
Albumen ovi. 

ALBULA, Leucoma. 

ALBUM CANIS, Album gr^cum — a. Ceti, 
Cetaceum. 

Album Gr^cxjm, Album Canis, Cynoc'oprus, 
Spo'dlnm GrcBCo'rum, Stercua Cani'num Album. 
The white dung of the dog. It consists almost 
wholly of phosphate and carbonate of lime, from 
the bones used as food. It was formerly applied 
as a discutient gargle in quinsies, and as an anti- 
epileptic; but is now justly banished from 
practice. 
Album Nigrum. The excrement of the mouse. 
Album Oculi, see Sclerotic. 
Album Rhazis. A white ointment made of 
cerusse and lard, prescribed by the Arabian phy- 
sician Bhazes. 

ALBU'MEN, Zettco'ma, Ooni'ne, Ozemun, from 
albus, 'white.' (F.) Albumine. An immediate 
principle of animals and vegetables, which con- 
stitutes the chief part of the white of egg. It is 
found in the serum, chyle, synovia, serous fluids, 
Ac. There is not much difference in chemical 
composition between animal and vegetable albu- 
men, fibrin and casein. Also, the white of the 
eye. See Sclerotic. 

ALBr'MEN Ovi, Ovalbu'men, Albu'men, Albu'- 
mor, Albii't/o seu Albor seu Can'didum Ovi, 
Clare'ia, Ovi albus liquor, Albumen'tum, Lac avis, 
white of effff, (F.) Blanc d'cerif, (Old F.) Albin 
d'oeuf, is used in pharmacy for suspending oils, 
Ac, in water. See Ovum. 
Albumex. Salivary, see Saliva. 
ALBUMINS, Albumen — a. Ciribrale, Neu- 
rine — a. rfw Cerveau, Neurine. 

ALBU'MINOID, Albuminoi'des, from albumen, 
and u&o(;, ' resemblance.' Resembling albumen, as 
fibrin, casein, &c. It is often applied to aliments 
in the same sense as proteinous. 

ALBU'MINOSE. The soluble principle of 
fibrin, identical with the dominant principle of 
the white of egg. — Bouchardat. According to 
others, the ultimate product of the transformation, 
in the stomach, of albuminoid matters, which 
renders them fit for assimilation and nutrition. 
Albuminose is not coagulable by heat, and incom- 
pletely So by acids ; an excess of acid dissolving 
the precipitate. Robin and Verdeil regard it as 
synonymous with the casein of the small intestine 
of Tiedemann and Gmelin,the (jfe^a^i)!?/^-?)! matter 
of the intestine of Prevost and Morin, and the 
casein of the blood of Dumas. See Peptone. 

ALBUMINO'SIS. A coudition of the blood, 
in which the ratio of albumen is increased, as in 
abdominal typhus, variola, rubeola, &c. Moser 
and Strahl. 

ALBUxMINU'RIA. A hybrid term from 'albu- 
men,' and ovpov, ' the urine.' A condition of the 
urine in which it contains albumen, the presence 
of which is indicated by its coagulation on the 
application of adequate heat. See Kidney, 
Bright's disease of the. 

ALBVUmU'RlG, Albuminu'ricus, (-p.) Albu- 
mintcrique. Relating or appertaining to albumi- 
fluria. One labouring under Albuminuria. 



ALBUBIINURORRHEE, Kidney, Bright's 
disease of the. 

ALBUMOR, Albumen ova. 
AL'CAEST, Al'cahest, Al'chaest, perhaps from 
(G.) all, 'all,' and geist, 'spirit.' A word in- 
vented by Paracelsus to designate a liquor, ivhich, 
according to him, was capable of removing every 
kind of swelling. 

The same word was used by Van Helmont for 
a fancied universal solvent, capable of reducing 
every body to its elements. 

Alcaest of Glauber is a thick liquor ob- 
tained by detonating nitrate of potassa on hot 
coals, which transforms it into subcarbonate of 
potassa. 

Alcaest of Respour is a mixture of potassa 
and osyd of zinc. 

ALCAHEST, Alcaest. 
ALCAHOL, Alcohol. 

ALCALES'CENCE, Alkales'cence, Alcalescen'- 
tia. The condition in which a fluid becomes 
alkaline. 

Alcalescencb of the Humours was an old 
notion of the humourists. It can only occur 
during the putrid fermentation of animal mat- 
ters, which contain azote, and produce ammonia. 
Alcalin'ity is the quality of being alcaline. 

AL'CALI or AUa'li, Al'kali, from al {Aral.,) 
'the,' and kali, the name of the Salso'la Soda, 
a plant which contains a large quantity of one 
of the principal alkalis— sofia. The alkalis are 
substances soluble in water, possessing generally 
a urinous, acrid, and caustic taste, turning the 
syrup of violets green, and restoring to blue in- 
fusion of litmus, which has been reddened by 
acids; reddening the yellow of turmeric, and 
having the greatest tendency to unite with acids, 
whose character they modify, and form salts with 
them. In medicine we understand by this term 
Potassa, Soda, or Ammonia. 

Alcali, Caustic, Al'kali Oaus'ticum. A pure 
alkali. One deprived of its carbonic acid. 

Alcalis, Fixed, Soda and potassa; Volatile 
Alcali, Ammonia. 

Alcali Ammoniacum Acetatum, Liquor am- 
monite acetatis — a. Ammoniacum fluidum. Liquor 
ammonite — a. Fixum tartarizatum, Potassse tar- 
tras — a. Minerale sulphuricum, Soda, sulphate 
of — a. Tartari aceto saturatum, Potassse acetas — 
a. Vcgetabile salito dephlogisticatum, Potassae 
murias hyperoxygenatus — a. Vcgetabile tartari- 
zatum, Potassae tartras — a. Vcgetabile vitriola- 
tum, Potassae sulphas — a. Volatile acetatum. Li- 
quor ammonise acetatis — a. Volatile aeratum, 
Ammoniae carbonas — a. Volatile ex sale ammo- 
niaco, Ammoniae carbonas. 
ALCALIGENB, Azote. 
ALCALINITY. See Alkalescence. 
AL'CALOID; from alcali and uSo?, 'form.' 
A name given to the organic alcalis to distinguish 
them from the mineral, from which they differ as 
regards composition and general properties; — 
having nothing in common but their basic pro- 
perties. Brucia, Emetia, Morphia, Strychnia, 
&c., are alcaloids. 
ALCANA, Anehusa ofBcinalis. 
ALCANNA MAJOR LATIFOLIA DENTA- 
TA, Prinos — a. Orientalis, Lawsonia inermis — a. 
Spuria, Anehusa tinetoria — a. Vera, Lawsonia 
inermis. 

ALCEA, Hibiscus abelmoschus— a. ^gyptiaca, 
Hibiscus abelmoschus — a. Indica, Hibiscus abel- 
moschus. 

Al'cea Ro'sea, Common holly liock, Hoc, Hock*. 
Emollient, like Althaea. 
ALCHACHENGE, Physalis. 
ALCHACHIL, Rosmarinus. 
ALCHAEST, Alcahest. 
ALCHEMIL'LA, said to have been celebrated 



ALCHEMY 



44 



ALEIMMA 



with the Alchemists [?], supposed by some to be j 
of Arabic derivation. A. vidcja'ria, Common 
Ladiea' Mantle, Pes Leo'nia, Leontopo'dium, (F.) 
Pied de Lion. Formerly in great repute as an 
astringent in hemorrhage. 
ALCHEMY, Alchymy. 
ALCHITRAM, see Pinus Sylvestris. 
ALCHITURA, see Pinus Sylvestris. 
ALCOHOOL, Alcohol. 

ALCHORNEA LATIFOLTA, see Alcornoque. 
AL'CHYMY, Al'chemy, Alchemi'a, Alchitni'a, 
Adep'ta Philosoph'ia, from al, an Arabic par- 
ticle, signifying, 'superiority, excellence,' and 
Chimia, ' Chymistry.' This word was formerly 
Bynonymous with Chymistry ; but, from the 7th 
century, it has been applied to the mysterious art 
of endeavouring to discover a universal remedy, 
and a mode of transmuting the baser metals into 
gold : an operation to which they gave the name 
Opus magnum, and Philosopher's stone. 

Alchymy has also been called Seien'tia vel 
Philosoph'ia Hermet'ica, from an idea that Her- 
mes or Mercury was its inventor. 

Harris has well defined this chimerical art: 
'Ars sine arte, cujus principium est mentiri, me- 
dium laborare, et finis mendicare.' 

Al'chymist, (Old Eng.) Alkymistre, Flatua'- 
rius, Adept'. One pretending to alchymy. 
ALCOCALUM, Cynara scolymus. 
AL'COHOL, AVcahol, Alchool, Alkol, Alcol, 
Al'cool, Al'kool. An Arabic word, formerly used 
for an impalpable powder, and signifying ' very 
subtile, much divided.' At the present day it is 
applied to highly rectified spirit of wine: — see 
Spiritus rectificatus or rectified spirit, distilled 
from dried subcarbonate of potassa. In the Ph. 
U. S., Alcohol is rectified spirit of the specific 
gravity 0.S35. The Dublin college has a spiritus 
/o)-«ior,usedinthe preparation of certain essences, 
whose specific gravity is .818. Alcohol, absolute 
alcohol, of the Edinburgh and Dublin Pharma- 
copoeias, is of specific gravity .797. 

Alcohol is an inflammable liquor, lighter than 
water, of a warm, acrid taste, colourless, trans- 
parent, and of a pungent, aromatic smell. It is 
the product of the distillation of vinous liquors ; 
is miseible with water in all proportions, and is 
the direct solvent of resins, balsams, &c. Various 
other vegetable principles are soluble in it, and 
hence it is used, in different states of concentra- 
tion, in the preparation of elixirs, tinctures, es- 
sences, &c. 

Alcohol acts on the animal body as a powerful 
stimulus : as such, in a dilute form, it is used in 
the prevention and cure of disease. Its habitual 
and inordinate use is the cause of many serious 
affections, of a chronic character especially, as 
visceral obstructions, dropsy, &c. 

Alcohol, absolute, see Alcohol — a. ^the- 
reus Ferratus, A. Sulfurico-sethereus ferri — a. 
cum Aloe perfoliata, Tinetura aloes — a. Am- 
monise et guaiaci, Tinetura guaiaci ammoniata 
— a. Ammoniatum, Spiritus ammonise — a. Am- 
moniatum aromaticum, Spiritus ammoniae aro- 
maticus — a. Ammoniatum foetidum, Spiritus 
amraonioB foetidus — a. Amylicum, Oil, fusel — 
a. cum Aromatibus sulphurieatus, Sulphuricum 
acidum aromaticum — a. cum Aromatibus compo- 
situs, Tinetura cinnamomi composita — a. Casto- 
riiitum, Tinetura castorei — a. cum Crotone casca- 
rilla, Tinetura cascarillas — a. Dilutum, Spiritus 
tenuior — a. Ferratus, Tinetura ferri muriatis — 
a. cum Sulphate ferri tartarisatus, see Ferrum 
tartarisatum — a, cum Guaiaco ofiicinale ammo- 
niattts, Tinetura guaiaci ammoniata — a. lodii, 
Tinetura lodini — a. cum Opio, Tinetura opii 
— a. Methylic, Spiritus Pyroxylicus — a. Pyroxylie 
Spiritus Pyroxylicus — a. Sulphuricatum, BHxir 
Rcidum Halleri — a. Sulphuricum, Elixir acidum 



Halleri — a. Sulphuris, Carbonis sulphuretum — a. 
Vini, Spiritus rectificatus — a, AVood, Spiritus 
pyroxylicus. 

ALCOHOL'IC, Alcohol' icus, Spirituo'sus,Spir'. 
ituous. (F.) Alcoolique. Relating to or contain- 
ing alcohol — as an alcoholic drink or remedy. 

ALCOHOLISM'US, Al'coholism, (F.), Alcd. 
olisme. The series of morbid phenomena pro- 
duced by the use of alcoholic liquors. 
ALCOL, Alcohol. 
ALCOL^, Aphthae. 
ALCOL AT, Alcoolat. 

ALCOOL, Alcohol — a. Camphrg, Spiritus cam- 
phoriE. — a. de Sou/re, Carbonis sulphuretum. 

ALCOOLAT, Spirit. It now generally signi- 
fies alcohol, charged, by distillation, with the vola- 
tile principles of certain substances, or a distilled 
spirit, — Aleolat {Codex med. of Paris). 

ALCOOLATUM, Tincture— a. Antiscorbnti- 
cum, Tinetura de Cochleariis — a. Carminativum 
Sylvii, Tinetura de Cochleariis — a. de Croco com- 
positum, Tinetura de Croco composita. 

ALOOOLATURE, Teinture avec les planter 
fraiches. A name given by M. Beral to certain 
preparations introduced by him, which consist of 
alcohol, charged, by maceration, with the soluble 
principles of fresh plants. See Tincture. 

ALCOOLE. A name given, in the new French 
pharmaceutical nomenclature, to medicines re- 
sulting from the solvent action of alcohol on 
different substances, or from its admixture with 
liquids which unite with it in all proportions. 
See Tincture. 
ALCOOLE SUCRE, Ratafia. 
ALCOOLIQUE, Alcoholic. 
ALCOOLISER (F.) Formerly, 'to reduce into 
an impalpable powder.' No longer used. 
ALCOOLLSME, Alcoholismus. 
ALCOOLOMETER, Areometer, 
ALCOOMETER, Areometer. 
ALCORNOQUE (F.), Cortex Aleomoco. The 
bark of Alchor'nea latifo'lia, of Jamaica, which 
has been considered capable of curing phthisis. 
It is bitter, tonic, and slightly astringent. Dose 
of the powder J^i to ^m. 

AL'CYON, Hal'cyon. A swallow of Cochin 
China, whose nest is gelatinous and very nutri- 
tious. It has been proposed in medicine as ana- 
leptic and aphrodisiac. 

ALCYO'NIUM, Bastard sponge. The ashes 
were formerly employed as dentrifiees : they were 
believed proper for favoring the growth of the 
hair and beard, and were used in Alopecia. 
ALDABARAN, Albadaran. 
ALDEHYDE, see Anaesthetic. 
ALDER, AMERICAN, Alnus serratula— a. 
Black, Prinos, Rhamnus frangula — a. European. 
Alnus glutinosa — a. White, Clethra alnifolia. 
ALE, Cerevisia. 

Ale, White. A drink, used in Devonshire, 
England, amongst the ingredients of which are 
milk, spice, and spirit. 
ALEACAS, Glycyrrhiza. 
ALEBERRY. A beverage, formerly made by 
boiling ale with spice and sugar, and sops of 
bread. It was given to invalids. — Palsgrave. 
ALECOST, Tanacetum balsamita. 
ALECTO'RIUS LAPIS, Alecto'ria ; from 
a\tKT(j)f), 'a cock.' The name of a stone, supposed 
to exist in the stomach of the cock, or, according 
to others, in that of the capon, four years old. 
Many marvellous properties were formerly attri- 
buted to it, which are as groundless as its exist- 
ence. There are no stones in the stomach, except 
what have been swallowed. 
ALEGAR, Acetum. 
ALEHOOF, Glechoma hederacea. 
ALEIMMA, Liniment. 



ALEIPHA 



45 



ALIMENT 



ALEIPHA, Liniment, 

ALEIPTE'RIUM, from a\ti<p(a, '1 anoint.' 
The place in the ancient gymnasium where the 
combatants anointed themselves. 

ALEIP'TRON. Same etymon. A box for 
containing ointments. 

ALEMA, Farina. 

ALEM'BIC (Arab.), Moorshead, Capitel'lum, 
Capit'ulum, Am'bicus, (F.) Alambic. A utensil 
made of glass, metal, or earthen ware, adapted 
for distillation. A still. It consists of a body 
or cucurbit, (F.) cucurbite, chandiere, to which is 
attached a head or capital, (F.) chapitemi, and 
out of this a beak descends laterally to be inserted 
into the receiver, worm, condenser, or refrigera- 
tor, (F.) serpentin, refrigerant, as the case may 
be. 

ALEM'BROTH {Salt.) Sal Alembroth. The 
alchymists designated by this name, and by 
those of Sal sapien'tice, Sal artis, Sal vitcB and 
i!?. Scienticp., the product resulting from the sub- 
limation of a mixture of corrosive sublimate and 
Bal ammoniac. It is stimulant, but not employed. 

ALESE (F.), Aleze, Alaise, Lin'teum, from 
a)^s^ii), ' I preserve.' A guard. A cloth arranged 
in several folds, and placed upon a bed, so as to 
guard it from the lochial or other discharges. 

ALETON, Farina. 

ALETRIS, A. farinosa. 

Al'etris (Ph. U. S.), A. Farino'sa seu alba, 
Stargrass, Starwort, Blazing star, Aloe-root, 
Bitter-grass, Black root. Unicorn root, Ague root. 
Ague grass, Colic root. Devil's bit. Mealy starwort, 
(F.) AUtris. Nat. Ord. Asphodelese. Sex. Syst. 
Hexandria Monogynia. This plant is an intense 
and permanent bitter, and is used as a tonic and 
Ftomachic. It is common in the United States. 

Aletris alba, Aletris — a. Aurea ; indigenous 
— has similar virtues. 

ALEURON, Farina. 

ALEUROTESIS, see Cribration. 

ALEXANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 

ALEXANDRI ANTIDOTUS AUREA. See 
Alexandrine. 

ALEXAIST'DRINE, Emplas'trum Alexan'dri. 
A garlic plaster, invented by Alexander, contem- 
porary of Mesue. Other ancient preparations 
were called 'Alexandrine;' as the Alexan'dri 
antid'otus au'rea, used in apoplexy ; the Collyr'- 
ium siccum Alexandri'num, or 'Oollyrium of King 
Aiexander,' mentioned by Aetius. 

ALEXICACUM, Amuletum, Alexipharmic. 

ALEXIPHAR'MIC, Alexiphar'macus, Anti- 
phar'macuB, Alexica'cus, Caco-alexite'ria, Lexi- 
phar'macns, (F.) Alexipharmaque, from aXc^ctv, 
' to repel,' and (papixaxov, ' poison.' A term for- 
merly used for medicines which were considered 
proper for expelling from the body various mor- 
bific principles, or for preventing the bad effects 
of poisons taken inwardly. 

ALEXIPYRETICUS, Febrifuge. 

ALEXIR, Elixir. 

ALEXITE'RIA, Cacalexite'ria, from aXe^aaSat, 
'to assist.' Originally, alexiterium was used 
synonymously with remedy. In more modern 
limes it has been applied to a class of medicines, 
that counteract poisons placed in contact with 
the exterior of the body, in contradistinction to 
alexipharmic. 

ALEXITERIUM CHLORICUM, see Disin- 
fection—a. Nitricum, see Disinfection. 

ALEZE, Allse. 

ALFUSA. Tutia. 

ALGA MARINA, Pila marina. 

ALGAL 10, Catheter. 

ALGALIE, Catheter. 

AL'GAROTH, Al'garot, Algaro'tU Pulvis, 
Pulvit Angel'icm, Ox'idum seu Submu'riaa Stib'ii 



prmcipitan' do para'tum, Antimo'nii Ox'ydurn, 
Ox'idum antimo'nii Nitro-muriat' ictim, Ox'idum 
Stib'ii Ac"ido Muriat'ico oxygena'to para turn, 
3Iercu'rius Vitm, 3Iercu'rius Ilortis, Flowers of 
Antimony, (F.) Oxyde d'Antimoine, so called from 
Victor Algarothi, a Veronese physician ; sepa- 
rated from the terchloride of antimony by pouring 
the terchloride into a large quantity of water. 
V/^hen this, an oxychloride, is washed with abun- 
dance of water to separate the muriatic acid, and 
afterwards by a solution of alkali to remove the 
terchloride, the teroxide of antimony, Antimo- 
nii Oxidum of the Edinburgh Pharmacopoeia is 
left. It was formerly much used as an emetic, 
purgative, and diaphoretic. 

ALGE'DO, from aXyoj, 'pain.' Violent pain 
about the neck of the bladder, occasionally oc- 
curring in gonorrhoea. — Cockburn. 

Algedon, Pain. 

ALGEMA, Pain. 

ALGESIS, Pain. 

ALGETICUS, SeeAlgos. 

AL'GIDUS, from a/f/or, ' cold.' (E.) Algide. 
That which is accompanied by coldness. 

Aii'GiDA Febkis, Febris liorrif'ica seu hor'- 
rida seu quer'quera seu crymo'des, Bry'cetus, 
Bry'chetus. {¥.) Fievre algide, Algid Fever. A 
pernicious intermittent, accompanied by icy cold- 
ness, which is often fatal in the second or third 
paroxysm. 

ALGOR, Rigor. 

ALGOS, aXj'of, 'pain.' See Pain. Hence, 
Alget'icHS, ' painful,' as Epilep'sia alget'ica. The 
suflBx algia has the same signification — as in 
Cephalalgia, Pleuralgia, Neuralgia, <fcc. 

ALGOSPAS'MUS, from a\yog, 'pain,' and 
dTTaaixos, 'spasm.' Painful spasm or cramp of the 
muscles. 

ALGUE COMMUNE, Pila marina— a. Ilarine, 
Pila marina — a. des Verriers, Pila murina. 

ALHAGI, Agul. 

ALHANDAL, see Cucumis colocynthis. 

ALHASEF, Sudamina. 

ALHAUNE, Lawsonia inermis. 

ALIBILIS, Nutritious. 

AL'ICA, Hal'ica, Farina'rium, Chondrut, from 
alere, ' to nourish.' A grain from which the an- 
cients made their tisanes ; supposed, by some, to 
have been the Triticum spelta. At times, it 
seems to have meant the tisane itself. 

AL'ICES, from aAi^u, 'I sprinkle.' Spots 
which precede the eruption of small pox. 

ALIENATIO, Anomalia — a. Mentis, Insanity. 

ALIENATION, MENTAL, Insanity. 

ALIE_NATUS, Insane. 

ALIENE, Insane. 

ALIENISTS, Psychiater. 

ALIENUS, Delirious. 

ALIFORMES MUSCULI, Pterygoid muscles. 

ALIFORMIS, Alaris, Pterygoid. 

ALIGULUS, Confection. 

ALIMA, Aliment. 

ALIMELLiE, Parotid. 

AL'IMENT, Alimen'tum, Al'ima, Harma'Ua, 
Nutri'men, Nu'triens, Sustentac' ulum, Ciba'rixnn, 
Broma, Comis'te, Oibus, Esca, Nutri'tm, Nutri- 
men'tum, Sitos, Trophe. (Prov.) Belly-timber. 
(F.) Aliment, Nourriture, from alere, 'to nourish.' 
Food. Any substance which, if introduced into 
the system, is capable of nourishing it and repair- 
ing its losses. 

The study of aliments forms one of the most 
important branches of hygiene. They are con- 
fined to the organized kingdom, — the mineral 
ji^ffording none. 

As regards tie immediate principles which 



ALIMENTAL 



46 



ALLENTHESIS 



predominate in their composition, they have 
been classed, but imperfectly, as follows : — 

TABLE OF ALIMENTS. 

( Wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, In- 

1. Feculaceous. < dian corn, potato, sago, peas; 

( beans, &c. 

i Carrot, salsify, beet, turnip, aspara- 

2. Mucilaginous. ^ gus, cabbage, lettuce, artichoke, 

( melon, Ac. 

3. Saccharine. Sugar, fig, date, raisin, apricot, &c. 

! Orange, currant, gooseberry, cher- 
ry, peach, strawberry, raspberry, 
mulberry, prune, pear, apple, 
sorrel, &c. 
, „ . ,( Cocoa, olive, sweet almond, nut, 

5. Oleagiwms and^ walnut, animal fat, oil, butter, 

■f^"^- I &c. 

6. Caseous. Different kinds of milk, cheese. 

C Tendon, aponeurosis, true skin, 
r. Gdatinous. < cellular texture; very young 

( animals. 

8. Albuminous. Brain, nerve, eggs, &c. 

9. Fibrinous. Flesh and blood. 

Dr. Prouthas four great classes — the aqueous, 
saccharine, oleaginous, and albuminous : — Dr. 
Pereira, twelve — the aqueous, mucilaginous or 
gummy, saccharine, amylaceous, ligneous, pecti- 
naceous, acidulous, alcoholic, oily or fatty, pro- 
teinaceous, gelatinous, and saline. 

Liebig divides them into two classes: — the 

NITROGENIZED Or PLASTIC ELEMENTS OP NUTRI- 
TION, in which he comprises vegetable fibrin, 
vegetable albumen, vegetable casein, flesh and 
blood ; and the non-nitrogenized elements of 
RESPIRATION, in which he comprises /n«, starch, 
gum, cane sugar, grape sugar, sugar of milk, pec- 
tin, bassorin, wine, beer and spirits. The former 
alone, in his view, are inservient to the nutrition 
of organized tissue : the latter are burnt in respi- 
^ ration, and furnish heat. 

The following simple arrangement is, perhaps, 
Hi little objectionable as any : — 

, .T-, ■ J .,■ , I Fibrinous (Glutinous?) 

\. Nilrogmized Aliments, Albuminous. 
{Albuminous,of Front.)) Caseinous. 

I Amylaceous. 
2. Non-mirogenized Aliments, < Saccharine. 

( Oleaginous. 

The second division might be still farther sim- 
plified, inasmuch as amylaceous aliments are 
eonvertible into sugar during the digestive pro- 
cess; and, from both, oleaginous matter may be 
formed. 

ALIMEXTAL, Nutrimental. 
ALIMENTARY, Nutrimental— a. Tube, Canal, 
. alimentarv. 

ALIMENTATION, Alimenta'tio. The act of 
nourishing. 

ALIMENTEUX, Nutrimental. 
ALIMENTUM, Aliment, Pabulum. 
ALIMOS, Glycyrrhiza. 

ALINDE'SIS, from aXiv^onai, 'to be turned 
about.' A species of exercise, which consisted 
in rolling in the dust, after having been anointed 
with oil. — Hippocrates. 

ALIP^'NOS, Alipce'num, AUpan'tos, from a, 
priv., and Xinavuv, "to be fat.' An epithet for- 
merly given to every external remedy, devoid of 
fat or moisture ; such as powders. — Galen. 
ALIPANTOS, Alip^nos. 

ALIP'TA, Ahp'tes, from a\u<pu), 'I anoint.' 
He who anointed the Athletse after bathing. 
The place where this was done was called Alip- 
U'rium. 

ALIPTERIUM, see Alipta. 
ALIP'TICA, same etymon. The part of an- 
cient medicine, which treated of inunction as a 
means of preserving health. 

ALISIER BLANC, Crataegus aria. 
ALISMA, A. plantago, Arnica montana — a. 



Graminifolia, A. plantago — a. Lanceolata, A 
plantago. 

Aus'ma Planta'go, Alisma, A. lanceola' ta aexx 
graminifo'lia, Planta'go aquat'ica, Water Plan^ 
tain, (F.) Plantain d'Eau. Ord. Alismacea3, 
Sex. Syst. Hexandria Polygynia. The fresh root 
is acrid, and the dried leaves will vesicate. The 
leaves have been proposed as substitutes for Uv* 
Ursi. 

ALITURA, Nutrition. 

AL'KALE, O'leum Galli'ncB. An ancient phar- 
maceutical name for pullets' fat. 
ALKALESCENCE, Alcalescence. 
ALKALI, see Alcali — a. Ammoniacum caua- 
ticum, Ammonia — a. Ammoniacum spirituosum, 
Spiritus ammonia3 — a. Minerale nitratum, Soda, 
nitrate of — a. Minerale phosphoratum, Soda, 
phosphate of — a. Minerale salinum. Soda, mu- 
riate of — a. Vegetable, Potash — a. Vegetabile cum 
aceto, Potassce acetas — a. Vegetabile fixum caus- 
ticum, Potassa fusa — a. Volatile, Ammonia — a. 
Volatile causticum. Ammonia — a. Volatile, con- 
crete, Amraoniae carbonas — a. Volatile, mild, Am- 
monife carbonas — a. Volatile nitratum, Ammoniaa 
nitras — a. Volatile tartarizatum, Ammoniaj tartras 
— a. Volatile vitriolatum, Ammoniae sulphas. 

ALKANET, BASTARD, Lithospermum ofBci- 
nale — a. Dyer's, Anchusa tinctoria — a. Garden, 
Anchusa oiScinalis — a. Officinal, Anchusa offici- 
nalis. 

ALKAR, Medicament. 
ALKEKENGI, Physalis. 

ALKER'MES, Oonfee'tio Alker'mes, Alcher'. 
mes. A celebrated electuary, composed of a mul- 
titude of substances. It was so called from the 
grains of kermes contained in it. It was used 
as a stimulant. Also, kermes. 

ALKERVA, see Ricinus communis. 
ALKITRAN, Cedria. 
ALKOL, Alcohol. 
ALKOOL, Alcohol. 
ALKYMISTRE, Alchymist. 
ALLA, Cerevisia. 
ALLAITEMENT, Lactation. 
ALLAMAN'DA, A. Cathar'tica seu grandi- 
flo'ra, Ore'iia grandiflo'ra, Gal'arips, Echi'nua 
scandens, Apoc"ynum seandens. A shrub, natives 
of Guiana, the infusion of whose leaves is said by 
LinniBus to be useful in Colica Pictonum. 
ALLANTODES, Allantois. 
ALLAN'TOIC ACID, Ac"idum allanto'icum. 
A peculiar acid, found in the liquor of the allan- 
tois of the cow. 
ALLANTOIDES, Allantois. 
ALLAN'TOIS, AUantoVdes, Allanto'des, Mem- 
bra'na urina'ria, M. seu Tunica Farcimina'Ha, 
3f. Intestina'lis, the Allantoid Vesicle, from aXXas, 
aWavros, 'a sausage,' and tiioj, 'shape.' A sort of 
elongated bladder,between the chorion and amnion 
of the foetus, which is thrown out from the caudal 
extremity of the embryo, and communicates with 
the bladder by the urachus. It is very apparent 
in quadrupeds, but not in the human species. As 
the allantois is developed, its walls become very 
vascular, and contain the ramifications of what 
become the umbilical artery and vein, which, by 
the elongation of the allantois, are brought 
through the villi of the chorion, into indirect 
communication with the vessels of the mother. 

ALLANTOTOX'ICUM,fromaAA«j,aXXavTOf, 'a 
sausage,' and to^ikov, ' a poison.' fausage poison 
(G.) Wurstgift. The Germans have given this 
name to a poison developed in sausages formed 
of blood and liver. 

ALLECTUARY, Electuarium. 
ALLELUIA, Oxalis acetosella. 
ALLEN'TIIESIS, from aWo;, ' another,' and 
evdtcrts, 'introduction.' The entrance into, or 



ALLEVIATOR 



47 



ALIUS POLLEX 



presence of extraneous bodies in, the organism. — 
Walther. 

ALLE'VLA.TOR, from nd,'to,' and levare, ^to 
raise;' 'a soother.' An instrument for raising in- 
valids, invented by Mr. Jenks, of Rhode Island. 
It consists of two upright posts, about six feet 
high, each supported by a pedestal ; of two hori- 
zontal bars at the top, rather longer than a com- 
mon bedstead ; of a windlass of the same length, 
placed six inches below the upper bar; of a cog- 
wheel and handle; of linen belts from six to 
twelve inches wide; of straps secured at one end 
of the windlass; and at the other having hooks 
attached to corresponding eyes in the linen belts, 
and of a head-piece made of netting. The pa- 
tient lying on his mattress, the surgeon passes 
the linen belts beneath his body, attaching them 
to the hooks on the ends of the straps, and ad- 
justing the whole at the proper distance and 
length, so as to balance the body exactly, and 
then raises it from the mattress by turning the 
handle of the windlass. To lower the patient 
again, and replace him on the mattress, the wind- 
lass must be reversed. 

ALLGOOD, Chcnopodium bonus Henricus. 
ALLHEAL, Heracleum spondylium. 
ALLIA'CEOUS, Allia'ceua, (F.) AlliacS, from 
allium, ' garlic' Belonging to garlic, as alliace- 
ous odour. 

ALLIAIRE, Alliaria. 

ALLIA'RIA, from a^Ziwm, its smell resembling 
garlic. A. officina'lie, Erys'imum allia'ria seu 
eordifo'iium, Sisym'brium allia'ria, Jack-in-the 
hedge, Stinking hedge JIustard, Hedge Garlic, 
Sauce-alone, Hes'peris allia'ria, (F.) Alliaire. 
Ord. Cruciferae. This plant has been sometimes 
given in humid asthma and dyspnoea. It is 
reputed to be diaphoretic, diuretic, and antiscor- 
butic. 

The Parisian Codex has a compound syrup of 
alliaria, Sirop d'erysimum compose, which is used 
in hoarseness. 

ALLIGATURA, Fascia, Ligature. 
ALLIOTICUS, Alterative. 
AL'LIUM, (Ph. U. S.) from oleo, 'I smell.' 
A. sati'vum, Theriaca rustico'rum, Ampelop'ra- 
8um, Scor'odon, Scordon, Garlic, (F.) Ail. Ord. 
Liliaceae. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. A 
native of Sicily, but cultivated for use. The 
bulbs or cloves, Ag'lithes, have a strong, ofTensive, 
and penetrating odour, and a sweetish, biting, 
and caustic taste. Internally, garlic is stimulant, 
diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue (?), diapho- 
retic, and anthelmintic. Externally, it is rube- 
facient, maturative, and repellent; and a, garlic 
ointment is made by digesting, at a moderate 
heat, for half an hour, two or three cloves of 
fresh garlic in an ounce cf lard, and straining. 
It is applied as a rubefacient to the chest in 
croup. 

Dose, one to six cloves, swallewed whole, or 
from f3;ss to f^ij of the juice. 

Taylor's Remedy for Deafness, a nostrum, ap- 
pears to consist of garlic, infused in oil of al- 
monds, and coloured by alkanet root. 
Allium Ascalon'icum, Echalotte. 
Allium Canaden'se, Meadow garlic; indige- 
nous ; has the same properties as "allium. 

Allium Cepa, Cepa Vulga'ris, Common Onion, 
LkpuVla, Crom'myon, (F.) Oignon. Acrid and 
stimulating, and possessing very little nutriment. 
Onions have been used as stimulants, diuretics, 
and anthelmintics. The boiled or roasted onion, 
as a cataplasm, is emollient and maturating. 
The fresh root is rubefacient. The expressed 
juice is sometimes used in otalgia and in rheu- 
matism. 

Allium Gallicum, Portulaca — a. Plantagi- 
neum, A. Victoriale. 



Allium Porrtjm, Porrum, P. sati'vum, Pra- 
sum, the Leek or Porret ; (F.) Poireau, Porreau, 
It possesses the same property as the onion. 

The virtues of the genus Allium depend upon 
an acrid principle, soluble in water, alcohol, acids, 
and alkalies. 

Allium Redolens, Teucrium scordium 

Allium Victoria'le, A. plantagin'eum, Cepa 
victoria'lis, Victoria'lis longa. The root, which, 
when dried, loses its alliaceous smell and taste, 
is said to be efficacious in allaying the abdominal 
spasms of pregnant women (?) 

ALLOCHET'IA, Allotriochet'ia, from aXXos, 
'another,' and %£^£iv, 'to go to stool.' The dis- 
charge of extraneous matters from the bowels. 
The discharge of fseces by an abnormous opening. 

ALLOCHOOS, Delirious. 

ALLOCHROMA'SIA, from aXXo?, 'another, 
and j^pw//o, 'colour.' A change of colour. 

ALL(EOPATHIA, Allopathy. 

ALLCEOPATHIC, Allopathic. 

ALLCEOSIS, Alteration. 

ALLCEOTICUS, Alterative. 

ALLOIOSIS, Alteration. 

ALLOIOTICUS, Alterative. 

ALLONGEMENT, Elongation. 

ALLOPATH, Allopathist. 

ALLOPATHES, Allopathic. 

ALLOPATH'IC, Allopath' iciis, Allceopath'ie, 
Alloeopatfi'icue, Allop'athes, Heteropath'ic. from 
aX\o?, 'another,' and 7ra0os, 'affection.' Pielating 
to the ordinary method of medical practice, in 
contradistinction to the homoeopathic. See Allo- 
pathy. 

ALLOPATHIE, Allopathy. 

ALLOPATHIST, Al'lopath, same etymon. 
One who follows allopathy. 

ALLOPATHY, Alloputhi'a, Alloeopathi'a, Hy- 
jienantio'sis, Hyj)enantio'ma, Cura'tio contrario'- 
rnmper contra' ria, (F.) Allopathic ,• same etymon. 
The opposite to homoeopathy; or, according t» 
Hahnemann, a method of treatment in which 
remedial agents are employed, the action of 
which, on healthy man, produces morbid phe- 
nomena different from those that are observed 
in the sick person. The ordinary medical prac- 
tice is so designated by the homceopathist. 

ALLOPHASIS, Delirium. 

ALLOTRIOCHETIA, Allochetia. 

ALLOTRIODON'TIA, from aWorpioi. 'fo- 
reign,' and oSovs, 'a tooth.' Transplantation of 
teeth. 

ALLOTRIOEC'CRISIS, from aWorptos, 'fo- 
reign,' and cKxpiais,' 'separation.' The separa- 
tion of extraneous matters from the body in dis- 
ease. 

ALLOTRIOGEUSTIA, Parageustia. 

ALLOTRIOPHAGIA, Malacia. 

ALLOTRIOTEX'IS, from anorpios, ' foreign,' 
and Tt^ti, 'parturition.' The bringing forth of 
an abnormous foetus. 

ALLOTRIU'RIA, from aWoTpio;, 'foreign,' 
and ovpov, 'urine.' Admixture of foreign mat- 
ters with the urine. 

AL'LOTROPISM; (F.) Allotropie, from oXXo?, 
'another,' and rporos, ' a turn or change. A term 
recently introduced into chemistry, the object of 
which is to express the property, possessed by 
certain simple bodies, of assuming different quali- 
ties on being subjec^ted to certain modes of tnjat- 
ment. Carbon, for example, furnishes threo 
forms — plumbago, charcoal, and diamond. 

ALL-OVERISH, see Indisposition. 

ALLSPICE, see Myrtus pimenta — a. Bush, 
Laurus Benzoin — a. Carolina, Calycanthus — a. 
Wild. Laurus Benzoin. 

ALLUCINATIO, Hallucination. 

ALLURE, Influenza. 

ALLUS POLLEX, Pollex, see Digitus. 



ALMA 



48 



ALTERATIVE 



ALMA, Water. 

ALMARIAB,seePlumbioxydumsemmtreum. 
ALMEZERION, Cneorum tricoccum. 
ALMOND, Amygdala. 

Almond Blooji. A liquid cosmetic, formed 
of Brazil dust 5J, water Oiij ; boil and strain ; 
and add isinylats ^vj, grana eylvestria ^ij, or 
cochineal Jij, alum ^j, borox Jiij j boil again, 
and strain through a line cloth. 

Almond Cake, see Amygdala — a. of the Ear, 
Tonsil — a. Earth, Arachis hypogaea — a. Paste, 
Bee Amygdala — a. Powder, see Amygdala — a. of 
the Throat, Tonsil. 

ALNUS, A. glutinosa — a. Communis, A. gluti- 
Qosa. 

ALNU3 GLUTINO'SA, Almw, A commu'nis, 
Bet'ula ylutino'sa seu emargina'ta, Europe' an Al- 
der, (Sc.) Am, Eller, Ord. Betulacefe. A tree 
which grows in Europe, in moist places. The 
bark and leaves are astringent and bitter; and 
hence are employed in intermittents, and as a 
tonic and astringent. 

Alnus Serrat'ula, American Alder, has simi- 
lar properties. 

Alnus Nigra, Rhamnus frangula. 
ALOCHI'A, from a, privative, and Xo'xcia, 'lo- 
chia.' Absence of the lochial discharge. 

ALOEDA'RIUM. A compound medicine, con- 
taining aloes. — Gorraus. 

ALOE. Aloes — a. False, Agave Virginica. 
ALOE ROOT, Aletris farinosa. 
AL'OES, Al'oe, Fel Natu'ra. The inspissated 
juice of the ^foe. Ord. Asphodelese. Sex. Syst. 
Hexandria Monogynia. 

Aloes Barbadensis, A. hepatica — a. Bombay, 
A. hepatica — a. dea Barbades, A. hepatica. 

Aloes Caballi'na, A. Guinien'sis, Home-aloes. 
Used chiefly for horses. It is collected in Spain 
and Portugal, and is very coarse. 
ALOES EN OALEBASSES, A. hepatica. 
Aloes, Cape, Shiningf Aloes; a cheap and ex- 
cellent form of aloes, collected at the Cape of 
Good Hope, from Aloe ferox, A. Africana, A. 
tpicata, and other species. 

Aloes. East India, A. Succotorina — a. Guini- 
ensis, A. Caballina. 

Aloes Hepat'ica, A. vidga'ris, A. Barbaden'- 
eiB, Hepat'ic aloes, Bombay aloes, Barba'does 
aloes, A. vulga'ris extrac'tum, (F.) Aloes en calS- 
basses, A. des Barbades. This species has a very 
disagreeable odour, and an intensely bitter and 
nauseous taste. Properties the same as the last. 
Aloes, Horse, A. Caballina — a. Lucida, A. 
Succotorina — a. Soeotrine, A. Succotorina — a. 
Spicata extractum, A. Succotorina. 

Aloes Succotori'na, Soe'otrine aloes, Turkey 
aloes, East India aloes, Aloes lu'cida, A. Zoctori'- 
nia, A. spioa'toR extrac'tum, An'ima Aloes, is the 
best species. Its odour is not unpleasant ; taste 
very bitter, and slightly aromatic; colour red- 
dish-brown, with a shade of purple ; mass hard, 
friable ; fracture conchoidal and glossy ; soluble 
in dilute alcohol. Powder of a bright cinnamon- 
yellow coluur. It is cathartic, warm, and stimu- 
lating ; emmenagogue, anthelmintic, and stoma- 
chic. As a cathartic, it affects the rectum chiefly. 
Dose, as a cathartic, gr. v to Qj in pill. 

Aloes. Turkey, A. Succotorina — a. Vulgaris, 
A. hepatica — a. Wood, Agallochum — a. Zocto- 
rinia, A. Succotorina. 

ALOET'IC, Aloet'icus. A preparation which 
contains aloes. 

ALOEXYLON, Agallochum. 
ALOQOTROPH'IA, from a\oyo;, 'dispropor- 
tionate,' and Tpoipri, 'nutrition.' Irregular nutri- 
tion. Used particularly to designate the irregu- 
lar manner in which the nutrition of bones is 
effected in rickety individuals. 



ALOPECES, Psore. 

ALOPECIA, from aXcuTri^f, 'a fox;' (this ani- 
mal being said to be subject to the affection.) 
Capillo'rum deflw'vium, Athrix depi'lis, Phalac- 
ro'tis, Depiila'tin, Tricho'sis Athrix, Gangrce'iia 
Alope'cia, Atrich'ia, Deflu'vium seu Lapsus seu 
Fluxus Pilo'rum, Lipsofn'ch'ia, Vnlpis morbus, 
Pela'da, Baldness, (F.) Pelade. Falling off of 
the hair ; loss of the hair. When this is confined 
to the crown of the head, it is called calvities, al- 
though the terms are often used synonymously. 
When congenital, it is called Atrich'ia seu Alope'- 
cia adna'ta. The falling off of the hair in old 
age is termed Alope'cia seni'lis. 

Alopecia Adnata, see Alopecia — a. Areata, 
Porrigo decalvans — a. Circumscripta, Porrigo 
decalvans — a. Partialis, Porrigo decalvans — a. 
Senilis, see Alopecia. 
ALOUCHE, Crataegus aria. 
ALOUCH'I. The name of a gum procured 
from the canella alba tree. 

ALOUCHIER, Crataegus aria. 
ALPAM. A shrub which grows on the coast 
of Malabar. Certain parts of this, infused in oil, 
form an antipsoric ointment. The juice of the 
leaves, mixed with that of calamus, is employed 
against the bites of serpents. 

ALPHENIC, Saccharum candidum. 
ALPHITEDON, see Fracture. 
j ALPH'ITON, a\(piTov, Polen'ta, Fari'na. Any 
kind of meal. Toasted barley-meal. — Hippocra- 
tes. Polenta means, also, a food composed of In- 
dian meal, cheese, &c. See Farina. 

ALPHON'SIN, Alphon'sinum. A kind of bul- 
let forceps, similar to a Porte-crayon, so-called 
from the inventor, Alphonso Ferri, of Naples. — 
Scultetus. 
ALPHOS, Lepra alphoides. 
ALPHOSIS ^THIOPICA, see Albino. 
ALPINIA CARDAMOM UM, Amomum car- 
damomum — a. Exaltata, Renealmia exaltata — 
a. Tubulata, Renealmia exaltata — a. Galanga, 
Maranta galanga. 

ALPISTE, Phalaris Canadiensis. 
ALSANDERS, Smyrnium olusatrum. 
ALSI'NE ME'DIA, A. avicula'rum seu vidga'- 
ria, from a'Xcro;, ' a grove,' because growing abun- 
dantly in the woods. [ ? ] Morsus Galli'nce, Holos'. 
teum Alsi'ne, Stella'ria me'dia, 3fouse-ear, Chick- 
iceed, Chiekenwort, (F.) Moiiron des Oiseaux, Mor- 
geiine. Ord. Caryophyllacese. This plant, if boiled 
tender, may be eaten like spinach, and forms an 
excellent emollient poultice. It was formerly 
regarded as a vulnerary and detergent. 
ALTAFOR, Camphor. 
ALTER SEXUS, Sex, female. 
ALTERANS, Alterative. 
ALTERANT, Alterative; see, also, Alteration. 
ALTERA'TION, ^/feraVi'o, from alter, 'other,' 
Alloio'sis, Alloeo'sis. This word is used in France 
to express any change which supervenes; for ex- 
ample, in the expression of the countenance (al- 
teration de la face,) or in the structure of an 
organ {alteration organique,) or in the nature of 
fluids excreted [altiration de I'urine, des larmes, 
du laif, d:c.) 

Alteration is also used in an entirely different 
sense, to express intense thirst in disease. In 
this case its etymology is different. It comes 
from haUter, and was formerly written haliter- 
ation. 

AL'TERATIVE. Al'terans, Alloiot'icus, Allm- 
ot'icus, Alliot'icus, Immu'tans. An agent coit- 
sidered to be capable of producing a salutary 
change in a disease, but without exciting any 
sensible evacuation. As medicine improves, this 
uncertain class of remedies becomes, of necessity, 
diminished in number. See Eutrophie. 
(F.) Alterant. The French term likewiso 



ALTERCANGENON 



ALVEUS 



means, that which causes thirst, — Sitieulo'aus, 
Dipset'icHS, as altirer means both to change, and 
to cause thirst. S'alterer is to experience a 
change for the worse, — {corrum'jn.) 
ALTERCANGENON, Hyoscyainus. 
ALTERCUM, Hyoscyamus. 
ALTERED, see Castratus. 
ALTH^' A, from aXQuv, ' to heal ;' A. officina'- 
lis, Ilalvavis'cinn, Aristalthce'a, Hibis'cus, Hi- 
bis'extm, Ibis'chiia, Ibis'cha mismal'va, Bismal'va, 
Marsh mallow. (Prov.) Ilalice. (P.) Gui- 
maitve. Orel. Malvaceae. Sex. Syst. Monadelphia 
Polyandria. The leaves, Alth-a'm fo'lia, and 
root, Althm'cB radix, contain much mucilage. 
They are emollient and demulcent, and are em- 
ployed wherever medicines, possessing such pro- 
perties, are required. In the Ph. U. S., Althaea 
is the root of Althaea oiScinalis. 
ALTHANAIHA, Orpiment 
ALTHBUS, Physician. 
ALTHAXIS, Curation. 
ALTHOS, Medicament. 
ALTILIBAT, Terebinthina. 
ALU'DEL, Alu'tel, Vitrum auhlimato'rium. A 
hollow sphere of stone, glass, or earthen ware, 
with a short neck projecting at each end, by 
means of which one glass might be set upon the 
other. The uppermost had no aperture at the 
top. Aludels were formerly used in the sublima- 
tion of various substances. 

A'LULA, diminutive of ala, ' a wing.' A little 
wing. 

ALUM, Symphytum — a. Cataplasm, Coagulum 
aluminosum — a. Egyptian, JSgyptia stypteria. 

Altjm, Roche, Alu'men de RocM, (F.) Ahin de 
Roche. So called from Eoccha in Syria, where 
there was a manufactory of it. It is in pieces of 
the size of an almond, covered with a reddish 
efflorescence. 

Common Roche Alum., A. Rochi Gallis. Frag- 
ments of common alum moistened and shaken 
with prepared bole. It is white when broken. 

Alum Root, Geranium maculatum, Heuchera 
cortusa. 

Alum, Solution op. Compound, Liquor alumi- 
nis compositus. 

Alum Springs op Virginia, see Virginia, mine- 
ral waters of. 

ALU'MEN, (an Arabic term, alum,) Aluvi, 
Hypersul'phas alu'mince et Potas'scB, Potas'scB 
alu'mino -sulphas, Sul'phaa Aluminm Acid'idua 
cum, Potas'sd, Sulphas Alu'mincB, Sul'phas Kal'- 
ico-alumin'icum, Sidphas alumina' ris, StipersuV- 
phas alu'mincB et potas'soB, Argil'la sulphu'rica 
alcalisa'ta, A. vitriola'ta, Stypte'ria, SulpersuV- 
phas Argil'lcB alcalisa'tum, Argilla Kalisulphu- 
rica. (F.) Alun. 

Alumen Catinum, Potash of commerce — a. 
Fixum, see Potash — a. Kinosatum, Pulvis sul- 
phatis aluminae compositus. 

Alu'men Commu'ne, Common alum, English 
alum. Rock alum, Alumen facW'tium, A. crystal'- 
linum, A. ru'peum, (P.) Alun d'Angleterre, is the 
variety usually employed. It is in octahedral 
crystals, but generally in large, white, semitrans- 
parent masses ,• has a sweetish, styptic taste : 
effloresces in the air, and is soluble in 16 parts of 
water at 60°. It is tonic and astringent, and as 
such is used internally and externally. Dose, gr. 
V to XV. 

Alu'men Exsicca'tum, Alu'men nstum seu 
sicca' turn, seu calcina'tum. Sulphas alu'minafusus, 
Argil'la ardphu'r'ica uata, Burnt alum, dried alum. 
(F.) Alun calcini, (Alum melted in an earthen 
vessel until ebullition ceases.) Escharotic. 

Alu'men Roma'num, Roman alum, A. Ru'ti- 
lum seu Rubrum. (F.) Alun de Rome. In crys- 
tals, which are of a pale red when broken, and 
covered with a reddish efflorescence. 



Alumen Siccatum. Alumen exsiccatum. 

ALUMINA, ACETATE OF, Aluminai Acetaa 
— a. Depurata, Argilla pura — a. Pura, Argilla 
pura — a. Sulphate of, Alumince Sulphas. 

ALU'MINO AC'&'TA.Q,Argil'l(B Ace'taa, Ac"e- 
tafe of Alu'mina. A delinquescent salt, obtained 
by the addition of acetate of lead, to sulphate of 
alumina and potassa. It possesses the same pro- 
perties as the sulphate of alumina. 

Alu'mina et Potass^ Hypersulphas, Alu- 
men — a. et Potassse supersulphas, Alumen — a. 
Sulphas, Alumen. 

Alu'mina Sulphas, Argilla Sulphas, Sulphate 
of Alu'mina. Simple sulphate of alumina may 
be made by the direct combination of alumina 
and sidphuric acid, and contains 30 per cent, of 
the former, to 70 per cent, of the latter. It is 
a deliquescent salt; and is an excellent antisep- 
tic and detergent to ulcers. It is chiefly used to 
preserve dead bodies — a strong solution being 
injected into the arteries. 

Gannal's Solution for preserving animal sub- 
stances is made by dissolving an ounce of acetate 
of alumina in twenty ounces of water. 

Alumina Sulphas Acidulus cum Potassa, 
Alumen — a. Sulphas fusus, Alumen exsiccatum. 

ALUM IN E FACTICE, Argilla pura. 

ALUMINII OXIDUM, Argilla pura. 

ALUN, Alumen. 

ALUNSEL, Gutta. 

ALUS, Symphytum. 

ALUSIA, Hallucination — a. Hypochondriasis, 
Hypochondriasis. 

ALUTEl;, AludeL 

ALVA QUILL A, Psoralea glandulosa. 

ALVARAS NIGRA, Ichthyosis. 

ALVEARIUM, Auditory canal, external. 

ALVE'OLAR, Alveola'ris, from alveus, ' a ca- 
vity.' (F.) Alv&olaire. That which relates to 
the alveoli. 

Alveolar Abscess, Parulis. 

Alve'olar Arches, (F.) Arcades alviolaires, 
are formed by the margins or borders, Juga alveo- 
la'ria, of the two jaws, which are hollowed by the 
Alveoli. 

Alve'olar Artert, Supra -maxillary A., Ar- 
tere aus-maxillaire of Chaussier, arises from the 
internal maxillary, descends behind the tuberos- 
ity of the upper jaw, and gives branches to the 
upper molar teeth, gums, periosteum, membrane 
of the maxillary sinus, and buccinator muscle. 

Alveolar Border, Limhus alveola'ris. The 
part of the jaws that is hollowed by the alveoli. 

Alve'olar Membranes are very fine mem- 
branes, situate between the teeth and alveoli, and 
formed by a portion of the sac or follicle which 
enclosed the tooth before it pierced the gum. By 
some this membrane has been called the alveolo- 
dental periosteum. 

Alve'olar Vein. This has a similar distri- 
bution with the artery. 

AL VEOLE, Alveolus. 

ALVEOLI DENTIS, see Alveolus. 

ALVEOLO- DENTAL PERIOSTEUM, see 
Alveolar membranes. 

ALVEOLO-LABIAL, Buccinator. 

ALVE'OLUS, same etymon. Bo'trion, Bo'- 
thrlon, Odontohoth'rium, Odontophat'ne, Frena 
{Alve'oli), Mortariolum, Hol'micos, Prcesepiolum, 
Phatrte, Phat'nion, PrcBse'pium, Patne, Pathne^ 
(F.) Alveole. The alveoli are the sockets of the 
teeth, Alve'oli dentis, Moe'nia seu Caver'nae den'- 
tium, into which they are, as it were, driven. 
Their size and shape are determined by the teeth 
which they receive, and they are pierced at the 
apex by small holes, which give passage to the 
dental vessels and nerves. 

ALVEUS, Auge — a. Ampullosus, Receptacn- 
lum chyli — a. Ampullescens, Thoracic duct — a. 



ALVI EXCRETIO 



50 



AMBLYOPIA 



Communis : see Semicircular canals — a. Utricu- 
losus : see Semicircular canals. 

ALVI EXCRETIO, Defecation — a. Fluxus 
aquosus, Diarrhoea — a. Laxitas, Diarrhoea — a. 
Profluvium, Diarrhoea. 

ALVIDUCUS, Laxative. 

ALVINB, Alvi'nus, from alvus, 'the abdomen.' 
That which relates to the lower belly, as alvine 
dejections, alvine flux, alvine obstructions, &c. 

ALVUM EVACUANS, Cathartic. 

ALVUS, Abdomen, Uterus — a. Adstricta seu 
Astricta, Constipation — a. Cita, Diarrhoea — a. 
Dura, Constipatio — a. Renum, Pelvis of the 
kidney — a. Tarda, Constipation — a. Viridis, De- 
jection. 

ALYCB, Anxiety. 

ALYMPH'IA, from a, priv., and lympha, 
'lymph.' Want of lymph. 

AL'YPON, from a, priv., and \vrTri, 'pain.' An 
acrid, purging plant, described by Matthiolus. 
By some it has been supposed to be the Glohula'- 
ria alypum of botanists. 

ALYSIS, Anxiety. 

ALYSMUS, Anxiety. 

ALYSSUM PLINIL Galium mollugo. 

ALYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 

ALYX'IA STELLA'TA, A. aromat'ica, (F.) 
Alyxie aromatique. A plant, of the family 
Apocynaceas, the bark of which resembles canella 
alba, and is used in Batavia in pernicious fevers. 

AL'ZILAT. In some of the Arabian writers, 
a weight of three grains. — Ruland and Johnson. 

AMABILE, Lacuna Labii Superioris. 

AJIABOU, Boletus igniarius. 

A3IAD0UV1ER, Boletus igniarius. 

AMAIGKTR, Emaciate. 

AMAIGRISSEMENT, Emaciation. 

AMAND (SAINT), MINERAL WATERS 
OF, Saint-Amand-lea-Eaux. These springs, in 
the department Nord, France, are thermal (77° 
Fahr.), carbonated chalybeates ; and are much 
used internally, or in the form of houes, in 
ihronic aifections of the digestive organs and 
liver, and in rheumatism. 

A3IANDES, see Amygdala. 

AMANI'TjE, from o, privative, and fiavia, 
'madness:' i.e. 'not poisonous.' (?) A name 
given, by the Greeks and Romans, to the edible 
champiijnons. Amanita forms, at the present day, 
a genus, some of which are edible, others poison- 
ous. Amongst others, it contains the Agaricus 
aurantiacua and A. psevdo-aurantiacus. 

AMARA DULCIS, Solanum dulcamara. 

AMARACI'NUM. An ancient and esteemed 
plaster, containing several aromatics, the marjo- 
ram, afiapaKo;, in particular. 

AMARACUS, Origanum majorana — a. Tomen- 
tosus, Origanum dietamnus. 

AMARITIES, Bitterness. 

AMARITUDO, Bitterness. 

AMAROR, Bitterness. 

AMARUCACHU, Polyanthes tuberoaa. 

AMA'RUS, Picros, 'bitter.' (F.) Am^r. The 
bittei principle of vegetables is the great natural 
tonic, and hence bitters, as they are termed col- 
lectively, belong to the class of tonics. Several 
are used in medicine ; the chief are, gentian, 
quassia, cinchona, calumba, dog-wood, &c. 

AMASE'SIS, Amasse'sis, from a, privative, and 
ttaavo'ii, 'mastication.' Mastication when im- 
peded or impracticable. 

AMATORIUM, Lacuna labii superioris. 
AMATORII, Oblique muscles of the eye. 
AMATORIUM VENEFICIUM, Philter. 
AMATORIUS MUSCULUS, Obliquus supe- 
rior oculi. 

AMAURO'SIS, Obfusca'tio, Offusca'tio, from 
■auavom, 'obscure,' Drop serene, Gtitta sere'na, 
Catarac'ta nigra, Parop'ais amauro'sis, ImmohiV- 



itas pupil'lce, Suffii'sio nigra. Black cat'aract, 
Nervous blindness, (F.) Goutte-sereine, Cataructt 
noire, Anopticonervie (Piorry). Diminution, or 
complete loss of sight, without any perceptible 
alteration in the organization of the eye; gene- 
rally, perhaps, owing to loss of power of the 
optic nerve or retina — Ojitic anwsthe'sia. Coun- 
ter-irritants are the most successful remedial 
agents, although the disease is always very diffi- 
cult of removal, and generally totally incurable. 

Amaurosis Dimidiata, Hemiopia — a. Diurnal, 
Nyctalopia — a. Nocturnal, Hemeralopia — a. Im- 
perfecta, Hypo-amaurosis. 

AMAUROT'IC, Amaurot'icus, (F.) Amauro- 
tique ; same etymon. Affected with amaurosis. 

Amaurotic Cat's Eye, Galeamauro'sis. A 
name given by Beer to an amaurotic affection, 
accompanied by a remarkable change of colour 
in the pupil, which presents, apparently in the 
fundus of the eye, a lighter tint, yellowish or 
brownish yellow, instead of its natural clear 
black. 

AMA'ZIA, from a, privative, and /<a^oy, 'breast.' 
A monstrosity, in which there is absence of one 
or both breasts. 

AMBARUM, Ambergris — a. Cineritium, Am- 
bergris. 

AMBE, from an^aivui, 'I ascend;' Ambi. A 
superficial eminence on a bone. Also, an old 
surgical machine for reducing dislocations of the 
shoulder ; the invention of which is ascribed t* 
Hippocrates. It is no longer used. — -Hippo- 
crates, Scultetus. See Crista. 

AMBER, Succinum — a. Liquid: see Liquid- 
amber styraciflua. 

AM'BERGRIS, 'gray amber,' Amhor, Amhar, 
Ambra gri'sea seu cinera'cea seu anihrosiaca, 
Anibnrum, Suo'ciniim cine'reum seu gri'sewn, 
Am'barum cineri"tium.. A concrete substance, 
of the consistence of wax, cineritious colour, 
studded with yellow and blackish spots, and ex- 
haling a very pleasant odour. It seems highly 
probable that ambergris is formed in the intes- 
tines of the whale, and voided with its excre- 
ment. Like all aromatic substances, ambergris 
is slightly anti-spasmodic and excitant; but it is 
oftener employed as a perfume than as a medi- 
cine. 

AMBIA. A liquid, yellow bitumen, the smell 
and virtues of which are similar to those of the 
resin tacamahaca. It is obtained from a spring 
in India. 

AMBICUS, Alembic. 

AMBIDEX'TER, AmpMdex'ins, from ambo, 
'both,' and dexter, 'right.' One who uses both 
hands with equal facility. Celsus says the sur- 
geon ought to be 'non minus sinistrd quam dex- 
tra promptus.' One of the aphorisms of Hippo- 
crates says, that a woman is never ambidexter. 
This is a mistake. 

AMBILJEVUS, Ampharisteros. 

AMBIOPIA, Diplopia. 

AMBITUS GENITALIS MULIEBRIS, Vea- 
tibulum. 

AMBLOMA, Abortion. 

AMBLOSIS, Abortion. 

AMBLOSMUS, Abortion. 

AMBLOTHRIDION, see Abortion. 

AMBLOTHRIDIUM, Abortive. 

AMBLOTICUS, Abortive. 

AMBLUS, an^\vi, 'obscure.' Hence, 

AMBLYAPH'IA, from a///?Au;, 'obscure,' and 
'a(j>-n, 'feeling.' Dulness of the sense of touch. 

AMBLYOGMOS, Amblyopia. 

AMBLYO'PIA, from ap^^Ui, 'obscure,' and 
b>\\i, 'the eye.' Amblyos'mos, Ambbjog'mos, Amph. 
o'pia (so called by some, according to Castelli, 
06 ignorantiam GrcBcm lingucB), Hebetu'do visds, 



I 



AMBLYOSMOS 



51 



AMMI 



Feebleness of sirjht, (F.) Amblyopie, Vue faihle. 
First degree of Amaurosis. — Hippocrates. 

Amblyopia Crepuscularis, Hemeralopia — it. 
Dissitorum, Myopia — a. Meridiana, Nyctalopia — 
a. Proxiinorum, Presbytia. 
AMBLYOSMOS, Amblyopia. 
AMBOLICUS, Abortive. 

AMBON, a/i(3etfv, 'the raised rim of a shield or 
dish,' from aiil^aivui, 'I ascend.' The fibro-carti- 
laginous rings or boiirrelets, which surround the 
articular cavities, as the glenoid cavity of the 
scapula, the acetabulum, &c., have been so called 
— Galen. See Crista. 
AMBOR, Ambergris. 

AMBRA, Succinum — a. Ambrosiaca, Amber- 
gris — a. Cineracea, Ambergris. 
AMBRAGRISEA, Ambergris. 
AMBRE BLANO, Succinum (album) — o. 
Jaune, Succinum. 

A3IBRETTE, Hibiscus abclmoschus. 

AMBRINA AMBROSIOiDES, Chenopodium 

ambrosioides — a. Anthelmintica, Chenopodium 

anthelmintieum— a. Botrys, Chenopodium botrys. 

AMBROISIE DU MEXIQUE, Chenopodium 

ambrosioides. 

AMBRO'SIA, from a, privative, and fiporos, 
'mortal.' Food which makes immortal, or the 
food of immortals. Food of the gods — Homer. 
See also, Chenopodium botrys. 
Ambrosia Elatior, see A. Trifida. 
Ambrosia Marit'ima, Orel. Compositse. A 
plant which grows on the shores of the Levant, 
and has a pleasant, bitter and aromatic taste. It 
is given in infusion, as a tonic and antispasmodic. 
Ambrosia Trif'ida, Horseweed, Bichiceed, 
Horsemint, Horsecane, Bitterweed, Great or Tall 
Ragioeed, Wild Hemp. This indigenous plant is 
found in low grounds and along streams, from 
Canada to Georgia, and west to Louisiana and 
Arkansas. It is an annual, and flowers in Au- 
gust and September. An infusion has been re- 
commended locally in mercurial salivation. 

Amhroaia Elatior, Ragweed, is said by Dr. R. 
E. Qrifiath to have much more developed sensible 
properties. 

AMHROSIE DU MEXIQVE, Chenopodium 
ambrosioides. 

AMBULANCE (F.), from ambulare, 'to walk.' 
A military hospital attached to an army, and 
moving along with it. Also called Hdpital am- 
bulant. 

AMBULATIO, Walking. 

AM'BULATORY, Am'bulana, Ambulati'viis, 
Am'bulative, (P.) Ambulant. A morbid affection 
is said to be 'ambulatory,' (F.) ambulant, when 
it skips from one part to another ; as Erisyjyeles 
ambulants, <fee. When blisters are applied suc- 
cessively on dififerent parts of the body, they are 
called Vesicatoires ambulants. 
AMBULEIA, Cichorium intybus. 
AM'BULI. The Brachmanic name for an In- 
dian aquatic herb, which appears to belong to 
the family LysimaehicB. The whole plant has a 
sweet smell. Its decoction has a very bitter 
taste, and is an excellent febrifuge. It is also 
taken in milk in cases of vertigo. 
. AM'BULO FLATULEN'TUS ET FURIO'- 
SUS, Flatus furio'sua, Vare'ni. Painful, mo- 
bile, and periodical tumours affecting different 
parts, which were once considered as the effect 
of very subtile vapours — Michaelis. Their na- 
ture is by no means clear. 
AMBUSTIO, Burn. 
AMBUTUA, Pareira brava. 
AMBUYA-EMBO. A very beautiful, creeping 
aristolochia of Brazil, the decoction of which is 
exhibited successfully in obstructions. It is also 
used in fumigation and in baths as a tonic. 
AME, Anima. 



AMELI. A Malabar shrub, belonging to a 
genus unknown. The decoction of its leaves is 
said to relieve colic. Its roots, boiled in oil, are 
used to repel tumours, 
AMELIA, Apathy. 

AMENIA, Amenorrhcea, Emmenagogues. 
AMENOMA'NIA. A hybrid word, formed 
from the Latin amamis, 'agreeable,' and ^lavia, 
'mania.' A gay form of insanity. 

AMENORRHCE'A, Parame'nia obstruetio'nis, 
Jfenocryph'ia, Menosta'aia, Apophrax'is,Arrhve'a, 
Defec'tus seu Reman'sio seu Gessa'tio men'sium, 
Jlenstrua'tio impedi'ta, Ischome'nia, Ame'nia, 
Ametrohce'mia, from a, privative, ftriv, 'a month,' 
and pciii, 'I flow.' SupjM-ession of the menses, (F.) 
Suppression duflux menstruel. This suppressioii 
is most commonly symptomatic, and hence the 
chief attention must be paid to the cause. Usu- 
ally, there is an atonic state of the system gene- 
rally, and hence chalybeates and other tonics are 
advisable. 

Two great varieties of Amenorrhcea are com- 
monly reckoned. 1. A. Emansio'nis, Eman'sio 
men'sium, Menis' chesis, 3Ienos' diesis, Menstrua' tio 
reten'ta, Men'sium reten'tio, Retention of the men- 
ses, when the menses do not appear at the usual 
age : and, 2. Suppres'sio Men'sium seu Men«tru- 
atio'nis, Amenorrhoe'a Suppressio'iiis, Interrup'tio 
mensfruatio'nis. Menstrua' tio suppres'sa, in which 
the catamenia are obstructed in their regular 
periods of recurrence. See Emansio Mensium, 
and Menses. 

Amenorrhcea Difficilis, Dysmenorrhoea — a. 
Emansionis, see Amenorrhcea — a. Hymenica, see 
Hymenicus — a. Partialis, Dysmenorrhcea — a. 
Suppressionis, see Amenorrhcea. 

AMENTIA, Dementia: see, also, Fatuitas, and 
Idiotism — a. Senilis, Dementia of the aged. 

AMER, Amarus — a. de Boeuf, Bile of tha 
ox. 
AMERICAN, see Homo. 

AMERICANUM TUBEROSUM, Solanum tu- 
berosum. 

AMERTUME, Bitterness. 
AM'ETHYST, Amethys'tus, from a, privative, 
and fiidvu, 'I am drunk.' A precious stone, to 
which the ancients attributed the property of 
preventing drunkenness. It was also used as an 
anti-diarrhoeic and absorbent. — Pliny, Albertus 
Magnus. 

AMETH'YSUM, Amethys'tum, (remedinm.) 
Same etymon as the last. A remedy for drunk- 
enness, 

AMETRIA, Intemperance, from i, privative, 
and nerpov, 'measure.' Also, absence of the 
uterus ; from a, privative, and ftrirpa, 'the uterus.' 
AMETROHiEMIA, Amenorrhcea. 
AMIAN'THUM MUSC^TOX'ICUM, {aiitay 
Tog, 'pure,' and avSog, 'a flower,') Melan'thium 
musccBtox'icum, Helo'nias erythrosperm'a. Fly-- 
poison, Fall-poison, indigenous. Ord. Melan» 
thaceee. A narcotic poison, not used, however. 
AMICULUM, Amnios. 

A3IID0LIQUE, from amidum, 'starch.' Ap 
pertaining or belonging to starch. M. B6ral 
calls medicaments amidoliques those, which ow« 
their general properties to starch. 

AMIBON, Amylum — a. lodure d', Starct, 
Iodide of. 
i AMIDONNIERE, Ammi maculatum. 

AMiDUM, Amylum, « 

AMIN^A, Anime. 

AMIN^'UM VINUM, Amine'an wine, highly 
steemed as a stomachic. Virgil distinguishes it 
from the Falernian. — Pliny, Macrobius, &c. 
AM MA, Truss. 

AMMI, Ammi majue seu cicutrnfo'lium seu 
vulga're seu Bolberi, Am'mios murica'ta, A'pium 



AMMION 



52 



AMMONIA ACETAS 



atnmi, Bishop's weed. The seeds of this plant 
are aromatic and pungent. They are said to be 
carminative and diuretic, and are tonic and sto- 
machic. 

Ammi Bolbeei, Ammi — a. des Boutiques, see 
8ison ammi — a. CicutaBfolinm, Ammi — a. Majus, 
Ammi — a. Verum, see Sison ammi — a. Vulgare, 
Ammi. 
AMMION, Hydrargyri sulphuretum rubrum. 
AMMIOS MURICATA, Ammi. 
AMMISMUS, Psammismus. 
AMMOCHO'SIA, Ammocho'sis, from afi/io?, 
' sand,' and x^<^y ' I pour.' Arena' Ho. Putting 
the human body in hot sand, for the cure of 
disease. 

AMMO'XIA, Ammo'nia or Ammoni'acal gas, 
Volatile al'kali, Al'cali ammoni'acum caus'ticum, 
A. volat'ile caics'tieum, Ammo'nia caiis'tica seu 
pura, Ammoni'acum, A. caus'ticum, Gas ammo- 
liiaca'le, Mephi'tis urino'sa, (F.) Ammoniaque, 
Air alcalin, Gaz ammoniacal. An alcali, so called, 
because obtained principally by decomposing sal 
ammoniac [muriate of ammonia) by lime. This 
gas is colourless, transparent, elastic, of a pun- 
gent, characteristic odour, and an acrid, urinous 
taste. It turns the syrup of A'iolets green, and 
its specific gravity is 0-596. When inhaled, 
largely diluted with common air, it is a powerful 
irritant. When unmixed, it instantly induces 
suffocation. 

Ammonia, Acetate of. Solution of, Liquor 
ammonias acetatis — a. Arseniate of, Arseniate of 
ammonia — a. Benzoate of, Ammonise benzoas — 
a. Bicarbonate of, see Ammonias carbonas — a. 
Caustica liquida. Liquor ammonias — a. Chloro- 
hydrate of. Ammonias murias — a. Citrate of,Am- 
monise citras — a. Hydriodate of. Ammonium, io- 
dide of — a. Hydrochlorate of, Ammonias murias 
— a. Hydrosulphuretof, Ammonias sulphuretum — 
a. Iodide of, see Iodine — a. Liniment of, strong, 
Linimentum ammonias fortius — a. Liquid, Liquor 
Ammonias — a. Muriatica, Ammonias murias — a. 
Nitrata, Ammonias nitras — a. Phosphate of. Am- 
monias phosphas — a. Praeparata, Ammonise car- 
bonas — a. Pura liquida, Liquor ammonias — a. 
Solution of. Liquor ammonias — a. Solution of, 
stronger. Liquor ammonite fortior — a. Tartrate 
of. Ammonias tartras, 

AMMO'NIAC, GUM, AmTnoni'aeum (Ph. U. 
S.), Gum'mi Ammoni'acum, Armani' acum, Mato'- 
rium, (F.) Ammoniac, Gomme ammoniaque, so 
called from Ammonia in Lybia, whence it is 
brought. A gum-resin, the concrete juice of 
Dore'ma ammoni'acum, of Persia : a species of a 
genus allied to Ferula; and also the gum-resin 
of Fer'ula tingita'na. The' latter is the ammo- 
niacum of commerce. It is in irregular, dry 
masses and tears, yellow externally, whitish 
within. Its odour is pecaliar, and not ungrate- 
ful : taste nauseous, sweet, and bitter. It forms a 
white emulsion with water: is soluble in vinegar; 
partially so in alcohol, ether, and solutions of the 
alcalies. 

Gum ammoniacnm is expectorant, deobstru- 
ent(?), antispasmodic, discutient, and resolvent. 
It is chiefly used, however, in the first capacity, 
and in the formation of certain plasters. 

Two varieties are met with in the market, 
GuttcB ammoni'aci, the best ; and Lapis ammoni'- 
aci, the more impure. 

AMMONIAC^ NITRAS, Ammonias nitras— 
a. Sulphas, Ammonias sulphas, 

AMMONIACUM, Ammonia, Ammoniac gum 
—a. Hydrochloratum ferratum, Ferrum ammoni- 
atum — a. Succinatum, Spiritus ammonias foetidus 
—a. Volatile mite, Ammonias carbonas. 

AMMONIA ACETAS, Liquor ammonias ace- 
ijitis — a. Arsenias, Arseniate of Ammonia. 



Ammonite Ben'zoas, Ben'zoate of Ammonia. 
A salt formed by the union of benzoic acid and 
ammonia, which has been prescribed for the re- 
moval of gouty depositions of urate of soda in 
the joints. It is regarded as a good diuretic. 

Ammonia Bicar'bonas, Bicarb'onate of Am- 
mo'nia, is officinal in the Dublin Pharmacopoeia. 
It has the same properties as the next, and is 
more palatable. Dose, six to twenty-four grains. 

Ammonite Car'bonas, A. Suhcar'bonas seu Ses- 
quicar'bonas. Salt of bones, iSal Os'sium, Sal Fu~ 
lig"inis, Salt of wood-soot, Salt of urine. Volatile 
Sal Amtnoniac, Baker's salt, Al'cali volat'ile 
a'era'tum, A. volat'ile ammoniaca'le, A. volat'ile 
ex sale ammoni'aco, Ammoni'acum volat'ile mite, 
Ammo'nium carbon'icum seu subcarbo'neum, Car- 
bonas ammo'nicB alkali'nus seu incomple'tus seu 
superammoni' acus, Hypocar'bonas ammo'nics, Flo- 
res salis ammoni'aci, Sal cornu cervi volat'ile, Sal 
volat'ilis salis ammoni'aci. Concrete or mild volatile 
alkali. Carbonate or Subcarbonate of ammonia, 
Ammo'nia prcBpara'ta, Sal volat'ile, Smelling salt, 
(F.) Carbonate d'ammoniaque, Sel volatil d'An- 
gleterre, (Ammon, muriat. ft)j ; Creta; ftjiss. Sub- 
lime — Ph. U. S.) A white, striated, crystalline 
mass; odour and taste pungent and ammoniacal: 
soluble in two parts of water : insoluble in alco- 
hol : effloresces in the air. It is stimulant, ant- 
acid, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. Dose, gr. 
V to XV. 

Carbonate of ammonia is at times used to form 
effervescing draughts. One scruple saturates six 
fiuidrachms of lemon juice, twenty-six grains of 
crystallized tartaric acid, and twenty-six grains 
of crystallized citric acid. 

Carbonate of ammonia is the usual smelling 
salts. When a few drops of Liquor Ammonise 
fortior are added to it coarsely powdered, and 
some volatile oil, it forms Preston Salts. 

Ammonia Citras, Citrate of Ammo'nia. Made 
by saturating lemon or lime juice, or a solution 
of citric acid, with carbonate of ammonia. Dose, 
f^ss. It may be made extemporaneously, and 
taken in an effervescing state. Seventeen grains 
of citric acid, or half a fluidounce of lemon juice, 
will be sufficient for thirteen grains of carbonate 
of ammonia. 

AMMONi.ai CuPEO-suLPHAS, Cuprum ammonia- 
turn. . 

AmmonijE et Ferri Murias, Ferrum ammo- 
niatum — a. Ferro-eitras, Ferri ammonio-citras — 
a. Hydriodas, Ammonium, iodide of — a. Hydro- 
chloras. Ammonias murias — a. Hydrosulphure- 
tum. Liquor fumans Boylii — a. Hypocarbonas, 
Ammonite Carbonas. 

Ammonite Mu'rias (Ph. U. S.), Mu'riate oi 
Cklorohydrate of Ammo'nia, Hydrochlo'rate of 
Ammo'nia, Cklorohydrate of Ammo'nia (Ph. U. 
S.), Sal Ammoni'acum, Sal Ammo'niae, Sal 
Ammoni'acus, Ammo'nia Ifuriat'ica, Ammo'nium 
Muria'tum, Ammo'nim Hydrochlo'ras, Chlornre'- 
tum Ammo'nicum, Sal Armeni'acum, Salmiac, 
Fuli'go Al'ba Philosopho'rum, Misadir, (F.) 
Muriate d' Ammoniaque, Sel Ammoniac ou Arme- 
niac. A saline concrete, formed by the combi- 
nation of muriatic acid with ammonia. In Egypt 
it is manufactured in large quantities by sublim- 
ing the soot formed by burning camel's dung — 2(5 
pounds of the soot yielding 6 pounds. It is also 
prepared, in great quantities, by adding sulphuric 
acid to the volatile alkali obtained from soot, 
bones, Ac, mixing this with common salt, and 
subliming. 

Muriate of ammonia is inodorous, but has an 
acrid, pungent, bitterish, and urinous taste. 
Three parts of cold water dissolve one. Solu- 
ble also in 4-5 parts of alcohol. It is aperient 
and diuretic, but seldom used internally. Ex- 



AMMONIAQUE 



63 



AMOMUM 



temally, it is employed, producing cold during 
its solution, in inflammations, &c. 

Ammo'nije Nitras, Nitrate of Ammonia, AV- 
hali volat'ilenitra'tum, Sal ammoni'acusnitro'sua, 
Ammo' Ilia nitra'ta, Nitra8 ammoni'acm, Nitrum 
Jlammans, (F.) Nitrate d'Ammoniaque. A salt 
composed of nitric acid and ammonia. It is diu- 
retic and deobstruent. (?) Externally, it is dis- 
cutient and sialogogue, 

Ammo'ni^ Phosphas, Ammo'nium phospTior'i- 
<yiim, Phosphate of Ammo'nia, (F.) Phosphate 
d' Ammoniaque. This salt has been recommended 
as an excitant, diaphoretic, and discutient. More 
recently, it has been proposed as a new remedy 
for gout and rheumatism, as a solvent of uric acid 
calculus, and for diseases, acute and chronic, con- 
nected directly with the lithic acid diathesis. 

Ammonia Sesquicarbonas, A. carbonas. 

Ammo'nia Sulphas, Sulphate of Ammo'nia, 
Sulphas ammoni'accB, Ammo'nium sulphu'ricum, 
Al'kali volat'ile vitriola'tum, Sal Ammoni' aeum 
eecre'tum Glaubkri, Sal secre'tus Glattberi, Vi- 
triolum ammoniaca' le, (F.) Sulphate d'Ammoni- 
aque. Formed by adding sulphuric acid either to 
sal ammoniac or to ammoniacal liquor. Its proper- 
ties are like those of the muriate of ammonia. 

Ammo'iu^ Sulphure'tuji, Sul'jihuret of Am- 
mo'nia, Hydros id' phuret of Ammo'nia, Ammo'- 
nium Sulf hydra' turn, Hydroaid'phaa AmmonicB, 
Spir'ituB Begui'ni, Sj}. fumans Begui'ni, Sul- 
phure'tum ammoni' acas, Sp. salis q^mmoni'aci sul- 
phur a' tus. Liquor ammo'nii hydrothi' odis, Hydro- 
tulphure'tum Ammo'nicum, Hydrosulph. ammonia- 
ea'le aquo'sum, Hydrog"eno-8ulphure'tum ammo- 
ni'accB liq'uidum, Spir'itus sul'phuria volat'ilis, 
Hepar sulphuris volat'ile, Boyle's or Begtjine's 
fuming spirit, (F.) Hydrosidphate aulfure d'Am- 
moniaque, Liqueur fumante de Boyle, Sulfure 
hydrogene d'Ammoniaque, Hydrosidfure d'Am- 
moniaque. Odour very fetid; taste nauseous and 
styptic; colour dark yellowish green. It is re- 
puted to be sedative, nauseating, emetic, disoxy- 
genizing (?) and has been given in diabetes and 
diseases of increased excitement. Dose, gtt. vij 

to gtt. XX. 

Ammo'nIjE Tartras, Al'kali volat'ile tartari- 
za'tum, Sal Ammoni' acum tarta'reum, Tar'tarua 
ammo'nia, Tartrate of Ammo'nia, (F.) Tartrate 
d'Ammoniaque. A salt composed of tartaric acid 
and ammonia. It is diaphoretic and diuretic; 
but not much used. 

AMMONIAQUE, Ammonia — a. Arseniate d', 
Arseniate of ammonia — a. Hydrosulfxire d', Am- 
monise sulphuretum — a.JIydrosulfate stdfure d', 
Ammoniae sulphuretum — a. Liquide, Liquor am- 
moniee — a. Phosphate d', Ammoniae phosphas — 
a. Sulfure hydrogeni d', Ammoniae sulphuretum. 

AMMONII lODIDUM, Ammonium, iodide of 
— a. loduretum, Ammonium, iodide of. 

AMMONIO-CUPRICUS SUBSULPHAS, Cu- 
prum ammoniatum. 

AMMO'NION, from ajxjxoq, 'sand.' An ancient 
oollyrium of great virtue in many diseases of the 
eye, and which was said to remove sand from 
that organ. 

AMxMONIUM ARSENICICUM, Arseniate of 
ammonia — a. Carbonicum, Ammoniae carbonas — 
a. Hydroiodicum, Ammonium, iodide of — a. lo- 
datum, Ammonium, iodide of. 

Ammo'nium, Iodide of, lod'idum seu lodure'- 
tum ammonii, Ammonium loda'tum seu Hydro- 
iod'icum, Hydri'odaa ammo'nice, Hydri'odate of 
ammo'nia. This salt is formed by saturating 
liquid hydriodic acid with caustic ammonia, and 
evaporating the solution. It is applied in the 
form of ointment (^j ad adipiis 5J) in lepra, 
psoriasis, &c. 

Ammonium Muriaticum Martiatum seu Mar- 
wale, Ferrum ammoniatum — a. Muriatum, Am- 



moniae murias — a. Phosphoricum, AmmonisB 
phosphas — a. Subcarboneum, AmmouiEe carbonas 
— a. Sulf hydratum. Ammonia sulphuretum — a. 
Sulphuricum, Ammonias sulphas. 
AMNA ALCALIZATA, Water, mineral, sa- 

AMNEMOSTNE, Amnesia. 

AMNE'SIA, Amnest'ia, Amnemos'yne, from c, 
privative, and livticni, 'memory.' Mo'ria imbec"- 
ilis amne'sia, Obliv'io, Hecollectio'nis jactu'ra, 
Dyswsthe'aia inter'na, Dehil'itas memo'ricB, Me- 
mo'ria dele'ta, (F.) Perte de Memoire, ' loss of 
memory.' By some nosologists, amnesia con- 
stitutes a genus of diseases. By most, it is con- 
sidered only as a symptom, which may occur in 
many diseases. 

AMNESTIA, Amnesia. 

AMNIO, Amniotic. 

AMNIO AOID, Amniotic acid. 

AMNIITIS, Amnitis. 

AMNIOOLEP'SIS, from amnios, and kXcittu, 
' I steal or take away clandestinely.' Premature 
escape of the liquor amnii. 

AMNIORRHCE'A, from amnios, and pcu, '1 
flow.' A premature discharge of the liquor amnii. 

AM'NION, Am'nios, Amnium, Hym'nium, 
Charta virgin'ea, Armatu'ra, Agni'na membra'nu, 
Pellu'cida membra'na. Galea, Scepar'num, Indu'- 
aium, Amic'ulum, 3fembra'na fcetum invol'vens. 
The innermost of the enveloping membranes of 
the foetus: — so called because first observed in 
the sheep (?), (aixvo;, ' a sheep.') It is thin, trans- 
parent, perspirable, and possesses many delicate 
colourless vessels, which have not been injected. 
It is generally considered to be produced by a 
fold of the external layer of the germinal mem- 
brane, rising up, and gradually enveloping the 
embryo. Its external surface is feebly united to 
the chorion by areolar and vascular filaments. 
Its inner surface is polished, and is in contact 
with the body of the fcetus and the liquor amnii. 

AMNIOT'IO, Amniot'icus, Amnic, Am'nicue, 
(F.) Amniotique ou Amnique. Relating, or ap- 
pertaining, to the amnios. 

AMNIOT'IO AOID, Ac"idum am'nicum seu 
amniot'icum. A peculiar acid, found by Vauque- 
lin and Buniva in the liquor amnii of the cow. 

AMNIQUE, Amniotic. 

AMNI'TIS, Amnii'tis, from amnion and itis, 
'inflammation.' Inflammation of the amnion. 

AMCENOMA'NIA, from amcenus, 'agreeable,' 
and mania. A form of mania in which the hal- 
lucinations are of an agreeable character. 

AMOME FAUX, Sison amomum. 

AMO'MUM OARDAMO'MUM (Ph. D.), A. 
verum, Alpin'ia cardamo'mum, Caro'pi, Mato'nic, 
Cardamo'mum, Eletta'ria Cardamo'mum, Carda- 
mo'mum Minus, Leaser, True, or Officinal Car'da- 
mom, (F.) Cardamome de la Cote de Malabar, 
Oardamome. Ord. Zingiberaceae. The fruit of 
this East India plant — Cardamomum, (Ph. U. S.), 
G. Malabaren'se — has an agreeable, aromatic 
odour, and a pungent, grateful taste. It is car- 
minative and stomachic: but is chiefly used to 
give warmth to other remedies. It is called Amo- 
mis. Dose, gr. v to 9j. 

The Amo'mum Cardamo'mum of Linnaeus, Clus- 
ter or Pound Cardamom of Sumatra, Java, and 
other islands eastward of the Bay of Bengal, 
yields the round Cardamom:, Cardamo'mum ro- 
tun'dxim, of the shops. The fruits, in their native 
clusters or spikes, constituting the Amo'mum ra- 
cemo'sum, are rarely met with. 

Amomum Ourcuma, Curcuma longa. 

Amomum Galanga, Maranta galanga. 

Amomum Granum Paradisi, A. max'fmui,,, 
Cardamo'mum majus seu pipera'tum, Meleguet'tu, 
Maniguet'ta. Greater cardamom seeds — Grana 
Paradi'ai, Grains of Paradiae, (F.) Grainea d» 



AMOR 



54 



AMULETUM 



Parddia — resemble A. cardamomum in properties. 
They are extremely hot, and not much used. 

Amomum, Great-winged, Amomum maximum 
— a. Hirsutum, Costus. 

Amomum Max'imum, Great-winged Amomum, 
yields the fruit known in commerce by the names 
Java or Nepal Cardamoms, Bengal Gardamoma 
of the Calcutta market, &c. — Pereira. 

Amomdm Montanum, see Cassumuniar — a. Pi- 
menta, see Myrtus pimenta — a. Racemosum, see 
A. cardamomum — a. Sylvestre, see Cassumuniar 
— a. Zedoaria, Kaempferia rotunda — a. Zerumbet, 
see Cassumuniar. 

Amomum Zin'giber, Zin'giher officina'le seu 
album seu nigrum seu commu'ne, Zin'ziher, Gin- 
ger, (F.) Gingemhre. The black a.ndivMte ginger, 
Zin'ziber fuscum et album, Zin'giber (Ph. U. S.), 
are the rhizoma of the same plant, Zin'giber offi- 
cina'le, the difference dejiending upon the mode 
of preparing them. 

The odour of ginger is aromatic ; taste warm, 
aromatic, and acrid. It yields its virtues to alco- 
hol, and in a great degree to water. It is car- 
minative, stimulant, and sialogogue. 

Preserved Ginger, Zingib'eria Radix Condi'ta, 
Badix. Zingib'eria condi'ta ex India alla'ta, is a 
condiment which possesses all the virtues of 
ginger. 

Ginger-Beer Powders may be formed of white 
sugar ^j and Qij, ginger gr. v, suhcarbonate of 
soda gr. xsxvj, in each blue paper ; acid of tar- 
tar 9 iss, in each white paper — for half a pint of 
water. 

Oxley's Concentrated Essence of Jamaica Gin- 
ger is a solution oi ginger in rectified spirit. 
AMOR, Love. 
AMORGE, Amurca. 
AMORPHUS, Anhistous, Anideus, 
AMOSTEUS, OsteocoUa. 
AMOUR, Love — a. Physique, Appetite, vene- 
real. 

AMOUREUX, (muscle.) Obliquus superior 
oculi. 

AMPAC, Amp'acus. An East India tree, the 
leaves of which have a strong odour, and are 
used in baths as detergents. A very odoriferous 
resin is obtained from it. 
AMPAR, Succinum. 
AMPELOCARPUS, Galium aparine. 
AMPELOPRASUM, Allium. 
AMPELOP'SIS QUINQUEFO'LIA, (ajuTtXof, 
'the vine,' and o-X/i?, 'appearance,') Virgin'ian 
Creeper, American Ivy, Five-leaved Ivy, Woody 
Climber. An indigenous climbing plant. Ord. 
Vitacese ; which flowers in July. It has been 
advised as an expectorant. 

AMPELOS, Vitis vinifera — a. Agria, Bryonia 
alba — a. Idiea, Vaccinium Vitis Id^a — a. Meltena, 
Tamus communis — a. Oinophorus, Vitis vinifera. 
AMPHAMPHOTERODIOPSIA, Diplopia. 
AMPHARIS'TEROS, AmUla'vus, 'awkward;' 
from a)x(pi, and apiarepos, 'the left.' Opposed to 
ambidexter. 

AMPIIEMERINOS, Quotidian. 
AMPHEMERUS, Quotidian. 
AMPHI, afKpi, ' both, around, on all sides.' 
Hence, a prefix in many of the following terms. 
AMPniAM, Opium. 

AMPHIARTHRO'SIS, from a//^(, 'both,' and 
oo^puiTif, ' articulation.' A mixed articulation, 
in which the corresponding surfaces of bones are 
'united in an intimate manner by an intermediate 
body, which allows, however, of some slight mo- 
tion. Such is the junction of the bodies of the 
Tertebroe by means of the intervertebral car- 
tilages. This articulation has also been called 
Diarthrose de Continuite. The motion it permits 
'is but slight. 
AMPHIBLESTROIDITIS, Retinitis. 



AMPHIBLESTROIDES, Reticular. 

AMPHIBLESTROMALA'CIA, Amphiblet. 
tro'idomala'cia, from ampihibleatroides (membra- 
na), 'the retina, and jxaXaKia, 'softening.' Mol- 
lescence or softening of the retina. 

AMPHIBRAN'CHIA, from a/i^., 'around,' 
and |Spay;t«a, ' the throat.' Amjihibron'chia. The 
tonsils and neighbouring parts. — Hippocrates. 

AMPHICAUSTIS, Vulva. 

AMHID'EUM, from aii<jii, 'around,' and ieui, 
'I bind.' The outermost margin of the cervix 
uteri ; the Labium uteri. 

AMPHIDEXIUS, Ambidexter. 

AMPHIDIARTHRO'SIS, from a/i^i, ' about,' 
and iiap^piaais, 'moveable joint.' A name given 
by Winslow to the tem^oro-maxillary articula- 
tion, because, according to that anatomist, it 
partakes both of ginglymus and arthrodia. 

AMPHIESMA CORDIS, Pericardium. 

AMPHIMERINA, Pertussis— a. Hectica, Hec- 
tic fever. 

AMPHIMERINOS, Quotidian. 

AMPHION, Maslach. 

AMPHIPLEX, Perinaeum. 

AMPHIPNEUMA, Dyspnoea. 

AMPHISMELA, Knife, double-edged. 

AMPHISMILE, Knife, double-edge^. 

AMPHISPHAL'SIS, Circumac'tio, Circum- 
duetio, from a^4>i, ' around,' and ir^aAAco, ' I wan- 
der.' The movement of circumduction used in 
reducing luxations. — Hippocrates. 

AMPHODIPLOPIA, see Diplopia. 

AM'PHORA, per syncop. for aix<pi(!>opcvi, from 
a/<0(, 'on both sides,' and <ptpm, 'I bear :' because 
it had two handles. A liquid measure among 
the ancients, containing above seven gallons. 
Also called Quadrant'al, Cera'mium, Ceram'nium, 
Cadus. 

AMPHORIC RESPIRATION, see Cavernous 
Respiration. 

AMPHOTERODIPLOPIA, see Diplopia. 

AMPHRODIPLOPIA, Diplopia. 

AMPLEXATIO, Coition. 

AMPLEXUS, Coition. 

AMPLIFICATIO, Platynosis. 

AMPLIOPIA, Amblyopia. 

AMPOSIS, Anaposis. 

AMPOULES, Essera. 

AMPUL'LA, (L.) 'A bottle.' A membranous 
bag, shaped like a leathern bottle. See Cavitas 
Elliptica. In pharmacy, a receiver. 

Ampulla Chtlifera seu Chyli, Reoepta- 
culum chyli. 

AMPULLAE, PhlyctEense. 

AMPUTATION, Amputa'tio, from amputare, 
amputatum, [am, 'around,' a.tiA putare, 'to cut 
off.') Apot'ome, Apotom'ia. The operation of 
separating, by means of a cutting instrument, a 
limb or a part of a limb, or a projecting part, as 
the mamma, penis, &c., from the rest of the body. 
In the case of a tumour, the term excision, re- 
moval, or extirpation, (F.) Resection, is more com- 
monly used. 

Ajiputation, Circular, is that in which the 
integuments and muscles are divided circularly. 

Amputation, Flap, (F.) A. d lambeaux, is 
when one or two flaps are left so as to cover the 
stump when the limb has been removed 

Amputation, Joint, Exarticida'tio, (F.) A. 
dans I'article ou dans la contiguite dcs membres, 
is when the limb is removed at an articulation. 

Each amputation requires a different process, 
which is described in works on operative surgery. 

Amputation, Spontaneous, see Spontaneous. 

AMULET, Amuletum. 

A3IULETTE, Amuletum. 

AMULE'TUM, from amoliri, 'to remove.' An 
Anmlet, Periam'ma, Apotropee'ttm, Periap'ton, 
Phylacte'rion, Apoteles'ma^ Exarte'ma, Alexica'' 



AMURCA 



55 



AMYRIS COiMMIPHORA 



eum, Praaervati'vum, Proba8ca'ntum,Probaacan'- 
tium, (F.) Atnulette. Any image or substance 
worn about the person for the purpose of pre- 
venting disease or danger. 

AJIUR'CA, Amur'ga, afiopyr;, from a/iepyu), 'I 
press out.' The marc or grounds remaining after 
olives have been crushed and deprived of their 
oil. It has been used as an application to ulcers. 

AMURGA, Amurca. 

AMUSA, Musa Paradisiaca. 

A'MYCE, Amycha; Amyx'is. Excoriation, Sca- 
rification. 

AMYCHA, Amyce. 

AMYC'TICA, from a/iixrau, 'I lacerate.' Me- 
dicines which stimulate and vellicate the skin. — 
Cselius Aurelianus. 

AM YD OLE, Fecula. 

AMYDRIASIS, Mydriasis. 

AMYEL'IA, from a, privative, and iivtkog, 
'marrow.' A monstrous formation, in which 
there is an absence of spinal marrow. 

AMYELONER'VIA; from a, privative, /iUEXof, 
' marrow,' and vcvpov, ' nerve.' Paralysis or de- 
ficient action of the spinal marrow. 

AMYELOTROPH'IA, from a, privative, pusXof, 
'marrow,' and rpo^ij, 'nourishment.' Atrophy 
of the spinal marrow. 

AMYG'DALA, same etymon as Amyctica ; 
because there seem to be fissures in the shell. 
The Almond, of which there are two kinds ; 
Amyg'dalm ama'rm and A. dulces, (F.) Amandes 
ameres, and A. douces, obtained from two varie- 
ties of Aiuyr/'dalus communis or A. sati'va, Al- 
mond tree, (Old Eng.) Amyllier, a native of Bar- 
bary. Ord. Amygdalese. Sex. Syst. Icosandria 
Monogynia. 

The taste of Amygdala dulcis is soft and sweet; 
that of A. amara, bitter. Both yield, by expres- 
sion, a sweet, bland oil. The bitter almond con- 
tains Prussic acid. They are chiefly used for 
forming emulsions. 

Amvg'dal^ Pasta, Almond Paste, a cosmetic 
for softening the skin and preventing chaps, is 
made of bitter almonds, blanched, 3iv, white of 
one egg ^ rose water, and rectified spirit, equal 
parts, or as much as is sufficient. 

Amtc'dalje Placen'ta, Almond Cake, is the 
cake left after the expression of the oil. The 
ground Almond Cake, Almond Poicder, Fari'na 
Amygdala' rum, is used instead of soap for wash- 
ing the hands. 

Amygdala, Tonsil. Also, a lobule or promi- 
nence of the cerebellum, so called from its resem- 
blance to an enlarged tonsil. This and its fellow 
of the opposite side form the lateral boundaries 
of the anterior extremity of the valley, and are 
in great part covered by the medulla oblongata. 
The Amygdalae are seated on either side of the 
uvula, in the fourth ventricle. 

AMYG' DALAT03IE, Amygdalat'omus, from 
afivyiaXin, 'tonsil,' and to/ji?, 'incision;' impro- 
perly Tonsillitome, — Tonsil-guillotine, (F.) Se'ca- 
teur des Amygdales. An instrument for surgery 
and excising a portion of the tonsil. See Kio- 
tome. 
AMYGDALATUM, Emulsio amygdalae. 
AMYGDALE, Tonsil. 

AMYG'DALIN, Amygdali'num, Amygdali'na, 
Amyg'daline. A principle contained in bitter 
almonds, which is prepared by pressing the 
bruised almonds between heated plates to sepa- 
rate the fat oU ; boiling the residue In alcohol ; 
evaporating, and treating with ether, which pre- 
eipitates the amygdalin in a crystalline powder. 
A weak solution of it, under the influence of a 
small quantity of emtdsin or synatajyse, which 
constitutes the larger portion of the pulp of al- 
monds, yields at once oil of bitter almonds and 
Ijdrocjanic acid. 



AMYGDALITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 
AMYGDALUS, see Amygdala. 
Amygdalus Communis, see Amygdala. 
Amygdalus Per'sica, Per'sica vulga'ris. Tha 
common peach-tree, (F.) PeeJter. The leaves and 
flowers have been considered laxative. They are 
bitter and aromatic, and have been given in has- 
maturia, nephritis, &c. The fruit is one of tht 
pleasant and wholesome summer fruits, when 
ripe. The kernels, Amyg'dalcB Per'siccB, as well 
as the flowers, contain prussic acid. 

Peach Brandy is distilled from the fruit, and 
is much used in the United States. 
AMYGMOS, Scarification. 
AMYL, Amj-lum. 

AMYLA'CEOUS, Amyla'cem, (F.) Amylace, 
from amyhim, 'starch.' Having the nature of, 
or containing starch. Starchy, starch-like. 
Amylaceous Bodies, Corpora amylacea 
AMYLE, IIYDRATED OXIDE OF, Oil, fusel 
AMYLENE, see Potato oil. 
AMYLEON, Amylum. 

AxMYLI lODIDUM, Starch, iodide of— a. 
loduretum. Starch, iodide of. 
AMYLLIER, see Amygdala. 
AMYLOID BODIES, Corpora amylacea. 
A'MYLUM, A'midum, Fec'xda, AmyVeon, 
Amyl'ion, Am'ylon, from a, priv., and //uAv. 'a 
mill,' because made without a mill. Starch, (Old 
Eng.) Amyl, (F.) Amidon, Amylon. Starch of 
Wheat, Fari'na, Trit'ici fari' na, Amylum tritic"- 
eum sen Trit'ici, Fec'ula Amyla'cea, is inodorous 
and insipid, white and friable. It is insoluble in 
cold water and alcohol, but forms with boUing 
water a strong, semi-transparent jelly. It is de- 
mulcent, and is used as an emollient glyster, and 
as the vehicle for opium, when given per anum. 
Starch is met with abundantly in all the cereal 
grains, in the stalks of many of the palms, in 
some lichens, and in many tuberous roots, par- 
ticularly in the bulbs of the orchis. 

Amylum Americanum, see Arrow-root — a. 
Cannaeeum, Tous-les-mois — a. lodatum, Starch, 
iodide of— a. Manihoticum, see Jatropha manihot 
— a. Marantaceum, Arrow-root — a. Palmaceum, 
Sago — a. Querneum, Racahout. 

A'MYON, from a priv., and uvuv, ' a muscle,' 
Emnscula'tus. AVithout muscle. Applied to fhe 
limbs, when so extenuated that the muscles can- 
not be distinguished. 
AMYOSIS, Synezizis. 

AMYOSTHENI'A, (P.) Amyosthhiie, from a, 
priv., lAviov, 'a muscle,' and (7&cvof, 'strength.' 
Defect of muscular contraction. 

AMYOSTHENIE G YS T UE I QUE,-p&T&ly sis 
of the bladder. — Piorry. 
AMYRIS COMMIPHORA, see Bdellium, 
Am'yris Elemif'bra, (a. intensive, and iivpov, 
'an odoriferous ointment,' because it enters into 
the composition of such.) (F.) Balsamier ou 
Baumier Elemifere. Ord. TerebinthaccEe. Sex. 
Syst. Octandria Monogynia. The plant whence 
it has been supposed Gum El'emi is obtained. 
This gum or resin is brought from the Spanish 
East and West Indies. Brazilian Elemi, accord- 
ing to Dr. Royle, is produced by Idea Icicariba; 
Mexican Elemi, by Ela'phrium elemiferum ; and 
Manilla Elemi, by Cana'rium commu'ne. It is 
softish, transparent, of a pale whitish colour, in- 
clining a little to green, and of a strong, though 
not unpleasant smell. It is only used in oint- 
ments and plasters, and is a digestive. 
Amyris Gileadensis, see A. opobalsamum. 
Am'yris Opobal'samum, (F.) Balsamier on 
Baumier de la 3Iecque, Bal'sem, Bal'sajnum. The 
plant from which is obtained the Balsam op 
Mecca, Bal'samum genui'num antigiio'nim seu 
Asiat'icum seu Juda'icum seu Syriacum seu « 



AMYRON 



56 



AN.i:STHETIC 



5feccd seu Alpi'ni, Balsamelrn'on, ^(jyptiaeum 
Bal'samum, Goccohal' aamum, Oleum Bal'sami, 
Opobal'sainum, XylohaV sanium, Balsam or Balm 
of Gilead, (F.) Buume Blanc, B. de Constantino- 
ple blanc, B. de Galaad, B. du Grand Caire, B. 
Vrai, Terehintlune de Gilead, T. d'Egyj^ie, T. dv, 
Grand Kaire, T. de Judee. A resinous juice ob- 
tained by making incisions into Amyris opohaV- 
samum and A. Gileaden'sis of Linnaeus, Balsa- j 
maden'dron Gileaden'se of Kunth. The juice of [ 
the fruit is called Oarpobal'sanuim ; that of the - 
wood and branches XylohaV samttm. It has the 
general propeFties of the milder Terebinthinates. 

Amyrib Tomentosum, Fagara octandra. 

AMYRON, Carthamus tinctorius. 

A'MYU.S, from a, privative, and fivi, 'a mouse, 
a muscle.' Weak or poor in muscle. 

AMYX'IA, from a, privative, and iiv^a, 'mu- 
cus.' Deficiency of mucus. 

AMYXIS, Amyce, Scarification. 

ANA, ava, a word which signifies 'of each.' 
It is used in prescriptions as well as a and aa, its 
abbreviations. As a prefix to words, it means 
'in,' 'through,' 'upwards,' 'above,' in opposition 
to cata; — also, 'repetition,' like the English re. 



ANAB'ASIS, from ava/?aivu, « I ascend.' The 
first period of a disease, or that of increase. — 
Galen. See Augmentation. 
ANABEXIS, Expectoration. 
ANABLEP'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and iSAe^tcd, 
' I see.' Restoration to sight. 

ANABOL^'ON, Anahole'us, from avaPa\\(^, 'I 
east up.' An ointment for extracting darts or 
other extraneous bodies. 

ANAB'OLE, from ava, 'upwards,' and /3aAX&), 
*I cast.' Anago'ge, Anaph'ora, Anacine'ma, 
Anacine'sis. An evacuation upwards. An act 
by which certain matters are ejected by the 
mouth. In common acceptation it includes, ex,- 
gpuition, expectoration, regurgitation, and vomit- 
ing. 

ANABROCHIS'MUS, Anahron'chismus, from 
ava, 'with,' and Ppoxos, 'a running knot.' An 
operation for removing the eye-lashes, for exam- 
ple, when they irritate the eye, by means of a 
hair knotted around them. — Hippocrates, Galen, 
Celsus, Ac. 

ANABRONCHISMUS, Anabrochismus. 

ANABROSIS, Corrosion, Erosion. 

ANACAMPSEROS, Sedum telephium. 

ANACAR'DIUM OCCIDENTA'LE, {ava and 
Kapdta, 'heart,' from the resemblance of the fruit 
to a dried heart,) Acaju'ba occidenta'lis, Cassu'- 
viiun pomif'erum, Casheio {W. Indies.) (F.) -4c'- 
ajou. Ord. Terebinthaceje. Sex. Syst. Ennean- 
dria Monogynia. The Oil of t'hji Casheio Nut, 
O'leum Anacar'dii, (P.) Huile d' Acajou, is an 
active caustic, and used as such in the countries 
where it grows, especially for destroying warts, 
&c. 

Anacardtum Orikntalb, Avicennia tomentosa. 

ANACATHAR'SIS, from ava, 'upwards,' and 
ta^aipuv, 'to purge.' Purgation upwards. Ex- 
pectoration. See, also, Repurgatio. 

Anacatharsis Catarbhalis Simplex, Ca- 
tarrh, 

ANACATHARTICUS, Expectorant. 

ANACESTOS, Incurable. 

ANACHREMPSIS, Exspuition. 

ANACHRON, Soda. 

ANACINEMA, Anabole, Exspuition. 

ANACINESIS, Anabole, Exspuition. 

ANACLASIS, Repercussion. 

ANACLINTE'RIUM, AnacUn'trum, Recuhi- 
to'rium, from avaK\ivu), 'I recline.' A long chair 
or seat, so formed that the person can rest in a 
reclining posture. 

ANACLINTRUM, Anaclinterium. 



ANACOLLE'MA, from ava, 'together, and 
Ko)<\a(D, ' I glue.' A healing medicine. 
Anacollemata, Frontal bandages. 
ANACOLUP'PA. A creeping plant of Mala- 
bar, the juice of which, mixed with powdered 
pepper, passes in India as a cure for epilepsy, 
and as the only remedy for the bite of the naja 
It is supposed to be Zapa'nia nodiflo'ra. 
ANA COL UTHIE, In coherence. 
ANACOMIDE, Restauratio. 
ANACONCHYLIASMUS, Gargarism. 
ANACONCHYLISMUS, Gargarism. 
ANACTESIS, Restauratio. 
ANACTIRION, Artemisia. 
ANACYCLEON, Charlatan. 
ANACYCLUS OFFICINARUM, see Anthe- 
mis Pyrethrum — a. Pyrethrum, Anthemis pyre- 
thrum. 
ANADESMUS, Fascia. 

ANADIPLO'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and inr\o(o, 
'I double.' Epano.dij)lo' sis, Epanalep'sis, Jiedu- 
plica'tio. The redoubling which occurs in a 
paroxysm of an intermittent, when its type is 
double. — Galen, Alexander of Tralles. 
ANADORA, Ecdora. 

ANAD'OSIS, from avaSiS<Dftt, 'I give up.' 
Purgation upwards, as by vomiting. Congestion 
of blood towards the upper parts of the body. 
Anadosis seems also to have occasionally meant 
chylification, whilst diadosis meant capillary nu- 
trition, — Hippocrates, Galen. 

ANAD'ROME, from ava, 'upwards,' and ^gtjibt, 
' I run.' The transport of a humour or pain from 
a lower to an upper part. — Hippocrates. Also, 
the globus hystericus. See Angone. 

AN^DCE'US, from av, privative, and ailtoia, 
'organs of generation.' A monster devoid of 
sexual organs. 

ANiEMATOPOE'SIS, from a, av, privative, 
'aifa, 'blood,' and iroitta, 'I make.' Impeded or 
obstructed hajmatosis. 

AN^MATO'SIS, Anhamato'sis, from a, av, 
privative, and 'ai/ja, ' blood.' Defective baima. 
tosis or preparation of the blood. Anffimia. 

ANiB'MIA, ExcB'mia, Ance'masis, Anhce'mia, 
Anhamato'sis, PolyanhcB'm-ia, Anamo'sis, Oliga'^ 
mia, Oligohw'mia, HypcB'mia, HydrocB'mia, Hy- 
drae'mia, Ane'mia, (F.) Anemic, Anhemic, Anhe- 
matosie,PolyanhSjnie, Hydrohemie, Exsa7igti in'ify. 
Blood' lessness : from a, priv., and 'aifia, ' blood.' 
Privation of blood ; — the opposite to plethora. It 
is characterized by every sign of debility. Also, 
diminished quantity of fluids in the capillary ves- 
sels : — the opposite to Mypercemia. — The essential 
character of the blood in anemia is diminution 
in the ratio of red corpuscles. 

ANiE'MIC, Anem'ie, Ana'micua ; same ety- 
mon. Appertaining or relating to anagmia, — as 
an "anffi»?»'c person." See Exsanguious. 

AN^MOCH'ROUS, from a, av, privative, 'ot/io, 
'blood,' and xi""^> 'colour.' Devoid of colour, 
pale. 

AN^MOSIS, Anaemia. 

AN^EMOT'ROPHY, ArieBiyiotroph'ia : from av, 
privative, 'atixa, 'blood,' and Tpo<ptj, 'nourish- 
ment.' A deficiency of sanguineous nourishment. 
— Prout. 

AN^MYDRIA, Anhydrajmia. 
AN^STHE'SIA, AncBsthe'sis, Insensibil'itas, 
Analge'sia, Parap'sis expers, (F.) Anesthesie ; 
from a, privative, and aiadavofiai, ' I feel.' Pri- 
vation of sensation, and especially of that of 
touch, according to some. It may be general or 
partial, and is almost always symptomatic. 

Anesthesia Gustatoria, Ageustia — a. Lin- 
gute, Ageustia — a. Olfactoria, A uosmia — a. Optic, 
Amaurosis. 

AN^STHESIS. Anaesthesia. 
AN.^STIIET'IC, Anesthet'ic, Anasthct'icus, 



ANESTHETIZATION 



57 



ANAPNOE 



. (F.) AnestMsique ; same etymon, as AncBsthesia. 
Relating to privation of feeling, as an " ancBsthetic 
agent ;" one that prevents feeling. The term is, 
now, almost restricted to agents, which produce 
such effect by being received into the lungs in 
the form of vapours or gases, and passing with 
the blood to the nervous centres on which their 
action is exerted. Perhaps, as a general rule, 
the intellectual faculties first feel their influence, 
— a sort of intoxication supervening, with imper- 
fect power of regulating the movements ; the 
sensory ganglia become afterwards or simulta- 
neously affected, sensation and motion are 
suspended, and ultimately, if the quantity in- 
haled be sufficient, the medulla oblon'^ata has its 
actions suspended or destroyed, respiruion ceases, 
and death is the consequence. Different agents 
have been used as anaesthetics by way of inhala- 
tion — sulphuric ether, chloroform, chloric ether, 
compound ether, chlorohydric and nitric ethers, 
bisulphuret of carbon, chloride of olefiant gas, 
benzin, aldehyde, light coal-tar naphtha, &c. ; 
but the first four are alone employed. They have 
been, and are, greatly used in serious surgical 
operations, and during parturition; and in such 
cases, as well as in many diseases, especially of a 
painful nature, produce the most beneficial results. 

AN^STHETIZA'TION, (P.) Anesthetisation; 
same etymon. The condition of the nervous sys- 
tem induced by antesthetics. 

ANAGAL'LIS, from ava, and yaXa, 'milk/ 
from its power of coagulating milk. A. arven'sis 
A. Phoenic"ea, Red Pim'pernel, Scarlet Pimper- 
nel, Shepherd's Sun-dial. Nat. Ord. Primulacese. 
Sex. Syat. Pentandria Monogynia. (F.) Moaron 
rouge. A common European plant; a reputed 
antispasmodic and stomachic. 

Another species — Anagal'lis caru'lea is a mere 
variety of the above. 

Anagallis Aquatica, Veronica Beccabunga. 

ANAGARGALICTON, Gargarism. 

ANAGARGARISMUS, Gargarism. 

ANAGARGARISTON, Gargarism. 

ANAGLYPHE, Calamus scriptorius. 

ANAGNOSTAKIS, see Ophthalmoscope. 

ANAGOGE, Anabole, Rejection. 

ANAGRAPHE, Prescription. 

ANAG'YRIS, Anarj'yris foe'tida, Anag'yriis, 
Ac'opon, Stinking Bean Trefoil. (F.) Anagyre, 
from avayiit, ' I lead upwards' [ ? ]. Native of Italy. 
The leaves are powerfully purgative. The juice 
is said to be diuretic, and the seeds emetic. — Di- 
oscorides, Paulus. 

ANAGYRUS, Anagyris. 

ANAL, Ana'Us. That which refers to the 
anus ; — as Anal region, ko. 

ANAL'DIA, (F.) Analdie; from a, av, priva- 
tive, and a\iciv, ' to grow.' Defective nutrition. 

ANALEMSIA, Analepsia. 

ANALENTIA, Analepsia. 

ANALEP'SIA, Analep'sis, Analen'tia, Ana- 
lem'eia, from ava, 'fresh,' and Aa/4/3ov£cv,. (future 
Xrjxponat,) 'to take.' Pvestoration to strength after 
disease. — Galen. A kind of sympathetic epilepsy, 
originating from gastric disorder. See Epilepsy. 

Also, the support given to a fractured extre- 
mity ; — Appen'sio. — Hippocrates. 

ANALEPSIS, Convalescence, Restauratio. 

ANALEP'TICA, Ariapsyc'tica, PsycJlot'ica, 
Refecti'va, Reficien'tia, Restauran'tia, Analep'- 
tics, same etymon. Restorative medicines or 
food ; such as are adapted to recruit the strength 
during convalescence ; — as sago, salep, tapioca, 
jelly, &o. 

Analeptic Pills, James's, consist of James's 
Powder, Gum Ammoiiiaeum, and Pills of Aloes 
and Myrrh, equal parts, with Tincture of Castor, 
sufficient to form a mass. 



I ANALGE'SIA, Anal'gia, from a, av, priv., and 
aXyog, ' pain.' Absence of pain both in health 
and disease. See Aneesthesia. 

ANALGIA, Analgesia. 

AN'ALOGtfE, Anal'ogus ; from ava, 'again,' 
and Xoyo;, 'a description.' A part in one orga- 
nized being which has the same function as an- 
other part in another organized being. 

ANALOGOUS TISSUES, see Tissues. 

ANALOSIS, Atrophy. 

ANALTESIS, Restauratio. 

ANALTHES, Incurable. 

ANAMIRTA COCCULUS, Menispermum coo 
cuius — a. Peniculata, Menispermum cocculus. 

ANAMNES'TIC, Anamnes'ticnm, from ava, 
'again,' and iitiivvcicto, 'I remember.' A medi- 
cine for improving the memory. See, also. Com- 
memorative. 

ANANAS, Bromelia ananas — a. Aculeata, Bro- 
melia ananas — a. Americana, Bromelia pinguiu 
— a. Ovata, Bromelia ananas — Wild, broad- 
leaved, Bromelia pinguin. 

ANAnAZIP'TA. A word formerly scrawled 
on amulets to charm away disease. 

ANANDRI'A, from a, av, privative, and avvp, 
'a man.' Want of manliness. Impotence in the 
male. The state and act of emasculation. 

ANANEO'SIS, Renova'tio; from ava, 'again,' 
and vtoi, 'new.' Renovation or renewal, — as of 
the blood by the chyliferous vessels and lym- 
phatics. 

ANAPETI'A, Expan'sio mea'tuum, from ava, 
and ircTaoi, 'I dilate.' A state opposite to the 
closure of vessels. — Galen. 

ANAPHALANTI'ASIS,Annj9^aZan<o'OTa,from 
ava(pa\avTias, 'bald.' Loss of the hair of the eye- 
brows. Also, baldness in general. 

ANAPHALANTOMA, Anaphalantiasis, 

ANAPHE, Anaphia. 

ANAPH'IA, Anhaph'ia, An'aphe, from a, av, 
priv., and 'a^i?, 'touch.' Diminution or privation 
of the sense of touch. 

ANAPHLASMUS, Masturbation. 

ANAPHONE'SIS, from ava, ' high,' and <t>u>vn, 
'voice.' Exercise of the voice: vociferation: — 
the act of crying out. Vocifera'tio, Clamor. 

ANAPHORA, Anabole. 

ANAPHRODIS'IA, from a, priv., and A^po- 
i5iTi7, ' Venus,' Z)e/ec'<!(s Ven'eris. Absence of the 
venereal appetite. Sometimes used for Impotence 
and Sterility. 

ANAPHRODISIAC, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANAPHROMELI, Mel despumatum. 

ANAP'LASIS, Anaplaam'us, from avaT,\ac<!u>, 
' I restore.' Confirma'tio, Reposi"tio. Restora- 
tion. Union or consolidation of a fractured bone. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANAPLASMATIC, Anaplastic. 

ANAPLASMUS, Anaplasis. 

ANAPLAS'TIC, Anaplas' ticus ; same etymon. 
An epithet applied to the art of restoring lost 
parts or the normal shape, — as ' Anajdastic Sur- 
gery.' See Morioplastice. Also an agent, that 
increases the amount of plastic matter — fibrin — 
in the blood ; Anaplasmat'ic. 

ANAPLERO'SIS, from ava^rXnpodt, (ava, and 
TrXppoo),) 'I fill up.' Repletion. That part of 
surgical therapeutics whose object is to supply 
parts that are wanting. Also, Apposition or 
Prosthesis. 

ANAPLEROTICUS, Inearnans. 

ANAPLEU'SIS, Fluetua'tio, Innata'tio, frotu 
avanXuv, {ava and jrAfu)), ' to swim above.' The 
looseness or shaking of an exfoliated bone ; or of 
a carious or other tooth, &c. — Hippocrates. 
Paulus. 

ANAPLOSIS, Growth. 

ANAPNEUSIS, Respiration. 

ANAPNOE, Respiration. .; 



ANAPNOENUSI 



58 



ANATOMY 



ANAPNOENU'SI, from anapnoe, 'respii-a- 
tion,' and vovaos, disease.' Diseases of the re- 
spiratory orgnns. 

ANAPNOMETER, Spirometer. 

ANAPODISIS UTERI, Retroversio Uteri. 

ANAP0DI3MUS UTERI, Retroversio Uteri. 

ANAPODOPHYLLUM CANADENSE, Podo- 
phyllum peltatum. 

ANAP'OSIS, Am'posis, from ava, 'again,' and 
Toaii, ' drink.' A recession of humours from the 
circumference to the centre of the body. — Hippo- 
crates. 

ANAPSE, Auaate. 

ANAPSIA, Caecitas. 

ANAPSYCTICA, Analeptica» 

ANAPTYSIS, Expectoration. 

ANAPTYXIS, Growth. 

ANARCOTINA, Narcotine. 

ANARRHEGNU'MINA, from avaf^vyvvyn, 'I 
break out again.' Fractures are so called when 
tney become disunited ; as well as ulcers when 
they break out afresh. 

ANARRHI'NON, from ava, 'upwards,' and 
CIV, ' the nose.' That which returns by the nose. 
— Gorrasus. 

According to others, that which issues by the 
skin ; from ava, and pivo^, ' the skin.' 

ANARRHINUM, Sternutatory. 

ANARRHffi'A, Anar'rhoe,Anafrlio'pia, Anas' - 
tasis, from ava, 'upwards,' and ptu), 'I flow. Af- 
Sux of fluid towards the upper part of the body. 

ANARRHOPHE, Absorption. 

ANARRHOPHENU'SI, from anarrhople, 
' absorption,' and vovixos, * disease.' Diseases of 
the absorbents. 

ANARRHOPHESIS, Absorption. 

ANARRHOPIA, Anarrhoea. 

ANAR'THRUS, from av, priv. and ap^pov, ' a 
joint.' Without a joint. One who is so fat that 
his joints are scarcely perceptible. — Hippocrates. 

ANASAR'CA, from ava, ' through,' and aap^, 
aapKos, ' the flesh.' Anasarch' a, Catasar'ca, 
Aqua intercus seu -inter cutem, Hypu»ar' ca, Hy- 
drops cellula'ris toti'ua cor'poris, H. Anasar'- 
ca seu inter'cua seu subcuta'neiis seu eellulo'sus seu 
euta'neus seu teles cellido'scB, Katasar'ca, Episar- 
cid'ium, Hy'deros, Hydaton'cus, Hyderon'cus, 
Hydron'cus, Hydroaar'ca, Hydroder'ma, Hydrop'. 
isia vera, Sar' cites, Polylym' phia, Hypiosarcid' ius, 
Leucophlegma'tia, General dropsy, Dropsy of the 
cellular memhrane, (F.) Anasarque. Commonly, 
it begins to manifest itself by swelling around the 
ankles ; and is characterized by tumefaction of 
the limbs and of the soft parts covering the ab- 
domen, thorax, and even the face, with paleness 
and dryness of the skin, and pitting when any 
of these (especially the anklet) are pressed upon. 
Like dropsy in general, Anasarca may be active 
or passive ; and its treatment must be regulated 
by the rules that are applicable to general dropsy. 
At times, the symptoms are of an acute character, 
and the effusion sudden, constituting Derma- 
toeh'ysis, Hydropis Anasar'ca acu'tus, (Ede'ma 
cal'idum, CE. acu'tum, (E.fehri'le of some. See 
Hydrops. 

Anasarca Hystericum, Anathymiasis — a. 
Pulmonum Hydropneumonia, (Edema of the 
Lungs — a. Serosa, Phlegmatia dolens. 
ANASARCHA, Anasarca. 
ANASARQUE, Anasarca. 
ANASISMUS, Concussion. 
ANASPADIA, see Anaspadioeus. 
ANASPA'DIAS, Epiapa'diaa, from ava, 'up- 
wards,' and axaw, ' I draw.' One whose urethra 
opens on the upper surface of the penis. 
ANASPADISIS, see Anaspadia3Lis. 
ANASPADISMUS, see Anaspadiasus. 
ANAS'PASIS, Anaspasm'us, from avacrnaai, ' I 
•ontract.' Betrac'tio. Contraction, especially of 



the bowels. The condition is called Anaspa'diui , 
Anaspad' isis, and Anaapudis' mua. — Hippocrates. 

ANASPASMUS, Anaspasis. 

ANASSA, Bromelia ananas. 

ANASTALTICA, Styptics. 

ANASTASIS, Anarrhoea. Also, restoration 
from sickness. Convalescence. 

ANASTffiCHEIO'SIS, from ava, 'again,' and 
oToix^iov, ' element.' Reelementa'tio. Resolu- 
tion of a body or its parts into their elements. — 
Galen. 

ANASTOMO'SIS, from ava, 'with,' and crona, 
'a mouth.' Inoacula'tio seu Reu'nio vaso'rum, 
Exanastomo'sia, Concur' sua, (F.) Ahouchement, 
Communication between two vessels. By con- 
sidering the nerves to be channels, in which a 
nervous fluid circulates, their communication like- 
wise has been called Anastomosis. By means of 
anastomoses, if the course of a fluid be arrested 
in one vessel, it can proceed along others. 

Anastomosis Aneurismatica, Telangiectasia 
— a. Jacobson's, see Petrosal ganglion. 

ANASTOMOT'IC, Anaatomot'icua, (F.) Anas- 
tomotique. Same etymon as anastomosis. Be- 
longing or relating to anastomosis. 

ANASTOMOT'ICS, A»asiomo«'«'ca. Same ety- 
mon. Certain medicines were formerly so called, 
which were believed to be capable of opening tho 
mouths of vessels, as asperients, diuretics, etc. 

ANASTOMOT'ICUS MAGNUS (RAMUS), 
(F.) Artere collaterale interne, A. collaterale du 
coude, is a branch of the brachial artery, which 
comes off a little above the elbow, and bestows 
branches to the brachialis internus, to the under 
edge of the triceps, and to the muscles, ligaments, 
etc-, about the elbow joint. See, also. Articular 
arteries of the knee. 

ANASTROPHE UTERI, Inversio uteri. 

ANATASIS, Extension. 

ANATHEMA, Tabula votiva. 

ANATHERIUM MURICATUM, Andropogon 
muricatus. 

ANATHOMIA, Anatomy. 

ANATHYMIAMA, Anathymiasis. 

ANATHYMI'ASIS, Anathymiama, from ava, 
'upwards,' and Ovfia, 'fumigation.' (Ede'ma fit- 
gcuc, (Ede'ma apas'ticum, (Ede'ma hyster'icum, 
Anasar'ca hyster'icum. An uncertain and tran- 
sient swelling or inflation, said to have been ob- 
served at times in nervous and hysterical per- 
sons. It also means Exhalation, Fumigation, and 
Hypochondriasis. 

ANATOLE UNGUIUM, see Nail. 

ANATOME, Anatomy — a. Animata, Physio- 
logy. 

ANATOMIA, Anatomy — a. Animalis, Zootomy 
— a. Comparata, Zootomy — a. Comparativa, Zo- 
otomy — a. Viva, Physiology. 

ANATOMIE, Anatomy — a. Chirurgicale, see 
Anatomy — a. des Regions, see Anatomy. 

ANAT'OMISM, Anatomism'us. Same etymon 
as Anatomy. The doctrine of those who look 
into the arrangement of parts, to explain all the 
phenomena of the organism. 

ANAT'OMIST, Anatom'icus. One who occu- 
pies himself with anatomy. One versed iu ana- 
tomy. 

ANAT'OM Y, Anat'ome, Anatom'ia,Anathom'ia^ 
Prosec'tio, from ava, and rejiveiv, 'to cut,' (F.) 
Anatomic. The word^4nrtfom^ properly signifies 
dissection; but it has been appropriated to the 
study and knowledge of the number, shape, 
situation, structure, and connection^in a word, 
of all the apparent properties of organized bodies. 
Anatomy is the science of organization. Some 
have given the term a still more extended accep- 

I tation, applying it to every mechanical decom- 
i position, even of inorganic bodies. Thus, Crya- 

II tallographij has been termed the Anatomy ot 



I 



ANATON 



59 



ANCUBITUS 



crystallized minerals. Anatomy has also been j 
called Morphul'ocjy, Somatol'ogy, Somatot'omy, 
Organology, etc. It assumes different names, 
according as the study is confined to one organ- 
ized being, or to a species or class of beings. 
Thus, Androt'omy, or Aiithrojiot'omy, or Anthro- 
pog'raphy, or Anthroposomatol'ogy, is the Ana- 
tomy of Man; Zootomy, that of the other species 
of the animal kingdom; and Vet'erinary Anat'- 
omy is the anatomy of domestic animals ; but 
when the word is used abstractly, it means Hu- 
man Anatomy, and particularly the study of 
the organs in a physiological or healthy state. 
Pliysiolog"ical Anatomy is occasionally used to 
signify the kind of anatomy which investigates 
structure with a special view to function. The 
Anatomy of the diseased human body is called 
Fatholog"}cal or Morbid Anatomy, and when ap- 
plied to Medical Jurisprudence, Foren'sio Anat- 
omy. Several of the organs possessing a simi- 
larity of structure, and being formed of the same 
tissues, they have been grouped into Systems or 
Genera of Organs ; and the study of, or acquaint- 
ance with, such systems, has been called General 
Anat'omy, Histol'ogy, or Morphot'omy, whilst the 
study of each organ in particular has been termed 
Descriptive Anatomy, AnthropomorphoV ogy . His- 
tology is, however, more frequently applied to 
the Anatomy of the Tissues, which is called, also, 
Tex'tural and Microscop'ic Anatomy, Micrano- 
tom'ia, see Histology. Descriptive Anatomy has 
been divided into Skeletol'ogy, which comprises 
Osteol'ogy and Syndesmol'ogy ; and into Sarcol'- 
ogy, which is subdivided into Myol'ogy, Neurol'- 
ofjy, AngioV ogy , Adenol'ogy, Splanehnol'ogy, and 
Dermol'ogy. Sur'gical Anat'omy, Medico- Chirurgi- 
cal Anat'omy, Topograph' ical Anat'omy, Re'gional 
Anat'omy, (F.) Anatomic Chirwgicale, A. des Re- 
gions, is the particular and relative study of the 
bones, muscles, nerves, vessels, etc., with which 
it is indispensable to be acquainted before per- 
forming operations. Compar'ative Anat'omy is 
the comparative study of each organ, with a view 
to an acquaintance with the modifications of its 
structure in different animals or in the different 
slasses of animals. Transcendent' al or Philosoph'- 
ical Anatomy inquires into the mode, plan, or 
model upon which the animal frame or organs 
are formed; smA Artifi' cial Anat'omy is the art 
of modelling and representing, in wax or other 
substance, the different organs or different parts 
of the human body, in the sound or diseased state. 
Phytot'omy is the anatomy of vegetables, and 
Picto'rial Anatomy, anatomy artistically illus- 
ti-ated. 

Anatojit, see Skeleton — a. Artificial, see Ana- 
tomy — a. Comparative, see Anatomy, Zootomy — 
a. Descriptive, see Anatomy — a. Forensic, see 
Anatomy — a. General, see Anatomy — a. Human, 
Bee Anatomy — a. of Man, see Anatomy — a. Me- 
dico-Chirurgical, see Anatomy — a. Microscopic, 
gee xinatomy — a. Morbid, see Anatomy — a. Path- 
ological, see Anatomy — a. Pathological, micros- 
Eopie, see Histology — a. Philosophical, see Ana- 
tomy — a. Physiological, see Anatomy — a. Picto- 
rial, see Anatomy — a. Practical, see Dissection — 
a. Regional, see Anatomy — a. Surgical, see Ana- 
tomy — a. Textural, see Anatomy — a. Topogra- 
phical, see Anatomy — a. Transcendental, see 
Anatomy — a. Veterinary, see Anatomy. 
ANATON, Soda. 
ANATREPSIS, Restauratio. 
ANATRESIS, Perforation, Trepanning. 
ANATRIBE, Friction. 
ANATRIPSIS, Friction. 

ANATRIPSOL'OGY, AnatripsoIog"ia, Ana- 
ifriptolog" ia, from avarpi^'ts, 'friction,' and \oyos, 
'a discourse.' A treatise on friction as a re- 
medy. 



ANATRIPTOLOGIA, Anatripsology. 
ANATRON,_Natrum, Soda. 
ANAT'ROPE, from ava, 'upwards,' and Tptirw, 
'I turn.' Subversion. A turning or subver- 
sion or inverted action of the stomach, charac- 
terized by nausea, vomiting, etc. — Galen. AVe 
still speak of the stomach turning against any 
thing. 

ANAUDIA, Catalepsy, Mutitas. 
ANAXYRIS, Rumex acetosa. 
ANAZESIS, Ebullition. 
ANAZOTURIA, see Urine. 
ANCHA, Haunch. 
ANCHILOPS, ^gilops. 
ANCHONE, Angone. 
ANCHORALIS PROCESSUS, Coracoid. 
ANCHUSA ANGUSTIFOLIA, A. Officinalis 
— a. Incarnata, A. Officinalis — a. Lycopsoides, A. 
Officinalis. 

Ancho'sa Officinalis, A. Angustifo'lia seu 
Tncarna'ta seu Lycopsoi'des, Alea'na, Lingua 
Bovis, Buglos'sum sylves'tre, Offic"inal or Garden 
Al'kanet or Bugloss, (Old Eng.) Langdebef; Ord. 
Boraginese. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Monogynia. 
(F.) Buglose. A native of Great Britain. The 
herb was formerly esteemed as a cordial in me- 
lancholia and hypochondriasis; but it is now 
rarely used. It is also called Bvglos'sa, Buglos'- 
sum angustifo'lium majua, B. vulga're majus, B. 
sati'vum. 

Anchtj'sa Tincto'ria, Alean'na spu'ria, Hyer'i 
Bugloss, Ane'bium, Buglos'sum Tincto'rnm, Li- 
thosper'mum villo'sum, Dyer's Al'kanet, (F.) Or- 
canette. A European plant. The medical pro- 
perties are equivocal. It is used to give a beau- 
tiful red colour to ointments. 
ANCHYLOSIS, AnkVlosis. 
ANCISTRON, Hamulus. 
ANCLE, Astragalus, Malleolus. 
ANCLER, Malleolus. 
ANCLET, Malleolus. 
ANCLIFF, Malleolus. 
ANCLOWE, Malleolus. 
ANCOLIE, Aquilegia vulgaris. 
ANCON, Elbow, Olecranon, 
ANCONAD, see Anconal Aspect. 
ANCONAGRA, Pechyagra. 
ANCO'NAL, from ay/cuv, 'the elbow.' Rela- 
ting, or appertaining to the elbow or the olecranon. 
Anconal Aspect. An aspect towards the side 
on which the ancon or elbow is situated. — Bar- 
clay. Anco'nad is used by the same writer ad- 
verbially, to ^signify 'towards the anconal aspect.' 
ANCONE, Anconeus. 

ANCONE'US, from ayKu>v, 'the elbow.' A term 
once applied to every muscle attached to the ole- 
cranon. AVinslow distinguished four — the great, 
external, internal, and small ; the first three being 
portions of the same muscle, the triceps brachia- 
lis. The last has, alone, retained the name. It 
is the Ancone'us minor of Winslow, the Ancone'us 
seu Cubita'lis Riola'ni of Douglas, the Epieon- 
dylo-Cuhita'lis of Chaussier, the Brevis Cn'biti, 
(F.) Ancone, and is situate at the upper and back 
part of the fore-arm. It arises from the external 
condyle of the os humeri, and is inserted into 
the posterior edge of the upper third of the ulna. 
Its use is to aid in the extension of the fore-arm. 
Anconeus Extern^s, see Triceps extensor 
cubiti — a. Internus, see Triceps extensor cnbiti 
— a. Major, see Triceps extensor cubiti. 

ANCTE'RES. Fibxdcs or Clasps by which 
the lips of wounds were formerly kept together. 
— Celsus, Galen. 

ANCTERIASMUS, Infibulation. 
ANCU'BITUS, Petrifac'tio. An affection ot 
the eye, in which there is a sensation as if sand 
were irritating the organ. 



ANCUNNUENTiE 



60 



ANEMONE DES BO IS 



ANCUNNUEN'T^. A name formerly given 
to menstruating females. 

ANGUS, Ankus, from ayKwv, 'the elbow.' One 
who cannot extend his arms completely. 

Also, the deformity resulting from a luxation 
of the humerus or fore-arm. — Hippocrates. 
ANCYLE, Ankylosis. 

ANCYLOBLEPHARON, Ankyloblepharon. 
AXCYLOCHEILIA, AnkylocheUia. 
ANCYLOCOLPUS, Colpatresia. 
ANOYLOQORE, Ankylocore. 
ANCYLODERE, Torticollis. 
ANCYLODERIS, Torticollis. 
ANCYLODONTIA, Ankylodontia. 
ANCYLOGLOSSIA, Ankyloglossia. 
ANCYLOMELE, Ankylomele. 
ANCYLOMERISMUS, Ankylomerismus. 
ANCYLORRHINIA, Ankylorrhinia. 
ANCYLOSIS, Ankylosis. 
ANCYLOTIA, Ankylotia. 
ANCYLOTOMUS, Ankylotomus. 
ANCYRA, Hook. 

ANCYROID CAVITY, Digital cavity. 
ANCYROIDES PROCESSUS, Coracoid. 
AND, Breath. 

ANDA. Native name of a tree of Brazil — 
Anda Gome'sii seu Brasilien'sis seu de Fison, 
Andassu, Anda-agu, Joanne'sia princeps. Ord. 
Euphorbiacese. Sex. Syst. Monoecia Monadel- 
phia. An oil — Oil of Anda — is obtained from 
the seeds by pressure, 50 to 60 drops of which 
act as a cathartic. The fruit is an oval nut, 
containing two seeds. These have the taste of 
the chestnut; but are strongly cathartic, and 
even emetic. The shell is astringent, and is 
used as such in diarrhoea, etc. 
ANDE, Breath. 

ANDELY, MINERAL WATERS OF. An- 
dely is in France, near Gysore, and eight leagues 
from Rouen. The water is cold, and a weak cha- 
lybeate. It is used in chlorosis and abdominal 
obstructions. 

ANDERSON'S PILLS, see Pilulse Aloes et 
Jalapaj. 

ANDIRA IBAI, GeofFraea Vermifuga— a. In- 
crmis, Geoffrfea inermis — a. Racemosa, Geoflfreea 
inermis — a. Surinamensis, GeofFraea Surinamen- 
sis. 

ANDRACHAHARA, Sempervivum tectorum. 
ANDRACHNE, Arbutus unedo, Portulaoa. 
ANDRALOGOMELE, from avr,p, avl,poi, 'a 
man,' a, priv., \uyos, 'reason,' and firiXov, 'a do- 
mestic animal.' A name given by Malacarne to 
a monster in which he supposed the presence of 
the body of a man with the limbs of a brute. 

ANDRANATOM'IA, Andranat'ome, Andro- 
tom'ia, Androt'ome, Anthropot'omy, from avrip, 
genitive av^poq, 'a man,' and Ttfiveiv, 'to cut.' 
The .anatomy of man. 

ANDRI'A. Adult age. Manhood. 
Andri'a Mu'lier, Mulier Hermaphrodit'ica. 
A female hermaphrodite. 

ANDROGEN'IA,fromav»/p, av5poj, 'aman,'and 
ytvzaii, 'generation.' The procreation of males. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANI)ROG"YNUS, from avnp, avhpoi, 'a man,' 
and yvvrj, 'a woman.' A hermaphrodite. An 
effeminate person. — Hippocrates. 
ANDROLEPSIA, Conception. 
ANDROMANIA, Nymphomania. 
ANDROM'EDA ARBO'REA, Sorrel Tree, 
Sour Tree, Sour Wood, Elk Tree, Elk Wood, 
Sorrel Wood, Sour Leaf, (F.) AndroniMe, Andro- 
midier. A small indigenous tree ; Ord. Erica- 
refe. Sex. Syst. Decandria Monogynia; found in 
the Alleghany mountains and the hills and val- 
leys diverging from them, as far as the southern 
limits of Georgia and Alabama; but seldom north 
of Virginia. The sour leaves are refrigerent and 



astringent, and have been used to make a kind 
of lemonade, which has been given in fevers. 

Ardromeda Maria'na, Broad-leaved Moor- 
wort, Kill-lamh, Lamb Killer, Staggerbush. A 
decoction of this American plant is said to have 
been successfully employed as a wash, in a dis- 
agreeable affection — not uncommon amongst the 
slaves in the southern parts of the United States 
—called the Toe Itch, and Ground Itch. — Barton. 

Andromeda Nit'ida, Sounoood, Sorrel tree, 
ndigenous; has properties similar to those of 
A. arborea. 

ANDROPOGON BICORNIS, Junctus odoratus 

a. Calamus aromaticus, see Oleum graminis In- 
dici — a. Citratus, Junctus odoratus — a. Citriodo- 
rus, Junctus odoratus, Nardus Indica. 

AnDROPO'gON MuRICA'tdS, {avrip, avSpof, 'a 

man,' and ttw/wv, 'a beard.') A. squarro'ms, 
Phal'aria zizano'i'des, Agros'tis verticilla'ta, Ana- 
the'rum murica'tum, Vetive'ria odora'ta, Vittie- 
vayr, Cuscus, Khus-Khus ; Nat. Ord. Graminese. 
The root of this plant, from Bombay, is aromatic 
and bitterish. It is used as a perfume. It has 
been used as an excitant and diaphoretic. 

Andropogon Nardus, Calamus Alexandrinus, 
Nardus Indica — a. Schcenanthus, Junctus odora- 
tus — a. Squarrosus, A. Muricatus. 

ANDROSACE, Umbilicus marinus— a. Mat- 
thioli. Umbilicus marinus. 

ANDROS^MUM, Hypericum perforatum. 
ANDROTOMY, Andranatomia. 
ANDRUM. An Bast India word, latinized 
by Kffimpfer, signifying a kind of elephantiasis 
of the scrotum, endemic in southern Asia. 

ANEANTISSEMENT (F.), Vir'ium extinc'- 
tio. This word is often employed hyperbolically, 
by patients in France, to signify excessive fatigue, 
debility or syncope. 

ANEBIUM, Anchusa tinctoria. 
ANEBUS, Impuber. 

ANECPYE'TUS, from av, for avev, 'without,* 
and TTutw, ' I promote suppuration.' That which 
does not suppurate, or is not likely to suppurate. 
ANEGER'TICA, from avsyupw (ava and eyeipin), 
' 1 awaken.' The art of resuscitating the appa- 
rently dead. 

ANEILE'MA, Aneile'sis, from aveiXta (ava and 
ei'Xcio), 'I roll up.' Applied particularly to the 
motion of air in the intestines and the tormina 
accompanying it. — Hippocrates. 
ANEILESIS, Aneilema, 
ANEMIA, Ansemia. 

ANEMO'NE, Wind Flower: from aveitog, 'the 
wind,' because it does not open its flowers until 
blown upon by the wind. 

ANE3I0NE DES BOIS, Anemone nemorosa- 

Anemone Collina, a. Pulsatilla — a. Hepatica, 

Hepatica triloba — a. Intermedia, A. Pulsatilla. ' 

Anemone Ludoviciana, A. patens. 

Anemo'ne Nemoro'sa, Ramm'cidus alhus sea 

nemero'sus, Wood Anemo'ny, (F.) Anhnone dea 

loia. Ord. Ranunculaeere. The herb and flowers 

are poisonous, acrid, and corrosive. They have 

been used as rubefacients. 

Anemo'ne Patens, A. Ludovicia'na, PidsatiV- 
la patens ; indigenous : from Illinois and Wis- 
consin to the Rocky Mountains, is supposed to 
possess similar properties. 

Anemo'ne Praten'sis, A. Sylves'trxs, PulsatiV' 
la ni'grieans seu praten'sis. This plant has si- 
milar properties with the last. It is also called 
Meadow Anemony, (F.) Pidsatille noire, P. dea 
pres. 

Anemo'ne Pdlsatil'la, A. ColU'na sen Inter- 

me'dia seu Praten'sis seu Rubra, Pulsatil'la 

vulgaris, Herba veiitis, Nola cidina'ria, Pasqua 

flower, (F.) Coquelourde, possesses like properties. 

Anemone Rcbra, A. Pratensis — a. Rue-leaved| 



ANEMONT 



61 



ANEURISM 



Thalictrum anemonoides — a» Sylvestris, A. Pra- 
tensis. 

ANEMONT, Anemone hepatica — a. Meadow, 
Anemone pratensis — a. Wood, Anemone nemorosa. 

ANEMOS, Wind. 

ANENCEPHALIA, see Anencephalus. 

ANENCEPHALOHiE'MIA, from av, privative, 
$YKt(pa\os, ' encephalon,' and a(/ia, 'blood.' De- 
fect of blood in the brain. Syncope. 

ANENCEPHALONEU'RIA, AnencepTialo- 
tter'via, from av, priv., fy(c£0aAoj, 'encephalon,' 
and vtvpov, ' nerve.' Want of nervous action in 
the encephalon. 

ANENCBPHALOTROPH'IA, from av, priva- 
tive, tyxeipaXoi, ' the encephalon,' and rpoftj, 'nou- 
rishment.' Atrophy of the encephalon. 

ANENCEPH'ALUS, from av, privative, and 
tYKt<pa\og, 'brain.' A monster devoid of brain. 
— Bonetus, G. St. Hilaire. Also, one that has a 
part only of the brain ; — Paraceph'alua. The con- 
dition has been called AnencephaV ia. A weak, 
silly person. — Hippocrates. 

ANENERGESIA, Debility. 

ANENERGIA, Debility. 

ANENTEBONERVIE SATURNINE, see 
Palsy, lead. 

ANEPISCHESrS, Incontinentia. 

ANEPITHYM'IA, from av, priv., and tm^^^ia, 
' desire.' Many nosologists have used this word 
for a loss of the appetites, as of those of hunger, 
thirst, venery, <fcc. 

ANEPiTHYsnA Chlorosis, Chlorosis. 

ANER, avriQ, genitive avSpo;. A man. 

ANERETHIS'IA, Imi-ntabil'itas, from av, 
priv., and cpeditris, 'irritability.' Defect of irrita- 
bility. — Swediaur. 

ANEB VISMIE, Paralysis. 

ANERYTHROP'SIA, from av, priv., ep^poj, 
'red,' and o^fij, 'vision.' Defective vision, wnich 
coneists in an incapability of distinguishing red. 

ANESIS, Remission. 

ANESTHESIE, Anaesthesia. 

ANESTEESIE EXTATIQUE. The aggre- 
gate of phenomena of impaired feeling produced 
especially by the manipulations of the animal 
magnetizer. — Andral. 

ANESTHETIC, Anaesthetic. 

ANESTHIESIQUE, Anesthetic. 

ANESTHETIZATION, Anassthetization. 

ANESON, Anethum. 

ANESUM, Pimpinella anisum. 

ANET, Anethum. 

ANETH, Anethum graveolens. 

ANE'THUM, Ane'8on, Ane'ton, Ane'thm Fce- 
nic'tdiim seu Sege'tum seu Piperi'tum, Fcenic'u- 
lum, F. Ditlce seu Officinale seu vulga're, Ligus'- 
ticum foenic' ulum, Fan'culum, Fennel or Finckle, 
Mar' athrum, Anet, Sweet Fennel, (Prov.) Spingel, 
(F.) Fenouil ou Auis doux. Ord. Umbelliferaj. 
Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. The fruit, Fce- 
fiic'xdum (Ph. U. S.), has an aromatic odour, and 
warm, sweetish taste. It is carminative. The oil 
— Oleum Famic'uli — is officinal in the Ph. U. S. 
The root is said to be pectoral and diuretic. 

Anethum Pceniculum, Anethum. 

Anethum Graveolens, Anethum, A. horten'se, 
Pastina'ca Anethum seu Graveolens, Fer'ula Gra- 
veolens, Dill, (P.) Aneth, Fenouil puant. A na- 
tive of the south of Europe. The seeds are sti- 
mulant and carminative. A distilled water — 
Aqua une'thi. Dill-water — is officinal in the Lon- 
don and Edinburgh Pharmacopoeias. Dose, gr. 
XV to3J. 

Oleum Ane'thi, Oil of Dill, (P.) Huile d' Aneth, 
possesses the carminative properties of the plant. 

Anethum Pastinaca, Pastinaca Sativa — a. 
Piperitum, Anethum — a. Segetum, Anethum. 

ANETICUS, Anodyne. 



ANETON, Anethum. 

ANETUS, Intermittent fever — a. Quartanus, 
Quartan — a. Quotidianus, Quotidian — a. Tertia- 
nus. Tertian fever. 

ANEURAL'GICON, from a, privative, vcvpov, 
'nerve,' and aXyos, 'pain.' A name given by Dr. 
C. T. Downing to an instrument used by him to 
allay pain in nerves. It is a kind of fumigating 
apparatus, in which dried narcotic and other 
herbs are burnt, the heated vapour being directed 
to any part of the body. 

ANEURIA, Paralysis. 

AN'EURISM, Aneurys'ma,Aneuri/s'mu8, Anen- 
rts'ma, Cedma, from avtv(>vvtiv, {ava, and cvpvvuv,) 
' to dilate or distend.' Dilata'tio Arteria'rum, 
Ecta'sia, Emhorys'ma, Exangi'a aneuris'ma, Ar- 
terieurys'ma, Artereurys'ma, Hamatoce'le (trte- 
rio'sa, Absces'suB spirituo'sns, Arteriec'tasia, (F.) 
Anevrysme, Aneurisme. Properly, Aneurism sig- 
nifies a tumour, produced by the dilatation of an 
artery; but it has been extended to various lesions 
of arteries, as well as to dilatations of the heart. 

There are various kinds of aneurism. The fol- 
lowing are the chief: 

I. When the blood, which forms the tumour, is 
enclosed within the dilated coats of the artery. 
This is the true Aneurism, Aneurys'ma verum, 
Hernia Arteria'rum, (F.) Anevrysme vrai. 

II. When the blood has escaped from the 
opened artery, it is called spurious or false 
Aneurism, Aneuris'ma spu'rium, Ruptu'ra Arte'- 
ricB, Arteriorrhex'is, Arteriodial'ysis, Ecchymo'- 
ma arterio'sum, (F.) Anevrysme faux. The latter 
is divided into three varieties : 

1. Diffused False Aneurism, (F.) Anevrysme 
faux, jyrimitif, diffus, noncirconscrit ou par infil- 
tration, which occurs immediately after the divi- 
sion or rupture of an artery, and consists of an 
extravasation of blood into the areolar texture 
of the part. 

2. Circumscribed False Aneurism, (F.) Anev- 
rysme faux consiciitif, circonscrit ou par epanche- 
ment, enkyste ou sacciforme, tumeur hemorrhagiale 
circonscrite, in which the blood issues from the 
vessel some time after the receipt of the wound, 
and forms itself a sac in the neighbouring areolar 
membrane. 

3. An'eurism by Anastomo'sis, Var'icose or Cir- 
coid An'eurism, Phlebarteriodial'ysis, Aneurys'- 
ma veno'so-arterio'sum, A. vurico' sum, (F.) Anev- 
rysme par anastomose ou variqueux, A. par ero- 
sion, A. de Pott, A. des plus petites arth-es, which 
arises from the simultaneous wounding of an ar- 
tery and vein; — the arterial blood passing into 
the vein, and producing a varicose state of it. 

III. Mixed Aneurism, (F.) Anevrysme mixte,\s 
that which arises from the dilatation of one or two 
of the coats, with division or rupture of the other 
Some authors have made two varieties of this : 

1. Mixed external Aneurism, where the internal 
and middle coats are ruptured, and the areolar is 
dilated. 

2. Mixed internal Aneurism, in which the inter- 
nal coat is dilated, and protrudes, like a hernial 
sac, through the ruptured middle and outer coats. 
This variety has been QaMLQAAneurys'maHer'niam 
Arte'ricB sistens. 

Aneurisms have been termed tranmat'ic or ex- 
og"enous, and sponta' neons, according as they may 
have been caused by a wound, or have originated 
spontaneously. The latter, when originating from 
lesions of the inner coats of arteries, have been 
termed endog" etious. They have also been di- 
vided into internal and external. 

The internal aneurisms are situate in the great 
splanchnic cavities, and occur in the heart and 
great vessels of the chest, abdomen, Ac. Their 
diagnosis is difficult, and they are often inaccM- 
sible to surgical treatment. 



ANEURISMA 



ANGEIOPLANIA 



The external aneurisms are situate at the exte- 
rior of the head, neck, and limbs, and are dis- 
tinctly pulsatory. 

Aneurisms, especially the internal, may be 
combated by a debilitant treatment, on the plan 
of Valsalva, which consists in repeated blood- 
letting, with food enough merely to support life. 
In external aneurism, the artery can be oblite- 
rated. This is usually done by applying a liga- 
ture above the aneurismal tumuur. 

Aneurism, Dissecting, is one in which, owing 
to rupture of the inner and middle coats of an 
artery, the blood makes itself a channel between 
these coats and the outer coat. 

In many cases, the lesion appears to consist in 
a separation of the laminte of the middle coat, 
between which the blood forms itself a channel. 

Aneurisms of the Heart, Cardion'chi, Car- 
dieurys'ma, (F.) Anevrysmes du ca'ur, have been 
divided into active and 2:iassive. The former can 
scarcely be esteemed aneurisms, as they most 
commonly consist of increased thickness of the 
parietes of the heart, which diminishes its cavity 
instead of increasing it. The term Hypertrophy 
of the heart better indicates their character. 
Passive aneurism, C'ardiee'tasis, on the contrary, 
is attended with extenuation of the parietes of 
the organ, and enlargement of the cavities. The 
physical signs of dilatation of the heart are the 
following : — The action of the heart is not visible, 
and no impulse is conveyed to the hand. On 
percussion, there is a loss of resonance over a 
larger surface than usual, but the dulness is much 
less intense than that which accompanies hyper- 
trophy. On auscultation, the action of the heart 
is only slightly felt, and communicates at once 
the impression of its diminished power. The im- 
pulse is feebler than usual. Both sounds are widely 
transmitted over the thorax, and are not much 
fainter at a distance from their point of origin. 

Partial or true aneurism of the Heart — C'ardi- 
ee'tasis partia'lis, Aneurys'ma consecuti'vum cor- 
dis — is sometimes seen ; rarely, however. 

The name Aneurism of the Valves of the Heart 
has been given to pouch-like projections of the 
valves into the auricles. 

Aneurism by Anastomosis, see Aneurism — 
a. Brasdor's operation for, see Brasdor — a. 
Circoid, see Aneurism — a. Endogenous, see 
Aneurism, and Endogenous — a. Exogenous, 
see Aneurism, and Exogenous — a. External, 
see Aneurism — a. False, see Aneurism — a. 
False, circumscribed, see Aneurism — a. False, 
diffused, see Aneurism — a. Internal, see Aneurism 
— a. Mixed, see Aneurism — a. Mixed, external, 
see Aneurism — a. Mixed, internal, see Aneurism 
— a. Spontaneous, sec Aneurism — a. Spurious, see 
Aneurism — a. Traumatic, see Aneurism — a. True, 
see Aneurism — a. Valsalva's method of treating, 
see Aneurism — a. Varicose, see Aneurism. 

ANEURISMA, Aneurism. 

ANEURIS'MAL, Aneurys'mal, Aneurismat'ic, 
Aneurysmat' ieus, Aneurisma' lis. That which be- 
longs to Aneurism. 

Aneurismal Sac or Ctst, (F.) Sac ou Kyste 
anivrysmal, is a sort of pouch, formed by the 
dilatation of the coats of an artery, in which the 
blood, forming the aneurismal tumour, is con- 
tained. 

ANEURISMATIC, Aneurismal. 

ANEURYSM, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMA, Aneurism — a. Cordis aetivum. 
Heart, hypertrophy of the — a. Herniam arterise 
sistens, see Aneurism — a. Spurium, see Aneurism 
— a. Varicosum, see Aneurism — a. Venoso-arte- 
riosum, see Aneurism — a. Verum, see Aneurism. 

ANEUR YSME, Aneurism. 

ANEURYSMUS, Aneurism, Dilatation. 

ANEVRIA, Paralysis. 



ANEYRTSME, Aneurism — n. de I'Aortc, 
Aorteurysma — o. de Pott, see Aneurism — a. dea 
plus petites Arteres, see Aneurism — a. Circonscrit, 
see Aneurism — a. Diffus, see Aneurism — a. En- 
kyste, see Aneurism — a. Faux, see Aneurism — 
a. Faux consectttif, see Aneurism — a. Mixte, see 
Aneurism — a. piar Anastomose, see Aneurism — n. 
par Epanchement, see Aneurism — a. par Erosion, 
see Aneurism — a. par Infiltration, see Aneurism 
— a. Primitif, see Aneurism — a. Sacciforme, see 
Aneurism — a. FarjjueKi-, see Aneurism — a. Vrai, 
see Aneurism. 

ANEYS, see Pimpinella anisum. 

ANFION, Maslach. ^ ^ 

ANFPACTUOSITES CEREBRALES, An- 
fractuosities, cerebral — a. Ethmoidales, see An- 
fractuosity. 

ANFRACTUOS'ITY, Anfrac'tus, Sulcus, frcJm 
am, 'around,' and frangere,fractum, 'to break.' 
I A groove or furrow. Used in anatomy to signify 
sinuous depressions or sulci, of greater or less 
depth, like those which separate the convolutions 
of the brain from each other. These 

Anfractuosities, Cerebral, AH/rac'fi<» Cer'- 
ebri, (F.) Anfractuosiies Qerehrales, are always 
narrow, and deeper at the upper surface of the 
brain than at its base; and are lined by a pro- 
longation of the pia mater. 

The Ethmoid Cells are, sometimes, called An- 
fractnosites ethmoidales. 

ANFRACTUS, Anfractuosity— a. Cerebri, An- 
fractuosities, (cerebral.) 

ANGECTASIA, Angieetasis. 

ANGEIAL, Vascular. 

ANGEIECTASIA, Angieetasis. 

ANGEIECTASIS, Angieetasis. 

ANGEIECTOMA, Angieetasis. 

ANGEIOG'RAPHl', Angioy'raphy, Angeia- 
graph'ia, from ayyutov, 'a vessel,' and ypacjjri, 'a 
description.' The anatomy of the vessels. 

ANGEIOHYDROG'RAPHY, Angiohydrog'- 
raphy, Angeiondrog'raphy, Angeiohydrogra' phia, 
Hydrangiograph'ia, from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' 'vliiap, 
'water,' and ypa<j>(i), 'I describe.' A treatise on 
the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOHYDROT'OMY, Angiohydrot'omy, 
Angeiondrot'omy, Angeiohydrotom'ia, Hydran- 
giotom'ia, from ayyetov, 'a vessel,' 'vitop, ' water,* 
and TCfivctv, 'to cut.' Dissection of the lymphatics. 

ANGEIOLEUCI'TIS, Angioleuci'tis, Angio- 
lymphi'tis, Lymphangei'tis, Lymphangi'tis, Lym- 
phangivVtis, Hydrangci'tis, Lymphi'tis, Lympha- 
ti'tis, Injlamma'tio vaso'rum lymphatico'rum, from 
ayyuov, ' a vessel,' ^cvKOi, ' white,' and itis, inflam- 
mation. (F.) Inflammation des vaisseaux lympha- 
tiques ou des tissue blancs. Inflammation of the 
lymphatics; lymphatic or scrofulous inflamma- 
tion. 

ANOEIOL'OGY, Angiol'ogy, Angeiolog"ia, 
from ayyuov, 'a vessel,' and Xoyof, 'a discourse,' 
A discourse on the vessels. The anatomy of the 
vessels. It includes Arteriol'ogy, Phlebol'ogy, 
and Angeiohydrol'ogy. 

ANGEIOMALA'CIA, Angiomala'cia, from 
ayyeiov, ' a vessel,' and /laXoKio, ' softening.' Mol- 
lescence or softening of vessels. 

ANGEIOMY'CES, Haematodes fungus. 

ANGEION, Vessel. 

ANGEIONDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydrogra- 
phy. 

ANGEIONDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 

ANGEIONOSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGEIONUSUS, Angeiopathia. 

ANGEIOPATHI'A, Angiopathi'a, Angeion'- 
osus, Angeionu'sus, Angio'sis, from ayyttov, ' a 
vessel,' and rados, ' a disease.' Disease of the 
vessels. 

ANGEIOPLA'NIAjAn^iop^a'niOjfromayytjov, 



ANGEIOPLERCSIS 



ANGINA 



'a vessel,' and ir\avn, 'error.' Anomaly in the 
structure and distribution of vessels. 
ANGEIOPLEROSIS, Plethora. 
ANGEIOPYRA, Synocha. 
ANGEIORRHAGIA, Heemorrhagia activa. 
ANGEIORRHCE'A, Angiorrhce'a, (F.) An- 
geiorrhee ; from ayyeiov, 'a vessel/ and pcu, 'I 
flow.' Passive hemorrhage. 
ANGEIOSIS, Angiosis. 
ANGEIOSTEGNOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 
ANGEIOSTEXOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 
ANGEIOSTEO'SIS, Angiosto'sis from ayytiov, 
'a vessel,' and ooTCiaan, 'ossification.' Ossifica- 
tion of vessels. 

ANGEIOSTROPHE, see Torsion. 
ANGEIOTELECTASIA, Telangiectasia. 
ANGEIOT'OMY, Angiot'omy, Angeiotom'ia, 
from ayyuov, ' a vessel,' and rtiiveiv, ' to cut.' 
Dissection of vessels. 

ANGEI'TIS, Angii'tk, Angioi'tia, Inflamma'- 
tio vaao'riim, (F.) Angeite, from ayyuov, *a vessel,' 
and ids, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of vessels in general. 

ANGEL-BREAD. A kind of purgative cake, 
formerly made of spurge, ginger, flour and oat- 
meal. — Halliwell. 

ANGELIC ROOT, Angelica lueida. 
ANGEL'ICA, Angel'ica Archangel' ica seu 
Hispa'na seu Sati'va, Archangel' ica officina'lis, 
Garden Angelica, (F.) Angeliqne, Racine de Saint 
Esprit. So called from its supposed angelic vir- 
tues. Ord. Umbelliferse. Sex. Si/et. Pentandria 
Digynia. Native of Lapland. The roots, stalk, 
leaves, and seed, are aromatic and carminative. 
A sweetmeat is made of the root, which is 
agreeable. 
Angelica Archangelica, Angelica. 
Angelica Atropurpu'rea, Angelica (Ph. 
U. S.), Musterwort. An indigenous species, grow- 
ing over the whole United States, and admitted 
into the secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of 
the United States. Virtues, same as those of 
the Angelica of Europe. 

Angelica Levisticum, Ligusticum levisticum. 
Angelica Lu'cida, Angel'ic root, Bellyache 
root, Nendo, White root, an indigenous plant, the 
root of which ' is bitterish, subacrid, fragrant, 
aromatic, stomachic, and tonic. Also, Ligusticum 
actfeifolium. 

Angelica Nendo, Ligusticum actseifolium. 
Angelica Officinalis, Imperatoria — a. Palu- 
dapifolia, Ligusticum levisticum — a. Sativa, An- 
gelica, A. sylvestris. 

Angelica Sylvbs'tris, A. sati'va, Seli'mtm 
Sylifes'tre seu Angel'ica seu Puhes'cens, Impera- 
to'ria Sylves'tris seu Angelica, Wild Angel'ica, 
(F.) Angeliqne sauvage. Possesses similar pro- 
perties to the last, but in an inferior degree. The 
seeds, powdered and put into the hair, are used 
to destroy lice. Also, Ligusticum podagraria. 
Angelica Tree, Aralia spinosa. 
ANGELI'N^ CORTEX. The bark of a 
Grenada tree, which has been recommended as 
anthelmintic and cathartic. 

ANGJE L /Q U E, AngeVica. — a. Sauvage, Angel- 
ica sylvestris. 

ANGELOCACOS, Myrobalanus. 
ANGEMPHRAXIS, Angiemphraxis. 
ANGIAIRHYBRIE, Asphyxia by submer- 
sion. 

ANGIARHEmE, Hsmoptysis. 
ANGIAERHAGIE. Hfemoptysis. 
ANGIBROMELMINTHIE, Worms (intes- 
tinal). 

ANGICHOLOLITHE, Calculi, biliary. 
ANGIDIECTASIA, Tricbangieetasia. 
ANGIDIOSPONGUS, nematodes fungus. 



ANGIECTASIA VENOSA, Varix. 

ANGIEC'TASIS, Angeiecta'sia, Angeeta'sia, 
Angieurys'ma, Angeiecfo'ma, Angiodias'tnais, from 
ayyeiov, ' a vessel,' and cKTaaii;, ' dilatation.' Dila- 
tation of vessels. — Grafe and Alibert. See 
Telangiectasia. 

ANGIEMPHRAX'IS, Angemphrax'is, Angei- 
osteno'sia, Angeioategno'ais, from ayyuov, 'a ves- 
sel,' and £//^pa^'if, ' obstruction.' Obstruction of 
vessels. 

ANGIEURYSMA, Angiectasis. 

ANGIITE, Inflammation, Angeitis. 

ANGIITIS, Angeitis. 

ANGI'NA, Febris Angino'sa, Isthmi'tia, Quin- 
sy or Sore Throat; from angere, 'to choke.' 
Inflammation of the supra-diaphragmatic portion 
of the alimentary canal, and of the air passages. 
The Latin writers applied the term to every dis- 
ease in which deglutition or respiration, sepa- 
rately or united, was affected, provided that such 
affection was above the stomach and lungs. — 
Boerhaave speaks of the angina of the moribund, 
which is nothing more than the dysphagia or 
ditfieult deglutition preceding death. See Cy- 
nanche. 

Angina Aphthosa, Aphthas — a. Aquosa, (Ede- 
ma of the glottis — a. Bronchialis, Bronchitis — a. 
Canina, Cynanche trachealis — a. Cordis, Angina 
pectoris — a. cum Tumore, Cynanche tonsillaris — 
a. Epidemica, Cynanche maligna — a. Epiglot- 
tidea. Epiglottitis — a. Erysipelatosa, Erythranche 
a. Exsudatoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Externa, 
Cynanche parotidaea — a. Faucium, Isthmitis — a. 
Faucium Maligna, Cynanche maligna — a. Folli- 
culosa of the pharynx. Pharyngitis, follicular — 
a. Gangrfenosa, Cynanche maligna — a. Humida, 
Cynanche trachealis — a. Inflammatoria, Cynan- 
che, Cynanche trachealis — a. Laryngea, Laryn- 
gitis — a. Laryngea (Edematosa, (Edema of the 
glottis — a. Linguaria, Glossitis — a. Maligna, An- 
gina pellicularis, Cynanche maligna, Pharyngitis, 
diphtheritic — a. Maxillaris, Cynanche parotidsea 
— a. Membranacoa, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Mitis, Isthmitis. 

Angi'na Nasa'lis, Nasi'tia posti'ca. An in- 
flammation of the posterior portion of the Schnei- 
derian membrane lining the nose. Also, Coryza. 

Angi'na CEdemato'sa, (F.) Angine oedema- 
teuse, (Edeme de la Glotte. An oedematous swell- 
ing of the glottis, the effect of chronic cynanche 
laryngea. See (Edema of the Glottis. 

Angina Palatina, Hyperoitis — a. Paralytica, 
Pharyngoplegia — a. Parotidaea Externa, Cynan- 
che parotida;a. 

Angi'na Pec'toris, A. cordis, Stemal'gia, 
Asthma apastico-arthrit'icum incon'sfans, Asthma 
diaphragmat'icum, Arthri'tia dinph ragmatica, 
Orthopnoe'a cardi'aca, Sternodyn'ia syneop'tica 
et pal'pitans, S. ayncnpa'lia, Cardiog'mus cordis 
sinis'tri, Astheni'a pectora'lis, Angor pec'toris, 
Stenocar'dia, Diaphragmat' ic gout. Asthma con- 
vidsi'vum. Asthma arthriticum, CardioneuraV gia, 
Neural'gia hrachiotliorac" ica, HypercBsthe'aia 
plexus cardi'aei, A. dolorif'icum, Syncope angi- 
no'sa seu angens, Oardiod'yne spasmod'ica inter- 
mit'tcns, Pnigopho'bia, Prunel'la, Suspir'ium 
cardi'aeum, Pneumonal'gia, Snff'ocative Breast- 
pang, (F.) Angine de Poitrine, Nevrose du Goeur. 
A disease, the precise pathology of which is not 
known. The principal symptoms are, violent 
pain about the sternum, extending towards the 
arms, anxiety, dyspnoea, and sense of suffoca- 
tion. It is an affection of great danger, and is 
often connected with ossification, or other morbid 
condition of the heart. It appears to be neuropa- 
thic, and has been termed Neuralgia of the Heart. 
Some, however, employ this last term for an 
acutelypainful intermittent affection of the heart, 
which seems to differ from angina pectoris more 



ANGINE GUTTURALE 



64 



in regard to the small number of parts which are 
drawn into morbid consent with the aflfected car- 
diac nerves, than in regard either to its nature 
or appropriate treatment. The most powerful 
stimulating and narcotic antispasmodics are re- 
quired during the paroxysm. 

Angi'na Pellicola'ris, a. malig'na, Bqjfhe- 
ri'tis of the throat. A name given to those in- 
flammations about the throat, in which exuda- 
tions or false membranes are thrown out during 
the phlogosis of the mucous membranes. Aphtha, 
Tracheitis, when accompanied with the membra- 
niform exudation, are, with some, examples of 
diphtheritic inflammation. 

Angina Perniciosa, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Pestilentialis, Pharyngitis, diphtheritic — a. Poly- 
posa^ Cynanche trachealis — a. Polyposa seu Mem- 
branacea, Cynanche trachealis — a. Pseudo-mem- 
branosa, Pharyngitis, diphtheritic — a. Pulposa, 
Cynanche trachealis — a. Sanguinea, Cynanche 
tonsillaris. 

Angina Sicca, (F.) Anrjine Seche, is a chronic 
inflammation of the pharynx, with a distressing 
sense of dryness and heat, in chronic diseases of 
the stomach and lungs. See Pasdanchone. 
Angina Simplex, Isthmitis. 
Angina Sqcirro'sa, (F.) Angine squirretise, 
consists in diflficulty of deglutition, caused by 
Bcirrhous disorganization of the pharynx or oeso- 
phagus, or by enlarged tonsils. 

Angina Strangulatoria, Cynanche trache- 
alis — a. Strepitosa, Cynanche trachealis — a. Suf- 
focatoria, Cynanche trachealis — a. Synochalis, 
Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Thyreoidea, Thyreoitis 
— a. Tonsillaris, Cynanche tonsillaris — a. Tra- 
chealis, Cynanche trachealis — a. Ulcerosa, Cy- 
nanche maligna — a. Uvularis, Staphyloedema, 
Uvulitis — a. Vera et Legitima, Cynanche ton- 
sillaris. 

ANGINE GUTTURALE, Cynanche tonsil- 
laris — a. Laryngee, Laryngitis — a. Laryngie et 
tracheale, Cynanche trachealis — a. Laryngee oede- 
mateuee, (Edema of the glottis — a. (Esojihagienne, 
CEsophagitis — a.Pharyngee, Cynanche parotidasa 
— a. de Poitrine, Angina pectoris — a. Seche, An- 
gina sicca — a. Simple, Isthmitis — a. Sqiiirr-euse, 
Angina Squirrosa — a. Tonsillaire, Cynanche ton- 
sillaris. 
ANGINE UX, Anginose. 

ANGINO'SE, Angina ««s, (F.) Anginettx. Re 
iating or appertaining to angina ; as Scarlati'na 
vagino'sa. 

ANGIOCARDI'TIS, from ayyciov, '& vessel,' 
•ind carditis, ' inflammation of the heart.' In- 
dammation of the heart and great vessels. 
ANGIODIASTASIS, Angiectasis. 
ANGIOGRA.PHy, Angeiography. 
ANGIOHEMIE, Hyperaemia. 
ANGIOHYDROGRAPHY, Angeiohydrogra- 

ANGIOHYDROTOMY, Angeiohydrotomy. 
ANGIOITIS, Anseitis. 
ANGIOLEUCITIS, Angeioleucitis. 
ANGIOLOGY, Angeiology. 
ANGIOLYMPHITIS, Angeioleucitis. 
ANGIOMALACIA, Angeiomalacia. 
* ANGIOMYCES, Hsematodes fungus. 

ANGIONOSUS, Angeiopathia. 
ANGIONUSUS, Angeiopathia. 
ANGIOPATHIA, Angeiopathia. 
ANGIOPLANIA, Anzeioplania. 
ANGIOPLEROSIS, Plethora. 
ANGIOPYRA, Synocha. 
ANGIORRHAGIA. Hamorrhagia activa. 
ANGIORRHCEA, Angeiorrhcea. 
ANGIOSIS, Angiopathia. 
ANGIOSTBGNOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 
ANGIOSTENOSIS, Angiemphraxis. 
A.NGIOSTOSIS, Angeiostosis, 



ANGONE 

ANGIOSTROPHE, see Torsion. 

ANGIOTELECTASIA, Telangiectasia. 

ANGIOTEN'IC, Angeioten'ic, Angioten'icu* 
seu Angeioten'icits, from ayyeiov, * a vessel,' and 
Tcivetv, 'to extend.' An epithet given to inflam- 
matory fever, owing to its action seeming to be 
chiefly exerted on the vascular system. 

ANGIOTOMY, Angciotomy. 

ANGLE, Au'guhis, from ayicwXos, 'a hook.' 
The space between two lines which meet in a 
point. 

Angle, Fa'cial, pointed out by Camper, is 
formed by the union of two lines, one of which 
is drawn from the most prominent part of the 
forehead to the alveolar edge of the upper jaw, 
opposite the incisor teeth — the facial line — and 
the other from the meatus auditorius externus to 
the same point of the jaw. According to the 
size of the angle it has been attempted to appre- 
ciate the respective proportions of the cranium 
and face, and, to a certain extent, the degree of 
intelligence of individuals and of animals. In 
the white varieties of the species, this angle is 
generally 80°; in the negro not more than 70°, 
and sometimes only 65°. As we descend the 
scale of animals, the angle becomes less and less ; 
until, in fishes, it nearly or entirely disappears. 
Animals which have the snout long, and facial 
angle small, such as the snipe, crane, stork, &c., 
are proverbially foolish, at least they are so 
esteemed; whilst intelligence is ascribed to thosu 
in which the angle is more largely developed, a.« 
the elephant and the owl. In these last animals, 
however, the large facial angle is caused by the 
size of the frontal sinuses : — so that this mode of 
appreciating the size of the brain is very inexact, 
and cannot be depended upon. 

The following is a table of the angle in man 
and certain animals : 

lACIAL ANGLES. 







Sapajoa 

Orang-Utang 


65 

.... 56 to 58 


Mandrill 

Coati 


30 to 42 

28 


Pole-Cat 

Pug-Dog 

Mastiff 

Hare 


30 



Horse 23 

Angle, Occipital, op Daubenton, Jf fcrmed 
by a line drawn from the posterior margin of the 
foramen magnum to the inferior margia of the 
orbit, and another drawn from the top of the 
head to the space between the occipital condyles. 
In man, these condyles, as well as the foramen 
magnum, are so situate, that a line drawn per- 
pendicular to them would be a continuation of 
the spine ; but in animals they are placed more 
or less obliquely ; and the perpendicular is ne- 
cessarily thrown farther forward, and the angle 
rendered more acute. 

Angle, Optic, (F.) Angle optiqiie, is the angle 
formed by two lines, which shave the extremitiei 
of an object, and meet at the centre of the pupil. 

ANGNAIL, Hangnail. 

ANGOISSE, Angor. 

ANGOLAM. A very tall Malabar tree, which 
possesses vermifuge properties. 

AN'GONE, properly Au'chone, from ayxui, '^ 
choke.' Anad'rome, Hysterapopnix'is, Hya'lero- 
pnix, Prafoca'tio Fau'cium seu Uteri'na se\ 
Matri'cis, Strangula'tio uteri'na, Suffoca'tio itts- 
ri'na seu hyster'ica. Globus seu Nodus hyster'icug, 
Orthopnw'a hyster'ica, Dyspha'gia globo'sa seu 
hyster'ica. Nervous Quinsy. A feeling of strangu- 
lation, with dread of suffocation. It ii common 



ANGOR 



65 



ANIMAL 



in l.ysterical females, and is accompanied with a 
sensation as if a ball arose from the abdomen to 
the thiftrtC. 

ANGOR, Aitsfuish, (F.) Angoisse. Extreme 
anxiety, accompanied with painful constriction 
at the epigastrium, and often with palpitation 
and oppression. It is frequently ao unfavour- 
able symptom. 

Ansor, Agony, Orthopnoea — a. Faucium, Isth- 
jnitis— a. Pectoris, Angina pectoris. 

ANGOS, Bubo, Uterus, Vessel. 

ANGOSTURE VRAIE, Cusparia febrifuga. 

ANGOURION, Cucumis sativus. 

ANGDIS, Serpent. 

ANGUISH, Angor. 

Anguish, Febrile, Angor Febri'lia. The com- 
bination of weariness, pain, anxiety, and weak- 
ness affecting the head and neck, which is so ge- 
nerally observed at the commencement of fever. 

ANGULAIRE DE L'OMOPLATE, Levator 
scapulae. 

AN'GULAR, Angida'ris, from angnhia, 'an 
angle,' (F.) Angulaire. That which relates to 
an angle. 

Angular Artery and Vein. A name given, 
L to the termination of the facial artery and 
vein, because they pass by the greater angle of 
the eye ; and, 2. to the facial artery and vein 
themselves, because they pass under the angle 
of the jaw. See Facial. 

Angular Nerve is a filament furnished by 
the inferior maxillary, which passes near the 
greater angle of the eye. 

Angular Processes of the frontal bone are 
seated near the angles of the eyes. See Orbitar. 

ANGULARIS, Levator scapulae. 

ANG ULI-SCAPULO- HUMERAL', Teres 
major. 

ANGULUS COST^, see Costa — a. Ocularis, 
Canthus. 

ANGURIA, Cucurbita citrullus. 

ANGUSTATIO, Arctatio— a. Cordis, Systole— 
a. Intestini recti vel Ani, Stricture of the rectum. 

ANGUS'TIA, Angusta'tio, Stenocho'ria. Anx- 
iety, narrowness, strait, constriction. 

Angustia Abdominalis, Pelvis, (Brim) — a. 
Perinaealis, Pelvis, (Outlet.) 

ANGUSTURA, Cusparia febrifuga— a. False, 
Brucea antidysenterica, and Strychnos nux vo- 
mica — a. Spuria, Brucea antidysenterica, and 
Strychnos. 

ANGUSTURE, FAUSSE, Brucea antidysen- 
terica — a. Ferriigiiiense, Brucea antidysenterica 
— a. Vraie, Cusparia febrifuga. 

ANGUSTURINE, Brucine. 

ANH^MATOSIA, Asphyxia, Anajmia. 

ANH^MIA, Anemia. 

ANHAPHIA. Anaphia. 

ANHELA'TIO, from anhelo, '1 pant.' An- 
Kel'itus, Aas'mus, Panting, Gasping, Anhelation, 
(Sc.) Heeh, Hegh, (Prov.) Gisn, JCawing, Peck- 
ing, (F.) Essoufflenient. Short and rapid breath- 
ing. See Dyspnoea. 

Anhelatio is sometimes employed synony- 
mously with asthma. 

ANHELITUS, Breath. 

ANHEMATOSIE, Ana;mia, Asphyxia. 

ANHEMIE, Anajmia. 

ANHIS'TOUS, from a, av, privative, and 'laros, 
'organic texture,' Mnor^ajijc' Amor'phns. The 
tunica decidua uteri is termed by Velpeau the 
anJitstoua membrane. 

ANHUIBA, Laurus sassafras. 

ANHYDRjE'MIA, Anamyd'ria, from av, pri- 
vative, 'u5a»p, ' water,' and 'atna, ' blood.' A con- 
dition of the blood in which there is a diminution 
in the quantity of the serum. 

ANHYDROMYEL'IA, from av, priv., 'tiioi/j, 



'water,' and //vtAoj, 'marrow.' Deficiency or 
absence, in the spinal cavity, of the cephalo-spi- 
nal fluid. 

ANICE'TON, Anice'tum, Jlesia'mnm, from a, 
privative, and vikt,, 'victory,' 'invincible.' A 
plaster much extolled by the ancients in cases 
of achores. It was formed of litharge, cerusse, 
thus, alum, turpentine, white pepper, and oil. 

A N I'D E US, from av> privative, and eiloc, 
' shape.' Amorphus. A mcnster devoid of shape 
—J. G. St. Hilaire. 

ANIDRO'SIS, from a, privative, and 'i6p<oi, 
'sweat.' Suclo'ris nul'litas vel priva'tio. Ah- 
sence of sweat. Deficiency of perspiration. — 
Hippocrates. 

ANILEMA, Borborygmus, Tormina. 

ANILESIS, Borborygmus, Tormina. 

ANILITAS, see Dementia. 

AN'IMA, Aii'imus, Mens, Psyche. The mind, 
breath, Ac, from avcfiog, 'wind or breath.' (F.) 
Ame. The principle of the intellectual and moral 
manifestations. Also, the principle of life — the 
life of plants being termed An'ima vegetati'va, 
(F.) Ame vegetative ; that of man, An'ima sensi- 
ti'va, (F.) Ame sensitive. 

The Anima of Stahl, An'ima Stahlia'na, was a 
fancied intelligent principle, which he supposed 
to preside over the phenomena of life, — like the 
ArchcBus of Van Helmont. 

Under the term Anima mundi, the ancient phi- 
losophers meant a universal Spirit, which they 
supposed spread over every part of the uni- 
verse. 

The precise seat of the mind in the brain has 
given rise to many speculations. The point is 
unsettled. 

With the ancient chemists, Anima meant the 
active principle of a drug separated by som 
chemical management. 

Anima Aloes : see Aloes Suecotorina — a. Ar- 
ticulorum, Hermodactylus — a. Hepatis, Ferri sul- 
phas — a. Pulmonum, Crocus — a. Rhei, Infusum 
rhei — a. Stahliana, see Anima — a. Vegetativa, 
Plastic force. 

AN'IMAL, Zoon. A name given to every 
animated being. Most animals have the power 
of locomotion; some can merely execute par- 
tial movements, such as contraction and dila- 
tation. In other respects it is often a matter 
of difficulty to determine what is an animal 
characteristic. The study of animals is called 
Zobl'ogy. 

An'imal, Anima'lis. That which concerns, or 
belongs to, an animal. 

Animal Heat, Calor anima'lis sen nafi'vns, 
Cal'idum anima'le seu inna'tum, Bioh/ch'nio.i, 
Flam'mnla vita'lis, Tkerma em'phyfum, Thermvm 
em'phytiim, Ignis anima'lis seu natura'lia seu 
vita'lis, (F.) Chalenr ani male, is the CHloric con- 
stantly formed by the body of a living animal, 
by virtue of which it preserves nearly the same 
temperature, whatever may be that of the me- 
dium in which it is placed. This formation 
seems to take place over the whole of the body, 
and to be connected with the action of nutrition. 

The following are the natural temperatures of 
certain animals; that of man being 9S° or 100° 

Animals. Temprraturt 

Arctic Fox 107 

Arctic Wolf. 1 ,„. 

Squirrel J ^"^ 

S^v=z::::::::::::;:;;::::::;::::::::::::::} ^o. 

Arctomys citillus, zizil — in summer. 103 

Do. when torpid 80 to 84 

Goat 1C3 

Bat, in summer > ,„^ 

Musk ; ^^^ 

Ma,rinota bobac — Bobac 101 or 103 

Uouse mouse 101 



ANIMALCULA 



ANISOTACHYS 



Animu,s. Temperatur . 

Arctomys marmota, rtiarmot..— in summer... IijI or 102 
Do. when torpid. 



43 



100 to 103 



102 



100 
) to 110 

109 



108 



107 



106 



105 



104 



Rabbit ^'^.^J^^ 

I'olar Bear ~ 100 

Do? 1 

Cat .ai. 

Swine 

8heep 

Guinea-pig!..!.! — 100 to 

Arctomys glis °9 

.chrew 98 

Youne wolf. ^° 

FringUla artica, Arctic finch ) yyi 

Kubecola, redbreast J 

Fringilla linaria, lesser red poU 110 or 111 

Falco palumbarius. goshawk | 

Caprimiilgus Europaeus, European goat- > 

sucker » ) 

Emberiza nivalis, snow -bunting..^ •■. 

Falco lanarius, lanner 

Fringilla carduelis, goldfinch. 

CorTus corax. raven 

Turdus, thrush, (of Ceylon,) 

Tetrao perdix, partridge 

.Anas clypeata, shoveler 

rringa pugnax, ruffe 

Scolopax limosa, lesser godurit 

Tetrao tetrix, grouse 

Fringilla brumalis, wirderfinch 

Loxia pyrrhula 

Falco nisus. sparrowhawk 

Vultur barbatus 

An?er pulchricollis 

Colymbus anritus, duslcy grebe 

Tringa vanellus. lapwing, wounded 

Tetrao lairopus. ptarmigan 

Fringilla domestica, Tioiwe sparrow 10( to 111 

Ptrix passerlna, ?iaJe owl 

Hsematopus ostralegus, seorpie 

Anas penelope. vxidgeon 

Anas strepera. gadivaU 

Pelecauus carbo 

Falco ossifragus, sea-eagle. 

Fulica atra, coot 

Anas acuta, pintail-diick 

Falco milvus, kite, (wounded,) 

Merops apiaster, bee-eater 

Goose 

U(m 

Pove 

Duck 

Ardea stellaris 

Falco albicollis 

Picns major 

Cos<!U8 liguiperda. 

ghark "•^ 

Torpedo marmorata li 

Animal KiNGDOJf, (F.) Eigne Animal, com 
prises all animated beings. 

Animal Layer, see Tache emhryonnaire — a. 
Majnetism. see Magnetism, animal. 

ANIMALCULA SEMINALIA, Spermatozoa 
— a. Sperraatica. Spermatozoa. 

ANIMAL'CULE, Animal' culum ; diminutive 
of animal. A small animal. An animal well 
seen only by means of the microscope. 

ANIMALCULES, SEMINAL, Spermatozoa.— 
a. Spermatic, Spermatozoa. 

ANIMALCULISM, Spermatism. 

ANIMAL'CULIST, An'imnlint. One who at- 
tempts to explain dififerent physiological or pa- 
thological phenomena by means of animalcules. 
One who believes that the embryo is formed from 
the so-called spermatic animalcules — sperm'atist, 
- sem'ini'it. 

ANIMAL'CULOVISM, Animalculovism'- 
u», from animalciilum and ovum. The doctrine, 
now universal, which maintains that the new 
being is formed by the concour.«e of the sperma- 
tic animalcule or spermatozoid with the ovum. 

ANIMALCULUM, Animalcule. 

ANIMALIST, Animalculist. 
ANIMAL'ITY, Animaril>i^, (F.) Animalile. 
The aggregate of qualities which distinguit^h that 
wliich°rs animated. That which constitutes the 
animal. 



103 to 107 1 



to 91 



ANIMALIZA'TION, Animalisa'lto. The 
transformation of the nutritive parts of food into 
the living substance of the body to be nourished. 
Assimilation. 

To AN'IMATE, Anima're. To unite the liv- 
ing principle with an organized body. The 
French use it in the sense of, — to excite or render 
active; as, animer iin vesicatoire : to excite a 
blister to suppurate. 

ANIMATIO, Animation — a. Foet<is, see Quicks 
ening. 

ANIMA'TION, Zod'sis,Aniina'tio, from anima, 
'the soul or mind.' The act of animating. The 
state of being enlivened. 
Animation, Suspended, Asphyxia. 
AN'IME, Gum an'ime, Amina'a, Gummi an'- 
iwe, Can'camum, Can'camy. A resin obtained 
from the trunk of Hymen'aen cour'baril. Ord. 
Fabaceae. It has been given as a cephalic and 
uterine. It is not used. The plant is also called 
Cour'baril. 

ANIME, (F.) An epithet applied to the 
countenance, when florid, in health or disease. 
ANIMELL^, Parotid. 

ANIMI CASUS SUBITUS, Syncope— a. De- 
liquium, Syncope — a. Pathemata, Passions. 
ANIMISM, see Animist. 

AN'IMIST, from anima, 'the soul.' One who, 
following the example of Stahl, refers all the 
phenomena of the animal ecomony to the soul, 
An'imigm. 

The soul, according to Stahl, is the immediate 
and intelligent agent of every movement, and of 
every material change in the body. Stahl there- 
fore concluded, that disease is nothing more 
than a disturbance or disorder in the government 
of the economy, or an effort by which the soul, 
attentive to every morbific cause, endeavours to 
expel whatever may be deranging the habitual 
order of health. See Stahlianism. 
ANIMUS, Anima, Breath. 
ANIRID'IA, from av, priv., and jp/y, ipiio; 'the 
iris.' Absence of the iris. 

AXIS, Pimpinellaanisum — a. Aigre, Cuminuin 
Cyminum — o. de la Chine, Illieium anisatum — a. 
Doxix, Anethum — o. Etoile, Illieium anisatum. 

ANISA'TUM, from AHisum, 'Anise.' A sort 
of medicated wine, formerly prepared with honey, 
wine of Asealon, and aniseed. 

ANISCALPTOR, Latissimus dorsi. 
ANISCHURIA, Enuresis. 
ANISE, Pimpinella anisum — a. Star, Illieium 
anisatum, I. Floridanum — a. Tree, Florida, Illi- 
eium Floridanum — a. Tree, yellow-flowered, Illi- 
eium anisatum. 

ANISEED, see Pimpinella anisum. 
ANISEMA DRACONTIUM, Arum dracon- 
tium. 

ANISI SEMINA, see Pimpinella anisum. 
ANISO'DUS LU'RIDUS, Nican'dra anom'- 
ala, Phy'salis stramo'nium, Whitley'a stramo'tti- 
folin. A plant of Nepal, possessed of narootio 
properties, and resembling belladonna and to- 
bacco. It dilates the pupil, and is used in dis- 
eases of the eye like belladonna, li is given in 
alcoholic tincture [dried leaves §j to alcohol 
f5 viii ). Dose. 20 drops internally in the 24 hours. 
ANISOPIIYLLUM IPECACUANHA, Eu- 
phorbia Ipecacuanha. 

ANISOS'THENES, Tncequd'H rob'ore pollei>». 
That which is unequal in strength : from av, 
priv., (ffos, 'equ.al.' and oS-t.voi, 'strength.' An 
epithet applied particularly to the muscuiar con- 
tractility which, in the sick, is sometimes aug- 
mented in certain muscles only, — in the flexors, 
for example. 

ANISOT'ACIIYS, from av, priv., laoj, ' equal, 



ANISUM 



67 



ANNULAR 



and raxvi, 'quick.' An epithet for tlie pulse, 
when quick and unequal. — Gurrceus. 

ANISUM, Pimpinella anisum — a. Africanum 
frutescens, Bubon Galbanum — a. Fruticosum gal- 
baniforum, Bubon Galbanum — a. Officinale, Pim- 
pinella anisuni — a. Sinense, Illicium anisatum — 
a. Stellatum, lUieium anisatum — a.Vulgare, Pim- 
pinella anisum. 

ANKLE. Astragalus, Malleolus. 

ANKLEY, Malleolus. 

ANKUS, Ancus. 

ANKYLOBLEPH'ARON, Ancijlobleph'aron, 
Palpebra'rum cnal'kus, from ayKvXrj, ' a bridle,' 
and 0\£<papov, 'e3'elid.' A preternatural union 
between the free edges of the eyelids. Likewise 
called Symbleph'aron, Symhlepharo'sis, AndPros'- 
pki/sis. 

Also, union between the eyelids and globe of 
the eye. — Aetius. 

ANKYLOCHEI'LIA, Ancylochei'lia, (F.) An- 
kyclochelie, from ayKvXoi, ' crooked,' and y^^uXo;, 
'lip.' Accidental union of the lips. 

ANKYLOCHELIE, Ankylocheilia. 

ANKYLOCOLPUS, Colpatresia. 

ANKYLOCORE, Corecli.sis. 

ANKYLODON'TIA, from ayKv'Ko?, 'crooked,' 
and o5ot)?, oiovTo^, ' a tooth.' An irregular posi- 
tion of the teeth in the jaws. 

ANKYLOGLOS'SIA, Ancylogloa'sia, Concre'- 
tio livguee, from ayKv\ri, ' a bridle,' and yXntaaa, 
'the tongue.' Impeded motion of the tongue in 
consequence of adhesion between its margins and 
the gums ; or in consequence of the shortness 
of the frsenum : the later affection constituting 
Tongue-tie, Olopho'nia lin'gucB frmna'ta. It 
merely requires the fraenum to be divided with a 
pair of scissors. 

ANKYLOGLOSSOT'OMUM, from anlcyloglos- 
eta, ' tongue-tie,' and roftn, ' incision.' An instru- 
ment used in the operation for tongue-tie. 

ANKYLOME'LE, Ancylome'le, from ayxvUf, 
'crooked,' and firjXrj, ' a probe.' A curved probe. 
—Galen. 

ANKYLOMERIS'MUS, Ancylomeris'mns. from 
ayKv\ri, 'a bridle,' and ficpos, 'a part.' Morbid 
adhesion between parts. 

ANKYLOPS, .^gilops. 

ANKYLORRHIN'IA, Ancylorrhin'ia, from 
ayKv\n, 'a bridle,' and ptv, 'the nos&.' Morbid 
union of the parietes of the nose. 

ANKYLOSED, see Ankylosis. 

ANKYLO'SIS, Ancylo'sh, Anckylo'sis, An'- 
cyle, Stiff Joint, from ayKvXo;, 'crooked.' An 
affection, in which there is great diflBculty or even 
impossibility of moving a diarthrodial articula- 
tion. It is iiO called, because the limb commonly 
remains in a constant state of flexion, and a joint 
thus affected is said to be ankylo'sed. Anchylo- 
sis is said to be complete or true, when there is an 
intimate adhesion between the synovial surfaces, 
with union of the articular extremities of the 
bones. In the incomplete or fahe anchylosis, 
there is obscure motion, but the fibrous parts 
around the joint are more or less stiff and thick- 
ened. In the treatment of this last state, the 
joint must be gently and gradually exercised; 
and oily, relaxing applications be assiduously em- 
ployed. 

Ankylosis Spuria, Rigiditas articulorum. 

ANKYLO'TIA, Ancylo'tia, from ayKvXr/, 'a 
bridle," and ouj, oitos, 'the ear.' Morbid union 
of the parietes of the ear. 

ANKYLOT'OMUS, A/icy?o<'omu«, from ayKvXo;, 
'crooked,' and ri:nvuv, 'to cut.' Any kind of 
curved knife. — Paulus. An instrument for di- 
viding the frsenum linguae. — Scultetus. 

ANNEAU, Ring— a. Crural, Crural canal— a. 
Diaphragmatique, Diaphragmatic ring — a. Femo- 



ral, Crural canal — a. Inguinal, Inguinal ring — o 
Ombilical, Umbilical ring. 

ANNEXE. Accessory, Appendix. 

ANNI CRITICI, Climacterici (anni)— a. De- 
cretorii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Fatales, Climac- 
terici (anni) — a. Genethliaci, Climacterici (anni) 
— a. Gradarii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Hebdoma- 
diei, Climacterici (anni) — a. Heroici, Climacterici 
(anni) — a. Natalitii, Climacterici (anni) — a. Sca- 
lares, Climacterici (anni) — -a. Scansiles, Climacte- 
rici (anni). 

ANNOTA'TIO, Episma'sia. Under this term 
some have included the preludes to an attack of 
intermittent fever — as yawning, stretching, som- 
nolency, chilliness, <fec. 

ANNOTTO, see Terra Orleana. 

AN'NUAL DISEASES, Morbi an'nui, 31. an- 
niversa'rii, (F.) Maladies annuelles. A name 
given, by some, to diseases which recur every 
year about the same period. Febrie annua, (F.) 
Fiivre annuelle, is a term used for a fancied in- 
termittent of this type. 

ANXUENS. Rectus capitis internus minor. 

ANNUIT"IO, Nodding, from ad, 'to,' and 
nutus, 'a nod.' A gesture, denoting assent in 
most countries. Also, the state of somnolency, 
when the individual is in the erect or sitting 
posture, with the head unsupported, in which 
the power of volition over the extensor muscles 
of the head is lost, and the head drops forward. 

AN'NULAR, Annula'ris, Anula'ris, Crico'i'des, 
(F.) Annulaire, {annus, 'a circle.') Any thing 
relating to a ring, or which has the shape or ful- 
fils the functions of a ring; from annulus', 'a 
ring.' 

Annular Finger, Ring Finger, Ring man, 
Dig"itU8 annula'ris, Param'esos. The fourth 
finger, so called from the wedding ring being 
worn thereon. See Digitus. Of old, it was be- 
lieved, that there is a medium of direct commu- 
nication between the ring finger and the heart. 

Annular Ganglion, see Ciliary ligament. 

Annular Lig'ament, Transverse ligament, 
Cru'cial ligament. A strong ligamentous band, 
which arches across the area of the ring of the 
atlas, from a rough tubercle upon the inner sur- 
face of one articular process, to a similar tubercle 
on the other. It serves to retain the odontoid 
process of the axis in connexion with the ante- 
rior arch of the atlas. 

An'nular Lig'ament op the Ra'dius, is a very 
strong fibro-cartilaginous band, which forms, with 
the lesser sigmoid cavity of the cubitus, a kind 
of ring, in which the head of the radius turns 
with facility. 

An'nular Lig'aments op the Carpits, A) 
mil'lcB manua membrano'scB, are two in number. 

The one, anterior, is a broad, fibrous, quadri 
lateral band, extending transveisely before the 
carpus, and forming the gutter, made by the 
wrist, into a canal. It is attached, externally, 
to the trapezium and seaphoides; and internally 
to the OS pisiforme and process of the uneiforme. 
It keeps the tendons of the flexor muscles, me 
dian nerve, Ac, applied against the carpus. 

The j^f^fterior ligament is situate transversely 
behind the joint of the hand, and covers tha 
sheaths of the tendons, which pass to the back 
of the hand. Its fibres are white and shining, 
and are attached, externally, to the inferior and 
outer part of the radius; internally to the ulna 
and OS pisiforme. 

An'nular Lig'aments op the Tarsus are t^o 
in number. The anterior is quadrilateral, and 
I extends transversely above the instep. It is at- 
tached to the superior depression of the os calcis, 
I and to the malleolus internus. It embraces th-a 
tendons of the extensor muscles of the toes, the 
tibialis anticus, amd peroneus anticus. The int. -^ 



ANNULARIS 



ANOSMIA 



nal is broader than the last. It descends from j 
the malleolus internus to the posterior and inner i 
part of the os calcis, with which it forms a kind 
of canal, enclosing the sheaths of the tendons of 
Vhe tibialis posticus, jlexor longus diijitorum pedis, 
and F. loiujiis pollicia pedis, as well as the plantar 
vessels and nerves. 

Annular Vein, Vena annula'ris, is situate 
between the annular finger and the little finger. 
A^■tius recommends it to be opened in diseases 
3f the spleen. 

ANNULARIS, Cricoid : see Digitus — a. Ani, 
Sphincter ani. 

ANNULI CARTILAQINEI, see Trachea— a. 
Cartilaginosi Tracheae, see Trachea. 

AN'NULI FIBRO-CARTILAGIN'EI, " Fi- 
bro-cartilaginous or festooned rings." Tough 
tendinous tracts in the heart, two of which, an- 
turior, are situate on the right and left of the 
aortal opening; and one posterior, which runs 
backwards from the aorta to the border of the 
auriculo-ventricular septum, where it splits into 
two slender crura. 

A NN UL I- TEND INO-PHALANGIENS, 
Lumbricales manus. 

ANNULUS, Dactylius, Vulva— a. Abdominis, 
Inguinal ring — a. Albidus, see Ciliary (ligament) 
— a. Cellulosus, Ciliary ligament — a. Ciliaris, 
Ciliary ligament — a. Fossae ovalis : see Ovalis 
fossa — a. Gangliformis, see Ciliary (ligament) — 
a. Repens, Herpes circinatus — a. Umbilicalis, 
Umbilical ring — a. Ventriculi, Pylorus — a. Vieus- 
senii, see Ovalis fossa. 

ANO, avia. A prefix denoting 'above, up.' 
ANO-CAVERNEUX, Accelerator urinae. 
ANOCHI'LUS, from avm, 'above,' and x"^"?; 
'lip.' The upper lip. Also, one who has a large 
upper lip, 

ANOCCELIA, Stomach. 
ANOCCELIADELPHUS, Coeliadelphus. 
ANO'DIA, from av, priv., and uin, 'song.' 
An unconnected or dissonant mode of speech. 

ANOD'IC, Anod'icus, from avui, 'above, up,' 
and 'o&oi, 'a way.' Tending upwards. An epi- 
thet applied by Dr. Marshall Hall to an ascend- 
ing course of nervous action. 
ANOBIN, Anodyne. 

ANODIN'IA, from a, av, privative, and uitv, 
'a labour pain.' Absence of labour pains. 
ANODMIA, Anosmia. 
ANODUS, Edentulus. 

AN'ODYNE, Anod'ijnus, Antod'ynus, Antid'- 
ynous (improperly), Paregor'ieus, Anet'icus, Ant- 
al'gicus, Acesod'ynes, (F.) Anodin ou Anodyn, 
from av, privative, and o&wrj, 'pain.' Anodynes 
are those medicines which relieve pain, or cause 
it to cease; as opium, belladonna, &c. They act 
by blunting the sensibility of the encephalon, so 
that it does not appreciate the morbid sensation. 
ANODYN'IA, Indolen'tia. Cessation or ab- 
sence of pain. Vogel has given this name to a 
genus of diseases, characterized by a cessation 
of pain, and the exasperation of other symptoms ; 
as we see in gangrene. 

ANODYN UM MINERALE, Potassse nitras 
salphatis paucillo mixtus. 

ANCE'A, Anoi'a, from a, privative, and voof, 
'mind.' Delirium, imbecility. See Dementia 
and Idiotlsm. 

ANOESIA, Dementia — a. Abstricta, Melan- 
choly. 

ANOIA, Anoea. 
ANOMAL, Anomalous. 
ANOMALES, Anomalous. 
ANOMA'LIA, from av, privative, and o/iaXos, 
'regular.' Abnor'mitas, Aliena'tio. Anomaly, 
abnormity, irregularity. In Pathology, anomaly 
means something unusual in the symptoms pro- 



per to a disease, or in the morbid appearancei 
presenied by it. 

Ano.malia Nervorum, Nervous diathesis. 

ANOMALIE PAH CLOlSONNEMEyi, see 
Cloisonnenient. 

ANOMALOTROPHIES, from av, privative, 
o/JoAof, 'regular,' and Tpo<S>ri, 'nourishment.' A 
class of diseases, which consist in modifications 
in the nutrition of organs. — Gendrin. 

ANOM'ALOUS, Anom'alus, Anom'alia; the 
same etymon. Irregular; contrary to rule. (F.) 
Anomal. In Medicine, a disease is called ano- 
malous, in whose symptoms or progress there is 
something unusual. Afi"ections are also called 
anomalous, which cannot be referred to any 
known species. 

ANOMALOUS, Irregular. 

ANOMMATUS, Anophthalmus. 

ANOxMOCEPH'ALUS, from a, priv., vofios, 
'rule,' and Ke<pa\ri, 'head.' One whoso head is 
deformed. — Geoffroi Saint-Hilaire. 

AXOMOSPLENO TOP IE, Splenectopia. 

AXOMOTOPIE, Ectopia. 

ANOM'PHALUS, from av, priv., and o/i0aXoj, 
'the navel.' One devoid of navel. Many writers 
have endeavoured to show that Adam and Eve 
must have been avo/i^aAoj, as they could not have 
had umbilical vessels. 

ANONA TRILOBA, see Carica papaya. 

ANO'NA TRIPET'ALA. A tree of the family 
Anoneae or Anonaceae; Sex. Syst. Polyandria 
Polygynia, from fifteen to twenty feet high, na- 
tive of South America, which bears a delicious 
fruit called Chirimoya. Both the fruit and flowers 
emit a fine fragrance, which, when the tree is 
covered with blossom, is almost overpowering. — 
Tschudi. 

ANONIS, Ononis. 

ANONYCH'IA, from av, privative, and onf, 
ovvxo'it 'a nail.' Want of nails, — a rare con- 
genital defect. 

ANONYME, Innominatum. 

ANON'YMOUS, Anon'ymus, Innomtna'tua, (F.) 
Anonyme, from av, privative, and ovo/ia, 'name.' 
That which has no name. 

The word has been applied to many parts of 
the body: — to the Anonymous bone or Os inno- 
minatum : — the Anonymous foramen or Foramen 
innominatum, &c. 

ANOPHRESIA. Anosmia. 

ANOPKTHAL'MUS, Anom'matua, from av, 
privative, and o<p9a\jioi, 'an eye.' One who is 
devoid of eyes. 

ANOPS'IA, from av, priv., and tm^, 'the eye.' 
A case of monstrosity in which the eye and orbit 
are wanting. 

ANOPTICOXERVIE, Amaurosis. 

ANOR'CHIDES, from av, priv., and op^'i. 'a 
testicle.' They who are without testicles. — For- 
tunatus Fidelis. 

ANOREX'IA, from av, priv., and o/)tf<f, 'ap- 
petite.' Jnappeten'lia, Limo'sis e.rpers. {¥.} Perte 
d'appetit. Absence of appetite, without loathing. 
Anorexia or want of appetite is symptomatic of 
most diseases. Also, Indigestion, Dyspepsia. 

Anorexia Exhaustc'rum, Frigidity of the 
stomach — a. Mirabilis, Fasting. 

ANORGANIC, see Anhistous, and Inorganic. 

ANORMAL, Abnormous. 

ANORTHOP'IA.from a,priv.,op^of, 'straight,' 
and oi/if) 'vision.' Vision in which persons are 
unable to judge when objects are not parallel or 
not symmetrical. 

ANOS'IA, from a, priv., and voooi, 'disease.' 
Health. Freedom from disease. 

ANOS'MIA, from av, privative, and oafiv, 
'odour.' Loss of smell. Diminution of the sense 
of smell. Called, also, Anosphre'sia, Anosphra'- 
, sia, Anophre'sia, Paros'mia, Anod'mia, Anoamo'- 



ANOSMOSIA 



69 



ANTHELMINTIC 



«(!, Ol/acf&s amis'sio geu defic"ier,8, Dt/scBSthe'aia 
ol/acto'ria, Ancesthe'sia ol/aeto'ria, Odora'tua de- 
per'ditus, (F.) Perte de I'Odorat. 

ANOSMOSIA, Anosmia. 

ANOSPHRASIA, Anosmia. 

ANOSPHRESIA, Anosmia. 

ANO'TUS, from av, privative, and our, iaroi, 
'tlie ear.' A monster having no ears. 

ANOXEMIE, Asphyxia. 

ANSA INTESTINALIS, Anse (JntesHnale). 

ANSE (E.), Ansa (L.), signifies, properly, the 
handle of certain vessels, usually of an arched 
form. By analogy, it has been applied to that 
■which is curved in the form of such handle. 
Thus, the French speak of Anse intestinale — Ansa 
ECU Gyrus intestina' lis — to signify a portion of 
intestine, supported by its mesentery, and de- 
scribing a curved line: — also, of Anse nerveuse, 
Anse anastomotique, <fcc. 

Anse defil is used, in Surgery, to designate a 
thread, curved in the form of an Anae. 

ANSERINA, Potentilla anserina. 

ANSERINE, Chenopodium ambrosioides — a. 
Anthelmintique, Chenopodium anthelminticum — 
a. Bon Henri, Chenopodium Bonus Henricus — a. 
Botrys, Chenopodium Botrys — a. Fetide, Cheno- 
podium vulvaria — a. Vermifuge, Chenopodium 
anthelminticum. 

ANTACIDS, Anti-9cids, Antiac"ida, Inver- 
ten'tia, from anti, 'against,' and acida, 'acids.' 
Remedies which obviate acidity in the stomach. 
They are chemical agents, and act by neutralizing 
the acid. Those chiefly used are ammonia, calcis 
carbonas, calx, magnesia, magnesise carbonas, 
potassa, potassae bicarbonas, p. carbonas, sodas 
bicarbonas, and s. carbonas. They are, of course, 
only palliatives, removing that which exists, not 
preventing the formation of more. 

ANTAG'ONISM, Anfagonis'mus, Antis'tasis, 
from avTi, 'against,' and aytiivii^ofiai, 'to strive.' 
Action in an opposite direction. It applies to the 
action of muscles that act in a contrary direction 
to others. In estimating the force of muscles, 
this antagonism must be attended to. 

ANTAG'ONIST, Antagonis'ta. A muscle 
whose action produces an effect contrary to that 
of another muscle. Every muscle has its anta- 
gonist, because there is no motion in one direc- 
tion without a capability of it in another. 

ANTALGICUS, Anodyne. 

ANTAPHRODIS'IAC, Antaphrodit'ic, Anta- 
phrodisiacus, Anaphrodisiacus, Anaphrodis'iac, 
Anterot'icus, from avn, 'against,' and a(ppoSiaiaKoi, 
'aphrodisiac' A substance capable of blunting 
the venereal appetite. 

ANTAPHRODITIC, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTAPOD'OSIS, from avTanoMo)/^, '1 return 
in exchange.' The succession and return of the 
febrile periods. — Hippocrates. 

ANTAPOPLECTICUS, Antiapoplectic. 

ANTARTHRITIC, Antiarthritic. 

ANTASTHENICUS, Tonic. 

ANTASTHMATICUS, Antiasthmatic. 

ANTATROPH'IC, Antatroph'icus, Aniat'ro- 
phus, Antiatroph'ieus, from avn, 'against,' and 
arpoipia, 'atrophy.' A remedy opposed to atro- 
phv or consumption. 

ANTEBRACHIAL, see Antibrachial. 

ANTECEDEN'TIA. The precursory or 
warning svmptoms of a disease. 

ANTEFLEXIO UTERI, see Anteversion. 

ANTELA'BIA, Prochei'la, from ante, 'before,' 
and labia, 'the lips.' The extremity of the lips. 

ANTELOPE, Antilopus. 

ANTEMBALLOMENUM, Succedaneum, 

ANTEM'BASIS, from avn, and ejifiaivut, 'I 
enter.' Ma'tnus inr/res'sus. The mutual recep- 
tion of bones. — Galen. 



ANTEMETIC, Antiemetic. 

ANTENDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTENDIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTENEAS'MUS, from ai>n, 'against,' and 
veav, 'audacious;' or rather, perhaps, from avn, 
and TCivw, 'I extend or stretch.' One furious 
against himself. Mania, in which the patient 
attempts his own life. — Zacchias. 

ANTENNA'RIA DIOI'CA, Gnapha'lium JDi- 
oi'cum, Hispid'ula, Pes cati, Eli'chrysum monta'- 
num, Bioe'cioua Everlaat'ing, Catsfoot, (F.) Pied 
de chat. Order, Compositae. A common Euro- 
pean plant, which has been advised in hemor- 
rhage, diarrhoea, &c. 

Antennaria Margaritacea, Gnaphalium 
margaritaceum. 

Antennaria Plantaginifo'lia, Gnapha'lium 
plantaginifo'lium seu plantagin'eum seu dioi'cum 
variety plantagini/olium, Plantain Life-everlast- 
ing, Cudweld, indigenous, has similar properties. 

ANTEPHIALTIC, Antiephialtic. 

ANTEPILEPTIC, Antiepileptic. 

ANTEPONENS, Anticipating. 

ANTEREI'SIS, from avn, 'against,' and epti- 
Sia, ' I support.' The resistance — the solidity — 
of bones. — Hippocrates. 

ANTERIEUR DU 31 ARTE AU, Laxator 
tympani — a. de V Oreille, Anterior auris. 

ANTE'RIOR, Anti'cua, from ante, 'before.' 
Situate before. Great confusion has prevailed 
with anatomists in the use of the terms before, 
behind, etc. Generally, the word anterior is ap- 
plied to parts situ.ate before the median line, the 
body being in the erect posture, with the face 
and palms of the hands turned forwards, and 
the feet applied longitudinally together. 

Ante'rior Au'ris (lluscle). Auricula' ris ante'- 
rior,At'trahens auric' ulam, (E .) Auriculaire antS- 
rieur, Anterieur de I'oreille, Zygomato-oricnlaire. 
A small muscle, passing from the posterior part 
of the zygoma to the helix. Use, to draw the eai 
forwards and upwards. 

Anterior Mallei, Laxator tympani. 

ANTEROTICUS, Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTEUPHORBIUM, Cacalia anteuphorbium. 

ANTEVER'SION, Antever'aio, Antrover'aio, 
from ante, 'before,' and vertere, versum, 'to turn.' 
Displacement of the uterus, in which the fundus 
is turned towards the pubes, whilst its orifice is 
towards the sacrum. It may be caused by extra- 
ordinary size of the pelvis, pressure of the viscera 
on the uterus, etc. ; and is recognised by exami- 
nation per vaginam. A simple forward inclina- 
tion of the body of the uterus, without the os 
uteri being carried much backwards, is termed 
Anteflex'ion of the u'terus, Antejlex'io u'teri. Not 
unfrequently, however, it is used synonymously 
with Retroversion of the Uterus. See Retro- 
versio uteri. 

A'^TB.MM0'PTY'iCVS,AntihcBmoptyi-cu8, 
from avn, 'against,' and hamoptysis, 'spitting 
of blood.' Against spitting of blood. A remedy 
for spitting of blood — antihcemopty'icum {reme- 
dium). 

ANTH^MORRHAGICUS, Antihemorrhagic 

ANTHECTICUS, Antihectio. 

ANTHELIT'RAGUS, (F.) Anthilhragien. 
One of the proper muscles of the pavilion of 
the ear. 

ANT'HELIX, Anti-helix, from avn, 'before,' 
and 'fAj^, 'the helix.' An eminence on the car- 
tilage of the ear, in front of the helix, and ex- 
tending from the concha to the groove of the 
helix, where it bifurcates. 

A N T H E L M I N'T I C, Antihelmin'ticus, Anti- 
acol'icus, Anthelmin'thicus, Antiacolet'icus, Hel- 
min'thicus, Hclmiuthago'gus, Antivermino'sus, 
Vermif ugus, Ver'mifuge, from avn, 'against,' 
and 'iXntvs, *a worm.' A remedy which de* 



ANTHEMA ERUPTIO 



70 



ANTHRAX 



Btroys or expels worms, or prevents their for- 
mation and development. The chief anthel- 
mintics are, Chenopodium, Mucuna, Oleum ani- 
male Dippelii, Oleum Terebinthince, Sodii Chlo- 
ridum, Spigelia, and Pulvis Stanni. See Worms. 
ANTHEMA ERUPTIO, Exanthem. 
AN'THEMIS COT'ULA, from avdcu,, 'I flower.' 
A.fce'tida seu Novehoracen'sia, Cot'ula, C.foe'tida, 
Cota, Cynan'themis, ChamcBme'lum fce'tidum seu 
Chamomil'la spu'r-ia sen fee' t Ida, Murit'ta Cot'ida, 
Mnyjloicer, Mayieeed, Stinking Chamomile, Wild 
Cham'omile, Bog's fennel, Lilly, Dilweed, Field- 
veed, Pissweed. Ord. Compositae Corymbiferae. 
Sex. Sysf. Syngenesia Superflua. (F.) Jfaroute, 
Camomille fetide, Camomille puante. 

This plant Cot'ida, (Ph. U. S.), has a very dis- 
agreeable smell, and the leaves have a strong, 
acrid, bitterish taste. It is reputed to have been 
useful in hysterical affections. 
Anthemis Fcetida, A. cotula. 
An'themis No'bilis, An'themis, A. odora'ta, 
Ckainame'liim, Ch. No'hile seu odora'tum, Cha- 
tnomil'la Roma'na, Euan'themon, Leucan'themum, 
(F.) Canwmille Bomaine. The leaves and flowers. 
— Anthemis, Ph. U. S. — have a strong smell, and 
bitter, nauseous taste. The flowers are chiefly 
used. They possess tonic and stomachic proper- 
ties, and are much given as a pleasant and cheap 
bitter. A simple infusion is taken to produce, or 
to assist vomiting. Externally, they are often 
used in fomentations. 

The O'lenm Anthem' idis possesses the aromatic 
properties of the plant, but not the bitter and 
tonic. Consequently, the ' Chamomile Drops,' as 
sold by the druggists, must be devoid of tho lat- 
ter qualities. They are made by adding 01, 
anthem. f5J. to Sp. vini rectif. Oj. 

Anthemis Noveboracencis, A. cotula — a. 
Odorata, A. cotula. 

An'themis Py'rethrttm, Py'rethrum, P. verum, 
Anacyc'lua pyrethrum, Bvphthal'mum. Cre'ticum, 
Denta'ria, Uerha saliva'ria. Pea Alexandri'nus, 
Spanish Chamomile, Pellitory of Spain, (F.) Py- 
rethre, Racine salivaire, Salivaire, Pied d' Alex- 
andre. The root, Pyrethrum (Ph. U. S.), is hot 
and acrid, its acrimony residing in a resinous 
principle. It is never used except as a mastica- 
tory in toothache, rheumatism of the face, pa- 
ralysis of the tongue, etc. It acts as a powerful 
sialogogue. 

The Pellitory of the shops in Germany is said 
to be derived from Anacyc'lua officina'rum; a 
plant cultivated in Thuriugia for medicinal pur- 
poses. 

An'themis Tincto'ria, Buphthal'mi Ecrha, 
Dyer's Chamomile, a European plant, has a bitter 
and astringent taste, and has been regarded as 
stomachic and vulnerary. (F.) Camomille des 
Teinturicrs, CEil de Bcevf. 
Anthemis Vulgaris, Matricaria Chamomilla. 
ANTHE'KA, from avOtjpos, so called from its 
'florid' colour. A remedy compounded of several 
lubstances — myrrh, sandarac, alum, satfron, etc. 
It was used under the form of liniment, colly- 
rium, electuary, and powder. — Celsus, Galen. 
ANTHEREON, Mentum. 
ANTHORA, Aconitum anthora — a. Vulgaris, 
Aconitum anthora. 

ANTHORIS'MA, from avn, 'against,' and 
epiff/ia, 'boundary,' Tumor dijfu' sua. A tumour 
v^ithout any defined margin. 

ANTHOS, see Rosmarinus — a. Sylvestris, Le- 
dum sylvestre. 

ANTHRA'CIA, from av&pa^, avOpaKo;, 'coal.' 
Carbun'cular Exan'them. An eruption of tumors, 
imperfectly suppurating, with indurated edges, 
end, for the most part, a sordid and sanious core. 
A genus in the order Exanthematica, class HcBma- 
M'id of Good, and including Plague and Yaws. 



AxTHRACiA, Anthracosis — a. Pestis, Plagufr— 
a. Rubula, Framboesia. 

ANTHRACION, see Anthrax. 

AN'THRACOID, Anthraco'des, from cv^pal, 
avdpuKos, 'coal,' and ei&os, 'resemblance.' (F.) 
Charbonneux. As black as coal. Accompanied 
by or resembling anthrax. 

ANTHRACOMA, Anthrax. 

ANTHRACONECROSIS, see Sphacelus. 

ANTHRACOPIILYCTIS, see Anthrax. 

ANTIIRACOSIA, Anthrax. 

ANTHRACO'SIS, Anthra'cia, Carlo Palpe- 
bra'mm, from av^pu^, ai^BpaKos, 'a coal.' A spe- 
cies of carbuncle, which attacks the eyelids and 
globe of the eye. — Paulus of ^gina. Also, a 
carbuncle of any kind. It has been used for tho 
"black lung of coal miners," which is induced 
by carbonaceous accumulation ill the lungs ; 
Pseudo-melanot'ic formation, (Carswell.) Matiire 
noire des Poumons, Charbon pnlmonaire. When 
ulceration results from this cause, black phthisis, 
(F.) Phthiaie avee Melanose, exists. See Mela- 
nosis. 

Anthracosis Pulmonum, see Melanosis. 

ANTHRACOTYPHUS, Plague. 

ANTHRAKOK'ALI, Lithanthrakok'ali, from 
avQpa^, avdpaxos, 'coal,' and kali, 'potassa.' An 
article introduced as a remedy in cutaneous dis- 
eases. II is formed by dissolving carbonate of 
potassa in 10 or 12 parts of boiling water, and 
adding as much slacked lime as will separate the 
potassa. The filtered liquor is placed on the fire 
in an iron vessel, and suffered to evaporate, until 
neither froth nor effervescence occurs, and the 
liquid presents a smooth surface like oil. To 
this, levigated coal is added in the proportion of 
160 grammes to 192 grammes of potassa. The 
mixture is stirred, and removed from the fire, 
and the stirring is continued, until a black homo- 
geneous powder results. A sulphuretted anthra- 
kokali is made by mixing accurately 16 grammes 
of sulphur with the coal, and dissolving the mix- 
ture in the potassa, as directed above. The dose 
of the simple and sulphuretted preparations is 
about two grains three times a day. 

ANTHRAX, avOpa^, 'a coal,' Antrax, Carlo, 
Rtihi'nns verus, Cudesel'la, Erythe'ma gangrano'- 
sum, Grantris'twn, Pruna, Per'aicus Ignis, Pyra, 
Granatria'tum, Phyma Anthrax, Erythema an- 
thrax, Carbun'culus, Anthraco' aia, Anthraco'ma, 
Abscea'sua gangrenes' cens seu gangrceno' sua, Fu- 
run'culus malig'nus, F. gangrano'sus. Carbuncle, 
(F.) Charbon. An inflammation, essentially gan- 
grenous, of the cellular membrane and skin, 
which may arise from an internal or external cause. 
In the latter case it is called Anthra'cion, Yesie'- 
nla gangrcBnes'cena, Anthracophlyc'tis, (F.) Pus- 
tule maligne ; Ronton d'Alcp, Feu Persique {Per- 
sian fire), Malvat, Ronton malin. Puce maligne, and 
is characterized at the outset by a vesication or 
bleb filled with a sero-sanguinolent fluid, under 
which a small induration is formed, surrounded 
by an areolar inflammation, which becomes gan- 
grenous. It has been thought by some to be in- 
duced altogether by contact with the matter of 
the carbuncle of animals, or of the exuvite of 
the bodies of such as had died of the disease, 
but it is now known to arise primarily in the 
human subject. This form of carbuncle has re- 
ceived different names, many of them from the 
places where it has prevailed: — Carbun'ctdus 
contagio'sus seu Gal'licua seu Hunga'ricus seu 
Polon'icua seu Septentriona'lis, Morbus puatulo'sua 
Fin'nicua, Pus' tula gangrenosa seu Liv'ida Ea- 
tho'nim, Pemphigus Mungar'icus, Puce de Bour- 
gogne. 

Anthrax is a malignant boil, and its treatment 
is similar to that which is required in case of 
gangrene attacking a part. 



AxNTHRISCUS CEREFOLIUM 



ANTICOMMA 



Anthrax Pulmonum, Necropneumonia. 
ANTHRISCUS CEREFOLIUM, Scandix ce- 
refolium — a. Humilis, Chaerophyllum Sylvestre 
— a. Procerus, ChsBrophyllum Sylvestre. 

ANTHROPE, Cutis. 

ANTHROPIAT'RICA (ME DIG IN A), from 
(inio.o-o., 'man,' and tarpos, 'a physician.' Me- 
dicine applied to man, in contradistinction to 
animals. 

ANTHROPOCHEMIA, Chymistry (human). 

ANTHROPOCHYMY, Chymistry (human). 

ANTHROPOGEN'IA, Anthropogen'esis, An- 
tlttopog"eny, Genean'thropy, from uiSpurrus, 'man,' 
and yividii, 'generation.' The knowledge, or study, 
or phenomena of human generation. 

ANTHROPO G'RAPH Y, Anthropograph'ia, 
from avOpM-aog, 'man,' and ypa(pri, 'a description.' 
Anthropology. A description of the human body. 

AN'THROPOID, Anthropoi'des, from avflpuTroj, 
'man,'and£((5of, 'resemblance.' Resembling man: 
— as the ape. 

ANTHROPOL'ITHUS, from avepwiro^, 'man,' 
and \idog, 'a stone.' The petrifaction of the 
human body or of any of its parts. Morbid con- 
cretions in the human body. 

ANTHROPOL'OGY, Anthropolof/"ia, from 
nf^puTTOf, 'man,' and Aoyoj, 'a discourse.' A 
treatise on man. By some, this word is used for 
the science of the structure and functions of the 
human body. Frequently, it is employed synony- 
mously with Natural History and Physiology of 
Man. 

ANTHROPOMAGNETISMUS, Magnetism, 
animal. 

ANTHROPOMANCY, Anthropomanti'a, from 
ov3f)uiroj, 'a man,' and jiavrua, 'divination.' Di- 
vination by inspecting the entrails of a dead man. 

ANTHROPOM'ETRY, from ai/Spa.7ro;, 'a man,' 
and fitTpov, 'measure.' Measurement of the di- 
mensions of the different parts of the human body. 

ANTHROPOMORPHOLOGY, Anatomy (de- 
scriptive). 

ANTHROPOMORPHUS, Atropa mandragora. 

ANTHROPON'OMY, Anthroponom'ia, from 
ai'3-puiTOf, 'man,' and vo/ios, 'law.' A knowledge 
of the special laws which preside over the func- 
tions of the human body in action. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGUS, (F.) Anthropophage, 
from av^parro;, 'a man,' and ^ayu, 'I eat.' A 
name given to one who eats his own species. 

ANTHROPOPH'AGY, Anthrojwjjha'gia, same 
etymon. The custom of eating human flesh. A 
disease in which there is great desire to eat it. 

ANTHROPOS, Homo. 

ANTHROPOSCOPIA, Physiognomy. 

ANTHROPOTOMY, Andranatomia. 

ANTHUS, Flos. 

ANTHYPNOT'IC, Anthypnot'icns, Antihyp- 
not'ic, Agrypnot'ic, from avri, 'against,' and 
'vrvwrtKo;, 'stupefying.' A remedy for stupor. 

ANTHYPOCHON'DRIAC, Anthypochondri'- 
acus, from avri, 'against,' and 'v-Ko-xovipiaKo^, 'hy- 
pochondriac' A remedy for hypochondriasis. 
_ ANTHYSIER'IC,_ Antihyster'ic, Antihyster'- 
icus, from avri, 'against,' and 'varepa, 'the ute- 
rus.' A remedy for hysteria. 

ANTI, avTi, as a prefix, in composition, gene- 
rally means 'opposition.' 

ANTIADES, Tonsils. 

ANTIADITIS, Cynanche tonsillaris. 

ANTIADON'CUS, from avna&e;, 'the tonsils.' 
and oyKos, 'tumour.' A swelling of the tonsils. 
— Swediaur. Anti'ager has a similar meaning. 

Antiadoncus Inflammatorius, Cynanche ton- 
eillaris. 

ANTIAPOPLEC'TIC, Antiapoplec'ticu^, Anta- 
poplec'ticus, Apoplec' ticus, from avn, 'against,' 
and aTzon'Xriita, 'apoplexy.' A remedy for apo- 
plexy. 



ANTIARIS TOXICARIA, see Upas. 
ANTIARTHRIT'IC, Antarthrit'ic, Antiar- 
thrit'icns, Aiitipoday'ric, from uvtl, 'against,' 
and ap^piTis, 'the gout,' (F.) Antigoutteux. A 
remedy for gout. 

ANTIASTHEN'IC, Antiasthcn'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and aadcvcia, 'debility.' A remedy for 
debility. 

ANTIASTHMAT'IC,. Antiasthmat'icus, Ant- 
astkmat'icus, from avn, 'against,' and aa^im, 
'asthma.' A remedy for asthma. 
ANTIATROPHICUS, Antatrophic. 
ANTIBALLOMENUM, Succedaneum. 
ANTIBDELLA, Antlia sanguisuga. 
ANTIBECHICUS, Expectorant. 
ANTIBRA'CHIAL, Antibrachia'Us. That 
which concerns the fore-arm.— Bichat. J. Clo- 
quet suggests that the word should be written an- 
tebrachial, from arite, 'before,' and brachiitm, 
'the arm' — as antebrachial region, antebrachial 
aponeurosis, &c. 

Antebra'chial Aponeuro'sis, (F.) Aponiv- 
rose antebrachiale, is a portion of the aponeurotic 
sheath which envelops the whole of the upper 
limb. It arises from the brachial aponeurosis, 
from a fibrous expansion of the tendon of the 
biceps muscle, from the epicondyle, epitrochlea, 
and, behind, from the tendon of the triceps bra- 
chialis. Within, it is inserted into the cubitus, 
etc.; and, below, is confounded with the two an- 
nular ligaments of the carpus. It is covered by 
the skin, by veins, lymphatics, and by filaments 
of superficial nerves ; it covers the muscles of the 
fore-arm, adheres to them, and sends between 
them several fibrous septa, which serve them for 
points of insertion. 

ANTIBRACHIUM, Fore-arm. 
ANTIBRO'MIC, Antibro'micu,, from avn^ 
'against,' and fipoi/xos, 'foetor.' A Deo'dorizei: 
An agent that destroys offensive odours — as 
chloride of zinc, simple sulphate of alumina, &c. 
ANTICACHEC'TIC, Anticachec'ticus, Antica- 
cochym'ie, from avTi, 'against,' and Ka^^e^ia, 'ca- 
chexy.' A remedy against cachexy. 
ANTICACOCHYMIC, Anticachectic. 
ANTICAN'CEROUS, Anticancero'sus, Ami- 
cancro'stcs, Anticareinom'atoxis, Antischir'rous, 
from avTi, 'against, and KapKivoifta, 'cancer,' car- 
cinoma. Opposed to cancer. 
ANTICANCROSUS, Anticancerous. 
ANTICARCINOMATOUS, Anticancei-ous. 
ANTICARDIUM, Fossette du cceur, Scrobicu- 
lus cordis. 

ANTICATAR'RHAL, Anticatarrha'lu, Anti- 
catarrho'icus, from avn, 'against,' and Karappos, 
' catarrh.' A remedy for catarrh. 

ANTICAUSOD'IC, Anticausot'ic, Anticau- 
sod'icus, from avn, 'against,' and Kavaog, 'a burn- 
ing fever,' A remedy for causua or inflammatory 
fever. 

ANTICAUSOTIC, Anticausodic. 
ANTICHEIR, Pollex, see Digitus. 
ANTICHCERADICUS, Antiscrofulous. 
ANTICHOL'ERIC, Antieholer'ious, from avn, 
' against,' and cholera. A remedy against cho- 
lera. 

ANTICHOLERICA, Sophora heptaphylla. 
ANTICIPATING, Antic"ipans, Antepo'neu,, 
Prolept'icus, (F.) Anticij)ant. An epithet for a 
periodical phenomenon, recurring at progress- 
ively shorter intervals. An anticipating ititei - 
mittent is one in which the intervals between the 
paroxysms become progressively less. 
ANTICNEMIUM, Shin. 
ANTICCEUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 
ANTICOL'IC, Anticol'icus, from avn, ' against,' 
and (cuXtKos, ' the colic' That which is opposed 
to colic. 
ANTICOMMA, Contre-oova. 



ANTICOPE 



72 



ANTIMOINE 



ANTICOPE. Contre-coup. 

ANTICOPOSCOPIUM, Plesimeter. 

ANTICRUSIS, C'o„tre-co,ip. 

ANTICRUSMA, Contre-coup. 

ANTICUS, Anterior. 

ANT/ DA R THE UX, Antiherpetic. 

ANTIDEIXIS, Counter-indication. 

ANTIDIARRHCE'IC, AnticUarrhce'icus. A 
rameclv for diarrhoea. Opposed to diarrhoea. 

ANTID'INIC, AntUNn'icus, Din'ic, Biu'icm, 
from uvTi, 'against,' and Sipoi, 'vertigo.' Opposed 
to vertisro. 

AN'TIDOTAL, Antidota'iis, same etymon as 
antidote. Relating to an antidote f possessed of 
the powers of an antidote. 

AXTIDOTA'RIUM, from avniorov, 'an anti- 
dote.' A dispensatory. A pharmacopoeia or for- 
mulary. An'tidotaky was used formerly for any 
composition that had the properties of an anti- 
dote. 

ANTIDOTARY, see Antidotarium. 

AN'TIDOTE, ^)i*u/'o?«m,from avn, 'against, 
and 6iSu>ni, 'I give.' Originally, this word signi- 
ied an infernal remedij. It is now used synony- 
mously with counter-poison, antiphar'mncinn, (F.) 
Contre-poison, and signifies any remedy capable 
of combating the effect of poison. 

A List of reputed Antidotes. 

Chalk. 
Soap. 

5. SULPHCRETS. 

Sulphuretted Hydrogen, 

dissolved in'water. 
Sulphurel; of Potassium. 

6. Haloids. 
Chlorine. 

7. Metallic Oxides. 
Hydrated Sesqui-oxide of 

Iron. 
Mixed Oxides of Iron. 

8. Organic Substances. 
Albuminous Substances. 

(Albumen, Casein, and 

Gluten.) 
Starch. 
Oil. 

Animal Charcoal. 



1. 'Ietals. 
Iron Filings. 
Zinc Filing's. 

2. ActDS. 
Tannic Acid. 
Acetic or Citric Acid. 

3. Salts. 
Alkaline or Earthy Sul- 
phates. 

Chloride of Sodium. 
Hypochlorite of Soda or 
of Lime. 

4. Alkalines. 
Ammonia. 

Carbonates of .\mmonia. 
Carbonates of Soda. 
Macmesia. 

Carbonate of Magnesia. 
Lime Water. 



ANTIDOTUM HERACLIDIS, Enneaphar- 
Diacos — a. Mithridatium, Mithridate. 

ANTIDYNAMICA, Debilitants. 

ANTIDYNOUS, Anodyne. 

ANTIDYSENTER'IC, Antidi/senier'ieua, from 
avTt, 'against,' 6vs, 'with difficulty,' and cvrtpov, 
'intestine.' Opposed to dysentery. 

A N T I E M E T'l C, Antemet'ic, Antiemet'icus, 
from avTt, 'against,' and sf'ZTiKoi, 'emetic' A 
remedy for vomiting. 

ANTIEPHIAL'TIC or ANTEPHIAL'TIC, 
AntiepJn'al'ticns, from avrt, 'against,' and t^JiaAr;;?, 
'nightmare.' A remedy for nightmare. 

ANTIEPILEP'TIC or ANTEPILEP'TIC, 
Aiiliepilep'ticiu, from avrt, 'against,' and ewi- 
X-ji^i I, 'epilepsy.' A remedy for epilepsy. 

ANTIFEBRILIS, Febrifuge. 

ANTIGALAC'TIC, Antiyidac'ticua, Avtilnc'- 
tciit, from nvTt, 'against,' and yaXa, yoXaitrof, 
•milk.' (F.) Antilnileuj-. Opposed to the secre- 
tion of milk or to diseases caused by the milk. 

ANTIG'ONI COLLYR'IUM NIGRUM, Black 
v»f/i/n'um o/ AsTiG'oxr.s. It was composed of 
ea<liui:i, antimony, pepper, verdigris, gum Arabic, 
tind w:iter. 

ANTIGUA, see West Indies. 

ANTIH^MOPTYICUS, Anthremoptyieus. 

ANTIIIEC'TIC. Antihec'tkus, Anthec'ticun, 
f'-om avTi, ' igainst,' and 'c^n, 'habit of body.' 



The Antihec'ticum Pote'rii is the white oxyd of 
antimony ; also called Diaphoret'icum Jovia'le. 

ANTIHELIX, Anthelix. 

ANTIHELMINTICUS, Anthelmintic. 
^ ANTinEMORRHAG"IC, Antihamorrhag". 
tens, Anth(Bmorrhf<fi"icus, from avrc, 'against,' 
and 'aijxopiiayia, 'hemorrhage.' That wliich is 
against hemorrhage; an antihemorrhagic re- 
medy. 

ANTinEM0RRH0ID'AL,^«f!^<jmo7-rAoirfa'- 
lis, from avn, 'against,' and 'ai/joppoifcs, 'hemor- 
rhoids.' A remedy for hemorrhoids. 

ANTIHERPET'IC, Antiherpet'irus, from avrt, 
'against,' and 'efne;, 'herpes.' (F.) Amidartreux, 
A remedy for herpes. 

ANTIHYDROPHOB'IC, Antihjdrophoh'icus, 
Antilyn'sua, Alt/s'sus, from avTi, 'against,' 'vStafi, 
'water,' and 'poiJoi, 'dread.' A remedy for hydro- 
phobia. 

ANTIHYDROP'IC, Antihydrop'icvx. Hydrop'. 
icus, from avrt, 'against,' and 'u^pui//, ' dropsy.' A 
remedy for dropsy. 

ANTIHYPNOTIC, Anthypnotic. 

ANTIHYSTERIC, Anthysteric. 

ANTI-ICTERIC, Auti-icter'icus, Irter'ictts, 
from Qvrt, ' against,' and iKTcpos, 'jaundice.' A 
remedy for jaundice. 

ANTI-IMPETIGENES, SOLOMON'S, see 
Liquor Hydrargyri oxymuriatis. 

ANTILABIUM, Prolabium, see Antclabia. 

ANTILACTEUS, Antigalactic. 

ANTILAITEUX, Antigalactic. 

ANTILEP'SIS, Apprelien'sio, from avTiXa/«- 
Havui. ' I take bold of.' The mode of ntt;iching a 
bandage over a diseased part, by fixing it upon 
the sound parts. — Hippocrates. The mode of 
securing bandages, Ac, from slipping. Treats 
ment by revulsion or derivation. 

ANTILETHAR'GIC, Antilethor'gieus, from 
avri, 'against,' and Xn^apytKos, 'affected with 
lethargy.' A remedy for lethargy. 

ANTILITH'ICS, Antilith'ica, Lith'ica, from 
avTi, 'against,' and Aiflof, 'a stone.' A substance 
that prevents the formation of calculi in the uri- 
nary organs. 

The chief antilithics — according as the calculi 
are lithic acid or phosphatic — are alkalies or 
acids; with revellents, especially change of air j 
tonics, as diosma crenata [?], and uva ursi [?]. 

ANTILLY, MINERAL WATERS OP. A 
celebrated French medicinal spring, near Meaux, 
in France. The waters have not been analyzed; 
but astonishing and chimerical eflfeots have been 
ascribed to them. 

ANTILOBIUM, Antitragus, Tragus. 

ANTILOI'MIC, Antiloi'micus, Antila-'mic, An- 
tipesiilentia'lis, from avrt, 'against,' and Xoi^io;, 
' the plague.' A remedy for the plague. 

ANTILO'PUS. TheAn'telope. (F.) Gazelle, 
from av6os, 'a flower,' and ai;^, 'the eye' — so 
called from its beautiful eye. An African animal, 
whose hoofs and horns were formerly given in 
j hysteric and epileptic cases. 

ANTILYSSUS, Antihydrophobic. 
I ANTIMEL'ANCHOLIC, Antimelaiirhoricus, 
I from avrt, ' against,' and itcXay)(^o\ia, ' melan- 
' choly.' A remedy for melancholy. 
I ANTIMEPHIT'IC, Antimeyhif icus. from avrt, 
I 'against,' and mephitic. A remedy against me- 
i phitie or deleterious gases. 

:J ANTIMIASMAT'iC, Antimiasmaficus, from 
] avrt, ' against,' and iitaapia, fiiacriiaTos, ' miasma.' 

A remedy against miasmatic affections. 
I ANTIMOINE, Antimonium--n. Bevrre d', 
Antimonium muriatura — a. Chlorure d', Antirao- 
niuin muriatum — a. O.ru/e rf', Algaroth — a. Oxide 
. hlanc d', Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. Son/re 
j dore d', Antimonii sulphuretum prrecip^tatum — 
li «. Sut/ure d', Antimonium — o. Sul/u}\'. lu/drosnl- 



ANTIMONIAL 



73 



ANTIMONIUM 



phure rouge d', Antimonii sulphuretum rubrum 
— a. Verve d', Antimonii vitrum. 

ANTIM0'NIAL,^«fniomia7;«, Stibia'lis, from 
antimi/niiim, 'antimony.' A composition into 
which antimony enters. A preparation of anti- 
mony. 

Antimo'nial Powder, Pulvis anh'monia'h's, 
Ox'idum antimo'uii cicni phos'phate calcis, Phos- 
phas calcis stibia'tua sen cal'cicum. stihia'tum, 
Pul'vis Jame'sii seu Rtihia'tus seu de pJwe'phate 
cnlcia et stib'ii compositua, Factitious James's 
Powder, Schwanberg's Fever Powder, Chene- 
Vix's Antimonial Powder, (F.) Potidre antimo- 
nifile compoaee ou de James. A peroxide of an- 
timony combined with phosphate of lime. (Take 
of common siilph'iret of aritimoni/, Ibj ; hartshorn 
shavings, R)ij. Roast in an iron pot, until they 
form a gray powder. Put this into a long pot, 
with a small hole in the cover. Keep it in a red 
heat for two hours, and grind to a fine powder.) 
This preparation has long been esteemed as a 
febrifuge: but it is extremely uncertain in its 
action. The ordinary dose is 6 or 8 grains. 

ANTIMONIALE CAUSTICUM, Antimonium 
muriatum. 

ANTIMONIATUM SULPHUR, Antimonii 
sulphuretum prfficipitatum — a. Tartar, Antimo- 
nium tartarizatum. 

ANTIMONII BUTYRUM, Antimonium mu- 
riatum — a. Calx, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a, 
Cerussa, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. et Po- 
tassse tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. Mu- 
rias, Antimonium muriatum — a. Oleum, Antimo- 
nium muriatum — a. Oxydulum hydrosulphuratum 
aurantiacum, Antimonii sulphuretum prajcipita- 
tum — a. Oxydum, see Algaroth — a. Oxydum aura,- 
tum, Antimonii sulphuratum prsecipitatum — a. 
Oxydum nitro-muriaticum, Algaroth — a. Oxydum 
cum sulphure vitrifactum, Antimonii vitrum — a. 
Oxydum sulphuretum vitrifactum, Antimonii vi- 
trum — a. Oxysulphuretum, A. sulphuretum prseci- 
pitatum — a. Potassio-tartras, Antimonium tartari- 
zatum — a. Regulus medicinalis, Antimonium me- 
dicinale — a. Sal, Antimonium tartarizatum — a. 
Sulphur auratum, Antimonii sulphuretum prte- 
cipitatum — a. Sulphur praecipitatum, Antimonii 
sulphuretum praseipitatum — a. Sulphuretum, 
Antimonium. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Pr^cipita'tum, 
Sulphur antimonia'tum, Hijdrosnlphure'tum ati- 
bio'sum cum sul'phure, Oxo'dea stib'ii sxdphura'- 
tnm, Oxyd'ultim antimo'nii hydrosxdphura'tnvi 
aurantV Ileum, Ox'ydum aurn'tum avtimo'nii, Sul- 
phure'ttim stib'ii oa-ydula'ti, Hjjdro-aul/ure'tum 
lu'teum ox'ydi stib'ii siilfura'ti, Sulphur antimo'- 
nii prcBcipitn'tum, Sulphur aura'tum antimo'nii, 
Golden Sulphur of Antimony. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Prcpcipitatum, A. Oxy- 
sulphuretum, (F.) Sinfre dorS d'Antimoine, of the 
London Pharmacopoeia, is nearly the same as the 
old Kermes or Chermea ilineral. It is a powder 
of an orange colour, of a metallic, styptic taste. 
It is emetic, diaphoretic, and cathartic, according 
to the dose; and has been chiefly used in chronic 
rheumatism, and in cutaneous aflfeetions. Dose, 
gr, j to gr. iv. 

Antimonii Sulphuretum Praeipitatnm, of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia, is made by boiling 
together Sulphur et of Antimony, in fine powder. 
Solution of Putassn, and distilled water; strain- 
ing the liquor while hot, and dropping into it 
Diluted Sulphuric Acid so long as it produces a 
precipitate. 

Antimo'nii Sulphure'tum Rubrum, i?ef? Sul'- 
phuret of Antimony, Hydrnaulfure'tum stib'ii 
rubrum, Sub-hydrosnl'fas stib'ii. Hydro-anlphure'- 
tum rubrum stib'ii sulpihurn'ti, Pulcis Curthusin- 
no'rum, Kermes or Chermea mineral, (F.) Hydro- 
sul/ure rougii d'Antimoine sulfurS, Vermilion de 



Provence. Properties the same as the last. Dose, 
gr. j to gr. iv. 

Antimonii Tartras, Antimonium tartarizatum 
— a. Tartras et Potasste, Antimonium tartarizatum 
— a. Vitrum hyaciuthinum, Antimonii vitrum — a. 
Tersulphuretum, Antimonium. 

Antimo'nii Vitrum, Glass of Antimony, Anti- 
mo' nil ox'ydum sulphure'tum vitrifac'tum. Ox' - 
ydum stib'ii semivit'reum, Antimo'nium vitrifac'- 
tum, Ox'ydum antimo'nii cum sul'phure vitrifac'- 
tum, Vitrum stib'ii, Antimo'nii vitrum hynrin'- 
thinum, Oxyd'ulum stib'ii vitrea'tum, (F.) Verre 
d'Antimoine. (Formed by roasting powdered 
common antimony in a shallow vessel, over a 
gentle fire, till it is of a whitish gray colour, and 
emits no fumes in a red heat; then melting it, on 
a quick fire, into a clean, brownish red glass.) 
It has been used for preparing the tartarized 
antimony and antimonial wine. 

ANTIiMONIOUS ACID, Antimonium diapho- 
reticum. 

ANTIMO'NIUM, of unknown derivation ; by 
some supposed to be from avn, 'against,' and 
Hovos, 'alone;' i. e. not found alone: or, accord- 
ing to others, from avrt, 'against,' and muine, 'a 
monk;' because, it is asserted, certain monks 
suffered much from it. Stibi, Stib'ium, Peq'nlus 



ijne' 



Antimo'nii, 3Iinera'lium, GyncBce'um, 3Ii. 
Sutur'ni, Mitrcasi'ta plum'bea, Platynphthal'mor, 
Stim'mi, Aurum lepro'aum, Antimo'nium crudum, 
Antimo'nii sulphure'tum (Ph. U. S.), A. Tersul- 
phure' turn, Sulphure'tum stib'ii nigrum, Common 
or Crude Antimony, Sulphuret of Antimony, (F. ) 
Aniimoine, Sulfure d'Antimoine. Sulphuret of 
antimony is the ore from which all the prepara- 
tions of antimony are formed. In Pharmacy, it 
is the native sesquisulphuret of antimony, puri- 
fied by fusion. When prepared for medical use, 
by trituration and levigation, it forms a powder, 
Antimo'nii sulphure'tum praepara'tum, (Ph. D.) 
of a black, or bluish gray colour, which is inso- 
luble. It is slightly diaphoretic and alterative, 
and has been used in chronic rheumatism, cuta- 
neous diseases, <fcc. 

Antimonium Album, Bismuth — a. Calcinatum, 
Antimonium diaphoreticum. 

Antimo'nium Diaphoret'icum, Dlaphoret'ia 
Antimony, Antimo'nious Acid, Min'eral Bez'oard, 
Antimo'nium Calcina'tum, Mineral Diaphoret'ic, 
3Iatiire perUe de Kerkring, Peroxide of Anti- 
mony, Calx Antimo'nii, Antimo'nium diaphoret'- 
icum lotum, Cerus'sa Antimo'nii, Calx -intimo'nii 
elo'ta, Oxo'des stib'ii album, Ox'ydum stibio'aum, 
Ox'ydum atib'ii album median'te nitro confectum, 
PotaascB biantimo'nias, Deutoxide of Antimony, 
(F.) Oxide blanc d'Antimoine pr^parS par It 
moyen dti nitre. {Common antimony, Ibj; purified 
nitre, ftiij. — Throw it by spoonfuls into a red-hot 
crucible; powder and wash. The flowers that 
stick to the side of the crucible must be carefully 
separated, otherwise they render it emetic,} 
Dose, gr. x. to xxx. 

Antimonium Emeticum, A. tartarizatum. 

Antimo'nium Medicina'le, Peg'ulus Antimo'- 
nii Medicina'lis, Medic"inal Reg'ulus of Anti- 
mony. [Antimon. sulpjhur. ^v Potass, suhcarb. 
5i Sodii chlorid. ^iv. Powder, mix, and melt. 
When cold, separate the scoriae at top, powdtr 
the mass, and wash it well.) It is conctived to 
be more active than common antimony. 

Antimo'nium Muria'tum, Antimo'nii 3fu'rias, 
Chlor'uret of An'timony, Chlorure'tum stib'ii, 
Spuma trium draco'num, Deuto-murias stib'ii 
sublima'tus. Butter of Antimony, Muriate of An- 
timony, Chloride of Antimony , Buty'rum Antimo'. 
nii seu stib'ii, O'leum Antimo'nii, Caua'ticnm anti- 
monia'le, Antimonium sali'tum, (F.) Chlornrt 
d'Antimoine, Beurre d'Antimoine. (Common aa- 



ANTIMONY 



74 



ANTIPHYSICAL 



timony and corrosive sublimate, of en eh equal |1 
parts : grind together, and distil in a wide necked ' 
retort, and let the butyraceous matter, that comes 
over, run, in a moist place, to a liquid oil.) A 
caustic, but not much used as such. Sometimes 
taken as poison. 

Antimonium Salitum, Antimonium muriatura. 

An'timo'vium Tartariza'tom, Tartras anti- 
mo'tiii, Tartras Aiitimo'nii et PotasscB, Antimo'- 
nii et PoUtsscB Tartras (Ph. U. S.), Antimo'mi 
jjot'tH' sio-tnrtras, Tartris Antimn'nii, Tartar An- 
timoma'tum, Sal Antimo'mi, Tartras Potas'sa 
atibio'-ius sen stibia'lis, Tartris lixiv'im atihia'tics, 
BeutO'tartras potas'scB ct stib'ii, Tar'tarus emet'- 
iciis seu stibia'tus, Tar'tarum emet'icum, Antimo'- 
nium emet' iciim, Tar'tarized An'timony, Tartrate 
of Antimony and potas'sa, Potassio-tarlrate of 
Antimony, Emet'ic Tartar, Tartar Emetic, (F.) 
Tartre stibie, Tartre Emetique, Emetique ; in 
8ome parts of the United States, vulgarly and 
improperly called Tartar: (Made by digesting 
sidpliuret of antimony in a mixture of nitric and 
muriatic acids with the aid of heat; filtering the 
liquor, and pouring it into icater : freeing the 
precipitate from acid, by washing and drying it; 
adding this powder to bitartrate of potassa in 
boiling dittilled water ; boiling for an hour, and 
after filtering the liquor while hot, setting it 
aside to crystallize. — Ph. U. S.) Tartarized an- 
timony is emetic, sometimes cathartic and dia- 
phoretic. Externally, it is rubefacient, and in 
the form of ointment, more especially unguentum 
anti'monii is used to cause pustulation. Dose, as 
an emetic, gr. j to gr. iv in solution : as a dia- 
phoretic, gr. one-sixteenth to gr. one-quarter. 

The empirical preparation, called Nouris's 
Drops, consists of a solution of tartarized anti- 
mony in rectified spirit, disguised by the addi- 
tion of some vegetable colouring matter. 

ANTiMONiUJf ViTRiFACTUM, Antimonii vitrum. 

ANTIMONY, Antimonium — a. Butter of, 
Antimonium muriatum — a. Chloride of, Anti- 
monium muriatum — a. Chloruret of, Antimo- 
nium muriatum — a. Common, Antimonium — 
a. Crude, Antimonium — a. Deutoxide of, Anti- 
monium diaphoreticum — a. Flowers of, Alga- 
roth — a. Glass of, Antimonii vitrum — a. Golden 
sulphur of> Antimonii sulphuretum praicipitatum 
— a. Medicinal regulus of, Antimonium medici- 
nale — a. Muriate of, Antimonium muriatum — a. 
Peroxide of, Antimonium diaphoreticum — a. 
Potassio-tartrate of, Antimonium tartarizatum — 
a. Sulphuret of, red, Antimonii sulphuretum ru- 
brum — a. Tartarized, Antimonium tartarizatum — 
a. Terchloride of, see Algaroth — a. Teroxide of, 
gee Algaroth — a. Vegetable, Eupatorium perfoli- 
atum. 

ANTI^^o^JY and Potassa, Tartrate of, Anti- 
monium t;irtarizatum. 

ANTINEPIIRIT'IC, Antinephrct'ic, Antine- 
phret'icni. from avu, 'against,' and v£<j>piTis, 'ne- 
phritis.' A romedvfor inllatninnaon of the kidney. 

ANTINEUROPATHIC, Nervine. 

ANTINEUROTIC, Nervine. 

AXTIXIAD, see Antinial. 

ANTIX'IAL, from avn, 'against.' and iviov, 
' the ridge of the occiput.' An epithet for an 
aspect towards the side opposite to the inion, or 
riilge of the occiput — Barclay. Antiniad is used 
adverbially by the same writer, to signify 'to- 
ward.s the antinial aspect,' 

ANTI'OCIII HI'ERA. A preparation ex- 
tolled by the ancients in melancholy, hydropho- 
bia, epilepsy, (fee. It was formed of germander, 
agaric, pulp of colocynth, Arabian stoechas, opo- 
ponax, sagapenum, parsley, ari«tolochia, white 
pepper, cinnamon, lavender, myrrh, honey, &o. 

Antiochi Theuiaca. A theriac employed by 
Antiocbus against every kind of poison. It was 



composed of thymj, opoponax, millet, trefoil, 
fennel, aniseed, r.igella sativa, &c. 

ANTIODONTAL'GIC, AntodontaVgic, Anto. 
dontal'gicus, Odontal'ijic, Odont'ic, Antiodontal'- 
gicus,from avn ' against,' and oiovraXyjo, 'tooth- 
ache.' A remedy for toothache. 

ANTIORGAS'TIC, Antiorgas'ticus, from avn, 
'against,' and opyow, ' I desire vehemently.' A 
remedy for orgasm or erethism, and for irritation 
in general. 

ANTIPARALYT'IC, Antiparafyt'icut, from 
avn, 'against,' and irapaXvcis, 'palsy.' Opposed 
to palsy. 

ANTIPARASIT'IC, Antiparasit'icus, Anti- 
phtheiriacus, Phthi'rius, Parasit'icide ; from avn, 
'against,' and -apaairoi, 'a parasite.' An agent 
that destroys parasites, as the different vermin 
that infest the body. The chief antiparasitics 
are Cocculus, Staph isngria, Veratrum album, and 
certain of the mercurial preparations. 

ANTIPARASTATI'TIS, from avn, 'opposite,' 
and KapaaraTtis, ' the epididj'mis ;' also, ' the pros- 
tate,' and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflam- 
mation of Cowper's glands. 

ANTIPATHI'A, from avn, 'against,' and nado;, 
'passion, affection.' Aversion. A natural re- 
pugnance to any person or thing. 

ANTIPATII'IC, Antijmth'icus, (F.) Antipu- 
tJiique. Belonging to antipathy. Opposite, con- 
trary, — as humeurs antipathiques ; humours op- 
posed to each other. Also, palliatives. 

ANTIP'ATRI THERIACA, Theriac of Ax- 
tip'ater. a farrago of more than 40 articles : 
used as an antidote against the bites of serpents. 

ANTIPERIOD'IC, Antiperiod'icus, Antityp'- 
icus, from avn, 'against,' and Trtpto^oj, 'period.' 
A remedy which possesses the power of arresting 
morbid periodical movements ; — e. g. the sulphate 
of qninia in intermittents. 

ANTIPERISTAL'TIC, Antiperislal'ticna, An- 
tivermic'ulur, from avn, 'against,' and TtpiffrtAXw, 
*I contract.' An inverted action of the intestinal 
tube. 

ANTIPERIS'TASIS, from avn, 'against,' and 
iT€ptaTa<Tig, 'reunion, aggregation.' A union of 
opposite circumstances : the action of two con- 
trary qualities, one of which augments the force 
of the other. The peripateticians asserted, thai 
it is by Antiperistasis, that fire is hotter in wintei 
than in summer. Theophrastus attributes the 
cause, which renders man more vigorous, and 
makes him digest more readily in winter, to the 
augmentation of heat caused by Antiperistasis. 

ANTIPER'NIUS, from avn, 'against,' and 
Pernio, 'a chilblain.' A remedy against chil- 
blains ; — as Ungnen'tum antiper' nium, an oint- 
ment for chilblains. 

ANTIPERTUSSIS, see Zinci sulphas. 

ANTIPESTILENTIALIS, Antiloimic. 

ANTIPIIARMACUS, Ale.xipharmic. 

ANTIPHLOGIS'TIC, Antiphlogis'tieus, Phlo- 
go'gus, from avn, 'against,' and (jiXcyia, 'I burn.' 
Opposed to inflammation; as Antiphlogistic re- 
medies, A. rer/imen, &c. 

ANTIPIITHEIRIACA, Antiphthiriaca, from 
avn, 'against,' and ^^tipiau, 'I am lousy.' A 
remedy used to destroy lice. 

ANTIPHTIIIS'ICAL, Antiphihis'icns, from 
avn, 'against,' and ^5«tij, 'consumption.' Op 
posed to phthisis. 

ANTIPHYSETICS, Carminatives. 

ANTIPIIYSICA, Carminatives. 

ANTIPIIYS'ICAL, Antiphys'icvs, from avn, 
'against,' and <j>vcaio, 'I blow.' An expeller of 
wind : a carminative. 

It has also been used for any thing preteraa- 
tural ; here, the derivation is from avn, 'against,' 
and ({ivats, 'nature.' The French sometimes say, 
'Uh goat antiphysique,' 'an unnatural taste.' 



ANTIPLASTIC 



ANTRUM 



ANTIPLAS'TIC, Ant!p!as't!cus, Plastiljt'ic, 
Plastilyt' iciia, {rom avri, 'against,' and jrAairrjKoy, 
'formative.' Antiformative. An agent that 
liminishes the quantity of plastic matter — fibrin 
—in the blood. 

ANTIPLEURIT'IC, Antipleuret'icus, Anti- 
p?eiu-et'ic, from avn, 'against,' and TrXtvpiTi;, 
pleurisy.' Opposed to pleurisy. 

ANTIPXEUMON'IC, Anti'pneumon'icus, from 
avTi, 'against,' and irveu/iuwa, 'disease or inflam- 
mation of the lungs.' A remedy for disease or 
iufliimraation of the lungs. 

ANTIPODAGRIC, Antiarthritic. 

ANTIPRAX'IS, from avn, 'against,' and 
irpaaou), 'I act.' A contrary state of diflferent 
parts in the same patient : e. g. an increase of 
heat in one organ, and diminution in another. 

ANTIPSOR'IC, Aiitlpso'iicus, Antisca'biom, 
from avrt, 'against,' and 4'i^pa, 'the itch.' (F.) 
Antigaleux. Opposed to the itch. 

AXTIPUTRID, Antiseptic. 

ANTIPY'IC, Antipy'icus, from avn, 'against,' 
and TTuov, 'pus.' Opposed to suppuration. 

ANTIPYRETIC, Febrifuge. 

ANTIPYROT'IC, Antipyrot'icus, from avn, 
'against,' and Tvp, 'fire.' Opposed to burns or 
to pyrosis. 

ANTIQUARTANA'RIUM, Antiqnar'tium. A 
remedy formerly used against quartan fever. 

ANTIQUUS, Chronic. 

ANTIRHACHIT'IC, AntirhacMficus, from 
tvn, 'against,' and rachitis. Opposed to rachitis, 
or rickets. 

ANTIRHEUMAT'IC, Antirrheumat'ieus; from 
avn, 'against,' and psvpa, 'rheumatism.' A re- 
medy for rheumatism. 

ANTIRHINUM ACUTANGULUM, A. Lina- 
ria — a. Auriculatum, A. Elatine. 

Antirhi'num Elati'ne, a. auricuJa'him, EJn- 
ti'ne, E. hrista'ta, Lina'ria elati'ne, Cymhala' ria 
elati'tre, FlueUfn or Female Speedwell, was for- 
merly' used against scurvy and old ulcerations. 

AsTiRHiNnji Hederaceuji, A. Linaria — a. 
Hederaefulium, A. Linaria. 

AxTiRTii'N-rjr Lina'ria, A. hedera'ceum seu 
hedercB/o'lium seu acutan'gxdum, Lina'ria, L. 
vulga'ris seu cymhala'ria, Elati'ne cymhala'- 
ria, Cymhala' ria mura'lis, Osy'ris, Urina'ria, 
Common T»nd Flax, (F.) Linaire. Ord. Scrophu- 
lariaceaj. The leaves have a bitterish taste. They 
are reputed to be diuretic and cathartic. An 
ointment made from them has been extolled in 
hemorrhoids. 

ANTISCABIOUS, Antipsoric. 

ANTISCIRRHOUS, Anticancerous. 

ANTISCOLETICUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCOLICUS. Anthelmintic. 

ANTISCORBU'TIC, Antiscorbn'ticiis, from 
avn, 'against,' and scorbutus, 'the scurvy.' Op- 
posed to scurvy. 
_ ANTISCROF'ULOUS, Antiscroph'nlom, An- 
t.iscrofulo'sns, Antistrumo'sus, Antichoerad'icua. 
Opposed to scrofula. 

ANTISEP'TIC, Antisej>'ticns, Antipn'trid, 
from avn. 'against,' and airrrro;, 'putrid.' Anti- 
putredino'sus. Opposed to putrefaction. The 
chief antiseptics, internally or externally em- 
ployed, are Acidum Mnriaticum, Acidnm Nitri- 
ciim, Acidum Stdphurieum, Ahtmince sulphas, 
Garbo Ligni, Calx Chlorinata, Chlorin'ium, Cin- 
chona and its active principles. Creosote, Dauci 
Badix, Fermenfum. Cerevisias, Soda Chlorinata, 
and Zinci Chloridnm. 

ANTISIAL'AGOGUE, Antisialago'gua, Anti- 
ri'alus, from avn, 'against,' and aiaXov, 'saliva.' 
A remedv against ptyalisra. 

ANTISPASIS, Derivation, Revulsion. 

ANTISPASMOD'IC, Antispasmod'icus, Anti- 
apas'ticus, from avn, ' against, and OTrata, ' I con- 



tract.' Opposed to spasm. The whole operation 
of antispasmodics is probably revulsive. The 
following are the chief reputed antispasmodics. 
uEther Sulphuricns, Asafcetida, Castoreum, Drn- 
contium, Mosclius, Oleum Animale JJippelii, and 
Valeriana — with the mental antispasmodics, ab- 
straction, powerful emotions, fear, &c. Of direct 
antispasmodics, we have no example. 

ANTISPASTICUS, Antispasmodic, Deriva- 
tive. 

ANTISQUA'MIC, Antisqua'micus ; from ant,, 
'against,' and squama, 'a scale.' A name given 
by Mr. Headland to a medicine, which, by acting 
on the blood, removes cutaneous affections. The 
name is inappropriate, as the true scaly diseases 
— lepra and psoriasis — are not the only ones that 
require the use of eutrophios. 

ANTISTASIS, Antagonism. 

ANTISTERYG'MA, from avn, 'against,' and 
oTTipvypa, ' a support.' A fulcrum, support, crutch. 
— Hippocrates. 

ANTISTER'NUM, from avn, 'against,' and 
mepvov, 'the sternum.' The back. — Rufus. 

ANTISTRUMOUS, Antiscrofulous. 

ANTISYPHILIT'IC, AntisyphiUt'icus, from 
avn, 'against,' and syphilis, 'the venereal dis- 
ease.' Opposed to the venereal disease. 

ANTITASIS, Counter-extension. 

ANTITHENAR, Opponens pollicis. Adductor 
pollicis pedis. 

ANTITHERMA. Refrigerants. 

ANTITHORA, Aconitum anthora. 

ANTITRAG'ICUS, Antitra'rjeus, (F.) Muscle 
de I'Antitragus, M. antitragien. — (Ch.) Belong- 
ing to the antitragais. A small muscle is so 
called, the existence cf which is not constant. 
It occupies the space between the antitragus and 
anthelix. 

ANTITRAGTEN, Antitragicus. 

ANTIT'RAGUS, from avn, ' opposite to,' and 
rpayvg, 'the tragus,' Antilo'hium, Oblo'hium. A 
conical eminence on the pavilion of the ear, op- 
posite the tragus. 

ANTITYP'IA, from avn, 'against,' and Ttntra, 
'I strike.' Resistance. Hardness. Repercus- 
sion. 

ANTITYPICUS, Antiperiodie. 

ANTIVENE'REAL, Antivene'reus,tTom ovt., 
'against,' and Venus, 'Venus.' The same as An- 
tisyphilitic. Formerly it was used synonymously 
with Antaphrodisiac. 

ANTIVERMICULAR, Antiperistaltic. 

ANTIVERMINOSUS, Anthelmintic. 

ANT'LIA or ANTLI'A, from avrXsiv, 'to 
pump out.' A syringe; a pump. Hence, ^n^Zia 
lac'tea, Lactisu'gium, a breast-pump _: and Antlia 
sanguisu'ga, Antibdel'la, Hiru'do artificia'lis, the 
exhausting syringe used in cupping. 

Antlia Gastrica, Stomach-pump. 

ANTODONTALGIC, Antiodontalgic. 

ANTODYNUS, Anodyne. 

ANTRAX, Anthrax. 

AN THE, Antrum — a. d'Hyghmore, Antrum 
of Highmore. 

ANTROVERSIO, Anteversio. 

ANTRUM, 'a cavern,' Cavern'a, Ear'athrum, 
(F.) Autre. A name given to certain cavities in 
bones, the entrance to which is smaller than the 
bottom. 

Antrum Auris, Tympanum — a. Buecinosum, 
Cochlea, Labyrinth — a. Dentale, see Tooth — a. 
Pylori, see Stomach. 

Antrum op Highmore, Antrum Highmoria'- 
num seu GencB seu maxilla're seu maxil'la: snpe- 
rio'ris, Genyan'trum, Gnathan'trum, Ilax'illary 
Sinus, Sinus Gence pituifa'rius, (F.) Autre d'Eygh- 
more. Sinus Maxillaire. A deep cavity in the 
substance of the superior maxillary bone com- 
municating with the middle meatus of the noMi 



ANTSJAR 



76 



APERIENT 



Tt is lined by a prolongation of the Schneiderian 
membrane. 

ANTSJAR, Upas. 
ANULARIS, Annular. 
AXULUS, Foasetfe. 
AN URESIS, Ischuria. 
ANURIA, Ischuria. 
AXUROCRINIE, see Ischuria. 
AXURORRHEE, see Ischuria. 
ANUS, 'a circle,' Podex, Potex, 3[ol'yne, Mo- 
l;/ii'ie, Dactyl'ioa, Cath'edra, Cyr'ceon, Cys'saroH, 
Oi/'fthos, Aph'edra, Aph'edron, Hedra, Proctoa, 
Archos, Sedes, Culm, Ca'leon. The circular open- 
ing situate at the inferior extremity of the rectum, 
by which the excrement is cupelled. The/unda- 
njent. The body. The seat, (F.) Sleye, Fonde- 
ment. 

Anus also signifies the anterior orifice of the 
Aqueduct of Sylvius. By some, this Anus, called, 
also, Fora'men commu'ue poste'rius, has been 
supposed to form a communication between the 
back part of the third ventricle and the lateral 
ventricles. It is closed up, however, by the tela 
choroidea, and also by the fornix, which is inti- 
mately connected with this. The foramen is 
situate between the cominissura mollis of the 
optic thalami and the pineal gland. 

Anus, Artificial. An opening made artifi- 
cially, to supply the place of the natural anus. The 
term is often used to include preternatural anus. 
An'cs Cerebri, see Aqu«ductus Sylvii. 
Ants, Contract'ed, (F.) Anus retreci. A state 
of the anus when, from some cause, it is con- 
tracted. 

An'us, Imper'forate. a malformation, in 
which there is no natural anus. See Atresia ani 
adnata. 

Axes, Preternat'ural, (F.) Anus contre na- 
ture, A. anormal. An accidental opening which 
gives issue to the whole or to a pare of the fasces. 
It may be owing to a wound, or, which is more 
common, to gangrene attacking the intestine in 
a hernial sac. 

This term is also employed, as well as Anus 
devie, de'vious anus, to the case where the anus, in- 
stead of being in its natural situation, is in some 
neighbouring cavity, as the bladder, vagina, etc. 
ANXIETAS, Anxiety — a. Praecordiorum, see 
Anxiety. 

ANXI'ETY, AnxVetas, Anxi'etude, Adcemo'- 
nia, Dyspho'ria anxi'etas, Alys'mus, Al'yce, Al'- 
ysis, Ase, (F.) AnxiHe, from angere, Gr. ay^ttv, 
'to strangle, to suffocate.' A state of restlessness 
and agitation, with general indisposition, and a 
distressing sense of oppression at the epigastrium, 
Anxi'etas prcBCordio'rum. Inquietude, anxiety, 
and anguish, represent degrees of the same con- 
dition. 

ANYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AOCIILE'SIA, from a, priv., and o;:^Xof, 'dis- 
turbance.' Tranquillity, calmness. 

AOR'TA, Arte'ria maqna seu cvassa sen max'- 
ima, Hcemal Axis, of Owen, (F.) Aorte. This 
name was given by Aristotle to the chief artery 
of the body. It may have been derived from 
aofTtonai, 'I am suspended,' as it seems to be 
suspended from the heart; or from ai^jj, 'air,' and 
TJjofd), 'I keep,' because it was supposed to con- 
tain air. It is ptobable that Hippocrates meant 
by aoorai the bronchia and their ramifications. 
The aorta is the common trunk of the arteries of 
the body. It arises from the left ventricle of the 
heart, about opposite to the fifth dorsal vertebra, 
passes upwards (ascending Aorta), forms t\\e great 
arch of the Aorta, and descends along the left 
of the spine {descending A"rtn), until it reaches 
the middle of the fourth or fifth lumbar vertebra, 
where it bifurcates, to give origin to the common 
lliacs. The aorta is sometimes divided into the 



Thoracic or Pectoral, and the Abdominal For 
the arteries which arise from it, etc., see Artery. 
AOR TASTE, Aorteurysma. 
AORTJECTASfE, Aorteurysma. 
AORTEURYS'iMA, from aopr,,, 'the aorta,' 
and tvpvs, 'dilated.' Aneurism of the Aorta, (F.) 
An6vrysme de I'Aorte, Aortectasie, Aortasie. — 
Piorry. By carefully auscultating over the dor- 
sal vertebra, a bellows' sound, with a deep and 
not always perceptible impulse, may be detected. 
AOR'TIC, Aor'ticus. Relating to the Aorta. 
The Aortic ventricle, (F.) Yentricule Aortique, is 
the left ventricle. The Aortic valves are the sig- 
moid valves at the origin of the Aorta, etc. 

AORTI'TIS, Injiamma'tio Aor'tcB, from Aorta, 
and itis, denoting inflammation. Inflammation 
of the aorta, 

AORTRA, Aortron. A lobe of the lungs.— 
Hippocrates. 

AO'TUS, from a, privative, and oif, laroi, 'an 
ear.' A monster devoid of ears. — Gurlt. 

APAG'MA, Apoclas'ma, Apocecnnlis'menon, 
from airo, 'from,' and ayia, 'I remove.' Separa- 
tion, abduction. Separation of a fractured bone. 
— Galenus, Foesius. 

APAGOGE, Defecation, Inductio, 
APALACHINE, Ilex vomitoria— a. d FeuiUet 
de Prunier. Prmos — a. Gallis, Ilex vomitoria. 

APAL'LAGE, ApaUax'is, from a-traXarTU), 'I 
change.' Mutation, change. It is generally 
taken in a good sense, and means the change 
from disease to health. — Hippocrates. 
APALLAXIS, Apallage. 

APALOT'ICA, from arraXorris, 'softness, ten- 
derness.' Fortuitous lesions or deformities affect- 
ing the soft parts. The first order in the class 
Tychica, of Good. 
APANTHESIS, Apanthismus. 
A PAN T HIS 'M US, Apanthe'sis, from 0^:0, 
'from,' and avOio), 'I flower.' The obliteration 
of parts previously inservient to useful purposes, 
as of the ductus venosus and ductus arteriosus, 
which are essential to fcetal existence, but are 
subsequently unnecessary. See also Stuprum. 

APANTHRO'PIA, from otto, 'from,' and a»- 
•Spwiro?, 'man.' Detestation of man; desire for 
solitude. — Hippocrates. One of the symptomg 
of hypochondriasis. 

APAPHRISMOS, Deijpumation. 
APARACH'YTUM VINUM, from a, priv., 
and KOfiaxvoi, 'I pour over.' The purest wine: 
that which has not been mixed with sea-water. — 
Galen. 

APARINE, Galium aparine — a, Hispida, Ga- 
lium aparine. 

APARTHROSIS, Diarthrosis. 
AP'ATHY, Apathi'a, Ameli'a, from a, priva- 
tive, and va^oi, 'affection.' (F.) Apathie. Ac- 
cidental suspension of the moral feelings. It 
takes place in very severe diseases, particularly 
in malignant fevers. 

APECHE'MA, from avo, 'from,' and fj\'o{, 
'sound.' Properly the action of reflecting sound. 
In medicine, it is synonymous with the Latin 
Contrafssura, a counter-fissure, a counter-blow. 
— Gorraeus, Celsus. 

APECTOCEPHALUS, Acephalothorus. 
APEL'LA, Appcl'la, Leipod-er'mos, Recuti'tut, 
from a, priv., And pellis, 'skin.' One whose pre- 
puce does not cover the glans. — Galenus, Lin- 
naeus, Vogel. Retraction or smallness of any 
other soft appendage. — Sagar. One who is cir- 
cumcised. 

APEPSIA, Dyspepsia. 

APE'RIENT, Ape'riena, Aperiti'vns, from ape- 
rire (ab and pario), 'to open.' Jies'erans. A 
laxative. (F.) Aperitif. A medicine which 
gently opens the bowels. The terra had for- 
merly a much more extensive signification, and. 



APERISTATON 



77 



APIASTRUM 



like Catalyt'icum, was given to a substance sup- 
posed to have the power of opening any of the 
passages, and even the blood-vessels. 

APERIS'TATON, Aperis'tatum, from a, pri- 
vative, and TrcpicTTTjiii, 'I surround.' An epithet 
for an ulcer not dangerous nor considerable nor 
surrounded by inflammation. 

APERITIF, Aperient. 

APERITIVUS, Aperient. 

APERTOR OCULI, Levator palpebrae supe- 
rioris. 

APERTO'RIUM, from aperio, 'I open.' An 
instrument for dilating the os uteri during labour. 

APERTURA, Mouth — a. Anterior ventriculi 
tertii cerebri, Vulva (cerebri) — a. Pelvis superior, 
tiee Pelvis. 

APEUTHYSMEXOS, Rectum. 

APEX, JIucro. The point or extremity of a 
part, — as the apex of the tongue, nose, etc. 

Apex Linguae, Proglossis. 

APH^^RESIS, Apheresis, Extirpation. 

APHALANGI'ASIS, from a, 'intensive,' and 
^aXay^, 'phalanx.' The fourth stage of Oriental 
leprosy, which is recognised chiefly by a gangre- 
nous condition of the fingers. 

APHASSOM'ENOS, from a0ao-<ra., 'I touch, I 
ffeel.' The touching of the parts of generation 
of the female as a means of diagnosis. — Hippo- 
crates. See Esaphe. 

APHEDRA, Anus. 

APHEDRIA, Menses. 

APHEDRON, Anus. 

APHELI'A, atpeXrjs, 'simple.' Simplicity. 
The simple manners of the sect of Methodists in 
teaching and practising medicine. 

APHELX'IA, from a(pe\Kut, 'I abstract.' Vo- 
luntary inactivity of the whole or the greater 
part of the external senses to the impressions of 
surrounding objects, during wakefulness. Jte- 
very, (F.) Reverie. Dr. Good has introduced 
this into his Nosology, as well as Aphelx'ia so- 
pors or absence of mind — A. inten'ta or abstrac- 
tion of mind: and A, otio'sa, Stii'dium ina'ne, 
Genospu'dia, brown study or listless musing. 

APHEPSEMA, Decoction. 

APHEPSIS, Decoction. 

APHE'RESIS, Aphw'resis, from a(f>atpcu, 'I 
take away.' An operation by which any part of 
the body is separated from the other. Hippo- 
crates, according to Foesius, uses the expression 
AphcB'resis San'guinis for excessive hemorrhage ; 
and Sennertus, to express the condition of an 
animal deprived both of the faculties of the mind 
and of the mind itself. 

APH'ESIS, from aipivfi, 'I relax.' A remis- 
sion. This word expresses sometimes the dimi- 
nution or cessation of a disease; at others, lan- 
guor and debility of the lower extremities. See 
Languor, and Remission. 

APHILAN'THROPY, Aphilavthro'pia, from a, 
privative, i/kXeu), *I love,' and av5pii)no;, 'a man.' 
Dislike to man. Love of solitude. Vogel has 
given this name to the first degree of melancholy. 

APHISTESIS, Abscess. 
APHODEUMA, Excrement 

APHODUS, Excrement. 

APHONETUS, Aphonus. 

APHO'NIA, Liya'tio lingnm, Loque'la abol'ita, 
Defec'tus loque'la, Dyspho'nia, (of some,) Aph'- 
ony, (P.) Aphonie, Perte de la Voix, from a, pri- 
vative, and <po)vt], 'voice.' Privation of voice, or 
of the sounds that ought to be produced in the 
glottis. When aphonia forms part of catarrh or 
of 'cold,' it is commonly but of little consequence; 
but when produced by causes acting on the ner- 
vous system, as by some powerful emotion, or 
without any appreciable lesion of the vocal appa- 
ratus, (Laryngo-paralysis,) it frequently resists 
aD vemedies. 



Aphonia, Catalepsy — a. Surdorum, Mutitai 
.lurdorum. 

APHONICUS, Aphonus. 

APHO'NUS, Apko'nicus, ApTio'netus ; same 
ety.Taon. Relating to aphonia. 

APHONY, Aphonia. 

APHORIA, Sterilitas. 

APHORICUS, Sterile. 

APiiORUS^ Sterile. 

APHOR'ME, a^opfirj, 'occasion.' The exter 
nal and manifest cause of any thing. The occa, 
sional cause of a disease. — Hippocrates. 

APHRO'DES, 'frothy,' from a(f>pos, 'foam,' 
and eiioi, 'resemblance.' Applied to the blood 
and the excrements. — Hippocrates. 

APHRODISIA, Coition, Puberty. 

APHRODIS'IAC, Aphrodisiacas, from A0po- 
SiTrj, 'Venus,' (F.) Aphrodisiaque. Medicine 
or food believed to be capable of exciting to the 
pleasures of love; as ginger, cantharides, &c. 
They are generally stimulants. 

APHRODISIACUS, Venereal. 

APHRODISIASMUS, Coition. 

APHRODISIOG'RAPHY, from A^poSirv, 'Ve- 
nus,' and ypa^o), 'I describe.' Etymologically, 
this term means a description of the pleasures of 
love, but it has been placed at the head of a work 
describing the venereal disease. 

APHRODITIC, Venereal. 

APHROG'ALA, from a<Ppo?, 'foam,' and ya\a, 
'milk.' Lac spvmo'snm. A name formerly given 
to milk rendered frothy by agitation. 

APHRONIA, Apoplexy. 

APHRONITRUM, Natrum, Soda. 

APHROSYNE, Delirium, Insanity. 

APHTHA, ApJitcB, ApthcB, from ajrru, 'I in- 
flame.' Thrush or sore mouth, Aphtha lactu'ci- 
men seu Infun'tum, Lnctu'cimen, Lactucim'ina, 
Lactu'mina, Al'colcB, Em'phlysis apjhtha, Uhera 
serpen'tia oris, Pus'tula oris, Febris aphtho'sn, 
Angi'na aphtho'sa, Vesic'ulcB gingiva'rum, Sto- 
mati'tis exsudati'va seu vesiculo'sa infan'tum, Sto. 
map'yra, S. aphtha, Primel'l<i, White Thrush, 
3Iilk Thrush. Aphthae consist of roundish, pearl- 
coloured vesicles, confined to the lips, mouth, 
and intestinal canal, and generally terminating 
in curd-like sloughs. In France, the Aphtha} oi 
children, Aphthes des Enfans, is called Mngtiet, 
Millet, Blanchet, Catarrhe buccal and Stomatite 
cremeuse pultacie, Pultaceous inflammation of 
the llouth; and generally receives two divisions 
— the mild or discreet, (F.) Mugnct benin ou dis- 
cret, and the malignant, (P.) Muguet vinlin ou 
confluent, the Black Thrush. Common Thrush is 
a disease of no consequence, requiring merely 
the use of absorbent laxatives. The malignant 
variety, which is rare, is of a more serious cha- 
racter, and is accompanied with typhoid symp- 
toms, — Typhus aphthotdeus. 

Aphtha Adoltordm, Stomatitis, aphthous — a. 
Praeputii, Herpes preeputii — a. Serpentes, Cancer 
aquaticus. 

APH'THAPHYTE, Aphthajfh'yton : Oid'ium 
alb'icans. Champignon du Muguet, from a^Ooi, 
'aphthae,' and ^vtov, 'a vegetnble.' A parasitia 
vegetable growth observed in aphthas. 

APHTHE OANGRENEUX, Cancer aqua- 
ticus. 

APHTHES DES ENFANS, Aphthse. 

APHTHEUX, Aphthous. 

APHTHO'DES, Aphthoides, Aphthotdeus, from 
aphtha, and ciioi, 'resemblance.' Aphthous-like. 
Resembling aphthae. 

APH'THOUS, Aphtho'sus, (F.) Ajihtheux. Bo- 
longing to aphthae; complioated with aphthae; 
as Aphthous Fever. 

APIASTRUM. Melissa. 



APICES 



APOGALACTOS 



APICES CRURUM MEDULLJ3 OBLON- 
vtAT.-E, Corpora striata — a. Digitorum, Pu- 
pul'je. 

APILEPSIA, Apoplexy. 

A'PIOL, Apio'lum, Parsley oil, from apium, 
'parsley,' and oleum, 'oil.' A yellowish oily 
liquid, obtained from apinm pelroseliinim or 
pnrehy, which, in the dose of 15 grains, has 
been used as an antiperiodic. 

APIOXTA, see Excretion. 

APIOS, Pyrus communis. 

APIS, Bee. 

API'TES, from an-iov, 'a pear.' Perry.— Gor- 
roeus. 

APIUM, A. graveolens — a. Ammi, Ammi — a. 
Anisum, Pimpinella anisum — a. Carvi, Carum. 

A'ph;m Graveolens, Apium, Paluda'pium, 
Beli'num, Ses'eli graveoleng, Stum graveolens seu 
apium, Small age, (F.) Ache. Orel. Umbelliferse. 
Sex. Si/st. Pentandria Digynia. The plants, 
roots, and seeds are aperient and carminative. 
Selery is a variety of this. 

Apium Houtense, A. graveolens — a. Monta- 
num, Athamanta aureoselinum — a. Paludapium, 
A. Graveolens — a. Petrteum.Bubon Macedonicum. 

Apium Petroseli'num, Apium Horten'ee seu 
vulga're, Eleoseli'num [ ? ], Grielum, PetroseW- 
uum. Common Parsley, (F.) Persil. The root— 
Petroselinum, (Ph. U. S.) — and seeds are diuretic 
and aperient. See Apiol. 

Apium Sium, Slum nodiflorum — a. Vulgare, A. 
graveolens. 

APLAS'TIC, Aplas'tieus, from a, privative, 
and yAacTffd), ' I form.' That which is not capable 
of forming; or is not organizable. 

Aplastic Element ; one which is unsuscep- 
tible of any farther amount of organization. — 
Grrber. 

APLESTIA. Ingluvies, Intemperance. 

APLEU'ROS, from a, privative, and i!\evpm', 
*a rib.' One without ribs, or pleurae. — ^^Uippo- 
crates, Galen. 

APLOT'OMY, Aplotom'ia, from oTrXoor, 'sim- 
ple,' and T£^v<i>, ' I cut.' A simple incision. 

APNEE. Apnoea. 

APXEUMATOSIS, see Atelectasis. 

APNEU'JMIA, from a,priv.,and irrfu^wv, 'lung.' 
A monstrosity in which there is absence of lungs. 

APNEUMONER'VIA, Apneumoneu'ria, from 
a. priv., -nvtvfxuyv, 'lung,' and vevpov, 'nerve.' 
Want of nervous action in the lungs. 

APNEUSTIA, Apnrea, Asphyxia. 

APNCE'.\, from a, privative, and who, 'I re- 
spire.' {Y.) Apuee, Absence of respiration, /f e- 
spira'tioahol'ita ; or insensible respiration. Also, 
Orthopnfiea. See Asphyxia. 

Apn'(ea Ivfantum, Asthma Thymicum. 

APNCEASPHYXIA, Asphyxia. 

APNUS, aTvoof, same etymon. One devoid of 
respiration. An epithet applied by authors to 
cases in which the respiration is so small and 
glow, that it seems suspended. — Castelli. It is 
probable, however, that the word was always ap- 
plied to the patient, not to the disease. 

APOjOffo, a prefix denoting 'from, of, off, out.' 
Hence — 

APOBAMMA, Embamraa. 

APOBAINON. Eventus. 

APOBESOMENOX, Eventus, 

APOBIOSIS, Death. 

APOBLKMA. Abortion. 

APOBOLE. Abortion. 

APOBRASMA. Furfur. 

APOCAPNISMUS. Fumigation. 

APOCATASTASIS, Con.-idcntia, Restauratio. 

APOCATHARSrS. Catharsis. 

APOCATIIARTICUS. Cathartic. 
APOCECAULISMEXON, Apag-na. 



APOCEXO'SIS, Aposceno'sit, from avo, 'ont,' 
and Ktviitaii, 'evacuation.' A partial evacuation 
according to some, in opposition to Cenosis, whicl 
signifies a general evacuation. — Cullen and Swo 
diaur apply it to morbid fluxes. 

Apocenosis, Abevacuatio — a. Diabetes melli 
tus. Diabetes — a. Ptyalismus mellitus, see Saliva 
tion — a. Vomitus pyrosis. Pyrosis. 

APOCHOREOX, Excrement. 

APOCHRE.MMA, Sputum. 

APOCHRE.MPSIS, Exspuition. 

APOCH'YMA, from aT!oxtu>, ' I pour out.' A 
sort of tar, obtained from old ships, which is im- 
pregnated with chloride of sodium. It was used 
as a discutient of tumours. — Aetius, Paulus, 
Gorrseus. 

APOCIN GOBE-MOUCHE, Apocynum an 
drosfemifolium. 

APOCLASMA, Abduction, Apagma. 

APOCLEISIS, Asitia, Disgust. 

APOCOPE, from am, and kotttuv, 'to cut.' 
Abscission. A wound with loss of substance. 
Fracture with loss of part of a bone. Amputation. 

APOCOPUS, Castratus. 

APOCRISIS, Contagion, Excrement, Secre- 
tion. 

APOCROUS'TIC, ApocroMs'tiea sen Aj^acrus'- 
ticn, (remed'ia,) from aito, 'out,' and xpovia, '1 
push.' An astringent and repellent. — Galenus. 

APOCRUSTICA, Apocroustic. 

APOCYESIS, Parturition. 

APOCYX, see Apocynum Cannabinuin. 

APOCYXIX, see Apocynum Cannabimira. 

APOCYNUM AXDROS.aEMIFO'LIUM,(Ph, 
U. S.) from a-ro, and kvuiv, 'a dog,' because es- 
teemed, of old, to be fatal to dogs. JDoy's Bane, 
Bitter Dog's Bane, Milkweed, Bitterroot, Honey- 
bloom, Catchjly, Flytrap, Ip'ecac, Amer'ican Ipe- 
cac, (F.) Apocin gobe-mouche, A. amer. Ord, 
Apoeynaceae. Se.r. Syst, Pentandria Digynia. 
The root of this plant is found from Canada to 
Carolina. Thirty grains evacuate the stomach 
as effectually as two-thirds of the amount of 
Ipecacuanha, by which name it is known in vari- 
ous parts of the Eastern States. It is in the 
secondary list of the Pharmacopoeia of the United 
States. 

Apocyndm Cannab'incm, (Ph. U. S.) Indian 
Hemp. This American plant possesses emetic, 
cathartic, diaphoretic and diuretic properties, has 
been strongly recommended in dropsy, and 
has been given in decoction, — 3'J of '^^ ""^^^ 
boiled in three pints of water to two. A wine- 
glassful for a dose. An active principle, Apocyn 
or Apocynin, has been extracted from the root. 

Apocynum Hypericefo'lium, a variety of A. 
cannabinum, which, as well as A. androsaraifo- 
lium, abounds in a milky juice. This, when ap- 
plied to the skin, produces a troublesome erup- 
tion resembling flea-bites : hence, the plants have 
been termed, by the voyageurs in the Hudson's 
Bay territory, Herhcs a la puce. 

Apocynum Novje Angli^e HiRsnTUM, Ascle- 
pias tuberosa — a. Orange, Asclepias tuberosa — a 
Scandens, Allamanda. 

APODACRYT'ICUS, Dclachrymati'vns, from 
aiTo, 'from,' and (?n<puui, 'I weep.' A substance, 
supposed to occasion a flow of the tears, and then 
to arrest them. — Columella, Pliny, Galenus. 

APODEMIALGIA, Xostalgia. 

APOD'IA, from a. privative, and jtous, roiof, 
'a foot' Want of foet; hence Apous or Apus, 
one who has no feet. 

A P D Y T E'R I U M, Coniste'rium, Spoliate', 
rium. Spolia'rium, from airoiJuu, 'I Strip off.' The 
ante-room, where the bathers stripped themselves 
in the ancient gvmnasia. 

APOOALACtlSMUS, Weaning. 

APOGALACTOS, Exubcr. 



APOGEUSIS 



APOPLECTIC 



APOGEUSIS, Ageustia. 
APOGBUSTIA. Ageustia. 
APOGLAUCOSIS, Glaucosis. 
APOGON. Imberbis. 

APOG'ONUM, from airo, and ytvo/xat, '1 exist.' 
A livinc; fa?tus in utero. — Hippocrates. 
APOLEPISIS, Desquamation. 
APOLEPISMUS, Desquamation. 
APOLEP'SIS, Apolep'aia, ApoUp'aU, from 
QToXa^/Sui/oi, ' I retain.' Ketention, suppression. 
— Hippocrates. Asphyxia. 

APOLEX'IS, from anoXr/yu), 'I cease.' Old 
age, decrepitude. 

APOLINO'SIS, from aro, and \ivov, 'a. flaxen 
thread.' The mode of operating for fistula in 
ano, by means of a thread of Homolinon ov Linitm 
crudidu. — Hippocrates, Paulus. 
APOLIPSIS. Apolepsis. 

APOLLINARIS ALTERCUM, Hyoscyamus. 
APOLUTICA. Cicatrisantia. 
AP0LYS'IA,y4/jo?'y«/s, from ajroXuo), 'Iloosen.' 
Solution. Relaxation. Debility of the limbs or 
looseness of bandages. — Erotian. Expulsion of 
the foetus and its dependencies. Termination of 
a disease. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

APOMATHE'MA, Ajiomathe'sis, from oto, and 
ftav^avti), ' I learn.' Forgetfulness of things taught. 
— Hippocrates. 

APOM'ELI, from axo, 'of,' and /jtXi, 'honey.' 
An oxymel or decoction made of honey.— Galen, 
Aetius, Paulus, <fec. 
APOMEXIS, Munctio. 

APOMYLE'NAS, from axo/^uXXaivu), 'I make 
a wry mouth.' One who pushes his lips forwards, 
pressing them against each other. Occasionally 
a symptom of nervous fever. — Galen, Erotian. 

APO}ilYTllO'SIS, Apomi/tto'sis, from anoixvaam, 
'I snore.' A disease in which there is stertor. — 
Sauvages, Sagar. 
APOMYXIA, Nasal mucus. 
APONEUROG'RAPHY, Aponeurogra'phia, 
from aTov£ii/i(o(r({, an ' aponeurosis,' and Ypa(ptj, 
' a description.' A description of the Aponeu- 
roses. 

A P N E U R L'O G Y'', Aponeurolog" ia, from 
\Tovtvp<j><jis, 'an aponeurosis,' and \oyoi, 'a dis- 
course.' Aponeurosiol'oyy. The anatomy of the 
aponeuroses. 
APONEUROSIOLOGY, Aponeurology. 
APONEURO'SIS, Aponevro'ais, from avo, 
'from,' and vtv^ov, 'a nerve.' Pronerva'tio, De- 
■nerva'tio, Enerva'tio, Expan'sio nervo'sa, (F.) 
Apoueurose, Aponevrose. The ancients called 
every white part vevpov, and regarded the Apo- 
neurosis as a nervous expansion. The Aponeu- 
roses are white, shining membranes, very resist- 
ing, and composed of fibres interlaced. Some 
are continuous with the muscular fibres, and difi"er 
only from tendons by their flat form. They are 
called Aponeuroses of insertion, (F.) Aponevroses 
d'insertion, when they are at the extremities of 
muscles, and attach them to the bone ; — Aponeu- 
roses of intersection, (P.) Aponevroses d'intersec- 
tion, if they interrupt the continuity of the mus- 
cle, and are continuous on both sides with mus- 
cular fibres. Others surround the muscle, and 
prevent its displacement : they are called envelop>- 
ing Aponeuroses, (F.) Aponeuroses d'enveloppe. 

Aponeurosis, Fascia — a. Crural, Fascia lata — 
a. Femoral, Fascia lata — a. Iliac, Fascia iliaca. 

APONEUROSI'TIS, from aponeurosis, and 
itis, 'denoting inflammation.' Inflammation of 
aa aponeurosis. 

APONEUROT'IC, Apotieurot'icus. "What re- 
lates to Aponeuroses: — thus, we say Aponeurotic 
expansion, Aponeurotic muscle, Ac. 
. APONBUROT'OMY, Aponeurotom'ia, from 
a-itovivfuiiaii, 'aponeurosis,' and rs/zvu, 'I cut.' 
Anatomy of aponeuroses. 



Aponeurotomy has, also, heen proposed for th» 
division, [debridement) of filaments, Ac, in apo- 
neurotic openings, and for the section of fascia?. 

APONEVROSE p£dIEUSE, see Pedal 
Aponeurosis — a. Superfieielle de V Abdomen et d» 
la Cnisse, Fascia superficialis. 
APONEVROSIS, Aponeurosis. 
APON'IA, from a, privative, and irovoi, 'pain.' 
Freedom from pain. 
APONIPSIS, Ablution. 

APOPALLE'SIS, Apopal'sia, from airoiraAXw, 
' I throw off.' Expulsion, Protrusion. — Hippo 
crates. Also, Abortion. 

APOPATE'MA, Apop'athos, Apop'atus. Th« 
excrement, and the place where it is deposited.— 
Dioscorides, Erotian. 

APOPEDASIS, Luxation. 

APOPHLEGMATISANS PER NARES, Er 
rhine — a. per Os, Sialogogue. 

APOPHLEGMATISAiSI'TIA, ApojMegmati- 
aon'ta, Apophlegmatis'mi, from ano, ' out,' and 
(pXeyna, 'phlegm.' Medicines which facilitate the 
upward expulsion of mucus from the mucous 
membrane of the digestive or air passages ; as 
gargles, masticatories. Ac. 

APOPHLEG'MATISM, Apophlegmatis'mna. 
The action of Apophlegmatisantia. — Galen. 

APOPHLEGMATIISMI, Apophlegmatisantia. 

APOPH'RADES, from anoippas, 'unlucky.' 
An epithet applied to unlucky days, {dies ne- 
fandi.) Days on which a favourable change 
is not expected to occur in a disease. — A. Lau- 
rent! us. 

APOPHRAXIS, Amenorrhoe.v. 

APOPHTHAR'MA, ^jaopA'<Aor», from axo, and 
(p^tipia, ' I corrupt.' Abortion, as well as a medi- 
cine to procure abortion. 

APOPHTHORA, Abortion. 

APOPHTHORIUS, Abortive. 

APOPHY'ADES, from airo, 'from,' and ^lu, 
'I spring.' The ramifications of veins and arte- 
ries. — Hippocrates. 

APOPHYSE BASILAIRE, Basilary process 
— a. Engainante ou vaginale, Vaginal process — 
a. Pyramidnle, see Temporal Bone — a. Pitree, 
see Temporal Bone. 

APOPHYSES EPINEUSES, Spinous pro- 
cesses of the vertebrcE. 

APOPH'YSIS, fr. in otto, 'from,' and <^«a), 'I 
rise,' Ec'physis, Proces'sns, Appendix, Prominen'- 
tia oasis contin'na, A process of a bone. When 
the apophysis is yet separated from the body of 
the bone by intervening cartilage, it is called 
Epiph'ysis. The apophyses or processes are, at 
times, distinguished by epithets, expressive of 
their form : as A. styloid, A. coracoid, &c. Others 
are not preceded by the word apophysis; as Tro- 
chanter, Tuberosity, &c. 

Apoph'ysis of Ingras'sias is a term applied 
to the lesser ala of the sphenoid bone. 

Apophysis Mammillaris, Mastoid process. 

Apophysis of Rau, Gh-ele apojjhyae du 3far~ 
teau : see Malleus. 

Apophysis Zygoiiatica, Zygomatic process. 

APOPIES'MA, from anovu^u), ' I compres.s.' 
Hippocrates uses the term to signify a fancied 
expression or forcing out of humours by tbo 
application of bandages in wounds and frac- 
tures. 

APOPLANESIfe, Error loci. 

APOPLECTIC, Apoplec'ticus. Referring to 
Apoplexy. This woid has various significations. 
It is applied, L To individuals laboring under 
apoplexy : 2. To remedies proper for combating 
apoplexy : 3. To the constitution, temperament, 
or make, Architectu'ra apoplec'tica, Hab'itu* 
apoplec'ticus seu quadra tus seu toro'sns, which 
predisposes to it, and, 4. To the symptoms which 
characterize apoplexy ; as Apoi^lectic sleep, A. 



APOPLECTICUS 



80 



APOSTASIS 



tttoke, A. stertor, &.C. The jugulur veins have 
ulio, by some, beea called Apoplectic veins, Vena 
(ipopfec'ticiB. 

Apoplectic Cell. Focus apoplec' ticus. A 
cavity remaining in the encephalon, after the 
effusion of blood and iis subsequent absorption. 
APOPLECTICUS, Antiapoplectic, Apoplectic. 
APOPLEXIA, Apoplexy — a. Catalepsia, Cata- 
Icpsi.a — a. Cerebralis, see Apoplexy — a. Cerebri, 
see Apoplexy — a. Cordis, Haamocardiorrbagia — 
a. Hepatica, Hepatorrhagia — a. Hydrocephalica, 
Hydrocephalus internus— a.. Interarachnoidealis, 
Apoplexy, meningeal — a. Intermeningealis, Apo- 
plexy, meningeal — a. Medullaris, Apoplexiamye- 
litica — a. ileningaea, Apoplexy, meningeal. 

Apoplexia Myelit'ica, a. 3Iedulla'ris seu 
Spina' lis seu Ra,chiii'lis,H(emor'rhachis, Myelor- 
rha(j"ia, Jfi/elapoplex'in, (F.) Apoplexie de la 
Jfoelle Spiniere, Ileiuorrhagie de la Jloelle 4pi- 
ni&re, Hemato-myelie, Hemo-myelorrhagie, Hema- 
torrhachie. Hemorrhage into the spinal mar- 
row. 

Apoplexia Nervosa, Apoplexy, nervous — a. 
Nervosa traumatica, Concussion of the brain — a. 
Oculi Haemophthalmia — a. Pituitosa, see Apo- 
plexy — a. Pulmonalis, see Hasmoptysis — a. Pul- 
monum, see Hasmcjptysis — a. Renaiis, Apoplexy, 
renal — a. Rachialis, A. myelitica — a. Sanguinea, 
see Apoplexy — a. Serosa, see Apoplexy — a. Sim- 
plex, Apoplexy, nervous — a. Spasmodica, Apo- 
plexy, nervous — a. Spinalis, Apoplexia myelitica 
— a. Temulenta, see Tcmulentia. 

APOPLEXIE CAPILLAIRE, Mollities cere- 
bri — a. Cerebrate, Apoplexy, Hemorrhagic eere- 
hrale — a. dn Cfenr, HEeraocardiorrhada. 

APOPLEXIE FOUDROYANTE, 'Thun- 
dering Apoplexy.' A form of apoplexy, which 
is intense and rapidly fatal. 

APOPLEXIE MEN IN QBE, Apoplexy, me- 
ningeal — a. de la 3Ioelle Epiniere, Apoplexy, 
spinal. 

AP'OPLEXY, Apoplex'ia, (Sc.) Poplesy, from 
oT07rX>;TT£i»', 'to strike with violence.' At the pre- 
sent day, the term apoplexy is employed by many 
writers to signify interiftitial hemorrhage, (F.) He- 
morrhagie interstitielle, or every effusion of blood, 
which occurs suddenly into the substance of an 
organ or tissue. Hence, we speak of cerebral 
apoplexy, pulmonary apoplexy, &c. kc. For- 
merly it was always — and still is by many — 
used in a restricted sense, to signify, in other 
words, the train of phenomena, which charac- 
terize cerebral apoplexy. This disease, Hmmor- 
rha'gia Cer'ebri, Aphro'nia, Cams Apoplex'in, 
Coma Apoplex'ia, Apnplex'ia cer'ebri sanguin'ea 
seu cerebralis, Encephalorrhng" ia, Snn'guinis 
ictus, Hmmatenceph'aliim, Pulpez'ia, Sidera'tio, 
Apileps'ia, Morbus atton'itits, Guttn, Tfieophle'gia, 
Theoplex'ia, (F.) Apoplexie, A. cerebrale, Hema- 
toencephalie, Coup de song, is characterized by 
diminution, or loss of sensation and mental ma- 
nifestation; by the cessation, more or less com- 
plete, of motion ; and by a comatose state, — cir- 
culation and respiration continuing. It generally 
consists in pressure upon the brain; either from 
turgeseenee of vessels, or from extravasation of 
blood : hence the terms HcBmenceph'alns, Hemor- 
rhagic cerebrale, and Hemoencephalorrhngie, ap- 
plied to it by some. The general prognosis is 
iinfavourable ; especially when it occurs after the 
age of 35. When Apoplexy is accompanied with 
a hard, full pulse, and flushed countenance, it is 
called Apoplex'in sanguin'ea. Cntaph'ora Coma ; 
when with a feeble pulse and pale countenance, 
and evidences of serous effusion, Apoplex'ia se- 
ro'sa, A. pitnito'xn, Serous Apoplexy, Cataph'ora 
bydrocephal'icit, Encephaloch'yiis seni'/is, Hydro- 
'uph'alus acu'tus senum, HydrvencephalorrhSe, 



(Piorry,) Hydropisie cerebrale suraigue, Hydror- 
rhagie. 

In Nervous Apoplexy, Apoplex'ia nervo'sa seu 
spasmod'ica, A. simplex. Simple apoplexy, no le- 
sion whatever may be perceptible on dissection ; 
although the patient may have died under all the 
phenomena that are characteristic of apoplexy. 

Apoplexy, Heat, see Covp-de-Soleil — a. of 
the Heart, Hcemocardiorrhagia. 

Apoplexy, Mexinge'al, Apoplex'ia menin- 
gm'a seu intermeningea'lis seu interarachno'idea' - 
lis, (F.) Apoplexie mentngee, Ileiuorrhagie me- 
ningee. Hemorrhage from the meninges of the 
brain or spinal marrow, generallj' into the great 
cavity of the arachnoid. 

Apoplexy, Nehvous, see Apoplexy — a. Pul- 
monary, see Ha3iuoptysis — a. Simple, A. Nervous. 

Apoplexy, Renal, A^yoplex'ia rena'lis. A 
condition of the kidney, characterized by knotty, 
irregular, tuberculated eminences, some of a deep 
black colour. Effusion of blood into the substance 
of the kidney. 

Apoplexy, Serous, see Apoplexy — a. Spinal, 
Apoplexia myelitica. 

APOPNEUSIS, Exhalatio. 

APOPNIXIS, Suffocation. 

APOPNOE, Exspiratio. 

APOPNCEA, Exspiratio. 

APOPSTCHIA, Syncdve. 

APOPTO'SIS, from anoztzrw, 'I fall down.' 
A relaxation of bandage?. — Erotian. 

APORRHOB, Aporrhoea. 

APORRHGE'A, Apor'rhoe, Apor'rhysis, Deflu'- 
vium, from a-rrofpti)), ' I flow from.' An emana- 
tion, effluvium, contagion. — Moschion. A falling 
off of the hair, according to some. 

APORRHYSIS, Aporrhcea. 

APOSCEM'MA, Aposcep'sis, from arocKtiro), 
' I lie down, I direct myself towards.' Afflux of 
fluids towards a part. Metastasis. The first 
word has been applied to the excrements. — Hip- 
pocrates, Galen. 

APOSCENOSIS, Apocenosis. 

APOSCEPARNIS'MUS, Beascia'tio, from an, 
and aKCTzapvov, ' a hatchet.' "Wound of the cra- 
nium, by a cutting instrument, in which a piece 
of the bone has been cut out, as with a hatchet 
— Gorrteus. 

APOSCEPSIS, Aposcemma. 

APOS'CHASIS, Aposchas' inus, from aTroa-)(ai^ii>, 
'I scarify.' Scarijjca'tion. A slight superficial in- 
cision in the skin. Also, blood-letting. — Hippoc. 

APOS'IA, Sitis defec'tus, from a, privative, 
and voais, ' drink.' Want of thirst, absence of 
desire for liquids. 

APOSI'TIA, from aro, 'from,' and o-iroy, 'food.' 
Aversion for food. — Galen. See Disgust. 

A^OSIT'IC, Aposit'icHS ; the same etymology. 
Any substance which destroys the appetite, or 
suspends hunger. 

APOSPAS'MA, from anociruta, ' I tear or lace- 
rate. (F.) Arrachemeut. A solution of continu- 
ity, especially of a ligament; Rhegma iigamen- 
ta' re, Lacera' tio ligainenta'ria. 

APOSPHACEL'ISIS, Aposphacelis'mus, from 
ano, and (x<paKc\of, ' mortification.' Gangrene in 
wounds and fractures, owing to the bandages 
being too tight. — Hippocrates. 

APOSPHINX'IS,airo(T(/>iyf(j, constriction, com- 
pression. The action of a tight bandage. — Hip- 
pocrates. 

APOSPONGIS'MUS, the act of sponging for 
any purpose. — Gorraeus. 

APOSTAIiAG'MA, Apostag'ma, from oitb, 
'from,' and oraAnJu, 'I drop.' The ancient name 
for the saccharine liquor which flows from grapea 
when not yet pressed. 

APOS'TASIS, from ano, and ian,ni, ' I stop.' 



APOSTAiaS 



8 1 APPAREILS DE FORMATION 



The ancient;? hnd different significations for this ]j 
word. It wns most commonly used for an ab- 
scess. The separation of a fragment of bone by 
fracture. Removal of disease by some excre- 
tion, &c. 

APOSTAX'IS, from aTroffra^u 'I distil from.' 
SiJxia. The defluxion of any humour, as of 
blood from the nose. — Hippocrates. 

APOSTE'MA, from aito, 'from,' and larriixi, 'I 
settle,' or from aiptarvin, 'I recede from.' "rhis 
word is used by the ancients somewhat vaguely. 
It meant an affection in which parts, previously 
in contact, are separated from each other by a 
fluid collected between them. The moderns re- 
gard it as synonymous with Abscess. Some, even 
of the moderns, have applied it to any watery 
tumour, and even to tumours in general. 

Apostema Cerebri, Encephalopyosis — a. Em- 
pyema, Empyema — a. Parulis, Parulis — a. Pha- 
laugum, Foiirche — a. Psoaticum, Lumbar abscess. 
APOSTEMACION, Abscess. 
APOSTERIG'MA, from anooTrjpi^co, 'I sup- 
port.' Anything that supports a diseased part, 
as a cushion, a pillow, &c. — Galen. A deep- 
seated and inveterate disease of the intestines, — 
Ilippocrate?. 

APOS'THIA, Leipoder'niia, from a, privative, 
and TToaOta, 'prepuce.' Want of prepuce. 
APOSTHUME, Abscess. 
APOSTOLE, Extractum. 
APOiSTOLO'RUM UNGUEN'TUM, Dodeca- 
phar'macinii, Ointment of the Apostles. So called, 
because as many solid ingredients entered into 
its composition as there were apostles. It con- 
tained several resins and gum-resins, yellow wax, 
oil, vinegar, verdigris, &,c., and was formerly em- 
ployed as a vulnerary. 

APOS'TROPHE, from cm, and arfi^u, 'I 
turn.' An aversion or disgust for food. — Paulus. 
Also, the direction of humours towards other 
parts. 

APOSYRMA, Abrasion, Desquamation. 
APOTELES'MA, from ano, and reXctriia, 'com- 
pletion.' The result or termination of a disease. 
See, also. Amuletum. 

APOTIIANASIA, see Death. 
AFOTRE'CA, Phannace' urn, Pharmacopo'lium, 
from arro, and TiOnni, 'to place.' Any place where 
things are kept, and therefore 'a shop,' and par- 
ticularly a wine cellar. A place or vessel wherein 
medicines are kept. See Pharmacopolium. 

APOTHECARIES' HALL. The Hall of the 
Corporation or Society of Apothecaries of Lon- 
don, where medicines are prepared and sold 
under their direction, Ac. This Company ob- 
tained a charter of incorporation in the 15th year 
of James the First. No general practitioner can 
establish himself in England or Wales, without 
having obtained a license from the Court of Ex- 
aminers of the Company. 

APOTH'ECARY, Apotlieca'rius, DIspensa'tar, 
Pharmacop>o'la, Pharmncopoe'its, Pharma'cevs, 
Pharmaceu'td, Pigmenta'riiis, Rhizot'omus, My- 
ropo'lea, Myropo'lus, Pharmacter, Pharmncur'- 
gicus, Phurmacur'gus, Pharmacev' tist, same deri- 
vation, (Prov.) Pot'eeary, (Sc.) Pottingar, (F.) 
Aj)nt}iicaire, Pharmacien, Phavmacopole. In 
every country except Great Britain, it means one 
who sells drugs, makes up prescriptions, <fee. In 
addition to these oflBces, which, indeed, they 
rarely exercise, except in the ease of their own 
puUents, the Apothecaries in England form a 
privileged class of practitioners — a kind of sub- 
physician. See Surgeon-apothecary. 

APOTHERAPEl'A, ApotheropVa, Apothera- 
yeu'sis, from avo^cpairevo), (arro and Sfpairtuw,) 'I 
care.' A perfect cure. — Hippoc. In the ancient 
Gymnasticf, it meant the last part of the exer- 
cises : — the friction, inunction, and bathing, for 



the purpose of obviating fatigue, or curing dis- 
ease. — Galen, Gorraeus. 

APOTHERAPEUSIS, Apotherapeia. 
APOTHER'MUM, from 07:0, and ^cppv, 'heat' 
A pickle made of mustard, oil, and vinegar. — 
Galen. 

APOTH'ESIS, from aTTOTt&vfh 'I replace.' 
The position proper to be given to a fractured 
limb, after reduction. 

APOTHICAIRE, Apothecary. 
APOTHICAIRERIE (F.), from anoOnKt,, 'a 
warehouse, shop.' The same as Apotheca; also, 
a gallipot. See Pharmacopolium. 

APOTHLIM'MA, from ano, and 5X«/?u., 'I 
press from.' Anciently, the dregs, and some- 
times the expressed juice, Suecus expres'sus, of 
plants. — Gorraeus. 

APOTHRAU'SIS, from oTroSpavu, 'I break.' 
Fracture of a bone, with spicula remaining. Ex- 
traction of a spiculum of bone. — Gorraeus. Also, 
Abscission. 
APOTILMOS, Evulsion. 

APOT'OKOS, from otto, and tixtoi, 'I bring 
forth.' An abortive foetus. — Hippocrates. 
APOTOME, Amputation. 
APOTOMIA, Amputation. 
APOTROP^UM, Amuletum. 
APOTROPE, Aversion. Also, deviation- as 
of a limb — Pnrat'mpe. 
APOXYSMUS, Abrasion. 
APOZEM, Decoction. 
APOZESIS, Decoction. 

APPARA'TUS, Parasceu'e, from ad and pa- 
rare, ' to prepare.' This word signifies a collec- 
tion of instruments, &c., for any operation what- 
ever. (F.) Appareil. 

Id Surgery, it means the methodical arrange- 
ment of all the instruments and objects necessary 
for an operation or dressing. By extension, the 
French give the name Appareil, Capsn chirtir'- 
gica, to the case or drawers in which the appara- 
tus is arranged. 

Apparatus has likewise teen applied to the 
different modes of operating for the stone. See 
Lithotomy. 

In Physiology, Apparatus, ^F.) Appureil, is ap- 
plied to a collection of organs, all of which work 
towards the same end. A syntem of organs com- 
prehends all those formed of a similar texture. 
An ajiparatus often comprehends organs of very 
different nature. In i\i6 former, there is analogy 
of structure; in the latter, analogy of function. 
Apparatus Altus, see Lithotomy. 
Apparatus Immov'able (F.), Appareilivnno- 
bile, Immovable Bandage, Permanent Bandage. 
An apparatus for fractures, which is generally 
formed by wetting the bandages in some sub- 
stance, as starch or dextrin, which becomes solid, 
and retains the parts in situ. 

Apparatus Lateralis, see Lithotomy — a. 
Major, see Lithotomy — a. Minor, see Lithotomy. 
APPAREIL, Apparatus, Boitier — a. iJiap- 
nogene, see Perspiration — «. Grand, see Litho- 
tomy — a. Hunt, see Lithotomy — a. Immobile, 
Apparatus, immovable — a. Lacrymal, see Lachiy- 
mal passages — a. Laternlise, see Lithotomy — a 
Nevrothele, see NSvrothele — a. Petit, see Litho- 
tomy — a. Pigmental, Pigmental apparatus. 

APPAREILS DE FORMA TION(F.). Gall 
admits, in the brain, two kinds of fibres; the 
one, divergent, proceeding from the cerebral 
peduncles to the convolutions, and constituting 
what he calls appareils de formation : the other, 
convergent, and proceeding from the convolutions 
to the centre of the organ, constituting what he 
calls appareils de reunion. The first, as a whole, 
form the organs of the mental faculties : the latter 
are commissures, which unite parts of the organ 
that are double and in pairs. 



APPAUVRl 



APYROMELE 



APPAUVRl, Impoverished. 
APPENDICE, Appendix — o. Cacal, Appen- 
dix vermiformis casci — a. Digital, Appendix ver- 
miformis cseci — a. Sons-sternale, Xiphoid carti- 
lage — a. Siis-npheuo'idfile dn cerveaii, Pituitary 
gland — a. Xipho'ide, Xiphoid cartilage. 

Appendices Coli AdiposjE, Appendiculae epi- 

ploieae — a. Epiploiques, Appendiculae epiploicae. 

APPENDICULA CEREBRI, Pituitary gland 

— a. Vermiformis caeci, see Appendix — a. Epi- 

ploica, Epiploic appendage. 

APPENDICULA PINGUEDINO'S^, A. 
Epiplo'icce, Epip'loie a]->pend'ac/es, Appen'dices 
coU adipo'scs, Fim'hricB carno'sm coli, Siip])leineii'- 
ta epiplo'icn, Omen'tida, (F.) Appendices Epi^ 
ploiqnes. Prolongations of the peritoneum be- 
yond the surface of the great intestine, which 
are analogous in texture and arrangement to 
omenta. 

APPEN'DIX, Epiph'ysts, from oppendere, (ad 
Sind peiidere, 'to hang,') 'to hang from.' Any 
part that adheres to an organ or is continuous 
with it : — seeming as if added to it. An append- 
age ; an apophysis, (F.) Appendice, Aunej:e. 

Appendix Auricula, see Auricles of the 
Heart — a. Cerebri, Pituitary gland — a. ad Cere- 
brum, Cerebellum — a. Cutanea Septi Narium, 
Statica Septi Narium — a. to the Epididymis, Vas- 
culum aberrans — a. Ventriculi, Duodenum. 

Appendix VERjriFOR'jiis, Appendic'ida Ver- 
mifor'mis Ca'ci, Tubus Vermicula'ris CcBci, Ec'- 
phyas, Additamen'tnm Coli, Ajypeii'dix CcBci, (F.) 
Appendice vermi/onne, A. ccBcal ou digital. A 
vermicular process, the size of a goose-quill, 
which hangs from the intestine caecum. Its 
functions are unknown. 
Appendix Vesicae, see Bladder, sacculated. 
APPENSIO, see Analeptia. 
AP'PETENCE, Appeten'tia,from appetere, {ad 
nnd pefere,) 'to desire.' An ardent, passionate 
desire for any object. 
APPETIT, PERTE D\ Anorexia. 
AP'PETITE, A2:>peti'tu8, Appeten'tia, Appefi"- 
fia, (ad and petere,) 'to seek,' Citpi'do, Orex'ia, 
Onne : same etj'mology as the last. An internal 
sensation, which warns us of the necessity of ex- 
erting certain functions, especially those of diges- 
tion and generation. In the latter case it is called 
venereal appetite, (F.) Appetit venerien: in the 
former, simply appetite, (F.) Appetit ou Appeti- 
tion. If the desire for food, occasioned by a real 
want, be carried to a certain extent, it is called 
A«jif/er, when solid food is concerned; thirst, when 
liquid. Appetite and hunger ought not, how- 
ever, to be employed synonymously: they are 
different degrees of the same want. Hunger is 
an imperious desire : it cannot be provoke-d, like 
the appetite. It is always allayed by eating : but 
not so the appetite : for, at times, it may be ex- 
cited in this manner. They are very generally, 
however, used synonymously. 
Appetite, Morbid, Limosis. 
Ap'petite, Vene'real, Venereal desire, (F.) 
Le geneaiqiie. Amour physique. Sens gSnital. The 
instinctive feeling that attracts the sexes towards 
ea«h other to effect the work of reproduction. 

APPETITUS CANINUS, Boulimia— a. Defi- 
ciens, Dysorexia. 

APPLE, ADAM'S, Pomum Adami— a. Bitter, 
Cucumis colocynthis — a. Curassoa, Aurantium 
curassaventium — a. Dead Sea, see Quereus infec- 
toria — a. Eye. see Melon — a. of the Eye, Pupil 
— a. Mad, see Quercug infeotoria — a. May, Podo- 
phyllum peltntum — a. of Peru, Datura stramo- 
nium — a. Root. Euphorbia eorollata — a. of Sodom, 
see Quereus infeotoria. 

Apple Tea, Apple water. Slice two large, not 
cve.r-ripe appki, and pour over a pint of boiling 



water. After an hour, pour off the fluid, and, if 
necessary, sweeten with sugar. 

Apple Tree, Pyrus malus. 

APPLICA'TA, from appUcare, {ad and plicare, 
'to fold,') 'to apply.' A word, unnecessarily in- 
troduced into medical language, to express the 
objects which are applied immediately to the sur- 
face of the body, as clothes, cosmetics, baths, Ac. 
— Hall6. 

APPLICA'TION, Applica'tio, (same etymon,) 
in a moral signification, is synonymous with at- 
tention. Also, the act of applying one thing to 
another; as the application of an apparatus, of 
a bandage, blister, ic. 

APPREHEN'SIO, from ad and prehendere, 
'to take.' This word is employed in various 
senses. It means catalepsy or catocbe. — Paul 
Zacchias. A kind of bandage for securing any 
part. Also, a therapeutical indication. 

APPROVHE. Coition. 

APPROXIMA'TION, Approxima'tio, from ad 
and pro.vimus, 'nearest.' Ettmuller gave this 
name to a pretended method of curing disease, 
by making it pass from man into some animal or 
vegetable, by the aid of immediate contact. 

APRAC'TA, from a, priv., and -npaaaui, 'I act.' 
Without action. An epithet for the parts of ge- 
neration, when unfit for copulation or generation. 

APRICATIO, Insolation. 

APRICOT, Pruntis Armeniaca. 

APROCTUS, see Atretus. 

APRONIA, Tamus communis. 

APROSO'PIA, Triocephal'ia, from a, priv., 
and ■K^oaiaiTov, 'the face.' A malformation, which 
consists in the face being deficient. 

APROSOPUS, Microprosopus. 

APSINTHIA'TUM, from a^iv^iov, 'worm- 
wood.' A sort of drink made of wormwood 
— Aetius. 

APSINTHITES, Absinthites, 

APSYCHIA, Svncope. 

APSYCHISME, Idiotism. 

APSYCHY, Svncope. 

APSYXIA, Svncope. 

APTHiE, Aphthffi. 

APTYS'TOS, from a, priv., and Trrtw, 'I spit.' 
Devoid of expectoration. An epithet given to 
certain pleurisies, in which there is no expectora- 
tion. — Hippocrates. 

APUS, see Apodia. 

APY'ETOS, from a, priv., and itvov, 'pus.' An 
external affection, which does not end in suppu- 
ration. 

APTIQUE, A^yros. 

A'Pl'OS, from a, priv., and -kvov, 'pus.' (F.) 
Apyique. That which does not afford pus. 

APYRECTIC, Apyretic. 

APYRENOMELE, Apyromele. 

APYRET'IC, Apyret'icus, Apyrec'tic, Apyrec'- 
ticHS, Apyr'etuH, from a, priv., and -up, 'fire, 
fever.' Without fever. This epithet is given to 
days in which there is no paroxysm of a disease, 
as in the case of an intermittent, as well as to 
some local affections which do not induce fever. 
Urticaria is sometimes called an apyretic exan- 
them. 

APYREX'IA, A'pyrcxy. The same etymology. 
Absence of fever; JJialcm'ma, Dialeip'uis, Dia- 
lip'sis, Tempua intercaln're. Interval' (urn. Inter- 
mis'sio. Apyrexia is the condition of an inter- 
mittent fever between the paroxysms: the dura- 
tion of the apyrexia consequently depends on 
the type of the intertnittent. Occasionally, the 
term has been applied to the cessation of the 
febrile condition m acute diseases. 

APYROME'LE, Apyreuome'le, from a, priv., 
TTvpvv, 'a nut,' and fitiXrj, 'a eound.' A souml or 
probe, without a button or nui. It ifc the Mcli-'tia, 



AQUA 



83 



AQUA SALUBRIS 



SpecWlum auricula'rium or Auricular sound of 
(ialen. 

AQUA, Urine, Water — a. Acidi carbonici, 
Acidulous water — a. Acidula hydrosulphurata, 
Naples water (factitious) — a. Aeris fixi. Acidu- 
lous water (simple) — a. Alkalina oxymuriatica, 
Eitu f/e Javelle — a. Aluminis composita, Liquor 
aluininis compositus — a. Aluminosa Bateana, Li- 
quor aluminis compositus — a. Ammonia?, Liquor 
aiuiuuniie — a. Acetatis ammonise. Liquor ammo- 
nia acetatis — a. Ammonias carbonatis. Liquor 
aiumonite subearbonatis — a. Ammonia? caustiea, 
Liquor ammoniae — a. Amnii, Liquor Amnii. 

Aqua Amtgdala'rdh Concentra'ta, A. amy- 
dula'rum amara'riim,(F.)Eaud'Amai>dea ameres, 
Water of bitter almonds. Made by bruising well 
two pounds of bitter almonds; adding, whilst 
triturating, ten pounds of spring loater, and four 
pounds of alcohol; letting the mixture rest in a 
well-closed vessel, and then distilling two pounds. 
Used instead of the Aqua Laurocerasi, and the 
Hydrocyanic acid. It must be given with great 
caution. 

An Aqua amyg'dala ama'rm, Bitter Almond 
water, has been introduced into the last edition 
of the Ph. U. S., 1851, (01. amyt/dal. amar. 
V(\^ xvj ; Magnes. Carbon. 5J ; Aquce Oij.) Dose, 
fgss. 

Aqua Anethi, see Anethum graveolens — a. 
Anisi, see Pimpinella anisum — a. Anisi Fortis, 
Spiritus anisi — a. Aquisgranensis, see Aix-la- 
Chapelle — a. Auditoria, Cotunnius, Liquor of — 
a. Aurantii, see Citnus aurantium — a. Azotica 
oxygenata, Aqua nitrogenii protoxydi — a. Balsa- 
mica arterialis, Aqua Binellii — a. Bareginensis, 
Bareges water — a. Barytas Muriatis, see Baryta, 
muriate of — a. Bellilncana, Balaruc waters — a. 
Benediota, Liquor calcis — a. Benedicta compo- 
sita, Liquor calcis compositus — a. Benedicta Ru- 
landi, Vinum antimonii tartarizati. 

Aqua Binel'lii, Acqua Binelli, Aqua Balsam'- 
ica arte -ia' lis, Binelli's styptic, (F.) Eau de Bi- 
nelli. A celebrated Italian hasmostatic, invented 
by one Binelli. Its composition is unknown, but 
its virtues have been ascribed to creasote ; al- 
though there is reason for believing it to possess 
no more activity than cold water. Aqua Monte- 
rossi, (F.) Eau de ilonterossi, appears to be of 
analogous composition. 

Aqua Borvonensis, Bonrbonne-les-Baines, 
mineral waters of — a. Bristoliensis, Bristol water. 

Aqua Brocchie'rii, Acqua Brocchieri, Broe- 
chieri or Brocchiari water, Brocchieri's styptic, 
(F.) Eau de Brocchieri, Eau styptique de Broc- 
chieri. A supposed styptic, which made much 
noise at Paris at one time. It is devoid of etE- 
cacy. Dr. Paris found nothing in it but water 
perfumed by some vegetable essence. 

Aqua Calcarijb ustj?, Liquor calcis — a. Cal- 
cis, Liquor Calcis — a. Calcis composita, Liquor 
calcis compositus — a. Camphorae, Mi.stura eaiu- 
phorae — a. Camphorata, Bates's, see Cupri sulphas 
— a. Carbonatis sodse acidula. Acidulous water, 
simple — a. Carui, see Carum Carui — a. Cassiie, 
see Laurus cassia — a. Catapultarum, Arquebusade, 
eau d' — a. Chlorini, see Chlorine. 

Aqua Cinnamo'mi, Cinnamon water, (Se.) 
Cantiel wa^er, Distilled water of Cinnamon Bark. 
Prepared also in the following manner. 01. Cin- 
n<nn. f^ss; 3Iagnes. Carbon.^]; Aq. deetiUxt. 
Oij. Rub the oil and carbonate of m.ignesia ; 
add the water gradually, and filter. (Ph. U. S.) 
Aqua Cijjnamomi Fortis, Spiritus Cinnamomi 
— a. Colcestrensis, Colchester, mineral waters of. 
Aqua Colora'ta, 'coloured water.' A name 
given to a prescription in which simple coloured 
water is contained. Used in hospital cases, more 
especially, where a. jilacebo is demanded. 

Aqua Cupri Ammoniata, Liquor c. a. — a. Ca- 



pri vitriolati composita. Liquor cupri sulphatis 
composita — a. inter Cutem, Anasarca — a. Destil- 
lata. Water, distilled. 

Aqua Fabro'rum, 'Water of Smiths.' Water in 
which hot iron has been quenched. A feeble 
chalybeate. 

Aqua Florum Aurantii, see Citrus aurantium 
— a. Fluviatilis, Water, river. 

AouA FoENic'uLi, Fennel water. The distilled 
water of fennel seed. It may be prepared also 
like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Fontana, Water, spring — a. Fortis, Ni- 
tric acid — a. Goulardi, Liquor Plumbi subacetatis 
dilutus — a. Hepatica, Hydrosulphuretted water 
— a. Hordeata, Decoctum hordei — a. Imbrium, 
Water, rain — a. Infernalis, see Toddy — a. Inter- 
cus. Anasarca — a. Inter Cutem, Anasarca — a. 
Juniperi composita, S[iiritus juniperi compositus 
— a. Kali, Liquor potassae subearbonatis — a. Kali 
caustiei, Liquor potassae — a. Kali praeparati, 
Liquor potassae subearbonatis — a. Kali puri, 
Liquor potassae — a. Kali subearbonatis, Liquor 
potassae subearbonatis — a. Labyrinthi, Cotunnius, 
liquor of — a. Lactis, Serum lactis — a. ex. Lacu, 
Water, lake — a. Lauro-cerasi, see Prunus Lauro- 
oerasus — a. Lithargyri acetati composita. Liquor 
plumbi subacetatis dilutus — a. Lucias, Spiritus 
ammonias succinatus — a. Marina, Water, sea — a. 
Medicata, Water, mineral. 

Aqua Menthj5 Fiperi'tm, Peppermint Water. 
The distilled water of peppermint. It may be 
prepared like the aqua cinnamomi. 

Aqua Menth.e Piperitidis Spirituosa, Spi- 
ritus menthas piperitEe— a. Menthoe pulegii, see 
Mentha pulegium — a. Menthae viridis. Spearmint 
water, see Aquae menthse piperitae — a. Menthae 
vulgaris spirituosa, Spiritus menthae viridis — a. 
Mineralis, Water, mineral — a. Mirabilis, Spiritus 
pimentae — a. Monterossi, see Aqua Binellii — a. 
Mulsa, Hydromeli — a. Natri Oxymuriatici, Li- 
quor sodaa chlorinate — a. Neapolitana, Naples 
water, (factitious) — a. Nephritica, Spiritus my- 
ristica. 

Aqua Nitrogen'ii Protox'tdi, Protox'ich 
of Ni'trogen Water, Aqua azot'ica o.rygena'ta, 
Searle's patent oxyg"enou8 aerated water. A pa- 
tent solution of protoxide of nitrogen, said to 
contain five times its own bulk of gas. It has 
been recommended as a nervine, and excitant in 
nervous conditions, dyspepsia, &c. It has also 
been used in cholera, and to counteract the evil 
consequences of drunkenness. The dose is f§vj, 
or ^viii, two or three times a day; or, in dys- 
pepsia, as a beverage between meals. 

Aqua Nivata, Water, snow — a. Nucis moscha- 
tae, Spiritus myristicje — a. Ophthalmiea, Liquor 
zinci sulphatis cum camphora — a. Paludosa, 
Water, marsh — a. Pedum, Urine — a. Pericardii, 
see Pericardium — a. Phagedenica, see Hydrar- 
gyri Oxymurias — a. Picea, see Pinus sylvestris — 
a. Picis, see Pinus sylvestris — a. Pimenta?, see 
Myrtus Pimenta — a. Plumbi, Liquor Plumbi, 
subacetatis dilutus — a. Pluvialis, Water, rnin — a. 
Potassae, Liquor potassaB — a. Pulegii, see Mentha 
pulegium — a. Pulegii spirituosa, Spiritus pulegii 
— a. Putealis, Water, well — a. ex Puteo, Water, 
well — a. Rabelli, Elixir acidum Halleri — a. Raph- 
ani composita, Spiritus armoraciae compositus — 
a. Regia, Nitromuriatic acid. 

Aqua Ros^, Bnse Water, Rhodostag'ma, (Bou. 
centifol. ftviij : AqucB cong. ij. M. Distil a gallon 
—Ph. U. S.) 

Aqua Salubris, Water, mineral — a. Samiuei, 
see Sambucus — a. Sappharina, Liquor cupri am- 
moniata — a. Saturni. Liquor plumbi subacetatis 
dilutus — a. Sclopetaria, Arqupbusade eau d' — a. 
Seminum anisi composita, Spiritus anisi — «. Semi- 
num carui fortis, Spiritus carui — a. Sodae elferv^s- 
i! cens, Acidulous water, simple — a. Soteria, Water, 



AQU^ ACIDUL.E 



84 



AQUIPAROTJS 



mineral — a. Stygia, Nitro-niuriatic acid — a. Styp- j 
tica, Liquor cupri sulphatis coinpusita — a. Sul- | 
phurata simplex, H^-drosulpliuretted water — a. 
Pulphureti animoniae, Liquor fumans Boylii — a. 
Thodinnn, Arqucbiisade eaii d' — a. Theriacalis 
Bezoardiea, Chylostagma diaphoreticum Minde- 
reri — a. Tofana, Liquor arsenicalis — a. Tosti 
panis, Toast water — a. Traumatica Thedenii, 
ArquehuDitde enu d' — a. Vegeto-niineralis, Liquor 
plumbi subacetatis dilutus — a. Yiciensis, Vichy 
water — a. Vitriolica camphorata, Liquor zinci 
eulpliatis cum camphor^ — a. Vitriolica caerulea, 
Soluiio sulphatis cupri composita — a. Vulneraria, 
Arquebiiiiide enu d' — a. Zinci vitriolati cum 
oamphora. Liquor zinci sulphatis cum camphora. 
AQU.E ACIDULjE, Acidulous waters— a. 
Badiguae, Bath, Mineral waters of — a. Badizag, 
Bath, Mineral waters of — a. Bathoniae, Bath, 
Mineral waters of — a. Buxtoniensis, Buxton, Mi- 
neral waters of — a. Calidae, Aiijues caudes — a. 
Cantuarienses, Canterbury, waters of — a. Chaly- 
beatfe. Waters, mineral, chalybeate. 

Agu.E Destilla't.e, Hydrola'tn, Distilled 
Waters, (F.) HijdroUits. These are made by 
putting vegetable substances, as roses, mint, 
pennyroyal, <tc., into a still with water, and 
drawing ofT as much as is found to possess the 
aromatic properties of the plant. To every gallon 
of the distilled water, 5 oz. of spirit should be 
added to preserve it. The simple distilled waters 
are sometimes called Aqum stillatit"i(B sim'plicea : 
th-e epiritiioKS, AqucB stillatit'icB spiriiuo'sm, but 
more commonly Splr'itns. 

Aqu.e Ferros-E, Waters, mineral, chabybeate. 
Aqu.e M autiales. Waters, mineral, chalybeate. 
AqUjE Mrdica'tjE, Medicated icaters include, in 
the Pharmaeopctia of the United States, prepara- 
tions consisting of waters impregnated with some 
medicinal substance, which are not arranged in any 
other class. Among these are the " Waters," and 
•' Distilled waters" of the British pharmacopoeias. 
Aqu^ Metus, Hydrophobia — a. Minerales aci- 
(lulaB — a. Waters, mineral, gaseous — a. Minerales 
ferruginosa;, Waters, mineral, chalybeate — a. Mi- 
nerales sulphureae. Waters, mineral, sulphureous 
— a. Stillatitiae, AquaB destillatse — a. Soils, Bath, 
mineral waters of. 

AQUiEDUC'TUS, Aq'ueduct, from aqua, 'wa- 
ter,' and ducere, ductum, ' to lead.' (F.) Aque- 
duc. Properly, a canal for conducting water 
from one place to another. Anatomists have 
used it to designate certain canals. 

AQU.EDUCTUS Cerebri, Infundibulum of the 
brain — a. Cotunnii, Aquteductus vestibuli. 

Aqu^eppc'tds Coch'le^, (F.) Aqueduc du Li- 
niafon ; — a very narrow canal which proceeds 
from the tympanic scala of the cochlea to the 
posterior edge of the pars petrosa. 

AQn^DUC'ics Fallo'pii, Cnna'Us Fallo'pii, 
Canal spiro'ide de I'oa temporal of Chaussier, (F.) 
Aqueduc de Fallope. A canal in the pars petro- 
sa of the temporal bone, which extends from the 
meatus auditorius internus to the foramen stylo- 
mastoideum, and gives passage to the facial 
nerve. The opening into this aqueduct is called 
Jfin'tiis F'dlo'pii, H. Cana'lis Fallo'pii, Fissu'- 
rn Cana'lis Fallo'pii, Fora'men Tari'ni, F. 
anon'yiiium Ferrein'ii. 

Aqu.educ'tus Syl'tii, Cana'lis eminen'ticB 
qxndrif/oii' incB, Iter ad quartum veutric'vlum sen 
d ter'tin ad quar'tum ventric'ulutn, Cana'lis me'di- 
«», (F.) Aqued.ic de Si/lviua, Canal intermediare 
dea veutricides of Chaussier. A canal forming a 
communication between the third and fourth 
ventricles of the brain. The ventricular opening 
is termed anus cer'ebri. 

Aqi'vEDUc'tus Vestib'uli, AqucBductua Cotnn'- 
•iii, Canal of Cotun'nins, (F.) Aqueduc du veatihule 
oij Aqueduc de Cotugno. This begins in the ves- 



tibule, near the common orifice of the two semi- 
circular canals, and opens at the posterior surface 
of the j)ara petrosa. 

AQUALIC'ULUS, from aqualia, ' a wat-er-pot.' 
That part of the abdomen which extends from 
the umbilicus to the pubes. See Hypogastrium. 
It has also been applied to the stomach or intes- 
tinal canal. 

AQUAS'TER. A word used, by Paracelsus, 
to express the visions or hallucinations of pa- 
tients. 

AQUEDUC, Aqueduct — a. de Cotugno, Aquse- 
ductus vestibuli — a. de Fallope, Aquasductus Fal- 
lopii — a. du Limaqon, Aquje-ductus cochleae — a. 
de Sylvius, Aquaeductus Sylvii — a. du Vestibule, 
Aquseductus vestibuli. 

AQUEDUCT, AquEeductus. 

A'QUEOUS, A'queus, Aquo'sua, Bydato'des. 
Hydro' dea, from aqua, 'water,' (F.) Aqueux, 
Watery. The absorbents or lymphatics are 
sometimes called, in France, Conduita ou Canaux 
aqueux. 

Aqueous Humour of the Eye, Humor aquo'- 
sua, Ooei'dea, Oo'dea, Hydato'i'des, Hydato'dea, 
Ova'tua seu Ovi/or'mia humour, Albutjin' euus hu- 
mour, (F.) Humeur aqxieuse. The limpid fluid 
which fills the two chambers of the eye, from the 
cornea to the crystalline, and which is, conse- 
quently, in contact with the two surfaces of the 
iris. Quantity, 6 or 6 grains: s. g. 1.0003. It 
contains albumen, chloride of sodium, and phos- 
phate of lime in small quantity ; and is enveloped 
in a fine membrane: — the membrane of the aqueous 
humour. Tunica propria seu Vagi'na seu Mem- 
bra'na seu Cap'sula humo'ria a'quei seu 3Iem- 
bra'na Demuria'na seu Deacemet'ii, Membrane 
of Demours or of Descemet ; although these last 
terms are by some appropriated to a third layer 
of the cornea. 

AQUEUS, Aqueous. 

AQUIDUCA, Hydragogues. 

AQUIFOLIUM, Ilex aquifolium — a. Foliia 
deciduis, Prinos. 

AQUILA, Hydrargyri submurias. Sulphur. 

The alchymists used this word for sublimed 
sal ammoniac, precipitated mercury, arsenic, sul- 
phur, and the philosopher's stone. See Uydrar- 
gyri Submurias, and Sulphur. 

Aq'uila Ccelest'is; a sort of panacea, of 
which mercury was a constituent. 

Aq'uila Lach'rym^; a liquor prepared from 
several ingredients, especially from calomel. 

Aq'uila Philosopho'rum. The alchymists, 
whose terms were always mysterious, called mer- 
cury thus, when reduced to its original form- 

Aq'uila Ven'eris ; an ancient preparation, 
made by subliming verdigris and sal ammoniac. 

AQUILiE VEN^, Temporal veins. 

AQUILE'GIA, A. vulga'ria seu aylvea'tris seu 
Alpi'na, Common Colombine or Columbine, (F.) 
Ancolie. Order, Ranunculaceae. From aquiln, 
'the eagle,' owing to some fancied resemblance of 
the spurs to talons. The seeds, herb, and flowers 
were formerly used in jaundice and cutaneous 
diseases. They are still retained in many of the 
Pharmacopoeias of continental Europe. 

Aquilegia Alpina, Aquilegia. 

Aquilegia Canaden'sis, Wild Columbine, is 
indigenous, and flowers in April and June. The 
seeds are said to be tonic. 

Aquilegia Sylvestris, Aquilegia — a. Vul- 
garis, Aquilegia. 

AQUILIC'IA SAMBU'CINA, from aqua, 
'water,' and elicire, 'to attract,' because it grows 
in moist places. [?] An East Indian plant, the 
decoction of whose root is used in indigestion to 
allay heartburn. 
, AQUIP'AROUS, (F.) Aquipare, from aqua, 
ll 'water,' and pario, 'I bring forth.' An epithH 



AQUO-CAPSULITIS 



85 



ARANEOSUS 



for glands which, like the parotid, secrete much 
water, in contradistinction to the submaxillary 
glands, which are muciparous. 

AQUO-CAPSULITIS, Aquo-membranitis. 

AQUO-MEMBRANI'TIS, Keratoiri'tis, Aquo- 
eapiiiili'tis, Hydromeningi'tis. Inflammation of 
the anterior chamber of the eye. A badly com- 
pounded term, denoting inflammation of the cap- 
sule or membrane of the aqueous humour. 

AQUULA, Ceratocele, Hydatid, Hydroa — a. 
Acustica, Cotunnius, liquor of. 

Aquula seu Aqua Morgagmi. The minute 
portion of water which escapes when an opening 
is made into the capsule of the crystalline. 

AQUULA VITREA AUDITIVA, Vitrine au- 
ditive. 

ARA PARVA, a small altar; — a kind of band- 
age invented by Sostratus, which represents the 
corners of an altar. — Galen. 

AR'ABE ; a wound, a blow. — Erotian. 

ARAB'ICA ANTID'OTUS HEPAT'ICA, Ar'- 
ahic Hepat'ic An'tidote. A powder composed of 
myrrh, costus, white pepper, <fcc. It was admi- 
nistered in new wine. 

ARAB'ICUS LAPIS. A sort of white marble, 
analogous to alabaster, found in Arabia. It was 
regarded as absorbent and desiceative, and was 
employed in hemorrhoids. 

ARABIS BARBAREA, Erysimum barbarea. 

AR'ABIS MALAG'MA. An antiscrofulous 
medicine, composed of myrrh, olibanum, wax, 
sal ammoniac, iron pyrites, &e. — Celsus. 

ARABISTS, see Arabs, medicine of the. 

AR'ABS, MEDICINE OF THE. The Ara- 
bians kept the torch of medical science illumi- 
nated during a dark period of the middle ages. 
Before the year of the Ilegira, they had schools 
of medicine ; hut these were most flourishing 
during the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries. The 
chief additions made by them to medical science 
were in the departments of pharmacy and in the 
description of diseases. Their principal writers 
were Avicenna, Serapion, Averrhoes, Hali Abbas, 
Moses Maimonides, Avenzoar, Rhazes, Albucasis, 
Ac. The disciples of the Arab school were called 
Ar'ahisfs. 

ARACACHA, Conium moschatum. 

ARACHIS AFRICANA, A. hypogea— a. Ame- 
ricana, A. Hypogea. 

Ar'achis Hypoge'a, A. America'na seu Afri- 
ea'na, Arachni'da hypogea, Ground nut, Pea nut, 
Earth almond, (S.) Mane; erroneously called 
Pistachio nut, in the South; Pindars pf the West 
Indies. Ord. Leguminosse. Cultivated in the 
Southern States. The seeds are oily, and are 
eaten. A kind of inferior chocolate may be 
made of them. 

ARACH'NE, apaxvri, 'a, spider,' 'a cobweb.' 
Hence, Arachnitis, &c. 

ARACHNIDA HYPOGEA, Arachis hypogea. 

ARACHNI'TIS. more properly Arachnoidi'tix, 
Arachnodei'tis, Inlammation of the Arachnoid. 
A variety of phrenitis. 

ARACHNODEITIS, Arachnitis. 

ARACH'NOID, Arachno'ideus, AracTino'des, 
from apaxvv, 'a cobweb,' and niog, 'form, resem- 
blance.' Resembling a spider's web. 

Arachnoid Canal, see Canal, arachnoid. 

Arachnoid of the Eye. The lining mem- 
brane of a cavity, supposed by some to exist be- 
tween the sclerotic and choroid. 

Arach'noid Membrane, ileninx me'dia seu 
aero'sa, Tu'nica ara'nea seu crystal' Una, Me- 
nin'gion. A name given to several membranes, 
which, by their extreme thinness, resemble spi- 
der-webs. Celsus and Galen called thus the 
membrane of the vitreous humour, — the tunica 
hi/aloidea. The moderns use it now for one of 
the membranes of (he brain, situate between the 



dura mater and pia mater. It is a serous mem- 
brane, and composed of two layers; the external 
being confounded, in the greater part of its extent, 
with the dura mater, and, like it, lining the inte- 
rior of the cranium and spinal canal; the other 
being extended over the brain, from which it is 
separated by the pia mater, without passing into 
the sinuosities between the convolutions, and 
penetrating into the interior of the brain by an 
opening at its posterior part under the corpus 
callosum. It forms a part of the investing sheath 
of the nerves, as they pass from the encephalic 
cavities. Its chief uses seem to be : — to envelop, 
and, in some measure, protect the brain, and to 
secrete a fluid for the purpose of keeping it in a 
state best adapted for the proper performance of 
its functions. 

ARACHNOIDITIS, Arachnitis. 

AB. ACK' , Arrack ; (East Indian.) A spiritu- 
ous liquor made in India in various ways, often 
from rice, sometimes from sugar fermented along 
with the juice of the cocoa nut; frequently from 
toddy, the juice which flows from the cocoa-nut 
tree by incision, and from other substances. It 
is a strong, heating spirit. 

Arack, Mock, is made by adding ^ij of Ben- 
zoic acid to a qriart of rum. The celebrated 
Vauxhall punch is made with such arack. 

ARACOUCHINI, Icica aracoucbini. 

ARACUS AROMATICUS, Vanilla 

AR'ADOS, ApaSos. The agitation itcited in 
the stomach by the coction of aliments of differ- 
ent nature. — Hippocrates. Likewise, the motion 
produced by cathartics. 

AR^OMA, Interstice. 

AREOMETER, Areometer. 
_ AR^OT'ICA, from apaiou, <I rarefy.' Medi- 
cines supposed to have the quality of larefyinf 
the humours. See Rarefaciens. 

ARAKI, see Spirit. 

ARALIA CANADENSIS, Panax quinquefo- 
lium. 

Ara'lia His'pida, Dwarf Elder, Ord. Aralia- 
ceje, is said to be diuretic, and has been recom- 
mended, in decoction, in dropsy. 

Ara'lia Nudicau'lis, Nardus America' nus.. 
Small Spikenard, Wild Liq'uorice, Sweet root. 
False or Wild Sarsaparil'la, (F.) Petit nard. 
This American plant is said to be a mild stimu- 
lant and diaphoretic, and has been recommended 
as a substitute for sarsaparilla. It is used, also, 
as a tonic. It is in the secondary list of the 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

Ara'lia Racemo'sa, American Spikenard, has 
the same properties as A. Nudicaulis. 

Ara'lia Spino'sa, Angel'ica Tree, PricMif 
Ash, Toothach Tree, Spikenard Tree, Prickly 
Elder, Shotbush, Pigeon Tree. Its properties are 
not clear. The berries, and a tincture of them, 
have been employed, it is said, successfully in 
toothach. A spirituous infusion has also been 
used in colic. The bark is officinal in the Phar- 
macopoeia of the United States. 

ARANEA, Araneae Tela — a. Tarentula, see 
Tarentula. 

ARA'NEA TELA, Ara'nea, Ara'neum, Cob- 
web, (F.) Toile d'AraignSe. Formerly, this sub- 
stance was much employed, and supposed to pos- 
sess extraordinary virtues, especially when ap- 
plied to the wrists. It has been recently used 
again in intermittents. The spider itself, soft- 
ened into a plaster and applied to the forehead 
and temples, is said by Dioscorides to prevent 
ague. Cobweb is a mechanical styptic, and is so 
applied at times. 

ARANEO'SA URI'NA. A term applied to 
the urine when loaded with filaments, like col> 
webs. 

ARANEO'SUS (PULSUS); a term employed 



ARANEUM 



ARCHIATER 



lo express extreme weakness of pulse ; when the 
movements resemble those of a delicate net raised 
bj the wind. 

ARAXEUM, Aranea) Tela. 

Ara'-netm Ulcus, A^tukil'los. A name given 
by Par.icelsus to a malignant, gangrenous ulcer, 
extending from the feet to the legs. 

ARARA. M^'robalanus citrina. 

ARASCON. Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

ARATUUM, Vomer. 

ARAUCARIA DOMBEYI, Dombeya excelsa. 

AliBOISE, Arbutus unedo. 

ARBOL BE LECHE, Galaetodendron utile. 

ARBOR BENIVI, Benjamin— a. Indica, Lau- 
rus cassia — a. Maris, Coral — a. Thurifera, Juni- 
perus Lycia — a. Uteri Vivificans, Palmse uteri 
plicatse. 

Arbor Yit^, (F.) Arhre de vie. A name 
given to an arborescent appearance, observed on 
cutting the cerebellum longitudinally; and which 
results from the particular arrangement of the 
white substance with the cineritious. Also, the 
Thuya occidentalis. 

Arbor Vit^, American, Thuya occidentalis — 
a. Vita; Uterinus, Palmre uteri plicatte — a. Vitse 
of the Uterus, Palmaj uteri plicatse. 

AR'BORES. A morbid alteration of the skin, 
which precedes its ulceration. Ruland. 

ARBORIZA'TION, Arhorisa'tio, (F.) Arhori- 
lation, from arbor, arboris, 'a tree.' The figure 
or appearance of a tree or plant. The capillary 
vessels, when injected, as in inflammation, fre- 
quently appear under the form of Arborizations. 

ARBOUSIER, Arbutus unedo. 

ARBRE DE VIE, Arbor Vitae. 

ARBUSCULA GUJIMIFERA BRAZILIEN- 
SIS, Hypericum bacciferum. 

ARBUTUS, A. Unedo — a. Trailing, A. Uva 
ursi, Epigiea repens. 

Ar'bdtcs Uva V-rsi, ArctostapVylos Uva vrsi, 
Maira'nia uva ursi. Orel. Ericaceaj. Sex S;/st. 
Decandria Monogynia. (F.) Busserolle ou Rai- 
sin d'Oiirs. The leaves — (CTya Ursi, Ph. U. S.) 
— of this plant are tonic and astringent, and have 
been employed, chiefly, in diseases of the urinary 
organs, and also as a parturifacient. Dose of the 
powder from gr. xv to ^ss. The English names 
are Trailinrj Ar'butus, Bear's Whortleberry or 
Bearberry, Mountain-box, Redberrij, Upland 
Cranberry, Foxberry, Checlcerberry, (Sc.) Braw- 
lins. 

Ar'butus Une'do, Ar'butus, Andrach'ne, Une'- 
do, U. papyra'cea, Ko/iapos, (F.) Arbousier, Ar- 
boise. A decoction of the leaves is astringent, 
and has been used in diarrhoea. 

ARC, Arch, ArcHs, (F.) Arc, Arcade (diminu- 
tive). Any part of the body resembling an arch 
in form: as the Arch of the colon, (F.) Arc du 
colon, — the transverse portion of that intestine: 
— Arch of the Aorta, Arcus aor'tcB, (F.) Crosse 
de I'Aorte, &c., the turn which the aorta takes in 
the thorax. 

ARCA ARCANORUM, Hydrargyrum— a. Cor- 
dis, Perifnrdium. 

ARCADE, see Arc — a. Anastomotiqne, Arch, 
anastoniutic — a. Crurale, Crural arch — a. Ingui- 
nale, Crural arch — a. Orbitaire, Orbitar arch — 
ff. Pubieniie, Pubic arch — a. Zygomatique, Zygo- 
matic aroh. 

ARCADES DENTAIRES, Dental arches — 
a. Paliiifiires, Palmar arches. 

A R CADI- TEMP OR 0-MAXILLAIRE, Tem- 
poralis. 

ARCiE'US or ARCCE'US, BALSAM OP, (F.) 
Banme d'Arcceus. A kind of soft ointment used 
in sores, contusions, <tc. It is made by melting 
two parts of mutton suet, one part of hog's lard : 



turpentine and rosin, each one part and a half; 
straining and agitating till cold. 

ARCAXSOX, Colophonia. 

ARCA'NUM, from area, 'a. chest.' A secret, 
a nostrum, a quack or empir'ical med'icine, (F.) 
Arcane. A remedy whose composition is kept 
secret; but which is reputed to possess great 
efficacy. 

Arcanum Corallinum, Hydrargyri nitrico- 
oxydum — a. Duplicatum, Potassae sulphas — a. 
Tartari, Potassas acetas. 

ARCEAU, Arculus, Cradle. 

ARCEUTIIOS, Juniperus communis. 

ARCH, ANASTOMOTIC, (F.) Arcade Anasto- 
motique, is the union of two vessels, which anas- 
tomose by describing a curved line. The vessels 
of the mesentery anastomose in this manner. 

Arch of the Aorta, see Aorta — a. Crural, see 
Crural arch — a. Femoral, see Crural arch — a. 
Gluteal, see Gluteal aponeurosis — a. Haemal, see 
Haemal arch — a. Inguinal, see Crural arch — a. Or- 
bital, see Orbitar arch — a. of the Palate, see Palate 
bone — a. of the Pubis, see Pubic arch — a. Subpu- 
bic, see Subpubic arch — a. Superciliary, see Su- 
perciliary arches — a. of a Vertebra, see Vertebrae — 
a. Zygomatic, see Zygomatic arch. 

Arches op the Palate. These are two in 
number on each side of the throat, one of which 
is termed anterior, the other posterior. 

The anterior arch arises from the middle of 
the velum palati, at the side of the uvula, and is 
fixed to the edge of the base of the tongue. 

The posterior arch has its origin, likewise, from 
the side of the uvula, and passes downwards to 
be inserted into the side of the pharynx. The 
anterior arch contains the circumflexus palati, 
and forms the isthmus faucium. The posterior 
arch has within it the levator palati, and be- 
tween the arches are the tonsils. 

ARCH^'US, ^rc7*e'!(a, from a/ixv, 'commence- 
ment,' (F.) Archie. A word invented by Basil 
Valentine, and afterwards adopted by Paracelsus 
and Van Helmont. The latter used it for the 
internal principle of our motions and actions. 
This archseus, according to Van Helmont, is an 
immaterial principle, existing in the seed prior 
to fecundation, and presiding over the develop- 
ment of the body, and over all organic pheno- 
mena. Besides this chief arohseus, whose seat 
Van Helmont placed in the upper orifice of the 
stomach, he admitted several of a subordinate 
character, which had to execute its orders; one, 
for instance, in each organ, to preside over its 
functions; each of them being subject to anger, 
caprice, terror, and every human feeling. 

ARCHANGEL, NEW, MINERAL SPRINGS. 
About twenty miles to the north of New Arch- 
angel, Sitka Island, on the N. W. coast of North 
America, are some thermal sulphureous waters, 
the temjierature of one of which is upwards of 
153° of Fahr. They are much celebrated. — Sir 
Geo. Simpson. 

ARCHANGELICA, Lamium album— a. Offici- 
nalis, Angelica. 

ARCHE, apxn, IniVium, Princip'ium, Primor'- 
dium, Ori'go, Inva'sio. The first attack of a dis- 
ease. 

ARCHECPTOMA, Proctocele. 

ARCHE E, Archfeus. 

ARCHELL, CANARY, Lichen roccella. 

ARCHELOG"IA, from apx^< 'beginning,' and 
\oyoi, 'a discourse.' A treatise on fundamental 
principles — of medicine, for example. 

ARCHEN'DA. A powder of the leaves of the 
ligustrum, used by the ^Egyptians after bathing, 
to obviate the unpleasant odour of the feet. — 
Prosper Alpinus. 

ARCHIA'TER, Archia'true, Protomed'ictu, 



ARCHIGENI MORBI 



ARENATIO 



Protin'tros, from apx<^> 'I *™ first,' and larpog' | 
'physician.' The original signification of this 
word is a matter of dispute. Some consider, with 
Mercurialis, that it meant physician to a prince, 
king, emperor, Ac; others, with C. Hofi"mann, ap- 
ply it to every physician who, by his situation, 
ia raised above his colleagues. The former opi- 
nion seems to have prevailed — Archiatre des 
Roi8 de France being applied to the chief physi- 
cian to the kings of France. 

ARCniG-"ENI MORBI. Acute diseases; be- 
cause they hold the first rank: from apx^, 'be- 
ginning,' and yivofiaj, 'I am.' 
ARCHIMAGIA, Chvmistry. 
ARCHINGEAY, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Archingeay is situate in France, three leagues 
from St. Jean d'Angely. The waters are prized 
in all diseases. They seem to contain carbonate 
of lime, a little chloride of sodium, carbonate of 
iron, and some bitumen. 

ARCHITECTURA APOPLECTICA, Apo- 
plectic make. 

ARCHITIS, Proctitis, Rectitis. 
ARCHOCELE, Proctocele. 
ARCHOPTOMA, Proctocele. 
ARCHOPTOSIS, Proctocele. 
ARCHORRHA'GIA, from up;^os, 'the anus,' 
and ptu, 'I flow.' Arehorrhce'a. Hemorrhage 
from the anus. 

ARCHORRHCEA, Archorrhagia. 
ARCHOS, Arcus, Rectum. 
ARCHOSTEGNOMA, Stricture of the Rectum. 
ARCHOSTEQNOSIS, Stricture of the Rectum. 
ARCHOSTENOSIS, Stricture of the Rectum. 
ARCHOSYRINX, Fistula in ano. 
AR'CIFORM, Arcifor'mis, from arx, arcis, 
'a top or ridge,' and forma, 'shape.' An epi- 
thet given to certain fibres, Fibres arci'form' ea, 
of the anterior pyramids of the medulla oblon- 
gata, which take a curved course around the in- 
ferior e.xtremity of each corpus olivare and ascend 
towards the cerebellum. 

ARCTA'TIO, Arctitu'do, from arcto, 'I make 
narrow;' Anguata'tio, Coarcta'tio, (F.) Betrecis- 
sement. Contraction of a natural opening or of a 
canal, and especially of the vulva, of the orifice 
of the uterus, or of the intestinal canal. Consti- 
pation, (see Stegnosis.) Reunion by suture or 
infibulntion. — Scribonius Largus, Paul Zac- 
chias, (fee. 

ARCTITUDO, Arctatio. 
ARCTIUM, A. lappa— a. Bardana, A. lappa. 
Arctium Lappa. The root and seed of the 
Clit'hur, Barda'na, Apicctov, Arctium, A. barda'no 
seu inajiis seu minus sen tomoifo'sum, I'la^Ms. 
Lajypa fjlahra, Lappa major seu persona'ta, Per- 
sola'ta, PersoUa'ta, Persohi'fa, Burdock, (Old 
Eng.) Clithe, Cuckold, (F.) Bardane, Glouteron, 
Herbe aux teigneux. Ord. Compositae. Sex. Syst. 
Syngenesia Eequalis. Boot, Lappa (Ph. TJ. S.), 
diuretic : seed, cathartic. It has been used in 
decoction in diseases of the skin and in syphilis. 
Arctium Majus, A. lappa — a. Minus, A. lappa 
— a. Tomentosum, A. lappa. 

ARC'TOPUS ECHINA'TUS._ A South Afri- 
can plant, Ord. Umbelliferse, which is demulcent 
and diuretic, somewhat approaching sarsaparilla. 
The decoction of the root is employed in syphilis, 
lepra, and chronic cutaneous affections of all 
kinds. 

ARCTOSTAPHYLOS UVA URSI, Arbutus 
uva ursi. 

ARCTU'RA, from arcto, 'I straighten.' The 
effects of a nail grown into the flesh, Arctu'ra 
urtrjnis. See Onychogryphosis. 

Arctura Unguium. The growing in or inver- 
sion of the nails. See Onychogryphosis. 

ARCUA'TIO, Concava'tio. An anterior gib- 
bosity or projection of the sternum. 



ARCUEIL, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ar- 
cueil is about one league south of Paris. Iho 
water contains carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, 
sulphate of lime, chloride of sodium, and some 
deliquescent salts. 

A celebrated society held its meetings at this 
village, of which Berthollet, Humboldt, La Place, 
&c., were members. 

ARCULA CORDIS, Pericardium. 

ARCUL^. The Orbitar Fossae: -notXibti.— 
Rufus of Ephesus. 

ARC'ULUS, diminutive of a9'c?(«, 'an arch.' A 
small arch; a cradle, (P.) Arceau, Archet. A 
semicircular box or basket used for preventing 
the bed-clothes from coming in contact with in- 
jured or diseased parts. An ordinance of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany forbade mothers to sleep 
with an infant near them, unless it was put under 
a solid cradle. 

ARCUS MEDULLARIS, Fornix— a. Senilis, 
Gerotoxon — a. Subpubicus, Subpubic arch — a. 
Supereiliaris, Superciliary arches — a. Unguium, 
see Nail — a. Zygomaticus, Zygomatic arch. 

ARDALOS, Excrement. 

ARDAS, Excrement. 

ARDENT, Ardens, from ardere, 'to burn.' 

Ardent Fever, (F.) Fievre ardente. Catisus, 
Si/nocha, or inflammatory fever. 

Ardent or Inflamed Eyes, (F.) Yenx ardens. 
The eyes are so called when injected red. 

Ardent Urine, (F.) Urine ardente. Urine of 
a deep red. 

ARDESIA HIBERNICA, Hibernicus lapis. 

ARDEUB, Ardor — a. du Coeur, Cardialgia — 
a. d'Estomac, Ardor ventriculi, Pyrosis — a. dn 
la Fievre, Ardor Febrilis — a, d' Urine, Ardor 
Urinae. 

AR'DOR, (F.) Ardeur. Heat. A feeling of 
burning, of violent heat; ^stus, ^stua'tio, Cau- 

Ardor Febri'lis, (F.) Ardeur de la Fievre, 
The hot period of fever. 

Ardor Stomachi, Pyrosis. 

Ardor Uri'NjE, (F.) Ardeur d' Urine. A scald- 
ing sensation occasioned by the urine in passing 
over the inflamed mucous membrane of the ure- 
thra, or over the neck of the bladder. 

Ardor Venereus, Heat. 

Ardor Ventric'uli, Eh\dlit"io Stom'achi, 
Heartburn, (Sc.) Heartaxes, Heartscald, Hersket, 
(F.) Ardeur d'Estomac. See Cardialgia and 
Pyrosis. 

A'REA, 'a void place,' 'an open surface.' A 
Latin word used by some authors to designate a 
variety of Alopecia, in which the hair changes 
colour, but does not fall off; also, Porrigo de- 
calvans. 

Area Germinativa, TacTie embryonnaire. 

Area Pellu'cida. An elliptical depression in 
the ovum, filled with a pellucid fluid, in the cen- 
tre of which is the germ. 

Area Vasculo'sa, see Circulus venosus. 

ARE'CA. The fruit— ^re'c« nut. Betel mt— 
of Are'ca Cat'eehu seu Faufel, Caun'fja ; Ord. 
Palmse ; Sex. Si/at. Monoecia Monadelphia; (F.) 
A}-ec, is astringent and tonic, and enters into the 
composition of the Betel, the great masticatory 
of the Orientals. 

Areca Catechu, see Areca — a. Faufel, see 
Areca. 

AREFAC'TIOISr, Arefae'tio, Xeran'sis, ^vpavcn, 
from arefacere, 'to make dry,' [arere, 'to dry,' 
and /acere, 'to make.') The process of drying 
substances, prior to pulverization. 

ARENA, see Gravel, 

A REN AMEN, Bole Armenian. 

ARENA'TIO, Inhuma'tio, Chisia, Sand or 



ARENGA SACCHARIFERA 



ARGEMONE MEXICANA 



Ei'ith Bnth ; from nrena, 'sami:' Sahurra'tio. 
The application of hot sand to the body. Pedi- 
Iti'cia [?] of sand were formerly used in Ascites. 
AREXGA SACCHARIFERA, see Toddy. 
ARENO'SA URI'NA, Sandy Urine. Urine 
when it deposits a sandy sediment. 

ARENO'SUS, Sabulous. Also, one who passes 
?andy urine. 

ARENULA, see Gravel. 

ARE'OLA. A diminutire of Area, (F.) Aire. 
AnaK.inists understand by AreolcB the int^er- 
stices between the fibres composing organs, or 
those existing between laminae, or between ves- 
sels which interlace with each other. 

Areola is also applied to the coloured circle 
llnlo, Hdloa, which surrounds the nipple, Are'- 
vla papilla'ris, and which becomes much darker 
during pregnancy; as well as to the circle sur- 
rounding certain vesicles, pustules, <fcc., as the 
pustules cf the small-pox, the vaccine vesicle, 
&Q. Chaussier, in such cases, recommends the 
■word Aure'ola, (F.) Aureole. 

Areola Papillaris, see Areola — a. Tubercles 
of the, see Mamma. 

ARE'OLAR, Areoln'ris. Appertaining to an 
areola. 

Areolar Exhalations are those recremen- 
titinl secretions which are effected within the 
organs of sense, or in parenchymatous struc- 
tures — as the aqueous, crystalline, and vitreous 
humours, <ibc. 

Arkolar Tissue, Cellular Tissue. 
ARROM'ETER, Araom'eter, Gmcim'etei; AU 
er.olom'eter, Alcnom'eter, Aerostat' ic Balance, from 
afiatos, ' light,' and fterpov, ' measure :' i. e. ' measure 
of liyhtness.' An instrument 
so called because first em- 
ployed to take the specific gra- 
vity of fluids lighter than water. 
The Areometer of Banme, which 
is the most used in Pharmacy, 
particularly in France, consists 
of a tube of glass, largely 
expanded towards its inferior 
extremity, and terminating be- 
low by a small ball, containing 
mercury or lead, which serves 
it as a balance, so that it may 
remain upright in the fluid. 
This tube is furnished with a 
graduated scale. If the fluid 
into which the Areometer is 
plunged be heavier than water, 
the instrument rises; if lighter, 
it sinks. There are various 
Areometers, as those of the 
Dutch, of Fahrenheit, Nichol- 
son, ka. The Areometer is also 
called Hydrom'eter, (F.) Areo- 
metre, Pese-liqueur. 

There are some hydrometers 
which have a general applica- 
tion for determining the spe- 
cific gravities of liquids — as 
Fahrenheit's, Nicholson's,Guy- 
ton de Morveau's, and the com- 
mon glass hydrometers, inclu- 
V / ding Baumg's, Cartier's, Twad- 

/ \^ die's, Zanetti's, and the spe- 

r_-^ cific gravity beads; others in- 

v"' / tended for special application 

\j — as for estimating the com- 

parative strength of spirits; the 
Baume"? riydro- comparative densities of sy- 
metcr. rups, oils, &c. — as Gay Lus- 

sac's, Sikes's, and Dicat's hy- 
drometers, and the saccharometer, urinometer, 
'iv<l elaeomcter. 



SCALE OF BAnstE's HYDROMETER, WITH CORRE- 
SPONDING SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 
1. Ascending Scale for light liquids. 



Scale of 
Baume. 


Specific 
Gravities. 


Substances. 


70 


700 


Pure hydrocyanic acid.— Gay Ltis- 
sac. 


66 


715 


Very pure sulphuric ether. 


60 


742 


The same concentrated. 


5a 


782 


1 


48 


792 


Equal parts of alcohol and ether. ! 


42 


8191 
82-1 


Very pure alcohol for pharmaceu-l 


40 


tical purposes. 


36 


847 


Pure alcohol. Naphtha. 


33 


863 


Alcohol of commerce. 


32 


868 


Essential oil of turpentina. 


30 


878 


Hydrocyanic acid of Sebeele and 


26 


900 


pure hydrocyanic acid, mixed 


with an equal portion of water. 






—Rohiquet. 1 


25 


906^ 
915/ 


Acetic ether. 




..! 


Nitric ether. 


Id. 


Muriatic ether. 


22 


923 1 


Liiiuid ammonia. 
Olive oil. 


Id. 


Id.] 




20 


935 I 


Brandy. 


18 


948 J 




13 


980 


Burgundy wine. 


12 


986 




11 


993 


Bordeaux wine. 


10 


1000 


Distilled water. 



2. Descending Scale for heavy liqnids. 



Scale ..f 
Baun.e. 


Specific 


Substances. 




}) 

12 
20 
21 
25 
30 
35 
40 
41 
45 
Id. 
50 
60 
06 
70 


1000 
1007 1 

1009 y 

1014 
1032 
1075 •) 
1091]- 
1161 

iisoi 

1210 ]• 
1261 

1321 } 
13S4) 

1398 y 

I454J 

1532 
1714 
1847 
1946 


Common distilled water. 
Distilled vinegar. 
Common vinegar. 
Cow's milk. 

Concentrated acetic acid. 

Liquid hydrochloric acid. 
Boilins syrup. 
Cold Syrup. 
Common nitric acid. 

Concentrated nitric acii. 

Phosphoric acid for medical use. 

Very concentrated sulphrr-c acid. 
Very concentrated pbosflioiic acid 



ARES. A terra invented by Paracelsus to de- 
signate the principle on which depends the form 
of mercury, sulphur, and salt. These the alchy- 
mists regarded as the three bodies that give birth 
to every other. 

AR'ETE, aptrri, 'virtue.' Mental or corporeal 
vigour. — Hippocrates. 

ARETHU'SA, A. hnlho'sa; indigenous. Order, 
Orchidaceae. The bruised bulbs are used in 
toothache ; and as cataplasms to tuniuur?. 

A'REUS. A pessary mentioned "oy Paulus of 
^gina. 

ARGEL, Cynanchum olesefolium. 

AR'GEMA, Ar'gemon. Ar'gemus, from apyoSf 
'white.' Fos'snla, (F.) Encavure. A white spot 
or ulceration of the eye. — Hippocrates. See 
Leucoma. 

ARGEMO'NE, MEXICA'NA, Tltorn Poppy, 
Prichly Poppy, Yellow Thistle. A native of 
Mexico, but naturalized in most parts of the 
world. Ord. Papaveraceas. Sex. Sys\ Polyan- 
dria Monogynia. The juice resemble.* gamboge, 



ARGENSON 



ARGILLA BOLUS FLAVA 



and has been used as a hydragogue. The seeds 
are employed in the West Indies as a substitute 
for ipecacuanha. They are also used as a ca 
thartic. 

ARGENSON, MINERAL WATERS OF. A 
chalj-beate situate at Argenson in Dauphiny : 
used in cases of obstruction, jaundice, &c. 

ARGEXT, Argentum — a. Cfdorure d\ see Ar- 
gentina — a. Cyainire d', see Argentum — a. et 
d'Animoniaqiie, chlorure d', see Argentum — a. 
lodare d', see Argentum — a. Oxide d', see Ar- 
gentum — a. Petit, Platinum — a. Vi<:e, Hydrar- 
gyrum. 

ARGENTERIA, Potentilla artserina. 

ARGEXTI CHLORIDUM, see Arirentnm— a. 
et Ammonige chloridum, see Argentum — a. et 
Ammonias chloruretura, see Argentiiui — a. Cya- 
nidum, see Argentum — a. Cyanuretum, see Ar- 
gentum — a. lodidum, see Argentum — a. lodure- 
tum, see Argentum. 

Argen'ti Nitras, Argen'tum Xitrn'tum seu 
Xit'riciim, S''l argen'ti, (F.) Nitrate ou Azotote 
d' Argent, Nitrate of Silver. This preparation is 
sometimes kept in crystals, the Nitras Argen'ti 
■in crystal'ios coiicre'tus, Nitrate d' Argent cri/stal- 
fise of the Codex of Paris, Luna potab' His, Ori/s- 
t'llli Litnas, Argen'tum nit'ricum cryntriUisa'tmn, 
Nitras argenti cryntal'liiuts, Nitnim luna're, Hy- 
drago'guin Bot'lei. Generally, however, it is in 
the fused state: and it is this which is admitted 
into most Pharmacopoeias, and which, besides 
the name Nitras Argenti, is called Ni'trns argen'ti 
fitnus seu fwiinn. Cans'ticum luna're. Lapis infer- 
na'Us, Argen'tum nit'ricum fusum, and lunar 
caustic, (F.) Nitrate d' argent fondu, Pierre in- 
female. 

In the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, it 
is directed to be prepared as follows : — Take of 
silrer, in small pieces, ,^j ; nitric acid, f^vij, 
distilled water, i'~\y Mis the acid with the 
water, and dissolve the silver in the mixture in 
a sand bath; then crystallize, or gradually in- 
crease the heat, so that the resulting salt may be 
dried. Melt this in a crucible over a gentle fire, 
and continue the heat until ebullition ceases; 
then immediately pour it into suitable moulds. 

The virtues of nitrate of silver are tonic, and 
escbarotie. It is given in chorea, epilepsy, &c. : 
locally, it is used in various cases as an escha- 
rotic. Dose, gr. 1-S to gr. 1-4 in pill, three times 
a day. 

AVhen silver is combined with iodine, it is said 
to have the same effect as the nitrate, and not to 
produce the slate colour of the surface, which is 
apt to follow the protracted use of the latter. 

Argenti Oxtdi-m, see Argentum. 

ARGENTILLA vulgaris, Potentilla an- 
serina. 

AR'GENTINE, Argento'sus, same etymon as 
the next. Pertaining to silver; as an 'argentine 
solution,' or solution of a salt of silver. 

ATsCxENTrvE. Potentilla anserina. 

ARGEN'TUM, Ar'gi/rus, from apyo;, 'white,' 
Silver, Luna, Dia'na. (F.) Argent. A solid metal 
of a shining white appearance : insipid : inodor- 
ous: highly sonorous; malleable and ductile; 
somewhat hard: crystallizable in triangular py- 
ramids : fusible a little above a red heat, and 
volatizable; s. g. 10.4. Not used in medicine, 
nnle?s in some places for silvering pills. Silver 
Leaf, Argen'tum folia' turn, is the state in which 
it is used for this purpose. 

AnGENTi-M Divi'sujf, metallic silver, in very 
fine powder, has been recommended internally in 
syphilis. 

The CnLOHiDE (Argen'ti ehlo'ridum, Argen'- 
tnm mnriat'icnm seu chlora'tum seu sali'tum. 
Chlorure' turn Argen'ti, Chlor'nret or Mu'rinte of 
Silver, (F.) Chlorure d' Argent); the Cyanuret: 



I the Iodide {Argen'ti lo'didum, Argen'tum. loda'- 
tum, lodure'tum Argen'ti, lod'uret of Silver, (F.) 
lodnre d' Argent;) the Oxide {Argen'ti ox'idum, 
Argen'tum oxyda'tum, (F.) Oxide d' Argent), vrnk 
the CnLOEiDE of Ammonia and Silver {Argen'ti 
et Ammo'nicB ehlu'ridum, Argen'tum muriat'icum, 
ammonia'tum, Chlorure'tum Argen'ti et Ammo'- 
nicB, Chlo'ruret of Silver and Ammonia, Anuno- 
nio-chloride of Silver, (F.) Chlorure d Argent et 
d' Ammoniaque),\iAve been used in syphilis. At 
first, these different preparations were adminis- 
tered iatraleptically on the gums ; the chloride, 
the cyanide and the iodide in the dose of l-12th 
of a grain; the chloride of silver and ammonia 
in the dose of l-14th of a grain, and the oxide of 
silver and divided silver in the dose of l-8th and 
l-4th of a grain. M. Serre, of Montpellier, who 
made many trials with them, soon found that 
these doses were too small; he therefore raised 
that of the chloride to 1-lOth, and of the iodide 
to l-8th of a grain, without any inconvenience 
resulting. The dose of the other preparations was 
likewise increased in a similar ratio. M. Serre 
extols the preparations of silver — used internally 
as well as iatraleptically — as antisyphilitics, but 
they are not to be depended upon. 

The Ci/anuret or Cyanide of Silver, Argen'ti 
Cyanure'tum sou Cyan'idum, Argen'tum cyaiioge- 
na'tum, (F.) Cyanure d'argent, is thus directed 
to be prepared in the Ph. U. S. (1842,) Argent. 
Nit. ^xv. Acid Hydrocyan., Aq. destillat. aa Oj. 
Having dissolved the nitrate of silver in thb 
water, add the hydrocyanic acid, and mix them. 
Wash the precipitate with distilled water and dry 
it. In the last edition of the Pharmacopoeia, 
(1851,) it is directed to be prepared as follows: — 
Nitrate of Silver, dissolved in distilled water, is 
put into a tubulated glass receiver; Ferocyanuret 
of Potassium, dissolved in distilled water, is put 
into a tubulated retort, previously adapted to the 
receiver. Dilute Sulphuric Acid is added to the 
solution in the retort; and, by means of a sand- 
bath and a moderate heat, distillation is carried 
on until the liquid that passes over no longer 
produces a precipitate in the receiver. The pre- 
cipitate is then washed with distilled water, and 
dried. 

The Oxide of Silver, Argen'ti Ox'idum, has 
bpen introduced into the last edition of the Ph. 
U. S. (1851). It is made by precipitating a solu- 
tion of the Nitrate of Silver by solution of Pa- 
tassa, drying the precipitate. 

Argentum Chloratdm, see Argentum — a. 
Cyanogenatum, see Argentum — a. Fugitivum, 
Hydrargyrum — a. Fusum, Hydrargyrum — a. 
lodatum, see Argentum — a. Liquidum, Hydrar- 
gyrum—a. Mobile, Hydrargyrum — a. Muriati- 
cum, see Argentum — a. Muriaticum Ammonia- 
tum, see Argentum — a. Oxydatum, see Argentum 
— a. Salitum, see Argentum — a. Vivum, Hydrar- 
gyrum. 

ARGIL, PURE, Argilla pura. 

ARGILE OOHREUSE PALE, Bolus Alba. 

ARGILLA BOLUS FLAVA, Terra Lemnia— 
a. Bolus rubra. Bole Armenian — a. Ferruginea 
rubra. Bole Armenian — a. Kalisulphurica, Alu- 
men— a. Pallida, Bolus alba. 

Argilla Pura, Terra Alu'minis seu bola'rii,, 
seu argilla'cea pura seu depura'ta seu hydra'ta, 
Alu'mina pura seu depura'ta, Ox'idum alumin'ii, 
pure Argil or Alumina, (F.) Alumine factiee. 
This substance, which is prepared by drying alum 
and exposing it, for twenty or twenty-five mi- 
nutes, to a red heat, until the sulphuric acid is 
driven off, has been recommended in indigestion 
as antacid, as well as in vomiting and diarrhoea 
accompanied with acidity. The dose to a very 
young child is from ^ss to ^jj to older children 
from 3J to 3ij. 



ARGILL.E ACETAS 



90 



AEMOUR 



Argilla. ScLPHuniCA Alcalisata, Alumen — 
a. Sulphurica usta, Alumen exsiccatum — a. Su- 
persulphas alcalisatum, Alumen — a, Vitriulata, 
Alumen. 

ARGILLA ACETAS, Aluminas acetas — a. 
Sulphas, Alumina? sulphas. 

ARGOL, RED, Potasste supertartras impurus 
— a. AVhite, Pnasfa; supertartras impurus. 

ARGUMEXTUM IXTEGRITATIS. Hymen. 

ARGY'RIA, from apyvpoi, 'silver.' The dis- 
coluration of the skin occasioned by the internal 
use of nitrate of silver. 

ARGYROCH.ETA, Matricaria, 



Virglnie, CiAuvrine ou Couhuvree ou Viperine d« 
Yiryinie, Virginia Snakeroot, Snnkerout Birth- 
xcort. Snakeweed, Snagrcl. Virtues oi the root, 
Serpenla'ria, tonic, stimulant; and as such, em- 
ployed in debility, intermittents, Ac. Aristo- 
lochi'a Hihsu'ta, a. Hasta'ta and A. Reticu- 
la'ta; indigenous, are employed indiscriuiinately 
with A. Serpentaria under the name Serpeuturia 
or Virginia Snakeroot. 

AnisTOLOCHi'A Sipno, Dutchman's pipe, and 
A. Tomexto'sa; indigenous, have virtues like 
those of A. Serpentaria. 

AniSTOLocHi'A Tenuis, A. Clematitis — a. To- 



ARGYROPH'ORA, from apyvpoi, 'silver,' and >■ mentosa, see A. sipho — a. Trifida, A. Trilobata, 



Cspu), ' I bear.' A name given, by Myrepsus, to J 
an antidote which he regarded as extremely pre- 
cious. II 
ARGYROTROPIIEMA, Blancmanger. 
AR(iYRrS, Argentum. 

ARHEUMAT'IC, Arheumnt'icus, from a, pri- 
vative, and oivfjia, 'fluxion or rheumatism.' One 
with'iut fluxion or rheumatism. 

ARIA, Cratxgus aria — o. Cattiva, see Miasma. 
ARICrXA, A/rc"ia, Cua'coiiiii, Ctisco-Ciiicho'- 
nin, so called from Arica in South America, the 
place where it Is shipped. An alkaloid found in | 
Cusco Bark, which is very similar in many of its 
properties to Cinchonia. Cusco was the ancient 
residence of the Incas. 

ARIC'YMOX, from api, an intensive particle, 
«nd Kvuv, ' to conceive.' A name given to a 
female who conceives readily. — Hippocrates. 

ARIDE'NA. A Latin word employed to de- 
signate the leanness of any part. — Ettmuller, 
Sauvages. 

ARID'ITY, Arid'itnu. (F.) Aridite, from arere, 
•to grow dry.' The French use the word Ari'- 
dite to express the dryness of any organ, and 
particularly of the skin and tongue, when such 
'Iryness is "so great as to render the organ rough 
tothe touch. Aridite also means the lanuginous 
appearance of the hair in some diseases in which 
it seems covered with dust 

ARIDU'RA. Wasting or emaciation of the 
whole or of any part of the body; Marasmus, 
Atrophy. 

Aridura Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — a. 
Hepatis, Hepatrophia. 
ARIKA. see Spirit. 

ARISiEMA ATRO-RUBENS, Arum triphyl- 
Inm. 

ARTSTALTHiEA, Althwa. 
ARISTOLOCni'A, from aptaro;, ' very good,' 
and Xoxcia. 'parturition;' so called, because the 
difi'erent varieties were supposed to aid parturi- 
tion. Birthwort, (F.) Arixtnloche. Ord. Aris- 
tolochiaeeae. Several varieties were once in use. 
Aristolochia Cava, Fumaria bulbosa. 
Aristolochi'a Clemati'tis, Ari«lolochi'a Vul- 
gn'ria seu Cre'lica seu ten'vin, Adrn Eiza (F.) 
\h-}sto1oche ordinaire. Upright Birthxcort. The 
root has been considered stimulant and emmena- 
gogue. and as such has been used in amenorrhoea, 
chlorosis, and cachexia. 

Aristolochia Cretica, A. Clematitis— a. Fa- 
haeea, Fumaria bulbosa — a. H.nstata, see A. 
serpentaria — a, Hirsuta, see A. serpentaria. 

Artstolochi'a Longa, and A. Rotus'da, (F.) 
Aristolijche longne et ronde, Long and Bound 
Birth irort. Virtues the same as the preceding. 

A RlSTOLOCni' A PistOLOCHi'A, Piitnloch i'a Aris- 
tjlochi'a, Potyrrhi'zn. This variety has an aro- 
matic clour, and an acrid and bitter taste. (F.) 
Ariitoloche ereuelee. 

Aristolochia Reticulata, see A. serpentaria. 



Aristolochi'a Triloba'ta, A. trifida, (F.) 
Aristoloche trilobee. A plant of Surinam and 
Jamaica; possessing the general virtues of the 
Aristolochiaceae. The other varieties of Aristo- 
lochia have similar properties. 

Aristolochi'a Vulgaris Rotunda, Fumaria 
bulbosa. 

ARISTOLOCH'IC, Aristoloch'tcus. Same ety- 
mology. An old term for remedies supposed to 
have the property of promoting the flow of the 
lochia. — Hippocrates, "Theophrastus, Dioscorides, 
<tc. 

ARIS'TON MAGNUM, and ARISTON PAR- 
VUM. These names were formerly given to 
pharmaceutical preparations, used in phthisis, 
tormina, and fever. — Avicenna. 

ARISTOPHANEI'ON. a sort of emollient 
plaster, prepared with four pounds of pitch, two 
of apochyma, one of wax, an ounce of opoponax, 
and half a pint of vinegar. — Gorrseus. Not 
used. 

ARKAN'SAS, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
About 5 miles from the AVashita river, and about 
a quarter of a degree north of the Louisiana line, 
there are about 70 of those springs; — Ouachita 
or Washilait Springs. They are thermal, vary- 
ing from 138° to 150° Fahrenheit, and are em- 
ployed in rheumatism, cutaneous afi'ections, <tc. 

ARK-EEIN, Pubis os. 

ARKEION, Arctium Lappa. 

ARLADA, Realgar. 

ARLES, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ther- 
mal sulphureous springs in the department of 
Pyrenees Orientales, France. Their temperature 
is 103° to 145° of Fahr., and they contain sul- 
pbobydric acid. 

ARM, Brachium. 

ARMA, Penis — a. Ventris, Penis. 

ARMAMENTARIUM, Arsenal — a. Chirurgi- 
cum, see Arsenal — a. Portabile, see Case. 

ARMATORY UNGUENT, Hoplochrysma. 

ARMATURA, Amnios. 

ARME, from apia, 'I adapt.' Any physiolo- 
gical or mechanical junction or union of piirts. — 
Hesychius. A suture, as of the cranium- — Galen. 

ARMENIACA EPIROTICA, Prunus Armeni- 
aca — a. JIalus. Apricot, see Prunus — a. Vulgaris, 
Prunus Armeniaca. 

ARMENIAN STONE, Melochites. 

ARMENITES. Melochites. 

ARMILLiE MANUS MEMBRANOS^, An- 
nular ligaments of the carpus. 

AiniOISE BLANCHE, Artemisia rupestris 
— a. Ciimmune, Artemisia vulgaris — a. Estragon, 
Artemisia dracunculus — a. Ordinaire, Artemisia 
vulgnris. 

ARMONIACUM, Ammoniac, gum, 

ARMORA'CIA, from Armorica, where it was 
largely cultivated. In the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, the fresh root of Cocblearia armo- 



Aristolochi'a Serpesta'ria, Scrpenta'ria, S. || racia. 
Virginia'nn, Vipera'ria, Viperi'na Virginia'na, j ArmORACIA RrSTICANA, Cochlearia armoracia 
Colubri'na Virginia'na, Contrayer'va Virginia'- J —a. Fativa. Cochlearia armoracia, 
na, {F.\ Serpeutaire et Aristoloche serpentaire de II ARMOUR, Condom. 



ARM URL' DES JAMBES 



ARROW ROOT 



ARMURE DES JAMBES, see Comu am- 
tt. )ni.«. 
ARMUS, Humerus — a. Summus, Acromion. 
ARN, Ahius glutinosa. 

ARXALD'IA, Arnaldie. A disease, -which 
appears to have prevailed in England at one 
time, but whose origin and nature are unknown. 
It was accompanied with loss of hair; and, by 
some, is supposed to have been Syphilis. " Deinde 
uterque Rex incidit in aegritudinem, quam Ai- 
tiahlinm vocant, in qua ipsi usque ad mortem 
laborantes, eapillos suos deposuerunt." — Rogerus 
Hovedenus, in Ricardo I., cited by Du Cange. 

AR'NICA MONTA'NA. Derivation uncer- 
tain. Arnica, Leopard's Bane, Doron' iciim Ger- 
man'icum seu Opposit'tfo'lium seu Pl<.tvtag"inis 
folio, Ar'nica Plauemis, Alig'ma, Ac"yrns, 
Diuret'ica, Panace'a lopso'nim, Ptar'mica mon- 
ta'nci, Cnltha seu Calen'dida Alpi'na, Nardiis 
Cel'ticn al'tera, (F.) Antique, Betoine ou Tabac 
des Jlontaynes, Tabaa des Yosges, Tabac ou Be- 
toine des Savoyards, Doronic d'Allemagne, Plan- 
tain ou Soiici des Alpea. Sex. Si/st. Syngenesia 
Polygamia superflua. Ord. Compositae. The 
plant and flowers {Arnica, Ph. U. S.) are consi- 
dered, or have been considered, narcotic, stimu- 
lant, emmenagogue, &c.; and, as such, have been 
given in amaurosis, paralysis, all nervous aflfec- 
tions, rheumatism, gout, chlorosis, <tc. Dose, 
gr. V to X, in powder. In large doses it is dele- 
terious. 

AR^^CA NoDiCArLis and A. Mollis are sup- 
posed to have medical virtues like the last. 

Arnica Plauexsis, Arnica montana — a. Spuria, 
Inula dysen'terica — a. Suedensis, Inula dysen- 
terica. 

ARXTQUE, Arnica montana. 
ARNOGLOSSUM, Plantago. 
ARNOTT'S DILATOR, see Dilator, Arnott's. 
ARXUT, Bunium bulbocastanum. 
ARO'JIA, Ar'tyma, 'perfume :' {api, intensive, 
and oaiiri or oifiri, 'odour,' or from apu, 'to make 
fitting or agreeable.') Spir'itus Rector, (F.) 
Arome. The odorous part of plants. An ema- 
nation — frequently imponderable — from bodies, 
■which acts on the organ of smell, and varies with 
the body exhaling it. 
ARO'MATE, Aromatic. 

AROMAT'IC.^roHiai'i'cMS, (F.) Aromate. Any 
odoriferous substance obtained from the vegetable 
kingdom which contains much volatile oil, or a 
light and expansible resin. Aromatics are used 
in perfumes, in seasoning, and embalming. In 
medicine they are employed as stimulants. Gin- 
ger, cinnamon, cardamoms, mint, &c., belong to 
this class. 

AR'OMATIZE, (F.) Aromatiser. To add to a 
mixture or potion some aromatic, to mask its 
taste or render it more agreeable. Such mix- 
ture is then said to be aromatized. 

AROMATOPO'LA, from apwfia, 'an odour,' 
and TrwXid), 'I sell.' An apothecary or druggist. 
One who sells spices. 
ARON, Arum. 

AROPH. A barbarous word, which had vari- 
ous significations with the ancients. Paracelsus 
employed it to designate a lithonthriptic remedy. 
The mandragora, according to some. Also, a 
mixture of bread, saffron, and wine. — Van Hel- 
mont. 

Aroph Paracelsi, Ferrum ammoaiatum. 
ARQUEBUSADE, EAU D', Aqua traumat'- 
ica Thede'nii seu Thedia'na seu sclopeta'ria sou 
viilnera'ria seu catapulta'rum, Mistu'ra vnlnera'- 
ria ac"idti. A sort of vulnerary water, distilled 
from a farrago of aromatic plants. Rosemary, 
ftiss ; milhfoil, thyme, each Ibss ; Proof spirit, 2 
gallons — distil a gallon. This is one form. 
ARR, Cicatrix. 



ARRABOX, Arraphon. 

ARRACHEMEXT (F.), from arracTier, 'to 
tear out,' Apuspas'ma, Abrup'tio, Avul'sio. Act 
of separating a part of the body by tearing it from 
the bonds connecting it with others. Evulsion. 
Laceration. 

Arrachement is applied to certain operations, 
as to the extraction of a tooth, the extirpation of 
a poll/pus, &c. 

ARRACK, Arack. See Spirit. 

AR'RAPHON, Ar'rabon, from a, priv., and 
paifiTi, 'a suture,' — 'without suture.' A term 
applied to the cranium when it presents no 
sutures. 

ARRECTIO, Erection. 

ARRED, see Scar. 

ARREPTIO, Insanity. 

ARRESTA BOVIS, Ononis spinosa. 

ARR£T B'HILDAN, Remora Hildani. 

ARRJETE-BCEUF, Ononis spinosa. 

ARRHCE'A, from a, priv., and ptu, 'I flow.' 
The suppression of any flux. Amenorrhcea. 

ARRHOSTEMA, Disease. 

ARRHOSTENIA, Disease. 

ARRHOSTIA, Disease, Infirmity. 

ARRHYTHMUS, Caeorrhythmus. 

ARRIBA, GeoffriBa vermifuga. 

ARRIERE-BOUOHE. Pharynx — a. -Dent, 
see Dentition — a. -Faix, Secundines. 

ARRIERE-GOUT (F.), 'after taste.' The 
taste left by certain bodies in the mouth for some 
time after they have been swallowed, owing per- 
haps to the papillEe of the mouth having imbibed 
the savoury substance. 

ARR IE RES NARINES, Nares, posterior. 

ARROCHE, Atriplex hortensis — a. Puant, 
Chenopodium vulvaria. 

ARROSEMENT, Aspersion. 

ARROWHEAD, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW LEAF, Sagittaria variabilis. 

ARROW POISON. This differs with different 
tribes of Indians. By some, the poison capsicum, 
and infusions of a strong kind of tobacco, and of 
euphorbiacege are mixed together, with the poi- 
sonous emmet, and the teeth of the formidable 
serpent, called, by the Peruvian Indians, Jliua- 
marii or Jergon — Lachesis picta of Tschudi. 

ARROW ROOT, Fec'ula Maran'tcB, Am'ylum 
maranta'cenm seu America' num. The fecula of 
the rhizoma of J far an' ta Arundina'oea, Jfaranta 
(Ph. U. S.), Ord. Marantacea;, which, like all 
feculfe, is emollient and nutritive, when prepared 
with water, milk, &c. 

Dr. Carson has shown, that Florida arrow root 
is derived from Za'rnia. integrifo'lia or Z.pu'mila, 
Sugar pine, Ord. Cycadaeeae ; Bermuda arroir 
root being obtained from Maranta arundinacea. 
Florida arrow root, as well as the farina, is known 
in the Southern States under the name C'oonti or 
Coontie. 

According to Dr. Ainslie, an excellent kind of 
arrow root is prepared in Travancore from the 
root of Curcuma anguatifolia, Ord. Zingiberacefe. 

Arrow root mucilage is made by rubbing arrotr 
root powder with a little cold water, in a basin, 
by means of the back of a spoon, until it is com- 
pletely mixed with the water; then pouring boil- 
itig water over it, stirring assiduously until a soft, 
gelatinous, tenacious mucilage is formed; and, 
lastly, boiling for five minutes. A tablespoonful 
of arrow root powder is sufiicient to make a pint 
of mucilage. It may be moderately sweetened; 
and wine or lemon juice may be added. 

With milk also it forms a bland and nutritious 
article of diet. 

Arrow Root, Brazilian. The fecula of Ja- 
tropha Ma.xihot, 



ARROW WEED 



ARSENICUM 



Arrow Root, Common, see Solanum tubero- 
lum. 

AnRO-iv Root, East Indian. The fecula of the 
tuhers of Curcuma angusti/olia, or narrow-leaved 
Turmeric. 

A Know Root, English, Arrow root, common. 
Arrow Root, Tahi'ti, Tacca starch, Otahei'te 
Sahp. The fecula of Tacca Oceanica. 
ARROW WEED, Sagittaria variabilis. 
ARROW WOOD, Euonymus, Viburnum den- 
tatum. 

ARS CABALTSTICA, Cabal— a. Chyraiatriea, 
Chyiniatria — a. Clysmatica nova. Infusion of me- 
dicines — a. Coquinaria, Culinary art — a. Cosme- 
tica. Cosmetics — a. Culinaria, Culinary art — a. 
Empiriea, Empiricism — a. Formulas medicas con- 
cinandi, see Prescription — a. Hermetica, Chymis- 
try — a. Ilomoeopatbica, Homoeopathy — a.Hydria- 
trica, Ilydrosudotherapeia — a. Infusoria, Infu- 
sion of medicines — a. Machaonia, Medicina — a. 
Majorum, Chymistry — a. Medica, Medicina — a. 
Obstetricia, Obstetrics- — a. Sanandi, Art, healing 
— a. Separatoria, Chymistry — a. Signata, Cabal 
— a. Spagyrica, Chymistry — a. Spbygmica, Sphyg- 
mologia— a. Vcterinaria, Veterinary Art — a. Zoia- 
trica. Veterinary Art. 
ARSALTOS, Aspbaltum. 
ARSATUM, Nymphomania. 
ARSECOCKLE (Sc), synonymous with Teut. 
aers-bleyne, Uihereidus in ano. Originally, a 
hot pimple on the hips. Now, in Scotland, a 
similar pimple on the face or any part of the 
bodv. — jamieson. 

ARSENAL (F.), Chirapothe'ca, Armamenta'- 
rvim, A. Ckiriir'gicum. A collection of surgical 
instruments. A work containing a description 
of surgical instruments. Avmamenta'rium ob- 
stet'rictim has the same significations in regard to 
obstetrics. 

ARSEN'IATE, Arsen'ias, (F.) Areeninte, from 
coarji; 'robust.' A salt formed by a combination 
of arsenic acid with a salifiable base. 

Arseniate op Ammonia, Anen'ias Ammo'nicB, 
Ammo'nium Arsen'icum seu Arsenic'icum, (F.) 
Arseniate iV Ammoniaque. This preparation is 
highly extolled in cutaneous diseases. A grain 
of the salt may be dissolved in an ounce of dis- 
tilled water, and 20 to 25 drops be commenced 
with as a dose. 

Arseniate of Iron, Arsen'ias Ferri, Ferrum 
Arsenia'tum seu Arsenic' icum oxydula'tum, (F.) 
Arseninte de Fer. This preparation has been 
applied externally to cancerous ulcers. An oint- 
ment may be made of ^ss of the arseniate, ^ij of 
the phosphate of iron, and ^vj of spermaceti 
ointment. The arseniate has also been given 
internally in cancerous affections, in the dose of 
one-sixteenth of a grain. 

Arseniate op Protox'idb of Potas'sitjm, 
Proto-arsen'idte nf Potas'sium, Arspn'iate of Po- 
tassii, Arsen'ias Potasses seu Knli, (F.) Arseniate 
de Potasse, Sel arsenical de Macquer. Proper- 
ties the same as those of arsenious acid. 
Arseniate op Quinia, Quinise Arsenias. 
Arsen'iate op Soda, SodcB arsen'ias, (F.) Ar- 
tfjuate de Sonde. Made, according to the Codex 
of Paris, by mixing and heating to redness arse- 
nious acid and nitrate of soda; dissolving the 
salt in water; adding carbonate of soda until 
there is an alcaline reaction; filtering, evapora- 
ting, and crystallizing. It is the b.asis of Pear- 
eon's Solution, which is formed of one grain of the 
crystallized arseniate to one fluidoance of distilled 
vinter. Dose, gtt. XX. Heinecke'a Solution con- 
sists of the arseniate, gr. v.jj peppermint water, 
f^iiss; tcine of cinnamon, t^ss; laudanum, { ^}. 
D'ose, forty to'fifty drops. 

ARS£nTA TE de so UDE, Arseniate of Soda. 
AR'SENIC, Arsen'icum, (Ph. U. S.) A solid 



metal; of a steel-gray colour; granul.ar texture ; 
very brittle; volatilizing before melting; very 
combustible and acidifiable. It is not dangerous 
of itself, and only becomes so by virtue of the 
facility with which it absorbs oxygen. 
ARSENIC BLANC, Arsenicum album. 
Arsenic, Iodide op, Areen'ici L/didum sen 
Teriod'idum seu lodure'tum, Arsen'icum loda'- 
tum, Hydri'odas arsen'ici, formed by the combi- 
nation of arsenic and iodine. This prepaiation, 
applied externally, has been highly extolled in 
various cutaneous affections. An ointment may 
be made of three grains of iodide to .fj of lard. 
It has also been given internally in the dose of a 
tenth of a grain in similar affections. It is offici- 
nal in the Ph. U. S. 1851. 

Arsenic, Oxide of, Arsenicum album — a. Ox- 
ide of, White, Arsenicum album — a. White, Arse- 
nicum album. 

Arsenic and Mercury, Iodide of, Hydrar'- 
gijri et Arsen'ici lo'didum. Double J'odide of 
Jfer'ctiry andAr'senic, Ivdo-arsenite of Jfer'cury. 
A compound, which has been proposed as more 
efiBcacious than either the iodide of .arsenic or 
the iodide of mercury. It is made by tritura- 
ting 6-08 grains of arsenic; 14-82 grains of 7ner- 
cury; 49 of iodine, with a fluidrachm o? alcohol, 
until the mass has become dry, and from being 
deep brown has become pale red. Eight ounces 
of distilled water are poured on, and, after tritu- 
ration for a few moments, the whole is trans- 
ferred to a flask; half a drachm of hydriudic 
acid, prepared by the acidification of two grains 
of iodi-ne, is added, and the mixture is Ijoiled for 
a few moments. When the solution is culd, make 
the mixture up to f^viij with distilled water. 
This is called by Mr. Donovan, the proposer, 
Liquor Arsen'ici et Hydrar'yyri lu'didi, each 
drachm of which, by measure, consists of water, 
5j; arsenious acid, gr.l-Sth; peroxide of mercury, 
gr. l-4th ; iodine, converted into hydriodlc acid, 
gr. 3-4ths. In the last edition of the Ph. U. S. 
it is directed to be made of Arsenici lodidum 
and Hydrargyri lodidum rubrum, each gr. xxxv; 
and Aqua destillata, Oss ; dissolving by rubbing, 
heating to the boiling point, and filtering. 

The dose of Donovan's Solution is from TT^X 
to f 3ss, two or three times a day. 

It has been used successfully in inveterate cu- 
taneous diseases. 

ARSEN'ICAL, Arsenica'lis, (F.) Arshiical. 
Relating, or appertaining to, or containing, ar- 
senic. 

Arsen'ical Paste, (F.) Pdfe Arshiicale. 
This application to cancers is formed of 70 parts 
of cinnabar, 22 of dragon's blood, and S of urse- 
niotts acid; made into a paste with saliva, when 
about to be applied. 

Arsenical Powders of FrSre Cojie, and op 
JusTAMOND, see Powder, Arsenical. 

Arsenical Solution, see Arseniate of Soda, 
and Liquor Arsenicalis. 

ARSENICI HYDRIODAS, Arsenic, Iodide of 
— a. lodidum. Arsenic, Iodide of — a. luduretum, 
Arsenic, Iodide of — a. Teriodidum, Arsenic, Io- 
dide of. 

ARSENICISM'US, Intoxica'tio Arsenica'lia. 
Poisoning by arsenic. 
ARSENICUM, Arsenic. 

Arsen'icum Album, TF^iVe Ar'seuic, Oxide 
of Ar'senic, Ratsbane, Arsen'ici o.r't/dum al- 
bum, Calx Arsen'ici alba, Ac"idum Arienico'sum 
seu Arsenio'sum (Ph. U. S.), Arsenious acid, White 
oxide of arsenic, (F.) Arsenic blauc. An acid 
which is met with in commerce, in compact, white, 
heavy, fragile masses; of avitreous aspect, opake, 
and covered with a white dust; of an acrid and 
nauseous taste; without smell when cold; vola- 
tilizable by heat, and exhaling the odour of gar- 



ARSENIS POTASS.E 



ARTi^RE 



He ; soluble in water, alcohol, and oil ; crystal- | 
lizable in regular octahedrons. It is this that is ^ 
meant hy the name arsenic, as commonly used. || 

Arsen'icl'M Album Sublima'tum, Sublimed 
Oxide of Arsenic, is the one employed in medi- 
cine, it is tonic and escharotic, and is the most 
virulent of mineral poisons. It is used in inter- 
mittents, periodical headachs, neuroses, &c. Dose, 
gr. one-tenth to one-eighth, in pill. See Poisons, 
Table of. 

Arsenicum Iodatum, Arsenic, Iodide of — a. 
Piuhruin factitium, Realgar. 

APtSENIS POTASS^, Arsenite of protoxide 
of potassium — a. Potassa3 aquosus, Liquor arseni- 
calis — a. Potassae liquidus, Liquor arsenicalis. 

AR'SENITE, Ar'seni8. A salt, formed by a 
combinatioa of the arsenious acid with a salifi- 
able base. 

Ak'senitk op Protox'ide of Potas'siitm, Pro- 
to-fir'senite of Potas'sium, Ar'senite of Potassa, 
Av'senis PotasscB. An uncrystallizable and co- 
lourless salt, which forms the basis of the liquor 
arseniculia, which see. 

Arsen'ite of Quinia, Quinise arsenis. 
ARSE-SMART, BITING, Polygonum hydro- 
piper. 

ART, HEALING, Arg Sanan'di, Medici'na. 
The appropriate application of the precepts of 
the best physicians, and of the results of experi- 
ence to the treatment of disease. 
Art, Veteri.varv, Veterinary art. 
AR'TABE, aprafirj. Name of a Persian mea- 
sure for dry substances, in use with the ancients, 
equal at times, to 5 modii : at others, to 3; and 
ut others, again, to 7. — Galen. 

ARTAXTHE ELONGATA, see Matico. 
AR'TELSHEIM, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
These German waters have been much recom- 
mended in hysteria, gout, palsy, &c. Their 
physical or chemical properties have not been 
described. 

ARTEMIS'IA, Anacti'rion. Ord. Compositae. 
Called after a queen of the name, who first em- 
ployed it ; or from ApreiJiis, ' Diana ;' because it 
ivas formerly used in diseases of women, over 
whom she presided. The Gauls called it Bricu- 
mum. 

Artemis'ia Abrot'anum, Abrot'anum, Abrot'- 
tiinm, Abrot'anum Cathsum seu Mas, Abrathan, 
Sonlh'ernwood, Oldman, Slovenioood, (F.) Abro- 
lo»€, Aurone, Aurone male, Aurone des jardins, 
Garderobe, Citronelle. Supposed to be possessed 
of stimulant properties. 

Oil of Southernwood, O'leum Abrot'ani, (F.) 
Hnile d' Aurone, possesses the aromatic proper- 
ties of the plant. 

Artemis'ia Absin'thium, Absin'thium, A. vul- 
fd've, Apsin'thium, Barypi'cron, Common Worm- 
wood, Wormit, {¥.) Absinthe. Properties: — tonic 
«nd anthelmintic. The Oil of Wormwood, O'leum 
Ah'iin'thii, (F.) Huile d'Absinthe, contains the 
aromatic virtues of the plant. 

Artemisia Afra, a South African species, is 
tonic, antispasmodic and anthelmintic; and has 
been used in debility of the stomach, visceral ob- 
structions, jaundice and hypochondriasis. It is 
taken in infusion, decoction and tincture. A 
strong infusion is used by the Cape Colonists as 
a collyriura in weakness of the eyes; and the 
pounded leaves and stalks are employed as dis- 
cutients in oedema and sugillations. 

Artemisia Alba, A. Santonica — a. Balsamita, 
A. Pontica. 

Artemisia Bien'ms, 5jenji«aZ Wormwood; in- 
digenous. 

Artemisia Botrys, Chenopodium ambrosi- 
eides. 
Artemis'ia Campes'tbis. Field Southernwood, 



(F.) Aurone des Champs. This possesses the 
same properties as A. Abrot'anum. 

Artemisia Canadensis, Canada Wormwood — 
a. Caudata: indigenous. 

Artemisia Chenopodium, Chenopodium bo- 
trys. 

Artemisia Chinen'sis, A. In'dica, A. Afoxa. 
From this the Chinese form their moxas. 

Artemisia Contra grows in Persia, Asia 
Minor, and other parts of the East. 

Artemisia Dracun'culus, Tar'agon, (F.) Ar- 
moise estragon, Eatragon. Virtues: — the same 
as the last. The leaves are much used to season 
food, especially in the form of Es'tragon vin'egar. 

Artemis'ia Glacia'lis, Silky Wormicood ; 

Artemisia Indica, Artemisia Chinensis, A. 
Santonica; 

Artemisia Juda'ica, grows in Palestine, Ara- 
bia, China, Cochin China, and Northern Africa. 

Artemisia Leptophylla, A. Pontica; 

Artemisia Marit'ima, Absin'thium Mari'num 
seu ilarit'imum, Sea Womxwocd, Maritime South- 
ernwood ; 

Artemisia Moxa, A. Chinensis ; 
and 

Artemis'ia Pon'tica, A. Eoma'na seu Tenui- 
fo'lia seu Balsami'ta seu Leptophyl'la, Absinthi- 
am Pon'ticum seu Eoma'num, Poman Wormwood, 
Lesser Wormwood, possess like virtues; — as well 
as 

Artemisia Romana, A. Pontica; 

Artemisia Rubra, A. Santonica; and 

Artemis'ia Rupes'tris, Creeping Wormier d, 
Gen'ipi album, (F.) Armoise blanc, Geniin blanc. 
This variety has aromatic virtues, and is used in 
intermittents, and in amenorrhoea. 

Artemis'ia Santon'ica, Santon'icum, Canni 
Herba, ChamcBcedris, Chamacyparis'sus, Abnin'- 
thium. Santon'icum, Sementi'na, XantoW na, Sche 
ba Ar'abum, Sina seu Cina Levan'tica, Tarta' riat* 
South' ermcood, (F.) Barboiine. From this and 
other species of absinthium is obtained the so- 
called Semen contra vermes seu Contra seu Zedo- 
a'ria seu Santon'ici seu CincB, Hagiosperm'um, 
Sanctum Semen, Wormseed, which do not consist 
of seeds, but of broken peduncles. Virtues: — 
anthelmintic and stimulant. Dose, gr. x. to ^j 
in powder. Its active principle is San'tonin, the 
dose of which is from 2 to 5 grains in the day, 
for a child six or eight years of age. 

Artemisia Tenuifolia, A. Pontica. 

Artemis'ia Vulga'ris, Artemis'ia rubra et 
alba, Cin'gulnm Sancti Joan'nis, Mater Herba'- 
rum, Berenisecum, Bubastecor'dium, Canapa'cia, 
Mugwort, (F.) Armoise ordinaire, A. Commune, 
Herbe de Saint Jean, Ceinture ou Couronne de 
Saint Jean. This, as well as some other varie- 
ties, possesses the general tonic virtues of the 
Artemisias. Artemisia vulgaris has been highly 
extolled by the Germans in cases of epilepsy. 
Dose of the powder, in the 2i hours, from ^ss to 

33- 

ARTERE, Artery— a. Brachiale, Brachial ar- 
tery — a. Brachio-cephuliqve, Innominata arteria 
— a. Bronehique, Bronchial artery — a. Ciliaire, 
Ciliary artery — a. Ctitorienne : see Clitoris — a. 
CcEcale : see Colic arteries — a. Collaterale du 
coude, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. Collate- 
rale externe, Arteria profunda humeri — a. Colla- 
terale interne, Anastomoticus magnus ramus — a. 
Coronaire des levres. Labial artery — a. Coronaire 
Stomachique, Coronary artery — a. Crurale, Crural 
artery — a. Deuxieme des thoraciques, Arteria tho- 
racica externa inferior — a. Epineuse, Meningeal 
artery.middle — a. /'emo)-o-joop^i7ee,rschiatic artery 
— a. Fessiere, Gluteal artery — a. Gastrique droite, 
petite. Pyloric artery — a. Gutturo-maxillaire, 
Maxillary artery, internal — a. Nontevse externe, 
Pudic, external, artery — a. Honteuse interne, Pu- 



ARTERIA 



94 



ARTERITIS 



Jic, internal, artery — a. HumeraJe profynde, Ar- 
teria profiuul;t humeri — a. Iliaque primitive, Iliac 
artery — a. Innomiuie, Innominata arteria — a. 
Irienne, Ciliary artery — a. Inehio-penienne : see 
Pudic, internal, artery — a. Mediane anterieure, 
Spinal artery, anterior — a. Midiune posterieure 
du rachis, Spinal artery, posterior — a. Meningie 
moyentie, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Mening- 
ienne postei-iciire, Prevertebral artery — a.Menton- 
mih-e, Mental foramen — n. Mesocephalique, Basi- 
lary artery — a. MesocoUque : see Colic artery — 
a. Miiscnldire du bras, Arteria profunda humeri 
— a. Mnseulmi-e du bras, grande : see Collateral 
arteries of the arm — a. Musculaire grande de la 
cuinne, Arteria profunda femoris — a. Opinthogas- 
triqne, Coeliac artery — a. Orbitaire, Ophthalmic 
artery — a. de I'Ovaire, Spermatic artery — a. 
Pelci-crurnle, Crural artery — a. Pelvi-crurale, 
Iliac artery — a. Pelvienne, Hypogastric artery — 
a. Premiere des thoraciqites, Arteria thoracica 
externa superior — n. Prfvertebrale, Preverte- 
bral artery — a. Radio-carpienne transversale 
palmaire, Radio-carpal artery — a. Scrotale, Pu- 
dic, external, artery — a. Soiin-claviere, Subcla- 
vian artery — a. Sons-pubio-femorale, Obturator 
artery — a. Sotis-pjhlenne, Pudic, internal, artery 
— a. Sous-sternal, Mammarj', internal— ^a. Sphe- 
no-ipineuse, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Stomo- 
gastrique, Coronary artery — a. Sus-carptenne : 
see Sus-carpien — a. Sus-ma.rillaire, Alveolar 
artery — a. Sus-maxiUaire, Buccal artery — n. 
Sus-metatarsienne, Metatarsal artery — a. Sus- 
pnbieune, Epigastric artery — a. Testiculnire, 
Spermatic artery — a Thoracioue humerah. Acro- 
mial artery — n. Trachehcervical : see Cerebral 
arteries — a. Trochauterienne, Circumflex artery 
of the thigh — a. Tmisieme des thoraeiques, Acro- 
mial artery — a. Tijmpanique, Auditory artery, 
external— a. Uveale : see Ciliary artery — a. Vul- 
vaire. Puilic, external, artery. 

ARTERIA, Artery — a. Ad Cutem Abdominis, 
Bee Ad Cutera abdominis, (arteria) — a. Anonyma, 
Innominata artery — a. Aspera, Trachea — a. Ce- 
rebralis. Carotid, internal — a. Cervicalis, Basilary 
artery — a. Corojiaria dextra, Pyloric artery — a. 
Crassa, Aorta — a. Crnralis, Crural artery — a. 
Externa Cubiti, Radial artery — a. Dorsalis meta- 
carpi. Metacarpal artery — a. Durae matris media 
maxima. Meningeal artery, middle — a. Encepha- 
lica, Carotid, internal — a. Gastrica superior. 
Coronary artery — a. Ileo-coliea : see Colic arteries 
— a. Ilia'ca interna. Hypogastric artery — a. Iliaea 
posterior, Hypogastric artery — a. Magna, Aorta 
— a. Magna pollicis, Prineeps pollicis — a. Malleo- 
laris externa: see Tibial arteries — a. Malleolaris 
interna: see Tibial arteries — a. Mammaria ex- 
terna, A. Thoracica externa inferior — a. Maxima, 
Aorta— a. Media anastomotiea: see Colic arteries 
— a. Meningica media. Meningeal artery, middle 

a. Muscularis femoris, A. Profunda femoris — 

a. Pharyngea suprema. Pterygoid artery — a. Pro- 
funda cerebri : see Cerebral arteries — a. Pudenda 
communis, Pudic, internal, artery — a. Pudica, 
Pudic, internal, artery — a. Ramulus ductfls 
Pterygoidei, Pterygoid artery — a. Spheno-spi- 
nosa. Meningeal artery, middle — a. Spinales, Spi- 
nal arteries — a. Spinalis, A. Profunda humeri — 
a. Sternalis, Mammary, internal — a. Supra-orbi- 
talis. Frontal artery — a. Sylviana: see Cerebral 
arteries — a. Thoracica axillaris vel alaris, Scapu- 
lar artery, inferior — a. Thoracica humeralis. 
Acromial artery — a. Transversalis colli : see 
Cerebral arteries— a. Transversalis humeri. Sca- 
pular artery, superior — a. Ulnaris, Cubital artery 
— a. Uteriua hyp<igastriea, Uterine artery — a. 
Vasta posterior, A. Profunda femoris. 

ARTE'RIAC, Arteri'.tcus. A medicine pre- 
Bcribed in diseases of the windpipe. Also arte- 
rial. 



ARTE'RLE ADIPO'S^. The arteries which 
secrete the fivt about the kidneys are sometimes 
so called. They are ramifications of the capsular, 
diaphragmatic, renal, and spermatic arteries. 

Arteria Apoplectics, Carotids — a. Capitales, 
Carotids — a. Ciliares, Ciliary arteries — a. Corporis 
callosi cerebri, Mesolobar arteries — a. Jugulares, 
Carotids — a. LethargicEe, Carotids — a. Mesolobi- 
cae, Mesolobar arteries — a. Prseparantes, Sper- 
matic arteries — a. Somniferse, Carotids — a, Sopo- 
rales, Carotids — a. Soporarise, Carotids — a. Ve- 
nosaj. Pulmonary veins. 

ARTE'RIAL, Arteri'aciis, Arterio'sua. Be- 
longing to arteries. 

Arterial Blood, (F.) Sang arteriel. Red 
blood is so called because contained in the arte- 
ries. The pulmonary veins, however, also eon- 
tain red blood : hence the name arterial veins, 
(F.) Veines arterielles, applied to them. 
Arterial Coxstitution, Plethora arteriosa. 
Aute'rial Duct, Gana'Us arterio'sus, Ductus 
arterio'sua seu Botal'lii, (F.) Canal arteriel, C. 
Pidmo-aurtique, is the portion of the pulmonary 
artery which terminates in the aorta in the foetus. 
When this duct is obliterated after birth, it is 
called Arte' rial Lig'ament, Ligamen'tum arterio' - 
sum, (F.) Ligament arteriel. 

Arterial System includes all the arteries, 
from their origin in the heart to their termina- 
tion in the organs. See Vascular System. 

ARTERIALIZATION OF THE BLOOD, 
Hsematosis. 

ARTERIARCTIE, from aprripia, 'artery,' and 
arcto. ' 1 straiten.' Contraction of an artery. 
ARTERIECTASIS, Aneurism. 
ARTERIECTOP'IA, from aprripia, 'artery,' 
and ttcroTTo?, 'out of place.' Dislocation of an 
artery. 

ARTERIEURYSMA, Aneurism. 
ARTERIITIS, Arteritis. 
ARTERIODIALYSIS, see Aneurism. 
ARTERIOG'RAPHY, Arteriogra']}hia : from 
aprripia, 'artery,' and ypadir/, 'a description.' A 
description of the arteries. 

ARTERIOLA. a small artery. 
ARTERIOL'OGY, Arteriolog"ia ; from apm- 
pia, 'artery,' and Xoyos, 'a discourse.' A treatise 
on the arteries. 

1 ARTERIO-PHLEEOTOMY,see Bloodletting. 
ARTE'RIO-PITU'ITOUS. An epithet ap- 
I plied to vessels which creep along the interior of 
the nostrils. — Ruysch. 

ARTERIORRHEXIS, see Aneurism. 
ARTERIOS'ITAS, Arterios'ity, from arteria, 
'an artery.' A condition of the blood in which 
it preserves in the veins the arterial character. — 
I The op])osite to Venositas. 

! Artebiositas Sanguinis, Praedominium san- 
guinis aneriosi. 

ARTERIOSTEIE, from aprripia, 'artery,' and 
oartov, *a bone.' Ossification of an artery. — 
Piorry. 

ARTERIOSTENO'SIS, from aprr,pia, 'artery,' 
and (TTti/os, 'contracted.' Contraction or oblite- 
ration of an artery. 

ARTERIOT'OMY, Arfer?o?om'?a, from aprripia, 
'an artery,' and rcjtvia, 'I cut.' This word ha.s 
been used for the dissection of arteries. Most 
commonly, however, it means a surgical opera- 
tion, which consists in opening an artery, to 
draw blood from it. Arteriotomy is chiefly used 
in inflammatory aff'ections of the head, when the 
blood is gener.ally obtained from the temporal 
artery. See Bloodletting. 

ARTERI'TIS, Arlerii'tis, Infamma'tio Arte- 
ria'rum, (F.) Arterife, Inflnmmatiun des arleres ; 
from aprripia, 'an artery,' and itis, a termination 
denoting inflammation. Inflammation of an ar- 



ARTERY 



95 



ARTERY 



tery. Inflammation of the innei- coat of an 
artery is termed Eiiclo-arteri'tis, or Endonar- 
teri'tin; of the outer, Exo-arteri'tia or Exar- 
teri'tis. 

AR'TERY, Arte'ria, (F.) Artlre, from ar,p, 
'air,' and mpctv, 'to preserve/ qunsi, 'receptacle 
o*" air,' because the ancients believed that it con- 
ta'Ced air. They, at first, gave the name Artery 
to. the trachea, aprripia Tpaxi:ia, because it is filled 
with air; and afterwards they used the same 
term for the arteries, properly so called, probably 
because they commonly found them empty in the 
dead body. We find, also, (pXejSes to designate 
the arteries, called by the Latins Vena mican'tes 
piilsrtt'iles. Arteries, with the moderns, signify 
the order of vessels, which arise from the two 
ventricles of the heart, and have valves only at 
their origin. They are cylindrical, firm, and 
elastic canals; of a yellowish white colour; little 
dilatable; easily lacerable ; and formed, 1. Of an 
external, laminated, or areolar membrane, Tu'- 
vicct externa seu advenlWia seu ceUida'ris, Va- 
(fiiia cellnla'ris, of a dense and close character. 
2. Of a middle coat, Tu'nica me' din seu elas'- 
tiea, coraposeil of fibres, which do not, however, 
contract on the application of the galvanic stimu- 
lus, formed chiefly of elastic tissue, and also of 
smooth muscular fibres, and eminently elastic; 
and, 3. Of an inner coat, Tu'nica hi'tima seu 
glabra, which is thin, diaphanous, reddish, and 
polished. 

The use of the arteries is to carry the blood 
from the heart to the various parts of the system. 
It will be obvious, however, that they cannot all 
convey arterial blood. The pulmonary artery, 
for example, is destined to convey the venous 
blood to the lungs, there to be converted into 
ai-tcrial ; whilst the pulmonary veins convey 
arterial blood back to the heart. 

TABLE OF THE PRINCIPAL ARTERIES OF THE BODY. 

All the arteries take their rise from the Pul- 
monary Artery, or the Aorta; and the names 
generally indicate the parts to which they are 
distributed. 

1. AliTERIA PULMONALIS. 

The Pulmonary Artery arises from the right 
ventricle, and soon divides into a right and left 
branch, one of which is distributed to each lung. 

II. Arteria Aorta. 
The Aortn. arises from the left ventricle. It is 
the common trunk of the arteries of the body, 
and may be divided into five portions. 

a. Arteries furniahed hy the Aorta at its origin. 

1. A. Cardiaca or coronaria anterior. 

2. A. Cardiaca or coronaria posterior. 

b. Arteries famished hy the Aorta at its arch. 
The arch of the Aorta gives off, to the left, two 

considerable trunks — the Arteria carotidea pri- 
mifira, and A. snhclavia; and, to the right, a 
sinde trunk, which is larger — the A. innominata, 
or Brachio-cephalica, which divides into the jon'- 
niitive carotid and subclavian. 
A. Arteria Caro- f Divides into A. Carotidea externa, 
TIDEA PRiMiTiVA.t aud A. Carotidea interna. 
Furnishes, 1. A. TIn/roidea superior, 

2. A. Hngualis, wliioh gives off the A. dor- 
salis linguae and A. sublingualis. 

3. A. facialis vel A. Maxillaris externa, 
which furnishes the A. palatina infe- 
rior, the A. suhmentalis, and A. coro- 
naria superior and inferior. 

4. A. occipitalis, which gives off the A. 
mastnidea posterior. 

5. A. auricularis pnsterior, which gives off 
A. stylo-mastoiiiea. 

6. A. pharyngta inferior. 



%. A. Ca- 
rotidea 
•xterna. 



The external carotid ultimately divides into the ten*- 
poral artery and internal maxillary. 
\ A ( 

■ ' Furnishes A. transversalis faciei, A. aurictip 
laris anterior, and A. temporalis media. 



Tempo- 
ralis. 



2. A 

Maxilla- 



b. A. Ca- 
rotidea 
interna. 



B. Ar- 
teria 

SUBCLA- 



A. Axil- 
laris. 



A. Bra- 
chialis. 



l.A.Ra- 
dialis. 



2. A. Cu- 

bitalis. 



arteries 
are. 



Furnishes 13 branches, viz. — A. meningea 
media, A. dentaris inferior, A. teTnporalit 
profunda posterior. A. masseterina, A. 
pterygoidea, A. buccalis, A. temporalis pro 
funda anterior, A. alveolaris, A sulx/rbi- 
taris, A. vidiana, A. pieri/gopalatina or 
pharyngea superior, A. palatina siiperun; 
and A. sphenopalatina. 

Furnishes, 1. A. ophthalmica, which gWes 
off A. lacrymalis, A. centralis retina?, A. 
supraorbitaria vel superciliaris, A. ciliares 
posteriores, A. ciliares lougfe, A. musi-u- 
laris superior et inferior, A. ethmoidalis 
posterior et anterior, A. palpebralis supe- 
rior et inferior, A. nasalis, and A. fronta- 
lis. 2 A. communicans WiUesii. 3. A. 
choroidfjx. 4. A. cerebralis anterior, 5. A. 
cerebralis media. 

Furnishes, 1. A. vertebralis, which gives off 
A. spinalis anterior et posterior, A. cere- 
bellosa inferior, aud forms — by uniting it- 
self with that of the opposite side — the A. 
basilaris, divided into A. cerebellosa su- 
perior and A. cerebralis posterior. 2. -4 
thyroidea inferior, which gives off A. cer- 
vicalis ascendens. 3. A. viamniaria in- 
terna. which gives off the A. meUiastiua 
anterior and A. diaphragmatica superior. 
4. A. intercostalis supa-ior. 5. A. cervica- 
lis transversa. 6. A. scapularis superio); 
7. A. cervicalis posterior vel profunda. 
Farther on, the subclavian artery conti- 
tinues its progress under the name A. axil- 
laris. 

Furnishes, 1. A. acromialis. 2. A. thoracica 
superior. 3. A. thoracica inferior vel longa 
vel mammaria externa. 4. A. scapularis 
inferior vel communis. 5. A. circumflexa 
posterior. 6. A. circumflexa anterior. Far- 
ther on, the axillary artery continues un- 
der the name A. brachialis. 

Furnishes A. humeralis profunda vel collate- 
rails externa. 2. A. collateralis interna. 
It afterwards divides into the radial aud 
cubital arteries. 

Gives off A. reeurrens radialis, A. dorsalis 
carpi, A. dorsalis metacarpi, A. dorsalis 
pollicis, and terminates in forming the 
Arcus pahnaris profundus. 
'Gives off A. reeurrens cubitalis anterior and 
posterior: A. interossea anterior and pos- 
terior, which latter furnishes A. reeurrens 
radialis posterior. It terminates in form- 
ing the superficial palmar arch, which 
gives off A. coliaterales digitorum. 

c. Arteries given off hy the Aorta in the Thorax. 

r 1. A. BroncMca, dcxtra et sinistra, 
rjrf,^^^ I 2. A. CEsopliagwa (to the number of four, 
five, or six). 

3. A. mediastince posteriores. 

4. A. intercostales inferiores vel aorticce 
I (to the number of eight, nine, or ten). 

d. Arteries furnished hy the Aorta in the Abdomen, 

hra^ches^ ^- ''"^® ^- diaphragmatica vel phrenica, 
orancnes-^ ^„„i^„ „t ■.v^.v;,.^ 



are, (. 



dextra et sinistra. 



Which divides into three branches, 1. A. to- 
ronaria ventricuU. 2. A. Hepatica. which 
gives off A. pylorica, A. gastro-epiploica 
dextra, and A. cystica; and, lastly, the A. 
splenica, which gives off A. gastro-epiplo- 
ica sinistra and Tasa brevia. 

Which gives off at its concavity the A co- 
lica dextra superior, media et inferior, and 
at its convex part from 15 to 20 Rami in« 
testinales. 

Which gives off A. colica superior media, 
and inferior, and divides into A. hsemor- 
rhoidales superiores. 
The A. Oipsulares media (to the number of two ou 
each side). 

6. A. Benales vel Emvlgentcs, 

7. A. Spermaticce. 

8. A. Lumbares (to the number of four and five on 

each side). 



3. A 

Mese.n- 

terica 

superior. 

4. A 
Mesen- 

teriea 
inf 



ARTETISCUS 



ARTHROLOGY 



A. Pop- 
litaea. 



2. A. Tl- 

hialis 
postica 



e. Arteriet resulting from the Bifurcation of the 

Aorta, 

The Aorta, a little shove its Bifurcation, pives off 

the A. sacra media, and divides into A. Uiauz primi- 

UWB. 

A. lliaca j pi^j.jpj, into ^ iiiaca interna and A. Jliaca 

^tiZ"' \ "'«'■«''• 

'Furnishes, 1. A.xlinhimharis. 2. A. sacra 
lateralis. 3. A glutea vel Uiaca posterior. 
4. A. umbilicalis. 5. A. vesicalis. ' 6. A. 
A. II- obturatoria. 7. A. haemnrrluridea media. 

laca in--! 8. A. uterina. 9. A. vagiiudis. 10. A. 
terno. ischiatica. 11. ><. pudemla interna, which 

gives off the A. hemnrrhoidales infericres. 
A. of the septum. A. transversa perinei, 
A. corporis cavemosi, and A. dorsalis penis. 
Fui'uishes, '[.A. epigastrica, 2. A. iiiaca an- 
terior vel circumflexa ilii. and is continued 
afterwards under the name of Crural Ar- 
ttry. 
Furnishes, 1. A. suimUanea abdominaU's. 2. 
A.piuUnda superficialis and prof unda. 3. 
A. muscidaris siiprrficialis. 4. A. muscu- 
laris profunda, which gives off the A. cir- 
cumflexa e.xterna and interna, and the 
three I'erforantes, distin^uishea into su- 
perior, middle, and inferior. Farther on, 
the crural artery continues under the name 
A. PopliUsa. 

'Furnishes, 1. A. Articulares superinres, in- 
te.rna, media, et externa. 2. A. GtmeUa. 
3. A. Articulares inferiores, interna et ex- 
terna. 4. A tibialis antica, which, at the 
foot, takes the name A. dorsalis tarsi, and 
gives off the tarsal and metatarsal arte- 
ries. In the leg, the popliteal artery di- 
vides into the peroneal and posterior 
tibial. 
1. A. Pe- \ Divides ialo A. peroTusa antica &nd A. peroncea 

) po.dica. 

f Divicles into A. plantaris interna and A. 

I phiiitaris externa. The latter, hy anasto- 
mosing; with the A. dorsalis tarn, forms 

J the plantar arch, whence arise Hami su- 
pi-riores vel pcrforantes pcstici, R. Inferi- 

I ores postici et atitici, which give off Rami 

l_ perforantes antici. 

Artery, Angdlar, Facial nrtery — a. Articu- 
lar, Circuiufle.v artery — a. Brachiocephalic, Inno- 
ininata arteria — a. Central of the retina, Central 
artery of the retina — a. Central of Zinn, Central 
artery of the retina — a. Cephalic, Carotid — a. 
Cerebral posterior. Vertebral — a. Cervico-scapu- 
lar, see Corvic.il arteries — a. Coronary of the lips, 
Labial artery— a. Crotaphite, Temporal arter}- — 
a. Fibular, Peroneal artery — a. Gastric inferior, 
(Jastro-ei)iploic artery — a. Gastro-hepatic, see 
Gastro-epiploic artery — a. Genital, Pudic (inter- 
nal) artery — a. Guttural inferior, Thyroideal A. 
inferior — a. Guttural superior, Thyroideal A. su- 
perior — a. Humeral, Brachial artery — a. Iliac 
posterior. Gluteal artery — a. Iliaco-muscular, 
Ileo-lumbar artery — a. Labial, Facial artery — a. 
Laryngeal superior, Thyroideal artery, superior 
— a. Maxillary internal, Facial artery — a. Median 
of the sacrum. Sacral artery, anterior — a. Nasal, 
lateral, large, Spheno-palatine artery — a. Palato- 
labial. Facial artery — a. Perici-phalic, Carotid 
(e.Kternal) — a. Pharyngeal, superior, Pterygo- 
palatine artery — a. Phrenic, Diaphragmatic ar- 
tery — a. Po.^terior, of the brain, see Cerebral ar- 
teries — a. E.xternal scapular, Acromial artery — 
a. Spinal, Meningeal artery, middle — a. Subcla- 
vian right, Innominata arteria — a. Subscapular, 
Scapular artery, inferior — a. Superficial of the 
abdomen. Ad cutem abdominis (arteria) — a. Su- 
prama.villary. Alveolar artery — a. Suprarenal, 
Capsular artery — a. Thoracic, internal. Mammary 
internal — a. Urethro-bulbar, Transverse perineal 
artery — a. Vi-sico-prostatic, Vesical artery — a. 
Vidian. Pterygoid artery. 

ARTETIS'CUS, from artiie, 'a limb.' One who 
bas lost a limb. 

ARTEUUYSMA. Aneurysm. 

^RTHANI'TA, from aproi, 'bread;' the Cyc'- 



lamen or Su-irbrericl. It was formerly made into 
ointment, Ungueit'tum Arthani'tm, with many 
other substances, and was employed as a purga- 
tive, being rubbed on the abdomen. 

Arthanita Cyclamen, Cyclamen. 

ARTHETICA, Teucrium chamaepitys. 

ARTHRAGRA, Gout — a. Anomala, Gout, an- 
omalous — a. Genuina, Gout, regular — a. Legiti- 
ma. Gout, regular — a. Kormalis, Gout, regular — ■ 
a. Vera, Gout, regular. 

ARTHRALGIA, Arthrodynia, Gout. See Lead 
rheumatism. 

ARTHRELCO'SIS, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' and 
'tXxuiais, 'ulceration.' Ulceration of a joint. 

ARTHREMBOLE'SIS, same etymon as tht 
next. The reduction of a fracture or luxation. 

ARTHRE.M'BOLUS, from ap&^ov, 'a joint,' 
ev, 'in,' and /JuXXii), 'I cast.' An ancient instru- 
ment used in the reduction of dislocations. 

ARTHRETICA, Teucrium charaspitys. 

ARTHRIT'IC,.4wAriric»», Gouty, from ap$pov, 
'a joint.' (S.) Arthritique,Goulttuj.-. That which 
relates to gout or arthritis, as arthritic symptomn, 
&c. See Podagric, 

ARTHRITICUS VERUS, Gout. 

ARTHRITIF'UGUM, from arthritix, 'gout,' 
and fugare, 'to drive away.' A remedy that 
drives away gout. Heyden terms cold water, 
internally, the aithritif'ugum magnum. 

ARTHRITIS, Gout, Arthroplilogosis, Arthro- 
sia — a. Aberrans, Gout (wandering) — a. Acuta, 
Gout (regular) — a. Arthrodynia, Rheumatism, 
chronic — a. Asthenica, Gout (atonic) — .a. Atonic, 
Gout (atonic) — a. Diaphragmatica, Angina Pec- 
toris — a. Erratica, Gout (wandering; — a. H^'drar- 
thros, Ilydrarthrus — a. Inflammatoria, Gout (re- 
gular) — a. Juvenilis, see Rheumatism, acute — a, 
Maxillaris, Siagonagra — a. Nodosa, Gout (with 
nodosities) — a. Planctica, Gout (wandering) — a. 
Podagra, Gout — a. Rheumatica, see Rheumatism, 
acute — a. Rheumatismus, Rheumatism, acute — 
a. Retrograda, Gout (retrograde). 

ARTHROC'ACE, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' and 
«a/cof, 'bad.' Disease of the joints; and espe- 
cially caries of the articular surfaces. Spina 
ventosa. 

Arthrocace Coxartjm, Coxarum morbus. 

ARTHROCACOLOG"IA, from arthrocacia— 
according to Rust, a chronic disease of the joints; 
and \oyos, 'a description.' A treatise on chronic 
diseases of the joints. 

ARTHROCARCINO'MA, from opSpov, 'a 
'joint,' and KapKivutpta, 'cancer.' Cancer of the 
joints. 

ARTHROCHONDRI'TIS, from apSpov. ' a 
joint,' ')(^ovFnjoi, 'a cartilage,' and itis, ilenoting 
inflammation. Inflammation of the cartilages 
and joints. 

ARTHRO'DIA, from ap^pov, 'a joint.' Adar. 
ticula'tio, (F.) Enfon<;ure, Enfonceure. A move- 
able joint, formed by the head of a bone applied 
to the surface of a shallow socket, so that it can 
execute movements in every direction. Arthro'- 
dium is ' a small joint;' diminutive of Arthrodia. 

ARTHRODYN'IA, ArthronaVgia. Arthy„l',/in, 
from ap^pov, 'a joint,' and oivvri, 'pain.' Articu- 
lar pain. Pain in the joints. See Rheumatism, 
chronic. 

Arthroby.vta PonAGRicA, Gout. 

ARTHROG'RAPHY, Arthrogmph'la, from 
ap5pov, 'a joint,' and ypa<p(a, 'I write.' A' de- 
scription of the joints. 

ARTHROGRYPO'SIS, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' 
and ypvnoio, ' I incurvate.' Malposition of the 
joints, especially of the bands and feet. 

ARTHROHYDRINE, Synovia. 
ARTHROL'OGY, Arlhrolog"in, from apSpov, 
'a joint.' and Xoyoj, 'a description.' A descrip- 
tion of the joints. The anatomy of the joints. 



ARTHROMBOLE 



97 



ARTIFICIAL 



ARTHROMBOLE, from apSpov, and |3aXXo), 
' I cast.' Coaptation, reduction. Reduction of 
a luxated or fractured bone. 

ARTHROMENINGITIS, Meningarthrocace. 
ARTHRON, 'a joint.' The ancients used the 
word Ai-thron for the articulation of bones with 
motion, in opposition to Symphysis, or articula- 
tion without motion. 

ARTHRONALGIA, Arthrodynia. 
ARTHRON'CUS, Arthrophy'ma, from ap^pov, 
'a joint,' and oyKOi, 'a swelling.' Tumefaction 
of a joint. 
ARTHRONEMPYESIS, Arthropyosis. 
ARTHROP'ATHY, Arthropathi' a, from apSpov, 
'& joint,' and na^o;, 'affection.' A disease of the 
joints. 

ARTHROPHLOGO'SIS, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' 
and (pXeyto, ' 1 burn ;' Arthri'tis, Ostarthro'sts. 
Inflammation of the joints. 

ARTHROPHLOGOSIS SYNOVIALIS, Syno- 
vitis. 

ARTHROPHYMA ADENOCHONDRIUM, 
see Adenochondrius. 

ARTHROPYO'SrS, Arthronempye'sis, from 
ap^pov, 'a joint,' and ifvov, 'pus.' Suppuration 
or abscess of the ioints. 

ARTHRO-RHEUMATISMUS, Rheumatism 
(acute). 

ARTHRO'SIA, from ap&pov, 'I articulate.' 
Arthritis, (of somej. Inflammation, mostly con- 
fiaed to the joints; severely painful ; occasionally 
extending to the surrounding muscles. A genus 
of diseases in the Nosology of Good, including 
Rheumatism, Gout, Articular inflammation. Joint- 
ache, (fee. 

Arthrosia Acuta, Rheumatism, acute — a. 
Chronica, Rheumatism, chronic — a. Lumborum, 
Lumbago — a. Podagra, Gout — a. Podagra com- 
plicata, Gout (retrograde) — a. Podagra larvata. 
Gout (atonic) — a. Podagra regularis, Gout (re- 
gular). 

ARTHROSIS, Articulation. 
ARTHROSPON'GUS, from ap&pov, 'a joint,' 
and avoyyoi, 'a sponge.' A white, fungous tu- 
mour of the joints. 

ARTHROTRAU'MA, from ap^pov, 'a joint,' 
and Tpav/ia, 'a wound.' A wound of a joint. 

AR'TIA. According to some, this word is sy- 
nonymous with aprripta; others use it synony- 
mously with Trachea. 

ARTICHAUT, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTICHOKE, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTICLE, Articulation— a. of Death, see 
Psychorages. 
ARTICOCALUS, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTICULAR, Articula'ris, (F.) Articnlaire, 
from artus, 'a joint;' articulus, 'a small joint.' 
That which relates to the articulations — as the 
articular capsules, &c. 

Articular Arteries of the Arm, Circumflex 
arteries of the arm. 

Artic'ular Ar'teries op the Knee arise 
from the popliteal artery, and surround the tibio- 
femoral articulation. Although of a small size, 
they are important, as they furnish blood to the 
lower extremity after the operation for popliteal 
aneurism. They are distinguished into superior 
and inferior. The superior articular arteries, 
popliteal articular arteries, are commonly three 
in number; one of which is internal, another ex- 
ternal, and another middle, the az'ygom artic'- 
ular. The first, Ramus anastomot' icns magmts, 
anastomoses by one branch with the external cir- 
cumflex, and by another with the external supe- 
rior articular. The second anastomoses with the 
external circumflex, the superior internal arti- 
cular, and the inferior external articular: and 
the third is distributed within the joint. The in- 
ferior articular arteries are two in number : an 



internal and external. The former anastomoses 
with the internal superior articular and the ex- 
ternal inferior articular. The latter anastomoses 
with the recurrent branch of the anterior tibial, 
and the external superior articular. To each 
articular artery there is an articular nerve. 

Artic'ular Facettes' are the contiguous 
surfaces, by means of which the bones are arti- 
culated. 

Articular Processes, see Vertebrae. 

Artic'ular Veins of the knee follow th« 
same course as the arteries. 

ARTICULATED, Articula'tus, (F.) Articule, 
same etymon as Articulation. Provided with, or 
united by, articulations ; as an ' articulated skele- 
ton.' See Skeleton, articulated; and Voice, ar- 
ticulated. 

ARTICULATIO, Articulation— a. Artificialis, 
Pseudarthrosis — a. Notha, Pseudarthrosis. 

ARTICULA'TION, Joint, Articula'tio, Ar- 
thro'sis, Assarthro'sis, Artic'tdus, Junctu'ra, Cola, 
Conjunc'tio, Nodus, Commissu'ra, Compa'ges, 
Syntax'is, Har'mus, Vertic'ula, Vertic'ulus, Ver- 
tic'ulum, (F.) Articulation, Article. By some of 
the French surgeons and anatomists, article is 
restricted more particularly to a movable articu- 
lation. Same etymon. The union of bones with 
each other, as well as the kind of union. 

TABLE OP articulations. 

Articulations are generally divided into Diar- 
thrnses or movable articulations, and Synar- 
throses or immovable. 



1. Amphiarthrosis. 

2. Diarthroais, orbicu-f En arthrosis. 

lar vague. ( Arthrodia. 

3. Alternative or Ginglymus, vbicb 

admits of varieties. 

1. Suture. 

2. Harmony. 

3. Gomphosis. 

4. Schindylesis. 



Synarthroses. ■ 



The articulations are subject to a namber of 
diseases, which are generally somewhat severe. 
These may be physical, as wounds, sprains, luxa- 
tions, &c. ; or they may be organic, as ankylosis, 
extraneous bodies, caries, rheumatism, gout, hy- 
drarthroses, arthropyosis, &c. 

Articulation means also the combination of 
letters which constitute words. See Voice. 

Articulation, False, Pseudarthro'sis, Artie'- 
ulus falsus, (F.) A. fausse, A. accidentelle, A. 
contre nature, A. anormale. A false Joint, formed 
between fragments of bone, that have remained 
ununited; or between a luxated bone and the 
surrounding parts. 

ARTICULATION SURNUMERAIRE, 
Pseudarthrosis — a. en Charniere, Ginglymus — a 
de la Hanehe, Coxo-femoral articulation. 

ARTICULI DIGITORUM MANUS, Phalati 
ges of the fingers — a. Digitorum pedis, Phalanges 
of the toes. 

ARTICULO MORTIS, see Psychorages — a. 
Spinalis, Semispinalis colli. 

ARTICULUS NOVUS, Pseudarthrosis — a. 
Praeternaturalis, Pseudarthrosis — a. Spurius,. 
Pseudarthrosis. 

ARTIFICIAL, Artificia'Us, (F.) A-tifioiel, 
from ars, artis, 'art,' and facere, 'to make." 
That which is formed by art. 

Artificial Eyes are usually made of enamel, 
and represent a sort of hollow hemisphere, which, 
is applied beneath the eyelids, when the eye i» 
lost. 

Artificial Teeth are made of ivory, porce- 
lain, Ac. 

Pieces d' Anatomic Artificielles, are prepara- 
jj tions of anatomy, modelled in wax, plaster, p^ 
il per, Ac. 



ARTISCOCCUS L^VIS 



ASARUM 



ARTISCOCCUS L/EVIS, Cynara scolymus. 
ARTIS'CUS, from a,,rof, 'bread.' See Tro- 
jhiscus. A troch of the shape of a small loaf. 
Also, and especially, a trooh made of vipers. 

ARTOCARPUS. The Bread-fruit Tree, (F.) 
Jnqnier, from apros, 'bread,' and Kapnos, 'fruit.' 
A Polynesian tree, so called because the fruit, 
which is milky, and juicy, supplies the place of 
bread to the inhabitants. It grows to the height 
•jf 40 feet. 
Aktocarpus Integrifolia, Caoutchouc. 
ARTOC'REAS, from aprof, ' bread,' and Kpmi, 
' flesh.' A kind of nourishing food made of va- 
rious aliments boiled together. — Galen. 

ARTOG'ALA, from apro;, 'bread/ and ya\a, 
' miik.' An alimentary preparatiou of bread and 
milk. A poultice. 

ARTOM'ELI, from apros, 'bread,' and /leXi, 
'honey.' A cataplasm of bread and honey. — 
Galen. 
ARTUS, Membrum. 
ARTYMA, Aroma, Condiment. 
ARUM, A. maculatum, and A. triphyllum — a. 
Americanum betae foliis, Dracontium foetidum. 

Arum Dracon'tium, An'sa'ma dracon'tium, 
Green Dragon; indigenous, has probably the 
same medical properties as A. triphyllum. 

Ardji Dracdn'culus, a. polyphyl'lum, Dra- 
cun'ciilu8 polyphyl'lus, Colnbri'na Draeon'tia, 
Erin de Sancta Maria, GUj'arus serpenta'ria, 
Serpenta'ria GaUo'rum. Family, Araceae. Sex. 
Syat. Monoecia Polyandria. The roots and leaves 
are very acrimonious. The plant resembles the 
A. macula'tum in its properties. 

Arum Esculen'tum, Cala'dium csculen'lnm, 
Taro, Kalo. The foliage and roots possess acrid 
qualities, which are dissipated by baking or boil- 
ing; in which form it is used as food by the 
people of Madeira, tho Polynesians, &c. 

Arum Macula'tum, Aron, Arum (of the older 
writers), A. vulga're, Cuckow Pint, (Prov.) Cochy- 
baby, Barba Aaro'nis, Serpenta'ria minor, Zin'- 
giber German' icum, Sacerdo'tia penis, Wake 
Robin, Priest's pintle, (F.) Gouet, Pied de Vean, 
Pied de lilvre, Picotin, Giron, Amidonniere. The 
fresh root is stimulant internally. Dose, 9j. of 
the dried root. Externally, it is very acrid. 
From the root of this Arum a starch is prepared, 
which is called Portland Island Sago, Gersa ser- 
■jienta'rice, Cerus'ea eerpenta' ricB, Fec'ula ari 
macula'ti. 

AnuM, Three-Leaved, Arum triphyllum. 
Arum TRirHTL'LUM, Arisce'ma atroruhens. 
Three-leaved arum, (F.) Pied de Veau triphylle, 
Indian Turnip, Dragon Root, Dragon Turnip, 
Pepper Turnip. This plant grows all over the 
United States, and is received into the Pharma- 
copoeia under the title Arum. The recent root, 
or Cormus — Arum, (Ph. U. S.) — is very acrimo- 
nious, and has been employed in asthma, croup, 
and hooping-cough. Boiled in lard, it has been 
used in tinea capitis, and in milk in consumption. 
Arum Virgixicum, Peltandra Virginica — a. 
Tulgare, A. maculatum — a. Water, Calla palus- 
tris. 

ARUMARI, Caramata. 

ARUNDO BAMBOS. Bamboo — a. Brachii 
major. Ulna — a. Brachii minor, Radius — a. In- 
dica, Sagittarium alexipharmacum — a. Major, 
Tibia — a. Minor, Fibula — a. Saccharifera, see 
Saccharum. 
ARVA, Ava. 

ARVUM, Vulva— a. Naturae, Uterus. 
ARY-ARYTENOID.'EUS, Arytenoidajus — a. 
Epiglottieuf, Aryt»no-epiglotticus. 

ARYT/E'XA, ai.vTaiva, 'a ladle.' Hence, 
ARYT.E'NO-EPIGLOT'TICUS, ytr!/^<E'no- 
■0piglottid(B'us, Ary-epiglot'ticus. That which be- 
i"vg<i to the arytenoid cartilages and epiglottis. 



Winslow gives this name to small, flesby fasci- 
culi, which are attached, at one e.xtremity. to tho 
arytenoid cartilages, and, by the other, to the free 
edge of the epiglottis. These tibres do not al- 
ways exist. They form part of the arytenoid 
muscle of modern anatomists. 

ARYT'ENOID, Arytmnoides, Arytenoida'ut, 
from apvraiva, 'a ladle,' and u6oi, ' shape.' Ladle- 
shaped. 

ARyTENOID Car'tilages, Cartilag"ines aryte- 
noi'des seu guttura'les seu gutturi'nm sen gutturi- 
for'mea seu iriq'uetrcB, Guttur'nia, are two carti- 
lages of the larynx, situate posteriorly above the 
cricoid, which, by approximation, diminish the 
aperture of the glottis. Their upper extremities 
or cornua are turned towards each other, and are 
now and then found loose, in the form of appen- 
dices, which are considered, by some, as distinct 
cartilages, and termed cuneiform or tuberculated 
Cartilages, Cornic'ula Laryn'gis. 

Arytenoid Glands, Gland'ul<B Aryfenoidce'tB, 
are small, glandular, whitish bodies, situate an- 
terior to the A. cartilages. They pour out a mu- 
cous fluid to lubricate the larynx. 

ARYTENOIDuE'US, (F.) Arytenoidien. A 
small muscle, which passes from one arytenoid 
cartilage to the other, by its contraction brings 
them together, and diminishes the aperture of 
the glottis. Winslow divided the muscle into 
three portions ; — the Aryfenoida'ua transver'sus, 
or Ary-arytenoidce'uB, and two Arytenoids' i ob- 
li'qui. 

ARYTHM, Aryth'min, from a, privative, and 
pvBuog, 'rhythm,' 'measure.' Irregularity. This 
word is applied chiefly to the pulse. 

ASA, Asafoetida. See Assa — a. Dulcis, Ben- 
jamin. 

ASAFCETI'DA, Assafoe'tida (Ph. U. S.), Assa- 
fet'ida, Stercus diab'oli, Cibus Deo'rum, Asn. 
Devil's dung. Food of the Gods. A gum-resin — 
the concrete juice of Ferula Assafa-'tida, A^nr- 
thex Assafop.tida. Order, Umbelliferse. It is in 
small masses of a whitish, reddish, and violet 
hue, adhering together. Taste bitter and suba- 
crid : smell insupportably alliaceous. The Asi- 
atics use it regularly as a condiment. 

Its medical properties are antispasmodic, sti- 
mulant, and anthelmintic. Dose, gr. v to xx, in 
pill. 

ASAGR^A OFFICINALIS, see Teratrina. 
AS' A PES, Asep'ton, properly, not putrid, from 
a, privative, and crajru), or artiru), ' I corrupt.' A 
term applied by Hippocrates to the sputa, or to 
other matters evacuated, which do not give signs 
of coction. 

ASAPH'ATUM, from a, privative, and aaipm, 
'clear.' This term has been applied to collec- 
tions in the sebaceous follicles of the skin, which 
may be pressed out like little worms, with a black 
head. See Acne. 

ASAPHI'A, from a, privative, and aai^ni, 
'clear.' Dyspho'nia immodula'tn point i'na, Pa- 
rapho'nia guttura'lia seu ])alati'na. Defective 
articulation, dependent upon diseased palate. — 
Hippocrates, Vogel. 

ASARABACCA, Asarum— a. Broad-leaved, 
Asarum Canadense. 

ASAR'CON, from a, priv., and aap^, 'flesh.' 
Devoid of flesh. Aristotle uses the terra for the 
head when it is but little fleshy, compared with 
the chest and abdomen. 

ASARET, Asarum — a. du Canada, Asarum 
Canadense. 

ASARI'TES, from aaapov, 'the asarum.' A 
diuretic wine, of which asarum was an ingredient. 
— Dioscorides. 

AS'ARUM, from a, privative, and cntpciv, ' tt» 
adorn :' because not admitted into the ancient 
coronal wreaths [?], As' arum EuropcB'um seu 



ASBESTOS SCALL 



ASCLEPIAS ALBA 



officina'le, Nardus Monta'na seu Hust'iea, Az- 
nrum, (F.) Aaaret ou Cabaret, Azariim Cabaret, 
Oreille d'homme, Oreillette, Girard-Roussin, Nard 
Sauvage. Order, Aristolochiaceoe, Sex. Syst. 
Dodecandria Monogynia. The plant, used in 
medicine, is the Afi'arum Europai'um, Asarabac'- 
ca, and of this the leaves. They are emetic, 
cathartic, and errhine, but are hardly ever em- 
ployed, except for the last purpose. 

AsARDM Canaden'se, A. CaroUnia'iium, Ca- 
nada Snakeroot, Wild Ginger, Colt's Foot, Broad- 
leaf Asarabacca, Indian Ginger, Heart Snake- 
root, (F.) Asaret dti Canada. The root As'arum, 
(Ph. U. S.), is used as a substitute for ginger, and 
is said to act as a warm stimulant and dia- 
phoretic. 

AsARUM Carolinianum, a. Canadense — a. 
Europffium, see Asarum — a. Hypoeistis, Cytinus 
hypocistis — a. Officinale, see Asarum. 

ASBESTOS SCALL, see Eczema of the hairy 
scalp. 

ASCAIN, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ascain 
is a village, situate about a league from St. Jean- 
de-Luz, in France. The water is a cold chaly- 
beate. 

ASCARDAMYC'TES, from a, privative, and 
cKapSanvTTw, ' I twinkle the eyes.' One who stares 
with fixed eyes, without moving the eyelids. — 
Hippocrates. 

ASCARICIDA ANTHELMINTICA, Verno- 
nia anthelmintica. 

ASCARIDE LUMBRICOiDE, Asearis lum- 
bricoides — a. Yermiculaire. Asearis vermieularis. 
AS'CARIS, pi. ASCAR'IDES, from anxapiC^u,, 
'I leap.' A genus of intestinal worms, charac- 
terized by a long, cylindrical body, extenuated 
at the extremities; and having a mouth furnished 
with three tubercules, from which a very short 
tube is sometimes seen issuing. Formerly, there 
were reckoned two varieties of the Asearis — the 
As'caris lumbrieo'i'des seu gigas kom'inis, Lum- 
hri'cus, L. teres hom'inis, Scolex, (F.) Lombri- 
eo'ide, Ascaride lombrico'ide, Lombric, or long 
round worm ; and the As'caris Vermieula'ris 
— the Asearis proper — the thread loorm or maw 
icorm. The former is alone included under 
the genus, at present — a new genus having been 
formed of the A. vermieularis, under the name 
Oxyuris. It is the Oxyu'ris seu Fusa'ria ver- 
mic'da'ris, (F.) Ascaride, A. vermiculaire, Oxyure 
vermiculaire. 

A new species of entozoa has been found by 
Dr. Bellingham, the As'caris ala'ta. 

AscARis Alata, see Asearis — a. Gigas hominis, 
see Asearis — a. Lumbricoides, see Asearis — a. 
Renalis, Strongylus gigas — a. Trichuria, Tricho- 
cephalus — a. Vermieularis, see Asearis — a. Visce- 
ralis, Strongylus gigas. 

AS'CELES, As'keles, Carens cru'ribxia, from a, 
privative, and o-keAuj, 'a leg.' One who has no 
legs. 
ASCELLA, Axilla. 

ASCEN'DENS, from ascendere, {ad and soan- 
dere,) 'to ascend.' (F.) Ascendant. Parts are 
thus called, which are supposed to arise in a re- 
gion lower than that where they terminate. Thus, 
Aorta ascendens is the aorta from its origin to the 
arch: Vena cava ascendens, the large vein which 
carries the blood from the inferior parts to the 
heart: Obliquns ascendens {muscle), the lesser 
oblique muscle of the abdomen, ic, 

ASCEN'SUS MORBL The period of increase 
of a disease. 

ASCHERSONIAN VESICLES, see Vesicles, 
Aschersonian. 

ASCESIS, Exercise. 
ASCHIL, Seilla. 

ASCHISTODAC'TYLUS, Syndac'tylus, from 
<!, privative, (t^ktto;, 'cleft;' and daKTvXos, 'a 



finger.' A monster whose fingers are not sepa- 
rated from one another. — Gurlt. 

AS'CIA (an axe), Axine, Scepar'nos, DoVahra, 
Fas'cia spira'lis. Name of a bandage mentioned 
by the ancients, and figured by Scultetus, in the 
shape of an axe or hatchet. — Galen. See Doloire. 

ASCILLA, AxUla. 

ASCITE, Ascites— a. Periloneale, Ascites. 

ASCI'TES, from acxoi, 'a leathern sack, a 
large belly :' — Aski'tes, Hydroce'le Peritonae'i, 
Hydrops Abdom'inis seu Ascites, Hydrogas'ter, 
Hydropen'fone'um, Hydrocoe'lia, Hydre'trum, Aa- 
cli'tes, Coelioch'ysis, Dropsy of the lower belly, 
Dropsy of the Peritone'um, (F.) Ascite, A. perito- 
neale, Hydro-peritonie, Hydropisie du Bas-ventre 
ou du peritoine. A collection of serous fluid in 
the abdomen. Ascites proper is dropsy of the 
peritoneum; and is characterized by increased 
size of the abdomen, by fluctuation and the gene- 
ral signs of dropsy. It is rarely a primary dis- 
ease ; but is always dangerous, and but little sus- 
ceptible of cure. Most generally, it is owing to 
obstructed circulation in some of the viscera, or 
to excitement of the vessels of the abdominal 
organs. The treatment is essentially the same 
as that of other dropsies. Paracentesis, when 
had recourse to, can only be regarded as a pal- 
liative. 

Dropsy of the peritoneum may also be saceated 
or in cysts, and occasionally the fluid accumulates 

terior to the peritoneum, Hydrepigas'trium. 



AVhen in cysts it is termed Hydrocys'tis, Hydrops 
abdom'inis 'sacca'tus seu eys'ticus and Asci'tea 
sacca'tus. 

Ascites Hepato-Cysticus, Turgescentia vesi- 
culae felleas — a. Ovarii, Hydrops ovarii — a. Puru- 
lentus, Pyocoelia — a. Saccatus, see Ascites, Hy- 
droarion, and Hydrops ovarii. 

ASCIT'IC, Ascit'icus, (F.) Ascitique. Relating 
or appertaining to, or affected with, ascites. 

ASCLEPI'AD^, Asclepi'ades, from AaKXn^rto;, 
'iEsculapius.' The priest physicians, who served 
in the ancient temples of JEsculapius, and who 
took their^name from being his descendants. 

ASCLEPIADE, Asclepias vincetoxicum. 

ASCLEPIAS ALBA, A. vincetoxicum — a. 
Apocynum, A. Syriaca — a. Asthmatica, Tyli.. 
phora asthmatica — a. Cornuti, A. Syriaca — a. 
Crispa, Gomphocarpus crispus. 

Asclepias Curassav'ica, Bastard Ipecacu- 
anha, Redhead, Bloodweed, The leaves are 
emetic in the dose of one or two scAiples. It 
is the Ipecacuanha blanc of St. Domingo. 

Asclepias Decum'bens ; the root. Escharotic, 
cathartic, sudorific, diuretic. 

Asclepias, Flesh-coloured, A. Incarnata- 
a. Gigantea, Mudar. 

Ascle'pias Incarna'ta, A. jyulchra, Flesh 
coloured or swamp asclepias or silkweed. The 
root of this plant, which grows in all parts of the 
United States, and is officinal in the Ph. U. S., 
has the same virtues as A. Syriaca, and A. tube- 
rosa. 

Asclepias Obotata, A. Syriaca. 

Asclepias Proc"era [?], Beidelossar, Bei- 
delsar. An Egyptian plant, the leaves of which 
are made into a plaster, and applied to indolent 
tumours. The milky juice is caustic, and is used 
as such. 

Asclepias Pseudosarsa, Hemidesmus Indi- 
cus — a. Pubescens, A. Syriaca — a. Pulchra, A. 
incarnata. 

Asclepias Striaca, A. pubes'cena seu apoc"y- 
iium seu obova'ta seu tomento'sa seu Cornu'ti, 
Common Silkweed, Milk Weed, (F.) Herbe d la 
houette. The cortical part of the root, officinal 
in the Ph. U. S., has been given, in powder, ita 



ASCLEPIASMUS 



100 



ASPHYXIA 



asthmatic and pulmonic affections in general, 
aad, it is said, with success. 

Ascle'pias Sullivan'tii, Smooth Milkweed, 
S'dkweed : indigenous, possesses the same virtues 
as the next. 

AscLEPiAS TOMENTOSA, A. Syfiaca. 
Ascle'pias Tubero'sa, Butterfly Weed, Pleu- 
risy Root, Flux Root, Wind Root, Wind Weed, 
White Root, Orange Swallow Root, Silk Weed, 
Canada Root, Orange Apoc'ynum, Tuheroxia 
Rooted Swal'low Wort. Said to have been first 
recommended by the Asclepiades. In Virginia 
and the Carolinas, the root of this plant — officinal 
in the Ph. U. S. — has been long celebrated as a 
remedy in pneumonic affections. It is sudo- 
rific, and the powder acts as a mild purgative. 
Its chief powers are said to be expectorant, dia- 
phoretic, and febrifuge. It is occasionally given 
to relieve pains of the stomach from flatulency 
and indigestion. 

Asclepias ViNCETOx'icusr, A. Alba, Cynan'- 
chuni Vincetox'icum, Vincetox'ieum, V. Officina'le, 
Hirundina'ria, Apoc"ynum NovcB An'glicB hirsu'- 
tum, Ac, Swallow- Wort, White Swalloio-Wort, 
(F.) Asclepiade, DojnjHe-venin. 

The root is said to be stimulant, diuretic, and 
emmenagogue, but is hardly ever used. 
ASCLEPIASMUS, Haemorrhois. 
ASCLITES, Ascites. 

ASCO'MA, from aaxoi, 'a bottle.' The emi- 
nence of the pubes at the period of puberty in 
females. — Rufus of Ephesus. 
ASE, Anxiety. 
ASELLI, Onisci aselli. 
ASELLUS, Oniscus. 

ASE'MA CRISIS, Kptan aavfia, from a, priva- 
tive, and cviJta, ' a sign.' A crisis occurring unex- 
pectedly and without the ordinary precursory 
signs. 
ASEPTON, Asapes. 

ASH, BITTER, Quassia — a. Blue, Fraxinus 
quadrangulata — a. Mountain, Sorbus acuparia 
— a. Mountain, American, Sorbus Americana 
— a. Prickly, Aralia spinosa, Xanthoxylum clava 
Herculis — a. Prickly, shrubby, Xanthoxylum 
fraxineum — a. Stinking, Ptelea trifoliata — a. 
Tree, Fraxinus excelsior — a. White, Fraxinus 
Americana. 

ASIALORRHCE'A, (F.) Asialorrhee, from a, 
priv., aia\ov, ' saliva,' and peia, ' to flow.' Diminu- 
tion in the flow of saliva. 
ASIMINA TRILOBA, see Carica papaya. 
ASIT"IA, from a, privative, and airot, 'food.' 
Abstinence from food. Want of appetite, — Fas- 
tid'ium cibo'rum, Apoclei' sis. 
ASIUS LAPIS, Assius Lapis. 
ASJAGAN, Aa'jogam. An Indian tree, the 
juice of whose leaves, mixed with powdered 
cumin seeds, is employed in India in colic. 
AS JO GAM, Asjagan. 
ASKELES, Asceles. 
ASKER, Eschar. 
ASKITES, Ascites. 

ASO'DES, Aaso'des, from aan, 'disgust,' 'sati- 
ety.' A fever accompanied with anxiety and 
nausea ; Fe'bria aao'dea vel azo'dea. 

ASPALASO'MUS, from offrraXaf, 'a mole,' and 
ffiviia, ' a body.' A genus of monsters in which 
there is imperfect development of the eyes. — 
I. G. St. Hilaire. Also, a malformation, in which 
the fissure and eventration extend chiefly upon 
the lower part of the abdomen ; the urinary ap- 
paratus, genitals and rectum opening externally 
by three distinct orifices. — VogeL 
ASPALTUM, Asphaltum. 
ASPARAGINE, see Asparagus. 
ASPAR'AGUS, Aanapayo!, Aapar'agua offici- 
na'lia, Common Aaparagua, Spar' agua, Sper'mgua, 
Starroio Oraas, Grasa, Sperage. Ord, Aspho- 



Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. A»- 
par'agi officina'lie Turio'nea, (F.) Asperge. The 
fresh roots are diuretic, perhaps owing to the im- 
mediate cry.-itallizable principle, Aaparagiue, 
which is said to be sedative in the dose of a few 
grains. The young shoots are a well known and 
esteemed vegetable diet. They communicate a 
peculiar odour to the urine. A syrup made of 
the young shoots and an extract of the roots has 
been recommended as a sedative in heart affec- 
tions. 

ASPA'SIA. A ball of wood soaked in an in- 
fusion of galls, and used by females for constring- 
ing the vagina. 

ASPEN, AMERICAN, Populus tremuloides— 
a. European, Populus tremula. 

ASPERA ARTERIA, Trachea. 

ASPERGE, Asparagus. 

ASPERITAS ARTERIA ASPERiE, Rau- 

ASPERITE DES PAUPIERES, Trachoma. 
ASPERITUDO, Trachoma. 
ASPER'ITY, Asper'itaa, roughness. Asperi- 
ties are inequalities on the surfaces of bones, 
which often serve for the insertion of fibrous 
organs. 
ASPERMATIA, Aspermatismus. 
ASPERMATIS'MUS, Asper'mia, Aaperma'tia, 
from a, privative, and anep/ia, 'sperm.' Reflux 
of sperm from the urethra into the bladder, dur- 
ing the venereal orgasm. 

ASPERMIA, Aspermatismus. 
ASPERSIO, Catapasma, Fomentation. 
ASPER'SION, Aaper'aio, from aapergere {ad 
and spargere), 'to sprinkle,' (F.) Arroaement. 
Act of sprinkling or pouring a liquid guttatim 
over a wound, ulcer, <fec. 

ASPERULA, Galium aparine. 
Asper'ula Odora'ta, (diminutive of aaper, 
'rough,' the seeds being rough), Ga'lium odora'- 
tum, Matrisyl'va, Hepat'ica atella'ta, (F.) Anpe- 
rule odorante ou Miiguet des boia, Hepatique 
etoilee. Ord. Rubiaceae. Sex. Syst. Tetran drill 
Monogynia. Sweet-scented Woodroof. Said to 
be diuretic, deobstrueut, tonic, and vulnerary. 
ASPBRULE ODOR ANTE, As^eTVi\&oAoTa.iSi.. 
ASPHALTI'TES, Nephri'tes, Nejihri'tia, Pri- 
ma Vertebra lumba'ria, same etymon as asphal- 
tum. A name given by some to the last lumbar 
vertebra. — Gorraeus. 

ASPHAL'TUM, Nep'ta,Araal't08, Aaphnl'tum, 
from a(T<pa\t^ctv, 'to strengthen,' being used as 
a cement. [ ? ] With the Greeks, this word signi- 
fied any kind of bitumen. It is now restricted 
chiefly to the Bitu'men op Jiwje'a, B. Juda'- 
ictim. A, sol'idum, Jeioa' Pitch, Karahe of Sodom, 
(F.) Aaphalte, Bitume de JudSe, Poix minSrale 
acoriacie, Baume de momie ou dea fnnSrailles. It 
is solid, friable, vitreous, black, shining, inflam- 
mable, and of a fetid smell. An oil is obtained 
from it by distillation. It enters into the compo- 
sition of certain ointments and plasters. 

It is collected on the surface of the water of 
the Dead Sea or Lake Asphaltites, in Juda;a. 
ASPHARINE, Galium aparine. 
ASPHOD'ELUS, Aa<poSe\os, A. Ramo'ana seu 
AZ6u« seu Maris, Has' tula Regis, (F.) Lis aspho- 
dlle. The bulbs of this southern European 
plant have an acrimony which they lose in boil- 
ing water. They contain a fecula with which 
bread has been made, and have been considered 
diuretic. They have been used as a succedaneum 
for the squill. 

ASPHYCTOS, Pulseless. 

ASPHYX'IA, from a, priv., anda^ufiy, 'pulse,' 
De/ec'tua Puhxls, Acrotia'mus, Sidera'tio, Sydera'- 
tio, (F.) Anhematosie. For a long time. Asphy- 
xia was confined to the sense of ' suspension of 
circulation or syncope;' Puheleseneaa. It now 



ASPHYXIAL 



101 



ASSIDENTIA SIGNA 



generally means suspended animation, produced 
by the nonconversion of the venous blood of the 
lungs into arterial, — Apnoe'a, Apneus'tia, Apnoe- 
asphyx'ia, AnhoRmnto' sia, Ec'lysis pneumo-cardi' - 
aca, Anoxemie, Hypoxemie, — Piorry. Owing to 
the supply of air being cut off, the unchanged 
venous blood of the pulmonary artery passes into 
the minute radicles of the pulmonary veins, but 
their peculiar excitability requiring arterial blood 
to excite them, stagnation takes places in the pul- 
monary radicles, and death occurs chiefly from 
this cause, — not owing to venous blood being 
distributed through the system, and 'poisoning' 
it, as was the idea of Bichat. Cams asphyx'ia, 
Mors appa'rens, Mors putati' ca, Pseudothan'aios, 
Apparent death, (F.) Mort apparente, is charac- 
terized by suspension of respiration, of the cere- 
bral functions, &c. Several varieties of Asphyxia 
have been designated. 

1. Asphyx'ia op the Nktv-Born, ^. neonato'- 
rum. This is often depiendent upon the feeble 
condition of the infant, not permitting respiration 
to be established. 

2. Asphyx'ia by Noxious Inhala'tion, or in- 
halation of gas€s, some of which cause death by 
producing a spasmodic closure of the glottis ; 
others by the want of oxygen; and others are 
positively deleterious or poisonous. 

3. Asphyx'ia by Strangula'tion, or Suffoca'- 
tion ; produced by mechanical impediment to 
respiration, as in hanging. 

4. Asphyx'ia by Submer'sion, A. hy drown- 
ing, A. Immerso' rum, Angiairhydrie (Piorry), as 
occurs in the drowned, who perish in consequence 
of the medium in which they are plunged, being 
unfit for respiration. See Submersion. 

Mr. Chevalier has used the term Asphyx'ia 
Idiopath'iea, for fatal s.yncope owing to relaxa- 
tion of the heart. See Suffocation. 

Asphyx'ia Immersorum, A. by submersion — 
a. Local : — see Grangrene — a. Neonatorum, A. of 
the new-born — a. Pestilenta: — see Cholera — a. 
Pestilential : — see Cholera. 

ASPHYX'IAL, Asphyx'ic Relating to as- 
phyxia — as ' asphyxial phenomena.' 

ASPHYXIE DES PARTIES, Gangrene— 
a. Lente des nouveau-nes, Induration of the cel- 
lular tissue. 

ASPHYX'IED, Asphyx'iated, Asphyxia' tua, 
same etymon. In a state of asphyxia. 

ASPIC, Aspis, Lavandula spica, 

ASPIDISCOS, Sphincter ani externns. 

ASPID'IUM ATHAMAN'TICUM,from 
airriSiov, 'a small shield,' diminutive of auTtg, 'a 
shield.' A South African fern, Ord. Filices, 
which is possessed of anthelmintic properties. 
Its caudex, in the form of powder, infusion, or 
electuary, has been found excellent in helmin- 
thiasis, and especially in tapeworm. 

AspiDiuM CoRiACEUM, Calagualae radix — a. 
Depastum, Polypodium filix mas — a. Discolor, see 
Calagualse radix — a. Erosum, Polypodium filix 
mas — a. Filix foemina, Asplenium filix foemina — 
a. Fervugineum, see Calagualae radix — a. Filix 
mas, Polypodium filix mas. 

ASPIRATIO, Inspiration. 

ASPIRA'TION, Adspira'tio, Aspira'tio, from 
aspirare (ad and spirare), ' to breathe.' The 
French sometimes use the term synonymously 
with inspiration. It also means the act of attract- 
ing or sucking like a pump. Imbibition. Also, 
the pronunciation of a vowel with a full breath. 

ASPIS, ao-irif. A name given by the ancients 
to a venomous serpent — the ^Egyptian viper of 
Lac^pede, (F.) Aspic. Its bite is very dangerous, 
and it is supposed to have been the reptile which 
Cleopatra used for her destruction. 

ASPLE'NIUM, Asple'num, from a, priv., and 
BitXvv, 'the spleen.' Spleenwort, Miltwaste. 



Asplenium Aureum, A. ceterach. 
Asple'nium Cet'erach, a. au'reum seu ?oft- 
fo'lium, Gymnogram'me ceteraoh, Doradil'la, 
Blechnum squamo' sum, Scolopen'dria, Athyr'ion, 
Cet'erach officina'rum seu Canarien'sis, Grammi'- 
tis cet'erach seu au'rea, Gymnop'teris ceterach, Vit- 
ta'ria ceterach, (F.) Doradille, Ord. Filices. 
Supposed to be subastringent and mucilaginous, 
and has been recommended as a pectoral. It has 
also been given in calculous cases. 

Asple'nium Filix Fce'mina, Pohjpo'dium filix 
foemina seu molle. seu denta'tuin seu inei'sum seu 
tri/'idum, Aspidium filix foemina, Athyr'ium filix 
foemina seu moUS seu ova'tum seu trif'idum, Pte- 
ris palus'tris, Female fern, Spleenwort, (F.) Fou- 
gere femelle. The root of this plant resembles 
that of the male fern, and is said to possess simi- 
lar anthelmintic virtues. The name female fern 
is also given to Pteris aquilina. 

Asplenium Latifolium, A. ceterach — a. Mu- 
rale, A. ruta — a. Obtusum, A. ruta muraria. 

Asple'nium Ruta Mura'ria, A. mura'le seu 
obtu'sum, Paronych'ia, Phylli'tis Yuta mura'ria, 
Scolopen' drium ruta mura'ria, Wallrue, White 
Maidenhair, Tentwort, Adian'tum album, Ruta 
mura'ria, Sal'via Vita, (F.) Rue des muraillea, 
Sauve-vie. Used in the same cases as the last. 

Asple'nium Scolopen'drium, Scolopendrium 
officina'rum seu lingua seu phylli'tis seu vulga'- 
re, Scolopen' dra, Scolopen'dria, Hart's Tongue, 
Spleenwort, Phylli'tis, Lingua cervi'na, Blechnum 
lignifo'lium, (F.) Scolopendre, Langue de cerf. 
Properties like the last. 

Asple'nium Trichomanoi'des, A. Trichom'- 
anes, Phylli'tis rotundifo'lia, Calyphyl'lum, Tri- 
chom'anes, T. crena'ta, Adian'tum rubrum. Com- 
mon Maidenhair, Polyt'richum commu'ne, (F.) 
Polytric. Properties like the last. 
ASPLENUM, Asplenium. 
ASPREDO, Trachoma — a. Miliacea, Miliary 
fever. 

ASPR&LE, Hippuris vulgaris. 
ASPRITUDO, Trachoma. 
ASSABA. A Guinea shrub, whose leaves are 
considered capable of dispersing buboes. 
ASSACOU, Hura Brasiliensis. 
ASS A DOUX, Benjamin — a. Dulcis, Benjamin 
— a. Odorata, Benjamin. 
ASSAFETIDA, Asafoetida. 
ASSAFCETIDA, Asafoetida. 
ASSAIERET. A compound of bitter, stoma- 
chic, and purgative medicines in the foim of pilL 
— Avicenna. 

ASSAINISSE3IENT {¥.), from ad, 'to,' 
and sanare, 'to make healthy.' The act of ren- 
dering healthy, as by the draining of marshes, 
the disinfection of the air, &c. 

ASSAISONNEMENT, Condiment. 
ASSAKUR, Saccharum. 
ASSALA, see Myristica moschata. 
ASSARTHROSIS, Articulation. 
ASSA'TIO, Opte'sis. The boiling of food o* 
medicines in their own juic£, without the addi- 
tion of any liquid. Various kinds of cooking Yy 
heat. — Galen. 

ASSELLA, Axilla. 

AS'SERAC, Assis. A preparation of opium, 
or of some narcotic, used by the Turks as an 
excitant. 
ASSERCULUM, Splint. 
ASSERVATION, Conservation. 
ASSES' MILK, see Milk, asses'. 
Asses' Milk, Artificial, see Milk, asses'. 
AS'SIDENS, from ad, 'to,' and sedere, 'to bu 
seated.' That which accompanies or is concomi- 
tant. An epithet applied to the accessory symp- 
toms, Assiden'fia signa, and general phenomena 
of disease. 
ASSIDENTIA SIGNA, see Assidens. 



ASSIMILABLE 



102 



ASTHMA 



ASSIM'ILABLE, Asaimilal'iliB. Same ety- 
mon as Assimilation. That which is susceptible 
of assimilation. 

ASSIM'ILATING, Aaaim'ilatory, Assrmilato'- 
rius, CF.) Asaimilateui: Same etymon as the next. 
That which effects assimilation, as an assimilating 
or asaimilatory organ. 

ASSIMILA'TION, Aasimila'tio, Sini{la'tio,Ap- 
propria'tio, Exomoio'sia, Homoio'aia, Threpsie, 
Threp'tice ; from asaimilare, {ad and similare,) 
' to render similar.' The act by which living 
bodies appropriate and transform into their own 
substance matters with which they may be placed 
in contact. The reverse action — that of separa- 
ting and eliminating matters already assimilated, 
in the act of nutrition — is termed, by the French, 
jyesnaaimilation. 

ASSIS, Asserac. 

AS'SIUS LAPIS, A'sitts Lapis. A sort of 
Etone or earth, found near the town of Assa in 
the Tread, which had the property of destroying 
proud flesh. 

ASSOCIATED MOVEMENTS,see Instinctive. 

ASSODES, Asodes. 

ASSOUPISSANT, Somniferous. 

ASSO UPISSEMENT, Somnolency, 

ASSOURON, see Myrtus Pimenta. 

ASSUETUDO, Habit. 

ASSULA, Splint. 

ASSULTUS, Attack. 

ASSUMPTIO, Prehension. 

ASTACI FLUVIATILIS CONCREMENTA, 
Cancrorum chelae. 

ASTACUS FLUVIATILIS, Crab. 

ASTAKILLOS, Araneum ulcus. 

ASTARZOF. An ointment, composed of li- 
tharge, frog's spawn, <fcc. Also, camphor, dis- 
Bolved in rose water. — Paracelsus. 

ASTASIA, Dysphoria. 

ASTER ATTICUS, Bubonium. 

Aster CoRDiroLius, Heart-leaved Aster, A. 
Punic'eus, Rough-stemmed Aster, and other 
indigenous species. Order Compositae, possess 
aromatic properties. 

Aster Dysentericus, Inula dysenterica — a. 
Heart-leaved, A. cordifolius— a. Helenium, Inula 
Helenium — a. Inguinalis, Eryngium campestre — 
— a. Officinalis, Inula Helenium — a. Rough- 
stemmed, A. Puniceus — a. Tortifolius, Sericocar- 
pus tortifolius — a. Undulatus, Inula dysenterica. 

ASTE'RIA GEMMA, Aate'rius, Astroi'tes, As'- 
trios, Astrob'olna. The ancients attributed ima- 
ginary virtues to this stone, — that of dispersing 
NcBvi Materni, for example. 

ASTERIAS LUTEA, Gentiana lutea. 

ASTER'NIA, from a, privative, and crcpvov, 
'the sternum.' A monstrosity, in which there is 
absence of the sternum. 

ASTEROCEPHALUS SUCCISA, Scabiosa 
Euccisa. 

ASTHENES, Infirm. 

ASTUENI'A, Vis imminu'ta, from a, priv., 
and a^evoi, 'force,' 'strength.' AVant of strength, 
debility. (F.) Affaibliasement. Infirmity. A 
word used in tliis sense by Galen, and employed, 
especially by Brown, to designate debility of the 
whole economy, or diminution of the vital forces. 
He distinguished it into direct and indirect : the 
former proceeding from diminution of stimuli; 
the latter from exhaustion of incitability by the 
abuse of stimuli. 

Asthenia Deglutitionis, Pharyngoplegia — a. 
Poctoralis, Angina Pectoris. 

ASTHEN'IC, Aathen'iciis, (F.) Asthenique. 
Same etymon as the last. Relating or belonging 
to asthenia. 

ASTHENICOPYRA, Fever, adynamic. 

.4STHENIC0PYRETUS, Fever, adynamic. 



ASTHENIQUE, Asthenic. 

ASTHENO'PIA, Debil'itas seu Hehetu'do vi- 
bUs, (F.) Affaibliasement de la Vue, from a, priv., 
cdevos, ' strength,' and wtp, ' the eye.' Weakness 
of sight; Weak-sightedneas. 

ASTHENOPYRA, Fever, adynamic. Typhus. 

ASTHENOPYRETUS, Fever, adynamic. 

ASTHMA, from aadna, 'laborious breathing;' 
from aia, ' I respire.' A. spas'ticum adnlto'rum 
seu bronchia'le seu aenio'rum seu convulsi'viim seu 
spas'ticum intermit' tens, Spas'mus bronchia' lia, 
byapnoe'a et orthopnw'a convulai'va, Malum Ca- 
du'cum pulmo'nuvi, Brohen-windedneaa, Nervous 
asthma, (F.) Asthvie, A. tierveux. Difficulty of 
breathing, recurring at intervals, accompanied 
with a wheezing sound and sense of constriction 
in the chest ; cough and expectoration. 

Asthma is a chronic disease, and not curable with 
facility. Excitant and narcotic antispasmodics 
are required. 

There are no pathognomonic physical signs of 
asthma. In some cases, the respiration is uni- 
versally puerile during the attack. In the spas- 
modic form, the respiratory murmur is very feeble 
or absent during the fit; and in all forms percus- 
sion elicits a clear pulmonary sound. The disease 
generally consists in some source of irritation, and 
occasionally, perhaps, in paralysis of the pneu- 
mogastric nerves, Bronchoparal'yaia, Paral'ysis 
nervi vagi in parte thorac"ica, more frequently 
of the former — all the phenomena indicating 
constriction of the smaller bronchial ramifica- 
tions. The treatment is one that relieves spasmo- 
dic action — narcotics, counter-irritants, change 
of air, &c. 

Asthma Aco'tum, of Millar, A. spas'ticum t«- 
fan'tum, Cynan'che Trachea'lis spasmod'ica, (F.) 
Aathme aigu. Probably, spasmodic croup [?] 
See Asthma Thymicum. 

Asthma Aerium, Pneumothorax — a. Aerium 
ab Emphysemate Pulmonum, Emphysema of the 
Lungs — a. Arthriticum, Angina Pectoris — a. 
Bronchiale, Asthma. 

Asthma, Car'diac, (F.) Dyspnee ou Asthmt 
Cardiaque, Dyspnoea dependent upon disease of 
the heart. 

Asthma Convulsivum, Angina pectoris — a, 
Diaphragmaticum, Angina Pectoris — a. Dolo- 
rificum. Angina pectoris — a, Emphysematicum, 
Pneumothorax. 

Asthma, Grinders', Grinders' Rot. The ag- 
gregate of functional phenomena, induced by the 
inhalation of particles thrown ofl' during the ope- 
ration of grinding metallic instruments, <fec. The 
structural changes induced are enlargement of 
the bronchial tubes, expansion of the pulmonary 
tissue, and phthisis. 

Asthma Gypseum, A. pulverulentum — a. Hay, 
Fever, hay. 

Asthma Hu'midum, Humid, Common, or Spit- 
ting asthma, is when the disease is accompanied 
with expectoration. It is also called A. humo- 
ra'le, A.Jiatulen'tum, A. pneumon'icum, Blenno- 
tho'rax chron'icua, &o. 

Asthma Infantum, Cynanche trachealis — a. 
Infantum Spasmodicum, A. Thymicum — a. Kop- 
pian, A. Thymicum — a. Laryngeum Infantum, 
A. Thymicum — a. Montanum, A. pulverulentum 
— a. Nervous, Asthma — a. Nocturnum, Incubus. 

Asthma Pulverulen'tum, A. gyp'seum, A. 
monta'num. The variety of asthma to which 
millers, bakers, grinders, and others are subject. 

Asthma Siccom, so called when the paroxysm 
is sudden, violent, and of short duration; cough 
slight, and expectoration scanty; spasmodic con- 
striction. 

Asthma Spastico-Ahthriticuu Inconstans, 
Angina pectoris — a. Spasticum Infantum, A. 
Thymicum. 



ASTHMATIC 



103 



ATAVISM 



Asthma Tht'micum, A. T. Kop'pii, Asthma 
tpas'ticum in/an'tum seu infan'tum spaamo'dicum 
seu larynge'um infan'tum sea intermit' tens infan'- 
tum seu dentien'tium, seu period'icum acu'ttim, 
Thymasth'ma, Cynan'che trachea'lis spasmod'ica, 
Spasmus glot'tidis, Koppian Asthma, Thymic 
Asthma, Laryngis'mus strid'ulus, Laryngo-spas- 
mus, Apnce'a infan'tum, Spasm of the larynx or 
glottis, Croup-like inspiration of infants. Child- 
crowing, Spasmodic croup, Pseudo-croup, Spu'ri- 
OU8 or Cer'ebral croup, Phreno-glot' tism. Suffo- 
cating nervous catarrh, (F.) Laryngite striduleuse, 
Faux Croup, Pseudo-croup nerveux, Spasme de la 
Glottc et du Thorax. A disease of infants, cha- 
racterized by suspension of respiration at inter- 
vals ; great difficulty of breathing, especially on 
waking, swallowing, or crying; ending often in 
a fit of suffocation, with convulsions. The patho- 
logy of the disease has been supposed to consist 
in an enlargement of the thymus gland, or of 
the glands of the neck pressing on the pneumo- 
gastric nerves [?]. The ear, by auscultation, at 
a distance from the chest, detects an incomplete, 
acute, hissing inspiration, or rather cry; whilst 
the expiration and voice are croupal, both at the 
accession and termination of the paroxysm. The 
heart's action has been observed to be distinct 
and feeble. 

These symptoms are often accompanied by 
rigidity of the fingers and toes ; the thumb being 
frequently drawn forcibly into the palm of the 
clenched hand, whence the name Carpo-pedal 
epasm, applied, at times, to the disease. 

Asthma Typicum. Asthma characterized by 
periodicity. 

Asthma Uteri, Hysteria — a. Weed, Lobelia 
inflata. 

ASTHMAT'IC, Asthmat'icua, Pnoocolyt'icus, 
(F.) Asthmatique. Affected with asthma. Rela- 
ting to asthma. 

ASTHME AIGU, Asthma acutum— a. Cardi- 
aque, Asthma, cardiac — a. Nerveux, Asthma. 

ASTIG'MATISM, Astigmatism' us, from a, pri- 
vative, and cTiyfia, (jTiynaToi, ' a point.' A state 
of irregular refraction in the eye, in which the 
rays are not brought to one focus, but converge 
at different distances, so as to form two linear 
images at right angles to each other. 

AS'TOMUS, from a, privative, and aTOfia, *a 
mouth.' (F.) Astome. One without a mouth. 
Pliny speaks of a people in India without mouths, 
who live anhelntu et odore ! 

ASTRAGALE COL D\ Collum astragali, 
ASTRAGALOIDES SYPHILITICA, Astra- 
galus esscapus. 

ASTRAG'ALUS, Talus, the Ankle, Qua'trio, 
Quar'tio, Quater'nio, Diab'ebos, Peza, Cavic'ula, 
Cavil'la, Tetro'ros, As'trion, Os Ballist'a: seu 
Tet' serai, from aarpayaXos, 'a die,' which it has 
been considered to resemble [?]. A short bone, 
situate at the superior and middle part of the 
tarsus, where it is articulated with the tibia. It 
is the ankle hone, sling hone, or first bone of the 
foot. The anterior surface is convex, and has a 
well-marked prominence, supported by a kind of 
neck, and hence has been called the head of the 
astragalus. The astragalus is developed by two 
points of ossification. 

Also, the atla* or first vertebra of the neck. 
Astrag'alus Ex'scapus, Astragaloi'des sy- 
philit'ica, Stemless Milk-vetch, (F.) Astragale & 
gausses velus. Ord. Leguminosse. Sex. Syst. Dia- 
delphia Decandria. The root is said to have 
cured confirmed syphilis. 
Astrag'alus Tragacanthus, see Tragaeanth. 
Astrag'alus Verus, Spina hirci, Astrag'alus 
aculea'tus. Goat's thorn. Milk-vetch. The plant 
which afi'ords Gum Trag'acanth. See Traga- 
cantha. 



ASTRANTIA, Imperatoria — a. Diapensia, Sa- 
nicula. 

AS'TRAPE, Corusca'tio, Fulgar, Fulmen, 
Lightning. Galen reckons it amongst the re- 
mote causes of epilepsy. 

ASTRIC'TION, Astric'tio, Stypsis, Adstric'tio, 
Constric'tio, from astringere, [ad and stringere.) 
' to constringe.' Action of an astringent sub- 
stance on the animal economy. 

ASTRICTORIA, Astringents. 

ASTRINGENT ROOT, Comptonia aspleni- 
folia. 

ASTRIN'GENTS, Astringen'tia, Adstricto'ria, 
Adstringen'tia, Stryphna, Catastal'tica, Constrin- 
gen'tia, Contrahen'tia, Stegno'tica, Syncrit'ica, 
Astricto'ria. Same etymon. Medicines which 
have the property of constringing the organic 
textures. External astringents are called Styji- 
tics. 

The following are the chief astringents : Aci- 
dum Sulphuricum, A. Tannicum, Alumen, Ar- 
genti Nitras, Catechu, Creasoton, Cupri Sulphas, 
Tinct. Ferri Chloridi, Liquor Ferri Nitratis, 
Ferri Sulphas, Gallee, Haematoxylon, Kino, Kra- 
meria, Liquor Calcis, Plumbi Acetas, Quercus 
Alba, Quercus Tinctoria, Zinci Sulphas. 

ASTRION, Astragalus. 

ASTRIOS, Asteria gemma. 

AS'TROBLES, from aerrpov, ' a star,' and jSaXAw, 
'I strike.' One struck by the stars, [sidera'tus.) 
One who is in a state of sideration — in an apo- 
plectic state. — Gorrajus. 

ASTROBLESIA, Astrobolismus, 

ASTROBOLIA, Astrobolismus. 

ASTROBOLIS'MUS, Astrobol'ia, Astroble'sia, 
Heli'asis, Helio'sis. Same etymology. Sidera'- 
tion, or action of the stars on a person. Apo- 
plexy. — Theophrastus, Gorraeus. 

ASTROBOLOS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROITIS, Asteria gemma. 

ASTROLOGER, see Astronomy. 

ASTROL'OGY, Astrolog"ia, from aarpov, 'a 
star,' and ^oyo;, ' a discourse.' The art of divi- 
ning by inspecting the stars. This was formerly 
considered to be a part of medicine; and was 
called Judicial Astrology, to distinguish it from 
astronomy. 

ASTRON'OMY, Astronom'ia, from aerrpov, '& 
star, and vojioi, ' & law,' 'rule.' A science which 
makes known the heavenly phenomena, and the 
laws that govern them. Hippocrates places this 
and astrology amongst the necessary studies of 
a physician. In the earlier English writers, 
Astronomer is often used in the sense of Astro- 
loger. 

ASYSTOLIE, from a, privative, and cvaroXr), 
'systole. A name given by M. Beau to a period, 
in diseases of the heart, in which the systole is 
incomplete ; or, at least, is insufficient to free the 
ventricles from the blood in them. 

ASTRUTHIUM, Imperatoria. 

ASTYPHIA, Impotence. 

ASTYSIA, Impotence. 

ASUAR, Myrobalanus Indica. 

ASULCI, Lapis lazuli. 

ASYNODIA, Impotence. 

ATACTOS, Erratic. 

ATARACTAPOIE'SIA, Ataractopoe'sia, from 
a, privative, rapaKTo;, 'troubled,' and -noieiv, 'to 
make.' Intrepidity, firmness ; a quality of which, 
according to Hippocrates, the physician ought to 
be possessed in the highest degree. 

ATARAX'IA, from a, privative, and rapa^t;, 
'trouble,' 'emotion.' Moral tranquillity, peace 
of mind. 

AT'AVISM, Atavism'vs, from atavus, 'an old 
grandsire or ancestor indefinitely.' The case in 
which an anomaly or disease, existing in a family. 



ATAXIA 



104 



ATLAS 



i? lost in oLe generation and reappears in the 
following 

ATAX'IA, from a, privative, and rafif, 'order.' 
Disorder, irregularity. Hippocrates employs the 
word in it? most extensive acceptation. Galen 
applies it, especially, to irregularity of pulse ; 
and Sydenham speaks of Ataxia Spirituum for 
disorder of the nervous system. Ataxia, now, 
usually means the state of disorder that charac- 
terizes nervous fevers, and the nervous condition. 

Ataxia Spirituum, Nervous diathesis. See 
Ataxia. 

ATAX'IC, Atnx'ieug; same etymon. Having 
the characters of ataxia. 

ATCHAR, A'chia, Achar. A condiment used 
in India. It is formed of green fruits of various 
kinds — garlic, ginger, mustard, and pimento — 
pickled in vinegar. 

ATECNIA. Sterilitas. 

ATELECTASIS, Atelek'tasis, from ateXj,?, 
'imperfect,' 'defective,' and tKraaiq, 'dilatation.' 
Imperfect expansion or dilatation ; as in 

Atelec'tasts Pulmo'num, Pncwnonatelec'ta- 
sia, Pneumatelec' tasis. Imperfect expansion of 
the lungs at birth, giving rise to Cynnfj'ain pnl- 
mona'lis. A similar condition is observed in 
lungs which have received air, and in a distinctly 
lobular form. This is regarded by Dr. W. T. 
(iairdner as, in all probability, a secondary le- 
sion, and dependent, in the majority of instances, 
on a catarrhal condition of the bronchial tubes. 
It is called, by him, pidmonary rolUipHe, or col- 
lapse of the IwKj, and has received the name 
apneumato'fiis from Fuchs. 

AT'ELES, ar£A>7s, 'imperfect,' 'defective.' 
Hence 

ATEL'IA, (F.) Atelie. A monstrosity in which 
there is a want of some members. 

ATELOCHEI'LIA, from aT!:\ni, 'imperfect,' 
and ;t£<Aos, 'lip.' A malformation which consists 
in an imperfect development of the lip. 

ATELOENCEPHAL'IA, from arilr,i, 'imper- 
fect,' and cyKC(paXov, 'the encephalon.' State of 
imperfect development of the brain. — Andral. 

ATELOGLOS'SIA, from aTi>r,s. 'imperfect,' 
and y>.(aa<Ta, 'tongue.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the 
tongue. 

ATELOGNA'THIA, from ariXr??, 'imperfect,' 
and yvaOoi, 'the jaw.' A malformation which 
consists in an imperfect development of the jaw. 

ATELOMYEL'IA, from ariXrjs, 'imperfect,' 
and nw^os, 'marrow.' State of imperfect deve- 
lopment of the spinal marrow. — Bcclard. 

ATELOPROSO'PIA, from artXrii. 'imperfect,' 
and vpoaionov, 'the face.' A malformation which 
consists in imperfect development of the face. 

ATELORACHIDIA, Hydrorachis. 

ATELOSTOM'IA, from arcXv;. ' imperfect,' 
and arofia, 'mouth.' One whose mouth is im- 
perfectly developed. 

ATER SUCCUS, Atrabilis. 

ATHAMAN'TA, from Athamas, a place in 
Thessaly. A genus of plants. 

Athamanta Annua, A. Cretensis. 

Athaman'ta Aureoseli'num, Oi-eoseli'num, 
O. legU'xmum seu nigrum, Seli'nnm oreoaeli'tium, 
Peaced'nnum oreoseU'nitm, Ajnum monta'niim, 
Black Mountain Parslei/, (F.) Persil de Mon- 
tagne; Ord. Umbelliferae. The plant, seed, and 
roots, are aromatic. It has been considered 
attenuant, aperient, deobstruent, and lithontriptic. 
The distilled oil has been used in toothache. 

Athaman'ta Creten'sis seu Cre'tica, A. an'- 
nua, Libano'tia annua seu Creten'nin seu hiraii'ta, 
Dauciu Cretictu seu Candia'nim, Mi/rrhia an'ntta, 
Candy Carrot. The seeds of this plant are acrid 



and aromatic. They have been used as carmina- 
tives and diuretics. 

Athamanta Macedonica, Bubon Macedoni- 
eum — a. Meum, .(Ethusa meuui. 

ATHANASIA, Tanacetnm. 

Athana'sia, from a, privative, and ^araroj, 
'death.' An antidote for diseases of the liver, v 
jaundice, gravel, &c. It consisted of saffron, 
cinnamon, lavender, cassia, myrrh, juncus odo- 
ratus, honey, &c., and was esteemed to be sudo- 
rific. 

ATHARA, Athera. 

ATHELAS'MUS, from a. privative, and M>?, 
'a breast or nipple.' Impracticability of giving 
suck; from want of nipple or otherwise. 

ATHELXIS, Sucking. 

ATHE'NA. Name of a plaster, recommended 
by Asclepiades, and composed if oxide of copper, 
sublimed oxide of zinc, sal ammoniac, verdigris, 
gall nuts, and a variety of resinous and other in- 
gredients. — Oribasius, Aetius, ;;nd P. ^Egineta. 

ATHENIO'NIS CATAPO'TIUM. A pill, 
composed of myrrh, pepper, castor, and opium ; 
used to allay coughing. — Celsus. 

ATHE'RA, Atha'ra, from advp, 'an ear of 
corn.' A kind of pap for children; also, a kind 
of liniment. — Dioscorides, Plinr. 

ATHERAPEUTUS, Incurable. 

ATHERO'MA, from a&ripa, 'pap or pulp,' Em- 
phy'ma encya'tis athero'ma, Mo'lua'cum, Pulta'tio. 
A tumour formed by a cysi containing mattei 
like pap or Bouillie, or plaster. 

ATHEROM'ATOUS, Atlieromato'dea. Having 
the nature of Atheroma. 

ATHLE'TA, from a^Aoj, 'combat.' Athlete, 
(F.) Athlvte. Athletae were men who exercised 
them.selves in combat at the public festivals. — 
Vitruvius. 

ATHLET'IC, Athlet'icua, (F.) AthUtique ; con- 
cerning AtldetcB. Strong in muscular powers. — 
Foesius. 

ATHOL PORRIDGE, see Mahogany. 

ATHORACOCEPHALUS, Acephalogaster. 

ATHRIX, At'richua, Cahus. (F.) Chauve ; 
from a, privative, and Gpif, r£(;(^cj, 'hair.' Bald, 
(Sc.) Beld, Bellit. One who h;>i lost his hair. 

Athrix Depilis, Alopecia. 

ATHYM'IA, An'imi defec'tna ct anxi'etaa seu 
demin'sio, Tristit"ia, Mceror, Ly-jie, from a, priv., 
and -SD/iOf, 'heart,' 'courage.' Di.spondenc}'. The 
prostration of spirits often observable in the sick, 
— Hippocrates. Melancholy. — Swediaur. See 
Panophobia. 

Athvmia Pleonectica, see Pleonectica. 

ATHYRION, Asplenium cetcrach. 

ATHYRIUM FILIX FCBMINA, Asplenium 
filix foemina — a. Filix mas, Polypodium filix mas 
— a. MoUe, Asplenium filix f.iomiua — a. Ovatum, 
Asplenium filix foemina — a. Trilidum, Asplenium 
filix foemina. 

ATLANTAD, see Atlantal. 

ATLAX'TAL; same etymon OlS Atlai. Rela- 
ting or appertaining to the atlas. 

Atlantal Aspect. An as;- cot towards the 
region where the atlas is situated. — Barclay. 
Atlantad is used by the same writer to signify 
'towards the atlantal aspect.' 

Atla.'ttal Extremities. The upper limbs. 

ATLANTION, Atlas. 

ATLAS, Atlan'tion, Aatrcuj'olitt;, from arXattt, 
'1 sustain.' The _firat cerriotl ver'tebra; so 
called from its supporting the whole weight of 
the head, as Atlas is said to hnve supported the 
globe on his shoulders. Chau.^sier calls it At- 
lo'ide. This vertebra in no respect resembles the 
others. It is a kind of irregular ring, into which, 
anteriorly, the proceaaua rfe^i'uti.y of the second 
vertebra is received. Posteriorly, it gives pas- 
sage to the medulla spinalis. 



ATLODIDYMUS 



105 



ATRIPLEX FCETIDA 



ATLODID'YMUS, Atlod'tjmus, (F.) Atlodyme ; 
from Atlas, 'the first bone of the neck,' and 
^livfioi, 'a twin.' A monster which is simple 
oelow and double above. M. Isid. Geoflfroy 
Saint-Hilaire applies this term to a monster, 
which has a single body, with two distinct heads 
supported on one neck. 

ATLO'iDE, Atlas. 

A T L 1 D ' - AXOID, (F.) AtloUo-axoUien. 
Relating to both the Atlas and the Axis or Ver- 
tebra Dentata. 

Atloido-axoid Articulation. The articula- 
tion between the first two cervical vertebrae. 

Atloido-axoid Lig'aments. These are two 
in number; one anterior and another posterior, 
passing between the two vertebrfe. 

ATLOID'O-OCCIP'ITAL. Relating to the 
atlas and occiput. The Atloido-occip' ital Arti- 
ctda'tion is formed by the condyles of the occi- 
pital bone and the superior articular surfaces of 
the Atlas. The Atluido-occipital muscle is the 
Rectus capitis posticus minor. 

ATLO'iDO-SOUS-MASTO'tDIEN, Obliquus 
superior oculi — a. Soua-occtpitale, Rectus capitis 
lateralis. 

ATMIATRI'A, Atmidint'rice, from ar/jioi, 'va- 
pour,' and larpeia, 'treatment.' Treatment of 
diseases by fumigation. 

ATMIDIATRICE, Atmiatria. 

ATMISTERION, Vaporarium. 

ATMOS, Breath. 

AT'MOSPHERE, Atmosphm'ra, from aT,wi, 
'vapour,' and acpaipa, 'a' sphere;' — as it were, 
Sphere of vapours. The atmosphere is a sphe- 
rical mass of air, surrounding the earth in every 
part ; the height of which is estimated at 15 or 
16 leagues. It presses on the surface of the 
earth, and this pressure has, necessarily, sensible 
effects on organized bodies. The surface of the 
human body being reckoned at 1.5 square feet, it 
is computed that a pressure of 3-3,000 pounds or 
more exists under ordinary circumstances ; and 
this pressure cannot be increased or diminished 
materially, without modifying the circulation and 
all the functions. 

ATMOSPHERIZATION, H^matosis. 

ATOCIA, Sterilitas. 

ATOL'MIA, from a, priv., and toA/ko, 'confi- 
dence.' Want of confidence; discouragement. 
A state of mind unfavorable to health, and in- 
jurious in disease. It is the antithesis of Eu- 
tol'mia. 

ATOMY, Skeleton, 

ATONIA, Atony— a. Ventriculi, Gasterasthe- 
Dia. 

AT'ONIC, Aton'icus, (F.) Atonique. Wanting 
tone. Same etymon as the next. Also, a medi- 
cine capable of allaying organic excitement or 
irritation . — Sch wilgue. 

AT'ONY, Aton'ia, Infir'mitas et Remii'sto vi'- 
rium, Languor, Lax'itae, from a, priv., and rovus, 
'tone,' 'force.' Want of tone. Weakness of 
every organ, and particularly of those that are 
contractile. Violent gastritis has been described 
by Scrtbonius Largus under a similar name, 
Atovov, At'onon. 

ATRABIL'IARY, Atralil'ioua, Atrahilia'ris, 
Atrahilio'sus, (F.) Atrabilaire, Atrahileux, from 
ater, 'black,' and bilis, 'bile.' An epithet given 
by the ancients to the melancholic and hypo- 
chondriac, because they believed the Atrabilis 
to predominate in such. 

Atrabiliart Capsules, Arteries and Veins. 
The renal capsules, arteries and veins ; the for- 
mation of Atrabilis having been attributed to 
them. 

ATRABI'LIS, same etymon, Ater auccvn, 
Black Bile or melancholt/ , (F.) Atrabile. Ac- 



cording to the ancients, a thick, black, acrid 
humour, secreted, in the opinion of some, by the 
pancreas; in that of others, by the supra-renal 
capsules. Hippocrates, Galen, Aetius, and others, 
ascribe great influence to the Atrabilis in the 
production of hypochondriasis, melancholy, and 
mania. There is really no such humour. It 
was an imaginary creation. — Aretseus, Rufus of 
Ephesus, &c. 

ATRACHE'LOCEPH'ALUS, from a, priv., 
Tpa'^T/Xo;, 'neck,' and Ke<pa\n, 'head.' A monster 
whose neck is partially or wholly deficient. 

ATRACIIE'LUS. Same etymon. One who is 
very short-necked. — Galen. 

ATRAC'TYLIS GUMMIF'ERA, Car'dniu 
pi'neus, Ixi'ne, Gummy-rooted Atractylia, Pine 
Thistle. Ord. Compositae. The root, when 
wounded, yields a milky, viscid juice, which 
concretes into tenacious masses, and is said tc 
be chewed with the same views as mastieh. 
ATRAGENE, Clematis vitalba. 
ATRAMEN'TUM, A. Suto'rium, Ink, Chalcan'- 
thum, (F.) Encre. It has been advised as an as- 
tringent, and as an external application in her- 
petic affections. 

Atramentum Sutorium, Ferri sulphas. 
ATRE'SIA, (F.) Atresie, Adherence, Imperfo- 
ration. Same etymon as Atretus. See Monster. 
Atre'siA Ani Adna'ta, Anua Imperfora'tua, 
Imperfora'tio ani, Atretoeys'ia, (F.) Imperfora- 
tion de I'anus. Congenital imperforation of the 
intestinal canal. 

ATRETELYTRIA, Colpatresia. 
ATRETISMUS, Imperforation. 
ATRETOCEPH'ALUS, from arpnTOi, 'imper- 
forate,' and Kt<pa\ri, 'head.' A monster, in which 
some of the natural apertures of the head are 
wanting. — Gurlt. 

ATRETOCOR'MUS, from arprjToi, 'imperfo- 
rate, and Kopiiog, 'trunk.' A monster in which 
the natural apertures of the trunk are wanting. — 
Gurlt. 
ATRETOCYSIA, Atresia ani. 
ATRETOMETRIA, Hysteratresia. 
ATRETOPSIA. Coreclisis. 
ATRETOSTOM'IA, from arpvros, 'imperfo- 
rate,' and aroiia, 'mouth.' Imperforation of the 
mouth. 

ATRETURE'THRIA, from arpi/ro?, 'imperfo- 
rate,' and ovprjdpa, 'urethra.' Imperforation of 
the urethra. 

ATRE'TUS, from a, priv., and rpaiD, 'I per- 
forate.' Imperfora'tua, Imperforate. One whose 
anus, or parts of generation, are imperforate 
(aproc'tua). 

ATRIA, Auricles of the heart — a. Mortis, see 
Death. 

AT'RICES. Small tumours, which appear oc- 
casionally around the anus. Some commentators 
consider the word to be synonymous with con- 
dylomata. — Forestus. 

ATRICHIA, Alopecia — a. Adnata, see Alope- 
cia — a. Senilis, see Alopecia. 
ATRICHUS, Athrix. 

AT'RICI. Smal/ sinuses in the vicinity of the 
anus, not penetrating the rectum. 

ATRIO-VENTRICULAR, Auriculo-ventricu 
lar. 

ATRIPLEX F(ETIDA, Chenopodium vulvaria. 

Atriplex Horten'sis, a. Soti'va, (F.) Ar- 

roche. Bonne Dame, FoUette. Ord. Chenopodia 

cesB. The herb and seed of this plant have been 

exhibited as antiscorbutics. 

At'riplex al'imua, A. PortulacoVdea, and A. 
Pat'ula, are used as pickles, and have similar 
j properties. 

Ij Atriplex Laciniata, A. patula — a. Mesicana, 
Ij Chenopodium ambrosoides — a. Odorata, Cheno- 
li podium botrys — a. Olida, Chenopodium vulvaria. 



ATEIUM CORDIS DEXTER 



10( 



ATTRITION 



Atriplf.X Pat'dla, a. laeima'ta seu Pur- 
thia'na, Spreading Orache; indigenous; Family, 
Chenopodiaceae. The expressed juice is said to 
be cathartic. It has been used, in place of gam- 
boge, in dropsy and asthma. 

Atuu'lex Purshiana, A. patula. 
ATRIUM CORDIS DEXTER, Sinus dexter 
jordis — a. Cordis sinistrum, Sinus pulmonalis — 
a. Vaginae, Vestibulum. 

AT'ROPA, from Arpoiroy, 'immutable,' 'the 
goddess of destiny;' so called from its fatal 
effects. 

Atropa Belladon'na, Belladon'na, B. hac- 
cifcra seu trichot'oma, Deadly Nightshade, Oom- 
vton Dwale, (Sc.) Mekilicort, Sola' mini letha'le 
seu hoften'ae nigrum, Sola'num mani'acum seu 
fnrio'sum seu melanocer'asus, (F.) Belladone, 
ilorelle furieuae, Belle Dame. Ord. Solanaceae. 
Sex. Syst. Tetrandria Monogynia. The leaves — 
Belladonna (Ph. U. S.) — are powerfully narcotic, 
and also diaphoretic, and diuretic. They are 
occasionally used where narcotics are indicated. 
Sprinkling the powdered leaves over cancerous 
sores has been found to allay the pain ; and the 
leaves form a good poultice. Dose, gr. i to gr. j 
of the powdered leaves. 

Atropa Mandrag'ora, 3fandrag'ora, M. ver- 
na'lis seu officina'lis seu acau'lis, CirccB'a, Anthro- 
pomorph'us, Malum terres'tre, 3Iandrake. The 
boiled root has been used in the form of poultice 
to indolent swellings. 

ATROPHIA, Atrophy, Tabes — a. Ablactato- 
rum, Brash, weaning — a. Cerebri, Phrenatrophia 
— a. Cordis, Heart, atrophy of the — a. Glandula- 
ris, Tabes mesenterica — a. Hepatis, Hepatatro- 
phia — a. Infantum, Ptedatrophia, Tabes mesen- 
terica — a. Intestinorum, Enteratrophia. 

Atrophia Lactan'tium, Tales nutri'ctcm, seu 
Ide'tea. The atrophy of nursing women. 

Atrophia Lienis, Splenatrophia — a. Mesen- 
terica, Tabes mesenterica — a. Testiculi, Orchida- 
trophia — a. Unguium, Onychatrophia. 

A TR OP HIE, Atrophy— a. ilesenterique. Tabes 
mesenterica. 

ATROPHIE 3IVSCULAIRE PROGRES- 
SIVE, Paralysie nmscnlaire atrophique, Atrophic 
museulaire primitive ou idiopathique ou avec 
transformation graissense. A rare malady, in 
which the muscles become so greatly atrophied 
that thev cannot perform their functions. 
ATROPHIED, see Atrophy. 
AT'ROPHY, 3Iaras'mus Atro'phia, Atro'pMa 
Waras'mus, llaran'sis, Ma'cies, Gontabescen'tia, 
Tubes, 3Iarco'res, Analo'sis, from a, privative, 
and Tpo(pri, 'nourishment' (P.) Atrophie, Des- 
s^chement. Defective uutrition, Hi/pot'rophy. Pro- 
gressive and morbid diminution in the bulk of 
the whole body or of a part. Atrophy is gene- 
rally symptomatic. Any tissue or organ thus 
affected is said to be at'rophied. 

Atrophy of the Heart, see Heart, atrophy 
of the. 

ATROPIA, Atropine— a. Sulphate of, Atropiae 
sulphas. 

ATROP'I^ SULPHAS, Sulphate of Atrop'ia 
(Ph. L.). Formed by dissolving atropia in dilute 
enlphuric acid; evaporating, and crj'stallizing. 
Virtues, the same as those of Atropia. 

AT'ROPINB, Airopi'na, Atrop'ia, Atrop'ium, 
Atropi'num, Belladon'nin, (F.) Atropine. The 
active principle of Atropa Belladonna, separated 
by Brandes, by a process similar to that for pro- 
curing morphia. A single drop of a solution, of 
one grain in fjiv of distilled tcater with a 
few drops of acetic acid, applied to the inner 
surface of the lower eyelid, causes dilatation of 
the pupil, in fifteen or twenty minutes. A grain 
to a drachm of lard is an application in neu- 
ralgia. 



ATTACHE, Insertion. 

ATTACK, Insxd'ttts, Assul'tus, Irrep'tio, Tnva'. 
sio, Eis'bole, Lepsis, (Prov.) Take, (F.) Attaque. 
A sudden attack, invasion or onset of a dise»se. 
A seizure. One attacked or affected with severe 
disease is often said, in the United States, to be 
"taken down," or to be "down" with it. 

ATTAGAS, Attagen. 

AT'TAGEN, At'tagas, the Fran'eolin. Cele- 
brated with the ancients both as food and medi- 
cine. — Martial, Aristophanes. 

ATTANCOURT, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
A mineral water in France, at Attancourt, in 
Champagne ; about three leagues north of Join- 
ville. The water is a chalybeate, and contains 
sulphate of lime. In large doses it is purgative. 

ATTAQUE, Attack — a. des Nerfs, Nervous 
attack. 

ATTAR OF ROSES, see Rosa centifolia. 

ATTELLE, Splint. 

ATTENOTING, MINERAL WATERS OF, 
in Bavaria. The water contains carbonic acid, 
carbonates of lime and soda, sulphates of lime 
and magnesia, chloride of sodium, iron and alum. 
It is much used in skin diseases, fistula, old ul- 
cers, calculi, and hsemorrhoids, 

ATTEN'UANTS, Attenuan'tia, Leptun'tiea, 
(F.) Attenuants, Leptontiques, from tenuis, 'thin.' 
Medicines which augment the fluidity of the 
humours. 

ATTENUA'TION, Attenua'tio; same etymon. 
Thinness, emaciation. A term used by the ho- 
moeopathists, in the sense of dilution or division 
of remedies into infinitesimal doses. 

ATTIRANT. Attrahent. 

AT'TITUDE, Situs Gor'poris. Low Latin, 
aptitudo ; from Latin aptare, 'to fit.' Situation, 
position of the body. The attitudes are the dif- 
ferent postures which man is capable of assum- 
ing. In General Pathology, the attitude will 
often enable the physician to pronounce at once 
upon the character of a disease, or it will aid him 
materially in his judgment. In St. Vitus's dance, 
in fractures, luxations, Ac, it is the great index. 
It will also indicate the degree of nervous or 
cerebral power: henoe sinking down in bed is 
an evidence of great cerebral debility in fever. 
The position of a patient during an operation is 
also an interesting subject of attention to the 
surgeon. 

ATTOL'LENS AUREM, A. Auric'ulm, Leva'- 
tor Auris, Supe'rior Auris, Attol'lens Auric' ulam. 
Auricula' ris supe'rior, (F.) Auriculaire superieur, 
Temporo-auricnlaire. A muscle of the ear, which 
arises, thin, broad, and tendinous, from the 
I tendon of the occipito-frontalis, and is inserted 
into the upper part of the ear, opposite to the 
anti-helix. It raises the ear. 

Attollens Oouli, Rectus superior oculi — a. 
Oculum, Rectus superior oculi. 

ATT0UCHE31ENT, Masturbation. 

ATTRACTION OF AGGREGATION, Cohe- 
sion, force of. 

ATTRACTIVUM, see Magnet. 

ATTRACTIVUS, Attrahent. 

ATTRACTORIUS. Attrahent. 

ATTRAHENS AURIC ULAM, Anterior nuris. 

AT'TRAHENT, At'trahens, Attracti'vus, At- 
tracto'rius, from ad, 'to,' and traho, 'I draw.' 
(F.) Attractif, Attirant. Remedies are so called, 
which attract fluids to the parts to which they 
are applied, as blisters, rubefacients, <fec. 

ATTRAPE-LOURDAUT (F.). A bistoury 
invented by a French surgeon, called Biennaise, 
and used in the operation for hernia. See Bis- 
touri each 6. 

ATTRITA, Chafing. 

ATTRITIO, Attrition, Chafing. 

ATTRIT"ION, Attri"tio, Ecthlim'ma, from 



ATTRITUS 



107 



AURANTIUM 



ad, and terere, ' to bruise.' Friction or bruising. 
Chafing. — Galen. Also, a kind of cardialgia. — 
Sennertus. Likewise, a violent contusion. 

ATTRITUS, Chafing. 

ATYP'IC, Atyp'icus, At'ypoa, (F.) Afypique, 
from a, privative, and tvkos, 'type.' That which 
has no type. Irregular. Chiefly applied to an 
irregular intermittent, — Fehtie atyp'iea. 

ATYPOS, Erratic. 

AUAN&IS, Drying. 

AUAN'TE, Anap'se, from avavan, 'desicca- 
tion.' Hippocrates gave this name to a disease, 
the principal symptom of which was emaciation. 
Atrophy. 

AUBE-VIGNE, Clematis vitalba. 

AUBEPINE, Mespilus oxyacantba. 

AUBERGINE, Solanum Melongena. 

AUBIFOIN, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus sege- 
tum. 

AUCHEN, Collum. 

AUCHENORRHEUMA, Torticollis. 

AUCHE'TICUS, from avxnv, ' the neck.' One 
affected with stiff neck or torticollis. 

AUCTUMNUS, Autumn. 

AUDE, Voice. 

AUDINAC, MINERAL WATERS OF. Au- 
dinac is situate in the department of Arriege, 
France. The water contains a small quantit.y 
of sulphohydric acid, carbonic acid, sulphates of 
lime and magnesia, carbonates of lime and iron, 
and a bituminous substance. Temp. 67° Fahr. 
It is much used in chronic rheumatism, herpes, 
scrofulous diseases, &c. 

AUDITIF, Auditory. 

AUDIT"ION, from andire, auditum, 'to hear;' 
Audit" io, Audi'tus, A'coe, Acne'sis, Acii'sis, (F.) 
On'ie, Hearing. The act of hearing. The sen- 
sation arising from an impression made on the 
auditory nerves by the vibrations of the air, pro- 
duced by a sonorous body. The physiology of 
Audition is obscure. It probably takes place : — 

1. By the vibrations being communicated from 
the membrana tympani along the chain of small 
bones to the membrane of the foramen ovale. 

2. By means of the air in the cavity of the tym- 
panum, the membrane of the foramen rotundum 
is agitated. 3. The transmission may be made 
by means of the bony parietes. In these three 
ways the vibrations produced by a sonorous body 
may reach the auditory nerve. Audition may be 
active or passive : hence the difference between 
listening and simply hearing. 

AU'DITORY, Audito'rim, Auditi'vus, Aeus'- 
ticus, (F.) Auditif. That which relates to audi- 
tion. 

Auditory Arteries and Veins, are vessels 
which enter the auditory canals, and are, like 
them, distinguished into internal and external. 
The external auditory artery, A. Tympanique — 
(Ch.) is given off by the styloid, a branch of the 
external carotid: the internal is a branch of the 
basilary artery, which accompanies the auditory 
nerve, and is distributed to it. The Auditory 
Veins empty into the internal and external ju- 
gulars. 

Auditory Canal, External, Mea'tus audito'- 
rivs exter'nus, Alvea'rium, Scapha, Scaphtts, (F.) 
Conduit auditif externe, Conduit avriculaire, 
commences at the bottom of the concha, at the 
Fora'men auditi'vum exter'num, passes inwards, 
forwards, and a little downwards, and terminates' 
at the membrana tympani. It is partly cartila- 
ginous, partly osseous, and partly fibrous. 

Auditory Canal, Internal, Mea'tus audito'- 
rius inter' ntts, Porus seu Sinus acus' ticus, Cyar, 
(F.) Conduit auditif interne, C. labyrinthique, is 
situate on the posterior surface of the pars pe- 
trosa of the temporal bone. From the Fora'men 
auditi'vum inter'num, where it commences, it 



passes forwards and outwards, and terminates 
by a kind of cul-de-sac, mac'ula cribro'sa, perfo- 
rated by many holes, one of which is the orifice 
of the Aquoaductus Fallopii ; and the others com- 
municate with the labyrinth- 

Auditory Nerve, Nervus audito'rim seu aciia'- 
ticus, Nerf labyrinthique — (Ch.), is ih& Portio 
Mollis of the seventh pair. It arises from the 
corpus restiforme, from the floor of the fourth 
ventricle, and by means of white striae from the 
sides of the calamus scriptorius. As it leaves the 
encephalon, it forms a flattened cord, and pro- 
ceeds with the facial nerve through the foramen 
auditivum internum, and as far as the bottom of 
the meatus, where it separates from the facial, 
and divides into two branches, one going to the 
cochlea, the cochlear ; the other to the vestibule 
and semi-circular canals, the vestibular. 

AUGE, Al'vexis. Some of the older anatomists 
gave this name to a reservoir, into which liquids 
flow in an interrupted manner, so that it is alter- 
nately full and empty. Such are the ventricles 
and auricles of the heart. 

AUGGERE, Intermittent Fever. 

AUGMENTA'TION, from angere, auctum, 'to 
increase,-' Augmen'tum, Incremen'tum, Anab'asit, 
I Auc'tio, Atixis, Progres' sio, Progres'sus, Auxe'- 
sis, (F.) Augment. The stage of a disease in 
which the symptoms go on increasing. 

AULISCUS, Canula. See Fistula. 

AULOS, Canula, Fistula. See Vagi, a, and 
Foramen. 

AUMALE, MINERAL WATERS OF. Au- 
male is a town of Upper Normandy, in the coun- 
try of Caux. Several springs of ferruginou 
mineral waters are found there, whose odour i 
penetrating, and taste rough and astringent. 
They are tonic, and employed in debility of the 
viscera, Ac. 

A UMVRE, Parietaria. 

AUNE^ NOIRE, Rhamnus frangula. 

AUNEE, Inula helenium — a. Dyscntirique, 
Inula dysenterica — a. Officinale, Inula helenium. 

AURA, Pno'e. A vapour or emanation from 
any body, surrounding it like an atmosphere. 
Van Helmont regarded the vital principle as a 
gas and volatile spirit, which he called Aura 
vitalis. 

In Pathology, Aura means the sensation of a 
light vapour, which, in some diseases, appears 
to set out from the trunk or limbs ; and to rise 
towards the head. This feeling has been found 
to precede attacks of epilepsy and hysteria, and 
hence it has been called Aura Ejpilep'tica, and 
A. hyster'ica. 

Aura Epileptica, see Aura — a. Hysterica, seo 
Aura. 

Aura San'guints. The odour exhaled by blood 
newly drawn. See Gaz Sanguinis. 

Aura Sem'inis, A. semina'lis, Spir'itus geni- 
ta'lis: — A volatile principle fancied to exist in 
the sperm, and regarded by some as the fecun- 
dating agent. Such is not the case. 

Aura Vitalis, Vital principle. 

AURAL MEDICINE AND SURGERY, 
Otiatria. 

AURANCUM, see Ovum. 

A URANITE, see Agaric. 

AURAN'TIA CURASSAVEN'TIA, A. Cura.. 
sav'ica, Curasso'a apjiles or oranges. Immature 
oranges, checked, by accident, in their growth. 
They are a grateful, aromatic bitter, devoid of 
acidity. Infused in wine or brandy they make a 
good stomachic. They are also used for issue 
peas. See Citrus aurantium. 

AURANTII CORTEX, see Citrus aurantiua 
— a. Floris Aqua, see Citrus aurantium. 

AURANTIUM. Citrus aurantium. 



AURELIANA CANADENSIS 108 



AUTEMESIA 



AUKELIANA CANADENSIS, Panax quin- 
quefolium. 

AUREOLA, Areola. 

AURI CHLORETUM CUM CHLORETO 
NATRII, see Gold— a. Chloridum, Gold, muriate 
of — a. Chloretum, Gold, muriate of — a. Cyanidum, 
see Gold — a. Cyanuretum, see Gold — a. lodidum, 
see Gold — a. loduretum, see Gold — a. et Natri 
chloruretuin, see Gold — a. Murias, Gold, muriate 
of — a. Nitro-murias, see Gold — a. Oxidum, see 
Gold — a. Terchloridum, see Gold — a, Tercyani- 
dum, see Gold — a. Teroxidum, see Gold. 

AURICHALCUM, Brass. 

AURICLE, Aunc'ula, (F.) Atirieule, Oricule. 
Diminutive of auris, an ear. The pavilion of 
the ear. See Pavilion. 

Auricles of the Heart, Auric'nlcB, A'fria, 
Cavita'tes innomina'tm, (F.) Oreillettes, are two 
cavities, one right, the other left, each communi- 
cating with the ventricle of its side. These two 
cavities receive the blood from every part of the 
body. Into the right auricle, the two ven£e cavse 
and coronary vein open : into the left, the four 
pulmonary veins. Chaussier calls the former the 
Siiuis of the Venae Gavat : — the latter, the Sinu8 
of the Pulmonary Veins. The foliated or dog's 
ear portion of each auricle is called Appen'dix 
aurie'ula. See Sinus. 

Auricula JudjE, Peziza auricula — a. Muris, 
Hieracium Pilosella — a. Muris major, Hieracium 
murorum. 

AURWULAIRE, Auricular, see Digitus — a. 
Posterieur, Retrahens auris — a. Supirieur, Attol- 
lens aurem. 

AURICULAR, Auricula'ria, Oric'ular, (F.) 
Aun'culaire, from auricula, 'the ear.' That 
which belongs to the ear, especially to the ex- 
ternal ear. 

AURIC'ULAR Ar'tERIES AND VeiNS, Orieu- 

laires — (Ch.), are divided into anterior and 2^08- 
ter-ior. The anterior are of indeterminate num- 
ber. They arise from the temporal artery, and 
are distributed to the meatus auditorius externus, 
and to the pavilion of the ear. The posterior 
auricular is given oflF by the external carotid, 
from which it separates in the substance of the 
parotid gland. When it reaches the inferior part 
of the pavilion of the ear it bifurcates ; one of its 
branches being distributed to the inner surface 
of the pavilion, the other passing over the mas- 
toid process, and being distributed to the tempo- 
ral and posterior auris muscles, &c. Before its 
bifurcation it gives off the stylo-mastoid artery. 
The Anterior and Posterior Auricular Veins open 
into the temporal and external jugular. 

Auricular Finger, (F.) Boigt auriculaire, is 
the little finger, so called because, owing to its 
size, it can be more readily introduced into the 
meatus auditorius. 

Auricular Nerves are several. 1. The au- 
ricular branch, Zygomato-auricular, is one of 
the ascending branches of the cervical plexus. 
It ramifies and spreads over the two surfaces of 
the pavilion. 2. The auricular or superficial 
temporal, Temporal-cutaneous — (Ch.), is given off 
from the inferior maxillary. It ascends between 
the condyle of the jaw and the meatus auditorius 
externus, sends numerous filaments to the meatus 
and pavilion, and divides into two twigs, which 
accompany the branches of the temporal artery, 
and are distributed to the integuments of the 
head. There is also a posterior auricular fur- 
nished by the facial. 

AURICULARIA SAMBUCI, Peziza auricula. 

AURICULARIS ANTERIOR, Anterior auris 
— a. Superior, Attollens aurem. 

AVRICULE, Auricle, Pavilion of the ear. 

AURIC'ULO-VENTRIC'ULAR, A'trio-ven- 
t'ic'ular, A'trio-ventricula'ris, Auric' ulo'Ventri- 



cula'ris, (F .)Aur{cxdo-ventriculaire. That which 
belongs to the auricles and ventricles of the heart. 
The communications between the auricles and 
ventricles are so called. The Tricuspid and Mi- 
tral Valves are auriculo-ventricular valves. 

AURI'GA. A species of bandage for the ribs, 
described by Galen. See, also. Liver. 

AURIGO, Icterus — a. Neophy torum. Icterus 
Infantum. 

AURIPIGMENTUM, Orpiment— a. Rubrum, 
Realgar. 

AURIS, Ear. 

AURISCALPIUM, Earpick. 

AURISCOP'IUM, AuVi'seope, from auris, 'the 
ear,' and aKoncu, '1 view.' An instrument for 
exploring the ear. 

AURIST, Otia'ter, Otia'trus, Ear-doctor, Ear- 
surgeon; from auris, 'the ear.' One who occu- 
pies himself chiefly with the diseases of the ear 
and their treatment. 

AURIUM FLUCTUATIO, Bombus — a. Mar- 
morata. Cerumen — a. Sibilus, Bombus — a. Soni- 
tus, Bombus — a. Sordes, Cerumen— a. Susurrus, 
Bombus. 

A URONE, Artemisia abrotanum — a. dea 
Chamjys, Artemisia campestris — a. des Jardins, 
Artemisia abrotanum — a. 31dle, Artemisia abro- 
tanum. 

AURUGO, Icterus. 

AURUM, Gold — a. Chloratum, Gold, mu- 
riate of — a. Chloratum natronatum, see Gold — a. 
Foliatum, Gold leaf— a. in Libellis, Gold leaf— a. 
Leprosum, Antimonium — a. Limatum, see Gold 
— a. Muriaticum, see Gold — a. Muriatieum natro- 
natum, see Gold. 

Auruji Musi'vum, Aurmn Jlosa'icum, Sulph'- 
uret of Tin, Beutosulphuret or Persulphnret of 
tin, {Quicksilver, tin, sulphur, sal ammoniac, 
aa, equal parts. The tin being first melted, the 
quicksilver is poured into it, and then the whole 
are ground together, and sublimed in a bolthead. 
The aurum musivum lies at the bottom.) It is 
used in some empirical preparations. 

Aurum Oxydatum, see Gold — a. Oxydulatum 
muriaticum. Gold, muriate of — a. Nitro-muriati- 
cum, see Gold — a. Salitum, Gold, muriate of. 

AUS'CULTATE, from auscultare. 'to listen.' 
To practise auscultation. 'To auscuW is at times 
used with the same signification. 

AUSCULTA'TION, Ausculta'tio, Echoa'cope, 
act of listening. Buisson has used it sj'nony- 
mously with listening. Laennec introduced aus- 
cidtation to appreciate the different sounds which 
can be heard in the chest, and in the diagnosis 
of diseases of the heart, lungs, &c. This may 
be done by the aid of an instrument called a ste- 
thoscope, one extremity of which is applied to the 
ear, the other to the chest of the patient. This 
mode of examination is called Ilediate Ausculta- 
tion, (F.) Auscultation mediate, — the application 
of the ear to the chest being immediate ausculta- 
tion. 

The act of exploring the chest is called Stetho- 
scop'ia, and Thoracoscop'ia ; of the abdomen, 
Abdominoscoj)' ia. 

AUSCUL'TATORY, Auscultato'riua ; Aua'aiU 
tory, Auscul'tic, (with some.) Belonging or hav- 
ing relation to auscultation. 

Auscultatory Percussion, see Aoouophonia. 

AUSTERE', Auste'rus. Substances which pro- 
duce a high degree of acerb impression on the 
organs of taste. 

AUSTRUCHE, Imperatoria. 

AUTALGIA DOLOROSA, Neuralgia, facial. 
Pleurodynia — a. Pruriginosa, Itching — a. Vertigo, 
Vertigo. 

AUTARCI'A, from avroi, 'himself,' .and apKciu, 
'I am satisfied.' Moral tranquillity. — Galen. 

AUTEMES'IA, from auroj, 'self,' and t^taij, 



AUTEMPRESMUS 



109 



AVENA 



' vomiting.' Spontaneous or idiopathic vomiting. 
— Alibert. 

AUTEMPRESMUS, Combustion, human. 

AUTHE'MEROiSr. A medicine which cures 
on the day of its exhibition; from auroj, 'the 
same,' and 'r/fitpa, ' day.' 

AUTHYGIANSIS, Vis medicatrix naturae. 

AUTOCHIR, Autochi'rus, Suici'da, from avroi, 
'himself,' and x'^^9' 'hand. One who has com- 
mitted suicide. A self-murderer or suicide. 

AUTOCIIIRIA, Suicide. 

AUTOCINE'SIS, 3Iotua volunta'riua, from 
avToi, 'self,' and Kivrjais, 'motion.' Voluntary 
motion. 

AUTOC'RASY, Autocrati'a, Autocrato'ria, 
from avTos, ' himself,' and Kparos, ' strength.' In- 
dependent force. Action of the vital principle, 
or of the instinctive powers, towards the preser- 
vation of the individual. See Vis Medicatrix 
Naturae. Also, the vital principle. 

AUTOCRATIA, Autocrasy, Vis Medicatrix 
Naturas. 

AUTOCRATORIA, Autocrasy— a. Physiatrice, 
Vis medicatrix naturae. 

AUTOCTONIA, Suicide. 

AUTOG"ENOUS, from auroj, 'self,' and yev- 
vau, 'I generate.' A term applied by Mr. Owen 
to parts or elements that are usually developed 
from distinct and independent centres ; as in the 
case of the different parts or elements that form 
a vertebra. 

AUTOGENIA, Generation, equivocal. 

AUTOLITHOT'OMUS, from avrog, 'himself,' 
\iSos, ' a stone,' and rtuvuv, ' to cut.' One who 
operates upon himself for the stone. 

AUTOMAT'IC, Automat' icus, Autom'atus, (F.) 
Automatique, from avrofiaroi, ' spontaneous.' That 
which acts of itself. Those movements are called 
autotnatic -which are executed without volition : — 
involuntary motions, motua automat'iei seu au- 
tom'ati seu involunta' rii. 

AUTOMNAL, Autumnal. 

AUTONOM'IA, Vis medica'trix natu'rce. The 
word Autonomia is occasionally employed by the 
French and Germans for the peculiar mechanism 
of an organized body. Thus, although indivi- 
duals of the same species may differ in outward 
conformation, their mechanism or instinctive 
laws {Auto7iomia) may be the same. 

AUTONYCTOBATIA, Somnambulism. 

AUTOPEP'SIA, from avros, 'self,' and inirTui, 
' I concoct.' Self-digestion, — as of the stomach 
after death. 

AUTOPHIA, Autopsia. 

AUTOPH'ONY, Autojiho'nia, (F.) Autophonie, 
Retentiaaement autophoniqiie, from avroi, 'self,' 
and 0ii)vj7, 'voice.' An auscultatory sign pointed 
out by M. Hourmann, which consists iu noting 
the character of the observer's own voice, while 
he speaks with his head placed close to the pa- 
tient's chest. The voice, it is alleged, will be 
modified by the condition of the subjacent organs. 
The resonance, thus heard, he terms retentisse- 
meht autoj^honiqite. This diagnostic agency Dr. 
R. G. Latham proposes to term heautophon'tca. 

AUTOPHONIA, Suicide. 

AUTOPHOSPHORUS, Phosphorus. 

AUTOPLAS'TIC, Atitoplas'ticua, from aurof, 
'self,' and it\a<rrtKOi, 'formative.' Relating to 
autoplasty or plastic surgery. 

AUTOPLASTICE, Morioplastice. 

AUTOPLASTY, Morioplastice. 

AUTOP'SIA, Au'topay, from auroj, 'himself,' 
and o;|/(f, 'vision.' Autoph'ia, Autoscop'ia. In- 
spection ; examination by one's self; self-inspec- 
tion. Often improperly used for the following: 

Atjtop'sia Cadaveu'ica, (F.) Autopsie ou Ou- 
verture cadaverique. Attentive examination after , 
death, — Examination post mortem, Sectio Cadav'- \ 



erie, Dissection, Nec'roacopy, Nec'ropsy, Ifecro- 
scop'ia, Necrop'sia, Necrop' sia, — practised for 
the purpose of investigating the causes and seat 
of an affection of which a person may have 
died, Ac. 

AuTOP'siA Cadaveb'ica Lega'lis, Sec'tio sea 
Ohduc'tio leya'lis, is the examination after death 
for medico-legal purposes. 

AUTOPYROS, Syncomistos. 

AUTOSCOPIA, Autopsia. 

AU'TOSITE, from avros, 'self,' and airos, 
'nourishment.' A single monster, capable ol 
deriving nourishment from its own proper or- 
gans, in contradistinction to Omphalosite. 

AUTOTHERAPIA, Vis medicatrix naturae. 

AUTUMN, Autum'nus, Aicctum'nus, from att- 
gere, auetum, 'to increase' [?], Phthiropo'ron, (F.) 
Automne, One of the seasons of the year, between 
the 23d of September and the 21st of December, 
In all climates, the Autumn or Fall is liable to 
disease ; a combination of local and atmospheric 
causes being then present, favourable to its pro- 
duction. 

AUTUM'NAL, Aiitumna'lia, (F.) Automnal. 
Relating to Autumn; as Autumnal Fruits, Au- 
tumnal Fevers, &c. 

Autumnal Fever generally assumes a bilious 
aspect. Those of the intermittent kind are much 
more obstinate than when they appear in the 
spring. 

AUXESIS, Augmentation, Increase. 

AUXIL'IARY, AuxHia'ris, from auxilium, 
'aid.' (F.) Auxiliaire. That which assists, or 
from which assistance is obtained. 

Auxiliary Medicine is one which assists the 
principal medicine or basis. It is synonymous 
with Adjuvant. 

Auxiliary Muscles are those which concur 
in the same movement. Some anatomists have 
applied the term to several ligaments, as well as 
to the fleshy fibres, which hang from the saoo- 
spinalis muscle. 

AUXILIUM, Juvans, Medicament. 

AUXIS, Augmentation, Increase. 

AVA, Arva, Kava. An intoxicating narcotic 
drink, made by chewing the Piper methisticum. 
It is much used by the Polynesians. 

AVAILLES, WATERS OF. A small village 
in France, 13 leagues S. S. E. of Poitiers, at 
which there is a cold saline chalybeate. It 
contains chlorides of sodium and calcium, sul- 
phate and subcarbonate of soda, iron, &c. 

AVANT-BOUCHE CF.), Oa anti'cum. This 
name has been applied by some to the mouth, 
properly so called — in contradistinction to the 
Arriere bouche or Pharynx. 

A VANT-BRAS, Fore-arm. 

AVANT-GCEUR, Scrobiculus cordis. 

AVANT-GOUT {Y.), Pragiista'tio. A fore- 
taste; praegustation. 

AVANT-MAIN (Y.), Adver'sa Manna. The 
inside of the hand, when extended. 

AVANT-PIED (F.). The most advanced pait 
of the foot. 

A VANT-POIGNET (F.). The anterior part 
of the wrist. 

A FELINE, Corylus avellana, (nut.) 

AVELLANA, Corylus avellana — a. Catharticn, 
Jatropha curcas. 

AVE'NA, Bromoa, Oata, (Prov., North of Eng- 
land) Aits. The seeds of Ave'na sati'va. Ord. 
Gramineae. .Sex. .S"^**. Triandria Digynia. (F.) 
Avoine. Oats are used as food for man in some 
parts,, particularly in the North of England and 
Scotland. When deprived of the husks, they 
form Groats. Reduced to meal — Avena Fari'na, 
Oatmeal, (Ph. U. 8.) — they are applied as cata- 
plasms to promote suppuration. The dry meal 
is sprinkled over erysipelatous parts. 



AVEN^ FARINA 



110 



AXOIDO-ATLOIDIEN 



Oatmeal gruel, Water gruel, is prepared as fol- 
lows : — Take of oatmeal, §ij; soft water, Oiss. 
Rub the meal in a basin, with the back of a spoon, 
in a moderate quantity of the water, pouring oflf 
the fluid after the grosser particles have subsided, 
but whilst the milkiness continues ; and repeat 
the operation until no more milkiness is commu- 
nicated to the water. Put the washings in a pan, 
after having stirred them well, in order to sus- 
pend any fecula which may have subsided ; and 
boil until a soft, thick mucilage is formed. 

It is a good demulcent, and is used also as a 
vehicle for clysters. 

AvENA ExcoRTicATA, Groats. 
AVEN.E FARINA, see Avena. 
AVENHEIM, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Avenheim is three leagues from Strasburg : near 
it is an aperient mineral water. 

AVENNES. MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Avennes is a village in the department of HS- 
rault, in France : near it is a saline spring, the 
temperature of which rises to 84° Fahrenheit. 

AVENS, COMMON, Goum urbanum— a. Pur- 
ple, Geum rivale — a. Water, Geum rivale — a. 
White, Geum Virginianum — a. Yellow, Geum 
urbanum. 

AVERICH, Sulphur. 

AVERRHO'A BILIM'BI, Bilim'hi, Bilimbitig 
teres. Ord. Oxalideae : called after Averrhoes. 
An Indian tree, which has a fruit that is too acid 
to be eaten alone. It is used as a condiment, 
and in the form of syrup as a refrigerant. 

Averrho'a Caram'bola, Malum Coen'se, Pru- 
num stella'tum, Tam'ara, Conga, Caram'bolo. 
An Indian tree, whose fruits are agreeably acid. 
The bark, bruised, is employed as a cataplasm, 
and its fruit is used as a refrigerant in bilious 
fever and dysentery. 

AVER'SiON, Aver'sio, Apot'rope, from aver- 
tere, (a and vertere.) 'to turn from.' Extreme 
repugnance for anything whatever. 

A VERSION (F.) also means, in therapeutics, 
the action of medicines which turn the afflux of 
fluids from one organ, and direct them to others; 
being synonymous with counter-irritation, or 
rather, revulsion or derivation. 

AVERTIN (F.). A disease of the mind, 
which, according to Lavoisien, renders the pa- 
tient obstinate and furious. 
AVEUGLE, Csecus. 

AVEUGLEMENT, Caecitas — a. de Jour, 
Nyctalopia — a. de Nnit, Hemeralopia. 

AVICEN'NIA TOMENTO'SA, A. Africa'na 
8eu resinif'era seu nit'ida, Bon'tia ger'minans : 
called after Avicenna. Ord. Verbenaceae. The 
plant which affords the Malac'ca Bean or Ana- 
car'dium Orienta'le of the Pharmacopoeias, iS'cnie- 
car'pus Anacar'dium. The oil drawn from the 
bark of the fruit is a corrosive and active vesica- 
tory, but it is not used. 

AVICULA CIPRIA, Pastil— a. Margaritifera, 
Bee Pearl. 

AVOIN, Avena. 

AVON, MINERAL WATERS OF. Avon 
Springs are in the State of New York, on the 
eastern branch of the Genesee river, 18 miles 
from Rochester. There are three sulphureo-saline 
and one iodine spring. They are applicable to 
the same set of eases as the Sharon Springs. 

A VOR TEMEXT, Abortion— a. ProvoquS, see 
Parturition. 

AVORTER, to Abort. 
A VOR TIN, Abortion. 
A VOR TON, Abortion. 
AVULSIO, Arrachement. 
AVULSION. Evulsion. 

AX, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ax is a 
Braall town in the department of Arriege, France; 
where there are several sulphurous springs, the 



temperature of which varies from 77° to 162° of 
Fahrenheit. 

AXE, Axis — Of. de I'CEil, Axis of the eye. 

AX'EACOMMISSU'RA, Trochoi'des. A 
pivot-joint. See Trochoid. 

Axen Korper, Corpuscula tactds. 

AXES, Intermittent, Paroxysm. 

AXILE BODIES, Corpuscula taetfls. 

AXIL'LA, Ala, Aacel'la, Assel'la, AsciVla, 
Acel'la, Cordis emuncto'rium, 31ale, Hypo'mia, 
Fo'vea axilla'ris, Mas'chale, Mas'chalis, (Sc. and 
Prov.) Oxtar, Oxter, (F.) Aisselle. The cavity 
beneath the junction of the arm with the shoulder; 
the armpit; (F.) Creux de I' Aisselle. It is bounded, 
anteriorly, by a portion of the pectoralis major ; 
posteriorly, by the latissimus dorsi. It is covered 
with hair, contains much areolar membrane, lym- 
phatic ganglions, important vessels and nerves, 
and numerous sebaceous follicles, furnishing an 
odorous secretion. In consequence of such secre- 
tion, the ancients called it emuncto'rium cordis. 

AX'ILLARY, MaschalicB'us, (F.) Axilloire, 
from axilla, 'the armpit.' Belonging to the 
armpit. 

Axillary Artery, Arte'ria axilla'ris; a con- 
tinuation of the subclavian, extending from the 
passage of the latter between the scaleni muscles 
as far as the insertion of the pectoralis major, 
when it takes the name of Brachial. 

Axillary Glands are lymphatic glands seated 
in the armpit; into which the lymphatic glands 
of the upper extremity open. 

Axillary Nerve, Cir'cumflex X., Scap'ulo- 
hu'meral (Ch.), Nerf circonflexe, Artic'ular nerve; 
arises from the posterior part of the brachial 
plexus, particularly from the last two cervical 
pairs and the first dorsal. It is chiefly distri- 
buted to the posterior margin of the deltoid. 

Axillary Vein, Vena Axilla'ris, Vena Suba- 
la'ris. This vein corresponds with the artery ; 
anterior to which it is situate. It is a continua- 
tion of the brachial veins ; and, at its termina- 
tion, assumes the name Subclavian. 

AXINE, Ascla. 

AXIRNACH. An Arabic word, used by Al- 
bueasis to designate a fatty tumour of the upper 
eyelid, observed particularly in children. 

AXIS, Axon, (F.) Axe. A right line which 
passes through the centre of a body. 

Axis, Cerebro-Spinal, see Encephalon — a. 
of the Cochlea, Modiolus — a. Cranio-Spinal, see 
Encephalon — a. Cylinder of Nerve, see Nerve 
fibre — a. Coeliac, Coeliac artery. 

Axis of the Eye, (F.) Axe de I'ceil, called 
also, Vis'ual Axis and Optic Axis, is a right line, 
which falls perpendicularly on the eye, and passes 
through the centre of the pupil. 

Axis, Haemal, Aorta — a. Neural, see Ence- 
phalon. 

Axis, is also the second vertebra of the neck, 
Axon, E^iistroph'eus, Epis'trophus, Maschalister : 
Ver'tebra Denta'ta, (F.) Easieu. So called, be- 
cause it forms a kind of axis on which the head 
moves. Chaussier calls it Axo'tde, from a^vv, 
'axis,' and n6oi, ' shape.' 

AXLETEETH, Molar teeth. 

AXOIDE, Axis — a. Occipitale, Rectus capitis 
posticus maior. 

AXOID'O-ATLOID'EUS. What refers to both 
the axis and atlas. asAxoido-atloidean articulation. 

The lesions of the Axoido-atloidean, are, 1. 
Fracture of the Proccs'sus JDenta'tus. 2. Rupturo 
of the odontoid ligament, and consequently pas- 
Sage and pressure of the process behind the trans- 
verse ligament : and, 3. The simultaneous rupturo 
of the odontoid and transverse ligaments. These 
diff'erent accidents are fatal. 

AXOIDO-ATLOIDIEN, Obliquus inferior 
capitis. 



AXON 



111 



BACCHIA 



AXON. Axis. 

AXONGE, Adeps prasparatus. 

AXUNGE, Adeps praeparatus. 

AXUNGIA, Pingiiedo — a. Gadi, Oleum Jecoris 
Aselli — a. de Mumia, Marrow — a. Articularis, 
Synovia — a. Piscina Marina, Oleum Jecoris Aselli 
— a. Porcina, Adeps praeparatus. 

AYPNIA, Insomnia. 

AZALEA PROCUMBENS, Loiseleuria pro- 
cumbens. 

AZARNET, Orpimeirt. 

AZARUM, Asarum — a. Cabaret, Asarum. 

AZEDARACH, Melia Azedarach. 

AZEDARACHA AMCENA, Melia Azedarach. 

AZO'IC, Azo'icus, same etymon as Azote. De- 
void of life. The "Azoic period" of the geologist 
is that before any living being appeared. 

AZOODYNA'MIA, from a, priv., l,<on, 'life,' 
and 6vvaiiii, ' strength.' Privation or diminution 
of the vital powers. 

AZORES, CLIMATE OF. The Azores or 
Western Islands are said to afford one of the best 
examples of a mild, humid, equable climate, to 
be met with in the northern hemisphere. It is 
slightly colder and moister than that of Madeira, 
but even more equable. Sir James Clark thinks, 
that a change from the Azores to Madeira, and 
thence to Tenerifife — one of the Canaries — would 
prove more beneficial to the phthisical valetudi- 
narian than a residence during the whole winter 
in any one of those islands. 

AZOTAS HYDRARGYRICUS LIQUIDUS, 
see Hydrargyri nitras — a. Hydrargyroso — ammo- 
nicus, see Hydrargyri oxydum cinereuni — a. 
Hydrargyrosus, Hydrargri nitras — a. Potassicus, 
Potassa3 nitras. 

AZOTATE, Nitrate — «. d' Argent, Argenti 
nitras — a. de Slercure, Hydrargyri nitras — a. de 
Mercure et d'ammoniaque, see Hydrargyri oxy- 
dum cinereum — a. de Plonih, Plumbi nitras — a. 
de Potnsne, Potassse nitras. 

A'ZOTE, Azo'tum, from a, priv., and ^u»7, ' life.' 
Ni'trogen, Alcaligene, Gas azo'ticum, Nitro- 
gen'ium, Septon, (F.) Azote, Nitrogene, Mofette, 
Air gate. Air vide, is a gas which is unfit for re- 
spiration. It is not positively deleterious, but 
proves fatal owing to the want of oxygen. It is 
one of the constituents of atmospheric air, and a 
distinguishing principle of animals. Vegetables 
have it not generally diffused, whilst it is met 
with in most animal substances. It has been 
variously called, phlogistic air, vitiated air, &c. ; 
has been looked upon as sedative, and recom- 
mended to be respired, when properly diluted, in 
diseases of the chest. 



Azote, Protoxide of, Nitrogen, gaseous ox- 
ide of. 

AZOTE, Nitrogenized. 

AZOTED, Nitrogenized. 

AZOTENESES, from azote, and voaog, 'dis- 
ease.' Diseases fancied to be occasioned by the 
predominance of azote in the body. — Baumes. 

AZOTIC ACID, Nitric acid. 

AZOTIZED. Nitrogenized. 

AZOTURIA, see Urine. 

AZTEC CHILDREN, see Nanus. 

AZUR. Coral, Smalt. 

AZU'RIUM. A compound of two parts of 
mercury, one-third of sulphur, and one-fourth of 
sal ammoniac. — Albertus Magnus. 

AZ'Y GES, Az'ygo8, Az'ygouB, sine pari, from 
a, priv., and ^uyoj, 'a yoke', not paired. The 
sphenoid bone, because it has iio fellow. Also, a 
process, Proces'sus Az'i/ges, Rostrum sjyheno'ida'le, 
projecting from under the middle and forepart 
of this bone. 

AZYGOS GANGLION, see Trisplanchnio 
Nerve. 

AZYGOUS ARTICULAR ARTERY, see Ar- 
ticular arteries of the skull. 

AzYGous Muscle, ^z7/_f/os U'vida, is the small 
muscle which occupies the substance of the uvula. 
— Morgagni. The name is, however, inappro- 
priate, as there are two distinct fasciculi, placed 
along-side each other, forming the Pal'ato-sta- 
2)ht/li'ni, Stajjhyli'ni or Epistaphyli'ni muscles, 
Staphyli'ni me'dii of Winslow. 

AzYGOus Process, op the Sphenoid, see 
Azyges. 

AzTGOUS Vein, Vena Azygos, Veine Prilomho- 
thoracique — (Ch.), Vena sine pari, Vena pari 
carens, (F.) Veine sans Paire. This vein was so 
called by Galen. It forms a communication be- 
tween the V. cava inferior and V. cava superior, 
permitting the blood to pass freely between the 
two. It rises from the vena cava inferior, or 
from one of the lumbar or renal veins, passes 
through the diaphragm, ascends along the spine 
to the right of the aorta and thoracic duet, and 
opens into the V. cava superior, where it pene- 
trates the pericardium. On the left side, the 
SEMI-Az'ygos, Left bron'chial or left superior in- 
tercos'tal vein, Vena demi-azygos, V.hemi-az'yga, 
Veine petite prelombo-thoracique — (Ch.), presents, 
in miniature, nearly the same arrangement. 

AZYMIA HUMORUM, Crudity of the hu- 
mours. 

AZ'YMUS, from a, priv., and ^vftri, 'leaven.' 
Azymous bread is unfermented, unleavened bread 
— Galen. 
II AZZLE-TEETH, Molar teeth. 



B. 



BABEURRE, Buttermilk. 

BABILLEiTEMT, Loquacity. 

BABUZICARIUS, Incubus. 

BABY, Infans. 

BAC'ARIS, Bach'aris, A name given by the 
ancients to an ointment, described by Galen 
under the name Ointment of Lydia. It was 
sometimes employed in diseases of the womb. — 
Hippocrates. 

BACC^ BERMUDENSES, Sapindus sapo- 
naria — b. seu Grana actes, see Sambucus ebulus 
— b. Jujubse, Jujube — b. Myrtillorum, see Vacci- 
ninm myrtillus — b. Norlandicse, Rubus arcticus 



— b. Piperis Glabri, see Piper Cubeba— b. Pisca- 
toriae, see Menispermum cocculus — b. Zizyphi, 
see Jujube. 

BACCAR, Bac'caria, Bac'charis. An herb 
used by the ancients in their garlands, to destroy 
enchantment. Perhaps, the Bigitalis purpurea. 
Some authors have erroneously thought if to be 
the Asarum. 

BACCHARIS, Bacear. 

Bac'charis Halimifo'lia, Groundsel tree ; Or- 
der, Compositae ; indigenous ; is used as a demul- 
cent to allay cough, in the form of decoction. 

BACCHI'A, from Bacchus, ' the god of wine.' 



BACCHICA 



112 



BALANORRHAGIA 



A name applied to the red or pimpled face of the 
drunkard. See Gutta rosea. 
BACCHICA, Ilodora helix. 
BACCIV'OROUS, Bacciv'orut, (F.) Baccivorc, 
from bacca, 'a berry,' and voro, 'I devour.' Liv- 
ing on berries. 

BACIIARIS, Bacaris. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTONS, see Strychnos nux 
vomica. 

BACHER'S TONIC PILLS, Pilulae ex Helle- 
boro et Myrrha. 
BACILE, Critljmum maritimum. 
BACILLAR LAYER OF THE RETINA, 
Tunica Jacobi. 

BACIL'LUM, Bacniua, Bac'tdiis, Bac'cuhia: 
'a stick.' This name has been applied to a kind 
of troch, composed of expectorants, and having 
the shape of a stick. Also, a suppository. Baaii- 
lum was used by the ancient chemists for several 
instruments of iron. 
BACK, Dorsum. 
BACK-ACH ROOT, Liatris. 
BACKBONE, Vertebral column. 
BACKSIDE, Nates. 
BACKSPRENT, Vertebral column. 
BACKSTROKE OF THE HEART, Impulse, 
diastolic. 

BACOBOTRYS PICTA, Saoria. 
BACOVE, Musa sapientum. 
BACTYRILOBIUM FISTULA, Cassia fistula. 
BACULUS, Bacillum. 
BAD, Sick. 

BADEN, MINERAL WATERS OP. Baden 
is a town six miles from Vienna. Here are 12 
springs, containing carbonates of lime and mag- 
ueisa; sulphates of lime, and magnesia, and 
soda; and chlorides of sodium and aluminum. 
The water is used in diseases of the skin, rheu- 
matism, &c. 

There are two other towns of the same name ; 
one in Suabia, and the other in Switzerland, 
about 12 miles from Ziirich, where are mineral 
springs. The waters of the last two are thermal 
sulphureous. 

BADEN-BADEN, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Celebrated thermal springs, situate about a league 
from the high road to Basle and Frankfort. Their 
temperature varies from 130° to 154° Fahrenheit. 
Their situation is beautiful, and they are much 
frequented. 

BADENWEILER, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
B. is in Baden, about a league to the westward 
of Miillheim. The waters are thermal (87° of 
Fahr.), and contain carbonate of lime, sulphuret 
and chloride of calcium, and chloride of magne- 
sium. 

BADER, Bather. 

BADIAGA. A kind of sponge, sold in Russia, 
the powder of which is said to take away the livid 
marks from blows and bruises in a few hours. 
Its nature is not understood. 
BADIANE, Illicium anisatum. 
BADJSIS, Walking. 
BADLY, Sick. 

BADUKKA, Capparis badukka. 
BAG, DUSTING, see Dusting-bag — b. of 
Waters, see Liquor Amnii, 
BAGEDIA, Pound. 
BAGGIE, Abdomen. 

BAGNERES-ADOUR, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Bagniires-Adour is a small town in the de- 
partment of Hnutes Pyrenees, having a great 
number of mineral springs ; some, cold chaly- 
beates; others, thermal salines; but the greatest 
part sulphureous and warm. 

BAGNERES DU LUCHON is a small town 
in the department of Haute Garonne, on the 
ftontiers of Spain. It has been for a long time i 



famous for its numerous sulphureous springs, 
the temperature of which is from 69° to 148" of 
Fahrenheit. 

BAGNIGGE WELLS. A saline mineral spring 
of London, resembling the Epsom. 

BAGNIO, Baignoire. 

BAGNOLES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bagnoles is a village in the department of Orne. 
The water resembles that of Bagnlrea de Lvchon. 

BAGNOLS, MINERAL WATERS OP. Bag- 
nols is a village, two leagues from Mende, in tno 
departmemt of Lozere. The waters are hydro- 
sulphurous and thermal: 109° Fahrenheit. 

BAGOAS, Castratus. 

BAGUENAUDIER, Colutea arborescens. 

BAHA'MA ISLANDS, CLIMATE OF. The 
climate of the Bahamas is not considered to be 
well adapted for consumptive patients, on ac- 
count of the rapid alternations of temperature, 
and the prevalence of winds, often of a dry, cold 
character. Still, the phthisical valetudinarians 
from most portions of the United States might 
derive advantage from a residence there during 
the winter months. The accommodations are 
not, however, good, or numerous. 

BAHEL, Colum'vea longifo'lia. A labiated 
plant of Malabar, whose leaves, bruised, are ap- 
plied as cataplasms to suppurating tumours. 

Bahel Schulli, Genista spinosa Indica. 

BAIGNEUR. Bather. 

BAIGNOIRE, (F.) Bapfiste'rium, a Bathing 
tub. Bagnio, So'lium, Pisci'na. The vessel or 
place in which bathing is performed. Baignoire 
oculaire, an eye-hath, — a small vessel for bathing 
the eyes. See Scaphium oculare. 

BAILEY'S SPRING, see Alabama, Mineral 
Waters of. 

BAILLEMENT, Yawning. 

BaILLON, Speculum oris. ^ 

BAIN, Bath — b. Chanel, Bath, hot— 5. Elec- 
triqne, Bath, electric, see Electricity — b. Entier, 
Bath, general — b. de Fanteuil, Bath, hip — b. 
Frais, Bath, tepid — b. Froid, Bath, cold — h. Hy- 
gi^.niqne, see Bath — h. Marie, Bath, water — b. 
Midicinal, Bath, medicated — h. de 3Ier, Bath, 
sea — b. de Pied, Bath, foot, Pediluvium — b. de 
Sable, Bath, sand — b. de Siege, Bath, hip — b. 
Simple, see Bath — b. Tempere, Bath, tepid, B. 
Temperate — 6. de Tete, Bath, head — 6. TiMe, 
Bath, tepid — b. Trea froid, Bath, cold — b. de 
Vapeur, Bath, vapour. 

BAINB, Bath. 

BAINS, MINERAL WATERS OF. These 
are situated at PlombiSres, department of the 
Vosges. They are said to be saline and thermal 
by some; others deny them any medical pro- 
perties. 

BAIRN, Infans. 

BAIRNWORTS, Bellis. 

BALAMPULLL Tamarindus. 

BALANCE, AEROSTATIC, Areometer. 

BAL'ANCEMENT, Componsa'tion, from (F.) 
balance, 'a balance,' itself from bin, 'twice,' and 
lanx, *a dish.' A law of teratogeny, as main- 
tained by GeofFroy St. Hilaire, by which exube- 
rance of nutrition in one organ is supposed to 
involve, to a greater or less extent, the total or 
partial atrophy of some other, and conversely. 

BALANDA, Fagus Sylvatica. 

BALANEUM, Bath. 

BALANISMUS, Suppository. 

BALANITE CONTAGIEUSE, see Gonor- 
rhoea, 

BALANITIS. Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BALANOBLENNORRH(EA,Gonorrhoea 
spuria. 

BALANOCASTANUM, Bunium Bulbocasta 
num. 

BALANORRHAGIA, see Gonorrhoea. 



BALANORRHCEA 



Hi 



BALSAM 



BALANORRIKEA, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BALANOS PHCENICOS, Date. ! 

BA'LANUS, /3uXavo?, 'glans,' 'an acorn.' The ; 
glans penis. Hence, Balanoblennorrhce'a, Blen- 
norrhoea of the glans; and Balani'tis, Inflamma- 
tion of the glans. Suppositories and pessaries 
were called Bal'ani. 

Balands, Glans, Suppository — b. Myrepsica, j; 
Guilandina moringa. : 

BALARUC, mineral waters of. Ba- [i 
laruc is a town in the department of Herault, j 
in France. The waters are saline and thermal. |! 
They contain carbonic acid, carbonate of lime, j 
carbonate of magnesia, chlorides of sodium, cal- i 
cium, and magnesium, sulphate of lime, and a 
little iron. They are considered tonic, and are 
largely used. Their temperature is about 118° 
Fahrenheit. 

Balaruc Water, Factit"ious, (F.) Eaii de 
Balaruc ; Aqua Belliluea'ixa is made of simple 
acidulous water (containing twice its bulk of car- 
bonic acid) f^xsss; chloride of sodium, ^iss ; 
chloride of calcium, gr. xviij ; chloride of may- jj 
uesium, gr. Ivi; carbonate of magnesia, gr. j. 

BALATRO, Bambalio. 

BALAUSTINE FLOWERS, see Punica gra- 
natum. 

BALBIS, /3aA/?(;, 'a foundation.' Any oblong 
cavity. — Galen. Hippocrates, in his treatise on j] 
the joints, gives the name Balbito'des to the ole- 
cranon cavity of the humerus. 

B ALBUS, (F.) Begue. One habitually affected 
with stammering. A stammerer. 

BALBUTIEMENT, Bulbuties. 

BALBU'TIES, Psellis'mus, Psel'lotes, Bla'- 
titas, Baryglos'sia, Dysla'lia, Mogila'lia, hcho- 
pho'iiia, Battarie'mus, Bamha'lia, Hcesita'tio, |j 
Loque'la blcs'sa, Tituba'tio LingncB, (F.) Balbu- ' 
tiement, Begaiement, Begayement, Stuttering, j 
Stammering, Hammering, (Prov.) Tutt'ering, jj 
St. Vitus's Dance of the Voice, (Sc.) Eab'lering, jj 
Habbling. Also, vicious and incomplete pronun- 
ciation, in which almost all the consonants are 
replaced by the letters B and L; Traulis'mus. 

BALCHUS, Bdellium. 

BALD, Athrix. 

BALDMONEY, iEthusa meum. 

BALDNESS, Alopecia, Calvities— b. Limited, 
Porrigo decalvans — b. Partial, Porrigo decalvans. 

BALENAS, Leviathan penis. 

BALIMBA60, Hibiscus populous. 

BALINEATOR, Bather. 

BALINEUM, Bath. 

BALL, Pila— b. of the Eye, Pupil. 

BALLISMUS, Chorea. 

BALLISTA, Astragalus. 

BALLOCK-GRASS, Orchis mascula. 

BALLON, Receiver. 

BALLONNEMENT, Tympanites. 

BALLO'TA FCE'TIDA, B. vulga'ris seu nigra, 
Marrii'bium nigrum, Black Horehound, Stinking 
H., (F.) 3farnibe noir. Ord. Labiatae. Sex. 
Syst. Didynamia Gymnospermia. This plant is 
esteemed to be antispasmodic, resolvent, and 
detersive. (?) 

Ballota Lana'ta, Leonu'rus lana'tus, (F.) 
Ballote cotonneuse. A plant which grows in 
Siberia. The whole plant, with the exception of 
the root, has been recommended in dropsy, and 
in rheumatism and gout, as a diuretic. It is 
us^aally given in decoction (Jss to §j to f^viij 
of water). 

BALLOTE OOTGNNEUSE, Ballota lanata. 

BALLOTTEMENT, (F.) Monvement de Bal- 
lottement, Agita'tion, Sueeus'sion, Repercus'sion, 
means the motion impressed on the foetus in 
utero, by alternately pressing the uterus by 
means of the index finger of one hand intro- 
duced into the vagina; the other hand being 



applied on the abdomen. It is one of the least 
equivocal signs of pregnancy. 

BALLS, DEER, Elaphomyces granulatus. 

BALLSTON SPA. This village is situate in 
Saratoga County, New York. The spring Sans 
Souci belongs to the class of Acidulous Chaly- 
beates. It contains iodide of sodium. There is 
also a sulphur spring. 

BALM, Melissa — b. Apple, Momordica bal • 
samina — b. Bastard, Melitis Melissophylkm — b. 
of Gilead, Solomon's, see Tinctura cardamom!— 
b. of Gilead, Poplar, Populus candicans — b. of 
Gilead tree, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. In- 
dian, Trillium latifolium — b. Mountain, Monarda 
coccinea — b. Red, Monarda coccinea — b. Scarlet 
rose, Monarda coccinea^ — b. Stinking, Hedeoma. 

BALMONY, Chelone glabra. 

BALNEA CGENOSA, Boue des eaux. 

BALNEARIUM, Hypocaustum. 

BALNEARIUS, Bather. 

BALNEATOR, Bather. 

BALNEOG'RAPHY, Balneograph'ia, from 
^aXaveiov, 'a bath,' and ypu^t], 'a description.' 
A description of baths. 

BALNEOL'OGY, Balneolog"ia, from 0a\a- 
vetov, 'a bath,' and >ioyoi, 'a description.' A 
treatise on baths. 

BALNEOTHERAPI'A, fromiSaXawov, 'a 
bath,' and dcfiaircta, 'treatment.' Treatment of 
disease by baths. 

BALNEUM, Bath — b. Acidum, Bath, acid — 
b. Alkalinum, Bath, alkaline — b. Animale, Bath, 
animal — b. Antipsoricum, Bath, antipsoric — b. 
Anti-syphiliticum, Bath, antisyphilitic — b. Are- 
nac, Bath, sand — b. Gelatinosum, Bath, gelatinous 
— b. Maripe, Bath, water — b. Marinum, Bath, sea 
— b. Maris, Bath, water — b. Medicatum, Bath, 
medicated — b. Sulphuris, Bath, sulphur. 

BALSAM, Bid'sarnum. Bal'snmus, Bol'eson, 
Bel'eson, (F.) Baume. This name is given V> 
natural vegetable substances, concrete or liquid, 
but very odorous, bitter, and piquant: composed 
of resin, benzoic acid, and sometimes of an es- 
sential oil — which allow benzoic acid to be dis- 
engaged by the action of heat ; readily dissolved 
in volatile oil, alcohol, and ether; and, when 
treated with alkalies, afford a soluble benzoate. 
and throw down resin. We know of only five 
balsams — those of Peru, and Tolu, Benzoin, solid 
Styrax or Storax, and liquid Styrax. (See those 
different words.) There are, however, many phar- 
maceutical preparations and resinous substances, 
possessed of a balsamic smell, to which the name 
balsam has been given ; but they differ essentially 
in composition and properties : hence the dis- 
tinction of balsams into natural and artificial. 
The natural balsams include the five before men- 
tioned; the artificial the remainder. 

Balsam, Acous'tic, Bal'samum Aeons' ticuf, 
(F.) Baume acoustiqtie. A mixture of fixed and 
essential oils, sulphur, and tinctures of fetid 
gums. Used in cases of atonic deafness, droppoi 
into the ear. The acoustic balsam of Dr. Hugh 
Smith is made by mixing three drachms of ox- 
gall, with one drachm of balsam of Fein. 

Balsam, American, see Myroxylon Peruiferuni 
— b. Anodyne, Bates's, Linimentum saponis et 
opii. 

Balsam, Apoplec'tic, Bal'samum Apoplec't! 
cum, Bal'samus Apoplec'ticus, (F.) Baume Apo- 
plectiqve. A medicine composed of several bal- 
sams properly so called, resins, and volatile oils. 
It is of a stiff consistence, is Worn in ivory 
boxes about the person, and is smelled at in 
headaches, Ac. 

Balsam Apple, Momordica balsamina. 

Balsam op Arc^'us, Bal'samum Arcai, Vn- 
guen'tum El'emi, (F.) Baume d'ArecBus. A soft 
ointment; sometimes employed in wounds, bI- 



BALSAM 



114 



BALSAM 



cc:!<, <tc. It is made by melting, with a gentle 
heat, two parts of mutton suet, one of lard, one 
and a half of turpentine, and as much resin. 
Balsam, Calaba, see Fagara octandra. 
Balsam, Canada, see Pinus balsamea — b. Ca- 
nary, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. Capivi, 
Copaiba. 

Balsam of Carpa'thia, B. Carpa'thian, BaV- 
inmnni Carptilh'icnm, (F.) Bnnme de Carpathie. 
The resin of the Pinus Cemhra, a tree, which 
l^rows in Switzerland, Libya, and the Krapac 
mountains in Hungary. 

Balsam, Chaly'beate, Bal'samum Ohalyhea'- 
tnm, (F.) Biuime d'acier ou d'aiguHlee. A mix- 
ture of nitrate of iron, alcohol, and oil, prepared 
by dissolving needles in nitric acid. It was for- 
merly employed in friction in pains of the 
joints. 

Balsam, Commander's, Tincturabenzoini com- 
posita — b. for Cuts, Tinctura benzoini composita. 
Balsam, Cor'dial, of Sexner'tus, BnVsamum 
Cordia'le Senner'ti, (F.) Daiiine cordiale de Sen- 
nert. A stimulant medicine, composed of the 
essential oils of citron, cloves, and cinnamon, of 
musk, and ambergris Dose, 6 to 15 drops. 

Balsam of Fierabras. A celebrated Spanish 
vulnerary balsam, mentioned by Cervantes; the 
composition of which was oil, rosemary, salt, and 
wine. (?) 

Balsam, Spir'ituoits, of Fioraventi, Bal'- 
•lamiim Fioraven'ti spirituo'sum, (F.) Batime de 
Fiornventi spintueux. Different products of the 
distillation of resinous and balsamic substances, 
and of a number of aromatic substances, pre- 
viously macerated in alcohol, have been thus 
called. The Spirituous Balsam of Fioraventi, 
the 'only one now used in friction, in chronic 
rheumatism, is the first product of the distillation 
from a sand-bath. It is entirely alcoholic. The 
Oihj Bdlsatn of Fioraventi is obtained by re- 
moving the residue, and distilling it in an iron 
vessel, at a white heat. It has the appearance 
of a citrine-coloured oil. The Black Balsam of 
Fioraventi is the black oil, obtained when the 
temperature is sufficient to carbonize the sub- 
stances in the cucurbit. 

Balsam of Fir, see Pinus balsamea. 
Balsam op Fourcroy or of Laborde, (F.) 
Baume de Fourcroy ou de Laborde. A kind of 
liniment composed of aromatic plants, balsams, 
resins, aloes, turpentine, theriac, and olive oil. 
Used in chaps of the skin and nipples. 
Balsam, Friar's, Tinctura benzoini composita. 
Balsam of Genevieve, (F.) Baume de Gene- 
vieve. An ointment composed of wax, turpen- 
tine, oil, red saunders, and camphor. Used in 
contused vounds, gangrene, &o. 

Balsam op Honey (Hill's). A tincture made 
of tolu, hnnei/ (aa Ibj) and spirit (a gallon). A 
pectoral, used in coughs. The committee of the 
New York College of Pharmacy recommend the 
following formula — {Gum Benzoin, ^v, Bah. 
Tohit. ,^j, MeUis ^viij. Alcohol. Oiij— digest for 
10 days and filter). See Mel. 

Balsam of IIorehouni) (Ford's). A tincture 
of horehonnd, llqvorice-root, camphor, opium, 
benzoin, dried squills, oil of aniseed, and honey. 
It has the same properties as the above. See 
Marrubiura. 

Balsam, Hungarian, see Pinus mughos. 
Balsam, Hypnot'ic, Bal'snmum Hypnot'icnm 
(F.) Baume Hypnotique. A preparation of which 
opium, hyoscyamus, camphor, and some other 
sedative subsranees, form the basis. It is used 
CTtternally in friction, to provoke sleep. 

Balsam, Hyster'ic, Bal'samum Hyster'icum, 
fF.) Baume HystS.rique. A preparation made of 
opium, aloes, asafoetida, castor, distilled oils of 
f'le, nmber, Ac. It is held to the nose, applied 



to the navel, or rubbed on the hypogastrium in 
hysterical cases. 

Balsam, Indian, see Myroxylon peruifenim. 

Balsam, Iod'uretted, Bal'samum iodurtt'um, 
(F.) Baume hydriodatS, B. iodure, Gclee contri 
le goitre. A balsam used in the way of friction, 
in goitre, at Lausanne, in Switzerland. It may 
be made as follows — animal soap, 60 ; iodide of 
potassium, 42; alcohol at 85°, 500; essence of 
lemon, 4 parts. The iodide is dissolved in the 
alcohol, which is added to the soap melted in a 
water-bath. The whole is then filtered, and put 
into bottles. 

Balsam of Leictoure, of Condom or Vince- 
GTJERE, Bal'samum Lectoren'se. A strongly sti 
mulant and aromatic mixture of camphor, saffron, 
musk, and ambergris, dissolved in essential oils. 
The ancients burnt it for the purpose of purifying 
the air of a chamber, when infected with a dis- 
agreeable odour. 

Balsam op Life op Hoff'mann, Bal'samum 
VitcB Iloffman'ni, (F.) Baume de Vie d'Hoffmnnn. 
A tincture, composed of essential oils and amber- 
gris, employed internally and externally as a 
stimulant. A mixture of essential oils without 
alcohol constitutes the Saxon Balsam, Bal'samum 
apoplec'ticum, B. aromat'icitm, B. cephal'icum. B. 
Saxon'icum, B. nervi'num, B. Scherzeri, B. Sto- 
mach'ienm. Employed in friction as a stimulant. 

Balsam op Life, Decoctum aloes compositum 
— b. of Life, Turlington's, see Tinctura benzoini 
composita. 

Balsam of Locatel'li or Ltjcati;l'li, Bal'- 
samum Lucatel'li, (F.) Baume de Lucatel. A sort 
of ointment, composed of wax, oil, turpentine, 
sherry, and balsam of Peru, coloured with red 
saunders. It was once administered in pulmo- 
nary consumption. 

Balsam of Mecca, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Mexican, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. 
Natural, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam, Green, op Metz, Bal'samum Vir'idi 
Meten'sium, B. Vir'ide, (F.) Baume vert de Metz 
Baume de Feuillet, Huile verte, O'leum ox'ydt 
cupri vir'ide. This is composed of several fixei- 
oils, holding, in solution, subcarbonate of copper 
sulphate of zinc, turpentine, aloes, and the es- 
sential oils of cloves and juniper. It is green 
and caustic, and is employed to hasten the cica- 
trization of atonic ulcers. 

Balsam, Nephrit'ic, of Fuller, Bal'samum 
Nephril' icum Fnlleri. A liquid medicine, com- 
posed of oils, resins, and balsams, which have 
experienced an incipient state of carbonization 
from concentrated sulphuric acid. It was given 
in the dose of 15 to 30 drops in certain affections 
of the kidneys. 

Balsam, Nervous, Bal'samum Nervi'num, 
(F.) Baume nervin ou nerval. A kind of oint- 
ment, composed of fatty bodies, volatile oils, 
balsam of Peru, camphor, Ac. It is employed 
in friction in cases of sprains and rheumatic 
pains. 

Balsam, Paralyt'ic, of Mynsicht. A sort 
of liniment or soft mixture of the essential oils 
of different aromatic plants, oils of turpentine 
and amber. — L6mery. 

Balsam of Parei'ra brava, Bal'samum Pa- 
rei'rm bravai. A soft mixture of b.ilsam, resin, 
muriate of ammonia, and powder of the root of 
Pareira brava. It is given internally, to excite 
the urinary secretion. 

Balsam, Peruvian, see Myroxylon Peruife- 
rum — b. of Peru, red, see Toluifera lialsamum — 
b. of Peru, white, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

Balsam of Rackasi'ra or of Rakasi'ri. This 
substance is of .a yellowish-brown colour ; semi- 
transparent; fragile, when dry, but softening by 
heat; adhering to the teeth, when chewed. It 



BALSAMADENDRON 



115 



BAMBOO 



has a smell similar to that of the Balsam of Tolu, 
and is slightly bitter. It is brought from India 
in gourd shells, and has been employed in dis- 
eases of the urinary and genital organs, especially 
in gonorrhoea. 

Balsam, Riga. Prepared from the shoots of 
the Scotch Fir, macerated in spirit of wine. In- 
ternally, stimulant and diuretic ; externally, a 
vulnerary. See Pinus Cenibra. 

Balsam of Saturn, Bal'samum SnUir'ni. A 
Folution of acetate of lead in spirit of turpentine, 
concentrated by evaporation ; to which camphor 
has been added. This balsam was applied to 
hasten the cicatrization of wounds. 

Balsam op the Samar'itan, (F.) Baume du 
Samaritain. A sort of liniment, prepared by 
boiling together, at a gentle heat, equal parts of 
wine and oil. It is said to have been the oint- 
ment used by the Samaritan of the Gospel to 
cure a patient covered with ulcers. 

Balsam, Saxon, Balsam of Life of Hoifraann. 
Balsam of Sulphur, Bal'samum Sul'phuris, 
(F.) Baume de Sou/re. A solution of sulphur in 
oil. — B. sxdph. anisa'tum, (F.) B. de Sou/re anise. 
A solution of sulphur in essential oil of aniseed ; 
given as a carminative. — B. Sulph. succina'tum, 
(F.) B. de Sov/re succini. A solution of sulphur 
in oil of amber. — B. Sidphiiris terehinthina' turn, 
Common Dutch Drops, (F.) B. de Sou/re terebin- 
thini. A solution of sulphur in essential oil of 
turpentine, administered as a diuretic. — The Bal- 
sam of Sulphur of RuLAND is a solution of sul- 
phur in linseed oil or nut oil. 

Balsam of Sym'pathv, Balsamitm Sympath'- 
ictim, (F.) Baume de Sympathie. A balsam, used 
in the days when sympathetic influence was 
strongly believed in. It was composed of the 
raspings of a human skull, blood, and human fat, 
and was applied to the instrument which had 
inflicted the wound. 

Balsam, Thibaut's. A tincture of myrrh, 
aloes, dragon's blood, flowers of St. John's wort, 
and Ohio turpentine. Internally, AinTstic; exter- 
nally, vulnerary. 

Balsam of Tolu, see Toluifera Balsamum. 
Balsam, Tranquil, Bal'samum tranquil'lum 
seu tranqu.il' lans, (F.) B. tranquille. A liquid 
medicine employed, externally, in the shape of 
friction : it is prepared by macerating and boil- 
ing, in olive oil, narcotic and poisonous plants, — 
belladonna, mandragora, hyoscyamu.", Ac. — and 
afterwards infusing, in the filtered decoction, 
different aromatic plants. It was employed as 
an anodyne. 

Balsam, Turkey, Dracocephalum Canariense 
— b. Turlington's, see Tinctura Benzoini com- 
posita. 

Balsam of Tur'pentine, Dutch Drops, Bal'- 
samum Terebin'thincB. Obtained by distilling 
oil of turpentine in a glass retort, until a red 
balsam is left. It possesses the properties of the 
turpentines. 

Balsam, Vervain's, Tinctura Benzoini com- 
posita. 

Balsam, Vul'nerart, op Mindere'rds, BaV- 
samum vulnera'rium Mindere'ri, (F.) B. vuliie- 
raire de Minderer. A kind of liniment, com- 
posed of turpentine, resin elemi, oil of St. John's 
wort, and wax. Employed in friction, and as a 
dressing to wounds. 
Balsam Weed, Irapatiens fulva. 
Balsam Wouni>, Tinctura Benzoini composita. 
BALSAMADENDRON GILEADENSE, 
Amyris Gileadensis — b. Myrrha, see Myrrha. 

BALSAMARIA INOPHYLLUM, see Fagara 
octandra. 

BALSAMELxEON, Myroxylon Peruiferum. 
BALSAM'IC, Balsam'icus, (F.) Balsamiqve, 
from 0a\(Taiiov, 'balsam.' Possessing the quali- 



ties of balsams. Balsamic odour: — a sweel^ 
faint, and slightly nauseous smell. Balsamie 
substance: — one resembling the balsams in pro- 
perty. 

BALSAMIER ELEMIFERE, Amyris elemi. 
fera — b. de la Mecque, Amyris opobalsamum. 
BALSAMINA, Momordica balsamina. 
BALSAMINE, Momordica balsamina. 
BALSAMIQUE, Balsamic. 
BALSAMITA FCEMINEA, Achillea ageratum 
— b. Major, Tanacetum bals.amita — b. Mas, Ta- 
naoetum balsamita. 

Balsami'ta Suav'eolens, B. odora'ta seu 
maris, Mentha Saracen'ica seu Roma'na. Ord. 
Compositae. Sex. Syst. Syngenesia Pulygamia 
superflua. A plant, common in the south of 
France, and cultivated in the gardens; where it 
bears the names of MeJithe coq ou romaine, Grand 
baume, Baume coq ou Custus des Jardins. Its 
smell is strong and aromatic, and taste hot. It 
is used for the same purposes as tansey, i. e. as a 
stimulant, vermifuge, &c. 

Balsamita Suaveolens, Tanacetum balsa- 
mita — b. Vulgaris, Tanacetum balsamita. 

BALSAMO-SACCHARUM, Elao-Saccharum. 
BALSAMUM, see Balsam, Amyris opobalsa- 
mum — b. ^gyptiacum, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— b. Album, see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. 
Alpini, Dracocephalum Canariense — b. Alpini, 
see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Anodynum, Lini- 
mentum saponis et opii — b. Apoplecticum, Balsam 
of life of Hoffmann — b. Aromaticum, Balsam of 
life of Hoffmann — b. Asiaticum, see Amyris opo- 
balsamum — b. Braziliense, Copaiba — b. Calaba, 
see Fagara octandra — b. Canadense, see Pinua 
balsamea — b. Catholicum, Tinctura benzoini com- 
posita — b. Cephalicum, Balsam of life of Hoff- 
mann — b. Copaibae, Copaiba — b. Genuinum anti- 
quorum, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Hj'perici 
simplex, see Hypericum perforatum — b. lodure- 
tum, Balsam, ioduretted — b. Judaicum, see Amy- 
ris opobalsamum — b. Libani, see Pinus cembra — 
b. Mariae, see Fagara octandra — b. e Mecca, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — b. Mercuriale, Unguen- 
tum hydrargyri nitratis — b. Nervinum, Balsarc 
of life of Hoffmann — b. Nucista, see Myristica — 
b. Opodeldoc, Linimentum saponis eamphoratum 
b. Ophthalmicum rubrum, Unguentum hydrar- 
gyri nitrico-oxydi — b. Persicum, Tinctura benzo- 
ini composita — b. Peruvianum, see Myroxylon 
Peruiferum — b. Saturninum, Unguentum plumbs 
superacetatis — b. Scherzeri, Balsam of life of 
Hoffmann — b. Stomachicum, Balsam of life of 
Hoffmann — b. Styracis, Styrax — b. Styracis ben- 
zoini, Benjamin — b. Succini, see Succinum — b. 
Sulphuris Barbadense, Petroleum sulphuratum — 
b. Sulphuris simplex, Oleum sulphuratum — b. 
Syriacum, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. Toluta- 
tanum, see Toluifera balsamum — b. Tranquillans 
seu Tranquillum, Balsam, tranquil — b. Trauma- 
ticum, Tinctura benzoini composita — b. Univer- 
sale, Unguentum plumbi superacetatis — b. Viride, 
Balsam, green, of Metz ; see Fagara octandra. 

BALSAMUS, Balsam.— b. Palustris, Mentha 
aquatica. 

BALSEM, Amyris opobalsamum. 
BAMBA, Bamboo. 
[[ BAMBALIA, Balbuties. 

I| BAMBA'LIO, Bam'balo, Bala'tro, from /toj. 
|l fiania, ' I speak inarticulately.' One who stam- 
jl mers or lisps, or utters inarticulate sounds. Ac- 
jl cording to Krause, one who speaks as if he had 

I pnp in his mouth, or as if his tongue were para- 
[i lyzed. 

II BAMBOO, (F.) Bamhou, Bamhu. Fam. Gra- 
I' minesB. Sex. Syst. Hexandria Monogynia. The 
i young shoots of Bambos arnndina'cea, Arun'do 
I bambos, Bamhu'sa arundiua'cea, and of Bamboa 
! verticilla'ta, contain a saccharine pith, of Wijicli 



BAMBOS ARUNDINACEA 116 



BANDEAU 



)he people of both the Indies are very fond. 
They are sometimes made into a pickle. 

BAMBOS ARUNDINACEA, Bamboo— b. 
Verticillata, Bamboo. 
BAMBTJSA ARUNDINACEA, Bamboo. 
BAMIX MOSCHATA, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 
BAMMA, from fianru), 'I plunge,' 'a paint; a 
dye.' Anciently, liquids were so called, in which 
certain bodies were plunged, to moisten or soften 
them. In the case of tea, for instance, into which 
bread is dipped, the tea would be the bamma. 
BANANA, Musa sapientum. 
BANANIER, Musa sapientum. 
BANAUSIA, Charlatanry. 
BANC D'HIPPOCRATE, Bathron. 
BANCAL, (F.) One who has deformed legs. 
It includes the valgus, compernis, and varus, 
which see. 

BANGROCHE, (F.) A vulgar epithet for a 
rickety individual. 

BAND, PRIMITIVE, see Nerve Fibre. 
BAN'DAGB, Desma, Si/ndes'mus, Hypodes'- 
mis, Hypodeama, Hypodee'mus, (the last three 
Bignify properly an under bandage.) A hinder, 
from Sax. bindan, ' to bind.' This word, with 
the French, is generally used to express the me- 
thodical application of rollers, compresses, &c., 
Ban'daging, Syn'desia, to fix an apparatus upon 
any part, — corresponding to the words deliga'tio, 
fasc-ia' tio, fascia' rum applica'tio, epid'esis. With 
US the noun is usually applied to the result of the 
application, or to the bandage itself: — a sense in 
which the French employ the word Bande. Ban- 
dages are simple or compound. The simple ban- 
dage is equal, if the turns are applied circularly 
above each other; unequal, if the turns are not 
accurately applied upon each other. If each turn 
of the bandage be only covered one-third, it 
forms the dohire of the French ; if the edges 
touch only slightly, it is the mousse ; if the turns 
are very oblique and separated, it is the sjnral 
or creeping, (F.) rampant; if folded upon each 
other, it is termed the reversed, (F.) renverse. 
By uniting various kinds of bandaging, we have 
the compound; and these compound bandages 
have received various names expressive of their 
figure, or of the parts to which they are applied, 
a-s capistrum, sjnca, Ac. Bandages are divided, 
also, as regards their uses, into uniting, dividing, 
retaining, expelling, compressing, &c. 

Bandage or Roller, Fas'cia, Tce'nia, Epides'- 
mos, Vin'cxdum, the Bande of the French. It may 
be made of linen, flannel, or other stuff capable 
of ofi'ering a certain resistance. The two extre- 
mities of a bandage are called tails, (F.) chefs, 
and the rolled part is termed its head, (F.) glohe. 
If rolled at both extremities, it is called a double- 
headed roller or bandage, (F.) Bande d deux 
globes. ^ 

BANDAGE 1 BANDELETTES SEPA- 
REES, Bandage of separate strips. 

Bandage, Body, Manti'le, (F.) Bandage de 
Corps, is used for fixing dressings, Ac, to the 
trunk. It is formed of a towel, napkin, or some 
large compress, folded three or four times ; the 
extremities of which are fastened by pins. This 
13 again fixed by means of the scapulary bandage, 
which is nothing more than an ordinary ban- 
dage, stitched to the anterior and middle part 
of the napkin, passing over the clavicles and 
behind the head, to be attached to the back part 
of the napkin. 

Bandage, Compound, see Bandage. 
Bandage. Compressing, or Roller, Fascia 
tompresei'va seu convolu'ta, (F.) Bandage com- 
pressive ou roule, is the simple roller with one 
head ; and ik employed in cases of ulcers, varices. 



Ac, of the limbs. Whenever this roller is applied 
to the lower part of the limbs, it is carried up- 
wards by the doloire and reversed methods above 
described. 

Bandage, Compressive, see Bandage, com- 
pressing — b. de Corps, see Bandage — b. Dividing, 
see Bandage — 6. Divisif, Dividing bandage — 3. 
ddix-huit Chefs, Bandage, eighteen-tailed — b. en 
Doloire, Doloire — b. Double-headed, see Band- 
age. 

Bandage, Eighteen-tailed, Fas'cia octod'- 
ecim capit'ibm, (F.) Bandage d dix-huit chefs. 
This bandage is made of a longitudinal portion 
of a common roller; and with a suflBcient num- 
ber of transverse pieces or tails, to cover as much 
of the part as is requisite. It is a very useful 
bandage, inasmuch as it can be undone without 
disturbing the part. 

Bandage, Expelling, see Bandage. 

Bandage, Galen's, B. for the Poor, Fas'cia 
Gale'ni seu Pau'perum, (F.) Bandage de Oalien 
ou des Pauvres, Ga'lea, is a kind of cucullus or 
hood, (F.) Couvrechef divided into three parts 
on each side; of which Galen has given a de- 
scription. See Cancer Galeni. 

Bandage of Genga, Bandage of Theden — b. 
Hernial, see Truss — b. Immovable, Apparatus, 
immovable. 

Bandage, In'guinal, Fas'cia inguina'lis. A 
bandage for keeping dressings applied to the 
groin. It consists of a cincture, to which is at- 
tached a triangular compress, adapted for cover- 
ing the groin. To the lower extremity of this, 
one or two bandages are attached, which pass 
under the thigh, and are fixed to the posterior 
part of the cincture. This bandage may be either 
simile or double. 

Other bandages will be found described under 
their various names. 

BANDAGE DES PAUVRES, Bandage, 
Galen's — b. Permanent, Apparatus, immovable — 
b. of the Poor, see Bandage, Galen's, and Cancer 
Galeni — b. Rampant, see Bandage — b. Renverse, 
see Bandage — b. RouU, see Bandage — b. of Scul- 
tetus. Bandage of separate strips. 

Bandage op separate Strips, or B. of Scul- 
te'tus, Fas'cia fasci'olis separa'tim dispos'itii 
seu Sculte'ti, (F.) Bandage d bandelettes separees 
ou de Scultet. This is formed of linen strips, 
each capable of surrounding once and a half the 
part to which they have to be applied, and placed 
upon each other, so as to cover successively one- 
third of their width. It is used chiefly for frac- 
tures, requiring frequent dressing. 

Bandage, Simple, see Bandage. 

Bandage of Theden, B. of Genga. A band- 
age employed, at times, in brachial aneurism, 
which commences at the fingers, and extends to 
the axilla. 

Bandage, Under, Hypodesmis — b. Unequal, 
see Bandage — 6. Unissant, Uniting bandage — b. 
Uniting, see Bandage, and Uniting bandage. 

BANDAGING, see Bandage — b. Doctrine of, 
Desmaturgia. 

BAN'DAGIST, (F.) Bandagiste. One whoso 
business it is to make bandages, and especially 
those for hernia. 

BANDE, Bandage. The word Bande, in 
anatomy, is used by the French for various nar- 
row, flat, and elongated expansions. 

BANDE A DEUX GLOBES, see Bandage. 

BANDE D'HELIODORE, a kind of bandage 
for supporting the mammae. 

BANDEAU, (F.) A kind of simple bandage, 
which consists of a piece of cloth, folded four 
times, and applied round the head. There is 
also the Bandeau ou Mouchoir en triangle or 



BANDELETTE 



117 



BARII CHLOUIDUM 



triangular bandage, a kind of couvrechef, made 
of a square piece of cloth, or of a handlierchief, 
folded diagonally, and applied round the head. 

BANDELETTE, (F.) Diminutive of Bande 
Fasciola, Taniola, Vitta ; a narrow bandage, 
stiip, or fillet. Also Taenia semicircularis. 

BANDELETTES AGGLUTINATIVES. 
Small strips, covered with a glutinous plaster. 
VittoB agglutinan'tes. See Agglutinant. 

BANDELETTES BE COUPES, are strips 
of linen, notched on one edge, and covered, on 
one side, with ointment. They are applied to 
wounds to prevent the lint from sticking, and the 
laceration of the cicatrix. 

BANDELETTE SEBIIOIRCULATRE, Tee- 
nia semicircularis — h. dea Comes d'animon, Corpus 
fimbriatum — h. des Eminences pyri/ormes. Taenia 
semicircularis — 6. de V Hippocampe, Corpora fim- 
briata. 

BANDURA, Nepentha destillatoria. 
BANDY-LEGGED, Cnemoscoliosis. 
BANEBERRY, Actsea spicata. 
BANGUE, Bhang, Bang, Bangi or Beng, Sed- 
hee, Subjee. Adanson believes this to be the Ne- 
penthes of the ancients. The largest leaves and 
capsules without the stalks of Can'nahis In'dica, 
(F.) Chanvre Lidien, Indian hemp, probably iden- 
tical with C. saliva. Family, Urticese. jS'ex. Syst. 
Dioecia Pentandria. The leaves and flowers of 
Cannabis are narcotic and astringent. They are 
chewed and smoked. The seeds, mixed with 
opium, areca, and sugar, produce a kind of intoxi- 
cation, and are used for this purpose by the peo- 
ple of India. An alcoholic extract of the plant, 
Churrus — Extrac'tum Can'nabis (Ph. U. S.) — has 
been used in India, and since then in Europe and 
in this country, as a narcotic and anti-convulsive, 
in the dose of from half a grain to ten or more. 
It requires, however, great caution in its adminis- 
stration. The pure resin — Cannabine, Haschis- 
ohine — is active in the dose of two-thirds of a 
grain. 

The dried plant, which has flowered, and from 
which the resin has not been removed, called 
Gunjah, Ganjah, Guaza, and Guazah, Haschisch, 
Haschich, HacMsch, Hashish, or Chaschisch, of 
the Arabs, consists of the tops and tender parts 
only of the plant, collected immediately after in- 
florescence, and simply dried. 
BANICA, Pastinaca sativa. 
BANILAS, Vanilla. 
BANILLA, Vanilla. 
BANILLOES, Vanilla. 

BANISTE'RIA ANGULO'SA. This plant, 
in Brazil and the Antilles, passes for a powerful 
sudorific, and an antidote to the poison of ser- 
pents. 

BANKSIA ABYSSINICA, Hagenia Abyssi- 
nica — b. Speciosa, Costus. 

BANNIERES, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bannieres is a village in Quercy, diocess of Ca- 
hors, France. The waters are probably chaly- 
beate. They are celebrated in amenorrhoea, ca- 
chexia, jaundice, &c. 

BA'OBAB, Adanso'nia digita'ta, of Africa. 
Nat. Ord. Bombaceae. One of the largest pro- 
ductions of the vegetable kingdom. Its fruit is 
called, in the country, Pain de singe. The pulp 
is sourish, and agrewible to eat; and a refreshing 
drink is made from it, which is used in fevers. 
Prospero Alpini and Dr. L. Frank think that the 
Terra Lemnia was prepared, in Egypt, from the 
pulp. All the parts of the Baobab abound in 
mucilage. The bark has been given as a substi- 
tute for cinchona. 

BAPTISIA LEUCANTHA, see Sophora tine- 
toria— b. Tinctoria, Sophora tinctoria. 
BAPTISTERIUM, Baignoire. 



BAPTORRHGEA, see Gonorrhoea. 

BAEAQUETTE (F.). A name given by Ra- 
sous, physician at Nismes, in France, to a catar- 
rhal epidemy, which occurred there in 1761. Sea 
Influenza. 

BARATHRON, Juniperus sabina. 

BARATHRUM, Antrum. 

BARB A, Beard — b. Aaronis, Arum maculatuin 
— b. Caprte, Spiraea ulmaria — b. Hirci, Tragopo- 
gon — b. Jovis, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BARBADOES, see West Indies — b. Leg, see 
Elephantiasis. 

BARBAREA, Erysimum barbarca — b. Stricta, 
Erysimum barbarea. 

BARBAROS'SuE PIL'UL^, Barbaros'sa'a 
Pills. An ancient composition of quicksilver, 
rhubarb, diagridium, musk, Ac. It was the first 
internal mercurial medicine which obtained any 
real credit. 

BARBE, Beard — b. de Bouc, Tragopogon. 

BARBEAU, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus sege- 
tum. 

BARBER-CHIRUR'GEONS. A Corporation 
of London, instituted by King Edward IV. The 
barbers were separated from the surgeons, by 18 
Geo. II., c. 15; and the latter were erected into a 
Royal College of Surgions at the commencement 
of the present century. 

BARBERS, ARMY, see Bathers. 

BARBERIE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
These mineral waters are half a league from 
Nantes. They contain carbonic acid, chlorides 
of magnesium and sodium, sulphate of magnesia, 
carbonates of magnesia, lime, and iron. They ara 
used as chalybeates. 

BARBERRY, Oxycantha Galeni— b. Ameri- 
can, see Oxycantha Galeni. 

BARRIERS. A variety of paralysis chiefly 
prevalent in India; and by many considered to 
be the same as Beriberi. Beriberi is commonly 
an acute disease. Barbiers is generally chronic. 

BARBITIUM, Beard. 

BAR-BONE, Pubis, os. 

BAR BO TINE, Artemisia Santonica. 

BARBULA CAPRINA, Spiraea ulmaria. 

BARCLAY'S ANTIBILIOUS PILLS, Pilulw 
antibiliosae. 

BARDADIA, Pound. 

BARD AN A, Arctium lappa — b. Minor, Xan- 
thium. 

BARDANE PETITE, Xanthium. 

BAREGES, MINERAL WATERS OF, 
Bareges is a village in the department of Hautea 
Pyr^nSes, near which are several springs. They 
are sulphureous and thermal, the heat varying 
from 85° to 112° Fahrenheit. They contain chlo- 
rides of magnesium and sodium, sulphates of mag- 
nesia and lime, carbonate of lime, sulphur, &c. 
These springs have long enjoyed a high reputa- 
tion, and are daily advised in cutaneous and 
scrofulous affections, &c. A nitrogenized matter 
was first found in these waters, and afterwards in 
other sulphureous springs, to which Longchamp 
gave the name Baregine. 

Factitious Bareges Water, Aqua Baregi- 
nen'sis seu Baretginen'sis, (F.) Eau de Bareges, 
is made by adding hydrosulphuretted water, {'^'iv, 
to pure water, f^xvijss, carbonate of soda, gr. xvj, 
chloride of sodium, gr. ss. Bottle closely. 

BARJEOINE, see Bargges. 

BARGADA, Convolvulus pes caprae. 

BARGOU. An alimentary preparation formed 
of ground oats, boiled to aproper consistence with 
water. 

BARIGLIA. Soda. 

BARII CHLORIDUM, Baryta, muriate of— • 
b. lodidura, Baryta, hydriodate of. ' 



BARILLA 



118 



BARYTA 



BARILLA, Soda — b. Alicant, Soda — b. Car- 
thagena, Soda^ — b. Turkey, Soda. 

BARILLOR, Soda. 

BA'RIUM, Ba'ryum, Baryt'ium, Pluto'nium, 
from fiapvq, 'heavy.' The metallic base of ba- 
ryta, so called from the great density of its com- 
pounds. 

Barium, Chloride of, Baryta, muriate of — 
6. Chlorure de, Baryta, muriate of — b. lodatum, 
and Iodide of. Baryta, hydriodate of— b. Protox- 
ide of, Baryta. 

BARK, Cinchona — b. Arica, see Cinchona cor- 
difolioe cortex — b. Ash, see Cinchona — b. Bitter, 
Pinckneya pubens — b. Bogota, see Cinchona — b. 
Calisaya, Cinchonte cordifoliae cortex — b. Cali- 
saya, spurious, see Cinehonae cordifoliae cortex — 
b. Carabaya, see Cinchonfe cordifoliae cortex — b. 
Cariboean, Cinchonse Caribajce cortex — b. Cartha- 
gena, see Cinchona — b. Coquetta, see Cinchona 

— b. Crown, Cinchonas lancifolite cortex — b. 
Cusco, see Cinehonae cordifoliae cortex — b. 
Doom, Sassy-bark — b. Elk, Magnolia glauca — b. 
Essential salt of, see Cinchona — b. Florida, 
Pinckneya pubens — b. Fusagasuga, see Cinchona 
• — b. Georgia, Pinckneya pubens — b. Gray, see 
Cinchona — b. Huamilies. see Cinchona — b. Hua- 
nuco, see Cinchona — b. Indian, Magnolia glauca 

— b. Iron, see Kino — b. Jesuit's, Cinchona — b. 
Jaen, see Cinchona — b. Lima, see Cinchona — b. 
Loxa, Cinehonae lancifoliae cortex — b. Pale, Cin- 
chona lancifoliae cortex — b. Maracaybo, see Cin- 
chona — b. Ordeal, Sassy-bark — b. Peruvian, Cin- 
chona — b. Pitaya, Cinehonae Caribsaj cortex, see 
Cinchona — b. Red, Cinchonas oblongifolia3 cortex 
— b. Royal, Cinchona cordifolia cortex — b. of St. 
Ann, see Cinehonae cordifolia cortex — b. Saint 
Lucia, Cinehonae Caribaea cortex — b. Santa Mar- 
tha, see Cinchona — b. Sassy, Sassy-bark — b. 
Seven, Hydrangea arborescens — b. Silver, see 
Cinchona — b. Yellow, Cinchona cordifolia cortex. 

BARLERIA BUXIFOLIA, Cara schulli. 

BARLEY-BREE, Cerevisia. 

Barley-Corn, Cerevisia. 

Barley, Pearl, see Hordeum — b. Scotch, 
Hordeum 

Barley-AVater, Decoctum hordei. 

BARM, Yest. 

BARN, Infans. 

BARNET, MINERAL "WATERS OF. Barnet 
is not far from London. The water is of a purg- 
ing quality, like that of Epsom, and about half 
the strength. 

BAROMACROM'ETER, Padoharomacrom'- 
eter, Padom'eter, from jSapoj, ' weight,' naxpo;, 
' long,' and furpov, ' measure.' An instrument 
invented by Stein to indicate the length and 
weight of a new-born infant. 

BAROM'ETER, Buroacop'imn, Ba'roscope, 
from (iagoi, 'weight,' and fitrpov, 'measure.' (F.) 
Barometre. An instrument which measures the 
weight of the air. A certain degree of density 
in this medium is necessary for health. When 
we ascend high mountains, great inconvenience 
is experienced, owing to the diminished density. 
Changes of this character are indicated by the 
Barometer or weather-glass. 

BA'ROS, /Japof, 'heaviness.' Employed by the 
Greek physicians to designate the feeling of las- 
situde and heaviness observable in many diseases. 
— Hippocrates, Galen. 

BAROSCOPE. Barometer. 

BAROSMA CRENATA, Diosma crenata. 

BAROTE, Baryta. 

BAROTES SALITUS, Baryta, muriate of. 

BARRAS, see Pinus sylvestris. 

BARRE, MINERAL WATERS OF. Barre is 
a small town, sis leagues from Strasburg. The 
waters are thermal, and contain much iron, cal- 
fweous salt, Ac They are diuretic and tonic. 



BARRE (F.), Barrure, Vara, 'a bar.' A pro- 
jection or prolongation of the symphysis pubis, 
— a deform^ity rendering delivery diflScult. 

BARREE (F.). A term applied, in France, to 
a female whose pelvis has the deformity described 
under Barre. 

BARRES (DENTS,), Barred Teeth. The 
molar teeth, when the roots are spread or tortu- 
ous, so that they cannot be extracted without 
being broken ; or without a portion of the alveo- 
lar arch being removed. 

BARREL OF THE EAR, Tympanum. 

BARREN, Sterile. 

BARRENNESS, Sterilitas. 

BARROS, Terra Portugallica. 

BARR URE, Barre. 

BARTON'S FRACTURE, see Fracture of the 
Radius, Barton's. 

BARYCOCCALON, Datura stramonium. 

BARYCOITA, Baryecoia. 

BARYECOI'A, Barycoi'ta, Bradyecoi'a, Pa- 
raca'siu obiit'sa, Disecoi'a, Bysecoi'a, Audi'tut 
di'ffic'ilis, A. gravis, A. imminu'tus, Ohaudi'Uo, 
Obatidi'tus, Hypocopho'sia, ifypochyro'sis, (F.) 
Diirete d' Oreille, Bysecee, from ^apvi, 'heavy,' 
and aKotj, 'hearing.' Hardness of hearing, in- 
complete deafness. See Cophosis, and Deafness. 

BARYGLOSSIA, Balbuties, Baryphonia. 

BARYI HYDRAS lODATI, Baryta, hydrio- 
date of. 

BARYLALIA,_Baryphonia. 

BARYOD'YNE, from/3apuf, 'heavy,' ando^uvij, 
' pain.' A dull, heavy pain. 

BARYPHO'NIA, Barygloa'ain, Baryla'Ua, Lo- 
que'la impedi'ta, from fiapvi, ' heavy,' and (jxayr;, 
' voice.' Difficulty of voice or speech. 

BARYPICRON, Artemisia abrotanum. 

BARYSOMATIA, Polysaroia adiposa. 

BARYSOMATICA, Polysarcia adiposa. 

B A R Y ' T A, from 0apvf, ' heavy,' 0apvTtn, 
'weight' Terra pondero'sa, Bnry'tes, Protox'- 
ide of Ba'rium, Heavy Earth, Ponderous Earth, 
(F.) Baryte, Barote, Terre pesante. This earth 
and its soluble salts are all highly corrosive poi- 
sons. It is never employed in medicine in the 
pure state. When externally applied, it is caus- 
tic, like potassa and soda. 

Bary'ta, Carbonate of, Barytm Car'honas, 
(Ph. U.S.), (F.) Carbonate de Baryta, Oraie bare- 
tique, is only used officinally to obtain the mu- 
riate. 

Baryta, Hydri'odAte op, Barytae Eydri'odaa, 
Baryta Hydriod'ica, Hydras Baryi loda'li : — 
(in the dry state, Iodide of Barium, Barii lod'- 
idvm, Ba'rium loda'tum,) has been given in scro- 
fulous and similar morbid conditions. It may 
be administered internally in the dose of one- 
eighth of a grain three or four times a day, and 
be applied externally to scrofulous swellings, in 
the form of ointment, (gr. iv to ^j of lard.) 

Baryta Hydriodica, Baryta, hydriodate of. 

Baryta, Mu'riate or Hydrochlorate of, 
Bary'tcB mu'riaa, Chlo'ride of Ba'rium, Ba'rii 
Chlo'riditm (Ph. U. S.), Chlo'ruret of Ba'rium, 
Terra pondero'aa aali'ta seu muria'ta, Sal viuri- 
at'ioum barot'icum, Baro'tea aali'tus, (F.) Chlo- 
rure de barium, is the combination chiefly used. 
The Muriate of Baryta may be formed as follows : 
Baryt. Carbon, in frustulis, Ibj ; Acid. Muriat. 
f^xij; AqucB Oiij. Mix the acid with the water, 
and gradually add the Carbonate of Baryta. To- 
ward the close of the effervescence, apply a gentle 
heat, and, when the action has cesised, filter the 
liquor, and boil it down so that Crystals may form 
as it cools.— Ph. U. S. 

It is given in the form of the Soln'tio Muria'tia 
Baryta, Liquor Barii Chlo'ridi, Ph. U. S., Aqua 
baryta muria'tis, (F.) Solution de Muriate d« 



BARYTE 



119 BASSIA BUTYRACEA 



Baryte, {Muriate of Baryta, one part ; distilled 
water, three parts,) and is employed in scrofulous 
cases, worms, and cutaneous diseases. Exter- 
nally, to fungous ulcers and to specks on the 
cornea. 

Baryta, Sulphate of, BarytcR sulphas, (F.) 
Sulfate de Baryte, is used in pharmacy, like the 
carbonate, to obtain the chloride of barium. 

Baryta Carbonas, Baryta, carbonate of — b. 
Hydriodas, Baryta, hydriodate of — b. Murias, 
Baryta, muriate of— b. sulphas, Baryta, sulphate 
of. 

BARYTE, Baryta — h. Oarbonate de, Baryta, 
carbonate of— 6. sulfate de, Baryta, sulphate of. 

BARYTHMIA, Melancholy. 

BARYTIUM, Barium. 

BARYUM, Barium. 

BAS-FOND,jee Urinary Bladder. 

BAS-LASSE, Stocking, laced. 

BAS-VENTRE, Abdomen. 

BASAAL. The name of an Indian tree, the 
decoction of whose leaves, in water, with ginger, 
is used as a gargle in diseases of the fauces. The 
kernels of the fruit are vermifuge. 

B ASANASTRA'GALA, from iSao-avoj, 'torture,' 
and a(7rpuyaXo5, 'the astragalus.' Pain in the ankle 
joint; gout in the foot. 

BASANIS'MOS, from ^aaavi^av, 'to explore.' 
'A touch-stone.' Investigation or examination. 
— Hippocrates, Galen. 

BASE, Basis, from /Satvw, 'I proceed,' ' I rest,' 
'I support myself.' That which serves as a foun- 
dation or support. That which enters, as a prin- 
cipal matter, into a mixture or combination. In 
anatomy, it is employed in the former sense, as 
Base of the Cranium, Base of the Brain — Basis 
seu Pavimen'tum cere'hri ; Base of a process, &c.. 
Base of the heart — Basis vel coro'na cordis. In 
dentistry, it means a metallic, ivory, or hippopo- 
tamus plate, which is used as a support for arti- 
ficial teeth. In the art of prescribing, Basis is 
the chief substance which enters into a compound 
formula. 

BASE-BORN, Illegitimate. 

BASEMENT MEMBRANE, see Membrane, 
easement. 

BASIATIO, Coition. 

BA SI AT OR, Orbicularis oris. 

BASIL, BUSH, Ocymum caryophyllatum — b. 
Citron, Ocymum basilicum — b. Common, Ocy- 
mum basilicum — b. Small, Ocymum caryophyl- 
latum — b. Wild, Chenopodium vulgare — b. Wild, 
Cunila mariana — b. Wild, Pycnanthemum in- 
canum. 

BASILAD, see Basilar Aspect. 

BAS'ILAR, Basila'ris, Bas'ilary, (F.) Basi- 
laire. That which belongs to the base, from 
/joffff, 'base.' This name has been given to seve- 
ral parts, which seem to serve as basis to others. 
The sacrum and sphenoid have been so called. 

Basilar Artery, A. basila'ris seu cervica'lis, 
(F.) Artere ou Tronc basilaire, A. mesocephalique 
(Ch.) The union of the two vertebral arteries. 
It ascends along the middle groove on the infe- 
rior surface of the tuber, and is supported, be- 
neath, by the Fossa basilaris. It terminates in 
the posterior cerebral arteries. 

Basilar Aspect. An aspect towards the base 
of the head. — Barclay. Basilad is used adverb- 
ially by the same writer to signify ' towards the 
basilar aspect.' 

Basilar Fossa, (F.) Goutti^re ou Fosse basi- 
laire, is the upper surface of the basilary process, 
— so called because it is channeled like a Fossa 
or Gutter. The Tuber annulare rests upon it. 

Basilar Process, Proces'sus basila'ris ossis 
occip'itis seu cuneifor'mis ossis occip'itis, (F.) 
Apophyse Basilaire, Prolongement sous-occipital, 
Ca'neiform Process, is the bony projection, formed 



by the inferior angle of the os occipitis, which is 
articulated with the sphenoid. 

Basilar Sinus, Sinus transversus. 

Basilar Surface, (F.) Surface basilaire, in 
the inferior surface of the process. It is covered 
by the mucous membrane of the pharynx. 

Basilar Vertebra. The last vertebra of the 
loins. 

BASIL'IC, Basil'icus, (F.) Basilique, from 
Pacrt\tKoi, 'royal.' This name was given, by the 
ancients, to parts which they conceived to play 
an important part in the animal economy. 

Basilic Vein, Vena basil'ica seu cu'biti inte'- 
rior, (F.) Veine Basilique, Veine cubifale cuta- 
vee of Chaussier. This vein is one of those on 
which the operation of bloodletting is performed. 
It is situate at the internal part of the fold of the 
elbow, in front of the humeral artery, and is 
formed by the anterior and posterior cubital 
veins, and by the median basilic. It terminates, 
in the arm-pit, in the axillary vein. The an- 
cients thought, that the basilic of the right arm 
had some connexion with the liver, and hence 
they called it hepatic The vein of the left arm, 
for a similar reason, they called splenic. The 
Median Basilic Vein, (F.) Veine mediane basi- 
lique, is one of the branches of the preceding 
vein. It joins the median cephalic at an acute 
angle, or rather by a transverse branch, and re- 
ceives some branches of the deep radial and cu- 
bital veins, and a considerable subcutaneous vein 
— the common median, 

BASILIG CO MM UN, Ocymum basilicum— i. 
Sauvar/e, grand, Chenopodium vulgare. 

BASIL'ICON, Bas-il'ieum. 'Royal,' or of 
great virtue. An ointment, composed of yellow 
wax, black pitch, and resin, of each one part, 
olive oil, four parts. Hence it was called Un- 
guen'tum Tetraphar' macum, (TSTparpapfiaKa, 'four 
drugs.') — Celsus. Scribonius Largus. 

Basilicon, Basilicum, of the Parisian Codex, 
is the Onguent de Poix et de Cire. In most Phar- 
macopoeias, it is represented by the Unguen'tum 
or Cera'tum Resi'ncB. It is used as a stimulating 
ointment. See Ceratum Resinae, and Unguen- 
tum Resinae Nigrse. 

BASILICUM, Basilicon, Ocymum Basilicum 
— b. Citratum, Ocymum basilicum — b. Majus, 
Ocymum basilicum. 

BASILIQUE, Basilic. 

BASILISCUS, Syphilis. 

BASIO-CERATO-CHONDRO-GLOSSUS, 
Hyoglossus. 

BASIO-CER'ATO-GLOSSUS, from (iaan, 
'base,' Ktpas, 'cornu,' and yAu <xa, 'tongue.' A 
name given to a part of the hyoglossus, which is 
inserted into the cornu of the os hyoides and bage 
of the tongue. 

BASIOCES'TRUM, from ^aai;, 'the base,' 
and Ktarpa, 'a dart.' An instrument for opening 
the head of the foetus in utero, invented by Mes- 
ler, a German. 

BA'SIO-GLOS'SUS, Eypselogloa'sus, Hyoba- 
sioglossus, Ypseloglos'sus, from fiatris, ' base,' and 
yXuicraa, ' the tongue.' A name formerly given to 
the portion of the hyoglossus which is inserted 
into the base of the os hyoides. — Riolan, Thomas 
Bartholine. See Lingual Muscle. 

BASIC PHARYNG^'US, from lia<ns, 'base,' 
and <papvy^, 'the pharynx.' A name given to 
some fibres of the constrictor pharyngis medius. 
— Winslow. 

BASIS, see Prescription — b. Cerebri, Base of 
the Brain — b. Cordis, Radix cordis — b. Corporis, 
Sole. 

BASSI-COL'ICA. Name of a medicine com- 
posed of aromatics and honey. — Scribonius 
Largus. 

BASSIA BUTYRACEA, see Spirit, (Arrack.) 



BASSiy 



120 



BATH 



BASSIX, Pelvis— I. Oculaire, Scaphium ocu- 
lare. 

BASSINER, Fove're, to foment. 

DASSrXET, Pelvis of the kidney, Ranunculus 
bulboEus. 

BAS'SORA, GUM, A gum, obtained from a 
plant unknown, which came originally from the 
neighbourhood of Bassora, on the Gulf of Per- 
sia, whence its name. It is in irregularly shaped 
pieces, white or yellow, and intermediate in its 
transparency between gum Arabic and gum tra- 
gacanth. Only a small portion is soluble in 
water. The insoluble portion is a peculiar prin- 
ciple, called B'lsnoriu. It is not used in medi- 
cine ; but bassorin enters into the composition of 
several substances. 

BASSORIN, see Bassora gum. 

BASSWOOD. Tilia Americana. 

BASTARD, Illegitimate. 

BATA, Musa Paradisiaca. 

BATATA DE PURGA. The Brasilian and 
commercial name of the purgative, feculent, and 
gum-resinous roots of two plants of the family 
Convolvulacese, the one called Jeticucu, Mechoa- 
can, Couvol'vtiliis mechoacun'na, the Piptoste'gla 
Piio'nie of Von Martius ; the other Cumol'viilus 
opercula'tiis, the IpomcB'a seu Pijitoste'tjia oper- 
cula'ta of Von Martius. 

BATA'TAS. The inhabitants of Peru gave 
this appellation to several tuberous roots, espe- 
cially to Conrolvulits Batatas or Siceet Putato. 
Our word, Po?(j(o, comes from this. See Solanum 
tuberosum. 

BATEMAN'S PECTORAL DROPS, see Pec- 
toral Drops, Bateiuan's. 

BATERION, Bathron. 

BATES'S ALUM WATER, Liquor aluminis 
compositus — b. Anodyne Balsam, Linimentum 
eaponis et opii — b. Camphorated Water, Lotion, 
camphorated, of Bates — b. Collyrium, see Lotion, 
camphorated, of Bates. 

BATH, Anglo-Saxon ba», Bal'neum, Bala- 
ne'um, Baliiie'nm, Loutron, (Old Eng.) Baine, 
(F.) Bain. Immersion, or stay, for a longer or 
shorter duration, of the whole or a part of the 
body, in some medium, as water. Act of plung- 
ing into a liquid, sand, or other substance, in 
which it is the custom to bathe, Plunge Bath. 
Also, the vessel in which the water is put for 
bathing. Also, a public or private establishment 
for bathing. The common water-bath, used for 
hygienic as well as for therapeutical purposes, is 
the Bain simple ou hi/gieniqiie of the French. 

In Pharmacy, a vessel, placed over a fire, and 
filled with any substance, into which another 
vessel is placed, containing matters for digestion, 
evaporation, or distillation. 

Bath, Acid, Bal'iieum ae"idnm {Acid, miiriat. 
ft)ij ; AqiicB cong. Ixvi. One half, one third, or 
one fourth the quantity of acid is more frequently 
employed.) 

Bath, Acid, Scott's, see Scott's Acid Bath — 
b. Air, hot, see Bath, hot — b. Air, warm, see 
Bath, hot. 

Bath, Al'kaline, Bal'neum alkali'nnm. This 
may be made of half a pound or a pound of penrl- 
ush or of carbonate of soda, to sixty-six gallons 
of water. 

Bath, An'imal, Balneum anima'le, consists in 
trapping an animal recently killed, or its skin, 
ground the body, or some part of it. 

Bath, Astipsor'ic, Bal'neum antipso'ricum. 
Recommended in cases of itch and other cuta- 
neous diseases. {Potiw. aulphuret. .^iv, AqiicB 
cong. Ix.) 

Bath, AntisyPHILIt'ic, Bal'neum nntisypUUt'- 
icum, Mercu'rial bath. Made bj' dissolving from 
two drachms to an ounce of the corrosive chloride 
•)f mercury in sixty gallons of water. 



Bath, Ahm, Brachilu'vium. A bath for the arm. 

Bath, Cold, see Bath, hot — b. Cool, see Bath, 
hot. 

Bath, Dry, is one made of ashes, salt, sand, 
Ac. The ancients used these frequently for the- 
rapeutical purposes. 

Bath, Earth, Arenatio. 

Bath, Elec'tric, (F.) Bain (lectrique, consists 
in placing the person upon an insulated stool, 
communicating, by a metallic wire, with the 
principal conductor of the electrical machine in 
action. The Electric Bath produces general ex- 
citement of all the functions, and especially of 
the circulation and secretions. 

Bath, Foot, Pedilu'vium, (F.) Bain de Pied, 
a bath for the feet. 

Bath, Gelat'inous, Bal'iieum gelatino'sum. 
Made by dissolving two pounds of gelatin or gtiie 
in a gallon of icater. A gelatino-sulphurous hath 
may be made by adding a pound of glue, previ- 
ously dissolved in water, to the sulphur bath, 

Bath, General, (F.) Bain Entier, is one in 
which the whole body is plunged, except the 
head: in contradistinction to the partial bath, 
Merohalane' um, Merohal'neum. 

Bath, Half, Semicu'pium. Excathis'mn, lu- 
ees'sio, Inces'sus, is one adapted for half the body. 
One, for receiving only the hips or extremities, is 
also so called. 

The Sitz-both, (G.) Sitzbad, of the hydropa- 
thists is a tub of cold water, in which the patient 
sits for a variable period. 

Bath, Hand, Manulu'vium, (F.) Bain de Main 
ou Mfinuhu-e, is a bath for the hands. 

Bath, Head, Capitilu'vium, (F.) Bain de Tlte 
ou C'ipitiluve, a bath for the head. 

Bath, Hip, Co.r<Blu'vium, (F.) Bain de Fau- 
feuil. Bain de Siige, is one in which the lower 
part of the trunk and upper part of the thighs 
arc immersed. 

Bath, Hot, Balneum Cal'idum, Zestolu'sia, 
(F.) Bain chaud, is a bath, the temperature of 
which is 98° and upwards ; the Warm Bath 
from 92° to 9S° ; the Tepid Bath, (F.) Bain 
Tilde, Balneum tep'idum, from 85° to 92°; the 
Temperate Bath, (F.) Bain temper^, from 75" 
to 85°; the Cool Bath, (F.) Bain frais, from 
60° to 75° ; the Cold Bath, Babuum friy'idum, 
Frigida'riwn, (F.) Bain froid, Bain trig froid, 
(of some,) from 30° to 60°; and the Vapour 
Bath, Balneum vapo'ris, (F.) Bain de Vapenr, 
Etnve Humide, from 100° to 130°, and upwards. 
See Vaporarium. A Warm Aip. Bath, or Hot 
Air Bath, consists of air the temperature of 
which is raised. 

Bath, Med'icated, Balneum Medica'tum, (F.) 
Bain medicinal, is a bath, formed of decoctions 
or infusions of vegetable substances, or of any 
I ingredient, introduced into the water for thera- 
peutical purposes. 

Bath, Mercorial, Bath, antisyphilitic — b. 
Nitro-muriatic acid, Scott's acid bath — b. Plunge, 
see Bath. 

Bath, Sand, Balneum Are'nm, (F.) Bain de 
Sable, consists of a vessel filled with sand, and 
placed over the fire. Into this vessel, the one is 
put which contains the substance to be evapo- 
rated. See Psaramismus. 

Bath, Sea, Balneum mari'num, (F.) Bain d« 
mer. A sea-water bath, 

Bath, Shower, Implu'vium, Hydroco'nium, is 
one in which the water is made to fall like a 
shower on the body. See Douche. 

Bath, Sitz, see Bath, half. 

Bath, Steam, may be formed by introducing 
steam into a properly closed vessel in place of 
water, as in the water bath, 

Bath, Stcces'sion, Traniit"ion bath. A term 



BATH 



121 



BAURAC 



applied to the rapid succession or transition from 
a cold to a warm or hot bath, or conversely. — 
Bell. 

Bath, Sulphur, Bal'neum Sxdph'm-is, Snlphit- 
rett'ed bath. A bath much used iu psora, and 
other chronic cutaneous affections. It may be 
composed of two ounces of diluted sulphuric acid, 
and eight ounces of sulphuret of potassium added 
to each bath ; or simply of the sulphuret of po- 
tassium. 

Bath, Sulphur Vapour, see Sulphurous Acid. 

Bath, Tan. An astringent bath, prepared, at 
times, by boiling two or three handfuls of ground 
oak-bark, — such as is used by tanners — in two 
or three quarts of water, for half an hour, and 
then adding the decoction to the water of the 
bath. 

Bath, Temperate, see Bath, hot — b. Tepid, 
see Bath, hot — b. Transition, Bath, succession — 
b. Vapour, see Bath, hot, and Vaporarium — b. 
Warm, see Bath, hot. 

Bath, Water, Balneum Ifar'icB seu Maris, 
{¥.) Bain 3Iarie, in chemistry, consists of a ves- 
sel filled with boiling water, or salt water, in 
which the vessel is placed, that contains the sub- 
stance to be evaporated. 

Bathing is much employed in the treatment of 
disease. The cold bath, especially the cold sea 
bath, is a sedative and indirect tonic : the warm 
bath a relaxant; and the hot bath a stimulant. 

The regular use of the bath is extremely con- 
ducive to health ; but if too much indulged in, it 
is apt to produce injurious effects. 

BATH ALUM SPRINGS, see Virginia, 
Mineral Waters of. 

BATH, MINERAL WATERS OF, Aqna 
Batho'nicB vel Bad'iza, Aqitm Soli's, AqucB Bad'- 
igu(B. Celebrated thermal springs at Bath, in 
England. They contain but little impregnation, 
and are chiefly indebted to their temperature, 
from 112° to 117° Fahrenheit, for their utility. 
The main ingredients are sulphate of lime, chlo- 
ride of sodium, sulphate of soda, carbonate of 
lime, protoxide of iron, free carbonic acid and 
aaote. 

These waters are employed in the most hete- 
rogeneous cases; and are serviceable where the 
simple thermal springs are indicated, as in rheu- 
matism, paralysis, <fcc. 

BATH SPRINGS, in Berkley County, Vir- 
ginia, is a mild carbonated water : temperature 
73° Fahr. It is a useful bath in cutaneous affec- 
tions, and is said to contain some of the salts of 
lime and magnesia. 

BA'THER, same etymon ; Balnea'rius, Bali- 
uea'tor, Balnea'tor, (F.) Baigneur. One who 
bathes. Anciently, the name was given to those 
that administered baths to the diseased, — the 
Mtuvistes of the French. At the present day, in 
remote districts in Germany, the country people 
call their medical practitioners Bader or 'bath- 
men,' and Feldscheeren or 'army barbers.' 

BATHING, see Bath. 

BATHMIS, Bathmna, 'base, support.' The 
cavity of a bone, which receives the eminence of 
another; and especially the two Fossettes at the 
inferior extremity of the humerus into which the 
processes of the ulna are received, during the 
flexion and extension of the fore-arm. 

BATHRON, Bathrum Hippoc'ratis, Scamnum 
Hippoc'ratis, Bate'rion, 'a step, a ladder.' (F.) 
Banc d'Hippocrate. An instrument, used for the 
extension of a limb, in cases of fracture or luxa- 
tion. The description of it is found in Galen, 
Oribasius, and Scultetus, with a figure. 

BATHRUM HIPPOCRATIS, Bathron. 

BATIA, Retort. 

BATISSE. MINERAL WATERS OF. Ba- 



tisse is three leagues from Clermont, in France. 
The water is tepid, and contains subcarbonate 
and sulphate of soda, sulphates of lime and iron, 
muriate of magnesia, and carbonate of lime. 

BATOS, Rubus Idseus. 

BATRACHUS, Ranula. 

BATTALISM'US, Battaria'mus, from iarrapi- 
l^tiv, 'to stammer.' Balbuties. Stammering with 
incapacity to pronounce the R. 

BATT'ALUS, Bat'tarus, same etymon. A 
stammerer, a stutterer. 

BATTARISMUS, Battalismus. 

BATTARUS, Battalus. 

BATTATA VIRGINIANA, Solanum tubero- 
sum. 

BATTEMENS DOUBLES, see Bruit du 
Cceur foetal. 

BATTEMENT, Pulsation. 

BAUDRICOURT, MINERAL WATERS OF, 
Baudricourt is a town of France, two leagues 
and a half from Mirecourt. The waters are sul* 
phureous. 

BAUDRUCHES, Condom. 

BAUHIN, VALVE OF, Valve of Tul'pius, 
V. of Fallo'pius, V. of Varo'lius, Il'co-ccecal 
Valve, Ileo-colic Valve, Val'vnla Ilei, Val'vula 
Coli, V. CcBci, Oper'cidum Ilei, Sphincter Ilei. 
This name is given to the valve situate trans- 
versely at the place where the ileum opens into 
the coecum, and which Bauhin says he discovered 
at Paris, in 1759. It had, however, been pre- 
viously described by several anatomists ; as by 
Vidus Vidius, Postius, &c. 

BAU3IE, Balsam — h. d'Acier, Balsam, chaly- 
beate — b. d'Aignilles, Balsam, chalybeate — 6. 
d'AmSrique, see Toluifera balsamum — b. Apo- 
plectique, Balsam, apoplectic — b. d'Arc<En8,AT- 
cseus, balsam of; see, also, Balsam of Arcteus — 
b. d'Arceus, Unguentum elemi compositum — 
b. Aromatique, Balsam, aromatic — b. Benjoin, 
Benjamin — b. Blanc, see Amyris Opobalsamum — 
b. du Bresil, Copaiba — b. de Canada, see Pinus 
balsamea — b. de Cannelle, Laurus cinnamomum 
— b. de Carpathie, Balsam of Carpathia — b: de 
Carthagene, see Toluifera balsamum — b. de Con- 
stantinople blanc, see Amyris opobalsamum — b. 
de Copahti, Copaiba — b. Cordiale de Sennerte, 
Balsa,m, cordial, of Sennertus — b. d'Eau a feuillea 
ridees, Mentha crispa — 6. de Feuillet, Balsam, 
green, of Metz — b. de Fioraventi spiritueuse, Bal- 
sam, spirituous, of Fioraventi — b. de Fourcroy ou 
de Laborde, Balsam of Fourcroy or Laborde — b. 
des Funerailles, Asphaltum — b. de Galaad, see 
Amyris opobalsamum — 6. de Genevieve, Balsam 
of Genevieve — b. Grand, Tanacetum balsamita 
— b. du Grand Caire, see Amyris opobalsamum 
— 6. Hydriodat^, Balsam, ioduretted — b. Hypnoti- 
que, Balsam, Hypnotic — b. Bysterique, Balsam, 
hysteric — b. des hides, see Myroxylon Peruiferum 
— b. lodurS, Balsam, ioduretted — b. des Jardins, 
Mentha viridis — b. c?e ideated Balsam, Luc.Ttelli's 
— b. Marie, see Fagara octandra — b. de Jfvmie, As- 
phaltum — 6. Nervin, Balsam, nervous — b. de 
Perou,see Myroxylon Peruiferum — b. de Saint- 
Thomas, see Toluifera balsamum — b. du Somari- 
tain. Balsam of the Samaritan — 6. Saxon, Balsam, 
Saxon — b. de Soufre, Balsam of sulphur — b. de 
Synipathie, Balsam of sympathy — b. Tranquille, 
Balsam, tranquil — b. de Tola, see Toluifera 
balsamum — 6. de Vanille, Vanilla — b. Vert, see 
Fagara octandra — 6. Vert de Metz, Balsam, green, 
of Metz— 6. de Vie d'Hoffmann, Balsam of Life, 
of Hoffmann — b. de Vie de Lelievre, Tinctura 
aloes composita — b. Vrai, see Amyris opobal- 
samum — b. Vulneraire de Minderer, Balsam, vul- 
nerary, of Mindererus. 
BA UMIER, Babamier. 

BAURAC, {Arab.) Nitre, or sa't in generaL 
From this word comes Borax. 



BAURIN 



122 



BEDFORD 



BAURIN, MINERAL WATERS OF. Baurin 
Is a village four leagues from Roye, department of 
Somme. The waters are strongly chalybeate. 

BAVECF.), Sall'va ex ore fiuena, Spuma, Hu- 
mor Salt'vus. Frothy, thick, viscid saliva, issu- 
ing from the mouth. This drivelling or slaver- 
ing, we see in children, old people, Ac. The term 
is, also, applied to the frothy liquid, which flows 
from the mouth of rabid animals. Sauvages uses 
it synonymously with salivation. 

BAVEUX, Bnveuse, an epithet, occasionally 
applied by the French to the spongy flesh of a 
wound, which suppurates, and exhibits but little 
tendency to heal. 

BAY, CASTOR, Magnolia glauca— b. Rose, 
Rhododendron chrysanthemum — b. Rose, Ame- 
rican, Rhododendron maximum — b. Sweet, Lau- 
rus — b. White, Magnolia glauca and M. macro- 
phylla. 

BDALSIS, Sucking. 
■ BDELLA, Hirudo. 
BDEL'LIUM, Myrrha imper/ec'taf Bolchon, 
Jfadeleon, Balckiia. A gum-resin, brought from 
the Levant and India, and supposed to be ob- 
tained from a species of Amyris, little known. 
It is solid, brittle, of a deep brown colour, of an 
acrid and bitter taste, and sweet odour. It was 
much vaunted by the ancients, but is now little 
employed. Two dilferent gum-resins have been 
in the shops, distinguished by the names Indian 
and African bdellium. Dr. Royle was informed 
that the former was obtained from Ani'yris Com- 
miph'ora, growing in India and Madagascar. 
The latter is said to be from Heudelo'tia Afri- 
ca'na, which grows in Senegal. 

BDELLOM'ETER, from (iScWa, 'a leech,' 
(jSi^iXXo), 'I suck,') and jierpov, ' measure.' An in- 
strument, proposed as a substitute for the leech; 
inasmuch as we can tell the quantity of blood ob- 
tained! by it, whilst we cannot by the leech. It 
consists of a cupping-glass, to which a scarifica- 
tor and exhausting syringe are attached. 
BDELLUS, Fart. 
BDELYGMIA, Fart. 
BDELYGMUS, Fart. 
BDESMA, Flatulence. • 
BDOLUS, Fart. 

BEAD TREE, Melia Azedaraeh. 
BEAL, Phlegmon, to Suppurate. 
BEALING, Pregnant. 

BEAN, CARTHAGENA, Habilla de Cartha- 
gena — b. Egyptian, Nymphaea nelumbo — b. 
French, Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Garden, com- 
mon, Vicia faba — b. Indian, Catalpa — b. Kidney, 
Phaseolus vulgaris — b. Malacca, Avicennia to- 
mentosa — b. Pontic, Nymphaea nelumbo — b. 
Red, Abrus precatorius — b. Sacred, Nelumbium 
luteum — b. St. Ignatius's, Ignatia amara — b. 
Tonka, Dipterix odorata — b. Tree, Catalpa — b. 
Tree, white, Cratregus aria. 

Bi^AN Trefoil Tree, see Cytisine. 
BEARBERRY, Arbutus uva ursi. 
BEARD, (Sax.) heap. tt, (G.) Bart., Barha, 
Pogon, Genei'on, Barhi'tium, (F.) Barhe. The 
hair which covers a part of the cheek, the lips, 
and chin of the male sex, at the age of puberty. 

BEAR'S BREECH, Acanthus mollis--b. Foot, 
Helleborus foetidus — b. Fright, Iloptallon gra- 
veolens — b. Grass, Yucca filamentosa — b. Whor- 
tleberrv. Arbutus uva ursi. 

BEARWEED, Veratrum viride, 
BEASTINGS, Colostrum. 
BEASTLINGS. Colostrum. 
BEATING OF THE HEART, see Heart. 
BEAUGENCY, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Beaugency is a quarter of a league from Orleans. 
The waters contain subcarbonate of soda, iron, 
magnesia, and lime. They are tonic and aperient. 



BEAUMONT ROOT, Gillenia trifoliata. 

BEAUVAIS, MINERAL WATERS OF. These 
waters are chalybeate. Beauvais is in Picardie, 
France. 

BEAVER, Castor fiber— b. Wood, Celtis occi- 
dentalis. Magnolia glauca — b. Tree, Magnolia 
glauca, M. macrophylla. 

BEBEERIA, see Bebeeru. 

BEBEERINE, see Bebeeru. 

BEBEERU, Sipeeri. A tree of British Gui- 
ana, which yields two alkalies — Beheerine, Behee'- 
rina, Behee'ria or Bibcrine, and Sipeerine; and 
in its properties resembles the Cinchonas. It haa 
been referred to Nectan'dra Rodiei. Ord. Lau- 
rineaj. The timber of the tree is known to ship- 
builders by the name bibiru or green-heart. The 
Sulphate of Bebeeria has been employed in inter- 
mittents. Warbxirg'a Fever Brojys, Tinctn'ra an- 
tifebri'lis Warbur'gi, an empirical antiperiodic 
preparation, have by some been considered to be 
a tincture of the seeds of the Bebeeru, but this is 
questionable. 

BEC, (F.) Rostrum, Beak. This name has been 
applied to various parts. 

BEC CORACO'tDIEN, (F.) Cor'aeoid beak, is 
the end of the coracoid process. 

BEG DE CUILLER, Ham'ulus. An instru- 
ment used for the extraction of balls. It consists 
of an iron rod, 7 or 8 inches long, having at one 
extremity a small cavity, into which the ball is 
received to be drawn outwards. See Cochleari- 
formis. 

BEQ DE GRUE 3TUSQUE, Geranium Mos- 
chatum — b. de Grue Robertin, Geranium Roberti- 
annm — h. de Lihvre, Harelip. 

BEO DE LA PLUME A ECRIRE {¥.), 
Beak of the Calamus Scripfo'rius, is a small cavity 
at the superior part of the medulla oblongata, 
which forms part of the 4th ventricle. 

BEC, (Le.) MINERAL WATERS OF. Bee 
is six leagues from Rouen, in Normandy. The 
water is strongly chalybeate. 

BECCABUNGA, Veronica Beccabunga. 

BECHiESTHE'SIS, from fiv^, (ipxof, 'cough,' 
and aiaGriaig, 'sensation.' The excitement or de- 
sire to cough. 

BECHIA, Tussis. 

BECHIAS, Tussis. 

BE'CHICS, Be'chica, Becha, Bec'chica, Be'. 
ch.lta, from fir)^, fivX"^' ' cough,' (F.) iJecAijuM. 
Medicines adapted for allaying cough. 

BECHITA, Bechic. 

BECHIUM, Tussilago. 

BECHORTHOPNCEA, Pertussis. 

BECUIBA, Ibicuiba. 

BED, HYDROSTATIC, Water bed— b. Water, 
Arnott's, see Water bed. 

BED'EGAR, Bedeguar, Bedeguard, Spon'gia 
Cynos'bati, Fungus Rosa'rum, F. Cynos'bati, (F.) 
Pomme mousscuse, Epunge d'eglantier. An ex- 
crescence, which makes its appearance on dif- 
ferent species of wild roses, and which is pro- 
duced by the puncture of a small insect, — Cy- 
nips Rosa;. It was formerly employed as a 
lithontriptic and vermifuge, but is not now used. 
It was slightly astringent. 

BEDFORD, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bed- 
ford is a village, situate on the great Western 
Turnpike road from Philadelphia to Pittsburg, a 
few miles east of the chief elevation of the Alle- 
ghany mountains. The " Springs" are about a 
mile and a half from the village. They are saline 
and sulphureous. The most celebrated — the 
" Mineral Spring" or "Anderson's Spring"— con- 
tains carbonic acid, sulphate of magnesia, chlo- 
rides of sodium and calcium, and carbonate of 
iron, but none of these articles in great quan- 
tity ; hence, the main action of the waters is diu- 



BEDLAM 



123 



BELL METAL 



retic. At some distance from the Springs, there 
13 a chalybeate water; and about 10 miles S. W. 
of Bedford, at Milliken's Cove, a strong sulphure- 
ous spring. The climate of Bedford Springs is 
agreeable. During the heat of summer, the 
nights are generally cool. In the morning of 
July 14, 1853, the author marked the thermome- 
ter," at five o'clock, A. M., at 45°. Three days 
before, however, it was at 70° at the same hour. 
BEDLAM, Morotrophium. 
BEDLAMITE, Insane. 

BEDSTRAW, Galium verum — b. Ladies, 
greater, Galium, moUugo, Galium verum — b. 
Rough, Galium asprellum — b. Ladies, rough, 
Galium asprellum. 

BEE, Sax. beo. Apis, A. melh'f'ica sen domest'ica, 
Melis'aa, Jlelit'ta, (F.) Abeille. This insect was 
formerly exhibited, when dried and powdered, as 
a diuretic. 

Bee in the Bonnet, see Insanity. 
BEEBREAD, Propolis. 

BEECH, Fagus sylvatica — b. Drop, Orobanche 
Virginiana — b. Drops, false, Hypopitys lanugi- 
nosa. 

Beech, Albant, Pterospora Andromedea. 
Beech, Mast, see Fagus sylvatica. 
BEEDY'S EYES, Viola tricolor. 
BEEF ESSENCE, see Beef tea. 
Beef Tea, /ks hovi'num. An infusion of beef, 
much used in debilitating maladies, and in con- 
valescence. It may be made as follows : Take 
two pounds and a half of lean heef: cut it, in 
small pieces, into three parts of joaie?- in an earthen 
pipkin : let this simmer, but never boil, until the 
liquor is consumed to a pint and a half: then 
strain carefully. It ought to be entirely free 
from fat or grease. — Dr. E. J. Seymour. 

Essence of beef — as it has been called — may be 
made by putting a pound of good beef, freed from 
fat, and cut into small pieces, into a porter-bot- 
tle, corking lightly. The bottle must be put into 
boiling water, and kept there until the water has 
been boiling at least half an hour. As the boil- 
ing goes on, the cork may be inserted a little 
more tightly, to retain the contents of the bottle. 
The juices of the beef are thus separated, and 
constitute the ' essence,' which may be seasoned 
to the taste. It contains much nutriment. 
BEEN, Centaurea behen. 
BEER, Cerevisia — b. Black, see Falltranck — 
b. Chowder, see Chowder — b. Pipsissewa, see 
Pyrola umbellata. 

Beer, Jews', See Pinus sylvestris — b. Springs, 
Bee Water, Mineral (gaseous.) 

Beer, Spruce, Cerevis'ia Ahie'tis, may be 
prepared as follows. Take of Essence of Spruce, 
half a pint ; Pimento, bruised ; Ginger, bruised ; 
Ho})8, of each, four ounces ; water, three gallons. 
Boil for five or ten minutes; strain, and add of 
warm water eleven gallons; yeast, a pint; molas- 
ses, six pints. Mix and allow to ferment for twenty 
hours. Used as an agreeable drink in summer. 
Beer, Tar, see Pinus sylvestris. 
BEET, Beta. 
BEEST, Colostrum. 
BEESTINGS, Colostrum. 
BEETLEWEED, Galax aphylla. 
BEGAIEMENT, Balbuties. 
BEGMA, — according to some. Bregma, — from 
priaotiv or fSpijaaeip,, 'to expectorate after cough- 
ing.' Coughing ; also, the sputum or expecto- 
rated matter. — Hippocrates. 

BEGO'NIA. The B'egonia grandiflo'ra and 
B. tomento'sa have astringent roots, which are 
used in Peru in cases of hemorrhage, scurvy, low 
fevers, <fcc. 
BEGUE, Balbus. 



BEHEN ABIAD, Centaurea behen — h. Al- 
bum, Centaurea behen — 6. Officinarum, Cucu- 
balus behen — h. Rouge, Statice limonium — 6. 
\''ulgaris, Cucubalus behen. 

BEHMEN ACKMAR, Statice limonium. 

BEIAHALALEN, Sempervivum tectorum. 

BEIDELSAR, Asclepias procera. 

BEIST, Colostrum. 

BEISTINGS, Colostrum. 

BEISTYN, Colostrum. 

BEJUIO, Habilla de Carthagena. 

BELA-AYE or BE-LAHE, A tonic and 
astringent bark of a Madagascar tree. Du-petit- 
Thouars and Sonnerat think it may be substi- 
tuted for the Simarouba. 

BELADAMBOC. A species of convolvulus of 
the Malabar coast, which contains an acrid milky 
juice. From this a liniment is formed with oil 
and ginger, which is used against the bites of 
rabid animals. 

BE-LAHE, Bela-aye. 

BELA-MODAGAM. A kind of Sca'vola of the 
Malabar coast, the leaves of which are considered 
diuretic and eramenagogue. 

BEL ANDRE, (F.) A litter, surrounded with 
curtains, in which patients are sometimes carried 
to hospitals. 

BELCHING, Eructation. 

BELD, Athrix. ' 

BELEMNOID, Belenoid. 

BELEMNOIDES PROCESSUS, Styloid pro- 

BEL'ENOID, BEL'ONOID, BEL'EMNOID 
or BEL'OID, Belenoi'des or Belemno'i'des Pro- 
ces'sus, from [it\os, ' an arrow,' and £1^05, ' shape/ 
This name has been given to styloid processes 
in general — Processus belenoi'des. 

BELESME, see Bellesme. 

BELESON, Balsam, Musssenda frondosa. 

BELILLA, Musscenda frondosa. 

BELINUM, Apium Graveolens. 

BELI OCULUS, Bellocnlus. 

BELL, CANTERBURY, Campanula trache- 
lium. 

BELLADONE, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLADON'NA, in the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, is the officinal name of the leaves 
of Atropa Belladonna. 

Belladonna Baccifbra, Atropa belladonna — 
b. Trichotoma, Atropa belladonna. 

BELLADONNIN, Atropine. 

BELLE-BLOME, Narcissus pseudo-narcissua. 

BELLE DAME, Atropa belladonna. 

BECLEGU, Myrobalanus. 

BELLEREGI, Myrobalanus. 

BELLESME, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Bellesme is about three leagues from Montague, 
in France. The waters are chalybeate. 

BELLEY, MINERAL WATERS OF. The 
waters at Belley, department of Ain, in France, 
are saline aperients. 

BELLFLOWER, Narcissus pseudo-narcissus. 

BELLIDOIDES, Chrysanthemum leueanthe- 
mum. 

BELLIS, Bellus, ('pretty,') Bellia peren'ma 
sen minor sen horten'sis, Sym'phytum min'imum, 
Bruisewort, Common Daisy, (Sc.) Ewe-goivan, 
(Prov.) Bairnicorts, (F.) Paquerette vivace, petite 
JIarguerite. Ord. Compositae. The leaves and 
flowers are rather acrid. They were, at one time, 
considered to cure different species of wounds. 
See Osmitopsis asteriscoides. 

Bellis Hortensis, Bellis — b. Major, Chrysan- 
themum leucanthemum — b. Minor, Bellis — b. 
Perennis, Bellis — b. Pratensis, Chrysanthemum 
leucanthemum. 

BELLIT, Athrix. 

BELL METAL, Cal'cocos, (F.) Airain, MStal . 
dea cloches. An alloy of copper, zinc, tin, tuid a 



BELLOCULUS 



12 1 



BERBERIS 



small quantity of antimony, used for making 
bells. The mortars of the apothecary are often 
formed of this material. They require to be kept 
clean, to avoid the formation of verdigris. 

BELLOCULUS, Belt Oc'uliis. A kind of gem, 
which the Assyrians considered efficacious in the 
cure of many diseases. They imagined that the 
figure of an eye could be seen in it, and hence its 
name, Bel's Eye, from the god Bel. 

BELLON, Colic, metallic. 

BELLOTAS, see Ilex major. 

BELLOWS' SOUND, Bruit de aoufflet — h. s. 
Encephalic, see Bruit de soufflet. 

Bellows' Sound, Funic, a single murmur of 
the bellows kind, sj'nehronous with the first sound 
of the heart; heard by some observers, and re- 
ferred by them to diminished calibre of the um- 
bilical arteries, either by pressure or stretching 
of the funis, or both. 

Bellows' Sound, Placental, Bruit placen- 
i.aire. 

BELLWORT, SMALLER, Uvularia perfoliata. 

BELLY, Venter, from Ir. holg, 'the belly, a bag 
or pouch' [?]. At the present day, the abdomen. 
Formerly, all the splanchnic cavities Were called 
'bellies ; — the lower belly, venter in'/imua, being 
the abdomen ; the middle belly, venter me'dius, 
the thorax; &T\i the upper belly, venter supre'mus, 
the head. Also, the womb. See Venter. 

BELLY-ACH, Colica. 

Belly-ach, Dry, Colica metallica. 

Belly-ach Root, Angelica lucida. 

BELLY-BAND, Belt, Russian. 

BELLY-BOUND, Constipated. 

BELLY-GOD, Glutton. 

BELLY-HARM, Colic. 

BELLY, POT, Physconia, 

BELLY-THRA, Colic. 

BELLY-TIMBER, Aliment. 

BELLY-WARK, Colic. 

BELMUSCHUS, Hibiscus abelmoschus. 

BELNILEG, Myrobalanus. 

BELOID, Belenoid. 

BELOIDES PROCESSUS, Styloid processes. 

BELONE. Needle. 

BELONODES, Styloid. 

BELONOID, Belenoid. 

BEL'S EYE, Belloculus. 

BELT, RUSSIAN, Fe7i<ra7e,— vulgarly, Belly- 
band, — Abdominal supporter. A broad bandage 
applied to the abdomen, so as to support, and make 
methodical pressure upon it. Different forms have 
been termed obstetric binders, utero-abdominal 
tupporters, kc. 

BELUL'CUM, from /^eXo;, 'a dart,' and 'cUu,, 
'I draw out.' An instrument used for extracting 
darts or arrows. Many instruments of this kind 
have been noticed by surgeons. — Ambrose Pare, 
Fabricius ab Aquapendente. 

BELZOE, Benjamin. 

BELZOIM, Benjamin. 

BELZOINUM, Benjamin. 

BEN, Gnilandina moringa — b. of Judaea, Ben- 
jamin — b. Nut, Guilandina moringa. 

BENATH, Pustule. 

BENE DICTA SYLVESTRIS, Geum rivale. 

BENEDICTUM LAXATIVUM, Confectio 
senntE. 

BENEFICE DE LA NATURE, Beneficium 
natura- — b. de Ventre, see Beneficium naturae. 

BENEFICIUM NATU'R^, (F.) Benefice de 
la nature. This term is used by the French pa- 
thologists for cases in which diseases have got well 
without medical treatment. With them, Binffice 
ie nature, or B. de ventre, is synonymous also with 
AlviProflu'vium ; — a spontaneous diarrhoea, often 
acting favourably either in the prevention or cure 
of disease. 

BENEL, Croton racemosum. 



BEXEOLENS,from bene, 'well,' and olere, 'to 
smell.' Euo'des, Suaveolens. A sweet-scented 
medicine, as gums, &c. 

BENG, Bangue. 

BENGALE INDORUM, Cassumuniar. 

BENGAL ROOT, Cassumuniar. 

BENGI, Hyoscyamus. 

BENIGN', Benig'nus, Eneth'es, (F.) Benin, 
Benigne. Diseases of a mild character are so 
called : as well as medicines whose action is not 
violent, as a. Benign Fever, Febris benig'na impu'- 
tris, &c. 

BENIN, Benign. 

BEN'JAMIN, corruption of Ben'zoin, Benzo'- 
inum (Ph. U. S.), B. verum, Assn odora'ta seu 
dulcis, Benjui, Benjuin, Asa or Ben'juoy, Benjo'- 
inum, Belzoe, Belzoim, Ben'zoe, Sty'racis Benzo'- 
ini Bal'samum, Liquor Cyreni'acus, Croton Ben- 
zoe, Ben of Judas' a, Acor Benzo'inus, Sal Ac"idum 
seu essentia'le seu volat'ile Benzoes, (F.) Benjoin, 
Baume Benjoin, Assa doux. A resinous, dry, 
brittle substance, the concrete juice of Sty>y(x 
Benzoin, Arbor Benivi, Laurus Benzoin, of Su- 
matra. The odour is extremely fragBant, and 
taste slightly aromatic. It is principally used 
for the preparation of the acid which it contains. 
It is also employed in some vulnerary tinctures, 
and as an expectorant. Benzoic Acid, Ac"idnm 
Benzo'icum, is obtained from it by sublimation. 
The purest Benjamin is in amygdaloid masses: 
hence called (F.) Benjoin amygdalo'ide. 

Benjamin Bush, Laurus benzoin. 

Benjamin, Flowers of, Ben'zoie Acid, Ac"- 
idum Benzo'icum seu Benzoylicum, Flores Benzoe» 
seu Benzo'ini, Ac"idum Benzo'icttm per sublima- 
tio'nem, (F.) Acide Benzoique, Flews de Benjoin. 
This acid exists in all the balsams, but chiefly in 
Benzoin, from which it is obtained by sublima- 
tion. It is in vanilla, canella, the urine of in- 
fants, and of herbivorous animals. Its odour is 
aromatic and fragrant; taste hot, slightly acidu- 
lous, and agreeable. The crystals consist of 
white, satiny flakes, slightly ductile. It is pro. 
bably stimulant ; and has been used, as such, ia 
chronic catarrh ; but it has little efficacy. 

BENJAOY, Benjamin. 

BENJOIN, Benjamin. 

BENJOINUM, Benjamin. 

BENJUL Benjamin. 

BEN MOENJA. A Malabar tree. An alexi- 
pharmic decoction is made of its roots, in the 
country, which is much praised in cases of malig- 
nant fever. Its bark, boiled with Calamus aroma- 
ticns and salt, forms a decoction used in bites of 
poisonous serpents. 

BENNE, Sesamum orientale. 

BENNET, HERB, Geum urbanum, and G 
Virginianum. 

BENOITE, Geum urbanum — 6. AqHatiql^e^ 
Geum rivale — b. des Ruisseaux, Geum rivale — 
b. de Virginie, Geum Virginianum. 

BENZENE, Benzole. 

BENZIN, Benzole, see Anaesthetic 

BENZOATE OF AMMONIA, Ammoniso ben- 
zoas. 

BENZOE, Benjamin. 

BENZOENIL, Vanilla. 

BENZOIN, Benjamin — b. Odoriferum, Laanu 
Benzoin. 

BEN'ZOLE, Benzin, Benzene, Phene, Hy'dru- 
ret of Phen'yle. A constituent of coal-gas tar, 
obtained by distilling coal naphtha. It is a co- 
lourless, oleaginous liquid, of agreeable odour. 
Sp. gr. 0-85. The vapour, when inhaled, acta at 
an anajstbetic. 

BERBERINE, see Oxyacantha Galcni 

BERBERIS, Oxyacantha Galeni--!) Cana- 
densis, see Oxyacantha Galeni. 



BEREINE 



125 



BEZOAR 



BERBINE, Verbena officinalis. 

BERCE, Heracleum spondylium. 

BEREXDAROS, Ocymum basilicum. 

BERENICE, Succinum. 

BERENICIUM, Potassee nitras. 

BERENISECUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BERGAMOT', Bergamote, Bergamot'ta, (F.) 
Bergamotte. A small orange, of a very agreeable 
taste, and peculiar odour. From its rind an oil, 
Oleum Berr/n'mii (Ph. U. S.), is obtained, which 
is much emiiloyed as a perfume, and sometimes 
in medicine. See Citrus mella rosa. 

BER'IBERI, Berihe'ria, Syn'domia Beribe'- 
ria, Indusyn' clonus, Paral'ysis Ber'iheri, from 
heri in the Singhalese language, which signifies 
* weakness;' therefore, beriberi, ' great weakness.' 
This word is also said to be Kindusthanee, and 
to mean a sheep. — Bontius. Beriberi is an In- 
dian disease, little known in Europe. It con- 
sists in debility and tremors of the limbs, — some- 
times, indeed, of the whole body ; with painful 
numbness of the aflfected parts, &c.: — the patient 
walking doubled, and imitating the movements 
of sheep ! Some authors have esteemed it rheu- 
matic; others, paralytic; others, to be a kind of 
chorea. Itis, almost always, incurable; is rarely 
fatal; and is treated by exercise, stimulant fric- 
tion, sudorifics, &c. It is sometimes called 
Bar'biers, but this would seem to be a different 
disease. 

BERICOCCE, Prunus armeniaca. 

BERKLEY SPRINGS, see Bath Springs. 

BERLE NODIFLORE, Slum. 

BERL UE, Metamorphopsia. 

BERMU'DAS, CLIMATE OF. Pulmonary 
invalids are occasionally sent to Bermuda, but 
the principal objection to a winter residence 
there, is the prevalence of strong winds; espe- 
cially of the dry, sharp, and cold north-west 
winds, during the winter and spring. Still, it 
affords a good winter retreat for the phthisical, 
from any part of the United States, provided due 
care be selected in choosing a suitable locality. 
The neighbourhood of Hamilton has been strongly 
recommended with this view. 

BERNARD THE HERMIT, Cancellus. 

BERRIES, INDIAN, see Menispermum coc- 
culus — b. Turkey, yellow, see Piper cubeba. 

BERS. A sort of electuary, composed of pep- 
per, seed of the white hyoscyamus, opium, euphor- 
bium, saffron, <fcc. The Egyptians used it as an 
excitant. — Prospero Alpini. 

BERU, MINERAL WATERS OF. Beru is 
in Champagne, France. The waters are slightly 
chalybeate. 

BERULA, Slum nodiflorum — b. Angustifolia, 
Sium nodiflorum. 

BESASA, Ruta. 

BESICLES, Spectacles. 

BESOIN, Want— 6. de Respirer, see Want— 
h. de la Vie, Necessary of life. 

BESSANEM. A word used by Avicenna, for 
redness of the skin, limbs, and face, produced by 
the action of cold. 

BESSON, \ r, n ,1 

BESSONNE, \ ^'® Gemellus. 

BETA. The Beet, Sic'ula, (F.) Bette, Bette- 
rave. Family, Chenopodeae. Sex. Syst. Pentan- 
dria Digynia. A genus of plants, of which the 
following are the chief varieties : 

Beta Hy'brida, Root of Scarcity. Root red, 
outside; white, within. Very nutritive; yields 
sugar. 

Beta Vulga'ris Alba, White Beet. The root 
yields sugar, and the leaves are eaten as a sub- 
stitute for spinach. 

Beta Vulga'ris Rubra, Red Beet. Root red 
and nutritive ; yields a small quantity of sugar. 

BETAYNE, Betonica officinalis. 



BETEL, Piper Betel, Chavica betle. A species 
of pepper, cultivated in several parts of India. 
The East Indians are in the habit of chewing 
the leaves with lime and areca; and they give 
the name Betel to this preparation. It is used in 
all the equatorial countries of Asia. Betel is said 
to be tonic and astringent. It is also called ^e«e, 
Beire, Betle. See Areca. 

BETHROOT, Trillium latifolium — b. Broad- 
leaf, Trillium latifolium. 

BETISE, Dementia. 

BETOINE, Betonica officinalis — b. des Mo% 
tagnes. Arnica montana — b. des Savoyards, Ar- 
nica montana. 

BETON, Colostrum. 

BETONICA AQUATICA, Scrophularia aqua- 
tica. 

Beton'ica Officina'lis, B. purpu'rea, Vet- 
ton'ica, Cestron, Bet'orty, Wood Betony, (Old 
Eng.) Betayne, Psychot'rophum, Veroni'ca pur- 
pu'rea, (F.) Betoine. Order, Labiatas. Sex. Syst. 
Didynamia Gymnospermia. Betony was in much 
esteem amongst the ancients, who employed the 
flowers and leaves, in decoction, in gout, sciatica, 
cephalalgia, &c. It was so called, according to 
Pliny, from being in great repute among the Vet- 
tones or Bettones, an ancient people of Spain. 
Antonius Musa is said to have written a volume 
in praise of it ; recommending it in no less than 
47 different diseases. It has, however, little or 
no virtue. The leaves are said to be aperient, 
and the root emetic. 

Betonica Pauli, Veronica. 

BETONY, Betonica officinalis— b. Paul's, Ly- 
copus sinuatus, Lycopus Virginicus, Veronica — 
b. Water, Scrophularia aquatica — b.Wood, Beto- 
nica officinalis. 

BETRE, Betel. 

BETTE, Beta. 

BETTER AVE, -Beta,. 

BET'ULA ALBA, Y.r„xv6a. The Birch, (Sc.) 
Birk, (F.) Bouleau commun. Order, Betulacete. 
The young leaves are slightly odorous, astrin- 
gent, and bitter. They are applied to wounds 
and ulcers. They have been regarded as anti- 
scorbutic and anthelmintic. The tree furnishes 
a saccharine juice, which is considered antiscor- 
butic and diuretic. 

Betula Emarginata, Alnus glutinosa — b. Glu- 
tinosa, Alnus glutinosa. 

Betula Lenta, Sweet Birch, Black Birch, 
Cherry Birch, Mountain Mahogany, is an Ame- 
rican species, the bark and leaves of which have 
the smell and taste of Gaultheria procumbens. 
An infusion is sometimes made of them, and used 
as an excitant and diaphoretic. The volatile oil 
is nearly, if not wholly, identical with that of 
Gaultheria. 

BEURRE, Butter— J. de Bambouc, Butter of 
bambouc — 6. de Cacao, Butter of cacao — h. de 
Coco, Butter of cocoa — b. Vegetale, Persea gratis- 
sima. 

BEUVRIGNY, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Beuvrigny is in the vicinity of Bayeux, in Nor- 
mandy. The water is chalybeate. 

BEVERAGE, Drink. 

BEVUE, Diplopia. 

BEX, Tussis — b. Convulsiva, Pertussis — b. Hu- 
mida. Expectoration — b. Theriodes, Pertussis. 

BEXIS, Tussis. 

BEXU'GO. Under this name, a purgative 
root was formerly introduced into Europe from 
Peru. It is supposed to have been the root of a 
Hippocratea. 

BEZ'0AR,i?e2'crar, Bez'ehard, Pa'zahar, from 
Persian Pa, 'against,' and zahar, poison. Laj^is 
Bezoar'dicut, Cal'culus Bez'oar, Enterol'ithns Be- 
soar'dus, Bezoard. A calculous concretion, found 



BUZOARD D'ALLEMAGNE 12f 



BICHO 



in the stomach, intestines, and bladder of ani- I 
mals. Wonderful virtues were formerly attri- 
buted to these Bezoars. There were two great 
varieties: the Bez'oar orienta'le, An'imal Bezoar'- 
ticum orienta'le, formed in the fourth stomach of 
the gazelle of India [Gazel'la In'dica, or rather 
Antilo'pus cei-vica'pra:) and the Bez'oar occiden- 
ta'le, Animal Bezoar'ticum occidenta'le, found in 
the fourth stomach of the wild goat or chamois 
of Peru. These substances were esteemed to be 
powerful alexipharmics ; but the former was the 
more valued. It was believed that no poison, 
and no eruptive, pestilential, or putrid disease, 
could resist its influence. As so many virtues 
were ascribed to it, other animal concretions were 
substituted for it; and factitious Bezoards were 
made of crabs' eyes and claws, bruised and mixed 
with musk, ambergris, Ac. 

Bez'oar Bovi'num, (F.) Bizoard de Boeuf, Be- 
eoard of the beef, A concretion formed in the 
fourth stomach of beeves ; also, a biliary calcu- 
lus found in the gall-bladder. 

Bez'oard op the Deer, B. of the Lach'rymal 
Fossa of the Deer, Deer's Tears. A moist, highly 
odorous, fatty matter, found below the anterior 
canthus of the orbit of the red deer — Cervns el'e- 
phas. It has been used, like castor, as an anti- 
spasmodic, in the dose of from 5 to 15 grains, two 
or three times a day. 

Bezoar Equinum, Bezoard of the horse — b. 
Hystricis, Bezoard of the Indian porcupine. 

Bez'oard of Caymax. This was once much 
prized. It is now unknown. 

BEZOARD D'ALLEMAGNE, .SIgagropila. 

Bez'oard of the Chamois, and B. of the 
Horse, Bezoar equi'num, Hippol'itJiics, &c., exhi- 
bit their origin in the name. 

Bez'oard of the Indian Por'cupine, Bez'oar 
ITi^s'tricis, Lapis Porci'nus seu Malucen' sis, Petro 
del Poreo, (F.) Bezoard de Pore-Epic, was for- 
merly the dearest of all the Bezoards, and was 
sold at an enormous price in Spain and Portu- 
gal. 

Bez'oard, Mineral, Antimonium diaphoreti- 
cum — b. Vegetable, see Calappite. 

BEZOAR'DIC, Bezoar'dicus, (F.) Bezonrdiqne ; 
concerning the bezoard. Bezoardic medicines are 
those supposed to possess the same properties 
with the bezoard ; as antidotes, alexiteria, alexi- 
pharmics, cordials. 

BEZOARDICA RADIX, Dorstenia contra- 
yerva. 

BEZOAR'DICUM SATUR'NI. A pharma- 
ceutical preparation, regarded by the ancients as 
antihysteric. It was formed of protoxide of lead, 
butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicdm Huma'num. Urinary calculi 
were formerly employed under this name as 
powerful alexipharmics. 

Bezoar'dicum Jovia'le. A sort of greenish 
powder, used as a diaphoretic, and formed of an- 
timony, tin, mercury, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'dicuji Lun'a're. A medicine formerly 
regarded as a specific in epilepsy, convulsions, 
megrim, &p. It was prepared of nitrate of sil- 
ver, and butter of antimony. 

BEZOAR'nicDM Martia'le. A tonic medicine, 
nscd by the ancients in diarrhoea. It was pre- 
pared from the tritoxide of iron and butter of 
antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Mercuuia'le. A medicine, 
f.)rmerly vaunted as an antisyphilitic, and pre- 
]iared from the mild chloride of mercury, butter 
of antimony, and nitric acid. 

Bezoar'iucum Minera'le ; the deutoxide of 
antimony ; so called because its properties were 
supposed to resemble those of animal bezoard. 

Bzzoak'dicum Sola'ee. a diaphoretic medi- 



cine, prepared of gold filings, nitric acid, and 
butter of antimony. 

Bezoar'dicum Ven'eris. A pharmaceutical 
preparation, formerly employed in lepra, diseases 
of the brain, <fec.; which was made from filings 
of copper, butter of antimony, and nitric acid. 

BHANG, Bangue. 

BI, as a prefix to words, has the same signi- 
cation as Di. 

BIAIOTHANATI, Biothanati. 

BIBERINE, see Bebeeru. 

BIBIRU, Bebeeru. 

BIBITORIUS, Rectus internus oculi. 

BIBLIOG'RAPHY, MED'ICAL, from /3<j3Xiov, 
'a book,' and ypaipi», 'I describe.' A description 
or history, or skill in the knowledge, of medical, 
books. The most distinguished medical biblio- 
graphers have been : J. A. Van der Linden, 
Amstelod. Ifi62, octavo, (L.) M. Lipenius, 
Francf. ad Mces. 1679, fol. (L.) G. A. Mrrck- 
LEiN, Norimb. 1686, (L.) J. J. Manget, Genev. 
1695 to 1731, (L.) Tarin (anatomical), Paris, 
175,3, (F.) A. TON Haller, Zurich, 1774, <fec., 
(L.) ViGiLiis TON Cruetzenfeld (surgical), 
Vindob. 17S1, (L.) C. G. Kuhn, Lips. 1794, (L.) 
C. L. ScnwBiKARD (anat., phys., and legal medi- 
cine), Stuttgard, 1796 to 1800, (L.) G. G. Plouc- 
QUET, Tubing. 1808 to 1814, (L.) C. F. Burdach, 
Gotha, 1810 to 1821, (G.) J. S. Ersch, (since 
1750), Leipz. 1822, (G.) Th. Ch. Fr. Enslin, 
(of Germany, since 1750,) Berlin, 1826, (G.) 
J. B. MoNTFALCON, Paris, 1827, (F.) J. Forbes, 
M.D.. F.R.S., London, 1835. A. C. P. Calli- 
sen, Copenhagen, 1845, (G.) E. MoRWiTZ, Leip- 
zig. 1849, (G.) 

BICAUDALIS, Retrahens auris. 

BICAUDA'TUS, C«!if/a'<i(8, from 5), and caurfa, 
'a tail;' 'double- tailed.' A monster having two 
tails. 

BICEPHA'LIIJM, Dicepha'lium. A hybrid 
word, from hi and Kcipa\ri, 'head.' Sauvages ap- 
plies this epithet to a very large sarcoma on the 
head, which seems to form a double head. 

BICEPHALUS, Dicepbalus. 

BICEPS, from hi, and caput, 'head.' That 
which has two heads. This name has been par- 
ticularly given to two muscles ; one belonging to 
the arm, the other to the thigh. 

Biceps Exter'nus Mus'culus. The long por- 
tion of the Triceps Brachia'lis, — Douglas. 

Biceps Flexor Cruris, B. Cruris, Biceps, 
(F.) Biceps Crural, Biceps Fem'oris, Is' chio-fem' - 
oro-peronier — (Ch.) A muscle on the posterior 
part of the thigh ; one head arising from the tu- 
berosity of the ischium, and the other from a 
great part of the linea aspera. It is inserted into 
the top of the fibula. It serves to bend the leg 
on the thigh. 

Biceps Flexor Cu'biti, Biceps, B. Bra'chii 
seu mauds seu inter'nus seu inter'nus hn'meri, 
Cor'aco-radia'lis, (F.) Scapnlo-radial, (Ch.)— 
Biceps Brachial. A muscle, situate at the ante- 
rior and internal part of the arm ; extending 
from the edge of the glenoid cavity and from the 
top of the coracoid process to the tuberosity of 
the radius. It bends the fore-arm upon the arm. 

BICHE DE MER, Sea Slug. A molluscous 
animal, belonging to the genus Holothuria, which 
is caught amongst the islands of the Feejee group. 
New Guinea, <tc.. and when prepared finds a 
ready sale in China, where it is used as an ingre- 
dient in rich soups. 

BICHET, Terra Orleana. 

BICHICII'IiE, probably corrupted from M, 
ISrixof, 'cough.' Pectoral medicines, composed 
of liquorice juice, sugar, blanched almonds, Ac. 
— Rhazes. 

BICHIOS, Dracunculus. 

BICHO, Dracunculus — b. di Culo, Proctooac^ 



BICHOS 



127 



BINDWEED 



BICHOS. A Portuguese name for the worms 
that penetrate the toes of people in the Indies ; 
and which are destroyed by the oil of the cashew 
nut. 

BICIP'ITAL, from hiceps {hi and caput), 'two 
headed.' Relating to the biceps. 

Bicip'iTAL Groove, (F.) Coulisse ou Gouttilre 
bicipitale, Coulisse humirale, (Ch.,) is a longitu- 
dinal groove, situate between the tuberosities of 
the OS humeri, which lodges the long head of the 
biceps. 

Bicip'lTAL Tu'bercle, Bicipital tuheros'ity, 
(F.) Tuberosite bicipitale; a prominence near 
the upper extremity of the radius, to which the 
tendon of the biceps is attached. 

BrCORNE RUDE, Ditrachyceros. 

BICUS'PID, BicHspida'tus, from bi and cnspis, 
'a spear.' That which has two points or tuber- 
cles. 

BiCtrs'piD Teeth, Bentes Bicuspida'ti, (F.) 
Dents bicuspidees. The small molares. See Molar. 

BIDDY, Pedieulus. 

BIDENS ACMELLA, Spilanthus acmella. 

BIDET, (F.) Bidet : pronounced beeday. A 
email horse formerly allowed to each trooper for 
carrying his baggage. Hence, perhaps, applied 
to a chamber bathing apparatus, which has to be 
bestridden. It is a useful arrangement, in case 
of hemorrhoids, prolapsus ani, affections of the 
sexual organs, &c. 

BIECHO, Bische. 

BIERE, Cerevisia — h. Medicinale, see Cerevi- 
8ia. 

BIESTINGS, Colostrum. 

BIFEMOR 0- CAL OANIEN, Gastrocnemii. 

BI'FURCATION, Bifurca'tio, from bi and 
/urea, 'a fork.' Division of a trunk into two 
branches; as the bifurcation of the trachea, 
aorta, &c. 

BIGARADE, see Citrus aurantium. 

BIGASTER. Digastricus. 

BIGBELLIED, Abdominous. 

BIG BLOOM, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BIGBONE, see Kentucky, Mineral Waters of. 

BIGPAUNCHED. Abdominous. 
■ BIGEMINAL BODIES, Quadrigemina tuber- 
cula. 

BIG GAR. A disease of Bengal, remarkable 
for the intensity and danger of the cerebral 
symptoms. — Twining. 

BIG-LEAF, Magnolia macrophylla. 

BIGLES, see Strabismus. 

BIGNO'NIA CAPREOLA'TA, B. crucig"era ; 
indigenous. The root and plant are employed, 
like sarsaparilla, in infusion and decoction, in 
syphilis, chronic rheumatism, and in cachexige 
in general. 

BiGNONiA Catalpa, Catalpa — b. Crucigera, B. 
capreolata. 

Bigno'nia In'dica. The leaves are employed 
in India, as emollients, to ulcers. 

BiGNONiA Leucox'tlox, Trumpet tree. A South 
American tree, the sap of which is the surest an- 
tidote against the manchineel. — Sehleiden. 

BiGNONiA Radicans, Tecomaradicaus — b. Sem- 
pervirens, Gelseminum nitidum. 

BIJON, see Pinus sylvestris. 

BIKH, Aconitum ferox. 

BILATE OF SODA. Picromel. ! 

BILATERAL SYMMETRY, see Symmetrv. ! 

BILAZAY, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bila- \ 
zay is a town in France, two leagues from Thouar, 
department of Deux Sevres, near which is a ther- 
mal sulphureous spring. Temperature about 77° 
Fahrenheit. 

BILBERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus— b. Red, 
Vaecinium vitis idsea. 

BILE, Bilis, Fel, Chol'os, Chole, Choler, (F.) 



I Bile, Fiel. A yellow, greenish, viscid, bitter, 
I nauseous fluid, secreted by the liver. It is dis- 
tinguished into hepatic and cystic ; according as 
it flows immediately into the duodenum from the 
liver or from the gall-bladder. It contains, ac- 
cording to Muratori, water; a peculiar fatty 
matter; colouring matter {Cholepyr'rhin or BHi- 
pha'in, 3Iatiere Jaune de la Bile; cholesteriii, 
combined with soda; picromel or bilin ; extract 
of flesh, mucus; soda, phosphate of soda; phos- 
phate of lime, and chloride of sodium. 

The use of the bile is to remove from the body 
superfluous hydro-carbon ; and it is probably in- 
servient to useful purposes in digestion. 

Bile, Furuneulus — b. Black, Atrabilis — b. de 
Bcenf, see Bile — h. Repmulue, Icterus. 

Bile of the Bear, Gall of the Bear, Fel Ursi, 
was thought to be anti-epileptic ; and that of the 
Eel, Fel amjuil'lcB, to facilitate labour. 
• Bile op the Ox, Gall of the Ox, Ox Gall, Fel 
Tauri seu Boris seu Bovi'num, (F.) Bile ou Fiel 
ou Amer de Bavf was once reputed cosmetic and 
detergent, anti-otalgic and emmenagogue; as 
well as to possess the power of facilitating labour. 
It has also been given as a bitter stomachic and 
anthelmintic; and as a tonic and laxative, in 
cases of deficiency of the biliary secretion. 

Bile of the Swine, Bilis porci'na, inspissated, 
has been used in the same cases as the bile of 
the ox. 

BIL'IARY, Bilia'ria, Bilia'rius, Fel'leus, 
(F.) Biliaire. That which relates to bile. 

Bil'iary Appara'tus, B. organs, B. j^assayes. 
The collection of parts that concur in the secre- 
tion and excretion of bile — viz., the liver, pori 
biliari or tubuli biliferi ; hepatic, cystic, and 
choledoch ducts, and gall-bladder. 

Bil'iary Concre'tions are concretions found 
in some parts of the biliary apparatus. 
Biliary Ducts, Pori biliarii. 
BTLTEUX, Bilious. 

BILIA'TION, Bilia'tio; from bilis, 'bile.' 
The excretion of bile; as urination means the 
excretion of urine. 

BILIFUL'YINE; from bilis, 'bile,' and /u^- 
r!(s, 'reddish yellow.' The colouring matter of 
the bile of the ox. — Berzelius. 
BILIMBI, Averrhoa bilimbi. 
BILIMBING TERES, Averrhoa bilimbi. 
BILIN, Picromel. 

BIL'IOUS, Bilio'sus, Chol'icus, ChoVius, Fel- 
lin'eus, Epich'olos, Picroch'olos, Fel'leus, (F.) 
Bilieux; from bilis, 'bile.' That which relates 
to bile, contains bile, or is produced by bile. An 
epithet given to certain constitutions and diseases, 
which are believed to be the effect of superabu^:- 
dance of the biliary secretion; as Bilious tempe- 
rampiit, B. symptoms, B. fever. 
BILIPH^IN, see Bile. 
BILIS FLUXIO, Cholera morbus. 
BILITICUS, Cholagogue. 
BILIVERD'IN, from bilis, 'bile,' and viridis, 
'green.' On adding an acid to a solution of the 
yellow colouring matter of bile, a precipitate of 
green flocculi takes place, which possesses all the 
properties of chlorophyll, or the green colouring 
matter of leaves. This is the hiUverdin of Ber- 
zelius. 

BILNA, MINERAL WATERS OF, see Piillna. 
BILOCULAR. see Unilocular. 
BILUxMBI BITING-BING, Mains Indiea. 
BI'MANUS, from bi and manus, 'a hfiod. 
One that has two hands. A term applied onl) 
to man, because he is the sole mammiferous ani 
mal that possesses two perfect hands. 
BINDER. Bandage. 

BINDERS. OBSTETRIC, see Belt, Russian. 

BINDWEED, Polygonum aviculnre— b. Fid- 

dle-lcaved. Convolvulus panduratus — b. Great, 



BINDWOOD 



128 



BISMUTH 



Convolvulus sepium — b. Hedge, Convolvulus 
sepium — b. Lavender-leaved, Convolvulus Can- 
tabrica — b. Sea, Convolvulus soldanella — b. Vir- 
ginian, Convolvulus panduratus. 
BINDWOOD, Hedera belis. 
BINKOIIUMBA, Phyllantbus urinaria. 
BINOCULAR, Binocula'rh: same etymon as 
the next. Relating to or affecting both eyes — as 
'binocular vision' — vision with both eyes; or from 
impressions made upon both retinae, which are 
amalgamated into sini/le vision. 

BINOC'ULUS, Biii'ocle, Diophthnl'mica Fas'- 
cia, Oc'iilis duplex, from bi and ocnUis, 'an eye.' 
(F.) CEil double. A bandage applied over both 
eyes. It was also formerly called DioplithaV- 
mus. 

BIN'SICA. A Rabbinical term for disorder 
of the mind. According to Van Helmont, an 
atrophy of the organ of imagination. 
BIOCHYMIA, Chymistry, vitaL 
EIOD, Vis vitalis. 

BIODYNAM'ICS, Biodynam'ica, Biodynam'- 
ice, Biosoph'ia, from jSioj, 'life,' and ixivaym, 
'power,' 'force.' The doctrine of the vital ac- 
tivity or forces. 

BIOGAMIA, Magnetism, animal. 
BIOL'OGY, from /?iof, 'life,' and Uyo^, 'a de- 
scription.' The doctrine of life or of living bo- 
dies. — Physiology. "Biological phenomena" are 
those presented by living bodies. 

BIOLYCH'NION, Biolych'nium, from ;8iof, 
'life,' and \vxviov, 'a lamp.' Innate heat, vital 
heat, animal heat. Lych'nium, Lychnid'ium, 
Thermum em'phytum, Flamma seu Flam'mula 
^ita'lis seu cordis. Also, a secret preparation of 
which Beguin and Burgrave make mention. 
BIOLYSIS, see Biolytic. 

BIOLYT'IC, Biolyt'icus; from p,os, 'life,' and 
Xuffts, ' solution.' Relating to the destruction of 
life. A 'biolytic agent' is one that tends to 
biol'ysis, or destruction of life. A depressing 
agent. — Schultz. 

BIOMAGNETISMUS, Magnetism, animal. 
BIONOMY, Physiology. 
BIOPH^NOMENOLOGIA, Physiology. 
BIOS, Ptos. Life. Also, what is necessary for 
the preservation of life. 

BIOSOPHIA, Biodynamics. 
BIOSTATICS, Statistics, medical. 
BIOTAX'Y, Ta.ron'omy, from 0ioi, 'life,' and 
rafts, 'order, arrangement.' The arrangement or 
co-ordination of living organisms, according to 
their external characters. 
BIOTE, Life. 

BIOTHAN'ATI. Biaiothan'ati, from fiioi, 
'life,' and ^avaroi, ' death.' Those who die of a 
violent death very suddenly, or as if there was 
no space between life and death. 
BIOTIC. Vital. 
BIOTICS, Physiology. 
BIOTOMIA, Vivisection. 
BIOTOS. Life. 

BIPARl'ETAL, Biparieta'lis, (F.) BipariS- 
*al, from bi and parietale (os), 'the parietal bone.' 
An epithet for the diameter of the cranium from 
one parietal fossa to the other. 

BIPARIETAL SUTURE, Sagittal suture. 
BIPIN'NA, from 61', and pinna, 'a wing- 
feather.' A term used by the ancients for a 
diminutive penis, not exceeding in size two 
quills. 

BIR, Thorax. 
BIRA, Corevisia. 

BIRCH, Betula alba— b. Black, Betula lenta— 
b. Cherrv. Betula lenta — b. Sweet, Betula lenta. 
BIRDS' BREAD, Sediim acre. 
BIRDS' NEST, Hypopitys lanuginosa. 
BIRK, Betula alba. 
BIRTH, Parturition — b. Cross, Presentation, 



preternatural — b. Live, see Born alive — b. Plural, 
see Multiparous. 

BIRTIIWORT, Aristolochia— b. Snakeroot, 
Aristo'.ochia serpentaria. 

BISCHE, Biecho. A malignant kind of dy- 
sentery, which often prevails in the island of 
Trinidad. 

BISCUIT, Biscoc'tus; bis, 'twice,' and coctus, 
'baked,' (F.) bis and cuit, 'twice baked.' A 
kind of dry, hard bread, or cake, which is va- 
riously made; and, when without eggs or butter, 
is easy of digestion. It was formerly called Bi- 
pyri'ies, and Di'pi/ros. Medic"inal or Med'i- 
CATED Biscuits, (F.) Biscuits Medicinaux, Masie- 
pains, Macarons, are occasionally made by add- 
ing to biscuit paste a medicinal solution or 
powder, and baking the mass. 

BISCUIT, MEAT. An alimentary prepara- 
tion, proposed by Mr. G. Borden, Jr., of Texas, 
which consists in combining the matters, ex- 
tracted from meat by boiling, with flour, so as to 
form biscuits ; which keep well, and are of course 
nutritive. 

BISCUITS MEDICINA UX, see Biscuit. 
BISERMAS, Salvia sclarea. 
BISFERIENS, Dicrotus. 
BISH, Aconitum ferox. 
BISHOP'S WEED, Ammi. 
BISLINGUA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 
BISMALVA, Althfea. 

BISMUTH, Antimo'nium album, Chal'citas, 
Luna imper/ec'ta, Sfannum glacict'le seu cine'reum, 
Bismu'thum, Wiemu'thum, Eeg'uhis of Bis'muth, 
Marcasi'ta, Tin glass, (F.) Etain gris, E. de 
Glace. A metal, in spicular plates, of a yel- 
lowish-white colour; s. gr. 9.822 ; fusible at 400° 
Fahrenheit, and volatilizable at a high tempera- 
ture. It is used only in the prepai-ation of the 
subnitrate. 

Bismuth, Nitrate of, Bismuth, Subnitrate of 
— b. Oxide of. Bismuth, Subnitrate of — b. Oxide 
of, white. Bismuth, Subnitrate of — b. Regulus of, 
Bismuth. 

Bismuth, Subnitrate of, Bismu'thi subni'tra* 
seu Nitras, Marcasi'ta alba. Plumbum cine'reum, 
Ilagiste'rium Marcasi'ta seu Bismuthi, Bismu'- 
thum Nit'rieum seu Subnit'ricum, Nitras Siibbis- 
mu'thicnm, Calx Vismu'thi, Bismu'thum oxydula'- 
tum album, Bismuthum album, Subaz'otas bismu'- 
ticus, Oxide of Bismuth, Nitrate of Bismuth, 
White Bismuth, Trisuitrate of Bismuth, White 
Oxide of Bismuth, 3fag"istery of Bismuth, Pearl 
White, Spatiish WTiite. (F.) Sousnitrate ou sotis- 
azotate de bismuth. Oxide blanc de B., Blanc de 
fard, Blanc de perle. (Bismuth, in frustulis, ^j. 
Acid nitric, f^'j- Aq. destill. q. s. Mix a fluid- 
ounce of distilled water with the nitric acid, and 
dissolve the bismuth in the mixture. When the 
solution is complete, pour the clear liquor into 
three pints of distilled water, and set the mixture 
by, that the powder may subside. Lastly, having 
poured ofi' the supernatant fluid, wash the sub- 
nitrate of bismuth with distilled water, wrap it 
in bibulous paper, and dry with a gentle heat. 
Ph. U. S.) It is considered to be tonic and 
antispasmodic, and has been chiefly used in 
gastrodynia. 

Bismuth, Trisnitrate of. Bismuth, sul- 
nitrate of. 

Bismuth, Vat.e'rianate of. Bismu'thi valert. 
a'nas, Bismu'thnin valerian' icum. Prepared by 
mixing a neutral solution of oxide nf bismuth in 
nitric octrf, with valerianate of soda ; washing, 
and drying the precipitate. Used in gastrodynia, 
chronic gastralgia, neuralgia, and chronic palpi- 
tation, as a nervine. Dose, i a grain to 2 grains, 
three or four times a day, in pill. 

Bismuth, White, Bismuth, subnitrate oL 



BISMUTHI NITRAS 



12! 



BL^SOPODES 



BISMUTHI NITRAS, Bismuth, subnitrate 1 
of — b. Valerianas, Bismuth, valerianate of. 

BISMUTHUM, Bismuth— b. Album, Bismuthi 
subnitras — b. Nitricum, Bismuth, subnitrate of — 
b. Oxydulatum album, Bismuth, subnitrate of — 
b. Subnitricum, Bismuth, subnitrate of — b. Vale- 
rianicum, Bismuth, valerianate of. 
BISPIRUS, Dipnoos. 
BIvSSUM, Hydrangea arborescens. 
BISTORT, OFFICINAL, Polygonum bistorta 
— b. Virginian, Polygonum virginianum. 
BISTORTA. Polygonum bistorta. 
BISTORTE, Polygonum bistorta. 
BISTORTIER, (F.) A name given by the 
Pharmncien to a long wooden pestle used for 
reducing soft substances to powder, and in the 
preparation of electuaries. 

BISTOURI, (F.) Pistonen'ais gla'dius, Scal- 
pel'lns, Scal'peum, Bts'toury. A small butting- 
knife, used in surgery. — so called, according to 
Huet, from the town of Pistori, which was for- 
merly celebrated for the manufacture of those 
instruments. A bistoury has the form of a small 
knife, and is composed of a blade and a handle. 
The blade, which is most commonly movable in 
the handle, maybe fixed by a button, spring, &c. 
When fixed in the handle, the bistouri is called 
by the French, B. d lame fixe ou dormante. 

The chief bistouries are : — 1. The straight B. 
(F.) B. droit, in which the blade and cutting 
edge are straight, the point being fine, round, or 
square. 2. The convex B. (F.) B. convexe ; the 
blade of which is convex at the cutting edge, 
concave at the back. 3. The concave B. (F.) 
B. concave ; the blade of which is concave at its 
edge, and convex at the back. 4. Blunt-pointed 
B. (F.) B. botctoniii; the blade of which has a 
button at its extremity. 5. The blunt or probe- 
pointed Bistoury of Pott; concave at its cut- 
ting edge, and its point blunt ; so that it can be 
carried on the palmar surface of the index finger, 
to divide the stricture, in strangulated hernia. 
Sir Astley Cooper has recommended a useful 
modification of this, to avoid wounding the intes- 
tine, should it come in contact with the edge of 
the knife. His Bistoury has an edge of not more 
than eight lines in length, situate about five lines 
from the point. 6. Bistouri a la lime, (F.) is 
a straight bistoury ; the blade fixed in the handle, 
the extremity with a button, and the edge made 
with a file. It is chiefly used for dilating parts. 
7. Bistouri Royal, (F.) A Bistouri used in ope- 
rating upon Louis XIV., for fistula in ano. 8. 
Bistouri gastrique, (F.) A complicated instru- 
ment, invented by Morand, for dilating wounds 
of the abdomen. 9. Bistouri cache, B. herniaire, 
ou Attrape-lourdaud de Biennaise, Forceps de- 
repto'ria. A curved bistouri, the blade of which 
is placed in a canula, whence it issues on pressing 
a spring. 

The word Bistouri is used by the French, at 
times, where we would employ knife. 
BITCH-DAUGHTER, Incubus. 
BITNOBEN, Salt o/Bitu'men, Padiioon, Sou- 
rherloon, Khala mimuc. A white, saline sub- 
stance, which is a Hindoo preparation of great 
antiquity, and has been supposed to be the Sal 
asphalti'tes and Sal Sodome'nus of the ancients. 
It is used by the Hindoo in the prevention or 
cure of almost all diseases. 

BITHNIMAL'CA, Gas'teranax. Two unmean- 
ing words, ased by Dolaeus, to designate an active 
principle supposed to have its seat in the stomach, 
and to preside over chymification, Ac. 
BITIOS DE KIS, Proctocace. 
BITTER. Amarus — b. Bark, Pinckneya pu- 
bens — b. Bloom, Chironia angularis — b. Holy, 
Hiera picra — b. Redberry, Cornus Florida — b. 
Root, Apocynum androsaemifolium, Gentiana 



Catesbasi, Menyanthes verna — b. Sweet night, 
shade, Solanum Dulcamara — b. Sweet vine, So- 
lanum Dulcamara — b. Welter's, Acid, carbazotiw, 
BIT'TERNESS,4wan<»'rfo, Amarit'ies, Ama'- 
ror, Pi'cria, (F.) Amertume. A particular taste, 
which belongs to many substances. In some 
diseases there is a sense of bitterness felt in the 
mouth. 

BITTERS, COLUMBO, Tinctura Calumbse- 
b. Spirit, Tinctura gentianae composita — b. Wine, 
Vinum gentianas compositum. 

BITTERSWEET, Solanum dulcamara. 
BITTERWEED, Ambrosia trifida. 
BITTERWOOD TREE, Quassia. 
BITTOS. A disease, in which the chief symp- 
tom is an acute pain in the anus. — Chomel. 
BITUME DE JUBEE, Asphaltum. 
BITUMEN, GLUTINOUS, Pissasphaltum — 
b. Judaicum, Asphaltum — b. of Judaea, Asphal- 
tum — b. Petroleum, Petrola3um — b. Malta, Pissas- 
phaltum — b. Salt of, Bitnoben— b. Solidum, As- 
phaltum. 

BIVENTER, Digastricus — b. Cervieis, Com- 
plexus musculus — b. Maxillae, Digastricus. 

BIVENTRAL LOBE OF THE CEREBEL- 
LUM, see Lobe, biventral. 

BIXA AMERICANA, see Terra Orleana — b. 
Orleana, see Terra Orleana — b. Orellana, see 
Terra Orleana. 
BLABE, Wound. 
BLACCI^, Rubeola. 
BLACIA, Debility. 

BLACKBERRY, AMERICAN, see Rubus 
fruticosus — b. High or Standing, see Rubus fru- 
ticosus. — b. Low, Rubus trivialis. 

BLACK BOTTLE, see Infusum Sennae. 
BLACK DOSE, see Infusum Senn». 
BLACK DRAUGHT, see Infusum Sennse. 
BLACK DROP, Guttse nigrae. 
BLACK LION. A term given to a sloughing 
syphilitic ulcer, under which the British soldier^ 
suffered greatly in Portugal. 

BLACK ROOT, Aletris farinosa, Pterocaulon 
pycnostachyum, Leptandria purpurea. 
BLACKWATER, Pyrosis. 
BLACTI^, Rubeola. 
BLADDA, Buttermilk. 
BLADDER, Urinary Bladder. 
Bladder, Fascic'ulated. A condition 
of the bladder in which the interior of the 
organ is marked by strong reticulated ridges or 
columns. 

Bladder, Gall, see Gall Bladder — b. Irrita- 
ble, Cysterethismus. 

Bladder, Sac'culated. A condition of the 
bladder, in which the mucous coat protrudes 
through the muscular, so as to produce a hernia, 
which may go on increasing, so as to form a 
ves'ical sac'cidus or appen'dix vesi'cm. 

Bladder, Swim, Air bladder — b. Urinary, see- 
Urinary Bladder. 

BLADEBONE, Scapula. 
BLADOCH, Buttermilk. 

BLADON SPRINGS. Mineral springs in 
Alabama, about 85 miles from Mobile, which are 
said to be similar in composition to those of Selt- 
zer, Spa, and Aix-la-Chapelle, of Europe. 
BLADUM, Ble. 

BLAEBERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus. 
BL^'SITAS, BlcBsa lingua. Some authors have 
used this word as synonymous with stammering. 
See Balbuties. Sauvages understands by it a 
defect in pronunciation, which consists in substi- 
tuting soft consonants for those that are hard; 
as the z for s, the d for t, the s for g and J, <te. 
Also, Lisping, Traulia'mus, Trau'lote», (E..) Bl^ 
site, Ble (parler). 

BLiESOPODES, see Kyllosis. 



BL.i:SOPUS 



130 



BLENNOGENOUS 



BL^SOPUS, see Kyllosis. 
BliuESUS. A distortion; especially the out- 
ward distortion of the legs. Also, a stammerer. 
BLAFABB, (Y.) Pid'Udus, Pallid'ulua. This 
epithet is sometimes given to the skin, when pale 
and dull ; but, most frequently, to the flesh of a 
wound, when it has lost its colour, and become 
white. The word is, also, sometimes used syno- 
nymously with Albino. 

" BLAIN, (Sax.) blejene, Bleine. A pustule; a 
botch ; a blister. In Scotland, a mark left by a 
wound ; the discolouring of the skin after a sore. 
— Jamieson. 

BLAK OF THE EIE, Pupil. 
BLANC D' ARGENT, Plumbi subcarbonas— 
h. de Baleine, Cetaceum — h. de Cerueee, Plumbi 
subcarbonas — b. de Crems, Plumbi gubcarbonas 
— 6. de Fard, Bismuth, subnitrate of — 6. de 
Kremnitz, Plumbi subcarbonas — h. de Krems, 
Plumbi subcarbonas — 6. de r(Eil, Sclerotic — b. 
d'CEuf, Albumen ovi— 6. de Perle, Bismuth, sub- 
nitrate of— 6. de Ploinb, Plumbi subcarbonas — b. 
de Zinc, Zinci oxydum. 

BLANC-MANGER (F.), Cibut albm, Leuco- 
pha'gium, Leucoph'ayum, Argyrotrophe'ma. An 
animal jelly, so called on account of its colour, 
combined with an emulsion of sweet almonds, to 
which sugar has been added, and some aromatic. 
It IS sometimes prescribed as a nutriment in con- 
yalescence and chronic diseases. 
BLANC-RAISIN, Blanc Rhazis. 
BLANC RHAZIS, Blanc-raisin. An ointment 
composed of cerusa, white wax, and olive oil. 
BLANCA, Plumbi subcarbonas. 
BLANCH, from (F.) blanchir, 'to whiten, 
to bleach.' To whiten by depriving of the outer 
rind ; as 'to blanch almonds :' i. e. to peel them. 
BLANCHET, (F.) A blanket. A term given 
by the French Pharmaciens to the woollen 
strainer through which they filter syrup and 
other thick fluids. See, also, Aphthae. 

BLANCHING, Etiolation — b. of the hair. 
Canities. 

BLANC N ON ORIBASII, Polypodium filix 
mas. 

BLAS An unmeaning term invented by Van 
Helmont to designate a kind of movement in the 
body; at times, local, — at others, under extrane- 
ous influence. Thus, he speaks of the Bias mefe- 
oros of the heavenly bodies, and the Bias huma'- 
,num, that which operates in man. 
Blas Alterativum, Plastic f«rce. 
BLASE, (F.) 'cloyed.' An epithet given to 
one whom the abuse of enjoyment has prevented 
from any longer deriving satisfaction or pleasure 
from it. 

BLAST, Conta'gio, (Sax.) blart, (G.) blasen, 
' to blow.' The infection of any thing pestilen- 
tial. The stroke of some sudden plague. 

BLASTE'xMA, Blaete'sis, (F.) Blast^me, from 
flXao-rav'v, 'I bud.' A germ. The sense of this 
word, which is often used by Hippocrates, is ob- 
scure. Castelli thinks it means the eruption of 
some morbific principle at the surface of the body. 
Also, the matrix or general formative element of 
tissues. 

Blastema Pili, see Hair. 

BLAS'TEMAL, Blastema' lis. Relating or ap- 
pertaining to a blastema, — as 'blasfcmal forma- 
tions,' those that are formed from a blastema. 
BLASTOOARDIA, see Molecule. 
BLASTODERM A, see Molecule. 
BLATTA BYZAN'TIA, Unguii odora'tus, (F.) 
Blatte de Byzance. This name seems, formerly, 
to have been given to a marine production from 
jome of the Conchylia. It had an agreeable 
amell, a reddish tint, and the shape of a nail. It 
was prescribed in epilepsy, hysteria, and hepatic 
ofe-tructions. .Rondulet aflSrms, that it was the 



production of the shell-fish murex or piirpura ; 
and that the name Blatta is derived from the 
Greek fiXarros, ' purple.' 

BLA VELLE, Centaurea cyanus. 
BLAVEOLE, Centaurea cyanus. 
BLA VEROLLE, Centaurea cyanus. 
BLAWING, Swelling. 
BLAWORT, Centaurea cyanus. 
BLAZING-STAR, Chamaelirium luteum, Li- 
atris. 

BLE, Bladtim. This word answers, in France, 
to the word Com in England; i. e. any kind of 
grain employed for making bread. Wheat being 
most commonly used for this purpose, BU is 
sometimes restricted to this. Ble meteil is a 
mixture of wheat and rye. 

BLE CORNU,Ergot — b. d'Eepagne, Zea mays 
— b. d'ltnlie, Zea mays — 6. Ifeteil, see BIS — 
b. Noir, Polygonum fagopyrum — b. de Turquie, 
Zea mays. 

BL^ [PARLER,) Blaesitas. 
BLEABERRY, Vaccinium myrtillus. 
BLEACHING, Dealbation— b. Liquid, Ean dt 
javelle. 

BLEAREDNESS, Lippitudo. 
BLEAR-EYE, Lippitudo. 
BLEAR-EYED, Lippus. 
BLEAR-EYEDNESS, Lippitudo. 
BLEB. Bulla. 

BLECHNON, Polypodium filix mas. 
BLECHNUM LIGNIFOLIUM, Asplenium 
Scolopendrium — b. Squamosum, Asplenium ce- 
terach. 

BLECHROPYRA, see Blechros. 
BLECHROPYRUS, Typhus mitior. 
BLECHROS, 0XvXP<>^> 'weak, feeble, slow.' 
An epithet applied to different aS'ections, and 
particularly to fevers. Hence Blechrop'yrn, *a 
slow fever:' Blechrosphyg'mia, 'a slow pulse.' 
BLECHROSPHYGMIA, see Blechros. 
BLED, Corn — b. Avorte, Ergot— 6. Farouclte, 
Ergot. 

BLBDOCH, Buttermilk. 
BLEEDING, Bloodletting, Hajmorrhagia. 
BLEEDING FROM THE NOSE, Epistaxis 
BLEEDING HEART, Cypripedium luteum- 
b. Boist. Cupping glass. 
BLEIB. Bulla. 
BLEINE, Blain. 

BLEME, (F.) This word has nearly the sam» 
signification as Blafard. Generally, however, it 
includes, also, emaciation of the countenance. 
BLENCYSTORRHEE, Cystirrhoea. 
BLENNA, Mucus — b. Narium, Nasal mucus. 
BLENNADENI'TIS, from pXcwa, 'mucus,' 
airjv, 'a gland,' and it is, denoting inflammation. 
Inflammation of mucous follicles. 

BLENNELYT'RIA, from fiUwa, 'mucus,' and 
i\vTpov. 'a sheath.' A discharge of mucus fiom 
the vagina. Leucorrhoea. — Alibert. 

BLENNEM'ESIS. Blennoim'csis, Vom'itM 
pituito'sHs, from /iXevva, ' mucus,' and eiiEan, 
'vomiting.' Vomiting of mucus. 
BLENNENTERIA, Dysentery. 
BLENNISTH'MIA, from (iXewa, 'mucus,' and 
itj^lios, 'the gullet.' Increased flow of mucus 
from the pharynx and larynx. — Alibert. 
BLENNOCIIEZIA, Diarrhoea, mucous. 
BLENNOCYSTIDES, Bursai mucos». 
BLENNOCYSTITE, Cystirrhoea. 
BLENNODES, Muciform. 
BLENNOF.MERIS, Blennemesis. 
BLENNOG"ENOUS, Blennog"enus, Mucific, 



Mucif'icns, from (iXt 



form.' Forming or generating mucus. Breschet 
and Roussel de Vauzlme describe an apparatus 



BLENNOIDES 



131 



BLIGHT IN THE EYE 



of this, kind fur the secretion of the mucous mat- 
ter that constitutes the cuticle, composed of a 
glandular parenchyma or organ of secretion situ- 
ate in the substance of the true skin, and of 
excretory ducts, which issue from the organ, 
and dejjosite the mucous matter between the 
papillge. 

BLENNOIDES, Mueiform. 

BLENNOIDEUS, Mueiform. 

BLENNOMETRITIS, see Leucorrhoea. 

BLENNOPHTHALMIA, Ophthalmia, (puru- 
lent.) 

BLENNOP'TYSIS, from ^Xtwa, and nrvui, 'I 
spit.' Expectoration of mucus. Catarrh. 

BLENNOP'YRA, Blennopy'ria, from ^\tvva, 
and TTvp, 'fire.' Alibert has classed, under this 
head, various fevers with mucous complications; 
as Mexenteric fever, Adeno-meninqeal fever, &c. 

BLENNORRHAGIA, Gonorrhoea— b. Genita- 
lium, Leucorrhoea — b. Notha, Gonorrhoea spuria 
— b. Spuria, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BLENNORRHAG"IC, Blennorrhag"ieu8, (F.) 
Bleiinorrharjiqiie, from (i^twa, 'mucus,' and 
priyvvm, 'I break forth.' Relating or appertain- 
ing to blennorrhagia or gonorrhoea. 

Blennorrhagic Epididymitis, Hernia humo- 
ral is. 

BLENNORRHAGIE FAUSSE, Gonorrhoea 
spuria — h. cin Gland, Gonorrhoea spuria. 

BLENNORRHEE, Blennorrhoea. 

BLENNORRHINIA, Coryza. 

BLENNORRHGE'A, Blennor'rhoe, Blennor- 
r'kcig"irt, Phlegmorrhxe'a, Phle(jmorrhag"ia, (F.) 
Blenvorrhee, from /JAtwa, 'mucus,' and pcu, 'I 
flow.' Inordinate secretion and discharge of mu- 
cus. Also, Gonorrhoea. 

Blennorrhcea Chronica, (gleet,) see Gonor- 
rhoea — b. Genitalium, Leucorrhoea — b. Luodes, 
Gonorrhoea impura — b. Nasalis, Coryza— b. Oculi, 
see Ophthalmia — b. Oculi gonorrhoica, see Oph- 
thalmia — b. Oculi neonatorum, see Ophthalmia — 
b. Oculi purulenta, see Ophthalmia — b. Urethralis, 
Gonorrhoea, Cystorrhoea — b. Ventriculi, Gastror- 
rhoea — b. Vesicae, Cystorrhoea. 

BLENNO'SES, from fi\ivva, 'mucus.' Affec- 
tions of the mucous membranes. — Alibert. 

BLENNOTHORAX, Catarrh, Peripneumonia 
notha — b. Chronicus, Asthma humidum. 

BLENN0T0RRH(EA, Otirrhwa. 

BLENNURETHRIA, Gonorrhoea. 

BLENNURIA, Cystorrhoea. 

BLEPHARADENITIS, Ophthalmia Tarsi. 

BLEPHARANTHRACO'SIS, Blephari'- 
Ua gangrasno'sa, Carhuncula'tio Oe'uli. Gangre- 
nous inflammation of the eyelids. 

BLEPIIARELOSIS, Entropion. 

BLEPHARIDES, Cilia. 

BLEFHARIDOPLASTICB, Blepharoplastice. 

BLEPHARISxMUS, Nictation. 

BLEPHARITIS, (inflammation of the eyelids,) 
Ophthalmia tarsi — b. Gangreenosa, Blepharan- 
thracosis. 

BLEPHAROBLENNORRHCEA, Ophthalmia, 
purulent — b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia (pu- 
rulenta infantum.) 

BLEPH'ARO-CONJUNCTIVI'TIS, Blepha- 
rosyvdesmi'tis, from fiXcOiapov, 'an eyelid,' con- 
Junctivn, and iti's, denoting inflammation. Oph- 
thalmia affecting the conjunctiva and ej'clids. 

BLEPHARODYSCHRtE'A, from ;3X£^a^ov, the 
'eyelid,' Svg, 'with diflRculty,' and XP""' 'colour.' 
Discoloration of the eyelid. Najvus of the eye- 
lid. — Von Ammon. 

BLEPHAROEDEMA AQUOSUM, Hydroble- 
pharon. 

BLEPHARON, Palpebra— b.yitoniaton, Ble- 
pharoptosis. 

BLEPHARONCO'SIS, Blephnron'cus, Ble- 
pharojahy'ma, Palpebra'rum Tumor, from fiXctpa- 



pov, 'eyelid,' and oyicoj, 'tumour.' A tumour of 
the eyelid. 

BLEPHARONCUS, Blepharoncosis. 

BLEPHAROPHIMO'SIS, from fi\t<papov, 'the 
eyelid,' and ^i/xot, 'a cord.' Congenital diminu- 
tion of the space between the eyelids. — Ammon. 
See Blepharostenosis. 

BLEPHAROPTHALMIA, Ophthalmia tarsi 
— b. Neonatorum, see Ophthalmia — b. Purulenta, 
Blepharopy orrh oea. 

BLEPHAROPHTHALMITIS GLANDULO- 
SA, Ophthalmia, purulent, of infants. 

BLEPHAROPHYMA, Blepharoncosis. 

BLEPHAR0PLAS'TICE,7?/e;j;(«rirfo^?as'itVe, 
Itmt"io CiUo'rum, B/eph'aroplanti/, from fi},£(j)a- 
pov, 'the eyelid,' and lAaaTiKos, 'forming,' 'form- 
ative.' The formation of a new eyelid. 

BLEPHAROPLEGIA, Blepharoptosis. 

BLEPHAROPTO'SIS, Blephurople'gia, Casm 
pal'pehra siqierio'rh, Delap'sns seu Prulap'sua 
seu Propto'sis seu Pto'sia pal'pehrcB, Atoniaton 
blepharon, from ^\t(fiapov, 'the eyelid,' and tttoktis, 
'fall.' A falling down of the upper eyelid over 
the eye, caused by a paralysis of the Levator 
palpehrcB superioris muscle. This paralysis is 
an unfavorable symptom, as it is generally con- 
nected with a state of the brain favouring apo- 
plexy or palsy. 

Blepharoptosis Ectropium, Ectropium — b. 
Entropion, Entropion. 

BLEPHAROPYORRHCE'A, BlepharophthaV- 
mia punden'ta, Pyorrhoe'a paUpehrcB, from fi\t<l>- 
apov, 'eyelid,' -rvov, 'pus,' and ptui, 'I flow.' Se- 
cretion of pus from the eyelids. 

BLEf>HAROPYORRn(EA NEONATORUM, See Oph- 
thalmia (purulenta infantum.) 

BLEPHARORRHCB'A, from fiXctpapov, 'eye- 
lid,' and ptu>, 'I flow.' A discharge of mucus 
from the eyelids. 

BLEPHAROSPAS'MUS, from ^\c<l,apov, 'eye- 
lid,' and o-TTOff/jof, 'spasm.' A spasmodic action 
or tic of the orbicularis palnebrarum muscle. 

BLEPHAROSTENO'SIS, from li\t<papov, 'the 
eyelid,' and arcnaais, 'contraction.' Accidental' 
diminution of the space between the eyelids. — 
Ammon. See Blepharophimosis. 

BLEPHAROSYNDESMITIS, Blepharocon- 
junctivitis. 

BLEPHAROTIS, Ophthalmia tarsi — b. Glan- 
dularis contagiosa, see Ophthalmia. 

BLEPHAROTITIS, Ophthalmia tarsi. 

BLEPHAROTOSIS, Ectropium. 

BLEPHAROXYS'TUM, BUpharoxya'trum, 
from (i\e<f>apov, 'eyelid,' and ^vm, 'I scrape.' An 
instrument used, by the ancients, for removing 
callosities, which made their appearance in the 
affection called, by the Greeks, rpax^oiia. — Paulus 
of ^gina, GorrKus. 

BLEPHIL'IA HTRSU'TA, Ohio Horaemint, 
Hairy Horaemint, from PXcipapn, ' an eyelash,' in 
reference to its hairy fringed bracts. An indi- 
genous plant of the Mint family, Lnhiata9, which 
has the aromatic properties of the Mints. 

BLESITE, BlEesitas. 

BLESSED HERB, Geum urbanum, 

BLESSURE. Abortion, Wound. 

BLESTRIS'MUS. Restlessness of the sick.— 
Hippocrates. 

BLETA. A word, used by Paracelsus for white 
or milky urine, arising from diseased kidneys. 
Biota nlba has the same meaning. 

BLEU BE BERLIN, Prussian blue — 6. dt 
Prusae, Prussian blue. 

BLEUET BES MOISSONS, Cyatus sege- 
tum. ^ 

BLEVILLE, MINERAL WATERS OF. B16, 
ville is a village about two miles from Havre. 
The waters are acidulous chalybeate. 

BLIGHT IN THE EYE, Ophthalmia, catar- 



BLIGHTS 



182 



BLOOD-LETTING 



rha1. Palsy of the orbicularis palpebrarum and 
muscles of the eyebrow is also vulgarly called 
Might. 

BLIGHTS, see Lichen urticatus. 
BLINDNESS, Caecitas — b. Colour, Achroma- 
topsia — b. Day, Nyctalopia — b. Nervous, Amau- 
rusis — b. Night, Hemeralopia — b. Snow, see 
Snow blindness. 

BLISTER, Veaicato'rium, Emplas'trum Vesiea- 
to'rinm sen LyttcB, Epispas'ticum, Ves'tcant, Blis- 
ter plaster, (F.) Vesicatvire, Vesicant. Any sub- 
stance which, when applied to the skin, irritates 
it, and occasions a serous secretion, raising the 
epidermis, and inducing a vesicle. Various arti- 
cles produce this effect, as cantharides, mustard, 
garou, evphorbium, garlic, ammonia, &c. Blisters 
are used as counter-irritants. By exciting a dis- 
ease artificially on the surface, we can often re- 
move another which may be at the time existing 
internally. A perpetual blister is one that is 
kept open for a longer or a shorter time by means 
of appropriate dressings. 

Blister or vesication, (Prov.) Ercle, also means 
the vesicle produced by vesicatories or other 
causes. 

Blister, Fever, see Fever blister. 
Blister, Mag"istral, (F.) Vesicatoire magis- 
tral. A prompt means of producing vesication 
recommended by M. Valleix. It is prepared as 
follows — Take powdered cantharides and ickeat- 
fiour, of each equal parts ; vinegar, a sufficient 
quantity to form a soft paste. 

Blister Beetle, Cantharis — b. Fly, Cantha- 
ris — b. Plaster, Blister. 

BLISTERWEED, Ranunculus acris. 
BLISTERING FLY, Cantharis— b. Paper, see 
Sparadrapum vesicatorium — b. Tissue, Sparadra- 
pum vesicatorium. 

BLISTERS, WHITE, Rupia escharotiea. 
BLITUM AMERICANUM, Phytolacca de- 
candra. 

BLOOD, Anglo-Saxon, bloo, from ble^an, 'to 
bleed.' Sanguis, Cruor, Lapis anima'lis, HcEma, 
'aifta, (Old Eng.) Blede, (F.) Sang. An animal 
fluid formed chiefly from the chyle ; acquiring 
important properties during respiration ; entering 
every organ through the circulation ; distributing 
the nutritive principles to every texture, and the 
source of every secretion. The blood is white in 
the molluscous and inferior animals, which have 
been, hence, called white-hlooded, to distinguish 
them from the red-blooded, which class includes 
the mammalia, birds, reptiles, and fishes. Hu- 
man blood is composed of water, albumen, fibrin, 
an animal colouring substance, a little fatty mat- 
ter — hmmatelcB' um — and different salts; as chlo- 
rides of potassium and sodium, phosphate of lime, 
subcarbonate of soda, lime, magnesia, oxide of 
iron, and lactate of soda, united with an ani- 
mal matter. Arterial blood is of a florid red 
colour, strong smell; s. g. 1.049. Venous blood 
is of a brownish red; s. g. 1.051. The differ- 
ence in colour has given occasion to the first 
being called red blood ; the latter, black. The 
former, which is distributed from the heart, is 
nearly the same through its whole extent : the 
latter is the remains of the arterial blood after 
the different elements have been taken from it in 
nutrition, and probably differs in composition. 
It likewise contains different substances absorbed. 
Venous blood, taken from a vessel and left to 
itself, becomes solid, and separates into two dis- 
tinct parts, — the serum or watery supernatant 
fluid; and the cruor, coag'ulum, crassamen' turn, 
hepar se\i placen'ta san'guinis, placen'ta cruo'ris, 
in'sula, thrombus, or clot. The serum is chiefly 
water, holding albumen in solution and the salts 
of the blood. The clot contains the fibrin, co- 
'ouring matter — hcematosin, a little serum, and a 



small quantity of salts. M. Le Canu found the 
blood to be composed — in 1000 parts — of water, 
785.590; albumen, 69.415; fibrin, 3.566; colour- 
ing matter, 119.626; crystallizable fatty matter, 
4.300; oily matter, 2.270; extractive matter so- 
luble in alcohol and water, 1.920 ; albumen com- 
bined with soda, 2.010 ; chlorides of sodium and 
potassium ; alkaline phosphates, sulphates, and 
subcarbonates, 7.304; subcarbonate of lime and 
magnesia, phosphate of lime, magnesia and iron, 
peroxide of iron, 1.414; loss, 2.586. The four 
principal components of the blood are fibrin, 
albumen, corpuscles, and saline matter. In tb; 
circulating blood they are thus combined — 

Alb""^' I ^^ solution forming Liquor Sangui- 

Saltr'°'i "'"• 

Red Corpuscles — suspended in the Liquor San- 
guinis. 

In coagulated blood they are thus combined : 

Fibrin, 1 Forming the crassamentum or 

Red Corpuscles, J clot. 

Albumen, ) Remaining- in solution, forming 
Salts, J serum. 

The following table exhibits the computations 
of different physiologists regarding the weight 
of the circulating fluid — arterial and venous. 

Harvey, ") lbs. 

Lister, 

Moulins, 

Abildguard, 

Blumenbach, ") 

Lobb, V 10 

Lower, J 

Sprengel 10 to 15 

GUnther 15 to 20 

Blake 16Jtol8J 

Miiller and Burdach 20 

Wagner 20 to 25 

Quesnai 27 

F. Hoffmann 28 

Haller 28 to 30 

Young 40 

Hamberger 80 

Keill 100 

The proportion of arterial blood to venous is 
about 4 to 9. 

Much attention has been paid to the varying 
condition of the blood in disease. The average 
proportion of each of the organic elements in 
1000 parts of healthy blood is as follows, accord- 
ing to Le Canu, and MM. Andral and Gavarret: 
— fibrin, 3; red corpuscles, 127; solid matter of 
the serum, 80; water, 790. 

Dried human blood was, at one time, consi- 
dered to be anti-epileptic; that of the goat, dried, 
Sanguis hirci sicca'tus; sudorific and antipleu- 
retic. The dried blood of the ox — Extrac'tum 
San'guinis Bovi'ni — and the dried red corpuscles 
have been given as analeptics, especially where 
there was a deficiency of red corpuscles. 

Blood, Arterial, see Blood — b. Black, see 
Blood — b. Black, vascular system of, see Vas- 
cular. 

Blood, Casein, Globulin — b. Corpuscles, Glo- 
bules of the blood — b. Disease, Htumatouosus — 
b. Disks, Globules of the blood. 

Blood, Dried, see Blood — b. Loss of. Ha;mor- 
rhagia — b. Menstrual, see Menses — b. Red, see 
Blood — b. Red, system of, see Vascular — b. Spit- 
ting of, HEemoptysis — b. Venous, see Blood — b. 
Vomiting of, Hsematemesis — b. White, Lymph. 

BLOOD CRYSTALS, Hjpmatoidin, 

BLOODING, Blood-letting. 

BLOODLESSNESS, Anajmia. 

BLOOD-LETTING, Missio seu Betrac'tio 
San'guinis, Hasmax'is, Cataschas'mus, Blooding, 



BLOODLIKE 



133 



BOE 



Bleeding, (F.) Saignie, Emission annguine. A 
discharge of a certain quantity of blood produced 
by art : an operation which consists in making 
an opening into a vessel to draw or let blood from 
it. When practised on an artery, it is called Ar- 
teriot'omy ; on a vein, Phlehot'omy, Venaesec'tio, 
Venesec'tion; and on the capillary vessels, local 
or capillary, in contradistinction to the former, 
which is termed general. Blood-letting is used 
both during the existence of a disease, as in in- 
flammation, and in the way of prophylaxis. It 
is employed to fulfil various indications. 1. To 
diminish the actual mass of blood ; — when it is 
termed, by the French pathologists, Saignee eva- 
eitative. In such case, fluids ought not to be al- 
lowed too freely afterwards. 2. To diminish the 
turgescence in any particular organ — (F.) Saig- 
nee reoulsive, Revulsive blood-letting or bleeding, 
Vencesec'tio revulso'ria, when performed far from 
the part affected; and Saignee derivative, when 
near. 3. To diminish the consistence of the blood, 
(F.) Saignee spoliative. The immediate effects 
of blood-letting are : diminution of the mass of 
blood and of heat ; retardation of the pulse, and 
sometimes syncope. Blood-letting from the veins 
— phlebotomy — is practised on the subcutaneous 
veins of the neck, the face, the fore-arm, and the 
leg ; sometimes on those of the hand or foot. 
The necessary apparatus consists of a bandage 
or riband, a compress of rag, and a lancet or 
fleam. 

The veins selected for the operation, are, 1. In 
the fold of the arm, five; — the cephalic, basilic, 
the two median, and the anterior cubital. 2. In 
the hand, the cephalic and salvatella. 3. In the 
fool, the great and little saphena. 4. In the neck, 
the external jugular. 5. In the forehead, the 
frontal. 6. In the mouth, the ranine. The ope- 
ration of phlebotomy in the limbs is performed 
by tying a circular bandage round the limb, in 
order that the subcutaneous veins may become 
turgid by the course of the blood being ob- 
structed : the bandage not being so tight, how- 
ever, as to compress the arteries of the limb. A 
puncture is made into the vein, and the desired 
quantity allowed to flow. The ligature is now 
removed, and a compress and retaining bandage 
applied. Capillary or local blood-letting, arte- 
rio-phlebot'omy, is practised on the skin or 
mucuous membranes, by means of leeches, the 
lancet, or cupping. 

Blood-letting, Capillary, see Blood-letting 
— b. Derivative, see Blood-letting — b. Evacuative, 
see Blood-letting — b. General, see Blood-letting 
^b. Local, see Blood-letting — b. Revulsive, see 
Blood-letting — b. Spoliative, see Bloodletting. 

BLOODLIKE, Sanguine. 

BLOOD LIQUOR, Liquor Sanguinis. 

BLOODROOT, Sanguinaria Canadensis. 

BLOODSHOT, HyperEemic. 

BLOODSTONE, Hematites. 

BLOODSTROKE, Coup-de-sang. 

BLOOD VESICLE, Globule of the blood. 

BLOOD VESSEL, (F.) Vaisseau sanguin. A 
vessel destined to contain and convey blood. 

Blood Vessel, breaking, bursting, rupto- 
RING OP A. Haemorrhagia. 

BLOODWEED, Asclepias curassavica. 

BLOODWORT, Hieracium venosum, Sangui- 
naria Canadensis. 

BLOODY, Sanguin'eus, Cruen'tus, Sanguin'- 
eous, (F.) Sanguin. Having the character of 
blood. Relating to blood. See Sanguine. 

BLOODY FLUX, Dysentery. 

BLOOM, HONEY, Apocynum androssemifo- 
lium. 

BLOSSBURG MINERAL SPRINGS. The 
town of Blossburg is in Tioga County, 133 miles 



north of Harrisburg. They contain pure sulphu- 
ric acid; and are astringent and tonic. 

BLOSSOM, see Grog-blossom. 

BLOTA ALBA, Bleta. 

BLOTCH, (Prov.) Splavin, Sprote. A pustule; 
more commonly, an eruption of a large kind. 

BLOW, Ictus, Plege, (F.) Coup. Efl'ect pro- 
duced by one body striking another. The im- 
pression made by any body which strikes us, or 
against which we strike; — a common cause of 
wounds, contusions, fractures, ifec. 

BLOWING SOUND, Bruit de Souffle — h. s. 
Diffused, see Murmur, respiratory. 

BLUE-BELLS, Gentiana catesbaei. 

BLUE-BERRY, Caulophyllum thalictroides, 
Lantana — b. Low, Vaccinium Pennsylvanicum. 

BLUE-BONNETS, Cetaurea cyanus. 

BLUE-BOTTLE, Centaurea cyanus, Cyanus 
segetum. 

BLUE LICKS, see Kentucky,MineralWaters of. 

BLUE STONE, Cupri sulphas. 

BLUET, Centaurea cyanus. 

BLUET DES 3I0ISS0NS, Cyanus segetum. 

BLUITER, Borborygmus. 

BLUSH, see Flush. 

Blush, Cutaneous, see EfiBorescence — b. In- 
flammatory, Erythema. 

BLUTTER, Borborygmus. 

BOA, Boia. An eruption of red, ichorous pim- 
ples. — Pliny. See, also, Hidroa and Sudamina. 

Boa Upas, Upas. 

BOiE, Syphilis. 

BOALA, see Scherlievo. 

BOBERRI, Curcuma longa. 

BOCHE, Swelling. 

BOCCHOE, Diosma crenata. 

BOCHET, Bochetum. 

BOCHE'TUM, (F.) Bochet. A term formerly 
applied to the second decoction of the sudorific 
woods. The French word has been lately revived. 

BOCHIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOCHO, Diosma crenata. 

BOCIUM, Bronchocel6- 

BOCK, Vomiturition. 

BOOKING, Eructation, Vomiting. 

BOOKLET, MINERAL WATERS OF, The 
springs of Booklet, in Bavaria, are acidulous 
chalybeates. 

BODY, Corpus, Soma, (F.) Corpis ; from Teu- 
tonic boden, the 'fundus or bottom.' [?] The 
human body, (F.) Corps humain, (Old E.) Liche, 
is the collection of organs which compose the 
frame. At times, however, body is used synony- 
mously with trunk. We say, also, body of the 
femur, of the sphenoid, Ac, to designate the shaft 
or middle portion of those bones; body of the 
uterus, Ac. Likewise, any distinct portion of 
matter perceived by the senses. Also, the rectum. 

Body, Coming down op the. Proctocele. 

Body-Searcher, Searcher. One who formerly 
examined the bodies of the dead to report as to 
the cause of death. In the time of the plague 
this was done by " the chirurgeons," who wei j 
allowed "twelve pence," to be paid out of tLe 
goods of the party searched, if able ; otherwise, 
by the parish. Until of late, this oflBce was exe- 
cuted in England by two old women — called 
' searchers' ; 'and hence the imperfections of the 
Bills of Mortality. In plague times, the office 
was an important one; and, it is stated, that a 
noted searcher, named Snacks, finding his busi- 
ness increase so much, that he could not transact 
it alone, offered to any one who would join him 
in its hazards, half the profits; and they who 
joined him were said to "go with Snacks." 
Hence, the saying "to go Snacks," or to divide 
the spoils. — AVadd. 

BODY-SNATCHER, Resurrectionist. 

BOE, Cry. 



BOELLI 



134 



BONDUE 



BOELLI, Intestines. 

BOETHEMA, Medicament. 

BOG-BEAX, Menyanthes trifoliata. 

BOHOX UPAS, Upas. 

BOIA, Boa. 

BOIL, Furunculus — b. Blind, see Furunculus — 
b. Gum, Parulis — b. Malignant, see Furunculus — 
b. Wasp's ne.-it, see Furunculus. 

BOIS AMER, Quassia— 6. de Campiche, 
llasmatoxylum Campecbianum — b. de Cerf, Cornu 
cervi — b. de Chypre, Rhodium lignum — b. de 
Couleuire, see Strychnos — 6. Boux, Glycyrrhiza 
— b. de JIarais, Cephalanthus occidentalis — b. 
de Plomb, Dirca palustris — b. Puant, Prunus pa- 
dus — b. de Rose, Rhodium lignum — b. de Sap- 
j>an, Caesalpinia sappan — b. Sudorijique, Wood, 
sudorific. 

BOISSE, MINERAL WATERS OF. These 
waters are situate about half a league from Fon- 
lenay-le-Compte, in Franco. They are purgative, 
aud seem to contain carbonate and sulphate of 
lime and chloride of sodium. 

BOISSON, Drink, 

BOIST, Swelling. 

BOITE, (F.) A box or case, Capsa, Pyxis. 
An apparatus for the reception of any matters 
which it may be desirable to preserve. In Sur- 
gery and Anatomy, Bottes a dissection, B. d am- 
putation, B. d, trepan, B. d cataracte, &,c., mean 
the cases containing these various instruments. 
Boite du Crane is the bony case which receives 
the brain. Boite is, also, the portion of the 
stem of the trephine which receives the pyra- 
mid or centre-pin. Bo'ite de Petit is a machine, 
invented by M. Petit, to retain the fractured por- 
tions of bone in apposition, when the leg has been 
fractured in a complicated manner. Boite is, also, 
a kind of case put before an artificial anus to re- 
ceive the fffices, which are continually being dis- 
charged. The vulgar, in France, give the name 
Boite, to various articulations, — B. de genou, B. 
de la hanehe; "knee-joint, hip-joint." 

BOITE MENT, Claudication. 

BOITERIE, Claudication. 

BOITIER, (F.) Appareil, Cap'sula unguenta'- 
ria, Capsa'rium. A dressing-ease. A box, con- 
taining salves and different apparatus, used more 
particularly by the dressers in hospitals. 

BOK. Vomiturition. 

BOKKING, Eructation, Vomiting. 

BOL, Bolus — b. d'Armenie, Bole, Armenian — 
b. Oriental, Bole, Armenian — b. Blanc, Bolus 
alba — 6. Rouge, Bole, Ajrmenian. 

BOLA, Myrrha. 

BOLCHON, Bdellium. 

BOLE, Bolus, (F.) Bol, Terre bolaire, meant, 
with the older writers, argillaceous earth, used 
as an absorbent and alexipharmic. The various 
boles had different forms given to them, and were 
stamped, or sealed, hence called Terra sigillatcB ; 
as in the following: 

Bole Arme'-Ntan, Bole Arme'niac, B. Ar'me- 
uic, Argil'la ferrugin'ea rubra, A. Bolus rubra, 
Sinapisis, Arena'men, Bolus Orienta'lis seu Ar- 
vteniaca sen Arme'nice sea rubra, (F.) Bol d'Ar- 
menie ou oriental ou rouge. A red, clayey earth, 
found not only in Armenia, but in several coun- 
tries of Europe, — in Tuscany, Silesia, France, 
Ac It was once esteemed a tonic and astringent, 
and was applied as a styptic. It is now, scarcely, 
if ever, used. It consista of argil, mLsed with 
lime and iron. 

BOLESIS, Coral. 

BOLESON, Balsam. 

BOLET ODORANT, Dadalea suaveolens. 

BOLETUS AGARICUS, B. Larieis— b. Albus, 
Boletus larieis — b. Cervinus, Elaphomyces gra- 
•Jjlatus — 1). Discoideus, Daedalea suaveolens. 



f Bole'tus Esculen'tus, (F.) Morelle. Ord, 
Fungi. An eatable mushroom, found in the 
woods in Europe, and much admired by Gastro- 
nomes. It was formerly esteemed to be aphro- 
disiac. J 

Boletus Fulvus, B. igniarius — b. Hippocrepis, 
B. igniarius. 

Bole'tus Igma'Rics. The systematic name 
for the Ag'aric, Agar'icus, Agar'icum of the 
Pharmacopoeias, Agar'icus Chirurgo' rum seu 
Querents seu ignia'rius, Polyp'orus ignia'rins, 
Is'ca, Bole'tus ungula'tus seu fulvus seu hipjm- 
crepissea obtu'sus, SpunJc, Am'adou, Punk, (Prov.) 
Funk, Fungus Ignia'rius, Fungus Qnerci'nus, 
Agaric of the Oak, Touchwood, Touchwood Bole- 
tus, Female Agaric, Tinder, (F.) Agaric de chine, 
Amadouvier. It was formerly much used by 
surgeons as a styptic. 

Bole'tus Lah'icis, B. Larici'nus seu purgant 
seu albus seu agar'icus seu officina'lis, Fun'gua 
Lar'icis, Polyp'orus officina'lis, Agar'icus ulbut 
seu Lar'icis, A. Albus op'timus. White Agaric, 
(F.) Agaric blanc, A. Amadouvier. On the con- 
tinent of Europe it has been given as a cathartic 
and emetic, as well as to moderate the sweats in 
phthisis. — De Haen. Externally, styptic. 

Boletus Obtusus, B. igniarius — b. Ofiicinalis, 
B. larieis — b. Purgans, Boletus larieis — b. Salicis, 
Daedalea suaveolens — b. Suaveolens, Daedalea 
suaveolens — b. Touchwood, Boletus igniarius. 

BO LI MARTIS, Ferrum tartarisatum. 

BOLISMOS, Boulimia. 

BOLI'TES. The mushroom; perhaps the 
Agar'icus Aurantiacus. — Pliny, Martial, Seuto- 
nius, Galen. It was so called, in consequence 
of its shape, — from Bolus. 

BOLLYNGE, Swelling. 

BOLNING, Swelling. 

BOLT. Used, at times, for to swallow withou 
chewing, — as to " bolt one's food." 

BOLUS, fidiXos, Buecell'a, a morsel, a mouth- 
ful, a bole, (F.) Bol. A pharmaceutical prepa- 
ration, having a pilular shape, but larger; capa- 
ble, however, of being swallowed as a pill. 

Bolus Alba, Terra Sigilla'ta, Argil'la pal- 
lid' ior: — called sigilla'ta, from being commonly 
made into small cakes or flat masses, and stamped 
or sealed with certain impressions. (F.) Bol 
blanc, Terre Sigillee, Argile ochreuse pdle. It 
was used like Bole Armenian, and was brought 
from Etruria. See Terra. 

Bolus, Alimen'tary, Bolus Alimenta'rius. The 
bole formed by the food, after it has undergone 
mastication and insalivation in the mouth ; and 
been collected upon the tongue prior to deglutit 
tion. 

Bolus Oriejtta'lis. A kind of bolar earth, 
only distinguished from Bole Armenian in being 
broughtfrom Constantinople. See Bole, Armenian. 

Bolus Rubra, Bole Armenian. 

BOMA'REA SALSIL'LA. The inhabitants 
of Chili use this plant as a sudorific. It is given 
in infusion in cutaneous diseases. 

BOMBAX, Gossypium. 

BOMBEMENT, Bombus. 

BOMBITATIO, Tinnitus aurium. 

BOMBUS, Au'rium Jiuctua'tio, A. Sib'ilus, A. 
Son'itus, A. Susur'rus, (F.) Bombement. A kind 
of ringing or buzzing rn the ears ; — characterized, 
according to Sauvages, by the perception of 
blows or beating repeated at certain intervals. 
Also, Borborygmus. See Fart, Flatulence, anl 
Tinnitus Aurium. 

BOMBYX MORI, see Sericum. 

BON, Coffea Arabica. 

BONA, Phaseolus vulgaris. 

BONANNIA OFFICINALIS, Sinapis alba. 

BONA FEVER, see Fever, Bona. 

BONDUE, Gymnocladua Canadensis, 



BONE 



1C5 



BORACIC ACID 



BONE, Os, Os'teon, Os'teum, (F.) Os, (Sax.) 
ban. The bones are the solid and hard parts, 
which form the basis of the bodies of animals 
of the superior classes; and the union of which 
constitutes the skeleton. The human body has, 
at the adult age, 208 bones, without including 
the 32 teeth, the ossa Wormiana, and the sesa- 
moid bones. Anatomists divide them, from their 
shape, into 1. Lon(/ tones, which form part of the 
limbs, and represent columns for supporting the 
weight of the body, or levers of different kinds 
for the muscles to act upon. 2. Flat bones, which 
form the parietes of splanchnic cavities ; and, 3. 
Short bones, met with in parts of the body where 
solidity and some mobility are necessary. Bones 
are formed of two different textures ; spongy and 
comimct. They afford, on analysis, much phos- 
phate and carbonate of lime, a little phosphate 
of magnesia, phosphate of ammonia, oxides of 
iron and manganese, some traces of alumina and 
silica, gelatin, fat, and water. The uses of the 
bones are mentioned under each bone. They 
give shape to the body, contain and defend the 
viscera, and act as levers to the muscles. 

TABLE OF THE BONES. 

'Frontal....; 



Bones op 

THE 

Trunk. 



Bones op 
Lower 

EXTRE- 

mxT. 



Bones of the 
Cranium or 

Skull. 



Bones of the 
Face. 



Denies, 



1 

Parietal 2 

Occipital 1 

Temporal 2 

Ethmoid 1 

Sphenoid 1 



or 



Superior Maxillary, 

Jugal or Cheek 'Z 

Nasal 2 

Lachrymal 2 

Palatine 2 

Inferior Spongy 2 

Vomer 1 

Inferior Maxillary 1 

fincisores 8 

-JCuspidati 4 

(Molares 20 

1 



JHyoid. 



Teeth. 

Bone of the 

Tongue 

! Malleus 2 

Incus 2 

Orbicnlare 2 

Stapes 2 

( Cervical 7 

VeriebrcB. -j Dorsal .'. 12 

(Lumbar 5 

Sacrum 1 

Os Coccygis 1 

The Pelvis Innominatum 2 

Cl-avicle 2 

_ Scapula 2 

The Am Humerus 2 

/Ulna 2 

I Radi 



"She Shoulder.' 



Fore-arm. 



Carpus, 

or 

Wrist. 



Naviculare 2 

Lunare 2 

Cuneifornie 2 

Orbiculare 2 

Trapezium 2 

Trapezoides 2 

Magnum 2 

Unciforme 2 

Metacarpus 10 

Phalanges 28 

The Thigh Femur 2 

(•Patella 2 

Theie^r. -{Tibia 2 

(Fibula 2 

ifCalcisOs 2 

Tarsus, 1 Astragalus 2 

or ] Cuboides... 2 

Instep. Naviculare 2 

l^Cuneiforme 6 

Metatarsus 10 

Phalanges 28 



Total., 



The bones of the ox, Bos Taurus, are employed 
in pharmacy. 
Bo3fE-AcH, Osteocopus — b. Ague, Osteocopus. 



Bone, Back, Vertebral column — b.Bar,Pubis,os. 
Bone Black, see Carbo animalis. 

Bone, Blade, Scapula — b. Boat-like, Os sca- 
phoides — b. Breast, Sternum — b. Crupper, Coccyx. 

Bone Earth, see Cornu ustum — b. Fever, see 
Inflammation. 

Bone, Haunch, Ilion — b. Interparietal, Inter- 
parietal bone. 

Bone Phosphate of Lime, see Cornu ustum. 

Bone, Rump, Coccyx — b. Share, Pubis -^-b. 
Splinter, Fibula. 

BONEBINDER, Osteocolla. 

BONE-DOCTOR, Benoueur. 

BONE-NIPPERS, Oiteul'cum, Tenac'uln, from 
«eweo, 'I hold.' (F.) TenaiUe incisire. An in- 
strument used for cutting off splinters and car- 
tilages. It is a kind of forceps, the handles of 
which are strong, and the edges, which touch 
each other, cutting. 

BONESET, Eupatorium perfoliatum — b. 
Rough, Eupatorium teucrifolium — b. Upland, 
Eupatorium sessifolium. 

BONE-SETTER, Benoueur. 

BONE-SHAVE, Neuralgia femoro-poplitsea. 

BONES, BRITTLENESS OF THE, Fragilitas 
ossium — b. Friability of the, Fragilitas ossium — 
b. Salt of, AmmoniEB carbonas — b. Softening of 
the, Mollities ossium. 

BOXHOMME, Verbascum thapsus. 

BONICLATTER, Bonnyclabber. 

BONIFACIA, Ruscus hypoglossum. 

BONITULOBBER, Bonnyclabber. 

BONA'^E DAME, Atriplex hortensis. 

BONNES, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bonnes 
is a village six leagues from Pau, in the depart- 
ment Basses Pyrenees, France. Hete are several 
thermal springs. They were celebrated as early 
as the time of Francis I., under the name Eaux 
d' Arquehusade. They contain chlorides of sodium 
and magnesium, sulphates of magnesia and lime, 
sulphur, and silica. The temperature is from 78° 
to 98° Fahrenheit. 

ThQ factitious Eau de Bonnes is made of Hy- 
drosulphuretfed water, t^iv; pure water, Oj. and 
f^ss; chloride of sodium, gr. xxx ; sidphale of 
magnesia, gr. i. 

BONNET, Reticulum. 

BONNET 1 DEUX GL OBES, Bonnet d'ffip- 
pocrate. 

BONNET D'HIPPOCRATE, Cap of Hip- 
poc' rates, Mitra Hippocrat'iea, Fas'cia capita'lis, 
Pi'leus Eippocrat'icus. A kind of bandage, the 
invention of which is ascribed to Hippocrates. 
It consists of a double-headed roller, passed over 
the head, so as to envelop it like a cap. The 
French also name it Bonnet d deux globes, Cape- 

BONNYCLABBER, Clabber, from Irish, Jaine, 
* milk,' and clabar, ' mire.' In Ireland, sour but- 
termilk. In this country, the thick part of sour 
milk. Boniclatter and Bonithlobber, also, meant 
cream or " good milk gone thick.' — Halliwell. 

BONPLANDIA ANGUSTURA, Cusparia fe- 
brifu2;a — b. Trifoliata, Cusparia febrifuga. 

BO'NTIA GERMINANS,Avicennia tomentosa. 
BONUS GENIUS, Peucedanum— b. Henricus, 
Chenopodium bonus Henricus. 
BONY, Osseous. 
BOOCHO, Diosma crenata. 
BOON UPAS, Upas. 
BOONA, Phaseolus vulgaris. 
BOOTIA VULGARIS, Saponaria. 
BOOTIKIN. A glove with a partition for the 
: thumb, but no separate ones for the fingers — like 
i an infant's glove — made of oiled silk. — Dr. E. J. 
[ Seymour. Horace Walpole speaks in raptures of 
: the benefit he derived from bootikins in gout. 
! BORACIC ACID, Ac"idum Borac"icum, Sal 
X sedati'vua Homber'gi, Boric Acid, (F.) AcieU 



BORAGE 



13 6 



BOTHRION 



hornexque. An acid obtained from borax, whicli 
W.IS oni-e looked upon as sedative. It was also 
called Acor Horac" icus, Sal vitrioli narcot'icum, 
Stil eolut'ile Bora'cis, and Flares Bora'cis. 

BORAGE, Borago officinalis. 

BORA'GO OFFICINA'LIS, Bugloa'aum ve- 
run seu Irttifu'littm, Borra'(jo, Corra'yo, Bo- 
yrigo Jiorten'sin, Boruye, Biirrage, (F.) Bourrache. 
Ord. Boraginete. Sex. Sjjxt. Pentandria Mono- 
gynia. The leaves and flowers have been con- 
.'^idered aperient. 

BORAS SUPERSODICUS, Borax. 

BORATHRON, Juniperus Sabina. 

BORAX, Boiaa Sodm seu supersat'urus soda 
seu alcales'ceiis seu alcali'num seu siipeiso'dicus, 
SodcB Bibo'ms, Subboras Sodm seu na'tricum, 
Soda Borujca'tit, Chrysocol'la, Copis'tritm auri, 
Subborate ofprotux'ide of So' dium,Sabprotobo' rate 
iif Sodium, Borax Ven'etuB, Borax'trion, Nitrxim 
facti"lium, <fec., Suhbo'rate or Biborate of Soda, 
Borate of Soda, (F.) Borate ou Sous-borate de 
Sonde, Borate siirsature de aoude. It is found in 
an impure state in Thibet and Persia. It is in- 
odorous ; taste cool, and somewhat alkaline; 
soluble in 12 parts of water. Borax is seldom 
used except as a lotion in aphth*. 

Borate of Mercury has been recommended 
as an antisyphilitic. 

BORAXTRION, Borax. 

BORBON'IA RUSCIFO'LIA. a small South 
African shrub, used in asthma and hydrothorax. 
In decoction, it is given as a diuretic. — Pappe. 

BORBORUS, Fimus. 

BORBORYG'MUS, from ISop^opv^u,, 'I make a 
dull noise.' Marinur seu Bonibus seu 3folnn In- 
testino'rxim. Anile' ma, Anile'sis, Oceliopsoph'ia, In- 
tona'tio intestina'lis, Ulurmur veiitris seu ititesti- 
iio'le, Bor'borygm, (Sc.) Bluiter, Blutter, (Prov.) 
Orollinrj, CroxcUng, (¥.) Gargoxiillenient, Grouille- 
ment d' Entr allies . The noise made by flatus in 
the intestines. This happens often in health, 
especially in nervous individuals. 

BORD (F.), Margo, Edge, Bfargin. Anato- 
mists have so named the boundaries of an organ. 
Thus, the bones, muscles, <fec. have borda as well 
as bodies. The ' free edge,' bord libre, is one not 
connected with any part; the 'adhering edge,' 
bord adherent, one that is connected; and the 
bord articulaire, or 'articular margin or edge,' 
that which is joined to another bone. 

BORD OILIAIRE, Ciliary margin. 

BORDEAUX, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Near this great city, in the south-west of France, 
is a saline, chalybeate spring. It contains oxide 
of iron, carbonate and sulphate of lime, chlorides 
of sodium and calcium, subcarbonate of soda, and 
sulphate of magnesia. 

BORE, Boron. 

BORE-TREE, Sambucus. 

BORGNE (F.), Codes, Uvoc'xdxis, Lxiscxis, 
Lxiseio'axis. One who has only one eye, or sees 
only with one. The word has been used, figu- 
ratively, for blirid, in surgery and anatomy. See 
Caecus. 

BORIUM. Boron. 

BORKHAUSENIA CAVA, Fumaria bulbosa. 

BORN, past participle of bear, (F.) ne. Brought 
forth from the womb. 

Born Alive. It has been decided by English 
judges, that 'to be born alive,' means, that acts 
of life must have been manifested after the whole 
body has been extruded; and that respiration in 
transitxi is not evidence that a child was born 
alive. It must be 'wholly born alive;' hence 
respiration may be a sign of life, but not of live 
birth. 

BORON, Bo'rixim, Borum, (F.) Bore. A simple 
substance, the basis of boracic acid; obtained, by 
peating potassium with boracic acid, as a dark, 



olive-coloured powder, devoid of taste and smelL 
Heated in the air or in oxygen, it is converted 
into boracic acid. 

BOR'OSAIL, Zael. .Ethiopian names for a 
disease, very common there, which attacks the 
organs of generation, and appears to have con- 
siderable analogy with syphilis. 

BORRAGO, Borago officinalis. 

BORRI, Curcuma longa. 

BORRIBERRI, Curcuma longa. 

BORSE, MINERAL WATERS OP. Borse is 
a village in Beam. The waters are chalybeate. 

BORUM, Boron. 

BOSA. An ^Egyptian name for a mass, made 
of the meal of darnel, hemp-seed, and water. It 
is inebriating. — Prospero Alpini. At the present 
day, it is applied to a kind of acidulated and, 
sometimes, fermented scherbet. In its common- 
est form, it is made by fermenting an infusion of 
millet-seed. A more agreeable Bosa is prepared 
by the Egyptians from tamarinds and honey ; 
and by the Greeks from the fruit of Solanum Ly- 
eopersicum. This last is called, by them, Apoaia- 
riKov, Drosis'ticon. 

BOSCHESJESMANSTHEE, Methystophyl- 
lum glaucum. 

BOSOM, s^e Mamma. 

BOSSA, Plague token. 

BOSSE, Hump, Protuberance — b. Kasale, 
Nasal protuberance. 

BOSSU, see Hump. 

BOSWELLIA SERRATA, see Juniperus lycia 
— b. Tburifera, see Juniperus lycia. 

BOTAL FORA'MEN, /'om'men Bota'le seu 
Botal'Ui, Fora'men Ova'le, (F.) Troxi de Bo- 
tal, Tvou ovale. A large opening which exists 
in the foetus in the partition between the two 
auricles of the heart; and by means of which 
the blood passes from one to the other. Its 
discovery is generally attributed to Leonard Bo- 
tallus, Botal, or Botalli, who wrote in 1562. It 
was spoken of, however, by Vesalius, and even 
by Galen. 

BOTANE, Herb. 

BOTANICAL DOCTOR, Herb-doctor. 

BOTANIQUE MEDICALE, Botany, medicaL 

BOT'ANY, MEDICAL, Botan'ica Med'icu, 
3Iedici'na Botan'ica, Phytolog"ia Med'ica, from 
(ioTavn, 'an herb,' (F.) Botaniqxie Iledicale. The 
knowledge of the properties, characters, &c. of 
those vegetables which are used in medicine. 

BOTAR'GO, (F.) Botargue. A preparation 
made in Italy and the south of France, with the 
eggs and blood of the 3higilceph'alua or 3Iullet, 
strongly salted, after it has become putrescent. 
It is used as a condiment. 

BOT ARGUE, Botargo. 

BOTCH, (L) Bozza. Of old, a swelling of the 
skin. A phlegmon. A large ulcerous affection. 

BOTHOR. An Arabic term for abscess in the 
nares. It means, also, .a tumour in general ; 
especially those which are without solution of 
continuity. 

BOTHRIOCEPH'ALUS, B. latxis, Bothrio- 
ceph'alxun, from ISodfitov, 'a small pit,' and Ki<pa\ii, 
' head.' Botrioceph'alxia, Diboth'riiun latxini, 
Tce'xixa lata seu vidga'ris seu os'cidis laleral'xbiis 
gem'itiia seu griaea SOU menxbraiia' cea seu tetxel'la 
seu deiitn'ta seu hxima'na iner'mia s&u jirima seu 
oa'cxilia lateral' ibxia aolita'riis seu aceph'ala seu 
oacxilia axiperficial'ibxcs, Lxtmbri'cua latiis, Plote'a, 
Haly'ais membrana'cea seu lata, (F.) Tenia & an- 
neaxix courts ou noxi armS, Ver solitaire, Broad 
Tape-xoonn. Common in Switzerland, Russia, 
and some parts of France. It inhabits the intes- 
tines of man, and extends to an enormous length. 
A broken specimen has been obtained 60 yards 
long. — Goeze. 

BOTH'RION, Both'rium, from ^oS/xoi-, 'a small 



BOTHRIUM 



137 



BOURBON-LANCY 



pit, cavity,' &c. An alveolus, or small fossa. A 
small, deep ulcer on the cornea. — Galen, Paulus 
of ^gina. See Fossette. 

BOTHRIUM, Bothrion, Fossette. 
BOTIIROS, Fovea. 
BOTTN, Terebinthina. 
BOTIUM, Bronchocele. 

BOTOTHINUM. An obscure term, used by 
Paracelsus to denote the most striking symptom 
of a disease : — the Flos morbi. 
BOTOU, Pareira brava. 
BOTRIOCEPHALUS, Bothriocephalus. 
BOTRION, Alveolus. 

BOTROPHIS SERPENTARIA, Actaea race- 
mnsa. 

BOTRYS, Chenopodium botrys, see Vitis vini- 
fera — b. Ambrosioides, Chenopodium ambrosio- 
ides — b. Americana, Chenopodium ambrosioides 
— b. Anthelmintica, Chenopodium anthelminti- 
cum — b. Mexicana, Chenopodium ambrosioides. 

BOTTINE{'F.). A thin hoot or hmkin, O'cren 
le'vior. An instrument which resembles a small 
boot, furnished with springs, straps, buckles, &c., 
and used to obvjate distortions of the lower ex- 
tremities in children. 

BOTTLE-NOSE, Gutta rosea. 
BOTTLE-STOOP. In Pharmacy, an arrange- 
ment for giving the proper inclination to a bottle 
containing a powder, so as to admit of the con- 
tents being readily removed by the knife, in dis- 
pensing medicines. It consists of a block of 
wood with a groove in the upper surface, to re- 
ceive the bottle in an oblique position. 
BOTTOM, Nates. 
BOTTRY-TREB, Sambucus. 
BOUBALIOS, Momordica elaterium, Vulva. 
BOUBON, Bubo. 

BOUGAGE ANIS, Pimpinella anisum — &. 
Majeur, Pimpinella magna — h. Mineur, Pimpi- 
nella saxifraga — b. Petit, Pimpinella saxifraga. 

BOUCHE, Mouth — 6. Pdteuse, Clammy 
mouth. 

B UCL EMENT, Infibulation. 
BOUE, see Corruption. 

BOUE SPLENIQUE. The altered blood ex 
travasated into the splenic cells has been so 
called. 

BOUES DES EAUX (P.), Bones 3finSrales, 
Bal'nea Oceno'sa. The mud or swamp, formed 
near mineral springs, impregnated with the sub- 
stances contained in such springs, and conse- 
quently possessing similar properties. Ths Boues 
are applied generally and topically, in France, at 
the springs of St. Amand, Bagneres de Luchon, 
Bagnols, and Bar6ges ; in the United States, at 
the White Sulphur in Virginia, <fcc. 
BOUES MINERALES, Bones dea eaux. 
BOUFFE, (F.) The small eminence, formed 
by the junction of the two lips. — Delaurens. 
BoDFFB, Eructation. 
BOUFFEE DE CHALEUR, Flush. 
BOUFFISSURE, Puffiness. 
BOUGIE, (F.) A wax candle: Candel'ula, 
Cande'ln, C. ce'rea seu medica'ta, Ce'reum. medi- 
ca'tum, Cere'olns Ohiriirgo'rum, Dm'dion, Specil'- 
lum ce'reum, Virga ce'ren, Cere'olns. A flexible 
cylinder, variable in size, to be introduced into 
the urethra, oesophagus, rectum, &c., for the pur- 
pose of dilating these canals, when contracted. 
A Simple Bougie is composed of solid and inso- 
luble substances; as plaster, elastic gum, gutta 
percha, catgut — {Bougie de Corde d boi/au^ Ac. 
It nets of course only mechanically. 

Bougie, Med'icated, (F.) B. Midicamenteiise, 
has the addition of some escharotic or other sub- 
stance to destroy the obstacle; as in the Caustic 
Bougie, (F.) B. cauterisante, B. armee. B. emplas- 
tigue. which has a small portion of Lunar Cans- 



tic or Common Caustic inserted in its extremity. 
Dueamp has recommended a Bougie, which swells 
out near its extremity, for the better dilating of 
the urethra. This he calls B. a ventre. The 
metallic Bougie, invented by Smyth, is a compo- 
sition of metal, allowing of great flexibility; and 
a hollow Bongie is one with a channel running 
through it, to be used in the same manner as the 
catheter, or othpwise. 

Bougie, UrrfttixE, Sound, uterine. 
BOUILLIE. (F.) PuUic'ula, Pap, from (F.) 
bouillir, 'to boil.' Flour, beaten and boiled with 
milk. It is a common food for infants. 

BOUILLON, (F.) from bouillir, 'to boil,' Jus, 
Sorbit"io. A liquid food, made by boiling the 
flesh of animals in water. The osmazome, gela- 
tin, and soluble salts dissolve ; the fat melts, and 
the albumen coagulates. Bouillon is nourishing, 
owing to the gelatin and osmazome. The Jus de 
Viande is a very concentrated Bouillon, prepared 
of beef, mutton, veal, <fec. 

BOUILLON, in common language, in France, 
means a round fleshy excrescence, sometimes 
seen in the centre of a venereal ulcer. 

BOUILLON BLANC, Verbascum nigrum. 
BOUILLONS MEDICINAUX ou PHAR- 
3IACEUTIQUES, Medicinal or Pharmaceutic 
Bouillons, contain infusions or decoctions of me- 
dicinal herbs. The Bouillon anx herbes is gene- 
rally composed of sorrel or beet. 

BOUILLON d'OS, (F.) Bouillon Jrom bones, 
is obtained by treating bones with muriatic acid, 
in order to dissolve the earthy parts. The gela- 
tin, which remains, is then boiled with a little 
meat and vegetables. — D'Arcet. Bouillon, how- 
ever, can be easily obtained from the bones of 
roast meat by simple coetion. 

B0UILL0NNE3IENT, Ebullition. 
BOUIS, Buxus. 

BOULE D'AGIER, Ferrum tartarizatum— 6. 
de Ifars, Ferrum tartarizatum — b. de Molsheim, 
Ferrum tartarizatum — 6. de Nancy, Ferrum tar- 
tarizatum. 

BOULEAU COMMUN, Betula alba. 
BOULESIS, Voluntas. 

BOULIM'IA, Bulim'ia, Bulim'ius, Bu'limm, 
Bou'limos, Bulimi'asis, Bolis'mos, Eclim'ia. Fames 
cani'na seu bovi'na seu lupi'na, Appeti'tus cani- 
nus, Appeten'tia cani'na, Adepha'gia, Cynorex'ia, 
Orex'is cyno'des, Bupi'na, Bupei'na, Phagce'na, 
Phagedce'na, from j3ouj, 'an ox,' and \iiio;, 
'hunger ;' or from /Sou, augmentative particle, and 
Ai/jof, 'hunger,' (F.) Boulimie, Fnim canine, F. 
devorante, Polyphagie. An almost insatiable 
hunger. A canine appetite. It is sometimes 
seen in hysteria and pregnancy; rarely under 
other circumstances. 
BOULIMIE, Bouliraia. 

BOULOGNE, MINERAL "WATERS OF. 
Boulogne is in the department of Pas-de-Calais, 
France. The waters are chalybeate. 
BOUNCING BET, Saponaria. 
BOUND, Costive. 
BOUNTREE, Sambucus. 
BOUQUET ANATOMIQUE DE RIOLAN, 
(F.) from bouquet, a collection of flowers or other 
substances tied together. A name given, by some 
anatomists, to the collection of ligaments and 
muscles, inserted into the styloid process of the 
temporal bone. 

Bouquet Fever, Dengue. 
BOURBILLON, see Furunculus (core). 
BOURBON-LANCY, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Bourbon-Lancy is a small village in the 
department of Sa6ne-et-Loire, France; where 
there are thermal saline springs, containing car- 
bonic acid, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
soda, chloride of calcium, carbonate of lime, iron. 



BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAUT 138 



BRACHIOCYLLOSIS 



and silica. Their heat is from 106° to 135° 
Fahrenheit. 

BOURBON L'ARCHAMBAUT, MINERAL 
WATERS OF. This town is in the department 
of Allier, six leagues west from Moulins, and 
has heen long celebrated for its thermal chaly- 
beate waters. They contain sulphohydric acid, 
sulphate of soda, magnesia, and lime, carbonate 
of iron, and silica. Their temperature varies 
between 136° and 145° Fahrenheit. 

BOURBONNE-LES-BAINS, MINERAL 
WATERS OF. These springs are seven leagues 
from Langres, department of Haute -Marne, 
France. They are thermal and salice, and have 
been long celebrated. Temperature from 106° 
to 133° Fahrenheit. The Factitious loater, (F.) 
Eau de Bourhonne-les- Bains, Aqua Borvonen'sis, 
is composed of water, containing twice its bulk 
of carbonic acid, f^xxss; chloride of sodium, 
f 3J' <^hloride of calcium, gr. x, &c. 

BOURBOULE, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
A village near Mont d'Or, where there are two 
thermal saline springs. 

BOURDAINE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURDONNEMENT, Tinnitus aurium. 

BOURDONNET, Pulvil'lus, P. e linamen'tis 
eonfec'tns seu rotun'dus, Dossil. A term in French 
surgery for charpie rolled into a small -mass of 
an olive shape, which is used for plugging wounds, 
absorbing the discharge, and preventing the 
union of their edges. In cases of deep and pene- 
trating wounds, as of the abdomen or chest, a 
thread is attached to them by which they may 
be readily withdrawn, and be prevented from 
passing altogether into those cavities. 

BOURGENE, Rhamnus frangula. 

BOURGEON, Granulation, Papula— 6. Char- 
lu. Granulation. 

BOURGEONNEMENT, see Generation. 

BOURGEONS, Gutta rosea. 

BOURGUEPINE, Rhamnus. 

BOURRAGHE, Borago oiEcinalis. 

BO UR RELET (F.) A Pad, a Border. A 
fibro-cartilaginous border, which surrounds cer- 
tain articular cavities, such as the glenoid cavity 
of the scapula and the acetabulum ; by which the 
depth of those cavities is augmented. See Cor- 
pus Callosum. 

BOURRELET ROULE. Cornu ammonia, 

BOURSE d BERGER, Thlaspibursa— 6. ct, 
Pasteur, Thlaspibursa. 

BOURSES {LES), Scrotum— 6. Mucilagi- 
neuses, BursiB mucosae — b. Muqueuses, Bursae 
mucosae. 

BOURSOUFLURE, Puffiness. 

BOURTREB, Sambucus. 

BOUSSOLE, Glossanthrax. 

BOUT BE SEIN {¥.), 'End of the breast,' 
'nipple.' An instrument of caoutchouc or ivory 
to place over the nipple when the infant sucks, 
soon after delivery, or where the nipple is in a 
morbid condition. 

BOUTON, Papula— &. d'Alep, see Anthrax— 
6. Malin, see Anthrax — 6. d'Or, Ranunculus 
acris. ^ 

BOUTONNIERE (F.), Fissu'ra, Incis'io. A 
long incision made into the urethra to extract a 
calculus from the canal, when it is too large to 
be discharged. 

Also, a small incision or puncture, made in the 
peritoneum, or above the pubis, to penetrate the 
bladder in certain cases of retention of urine. • 

BOVACHEVO, Datura sanguinea. 

BOVILLiE, Rubeola. 

BOVISTA, Lycoperdon. 
• BOWEL, Intestine. 

BOWLEGGED, see Cnemoscoliosis. 



BOWMAN'S CAPSULE, see Kidney. 

BOWMAN'S ROOT, Euphorbia corollata, QQ- 
lenia trifoliata, Leptandria purpurea. 

BOXBERRY, Gaultheria. 

BOX, MOUNTAIN, Arbutus uva ursi. 

BOX TREE, Buxus, Cornus Florida. 

BOXWOOD, Cornus Florida. 

BOYAU, Intestine— 6. Pollinique, see Pollen. 

BRABYLON, Prunum Damascenum. 

BRACHERIOLUM, Truss. 

BRACHERIUM, Truss. 

BRACHIA COPULATIVA, see Peduncles of 
the Cerebellum. 

BRACHIA PONTIS, see Peduncles of the 
Cerebellum. 

BRACHIJEUS, Brachial — b. Internus, Bra- 
chialis anterior. 

BRA'CHIAL, Brachia'lis, BracJiicF'us, from 
Brachiiim, 'the arm.' AVhat belongs to the arm- 

Brachial Aponeuro'sis. An aponeurosis, 
formed particularly by expansions of the tendons 
of the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, and del- 
toides muscles, and which completely envelops 
the muscles of the arm. 

Brachial Artery, Arte'ria brachia'lis, Hu'- 
meral Arterij, (F.) Artire ou Tronc brachial. 
The artery, which extends from the axilla to the 
bend of the elbow ; where it divides into A. cubi- 
talis and A. radialis. It passes along the inter- 
nal edge of the biceps, behind the median nerve 
and between the accompanying veins. Under 
the name Brachial Artery, Chaussier includes 
the subclavian, axillary, and humeral, the last 
being the brachial proper. 

Brachial Muscle, Anterior, Mus'eulua Brn- 
chia'lis Ante'rior, Brachia'lis internus seu anti'- 
cus, Brachics'us, B. internus, (F.) Miiscle brachial 
interne, Humero-cubital — (Ch.) This muscle is 
situate at the anterior and inferior part of the 
arm, and before the elbow-joint. It arises, fleshy, 
from the middle of the os humeri, and is inserted 
into the coronoid process of the ulna. Use, To 
bend the fore-arm. 

Brachial Plexfs, Plexus Brachia'lis, is a 
nervous plexus, formed by the interlacing of the 
anterior branches of the last four cervical pairs 
and the first dorsal. It is deeply seated in the 
hollow of the axilla, and extends as far as the 
inferior and lateral part of the neck. It gives 
off the thoracic nerves, supra and infra scapular, 
and the brachial (which are six in number), the 
axillary, cutaneous, musculo-cutaneous, radial, 
cubital, and median. 

Brachial Veins are two in number, and ac- 
company the artery, frequently anastomosing 
with each other: they terminate in the axillary, 
Under the term Brachial Veins, Chaussier in- 
cludes the humeral, axillary, and subclavian. 

BRACHIALS, Carpus. 

BRACHIAL'GIA, Neural' (jia Brachia'lis, 
from fipaxii^v, 'the arm,' and a\yos, 'pain.' Pain 
in the arm, neuralgia of the arm. 

BRACIIIALIS, Brachial— b. Anticus, Brachial 
muscle — b. Externus, see Triceps extensor cubiti 
— b. Internus, Brachial muscle. 

BRACHIERIUM, Truss. 

BRACHILE, Truss. 

BRACniLUVIUM, Bath, arm. 

BRACHIO-CEPHALIC artery, Innomi- 
nata arteria — b. Veins, Innominatae venae. 

B R A'C H 1 0-C U'B I T A L, Brachio-cubita'Us. 
That which belongs both to the arm and cubitus. 
This name has been given to the internal lateral 
ligament of the elbow-joint; because it is at- 
tached to the OS brachii or os humeri and to the 
cubitus or ulna. 

BRACHIOCYLLO'SIS, from i^pax"*", 'the 
I arm,' and kuAXucjj, 'the act of making crooked.' 



BRACHION 



139 



BRAS 



Curvature of the arm inwards. Paralysis or loss 
of power from curvature of the arm. 

BRACHION, Brachium. 

BRACHION'CUS, from /Jpax'""' '^^^ ^'^'^> 
and oy/cos, ' a swelling.' A tumour of the arm. 

BRA'CHI0-RA'DIAL,7?*'ocAio-/-a(i;a7(«. That 
which belongs to the brachium and radius. This 
name has been applied to the external lateral 
ligament of the elbow-joint, because it is attached 
to the humerus and to the radius. See Supinator 
radii longus. 

BRACHIORRIIETJ'MA, Rhenmntis'mm hrn'- 
chii, from /?pa;^(o>v, 'the arm,' and ptu/^ia, 'deflux- 
ion, rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the arm. 

BRACHIOT'OMY, Bmchiotom'ia, from ^pa- 
X'-'^V; 'arm,' and rojiri, 'incision.' Amputation of 
the arm. 

BRACHTROLUM, Truss. 

BRA'CHIUM, Bra'chion, Lacer'tus, (F.) Bras, 
' the arm.' The arm from the shoulder to the wrist, 
or the part between the shoulder and elbow. See 
Humeri Os. 

Bra'chium Ante'rius. A rounded process, 
which passes from the anterior pair of the cor- 
pora quadrigemina [nates) obliquely outwards 
into the thalamus opticus. 

Beachium Movens Qvartus, Latissimus dorsi. 

Bra'chium POste'rius. A rounded process, 
which passes from the posterior pair of the qua- 
drigemina {testes) obliquely outwards into the 
optic thalamus. 

BRACHUNA, Nymphomania, Satyriasis. 

BRACHYAU'CHEN, from fipaxvi, 'short,' and 
aivx^v, 'neck.' One who has a short neck. 

BRACHYCEPH'AL^ (Gentes), 'short heads,' 
from fipa-^vs, 'short,' and Kt<pa.'Kri, 'head,' In the 
classificatiDn of Retzius, those nations of men 
(yhose cerebral lobes do not completely cover the 
cerebellum — as the Sclavonians, Fins, Persians, 

BRACIIYCHRON'IUS, from ^pa-xy?, 'short,' 
and ;:^poi'oj, 'time.' That which continues but a 
short time. A term applied to diseases which 
are of short duration. — Galen. 

ERACHYGNA'THUS, from /^pa^t-J, 'short,' 
and yvadoi, 'the under jaw.' A monster with too 
short an under jaw. — Gurlt. 

BRACHYNSIS, Abbreviation. 

BRACHYPNCEA, Dyspnoea. 

BRACHYP'OTI, from ^paxvg, 'short,' and 
roT/js, 'drinker.' They who drink little, or who 
drink rarely. Hippocrates, Galen, Foesius. 

BRACHYRHYN'CHUS, from (ipaxvi, 'short,' 
and iivyx°i> 'snout.' A monster with too short a 
nose. 

BRACHYSMOS, Abbreviation. 

BRACING, Corroborant. 

BRACKEN, Pteris aquilina. 

BRADY^STHE'SIA, from ^paivq, 'difficult,' 
and aiaBrjutg, ' sensation.' Impaired sensation. 

BRADYBOLISMUS, Bradyspermatismus. 

BRADYECOIA, Deafness. 

BRAD YLOG"IA, DjsJa'Ua ; from Ppa&v;, < diffi- 
cult,' and Aoyoj, 'a discourse.' Difficulty of speech. 

BRADY MASE'SIS, Brady masse' sis, impro- 
perly Brady maste' sis, Manduca'tio diffic"ilis, 
from ppaSvs, 'difficult,' and ixaarjaif, 'mastica- 
tion.' Difficult mastication. See Dysmasesis. 

BRADYMASTESIS, Bradymasesis. 

BRADYPEP'SIA, Tarda cibo'rum concoc'tio, 
from jSpn^i'j, 'slow,' and n-fjrru, 'I digest.' Slow 
digestion. — Galen. See Dyspepsia. 

BRADYSPERMATIS'MUS, Bradybolis'mus, 
Ejacida'tio sem'inis impedi'ta, Dyspermatis'mus, 
from (ipaSv;, 'slow,' and artpiia, 'sperm.' A slow 
emission of sperm. 

BRADYSU'RIA, Tenes'mus vesi'ca, (F.) TS- 
nesme vesical, from Soaivi, ' difficult,' and ovptiv, 



'to pass the urine.' Painful evacuation of the 
urine, with perpetual desire to void it. Dysuria. 

BRADYTOCIA, Dystocia. 

BRAG'GET, Braggart, BragwoH. A name 
formerly applied to a tisan of honey and water, 
See Hydromeli. 

BRAI LIQUIDS, see Pinus sylvestris — 6. 
Sec, Colophonia. 

BRAIN, Cerebrum — b. Fag, see Nervous dia- 
thesis. 

Brain, Little, Cerebellum. 

Brain Pan, Cranium — b.Sand, see Pineal gland. 

BRAINE, MINERAL WATERS OF. Eraine 
is a small village, three leagues from Soissons, 
France, which has purgative waters similar to 
those of Passy. 

BRAIRETTE, Primula veris. 

BRAKE, COMMON, Pteris Aquilina— b. Rock, 
Polypodium vulgare, Polypodium incanum. 

Brake Root, Polypodium vulgare. 

BRAKING, Vomiting, Vomiturition. 

BRAMBLE, AMERICAN HAIRY, see Rubus 
fruticosus — b. Common, Rubus fruticosus. 

BRAMBLE-BERRIES, see Rubus fruticosus. 

BRAN, Furfur. 

BRANG-URSINE BATARDE, Heracleum 
spondylium. 

BRANCA GERMANICA, Heracleum spondy- 
lium — b. Ursina, Acanthus mollis — b. Vera, 
Acanthus mollis. 

BRANCH, from (P.) Branche, originally, pro- 
bably, from fipaxi^v, 'an arm,' [?] because branches 
of trees, <fec., go off like arms. A term applied, 
generally, to the principal division of an artery 
or nerve. The word is commonly used synony- 
mously with Raimis j'hvit often, with the French, 
Branche signifies the great division; — Ramean, 
Lat. Ramus, the division of the branches ; and 
Ramuscules, Lat. Ramusculi, the divisions of 
these last. 

The French, also, speak of the brandies of the 
pubis for the Rami of that bone, branches of tho 
ischium for the rami of the ischium, Ac. 

BRANCHES DE LA 3I0ELLE ALLON- 
GE E {PETITE S), Corpora reetiformia. 

BRANCHI, Branches. Swellings of the ton- 
sils, or parotid, according to some ; — of the thy- 
roid gland, according to others. 

BRAN'CHIA, (Gr.) fipayxia. The gills or re- 
spiratory organs of fishes, corresponding to the 
lungs of terrestrial animals. 

BRANCHUS, iipayxoi, Raucr'do. A catarrhal 
affection of the mucous membrahs of the fauces, 
trachea, <feo. — Galen. Hoarseness. 

BRANCI, Cynauche tonsillaris. 

BRANCIA, Vitrum. 

BRANDWINE, Brandy. 

BRANDY, (G.) Branntwein, Dutch, 
Brand wijn, 'burnt wine,' (Old Eng.) Brand- 
wine. Vintim adus'tum seu crema'tiim. Aqua 
Vita, (F.) Spir'itus villi Gall'ici, (Ph. U. S.) 
Spir'itus GaU'icus, Eau de vie, (S.) Aguardiente. 
The first liquid product obtained by distilling 
wine. It is composed of water, alcohol, and an 
aromatic oily matter, which gives it its flavour. 
Brandy is a powerful and diffusible stimulant, 
and as such is used in medicine. It has been 
also called Liquor Aquile'gius. See Spirit. 

Brandy, Apple, see Pyrus malus — b. Egg, see 
Ovum. 

Brandt-Bottles, see Nymphaea lutea. 

Brandy-Face, Gutta rosea. 

BRANKS, Cynanche parotidaea. 

BRANK URSINE, Acanthus mollis. 

BRANNTWEIN, Brandy. 

BRAS. See Oryza. 

BRAS, Brachium — 6, du Cervelet, Corpora ws- 
tiformia. 



BRASDOR'S OPERATION 140 



BRASDOR'S OPERATION FOR ANEU- 
RISM. An operation by ligature, proposed by 
Brasdor, which consists in the application of the 
ligature on the distal side of the tumour. 

BRASEGUR, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Brasegur is a place in the diocese of Rhodez, 
where there are cathartic waters. 
BRASENIA, B. Hydropeltis. 
Brase'nia Hydropel'tis, Brase'nia, B. Pel- 
ta'ta, Hi/dropel'tis purpu'rea, Oelatina aquat'ica, 
Frogleaf, Little Water Lily, Water Jelly, Water 
shield, Water target, Deerfood. An indigenous 
plant, Nat. Ord. Ranunculaceae, Sex. Syst. Poly- 
andria Polygynia, flourishing from Kentucky to 
Carolina and Florida; and covering the surface 
of ponds, marshes, <tc. The fresh leaves are 
mucilaginous, and have been used in pulmonary 
complaints, dysentery, &c., like Cetraria. 
Brasenia Peltata, B. Hydropeltis. 
BRASH, (Sc), of uncertain etymology. A 
transient attack of sickness. A bodily indispo- 
sition.— Jamieson. A rash or eruption. (Prov. 
West of England.) 

Brash, Water, Pyrosis, 

Brash, AVeaning, (So.) Speaning brash, 
Atroph'ia Ablactato'rum. A severe form of 
diarrhoea, which supervenes at times on weaning. 
The Maladie de Cruveilhier appears to be a simi- 
lar affection. 

BRASILETTO, see Csesalpinia. 
BRASIUM, Malt. 
BRASMOS, Fermentation. 
BRASS, Sax. bpar, Welsh, prSs. Aurichal'- 
cum, properly, Orichal'cum, ('mountain brass,' 
from o^oi, 'a mountain,' and j^^aXxos, 'brass.') 
Chrysnehal'cos, Chalcos, Esecavum, (F.) Airain. 
A yellow metal, formed by mixing copper with 
calamine. The same general remarks apply to it 
as to copper. See Cuprum. 

BRAS'SICA, Crambe, B. olera'cea seu capita'- 
ta seu cnma'na of the old Romans. The Cab- 
bage, (F.) Ghon jyotager. Order, Cruciferae. Sex. 
Syst. Tetradynamia Siliquosa. Cato wrote a 
book on its virtues. It is a vegetable by no 
means easy of digestion when boiled; when raw, 
it appears to be more digestible. When forming 
a solid globular ma«s, l*e a head, it is the B. 
Capita'ta, (F.) Chou-Cabus, Clioii Pomnie. 

Brassica Canina, Mercurialis perennis — b. 
Capitata, Brassica — b. Cumana, Brassica. 

Bras'sica Eru'ca, B. his'pida, Eru'ca, E./oe'- 
tida seu sati'va, Sina'pia eru'ca, Sisym'brium 
erueas'trum. Garden Rocket, Roman Rocket, 
Shinlock, &c., (P.) Ghou Roquette, Roquette. 
This was considered by the Romans an aphrodi- 
giac— Columella. The seeds were ordinarily 
used. 

Bras'sica Flor'idA, — Bras'sica Pompeiana 
of the ancients — the Gaulifloicer, Gaidis Flor'ida, 
(F.) Ghou-Jleur, is a more tender and digestible 
variety. 

The Broc'coli, B. Sahel'lica of the Romans, B. 
Ital'ica, belongs to this variety. 

Brassica Hispida, B. eruca — b. Italica, B. 
Florida— b. Marina, Convolvulus" soldanella. 

Bras'sica Napds, Napus Syhestris, Bu'nias, 
Rape, (F.) Navette. The seed yields a quantity 
of oil. 

Brassica Nigra, Sinapis nigra — b. Oblonga, 
B. rapa — b. Oleracea, Brassica — b. Pompeiana, 
B. Florida. 

Bras'sica Rapa, Rapa rotun'da seu oUon'ga 
seu napus, Rnjnim majns, Sina'pia tnbero'aa, 
Turnip, (F.) Chou navet, Navet, Rave. The tur- 
nip is liable to the same objection (but to a less 
extent) as the cabbage. 
Brassica Sabellica, B. Florida. 
BRATHU, Juniperus sabina. 
BRATUYS, Juniperus sabina. 



BREGMA 



BRAWLINS, Arbutus uva ursi, Vaccinium 
vitis idaea. 

BRAWN, Muscle. 
BRA YER, Truss. 

BR A YE R A ANTHELMINTIC A, Hagenia 
Abyssinica. 

BRAZIL WOOD, Caesalpinia echinata. 
BREAD, see Triticum. 

Bread, Gluten. Bread made of wheat dough 
deprived of the chief portion of its starch by 
washing. Bread, made of gluten only, cannot 
be eaten, on account of its hardness and tough- 
ness ; hence one-fifth of the normal quantity of 
starch is allowed to remain, and in this form the 
bread is said to be tolerably light, eatable, and 
moderately agreeable. 

Bread, Household, Syncomistos. 
BREADBERRY, Pap. 
BREAD-FRUIT TREE, Artocarpus. 
BREAKBONE FEVER, Dengue. 
BREAST, Thorax, Mamma— b. Abscess of the, 
Mastodynia apostematosa — b. Pigeon, see Lor- 
dosis. 

BREAST-GLASS, Milk-glass. A glass applied 
to the nipple to receive the milk when secreted 
copiously by the mamma. 

Breast, Irritable, Neuralgia mammse. 
BREAST-PANG, SUFFOCATIVE, Angina 
pectoris. 

BREAST-PUMP, Antlia Lactea. 
BREASTWEED, Saururus cernuus. 
BREATH, Sax. bnase, (Old Eng.) Aande, 
and Ande, Hal'itus, Anhel'itus, An'imus, Spir'- 
itns, At'mos, (F.) Haleine. The air expelled from 
the chest at each expiration. It requires to be 
studied in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases espe- 
cially. See Respiration. 

Breath, Offens'ive, Foetor Oris, Catostomu- 
tosphre'sia, Hal'itus oris foe' tidua, Oze. An offen- 
sive condition, which is usually dependent upon 
carious teeth, or some faulty state of the secre- 
tions of the air passages. The internal use of the 
chlorides may be advantageous. 

Breath, Saturnine, see Saturnine — b. Short, 
Dyspnoea. 

BREATHING AIR, see Respiration. 
Breathing, Difficulty of. Dyspnoea. 
BRECHET, {¥.) The Brisket. This name is 
given in some parts of France to the cartilngo 
ensiformis, and sometimes to the sternum itself. 
BRECHMA, Bregma. 
BRECHMUS, Bregma. 

BREDISSURE (F.), Trismus Capistra'tus. 
Incapacity of opening the mouth, in consequence 
of preternatural adhesion between the internal 
part of the cheek and gums; often occasioned by 
the abuse of mercury. 

BREBOUILLEMENT {¥.), Tituban'tia.' A 
precipitate and indistinct mode of utterance, in 
which a part only of the words is pronounced, 
and several of the syllables viciously changed. 
This defect is analogous to stuttering, but differs 
from it in being dependent on too great rapidity 
of speech ; whilst stuttering is characterized by 
continual hesitation, and frequent repetition of 
the same sj^Uables. 
BREE, Supercilium. 
BREED, Race. 

BREEDING, Generation, Pregnant. 
Breeding, Cross. The act of raising or breed- 
ing from different stocks or families. 

Breeding-in-and-in. The act of raising or 
breeding from the same stock or family. 
BREELLS, Spectacles. 

BREGMA, Brechmn, Brechmna, from Ppc^uv, 
'to sprinkle;' Foiitanel'la, Sin'ciput. The top 
of the head was thus called, because it was be- 
lieved to be humid in infants; and, according to 



BREGMATODYMIA 



141 



BROMINE 



some, because it was conceived to correspond to 
the most humid part of the brain. 

BREGMATODYMIA, see Cephalodymia. 
BRENNING, Burning. 
BREPHOCTONON, Conyza squarrosa. 
BUEVHOTROVRWUMfEcthefobrephotrophe'- 
nm, from (iptipo?, 'a new-born child,' and rpefeiv, 
'to nourish.' A foundling hospital. 
BRESTLLET, Csesalpina sappan. 
BRE'VIA VASA, Short Vessels. This name 
has been given to several branches of the splenic 
arteries and veins, which are distributed to the 
great cul-de-snc of the stomach. 
BREVIS CUBTTI, see Anconeus. 
BRICK, (F.) Briqiie. Hot bricks are some- 
times used to apply heat to a part, as to the ab- 
domen in colic, or after the operation for popli- 
teal aneurism : or, reduced to very iine powder, 
and mixed with fat, as an application to herpetic 
and psoric affections. 

Bricks. Foma'cecB Testa or Tiles were for- 
merly bruised in vinegar, and the liquid was used 
as a specific in cutaneous affections. They en- 
tered, also, into a cerate used for scrofulous hu- 
mours, &c. To the Terra Forna'cum, or Brick 
earth, the same virtues were assigned. 

BRICKLIKE SEDIMENT, see Lateritious. 
BRICUMUM, Artemisia. 

BRIDE (F.), 'a bridle.' Fra'mdum, Reti- 
nnc'ulum. This term is given, in the plural, to 
membranous filaments, which are found within 
abscesses or deep-seated wounds, and which pre- 
vent the exit of pus. The term is, also, applied 
to preternatural adhesions, which occur in cica- 
trices of the skin, in the urethra, or in inflamed 
Berous or synovial membranes. 
BRIEF, Rife. 

BRIER, WILD, Rosa Canina. 
BRIGHT'S DISEASE OF THE KIDNEY, 
see Kidnev, Bright's disease of the. 

BRIGHTON, CLIMATE OF. The air of this 
fashionable watering-place, on the south coast of 
England, is dry, elastic, and bracing. Its cli- 
mate appears to the greatest advantage in the 
autumn and early part of the winter; when it is 
somewhat milder and more steady than that of 
Hastings. Accordingly, it is adapted for all 
cases in which a dry and mild air at this season 
of the year proves beneficial. In the spring 
months, owing to the prevalence of, and its ex- 
posure to, north-east winds, the climate is cold, 
harsh, and exciting to the delicate. It is well 
adapted for convalescents, and for all who require 
a dry and bracing sea air. 
BRIMSTONE, Sulphur. 
BRINE, Muria. 

BRINTON ROOT, Leptandria purpurea. 
BRION, Corallina. 
57?/<3f7^, Brick. 

BRIQUEBEC, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
This town is three leagues from Cherbourg, in 
France. The water contains chloride of iron. 
BRIQUETE, Lateritious. 
BRISE-COQUE {Y.), from hriser, 'to break 
to pieces,' and coque, 'a shell.' An instrument 
designed by Heurteloup for breaking to pieces 
the shell of a vesical calculus, after it has been 
hollowed by his mandrin d vinjule. 

BRISE-PIERRE ARTICULE (F.), from 
hriser, 'to break to pieces, smA pierre, 'a stone.' 
An instrument invented by Jacobson for crush- 
ing the stone in the bladder. 

BRISTOL HOT WELL, Bristolien'ais Aqua. 
Bristol is about thirteen miles from Bath, in 
England. The water is an almost pure thermal; 
slightly acidulated. It contains chlorides of 
magnesium and sodium, sulphate of soda, sul- 
phate of lime, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, 



oxygen and azote. Temperature, 74° Fah. The 
Hot Well has been long celebrated. Its action 
is like that of thermal waters in general. The 
climate of Bristol is mild, and hence the water 
has been celebrated for the cure of incipient pul- 
monary consumption. See Clifton. 
BRIZOCERAS, Ergot. 

BROAD, Sax. bpat>, Latus, (F.) Large. Any 
body is so termed whose transverse extent is 
considerable compared with its length. Tha 
Broad Bones, such as the frontal, parietal, occi- 
pital, iliao, aid in forming the parietes of splanch- 
nic cavities. Broad Muscles generally occupy 
the parietes of cavities, and especially those of 
the chest and abdomen. The epithet has also 
been applied to other parts — as to the broad liga- 
ments of the womb, &e. 

BROCCOLI, Brassica sabellica. 
BROCHOS, Ppoxos, La'queus. A bandage. 
BROCHT, Vomiting. 

BROCH'THUS, fipox^oq, Gnla. The throat. 
Also, a kind of small drinking vessel. — Hipp. 

BROCHUS, l^poxos- This name has been given 
to one who has a very prominent upper lip. 
According to others it means one whose teeth 
project in front of the mouth. 

BRO'DIUM. A synonym of Jus or Jus'culum. 
Broth, or the liquor in which any thing is-boiled. 
Bro'dinm sab's— n decoction of salt. 

BROIEMENT, see Cataract, Laceration -6. 
de la Pierre, Lithotrity. 

BROKELEAK, Rumex hydrolapathum. 
BROKEN DOSES, see Doses, broken. 
BROKEN-WINDEDNESS, Asthma. 
BROMA, Aliment, Bromine. 
BROMATOECCRISIS, Lientery. 
BROMATOG'RAPHY, Bromatograph'ia, Bro- 
mog'raphy, Bromograph'ia, from jSpwua, 'food,' 
and Ypa(l>ri, 'a description.' A description of ali- 
ments. 

BROMATOL'OGY, Bromatolog"iu, Sitiol'ogy, 
from fip^tia, 'food,' and Aoyoj, 'a discourse.' A 
treatise on food. 
BROME, Bromine. 

BROMEGRASS, Bromus ciliatus — b. Soft, 
Bromus ciliatus. 

BROME'LIA ANA'NAS, called after Olaug 
Bromel, a Swede. Car'dutis Braxilia'nns, Ana'- 
nas ova'ta seu acidea'ta, Anas'sa, Capa-Isiak'ka, 
Ana'naa or Pine Apple, Soursopt. Order, Bro- 
meliacefe. A West India tree, which produces 
the most delicious of fruits. 

Brome'lia Pingdin, Ana' nas America' na, Pin- 
guin. Broad-leaved wild Ana'nas, &e. The West 
India plant, which affords the Pinguin fruit. The 
fruit is refrigerant, and the juice, when ripe, very 
austere. It is used to acidulate punch. A wine 
is made from the Pinguin, which is very intoxi- 
cating, and has a good flavour. 

BROMIC, Bro'micus; samp evymon as Bro- 
mine. Containing bromine. 

BROMIDE OF IRON, see Bromine — b. of 
Mercury, see Bromine — b. of Potassium, see 
Bromine. 

BROMIDRO'SIS, from Ppbi/iog, 'stench,' and 
'iSpws, 'sweat.' Offensive sweat. 

BROMINE, Bro'minum (Ph. U. S., 1842). Bro- 
min'ium (1851), Broma, Bromin'eum, Bro'nJuni, 
Bro'mina, Bromum, Mu'rina, Muride, Brome. 
A simple body, of a very volatile nature, and 
highly offensive and suffocating odour, whence 
its name, from Ppwiiog, 'a stench.' It is met with 
chiefly in sea-water, and in many animal and 
vegetable bodies that live therein. It has like- 
wise been found in many mineral waters of this 
and other countries. In its chemical relations, 
it may be placed between chlorine and iodine. 
With oxygen it forms an acid — the Bromic, and 
with hydrogen another — the Eydrohromic 



BROMIUM 



142 



BRONCHITIS 



Pure Bromine; Bromide op Iron, FerHBro'- 
midi'rn, Fernim broma'tiim, (F.) Brumure de Fer, 
in solution, Hydrobromate of Iron, Ferri hydro- 
bro'mrin, Ferrum Ji ydruhro' micum o.ri/da'tiivi, [dose, 
gr. i or ij,) ; and Bromide op Potassium, Potas'sii 
hru'midiiiii, (F.) Bromure de potaasium, have been 
used uiediciniilly, and chiefly in scrofulosis — 
inte»nally, as well as applied externally. Bro- 
mine may be dissolved in forty parts of distilled 
water, and six drops be commenced with as a 
dose. Bromides of Mercury {Hydrar'yyn Bro'- 
mida, (F.) Bfomures de Mercnre), have been given 
in syphilis. The prolobromide and the bihromide 
are analogous in composition and medicinal pro- 
perties to the corresponding iodides of mercury. 

Chloride op Bromine, Bionnn'ii chlo'ridum 
— made by passing cidorine through bromine, and 
condensing the resulting vapours by cold, has been 
prescribed internally, a,s well as externally, in 
cancer; but chiefly in the latter mode, in the 
form of a caustic paste, either alone or with other 
chlorides — as those of zinc, antimony, and gold. 

BROMIUM, Bromine. 

BROMOGRAPHY, Bromatography. 

BROMOS, (Spwuos. One of the cerealia, sup- 
posed, by some, to be oats. See Avena. 

BROxMOSUS, Fetid, 

BROMUM, Bromine. 

BROMURE BE FER, see Bromine — 6. de 
ilercnre, see Bromine — b. de Potassium, see 
Bromine. 

BROMUS CILIA'TUS, B. pnrgans, Brome 
grass; indigenous: Order, Graraineas ; is said to 
be emetic, and anthelmintic [?], cathartic and 
diuretic. It purges cattle. 

Br )mus Glaber, Triticum repens. 

Bromus Mollis. Soft Brome Grass. The seeds 
are saiii to cause giddiness in man, and to be 
fatal to poultry. 

Bromus Purgans, B. ciliatus — b. Temulentus, 
Lolium temulentum. 

BRONCHARCTIA, Bronchiostenosis. 

BRONCHECTASIS, Bronchia, dilatation of 
the. 

BRONCHES, Bronchia — 6. Ganglions lym- 
phatiques des, Bronchial glands. 

BRONCHI, Bronchia. 

BRON'CHIA, Bron'chicP, Bronchi, from Ppoy- 
Xos, 'the throat.' The Latins used the term 
Bronchus for the whole of the trachea; whilst 
they called its ramifications Bronchia. Bronchia, 
Bronchia, and Bronchi, (F.) Bronchos, now mean 
the two tubes, with their ramifications, which 
arise from the bifurcation of the trachea, and 
carry air into the lungs — Can'nttlm pulmo'num, 
Syrin'ges seu Cana'les aeri/'eri. 

Bronchia, Dilatation of the. Dilated Bron- 
chia, Bronchec'lasis, Brouchiec'tasis, Dilatatio 
bronchio' rum. The physical signs of this condi- 
tion are the following: Percussion usually clear, 
but not unfrequently less so than natural, although 
very seldom quite dull. Auscultation detects coarse 
mucous or gurgling rhonehi, increased by the 
cough, combined with, or replaced by, bronchial 
or cavernous respiration, which is often efi'ected 
as if by a sudden puff or whifi". The resonance 
(if the voice is increased, but it seldom amounts 
to perfect pectoriloquy. The most common situa- 
tions for dilated bronchia are the scapular, mam- 
mary, or lateral regions. They are almost always 
confined to one side. 

Bronchia, Obliteration or Compression op 
THE. The inspiratory murmur on auscultation 
is weaker or wholly suppressed over a limited 
portion of the chest; the expiration is generally 
more distinct and prolonged : all the other con- 
■Jitions are natural. 

BROJSfCUI^, see Bronchia. 



BRON'CHIAL, BroncMc, Bronchia'lie, Bron'- 
chicus, (F.) Bronchial, Bronchique. That which 
relates to the bronchia. 

Bronchial Arteries, {F.)Artires Bronchiquet. 
These are generally two in number, one going to 
each lung. They arise from the thoracic aorta, 
and accompany the bronchia in all their ramifi- 
cations. 

Bronchial Cells, (F.) Cellules broncMquee. 
The Air-cells; the terminations of the bronchia. 

Bronchial Cough, (F.) Toux bronchique, T. 
tubaire. This generally accompanies bronchial 
respiration. They both indicate obstruction to 
the entrance of air into the air-cells. 

Bronchial Glands, Glan'dulce Vesalia'na, 
Glands of Vesa'lius, (F.) Glandcs brunchiques. 
Ganglions lymphatiques des branches, are nume- 
rous glands of an ovoid shape; of a reddish hue 
in the infant, and subsequently brown and black, 
seated in the course of the bronchia. Their func- 
tions are unknown. The bronchial glands may 
be presumed to be affected by scrofulosis, when, 
in addition to the existence of tumours in the 
neck, percussion gives a dull sound under the 
upper and central part of the sternum, whilst 
there is no appreciable lesion of the lungs. 

Bronchial Nerves, (F.) Nerfs bronchiques, 
are furnished by the two pulmonary plexuses. 

Bronchial Phthisis, see Phthisis bronchial — 
b. Respiration, see Murmur, respiratory. 

Bronchial Veins arise from the last divisions 
of the arteries of the same name, and pass, on 
the right side, into the vena azygos; ou the left, 
into the superior intercostal. 

BRONCHIC, Bronchial. 

BRONCHIECTASIS, Bronchia, dilatation of 
the. 

BRONCHIITIS, Bronchitis. 

BRON'CHIOLE, Bronchiolum, Bronchiolus ; 
diminutive of Bronchium or Bronchus. A minute 
bronchial tube. 

BRONCHIOPNEUMONIA, Bronchopneumo- 
nia. 

BRONCHIOSTENO'SIS, Bronchiarc'tia, from 
Ppoyxo;, 'a bronchus,' and (TTtvwats, 'contraction.' 
Contraction or narrowness of the bronchi. 

BRONCHITE CONVULSIVE, Pertussis— 6. 
Pseudomembraueuse, Polypus brouchialis. 

BRONCHI'TIS, Bronchii'tis, Injlamma'tio 
bronchio'rum, Catar'rhus Pulmo'num seu bron- 
chio'rum, Pleuri'tis hu'mida seu bronchia'lis, 
Bronchos' tasis, Angi'na bronchia'lis, Pul'monary 
Catarrh, {¥.) Inflammation des Branches. In- 
flammation of the lining membrane of the bron- 
chial tubes. This is always more or less present 
in cases of pulmonary catarrh ; and is accompa- 
nied by cough, mucous expectoration, dyspnoea, 
and more or less uneasiness in breathing. The 
acute form is accompanied with all the signs of 
internal inflammation, and requires the employ- 
ment of antiphlogistics followed by revulsives. 
The chronic form, 'Tussis seni'Us, Catar'rhus seni'- 
lis, Rheuma catarrha'le, Peripneumo'nia notha, 
Bronchorrhae'a acu'ta. Winter Cough, Chronic 
Catarrh, may be confounded with phthisis; from 
which it must be distinguished mainly by the 
absence of hectic fever and of the physical signs 
that are characteristic of the latter, as well as 
by the nature of the expectoration, which is ge- 
nerally mucous, although at times muco-purulent. 
When the expectoration is little or none, the bron- 
chitis is said to be dry, dry catarrh, (F.) Catarrhe 
Sec. 

When bronchitis affects the smaller tubes, it is 
termed capil'lary bronchi'lis, bronchi' tis capilla'- 
ris, broiichoc'ace infanti'lis [?], and is often fatal 
to children. Vesic'ular bronchitis is the term 
proposed by M.M. Rilliet and Barthez for tho 
vesicular pneumonia of children. 



BRONCHIUS 



143 BRUIT DE CRAQUEMENT 



Bronchitis, Catarrh— b. Asthenica, Peripneu- 
monia notha — b. Capillary, see Bronchitis — b. 
Chronic, see Bronchitis — b. Crouposa, Polypus 
bronchialis — b. Convulsiva, Pertussis — b. Exsu- 
dativa. Polypus bronchialis. 

Bronchitis, Mechan'ical. Inflammation of 
the lining membrane of the air-tubes, induced by 
the inhalation of irritating particles. 

Bronchitis Membranacea, Polypus bronchia- 
lis — b. Plastic, Polypus bronchialis — b. Pseudo- 
membranous, Polypus bronchialis — b. Summer, 
Fever, hav — b. Vesicular, see Bronchitis. 
BRONCHIUS, Sterno-thyroideus. 
BRONCHLEMMITIS, Polypus bronchialis. 
BRONCHOCACE, Peripneumonia notha — b. 
Infantilis, see Bronchitis. 

BRONCHO-CATARRHUS, Catarrh. 
BRONCHOCE'LE, from fipoyxos, 'a bronchus,' 
and KnXv, 'tumour.' An inaccurate name for the 
affection which is called, also, Bo'chium, Botium, 
Bocium, Hernia gut'turis seu gutiiira'lia seu hron- 
chia'lis, Guttur tu'midum seu globo'stim, Traehe- 
hphy'ma, Thyroce'le, Thyreoce'le, Tracheoce'le, 
Tracheloce'le, Thyremphrax'is, Thyreophrax'ia, 
Thyrophrax'ia, Thyreon'cus, Thyron'cns, Deiron'- 
cus, Deron'cus, Gossum, Go'tium, Exechebron' chus, 
Gongro'na, Struma, Glana, Tuber gtitturo'sum, 
Gutte'ria, &c., the Derbyshire neck, Swelled neck, 
Wen, Goitre, &e., (F.) Goitre, Gouetre, Hyper- 
trophic du Corps Thyro'ide, Grosse Gorge, Gros 
Coil,. This is no rupture, but consists of an en- 
largement of the thyroid gland. It is common 
at the base of lofty mountains in every part of 
the world; and has been supposed to be owing 
to the drinking of snow-water, but it occurs 
where there is no snow. The tumour is some- 
times very extensive. Iodine has great power 
over it, and will generally occasion its absorp- 
tion, when the case has not been of such dura- 
lion as ti) have ended in a cartilaginous condition. 
BRONCHOCBPHALITIS, Pertussis. 
BRONCHOPARALYSIS, Asthma. 
BRONCHOPHONY, Resonance— b. Pectorilo- 
quous. Pectoriloquy — b. Strong, Pectoriloquy. 

BRONCHOPLAS'TIC, Bronchoplns'ticus, from 
i^poyX"^' '"• bronchus,' and Tr'Xaaau), ' I form.' An 
epithet given to the operation for closing fistulae 
in the trachea ; Bron'choplasty. 

BRONCHOPNEUMO'NIA, Bron'chiopneu- 
mo'nia, from ^poy)^og, 'a bronchus,' and Pneumo- 
nia. Inflammation of the bronchia and lungs. 

BRONCHORRHCE'A, (F.) BronchorrhSe, Ca- 
tarrhe pitinl('UX,Phlegmorrh((gie piilmonaire,Flux 
hronchique, from fipoyX-OS, 'bronchus,' and pm, 'I 
flow.' An increased secretion of mucus from the 
air passages, accompanied or not by inflammation, 
— a gleet, as it were, of the pulmonary mucous 
membrane. When excessive, it may constitute 
Phthisis pi tui to' sa seu muco'sa, 3fyco-phlhi'si8. 
Bronchorrh(ea Acuta, Bronchitis (chronic). 
BRONCHORTASIS, Bronchitis. 
BRONCHOTUME, Bronchot'omm. from 0poy- 
■^oi, awA Ttpvuv 'to cut.' A kind of lancet, with 
a blunt and rounded point, mounted on a handle, 
and fitted to a canula, which passes in along with 
it, and is allowed to remain in the opening made 
in the trachea. 

BRONCHOTOMY, Bronchotom'ia, (F.) Bron- 
ch"tomie. Same etymology. A surgical operation, 
which consists in making an opening either into the 
trachea. ( Tracheot'omy :) into the larynx, [Lnryn. 
got'owy:) or into both, ( Trachea-laryngot'omy.) to 
extract foreign bodies or to permit the passage of air 
to the lungs. These different parts are divided trans- 
versely or vertically, according to circumstances. 
BRONCHO-VESICULAR RESPIRATION, 
see Respiration. 

BRONCHUS, see Bronchia, Trachea. 
^bROOKLIME, Veronica beccabunga. 



BROOM, Sophora tinetoria, Spartium seopa- 
rium — b. Butcher's, Ruscus— b. Clover, Sophora 
tinetoria — b. Indigo, Sophora tinetoria — b. Rape, 
of Virginia, Orobanche Virginiana — b. Spanish, 
Spartium junceum— b. Yellow, Sophora tinetoria. 
BROSSARDIERE, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. Brossardiere is a chateau in Bas-Poitou, 
France. The waters contain carbonates of iron 
and lime, chloride of sodium, and sulphate of 
lime. Theyare aperient. 
BROSSE, Brush. 

BROTH, CHICKEN, see Chicken Broth. 
Broth, Vegetable. Take two potatoes, a car- 
rot, and an onion, all cut fine ; boil in a quart of 
water for an hour, adding more water from time 
to time, so as to keep the original quantity ; fla- 
vour with salt, and a small quantity of potherbs; 
strain. A little mushroom catchup improves the 
flavour. 

BROTHER, UTERINE, see Uterine. 
BROUILLARD, Caligo. 
BROUS'SAIST. One who is a believer in, and 
professor of, the physiological and pathological 
opinions of Broussais. The system itself was 
called Beoussaism, or the Physiological Doc- 
trine. 

BROW, Front — b. Ague, Neuralgia frontalis. 
BROWN RED, Colcothar. 
BROWN'IAN, Browno'man, Bruno'nian. Re- 
lating to the system or oninions of John Brown. 
B R W N I S M, Bru'norusm, Bruno' nianism. 
The doctrines of Brown. 

BROWNIST, Browno'nian, Bruno'nian. A 
follower of the svstem of Brown. 

BRU'CEA ANTI-DYSENTER'ICA. Called 
after Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller. B. ferru- 
gin'ea, Angiistn'ra spu'ria, (F.) Fousse Angus- 
ture, A. Ferrugineuse. The systematic name of 
the plant whence was obtained — it was supposed 
— false Angustura or false Cusparia Bark. IX 
is really the bark of Strychnos nux vomica. 
BRIJCIA, Brucine. 

BRUCINE, Bru'cia, Bruci'na, Brnci'num, 
Bru'cinm, Pseudangtisturi'num, Canirami'niim, 
Canira'mivm, Vom'icine, Angus'tnrine. An orga- 
nic, salifiable base, discovered in the false angus- 
tura — Brucea anti-dysenter'ica, and obtained from 
Strychnos mix vom'ica. It is of a p«arly white ; 
crystallizes in oblique prisms with a parallelo- 
grammatic base; is very bitter, slightly acrid 
and styptic, and soluble in water, but more so in 
alcohol. Brucia is a less active poison than 
strychnia. It resembles it, however, and may 
be used as a substitute for it and for the extract 
of nux vomica. Dose, half a grain. 

BRUCKENAU, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
These springs are in Bavaria, and contain car- 
bonic acid and iron. 

BRUCOURT, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Brucourt is three leagues and a half from Caen, 
in Normandy. The waters contain carbonic acid^ 
chloride of sodium, and sulphate of soda, much 
sulphate of lime, &c. 
BRUICK, Furunculus, 
BRUISE, Contusion. 

BRUISE-ROOT, Stylophorum diphyllum. 
BRUISEWORT, Bellis saponaria. 
BRUISSEMENT (F.), Frem'itus. This worfl 
has much the same signification &s Bourdonnement, 
as well as Bruit. 

BRUIT {¥.), ' sound.' A French term, applied 
to various sounds heard on percussion and aus- 
cultation, viz. : 

BRUIT DE CRAQUEMENT, B. de Tirnille. 
ment. Bruit de euir veiif, Cri de cui'^, ' sound of 
crackling, or bursting, or of new leather.' A 
sound produced by the friction of the pericar- 
dium, when dried and roughened by inflamma- 
tion. 



BRUIT I) U C(EUR FCETAL 144 



BRUSH 



BR UIT DU CCEUR FOETAL, Battemens dou- 
'lies, Douhh bntit du Cceur du Fu'tu8. The pul- 
sations of the fojtal heart beard in auscultation 
iu the latter half of utero-gestation. 

BRUIT DE OUIR NEUF, Bruit de craque- 
ment. 

BRUIT DE BIABLE, Ronfiement du DiaUe, 
Bruit de souffle a, double courant, 'noise of the 
diahle, or humming-top.' Venous hum. A high 
degree of Bruit de soujiet, heard on auscultating 
the arteries or veins — probably the latter — of the 
neck, in chlorosis. It denotes an impoverished 
state of the blood. 

BR UIT D UBL E DV CCEUR D U FOETUS, 
Bruit dii Coeur fatal — b. d' Expansion pulmo- 
naire, see Murmur, respiratory — b. de Frolement, 
see Frolement — b. de Froissement pulmonaire, 
see Froissement pulmonaire — b. de FrSlement 
ptericardique, see Frolement pericardique. 

BR UIT BE FR TTEMENT ASCENDANT 
ET DESCENDANT, 'sound of friction of ascent 
and descent.' Sounds produced by the rubbing of 
the lung against the parietes of the chest, as it 
rises and falls during inspiration and expiration. 
They are distinctly heard in pleuritis, when the 
pleura has become roughened by the disease. 
Friction sounds, Rubbing sounds, To-and-fro 
Donnds are also heard in pericarditis and perito- 
nitis. 

BRUIT HUilORIQUE, B. Hydropneuma- 
tiqne. The sound afforded on percussion when 
organs are filled with liquid and air. 

BRUIT HYDROPNEUMATIQUE, Bruit 
hnmorique — b. de Jappement, see Sijflement mo- 
dule — 6. de Lime a. bois, see Bruit de Scie. 

BRUIT DE MOUOHE (F.), 'fly sound.' A 
.sound analogous to the Bruit de diable — so called 
from its likeness to the buzzing of a fly — heard 
<in auscultating the neck in chlorotic cases. 

BRUIT 3IUSCULAIRE. The sound accom- 
panying the first sound of the heart, referred by 
some to muscular contraction. Called, also. 
Bruit rotatoire, in consequence of its having 
been thought to resemble the rumbling of dis- 
tant wheels. 

BRUIT MUSICAL, Sifflement module. 

BRUIT DE PARCHEMIN, 'parchment 
tone.' A sound as if produced by two sheets of 
parchment applied to each other. It is said to 
be produced by thickening and rigidity of the 
valves of the heart. 

BRUIT DE PIAULEMENT, see Sifflement 



BRUIT PLACENTAIRE, B. de souffle pla- 
eentaire ou uterin. Souffle uterin ou placentaire, 
Placental bellows' sound, Utero-plocen'tal mur- 
mur, U'terine murmur. The bellows' sound heard 
on auscultating over the site of the placenta in a 
pregnant female. It does not appear to be ow- 
ing to the placental vessels; but to the uterine 
tumour pressing upon the large vessels of the 
mother. 

BRUIT DE POT FELE, 'sound of a cracked 
vessel.' Cracked pot sound. A sound heard on 
percussion, when a cavern in the lungs is filled 
with air, and has a narrow outlet. It is not diag- 
nostic, however. 

BR UIT DE RACLEMENT, ' sound of scrap- 
ing.' A sound produced by the scraping of hard, 
polid membranes, as the pericardium, against each 
other, very iuialogous to Bruit de craquement. 

BRUIT DE RAPE, 'sound of a rasp.' A 
sound heard during the contraction of either the 
auricles or ventricles. It is constant; and the 
contraction of the cavity is more prolonged than 
natural, and emits a hard, lough, and — as it were 
- -etifled sound. 



^ It indicates contraction of the valvular orifices 
by cartilaginous deposits, or ossification, and is 
better heard near the apex of the heart, if the 
auriculo-ventricular valves be concerned, — near 
the base, if the semilunar valves be the seat of the 
disease. 

BRUIT RESPIRATOIRE, Murmur, respi- 
ratory. 

BRUIT ROTATOIRE, Bruit muaoulaire. 
BRUIT DE SCIE, or 'saw sound,' and Bruit 
DE LIME A BOIS, Or ' file sound,' resemble the Bruit 
de Rape. 

BRUIT DE SOUFFLE A DOUBLE COU- 
RANT, Bruit de Diable. 

BRUIT DE SOUFFLET, Bruit de Souffle, 
'bellows' sound,' 'blowing sound.' A sound like 
that of a bellows, heard occasionally by the ear 
applied to the chest during the contraction of the 
ventricles, auricles, or large arteries. It coexists 
with afl'ections of the heart, but is heard, also, 
without any disease of that organ, — whenever, 
indeed, an artery is compressed. An Encephalic 
bellows' sound, (F.) Bruit de souffle cephalique, 
has been described by Drs. Fisher and Whitney. 
It is heard on appl3'ing the ear to the occiput or 
to the top of the head; and is considered to indi- 
cate turgescence of vessels, or inflammation. 
When such turgescence exists, the vessels are 
compressed, and the compression gives rise to 
the sound in question. [?] 

BRUIT DE SOUFFLE CEPHALIQUE, see 
Bruit de soufflet — b. de Souffle j)lacentaire. 
Bruit placentaire — b. de Souffle uterin, Brtiil 
placentaire — b. de Tiraillement, Bruit de craque- 
ment. 

BRUIT DE SOUP APE, 'valvular or flap- 
ping noise.' A sound heard in respiration, when 
a foreign body is in the air passages. It some- 
what resembles the flapping of a valve; hence^ 
French name. ^ 

BRUIT DE TAFFETAS, 'sound of taf- 
feta.' 'Sarcenet sound.' A respiratory sound, 
so named, by M. Grisolle, from its resembling the 
sound caused by the tearing of a piece of tafi"eta ; 
and which he considers to indicate hepatization of 
the lung, limited to the surface, in pneumonia. 

BRUIT TYMPANIQUE, 'tympanic sound.' 
The clear sound afforded by percussing the sto- 
mach and intestines when containing air. 

BRUIT UTERIN, B. placentaire. 

BR UITS D U CCEUR, see Heart. 

BRUK, Furunculus. 

BRULURE, Burn. 

BRUNEI LE, Prunella. 

BRUNNER'S GLANDS, Brunneri Glan'dulce, 
G. Brunneria'ncB seu solita'rice, Solitari/ glands 
or follicles. Second pan' creas. Compound muci- 
parous follicles, seated between the mucous and 
muscular coats of the stomach, along the two 
curvatures of that organ, and in the duodenum ; 
so called from their discovery having been gene- 
rally attributed to Brunner. The solitary intes- 
tinal follicles are often known, at the present 
day, as the glands of Brunner, although Brunner 
restricted the latter term to the glands of the 
duodenum. 

BRUNONIAN, Brownian. 

BRUNONIANISM, Brownism. 

BRUNUS, Erysipelas. 

BRUSCUS, Ruscus. 

BRUSH, Scop'ula, (F.) Brosse. A well-known 
instrument, used in medicine chiefly for the fol- 
lowing purposes : — 1. To clean the teeth. 2. To 
remove the saw-dust which adheres to the teeth 
of the trephine, during the operation of trephin- 
ing. 3. To rub the surface of the body, for the 
purpose of exciting the skin, and favouring trans- 
piration. Westring, a Swedish phygician, has 



BRUTA 



145 



BUBONOREXIS 



reoommended metallic brushes for the purpose 
of conveying galvanism to a part. These brushes 
consist of a plate of ebony fitted to another of 
gold, in which threads of the same metal are 
fixed; — the brush being connected .with one of 
the poles of the galvanic pile. 

Brush, Stomach, Excutia ventriculi. 

BRUTA, Juniperus sabina. 

BRU'TIA. A sort of thick pitch, obtained from 
Brutia, in Italy. From Pix Brutia was obtained 
the O'levm Pici'num. 

Brutia, Instinct. 

BRUTINO.^Terebinthina. 

BRUTOLE, see Cerevisia. 

BRUXANBLLI. a Malabar tree, the bark 
and leaves of which have a strong smell, and are 
■astringent. On the coast of Malabar, its juice, 
mixed with butter, is applied to boils. Its bark 
ia esteemed to be diuretic, and its roots anti- 
arthritic. ^ 

BRUYERE VULGAIRE, Erica vulgaris. 

BRUYERES, MINERAL AVATERS OF. 
Bruyeres is a small village, 7i leagues from 
Luneville. The waters are acidulous and ehaly- 

BRYCETOS. see Algidus. 

BRYCHETHMOS, Rugitus. 

BRYCHETOS, see Algidus. 

BRYGMA, Bnjfimus, Trisis, Prims, Prismus, 
Odontopri' sis, Stridor Den'tium, (F.) Grincement 
des Bents. Grinding of the teeth. A common 
symptom, in children, of gastric or other derange- 
ment, but often present when there is no reason 
to suspect any. 

BR TONE, Bryonia — 6. d'Amerique, Convol- 
vulus Mechoacan. 

BRYO'NIA AFRICA'NA, African Bry'ony, 
from fipvui, ' I bud forth.' A South African 
plant, common amongst the Hottentots, which, 
in the form of decoction, acts simultaneously as 
an emetic, cathartic, and diuretic. It is used by 
the natives in cutaneous diseases, dropsy, and 
syphilis. The tincture is a powerful emetic and 
cathartic. — Thunberg. 

Brto'nia Alba, White Bry'ony, Vitis alba 
sylves'tria, Agros'tis, Agriam'pelos, Am'pelos 
a'gria, Echetro'sis, Bryo'nia as'pera seu Bi- 
ni'ca, Cedros'tis, Ohelido'nium, Lahrus'ca, Me- 
lo'thrum, Ophroataph'ylon, P silo' thrum. Ord. 
Cucurbitacese. Sex. Syst. Monoecia Monadelphia. 
(F.) Ootileuvrie, Vigne vierge, V. hlanche, Navet 
du diable ou galant. The root is large and suc- 
culent, and has an acrid, bitter, and disagreeable 
taste. It is a drastic cathartic. Externally, it 
has been applied, in form of cataplasm, in gout. 
When repeatedly washed, a good starch is ob- 
tained from it. The active principle has been 
separated from it, and called Bry'onine. 

Bryonia Mechoacanna Nigricans, Convol- 
vulus jalapa — b. Nigra, Tamus communis — b. 
Peruviana, Convolvulus jalapa. 
• BRYONINB, see Bryonia alba. 

BRYONY, BLACK, Tamus communis — b. 
White, Bryonia alba — b. Wild, Sycios angulatus. 

BRYTIA, Marc of grapes. 

BR YTOLATURE, see Cerevisia. 

BR TTOLE, see Cerevisia. 

BRYTON, Cerevisia. 

BU, ^ov, abbreviation of /?ouj, 'an ox,' in com- 
position expresses 'excess, greatness.' Hence 
Bidimus, Buphthalmia, Ac. 

BUBASTECORDIUM, Artemisia vulgaris. 

BUBE, Pustule. 

BUBO, 0ov(Su)v, Pano'chia, Pamis inguina'Us, 
Adenophy'nia inguina'Us, Bubonopa'nus, Biibo- 
non'cita, Buhon'cua, Cumbu'ca, Angus, Bonbon, 
Codoce'le, Cvdoscel'Ca, (F.) Bubon, Puulain. In 
the works of Hippocrates and Galen, this word 
10 



sometimes signifies the groin — Tnguen ; at others, 
the inguinal glands ; and at others, again, swell- 
ing or inflammation of these parts. The moderns 
apply the term to an inflammatory tumour seated 
in the groin or axilla, and they generally distin- 
guish — L Simple or Sympathetic Bubo, which is 
independent of any virus in the economy. 2. 
Venereal Biibo, {¥.) Bubon venerien, which is oc- 
casioned by the venereal virus. 3. Pestilential 
Bubo, or B. symptomatic of the Plague. The last 
two have by some been called malignant Bubo, 
(F.) Bubon mnlin. 

Primary Bubo, (F.) Buhon primitif, shows it- 
self with the first symptoms of syphilis: the con- 
secutive not till afterwards. 

BUBON, Bubo, Inguen— b. Gummiferum, see 
Ammoniac gum. ^ 

BUBON D'EIIBLEE (F.). An enlargement 
and suppuration of one or more of the inguinal 
glands, not preceded by any other of the more 
common forms of venereal disease, nor by any 
other syphilitic symptom. 

Bubon Gal'banum. The systematic name of a 
plant which has been supposed to aff'ord galba- 
num; Meto'pion, Mato'rium. The plant is also 
called Fer'ula Africa'na, Oreoseli'num Africa'- 
num, Ani'sum frutico'stim galbanif ' erum seu Af- 
rica' num frutes'cens, Seli'num Galbanum, AgaayV - 
lis gal'banum, The long-leaved or lovage-leaved 
Gal'banum. Ord. Umbelliferae. The plant can 
scarcely, however, be considered to be determined. 
By the Dublin College, it is referred to Opo'i'dia 
Galbanif era, Ord. Umbelliferae. Galbanum is 
the gummi-resinous juice. Its odour is fetid, and 
taste bitter and acrid : the agglutinated tears arc 
of a white colour, on a ground of reddish-brown. 
It forms an emulsion when triturated with water, 
and is soluble in proof spirits of wine, and vine- 
gar : sp. gr. 1-212. It has been given as an anti- 
spasmodic and expectorant, in pill or emulsion. 
Dose, from gr. 10 to 60. Externally, it is applied 
as a cataplasm. 

Bubon galbanum is a South African plant; and 
is reputed to be an excellent diuretic, under the 
name of Wild Celery. A decoction of the leaves 
is given in dropsy and gravel. According to 
Pappe, the resinous matter, which exudes from 
tjie stem, differs in appearance, smell, and in 
every respect, from Gummi Galbanum. 

Bubon Macedon'icum, Athaman'ta Macedon'- 
ica, Petroseli'num Macedon'icum, A'pium petrm'- 
um, Petra'pium, (P.) Perail de Macedoine, Mace- 
do'nian Parsley. Its properties are similar to 
those of common parsley, but weaker and less 
grateful. The seeds are an ingredient in the 
celebrated compounds, Mithridate and Theriac. 

BUBONA, Nipple. 

BUBONALGIA, from /?o«/?(oi/, 'the groin,' and 
aXyoj, 'pain.' Pain in the groin. 

BUBONCUS, Bubo. 

BUBO'NIUM, l«fe;-^<'<iC((.i, Golden Starwort. 
A plant anciently supposed to be efiicacious .n 
diseases of the groin, from fiov^iov, 'the groin,' 

BUBONOCE'LE, from (iov^cjiv, 'the groin,' and 
/C)7>i7, ' tumour,' 'rupture.' Her'nia inguina'Us. 
In'guinal Hernia, Rupture of the Groin. (F. ) 
Hernie inguinale. Some surgeons have confined 
this term to hernia when limited to the groin, 
and have called the same affection, when it has 
d-escended to the scrotum, Oscheoce'le, Scrotal 
Hernia. The rupture passes through the abdo- 
minal ring: and, in consequence of the greater 
size of the opening in the male, it is more fre- 
quent in the male sex. 

BUBONONCUS, Bubo. 

BUBONOPANUS, Bubo. 

BUBONOREX'IS, from 0ovlSo,v, 'the groin,' 
and prints, 'a rupture.' A name given to bubono- 
cele when accompanied with a division of the p«^ 



BUBONULUS 



146 



BULBOGODIUM 



ritoneum, or when, in other words, it is devoid 
of a sac. 

BUBON'ULUS, Biihun'eulus. A diminutive 
of Bubo. A painful swelling of the lymphatics 
of the penis, extending along the dorsum of that 
organ to the groin. It is an occasional accom- 
paniment of iionorrhoea. 

BUBUKLE. A word used by Shakspeare for 
a red pimple on the nose. 
BUBUNCULUS, Bubonulus. 
BUCAROS, Terra Portugallica. 
BUCCA. Gnaihos. The mouth. The cheek 
and hollow of the cheek. Also, the vulva. 

BUCCAC'RATON, from Bucea, and Kpaui, 'I 
mix.' A morsel of bread sopped in wine, which 
served of old for a breakfast. — Linden. 

BUCCAL, Biicca'Us, from Buccn, 'the mouth,' 
or rather ' the cheek.' That which concerns the 
mouth, and especially the cheek. 

Buccal Artery, Artere Sus-maxillnire, (Ch.) 
arises from the internal maxillary or from some 
of its branches, as the Temjioralis profunda an- 
tica, or the Alveolar. It distributes its branches 
to the buccinator muscle, and to the buccal mem- 
brane. 

B0CCAL Glands, JFoIar Glands. Mucous fol- 
licles, seated in the buccal membrane, opposite the 
molar teeth. They secrete a viscid humour, which 
aiixes with the saliva, and lubricates the mouth. 
Buccal Membrane, (F.) Membrane Buccale. 
The mucous membrane, which lines the interior 
of the mouth. 

Buccal Nerve, Buecina'tor Nerve, Buccola- 
bi(d—{Ch.), is given off by the inferior maxillary. 
It sends its branches to the cheek, and especially 
to the buccinator muscle. 

Buccal Vein follows the artery. 
BUC'CEA, Bnccel'la. The fleshy excrescence 
of nasal polypus, so called because it was believed 
to proceed from the mouth. — Paracelsus. Also, 
a mouthful. 

BUCCELA'TON, Buccela'fus. A loaf-shaped 
cathartic medicine ; made chiefly of scammony. 
— Aetius, Paulus of ^gina. 
BUCCELLA, Bolus, Buccea. 
BUCCELLA'TIO. A mode of arresting hemor- 
inage, by applying a pledget of lint to the bleed- 
ing vessel. — Avicenna, Fallopius. 
BUCCINA, Turbinated bones. 
BUCCINA'TOR, from luccinare, 'to sound 
the trumpet.' The Buecina'tor Muecle, Retrae'- 
tor An'gnti Oris, Bucco-Alveolo-viaxillaire, Alve- 
jlo-labial — (Ch.), Manso'rlus, is situate in the 
substance of the cheeks. It extends between the 
posterior portions of the alveolar arches of the 
two jaws and the commissure of the lips, which 
it draws backward. It assists in mastication, by 
pushing the food back towards the teeth; and, 
if the cheeks be distended by air, its contrac- 
tion ferces it out. 

BUCCO. One who is blub-cheeked, or wide- 
mouthed. In composition, the mouth. 

B UCCO-AL VEOL 0-iIAXILLAIRE, Bucci- 
nator. 
BUCCO-LABIAL NERVE, Buccal nerve. 
BUCCO- PHARYNGE'AL, Bncco-Pharynge'- 
ii«, (F.) Bucco-Pharyngien. Belonging to the 
mouth and pharynx. The Bucco-pharynge'al 
Aponeuro'sis or Intermax' illary Lig'ament, ex- 
tends from the internal ala of the pterygoid pro- 
cess to the posterior part of the lower alveolar 
arch, and affords attachment, anteriorly, to the 
buccinator, and, posteriorly, to the constrictor 
pharyngis superior. 

BUC'CULA, from Bucca, 'the mouth.' A 
«mall mouth. The fleshy part beneath the chin. 
-Bartholine. 

BUCERAS, Trigonella foenum — b. Foenum 
Traecum, Trigonella foenum Grsecum. 



BUCHU, Dioama crenata — b. Leaves, Diosma 
crenata. 

BUCKBEAN, Menyanthes trifoliata — b. Ame- 
rican, Menyanthes verna. 

BUCKBERRY, Vaccinium stamineum. 

BUCKET FEVER, Dengue. 

BUCKEYE, jEscuIus hippocastanum. 

BUCKHO, Diosma crenata. 

BUCKTHORN, PURGING, Rhamnus. 

BUCKU, Diosma crenata. 

BUCKWHEAT, Polygonum fagopyrum — b 
Plant, eastern. Polygonum divaricatum. 

BUCNEMIA, see Elephantiasis — b. Tropica, 
see Elephantiasis. 

BUCTON, Hymen. 

BUFF, INFLAMMATORY, Corium phlogie- 
ticum. 

BUFFY COAT, Corium phlogisticum. 

BUG. (BED,) Cimex. 

BUGANTIA, Chilblain. 

BUG'GERY, Sod'omy, Sodom'ia, Co'itiu So- 
do7nit'icus, (I.) Bugarone. Said to have been 
introduced by the Bulgarians : hence the name. 
A carnal copulation against nature, as of a man 
or woman with any animal ; or of a man with a 
man, or a man unnaturally with a woman. The 
unnatural crime. 

BUGLE, Prunella — b. Common, Ajuga rep- 
tans — b. Pyramidnle, Ajuga — h. Rampante, Aju- 
ga reptans — b. Water, Lycopus Virginicus — b. 
Weed, Lycopus. 

BUGLOSE, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGLOSS, DYER'S, Anchusa tinctoria — b. 
Garden, Anchusa officinalis — b. Upright, Ajuga. 

BUGLOSSA, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGLOSSUM ANGUSTIFOLIUM MAJUS, 
Anchusa officinalis — b. Latifoliuui. Borago offici- 
nalis — b. Sativum, Anchusa officinalis — b. Syl 
vestris, Anchusa officinalis — b. Tinctorum, An- 
chusa tinctoria — b. Verum, Boracic acid — b. 
Vulgare majus, Anchusa officinalis. 

BUGRANDE EPINEUSE, Ononis spinosa. 

BUGRANE, Ononis spinosa — h. des Ghampe, 
Ononis arvenis. 

BUGULA, Ajuga — b. Chamaepitys, Teucriam 
chamjepitys — b. Pyramidalis, Ajuga — b. Rep- 
tans, Ajuga reptans. 

BUl'S, Buxus. 

BUISARD. MINERAL WATERS OF. Bui- 
sard is two leagues from Chateau-Thierry, in 
France. The water contains chloride of calcium 
and carbonate of lime. 

BULB, Bulbils, (F.) Bulbe. A name, given 
by anatomists to different parts which resemble, 
in shape, certain bulbous roots. The Bulb of the 
Aorta is the great sinus of the Aorta. Bulb of a 
Tooth ; the vascular and nervous papilla con- 
tained in the cavity of a tooth. The Bulb or 
Root of the Hair is the part whence the hair 
originates. The Bulb of the Urethra is the 
dilated portion formed by the commencement 
of the Corpus uponyiosum towards the root of 
the penis. We say, also, Bulb, for Globe, of the 
eye. 

Bulb of the Eve, see Eye — b. of the Female, 
Bulbus vestibuli — b. Rachidian, see Medulla 
oblongata. 

BULBE, Bulb — 6. Rachidien, see Medulla 
oblongata — 6. du Vagin, Bulbus vestibuli — b. de 
la VoOtc il troii Plliers, Mamillary tubercles. 

BULBI FORNICIS, Mamillary tubercles— b. 
Priorum Cruruin Fornicis, Mamillary tubercles. 

BULBOCASTANEUM,Bunium bulbocas- 
tannm. 

BULBO-CA VEPNEUX, Accelerator urinao. 

BULBO-CAVERNOSUS, Accelerator urinae— 

5. Syiidt'smo-carerneux, Accelerator urinse — i. 



I Urethral, Accelerator urinse. 

! BULBOCODIUM, Narcissus pseudonarcis^as. 



BULBONACH 



BURNT HOLES 



BULBONACH, Lunaria rediviva, 

BULBUS, Bulb. 

BuLBUs Esculen'tus. The Es'culent Bulb: 
a particular kind, .so denominated by the an- 
cients. It ia supposed to have been the Cepa 
Ascalon'ica. — Dioscorides, Celsus, Pliny, &c. 

BuLBUs Glandolosus, Proventriculus — b. 
Medullae spinalis, Medulla oblongata — b. Oculi, 
see Eye — b. Olfactorius, see Olfactory Nerves — 
b. Pili, see Hair — b. Rachidicus, see Medulla ob- 
longata — b. Vaginae, B. vestibuli. 

BuLBUs Vestib'uli, B. Vagi'ncB, Plexus reti- 
form'is seu reticulo'n's seu caverno'sus, Oriira 
clitor'idia inter'na, Bulb or Semi-bulb of the Fe- 
male, (F.) Biilbe du Vagin. A close-packed 
plexus of intricately anastomosing veins, inclosed 
in a fibrous investment, — being an immediate 
continuation and extension of the para intermedia, 
and occupying the space between the beginning 
or vestibule of the vagina and the rami of the 
pubic arch on each side. It is regarded by 
Lauth, Taylor, Morgagni and Kobelt as the ana- 
logue of the male bulb. 

BuLBUs Vomito'eius. a plant, said by Dios- 
cori^ies to be emetic 'and diuretic. It is the 
Musk-grape Jloicer, according to Ray, — the Hya- 
cinthus Jfuscari, 

BULESIS, Voluntas. 

BULGA, Vulva. 

BULIMIA, Boulimia. 

BU'LITHOS, from (Sovs, 'an ox,' and \i5os, 
'a stone.' A bezoar or stone, found in the kid- 
neys, gall-bladder, or urinary bladder of an ox 
or cow. 

BULLA, (F.) Bulle. A Bleb, (Sc.) Bleib. A 
portion of the cuticle, detached from the skin by 
the interposition of a transparent, watery fluid. 
It forms the 4th order in Willan's and Bateman's 
arrangement of cutaneous diseases, and includes 
erysipelas, pemphigus, and pompholyx. By 
some. Bulla has been used synonymously with 
Pemphigus. See, also. Hydatid. 

BULLACE PLUM, Prunus in Sitia. 

BULLiE ROTUNDA CERVICIS UTERI, 
Nabothi glandulse. 

BULLDOG, Tabanus. 

BULL-FISTS, Lycoperdon. 

BULLOUS, Bullo'sus, (P.) BuUeux. Having 
relation to a bulla or bleb, as a ' bullous eruption.' 
Pemphigus has been designated 3Ialadie bul- 
leuse, and Fievre bulleuse, when accompanied by 
fever. 

BULLSEGG, Typha latifolia. 

BUMBLEKITES, see Rubus fruticosus. 

BUMELLIA. Fraxinus excelsior. 

BUM- GUT, Rectum. 

BUNA. Coffea Arabica. 

BUNCOMBE, WARM AND HOT SPRINGS 
OF. See North Carolina, Mineral Waters of. 

BUNDURH, Corylus avellana. 

BUNEWAND, Heracleum spondylium. 

BUNIAS, Brassica napus. 

BUNIOID, Napiform. 

BUNION, Bunyon. 

BUNI'TES VINUM. A wine, made by in- 
fusing the Bunium in must. It is stomachic, but 
scarcely ever used. 

BUNIUM CARVI, Carum. 

Bu'nium Bulbocas'tanum, Sovviov, so called, 
it has been supposed, from growing on hills, from 
^ovvoi, 'a hill,' or from the tuberosity of its root. 
B. minus, Balanocaa'tanum, Siurn bulbocastanum, 
Scandex bulbocastanum, Carum bulbocastanum. 
Order, Umbelliferise. The systematic name of a 
plant, whose root is called Pig-nut, Agriocas'ta- 
num, Nu'cida terres'tris, Bulbocas'tanum majua et 
minus. Earth-nut, Haiok-nut, Kipper-nut, (Sc.) 
Arnut, (F.) Terre-noix. The root is tuberous, 
ftnd is eaten raw or roasted. It has been sup- 



posed to be of use in strangury. It is not em- 
ployed in medicine. 

BUNNIAN, Bunyon. 

BUNWEED, Senecio Jacobaea, 

BUN'YON, Bun'ion, Bun'nian, from (iotivos, 
'an eminence.' [?] An enlargement and in- 
flammation of the bursa mucosa at the inside of 
the ball of the great toe. 

BUOPHTHALMIA, Buphthalmia. 

BUPEINA, Boulimia. 

BUPHTHALMI HERBA, Anthemis tinctoria 

BUPHTHAL'MIA, Buoi^hthal'mia, BuphthaV. 
mos, Elephantom' ma, from /Sous, 'an ox,' and o(p- 
&a\fios, 'an eye.' Ox-ei/e. Under this name, 
the generality of authors have designated the 
first stage of hydrophthalmia. Others, with Sa- 
batier, mean by it, turgescenee of the vitreous 
humour, which, by pushing the iris forwards, 
forms around the crystalline a sort of border. 

BUPHTHALMUM ORETICUM, Anthemis 
Pyrethrum — b. Majus, Chrysanthemum leucan- 
themum. 

BUPHTHALMUS, Hydrophthalmia, Semper- 
vivum teetorum. 

BUPINA, Boulimia. 

BUPLEUROIDES, Bupleurum rotundifulium. 

BUPLEU'RUM ROTUNDIFO'LIUM, Bu- 
pleu'ron, Bupleuroi'des, from fiov, augmentative, 
and n\tvpov, 'side,' (F.) Buplevre, Pcrcefeuille, 
Bound-leaved Hare's Ear, Thorowinax. Order, 
Umbelliferffi. The herb and seeds are slightly 
aromatic. It was formerly celebrated for curing 
ruptures, being made into a cataplasm with wine 
and oatmeal. 

BUPLEVRE, Bupleurum rotundifolium. 

BUR AC. Borax. Also, any kind of salt. 
(Arabic.) 

BURBOT, see Oleum Jecoris Aselli. 

BURDOCK, Arctium lappa — b. Lesser, Xanv 
thium — b. Prairie, Silphium terebinthaceum. 

BURIAL ALIVE, Zoothapsis. 

BURIS, Hernia, accompanied by scirrhous 
tumefaction; or, perhaps, a scirrhous tumoui 
only. — Avicenna. 

BURN. Sax. bejinan or bypnan, 'to burn or 
bren.' Us'tio, Ambus'tio, Adus'tio, Tresis Causis, 
Erythe'ma Ambus'tio, Causis, Encau'sis, Pyri- 
eaus'tum, Combustu'ra, Catacau'ma, Combus'tio, 
(F.) Brulure. An injury produced by the action 
of too great heat on the body. Burns are of 
greater or less extent, from the simple irritation 
of the integument to the complete destruction of 
the part. The consequences are more or less 
severe, according to the extent of injury, and the 
part affected. Burns of the abdomen, when ap- 
parently doing well, are sometimes followed by 
fatal results. Their treatment varies, — at times, 
the antiphlogistic being required; at others, one 
more stimulating. 

BURNEA. see Pinus Sylvestris. 

BURNET, CANADA, Sanguisoroa Cana- 
densis. 

BURNETT'S DISINFECTING LIQUID or 
FLUID. A solution of chloride of zinc, first 
used by Sir William Burrett for preserving tim- 
ber, canvass, Ac, from dry rot, mildew, &o., and 
afterwards as an antibromic and antiseptic, espe- 
cially in the case of dead bodies. The Dublin 
Pharmacopoeia has a Zinci CIdo'ridi Liquor, So- 
lu'tion of Chloride of Zinc, which is not near so 
strong as Sir William's preparation. 

BURNING, Brenning. A disease mentioneil 
by old historians, from which authors have un- 
successfully endeavoured to demonstrate the an- 
tiquity of syphilis. — Parr. 

BURNING OF THE FEET,' see Feet, burn 
ing of the. 

BURNT HOLES. A variety of rupia, popu- 
larly known in Ireland under this name ; and not 



BURR 



148 



BUXUS 



nnfreqnent there amongst the ill-fed children of 
the poor. See Rupia escharotica. 
BURR, Rotacismus. 
BURRAGE, Borage officinalis. 
BUR-REED, GREAT, Sparganium ramosum. 
BURRH, Rotacismus. 

BURRHI SPIR'ITUS MATRICA'LIS. The 
Spirit of Durrhua for diseases of the Womh. It 
is prepared by digesting, in alcohol, equal parts 
of myrrh, olibanum, and mastic. Boerhaave fre- 
quently prescribed it. 

BURSA CORDIS, Pericardium — b. Omentalis, 
nee Epiploon, gastro-hepatic — b. Pastoris, Thlaspi 
bursa — b. Testium, Scrotum — b. Virilis, Scrotum. 
BURS^ MUCILAGINOS^, B. mucosae. 
BURS^ MUCO'S^, B. muco'sm vesicula'res, 
Bursa seu Cap'milcB synovia'les, Blennocys'tides, 
Succi muco'si, Veai'cee wigtiino'sm ten'dinum, 
Vagi'nce Synovia'les seu mucilagino'sce, Syno'vial 
Grypts or Foll'icles, (F.) Bourses Synoviales ou 
muqueiises ou mticilagineuaes. Small membranous 
sacs, (from flvpua, ' a bag, a purse,') situate about 
the joints, particularly about the large ones of 
the upper and lower extremities, and, for the 
most part, lying under the tendons. They are 
naturally filled with an oily kind of fluid, the use 
of which is to lubricate surfaces over which the 
tendons play. In consequence of bruises or 
sprains, this fluid sometimes collects to a great 
extent. The bursas are, generally, either of a 
roundish or oval form, and they have been ar- 
ranged under two classes, the spherical and the 
vaginal. 
BuRS^ Synoviales, Bursas mucosae. 
BURSAL, Bursa'lis. Relating or appertain- 
ing to bursae. — as a 'bursal tumour.' 
BURSALIS, Obturator internus. 
BURSERA ACUMINATA, B. gummifera. 
Burse'ra Gdmmif'eka, B. acumina'ta, Tere- 
binth' ua gummifera, Jamaica Bark Tree. Or- 
der, Terebinthaceae. A resin exudes from this 
tree, which, as met with in the shops, is solid 
externally ; softish internally ; of a vitreous frac- 
ture ; transparent ; of a pale yellow colour ; tur- 
pentine smell, and sweet, perfumed taste. It has 
been used like balsams and turpentines in gene- 
ral, and is called, by the French, Oachihou, Chi- 
bou, and Resine de Gomart. 
BURSITIS, see Synovitis. 
BURST, Hernia, Hernial. 
BURSTEN, see Hernial. 
BURSULA, Scrotum. 
BURTHISTLE, Xanthium. 
BURTREE, Sambucus. 
BURUNHEM, Monesia. 
BURWEED, Xanthium. 
BURWORT, Ranunculus acris. 
BUSH, JEW, Pedilanthus tithyraaloides. 
BUSSANG, MINERAL WATERS OF. Bus- 
eang is a village in the department of Vosges, 
France. The waters are acidulous chalybeates. 
BUSSEROLLE, Arbutus uva ursi. 
BUS'SII SPIR'ITUS BEZOAR'TICUS, Be- 
zoar'dic Spirit of Buaaiua. A preparation, re- 
garded as sudorific, diuretic, and antispasmodic ; 
obtained by distilling subcarbonate and muriate 
of ammonia, amber, oil of cedar or juniper, &c. 

BUTE, ISLAND OF, CLIMATE OF. This 
island is in the Frith of Clyde, about 18 miles 
below Greenock. The climate is mild and equa- 
ble, but rather moist ; and, as a winter residence, 
it holds out advantages for those only that ap- 
pear to demand such a condition of the atmo- 
ephere. The climate resembles, in character, 
that of the S. W. of England and France, and 
the Channel islands ; although its temperature is 
k>wer. 

PU'TEA FRONDO'SA, Erythri'na monoaper'. 



ma, RudolpTi'ia frondo'sa, see Kino. A tree, 
common in Bengal, and in the mountainous parts 
of India; Nut. Ord. Leguminosse ; from which 
gum butea flows. Dr. Pereira. found this gum to 
be identical with a specimen marked gummi ru- 
brum aatringeiia — the gomme astringcnte de Gam- 
hie of M. Guibourt. By some, this gum has been 
confounded with kino. 
BUTIGO, Gutta rosea. 
BUTOMON, Iris pseudacorus. 
BUTTER, iromfiovTvpov, itself from jSovf, 'ox,' 
and rupof, 'any thing coagulated.' Buty'rum, 
Pice'rion, (F.) Beurre. A sort of concrete oil, 
obtained from the cream that forms on the sur- 
face of the milk furnished by the females of the 
mammalia, especially by the cow and the goat. 
Fresh butter is very nutritious, whilst the rancid 
is irritating. The ancient chemists gave the 
name Butter to many of the metallic chlorides. 
It has also been applied to vegetable substances, 
which resemble, in some respects, the butter ob- 
tained from milk. The essential fatty matter in 
it is bu'tyrin or bu'tyrate of glyd'erin. 

Butter of Antimont, Antimonium muriatum. 
Butter of Bamrouc or Bamboo, (F.) Bevrre 
de Bambouc ou Bambuk. A vegetable oil ob- 
tained from a species of almond, and used in 
Senegal in neuralgic and rheumatismal pains. 

Butter of Ca'cao, OH of Ca'cao, Oleum Ca- 
cao 8])isaa'tum, 0. Theobro'mcB Cacao expres'sum, 
(P.) Beurre de Cacao, Huile de Cacao. A fat 
substance, of a sweet and agreeable taste, ob- 
tained from the Theohroma cacao or chocolate 
nut. Owing to its firmness and fusibility, it is 
well adapted to serve as the constituent of sup- 
positories. 

Butter op Cocoa, (F.) Buerre de Coco. A 
fatty, concrete substance, which separates from 
the milk of the cocoa nut. It is sweet and 
agreeable. 

Butter and Eggs, Narcissus pseudonarcissus 
— b. Kokum, see Garcinia purpurea — b. of Nut- 
megs, see Myristica. 

BUTTERBUR, Tussilago petasites. 
BUTTERCUPS, Ranunculus acris, and R. 
bulbosus. 

BUTTERFLY-WEED, Asclepias tuberosa. 
BUTTERMILK, (Prov.) Churn-milk, Kern- 
milk, Whig, (Sc.) Bladoch, Bledoch,Bladda, Kirn- 
milk, Sourmilk, (F.) Babeurre, Lait de Beurre. 
The thin, sour milk, separated from the cream by 
churning. It contains caseum and a little butter. 
It is a refreshing drink when newly made. 
BUTTERTEETH, Incisive teeth. 
BUTTER WEED, Erigeron Canadenseu 
BUTTERWORT, Pinguicola vulgaris. 
BUTTOCK-HUMP, Steatopyga. 
BUTTONBUSH, Cephalanthus occidentalis. 
BUTTONWOOD SHRUB, Cephalanthus occi- 
dentalis. 

BUTUA, Pareira brava. 
BUTYRATE OP GLYCERIN, see Butter. 
BUTYRIN, see Butter. 

BUTYRUM, Butter — b. Amygdalarum dul- 
cium, Confection (almond) — b. Saturni, Unguen- 
tum plumbi superacetatis — b. Zinci, Zinci chlo- 
ridum. 

BUVEUR, Rectus internus oculi. 
BUXTON, MINERAL WATERS OF, Bnx. 
tonien'sea AqucB. Buxton is a village in Derby- 
shire. The springs are thermal, and about 82° 
Fahrenheit. They contain sulphate of soda, 
chloride of calcium, chloride of sodium, chloride 
of magnesium, carbonate of lime, carbonic acid, 
and azote. They are used in cases in which 
thermal springs, in general, are recommended. 
They contain little or no mineral impregnation. 

BUXUS, Buxua aempervi'rena. The Box-tree, 
(F.) Buis ou Bouia. The leaves are bitter and 



BYNE 



149 



CACHECTIC 



aromatic, and, as such, have been used in medi- 
cine, in cases of worms, dyspepsia, <fcc., in the 
form of decoction. They are sometimes, also, | 
added to beer. The seed was anciently called 
Oarthe' gnn. 

BYNE, Malt. 

BY'RETHRUM. A sort of cap or Couvreehef, 
filled with cephalic substances. — Forestus. 

BYRON ACID or SOUR SPRINGS. These 
Springs are in the town of Byron, Genesee coun- 
ty. New York. The water is a nearly pure dilute 
sulphuric acid. They are powerfully astringent 
and tonic. 

BYRSA, fivgaa. A leather skin to spread 
plasters upon. 

BYRSODEP'SICON. A tan stuff, with which 
C^LiTJS .^CEELiANUs Sprinkled wool, which he 



applied in certain cases to the umbilical region , 
from ^vpaa. 'leather,' and h^E<>i, '1 tan.' 

BYRSODEPSICUM PRINCIPIUM, Tannin. 

BYSAU'CHEN, from /Jwu, 'I stop up,' and 
avxnv, 'the neck.' A morbid stiffness of the 
neck. One with a short neck, — Simotrache'lua. 

BYSSOS, Vulva. 

BYSSUS, Byssum. The ancients gave this 
name to several vegetable substances, which were 
used for the fabrication of stuffs prized for their 
fineness, colour, and rarity of material. It is 
now chiefly applied to the filaments, by the aid 
of which the acephalous mollusca attach their 
shells to the rocks. Byssus was formerly eJso 
applied to ihe female piLdendum. 

BYTHOS, iSu^oi, ' depth.' An epithet used by 
Hippocrates for the fundus of the stomach. 



C. This letter in the chemical alphabet sig- 
nifies nitre. It is also sometimes used in pre- 
scriptions for calx. 

CAA-AP'IA, Dorste'nia Brazilien'sis seu cor- 
difo'lia seu placento'i' des seu vitel'la. Order, 
Urticeae. The root, according to Piso, is employed 
as emetic and anti-diarrhoeic. 

CAA-ATAY'A. A plant of Brazil, supposed 
to be a species of gratiola. It is very bitter, 
and considered to be one of the best indigenous 
cathartics. 

CAACICA, Euphorbia capitata. 
CAA-GHIYU'YO, Fnttex hac'cifer Brazilien'- 
eis. A shrub of Brazil, whose leaves, in powder, 
are considered detersive. 

CAAOPIA, Hypericum baccifcrum. 
CAAPEBA, Pareira brava, Pothomorpha pel- 
tata and P. umbellata. 

CAAPONGA, Crithmum maritimum. 
CAAROBA. A Brazilian -tree, whose leaves, 
in decoction, promote perspiration. See Cera- 
tonia. 

CABAL, Cah'ala, Oahal'la, CaVhala, Caba'lta, 
Kab'ala, Gaballa. This word is from the He- 
brew, and signifies knowledge transmitted by 
tradition. Paracelsus and several authors of the 
16th and 17th centuries have spoken much of 
this species of magic, which they distinguished in- 
to Juda'ic or theolo'gian, and Hermet'ic or medic"- 
inal ; the latter being, according to them, the 
art of knowing the most occult properties of 
bodies by an immediate communication with 
spirits, — the knowledge being thus acquired by 
inspiration, and incapable of inducing error. It 
was also called Ara eahalis'tica seu eigna'ta, 'ca- 
balistic art.' 

CABAL'HAU. A plant of Mexico, according 
to Dalechamps, which passes for an antidote to 
white hellebore, and yet is used for poisoning 
arrows. It is unknown to botanists. 

CAB'ALIST, Cabalis'ta. One instructed in 
the Cabal. 

CABALLATION, Cynoglossum. 
CABARET, Asarum. 

CABBAGE, Brassica — c. Cow, Nymphaea odo- 
rata — c. Irish, Dracontium foetidum — c. Skunk, 
Dracontium foetidum — c. Swamp, Dracontium 
foetidum — c. Water, Nymphsea odorata — c. Tree, 
Geoffraeainermis — o. Bark tree, Geoffrsea inermis. 
CABBAGIUM, Geoffrsea inermis. 
CABOTZ, Hagenia Abyssinica. 
CABUREIBA, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 



CABUREICIBA, see Myroxylon Peruiferum. 

CAC^'MIA, Cachae'mia, from koko;, 'bad,' 
and 'at/ia, 'blood.' A faulty or morbid condition 
of the blood. 

CAC-^STHE'SIS, CacaastKf'ais, Oacoisaihe'- 
818, from Kaxo;, ' bad,' and aii^Oriaii, ' feeling.' 
Morbid sensation. Morbid general feeling. In- 
disposition. 

CACAFERRI, Ferri subcarbon&s. 

CAC'AGOGUE, Cacago'gus, Cac'cagogue, Cae- 
eago'gus, from KaKKt), ' excrement,' and ayav, ' to 
expel.' An ointment, composed of alum and 
honey; which, when applied to the anus, pro- 
duced an evacuation. — Paulus of ^gina. 

CACALEXITERIA, Alexiteria. 

CACA'LIA ANTEUPHOR'BIUM, Anteu- 
pJior'bium. Ord. Compositse. A plant, which 
Dodoens and others considered to be capable of 
tempering the caustic properties of euphorbium. 
It is also called Klein'ia. 

Many varieties of the Cacalia are used, in dif- 
ferent countries, chiefly as condiments. 

CA'CAO, Ca'coa, Caea'vi, Quahoil, Cacava'ta. 
The cocoa or chocolate nut ; fruit cf Theobro'ma 
Cacao, Co'coa Cacavif'era, Ca'cao minor seu 
aati'va, Cacao theobro'ma, (F.) Oacaoyer ou Ga- 
caotier ordinaire. Family, Malvaceae. Sex, 
Syat. Polydelphia Pentandria. 

CACAO TIER ORDINAIRE, see Cacao. 

CACAOYER ORDINAIRE, see Cacao. 

CACATION, Defecation. 

CACATORIA, Diarrhoea. 

CAC'ATORY, Cacato'riua, from cacare, ' to go 
to stool.' Febria cacato'ria; a kind of intermit- 
tent fever, accompanied by copiwus alvine evacua- 
tions. — Sylvius. 

CACAVATA, Cacao. 

CACAVI, Cacao, Jatropha manihot. 

CACCAGOGUE, Cacagogue. 

CACCE, Excrement. 

CACCION'DE. A sort of pill, chiefly formed 
of catechu, recommended by Baglivi in dysentery. 

CACEPHEBOTE'SIA, from kukos, 'bad,' and 
cij)el3oTris, ' puberty.' Morbid puberty. Disease 
occurring at the period of puberty. 

CACHALOT, see Cetaceum. 

CACHANG- PARANG. A sort of bean of Su 
matra, mentioned by Marsden, whose seeds are 
given in pleurisy. Jussieu considered it to be the 
Jlimo'aa seandena. 

CACHECTIC, CacTiec'tea, Cachec'ticus, (F. 
Oachectique, same etymon as Cachexia. One aU 



CACHELCOMA 



160 



CACOSIS 



tacked with cachexia. Belonging to cachexia. | 
Cachec'tica remed'ia are remedies against ca- 
chexia. 

CACHELCOMA. Helcocace. 

CACHKX-LAGUEN, Chironia Chilensis. 

CACHET {¥.), 'a seal.' A stamp or medicine 
stamp, used by the ancient Romans for marliing 
their drugs, especially those prescribed in dis- 
eases of the eyes ; and hence called, by some, 
oculist stamps. Some of those more lately dis- 
covered amongst Roman antiquities, have been 
described by MM. Sichel and Duchalais, and by 
Prof. Simpson, of Edinburgh. 

CACHEX'IA, from kukos, 'bad,' and 'c^n, 
•habit.' Stiitns eachec'licus, Cach'exy, Di/sthe'sia, 
(F.) Cachexie. A condition in which the body 
is evidently depraved. A bad habit of body, 
chiefly the result of scorbutic, cancerous, or ve- 
nereal diseases when in their last stage. Hence 
we hear of a Scorbutic Cachexia, Cancerous Ca- 
chexia, (fee. Sauvages and Cullen have included 
under this head a number of diseases — consump-i 
tions, dropsies, <&c. Cachexia has been some- 
times confounded with diathesis. Cachexia Ic- 
ter'ica is jaundice or icterus itself, or a disposition 
thereto. Fluor albus is sometimes called Ca- 
chexia Uteri'na. 

Cachexia Africana, Chthonophagia — c. Cal- 
culosa, Lithia — c. Cancerous,* see Cancer — c. 
Chlorotic, Chlorosis — c. Dysthetica, Dyscrasia. 

Cachexia, Gaol. The deteriorated organic 
actions induced by confinement in prisons, which 
is so often the precursor of scrofula. 

Cachexia Icterica, Icterus. 

Cachexia Londinen'sis. The paleness and 
other evidences of impaired health presented by 
the inhabitants of London. A similar cachexia is 
seen in those of other crowded cities. 

Cachexia, Lymphatica Farcimdiosa, see 
Equinia. 

Cachexia, Marsh, (F.) Cachexie paludeenne, 
ou palustre. The state of cachexy observed in 
malarious districts. 

Cachexia, Saturnina, Saturnismus — c. Scor- 
butic, see Purpura — c. Scrophulosa, Scrofula. 

Cachexia Sple'ihca. The state of scorbutic 
cachexia, which often accompanies diseases, es- 
pecially enlargement of the spleen, Splenal'gia 
Bengalen' sis, in India. 

Cachexia Venerea, Syphilis — c. Venous, Ve- 
nosity — c. Virginum, Chlorosis. 

CACHEXIE, Cachexia— e. lodee, see Iodine 
— c. Paludeenne, Cachexia, marsh — c. Palustre, 
Cachexia, marsh. 

CACHEXY, Cachexia. 

OACHJBOU, see Bursera gummifera. 

CACHINLAGUA, Chironia ehilensis. 

CACHINNA'TIO, from cachinno, 'I laugh 
aloud.' A tendency to immoderate laughter, as 
in some hysterical and maniacal affections. 

CACHIRI. A fermented liquor made, in Cay- 
enne, from a decoction of the rasped root of the 
manioc. It resembles perry. 

CACHLEX. A small stone or pebble, found 
on the sea shore. One of these, when heated in 
the fire, and cooled in whey, communicates an 
astringency to the liquid, so that it was anciently 
esteemed to be useful in dysentery. — Galen. 

CACHOS. An oriental fruit, apparently of a 
Solanum, which is esteemed lithontriptic. 

CACHOU, Catechu. 

CACHRYS LIBANO'TIS. An umbelliferous 
plant which grows in Africa and the south of 
Europe. It is aromatic and astringent. Its seeds 
lire extremely acrid. 

Cachrys Maritima, Crithmum maritimum. 

CACHUN'DE. An Indian troch or pastile 
composed of amber, mastic, musk, cinnamon, 
•kes, rhubarb, galanga, pearls, rubies, emeralds, 



garnets, Ac. It is regarded by the people of In- 
dia as an antidote, stomachic and antispasmodic. 

CACO, KaKo, properly only an abbreviation of 
Kaxoq. In composition it means something de- 
fective ; as in the following words : 

CACO^STHESIS, Caccesthesis. 

CACO-ALEXITERIA, Alexipharmic. 

CACOCHOL'IA, from KaKo^, 'bad,' and xo>'7, 
'bile.' Diseases induced by a depraved condition 
of the bile. 

CAC'OCHROI, Cac'ochri, from «awy, 'bad,' 
and xPf"^! 'colour.' Diseases in which the com- 
plexion is morbidly changed in colour. 

CACOCHYL'IA, from Kaxo^, 'bad,' and ;^iiAo{, 
'chyle.' Depraved chylitication. 

CACOCHYM'IA, Kakochjm'ia, Corrup'tio 
Humo'rum, from kokoj, 'bad,' and ;\;w//of, 'juice,' 
'humour.' Cacoch'ymy, Depravation of the 
humours. 

Cacochymia Plumbea, Lead poisoning — c. 
Scorbutica, see Purpura — c. Scrophulosa, Scro- 
fula — c. Venerea, Syphilis. 

CACOCH'YMUS, Cacochym'ictis. One attacked 
with cacochymia. Belonging to cacochymia. 

CACOCNE'MUS, Cacocne'mi<:us, JIalis euris 
prcBdi'tus; from (caicoj, 'bad,' and Kvrinti, 'the 
leg.' One who has bad legs. 

CACOCORE'MA, from KaKo^, 'bad,' and /copeu, 
' I purge, or cleanse.' A medicine which purges 
oflF the vitiated humours. 

CACODiE'MON, from KaKog, 'bad,' and 5a(/i(Dv, 
'a spirit.' An evil spirit, to which were ascribed 
many disorders. The nightmare. 

CACO'DES, from /cokos, 'bad,' and o^tiv, 'to 
smell' — mali olens. Having a bad smell ; Caco'- 
dia, Cacos'mia. 

CACODIA, see Cacodes. 

CACOETWES,Cacoeth'icus, (F.) {7acolf Je, from 
KOKo;, 'bad,' and e%s, 'disposition, habit,' Ac. 
Of a bad or vitiated character, as nlcus cacoeth'ea, 
an ulcer of a malignant character. 

CACOETHICUS, Cacoethcs. 

CACOGALAC'TIA, Cacogn'lia, from «a«oj, 
'bad,' and y"^^*^! gen. yaAaxTof, 'milk.' A bad 
condition of the milk. 

CACOGALAC'TICA. Same etymon as the last. 
One who suffers from a bad condition of the milk. 

CACOGALIA, Cacogalactia. 

CACOGEN'ESIS, (F.) Cacoghxise, from uraxof, 
'bad,' and ytvtai^, 'generation.' A morbid for- 
mation. A monstrosity. 

CACOMORPHIA. Deformation. 

CACOMORPHOiSiS, Deformation. 

CACOPATHI'A, Pas'tio Mala, from KaKo^ 
'bad,' and Trndof, 'affection.' A distressed state 
of mind. — Hippocrates. 

CACOPHO'NIA, from KaKo^, 'bad,' and ^^17, 
'voice,' vitia'ta vox. A dissonant condition of 
voice. 

CACOPLAS'TIC, Cncoplas'ticus, Di/splasmnt'- 
ic ; from koko;, ' bad,' and nXaaaui, ' I form.' Sus- 
ceptible of only a low degree of organization, as 
the indurations resulting from low or chronic 
inflammation, fibro-cartilage, cirrhosis, Ac. 

CACOPRA'GIA, Cacnprax'is, from koko^, 
'bad,' and TrparTu, 'I perform.' Depraved con- 
dition of the organic functions. 

CACOPRAXTS, Cacopragia. 

CACORRHACHI'TIS, from Kaxoi, 'bad,' and 
pa'x^ii, 'the spine.' Cacor'rhachis, Cacor'hachis, 
Cacorharhi'tis, Spondylal'gia. Deformity of the 
spine. Disease of the spine. Spontaneous luxa- 
tion of the vertebrae and ribs dependent upon 
internal causes. 

CACORRHYTH'MUS, Arrhyth'mi,s, from «a- 
«cos, 'bad,' and pv^fios, 'rhythm,' 'order.' Irre- 
gular. 

CACO'SIS. Mala dispoaifio, (F.) Vice. A 



CACOSITIA 



151 



CiECUM 



bad condition of body. — Hippocrates. A diseased 
condition in general. 

CACOSIT'IA, from xaKof, 'bad,' and ainov, 
'aliment.' Disgust or aversion for food — Fas- 
t'd'ium eiho'rum. 

CACOSMIA, see Caeodes. 
CACOSOMI'UM, from KaKo^, 'bad/ and au>iia, 
'the body.' An hospital for leprosy, and incura- 
ble affections in general. 

CACOSPERMA'SIA, Cacoaperma'tia, Cacos- 
pw'mia, from kukos, 'bad,' and anepiia, 'sperm.' 
A bad condition of the sperm. 

CACOSPHTX'IA, from kskos, 'bad,' and 
(j0i)fis, 'pulse.' — Vitio'sus pul'aua. Bad state of 
pulse. — Galen. 

CACOSPLANCH'NIA, from xaKo?, 'bad,' and 
aTr\aYxvov, 'a viscus.' Indigestion. The ema- 
ciation dependent upon imperfect digestion. — 
Siebenhaar. 

CACOSTOM'ACHUS, from KaKo<;, 'bad,' and 
aToiia-)(Oi, ' the stomach.' What disagrees with 
the stomach. Indigestible. — Gorraeus. 

CACOSTOMATOSPHRESIA, Breath, offen- 
sive. 

CACOS'TOMUS, from KaKos, 'bad,' and aro^a, 
'a mouth.' Having a bad mouth, or a bad 
breath. 

CACOTHAXASIA, see Euthanasia. 
CACOTHYM'IA, r{t'!um An'hm, from kakoj, 
' bad ' and Sv/io;, ' mind,' ' disposition.' A vicious 
state of mind. — Linden. 

CACOTRIBrLUS, Centaurea calcitrapa. 
CACOTRICH'IA, from KaKoi, ' bad,' and dpi^, 
Toixoi, 'hair.' Disease of the hair. 

CACOTROPH'IA, from kukos, 'bad,' and rpo^ij, 
'nutrition.' — Vitio'sa nutrif'io; — disordered nu- 
trition. — Galen. 

CACOU, Cagot, Catechu. 

CACOU'CIA COCCIN'EA. Ooucin'ea, Coc 
cin'ea, Schouaha' a eoccin'ea, Tikimma. A peren- 
nial twining shrub of South America, the plant 
of which, as well as the fruit, is possessed of 
emeto-cathartic properties. 
OACTIER, Cactus opuntia. 
CACTUS, Cynara. 

CACTUS OPUN'TIA, Opnn'tia, 0. vulga'ria. 
The Indian Fig, (F.) Caetier, Raquette, Figuier 
J'Inde. Ord. Caetaceae. This plant grows in 
South America, Spain, Italy, <tc. Its fruit, which 
has the shape of the fig, is of a sweetish taste, 
and colours the urine red when eaten. Its leaves 
are considered refrigerant. 

The fruits of different species of cactus are 
called Tunas. 

CADA'BA, Stroe'mia. A genus of the family 
Capparidece, natives of India and Arabia. The 
young shoots of the Cada'ba farino'aa are consi- 
dered to be an antidote against venomous bites. 
• CADA'VER, Ptoma, Neeron. A dead body 
corse, corpse, (Sc.) Corp; a subject; a carcass, 
(F.) Cadavre. The word has been supposed to 
come from cado, ' I fall ;' and by some to be a 
contraction from caro data vermibua, 'flesh given 
to the worms.' [?] 

CADAVERIC, Cadaverous. 
CADAVEROUS, Cadav'eric, Cadavero'eus., 
Necro'des, (F.) Cadavereux, Cadaverique. Be- 
longing to the dead body; as cadaverous smell 
The Cadav'eroua or Hippocrat'ic face, (see Face), 
is an unfavourable sign in disease, and generally 
denotes a fatal termination. 

CaDAV'eROUS or CaDAY'ERIC HrPERiE'MIA, 

The hypostatic hyperaemia observed in depend- 
ing parts of the dead body. 

CADDY INSECT, see Ectozoa. 

CADE, Juniperus oxycedrus, 

CADEJI-INDI, Malabathrum. 

CADEL-AVANACU, Croton tiglium. 

CADIA. An Egyptian, leguminous plant. 



The Arabs attribute to its fresh leaves the power 
of relieving colic. 

CADIVA INSANIA, Epilepsy. 
CADMIA, Calamina, Tutia. 
CADMI'I SULPHAS, Cadmi'um sulpku'ricum. 
Sulphas Cadmi'ctis, Meli'ni Sulphas, Klupro'ihit 
Sulphas, Klapro'thium Sidphu'ricum, Melinuni 
Sulphu'ricxim, Sulphate of Cad'mium. Used in 
spots on the cornea, and in chronic torpid in- 
flammation of the conjunctiva, in the quantity 
of half a grain to a grain to the ounce of water. 
It does not differ materially in its properties from 
sulphate of zinc. The nitrate, in the dose of jth 
of a grain, induces vomiting and purging. 

CADMIUM SULPHURICUM, Cadmii Sul- 
phas. 

CADRE DU TYMPAN, Tympanal. The 
portion of the temporal bone which supports the 
membrana tvmpani. 
CADTCHU, Catechu. 

CADUCA HUNTERI, Decidua — c. Passio, 
Epilepsy. 

CADU'CITY, Imhecil'litas, Debil'itas, Cadu'- 
citas, from eadere, 'to fall.' The French use the 
word Caducite for the portion of human life which 
is comprised generally between 70 and 80 years. 
The age which precedes decrepitude. It is so 
termed in consequence of the limbs not usually 
possessing sufiacient strength to support the body. 
The precise age must of course vary in indivi- 
duals. 

CADUQUE, Decidua membrana— c. ReflecMe, 
see Decidua membrana — c. Uterine, Decidua — e. 
Vraie, Decidua membrana. 
CADURCUS, Vulva. 

CADUS, (caioy. A Greek measure equal to ten 
gallons English. — Pliny. Amphora. 

C^CA FORAM'INA (ANTERIUS ET POS 
TERIUS) are situate at the fore and back parts 
of the tuber annulare of the brain, and at the 
extremities of the depression made by the verte- 
bral artery. The former is placed between the 
nerves of the third, and the latter between those 
of the sixth pair. 

CMCM H^MORRHOi'DES, Blind Piles, 
(F.) Hemorrhoides aveugles, are those unaccom- 
panied by any discharge. 

C^CAL, CcBca'lis. Belonging to the Caecum, 
from cacus, 'blind, hidden.' The Ccecal arteries 
and veins are the branches of the ArtericB et vena 
eoliccB dextrcB inferiores, distributtd to the caecum. 
The CcBcal or blind extremity of a duct is its 
closed termination. See Caecus. 
CICATRIX, Cicatrix. 

C^'CITAS, Ca'citas, Ccecitu'do, Ablep'sia, 
ObccBca'tio, Occceca'tio, Anap'sia, Ty'phlotes, 
Typhlo'sis, Ce'city, Blindness, (F.) Aveuglement, 
Cecite, Perte de la vue. Caecitas may be depend- 
ent upon many different diseases — as upon amau- 
rosis, specks, hypopyon, cataract, glaucoma, oph- 
thalmia, atrophy of the eye, &c. 

C^ciTAS Crepuscularis, Hemeralopia — c. 
Diurna, Nyctalopia — c. Nocturna, Hemeralopia. 
CECITE, Typhlo-enteritis. 
C^CITUDO, Caecitas. 

C^CUM, Caecum, Intesti'num cmcum, Monom - 
achon, Monom'acum, Ilonoco'lon, Monocu'lum, 
Typhlo'te)-on monoco'lon, TypMot' erum, Typhlo- 
en'terum, Init"ium intesti'ni crasai, Saccus Intes- 
tini crasai seu Coli, CcBCum Caput coli. Caput coli. 
Prima cella coli, Init"ium extu'berana coli, from 
cescus, 'blind.' The Blind Gut, so called from 
its being open at one end only. That por- 
tion of the intestinal canal which is seated be- 
tween the termination of the ileum and com- 
mencement of the colon; and which fills, almost 
wholly, the right iliao fossa; where the perito- 
neum retains it immovably. Its length is about 
three or four fingers' breadth. The Jeo-ccecal 



CJCCUS 



152 CALADIUM ESCULENTUM 



valve or Valce of Bauhin shuts off all communi- 
cation between it and the ileum ; and the Appen- 
dix vermifiirmis ccBci is attached to it. 

C,«CUM Fora'mkn of the frontal bone is a small 
'•avity at the inferior extremity of the internal 
coronal crest or crista. — Fronto-ethmoidal fora- 
fiten, (F.) Trou aveugle ou botyne. Morgagni has I 
j^ivcn the same name to the small cavity in the 
middle of the upper surface of the tongue, near 
its base : the sides of which are furnished with 
mucous follicles — Lacunea de la langue — (Ch.) 

C^ctJM, Phlegmonous Tdmour of the, Ty- 
phlo-enteritis. 

C^CUS. 'Blind.' One deprived of sight, 
Typhlops, (F.) Areiigle, Borgne. In anatomy, it 
is used to designate certain holes or cavities, 
which end in a cul-de-sac; or have only one 
opening. See Caecal. 

Blind Duels of the Ure'thra, (F.) Conduits 
aveugles de I'ur^tkre, are the Mucous Lacu'ncB 
of the Ure'thra. 

C.ELA-DOLO, Torenia Asiatica. 

C^MENTUxM, Lute. 

C^RULEUM BEROLINENSE, Prussian 
blue — c. Borussicura, Prussian blue. 

C^RULOSIS NEONATORUM, Cyanopathy. 

C^SALPI'NIA, C. sappan, Sappan or Samp- 
fen loood, (F.) Bresillet, Bois de Siq)pan. Ord. 
Leguminosae. Called after Csesalpinus. A small 
Siamese tree, the wood of which is used in de- 
coction, in cases of contusion. 

Brazil ivood, Pernambtico or Fernrtmhuco wood, 
formerly used as an astringent, is the wood of 
C^salpin'ia Echina'ta. This is the proper 
Brazil wood ; but another variety in commerce is 
the Brasiletto from Ocesolpinia Braeiliensia and 
C. crista, which grow in the West Indies. 

The Nicaragua or Peach-icood is analogous to 
this, and is said to be derived from a species of 
CsBsalpinia. 

The kernel of C^salpiji'ia Bonducell'a, the 
seed of which is called in India Kutkuleja and 
Kutoo Kurunja, is given as a febrifuge tonic. 
Dose, ten grains. 

C^SA'REAN SECTION, Cmsa'rean opera'- 
tion, Tomotoc'ia, Ccesa'rea sectio, Partus ccesa'- 
reus, Opera'tio ccesa'rea, Metrotom'ia, (F.) Oj)e- 
ration Cesarienue, from ceedere, ccBSum, ' to 
cut.' An incision made through the parietes 
of the abdomen and uterus to extract the 
foetus. In this manner, Julius Caesar is said 
to have been extracted. — Pliny. It is also 
called Hysterotom' ia, Hysterotomotoc' ia, Oastro- 
metrotom'ia, Gasterhgsterot'omy, Gastrometrot'- 
ome, Gastrohysterot' umy. An incision has been 
made into the uterus through the vagina, consti- 
tuting the Vaginal Cmsarean Section, Gastro- 
elytrotom'ia, Gasfrelytrotom'ia, Gastrocolpotoni' ia, 
Laparacolpotom' ia, Laparoelytrotom'ia, (F.) Ope- 
ration ceaarienne vaginale. The Ca3sarean sec- 
tion may be required when the mother dies 
before delivery ; when there is some invincible 
obstacle to delivery from the faulty conformation 
of the pelvis; or when the child has passed into 
the abdominal cavity in consequence of rupture 
of the uterus. 

C^SARIES, Capillus, Scalp. 

C^SIUS, Glaucoma. 

C-^'SONES, Cm'aares. Children brought into 
the world by the Caesarean operation. 

C^SU'LI^. They who have gray eyes. 

C.ESURA, Cut. 

CiETCHU, Catechu. 

CAF, Camphor. 

CAFAL, Agrimony. 

CAFAR, Camphor. 

CAFE, Coffea. 

OAFE A LA SULTANE. This name has 



been given to an infusion or decoction of the ground 
coques or pericarps which surround the coffee. 

CAFE CITRIN. The aqueous infusion of nn- 
roasted coffee, so called on account of its yellow- 
ish tint. 

CAFEIN, see Coffea Arabica. 

GAFEIER and CAFE YEP, Coffea Arabica. 

CAFFA, Camphor. 

CAFFEIX, see Coffea Arabica. 

CAFIER, Coffea Arabica. 

CAFUR. Camphor. 

CAGAS'TRUM. The principal or germ of dis- 
eases which are communicable. — Paracelsus. 

CAGNEUX, Cagot. See Kyllosis, 

CAGOSANGA, Ipecacuanha. 

CAGOTS{Y.). A name given to deformed and 
miserable beings, met with in the Pyrenees, Bern, 
and Upper Gascony, in France, where they are also 
called Cnpots. In other districts they are called 
Gesita, Gezitains, Critina, Gaheta, Capons, Coli- 
herta, Cacous, Cagnenx, <tc. See Cretin. The word 
Ciigot is supposed to be an abbreviation of Cunia 
Gothua, ' Dog of a Goth.' 

CAGUE-SANGUE, Caqneaangue. 

CAHINC^ RADIX, Caincse radix. 

CAI'EPUT OIL, Cafeput oil, Kyaput'ty, Ca- 
jupu'ti O'leu'm. The volatile oil of the leaves of 
Melaleu'ca Cajupu'ti, Ord. Myrtacese, a native 
of the Moluccas. The oil has a strong, fragrant 
smell, like camphor; taste pungent and aromatic. 
It is stimulant, and useful where the essential oils 
in general are employed. It has also been called 
Oil of Witneben, from the person who first dis- 
tilled it. 

CAIK, Pleurodynia. 

CAIL-CEDRA, Swietenia Senegalensis. 

CAILLE, Tetrao coturnix. 

CAILLE, see Curd. 

CAILLE AU, Lantana. 

CAILLEBOTTE, see Curd. 

CAILLE-LAIT, Rennet — c. Blanc, Galium 
mollugo — c. Vraie, Galium verum. 

CAILLETTE, Abomasus. 

CAILLOT, Coagulum. 

CAINAN^ RADIX, Caincse radix. 

C A I N'C ^ RADIX, Radix Chiocoe'cce, R. 
Caina'ncB sea CaninancB seu Cahincce seu Ka- 
hinccB seu Serpenta'rioB Brazilien' sis, Cainca Root. 
The bark of the roots of Chiococc'a angnif'vga 
seu densifo'lia, and, perhaps, Ch. racemo'aa, a 
plant of the Order Rubiaceffi. Sex. Syat. Pen- 
tandria Monogynia, of Linnajus. It is bitter, 
tonic, and diuretic, but has not been long intro- 
duced. Dose of the powder, from Qj to ^ss. 

Dr. John H. Griscom, of New York, considers 
there is a remarkable analogy between the Cain- 
ca and the Apocynum canitabinum. 

CAINITO, Chrysophyllum Cainito. 

CAIPA SCHORA. A cucurbitacenus Malabar 
plant, the fruit of which has a pyriform shape. 
The juice is drunk in that country for the pur- 
pose of arresting hiccough. The fruit, when un- 
ripe, is emetic. 

CAISSE, Case — c. du Tambour, Tympanum — 
c. du Tympan, see Tympanum 

CAITCHU, Catechu. 

CAJAN, Phaseolus creticus 

CAJUPUTI, Caieput. 

CAKES, WORM, STORY'S. These were com- 
posed of calomel and jalap, made into cakes, and 
coloured with cinnabar, 

CALABASH-TREE, NARROW-LEAVED, 
Crescentia Cujete. 

CALADIUM ESCULENTUM, Arum esculen- 
turn. 

Cala'pium Segui'num, Nat. Ord. Araceae. A 
plant of India, whose acrid juice has been giren 



CALAF 



153 



CALCENOS 



there in gout and rheumatism, and as an anaphro- 
disiac to women. The tincture has been prescribed 
in pruritus vulvae. 

CALAF, S'llix ^gyptiacn. A large-leaved 
Egyptian willow, called, also, Ban. The dis- 
tilled water of the flowers, called 3fncahalef, 
passes, in that country, for an excellent ant- 
aphrodisiac. It is also used as an antiloimic, 
antiseptic, and cordial. 

CALAGUALA, see Calagualae radix. 

CALAGBRI, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGIRAH, Vernonia anthelmintica. 

CALAGUA'LvE RADIX, Gulague'loB Radix. 
The root of Pohjpo' dium Calagua'la seu adianti- 
for'me seu eoria'eetini seu ammifo'liiim seu ar- 
yen'teum seu pol'itum, Aspid'htm coria'ceum seu 
ferrugin'eum seu dis'color, Tecta'ria calahuala 
sea ferrugin'ea, Caluguala, Calahuala. Order, 
Felices. It has been exhibited in Italy in dropsy, 
pleurisy, contusions, abscesses, &c. Its proper- 
ties are not, however, clear. 

CALAHIJxA.LA, see Calagualse radix. 

CALAMANDRINA, Teucrium chamaedrys. 

CALAMBAC, Agallochum. 

CALAMBOUK, Agallochum. 

CALAME'DON, from ifaXa/^os, 'a reed.' This 
word has had various significations. Some have 
used it for an oblique fracture of a bone; the 
fractured portions having the shape of the nib 
of a pen. Others have used it for a longitudinal 
fracture ; and others, again, for one that is com- 
minuted. 

CALA3IENT, Melissa calamintha. 

CALAMI'NA, Cul'amine, from calamus, *a 
reed,' so called from its reed-like appearance. 
Cadmi'a, G. lapido'sa aero'sa seu fos'silia. Lapis 
A'ero'sus, Lapis Calamina'ris, Calamina'ris, Oar'- 
bottas Zinci impu'rus, Cathmir, (F.) Pierre cala- 
minaire. Native impure carbonate of zinc. Cala- 
mine is chiefly used for pharmaceutical purposes 
in the form of the Calamina prjepara'ta (Ph. 
U. S.), Lapis Calamina'ris prapara'tus, Oar'bo- 
tias zinci impu'rus prcepara'tus, Zinci car'bonas 
prcBpara'tus, Prepared Calamine : — Calamine re- 
duced to an impalpable powder by roasting and 
levigation. In this state it is sprinkled or 
dusted on excoriated parts, or to prevent exco- 
riation, &o. 

CALAMINARIS, Calamina. 

CALAMINT, Melissa Calamintha— c. Field, 
Melissa nepeta — o. Mountain, Melissa grandiflora 
— e. Spotted, Melissa nepeta. 

CALAMINTA HUMILIOR, Glecoma hede- 
racea. 

CALAMINTHA, Melissa C — e. Anglica, Me- 
lissa nepeta — c. Erecta Virginiana, Cunila Mari- 
ana — c. Hederacea, Glechoma hederacea — c. 
Magno flore, Melissa grandiflora — e. Montana, 
Melissa grandiflora — c. Nepeta, Melissa nepeta — 
c. Parviflora, Melissa nepeta — c. Pulegii odore, 
Melissa nepeta — c. Trichotoma, Melissa nepeta. 

CAL'AMUS, Kahiiio;, 'the reed.' In the Phar- 
macopceia of the U. S., the rhizoma of acorus 
calamus. 

Calamus Alexandri'nus. Celsus has thus 
called a medicine, which was long confounded 
with Calamus Aromaticus. It is not a root, 
however, but the stalk of a plant of India and 
Egypt, probably the Andropo'gon Nardus. It 
entered into the theriaca, and has been regarded 
as antihysteric and emmenagogue ; — Calamus 
aromaticus verua. 

Calamus Aromaticus, Acorus calamus — e. 
Aromaticus verus. Calamus Alexandrinus — c. 
Draco, C. rotang — c. Indicus, see Saccharum — c. 
Odoratus, Acorus calamus, Juncus odoratus. 

Calamus Rotang, C. Draco. Order, Palmse. 
The systematic name of a plant, whence Dragon's 
Biood, Sanguis Draco' nia, Cinnab'aris Graco'rum, 



DracontJice'ma, (F.) Sang-Dragon, is procured, ft 
is the red, resinous juice, obtained, in India, from 
wounding the bark of the Calamus Rotang. It has 
been used as an astringent in hemorrhages, <fee. ; 
but is now rarely employed. 

Calamus Scripto'rius, vlna(/7j//)Ae, 'a writing 
pen,' (F.) Fossette angulaire du quatrieme ven- 
tricule. A small, angular cavity, situate at the 
superior extremity of the medulla, in the fourth 
ventricle of the brain, which has been, by some, 
supposed to resemble a pen. 

Calamus Vulgaris, Acorus calamus. 

CALAPPITE. Rumphius has given this name 
to calculous concretions, found in the interior of 
certain cocoa-nuts. The cocoa-tree itself the Ma- 
lays call Calappa. These stones are, likewise, 
termed Vegetable Bezoards. The Malays attri- 
bute potent virtues to them, and wear them as 
amulets. 

CALASAYA, Cinchonae cordifolise cortex. 

CALBALA, Cabal. 

CALBIA'NUM. The name of a plaster in 
Myrepsus, the composition of which we know 
not. 

CALCADINUM, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCAIRE, Calcareous. 

CALCA'NBAL, Calca'neua, from calx, 'the 
heel.' Having relation to the ealcaneum, as 
' calcaneal arteries.' 

CALCANEO-PHALANGIEN DU PETIT 
ORTEIL, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. 
Phalanginien commun, Extensor brevis digitorum 
pedis — c. Sous-pkalangettien commun, Flexor 
brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sous-Phalanginien 
commun, Flexor brevis digitorum pedis — c. Sotis- 
phalangien du petit orteil, see Abductor minimi 
digiti pedis — c. Sus-phalangettien commun, Ex- 
tensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

CALCA'NEUM, from calx, 'the heel.' Galca'- 
neus, Calcar, Gal'cia, Ichnus, Os Calcis, Pterna, 
Pter'nium. The largest of the tarsal bones : that 
which forms the heel. It is situate at the poste- 
rior and inferior part of the foot; is articulated 
above and a little anteriorly with the astragalus; 
anteriorly, also, with the os cuboides. Its poste- 
rior surface — called -ffee?. Talus, Cidx, {¥.) Ta- 
lon — gives attachment to the tendo-achillis : the 
lower has, posteriorly, two tuberosities, to which 
the superficial muscles of the sole of the foot are 
attached. The small Apoph' y sis or lateral Apoph- 
ysis of the Calea'newn, (F.) Petit Apophyse ou 
Apophyse laterale du Calcaneum, is a projection 
at the upper surface of this bone, on which is 
formed the posterior portion of the cavity that 
receives the astragalus. The great Apojih'ysis, 
anterior Apoph'ysis of the Galca'neum, is the 
projection which corresponds, on one side, with 
the cuboides ; and on the other forms the ante- 
rior part of the facette which receives the astra- 
galus. 

CALCAR, Calcaneum, Ergot — c. Avis, Hippo- 
campus minor. 

CALCA'REOUS, Calca'reus, Calca'rins, from 
calx, 'Vime.' {¥.) Caloaire. Containing lime : — 
as calcareous concretions, C. depositions, &c. 

CALCAREUS CARBONAS, Creta. 

CALCARIA CHLORATA, Calcis ohloridum- 
c. Chlorica, Calcis chloridum — c. Phosphorica, 
see Cornu cervi — c. Pura, Calx — c. Pura liquida, 
Liquor calcis. 

CALCARIiE CHLORUM, Calcis chloridum. 

CALCATAR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCATREPPOLA, Centaurea caleitrapa. 

CALCE'NA, CALCE'NON, CALCENO'NIA, 
CALCINO'NIA. Words employed by Paracel- 
sus to designate the concretions of tartrate of lime 
which form in the human body. 

CALCEXOS, Calcetus. 



CALCEOLARIA 



154 



CALCULI 



CALCEOLA'RIA, from calceolus, 'a small 
clipper ;' Slipperwort. 

Calceola'ria Primata is used in Peru as a 
laxative. 

Calceola'ria Trif'ida is esteemed to be febri- 
fuge. 

CALCE'TUS, Calceno'nhts, Calee'nos. That 
which abounds in tartrate of lime. An adjective 
used by Paracelsus in speaking of the blood; 
Sanguis calce'tus. Hence came the expression, 
Cal'cined blood, Snvg calcine. 

CALCEUM EQUINUM, Tussilago. 

CALCHOIDEA (OS), Cuneiform bone. 

CALCIA, Calcaneum. 

CALCIFEROUS CANALS, Canaliculi calci- 
£eri. 

CALCIFICATION, see Cretefaction. 

CALCIGEROUS CELL, see Tooth. 

CALCIG'RADUS, Pteniob'ates, from calx, 
the heel,' and gradus, 'a step.' One who walks 
on his heels. 

CALCII CHLORIDUM, Calcis murias — c. 
Chloruretum, Calcis murias — c. Oxycblcruretum, 
Calcis chloridum — c. Oxydum, Calx viva — c. 
Protochloruretum, Calcis chloridum — c. Sulphu- 
retum, Calcis sulphuretum. 

CALCINA'TION, Calcina'tio, Calci'non, Con- 
crema'tio, from calx, 'lime.' The act of submit- 
ting to a strong heat any infusible mineral sub- 
stance, which we are desirous of depriving either 
of its water, or of any other volatilizable sub- 
stance that enters into its composition ; or which 
we wish to combine with oxygen. Alum is cal- 
cined to get rid of its water of crystallization ; — 
chalk, to reduce it to the state of pure lime, by 
driving off the carbonic acid; and certain metals 
are subjected to this operation to oxidize them. 

CALCINATUM MAJUS POTERII, Hydrar- 
gyrum prteeipitatum. 

CALCINONIA. Calcena. 

CALCIS BICHLORURETUM, Calcis chlori- 
dum — c. Carbonas, Creta — c. Carbonas durus, 
Creta, Marmor — c. Carbonas friabilis, Creta. 

Caicis Car'bonas Pr^cipita'tus, Precip'- 
itated Car'bonate of Lime, Precipitated Chalk. 
This preparation, introduced into the last edition 
of the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, is pre- 
pared as follows: Liq. Calcii Ghlorid. Ovss; Soda 
C«/7y..»r/^lbvj; Aqum destillat. q. s. Dissolve the 
carbonate of soda in six parts of distilled water; 
heat this and the solution of chloride of calcium, 
separately, to the boiling point, and mix. Wash 
the precipitate repeatedly with distilled water, 
and dry on bibulous paper. It has the same pro- 
perties as creta praeparata, and is preferred to it 
in cert:iin cases, — for example, as an ingredient in 
tooth iiowders, owing to its freedom from gritty 
particles. 

Calcis Chlo'ridum, Chlo'ride or Chlo'ruret or 
Hypochlo' rite or Chlorite or Oxymu' riate of Lime, 
Calx chlorina'ta (Ph. U. S.) seu Oxymuriat'ica, 
Protoxichlor' itret of Calcium, Galea' ria chlora'ta 
seu Chlorica, Chlorum seu Chloretnm Calca'ricB, 
Oxychlorure'tum seu Protocldorure'tum Calcii, 
Ghlornre'tum Oxidi Calcii, Biehlorure'tum seu 
Oxymii'rias Calcis, Calcis Hypochlo' rls. Bleach- 
ing or Tennant's Powder, (F.) Protoxichlorure 
de Calcium, Chlorure d' Oxide de Calcium, 
Chlorure ou Oxichlorure ou Richlorure ou Oxi- 
tnuriate ou JIuriate suroxig^ni ou oxigenS de 
Chaux, Poudre de Blanchement, P. de Tennant. 
A compound resulting from the action of chlorine 
on hydrate of lime. Chloride of lime is a most 
valuable disinfecting agent, (see Disinfection,) 
when dissolved in the proportion of one pound to 
BIX gallons of water. It has likewise been em- 
ployed both internally and externally in various 
diseases, as in scrofula, foetor oris, foul ulcers, 
&Q. to. 



Calcis Hepar, Calcis sulphuretum — c. Hy- 
dras, see Calx — c. Hypochloris, Calcis chloridum. 

Calcis Mu'kias, J/i/»-i<j?^ of Lime, Calx eali'ta, 
Calcii Chlonire'tum seu Chlo'ridum, Chloride of 
calcium, (F.) Chlorure de calcium, Muriate ou 
Hydrochlorate de Chaux. This salt has been 
given, in solution, as a tonic, stimulant, <fee., in 
scrofulous tumours, glandular obstructions, gene- 
ral debility, &c. A Solu'tio Muria'tis Calcis, 
Liquor Calcis Muria'tis, Solution of Muriate of 
Lime, Liquid Shell, may be formed of Muriate 
of Lime, ^'y, dissolved in distilled jcor/er, f^iij. 
The Liquor Cal'cu Chlo'ridi or Solution of Chlo- 
ride of Calcium, of the Pharmacopoeia of the 
United States, is prepared as follows : — Marble, 
in fragments, ,^ix, Muriatic acid, Oj ; Distilled 
water, a sufficient quantity. Mix the acid with 
a half pint of the water, and gradually add th<; 
marble. Towards the close of the effervescence 
apply a gentle heat, and, when the action has 
ceased, pour off the clear liquor and evaporate to 
dryness. Dissolve the residuum in its weight and 
a half of distilled water, and filter. Dose, from 
gtt. XXX to f 3J, in a cupful of water. 

Calcis Oxyjiuuias, Calcis chloridum — c. 
Phosphas, see Cornu cervi — c. Phosphas praeci- 
pitatum, see Cornu ustum. 

Calcis Sulphure'ttjm, Cal'eii sulphure'tum, 
Hepar Calcis, Sul'phuret of Lime, S. of Cal'cium, 
Hydrosulphate of Lime, (F.) Proto-hydrosulfate 
de Calcium, Hydrosulfate de chaux. Principally 
used in solution, as a bath, in itch and other 
cutaneous affections. 

CALCITEA, Ferri sulphas, 

CALCITEOSA, Plumbi oxydum semivitreum. 

CALCITHOS, Cupri subacetas. 

CALCITRAPA, Centaurea Calcitrapa, Del- 
phinium consolida— c. Hippopha'-stum, Centau- 
rea calcitrapa — c. Stellata, Centaurea calcitrapa. 

CALCIUM, CHLORIDE OF, Calcis murias— 
c. Chlorure de, Calcis murias — c. Chlorure d'oxide 
de, Calcis chloridum — c. Protohydrosulfate de, 
Calcis sulphuretum — e. Protoxichlorure de, Cal- 
cis chloridum — c. Protoxichloruret of, Calcis 
chloridum — c. Protoxide of. Calx — c. Sulphuret 
of, Calcis sulphuretum. 

CALCO-SUBPHALANGEUS MINIMI DI- 
6ITI, Abductor minimi digiti pedis — c. Subpha- 
langeus pollicis, Abductor poUicis pedis. 

CALCOCOS, Bell-metal. 

CALCOIDEA, (ossicula.) Cuneiform bones. 

CALCOTAR, Ferri sulphas. 

CALCUL, Calculus. 

CALCULEUX, Calculous. 

CALCULI, see Calculus — c. Articular, se« 
Calculi, arthritic ; and Concretions, articular. 

Calculi, Alterxating, see Calculi, urinary. 

Calculi, Arthrit'ic, Tophi, Ttiber'cula ar. 
thrit'ica, Calculi arthrit'ici seu podag'rici, 
Chalk-stones, Gout-stones, Nodes, (F.) Pierres 
crayeuses, Galculs arthritiques, Noeitds. Concre- 
tions, which form in the ligaments, and within 
the capsules of the joints, in persons affected with 
gout. They are composed of uric acid, soda,- and 
a little animal matter: very rarel}-, urate of lime 
and chloride of sodium are met with. Similar 
calculi are found in other parts beside the joints. 

Cal'culi, Bil'iARY, Cal'culi bilio'si seufeU'ei 
seu bilia'r-ii, Bil'iary Goncre'tiuns, Gall-stones, 
Cholol'ithus, Cholel'ithns, (F.) Galculs biliaires, 
Pierres au fiel, Angichololithe, — Piorry. Some 
of these contain all the materials of the bile, and 
seem to be nothing more than that secretion 
thickened. Several contain Picromel ; and the 
greater part are composed of from 88 to 94 parts 
of Cholestcrin, and of from 6 to 12 of the yellow 
matter of the bile. Biliary calculi are most fre- 
quently found in the gall-bladd<?r : »t other time?. 



CALCULI 



155 



CALCULI 



Vu the substance of the liver, in the branches of i| 
the Ductus hepaticus, or in the Ductus Communis I 
CTioledofhus. The first are called CyMic; the ' 
fecond Hepatic ; and the last, sometimes, Hcpa- 
Socystic. The causes which give rise to them are 
very obscure. Often they occasion no uneasi- 
ness, and at other times the symptoms may be 
confounded with those of hepatitis. At times, 
They are rejected by the mouth, or by the bowels, 
along with a considerable quantity of bile, which 
had accumulated behind them ; at other times 
they occasion violent abdominal inflammation, 
abscesses, and biliary fistuliB, rupture of the gall- 
bladder, and fatal effusion into the peritoneum. 
The passage of a gall-stone is extremely painful ; 
yet the pulse is not at first affected. Antiphlo- 
gistics, when there is inflammatory action^ and 
strong doses of opium, to allay the pain and 
spasm, with the warm bath, are the chief reme- 
dies. Solvents are not to be depended upon. 
They cannot reach the calculi. 

Calcoli, Boxe Earth, see Calculi, urinary — 
c. Compound, see Calculi, urinary — c. Cystic, see 
Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi of the Ears, (E.) Calcuh de V Oreille. 
Hard, light, and inflammable concretions, which 
occur in the meatus audiioriua externus, and are 
merely indurated cerumen. They are a frequent 
cause of deafness. They can be easily seen, and 
may be extracted by appropriate forceps, after 
having been detached by injections of soap and 
water. 

Calculi Fellei, Calculi, biliary — c. Fusible, 
see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, Lach'rtmal, (F.) Calculs lacry- 
maux. Concretions sometimes, but rarely, form 
in the lachrymal passages, where they occasion 
abscesses and fistulas, which do not heal until 
they are extracted. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Calculi, Lithic, see Calculi, urinary. 
Cal'culi of the Mamm^, (F.) Calcuh des 
MameUes. Haller gives a case of a concretion, 
of a yellowish-white colour, which had the shape 
of one of the excretory ducts of the mammary 
gland, having been extracted from an abscess 
seated in that organ. 

Calculi, Mulberry, see Calculi, urinary. 
Cal'culi of the Pan'creas, (F.) Calculs du 
Pancreas. These are but little known. Ana- 
logy has induced a belief that they resemble 
the salivary. Some have supposed that certain 
transparent calculi, rejected by vomiting, or 
passed in the evacuations, have proceeded from 
the pancreas, but there seems to be no reason for 
this belief. 

Cal'culi of the Pine'al Gland, (F.) Calculs 
de la Glande Pineale. These have been fre- 
quently met with. No symptom announces their 
presence during life. They are composed of 
phosphate of lime. 

Calculi Podagric'i, Calculi, arthritic. 
Cal'culi of the Prostate, Prostat'ic cal'culi. 
These are not very rare. They have generally 
the same composition as the preceding. They 
usually present the symptoms common to every 
tumefaction of the prostate, and sometimes those 
of calculi in the bladder. 

Cal'culi Pul'monary, (F.) Calculs pulmo- 
natres. These concretions are very frequently 
met with in the dead body, without seeming to 
have produced unpleasant symptoms during life. 
At other times, they are accompanied with all 
the symptoms of phthisis, Litho-phthisis, Phthisie 
calculeuse, of Bayle. See Lithiasis pulmonum. 
At times they are expectorated without the 
supervention of any unpleasant symptom. They 



are usu.ally formed of carbonate of lime and ani- 
mal matter. 

Cal'culi, Sal'ivary, Cal'culi saliva'les, Sia- 
lol'ithi, (F.) Calculs ealivaires. Concretions, 
usually formed of phosphate of lime and animal 
matter, which are developed in the substance of 
the salivary glands or in their excretory ducts. 
In the first case, they may be mistaken for a 
simple swelling of the gland ; in the second, they 
may generally be detected by the touch. They 
may be extracted by incision in the interior of 
the mouth. The calculus developed in the sub- 
lingual ducts has been called Cal'culus auhlin- 
gua'lis and Ran'ula lapide'a. 

Cal'culi, Spermat'ic, (F.) Calcids sperma- 
tiques. These have been sometimes found in the 
vesiculas seminales after death. They cannot be 
detected during life. No analysis has been made 
of them. 

Cal'culi of the Stomach and Intes'tines, 
Enterol'ithus, E. Cal'culus, Coprol'ithus, Concre- 
tio'nes alvi'nm, (F.) Calculs de Vestomac, C. in- 
testinaux ou stercoraux, Pierres stercorales. Con- 
cretions intestinales. Calculi of the stomach are 
rare, and have almost always been carried thither 
by the antiperistaltic action of the intestines. The 
symptoms occasioned by them are those of chronic 
gastritis. It has been imagined that the con- 
tinued use of absorbent powders, as magnesia, 
will give occasion to them. 

Intestinal concretions, (F.) Calculs intestinanx, 
are not uncommon in animals (see Bezoard:) 
but they are rare in man. The causes which 
give rise to them are little known : sometimes a 
biliary calculus affords them a nucleus. Their 
composition varies. They are light, hard, very 
fetid, and not inflammable. They are formed, 
ordinarily, between the valvulae of the small in- 
testines, or in the cells of the large, and some- 
times in old hernise. Whilst they do not ob- 
struct the passage of the alimentary mass, they 
produce no unpleasant symptoms. At times, the 
movable tumour which they form may be felt 
through the parietes of the abdomen. They are 
generally evacuated per anum. 

Cal'culi of the Tonsils. Calculous concre- 
tions, which sometimes form in the tonsils. (F.) 
Calculs des Anujgdales. They are easily recog- 
nised by the sight and touch : sometimes they 
are discharged by spitting, either alone or with 
the pus of an abscess occasioned by their pre- 
sence. They have not been analyzed. 

Calculi, Triple, see Calculi, urinary — c. 
Uric, see Calculi, urinary. 

Cal'culi, U'kinary, Urol'ithi, (F.) Calculs 
urinaires, Pierres urinaires. Concretion) which 
form from the crystallizable substances in the 
urine, and which are met with not only in the 
whole course of the urinary passages, but in fis- 
tulous openings wherever the urine stagnates 
naturally or accidentally. Their causes are but 
little known. They are more common at the two 
extremities of life than at the middle, and more 
so in some countries and districts than in others. 
At times, a clot of blood, a portion of mucus, 
<feo., form the nucleus. The symptoms and treat- 
ment vary according to the seat of the calculus. 
There is no such thing probably as a medical 
solvent. See Urinary Calculi. 

Chymists have demonstrated the exist- 
ence of several components of urinary calculi, 
vii., Lithic Acid, Phosphate of Lime, Ammo- 
niaco-IIagnesian Phosphate, Oxalate of Lime, 
Cystic Oxide, and Xanthie Oxide, with an 
animal cementing ingredient. The varieties of 
calculi, produced by the combination or inter- 
mixture of these ingredients, are thus represented 
by Dr. Paris. 



CALCULIFRAGUS 



156 



CALCULS B I LI AIRES 



A TABULAR VIEW OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OP URINARY CALCULI. 



MBCIES OF CAL- 
CULI. 


EXTERNAL CHARACTERS. 


CHYMICAL COMPOSITION. 


REMARKS. 

It is the prevailing 
species ; but the surface 
sometimes occurs fine 
ly tuberculated. It fre- 
quently constitutes the 
nuclei of the other spe- 
cies. 


1. HTHic or 

t,RIC. 


Form, a flattened oval. S. G. 
Renerally exceeds 1,500. Colour, 
brownish or fawn-like. Surface, 
smooth. Texture, laminated. 


It consists principally of Litliic 
Acid. When treated with nitric 
acid, a beautiful pink substance 
results. This calculus is slightly 
soluble in water, abundantly so 
in the pure alkalies. 


2. MULBERRy, 

(F.) Calcids 
murattx. 


Colour, dark brown. Texture, 
harder than that of the other 
species. S. G from 1.428 to 1.970. 
Surface, studded with tubercles. 


It IS oxalate of lime, and is de- 
composed in the flame of a spirit 
lamp swelling out into a white 
efflorescence, which is guick- 
lime. 


This species includes 
some varieties, which 
are remarkably smooth 
and pale-coloured, re- 
sembling hempseed. 


3. BONE EARTH 


Colour, pale brown or gray ; 
surface, smooth and polished ; 
structure, regularly laminated ; 
the lamina; easily separating 
into concrete crusts. 


Principally phosphate of lime. 
It is soluble in muriatic acid. 




4. TRIPLE. 


Colour, generally brilliant 
white. Surface, uneven, studded 
with shining crystals, less com- 
pact than the preceding species. 
Between its lainins small cells 
occur, filled with sparkling par- 
ticles. 


It is an ammoviaco-magnesian 
phosphate, generally mixed with 
phosphate of lime. Pure alka- 
lies decompose it, extracting its 
ammonia. 


This species attains a 
larger size than any of 
the others. 


5. FDSIBLE. 


Colour, grayish white. 


A compound of the two fore- 
going species. 


It is very fusible, 
melting into a vitreous 

globule. 


6. CYSTIC. 


Very like the triple calculus, 
but it is unsiratified and more 
compact and homogenous. 


It consists of cystic oxide. Un- 
der the blowpipe it yields a pe- 
culiarly fetid odour. It is solu- 
ble in acids, and in alkalies, 
even if they are fully saturated 
with carbonic acid. 


It is a rare species. 


7. ALTERNA- 
TING. 


Its section exhibits different 
concentric laminse. 


Compounded of several spe- 
cies, alternating with each other. 




8. COMPOUND. 


No characteristic form. 


The ingredients are separable 
only by chymical analysis. 





1. Renal Calculi, (F.) Calculs rSnatix. These 
have almost always a very irregular shape : 
at times, there is no indication of their pre- 
sence: at others, they occasion attacks of pain 
in the kidneys, sometimes accompanied with 
bloody or turbid urine. Often, they cause in- 
flammation of the kidneys, with all its unplea- 
sant results. They are generally formed of uric 
acid, animal matter, and oxalate of lime, with, 
Bometimes, phosphates. The treatment will have 
to vary, according to the absence or presence of 
inflammatory signs, — relieving the irritation by 
opiates. A surgical operation can rarely be ap- 
plicable. 

2. Calculi of the Ureters, (F.) Calculs des 
Urith-es. These come from the kidneys, and do 
not produce unpleasant effects, unless they are 
80 large as to obstruct the course of the urine, 
and to occasion distension of the whole of the 
ureters above them ; or unless their surface is so 
rough as to irritate the mucous membrane, and 
occasion pain, hemorrhage, abscesses, <fcc. The 
pain, during the passage, is very violent, extend- 
ing, at times, to the testicle of the same side 
in the male; and occasioning a numbness of the 
thigh in both sexes. The treatment consists in 
general or local blood-letting, warm bath, and 
opiates. 

.S. Calculi, Vesical; Stone in the Bladder, 
Lith'ia Veeica'lis. Lithi'asis cys'tica seu vesica'lis, 
Cystn-lithi'asis, Dysu'ria calculo'sa seu irrita'ta, 
Cnl'culns vesi'ccB, (F.) Calculs vesicaux. These 
are the most common. Sometimes, they proceed 
from the kidneys: most commonly, they are 
formed in the bladder itself. Sense of weight in 
the perinaeum, and sometimes of a body rolling 
when the patient changes his position ; pain or 
itching at the extremity of the glans in men ; 
frequent desire to pass the urine ; sudden stop- 
page to its flow; and bloody urine — are the chief 



signs which induce a suspicion of their existence. 
We cannot, however, be certain of this without 
sounding the patient. Sometimes, when of a 
small size, they are expelled : most commonly, 
they remain in the bladder, the disorganization 
of which they occasion, unless removed by a sur- 
gical operation. 

4. Calculi, Ure'thral. These almost always pro- 
ceed from the bladder. The obstruction, which 
they cause to the passage of the urine, the hard 
tumour, and the noise occasioned when struck 
by a sound, indicate their presence. They are 
removed by incision. 

5. Calculi of Fis'tulous passages. These arise 
when there is some fistulous opening into the 
urethra. They can be readily recognised, and 
may generally be extracted with facility. (F.) 
Calculs placSs hors des votes urinaires. See Uri- 
nary Calculi. 

Cal'cuh of the TJ'terus, (F.) Calculs de 
I' Uterus. These are very rare. The signs, which 
indicate them during life, are those of chronic 
engorgement of the uterus. Their existence, con- 
sequently, cannot be proved till after death. 

CALCULIFRAGUS, Lithontriptic. 

CAL'CULOUS, (F.) Calculeux, Graveleux. 
That which relates to calculi, especially to thoBO 
of the bladder. 

Calculous Oxyd, Oxyd, cystic. 

CALCULS (F.), pi. of Calcnl, a calculus, 

CALCULS BILL AIRES, Calculi, biliary — 
c. de I'Estomac, Calculi of the stomach — c. de la 
Glande Piniale, Calculi of the pineal gland — c. 
Intestinaux, Calculi of the stomach and intestines 
— c. Lacrymaux, Calculi, lachrymal — c. des Mu- 
melles. Calculi of the mammre — e. Mdraux, see 
Calculi, urinary — c. de V Oreille, Caleuii in the 
ears — e. du Pancreas, Calculi of the Panere.it^ — 
c. Places hors des voies urinaires. Calculi of fis- 
tulous passages — c. Pulmonaires, Calculi, pulmo- 



CALCULUS 



CALLIBLEPHARUM 



nary — c. Rinaux, Calculi, renal — c. Salivaires, 
Calculi, salivary — c. Spermatiques, Calculi, sper- 
matic — c. Stei'coraux, see Calculi of the stomach 
and intestines — c. Urinairee, Calculi, urinary — e. 
dea Ureteres, Calculi of the ureters — c. de I' Ute- 
rus, Calculi of the uterus — c. Veaicaux, Calculi, 
vesical. 

CAL'CULUS, Lapis, Lithoa. A diminutive 
of calx, a lime-stone. (F.) Calcul, Pierre. 
Calculi are concretions, which may form in every 
part of the animal body, but are most frequently 
found in the organs that act as reservoirs, and in 
the excretory canals. They are met with in the 
tonsils, joints, biliary ducts, digestive passages, 
lachrymal ducts, mammae, pancreas, pineal gland, 
prostate, lungs, salivary, spermatic and urinary 
passages, and in the uterus. The causes which 
give rise to them are obscure. 

Those that occur in reservoirs or ducts are 
supposed to be owing to the deposition of the 
substances, which compose them, from the fluid 
as it passes along the duct; and those which 
occur in the substance of an organ are regarded 
as the product of some chronic irritation. Their 
general effect is to irritate, as extraneous bodies, 
the parts with which they are in contact ; and to 
produce retention of the fluid, whence they have 
been formed. The symptoms differ, according to 
the sensibility of the organ and the importance 
of the particular secretion whose discharge they 
impede. Their solution is generally impracti- 
cable : spontaneous expulsion or extraction is the 
only way of getting rid of them. 

Calculus Bezoar, Bczoard — c. Dentalis, 
Odontolithus — c. Encysted, Calcul chatonni — c. 
Sublingualis, see Calculi, salivary — c. Vesicae, 
Calculus, vesical. 

CALDAS, WATERS OF. Caldas is a small 
town, ten leagues from Lisbon, where are mineral 
springs, containing carbonic and hydrosulphuric 
acid gases, carbonates and muriates of lime and 
magnesia, sulphates of soda and lime, sulphuret 
of iron, silica, and alumina. They are much 
used in atonic gout. They are thermal. Tem- 
perature 93° Fahrenheit. 

CALDE'RIiE ITAL'IC^. Warm baths in 
the neighbourhood of Ferrara, in Italy, much 
employed in dysuria. 

GALEBASSES, Cucurbita lagenaria. 

CALEDO'NIA SPRINGS. These are in Penn- 
sylvania, fifteen miles from Chambersburg. The 
waters are pure; temperature 52° Fahr. 

Caledonia Springs, see Canada, mineral 
Waters of. 

CALEFA'CIENTS, Cale/acien'tia, Therman'- 
tica, from ealidus, 'warm,' and yaezo, 'I make.' 
(F.) Echauffants. Substances which excite a de- 
gree of warmth in the part to which they are 
applied, as mustard, pepper, &c. They belong 
to the class of stimulants. 

CALEFACTIO, Echauffement. 

CALENDULA ALPINA, Arnica montana. 

Calen'dula Arven'sis, Caltha Arven'ais seu 
officinalis, Wild Mar'igold, (F.) Souci des 
Cliampa. Order, Compositae. This is, some- 
times, preferred to the next. Its juice has been 
given, in the dose of from fgj to fgiv, in jaun- 
dice and cachexia. 

Calen'dula Officina'lis, C. Sati'va, Ohry- 
aan'themvm, Sponsa solis, Caltha vulga'ris / Ver- 
ruea'ria. Single or Garden Mar'igold, (Prov.) 
Golding, (F.) Souci, S. ordinaire, Fleur de tons 
lea rnoia. Family, Synanthereag, Syngenesia ne- 
cessaria, Linn. So called from flowering every 
oalend. The flowers and leaves have been exhi- 
bited as aperients, diaphoretics, &c., and have 
been highly extolled in cancer. 



CALENDULA MARTIALES, Ferrum am- 
moniatum. 

CALENTU'RA, Cal'enture, from calere, 'to be 
warm.' The word, in Spanish, signifies fever. A 
species of furious delirium to which sailors are 
subject in the torrid zone : — a kind of phrenitis, 
the attack of which comes on suddenly after a 
broiling day, and seems to be characterized by a 
desire in the patient to throw himself into the 
sea. It is only a variety of phrenitis. 

Calentura Continua, Synocha. 

CALENTU'RAS ; Polo de Calentu'ras. Pomet 
and Lemery say, that these words are sometimes 
applied to cinchona. Camelli says, they mean, 
also, a tree of the Philippine Isles, the wood of 
which is bitter and febrifuge. 

CALF KNEE, Entogonyancon — c. of the Leg, 
Sura. 

CALTCE, Calix. 

CALICES REN ALES, see Calix. 

CALICO BUSn, Kalmia latifolia. 

CALIDARIUM, see Stove. 

CALIDUM ANIMALE, Animal heat — c. In- 
natum, Animal heat. 

CALIFOR'NIA, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Several mineral springs exist in California, near 
40° N. Lat. and 40i° longitude west of Wash- 
ington, directly upon the California trail, leading 
from the sink of Humboldt river to Pyramid 
lake. Their temperature varies from cold to 
almost boiling. They ebb and flow at irregular 
intervals ; have not been analyzed ; but some 
have the taste of a strong solution of sulphate of 
magnesia. They have had the singular effect of 
inducing blennorrhoeal symptoms, both in man 
and animals. 

CALIGATIO, Dazzling. 

CALI'GO. 'A mist.' AcMijs, (F.) BroiiiUard. 
An obscurity of vision, dependent upon a speck 
on the cornea : also, the speck itself; Caligo cor'- 
nece seu d Nep)hel'io seu d Lenco'mate, Mac'ula 
cornea seu semipellu'cida, Phtharma caligo, He- 
betu'do visHs, Neh'ula, Opake cornea, W^b-eye, 
Weh, Pin-and-Weh, (F.) Nouage de la Cornee, 
Taie ou Taye, Obscurcissement de la vue, Akera- 
todiaphanie, — Piorry. 

Caligo Lentis, Cataract — c. Pupillse, Syne- 
zisis — c. Synizesis, Synezisis — c. Tenebrarum, 
Hemeralopia. 

CALIHACHA CANELLA, Laurus cassia. 

CALISAYA BARK, Cinchonas cordifolise cor- 
tex. 

CALISTHEN'ICS, Callisthen'ics, Caliatheni'a, 
Callistheni'a,(E.) CaUisthenie, from KaXog, 'beau- 
tiful, and tretvos, 'strength.' The art of promoting, 
by appropriate exercises, strength of body, and 
grace of movements. 

CALIX, Calyx, Lifundib' idum, from «aXuf, 'a 
cup,' 'a flower cup.' (F.) Calice, Entonnoir. 
Anatomists have given this name to small cup- 
like membranous canals, which surround the 
papillae of the kidney, and open into its pelvis, 
whither they convey the urine : — Cal'ices rena'les, 
Cylind'ri membrana'cei Renum, Fis'ttdce ure'te- 
rtim renum, Canales membra'nei Renum, Tii'btdi 
pelvis renum. Their number varies from 6 to 12 
in each kidney. 

Calix Vomitoria, Goblet, emetic. 

CALLA PALUS'TRIS, Water Arum ; indige- 
nous. Ord. Araceae : has similar virtues to those 
of the Arums. 

Calla Virginica, Peltandra Virginica. 

CALLEUX, Callous. 

CALLIBLEPH'ARUM, from -caAAoy, 'beaniy, 
and 0Xs(j>apov, 'eyelid.' A remedy for beautify, 
ing the eyelids. 



CALLICANTHUS 



158 



CALUMBA 



CALLICANTHUS, Calycanthus. 

CALLICAR'PA AMERICA'NA, French MuV- 
herry ; indigenous. Order, Verbenaceas. Used 
as a eutrophic in cutaneous diseases. Said to be 
useful in dropsy. 

CALLICOCCA IPECACUANHA, Ipecacu- 
anha. 

CALLICREAS, Pancreas. 

CALLIOMARCHUS, Tussilago. 

CALLIPJi'DIA, from icaXXo?, 'beauty,' and 
wais, -ration, 'a child.' The art of begetting beau- 
tiful children. This was the title of a poem by 
Claude Quillet, in 1655 ; "OalllptBclia sive de jyul- 
chrce pro/is habendas ratione." The author ab- 
surdly supposes, that the beauty of children is 
affected by the sensations which the mother ex- 
periences during her pregnancy. 

CALLIPERS OF BAUDELOCQUE, see Pel- 
vimeter. 

CALLIPESTRIA, Cosmetics. 

CALLIPHYLLUM, Asplenium trichoma- 
noides. 

CALLIP'YGOS, from KoXUi, 'beauty,' and 
iruyj?, * buttocks.' A cognomen of Venus, owing 
to her beautiful nates. 

CALLISTHENICS, Calisthenics. 

CALLITRICHE AQUATICA, C. Verna— c. 
Heterophylla, C Verna — c. Intermedia, C. 
Verua. 

Callit'riche Verna, (icaXof, 'beautiful,' and 
5p(|, Tpiy^oi, 'hair,' from its capillary and tufted 
stems,) O. aquat'ica seu inferme'dia seu hetero- 
phyl'la, Water chicJcireed, Wafer staricort : indi- 
genous ; Order, Callitrichaceae ; is diufetic, and 
used in dropsy, in the form of tincture or of de- 
coction. 

CAL'LITRIS ECKLO'NL A South African 
tree. Ord. Coniferae, from the branches and cones 
of which a gum exudes, that resembles Gum 
Sandarac. This is successfully used in the form 
of fumigations in gout, rheumatism, oedematous 
swellings, Ac. 

Callitris CuPRESsoiDES, a common shrub in 
the neighbourhood of Cape Town, exudes a simi- 
lar substance. 

CALLOSITAS, Induration — c. Palpebrarum, 
Scleriasis — e. Vesicae, Cystauxe. 

CALLOS'ITY, Calloa'itas, Scyrog, T,/le, Tylus, 
Ty/o'mri, Tylo'sis, Dennatosdero'sxs, Dermatoty- 
lo'mri, Dermotvtylo'sis, Dermntot'yhis, Porus, Ee- 
phy'mn C'lllns. Hardness, induration, and thick- 
ness of the skin, which assumes a horny consist- 
ence in places where it is exposed to constant 
pressure. (F.) Diirillon. Also the induration, 
which is observed in old wounds, old ulcers, fis- 
tulous passages, Ac. 

CALLOUS, Callo'siis, Ochtho'des, from callus, 
'hardness.' (F.) Cnlleiix. That which is hard 
or indurated. A Callous Ulcer is one whose edges 
are thick and indurated. 

CALLUNA ERICA, Erica vulgaris — c. Vul- 
garis, Erica vulgaris. 

CALLUS, Cuius, Galium, Osteot'ylus, (F.) Cal. 
The hi.ny matter, thrown out between the frac- 
tured extremities of a bone, which acts as a ce- 
ment, and as a new bony formation. The words 
are, likewise, used occasionally in the same sense 
as Ciillosity. 

Callus, Provisioitai,. When the shaft of a 
long bone has been broken through, and the ex- 
tremities have been brought in exact juxtaposi- 
tion, thi new matter, first ossified, is that which 
occupies the central portion of the deposit, and 
thus connects the medullary cavities of the broken 
ends, forming a kind of plug, which enters each. 
This was termed by M. Dupuytren the provi- 
sional Callus. 



CALMANTS, Sedatives. 

CALME, (F.) The interval that separate? tha 
paroxysms of an acute or chronic disease. When 
the type is intermittent, the word intermission \a 

USbd. 

CALOMBA, Calumba. 

CAL'OMEL, from icaXoy, 'good,' and ^tXay, 
'black.' A term, formerly applied to jEthiops 
mineral. By some, the mild chloride of mercury 
is said to have been so called by Sir Theodore 
Turquet de Mayerne, in consequence of its having 
been prepared by a favourite black servant, or, 
according to others, because it was a good remedy 
for hlnck bile. It is now applied to the mild 
chloride of mercury only. See Hydrargyri sub- 
murias. 

CALOMEL STOOLS. A term applied to the 
green, spinach-like, evacuations occasioned by 
the internal use of the mild chloride of mercury. 

CALOMEL'ANOS TURQUE'TI, Hydrargyri 
submurias. A name, also, given by Riverius to 
purgative pills, prepared with calomel, sulphur, 
and resin of jalap. — Dictionaries. 

CALOMELAS, Hydrargyri submurias. 

CALO'NIA, Ka\wvia. An epithet formerly 
given to myrrh. — Hippocrates. See Myrrha. 

CALOPHYLLUM INOPHYLLUM, see Fa- 
gara octandra. 

CALOR, Heat — c. Animalis, Animal heat — 
c. Nativus, Animal heat. 

CALORICITE, (F.) Caloric"ifas. The faculty 
possessed by living bodies of generating a suffi- 
cient quantity of caloric to enable them to resist 
atmospheric cold, and to preserve, at all times 
and in every part, a temperature nearly equal. 
See Animal Heat. 

CALORIFA'CIENT, Calorif'iant, Calorifa'- 
ciens, Culon'Ji'ans : from calor, 'heat,' and /ocere, 
'to make.' Having the power of producing heat. 
Relating to the power of producing heat. 

CALORIFICA'TION, Calor! fica'tio, from ca- 
lor, 'heat,' and /en, 'to be made.' The function 
of producing animal heat. 

CALOR INESES, from calor, 'heat.' The 
name under which M. Baumes proposes to ar- 
range all diseases characterized by a sensible 
change in the quantity of animal heat. The Ca- 
loriiieses form the first class of his Nosology. 

CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA, Mudar— c!! Mu- 
darii, Mudar. 

CALOTTE, (F.) Pile'olum. Anatomists some- 
times give the name. Calotte aponivrotiqne, to 
the aponeurosis of the occipito-frontalis muscle, 
which covers it externally ; and that of Calotte 
du crane to the scull-cap. 

Calotte is also applied to an adhesive plaster, 
with which the head of a person labouring under 
tinea capitis is sometimes covered, after the hair 
has been shaved off. This plaster is pulled sud- 
denly and violently off, in order to remove the 
bulbs of the hair. It means, also, a srrt of coflf 
made of boiled leather, worn by those who have 
undergone the operation of trepanning, &c. 

CALOTTE D' ASSURANCE, Condom. 

CALTHA ALPINA, Arnica montana— e. Ar- 
vensis. Calendula arvensis — c. Marsh, C. Palus- 
tris — c. Officinalis, Calendula arvensis. 

CaltHA Palus'tris, Marsh Mar'iijnld, Ma-rak 
Caltha, Cowslips. Order, Ranunculaceae : indi- 
genous. A syrup prepared from it is a popular 
cough remedy. 

Caltha Vulgaris, Calendula officinalis. 

CALTROPS, see Trapa natans. 

CALUM'BA, Colom'ho, Calom'ba, Colom'ba, 
(Ph. U. S.); Colnmbo, Radix ColumbcB, (F.) ?a- 
lumbe ou Columbe. The root of Miuisper'mum 



CALUS 



CAMPHENE 



palma'tum, Coc'cxdus palma'tus. Order, Meni- 
sperinaceae : indigenous in Mozambique. Its 
odour is slightly aromatic,- taste unpleasantly 
bitter. It is tonic and antiseptic. Dose, gr. 10 
to 3J i° powder. 

Calumba, American, Frase'ra Walteri seu 
Carol I ntn' sis seu Officina'lis seu verticil'lata, 
Swer'tia difform'is seu Frase'ra, American or 
Mariet'ta, Columho, Indian Lettuce, Yellow Gen- 
tian, Golden Seal, Meadow pride, Pyr'amid. The 
root Frase'ra (Ph. U. S.) is used in the same 
cases as the true Calumba. 
CALUS, Callus. 
CALVA, Cranium. 

Calta, Galva'ria. The cranium ; the upper 
part especially; the skull-cap ; — the Vault of the 
Cranium, Cam'era. 

CALVARIA, Cranium. 

CALVA'TA FERRAMEN'TA. Surgical in- 
struments, which have a head or button. 

CALVIT"IES, Calvifium, Phal'aera, Phala- 
cro'sis, Glabrif'ies, Ophi'asis, Depila'tio Cap'- 
itis, Phalacro'ma, Madaro' sis,Lipsotrich'ia, Bald- 
ness, (Old Eng.) Ballednesse, Cal'vity, Ac, from 
calvua, *bald,'(F.) Calvitie, Chauvete. Absence 
of hair, particularly at the top of, and behind, 
the head. 

Calvit"ies Palpebra'rum is loss of the eye- 
lashes. 

CALVUS, Athrix. 

CALX, Lime, Ca'rium Terrce, Protox'ide of 
Gai'cium, Galea' riapiira, (F.) Chaux. The lime, 
employed in pharmacy, should be recently pre- 
pared by calcination. When water is sprinkled 
over caustic lime, we have slaked lime, hydrate 
of lime, — the Galcis Hydras of the London phar- 
macopoeia. 

Calx, see Calcaneum — c. Bismuthi, Bismuth, 
subnitrate of — c. Chlorinata, Calcis chloridum — 
c. Cum kali puro, Potassa cum calce — c. Salita, 
Calcis murias — c. Oxymuriatic^, Calcis chlo- 
ridum. 

Calx e Testis; lime prepared from shells. 
It has probably no medicinal advantages over 
that prepared from marble. 

Calx Viva, G. recens seu usta. Calx et Calx 
viva, Ox'idum, Gal'cii, Fumans nix. Lime or 
Quicklime, (F.) Chaux vive. The external ope- 
ration of calx viva is escharotic, but it is rarely 
used. Lime is a good disinfecting agent. It is 
employed internally in the form of Liquor Calcis. 
CALYCANTH'US, C.Flor'idus, Galli can' thus, 
[ ? ] CaroWna Allspice, Sweet-scented shrub, Sweet 
shrub, from calyx, 'a flower-cup,' and avdo;, 'a 
flower.' An indigenous plant; Order, Calycan- 
thacece ; with purplish flowers, of strong, agree- 
able odour, which appear from March to June. 
The root is possessed of emetic properties. 

CALYPTRANTHES CARYOPHYLLATA, 
Myrtus caryophyllata. 

CALYSTEGIA SEPIUM, Convolvulus sepium 
— c. Soldanella, Convolvulus soldanella. 
CALYX, Calix. 
CAMARA, Calva. 

CAMAREZ, MINERAL WATERS OF. Ca- 
marSz is a small canton near Sylvanes, in the 
department of Aveyron, France, where there are 
acidulous chalybeates. 

CAMARO'SIS, Camaro'ma, from Kapiapa, 'a 
vault,' Camera' tio, Testndina'tio Cra'nii. A spe- 
cies of fracture of the skull — cam' crated frac- 
ture — in which the fragments are placed so as to 
form a vault, with its base resting on the dura 
mater. — Galen, Paulus of ^gina. 

CAMBIE-LEAF, NymphEea alba et lutea. 
CAMBING. A tree of the Molucca Islands, 
from the bark of which a kind of gum-resin ex- 



udes, which has been highly extolled in dysen- 
tery. It appears to have some resemblance to 
the simarouba — Rumphius. 

CAMBIUM, 'Exchange.' A name formerly 
given to a fancied nutritive juice, which wa? 
supposed to originate in the blood, to repair the 
losses of every organ, and produce their increase. 
— Sennertus. 

CAMBO, MINERAL WATERS OF. A vil- 
lage in the department of Basses Pyrenees, 
France, where there are two mineral springs; 
the one an acidulous chalybeate, the other sul- 
phureous. Temperature, 62° to 69° Fahrenheit. 

CAMBODIA, Cambogia. 

CAMBO'GIA, from Cambodia, in the East In- 
dies, where it is obtained. Hence, likewise, its 
names Gambo'dia, Gambo'gium, Gambo'gia, Gam- 
bo'gium,Ganihu'gium,Gamboi'dia. It is called, also, 
Gutta, Gutta gamba seu Gamandra,Gummi Gutta, 
Catagau'na, Cattagau'ma, Chry'sopus, Laxati'vua 
Lid'icus, Gummi Bo'gia seu gaman'drm seu de Goa 
seu de Jemu seu ad Pod'agram, Chitta jevioco, 
Gamboge or Gamboge, (F.) Gomme Gvtte. Ord. 
Guttiferae. A yellow juice obtained from Hebra- 
dendron Cambogio'i'des, and other plants of the 
natural family Guttiferae, but it is not known 
from which of them the oflicinal camboge is ob- 
tained. It is inodorous, of an orange yellow 
colour ; opake and brittle ; fracture, glassy ; is a 
drastic cathartic, emetic and anthelmintic; and 
is used in visceral obstructions and dropsy, and 
wherever powerful hydragogue cathartics are re- 
quired. Dose from gr. ij to vi, in powder, united 
with calomel, squill, <&c. 

Cambogia Gdtta, Garcinia cambogia. 

CAMBU'CA, Cambuc'ca membra'ta. Buboeg 
and venereal ulcers, seated in the groin or neai 
the genital organs. — Paracelsus. See Bubo. 

GA3IELEE, Cneorum tricoccum. 

CAMERA, Chamber, Fornix, Vault— c. Cordit^ 
Pericardium — c. Oculi, Chamber of the eye. 

CAMERATIO, Camarosis. 

CAMFOROSMA, Camphorosma. 

CAMINGA, Canella alba. 

CAMISIA FCEtOs, Chorion. 

CAMISOLE, Waistcoat, strait. 

CAMMARUS, Crab. 

CAMOMILLE FETIBE, Anthemis cotula— 
c. Puante, Anthemis cotula — c. Rumaine, Anthe- 
mis nobilis — c. des Teinturiers, Anthomis tincto- 
ria — c. Vulgnire, Matricaria chamomilla. 

CAMOSIERS, WATERS OF. Camorfers is 
a canton, two leagues from Marseilles, where are 
two springs containing carbonate of lime, sul- 
phur, chloride of sodium, <fee. They are purga- 
tive, and used in skin complaints. 

CAMOTES, Convolvulus batatas. 

CAMPAGNE, MINERAL WATERS OP. 
Campagne is in the department. of Aude, France. 
The waters contain sulphate and chlorohydrate 
of magnesia. Temperature, 80° Fahrenheit. 

CAMPAN'ULA. Diminutive of campana, a 
bell. ^ 

Campanula Trache'licm, Canterbury Bell or 
Throatwort, was formerly used, in decoction, in 
relaxation of the fauces. It is, also, called Cer- 
vica'ria. 

CAMPE, Flexion. 

CAMPHENE. The radical of camphor, which, 
according to Dumas, consists of camphene and 
one equivalent of ixygen. Camphei*^ or cam- 
phine is represented by pure oil of turpentine, 
That which is used for burning in lamps, and is 
occasionally employed therapeutically, is oil of 
turpentine purified by distillation from a solution 
of caustic potassa. 



CAMPHITIE 



CANAL DE PETIT 



CAMPHIRE, Camphor. 

CAMPHOR, from Arab. Ca'j>)nir or Kam'- 
jjhni; Cam'i>hor(i, Caphura, Cajfa, Caf, Cafur, 
Vaphorn, Alta/or, Camphire, (F.) Camphre. 
A concrete substance, prepared, by distillation, 
from Laurua Oam'pliora, Per'sea Cam'fora, Cam- 
phora ojjicinurum, an indigenous tree of the East 
Indies. Order, Laurineaj. Its odour is strong 
and fragrant : it is volatile, not easily pulveriza- 
ble; texture crystalline. Soluble in alcohol, 
ether, oils, vinegar, and slightly so in water. Its 
properties are narcotic, diaphoretic, and sedative. 
L>ose, gr. v to ^j. Dissolved in oil or alcohol, it 
is applied externally in rheumatic pains, bruises, 
tprains, &,c. 

Camphor Water, Mistura Camphorae. 
CAMPHORA'CEOUS, Camphora'ceus. Rela- 
ting to or containing camphor; — as a ' camphor- 
uceous smell or remedy.' 

CAMPHORATA HIRSUTA, and C. MON- 
SPELIENSIUM, Camphorosma Monspeliaca. 

CAMPH'ORATED, Camphora' tus, (F.) Cam- 
phri. Relating to camphor; containing cam- 
])hor ; as a camphorated smell, a camphorated 
draught. 

CAMPHOROS'MA MONSPELIACA, C. Pe- 
ren'nis, from Camphor, and oaiir!, 'odour.' Sela'go, 
Camphora' ta hirsu'ta seu Monspelien' sium, Hairy 
Camphoros'ma, (F.) Camphree de Montpellier. 
Order, Chenopodiaceas. Sex. Syst. Tetrandria 
Monogynia. "This plant, as its name imports, has 
an odour of camphor. It is regarded as diuretic, 
diaphoretic, cephalic, antispasmodic, &c. It is 
also called ChamcBpea' ce and Stinking Ground 
Pine. 
Camphorosma Peremxis, C. Monspeliaca. 
CAMPHRE, Camphor. 
CAMPHRE, Camphorated, 
CAMPHREE DE MONTPELLIER, Cam- 
(iborosma Monspeliaca. 

CAMPION, ROSE, Lychnis githago. 
CAMPOMANE'SIA LINEATIFO'LIA. A 
tree, twenty to thirty feet high, which grows in 
Peru, and whose fruit — palillo — of a bright yel- 
low colour, and as large as a moderate-sized apple, 
has an exceedingly agreeable scent, and is one 
of the ingredients in making the perfumed water 
called mistura. — Tschudi. 

CAMPS IS, Flex'io, Curva'tio, Lifex'io. Bone 
or cartilage, forcibly bent from its proper shape, 
without breaking. — Good. 

Campsis Depressio, Depression. 
CAMPYLOR'RHACHIS; from /cafiTruXof, 
' crooked,' and pa^ig, ' spine.' A monster whose 
Epine is crooked. — (iurlt. 

CAMPYLORRHI'NUS; from (fa/nr«Xo5, 
'crooked,' and piv, 'nose.' A monster whose 
nose is crooked. — Gurlt. 
CAMPYLOTIS, Cataclasis. 
CAMPYLUM, Cataclasis. 

CAMUS, (F.) Sim„8, Reai'mm, Simo, Silo, Si- 
his. One who has a short, stumpy nose. The 
French speak of Nez camns, 'short nose.' 

CANADA BURNET, Sanguisorba cana- 
densis. 

CAN'ADA, MINERAL WATERS OF. St. 
Catherine's, at the head of Lake Ontario, at the 
entrance of the AVellaud Canal, 12 miles from 
Niagara Falls, and on the Great Western Rail- 
road, has a mineral spring, much frequented, 
which Dr. Chilton, of New York, analyzed and 
found to contain chlorides of calcium, magnesium, 
sodium, and iron, sulphate of lime, carbonates of 
lime and magnesia, bromide and iodide of mag- 
nesium, silica and alumina. 

Tuscarora Acid Spring is in the township of 



Tuscarora, about 20 miles north of Pass Dover. 
It contains a large amount of free sulphuric acid ; 
beside sulphates of the alkalies, lime, magnesia, 
alumina and iron. 

Charlotteville Sulphur Spring is a few miles 
from Dover, on Lake Erie. It contains an un- 
usual quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen. 

The Caledonia Springs — a well known water- 
ing place — are a few miles south of the Ottawa 
river, and 40 miles from Montreal. There are 
various sources ; one — the Gas Spring — discharg- 
ing carburetted hydrogen ; a Saline and a Sul- 
phur Spring; besides an Intermitting Spring, 
which discharges large quantities of carburetted 
hydrogen ; and in which iodine and bromine have 
been detected. 

CANAL, Cana'lis, Ductus, Mea'tus, Poros, 
Och'etos, [F.) Conduit. A channel for affording 
passage to liquids, or solids, or to certain organs. 

Canal, Alimen'tary, C. Diges'tive, Cana'lis 
seu Ductus ciba'rius seu digesfi'vus seu alimen- 
ta'rius. Tubus alimenta'rius seu inteslino'rum, 
Diges'tive Tube, Aliment'ary Duct or Tube. The 
canal extending from the mouth to the anus. 

Canal, Atiach'noid, Cana'lis Bichat'ii, Cannl 
of Bichat. A canal, formed by the extension of 
the arachnoid over the transverse and longituli- 
nal fissures of the brain, which surrounds the vena 
magna Galeni. The orifice of the canal has 
been termed the Foramen of Bichat. 

CANAL ARTERIEL, Art-erial duct— c. de 
Bartholin, Ductus Bartholinus — c. of Bichat, 
Canal, arachnoid — e. Bullular, of Petit, Godronni 
canal — c. Oarotidien, Carotid canal — c. Chole- 
doque, Choledoch duct — c. Ciliary, Ciliary canal 
— c. of Cotunnius, Aquteductus vestibuli — c. De- 
ferent, Deferens vas — c. of Fontana, Ciliary canal 
— c. Goudronn€, Godronni canal — c. Hepatique, 
Hepatic duct. 

Canal op Huguier. A small canal at the 
inner side of the fissure of Glaser, through which 
the chorda tympani nerve leaves the cavity of 
the tympanum. 

Canal, Hy'aloiT). A cylindrical passage, de- 
scribed by M. J. Cloquet as formed by the reflec- 
tion of the hyaloid membrane into the interior 
of the vitreous body around the nutritious artery 
of the lens. M. Cruveilhier has never been able 
to see it. 

Canal, Inci'sive, see Palatine canals — e. Infra- 
orbitar, Suborbitar canal — c. Infexe de I'os tem- 
poral, Carotid canal — c. Intermediare dee ventri- 
cules, Aquse ductus Sylvii. 

Canal, Intes'tinal, Cana'lis seu Ductus intes- 
tina'lis. The portion of the digestive canal formed 
by the intestines. 

Canal of Jacobson, Canal, tympanic. 

Canal, Med'ullary. The cylindrical cavity 
in the body or shaft of a long bone, which con- 
tains the marrow. 

Canal, Nasal, Lachrymal canal. 

Canal of Ncck. A cylindrical sheath formed 
around the round ligaments of the uterus by a 
prolongation of the peritoneum into the inguinal 
canal. 

CANAL DE PETIT, Godronni canal— e. 
Pulmo-aortique, Arterial duct — e. Rachidian, 
Vertebral canal. 

Canal of Schlemm. A minute circular canal, 
discovered by Professor Schlemm, of Berlin. It 
is situate at the point of union of the cornea and 
sclerotica. 

Canal, Spinal, Vertebral canal — c. Spiroida 
de I'os temporal, Aquaeductus Fallopii — c. de Ste- 
non. Ductus salivniis superior — c. Thoracique, 
Thoracic duct — c. Veineux, Canal, venous — », 
Vulvo-uterine, Vagina — c. de Warthon, Ductus 
salivalis inferior. 



CANALES AERIFERI 



161 



CANCER 



Canal, Tvm'panic, Oana'lis ti/mjyan'icns, Canal 
»f Ju' cobson. A canal which opens on the lower 
Burfaee of the petrous portion of the temporal 
bone, between the carotid canal and the groove 
for the internal jugular vein. It contains Jacob- 
son's nerve. 

Canal, Vector, Tube, Fallopian. 
Canal, Venous, Cana'lia seu Ductus veno'sus 
8eu B. V. Aran'tii, (F.) Canal veineux. A canal 
which exists only in the foetus. It extends from 
the bifurcation of the umbilical vein to the vena 
cava inferior, into which it opens below the dia- 
phragm. At times, it ends in one of the infra- 
hepatic veins. It pours into the cava a part of 
the blood, which passes from the placenta by the 
umbilical vein. After birth, it becomes a fibro- 
cellular cord. 
Canal op Wirsung, see Pancreas. 
CANALES AERIFERI, see Bronchia. 
CANA'LES BRESCHET'I. Canals in the 
diploe for the passage of veins ; so called after 
M. Breschet. 

Canales Circulares, Semicircular canals — c. 
Cochleae, ScaljB of the cochlea — c. Lacrymales, 
Lachrymal ducts — e.Membranei renum, see Calls 
— c. Tubfeformes, Semicircular canals. 
CANALICULATED, Grooved. 
CANALICULATUS, CanneU, Grooved. 
CANALICULE, Grooved. 
CANALIOULES GALCIFERES, Canaliculi 
calciferi. 

CANALICULI, plural of Canaliculus— c. Bili- 
feri, Pori biliarii — c. of Bone, see Lacunae of 
Bone. 

CANALICULI CALCIF'ERI, Oalciferous 
canals, (F.) Canaliculea Galciferes. Minute ca- 
naliculi, observed with the microscope, in the 
cartOages of bones, which are full of calcareous 
salts. 

CANALICULI HAVERSIANI, Canals, nu- 
tritive — c. Lacrymales, Lachrymal ducts — c. 
Limacum, Lachrymal ducts — c. Semicirculares, 
Semicircular canals — c. Seminales, see Testicle 
— c. Seminiferi, see Testicle — c. Vasculosi, Canals, 
nutritive. 

CANALICULUS, diminutive of eanalts, 'a 
channel.' A small channel. See Canaliculi. 

CANALIS, Meatus — c. Alimentarius, Canal, 
alimentary — c. Arteriosus, Arterial duct — c. 
Bichatii, Canal, arachnoid — c. Canaliculatus, Gor- 
get — c. Caroticus, Carotid canal — c. Cervicis, see 
Uterus — c. Deferens, Deferens vas — c. Eminen- 
tiae quadrigeminse, Aquseductus Sylvii — c. Fallo- 
pii, Aquaeductus Fallopii — c. Intestinorum, Intes- 
tinal tube — c. Lacrymalis, Lachrymal or nasal 
duct — c.Medius, Aquasductus Sylvii — c. MeduUae 
Spinalis, see Vertebral column — c. Nervous fistu- 
losus renum, Ureter — c. Orbitse nasalis. Lachry- 
mal or nasal duct — c. Scalarum communis, In- 
fundibulum of the cochlea — c. Semicircularis ho- 
rizontalis, see Semicircular Canals — c. Semicir- 
cularis verticalis posterior, see Semicircular Ca- 
nals — c. Semicircularis verticalis superior, see 
Semicircular canals — c. Tympanicns, Canal, tym- 
panic — c. Urinarius, Urethra — c. Vidianus, Pte- 
rygoid canal. 

CANALS OF HAVERS, Canals, nutritive — 
c. Haversian, Canals, nutritive. 

Canals, Nutritive, Canals for the nutrition 
e/ bones, Ductus nutrit"ii, Ganalic'uli vascnlo'si 
sea Haversia'ni, Haver'sian Canals, Canals of 
Havers, (F.) Cananx nourriciers ou du Nutrition 
dea OS, Conduits nourriciers ou nutriciers. The 
canals through which the vessels pass to the 
bones. They are lined by a very fine lamina of 
11 



compact texture, or are formed in the textura 
itself. There is, generally, one large nutritious 
canal in along bone, situate towards its middle. 

CANAPACIA, Artemisia vulgaris. 

CANARIES, CLIMATE OF. The climate 
of the Canaries greatly resembles that of Ma- 
deira. That of the latter, however, is more 
equable, and the accommodation for invalids 
much superior. 

CANARIUM COMMUNE, see Amyris elemU 
fera. 

CANARY-SEED, Phalaris Canariensis. 

CANAUX AQUEUX, see Aqueous— c. Demi- 
circidaires, Semicircular canals — c. Ejaculateurs, 
Ejaculatory ducts — c. Nourriciers, Canals, nutri- 
tive — c. de Nutrition des os. Canals, nutritive. 

CANAUX DE TRANS31ISSI0N. Accord- 
ing to Bichat, the bony canals intended to give 
passage to vessels and nerves going to parts more 
or less distant — as the Cana'lis Carot'iciis, &c. 

CANAUX VEINEUX, Venous Canals. The 
canals situate in the diploe, which convey venous 
blood. 

CAN'CAMUM. A mixture of several gums 
and resins, exported from Africa, where it is used 
to deterge wounds. Dioscorides calls, by the 
name KayKafiov, the tears from an Arabian tree, 
which are similar to myrrh, and of a disagree- 
able taste. He advises it in numerous diseases. 
This name is given, also, to the Anime. 

CANCAMY, Anime. 

CAN'CELLATED, Cancella'tns,{Y.) CancelU ; 
from Canoelli, 'lattice-work.' Formed of can- 
celli, as the 'cancellated structure of bone.' 

CANCEL'LI, 'Lattice-work.' The Cellular 
OT SjionijT/ Texture of Bones, (F.) Tissu cellulenx : 
consisting of numerous cells, communicating with 
each other. They contain a fatty matter, analo- 
gous to marrow. This texture is met with, prin- 
cipally, at the extremities of long bones ; and 
some of the short bones consist almost wholly of 
it. It allows of the expansion of the extremities 
of bones, without adding to their weight, and 
deadens concussions. 

CANCEL'LUS, from cancer, 'a crab.' A spe- 
cies of crayfish, called the Wrong Heir, and Ber- 
nard the Hermit: which is said to cure rheuma- 
tism, if rubbed on the part. 

CANCER, 'a crab.' Car'cinos, Lu2ws cancro'- 
sus. A disease, so called either on account of the 
hideous appearance which the ulcerated cancer 
presents, or on account of the great veins which 
surround it, and which the ancients compared to 
the claws of the crab : called also Carcino'ma. 
It consists of a scirrhous, livid tumour, inter- 
sected by firm, whitish, divergent bands; and 
occurs chiefly in the secernent glands. The 
pains are acute and lancinating, and often extend 
to other parts. The tumour, ultimately, termi- 
nates in a fetid and ichorous ulcer, — Ulvuf- 
cancro'aum. It is distinguished, according to it» 
stages, into occult, Cancer occul'tus, and open, C. 
aper'tus; the former being the scirrhous, the 
latter the ulcerated condition. At times, there is 
a simple destruction or erosion of the organ, at 
others, an encephaloid or cerebriform, and, at 
others, again, a colloid degeneration. 

For its production, it requires a peculiar dia- 
thesis, or cachexia. The following table, from 
Dr. Walshe, exhibits the characters of the three 
species of carcinoma : 

The use of irritants in cancerous afl^ections is 
strongly to be deprecated. When the disease is 
so situate that excision can be practised, and 
the constitution does not exhibit great contanii- 
nation, the sooner it is removed the better. 



CANCER ALV£OLAIEE 162 



CANCER DE GALIEN 



Encephaloid. 



cerebral 
ear- 



Resembles lobulated 
matter. 

Is commonly opake from 
Uest fiirniation. 

Is of a dead white colour. 



Contains a multitude of minute 
vessels. 

la less hard and dense than scir- 
rhus. 

Is frequently found in the veins 
issuing from the diseased mass. 

The" predominant microscopical 
elements are globular, not always 
distinctly cellular, and caudate cor- 
puscula. 

Occasionally attains an enoiv 
mous bulk. 

Has been observed in almost 
every tissue of the body. 

Very commonly co-exists in se- 
veral parts or organs of the same 
subject. 

Is remarkable for its occasional 
vast rapidity of growth. 

Is frequently the seat of intersti- 
tial hemorrhage and deposition of 
black or bistre-coloured matter. 

When softened into a pulp, ap- 
pears as a dead white or pink opake 
matter of creamy consistence. 

Subcutaneous tumours are slow 
to contract adhesion with the skin. 

Ulcerated encephaloid is fre- 
quently the seat of hemorrhage, 
followed by rapid fungous develop- 
ment. 



The progress of the disease after 
ulceration is commonly very rapid. 

It is the most common form un- 
der which secondary cancer exhi- 
bits itself 

Is the species of cancer most fre- 
I quently observed in young subjects. 



Scirrhua. 

Resembles rind of bacon tra- 
versed by celliilo-fibrons sepia. 

Has a semi-transparent glossi- 
ness. 

Has a clear whitish or bluish 
yellow tint. 

Is comparatively ill-supplied with 
vessels. 

Is exceedingly firm and dense. 



Has not been distinctly detected 
in this situation. 

The main microscopical consti- 
tuents are juxtaposed nuclear cells ; 
caudate corpuscula do not exist 
in it. 

Rarely acquires larger dimen- 
sions than an orange. 

Its seat, as ascertained by obser- 
vation, is somewhat more limited. 

Is not unusually solitary. 



Ordinarily grows slowly. 

Is comparatively rarely the seat 
of these changes. 

Resembles, when softened, a yel- 
lowish brown semitransparent ge- 
latinous matter. 

Scirrhus thus situate usually be- 
comes adherent. 

Scirrhous ulcers much less fre- 
quently give rise to hemorrhage ; 
and funeous growths (provided 
they retain the scirrhous charac- 
ter) are now more slowly and less 
abundantly developed. 

There is not such a remarkable 
change in the rate of progress of the 
disease after ulceration has set in. 



Is much less common before pu- 
berty. 



Colloid. 

Has the appearance of particles of 
jelly inlaid in a regular alveolar bed. 

The contained matter is strik- 
ingly transparent. 

Greenish yellow is its predomi- 
nant hue. 

Its vessels have not been suffi- 
ciently examined as yet. 

The jelly-like matter is exceed- 
ingly soft ; a colloid mass is, how- 
ever, firm and resisting. 

The pultaceous variety has been 
detected in the veins. 

Is composed of shells in a state 
of emboitement. 



Observes a mean in this respect. 

Has so far been seen in a limited 
number of parts only. 

Has rarely been met with in more 
than one organ. 

Grows with a medium degree of 
rapidity. 



Has so far been observed in adulte 
only. 



CANCER ALVEOLAIRE, Colloid — c. Al- 
veolaris, Colloid — c. Apertus, see Cancer. 

Cancer Aquat'icds, Gan'grenous stomati'tis, 
Cancrum Oris, Gangranop'sia, Canker 'of the 
mouth, Gan'grenous sore mouth, Gan'grenous ero'- 
eion of the cheek. Sloughing Phageda'na of the 
mouth, Water Cani-er:. called, also, Ajihtha ser- 
pen'tes, Gangrm'na Oris, Noma, Nome, Nomus, 
Pseudocarcino'ma la'bii, Stnmae'ace gangrcBno'sa, 
Cheiloc'ace, Uloc'ace, Uli'tis sep'ttca, Cheiloma- 
la'cia, Scarbu'tas Oris, Stomatomala'cia pu'tridn, 
Stomatosep'sia, Stoniatonecro'ais, Carbun'culus 
lahio'rum et gena'rum, (F.) Cancer aquatique, 
Stomatite gangrineuse, S. Charbonneuse, Gangrene 
ou Sphacele de la Bouehe, Fegarite, Aphthe gnn- 
grSneux. Certain sloughing or gangrenous ulcers 
of the mouth — so called, perhaps, because they 
are often accompanied with an afflux of saliva. 
The disease is not uncommon in children's asy- 
lums, and demands the same treatment as hospi- 
tal gangrene — the employment of caustics, and 
internal and external antiseptics. 

CANCER AQUATIQUE, Cancer aquaticus, 
Stomacace — e. Areolaire, Colloid — c. Astacus, see 
Canerorum chelae — c. Black, Cancer melanotic — 
c. of tho Breast, Mastocarcinoma — c. Camina- 
rierum, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Cellular, 
Encephaloid— c. Cerebriforme, see Encephaloid. 

Caxcer, Chimney-sweepers', Sootwart, Can- 
cer mundito'rum seu purgato'ris infumic'uli seu 
eaminario' rum, Cancer seu carcino'ma scroti, Os- 
cheocarcino'ma, Oschocarcino'ma, (F.) Cancer 
des Bamoneurs. This affection begins with a 
«!uperficial, painful, irregular ulcer, with hard and 
elevated edges, occupying the lower part of the 



scrotum. Extirpation of the diseased part is the 
only means of effecting a cure. 

CANCER COLLO'tDE, Colloid. 

Cancer, Davidson's Remedy for, see Conir.m 
maculatum. 

CANCER DUR, Scirrhus. 

CANCER EBURNE. A kind of waxy dege- 
neration of the breast, so called by M. Alibert, but 
which ap.pearii to be in no way allied to cancer. 

CANCER ENCEPHALOJOE, Scirrhus — c. 
Epithelial, see Epithelial — e. Fibreux, Scirrhus — 
c. Fibrous, Scirrhous — c. rf» Foie, H>^patosarcomie. 

C.\NCER GaLe'ni, (F.) Cancer de Galien. A 
bandage for the head, to which Galen gave the 
name cancer, from its eight heads resembling, 
rudely, the claws of the crab. It is now sup- 
plied by the bandage with six chefs or heads, 
which is called the Bc.ndage of Galen or B. of 
the Poor. 

CANCER DE GALIEN, Cancer Galeni — c. 
Gelatiniform, Colloid — c. Gelatinous, Colloid — c. 
Gommeux, Colloid — c. Hard, Scirrhus — c. Intes- 
tinorum, Enteropathia eancerosa — c. dea Intestine, 
Enteropathia eancerosa — c. of the Lung, Phthisis, 
cancerous — c. Lupus, Lupus — c. Mastoid, see 
Mastoid cancer — c. Medullaris, Encephaloid— c. 
Melseneus, Cancer, melanotic — c. Jlelane, Cancer, 
melanotic — c. Melunodes, Cancer, melanotic. 

Cancer, Melanot'ic, Cancer melano'dca. Car. 
cino'ma melaiio'des seu melanot' icum seu melcB'- 
neus. Fungus mclano'dea, Mel'ano-carcino'ma, 
Black or ^Id'anoid Cancer, (F.) Cancer Milan* 
A combination of cancer and melanosis. 

Cancer, Miltlike, see Miltlike. 



CANCEREUX 



163 



CANITIES 



Cancer Mollis, see Encephaloid — c. 3Iou, 
Encephaloid — c. Munditorum, Cancer, chimney- 
sweepers' — c. Nephroid, see Nephroid — c. Occul- 
tus, see Cancer — c. Oculi, Scirrhophthalinus — c. 
Oris, Stomacace — c. Ossis, Spina ventosa — c. 
Pharyngis et oesophagi, Lasmoscirrhus — c. Pul- 
tace, Colloid — c. Purgatoris infumiculi, Cancer, 
chimney-sweepers' — c. des Bamoiieiu-n, Cancer, 
chimney-sweepers' — c. Scirrhosus, Scirrhus — c. 
Scroti, Cancer, chimney-sweepers' — c. Soft, Heb- 
matodes fungus — c. Solanoid, see Solanoid — c. 
Sqidrrheux, Scirrhus — c. of the Stomach, Gas- 
trostenosis cardiaca et pylorica — c. Uteri, Metro- 
carcinoma. 

CANC£REUX, Cancerous. 

CANCER ROOT, Orobanche Virginiana, Phy- 
tolacca decandra — c. Weed, Goodyera pubescens, 
Salvia lyrata. 

CANCEROMA, Carcinoma. 

CAN'CEROUS, Cancro'sus, Carcino'sus, (F.) 
Cancereiix. Relating to cancer; as Cancerous 
ulcer, Cancerous diathesis. 

CANCHALAGUA, Chironia Chilensis. 

CANCRENA, Gangrene. 

CANCRODES, Cancroid. 

CAN'CROID, Kankroid, Cancro'des, Cancroi'- 
des, Oarcino'des, Carcinoides, Caiicro'ideus, from 
cancer and uSog, 'form.' That which assumes a 
cancerous appearance. Cancroid is a name given 
to certain cutaneous cancers by Alibert : called 
also Cheloid or Keloid, Chel'o'is, Can'cro'is, Ke- 
lo'i'des, ix^Xvi, 'a tortoise,' and uiog, 'likeness;' 
or from xr/Ats, 'a spot or stain,' and ciio^, 'like- 
ness;') Kelis, from their presenting a flattish 
raised patch of integument, resembling the shell 
of a tortoise. 

Cancroid of the Skin, see Epithelial. 
"» CANCROIS, see Cancroid. 

CANCROMA, Carcinoma. 

CANCRO'RUM CHEL^, Oe'uli seu Lap'ides 
seu Lapil'li Cancro'rum, Concremen'ta As'taci 
fltiviat'ilis, Crab's stones or eyes, (F.) Yeux 
d'icrevisse, Pierre d'Ecrevisse. Concretions found, 
particularly, in the Cancer As'tacus or Cray-fish. 
They consist of carbonate -and phosphate of lime, 
and possess antacid virtues, but not more than 
ohalk. 

CANCROSUS, Cancerous, Chancreuse. 

CANCRUM ORIS, Cancer Aquaticus, Sto- 
macace. 

CANDBLA, Bougie — c. Fnmalis, Pastil — e. 
Medicata, Bougie — c. Regia, Verbascum nigrum. 

CANUELARIA, Verbascum nigrum. 

CANDI, Candum, Canthum, Can'tion, Candy, 
from candidus — ' white, bleached, purified.' Pu- 
rified and crystallized sugar. See Saccharum. 

CANDIDtiM OVI, Albumen ovi. 

CANDLE, Pupil. 

Candlb, Mercu'rial. A cjndle made of wax 
and vermilion for mercurial fumigation. 

Candle Tree, Parmentiera cerifera. 

CANDY, Candi. 

CANDYTUFT, BITTER, Iberis amara. 

CANE, SUGAR, see Saccharum — c. Sweet, 
Acorus calamus. 

CANEFICIER, Cassia fistula. 

CANELA, Nectandra cinnamomoides. 

CANELE, Grooved. 

CANELLA, see Canella alba. 

Canel'la Alba, diminutive oi canna, 'a reed.' 
A West India tree. Fam. Magnoliacese : .S'e.r. 
Syst. Dodecandria Monogynia. It is so called 
because its bark is rolled up like a reed. Cortex 
Wiiitera'nus spti'rius, Canella Cuha'na seu Win- 
tera'nia, Cinnamo'mum album, Cortex Antiscor- 
bu'ticns seu Aromat'ieus, Costus cortico'sus, Cn- 
mhi'ga, Canella (Ph. U. S.), Canella Bark, (F.) 
Canelle ou Ccmelle blanche, Fausse Ecorce de 



Winter, Ecorce Cariocostine ; Ord. Guttiferaa, in 
a pungent aromatic. . Its virtues are partly ex, 
tracted by water; entirely by alcohol. It is a 
stimulant, and is added to bitters and cathartics. 

Canella Cartophyllata, Myrtus caryopbyl- 
lata — c. Cubana, C. alba, Laurus cassia — c. Mala- 
barica et Javensis, Laurus cassia. 

CANELLIFERA MALABARICA, Laurua 
cassia. 

CANEPIN, (F.) A fine lamb's skin or goat's 
skin, used for trying the quality of lancets. 

CANICACEOUS, Furfuraceous. 

CAN'IC-^. Meal, in which there is much 
bran. Also, coarse bread ; or bread in which 
there is much bran — Panis Canica'ceus. 

CANICIDA, Aconitum. 

CANIC'ULA; the Dogstar, from cams, 'a dog;' 
S£(pio;, Sirius, (F.) Canicule. This star, which 
gives its name to the Eogdays, Dies canicula'res, 
because they commence when the sun rises with 
it, was formerly believed to exert a powerful in- 
fluence on the animal economy. The Dogdays 
occur at a period of the year when there is gene- 
rally great and oppressive heat, and therefore — 
it has been conceived — a greater liability to dis- 
ease. 

CANIF, Knife. 

CANIN, Canine. 

CANINAN^ RADIX, Caincae radix. 

CANINE, Cani'nus, Cyn'icus, from can»», 'a 
dog,' (F.) Canin. That which has a resemblance 
to the structure, &c., of a dog. 

Canine Fossa, Fossa Cani'na, Infra-orbitar or 
Suborbitar fossa, (F.) Fosse Canine. A small 
depression on the superior maxillary bone, above 
the dens caninus, which gives attachment to thft 
caninus or levator angidi oris muscle. 

Canine Laugh, Sardon'ic latigh, Eisus CanV- 
mw seu Sardon'icus seu Sardo'nius seu Sardanioa 
seu de Sardo'nia seu involunta' rius seu spas'ticiis, 
Tortu'ra seu Distor'sio Oris, Gelas'mus, Sardi'- 
asis, Sardoni'asis, Trismus Sardon'icus seu cyn'- 
icus. Spasmus musculorum faciei seu cyn'icus, Pro- 
sopospas' mus, (F.) Ris canin, R. Sardotiiqucy R. 
Sardonien, R. moqueur. A sort of laugh, the facial 
expression of which is produced particularly by 
the spasmodic contraction of the Caninus muscle. 
Probably, this expression, as well as Cynic Spas-n, 
Spasmus cani'nus seu cyn'icus, Convul'sio cani'ni, 
Trismus cyn'icus, may have originated in the re- 
semblance of the affection to certain movements 
in the upper lip of the dog. The Risus Sardon'- 
icus is said to have been so called from similar 
symptoms having been induced by a kind of 
Ranunculus — B. scelera'tus — that grows in Sar- 
dinia. 

Canine Teeth, Denies Cani'ni seu Lania'rii 
seu angtda'res seu cuspida'ti seu columeUa'res seu 
ocula'res seu morden'tes, Cynodon'tes, Eye Teeth, 
Pug Teeth, (¥.) Dents canines ou laniaires ou a7i- 
gnlaires onoculaires ou ceilleres ou cono'ides. The 
teeth between the lateral incisors and small mo- 
lares of each jaw ; — so named because they re- 
semble the teeth of the dog. 

CANINUS, Levator anguli oris — e. Sentis, 
Rosa canina — c. Spasmus, see Canine Laugh. 

CANIRAM, Strychnos nux vomica. 

CANIRAMINUM, Brucine. 

CANIRUBUS, Rosa oanina. 

CANIS INTERFECTOR, Veratrum sabadilla 
— c. Ponticus, Castor fiber. 

CANIT"IES, from canus, 'white.' Blanching, 
Whiteness or grayness of the hair, and especially 
of that of the head — Trichon'osis polio'sis. (F.) 
Canitie. When occurring in consequence of old 
age, it is not a disease. Sometimes it happens 
suddenly, and apparentlyin consequence of severe 
mental emotion. The causes, however, are not 
clear. See Poliosis. 



CANKER 



CAPBERN 



CANKER, Stomacace — c. of the Mouth, Can- 
cer aquaticus. 

CANKER-RASn, see Cynanche maligna. 
CANKER, WATER, Cancer aquaticus. 
CANNA, see Tons-les-Mois, Cassia fistula, 
Trachea— c. Brachii, Ulna — c. Domestica cruris, 
Tibia— c. Edulis, Tous-len-Mois — c. Fistula, Cas- 
sia fistula — c. ladica, Sagittarium alexipharma- 
cum— c. Major, Tibia — c. Minor, Fibula, Radius 
— e. Solutiva, Cassia fistula — c. Starch, Toua-lea- 
Mois. 

CANNABIN, Bangue. 

CANNAB'INA, from (cavva/?if, 'hemp.' Reme- 
dies composed of Cannabis Indica. — Pereira. 

Cannabina Aquatica, Eupatorium canna- 
binum. 

CANNABIS INDICA, Bangue. See, also, 
Churrus. 

Can'nabis Sati'va, (F.) Chanvre, Chamhrie. 
The seed of this — Hempseed, Sem'itia Can'nahia, 
(F.) Chenevia — is oily and mucilaginous. The 
decoction is sometimes used in gonorrhoea. 

CANNACORUS RADICE CROCEA, Curcuma 
longa. 

CANNAMELLE, see Saccharum. 
CANNE AROMATIQUE, Acorus calamus — 
c. Congo, Costus — c. de Riviere, Costus — c. cL 
Sucre, see Saccharum. 

CANNEBERGE, Vaccinium oxycoccos — c. 
Ponctuee, Vaccinium vitis idsea. 
CANNEL, Laurus cinnamomum. 
CANNEL-BONE, Clavicle. 
CANNEL-WATER, Aqua^cinnamomi. 
CANNELE ou CANELE (F.), from canalia, 
' a. canal.' Sidca'tue, Stria'tus, Canalicida'tus. 
Having a canal or groove — as Muscle cannele 
(Lieutaud), the Gemini; Corps canneles ou strips, 
the Corpora striata; Sonde cannelee, a grooved 
sound, &c. See Grooved. 

CANNELL BAYNE, Clavicle. 
GANNELLE, Laurus cinnamomum — c. 
Blanche, Canella alba — c. de la Chine, Laurus 
cassia — e. de Coromandel, Laurus cassia — c. 
Fausse, Laurus cassia — c. Girojiee, Myrtus cary- 
ophyllata — c. des Indes, Laurus cassia — c. de 
Java, Laurus cassia — c. de Malabar, Laurus cas- 
sia — c. Matte, Laurus cassia — c. Officinale, Lau- 
rus cinnamomum — c. Poivrie, see Wintera aro- 
inatica. 

CANNULA, Canula. 
CANNULA PULMONUM, Bronchia. 
CANOPUM, see Sambucus. 
CANOR STETHOSCOPICUS, Tintement mS- 
talliqne. 

CANQUOIN'S CAUSTIC PASTE, Pasta zinci 
chloridi. 

CANTABRICA, Convolvulus Cantabrica. 
CANTABRUNO, Furfur. 
CANTARELLUS, Meloe proscarabseus. 
CANTATIO, Charm. 
CANTEL, Vertex. 

CANTERBURY, WATERS OF, Aqu(B Can- 
tuarien'ses. The waters of Canterbury, in Kent, 
England, are impregnated with iron, sulphur, 
and carbonic acid. 

CANTERIUM, Cantherius. ^ 

CANTHARIDE TACHETEE, Lytta vittata. 

CANTHARIDINE, see Cantharis. 

CAN'TIIARIS, from /cav^apoj, 'a searahans.' 

0. vesicato'ria, Musca Hispanica, Mel'oe vesica- 

to'rius, Lytta vesicato'ria, BUs'terinrj Fly, Blister- 

Jly, Blisterbeetle, Spanish Fly, Fly, (F.) Cantha- 

rides, Mouches, M. d'Espajne. This fly — Order, 

Coleopteras — originally, perhaps, a native of 

Italy and Spain, is now found in France, Ger- 

aiany, Hungary, Russia, Siberia, and England. 

It is, however, rare in the last-named country. 

It is found in species of Oleaeese — as the ash, 

rrivet, and lilac; and of Caprifoliacea — as the 



elder and lonicera. It is much employed in me- 
dicine, and is the most common vesicatory. 
Given internally, and even when absorbed from 
the skin, it :ifie<^ts the urinary organs, exciting 
strangury. This may be prevented, in cases of 
blisters, by interposing between the blistering 
plaster and skin a piece of tissue-paper. Dilu- 
I ents relieve the strangury. Dose, half a grain 
to one grain. If kept dry, the flies will retain 
their activity for many years. Their active prin- 
ciple — Can'tharidin, Cantharidi'na — has been 
separated from them. 

CanJharis vesicatoria is the ordinary blistering 
insect used in Europe. 

Cantharis seu Lytta vitta'ta, (which see,) and 
C. atra'ta, C. margina'fa, and C. cine'rea, of 
America; 0. atoma'ria, of Brazil; C. rxi'Jicepa, 
of Sumatra and Java; C. gigas, Lytta ccerti'lea, 
of Guinea and the East Indies; C. viola'cea, 
Lytta gigas mas, of the East Indies; C.Syr'iaca, 
Lytta seg'etum, of Arabia; Myla'hria, 31. punc- 
ta'ta, M. pustula'ta, and M. cicho'rii, of China 
and the East Indies ; 3Ieloe proscaraha'us, and 
M. maja'lia or True May worm — possess similar 
properties. 

CANTHE'RIUS, Cante'rium. The cross-piece 
of wood in the apparatus used by Hippocrates for 
reducing luxations of the humerus. 

CANTHI'TIS. Inflammation of the canthus 
of the eye. 

CANTHIUM CORONATUM, Randia dume- 
torum. 

CA-NTE0'PLAS'TlCE,Oan'tho2}lasty, (F.) Can- 
thoplastie, from (cav^oj, ' the angle of the eye,' and 
TtXacTiKoi, 'formative.' The formation, by plastic 
operation, of the angle of the eye. An operation 
proposed by Ammon, when the eyelids are noi 
sufiiciently cleft. 

CANTHUM, Candi. 

CANTIIUS, Epican'fhis, An'gulus oculn'ria, 
Fons lacryma'rum. The corner or angle of the 
eye. The greater canthus is the inner angle, 
Hircus, Hir'quus, Rhanter ; the lesaer canthua, 
the outer angle, Paroj/ia, Pega. 

CANTIA'NUS PULVIS, 'Kent Powder.' A 
cordial powder, known under the name 'Counteaa 
of Kent'a Powder,' composed of coral, amber, 
crabs' eyes, prepared pearls, &c. It was given 
in cancer. 

CANTION, Candi. 

CAN'ULA, Can'mda, Au'liscns, Aulas. Di- 
minutive of Canna, 'a reed;' Tu'bulus, (F.) Ca- 
nule ou Cannide. A small tube of gold, silver, 
platinum, iron, lead, wood, elastic gum, or gutta 
percha, used for various purposes in surgery. 

CA'OUTCHOUC. The Indian name for In- 
dian Rubber, Elas'tic Gum, Gum Elastic, Gummi 
elas'ticum, Cauchuc, Resi'na elas'tica seu Cayen- 
nen'sis, Cayenne Resin, Cautchuc, (F.) Gumme 
elastique, Risine ilastique ou de Cayenne. A 
substance formed from the milky juice of Ba'vea 
seu Hevea Guianen'sis, Jat'ropha elas'tica, Si- 
pho'nia Cahuchu, S. elas'tica, Seringue Tree, and 
of Fi Otis Indica, and Artocar'pus integrifu'lia : — 
South American trees. It is insoluble in water 
and alcohol ; but boiling water softens and swells 
it. It is soluble in the essential oils and in ether, « 
when it may be blown into bladders. It is used 
in the fabrication of catheters, bougies, pessfiries, 
<fcc. 

CAP, PITCH, see Depilatory. 

CAPACITY, LUNG, see Vital Capacity — c. 
Pulmonic, see Vital Capacity. 

CAPA-ISIAKKA, Bromelia ananas. 

CAPBERN, WATERS OF. Capbern is in 
the department Hautes-Pyr6n€es, France. The 
waters contain sulphates an.d carbonates of lime 
and magnesia, and chloride of magnesium. Tem- 
perature, 75° Fahrenheit. They are purgative. 



CAPELET 



165 



CAPSICUM 



CAPELET, Myrtus carophyllata. 

CAPELI'NA, Capelli'na, (F.) Capeltne. A 
Woman's Rat, in French ; Capis'trum, from caput, 
' head.' A sort of bandage, which, in shape, re- 
sembles a riding-hood. There are several kinds 
of Capelines : — 1. That of the head, C. de la tete, 
Fas'sia capita'lis. See Bonnet d'Hii)pocrate. C. 
of the clavicle, employed in fractures of the acro- 
mion, clavicle, and spine of the scapula. G. of an 
amputated limb — the bandage applied round the 
stump. 

CAPELLINA, Capelina, 

CAPER BUSH, Capparis spinosa, 

CAPER PLANT, Euphorbia lathyris. 

CAPERS, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPETUS, Imperforation. 

CAPHORA, Camphor. 

CAPHURA, Camphor. 

CAPILLAIRE, Capillary, see Adiantum 
capillus veneris — c. du Canada, Adiantum pe- 
datum — c. de Jlontpellier, Adiantum capillus 
veneris. 

CAPILLAMEN'TUM, from capillus, *a hair,' 
Capillit"ium, Tricho'ma, Trichoma' tion. Any 
villous or hairy covering. Also, a small fibre or 
fibril. 

CAP'ILLARY, Capilla'ris, Capilla' ecus, from 
capillus, 'a hair.' (F.) Capillaire, Hair-like j 
small. 

Cap'illary Vessels, Vasa capilla'ria, 3Ii- 
crangi'a, Trichangi'a, (F.) Vaisseaux capillaires, 
Capillicules, are the extreme radicles of the ar- 
teries and veins, which together constitute the 
capillary, intermediate, or pieripheral vascidar 
system — the niethcB'mata or methamatous hloodi.- 
ehannels of Dr. Marshall Hall. They possess an 
action distinct from that of the heart, but not one 
of rhythmic contraction and dilatation. Formerly, 
it was conceived that white vessels — Vasa sero'sa 

— or vessels so minute as not to admit red cor- 
puscles, were distributed to the tissues which do 
not receive red blood. 

CAPILLATIO, Trichismus. 

CAPILLATUS, Impuber. 

CAPILLICULES, Capillary vessels. 

CAPILLITIUM, Capillamentum, Entropion, 
Scalp. 

CAPILLORUM DEPLUVIUM, Alopecia. 

CAPIL'LUS, quasi Capitis Pilus, Coma, Chcete, 
Crinis, Pilus, Thrix, CcBsa'ries, (F.) Cheveu. 
This term is generally applied to the hair of the 
head, Pili seu Honor cap'itis, the characters of 
which vary according to races, individuals, &c. 
Hairs arise in the areolar membrane, where the 
bulb is placed, and are composed of two parts — 
one, external, transparent, and of an epidermoid 
character; the other, internal and siii generis, 
which, in the opinion of some, communicates to 
them their colour. The hair is insensible, and 
grows from the root. 

Capillus Veneris, Adiantum capillus veneris 
— c. v. Canadensis, Adiantum pedatum, 

CAPIPLE'NIUM, Capitiple'nium, from caput, 
'the head,' &a(i plenum, 'full.' A word employed 
with diflFerent significations. A variety of catarrh. 

— Schneider. A heaviness or disorder in the 
head common at Rome, like the Kaprjjiapta, Care- 
baria, of the Greeks. — BaglivL 

CAPISTRATIO, Phimosis. 

CAPISTRUM, Capeltne, Chevestre, Trismus— 
c. Auri, Borax. 

Capis'trum, Phimos, Cemos, Ktjixo;, * a halter.' 
This name has been given to several bandages 
for the head. See Capeline, Chevestre. 

CAPITALIA REMEDIA, Cephalic remedies. 

CAPITALIS, Cephalic. 

CAPITELLUM, Alembic, see Caput. 

CAPITEUX, Heady. 



CAPITILU'VIUM, from caput, 'the head,' and 
lavare, ' to wash.' A bath for the head. 

CAPITIPLENIUM, Capiplenium. 

CAPITIPURGIA, Caput purgia. 

CAPITIT'RAHA, from cajnit, ' the head,' and 
trahere, 'to draw.' Instruments which, like the 
forceps, draw down the head of the foetus when 
impacted in the pelvis. 

CAPITO'NES, from caput, ' the head.' Ifacro. 
ceph'ali, Procepfi'ali. Foetuses whose heads ara 
so large as to render labour difiicult. The con- 
dition is called Macrocepha'lia. 

CAPITULUM, Alembic, Condyle, see Caput 
— c. Costae, see Costa — c. Laryngis, Cornieulum 
laryngis — c. Martis, Eryngium campestre — «. 
Santorini, Cornieulum laryngis. 

CAPITULUVIUM, Bath (head). 

CAPNISMOS, Fumigation. 

CAPNITIS., Tutia. 

CAPNOIDES CAVA, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNORCHIS, Fumaria bulbosa. 

CAPNOS, Fumaria. 

CAPON, Cagot. 

CAPON SPRINGS. A pleasant summer re- 
treat, situated in a gorge of the North Mountain, 
in Hampshire co., Va., 23 miles W. of Winchester. 
The waters in the vicinity are sulphurous and 
chalybeate; — those at the springs alkaline and 
diuretic. 

CAPOT, Cagot. 

CAP'PARIS SPINO'SA, Cap'paris, Cappar, 
Ca'pria, Prickly Caper Bush, (F.) Cdprier. Ord. 
Capparidese. Sex. Syst. Pol}'andria Monogynia. 
The bark of the root and the buds have been es- 
teemed astringent and diuretic. The buds are a 
well-known pickle — Capers, (F.) Cdpres. 

Capparis Baduc'ca, Baduk'ka. A species of 
caper, cultivated in India on account of the beauty 
of its flowers. The Orientals make a liniment with 
its juice, with which they rub pained parts. The 
flowers are purgative. 

CAPPONE, WATERS OF. At Cappone, in the 
isle of Ischia, are waters containing carbonate of 
soda, chloride of sodium, and carbonate of lime. 
Temp. 100° Fahr. 

CAPREOLA'RIS, from capreolus, 'a tendril.' 
CissoVdes, ElieoVdes, (F.) Capreolaire. Twisted. 

Capreola'ria Vasa. Some have called thus 
the spermatic arteries and veins, on account of 
their numerous contortions. 

CAPREOLUS, Helix. 

CApRES, see Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIA, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRICORNUS, Plumbum. 

CAPRIER, Capparis spinosa. 

CAPRIFOLIA, Lonicera periclymen im. 

CAPRIFOLIUM DISTINCTUM, Lonicera pe- 
riclymenum — c. Periclymenum, Lonicera pericly- 
menum — c.Sempervivens, Lonicera sempervivens, 
— c. Sylvaticum, Lonicera periclymenum. 

CAPRILOQUIUM, Egophony. 

CAPRIZANS PULSUS, see Pulse, caprizant. 

C APSA, Bolte, Capsule, Case — c. Cordis, Peri • 
cardium. 

CAPSARIUM, Boitier. 

CAPSELLA BURSA PASTORIS, Thlaspi 
bursa. 

CAPSICUM, see Capsicum annuum. 

Cap'sicum An'nuum, C. Hispan'icum, froni 
(caTTTo), 'I bite.' The systematic name of the plant 
whence, in part, Cayenne Pepper is obtained, — 
Piper In'dicum seu Hispan'icum seu Brazilia'- 
num seu Guineen'se seu Calecu'ticum seu Tur'ci- 
cnm seu Lusitan'icum, Sola'num urens, Siliquas'- 
trum Plin'ii, Cayenne or Guinea or Chilli Pepper, 
Garden Ginger, (F.) Pinient, Poivre d' Inde, Poivr« 
de Guinee, Corail des Jar-dins. Orde' , Solaneae. 
The pungent, aromatic properties of BacccB Cap. 



CAPSIQUE 



166 



CAR ANN A 



»«ci, Cay'sicum Berries, Capsicum (Ph. U. S.). are 
yielded to ether, alcohol, and water. They are 
highly stimulant and rubefacient, and arc used as 
& condiment. Their active principle is called 
Capaicin. 
Capsicum Hispanicum, Capsicum annuum. 
CAPSIQUE, Capsicum annuum. 
CAPSITIS, see Phacitis. 
CAPSULA, Boitier — c. Articularis, Capsular 
ligament — c. Cordis, Pericardium — c. Dentis, 
Dental follicle — c. Ilumoris aquei, see Aqueous 
humour of the eye — c. Lentis, see Crystalline — c. 
Nervorum, Neurilemma — c. Sequestralis, see 
Sequestrum. 

CAPSULE SEMINALES, Vesiculae S. — c. 
Synoviales, Bursae mucosas. 
CAPSULAIRE, Capsular. 

CAP'S ULAR, Capsula'ris, (F.) Capsulaire. 
Relating to a capsula or capsule. 

Capsular Arteries, Suprare'nal Arteries and 
Veins. Vessels belonging to the suprarenal cap- 
sules. They are divided into superior, middle, 
and inferior. The first proceed from the inferior 
phrenic, the second from the aorta, and the third 
from the renal artery The corresponding veins 
enter the phrenic, vena cava, and renal. 
Capsular Cataract, see Cataract. 
Capsular Lig'amest, Lignmen'tum capsula're, 
Cap'sula artictda'ris, Artic'ular or Fibrous cap- 
sule, (F.) Liijament capsulaire, Capsule articu- 
laire. Capsule fihreux, <tc. Membranous, fibrous, 
and elastic bags or capsules, of a whitish consist- 
ence, thick, and resisting, which surround joints. 
CAPSULE, Cap'sula, Capsa, a box, or case, 
(F.) Capsule. This name has been given, by ana- 
tomists, to parts bearing no analogy to each other. 
Capsule, Bowman's, see Kidney — c. Cellular, 
of the Eye, see Eye — c. Fibrous, Capsular liga- 
ment. 

Capsule, Gelat'inous, Cap'svla gelat'ince, 
(F.) Capsule gelatineuse, Capsule of gelatin. A 
modern invention by which copaiba and other 
disagreeable oils can be enveloped in gelatin so 
as to conceal their taste. 

Capsule op Glisson, Cap'sula Glisso'nh sen 
commu'nis Glisso'nh, Vagi'na Porta, V. Glis- 
SO'nii. a sort of membrane, described by Glis- 
son, which is nothing more than dense areolar 
membrane surrounding the vena porta and its 
ramifications in the liver. 

Capsule of the Heart, Pericardium — c. Ocu- 
lar, see Eye. 

Capsule, Renal, Suprare'nal or Atrahil'- 
iary C, Renal Gland, Glan'dula suprarena'lis, 
Cap'sula rena'lis seu sujvarena'lis seu atrabilia'- 
ris, Ben succenturia'tus, A'ephrid'ium, (F.) Cap- 
tule surrfnale ou atrabiliaire. A flat triangular 
body, which covers the upper part of the kidney, 
as with a helmet. A hollow cavity in the interior 
contains a brown, reddish or yellowish fluid. The 
renal capsules were long supposed to be the secre- 
tory organs of the fancied atrabilis. They are 
much larger in the foetus than in the adult. 
They are probably concerned in lyraphosis. 

A singular condition of cachexia, the leading 
characteristics of which are anaraia, general lan- 
guor and debility; remarkable feebleness of the 
heart's action ; irritability of the stomach, and a 
peculiar bronzed skin, was first described by Dr. 
Thos. Addison, of London, as connected with a 
diseased condition of the supra-renal capsules. 
It has been proposed to call it the Disease of Ad- 
dison, (F.) Matadie d' Addison. 

Capsule, Sem'inal, Cap'sula semina'lis. Bar- 
tholine thus designates the extremity of the vas 
deferens, which is sensibly dilated in the vicinity 
of the vesiculao seminales. Some anatomists ap- 
•'ly this name to the vesiculw themselves. 
Capsule, SrNo'viAL, Cajysula Synovia'Ua. A 



membranous bag, surrounding the movable arti- 
culations and canals, which gives passage to ten- 
dons. Synovial capsules exhale, from their arti- 
cular surface, a fluid, whose function is to favour 
the motions of parts upon each other. See Bursa 
mucosa, and Synovia. 

CAPSULE SURRENALE ou ATRABL 
LIARE, Capsule, renal. 

CAPSULITIS, see Phacitis. 
CAPUCHON, Trapezius. 
CAPUCINE, Tropaeolum majus. 
CAPULIES, Prunus capulin. 
CAPULUS, Scrotum. 

CAPUT, 'the head.' Also, the top of a bone 
or other part, (F.) Tete. The head of small 
bones is sometimes termed capit'ulvm,capitell'um, 
cephalid' ium, ceph'alis, cephal'ium. Also, the 
glans penis. 

Caput AspeRjB Arteeije, Larynx — c. Coli, 
Caecum — c. Gallinaceum, see Gallinaginis caput 
— c. Gallinaginis, see Gallinaginis caput — c. Ge- 
nitale, Glans — c. Lubricum, Penis — c. Major, see 
Epididymis — c. Minor, see Epididymis — c. Mo- 
nachi, Leontodon Taraxacum — c. Obstipum, Tor- 
ticollis— c. Penis, Glans. 

Caput Pur'gia, Capitipur'gia. Remedies, 
which the ancients regarded as proper for purg- 
ing the head : — errhines, sternutatories, apophleg- 
matisantia, ic. Prosper Alpinus makes the caput 
purgia to be the same as errhines ; and the apo- 
2jhlegmatismi the same as the masticatories of 
the moderns. 

Caput Scapula, Acromion. 
Caput Succepa'neum, A term sometimes used 
for the tumefied scalp, which first presents in 
certain cases of labour. 

Caput Testis, Epididymis. 
CA Q UE-SANG UE, Cague-sangue. Old Frenct 
words which signify Bloody evacuations, (P.) De- 
jections sanguinolentes. They come from cacare, 
' to go to stool,' and sanguis, ' blood.' Under 
this term was comprehended every affection in 
which blood is discharged from the bowels. 

CARA SCHULLI, Frutex In'dicus spino'sua, 
Barle'ria buxi/o'lia. A Malabar plant, which, 
when applied externally, is maturative and resol- 
vent. The decoction of its root is used, in the 
country, in ischuria. 

CARABAC'CIUM. An aromatic wood of In- 
dia, of a yellowish colour, and a smell like that 
of the clove. Its decoction and infusion are 
given as stomachics and antiscorbutics. 

CAR'ABUS. A genus of coleopterous insects. 
Two species, the chrysoceph'alns and ferrugin'eus 
have been recommended for the toothach. They 
must be pressed between the fingers, and then 
rubbed on the gum and tooth afi'ected. 
CARACTERE, Character, SymboL 
CARAGNA, Caranna. 

CARAMATA, Arumari. A tree in the inland 
parts of Pomeroon. It furnishes a febrifuge bark, 
which Dr. Hancock says may be used in typhoid 
and remittent fevers where cinchona is either 
useless or pernicious. 

CARAMBOLO, Averrhoa carambola. 
CARAMEL, Sac'charum percoc'tum sen tos- 
fum. Sugar subjected to the action of heat, until 
it io partly decomposed, deliquescent, of a brown 
colour, and a strong, agreeable and empyreumatio 
odour. 

CARAN'NA, Caragna, TacamaJia'ca, Caragna, 
Caran'nas Gummi, G. Brel'isis, Gum Carau'iia, 
(F.) Caragne, Gomme Caragne ou Carane. A 
gum-rcsinous substance, which flows from a large 
tree in New Spain, and is obtained from South 
America in impure masses. It preserves its soft- 
ness for a long time, h.as an aromatic smell, and 
a slightly acid and bitter taste. It was formerly 
I used as a vulnerary and in plasters. 



CARAWAY 



167 



CARCINOMA 



CARAWAY, Carum. 
CARAWAY SEEDS, see Carum. 
CARBASA, Linteum. 
CARBASUS, Linteum. 

CARBO, Carbon, (F.) Carhone. An elemen- 
tary body, extensively distributed in nature ; but 
of which the two following forms are officinal in 
the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Also, 
a coal, charcoal. 

Carbo Ligni, Charcoal (F.) Charbon. Fresh 
Charcoal is antiseptic. It is used to improve the 
digestive organs in cases of worms, dyspepsia, 
Ac. ; as a cataplasm to gangrenous and fetid 
ulcers, tinea, <fcc., and forms a good tooth-powder. 
Dose, gr. x to ,^j. Also, Anthrax. 

Carbo Anima'lis, C. cariiis, Animal charcoal, 
(F.) Charbon animal, usually prepared by sub- 
jecting bones to a red heat in close vessels. The 
result is Bone black, commonly called Ivory black. 
(F.) Noir animal ou d'oa. It is given in the 
same cases as Carbo Ligni, and has been extolled 
in cancer. Dose, gr. ss to gr. iij. 

The Pharmacopoeia of the United States con- 
tains a formula for the preparation of Carbo 
Anima'lis Purifica'tus, Purified animal char- 
coal ( Carbon, animal, fibj ; Acid muriat.. Aqua 
aa f^xij). Pour the muriatic acid, previously 
mixed with the water, gradually upon the char- 
coal, and digest with a gentle heat for two days, 
occasionally stirring the mixture. Having al- 
lowed the undissolved portion to subside, pour 
off the supernatant liquor, wash the charcoal fre- 
quently with water until it is entirely free from 
acid, and lastly dry it. 

Carbo Fos'silis, Lithanthrax, Stone coal. 
Carbo Huma'ndm. The human excrement. — 
Paracelsus. 

Carbo Ligni, Carbo — c. Mineralis, Graphites 
^c. Palpebrarum, Anthracosis — c. Spongise, 
Spongia usta. 

CARBON, Carbo — c. Sesqui-iodide of, Carbonis 
sesqui-iodidum — c. Bisulphuret of, Carbonis sul- 
phuretum — c. Sesquichloride of, Carbonis trichlo- 
ridum — c. Sulphide of, Carbonis sulphuretum — c. 
Sulphuret of, Carbonis sulphuretum — c. Terchlo- 
ride of, Carbonis trichloridum, see Chloroform. 

CAR'BONAS or CARBO'NAS. A carbonate. 
(F.) Carbonate. A salt, formed by the combina- 
tion of carbonic acid with a salifiable base. 

Carbonas Natricum, Sodae carbonas — c. Plum- 
bicus, Plumbi subcarbonas. 

CARBONATE B' AMMONIAQUE, Ammo- 
niae carbonas. 

CAR'BONATED, Garbona'tus, Aera'tus, (F.) 
Carboni, Acre. That which is impregnated with 
carbonic acid. 

CAR BONE, Carbon — c. Trichlorure de, Car- 
bonis trichloridum. 

CAR BONE, Carbonated. 
CARBONEUM CHLORATUM, Chloroform. 
CARBON'IC ACID, Ac"idum Carbon'icum, 
Solid Air of Males, Factitiou/t or Fixed Air, 
Carbona'ceous or Calea'reous or Aerial or Mephit'- 
ic Acid, Ilejyhit'ic Air, Spir'itua letha'lia, (F.) 
Acide Carbonique. This gas, which neither sup- 
ports respiration nor combustion, is not often 
used in medicine. It is the main agent in effer- 
vescent draughts, fermenting poultices, &c. It 
is often found occupying the lower parts of mines 
— when it is called the choke damp — caverns, 
tombs, wells, brewers' vats, &c., and not unfre- 
quentlyhas been the cause of death. Lime 
thrown into such places soon absorbs the acid. 

CARBONIS SESQUICHLORIDUM, Carbonis 
trichloridum. 

CARBO'NIS SESQUI-IOD'IDUM, C. Sesqui- 
lodure'tum, Scsqui-Todide or Sesqui-Iod'uret of 
Carbon. This is made by mixing concentrated 
alcoholic SQlut:)ns of iodine and potassa, until 



the former loses its colour ; a solution is obtainaJ 
from which water throws down a yellow precipi- 
tate — the sesqui-iodide of carbon. It has been 
used in enlarged glands and in some cutaneous 
affections, applied externally, (^ss to ^vj of 
cerate). See Iodoform. 

j Carbo'nis Sulphure'tum, Stilph'iiris Carbu- 
\ re'tum, Sulphure'tum seu Sul'fidum Carbo'nii, 
I Carbo'nium Sulphura'tum, Al'cohol Sul'phurig, 
' Bisuljihure'tum Carbo'nii, Sulphuret, Sulphide or 
' Bisulphuret of Carbon, Carburet of Sulphur, (F.) 
Sulfurede Carhone, Carbur e de Soufre,Souf re Car- 
bure, Alcool de Soufre. This transparent, colour- 
less fluid, which has a very penetrating, disa- 
greeable odour, and a taste which is cooling at 
first, but afterwards acrid and somewhat aroma- 
tic, is a diffusible excitant. It is diaphoretic, 
diuretic, and has been said to have proved em- 
menagogue. It is also used in nervous diseases 
as an antispasmodic. Dose, one drop to four, 
repeated frequently. 

It is used externally, where a cooling influence 
has to be rapidly exerted, and has been inhaled 
as an anaesthetic. 

Carbo'nis Trichlo'ridum, C. Sesqui-chlo'ri- 
dum, Terchloride or Sesquichloride of Carbon, 
(F.) Trichlorure ou Sesquichlorure de C<-(rbone, is 
formed by the action of Chlorine on Chlorohy- 
1 dric ef^er, under the influence of sun-light. Itha3 
been given in cholera, and applied to correct the 
fetor of foul ulcers. Dose, four grains or more. 

CARBONIUM SULPHURATUM, Carbonis 
sulphuretum. 

CARBUNCLE, Anthrax. 
Carbuncle, Fungous, Terminthus. 
Carbuncle of the Tongue, Glossanthrax — c. 
Berry, Terminthus. 

CARBUNCLED FACE. Gutta rosea. 
CARBUNCULAR EXANTHEM, Anthracia. 
CARBUNCULATIO OCULI, Blepharanthra- 
cosis. 

CARBUNCULUS, Anthrax— c. Anginosus, 
Cynanche maligna — c. Contagiosus, see Anthrax 
— c. Gallicus, see Anthrax — c. Hungaricu^ see 
Anthrax — c. Labiorum et genarum, Cancer aqua- 
ticus — c. Polonicus, see Anthrax — c. Pulmonum, 
Necropneumonia — c. Septeatrionalis,see Anthrax. 
Carbun'culus Rubi'nus. a red, shining, and 
transparent stone, from the Isle of Ceylon ; for- 
merly employed in medicine as a preservative 
against several poisons, the plague, &c. 

Carbunculus Ulcusculosus, Cynanche ma- 
ligna. 

CARBURE DE SOUFRE, Carbonis sulphu- 
retum. 

CAR'CAROS, from KapKaip<o, 'I resound,' 'I 
tremble,' A fever, in which the patient has a 
general tremor, accompanied with an unceasing 
noise in the ears. 

CARCINODES, Cancroid, Chancreuse. 
CARCINOIDES, Cancroid. 
CAUGI'SO'M.A, Karkino'ma, Cancero'ma, Can- 
cro'ma, from KapKtvos, 'a crab.' Some authors 
have thus called indolent tumours different from 
cancer; others, incipient cancer; and others, 
again, the species of cancer in which the affected 
structure assumes the appearance of cerebral sub- 
stance; but the majority of authors use Carcino- 
ma in the same sense as Cancer. 

Carcinoma Alteolare, Colloid— c. Epitheli- 
odes. Epithelial Cancer — c. Fibrosum, Scirrhua 
— e. Hsematodes, Hagmatodes fungus — c. Intesti- 
j norum, Enteropathia cancerosa — c. Lingua, Glos- 
socarcinoma — c. of the Liver, Hepatoscirrhus — c. 
I Mednllare, Encephaloid — c. Melanodes, Cancer, 
I melanotic — c. Melanoticum, Cancer, melanotic — 
c. Simplex, Scirrhus — c. Spongiosum, Encepha- 
loid, Haematodes fungus — c. Scroti, Cancer, chim- 
i ney-Eweepers' — c. Uteri, Metrocarcinoma, Metro- 



CARCINOMATOUS 



CARDIECTASIS 



fi:irrhus — c. Ventriculi, Gastroscirrhus ; see Gas- 
troslenosis cardiiica et pylorica. 

CARCINOMATOUS, Carcinomato'sns, (F.) 
Cixrciiiomateux. Relating to Carcinoma. 

CARCINOME MOU ET SPONGIEUX, En- 
I'ephaloid — c. Sanglant, Enccphaloid, llaema- 
r.odes fungus. 

CARCIN'OS, Cancer. 

CAKCINO'SES, (G.) Karcinosen, from xap- 
Kivos, 'a crab.' A family of diseases, according 
to the classification of Fuehs; which embraces 
the different forms of Cancer. 

CARCINOSUS, Cancerous. 

CARCINUS, SPONGIOSUS, Encephaloid. 

CARDAMANTICA, Cardamine pratensis, Le- 
pidium Iberis. 

CARDAMINDUM MAJUS, Trop^olum 
mains. 

CARDAMINE FONTANA, Sisymbrium nas- 
turtium — c. Nasturtium, Sisymbrium nasturtium. 

CARDAjri'NE Praten'sis, Cardami'nl, Carda- 
man'tica, Naatur'tium Aquat'icum, Car'damon, 
Ouli Jloa, Jbe'ris soph'ia, Nastur'tium praten'se, 
LadieH-smock, Cuckoo-floiper, Common Bitter 
Cress, Meadow Cress, (P.) Cresson elegant ou des 
pres, Passerage sauvage. Ord. Cruciferae. The 
flowers have been considered useful as antispas- 
modics, in the dose of 3J. to gU- They are pro- 
bably inert. 

CARDAMOM, Cardamo'mum (F.) Cardamome. 
The name of the fruit of various species of 
Amomum and Elettaria, respecting the botanical 
history of which there has been much confusion. 

Cardamom, Bengal, Amomum maximum — c. 
Cluster, Amomum cardamomum — o. Greater, 
Amomum Grana Paradisi — e. Java, Amomum 
maximum — c. Lesser, Amomum cardamomum — 
c. Nepal, Amomum maximum — c. Round, Amo- 
mum cardamomum. 

CARBAMOME, Amomum cardamomum — c. 
de la Cote de 3Ialabar, Amomum cardamomum. 

CARDAMOMUM MAJUS, Amomum grana 
paradisi — c. Minus, Amomum cardamomum — c. 
Piperatum, Amomum grana paradisi — e. Rotun- 
dum, Amomum cardamomum — c. Wild, Fagaras- 
trum Capense. 

CARDAMON, Cardamine pratensis. 

CARDAMUM MAJUS, Trop^olum majus. 

CARDS RE, Dipsacus sylvestris— c. Cultivi, 
Dipsacus fuUonum. 

CARDIA, Kapiia, 'the heart.' Stom'acJius, 
OriJic"ium sinis'trnm seu Ingres' sus snpe'rior 
seu Ostium oesojyhage' wn ventric'uli. The supe- 
rior or oesophageal orifice of the stomach. Also, 
the Heart. 

GAR' D I AC, Cardi'acus, from KapSia, 'the 
heart;' or the upper orifice of the stomach. (F.) 
Cardiaque. Relating to the heart, Carditic, 
Car'dial, (F.) Cardiaire, Carditique, — or to the 
upper orifice of the stomach. A cordial. 

Cardiac Ar'teries, Cor'onary arteries, (F.) 
Artlres cardiaques ou coronaires, are two in 
number. They arise from the aorta, a little above 
the free edge of the sigmoid valves, and are dis- 
tributed on both surfaces of the heart. 

Car'diac Gan'glion, Gan'glion cardi'acnm, 
situated beneath the arch of the aorta, to the 
right side of the ligament of the ductus arteriosus. 
It receives the superior cardiac nerves of opposite 
sides of the neck, and a branch from the pneu- 
mogiiftiic, and gives off numerous branches to 
the cardiac plexuses. 

Cardiac Nerves, (F.)A'e)/scar(?i"rr/j'Hes. These 
are commonly three on each side; a superior, 
middle, and inferior, which are furnished bj' cor- 
responding cervical ganglia. Commonly, there 
are Dut two on the left side ; the upper and mid- 
dle, which draw their origin from the last two 
cervical ganglia. Scarpa calls the superior — 



Cardi'acus supcrjicia'lis ; the middle — Cpro/un'- 
dus eeu magnus ; and the inferior — C. parvus 
seu minor. There are, besides. Cardiac Jil'aments, 
(F.) Filets cardiaques, furnished by the par va- 
gum or pneumo-gastric nerve, which become 
confounded with the above. 

Cardiac Plexus, Plexus cardi'acus. There 
are three cardiac plexuses. 1. The great cardiai: 
plexus is situated upon the bifurcation of the tra- 
chea. It is formed by the convergence of 
the middle and inferior cardiac nerves ; and by 
branches from the pneumogastric, descendena 
noni, and first thoracic ganglion. 2. The anterior 
cardiac plexus is situated in front of the ascend- 
ing aorta near its origin. It is formed by fila- 
ments from the superior cardiac nerves; from 
the cardiac ganglion ; and from the great cardiac 
plexus. Filaments from this plexus ac-company 
the left coronary artery, and form the anterior 
coronary plexus. 3. The posterior cardiac plexus 
is seated upon the posterior part of the ascending 
aorta near its origin. It is formed by numerous 
branches from the great cardiac plexus. It 
divides into two sets of branches, which together 
constitute the posterior coronary plexus. 

Cardiac Veins, Coronary Veins, (F.) Veinei 
Cardiaques, are commonly four in number; two 
anterior and two posterior. They open into the 
right auricle by one orifice, which is furnished 
with a valve, and is called, by Portal, Sinus coro- 
na ire dii Coeur. 

CARDIAC A CRISPA, Leonurus cardiaca — 
c. Passio, Cardialgia — c. Trilobata, Leonuruj 
cardiaca — c. Vulgaris, Leonurus cardiaca. 

CARDIACUS, Cordial, Stomachal. 

CARDIAGMUS, Cardialgia. 

CARDI'AGRA, Affec'tio arthrit'ica cordis; 
from Kiip^ia, 'the heart,' and aypa, 'seizure.' 
Gout of the heart, Cardialgia. 

CARDIAG'RAPHY, Cardiagra'jMa, from 
Kapiia, ' the heart,' and ypa(j>rt, 'a description.' 
An anatomical description of the heart. 

CARDIAIRE, see Cardiac. 

CARDIAL, see Cardiac. 

CARDIAL'GIA, Cardi'aca Passio, Col'icf\ 
Ventric'uli, Spasmus Ventric'tdi, Perodyn'ia, 
Cordo' Hum, CardiloB'a, Dyspepsodyn'ia, Dyspep. 
siodyn'ia, Dyspeptodyn'ia, Peratodyn'ia, Car- 
diod'yne, Gastrodyn'ia, Gastral'gia, Gasteral'gia, 
Gastrocol'ia, Gastrod'yne, Pas'sio Cardi'aca, 
Stomachal' gia, Stomacal'gia, Cardi'acus Morbus, 
Cardiog'mus, Cardial' gy ; from Kapita, 'the car- 
diac orifice of the stomach,' and a^yoir 'pain.' 
Pain of the stomach, (F.) Bouleiir de V Estomac, 
D. nSvralgique de I'Estomac. Also, Heartburn, 
(F.) Cardialgie, Ardeur d' Estomac, A. dii Coeur. 
Impaired appetite, with gnawing or burning pain 
in the stomach or epigastrium, — Morsus seu ardor 
ventric'uli, Morsus stom'achi. Soda, Limo'sis car- 
dial'gia mordens, Rosio Stom'achi seu Ventric'- 
uli : — a symptom of dyspepsia. 

Cardialgia Inflammatoria, Gastritis — c. 
Sputatoria, Pvrosis. 

CARDIALbG"IA, from Kapita, 'the heart,' 
and Aoyof, 'a discourse.' A treatise on the heart. 

CARDIANASTROPHE, Ectopia cordis. 

CARDIARCTIE, Heart, concentric hypertro- 
phy of the. Contraction of the cavities of the 
heart. 

CARDIA'RIUS; same etymology. A name 
given to a worm, said to have been found in the 
heart or pericardium. 

CARDIATO.M'IA, from KapSta, 'the heart.' 
and T£^i'£(i', ' to cut.' Dissection of the heart. 
CARDIATROPHIA, Heart, atrophy of the. 
CARDIAUXE, Heart, hypertrophy of the. 
CARDIECTASIS, Dilatation of the heart, see 
Aneurism of the heart — c. Partialis, Aneurism 
of the heart. 



CARDIELCOSIS 



16! 



CARIES 



CARDIELCOSIS; from KapSia, 'the heart,' 
and 'cXkos, ' an nicer.' Uleeration of the heart. 

CARDIETIIMOLIPOSIS, Steatosis cordis. 

CARDIEURYSMA, Aneurism of the heart. 

CARDIL/EA, Cardialgia. 

CARDIM'ELECH, from KapSia, 'the heart,' 
and ^7Q, Melek, (Hebr.,) ' a governor.' A sup- 
posititious active principle seated in the heart, 
and governing the vital functions. — -Dolaeus. 

CARDINAL FLOWER, Lobelia cardinalis — 
C f. Blue, Lobelia syphilitica. 

CARDINAL PLANT, Lobelia cardinalis. 

CARDINAMENTUxM,Ginglymus, Gomphosis. 

CARDIOBOTANUM, Centaurea benedicta. 

CARDIOCE'LE, from Kapha, ' the heart,' and 
KTi\i), ' rupture.' Hernia of the heart, especially 
into the abdominal cavity. 

CARDIOCLASJE, Cardiorrhexis. 

CARDIOD'YNE, Cardiodyn'ia ; from xap^ia, 
'the heart, the stomach,' and o6vvri, 'pain.' Pain 
in the heart. Also, Cardialgia. 

Cardiodyne Spasmodica Intermittens, An- 
gina pectoris. 

CARDIOG'MUS. Hippocrates employed this 
word KapStuiyiios, synonymously with cardialgia. 
In the time of Galen it was used, by some writers, 
for certain pulsations of the heart, analogous to 
palpitations. Sauvages understood by Cardiog- 
mus an aneurism of the heart or great vessels, 
when still obscure. Also, Angina pectoris. 

Cardiogjius Cordis Sinistri, Angina pectoris. 

CARDIOMALA'CIA, 3Ialaco's!s seu Mala'cia 
seu Malax' is seu MollWies Cordis, (F.) Eamol- 
lissement du Coeur, from KapSta, 'the heart,' and 
fiaXaKia, ' softness.' Softening of the heart, caused 
by inflammation of the organ, or a consequence 
of some lesion of the function of nutrition. 

CARDIOM'ETRY, Cardiomet'ria, from KapSia, 
heart,' and ixerpov, 'measure.' Measurement of 
the heart, as by percussion and auscultation. 

CARDIOMYOLIPOSIS, Steatosis cordis. 

CARDIONCHI, see Aneurism. 

CARDIONEURALGIA, Angina pectoris. 

CARDION'OSUS, 3Iorhus cordis, from KapSia, 
' heart,' and voco;, ' disease.' Disease of the heart. 
Heart disease. 

CARDIOPALMUS, Cardiotromus. 

CARDIOPERICARDITIS, see Pericarditis. 

CARDIORRHEU'MA, Rheumatis'mm cordis; 
from Kapiia, 'the heart, and ptu/na, ' defluxion, 
rheumatism.' Rheumatism of the heart. 

CARDIORRHEX'IS, Cardioclasie, (Piorry,) 
Ruptu'ra cordis, (F.) Rupture du Ccenr, from 
Kiipota, 'the heart,' and /);7|(j, 'laceration.' Laee- 
ratJon of the heart. 

CARDIOSGLEROSIE, (Piorry), from Kapha, 
'the heart,' and aicXrjpoi, 'hard.' (F.) Endurcisse- 
ment du Gceiir. Induration of the heart. 

CARDIOSTENO'SIS, Stenocar'dia, from Kap. 
&tu, 'the heart, and oTti/uo-if, 'contraction.' Con- 
traction of the openings of the heart. 

CARDIOTRAU'MA, from Kapha, 'the heart,' 
and rpavpa, 'a wound.' A wound of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROMUS, Palpita'tio Cordis trep'- 
idnns, Cardioiial'mus, Trepida'tio Cordis, from 
Kaphia, 'the heart,' and Tpo/xo;, 'tremor.' Rapid 
and feeble palpitation or fluttering of the heart. 

CARDIOT'ROTUS, from Kapha, 'the heart,' 
and riTpwcKo), 'I wound.' One affected with a 
wound of the heart. — Galen. 

CARDIPERICARDITIS, see Pericarditis. 

GARDITE, Carditis. 

CARDITIC, Cardiac. Also, relating or be- 
longing to carditis. 

CARDI'TIS, from KapSia, 'the heart, and the 
termination itis.- Inflammation of the fleshy 
substance of the heart. Empres'ma Cardi'tis, 
Jnfiamnia'tio Cordis, T. Cardi'tis, Gauma Cardi'- 
tis, Myocardi'tis. Gardi'tie Muscula'ris, (F.) In- 



flammation du CoBur, Cardite. The symptoms 
of this affection are by no means clear. They 
are often confounded with those of pericarditis, 
or inflammation of the membrane investing the 
heart. Carditis, indeed, with many, includes 
both the inflammation of the external investing 
membrane and that of the interior of the heart. 
See Pericarditis, and Endocarditis. 

Carditis Externa, Pericarditis — c. Interna, 
Endocarditis — c. Muscularis, Carditis — c. Mem- 
branosa, Pericarditis — c. Polyposa, Polypi of the 
heart — c. Serosa, Pericarditis. 

CARDO, Qinglymus. 

CARDOPATIUM, Carlina acaulis. 

CARDOPERICARDITIS, see Pericarditis. 

CARDUUS ALTILIS, Cynara scolymus — c. 
Benedictus, Centaurea benedicta — c. Brazilianus, 
Bromelia ananas — c. Domesticus capite majori, 
Cynara scolymus — c. Hemorrhoidalis, Cirsium 
arvense. 

Car'duus Maria 'nus, C. Ma'ricB seu lac'teue, 
Sil'yhum, S. Maria'num seu maeula'tum, Gar'tha- 
mus macula'tus, Gir'sium maeula'tum, Spina alba, 
Common Milk Thistle, Ladies' Thistle, (F.) 
Ghardon-Marie. Ord. Compositse. The herb is 
a bitter tonic. The seeds are oleaginous. It is 
not used. 

Carduus Pineus, Atractylis gummifera — c. 
Sativus, Carthamus tinctorius — c. Sativus non- 
spinosus, Cynara scolymus — c. Solstitialis, Cen- 
taurea calcitrapa — c. Stellatus, Centaurea calci- 
trapa — c. Tomentosus, Onopordium acanthium — 
c. Veneris, Dipsacus fullonum. 

CAREBARESIS, Carebaria. 

CAREBA'RIA or CAREBARI'A, Carehare'- 
sis, from Kapri, 'the head,' and 0apog, 'weight.' 
Scordine'ma, Gereba'ria, Scordinis'mus, Gordine'- 
ma. Heaviness of the head. — Hippocrates, Galen. 

CARE'NA, Kare'na. The twenty-fourth part 
of a drop. — Ruland and Johnson. 

CARE-TAKER, Nurse. 

CAREUM, Carum. 

CAREX ARENARIA, Sarsaparilla Germanica. 

CARIACOU. A beverage, used in Cayenne, 
and formed of a mixture of cassava, potato, and 
sugar, fermented. 

CAR'ICA, from Caria, where the fig was culti- 
vated. See Ficus carica. 

Car'ica Papa'ya, Papain tree, Pawpaio, (F.) 
Papayer. Ord. Cucurbitacese. A native of 
America, India, and Africa. The fruit has 
somewhat of the flavour of the pumpkin, and 
is eaten like it. The milky juice of the plant 
and the seed and root have been regarded as 
anthelmintic. 

The papaw, of North America, belongs to the 
order Anonaceae, {Ano'na seu Asi'mina seu Por- 
eel'ia seu Uva'ria tri'loha, Ficus In'dica, Orchi- 
docar'pum arieti'num.,) Custard Apple Family. 

CAR'ICUM. Said to have been named after 
its inventor Carious. Gar'ycum. A detergent 
application to ulcers ; composed of black helle- 
bore, sandarach, copper, lead, sulphur, orpiment, 
cantharides, and oil of cedar. — Hippocrates. 

GARIE, Caries — c. des Dents, Dental gangrene. 

OARIE, Carious. 

CA'RIES, Ni(jrit"ie8 Os'sium. An ulceration 
of hone, Osteohelco'sis, — Necrosis being death of a 
bone. It resembles the gangrene of soft parts. 
Hence it has been termed Caries gangrcBiio'sn, 
Gangres'na Ca'ries seu Os'sium, Tere'do, Arro'sio, 
Euros, (F.) Garie. It is recognised by the swell- 
ing of the bone which precedes and accompanies 
it; by the abscesses it oocasions ; the fistulae 
which form ; the sanious character, peculiar odour 
and quantity of the suppuration, and by the evi- 
dence afforded by probing. The most common 
causes of caries are blows, thii action of some 
virus, and morbid diatheses. When dependent oa 



CARIEUX 



170 



CAROTA 



any virus in the system, this must be combated || 
by appropriate remedies. When entirely local, it [ 
must be converted, where practicable, into a state 
of necrosis or death of the afl'ected part. For 
this end, stimulants, the actual cautery, &c., are 
applied. 

Gabies, Dexti0M, Dental gangrene — c. Puden- 
dorum, see Chancre — c. of the Vertebrae, Verte- 
bral disease— c. Vertebrarum, Vertebral disease. 
CARIEUX, Carious. 
CARIM CURINI, Justitia ecbolium. 
CARI'NA, 'a ship's keel.' The vertebral co- 
lumn, especially of the foetus. Also, the breast- 
bone bent inwards. Hence, Pectus carina' turn: 
— the chest affected with such deformity. 

CA'RIOUS, Cario'sus, Euro'des, (F.) GariS, 
Carieii.r. Affected with caries. 
CARIUM TERR^, Calx. 
CARIVE, Myrtus pimenta. 
CARIVILLANDI, Smilax sarsaparilla. 
CARLINA, ' Carline Thistle.' 
Cauli'na. Acaul'is, C. clianKs'leon, Chamm'- 
leon album, Cardopa'tium, (F.) Carline sans tige. 
Ord. Cumpositse, which grows in the Pyrenees, 
and on the mountains of Switzerland, Italy, Ac, 
has been recommended as a tonic, emmenagogue, 
and sudorific. 

Carlina Cham.eleon, C. acaulis. 
CARLIXE SAXS TIGE, Carlina acaulis. 
CARLISLE SPRINGS. These are about five 
miles from the town of Carlisle, in Pennsylvania. 
The water is mildly sulphureous. 

CARLO SANCTO RADIX. 'St. Charles's 
Root :' found in Mechoachan in America. The 
bark is aromatic, bitter and acrid. It is con- 
sidered to be sudorific, and to strengthen the 
gums and stomach. 

CARLSBAD, MINERAL WATERS OF. 
Carlsbad is a town in Bohemia, 24 miles from 
Egra, celebrated for its hot baths. The water 
contains about 47 parts in the 100 of purging 
salts. It is a thermal saline; temperature 121° 
to 167° Fahrenheit. The constituents are — car- 
bonic acid, sulphate of soda, carbonate of soda, 
and chloride of sodium. 

CARMANTINE, Justitia pectoralis— c. Pecto- 
rale, Justitia pectoralis. 

CARMEN, 'a verse.' An amulet.. A charm, 
which, of old, often consisted of a verse. See 
Charm. 

CARMINANTIA, Carminatives. 
CARMINATIVA, Carminatives. 
CARMIN'ATIVES, Canninan'iia SOU Car77ii- 
nati'va, from carmen, 'averse,' or 'charm,' An- 
tiphys'ica, Physago'ga, Xan'ticn, Antiphyset'ics, 
(F.) Carminati/n. Remedies which allay pain, 
'like a charm,' by causing the expulsion of 
flatus from the alimentary canal. They are gene- 
rally of the class of aromatics. 

The Four Greater Carminative Hot Seeds, 
Quat'uor sem'ina cal'idn vwjn'rn carminati'va, 
were, of old, anise, carui, cummin, and fennel. 

The Four Lesser Carmixative Hot Seeds, 
Quat'uor aem'ina cal'ida miuo'ra, were bishop's 
weed, stone parsley, smallage, and wild carrot. 

CARMOT. A name given, by the alchymists, 
to the matter which they believed to constitute 
the Philosopher's stone. 

CARNABADIA. Carura, (seed.) 
CARNABADIUM, Curainum cyminum. 
CARNATIO. Syssarcosis. 
CARNATION, Dianthus caryophyllus. 
CARN ELIAN, Cornelian. 
CARNEOLUS, Cornelian. 

CAR'NEOUS, Carno'sua, Sarco'des, Inearna'- 
tv», from caro, carnia, 'flesh,' (F.) Charnn. 
Consisting of flesh, or resembling flesh. 
Cabseous Columns, Fleshy Columns, Colum'- 



nee Carnem, of the heart, (F.) Colonnes charnuet, 
are muscular projections, situate in the cavities 
of the heart. They are called, also, Mua'culi 
Papilla' res. 

Car.veous Fibres, Fleshy Fibres, Mns'cidar 
Fibres, (F.) Fibres charnues ou viusculuiret, are 
fibres belonging to a muscle. 

CARNEUM MARSUPIUM, Ischio-trochan- 
terianus. 

CARNIC'ULA. Diminutive of caro, carnis, 
'flesh.' The gum. — Fallopius. 

CARNIFICA'TIO, Carnification — c. Pulmo- 
nuto, Hepatisation of the lungs. 

CARNIFICA'TION, Camifica'tio, from caro, 
carnis, 'flesh,' and fieri, 'to become.' Trans- 
formation into flesh. A morbid state of certain 
organs, in which the tissue .acquires a consistence 
like that of fleshy or muscular parts. It is some- 
times observed in hard parts, the texture be- 
coming softened, as in Osteosarcoma. When it 
occurs in the lungs, they present a texture like that 
of liver. Such is the condition of the foetal lung. 

CARNIFOR'MIS ABSCESS'US. An abscess, 
which ordinarily occurs in the neighborhood of 
the articulations, and whose orifice is hard, the 
sides thick and callous. — M. A. Severinus. 

CARNIVOROUS, Camiv'orus, Sarcoph'a- 
gus, Greatoph'agus, Creo2)h'agus, Zooph'agous, 
Creatoph'agous, Creoph' agous, Kreatnph' agona, 
(F.) Carnivore; from caro, carnis, 'flesh,' and 
voro, ' I eat.' That which eats flesh. Any sub- 
stance which destroys excrescences in wounds, 
ulcers, <fcc. 

CARNOSA CUTIS, Panniculus carnosus. 

CARNOS'ITAS, (F.) Camosite, irova. caro^ 
carnis. 'flesh.' A fleshy excrescence. 

CARNOS'ITIES OF THE URE'THRA, Car', 
uncles in the Ure'thra, (F.) Carnosites ou Cai-on- 
culea de I'uretre. Small fleshy excrescences or 
fungous growths, which were, at one time, pre- 
sumed to exist in the male urethra, whenever 
retention of urine followed gonorrhoea. 

M. Cullerier uses the term Carnosite venerienne 
for a cutaneous, cellular, and membranous tu- 
mour, dependent upon the syphilitic virus. See, 
also, Polysarcia. 

CARNOSUS, Carneous. 

CARO, Flesh — c. Accessoria, see Flexor longus 
digitorum pedis profundus perforans, (accesso- 
rius) — c. Excreseens, Excrescence — c. Fungosa, 
Fungosity — c. Glandulosa, Epiglottic gland — c. 
Luxurians, Fungosity — c. Orbicularis, Placenta — 
c. Parenchymatiea, Parenchyma — c. Quadrata, 
Palmaris brevis — c. Quadratus Sylvii, see Flexor 
longus digitorum pedis profundus perforans, (ac- 
cessorius) — c. Viscerum, Parenchyma. 

CAROB TREE, Ceratonia siliqua. 

CAROBA ALNABATI, Ceratonium siliqua. 

CAR ODES, Carotie. 

CAROLI, see Chancre. 

CAROLI'NA, NORTH, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. In the counties of Warren, Montgomery, 
Rockingham, Lincoln, Buncomb, and Rowan, 
there arc mineral springs. They belong gene- 
rally to the sulphureous or acidulous saline. 

CAROLINA, SOUTH, MINERAL WATERS 
OF. They are numerous. Pacolet Springs, on 
the west bank of Pacolet River, contain sulphur 
and iron. Many, with similar properties, but not 
held in estimation, are scattered about the State. 

CARONCULE, Caruncle— c. Lachrymale, Ca- 
runcle. 

CAROXCULES MYRTIFORMES!, Carun- 
culse myrtiformes — c. de I'Urltre, Carnosities of 
the urethra. 

CAROXCULEUX, Carnnculous. 

CAROI'I, Amomum cardamomum. 

CAROSIS, Somnolency. 

CAROTA, see Daucus carota. 



CAROTIC 



CARREAU 



CAROT'IC, Carot'icus, Carot'id, Carot'idus, 
OarotldoB'us, Caro'des, Com'atose, from Kopoj, 
'stupor,' (F.) Garotique. Relating to stupor or 
earus — as a carotic state; — or to the carotids, (F.) 
Carotidieii. 

Carotic Arteries, Carotids — c. Ganglion, 
see Carotid Nerve — c. Nerve, Carotid Nerve — c. 
Plexus, see Carotid Nerve. 
CAROTICA, Narcotics. 
CAROTICUS, Carotic. 
CAROTID, Carotic. 
CAROTID^US, Carotic. 

CAROTIDIEN, Carotic. 

CAROT'IDS, Carot'ides, Carot'icm, Carotidem, 
Capita'les, Jugula'res, Sopora'les, Sopora'ricB, So- 
porif'erm, Somnif era, Apnplec' tivcB, Lethar'gicm 
[Arte'rice), Carot'id Ar'teries, Cephal'ic Arteries, 
(F.) Arteres Carotides ; from /capos, 'stupor,' [?]. 
The great arteries of the neck, which carry blood 
to the head. They are divided into, 1. Primitive 
or common ; the left of which arises from the 
aorta, and the right from a trunk, common to it 
and the subclavian. 2. External or pericephaV ic, 
branch of the primitive, which extends from the 
last to the neck of the condyle of the lower jaw; 
and, 3. Internal, Arte'ria cercbra'lis vel ence- 
phal'ica, another branch of the primitive, which, 
arising at the same place as the external, enters 
the cranium, and terminates on a level with the 
fissure of Sylvius, dividing into several branches. 

Carotid or Carotic Canal, Cana'lis Carot'icus, 
Canal inflexe de I'os temporal — (Ch.), Canal caro- 
tidien, is a canal in the temporal bone, through 
which the carotid artery and several nervous 
filaments pass. 

Carotid or Carotic Foram'ina, Foram'ina Ca- 
rot'ica, (F.) Trons carotidiens, are distinguished 
into internal and external. They are the foram- 
ina at each extremity of the Canalis Caroticus. 

Carotid Ganglion, see Carotid nerve. 

Carotid Nerve, Carot'ic nerve, Nervus carot'- 
icus. A branch from the superior cervical gan- 
glion of the great sympathetic, which ascends by 
the side of the internal carotid. It divides into 
two portions, which enter the carotid canal, and, 
by their communication with each other and the 
petrosal branch of the vidian, form the carotid 
plexus. They also frequently form a small gan- 
gliform swelling on the under part of the artery 
— the carotic or carotid or cavernous ganglion, 
ganglion of Laumonier. 

Carotid Plexus, see Carotid nerve. 

CAR TIE, Daucus carota. 

CAROUA, Carum (seed). 

CAROUBIER, Ceratonium siliqua. 

CAROUGE, see Ceratonium siliqua. 

CARPAL, Carpa'lis; from Kupizoi, 'the wrist.' 
Belonging or relating to the carpus or wrist. 

CAR PAS A, Carbasa. 

CARPA'SIUM, Car'pasuni, and Garpie'sium. 
Dioscorides, Pliny, Galen, Ac, have given these 
names, and that of Carpasos, to a plant, which 
cannot now be determined, and whose juice, called 
Opocar'pason, oiroKapvaaov, passed for a violent, 
narcotic poison, and was confounded with myrrh. 

CARPATHICUM, see Pinus cembra. 

GARPE, Carpus. 

CARPENTARIA, Achillea millefolium. 

CARPENTER'S LEAF, Galax aphylla 

CARPESIUM, Carpasium. 

CARPHO'DES, CarphoVdes, from Kap^oi, 'floc- 
etdus,' and u6os, 'resemblance.* Flocculent, 
stringy ; — as mucus carphodes, flocculent or 
stringy mucus. 

CARPHOLOG"IA, Tilmns, Garpolog"ia, Cro- 
eidis'mus, Crocydis'mus, Floceo'rum vena'tio, Floo- 
eile'gium, Tricholog"ia, Crocidix'is, Floccila'tion, 
I'loccita' tion, from napfoi, 'Jloc'culus/ and Atyu), 



' I collect,' or 'pluck,' (F.) Garphologie. Action 
of gathering flocculi. A delirious picking of the 
bed-clothes, as if to seek some substance, or to 
pull the flocculi from them. It denotes great 
cerebral irritability and debility, and is an un- 
favourable sign in fevers, &c. 

CARPHOS, Trigonella fcenum. 

CARPIA, Linteum. 

CARPI^EUS, Palmaris brevis. 

CAR'PIAL, Car'pian, Garpia'nus, Carpia'lis, 
(F.) Oarpien. Belonging to the Carpus. 

Car'pialLig'aments, (F .) Ligaments Carpiens, 
are, 1. The fibrous fascial, which unite the bones 
of the carpus ; and, 2. The annular ligaments, 
anterior and posterior. 

CARPIAN, CarpiaL 

CARPIEN, Carpial. 

CARPISMUS, Carpus 

CARPOBALSAMUM, see Amyris opobal- 
samum. 

CARPOLOGIA, Carphologia— c. Spasmodica, 
Subsultus tendinura. 

CARPO-METACARPEUS MINIMI DIGITI, 
Adductor metacarpi minimi digiti — c. Jletacar- 
pien du petit doigt, Opponens minimi digiti — 
c. Metacarpjien du poitce, Opponens pollicis — c. 
Phalangeus minimi digiti. Abductor minimi digiti 
— c. Phalangien du ptetit doigt, Abductor minimi 
digiti, Flexor parvus minimi digiti — e. Phalangien 
du pouce, Flexor brevis pollicis manus — e. Sus- 
pTialangien du pouce, Abductor pollicis brevis. 

CARPO-PEDAL, from carpus, 'the wrist,' and 
pes, pedis, 'the foot.' Relating to the wrist and 
foot. 

Carpo-pedal Spasm, Cer'ehral spasmod'ie 
croup. A spasmodic affection of the chest and 
larynx in young children, accompanied by gene- 
ral or partial convulsions. The disease commonly 
occurs between the third and ninth month, and 
is characterized by excessive dyspnoea, accompa- 
nied by a loud croupy noise on inspiration ; the 
thumbs being locked, and the hands and feet 
rigidly bent for a longer or shorter period. The 
seat of the disease is evidently in the cerebro- 
spinal axis, primarily or secondarily: generally, 
perhaps, it is owing to erethism seated elsewhere, 
but communicated to the cerebro-spinal centre, 
and reflected to the respiratory and other muscles 
concerned. It seems to be connected with dental 
irritation; and consequently, in the treatment, 
where such is the case, the gums should be freely 
divided; after which, cathartics and revulsives, 
with the use of narcotics and appropriate diet, 
will generally remove the affection; for although 
extremely alarming, it is often not attended with 
great danger. See Asthma thymicum. 

CARPOS, Fruit. 

CARPOT'ICA, from xapiros, 'fruit.' Diseases 
affecting impregnation. Irregularity, difficulty 
or danger produced by parturition : — the 3d or- 
der, class Genetica, of Good. 

CARPUS, Carpis'mus, Braehia'le, Rasce'ta, 
Raste'ta, Rascha, Rase'ta, Raset'ta, Wrist, (Prov.) 
Hand-wrist, Shaclde, (F.) Carpe, Poignet. The 
part between the fore-arm and hand. Eight 
bones compose it (in two rows). In the superior 
row there are, from without to within — the Sca- 
phoides or navicula're, Lnna're or semiluna'^e, 
Cuneifor'me, and Orhieula're or pisifor'me. In 
the lower row — Trape'zium, Trapezoi' dee, Mag- 
num, and Uncifor'me. 

CARRAGEEN MOSS, Fucus crispus. 

CARRE, Quadratus — c. de la Cuisae, Quad- 
ratus femoris — c. des Lomhes, Quadratus lum- 
borum — c. du Menton, Depressor labii inferioris 
— c. du Pied, Extensor brevis digitorum pedis. 

CARREAU, Tabes mesenterica. 



CARRE E 



CARYOCOSTINUS 



CAR REE, see Flexor longus digitorum pedis j 
profundus perforans (acoessorius). | 

CARRE LET, (F.) Acita triaugula'ris. A 
Btraight needle, two or three inches long, the 
point of which is triangular; and which the 
ancients used in different operations. Also, a 
wooden, triangular frame for fixing a cloth 
through which different pharmaceutical prepara- 
tions are passed. 

CARRON OIL, Linimentum aquae calcis. 
CARROT, CANDY, Athamanta cretensis — c. 
Deadly, Thapsia. 

Carrot Plant, Caucus carota. 
CARTHAOENA BARKS, see Cinchona. 
CARTHAMUS MACULATUS, Carduus ma- 
rianus. 

Car'thamus TiN'CTO'Rins, Am'yron, Cnieu9, 
Crocus German' icHS seu Saracen' icus, Oar'tha- 
miim officina' rum, Car'duus sali'vus, Safra'num, 
Saffron-floicer, Safflower, Safflow, Bastard Saf- 
fron, Dyer's Saffron, (F.) Carthame, Safran 
bdtard, Carthame des Tcintiin'ers. Ord. Com- 
positae. Sex. Si/st. Syngenesia Polygamia aequa- 
lis. The seeds are aromatic, cathartic, and diu- 
retic; yet to the parroquet they are an article of 
food; hence their name, Grai'nes de Parroquet. 
The flowers, Car'ihamus (Ph. U. S.), are employed 
as a cosmetic, and are a reputed diaphoretic. [?] 
CARTHEGON, see Buxus. 
CAR'TILAGE, Chondros, Cartihi'go, Gristle, 
(Sc.) Girsle, (F.) Cartilarje. A solid part of the 
animal body, of a medium consistence between 
bone and ligament, which in the foetus is a sub- 
stitute for bone, but in the adult exists only in 
the joints, at the extremities of the ribs, <fec. 
Cartilages are of a whitish colour, flexible, com- 
pressible, and very elastic, and some of them 
apparently inorganic. They are composed, ac- 
cording to J. Davy, of .44 albumen, .55 water, 
and .01 phosphate of lime. 

CARTILAGE ANONYME, Cricoid, (carti- 
lage) — c. Epiglottic, Epiglottis — c. Mucrone, Xi- 
phoid Cartilage — c. Supra-arytenoid, Corniculum 
laryngis — c. Tarsal, see Tarsus. 

Cartilages, Articclar, Obdu'cent Car'tilagea, 
invest bony surfaces, which are in contact; hence 
they are called investing or incrusting cartilages, 
(F.) Cartilages de revetement ou d'encrofitement. 

Cartilages, Cuneiform, of the Larynx, see 
Cuneiform. 

CARTILAGES EBURN^S, see Eburnifica- 
tion. 

Cartilages, Interarticular, Menis'ci, are 
such as are situate within the joints, as in the 
knee joint. 

Cartilages, Intervertebral, see Interverte- 
bral. 

Cartilages of Ossifica'tion are such as, in 
the progress of ossification, have to form an in- 
tegrant part of bones; as those of the long bones 
in the new-born infant. They are termed tem- 
porary ; the others being permanent. All the 
cartilages, with the exception of the articular, 
are surrounded by a membrane analogous to the 
periosteum, called Perichon'drium. 

Cartilages op the Ribs are, in some respects, 
only prolongations of the ribs. Those of the nose, 
of the meatus auditorius, and Eustachian tube, 
present a similar arrangement. Other cartilages 
resemble a union of fibrous and cartilaginous tex- 
tures ; hence their name Fibro-cartilages. 

Cartilages op Santorini, Corniculum La- 
ryngis — c. Semilunar, see Semilunar — c. Sig- 
moid, Semilunar cartilages — c. of Wrisberg, 
Cuneiform Cartilages of the Larynx. 

CARTILAGINES GUTTURALES, Aryte- 
noid cartilages — c. Semilunares, Semilunar car- 
ti?.age8 — c. Sigmoideaj, Semilunar cartilages. 



Cartilagin'is ARYTENOiDiE^ Capitulum, Cor- 
niculum laryngis. 

CARTILAG'TNOUS, Cartilagin'eus, Cartila- 
gino'sus, Chondro'des, Chondroi'des, (P.) Carti- 
lagineux. Belonging to, or resembling cartilage. 
Cartilaginous Tissue, see Tissue. 
CARTILAGO, Cartilage— c. Clypealis, Thy- 
roid cartilage — c. Ensiformis, Xiphoid cartilage 
— c. Qutturalis, Arytenoid cartilage — c. Innomi- 
nata, Cricoid — e. Mucronata, Xiphoid cartilage — 
c. Peltalis, Thyroid cartilage, Xiphoid cartilage — 
c. Peltatus, Thyroid cartilage — c. Scutiformis, 
Thyroid cartilage- c. Uvifer, Uvula — c. Xiphoi- 
des. Xiphoid cartilage. 

CARUM, from Caria, a province of Asia. 
A'pium seu Bu'nium seu Ligns'ticum seu Ses'eli 
carvi seu carum, Slum carvi, Ca'reum, Caruin 
car'vi, Carvi, Citmi'num praten'se. Cams, Car'uon, 
the Car'away, (F.) Carvi, Cumin des pres. Order, 
Umbelliferae. Sex. Syst. Pentandria Digynia. 
The seeds, Caraway seeds, (Prov.) Carvy seeds, 
Carnaba'dia, Car'oua, Carum (Ph. U. S.), are 
carminative. Dose, gr. x to Jij, swallowed whole 
or bruised. The oil. Oleum Car'u'i, (F.) Huile de 
carvi, has the properties of the seeds. Dose, gtt. 
ij to vj. Aqua Car'ui, Car'away Water, is offi- 
cinal in the Pharmacopoeias of London and 
Dublin. 

Carum Bulbocastanum, Bunium bulbocasta- 
num. 

CAR'UNCLE, Carnn'cula, diminutive of caro, 
'flesh.' A small portion of flesh, Sar'dum, Sar- 
cid'ium. A fleshy excrescence, — Ecphy'ma car- 
nn'cula, (F.) Caroncide. 

Caruncle, Carnositas. 

Caruncles in the Urethra, Carnosities. 

Carun'cula Lacrtma'lis, (F.) Caroncide 
lacrymale. A small, reddish, follicular body, 
situate at the inner angle of the eye. It secretes 
a gummy substance. 

Cakuncula Seminalis, Gallinaginis caput. 

CARUNCUL^ CUTICULARES, Nymphse. 

Caruncul.e Mammilla'res. The extremities 
of the lactiferous tubes in the nipples. The 
olfactory nerves have been so called by some. 

Caruncul^ Myrtifor'mes, C. Vagina'les, 
Glan'dulm myrtifor'mes, (F.) Caroncnles myrti- 
formes. Small, reddish tubercles, more or less 
firm, of variable form, and uncertain number, 
situate near the orifice of the vagina, and formed 
by the mucous membrane. They are regarded 
as the remains of the hymen. 

CARUNCuLiE PAPiLLARES,PapillaB of the kidney. 

CARUN'CULOUS, Caruncular, (F.) Caroncit- 
leux. Relating to caruncles or carnosities. 

CARUON, Carum. 

CARUS, Kapos, Sopor caro'ticus. Profound sleep. 
The last degree of coma, with complete insensi- 
bility, which no stimulus can remove, even for » 
few instants. Sopor, Coma, Lethargia, and Co- 
rns, are four degrees of the same condition. 

Carus Apoplexia, Apoplexy — c. Asphyxia, 
Asphyxia — c. Catalepsia, Catalepsy — c. Ecstasis, 
Ecstasis — c. Hydrocephalus, Hydrocephalus in- 
ternus — o. ab Insolatione, Coup de soleil — c. Le- 
thargus. Lethargy — c. Lethargus cataphora. Som- 
nolency — c. Lethargus vigil. Coma vigil — c. 
Paralysis, Paralysis — c. Paralysis paraplegia^ 
Paraplegia — c. Veternus, Lethargy. 

CARVI, Carum. 

CARVY SEEDS, see Carum. 

CARYA, Hickory, Juglans regia — c. BasilicSi, 
Juglans regia. 

CARYDiOX, Corylus avellana. 

CARYEDOX CATAGMA, see Fracture. 

CARYOCOST'INUS, Caryocostinum. Aa elec- 
tuary prepared of the costus and other aromatia 
substances. &c. It was cathartic Sea Confectio 
scammoniie. 



CARYON 



173 



CASSUMUNIAR 



CARYON, Juglans regia — c. Ponticon, Corylus l 
Bvellana (nut.) 

CARYOPHYLLA, Geum urbanum. 

CARYOPHYLLATA AQUATICA, Geum ri- 
vale — c. Nutans, Geum rivale — c. Urbana, Geum 
urbanum — c. Vulgaris, Geum urbanum. 

CARYOPHYLLUM RUBRUM, Dianthus ca- 
ryophyllus. 

CARYOPHYLLUS AMERICANUS, see Myr- 
las pimenta — c. Aromaticus, Eugenia caryophyl- 
lata — c. Ilortonsis, Dianthus caryophyllus — c. 
Pimenta, Myrtus Pimenta — c. Vulgaris, Geum 
urbanum. 

CARYO'TI. The best kind of dates.— Galen. 

CAS RARES (F.), Rare cases. This term is 
used, by the French, for pathologieal facts, which 
vary from what is usual. See a celebrated article 
under this head in the Dictionnaire dea Sciences 
Medicales, Vol. IV. 

CASAMUM, Cyclamen. 

CASAMUNAR, Cassumuniar. 

CASCADING, Vomiting. 

CAS'CARA, CASCABIL'LA. Spanish words, 
which signify bark and little bark, under which 
appellations the bark (Cinchona) is known in 
Peru. They are now applied to the bark of Gro- 
ion cascarilla. The bark-gatherers are called 
Oascarilleros. 

CASCARILLA, Cascara, Croton cascarilla — c. 
Carabaya, see Cinchonse cordifoliae cortex — c. 
Colorada, Cinchonse oblongifolice cortex — e. Roxa, 
Cinchonae oblongifoliae cortex. 

CASOARILLEROS, see Cascara. 

CASCHEU, Catechu. 

CASE, Capsa, Theca, (F.) Caiase. This name 
is given to boxes for the preservation of instru- 
ments, or of medicines necessary in hospital or 
other service. We say, e. g. — A case of ampu- 
tating, or of trepanning instruments. A pocket 
case, Armamenta'rium portah'ile, (F.) Trousae, 
contains the smaller instruments in constant use 
with the surgeon. 

Case, Casus, from eadere, casiim, 'to fall.' 
The condition of a patient; — as a case of fever, 
Ac. (F.) Observation. Also, the history of a 

CASEARIUS, Cheesy. 

CA'SEIN, Caseine, Ca'aeum, Galactine, Tyrine, 
Lactalbu'men, Caseous matter, (F.) Caseine, 3Ia- 
tiere caaeuse, from caseua, 'cheese.' The only 
nitrogenized constituent of milk. It is identical 
in composition with the chief constituents of 
blood, — fibrin and albumen, all being compounds 
of protein. A similar principle exists in the vege- 
table, Vegetable Casein or Legu'min, Veg"etable 
Gluten. It is chiefly found in leguminous seeds 
— peas, beans, lentils. Like vegetable albumen. 
Casein is soluble in water; and the solution is 
not eoagulable by heat. 

Casein, Blood Globulin — c. of the Saliva, see 
Saliva — c. of the Small intestine, Albuminose. 

CASEOSUS, Cheesy. 

CASEOUS MATTER, Casein. 

CASEUM, Casein. 

CASEUS, Cheese — c. Equinus, Hippace. 

CASEUX, Cheesy. 

CASHEW, Anacardium occidentale. 

CASHOO. An aromatic drug of Hindoostan, 
said to possess pectoral virtues. 

CASHOW, Catechu. 

CASIA, Laurus cassia. 

CASMINA, Cassumuniar. 

CASMONAR, Cassumuniar. 

CASSA, Thorax. 

CASSADA ROOT, Jatropha manihot. 

CASSAVA, BITTER, Jatropha manihot — c. 
Root, Jatropha manihot. 

CASSE AROMATIQUE, Lauras cassia — c. 
Ml Bdtona, Qassia fistula — c. en Bois, Laurus cas- 



sia — c. dea Boutiques, Cassia fistula — c. Sini, 
Cassia senna. 

CASSE-LUNETTE, Centaurea cyanus, Cya- 
nus segetum, Euphrasia officinalis. 
CASSEENA, Ilex vomitoria. 
CASSENOLES, see Quercus infectoria. 
CASSIA, Laurua cassia — c. Absus, Absus — c. 
Acutifolia, C. senna — c. .Egyptian, C. senna — 
c. Alexandrina, C. fistula — c. Bonplandiana, C. 
fistula. 

Cassia Cham^cris'ta, Prairie senna. Par- 
tridge Pea, Wild Senna, an indigenous plant, 
Order, Leguminosae, which flowers in August. It 
resembles Cassia Marilandica in properties. 

Cassia Cinnamomea, Laurus cassia — c. Ca- 
ryophyllata, Myrtus caryophyllata — c. Canella, 
Laurus cassia — e. Egyptian, Cassia senna — c 
Excelsa, C. fistula. 

Cas'sia Fis'tula, C. nigra sen fistula'ria sen 
Alexandri'na seu exeel'sa seu Bonplandia'na, 
Canna, C. soluti'va seu fistula, Cathartocar' pus, 
Bactyrilo'bium fis'tula. Purging Cassia, (F.) Caaae 
Caneficier, Caneficier ou en Bdtona ou des Bou- 
tiques. The pulp of Cassia Fis'tida or Catharto- 
car'pus Fistula, Pudding pipe tree ; Fam. Legu- 
minosae; Sex. Syst. Decandria Monogynia, Pulpa 
Cas'aicB, Cassice Aramen'tum, Cassia Fisttdm 
Pulpa, (Ph. U. S.), which is obtained in long 
pods, is black, bright, and shining; sweet, slightly 
acid, and inodorous. It is laxative in the dose 
of 3iv to Jj. 

Cassia Lanceolata, C. senna — c. Lignea, 
Laurus cassia — c. Lignea Malabarica, Laurus 
cassia. 

Cassia Marilan'dica, Senna America'na, 
American or Wild Senna, Locust plant, (F.) Seni 
d'Amerique. The leaves of this plant are similar, 
in virtue, to those of cassia senna. They are, 
however, much inferior in strength. 

Cassia Nigra, C. fistula— c. Officinalis, G. 
senna — e. Orientalis, C. senna — c. Purging, Cas- 
sia fistula. 

Cassia Sk,nna, C. lanceola'ta seu acutifo'Ua 
seu orienta'lis seu officina'lis. The name of th« 
plant which affords senna. It is yielded, how- 
ever, by several species of the genus cassia. The 
leaves of senna, Sennce Folia, Senna Alexandri'- 
na seu Ital'ica, Sena, Senna or Egyptian Caaaia, 
(P.) Sene, Casse Sine, have a faint smell, and 
bitterish taste. The active part, by lome called 
Cathartin, is extracted by alcohol and water. 
Their activity is injured by boiling water. They 
are a hydragogue cathartic, and apt to gripe. 
Dose of the powder, ^j to 3J. Infusion is the 
best form. 

The varieties of senna, in commerce, are Tin- 
nivelly Senna, Bombay or Common India Senna,