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THE MINERAL INDUSTRY 



ITS 



STATISTICS, TECHNOLOGY AND TRADE 

DURING 

1913 



FOUNDED BY RICHARD P. ROTH WELL 



EDITED BY 



G. A. ROUSH, A.B., M.S. 

ASSISTANT PKOrSSSOR, DEPARTMENT OF MBTALLURGY, LEHIGH UNIVERSITY, 
ASSISTANT SBCRBTART OF THE AMERICAN ELECTROCHEMICAL SOCIETY 



VOLUME XXII 

Supplementing Volumes I to XXI 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 

239 WEST 39TH STREET, NEW YORK 

6 BOUVERIE STREET. LONDON. E. C. 

1914 



COPYXIGHT, 29x4, BY THE 

McGkaw^Hill Book Company, Inc. 



TBB*lCAPLS*PBB88.TOBK*PA 



189041 

OCT -5 1914 



|tru>MXJ^^ 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Abell, O. J. 

Wwten Editor. IrMi Ag; 1507 Otis Bldg.. 
CUeaco,IU. 

Cnicago Iron Markets. 
Abdicks, Lawbbnce 

DoqsImi. Axis. 

Eiectrolytio Copper Refining. 

AXLEN, R. C. 

Slate QtcAopg^ Landac Mioh. 
Salt in Michigan. 
Fjrrite in Michigan. 

Aston, James 

AMStaat ProfeHor of Metallurgy. Univenity 
of (Sneiiinati. Ctnoiiiiiati, O. 

Manganeae. 
Molybdenum. 
Nidul and Cobalt. 
Titanium. 

Austin, L. 8. 

CoDraltinc Meta]liirgi«a Engineer, Salt Lake 
€Hy. 

Metallurgy of Copper. 

Baolet, James 

State Mine Inmetor. Seattle, Wash. 
Coal in Washington. 

Bain, H. Foster 

Editor, Mtmng and ScUnHfic Pr—, Ban Fran- 
cifloo. Calif. 

Potassium Salts. 

Babtlett, R. L. 

laetraetor in Mining, Lelugli Univenity, South 
BetUehem, Pa. 
Zinc. 

Bebket, C. p. 

Inatnelor in Geology, Columbia Uniyenity, 
New York City. 

Corundum and Emery. 

Blacker, Geo. 



of Coal Minee, Dietriot No. 1. Cum- 
.Wyo. 

Coal in Wyoming. 
Blatchlet, Raymond S. 

GeofaMiet la Charge^of OU Studies, State 
Oedoi^anl Surrey, Urbana. IIU. 
Petroleum m Illinois. 



Buss, J. W. 

state Engineer, Blamarok, N. D. 
Coal in North Dakota. 

BOECK, P. A. 

Kieeelguhr Co. of Amerioa, 1106 Van Nuys 
BldgM Loe Angelee, Cal. 

DiatomaceouA Earth. 
Bolt, Martin 

Chief Qerk, 111. State Min. Board, Springfield. 
lU. 

Coal in Illinois. 

BOWNOCKER, J. A. 
State Geologist, Columbus, O. 
Petroleum in Ohio. 
Natural Gas in Ohio. 

Boyle, Edward 

Chief Mine Inspeetor, MoAlester, Okla. 
Coal in Oklahoma. 

Buck, C. A. 

President. Bethlehem Chfle Iron Mines Co., 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Iron Ore in Chile. 

Bunting, J. W. 

Box 872, Norfolk, Va. 

Hampton Roads Coal Market. 
Caetani, Gelasio 

Mininff Engineer. Crocker Bldg.. San Ftandsco. 

Analysis of Smelter Contracts. 
Callen, a. S. 

AsrisUnt in Metallurgy, Lehigh University. 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Selenium and Tellurium. 

Chamberlain, John W. 

90 Johnson Park, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Buffalo Coal Market. 
Channing, J. Parke. 

President, Miami Copper Company. 

Copper Minmg at the Miami. 



CoHO, H. B. 



United Lead Co., Ill Broadway. New York 
City. 

Lead. 



Ul 



IV 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Dbminq, H. C. 

Geologist, Harrisburgf Pa> 

Pyrite in Pennsylvania. 

Dbnnis, Clifford G. 

Mining Engineer, Crocker Bldg., San Francieoo, 
Cal. 

Quicksilver. 

FiCHTEL, Carl L. C. 

Electrical Department, Calumet and liecla 
Mining Co.. Calumet, Mich. 
Copper in Michigan. 

Fink, C. G. 

Research Chemiat, General Electric Co., Harri- 
son. N. J. 
Tungsten. 

Fischer, Siegfried 

Instructor in Metallurgy, Lehigh University, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Radium. 
Uranium and Vanadium. 

Fulton, Charles H. 

Professor of Metallurgy! Case School of Applied 
Science, ClevelandrO. 

Gold and Silver Milling. 

Garrison, F. Lynwood 

Mining Engineer, 982 Drezel Bldg., 
phia. Pa. 
Platinum. 

George, R. D. 

Director, State Geological Survey, 
Colo. 

Gypsum in Colorado. 
Petroleum in Colorado. 

Gordon, C. H. 

Associate State Geologist, University of Tenn., 
Knozville, Tenn. 
Bauxite. 

Hall, Frank 

Deputy to the Chief Mine Inspector, Penn- 
sylvania. Dept. of Mines, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Coal in Pennsylvania. 

Hamilton, F. McN. 

State Mineralogist, San Francisco, Calif. 
Pyrite in California. 



Philadel- 



Hawkins, J. p. 

Seoretarv, Bureau of Mines and ^fine Inspec- 
tion, Jefferson, Mo. 
Coal in Missouri. 

Henry, Earl A. 

Chief of Dei>t. of Mines, Charleston, W. Va. 
Coal in West Virginia. 



Hice, Richard R. 

State Geologist, Harrisburg. Pa. 

Petroleum in Pennsylvania. 
Natural Gas in Pennsylvania. 
Salt in Pennsylvania. 



Hill, Geo. 

Chief Inspector of Mines, Jefferson, 
Coal in Missouri. 



Mo. 



Hintze, F. F., Jr. 

Assistant Professor of Geology, Lehigh Uni- 
versity, South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Copper. 

HOFliAN, H. 0. 

Professor of Metallurgy, Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Teehnology, Boston, Mass. 

Recent Improvements in Lead 
Smelting. 

Huntley, L. G. 

Petroleum Engineer. Associated Geological 
Engineers, 331 Fourth Ave.. Pittsburg, Pa. 

Petroleum in Mexico. 
HuTCHiNS, John Power 

Consulting Mining Ensineer, St. Petersburg, 
Russia, and London, England. 
Copper in Russia. 
Gola in Russia. 
Platinum in Russia. 



Boulder, InGALLS, W. R. 



Editor, Bngineerino €tnd Mining Journal, 
York. N. Y. 

Metallurgy of Zinc. 



New 



JuDD, Edward K. 

Instructor in Mining, School of Mines, Colum- 
bia University, New York. N. Y. 
Asbestos. 
Magnesite. 
Mica. 
Tin. 

Kanary, Thomas 

state Inspector of Coal Mines, St. Charles, 
Mich. 

Coal in Michigan. 

Kebgan, Francis 

Assistant Commissioner of Labor, Pittsburgh, 
Kansas. 

Coal in Kansas. 
Kellogg, L. 0. 

Engineering and Mining JoumaU 505 Pearl St., 
New York City. 

Iron Ore in Minnesota. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Kennedy, J. E. 

Plfttteville. Wis. 

Zinc in Wisconsin. 

KihcMEL, H. B. 

Stoto G«oiocist, Trenton, N. J. 
Glass Sfind. 

Kttnz, Geo. F. 

Gem Expert, Tiffany A Co.. New York. N. Y. 
Predous Stones. 
International Carat. 

Landes, Henry 

8tat0 Geolocist. Seattle, Wash. 
G3rp8uni in Washington. 

Lehman, J. W. 

60 Bnoery Bldg., Columbus, O. 
Ohio Coal Market. 

Lesley, Robert W. 

611 PennsylTania Bldg.. Philadelphia, Pa. 
Cement. 

Lesue, E. H. 



> Editor, Mining and ScienHfie Pret; 
San Francisoo, Cal. 

Gold and Silver in Mexico. 
Locke, Charles E. 

Professor of l^iining, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technotocy* Boston, Mass. 

Ore Dressing and Coal Washing 
in 1912. 

Luty, B. E. v. 

Correspondent for the Knginterino and Mining 
Jcmnal, Pittoburgh, Pa. 

Pittsburgh Coal Market. 
Pittsburgh Iron and Steel Markets 

McDermott, J. B. 

SUte Coal Mine Inspeetor, Helena, Mont. 
Coal in Montana. 

MaGuibe, C. H. 

Instnietor in Chemistry, Lehigh University 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Bismuth. 

&t>mine and Iodine. 
Cadmium. 
Chromium. 



Matteson, W. G. 

lastmciorin Geology, Lehigh University, South 
Bethlehem. Pa. 

Petroleum and Natural Gas. 

Miller, Benjamin L. 

Profeesor of Geology, Lehigh University, South 
Bethlehem, Pa. 

Graphite. 



Newland, D. H. 

Assistant Stete Geologist. Albany, N. Y. 

Gramet. 

Gypsum in New York. 

Salt in New York. 



Norwood, C. J. 

Chief Mine Inspector. Lexington, 
Coal in Kentucky. 

Pearce, Frank I. 

Deputy Inspector of 
Indianapolis. Ind. 
Coal in Indiana. 



Ky. 



Mines and Mining, 



Peck, Frederick B. 

Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, Lafayette 
College. Easton, Pa. 

Talc and Soapstone. 
Pettit, J. E. 

State Mine Inspector, Salt Lake City, Uteh. 
Coal in Utah. 

Reed, A. H. 

Marion Ky. 
Barytes. 
Fluorspar. 

Read, T. T. 

Associate Editor, Mining and Sdeniifie Pre««, 
New York City. 

Antimony in China. 
Coal in China. 
Copper in China. 
Hycurometallur^ of Copper. 
Iron and Steel m China. 
Lead in China. 
Zino in China. 

Richards, J. W. 

Professor of Metalluigy, Lehigh University, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Aluminium. 

Richards, Robert H. 

Professor of Mining and Metallurgy, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, 
Mass. 

Ore Dressing and Coal Washing 
in 1912. 

Salisbury, Samuel H., Jr. 

Assistant Professor of Industrial Chemistry, 
Lehigh University. South Bethlehem. Pa. 
Sodium and Sodium Salts. 
Sulphur, Pyrite and Sulphuric 
Acid. 

Shannon, C. W. 

Stete Geologist. Norman, Okla. 
Gypsum in Oklahoma. 



VI 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS 



Sellards, E. H. 

Stete Geologist, Florida. 
Fuller's Earth. 

Shaw, S. F. 

136 Liberty St.. New York aty. 

Data of World'8 Principal Mines. 
Shaw, Thomas H. 

State Mine Inspector, Midland, Ark. 
Ck>al in Arkansas. 

Shurick, a. T. 

Assistant Editor. CooJL Age, New York City. 

Coal and Coke. 

SiNGEWALD, J. T. 

Maryland Geoloneal Survey, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Md. 
Feldspar. 

Smith, R. A. 

Assistant Geologist, State Geological Survey. 
Lansing, Mioh. 

Gypsum in Michigan. 

Stamm, L. E. 

Secretary, Iowa Mine Inspectors, Des Moines, 
Iowa. 

Coal in Iowa. 

Starnes, B. M. 

Sloss Sheffield Iron and Steel Co., American 
Trust Bldf ., Birmingham, Ala. 
Coal in Alabama. 

Stoughton, Bradley 

Secretary, American Inst, of Mining Engineer- 
ing, New York, N. Y. 

Metallurgy of Iron and Steel. 
Sylvester, Geo. E. 

Chief Mine Inspector. Nashville, Tenn. 
Coal in Tennessee. 

Thayer, B. B. 

President Anaconda Copper Company. 

Copper Mining at the Anaconda. 

Tibbitts, a. R. 

State Inspector of Coal Mines, Denver, Colo. 
Coal in Colorado. 



Tone, F. J. 



state Geologist, Cheyenne, Wyo. 
^ in Wyoming. 



Works Manager, Carborundum Co., Niagara 
Falls. N. Y. 

Silicon Carbide. 
Trxtmbull, L. W. 

iGeolo^ . _ 

Gypsum i 
VON Bernbwitz, M. W. 

Aasistant Editor, Mining and ScientijU Pr§M, 
Scm Frandsoo, Cal. 
Gold and Silver. 

Waggaman, W. H. 

Bureau of Soils, Washington, D. C. 
Phosphate Rock. 

Walters, William 

Chief Mine Inspector. Midland, Md. 
Coal in Maryland. 



Weintraub, E. 



Director of Research Laboratory of 
Electric Co., West Lynn, Mass. 

Boron. 



General 



Wheeler, H. A. 

Mining Engineer. St. Louis, Mo. 
Lead in Missouri. 

White, I. C. 

Stote Geologist, Morgantown, W. Va. 
Petroleum in West Virginia. 
Natural Gas in West Virginia. 

Wilder, F. A. 

President and'Manager, Southern Gypsum Co., 
North Holston, Va. 

Gypsum. 

WOLKINS, G. G. 

Correspondent, Coal Age, SO Congress St., 
Boston, Mass. 

Boston Coal Market. 
Coastwise Coal Trade. 

Wrather, W. E. 

Beaumont, Texas. 

Petroleum in Texas. 
ZiEGLER, Victor 

Associate Professor of Geology and Mineralogy, 
Colorado School of Mines. Golden. Colo, 
lithia. 



THE STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYS 



Of the 46 StatM of tlM Union, 34 hftve organised geolo|ipal sorvm, ihme oompriiinc nearly all of 
tkm Stataa in whieh the mininc induatiy is important. The organisation of a geologieal snnrey in 
Maflsaefavaetts is under oonsideration. Certain States whieh have no geologieal snnrey have offieials 
who girw attentioD to the mining industiy. Thus. California has a State mineralogist, while Idaho 
has a State mine inspector who ooUects statistios of mineral production. The States having organised 
geologieal surreys, together with the names and addresses of the respective State geologists, as of 
Jan. U 1014, are ^ven in the following list: 

STATE GEOLOGISTS. 



Name and Address. 



Stote. 



Name and Address. 



CoBBoetieat 
CoietBdo... 

FIfliJda 

G«na 

nfino" 

India 

Iowa, 

Kansas 

Kentueky.. 
Marrtaad.. 
MieUgan... 
MissiaMppi. 
fiSmn... 
Nebraska.. 
New Jersey 



Eugene A. Smith, University. 

NTF. Drake, Fayetteville. 

Wm. N. Rice, Hartford. 

R. D. George, Director, Boulder. 

E. H. Sellards, Tallahassee. 

S. W. McCalUe, Atlanta. 

P. W. DeWolf, Director, Urbana 

Edward Barrett, Indianapolis. 

Geo.F.KMr. Director, Dee Moines 

Erasmus Haworth, Lawrence. 

J. B. Hoenig, Ftenkfort. 

William Bullock Clark, Baltimore. 

R. C. Allen, Lansing. 

E. N. Lowe. Jackson. 

H. A. Bushier, Rolla. 

E. H. Barbour, Lincoln. 

H. B. Kflmmel, Trenton. 



New Mesieo. 
New York.... 
N. Carolina. . 
N.Dakota.... 

Ohio 

Oklahoma.... 
Pennsylvania , 
S. Carolina..., 

S. Dricota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington... 
West Vfrginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Chas. T. Kirk, Albuquerque 
John M. Clarke, Albany. 
Joseph Hyde Pratt, Chapel Hill. 
A. G. Leonard, Grand Forks. 
J. A. Bownocker, Columbus. 
C. W. Shannon, Norman. 
Richard R. Hice, Harrisburg. 
Earle C. Sloan, Charleston. 
E. C. Perisho, Vermillion. 
A. H. Purdue, Nashville. 
W. B. PhilUps, Austin. 
G. H. Perkins, Burlington. 
ThoB. L. Watson, CharlottesviDe 
Henry Landes. Seattle. 
I. C. White, Morgantown. 
W. O. HotchkiBS, Madison. 
L. W. Trumbull, Cheyenne. 



STATE MINE INSPECTORS, COMMISSIONERS. ETC. 



Bute. 


Name and Address. 


Ai«hvms 


C. H. Nesbit, Chief Mine Inspector, Birmingham. 
8. S. Smith, Mine Inspector, Junean. 


Afauka 


AiiioBa 


G. H. BoHn, State Mine Inspector, Phoenix. 


Arkansas 


r-%Rfflf»ie 


culture, litile Rock. 
F. Ma^' Hamilton, State Min^ralogtft, San Francisflo. 


Colorado 


T. R. Henahen, Commissioner, Denver. 




Jamee Dalrymple, Coal Mine Inspector, Denver. 
R. N. BeU, Stete Mine Inspector,^oise. 

E. M. Gray. Pres. State Mining Board. Dee Sioines. 
Frauds Keegan, SUte Mine Inspector. 
C. J. Norwood, Chief Mine Inspector. Lexington. 
Wm. Wftlterf, ^t^Ut Mine Intp^ctor. Midland. 


Idaho 

fadiaaa 


5s:l.- 




^**viaad 




R. M. Andrews, Commissiotter of Mineral Sutistios, Lansing. 

F. A. Wfldes, SUte Mine Inspector. Hibbing. 

George Bartholomaeus, Secretary, Bureau of Minee and Mines Inspection, 

Jefferson City. 
Geo. Hill, Chief Mine Inspector. 


Mtenri 




Montana 


W. B. Orein, State Mine Inspector. 

Ed. Ryan, Carson City. 

Rees H. Beddow. Mine Inspector Gallup. N. M. 




Nevada 


N«w Mesieo 


OWo 


J. G. Device, Chief Inspector of Mines, Columbus. 
Ed. Boyle, Chief Inspector, McAlester. 
H. M. Parks. Director, Bureau of Mines. Corvallis. 
Jamee Roderick. Chief Deoartment of Mines. Harrisburv. 


Off^oo 




Iss^Lkot^:::::::::: 


0. E. Ellerman, State Mine Inspector, Lead. 


?sr:::::::::::;:::: 


I. J. Broman, Stote Mine Inspector. Round Rock. 
J. E. Pettit, i^tote Mine Insp^r, bait Lake aty. 
R. B. Roanoe, Mine Inspector. Richmond. 
Jas. Bagley, Stete Inspector of Coal Mines, Seattle. 


West Vuglnia 







Vll 



VALUE OF FOREIGN COINS 

ESTIMATE BY DIRECTOR OP THE MINT, 1914. 



Country. 



Stand- 
ard. 



Monetary Unit. 



Value in 

Terms of 

U.S.Oold 

Dollar. 



Coins. 



Argentine Repub- 
Uo. 
Auettifr-Hungary . . 



Belgium.. 
Bolivia.. 
Bradl..., 



Britidi P( 
■ions, N. A. 
Central A m e r . 
States— Coste 
Rica. 
British Hondu- 
ras. 

Nicaragua 

Guatemala... 1 
Honduras. ... > 

Salvador J 

Chile 



Qold... 

Qold... 

Gold... 
Gold... 
Qold... 

Gold... 

Gold... 

Gold... 
Gold. 
SUver 
Gold... 



China. 



Silver 



Colombia. 

Denmark.. 
Ecuador. . 

Egypt. . . . 



Finland. 
France.. 



German Empire.. 
Great Britain.... 



Greece 

Haiti 

India (British)... 

Italy 

Japan 



Gold... 

Gold... 
Gold... 

Gold... 



Gold.. 

Gold.. 

Gold.. 
Gold.. 

Gold.. 
Gold- 
Gold.. 
Gold.. 
Gold.. 



Peso... 
Crown. 



Franc 

Boliviano. 
Milreis.... 



DoUar. 
Colon.. 



DoUar. . . 
Cordova. 

Peso 

Peso 



Tael.. 



Amoy...... ., 

Canton , 

Cheefoo 

ChinKiang. 

Fuchau 

Haikwan 

(customs). 
BLankow. ... 
Kiaoohow... 

Nankin 

Niuohwang,. 

Ningpo 

Pekinff 

Shanghai. . . 

Swatow 

Takau 

, Tientsin 

DoUar Yuan 

(Hongkong. . 
British 
Mexican .... 
Dollar 



Crown. 
Sucre.. 



Pound (100 piasters). 



Mark.. 
Franc. 



Mark 

Pound sterling. 



Drachma 

Gourde 

Pound sterling*. 

Lira 

Yen 



$0.9647 

.203 

.193 
.889 
.646 

1.000 

.465 

1.000 

1.000 

.422 

.365 



.690 
.661 
.676 
.640 
.704 

.647 
.670 
.685 
.649 
.665 
.674 
.632 
.639 
.696 
.670 
.504 
.455 
.455 
.458 
1.000 

.268 
.487 

4.943 



.193 

.193 

.238 
4.8665 

.193 

.965 

4.8665 

.193 

.498 



Gold: argentine ($4,824^ and | argentine. 

Silver: peso and divisions. 
Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. Silver, 1 and 6 

crowns. 
Gold: 10 and 20 francs. Silver: 5 francs. 

Silver: boliviano and divisions. 
Gold: 5, 10 and 20 milreis. Silver: |, 1 

and 2 milreis. 



Gold: 2. 5. 10 and 20 colons (99.307) 
Silver: 5, 10, 25 and 50 centimes. 



Silver: peso and divisions. 

Gold: eecudo ($1,825), doubloon ($3,650). 
and condor ($7.3(X)). Silver: peso and 
divisions. 



(3oid: condor ($9,647) and double con- 
dor. Silver: peso. 
Gold: 10 and w crowns. 
Gold: 10 snores ($4.8665). Silver: suore 

and divisions. 
Gold: pound (100 piasters), 5, 10, 20 and 

50 piasters. Silver: 1, 2. 5, 10 and 20 

piasters. 
Gold: 20 marks ($3,859), 10 marks 

($1.93). 
Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 francs. Silver 

5 francs. 
Gold: 5. 10 and 20 marks. 
Gold: sovereign (pound sterling) and i 

sovereign. 
Gold: 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 drachmas. 

Silver: 5 drachmas. 
Gold: 1, 2, 5 and 10 gourdes. Silver: 

gourde and divisions. 
Gold: soverei^ (pound sterling). Silver: 

rupee and divisions. 
Gold: 5. 10. 20, 50 and 100 Ure. Silver: 5 

lire. 
Gold: 5. 10 and 20 yen. Silver: 10, 20 

and 50 sen. 



NoTK. — ^The coins of silver-standard countries are valued by their pure silver contents, at the 
averase market price of silver for the three months preceding Jantzary 1, 1913. 

* The sovereign is the standard coin of India, but the rupee ($0.3244|) is the current coin, valued 
at 15 to the sovereign. 

viii 



VALUE OF FOREIGN COINS 



IX 



CouDtiy. 


Stand- 
.ard. 


Monetary Unit. 


Value in 

Terms of 

U.S.Gold 

Dollar. 


Coina. 


Liberia 


Gold... 
Gold... 

Gold... 

Gold... 
Gold... 
Gold... 

saver . 
Silver. 

Gold... 

Gold... 
Gold... 
Gold... 
G0I4... 

8Sli:: 

Gold... 
Gold- 
Gold... 

Gold... 
Gold... 

Gold... 
Gold... 
Gold... 


DoHar. , r . - . 


1.000 
.498 

.402 

1.014 

.268 

1.000 

.422 
.0875 

4.8665 

.500 

1.080 

.193 

.515 

1.000 
.193 
.3708 
.193 

4.8665 

.268 
.193 

.044 

1.034 

.193 




Mmko 


Peeot 


Gold: 5 and 10 peKM. Silver: dollar t 

(or peeo) and diviaiona. 
Gold: 10 florins. Silver: 2|. 1 florin, and 




Florin 


Newfoundland .... 


Dollar 


diviaione. 
Gold: 2 dollars ($2,027). 


Norwiiy 


Crown 


Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. 


PMiftmA 


Balboa 


Gold: 1. 2K 5. 10 and 20 balboas. SUver: 
peso and divisions. 


pSrr.v;;;;:: 


Peio. 


KranU 


Gold: i. 1, and 2 tomans ($3,409). Sil- 


p«ni 


Libra 


ver: i, i, 1, 2 and 5 krans. 
Gold: i and 1 Ubra. Silver: sol and 

divisions. 

Silver peso: 10. 20 and 50 oentavos. 
Gold: 1, 2, 5 and 10 milreis. 


Fhilippixie Trifindf 


Peao 


Milreia 




Leu 




RimiA 


Ruble 


Gold: 6. 74, 10 and 15 rubles. SUver: 
5. 10. 15. 20. 25. 50 and 100 copecks. 


8*Bto Domingo... 
Senria 


Dollar 


Dinar 




ss^in , . 


Tioal 




Spain 

8tnito Settlement. 

gwf^^ 


Peeeta 


Gold: 25 pesetas. Silver: 5 pesetas. 
Gold: soverei^ (pound sterhng). Silver: 
dollar and divisions. 
Gold: 10 and 20 crowns. 


Pound eterHngI 


SwitaerUnd 


Frano 


Gold: 5. 10. 20, 60 and 100 francs. Sil- 


Turkey 


Piaster 


ver: 5 francs. 

Gold: 26. 50. 100. 250 and 500 piasters. 
Gold: peso. Silver: peso and divisioDS. 
Gold: 5. 10. 20. 50 and 100 bolivars. 


UmcnaY 


Peeo 


Vcnestiela 


Bolivar 






5 boUvars. 



t Seventy-five centigrams fine gold. 
1 Value hi Mezieo. $0,498. 

I The current coin of the Straits Settlements is the silver dollar issued on Government account. 
d which has been given tentative value of $0.5677. 
It The Gold Kran $0.1704. 



RxmaiAX Wsxobts axd Mbabubxb. 

1 Dolia - .6857 grs. troy - (for gold at £3 13s per os.) 1 l/4d. 

1 Zolotnik i- 65. 8329 grs. troy « (for gold at £3 ISs per os.) lOs. 

1 Funt * 13.1665 os. troy * (for gold at £3 13s per os.) £48. 

I Pood -526.6632 os. troy - (for gold at £3 138 per os.) £1922. 

iPood -36.111b. av. 

62.025 Pood - 1 ton (2240 lb.). 

lArsehin -2 ft. 4 in. 

1 Saahen -7 ft. 

1 Deeiatine -2400 sq. saahens -2.7 acres. 

1 Vent -500 sashens - 1166 yd. or 2/3 mile approximately. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXII 

pAoa 

List of Contributors iii 

The State Geological Surveys vii 

Value of Foreign Coins viii 

Introduction xvii 

Abrasives: 

Artificial Aluminous Abrasives, Corundum and Emery, 
Garnet, Silicon Carbide 1 

Aluminium: 

Production, Prices, Imports, Progress, Properties, Alloys, 
Usee 13 

Antimony: 

Production, Prices, Imports, Antimony in China, Bibliography. 26 

Arsenic: 

Production, Imports, Markets, Uses, Bibliography 30 

Asbestos: 

Production, Market, Asbestos in foreign countries 33 

Asphalt: 

Production, Imports and exports. Bibliography 39 

Barytes: 

Production, Mining in the United States, Market, Imports. . 42 

Bauxite: 

Production, Imports and exports. Mining in the United States, 
Mining in foreign countries, Uses, Other sources of aluminium. 
Bibliography 47 

Bismuth: 

Production, Metallurgy, Uses, Bibliography 59 

xi 



xii CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXII 

PAOB 

Borax: 

Production, Imports, California deposits, Borax in foreign 
countries, Boron, Bibliography 62 

Bbomine and Iodine: 

Production, Imports, Uses 69 

Cadmium: 

Production, Imports, Uses, Bibliography 71 

Cebient: 

Production, Prices, Exports and Imports, World's market . . 72 

Chalk: 

Imports 82 

Chromium: 

Production, Imports, Chromium in foreign countries, Metal- 
lurgy, Bibliography 83 

Coal and Coke : 

Production, Markets, Imports and exports. Coal in the United 
States, Coal in foreign countries 88 

Copper: 

Production, Consumption, Imports and exports. Markets, 
Copper in the United States, Copper in foreign countries, 
Metallurgy,Electrolytic refining, Hydrometallurgy 125 

Cryolite: 

Imports, Uses 243 

Feldspar: 

Production, Uses 244 

Fluorspar: 

Production, Mining in the United States, Prices, Uses. . . . 247 

Fuller's Earth: 

Production, Imports, Uses 267 

Gold and Silver: 

Production, Markets, Mining in the United States, Mining in 
foreign countries. Progress in gold and silver milling 261 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXII xiii 

PAGE 

Graphite: 

Properties, Occurrence, Origin, Uses, Production, Graphite in 
the United States, Graphite in foreign countries 361 

Gypsum: 

Production, Gypsum in the United States, Gypsum in foreign 
countries 372 

Ibon and Steel : 

Iron ore, Imports and exports, Markets, Iron and Steel in 
the United States, Iron and steel in foreign countries, Metal- 
lurgy 382 

Lead: 

Production, Markets, Imports, Lead poisoning, Lead in the 
United States, Lead in foreign countries, Metallurgy .... 430 

Lithia: 

Production, Occurrence, Uses 481 

Magnesite: 

Production, Imports, Magnesite in California, Magnesite in 
foreign countries. Uses 483 

Manganese: 

Production, Imports, Manganese in foreign countries, Tech- 
nology, Bibliography 490 

Mica: 

Production, Imports, Mica in foreign countries 500 

Moltbdenum: 

Consumption, Prices, Occurrence, Technology, Bibliography. 507 

MoNAziTE Sand: 

Production, Imports, Monazite in foreign countries 510 

NiCKEi* AND Cobalt: 

Production, Markets, Imports and exports, Nickel in foreign 
countries. Technology, Cobalt, Bibliography 517 

Petroleum and Natural Gas: 

Production, Markets, Imports and exports, Petroleum in the 
United States, Petroleum in foreign countries, Bibliography, 
Natural Gas in the United States, in foreign countries. Bib- 
liography 533 



XIV CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXll 

PAoa 

Phosphate Rock: 

Production, Phosphates in the United States, Phosphates in 
foreign countries, Bibliography 576 

Platinum: 

Production, Market, Imports, Platinum in foreign countries. 
Bibliography 595 

Potassium Salts: 

Production, Imports and exports. Potash in foreign countries, 
Potash in the United States, Bibliography 607 

Precious Stones: 

Diamonds, Amber, Emerald, Garnet, Jade, Lapis-lazuli, Opal, 
Pearls, Sapphire, Tourmaline, Turquoise, Production, Markets, 
Imports 622 

Quicksilver: 

Production, Markets, Exports, Quicksilver in foreign countries. 651 

Radium: 

Sources, Technology, Market, Occurrence, Bibliography . . . 657 

Selenium and Tellurium: 

Production, Exports, Uses 662 

Siuca: 

Diatomaceous earth, Flint, Glass sand. Other sands. Quartz, 
Bibliography 663 

Sodium and Sodium Salts: 

Nitrate, Soda, Salt, Production, Imports, Bibliography . . . 676 

Sulphur, Pyrite and Sulphuric Acid: 

Production, Imports and exports. Markets, Sulphur in the 
United States, Sulphur in foreign countries. Pyrite; Pro- 
duction, Imports, Pyrite in the United States, Pyrite in 
foreign countries. Technology, Bibliography. Sulphuric Acid; 
Production, Technology 691 

Talc and Soapstonb: 

Varieties, Uses, Production, Imports, Market, Talc in the 
United States 713 

Tin: 

Production, Imports, Markets, Tin in the United States, Tin in 
foreign countries 723 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXII XV 

PAOB 

Titanium: 

Occurrence, Technology, Uses, Bibliography 766 

Tungsten: 

Production, Prices, Imports, Tungsten in the United States, 
Tungsten in foreign countries. Technology, Bibliography. . . 762 

Ubanium and Vanadium: 

Sources, Technology, Uses, Market, Bibliography 773 

Zinc: 

Production, Imports, Exports, Consumption, Smelting Capac- 
ity, Markets, Zinc in the United States, Zinc in foreign 
countries. Bibliography, Metallurgy 778 

Special Chapters 

Ore Dressing and Coal Washing: 

Crushing and Grinding, Screening and classifying, Amalgama- 
tion, Magnetic and electrostatic separation. Centrifugal sepa- 
ration, Dry concentration. Flotation processes, Accessory 
apparatus, Principles, Theory, General ideas. Examples of 
practice. Treatment of coal. Bibliography 808 

Htdrometallurgt op Copper 870 

Analysis op Smelter Contracts 877 

New International Diamond Carat 892 

Data op the World's Principal Mines: 

Tonnage, Profits, Dividends, Costs, Reserves 913 

MiNEBAL Statistics: 

Production, Imports, Exports, Foreign countries, United 
States 917 

Index 999 



INTRODUCTION 

Since taking up the work of preparing the present volume of Mineral 
Inbustbt, the Editor has met with a number of questions that seem to 
indicate that a very appreciable percentage of the mining and metal- 
luigical public does not have a proper understanding of the reasons for an 
undertaking of this kind. The object in compiling this volume has 
been to make as complete a record as possible of the progress of the year 
m the mining and metallurgical industries. Production statistics are 
of course an important part of a record of this kind, and have been used 
extensively. So far though as the production statistics are concerned, 
the figures given are taken largely from the official reports of the countries 
concerned, and so if production statistics alone are sought, more detail 
will be given in the various reports than can be duplicated here. But the 
aim in compiling Mineral Industry is to make the volume not merely a 
record of productions, but also of progress. With this in view, the attempt 
has been made to combine the more important statistics, from whatever 
source they may be gleaned, with such extracts from the current litera- 
ture as have an important bearing on the subject in question, and suffi- 
cient discussion of the prevailing commercial conditions to show the trend 
of the financial side of the industry; in short, to prepare, so far as possible, 
a well-rounded review of the progress of the year in each of the various 
mineral and metallurgical industries that will, on the one hand, serve the 
needs of the average reader, the technical man, the business man or the 
student; and on the other hand, while not being complete enough fully 
to meet the demands of the specialist or investigator, will furnish him 
with the key to the situation, and the ifoundation on which to build a more 
detailed investigation of the subject. 

A mere scissors-and-paste compilation of the available data, while of 
some value, is open to much improvement; the material should be put 
together by one who is thoroughly familiar with the general conditions 
5urroandiiig the industry as a whole, and one who is able to weigh the 
relative importance of such information as is to be included in the report. 
With this in view, this volume, more than any of its predecessors, has 
been put into the hands of outside contributors. Wherever possible the 
preparation of the article was turned over to a specialist in that particular 

XVII 



xviii MINERAL INDUSTRY 

line, so that the reader would get the benefit not only of the particular 
information included in the report, but also that specialist's weighing of 
the relative importance of that information. 

A number of the mineral industries, particularly those connected 
with the pottery and building trades, are so widely scattered that their 
treatment is beyond the scope of a general report of this kind. A few 
industries relating to manufactured substances are included, where the 
production of the manufactured material is closely associated with that 
of the raw material, or where it is replacing to a considerable extent some 
natural material; e.g., coke, artificial graphite and cement. 

The statistics presented are the best available at the time of publica- 
tion. Wherever possible they are the official figures of the country in 
question. Where It is known, the source of the statistics is shown. 

For many of the production statistics we are indebted to the U. S. 
Geological Survey, and to the corresponding departments of the various 
foreign countries; for the United States imports and exports, to A. H. 
Baldwin, Chief of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 
Acknowledgment is also due to many of the State Geological Surveys 
and mining bureaus for statistics and general information. In only one 
case was cooperation of this kind refused. 

In most cases, the sources of information are shown in footnotes; 
any variation from this rule is an unintentional oversight. Our indebted- 
ness to the columns of the technical press is gratefully acknowledged, 
particularly to Engineering and Mining Journal, Mining and Scientific 
Press, Mining and Engineering World, Coal Age, Mining Journal, CarM- 
dian Mining Journal, Australian Mining Standard, UEcho des Mines et de 
la Metallurgie and Gluckauf. 

The make-up of the volume is very similar to the preceding volumes, 
the various industries being taken up in alphabetical order. The only 
change made is the placing together of a number of similar materials 
under a single class name, instead of listing them separately; e.g., Alun- 
dum, Corundum, Garnet and Silicon Carbide, are all grouped together 
under the heading Abrasives. In the latter part of the volume will be 
found several articles of general interest. The statistical tables at the 
end are made up so far as possible from the official reports of the various 
countries. As these are often a year or more behind, the plan has been 
adopted of completing the tables to date, so far as possible, with unofficial 
statistics; this will undoubtedly increase the value of the tables, even 
though some of the figures used are only approximately correct. All 
unofficial figures in the tables are given in italics to distinguish them from 
the official figures. The index has been made as detailed as possible, 
and all items are thoroughly cross-indexed. No matter how good it may 



INTRODUCTION xix 

be, a technical book can never reach its maximum usefulness unless 
it is properly indexed. And indeed, with a reference book, such as this 
is intended to be, one might almost paraphrase the old saw to read "A 
book is no better than its index." 

A word concerning the use of Mineral Industry will possibly not 
be out of place. As indicated on the title page, this volume is a supple- 
ment to Volumes I-XXI, but at the same time it is more than a supple- 
ment. It not only adds the data for the year 1913, but also gives correc- 
tions of the figures incorporated in previous volumes. Hence, it is 
important in using Mineral Industry, always to use the latest volume 
even for figures for previous years, in order to get the benefit of these cor- 
rections, except, of course, in the case of the less important statistics, 
which are not carried from year to year, but are given only once. 

In conclusion, the Editor expresses his gratitude and his indebtedness 
to the Contributors of the various articles incorporated in this Volume for 
their hearty cooperation, for to them is due a large measure of the credit 
for whatever of value the volume may contain. 

G. A. RousH. 
South Bethlehem, Pa. 
July 1, 1914. 



ABRASIVES 

Artificial Aluminous Abrasives 

Alundum is oxide of aluminium (AUOa), produced by complete fusion 
of bauxite in an electric arc furnace. The production of alundum is 
exclusive under patents held by Norton Co., whose electric furnace 
plant is located at Niagara Falls, N. Y. 

The net effect of the dehydration, purification and crystallization 
from fusion of the oxide of aluminium from bauxite is a semi-crystalline 
material having the hardness and toughness of the purest corimdum, 
but having the advantage of being imiform in all its properties. In fact, 
its degree of purity, character of impurities, physical properties, etc., are 
under control and can be varied within sufficiently wide limits to satisfy 
all abrasive requirements. 

Incidentally, since alumina is one of the most refractory of the mineral 
oxides, taken alone or in fusion with other oxides and with silicates — 
especially those of ceramic use — alundum grain has a unique value as a 
refractory constituent in all laboratory wares. Being a good heat con- 
ductor, and having a high specific heat, it is an excellent material in muf- 
fles, especially those for electric furnaces. Since alundum is not easily 
attacked by acids or alkalis, and since in grain form it has comparatively 
large size, it has served well in filtering mediums of various shapes, such 
as cones and dishes used in the same manner as the Gooch crucible has 
been used. 

The production of alundum during the past 9 years is as follows: 

PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES. 

Year. Pounds. Value. 

1904 4,020,000 $281,400 

1905 3,612,000 252,840 

1906 4,331,233 303,186 

1907 6,761,444 405,086 

1908 3,160,000 189,600 

1909 13,578,000 814,680 

1910 13,410,000 804,600 

1911 11,116,000 666,960 

1912 13,266,486 795,989 

1913 20,203,600 1,212,216 

Aloxite is a form of fused crystalline alumina or artificial corundum 
manufactured by the Carborundum Co. and produced in the electric 
furnace using emery ore as a source of alumina. The furnace operates 
at 375 kw. and consists of a carbon-lined base and removable fire-brick 

1 



2 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

side walls. Two vertical electrodes are employed. The furnace charge 
consists of crushed emery and coke, the function of the latter being to 
reduce the major portion of the iron and silica which are the principal 
impurities in emery. 

The ingot of aloxite produced in each furnace weighs about 4 tons. 
It is broken down, sorted, crushed, washed, graded, concentrated and 
put through special processes to remove the impurities consisting princi- 
pally of ferro-silicon and certain reduction products. The typical analy- 
sis is as follows: 

Alumina 96.55 

Silica 0.19 

Iron oxide 0.21 

Titanium oxide 2.09 

lime 0.96 

In physical structure aloxite consists of pure alumina crystals with an 
interstitial or residual basis of the other components. The alupiina crys- 
tals are identical in optical and crystallographic character with natural 
sapphire crystals of great purity. The fracture of both is choncoidal. 
Aloxite is pinkish brown in color and has a hardness slightly over 9. 
Aloxite has all the valuable abrasive and refractory properties of other 
well-known varieties of artificial corundum and is largely used in the 
manufacture of grinding wheels for steel, malleable iron and glass. 

The production of aloxite by the Carborundum Co. at its Niagara 
Palls plant for the year 1913 was 2,413,1901b. In October, 1912, 
the Carborundum Co. completed a plant at Sarrancolin, France, 
for the production of aloxite from bauxite?. This plant was placed in 
operation with an initial capacity of 2000 h.p. with provision for en- 
largement to 5000 h.p., which is now in progress. 

Corundum and Emert 
By C. P. Bbbkbt 

Corundum is a simple mineral, AUOs, in composition, next to the 
diamond in hardness, occurring in crystals and crystalline grains asso- 
ciated with certain igneous and metamorpbic rocks. There is always 
some impurity, chiefly FeaOs and SiOa. In the finest material analyses 
show 95 to nearly 99 per cent. AI2O8. The common rock varieties are 
useful for abrasive purposes and the rarer crystal varieties are used as 
gems. The mineral is in good demand, but the irregularity of its dis- 
tribution and the difficulties and cost of its separation from the rock 
matrix hamper production. 

Emery is a natural ihtergrowth or mbcture of corundum and magnetite 
with associated substances such as spinel, quartz, etc. It is usually a 



ABRASIVES 3 

fine-grained close-textured rock of black color because of the presence 
of large amounts of magnetite. Its efficiency as an abrasive depends 
chiefly upon the corundum contained in it; but some varieties contain 
much spinel which is only one point lower in hardness than corundum 
itself, and therefore adds materially to the efficiency of the whole mixture. 

Occurrence. — Conmdum has been found in small amounts in Montana, 
Idaho, Colorado and California, but the principal belt of corimdum-bear- 
ing rock within the borders of the United States lies on the easterly 
margin of the Appalachian province. Both corundum and emery are 
associated chiefly with certain basic igneous intrusives of the nature of 
peridotites, norites and pyroxenites that appear at several points along 
a belt reaching from Massachusetts to Alabama. The largest develop- 
ment of these rocks is in North Carolina, where the corresponding rock is 
a dunite, and the corundum occurs in faregular patches and tongue-like 
strips along and near the margins of the large intrusive mass. The 
corundum has been regarded as a sort of segregation effect in the crystal- 
lization of a magma over-rich in alumina. Some of the local variations, 
however, lead one to suspect a local segregation effect induced by the 
inclusion and absorption of masses of country rock by the magma. In 
North Carolina also there is corundum in the country rocks which are 
schists and gneisses. The origin of this variety is uncertain. Georgia 
and South Carolina have similar deposits and they have been reported 
from Virginia. 

There are two occurrences of emery. One is in the Cortlandt series 
of basic intrusives near Peekskill, N. Y., and the other is in a narrow 
strip of amphibolite traceable for several miles at Chester, Mass. 

Corundum occurs also in the province of Ontario; Canada, in Hastings 
and Renfrew counties, where it is associated with a series of nepheline- 
bearing syenites. It is a differentiation product of the intrusion, and 
occurs in pegmatitic stringers and irregular distributions in the igneous 
rock as one of the essential constituents. 

The most interesting foreign occmrence is in the Urals where corundum 
b found at several places associated with or forming an essential constitu- 
ent of a syenite. At Kyschtym this type of rock is so characteristically 
developed that it has been given a special name, Kyschtymite. It some- 
times carries as much as 60 per cent, of corundum. Corundum also 
occurs in India in important amount and in the Transvaal and Madagas- 
car. 

The principal foreign occmrences of emery are the island of Naxos, 
Greece, Turkey and Bavaria. 

Production. — Artificial abrasives have steadily encroached on the 
fidd formerly held by corundum and emery. The cost of mining and 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



separation of corundum is said to be about $40 per ton in the best Ameri- 
can plants and there seems to be little chance of reducing it. 

No corundum has been produced for the market in the United States 
since 1906. There have been several attempts to establish plants for 
its production, especially in North Carolina, but either the difficulty and 
expense of separation from the rock, or the h-regularity and uncertainty 
of its distribution, or error in location and method have in all cases led 
to either temporary or permanent abandonment of the projects. 

In Canada the working of corundum deposits has been more success- 
ful. A very large plant was running at Craigmont on the rich corundum 
syenite until last year when the mill was burned. This plant has not 
been rebuilt. The Manufacturers Corundum Co. now controls 
the whole of the Canadian corundum industry. The mines arp in Carlow 
(formerly operated by the Ontario Corundum Co.) and in Raglan (form- 
erly operated by the Canadian Corundum Co.). 

Emery is produced from the Peekskill district in New York and the 
Chester district in Massachusetts. The working is all on a small scale 
from open cuts. The Peekskill emery is very impure and very variable. 
There are many small workings or places where there has formerly been 
some work done mostly by the owners of the farms as the demand is felt. 
The quality of the Chester emery is higher but operations there are virtu- 
ally suspended. 

All of the corxmdum and practically all of the emery used in the 
United States is imported, and nearly all comes from Naxos, Greece, 
where the production is under government control. 

Canada. — The following tables summarize th^ production of corundum 
and emery so far as statistics are available and of apparent service for 
the present purpose. The tables covering Canadian production have 
been prepared by Mr. John McLeish of the Department of A^es, Ottawa. 

CANADA CORUNDUM ORB MINED AND ANNUAL PRODUCTION OF GRADED 

CORUNDUM. 



Year. 


Corundum-bearing Rock 
Treated. 


Grain Corundum 
Graded. 


Percentage of Corun- 
dum in Rock aa Deter- 
mined by Recovery. 




Tona 


Tona 


Percent. 


1900 




60 




1901 


4,134 


444 


i6!74 


1902 


7,996 


806 


10.08 


1903 


(a)8.877 


839 


9.45 


1904 


28,187 


1.654 


5.87 


1905 


23.571 


1,681 


7.13 


1906 


45.719 


2.914 


6.37 


1907 


60.532 


2.682 


4.43 


1908 


2.678 


106 


3.96 


1909 


35.894 


1.579 


4.40 


1910 


37,183 


1.686 


4.53 


1911 


41.795 


1.641 


3.93 


1912 


36,879 


1.620 


4.39 


1913 


12,290 


763 


6.21 



(a) In addition to thia amount which waa milled in Canada, 267 tona were mined and ahipped to the 
United Statea for treatment there. 



ABRASIVES 

ANNUAL SALES AND SHIPMENTS OF GRAIN CORUNDUM. 





Grain Coi^ 
undura sold 
in Canada. 


Grain Corun- 
dum sold for 
Export. 


Total 
Sales. 


Value. 

Dollars 

300 

46.415 

84.465 

77,510 

109.545 

149.153 

204,973 

177.922 

100.398 

162.492 

198,680 

161.873 

239.091 

137,036 


Average 

Value per 

Lb. 


1900 


Tons 

3 

85 

106 

85 

116 

140 

162 

164 

99 

129 

106 

93 

64 

23 


Tons 


Tons 

3 

387 

768 

703 

993 

1,644 

2.274 

1,892 

1,089 

1,491 

1.870 

1,472 

1,960 

1.177 


Cents 
5.00 


1901 


302 

662 

618 

877 

1.504 

2.112 

1.728 

990 

1,362 

1,764 

1.380 

1.896 

1,154 


5.97 


1902 


5.49 


1903 


5.51 


1904 


5.51 


1905 


4.48 


1906 


4.50 


1907 


4.70 


1906 


4.60 


1909 


5.45 


1910 


5.31 


1911 


5.50 


1912 


6.10 


1913 


5.82 







In 1912, 1459 tons of corundum valued at $152,249 and in 1913 
920 tons valued at $100,156 was shipped by Canadian mines to the United 
States. 

Germany. — The emery production in Bavaria for 1910, was 270 tons 
valued at $2892, and for 1911, was 210 tons, valued at $2256. Manu- 
facturing of emery cloth is an industry of some importance in connection 
ihith this product. 

Greece, — The production for 1912, was only 3359 tons. The average 
price was $19.04 per ton (metric) which is a little less than the price 
for 1911. 







EXPORTS OF EMERY FROM NAXOS. GREECE. 






Year. 


Metric Tons. 


Value. 


Year. | Metric Tons. 

1 


Value. 1 


1 
Year. Metric Tons. 


Value. 


ia97.... 

1988..,. 

WW.... 
1900.... 
1901.... 
1W2.... 


3.125 
4.500 
5.139 
6,023 
6.080 
4315 


$65,683 
93.166 
106.181 
124.503 
125.582 
88.841 


1903.. 
1904.. 
1905.. 
1906.. 
1907.. 
1908.. 


5313 
6.353 
6.395 
8.030 
10.982 
7471 


$120,348 
131.531 
132.090 
166.251 
221.154 
164.520 


1909.. 
1910.. 
1911.. 
1912.. 
1913.. 


8.193 
12.939 
9.845 
8,268 
1.440 


$164,762 
255.053 
202.119 
157,422 



India. — An increase of output of corundum has been noted in recent 
years from India, almost the whole production being from Madras. In 
1910, the output was valued at $3074, in 1911, at $8123. 

Madagascar. — It is reported in the Daily Consular and Trade Report 
that in 1912, 496 tons of corundum was exported from Madagascar and 
that a production of 1500 tons was estimated for 1913. 

Turkey. — The oflScial reports of the Department of Mines and Forests 
give the production of emery as 62,352 metric tons, valued at $302,407 
for 1908, and 24,475 metric tons, valued at $118,703 for 1909. 

Imports. — The imports of corundum and emery are classified into 
corundum ore, emery ore, corundum grains and emery grains; the last 



6 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



two manufactured, ground, pulverized or refined. Emery grains are 
dutiable at 1 cent per pound — the others are free. For the fiscal year 
1913, the corundum ore imported was 540 tons valued at $78,401 or 
$145.17 per ton. Corundum grains were imported to the amount of 
1,855,400 lb. valued at $87,187 or 4.7 cents per pound. Emery ore to 
the amount of 18,911 tons valued at $328,211 or $17.36 per ton was im- 
ported, and emery grains to the amount of 886,315 lb., valued at $36,908 
or 4.2 cents per pound. In addition there is considerable importation 
of manufactured wheels, etc., under a duty of 25 percent. But the exports 
exceed the imports of such goods. 



STATISTICS OF CORUNDUM AND EBiERY IN THE UNITED STATES. 






Production, (a) 


Imports. 


Year. 


Short 
Tona. 


Value, (b) 


Grains. 


Ore and Rook. 


other 
Bifra. 




Founds. 


Value. 


Long 
Tons. 


Value. 


Value. 


1899 


;l,.07O 

5,^30 
4;^05 

■1^51 
'2M2 
1 M32 

lc)IM7 
(e\ 1 ,089 
(ci r^69 
(CI 1 .S80 
(c 1 ,028 
(c-i 059 
(e) U92 
(a^ 959 


$228,570 

247,100 

146.040 

104.605 

64.102 

67.235 

19.677 

22,780 

12.294 

8.745 

18.185 

15.077 

6.778 

6.652 

4.785 


661,48^ 
l,0Sfl,729 
I,a66,7;i7 

3,595H2:ia 

2.281.193 
3.209*»14 
4,655,1 6S 
4,2^2 :22H 
1.735.3B6 
2,GHfi,t*m 

l<a8S,Sl3 
2,I35,U22 
a J4 1,7 15 


$29,124 

26.520 

43.217 

49.107 

109.272 

109.772 

143.729 

215,357 

186.156 

89,702 

132.264 

53.709 

76.027 

105.325 

124.095 


7.435 
11.392 
12.441 

7.157 
10.884 

7.054 
11.072 
13.840 
11.235 

8.084 

9.836 
16,321 
10,822 
16,391 
19.451 


$116,493 
202,980 
240,856 
151.959 
194,468 
138,931 
185.689 
286.386 
211.184 
146.105 
186.930 
344,421 
245.459 
379.529 
406,612 


$11,514 


1900 


10.006 


1901 


10.926 


1902 


13,776 


1903 


17.829 


1904 


11.721 


1905 


17.996 


1906 


19.105 


1907 


15.282 


1908 


12.592 


1909 


19.803 


1910 


13.527 


1911 


15,158 


1912 


16.871 


1913 


15,006 







(a) Statistios of the United States Oeolocioal Survey for 1901-1912. (b) Values have not mueb 
st^ifioauoe owing to the wide variation in the quality of the materials combined in the totals, (e ) 
Emery only. 



Garnet 

Bt D. H. Newland 

The production of garnet for abrasive uses represents a specialized 
and rather limited branch of the mining industry. Garnet has certain 
physical qualities which make it an ideal abrasive for some classes of 
work, notably in leather manufactures, and there is little likelihood that it 
will be displaced in the trade by other abrasive materials. But the 
market is not capable of absorbing more than a few thousand tons a 
year, at least on the present basis of prices. The production for many 
years has ranged between 4000 and 5000 short tons, the largest recent 
output having been in 1907 when it amounted to 6723 short tons, and 



ABRASIVES 7 

the average selling prices have remained steady at around $30 @ $32 a 
ton for the standard grades of crystallized garnet. 

PRODUCTION OF ABRASIVE GARNET.* 
(Short ton8.> 



Yew. 


QtianUty. 


Value. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


1908 


3,926 
8,950 
8.864 
5.050 
4,650 
7.058 


$132,820 
132,500 
117,581 
148,095 
156,000 
211,680 


1908 


1,960 
2.972 
8,814 
4.076 
4.947 
5.308 


$64,620 


1103 


1909 


102.315 


IBM 


1910 


113.564 


im 


1911 


121.748 


1106 


1912 


163,237 


1»7 


1913 


183,422 









^ U. S. Geologieal Surrey. 

The important qualities of abrasive garnet seem to be those of hard- 
ness, toughness and cleavage. In hardness, the different garnet species 
vary considerably, and most of the garnet that is mined for abrasive uses 
is almandite (iron-alumina garnet) which has a hardness of 7-7.5 on the 
nuneral scale, or between that of quartz and topaz. Well crystallized 
material which is relatively free of impurities has greater strength and 
stands up better under conditions of service than the finely granular 
mmeral or that containing inclusions of other minerals. The common 
impurities of garnet are chlorite, mica, hornblende and pyroxene. It is 
an advantage, also, if the garnet possesses a parting or imperfect cleavage 
so that it breaks with one or more plane siuf aces. Much of the Adiron- 
dack garnet shows a well-developed parting, and the faces often present 
a sharp chisel-edge that is not usual in any other natural abrasive. Color, 
of course, is not a criterion of value, but abrasive manufacturers express 
a preference for the darker shades which in the crushed product appear 
almost a ruby red. The garnet crystals should also be sufficiently large 
90 that when they are freed from their matrbc by crushing or other 
means, they will afford a desirable assortment of sizes. The normal 
result of milling operations is to produce an excess of the finer sizes. 

Notwithstanding the wide distribution of garnet as a component of the 
metamorphic rocks, especially the gneisses and schists, there appear to be 
few localities where the material has the essential qualities and occurs in 
sufficient quantity to be commercially valuable. In this country the 
most productive deposits are found in the Adirondacks. North Carolina 
and New Hampshire have supplied small quantities in recent years, and 
there are mines, now inactive, in Maine, Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
Pennsylvania. The distribution and local features of the deposits 

have been described in preceding volumes of the Mineral Industry, 

notably in Vol. VI and Vol. XXI. 

For the last 4 or 5 years the domestic supply of the mineral has 

l>een supplemented by imports amounting to a few hundred tons annually 



8 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

of Spanish garnet. This garnet is said to be of placer origin and is ob- 
tained by washing the sands of certain streams in the province of Almeria. 
According to the American consul at Madrid {Daily Consular and Trade 
Reports, March 13, 1914) there were three producers of such garnet in 
1911, and their output amounted to 600 tons. As nearly all of the output 
comes to the United States it is evident that the utility of abrasive garnet 
is not generally recognized in the European countries, and so far as 
known, no other garnet mining industry has been established on that 
continent. The Spanish garnet is too fine in size to be a vigorous rival 
of the American product. The present value of the product is stated 
to be $7.75 a ton at the mines and the expense of shipment to the seaboard 
$6.65 a ton, so that it can be laid down in this country at under $20 a ton. 

The output of garnet in 1913 was of the usual proportions. The 
Adirondack mines contributed the greater part as heretofore, their pro- 
duction having been 4665 short tons with a value of $145,445. There 
were three active mines, including those of the North River Garnet Co., 
H. H. Barton & Sons Co., and the Warren County Garnet Mills, all 
situated in the vicinity of North Creek, Warren Coimty. 

Reports from the collector of customs at Boston, New York and New 
Orleans show that a total of 547 short tons of abrasive garnet with a value 
of $8078, was imported in 1913. The imports for 1912 were 548 tons 
valued at $9271. The exports from Almeria are stated by the Consular 
agent to have been 1239 tons, which seems to indicate that the garnet 
in the last year may have found a market elsewhere than in the United 
States. 

Silicon Carbide 

(Carborundxtm.) 

By F. J. Tone 

The production of carborundum in the United States during 1913 was 
12,597,590 lb. The progress of the industry may be seen from the fol- 
lowing table of production from 1892 to 1913: 

In the United States the Carborundum Co. of Niagara Falls is the 
only producer but since artificial abrasives have been placed on the free 
list the volume of importations has become considerable. The principal 
foreign producers are Norton Co. at Chippewa, Canada, whose product 
is marketed under the name of crystolon, Meyer & Schmidt of Rhein- 
felden, Germany, who produce silicon carbide under the name of 
carbosilite; Fabrique de Carborundum, Labathie, France; Elektrizitats 
Werke Lonza, Geneva, Switzerland, and Arendals Smelteverk of Arendal, 
Norway. The latter plant has been placed in operation during the current 
year with an initial capacity of 1000 h.p. As an ore of silica the native 



ABRASIVES 



9 



Norway quartz is used and English coke or coal is imported as a source 
of carbon. A feature of the furnace equipment of this plant is a movable 
transformer moimted on wheels, which is moved to each of the respective 
furnaces as they are successively placed in operation. A plant for the 
manufacture of silicon carbide and other artificial abrasives is now 
projected by the Exelon Co. at Thorold, Ontario. 

PRODUCTION OF CARBORUNDUM IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Year. 


Pounda. 


Metrio Tons. 


Value. 


1892 


2.145 

15.200 

52.100 

225.030 

1.100.600 

1.242.020 

1.504.152 

1.741.245 

2,401,000 

3.838.175 

3.741.500 

4.760.000 

7.060380 

5.506.280 

6.225.280 

7.532.670 

4.007.170 

6.478.200 

10.707.110 

10.376.620 

12.042.550 

12.507.500 


1 

7 

24 

102 

540 

564 

724 

701 

1.080 

1.742 

1.608 

2,160 

3.203 

2.530 

2.824 

3.418 

2.226 

2.038 

4857 

4.707 

5,464 

5,717 




1903 




1894 




1895 




1896 


$365,612 


1907 


153.812 


1808 


151.444 


1890 


156,712 


1900 


168.070 


1901 


268.672 


1902 


261,005 


1903 


833.200 


1904 


404.227 


1905 


801.740 


1906 


435.770 


1907 


451.060 


1906 


204.430 


1909 


888.607 


1910 


642.427 


1911 


622.507 


1912 


722.553 


1913 


$602,867.45 







Abrasive Uses. — The principal use of carborundum is as an abrasive 
material and its field in grinding operations is now becoming clearly de- 
fined. Carborundum exceeds all other abrasives in hardness excepting 
the diamond but the hardness of a material does not determine its abso- 
lute value as an abrasive, for if such were the case, carborundum being 
the hardest of all would be the universal abrasive. On some materials 
garnet and quartz do better work than carborundum although vastly 
inferior in hardness. The limiting condition of a grinding operation is 
the production of heat. Excessive heat may either fill up the grinding 
wheel with fused metal and destroy its cutting surface or it may draw 
the temper of the steel or destroy the material being ground. This pro- 
duction of heat depends on four factors: first, the ultimate strength of 
the material being ground; second, the penetration of the abrasive; 
third, the rate of removal of stock; fourth, the contact area of the 
grinding tool to the work. 

Carborundum is the most efficient abrasive on substances of low ulti- 
mate strength such as cast iron and brass, or on substances difficult to 
fu8e such as pearl, carbon, marble or granite, which cannot fill up the 
wheel The hardest abrasives such as carborundum can also be used 



10 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



where the rate of removal of stock is low, where the contact surface is 
small, or where the character of the work causes a self-dressing action 
on the wheel. With substances of high ultimate strength such as steel, 
malleable iron and wrought iron it is imperative to use the softer abrasives 
such as aloxite and other aluminous abrasives. Penetration of the 
different abrasives depends largely on their hardness. Deeper penetra- 
tion causes more work to be done resulting in higher production of 
heat. 

Carborundum promises to revolutionize the work of cutting and 
molding granite in the same manner as has already been done in the 
marble industry. A 14-in. coping wheel will make cuts 1 1/2 in. deep 
and 3/16 in. wide in Bethel granite at the rate of 13 in. per minute. 
The results of molding cuts are equally efficient and machinery is now 
in process of development to displace all manual operations in granite 
working. 

Refractory Uses, — The refractory uses of carborundum are of growing 
importance and two types of carborundum refractories are now employed; 
one consisting entirely of carborundum and the other containing a vitri- 
fied or ceramic binder. 

Electrical Conductivity. — ^The electrical properties of silicon carbide 
are interesting not only because of its utilization in electric furnace con- 
struction but also because it has now a large field in the manufacture of 
resistance rods and lightning arresters. 

Carborundum is a conductor of the second class. At ordinary tem- 
peratures its conductivity is very low, being several times less than car- 
bon. With increase of temperature its conductivity increases very 
rapidly, it having a large negative temperature resistance coefficient. 
The conductivity of dense crystalline carborundum has been determined 
from 30® to 1400°. The samples tested were Refrax brick which is a form 
of densely compacted carborundum crystals without the addition of 
foreign binding material. 



Temperature 


Ohms per ou. om. 


Temperature 


Specific Resistance 


Degrees C. 


Degrees C. 


Ohms 


per cu. cm. 


25 




50 


600 




14.6 


100 




46.4 


700 




10.9 


160 




41.3 


800 




7.8 


200 




36.0 


000 




5.4 


250 




36.1 


1000 




3.7 


300 




32.7 


1100 




2.1 


350 




28.1 


1200 




1.3 


400 




26.6 


1300 




0.96 


460 




23.0 


1350 




0.74 


500 




19.7 


1400 




0.65 



The resistivity of Refrax brick varies with differences in porosity 
and chemical composition. However, it is interesting to note that at 



ABRASIVES 11 

temperatures above 1000® C. the resiativities have approximately the 
same value. 

Preliminary determinations on the Carbofrax brick, which is a 
bonded brick consisting of carborimdum and fire clay, denote a very 
much higher specific resistance than with the Refrax brick. However, 
the temperature coefficient is approximately of the same order of 
magnitude as is shown by the following determinations: 

Temperature Specific Resistance Temperature Specific Refliatanoe 

Decrees C. Ohma per cu. cm. Degreea C. Ohma per cu. em. 

25 284.000 700 28.0000 

200 270.000 800 24.000 

410 250.000 1100 1.500 

eOO 70.000 1200 04 

Resistance to Chemical Agents. — Below 1000** C. no oxidation of car- 
borundum occurs in pure oxygen. From 1000** to 1350° carborundum is 
slightly Qxidizable in air. From 1350° to 1500° the silica formed is fused. 
From 1500° to 1600° oxidation is very much retarded by the fused silica 
coating. At 1750° oxidation becomes more rapid. 

Neutral or reducing gases, such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen and 
hydrogen have little or no action on carborundum. Carbon dioxide 
and hydrogen dioxide only become active at their dissociation tempera- 
ture or 1775° to 1800° C. 

Fused sodium carbonate and fused alkali sulphates decompose car- 
borundum. Sodium silicate attacks carborundum at 1300°. This is 
especially active in oxidizing gases and in the presence of oxidizing salts. 
Calcium oxide and magnesium oxide attack carborundum at 1000° C. 
Fused borax decomposes carborundum. Fused cryolite decomposes 
carborundum. Lead chromate oxidizes it. Fused caustic potash decom- 
poses it. Sulphur vapors do not attack it at 1000° C. Fused potassium 
chlorate and nitrate are without action. 

Silica attacks carborundum energetically in the electric furnace at 
2000° to 2600° C. forming silicon. Carborundum forms silicides with the 
oxides of metals at the following temperatures: 

Copper oxide 800** 

Iron oxide 1300* 

Nickel oxide 1300* 

Manganeee oxide 1360** 

Chromium oxide 1370* 

Boiling sulphuric and hydrofluoric acids are without action. Mix- 
tures of nitric and hydrofluoric are without action. Henri Moissan 
found that at 600° C. carborundum is only superficially acted upon by 
chlorine, that at 1200° C. the action is complete. At 900° chlorine 
reacts with carborundum to form silicon tetrachloride leaving carbon. 



12 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

At 1000® to 1100** chlorine reacts with carborundum to form silicon 
tetrachloride and carbon tetrachloride. Carborundum can be heated 
in platinum over a Bunsen but not over a blast without injury to the 
platinum. 

CrystoUm. — Carbide of silicon is also manufactured at Chippewa, 
Canada, under the trade name "Crystolon" by the Norton Co., of 
Worcester, Mass. The chief use of crystolon is in the manufacture of 
Norton Crystolon Grinding Wheels, Sharpening Stones, Rubbing Bricks, 
Razor Hones, Grinding Compound, and in grain form for polishing 
purposes. Incidentally, due to its high refractoriness, its comparatively 
low coefficient of expansion and high heat conductivity, crystolon is used 
as a refractory. Bonded with a ceramic bond, it is applicable to many re- 
fractory purposes. Norton Co. manufactures from crystolon a large 
variety of refractory products, which are rapidly finding favor in labora- 
tories, both industrial and research. 

Norton Co. has been manufacturing crystolon now for about 3 1/2 
years, its present production being 3,000,000 lb. and having a value of 
$270,000. 



ALUMINIUM 

Bt J. W. RiCHABDS 

The year 1913 was characterized by a steady growth of the aluminium 
industry. The production was the largest on record, the producing 
capacity was increased, many new uses for the metal were inaugurated, 
and altogether the industry flourished. 

As in former years, the largest producers refuse to publish statistics 
of their output, so that only guesses can be made as to the production. 
We reiterate the expression of our regrets that those who are managing 
this great industry withhold these figures from the public. An outsider 
regards such secrecy as evidence eitber that the companies have mutual 
arrangements as to the amount each shall produce and are in practice 
deceiving each other, or else that the profits of the industry would figure 
out so enormous, if the true production were known, that competition 
would be more apt to arise. In either case they forfeit the confidence of 
the public, and have only themselves to blame if the public treats them 
with hostility on such questions as "Trusts," business agreements in 
restraint of trade, or the tariff. 

The following figures are the estimated production of the principal 
countries for 1913: 

Metric Tons. Pounds. 

Uoitod States 29,600 64.900.000 

Canada 6.916 13.015.000 

France 16.000 33.000.000 

Great BriUan 10.000 22.000,000 

Norway 2.600 6.600.000 

Switseriand 10.000 22,000.000 

Aos^ia 6.000 11.000,000 

Italy 800 1.760,000 

78.716 173.176.000 

Grouped by producers, these figures would be: 

Metric Tons. Pounds. 

Alominam Company of America \ qr ai a tt oik nnn 

Northern Alumfeum Co. of Canada / ^^'^^^ 77,916,000 

L' Aluminium Francaise 16,000 33,000,000 

British Aluminium Co 12,600 27,600,000 

Aluminium Industrie Aktien Gesellschaft 15,000 33,000,000 

6oa€U d*Aluminio, Italy 800 1,760,000 

These figures will be increased in 1915 by the following estimated 
c&paeities of new works: 

Metric Tons. Pounds. 

Aluminium Co. of America 6.600 14.300.000 

Southern Aluminium Co 12.000 26.400.000 

Swiss Company 2,600 6,600.000 

21.000 46.200.000 

EMimated production in 1916 100.000 220.600,000 

13 



14 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Imports of aluminium into the United States in 1913 were 10,539 
metric tons, or 23,185,755 lb., making the apparent consumption of crude 
metal in the United States, in 1913, 40,000 metric tons, or 88,000,000 lb. 

The U. S. Department of Commerce and the U. S. Geological Survey 
have been reporting in recent years the apparent consumption of crude 
aluminium in the United States, and not the production; and many jour- 
nals and the press have miscalled these figured the production. It is 
important that the correct expression be adhered to, in quoting statistics 
from those sources. 

When it is remembered tl^at 30 years ago the world's yearly pro- 
duction was but 2 1/2 metric tons or 5500 lb. the amazing progress 
of this industry is realized. Aluminium has risen from a rare metal 
to a yearly tonnage exceeded only by iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin. It 
can confidently be expected that by the middle of this century it will rank 
next to or possibly even ahead of copper. It is already cheaper than tin, 
pound for pound, and cheaper than copper per unit of bulk or per unit of 
electrical conducting power, while the range of its applications and useful- 
ness is extending more rapidly than that of lead or zinc. One of the great 
metallurgical achievements of the nineteenth century was undoubtedly 
the adding of aluminium to the metals of every-day life. 



Imports and Estimated Consumption. 

PRODUCTION, imports AND CX)NSUMPTION OF ALUMINIUM IN THE 
UNITED STATES 









Imports. 




Consump- 
tion. 




Production. 








Exports. 








Crude. 


Mfrs. 








Pounds. 


Value. 


Per 

pound. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


Value. 


1899.. 


$6,600,000 


|2.ii2.r.oo 


$0.33 


63.622 


$9,426 


7,828 


$291,516 


1.838.238 


1900.. 


7,160.000 


2,2S.^,LH)0 


0.32 


266.669 


44.465 


6.989 


281.821 


2.056.623 


1901.. 


7.160,000 


2:i:\ssm 


0.31 


664.803 


104.168 


6,580 


183,579 


2.164.169 


1902.. 


7.300.000 


2;zy^\,fm 


0.31 


746.217 


216.032 


3,819 


116.062 


2.387,389 


1903.. 


7.500.000 


2.:^2f>xm 


0.31 


498.666 


139.298 


4,273 


167,187 


2,311.384 


1904.. 


7.700.000 


2;:!:i;^,n00 


0.29 


616.416 


128.360 


478 


166.876 


2.494.952 


1906.. 


11360.000 


a,fi.^2.oM 


0.32 


630.429 


106.108 


33 


290,777 


3.015.364 


1906.. 


14.360.000 


fjOCOOO 


0.86 


770,713 


164,292 


1,866 


364,251 


4.957.907 


1907.. 


26.000.000 


10,f*2O.Q0O 


0.42 


872.474 


181.361 


1,124 


304.938 


{^) 


1908.. 


13.000.000 


4,[i:*r>,s:iOO 


0.316 


466.317 


80.268 


2,334 


330,092 


V>) 


1909.. 


16.000.000 


Z:MhS\0O 


0.223 


6.109.843 


746.963 


12.878 


667,375 


lb) 


1910. 


12.000.000 


2.7:ifV(K)0 


0.228 


12.271.277 


1,844,830 




949.216 


{b^ 


1911.. 


(e)28.600.000 


6 TL^Ci.i'iOO 


0.20 


((2)4.173.308 
22.769.937 


698.272 


(d)'63'399* 
428.182 


.1.158.603 


(b) 


1912.. 


(«)40.000.000 


9.2iXi.(K)0 


0.23 


3.092.889 


1.347.621 


(6) 


1913. . 


(«) 64.900,000 


lJi,i:.r:nMK)0 


0.21 


23,185.766 


3,906,977 


1.090.229 


966.094 









(a) Not reported. (6) Impossible to compute accurately in the absence of information as to un- 
sold stocks, (a) from July 1 only, (e) estimated. 



ALUMINIUM 15 

Market Prices 

The market price of aluminium of first quality, over 99 per cent, pure, 
in cents per pound, varied in New York during 1913 as follows: January 
26.5, March 26.9 to 27.1, April 26.75, May 25, June 23.5, July 23, August 
21.5, September 21.5, October 19.75, November 18.5, December 18.8 
to 19. 

Prices in Europe were 6 cents per pound less than the above up to 
October 1, and 3 cents per pound less afterward. The International 
Aluminium Syndicate met in Paris in October, 1913, and fixed prices for 
all the producing countries except Italy, making the base price in Europe 
2 francs per kilo, or 17.5 cents per pound. American prices average this 
price plus the duty of 3 cents per poimd. 

Progress in Various Countries 

United States. — ^The Aluminum Co. of America has purchased 600 
acres of ground at Marysville, Tenn., and will take 20,000 h.p. from 
the Tennessee Power Co. of Nashville. (Daily Press.) The com- 
plete electrical installation at Marysville will consist of alternating- 
current generators and rotary converters. The latter are 2500 kw., 
500 volt, 60-cycle machines. The 60-cycle system has considerable 
advantage over the 25-cycle system, because of the higher available 
turbine speed which can be utilized at the generator, and installation 
costs throughout are less.^ 

The Southern Aluminium Co., a subsidiary of L' Aluminium Fran- 
caise, has a capital of $6,000,000, and is erecting its works at Whitney, 
N. C. The cost of the work undertaken by this company is stated as 
follows: Cash payment for water rights and ground, $1,500,000; dams, 
conduits, power-house, transmission lines, accessories, $1,500,000; railway 
track, employees' houses, offices, $1,000,000; general expenses during 
construction, $400,000; aluminium works, $1,100,000; working capital, 
$1,000,000. The Yadkin river will be dammed to give a fall of 52 meters 
(180 ft.), making a lake with a capacity of 200,000,000 tons of water. 
This will give 65,000 to 70,000 h.p. at Whitney and 20,000 h.p. at the 
lower falls. The total power, when utilized, will produce 12,000 to 
15,000 metric tons of aluminium yearly. It is expected that the works 
will be in operation by the middle of 1915.* 

Canada. — The Aluminum Co. of America is said to have con- 
tracted for 60,000 h.p. at Cedar Rapids, a power site on the north 
ride of the St. Lawrence river 28 miles above Montreal. The con- 

* p. D. Newbury. Tram, Am. SUctroeh^m. 8oe., Vol. XXV. 
■^mtimI du Fomr KUetriqu^, May 15, 1013. 



16 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

cessions held by the power company at this point will allow it to 
develop 160,000 h.p. (Technical Press.) 

The Shawinegan plant of the Northern Aluminum Co. covers 10 
acres, and includes a wire mill. There are 340 pots in operation, each 
producing 150 lb. of aluminium per day, 99.4 per cent. fine. The 
power plant is 40,000 h.p. = 30,000 kw.* 

The average exports of aluminium, from Canada for the years 1909- 
10-11-12 were 9,283,000 lb. yearly, valued at an average price of 13 
cents per pound. The exports in 1913 were 13,016,000 Ib.^ 5916 metric 
tons, valued at 13.5 cents per pound.* 

Great Britain. — The profits of the British Aluminium Co. in 1912 
were £194,823 (£41,922 more than in 1911). The output of aluminium 
was larger, but the profit per poimd smaller. 

The company has bought the works of the Anglo-Norwegian Alu- 
minium Co. at Vigeland, Norway. It has also bought an alumina 
works and rolling mill at Warrington. 

France. — ^L' Aluminium Francaise has made a $4,000,000 bond issue, 
and has organized a central service for selling all the aluminium made in 
France. It has established a plant for casting and working aluminium 
at Chambery. It has rented the power of the Soci6t6 de rAluminium 
du Sud-Ouest at Arreau in the Pyrenees, and will establish there an alu- 
minium works. It has also leased the water power of the Soci6t6 des 
Forces motrices de TEau d'OUe.* 

The Soci6t6 des Produits chemiques d'Alais et de la Camargue, at its 
annual meeting October 1, 1913, voted an increase of 17,600,000 francs 
in its capital stock, of which 3,600,000 francs is for the absorption of the 
Soci6t^ des Produits electrochimiques et metallurgiques des Pyrenees, at 
Aznat, near Tarrascon-sur-Ariege. This absorption will increase this 
company's producing capacity 25 per cent.* 

Mr. H. Gall* estimates the capacity of the French plants at the end 
of 1913 as 19,000 metric tons (41,800,000 lb.), utilizing 65,000 kw. 
(87,000 h.p.). 

Switzerland. — The profits of the Aluminium Industrie Aktien Gesell- 
schaft of Neuhausen in 1913 were 5,600,000 franc^ ($1,288,000). A 
dividend of 20 per cent, was declared. It is proposed to increase the 
capital of 25,000,000 francs to 33,775,000 francs. The Oerliken Co. 
of Zurich has equipped the Chippis plant with 3 generators of 4000 h.p. 
each. At 300 r.p.m. they will each give 8000 amperes at 375 volts.' 

1 Economic Minerals and Mining Industries of Canada, Oitawa* 1913. 

* Mineral Production of Canada, 1913. 

* Journal du Pour EUctri^uet June 1, 1913. 

« Journal du Four EUctrvius, October 18, 1913. 

* Journal du Four Eleetrique, February 1, 1914. 

* Journal du Four BUdrique, Mar. 13, 1914. 



ALUMINIUM 17 

Norway, — The British Aluminium Co. has acquired the plant of 
the Anglo-Norwegian Aluminium Co. at Vigelandsfos, Veninsla, near 
Christiansand, and has increased its annual capacity to 2000 metric 
tons. This company manufactures its own electrodes. 

L' Aluminium Francaise has acquired water power at Tyssaa, on the 
Hardanger Fjord, near Odda, to manufacture aluminium power trans- 
mission cables.^ 

Germany. — ^This country manufactures no aluminium. Importations 
of aluminium and its alloys into Germany in 1913 are given as 15,500 
metric tons. 

Belgium. — The Peniakoff process received its coup de grace when the 
Soci6t6 de PAluminium et ses D6riv63 (Proc6d6 Peniakoff) was dissolved 
by the stockholders on January 17, 1913. Mr. Gaston Deversins of 
Brussels was made receiver. 

India. — Mr. Alfred Chatterton reports in the Madras Mail that the 
importations of aluminium into India for the year ending March 31, 1913, 
were 4,010,608 lb., valued at $850,485. The economic question is not 
important for India, since it merely takes the place of brass and copper, 
but the hygienic advantage of aluminium over those metals is of the first 
importance. The industrial manufacture of aluminium ware in India 
has made great technical advances over the working of brass and copper. 
It would be of the first importance to India, however, to use water power 
in India to manufacture the aluminium needed, since the annual market 
might easily rise to 5000 tons or even 10,000 tons in a few years. The 
best power sites are in the Western Ghats, and the laterite deposits of 
India will furnish the raw material.^ 

Ores 

Bauxite continues to be the ore of aluminium, and is mined on a very 
large scale. The U. S. Geological Survey gives the production in 1913 
in the United States as follows: 

Metric Tons. Value at the Mine. 

Produotion 213,395 $097,698 

Imports 21,778 85.746 

Consumptioa 235,173 $1,083,444 

This quantity was not all used in the aluminium industry, but part 
was used for producing alum and aluminium sulphate and in the manu- 
facture of bauxite brick and "alundum" (fused alumina). Estimating 
these uses to consume 75,000 tons, there remains 160,000 tons absorbed 
by the aluminium industry of the United States and Canada. At a 
Qiinimum content of 50 per cent, available alumina, this would furnish 

* JItiMaa Jovmai, Nov. 1, 1913. * Journal du Four EUctrique, Nov. 1, 1913. 

2 



18 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



80,000 tons of pure alumina; containing 40,000 tons of metallic aluminium 
(88,000,000 lb.). (For further information, see the chapter on Bauxite.) 

Reduction 

Pascal and Jouniaux^ contribute the best publication of the year 
bearing on the reduction of aluminium. Their work concerned itself 
with a study of the various fused baths from which aluminium could be 
extracted, and the fusibility of baths of different compositions. 

To start with, they determined the melting points of the three primary 
substances used, as follows: 

Cryolite (AlFi. 3 NaF) 977" C. 

Fluorspar (CaFt) 1361** C. 

Alumina (A1«0») 2020* C. 

Taking these substances two by two, they observed the following 
temperatures of beginning and ending of setting: 

TABLE I. 



Percentage. 










Beginning of Setting. 


End of Setting. 






CryoUte. 


Fluorite. 






100 





977 


977 


00 


10 


961 


947 


80 


20 


032 


907 


70 


30 


948 


903 


60 


40 


1025 


905 


50 


fiO 


1095 


902 


40 


60 


1156 


1052 


30 


70 


1296 


1152 





100 


1361 


1361 



TABLE II. 



Percentage. 










Be^nning of Setting. 


End of Setting. 






Cryolite. 








100 





977 


977 


95 


5 


969 


958 


90 


10 


955 


910 


80 


20 


924 


901 


75 


25 


946 


906 


70 


30 


1086 


923 


65 


35 


1210 


1112 





100 


2020 


2020 







TABLE III. 




Percentage. 














Beginning of Setting. 


End of Setting. 








Fluorite. 


Alumina. 








100 







1361 


1361 


80 


20 




1300 


1270 


75 


25 




1280 


1270 


70 


30 




1349 


1304 





100 




2020 


2020 



^ ZeiUehrift fUr EUktrocfumie, 1913. p. 610. 



ALUMINIUM 



19 



Taking these substances three at a time, varying quantities of alumina 
were added to five mixtures of cryolite and fluorite in the proportions 
^1, &-2, 7-3, 6-4, and 4-6 respectively. The results were as follows: 







TABLE IV 






Mixture of 


Percentage Compoeition of the Mixture. 


Besinnins of 
CrystalUaation. 


End of 


Ahuaina and: 


Cryolite. 


Fluorite. 


Alumina. 


Setting. 


f 
CTTo&teOOperMni. I 00 
fluorite 10 per cent. 81.82 

K 76.27 


10 
0.00 
8.47 




0.00 
15.25 


oei** C. 

051 
024 


047« C. 

017 

000 


CTTolite 80 per cent. 
Hwrite 20 per cent. 


80 

73.48 

66.66 

63.5 

61.66^ 

50.57 


20 

18.37 
16.67 
16 

15.41 
4.88 




8.16 
16.67 
20.5 
22.08 
25.55 


032 
031 
006 

888 (min.) 
060 
1015 


007 
864 
862 
868 
855 
874 


Crjrofite 70 per eent. j 
Floorite 90 per cent, j 


70 

64.05 

50.56 


80 

27.83 

25.53 




7.22 
14.80 


048 
020 
007 


003 
802 
860 


CT7olite 00 per cent, 
nooriie 40 per eent. 


60 

56.25 

53.17 

40.10 

46.8 

45.5 


40 

37.6 

34.81 

32.73 

31.2 

30| 




6.25 
13.02 
18.27 
22.0 
24.5 


1025 
1010 

003 

078 

068 (min.) 
1036 


003 
808 
868 
868 
868 
000 (?) 


Cryaiite 40 per cent. 
Fluorite 60 per cent. 


40 

36.36 

34.84 

30 

28.8 


60 

54.55 

52.26 

45 

43.2 




0.00 
12.00 
25 
28 


1156 

1170 

1170 

1154 (min.) 

1200 


1052 
030 
868 
020 
038 


{ 


12.75 
58.2 


72.26 
23.2 


15 
18.6 


1267 
004 


1247 
868 



In the system cryolite-fluorite, the cooling curves show two definite 
arrests, the eutectic corresponding to 74.6 per cent, cryolite and 25.4 
per cent, fluorite, setting at 905°, and consisting of two kinds of mixed 
cn'stals corresponding to 20.5 and 50 per cent, of fluorite. 

The system cryolite-alumina was investigated to 1400®. The eutectic 
corresponds to 24 per cent. AlsOs, melting at 904®, and consisting of mixed 
cr}'stals corresponding to 20 and 29 per cent, of alumina. 

The system fluorite-alumina shows a eutectic at 26.9 per cent, alumina, 
opting at 1270, and consisting of mixed crystals corresponding to 20 
percent and 28.5 per cent, alumina. 

The ternary eutectic consists of 

Cryolite 50.3 per cent. 

Fhierite 23.0 per cent. 

Alamina 17 . 7 per cent. 

The eutectic temperature is 868®. 

The solidus consists of 6 surfaces, running together to a triangular 
field, whose angles are situated at the following points. 



20 


MINERAL INDUSTRY 

TABLE V. 






CryoUte. 


Fluorite. 


AlamiiiA. 


I 

II 
III 


77 
60 
34 


16 
16 
54 


7 
25 

12 



In the baths used in the aluminium industry, the proportion of 
fluorite must be less than 36 per cent, to keep the melting point of mixture 
under 950°, where the cryolite and alumina are used in proportions of 
3 or 4 to 1. These correspond to only a small part of the whole field. 

Lorenz, Jabs and EiteP give some further observations on nearly the 
same subject. They found the cryolite-alumina eutectic at 11 per cent, 
of alumina, melting at 937** C. Adding sodium fluoride to cryolite, they 
found the eutectic mixture to lie near AlNa8Fe.3NaP, or 60 per cent, 
cryolite and 40 per cent, sodium fluoride, melting at 886®. 

It is to be regretted that none of the above investigators tested mix- 
tures of cryolite with aluminium fluoride, such as is recommended in the 
Hall patents. 

Properties, Working, Plating, Etc. 
Specific Gravity. — F. J. Brislee* found: 

Compontion. Denmty at 4** C. 

Al Fe Si 

09.11 0.56 0.33 2.706 

00.64 ^ 0.15 0.21 2.703 

A cast slab of the first metal was rolled fram 2 in. down to 0.018 in., 
without annealing; wire was drawn from 0.3-in. rod to 0.072 in. 

Density of metal as cast 2.706 

Rolled, hard 2.700 

Rolled, annealed 14 hours a 450*" C 2.710 

Drawn, hard 2.703 

Drawn, annealed 2.706 

In all cases the density increased 0.003 on annealing. 

The polished surface of the metal was etched with dilute hydrofluoric 
acid (1 to 8), with subsequent immersion in 60 per cent, nitric acid for a 
few seconds. Under the microscope, cold-worked aluminium thus etched 
shows no crystalline structure, but shows flow lines indicating the direc- 
tion of working. Cold-worked metal is probably less crystalline, or more 
amorphous, than the annealed metal. 

Modulus of Elasticity, — F. J. Brislee ijioc. ciL) gives mechanical tests 
on aluminium containing 99.37 Al, 0.28 Fe and 0.35 Si. The results were 
6892 to 6918 kg. per square millimeter, or 984,600 to 988,300 lb. per 
square inch. 

> Zeit. /. anorg. Chem., 1012, p 30. * TrantiuAions Faraday Society, f , 162. 



ALUMINIUM 21 

Electric Candtuiiviiy. — H. Gewecke* states that this property is in- 
creased in sheet aluminium 10 per cent, by annealing 2 hours at 215° C, 
or 1 hour at 230°, the mechanical properties remaining meanwhile almost 
constant. Wire behaved similarly as regards conductivity, but its me- 
chanical strength was decreased. There was no change produced in the 
microstructure by the heating. The metal contained 98.82 Al, 0.61 Fe 
and 0.41 Si. 

Prof. E. Wilson* exposed wires of best copper, commercial aliuninium 
and of " duralumin" to the London atmosphere for 2 years. The pieces 
were each 0. 126 in. in diameter by 70 ft. long. They all increased in elec- 
tric resistance by the following amounts: copper 2.0 per cent., aliuninium 
4.4 per cent., duralumin" 8.2 percent. 

Re fining. -^T>T. W. Borchers and Otto Barth' refine or deoxidize 
aluminium by alloying it ^th the cerium metals in quantities up to 
0.2 percent. They get the cerium into the metal by adding anhydrous 
fluorides of the cerium metals to the electrolytic bath during the manu- 
facture of the metal. 

Casing. — Patterns must aUow shrinkage of 1 in 59. Green sand is 
used, loosely stamped on, so as to oppose no resistance to shrinkage. 
The inner surface of the mold may be sprinkled with graphite. When 
melting in crucibles, the latter may be of graphite or iron, but the melting 
point of |the metal must not be much exceeded. The casting is done 
quickly in sand, but slowly in metal molds, and the pieces are taken out 
of the sand as quickly as possible. Large pieces can be surfaced by the 
sand blast, while smaller castings are dipped in soda solutions and brushed 
off. The iron crucibles usepi are made by the use of large amounts of 
steel turnings, and will last 150 to 200 meltings. Casting aluminium 
with 8 per cent, of copper, a temperature of 662^ is used, and in iron 
crucibles zinc- chloride is practicable as a purifying fiux.^ 

Melting Scrap Sheet. — When melting scrap sheet aluminium, the oxide 
carries into the castings, causing the metal to crack when worked. Chloride 
of zinc acts well as a flux, the small amount of zinc reduced into the 
metal not injuring its properties. It may also absorb nitrogen from the 
air, if not well covered, and thus also become brittle.* 

Granvlating. — Bamberger and von Jiiptner* described an explosion 
which occurred when melted aluminium was being poured through a 
sieve into water, to granulate it. A slight first explosion was followed by 
a second more violent one which killed two men. It is supposed that 

* Aclncian, Vol. LXXII. p. 450, through Chemical AUtradi, 1914. p. 1049. 
.M. ^M». Ad9. 8ct..BirmiiiKham Meeting. 1913. 

< Genaui Pftient, 246. 484 of 1913. . 

* Ady loMf A'am, September, 1913. p. 1613. 
\Bf^W«Hd, Dec.. 1913. 

* ZciC 9m99w. Ck^., M, 353, 1913. 



22 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

after the first explosion the men dropped the whole mass of liquid metal 
into the water. 

Coloring. — Albert Lang of Karlsruhe treats aluminium with hydro- 
chloric acid| copper chloride, or iron chloride, and then heats it without 
rinsing. This leaves a film on the surface, which may be lacquered or 
enameled. The coatings are white, black or gray, respectively.* 

Plating with Aluminium. — S. Uyeno* of Tokyo has patented in 
England the immersing of galvanized or tinned articles into melted alu- 
minium at not over 700® C, rubbing the immersed surface with steel 
brushes. 

Nickel PlcUing on Aluminium. — ^Messrs. Canac and Tassily,* in a 
paper to the French Academy of Sciences, describe a method said to give 
a perfectly adhering nickel deposit, such that plates will stand hammering 
without cracking the deposit. The aluminium is plunged in a boiling 
bath of caustic potash, brushed with milk of lime, dipped several minutes 
into a 2 per cent, solution of potassium cyanide, and washed in water 
between each treatment. It is then dipped into a bath containing 500 
grm. HCl, 500 c.c. H2O and 1 grm. FeCU, until it takes on a dull metallic 
appearance. It is then washed again in water and put into the nickel 
depositing bath, nickel chloride solution being found to give a better 
plating than nickel sulphate. The microscopic film of iron is supposed to 
bind the nickel to the aluminium. The aluminium may be rolled, bent 
or worked, without separating the plating. Prof. H. Le Chatelier 
vouched for the accuracy of the statements. 

Compound Metal Sheet.— L. W^ Tebbetts,* of the Hoyt Metal Co., 
St. Louis, Mo., patents the compound meti^ sheet obtained by placing a 
slab of aluminium in a mold and casting soft metal, such as antimonial 
lead, around it, until the aluminium is entirely surrounded. The com- 
pound slab is then rolled. The two metals adhere closely without being 
fused or alloyed together at their contact surface. Antimonial lead, 
britannia metal, solder, tin, or any ductile metal may be used. 

Soldering. — Charles Willmott,* of Smethwick, England, patents a 
solder containing tin 86 per cent., bismuth 14 per cent. It is used with a 
blow-pipe, simply scraping the surface but using no flux. 

Alloys 

Casting Temperature. — H. W. Gillett, in Metal Industry , 1913, page 
193, shows that hot-cast bars are usually about 20 per cent, weaker than 
those cast at proper temperatures. Making tests on sand-cast bars, 

» Braaa World, December. 1913. * Braaa World, December, 1913. 

» Braaa}WorUL December, 1913. » Brtu$ World, December, 1918. 

* Journal du Four Bleetri^tu, Feb. 1, 1914. 



ALUMINIUM 



23 



broken in wedge grips, the section being 0.5 in. in diameter by 2 in. long, 
the following results were obtained: 



No. 


Compoeition. 


Pouring 
Temperature. 


Tensile 

Strength. 

Lb. per 

Sq. In. 


Pouring 
Temperature. 


Tensile 

Strength, 

Lb. per 

Sq.In. 


; 


C. 


F». 


C«. 


P». 


1 




759 
663 
663 
663 

663 

663 

663 
649 

658 

705 
677 


1.400 
1.225 
1.225 
1.225 

1.225 

1.225 

1.225 
1,200 

1.215 

1.300 
1,250 


10,500 
20,000 
24.000 
35.000 

30.000 

33.000 

42.000 
19.000 

16.800 

18,200 
20.500 


871 
871 
843 
843 

843 

843 

843 
843 

815 

871 
759 


1.600 
1,600 
1.550 
1.550 

1.550 

1.550 

1.550 
1,550 

1.500 

1.600 
1.400 


8,000 


5 

11 


Alamininm plus 8 per eent. copper 

Aluminium plus 16 per cent, sine 


15.600 
17,000 


n 


Aluminium plus 32 per cent, sine 


30.000 


30 


e^nt. aino. } pAr caqI. tn»ngAn4Mie , . 


20.000 


31 


Aiuminium plus 2\ per cent, copper. 19 per 
cent, sine 


25.000 


35 


Aluminium plus 1| per cent, oopper. 30 per 
cent* sine .......,., ^ 


34.000 


37 
43 


Alundnium plus 2 per cent, manganese 

Aluminium plus 6 per cent, copper. 3 per 
cent, tin 


18.500 
16,000 


44 


Aiuminium plus 6 per cent, copper. 1 per 


14.500 


'53 


AlwfniTiium plus 5 per cent, magnesium .... 


20.000 



Cdbali Alloys. — ^The addition of 0.5 percent of cobalt to aluminium 
reduces its melting point, but further additions have higher melting 
points* The compound C0AI4, with 33.4 per cent, of cobalt, has been 
shown to exist, with a melting point of 1100^ C. Between it and pure 
aluminium are a series of useful alloys. With 9 to 12 per cent, cobalt 
there is obtained a dense alloy of rather coarse crystalline structure, 
harder and more workable than pure aluminium and much more resist- 
ant to corrosion. The coarsely crystalline structure prevents high me- 
chanical strength, but the addition of tungsten and molybdenum diminish 
the size of the crystals and increase the strength; 0.8 to 1.2 per cent, of 
tungsten, or 0.6 to 1 per cent, of molybdenum with 8 to 10 per cent, of 
cobalt make a fine-grained strong alloy. 

Phosphorus. — Phosphor copper or phosphor zinc is recommended^ as 
a cleaning and purifying flux to use when melting aluminium alloys; 
50 to 100 grm. of the 25 per cent, phosphorous alloy are used to a crucible 
full of alloy, being wrapped in soft paper and held in tongs or a stirring 
stick at the bottom of the crucible until dissolved. 

Magnesium. — Three to ten per cent, of magnesium is said to give a 
useful bearing metal alloy with aluminium. 

Boron. — ^E. D. Gleason' proposes to fuse aluminium under a layer of 
3 parts fluorspar and 1 part boracic acid, at a high temperature. 
This produces an aluminium-boron alloy, which is then melted with cop- 
per and some black manganese oxide to form a boron-aluminium bronze. 
This bronze is said to be superior in physical properties to ordinary 
iluminium bronze, and not to tarnish so rapidly. 



* atsAI nnd BUtn, Nor. 27. 1913, p. 1984. 



* Btob* World, December. 1913. 



24 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Zinc, — Macadamite is a patented alloy said to contain 6 to 27 per cent, 
of zinc, with small quantities of silver. It is melted with sal ammoniac 
or zinc chloride as flux, 1 part to 1000 of alloy, and when cast at 1300®- 
1400® F. has the following physical properties: 

Tensile strength, per eQuare inch 44*260 lb. 

Elutio limit, per equare inch 35,400 lb. 

Compreesive strensth, per equare inch 126,000 lb. 

Transverse strength, per square inch 87,200 lb. 

Torsional strength 60,000 lb. 

Spedfio gravity 3.2 

Duralumin, — The properties of the metal now being put on the 
market are given as : 

Cast: tensile strength 36 to 42 kg./sq.mm. 

51,000 to 60»000 Ib./sq. in. 

Elastic limit 20 to 28 kg./sq. mm. 

28,500 to 40,000 Ib./sq. in. 

Elongation 16 to 22 percent. 

Hardness *110 (Brinell test) 

afic gravity 2.8 



eltins point 650* C. 

Hard worked: 

Tensile strength 45 to 58 kg./sq. mm. 

64.000 to 83,000 Ib./sq. in. 

Elastic limit 40 to 50 kg./sq. mm. 

57.000 to 71,000 Ib./sq. in. 

Elongation 3 to 11 per cent. 

Hardness 150 (Brinell test) 

Copper, — A. A. Read contributed a paper to the meeting of the 
Institute of Metals at Ghent, August 29, 1913, from which we abstract 
the following: The aluminium used contained 0.17 silicon, 1.18 iron, 
0.05 sodium. Phosphor copper, 15 per cent, alloy, was used. The 
copper was melted under charcoal in a crucible, well poled, and the 
aluminium, heated almost to melting, forced down into the copper. A 
marked rise of temperature was observed while alloying. The alloy 
was stirred with a graphiterod, and the phosphor copper flux added, 
wrapped in thin sheet copper as a cartridge. The mix was stirred 
skimmed, and poured into ingots 2 1/4 in. in diameter by 18 in. long. 
Maximum loss of aluminium 0.2 per^'cent. The oxidation of that quan- 
tity should raise the bath temperature 150^ C. Phosphorus in the alloy 
to 0.2 per cent.; aluminium 4.88 to 5.02 in one set, and 9.96 to 10.07 
in another. If over 0.2 percent of phosphorus is added to the 10 per- 
cent bronze, the metal gives an odor of PHs when being filed or turned, 
due to aluminium phosphide. 

The electrical resistivity of the two alloys, 5 and 10 percent alumin- 
ium, is almost alike, being 10 microhms for bronze free from phosphorus 
and 11 microhms for either bronze with 0.1 per cent, phosphorus. The 
melting points were as follows: 

10 Per cent. 5 Per'oent. 
bronse. bronse. 

No phosphorus content 1038^ C. 1054^ C. 

0.2 percent phosphorus 1023* C. 1047* C. 

A stream of ordinary soft water had no corrosive effect on these 
bronzes in 112 days. Sea water, changed every 14 days, darkened the 



ALUMINIUM 25 

plates in 83 days, but left them smooth. Small quantities of phosphorus 
reduced the loss of weight, evidently by eliminating impurities and 
giying greater homogeneity. 

The paper closes with some excellent microphotographs, showing the 
effects of annealing the bronzes. 

Uses 

Electrical. — The French manufacturers of aluminium made brilliant 
exhibits of aluminium at the 1913 Ghent Exposition. Among them were 
arched collecting rods for electric street cars; cold-drawn tubes for elec- 
trical conduits in buildings, as used in the new department store of La 
Belle Jardinidre, in Paris; fuses for safety blow-outs. 

The Pacific Light and Power Co.^ of Los Angeles installed, in 1913, 
a 270 mile (450 km.) transmission line consisting of 6 conductors each of 
500 sq. mm. section, transmitting 26,000 kw. at 150,000 volts. The 
towers are 230 meters (750 ft.) apart. 

The transmission line from Big Creek to Los Angeles was opened 
Nov. 8, 1913. It transmits 10,000 kw. at 135,000 volts. The conductor 
is aluminimn with steel core, weighing 1.135 tons per kilometer (2 tons 
per mile). The whole line requires 2700 tons of cable.* 

The electric tramways of Paris are putting in aluminium cables up to 
1000 sq. mm. section, carrying current at 500 volts. They will use 300 
tons of aluminium, at a saving of 8 to 10 per cent, over copper cables. 

The journal Engineering, 1913, page 812, estimates that 15 percent 
of the output of aluminium or about 9000 tons yearly, is used for trans- 
mission cables. It should be over 99.25 per cent. pure. It resists the 
sea air and sulphiur dioxide (such as near coke ovens) better than uncovered 
copper wire. The larger size gives more radiating surface than the copper 
wire of the same conductivity (50 percent greater), and consequently the 
cables work cooler under high loading. Tensile strength, in tons per 
square inch : T = 16.6 — 2.4 d, where d is the diameter in inches. Elonga- 
tion 2.5 to 3 per cent. Elastic limit 70 per cent, of the breaking strength. 
On the continent of Europe there are 800 miles of aluminium cable in use, 
at voltages up to 60,000. 

Transportation. — ^The use of aluminium and its alloys for automobile 
parts is increasing enormously. The electric tramways of Paris are 
using it for car bodies, as well as for package racks, clothes hooks, etc. 
It is used very largely in aeroplanes. 

Chemical Uses. — ^Professor Trillat at the Pastemr Institute, Paris, has 
made a special study of its use in breweries, distilleries, and in the f er- 
inentation industries. 

* Vm^Oroiecniea, March 15* 1914. * Journal du Four Electrique, March 13, 1914. 



ANTIMONY 

While no antimony was produced in the United States last year from 
domestic ore, a considerable quantity was saved in the form of anti- 
monial lead, which is obtained at the smelters of precious metals in the 
course of their operations, and large quantities of antimonial alloys are 
recovered from secondary sources, such as scrap bearing and type metals, 
solder, and antimonial lead drosses. From antimonial lead of both do- 
mestic and foreign origin, but smelted in the United States, accord- 
ing to figures compiled by the United States Geological Survey, 1,949 
short tons of antimony were produced, while from old alloys, scrap, 
dross, etc., 2506 short tons of antimony were recovered. 



AVERi 


IQE MONTHLY PRICES OF ANTIMONY IN NEW YORK, (o) 
(Cents per pound.) 








Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec 


Year. 


1904. 
Cooknon*!!. 


6.038 
e.260 
6.688 

8.376 
8.063 

16.0 
14.0 
13.5 

25.906 
26.210 
24.166 

0.344 
0.031 
8.344 

8.202 
8.076 
7.876 

8.500 
7.088 
7.738 

8.25 
7.74 
7.6 

7.53 
7.47 
6.88 

9.94 
9.53 


7.594 
6.781 
6.203 

8.375 
8.063 

16.0 
16.0 
14.26 

25.062 
24.062 
23.437 

0.266 
O.OM 
8.406 

8.125 
8.000 
7.531 

8.460 
7.060 
7.578 

8.38 
8.02 
7.66 

7.27 
7.44 
6.83 

9.47 
9.09 


7.875 
6.825 
6.475 

8.376 
7.638 

17.5 
16.5 
16.15 

24.00 
23.76 
23.026 

0.000 
8.660 
7.068 

8.047 
7.843 
7.600 

8.360 
7.038 
7.313 

0.66 
0.13 
fO.OO 

7.65 
7.66 
6.86 

9.28 
8.85 


7.875 
6.760 
6.406 

8.210 
8.125 

21.31 
20.81 
20.26 

24.126 
21.344 
20.876 

8.060 
8.672 
8.297 

8.260 
8.031 
7.718 

8.438 
7.038 
7.438 

0.54 
0.13 
8.52 

8.05 
7.75 
6.04 

9.13 
8.50 


7.531 
6.678 
6.208 

8.406 
8.406 

26.25 
24.38 
23.31 

21.087 
18.562 
17.76 

8.875 
8.625 
8.260 

8.387 
8.160 
7.887 

8.438 
7.038 
7.438 

0.50 
8.07 
7.00 

8.02 
7.75 
7.10 

8.88 
8.37 
7.79 


7.200 
6.438 
5.061 

11.025 
10.175 

26.0 
25.0 
24.0 

15.75 

13.812 

12.66 

8.734 
8.531 
8.004 

8.312 
8.062 
7.803 

8.241 
7.038 
7.438 

8.75 

7.42 

8.00 
7.78 
7.21 

8.79 
8.27 
7.64 


7.188 
6.485 
5.000 

12.625 
11.875 

25.25 
24.25 
28.10 

11.876 
10.60 
10.125 

8.504 
8.875 
8.125 

8.875 
7.875 
7.875 

8.176 
7.038 
7.400 

8.60 

7.36 

8.42 

l:S 

7.66 


7.188 
6.688 
6.062 

14.500 
13.600 

26.0 
24.0 
22.75 

10.006 
0.687 
0.875 

8.813 
8.160 
7.850 

8.525 
8.126 
7.626 

8.278 
7.088 
7.828 

8.44 
7.04 
7.36 

8.50 
7.06 
7.70 

8.38 
7.91 
7.39 


6.013 
6.637 
6.015 

13.700 
12.000 

24.5 
94.0 
22.26 

10.76 
10.00 
0.66 

8.284 
7.022 
7.600 

8.687 
8.125 
7.606 

8.313 
7.038 
7.313 

8.31 
7.84 
7.26 

0.12 
8.60 
8.26 

8.37 
7.93 
7.37 


6.084 
6.578 
6.172 

13.000 
12.000 

26.2 
24.81 
28.63 

11.76 

10.406 

10.047 

8.284 
7.022 
7.625 

8.637 
8.012 
7.600 

8.263 
7.000 
7.400 

8.14 
7.71 
6.06 

10.30 
0.62 
0.80 

7.60 
7.27 
6.49 


7.802 
7.828 
7.204 

12.500 
11.250 

26.14 
26.26 
24.60 

11.00 
0.087 
8.006 

8.640 
8.075 
7.776 

8.487 
7.087 
7.687 

7.022 
7.666 
7.188 

7.07 
7.61 
6.02 

10.80 
0.86 
0.80 

7.62 
7.30 
6.45 


8.088 

14.000 
12.750 

26.25 
26.24 
24.70 

0.662 
0.05 
8.068 

8.200 
8.068 
7.688 

8.437 
7.037 
7.687 

7.625 
7.438 
7.063 

7.78 
7.50 
6.82 

10.21 
0.62 
0.18 

7.60 
7.26 
6.13 


7 430 


H»lletfs 


6.788 


Othew 

1905. 

Cookaon's 

Othen 


6.371 

11.100 
10.400 


190«. 


22.78 


'HftUett's 


21.04 


othen 


21.78 


1907. 


16.060 


Hallett's 


15.527 


othen 


14.840 


1908. 
Coolcao&'s 


8.704 


HftUett'e 


8.410 


othen 


8.004 


1909. 
OooknoD'e 


8.860 


U. 8 


8.016 


Othen 


7.466 


1910. 
Cookson'e 


8.252 


u. S 


7.876 


othen 


7.386 


1911. 
Oookaon's 


8.60 


U. 8 


8.16 


othen 


7.64 


1912. 
Oookson'a 


8.00 


u. S 


8.26 


Ordinaries 

1913. 

Cookson'e 

u. S 


7.76 

8.73 
8.22 


Ordinaries 


8.97 


8.26 


8.18 


7.98 


7.62 



(a) From Bng. Min. Jtntr. 



26 



ANTIMONY 



27 



Except for the changes made by the new tariff, the antimony industry 
in 1913 was featureless. The market was quiet throughout the year, 
prices sagging generally from 10 1/4 cents per pound for Cookson's and 
and 9 1/8 cents for outside brands in January to 8 3/8 and 7 3/8 cents, 
respectively, in October, when tariff changes began to be reflected in the 
quotations. The import duty on antimony, which had formerly been 
1 1/2 cents per pound, was changed to 10 per cent, ad valorem. This 
was followed by a corresponding drop. The prices at the end of the year 
were 7 1/2 cents for Cookson's, 7 1/4 cents for Hallett's and 6 1/4 cents 
for Hungarian, Chinese and outside brands. 

The following table gives the antimony statistics for the United 
States: 







ANTIMONY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES. 










(In tons of 2000 tb.) 










Imports. 


Exports. 


Production. 




Year. 
















Consumption. 




Metebor 


In Ore. 


Metal or 


Ore. 


In Hard 


From Do- 


From Im- 






Rcgulua. 

1 


Resulus. 


Lead. 


mestic Ore. ported Ore. 
(a) 






DQOrt 


Short 


Short 


Short 


Short 


Short tons 


Short tons 


Short tons 




tona 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 








1899.... 


1,580 


1,991 


NH 


NU. 


1.586 


234 


796 


4.196 


1900. . . . 


1316 


3.018 


21 


NU, 


2.476 


151 


1307 


5.638 


1901.... 


1.837 


866 


NU. 


25 


2.235 


50 


336 


4,458 


1902.... 


2.871 


840 


37 


104 


2,904 


Na. 


204 


6.032 


1903.... 


2.563 


1.337 


40 


NU 


2.552 


NO. 


535 


5310 


1904.... 


2.028 


1.245 


16 


214 


2.515 


Na. 


412 


4,039 


1905.... 


2369 


088 


Na, 


NU 


2.561 


Na. 


395 


6.825 


1906.... 


3.960 


1.124 


12 


Na. 


2.358 


150 


450 


6.866 


1907.... 


4331 


1380 


24 


6 


23^ 


105 


552 


7.204 


1908... 


4.057 


1,640 


1 


„5 


2.621 


180 


656 


7313 


1909.... 


4326 


1.693 


3 


Nil 


2,546 


38 


694 


8.055 


1910. . . . 


4.950 


Nil 


Nil. 


NU 


2,277 


30 


Na. 


7357 


1911 . 


6.470 
6.969 
7,667 


Nil 
(»7« 


NU. 

NU. 

ie) Nil 


Nil 
NU, 
Nil 


1.783 

2.048 

(d)4.455 


Na. 

Na. 

Nil 






1912 ... 






1913 . . 













(«) Estimated at 40 per cent, extraction from net imports of ore. (b) Antimony contents of 964 
long tons of ore. containing less than 10 per cent. lead, (e) 32 tons of antimony of foreign origin were 
eipofted in 1913. Cd) 1949 tons from hard lead and 2500 tons recovered from old metal, scrap, dross, 
etc. Kgores of V. S. Qeological Survey. 

The imports of antimony oxide for the fiscal year, ending June 30, are 
asfdlows: 



IMPORTS OF ANTIMONY OXIDE. 





Pounds. 


Value. 


1908 


709.662 
596.095 
414.713 
942.616 
1.079.268 
1.819.323 


$73,667 
66.696 
20.407 
60.371 
46,671 
97.447 


1009 


1910 


1011 


1013 


1913 





28 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

PRODUCTION OF ANTIMONY METAL IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 
(In mstrio tons.) 





1000 


1901 


1902 


1903 


1004 


1906 


1906 


1907 


1908 


1909 


1910 


1911 


1912 


Austria 

nhin^(J!>)., . . 


163 


114 


24 


14 


86 


90 

3.363 

2.396 

766 

827 

190 


Nil 

3.829 

3.433 

1322 

637 

627 


207 
2.316 
:S.046 
841 
610 
248 


162 
9.366 
3.860 
670 
346 
198 


NtL 
7.937 
6,444 

696 
60 

167 


6.643 

4.640 

782 

Na. 

120 


Na. 

6.986 

4.776 

892 

Na, 

97 


13 
13.313 


Franee 

Huxigary(a) 

Italy 

Japan 


1.600 
846 

1.174 
849 


1,786 
706 

1.721 
429 


1.726 
683 

'•SI 


2.748 
782 
906 
434 


2.116 

1.007 

836 

821 


6.406 
859 
Nil. 
80 



(o) Regiilua. (6) Exports of rasulus and refined metal. 

CHINESE ANTIMONY PRODUCTION. 
(Long Tons.) 





Canton. 


Wuohow. 


Yoohow. 


Changsha. 




Ore. 


Ore. 


Regidufl. 


Ore. 


Crude. 


Ore. 


Crude. 


Regttlus. 


IQOO 




237 
71 














1901 
















1902 






200 
2438 
1370 

340 
1199 
2768 
1128 
1964 
2190 

744 
1214 


1796 
4664 

3266 

1487 
733 
666 

1903 
974 
930 

2874 
378 








1908 














1904 


473 
261 
292 
604 
142 

61 
6 

64 
275 






234 
1774 
2271 
3093 

853 
1101 
1289 

501 

680 


861 
1670 
2375 
1761 
6066 
5642 
7147 
7245 
6386 




1905 








1906 








1907 








1908 


■*"4i ■ 

115 
48 
54 


3 

h 

856 
232 




1909 


340 


1910 


803 


1911 


1666 


1912 


2012 







China (By T. T. Read). — China is one of the chief producing coun- 
tries and is likely to become even more important, with the decline of the 
French output. Antimony is produced in a number of places in the south- 
ern half of China, but the chief center is in Hunan. The ore occurs in a 
number of places west of the T'ung-ting lake, the principal town being 
I-yang. The ore is cobbed and handpicked before transporting it to 
Changsha, where several companies are engaged in its reduction to regu- 
lus. A good deal of ore is shipped, chiefly to Japan and France, though 
some comes to the United States. The exports of crude and refined 
regulus (not distinguished) were as follows: 6538 tons in 1910; 6876 tons 
in 1911, and 13,313 tons in 1912, according to the statistics of the Mari- 
time Customs. Exports of ore were: 5670 tons in 1910, 6704 tons in 
1911, and 2022 tons in 1912. Some of this ore came from Yunnan, 
and small amounts of regulus were produced in Kwangsi and Kwantung 
provinces. C. Y. Wang has recently published {Engineering and Mining 
Journal, Oct. 26, 1912, p. 777) an article of the antimony resources and 
production of China, which is the most comprehensive summary which 
has yet appeared. Accordmg to Mr. Wang, the principal mining centers 
are as follows: Hunan, I-yang, Anhwa, Sinhwa, Supu, Chenki, Pasa. 
Kwangsi, Fengyi, Lungan, Pin, Hochi, Tienho, Ining. Kwangtung, Kok- 



ANTIMONY 29 

kong Yingtak, Tsingyun, Fongshing, Tingan, Yuyuen, Yanfa. Yunnan, 
Paoning, Kaihwa. Kweichow, Siushan. More than a hundred antimony 
mining companies have been formed, and 8 smelting plants have been 
erected. Most of these companies have discontinued, for one reason or 
another. The Wah Chang Mining & Smelting Co. of Changsha and the 
Pao Tai Mining <fe Smelting Co. of Wuchow are the most important of 
those now in operation. The Pao Wah Mining <fe Smelting Co., capital- 
ized at $120,000 has a concession granting a monopoly of the mining of 
antimony in Yunnan province, but has not started operations. 

BiBLIOGRAPHT 

Bbown, R. E. — The Replacement of Tin Oxide by Antimony Oxide in 
Enamels for Cast Iron. Trans. Am, Ceram, Soc., 14, 740-55. 

Campbell, S. G. — Oil Flotation in Treating Antimonial Ores. Sch, Mines 
Qttor., Nov., 1913. 

Carpenteb, H. C. H. — The Copper-Antimony Equilibrium. Intemat. 
ZeU, MetaUog,, 4, 300-22. 

Eter, p. — The Assumed Reduction of Antimonic to Antimonous Compoimds. 
Ghskatte, 43, 266, 327-8. 

Chaney, N. K. — Electroljrtic Deposition of Antimony. Jour, Am, Chem. 
Soc., 36, 148^90. 

Hess, F. L. — Production of Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth and Selenium in 
1912. Min. Res, of U. 8,, 1912. 

Ljeboux, p. — Magnetic Study of the Constitution of some Antimony Alloys. 
Compt. rend., 166, 1764-6. 

McMuRTT, G. C. — Notes on the Smelting of Antimonial Concentrates. BvM, 
97, Inst, Min. Met.; Min. Eng. World, 38, ^11. 

MoTT, L. C. — ^Antimony: Its Ores, Metallurgy and Uses. Min. Sci. Pr., 
Feb. 14, 1914. 

Pabbavano, N. — The Sjrstem Antimony-Selenium. Gazz. Chim, iUU., 43, 
I, 210-20. 

QuEBCiOH, E. — Oxysulfides of Antimony. Atti accad. Lincei, 21, I, 415-19. 

Schleicher, A. — The Ternary System: Copper, Cadmium, Antimony. 
Iniemai, Zeit. MetaUog., 3, 102-6. 

ScHOELLER, W. R. — ^Notes on Chinese Antimony Ores, Crude and Regulus. 
Jour. Sac. Chem. Ind., Mar. 31, 1913. 

ScHOELLER, W. R. — Ore Deposits of Hu-nan and Hu-peh, China. Jourt 
Soc Chem. /nd., May 31, 1913. 

ViCKEBS, C. — Antimony in Brass Mixtures. Foundry, 41, 322. 



ARSENIC 



The output of arsenic in the United States during 1913 was all in the 
form of white arsenic or arsenious oxide commonly known as "arsenic/* 
and amounted to about 2375 short tons, valued at $142,340, against 
3141 tons, valued at $190,757, in 1912, a decrease of 766 tons in quantity 
and $48,417 in value, according to the preliminary figures collected by 
the U. S. Geological Survey. 

As in 1913, white arsenic was produced in this country only from 
smelter flue or bag-house dusts and by the same three firms which pro- 
duced it in the preceding year. The Anaconda Copper Company saved 
white arsenic from fumes made in smelting Butte copper ores at the Great 
Washoe Smelter at Anaconda, Mont. At Midvale, Utah, the United 
States Smelting Company sublimed white arsenic from bag-house dusts 
collected in smelting tintic and other Utah copper ores. The American 
Smelting and Refining Company saved its output from flue dusts made 
from both domestic and foreign ores. 

There is so little direct profit in the manufacture of white arsenic, 
owing largely to the long distances it must be shipped to market, that 
the smelting companies make it only because they must prevent its es- 
cape into the atmosphere. If the demand and prices justified a larger 
output the producton could be greatly increased. 

STATISTICS OF WHITE ARSENIC IN THE UNITED STATES. 





Production. 


Imports. 


Total. 


Year. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Perlb. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Perlb. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1899 




$l'8.66d 
81,180 
36.691 
29,504 
50,225 
83.150 
101.000 
99.193 
57.957 
66,300 
123^40 
190,767 
142.340 


$6!63* 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03} 
0.06 
0.05 
0.03f 
0.021 
O.O2I 
0.02 
0.03i 
0.03 


9,040,871 
5.765.559 
6.989.668 
6.110.898 
7.146,362 
6.391.566 
6,444.083 
7.639.507 
9.922.870 
9,592,881 
7.183.644 
8,204.123 
6,916.069 
6.205,562 
5,164.768 


$386,791 
265,500 
316.525 
280.055 
256.097 
226.481 
219,198 
336.609 
553,440 
417.137 
272.493 
250.115 
203.766 
200,616 
223,525 


$0.04 
0.04 
0.04 
0.04 
0.03 
0.03 
0.03 
0.04 
0.05 
0.04 
0.03 
0.03 
0.02^ 
0.03 
0.04 




fi.rMfi.s71 

7.5^',>.068 

8>l'i..^.98 

S:M:^isM2 

7.:^^S.022 

7.^frS^.4S3 

9.^^0:2,507 

ll.(^4L^si70 

12.1f>6.:?87 

fi,r;ii*.a24 

10.<^f>.i23 

13.fi7S,069 

12.1^7.■.62 

G/i: L;88 


$386,791 


1900 




265 500 


1901 


(vm.ooo 

2.T<n^fJ0O 
l/JJ^ i»00 


334.520 
361.235 
292,785 


1902 

1903 


1904 


^■^("1 -J 56 


255.988 
269.425 
419.753 
654.449 
516.330 
330,450 
316,410 
327.006 
391,373 
365,865 


1905 


l.-^^^^iOO 

1/Mi.ifKK) 
2,n:'u,<>00 
2,iV.\:y.505 
2,01 5.^50 

2.t)-]2.iMX) 
6,1GJ.0[X) 
6/J>;J,in)0 
4,7,1 a. OOO 


1906 


1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 















The sources of supply have apparently been gradually restricted, 
Canada which, in recent years, had increased its output of this commodity. 

. 30 



ARSENIC 31 

did not offer it so freely. Shipments from Mexico were interfered with 
by the political conditions there and arrivals during the latter half of the 
year were practically nil; the Cia. Minera de PefLoles, the only producer of 
importance, was compelled to close its plant at Mapiml. Germany, 
England and Spain sent only moderate quantities to this country. 

The situation seems therefore to be that the American manufacturers 
of arsenic have now this market in hand, and probably are determined 
to retain their position in it. The interior consumer was naturally 
supplied to greater advantage from the producers in Utah, Colorado and 
Montana, than he could be by the importers at the Eastern seaboard. 
A crude-arsenic plant was constructed in 1913 at the Great Falls smelting 
works of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., the product being sent to its 
Washoe works for refining. The high purity and satisfactory quality of 
the American arsenic has, moreover, firmly established its reputation 
among users. Hence, it seems safe to say that unless an extraordinary 
demand shoud come from quarters of which the trade is not now cognizant, 
the arsenic of American manufacture will be amply able to take care of 
the consumption in this country, and perhaps eventually, instead of be- 
ing an article of import, arsenic may prove to be one for which a market 
must be sought outside of our own boundaries. The production of white 
arsenic in the United States in 1913 was 2312 tons, as against 2926 tons 
m 1912 and 3081 tons in the preceding year. 

The Arsenic Market in 1913^ — The course of the arsenic market in 
1913 plainly showed that the claims of those rampant bulls in 1906 that 
the demand for arsenic would exceed the supply of the world were as ill 
founded as the bearish news of two years ago, when it was stated that the 
enforced output of arsenic in this country would prevent the price ever 
again reaching a reasonable figure. The price tended to establish itself 
in equilibrium between the high figure of 12 cents per pound and the low 
figure of 1 1/2 cents per pound in the previous few years. 

The high price of 1913 was made in January, when arsenic sold at 4 
cents. From that time until the last of August a slow and steady de- 
dine took place, each month seeing the market down about 1/8 cent per 
pound until 3 cents was reached. After August the market was extremely 
dull and steady at this figure. Demand was about sufficient to take up 
supplies as they came forward, and sellers did not, on the other hand, 
attempt to force the situation. 

Uses of Arsenic. — White arsenic is used principally in glass making 
and in the manufacture of Paris green, lead arsenate, and other insecti- 
cides. With the growth of horticulture and the necessarily greater 
attention paid to killing insect pests, the demand for arsenical insecti- 

* 9m$. Min. Jour., Jan. 10. 1014. 



32 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



cides has grown immensely. Experiments conducted by a number of the 
state agricultural experiment stations have demonstrated the value of 
arsenic when combined with lime as an effective spray against insect pests, 
while arsenic solutions have been found of considerable value when used 
as a dip for cattle and sheep. 

A number of arsenic salts and oxides are used medicinally, among 
them the bromide, iodide, trisulphide, trioxide, sodium arsenate, and 
potassium arsenate. Disulphide of arsenic, both natural and artificial, 
is used as a paint pigment; m calico printing and dyeing; in tanning; and, 
as it burns with an intense white light, in fireworks. Orpiment, the tri- 
sulphide, called also king's yellow, is used as a paint pigment and as a 
reducing agent in chemical work. The trioxide is used in paints; for 
preserving hides, both fw taxidermists and in the leather industry; as an 
antiseptic; and in killing animal pests. Sodium arsenate is used in dye- 
ing with turkey-red oil and in printing fabrics; the arsenite in making 
soaps for use on skins and hides. Potassium arsenite is used as a re- 
ducer for silver in the manufacture of mirrors. 







WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF ARSENIC. 
(In metric tons.) 






Year. 


Canada. 


Germany. 
(6) 


U 


'r"- 


Portugal. 
id) 


^w- 


United United 

Kingdom. States. 

(a) (a) 


Fnaoe. 
W) 


1898 

1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913! 


Nil, 

52 

275 

630 

726 

233 

66 

Nil. 

NiL 

317 

649 

1,020 

1.363 

1,815 

1.858 

1.538 


2.677 
2.423 
2.414 
2.549 
2,828 
2.768 
2.829 
2.535 
8.052 
2.904 
2,822 
2.911 
3.066 
2.981 
4,869 


215 
304 
120 

'"so 

80 

" 73 

JVil. 

16 

Nil. 


7 
5 
5 

10 

12 
6 
4 
8 
5 
7 

20 
8 

12 
6 


751 

1.083 

1.031. 

527 

736 

698 

1.370 

1.562 

1.322 

1,538 

1.655 

1.420 

974 

887 

1.006 


111 

101 

150 

120 

71 

1.088 

400 

1.140 

1.114 

2.400 

2.004 

506 

444 

831 


4.241 
3.800 
4.146 
8.416 
2.165 
916 
992 
1.552 
1.625 
1.523 
2.007 
2,911 
2.187 
2.178 
2.228 


272 

1.226 

554 

452 

701 

7M 

916 

1.301 

914 

1,203 

2.800 

2.855 

2.158 


* 2.666 
4.705 
7.491 
5.372 
6.658 
3.117 
3.627 
6.534 
7.900 
2381 
2.141 
8.045 
19.000 
81,880 



(a) White anenio. (b) Oxide, sulphide, etc. (c) Not yet available. (cO Ore. 

• BiBLIOGRAPHT 

Blassett, E., Jr. — Arsenic as an Agent in Metal Coloring. Metal Ind., 11, 
124-5. 

Elton, J. 0, — Arsenic Trioxid from Flue Dust. Bidl A, L M, E,, No. 80, 
1497-1509. 

Hess, F. L. — Production of Antimony, Arsenic, Bismuth, and Selenium in 
1912. Min. Res. of U. S., 1912. 

Miller, W. G.— The Cobalt Area, Ontario, Can. Min. Jour., Sept. 1, Sept. 
15, 1913. 

Toombs, C. — Arsenic in Sheet Zinc. Jour. Ckem. Met. So. Afr., 13, 407. 



ASBESTOS 



By Edward K. Judd 



The chief features of the asbestos industry during 1913 were a general 
recovery from the depressed condition of 1912, induced by overproduction 
during the year before, and a pronounced growth in the demand for the 
product, of both crude and mill grades. All the larger producers began, 
m 1913, to operate on more extended scales, by making additions to 
equipment for both mining and milling. Many of the smaller concerns 
are still laboring imder financial difficulties, resulting usually from exces- 
sive bonded indebtedness and other fixed charges. Considering that not 
more than 6 per cent, of the rock excavated can be converted into market- 
able product, of any grade, and that great expenditure of time and capital 
b required to prepare a given asbestos deposit for commercial exploita- 
tion, it is not surprising that only the strongest concerns are at present 
operating profitably. 





ASBESTOS STATISTICS OP THE UNITED STATES 








Production 




Imports. 


Year. 


Short Tons. 


Vahie. 


Value per Ton. 


Manufactured. 


Unmanufactured. 


Total 


1900 


1.100 


$16,600 


$15.00 


$24,155 


$331,796 


$355,951 


1901 


747 


13.498 


18.08 


24,741 


667.087 


691.828 


1902 


1.010 


12.400 


12.27 


33.313 


729.421 


762.734 


1903 


a) 887 


(o) 16.760 


(018.90 


32.058 


657.269 


689.327 


1904 


<a)1.480 


(o)25.740 


(o 17.40 


51.290 


700.572 


751,862 


1905 


3,100 


126.300 


40.74 


70,117 


776,362 


846.479 


ijw 


(0)1,605 


(a)28.565 


(o)16.85 


96.162 


1.010.453 


1.106,615 


1907 


050 


11.700 


12.32 


200,371 


1.104,110 


l.:'in4,481 


1908 


1^50 


24.000 


17.78 


147.548 


1,068.342 


1.LU6.W0O 


1909 


4.025 


87.626 


21.77 


240.381 


993.254 


1.233,635 


1910 


3.830 


64.350 


18.80 


308,078 


1.235.170 


1,543.248 


1911 


Ca)7.804 
(0)4,403 
(o)1.100 


(0)110.935 


(o)15.77 


290,098 


1.413.541 


1.703.fi.'*0 


1912 


87.959 


19.97 


363.759 


1.456.012 


1,819.771 


1913 


11.000 


10.00 


389.664 


1,928.705 


..l,32&,:irt<> 



Co) Statistics of the United States Geological Survey. 

The market demand for asbestos during 1913 showed increasing 
strength, due to growth in the older consuming industries as well as to the 
development of new fields of application. Increasing demand was most 
pronounced in the case of the higher grades of crude fiber, although the 
various cheaper grades of short fiber were also in large request, being of 
increasing value in the preparation of plaster, stucco, and other structual 
materials. Asbestos cement is growing in favor. Plaster containing 
asbestos is not only more resistant to fire, but forms a more nearly sound- 
proof material, and possesses acoustic properties which adapt it for use on 
the walls of auditoriums which might otherwise suffer from the presence 
of echoes. Shingles of asbestos cement are a relatively recent application. 
3 33 



34 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

A new concern, the National Asbestos Shingle Corporation, of New York, 
is about to begin the manufacture of asbestos shingles having a tapering 
shape, produced under German patents, instead of a uniform thickness, 
which is the form in which it lias heretofore been customary to make 
these shingles. 

Prices early in 1914 averaged as follows, per short ton: Crude No. 1, 
$350; crude No. 2, $200; spinning fiber, $125; shingle stock, $55; paper 
stock, $25; cement fiber, $15; air-floated asbestos powder, $7.50 per ton. 
The last-mentioned product is made in great abundance by all the mills, 
and is used as a paint filler, for flooring compositions, and in plaster and 
stucco. 

In 1913 the*United States exported manufactured asbestos valued at 
$763,949. 

Africa. — The December returns of the Mines Department of the 
Union of South Africa shows a production of 76 short tons of asbestos. 

Canada. — ^This country now contributes over 80 per cent, of the 
world's production of asbestos, and provides nearly all of that material 
consumed in the United States. The industry centers in the eastern 
townships of Quebec Province. The active operators in 1913 were the 
following: 

AsbestOB Corporation of Canada. Two mines, three miUa. . Thetford Mines. 

Aabestoa Corporation of Canada. Three mines, three mills. Black Lake. 

Black Lake Chrome and Asbestos Co Black Lake. 

Jacobs Asbestos Mining Co Thetford Mines. 

Johnson Aabestos Co Thetford Mines. 

Martin-Bennett Asbestos Co Thetford Minta. 

Bell Asbestos Co Thetford Mines. 

B. dc A. Co Robertsonville. 

Asbestos and Asbestic Co Danville. 

The Asbestos Corporation is much the largest producer; its King No. 1 
crude is recognized as the highest standard of asbestos produced in the 
district. The company also produces four other grades of No. 1 crudefiber. 
The whole output of the Bell Asbestos Co., is consumed by Keasby & 
Mattison, and that of the Asbestos & Asbestic Co., by H. W. Johns- 
Manville Co.; the latter firm also buys part of the output of other mines. 

None of the quarries formerly worked at East Broughton were in 
operation in 1913, although one concern made small shipments from 
stock. 

According to the preliminary report (subject to revision) of the Cana- 
dian Bureau of Mines, the output and shipments in 1913 exceeded those 
of all previous years, the increase in sales over 1912 being 22.75 per cent. 
The total output in 1913 was 132,564 tons, against 102,759 tons in 1912, 
an increase of 29,805 tons or 29 per cent. Sales and shipments of asbestos 
fiber in 1913 were 136,951 tons, valued at $3,830,909, or an average of 
$27.97 per ton, as against sales in 1912of 111,561 tons valued at $3, 117,672, 



ASBESTOS 



35 



or an average of $27.95. Stock on hand on Dec. 31, 1913, was reported as 
20,786 tons, compared with stocks of 23,288 tons at the beginning of the 
year. 

The number of men employed in mines and mills was 2951 and the 
amount paid in wages $1,687,957. 

The total quantity of asbestos rock sent to mills is reported as 2, 1 10,990 
tons, which, with a mill production of 127,539 tons, shows an average 
estimated contents of about 6.04 per cent, of fiber in the rock. 

The output and sales of crude and mill stock separately is shown for 
1912 and 1913 in tabulated statements following. The classification is 
based on valuation, crude No. 1, comprising material valued at $200 and 
upward per ton, and crude No. 2, under $200; mill stock No. 1 includes 
mill fiber Valued from $30 upward. No. 2, from $15 to $30, and No. 3, 
under $15. 

The total sales of crude in 1913 were 5660.3 tons, valued at $989,162, 
or an average of $174.75, against sales in 1912 of 5662.9 tons valued at 
$890,351, or an average of $157.22, practically the same quantity but at a 
higher average price. 

The total sales of mill stock in 1913 were 131,291 tons valued at 
12,841,747, or an average of $21.64 per ton, against 105,898 tons in 1912, 
valued at $2,227,221, or an average of $21.03 per ton, a large increase in 
quantity but at substantially the same average price. 

There was a falling off in the amount of both crude and mill fiber in 
stock at the end of the year. 

CANADIAN OUTPUT. SALES. AND STOCKS IN 1913. 
(Subject to rayiaon.) 





Output. 


Sales. 


Stock 


on Hand Deo. 31. 




Torn. 


Tods. 


Value. 


Per Ton. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Per Ton 


erode No. 1 

CradeNo. 2 

MiflstoekNo. 1.. 
MJl«ockKo.2.. 
lIiOstoekNo.a.. 


2.016 

3.010 

23.444 

68.692 

46.603 


1.S53 

3.807 

26.198 

60.164 

44,929 


f 

631.200 

467,962 

1.229.908 

1.201.216 

410.624 


286.62 

120.29 

46.96 

19.97 

9.14 


880 
1.622 
6.756 
4,809 
6.820 


S 
247.877 
178.789 
350,165 
108,286 
54,604 


S 

281.52 

117.47 

61.84 

22.62 

8.01 


Total Mbei«oe.. 


132.6«4 


136.961 


3.830.909 


27.97 


20.786 


939,720 


45.21 


AAettte 




24.136 


19.016 


0.79 








^^ 1 









Exports of asbestos during the calendar year 1913 were 103,812 short 
tons, valued at $2,848,047, compared with 88,008 tons valued at $2,349,- 
353 exported during 1912. During 19i3, asbestos manufactures were 
exported to the value of $73,446. 

According to R. E. Hore {Can. Min. Jour., Oct. 15, 1913), the asbestos 
occurs in thin irregular veins traversing masses of serpentine. The veins 



36 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

are seldom more than 2 or 3 in. thicki though occasionally they 
are 5 or 6 in. thick for short distances. The asbestos is of the 
chrysotile variety. It is finely fibrous and has a silk-like luster. The 
fibers lie transversely to the walls of the vein and hence are of limited 
length. Frequently the fibers extend from wall to wall; commonly, 
however, there is a parting in the vein, and then the fibers are even 
shorter, extending from the parting to both walls. 

As the thin veins traverse the rock in all directions, and do not con- 
tinue for great distances, it has not been found possible to mine the veins 
individually. The practice is to break the rock containing veins and then 
sort out the asbestos from the waste rock. Usually the veins are not 
confined to a narrow zone. Hence the mine openings are large and it has 
been found advisable to do most of the mining, or quarrying, in open cuts. 
At one property some underground work has been done, but most of the 
production is from open cuts. Production, therefore, varies with the 
weather; in winter, comparatively little work is done. When the over- 
burden has been removed the rock is broken in benches by dynamite. 
Machine drills are used in most of the mines, but hand drilling is the 
practice at some of the smaller properties. The broken rock is sorted 
and the best quality of asbestos, known as long fiber, is picked out by 
hand. Rock containing short fiber, and all the fine material, are sent 
to the mill. The remaining rock is piled on waste dumps. Cable der- 
ricks are used to hoist the ore from the pits. 

At the mills the higher-grade mine product is broken by hand, with 
heavy hammers. The fiber thus separated from the rock is cleaned by 
girls using smaller hammers. The product from hand-cobbing is the 
asbestos known as 'crude* and is ready for the market. The discards 
from the cobbing sheds, and the rock sent directly from the mine to the 
mill, are treated mechanically. The material is first dried by exposure 
to the air, by steam pipes, or in rotary dryers. The rock is then first 
crushed in jaw or gyratory rock-breakers, and then by rolls or in machines 
known as fiberizers and cyclones. The material from these machines falls 
on a screen whence the fiber is picked up by suction produced by a fan. 
The fiber is then classified by treatment on grading screens into long and 
short fiber. 

China. — U. S. Consul Baker, of Antung, China, states that valuable 
deposits of asbestos have been found in the vicinity of Kuantien, a small 
town lying about 45 miles northeast of Antung. The product appears to 
be of good quality. The price at Antung is about 60 cents U. S. currency, 
per pQilnd, but as the mining is done in a desultory and primitive manner, 
the cost could be greatly reduced by using modern machinery. Three 
mines are now in operation, each employing about 30 workers. These 



1 



ASBESTOS 37 

are mostly farmers who devote only their spare time to mining, using 
merely hammers and chisels, and gather only the asbestos which lies near 
the surface. 

Russia. — ^The asbestos deposits of the Urals are found mainly on the 
eastern slope, and although they are known to stretch over a great area, 
beginning in the Bogosloff district in the north, at present the mineral is 
mostly exploited at the asbestos mines situated close to Ekaterinburg on 
the Kamensk government estate, and elsewhere. Owing to the strong 
present industrial demand for asbestos the production has been on the 
increase from year to year, and in 1912, compared with 1907, i.e., in the 
space of 5 years, the production had doubled. The producing concerns 
m 1912 were: A. Ph. Poklievski Korell Successors, 324,279 poods; Baron 
E. A. Zihirar de Sukanton, 323,335 poods; P. 0. Korievo Successors, 
221,470 poods; the Italo-Russian Asbestos Co., 70,125 poods, and the 
M. V. Muchanoff Co., 68,470 poods. (1 pood = 36.11 lb. av.). 

The price of asbestos at the mine is 2 roubles to 2 roubles 20 copecks 
per pood. ($55.50 @ 61.05 per ton.) Most of it is exported; for ex- 
ample, the asbestos from the Italo-Russian works is sent to Italy to be 
manufactured. Twenty asbestos mines or quarries were being exploited 
in 1912, and these employed 4194 workmen, which means an average 
production of 250 poods per man. 

The asbestos produced in the Urals in recent years has been as follows: 
1903-321,364 poods; 1904^—457,981 poods; 1905—443,619 poods; 
1906—489,700 poods; 1907—541,143 poods; 1908—663,038 poods; 1909 
--«14,134 poods; 1910—677,966 poods; 1911—948,380 poods, 1912— 
1,007,679 poods. Thus the total production of asbestos in the Urals 
during the past 10 years has been 6,365,004 poods. 

Asbestos was discovered in the Urals as far back as 1720, on the river 
Tagil, on Nikita Demidoff's estate. Since that time asbestos has been 
mined and manufactured on the spot in small quantities, almost entirely 
at the Neviansk factory. The art of preparing asbestos yarn became 
well advanced long ago, as may be seen in the samples shown in the 
museums, which show asbestos goods made at the Neviansk works, where 
the art of weaving the yarn was discovered quite independently. But as 
there was not much market for it, the industry was practically abandoned. 
It was taken up again seriously in 1889, reached the level of 321,364 poods 
in 1908, and the record figure of 1,007,679 poods in 1912. 

The recently organized Perm Province Asbestos Syndicate includes 
the following concerns: The Vosnisensk Asbestos Mines, Heirs of 
Yakovlev, Heirs of Kosol, Korova Asbestos Mines, Girar de Sukanton, 
wid the Russo-Italian Society for Asbestos Industry. The estimated 
Annual production of the syndicate is 18,540 short tons. 



38 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

SoiUh Africa. — Considerable interest is again being taken in the 
asbestos deposits of the Transvaal and Rhodesia, and it is interesting to 
note that both in the Umswezwe district of Mashonaland and the Caro- 
lina area of the Transvaal, much activity prevails on the asbestos fields. 
About 4 years ago the Carolina Asbestos Co. suspended all operations 
on the farm Diepegezicht, operations having proved unprofitable. 
Recently, however, certain British asbestos merchants have entered into 
an agreement for operating the property on a tributing basis. 

Natal. — The discovery of a promising asbestos deposit has been 
reported, and a company, registed as the African Asbestos Co. (Ltd), 
having a nominal capital of $58,400, has been organized to work the field. 
The locality is an oblong plateau 2 by 4 miles, situated in the Klip river 
division, western part of Natal. The fibrous zones at the outcrop are 12 
to 14 in., but rapidly widen, and at 12 ft. from the surface are 24 in. The 
only seam that has so far been exposed to a greater depth is 4 ft. 9 in. 
across its face at the 30-ft. level. The asbestos is inclined to brittleness. 
The deposit is about 40 miles from the railroad, but in a region where 
labor is plentiful. The commercial value of the asbestos is not yet 
ascertained. 

West AtLstralia. — The Geological Survey has issued a recent report by 
Torrington Blatchford on the asbestos deposits at Soanesville, in the 
Pilbarra goldfield. The rocks here are serpentine, which has been intruded 
by dolerite dykes. Asbestos has been found in several places within the 
area, but only two exposures have been prospected to any extent. Locally 
these deposits are known as the ''A" and "B" lodes. In the "A" 
deposit the fiber is short, and fit only for mill treatment. On the "B" 
lode, which has been developed to a depth of 149 ft. some excellent 
asbestos has been exposed, but apparently the deposit is narrow. The 
total cost of producing the marketable product at Pilbarra and putting it 
on a local or foreign market, including labor of mining, cobbing and 
bagging, transport, etc., would probably not exceed £20 per ton. There 
is, therefore, a good margin of profit in working good crude fiber. In 
estimating the value of milling fiber, the difficulties are many. The 
average Canadian price of all grades of mill fiber is £6 per ton. Taking 
the asbestos veins as they stand exposed in the workings, and making due 
allowance for high mining costs under existing conditions, it would cost at 
least 20s. per ton to mine and mill the asbestos rock on the spot. Assum- 
ing a recovery of fiber and milling rock amounting to 20 per cent., this 
would mean a cost of £5 to produce 1 ton of mill fiber, exclusive of 
cartage, freight, realization charges, etc. The shipments of asbestos 
thus far amount to 40 tons, valued at $1600, sold in 1908, and 283 tons, 
valued at £154 sold in 1909. 



ASPHALT 

Asphalt is one of the solid native bitumens, which are composed of 
hydrocarbons. It melts readily with heat and is soluble in turpentine, 
chloroform, carbon disulphide and similar solvents and in heavy petroleum 
oik Residual pitches prepared from asphaltic or semi-asphaltic petro- 
leums by industrial processes are also termed asphalts. Owing to the 
different kinds of petroleum in which they originate, they are of a very 
varied character, and not uniform. 

The supply of native asphalt comes chiefly from Trinidad and Vene- 
zuela, and the industry has increased each year. The production in the 
United States is given in the following table: 



PKODUCnON OF ASPHALTUM AND BITUMINOUS ROCK IN THE UNITED STATES, (a) 

(Tone of 2000 lb.) 


States. 


1910. 


1911. 


1Q12. 




Tons. 


Value. 


Per Ton. 


Tona. 


Value. 


Per Ton, 


Tons. 


Value. 


Per 
Ton. 


BHwmnow Rock. 
CAlifoniia 


37^7 
9.938 
11,959 


$128,212 
63.703 
65.244 


$3.45 
6.40 
6.46 


27307 
13331 


$80364 
54.980 


$3.25 
3.70 


35.637 


$88,621 


$2.50 


KoDtaeky 




okkh«S(c)..:::: 


10.969 
6.435 


44.428 
19.626 


4.05 


Tmm 








8.06 


Utah. ...:::. 


6.110 


163396 


30.00 
























Total 


0i«ft54 

105,463 


•400.657 
1,204354 


(i7)$6.20 
11.42 


41338 

m.690 
63.566 


$144344 

2302,490 
325376 


$3.50 

12.40 
6.09 




$152,676 

2.097.782 
296 945 


$2.87 


"fflrJ" 


9.85 


OUiboBa (e) 


6.40 


utrii..™..:;;:.:: 


75S 
57.713 


43.035 
1.040326 


57.00 
18.07 




Tnm 


66326 


786.785 


14.06 


88.097 


1384.640 


15.75 






Vtah 

OkkhoiBa(e) 


163,931 
29,882 


$2388.714 
872300 


0) $12.47 
12.47 


287.082 

30.846 
6,000 


$3316351 

616.614 
16.000 


$11.55 

16.70 
3.00 


356339 
89.930 


$3,779367 
688.689 


17.26 


GUtfonna 


476 
1,287 


6,670 
12326 


11.90 
9.60 








Kaloeky 





























/•) Turn the Mineral Reaouroes of the United States, (b) Includes hard and refined, or gum. 
^jm or laiklthm, and oil residues, (e) Indian Territory included before amalgamation into one State 
(ii laeladss giisonite, elaterite, grahamite, osokerite. and "tabbyite." (0) Average value per ton. 

The net imports of asphalt and bitumens into the U. S. were: 1910 
106375 long tons; 1911, 174,234 tons; 1912, 194,775 tons; 1913, 193,783 
tons, valued respectively $4.65, $4.47, $4.72 and $4.71 per long ton. 

The exports of asphalt were as follows: in 1911, unmanufactured, 
1^*925 tons, valued at $360,708, and manufactures valued at $238,222; 
m 1912, unmanufactured, 39,915 tons, valued at $886,678, and manufac- 

39 



40 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



tures valued at $467,959; in 1913, unmanufactured, 58,440 tons, valued 
at $1,267,625, and manufactures valued at $411,786. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF ASPHALT AND BITUMINOUS ROCK, (a) 
(In metric tona.) 



Asphalt. 



Year. 


Fnnoe. 


Germany. 


Hungary. 


Italy, (c) 


Spain. 


Trinidad. 
(6) 


United 
States. 


Total. 


1904... 


22.000 


91,736 


2221 


34.227 


3463 


137.089 


77.260 


367.986 


1905. . . 


20.000 


115,267 


247 


26.&38 


5805 


116,735 


68,935 


353.827 


1906... 


28.231 


138.059 


4111 


34.386 


6229 


132,381 


94.316 


437,713 


1907... 


33,000 


126.649 


3920 


38.568 


8643 


147,051 


161.783 


519.614 


1908. . . 


41,000 


89.009 


4818 


34.761 


9231 


136.583 


134,273 


449.675 


1909... 


44.800 


77.537 


5054 


39.165 


6582 


146.013 


126.530 


445.681 


1910... 


38.500 


81,208 


4994 


41,705 


8473 


161.587 


148.760 


485.227 


1911... 


38.000 


81.902 


8861 


50.179 


3496 


163.080 


260,510 


601.027 


1912... 


31.535 


96.112 


4460 


52.747 


5387 


176.077 


369.597 


726.915 


1913... 












208.164 






















I MiNBBAL Industbt, XX. p. 75. 



Bituminous Rock. 



Year. 


Austria. 


France. 


Hungary. 


Italy. 


Spain. 


United 
States. 


Total. 


1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 


1435 
4363 
2840 
3858 
3695 
2975 
1066 
1740 
4234 
3026 


277.000 
191.509 
196,375 
177.000 
171,000 
169.000 
170.000 
169.697 
280,313 


17.660 
19.372 
34.664 
33.096 
72,972 
(d)70.000 
(d)70.000 


111.390 
106.586 
130.825 
161.126 
134,163 
111.067 
162.212 
188.133 
181.397 


3.761 
6,725 
7.794 
8.219 
12,373 
5.284 
7.795 
6.500 


19.454 
32.337 
21.848 
41.801 
33.901 
60.243 
58,581 
37.512 
48.108 


380.700 
359.892 
394.348 
424.600 
428.104 
408.569 
654,649 


1912 






1913 























(o) Statistics of production in Barbados, Cuba. Mexico. Russia. Switserland. and Venezuela are 
not available. (5) Exports, (e) Including mastic and bitumen. (<0 Estimated. 



BiBUOGRAPHT 

Darbt, a. — Natural Rock Asphalts and Bitumens. London, Constable & Co. 

Day, David T. — The Production of Asphalt, Related Bitumens, and Bitumi- 
nous Rock in 1912. Min, Res. of U. S., 1912, U. S, Geol. Surv, 

FiNLEY, W. H.— Asphalt Waterproofing. Eng. Mag., 44, 113-5. 

Frbntzbl, Alexander. — Die Erdol, Bitumen und SchwefellagervonTetjuschi. 
Petroleum, June 4, 1913, p. 1121. 

Graefe, Ed. — Der Asphaltsee auf der Insel Trinidad und die Verwertung des 
Trinidad-asphaltes. From Zeit, angeto. Chemie. Bergbau, June 12, 1913, p. 391. 

Italian Gab Society op Turin. — Dry Distillation of Natural Sicilian Asphalt 
and Bitumen. Ind. chim.f 13, 103. 

Kantorowicz, H. — Ueber Erdol und Erdwachs. Ckemiker Ztg., Nov. 13, 
1913, p. 1394. 

Knapp, I. N. — Natural Gas, with Incidental Reference to other Bitumens. 
Jour. Frank, Inst., Dec, 1912; Nat. Gas Jour., Jan., 1913, p. 15. 

Law, Leroy M. — Empirical Requirements in Asphalt Specifications. Jmir. 
Ind. Eng. Chem., Dec, 1913, p. 1021. 



ASPHALT 41 

Mabcxtsson, F. — Chemical Constitution and Differentiation between Natural and 
Artifid&l Asphalts. MiU, kgl MatenaU-prufungaampi, 30, 2; Farben Ztg,, 17, 2535. 

Peckham, S. F. — The Asphaltic Rocks of the United States and their Uses in 
Street Paving. Trana, Am, Inst, Chem, Eng.^ 5, 245, 

PiETRUSKY, K.— The Asphalt Industry of the U. S. Chem, Ind., 36, 225-8. 
Raeflbr, F. — Das Bitumen in der Zeitzer Braunkohle. Zeil. prakt, Geol., 
Nov., Dec, 1912, p. 483. 

Rakubin, M. a. — Ueber des Elaterite aus dem Gebiet Semirjetschensk. Petro- 
ttum^ March 5, 1913, p. 729. 

RiCHAHDSON, C. — Characteristics and Differentiation of Native Bitumens and 
th^ ResiduiBs. Jour. Ind, Eng, Chem,, June, 1913, p. 462; Eng, Rec., 67, 466-8. 

ScHAAY, J. H. — Notes upon the Bitumen-bearing Sandstones of Western Switzer- 
buid. ZeU, prakt, Geol, 20, 488-90. 

Smiobb, L. C. — The Oklahoma Rock Asphalts and their Use in Paving. Good 
Roads, 5, 158-60; Min, Eng, World, Mar. 22, 1913, p. 577. 
BtrasLj G.— Asphalt. Montan Ztg,, May 1, 1913, p. 165. 
Thielb, F. C. — Ueber Saureasphalt von der Erdolreinigung. Chemiker Ztg,, 
July 16, 1913, p. 84. 

Tbump, I. v.— Testing Bitumens. Eng. Contr., 38, 635. 

Tbump, I. y. — Der Asphaltsee auf der Insel Trinidad und die Verwertung des 
THnldad Asphaltes. Bitumen, June 16, July 1, 1913. 

Tbump, I. V.— The Bitumen of the Falkland Islands. Petroleum Rev., 27, 304. 



BARYTES 

Bt a. H. Reed 

In 1913 the principal domestic production of barytes has come from 
the Missouri and from the Appalachian districts, as it has for several 
years. The Kentucky Geological Survey estimates that the barytes 
deposits of eastern Kentucky are the largest in the United States; and 
there are several large deposits of barytes known in the fluorspar district 
of western Kentucky. And more than one large vein of barytes has 
been discovered in the Rocky mountain region of the United States. 

The barytes industry is a considerable one, as can be seen by a glance 
at the following world statistics. 

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES IN WHICH BARYTES IS PRODUCED. 
(Metric tons.) 



1909. 



1910. 



1911. 



1912. 



1913. 



Austria-Hunganr (eaqports) 

Barium ohlonde 

Barytes 

Belgium (produotion) 

Canada (production) 

France (production) 

Baden (production) 

BaTaria (production) 

Gtormany (exports) 

Barytes 

Banum white 

Barium chloride 

Banrtes (imports) 

ItiUy (production) 

Barytes, ground 

Barytes, crude 

Barytes (imports) 

Barytes (exports) 

Spain (production) 

Sweden (imports) 

United Kingdom (production) 

United States (imports) 

United States (production). . . 



3.737 
2.685 
31,400 
NiL 
14.111 
16.186 
17.920 

90.666 
4.888 
6.340 

14.660 

1.960 

16.240 

2.094 

126 

422 

629 

42.430 

13.301 

56.211 



4,344 

18 

4.960 

Nil. 

11.632 

13.832 

24.711 

114,264 
6,628 
6.403 
5.782 



8.741 
12 
26.200 
60 
10,064 
16,014 
26.234 

128.452 
6.834 
6.180 
7,926 



14,420 

1.777 

160 

476 

626 

43.637 

22.536 

38.998 



13.620 

2,024 

863 

635 

607 

43.232 

21,196 

34,887 



8.659 
2.690 
32.400 
421 
13.620 
15.871 
27,199 

142.681 

8.242 

8.096 

18,666 



4918 

753 

12,000 

582 



16.445 
27,199 

158.065 

7.647 

5.649 

19.466 



1,986 

381 

1.096 

644 

43.463 

27.093 

134.009 



1.761 
234 



610 



36.878 
41.105 



The Missouri district affords two kinds of deposits of the mineral. 
(1) An initially high grade of barytes, found mainly in Washington 
County, that is residual in clay, and so is not susceptible to the laying 
out of systematic and durable mines, and the mining of which is typified 
by gophering on a contract basis, although the Point Milling & Mfg. Co., 
has installed recently a small steam shovel on their barytes property, 
to do the work of stripping and mining. As much as 95 per cent, of the 
Missouri production has come in past years from Washington County, but 
this great preponderance of production by one county has been lowered 

42 



BARYTE8 43 

during the past year by the advent of considerable proportionate produc- 
tion from some other counties, which have generally another class of ore. 
(2) A lower grade of barytes, initially, occurring more or less as a vein 
that has other mineral associations, as lead and zinc, calcite and gangue, 
and which class of ore has to be dressed and freed from impurities and 
concentrated. This form of deposit is adaptable to systematic mine 
exploitation, and a few orderly barytes mines have been developed in 
some favorable localities of economic occurrence of this type of ore. 
Usually milling will give by-products of either lead or zinc, although 
barytes itself is a secondary product at some mines and mills. 

In Cole and in Benton Counties, Mo., barytes occur contaminated 
with lead and zinc. Near Henley, Cole County, the Bryant Barytes 
Lead Mining Co. is operating a new concentrating plant, treating mainly 
old dumps, and also operating an open-pit mine. Nearby, about a mile 
south, a similar interest, the Bryant Mining Co., is operating Franck 
mine, another open pit, and is concei^trating barytes by sluice washing 
and hand jigging. The combined production of these two opera- 
tions is about 50 tons daily of high-grade barytes concentrates. The 
Fink Mining Co. is operating Wilson mine, south of and adjacent to 
Franck mine, and by the practice of sun-drjring, hacking and ^'rattling" 
has managed to keep up a production of 10 to 15 tons daily of good 
barytes. Tahoma mine, in Benton County, Mo., affords a barite-blende 
ore, which is being successfully treated by process of decrepitation, after 
preliminary jigging and partial drying. 

And since the mechanical features of decrepitation have been worked 
out successfully at Tahoma mine, other mine operators having a similar 
barite-blende ore have been encouraged to adopt the process. Black 
Jack Mining Co., Bass, Cole County, Mo., however, was not able to use 
the decrepitation process on account of the failure of their ore to behave 
under the process as it should, but the Huff electrostatic process has been 
successfully adapted to treat the Black Jack mine ore. 

Barytes as a secondary product is recovered also by milling processes 
from galena-barite ore, occurring in fissure vein conditions, in Franklin 
County, Mo., and a new mill lately constructed by the Wrisberg Mining 
4 Milling Co., is reported to have had a successful year in 1913, in 
mining and dressing this class of ore. 

The principal operators in Washington County, Mo., are Potosi Lead, 
Barytes and Mercantile Co., Potosi, Mo., producing 40 to 50 tons of 
barytes daily; and Point Milling & Mfg. Co., Mineral Point, Mo., 
producing 8 to 10 tons of barytes daily. The combined production of all 
other barytes diggings in the Potosi-Mineral Point district of Washington 
County, Mo., will average perhaps as much as 10 tons of barytes daily. 



44 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Nulsen, Klein & Krause Mfg. Co. have a grinding, preparation and 
chemical products plant at St. Louis. J. C. Finck Mineral Milling Co. 
have a mill at Wickes, Mo., and also at St. Louis, at which latter plant 
grinding, bleaching and preparation of barytes is done. The Point 
Milling & Mfg. Co., has a large finishing and preparation plant for barytes, 
at Mineral Point, Mo. And the Illinois Mineral Milling Co., grinds 
barytes in a plant located at East St. Louis, Illinois. 

The Appalachian barytes field includes the following localities: Car- 
tersville, Ga.; Stackhouse, N. C; Sweetwater, Tenn.; and two areas in 
Virginia. The deposits in these sections are, in the main, residual in 
clay, and are mined by open pits methods. In some of the workings 
initially high-grade barytes is often obtained, which, when thoroughly 
washed, may be marketed direct, either crude, or ground, in either case 
without mill concentration. However, a great deal of the barytes mined 
in the Appalachian district is contaminated with chert, principally, 
or is cellular in character, having the cellular spaces filled with clay, 
and therefore has to be milled and concentrated. The deposits in North 
Carolina and the Piedmont deposits of Virginia are characterized by 
more or less vein conditions of deposition, and are mined by under- 
ground methods from shafts and slopes. 

There was very fair activity in the Appalachian region, in 1913, 
although some of the principal operators in the past did not operate at all 
during the year. Carolina Barjrtes Co., main office 100 William Street, 
New York City, was perhaps the most prominent single operator. This 
interest operates mines and also a mill at Stackhouse, N. C; contracts 
for and buys barytes at Sweetwater, Tenn. which product is now shipped 
to Stackhouse for milling; and during the past year acquired the Nicholas- 
ville, Ky. barytes plant, to which up to October and November, 1913, 
Sweetwater product was shipped for milling. Other important operators 
are B. W. Gahagan, at Stackhouse, and Hot Springs Mfg. Co., Hot Springs, 
N. C. In Tennessee, the Lookout Point Mfg. Co. is operating a finishing 
and chemical products plant at Chattanooga; the Oilman Barytes plant 
at Sweetwater, built to treat the ore and also to manufacture barium 
compounds, has been idle during the year, and the operating company 
is in the hands of receivers who have advertised the plant for sale; and 
the Commercial Mining & Milling Co., Knoxville, has reported little 
activity in their business during the year. John T. Williams & Son, 
Bristol, Va., are reported as having re-organized their barytes business 
into the Virginia Zinc & Chemical Corporation, and propose to continue 
treating barytes and manufacturing barium compounds. There are 
many good barytes mines in Virginia, and until late years there were 
several prominent barytes operators in the state, but reports which have 



BARYTES 46 

been received show that there were not more than 2 or 3 concerns active 
in 1913. Other baiytes nulls in Virginia are located respectively at 
Lynchburgh (Nulsen, Klein & Krausse Mfg. Co.) ; Honaker (Clinch Valley 
Baiytes Co.); and Richlands (Pittsburgh Barytes and Milling Co.). 

The barytes deposits of eastern Kentucky are vein deposits, and are 
more or less contaminated by calcite and by fluorspar, so that milling 
and concentrating usually is necessary in order to produce commercial 
bar3rte3. In western Kentucky, the deposits at Mexico are in fissure 
veins, are sometimes very pure but are frequently accompanied by 
zinc, lead, calcite and fluorspar, so that successful exploitation of these 
deposits of barytes may be safeguarded by preparation for milling and 
concentrating. 

New York and St. Louis markets fix the prices on barytes. Imported 
crude German barytes is generally exceedingly pure, and only requires 
grinding to make it merchantable; and, because of large cheap production 
in Germany and low ocean freight rates, notwithstanding there is $1.50 
duty on the commodity, german barytes regulates the governing prices 
in New York. On the other hand, almost all crude domestic barytes, 
which generally has been concentrated, has to be bleached before grinding. 
And barytes is used by most of the trade in ground or finely powdered 
form, crude barytes being scarcely merchantable except to grinding 
plants that in turn wholesale the ground product, and to chemical prod- 
ucts plants that grind the product before using, although very few 
actual users of ground har3rtes are fixed to grind the crude material. 

Specifications and ruling prices c. i. f. New York, in 1913, were: crude 
barytes, $5.50 to $6 per ton for product analyzing 96 per cent. BaSOi 
and not exceeding 1.5 per cent. Si02; with a penalty of 20 cents per ton 
for each 1 per cent, product would analyze under 96 per cent. BaSOi, and 
no deliveries acceptable that would analyze less than 92 per cent. BaSOi 
or carry more than 1.5 per cent SiOj. Ground barytes, $18.50 to $24 
per ton for white prime foreign; $19 to $20 per ton for domestic 
Western; $17 to $18 per ton for domestic Southern; and $13 to $15 
for off grades. 

Extremes of prices quoted for 1913, f. o. b. St. Louis, were: crude 
baiytes, S4.50 to $5.15 per ton for 95 per cent. BaS04 product; and ground 
barytes, $8 to $13 per ton, the former price for off grades and the latter 
for best product. 

The following table has been arranged from statistics compiled by 
U.S. Geological Survey for Mineral Resources, and shows the production 
of crude barytes in the United States from 1911 to 1913, inclusive, to- 
gether with the average price per ton, f. o. b. mines, which price is 
exclusive of cost of wagon haulage, boat or railway freight. 



46 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



PRODUCTION OP CRUDE BARYTES IN U 
(By BUtM. in abort tons.) 


. 8., 1911-1913. 








1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


State. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Av. 
Price 

Ton, 


*fer 


Value. 


Av. 

Price 
perTon. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Value. 


Av. 

Price 

ITn. 


Missouri 

Other states(a) 


21.600 
8.819 
8.126 


881,380 
20.053 
21.369 


$3.79 
2.27 
2.68 


24.580 

(a) 3.718 

9.230 


$117,035 

8,682 

27.796 


$4.82 
2.34 
8.01 


31.181 

(tt)2,098 

12,069 


$117,638 

3.698 

35.060 


2.81 


Total 


38.446 


122.792 


8.19 


37.478 


153.813 


4.09 


45.298 


156.275 


8.45 







(a) Production of Tennessee; no production of barytee reported for Kentucky in 1912 and 1918. 
(fr) In 1910 and 1912, Georgia, North Carolina, and Vfrginia: in 1911, Oeoi«ia, North Carolina. 
South Carolina, and Virginia. 



IMPORTS OF BARIUM PRODUCTS. 1913. 
(Fiscal year, ending June 30.) 



Product. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



Declared Value 
per Unit. 



Baryta, sulphate of, or barytes including baryta 

earth: 

Unmanufactured tons (2240 lb.) 

Manufactured tons (2240 lb.) 

Blanc fixe, or artificial sulphate of barytes, and 

satin white, or artificial sulphate of lime. 

pounds 

Zinc, sulphide of. white or white sulphide of 

(Lithopone). pounds 

Barium carbonate, pounds 

Barium binozide. pounds 

Barium chloride 



4.594 



$4,806,726 

5.163.642 
2.182,517 
3.507,508 
2,926.159 



$63,345 
$36,819 



68,499 

144.812 
20.143 

215.500 
26,341 



$2.23 
8.01 



0.012 

0.028 
0.009 
0.061 
0.009 



The uses of barytes are in the manufacture of paints, in preparation 
of rubber, treating of wall paper, coating of oilcloth and linoleum, 
glazing of pottery, enameling iron and steel, loading rope, and proofing 
canvas ham sacks. It is also used in the manufacture of artificial ivory, 
particularly of poker chips; and is used in the preparation of certain as- 
bestos cements. Its use is advantageous in the manufacture of glass, 
but little advantage is taken of this adaptation in the United States. 
Barytes is also the source of manufacture of most of the barium chemical 
compounds. 



BAUXITE 



By C. H. Gobdon 

The mineral bauxite, still practically the only source of the metal 
aluminium, is a hydrate of alumina, its composition when pure being 
AJtOj.2HjO, or alumina 73.9 per cent, and water 26.1 per cent. As 
mined the alumina may run as high as 70 per cent, or as low as 40 per 
coit. Other substances usually present are iron oxide, silica and the 
oxide of titanium. The ore in the same deposit may show considerable 
variation in composition. 

ANALYSES OF BAUXITE. 



Na 


AlK). 


FetOa 


SiOs 


TiOt 


CaCOi 


HsO 


Moistttre. 




30.30 
65.40 
69.30 
76.90 
61.89 
63.16 
62.05 
87.30 
62.46 
67.68 
39.92 
61.00 
49.90 


34.90 

24.80 

a 22.90 

0.10 

1.96 

23.56 
1.66 
1.43 
0.81 
0.96 

16.84 
2.20 
4.13 






12.70 
0.20 


22.10 
11.60 
14.10 
16.80 
27.82 

8.34 
30.31 

0.88 
31.03 
29.12 
19.62 
31.68 
27.59 






4.80 
0.30 
2.20 
6.01 
4.16 
2.00 
6.40 
4.72 
9.88 
20.00 
2.10 
b 18.88 


3.20 
3.40 
4.00 


































3 50 




3.99 
0.23 
2.76 
1.47 
















0.85 






1 25 






3.12 


13 

















a. iBdudM both FeO and FeiOi. b. Insoluble. 

L Hud, eompaot. red bauxite. Baux. France. 2. d*Allauoh, near MaFieille, France. 3. Red 
MQxite from Tberonet, Var, France. 4. White bauxite from Villerejrrac, H6rault, France. 5. 
GleaxmTd, Ireland. 6. Voohein, Germany. (Includes 0.79 per cent, of alkalies (NatO, KiO). 7. 
AiioBMS. 8. Washed calcined bauxite from Arkansas. 9* 10, 11. Wilkinson County, Georgia. 12. 
Rock Btm. Alabama. 13. Keenbnrg, Tennessee. 

Bauxite may consist of rounded concretionary grains ranging in size 
from that of a pea up to an inch in diameter, or it may be massive, earthy 
and clay-like in character. Bauxite melts at 1820° C. and bauxite clay 
at 1795° C. Bricks made from unrefined bauxite ore melt at 1740° C.^ 

Alumina occurs in the anhydrous form practically pure in the mineral 
eonmdum, but this substance is too valuable and occurs in insuflicient 
quantity to be available as an ore of aluminum. 

Bauxite owes its importance chiefly to the large uses of the metal 
aluminum and to the steady and rapid growth in the demand for the 
metal. (See article on "Aluminium.") .The utility of this metal and 
the growth of the aluminum industry is so marked that for this use alone 
the mining of bauxite is becoming a permanent industry while the pros- 
pects for new deposits are promising. There is a steady growth also in 

* MxaKBAL iMntwrsT, xxi, 94 (1912). 

47 



48 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



the demand for bauxite for refractory uses and for the manufacture of 
alundum and electric furnace products. 

This has resulted in a marked increase in the production of bauxite 
in the United States during the year 1913, the total output being 210,241 
long tons valued at $997,698, an increase of 50,376 or 31.5 per cent, in 
tonnage and $228,766 or 29.8 per cent, in valuation over the figures for 
1912. The states which produced bauxite were as usual Alabama, 
Arkansas, Georgia and Tennessee. Arkansas is by far the largest pro- 
ducer, this State and Tennessee showing a substantial increase while the 
production in Georgia and Alabama declined, the decline in the former 
state being slight but in Alabama considerable. 

PRODUCTION OF BAUXITE IN THE UNITED STATES. 
(In tons of 2240 tb.) 



State. 


1003 
a 


1904 


1905 


1906 


1907 
o 


1908 
a 


1909 
o 


1910 1911 

(a) 


1912 
(a) 


1913 
(a) 


Alabama. . 

Georgia... 
Arkaneas.. 


22.374 
25.713 


7.087 

16.009 
24.016 


j 17.004 
30.897 


27.131 
51.200 


1 97.776 
J (b) 


14.464 
(6)37,703 


22.227 

(6)106.874 


33.096 130.170 
(6)115.836 12 5448 


10.587 
14,173 

(6)126,105 


1^,409 
182.832 


Total.. 


48.067 


48.012 


47.091 


78.331 


97.776 


52.167 


129,101 


148.932 155.618 159.865 


210.241 



(a) Statietios of the United States Oeologioal Survey. (6) Production of Tennessee included. 

In the following table is given the figures showing the production, 
imports, and exports for the United States for seventeen years ending 
with 1913. The production is largely of crude material and in comparing 
these figures it must be considered that the shipments are largely of 
washed and concentrated material and are accordingly less in bulk and 
tonnage and proportionally higher in value. 

STATISTICS OF BAUXITE IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Year. 


Production. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Total. 




Long Tons. 


Value. 


Per Ton. 


Long Tons. 


Value. 


Long Tons. 


Value. 


Long Tons. 


Value. 


1897 . 

1898 . 

1899 . 

1900 . 

1901 . 

1902 . 

1903 . 

1904 . 

1905 . 

1906 . 

1907 . 

1908 . 

1909 . 

1910 . 

1911 . 

1912 . 

1913 . 


20.590 

28,791 

36.813 

^.445 

(a) 18,905 

29,222 

(a348.087 

48.012 

47,991 

78,331 

(fl)97,77fl 

(o>62,l67 

(0)129.101 

Hy.679 

I55,fll8 

160,124 

210.241 


tSl,476 

66.978 

101,235 

85,922 

97,914 

128.206 

171,306 

106,121 

203.9flO 

352,490 

4f?o,3;w 

263,968 
679.447 
778,203 
760,649 
D00.620 
9»7,698 


$2.60 
2.60 
2.75 
3.66 
4.25 
4.39 
3.56 
3.46 
4.25 
(e)4.60 
4.91 
5.05 
6.27 
6.33 
4.87 
5.00 
4.75 


2.645 
1.201 
6,666 
8.656 
18,318 
16,790 
14,889 
16,476 
11,726 
17,809 
26.066 
21.679 
18.689 
15,720 
43.222 
26.214 
21.456 


$10,615 
4.238 
23,768 
32,968 
66.107 
64.410 
49.684 
49.577 
46.517 
63,221 
93.208 
87,823 
83.956 
65.743 

164,301 
95.431 
85.746 


2,637 
1,000 
2.030 
1,000 
1.000 
kil 

Na. 

Nil 
NxL 
Nil. 
Nil. 

Na. 

Nil. 

Na. 

7.968 
10,146 


$5,074 
2.000 
4.567 
3,000 
3,000 

369,837 
466.681 


20.708 

26.992 

41.449 

31.101 

36.218 

43.112 

62,976 

63.487 

59.717 

96,140 

122,841 

73,846 

147,790 

165.399 

198,840 

186,079 


$66,916 
69,216 
12.436 
116.880 
144.021 
175.875 
220,990 
215,698 
250,477 
415,711 
673.538 
361.791 
763.403 
843.946 
914.950 
864.362 



(o) statistics of the United States Geological Survey, (e) Estimated. 



BAUXITE 49 

The average values of the crude imported product per ton have been 
as follows: 1910, $4.18; 1911, $3.80; 1912, $3.65; 1913, $4.00. Prac- 
tically all the imports of this material are from France. 

The conditions under which bauxite occurs are so variable and the 
knowledge of the methods of its formation so imperfect that as yet 
prospecting has not advanced very far and there is every reason to be- 
lieve that many deposits, some of which may differ materially from any 
now known, remain to be discovered. 

Arkansas. — Arkansas stands first among the states in the production 
of bauxite. The larger part of the production being mined by the 
American Bauxite Company whose mines are located near the town of 
Bauxite on the Bauxite and Northern Railway, a spur of the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain and Southern Railway which crosses the tracks of the 
Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway at Bauxite station. 

The only other operator in this field was the Republic Mining and 
Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia, Pa. The National Bauxite 
Company is reported to have holdings in this field but no operations have 
been conducted here by this company for several years. A description 
of the chemical and physical properties of the ore and the geological 
character of the occurrence were given in Mineral Industry, XXI, 88 
(1912). The shipments of ore from this field in 1913 amounted to 182,832 
tons. 

CaUfomia. — ^Bauxite exists in southern California, but is not being 
mined. 

Georgta-Alabama Field. — This field covers portions of Cherokee 
County in northeastern Alabama, and Barton and Floyd counties in 
northwestern Georgia. The district extends along the Coosa Valley 
from the vicinity of Summersville or Adairsville, Ga., to Jacksonville, 
Ala. The deposits occur in residual clay derived from the underlying 
dolomite or limestones. They occur chiefly in rounded masses several 
hundred feet in diameter at the surface and tapering to the bottom. 

The principal producer in this field is the Republic Mining and 
Manufacturing Company which operates mines near Rock Run, Chero- 
kee County, Alabama, and in Floyd County, Ga. The mines of the 
National Bauxite Company which are located in Floyd County, Ga., were 
idle in 1913. In addition to these are the Cherokee Mining Company and 
''everal individual operators in Bartow and Floyd counties, Ga. 

Ceniral Georgia Field. — These deposits are located about 30 miles 
west of Macon in Wilkinson County. They are in no way connected 
with the deposits of northwest Georgia either geographically or geolog- 
ically. They are about 150 miles south of the former field and near the 
Q^ATgin of the coastal plain. The bauxite occurs near the flat contact 

4 



50 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

between the Tuscaloosa (Lower Cretaceous) and the Claiborne (Tertiary) 
formations. The bauxite occurs in beds up to 10 ft. thick resting 
directly upon the Cretaceous clays or disseminated in nodules through the 
clays. It is found wherever the white clay beds locally known as " chalk- 
beds" are in contact with the overlying red sands and impure clays. 

The ore is hard and generally pisolitic or concretionary though in 
places it has a dense, halloysitic or even flinty appearance. It varies in 
color from a creamy white to bright red.^ 

Tennessee. — Bauxite is now being mined in two localities in East 
Tennessee, on the east side of Missionary Ridge (Sherman Heights) near 
Chattanooga, and near Keenburg, a station on the Virginia and South- 
western Railroad about 4 miles north of Elizabethton, the county seat 
of Carter County. 

The geological relations of the Chattanooga deposits are similar to 
those of the northwestern Georgia deposits. They constitute pockets in 
the residual clays overlying the Knox dolomite, and lie near the fault line 
along which the dolomite has been overthrust upon the Chickamauga and 
Clinton formations lying to the northwest. The Keenburg deposits lie 
nearly 200 miles northeast of the Chattanooga field but in their geologic 
and structural conditions they are essentially like those of the Sherman 
Heights area. The ore-body occurs in the form of a large irregular deep 
pocket inclosed in residual material resulting from the weathering of the 
Knox dolomite. As similar geological conditions exist all along the east 
side of the Appalachian Valley other workable bodies are likely to be 
discovered. 

Operations in both areas in 1913 were conducted by the National 
Bauxite Company of Philadelphia, whose operations during that year 
were entirely confined to Tennessee. The production in the Chattanooga 
district was slightly increased and at the same time heavy development 
work was undertaken to uncover some deep tonnage. The development 
work which was started about September 1, 1913, consists of heavy strip- 
ping operations with a steam shovel to reach a rather large body of high- 
grade ore which occurs at about 160 ft. in depth and seems to penetrate 
toward the base of Missionary Ridge. Operations at Keenburg contin- 
ued at normal capacity throughout the year. No new developments are 
reported from this field. The total amount of bauxite mined in Ten- 
nessee in 1912 was 8806 long tons valued at $35,224. 

^ For analyBM of these ores see the followins: 
Veatch, Otto, The bauxite depodte of Wilkinson County, Georgia, Bull. Qtalog. Sun. (?a.. No. 18. 
pp. 430-447 (1909). 

Min. Rf. U. 5., I, 929 (1909). 
Mineral Industry, XXI. 89, (1912). 



; BAUXITE 61 

Foreign Countries 

France. — ^The principal French deposits of bauxite are located in 
southeastern France and extend from Toulon in a westward direction 
toward the foot of the Pyrenees. The ore was first discovered at Les 
Baux northwest of Marseille whence the name of the mineral, bauxite. 
Two varieties of ore are mined, white ore containing much silica and little 
iron and red ore containing a high percentage of iron and little silica. As 
a rule the French bauxite runs lower in silica than the American ore but 
higher in iron. 

The bauxite from France goes chiefly to England, the United States 
and Germany. France exported bauxite for the manufacture of alum- 
inium amounting to 143,843 tons in 1912 and 154,218 tons in 1911. 
The amount of bauxite exported to the United States as declared at 
Marseilles was 28,987 tons in 1912. From Toulon the exports to the 
United States were 30,136 tons in 1912. The total value of the ex- 
portations of bauxite to the United States was $49,015 in 1912. 
figures for 1913 are not yet available. 

Germany. — Very little bauxite is produced in Germany, The im- 
portations chiefly from France amounted in 1913 to 38,450 tons as com- 
pared with 36,350 tons in 1912. 

Italy, — There is but one producing mine in Italy the description of 
which is ^ven in Mineral Industry, Vol. XX, p. 97. The amount pro- 
duced in 1911 was 5690 tons valued at 63,728 lires. 

United Kingdom. — The bauxite mined in the United Kingdom comes 
from four'mines at Ulster, County of Antrim, in Ireland. The deposits 
occur in seams lying between sheets of tertiary basalt. The production 
in 1912 amounted to 5882 tons. In 1913 the amount mined was 6153 
tons. 

Uses of Bauxite 

The chief uses of bauxite are for the production of the metal alu- 
minium, and for the manufacture of aluminium salts, bauxite bricks for 
furnace linings, alundum for use as an abrasive and in the refractory 
industries and calcium aluminate to give a quick set to plaster composi- 
tions. 

Metallic Aluminium. — By far the most important use of bauxite is for 
the production of the metal aluminium, the consumption of which is 
growing at a remarkable rate. A large part of the output of Arkansas 
uui that also of France is used in the production of aluminium. This 
subject is taken up in detail in the chapter on Aluminium. 



62 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Bauodte Brick, — The cost of bauxite brick is high as compared with 
silica or fire-clay brick but their lasting quality is greater and their use 
is being extended where a brick high in alumina and low in silica is re- 
quired, as in the lining of rotary cement kilns, lead -refining furnaces, 
and basic open-hearth steel furnaces. (For descriptions of the process 
of preparing bauxite brick for these uses see Mineral Industry, XXI, pp. 
93, 94 (1912), and Min. Res. U. S., I, 964, 955 (1912). 

Aluminium Salts. — Another important application of bauxite is for the 
manufacture of aluminium salts such as alum and aluminium sulphate, 
for which use the purer ores only are suitable. Owing to its freedom 
from iron oxide most of the AlabamarGeorgia product is sold for this 
purpose. 

The following table^ gives the domestic production, the imports, and 
the value of aluminum salts from 1909 to 1913, inclusive, in short tons. 





Production. 


Imports, (a) 


Yean. 


Alum. 


Aluminum 8ulphat«i. 


Quantity. 






Quantity. 


Value. 


Per ton. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Per ton. 


Value. 


1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


9.237 
9.090 
10.468 
9.246 
9.605 


$295,682 
300.763 
329.686 
293,995 
312.822 


932.01 
33.09 
31.49 
31.80 
32.57 


115.366 
126.792 
134.077 
150,427 
167,749 


$2,214,122 
2,447,552 
2.743,336 
2.909,495 
2.977.708 


$19.19 
19.30 
20.46 
19.34 
18.88 


1,459 
2,127 
2.283 
3,342 
2,702 


$29,061 
53.671 
56.833 
84,606 
66.549 



(a) Includes alumina, aluminum hydrade, or refined bauxite, alum, alum cake, aluminum sulphate, 
aluminous cake, and alum in crystals or grotmd. 

Alundum. — An important use for bauxite is for the manufacture of the 
artificial abrasive alundum, a description of which will be found under the 
heading "Abrasives." 

Cement and Plaster. — The application of bauxite in the manufacture 
of calcium aluminate to give a quick set to cement compositions is a 
recent extension of the uses of bauxite. The inventions, which are cov- 
ered by a series of patents, relate especially to the regulation of set of 
cement compositions by the use of hydraulic calcium aluminate prepared 
from bauxite. See also under "Gypsum.*' 



Other Sources op Aluminium 



Alunite. — Alunite is a mineral with a theoretical content of 11.4 per 
cent, potash (K2O) and 37 per cent, alumina. While the mineral is 

* U. S. Geological Survey. 



BAUXITE 53 

seldom found pure in nature, its deposits are of importance as a possible 
source of both potash and alumina, and interest therefore attaches to 
several of the recent discoveries of this mineral by geologists of the U. S. 
Geological Survey. 

Arizona. — A recent investigation of the Nogales region, in southern 
Arizona, by F. C. Schrader, of the Survey, revealed a deposit of alunite. 
Analyses of rock samples collected from the Evening Star copper prospect 
by Mr. Schrader showed large percentages of alumina and potash, and 
while the discovery of the alunite was only incidental to the investigation 
of the copper deposits, it has served to suggest that other alunite deposits 
may be found in this formation, which occupies an area of many square 
miles. Mr. Schrader states that the porphyry belt in which the alunite 
was found "would commend itself for prospecting in case a practical 
process is developed for the reduction of alunite to soluble potash salts, 
and m the light of the fact that a study of the alunite deposits near Marys- 
vale, Utah, and in other parts of the western states that the porphyry 
belt in which the alunite the mineral alunite may become at some future 
time an important soiu-ce of alumina. " 

Nevada. — Another deposit of alunite discovered by Mr. Schrader is at 
Bovard,Nev., where, he says, the rocks show as high as 10 and 11 per. cent, 
of potash. The actual extent of the deposits of the Bovard district is not 
known, as the character of the rock was not recognized by Mr. Schrader 
on the groimd, so that no prediction of the possible value is justified. 

Utah. — The Utah state land board has surrendered its rights to a 
section of the alunite land at Marysvale, Piute county, and made possible 
steps to develop the industry. The land can now go to patent. Howard 
Chappell, formerly a director in the General Chemical company, of New 
York, and C. H. MacDowell, of Chicago, president of the Armour Fertil- 
iser company, are planning to develop an immense industry here based 
on a process invented by Mr. Chappell, whereby they expect to recover 
aluminium and potash. 

No aluminium has been produced commercially as yet from alunite, 
but it is the belief of many chemists that a suitable process will be found. 
Much money will have to be spent in further experimenting and the 
examination of the deposits, to determine the quantity of alunite avail- 
able, whether its purity persists with depth, in the erection of suitable 
plant, and the general expenses incidental to the starting of a new 
industry. 

South Australia. — Recently it was reported^ that a rich deposit of 
alunite had been discovered at Carrickalinga Head, on the southeastern 
shore of Spencer's Gulf, South Australia. The Government Geologist 

^Atlr, Min. Sid., Deo. 18. 1913. 



54 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

has jiist issued an exhaustive report dealing with the occurrence, in which 
he states that the alunite exposed is of high quality. The alunite is of 
exceptional purity, and where unaltered by weathering is snow white. 
It occurs in compact micro-crystalline aggregates, and breaks with a 
conchoidal fracture. A freshly broken surface has the appearance of 
imglazed porcelain. The mineral is brittle, and massive specimens are 
easily broken into fragments. A noticeable feature of the weathering 
is the fact that it proceeds inward from the edges and comers of the veins 
in such a manner that spheroidal blocks of ore are found immediately 
below the surface. The rounding is due to gradual weathering in situ, 
not to attrition. A few specimens taken from various exposures were 
bulked to form an aggregate sample of the picked stuff, and on being 
analyzed by the departmental analyst were found to contain: Sulphuric 
anhydride, 35.81; alumina, 34.90; ferric oxide, 0.64; lime, minute trace; 
magnesia, minute trace; potash, 10.36; soda, 1.12; water at 100® C, 
2.25; water above 100° C, 13.74; silica, 0.66; phosphoric anhydride, 
0.28; chlorine, 0.55 — 100.31; less oxygen equivalent to chlorine, 0.12 — 
100.19. The alunite occurs in complex vein systems, which are only 
partly exposed in the excavations that have been made. The component 
veins of the vein systems vary in thickness from an inch or less to an 
observed maximum of 3 ft. 

Halloybitb* 

An interesting deposit of what to all appearances is the mineral 
halloysite has recently been developed in the northeast comer of Chatooga 
county, Georgia. The mining operation thus far is confined to a small 
area near the southern end of Armuchee valley, along the east base of 
Taylor ridge, and can be best reached by driving from Summerville, a 
station on the Central of Georgia railroad, via Gore, a small settlement 
7 miles east, thence north along the valley a distance of 4 miles. 

The halloysite which is in the form of a true-bedded deposit lies 
directly between the Fort Payne chert and the Floyd shale, and where 
it has been opened shows a variable thickness of from 4 to 10 ft. with an 
average of perhaps 7 ft. 

The material varies in color from a deep buff, through pink, orange 
and reddish hues, to a pale green and almost snow white, all being 
mottled with infiltrations of black oxides of manganese. In some parts 
of the bed there are pockets of soft, flaky white, clay-like material, while 
in other places there are seamlets or small lenses of pink and orange colored 
gelatinous matter. The bulk of the material, however, has a decidedly 
waxy appearance, is white or buff colored, breaks with a concoidal 

> A new occurrence and uae of Halloysite, Joel H. Watldns, Min. Bng. World, Apr. 12, 1913. 



BAUXITE 55 

fracture, has a hardness of from 2 to 3 and is slightly translucent. In 
the brecciated portions of the bed, the angular fragments are all buff 
colored smd the cementing material is white, thus indicating that the 
buff is the oldest portion of the bed. 

The origin of this occurrence of halloysite has not yet been deter- 
mined, but it is probably a secondary product derived from what was 
originally a bed of white, highly-aluminous clay, which may have been 
similar in character to the so-called sedimentary kaolins of the Cretaceous 
beds in South Carolina and Georgia. 

Mining thus far has not been conducted in a systematic manner. 
Four entries have been driven into the seam within a distance of 150 
ft., the deepest of which at the time of the writer's visit was not more 
than 125 ft. into the mountain. On accoimt of the softness and texture 
of the material it can be mined almost exactly as if it was coal, and the 
slight dip of the beds makes possible a self-draining mine. The roof 
of the mine is of compact cherty limestone, and very little timbering is 
required. The output is at present being hauled in wagons a distance of 
4 miles to Gore, the terminus of the Rome & Northern railroad, which is 
an iron and timber industrial road. 

The owners and operators are the stockholders of the North American 
Chemical Co., which was organized for the purpose of manufactiuing 
aluminium sulphate and other products from the mineral. The process 
for the manufacture of alum from halloysite, consists in treating the raw 
material in the presence of moisture with warm dilute sulphuric acid, 
thus dissolving the aluminium in the form of aluminium sulphate. 
Experiments have proven that the aluminium cannot be dissolved eco- 
nomically if the halloysite has been even partially calcined. 

Two analyses made by D. J. Demorest of the School of Mines, Ohio 
J^tate University, from carefully taken samples of this bed are as follows: 

White sample. Buff sample. 

Water 19.96 20.40 

aaica 42.20 37.10 

Aluniaa 37.30 41.00 

Inm oxide Trace Trace 

Maanneee oxide 0.11 0.38 

Cpbaltozide 0.12 1.06 

Titamom Trace Trace 

lime Trace Trace 

As the market for commercial alum is almost entirely in the north, 
a plant having a capacity of producing about 50 tons of alum per day has 
^^^xhiiy been installed at Urbana, O. It is claimed by this patented 
Pfwcas that for each ton of ore it requires 2700 lb. of sulphimc acid to 
<iis8olve the aluminium content, which leaves about 800 lb. of finely 
<livided aUca as a residue. The marketable aluminium sulphate thus 
produced contains from 45 to 51 per cent, of water, therefore it would 



56 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

seem that from each ton of halloysite about 2 1/2 tons of commercial 
alum is manufactured. No mechanical separation is required, and 
the run of mine tonnage is simply ground to a uniformly fine con- 
sistency before being treated with warm dilute sulphiu*ic acid. The 
finished product is almost entirely free from iron and other impurities 
and is consequently of excellent quality. 

The cost of producing a ton of alum at the Urbana plant is as follows: 

Cost per ton of ore on oars near mine t 2.00 

Freight per ton from mine to Urbana 3. GO 

Sulpnuno acid for 2 1/2 tona alum 13. 50 

Labor for 2 1/2 tons alum 4.00 

Management, etc 1 .00 

Plant depredationa, renewals, etc .50 

Total cost, 2 1/2 tons alum $24.60 

Cost per ton at Urbana. O 9.84 

Alum 

Turkey.^ — The small city of some 13,000 inhabitants in the eastern 
part of the Turkish Vilayet (or Province) of Sivas that bears the official 
name of Kara Hissar Sharki, or Eastern Kara Hissar, is generally known 
on maps and in common conversation as ''Shabin Kara Hissar" (Shab 
meaning alum). It seems certain that the alum workings within a 
short distance from the town have been in operation for at least 300 
years, and have given the designation of "Shabin" to the town, just as 
Afion (opium) Kara Hissar in western Anatolia, and a small town called 
Develi (place of camels) Kara Hissar near Cesarea, have acquired their 
names through some special feature in the regions in which they are 
situated. The term "Kara Hissar" is applied to a peculiar outcropping 
of blackish rock in the form of a tall peak or mountain that exists near 
each of these towns. The hill against the sloping of which Shabin Kara 
Hissar is built is surrounded by a well-preserved masonry tower and 
fortress that must have been very strong in the days of medieval 
warfare. 

There is a plentiful supply of the rock or raw material, as the opera- 
tions so far have been primitive, and only the face of the hillside has 
been dug out and reduced. The alum-bearing rock is brightly colored, 
usually with a pinkish or red tinge, and the waste from the Goynyk 
workings flows down to a small stream along the roadside, to those waters 
it gives a pinkish white and opaque color, incidentally killing all the 
brook trout that happen to venture into the stained water from the higher 
part of the stream. 

The operations are conducted by Greeks from the near-by villages. 
Wood for fuel, taken from the surroimding mountains until they wer« 

Daily Con: and Tr. Rep. 



BAUXITE 57 

denuded, is now brought from relatively long distances. The process 
of alum extraction is briefly as follows: The rock or ore is first roasted 
and then broken into small pieces, which are very light because the 
chemical elements have been biuned out. Fifty horseloads of 100 
okes (282 lb.) each of wood are required to burn 10 tons of stone in 
the furnace. The broken rock is then placed in open pits and allowed 
to be exposed to the rain and weather for a whole winter, during which 
time it becomes something like slacked lime, crumbling easily and finely 
granulated. In this state it is boiled with water in a large cauldron, the 
stone and waste matter being gradually taken out as it is stirred. Having 
been sufficiently boiled, the liquid, now almost clear, is placed in cooling 
tanks made of masonry. In the course of a few days the alum crystallizes 
around the sides of these tanks to a thickness varying from 6 to 9 in. 
It is then ready to be broken into smaller pieces and sent to market. The 
small portion of alum that sinks to the bottom of the tanks is boiled a 
second time and yields a superior quality. 

From a reliable source it is learned that the annual production of 
alum in this region is 2000 to 3000 tons. The alum extracted at 
Goynyk is said to be the strongest and most concentrated. Other 
workings are at Gotadza and Geliese. 

Alum is consumed locally, and large quantities are shipped to Harput, 
Diarbekr, and regions farther inland. There seems to be no exportation 
to foreign countries. The principal uses of alum are connected with the 
dyeing of cloth and yam, the preparation of leather, and medicinal 
purposes. Not the least important use is as a charm, a triangular piece 
being placed in a case made of silver, bluov beads, etc., and worn about 
the neck of both human beings and animals. The price of alum at the 
mine is about 5 to 7 piasters per batman (about 17 lb.), or 1 1/4 to 1 3/4 
cents per pound, while in the market of Kara Hissar it retails for about 
2 1/4 cents per pound. 

The future of the industry depends largely upon improved methods 
of extraction, such as the use of coal for fuel, and upon a wider and more 
profitable market. The first improvement can be easily secured, as at 
Goynyk there are plentiful untouched supplies of coal within a few 
hundred yards of the workings. The latter is dependent upon better 
transportation facilities. 

Attsiralia. — A discovery has been made on private property near 
Normanville, in the Yankalilla district of South Australia, of what is 
declared to be a valuable formation of clay, which is identified as alum 
stone. A sample of the deposit was forwarded to the Adelaide School of 
Mines for analysis. It is said that the clay is found in only one other part 
of the Commonwealth. 



5% MINERAL INDUSTRY 

BiBUoaaAPHT 

Hart, Edw. — Potash, Silica and Alumina from Feldspar. Jour, Ind, Eng. 
Chem., 4, 827-8. 

KisPATic, M. — Bauxite from the Croatian Karst Region and its Origin. 
Neue8. Jahrh. Mtn. Ged., 84 (Beil Bd.), 513-52. 

Martin, E. — Analysis of Bauxites. Mon, Sci, [5] 3, 232-6. 

Saunders, L. E. — Uses of Alumina as an Abrasive and Refractory. Met. 
Chem. Eng., 11, 143. 

ScHWAHN, H. F. D. — Making Aluminium Sulphate from Bauxite. U. S. 
Patent 1077, 483, Nov. 4, 1913. 

Stone, S. R.--Bauxite Brick for Kiln or Furnace Lining. Min. Eng. World. 
37, 341. 

Tone F. J., and Allen, T. B. — Making crystalline alumina. U. S. Patent 
1044296. Nov. 12, 1912. 

Veres, M. H. — Portuguese Keramohalite — Natural Hydrated Aluminium 
Sulphate. Rev. Chim. pura app., 8, 562-5. 

Watkins, J. H. — Bauxite Near Elizabeth, Tenn., Eng. Min. Jour., Mar. 
22, 1913. 



BISMUTH 



Bt C. H. MaGuirb 

Bismuth continues to be one of the metals that is imported in large 
quantities. This is due to the limited domestic production. The outlook 
(or increased production, however, is very bright. The imports in recent 
years have been falling off steadily. No large deposits of bismuth ore 
are known in the United States, -but several rich deposits are found in 
Colorado. The ore is not mined for its bismuth content. The principal 
producers are the U. S. Smelting, Refining and Mining Company, Gras- 
selli, Ind., and the American Smelting and Refining Company, Omaha, 
Neb. The bismuth is obtained as a by-product in the electrolytic re- 
fining of lead. Bismuth from this source amounted to about 185,000 
lb. during the year 1913 
• The following table gives the imports since 1904: 



Year. 


Quantity, lb. 


Value. 


1904. 


161.240 
153.M8 
243.926 
216.647 
225.883 
176.729 
200.221 
178.298 
166.980 
151.030 


$296,200 


19QS 


305.471 


1906. . 


878.662 


1907 


262.776 


19QB 


813.919 


1909 


274.662 


1910 


316.838 


1911 


321.360 


1912 


305.282 


1911(a). . 


267.176 







(•) Dept. of Commeroe. 

In spite of the facility with which it is handled metallurgically 
Usmuth commands a high price. This is due to its scarcity and the 
control of the market by a foreign syndicate. Bismuth can probably be 
produced at a cost of about 25 cents per pound, but sells at from $1.75 
to S2.00 per pound. 

The world depends largely upon South America for the supply of 
bismuth. Bolivia is the chief producer. The main output comes from 
the Tazna district, though rich bismuth ores occur generally in the 
<fistrict centering about La Paz and Chorolque. Recently veins have 
been opened in the Department of Potosi. The following table gives the 
wrtput of Bolivia for recent years :^ 



Year. 
1909.. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



Quantity. 

Metri 



ietrio tone. 
139 
134 
242 
263 
275 



: Its Properties and Sources of Supply, T. H. Osborne, Chsm. Bng., XVII. 4. 

59 



fe^ 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



In Peru are many localities in which bismuth ores are found, but 
at present only one deposit is being worked. During the year 1913, 
about 200 tons of bismuth concentrate were shipped. The ores average 
1 to 2 per cent, bismuth. 

Several deposits of bismuth are known in Brazil but have not yet 
been developed. It is not known whether these deposits can be worked 
profitably. Near Potrero Grande, Chile, a mineral, called chilenite 
and consisting of an alloy of bismuth and silver, is found. 

A few years ago mines were opened near Herberton, Queensland for 
wolfram which at that time was commanding a high price. These 
deposits, which contain from 7 to 8 per cent, bismuth, were abandoned, 
but recently have been reopened for the bismuth content. The veins, 
made up of topaz, wolfram and bismuth carbonate, vary in thickness 
from 8 to 13 in. Near Maldon, Victoria, occurs a molybdenite 
containing 5 per cent, bismuth, also a bismuth pipe with 26 per cent. 
The occurrence of native bismuth associated with tin veins is reported 
from Madagascar.^ The production of bismuth minerals in Australia 
for recent years is shown in the following table: 

PRODUCTION OP BISMUTH MINERALS IN AUSTRALIA 
(Tona of 2240 lb.) 



Year. 




New South Wales. 


Tom. 


Value. 


Tona. 


Value. 


1903 


11.0 

20.9 

15.3 

6.5 

6.3 

22.7 

10.3 

21.0 

9.8 

5.0 


£2.523 
3.581 
5.368 
1.882 
1.806 

10.595 
2.271 
9.708 
5.525 
2.835 


21.7 

40.3 

55.8 

25.9 

16.3 

8.7 

8.6 

6.4 

7.9 

5.8 


£0,537 


1904 


12.329 


1905 


20.763 


1906 


5.700 


1907 


5,268 


1908 


2.017 


1909 


1,624 


1910 


2.004 


1911 


1.800 


1912 


1.210 


1913 















The report of the Secretary of Mines of Tasmania shows a produc- 
tion in 1913 of 6.08 tons of bismuth, valued at £1627. 

Europe. — Bismuth is obtained from lead and silver ores in Saxony, in 
Bohemia and South Germany. Refined bismuth from Saxony contains 
99.98 per cent, bismuth and small quantities of lead and copper. 

Canada. — Bismuth occurs on the Stewart River, the Montreal River, 
at New Ross, Lunenberg County, near Kewagama Lake, Quebec, and 
near Lyndock and Clarendon, Ontario. 

Bismuth has been produced in Spain, Japan, Norway and Rhodesia, 
but the production in recent years has fallen off considerably. 

^ Bismuth-bearinc Minerals from the Pegmatites of Madagascar. A> Lacroiz; Bull. Soe. franc, min, 
XXXV, 92-5. 



BISMUTH 61 

Meiailurgy. — Bismuth is extracted from its ores by treatment with 
hydrochloric acid and subsequent precipitation of the bismuth with 
either water or iron. The precipitate is then reduced by heating with 
carbon. In Germany the ore is roasted which results in a uranium- 
bearing slag, a cobalt speiss, and a crude bismuth matte from which the 
bismuth is obtained by crystallization. Lacey describes the refining of 
silver-bismuth alloys by electrolysis.* 

Properties and Uses, — Bismuth is a silver white, lustrous metal of a 
specific gravity of 9.823. Its melting point is 268.3** C. In appearance 
bismuth resembles antimony but has a foliated structure. Upon solidi- 
fying, bismuth expands about 2.3 per cent., a property which makes the 
metal valuable in the production of stereotype plates. It is not affected 
by^dry air, but in moist air becomes coated with a reddish powder. 
Heated in the atmosphere the metal burns, forming the trioxide, BisOs. 
Hot sulphuric acid converts it into a basic sulphate. Bismuth alloys 
readily with other metals, and imparts to them the properties of hardness 
and ready fusibility. It is used in the production of fusible alloys, as an 
amalgam, with or without tin and lead, for silvering mirrors, and in the 
manufacture of electric fuses. 

BiBUOQRAPHT 

Anon.— Metallurgy, Properties and Value of Bismuth Ores. Bull, Imp.InsL, 
X, 628-11. Mtn. Eng. World, XXXVIII, 343-4. 

Anon. — Occurrence, Distribution and Utilization of Bismuth Ores. Bull 
Imp, Ina,, Dec., 1912. Abst., Min. Eng. World, Feb. 15, 1913. 

Beuer, E. — ^The Spontaneous Crystallization of Bismuth and Antimony. 
Z. anarg, Chem,, 78, 178-82. 

CoBLBNTZ, W. W. — Summary of Tests made on Bismuth Thermopiles. J. 
W(uh, Acad., 3, 357-60. 

KuBNAKov, N. S., Zhbmchuzhnui and Tarabin, V. — Combinations of 
Varying Composition in the Alloy of Thallium and Bismuth. J. Rusb. Phys. 
Chm. Soe., 46, 300-29. 

NoBTHRUP, E. F. and Suydan, V. A. — Resistivity of a Few Metals through 
a Wide Range of Temperature. Jour. Frankl. Ir^L, Feb., 1913. 

Lazabevic, M. and Kittl, E, — ^The Bismuth Veins of Aljin Dol and Jasikova, 
Senia. Z. prdW. (TeoZ., 20, 280-7. 

P.VHRAVANO, N. — The System: Bismuth-Selenium. Gazz. chim. itd., 43, 
1.201-9. 

Smtth, A. W.— Hall Effect in Bismuth with High Frequency Current. Phya. 

ScHorrKT, H. and Tevin, M.— <3alorimetric Investigation of the Systems 
Bismutii-Cadmium and Iron-Carbon. Ferrum, 10, 103-207. 

^-'O-wtrolytie Refininc of SUver-Bwmuth AUoyi, W. N.Laoey, rrotw. Am. BUetrodi^m Soc, XXII. 
*>«; ire CUm, Eng^, 747. 



BORAX 

The price for borax in 1913 ranged very steady at 3 3/4 @ 4 cents per 
pound for carloads. The demand, particularly from the enameling in- 
dustries, was good. The mines in San Bernardino and Ventura counties 
in California continued to supply practically all the borate minerals re- 
quired for the entire country, as can be seen by the following table of 
imports: 

UNITED STATES IMPORTS OP BORAX. ETC. 
(Fisoal Years ending June 30.) 



Year. 


Borax. 


Borate of Lime. Etc. 


Boraotc Arid. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


Pounds. 


Value. 


1908 


1.964,792 

341.058 

9.058 

7,319 

6.409 

11.768 


$67,851 

13,173 

1.479 

790 

604 

882 


2.640 
1.646 
19.201 
13.095 
22.784 
16.267 


$132 
167 
1.856 
2.277 
3.856 
2,038 


414.046 
230.968 
416.842 
343.094 
276.496 
362.400 


$19,773 


1909 


7.641 


1910 


13.610 


1911 


12.733 


1912 


10.540 


1913 


13,897 







Deposits of colemanite were discovered in Ventura Coimty, CaL, 
in 1898. This colemanite, although classed, among the few important 
deposits of this kind of ore in the country, has suffered the disadvantage 
of being a long distance from the main routes of transportation. As in 
the case of many other western industries, however, it is expected that 
the opening of the Panama Canal will greatly stimulate production. An 
examination of the borate deposits of Ventura County was recently made 
by Hoyt S. Gale, of the United States Geological Survey,* and while the 
investigation was not sufficiently detailed to permit an expression of 
opinion as to the magnitude of the undeveloped deposits, it is believed 
that they are very considerable. 

The growth of the borax industry has depended upon two things, 
the increase in the business of the manufacturers using borax in their 
processes and the education of the consuming public to the merits of 
borax as a household commodity. 

It is generally recognized that boric acid in considerable quantities 
is an original constituent in the waters and gases given ofiF with volcanic 
emanations. In fact, the Tuscan fumaroles, in Italy, have been an 
important commercial source of boric acid for a long time, and in the 

I Advance Chapter 0, BuU. 540, U. S. Qeol.'Surv., Washington, D. C 

62 



BORAX 



63 



past, possibly even to the present time, almost all the boric acid brought 
into the European market has been derived from this source. There is 
abundant evidence of the presence of boric acid in volcanic emanations 
in many parts of the world. On the other hand, boron is so rare a con- 
stituent of rock-forming minerals that it forms an almost inappreciably 
small percentage of the earth's rock mass as a whole. 

A short study of the borate deposits in Ventura County, Cal., sup- 
plemented by more cursory examinations of similar deposits in the 
vicinity of Death Valley, has been made by Gale, and a new theory of 
the origin of the deposits of colemanite, or borate of lime, in these 
regions has been advanced.^ While this theory has not yet been entirelj' 
proved, there is much in its favor and it affords suggestions and a work- 
ing basis for further observation. 

The supposition of a desiccated saline lake to explain the origin 
of the colemanite has little to support it beyond rather general assump- 
tions. The character of the deposits themselves indicates rather a 
vein type of formation. Other salines which would naturally be expected 
in desiccation deposits resulting from natural saline solutions are not 
found in association with the colemanite. Those who have supported 
the desiccation theory have offered no explanation of the cause which 
might produce colemanite in such massive deposits as a product of water 
evaporation, while, on the contrary, its formation from limestone in 
veins by replacement of carbonic acid with boric acid is a natural hy- 
pothesis that deserves further investigation. The relations of the de- 
posits to basalt lava flows indicate the probable origin of the boric acid 
at the time of the extrusion of these lavas, although it may be assumed 
that this acid continued to find its way into solution of the circulating 
ground waters long after the period of the extrusions. 





PRODUCTION OF BORATE ORES IN CALIFORNIA. 
(In tou of 2000 tb.) 


(a) 




Year. 1 Tons. 


Value. 


Year. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Year. 


Tons. 


Value. 


1901 

1902 

1«3 

1904 


7.221 

(6)17.202 

34.430 

45.647 


$982,380 
2.234.994 
(e)661.400 
(c)098.810 


1906... 
1906... 
1907... 
1908... 


sssggf 


$1,019,168 
1.182.410 
1.200.913 
1,117.000 


1909... 
1910W) 
1911(d) 
1912(d) 
1913(e) 


16.628 
42.857 
63,330 
42.315 
68.000 


$1,163,900 
1,201.842 
1.669.161 
1.127.813 

$1,560,000 



(a) Reported by the California State Mining Bureau. (6) Mostly refined borax, whence the apparent 
JUietmmacy in yalue. Output of the other yean is given as crude material, (e) Spot value, (d) 
U. a OeoL Sonrey, erude. (e) Estimated. 

Asia Minor. — A rich deposit of boracite occurs near Panderma 
fSea of Marmora), at Balik Kesir, and is worked by the Borax Con- 

* PwffioBal Paper 86- A, U. S. OeoL Surv., Washington. D. C. 



^4 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

solidated, Ltd. The production averages 14,000 tons per annum, 
containing the equivalent of 47.60 per cent, boracic acid. 

Chile. — The export tax contemplated by the Chilean government 
on the calcined borax may cause a decline of the operations of the Borax 
Consolidated, Ltd. at Ascotan, near Antofagasta. Chile contributes 
about 76 per cent, of the world's production. 

Peru. — The deposits of borax near Arequipa (in the department of 
that name), which are owned by the Borax Consolidated, Ltd., will be 
actively exploited under the concession recently granted by the Govern- 
ment. The concession was made public by the Minister of Finance 
under date of June 3, and is as follows: 

1. To authorize the Borax Consolidated, Limited, to construct, at 
its own expense, under the existing regulations, a railway, or if it should 
prove too expensive, an aerial rail, from the borax and salt mines in the 
province of Moquegu^, department of Arequipa, to the city of Arequipa. 

2. The aforesaid Company agree to install in the city of Arequipa, or 
in the neighborhood, or near the mines, furnaces of sufficient capacity to 
calcine annually at least 40,000 metric tons of borax and lime. 

3. When the demand in the market requires a greater amount than 
45,000 tons yearly the Borax Consolidated, Limited, will increase in 
proportion the exportation of borax. 

4. The aforesaid Company will transport annually from the borax 
and salt mines to Arequipa 1200 tons of salt and will bring back on the 
retiu-n journey all the necessary food for the employees and workmen of 
the Compania Salinera del Peru. The price for the carriage to be, by 
the railway, 40 centavos for a Spanish quintal, of 46 k^., and by the 
aerial rail, 20 centavos for a Spanish quintal, of 46 kg. The Borax 
Consolidated, Limited, will not be obliged to transport this cargo by the 
aerial rail on days when it is raining. 

5. The petitioning Company is under the obligation of establishing 
a telephone wire between Arequipa and the salt mines and permitting the 
political and military authorities to use it. 

6. Only Peruvian workmen will be employed in the works, whether 
in the salt fields or in Arequipa or at the intermediate stations. 

7. The Borax Consolidated, Limited, will be responsible for the sum of 
£200,000 to be spent on the works for which this concession treats. 

8. Only 10 per cent, above cost price will be charged in the shops, 
which the Company will establish, to their employees for food and other 
necessities. 

9. The Supreme Government agrees to ask the Legislative Chambers 
the following: 

(a) A declaration that the Congress will not levy duty on the exporta- 



BORAX 



65 



tioQ of borax from the port of MeUendo for 18 years, commencing from 
the date that the Borax Consolidated, Limited, begins its exportation at 
the rate of 20,000 metric tons of calcined borax and lime. 

(b) That all rails, wire, engines, carriages, motors, iron and steel 
posts, and all other necessary materials imported for the installation of 
the railway or aerial rail will be free of duty. 

(c) The declaration of the L^islature that the municipalities of the 
neighborhood will put no tax on borax for the aforesaid 18 years. 

10. To authorize the Minister of Finance, in order that, before 
acceptation by the solicitor, he sign the deed, which with all the preceding 
will be submitted to the L^islative Chambers for their consideration. 

SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL SUPPLIES OF BORAX MATERIALS. 
(In metric tons.) 





Chile, 
(a) 


Qermany. 
(6) 


Italy. 


United 

States. 

(0 




Year. 


Borax 
Refined. 


Boric Acid. 


Total, 
(d) 




Crude. 


Refined. 




1800 


14.951 
13.177 
11,467 
14.327 
16.870 
16.733 
19.612 
28.996 
28.374 
35.039 
32.218 
35.192 
45.558 
43.356 


183 
232 
184 
196 
159 
135 
183 
161 
114 
128 
149 
167 
160 


709 
858 
544 

""669" 

1,062 

881 

(«)1.024 

(«)i.iio 

(«} 912 
Ce) 738 
W 813 


2.674 
2.491 
2,558 
2.763 
2.583 
2.624 
2.700 
2.561 
2.305 
2.620 
2.431 
2.502 
2.648 
2.309 


129 
283 
347 

" '3i4* 

466 
(«)429 
j«)578 
(«)695 
(e)444 
(«)760 


18.466 
23.437 
6.550 
15.512 
31,232 
41,407 
42.036 
52,774 
47.945 
22,680 
37.589 
38.426 
48,381 
38,388 
52,600 


37,112 


1900 


40.478 


1901 


21.640 


1902 


32.798 


1903 


60.853 


1904 


6ii782 


1905 


64,531 


1906 


86,116 


1907 


80,584 


1906 


57,827 


1909 


51^69 


1910 




1911 




1912 




1913 













(a) Prior to 1903. fisurae are for borate of lime exports, (b) Boracite. (e) Grade borax, (d) 
The total faOs sbort of the world's supply, particularly because it fails to include the important produc- 
iMO of Turkey. («) Obtained by treatmg a part of the crude boric acid reported for the same year. 



"Technical Applications of Boron" 

Progrees During the Year 1913 

By E. Weintraub 

Boron is a newcomer among the elements. It is only a few years 
ago that it has been isolated in the Lynn laboratory of the General 
Electric Co. and that the work on utilizing its unique qualities has been 
started. Considering the short interval of time elapsed and the fact that 
&II the work was done by a small group of men in one place, the results 
Me gratifying. Several applications of boron are already commercialized. 
Others have passed the severe tests of actual use and are ready to be 
commercialized; still others are just emerging from the laboratory. 



6fe MINERAL INDUSTRY 

BoBON Flux fob Coppeb Casting 

The use of boron as a deoxidizer in copper casting has given a perfect 
solution of the problem of easting high conductivity copper. The process 
is based on the lack of affinity of boron for copper and on its great affinity 
for oxygen or oxygen-containing gases. The process is used in all the 
foundries of the General Electric Co. and by a number of other concerns 
both in the United States and abroad. Its use is rapidly spreading. 
From the amount of boron flux sold^ seventy thousand (70,000) pounds 
of copper were cast 2 years ago and more than half a million pounds 
last year (1913). For a detailed description of the process, the reader 
may be referred to the following articles: 

"Cast copper of high electrical conductivity." Trans. Am. Electro. Chem. 
Soc, XVIII, 207 (1910). 

"Progress of work on boronized copper." Trans. Am. Inst. Metals, 
1912. 

Boron Voltage Regulatob 

Boron has an exceptionally large negative temperature coefficient 
of resistance so that its resistance drops in the ratio of about two million 
to one between 0® C. and a good red heat. The volt-ampere curve of 
boron has, therefore, a peculiar shape of such a nature that if a certain 
maximum voltage is exceeded, the voUage decreases mth increase in current. 
By adding to boron carbon or other elements in definite amounts the 
negative temperature coefficient of resistance can be tempered and the 
slope of the volt-ampere curve varied to suit conditions. In particular, 
the curve can be given such a shape that the voltage remains practically 
constant while the current varies between certain limits. 

Different forms of the regulator have been developed for diflferent 
applications. They all consist of a thin boro-carbon filament sealed in 
a bulb containing a hydrogen atmosphere. The filament form and 
the hydrogen atmosphere are used to facilitate the heat energy exchanges 
and to make the action of the regulator more rapid. The different types 
of regulator so far developed are: 

(1) Suburban Carlight Regulator. — Used on suburban cars where a 
variable voltage derived from the trolley is supplying the lamps. A 
boron regulator with a level volt-ampere curve is placed across the lamps 
and keeps the voltage constant while the excess of voltage is absorbed in 
resistance in series, a resistance which for highest efficiency takes the 
form of a tungsten ballast. 

(2) Automobile Lighi Regulator. — In this case the regulator is to 
delivOT constant voltage at variable speed, A regulator with a sloping 



BORAX 67 

volt-ampere curve is placed in a differential field of the generator and so 
adjusted that any tendency of the voltage to increase due to increase in 
speed is counterbalanced by the disproportionate increase in the field 
strength. 

(3) Train Ldghting Regvlator. — This is very similar to the automobile 
light regulator except for the quantitative relations. 

These regulators have been on test in actual service for more than a 
year on car lines in Schenectady and L3mn, on automobiles, etc., etc., and 
have given perfect satisfaction. Their commercial exploitation is soon 
to begin. 

Boron Cut-out 

The existence of a maximum voltage in the volt-ampere curve below 
which the current flowing throtigh boron is very small and above which 
the current increases and the voltage across the boron decreases dispro- 
portionately makes properly designed boron units the ideal protecting 
device for incandescent lamps, arc lamps and other devices on series 
circuits. These cut-outs are remarkable for their constancy and for 
the fact that they never need be replaced as they regain their properties 
on cooling. 

Boron Jewel 

Boron and boro-carbon belong to the hardest artificial materials and 
after persistent efforts it was found possible to produce them in a homo- 
geneous, dense and tough form, in which form they show a remarkable 
performance when used as bearings in meters. Tests carried out 
during a nimiber of years have proven their value and they are now being 
introduced into service. 

For further information on the properties of boron and its uses, 
the reader may be referred to my lectiure before the Vlllth International 
Congress of Applied Chemistry, New York City, September, 1912. 

While the uses of boron pointed out above will form a basis of an im- 
portant industry, they will consume but relatively small amoimts of the 
element and this is fortunate from a certain point of view, for up to the 
present the cost of boron per pound is quite high. 

BiBUOORAPHT 

Akoh.— A New and very Soluble Borax. Rev. act, Giom, farm, chim., 
«1,493. 

BiBosB, C. — Borax in Metallurgy and Tanning. Reu. gen. Chim., 16, 133. 

Bleininqbr, a. v., and Tbetor, Paul. — ^A Thermal Study of Boric Acid- 
SBtt Mixtures, Trans. Am. Ceram. 8oc., 14, 210-17. 



ft& MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Hbydbb, R.— Making Pure Boron Nitride. U. S. Patent 1077712, Nov. 4, 
1913. 

Nasini, R., and Porlbzza. — The Presence of Large Amounts of Boric Add 
in the Mineral Water from Salsomaggiore. AUi accad, Linceij 21, II, 37&>83. 

PuKDT, R. C. — The Chemical R61e of Boron in Glazes. Trans, Am. Ceram, 
Soc,, 14, 731-9. 

Stabler, A., and Elbert, J. J. — Fixation of Atmospheric Nitrogen by 
Means of Boron Compounds. Ber.j 46, 2060-77. 

Stock, Alp., and Mabsenez, C. — Boron Hydrides. Bcr., 46, 3539-68. 

TiLLOTSON, E. W., Jr. — Density of Some Borate and Silicate Glasses. Jour. 
Ind. Eng. Chem., 4, 820. 

Wedekind, E.— Synthesis of Borides in the Electric Vacuum Furnace. Ber., 
46, 1198-1207. 

Wbintraub, E. — ^Boron: its Properties and Preparation. Jour. Ind. Eng, 
Chem., 6, 106. 

Weintraub, E. — Making Boron from Boron Chlorid and Hydrogen. U. S. 
Patent 1074672, Oct. 7, 1913. 

Weintraub, E. — Progress in Work on Boronized Copper. Brass World, 
8, 355^. 

Weintraub, G., and Rush, H. — Sintering Particles of Boron into a Homo- 
geneous Mass. U. S. Patent 1071488, Aug. 26, 1913. 

Yale, C. G. and Gale, H. S. — Production of Borax in 1912. Min. Res, 
of U. /S., 1912. 



BROMINE AND IODINE 

By C. H. MaGuirb 

The bromine industry in the United States is carried on principally 
in Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia. It is diflScidt to 
give exact figures of the output since the producers give no information 
in regard to the industry. The principal producers are the Dow 
Chemical Company in Michigan, and the John A. Beck Salt Company in 
Pennsylvania. The estimated production for the year 1913 was 794,500 
lb., mostly in the form of bromides. The production of liquid bromine 
was the smallest for many years. No figures of the production are 
available. 

The price of bromine remains about the same as that of 1912. The 
quantities used for metallurgical and medical purposes, and in the arts 
was the same as in the previous year. The only field in which the use of 
bromine is increasing is that of photography. This is due in large meas- 
ure to the increasing motion picture business. 

The following table shows the production of bromine in the United 
States for the period 1900 to 1913: 

PRODUCTION OF BROMINE IN THE UNITED STATES. 
(In pounds.) 





^r- 


Ohio and 
Penn. 


West 
Vizginw. 


Total, 
(a) 


Metric 
Tone. 


Valae. 


Year. 


Total. 


Pertb. 


1900 


210.400 
217.M6 
226.452 
320,000 
6404^49 
679.434 

641.300 

648.000 

840.000 

(^626.500 


196.774 
227.062 
194.086 
180.000 
147.807 
223.000 

T 

166,000 

164.000 

177.000 

(<2)123.600 


114.270 
106.986 
93.375 
97.000 
85.256 
97.000 

T 

54.000 

89.000 

68,000 

(d)44,500 


521.444 

552.043 

513.913 

597,000 

879.312 

899.434 

1.229.000 

1.062.000 

1.149.000 

1.100,000 

850,300 

901.000 

1.085.000 

(d) 794.500 


237 
250 
233 
271 
399 
408 
553 
482 
521 
500 
386 

"436" 


$140,790 
154.572 
128.742 
170.145 
215.431 
139.492 
184.350 
138.060 
103.410 
110.000 
110.539 
180,000 
270.000 


27 


mi 


28 


1902 


25 


IWS 




1»4 


244 


1906 


16w 


190« 


15 


1«7 


13 


iw :. 


9 


1909 


10 


1910 


13 


1911 (e) 


20 


»u.-... ..:::: 


25 


19U 













(a) iBchides the bromine equivalent of the bromides produced directly, (b) Not reported sepa- 
fWty. (c) Praia Bno. ond Mm, Joum, (d) Bromides. 

Germany and England both export bromine. The supply of bromine 
in Germany so far exceeds the demand that the Bromine Convention has 
offered a prize to the discoverer of a process or compound which will 
i^ to a greater consumption of bromine. 

Iodine 
No iodine is produced in the United States, although a possible source 
<^s ia the sea-weeds along the coast. The sea-weeds of California 
which are treated commercially for potash do not promise a large yield 
<»( iodine. 



CEMENT 

By Robert W. Lbslby 

Figures of the United States Geological Survey upon the cement 
industry for 1913 again show a growth in the production of cement. 
When the figures for 1912 were made public it was the general expectation 
that the 1913 production would show little, if any, gain over that of the 
previous year. This was especially the case in view of the financial 
conditions prevalent in the country, and the cessation to a considerable 
extent of large railroad construction. 

Controverting this fact, the quantity of Portland cement produced in 
1913 was 92,097,131 bbl. as compared with 82,438,096 bbl. in 1912, an 
increase of 9,659,035 bbl. or 11.7 per cent. 

This ratio of increase is considerably more than that for the compara- 
tive period of 1912 where the increase in production was 3,909,459 bbl. 
or about 4.98 per cent. The 1913 increase is attributed to a considerable 
extent to the development of the use of concrete on the farm and also to 
the largely increased use of concrete for roads and highways — a use of 
recent development and one showing an enormous growth. 

The total production of all kinds of cement, including Portland, 
natural and puzzolan, produced in the United States in 1913 was 92,949,- 
102 bbl. valued at $93,001,169 as compared with 83,351,191 bbl. valued 
at $67,461,513 in 1912. This represents an increase in quantity of 9,- 
567,911 bbl. or 11.5 percent., and in value, of 25,539,656, or 38.9 per cent. 

In considering the table showing total production of cement in. the 
United States in 1911, 1912 and 1913 by classes (Table I) it must be 
remembered that the weight of Portland cement per barrel is 380 lb. net, 
while puzzolan is sold on a basis of 330 lb. and natural cement on a 
basis of 265 lb.: 



TABLE I.— TOTAL PRODUCTION OF CEMENT IN THE U, S. IN 1911. 1912 AND 1913, BY 

CLASSES. 





1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Class. 


Quantity 
(Barrels). 


Value. 


Quantity 
(Barrels). 


Value. 


Quantity 
(Barrels). 


Value. 


Portland 


78.528.637 

926,091 

93,230 


$66,248,817 

378,533 

77.786 


82.438,096 

821.231 

91,864 


$67,016,928 

367,222 

77,863 


92.097.131 
744.668 
107.313 


$92,567,617 


Natural 


345.889 


Puisolan 


97,663 






Total 


79,647,968 


$66,706,136 


83,351.191 


$67,461,613 


92,949.102 


93,001,169 







72 



CEMENT 



73 



According to the diagram Fig. 1, which is furnished by the Geological 
Survey showing the comparative figures of Portland and natural cements 
in this country for the periods 1890 to 1912, the remarkable growth of 
Portland cement as compared with that of natural cement may be 
noted. 

In this connection, the output of natural cement of the Rosendale- 
Cumberland-Louisville-Milwaukee type, which in 1899 reached its maxi- 



Barrel* 

and 
Dollar* 
M,On.OOD 



S,000.«00 



tojmjno 



7S.000.000 



TB,000.000 



00,000.000 
Sff.000.000 



000.01 



000 





lllsililillillililiiiiii 

Fio. 1. — Production of Portland Cement 

nj^im production with an output of 9,868,179 bbl., has been falling 
continuously since, until in 1913 it is a comparatively unimportant 
ffldustiy, though history shows in this country important work of all 
•"ads, fortifications, foundations, bridges, etc., etc., constructed with 



74 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



this well-known material for many years. On the other hand, the curve 
of Portland cement shows a continuous growth without a setback, from 
its earliest period of production in 1890 up to the completion of the past 
year. 

The figures of the Geological Survey this year, it will be noted, are 
grouped primarily by commercial districts, these districts being places 
which have well-known distributing qualifications, and representing 
groups of works within certain areas influenced by practically similar 
trade conditions. This grouping, as shown in Table II, gives the follow- 
ing results: 



TABLE II.— PRODUCTION AND SHIPMENTS OF PORTLAND CEMENT. 
(Figures opposite P relate to production: those opposite S to shipments.) 







Active 
Plants. 


(Barrels). 


Average Factory Price 
Per BaneL 


District. 


1912 


1913 


1912. 


1913. 


Percent- 
age of 


1912. 


1913. 


Percent- 
age of 
Change, 
1913. 


Lehigh district (New Jer- 
sey and eastern Penn- 
sylTania) 

New York 

Ohio and wnfltAm Penn- 


P 

s. 
p 

fi- 
ll- 

IS. 

p 

IS. 

p 

iS. 

p 

IS. 

p 

1 

s. 

p 

s. 

p 

s. 


22 
25 

7 
7 
9 
9 
13 
13 
3 
3 
6 
6 
4 
5 
5 
6 
8 
8 
15 
17 

7 
7 

11 
11 


22 
22 

8 

8 

9 

9 

13 

13 

3 

3 

6 

6 

4 

4 

5 

5 

8 

8 

15 

15 

o8 
aS 

12 
12 


24.762.083 
26,013,891 

4,492,806 
4,r>43,060 
7,359.402 

4,JiiS,i"45 
4.4l^,h08 

3,t.MJl,ii03 
3.ri-t>41 

10.rKiVJ.:^67 

10.tM7,-i79 

2,:i^/>,h86 

2A]i. 472 
:!.3i4,r,63 

7,.VS3,933 

r.>c):.043 
&. 174 ,085 

2.299.252 
2.234.602 

7,336,715 
7,531,927 


27.139.601 
26.659.537 

5,208.020 
5.nf>.:5J4 
7,«&0.010 
7,287,028 
5,0^7,199 
4, 9 W J, 89 1 
a. in 1^,4 17 
2, Sr; 1.^134 
12,4:^,^,799 
11,576.018 
2,068,338 
2,529.620 
3,082,023 
2,958,820 
8>427,012 
7.941.620 
6.:i50.04f^ 
6.190,040 

a2.546.082 
a2.545.473 

8.498.384 
8.041.434 


+ 9.60 
+ 2.48 

+ 15.92 
+ 13.05 
+ 4.49 

- 1.51 
+ 1.73 
+ 1.22 

- 2.78 

- 8.71 
+ 16.56 
+ 8.42 
+ 14.72 

- .27 
+27.83 
+ 16.27 
+ 11.11 
+ 1.75 
+ 9.36 
+ .26 

+ 10.78 
+13.91 

+ 15.83 
+ 6.76 








10.674 


10.838 


+24.33 


.759 


.934 


+23.06 


sylvania 


.757 


i.ooo 


+32.10 




em Indiana 

Kentucky and southern 1 


.851 


1.030 


+21.03 


Indiana 

Illinois and northwest- J 


.764 


1.008 


+31.93 


em Indiana 

Maryland. Virginia, and J 


.744 


1.002 


+34.67 


West Virginia 1 


.726 


.865 


+ 19.14 


and Georgia 


.746 


.899 


+20.50 


Iowa and Missouri J 


Great Plains States 


.832 


1.074 


+29.08 


(Kansas, Oklahoma, 

and central Texas 

RockyMountain States a 
(Colorado. Utah, Mon- 


.866 


1.063 


+22.75 


tana, and western 

Texas) 

Pacific coast States (Cal- 


1.166 


al.319 


' + i3.2i 


ifornia and Washing- 
ton) 


1.358 


1.461 


+ 7.58 


T'^f-l / P 


110 
117 


113 
113 


82,438,096 
85.012.556 


92.097.131 
88.689,377 


+ 11.72 
+ 4.13 










IS. 


.813 


i.665 


+23.62 



a Includes Arisona in 1913. 



Comparing the two years, the old method of grouping by states, how- 
ever, is not changed and upon this basis the production of Portland 
cement in 1912 and 1913 is as follows: 



CEMENT 

TABLE III.— PRODUCTION OF PORTLAND CEMENT. 



75 



Bute. 



1912. 



Producing 
PUnta. 



QuAniity 
(Barrela). 



1913. 



Producing 
PUnta. 



Quantity 
(BarrelB). 



Percentage 

of Change. 

1913. 



Pomcyhrania.. 

lodiftna 

Califoniia , 

XewYork 

IlHsoiB 

MiMmri 

New Jeney 

Michigan 

low* 

Kaoms 

^f ihinftftn . . 

Tem 

OKio 

ruh 

Other SUtet a 

Total 



23 
6 

8 
7 
6 
6 
3 

11 
3 

10 
3 
4 
6 
3 

16 



26,441,338 
9.924.124 
6.974.299 
4.492.806 
4.299,367 
4.366.741 
4.246.803 
3.494,621 
3.228.192 
3.226.040 
1,362,416 
1.807,769 
1,433,344 
868,312 
7^283,934 



23 
6 
7 
8 
6 
6 
3 

11 
3 

10 
6 
4 
6 
3 

16 



28,701,846 
10,872,674 
6.169.182 
6.208.020 
6.083.799 
4,803,338 
4.460.027 
4.186,236 
3,623,674 
3,374.836 
2,339.202 
2.117.142 
1.667.739 
867.433 
8.632.084 



+ 8.66 
+ 9.66 
+ 3.09 
+ 16.92 
+ 18.26 
+ 10.28 
+ 6.02 
+ 19.79 
+ 12.26 
+ 4.64 
+71.70 
+ 17.11 
+16.36 
- .10 
+ 18.61 



110 



82.438.096 



113 



92,097.131 



+11.72 



• Alabama. Colorado, Georgia. Kentucky. Maryland. Montana, Oklahoma. Tenn( 
Wett Virginia m 1912, with Ansona additional in 1913. 



Virginia, and 



SHIPMENTS OP PORTLAND CEMENT. 





1912 


1913 


State. 


Ship. 
jpin£ 
Planta. 


Quantity 
(Barrela). 


Value. 


Average 

Price per 

Barrel. 


Ship. 
PUnia. 


Quantity 
(Barrela). 


Value. 


Average 
Price per 
BarriT 


P-MirlTama.. 

ladtaaa. 

Gdifonna.... 
N>wYark... 

Iliinoia 

Mi»ewri 

NewJenwy... 

Michigan 

Iowa 


26 
6 
8 
7 
6 
6 
3 

11 
3 

12 
4 
3 
6 
3 

17 


27,53^.076 
9. fa I.. 182 
6.1Hi;i,790 
4..Si;i.u60 
4. so J. 1^7 
4. rill. •■47 
4.4CKi,«.i46 
3.'.irj].Ci94 
3,h>a,:?64 
ZM^'^. 1.48 
1.7:>9,780 
1.4,iS.l37 

70O,r,68 

r.7ll^L36 


$18,918,166 
7.237.691 
8.216.894 
3.448,736 
3,444,086 
3,700.776 
3.062.098 
3.145.001 
2.790.396 
2,816,113 
2,068,224 
2,012.786 
1.166.689 
937,119 
6,167,229 


10.687 
.761 

1.348 
.769 
.748 
.802 
.680 
.861 
.876 
.784 

1.170 

1.399 
.844 

1.232 
.799 


23 
6 
7 
8 
6 
6 
3 

11 
3 

10 
4 
6 
6 
3 

16 


2fv,.Jt\u..l96 
10,1^10.192 

(>,Nl.K.-62 
f.i:itJ.^l34 
4,7:i4.r40 
4.■l.^^^>^20 

4 : 81 
i! 00 
L. — ,«18 
2,108,737 
2,023,172 
1,631.066 
960.469 
8.237,087 


\\KnnA^7 
8,8WG.734 
4,.S((H.fl07 
4, 7 84,036 
4.,Vit>,H22 
:^.rKls,755 

r.i,y72,.S.76 

J. r -0:^.053 
1.721,423 
1,9m M I 


10.866 
1.000 
1.478 

.936 
1.011 
1.016 

.866 
1.036 
1.160 


K«— 

icxaa. . . . 

WMhiagton... 
Ohio 


.998 
1.263 
1.410 
1.066 


Other States a. 


1.298 
.969 


Total 


117 


86,012.666 


69,109.800 


.813 


113 


88.689.377 


89.106.976 


1.006 



• Alabama, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Montana, Oklahoma, Tenn< 
tad Weit Virginia in 1912, with Ariaona adcUtional in 1913. 



Virginia, 



It win be noted that the reports now give both production and shipments 
of Portland cement, and in this way throw a much more accurate light 
opon the industry as a whole and give better opportunities for making 
forecasts as to future years, as stocks in hand are thus indicated. 

In connection with the matter of forecasts, the question of prices is of 
interest, and it will be noted that 1913 shows an increase over 1912 in a 
naarited degree, and while Fig. 2 dealing with range in prices 1890 to 



1^ 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



1913 shOYrs a continuously declining curve the 1913 figures throw a little 
more hopeful light upon this point, which has been a discouraging one to 
the trade, and which in 1911, 1912 and 1913 contributed to the insolvency 
and bankruptcy of many cement manufacturing companies, a^ did also 
the ftdlure to consider, in making up costs, the important items of 
depreciation and obsolescence, which in a continuously running industry 
are of vital importance. During the year attention was called to this 
by a number of writers. 



Dollar* 




Fig. 2. — Average Price of Portland Cement 



Referring to Table IV it is but fair to state that the average price of 
Portland cement has been increased slightly over that for the ordinary 
grade of Portland cement by the incltision in the totals of some 
White Portland Cement valued at $2.34 per barrel. As this cement is 
largely produced in the Lehigh district, it has thus abnormally increased 
the value per barrel in that district in greater proportion than that of the 
other cement districts. The average price for 1913, it will be noted, was 
19 cents per barrel above that for 1912 and this, in connection with the 
increased shipments of cement at the higher prices, may be taken as an 
indication of rational conditions beginning to prevail in the indtistry. 



CEMENT 



77 



TABLE IV.— AVERAGE PRICE PER BARREL OP PORTLAND CEMENT. 1870-1913. 



1870-1880 S3. 00 

1881 2.50 

1882 2.01 

1883 2.15 

1884 2.10 

1885-1888 1.95 

1889 1.67 

1890 2.09 

1891 2.13 

1892 2.11 




1903 1.24 

1904 0.88 

1905 0.94 

1906 1.13 

1907 1.11 

1908 0.85 

1909 0.813 

1910 0.891 

1911 0.844 

1912 0.813 

1913 1.005 



The distribution of the works in the various parts of the country is 
not only a question of market conditions, but also of raw materials and 
fuel supply as coal in its various forms for the calcination of cement and 
the production of power is one of the principal items of cost in a barrel of 
cement. In. order to throw a further light upon these two important 
conditions tables are shown giving "Statistics Showing Fuel Used in 
Burning Portland Cement" and "Production in Barrels, and Percentage 
of Total Output of Portland Cement in the United States According 
to Type of Material Used, 1898-1913: 

TABLE v.— STATISTICS SHOWING FUEL USED IN BURNING PORTLAND CEMENT 





Number 


Number 


Output in 
1913. ' 


Percentage of 




of Plants. 


of Kilns. 


Total Output. 


Powdered coal 


88 


695 


78,508.891 


85.2 


Petroleum 


18 


119 


10,013,206 


10.9 


Om 


7 


59 


3,575,034 


3.9 


Total 


113 


873 


92,097,131 


100.0 



In Table VI the raw material used are shown: 



TABLE VI.— PRODUCTION. IN BARRELS, AND PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL OUTPUT OF 
PORTLAND CEMENT IN THE U. S. ACCORDING TO TYPE OF MATERIAL USED. 

1898-1913. 





Type 1. Cement 

Rock and Pure 

limefltone. 


TVpe 2. Limestone 
and Clay or Shale. 


Type 3. Marl and 
Clay. 


Type 4. Blast-furnace 
Slag and Limestone. 


Yw. 


















Qaftatity. 


Per- 

ci?TiUa». 


Quantity. 


Per- 
centage. 


Quantity. 


Per- 
oentage. 


Quantity. 


Peiw 
centage. 


IMt. 


2.764.©e4 
4.010 J 33 


74.9 
70.9 
70.3 


.^ft5,408 

5<f>,i00 

1.03I.U41 


9.9 

9.7 

12.2 


562,092 

l,On'^n34 

1, 97 


15.2 
19.4 
17.1 


1 


18» 




1900. 


32,443 


0.4 


ItOI 


8,'^>3,500 


66.9 


2.042. :> 09 


16.1 


2.1 OO 


15.7 


164.316 


1.3 


l«01. 


10.y;VS.l7a 


63.6 


3,7:i>s.:j03 


21.7 


2.: 53 


12.9 


318,710 


1.8 


11W- 


12. lC*:i.6M 


55.9 


t:^m.\(X^ 


28.3 


3,1 i6 


13.7 


462.930 


2.1 


MOt. 


16.173.:o{91 


57.2 


7.52r,.J23 


28.4 


3.; 73 


12.6 


473.294 


1.8 


1«5 


lg,;.>i/j02 


52.4 


11J7L'.H39 


31.7 


3,] 78 


11.0 


l,T'»'i '»43 


4.9 


IWl 


23.Vc»ri,y51 


51.4 


lfl,.V<-,L'l2 


35.6 


3.1 01 


8.5 


2.1 OO 


4.5 


»07 


2l.^S\^,mb 


53.0 


17.1>.|.^;97 


35.2 


3.1 98 


7.4 


2, OO 


4.4 


WOI 


».^■7H.0Q3 


40.6 


23 "I 7 707 


45.0 


2.1ml- 12 


5.5 


4, OO 


8.9 


IW 


24. -74. < 147 


37.3 


32 »5 


49.6 


2.711.-19 


4.2 


5, OO 


8.9 


WIO 


26,.y.:i.Mai 


34.6 


39 20 


51.9 


3.yo7.x?20 


4.3 


7,1 00 


9.2 


itu^ 


».s\2.\2!A 


34.1 


40.^i>^.-.32 


51.8 


3.314,176 


4.2 


7,V.>,..00 


9.9 


Itll, 


ujvicim 


30.0 


44,tKJ7.776 


54.1 


2,467h368 


3.0 


10,ttriu,i72 


12.9 


1»U 


2fr,.l3a,4W 


31.8 


47 .S3 1,863 


61.9 


3,734,778 


4.1 


11,UIT>00 


12.2 



78 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



In dealing with Table II giving the figures of the United States 
Geological Survey of portland cement production in the United 
States in 1912 and 1913, by districts (in barrels) the first factor 
that is interesting is that the Lehigh district, which at one time 
produced nearly the entire amount of Portland cement in the United 
States and for many years was constant at about 50 per cent, of the total 
output, this year produced only 27,139,601 bbl. of the 92,097,131 bbl. 
produced, or less than 30 per cent, of the total output, and further that 
while the output of the coimtry at large increased 11.7 per cent, the increase 



ttr-« 






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Fia. 3. — Output and Price of Cement in the Lehigh Valley. 



in the Lehigh district in production was only 9.6 per cent, and the increase 
in shipments 2.5 per cent, in 1913 as compared with 1912 — these figures 
indicating that the preponderance of the Lehigh district over the country 
at large is slowly vanishing. One fact however must not be lost sight 
of in considering this statement, and that is that the seaboard shipments 
of the United States to foreign coimtries are practically all made from 
the Lehigh district and that in the ten months ending October 1912 
3,680,000 bbl. were exported while in the 10 months ending October, 
1913, only 2,640,000 bbl. were exported, making a difference of more than 
a million barrels. Had this export market been maintained in 1913 as 
it was in 1912 the Lehigh district would have shown a healthy growth, 



CEMENT 79 

much healthier than that shown in the Geological Survey figures. This 
decreased importance of the Lehigh district has been caused by the 
construction of plants in the South and West and on the Hudson and the 
figure shown here gives the results as to output and price of cement 
produced in the Lehigh Valley district in the last 20 years. 

The general similarity of this curve of cement to the same curve in 
the early history of the steel industry is suggested. This figure, as 
given, was prepared by Hermann V. Schreiber, Consultiog Engineer, 
Philadelphia. 

The results indicated by the above table are also corroborated by the 
figures shown in the Annual Report of the Secretary of Internal Affairs 
for the State of Pennsylvania, where some most interesting figures are 
brought out which give the market value of the 19,922,747 bbl. of Port- 
land cement produced in 1906 as $19,748,569, whUe the market value of 
the 26,564,694 bbl. produced in 1911 was only $19,691,609. To produce 
the 19,922,747 bbl. of 1906 took 10,781 laborers, while to produce the 
26,564,694 bbl. of 1911 required 9916 laborers. The wages were 
respectively: 1906, $5,161,569; and 1911, $5,214,428. The interesting 
fact to be derived from these figures seems to be that the manufacturers 
got no more for their 26,564,694 bbl. of cement in 1911 than for their 
19,922,747 in 1906, and while the labor employed in making it got a little 
more in wages, it produced a much greater quantity. The difference all 
went to the consumer, owing to the reckless competition which has been 
existing in this important field. 

The New York State increase of nearly 16 per cent, or 700,000 bbl. 
on a production of 5,208,000 bbl. was no doubt largely due last year to 
the immense work of the Erie Canal and to road building imder the great 
New York road building appropriation. A field which is rapidly over- 
taking the Lehigh district is that known as the Illinois and Northwestern 
Indiana district which covers the large mills of the Universal Company at 
Gary. The total ouput of this district in 1913 was 12,423,799 bbl. 
as against 10,659,357 in 1912. Rimning a neck and neck race in output 
&re the Iowa and Missouri district, which embraces the large mills of the 
I^high Company at Mason City, the immense plant of the Atlas Co. 
at Hannibal and the great plants at St Louis, with 8,427,000 bbl. and the 
Pacific Coast States District with an output of 8,499,384 bbl. This 
Utter group however while showing an increase of 15.8 per cent, in pro- 
duction shows an increase of only 6.9 per cent, in shipments, while an even 
kss favorable state of affairs is shown in the Iowa and Missouri district, 
where tiie production increased 11.1 and shipments only 1.8 per cent. 

On the whole the year was a surprisingly prosperous one in the 
industry, when the early period of 1913 is cousidered, and that the quan- 



&Q 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



tity maiiuf actured in the country should have reached nearly ninety-two 
and one-half millions^ an increase of nearly ten millions over 1912 is a 
wonderful tribute to the great value of Portland cement as a building 
material, and its constantly widening consumption in this country. 



Exports and Imports 

Tables showing imports for a period of from 1878 to 1913 are of 
interest, and show that the high point of imports was reached in 1895 
and that since 1908 imports have been steadily falling until in 1912 the 
lowest point was reached, the comparative figures being 2,997,395 in 1895 
and 68,503 in 1912. 

TABLE VII.— IMPORTS OF FOREIGN CEMENT. 1878-1913, IN BARRELS OF 380 LB. 



1878 92.000 

1879 106.000 

1880 187.000 

1881 221,000 

1882 370.406 

1883 466,418 

1884 686,768 

1886 664.396 

1886 916,266 

1887 1.614.096 

1888 1.836.604 

1889 1,740.366 



1890 1.940,186 

1891 2,988.313 

1892 2.440.664 

1893 2,674,149 

1894 2,638,107 

1896 2,997,396 

1896 2,989,697 

1897 2,090.924 

1898 1,162,861 

1899 2,108,388 

1900 2,386,683 

1901 939,330 



1902 1,963.023 

1903 2.251,960 

1904 968.409 

1906 896.845 

1906 2.273.493 

1907 2.033.438 

1908 842.121 

1909 443.888 

1910 306.863 

1911 164.670 

1912 68.503 

1913 81.403 



The exports of cement during the period from 1900 to 1913 — our 
exports beginning at a much later period than our imports — show a 
steadily growing figure, though it is but fair to state that a considerable 
portion of the 1911, 1912 and 1913 exports were shipments to Panama 
for the Panama Canal, which took many million barrels, and to Porto 
Rico, Cuba and Brazil, where preferential duties in favor of American 
cement prevailed. 

TABLE VIII.— EXPORTS OF CEMENT. 1900-1913. IN BARRELS 



Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


of Total. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


^s^KSr 


1900 


100,400 
373,934 
340,821 
285.463 
774.940 
897,686 
683,299 


$226,306 
679.296 
626.471 
433.984 
1.104.086 
1.387.906 
944.886 


0.6 

1.9 

1.3 

0.96 

2.4 

2.2 

1.1 


1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


900.660 
846.528 
1.066.922 
2.475.957 
3.135.409 
4.215.532 
2.964.358 


$1,460,841 
1.249.229 
1.417.634 
3.477,981 
4,632.216 
6.160.341 
4,270,666 


1.7 


1901 


1.6 


1902 


1.6 


1903 


3.2 


1904 


3.9 


1906 


5.1 


1906 


3.2 







World's Markets 

From partially completed figures for 1913 the German production is 
estimated at about 37,000,000 bbl. while England produced some 



CEMENT 81 

15,000,000 and Prance about 7,000,000 bbl. Russia is rapidly be- 
coming a large producer and the Scandinavian countries, Norway, Sweden 
and Denmark, are also advancing in the field. A rough estimate of the 
world's consimiption of portland cement places it at about 200,000,000 
bbl. 

Next to the United States it will be noted that Germany is the 
greatest producer, but the big fact remains that the United States, 
which only started to produce cement in a large way in the early 
nineties, is today manufacturing more than all the rest of the world 
put together. In considering the world's industry, it must be realized 
that construction in Emropean countries is permanent and of sub- 
stantial, solid materials. Streets, sewers, water works, buildings, rail- 
road terminals, etc., have been built for many years, and in some 
cases for many centuries, and fireproof construction is practically 
universal. With these facts in view it can be readily seen why in a 
new country like ours, where most of our early temporary construc- 
tion of wood and other flimsy materials has had to be rebuilt and 
where many large engineering works have to be done, that the demand 
for a building material like cement has grown by leaps and bounds while 
in Europe the growth has been slower. On the other hand, it must not 
be forgotten that owing to the enormous shipping tonnage of Emropean 
nations and the wonderful world markets that they control that England, 
Germany and Belgium are practically the largest exporting nations of the 
world, and that by this export business competitive conditions in home 
markets are largely relieved. In Germany and England competitive 
conditions are also relieved by the formation in the first named country of 
district trusts, which in turn are connected by Cartel agreements as to 
shipments from district to district, and in England by a practical consoli- 
dation of the principal works into the Associated Portland Cement 
Manufacturers, Limited, which is the principal owner in the British 
Cement Manufacturer's Association. 

The end of the year 1913 saw a diminution in the home markets in 
most of the European countries and a marked diminution in exports, 
especially to South American and South Africa. The general restriction 
of credits caused by the financial flurry produced by the Balkan War 
materiaOy a£fected building construction in all parts of Eiurope as well as 
in South America. Inability to procmre funds in the ordinary way by 
building mortgages at reasonable rates of interest retarded all new 
construction in the fall of 1913 and a very dull year in 1914 is looked for 
by European manufacturers. 



CHALK 

No crude deposits of chalk exist in the United States. The consump- 
tion of whiting and Paris white is about 100,000 tons annually. The 
import duty of these products is 1/4 cent per pound. The duty on ground 
chalk is 1 cent a poimd. The following table shows the imports for 
fiscal years: 





English CUffttone. 


Qroirnd Chalk. 


Dry Whiting 

and Paris 

White, 

Pounds. 


Dollars. 


Whiting in Ofl. 




Tom. 


DolUn. 


Pounds. 


DoUart. 


Pounds. 


Dollars. 


1009 

1010 

1911 


10.767 
8,618 


16.487 
12,260 


1,868.005 
2.728.882 
8.826.118 
8.809.841 
2.636.622 


82,225 
69.208 
92,428 
88.891 
70.731 


2.089.981 
2.868.289 
4.656.958 
8.729.155 
3,636.747 


18.540 
16.805 
18.758 
14.578 
14.082 


76 
17.995 
77,581 
29,047 
36,434 


7 

220 

1,161 


1912 

1913.... (o) 


# 8.522 
150.010 


11.167 
120.040 


866 
881 



(a) Crude ohalk. totaL 

It requires from 2700 to 2800 lb. of crude chalk' to make 2000 lb. of 
Paris white or whiting. The mar^ of profit to the American manu- 
facturers is small. The European manufacturer pays from $4.50 to $5.50 
less per ton for both chalk and labor than does the American. 

The increase in ocean freights caused advancing prices in the domestic 
market in 1912. The selling price of English chalk varies from $2.70 
to $3 per ton; of French chalk from $2.90 to $3.35 per ton. 

American manufacturers are Southwark Manufacturing Co.^ Camden, 
N. J., Acme White Lead & Color Works, Boston; H. P. Taintor Mfg. 
Co., N. Y.; G. W. MacEenzie, Phila.; Benjamin Moore & Co., 
Brooklyn; Stickney, Tirrel & Co., Boston. 



CHROMIUM 

Bt C. H. MaGuibe 



The only commercially important ore of chromium is chromite. This 
ore is found widely distributed in various parts of the United States, 
particularly in Massachussetts, Pennsylvania, Maiyland, North Carolina, 
Wyoming and California. Almost the entire production of chromite 
since 1880 has come from California. Small quantities have been 
mined from time to time in Wyoming. The following table gives the 
production of chrome ores in the United States since 1900: 



Tear. Quantity, 

(Long Tons). 

1900 140 

IWl 368 

1002 816 

1903 160 

1904 123 

1906 22 

1906 107 

1907 290 

1908 369 

1909 698 

1910 206 

1911 120 

1912 201 

1913 266 



Value. 

$1,400 
6,790 
4,667 
2,260 
1,846 
376 
1.800 
6,640 
7.230 
8,300 
2.729 
1,629 
2,763 
2.864 



The importations of chrome ore, chromic acid, and chromate of potash 
are given in the following table: 

CHROMATE AND BICHROMATE OF POTASH, CHROMIC ACID, AND CHROME ORE 
IMPORTED AND ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION IN THE UNITED STATES, 
1907 TO 1912, INCLUSIVE, (o) 



Teu. 


Chromat« and Bichro- 
mate of Potash. 


Chromic Acid. 


Chrome Ore. 


Total 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Value. 


1907 

1«8 

1909 

mo 

mi 

1912 

ma 


Pounds. 

18,171 

216,061 

637.017 

406.790 

22,408 

32.913 

18.629 


$1,807 

15.468 

28.82r7 

19.669 

2.169 

3.086 

1.819 


Pounds. 
1.834 
3.806 
7.659 
9.850 
6,789 
8,728 
6,662 


$403 
708 
1.412 
1,636 
1,349 
1,376 
1,100 


Long Tons. 
41,989 
27,876 
39.624 
38,679 
37.640 
63,929 
65.180 


$491,926 
846,960 
460.758 
416.768 
407.958 
499,818 
622,821 


$493,636 
362.121 
491.007 
436,972 
411,466 
604.279 
625.740 



(a) Bnresii of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 

The quantity and value of imports of chrome yellow or green are 
^ven in the following table: 



Year. Quantity, Pounds. 

1909 109,494 

1910 170,073 

1911 156.686 

1912 166,733 

1913 161,163 

83 



Value. 
$19,492 
23,107 
25.029 
25.516 
24,731 



%^ 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



The uses of chrome ores are: m the manufacture of ferro-chromium, 
employed for making special steels, alone or in combination with nickel, 
manganese, or tungsten; for lining furnaces where the corrosive action is 
very great; and in the manufacture of chromium compounds for use in 
production of pigments, dyes, mordants and tannages. 

The principal sources of chrome ore in foreign countries is given in 
the following table: 

THE PRINCIPAL SUPPLIES OF CHROME ORE. (a) 
(In metric tons.) 



1903 



1904 



1906 



1906 



1907 



1908 



1909 



1910 



1911 



1912 



1913 



Bosnia 

Canada 

Qneoe 

India 

New Caledonia 

(6) . 

New South Wales 

Rhodesia 

Russia 

United States.. 



147 
3.184 
8,478 

260 

21.437 
1,982 

l'6.421 
152 



279 

5.612 

16,430 

3,654 

42,197 
403 

26,675 
125 



186 
7,781 
8.900 
2,761 

51,374 
63 

27,061 



320 

7,936 

11.630 

4,445 

67367 

16 

3308 

16,969 

109 



810 

6,528 

11,730 

18,697 

25,371 

30 

7.273 

26,528 

294 



500 
6.564 
4.350 
4.821 



382 
2.470 
9.600 
9.398 



46.890 40.000 

liu. NO, 

12.118 37.024 

10.950 22313 

3641 606 



820 

279 

9.463 

1,766 

40.000 

liil. 
40.000 



250 

143 

4.615 

3,864 

82306 
160 

47.600 
(c) 
122 



200 



6.468 
2.936 

51.616 

23 

62.850 

21,277 

204 



63.370 



63.384 
"259 



S) From the official reports of the respective countries. No complete statistics are aTsilable for 
ey or Africa, (b) Exports, except I90d and 1910. (e) Statistics not yet available. 

Chromite is a mixture of chromic oxide and ferrous oxide, in varying 
proportions. The chromic oxide averages from 40 to 60 per cent, 
though it occassionally runs as low as 10 per cent. The theoretical 
composition of the ore is expressed by the formula CrjOs : FeO. The price 
is based on 50 per cent, chromic oxide. 

Pigments such as chrome green, Guignet's green, chrome yellow, 
chrome red, and chrome orange are on the market. The chrome green, 
chrome orange and chrome yellow are used as dyes, the chromates, and 
dichromates and chromium salts are used in dyeing and printing. Chro- 
mium sales make leather resistant to moisture, which property makes 
them valuable in tanning. 

The domestic production of chrome ore comes from Shasta and Sis- 
kiyou Counties, California. The production far exceeds the demand. 
This ore is used mostly in furnace linings, 

FoBEiGN Countries 

Africa. — Chromite deposits extend from the junction of the Malips 
and Olifarts rivers, southeast as far as the Steelport river. The follow- 
ing table gives the analysis of the ore: 



CnOi. 
FeO... 
MnO.. 
AltOt. 
MgO.. 



Water. 



Per cent. 
51.29 
23.33 
0.60 
2.40 
4.32 
4.40 
12.10 



Phosphorus and sulphur Trace. 



CHROMIUM 86 

Africa^ — ^Rhodesia is the principal chrome ore-producing country. 
The ore is exported by way of Beria, a distance of 560 miles from the mines. 
The mines now being worked are found in the Selukwe district in Matabele- 
land in a group of hills which for many years have contributed about 10 
per cent, of Rhodesia's total gold yield. During the year 1913 Rhodesia 
produced 5980 tons of chrome ore. The exports from South Africa for 
1913 were valued at S688,580. 

Canada. — The chrome ores of Canada came chiefly from Eastern 
Quebec. The normal output 10 years ago was from 6000 to 8000 tons, 
but production has now almost entirely ceased. 

Ctilw. — The Cuban ores are resinols or laterites in serpentine, and 
occur principally at Mayari, Moa, Cubitas, Taco Bay and Navas. A 
typical Cuban ore is represented by the following analysis: iron from 42 
to 46 per cent., alumina 3 to 13 per cent., silica 1.5 to 5 per cent., 
chromium 1.7 to 6 per cent., nickel and cobalt 0.3 to 1.3 per cent., and 
phosphorus 0.016 to 0.03 per cent. 

Greece. — ^The chromite mined in Greece comes from Pharsala. In 
1910 ore to the value of $96,668 and in 1911 to the value of $2250 was 
exported to the United States. During 1911, 12,915 metric tons of chrome 
ore and in 1912, 6468 metric tons were produced in Greece. The average 
sale price was 43.45 francs per ton in 1911, and 35.66 francs in 1912. 

Asia Minor. — Several large mines are operated in the vicinity of 
Mersina. The ore, containing from 51 to 53 per cent. CriO«, is exported 
to France and Germany. Deposits of chrome and emery are nimierous 
in the Western provinces, particularly in Aidin, Smyrna. Until about 10 
years ago the production reached 40,000 tons per annum, but recently 
the production has diminished to less than 4000 tons annually. This is 
due in part to increased production elsewhere and lack of cheap trans- 
portation facilities. 

India. — The chrome industry in Mysore was completely extinguished 
in 1910. Baluchistan suffered a depression at this time but lately there 
has been a marked improvement in conditions. The principal chrome- 
producing localities are the QuettarPishin and the Zhob districts. The 
ore occures in masses of serpentine. The output in 1910 was 1737 tons 
valued at £2315; in 1911 it was 3804 tons valued at £5072; in 1912 it 
was 2890 tons. 

^ew Caledonia. — The sales of chrome ore of New Caledonia are con- 
trolled by the Chrome Co., which has gradually raised the price of the 
we. In 1911, 82,806 tons, in 1912, 51,516 tons and in 1913, 63,370 tons 
of chrome ore were exported from New Caledonia. A French company, 
according to a report of the U.S. Consul at Noumea, is erecting an electric 
smelling plant for the production of ferro-chrome, on the Yates river. 



&^ MINERAL INDUSTRY 

It 18 expected that this plant, which will utilize about 15,000 h.p., will be 
in full operation within 5 years. 

Metallurot 

The only progress in the metallurgy of chromium has been in the 
production of alloys. At TroUh&ttan, Sweden, a secret process is used 
for the production of f erro-chrome. The process is carried out in electric 
furnaces two of which are now in operation. The output for the year 
1913 was about 1200 metric tons, and this will be extended in 1914 to 
2500 tons, with further extensions in 1915. The furnace requires about 
1700 kw.-hr per ton of metal reduced. Four grades, containing 5, 6 1/2, 
7 1/2, and 9 per cent, chromium are produced. The ore is obtained 
entirely from South Africa and New Caledonia. 

A process has been patented for producing low-carbon f erro-chromium 
containing nickel by reacting on high-carbon f erro-chromium with nickel 
oxide. The nickel oxide is fed into a bath of calcium aluminate slag 
supported on the molten f erro-chromium (U. S. Pat. 1059709). 

A process for decarbonizing ferro-chromiimi and other f erro alloys is 
described in Fr. Pat. 447225. The process is carried out in a drum- 
shaped rotating chamber so that a blast of air or oxygen can be directed 
throughout the entire charge. The greater affinity of carbon for oxygen 
at a temperature of 1000-2500 C. is the basis of a process for obtaining a 
low-carbon ferro-chromium from a high-carbon ferro-chromium. The 
process is carried out in an electric furnace of special design (U. S. Pat. 
1063341). 

R. M. Keeney has shown experimentally that a low-carbon ferro- 
chromium can be obtained directly from the ore in the electric furnace. 
The power consumption does not exceed 3.7 kw.-hr. per pound. 
Silicon and phosphorus cannot be kept low because of the strong reduc- 
ing conditions. ("Electric Smelting of Chromium, Tungsten, Molybde- 
num and Vanadium Ores." Trans. Am. Eledrochem. Soc., 24, 167.) 

Goldschmidt has perfected a process for increasing the yield of 
chromium in the aluminothermic production of ferro-chromium. Metal- 
lic oxides (e.g., cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, tungsten and vanadium) are 
added to the mixture of aluminimi and chrome-iron ore. This results in 
a higher yield of the chromium contained in the ore and a more uniform 
composition of the ferro-chromium. Chromium oxide in the proportions 
of 60 parts of the oxide to 300 parts of the chrome ore have also given 
good results. (Eng. Pat. 18671, Apr. 14, 1912. Under Int. Conv., 
July 5, 1912). 

A filament for electric lights has been patented in France. (Fr. Pat. 
457557). This consists of a chromium compound with hydrogen, oxy- 



CHROMIUM 87 

gen, sulphur or other metalloid mixed with cellulose and carbonized 
at a high temperature in an atmosphere of hydrocarbon gas at reduced 
pressure. 

BmUOGRAPHT 

Anon. — Chromium-Nickel Resistance Wire Alloy. Ehctrochem, Z.^ 20, 65. 

Bkbs, M. — ^Disorepenciee between the Structure and Composition of Two Nickel- 
Cfarome Steels. Ret. Mei., 108, 787-^07. 

Bbown, G. H. — ^Note on Load Tests made on Magnesite, Chrome and Silica 
Bride. Trans. Am, Ceram, Soc., 14, 391-393. 

BuBOEss, G. E., and Wai/ienbebo, R. G. — Melting Pomts of the Refractory 
Metals. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 8, 371-378. 

DoNT-HsNAUi/r, P. — ^Resistance of Chromium Powder for Electrical Heating. 
Comp. rend., 166, 66-68. 

Fbibnd, J. M., West, W., and Bbntlbt, J. L. — ^The Corrodibility of Nickel, 
Chromium, and Nickel-Chromium Steels. Jour. Iron Steel Inst., May, 1913. 

GuiLLBTT, L. — ^The Transformation Pomts and Structure of Nidcel-Chromium 
Afloys. Comp.rend., 166, 1774-6. 

Hbubach, a. R. — ^Light Green Chromium Stains. Trans. Am. Ceram. Soc., 14, 
41S-433. 

Hexneb, L. a. — ^A New Chromium-bearing Basic Magnesium Carbonate. 
Cenir. Min., 1912, 569-571. 

Ihde, K. — ^The Magnetic Susceptibility of Manganese, Chromium Manganese 
and Chromium. Ann. Pkysik, 41, 82^853. 

PoBTETXN, A. — ^Electrical Resistance and Micro-structure of two Nickel- 
Chromium Steels. Rev. Met., 10, 808r^l0. 

Raussdem, C. £. — ^Notes on Chromium Red Glace. Trans. Eng. Ceram. Soc., 
11,29-38. 

Schilling. — Chromium in Sponge Form. Ger. Pat. 258736. 

Scott, H. K. — Chromiferrous Iron Ores of Greece and Their Utilization. 
Jmtr. Iran Steel Inst., May, 1913. 

Watson, T. L. — ^Vanadium and Chromium in Rutile and Possible Effect of 
Vanadhim on Color. J. Wash. Acad. Sd., 8, 431-434. 

. The World's Chrome Mines. Min. Jour., Oct. 11, 1913. 



COAL AND COKE 

By a. T. Shttbick 

The national coal market in 1913 was characterized by the highest 
average price level in the history of the trade. The year will be recorded 
as one of satisfactory business and substantial profits; it has been a period 
of rejuvenation, rehabilitation, restored confidence and general optimism. 

Even though the close of the year witnessed a discouraging recession 
in the coal markets, 1913 cannot be regarded other than satisfactory. It 
was a season of great momentum, replete with readjustments that give 
tangible evidence of substantial progress to come. 

Particular significance attaches to these facts in view of the generally 
adverse condition prevailing in financial circles, and the restrictive, not 
to say radical, State and Federal legislation enacted during the year. 
The situation in the world's money markets has seldom been worse. 
Standard securities of the most reputable description depreciated to a 
point scarcely exceeded by the spectacular panic of 1907, while a number 
of powerful corporations were forced into receiverships, including repre- 
sentative coal operations of national prominence. 

In legislative circles a determined renewal of the dissolution proceed- 
ings against the Reading company, the unexpected announcement of the 
Pennsylvania State Tax on anthracite and the deliberations of the Ohio 
Legislature regarding the screening law have all been restraining influences 
adverse to a more general expansion. In national affairs the abrupt 
passage of the new tariff and the long threatened new currency bill, 
finally enacted at the close of the year, had a depressing effect on general 
industrial conditions that must inevitably have been reflected back to 
the coal industry. 

In the face of these grave uncertainties in commercial circles, it is, 
therefore, particularly gratifying to record such a substantial improve- 
ment in the fuel industry. The question arises: How has this been 
brought about? The self-complacement sales organizations of the large 
corporations are prone to ascribe it to good salesmanship, a general deter- 
mination to obtain higher prices throughout the trade and a tendency to 
curtail production when such figures are not prevailing. The heavy in- 
crease in the output for the year does not justify the belief that there has 
been any important restriction in operations, while the spectacular break 
in the pool of the Connellsville coke operators seems to prove the fallacy 
of any concerted action in holding for higher prices. 

88 



COAL AND COKE 89 

But whatever the cause, the beneficial effects must not be gaged by a 
standard of dollars and cents. Of far greater importance is the psycho- 
logical effect upon the consumer who has been brought face to face with 
the fact that he must be prepared to meet a constantly increasing advance 
in the cost of fuel. Higher mining costs, as the depths become greater, 
the increasing cost of labor, a gradual depletion of our coal reserves, and 
the necessity for a greater expenditure in mining in order to obtain a 
higher percentage of recovery will inevitably bring about this con- 
dition. 

The production in 1913 reached a total of about 562,000,000 short 
tons, exceeding the previous high record of last year by more than 30,000,- 
000 tons; of this increase about 4,500,000 is credited to anthracite. 
But while the general production of the country showed an almost normal 
increase, it is worthy of note that the output of hard coal has not advanced 
over the past 3 years. The tonnage in 1913 only just made up the 
deficiency of 6,000,000 tons, caused by the strike in 1912, and failed to 
reach the record mark of nearly 70,000.000 tons in 1911. The falling off 
was due to the abnormally mild weather prevailing over the closing 
months of the year, which are usually the most active of the season. 

With the possible exception of the extreme Northwest, it is not prob- 
able that the reduced tariff on coal will effect any important changes in 
the North American markets. The only foreign competition to be 
anticipated in the East is from Cape Breton coals in the coastwise trade. 
Since these are of rather inferior quality, as compared with the better 
grade domestic product, and as they also carry a high freight burden, 
it is improbable that they will be able to enter aggressively into the local 
situation. 

The year in coke was marked by severe fluctuations and strenuous 
fights between buyers and sellers of the Connellsville product. The 
opening prices were high, but declined sharply in sympathy with pig iron. 
In July the market struck a $2.50 level, and held determinedly until 
October when it broke violently at first, gradually easing off to a $1.76 
price. It developed later, however, that this quotation was mostly on 
off-qualities, and the close of the year found better prices prevailing 
generally. 

Not the least important of the year's legislation was the passage of 
the Sundry Civil bill carrying a "rider" exempting labor from prosecution 
under the anti-tru&t laws. This measure was regarded as adverse to 
capitalistic interests and was returned to Congress for reconsideration by 
Preadent Taft during his tenure in office. Organized labor has yet to 
prove that only the unionists shall have the privilege of working and 
wrtainly interference with the production of a commodity used in inter- 



ftO MINERAL INDUSTRY 

state commerce is clearly an infringement upon the basic intent of the 
Sherman act. 

While the coal markets were developing an accumulative strength 
with the approach of the fall buying season, the outlook in industrial 
circles became steadily more ominous. As early as May there were 
evidences of a congested condition in the world's investment market, and 
standard first-class securities could only be floated at a substantial 
sacrifice. The origin of the trouble was ascribed to the European war, 
following which came an abnormally large flotation of state, government, 
municipal, and corporation securities. Since it is mandatory on many of 
the foreign banks to subscribe for the issues of their respective govern- 
ments, a heavy liquidation of American securities was precipitated. 

Coal Mabkets in 1913 

Pittsburgh (By B. E. V. Luty).— The year 1913 was one of heavy 
coal production in the Pittsburgh district, and in addition the market 
afforded much more satisfactory prices than the average. Of the two 
preceding years, 1911 had been poor both as to tonnage and prices, 
while 1912 was bad as to prices if not tonnage. 

Several circumstances combined to make 1913 a good year. The 
manufacturing demand was exceptionally large, as the industries were 
prosperous and the iron and steel mills tributary to the Pittsburgh district 
turned out the largest tonnage in their history. The railroads enjoyed a 
heavy traffic in the raw materials and finished product of the iron 
industry, and had a good business in general merchandise. The lake trade 
was exceptionally heavy, partly because the previous season had left the 
Northwest with very light stocks, and partly because there was a general 
expectation that the wage scale settlement for the 2 years beginning 
Apr. 1, 1914, would prove an unusually difficult matter, possibly involving 
a long suspension of mining, with a consequent late opening for lake 
shipments in 1914. 

The Pittsburgh district operators, therefore, enjoyed a heavy demand 
in 1913, which helped to make good prices, but that was not the only 
factor. The human element entered very largely. For several years 
the Pittsburgh district operators have felt that coal prices were too low. 
At the opening of the season quotations would be named predicated upon 
full operation and a moderate margin of profit, and then it would develop 
that under curtailed operation, due to lack of demand, and of men, or 
shortage in car supply, the cost of production would mount. Usually 
full allowance was not made in advance for the constantly increasing cost 
of mining due to governmental restrictions and safeguards thrown around 



COAL AND COKE 91 

mining by the voluntary act of the operators. Before the opening of the 
selling season for 1913, on Nov. 4, 1912, the Pittsburgh Coal Co. promul- 
gated prices on a basis of $1 .30 mine-run. It was then that a new element 
appeared, for instead of the prices being cut generally in competition for 
contracts and spot orders, as had almost invariably been the case in 
immediately preceding years, the circular quotations were quite well 
maintained, and indeed still higher prices were obtained for a short period 
toward the close of the lake-shipping season. 

There were lively conditions in the Connellsville coke market through- 
out the year, caused by the earnest effort of a group of operators to secure 
better prices, relative to the selling price of pig iron, than they had ever 
obtained before. For many years Connelsville coke had sharp ups and 
downs. Owing to the practice of making semiannual and annual con- 
tracts, based largely upon what chanced to be the spot market at the 
time, and as the spot market of a commodity which is not stocked to any 
extent is naturally one of wide fluctuations, it has frequently been the 
lase that fumacemen paid high prices for their coke when they were 
getting low prices for their pig iron, and vice versa. 

In the final outcome the average price of coke and the actual realized 
value from the acreage will be determined by the rapidity with which 
consumers adopt by-product coke. The trend is strongly in that direc- 
tion, but coke consumption is also on the increase, and as the Connells- 
ville seam had a life of only about 20 years or less, at the present rate of 
exhaustion, an interesting contest is promised. There are those who 
predict that the last of the Connellsville coal will be shipped to by-product 
ovens, instead of going through beehive ovens at the pit mouth, but the 
average Connellsville operator will not admit such a probability. 

Boston, Mass. (By G. G. Welkins). — ^Although 1913 early sagged off 
from the panicky conditions of November and December, 1912, yet in the 
main it was a satisfactory year. It was particularly so to operators as 
they netted higher average prices than had ever been obtained before. 
There was a pronounced labor shortage in most of the districts that some- 
what curtailed output; here and there as in the New River field labor 
difficulties cropped out, and there have been weak spots in the market; 
but as a whole, the coal trade has enjoyed 12 months of flourishing and 
remunerative business. 

The only conspicuous flare-up was along the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., 
centering in the Kanawha and New River districts, but the actual sus- 
pension in New River lasted only about 5 days and some of the mines 
were not affected. Settlement came through concessions largely on the 
part of the operators, a&d July 7 practically all the mine workers were 
back at their places. Since then a shortage of men has been the rule in 



VI MINERAL INDUSTRY 

West Virginia and in many parts of Pennsylvania, but as it turned out, 
very little more coal could have been absorbed than was mined, without 
seriously afifecting prices. 

The high average price of the better Pennsylvania grades was a 
notable feature of 1913. For these coals to command the figures they 
did, month after month, with no particular shortage of cars, or anything 
more than threatened upsets in West Virginia, has certainly been a 
remarkable development. Instances could be multiplied where coals 
from Clearfield, Somerset and Cambria Counties have made inroads 
on tonnage that has always been considered * 'fixed" for Pocahontas and 
New River. There has been a great light in this respect in New England 
during the past year. A considerable quantity of these coals of known 
origin has found its way into the bunkers of off-shore freighters and 
liners, a thing practically unheard of except in stress times. 

The most marked feature of the Pocahontas and New River situation 
was the remarkable strength shown by the season price of $2.85 f. o. b. 
Hampton Roads ($1.45 at the mine). For a time in the early spring the 
prospect was at least doubtful, but in March, when cpot prices began 
to be hammered hard the rival interests got together and tide-water 
accumulati ons decreased. Thenceforth the market was held in impressive 
fashion and 1913 was a banner year so far as returns were concerned. 

There was still a deal of caution over futures, operators hoping that 
somehow there would come a turn, but the only turn that came was in 
November when it appeared that even the producers of the choicest 
grades were quietly looking for milder business. Unexpectedly enough 
hand-to-mouth buying developed to tide over, and only in late November 
and early December did the choicest grades appear in any volume at 
tidewater points in excess of contract requirements. There was a time in 
October when inquiry was active for Cambrias and Somersets suitable 
for bunker use and prices again reached $1.65, but the ordinary low-priced 
Clearfields were hard to sell at a dollar flat. The Atlantic seaboard was 
more discriminating than was formerly the case. 

Hard-coal trade on the whole enjoyed a satisfactory year in New 
England. The mild weather in January and February enabled dealers 
to get through to the end of the previous season very comfortably, and 
while in March the market was spotty, April was not at all the disappoint- 
ment that was predicted. Numerous consignees failed to get the share 
of minimum-priced coal that they were counting on. The originating 
companies proved to be "well supplied with orders, and some sizes, 
notably broken and pea, were in relatively short supply. 

Anthracite mines were worked only 4 days a week during July and 
August, and this curtailment had the effect of keeping inquiry active 



COAL AND COKE 93 

through what are ordinarily the dullest months. To the end of December 
there was hardly a let-up in the urgent call for deliveries all through the 
fall. Large storage depots in the East were practically bare the whole 
season. Retail trade was exceptionally good until November when it 
eased off into a weather market. Boston prices were advanced three 
times, 25 cents each time, until Oct. 2 they were at $8.25 for nut, the 
1912 high price for that size. Dealers have held closely to the policy of 
keeping storage as well filled as possible and those who were far-sighted 
enough to take extra quantities of stove when such could be had deserve 
credit for protecting their customers. 

Hampton Roads (By J. W. Bunting). — ^The year 1913 has been one of 
the most trying to the coal shippers from Hampton Roads ports, although 
it has at the same time been one of the most profitable. 

During the first few months of the year there was considerable diffi- 
culty experienced in getting coal forward from the mines and a number of 
shippers were forced to pay demurrage on vessels held up waiting for 
coal. Shippers were hardly over this trouble before some of the mines 
were idle because of the strike. This, however, lasted only a short time 
and effected biit few of the New River operations. 

The demand for coal has been good practically all the year. During 
the summer and fall there was a scarcity at all piers and this, of course, 
kept prices up. The largest shippers had great difficulty getting coal 
to take care of contract tonnage. The railroads attributed the shortage 
at tidewater during the fall to the fact that a large number of cars which 
had been sent West with coal for lake shipment had been tied up in the con- 
gestion on the Western roads and that great difficulty was experienced in 
getting them back to the mines. Car troubles during the early fall and 
winter are one of the greatest difficulties which the shippers at tidewater 
have to contend with, and this seems to be a yearly occurrence. 

Considerable uneasiness has been felt by some of the smaller selling 
agencies at tidewater on account of a report to the effect that practically 
the entire New River coal field had been sold to a British eyndicate. 
The owners of the largest interests have emphatically denied these rumors 
and stated that while some small operations may have been sold, that the 
150,000,000 reported to have been paid for the mines, would not purchase 
the number mentioned as having been included in the deal. 

A new enterprise put into operation in connection with the handling 
of coal from Hampton Roads is the storage plant recently completed at 
Sewalls Point. This is expected to take care of over 200,000 tons and 
should the occasion demand, it could be enlarged with little cost to take 
care of over half a million tons, with practically the same machinery now 
in operation there. 



94 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

While there has been considerable improvement made during the year 
in the facilities for handling coal, 1913 has gained little credit in the 
matter of tonnage with these improvements, and it remains for the coming 
year to show whether the dumpings over the new piers will be increased 
in proportion to the increased facilities. 

Buffalo (By John W, Chamberlin). — ^Buffalo ships about four-fifths 
of the anthracite that is handled by lake and has increased shipments 
during the season of 1913 by nearly one-third. The shipment for the 
past season is a trifle more than 5,000,000 tons, net, while the amount 
for 1912 was 3,926,583 tons and for 1911 it was 3,917,429 tons, this 
latter being the record up to that time. The cause of the slight increase 
in 1912 was that the mining suspension in that year cut off the supply till 
well into June. This means that there is a strong tendency to increase 
the movements by lake into the Northwest, and the limit is likely to be 
reached only when the maximum output of anthracite is obtained. At 
the same time there is a steady increase of shipment from Lake Ontario 
ports, most of which is confined to that immediate territory. 

There has been no important change in the anthracite trade in Buffalo 
during the past year, either in personnel or equipment. The effort of the 
Government to dispossess the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Co. of 
its shipping trestle at the mouth of' Buffalo river, made at various inter- 
vals during the past 20 years or more, has again been laid aside tempo- 
rarily, without apparently arriving at a definite settlement. The govern- 
ment claims to own the site and also that the mooring of craft at the trestle 
to load coal is a menace to navigation. The public is divided on the 
question. There is a move to replace the old wooden shipping trestle 
with a modern car dump, and one company has about concluded to make 
the change immediately as these frame structures are expensive to main- 
tain and occupy Wcessive space. 

The bituminous year as a whole has been more active and more pros- 
perous than ever before, in spite of the dullness of the market during 
December. For some reason, hardly understood by even the oldest 
member of the trade, the demand continued strong all through the warm 
months, so that it was difficult to get miners to produce or cars to trans- 
port the coal as fast as it was sold. AU^heny Valley operators, who had 
almost despaired of ever again seeing prosperous days, sold a largely 
increased output at prices 30 cents above the ordinary. 

It should be said in closing that figures showing the amount of coal 
received in Buffalo are not obtainable. Some of the rail shipping interests 
keep them for the purpose, chiefly of allotting cars to the mines in time 
of shortage, but they steadily refuse to make them public. A rough 
estimate of the receipts makes the anthracite 6,000,000 tons, of which 



COAL AND COKE 



95 



all but about 400^000 tons is shipped out again and the bituminous 
receipts 7,500,000 tons, of which half to two-thirds is reshipped. 

Coal Movement in 1913. — ^The following is a summary of the shipments 
of bituminous coal over the 12 leading coal roads for the past 3 years 
in short tons: 





1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


B»L A Ohio' 


35,321,771 

8.223,617 

1,951.256 

16,488,024 

8,031,463 

1,148,675 

8,108,738 

20,954,839 

65,015.701 

16.090.905 

4,826.794 

2.817,201 


40.525,280 

8,839.732 

1.810,930 

17,296.185 

7.803.773 

1.277.180 

8.396,018 

24.112.787 

70,117.880 

17.745.835 

4.062.363 

3.584,292 


36,915.385 


Buf. Roch. 4 P.» « 


9,723,992 


Btti A 8ttM.> » 


1,787,551 


CheR>. A Olio* 


17,155,233 


Runt. 4t B^'d. T M.» « 




N. y. C. * H. R. R. R 


1,352.721 


N.&W.R.R.**.. :...::.;.:::.::::..... 


9,220,689 


Penn. R. R.» » 


23,892,469 


PHts. Jk Lake Erie> « 


51,526,267 


Pitta. Sba. A Nort.« • 


12,783.389 


Virginuuis «. , , 


4,555,331 


Wmtern Md 


2,953.601 







> InclndM coal received from conneoting lines. 

* Inelodes oompany** coaL 

' Doea not include company's ooal haul d free. 





SHIPMENTS OF ANTHRACITE 
(Tons of 2000 lb.) 


• 








1911. 


1912. 


1913. 




Tons. 


Per oent. 


Tons. 


Per cent. 


Tons. 


Per cent. 


B«a<fi]ic 


13,265,758 
12.603,000 
9,218.802 
9,869,620 
7,206.731 
6,494,733 
8,800,179 
2,495.476 


19.0 
18.0 
13.2 
14.1 
10.8 

9.3 
12.6 

3.5 


12.852.386 
11.791.601 
8.342.447 
9.065.622 
6.361,238 
7.435.697 
7.435,697 
2,213.382 


20.2 
18.5 
13.1 
14.2 
10.0 

8.7 
11.7 

3.5 


12.914.887 
13.011.370 
9.092.433 
9.908,541 
7,094.258 
6,361.766 
8.192,352 
2.509.031 


18.70 


Lelticb'V«I]ey 


18.84 


iH^c^ntSS.;;;;;:::::. 


13.16 


T .^^ Va ^— ■!> WHk. 


14.34 


Dd. A Hudson 


10.27 


Penasjlrania 


9.20 


Erie..'. 


11.86 


N. Y. Ont. ft West 


3.63 


Total 


69.954.299 


100.0 


63.610,587 


100.0 


69.069.628 


100.00 







Norfolk A Western Ry. — ^The following is a statement of the tonnage 
shipped over this road during December, 1913, and the twelve months, 
as compared with corresponding periods of 1912 in short tons: 





Oeoember. 


Twelve Months. 




1912. 


1913. 


1912. 


1913. 


Tidrwmt«r fani^n 


84.083 

258.216 

1,355,189 


150.886 

331.829 

1.353.108 

575 
116,730 


1.343.311 
8.583.283 
17.716,575 

52.762 
1,416,85ft 


1,542,950 


TIdevater roastwive 


3.805.847 


TVHMgtie' ■ . - - - 


18,543,672 




31.082 


DooMstie 


134,763 


1.499.302 


Total 


1.832.251 


1,953.128 


24,112,787 


25.422,853 







96 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. — The following is a comparative statement of 
the coal and coke traffic from the New River, Kanawha and Kentucky 
districts for December and the 6 months ending Dec. 31, 1912, and 13, 
in short tons: 





December. 


Six Months. 




1913. 


1912. 


1913. 


Per cent. 


1912. 


Per cents 


Tidewater 


301.113 
224.684 
849.714 


223.833 
261.819 
724.867 


1,614.503 
1,254.609 
6.681.077 


17 
14 
62 


1,600.591 
1.216.206 
4.947.470 


ao 


East 


15 


West 


61 






ToUl 


1,375.611 

62.866 
681 


1.200.619 

66.984 
1.641 


8.650.189 

624.276 
8.370 


7 


7.863,266 

241.671 
6,971 




From Connectiontt 


3 


Anthrsdte 


1 






ToUl 


1.439.048 
33.079 


1,268.044 
23.544 


9.182.836 
180.997 


100 


8.101.908 
134,936 


100 


Coke 









Imports and Exports. — The rapid growth of this country's export 
trade is steadily commanding more attention. By many of the conserva- 
tive interests it is thought that a foreign outlet for the domestic product 
may solve the problem of the excessive productive capacity under which 
the industry has always labored. This is of particular interest at the 
present time due to the near approach of the opening of the Panama 
Canal which is expected to give added momentum to the country's 
foreign coal trade. Imports and exports for 1911-12-13 were as follows, 
in long tons: 





1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


Imports from: 

United Kingdom 


9.278 

980.174 

16.031 

232,969 

356 


8.697 

1.404,139 

30.621 

162,671 

2.222 


6,141 


CfMiada ..... 


1,096.924 


j^ni^n ,,, 


117.483 




188.613 


Other eountriee 


4,696 






Total 


1,238.808 
3.498.980 


1,608,350 
3.615.530 


1,413.857 


Anthracite 
Canada 


4.083.333 


Hungary. .................... r ......... . 


84 


Other countries 


55.019 


73.259 


70,969 






Total 


3.553.999 

10,609.587 

496.830 

470.674 

1.053.703 

565.822 


3.688.789 

10.433.010 

486.309 

302,487 

1.152.004 

651,268 


4.154.386 


BituminouB 
Canada 


13.496,100 


Panama. .,.--.-, , 


489,761 


Mezioo 


477.046 


Cuba 


1.275.538 


Weet Indies 


608.762 


Argentina. . . . r , 


70.048 


Braail 






279.933 


Uruguay ....,,.,--,-.,,--,.,,, , , . , 






16.858 


Other countriee 


682,138 


1.434.900 


1.272.621 


• 




Total 


13.878.754 
6.667.338 


14.459.978 
7,840.100 


17.986,757 


Bunker ooal . . r , - . , r 


7,700.520 





COAL AND COKE 



97 



PRODUCTION OF COAL IN THE \ 
(In tona of 2000 lb.) 


[JNIT] 


SD STATES. 








t9l2(dl. 


1913. 


StmU. 


Output. 


Value at Minei. 


Output. 


Value iit Mill**. 




Total, 


Per 
Too, 


Told. 


Per 

Ton. 


Ahfatmt 


l«.lOO.0Ool 

2,100,819 

11.333 

10,977,824 

227.703 

2,904 

69.SS6.226 

15,285,718 

7.2S9.529 

0,986,182 

16.490.531 

4.904.038 

1.206.230 

4.339,856 

3.048,495 

3,536,324 

499,480 

34,528,727 

3.676.418 

41,637 

161.865,488 

0,473,228 

2J83.612 

3,010.149 

7.848,638 

3.360.932 

66,786.687 

7.368,124 


t20.829.2fi2 

3.582.789 

26.441 

16.345.330 

338,926 

9.313 

70.294,338 

17,480,540 

13.152,088 

11,324,130 

16.854,207 

5,839,079 

2.399,461 

7,633,864 

5.558,195 

5,037,051 

765.105 

37,083,363 

7.867.331 

108.276 

160.370.497 

7.379.903 

3.655.744 

6.046,451 

7.518.576 

8.042,871 

02.792.234 

11,048,088 


fl,29 
1.71 
2.33 
1.49 
1,49 
3.14 
1.17 
1.14 


17,884,745 

fa) 2,250,000 

(n) 3,000 

9,240,335 

(fl) 300.000 

3.000 

61,846.204 

(h\ 1 7. 246. .565 


124,742,404 

3,825,000 

6,900 

13,860,498 

450.000 

9,450 

71,123,135 

19.000,000 

13.348.363 

11,840.000 

20,685.000 

5.616.000 

2.7t4.000 

7.656,300 

5,611.080 

5,292,000 

747.450 

40,875,000 

8,480,000 

122,400 

193.000.000 

7. 7 23. 000 

3,772,000 

5,657.619 

8.585,001 

8,569,614 

69,452.000 


SI. 3^ 


vSSS 


1.70 


Cilifenik And Alusk*. i 


2.30 


c«ic.S£:™.t!^ .,.; 


1.50 


GfonpA rod North CsToliiui . . ■ 
LiaKfi Mid Nervulft. 


1.60 
3 15 


niiiioiB . , 


1,15 


JmiUju. , , 1 


1 , 10 


Il^VA. .,.♦♦*.,. ,,*..,.,,..<.. 


1 80 ih\ 7.415.757 


1,80 




1.62 
1,02 
1.18 
1.99 
1.76 
1.B2 
1.42 


(a) 7.400.000 
fa) 19,600.000 
(ai 4,800.000 
(a) 1.400.000 
(a) 4,230.000 
(c) 3,365.712 
3.600.000 


1.60 


KTOUidty. .]» , **,,......,. 


1.06 


Mirybod 


1.17 


Mielugftd ,., ,,, ,.,,,.. 


1.90 


Mi»aTi 


1,81 


Wftnt4B» ^ 


1.67 


.%>» Altjdco. . , , 


1,47 


North JHkcrto.,, , 


1,53 (a) 495.000 
l,07|(al 37,500.000 
2.14'M 4-000,000 


1.61 


CJbio 


1.09 


Okl*i»oaii.., , . 


2. 12 


Orifj^fi 


2.60 
1.05 
1.14 
1.67 
1.67 
0.96 
2.39 
0.94 
1.58 


48,000 
174.000,000 
6. 600, 000 
2.300,000 
3,289,255 
8,500.000 
3.677.946 
71,600,000 
7,100,000 


2 55 


Pmniyi™JiW bitununoiw. , 


1 U 
1 17 


Till™"'...., 


1 .64 


uui...,,:: ; 


1.72 


v^^ 


1 01 


w33Srtfhi 


2 33 


wS^SSi;: :::":;:: 


n7 


Wfooiag, 


12.050.000^ i.55 


T^tftl bituffllEioiis !,*>■■»«»■ 


450,104,982 
34.361,598 


617,98.1,445 
177,622,626 


1-15 
2.11 


4 478.523.198 
d 91.624,927 


565.307.638 
I195.1SI.127 


1 18 


PNUWylriiiia »fitbrikeite 


3.13 


GnodTotal 


534.466.580 


1695.606,071 


»1.30d 570,048.125 


1760.488,785 


$1.33 



(a) Estimated. (6) For fifloal yr ended June 80. (d) Hgoras from the U. S. OeoL Survey. 



Review op Coal Mining by States 

Alabama (By B. M. Starnes). — The coal mines of Alabama during 
1913 produced 17,500,000 tons of coal, breaking all previous records by 
over a million tons of coal. Had the operators not been handicapped by 
a serious car shortage, and had business during the last 2 months held 
op the production would have been at least 18,500,000 tons, as it is 
estimated that a million tons were lost by these two causes alone. 
This wiU put Alabama in sixth place among coal-producing states of the 
Union. 

The number of non-fatal accidents in the Alabama mines during 1913 
is approximately 133, which is about 15 per cent, less than in 1912. 
The fatal accidents for the^ year number 120, which is one less than the 
previous year. There was only one mine explosion during the year, 
that at the Acton mine of the Alabama Fuel & Iron Co. in November, 

7 



^% 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



PRODUCTION OP COKE IN THE UNITED STATES. 
(In tons of 2000 lb.) 





1912. 


1913. 


State. 


Short Tons. 


Value at Mines. 


Output 


Value at Mines. 




Total. 


Per 
Ton. 


Total. 


Per 
Ton. 


j^0|)I^IX)S. .> • 


(d) 2.976,489 

972.539 

111.000 

(d) 1.764,944 

2.616.339 

8.000 

89.100 

6.000 

68.400 

400.180 

321.000 

40.000 

(d) 27.372.018 

345.000 

347.356 

1,101.000 

40.000 

1.992,697 

2.600,000 


8.008,412 

3,014,870 

388.000 

8,060.903 

12,628,685 


92.72 


S.562.624 


•9.619,085 

2.815,134 

360.000 

8.100.000 

12.016.000 

20.250 

967.100 

18.900 


92.70 


Colorado 


3.10 (d^ 879.461 
3.60(a) 100.000 
4. 67,(a) 1.800.000 
4. 4.^ iraS 2.700.000 


3 W 


Georgia and Nortii Carolina 

IlUnma 


3.50 
4 50 


Indiana !..» 


4.45 


Kanffaii. 


28.800i 3.60 M ' 0.066 
196,0201 2.207dS 317.084 


2 ?5 


TCentuclcv 


3.05 


Missouri 


18,600 

383,040 

1,200.540 

063,000 


3.10(a) 6.000 


3 15 




6.60 
3.00 






New Mexieo 


(n\ 400.000 




1,200,000 
1,186.000 


3.00 


Ohio 


s.oor ' 395.666 


3 flO 


OklnKoma 


156,000 3.90 
66,054,428 2.05* 






Pnnnflvlvania r ........ . 


27.100.000 


56,368.000 


2 OH 


Tennfissflo . . » . r 


966,000 
1,076.804 
2.422.200 

220.000 

3.605,782 

10.000.000 


2.80 328.000 
3.10 314.000 
2.20 1.207.207 
6.60 74.000 

4,000.000 

4.00 (a) 2,400,000 


908.560' 2.77 


XJ ah 


989,100' 3.15 


Virginia 


2.655,8551 2.20 

410,700 6.55 

7.760,000 ! 1.94 


Washington 


WMi Virsinia 


Other StatesCb) 


9.000.000 


3 75 






Total 


43.544,361 


9114,477.546 


92.63 (d) 46.31 1.460 


9128.951.430 


92 78 











(a) Estimated, (fr) Includes outout of bv-product coke for Massachusetts, Maryland, Minnesota, 
New York, Michigan, Wisconain. (e) Fiscal year ending June 30. (d) U. S. Geol. Survey figures. 

in which 24 men lost their lives. The Government has placed at the 
Birmingham rescue station the only automobile ambulance and rescue 
car in the United States, and it has proved of great value in this work. 
Conditions at the mines for the safety of the men are improved vastly 
over last year, and the operators are giving more time and attention to 
"Safety First'' than ever before. 

During the winter and early spring of 1913, the market on all grades of 
coal was exceedingly good, though lump coal was slightly under the 
average in tonnage due to a rather warm winter. The operators were 
looking for a rather quiet summer, but they were agreeably surprised, for 
1913 will long be remembered as one of the best summers in the coal 
business in Alabama. The great surprise of the year was the tendency of 
the market to lag during early fall, which is not usual in this district; it 
continued getting worse and worse, until there was practically no market 
whatever at the close of the year. 

Alabama has had no labor troubles this year. Many of the large 
operators have voluntarily increased wages to all employees, and, as the 
mines have been almost constantly at work, it has kept the labor in this 
district well satisfied. 

The dream of the coal operators in this district — water transportation 
from Birmingham to the Gulf — has at last come true. The Alabama & 



COAL AND COKE 99 

New Orleans Transportation Co. is now operating barges from Tusca- 
loosa, Ala., down the Warrior River to Mobile and New Orleans. 

Arkansas (By Thomas H. Shaw). — The production reported for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, was 1,952,461.93 tons, which was pro- 
duced by 4188 miners, 316 mules and 77,785 kegs of black powder. Five 
companies did not report. They employ about 300 men. I estimate 
their tonnage at about 200,000 tons per annum, which would make the 
total 2,152,461.93 tons. I believe that it will be safe to say that the 
production for the calendar year will exceed 2,250,000 tons. 

During the last year there have been many local strikes caused by a 
difference of opinion as to the construction to be placed on the agreement 
between the miners and operators. The mine of the Scranton Anthracite 
Coal Co., at Montana, Johnson County, is still idle over a strike that 
commenced on Sept. 5. 

Six fatal and 25 non-fatal accidents occurred during the fiscal year. 
There have been numerous minor explosions in the mines of Arkansas 
during the past 20 years, of which no official record has ever been made. 
It is of interest to note the two largest accidents which have occurred in 
the mines of this state, namely, that at Huntington in 1897 and that at 
Bonanza in 1903. 

Colorado (By A. R. Tibbitts).— With the closing of the year 1913, 
the coal industry of Colorado is seriously hampered by a bitter coal 
strike. Furthermore, there are no prospects of a settlement in the near 
future. Both parties to the dispute are determined not to concede the 
one vital point on which the strike hinges, namely, recognition of the 
union. 

In the early months of the year, during the session of the last legisla- 
ture, a new coal-mining bill was submitted for passage and was referred 
for a revision to a subcommittee, composed of two operators, one repre- 
senting the Colorado Fuel 4 Iron Co., the other the Rocky Mountain 
Fuel Co., two coal miners, one the state inspector of coal mines and the 
other a member of the international board of the United Mine Workers 
of America, representing District No. 15, and the fifth member, an acting 
state senator and a metal miner by calling, who was the chairman of the 
committee. 

One of the great contentions had been the non-employment of check 
weighmen at the various mines. The miners were allowed, without any 
protest or delay, to avail themselves of the provision in the new law per- 
mitting them to select their own check weighmen. 

An 8-hour law had been passed by the 19th general assembly, 
and b^ore it went into effect, most of the large companies placed their 
mines on this basis with pay for a 10-hour day. In addition to these 



100 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

concessions, in the northern field, where the strike called in 1909 is still 
in progress, the operators on Oct. 16 of this year, granted a further 
increase in the wage scale to the underground workers amounting to 6 
per cent. 

In September a conference was called by the leaders of the union 
but was ignored by the operators, not one responding, and on Sept. 23 
a strike was called, and about 85 per cent, of the men came out. In 
consequence, the production in October was over a half million less than 
in September, that month holding its own, as great activity was displayed 
at the mines in anticipation of the coming strike. 

Shortly after the strike was called, the market price of coal went up as 
high as $7.25 for bituminous and $6.50 for lignite lump coal per ton. 
Whether there was more coal stored than was known, or the consumption 
of coal was curtailed by the warm weather prevailing in October and 
November, the prices have dropped 25 and 50 cents per ton. 

During 1913 there were 167 mines operating in Colorado, producing 
9,240,335 tons as compared with 11,016,948 tons in 1912. There were 
889,989 tons of coke manufactured. The mines worked an average of 
191.2 days and there were 13,108 men employed in the industry. 

Illinois (By Martin Bolt). — Coal mining in Illinois has been making 
a steady, substantial advance for the fiscal years, ending June 30, 1912, 
and 1913. The number of short tons mined was, for the year ended 
June 30, 1912, 57,514,240, and for that ended June 30, 1913, 61,846,204. 
The output of the shipping mines, for the same years, was: June 30, 1912, 
56,096,696; June 30, 1913, 60,616,416. These figures show an increase 
of 4,519,720 tons. From Jan. 1, 1912, to June 30, 1912, the shippmg 
mines produced 26,574,232 tons; from July 1, 1912, to Dec. 31, 1912, 
32,494,086 tons. 

Figures at hand at the present time will show that the commercial 
or shipping mines produced in the calendar year 1912 in roimd numbers 
59,000,000 short tons, and from the same source we find that the tonnage 
during the first half of the year 1913 from the same mines was 28,021,330 
tons. Assuming that the same relative increase is maintained the ap- 
proximate tonnage for the calendar year ending Dec. 31, 1913, will be 
62,000,000 short tons. 

There has been no serious labor trouble in the mines of Illinois in the 
year 1913, although there have been a large number of temporary sus- 
pensions of single mines. These troubles, while much to be regretted, 
do not materially affect the total output. 

Accidents in the mines of the state heretofore have increased at about 
the same rate as the tonnage. The number of fatal accidents for 1913, 
based on former years and figmres at hand, will probably be nearly 180 



COAL AND COKE 101 

and may be in excess of this number; the estimate for 11 months ending 
Nov. 30, 1913, is 163. 

The fatal accidents in the shipping mines for the years ending June 30, 
1912, and 1913, are the same for both years, namely, 173; the non-fatal 
accidents for the same years are as follows: 1912, 792; 1913, 1016, or an 
increase of 28.28 per cent. As the figures for the fiscal and calendar years 
vary only slightly, it is fair to assume that the fatal accidents for the cal- 
endar year 1913 will be about what they were for 1912, while the non-fatal 
accidents will show an increase of nearly 28 per cent. 

There have been six large mines opened in this state during the year, 
as follows: Franklin County has three and all will be large producers of 
coal. Christian County has two, the Illinois Midland Coal Co.'s Nos. 7 
and 8, located at Kincaid, on the Illinois Midland R. R., 7 miles 
from Taylorville. The Nokomis Coal Co. has also put down a large 
mine at Nokomis, in Montgomery County. All of the foregoing are in the 
No. 6 seam, while Newsam Bros, have a new mine at Glasford in Peoria 
County, which is down to the No. 6 seam. 

Indiana (By F. I. Pearce). — If the number of tons of coal produced 
and wages paid mine employees is any criterion, the mining industry of 
Indiana, as a whole, for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1913, discloses a 
fairly gratifying condition of both miners and mine operators. Notwith: 
standing the fact that there were a few operations closed down the entire 
year and practically all of them lost either a few days, weeks or months 
time on account of no sale, lack of railroad cars, local strikes or other 
causes, the production is reported as 17,246,566 short tons, or 877,679 tons 
le^^s than the largest and 3,041,987 tons more than the second largest pro- 
duction in the history of the state. 

Of this production, 9,637,901 tons or a fraction less than 66 per cent, 
was mined with machines, and 7,608,664 tons or 44 per cent, by hand. 
This shows an increase of about 4 per cent, in the production of coal 
mined by machines over that of last year. And this production would 
have been even larger had it not been for the diflSculty experienced in 
undercutting the coal in a number of mines in which machines were tried 
out. In producing this coal there were used, 626,680 kegs of black powder, 
283 cases of "permissible explosives" and 52 cases of Hoynsite safety 
powder. 

While it is true that considerable time was lost at some of the mines on 
account of causes other than those due to shortage of railroad cars, local 
strikes and the flood in March, yet the major part of the time lost 
may be attributed to dull trade, resulting from an open winter, an 
increased production and extremely sharp competition in securing a 
market. 



102 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Of the bituminous coal, 10,078,336 tons were consumed in Indiana, 
and 6,722,644 tons were shipped to other states. Of the block coal, 203,522 
tons were consumed in Indiana and 242,063 tons were shipped outside, or 
a fraction less than 60 per cent, of the total production was consumed 
within the state. This shows an increase of about 2 per cent, in the 
home consumption of the yearly production over that of any previous 
year, indicating that the consumers of coal are beginning to realize more 
than ever, the value of Indiana fuel. 

The total wages reported from the bituminous field was $15,286,- 
724.97, making a fraction less than 91 cents per ton for the labor cost of 
production. The total wages reported from the block coal field was 
$673,272.66 or a fraction over $1.51 per ton for the labor cost of produc- 
tion. These figures show a slight increase in the cost per ton for the labor 
for the total production of bituminous and block coal over that of any pre- 
vious year. 

Sixteen new mines, all of which, with the exception of two or three, 
will be large producers; were opened up, and eleven mines were abandoned 
during the year ending Sept. 30, 1913. 

During the year there were 59 accidents. The most prolific causes of 
accidents were the following: Falling slate at the face, 18; use of explo- 
sives (including firing of shots) 15; mine cars and motors, 7; explosions 
of firedamp, 6; falling coal at the face, 4; falling slate on the traveling 
and roadways, 4; in all 64 or 93 per cent, of the total number of fatal 
accidents may be attributed to these causes. Of the six fatal accidents 
due to explosions of firedamp, three were caused by a sudden liberation 
of gas following the caving in of the roof and three to firedamp that had 
accumulated in the mine as a result of booster fans (operated by electric 
power), which have recently come into use in mines of this state, being 
allowed to stand idle. 

This data does not include figures for about 450 small mines, clay and 
strip banks which have an estimated production of about 450,000 tons 
employing from 2500 to 3000 men, since these do not come under the 
jurisdiction of the mine-inspecting department. 

Iowa (By L. E. Stamm). — The general conditions of the coal industry 
in Iowa for the year 1913 were very similar to those existing in 1912. 
Progress in the mines of the state has been, on the whole, fairly satis- 
factory during most of the year. However, weather conditions in the 
months of October, November and December were such that there was 
a general falling off in the demand for coal of all grades. With the excep- 
tion, therefore, of the large operations having railroad contracts, the 
mines of the state did not work up to their capacity during the months 
named above. 



COAL AND COKE ' 103 

Statistics covering the coal production of Iowa are gathered by the 
mine inspectors' department for the fiscal year ending with June 30 of 
each year. Those secured for the year 1913 show an increase of 694,929 
tons over the amount produced in the state of 1912. The production for 
1913 by districts with the number of miners employed in each is as 
follows: 

COAL PRODUCTION OF IOWA FOR FISCAL YEAR 1913. 

Tons of Coal. Miners Employed. 

Rirt Dirtrict 2,813,789 6,345 

Setood District 2,337,709 4,777 

Third District 2,264,260 4,663 

Total 7,416,767 tons 16,686 employees 

Coal production for year ended June 30, 1912 6,820,828 

Coal production for year ended June 30, 1913 7,416,767 

Gain for 1913 694,929 tons 

Fatal aeddents for the year 1913 24 

Noo-fatal acddenU for the year 1913 176 

Twenty-three counties in the state are listed as coal-producing. In a 
number of these the mining operations are conducted on a small scale and 
the few mines that are operating are worked only in the winter to supply 
the local trade. Monroe County is the largest producer of coal of all 
grades. Polk County ranks second and Appanosse third. Last year 
these three counties yielded 5,243,279 tons of coal, or more than two- 
thirds of all that produced in the state. 

New developments in the coal industry are in progress in several of 
the larger counties in the state, and the mines now started will be in shape 
to add considerably to the output for the coming year. Some new 
developments have also been made in Polk County the past year, and 
all these point to an increase in the coal production of the state for the 
coming year. 

Iowa had fewer fatal accidents in the mines for the fiscal year of 1913 
than for many years. The number of tons of coal mined for each fatal 
accident was much higher than in former years. The number of non-fatal 
accidents for 1913 was about the same as for 1912. The majority of the 
accidents occurring in the mines were caused by falls of roof or slate. 
These were for the most part in the rooms of the miners with but few 
on the entries. 

Considerable improvements have been made in the mines of Iowa 
during the past year, chiefly in the manner of transporting the coal in 
the mines. Many operations have installed gasoline motors, others use 
electrical haulage. Some of the mines of the state are equipped with 
<*lectrical hoists. Mining machines have also been introduced in some of 
the nuneSy and the general tendency is toward lessening the cost of pro- 
duction by better equipment for handling the product. 



104 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Kansas (By Francis Keegan). — The records in the office of the State 
Inspector of Mines for Kansas, when completed, will show that in round 
numbers 7,000,000 tons of coal were produced during the fiscal year ended 
June 30, 1913. Basing estimates on the figures for this period, which 
shows a marked increase in production over former years, there is every 
reason to believe that the calendar year 1913, will prove to be the most 
prosperous in the coal-mining industry in the state's history in point of 
tons of coal produced, number of men employed and number of days 
worked. In fact there is no hesitancy in saying that a conservative esti- 
mate of the production of coal from the mines, including the strip pits, 
will reach 7,400,000 tons for the year ending Dec. 31, 1913. 

Complete figures are not at hand, but it is estimated that at least 
12,000 men worked an average of 210 days in and around the mines during 
the year. This in itself, is a good record, but the most gratifying part 
of it is that this success has been attained with a decrease in the number 
of lives lost. 

Quite recently a number of steam shovels have entered the field and 
the stripping of coal by this method is progressing at a rapid rate. The 
production of Kansas fuel by this means will, therefore, during the next 
year, reach a large figure. 

KerUiuJcy (By C. J. Norwood). — Incomplete returns for 11 months of 
the past year indicate that the output for the year will be about 19,500,000 
tons, but the estimate must be accepted with due caution. The increased 
tonnage is chiefly due to new development. There were no strikes of 
moment, but the production has been adversely affected by the interrup- 
tion of traffic resulting from the Ohio Valley floods, and occasional car 
shortages, especially in the eastern field. There has also been much 
complaint of labor shortage in that section. 

The coke output has increased but I would not hazard an estimate as 
to the amount produced. There has been a decreased nimiber of fatalities 
and no explosions. 

Maryland (By William Walters). — The tonnage will be somewhat 
smaller for 1913 than that for 1912, which was 4,086,817 gross tons, show- 
ing a decrease of 80,919 tons from that of the year 1911. The decrease 
is due to the fact that there were several coal mines idle during the greater 
part of the year. The number of employees in the mines of the state will 
not be materially changed from that of the year 1912, which was 5703. 
The average time worked in the mines of the state will be greater than in 
1912, which was 245 days. 

During the fiscal year beginning May 1, 1913, there have been nine 
fatal accidents reported up to Dec. 23. Five were caused by falls of rock 
and coal, and the other four by mine cars. The reports of non-fatal 



COAL AND COKE 106 

accidents have increased owing to the compensation now paid through the 
Miners' and Operators' Cooperative Relief fund to employees who lose 
time on account of injuries received while discharging their duties. 
Before this act; there was little or no occasion to report minor accidents. 

During the year, there were four strikes throughout the state, affecting 
four different mines, but these were only local at each of the places, and 
were not general strikes affecting other mines at the same time. The 
new child-labor law which went into effect last year is being enforced by 
the mining companies in the state. Children under 16 years of age who 
wish to be employed in or about the mines are required to obtain an 
enployment certificate from their parents before they have permission 
to work. 

Michigan (By Thomas Kanary). — There are 22 mines in active 
operation in the state of Michigan, the majority of these being in Saginaw 
and Bay Counties. Two new mines were opened in the past year, one 
at Unionville, Tuscola County, by the Handy Bros. Mining Co., of 
Bay City, and one in Genesee County by the What Cheer Coal Mining 
Co. of the same town. 

Seven mines were abandoned during the year, four in Saginaw, two 
in Bay and one in Shiawassee County. There were no strikes of impor- 
tance. One suspension took place in September over a misinterpretation 
of the mining scale, but after a week's idleness work was resumed. 

There were 169 accidents in and around the mines; two of which 
proved fatal and six were of serious nature, while 161 were not serious. 
As a rough estimate, I would figure that 900,000 tons of machine coal and 
500,000 of pick coal were mined in 1913 in this state. 

Missouri (By Geo. Hill and J. P. Hawkins). — The output of coal 
for 1913 will be about the same as for 1912, when it was 4,229,907 tons. 
The labor disputes in the coal fields were unimportant and few in number. 
The fatal accidents will be 50 per cent, less than last year. 

Montana (J. B. McDermott). — ^The reported production of Montana 
for 1913 is larger than the output of last year, which year produced the 
largest tonnage on record in Montana. The larger mines were operated 
more steadily this year than last; there were few labor troubles or disputes 
and those which occurred were adjusted satisfactorily to both parties 
concerned with little loss of time. 

Belt mine, which is the property of the Anaconda Copper Mining 
Co., was abandoned during this year. It has produced diu-ing the last ' 
10 or 11 years some 2,000,000 tons of coal and employed from 200 to 
600 persons. All the pumps, engines, rails and care were pulled out. 
The property will be leased for local supply and general commercial use. 

The Cottonwood Coal Co. is opening a mine in Fergus County near 



10^ MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Windham at a place named Lehigh. The shaft, which is to have five 
compartments, has been in process of sinking since the middle of October. 
The Republic Coal Co., at Klein, is installing a battery of boilers in addi- 
tion to those already in use. It is adding a d3mamo and generator, elec- 
tric pimips and mining machines to its equipment. The shaft in Mussel- 
shell County formerly owned by Jacobs 4 McCleary, who did but little 
development w6rk in connection with it, has been sold, if all accounts are 
true. 

A rather peculiar condition obtains in our state. Last year 100,000 
tons were shipped into Montana from North Wyoming; South Wyoming 
delivered 400,000 tons to us, and about 300,000 tons were shipped in from 
British possessions; yet, we are sending coal to Washington, Idaho and 
Oregon, and competing with these states and Canada in the markets. 

During the present year the Cottonwood Coal Co., at Stockett; the 
Nelson Coal Co. at Sandcoulee; the Lochray Coal Co. at Tracey; the 
Sand Coulee Coal Co. at Sandcoulee; James Brodie & Son at Belt;Calone 
& Johnson also at Belt connected with the hydroelectric line of the 
Montana Power Co. This power is used to run compressors, pumps, 
fans, drills, haulage motors, box-car loaders, shaker screens and pneumo- 
electric undercutting mining m'achines. Not only the mines but the Butte, 
Anaconda & Pacific R.R., which hauls the ore from the mines in Butte 
to the smelters in Anaconda, has discarded steam engines and runs all its 
trains, both in freight and passenger service, by electric motors on power 
fiunished by the Montana Power Co. 

North Dakota (By Jay W. Bliss). — The production of lignite in North 
Dakota for the year just closed was about 495,000 short tons as against 
528,603 for the year 1912. The unusually mild weather which prevailed 
throughout the state in November and December is responsible for this 
decrease in tonnage, 30 per cent, of the total output being mined under 
normal conditions during these two months. It is estimated that not to 
exceed 20 per cent, of the total output for 1913 has been mined in the last 
two months of the year. 

There have been in operation during the past year 105 coal mines, 
including a number of strip pits and small underground workings, em- 
ploying on the average about 950 men during the winter and 350 during 
the summer. But six fatal accidents have occinrred during the year. 
A number of small new mines were opened up during the fall of 1913, but 
' the demand for coal has been so moderate they have not done a satisfac- 
tory business. The state has been free from any labor distinrbances that 
could in any way affect the production. 

Much valuable research work has been done at the experiment station 
maintained by the state under the direction of E. J. Babcock, dean of the 



COAL AND COKE 107 

State School of Mines. A process for briquetting has been worked out 
that is very promising, and the experiments with lignite as a producer 
of gas for power, heat and light, have been most satisfactory. It is to be 
regretted that a recent fire has temporarily crippled the work of the 
station. 

Ohio. — The tonnage for 1913 is estimated to have reached 37,500,000 
tons, or an increase of about three million over the tonnage reported for 
the year 1912, when the output amounted to 34,444,291 tons, which at 
that time was the largest tonnage recorded; in 12 years the tonnage has 
almost doubled itself. 

There will probably be very little change in the number of persons 
engaged in the production of coal during the year 1913. There was a 
shortage of labor in Jefferson County during the month of November, 
but this was of short duration as the weather moderated, and there was 
somewhat of a cessation of the unusually strong demand for coal at that 
time; this permitted the coal companies to handle with satisfaction the 
orders they had on hand, and there was, therefore, no coal shortage 
which, for the time being, seemed to be in store for the users of this kind 
of fuel. 

The majority of large mines worked about full time, and the miners 
experienced a year of unusual prosperity, not only in time worked, but 
in wages accruing from the steady demand for the product of their labor. 

The usual drawback of car supply manifested itself during the months 
of October and November, and bid fair to prove a severe handicap to 
the trade. This would undoubtedly have been the result but for the 
moderating weather which the month of December brought. This 
condition alleviated what might have been a severe shortage in fuel 
supply. 

The year 1913 will record a larger number of accidents than any year 
since the creation of the mining department. While it is true that there 
will undoubtedly be a much larger increase in tonnage, the accidents have 
increased out of all proportion to what they should. 

The fatal accidents up to Dec. 23 number 163, and by the close of the 
year they will probably total 170. This would represent an increase of 
25 per cent, over the number of fatalities reported during 1912, when 136 
occurred. Of this number over 90 will be due to falls of roof and coal; 
10 to shocks from electricity; 28 were due to mine cars, an increase of 
118 per cent.; six were due to explosions of powder; 16 to explosions of 
gas; five to mining machines and motors, and seven to miscellaneous 
causes; at the present writing, falls of roof and coal will show a decrease 
in number as compared with the year 1912. 

Mne fires occurred at two of the large producing mines of the state 



10% MINERAL INDUSTRY 

during the year, but with good management and careful judgment, no 
serious effects were caused by either, except the loss of the operation of 
both of them, as the fires necessitated the complete sealing of the mines. 

Several new laws were enacted by the same legislature affecting the 
mining industry of the state, and several amendments to old laws were 
also passed at that time, the most important of which were one relating 
to the right of action in case of death in a mine; another to the use of 
calcium carbide in the mines and a third relative to the approaching of 
abandoned workings. Another most important act of this legislature 
was the enactment of a statute creating the industrial commission of 
Ohio, superseding the state liability of awards, abolishing the department 
of commissioner of labor, statistics, chief inspector of mines, chief inspec- 
tor of work shops and factories, chief examiner of steam engineers, board 
of boiler rules, and the state board of arbitration, merging certain 
powers and duties of said departments to said industrial commission of 
Ohio, and granting said commission certain other powers, and repealing a 
number of sections formerly in force. This commission took charge 
of these several departments on Sept. 1, organized the work and will 
from now on administer and superintend the work formerly done by these 
different state departments. 

Oklahoma (By Edward Boyle). — As the year of 1913 drew to a close 
the production appeared to show a substantial increase over previous 
years. The output was, however, somewhat curtailed by three large 
producers, located in Haskell County, being idle almost the entire year. 
These were placed in the hands of receivers in 1912 and declared to be an 
unprofitable mining venture under the present scale of prices for dead 
work. Aside from this shutdown a few of the older mines in the 
McAlester field suffered a loss in production on account of a squeeze 
which threw them idle so far as coal production was concerned for several 
months. The total production for the year will reach approximately 
4,000,000 tons against 3,600,000 for the year 1912 or a gain of 400,000 
tons. The counties producing most of this coal are Cole, Pittsburgh, 
Latimer, LeFlore, Haskell, Okmulgee, Tulsa and Craig. The present 
indications are that Pittsburgh will lead in production, as in the previous 
year. Okmulgee County, which is known as the Henryetta field, will no 
doubt take second place in point of production. Okmulgee will, however, 
lead the state in machine-mined coal. Owing to the measures here being 
practically level or with but a slight pitch, machine mining is a practicable 
and successful method of operation in this field. 

What is known as the McAlester field, or Pittsburg County, is just 
the reverse, having a pitch running from 25 to 46 deg., which makes 
machine mining impracticable or almost impossible. This year, however, 



COAL AND COKE 109 

will show a marked decrease in pea and slack coal over previous ones with 
a corresponding increase in lump and nut coal. The miner is, therefore, 
taking more care and exercising more judgment in preparing his product 
for market. 

The total production of the different grades of coal produced in the 
last fiscal year which ended June 30, 1913, was as follows: 

Lump, 792,995 tons; nut, 194,178; pea and slack, 532,927; run-of-mine, 
2,277,799; total, 3,797,899 tons. 

The gain and loss of the different grades of coal mentioned above over 
the year ending June 30, 1912, is as follows: Lump gained, 83,460 tons; 
nut gained, 13,271; mine run gained, 759,110; total, 891,841; pea and slack 
loss, 32,927 tons. 

Oklahoma is now profiting by the strike in Colorado, which has been 
in the past, one of Oklahoma's strong competitors. Oklahoma coal is of 
good grade, which averages about 60 per cent, in fixed carbon. Several 
veins make excellent coke, many ovens having been built in this field but 
for several years these have been idle. There is no present indication of 
resumption of the coke industry in this field. There have been practically 
no changes in operating companies in the past year and but few new 
derelopments. Almost all land in Oklahoma containing coal is segre- 
pted by the National Government and leased through the Secretary 
of the Interior and for several years the leasing of coal lands has been 
discontinued. 

As this is a very dangerous field, almost all mines generating large 
quantities of gas and the dust being of a highly explosive nature, the de- 
crease in fatal accidents in the past year over previous periods is highly 
gratifying and indicates better management and regard for the mining 
laws. The calendar year shows the death list to be 23. These met their 
death from the following causes: Falling rock, 1 1 ; powder bums, 3 ; windy 
shot, 1; runaway trip, 1; killed by cars, 4; gas explosion, 1; caught by 
cave-b in air shaft, 1; electrocuted, 1. The total number of non-fatal 
accidents was approximately 94. The total number of men employed both 
under and above ground was 9000. 

The present outlook is considered bright and extensive improvements 
&re anticipated during the coming year. 

Pennsylvania (By Frank Hall). — The great coal-producing territory 
of Pennsylvania maintained its annual habit of breaking all previous rec- 
^ of production. A careful estimate shows that the output in the 
bitunrinous region will reach the vast proportions of 174,000,000 net tons, 
vkI in the anthracite region about 91,000,000 net tons, making a total of 
2M,000,000 net tons. This amount equals about one-half the entire 
production of the United States and one-fourth the tonnage of the 
world. 



uo 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



The production in the anthracite region for 1912 was 84,361,598 net 
tons, and in the bituminous region 161,865,488 net tons. 

The estimated production in the anthracite region for 1913 was as 
follows: 



Anthracite 
Difltriot OroM Tona 

1 3,976.000 

2 4.974.000 

3 3,217.000 

4 4.300.000 

6 3,450.000 

6 4,580.000 

7 5,500.000 

8 4.132.000 

9 5.116.000 

10 5.025.000 

11 5,500.000 

12 2.883,000 

13 2.275,000 

14 3.150.000 

15 2.790.000 

16 2.900.000 

17 4.637.000 

18 2.750.000 

19 3.150.000 

20 2.400.000 

21 3.516.000 



Bituminoaa 

DUtriot Net Tons 

1 5.000.000 

2 8.900.000 

3 3,600.000 

4 4.800.000 

5 6.000.000 

6 6.000.000 

7 6.000.000 

8 5.000.000 

9 7.500.000 

10 4.750.000 

11 8.300.000 

12 6.066.000 

13 4.000.000 

14 7.000.000 

15 6.000.000 

16 7.000.000 

17 6.010.000 

18 4.500.000 

19 8.825.000 

20 6.300.000 

21 7.000.000 

22 5.000,000 

23 6.750.000 

24 6,070.000 

25 6,010.000 

26 5.944,400 

27 4.860.000 

28 5.700.146 



The coke tonnage is estimated at about 21,000,000 tons. The number 
of employees in the anthracite region for 1913 is estimated at 180,000, and 
in the bituminous region at 185,000. 

The number of fatal accidents in the anthracite region was 615, and of 
non-fatal accidents 1238. There were 526 fatal accidents in the bitumi- 
nous region and 1164 non-fatal accidents. In both regions a regrettable 
increase in fatalities is recorded. 

There is a very evident and general desire on the part of the operators 
to look after the safety of their employees. One prominent phase of this 
work is the establishment of hundreds of first-aid squads and of many 
rescue corps, the members of which are selected men, carefully and thor- 
oughly drilled and supplied with the latest and most complete outfits for 
the successful conduct of this important work. 

In the anthracite region there were strikes of brief duration in 13 of 
the districts. Many of these were what is known as "button" strikes. 
A strike of this kind has for its whole cause the objection raised by some of 
the employees to the employment of a few men, who do not wear the 
button, which is worn by members of the UnitedMine Workers of America 
as a distinctive badge. In some cases, the failure of even one man to wear 
a button will precipitate a strike. 

In the bituminous region there were slight labor troubles and disputes 



COAL AND COKE 111 

in 11 districts. In both regions the labor troubles and the occasional 
shortage of car supply probably reduced the production by 500,000 tons. 

What results may follow from the direct mining legislation recently 
enacted in other states, is another problem that will confront the mining 
people in Pennsylvania. But notwithstanding the acknowledged un- 
certain elements that will be factors in the near future, there is a general 
feeling of hopefulness pervading the trade. 

Tennessee (By George E. Sylvester). — With the data at hand at pres- 
ent the output cannot be accurately stated; it probably did not vary 
materially from that of the year before, and might be roughly estimated 
at about 6,600,000 tons. There appears to have been a slight falling off in 
the amount of coke produced, but as this tonnage is small, the total is 
quickly affected by a variation in the output of one or two of the principal 
operations. 

There were no labor troubles reported during the year. Many of the 
mines, especially in the eastern district, report car shortage, and the time 
lost for this reason, especially in the busy season, was a serious handicap to 
a number of the mines. 

The coal market in this state is largely local, and the mild weather 
of the fall and early winter kept the market from being as brisk as usual. 

There were no serious mine disasters during the year. The number 
of fatal accidents which occurred was 33. The larger part of these 
were attributed, as usual, to falls of slate or coal. Many were classed as 
unavoidable, or due to the carelessness of the miner. The number while 
considerably larger than that of last year, which for some reason was 
abnormally low, does not vary greatly from that of the average of the 
state in the past. 

There has been increased interest in first-aid work among the miners, 
more especially in the eastern coal field, and a highly successful first-aid 
contest was held at Knoxville in the fall. This was promoted largely 
by the miners themselves, through the Society of Tennessee Mine 
Foremen. 

Legislation was enacted during the year requiring the keeping of first- 
aid supplies at mines, also in regard to the maintenance of mine-rescue 
corps. No change was made in the general mining law. 

Utah (By J. E. Pettit).— The coal output for the state of Utah for the 
year 1913 is 3,289,255 short tons, an increase of 200,899 tons, or 6.5 per 
cent, over last year. The production of coke is 314,694 tons, compared 
with 347,356 tons for 1912, br a decrease of 9.4 per cent. 

A shortage of railroad cars in the fall also contributed to the small 
per cent, of increase of coal, but during the winter months no shortage of 
cars has so far been experienced. 



\Vl MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Four thousand, six hundred fifty-nine men have been employed in 
and around our coal mines and coke plants diuing the year, showing 
an increase of 671 men. 

While a good increase has been shown in the production of the old 
producing mines, some of the new operations have done well, notably the 
Storrs mine of the Spring Canyon Coal Co., with an output of 116,000 
tons; the Willow Creek, or Castle Gate No. 2 mine, with an output 
of approximately 54,000 tons, and the American Fuel Co., with 50,160 
tons. 

Seventy-six new coke ovens have been built at Sunnyside during the 
past year and are now in operation, making a total of 726 beehive ovens 
now in operation. Seventeen fatal accidents occurred during the year, 
or 3.64 men per thousand. Twelve accidents occurred in the mines, and 
five on the surface at or near the mines. This is one less fatal accident 
than last year, when 16 men were killed in the mines and two on the 
surface. As a result of the fatalities this year, there are five widows and 
six fatherless children. There were also 39 serious and 60 minor accidents. 

The hydrocarbon output was 23,930 tons, a decrease of 9697 tons, or 
2.8 per cent, due to the limited demand for this product in the Eastern 
market. 

Washington (By James Bagley). — In the year 1910 the coal pro- 
duction of Washington broke all previous records, reaching a total of 
3,979,569 tons. Since that time there has been a slight decrease, owing 
to the substitution of oil for fuel on the railroads and many of the steamers 
ruiming out of Puget Sound ports. The reports received for the first 11 
months of the year 1913 and a conservative estimate of the production 
for December added to this places the toimage for the year at 3,677,946 
tons, an increase over the previous .year of 331,000 tons. 

There has been little change in the ownership of properties, the largest 
transaction being the purchase of the Summit mine located near Cle 
Elum in Kittitas County by the Roslyn Fuel Co. This is being reopened. 

There have been no strikes of any importance diuing the year, the 
mines at Renton and Bayne still working on the open-shop plan. There 
has been no change in the wage-scale agreement, which runs for 2 
years, and does not expire until Sept. 1, 1914. 

There have been 19 fatal accidents for the first 11 months of the year, 
the largest percentage of these being from falls of rock and from mine 
cars. The most serious accident was an explosion of gas at the Divide 
mine in Lewis County on Nov. 6 in which three men met their death. 

The legislature of 1911 provided for the appointment of a commission 
to revise the laws regulating the operation of coal mines. This com- 
mission compiled a code, which was submitted to the 1913 legislature. 



COAL AND COKE 113 

which failed to include it among the laws passed. This is to be deplored, 
as both the miners and operators were represented on thiscommission, and 
it was supposed that they had compiled a code that satisfied both. 

Most of the large companies are taking an interest in rescue and first- 
aid work, and most of them have rescue apparatus at their mines. The 
Bureau of Mines foreman for the Seattle station goes to the different mines 
to train men in this work and in this way it is believed better results are 
obtained than by waiting for the men to be sent to the station. 

West Virginia (By Earl A. Henry). — ^From the records at hand in 
the Department of Mines of West Virginia, the total production of coal 
in 1913 in this state was approximately 71,700,000 tons. There were 
3,000,000 tons of marketable coke produced. Thus in the year 1913, the 
coal production increased about 5,600,000 tons, and the output of coke, 
2,000,000 tons. It will be seen from the above figures that the production 
m this state has materially increased, notwithstanding the general unrest 
of labor. 

During a period practically embracing all the first 9 months of the 
year, there was a strike in the Kanawha field in the mines along the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. Moreover there was a large reduction in 
tonnage in the New River and Logan County fields because of the im- 
settled labor conditions arising out of the strike in the Kanawha field 
proper. Had it not been for this strike and labor troubles of like kind all 
along the lines of the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., as well as in other sections 
of the state, the production of coal for the calendar year 1913 would have 
been nearly 70,000,000 tons. In other words, the labor troubles caused 
the production to be about 6,000,000 tons lower than it would otherwise 
have been. 

It is somewhat generally believed by the operators that West Virginia 
coal will never be sold so cheaply in the future as in the past. It is 
thought that the producers of coal have begim to realize what it costs to 
produce a ton of their product and they are not disposed to sell it at a 
figure lower than it costs them. 

The development of new mines in West Virginia in the past 12 months 
is remarkable. At the present time, in Logan County alone, there are 
about 25 new mines being opened in the Winifrede, Island Creek, and No. 2 
Gas seams, and it is estimated that within the next 7 or 8 months 
practically every one of these 26 new mines will be shipping coal, thus 
adding most materially to the production of 1914. 

In Raleigh County, there is also extensive development and the 
nunes in that section, especially those on the Winding Gulf branch of the 
Virginian Ry. are rapidly increasing their output. The tonnage originat- 



\U MINERAL INDUSTRY 

ing on the Virginian Ry. in West Virginia is now nearing the half million 
mark and with the new mines being opened the production should in 12 
months be double. Extensive developments are also being made in the 
Pocahontas and Fairmont fields. 

As practically 90 per cent, of the coal produced in the state passes 
beyond its boundaries, the prosperity of the coal industry in the stak 
depends entirely on adequacy of transportation facilities. The railroads, 
especially the Chesapeake & Ohio, have failed in some cases to keep pace 
with the mining development. 

The Coal & Coke Ry., which passes for 200 miles through a rich 
country, has never equipped itself to handle the traffic which would 
naturally develop if facilities were assured. For this reason this road, 
which could have made its contiguous territory one of the most important 
coal fields of West Virginia, now passes over coal lands the greater part 
of which are undeveloped. 

There are working in and around the mines of West Vurginia ap- 
proximately 75,000 men, and there are about 900 coal mines belonging to 
approximately 400 dififerent companies. There is sufficient territory 
already developed in these 900 mines in which to place 30,000 more men, 
who could increase the output of coal at least 20,000,000 tons per year. 
Of course, there would have to be improvement in the car supply. In 
my opinion, within the next 18 months or 2 years, when the mines now 
developed have been put into completed operation, West Virginia will 
have place, not only for the 30,000 men to which I have referred, but for 
10,000 more. If this accretion of mining force and a like improve- 
ment of railroad facilities were secured, West Virginia could double its 
production in the next 4 years. 

Judging from the figures already on hand, the West Virginia coal-min- 
ing death toll will be approximately 310 lives. A little over 200,000 
tons has been mined per life lost. There have been no serious mine 
accidents. The majority of deaths and injuries have been caused by falls 
of roof. The next most important cause is electricity and the third 
cause in order of frequency is mine cars. The careless handling of these 
and the jumping from trips in motion cause many accidents. 

Wyoming (By Geo. Blacker). — ^Though only two less men were 
employed in 1913 than in 1912, the tonnage dropped from 5,500,253 to 
5,229,817. It did not, however, fall below the output of 1911. The 
number of men killed fell from 35 to 21 and the number of injured from 
120 to 65. Even the deaths from falls of roof and coal dropped 50 per 
cent. 

The year ending Sept. 30, 1913, was entirely free from labor troubles 
and disasters. Labor has been in constant and steady demand. The 



COAL AND COKE 



116 



percentage of fatal accidents has decreased to a point lower than at any 
time during my official term as inspector of coal mines. I am receiving 
the active cooperation of the mine managements in all precautions I 
recommend them to take. Not only do they cooperate with me, but many 
of them go farther and take the initiative in devising means for reducing 
injuries and fatalities to a minimum. This is notably so with some of 
the larger companies, which are sparing no expense to bring about condi- 
tions of safety. 

Much experimenting has been done with permissible powders with 
varjdng results. When the coal is fragile or brittle, the force of the blast 
has the effect of shattering it into slack and thereby rendering it unfit for 
commercial purposes. On the other hand, a hard, tough coal is best 
mined with such high-powdered explosives, because more force is required. 



CX>AL PRODUCTION IN THE CHIEF COUNTRIES OF THE WORTiD. 
(In metric tons.) 


ConntrieB. 


1900. 


1010. 


1011. 


1012. 


1013. 




12.840.000 
11.870.077 


(e)13.100.000 
12.240.744 
15.681,324 

8.304.284 
2.210,546 
1.710,030 

47.043.100 

23.016.560 

38,340.042 

222.375,076 

562.153 

24.026.000 

4.057.532 

302.786 

268.676.528 

6.446.336 
6.564.030 
2.450,000 
445.816.040 
6.508.383 


(0)13.000.000 
12.715.534 
17.632.710 

8.836.464 
2.100,508 


(en3,000.000 
14.051.445 
10.515.285 

0.885.815 
2,177.615 


(eU4.000.000 
15.744.423 


ladu 


JftpMI. .............. 


14.010.626 

8.132406 
1.041,827 
1.183.875 

40.500.016 

23.561.125 

37,071.858 

217.322.270 

305,600 




AosMuma: 

Nev South Wales 

NevZealAod 


10.587.734 


Other Anetralis.. 




Europe: 
Attgr»^Hangary(c)... 


40.850,655 

23.053.540 

30.220,501 

234,521,254 

557,137 

28.007,230 

3,015,672 

311,800 

276,332,060 

5,500,000 
6,602,000 


52.621.776 

22.072.740 

41.308.580 

255.810.004 

663.812 

30,641,163 

3,126.006 

360.201 

257,136,000 

6,684,161 
8.801,216 


43.743.000 
22.858.450 


Fraaoe 


(e)42.67 1.000 


§S^.^!^; 


(c)278.627.407 


RiiSuj;::;;::::::::: 

Spain 


24.083.000 
3,520.000 


25,772.700 


^.L'miedkiiiJbm::::: 

North Ameiica: 

Western 


250.000 
263.774.822 

4.245,856 
5,200.777 
010.338 
402.081.688 
4.040,102 
5.000.000 


363,065 
202,202,067 

7,072,051 


Eastern 

Menoo 


8,801,216 


t sited States 

South Airica(a) 


455,720,550 
7,045.805 
5.000,000 


534.466,580 
7,365,770 
5,000,000 


562,505,510 


Other countries (e) 










Totals 


1.003.663.143 


1.151.333.203 


1,180.647.668 


1,273,140.043 









, (s) TYmnsvnal, Natal and Cape of Good Hope, (c) Includes lignite, (e) Estimated. (/) In- 
euMies a part of Finland, ia) Gross tons. (A) Short tons. 

Coal in Foreign Countries. 

AuHrcUia. — ^The production of coal in New South Wales which repre- 
sents the bulk of the Australian output, reached a total of 10,414,165 
tons, valued at £3,770,373. This represents an increase of over half a 
million tons, and over £100,000 in value as compared with the previous 
year. The coal exports from Australia for 19 13 were valued at £ 1, 121,000 
as against £1,147,000 m 1912 and £901,000 in 1911. During the first 



\\?> MINERAL INDUSTRY 

9 mouths of 1913, exports from Newcastle totaled 3,786,432 tons, show- 
ing an increase of 166,756 tons over the same period in 1912. 

In New Zealand some interesting data was published during the year 
regarding the coal resources of that district. These were as follows: 
Brown coal, 520,000,000 tons; pitch coal, 306,000,000 tons; bituminous 
coal (this is confined entirely to the West Coast) 254,000,000 tons. In 
view of the comparatively limited resources, there was some agitation in 
government circles to provide for conservation of the coal. Among the 
more important developments in the Australian fuel industry during the 
year was the starting of plans for largely increasing the bunkerage 
facilities at Newcastle. 

AtLstria. — The Austrian coal production for 1913 amounted to 16,336,- 
602 tons as compared to 15,663,821 tons in 1912; briquettes manufactured 
, amounted to 196,212 tons as compared with 156,774 tons in 1912, and 
coke produced amounted to 2,584,281 tons as against 2,307,995 tons in 
1912. The Ostrau-Karwin district leads in the coal production with 
9,382,352 tons, with the Kladno, Risen and Galicia following in the order 
named. The Ostrau-Karwin district is also the leader in coke manu- 
facturing, while the Brux-Teplitz Komotau is the largest producer of 
lignite coal having an output of 18,529,072 tons in 1913 as compared 
with 17,878,136 tons the year before. The full gross production of 
Austria in 1913 was 48,992,160 short tons of coal,includingboth bituminous 
coal and lignite. 

Of the total coal production of Austria in 1913 the Kingdom of Bohe- 
mia is credited with 30,223,200 tons. 

The total imports of coal during 1913 were 13,689,149 tons as com- 
pared with 11,848,535 tons in 1912 over 12,760,000 tons of the 1913 
imports coming from Germany, the balance from Great Britain, Holland, 
Russia and the United States. Imports of lignite, coal in 1913, amounted 
to 33,097 tons; coke 933,669 tons and briquettes 263,241 tons. 

Exports of coal for 1913, amounted to only 708,975 tons, while lignite 
exports totalled 7,016,606 tons as compared with 7,442,392 tons in 1912; 
practically all of the lignite exports are to Germany. Coke exports 
amounted to only 369,802 tons and briquettes 142,169 tons. 

Belgium. — The coal production of Belgium in 1913 amounted to 
22,858,450 metric tons, as compared with 22,972,740 in 1912. The 
output over the last half of the year was heavily curtailed, showing a 
decline of 211,270 tons over the previous year, as compared with an in- 
crease of 86,260 tons during the first half. In 1913, there were 147,003 
workmen employed as compared with 142,913 in 1912. During the past 
few years, the Belgium coal production has been showing a decline, the 
figures for 1913 being the lowest since 1905. The Hainaut Province 



COAL AND COKE 117 

continues by far to be the leading coal producing district, over 16,000,000 
tons of the 1913 production having come from that province. 

Exports of coal in 1913 totaled 4,943,600 tons as compared with 5,058,- 
000 in 1912, the respective imports for the same periods being, 8,874,345 
tons in 1913 and 8,132,014 tons in 1912. The imports of coal from both 
Gennany and Great Britain showed substantial increases, while the ton- 
nage from France fell off nearly half a million tons. Coke imports in- 
creased from 1,242,000 in 1913 to 1,466,500 in 1913, and the coke exports 
increased from 1,320,200 in 1912 to 1,455,200 in 1913. The gross imports 
in 1913 totaled 10,760,000 tons as compared with 9,767,200 tons in 1912; 
the respective exports for the same periods being 6,979,500 and 6,939,300. 

Canada, — The coal production of Canada shows a moderate increase 
in 1913 over 1912, though by no means as much as 1912 made over 1911, 
the figures for the 3 years being 15,115,089 tons in 1913; 14,512,829 
tons in 1912, and 11,323,388 toAs in 1911. The continuation of the labor 
troubles at the mines on Vancouver Island was responsible for a falling 
off in the production of British Columbia, and the Province of Saskatche- 
wan also recorded a slight falling off. But these decreases were more than 
compensated for by substantial advances in Alberta, and the eastern 
province of Nova Scotia. The gross value of the entire production in 
1913 was $36,250,311 as compared with $36,019,044 in 1912. 

Exports in 1913 amounted to 1,562,020 tons valued at $3,961,351 
as compared with 2,127,133 tons, valued at $5,821,593 in 1912. The 
total imports in 1913 amounted to 18,201,953 tons, valued at $47,949,119 
as compared with 14,595,810 tons, valued at $39,478,037 in 1912. The 
apparent consumption in 1913 amounted to 31,500,000 tons as com- 
pared with a trifle less than 27,000,000 in 1912, over one-half of the 
1913 coal being imported. 

The coke business showed a moderate increase during 1913, the total 
manufacture for that year being 1,571,133 short tons as compared with 
1,406,028 tons in 1912. Nova Scotia continues far in the lead in 
the Ddanufacture of coke with Ontario second, this latter product being 
manufactured entirely from imported coal. At the by-product coking 
plants in the dominion, it is estimated that $866,150 worth of by-prod- 
ucts were recovered. The imports of coke increased from 628,174 tons 
in 1912 to 723,906 tons in 1913, while the exports still continue relatively 
bfflgnificant. 

China (By T. T. Read). — The coal output of China continues to 
increase. Acciirate statistics for the whole country are not available, 
l>ut the rate of growth is perhaps reflected by the increase in exports, 
which have been as follows : 318,124 tons in 1910, 326,610 tons in 1911, and 
680,517 tons in 1912. The chief producer is the Chinese Engineering 



118 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

& Mining Co., with which the Lanchow mines were consolidated in July, 
1912, under the name of the Kailan Mining Administration, thus settling 
the long-standing dispute between the English company and the Chinese 
government. The output for the two groups of mines was 1,706,658 
tons in 1912, but the output during November, 1913, was at the rate of 
2,500,000 tons yearly. The Fustin mines, in Manchuria, are the next 
largest producers with 1,470,150 tons in 1912 and a considerable increase 
in 1913. The Ping Hsiang coUierers of the HanYeh Ping Iron & Steel 
Co. produced 648,476 tons in 1911, but only 232,373 tons in 1912 as the 
cokes ovens were only in operation for 10 months in 1911 and 1 month 
in 1912 in which time they produced 181,283 and 29,109 tons of coke 
respectively. The output probably approached normal in 1913 as the 
blast-furnaces are now in operation again. The Peking Syndicate mines 
produced 549,877 tons in 1912. The Shantung Bergbau Gesellschaft 
Co. at Poshan and Fangtze yielded 573,677 tons; this company and 
the Peking Syndicate have considerably increased their output and the 
Chinghsing mines in Chihli, which is now producing 350,000 tons per 
year is also increasing its equipment. There are many other well- 
equipped mines for which the production figures are not available and in 
addition there is a considerable output by primitive native methods, the 
total for the country being 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 tons. A good deal 
of the native product is converted into coke in crude metier, as the coke 
stands shipment better than does the friable coal. 

France. — It is estimated that the production of coal in France for 1913 
will amount to 42,671,000 tons, about 70 percent, of which comes from 
the Nord and Pas-de-Calais districts. The Pas-de-Calais district had 
an output of 21,802,404 tons showing a decline of over three hundred 
thousand tons as compared with 1912. The Nord district, on the other 
hand, reported a slight increase of about fifty thousand tons, the total for 
the year 1913 being 7,816,593 tons. The coke output of these two dis- 
tricts held steady at slightly under two and one-half million tons. The 
production of briquettes for both districts amounted to 1,802,285 tons 
in 1913 as against 1,793,459 tons in 1912. 

In the Southern district, which normally has a production of about 
three million tons per annum there was considerable new development 
work undertaken during the year with the result that the output was 
somewhat increased. 

The imports of fuel in France still continue on a large scale, the year 
of 1913 recording an exceptional increase, the coal imports advancing 
from 15,974,712 tons in 1912 to 18,693,123 tons in 1913. Similar in- 
creases are also recorded in both coke and briquettes, the former ad- 
vancing from 2,788,980 tons in 1912 to 3,070,036 tons in 1913. The 



COAL AND COKE 119 

poor quality of the French product makes it necessary for that country 
to depend largely upon other sources for its fuel supply. As a result of 
unusual activity in the Balkan market during much of the year, the 
French operators met with little competition and were able to market 
considerably more coal than usual. 

By far the greater part of the coal imports into France are from 
Great Britain, and the tonnage from that country experienced an almost 
spectacular advance of over two million tons in 1913, the imports from 
there being 11,267,431 tons in that year as compared with 9,022,411 tons 
in 1912. Belgium is the next largest importer into France with a tonnage 
of three and one-half million and Germany a close second. The coke 
imports come almost entirely from Germany, while Belgium leads as an 
importer of briquettes, with Germany second and Great Britain third. 
The importation of fuel into France is increasing very rapidly having 
nearly doubled in the past decade. 

Germany. — German production recorded a satisfactory increase during 
1913 of more than fourteen million tons, the output for that year being 
191,511,154 tons as compared with 177,094,917 tons in 1912. The in- 
crease was general all along the line, the lignite production being 
87,116,343 tons as compared with 82,339,583 tons in 1912 and the coke 
production advancing from 29,141,070 tons in 1912 to 32,167,716 tons 
in 1913. Although the production of coal in Germany is not making the 
rapid increase shown in America, it is, nevertheless, advancing with rapid 
strides, the past 10 years having witnessed an increase of more than 
'Seventy million tons in production. 

The Ruhr district continues the leading producer; this district also 
>'how8 by far the greatest increase, the tonnage advancing from 87,590,640 
in 1912 in 96,791,880 m 1913. The upper Silesia district, the second 
largest producer in the country, produced 34,428,390 tons, showing an in- 
crease <rf only a trifle less than two million tons. The lignite production 
in the Rhine district, showed a relatively large increase from approxi- 
niately five to six million tons. 

The German foreign trade continues to be an important factor in the 
fuel mdustry, there being a general expansion in the fuel exports particu- 
larly. Thus, the coal and anthracite exports for 1913 reached 34,573,514 
tons, showing an increase of about three and one-half million tons. Coke 
exports increased from 6,850,350 tons to 6,411,418 tons in 1913. Austria- 
Hungary continues the leading consumer of German exports with a total 
of 12,152,00 tons m 1913 and Holland second with 7,217,606 tons, 
Belgiiiin, France, Russia and Switzerland following in the order named. 
France is the heaviest buyer of coke with a total of 2,354,918 tons in 1913. 

The gross imports of coal into Germany and Luxemburg totaled 



no MINERAL INDUSTRY 

10,540,018 tons, as compared with 10,380,482 tons in 1912. Importa- 
tions of lignite experienced a rather sharp decline from 7,266,116 tons m 
1912 to only 6,986,681 tons for 1913. A slight increase is noted in the 
coke imports while both the coal and lignite briquettes suffered a decline. 
Coal imports are almost entirely from Great Britain, there being 9,209,543 
tons from that coimtry in 1913. The coke imports are almost from 
Belgium, the lignite and lignite briquettes are practically all from Austria- 
Hungary, and the coal briquettes from France and Holland. 

Great Britain. — ^The year of 1913 in Great Britain was one of sub- 
stantial if not unprecedented profits in the coal trade. The benefit 
accrued to miners and operators alike, the coal being marketed at a higher 
price than for any year since 1907, while the miners realized a higher 
average wage than at any time in the history of Great Britain. Pro- 
duction also established a new high record amounting to 287,411,869 
tons as compared with 260,000,000 tons m 1912, and 272,000,000 in 1911, 
the previous high record for the country. Exports for the period also 
exceeded all previous records by a substantial margin. 

One of the most interesting features in the British coal industry is 
the working of the minimum wage act, which has now been in practical 
operation for about 2 years. It is stated by a prominent labor leader 
that, since this law became operative, all experienced miners have received 
not less than $1.78 per day, whereas, previous to this time, a few received 
less than $1 per day, 5 per cent, less than $1.20 per day, 15 per cent, less 
than $1.45 per day, while 34 per cent, earned less than $1.70 per day. 

While industrial strikes have been practically imknown during the 
year, it is generally agreed by all that this is only the lull before the 
storm. The close of 1914 and the early part of 1915 brings with it the 
expiration of all the current agreements between labor and capital 
throughout Great Britain, and also the temporary minimum wage act, 
which, it will be remembered, was enacted in 1912 and automatically ex- 
pires at the end of 2 years. All kinds and classes of labor are straining 
every effort to accumulate as much reserve surpluses as possible, and 
mutual support among the different unions involved is being arranged for. 
The mine leaders already state that they are looking forward to one of 
the greatest, if not the very largest, industrial struggle in the history of 
the world. 

In the world's coal markets. Great Britain easily maintained her 
supremacy, exporting 76,687,241 tons as compared with 67,035,848 tons 
in 1912, or an increase of over 14 per cent. In addition to this there were 
over twenty-one million tons used in the bunker trade and over three 
million tons of coke and manufactured fuel exported, bringing the total 
tidewater business up to nearly one himdred million tons. 



COAL AND COKE 121 

This enormous proportion of exports to total production is one of the 
most striking features of the British coal industry. The world's coal 
markets have drawn heavily on the British products and at a steadily 
increasing rate since the beginning of the export trade. In 1875 Great 
Britain exported only 14 per cent, of her total production, which increased 
to 26 per cent, in 1900 and to 36 per cent, in 1913. 

France continued the leading importer of British coal, taking twelve 
and three-fourth million tons in 1913, nearly two and three-fourth million 
tons more than in 1912. This fuel is used largely for the French Navy, 
but is also coming into more general application on railroads and for domestic 
use particularly in the seaboard towns on the western and southern shores. 
Average freight rates in this trade were higher during 1913 than in previous 
years. 

Italy is the second largest recipient of British exports, taking 9,647,161 
tons in 1913, an increase of nearly half a million over 1912. More than half 
of this tonnage comes from South Wales. Two million tons were small 
coal used in the railroad service, and there is also a heavy import business 
in domestic coal. Cardiff and Newport shipped a million and a half tons to 
Genoa, in 1913. Germany ranks third as an importer of British coal, being 
a close second to Italy with nearly nine million tons, an increase of over 
half a million tons in 1912. Russian imports amoimtd to nearly six 
million tons, showing an increase of one million over 1912, while Sweden 
took four and one-half million tons, an increase of about half a million tons. 

Other countries importing more than one million tons of British coal 
per annum rank in importance as follows: Argentina, Spain and Canary 
Islands, Egypt, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Netherlands, Brazil, Portugal, 
Azores and Madeira, Algeria and Austria-Hungary. The United States 
imported only 6250 tons from Great Britain in 1913. 

Holland.— CoslL imports into Holland during 1913, totaled 13,712,527 
tons, an increase of nearly a million and a half tons over 1912, and two 
&Qd one-half million as compared with 1911. Exports also showed a flat 
increasefrom alittle over four and one-half million tons in 1912, to 5,106,287 
tons in 1913. The excess of imports over exports last year (the latter being 
coal in transit from other continental countries) amounted to 8,606,240 tons. 

India. — ^The year of 1913 witnessed a substantial increase in the coal 
production of India, the total for the year being 16,486,318 long tons, a 
niillion tons more than in 1911. About fourteen and one-fourth million 
tons or 97 1/4 per cent, of the entire Indian production originates in 
the Gondwana field. The Jherria district produces half the coal in this 
district. Increases were reported for practically all the provinces, the 
Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, having by far the greatest advance. 



Vll MINERAL INDUSTRY 

It IS not generally understood what difficult problems the Indian 
mining industry is facing. Back in the Raniganj field a shaft was sunk 
to a depth of 1000 ft., another is sinking to something over 900 ft., while it is 
expected to start a third shortly to about the same depth. As a result of 
this development, it is expected that this district should show a rapid in- 
crease in production within the next few years. There was little change 
in the coal exports from India, but a flat increase in the imports, the total 
for the year, including coal, coke and patent fuel being 611,732 tons, or 
nearly double that for 1911. Imports from Great Britain decreased, while 
those from Japan, Natal and Australia all showed large increases. 

Japan. — ^The fact that the Imperial Japanese government has seen fit 
to place an order for 150,000 tons of Fushun coal for railway use is 
indicative of the active demand for fuel in Japa'n. Nor is the importation 
of this foreign product looked upon with disfavor as it is now generally 
understood that consumption has outstripped the productive capacity of 
the mines. There has also been great activity in development work during 
the year, several new openings being already under way and others under 
consideration. 

There have also been important new discoveries of coal reported on 
which development work will be started soon. These new facts regaixiing 
supplies promise to effect radical changes in the coaling centers of the 
empire. The gross exports for 1913 amounted to 3,840,000 tons as com- 
pared with 3,440,000 ton in 1912 and 2,923,000 in 1907. 

Russia. — The Russian coal production seems to be increasing at a 
slower rate than consumption. Thus it is estimated that 1914 will see a 
production of 24 million long tons of bituminous and about six and one- 
third million tons of anthracite as compared with a consumption of 
twenty-four and one-half million and 6 million respectively, or a gross 
deficit of 632,000 tons of soft coal. 

The Donetz Basin has been the scene of greatest activity in coal de- 
velopment during the past few years, its production having increased from 
twelve million short tons in 1900 to twenty-eight million in 1913. An 
estimate recently compiled by a number of the coal operators places the 
possible production in 1918, at 44,274,000 tons as compared with a consump- 
tion of41,295,000tons, leaving an amount available for export business of 
nearly two million tons. The Donetz Basin is by far the most important 
producer in Russia; this district produces 55.5 per cent, of the total consump- 
tion, 28.8 per cent, being supplied by other districts, and 15.7 per cent, im- 
ported. 

Imports of coal into Russia for 1913 experienced a sharp advance from 
a little over five million tons in 1912, to more than seven and one-half 
million in 1913; coke imports increased from 753,000 to 954,000. 



COAL AND COKE 123 

The production of the Ural district, although much less than the 
Donetz Basin, still shows an important advance in 1913, the gross produc- 
tion being 967,000 tons as compared with 764,000 tons the year before. 
The local railroad in that district will reconvert its engines for burning coal 
again. This will create an additional demand, and plans are abready being 
prepared for additional development work. 

South Africa, — ^The coal production of South Africa experienced a 
healthy increase of about 10 per cent, during 1913, the total output being 
8^1,216 tons as compared with 8,117,078 tons in 1912. The province of 
Transvaal which produces more than one-half of the South African pro-i 
duction showed an increase from 4,751,850 tons in 1912, to 5,225,036 tons 
in 1913, the greatest increase made by any of the districts. Natal is 
the second largest producer and showed an increase from 2,765,068 tons 
in 1912, to 2,898,726 for 1913. 

The effects of the rapidly increasing production are becoming noticeable 
on the coimtry's imports of fuel. Thus there was a sharp reduction in coal 
imports from 56,504 tons in 1912 to 42,210 tons in 1913. Exports, on the 
other hand, show a heavy increase from 1,593,210 tons in 1912 to 2,312,324 
tons in 1913. 

South America. — ^The most important coal fields of Chile lie to the south 
of Conception and vary considerably, those in the lower measinres as a rule 
being the best. They are considered a rather good steam fuel, being esti- 
mated as about 25 per cent, less efficient than the Welsh coal, and 5 to 
10 per cent, inferior to the Australian product. The production of Chile 
has shown a persistent increase, output in 1912 being 1,321,291 tons as com- 
pared with 1,188,063 tons in 1911. For the first 6 months of 1913, the 
output was 585,942 tons. It is doubtful if the production during the 
next few years will experience any important increase since the opening of 
the Panama Canal will make all of the market south of Valparaiso accessible 
to coal from the United States. However this will not be such a serious con- 
sideration as might be supposed since about 80 per cent, of the production 
is consumed by local railroad use. 

The four principal coal fields in Chile are as follows: The Penco, part 
of the Bio-Bio River in the province of Concepcion, the Coronel and 
Lota lying between the Bio-Bio and Laraquete rivers (this district being 
one of the most important producers), the Colico between Laraquete 
and Pilpico rivers and the Ledu district in the province of Arauco. The 
thickness of the various seams differs a great deal as does also the 
rharacte of the roof and bottom. 

Ecuador although not a heavy consumer of coal has been a consistent 
importer of the United States product, nearly 75 per cent, of the importa- 
tion for 1913 having originated in that country, as compared with 65 per 



124 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

cent, in 1912. The total imports for 1913 amounted to 30,891 tons as 
compared with 32,486 tons in 1912. 

Bolivian imports practically all come from Australia and were valued at 
$256,000 in 1913. It is anticipated that the opening of the Panama Canal 
will result in coal being shipped in much cheaper from the United States 
than can be obtained at present, and it is believed that this will do much 
to stimulate consumption. 

The opinion is expressed in some circles that Columbia may eventually 
prove to be the largest coal producer in South America after the opening 
of the Panama Canal. At Buena Ventura is a deep and well sheltered 
harbor right in the track of steamers pljdng in the South American trade 
and making a halfway coaling station between Australasia and Europe. 
In the course of the next year or two this port will be connected by rail 
with Cali in the center of the big Carboniferous territory. 

Spain, — The Spanish coal production for 1912 amoimted to 3,126,- 
600 metric tons, showing an increase of 185,000 tons over the year before. 
About 75 per cent, of the production comes from the province of Oviedo. 
The coal imports into Spain amoimted to 2,701,913 tons as compared with 
2,322,607 tons in 1912. The respective figures for coke during the same 
period were 396,419 tons and 355,149 tons. The percentage of fuel 
imports has made a rapid increase during the past 3 years. 



COPPER 

By F. F. Hintzb, Jr. 

During the last 10 years the copper production of the world has shown 
a steady annual mcrease up to 1912 when the total exceeded 1,000,000 
tons. The output of 1913 also passed the million ton mark, but fell 
slightly below the record of the previous year. Since 1903 more than 
one-half of the total world production of copper has been furnished by the 
United States. The importance of this country in the copper world may 
be seen at a glance on the curve given below, which shows the per cent, 
of the total output furnished by the United States during the last 10 
years. During most of this period the percentage has varied but slightly, 
falling between the limits of 55 and 60 per cent. 



1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 


1912 1913 1 


60 
56 

50 




























^ 


S. 




^ 


"-^ 










/ 




^ 


X 


- ^ 


^'"'^^ 


^^ 




. , 






/ 






















/ 













































Fio. 1. — Percentage of Totftl Copper Output Produced in the United States. 

The estimated production^ of the American refineries in 1913 is 
1,615,000,000 lb. of all classes, which exceeds the record of any previous 
year, as shown in the following table:* 

PRODUCTION OF COPPER IN UNITED STATES ACCORDING TO CLASS. 

(In pounds.) 



Year. 


I«k«. 


Eleotiolytic. (d) 


GMting. (d) 


Pig CJopper. (a) 


Total 


19M.... 


224.071.000 


(c)860.000.000 


52.000.000 


29.098.000 


(c)l, 165.169,000 


1«7 


220317.041 


854.441.000 


47,967.890 


30.032.000 


1 452747.^90 


1*» 


222.207.444 


850.660.326 


44.967.250 


35.000.000 


1,1523^5.019 


ffi:: 


226.002.134 


1.101.518.458 


67.471.446 


43.159.018 


1,4JS,751h05O 


221,400.804 


1.151.624.507 


(0)56,673.196 


46.903.463 


(0)1,475,602,120 


i»ii.... 


210.412.867 


1.156.627.311 


22.977.534 


35.920.626 


1,431.038,338 


1912 ... 


231.028.486 


1.288.333,298 


24.777.266 


37.181.237 


],S81. 020.287 


1^13(b) . . 


161.000.000 


1.390.000.000 


26.000.000 


39.000.000 


i.eir,,ooa.ooo 



, (o) Exported. (5) Estimated, (e) Partly estimated, (d) Included copper from scrap and junk. 
(«) The ttatiitMi for 1909 ate offiotaUy eommunioated to us by the Copper Producers* Association, 
mpt thu to he report of 34.123.4461b. of casting copper we have added 33,348.000 lb. reported to 
<» bj the junk amelters. The term "Lake" copper is here used to designate all copper sold m the 
ttMe as soeh. fccaidlees of the process by which it is refined. (/) Copper Producers' Association, 
taroogh E9Q. and Min. Joum., May 6, 1911. (g) Includes 23.480.000 lb. from scrap. 

[Ug. Mim, Jour., Jan. 10. 1914. _, , , ^. , ^ 

* Owing to some imoertainty as to the counting of copper regained from scrap, and also to tne fact 

{^tke production for the last month of 1913 is partially estimated, it is unsafe to draw fine deductions 

"'OB the eomparison of figures in this table. 

125 



\26 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



During the year 1913 the smelters of the United States produced 
1,507,054,696 lb. of copper from American and foreign ores, and scrap. 
The bulk of this enormous production of crude copper went to the 
American refineries along with 173,127,139 lb. which was imported, 
bringing the total crude copper delivered to the home refineries up to 
1,643,722,540 lb. The following table shows the smelter's production for 
the past 3 years: 



SMELTERS' PRODUCTION. 

(In pounds.) 

1911. 
Source. 

North American ore 1.284,932,019 

Foreicn ore 84.392,091 

Scrap 18,529,647 

Totals 1,337,853.657 

To foreign refiners , 32,413,440 

To American refiners 1,305,440,217 

Blister copper imported 146,422,851 

Total crude copper 1,451,863,068 



1912. 



1913. 



1.489,168,562 
63.701.807 
11,949.348 


1.429.031.824 

59.234.779 
18.788,093 


1,664,719.217 
45,736.673 


1.507.054.695 
36.459.295 


1.508,983,544 
144.480.144 


1,470.595,401 
173.127.139 


1,653.463.688 


1.643,722.540 



A comparison of the output of the smelters with that of the refineries 
shows a diflference of 28,722,640 lb. in favor of the smelters, for 1913. 
This diflference was more than twice as great in 1912, but owing to a 
decrease in the smelter production of about 10,000,000 lb. and an in- 
crease of more than 33,000,000 lb. in the output of refined copper in 1913, 
it has been greatly reduced. The refiners' increase was made possible by 
drawing on the supply of crude copper that had accumulated from the 
previous years, and by the large increase in the imported crude copper. 
In 1911 and 1912 the stocks of copper at the smelters were reported to 
have been small, and with a decrease in the smelters' production and an 
increase for the refineries for 1913, it seems that the smelters' stock of 
crude copper must have been materially reduced. Unless there is a 
decided increase in the smelters' production for the early months on 191^ 
it is to be expected that the refineries will show a material decrease ii 
their output for that period. 

In the following table is given the smelters' production of copper bj 
states, which, except in the case of Michigan where the smelters are als^ 
the refiners, is diflferent from the refineries' output. 



COPPER 



127 



COPPER PRODUCTION OF THE UNITED STATES. 
(In pounds.) 



una. 



1900. 



mo. 



mi. 



ISO. 



1913, 






V^. 

"^yoaoiof . . . . ^ 
Southern ^tAtm.] 
OtK«r Stela.... 



S13J«>aB9 
8J4fl3S9 

12.1712001 
70.S'7ailfi2 

4,aS7,83fl 



*M7,m 

e3.357,45l 

10.4«7,940 

7,770.010; 

227^47.0Qfii 

5,134^106 

100,43aG43' 

89.054' 

3J46^89G 



TotiL j 918.196.490 



5.MS.I71 
299,006^971] 

10.m.012 

0^1Sp40t 

2!1.400,fiM 

296^42,403 

fi3377.fi00' 

3.632.36] I 

iafl,D43.3JSl 

ISO.86II 

18,195,45^1 

925,0641 



19.412,000 
300.578,816 

8.474.S4B 

3,745,210 
216.4l2.8fl7 
271.963.769 
66.385.728 

1,518.288! 
138,336,9(];3i 
(6>J30.4!J9| 
19,656,9711 

1,433.7081 



32^609.000! 

357.952,962 

31.069,0291 

7ifi2.O0O 

5,904,5421 

231,628.48<) 

309,247,735 

g2,030.eoB, 

n,48S.9l2 

131'073,aoa| 

{c)l, 121.109 

18.592,655, 

4.39B,007 



23,300,000 
401,223,786 
32,20(5.4^5 
7,3^0,000 
8.1^94,722 
lOLOOG.OOn 
2g4. 210,911 
83,829,329 

48,7io,oon 

148.271.958 
(d>.. 
20,857.849 
9,223,091 



l,105;S36,32fi 1.086.249^963X083,656,371 U4 1^62,5(^X228.81 J, 581 



(b)n.S.GeoLSurv. (c) Washington alone; Wyoming under others; in 1012, 27.5701b. 
doded under Other SUtes. 



(d)In- 



The reports of the American smelters give the production of copper 
for the copper producing countries of North America during 1913 as 

follows: 

SMELTERS* PRODUCTION OF COPPER IN NORTH AMERICA. 
(In pounds.) 

Country. 1911. 1912. 1913. 

Tnited Stales 1.083,866.371 1.241,762.608 1,228,811,681 

Canada 66,370,754 76,425,676 76,260,667 

Mexieo 136.430,331 162,296.646 116,436,666 

Cuba 8,274,563 9,684,934 7,634.010 

Total 1.284,932.019 1,489,168,662 1,429,031,824 

The statistics show plainly how the copper production in Mexico 
has been affected by the unfavorable conditions that have arisen as a 
result of the war which is still in progress. The output has fallen far 
below the record of the last few years and has not been so low during the 
last 10 years. The reduction in the total copper production for North 
America was brought about mainly through the failure of mines in 
Michigan to yield a normal output, and the great falling off in Mexico's 
rate of production. With the restoration of normal conditions in these 
two important fields the total for North America will show a decided 
increase. 

Consumption. — ^L. Vogelstein & Co. estimate the world's copper 
« oasumption for 1913 as compared with that of previous years, as follows: 

(In tons of 2240 lb.) 
1910. 

Ci?nnaay 208,826 

France 92.838 

E&dAod 148,187 

Acrtna-Honsary 37,160 

hisms. . . .TT . 28,237 

lulj 32,487 

Hm of Europe 26,000 

Fw Etft. . 22.000 

Tiiitwl Sutcs.V.'. 334,665 

Total 930.290 



1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


234,985 


253.249 


265.000 


106,408 


106.763 


118,000 


159,736 


148,877 


145.000 


41,101 


51.574 


50.000 


31.830 


38.818 


41.000 


40,949 


34.378 


32,000 


25.000 


23.000 


25,000 


26.500 


32.000 


30,000 


316,792 


866.922 


342,600 



983.300 



1.064,751 



1.048.600 



Vl% 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



The following table shows the U. S. refineries' production and the 
deliveries for export and domestic consumption in the United States 
and the visible stocks in the United States and Europe for each month 
during 1913, as well as the totals for 1912 and 1913, according to the 
report of the Copper Producers' Association. 



Month. 



Year, 1012. 



r 

II. 

III-. 

IV., 

TI.. 
VII. 
VIII 

XI.. 

XII- 



1B13. 



Year 1913. 
I, I0U 



Ubited Sutca. 



U. 8. Bfeftn*F 






Detiverie*i» 
for Eiqjort, 



Vmbb Stoc^kj. 



Uoited 
StataL 



1, SSI. 020. 287, 819,665,048' 746j9fl,452!. 



WS.iTO.eSfi! 
130,«48.881 
13n,25tpS49, 
1SS,353.-102 
141,310,410 
121.860,8^ 
ia8,OT4,0O2 

131.401,229 
139.070,481 
13*.0S7<708 
138,000,421 



1,622,450,820 



65,210,030 
50,076.4021 
70,58^,4711 

7airia,837 

S1.10S,321 
68.362.671 
58.0fH,lfi2 
73.649,801 
«0.S3fl,SO7 
68,173,720 
4S, 650.858 
21,93B,570 



767.261.760 



60,383,845; 
73,168,5231 
77,609,306 
85,904J27' 
08.285,9781 
68.007,901 
78.480.071 
73,263,469 
7a.08S,275 
08,123,473 
70.067,803 
73.542,413 



Aitrop^ 



Tot»l 



8a&.0€2,784 



105,312,5S3| 
133.108,332 

104,200,270 

75.549.108 
07,474,226' 
52.814,000 
53,504.945, 
38.314.037! 
20,793,094, 
32.566.382 
47,020,420 



78,401,840 
77.504,000, 
81.244,800! 

87,ia0.8QO 
^,048,800 
77,235,200 
77,004.000 
66,420,480 
63J16,800 
53,625,600 
48,787,200 
46,593,000 



01,438.8671 53,016.800 



183.904,42 
200.702,3^1 
aO%,547.«' I 
19L4 &J.n: i 
161^- i 
144.: I 

124.V -. i 

i«3;.oi0.r 

Sl,353.^i 
04,5124-1 



I46.356.ti^/ 



Note. — Visible supplies in Europe do not include copper afloat. 



The domestic supply of marketable copper on Jan. 1, 1913 was 105,- 
312,582 lb., and the total production of refined copper for the year amounts 
to 1,622,450,829 lb., which makes a total of 1,727,763,411 lb. The 
deliveries for domestic consumption were 767,261,760 lb., and for export 
869,062,784 lb., leaving a stock on hand Jan. 1, 1914 of 91,348,867 lb. 
This shows a decrease in the visible stock of 13,963,715 lb., as compared 
with the stock on hand Jan. 1, 1913. During the first 4 months of the 
year the stock of standard copper in the United States was greater 
than for any other part of the year. From May to October there was a 
gradual decrease in the visible supply from 75,549,108 lb., to 29,793,094 
lb., which was the lowest figure for the year. November and December 
showed increases again, and by the first of January the supply had about 
reached the figure with which the year opened. The production was 
heaviest for January, but remained large for each month of the year. 
During the first 4 months the production was in excess of the demand, 
causing the visible supply to rise, but throughout the rest of the year the 
deliveries exceeded the production with the consequent reduction in the 
visible stocks. 

The factors which influence the copper situation are the increase of the 
visible supply offset by. the invisible supply in the hands of the con- 



COPPER 



129 



sinners. Manufacturers are able to shift the burden of carrying stocks to 
the producers, temporarily, but when their supply nears exhaustion they 
are forced to buy again. This condition causes the variation in the visible 
supply to occur and has an important bearing on the price of copper. 

In the following table the consumption of refined copper is approxi- 
mately shown for the past 10 years: 

CON3UMTTIQN OF COFFER IN THE UNITED STATES, (o) 



Y« 



I I 

fiodaetioti. Stook JiUk, 1.1 IxnpOTlB. 



Supply, 



Exportt. 



Stock 



Consump- 
tion. 



]K*>.. 



' 817,715,005 230, 
875,341.743, am, 
ai7,ft20,000 132. 

M53J47,gOO' 0. 
l,lS2,S9S,0ie 120, 



3305,403,056 

I L&ai,93a,337 

I L4^,4M,a3g 105, 



I 



,111,793 
,376,d72 
,587,496 
,000,000 
,000,000 
,357,266 

,7a«au 

,030.195 
454.695 
,312.682 



1 182 ,292 ,305 

'210J24.6S5 

225,5^3.281 

5,000.000 



1.230.119,002 555, 
l,294.343,09S54Si, 
1,275,800,777 467, 
l,ie6J47,8fKJ50S, 
1,272,395,019 561. 
1,527,760,322 682, 
l,59g,SSa,231 70S, 
1,555,968,533,786 
1.67l.374,eS2|775 
1,727.768,41! 926 



,538,552 
,-72,40;i 
,839.041 
,929,401 
,376.127 
,846.726 
,310.543 
,553,208 
,000,658 
,441,142 



2fXS,376,672 
132,587,496 
139,385,400 
320,OfJO.OOO 
122.357,266 
141.786,111 
122.030.195 

89,454,695 
105,312.582 

91,348,867 



466.103,778 
612,983,199 
568.57 6.336 
537.818,489 
48g,66 1,623 
703,147.485 
763,541.4^3 
677,960,630 
791,001,742 
709,078,402 



(a) The ttatistta in the above table ap to 1906 inclusive are computed in the old way, namely 
on the baoi of the production of blister copper and the imports of copper in all forms. The stock on 
hand at the beginning and end of the year mcludes not only refined copper, but also the crude 
eopper in tnnait ana in process of refining. The statistics since 1906 are computed on the new 
ftnd mote aeeorate method described in Eng. <xnd Min, Joum.. July 25, 1908. Briefly, in this method 
the basis is production of refined copper, stock of copper in final marketable form and imports of 
refiaad eopper. This ehanse in meuiod explains the erratic appearance of the figures for 1907 as 
oKBpared with those of 1906. 

The production and stock on hand Jan. 1, are the same Jas in the 
preceding table, and the supply is found by adding these figures together. 
The exports are different from deliveries for export, and are obtained from 
the statistical report of the Dept. of Commerce. The supply less the 
exports and the stock on hand Dec. 31, gives the figures for consumption. 

EXPORTS OF COPPER PROM THE UNITED STATES, (o) 
Ore, matte md regulus stated in tons of 2240 lb. Ingots, etc.. in poimds. 



Country. 



1908. 



1909. 



1910. 



1911. 



1912. 



1918. 



Or«, matte and ragulus 




117 

5, 

l!5 

137, 

25, 

11»5, 

4, 

39, 

3, 

13 
2 



63.149 



,810.314 
,560.366 
,690,381 
,453.392 
,512.267 
,582.619 
,657.077 
,433.674 
,977,143 
35.895 
J35,a99 
,447,101 



59,880 



156,511 

6,016 

99.003 

138,21:^ 

I 26.:386 

204.378 

3,519 

41.691 

6.7W) 

46 



.H3 
,861 
.962 



43,784 



9S,03a?13 
7.171^,258 

_ 116.KJri.s;50 
,230 17' ' r28 
,069 3 37 

,21 1 22 06 

;jlfl h.^4s,:.ll 
,979] 4ir,Jf.r;i861 
.410, r»,fiLJ8,J87 
.2871 



57.915 



101^.061.603 
5J2o,C:04 

135,0:^^,8^)3 
190,428,008 

3^^,216.773 
23 £\ 59:^,1^19 

]i^,60i,6S8 

y,'^'»i.:ir,3 

S;B1,.j82 



66,171 



95,422,292 

7.674,273 

131.362.694 

252,156.012 

47.251.432 

162,618.177 

4,961.473 

8.960,973 

30,302,856 



65.684 



33,679,641 

7,102.120 

160,000,345 

307,150,761 

41,568.713 

178.940,289 

7,907,672 

14,357,014 

36,182,257 



319.328| 499,492 



(e) 45,201,645 



(c)44,290,476 



4.904.125 



601376427 6g2.&4e.726 708,316,543 786,553,208 775,000.658 926,441,142 






of ore. matte and reculos are reported as gross weight, the copper contents not being 
bars and plates, (e) Includes Austria-Hungary, 44.200,202 lb. and 38,558,151 



130 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



IMPORTS OF COPPER INTO THE UNITED STATES, (a) 
(In pouncto.) 



Oountry. 


1008. 


1000. 


1010. 


1011. 


1012. 


1013. 


Ore and matte 
Imported from: 
GflrmMiy 












1.067,024 


[^>ain. .T 












6.244,676 


Cuba 












6.362,133 


Brit. North America 

Aiezioo .«... 

South America 

Other oountriei 


11.187.207 
16.003.602 
13.026.614 
16.366.340 


0.680.820 
23.014.040 
20.087.107 
26.406,327 


10.034306 
22.731.184 
10.426.233 
83.033.762 


12.010.644 
16.684.071 
16.306.336 
23.717.628 


28.030.073 
18.060.087 
26.740346 
31.122.008 


34.073.096 

10.722.530 

(«)26311.M2 

17.712.105 


Total 


66.481.043 

5.434.4B6 

11^8.506 

1, 4^1,370 

lS;t59,117 

80,8i*5J37 

4SJ42.9M 

340,560 

184,490 

ft. 3^0,^96 
6S.;U}^.040 


81.087,803 

26.627,674 

400.101 

1.046,647 

27.870.176 

20.106.361 

76,110,724 

104,182 

223.408 

23.830.140 

66.707.320 


86,224.076 
18,640,727 


68,626,778 
0,004.461 


104,871,703 
1.404.118 


100.492.105 


Pig and Scrap (b) 

UmtedKincd^... 
Pranoe 


17.043,285 


Oermeny 










Other ETurope 

Brit. North America 
Mezioo 


26.411.308 
20.016.786 
84.008.007 


28,042.267 
22.442,836 
07.116.674 


31.670.006 

86.188.266 

124*742,103 


0)36.666.767 
83.749,133 
07.003.847 


Cuba 




WestlndiM (e) 










(ySS'vnmirim,'.','/. 


i8,4a2.080 
83.640.006 


20.030.447 
80346.686 


10.611.402 
01.003.620 


14.367,493 
78.280,969 


T6tal 


162.224,144 


240.713.721 


260,210,706 


266.080.760 


306.360.602 


300.068349 







(a) The imports reported are the copper contents of ore matte and regulus. 
ingots and platee. ^<r) Includes Bermuda. '"*-•• • — 



(fr) Indudee also ban. 

_ (d) As foUows: Austrelia and Tasmania 24.700333 lb.; 

Peru 43.891.430 lb; Chile 8.627.421 lb. (e) AU from ChUe. (/) AU from Spain. 



THE WORLD'S COPPER PRODUCTION. 
(In metric tons.) 



CouQtrf. 



ISOt 1006, 190e. 1907. | 1906. 1909. mtLih) 1911. 



1B13- 



^*»5 I Other 
AT^enlEna (a) ..... . 

AastnLlAsia (a). ... 

Au*tria-Him«ary (a) 

Bolivia (a) , 

Canada (<i} ........ . 

Chile Cd).... 

Cubatd) 

Oermaay — total (a). 

(Miinsfeld) (a) . . 

Italy (aK. 

Japan (/) 

Msadeo— totoUd)... 

(BolM) (<i> 

Kewf oundlsod {a'i . . 

NarwBF Co>... . 

Peni UV 

Russia (c) ,...,... . 
8pain-Fortu;rftl (a).. 

RioTinio (a).... 

Thania (a) .. . 

Mason ABany (a) 

Sflviya{a) 

Swftdea (c) ........ . 

Turkev^) , 

ITuitAd Kintdom (ffl 
United States (d)., . 



5^ 
2.337 



5.1Q& 
2337 



157 

U,706 

K473 

2m . 

10.490 , 

31.025 I 



157 
34.483 

2.032 

29.126 



2.613 



30JW2 
(l».i7S> 

33487 

61,750 

C1U120) 

2M& 

fiJ03 

&.^ 

9.835 

47.78i 

M,01fl 

6,710 

3J07 

I3<ii 

533 

»65 

561 

lOO.MS 



22,402 
2,007 > 

65,449 

00^1 > 
24lfi 
e.406 I 
12.213 I 
0.515 I 
45ji27 
32.795 
1415 
2.754 
1^00 
1485 
711 
737 



4.296 

3440 



107 

3fi.S30 

).45S 

2.S40 

19JtO 

2&3^ 

2(M»A5 

2^011 I 

3e.oea i 
aiH002j 

2,332 

earn 

0,474 
9.29« I 

34.543 I 
4315 

240i I 

2,073 , 

i.aw 

763 
41flJ43 



3^44« 



234 
41,010 

1.053 

21.035 

3440 

2S,Se3 

14^ 

30^18 

(17343) 

3.^ 

40.1S3 

57.491 

(11405) 

1.758 

7>I23 

20.681 

15.030 

50.470 

33333 I 

4JJ05 

2,563 

2437 

1477 

1.3T0 

577 

3S8>«0 



326 
40433 

3377 
2440 
24475 
12,007 
2.950 

Muas 

(18,000) 

3.022 

41490 

38,190 

(12.600) 

1.453 

9^7 

15.240 

17,71g 

53.425 

35417 

44O0 

3,304 

2496 

2.«08 

1,0&S 



4,730 
3437 

6.m 

510 
34.053 

; ejis 

2.0S2 

. 21,636 

43,7» 

I 3.005 

I 32415 

(10.015) 

2jfl» 

42.087 

57^0 

(12426) 

1.402 

9,326 

lflJ257 

18.035 

53.023 

35.938 

4.435 

3,403 

1.S49 

3.032 

S13 

443 

501473 



}7.01» 

8,433 

305 

10.963 

2.275 

2440 

33410 

3«4M 

343§ 

25.105 

(20475) 

3J72 I 

50.703 ' 

52404 

(13.003) 

[ 1.097 

I 10492 

27475 

22,670 

5i.oeo 

(34414) 
(3451 

am 

<l,556: 

ajis3 

610 



iTjiei 



1I,S 



1435 335 

42,513 4T.774I 

3466 4,034 

<f^2^(il) 4.081' 

254701 HJ13 

3348a' 3M0i 

3,753 4JBi 

33463 S4404 



t443 

if) 52 ,303 
614S4 



2437; 

ft)«3.480| 

71,017 



1474 

9475' 11.156 
28400 /)264SJ 
257471 33450, 
51.748 5i^e 
f35.100} 



24<33 

Ul« 

405 

491,534 



(a)l4H 



ToUL I H»440 , 608.031 • 71541(» 734,130 i 758,055 854.758 1 877.494 I 879,751 1I4II 413 IjOK.tM 



mi 

2.541) 

17A^» 

117 

47,a3fl 

4.r4 

lAH 
UMI 

XJ17 
35JDf 

«7345^ 

5:41s 

(13,020) 

d2s,7n 

544?6 
3e,&fii 
34TO 
V« 
IMi 
a>l41* 
50B 

m 

5574^^7 



(a) As reported by Henry R. Merton A Co., Ltd.. of London, (b) As reported by Henry R. 
Merton A Co.. prerious to 1006. subsequently as reported by the Eno. and Min. Joum, (c) Aa offieially 
feported ezoept for 1009, for whieh vear the ficure of Heniy R. Merton A Co. w used. («n Aa rsoorted 
by the Sna. and Min, Jowm, («) As reported by Henry R. Merton A Co. for 1000-1003. as offiefaUhr 
teported 1003-1007, as per Henry R. Merton i Co. for 1008 and 1009. (/) Aa offieUly TOported. 
(a) As officially reported, 1000-1006; subsequently as per Henry R. Merton A Co. ik) Henry R. 
Merton A Co., throuch Sng. and Min, Joum, 



COPPER 
WORLD'S PRODUCTION OF COPPER, (a) 



131 



Yav. 


Metric 


Short 


Tew. 


Metric 


Short 


Year. 


Metric 


Short 


Tons. 


TODA. 


Tonn. 


Tons, 


Tone. 


Tone. 


1881.... 


ie6/)65 


183,093 


I 
1892... 


309.113 


340.808 


1903... 


630,590 


694,910 


1882.... 


184,620 


203.560 


1893... 


310.704 


342.562 


1904... 


693.240 


764,758 


1883.... 


202,007 


223.481 


1M4... 


330.075 


363.920 


1905... 


698.931 


770,221 


1884.... 


223384 


246340 


1895... 


339.994 


374356 


1906... 


715.510 


788,492 


1885.... 


229,315 


252328 


1896... 


384.493 


423.917 


1907... 


724.120 


798,205 


1886.... 


220,609 


243.295 


1897... 


412.818 


456.147 


1908... 


768.065 


835,623 


1887.... 


226.492 


249.716 


1898... 


441.282 


486.529 


1909... 


854.758 


942,408 


1888.... 


262,285 


281.179 


1899... 


476.194 


525.021 


1910... 


877.494 


966.998 


1889.... 


266,516 


292,741 


1900... 


491.435 


541.561 


1911... 


879,761 


969,750 


18«0.... 


274.066 


302.166 


1901... 


529.508 


583.517 


1912... 


1.011,312 


1.114,769 


1891.... 


280.138 


308.862 


1902... 


542.606 


597.951 


.1913... 


1.002,284 


1.104.517 



(a) niastatutice for 1881-1891 are aa reported by Heary R. Merton h Co.: 1892-1910 aa per Thb 
Mutbbjj. IirvuamT. 

Statistics on the world's production of copper as given in the table 
are taken mainly from figures by the Engineering and Mining Journal, 
and from those compiled by Henry R. Merton & Co. In all cases the 
production from domestic raw products and ore only are included, and 
for the reason that in a few cases some of them may have been exported 
without recording them, the figures may be low. 

The world's output of refined copper according to Henry R. Merton 
4 Co. totaled 986,»76 long tons in 1913, as compared with 1,006,110 tons 
in 1912, and 871,920 tons in 1911. The decrease of 19,736 tons for 
1913 from the record production of 1912 is less than 2 per cent. (1.9), 
while the increase over 1911 is 114,455 tons, or 13.1 per cent. The 
heaviest loss is indicated for Mexico, and a slight decrease for the United 
States and Canada. The most important gains were in Chile, Russia, 
Japan, and Africa, the last named country being chiefly affected by the 
increase from the Katanga mines. The United States continues to fur- 
nish somewhat more than half of the world's supply of copper, the amount 
being a fraction over 56 per cent., while North America furnishes over 
64 per cent, of the total. 

The Selling Agencies. — A few of the producers sell their copper 
directly and handle only their own product. This is the practice of 
the Quincy Mining Co., the Wolverine and Mohawk, the Franklin and 
the Mass companies, in the Lakes region. Other companies handle 
more copper than they produce, selling on a commission basis. Thus, 
the Calumet & Hecla sells the copper of the other Lake companies 
in which it is a stockholder, the Osceola, AUouez, Ahmeek, Superior, 
Tamarack, Isle Royal, and Centennial. The American Smelting & 
Refining Co. disposes of the output of the Cerro de Pasco, Utah Copper 
f^., Nevada Consolidated, Tennessee Copper, Ray Consolidated, Chino, 
Mason Valley and Ohio Copper companies, besides its own. The 
United Metals Selling Co. is agent for a number of companies among 
which are the Anaconda and North Butte, Copper Range, Arizona 



Wl MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Copper Co.| Greene-Cananea, and Giroux. Phelps Dodge & Co. disposes 
of the products of the Copper Queen Smelter, the Detroit Copper Co., 
and the Calumet & Hecla. Other important agencies are the American 
Metal Co.| L. Vogelstein & Co., E. P. Earle; Beer, Sondheimer & Co., 
Adolph Lewisohn & Sons, and W. Parsons Todd. Of these agencies, 
the American Smelting & Refining Co. is the greatest distributer of 
refined copper, having disposed of 494,600,000 lb. in the past year.^ 
The next most important agency is the United Metals Selling Co. 
with a production of 442,000,000 lb. to distribute. Then follow Phelps 
Dodge & Co. with 209,000,000 lb., and the American Metal Co., and 
L. Vogelstein & Co. with 144,900,000 and 144,400,000 lb. respectively. 
The rest, except the Calumet & Hecla with 84,116,000 lb., handle less 
than 50,000,000 lb. each. 

The Copper Market in 1913.* — The year 1913 proved to be remarkable 
in several respects, and compared with the great revival of the market in 
1912 it was somewhat disappointing. The average price paid for elec- 
trolytic copper at New York for the year was about 15 1/4 cents per 
pound, as compared with 16 3/8 cents for 1912. This decline was due 
to a number of causes: (1) The production of refined copper increased 
during the year, while the smelter production decreased; and, (2) domestic 
consumption decreased while the European demand was unusually large. 

The year opened with electrolytic copper at 17 1/2 cents cash, at 
New York, but the market soon crumbled away. By the end of January 
electrolytic had declined to 16 cents, and by the end of February it was 
down to 14 1/2. During February the market worked into a more 
normal condition. American and European buyers having depleted their 
stocks, and being attracted into the market by the comparatively low 
price which had been established by that time, bought liberally and 
deliveries of copper assumed more normal proportions. In March, a 
fair amount of business was booked at around 15 cents. In April, 
the clearing of the political horizon in Europe and the accompany- 
ing relaxation in the tension of the money market which had prevailed 
there for some time, brought about an improvement in general business 
conditions, which found a pronounced reflection in the copper market. 
Early in May, when the political situation abroad became alarming, 
liquidation in the London Standard market ensued, which in turn scared 
off buyers of refined copper. Then, in the middle of the month, the 
political skies abroad were again brighter, large orders were placed, 
and as the American statistics for April showed a very heavy decrease 
in the visible supply, heavy purchases were made, and the prices advanced 
to 15 7/8 cents, delivered at buyers' works, usual terms. 

> The Boston News Bureau, through Sno. Min. Jour., Feb. 7, 1014. 

> Taken in part from the Bng. Min. Jour., Jan. 10, 1014. 



COPPER 



133 



During May and June the financial stringency in Europe, the after- 
math of the Balkan war, affected sentiment over there and kept buyers 
out of the market, and the Standard market in London and the 
electrolytic market at New York declined steadily. By July 1 Standard 
had gone down to about £64 and electrol3rtic had gone back to 14 1/4 
cents, but even at these ptrices the market remained dull and weak. 
American consumers remained completely apathetic at 14 cents, but 
when they found that the European consumers were taking the copper 
freely at that level, they also came into the market and prices advanced 
sharply, with large transactions, moving up to 15 cents, delivered. 
As the restdt of the buying movement, the producers were now com- 
fortably booked for August and September, and in view of the small 
stocks and the strike which had broken out at Lake Superior, the position 
of the metal was an exceedingly strong one, and in August a large business 
was done at higher prices. From Sept. 3 to Sept. 8, there. was an almost 
perpendicular rise, and transactions amounted to many millions of pounds. 
By Sept. 10, the market had reached 16 3/4 cents. 

During October the market relapsed into dullness. There was also 
a decided falling ofif in European consumption. These conditions 
continued and the market remained quiet until about the middle of De- 
cember, when prices again crumbled away. By the time 14 1/4 cents, 
delivered, was reached, European consumers had completely exhausted 
their supplies and were forced into the market, and there was also a 
decided improvement in business sentiment in the United States, due to 
the passing of the Currency Bill. American consumers had also been 
feeding on their previous purchases, and their stocks being entirely 
depleted, they too came into the market. In consequence, the second 
half of December witnessed large transactions, and during the last few 
days of the year a large business was done at 14 7/8 cents, delivered 
buyers' works, and the copper market closed active and strong at that 
figure. 



ATBRAGS PEICB OF ELECTROLYTIC COPPER PER POUND IN NEW YORK, (o) 



x«r.( Jaa. i Peb. ICar. Aprfl. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Year. 



,^ Cte. I Cla. Cto, Ct8. 
IJSa- 13.410il2.0«3 12.209 12.923 
IMS. 15.00B.15.OO8 16.125 14.920 
}£! 1S-3I0.17.88Q 18.361118.376 
1907. 24.4M 24.8eo;26.066 24.224 
Jg. 13.72612.905 12.704 12.743 
m. 13.8B8 12.949112.387 12.663 
mo. la.flW 13.332!l3.266 12.733 
JSIL 12.29612.266 12.139 12.019 
" ^1 14. 084|14. 098 16.741 
114.971 14.713 16.391 



W12 M.,,^ 
1913. U.488 



Cts. 
12.768 
14.627 
18.467 
24.048 
12.598 
12.893 
12.650 
11.989 
10.031 
16.436 



CtB. 

12.269 
14.673 
18.442 
22.665 
12.675 
13.214 
12.404 
12.385 
17.234 
14.672 



Cts. 
12.380 
14.888 
18.190 
21.130 
12.702 
12.880 
12.215 
12.463 
17.190 
14.192 



eta. 
12.343 
15.664 
18.380, 
18.356! 
13.4621 
13.007 
12.490 
13.405 
17.498 
15.400 



Cts. 
12.495 
15.965 
19.033 
16.565 
13.388 
12.870 
12.379 
12.201 
17.508 
16.328 



CtB. 

12.993 
16.279 
21.203 
13.169 
13.354 
12.700 
12.553 
12.189 
17.314 
16.337 



Cts. Cts. 
14.28414.661 
16.699'18.328 
21.833 22.885 



13.391 
14.130 
13.125 
12.742 



13.163 
14.111 
13.298 
12.581 



17.326 
15.182 



12.61613.552 



17.376 
14.224 



CtB. 

12.823 
15.590 
19.278 
20.004 
13.208 
12.982 
12.738 
12.376 
16.341 



U) Fran Mitg. Min. Jour. 



\z\ 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



AVERAGE PRICE OF STANDARD COPPER (G. M. B.*«) IN LONDON, (o) 
(In pounds sterling per ton of 2240 tb.) 



Yb«. 



iftoa... 
am... 

«M7... 
IMS .. 

1910... 

ma... 



im. Fftb. [ U«r. AprlL &Uy. 



63.53 87.34 
67.500 66 500 
68.302 07.063 
ism 7fl.l47 

106.73B107.aM. 

I 02,386 W 78a 

i &5.eo4 61 on)< 

\ 02.700 «3.8g3 
! 71. ml M.SIBl 



R3 B9 I 
57.321 

«».n4 
81 in 
109.594 
58 7fll 

64 704 
OS.gM 
(ta.330 



fllW <!1.78 

fiS.247 S7.321 

07.017 64.876 

B4.79.1 84.8071 
9§JS25 t(l2.376j 

5S 331 57.387 

67.36.^ 59.3381 

57 Z;lS 50.813 

S# Oil. 54.3131 

70.294 72.352, 

OH. in I 08.8071 



June. 



July. 



67.30 

50.896 

06.881 

83.994 

97.2721 

67.842 

50.027 

65.310. 

50.368' 

78.269' 

67.1401 



50.04 

67.250 

00.887 

81.167 

95.010 

67.989 

68.660 

54.194 

50.670 

70.0S0{ 

04.106 



Aug. 



58.44 

50.952 
09.880 
83.8641 
70.0701 
00.500< 
59.893! 
65.783 
60.204 
78.070 
09.200 



Sept. 



Oet. 



50.82 

67.045! 

09.0071 

87.831 

08.875 

00.838 

59.021 

56.2071 

65.2531 

78.702 

73.1251 



65.00 

00.012 

71. 400 j 

97.209 

00.717 

00.189 

67.551 

50.722 

65.176 

70.389 

73.383 



Nov. 



Dee. ! Year. 

I 



50.30 
05.081 
74.7271 
100.170 
01.230 
03.417 
58.917 
57.034 
67.253 
76.800! 
08.275i 



50.30 
00.876 
78.998 
106.220 
00.113, 
02.943: 
50.900; 
50.0091 
62.003 
76.610 
05.233' 



57.97 

58.884 

00.466 

87.283 

87.007 

89.902 

58.712 

57.054 

55.97S 

72 942 



AVERAGE PRICE OF LAKE COPPER PER POUND IN NEW YORK, (a) 



Year. Jan. 





Cts. eta. Cts. I CtB. I Cts. I Cts. 
1903. 1 12. 361 1 12. 901 14.762 14.642 14.618.14.212 
1904.;12.633 12.246 12. 66113. 120 13. 000;12. 399 
10O6.|15. 128 16.136 16.260|16.046 14.820 14.813 
1906. 18.419:18.116 18.641118.688 18.724 18.719 
1907.!24.826'26.236 26.660 25.260 26.072,24.140 

1908. j 13. 901 1 13. 098 12.876 12.928 12.788;12.877 

1909. 14.28013.296 12.82612.938:13.238 13.548 

1910. 13.870 13.719,13.686 13.091 12. 8851 12. 798 

1911. 12.680,12.611 12. 447, 12. 27612. 214|l2. 611 
1912.114.337 14.329 14. 868' 16. 930; 16. 245, 17. 443 
1913.. 16. 767|15.263|14. 930116. 665 16. 738114. 871 



Cts. I 
13.341 
12.605 
16.006 
18.686 
21.923, 
12.933' 
13.363 
12.670 
12.720 
17.363 
14.663 



Cts. 
13.169 
12.468 
16.726 
18.706 
19.265 
13.639 
13.296 
12.715 
12.634 
17.6441 
15.904 



Cts. I Cts. I Cts. I 
13.346 12.964 12.813' 
12.620 13.118 14.466 
16.978 16.332 16. 768i 
19.328 21.722 22.398 
16.047 13.66113.870 
13.600,13.646 14.386 
13.210 13.030,13. 364 
12.668 12.788 12.9141 
12.60812.370,12.709 
17. 608,17. 661|17.617{ 
16.799 16.913,16.022 



Ct^ Cta. 
12.08413.417 
14.84912.990 
18.39815.099 
23.360,19.616 
13.393 20.661 
14.41113.424 
13.64713.335 
12.863 13.039 
13.768,12.634 
17.60016.560 

14.904 

I 



(a) Bng. Min. Jour. 



AVERAGE MOl 


STHLY PRICEfi 
(In cents 

19 


\ OF COPPER MANUFACTURES, (a) 
per pound.) 




12. 


1913. 




Copper Wire. 


Sheet Copper. 


Copper Wire. 


Sheet Copper. 


Jan 


15.75 
15.25 
16.03 
17.06 
17.30 
18.68 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 
19.13 


19.60 
19.60 
20.30 
21.50 
21.63 
22.60 
22.50 
22.75 
23.60 
23.60 
23.60 
2S ftO 


19.09 
16.38 
16.39 
16.50 
16.50 
16.18 
15.88 
16.60 
17.84 
17.75 
17.28 
16.79 


23.50 


Feb 


22.50 


Mar 


21.50 


Apr 


21.50 


May 


21.50 


V ' 

June 


21.10 


July 


20.50 


* '*•' 

Aug. ...,...,,,..,..,..,.. r - 


21.60 


Sept 


22.50 


Oct 


22.50 


Nov 


21.15 


Dec 


20 50 




1 




Year 


1 17.96 


22.02 


16.85 


21.69 



(a) Eng. Min. Jour. 



Price, ^ — Nearly all of the big copper-producing companies have 
now made their reports for 1913, and it is possible to compare the prices 
that they received for the sale of their product. It is fruitless to consider 
the reports of the Lake Superior companies, inasmuch as for them the 



^ The Price for Copper in 1913, Editorial, Eng. Min. Jour., May 15, 1914. 



COPPER 135 

year was so interrupted by the strike. During the last 5 months of 
1913 they produced but relatively little copper, and their sales were 
chiefly of the metal that they had on hand and were decidedly scattered 
and irregular in character. 

Anyway, it is the electrolytic copper which determines the market, 
and the producers of electrolytic copper now report so generally that it is 
passible to obtain a broad view of their returns. Especially is that so 
since in 1913 many of them began to report their price received, reduced 
to the basis of New York, net cash. In speaking roughly of the price for 
copper, persons in the trade talk commonly about the gross price, which 
includes the delivery charges (freight, etc.) to the consumers' works, 
and also other allowances. In 1913 the deliv^y charges as reported by 
the Chino, Ray and Utah companies came to 0.17 cents per pound. 
Miami reported 0.20 cents per pound ''for selling expenses, freight and 
export insurance." Phelps, Dodge & Co. reports the net cash price, 
New York, and Nevada Consolidated reports the net* price, f. o. b. 
Atlantic seaboard. 

The figures reported by 10 large companies in 1912 and 11 in 1913 are 
given in the accompanying tables. Apparently the United States com- 
pany realized the highest average in 1913, but we surmise that its figure 
includes the delivery charges. If that surmise be correct, Phelps, Dodge 
& Co. realized the highest average, the figure reported by it being the 
net cash price, New York basis. The Greene-Cananea and North Butte 
copper is sold by the United Metals Selling Co., and these are the only 
products sold by that agency that are publicly reported. The Anaconda's 
reports give no intimation of the price realized for its large output. 

The copper reported by these companies in 1913 amoimted to 668,- 
533,402 lb., selling for $100,248,273, or an average of 15.222 cents per 
pound. The quotational average for 1913, as reported by the Engineer- 
ing and Mining Journal was 15.269 cents per pound. In 1912 the 
copper companies, generally speaking, fell far short of attaining the 
quotational average; in 1913, they came much nearer to it. 

In 1912 the price for copper rose steadily during the first half of the 
year and remained at a high level during the second half. This was the 
famous period of pegged prices, during which the largest producers sold 
the less of their copper. The great break did not come until December. 
Much depended therefore upon the time when the copper was sold. Cer- 
tain of the smaller companies sold largely at cut prices, which looked small 
at the time but looked big later on, and realized high averages for the 
year. Other companies made their larger sales when the market was 
low. The result was a range of over' 1 cent per pound in the averages 
actually realiced. 



\a6 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



In 1913 there were several upsand downs, while the total range of price 
was confined within relatively narrow limits, the highest monthly average 
having been about 16^ cents and the lowest about 14| cents. In brief, 
1913 was quite a normal year. This shows also in the averages reported 
by the companies, most of which fall between the limits of 16.08 cents and 
15.37 cents. 

COPPER PROCEEDS IN 1912. 

Company. Lb. Value. Averace. 

CMno 27.776,088 $4,344,262 (6) 15.640 

East Butte 14.709.460 2.455,303 (6) 16.692 

Greene Cananea 48.157.847 7,714.405 (6) 16.019 

Miami 32.477.923 5,343.917 (o) 16.454 

Nevada Cona 63,063.261 10.076.872 <e) 15.979 

North Butte 26,480.123 4.334.531 (6) 16.369 

P. D. A Co 192,297.374 29,825.323 (o) 15.51 

Ray 34.674,275 6.467.297 (6) 15.762 

United States 21.152.620 3.434.551 (6) 16.237 

Utah 91,366.337 14.471,576 (b) 15.839 

Total 552.155.308 $87,468,037 15.841 

Quotational average reported by Bng. ^ Min. Journal. . . . 16.341 

COPPER PROCEEDS IN 1913. 

Company. Lb. Value. Average. 

Chino 60,511.661 $7,739,398 (o) 15.322 

East Butte 14.401.108 2.277.591 (a) 15.086 

Greene Cananea 44,480.514 6.716.558 (6) 15.10 

Miami 33.134.334 4.983.404 (a) 15.04 

Nevada Cons 64.972.829 9.667.307 (e) 14.879 

North Butte 27.685.400 4.176,619 (b) 15.086 

P. D. & Co 201,489,796 30.968.982 (a) 15. 37 

Ray 52,341,029 7,955.836 (o) 15.20 

United States 20,239,973 3.123.028 (6) 15.43 

United Verde 35.333.924 5,358.036 (d) 15.164 

Utah 113.942.834 17,281,710 (o) 15.167 

Total 658,553,402 $100,248,488 15.222 

Quotational average reported by Sng. A Min. Journal 15.269 

(a) Net cash. New York; (b) Whether gross or net price not stated, (c) Price f. o. b. Atlantic 
seaboard, (d) As given by the Boston News Bureau. 



The quotational average for 1913 was 1.09 cents lower than in 1912, 
but considering what was actually realized by the producers last year was 
not relatively so bad a one, their actual proceeds having been only about 
5/8 cent per pound less than in 1912. 

Copper Mining in the United States 



Alaska.^ — Eight copper mines were operated on a productive basis 
in 1913. It is estimated that in 1913 about 42,000 tons of ore were 
hoisted and 3rielded about 19,700,000 lb. of copper, valued at about 
$3,014,000, $160,000 worth of gold, and $150,000 worth of silver. The 
decrease of over 9,000,000 lb. in copper production compared with 
the previous year is due to the fact that the Eennecott-Bonanza which is 
the largest producer in the territory was closed down on account of acci- 
dents, during about one- third of the year. 

1 Mining in Alaska in 1013. Advance statement of U. S. Geol. Surv. 



COPPER 137 

The Jumbo and Bush and Brown mines in the Ketchikan district 
were operated on a shipping basis, and some developments were made on 
other copper properties, notably at the mines of the Northland Develop- 
ment Co., on the west side of Prince of Wales Island. 

There was no great activity in the Kotsina-Chitina copper belt during 
1913. The Kennecott-Bonanza continues to be the only productive mine 
and its operation was much hampered by the destruction of tramway and 
compressor plant by a snowslide and fire, causing a shut-down for about 
4 months. Ck)nsiderable work was also done on the nearby Jumbo 
claim, and a tramway is in course of construction on the Mother Lode 
property. A wagon road has been built from the lower end of this tram 
to the railroad. Some work was also done on the Dan creek property, 
near the eastern end of the copper belt. There was comparatively little 
mining at the western end of the field. Developments are reported on the 
Hubbard and Elliot property on Nugget creek, and on the Berg claim, the 
latter located on the east side of the Euskulina river. Some work was 
also done by the Great Northern Development Co., which shipped some 
ore from its property during the winter of 1912-1913. 

On Prince WiUiam Sound the Ellamar and Beatson copper mines were 
operated to full capacity in 1913. Shipments were also made from the 
properties of the Fidalgo Mining Co. and from the Fidalgo-Alaska 
Copper Co. The Dickey Copper Co. opened the Mason and Gleason 
Claim on Fidalgo Bay, and mined some ore which will be sledded to the 
beach during the winter. Developments were continued by the Three 
Man Mining Co. and the Land Lock Bay Copper Co. Work was 
sujspended during the summer at the Midas Copper mine, near Valdez, 
but was resumed by a new company which acquired the property in the 
fall. Work was continued in a small way on the copper properties of 
the Ilianma region. 

Arizona. — During 1913 Arizona exceeded the high rate of production 
which diaracterized the year 1912 by more than 12 per cent, and still 
holds first place among the copper-producing states. The mine produc- 
tion^ for the year was about 414,593,000 lb., and the smelter output^ 
401,223,786 lb., as compared with 365,038,649 lb., and 357,952,962 lb., 
for 1912. The total value of the mine output for 1913 has been estimated 
to be about $71,000,000 which is only about $3,500,000 more than the 
value of the output of 1912, owing to the lower price of copper during 1913. 

The erection of new smelting works by the Arizona Copper Co. 
and the United Verde Co. were the most important steps toward the 
development of the copper interests of Arizona during the past year. 

\ Mimiury Statement, U. 8. Geological Survey. 
* fM. Hm. your.. Jan. 10, 1014. 



Vi« MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The new smelter of the Calumet and Arizona Co. at Douglas, ad- 
jacent to the site of the old one, has been designed for both cupola and 
reverberatory work, and is larger. At present the monthly output of 
the smelter exceeds 5,000,000 lb. of copper. 

During the year ending Sept. 30, 1913, The Arizona Copper Co., 
Clifton, Ariz., according to its annual report, operated at a profit of 
$1,428,780. The final figures show a production of 34,226,000 lb. of 
copper, a decrease of about 4,000,000 lb. as compared with the previous 
year. This was due to the lower grade of the ore mined, and delay in 
getting the new smelting plant up to full capacity. The mine production 
was 936,903 dry tons of ore averaging 38.76 lb. of copper per ton. This 
is a decrease of 2.39 lb. per ton compared with the previous year. About 
72 per cent, of the ore produced came from the Longfellow group, and 28 
per cent, from the Metcalf group. About 95 per cent, of the ore was of 
concentrating quality, and the rest was direct smelting ore. The oxide 
concentrator treated 106,596 tons of ore, and 85,071 dry tons of its tailings 
were treated by the leaching plant. Of the total copper produced about 
9.27 per cent, came from the oxidized ores. The sulphuric acid plant 
supplied 3352 tons of acid to the leacher. When the change is com- 
pleted which is being made in the No. 6 concentrator where Hardinge 
conical mills are replacing the old Huntington mills, the plant will have 
a daily capacity of 3500 tons. 

The Phelps, Dodge & Co. properties produced 155,665,712 lb. of 
copper from 1,978,892 tons of ore, during the year, and paid to the con- 
trolling company $9,110,000 in dividends. 

The annual report of the Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co., 
Douglas and Bisbee, Ariz., for 1913, shows metal production from 1,034,- 
357 tons of ore treated as follows: 

t PRODUCTION OF REDUCTION WORKS. 

Tons Pounds Ouneea Ouneet 

Treated. Copper. Gold. SUver. 



Copper Queen Ore and Precipitate* 602.807 82.3M.137 14.855 008.662 

Copper Queen old dump alas 07.165 3,030.601 200 

Copper Queen lease ores 21,287 3,250.400 358 17.642 

Mocteiuma ore and concentrates 140,134 36.608.432 1.343 526.570 

All other ores 82,874 8,167,132 14,585 717.088 

Total 1.034.357 133.410.582 31.141 1.870,162 

Ore Shipped: 

ToElPasoi 15.573 200.780 806 203.214 

To Globe 18.136 334.335 607 7,204 

The Copper Queen mines and old dumps produced 867,481 tons of 
ore, slag, precipitates, etc., containing 97,181,725 lb. copper, 16,213 oz. 
gold, 919,138 oz. silver, and 5,701,628 lb. of lead. Compared with 
1912 the ore mined showed an increase of 81,113 tons and 8,900,817 lb. 

^ The ore shipped to El Paso also yielded 5,701.628 lb. lead. 



COPPER 139 

of copper. The reduction works purchased 1,041,453 tons of copper-bear- 
ing material, from which 141,551,247 lb. of copper was produced. 

Extensive development work was carried on by the company during 
the year with satisfactory showing of new ore. The most interesting 
strike was the exposure of ore on the Wade Hampton and White Tail Deer, 
two claims long neglected, but members of large groups owned by the 
Copper Queen to the west of Bisbee. The estimate of ore reserves shows 
a total of 2,567,928 tons of average grade, and 21 1, 199 tons of lean sulphide 
in the Limestone mine. 

The Copper Queen Co. finished the erection of a third reverberatory 
which will rdieve the cupola furnace of much fine ore and enable them to 
run with a lower blast, less fuel, and the production of less flue dust. 
During the year an experimental plant has been running on a small work- 
ing scale, the operations being principally for devising the most econom- 
ical method of extracting copper from extremely fine tailings from the 
slime tables of the company's mills. It is in these that the heaviest 
waste of concentration occurs. 

The Detroit Copper Mining Co. of Ariz, mined during the year a 
total of 533,563 tons of ore of all classes, averaging 2.89 per cent, copper, 
from all the company's mines. Of this, 518,718 tons was concentrating 
ore. A Nordberg compressor was installed to operate a larger number 
of drills, and new change houses and other improvements were built. 
On the outside mines development work was continued on the Esperanza, 
Sante Rosa, Wattle, Fairbanks, and Summit claims, while exploration was 
started at the Gem, Summit No. 2, Colorado and Antietam properties. 
The installation of new hoisting plants at practically all these properties, 
and the enlargement of plants at properties under development, meant 
very high outlays during the year. Power lines were built to some of 
these outlying camps. 

The blast-furnace treated 141,094 tons of mixed products, from which 
22,255,130 lb. of bullion was produced. The concentrating plant treated 
517,518 tons of ore averaging 2.785 per cent, copper, and produced 66,928 
tons of concentrates with a copper content of 15.834 per cent. A total 
of 1510 men were employed, 946 working at the mines. The net earnings 
of the company for 1913 were $1,112,870, of which $780,000 was paid in 
dividends to the shareholders.^ 

The Detroit Copper Co. has extended its ownership over the properties 
of the Standard Copper Co., and the New England & Clifton Co., but as 
yet no new ore-bodies of any significant value have been developed in these 
mines. The company realizes that it must rely on low-grade ores for the 
future and it is making provisions for handling them economically.' 

I AaBul Report, PbeliM Dodge A Ck>., for 1013. 

' iuica DoncUa, Copper MetallurKy in Arisona in 1013. Bng. Min, Jour., Jan. 10, 1013. 



\^0 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The Superior & Boston Copper Ck)., Globe, Ariz., has done considerable 
development work during the year, and has mined 15,485 tons of ore. 
It is stated that a new ore-body, first encountered about a year ago, on 
the eighth level, has been developed by raises between the eighth and 
sixth levels and laterally on the levels and in stopes. This has made it 
possible to resume ore shipment-s. 

The Shattuck Arizona Copper Co. in 1913 produced 13,219,756 lb. 
of copper, 236,000 oz. silver, and 2033 oz. gold. The ore mined was 
89,857 dry tons, and ore shipped, 89,317, while 89,343 tons were smelted. 
The total receipts of the company for a 17-month period ending Dec. 31, 
1913, was $2,562,668. The operating expenses for the same period was 
$1,411,788, and the net profit was $1,115,504. Dividends to the amount 
of $525,000 were paid, leaving a net surplus after deducting $35,376 for 
depreciation, of $590,504. 

During the period covered by the report 20,147 ft. of development 
work was done, and improvements and construction to the amount of 
$32,138 were made. The company ores are smelted by the Calumets 
Arizona Mining Co., and the product is sold by Adolph Lewisohn & Sons. 

The Arizona Commercial Mining Co., operating at Copperhill, near 
Globe, made a small shipment of 494 tons of ore averaging 3.58 per cent. 
copper. Considerable development work has been carried on with fair 
results. 

In the annual report of the Inspiration Copper Co. the General 
Manager, Mr. C. E. Mills, states that the 600-ton flotation plant which 
has-been in operation for over 3 months has yielded a concentrate 
more free from silica than was expected from the results in the 50-ton 
plant. The figures bearing on the percentage recovery are not given 
in the report but they are known to be high, and the management is 
well pleased with results. The present design of the mill involves the 
preliminary concentration on tables. The total development work done 
so far amounts to 110,609 ft., and the total tonnage of ore developed is as 
follows: 45,000,000 tons of sulphide ore averaging 2 per cent, copper; 
28,322,000 tons of sulphide ore carrying an average of 1.26 per cent, 
copper; 12,500,000 tons of oxidized material carrying 1.34 per cent, 
copper; and 2,876,000 tons of mixed oxides and sulphides averaging 1.24 
per cent, copper. A branch railroad is to be constructed, a steam plant 
installed, and more land is to be acquired by this company. 

The annual report of the Miami Copper Co. of Arizona shows that 
from 1,058,784 tons of ore mined, containing an average of 2.3 per cent, 
copper, there was produced 45,410 tons of concentrates containing 38.9 
per cent, copper, or 34,597,568 lb. of copper. From these concentrates, 
the net smelter returns of refined copper amounted to 32,867,666 lb. 



COPPER 141 

The concentrate production in 1912 was 34,560,665 lb. of copper and the 
net smelter reduction was 32,832,609 lb. A comparison with these 
figures shows that the production for 1913 was about the same as that 
for 1912. The causes preventing an increase in production for the past 
year have been overcome and the mine now averages at least 33,000 
tons of ore per day. 

The cost of production during 1913 for mining, milling and general 
expenses was $2.4651 per ton of ore or $0.07907 per pound of copper. 

(By J. Parke Channing). — Diu-ing the year about 37,000 ft. of de- 
vdopment work was done, a large part of which was in the Captain ore- 
body. This ore-body has an extreme height of 350 ft. above the 420- 
ft. haulage level and it is planned to mine it in two lifts, probably using 
15-ft. stopes with 10-ft. pillars. The development work for the 420- 
ft. level has shown ore to exist 200 ft. east of the boundaries as de- 
termined in this portion of the property by churn drillings. The ore de- 
veloped for the year will probably equal that extracted after allowing for 
loss, thus putting the reserves of sulphide ore at approximately 20,800,000 
tons of 2.48 per cent, copper ore, and in addition, there has been developed 
6,000,000 tons of 2 per cent, ore, of which half the copper is present in 
the form of sulphide, the other half being oxide. No change is made 
in the 17,000,200 tons of low-grade material, which was reported last year 
at 1.21 per cent, copper. A large portion of the ore mined during 1913 
consisted of slicing the mine ore-body east of No. 2 shaft. This is nearly 
all sliced down to a 370 ft. level. The installation of Hardinge mills 
was completed in January. Three Evans- Waddell Chilean mills are 
still running in Section Five. These mills have about the same capacity 
as the 8-ft. Hardinge mills and the maintenance is about the same. 
Conaderable experimental work on Hardinge mill runnings was done 
during 1913. 

The Calumet and Arizona produced 52,897,383 lb. of copper during 
1913, as shown by the annual report of the Calumet and Arizona, and its 
subsidiary, the Superior and Pittsburg. The production in 1912 was 
^,108,628 lb. so that the output for 1913 shows a decrease of about half 
a million pounds. The combined profit for the year was $4,074,637 which 
resulted from the above production of copper, together with 880,914 
0*. of silve- and 18,988 oz. of gold. The average cost of the copper 
▼as 7.K cents per pound. Dividends aggregating $3,059,208 were 
pud during the year by the Calumet and Arizona. The statement of 
income and expenditures of the Calumet and Arizona shows a net income 
of 13,001,150 for the year. The company has purchased 688,623 shares 
of the New Cornelia and has options on additional shares that will make 
ite toftal holdings equal to 76.75 per cent, of the stock. It is estimated 



\« MINERAL INDUSTRY 

that this property has 40,258,000 tons of 1.51 per cent, copper ore in 
reserve. 

The Calumet and Arizona now owns 1,402,563 shares of the Superior 
and Pittsburg, and it is expected that the remaining outstanding stock 
will be turned in for exchange at an early date. Experiments have been 
made in the sulphide ores for concentration by oil flotation and results show 
that a high saving can be made. The total expenditures for the new smel- 
tery which this company has erected were $2,218,318, which is 13.86 per 
cent, in excess of the first estimate. 

In 1913, the Ray Consolidated Copper Co. milled 2,365,296 
tons of ore yielding 53,745,937 lb. of copper. These figures compare 
with 1,565,875 tons of ore handled during 1912, from which there was 
obtained 35,851,496 lb. of copper. During the year's operations, there was 
mined including the small tonnage of ore shipped direct to the smelter, a 
total of 2,366,007 tons, averaging 1.72 per cent, copper. The total ton- 
nage mined from the beginning of operations up to the end of the year 
1913 was 4,613,402 tons and the total developed tonnage still remaining is 
78,380,966 tons. As stated in the last annual report, however, the limits 
of all the ore-bodies have been by no means defined, either laterally or as 
to depth, and this is particularly true in the western section where at 
seversJ points drilling operations for development were discontinued in 
ore. Increased ore reserves much greater than the quantity of ore that 
has been mined since the beginning will quite certainly be developed with 
the moderate amount of additional exploratory drilling. At the end of 
1912, it was estimated that there was about 2,500,000 tons of ore broken 
in stopes and in reserve areas, in which stoping had been completed. At 
the close of the year, it is estimated that in all parts of the mine there is 
about 5,000,000 tons of broken ore. Of the totaJ tonnage produced for the 
year, 63.4 per cent, was mined from the No. 1 shaft territory. The area 
served by the No. 2 shaft produced 33.4 per cent. The No. 3 shaft, 
serving the higher grade ore-body, produced only 3.3 per cent. 

As in the previous year, most of the tonnage mined in the No. 1 area 
came from a comparatively low-grade body of ore, which on account of 
its location, it was necessary to mine out before the deeper laying and 
better grade ores in that section could be attacked. There still remains 
a very large reserve tonnage of this lower grade material, which will be 
drawn upon during the coming year. The cost of mining ore from all 
sources for the year was 73.23 cents per ton as compared with 77.55 cents 
per ton for the year 1912. These costs include all fixed and general 
charges, as well as the cost of operating the coarse crushing plant at the 
mine and loading the crushed ore into cars for shipment to the mill. 
The total amount of ore treated for the year was 2,365,296 tons cor- 



COPPER 143 

responding to a daily average of 6480 tons as compared with 1,565,875 
tons for the year 1912. The increase of tonnage for the year 1913 over 
that for 1912 was accordingly about 51 per cent. The average copper 
content of the ore treated for 1913 was 1.719 per cent, as compared with 
1.677 per cent, for 1912. The average recovery for the year based on the 
total copper contained in concentrates produced was 66.09 per cent., 
corresponding to 22.723 lb. of copper per ton of ore, as compared with 22.9 
lb. for the previous year. The recoveries for the year were afiFected ad- 
versely by a considerable amount of oxidized ores, coming at times from 
the upper levels, and also by the irregular operations of the mill during 
the last half of the year when improvements were in progress. These 
improvements have raised the recoveries to a point exceeding 68 per cent, 
and when completed the savings will be even more. 

The cost of milling for the year is 51.93 cents per ton as compared 
with 46.88 cents per ton for the previous year. This increase is due solely 
to the intermittent operations of the plant during the latter half of the 
year. 

The average cost of net copper produced after making allowances 
for smelting and refining deductions, was 9.7836 cents per pound as com- 
pared with 9.281 cents per pound for the previous year. The mine is now 
fully and finally equipped and its equipment is operating as efficiently 
as could be desired. Underground development has reached a state 
where the excess expenditm-es for this purpose over and above those reg- 
ularly absorbed into operating costs are decreasing rapidly. The outlook 
for the year 1914 is that the percentage of increase in copper production 
will be almost as great over the production of 1913 as was the increase of 
that year over the production of 1912. Such being the case, in view of 
the actual and physical and operating conditions prevailing, there will 
undoubtedly be a marked decrease in the cost of producing copper dur- 
ing the coming year.^ 

The Copper Reef, southwest of San Carlos, displaying one of the 
world's most extensive mineralized surface areas, was the scene of con- 
siderable development during 1913, an electric furnace having been 
tested at Globe, with the Copper Reef ores. A program of active de- 
velopment in this region has been planned for in the near future. 

The Old Dominion Copper Mining and Smelting Co. at Globe, 
Ariiona, produced in 1913 a total of 30,810,000 lb. of copper as com- 
pared with ite production of 27,000,000 lb. in 1912. This was done in 
spite of being handicapped during the latter part of the year by a com- 
plete change of hoisting methods and equipment, that retarded ore hoist- 

2^ j^p C. JMkliiifc Report of the Ray CoMoUdated Copper Co., Ariiona. Min. Bng. World. May 



\M^ MINERAL INDUSTRY 

ing to a considerable extent. Under favorable conditions the company 
is how prepared to produce copper at the rate of 3,000,000 lb. monthly 
during the coming year.^ 

California.* — ^The production of copper in California in 1913 shows an 
increase of nearly a niilli(»n pounds over the recordfor 1912, the figures for 
the two years being 32,492,266 lb. and 31,516,471 lb. respectively. The 
chief producer was the Mammoth mine, in Shasta County, and the Cala- 
veras Copper Co. comes next in importance. Notwithstanding the op- 
position to the Mammoth smelter on the part of the farmers of Shasta 
County, the smelter was able to continue operations throughout the 
year. 

The Bully Hill mine, in Shasta County, is still experimenting with a 
leaching process for its zinc ores, and produced no copper in 1913. 
The Balaklala mine in the same county has been shipping small lots of ore 
to another smeltery, while its own plant has remained idle. This company 
is now considering the shipment of its ores by rail to San Francisco and 
thence to the smeltery at Tacoma, Washington. Some ore will also be 
shipped to the Mason Valley smelter in Nevada. 

The Mountain Copper Co., of Keswick, Shasta Co., ships the ores 
from its mines by rail to its smeltery on the shores of San Francisco bay. 
In the old Iron Mountain mine of this company extensive bodies of low- 
grade copper ore have been discovered, and plans have been made for 
large concentrating plant to be erected at the mine. The concentrates 
will be shipped to the company's smelter. 

Colorado. — The output of copper from 599,684 tons of ore smelted at 
the Globe, Pueblo, Arkansas Valley, and Durango plants of the American 
Smelting and Refining Co. and from ores shipped to this company's plants 
outside of Colorado was 6,852,992 lb. The total production of the state 
during 1913 was 9,052,104 lb. as compared with 7,963,520 lb. in 1912.' 
The main production is derived from the treatment of ores containing 
only a small amount of copper. The only producing properties which can 
be properly classed as copper mines are in the San Juan district, at notably 
the Indiana and the Congress at Red Mountain. 

Idaho. — The report of the State Inspector of Mines, Mr. Robert N. 
Bell, for 1913 gives the following production of copper in Idaho for the 
last 5 years: 

1909 7.769.886 lb. 

1910 5.837.039 lb. 

1911 3.962.060 lb. 

1912 7.392.280 lb. 

1913 8.627,242 lb. 

^ Min. Eng. World, Januarv 24, 1914. 

* Production figures from U. 8. Geological Survey. Advance Statement. Mining news from Salt 
Lake Min. Rev., Jan. 16. 1914. 

* Advance Statement, U. S, Geological Survey. 



COPPER 146 

The principal producing mines are the Snowstorm, in Shoshone 
County; the White Knob, in Custer County, and the Lost Packer, also 
in Custer County. The Snowstorm mine has been a producer for the 
past 10 years, and furnished most of the state's copper output in 
1913. The ore consists of copper carbonate disseminated in the 
Revette quartzite of pre-Cambrian age. In places the carbonate ore 
gives place to sulphides, principally chalcopyrite, bomite, and chal- 
cocite. A fault at the No. 3 tunnel has cut oflf the ore, and its con- 
tinuation has not yet been discovered. The future of this property 
depends upon the recovery of the lost ore-body at this fault, as the 
present ore reserve is very low. Along the strike of the vein on which 
the Snowstorm is located are a number of promising prospects among 
which are the Snow Shoe and the National. On this latter property a 
4800 ft. cross-cut tunnel has revealed the vein with a fairly uniform 
width of 60 ft. and carrying 2 to 3 per cent, copper, 6 to 7 oz. silver 
and 25 cents gold per ton, at a depth of 1700 ft. from the crest of the 
vein. After thorough testing of this ore a mill of 500 tons capacity has 
been designed and built, which it is thought will give 85 to 90 per cent, 
extraction of the valuable minerals which consist of chalcopyrite, bomite 
and chalcocite. 

The operations of the Empire Copper Co. at Mackay, Custer County, 
made the second largest output of copper ore in the State. Monthly 
shipments of from 55 to 60 car loads of 50-ton capacity, were made to the 
smelters in Salt Lake Valley. The average copper content was about 
6 per cent., with gold and silver values of $5 per ton. This company's 
property is extensive in area, and present development work promises to 
result in proving a reserve of copper sulphide ore that will greatly increase 
the present capacity of the mine. 

At Loon Creek, Custer County, the Lost Packer mine has been de- 
veloped on a narrow vein of chalcopyrite which has made a total yield 
of something like $700,000 worth of rich gold-bearing matte from the 
operation of a 100-ton hot-blast pyritic smelter, owned by the company. 
During the last summer a 30 days' run resulted in the production of 360 
tons of a 50 per cent, matte carrying 10 oz. of gold per ton. From the 
-'^ale of this matte $25,000 was paid in dividends to the stockholders. 

The lack of railroad facilities has so far proved the principal draw- 
hack to the development of the many copper properties of Idaho. 

Muhigan (By Carl L. C. FitcheP).— The year 1913 will long be 
remembered in the annals of the Lake Superior copper district. The 
first time in the history of the district, a period of nearly 50 years, a 
g^iend strike was called by the Western Federation of Miners. This 

* K*g. md Min. Jour., Jan. 10. 1914. 
10 



146 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

organization has looked with longing eyes upon the copper district of 
Michigan for a long time and its emissaries had been quietly working 
among the men for a number of years. 

The agitation and discontent aroused by these paid organisers was 
felt for the past 2 years and resulted in a number lof men leaving the 
district, causing a labor shortage. New men came in, materially aiding 
the Federation in its campaign for membership. 

On July 14, demands were made by the several locals in the district 
upon the various mining companies for a conference with their repre- 
sentatives for the purpose of discussing the possibilities of shortening the 
working day, raising the wages and making some changes in the working 
conditions, limiting the time of the conference to July 28, and demand- 
ing a reply to the request to be not later than July 21. The request was 
ignored by the companies and as a result a general strike was called on 
July 23 with the following demands: Recognition of the Western Fed- 
eration of Miners; abolishment of the one-man drill or the working of 
two men on each drill; a minimum wage of $3 for trammers and $3.50 
for miners; and an 8-hour working day. 

The Department of Labor sent investigators into the district and 
offered its services in an attempt to bring about a settlement by arbi- 
tration, as also did Governor Ferris. The mining companies absolutely 
refused to deal with the Federation in any way, but stood ready at any 
and all times to meet with their men as employees to hear and adjust any 
legitimate grievance that might exist; taking the stand that the Federa- 
tion was a detriment to good government, the future welfare of the men 
and the district as a whole. 

The companies held off several weeks before bringing in outside men 
to fill the places of the men on strike and allowed all former employees 
who had not taken part in any violence or who were not openly an- 
tagonistic to the company to return to their former places, not to be 
discriminated against. 

The Ojibway property was closed down during the sununer, all work 
was abandoned and the mine was allowed to fill with water. 

A change of management was made at the Mohawk and Wolverine 
properties. Theodore Dengler, formerly superintendent at the Atlantic 
mine, succeeded Fred Smith as agent and William Hartmann succeeded 
Willard Smith as superintendent of the Mohawk. Nos. 3 and 4 shafts 
of the Ahmeek started regular production, but no attempt was made to 
resume work at that branch after the strike. At the stamp mill, work 
was started on the erection of an addition to the mill. Contracts for 
all the machinery were closed, including a 2000-kw. low-pressure steam 
turbine to utilize the exhaust steam of the heads for the generation of 



COPPER 



147 



electrical energy. Mayflower and Old Colony did further diamond-drill 
work with results that correlated with the previous exploration. 

The Calumet & Hecla took advantage of the temporary shut-down and 
the force at the mills was put on construction and repair work. 

The Tamarack Mining Co. permanently closed down shortly after the 
strike was called, with the exception that the pumps were kept operating. 
No. 2 shaft of LaSalle was developing good ground in the lower levels, but 
no work has been done, other than pumping and keeping up repairs since 
July 24. An electrically driven pump was installed at the twelfth level 
of No. 2 shaft to handle all the mine water. Hancock began rock ship- 
ments to the Lake Milling, Smelting & Refining Co.'s plant, but has not 
attempted to resume operations. The Superior Co. shipped more rock 
to the mill for the past 6 weeks than it did during a like period before 
the strike. 

DIVIDENDS PAID BY MICHIGAN MINES. 



Mine. 


1911. 


1012. 


1913. 


Mine. 


1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


GthmelAHaela 


$2,400,000 

1367.104 
175.000 
073.050 


4.200.000 

2.100.000 

350.000 

1.153.800 


$3,200,000 

1.082.700 

500.000 

1.009.580 


Quiney ... 
Tamaraok. 
Wolverine 

Totals. . . . 


$440,000 


$550,000 


$412,500 


540,666 


550.000 


300.000 


OMeok.!;*.!.'.'.*; 


$6,231,840 


$9,069,259 


$6,504,780 



COPPEE PRODUCTION IN MICHIGAN. 
(Pounds of fine copper.) 



vm. 



l9QfL 



isg7. 



1908. 



1S09. 



3S10. 



lOlL 



1812. Ifll3. (tj) 









P?^r 




1,M6.^ 
1353,957 
1.167,957 
4.0iB.711 
E4JSMSI 

1,440384 
1SJ07427 



2jni,79S 
4,387 J14 
l«.93Sw965 

273J19 






1,553,62s 
3,077 3Cf: 
3,4SG,WM 
1»439,<K2 

3J53.0I5 
]fi.gifi4.ft8fl 

2.937.098 
2,l06J3fl 
2.87J.341 

18,SSS.451 

Nil 

i^m.&io 



0,832,644 

27gJ*i2 
Q«54ai23 



l,244^7J 

5,527,672 

2,U94.n6l 

Nit i 

S8.0fi5J23J 
2,373372: 
ie,480,4Sa 

2,B67.(Ki 
2,OT8>e77, 
2.06S.4O41 
10.107,266 
14JH753 
Nil ' 
m.796,05a 



8,190.711 
K2ft5.Stt3 
9,273351 
1,207 JZ57 
]00,OOQ 



90.870^ 

3,«7,051| 
Nit 

17,724,8.^ 

31.660,723 
2,106,377, 

17.7»K763 
4,703,421! 
3.011.664' 
1,766,030 
3,000.206 

10,205,881 

2l.25fl,79i 
Nil I 

20.600,361; 
21,244' 

12.S06.127 
6.11^.008^ 

Nil 
0355,233 
1.290,040! 



I 



Nil 
94fi8,U0 
4,031332 
43,483 
17,81^836 
743^35-1 
23S3.703 
ia0O5,O7l 
1,615.556 

bjio.om; 

1,723.436] 

U07&.3a^ 

11,248,4741 

25.206,657, 

Nil I 

22,511,584 

1789,3151 
13.5.13,207 

5^82,404 
Nil 

0,97l,4lf2 

1,164.564; 

2362.23;3| 



Nil \ 

11,M4.&M 

4,655.702 

19,018 

17340,762 

72.S72,4fiO 

1,572,566 

10.224,124, 

066^531 

7,667.^09' 

1,331,8851 

36,682 

11,412,066 

1 a, 346 ,566 

Nil ■ 

22317,014 

3,181,041 

ii,n«>,i,fl06 

5,004.8681 

Nil I 

10,469 ,2JS3; 

U64364 

£99,047; 



Nil 
IS,I96.127! 
4.780,4041 
Nil I 
15^70,449 
72.fifll,925 
1,403.834 
15,639,426 



7.400,120 

1.326,888 

327,773 

12,1)01,056 

lS;t&^.l03 

Nxi ! 

2a,252,M3 

3,236,Z^ 

7,404,077 

fl, 120,40 

Nil 
9.630,630 
1.303,331 
294 .87;^ 



8,727.312 

16,455,7691 

5,525,455 

Nil i 

13,373,061 

67,856,423 

1,742,338 

17,225306 

1,7(0,651 

8,186,057. 

2.045 ,0( Id, 

30O.OfK3i 

11,905,538 

18,113,387 

Nil 
20.634,800 
3,H2 1,074 
7.W8.746 
6,^80,7131 
2.307, ?37' 

1,224,911' 



9,1 00.(110 

Ktmsm 

53,420,000 
1,400.000 

11,448,000 
1,040,000 
4.680.000 
1,500,000 

5.369,0Of) 
lL686,tHM) 

io,stM',b(»fj 

3.G7«.Onf> 
4,142,I>00 
4,888,000 
l.fiOO.OOO 
],550,OOa 
4,485.000 



|iajai,7S3 m,071,I0a 330 Jt7,Ul|222.1^,68S230,g71.Ofi]^ J7I}330216,1 10,0n|225,»5^^ 



(a) Like Superior Copper. R. H. Maurer.ifin. Bng, World, Jan. 24. 1914. 



The Copper Range Co. put in commission a low-pressure turbine at 
th€ Baltic mill, and installed several motor-driven Hardinge mills for re- 



\^8 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

grinding purposes. The Lake Co. suspended all work and the property 
is entirely closed down and is being allowed to fill with water. 

In the early part of 1913, exploratory work was being carried on by a 
number of companies besides the producing ones. Diamond drilling 
was done at the Adventure, Algomah, Keweenaw, Mayflower, Naumkeag, 
Old Colony and Ondagada. Development of lodes was continued at the 
Hancock, Houghton, Lauriaum Lake, Ojibway, St. Louis, White Pine and 
Wyandotte. During the strike many of these companies continued their 
work without interruption. Diamond drilling was not stopped by the 
strikers. 

The Quincy Mining Co. installed a new hydraulic jig classifier 
devised by the company's stall and consulting metallurgists. The new 
apparatus, known as the Shield's Thielman jig classifier, is giving great 
satisfaction. 

At several of the mines new rock houses were built and old ones 
improved. At the mills, especially those of the Calumet & Hecla 
subsidiary companies, there were many additions and improvements. 
At the Winona mill a new device known as the Lovett machine was 
found very successful in treating fine copper. It rolls the copper and 
makes its concentration easier. 

During the year a company interested in power development did some 
preliminary work with the view to supplying the mines with power from 
the Sturgeon river. 

The annual report of the Mass Cons. Mining Co. for 1913 shows that 
95,434 tons of rock was hoisted, 78,250 tons of rock was stamped and 
1,773,810 lb. of mineral was produced. The production of refined copper 
was 1,213,545 lb., which corresponds with 1.13 per cent, of mineral in the 
rock. The percentage of copper in mineral was 68.415 and the refined 
copper per ton of rock stamped amounts to 15.51 lb. The mine was 
closed down on July 23 on account of the general strike in the Lake copper 
district and remained idle during the rest of the year. 

According to the annual report of the South Lake Mining Co., Hough- 
ton, Mich., its income amounted to $67,927 for 1913 from the sale of 
stock and interest receipts. The shaft started in 1912 to open up the 
ore-body which had been discovered by diamond drilling sunk to a depth 
of 537 ft. and plats were cut at the 300-, 400- and 500-ft. level. Three 
amygdaloid lodes showing good copper contents were cut by the shaft. 

The annual report of the Tamarack Mining Co., Calumet, Mich., 
for the year ending December 31, 1913, shows that during the year 
227,563 tons of ore was treated with an average yield of 18.3 lb. of copper 
per ton, making a total production of 4,168,743 lb. of copper. There were 
230,677 tons of rock hoisted from the mine during 1913. The total depth 



COPPER 149 

of the Tamarack shafts are as follows : Shaft No. 1, 3049 ft. ; shaft No. 2, 
4355 ft. ; Shaft No. 3, 5253 ft. ; Shaft No. 4, 4450 ft. ; Shaft No. 5, 5308.5 ft. 
from the surface. 

During 1913, the Ahmeek Mining Co., made a production of 9,220,874 
lb. from 383,749 tons of rock stamped. During the year 385,450 tons of rock 
were hoisted, of which 1701 tons or about 4 per cent, was discarded as waste. 
Development work consisted of 104 ft. which compares with 1336 ft. 
in 1912. The Ahmeek, like other companies suffered from the general 
strike called in July 1913. The copper produced cost 13.30 cents per 
pound compared with 7.85 cents per pound in 1912. However, 3.33 
cents of this increase was due to construction account, leaving increased 
(ost over 1912 as 2.12 cents per lb. of copper. 

Missouri, — During 1913 Missouri produced 12,300,600 tons of ore 
containing copper lead and zinc, as estimated by Mr. J. P. Dunlop of the 
r. S. Geological Survey. From this ore there was produced 576,204 lb. 
of copper in 1913, as compared with 440,725 lb. in 1912. The tonnage of 
ore treated was about 1 ,000,000 tons less than that for 1912, but the copper 
content was greater, the increase being 35,479 lb. The yield of copper was 
derived mainly from the dressing of lead concentrate from mines in south- 
t astern Missouri. 

Montana. — Montana ranks second among the states in copper pro- 
<luction, and in 1913 the smelter output amounted to 285,719,918 lb. as 
'•ompared with 308,770,826 lb. in 1912. Practically the whole output 
" omes from the Butte district. In 1912 Butte produced about 308,000,000 
i^'.,and in 1913 the output was 285,289,000 lb. of copper which is nearly 
the whole production of the state. Of the total, the Anaconda Copper 
^0. produced 270,301,644 lb., which is about 94 per cent. of the Butte 
production. 

Anaconda (By B. B. Thayer). — Notwithstanding the feeling of 
pessimism concerning business conditions in general that existed through- 
out the country during 1913, and the skrinkage in business of every 
^"hanujter which occurred during that period, the conditions in the Butte 
district were normal. All of the operating companies carried on work 
I ontmuously, and there was new work undertaken which made itself felt 
niaterially. 

The properties of the North Butte, Anaconda, East Butte, Alex 
?^cott, Tuolumne, Pilot-Butte and Davis-Daly companies were operated 
■*pon the same scale as that of previous years. The operations of the 
Butte-Balaklava' Mining Co. were somewhat restricted on account of 
i:tigation with the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., which controversy, 
-owever, was settled out of court during the latter part of the year. 

The greatest amount of new work was done in the extreme eastern 



150 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

section of the district. The Butte & Duluth Mining Co. and the Bull- 
whacker Mining Co. carried on operations continuously, and the officials 
of both companies have stated that the results obtained from their re- 
spective leaching plants were satisfactory. 

The Rainbow Lode Development Co. was busy with development 
work for the entire period. The officials of the Butte & Superior Mining 
Co. expressed themselves as being well pleased with the results obtained 
in their concentrating department. The method of concentration, 
however, is at present involved in legal complications with the Minerals 
Separation Co.; but a regular output was maintained. 

The copper ores extracted from the properties owned by W. A. Clark 
during 1913 were shipped for treatment at the Washoe smeltery, but his 
concentrator for the reduction of the zinc ores is rapidly nearing comple- 
tion. It is thought that the complete output of sine made by the Butte 
& Superior Mining Co. and the properties owned by W. A. Clark will be 
an important factor in the zinc production of this country. 

The Anaconda Copper Mining Co. during the last few months of 
1913 started some new work in the extreme western end of the Butte 
district, in a section known as the Burlington district, the ores of that 
section having been worked many years ago for silver. 

A great deal of attention was given to experimentation with new 
processes by several of the companies, apparently with promising results. 
The processes, if worked out satisfactorily, will mean much to the Butte 
district in the future. 

The output of copper from the Butte district during 1913 was less than 
that during 1912, due largely to extensive repairs which one of the large 
companies found it necessary to make, and also to the fact that on ac- 
count of conditions the railroads at times were unable to deliver a 
sufficient quantity of ore to the several reduction works. The new 
companies have thus far not advanced sufficiently in their operations to 
make their output appreciable in the total output from the district. 

The net mining profits of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. for 1913 
were $11,283,226. Smelter production for the year amounted to 270,- 
301,644 lb. of copper, compared with 294,474,161 lb. m 1912; 10,321,296 
oz. of silver, compared with 11,014,736; and 64,898 oz. of gold, com- 
pared with 61,314 oz. in 1912. 

Receipts and disbursements in detail were as follows in 1913 compared 
with 1912: 

The cost per pound of copper produced during the year 1913 was 
higher, due to the shut-down which has been mentioned, and also owing 
to the fact that the grade of ore treated was somewhat lower than that 
of the year previous. 



COPPER 151 

There were 35.3 miles of development work, and a tonnage of ore in 
excess of the amount extracted was added to the ore reserves. Devel- 
opments were satisfactory with but few exceptions, for while at several 
of the mines the result of some of the development work was disappoint- 
ing, it was compensated for by very gratifying results in the greater 
portion of the territory explored, especially so in the case of the Original, 
Gagnon, Steward, Tramway, West Colusa, West Gray Rock, Ana- 
conda, Badger State] and Leonard properties. There was a marked im- 
provement on the 2400-ft. level of the Anaconda mine. On the 3000-ft. 
level of the Original mine, a large vein carrying a good grade of ore was 
disclosed by the cross-cut. This level in the Original mine is at the 
greatest depth yet attained in the Butte district at which ore has been 
developed, with the exception of the High Ore mine. 

Electric haulage, as practised in the Butte mines, has demonstrated the 
great eeonomies to be effected by it over any other system of tramming. 
Preparations are being made to use electric haulage at all of the mines. 

The mines of the company produced 4,644,201 tons of ore and 7243 
tons of precipitates, or a total of 4,651,444 tons. 

Reduction works treated for sll companies 4,016,689 tons of ore at 
Anaconda, and 1,170,150 tons of ore at Great Falls. Of this 4,566,450 
tons of ore from company mines, 619,864 tons of ore purchased from or 
treated for other companies, and 524 tons of precipitates and cleanings 
from the old works were treated; 241,983,323 lb. of copper, 8,719,132 
02. of silver, and 64,898 oz. of gold were produced by mines of the 
Anaconda Co. 

North Butte. — ^This company had a very successful year in 1913. 
It produced an average daily output of 1300 tons, and its earnings for 
the year exceeded $1,600,000. The total product of copper was about 
28,000,000 lb. The company confidently expects to increase the produce 
to 30,000,000 lb. next year. The company paid $2 per share in dividends, 
which was about 8 per cent, on the selling price of the mine, and $800,000 
was added to the surplus in the treasury. The underground de- 
velopments during 1913 were highly satisfactory. The future is very 
bright for the company, the reserves at the close of the year being larger 
than ever. The company has been engaged in sinking a 3-compartment 
shaft on the Granite Mountain claim, and intends to equip the works 
with the largest electric hoisting plant in this country. The engine will 
have a hoisting capacity of 300 tons per hour from the 2000-level and 
200 tons per hour from the 4000-leveI, the skip holding 7 tons. It is 
expected to complete this equipment early in 1914, when the Speculator 
shaft wiU be closed and the company will hoist through the Granite 
Mountain shaft. 



152 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

East Butte. — The East Butte Co. increased its output in 1913, aud the 
mine is in satisfactory condition at the close of the year. Operations 
during the year were confined to the sixth, eighth and tenth levels. The 
copper output during the year was 14,289,476 lb. The main shaft was 
deepened 300 ft., to a depth of 1600 ft. during the year. Pumps were 
installed on the 1500-level, which was opened during 1913, and 800 ft. 
of work done in opening the level. In a short time the company expects 
to reach the first ore-bodies on this level. 

Nettie. — The Anaconda Copper Co. added a new field to the estab- 
lished mining zone at Butte during the year by starting operations in the 
Nettie mine on the west side of the city. The company designs to sink 
the old shaft, which is down 450 ft. to a depth of 2000 ft., and mine the 
silver ores. The mine was a producer during the early epoch of the dis- 
trict. Many old silver properties in the district may be reopened if the 
mining of the Nettie turns out satisfactorily. 

Tropic. — The Anaconda Copper Co., which owns this mine, has de- 
veloped a large body of low-grade oxidized ore on the 700-level, where 
work was carried on during the year. The mine is in the newly opened 
oxidized zone east of Butte, where the Butte-Duluth and BuUwhacker 
properties are located. The shaft will be sunk to the 1500-level. 

Davis-Daly. — The annual report of the Davis-Daly Copper Co., Butte, 
Mont., for the year ended June 30, 1913, shows a deficit of $97,343 on 
operations for the year. Receipts were as follows : Ore returns, $191 ,943 ; 
rentals, $1071; royalties, $2317; miscellaneous, $478; interest and dis- 
counts, $4272; total, $200,081. Operating charges amounted to $294,424 
and consisted principally of development work. The report states that 
the Colorado is the principal mine of the Davis-Daly group. This mine 
has a vertical shaft 2030 ft. deep. The bottom level is 2000 ft. below the 
collar of the shaft. At the 1400-ft. level the mine is connected with the 
Moonlight mine of the Anaconda Co. During the year 6178 ft. of 
drifts and cross-cuts and raises were run and 46,923 cars of waste hoisted. 
There were also produced 33,153 dry tons of ore, averaging 64.94 lb. of 
copper and5.96 oz. of silver per ton. The average cost of mining, including 
development, was $8.67, and receipts from the sale of ore averaged $5.73 
per ton of ore. It is claimed that the mine was on a paying basis during 
May, June, July and August, 1913. 

Nevada. — The copper production of Nevada for 1913 shows an in- 
crease of more than 1,500,000 lb. of copper, over the output of 
the previous year, the figures for the 2 years being 85,209,536 lb. and 
83,413,900 lb. respectively.^ As in previous year the principal producing 
districts are the Ely and the Yerington. An increase estimated at 2 per 

> Advance Statement, U. S. Geol. Surv. 



COPPER 153 

cent, in tbe mine production, from 86,477,494 lb. in 1912, to about 
88,368,890 lb. in 1913, is due to a slight increase in the output of the 
Nevada Consolidated and Giroux mines from copper *' porphyries " at Ely, 
and in a larger output of copper matte at the Thompson smelter from 
Mason Valley, Nevada Douglas and custom ores.^ 

Ely, in White Pine County, is the principal copper camp in the state, 
and during tbe year it made decided advances. The Nevada Con. Cop- 
per Co. duplicated its record of 1912 by paying its regular quarterly divi- 
dends of 37 1/2 cents a share, and an extra dividend of 50 cents at 
Christmas. More than 3,000,000 tons of ore was treated during the year, 
yielding 64,972,829 lb. of copper, and close to 3,000,000 tons of waste was 
removed. Considerable new ore was opened up which has greatly added 
to the ore reserves of the company. 

An important consideration of the year was that of the Giroux and a 
number of other properties to form the Consolidated Copper Mines Co. 
The new Organization will build a new concentrator and a smelter. 
Considerable core drilling has been done on the property of the Nevada 
Con., and in excavating for tracks to the Liberty pit some high-grade por- 
phyry ore was uncovered on the Ora claim. This necessitated the Giroux 
securing two steam shovels and starting work, and this ore-body has been 
found to be extensive enough to enable the company to keep up its con- 
tract to supply tbe Steptoe Valley smelter. 

One of the greatest discoveries of the year was the uncovering of the 
ore in tbe Ora claim of the Con. Copper Mines Co. This ore-body is 
surrounded by the Nevada Consolidated, and will greatly add to the ore 
reserves of the company. The property consists of 107 patented claims. 
On these claims is located the two large pits, the Copper Flat and the 
Liberty pits. Considerable effort was made during the year to connect 
these pits. About 91 per cent, of the tonnage is taken from these pits, 
and tbe remaining*9 per cent, comes from the underground workings of the 
Veteran mine.' 

The Nevada Douglas Copper Co., Mason, Nevada, operated its prop- 
erty at Ludwig and made a production of nearly 89,000 tons of ore 
that contained approximately 7,100,000 lb. of copper. During the lat- 
ter part of the year an important strike was made in the Ludwig mine. 
A raise has been started in the ore and will be carried up upon the foot 
wall. This ore runs about 12 per cent, copper. At the Casting Copper 
niine regular shipments of 2 and 3 carloads of ore per day are going to the 
smelter at Thompson. This ore is broken and shipped without sorting, 
and runs about 7 1/2 per cent, copper. 



' Nerada M«tal Output, Min. Set. Pr., Jan. 10, 1914. 
' ITw. Xnf. W«Hd, fmn. 24, 1914. 



164 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The Nevada Douglas made its first dividend payment during the 
year, and was one of the chief producers of the Yerington district. The 
company has kept development work well in advance of shipments and 
will soon erect a leaching plant that will allow the making ct copper 
at a much lower price. The new leaching plant will treat the low-grade 
ore of the company, which has been held back waiting for the plant to be 
completed. 

The Mason Valley Mines Co., Yerington, Nev., has continued 
the operation of its smelter at Thompson throughout the year with a 
production of 14,694,000 lb. of copper. On account of the Nev. Douglas 
shipping less ore, the output of the smelter was much less than it was in 
1912. The Mason Valley property is believed to have blocked out 1,000,- 
000 tons of ore averaging 3 per cent, copper during the last year. The 
tramway leading from the mine has been completed so that at times of ore 
shortage the mine can furnish the needed ore to maintain the smelter in 
operation. 

The Yerington Malachite was one of the new shippers €i the dis- 
trict to come to the front during the year. Working! arrangements 
have been made with the Mason Valley for the development of the Mal- 
achite property through the Mason Valley No. 3 tunnel. Strong and 
large ore-bodies have been uncovered in the mine workings, and the 
indications seem to be that the Malachite will become one of the big 
mines of the district. Early in the year 2350 tons of ore was shipped, and 
later in the year occasional carload lots were sent to the smelter at 
Thompson. 

The McConnel mine has been a steady shipper, producing 9200 
tons of ore during the year. Kecent development work has shown the 
presence of considerable amounts of sulphide ore of good shipping grade, 
but extensive development has not been done. 

The Empire Nevada- mine has produced about 2900 tons of ore 
during the year, the bulk of which came from lessees and was taken 
practically at the surface. It is now being vigorously prospected by 
chum drills, presumably by the Miami Copper Co., to which it is rumored 
to be bonded.^ 

New Mexico. — ^According to the advance figures issued by the U. S. 
Geological Survey the copper production of New Mexico for 1913 was 
50,196,881 lb., as compared with 29,170,400 lb., in 1912. The greater 
part of this production comes from the operations of the Chino Copper 
Co., which is mining a low-grade deposit of "porphyry" ore at Santa 
Rita. This ore is concentrated at Hurley, where the 5000-ton mill 
was operated continuously throughout the year. According to the 

> S. S. AnnU, The Yerinion Copptr Diatriet, SaH Lake Min. Rn,, Jan. IS, 1914. 



COPPER 155 

report of the Chino Copper Co., 50,511,661 lb. of copper was produced 
from 1,942,700 toner of ore, during 1913, as compared with 28,684,208 lb. 
of copper from the 1,120,375 tons of ore treated in 1912. In the third 
quarter the company milled at Hurley 570,650 tons of ore yielding over 
15,000,000 lb. of copper, or more than half the production of 1912. The 
extraction in the third quarter was about 67 per cent., and the mill 
averaged 5500 tons per day, which is its full capacity. The general con- 
ditions at the property continued favorable. The grade of the ore was 
slightly under 1.9 per cent., as compared with 2.077 per cent, for the pre- 
vious year. The estimated ore reserve is 90,000,000 tons, averaging 1.8 
per cent, copper. 

The revenue for the year was $7,621,419, and the net operating 
profit was 13,190,293. Dividends amounting to $1,919,070 were dis- 
tributed during the year. 

The Phelps Dodge interests made preparations for the operation of 
their Burro Mountain Copper properties. The railroad extension from 
Whitewater to the Burro Mountain District, a distance of 17 miles, was 
completed, including a 7000-ft. transportation timnel connecting the 
underground workings at Leopold with the railroad at Tyrone. Ground 
was broken for a mill 5 miles east of Tyrone. The Phelps Dodge interests 
purchased the Huston group, the Fortuna and the Parker claims at 
Tyrone. 

The Santa Fe Gold and Copper Co. at San Pedro, in Santa Fe County, 
ran its smelting plant continuously from the first of the year until August, 
when a temporary shut-down occurred for the purpose of making repairs 
and improvements. Development work was continued in the mine dur- 
ing August and September, and ore of a higher grade was opened in a new 
part of the property. The mineshaft was retimbered and the smelting 
furnace rebuilt, and in October it was started and ran continuously 
to the end of the year. 

Tennessee. — ^The entire output of copper comes from the Ducktown 
district, Polk County, in the extreme southeastern part of the state. There 
are two operating companies in the district, the Tennessee Copper Co., 
and the Ducktown Sulphur, Copper, and Iron Co. 

''The district was one of the earliest large producers of this country. 
Operations began as far back as 1850, and from that time till the close of 
the Civil War there was a large production from the secondary chalcocite 
ores. When these were exhausted unsuccessful attempts were made to 
work the lean copper-bearing original sulphides, and in the late seventies 
operations were suspended and the smelter was shut down. The present 
period of activity began in 1890, since which time the district has been a 
steady producer, from the primary sulphide ores. The principal sulphide 



156 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

is pyrrhotite, with subordinate pyrite, chaicopyrite, and sphalerite. In 
1912 the ores of the district yielded 30.6 lb. of blister copper per ton, or 
1 .53 per cent, with an average of 7 cents in silver and gold per ton. The fact 
that little timbering is necessary, and the coal and coke supply from Ten- 
nessee and Virginia is ample and cheap, together with the available cheap 
labor, has made it possible for the present operating companies to mine and 
treat these low-grade ores at a profit." ^ ^ 

The production of copper in Tennessee for 1913 was 19,489,654 lb. 
as compared with 18,395,256 lb. in 1912, an increase of about 5 per cent. 
Of this amount the Tennessee Copper Co. produced a total of 
13,493,140 lb. of copper, and the Ducktown Sulphur, Copper and Iron 
Co., 5,996,514 lb. The Tennessee Copper Co. is operating three mines, 
the Burra Burra, the London, and the Polk County, while the Ducktown 
Co. operates two, the Mary and the East Tennessee. Both these 
companies operate sulphuric acid plants, the revenue from which is said 
to be considerable, and in the future will probably be fully as important 
as the copper output.* 

Utah, — Utah mines in 1913 produced over 10,250,000 tons of ore with 
recoverable gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc, valued at about $43,000,- 
000.' The tonnage shows an increase of about 32 per cent, but the value 
is but slightly above that of 1912. Notable tonnages of ore were mined 
and shipped daily from the Utah Copper mine of Bingham to its mills at 
Garfield, where the ore concentrated increased from 18,000 tons during the 
first part of the year to more than 21,000 tons daily, during the latter part 
of 1913. At the Ohio Copper Co.'s mill at Lark, Utah, about 2600 tons 
of low-grade copper ore was treated daily during the year. These large 
tonnages, with shipments that were made directly to the smelters from 
other large mines in Bingham make the total ore mined in 1 year the 
largest in the history of the camp, increasing from 6,567,948 tons in 1912 
to over 9,300,000 tons of ore mined in 1913.* 

The Utah copper production for 1913 amounted to 148,274,658 lb. 
as compared with 131,673,803 lb. in 1912. The mine output which has 
broken previous yearly records reached 158,200,000 lb. in 1913, which is 
15 per cent, greater than the 1912 figures. Much of this increase was 
made in the production of "porphyry'* ores, the bulk of which came from 
the Bingham Mining district. 

The Utah Copper Co., of Bingham, leads all copper mines of the state, 
both in the magnitude of its mining operations and in the payment of 
dividends. 

> Mining Dept., State of Tenn., 22 Ann. Report., Deo. 1. 1913. 
« U. 8. Geological Survey. 

> Preliminary eetimate, U. S. Geological Survey. 

* Progreas at Bingham during 1913, Salt Lake Min. Ret., Jan. 15, 1914. 



COPPER 157 

President MacNeill in his report to stockholders of the Utah Copper 
Co. for the last fiscal year states: 

"The gross production of copper in concentrates for the year 1913 
was 119,939,809 lb. After making smelter deductions, a net pro- 
duction of 113,942,834 pounds of refined copper was obtained. In addi- 
tion, there were produced 28,121.24 oz. of gold, for which the company 
received $20 per ounce, and 285,589.36 oz. of silver, for which the com- 
pany received 59.582 cents per ounce. 

"Our sales and deliveries of copper for the year were made at the gross 
price of 15.337 cents per pound, or, after deducting delivery charges,'l5. 167 
cents. It will be noted that in our balance sheets and statements of 
income for the year our copper is valued at 14.976 cents, which is the 
resultant figure from the estimated price which was used in the various 
monthly statements and quarterly reports. The difference between the 
higher price of 15.167 received for the copper and the figure of 14.976 
cents at which our income was computed is due to reducing to a lower 
valuation the inventory price of our unsold copper, which stood at the 
end of the year 1913 at 13.5 cents per pound. 

"The net cost per pound of copper produced for the year, after deduct- 
ing miscellaneous income, was 9.256 cents. No deductions, however, 
were considered from this cost for dividends received upon the stock of the 
Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., owned by your company. 

**The net operating profit from Utah mining operations for the year 
amounted to $6,303,223.29. Miscellaneous income received during the 
year from outside investments, including the dividends received from 
the stock owned in the Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., amounted to 
$2,270,200.27; the total income, therefore, amounted to $8,573,423.56. 
Interest paid during the year amounted to $60,318.39; this amount 
being deducted leaves, as shown on the income statement, a net profit 
for the year applicable to dividends and for other capital purposes of 
$8,415,105,17. 

"Dividends were continued quarterly during the year 1913 at the rate 
of $3 per share per annum, and amounting to $4,747,710, leaving as a 
surplus for the year after the payment of dividends, $3,765,395.17. 

"There was set aside as depreciation an amount equal to 5 per cent, 
of the total cost of all plants and equipment, such sum amounting to 
$507,712.21, which leaves a net balance passed to undivided profits of 
$3,257,682.96. The total dividends paid, up to and including the dividends 
declared for the year under discussion, aggregate $20,989,930." 

In his report Manager Director Jackling 8ays: 

"In all there were 83.23 miles of underground work in the property in 
Bingham and 24,812 ft. were done during tho year. The surface work 



158 MINERAL INDUSTRY . 

has destroyed 58.67 miles of the work. During the year 14 additional 
drill holes were put down, amounting to a total of 10,153 ft. The total 
of drill holes on the property is 37,471 ft. Underground development 
during the year cost 17.72 cents a ton, as compared with 1.59 cents per 
ton on the total tonnage of all ores mined and shipped. 

"At theclose of the year 1912, the total ore-bearing area fully and 
partiaUy developed was 217.26 acres. During the year 1913 this area 
was increased to 225.31 acres, and the calculated average thickness of 
development and partially developed ore was increased from 424.3 ft. to 
444.5 ft. 

"A revised estimate of the ore reserves was made, taking into account 
the additional development work done during the year, and this shows that 
previous to January 1, 1914, there had been developed in the entire 
property 316,220,234 tons of ore, of which quantity 268,000,000 tons are 
classed as fully developed. This tonnage includes about 27,700,000 tons 
of partially developed ore in the slopes of thesteam-shovel workings. The 
addition to ore reserves for the year was 16,000,000 tons in excess of the 
tonnage mined during the year. 

"The average assay of the fully developed ore is 1.59 per cent, copper, 
and the average assay of the partially developed ore is 1.15 per cent. 
copper, making the average assay of both classes of ore 1.47 per cent. 
There was mined from the entire property prior to January 1, 1914, a total 
of 277,280,234 tons of ore, averaging 1.465 per cent, copper, and the total 
reserves remaining, therefore, amount to 332,500,000 tons, averaging 1.47 
per cent, copper. In making the calculations to determine the average 
assay of the ore reserves there were used 50,761 assays, representing 23,465 
ft. of diamond drill and churn drill holes, 285,913 ft. of drifts, raises and 
winzes, and 7130 lin. ft. of steam-shovel cuts, or a total of 316,508 
lin. ft. of development work." 

According to the annual report of the Utah Ck)nsolidated Mining Co., 
Bingham, Utah, for the year ending Dec. 31, 1913, the mine produced 
251,966 dry tons of ore containing 7,710,668 lb. of copper, all of which 
went to the International Smelting and Refining Co. for treatment. Of 
this ore 181,077 tons averaged 1.987 per cent. Cu, 0.056 oz. Au, and 0.705 
oz. Ag, and 70,889 tons averaged 0.968 per cent. Cu, with good values in 
gold, silver and lead. Profits from the sale of this ore amounted to 
$630,829, after charging off expenditures on the plant. This is $63,891 
greater than in 1912. Dividends amounting to $450,000 were paid diu*ing 
the year. Ore reserves in the Utah Consolidated Co.'s property are said 
to contain 287,038 dry tons of ore that will average 1.9 per cent, copper 
and 51,409 tons of 15.3 percent, lead ore. Above the prophyry dike on 
levels 10, 11 and 12 there has been developed a body of ore containing 



COPPER 169 

190,000 ioDfl of 1 .75 per cent, copper ore. Tests by an oil flotation process 
are bdng made to determine whether these and other low-grade ores can 
be profitably treated. 

The Bingham, New Haven Copper & Gold Mining Ck)., located at the 
head of Carr Fork, shipped 11,500 tons of crude copper ore to the Inter- 
national smeltery, at Tooele, during the year, and treated a total of 
43,000 tons of ore in the company's mill with a production of 22,000 tons 
of concentrates. These were also shipped to the Tooele smelter. A prof- 
itableyear is indicated by the payment of dividends amounting to $68,600. 

The United States Mining Co. in Upper Bingham has been operated 
during the year with the production of 114,506 tons of copper ore and 
73,753 tons of lead ora The company recently acquired additional 
t^tory by the purchase of an adjoining property, the Last Chance of 
the Nevada-Utah Mines Co., lying between the upper end of Carr Fork 
and Upper Bingham. 

The Bingham Mines Co., according to its 1913 report, mined 38,987 
dry tons of ore at the Dalton and Lark and Commercial mines during the 
year. The metal content of the ore was as follows: 1,122,955 lb. copper; 
2,745,881 lb., lead; 179,117 oz. silver and 2995 oz. gold. At the Eagle 
and Blue Bdl mine the output was 35,244 tons containing 157,596 lb. 
CQfjpper, 4,639,073 lb. lead, 417,279 oz. silver, and 7514 oz. gold. The 
income for the year was $230,836, of which 9139,000 came from dividends 
on Eagle and Blue Bell Mining Co. stock, and $91,836 from operating 
the Dalton and Lark and Commercial mines. 

The Tintic district made a production of about 13,000,000 lb. of 
copper in 1912, as compared with 10,900,000 lb. in 1911. The production 
of copper from the Tintic district is largely incidental to the production 
of other metals, and the separate figures for 1913 copper output have not 
been given out at the time of this writing. It is estimated that to the 
dose of 1912 the total copper production of Tintic mines was approxi- 
mately 103,900,000 lb. copper.^ 

According to the report of the Iron Blossom mine for the fiscal year 
ending Dee. 1, 1913, the production during the year totaled 25,358 wet 
tons of ixe containing 3,902 oz. gold, 66,619 oz. silver, 3,188,474 lb. lead, 
And 377,922 lb. copper, representing a gross value of $567,143. The 
company paid $400,(KX) in dividends diu-ing the year. 

The Centennial-Eureka mine was the most important producer of 
copper in Tintic in 1912 as in previous years, though important productions 
were made by the Mammoth, Grand Central, and other mines. 

The F^co district of Beaver County made a production of about 
3|000,000 lb. <tf copper in 1912, as compared with 3,600,000 lb. in 

I U. fll Gwkgical Borvvy. 



160 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

1911. The Cactus mine was the largest producer. In 1913, the South 
Utah Mines and Smelters' Co., Newhouse, Utah, produced a total of 
1,883,129 lb. of copper. 

Wyoming. — The mines of Wyoming produce a small amount of copper 
annually, those of the Hartville district being the chief contributors. In 
1913 the production was 362,235 lb. as compared with 25,080 lb. for 
1912.1 

Copper in Foreign Countries 

Africa, — The production of copper in Africa during the last 3 years 
is shown in report of Henry R. Merton & Co., as follows: 

AFRICAN COPPER PRODUCTION. 

(Engliah toiu.) 

1011. 1912. 1913. 

KaUnga 1,100 2,346 6.790 

Cape Colony 4,480 3,870 3.220 

Namaqua 2,600 2,600 2.500 

Sundries 9,000 7,666 10.000 

Total 16.980 16,370 22,610 

The total copper output of Africa for 1913 shows a marked increase 
over that of 1911 and 1912, the greatest increase coming from Katanga, 
Belgian Congo. This district began to ship copper in 1909, and has de- 
veloped rapidly from 24,504 lb. or 10.9 tons to 6.790 tons in 1913. The 
output for 1911 was 2,484,515 lb., valued at $367,252, and in 1912 
5,462,515 lb. of blister copper valued at $793,693, and 10,877 lb. of ore 
worth $583 were shipped.* 

The most important mines in the Kongo are the copper mines near 
Kambove operated by the Union Minidre. The richness of these is being 
confirmed, and is well shown by the record of 1913 as compared with the 
previous 2 years in the following table. 

PRODUCTION OF UNION MINI^RE. 

1911. 1912. 1913. 

Tods of ore treated 10,300 20,900 48.500 

Average metal content, per cent. 12-13 13^16 15-16 

Total output of copper (tona) 986 2,404 6,420 

The figures for 1913 cover a period of 11 months only so that the year's 
totals should be somewhat larger. During 1913 there was also produced 
130 tons of copper matte. In November, 1913, 1015 tons of Kambove 
copper were landed at Antwerp and sold for $341 per ton. 

The Luushia mine, on the Cape-to-Cairo Railway, 55 miles from the 
Lubumbashi smelters, produces nearly 100 tons of pulverulent ore, which 
is briquetted and makes excellent material for smelting. The smelters 

> Advance Statement, U. S. Geological Survey, 
s Daily Conaular and Trade Rept., Apr. 16, 1914. 



COPPER 161 

are now run with a mixture of enriched ores from the Star mine and the 
briquets from Luushia, the latter improving the operation and increasing 
the output of the smelters. Twenty-two coke ovens have been started 
recently, and an equal number will be ready for operation early in 1914. 
The combined capacity of the 44 ovens, burning washed coal from Wankie, 
will be 3000 to 3500 tons of coke per month. 

The real exploitation of the Kambove copper deposits commenced 
in June, 1913. The ore is recovered by quarries and up to the present 
time only the southern section of the mines has been worked with about 
600 tons of ore as the weekly output, but this will shortly be brought 
up to 1000 tons. Certain mining engineers have expressed the opinion 
that the Kambove copper deposits will prove as rich as any in America. 

The working forces of the Union Minifere consist at present of 18 
Europeans, 10 of whom are Belgians, and 330 native laborers. The net 
profit of the company in 1912 was over $86,000. 

A great drawback to mining enterprises in Kongo is the question of 
labor. In the Katanga district alone it is said that 18,000 laborers will 
be required to work all the mines, and the actual supply falls far short 
of that number. There are several proposals to import Chinese labor, 
or to make some arrangement for obtaining natives from Angola. The 
activity in developing the mineral deposits of Katanga is shown by 
the fact that 369 special mining permits have been granted, of which 91 
were for tin, 76 for copper, 66 for gold, 33 for copper and iron, 27 for tin 
and tungsten, and 23 for iron. Since June, 1913, one hundred seventy- 
four general mining permits have been granted.^ 

The Namaqua Copper Co. operating mines at Concordia, Little 
Xamaqualand, South Africa has had a successful year. The report 
shows that 35,302 tons of ore were smelted during 1913 with a production 
of 4266 tons of matte, containing 2373 tons of copper. At the chief 
property, the Tweefontein, the reserve is estimated at 90,190 tons averag- 
ing 6 per cent, of copper. The net earnings for the year were £40,640, 
and a dividend of 22.6 per cent, amounting to £42,449 was paid to the 
shareholders. 

ArgeTdina. — ^The estimated production of Argentina for 1913 is 115 
long tons as compared with 330 for 1912, and 1020 for 1911.* For a 
i^tatement of mining conditions in Argentina see Mineral Industry, 
XXI, 205. 

Ada Minor.* — It is no exaggeration to say that copper can be found 
almost anyiKrhere in the northern province of Asia Minor. The country 
inland for the whole of the distance from the Bosphorus to Batoum is 

^Daa^C^nnOar and Trade Kept., Apr. 16, 1014. 

* Henry R. Merton * Co. 

* Jfw. Mnt. World, JmiL 3, 1914. Abstract of paper by G. M. Edwards. 

n 



162 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

copper bearing. The ancient empires of Sinope and Trebizonde owed 
their wealth and existence to the copper mines. The number of old 
workings is very large. As a rule the veins are narrow and rich, contain- 
ing 20 per cent, and more of copper. There are many exceptions to this 
rule that are noteworthy. One is the Aghana mine and another is the 
so-called copper basin of Hendek. 

The Aghana mine is situated practically in the center of Asia Minor 
(40'' E., SS"" 30' N.), about 250 miles from Alexandretta. The mine is 
owned and worked by the state. Its situation precludes economic ex- 
ploitation, but the government derived a revenue of £66,000 from the 
mine, of which £26,000 was profit, in 1912. Since 1892 the total produc- 
tion of black copper has been over 20,000 tons. The lowest production 
was 454 tons in 1897, and the highest was 1800 tons in 1912. The 
deposit is found on the top of a low plateau several hundred feet above the 
surrounding country. The region consists of basic igneous rocks, and the 
mine itself is in a broad belt of serpentine (peridotite) which traverses 
them. The actual deposit is oval in shape, and is nearly 700 ft. long, 
and 400 ft. wide at the widest point. All the workings are to be found 
within this area. So far the greatest depth attained is 80 ft. The deposit 
consists of massive iron pyrites and chalcopyrites without gangue. In 
general the ore contains 8 per cent, copper, but the bunches of chalcopy- 
rite bring the average up to 15 per cent. No ore containing less than 10 
per cent, is now worked. The mine is worked on the tribute ^stem, and 
the price paid the miners by the government is 2 piastres per oke, or about 
£16 per ton. The government calculates that there is still 700,000 tons 
of copper ore in the Aghana mine that will average 10 per cent, copper. 

The other deposit of importance is situated at Hendek, less than 
80 miles from Constantinople, and about 20 miles from the railway 
station of Ada-Bazar, on the Bagdad railway. The copper is found in 
schist rocks, as impregnations, resembling greatly the Mansfeld deposits 
of Germany. It appears, however, that the Hendek beds are on the 
average thicker and richer than those of Mansfeld. The thickness of the 
impregnated beds varies from 1 to 7 ft., the average being 2 1/2 ft. 
From a great number of assays taken the copper content has been found 
to average 5 per cent. 

Australasia^ — The aggregate value of the mineral production of 
Australasia during 1913 will fall considerably below that for the previous 
year. The gold yield of all the states shows a falling off but both New 
South Wales and Queensland show satisfactory advances in the produc- 
tion of industrial metals. Operations were checked at times at various 

i Abstract of paper by W. P. Geary, " Mining in Auatralaaa in 1913." Eng. Min. Jour., Jan. 10. 1914; 
together with inaerte from various sources by the author. 



COPPER 163 

centers, but generally the work proceeded steadily. The same degree of 
attention was not given to the mineral industry as in previous years, 
the favorable season causing a diversion of energies to other channels, 
and consequently prospecting operations were more or less neglected. 
The total copper production of Australasia for 1913 as given by Henry 
R. Merton & Co. is 46,580 long tons as compared with 47,020 tons for 
1912. Considering the inactivity at Mt. Lyell in the early part of the 
year, the reconstruction work at Mt. Morgan, strikes and other difficul- 
ties at Cloncurry and the Great Cobar, this showing is more than was 
to be expected. 

Generally speaking, Australia has not responded to the improved 
prices that have ruled for the metal copper during the last year. Within 
the conmionwealth itself no new copper enterprises have been entered 
upon, but it is possible that during the next year mines in Papua, which 
have been undergoing moderate development diuring 1913, will reach a 
producing stage. There is ample room for fresh copper -mining enter- 
prise in Australia if the state governments, who control all the railroads, 
could be persuaded to connect well-known copper fields with the railway 
s)'stem. The only state which seems to recognize the value of her base- 
metal resources is Queensland, and as a result that province has jumped 
from a very insignificant position into the forefront of Australian copper 
producers. 

Queensland will account for 23,000 long tons, which will be a shade 
less than her production for the previous year. Both the Mt. Elliott and 
Hampden mines in the Cloncurry district were tied up for several months 
through strikes, otherwise Queensland would have eclipsed her previous 
record. 

From the annual report of the Mt. Elliott mine for the year ending 
June 30, 1913, the following summary is given: The net profit for the 
term, after provision has been made for depreciation on plant, develop- 
ment expense and all expenditures including options, etc., was £141,811, 
as compared with £158,443 for the previous year. Dividends to the 
amount of £202,836 were paid, a portion of the money distributed coming 
from money previously in hand. The furnaces were in blast for 7 1/2 
months only, owing to labor troubles, and 41,633 tons of ore were treated, 
jieldmg 4673 tons of blister copper, containing 4631 tons of copper. 

Labor troubles interfered considerably with operations at the Hamp- 
den Cloncurry mines during the first half of the year. Two months were 
lost as regards production, and development work was retarded by cessa- 
tion of pumping operations for 3 or 4 months. Under the circum- 
stances the company makes a better showing than might have been antici- 
pated, the net profit being £66,398. The financial result was affected by 



164 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

the fall in the price of electrolytic copper from £77 Ss. per ton during the 
previous half year to £68 158. per ton. Two dividends were paid, one 
in September and one in December amounting to £35,000 each, or a total 
of £70,000. Prospecting on the 350-ft. level of shaft No. 2 has durmg 
the latter part of the year proved the presence of what appears to be a 
very large body of pyritic ore that assays from 9 to 12 per cent, copper 
at various places along the vein. It averages from 5 to 6 ft. in width 
and has been explored 161 ft. along the strike, and the ore is apparently 
continuing to the north and the south; 600 ft. to the south, in shaft 
No. 1, at a depth of 413 ft. a well-defined lode 6 1/2 ft. wide, assaying 
11 1/2 per cent, copper, was passed through. It is inferred that this is 
the southern extension of the same vein, and if so it will give the newly 
found lode very pleasing proportions, and will add much to the reserv^es 
of the mine. 

The extension of the railways by the government continues, and pres- 
ently it is expected that Mt. Cuthbert will add materially to production 
figures. Mt. Oxide, another high-grade mine in the Cloncurry field, is 
perhaps too remote to be considered as an impending producer. Upward 
of 100 miles of railway will require to be constructed before the rich ores of 
Mt. Oxide will reach the market. Mt. Morgan, the famous old gold 
mine, contributed 8630 tons to the Queensland figures for 1913. It is 
confidently expected that from March of next year Mt. Morgan wiU 
produce at the rate of 12,000 long tons per annum. 

The conditions in western Australia have not altered materially 
during the year. From Whim Well and Phillips river, and sundry 
smaller shows combined, approximately 1500 tons of copper have been 
won, which is a few hundred tons below the record for the preceding 
year. 

The condition in South Australia is much the same as it is in Tasmania. 
The Wallaroo and Moonta mines are the principal producers, and during 
the past year the Wallaroo mines produced 60,949 tons of ore from which 
5148 tons of fine copper was extracted, as compared with 56,863 tons of 
ore containing 4703 tons of copper in 1912. The Moonta mines showed 
a slight decrease in ore tonnage from 7178 tons in 1912 to 6421 tons in 
1913. The copper extracted from these ores for the 2 years is 831 
and 789 tons respectively. The cementation plant at the Moonta mines 
produced 948 tons of precipitates in 1913, containing 728 tons of copper, 
while the Wallaroo mines during the same period produced 21 tons. The 
Wallaroo smelting works treated 70,671 tons of ore matte and precipitates 
during the year from which 7112 tons of copper, 2161 oz. gold, and 1000 
oz. of silver were refined. The quantity of bluestone made was 13 3/4 
tons. The tonnage from the re^t of the state is about 500 tons of copper, 



COPPER 165 

making a total of 7612 tons for South Australia, as compared with 6295 
tons for 1912. 

It is rumored in Kadina, South Australia, that the boring plant of 
the Wallaroo and Moonta Mining Co., operating near Boors' shaft, at 
the Wallaroo mines, has struck a new and rich make of ore, and that bor- 
ing from difiPerent points has given adequate proof of its size and quality. 
At the other end of the mine, near Harvey's shaft, drives are being worked 
in really big lodes, thus proving the mine at both ends. If this is correct 
the Wallaroo mines can see another 20 years of prosperous life, but 
at present nothing authentic has been made public. 

According to the report^ of the Under Secretary for Mines, Mr. E. F. 
Pittman, the output of the copper mines of New South Wales for the year 
is valued at £598,733, which is an increase of £18,942 on that recorded for 
1912. This satisfactory result is due to the enhanced yields from the 
Cadia and Burraga copper mines. 

The Cobar district is the chief center of the copper mining industry, 
and the yield for 1913 is valued at £391,914, as compared with £410,155, 
or a decrease of £18,241 on the precedmg year. Owing to the difficulty 
of obtaining skilled labor and the fact that the furnaces only worked for 
a period of 10 months on account of the failure of the coke supply, the 
production of Great Cobar Limited for the year was considerably below 
that recorded for the previous year. 

The Kyloe mine at Adaminaby, which in previous years was a 
constant contributor to the production, ceased work in April last, and the 
company transferred operation to Drake. The yield from the Grafton 
Copper Co.'s mine at Cangai exhibits a decrease on that of the 
preceding year, due, it is stated, to industrial troubles, which consider- 
ably hampered productive work. The Lloyd Copper Mining Co. at 
Burraga furnished a very satisfactory output, which was valued at 
£92,070. The mine was producing for 11 months of the year, and dur- 
ing that time was shorthanded owing to the scarcity of miners, boodlers, 
and truckers. The Cadia copper mine yielded 832 tons of copper, valued 
at £54,159, which formed a valuable contribution to the total production. 
The mines in the Nymagee division also supplied good returns for the 
period under review. In the Dandaloo division, the various mines were 
more or less worked during the year, but the progress of the field is greatly 
retarded owing to the absence of communication with the State railway 
system. At the works of the Electrolytic Refining and Smelting Co. 
of Australia Limited, Port Kembla, the production of metals during 
the year included 14,388 tons of electrolytic copper. However, this was 
obtained principally by the treatment of mattes and ores imported from 

> AM^lnL Uin. Stand,, March 12. 191 . 



166 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

other states, chiefly from Queensland, only a small portion of the copper 
being won from the products of the mines of this state. 

The manager of the Queen Bee copper properties at Cobar states that 
the statement that the mine is worked out, even on the upper levels, is 
erroneous, and caused through want of experience and knowledge of the 
mine. What is urgently required is that more prospecting and develop- 
ment work be done on all these levels in the mine. There is, unbroken 
and broken, at least 45,000 tons of ore in the upper levels of the mine 
which will average over 6 per cent, copper, without taking into con- 
sideration those ore-bodies undeveloped on these levels. Together with 
the dump this would give a total of at least 70,000 tons, of which 45,000 
tons are estimated to contain 5 per cent, and the balance 3 per cent. 
Taking copper at £50 per ton, it is estimated that the ore will realize 
£157,600. The manager considers the mine to be the best in the Cobar 
district, outside the Great Cobar, Limited, but its history shows the 
wasteful manner in which some mines have been worked in the past. 

A new mineral field — the Fire Fly — has been discovered in New South 
Wales. It is situated in rough, little-frequented, mountwnous country, 
upon the slopes of the Chandler river gorge, at an altitude of nearly 3000 
ft. above sea-level and 1800 ft. above the river. The ore deposits were 
discovered in July last by a couple of prospectors. In an official report, 
Mr. Jaquet, of the State Mines Department, says: "Rich copper ore has 
for many years been known to occur in the locality, and a lode was found 
and worked by Messrs. Keys, of Hillgrove, in 1896, just above the level 
of the river near Hall's Peak. Messrs. Keys' discovery attracted con- 
siderable attention at the time on account of the richness of the copper 
sulphide ore, and the fact that it contained a considerable quantity of 
silver." Mr. Jaquet inspected the discovery at the time, and as the result 
of five samples he found that Keys' lode was worth about 40 per cent, 
copper and from 10 to 13 oz. of silver per ton. 

Apart from the Mt. Lyell operations, Tasmania can hardly be con- 
sidered a copper producer. The total for the state may be put down at 
5200 tons, of which Mt. Lyell will account for 5000 tons. This company 
has now overcome the disorganization resulting from the disastrous fire, 
and it may be expected that next year will produce an additional 2000 ton5. 

It is shown in the half yearly reports of the Mt. Lyell M. and R. Co. 
for the term ended September 30, that work in the mining department 
for the period had resulted in the re-establishment of a normal scale of 
production in the two principal mines — the Mt. Lyell and the North Mt. 
Lyell. The after effects of the conflagration in the latter mine have been 
successfully and permanently overcome. The Mt. Lyell mine was worked 
on an increasing scale as required by the smelting of siliceous ores. 



COPPER 167 

The South Mt. Lyell mine is being opened up and worked in conjunc- 
tion with the Mt. Lyell mine, practically as portion of the same combined 
ore occurrence, though there is no direct connection between the two ore 
masses except the accident of close proximity to each other. At the Lyell 
Tharsis mine the open cut supplied a small quantity of siliceous metal- 
bearing flux, which was used in place of the North Mt. Lyell ore at the 
reduction works. Similarly operations at the Lyell Comstock mine were 
pushed for the supply of siliceous ore, but the restitution of the North 
Mt Lyell ore, which is higher in metal value and more siliceous than the 
Lyell Comstock ore, and consequently more profitable to use, has again 
curtailed operations at this mine and restricted them to development 
for the present. 

The South Mt. Lyell pyrites mass is of lower grade in all three metals 
than the pyrites of the Mt. Lyell mine. The cutting of the necessary 
slope galleries has been well advanced, so that the mine is near the 
producing stage. At the North Mt. Lyell the precipitation plant was kept 
in operation, treating the mine water from baling, and later on the usual 
mine flow. The output from this source was 146 tons of precipitates, 
containing 63 tons of copper. In addition 109 tons of precipitates, with 
16 tons of copper, were cleaned up in the underground workings, and 
represent the metal precipitated by the steel and ironwork, etc., out of the 
crater with which the mine was flooded. The total tonnage of precipitates 
for the half-year is, therefore, 255 tons containing 79 tons of metallic 
copper. The assay value of the ore treated was higher than that of the 
preceding period, and conforms to the estimated average value of the 
mine. 

The total tonnage from all these mines for the half-year covered by the 
report is 142,614 tons, which yielded 2474 tons of blister copper containing 
2442 tons of copper, 76.64 oz. silver and 1637 oz. gold. The total out- 
put since Aug. 10, 1903, to the end of the period amounts to 75,530 
tons of copper, 6,273,542 oz. silver, and 160,849 oz. gold. The financial 
position of the company, after deducting £10,864 for prospecting and 
development work and £11,390 for ^depreciation of mine plant, etc., 
the net profit from all sources is £41,943. The total 'direct loss due 
to the disaster in the North Mt. Lyell mine amounts to £42,141. 
A sum of £21,282 was charged to profit and loss last half-year, and 
the balance £20,858 has been charged to the reserve fund. The 
company's liquid assets show a surplus of £486,488 15s. 2d. over 
liabilities. 

The estimated production of the several fields for 1913 are as follows: 
New South Wales, 8,000 tons of copper valued at £550,000; Queensland, 
2:^000 tons estimated to be worth £1,580,250; South Australia, 6500 tons 



168 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



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valued at £446,876; Tasmania, 5200 
tons of copper, worth £357,500; and 
West Australia, 1500 tons of copper 
valued at £103,500. More detafled 
statistics for the years 1905 to 1912 
inclusive are given in the table above. 
Queensland leads all the Australasian 
fields by a large margin, producing 
more than three times the amount 
credited to New South Wales which 
comes second. 

Prospecting had been carried on in 
a number of districts which promise to 
add greatly to the future output of 
Australia. According to the Austra- 
lian Mining Standard a good deal of 
attention has been given to the PhUlips 
River field of late. This field consists 
of a number of smaller mining dis- 
tricts, included among which are the 
Ravensthorpe, Desmond, Kundip, and 
West River. In view of the large 
quantities of Sulphide ores (carrying 
gold, silver and copper) known to exist 
in the field, the State mining engineer 
has expressed the opinion that p^Titie 
smelting could be successfully con- 
ducted with a consequent large sav- 
ing in fuel. All ore' is now being 
shipped to Port Kembla, but the 
government has lately leased the 
Ravensthorpe smelters recently held 
by the Phillips River Gold and Cop- 
per Co., which will probably give 
fresh impetus to copper mining in the 
district. The owners of the surprise 
mine have about 100 tons of 27 per 
cent, ore ready for shipment, as a 
result of a few weeks' work for four 
men. At the Marion Martin two 
parties of leasers are doing well, and 
at the Last Chance mine another party 



COPPER 169 

is breaking 19 per cent, sulphide ore. Many other small properties are 
giving promise of development in the near future. 

Bolivia. — ^The following figures of the output of copper in Bolivia are 
calculated on barrillas (dressed ore containing chiefly metallic copper) 
with an average content of 80 per cent. Cu: 

Year. Weight in Kilos. 

1908 2,877.605 

1909 3.006.606 

J910 3.211,987 

1911 2.950,024 

1912 4,681.374 

1913(a) 3,657,600 

(a) Henry R. Merton Co., estimate. 

The important and extensively exploited deposits of Bolivia are those 
of the Corocoro region yielding native copper, which occurs in bedded 
deposits varying from 7 to 10 ft. in thickness, but occasionally reaching 
30 or 40 ft. The average value is 2.5-3 per cent, but "bunches" as 
high as 12 per cent, are occasionally met with. The outcrops are dis- 
tinguished by copper oxides. The Caraugas province is also productive 
of native copper, but the deposits have not been developed to any extent 
as yet. 

Canada. — ^The production of copper in Canada consists of smelter 
products, matte, blister copper, etc., together with the estimated re- 
coverable copper in exported ores. The total output in these forms during 
1913 was 76,975,832 lb. valued at $11,753,440 as compared with 77,832,- 
127 lb. worth $12,718,548 in 1912. These figures show a decrease of 856,- 
295 lb. and a difference in cash returns of $965,108. The production by 
districts was as follows: 

CANADIAN COPPER PRODUCTION. 
(In pounds.) 

(a)1911. (a)1912. (6)1013. 

Quebec 2,430.190 3,282.210 3,466.887 

OaUrio 17.932.263 22.260.601 35.884,836 

BritMh Columbi* 35.279.668 60.626.666 46,791.579 

Yokon 1.772.660 1.843.630 

TotiU 66,648.011 77.832.127 76.976.832 

(a) Mineral Production of Canada for 1912, Ottawa, 1914. 

(6) Mineral Production of Canada. Preliminary Rept for 1913, Ottawa. 1914. 

The province of Quebec shows an important gain which is due to the in- 
creased output of the mines producing pyrite ores in the Eastern Town- 
ships, The figures for 1912 show an increase over those of 1911, and the 
production of each of these 3 years exceeded that of any previous year 
^iiMje 1897, so that the output of 1913 established a new record of produc- 
tion for Quebec during the last 15 years. Copper has been produced in 
this province at a rate varying from 1,000,000 to 6,000,000 lb. annually 
for many years. 

The Ontario production comes almost entirely from the nickel-copper 



170 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

ores of the Sudbury district, in which the copper is a minor constituent. 
The 1913 production was the largest so far recorded from this province. 
The chief producing companies are the Canadian Copper Co., at the 
Creighton and Crean Hill Mines, and the Mond Nickel Co., operating the 
Victoria and Garson mines. Smaller mines are the Alexo and the Dane. 
During the year 1912 the Alexo mine near Kelso mines, Ontario, shipped a 
good tonnage of nickel-copper ore to the Mond Nickel Co.'s smelter 
at Victoria mines. The total tonnage of nickel-copper ore smelted in 
1912 was 725,065 tons. During the same year 41,925 tons of Bessem^ 
matte was produced, containing 11,116 tons of copper and 22,421 tons of 
nickel. The value of the matte was about S6,303,102. Cobalt ores 
shipped to American smelters also carried a small amount of copper. 

To encourage the refining of nickel, cobalt, copper, and arsenic ores 
within the province of Ontario, the Ontario government ofiFers a bounty on 
each pound of these metals produced and refined in the province. Re- 
fined copper or the copper content of copper sulphate receives a bounty 
of 1.5 per cent., metaJlic copper receives 1/2 cent per pound, the 
total not to exceed $60,000 in any one year. The Act providing for the 
payment of this bounty is known as "The Metal Refining Bounty Act." 

In 1913 British Columbia had an output of 45,791,579 lb. of copper, 
as compared with 50,526,656 lb. for 1912. The copper production in 
this Province comes mainly from ores with very low copper content, which 
behave variably when smelted, often with heavy losses in the slag that 
may be as much as 25 per cent, or more of the copper in the ore. There 
are in British Columbia 94 active copper mining concerns, as compared with 
159 copper-producing companies in all Canada.^ According to direct 
returns the 1912 production was divided among the districts of the prov- 
ince as follows: Boundary district, 65.8 per cent, of the total; Rossland 
mines, 4.1 per cent.; and Coast district, 30.1 per cent. The ore deposits 
of the Boundary district form at present the most important copper de- 
posits in Canada. They occur in mineralized zones in altered lunistones, 
at different horizons, but generally in the lower or outer portions. The 
ore is of uniform grade self-fluxing, consists essentially of finely dis- 
seminated chalcopyrite, with pyrite and hematite or magnetite, and a 
gaugue of epidote, garnet, quartz, calcite, and chlorite.^ The ores of this 
district are treated at the Granby smelter, at Grand Forks, operated by 
the Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting and Power Co. This 
company's mines at Phoenix furnish a large part of the ore for the Granby 
works, but custom ores are also handled. The ore reserves at the mines 
at Phoenix have not been fully maintained, being now reduced to 5,613,- 

> "The Coiiper Handbook." 1912-1913. 

* "Eeonomio Minerals and Mining Industries of Canada," 1913. 



COPPER 171 

000 tons, with recoveries of 17.68 lb. of copper per ton of ore. According 
to the Annual Report of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1913, 22,688,614 
lb. of copper were produced during the year, as compared with 13,231,121 
lb. for the year preceding. There were also 324,326 oz. silver and 
47,266 oz. gold produced as compared with 225,305 oz. silver and 33,932 
oz. gold produced in 1912. The operating profit for the year was $1,214,- 
599, as compared with $583,379 for 1912.^ 

At the Hidden creek mines, Anyox, Observatory Inlet, the Granby 
Co. invested $979,461 in 1912, and during the past year $1,958,724 
additional was spent in exploration work and the erection of the new 
2000-ton smelter which has just been completed. A late estimate of the 
available ore in the company's Hidden Creek mines places the quantity 
at approximately 9,000,000 tons, with a copper content of 2.2 per cent. 

A start was made on Mar. 16, 1913 to smelt ore at the new smelter at 
Anyox. Power for these works is obtained from nine large Pelton wheels. 
Two direct compressors are operated one for machine drills in the mines, 
and the other for the blowers for the blast-furnaces, of which there are 
three, blowing engine for converter plant, and other purposes. 

According to Mr. E. E. Campbell, of the engineering staff of the Granby 
Co., several new properties have been acquired during the past year and a 
half. One, at Yaldes Island, Alaska shows fairly high-grade copper ore, 
and plans have been completed for the installation of a plant there. The 
Mamie mine, on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, was also acquired, and 
an option has been taken on the Copper Queen mine on Toxada Island. 
A lime quarry, situated on Portland canal has also been purchased, and 
Ls now m operation. 

The Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co., of Canada, with reduction 
works at Trail has had another very successful year, according to the 
repwt of Pres. W. D. Mathews, Sept. 13, 1913. The total tonnage treated 
was 407,124, having a gross value of $8,335,668, which is an average 
monthly increase of about 2,400 tons. The metal production amounted 
to 3,454,814 lb. copper, 48,325,352 lb. lead, 3,244,408 oz. silver, and 
186,017 02. gold. The net profits amounted to $998,367.14 out of which 
three dividends with a total of 8 per cent, were paid, leaving at present 
a balance of $1,717,650.49 on the credit side of the profit and loss account 
of the company. The company's mines in Bossland show an increase in 
ore development due principally to the Le Roi mine, in which new ore has 
teen found. Deep development work in the War Eagle mine has also 
reBulted in an important new ore discovery. The Monte Christo, Iron 
Horse, Abe Lincoln, and Virginia claims adjoining the Rossland properties 
have been acquired by the company, during the year. At Kimberly, 

' Con. Jfiii. /oMT., April 1, 1914. 



172 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

new ore has been found through development work in the Sullivan group, 
with good prospects for long-continued production. 

The Mollie Gibson mine at Mozie was closed down about 6 months 
last winter, on account of snow slides which carried away part of the 
tramway. In this mine considerable new ore of good grade has been 
developed, which gives promise of making the mine very productive. 

The principal new properties to be taken over by the British Columbia 
Copper Co. are the Princess group, of between 40 and 50 claims, situated 
on the flanks of Copper mountain, in Yoigt's camp, Similkameen, British 
Columbia. Thirteen of these claims had been taken up by the company 
in 1912. The ore already blocked out in this tract is 4,000,000 tons of ore, 
averaging 1.87 per cent, copper, and there is estimated to be 4,000,000 
tons of probable ore not yet blocked out. The ores carry 60 cents a ton 
in gold and silver. It is proposed to erect a concentrator to handle the 
product from the Copper Mountain group, but the main smelto* of the 
company at Greenwood, Boundary district, British Columbia, will smelt 
the concentrates. The company's engineers have already selected a 
power site, which will be used to develop hydro-electric power in con- 
nection with the new mines. This power site is on Whip-saw creek, a 
tributary of Similkameen river, opposite Copper mountain, and about 
10 miles from Princeton. 

In the Yukon district the principal producer is the Pueblo mine, 
operated by the Atlas Mining Co. of Whitehorse. Heavy shipments 
of ore were made in 1912, and the production of 1,843,530 lb. of cop- 
per credited to the Yukon field for 1913 came largely from the Pueblo 
mine. The ore minerals here consist chiefly of malachite, with lesser 
amounts of azurite, cuprite, and bornite, and occur near a contact of 
granodiorite and limestone. 

Chile. — The estimated production of copper in Chile for 1913 is 39,386 
long tons,^ which is slightly above the figure for 1912, when 37,305 long 
tons were produced. The output in 191 1 was 29,595 tons so that there has 
been considerable increase in the output in Chile during the last three 
years. 

The exports of blister copper and copper ore to the United States 
and European countries during the past 2 years are as follows: 

COPPER PRODUCTION OF CHILE.* 
(In pounds. ^ 

1912. lOlS. 

Blister copper to Unitod States 8.627.421 18.000.000 

Copper in ore to United States 27.445,679 25.968.880 

Copper to England and France 50.136.800 44,304.960 

Sundries 220,000 250,000 

Totals, lb 86,429,900 88.513,840 

Totals, metric tons 39,204 40,195 

1 Henry R. Merton ft Co., Ltd., London. * Sng. Min. Jour., Jan. 10, 1914. 



COPPER 173 

The total output of copper ore from Chile during an average year, 1909, 
amounted to 500,000 long tons, carrying 9.21 per cent, copper. This ore 
came from 775 different mines. Of this great number, 100 mines produced 
375,000 tons of ore while the remaining 675 mines together produced but 
125,000jlong tons. This gives an average output for each mine of 185 
long tons per year, which shows at once the small scale upon which the 
numerous mines of Chile have been operated. With the exception of a 
few important mines the work is carried on in a most primitive manner, 
without machinery.^ 

The more important mines that are producing ore on a large scale, 
or getting ready to do so, by thoroughly modern methods, are theBraden 
Copper Co. and the Chile Copper Co. Both of these concerns are 
controlled by American capital. 

The Braden Copper Co.'s property is situated in the province of 
O'Higgins, 94 miles from the coast, at an altitude of 7500 ft. The mines 
are connected with the Central railroad line belonging to the state by a 
private narrow-gage line 50 miles in length, and by a good wagon road 
34 miles long, both built by the company. The copper deposit is in the 
crater of an esrtinct volcano, and the outlying porphyritic rock. The 
zone of mineralization is confined to the edge of the crater which has a 
circumference of about 5 miles. The mineralized part of the porphyry 
run is about 160 ft. in thickness, and has been prospected 2200 ft. in 
depth, showing 16,660,760 tons of 2.65 per cent, copper ore. Of this, 
Tiente No. 1-4,040,834 tons carries 2.75 per cent, copper; probable ore, 
8,749,444 tons at 2.63 per cent, copper; possible ore, 18,742,745 tons at 
2.61 per cent, copper. In addition to the last item, possibilities of 15,- 
000,000 tons, chiefly from above Tiente No. 1., may be speculated upon. 

The company produced 9,500,000 lbs. of copper in 1912. It was ex- 
pected that 26,000,000 lb. would be produced m 1913, but the output has 
evidently been considerably less than that, for during the first 8 
months the company produced 11,034,000 lb., at that rate the 1913 pro- 
duction would be about 16,500,000 lb. It has been estimated that 
the Braden Copper Co., when operating at full capacity, can produce 
'^opper for 7.4 cents per pound. On the basis of 25,000,000 lb. production 
and a cost of 7.5 cents per pound the estimated net earnings on a 15-cent 
market are 72 cents per share of stock of par value $5. 

In the Chuquicamata district in northern Chile, the Chile Exploration 
Co. is pr^aring with great haste an extensive equipment with 
which to mine and treat what is said to be the largest ore-body in the 
world.* The ore deposit is 8000 ft. north and south and practically 

' 'wtt RbiKiaiar. -'Copper MiDM of ChUe." Min. 8e. iV., Mw. 39. 1913. 
' «»•. 8c Pt^ Apt, 4, 1914. 



174 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

1000 ft. wide. The drilling shows richer values in depth than at the sur- 
face, and that the copper minerals are thoroughly disseminated through 
minute fractures in the rock. These minerals consist of brochantite, 
atacamite, chalcanthite and cuprite. In depth veins of chalcocite and 
chalcopjrrite have been encountered, but these are not now being consid- 
ered, as the upper oxidized ore must first be mined away before the sul- 
phides are exposed. The sulphate ores will be mined by steam shovel 
and treated by a leaching process that has been specially devised by the 
company. 

The first unit of the Chuquicamata plant is designed to treat 10,000 
tons of ore per day, and work is being pushed so rapidly that it is now 
confidently expected that the plant will be ready for operation by March 
1, 1916. This plant will produce 120,000,000 lb. of copper per year, and 
later another plant of equal capacity will be built, and by^ the summer 
of 1917 it is expected the Chuquicamata will be producing at the rate of 
more than 240,000,000 lb. per year. The ore reserves are now claimed 
to be over 200,000,000 tons, with unknown but evidently encouraging 
possibilities of much more when deeper explorations are made. 

China (By T. T. Read). — China is an importer of copper; the metal 
brought into that country has increased from 4,800,000 lb. in 1910 to 
14,400,000 lb. in 1912. Of the imports 80 per cent, of the metal comes 
from Japan, and is largely used in the coinage of 1/2 cent pieces, and 
manufacture of other objects made of brass. There is a fair production 
of copper by native methods in Yunnan, but no data as to output are 
available. Duclos, a number of years ago, estimated it at 2,000,000 
to 3,000,000 lb., but it has probably declined since. There is a small 
smelter near Lauchaw, in Eausu, but no statement of its output has 
been made. 

Cvba^ — The El Cobre mines, Province of Santiago de Cuba, produced 
62,482 tons of ore during 1913, of which 7694 tons were shipped to the 
United States for smelting and refining. The remainder was treated by 
concentration. A flotation plant has been erected at El Cobre, under 
the direction of the Minerals Separation Co., of London, having a daily 
capacity of 400 tons. Tests made with a 50-ton unit showed a recovery 
of 85 per cent, which is considered to be very good in view of the complex 
nature of the ore. The task of unwatering the old workings has been 
continued to a depth of 1100 ft. and it is anticipated that the mine will be 
completely unwatered during 1914. 

Japan. — The estimated production of copper in Japan in 1913 is 
approximately 72,000 tons,* as compared with 62,939 for 1912, an 

1 B. B. Lawrence, "El. Cobre Mines in 1913," Eng. Min. Jour., J»n. 10, 1914. 
s Henry R. Merton & Co. 



COPPER 



175 



mcrease of about 14 per cent. From a production of only 32,000 tons in 
1903 Japan has been steadily developing a larger yearly output, 
sufficient to take care of the rapidly expanding home consumption and 
also furnish a large quantity of export. 

The most important mines and their output during the last 3 
years are as follows: 



COPPER PRODUCTION OF PRINCIPAL JAPANESE MINES. 
(In tons of 2000 lb.) 






1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


.tahio 


8,483 
6.606 
6.243 
7,673 
2,172 
1,664 
2.014 
1.246 
1,410 
20,262 


10,630 
8.867 
8,704 
8,637 
2.386 
1,884 
1.719 
1,640 
1,413 

23.299 


11.900^ 


Knnki 


10,100^ 


HitAdu 


10.600^ 


B<«ii 


9,600t 


OuniMWB and Homakl 


[kmio 




Farokan 




Ogoym 




ASbw.:.";;;: ::::::::::;:::::::::::::::::::::::: 




Otluv n^iara ... , , 


42,100 






Total, vhort tonih 


57.663 
52,302 


68,878 
62.486 


80,600 


TftUi, in«tri« ton* 


73,200 







"The Ashio mine stands first in output, not only in Japan, but in the 
Far East. The recent improvements of the mines and the works, and 
the completion of a railroad to the mine have made possible a marked 
increase and great economy. The future of the property is bright. A 
fire vbited the property late in December, resulting in about 80 houses 
being burned near the Tsudo adit. No damage to the mines themselves 
occurred. The production of copper from Besshi is expected to increase 
hereafter steadily and the mine has large reserves. The Eosaka and 
Hidachi mines stand high in total production, but partly because of the 
t^melting of custom ores from several mines. The Ashio and Besshi are 
the producers of copper from their own ores. "^ 

For many years Japan has exported copper to foreign countries, and 
the amounts have steadily increased from year to year. The rapid devel- 
opment (rf wire making, and the manufacture of electrical machinery calls 
for large quantities of copper to supply the home consumption. In 1912 
the domestic needs were 27,630 tons, and in 1913 it has been estimated 
that 35,500 tons were consumed in the manufacture of wire, machinery, 
brass, etc., in Japan. The exports of copper from Japan during the last 
10 years, according to statistics prepared by Otto Reimers & Co., 
Yokohama, are as follows: 

' Jfw. ScC IV., Feb. 21. 1014. 



176 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



COPPER EXPORTS OF JAPAN. 
(In tout.) 



1904. 
1006. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 
1909. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



Europe. 


America. 


China. 


India. 


aj80 




16,660 


2.171 


2,813 




17,242 


62 


23,997 


3,628 


6.767 


82 


13.670 


8.669 


14.002 


410 


26,000 


6,616 


2.220 


2.766 


22,170 


9.628 


1,689 


2.088 


21,116 


8.846 


967 


4,218 


17.288 


11.009 


3.688 


2.322 


28,361 


6.917 


7,817 


806 


19,843 


6.643 


13,320 


3.674 



Totalt. 



20,611 
20.107 
33.464 
31,651 
35.501 
35.375 
35.137 
34.307 
38.392 
42,280 



The total exports show a steady increase during the 10 years covered 
by the statistics from 20,611 tons in 1904 to more than double that 
amount in 1913. Since 1906 the bulk of copper from Japan has gone to 
Europe, the yearly amounts varying somewhat. The greatest variations 
have been* in the exports to China. 

Mexico. — In 1913 the smelters of Mexico produced 116,435,566 lb. 
of copper as compared with 162,295,545 lb. in 1912, the decrease being 
directly chargeable to the effects of the political troubles of the country. 
This is, however, a fair production, in view of the serious conditions that 
have come about as a result of the present war. When peaceful condi- 
tions are re-established the production will become normal again. 

The Greene Consolidated Copper Co. in Sonora is one of the large 
producers. In 1912 this company's properties produced 48,157,847 lb. 
of copper. During the first 10 months of 1913 this company produced 
36,685,000 lb. of copper, and it is estimated that the total for the year 
will reach 43,000,000 lb. 

The Cananea Consolidated Copper Co., Sonora, Mexico, had an 
output of 37,050,574 lb. of copper in 1913, exclusive of that produced 
from Miami concentrates. 

The Cananea Consolidated Copper Co. closed the year 1912 with a 
5 days' strike of the Mexican laborers, who demanded shorter hours, an 
increase of wages, and native bosses. An 8-hour day shift was granted and 
90 per cent, of the strikers returned to work on Jan. 2, 1913. The Can- 
anea Co. had been producing between 6,000,000 and 7,000,000 lb. 
of blister copper per month from the treatment of company ore, Miami 
concentrates and custom ores. Railroad communication with the United 
States was cut early in March through the operations of the opposing 
armies and on Mar. 22 the 4000-ton concentrator was closed owing to a 
shortage in the fuel supply. Work was discontinued in the mines produc- 
ing concentrating ore and a large exodus of Americans resulted. The 
camp was attacked by the constitutionalist army on Mar. 26 and sur- 
rendered after a 3 days' si^e. Conditions became so serious during 



COPPER 177 

April that a complete shutdown was expected due to the lack of oil to 
run the smelter and power plant. Four of twelve mines, the Elisa, Eureka, 
Capote and Kirk, were operating on reduced shifts, all developments 
had ceased and 2500 Mexicans had been thrown out of work. The rever- 
beratories and 50 per cent, of the blast-furnaces had been blown out or 
banked and the output fell to 3,000,000 lb. of blister per month. Many 
cars of Miami concentrates, accumulating at Naco, were shipped to 
Phelps-Dodge smelting plants in the United States for treatment. The 
production of 3,000,000 lb. was maintained until gradual improvement of 
political conditions warranted a return to normal. Although 6,000,000 
to 7,000,000 lb. are being shipped at present, the company is operating at 
only 40 per cent, capacity, since one-half of this production is obtained 
from the treatment of Miami concentrates and custom ores. Four of 
eight blast-furnaces, two reverberatories, three converters and part of 
the concentrator are now operating. 

The Democrata Mining Co., in the Cananea district, was compelled to 
close down for a short period early in the year, but normal operations were 
later resumed. The Calumet and Sonora was similarly afifected. 

The Moctezuma Copper Co., at Nacozari, was not seriously 
affected by the revolution. Development work for the year increased 
40 per cent, over 1912. Thirty-nine per cent, of this development was 
done in ore. Besides developing ore below the Porvenir adit, large stopes 
of good ore have been opened on two levels in ground that had been 
abandoned as barren. The concentrating plant treated 603,654 tons of 
ore assaying 3.557 per cent, copper, and yielded 135,057 tons of concen- 
trates containing 13.376 per cent. The net earnings of the company were 
?2,402,447, of which $1,950,000 were paid in dividends. 

The Nacozari Consolidated Copper Co. operated almost continuously 
and reports excellent ore in the breast of the main tunnel. A new 100- 
ton concentrator was erected. The Moctezuma-Arizpe Development Co. 
^*as threatened with a shutdown but latest reports indicate a return to 
almost normal conditions. The Mines Co. of America closed the 
La Dura but is operating the Creston Colorado; the San Antonio Copper 
Co. suspended operations. At the Cieneguita Consolidated and in the 
vicinity, everything is at a standstill. 

Norway. — The production of copper in Norway for 1913 was 11,610 
tons* of which the Sulitelma Mines produced 4610 tons. The total ton- 
nage of ore produced was about 147,750 tons, of which 125,000 tons con- 
•»isted chiefly of pyrite ore that was exported, 11,280 tons were smelted, 
and 11,470 tons of concentrates were produced by the Elmore process.* 

>He»y R. Merlon Co., Ltd., London. 

'"L'MpkiUtioD minidre an NorvAge en 1913," Echo des Mine; Mar. 15, 1014. 



178 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

From 11,570 tons of pyrite and 14,580 tons of concentrates (Elmore) 
which was partly made up of old stock, there was obtained 1385 tons of 
Bessemer copper. The mines of Birtavarre produced about 450 tons of 
Bessemer, and those of Rdraas 556 tons. In all, Norway produced 2750 
tons of copper by treatment at Norw^ian plants, valued at about 3,300,- 
000 crowns, or $891,000 at the Norwegian ports. 

A 55 year's lease followed by non-compensatory expropriation, has 
been granted by the state to a company, presumably foreign, for the oper- 
ation of the well-known Aarundal Copper Mines, situated in Telemarken, 
Norway. During the last 50 years these mines have been exploited by 
numerous British companies, with negative results. The ore, a bomite, 
originally described as containing 20 per cent, copper has seldom within 
the last 15 years exceeded that amount even after concentration. Horse 
haulage costing $1 . 56 per ton, followed by two trans-shipments and canal 
dues besides oversea freight to South Wales add greatly to the costs of 
production. There are, however, a number of promising occurrences 
outside of the old workings, which with the installation of aerial transport 
to avoid horse-haulage to Bandak lake, may give new life to the mines 
of this district.^ 

Peru* — The copper production of Peru in 1913 shows a slight increase 
over the record of the previous year. The figures published in the Daily 
Consular and Trade Report for the 2 years are 27,940 metric tons in 
1913 as compared with 27,840 metric tons in 1912. The official Peruvian 
statistics give the production for 1913 as 26,970 metric tons, which differs 
but slightly from the Consular Report. The output of fine copper is 
made up as follows: bars, 20,340; matte, 4462; shipping ores, 3138; 
total, 27,940. The entire output is exported, principally to the United 
States. 

The most important producers are the Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., 
and the Backus & Johnston Co., which together make up over 90 per 
cent, of the total output. The production for the year is divided among 
these companies as follows.' 

Pouiidfl. 

Cerro de Pssco Min. Co 44.830,107 

Backus & Johnston Co 10,341,120 

Others 6,428.703 

Total 60,600.000 

The year 1914 will probably show a marked increase in the copper 
production of Peru as a result of improvements in smelting facilitie!) 
made by the Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., and the Backus & Johnston 
Co. during the past year. The Cerro de Pasco Co. did not average 50 
per cent, of its smelting capacity principally because of the shortage 

> "NorwesiAn Copper Mines," Bng, Min. Jour,, April 11, 1014. 
« Min. 8ei. Pr., March 21, 1014. 



COPPER 179 

of fuel. However, with the increased output of the Quishuarchancha 
coal mine which now averages 250 tons per day, the utilization of waste 
gases from the reverberatory furnaces, and the introduction of electric 
power transmitted from the recently constructed hydro-electric plant 
at Oroya there will probably be no coal shortage in 1914. 

After spending 4 years in reorganization and reconstruction the 
Backus A Johnston Co. is meeting with profitable results. The com- 
pany's smelter is essentially a silver-copper plant and produced 1,950,000 
oz, of silver in 1913. The silver ores from the Casupalca mines, as well 
as the custom ores obtained in the region, are dependent in a measure 
upon the Morococha mines which supply the necessary iron, as well: as 
copper and silver. Blister copper shipments will be made in 1914 instead 
of the present matte and ore exported to the United States. 

The Morococha district is attaining considerable importance as a 
producer, and will be a large factor in contributing to the copper, and to 
lesser degree, the silver production of Peru. The vigorous plan of devel- 
opment planned by the two principal producers, the Backus & Johnston 
Co., and the Morococha Mining Co. has barely begun, yet the com- 
bined monthly output of the two companies under pi:esent conditions 
is over 12,000 tons, including the ore from the many leased properties 
of the Backus & Johnston Co. Most of the custom ore shipped is sent 
to Casapalca. A small privately controlled furnace is operating in the 
district having sintering pots as an important feature, and ships 50 to 
M tons of copper matte monthly to the Cerro de Pasco smelter. The 
source of the ore is from small mines. 

The plant of E. E. Fernandini, several miles west of La Fundicion, 
continued as a silver-copper smelting plant, the matte averaging 1500 oz. 
silver per ton and 55 per cent, copper; the year's output was about 
1,500,000 oz. The silver ores are brought from the Colquijirca mine 
and the copper ore from Cerro de Pasco. 

The minor shipments of copper ores were somewhat increased with 
the higher price of the metal. Several properties were under development 
besides those producing in a small way. The Sociedad Cuivre de Huaron 
continued developing its properties 35 miles southwest of Cerro de Pasco; 
there are said to be 100,000 tons of 12 per cent, copper ore "in sight." 
The Ferrobamba region was practically inactive; the treatment problem 
Kas studied but without commercial results. Several properties in differ- 
ent parts of the country were optioned by various foreign syndicates 
and sales may eventually be consummated. 

Of the smaller producing copper mines the Sociedad Minera Quiru- 
^ilca, Ltd., in the Department of Libertad,isthe most important shipper, 
averaging about 100 to 150 tons of 35 per cent, copper ore per month, 



180 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

which goes to the United States. Southwardi in the Department of 
Ancasho, the Empresa Minera San Juan, Ltd., of Tarica, is obtaining 
better results with its 15-ton smelter; the matte exported averages 35 
per cent, copper and 300 oz. silver, with a little gold. In the same de- 
partment, the Magistral properties, belonging to Garaborri y Compania, 
have been optioned to local people who intend to develop them. At 
Vinchos, near Cerro de Pasco, the Yanamina Mining Co. has recently 
blown in a 30-ton furnace which will smelt copper and silver ores 
that will be shipped to Cerro de Pasco. Lack of adequate transport, 
and its high cost, handicap the development of the copper possibilities 
of Peru, under certain conditions local smelting could be made a profitable 
business. 

Russia (By J. P. Hutchins). — The production of copper in Russia 
for 1913 shows an increase of about 2.5 per cent, over the production of 
1912, and is another record breaker for Russia. The total production 
for 1913 was about 42,000 tons divided among the several fields as follows: 
Ural Mountain region 25,200 tons; the Caucasus 10,080 tons; the 
Kirghiz Steppes 5040 tons; Finland, Poland, and the Altai Mountains 
420 tons; and by-products from the chemical works 1260 tons. The 
production has grown rapidly during the last few years, the figures for 
1913 being about six times those of 10 years ago, and three and one-half 
times those of 1906. The comparatively light increase for 1913 was due 
to reconstruction work which has been carried on at many of the old 
mines during the year. With the improvements now completed 1914 
should show a marked increase in copper production over the year just 
passed. 

Consumption was in excess of production to the extent of 8200 tons, 
which was supplied by imports. The per capita consumption of copper 
in the Russian empire is only about 1/2 lb. per year as compared 
with 7.3 lb. in the United States. A similar set of figures can be 
adduced for the other base metals. If the per capita consumption of 
copper in Russia were the same as that of the United States there would 
be a demand for 600,000 tons per year. This comparatively low demand 
at present is due to the general backwardness of the country which is 
still in the rural and pastoral stage. As an excellent illustration, though 
there are numerous cities in Siberia with populations over 100,000, there 
is but one electric street railway, that of Vladivostok. However, when 
more rapid progress sets in, and electric railroads, telephones, and tele- 
graphs come into more general use throughout the empire, the proportion 
of copper used will be materially increased. 

During the past 6 years nearly all the Russian copper producers 
have been combined in a Trust called the Myed (Russian word for copper). 



COPPER 181 

Its ostensible purpose is to control the production of copper, regulate 
prices, etc. Inasmuch as the demand for copper has exceeded the supply 
by about one-third, this syndicate has not been of any real importance. 
Similar combines for other metals and minerals, however, have been 
important factors where output exceeded the demand. The total pro- 
ductivity of the Myed in 1912 amounted to 93.8 per cent, of the total 
copper production of the country, as compared with 90.3 per cent, in 
1911, and 80.8 per cent, in 1910. These figures show that the Trust is 
becoming more and more important, and has already nearly complete 
control of the copper production. 

Ural Mountain Region. — The copper mines are situated on the east 
flank of the mountains and extend along a well-defined belt for about 
300 miles, in a region of old rocks, granites limestones, and crystalline 
schists. The ore is pyritic, and generally occurs in large, regular, and 
easily mined deposits, and presents no metallurgical difficulties. 

The most notable mines are those of the Kyshtim Corporation which 
is controlled in London. In 1913 this company produced about 8000 
tons of copper, or about one-half of the total Ural production. These mines 
were formerly operated by a Russian company with heavy losses. Later 
an English company took over the business and improved matters some- 
what Finally, the mines passed into American control and very radical 
changes were instituted in an attempt to put the business on a paying 
basis. The inefficient local employees were discharged and foreigners 
were employed in all important technical positions as well as in many 
minor places. Then a new set of Russians was hired and made to do as 
i:s done in good mining and smelting works in foreign countries. As 
these latter men learned the business the foreigners were gradually dis- 
charged, and now all but the manager of the mine are Russians, and it is 
claimed that the lowest cost copper in the world is that from 
Kyshtim. 

Caucasus Region.' — The Caucasus Copper Co., which produces about 
4000 tons of copper per year, or about half of all that is produced in the 
Caucasus, is controlled in London. Nearly $10,000,000 have been spent, 
much of it in solving a smelting problem due to a high siliceous content 
of pyritic ore. There are said to be reserves in this company's mines of 
more than 5,000,000 tons, containing 3 1/4 per cent, copper. The 
Dzansul Copper Smelting Works belonging to the Caucasus Copper 
Co., has doubled its production since 1911. In 1912 the Dzansul 
works yielded 3056 tons of copper. At present they are treating about 
SOO tons of ore per day, and new construction in under way to increase 
the tonnage to 1800 tons per day. The largest smelting works in the 

' AUtnetod ia j»art from Th* Minino Journal, London. 



182 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Caucasus are those of the Societe Metallurgique du Caucase, situated 
beside Alaverdoff copper mines. Just recently this company has ac- 
quired the Zangezur copper mines in the Eiizabetpoi government, which 
are the richest in the Caucasus, and have begun the reconstruction of the 
concern in order to produce a much larger quantity of copper. The 
Kedabek Smelting Works, belonging to the Siemens Co., does not intend 
to increase its production. This company smelted 1550 tons in 1911, 
but only 1430 tons in 1912. The electrolytic works th^re, which were the 
first in Russia, have not been used since 1901. The production of the 
Kedabek Works is declining. However, the Siemens Co. is erecting 
new smelting works. In the Caucasus a further large number of 
copper deposits are known, for which probably there is an interesting 
future. 

Kirghiz Steppes. — ^This is the third largest copper producing region of 
Russia, and possesses natural conditions that should favor mining opera- 
tions, rich ore and abundant coal. The large mines of this region are also 
in the hands of foreigners, and foreign methods prevail. The Spassky Co., 
controlled in London, has large bodies of copper ore containing more than 
10 per cent, copper, and at present this company is producing nearly 
4000 tons per year. The Atbasar Co., in the Atbasar district, province 
of Akmoninsk, is installing smelting works to produce about 5000 tons 
annually. In this district of Atbasar a Russian company with large 
deposits of copper ore has plans for large smelting works that are to be 
built in the near future. The district is much handicapped by the great 
distance to the railroad and its greatest development will come when the 
railway, which has been authorized by the government, is built. The 
present cost of haulage over the 400 miles that separates the works from 
the railway is £5 per ton, and this presents a serious impediment to the 
full development of this promising region. There are large reserves of 3 
and 3 1/2 per cent, (copper ore in the Kirghiz Steppes, but these must 
wait for the advent of cheap transportation before they will be 
developed. 

Finland, Poland and Altai. — With the exception of the last of these 
three districts, there is thought to be no great possibilities for develop- 
ment. The Altai, however, should become a large producer. This 
region has been worked since prehistoric times by most primitive meth- 
ods, principally for silver and gold. The word " Altai" means gold in the 
language of the Turks. There are many old abandoned copper mines in 
Altai that were worked intensively 150 years ago, or even longer; records 
show that considerable amounts of ore containing 10 to 15 per cent, copper 
were mined and hauled 300 miles to be smelted. These mines are to be 
reopened. It has been proved that there are large ore-bodies of complex 



COPPER 



183 



ore, containing, along with other metals, about 2 per cent, of copper. 
When the Altai Railroad, which is now being built, is finished these mines 
can be worked on a large scale, and their yield will add materially to the 
annual copper production of Russia. 

Duty and Price. — ^There is a protective duty of 5 roubles per pood, or 
almost 7 cents per pound on all copper that is imported into Russia. 
This makes the selling price for copper 25 to 33 per cent, higher than it is 
in New York, and acts as a strong stimulant to exploration and mining in 
Russia. While there has been rapid growth in the rate of production, 
there has also been some increase in consumption, though the yearly 
imports have been steadily declining. Home production has gained 
on the increased consumption, and unless the copper demand grows 
rapidly within the next few years, the domestic output will be more than 
able to satisfy it. 

Spain. — The official figures of copper-ore production for 1912 are 
3,364,294 tons of copper bearing pyrite. The copper output of Spain and 
Portugal for the last 3 years, according to estimates and figures 
compiled by Henry H. Merton & Co., is as follows: 

COPPER OUTPUT OP SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 
(English Tons) 

Rio Tinto 36,320 



TliAnis. 

Bffason A Barry. 

Serilla 

Other min«8 



ToUl 63,836 



1913. 


1912. 


1911. 


36,320 


39.926 


33,386 


3,220 


3,376 


3,396 


3.136 


3.640 


2,920 


1.610 


1,390 


1,530 


9,660 


10.700 


9.700 



68.930 60,930 



Rio Tinta — The most important copper mines are those of the Rio 
Tbto Co. The output of the Rio Tinto mines for each year since 
1903 is shown in the following table. 





OUTPUT OP RIO TINTO MINES. 










(In Long Tons.) 








1 


Ores for 

Looal Treat. 

ment. 


Mined. 


Averace 
Copper 
Contents. 


Mines. 


Pyrites 
Sold. 


Washed and 

Other Sul- 

phurOres 

Sold. 


{SS «w-w» 


I,22t).el9 


1.911.538 


2.390% 


21,666 


667,748 


118.174 


JOJj 672344 


l,27i^A75 


l,918.8i9 


2.340% 


21,218 


663,744 


167310 


Wj! 6273M 


l,'iO*^768 


I,*i.l0.l04 


2.3634 


10,630 


660,724 


306,184 


W 665^28 


ir2m:A98 


1,92:^.716 


2.411% 


21,287 


632,307 


477,843 


}W7 641368 


l,2a5.(>90 


l/Mif;.nH 


2.417% 


21,261 


607,944 


619.814 


W8 604.276 


l.nf>,(UO 


1. ' -S5 


2.266% 


24,266 


689,816 


668.477 


JW 604.790 


1,]84JB8 


1,. ^ ■■^7 




24,364 


600.946 


669.604 


910 637.020 


l,rm.^i5 


2,iiO.H«5 


2.0077 » 


22,790 


678,443 


683.605 


JU 649.215 


l.,53fl.:i90 


2,185,605 


2.144% 


21,880 


662.269 


841.964 


ll\i 698.399 


1.70»,573 


2,4n(j.0O9 


2.180% 


26.623 


668.861 


977.812 


1913 652.166 


l;207.^03 


1,859,571 


2.19045 


21.062 


636.900 


826.408 



Owing to labor troubles, and to the lower average price of copper, 
Rio Tinto made a somewhat lower record for 1913. During the year 652,- 



184 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

168 tons of ore were mined for shipment and 1,207,403 tons for smelting 
and leaching, as compared with 698,399 tons of shipping ore and 1,708,570 
tons for local treatment in 1912. The quantity of pyrite invoiced to 
consumers for both copper and sulphur content was 635,900 tons, as 
against 668,861 tons the preceding year. The delivery of sulphur ore, 
washed and crude, totaled 825,408 tons as compared with 977,812 for 
1912. The production of metallic copper was 21,062 tons, and copper 
contained in pyrite amounted to 15,258 tons, a total of 36,320 tons as 
compared with 39,925 tons for 1912, average copper content of all the ore 
mined was 2. 19 per cent, which is practically the same as for 1912. The 
accounts show a profit of £1,673,372, of which £81,250 was distributed as 
5 per cent, preferred dividend, and £1,406,250 on the ordinary shares, 
being at the rate of 75 per cent. For 1912 the ordinary shares received 
£1,678,500, or 90 per cent. 

The Cordoba Copper Mining Co., operating a series of mines 10 miles 
northeast of the city of Cordoba in the south of Spain, has produced 
1 19,069 tons of copper ore during 1913, which is 28,910 tons more than was 
mined during the previous year. The production of blister copper was 
3500 metric tons, as compared with 2377 tons for 1912. The income 
was £230,705, at a cost of £147,384. After allowing for depreciation, 
expenditures on other properties, etc., a net profit of £53,518 remained 
out of which £40,000 was distributed in dividends, at 20 per cent. On 
the San Rafael and eastern sections which contain the workings on the 
Cerro Muriano lode, 86,127 tons of ore were raised of which 55,498 tons 
were sent to the concentrating plant, 8894 tons hand picked, were sent 
direct to the smelter, and 6762 tons of fines sent to be sintered, and the 
rest rejected. The Murex plant treated 15,655 tons of middling and 
dump material, averaging 1.3 per cent, copper, and produced 1281 tons 
of 10 per cent, concentrates, the average recovery being 63 per cent. 
The smelter treated 31,389 tons of ore; concentrate, and sinter, producing 
6837 tons of matte averaging 49.7 per cent, copper; the converters pro- 
duced 3500 tons of copper bars. Development in the San Rafael section 
has given excellent results but these are offset by the lower grade ore 
found in other sections so that the copper in reserve has fallen from 200,- 
025 tons of 3.35 per cent, copper to 206,489 tons of 3 per cent, copper ore. 

VeneziLela. — The estimated output of Venezuela for 1913 is 1250 
long tons as compared with 1340 tons for 1912. The South American 
Copper Syndicate of Aroa, Venezuela, declared a dividend of 350 per 
cent, on its capital stock of 150,000 shares, which were issued at 2s. ($0.40) 
the profit thus disbursed amounting to $213,640, or £43,900. The output 
of the year ending April 30, 1913 gave a net profit of £33,500, which was 
added to a balance of £10,400 to make up the £43,900. The life of this 



COPPER 186 

property at the present rate of production is estimated to be at least 
several years, though it is virtually impossible to form an exact opinion.^ 

BiBLIOGBAPHT 

Ball, Sydney H. — Sandstone Copper Deposits at Bent, New Mexico. Min, 
Sei. Pr., July 26, 1913, p. 132. 

Bartsls, Bbrgassessor. — Die Lage der Kupferindustrie Russlands im Jahre 
1912. ZeU. Berg. HtUten Salinenw., 61, Part 3, 1913, p. 451. 

Blanquisr, Juan.— Ck)pper Mines in Chile. Min. Sci, Pr,, March 29, 1913, 
p. 507; Apr. 19, p. 583. 

Botsfobd, C. W. — Disseminated Replacement Copper Deposits. Eiig, Min. 
Jour., March 22, 1913, p. 620. 

Brinsmadb, R. B. — The Copper Mines of the Sierra Magistral, Mexico. Mex, 
Min, J<mr., Aug., 1913, p. 394. 

Clendenin, Jos. — An Analysis of the Copper-Metal Situation. Min. Eng. 
World, AprU 19, 1913, p. 770. 

Clifford, James O. — Formation and Growth of Disseminated Copper Deposits. 
Mines aruL Minerals, April, 1913, p. 189. 

Douglas, James. — Handling Flue-Dust at the Copper Queen Smelter. Min. 
Sci. Pr., Dec. 13, 1913, p. 929. 

Douglas, Jambs. — Historical Sketch of the Copper Queen Mine, Arizona. 
Min. Eng. World, March 15, 1913, p. 525. 

EofRS, A.^— Occurrence of Some of the Rarer Metals in Blister Copper. 
Min. Eng. World, Nov. 15, 1913, p. 884. 

Emmons, Wm. H.— The Enrichment of Sulphide Ores. BvU. 529, U. S. Geol. 
Surv.; Min. Sei., Aug.. 1913, p. 102. 

GuAERT, Chester G., and Pogue, Jos. A. — The Mount Lyell Copper District 
of Tasmania. Reprint from Proc. U. S. Natl. Museum, Govt. Ptg. OflBce, Wash- 
ington, D. C, p. 26. 

Graton, L. C. — Investigation of Copper Enrichment. Eng. Min. Jour., Nov. 
8, 1913, p. 885. 

GwYN-WiLLLAMS, R. H. — Mining in Katanga Congo Beige. Min. Jour., 
Aug. 23, 1913. 

Haupick, E. db. — The Copper Mines of the Ural Mountains. Min. Eng. 
WaHd, Jan. 18, 1913, p. 101. 

Haupick, £. de. — Year's Progress of the Russian Copper Industry. Min. 
Eng. World, Dec. 27, 1913, p. 1159. 

Horb, R. E. — Copper Mining in Michigan. Can. Min. Jour., Oct. 16, 1913, 
p. 643. 

HoRE, R. E. — Magnetic Origin of Sudbury Nickel-Copper Deposits. Can. 
Min. Jour., July 15, 1913, p. 437. 

HoBE, R. E.— Sudbury Nickel-Copper Industry. Mines and Minerals, Feb., 
1913, p. 383. 

Jandort, M. L. — Copper in York County, Pennsylvania. Min. Sci. Pr., 
Mar. 1, 1913, p. 346. 

Kershaw, John B. C— Copper Production and Price Statistics, 1907-1912. 
EkcEe».and West. Elec., May 17, 1913, p. 1011. 

* D«% Ccmidar and Trad€ Report. 



186 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Mage, Clement H. — Ore Pockets of the Arizona Copper Co. Min. Ettg 
ITorW, Jan. 4, 1913, p. 13. 

Martin, G. A. — Early Copper Mining and Smelting in Arizona. Min, Jour., 
May 3, 1913, p. 881. 

Noble, IAlbernon. — Mining Poflsibilities in Turkestan. Min. Mag,, Dec., 
1912, p. 444. 

Sales, RBNo.^Origin of the Butte Chalcocite. Min, Sd. Pr,, Sept. 20, 1913, 
p. 453.; Eng, Min. Jour,, Sept. 6, 1913, p. 439. 

Spbrr, F. W. — Failures of the Rule of Following the Ganging in the Develop- 
ments of Lake Superior Copper Mines. Proc. Lake Superior Min, Inst,, 1912, p. 238, 

Steele, Heath. — Copper Prices, Consumption and Supply. Eng, Min. 
Jour,, Dec. 6, 1913, p. 1061. 

Steele, Heath.— The Cost of Copper." Eng, Min, Jour., Aug. 9, 1913, p. 
231. 

Storme, Wm. H.^Geology of the Woody Copper District, California. Eng. 
Min, Jour., Oct. 4, 1913, p. 636. 

Stutzer, O. — Ueberblick uber die nQtzbaren Lagerstatten Katangas. MelaU. 
u. Erz., Aug. 30, 1913, p. 679. 

Webster, J. P. B.—Mining in Kyshtim, Siberia. Min, Mag,, April, 1913, 
p. 279. 

Weed, W. H.—'The Copper Handbook," 1912-1913. 

WiERUM, H. F. — Ore Bedding by the Tennessee Copper Co. Erig. Min. 
Jour,, Sept. 6, 1913, p. 435. 

WooDBURN, J. Allen. — Mining Copper Ores at Massina. Jour, Chem, Met. 
Min, Soc. So. Afr,, Aug., 1913, p. 63. 

. — Copper Production of the World. Eng. Min, Jour., 

May 25, 1913, p. 1066. 

. — Geological Notes on the Lake Superior Copper Formation. 

Proc, Lake Superior Min. Inst., XVIII, 9 (1912.) 

.—The Copper Situation. Min, Sd, Pr., Oct. 26, 1913, p. 

639. 

. — The Question of Copper Metal Prices. Min. Eng. 

World, Nov. 8, 1913, p. 821. 

. — World's Copper Production and Consumption in 1912. 

{Min, Eng. World, Jan. 26, 1913, p. 142. 

. — World's Copper Phxiuction. Min, Eng, World, April 19, 

.1913, p. 766. 

Metallurgy op Copper in 1913 
By L. S. Austin 

Summary of Progress in 1913. — A number of smelteries, constructed 
in 1912, have been brought into operation as described in detail. Those 
of the Southwestern United States treat ores of too low grade in sulphur 
for self-roasting, and in one case pyrite has been added to the charge in 
the reverberatory furnace to ensure sufficient matte-fall. 

For roasting, the Herreshoff, the Wedge and the MacDougall, all 
multiple-hearth roasters, are largely employed. Sorenson shows that by 



COPPER 



187 



air instead of water-cooling of the rabble arms, in 18-ft. MacDougall 
furnaces, where the concentrate is near the limit of non-fuel roasting, and 
with the aid of oil-firing, it is possible to increase from an output of 46-55 
tons to as high as 100 tons and over, daily. We give particulars of similar 
success in increasing tonnage with 16-ft. MacDougall furnaces at 
Great Falls. The Dwight-Lloyd sintering machines are coming more 
into use for copper ores. The Tennessee Copper Co. is using three 
machines, the Cerro de Pasco, the Tacoma, and Trail Smelteries two 
each, and the Mond Copper Co. one. At Cerro de Pasco, ores containing 
25 per cent, siiiphm*, are successfully sintered. 

With the increasing amount of fine concentrate to be treated, the 
reverberatory furnace is becoming more employed. At Great Falls, 
Mont., and in Russia, the direct, coal-fired, non-reversible regenerative 
t3rpe is being installed. For fine concentrates this method of smelting 
avoids flue-dust loss, and can easily treat ores low in sulphur. 

The Great Falls upright type of converter is coming into increased 
use, the 12-ft. being preferred to the 20-ft. one. The Pierce-Smith hori- 
zontal converter has also been giving good results. 

The leaching of copper ores in receiving increased attention, sulphiu*ic 
acid being much used, and for precipitation (at least in part) electrolytic 
deposition, completed in some cases by the use of scrap-iron. 



Ores and Ore Handling 

BuUe Ores^ — Representative ores from Butte, Montana, as received 
and treated at the Great Falls smeltery, are in two classes, the first class 
going to the blast-furnaces, the second class to the concentrator, and of 
this composition: 

TABLE I 





Per oent. 
Cu 


Oi.Ag 


Os.Au 


Per oent. 
SiOt 


Per oent. 
Fe 


Per cent. 
S 


Per cent. 
AUOa. 


Per oent 
CaO 


Rrrt dMm 


6.06 
3.65 


2.0 
1.26 


0.016 
0.008 


61.2 
58.5 


13.6 
9.4 


17.3 
11.6 


8.1 
11.7 


0.30 


8ee(»ddMi 


0.10 







In addition, a more complete analysis of the second class ore shows: 
As, 0.37 per cent.; Sb, 0.025; MgO, 0.26; KjO, 2.34 and Na20, 0.11 per 
cent. Leaving out Cu, As, Sb, S and Fe, the gangue minerals amount 
to 73 per cent. 

From the concentrating mill the product of the coarse jigs, about one- 
third the total of the mill, goes to the blast-furnaces; the fine concentrate 
to the MacDougall roasters and thence to the reverberatories. Analyses 
of these products are given in Table II. 

» TnmM. A. I. M. g., XLVI. 1936. 



188 




MINERAL INDUSTRY 

TABLE II 










Per cent. 
Cu 


0«. PXB Tom 


Per cent. 
SiOs 


Per cent. 
Pe 


Per cent. 
S 


Per cent. 
AlflOi 


Per eent. 




Ag 


Au 


CO 


Coarse oonoentrate 

Fine concentrate 


12.16 
8.84 


3.9 
3.0 


0.019 
0.021 


20.7 
18.1 


25.0 
28.5 


33.8 
35.9 


4.4 
5.3 


0.3 
0.3 



Screen tests of these products and of flue dust, show that the flue dust 
is all finer than 0.5 mm. in size. From 7 to 10 per cent, of the ore and 55 
per cent, of the fine concentrate, which goes to the MacDougall roasters, 
is finer than 0.5 mm., thus accounting for a considerable production of 
flue dust. 

The Freeland Charging Machined — This is used at the smeltery of the 
Ducktown Sulphur, Copper and Iron Co., Isabella, Tenn. The ap- 
paratus comprises an endless chain pan-conveyor of the width of the 
open-top furnace, and mounted on a frame which also carries the plat- 
form for the operator and the two motors, one to propel the machine, 
one to drive the apron or pan-conveyor. In operation, the car is run 
under feeding chutes beneath the furnace-bins. While the ore is dis- 
charging from any chute the machine is traversed in such fashion as to 
evenly spread the ore and the other constituents of the charge. It is 
then brought, motor-end first, longitudinally over the furnace latching 
itself to the water-cooled cover of the furnace, and pushing it back. 
The conveyor of the car is now set in motion and its contents are dropped 
while, at the same time, the charging machine is moved over the furnace 
in the opposite direction. The rate of this movement determines the 
distribution of the charge, which may be added evenly throughout, or 
wherever in the furnace it is most needed. When loading, the machine 
deflectors at the chutes can be so arranged as to send the ore to the 
right or left, thus piling it up near one of the long sides or on the median 
line. This gives elasticity in the distribution of the charge. 

The Messiter System of Ore-bedding at the Tennessee Copper Co. and 
the Calumet and Arizona Copper Co.^ — This system has been described and 
discussed in these volumes (See Vol. XV, 249; XVI, 356; XVIII, 191; 
XIX, 188 and XXI, 228). 

H. F. Wierum gives further particulars, especially as to its advantage 
where the furnace gases are used for making sulphuric acid. The Burra 
Burra ore of the Tennessee Copper Co. may vary from day to day from 
10 to 20 per cent, in silica, and correspondingly effect the composition 
of the slag and the performance of the furnace. Thus, the furnace gas 



> Min. Set. Pr., CVI. 443; Modem Copper Smelting, Levy, 
* Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 435; Salt Lake Min. Rer., Oct. 3( 



. 188. 
1013. 



COPPER 189 

might vary from 7 per cent. SO2 in the morning to 3 per cent, in the 
afternoon. With the bedding system it has been possible for a period of 2 
months, to obtain a gas rarely below 6 per cent. SOi or over 6.8 per cent. 

The installation at Copperhill consists of two beds holding 7500 tons 
each and two smaller ones of 3000 tons each, an aggregate of 21,000 tons. 
The system (not including the sampling mill) cost roughly $150,000 or 
about $7.00 per ton stored. Altogether there is some 3000 ft. of belt 
conveyors of 30 in. to 16 in. width, travelling 200 ft. per minute. The 
superstructure is of wood instead of steel as at Cananea. 

The bed, when formed, is triangular in cross-section, 35 to 40 ft. 
across and 16 ft. high, having 23 tons per running foot. The larger beds 
are 300 ft. long, the smaller ones 150 ft. Bedding is done on the day shift 
ODly, and including sampling, requires 10 to 12 men. Reclaiming is done 
at anytime in the 24 hours, and takes nominally a machine runner, three 
belt-tenders and one or two laborers per shift. Belt renewals amount to 
$5000 per year. 

Comparing the bedding system with the older way of obtaining the 
ore from bins it was found: 

(1) That 2.8-3.2 per cent, of coke is used as against 4.5-5.5 formerly. 

(2) That the present tonnage per furnace per day is 580 as against 
460-520 tons formerly. 

(3) The advantage for steadiness in the quality of the gas has ah-eady 
been mentioned. 

Roasting and Smelting 

Siniering Ore at High Altitudes.^ — R. L. Lloyd states, that at Cerro 
de Pasco, at an elevation of 14,000 ft., it is possible to directly sinter ore 
containmg 25 per cent, of sulphur without the production of excessive 
heat, where at the lower altitudes the limit is 12 to 15 per cent. This is 
due to the fact, that at that altitude the density of the air is but 58 per 
cent, of what it is at sea level, and so intensity of combustion is lessened. 
At ordinary altitudes some elemental sulphur is driven off in sintering, 
so that with the higher content of 25 per cent., much more is produced. 
This goes into and through the exhaust fan, but does not take fire, because 
again of the feeble action of the air. The ordinary vacuum at the fan, 
of 4 to 6 02. per square inch, has been found sufficient. 

The Crou9e Equipment for DtLSt^prevention in the MacDougaU Roasting 
f ttnwce.*— This improvement, by George S. Grouse, at the Great Falls 
plant, of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., is intended to lessen the 
production of flue dust, a serious fault of the typical MacDougaU roaster. 

;yt«.Sci./V.. CVI.908. 

* Trm. A. L M. B., XLVI. 1419. 



190 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



In Figs. 1-5 are shown plans of hearths, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, and a 
sectional elevation of the modified furnace. 

Dropping from the feed-hopper through the roof over No. 1 hearth 
at its outer edge, the charge travels inward to the extra drop-hole of hearth 
No. 1, this hole being 7 by 8 in. in size and located 4 in. from the edge of 
the regular 40-in. center drop-hole. The two center rabbles, one on each 
arm, move the material away from the center. The concentrate therefore 
all falls through the extra drop-hole, twice per revolution. It here falls 
through the "receiving boxes" or tubes, which just clearing the roof, 
extend to the charge surface below. The rabble arms, being in line with 
one another, the receiving boxes are in proper position when the ore is 
falling. The charge now travels to the exterior 12 by 22-in. drop-holes of 
hearth No. 2, falling through the third-hearth receiving-box to the floor 
of that hearth. Travelling to the center of hearth No. 3, it here falls 
through two extra drop-holes to No. 4 hearth. The fourth-hearth rabble- 
arms are set at right angles to the others, and carry on their ends ''spark 
catchers" or plates intended for catching the sparks formed as these arms 
are pushing material through the side drop-holes of the fourth hearth, 
thus preventing the building up of incrustations on the roof above them. 
Any incrustations forming on the plates are easily knocked off. At 
this hearth, as well as at the fifth, where the opening is central, the 
material drops through a rapidly ascending gas current. This increases 
the formation of flue dust, but on the other hand, it was realized that the 
more intimate contact of the ore with the hot gas current resulted 
in a more vigorous combustion, thus favoring the rapid elimination of 
the sulphur still remaining, and a better maintenance of the heat on the 
lower floors. 

A comparative test of the Grouse Furnace and the MacDougall 
furnace, gave the data tabulated below: 

TABLE III 
Test period: 12 m.. May 24. to 9 a.m.. May 29, 1912 



Average. 



MacDougall 
Furnace. 
(No. 1.) 



Crouse 
Furnace. 
(No. 3.1 



Tone concentrate treated per 24 hours (wet weight) 

Per cent, of moisture in concentrate treated 

Tons of concentrate treated per 24 hours (dry weight) 

Tons of calcine produced per 24 hours 

Assay per cent, siilphur in oaldne 

Tons ol total products, excluding flue dust, per 24 hours — 
Per cent, of dxy weight of feed recovered in above products 

Per cent, of copper fed recovered in above products 

Per cent, of sulphur fed eliminated from above products 

Calculated by Cu Method. 

Pounds of flue dust per 24 hours. 

Pounds of flue dust per dry ton fed 

Flue dust, per cent, of dry weight of charge 



67.167 

8.0 
61.78 
39.372 
10.3 
40.531 
65.6 
78.6 
81.3 



21.049 
341 
17.0 



68.493 

7.9 
63.079 
42.706 

9.6 
44.334 
70.3 
87.0 
81.2 



13,422 
213 
10.7 



COPPER 



191 





HearthNal Heurihs Nos. 2 and 4 

Tlie oeDter drpp hole is now lued m a gas Uitudly one or more of theM aide dnp 
PM«a««way only, and extra drop hole for holee az« covered to damp the air current, 
oooccntrates* 

DiMharge Hofipea 




Hearth Na 8 Hearth Na 6 

The two extra drop holes throoffh which The diseharse drop holes are 8 in. wide 
the caldaes fall to the hearth below, localize and 28 in. long on o«ter arc 
sad reduce Inematatloni 

< Xxtra Drop HoIq 



JjeODiaiOr- 



Bsoiliiag Box 



kd B*ora_ 
BsotlTlas Box 




Flos. 1 to 5. — Grouse equipment for dust prevention in MacDougall furnace. 



192 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Increasing the Capacity of the MacDougaU Roaster.^ — In a paper by 
Frank R. Corwin and Selden S. Rodgers, entitled ''Increasing the 
Efficiency of MacDougall Roasters at the Great Falls Smelter of the 
Anaconda Copper Mining Co.," the writers give an account of extended 
experiments upon the twenty-two 16-ft. six-hearth roasters of that 
company. 

Prior to the year 1909, the capacity of the roasters was 36.1 tons 
daily. With the introduction of the new flue system' the draft in the 
MacDougall dust-chamber was increased from 0.225 in. of water to 0.9 
in., and in the flue necks from the furnaces to the cross flue, from 0.139 
to 0.93 in. As a result of the increased draft, the output per furnace was 
increased to 45.7 tons per day. Any increase of the feed over this raised 
the percentage of sulphur in the calcine, and caused the furnaces to 
become too hot, so that they crusted up, especially on the roof above the 
third-hearth drop-hole, necessitating an excessive amount of cleaning of 
the crust, with its consequent delays. 

To increase output, the first aim was to supply more air, and to stir 
the ore more frequently. To this end the furnaces were operated 
under full draft (1.1 in. of water), and with four doors open on the lower 
or sixth hearth; also the revolutions of the shaft were increased from one 
in 53 to one in 38 seconds. This prevented increase in depth of the bed, 
despite increased tonnage, and the ore was stirred more frequently, thus 
driving off the sulphur faster. 

To lessen the amount of heat developed as the result of increased feed, 
first class screenings were mixed with it to reduce and regulate the tem- 
perature of the furnace. For fluxing purposes limerock is added to the 
calcine, but this is now fed to the sixth hearth of two of the roasters, and 
thus is avoided the possibility of the larger pieces of it wedging and 
injuring the rabbles when passing clear through the furnace. 

To reduce the heat formerly concentrated on the roof above it, the 
area of the third-hearth center drop-hole was increased to 52 in. This 
spread the heat more and at the same time diminished the velocity of 
the upward flowing gases, so that excessive crusting was avoided. A 
year later it was found better to retain the 40-in. drop-hole, but to 
provide in the third hearth two extra drop-holes next to the center one. 
The inner rabbles on the third-hearth rabble arms were set to push the 
ore away from the center, and hence all the material dropping from the 
third to the fourth hearths was forced to pass through these extra holes. 
This meant dropping the whole feed four times a revolution, instead of 
continuously through the center drop-hole. Naturally, this localized 

1 TraiM. A.l.M. Jff., XLL 1380. 

S MiNEBAL INDU0TBT, XVI, 261. 



COPPER 



193 



the incrustations at the extra drop-holes, which were also more accessible 
ioT barring o£F. 

Finally, to obtain at the edge of the second hearth sufficient heat 
to ignite the incoming concentrate, two of the six drop-holes of the hearth 
were closed. This concentrated the ascending hot gases at fom- points, 
thus ensuring a sufficient temperature for prompt ignition of the ore. 

Comparing the earlier with the later performances of the MacDougall 
department during monthly periods, we find: 

In April 1910, an average of 12.9 roasters put through 46 tons of con- 
centrate and screenings with 7.9 per cent, sulphur in the calcine, being 
a total of 17,778.4 tons for the month. 

In April 1913, with an average of 7.95 furnaces working, there was 
put through 77.1 tons of cupriferous material with 8.9 per cent, of 
ijulphur in the calcine, or 18,369.4 tons for the month. We may note that 
with this large daily tonnage the percentage of first class ore-screenings 
which could be handled was also increased. 

Commonly, a charge containing 85 per cent, of fine concentrate and 
5 per cent, of first class ore screenings would prevail. They have this 
average percentage composition: 





TABLE 


IV. 












Cu 


SOa 


FeO 


AhOa 


CaO 


S 


Vxrtx elftjii <xiw ■creMiinfls 


7.10 
7.45 


46.0 
24.0 


16.6 
32.8 


9.7 
5.1 


0.1 
0.1 


17.4 


Fiae eoaoentrmie 


33.4 







Due to the fewer furnaces running in 1913, there was a saving of labor 
pfr 24 hours over April, 1910, of three fumacemen, three laborers pulling 
lumps, and 5/6 feeder. 

The present 16-ft. roasters are to be substituted by 24-ft. MacDougall 
roasters using the reinforced concrete hearths described below. 

The Herreshoff Roasting Furnace.^ — ^In Fig. 6 is shown the improved 
six-hearth Herreshoff roasting furnace with air-cooled arms and central 
shaft, 21 ft. 7 in. in diameter by 19 ft. 5 in. in height of shell and set with 
a head-room above the floor of 6 ft. 10 in. 

The central shaft is double, the inner one 18 in. in diameter, the outer 
oQe 40 in. in diameter. The rabble arms extend to the 18-in. shaft with 
outlets at each rabble arm. Air under pressure is forced through the 
('antral shaft, passes to the outer end of the rabble arm, and back to the 
zonular space between the two shafts. The heated air is taken off at the 
top, and is brought back through channels in the outside walls to the 

' Hin 8ei. Pt„ CVII, 683. 

13 



194 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



lower hearth to be used for air supply at that hearth. The hearths for 
outward discharge have drop-holes 18 by 14 in. in size, the central drop- 
openings are 8 ft. in. diameter. To each hearth are provided six doors, 
24 by 16 m. 




Fio. 6. — Herreahoff furnace. 



The ore is fed upon the top of the furnaces from two hoppers. Just 
below each hopper is a steel plate, and the ore is swept off the plate by a 
rotating finger, which passes between the hopper and the plate. Control of 
the feed is given by cast-iron sleeves at the end of the hoppers, which can 



COPPER 



195 



be raised or lowered. Falling upon the top of the furnace, the ore is 
worked to the periphery by the upper set of rabbles. These are simply 
dropped to place in the rabble arm and can be replaced without stopping 
the furnace. Feed from the furnace top to the first hearth is regulated 
by means of a plate, which varies the discharge openings of the 
drop-holes. 

The makers give for their new 20-ft. roaster, with seven hearths 
(including the drying one), hearth area 1810 sq. ft., weight of metal 
parts 82,000 lb., weight of special fire brick 168,000 lb., and the 
sulphur that can be removed in 24 hours, 16,000 to 40,000 lb. 




Fia. 7. — Concrete hearth for MacDougaU furnace. 



The largest installation of Herreshoff furnaces is at Edgewater, N; J. 
where there are eighteen. At the works of the Arizona Copper Co., 
California, are eight 21 1/2-ft. roasters and at the Calumet and Arizona 
plant, at Douglas, Arizona, are twelve 21 1/2-ft. ones. 

Concrete Hearths for the MacDougall Roasters.^ — As suggested by Frank 
R. Corwin, hearths Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 of No. 6 roaster at the Great Falls 
plant of the Anaconda Copper Co. have been constructed of reinforced 
concrete instead of brick, formerly everywhere used. Fig. 7 shows the 
method of construction. 

Hearths Nos. 3 and 4 were put in in July, 1912, the others in November 
of the same year. At the present date (Dec, 1913) the furnace has been 
in continuous operation, and the hearths are in good condition and 

' Tmt. A. I. M. B., XLVI, 1425. 



196 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



apparently indestructable. Incrustations are more easily removed than 
from the rougher brick surface. 



Furnace Reactions and Products 

ResvUs of the Operation of (he Great Falls Flue SystemA — The new flue 
system has been in nearly continuous operation since June, 1909, to the 
present date. The quantity and analysis of the flue dust recovered is 
given in Table V herewith: 

TABLE v.— QUANTITY AND ANALYSES OF FLUE DUST. 





Tons Dust. 


Cu 
Per 

Cent. 


Ton. 


Au 
Oi. 


Insol. 


SiOs 


FeO 


AlsOi 


CaO 




Nams of Flcb. 


Total 

for 
41 Mo. 


Aver- 


S 


Blast funiaoe. . . 

MaoDougall f ur- 

naoo ......... ^ 


87,020 

18,741 

17,360 

64.048 
4.000 


2.122 

457 

423 

1,562 
98 


8.08 

10.22 

12.59 

8.61 
3.09 


2.7 
3.6 

4.1 

3.3 
3.1 


0.019 

0.023 

0.026 

0.020 
0.012 


34.7 

37.6 

34.8 

33.3 
12.6 


26.8 

29.0 

26.0 

23.6 
8.6 


33.0 

27.1 

27.2 

14.5 
5.4 


7.1 

7.5 

7.2 

8.0 
4.0 


1.7 

0.3 

0.7 

0.7 
0.1 


16.1 
21.3 


Uptake and 

crofl»-take 

Main duat- 
chamber 


19.5 

11.8 
10.6 


Total 


191.169 


4.662 








1 ! 








i 






1 i 







a Weight estimated. Average analysis is from sample taken in June. 1912. at different points from 
dust-chamber to chimney. 

When using the old flue system, it was determined that 3.7 per cent, 
was lost in flue dust from the MacDougall furnaces and 2.57 per cent, 
from the blast-furnaces. While with the new system practically all the 
flue dust is recovered, yet the amount of dust produced is about twice that 
made under the old. This is due to the fact that, as the result of a much 
stronger draft, there is a greatly increased volume of gases passing per 
ton of material treated, and again, much fine concentrate is now charged 
to the blast-furnaces as against none formerly. 

In Fig. 8 is shown the plan of the furnaces and of the blast-furnace 
flue, and a plat of the dust-deposition from end to end of the flue. 
At hopper 101, the greater amount is doubtless due to flue dust from the 
uptake. 

In Fig. 9 is shown a cumulative plat of the dust as drawn from the 
main dust-chamber, together with the location of the wire-hung areas. 
Of the total deposited, 77 per cent, has been removed at the end of the 
first group of wires, and 1 1/2 per cent, remains after passing the second 
group. (The question arises whether the second group of wires might not 
be profitablly omitted, since then an extended area would be left for 

> Tram. A. I. 3i. B., LXVI. 1991. 



COPPER 



197 



quiet settling L. S. A.) Across the chamber the dust is of the same 
depth. 

A cross-section of a loaded dust-chamber wire shows that the dust is 





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attached in wedge shape, the point of the wedge facing the gas and from 
edge to back 1 to 2 in. by 3/8 thick; this thins off to 1/4 in. on shaking. 
Tests made during March and April, 1911, give the results shown in 



198 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Table VI. Tests A, B and C aggregate 39,330 lb. of gasper minute, which 
compares to within 3 per cent, with the 38,190 lb. in the cross-take (Di). 
Tests Di and Ei at the inlet and outlet ends of the main chamber re- 
spectively having been taken on different days cannot be compared. 
Tests Ds and E2, however, taken under the same conditions, show 38,700 
lb. entering the main dust-chamber as against 42,270 lb. leaving the same, 




20 25 80 85 
HOPPER KUMBER 

Fio. 9. — Cumulative plot of dust drawn from dust chamber. 

the difference 3570 lb. or 9.2 per cent, representing the leakage of air 
into the chamber. Mixing this air at 54^ with the 38,700 lb. of gas at 
322® F. we obtain a temperature of 299**. Since the escaping gases are 
290**, we find a loss of 9® F., due to radiation. 

Based on the amounts of gas in the various flues as shown in Table 
VI, we have in Table VII, the volume and weight of gases per ton of 
charge, viz: 

The large volume of gases is, in the case of the blast-furnaces, largely 
due to the entrance of air through the feed-doors. Calculation shows that 
the roaster gases carry 4.4 per cent, sulphiur. Much free air enters at 
the converter hood since of the 1970 lb., but 10,000 cu. ft., or 446 lb. 
passes through the converter per minute. The large amount of 55,500 
lb., registered at the reverberatory flue, is due to excessive leakage. 



COPPER 



199 



Based on the gas volumes given in Table VI and VII, the velocities 
of the draft through the various flues are as follows: 

Blast-furnace flue 17.3 ft. per second; MacDougall furnace flue 17.5; 
cross-take flue 21.8; main dust-chamber 4.0; connecting flue near chimney 
21.0; chimney 10 ft. per second. 



TABLE VI.— VELOCITIES. VOLUMES. AVERAGE TEMPERATURES AND WEIGHTS OP 

GASES. 






Datb, 1911. 





Aver- 


No. and 


age 


Kind of 


Temp- 


Furnaces. 


erature 




p o 



A ■ Apr. 6-8. 
B ' Apr. 6-8. 

G 

Di 



t. 6-8. . . . 
Meh. 21-24.. 

Apr. 6-8.... 



El jMch. 21-24.. 
P . Meh. 21-24.. 



El Apr. 10. 
Ih \ Apr. 10. 



4B. F.... 
10 MacD. 

6Conv. 

2 Rev. 

4B. F. 
10 MaoD. 

5 Conv. 
4B. F. 

6 MaeD. 

5 Conv. 
4B. F. 

6 MacD. 
5 Conv. 
2 Rev. 
4B. F. 

10 MaeD. 

5 Conv. 

4B. F. 
10 MaoD. 

5 Conv. 



345 
352 
303 
496 

331 
286 
311 

290 
322 



Clear 
Area 

of 

Flue 

Sq. Ft. 



401.6 

169.0 

78.5 

152.5 

636 



977 

977 

977 
636 



Vel. 

in Ft. 

per 

See. 



Vol. at 

Ob- 
served 
Tempera- 
ture 
Cu. Ft. 
per Min. 



Pounds 
Gas 
per 
Min. 



17.26 
17.50 
50.37 
43.34 


415.960 
253.500 
213.630 
396,700 


21.80 


859.300 


15.51 


901.400 


21.03 


1.234.900 


15.54 


910.950 


22.74 


867,760 



18.510 

10.980 

9.840 

14,530 

38.190 



42.280 
56.110 

42,270 
38.700 



Pounds 

Gas per 

Furnace 

per 

Min. 



4.630 
1,100 
1.970 
7,270 



TABLE VII.— AMOUNT OF GAS PER FURNACE AND PER TON OF CHARGE. 



Knroop 
PcMAca. 


Observed 

Temperature 

Corresponding 

to Given 

Volume 

F. • 


Ratx per Min. 


Ratb per 24 HoVBS. 


Aver^ 

Tons 
Charged. 


Per Ton op 
Charob. 


Cu. Ft. 


Lb. 


Cu. Ft. 


Lb. 


Cu. Ft. 


Lb. 


BU*t 

MieDoQcall.. 

CmTCrter 

R«^rbcratory 


345 
352 
303 
496 


103.900 
25.350 
42.730 

198.350 


4.630 
1.100 
1.970 
7,270 


149.745.600 
36,504,000 
61.531.200 

285.624.000 


6.667.200 

1.584.000 

2.836.800 

10.468,800 


•391.6 

»70.7 

32.0 

188.5 


384,900 

516,300 

1.922.900 

1,515,200 


17,000 
22.400 
88.600 
55.500 



« Indades flax bat does not include fuel. 
^ Tons copper prodnoed per converter day. 



To determine the total volume of the escaping gases, the percentage, 
^d analysis of the contained dust, samples were taken at lower and 
upper points of the east and west branches of the connecting flue, near 
tSe stack (see Pig. 17), the results being shown in Table VIIL 



200 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 

TABLE VIII. 



Samplb Point 



Main Flue Gabm. 



Velocity 
Ft. per 
Seoond. 



Cu. Ft. per 

24 Hours 

Stand. Cond. 



Average 
Cu. Ft. 

of 
Sample 

Stand. 

Cond. 



Average 
Sodda 
Col- 
lected 
Grama. 



Calculatxd Soud CoiRTim 

OF All Flub Gasbs 

PBB 24 HoiTxa. 



Solid 

Matter, 

Lb. 



Cu. 
Lb. 



Ag. j An. 



Upper E. . 
Lower E . . 
Upper W. 
Lower W. 



18.63 
10.34 
18.63 
19.34 



901.816.800 
960.591.840 
901.816.800 
960,591,840 



180.4 
184.4 
170.8 
183.6 



4.566 
4.226 
4.672 
4.174 



51.230 
48.630 
54.900 
48.010 



811 
347 
358 
873 



Average I 18.98 

I 



931.204.320 



179.8 



4.409 



50.690 



347 



28.5i| o.aos 



The amount of new cupriferous material charged to the furnaces 
in the 24 hours of this test contained 181 ,220 lb. of copper ; the loss of copper 
was therefore 0.19 per cent. The average sample of the collected solids 
shows: 

Free H,S04, 22.23 per cent.; SiOa, 2.3; Cu, 0.7; FejO, and AUO,, 7.08; 
S, 6.67; SbaOa, 1.47; BijO,, 0.81; PbO, 0.49; CaO, 0.18; Zn, 3.31; oxygen 
to combine with sulphur 10.23 per cent. 

Calculations, based upon the material drawn from the flue system 
and estimates of that in the connecting flue and escaping gases, are 
presented in Table IX. 

TABLE IX.— PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF MATERIAL IN FLUE SYSTEM. 



Blast-furnace flue 

MacDougall furnace flue. 

Croas-take flue 

Main duat-chamber 

Connecting flue 

Stack diaonarge 

Totals 



Weight. 


Copper. 


SiOt. 


; 39.3 


1 41.4 

1 U.3 

; 12.9 

32.5 

0.7 

1.2 


47.3 


8.5 


11.0 


7.8 


8.8 


' 28.9 


30.7 


j 1.8 


0.7 


1 13.7 


1.5 






100 


100.0 


100.0 







The table indicates, that with a recovery of 98.1 per cent, of the 
copper, the flue system has got rid of 15.5 per cent, of the finest portion 
of the dust. 

To recover the arsenic contained in the upper part of the main flue- 
chamber, a plant has been installed, capable of handling about 20 tons 
daily. To increase the quantity of recoverable arsenic it is proposed to 
admit air by the twenty-two air-pipes, which have been put in between 
the two groups of wires in the main dust-chamber. (One can but think 
this will only increase the eddy currents already due to the presence of 
those pipes, so that even with increased production of arsenic, settling 
of the dust would be less complete. L. S. A.) 

As justifying the expenditure of $1,100,000 for this flue system, it 



COPPER 201 

must be remembered that the complete recovery of the flue dust was not 
the only end in view. It was desired, first; to discharge the smoke at so 
high a point as to harmlessly disperse it; second to make a draft sufficiently 
strong to remove thoroughly all the furnace gases as they were formed; 
and thirdly, to remove the flue dust readily and inexpensively. 

Bag-house System of the Kennett Smeltery. — The plant and bag- 
house are described in Mineral Industry, XVII, 252; XX, 222. Further 
details, given by Nelson Navius,^ are as follows: The flue dust, a 
whitish powder, weighs 13 lb. to the cubic foot, and has the composition; 
Cu, 1.04 per cent.;Insol., 7.8; Fe, 6.2; CaO, 1.8; Pb, 7.0; As, 4.3; ZnO, 4.8; 
ZDSO4, 47.2 per cent., together with Au, 0.03 oz. and Ag, 4.08 oz. per 
ton. 

Cold air is blown into the top of the "distributing chamber" (see 
Mineral Industry, XX, 224) through twelve 2-ft. pipes branching from 
a main supply pipe above the chamber supplied by a special fan. The 
temperature of the gases entering the chamber is 130° C, and by the 
addition of the cold air, this is reduced to the desired temperature of 
93*^ C. (200*' F.). The cold air has also the effect of diluting the gas, so 
that it will contain less than 0.75 per cent. SO2, as required by law. At 
the "fan-house" at the end of the "main flue" the gas temperature is 
280** C. 

The bag-house, 220 ft. long, is divided transversely into five bays with 
four divisions to each bay, each with a steel hopper for the removal of the 
dust. The 3000 bags are of wool, 18 in. in diameter by 34 1/2 ft. long. 
From time to time these are vertically shaken, using the Benedict ap- 
paratus which is operated by means of a motor. From the steel hopper 
of each division, the dust is withdrawn into a wooden trough containing 
water, so that the flue dust is thoroughly wet down before removal. Air, 
admitted at the sides and roof of the bag-house, further dilutes the 
fumes. 

The volume of gases passing the fans at the fan-house may be given 
at 333,000 cu. ft. per minute and in cold winter weather, 22,000 cu. ft. 
of cold air, introduced at the distributing chamber, cools this to 200° F. 
In summer as high as 125,000 cu. ft. may be used. Based on the nominal 
dimensions of the bags, the volume of gas (not counting the cold air 
admitted) is 0.684 cu. ft. per square foot of bag surface per minute. 
The amount of dust collected per 24 hours is 12 to 15 tons. 

Tests are made every 2 hours for acidity to ensure that no SOs is 
escaping, and to be sure that the gases carry less than 0.75 per cent. SO2. 
Actually, this varies from 0.4 to 0.6 per cent, by volume. The bags cost 
16 each and their life is from 18 to 24 months. 

» If*.. .Sri. Pr., cvi. 374. 



202 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

FliLe^iLst Losses at the Copper Queen Smeltery.^ — By the employ- 
ment of reverberatory furnaces for the treatment of the finer ore, the 
flue dust produced by the blast-furnaces has been decreased from 227 
tons per day in the first half of 1912 to an average of 116 tons daily. 
Some 2 tons daily of coarse particles are caught in the converter flue, 
but this is independent of the finer material, which settles at the brick 
header at the base of the stack. This coarser portion in the flue has 
the following composition: Cu, 60.9 per cent.; SiOs, 2.2; Fe, 8; S, 11.6 
per cent.; also Au, 0.115 and Ag, 15.4 oz. per ton. 

Connected with the reverberatory furnaces is a dust-chamber of 
1200 ft. cross-section by 132 ft. long, hung with 30,000 Rodng wires. 
From this chamber, during 13 months, has been recovered only 9 
tons of flue dust. Most of the dust from the furnaces settles in the 
waste-heat boilers and flues. 

The dust-chamber of the MacDougall plant is of 1370 ft. cross-section 
by 144 ft. long and has 42,000 wires hanging from the roof. The flue-dust 
recovery is 6 per cent, of the charge roasted. 



Electric Smeltinq 

Smelting in the Electric Furnace,^ — Dorsey A. Lyon and Robert M. 
Keeney discuss the question of the smelting of copper ores in the electric 
furnace as compared with regular blast-furnace smelting, and give draw- 
ings of shaft-furnaces to be used in this connection. 

They consider that there is a field for the employment of the electric 
furnace: (1) In regions where fuel is costly and where hydro-electric 
power is cheap, as in Chili, Canada, in certain parts of the United States 
and in Mexico. (2) In districts remote from the railroad, where the ore 
is of a grade too low to stand transportation, and must be concentrated 
on the spot to blister-copper, and where also hydro-electric power is 
cheap. 

While no electric smelting has been attempted in America, some ex- 
perimental work has been conducted at the Hen Smelting Works, Trond- 
hjen, Norway, and some 25 tons of pure copper have been exported. 

Three classes of ores have to be considered in smelting, viz., (1) native 
copper ores, (2) oxide and carbonate ores, (3) sulphide ores. 

(1) Native copper ores. Fifteen experiments were made in smelting 
. fine Michigan copper concentrates of grades Nos. 3 and 4, of the analyses 
given. 

1 Trant, Intt, Min. Met., BuU. 110, 28; Miksbal Industkt, XXI. 256. 

< Trann. A. I. M. B., XLVI. 2117; Trant. Am., EUdrochem. Soe., XXIV (1913); Min. Sd. Pr., 
CVII. 686. 974. 



COPPER 



203 





No. 3 
Per cent. 

37.35 

33.33 

15.40 

8.78 

5.18 

1.09 

0.056 

0.30 

69.73 


No. 4 
Per cent. 


Cu 


25.35 


SiOt 


35.92 


FeO 


21.60 


AWj 


12.40 


CaO 


6.98 


M«0 


1.09 


3^....:...::: ::::;::::::::;::: :::::::::: 


0.096 


Fe (metallic) 


0.60 




88.12 







There was employed a Siemen's resistance electric furnace of 50 k.w. 
capacity, smelting a charge of concentrate 22 lb. and hematite 1.1 lb., 
fielding black copper of 98.59 per cent. Cu and a slag containing 
SiOs, 44.88 per cent.; CaO, 6.92; MgO, 2.32; FeO, 29.80; AlaO,, 15.34; 
and Cu, 0.15 per cent. 

It may be concluded, that with a furnace operating at a low tempera- 
ture on a more easily fused mono-silicate slag of 35 per cent. SiOa (whether 
using limestone or iron ore as a flux) the reduction of iron should not 
bring the black copper below 95 per cent. Cu; the loss by volatilization 
should not exceed 1.0 per cent, of the copper charged, and the slags should 
not contain more than 0.25 per cent. Cu. The electric furnace can, 
however, smelt a siliceous charge of high melting point, but then the vola- 
tilization loss is large. The electrode consumption should not exceed 10 
lb. nor should there be needed more than 640 k.w.h. per ton of ore or 
concentrate charged. 

The furnace proposed consists of a crucible 14 1/2 ft. diameteriby 9 ft. 
high, surmounted by a shaft 18 in. diameter by 18 1/2 ft. high. Through 
the roof of the crucible are suspended vertically three carbon electrodes, 
one of which is shown. 

It is estimated that this 750-K.W. furnace would treat in 24 hours 
about 23 tons of native-copper concentrate or 25 to 40 per cent. Cu. The 
furnace would be operated by a 3-phase current of 50 to 100 volts. 
Experimaiting with concentrate as high as 37 per cent. Cu, no short- 
circuiting was feared. The calculated cost of operation at $43.80 per 
kilowatt year is $7.18 per ton of 35 per cent, copper concentrate, as 
against a figure of $8.64 per ton by the regular method, this latter cost 
including all except amortization. (See Mineral Industry, XVIII, 
225, for actual detailed costs at the Lake Superior Smelting Works. 
L.S.A.) 

(2) Oxide and Carbonate Ores.^— M. Stephan of the Girod Electric 
j^teel Works, Ugine, France, presents the result of an experiment on 
copper ore from the Belgian Congo, the copper varying from 21 to 6 

'J#<tqa«. ffrs,Oct.. 1912. 



204 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

per cent, and iron from 4 to 16 per cent. Charcoal was mixed with the 
ore for its reduction. An electric furnace of the Girod type was used. 

A slag was produced containing Si02, 51.9; AUOa, 11.3; CaO,I6.8; 
MgO, 13.7; FejOs, 3.5; MnO, 0.9; CaO, 0.9 and Cu, 0.46 per cent. 
The measured temperatures show that melting begins at 1250^. The 
pig copper in six different rims varied from 65 to 95 per cent. Cu, from 
1 to 21 per cent. Fe, and from 1 to 11 per cent, cobalt. The lower the 
smelting temperature the purer the black copper, but on the other hand 
the slag would not be so free from copper. With these infusible slags 
900 to 1100 k.w.h. was needed per ton of ore, but it is computed that 
500 k.w.h. should be enough when making an easily fused slag. The 
electrode consumption was 16 lb. per ton. The charcoal used was 25 
per cent, of the copper in the charge. 

(3) Sulphide Ores. — Twenty experiments were conducted at the 
Bureau of Mines with the Siemens 50-k.w. electric furnace, that was 
used in the experiments upon native copper. A typical charge was 
8.8 lb. of pyrite, 13.2 lb. of nodular roasted ore, carrying Fe 65 per 
cent.; 5.76 lb. of silicious ore of SiOs, 75 per cent., and 2.7 lb. limestone. 
There resulted a matte containing 1.22 per cent, copper, and a sl^, with 
SiOj, 35.25 per cent.; FeO 41.3; CaO and MgO 11.64; S 3.66 and with 
but 0.05 per cent. Cu. Thus the sulphur percentage is remarkably high 
and the copper extraordinarily low.^ 

Besides the first equivalent of sulphur a further 10 i>er cent, is 
volatilized or 60 per cent, of all. The copper present in the matte 
(1.22 per cent.) was enough to ensure the collection of the gold and silver. 
It was found that 480 k.w.h. was needed, and that the electrode con- 
sumption did not exceed 5 lb. per ton. 

In semi-pyritic, and indeed in pyritic smelting, coke, varying from 
10 per cent, of the charge to as little as 0.5 per cent., is added to the 
charge to supplement the heat furnished by the sulphur of the ores treated. 
This addition of coke makes less efficient the air entering the furnace 
to burn the sulphur of the ore. Also the fuel largely burns above the 
zone of fusion instead of near the hearth where its heat is most needed. 
Hence may result crucible troubles and ''freezing" of the furnace. The 
advantage of the electric fiu-nace is, therefore, that by omitting the coke 
and by generating heat in the crucible we attain two objects, (1) more 
efficient oxidation of the sulphides, (2) a high temperature in the crucible 
where it is most needed. 

1 W. McA. Johnson (Tran«. A. I. M. B., XLVI, 2726) diBCUsdng hia ezperimentt in the electric 
furnace treatment of complex linc ores, carrying copper (and lead) shows that the slaca have low 
copper values, the average of 104 tappings being Cu 0.065 per cent. On an S-day run. oa a charge 
analysing 0.43 per cent. Cu there was produced a matte of Cu 5.33 per cent, and a slag retaining but 
0.05 per cent. Cu. To attain this result is needed (i) a hot fluid slag (2) a quiet settiing of the •lag 
aided by the Jar due to the pulsation of the alternating current; and (3) the strong reduction in the 
smelting sons of the furnace. 



COPPER 205 

Coke at $9.00 per ton can be considered equivalent to electric energy 
at S16.20 per kilowatt year. Taking the consumption of electrodes, as 
in electric smelting of iron ores, at 5 lb. per ton, this at 6 cents per pound 
would be 30 cents per ton of ore treated. 

F. L. Clerc^ suggests that an electric current be used for preheating 
the blast in ordinary smelting, applying an electric heating coil at 
each of the tuyere pipes. 

Blast Furnaces 

The Loss of Heat from Blast-furnace Waier-jackeis^ — To determine 
this heat-loss, in the case of a 36 by 180-in. blast-furnace of the Reduc- 
tion Department of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co., Great Falls, 
Mont., R. P. Roberts notes the rise in temperature and the quantity of 
the escaping water with the following results: 

The average heat removed by the nose of the spout was 430, by the 
spout 2535, by the breast-jacket 610, by the main end-jackets 5400 
and by the main side-jackets 4375 poimd-calories per minute. Especially 
in the case of the side-jackets, this quantity varies, according to the 
crusting of the jackets, from as little as 1265 to as high as 7355 pound- 
calories per minute. 

Taking an average figure of the heat-loss of side- and end-jackets of a 
furnace 15 ft. long at an approximate average of 31,440 pound-calories, 
the jacket loss for a 51-ft. furnace would be 76,250, and for an 87-ft. 
furnace, 121,050 pound-calories. 

With the heat-value of blast-furnace coke at 6400 lb. calories, 
we have an equivalent consumption of coke of 4.91 lb. for the 15-ft. 
furnace, of 11.91 lb. for the 51-ft. furnace and 18 lb. for the 87-ft. 
furnace. Estimating that the coke would be equivalent to 10 per cent, of 
the charge, then, to heat the jacket water, there would be needed for the 
IWt. furnace 1.0 per cent., and for the 87-ft. furnace 0.66 per cent, of 
coke. Thus we may say, that while such saving is of value, it has been 
too much emphasized as an advantage of the larger furnace. Computing 
the saving for furnaces of different lengths, it has been found that for 
furnaces of more than 60 ft. long, this proportionate heat saving becomes 
ne^igible. Expressed in another way, where in a 15-ft. furnace 10 per 
cent, of the total coke is used in heating the jacket water, this becomes 
"1 per cent, for the 61-ft. and 6.6 per cent, for the 87-ft. furnace. 

These theoretical considerations are properly modified if we consider 
that part of the duty of heating jacket water may be borne by the 
• timing sulphides. In the case of reduction smelting, we must also 

> Trvu. A. I. M, S„ XL VI. 2727. > Trant. A. I. M, B., XLI, 1343. 



206 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

remember that the coke, being imperfectly burned, has an efficiency 
much less than 6400-lb. calories. 

Development of Blast-furnace Construction^ — ^J. A Church gives us a 
history of the development of the blast-furnace at the Boston h Mon- 
tana Smeltery, Great Falls, Mont., from the first ones in 1893 of 40 by 
120 in., to the one built in 1911, which is 84 by 180 in. at the tuy6re level. 

In the blast-furnace department of this plant are four furnaces, 
each 56 by 15 ft. long, and one of 84 by 15 ft. long, the smaller furnaces 
having a capacity of 450 tons, the large one a capacity of about 600 tons 
daily. 

In summarizing the results of experiments with half-a-dozen different 
types of furnaces during the period of 20 years, he concludes: 

With an increase in the height of the ore-colunm, and for a given 
volume of blast, the blast-pressure increases so that it sets a limit to the 
economic height. 

With a high column it takes longer for a corrected charge to come 
down, also crusts harder to bar off. 

On the other hand, a high column with a cool top means better 
reduction and better fuel saving; with a wide furnace it must be of such 
height as to ensure an even distribution of the blast. 

Increase of width of the furnace increases the hearth-area, and 
proportionately the tonnage put through. However, increased tonnage 
calls for increased volume of air, and this demands either higher pressure 
or increased tuyere area, as shown in the new No. 3 furnace, where the 
tuydce slots are 11 in. high by 3 in. wide. 

Wide furnaces will need effective systems of mechanical charging 
as compared with the older plan of charging at the side. 

Reverbebatort Furnaces 

Reuerberatory Furnace Water-heal Boilers,^ — S. S. Sorensen discusses 
the settings for Sterling and for Babcock & Wilcox boilers respectively. 
In each case the boiler is set 14 ft. from the furnace and at such a height 
that the furnace off-take flue enters below the tube system. 

He finds that for 100 days the repair cost for the Babcock & Wilcox 
boilers was $189.39, and the time it was down for repairs 8.28 days, as 
against 1100.69 and 6.93 days for the Sterling boilers. On the other 
hand the water evaporated per day by two boilers of the Babcock & 
Wilcox type was 861,111 lb. and for two of the Sterling type was 
621,472 lb. 

1 Tram. A. I. M. £.. XLVI. 1367; Minbxal Indvstbt, XXI. 240. 
« Min. 8ci, Pr., CVII. 675. 



COPPER 



207 



Reverberatory Furnaces at Great Failed — ^This recently consisted of 
three gas-fired regenerative furnaces, each having a hearth 15 ft. 9 in. by 
45 ft. These furnaces will be changed to the direct-fired type with hearths 
22 by 102 ft., and will be equipped with hot-blast stoves for heating the 
secondary air, that is, the air not passing through the grate, but blown in 
over the bridge wall. For operating the regenerative furnaces there 
have been employed twenty-six gas producers, which will be abandoned, 
due to the use of the direct-fired furnaces. These furnaces are now 
under construction. This first one completed shows novel features. 
The masonry is built up within a tank of heavy steel plate, each end of 
the furnace being rounded. The waste gases go to hot-blast stoves where 
the secondary air is preheated. The buck-staves are spaced farther apart 
than has been customary, dependence being placed on the plate-tank, and 
are supported by inclined props set up by jack-screws. Thus, all tie 
rods are omitted, and it is estimated that $5000 to $6000 is saved, 
besides the fact that there is a clear space to repair the roof. The side 
walls are 30 in. thick, the arched roof 20 in. The 43-ft. regenerative 
furnace, formerly used, cost $50,000 to build; it is estimated that the new 
102-ft. one will cost $100,000. 



CONVEBTEBS AND CONVERTING 

Canverier Readwne.^ — ^Redick R. Moore gives the accompanying 
table of converter reactions. The predominating reactions in the 

TABLE X.-OONVERTER REACTIONS. 



VolatiUied. 



Gm. 



SOt 



N 



L 5 FeS 4- Heat 
IL FeiS« + CusS + 13 O 

III. F««S4 + 14 C 

IV. % FftiO« + CiuS 
V. FesO«+ Fe»8« 

VI. F«t8« + 2Cu + 11 O 
VII. 5 FaS + 2 Cu 
VIIL CiuB + 2 O 

IX. 4 Cii«8 + 9 O 
X. Oa*0 4-Fe»84+ 12 - 

XL 2 CniO + CuiS 
XlL2Ca + 
XItt Fe + O 
XIV. CiiaS + HsO 

XV. F«8 + HiO 
XVL 2 Hi8 + 80s 

xviL azns + eo 

XVHL 2 FbS + 3 O 
XIX. 3 Fe4Aa + 10 FeS + 430- 
XX. GftOOs + Heat 
XXI. 2 Mo + SiOt 
XXIL 8 + 0« 



FetS4 + S 

5 FeO + CuiS + 4 SO. 

2 FeO + FeiOi + 4 80« 

6 FeO + Cu. + S0« 

4 FeO + 4 FeS 

6FeO + CttiS + 3SOt 

FeiS4+ CuiS 

2Cu + SOfl 

6 Cu + CuK) + 4 SOf 

2 Cu + 6 FeO + 4 SO« 

6Cu + SO. 

CutO 

FeO 

cuto'+His'.;;;;!;!;.'!.'.'.'.'!:! 

FeO + HtS 

2H.O + 38 

2ZiiO + ZnS + 2 SOt 

PbO + PbS + SO« 

22 FeO + AflsOi + 9 SOt + AsS 

CaO + COt 

(Mo)tSiOt(aUg) 



S. 



Per cent. 



Per cent. 



13.90 

13.04 

100.00 



86.1 
86.9 



12.62 



88.4 



20.8 

18.62 

14.90 

100.00 



79.2 
81.4 
86.1 



100.0 
100.0 



S. 

ZnS 
PbS 
AeS 



14.90 



86.1 



9.80 
'26;86" 



90.2 
'79!2' 



* MnmAi. iKDJJwnr, XXI, 248. 

* Timu. A, J. M. B.\ Mistbbal Induvtbt, XVI, 362. 



208 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

first or slagging period are II and III of the table, the subsidiary reactions 
of the same period are expressed by reactions, I, IV, V, VI, VII, X, 

XIII, XV and XXL In the second period, that of the conversion of 
white-metal to copper, the predominating reactions are VIII and IX, 
while the simultaneous subsidiary reactions are expressed by XI, XII, 

XIV, XVI and XVIII. 

Diu'ing the first period the average gases should contain between 
13.0 and 13.9 per cent. SOs, and during the second period 19 to 20.8 
per cent. These gases contain free volatilized sulphur (I and XVI), 
ZnS (XVII), PbS (XVIII) and AsS (XIX), as has been quaUtatively 
determined by Redick; and this is an evidence of the complete utiliza- 
tion of the oxygen of the blast. He also asserts that there is no SO3 
in converter gases, while CO2 should be negligible. 

Efficiency of the Air and Speed of Converting.^ — Herbert Haas, in 
discussing the rate of oxidation or speed of converting, makes the fol- 
lowing estimate of the au: needed at 100 per cent, efficiency. By forcing 
into the converter 440 lb. of oxygen, equal to 1914 lb. of 24,000 cu. ft. 
of air, there will be oxidized 516 lb. of Fe to 660 lb. of FeO, and 293 lb. 
of S to 586 lb. of SO2, all from 1172 lb. of 40 per cent, copper matte 
and this corresponds to 100,000 cu. ft. of air per ton of copper. Com- 
pared with this we have an air consumption varying from 126,000 to 260,- 
000 cu. ft., or of efficiencies varying from 80 to 38.5 per cent, respectively, 
both with acid and basic-lined converters. 

At the Garfield plant of the American Securities Co., using Pierce- 
Smith converters, the air efficiency is reported as varying from 77 to 
80 per cent. Wheeler and Krejci's experiments* show that while as 
much as 22,000 cu. ft. of air per minute can be used on the 20 ft. upright 
Great Falls converter, the best results have been attained with 18,000 
cu. ft. at which one can count on an efficiency of at least 94 per cent. 

E. H. Hamilton some years ago found the oxygen content of the 
escaping converter gases in acid converting to be as follows: 

Firat half of the first blow 0. 1 per cent. 

Second half of the firat blow 1 . per cent. 

Firat half of the second blow 9.0 per cent. 

Second half of the second blow 17.0 per cent. 

This clearly shows why the actual consumption of air so largely 
exceeds the theoretical. 

The Upright Basic Converter? — A. E. Wheeler and M. W. Krejci, 
of the Boston & Montana Reduction Works, Great Falls Mont., in a paper 
entitled ''Great Falls Converter Practice," trace the development 

i Tran: A. I. M. B., XL VI. 2647, 2664; Mineral Indubtbt. XX. 221. 

« rran«. A. /. M. JB.. XLVI. 1831. 

» TraM. A. I. M. S., XLVI. 1831; Eng. Min. Jour., XLV, 901. 



COPPER 



209 



of acid-converting from the year 
1892, and of basic-converting 
from 1911 to 1913 inclusive. 
Table [XI gives the record of 
performance of two types of 
upright, side-blown, basic-lined 
converters operated during this 
period. 

Classes III and IV are 12 ft. 
diameter, Class V is 20 ft. dia- 
meter of the shell. 

Figs. 10 and 11 show in plan 
and elevation the class IV or 
12-ft. converter, used also at the 
smeltery of the Cananea Con- 
solidated Copper Co., and the 
Ariaona Copper Co. 

Figs. 12, 13 and 14 show 
three sections of the No. V or 
20-ft. converter. It is of 250 
tons daily capacity. The con- 
verter proper, not including 
bearings and gears, weighs 65 
tons, and will take a 50-ton 
cha^e. It is operated by a 
I0O-h.p., Westinghouse tjrpe, 
M. C. direct-current motor. ' 

The first converters, elec- 
trically driven, were equipped 
with direct-current motors, but 
a satisfactory alternating-cur- 
rent motor has now been devel- 
<>ped. The approved practice 
is to gear the motor to a jack- 
shaft, which in turn, through a 
worm-gear, drives the large gear 
on the converter proper. This 
prevents slippmg and the 
chance of the overbalanced 
<^nverter moving past the de- 
sired position. The electric 
^^e is also so designed that 



8 



I 






o 






ll 



& 






I 



a 

o 



4 



a 

o 

& 



I 



i 

6 



ssssssss'-sss 






SSgS8SS8S<=>g° 



Isgssiisgiss 



O a» M C9 O to "«• b- ^ CD CO M 



oooooo ooooo 



.^.^Oeor-o o ?o <M c^ (N ro 

C9 ^«i^^«i^^S ^00 S o e<i 9 M 
c9tCeo«Daoioe9co «o 



M O M CO 01 CO M CO CO CO CO CO 

0*0*0*0*90*990^0^0*0* 

«VS»^jOeOK^«.^rH..« 



^^v^^^cide^MCOcoeo 
iM ^ ^ ^ 1-1 ^ ^ .^ ^ iH ^ ^ 

0*0*0*0*0*0*0*0*0*0*0*0* 
»»b^2i«OKcoeiodoaoeJ 






moQ<«iO<mo<eoO 






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§ 

i 

9 



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•8 3 

y 

ill 
If 






210 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



it is applied when current is shut off, so as to hold the converter in 
fixed position. Motors may be totally inclosed, or they may be set 
alongside the converter in a sheet-iron housing. They should be of 
substantial construction, as in steel mills, should have a high overload 




FiQB. 10 AND 11. — Twelve-foot banc converter. 

capacity, and be built to withstand a high temperature, such as from a 
splash of molten metal. 

As compared with hydraulic operation, the chief advantage of the 
motor, is a smooth motion. The converter starts gently without halt 
or jar, and thus is eliminated the chance of splashing. 



COPPER 



211 



We may here add that it is desirable to equip the travelling crane 
with the same type of motor. These are subjected to dust, fumes 
and heat, and should be substantial. Also with identical motors fewer 
spare parts are needed. 

The following table gives the operating labor costs for the 12-ft. 
and the 20-ft. converters respectively. 





SU %"Q u f .'^ J(Ji3-DI n„-of Shells 




Fios. 12 TO 14. — Twenty-foot bado converter. 

Since the output of the 20-ft. is two and one-half times that of the 
12-ft. converter, the labor costs become for one large converter $42, 
for three smaller ones $57.25 per pound of copper or 0.019 and 0.02G 
cents respectively. 

Summarizing results we find that the best practice calls for the basic- 
lined, rather than for the acid-lined converter. 



212 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 
TABLE XII. 





Rate 

scr/t. 


12-ft. Converter. 


20-ft. Conrerter. 


Labor. 


Per Sbif 1. 


Per Day. 


Per Shift. 


Per Day. 




No. 


Cost. 


No. 


Coat. 


No. 


Coflt. 


No. 


Cost. 


Skimmer 


$4.25 
3.25 


1 
1 


$4.25 
3.25 


3 
3 


$12.75 
9.75 


1 
2 


$4.25 
6.50 


3 

6 


$12.75 


Helper 


29.25 






Totel 




2 


$7.50 


6 


$22.50 


3 


$10.75 





$42.00 









A large converter is better than a small one, and the size is limited 
only by mechanical considerations. Even the largest plants should 
have a few. The 20-ft. converter can be used for the stor^e of matte 
or of finished copper for long periods, if the mouth is properly covered. 
Therefore, in a plant of comparatively small production, a combination 
of ample matte-storage capacity in the blast-furnace settlers and rever- 
beratory furnaces, together with a large converter, can be made so as to 
allow all converting to be done on one shift, and the casting of the copper 
to be on the next shift. 

The best sized tuydre is 2 ] /4 in. internal diameter. SmaUer ones tend 
to weaken the lining, pass less air, and add to the work of punching. 
Those of 23/4 in. diameter have not proved successful. 

The 8-ft. mouth for the converter has been found satisfactory. K 
smaller, it crusts up more rapidly; on the other hand it may be so large 
as to permit too free an escape of the heated gases. 

At least 5 in. should be allowed between the tuyeres and the 
bottom lining, and this dimension can be increased, provided there is 
copper enough at the finish to cover the tuydres. 

The total height of 17 ft. 7 3/4 in. has been found satisfactory for the 
large converter; trials of a taller one were not so. The dimensions to 
consider should rather be the distance from the center line of the tuyeres 
to the lowest point of the mouth. 

Tuyferes made of cast copper have been tried. They stand fairly well 
while blowing from matte to white metal, but melt away rapidly when 
blowing from white metal to copper. 

For the successful operation of the basic-lined converter the following 
points, according to E. P. Mathewson, are of importance:* The 
temperature in the converter should not be permitted to exceed 2100° F. 
(1150° C); the tuyfere opening should be preferably 1 1/2 in. in diameter; 
these tuyeres should be punched the full size of the opening immediately 
after pouring copper; the converter should be carried as full of matte 

» Tram, A. I. M. B., XLVI. 



COPPER 213 

(and slag) as possible in order to prevent sudden changes in temperature 
and overheating of the lining; and the slag should contain preferably 25 
per cent, of silica. 

. Tests and analyses show that there is no relation between the per- 
centage of silica in the slag and the wear of the basic lining. 

Summing up the advantages of basic-lined converters, as compared 
with those acid-lined, there are: decreased cost of lining; ability to use 
large units with consequent economies in labor, power and repairs; 
neatness and cleanness of plant; and, by doing away with the lining 
department, abolishing the danger due to dust affecting the men engaged 
in preparing the lining. 

When rebuilt, the converter plant at Great Falls will contain three 
converter stalls for 20-ft. converters. For each ton of blister copper 
produced, 0.7 tons of raw concentrates is charged. After preliminary 
drying, much of the concentrates will be smelted through the converters. 
The converter copper is cast either into anodes for the electrolytic 
refinery, or into ingots for shipments East, this being done in two electri- 
cally-driven casting-machines. The copper is poured into the molds 
from a ladle, tilted electrically. 

CcUar PvUer far Converters. — In operating a converter the material is 
thrown up by the violent agitation of the blast toward the open mouth, 
where, through cooling, it becomes attached, and gradually builds up a 
nose or collar, which if allowed to grow, will in time close the mouth. 
This difficulty is especially marked in the operation of the basic-lined 
converter since for the maintenance of the lining, a moderate temperature 
is desirable. 

L. O. Howkrd describes a device* suggested by Lee Young, foreman 
at the Old Dominion Plant, Globe, Arizona. It consists of a bar so hung, 
that when dropped by the crane through the mouth of the converter, the 
ends will catch under projecting crusts, which have formed in the opera- 
tion of the converting. The short cutting end is worked into position, 
where the bite is to be made, and a pull taken by the crane, thus lifting 
the long end into contact with the opposite side of the converter, and 
forcing the short cutting end into the collar. A steady pull will draw 
the tool through the mass until near the top, when the collar breaks and 
comes away. The cutter easily tears through the heaviest collar without 
lifting the converter shell from the stand. A bite may be taken at any 
angle. Fifteen to 20 minutes work per shift is sufficient to keep the shell 
open to any size required. 

Converter Slag and Flue Dust Mixer } — We present two elevations of 
the apparatus already described in the last number of the Mineral 

* ITm. Sri. Pr.. CVI. 733; Minbbal Inddstbt. XVI. 365. 

*iMC JTim. MH. BmU., llo. 23; Minkbal Indubtbt. XX, 218; XXI. 257. 



214 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Industrt. At first a cylinder 4 ft. diameter by 9 ft. long was tried, but a 
collar crusted at the ends of the cylinder which were difficult to remove. 
The working of the cone, when substituted, satisfied all expectations, and 
working three shifts, could easily handle all the converter slag made, and 
from 60 to 70 tons daily of flue dust. The best and most even product was 
made with 18 to 20 per cent, of converter slag, and 25 per cent, was the 
limit for a good coarse product unmixed with flue dust. A maximimi was 
attained of 535 tons, and an average of 325 tons daily. There was 
needed a 50-h.p. motor, driving the drum 8 r.p.m. When reverbera- 
tories were used for melting down the dust, the use of the apparatus was 
discontinued. Had it, however, been rebuilt, the machine would have 
been heavier, and the small diameter of the cone increased to 6 ft. to 



i, , 


— ^ 


r.«..U. 


::..:;.—■/ 




i 1 


Dost Bin 


1 




•f^ 


k;i:l\ 




'i 


^BT^l 


Jp> 1 


' i 


h 


1 





£1.56 




Fioa. 15 AMD 16. — Slag and flue duit miser. 

better dislodge the crust. If the flue dust contains sulphur, much sulphur 
dioxide gas is liberated, and provision for its removal and for collecting 
a small amount of flue-dust should be made. Two of these cone-mixers 
have been installed at the works of the Arizona Copper Co., Clifton, 
Ariz., intended for mixing fine silicious material with converter slag, and 
sending the resultant product to the reverberatories, in order to attain 
a better fluxing of this fine material. 

Basic Converter at Olobe, Arizona.^ — ^L. O. Howard related his experi- 
ence in the operation of a 12-ft. Great Falls type basic converter. 

At first, due to a large charge and consequent high back pressure, the 
tuyeres were at times plugged, or by careless tilting when punching, 
several were lost, so that, owing to frequent consequent chipping off, it 
seems that the wear at the tuyfere line would be excessive; still, with the 
production of 14,500,000 lb. of copper, the lining, to the first patching, 
gave out about 20 in. above the tuyeres. 

It was estimated that a life of 20,000,000 lb. should be attainable. 
When 2,000,000 lb. of copper had been produced it was discovered that it 

1 Traiu. A. I. M. E., XLVI, 2674. 



COPPER 215 

was possible to coat the brick with magnetic iron oxide, and thus build up 
a protective lining. At one time this coating was as much as 15 in. 
thick upon the brick, but this so lessened the capacity that it was taken off 
and a thinner one substituted. The great difhculty is in making the men 
keep the temperatiure down, since a short run at a high heat will clean off 
the coating and expose the underlying brick. It was, however, possible 
with care to maintain the coating for as much as six weeks at a time 
without any brick showing, though it is impossible to always do so. 
When too thick at the tuyeres, punching is difficult. The original thick- 
ness at the tuydres region was 30 in. and this was gradually corroded to 
10 m. until the first patching. 

The shell was in continuous use for 173 days, and made 664 charges 
of 11 tons copper per charge or 42 tons per day, the matte averaging 43.9 
per cent, copper. The highest record was 66.4 tons per day with a 52- 
per cent, copper matte, and 60 tons per day for three days with a matte of 
47.7 per cent. 

The Small Basic Converter J — Those installed at Gatica, Chile, in 
1912 are described by Bancroft Gore. They are 58 in. in diameter by 84 
in. long, hand-tilted, with the mouth 28 in. diameter and have 13 one-inch 
tuyeres, spaced 4 in. center to center, and in operation, an inside length of 
64 m. One layer of No. 1 arch brick was used throughout, except for 
12 in. above and below the tuyeres which had two layers of straight 
bricks. These brick were cemented fast to the shell by a thick layer of 
sodium silicate and finely groimd dead-burned magnesite. No provision 
was needed for the expansion of the brick. In operation a protective 
coating of about 6 in. of highly refractory slag (containing CuO 6.4 
per cent.; FeO 78.5; SiOj, 5; CaO 1.8; AljOa, 3.5 per cent.), formed upon 
the brick when converting a 45 per cent, copper matte. When the 
grade of the matte dropped below 44 per cent., the coating would gradually 
disappear, exposing the brick to corrosion, unless the matte could be 
Again raised to near 50 per cent., when the coating would again rapidly 
fonn; then the matte could be dropped from 47 to 44 per cent. . 

Normally, the converters would take 6000 lb. of matte in two 
charges, yielding from this some 2500 lb. of copper. With the slag 
coating gone and the bricks exposed, the converter would take as high as 
22,000 lb. of matte in three charges and yield 8000 lb. of copper. 

The magnesite brick, laid down, cost 25 cents each. 

Smelteries 

The Great Falls Smeltery of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co} — In 
a paper entitled "The Great Palls System and Chimney," C. W. Goodale 

; Jrow. A, I. M. E., XLVI. 2675. 

* rrui. A, I. M. jr.. XLVI. 1396, 1066; Minbral Industry, XV. 260; XVII. 251; XVIII. 103. 



216 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 




COPPER 217 

and J. W. Klepinger give us details of construction of the smeltery and its 
flue-^stem. Figs. 17-23 show in plan and elevation the entire plant, and 
Figs. 24-27 show the elevation and plan the main dust-chamber. The 
worb treat 3800 tons of ore per day and employ 1100 men. 

Referring to Fig. 17, the twenty-two roasters have a common "Mac- 
Dougall Furnace Flue" shown in elevation at "Section C.C." The 
flue is 14 by 20 ft. in size, runs 227 ft. to the "uptake" and has a hopper 
bottom. The tracks under the hoppers of this flue, as under those of the 
"Blast-furnace Flue," are on the reverberatory-furnace charge-floor 
level, so that the regular calcine trammer's crew draws and trams the 
hopper-dust to the reverberatories without extra labor expense. 

As shown in the general plan and at "Section B.B." the steel goose- 
neck pipes of the five blast-furnaces connect into the "Blast Furnace 
Flue." This flue is 18 by 20 ft. in size, and has a bottom of a double row 
of hoppers. It is 326 ft. long to the "uptake." 

There are seven converter stands, blowing into a flue 335 ft. long, 
which, near its middle, branches into the "MacDougall Furnace Flue." 
In place of these there will be three 20-ft. upright converters. 

The three reverberatory furnaces discharge into the "Reverberatory- 
ftimace Flue," 12 ft. wide by 14 ft. high, which is arranged to deliver 
generally into the system marked in the plan of Fig. 17. "Old No. 2 
Flue, Old No. 1 Flue," and by a "By-pass," to the "Connecting Flue." 
The gases may, however, go direct to the "Dust Chamber" by a flue 
branching from the point marked "Old No. 2 Flue," entering the "Dust 
Chamber" at two points marked in Fig. 27 "Flue for Reverberatory 
Gas." 

Dampers are provided to shut off the current in either direction so 
that the reverberatory gases may pass around the " Dust Chamber," 
or through it, as desired. The uptake, which carries the combined 
converter, MacDougall, and blast-furnace gases, is 32 ft. 10 in. by 20 
ft. and 93 ft. 9 in. high from the top of hoppers. The "MacDougall 
Furnace Flue" enters opposite the "Blast-furnace Flue," but its bottom 
is 9 ft. above the top of the latter. To prevent baffling, a steel-plate 
diaphragm is so hung in the uptake as to cause the blast-furnace gases 
to travel along the bottom of the " Cross-take Flue," while the roaster 
gases go along above, but soon mix with the other gases. 

The "Cross-take Flue," which connects the "Uptake" to the "Dust 
Chamber," is shown in cross-section at section DD, Fig. 17. It is 32 
't. 10 in. wide by 20 ft. high and has a bottom composed of 100 pyra- 
midal hoppers. From these the dust is drawn off into hoppers carried 
on a traveling crane beneath, and thereby transferred to chutes leading 
to the bottom of the uptake flue, then trammed to the reverberatories. 



218 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 




COPPER 219 

The location of the "Main Dust-chamber," 176 ft. wide by 21 ft. 
high, is shown in Fig. 17, a cross-section and a partial longitudinal section 
in Figs. 24-26 and a hopper plan in Fig. 27. To allow the gases to freely 
approach and leave, only the space within the dotted lines (Rg. 27) is 
hung with the wires. As also indicated on the plan, the wires are hung 
in two groups or divisions, with a transverse space of 47 ft. of clear flue 
between them. The groups take up together an average of 317 ft. of 
the flue. The steel wires are spaced at 2.3 in. center to center, there 
being 1,200,000 wires, each weighing about 1 lb. In the first group of 
wires, for a distance of 51 ft., are No. 8 wires 16 ft. long, the rest being 
No. 10 wires, 20 ft. long. The second group consists of No. 10 wires, 20 
ft. long. 

In the clear flue between the groups come two rows of pipes, one 
row from above, one from below, from 11 to 13 of Fig. 27, for the admission 
of air, m case it is desired to cool the gases with a view of condensing 
fume. See also Fig. 25 "Transverse Section on Line 1,1, West Half," 
also " Longitudinal Section." 

A longitudinal brick partition on the line of columns marked "F," 
Fig. 17, divides the flue so that there are six panels on the east and five 
on the west of the partition. At each end of the chamber a line of cast- 
iron butterfly dampers is provided, so that either side of the whole of the 
chamber may be closed to the passage of gases. In Fig. 26, "Longitudinal 
Section," is shown the method of operating them, they being opened or 
closed by a motor. 

The device for shaking the wires of the first group has proved to be 
unnecessary. The temperature of the gases being under 400** F., the 
dust will accumulate on them. This dust is removed periodically by 
admitting alternately at either side the hot reverberatory gases at the 
points already mentioned. This results in volatilizing and disintegrating 
the material on the wires so that it breaks up and the greater part falls 
off. 

For the second group of wires, the shaking device described in 
Mineral Industry, XVII, 261, and XVIII, 194, is stiU used. In Fig. 24, 
both in the longitudinal section and transverse sections, is shown, not 
only the shaker frames, but also the shaft, eccentric connecting-rod, and 
bell-levers, which shake the frames. Every 2 or 3 months the wires 
are shaken for half an hour in order to clear them from dust. 

For the dust-chamber (as well as for other parts of the flue system) 
a structural steel framework is used. The inner columns, lower and 
upper, are of box section, those of the outside are of 12-in. I-beams, be- 
tween which a curtain-wall 11 in. thick of special perforated brick is 
built. The main roof consists of longitudinal 18-in. I-beams on which are 



220 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



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COPPER 



221 



laid S-in. steel I-beams as purlins, spaced at 3 ft. 4 in. centers, and be- 
tween them are spring arches 5 in. thick of special perforated brick, the 
skew-back brick being molded to fit the I-beam. The skew-back was 
then filled with concrete and given two coats of a one-to-one concrete 
wash, to fill the cracks and to shed water. 

To provide for the longitudinal expansion of the steel structure, the 
framework is built in units of three to seven panels, the middle panel 
of the unit being securely braced. The 18-in. roof-beams are rivetted 
to the tops of the colimins, except the one midway between the braced 
panels, and there the beams are suspended from the columns by links, as 




MAIN BOPPSB BKAM EXPAMSIOM JOIHT 

Fia. 28. — Details of expanuon joints. 

shown in Fig. 28 A. The roof between the purlins on each side of the 
expansion joint is made of No. 10 sheet-steel, bent as shown in the figure. 
There are seven of these joints extending across the full width of the flue. 

To provide for the expansion of the 8-in. purlins, as shown in the 
transverse section, two joints are provided running the full length of the 
dust-chamber, thus dividing the roof into three sections, the middle panel 
of each of these sections being securely braced. The detailed drawing 
of this jomt is shown in Fig. 28 B, 

The bottom of the dust-chamber is composed of pyramidal steel 
hoppers, 1042 in all. To carry these hoppers longitudinal 15-in. channels 
are rivetted to the sides of the lower columns. Coped to these are 12-in. 
I-beams, and to them 8-in. I-beams, making them all flush on their 
upper surface and dividing them into rectangles to receive the hoppers. 



222 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The 12-in. transverse I-beams are built against the 15-in. longitudinal 
channels at points one-fourth the span between the columns, so that as 
they expand they can spring the channel. As in the roof, there are 
two systems of expansion joints, one longitudinal system at each row of 
columns, and a transverse set as shown in Fig. 26, '^ longitudinal section." 
A special transverse expansion joint is shown at the damper panels at 
either end of the dust-chamber. 

Dust is transferred from the main dust-chamber to the furnaces by 
80-cu. ft. hopper-bottom cars of an over-all length of one hopper. Thus 
only one setting of the train is needed when drawing off dust. 

In the plan of Fig. 17 is shown the location of the "Connecting Flue," 
48 ft. wide by 21 ft. high, and in cross-section at "Section EE." At 
every 110 ft. of its length on the east side, and at every 240 ft. on its west 
side, are openings 3 1/4 by 6 ft., provided with hinged cast-iron doors. 
Since little or no dust accimiulates here, it was felt that these openings 
were sufficient. 

It will be noted from the general plan, Fig. 17, that the ''Connecting 
Flue'' branches at the upper end, entering at the base of the main stack by 
two openings, each 36 ft. high by 15 ft. wide, thus retaining the cross- 
sectional area uniform. A cross-section of the flue, at its entry to the 
chimney, is shown at Section FF, Fig. 17. 

Tooele Plant of the International Smelting and Refining Co J — Officers 
of the Company, H. N. Thompson and L. T. Sicka, give us authoritative 
data of the plant. References to the copper-smelting department, not 
already given in the Mineral Industry, are as follow: 

The 4-mile aerial tramway of the Utah Consolidated Mining Co. has 
tram-buckets, each holding 1100 lb. of ore. This is dumped into in- 
clined-bottom terminal bins of 800 tons capacity, and trammed thence 
to the receiving or custom bins by a 50-ton, electrically propelled, steel 
dump-bottom car. The receiving bins have a capacity of 4000 tons 
of ore, and in addition of 2500 tons for coal. 

The charge to the MacDougall roasters averages only 22 per cent, 
sulphur, and hence needs the aid of 1 to 2 per cent, of coal to produce a 
satisfactory calcine. Several of the roasters have pipe hoppers leading 
from the charge floor to the fifth hearth of the furnace. By these hoppers 
enough siliceous ore is fed to the charge to give a slag of 41 per cent. SiOs 
at the reverberatory furnaces. This ore becomes mixed with the hot 
calcine coming down through the furnace as its crosses the fifth and sixth 
hearths, and before it drops into the discharge hoppers. 

The converter-lining department, because of the adoption of basic 
converting, has been abandoned. 

> Trant. A. I. M. £., XLVI, 1209; Mineral Indubtbt. XIX. 100; XX, 233. 



COPPER 



223 



Ashes frpm the reverberatory furnaces are discharged into 7-ton, 
automatic, side-dumping cars. Matte is conveyed to the converter ladles 
by clay-lined launders sloping 0.876 in. per foot. 

The charge to the reverberatories averages less than 2.5 per cent. 
Cu and produces a matte of 20 per cent. Cu for direct converting. No 
particular difficulty is experienced in converting, and 2 tons of ore of 
70 per cent. SiOj are smelted for each ton of copper produced. At times 
it is desirable to treat the leady copper matte cold. This can be success- 
fully accomplished by melting directly in the converters with the addition 
of 3 per cent, of coke and 1 per cent, of coal. 




SJiOTIONAL EILEVATION 



- Yalve« . 



CROBS-BBCnONAL ELEVATIOI? 

Fxo. 29. — Reverse current bag-shaking system. 

The converters are lined with magnesite brick. For them, air 
pressure at 10 to 11 lb. per square inch has been found most satisfactory, 
while siliceous ore is charged into them by crane in 2-ton capacity 
"boats" or scoops. Converter slag is poured from the converter ladles 
into shallow beds, broken up sufficiently for loading into cars with 
the aid of the travelling crane, and shipped to the crushing plant, to 
be prepared for lead blast-furnace use. It is no longer returned in 
molten form to the reverberatory furnaces. The converter copper is 
Wten m ladles by the 30-ton travelling crane to be cast in steel molds. 



224 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The fumes from the five converters are now passed through a con- 
verter bag-house, similar to the bag-house used in lead-smelting prac- 
tice. These fimies are gathered in a steel flue running parallel to the 
converter house, then by its continuation at right angles to the intake of a 
No. 2 Socorro fan with a rating of 180,000 cu. ft. per minute. This 
discharges directly into the main gas flue, which extends the full length of 
the bag-house. In case of the occurrence of a sudden excessive tempera- 
ture, which might burn the bags, the gases may be by-passed and dis- 
charged directly to the bag-house stack. 

The brick bag-house building. Fig. 29, Is divided beneath the steel 
thimble floor by transverse walls into eight fume-chambers or ''cellars." 
Above the thimble floor in the bag-house is a single large chamber con- 
taining 960 woolen bags, 18 in. in diameter by 30 ft. high. Normally, 
the flow of gases is into the fume-chambers, but it can be cut off from 
any chamber by a main disk-valve, operated from outside the flue. By 
shaking them the bags are from time to time relieved of the dust, which 
accumulates within them. Above the main gas flue is the reverse- 
current gas flue arranged with openings (normally closed) with disk- 
valves, which lead into the fume-chamber. One end of this reverse- 
current flue is connected with the intake of a No. 4 1/2 Socorro suction fan, 
which discharges into the main gas flue. Upon opening the upper set of 
valves of any chamber and closing the lower set the 120 bags of that 
chamber collapse, thus loosening the flue dust within them. This opera- 
tion can be repeated as desired till the bags are cleared. 

Means are also provided for shaking the bags by hand if so desired. 
This is accomplished by means of a small chain fastened to the upper 
bag connection and extending through the side walls of the building. A 
handle is provided at each end. A steel spring located centrally on each 
chain permits of a vibratory shaking as the handles are pulled. 

The gases, filtering through the bags, enter the single large chamber 
and are discharged thence by a brick downtake into the brick stack 
already referred to, which is 16 ft. diameter by 160 ft. high. 

The converters treat not only the copper matte produced by the 
reverberatory furnaces, but also the leady copper matte of 10 to 13 per 
cent. Cu which comes from the silver-lead blast-furnaces, and conse- 
quently contains the volatilized metals, copper, lead, zinc, etc. 

The Steptoe Valley Smeltery J — Pope Yeatman in his report discusses 
changes in smelting. Many improvements have been made in the 18-ft. 
MacDougall roasters by which their capacity, formerly 60 tons, has been 
increased to 90 tons per day. The rabble arms are cooled by air, thus 
increasing capacity. 

1 Annual Report, Nevada Cona. Copper Co., 1012; Minbbal Industbt, XVI, 342; XVII, 204: 
XX, 189. 



COPPER 225 

The reverberatory furnaces, 19 by 112 ft., are now oil-fired. The 
average amount smelted per furnace day has been increased from 262 in 
the year 1911 to 371 tons for the year 1912, and in the latter part of the 
year, even better work than this average has been done. This has been 
brought about by changes in the method of firing, improvement in the 
design of the furnace, and by better operation. 

In the converting department are now two Pierce-Smith basic-lined 
converters, which have been improved in operation. 

Cananea Consolidated Copper Co.^ — In 1912 the company has added 
the following : (1) Two upright converters of the Great Falls type, 12 ft. 
3 in. in diameter, of shell and having 24 tuyeres. (2) In 1913 the four 
barrel t3rpe converters have been replaced by four upright converters 
having 30 tuyeres each. All the six converters are to be basic-lined. (3) 
Two straight-line casting machines. 

There are ten 18-ft. six-hearth MacDougall roasters, six of them being 
now in use. Cananea concentrate, containing 30 to 35 per cent, sulphur, 
is roasted in these at the rate of 40 tons per day per furnace, the calcine 
canying 6-7 per cent, of sulphur. 

The blast-furnaces, with a 7-ft. smelting column, carry a blast of 26 
oz. per square inch. Each 48 by 210-in. furnace smelts 300 tons per 
day, using 10 per cent, of fuel and producing 10 per cent, of flue dust. 
The charge consists of lump ore, custom ore, coilverter slag and 45 to 50 
tons daily of raw concentrate per furnace. Seventy per cent, of the 
sulphur of the charge is volatilized, and a matte of 35 per cent. Cu is 
produced. 

The calcine and 75 tons daily of raw Miami concentrate is smelted 
in the two 19 by 100-ft. reverberatories. The oil is heated by a steam- 
coil in the oil tank, and is injected by air at 13 lb. per square inch pressure, 
the former burners, which used both air and steam for injection, having 
been discarded. To ensure its more even distribution, air for combustion 
is also admitted through a checker-work above the burners. For fettling, 
some 75 tons daily of wet Miami concentrate, containing 21 per cent. 
S and 35 per cent. Cu is dropped through the fettling holes (Mineral 
Industry, XVIII, 188, Pig. 2). This is better than silicious ore, which, 
as formerly used, produced "floaters." The two reverberatories have 
eight waste-heat boilers in all, three of 250 h.p., two of 225 h.p., and three 
of 200 h.p. These yield 1000 h.p., the remaining steam needed being 
supplied by oil-fired boilers. 

The converters are to handle 400 to 500 tons of matte per day, pro- 
ducing 150 tons of blister. In addition, some 50 tons of Miami concen- 
trate is blown in at the tuyeres by means of a special blow-pipe. The 

, • I*V. Min, Jour., XCV, 336; Min. Sei. Pr., CVII. 626; Minbbal Induwht, XVII, 256; XVIII, 186; 
XX 216. 

16 



226 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

concentrate is dried, and during the blow, is introduced through one 
tuydre at a time in order to prevent local chilling. Its silica content 
serves to replace as much silica which would otherwise have to be charged 
through the converter mouth. ' 

The El Paso SmeUeryJ — This plant, originally a lead smeltery 
has added to its equipment, so that it could treat Chino ore From Santa 
Rita, N. M. These additions consist of: 

(1) Five 22 1/2-ft. Wedge Roasters (three in operation, two building) 
having four hearths. They are designed to treat 100 tons each, but 
three of them are actually putting through 130 to 150 tons per day. 
The Chino concentrate contains from 12 to 22 per cent, sulphur, and this 
was more than had been foreseen, hence the furnaces are now overloaded, 
and do not completely dry the concentrate on the roof, the roast is there- 
fore somewhat sticky as it enters the third hearth. To pass it through 
the central drop-hole the distributor plate had to be removed. This 
makes the roasted ore pile up at this point and from time to time lumps 
get between the central cylinder and the hearth-ring to the injury of the 
ring. To aid in furnishing heat an additional burner has been applied 
at the second hearth. 

(2) Two blast-furnaces, 40 in. by 12 ft. long, smelt limap custom ore, 
giving a matte of 45 per cent. Cu. 

(3) Two oil-fired, 19 by 104 ft., reverberatory furnaces smelt the cal- 
cine from the Wedge furnaces, yielding a 40 per cent, copper matte with 
a matte-fall of 30 per cent., each furnace handling 300 tons daily, though 
the capacity is in excess of this, but is limited by what the roasters can 
supply. 

The Hayden Smeltery^ — This new plant of the American Smelting 
& Refining Co. was completed in 1912. It treats the product of the Ray 
Consolidated Copper Co. About 600 tons are treated daily, the rever- 
beratory charge consisting of 20 per cent, crude ore and 80 per cent, of 
roasted concentrate. Besides the eight roasters, there are two rever- 
beratory furnaces each 19 ft. wide by 112 ft. long, which produce a matter 
of 25 to 40 per cent. Cu. This is treated in two Pierce-Smith basic- 
lined converters, 25 ft. long by 10 ft. diameter, or in one 12-ft. upright 
converter. 

The wet concentrate from the mill of the Ray Consolidated, brought 
in railroad cars, is allowed to drain, sampled, dropped, in bins, and 
as wanted, withdrawn on conveying belts to go to the MacDougall 
roasters. There are eight of these, five 24 ft. diameter with five hearths, 
three of 19 ft. diameter having six hearths. The concentrate contains 
24 per cent, sulphur, and to maintain the roasting temperature, needs 

» Min. Set. Pr., CVII. 622. 

s Min. ad. Pr., CVII. 521; Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 335. 



COPPER 227 

the aid of some oil, burned from time to time in the fire-boxes. 
The furnaces handle 90 tons daily, the top of one five-hearth roaster 
being used for drying. 

The reverberatories each smelt 350 tons daily with a consumption 
of 0.8 to 0.9 bbl. of oil per ton of charge. SUme concentrate is used for 
fettling. Waste-heat Stirling boilers furnish the steam needed for 
power purposes. 

The blister copper from the converters is accumulated in an oil-fired 
receiving vessel and thence molded into anodes. 

The Kedabeg Smeltery. — In addition to the illustrated description in 
Mineral Industry, XIV, 181, we find additional details in Gluckauf, 
May 10, 1912. 

Arizona Copper Co. Smeltery.^ — ^This new plant at Clifton, Arizona, 
erected at a cost of $2,600,000, has just been put in operation. The 
equipment included: (1) Eight Herreshoflf roasting furnaces, 21 ft. 8 in. 
diameter of shell, (2) three reverberatory furnaces each 100 by 22 
ft., or 3 ft. wider than the usual 100-ft. type. In consequence it is 
estimated that the furnace will have a 20 per cent, increased output. (3) 
Three 12-ft. vertical converters of the Great Falls type, having, with the 
grade of matte produced, an output of 60 tons daily per converter. Some 
10 per cent, of the ore is crude, the remainder concentrate. 

Detroit Smeltery.^ — ^This is a blast-furnace plant of the Detroit Cop- 
per Mining Co. situated at Morenci, Arizona. There is one blast- 
furnace, 42 in. by 22 ft., driven slowly to put through 360 tons per day. 
The furnace chaige is mostly concentrate, to which is added some lump 
ore. The concentrate contains Cu 16 to 17 per cent. ; SiOj 16 per cent. 
About 50 tons of limestone are used per day. The slag contains AlaOs, 
7.2 per cent., and MgO 2.0 per cent. Some 60 to 70 tons of matte, con- 
taining 42 percent Cu, are produced daily. It is intended to substitute 
for the present furnace one 33 ft. long, in order to farther decrease 
fiue-dust loss. 

Converting is done in acid-lined shells, but these may be replaced by 
an upright basic-lined converter. For power supply the Crossley gas 
engine is employed, supplied with producer gas made in a Loomis gas 
generator. 

Smeltery of the Shannon Copper Co.* — ^This is a blast-furnace works, 
situated at Clifton, Arizona. There are two blast-furnaces, one 42 in. 
by 15 ft. and one 44 in. by 30 ft. long, the latter handling about 700 tons 
daily. The furnaces have cast-steel crucibles, and these have given 
trouble by cracking. About 600 tons of the ore supply per day contains 

' E^e. Mui. Jo»r.,XCV., 335; Min. Sei. Pr., CVII. 523; Mxnbbal Indubtbt, XII, 93. 

»ir«,5a.iV..cVlI,524. 

» If in. 8cL Pr^ CVII, 524. 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



no sulphides and is smelted directly, the remainder, 300 tons per day, is 
concentrated 10 to 1. The fine concentrate is mixed with flue dust, then 
charged to the blast-furnace. The ore contains but little sulphur and 
in order to ensure a sufficient matte-fall, pyrite from Gleason, Arizona has 
to be added to the charge. 

United States Metals Refining Co. Smeltery. — This works is located 
at Chrome, N. J. To the excellent description given by Lawrence Addicks 
in MiNEBAL Industry, XV, 301, we add details from R. H. Vail's article.^ 

The smelting charge consists of (1) oxidized ores from South America 
and Cuba; (2) pyrite ores from Spain and Canada; (3) pyrites cinder; 
(4) Cobalt silver ores, not exceeding 300 oz. silver per ton; (6) custom 
matte; (6) refining products, consisting mainly of slag and cobbing from 




BiOBltery FowcrHoose 



Fio. 30. — Layout of the Bznelter at Chrome, N. J. 

the furnaces; (7) sweepings or clean-up materials; (8) nodulized flue dust. 

In December, 1912, one blast-furnace smelted 9587 dry tons, con- 
taining on an average: Cu, 16.3 per cent.; Fe 26.6; Insol. 24.1; 
CaO, 0.5; S, 17.5; together with Ag, 4.24 oz. and Au 0.123 oz. per ton. 

In unloading foreign ores from vessels, the ore is dumped from 
buckets into cars, or if sacked, is hoisted, ten sacks together, to a plat- 
form laid loosely on a raikoad car. The platform has a lengthwise slot 
12 in. wide. The sacks, having been cut open, are rapidly emptied 
through the slot into the car. 

Rich ore, such as that from Cobalt, after having been mechanically 
cut to one-twenty-fifth of its volume, is taken to a sampling plant 
separate from the main one. 

& Eng. Min. Jour., XCV. 1031; Mxnbkal Industbt, XV. 301; XVII, 326. 



COPPER 



229 



Fig. 30 is a plan of the smeltery, represented on a small scale in 
MiNERAii Industry, XV, 303. Railroad tracks, from the docks and the 
Central R. R. of New Jersey, branch into three parallel tracks over 
the ore bins. The bins have flat bottoms and side openings for the 
removal of the ore. Because of the cheap labor and the small tonnage 
handled, it was not thought worth while to change the bins for direct 
charging into cars; the train tracks therefore enter the bins and small 
end-dump cars are filled by shoveling into them just the required amoimt. 
The cars are then run outside the bins to the end of the track which 
terminates with bent-up ends. Here, at the edge of the 'loading plat- 
form,'* they are dumped into charge-cars, standing on a track parallel to 




::33Hn 



Fios. 31 AND 32. — Blast furnaces at Chrome, N. J. 

the edge of the platform. The furnace charge is thus made up by volume, 
but quantities are checked by occasional weighing. The shovellers soon 
become exi>ert in estimating the correct amount. 

The charge-train consists of two side-dump cars of 8500 lb. each, one 
of the cars being motor-driven. Two charge-train crews handle all 
material to the blast-furnace, while a third crew on the day shift only 
hauls converter flux and flue dust. The charge trains are lifted to the 
feed-floor by two Reedy 10-ton electric lifts. 

There are now two 44 by 186-in. blast-furnaces (Figs. 31 and 32). 
Each furnace has six jackets per side and two at each end, or 16 in all, 
extending in single tier to the receiving plates. The tuyfere-thimbles are 
of extra heavy wrought pipe welded by an oxyacetylene flame to the 



230 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

inner and outer plates. This method of welding is also used for patching 
the jackets, though not so successful in repairing the cast-steel ladles. 
Below the end jackets comes the breast jacket, made of wire-bar copper 
poured around extra heavy 1 1/4-in. pipe for water circulation. The 
other end of the furnace beneath the jackets having no breast-jacket, is 
bricked up. The steel water-jacketed spout has a cast-iron lip cooled by 
a water-pipe. The blast is trapped 8 1/2 in. The bottom or base-plate 
is lined with 12 in. chrome or magnesite brick. The settlers are 14 ft. 
diameter and are lined with chrome brick. The furnace down-takes dis- 
charge into an elevated brick-and-steel flue 288 ft. long, 12 ft. wide and 
having a cross-section of 170 sq. ft. The flue has a hopper bottom, so that 
the flue dust can be readily drawn into cars running beneath. Terminat- 
ing the flue is a stack 200 ft. high by 12 ft. diameter. Air is supplied by a 
No. 9 Root Blower, direct connected to an 11-in. and 24-in. by 36-in. tan- 
dem-compound Hamilton engine operated at 150 lb. steam pressure and 
with a vacuum of 26 in. The blower, running at 100 to 140 r.p.m., sup- 
plies air to the blast-furnaces through a 32-in. main at 36 oz. pressure 
per square inch. There is also a 6000-cu. ft. per minute blower connected 
to this main. 

The furnace charge, usually 8500 lb., is dumped into the furnace sep- 
arately from the coke, which amounts to 11 to 12 per cent, of the charge. 
With one furnace in operation about 350 tons per day are smelted, equal 
to 6.16 tons per square foot of hearth area. The second furnace is held 
ready for instant blowing-in if necessary. The slag is granulated, using 
sea water supplied by centrifugal pumps. The granulated slag is sold 
for ballast, or if high enough in iron, for its iron contents. 

Iron-bearing material is so abundant that it has proved to be more 
economical to use a ferro-silicate slag, and to avoid the use of barren 
limestone flux. The normal slag, used for ballast, has the composition; 
FeO, 50.67 per cent.; SiO,, 32.05; CaO, 1.37; S, 0.77; Cu, 0.76; 
MgO, 1.06; BaS04, 3.1; PbO, 22; As, 0.094; Ni, 0.07; A1,0,, 4.1; 
Zn, 2.35; PjOft, 0.063; Mn, trace; with Ag 0.16 oz. and Au 
0.0025 oz. per ton. When a slag is to be sold, it must be made to contain 
not less than 43 per cent. iron. A t3rpical slag thus made contained 
FeO, 59.78 per cent. (Fe 46.39); SiOj, 25.24; CaO, 0.7; S, 0.7; Cu, 
0.79. The principal difficulty in this connection is to secure a slag 
sufficiently low in sulphur to suit the purchaser. The large amount of cop- 
per on the charge, and the consequent high grade of matte, results in a 
high copper percentage in the slag, this difficulty being further aggravated 
by the high specific gravity of the iron slag. It is believed, however, that 
it is better to submit to this loss than to purchase and smelt barren lime- 
stone. The matte-fall averages 14 per cent., and the grade of the matte 



COPPER 231 

varies from 40 to 70 per cent, copper, usually between 50 to 60 per cent. 
The matte carries up to 3 per cent, nickel, which is later recovered in the 
electrolytic refinery. 

The flue dust amoimts to about 10 per cent, of the charge. In a 
monthly sample it averaged: Cu, 10.75 per cent; Fe, 32.02; Insol, 
20.83; CaO, 0.82; S, 8.24; As, 0.88, with Ag, 15.2 oz. and Au, 0.17 oz. 
per ton. (Comparing this with the analysis of the charge we note that 
half the sulphur has been dissipated in the smelting operation while the 
precious metals, especially the silver, have increased in this by-product. 
L. S.A .). The flue dust is nodulized, using a cement kiln, a revolving cyl- 
inder 6 ft. in diameter, by 60 ft. long, lined with fire-brick and fired with oil. 
The dust is fed to the kiln by a screw-conveyor protected by a water- 
jacket, and about 50 tons of flue dust are nodulized in 24 hours. The 
product is satisfactory. The kiln consumes 500 gal. of oil per day and 
needs one attendant per shift. 

The matte is now converted in basic-lined shells under license from 
the Pierce-Smith Converter Co., the original shells, formerly acid-lined, 
being used. Air is now supplied at 10 lb. pressure. A little trouble is 
experienced, due to accretions at the mouth of the converter when 70 per 
cent, copper matte is being treated, but at present the matte rarely exceeds 
55 per cent. The converters operate smoothly. For converter flux, 
oxidized ore, carrying 60 per cent. SiOs is used. This is dried in a steel 
cylindrical dryer 30 in. in diameter by 20 ft. long. The dryer is unlined, 
and has within it six longitudinal shelves. Oil is used for heating and 
1000 gal. are used per month to dry 650 tons of ore. 

The converter hood, of the design of C. L. Brower, consists of two steel 
castings bolted together. It is of smaller section than is usually consid- 
ered necessary, and its circular mouth appears to be just in the right posi- 
tion to take the fumes, so that the converter room is unusually free from 
smoke. When the hood becomes clogged with accretions, it is removed by 
crane and replaced by another; the first hood may then be cleaned at 
leisure. 

Two 40-ton cranes serve the converter floor, one being occupied much 
of the time in pouring copper. When a charge is finished it is received 
into a special tilting-ladle, and from this poured into a series of copper 
molds mounted on eight narrow-gage trucks, four molds to a truck. 
In this way the converter is not delayed by a tedious pouring, but is speed- 
ily free to proceed with fresh charge. The bars from the molds are 
unloaded upon a platform, and on day shift trimmed and loaded on refin- 
ery cars, using for this purpose a travelling crane carrying a 1/2-ton hoist. 
The ccmverter slag is poured into the blast-furnace settlers. 

In a recent month 3,300,000 lb. of copper were converted in this plant. 



232 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

A basic lining will, on the average, last for the production of 1|500|000 lb. 
of copper before needing repair at the tuyeres, and in one case for 2,000,000 
lb. None of the basic-linings in 18 months service have been entirely 
replaced, and the principal repair has been the patching about the tuykes. 
In the operation of lining, magnesite bricks are laid with a mortar of 
sodium silicate (water-glass) and peargrain size magnesite on a bed 1 
in. thick, this to allow for expansion. At the tuyferes, in place of brick, 
a belt of material, composed of 80 per cent, fine magnesite and 20 per cent 
water-glass, is tamped in to the height of 8 to 10 in. by 14 in. thick. 
In 30 minutes this has set fairly well, and in a few hours is as hard as the 
brick portion. For the tuyfere connection a 1 1/4-in. double extra-heavy 
wrought-iron pipe is used. The work is performed expeditiously. Con- 
verter air is supplied through a 20-in. midn by a Nordberg cross-compound 
blowing engine with steam cylinders respectively 13 and 28 in. in diameter 
and two 30 in. single-stage air cylinders, all with a stroke of 42 in. This 
unit operates at 130 r.p.m. with a steam pressure of 130 lb. per square 
inch with a vacuum of 26 in. of mercury, and supplies air at 12 lb. pres- 
sure per square inch at the blower. 

Tfie United Verde Smeltery.^ — The works of the United Verde Copper 
Co., is situated at Clarkdale, Arizona, 6 miles from Jerome, by rail. The 
equipment comprises six Wedge roasting furnaces, three reverberatory 
furnaces, four blast-furnaces, 48 by 28 1/3 ft., and four 12-ft. upright 
converters. 

Fig. 33 is a general plan of the works, and shows a grouping into two 
parts. In the first group are the bins and trackage handling the ores, 
in the second the smelting equipment, compactly arranged aroimd the 
main stack. On the east side are the subsidiary buildings and the power 
house. 

The cars, containing fuel and ores, after weighing over a 150-ton track- 
scale, enter the yard at the southwest corner and the ores are imloaded, 
either at the receiving bins or to the storage yard. The receiving bins, 
41 by 270 ft., have a capacity of 12,800 tons, and two unloading tracks 
go over them 42 ft. above the groimd. At the same level is a convejdng 
belt and a movable tripper by which reclaimed ore can be delivered to any 
desired bin» The bins have sloping bottoms, so that ore can be drawn 
either into weighing hoppers and thence into furnace charge-cars, or, for 
crushing and sampling, to 30-in. belt conveyors that travel beneath and 
parallel with the bins. From this belt the ore is dropped on a conveying 
belt at right angles, delivering to the crushing plant. 

Immediately east of the receiving bins, similarly arranged except 
that there are no railroad tracks, are storage bins also 41 by 270 ft., but 

I Min. Set. Pr., CVI, 305; Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI. 287. 



COPPER 



233 



of 14,200 tons capacity. West of the receiving bins are the coke and ore 
storage yards. Over these yards run elevated tracks on steel trestles. 
The coke storage is 73 by 270 ft., the ore storage 60 by 270 ft. Ore, deliv- 
ered by the cross-conveyor to the crushing plant, is there crushed through 
a 30 by 18-in. Blake ore-breaker, then taken for sampling by a belt con- 
veyor of 100 tons hourly capacity to the 42 by 40-ft. crushing and 
sampling mill. 




Fio. 33.— Layout of the United Verde Works, Clarkdale, Arii. 

The crushing section of this mill has two revolving screens, 4 ft. in 
diameter by 14 ft. long. One of these is a double screen, having 1 in. and 
1. 2 in. perforations respectively; the other has a single 1/2-in. screen and 
^ outer blank jacket. For crushing there are a 20 by 10-in. Blake ore- 
•^reaker and a pair of 54 by 24-in. rolls, set to crush 3/8 in. The sampling 
'V'ction of the mill has four Snyder sampling machines arranged to cut one- 
l^nth, one-fifth, one-fifth and one-tenth respectively, or to one twenty-five 
hundredth in all. Between the first and second samplers the sample is 
'tushed by a 20 by 10-in. Blake crusher; between the second and third by 



234 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

36 by 12-in. rolls; between the third and fourth by 24 by 12-m. rolls. 
The rejected ore is sent by suitably arranged belt-conveyors to the storage 
bins. 

The roaster building, 64 by 120 ft., contains six air-cooled wedge 
furnaces of 21 ft. 6 in. diameter of the shell. Two 25,000-cu. ft. per min- 
ute fan blowers supply them with air at a pressure of 2 oz. per square inch. 
Crushed ore from the storage-bins is brought to the roaster building 
by belt-conveyor. The gases from the roasters go to a 60 by 140-ft. dust- 
chamber, which has a double hopper bottom with a 45-d^ree slope. The 
hoppers have a vertical height of 14 ft., the dust-chamber is 21 ft. high. 
The dust-chamber is of steel construction with brick curtain walls, and is 
roofed with sheet copper, No. 24 gage. Near each end, in order to evenly 
distribute the entering and leaving gas current are bafBe curtains. These 
consist of plates 6 in. wide, set 6 3/4 in. center to center, thus leaving a 
3/4 opening between them, and extending from the roof to the bottom of 
the chamber. Each bar has two angle pieces riveted to it at the top and 
resting on 6-in. channels. It is easy to slide and space the plates and 
regulate the gas-flow. A flue, 13 by 13 ft., connects the dust-chamber to 
the main stack. The calcine is withdrawn from the roaster into a special 
car having double hopper-bottoms. The car, 16 ft. long, has two trucks. 
It is hauled by a 10-ton locomotive over a 40-ton track scale to the rever- 
beratory furnaces, arriving there on tracks 20 ft. above the ground. There 
are three parallel delivery tracks, two for ore and one for coal. 

The main furnace building is 143 ft. wide by 476 ft. long with 143 ft. 
at the south end devoted to the reverberatory building. The rever- 
beratories are 19 by 100 ft., built with silica-brick, and fired with oil. On 
either side of the furnace is shown in Fig. 30 the trolley beam for fettling 
(see Mineral Industry, XVIII, 188, Fig. 2). The gases from the rever- 
beratories go to the main header-flue in the 60 by 200-ft. boiler-house. 
From this hejader-flue, branches lead to six waste-heat Stirling boilers of 
713 h.p. each. Thus it is possible to cut out any boiler for rep^rs without 
having to by-pass the gases of any furnace to the stack. There are also 
three reserve oil-fired Parker water-tube boilers. The waste-heat boilers 
are expected to realize 70 per cent, of their rated capacity, and to recover 
in steam production 30 to 35 per cent, of the calorific power of the oil. 
The boilers will be equipped with superheaters, which will give the steam 
100** F. of superheat. The gases from the waste-heat boilers finally pass 
to the stack by a flue 16 by 16 ft. by 207 ft. long. The oil for the Parker 
boilers and for the reverberatories is taken from eight oil-service tanks 
near the pump house. Additional oil storage is provided at a 10,000 gal. 
tank near the trestle of the receiving bins, so situated that the oil can 



COPPER 



235 



be mil into it by gravity, and likewise taken out by gravity for the loco- 
motives and for other uses about the plant. 

The blast-furnace building, occupying the north portion of the main 
furnace building, has four furnaces arranged with their longitudinal axes 
in line. At the north end, and between the furnaces, are set transversely 
the oval settlers 26 ft. by 12 ft. 9 in. lined with chrome brick. Figs. 34 
and 35 show two elevations, giving details of construction of the blast- 
furnaces. The charging tracks are arranged one on each side of the fur- 
naces for ore, and one outside of the building for coke. The furnace base- 
plate, 4 ft. above the ground, rests on I-beams and these on a solid founda- 
tion. There is a single tier of jackets, eight to each side and two at each 




Fios. 34 AND 35. — Blast furnaoes at Clarkdale, Arii. 

end, 16 ft. high. These meet the receiving plates which takes the ore 
from the charge-cars. There are 24 tuyeres per side, spaced at 13 1/4-in. 
centers. Each furnace has a closed top of structural steel with a steel 
air-jacket for preheating the blast. Air, by a branch pipe from the 6 ft. 
2 in. main, circulates through the jacket, then goes downward to the flat- 
bottom bustle-pipe below. From the underside of the bustle-pipe the 
tuyeres take off, entering the jackets 4 ft. above the base-plate. On one 
side of the furnace the floor slopes away from the top of the foundation to 
the converter house, and on this stands a movable platform for conven- 
ience in punching the tuyeres; on the other side a platform at the settler 
gives convenient access to the slag-spout. The slag from the blast-fur- 
naces (and from the reverberatories) will be taken away in electrically 



236 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

tilted slag-cars with bowls of 225 cu. ft. or 25 tons capacity drawn by 18- 
ton electric locomotives. The slag tracks will cross the Verde Valley 
Railway at an elevation of 26 ft. on a reinforced concrete viaduct. The 
side walls of the viaduct serve to protect the railway below from the 
splashing of slag. Coke is brought in railroad cars upon the outside track; 
it will be unloaded from the cars directly into charge-barrows. 

From the top of the furnace two goose-neck off-takes 6 ft. 6 in. diame- 
ter go to the blast-furnace dust-chamber. This chamber is 60 ft. by 220 
ft. long and of similar construction to the roaster dust-chamber but is 
29 ft. above the hopper line; the hoppers have a vertical height of 19 ft. 
The bafBe plates are arranged as in the other chamber. There is a longi- 
tudinal curtain extending nearly parallel on one long side of the chamber, 
thus making a passage for leading the blast-furnace gases to the north 
end of the dust-chamber. A 12-ft. by 14-ft. steel flue leads from the 
chamber to the main stack. 

There will be five 12-ft. upright basic-lined converters, each electrically 
operated by a 50-h.p. motor. Four of these converters are to be at once 
installed. They will be served by two 40-ton Morgan traveling cranes of 
65 ft. span, operating in a converter building 475 ft. long by 68 ft. wide. 
Converter slag may be poured from a ladle into slag launders leading to 
the reverberatory furnaces, or if desired, into the blast-furnace fore- 
hearths. Matte, either from the reverberatories or from the forehearths, 
is conducted by launders to the side of the converter building, there to be 
received in ladles for converting. The converter gases are carried by a 
balloon flue to the nearest comer of the blast-furnace dust-chamber. 

In casting sheds, adjoining the converter aisle, are two straight-line 
casting-machines of special design. Copper will be transferred from the 
converter by ladle to the casting-machine tilting stands. The ingots, as 
they are cast, will be set next to a track, sunken to bring the car-floor 
level with the casting-shed floor. 

The main Bmeltery-stack is 30 ft. in diameter by 400 ft. high, of steel, 
lined with a 4 1/2-in. course of selected red brick. It will rest on a 
concrete base, 70 ft. in diameter by 10 ft. deep, reinforced with 20 tons of 
second-hand rails. 

A cooling pond, 150 by 266 ft., of 1,000,000 gal. capacity receives the 
hot condensed water from the power-house and the jacket water from the 
blast-furnaces. The pond is built of reinforced concrete lined with as- 
phalt. At 73 ft. from the south side of the pond is a partition which keeps 
the jacket water separate from the condenser water. The entering water 
is sprayed through nozzles, eight sets of five nozzles each for the jacket- 
water, and forty-four sets of five nozzles for the condenser water. In 
the adjacent pump house, besides the boiler-feed pumps, there are two 



COPPER 



237 



centrifugal pumps for pumping jacket-water to the spray-nozzles, and two 
pumps for returning the cooled water to the 200,000 gal. water tank. 

Copper and its Alloys 

VoUUilizationj Melting Paint and Boiling Point of Copper.^ — G. W. 
C. Kaye and D. Ewen give for copper the following data: The volatili- 
zation of copper is first to be detected at 400"^ C, its melting point is 
1084^ C, its boiling point in vacuo is 1600^ C, and its boiling point at 
ordinary atmospheric pressure is 2310^ C. 




9M M.0 99L2 99.4 9M 99.8 10(M) 1002 10a4 lOOJ 100.8 

Gondnctlylty 
Fxa. 36. — ConductiTity curve of refined copper. 

Conductiviiy of Refined Copper,^ — Earl S. Bardwell shows how it is 
possible to rigidly determine the percentage of oxygen in refined copper 
by micrographic methods. He polishes the sample, etches it with 
hydn^n, and takes of the same a magnified photomicrograph on paper. 
The eutectic network shows the cupric oxide standing out black on the 
nearly white background of pure copper. The copper areas are cut out, 
and the eutectic network is weighed against the cut-out portions to 
ascertain the percentage of cupric oxide. In this way the oxygen-con- 
tent has been plotted in graphic curves as shown in Fig. 36. 

From the curve we see, that while a decrease in oxygen content 
coincides with an increase in conductivity, the curve is irregular, and 
depends on the combined effect of the impurities, and not on the oxygen- 

' £»»d 8tc. Proe., A LXXXIX. 58. 
^Tm». A, I. M. B., XLVI, M^, 



238 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



content alone. (Arsenic and antimony are lumped, but it must not be 
forgotten that the former of the two metals effects conductivity more 
than the latter. L. S. A.) 

Melting Points of Some Copper AUoys.^ — ^The carefully made deter- 
minations of the melting points of certain ternary and quartemary 
copper alloys are as follows: 

TABLE XIII. 



Alloy. 


Compositif 
Cu. Zn. 


>n Desired. 
8n. Pb. 


Comj 
Cu. 


KMition by Analysis. 


Number 

of DUDli- 

cateDe- 

termina- 

tions. 


Mettiiis 
Fbint 




Zn. Sn. 


Pb. 


(Uqnidus). 


Qua metal 


P.et. 
88 
85i 
85 

82 
80 
85 

75 
67 
61 i 


P.et. 
2 

i 

10 

"b" 

20 
31 
37 


P.et. 
10 
01 
5 

3 
10 
10 

2 

...... 


p.et. 


P.et. 


P. ct. 1 P. ct. 


P,ct. 


4 
6 
8« 

4 
3 

4 

3 

1 

6 


*» C. 
995 
980 
970 

980 
945 
980 

920 
895 
855 
870 


1,829 


Leaded gun metal. 
Red braes 


3 
5 

5 
10 

3 

2 


85.4 


1.9 9.7 


3.0 


1.795 
1,780 


Low-grade red 
braee 


81.5 


10.4 3.1 


5.0 


1,795 


Leaded bronse .... 


1,735 


Broaie with sine... 

Half yellow, half 

red 


84.6 

75.0 
66.0 
61.7 


5.0 10.4 

20.0 2.0 

30.8 

36.9 1.4 


3.0 
2.3 


1.795 
1.090 


Caat yellow brass. 
Naral brass 


l.«45 
1.570 
1.600 






i 




1 1 



These are to be compared with the melting points of certain binary 
(copper-tin, copper-zinc and copper-lead) alloys as below: 



TABLE XIV. 
COPPER-TIN ALLOYS. 



Parts by 



Copper. 
95 
00 
85 
80 



Weight. 



Tin., 

5 

10 

15 

20 



Melting 



*C. 

1.050 

1,005 

960 

890 



Point." 



o p 

1.920 
1.840 
1,760 
1.635 



COPPER-ZINC ALLOYS. 



Copper. 


Zinc. 


•* C. 


«F.« 


95 


5 


1,070 


1,960 


90 


10 


1,055 


1,930 


85 


15 


1,025 


1.880 


80 


20 


1.000 


1.830 


75 


25 


980 


1.795 


70 


30 


940 


1,725 


65 


35 


915 


1,660 


60 


40 


890 


1,635 



> U. S. Bureau of Mines, Technical Paper 60. 

* Two samples. 

• Jour. Phyi. Chem., IX. 446. 
*Jour. Phyt. Chem., VIII. 423. 



COPPER 

COPPER-LEAD ALLOYS. 



239 



Copper. Lead. 


o c. op , 


95 
90 
85 


5 
10 
15 


1.065 1.950 
1.050 1.920 
1.035 1 1,895 



Organization 

Smeltery Organization.^ — Dr. Douglas describes the former organiza- 
tion of the Copper Queen Cons. Mining Co., including both mine and 
works. For many years the technical staff consisted of a superintendent, 
an assistant (who was also metallurgist), one chemist, and a mining 
engineer who with the aid of a rodman did the mine surveying. 

To-day, with larger output, the use of electricity, of high-grade steam 
equipment, of increased chemical work and of the study of the ore 
deposits, the staff would include: At the mine; a mine superintendent, 
an assistant consulting geologist; a chief resident geologist and three 
assistants; three chemists, a chief consulting electrician, a chief operating 
electrician with ten assistants, a chief engineer and thirteen assistants. In 
the smelting department would be a superintendent, an assistant superin- 
tendent and two "under studies," a mechanical engineer and electrician 
with twelve assistants, five experts engaged in experimental work, and 
in the assay office a chief chemist and three assistants. 



Pbogbess in Electrolytic Copper Repining During 1913 

Bt Lawbencb Addicks 

The electrolytic refining of blister copper has become standardized 
to such an extent that there is but little in the way of progress to be noted 
in a single year. Most of the individual plants have now reached such 
a size that there is not much saving to be made from increase in capacity, 
and further expansion is likely to be at a slower rate. While the quantity 
of copper produced will doubtless steadily increase much of this new mate- 
rial will be non-argentiferous and will not therefore reach the refineries. 
The 80-<»lled Katanga copper from the Belgian Congo will doubtless be 
produced as a black copper nearly free from values which will be refined 
by fire process to a high-grade casting copper, unless some unexpected 
market for the cobalt which is associated with these ores causes a change 
in the metallurgical scheme.- As the production from this source should 
^'6 quite large, the interesting question of bow much casting copper can 

> Trem*. inai. Min. Met. BttH.^VllO, 19. 



240 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

be marketed will be raised and may bring about a more rational classifi- 
cation of copper for special uses than at present obtains. 

A second large source of new production is in Chile at the Chuquicamata 
development of the Chile Exploration Company. This ore again carries 
negligible quantities of gold and silver and the copper will be recovered 
by leaching and electrolytic precipitation on the ground, the resulting 
cathodes being shipped to some point not yet determined upon for mellr 
ing. A third promising field is in the leaching operations now being con- 
ducted at various points in the western United States, with a view to 
improving the recovery at plants using wet concentratioUi and which 
again are likely to result in the production of cathodes direct. 

On the other hand the present division of work between the refinery 
and the wire mill is not entirely satisfactory. The present practice of 
casting wirebars in open molds gives a more or less wrinkled set surface 
which carries far above the average oxygen content of the body of the bar 
and which is rolled into the rod and doubtless accounts for many of the 
defects in copper wire. The possibility of casting vertical billets as is 
done in steel practice is being seriously discussed, but as no one interest 
owns both a refinery and a wire mill real cooperation has not yet been 
attained. It seems likely, however, that eventually some of the refineries 
will produce wire rod direct or that the wire people will purchase cathodes 
and further that some central melting plants will be established for 
handling the large quantities of cathodes that are expected to come upon 
the market from the various leaching operations. 

The 1000 tons per month multiple plant of the Baltimore Copper 
Works, operating on bullion very high in arsenic, antimony, lead and 
nickel, has been started and is a very desirable adjunct to the main series 
plant with its more delicate digestion. The older unit of the Raritan 
Copper Works has been generally rebuilt. The other plants report 
practically unchanged capacity. 

The basic anode furnaces at the Chrome plant of the United States 
Metals Refining Company have been kept in operation, principally on 
foul bullion, and considerable development made in methods of construc- 
tion. It has been found desirable to use in the hearth magnesite brick 
fired in the hottest part of the kiln, and even these shrink progressively 
after they are in place in the hearth. This shrinkage tends to make the 
bottom leak and in time cause an undesirable amount of metal to collect 
in the vault underneath the furnace. Solid bottoms were then resorted 
to and it was found that the temperatures reached were not high enough 
to injure the magnesite hearth even with the cooling effect of the vault 
removed. The bottom tie rods expanded unduly, however, and were 
therefore placed in water-cooled pipes in one furnace and omitted alto- 



COPPER 



241 



getber, jackscrews being substituted, in another, both methods giving 
satisfaction. As the main bottom expanded while the magnesite layer 
contracted, suitable methods of directing the thrust of the buck stays 
against the magnesite layer were adopted. A number of the details of 
construction are shown in Fig. 1, taken from U. S. patent No. 1083719. 
Metallurgically these furnaces have shown that anodes of the highest 
grade can be made from very foul bullion and it is likely that a practical 
method of tin recovery from the concentrated slags made will be worked 
out. When cathodes are melted in a basic furnace the formation of slag 
is practically suppressed and a true melting without refining can be nearly 
if not quite attained. 



^.'l ' ; L 




Fig. 37. — Bade lined anode furnace. 



There has been a gradual change in all the refineries to larger furnace 
charges, 12,000,000 lb. a month from a single furnace being now quite 
usual. There is no physical limitation against very much larger furnaces 
and the real factor governing size lies in finding the copper to treat. The 
added economy in these very large units is easily offset by lack of flexibility 
in meeting fluctuating outputs and it is desirable to have an equipment 
of three anode and three wirebar furnaces, four of which are kept in 
service and two in reserve, in order to handle crews, repairs and invest- 
ment to best advantage. These large charges have been attained in 
different ways. At the Nichols plant very deep baths are carried; at 
the Baltimore plant very large furnaces, as refining furnaces go (14 ft. 
6 in. X 48 ft.), are used; and at Chrome the refilling process described in 
last year's article is employed. 

16 



242 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

In tankhouse work the wedge contact developed at the Perth Amboy 
plant of the A. S. & R. Co. by Whitehead has been giving a good account 
of itself. Using the Walker arrangement of tanks, a wedge is cast on 
top of the anode lug and a slot is cut in the bottom of the corresponding 
cathode rod in the adjoining tank. The usual three-cornered equalizing 
bar is omitted and one of the contacts thus eliminated. The anode wedge 
is made with a 60° angle while the cathode slot is 53°, thereby causing 
a wedging action which brings the contact surfaces into close union. A 
large number of tanks have been operating under this system during the 
past year and a considerable power saving without any practical operating 
difficulties is reported. A very similar device has been introduced by 
Antisell at the Raritan Copper Works. Patents have been applied for 
on both systems. 

In the treatment of auode slimes, work on wet processes continues and 
promising progress has been made, although no wet process is as yet 
operating. The slimes at the various refineries differ considerably in 
character, which fact accounts for the variations in methods of treatment. 
The Cottrell fume precipitation installation at the silver refinery of the 
Raritan Copper Works has proved a success and this has solved one of 
the chief problems in connection with the fire process, namely, silver losses. 
More attention is being paid to the recovery of by-products. A number 
of plants now recover platinum and palladium in small quantities. The 
Wohlwill electrolytic process is in use where any considerable quantity 
of platinum is present, but a chemical process is used when the value 
lies chiefly in the palladium. Selenium continues to be produced, but 
under discouraging market conditions. Should additional uses for sele- 
nium be discovered, so that 10 or 15 tons a month could be sold, the 
refineries could turn this out at a very satisfactory price, the present 
scale of operations being too small for efficient work. A search for radio- 
active substances in the slimes has given, in general, negative results. 

[An article on Hydrometallurgy of Copper by Thomas T. Read will be found in 
the special chapters at the end of thevolume. Editor.] 



CRYOLITE 

The only occurrence of cryolite that has been developed is situated at 
Ivigtut, Greenland. The mine belongs to the Oresunds Chemiske 
Fabriker, Copenhagen, Denmark. Here the product of the mines is 
treated in part and sold to various consumers or manuf actiLred into chem* 
ical products. The production at the mine for the calendar year 1913 
amounted to 10,415 metric tons of cryolite. Of this 8451 tons were 
treated at the works in Copenhagen, and the balance, namely, 1964 tons, 
was 8hipx>ed directly from Greenland to the United States. 

The preparation for the market and the uses of cryolite are despribed 
in MiNERAii Industry, Vol. XX, p. 263. 

Formerly cryolite was used in the soda and aliun industry and the 
manufacture of hydrofluoric acid, but now it is used almost entirely for 
the metallurgy of aluminium and white opalescent glasses and enamels. 
The Pennsylvania Salt Co. is the sole importer in the United States. 

The Department of Commerce reports the following imports, for the 
fiscal year ending June 30: 

Long Tons. Value. Price per Ton. 

1911 2007 $47,093 $23.50 

1912 2126 48,293 22.70 

1913 2619 64.440 21.61 

Canada is also an important producer of aluminium and the importa- 
tions of cryolite for the year 1912 were valued at$56,591. The cryolite is 
imported practically entirely from the United States. 



243 



FELDSPAR 



Bt J. T. SiNGEWALD 

The production of feldspar in the United States in 1913 amounted 
to 120,955 short tons valued at $776,551, as compared with 86,572 tons 
valued at $520,562 in 1912. The principal producing states are Cali- 
fornia, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New York, and Pennsylvania, 
The great bulk of the imported feldspar comes from the Richardson 
mine, near Bedford, north of Kingston, Ontario. The Canadian 
production amounted to 15,935 tons in 1913, valued at $56,841. 

FELDSPAR PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES.(o) . 
(In tons of 2000 lb.) 





Crude. 


f Ground. 


Total. 


Year. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


QuanUty. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Vslue. 


1903 


13,432 
19.413 
14.517 
39.976 
31.080 
18.840 
31.037 
24.655 
28.131 
26.462 
45.391 


$51,036 
66,714 
57,976 

132.643 

101,816 
65.780 
85.421 
81.965 
88.304 
89,001 

148,549 


28,459 
25,775 
. 20,902 
32,680 
60.719 
61,634 
46,502 
56.167 
64.569 
60.110 
75.564 


•205.607 
199.612 
168.181 
268,888 
457.128 
362,773 
316.367 
419.486 
490.614 
431.561 
628.002 


41.891 
45,188 
35.419 
72,656 
91.799 
70.474 
78.707 
80,822 
02,700 
86,572 
120.995 


S256,733 


1904 


266.326 


1905 


226,157 


1906 


401,531 


1907 


55S.944 


1908 


428.553 


1909 


415,131 


1910 


501.451 


1911 


579.008 


1912 


520.562 


1913 


776,551 







(a) Statistics reported by the U. S. Geological Survey for 1911 to 1913; other years the same except 
r Ne " ' 



for New York. 



PRODUCTION OF FELDSPAR BY STATES. 
(Crude and Ground. In tons of 2000 lb.) 





1911. (a) 


1912.(a) 


1913.(a) 




Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Quantity. 


Value. 


Connecticut, -,,...,, 


16,497 
25,976 
12.694 
15.652 
132,84 
5.449 


$73,557 

246,305 

56,265 

61.769 

101,090 

21,865 


19.076 
19.091 
9,231 
22.192 
9.451 
7.532 


$94,097 

173,076 

55,998 

101.525 

71.287 

24.579 


20.288 
38,114 
16.702 
22,750 
9.629 
13.472 


$115,770 


Maine 


346.779 


Maryland 


82333 


New York (6) 


119.060 


Pennsylvania. 


75.851 


Other 'States 


36,258 






Total 


89.552 


$560,851 


86.572 


$520,562 


120.955 


$776,551 







(a) U. S. Geological Survey. (6) New York State Geological Survey. 

From the standpoint of production there was little change in the 
feldspar industry during the year. There have been, however, several 

244 



FELDSPAR 245 

rather interesting developments in connection with the industry in the 
course of the year, particularly in the Southern states. The U. S. Bureau 
of Mines published as Bulletin 53 a report by A. S. Watts on "Mining and 
Treatment of Feldspar and Kaolin in the Southern Appalachian States." 
This bulletin gives descriptions of a number of feldspar deposits in Georgia^ 
North Carolina, and Virginia, and greatly adds to our knowledge of its 
recurrence in those states. The bulletin is of particular value to the 
ceramic industry as Mr. Watts, who is a ceramic expert, gives the results 
of tests made on these feldspars with respect to their behavior in standard 
porcelain mixtures. The publication of a similar bulletin covering the 
Northern states is planned by the Bureau of Mines. 

A detailed investigation of the feldspar deposits of Georgia was also 
made by Mr. S. L. Galpin for the Georgia Geological Survey. Mr. 
Galpin found a few high-grade spars in the state, but these are for the most 
part rather remote from railroads. There are a number of large de- 
posits more favorably situated with regard to transportation facilities, 
but of lower grade which are mainly suitable for roofing surfaces, poultry 
grit, etc. In Georgia, as in other Southern states, the development of the 
feldspar industry has been retarded through the lack of a nearby market 
for the product. 

In Maryland, the year is notable in offering two new uses for the 
feldspar of that State. The Earth Products Company of Baltimore 
erected a mill for making several sizes of poultry grit at a feldspar deposit 
about 4 miles west of Laurel, a town on the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road between Baltimore and Washington. This is the first attempt to 
establish this phase of the industry in that section of the country, and it 
is rather unfortunate that the plant should have been erected so far from 
the railroad. Under favorable conditions, it ought to be possible to 
create a considerable demand for poultry grit in that region. There also 
arose during the year a demand for feldspar for extraction of 
its potash content. The Spar Chemical Company entered the principal 
producing district of the State as a purchaser of spar on the basis of its 
potash content. As the presence of mica- and iron-bearing minerals is 
not objectionable in material for this use, this market opens up a very 
profitable outfit for much of the waste material accumulated in connec- 
tion with the quarrying of spar for pottery purposes, which hitherto has 
afforded the sole market for the spar of this section. Consequently if 
this demand continues, it should greatly stimulate the feldspar industry 
of the state. 

The Richardson mine which is the largest producer in Canada and 
furnishes the great bulk of the spar imported into this country is work- 
ing a most remarkable deposit of feldspar. The portion of the 



246 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

pegmatite that is being worked is practically free from mica and 
other deleterious iron-bearing minerals* Though considerable quarts 
occurs in the dike, it has for the most part been segregated from the spar 
so that the quarry is worked in one part as a flint deposit and in another 
as a feldspar deposit. The feldspar as shot down is practically pure pink 
potash feldspar which requires little or no hand sorting, the item of 
greatest expense in most feldspar quarrying being thus eliminated. 

The deposits on Maniconagan Bay on the north shore of the Si 
Lawrence between Esquimeaux Point and Notasquan, which produced a 
small tonnage in 1911 and 1912, did not contribute to the 1913 output. 
The pegmatite dikes of that r^ion are unusually large and numerous, 
and well exposed, extending inward from the coast as ridges of bare 
rock. On the whole, however, the rock is of low grade. The feldspar 
is intergrown with too much quartz, and the rock is too fine grained 
to make possible the elimination of much of the quartz by hand sorting. 
This fact together with the expense of operating in such a rigorous climate 
and inaccessible locality will always be serious obstacles to the profit- 
able exploitation of these deposits. 

Occurrence and Use. — Commercial feldspar is obtained from pegmatite 
dikes in which it occurs in association with quartz, mica, and other 
minerals in minor amounts. The degree of purity required depends to a 
large extent on the use to which it is to be put. The chief use for feld- 
spar is in the pottery industry. For this use a certain percentage of 
quartz is allowable in the feldspar, but mica- and iron-bearing minerals 
are particularly objectionable on account of spotting the ware on burn- 
ing. A limited quantity of feldspar is used in the manufacture of arti- 
ficial teeth, scouring soaps, and window washes. For these uses only 
selected spar is used, and for the latter uses in particular it must be free 
from quartz. For roofing material and poultry grit, the waste from 
quarries sorting pottery spar and low-grade deposits carrying considerable 
quartz, mica, etc., are suitable. A number of processes have been 
patented for the extraction of potash from feldspar, but the demand 
for feldspar for this purpose has not yet attained any appreciable propor- 
tions. The value of finely ground feldspar as a fertilizer has been 
experimentally established but has not yet found application in this 
countrv. 



FLUORSPAR 



By Avert H. Reed 

The quantity of domestic fluorspar reported to the United States 
Geological Survey as marketed in 1913 was 115^580 short tons, valued at 
1736,286, compared with 116,545 short tons, valued at $769,163, in 1912. 
The average price per ton for the whole country^ considering all grades 
of fluorspar — ^gravel, lump, and ground — was approximately J6.37 a 
ton in 1913, compared with $6.60 in 1912, a decrease of 23 cents. Fluor- 
spar was produced in 1913 in six States — Illinois, Kentucky, New 
Mexico, Colorado, New Hampshire, and Arizona — in the order named. 

FLUORSPAR OUTPUT OF THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCING COUNTRIES. 

lln metric tomi^. 



Year. 


AuBtria- 
Hungary. 


France. 


Germany, 
(a) 


Spain. 


United 
Kingdom. 


United 
States. 


1904 


7.061 
7.601 
7.796 
8.779 
7.369 
8.106 


2.047 
2.434 
4.218 
4.795 
6.456 
6.725 
8.264 
9.602 


13.540 
13,019 
16,493 
16,624 
14,925 
14.646 
17.988 
23,073 
21.023 


I 

270 
253 
246 
180 
490 
265 


18.451 
40,079 
42,612 
60.257 
36.267 
43.165 
62,607 
32,100 
29,152 


33,062 


1905 


62,048 


1908 


37,002 


1907 


44.884 


1908 


46,023 


1900 


62.970 


1910 


62.970 


1911 


78,953 


1912 


105.712 


1913 






104.882 

















(«) Ezporta. German atotistioa no longer report production. (6) Not reported, (e) Estimate. 

By drawing on the old dump heaps in Derbyshire and on the mines in the 
County of Durham, the English supply is capable of expansion at any 
time to meet an increased home or export demand, but the increased out- 
put of American fluorspar in the last few years has considerably reduced 
the shipments from England to the United States, and at present the 
prices are unremunerative to most shippers notwithstanding the reduction 
of the United States import duty from $3 to $1.50 per ton. 

lUinots. — Over 75 per cent, of the domestic production was made by 
Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar mines, and by Fairview Fluorspar and Lead 
Co., both located at Rosiclare, Hardin County, 111. And the separate as 
well as combined production of these two operations was the greatest yet 
reached by them. Also, Kentucky reached the crest of any previous 
annual production. 

Toward the last of the year, in October, November, and December, 
the fluorspar industry felt appreciably the retrenching of the iron and 
steel business, which affords the principal market for fluorspar. More- 

247 



248 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

over, the general tendency of business depression throughout the country 
which was manifest late in the year, affected fluorspar shipments that 
would have swelled the annual production to larger figures. And another 
factor, which was two times flooding of the Illinois mines by high water of 
the Ohio river, caused a lessening of the annual production from what it 
might have been otherwise. Indeed, Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar min^, 
with the present state of development might very well have been able to 
have produced alone as much as the reported production of the entire 
Illinois-Kentucky district for the year. And Fairview Co.'s mines have 
reached a state of such substantial development that it is believed they 
could have produced in 1913, under normal conditions, about 50,000 tons. 

Rosiclare and Fairview mines have continued exploitation of their 
respective fluorspar veins, which are different, without indication of min- 
eralization playing out either in depth or along the strike. The productive 
levels at Rosiclare during the year were those at 320 and at 420 ft., re- 
spectively, although there remained over a considerable tonnage within 
the stopes at the 220-f t. level, which was hoisted during the year. Lateral 
development at Rosiclare has extended more than 5000 ft. along the 
mine levels from the main shaft. Fairview operations include 5 
separate shaft installations, all of which were worked more or less during 
the year. Late in the summer, "Good-hope" shaft, the earliest main 
shaft, was lost and had to be abandoned on account of irreparable caving. 
'*Blue Diggings" shaft and operation promise hereafter to be Fairview's 
mainstay; here an excellent new concrete-lined vertical shaft was com- 
pleted 200 ft. in depth; and during the year Fairview Transportation 
Co. extended their standard gauge, standard equipped railroad to 
this operation. This railroad is a service corporation, distinct from Fair- 
view Mining Co., and serves Fairview's different mines to an incline 
on the Ohio river; and a railway transfer barge serves to transport 
railway cars to and from Golconda, Illinois. 

Kentucky. — Fluorspar mines development in Kentucky, while it has 
improved over past practices has not reached anything like the substantial 
and permanent state of the two Illinois mines. The number of fluorspar 
veins in western Kentucky is legion, and they are typified by lines of 
strike almost with every poitit of the compass. But it has come to a 
matter of belief that best promise for permanent mines or for mines with 
more than minor possibilities, will be found to accompany large fault- 
fractures of the district, rather than accompanying smaller faults and 
fractures, although the latter do have occasional important economic 
aspects. And it is a fact that fault-fractures with considerable throw, 
in this fluorspar district, are extensive in length, easily discernible along 
the strike and so not difficult to locate and prospect. In connection, per- 



FLUORSPAR 249 

haps, development lately in Kentucky has settled upon two large fault- 
fractures, together with nearby and closely associated subsidiary lesser 
faults and fractures. These two prominent fault systems are the Columbia 
and the Tabb. 

The Columbia fault strikes N. 23^ E. across Crittenden and Livingston 
Counties, Ky., and passes about 5 miles from Marion, Ky. This major 
fault has a maximum throw of about 900 ft. On this fracture and in 
one locality two considerable mine developments have been under way 
during the past year, which are the Sunnybrook (''Keystone") and the 
Franklin mines, respectively, and adjoining properties. 

Sunnybrook mine has sunk the main shaft 300 ft. deep, and finished 
working out to that depth a single developed lenticular ore-body of fluor- 
spar. The output for the year was 3750 tons of fluorspar, from which was 
saved and shipped 6300 lb. of lead ore concentrates. On account of the 
necessity to re-equip the power plant and because of the portending state 
of business depression, as well as disappointment generally, this mine was 
closed down and the business of the operators was liquidated at the end of 
the year; so that Sunnybrook mine is now an abandoned mine. 

Franldin sank the main shaft to 300 ft. in depth, and produced 
about 2000 tons of fluorspar. This property has been operated so far 
strictly along lines of development rather than in line with outputting. 
The main working shaft has been sunk vertically about 30 ft. off the vein 
and in the limestone foot-wall. Cross-cuts have been run to the vein at 
100-ft. and afterward at 50-ft. intervals to the bottom of the shaft 
(300 ft.). At 150-ft. and at 250-ft. levels in the vein have been driven 
about 150 ft. in both directions from the cross-cuts. The present exploi- 
tation has developed a lenticular body of good fluorspar, extending ver- 
tically from 100-ft. depth to 300-ft. depth and deeper , and horizontally 
about 300 ft. in length along the vein. This lens-form shows a maxi- 
mum width of fluorspar of 6 ft., and will give up an average of 3 ft. 
It has been calculated that 15,000 tons of fluorspar have already been 
blocked out. 

Some subsidiary veins to the Columbia were also the scene of renewed 
activity, at two different localities, in 1913. These are Mary Belle mines, 
located on the Columbia mine property, which won a few hundred tons 
of fluorspar during the year by contract mining; and Memphis mines 
property, which was acquired in 1912 by the Aluminium Ore Co. 
No production was made by the latter on the Memphis property, but 
some empirical diamond drilling was done to prove up the presence of 
large ore-bodies of fluorspar. The results of this drilling have not been 
made public^ but it may be predicted that the experience here in diamond 
driirmg has established conclusively what was already suspected, that is, 



250 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

that on account of the irregular occurrence of lenticular bodies of fluorspar 
in the fault veins of this district diamond drilling is not satisfactory, uDless 
very many holes are drilled relatively close together so as to cut the vein 
at different depths in the same vertical horizon. The Memphis mines 
will not be a producer of fluorspar in 1914, except perhaps by contract 
mining. 

Tabb fault system lies some 8 miles East of Marion, Ky., and crosses 
the I. C. R. R. near Mexico, Ky. The strike across Crittenden Count}- 
is N. 72^ E., and the maximum throw of the main fault is about 700 ft. 
This vein system has been explored and prospected throughout a con- 
tinuous length of more than 3 miles. 

The names of the mines and mining properties along the Tabb vein 
system are, in order from east to west: ''Pigmy," on east side of 
I. C. R. R.; '^Mexico," on west side of I. C. R. R.; "Newku-k"; "Ohio 
VaUey" (Blue & Marble); "Hoosier" (Tabb); "Wheatcroft"; "LaRue" 
(Tabor, Asbridge, and Pogue); "Western Reserve" (Matthews Heirs); 
"Matthews Bros."; "Parrish"; "American Fluorspar" (Sam Matthews); 
and"Yandell." 

Pigmy mine was the scene of vigorous mining activity in the past year. 
A subsidiary and parallel vein to the Tabb vein has been developed at 
this mine, and a lenticular ore-body of exceptionally high-grade fluorspar 
has been exploited to a depth of 150 ft. Production for the year by 
Pigmy Mining Co. was 5000 tons of fluorspar, and a minimum carload 
of lead ore. 

Mexico mine and Newkirk mine developments consisted in sinking 
each a new shaft, for exploiting the main Tabb vein. 

Ohio Valley Fluorspar Co., operating Blue & Marble mines under 
lease, sank the main shaft to 150 ft. in depth, and mined and shipped 
1000 tons of fluorspar and 1 car of carbonate zinc ore. Early in the fall 
operations were closed down. 

Hoosier mines were engaged throughout the year in reclaiming the 
old "Brown & Ward" shaft, which was sunk in 1888 by S. S. Brown and 
associates, at the time Ohio Valley R. R., now part of I. C. R. R., was built 
through the region. This was the first development on the Tabb vein, and 
was instituted in search of lead and zinc ore. The unwatering and re- 
claiming of this shaft has verified the tradition of plenty of good fluorspar 
having been found by the former exploiters; so that now the Hoosier 
Mining Co. has demonstrated that they have the makings of a good 
fluorspar mine at the old works. A few hundred tons of fluorspar were 
mined and shipped, and about 100 tons of zinc sulphide ore were mined 
and stocked. 

Wheatcroft Mineral Co. put down a new shaft on their property 



FLUORSPAR 251 

during the year, and on the main Tabb fault; also some prospecting was 
done on the property on a parallel and subsidiary vein. Promising 
mineralization was shown up in both efforts. 

LaRue mines embrace what were formerly Tabor, Asbridge, and Pogue 
mines, respectively. Operations have been conducted from 2 shafts, 
the principal one of which has been sunk 250 ft., and from which sub- 
stantial and systematic mine development has been prosecuted through- 
out the year, and the results of which have established the presence, in 
the developed horizons, of several large size lenticular ore-bodies of 
fluorspar. Production of LaRue Mining Co. was a little over 15,000 tons 
of fluorspar. A macadamized road wa built in 1913 from LaRue mines 
to I.C.R.R. siding near Mexico, Ky., a distance of about 2 1/2 miles; 
and other mines along the line have made connections with this macada- 
mized road. 

Western Reserve Mining Co. installed a small steam power plant and 
sank a shaft about 150 ft. deep. But not being successful in cutting 
the Tabb vein or any subsidiary veins, about the end of the year opera- 
tions were closed down, and the business was liquidated. 

Sam Matthews mine was being operated under lease by the American 
Fluorspar Mining Co. In the first 6 months of the year a cleanup of all 
fluorspar in sight, in stopes, drifts and in fact about the collars of shafts, 
was made by this interest, by which some 1000 tons of fluorspar were pro- 
duced, and the mines were abandoned and the company liquidated their 
business. 

Yandell mine is owned in fee by Kentucky Fluorspar Co. A 
new shaft was sunk on the property during the year, in the zone of 
fracture of the Tabb vein, and mining was carried on in a subsidiary vein 
to the Tabb, with the result of producing about 2500 tons of gravel fluor- 
spar of very high grade. 

Kentucky Fluorspar Co. maintains a concentrating and grinding 
plant at Marion, Ky., where fluorspar is concentrated to high grade and 
is ground. Also lead ore is saved and concentrated. Besides making a 
production from their own mines, this concern makes a practice of buying 
fluorspar principaUy produced under contract from small fluorspar dig- 
gings over the district. 

R. L. Moore & Co. operates a small grinding plant at Marion, but no 
concentrating plant, and buys locally mill concentrates as well as very 
high-grade washed gravel fluorspar for grinding. 

Sanders Ore Separating Co. operates a small concentrating plant at 
Marion, and executes custom milling and ore dressing. This interest 
Qulls a good deal of the mine product from LaRue mines. No provision 
GQsts at this mill for grinding. 



252 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Those that will likely offer fluorspar to the trade in 1914^ are the 
following: Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar mines; Rogers, Brown A Co., 
selling agents; Fairview Fluorspar & Lead Co., Hickman, Williams & Co., 
selling agents; Kentucky Fluorspar Co.; LaRue Fluorspar Co.; Pigmy 
Mining Co., Avery H. Reed, selling agent; Hoosier Mining Co.; Frank- 
lin Mining Co., R. L. Moore & Co.; and Roberts Fluorspar Co. 

It is generally believed that there are no strictly lead and zinc ore 
veins in the Kentucky-Illinois fluorspar district, and the writer holds that 
view. Nevertheless, it is the belief of the writer that the fluorspar veins 
of the district do present an opportunity for mining and concentrating 
zinc ore particularly and also lead ore, that has not so far been appreciated. 

Fluorspar deposits are lenticular in the veins of the district, and so 
present marginal limits of pinching out horizontally and also vertically. 
Sometimes the lenses of fluorspar deposits are large, and sometimes not of 
very great dimensions. But the very irregularity of the occurrence of 
these lenticular bodies of fluorspar in the veins of the district, is a per- 
sistent regularity. The fluorspar bodies carry galena in recoverable 
quantity, but scarcely any zinc. But it is the writer's conviction, after 
many years of observation and by close study of all accessible mining 
operations in the district, that the territory of pinches in these fluorspar 
veins is the locus of mineralization of commercial quantities of sphalerite. 

Part of the lead accompaniment of fluorspar is saved in the ordinary 
milling practice of the district, which does not attempt to recover the 
lead in particular by specially milling for it; but rather the prevailing 
mUl design and practice is toward the end of concentrating fluorspar and 
dressing that to a grade satisfactory to the demands of the bulk of the 
trade; and that trade is the steel industry, which uses more than 75 per 
cent, of the mine production, and is ordinarily satisfied with specifications 
for fluorspar of 85 per cent, minimum calcium fluoride and not exceeding 6 
per cent, silica. High-grade fluorspar is usually specially selected, and 
generally is assembled by hand sorting. But ordinary run of mine fluor- 
spar will carry an average of as much as 2 per cent, galena, which could 
be largely recovered of course if dressed for especially; and the present 
mill practice recovers not as much as 1 per cent, and possibly about 1/2 
per cent, of galena, in dressing fluorspar. 

In the pinched ground of our fluorspar veins, that is between, around, 
and about the lenticular ore deposits of fluorspar, usually zinc mineraliza- 
tion has taken place in the limestone and quartzite wall rocks. This zinc 
mineralization has emanated from fault planes as the principal loci of 
deposition, although planes of lesser fractures, jointing planes, even 
bedding planes within zones of fracture, and planes of brecciation all 
are also favorable channels for ore formation and enrichment. Zinc 



FLUORSPAR 253 

dissemination as well as zinc segregation (the latter arising perhaps mainly 
by secondary enrichment) has occurred in the rock formations either on 
one side or on the other or on both sides of planes of fracture or of 
structure, and disseminated deposits of zinc blende, where specially 
tested out in this district, have proved usually to extend many feet out 
into country before fading out, so that it is believed, by the writer any- 
way, an average value in zinc between 5 and 10 per cent, can be recovered 
and realized, by handling this disseminated zinc ore on a tonnage basis. 
Segregated deposits of zinc blende, where encountered, are specially 
rich, so rich in fact that actual shipments of such ore in lump form have 
been made from the district, by simply cobbing and without concentrating 
it; and in 1913, Eclipse Mining Co., operating Commodore mine, con- 
centrated about 500 tons of 60 per cent, zinc blende, by working a bonanza 
body of segregated zinc blende deposits. Generally it is to be expected 
that zinc ore mined in this district on a large scale will be desseminated, 
but it is also reasonable to expect to encounter frequent bonanzas of 
segregated ore. In both cases the ore will be free milling, have limestone 
and quartzite gangue and will not present any difficulty in concentrating. 

In systematically developing a fluorspar mine it is the natural sequence 
to extend the regular mine levels ad libitum through the pinched territory * 
as well as through the lenticular ore-bodies of fluorspar, and thereby block 
out the ground for the most economic conditions of mining. And this 
plan has been followed by Rosiclare Lead & Fluorspar Mines, with the 
result of proving the orderly occurrence of many lenticular ore-bodies of 
fluorspar at varied intervals along the levels as well as with depth in the 
vein. The fluorspar is worked out by overhead stoping and by filled 
stopes, and the pinched ground is let alone and is not stoped. Therefore 
possibly Bobiclare has developed a large volume of zinc-mineralized 
ground, part of which undoubtedly will prove economical to mine for 
the zinc content. Certainly during the writer's regime of operation of 
Bosiclare mines, and in prosecuting systematic development of Rosiclare 
vem, the showing of zinc under the conditions given was very good; and 
it was planned then to mine some of this zinc, and provision had been 
made in the new mill constructed by the writer at Rosiclare, to dress some 
zinc ore; but these features were never tried out, perhaps because the 
next management of the property did not appreciate the zinc possibilities 
when the mill was put into operation. 

Outside of Rosiclare there has not been any such extensive systematic 
exploitation of fluorspar mines in the district, the prevailing custom at 
most other fluorspar properties being to develop from the surface some 
fortuituous discovery of a defined lenticular ore-body of fluorspar, and 
when that pinches vertically and horizontally, to make a clean up, rob 



254 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

the shaft and abandon the mine and find another locality along the strike 
of the vein where another lenticular fluorspar deposit appears close to the 
surface and repeat the former operation. Hence the number of old aban- 
doned fluorspar mines in the district is many; and there are thousands of 
old prospect diggings along the many fluorspar veins, a great many of 
which have encountered pinched territory in the veins, as shown by the 
old dumps which often have carried economic quantities of zinc ore and 
have been treated for the zinc. 

However, it has been rarely that any single lenticular deposit of fluor- 
spar has been worked deep enough to encounter a vertical pinch, either in 
old abandoned mines or in those active at the present time; because 
usually only comparatively shallow depths have been attained, until lat- 
eral pinching has stopped productive operations, water troubles have set 
in and general unprofitableness has compelled suspension of activiti^. 
But where fluorspar deposits have been followed persistently to depth, 
they have usually given way to a pinched condition of groimd. 

The possibilities for zinc ore in commercial quantities in this field 
seem favorable to the writer, and hence the mode of occurrence has been 
given in detail. The possibilities for zinc at Rosiclare have been stated 
'already. Fairview mines have not practiced as a rule driving through 
pinches encountered laterally, although "Goodhope" shaft was pushed 
down 520 ft. deep, and had been in a vertical pinch, showing more or 
less disseminated zinc mineralization, for the last 100 ft. or more. 
Rather Fairview operations have consisted in developing discovered 
separate fluorspar bodies each by a separate shaft. However, the writer 
has observed at Fairview some very promising zinc ore ground; and at one 
time the management of Fairview started to assemble specially rich zinc 
ore, by selection from the picking belt. Indeed, the last and present 
installation of jigs (Foust) at Fairview Mill, were contracted for and 
bought strictly on guarantee to separate zinc blende and fluorspar and to 
recover the zinc ore; which fact demonstrates that Fairview interests at 
that time believed they had zinc present in commercial quantities. In 
connection, it should be stated the jigs failed to make the separation of 
zinc blende and fluorspar; and such a separation is not believed to be com- 
mercially possible, where the relative amount of fluorspar present is so 
much greater than the amount of zinc blende. But it is not the small 
amount of zinc accompanying fluorspar that seems economically interest- 
ing to the writer, and is the commercial quantities of zinc that appear to 
accompany the pinched regions of fluorspar veins, which zinc will have a 
limestone and quartzite gangue and so will not be difficult to separate. 
The matter of zinc recovery at Fairview is then in statu quo. 

The fluorspar district in Kentucky has been exploited more diligently 



FLUORSPAR 255 

for zinc than in Illinois. But efforts have been directed particularly in 
search of bonanza ore-bodies, which have often been found, but even in 
successful instances of discovery the interest behind the mining ventures 
has failed invariably to appreciate how to make systematic mining and 
concentrating of the high-grade zinc ore profitable. As instances of such 
discovery and exploitation of bonanza zinc sulphide ore-bodies may be 
mentioned: Columbia Mine, Nine Acres Mine, Major Clement Mine, 
old LaRue Mine, Cullen Mine, Mann Mine, Commodore Mine, Ebby 
Hodge Mine, and Hoosier Mine. And there are many other known and 
recorded instances where very rich zinc sulphide ore has been encountered 
in the fluorspar mines, as drifts or levels and shaft sinking have gone out 
of lenticular deposits of fluorspar into pinched ground. Pinched ground 
for fluorspar, but enriched ground for zinc sulphide mineralization. Also 
there are recorded instances of diamond drilling known to the writer, in - 
which extensive cores of rich zinc blende have been obtained. 

With limited consumption of and demand for fluorspar, and with 
promise of only a small yearly increase in the use of and demand for the 
commodity; and with the condition to face of one single fluorspar mine, 
Rosiclare, being able alone to produce any year for several years to 
come, all of the fluorspar required for consumption in the U. S. ; also with 
another operation, Fairview, able now to supply half as much fluorspar 
yearly as Rosiclare; then the outlook for other fluorspar operators to 
make money does not seem very bright. Already keen competition for 
business has brought down considerably quotations named the trade, 
and it seems as if the bottom in prices has not been yet reached. More- 
over, the duty on fluorspar has now been reduced to $1 .50 per ton. 

It looks like it was going to be a case of the survival of the fittest in 
the Kentucky-Illinois fluorspar district. Rosiclare and Fairview neces- 
sarily have to make a reasonably large production, to keep down costs, 
because of their large operations and consequent organizations. So that 
it is apparent only those fluorspar operations in Kentucky th.^t are 
favorably located, as on and nearby the railroad, and which can get their 
business systematized to operate within limits of production ccmmen- 
surate with minimum costs, will be able to survive and compete with 
Rosiclare and Fairview, in the open market. 

Prevailing prices holding in 1913 for metallurgical grade were, $5.75 
tiO S6.00 per ton, flat price, f.o.b. Illinois shipping points; and $5.25 to 
15.50 per ton, flat price, f.o.b. Kentucky shipping points. Though 
^mewhat better prices on analysis basis were realized from both sides of 
the Ohio River. 

No. 1 lump commanded $12.00 per ton from Illinois points, and $8.00 
per ton from Kentucky. No. 1 milled fluorspar concentrates, guaranteed 



256 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

97 per cent, calcium fluoride and not exceeding 1 per cent, in silica and in 
total carbonates, fetched $8.00 to $10.00 per ton from Kentucky mills. 
All prices f.o.b. cars shipping points. 

No. 2 lump, which is used by the foundries, commanded $5.75 
to $7.00 per ton, f.o.b. shipping points; the lesser figure applying to 
Kentucky and the greater applying to lUinois. 

Acid grade ground brought Illinois interests $15.00 to $17.00 per ton 
f.o.b. cars shipping points, which prices are understood to cover cost of 
packages; and similar commodity by Kentucky grinders sold at SI 1.50 
to $12.50 per ton, f.o.b. shipping point, and in bulk shipment, with extra 
charges for packages. 

The largest per cent, of the ground fluorspar prepared Lb used by the 
glass industry, and by iron and steel enamelers. Competition has been 
keen on glass and enamel grade ground, and prices have fluctuated con- 
siderably; but $10.00 to $11.00 per ton in bulk f.o.b. shipping point, was 
a fair average for the year, with extra charge for packages. 



FULLER'S EARTH 



Bt E. H. Sbllards 

The total production of fuller's earth in the United Stated during 
1913 was 38,594 short tons. In addition to that produced, there was 
imported into the United States during the year ending June 30, 1913, 
16,866.16 tons, of which 1597 tons valued at $10,359, were unmanu- 
factured or unground, while 15,269.16 tons, valued at $135,229, were 
manufactured or ground. These importations were under the old rate 
of duty, which was $1.50 per ton for the unmanufactured earth, and $3 
per ton for the manufactured product. During the last half of 1913, July 
1 to December 31, under the new tarifp rates, which are for unmanufac- 
tured earth $0.75 per ton, and for manufactured, $1.50 per ton, there was 
imported 974 tons unmanufactured valued, at $7660, and 7613 tons 
manufactured earth, valued at $68,558. These valuations are based 
on the wholesale price of the product at the port of origin. The actual 
cost to the consumer includes freight and commission in addition. The 
exports of fuller's earth from the United States cannot be determined 
owing to the fact that this product is not listed separate from other 
clays. 

STATISnCa OF FULLER'S EARTH IN THE UNITED STATES. 
(In tons of 2000 tb.) 



Tear. 


Pnxfaiciion. 1 ImportB. 


Yean. 

1 


Production. 


ImportB. 


Sh-Too. 


Value. 


Sh. Tons. 


Value. 


Sh.Ton8. 


Value. 


Sh.Tons. 


Value. 


IM2 ... 
1W3.... 

1904.-.. 

l»5.... 

1907 .. . 


14,100 
20.093 
29.480 
25.745 
28.000 
34,039 


$109,980 
190.277 
168.500 
167.776 
237.960 
323.276 


16.135 
17.100 
10.221 
16,181 
14.827 
14.648 


$102,580 
120.670 
74.000 
105.997 
108,696 
122.221 


1908. . . 
1909... 
1910... 
1911... 
1912... 
1913... 


30.517 
29.561 
30.857 
34.668 
32,716 
38.694 


1270.685 
289.000 
277,293 
335.350 
305,622 
369.760 


12,279 
12.762 
16.867 
18,224 
19,109 
16,866 


$ 93.413 
101.161 
132,645 
143.694 
146.337 
145,588 



The fuller's earth used in clarifying mineral oils, which includes by far 
the greater part of that produced in America, is sold at the mine, ground, 
bolted and sacked for shipment at about $9.50 per ton. That used for 
refining vegetable oils brings a somewhat higher price, since the earth must 
be ground to a finer mesh for vegetable than for mineral oil. 

Clays having the properties of fuller's earth more or less well developed 
are widely distributed in the United States and are confined to no par- 
ticular geological horizon, although the largest known deposits are* of 
17 257 



258 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Ccnozoic age. By far the greater part of fuller's earth is in the form of a 
sedimentary deposit which is distinctly stratified, and from which an 
overburden must be removed in mining. In Arkansas, however, fuller's 
earth is known that is exceptional in that it is residual, having been formed 
in situ from the disintegration of basaltic dykes. ^ In the United States 
fuller's earth is known from the following states: Alabama, Arizona. 
Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Massachusetts, 
Minnesota, Mississippi, New York, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Texas and Utah. Of these states, however, only six were actively 
producing fuller's earth during 1913, as follows: Florida, Georgia, 
Arkansas, California, Colorado and Massachusetts. 

Florida is the chief producer of fuller's earth in the United States. 
The deposits of this state are found at a definite horizon in the Alum Bluff 
formation of Upper Oligocene age. Two fuller's earth strata are usually 
present, each having a thickness of 6 or 8 ft., and separated by sandy 
or calcareous strata 2 or 3 ft. in thickness. Usually only the upper 
of these two strata is worked; mining, which is carried on by the open- 
pit method, starting from the smrface outcrop. The deposits being 
worked are those of Gadsden County in northern Florida, and of Manatee 
County in southern Florida, the principal output coming at present from 
the Gadsden County mines. 

The fuller's earth of southern Georgia which is worked at Attapulgus 
near the Florida line represent a northward extension of the Florida 
deposits. In central Georgia near Macon, however, is found a different 
type of earth, which according to the Georgia Geological Survey is found 
in the Claiborne formation of Eocene age. This earth differs in some 
important respects from that of Florida being used chiefly for vegetable 
oils, while that from Florida finds its chief use at present in clarifying 
mineral oils. 

The fuller's earth of Arkansas is used chiefly in clarif3dng vegetable 
oils. These deposits are mined by underground mining, vertical shafts 
being sunk from which laterals run to the vein of earth. 

The fuller's earth of Colorado is said to be used in bleaching cotton- 
seed oil while that of Massachusetts is reported as being used in fulling 
woolen goods. 

The fuller's earth of Texas is found in the coastal plains section of the 
state in the upper part of the Jackson formation. It is used in clarifying 
vegetable oils and animal fats. 

The fuller's earth of California is used, according to the State Mineral- 
ogist, principally as a clarifying agent in the refining of crude oild. 

The action of fuller's earth in clarifying oils, and the varying behavior 

> Residual fuller's earth is said to occur also in Saxoay where it is found in ntu derived from gabbro. 



FULLER'S EARTH 259 

of different fuller's earths forms an interesting study on which much yet 
remains to be done. Porter in 1907 reviewed the different explanations 
of the clarifying action that had been given and advanced a new theory 
to explain this property. Porter believes that the clarifying action is due 
chiefly to colloidal silica present in the clay, and records a series of very 
interesting tests and analyses which are believed to support this view.^ 

Most fuller's earth gives a taste to the edible oils, and formerly the 
American earth was rejected by refiners of edible oils on this account, but 
at the present time methods are known for removing taste and odor from 
the oil. This is accomplished by blowing dry steam through the refined 
oil which is heated to a temperatiure above the boiling point of water. ^ 
A serious difi&culty is the rapid oxidizing action which some fuller's earths 
have on edible oils. In milling practice air is blown through the filter 
press to force out the oil remaining in the earth after treatment. With 
some of the earths the oxidizing action is so rapid that the oil remaining 
in the earth takes fire, or is liable to take fire at this time. It is to be 
hoped that this difficulty may be overcome. 

Among other striking properties of fuller's earth is the fact that some 
earths that serve particularly well in refining mineral oils have not been 
used successfully for vegetable oils and conversely those best suited for 
vegetable oils are not suited for mineral oils. At the present time the 
English fuller's earths are being used largely in vegetable oils, while the 
American fuller's earths are used almost entirely for mineral oils. It is 
stated, however, in a report recently issued by the Biureau of Mines' that 
the United States has fuller's earth far better suited for refining edible oils 
than any imported, and that to assure the almost universal use of this 
earth by American refiners there is required only a careful and intelligent 
control of the preparation of the output and its application to the bleach- 
ing of oils. 

List of Fuller's Earth Producers in the United States, 1912 and 1913: 

Office Location of Mine 

Adams and Bemis., Murfreesboro, Arkansas. 

.Vmerican Clay Co., Akran, Colorado. 

.American Meat Packers' Asso., Chicago, 111. Fairplay, Arkansas. 

.Vmoican Refiner's Earth Co., Benton, Ark. Klondike, Arkansas. 

Aro'la PuUer'B Earth Co., Argyle S.D. 

.\njona Earth Products Co., Benson Aris. 

Atlantic Refining Co. Philadelphia, Pa. Ellenton, Florida. 

Commercial Pulverizing Co., Houston, Texas. Fayette & Burleson Counties, 
flight Oil Co., Bakersfield, California. 

■Properties and Tests of Fuller's Earth, by John T. Porter, Bvll. 316, U. S.Geol. Burr., pp. 268- 

'< a«II.' 71. U. 8. BtuMu of Mines. 1913. 

•roller's Earth, by Charles L. Pamns, Bureau of Mines. BtM. 71, 1913. 



260 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Florldin Co. 

Florida Fuller's Earth Co., 

Fuller's Earth Co., 

Fuller's Earth Co., 

Fuller's Earth Union (Ltd.), 

General Reduction Co., 

J. E. & R. N. Farnsworth Co., 

John Olsen, 

Lester Clay Co., 

National Fuller's Earth Co., 

Palmetto Kaolin Co., 

South Dakota Fuller's Earth Co. 

Western Fuller's Earth Co., 



Office 
Warren, Pa. 



Houston, Tex. 
London, Eng. 
Atlanta, Ga. 



Jacksonville, Fla. 



Location of Mine 

Quincy, Florida, 
^lenton, Florida. 
Midway, Florida. 
Somerville, Texas. 
Fairplay, Arkansas. 
Pikes Peak, Georgia. 
Lancaster, Mass. 
Klondyke, Arkansas. 
Attapulgus, Georgia. 
Salters Depot, 8. C. 
South Carolina. 
Rapid City, S.D. 
Vacaville, California. 



GOLD AND SILVER 

By M. W. von Berne witz 

Although the gold production of the year 1912 showed an increase of 
2.2 percent over the previous year, yet it was noted that the rate of 
increase in gold production was steadily declining, and for 1913 we find 
that the rate of increase has not only been brought to a halt, but that the 
total output has actually diminished materially, the decrease amounting 
to about $21,000,000 compared with 1912. This was due to reduced 
yields from the Transvaal, where a strike interfered with regular mining, 
two mines were shut down, there was a scarcity of labor, and lower grade 
ore was extracted; the United States, where the Goldfield Consolidated 
worked poorer though profitable ore; and mines in Colorado, South 
Dakota, and Utah yielded less; the further decline in Australasia, al- 
though not at such a great rate as in previous years, Western Australia 
arresting this downward movement somewhat; and in Mexico, where the 
continued revolution has shut down many mines and smelters, with no 
apparent better conditions in sight. Russia had an increase of about 
12,400,000 compared with 1912, mostly from placer mining; the Indian 
mines, at Kolar, gradually increase their output in spite of depth; and 
in Canada, the gold mines at Porcupine and adjoining districts, those 
of British Columbia, and the Klondike gave better returns. Details of 
the principal mines of the various countries will be given in another por- 
tion of this chapter. 

Accurate statistics of the world's production of gold are never avail- 
able, but the annual estimates are close enough for all practical purposes. 
Exact figures are of no particular use in any event, for the principal value 
of statistics lies in the indication of general tendencies. The table 
showing the world's production of gold for several years past is of interest, 
for it shows the great variations in production and the obvious tendency 
toward a gradual diminution. 

Commercial Movement of Gold 

Although the past year was a highly prosperous one for trade, it was 
memorable for a combination of circumstances which cast a gloom on 
niarkets generally. These include the revolutions in China and Mexico, 

261 



262 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



war in the Balkans, and uncertainty as to the military movements o( 
European powers. Prudence demanded the careful handling of monetan- 
resources, resulting in an unusually high rate for money during the second 

GOLD PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD. (o1 



Countries. 



1011. 



Ob. Fine. 



Kilo- 
grams 



Value. 



1912. 



Os. Fine. 



Kilo- 
grams 



Value. 



1013. 



Ot. Fine. 



KOo- 
grama 



YalBi 



America, North: 

United States !(6) 4.687.053 

Canada (o) 473,201 

Mexico (o) 1.412,488 

Central America (6) 105,457 

America, South: 

Argentina (b) 

Bolivia (o) 

Brasil \lg) 

Chile m 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Guiana, British. . . . 

Guiana, Dutch 

Guiana, French 

Peru 

Uruguay 

Venesuela 

Europe: 

Austria 

France (a) 



435 



Hungary. 

Germany 

Italy 

Russia 

Portugal 

Sweden 

Turkey 

Servia 

United Kingdom . . 

Africa: 

Congo 

Madagascar 

Rhodesia 

Transvaal 

West Coast 

AsU: 
Borneo, British . .. . 

British India 

China 

E. Indies. British., 
E. Indies, Dutch.. 

IndU 

Indo-China 

Formosa 

Japan 

Korea 

Malay States 

Siam 

Australasia (<r) 

Other Countries. . 



. r\ 



(a) 



t06.890.000 

0,781,077 

29.106.026 

3,420.000 

289.000 

22,370 

2,272.631 

365.058 
3,167.800 

276,800 

958.819 

754,450 
3.049,569 

455.900 
70.600 

385.650 

134.840 

1.812.077 

2,125,241 

8.300.845 

17.119 

30.295.881 

2.658 

7.310 

29,905 



(6)4.437,561 
(o) 607,617 
(0) 1.096.058 
(e) 175.000 



14.467 

1,117 

102.380 

19.290 
160.750 

12.860 

42.563 

13.048 
144,676 

23.823 
3,215 

17,r"' 



6.430 
96.450 
102,880 
(e) 160,750 
» 804 

a) 1,305,882 
a) 129 

>) 097 
e) 322 



138.008 

18.897 

34.002 

5.442 

450 

35 

3.184 

600 
5,000 

400 
1.324 

434 
4,500 

741 

100 

550 

200 

3.000 

3,200 

6,000 

25 

43,562 

4 

31 

10 



tOl.685.134 (6) 4.271.940 133,080 SSS^Vja 



12.559.443(a) 784.525 
22.655.519 («) 096.613 
3.617,250(e) 146,008 



51.910 
84.002 
172.743 



(«) 
(e) 



290.043l(e] 
23.008! 
2.116,200 

308.724 
3.322.700 

265316 

879.777 

288.410 
2,990,430, 

492.421 
66.454;(e) 

365.497r ' 



132.906(e) 
'(e) 



a) 



1.993.620 

2.126.628 

3.322.700' 

16.614, 

28,852,881 

2.658 

10.601 

6.645 



143.768 
19.666 
42.564 
27.640 

147.585 
23.328 
6.370 
30.164 

06^73 
87.068 



354 

29.128 
91.627 

628.521 
B,020.422 

251,968 



7,310 

602.073 

1,893.040 

12,089,763 

165,732.032 

5.208.183 



(e) 



14 



(e) 30.237 
(e) 96,760 
» 642,807 
a)9.131.558 
[a) 342.045 



i 

940 

3.009 

19.991 

283.991 

10.638 



625.000 

2.000.000 

13,286.821 

188.749.317 

7.070.071 



71.807 2.233 1.484.250 



160.344 4.987 3.314,600 



163.852 
586.622 

53.273 
160.541 
315.422 

8,414 



5.096 
16.380 

1.657 

4.682 

9,810 

262 



3.387.100 
10309.756 



1.100377 («] 

3.111,675<e 

6.619.7731(0) 

174.017i(a 




,500 1.661.350 

,000 ' ' zlmM 



.000 3.322.700 

,627 11.063.695 

,650 1.096.491 

,976 3,307300 

,586; 5.041.867 

400, 265.940 



24.420S :CjaiJ:) 

sasTQ so,au« 

4.560 l.i».«» 



167 Jl 



6390 



4.475 
6I0| 

1324 
860! 

43941 
740 
1651 



3JD».« 

ULfll 



3.778 

632 

) 1.073,073 

111 

062 

S4 

12.1481 

1340' 

}(«) 98,916 

[a) 674.198 
a)8,794.8S4 
a) 379306 



3.060 tM?;? 
2.7»; Uliia 



7i« 

2249W* 



117 

16 

33.430 

4 
30 

40 

8.064 

90,960 

273330 

12.110 



a; OS/ .9 

e) 1763 

e) 65.31 

[e) 1633 



2,877.295 
25.000 



89,484 
778 



58322.no' (a)2, 
516.750(e) 



,636,391 
25,000 



1,992: 54,492,402 
778, 516,750 



Total 22319,286 700,445 6464346,496 



22,948.716 



[a) 587318 
176326 
65.360 
163,860 

3314 

216.110 
188.006 



[e) 2.733 
ta)2,561,3Q3 



81 
713,867,6474322,664 22.081.160 682,911 



2.044?*" 

181.® 'il; 



16389 iimr 

6310 IKv*' 



2.086 
&.100| 



110 



6,727 
4396 



86 
79,420 



i.35::;> 

4.467.0* 
J.SC.'P 



52.7314S 



64S3.scar 



(a) Official statistics of the country. (&) United States Mint Report (e) Six States and N(« 
Zealand, (e) Estimated, ig) Exports. 

half of 1913, and a consequent decrease in speculative activity. Never- 
theless, the effect of these factors on gold, the basis of international 
finance, cannot bd .'said to have been very apparent, for with the excep- 
tion of considerable exports from the United States, in order to pay 



GOLD AND SILVER 



263 



for securities returned from Europe, no remarkable movements of gold 
took place as a result of the widespread unrest. 

In 1912, India absorbed £27,600,000 in gold, but the net imports in 
1913 were only £18,000,000. Reserves of gold held by the Indian govern- 
ment are £25,642,000, against £24,820,000, and £13,260,000 at the end 
of the last 3 years. 

The decrease in the production of gold occurred at a time when 
there was an acute demand for it in almost all commercial countries. 
In Europe, England, France and Germany, were alike active bidders for 
gold during a large part of 1913, France being the most urgent. Gold 
shipments from South Africa and Australia were quickly absorbed in the 
London market. The premiums oflfered were sufficient to draw more 
gold from the United States than it received, although there was a large 
trade balance (about $700,000,000) in favor of this country all through 
the year. In part, this demand was due to the activity of trade, but in 
part also to the disturbed political conditions in eastern Europe and 
the absorption and destruction of capital by the Balkan war. The 

GOLD AND SILVER PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD. 1493-1850. 
Aocordinc to Dr. Adolph Soetbeer. 



Period. 


Esdmated Pro- 
duetaon in 
KilocTama. 


Ratio of 
Silver to 

Gold. 
Weight. 


Ratio of 
Gold to 

Silver. 

Value. 


Period. 


Estimated Pro- 
duction in 
Kilograms. 


Ratio of 
Silver to 

Gold. 
Weight. 


Ratio of 
Gold to 
Silver. 




Gold. 


SUver. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Value. 


1493-1520 
1^1-1544 
1M5-IM0 
IMI-1580 
1581-1600 
Wl-1620 
I'^l-IMO 
l'>ll-16e0 
1561-1680 
l«l-1700 . 


162.400 
171.840 
136.160 
136.800 
147,600 
170.400 
166,000 
175.400 
185,200 
215,300 


1,316.000 
2.164.800 
4.965.600 
5.990.000 
8378.000 
8.458.000 
7372,000 
7.326.000 
6,740.000 
6338.000 


8.1 
12.6 
86.6 
43.8 
56.8 
49.6 
47.4 
41.8 
36.4 
31.8 


10.75 
11.25 
11.30 
11.50 
11.80 
12.25 
14.00 
14.50 
15.00 
14.97 


1701-1720 
1721-1740 
1740-1760 
1761-1780 
1781-1800 
1801-1810 
1811-1820 
1821-1830 
1831-1840 
1841-1850 


256.400 
381.600 
492.200 
414.100 
355.800 
177.780 
114.450 
142.160 
202.890 
547.590 


7.112.t)00 
8.tVJ4.O00 

10.^;^^L'.■^0O 
13,iJ;^4s00 
17..VS1 -00 

8/H I ,r>oo 

5, 107, 700 
4,tlO5,G0O 

6.y<H.600 

7<S04,150 


27.7 
22.6 
21.7 
31.5 
49.4 
50.3 
47.2 
32.4 
29.4 
14.3 


15.21 
15.08 
14.75 
14.73 
15.09 
15.61 
15.51 
15.80 
15.75 
15.83 





GOLD PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD, 1851-1912. 




Yetr. 


Vahie. 


Year. 


Value. 


Year. 


Value. 


Year. 


Value. 


m... 


$67,600,000 


1867... 


$104,000,000 


1883... 


$95,400,000 


1899... 


$311,505.^7 


y^2.... 


132300.000 


1868... 


109.700.000 


1884... 


101.700.000 


1900... 


£6S32a.703 


^.... 


155.500.000 


1869. . . 


106.200.000 


1885... 


108,400,000 


1901... 


260.877.429 


^M.... 


127.500.000 


1870. . . 


106.900.000 


1886... 


106.000.000 


1902... 


208,812,493 


'»w.... 


135.100.000 


1871... 


107.000.000 


1887... 


105,775.000 


1903... 


32^475,401 


•^ ... 


147.600.000 


1872... 


99.600.000 


1888... 


110.197,000 


1904... 


34t>,083,293 


!'ii7.. . 


133300.000 


1873... 


96,200,000 


1889 .. 


123,489,000 


1905... 


378,411.754 


-«*.... 


124.700.000 


1874... 


90.800.000 


1890. . . 


118,848.700 


1906... 


405 .5M .022 


•'^5«.... 


124,900.000 


1875. . . 


97.500.000 


1891 .. 


130,650.000 


1907... 


41fl.l0t3»6 


•«0. . 


119.300.000 


1876 .. 


103.700.000 


1892... 


146.292,600 


1908... 


443.355,350 


•■^l .. 


113300.000 


1877... 


114.000.000 


1893... 


158.437.551 


1909... 


4S«.4 24,058 


'«2 ... 


107300.000 


1878. . . 


119.000.000 


1894... 


182.509.283 


1910... 


453JMh523 


'tA 


107300.000 


1879. . . 


109.000.000 


1895. . . 


198,995,741 


1911... 


4fl4,34fl.4»5 


*^ . . 


113.000300 


1880... 


106.600.000 


1896... 


211.242.081 


1912... 


474.322,001 


^•3 ... 


120.200300 


1881... 


103.102.000 


1897... 


237.833.984 


1913... 


453,887,687 


''*.. 


121.000.000 


1882... 


102.000,000 


1898... 


287,327.833 













264 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



SILVER PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD. 1866-1912. 



Year. 


Kilosmma. ' 


1856-1860 . 


4,:.rt.'*50 


1861-1865 . 


5, 75 


1866-1870.. 


6. 25 


1871-1875 . 


9. 25 


1876 


2, 29 


1877 


2, 12 


1878 


2. 64 


1879 


2. 07 


1880 


2. 98 


1881 


2. 39 


1882 


2.7 «65 



Year. Kilograms. | 



Year. 



1883.. 
1884.. 
1885.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1888.. 
1889.. 
1890.. 
1891 . . 
1892.. 
1893.. 




KilograiM. !! Year. 


Kik^nmi. 


6.205 .r*6 

6.rWi7.r;91 
5.4 '.^k] 78 
6,'Hli.;i04 
5.:.:5 :36 

6.-^L-Mi24 

5.4 -^8.443 
5,1L^K469 
5,:(Kr./,i44 
6.iMiM24 


1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913 


6.638.1S3 
6.683.947 
5.704.083 
6.612.304 
7.069.656 
471.663 
7.906.446 
7,806.516 















demand for gold from India was a little less than in 1912, when it showed 
such a remarkable increase. 

Germany absorbed a good deal of gold in March, May, June, and 
September, while Russia was a buyer in October and November. Im- 
ports of bar gold to Great Britain in 1913 were £47,137,000 from Africa, 
India, Australasia, South and Central America, and other smaller 
countries. Exports totaled £25,477,000 to India, European countries, 
and £600,000, included in the total, to the United States. 

The United States exported gold worth $88,601,200 and imported 
$63,961,609 in 1913, against $46,768,138 and $55,151,765 respectively in 
1912. The banks of Europe on December 31, 1913, held gold amounting 
to $2,779,540,000, compared with $2,513,807,000 at the end of the 
previous year, an increase of $265,733,000. The Bank of Russia was the 
largest holder, reporting $836,000,000, which includes government 
balances. The Bank of France held the largest commercial balance, 
$701,536,000. The treasury department of the United States estimates 
the total gold in the country at $1,917,498,400. 



The Silver Market 

During the year 1913, prices were dominated by the operations of the 
Indian Government, but the market was erratic and had a downward 
tendency. Its acquirement of over £6,000,000 in 1912 had imparted 
strength to the market, which was continued into January, 1913, by a 
further purchase of £1,000,000, according to Samuel Montagu & Co. of 
London. Prices on January 7 were the highest for the year, being 29 3/8d. 
per ounce in London. The average in London and New York in Januar}' 
was 28.993d. and 63.01 cents respectively. On account of disappoint- 
ment in negotiating the Chinese government loan, prices fell away in 
February. Near the end of that month, a ''squeeze' ' for delivery in Bom- 
bay was manipulated by the Indian Specie Bank, during which operators 
caught "short '' were mulcted 7 per cent, or 2d. (4 cents) on the London price. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



265 



"Bear" sales depressed the market in March, forcing almost the lowest 
figure for the year, 26 l/16d. ($0.52). From this point a steady recovery 
set in, owing to better news from the Balkans, and the hopeful negotia- 
tions of the five powers with the Chinese loan. This was floated on May 
22, and silver had advanced a fortnight previous to this transaction to 
28 3/16d. ($0,56) The loan was followed by a dull market, and prices 
sagged. Supplies were scanty, and a more or less constant demand 
arose from China in July, improving matters. During the next 3 months 
the Indian Government's transactions were felt, there being about 
£4,500,000 of silver purchased. 

Owing to steady withdrawal of all supplies over ordinary market 
demands, the cash price went to 28 ll/16d. ($0.67) on September 22. 
From this date the tendency of prices was downward, and it became evident 
that trouble was in sight. The Indian Specie Bank had been able to 
dispose of part of its colossal holding to the Indian government on very 
favorable terms. The Bank was doubtless more unable than unwilling 
to sell more before it became too late. Heavy "bear" sales hastened a 
fall in prices, and on November 29 the Bank failed. 

At the end of 1913, prices were 26.720d. in London, and 57.73 cents 
per ounce in New York. 



AVERAGE PRICE OP BAR SILVER IN LONDON. 1833-1912. 
(In pence per atandard ounce, 0.925 fine.) 



Yew. P< 



*«noe. Year.j Pence. Tear. 



Penoe. lYear.i Pence. llYear. Pence. iiYear., Pence. Year. Pence. 

■i I !l ! 



1833.59. 
1834.59. 
1835.59. 
1S3«.60. 
ia7.59. 
1838.50. 
1839.60. 
1840. «0. 
1811. «0. 
1^.59. 



1875 
9375 
0875 

oooo 

5825 
5000 

3750i 
37501 

4375^ 



184350 
184459 
184559 
184859 
184759 
184859 
184959 
185060 
185161 
186260 
I 



1 
1875 
5000 
2500( 
.3125: 
6875 
5000 
7500, 
0625 
0000 
6000 



1863161 
1864161 
185561 
185661 
185761 
1858161 
185962 
186061 
186160 
186261 



.5D00: 
.500011 
.3125' 
.31251 
.7500'; 
.3125, 
0625 
6875 
8125 
4375 



186361, 
186461, 
186561. 
1866|61 . 
186760. 
1868i60. 
1869160. 
1870{60. 
1871 i60. 
187260. 



3750 
3750 
0625[ 
125d 
5625P 

5625l| 
50001 
3125;| 



I 
187359 
187458, 
187556, 
187662, 
187754. 
187852. 
187951. 
188052. 
188151. 
188251. 



.2500; 
,3125;| 
8750!i 
7500;i 
8126 
6625 
2500 
2600 
6875 
6260 



188360. 
188450. 
188548. 
1886'46. 
1887!44. 
188842. 



189047 
1891 !45 
1892139. 



,66261! 
6250 
6250 
3760! 
6260 
8750;i 
6875 
6875 
0625, 
8125! 



1893:35.6250 
1894;28.9375 
189529.8750 
189630.7600 
189727.6626 
180826.4375 
189927.4375 
190028.2500 
1901,27.1876 
190224.0900 



Year. Jan. 



I 1 I I ■ 

Feb. ' Mar. ■ April. I May. June. ' July. 

ill) 



Aug. Sept. ! Oct. ' Nov. ! Dec. ' Year. 



1903... 
JW4... 
1«»... 
1308... 
1S07... 
1908... 

IMO.. . 
IMl.. 
1912... 

l»13 . . 



21.98 22. 
26.423(26. 
27.030>28. 
30.11330. 
31.76931. 
25.73^25. 
23.84323. 
24.15423. 
24.86524. 
25.88727. 
28.99328 



11 22. 
66526. 
(M726. 
46429. 
85231. 
85526. 
706|23. 
79423. 
08124, 
19026. 
35626 



49 23 
16424 
79426 
86429 
32530 
67025 
22723 
69024 
32424 
87527 
669, 



927 



38 24. 
97425. 
10826. 
98430. 
25330. 
13324. 
70824, 
48324. 
69524. 
284 28. 
41527, 



89 '24 
57825 
66426 
96830 
47130 
37724 
34324 
70724 
68324 
03828 
79427 



29 |24. 
64426, 
91027 
18530, 
89331, 
76024, 
16623 
65125 
48624 
21527 
195 27 



86 26. 
76026. 
16027. 
113^0. 
366l31. 
51423. 
519,23 
03424 
28624 
91928, 
07427 



63 26 
59126 
82228 
52931 
63731 
858123 
68Sl23 
42824 
08224 
37529 
33527 



76 127, 
69126. 
52828. 
48332, 
31328 
87723 
74323 
56725 
20926 
08829 
.98528 



89 27. 
34926. 
63729. 
148i32. 
863i27. 
72522. 
60223 
59625 
69426 
29929, 
08327 



01 26. 
76027, 
49329. 
67132. 
16425. 
93322. 
361,24. 
68025. 
64925. 
01229. 
26226. 
I 



73 24.75 

930126.399 

977,27.839 

00330.868 

36230.188 

49324.402 

030,23.706 

16024.670 

34924.592 

32028.842 

720,27,573 



266 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



AVERAGE PRICE OF SILVER IN NEW YORK. 
(In eenta per fine ounce.) 



Year. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. May. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. Sept Oct. Not. I Dee. I Tear. 



1004... 
1905... 
1906... 
1907... 
1908... 
1909... 
1910... 
1911. . 
1912... 
1913... 



67.055^7, 
60.09061. 
65.28&66, 



65.67Sfi6 
61.760161 
52.87661 
63.79652 
|66.260i69 
62.938,61 



69266. 
02368. 
10664. 
83667. 
000166. 
472,60. 
634^1. 
22262. 
04368. 
642,67. 



741 



64. 



04666 
697^ 
679«6 
366'64 
468;51 
464;53 
74663 
376,69 
87060 
I 



202^6 
6O0E7 
766l66 
46265 
606162 
428j52 
22ll63 
82663 
20760 
49060 
I 



48066 
83268 
97666 
981A7 
796!63 
90652 
87063 
80653 
88061 
36168 



67358. 
428i68. 
394166. 
09068. 
66353. 
63861. 
46254. 
04362. 
29060. 
99058. 



09667. 
916160. 
1054S6. 
144i68. 
115^1. 
043!61. 
15052 
63052 
664,61. 
72l!69, 



80667. 
26961. 
949167. 
745,67. 
68361. 
126,61 . 
012*53. 
17162. 
60663. 
293(60. 
I 




792162.436^ 
720(61. 431)49 
440i60.923;50 
296165.49066 
44063.84066 
07863.471162 
640,60.793,68 
I I 



8I; 

677164 

647|48 

70352 

63654 

71964 

79263. 

995,57 



663.57.221 
86O60.SS2 
06066.791 
666165.327 
780^.864 
.22661.502 
.42853.486 
90653.304 
36560.835 
.760,57.791 



SILVER PRODUCTION OF THE WORLD. 



Oountzy. 



1912. 



Os. Fine. 



Kllo- 
grama. 



Value. ((0 



North America: 
United States. . . . 

Canada 

Mexico 

Central America . 

South America: 

Argentina 

Bolivia 

Chile 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Peru 

Europe: 

Auatria 

Bel^umC/) 

France 

' Germany 

Greece 

Hungary 

Italy 

Norway 

Portugal 

Ruwia 

Spain 

Sweden 

Turkey 

United Kingdom. 

Asia: 

Dutch Indies 

Formosa 

Japan 

Africa 

Australasia 

Other countries.. 



;5) 62.369.903 
0)31.931.710 
r) 82.606.963 
^ 1.733.142 

206.976 

8,984 /t39 

868.050 

836.900 

22.506 

9.323.600 



1.607.600 

9.000376 

1.446.760 

14.146.000 

803.760 

363.650 

417.960 

302.210 

149.369 

321.600 

.179.600 

30.928 

964.600 

482.260 



i- 



462.060 
61.066 
4.601.000 
~ 126.260 
i) 16.112.064 
1) 726.000 



I 4. 

') 1.1 



Total 260.979368 7304316 $147,902,008 



1.939,966 

993310 

2366313 

63.006 

6300 

123339 

27.000 

26.000 

700 

200.000 

49.000 

270.066 

46.000 

440.000 

25.000 

11.000 

13.000 

8.400 

4346 

10.000 

130.000 

062 

30.000 

16300 

14.400 

1300 

140.000 

36.000 
601.162 

22366 



$87320309 

19,426.666 

47.606.160 

1.000.000 

120376 

2300.068 

600.860 

422.300 

12.086 

6.870.600 

027300 

4308.361 

834.760 

8,162.000 

463.760 

204.060 

241.150 

174.370 

86.183 

185300 

2.411300 

17,846 

666300 

278360 

267.120 

36.246 

2.607.000 

640.260 
0.712.036 

366.820 



1013. 


Os. Fine. 


Kilo, 
grams. 


Vahie.((i) 


(b) 67.601.111 
va>31.760.618 


2.109.060 
989.110 


$39,067,556 
18.984.012 
























































1.760.063 
8.164.171 


54.434 
263.940 


1.068.778 




























271.957 


8,649 






























467.136 


14.240 


274.220 


























18,854.870 























(a) Official statistics of the country. (5) United States Mint Report, (e) Estimated, (d) The 
value of nlver unless specifically reported in the official statistics of the coimtnr is taken as 10.492 in 
1911. and 10.677 in 1912 and $0,678 in 1013. (London quotations.) (/) Largely from imported ores 
and may duplicate production to some extent, {g) Exports. 



Imports of silver to England in 1913 were 114,800,000 oz., including 
88,300,000 from the United States and Mexico, and 19,600,000 oz. from 
Canada. The freight on silver from Canada to England was raised during 
the year by the shipping companies, and the metal started to move to 



GOLD AND SILVER 



267 



New York, and those interested thought that this place would become 
a center for silver transactions. But later on the freight was reduced 
to the old rate, and silver again flows to London. Exports from England 
were 117,000,000 oz., including 78,000,000 oz. to India, 14,700,000 oz. to 
Geraiany, and 6,000,000 oz. to China. The net imports to India on priv- 
ate account were 35,052,341 oz., and 255,814,141 oz. since 1908. 

Imports of silver into the United States were $36,062,674, and exports 
$63,620,828. 

Gold and Silver Mining in the United States 

The gold-mining industry of the United States was generally normal 
in 1913, according to H. D. McCaskey, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
but eaxly figures indicate the smallest output since 1905, when it was 
188,180,700. Preliminary estimates of the Geological Survey and Bureau 
of the Mint indicate a domestic gold production of $88,301,023, a de- 
crease of $5,150,477 from the final figures for 1912. 

The decrease is to be ascribed mainly in decUnes in the output from 
Alaska, Nevada, South Dakota, and Utah. In Alaska the net decrease 
was over $1,500,000. 

PRODUCTION OF GOLD IN THE UNITED STATES, (a) 



StMtM. 



1910. 



Fine 
Ounces. 



Value. 
(6) 



Fine 
Ounces. 



1011. 



Value. 
(6) 



loia. 



Fine 
Ounces. 



Value. 
(6) 



1913. 



Fine 
Ounces. 



Value. 
(6) 



Ahsona 

Cftlifonua 

Colorado 

GtorwU 

Idaho 

s53r;:H:': 

Sew Afedeo . . . 

Nofth Carolina . 

Oregon 

^<rath Carolina . 
go« t& Dak ota . . 

Texas 

ruk •• 



Waskiactoo'.' 



1,503 
787448 
105413 
068354 

022.967 

1.151 

50,113 

170.074 

0134)15 

23.084 

3.122 

32.060 

1327 

260266 

136 

18 

306.627 

44 

38.002 

100 

283 



Total i4.540.406 



132,000 

16,271300 

3,413.200 

20,441.400! 

20320.500 

24,000' 

1.035.000 

3.720.400 

18373.700; 

4n300, 

64.500 

681,400' 

37.800 

5380300 

2300 

400 

4312.700, 

000 

806.000' 

4.100! 

5.900* 



890 

806.179 

170348 

964.041 

935339 

1348 

65,688 

176354 

875.438 

36,847 

3.478 

30,679 

972 

359.402 

576 

189 

217.020 

150 

40.635 

1.080 

5 



$18,400; 

16.665,200' 

3.521.400 

19,928.500 

19.138300, 

32.000 

1357,900! 

3,649,700 

18,096.900 

761.700 

71,900 

634300 

20,100 

7,429.500 

11,900 

3.900 

4.486300 

3,100 

840.000; 

21.300 

100 



855 

842.106 

159,890- 

967.443 

909319 

478 

63.110 

156389 

645.253 

29.280 

6310 

30.531 

»754 

3n311 

478 

492 

2U345 

424 

13,796 

1.108 

15 



£^Bioo 



60 
7.471 



106,113.700 

i.oooi 

154.4G0! 



4.677306 

07 
0.448 



106.602.700 4.418.130 



2.000 
105300 



Total 4W.017 



196300.100; 4.687.053 



196,890,000 



$178,674! 

17.39.943 

3303304 

19.988.486 

18.791.710 

9381' 

1303317 

3.235387, 

13331.680' 

604.961 

142,760 

630301 

15387 

7,795.680 

9.881 

10.170 

4376.971; 

8.755- 

285.044; 

22.884 

310 

$01,284,886; 



19372 
4.437.561 



400348 
$01,685,134 



390 

715311 

183,988 

972.686 

890.664 

478 

66.115 

148.921 

504.055 

40.836 

5391 

66327 

90 

348310 

373 

6 

164.494 

170 

33.479 

1.475 



4.233.365 

54, 
38.076 



4371.495 



$8,062. 

14.783.512 

3.803.039 

20.105.447 

18.420.031 

9.881. 

1.366.605 

3.078.202 

12379.131 

844.086 

111.442 

1370.987 

1.985 

7,197,498 

7,711 

120 

3.400.103 

3314 

602.021 

30,491 



$87312.868 

1.116 
787.039 



$88,301,023 



<«). Tbe atmtimtia in this table an reported by the Director of the Mint, those for 1913 being the 
— *~^ ficnras (subject to rvnrislon). (6) At $20.67 per ounce. 



268 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

American mining companies that publicly announce their dividends 
paid $76,215,014 in 1913, compared to $68,776,640 in 1912. Canadian 
and Mexican companies paid $21,501,930 in 1913 and $21,212,929 in 
1912, according to the Engineering and Mining Journal. 

United States metallurgical and holding companies connected with 
the mining industry paid $99,529,253 in 1913, as compared with 
$91,948,280 in 1912. Although these are not all gold and silver com- 
panies, yet the latter contribute largely to the total. 

Alaska. — Owing to a dry summer, a storm at Nome, and a drop in 
the output of the Fairbanks placer mines, this territory had 'a reduced 
gold yield in 1913. At the same time, there was considerable activity 
throughout the country. The output was estimated at $15,450,000 
against $17,145,951 in 1912. The total to date is approximately $228,- 
200,000. The silver output, largely a by-product of gold and copper, 
was worth $220,000 last year, against $316,839 in 1912, according to 
Alfred H. Brooks of the U. S. Geological Survey, 

Placer Mining. — It is estimated that 35 dredges were op)erated in 
Alaska in 1913, and that these produced gold to the value of about 
$2,650,000, as against $2,200,000 in 1912. There were also 6 or 8 dredges 
which, for one reason or another, were not operated in 1913. A number 
of others are under construction or planned for. 

About 15 placer mines were operated in the Kenai peninsula, but work 
was hampered by low-water conditions. Most of these were only very 
small operations, but one relatively large hydraulic plant was at work on 
Resurrection creek, and two smaller ones on Bear creek. Prospecting 
dredging ground on Kenai river was continued. The hydraulic plant 
on Crow creek, north of Tumagain arm, was operated throughout the 
open season. 

About 150 placer mines were operated in the Fairbanks district for 
a whole or a part of 1913. These gave employment to about 1000 men 
in. winter and 3000 in summer. Preliminary estimates indicate that 
the value of the placer gold production was about $3,450,000. 

As in the other Yukon camps, the shortage of water greatly hampered 
mining operations in the Iditarod-Innoko district. This condition, 
together with the fact that certain claims were not worked because they 
were being combined into large holdings for the purpose of exploiting 
in a lar^e way, led to a great curtailment of gold output compared with 
the previous year. Preliminary estimates indicate that the value of 
the gold production from the Iditarod-Innoko districts was $2,000,000, 
of which about $200,000 is to be credited to the latter area. There 
was some prospecting of lode claims, but the cost of mining is so great 



GOLD AND SILVER 269 

that few have been attracted to quartz development. In the Iditarod 
region the largest production came from the mines on Otter and Flat 
creeks, but mining was also done on Happy, Willow, Moore, and Chicken 
creeks and in Glen gulch. The dredge on Flat creek was operated through- 
out the summer, and plans have been made to install a boat on Otter 
creek. The chief activity in the Innoko district in 1913 was on Little 
creek, where a considerable area of rich new placer ground was dis- 
covered. Work was continued on Spruce and Ganes creeks. Ophir 
creek is worked out and practically abandoned. Yankee creek ground 
has been acquired by a dredging company, and mining is at a stand- 
still pending the construction of a dredge. 

Thirty-one dredges were operated for a part or the whole of the 
summer, on the Seward Peninsula, with an estimated gold recovery of a 
value of $1,800,000. These dredges had a combined daily capacity of 
33,300 cu. yd. Four new dredges were erected in 1913, and several 
others were in course of construction. Others are contemplated. In 
addition to 31 operated, there were 6 dredges idle in 1913. Of the 
dredges engaged in productive mining, 11 were in the Nome, 11 in the 
Solomon, 5 in the Council, 1 in the Kougarok, and 4 in the Fairhaven, 
and 1 in Port Clarence district. Of other than dredge mining there 
was very little. 

According to H. M. Eakin, placer mining in the Ruby district, as a 
whole, has shown considerable advancement over the previous year in 
spite of certain unfavorable circumstances. The distribution of prof- 
itable placers has proved more irregular than was expected, so that 
after working out limited areas many plants have had to take up prospect- 
ing for new deposits rich enough to be worked instead of continuing 
actual mining. The season of 1913 was exceptionally dry, so that only 
the plants equipped with pumping apparatus could work at full capacity. 
All told, there were 41 plants engaged in actual mining in the Ruby 
district, operating 38 claims on 14 different creeks and employing a total 
of about 230 men. There were also a number of prospecting outfits 
working on these and neighboring creeks. Of the 41 plants, 33 are 
equipped with steam machinery, aggregating over 750 h.p. The other 
8 plants use manual methods. 

Lode Mining. — In the interior of Alaska the principal lode mining 
was done at the quartz claims at Fairbanks. There are 14 stamp-mills 
m the district, including the new one of the Fish creek claims, as follows: 

The annual meeting of the Newsboy Mining Co. was held at Fairbanks 
on January 18, 1914. Leslie M. Drury, the manager, stated that there 
was enough $20 ore in sight to last 3 months. Some of it being mined 
was worth $160 per ton. Work continues at the 100 and 300-ft. levels. 



270 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 




GOLD AND SILVER 271 

Mining cost $5 and milling about $2.50 per ton. Wood at $14.50 per 
cord makes the milling expensive, two cords per day being consumed. 
He proposed to install a 30-h.p. gasoline engine for $1500, and so reduce 
costs by 75 per cent. Revenue from gold was $36,979, and other receipts 
$15,368. The surplus is $18,864. 

The total ouput of the quartz mines to date is about $1,000,000, of 
which the Rhoads-Hall produced $400,000. 

Juneau, Alaska. — Hoarding lode mining in other parts of the country 
interest centered around Juneau, where is the Treadwell group, and those 
being developed by the Alaska Gold Mines, which controls the operating 
company, the Alaska Gastineau Mining Co., also the Alaska Juneau Min- 
ing Co. Juneau will be one of the world's great centers for the mill- 
ing of low-grade ores within the next year or two. The accompanying 
cut shows the location of the principal mines in this area. 

Preparatory work of the Alaska Gold Mines Co., controlling the Per- 
severance and Sheep creek mines, near Juneau, was described by Grant 
H. Tod.^ The ground being developed comprises a mineral district 
from 70 to 400 ft. wide, with an approximate length of 3 miles. The 
ore in this zone averages from $1.50 to $2 per ton, with an estimated re- 
covery of from $1.25 to $1.50 per ton. The margin of profit is estimated 
to be from 50 to 75 cents per ton milled. The first unit of the plant will 
have a daily capacity of 6000 tons. 

F. W- Bradley* writes on the Plans of the Alaska Juneau Mining Co., 
which has the Alaska Juneau, northwest of the Alaska Gold Mines prop- 
erty. The Juneau mine contains enough $1.45 ore for a daily output of 
6000 tons, and a little lower grade for 20,000 tons within the next 4 
years. The total cost will be under 80 cents per ton. 

The Treadwell group on Douglas Island had the following output from 
the treatment of crushing with 900 stamps, amalgamation, concentration 
on Frue vanners, and cyanidation of the concentrate: 

Alaska Mexiean. Alaska Treadwell . Alaska United. 

Toat 227,112 886,067 448.427 

BiiIKon 8489,097 $2,368,422 $1,043,643 

Pwet 171.797 1.223.437 386.066 

Diridenda 180.000 1.000,000 414,460 

The Alaska United includes the results from the Ready Bullion and 
700-ft. claims, their respective yields being almost the same. 

In the other districts at Berners Bay, development work was continued 
on both the Jualin and Kensington mines. In the Sitka district the 
Chicago and Golden Gate were operated. In the Ketchikan district, 
the Jumbo and Rush & Brown copper mines shipped and development 
w^ork was done by the Northland Development Co. The small stamp- 

• Mi: Sci. Pr., CVII, 184. 
» Min. Sci. i*r., CVII. 881. 



272 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

mills at the Valparaiso and Harris River gold mines were operated and 
some development done on the Londevan and Bugge properties. The 
two small mills of the Kenai Alaska Gold Co. and the Skeena-Lechner 
were operated part of the year, and miderground developments con- 
tinued. A 5-stamp mill was erected by the Gold Stamp Mining Co. 
and a small prospecting mill was built by the Moose Pass Mining Co. 
About 15 placer mines were operated on the Kenai peninsula in 1913. 

During the summer considerable local excitement was caused by the 
discovery of auriferous gravels in the region adjacent to the upper 
Matanuska basin and 75 to 100 prospectors were attracted to this 
region. In May, W. E. James and P. Nelson found gold placers od the 
Little Eldorado, which eventually flows into the Chisana river. A rush 
set in, and at present there are about 400 to 500 men on the ground. 
There are many routes to the area, it being 260 miles from Dawson and 
90 from Kennicott, on the Copper River railway. A good deal of 
litigation arose over the various claims, and decisions were given on some 
in March of the current year. A small rush set in for the Nelchina 
district, about 110 miles from Knik. 

Arizona. — According to the inspector of mines for the state, 0. H. 
Bolin, mining was never more active than at present. Primarily, Arizona 
is a copper producer, yet there are several important gold mines, and a 
good deal of prospecting is being done. 

The Kingman district prospered in 1913, improvements being made at 
the three leading gold producers, the Tom Reed Gold Mines Co., the Gold 
Road Mines Co., and the Frisco Gold Mines Co. At the mills of the 
first two companies, changes were made introducing continuous decanta- 
tion in place of vacuum filtration. The Gold Road mine yielded 103,628 
tons of about $8 ore. The Frisco Co. installed two Kelly filters and 
otherwise increased its milling capacity. The Tom Reed's output in 
1913 was $1,300,000, and about $800,000 was paid in dividends. 

In Maricopa County, the famous old Vulture mine, reopened about 
5 years ago by the Vulture Mines Co., operated steadily in 1913. The 
ore production for the year amounted to approximately 33,000 tons, the 
average value of which was about $20, and the yield approximately $17.40 
per ton. About 5000 ft. of development work was done in 1913, and a 
winze is now being sunk below the 1050-ft. level. 

The Commonwealth mine, at Pearce, Cochise County, has been ope- 
rating its new 350-ton mill since about October, 1913. In February it was 
treating from 275 to 300 tons per day, and improvements are contem- 
plated to increase the capacity and improve the results at present being 
obtained. The present development is entirely in the oxidized zone, and 
the indications are that the sulphides will not be found until great depth is 



GOLD AND SILVER 273 

attained. Developments covered 6773 ft. during the past company year, 
and the ore reserves averaging $5.35 per ton, are worth $1,378,000 down 
to No. 7 level. 

A good deal of the gold and silver output of this state is recovered as a 
by-product from copper smelting operations. For instance, the Copper 
Queen ores yielded 14,443 oz. gold and 680,939 oz. silver from 714,444 
tons; Calumet & Arizona 18,989 oz. gold and 880,915 oz. silver from 
about 510,000 tons of ore; Old Dominion, 4254 oz. gold and 193,845 oz. 
silver from 337,878 tons; and Shannon, 3412 oz. gold and 169,197 oz. 
silver from 361,084 tons of copper ore. Others include the Arizona Cop- 
per, United Verde, and Shattuck, Arizona. 

California. — ^According to preliminary figures compiled by Charles 
G. Yale, of the U. S. Geological Survey, the mine figures for 1912 were 
$19,713,478 in gold and 1,300,136 oz. of silver; the estimates for 1913 
indicate an output of gold valued at $20,013,374 and 1,606,261 oz. of 
silver, an increase for 1913 of $299,896 in gold and 306,125 oz. of silver. 
There are about 1100 producing metal mines in the state, and the deep 
mines are yielding about 2,700,000 tons of ore annually It is probable 
that the increase in gold has come mainly from the deep mines, while 
the added quantity of silver has come from increased output of copper 
and lead-silver ores. 

The producing deep gold mines of the state, which yield about 
56 per cent, of the total gold output each year, are between 450 and 500 
in number and are situated in 26 counties. They have nearly 200 reduc- 
tion plants, with a daily capacity of over 12,000 tons. The largest pro- 
duction from this source is derived from the five Mother Lode counties, 
where about 1,300,000 tons of ore are annually treated with an average 
recovery of $3.70 per ton. During the year 1913 several of the old 
mines along the foothills and in the mountain counties have been re- 
opened and equipped after lying idle for years, and some new " prospects" 
have been opened. 

In placer mining in California the dredges continue to furnish about 
86 per cent, of the gold derived from the auriferous gravels. Of the total 
gold yield from all sources, deep and placer mines, the dredges produce 
about 38 per cent. As yet there are no special signs to indicate any 
diminution of the total yield of gold from dredging operations, but 
some of the older fields are on the decline, the best ground having been 
worked out. A few of the companies have entirely worked out the 
paying ground in their holdings and have ceased operations. Hydraulic 
mines produce 8 per cent, of the placer gold output. 

There has beenjnotable advancement in the Mother Lode region, 
particularly in Amador County, according to Lewis H. Eddy, in the 

IS 



274 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Engineering and Mining Journal, All the large producing mines, with 
the exception of the Zeila, have been sunk farther and new ore-bodies dis- 
closed. At the Kennedy a vertical shaft was deepened to 3850 ft., and 
two levels were opened below the 3450- ft. level, one at 3600 ft. and one 
at 3750. A fine body of ore was cut on the 3600-ft. level. The Argonaut 
opened new ore in the 3950-ft. level. The Oneida, which was taken 
over by the South Eureka in 1912, has been connected by drift with the 
South Eureka and large ore-bodies proved. Twenty stamps of the old 
Oneida mill were put in commission, making a total of 100 stamps in 
operation by the South Eureka Mining C!o. The Central Eureka, Bunker 
Hill, and Fremont were also deepened and new ore found. The Harden- 
berg installed a 20-stamp mill. New steel head-frames were installed 
at the Bunker Hill and Fremont mines. The South Eureka installed a 
plant for the disposal of tailing from the stamp mills, and the Kennedy 
plant is now in operation, and was described in a May issue of the Mining 
and Scientific Press by M. W. von Bernewitz. The Argonaut is preparing 
to erect a new mill. Development at the Plymouth Consolidated 
and Keystone progressed satisfactorily. A 20-stamp mill is being erected 
for the former at Plymouth. Ore has been opened to 2000 ft., and re- 
serves are 110,000 tons worth £150,667, with a profit of £72,858. 
The West Eureka was reopened at the close of the year, new ore-bodies 
disclosed. The East Eureka closed down the mine and 20-stamp mill 
in the first half of the year. The apex suit of the Kennedy Extension 
Gold Mining Co. vs. the Argonaut Mining Co. went to trial on September 
15, 1913, and the taking of evidence was concluded on November 6. 

Eldorado County advanced in the development and operating of a 
number of the mines. The most interesting item of development was at 
the Pacific mine at Pacerville in the deepening of the shaft to 2000 ft. 

In Calaveras County, the Melones, the Utica, and the Gold Cliff were 
the only steady producers among the large mines. The Lightner was 
interrupted by the failure of the prospective producers to take the mine 
over and the original owners resumed operation The 40-stamp mill of 
the Dolling mine was closed down most of the year. 

In Inyo County the Skidoo water pipe line, damaged by cold weather 
early in the year, was repaired; and the 150-ton stamp mill destroyed by 
fire was replaced by a new 10-stamp mill. The Wilshire Bishop Creek 
Co. erected a new 20-stamp mill driven by electric power, and a 
cyanide plant was ordered. The property was idle during the latter 
part of the year. 

In Nevada County high-grade ore was opened at 2400 ft. in the Cham- 
pion mine owned by the North Star Mines Co. Development in 
this group covered 9000 ft. The Golden Center at Grass Valley erected 



GOLD AND SILVER 275 

a lO-stamp mill. The Tightner continued to produce rich ore, and a 
dividend of $500 per share was declared among a few shareholders. 
Another lOnstamp of new design was erected. 

The report of the Brunswick Consolidated Mining Co. for 1913 
showed that there is no large tonnage of ore developed, but the man- 
agement from past experience estimate at least 15,000 tons of profitable 
ore available. A new vertical shaft was sunk to 400 ft., while a raise was 
driven from the 1250-ft. level to connect, this being finished in February, 
1913. The stamp mill treated 15,334 tons of ore yielding gold worth 
$193,314, while the concentrate was worth $10,751 net. The year's 
profit was $60,675. A dividend of $23,717 was paid. 

The North Star Mines Co. operates several properties and plants at 
Grass Valley, and the report for the year ended December 31, 1913, shows 
that the North Star and Champion mines produced 132,940 tons of ore 
yielding gold worth $1,324,275. Ore from the former mine came from 
above the 3400, 3700, and 4000-ft. levels. Development consisted in 
extending the 5000 and 5300-ft. drifts, and connecting various levels by 
raises. As a result, several years' ore supply has been opened on and 
above the 5300-ft. level. The main incline shaft is 5850 ft. deep, equal 
to 3200 ft. vertical. Dividends amounting to $300,000 were paid. 
Cash, investments, etc., at the end of the year, were worth $915,480. 
Costs were $5,203 per ton. 

In Tuolumne County deep minmg advanced during the year. The 
Dutch and the Harvard mines were deepened, new ore-bodies opened up 
and the mills were kept in steady operation. The Jumper, an old mine 
that is being reopened, was reported to have found some new ore of good 
value and the prospect was good for continuing the operation and 
reestablishment of the permanency of the mine. The App mine is still 
idle, but the prospect of a sale was renewed in the latter part of the year. 
The Black Oak mine on the east belt had a good year, the new cyanide 
plant proving entirely satisfactory. The Eagle-Shawmut was operated 
satisfactorily with the exception of the time annually occupied in over- 
hauling and planning for the succeeding year. 

Near Columbia the Springfield Tunnel & Development Co. is driving 
an 8 by 8-ft. adit to drain its workings and some adjacent properties. 

The output of gold from dredges in California in 1913 was about 
S7,250,000 from 70,000,000 cu. yd. handled by 56 boats. There are 
20 in Butte County handling 17,000,000; 13 in Yuba County, handling 
20,000,000; 11 in Sacramento County, handling 26,000,000; 3 in Calaveras 
County, handling 3,500,000; and 10 in Shasta, Placer, Trinity, Siskiyou, 
and Merced Counties treatiixg 3,500,000 cu. yd. per annum. 

The dredging areas of the state are decreasing rapidly, especially at 



276 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Oroville, where there are now only 13 dredges working against nearly 30 a 
few years ago. 

During the 6 months ended July 31, 1913, the OroviUe Dredging Co., 
with three boats, handled 1,612,519 cu. yd. of gravel, yielding 7.41 to 
10.88 cents per yard. The total value was $173,458. Costs were 6.78 
cents per yard dredged. 

The Oro Water, Light & Power Co., operated one boat on the 

^\^ Mokelumne river, Calaveras County and four at Oroville, on the Feather 

river, during the year; and the Natomas Consolidated operated 10 boats 

at Natoma on the American river, and three at Oroville on the Feather 

river, yelding $542,240, and $2,299,261, respectively. 

Over $300,000,000 in gold has been recovered from the old river chan- 
nels, of the Tertiary period, in California, and they appear to be receiving 
a little more attention of late, especially in Butte County. Work is being 
done at the Nugget, Royal, Double Eagle, Robbers Roost, Smith, Emma, 
Conger, and Mineral Slide drift-gravel mines. The Indian Springs and 
Magalia mines will probably be reopened. 

The San Francisco mint in 1913 received a total of 2,375,651.75 oz. of 
gold, from all sources valued at $49,109,079.18, as against 2,522,544.75 oz., 
worth $52,145,627.10, in 1912. 

Colorado. — There were comparatively few new developments of 
importance in the state in 1913, according to George E. Collins in the 
Engineering and Mining JoumaL Generally speaking, it may be said 
that the feeling of depression that has existed for several years, since the 
opening of Telluride and Cripple Creek, was continued and somewhat 
intensified. Ore is being mined faster than it is being developed, and the 
production, while large, does not yield profit in proportion to the difficul- 
ties encountered, and the risk. Cripple Creek and Telluride were the 
most prosperous districts. At the former place the Golden Cycle and 
Portland mills handled the larger portion of the output; Stratton's 
and the Ajax leading the smaller plants. A new mill is being erected at 
the Vindicator and El Oro. At Telluride the Tomboy, Liberty Bell, 
and Smuggler-Union maintained a large output, the Tomboy treating 
11,000 tons per month for $75,000 with $30,000 profit. The Humboldt 
is being developed, and a new mill is about completed at the Junta Con- 
solidated. Silverton is dull. The Buffalo Boy, believed to contain a 
large tonnage of cyaniding ore opened, is the subject of litigation. At 
Ouray, the Camp Bird is reducing its output. The last quarter of 1913 
showing 1265 ft. of development, 77,820 cu. ft. of stoping, 14,663 tons 
of ore in stopes, bullion worth $193,918 from 8683 tons, with a profit 
of $89,405. The Atlas is about the largest producer there. Suspension 



GOLD AND SILVER 277 

of work at the Topeka and Frontenac in Gilpin County, leaves a smaller 
output and reduced activity. 

The San Juan region of Dolores, La Plata, Ouray, San Juan, and San 
Minguel Counties produced in 1913 $4,116,000 in gold, and 2,847,000 oz. 
of silver, compared with $4,115,345 in gold, and 2,562,095 oz. of silver in 
1912, according to the U. S. Geological Survey. The yield of gold bullion 
in Boulder county decreased one-half. 

Mineral production of Ouray county in 1913 was valued at $1,558,825, 
made up by crude ore and concentrates, $1,088,950; bullion, $459,875; 
and coal, $10,000. Thirty-two properties contributed to the output. 
The local smelter received 4000 tons of mine and mill products. 

The American Smelting and Refining Co. reports the following yield 
from San Juan County ores smelted at its works: gold $413,096; silver, 
$493,796; besides lead and copper. 

Leadville mines produced 453,360 tons of mixed ores, which yielded 
with other metals, 49,261 oz. gold and 3,315,270 oz. silver. 

The gold production of Cripple Creek during 1913 was valued at 
$14,435,520, agamst $14,006,741 in 1912, making a grand total of $324,- 
786,741, according to The Cripple Creek Times. At the local mills, at 
Colorado City, and the smelters, a total of 966,906 tons of ore was treated. 
The treatment of low-grade ore at the local plants is of interest as shown 
by the following table: 

Average Groas 

PUat Tons. value. value. 

Portlaod. Battle mountain 179.918 $2.97 S532.866 

flcnuoa'i Independence, BatUe mountain 131.026 2.07 349,887 

Colbam-Ajaz, fiatUe mountain 54.994 3.27 179,906 

Gftvlord-Dante, Bull hiU 17,700 2 . 96 52,316 

Wild Hotae. BnU biU 13.866 3.38 46.910 

Kftjaaaidb^o Dandy. Raven hiU 19.316 2. 10 40.600 

bsbeUa ninea. Bull hiU 9.290 2.13 20.760 

R«x M. k M. Co.. Ironclad hiU 2,700 1.68 4.4 00 

Total 428.808 $2.86 $1,227,643 

Dividends during 1913 were as follows: Golden Cycle Mining Co., 
*405,00O; Cresson Con. G. M. 4 M. Co., estimated, $300,000; Portland 
Gold Mining Co., $300,000; Elkton Consolidated Mining & Milling 
Co., $200,000; Vindicator ConsoUdated Gold Mining Co., $180,000; 
Stratton's Independence, Ltd., estimated, $120,000; Strong Gold Mining 
Co., estimated, $160,000; Mary McKinney Mining Co., $104,740; El 
Paso Con. Gold Mining Co., $61,280; Stratton's C. C. M. & D. Co., 
160,000; and Gold King Mining Co., $10,000; a total of $1,891,020. The 
profits of leasing companies and lessees is estimated at $350,000, making af 
grand total of $2,241,020. Dividends prior to 1913 were $38, 128,584, and 
the total to 1914, $42,260,624. 

Development in the Portland mine covered 12,433 ft. Results at 
Xo. 1 shaft, at 400 ft., were good; but at No. 2, save at 1600 ft., they 



278 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

were unsatisfactory. Ore reserves keep to the usual tonnage. The Vic- 
tor mill treated ITS, 163 tons for $402,923, and the Colorado Springs plant 
53,245 for $1,380,713. The year's profit was $604,443, and dividends 
were $300,000. 

The Isabella Mines Co.'s property, worked by 31 sets of lessees, pro- 
duced 18,288 tons of ore worth $243,252 in 1913. The company's profit 
was $7129. 

The annual report of Stratton's Independence, Ltd., contains the 
following: Ore treated, 130,110 tons; gold output, $302,000; profit, 
$115,000; ore sales on company account, profit, $67,000; ore sales on 
lessees' account, profit, $53,000; and dividends, $120,000. Mine develop- 
ment opened no new ore-shoots, and lessees' production declined, and is 
likely to decrease. A working profit of $7000 per month is all that is 
figured on for the future. 

The annual report of the El Paso Gold Mining Co. for 1913, shows that 
development covered 4291 ft. The main shaft is down to the 1332-ft. 
of Roosevelt tunnel level. Ore from the Nichols shaft was of poor grade, 
and 60 per cent, was sorted out to make it of commercial value, $15.26 
gross per ton. Lessees did 912 ft. of work above No. 4 level. Ore broken 
on company account in stopes is 42,240 tons. The year's operating profits 
were $69,927. Dividends were $110,250. 

The Vindicator Consolidated company produced, on company and 
lessees' account, 33,517 tons worth $723,727. Lessees were paid $110,- 
577, and dividends were $180,000. Cash on hand at the end of 1913 was 
$227,112. 

Although containing good veins and large tonnage of ore, the mining 
district of Rollinsville, Gilpin County, is very quiet, owing to the waiting 
game being played by claimholders. The Smuggler has a 10-stamp 
mill, with amalgamation and concentration. 

In the fall of 1912, silver ore was found in the Brush Creek district 
of Eagle County, and a rush set in in February, 1913. The ore is in a 
sandstone. The Lady Belle has been shipping ore regularly since. The 
North Dakota is also shipping, and about a dozen other claims are 
promising. 

The Tonopah Mining Co. of Nevada has acquired a large area of 
dredging ground and some dredges in the Breckenridge district, and under 
the name of the Tonopah Placers Co. has started active work. 

Idaho, — The gold and silver output of this state in 1913 was $1,450,- 
531 and 10,163,205 fine ounces, agamst $1,432,434 and 8,238,971 fine 
ounces, respectively, in 1912, according to the state inspector of mines, 
Robert M. Bell in his annual report. A great deal of both metals is 
from the treatment of copper, lead, and zinc ores. In the first group 



GOLD AND SILVER 279 

are the Empire, Lost Packer, Snowstorm, and National. At the latter 
a 500-ton mill is now working. Shipments of lead ore and concentrate 
contaming silver were mmsually large. The lead mines yielding silver 
are ih» Bunker Hill & Sullivan, Federal group, Stewart, and Ontario. 
Lead-silver ore development outside of the Coeur d'Alene district 
received considerable attention. In Blaine County, the Wilbert mine 
opened high-grade lead, but low silver ore; in Lemhi County ore shipments 
from Gilmore totaled 22,000 tons of 30 per cent, lead, 15 oz. silver, and 
a little gold ore; 100,000 tons of lead-silver ore were opened in the Red 
Bird mine in Custer County. 

The falling off in the gold production was partly due to closing down 
the Delamar mine in Owyhee County, a steady producer for 20 years, 
and a total yield of over $10,000,000. The Boston & Idaho Gold Dredg- 
ing Co., at Idaho City, has been the principal placer producer. The 
two boats are handling from 12,000 to 14,000 cu. yd. of gravel per day 
worth from 10 to 20 cents per yard. The gold output from dredging con- 
tinued to increase. In Lemhi County, the Kirtly Creek Gold Mining Co. 
operated its plant throughout the year. Very rich gold ore was recently 
opened in the Allie mine at Gilmore, and shipments in car-load lots to 
Salt Lake City have been worth over $350 per ton. In the Big Creek 
district, Idaho County, there are several sheared deposits of quartz and 
altered granite gangue carrying iron sulphides and $2 to $4 per ton in 
old, and from 100 to 300 ft. wide, which may be worked profitably on a 
large scale at some future date. 

Shipments of lead-silver-zinc ores and concentrates from mines in 
the Coeur d'Alenes, average about 40,000 tons per month. The prop- 
erties contributing to this total are as follows: Bunker Hill & Sullivan 
(2,604,119 oz. silver in ore produced during the 19 months ended December 
31, 1912) Federal, Stewart, Hercules, Green Hill-Cleveland, Hecla, 
Custer Consolidated, Success, Sierra Nevada, Gold Hunter, Ontario, 
Marsh and Yankee Boy, the last being a silver mine. 

The report of the Federal Mining & Smelting Co., for the year ended 
August 31, 1913, shows the following: ore milled, 637,900 tons; concen- 
trate produced, 84,533 tons; silver content of concentrate, 15.9 oz. per 
ton; or say about 1,350,000 oz. Dividends were $719,166, gross 
earnings being $3,553,325. The surplus is $1,438,308. The Stewart 
Mining Co. is earning up to $340,000 per quarter, and making a profit of 
tl9O,0OO. Monthly dividends from the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Co. 
are continued at $81,750, the total to the end of March, 1914, being 
115,056,000. 

Monlana. — ^The important gold-producing counties of this state are 
iladison, Silverbow, Broadwater, Fergus, Blaine and Lewis and Clark. 



280 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The source of the gold varies widely. In Madison County the four dredges 
of the Conrey Mining Co. are the chief producers. In Silverbow 
County the gold is a by-product of the copper ore, and does not amount to 
much. It takes 5,000,000 tons of ore from the Anaconda group of mines 
to yield 30,000 oz. of gold, which means about 12 cents per ton. The 
milling ores are found in Fergus and Blaine Counties, both of which contain 
several cyanide plants. In the former county, the Barnes King Develop- 
ment Co. has had the most successful year of its existence. It bought 
the North Moccasin mine and paid for it out of profits from the mine. 
The gross earnings were $414,594, and net profit, $129,906. The treatr 
ment plant is now handling up to 4300 tons of ore per month at a cost of 
about $4.75 per ton. The Magpie Placer Mining Co. operated a dredge 
on Lake Sewall, 20 miles northeast of Helena, handling about 70,000 
cu. yd. of gravel monthly. The St. Louis Minii^ & Milling Co. operated 
the St. Louis and Drumlummon mines at MarysviUe, reconstructed the 
stamp mill, and installed a new cyanide plant, but later was forced to 
suspend operations. 

At the Easton-Pacific mine owned by the Ellings, of Virginia City, 
a new cyanide plant was constructed and operated steadily on the ore 
mined there. The Missouri mine on North Meadow creek was also 
operated by the Ellings. 

Many other counties of the state yield various amounts of gold, but 
are not comparable in importance with those above mentioned. 

A Califomian dredging company has acquired an option on about 
200,000 acres of land near Twin Bridges, in Madison County, and if drill- 
ing proves profitable ground, considerable dredging will be done. For 
agricultural purposes, the land is worth under $25 per acre, but the option 
calls for $100 per acre. 

Silverbow County so far excels all other counties of the state in 
silver production that the others need hardly be mentioned. It pro- 
duced about 11,000,000 oz., while the state totaled 13,819,201 
oz. The silver from Butte, in Silverbow County, is chiefly a by- 
product of the copper ore, averaging about 2 oz. per ton of ore 
mined, and some from the zinc ore of the Butte & Superior mine. 
Jefferson and Granite Counties are the others which each produce 
several hundred thousand ounces of silver. The ore is mostly shipped 
to smelters for treatment, and is not milled. 

Nevada. — This is an important gold and silver-producing state, most 
of the precious metals being the result of direct treatment, that from 
smelting being comparatively small. There appeared to have been a 
good deal of active prospecting, and several rushes set in to widely sepa- 
rated districts. The new 350-ton mill and cyanide plant for the Buckhorn 



GOLD AND SILVER 281 

Mines Co. started at the end of the year. A 500-ton plant is under con- 
struction for the Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., in Mineral County. 
Both of these mines are low grade, being about $5 per ton. The Pitts- 
burg-Silver Peak, Nevada Hills, and Round Mountain mines continued 
to yield their regular tonnage. In the latter there have been good 
developments. At Manhattan a number of mines, three mills, and placers 
were worked. The Big Four mill was stopped on account of the low 
value of the ore. The field is generally low grade, and there will probably 
be a consolidation of interests and working on a larger scale. In Lincoln 
County a number of properties were busy. At Rawhide there are three 
mills at work, but little is heard of that once famous district now, save 
that genuine work is being accomplished. There was more activity at 
Goldfield than for years past. The Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co., in 
1913, produced 349,465 tons of ore, 330,217 tons averaging $14.28 were 
milled and 19,248 tons averaging $27.39 were shipped. The latter con- 
tains copper and gold. The gross value of all ore was $5,438,853. The 
bullion refdized was $4,942,828. Mining, transport, milling, construction, 
taxation, and general expenses were $2,210,883, or $6.38 per ton, leaving a 
profit of $2,731,945. Dividends totaled $2,491,403, and $26,330,471 to 
date. Cash balances total $1,074,372. To date the output is $59,475,201 . 
Development covered 38,696 ft. in 1913, at a cost of $8.42 per foot. 
Measurable ore-bodies contain 136,000 tons of average grade. This 
estimate shows larger quantities than at the beginning of the year. 
This estimate shows larger quantities than at the beginning of the 
year. A lai^e tonnage of low-grade ore remains in the mine. 

The Jumbo Extension Mining Co. mined 9701 tons, of which 9166 
tons were concentrated, yielding 709 tons of concentrate, while 533 tons 
was sent to smelters. The total yield was 3382 oz. gold and 11,336 
02. silver worth $74,358, and 115,521 lb. of copper which realized $16,751. 

The companies at Rochester, Humboldt Coimty, are doing a good 
deal of work, and although handicapped by litigation, poor transport, 
and the want of a local treatment plant, the silver-gold ore output is 
increasing. A number of properties will probably be consolidated. The 
Rochester Hills Mining Co. constructed a narrow-gage railway 4 1/2, 
and a wagon-road 9 miles long to the Southern Pacific line. This helped 
the district considerably, and is being extended to the mines. This 
Company's property is fairly well equipped and reserves opened by 
an adit and shaft 165 ft. below it total 25,000 tons of $12 to $16 ore. 
During 1913, 9167 tons were shipped tosmelters worth $175,762. The net 
return was $62,613. Cash on hand is $6018. The Rochester Mines 
Co/s mine was opened by the Company and lessees. Development 
covered 13,922 ft. Ore shipped totaled 14,726 tons worth $368,770. 



282 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Costs were $25.04, of which lessees got 19.79 per ton. The net profit, 
$19,192. The Rochester Weaver Mining Ck>. let most of its mine to 
lessees, who shipped 953 tons worth $30,254, from which the Company 
drew $2783 in royalties. Ore has been proved to 350-ft. depth, and leas- 
ing is to be abandoned, although it has opened the property cheaper than 
on company account. Three veins, 5 ft. wide, worth $8.50 per ton, are 
to be developed. A number of smaller claims are being actively 
prospected. 

For the year ended September 30, 1913, the Comstock district pro- 
duced bullion worth $1,245,530, according to the state controller. During 
1913, the Crown Pomt produced 6678; Belcher, 2924; and Yellow Jacket, 
14,341 tons of ore, which was treated at the Jacket mill, yielding 3319 oz. 
gold and 29,049 oz. silver. A good deal of time was spent in installing 
centrifugal pumps in the joint Crown Point-Belcher incline. 

The report of the Mexican Gold & Silver Mining Co., for the year 
ended October 31, 1913, shows that the 2400- and 2500-ft. levels were 
practically exhausted of ore, and with the 2300-ft. level yielded 14,172 
tons averaging $28.65 per ton. Owing to a dispute with the pumping 
company, work was transferred to the Monte Cristo mine. The Mexican 
mill treated a total of 29,365 tons yielding 17,870 oz. gold and 322,758 
oz. silver worth $564,258. Including cash, $253,922, the balance at 
the end of the financial year was $313,851. 

The Ophir cyanide plant, treating old and current tailing, was operated 
during the year at a good profit. 

One of the most important events of the Comstock was the unwater- 
ing of the 2700-ft. level by the United Comstock Pumping Association. 
With its series of pumps at different levels, this was done early in 1914, 
the bottom level being dry for the first time in 30 years. 

The passing of the Comstock Lode was described in a series of articles 
by W. H. Storms,^ starting with the work of 62 years ago to the present 
time. This included early prospecting, active mining, timbering, 
treatment processes, lawsuits, labor troubles, bonanzas, water in the 
mines, and work up to the present time. 

Tonopah was the scene of considerable development and increased 
output, in spite of interruptions to power, floods, and stock manipulations 
in some of the smaller mines. According to Frederick Bradshaw, of the 
Belmont mine, the district produced about 120,189 oz. gold and 11,973,540 
oz. silver from 551,710 tons of ore, and worth $9,721,727, against 112,642 
oz., 11,027,736 oz., 474,521 tons, and $9,110,955 respectively in the previ- 
ous year. Dividends totaled $3,353,482, against $3,331,550 in 1912. 
Details of the outputs were as follows: 

1 Min. Eng. World, XXXIX. 877. . 



GOLD AND SILVER 

PRODUCTION OP TONOPAH MINES IN 1013. 



283 



Mine. 


Tons. 


Silver, oi. 


Gold.!oi. 


Value. 


Dividends. 


B«lmoBt 


168.062 
54.618 
20.164 
28.008 
52.402 

168.283 
50,475 
10.003 


4.167.070 


42,000 


$3,284.6Ce 
760.740 
238.355 
266.772 
665.208 
2.135.364 
020.741 
330,715 


SI. 650.000 


Flt^TUBOO 




Jim Butler 


512,081 

266.772 

784.404 

3.570.370 


5.383 
2.842 
8.078 


111,307^ 


MftrNunArn 




MontAiift 


100,000 




1.460,000 


West end 




Oftlif&x. North Star. Midway 

















» Profit. 

The Tonopah Belmont has opened its Shaft vein to No. 13 level, 
showing good ore. The Middle vein was cut at No. 12 level. A consid- 
erable amount of work is in progress from the Desert Queen shaft in the 
western part of the property. The West End has retimbered its main 
shaft, erected an electric hoist, and is sinking the main shaft to 1000 ft. 
Ten stamps and a tube-mill are being installed. Litigation has started 
between this company and the Jim Butler over ore in the latter's Eureka 
rlaim. The Jim Butler is producing and prospecting to 800 ft. The 
Merger is down to 1170 ft. Extension's Murray vein is opening well 
from 950 ft. In the Montana, the MacDonald vein from 698 to 765 ft. 
will yield a large tonnage of good-grade ore. The Tonopah has covered 
the usual work in the Red Plume, Silver Top, and Sand Grass mines. 
Other work was done at MacNamara, North Star, Halifax, Midway, 
Cash Boy, and Buckeye-Belmont. 

Manhattan produced 54,260 tons of ore worth $442,262, according to 
the Chamber of Mines. Of this the Associated yielded 3082 tons for 
$52,209; Manhattan, 13,647 tons for $130,386; Big Four, 18,294 tons for 
$79,668; East Side, 103 tons for $1770; War Eagle (estimated), 18,442 
tons for $140,000; and shipped by White Caps Co., 692 tons for 
$38,229. 

New Mexico. — The most important producing center of this state is in 
the Mogollon district, Socorro County. The ores yield silver and gold, 
and the area is being actively developed and produces a good deal each 
year. The Socorro Mining & Milling Co. ships about 2 tons of gold-silver 
huliion, and a good tonnage of high-grade concentrate monthly. A shoot 
of ore 10 to 15 ft. wide, worth $60 to $135 has been opened in the Pacific. 
The Oaks Co. is driving a main drainage and transportation tunnel for 
the district, which will eventually be under the large mines of the district 
at depths from 1400 to 1800 ft. The Deadwood mine was worked full 
time. The Lordsburg district, in Grant Coimty, is attracting some atten- 
tion of bite. Several mines are producing gold ore. Other gold and silver 
produced in the state is as a by-product from copper and zinc ores. 

Oregon, — ^This state has not attracted much attention, yet steady 



284 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

development has been done in deep mines and placer propertieSi and the 
gold and silver output is increasing. During 1913, the production of 
gold, silver, lead, and copper was about $1,925,000, according to the 
Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology. Of this amount, $225,000 in gold 
and silver came from the Counties of Josephine, Jackson, Lane, Douglas, 
Curry, and Coos in southern Oregon. The ratio between the placer and 
deep mining yield was over two to one. In eastern Oregon, the 1913 
yield of gold and silver was $1,700,000 from Baker, Malheur, Grant, 
Wheeler and Crook Counties. Of this, 75 per cent, came from deep mines. 
These are of two classes, those which concentrate and ship their product 
to smelters, and those which amalgamate and cyanide their ores. The 
Ben Harrison, Humboldt, and Highland are in the first class, and the 
Cornucopia and Rainbow have modem treatment plants. The Powder 
River Dredging Co., operating near Sumpter, started a 9-ft. dredge in 
January, 1913, swelling the gold output of the state considerably. 

South Dakota. — While the tonnage and bullion yield of the Black 
Hills showed a slight decrease from 1912, yet the past year was one of 
marked progress, according to Jesse Simmons in the Engineering and 
Mining Journal. The Homestake Mining Co.'s report for the full year 
shows the following results: Development covered 16,313 ft. of drifts 
and 686 ft. of raises. Broken ore in stopes amounts to 2,206,671 tons, an 
increase of 176,000 tons. Ore crushed by 1020 stamps was 1,540,961 
tons, yielding gold worth $6,186,652, from the mills and cyanide plants, 
equal to $4,018 per ton. Dividends were $2,146,224, equivalent to $1.39 
per ton. Mining costs were $1.48, milling, 25 cents, and treatment of 
sand and slime, 20 cents per ton. A good deal of work was done on sur- 
face equipment, and for the current year this is estimated at $350,000. 
A large recreation hall was erected for all employees. The Homestake 
is one of the world's greatest mines. Assets are worth $23,811,776. 

The Golden Reward produced about $500,000, the mill at Deadwood 
working to full capacity. The Trojan continued prospecting and new 
equipment. The Deborah and Empire produced ore, and the mill is 
up to date. The Mogul mill is being erected to replace the one burned 
in 1911. At Flatiron, the Bismarck mill was started. It is of 300-ton 
daily capacity and is a model dry-crushing plant. The property adjoins 
the Wasp No. 2. Continuous decantation, with counter-current solution 
system and a Portland filter treated 75 tons daily at the New Reliance. 
A fine 10-stamp mill is being erected by the Rattlesnake Jack Mining Co. 
near Galena. The Lundberg, Dorr & Wilson mill, a pioneer in cyanide 
work, went out of business. The report of the Wasp No. 2 Mining Co. 
for 1913, operating at Flatiron, shows that 127,680 tons of ore was treated, 
yielding $219,335, or $1,718 per ton. Operating costs were $167,392, and 



GOLD AND SILVER 285 

net profit $24,543. Dividends, equal to 11 per cent, on the capital, 
absorbed $55,000. The operating time was 8.3 months. The ore is 
mined by open-cuts, although it is covered with an overburden of 14 to 
18 ft. of soil and shale. Total costs were $1,311 per ton, and recovery, 
77.39 per cent, of the gold, and 39.48 per cent, of the silver. 

Mine development at the Heidelberg group. Carbonate camp. Iron- 
sides, and in Custer and Pennington Cotmties was encouraging. 

Texas, — ^Estimates by the U. S. Geological Survey place the 1913 gold 
yield at $100, and 401,415 oz. silver. The greater part of the state's 
metal output comes from the Shafter district, Presidio County. Lead- 
silver ore was shipped from the Sierra Blanca district, El Paso County. 

Utah, — This state is essentially a producer of copper, lead, and zinc, 
yet on the list of gold and silver-producing states it stands in seventh and 
third places respectively. The precious metals are mainly by-products 
of treating base-metal ores of Park City, Tintic and Beaver County mines, 
which shipped 81,822,370,240; and 81,641 tons of ore and concentrate 
respectively. There are three large smelting plants in the state reducing 
base-metal ores. 

After being worked for about 25 years, doing considerable pioneer work 
in cyaniding and developing new apparatus, producing gold worth over 
117,000,000, and paying $3,445,313 in dividends, the Consolidated 
Mercur closed down at the end of March, 1913, as results were not profit- 
able. There was little direct production of gold from siliceous ores in the 
state. 

Park City produces silver with its zinc and lead, and a good deal of 
metallurgical investigation is being done for its recovery, and the active 
mills of the camp at present are the Silver King Coalition, Daly-Judge, 
Mines Operating, and some small jigging plants along the stream running 
from the Daly-Judge mill. Others are proposed. The American Flag 
mine has 50,000 tons of $10 gold-silver ore, and tests have been made by 
chlorination, and concentration followed by cyanidation. Without going 
into detail in regard to the tests, it was found that concentration alone 
was unsatisfactory, and that a recovery of 36 per cent, of the silver, 49 
per cent, of the gold, and practically all the lead was the best that could 
be expected. A combination of concentration and cyanidation gave a 
final extraction of 92 per cent, of the gold and 74 per cent, of the silver, 
coosuming 3.4 lb. cyanide. Leaching with sulphuric acid before cyanida- 
tion also gave a fair recovery, with a reasonable cyanide consumption. 
Chlorination promises a recovery of 92 per cent, of all the metals at a lower 
^ost than any of the other processes, and since this method of treatment is 
in practical operation, its adoption has been decided upon. 

During 1013, the Daly-Judge produced 618 oz. gold and 611,378 oz. 



286 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

silver, with lead, sine, and copper, from 53,897 tons of ore. Dividends 
paid by the Silver King Consolidated totaled $308,791 in 1913. 

The Iron Blossom at Tintic produced 7289 oz. gold and 1,355,392 oz. 
silver, besides lead and copper, from 39,526 tons of ore in 1913. Gold and 
silver in 51,173 tons of ore shipped by the Chief Consolidated m 1913, 
amounted to 4751 oz. and 1,017,107 oz. respectively. Dividends of $I7o,- 
307 were paid. The Eagle & Blue Bell's yield was 7514 oz. gold and 
417,279 oz. silver, with lead and copper. Net earnings were $147,198. 

Washington. — ^The gold output of this state was $696,275, according to 
the U. S. Geological Survey. This was mostly from the Republic district, 
where litigation and power troubles have interfered with operations. The 
San Foil mill has been treating up to 3000 tons of ore per month, while 
several thousand tons from the Republic Mines Corporation, Ben Hur, 
Quilp, and others has been sent to smelters in British Columbia. About 
78 per cent, of the gold output came from crude ore and concentrate.' 
shipped, largely the former, and about 22 per cent, from cyanide and amal- 
gamation bullion. There has been a fair amount of activity in placer 
mining near Liberty, in Kititas County. The Republic Mines properties 
are now in the hands of a new company, and considerable development 
is to be done. Silver production was chiefly from Republic and Chewelah 
mines, the latter producing copper ores which are shipped to British Col- 
umbia. There was a decrease in silver yield of about 21 per cent, from 
413,538 oz. in 1912 to about 331,239 oz. in 19l3. The silver content of 
the latter ores decreased. 

Gold and Silver Mining in Foreign Countries 

Africa. — ^This continent, which contains the gold fields of the Trans- 
vaal, Rhodesia, West Africa, Egypt, German and Portuguese East Africa, 
and the Congo, contributed £42,000,000 toward the world's output in 
1913, or approximately 46 per cent. During the current year this propor- 
tion will probably be increased to 50 per cent. The Transvaal yield \*ill 
probably remain at about the present, Rhodesia will increase considerably 
on account of starting new mills, West Africa may increase slightly, while 
the other areas will return the usual output. 

Central Africa. — The gold production increased satisfactorily in 1913, 
the output, if the state's forecast for the Kilo and Moto mines is correct, 
being about 1380 kg., valued at about $828,000, according to Syd- 
ney H. Ball and Millard K. Shaler in the Mining and Scientific Press, 
In midsummer there were widespread reports of sensational gold discov- 
eries in the Belgian Congo. These appear to have been without founda- 
tion. Fair alluvial ground has been discovered during the year at several 
places in the Uelle and in the Katanga, and some gold quartz in the Kilo 



GOLD AND SILVER 287 

regioiii but none of these are, as yet at least, known to be of much impor- 
tance. Those at the head of Eabali river, southwest of Moto, appear most 
promising. 

The four producing gold placers in the colony are situated in the north- 
eastern part of the colony, a region of ancient rocks which have been deeply 
eroded. Beginning with January 1, 1914, the state will turn over to the 
Grand Lakes Railroad Co. the two larger placers of this region, Kilo and 
Moto. The profit beyond a certain amount, however, is to be divided 
between the colony and the railroad. In return for these and certain 
extensions to its prospecting rights, the company relinquishes about 
8,000,000 hectares of forest land. The Kilo placer is worked by primitive 
sluicing methods, although there is also a giant at work. About 30 whites 
and 2600 blacks are employed. The natives are paid a minimum wage of 
4 cents per day and are, in addition, given food, lodging, blankets, etc. 
The gold is said to cost about $347.40 per kilogram, and to be worth about 
$597 per kilogram (or $18 per ounce), silver being the chief impurity. 
About $7,250,000 of gold-bearing gravel is supposed to be blocked out. 
At Moto, where sluicing began in 1911, seven white men and 1350 natives 
are employed. Gravels containing gold valued at $500,000 have been 
proved to date. 

In the Parliamentary discussions preceding the transfer of these placers 
from the colony to the Grand Lakes Railroad Co., the following figures 
were presented r^arding the Kilo and Moto placers, under state r6gime: 
Cost of exploitation from 559,000 to 2,380,815 francs, and sale of gold, 
from 981,424 to 1,767,863 francs in 1908 to 1913, the product of Kilo and 
Moto being 1360 kg. in 1913. The Kamva placer, owned by a Belgian- 
American company, produced a little gold, and the Babeyru placer has 
just started production. 

Egypt. — The principal gold producers in this country, or really the 
Sudan, are the Barramia and Sudan mines. Each has a 10-stamp mill, 
the latter having a cyanide plant. 

The Barramia mine is characterized by the occurrence of small rich 
pockets of ore, one of 59 tons yielding 480 oz.; and another of 84 tons 
givmg 1192 oz. But these were not so numerous as in 1912. Ore 
reserves are 16,500 tons averaging $10 per ton. The mine is down 503 ft. 
below the adit-level. In 1913, the miU treated 4300 tons yielding gold 
worth £17,823, a profit of £3326, after paying royalty and a dividend of 
£2542. 

Ore reserves in the Sudan total 42,862 tons. About 1600 tons of high- 
grade ore was opened in a folded portion of the vein. During 1913 devel- 
opment totaled 5304 ft. The plant treated 17,049 tons of ore yielding 
£39,597, and a profit of £6068. 



288 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Portuguese East Africa. — The chief events of this country in 1913 was 
the progress made at the Braganca mine, owned by the Andrada Mines, 
Ltd., and the completion of a Bucyrus dredge of 7 1/2-cu. ft. capacity on 
the river Berne, for the same company. The mine has been developed 
to 410 ft. The output was 4891 fine ounces gold, of which 355 os. was in 
concentrate. The boat will be driven by electricity. Two other small 
mines were operated. The total output of the territory was worth 
£23,955. The Geological Survey has investigations imder way. 

Rhodesia, — This colony's gold output is still increasing, that for 1913 
being £2,903,267, an increase of £195,899 over 1912. 

There have been no sensational discoveries made during the past 
12 months. In addition to the knowledge of the various mineral belts 
of Matabeleland and Mashonaland, that is continually being added to 
by individual prospectors and small syndicates, the Geological Survey 
of Rhodesia has extended its sphere of investigation and has collected 
considerable valuable data. 

The Eldorado Banket and Giant had reduced yields, the former treated 
7533 tons for £18,762 in January, and 8004 tons for £12,636 in December. 
while the latter treated 11,000 for £13,717 in January and 11,000 for £9422 
in December. The Globe & Phoenix is the leading producer, treating up 
to 6700 tons for £45,300 per month. Ore reserves total 184,000 tons 
averaging over 1 oz. per ton. The Rezende and Lonely Reef had 
profitable runs, yielding up to £11,400 and £21,000 per month respec- 
tively. During 1913, the latter produced £218,520 from 58,903 tons of 
ore, and £81,302 in dividends. The Wanderer is still treating its 12,000 
tons ore worth about $2.64 per ton. New mines with large ore resenes 
are the Shamva, Cam & Motor, and Falcon. All are being equipped with 
mills, and the Cam & Motor is now at work, the first run being 10,693 tons 
averaging $7.58 per ton. 

The silver output of the territory was about 130,000 oz. 

West Africa. — In spite of many difficulties, such as climate, labor, 
transport, mining and metallurgical, this far off country is increasing its 
gold output, that of 1913 being £1,634,700, against £1,497,179 in 1912. 
The principal producers, with average monthly outputs, are the Abosso, 
8600 tons, for gold worth £15,000 and a profit of £2000; Ashanti, 11,11^ 
tons for £36,000; Broomassie, 2400 tons for £13,000 and £1000; Prestea 
Block A, 22,000 tons for £38,000; Tarquah, 5160 tons for £14,500 and 
£2800; and Abbantiakoon, 9500 tons for £18,000. The 1913 totals 
were, Abbantiakoon, 55,544 fine ounces; Abosso, 43,002 oz.; Ashanti, 
106,377 oz.; Bibiani, £35,153; Broomassie, £134,813; Prestea Block A, 
£386,917; and Tarquah, 41,653 oz. Four dredges of the Offin River 
Co. recovered £24,072. During the year ended June 30, 1913, the Ashanti 



GOLD AND SILVER 289 

Goldfields Corporation treated 148,447 tons of ore, yielding 107,977 oz. 
gold and 7296 oz. silver, realizing £476,800 including bullion from old 
tailing. The working profit was £253,116, and net £175,147. Divi- 
dends totaled £187,507, including part from the last balance. Costs were 
S9.40 per ton, $6.24 in West Africa. Ore reserves total about 290,000 
tons. 

Tranmud, — The gold yield of this British colony in 1913 provided 
approximately 40 per cent, of the world's total, and results may be sum- 
marized as follows, the Rand and "outside" districts included:^ 

1913. 1912. 

Mines operated 60 68 

Lsbor employed at end of each year, white 21,327 24,334 

Labor employed at end of each year, native .' 160.012 206,121 

Ore hoisted, tons 28,702.081 29,163,803 

Waste sorted out, per cent 10.74 12.67 

Stomps vorking 9,912 10,027 

Tube-mills working 287 270 

Workim time, days 312.60 325.07 

Duty per stamp day, tons 8.71 8.29 

On crushed, tons 26,267,840 26,071,841 

Total yield, fine ounces 8.794,824 9,124,299 

Working costs £23,609,272 £24,313,622 

Working profit 12.676.075 13,101,016 

DiTidends paid 8,585,432 8,291,477 

Yield per ton milled. ahiUincs 28.00 29.25 

Working coats per ton. shilUncs 18.08 18.75 

Wotkittg profit per ton, ahillings 9.66 10.08 

SUver output, ounces 882,871 1,018,253 

The difference between working profit and dividends paid is a notice- 
able point, and during the past 3 years the profit distributed has only 
been 68, 64, and 65.7 per cent, respectively of the nominal profit. 

Important events affecting the usual steady work of the Rand, and 
resultmg in the first decline in the output since 1901, were the following: 
A serious and regular shortage of native labor, as shown by the above 
table; an ill-advised strike of white employees in July, during which 
month there was a decrease of 17,852 natives, and conditions at several 
mines were considerably disturbed (another strike of railway men in 
South Africa occurred early in 1914, but prompt action by the Union 
Government saved there being a shutdown at the mines) ; a decrease in 
the yield of gold per ton milled; decrease of gold content with depth; 
the closing down of the Jupiter and Cinderella Consolidated; and poor 
results at the Simmer Deep, these being deep mines, the first named being 
down to 5000 ft. 

As regards the future of the Rand, the Chamber of Mines recently 
estimated the life at 28,000,000 tons per annum for 5 years more, and 
a decrease to one-half of the present tonnage by the year 1931. Previous 
w^imates are as follows: 

* Tiueytal Cfaftmber of Mines MantlUy Analynt, 
19 



290 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Estimated by Yearmads lifetiU 

J. Hayi Hammond 1901 1926 

F. H. Hatoh and T. H. Leggett 1902 1944 

LoanwUmate 1904 1934 

P. H. Hatoh 1911 1950 

G. A. Troye 1913 1940 

Chamber of Minos 1913 1940 

In H. H. Webb's report to the Consolidated Gold Fields of South 
Africa, he stated that the average gold content of the ore developed has 
been decreasing as greater depth was attained. Probably every mine on 
the Rand has proved disappointing in this respect. Deep-level areas of 
the Simmer & Jack have produced small working profits on ore assaying 
less than £1 per ton. 

Returns of some of the important producers in 1913 were as follows, 
the stamps and tube-mills being those at work in December: 



Mine. 



Stampfl 


Tube- 


Tons 


TielcL 


Workins 


Working. 


Mills. 


miUed. 


Profit. 


140 


8 


613.360 


£864,600 


£291.660 


150 




468.400 


885,120 


292,990 


150 




307.475 


583.528 


246.437 


80 




523.100 


711,363 


252.232 


660 


24 


2.195.600 


8.248.131 


1,481.632 


100 




291.590 


420.512 


62.246 


820 


25 


1.739.000 


2.772.754 


983.014 


245 




645,070 


1.304.738 


680.442 


300 




623,300 


907,604 


145.534 


400 


11 


74.800 


66.413 


12.689 


80 




404.580 


784,427 


450.000 


200 




530.600 


733.997 


240.451 


180 




521,650 


1,039.604 


528.645 


260 




585.286 


886,702 


244.409 


876 


27 


2,533,043 


3.103.166 


921,134 


250 




668.900 


1.196.475 




105 




49.000 


74.042 


28.004 


300 




768,070 


1,007,354 


365.964 


320 




68.500 


73.112 


29,413 


180 




57,150 


44.831 


660 


140 




438,760 


609.919 


269.445 


80 




37,050 


62.017 


26.454 


180 




536,300 


798.687 


242.022 


220 




436,273 


787.273 


388.984 


220 




449.400 


575.667 


270.141 


245 




518,230 


750,613 


303.228 



Dividend. 



Brakpan 

City Deep 

City and Suburban 

Con. Lanflaagte 

Crown Minee 

Durban Roodepoort Deep 
Eaat Rand Proprietary. . . 

Ferreira Deep 

Gddenhuis Deep 

Knicht'i Deepi 

Moaderfontein B 

New Kleinfontein 

New Modderfontein 

Nourse Minee 

Randfontein Central 

Robinson 

Robinson Deep^ 

Rose Deep 

Simmer ft Jack^ 

Simmer Deep^ 

VanRyn 

Van Ryn Deep^ 

Village Deep 

ViUage Main Reef 

Witwatersrand 

Witwatersrand Deep 



£243.750 
218,750 
204.000 

95.000 
1.034.116 

22,000 
611.474 
490,000 
102.K)7 
117.617 
315,000 

72,750 
420,000 
234.540 
419.370 
412,500 
275,000 
297.500 
412.500 

237,500 
89,767 
168.101 
330,400 
234,812 
192.500 



> Deomber yield, but divided for full pear. 

The nine properties in the Heidelberg, Barberton, Klerksdorp, and 
Lyndenburg districts crushed 51,031 tons with 552 stamps and 9 tube- 
mills, yielding £127,565, with a profit of £38,742. 

Asia. — Under this head are grouped China, Dutch East Indies, India. 
Japan, Korea, and the Philippine Islands. Siberia, although occupying 
such a great area, is included with Russia. Probably the most important 
single group of gold mines is at Kolar, State of Mysore, India. Japan has 
a number of good mines, and there are several in Korea. 

China. — Gold is produced in many parts of China, but figures of 
annual yields are almost impossible to obtain. In the Hupeh and Hunan 
provinces, in central China, there are somewhat extensive placer deposits 



GOLD AND SILVER 291 

along the rivers, but worked in a primitive manner. Returns vary from 
1 to 4 cents per cubic yard in the former province. In Hunan a series of 
bench gravels have been worked in a fashion for centuries. Most of the 
ground is topographically suited for dredging, but the gravel is too thin 
and low grade. According to E. C. Thurston,^ gold is widely distributed 
throughout China, but probably in no readily accessible district in 
sufficient quantity and sufficiently concentrated to warrant foreign 
exploitation. 

The best-known gold mine in China is at Chou Yuen, in Shantung, 
where some years ago ore carrying about $10 was crushed by stamps, 
amalgamated, and the concentrate chlorinated. 

The mineral wealth of Mongolia is at present practically undeveloped, 
but from a geological examination, and from reports from prospectors 
during the last few years, it appears to be of great value, especially in the 
north. An American company is working seven mines, according to an 
eastern contemporary.* 

Dvick East Indies, — Details of operations in this territory are not 
obtainable until late in the year. The Redjang Lebong and Ketahoen, 
in Sumatra, worked steadily, although the silver and gold returns are 
decreasing. The returns of the former were 43,660 oz. gold and 232,894 
oz. silver, worth £212,650, against 53,040 oz., «02,016 oz. and £251,330 
in 1912, respectively. Dividends were 15 per cent, on the capital com- 
pared with 25 per cent, in 1912, 50 per cent, in 1911, and 90 per cent, in 
1910. The Lebong Simau paid 20 per cent. 

In Dutch Borneo there is a little dredging and quartz mining being 
done; and in Sarawak, the English area of that island, the Borneo 
Co.'s cyanide plants continued their interesting work. 

In the Celebes gold and copper mining is prosecuted. 

India. — As mentioned earlier in this section, the center of gold mining 
in this British possession is at Kolar. It is characteristics of the ore-bodies 
that they are narrower, and the gold content generally persists to great 
depths, work in the Champion Reef being done to 4289 ft. on the incline, 
and folding in places. All of the mines are well developed, and contain 
large reserves. Practically the only backward development in recent 
years was at the Champion Reef, which passed through a poor zone of 
ore. Some of the mines make a good deal of water. Air-blasts are still 
troublesome in injuring employees and timbers; in fact, in one part of 
the Champion Reef, work had to be suspended on this account. The 
equipment on the mines is kept in good order. New slime-plants have 
been installed at several mills. The Mysore Government supplies electric 
power at reasonable rates from its Cauvery River hydro-electric plant, 

' Ui^ and Set. Prtu, CVI, 279. 
'for UotUm l{«mw. 



292 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Generally speaking, the Kolar group of mines is extremely well managed 
and profitable. The Indian gold output is increasing slowly each year. 



INDIAN MINES OUTPUT IN 1913. 



Tons. 



Gold Yield. 



Profit. 



Dividends. 



Balaghat 

Champion Reef. . . 

Mysore 

Nundydroog 

Oorecum , 

Hutu. 

North Anantapur 



42,700 
220,511 
302.662 

90.650 
153.636 

26,170 

25.085 



£66.000 
610,737 
905.090 
304.326 
360.889 
75,000 
41.000 



£2.348 
195.273 
490.269 
144.553 
174.382 



£130.000 

381.250 

99.050 

129,251 



The last two in the above table are in other districts and are opening 
promisingly. 

This country absorbs great quantities of gold and silver, in fact, it 
practically controls the price of silver in the world ; and details of the move- 
ments of these metals in 1913 are given in the first part of th is section. 

Japan, — ^There has been a gradual increase in the gold and silver out- 
put of this country, and that for 1913 was 7,281,411 yen and 5,708,975 
yen respectively. The Sado is the principal gold-silver mine and treats 
up to 100,000 tons of ore per annum, containing 9 parts of silver to 1 of 
gold, or 1 1/2 oz. silver and $3 gold per ton. There is a fair equip- 
ment at this mine. Other gold mines are the Hasami, Ushio, Okuchi, 
Yamagano, Kinkwaseki, Botanko, and Dziuho. The most famous silver 
mine, also producing some copper, is the Ikuno. It yields up to 30,000 
tons of ore containing $3 gold, 8 oz. silver, and 70 lb. copper per ton. 
Other silver mines are the Tsubaki and Innai, also the Kamioka, silver 
and lead. The Ashio, Besshi, Kosaka, and other copper mines produce 
a good deal of gold and silver as a by-product. In the island of Formosa, 
the annual output from about 10 lode and 30 placer mines is over 
$1,000,000; there was some increase in production here in 1913. 

Korea. — ^The Oriental Consolidated Mining Co. worked its 240 stamps 
and cyanide plants throughout the year. There was a considerable short- 
age of water at times, and trouble with the electric-power transmission 
lines. Ore treated varied from 22,000 to 25,000 tons per month, yielding 
up to $145,000. Net profits averaged about $45,000 monthly. The 
Taracol tube-mill plant was shut down as being a technical failure, and 
the leaching method reverted to with better results. During the year 
ended June 30, 1913, the company's nine mines produced 313,701 tons of 
ore averaging $6.39 per ton. Mining cost $1.95 per ton. The total net 
yield was $1,629,324, being 89.4 per cent, extraction. After paying for 
operation and construction, etc., the net receipts were $571,384. Divi- 
dends for the year totaled $429,390. The surplus profit on hand at 



GOLD AND SILVER 293 

June 30, 1913, was $926,557. Ore reserves in six mines were 805,900 
tons containing bullion worth $4,488,800. The reports of this company 
are always given with commendable detail. 

The Seoul Mining Co., operating the Suan Concession in Whang Hai 
province, has worked its 40H3tamp mill, treating 71,535 tons in 1913 for 
gold worth $671,536. The profit was $376,363, and dividends were equal 
to 50 per cent, on the capital. 

Details of the Suan Concession were described^ by a general report 
made on the property by A. H. Curtis for the firm of Hooper, Speak & Co. 

At the French Concession a 20-stamp mill and cyanide plant is in 
operation, at a profit of $15,000 to $20,000 per month. From January 
1 to April 1, 1913, 5 stamps with a cyanide annex produced $39,887 gold. 
From April 1 to August 1 with 10 stamps the yield was $77,873 and from 
then to the end of the year 20 stamps were working. Further additions 
to plant are to be made. 

The Furukawa Mining Co. obtained in October last official permission 
to work gold mines at Chyonmamyon and Nokoli, in Kusong district, 
North Pyongan province. Work on these mines has been begun by the 
company, employing some 20 Japanese and about 200 Korean miners. 
The experimental stage of the work will be, according to Gunsuke lijima, 
who supervises the work, three years, and the cost is estimated at 500,000 
yen. 

The Hasami Gold Mines Co., one of the more important Japanese 
concerns, is now examining properties in Korea. 

Philippine Islands, — The past year shows a considerable increase in 
the gold production over 1912. According to the Division of Mines, 
Bureau of Science, the output was worth $863,362. 

The Syndicate mine, in Masbate, has just started operations, the mill 
having been completed in record time for this country, about 8 
months. This is an all-sliming decantation plant, Hardinge ball and 
pebble mills being used instead of stamps and tube-mills. The Keystone 
Co., operating two Lane mills, has sent two shipments of precipitate 
to Manila; but so far it has not been learned what the recovery of bullion 
was, although it is said to be satisfactory. The Colorado mine continues 
• its steady progress. 

In the dredging fields, the new boat on the Umirai river is about to 
begin operations, and from the Malaguit encouraging reports have been 
received. The sixth dredge in the Paracale district is about to be con- 
structed, and the output in 1914 from this district is estimated, to exceed 
£1,000,000. In the Cansuran district of Mondanao, hydraulic machinery 
for the Cansuran Co. is already being installed. Some difficulty 

» Min. 8ci. Fr., CVII, 266. 



294 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



has been experienced due to transportation troubles, but this will soon 
be overcome. The company is employing about 150 men. 

Considerable prospecting has been carried on in the Agusan river 
basin. 

It is planned to install an up-to-date plant capable of handling 80 
tons of ore per day at the Benguet Consolidated. It is hoped that the 
plant will be in operation before January 1, 1916. The former mill on 
this property was washed away in the typhoon of October, 1909. 

Australian dredging companies in the Philippines promise well, 
according to The Bvlletin, Sydney. The Gaumus Co. is getting 
$38,000 worth of gold per month from gravel worth from 48 to 60 cents 
per yard. The Philippines Dredging Co. has 1000 acres, and is working 
one small dredge on 48-cent ground. Three other dredges are building to 
work gravel worth 24 cents per yard. Excellent prospecting work has 
been done by the Umeari Co., which has 1600 acres on the Umeari 
river lower than and adjoining a Manila company which is getting 96 
cents per yard. 

Australia. — The territories grouped under this name include the 
six states of Australia, Papua, and the Dominion of New Zealand. 
Base-metal mining and production, which yields a large percentage of 
the gold and silver of Australia, was far more active than the mining of 
precious-metal ores. With the exception of Western Australia, the other 
states had a decreased output of gold, as shown below: 

PRODUCTION OF GOLD IN AUSTRALIA, (a.) 
(In fine ounces.) 



State. 



1906. 1907. 



1908. 



1909. 



1910. 



1911. 



1912. 



1913. 



New South Wales. . 
Northern Territory. 

Queensland 

South Australia 

Tasmania 

Victoria 

West Australia (b) . . 



Commonwealth. . 
New Zealand (c) . 



258,987 

12.759 

544.636 

8.037 

60,023 

772.290 

1.736.295 



247.363 

6.160 

466.476 

4.834 

65.355 

605,576 

1.671,993 



224,792 

5.633 

465.085 

2.898 

57.085 

671.208 

1.596,091 



204.709 

6.682 

455.577 

7.111 

44.777 

654,222 

1.576,406 



188,857 

5.109 

441.400 

6.603 

37.048 

670.383 

1,422,231 



181,121 

(«) 5.000 

886.164 

3.537 

81.101 

504.000 

1,338,987 



166.295 

(«) 5.000 

847,946 

6.592 

87.973 

480.131 

1.382.658 



149.»7 

(«) 4.800 

263,343 

6.556 

35.500 

434,932 

1.314,044 



3.388,027 
534,616 



3,156,757 
477,312 



3.022.792 
471.967 



2.948,484 
472,465 



2,661,631 
446,434 



2.449.910 
427.885 



2,325.595 
310,796 



2.208.633 
343.637 



Total Australia. 



3,922,643 



3,634,069 



3,494,759 



3,420,949 



3,108,065 



2,8n,296 



2,636,391 



2.552.359 



(a) From official publications. (5) Production reported by the Mines Department; in prerioni 
volumes the statistics have represented exports, (c) Exports. (<) Estimated. • 



There being no mint in New Zealand, all of the gold is exported to 
Australia and London for coinage. Gold received for coinage at the 
Australian mints in 1913 was as follows: Melbourne, 555,321; Perth, 
1,490,933; and Sydney, 540,283 fine ounces. The Perth mint is operat- 
ing at a small profit, yet at only about 50 per cent, capacity. Dividends 
paid by Australian gold mines in 1913 amounted to £1,349,500. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



295 



Silver in Australia is mainly a by-product from lead and copper ores in 
New South Wales, Queensland, and Tasmania. There are no siliceous 
silver ores mined and treated in Australia as in the United States, Canada, 
and Mexico. The gold ores of Victoria and Western Australia contain 
little silver per ton, yet the aggregate amounts to a considerable weight. 
Ores from the North Island of New Zealand contain a high percentage of 
silver, and the output in 1913 was 975,591 oz., against 343,627 oz. of 
gold, a small proportion of the silver coining from the South Island mines, 
which yield gold worth up to $20 per ounce. 

The silver output of Australasia last year was as follows: 

PRODUCTION OF SILVER IN AUSTRALASIA. 





1911. 


1912. 


1913. 


State. 


OimoeB. 


Com- 
merdal 
Value. 


Oimeea. 


1 
Com- 

1 


Ounoea. 


Com- 
merdal 
Value. 




14.529.146 

549.016 

1.400 

(«)700.000 

19.147 


$7,746,810 

278,642 

680 

878.100 

10.897 


13.514,249 

669181 

2,700 

(«) 1.025.000 

17.424 


$8,157,131 

822,336 

1.584 

623.200 

10.714 






N«wSouthW»I«(a) 
QaeaMlud 

jouihAuttoik**.;:: 

Taniitiua 

Victoria 


14.504.889 

604.979 

2.660 

2,750.000 

16.671 


$8,548,798 

333.020 

1.460 

1.557.100 

9.952 






CommoQirnlth... 
NewZttkad 


16,798.707 
1.310.943 


$8,403,629 
698:733 


15.128.554 
(0)983.500 


$9,114,965 
597.970 


17.879.199 
975,671 


$10,450,330 
505.612 


ToUl 


17.109.650 


$9,102,362 


16,112.054 


$9,712,935 


18.854.870 


$10,955,942 







(a) Metal produced in Australia, plus silver oontenta of conoentratee exported. («) Estimated. 

Some remarks on the work done! in the various centers are as follows: 
New South Wales. — ^This state has no great gold mines, and the gold 
production is the effort of a large number of small properties, by-product 
from copper mines, and a little from dredging. There were no important 
developments during the past year. The Mt. Boppy mine, in the Cobar 
district, is the principal gold producer, and in 1913 treated 64,762 tons of 
ore for 37,094 oz. bullion. Returns fluctuated considerably during the 
term. 

The Great Cobar, Limited, which operates the Great Cobar, Cobar 
Cold, Chesney, and Peak mines, has been the cause of considerable dis- 
cussion, and a change of management. Development has not been 
^tirely satisfactory. During the past financial year the smelter treated 
361,566 tons of ore yielding 27,136 oz. gold, 127,542 oz. silver, and 5811 
tons copper. The gross profit was £81,926; but no dividends were paid. 
As regards other fields, the principal contributions have been drawn from 
»he Adelong, Araluen, and Wyalong divisions. On the Wy along field 
'•perations have not been conducted as vigorously as in former years; but, 
owing to the consistent returns being obtained from the True Blue mine. 



296 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

the yield will probably exceed that recorded for the previous year. On 
the Hillgrove field, mostly development work has been carried out at the 
principal mines; consequently the production has been on a restricted 
scale. The dredging industry is still a material factor in the gold yield, 
andy although the returns from this source are less than in the previous 
year, the aggregate forms a considerable portion of the total production. 
The chief centers of gold-dredging operations are Araluen, Adelong, and 
Braidwood. 

The great center of silver production is Broken Hill, which, in spite 
of labor and other troubles, has been the scene of great activity and 
increased production. The total output of the smelters at Port Pine 
and Broken Hill, up to May 21, 1913, are as follows: lead, 1,354,034 tons; 
silver, 158,408,072 oz.; gold, 98,303 oz.; antimonial lead, 11,869 tons: 
spelter, 6,584 tons; leady concentrate, 1,261,980 tons; and rinc concen- 
trate, 573,606 tons. During 1913, the silver output was about 14,000,000 
oz. Development down to 1400 ft. was very encouraging in several 
mines. Mining, concentration, and flotation methods at Broken Hill 
were given full publicity by papers read at the annual meeting of the 
Australasian Institute of Mining Engineers, and published in its 
Transactions. 

The Proprietary, South, Central, South Blocks, Block 10, British, and 
North, mines and mills were in operation, as well as the flotation plants of 
the Central, Proprietary, Zinc Corporation, and Amalgamated Zinc. 
Most of the zinc concentrate from these plants is sent to Europe at present. 
Australia, especially at Broken Hill, is the home of flotation processes. 
The Proprietary's lead smelting and refining plant at Port Pirie, South 
Australia, as usual handled the companys' own product and that from 
others on the '^Barrier." 

Queensland. — The past year's gold yield was 263,443 oz. worth 
£1,118,609, a decrease of 83,047 oz. and £352,761. 

Dividends from gold mining companies amounted to £266,827, or 
£4606 less than 1912. Of this, Mt. Morgan distributed £200,000, and 
Charters Towers, £49,903. 

A great deal of the gold and silver in this state comes from the smelting 
of copper ores. For instance, the Great Fitzroy produced 11,364 oz. 
gold and 20,830 oz. silver; Hampden Cloncurry, 1842 oz. gold and 50,651 
oz. silver; Mt. Elliott, 5225 oz. gold and 6827 oz. silver; and Mt. Morgan, 
113,696 oz. gold. The report of the last-named company for the half 
year ended November 30, 1913, shows that the smelters treated 148,924 
tons of ore yielding 54,992 oz. gold and 4354 tons copper. The revenue 
was £496,936 and expenditure £324,090. Liquid assets amount to 
£588,482. The yield was lower than usual, but with the additions and 



GOLD AND SILVER 297 

improvements to power, concentrating and smelting plants will show up 
during the current year. Ore reserves are 1,285,000 tons of high, and 
1,960,000 tons of medium low-grade ores. 

Mming at Gympie was quiet. The Scottish Gympie was examined 
by the government geologist, B. Dunstan, who favored certain develop- 
ment. During the year ended May 31,1913, the mill treated 85,700 tons 
for 22,303 oz. gold with a profit of £7700. Costs were $4.16 per ton. 
Development at 2100 ft. was not satisfactory. 

After many years of struggling with complex copper-lead-gold-silver 
ores from several mines the Chillagoe company has stopped its smelter. 
Share-holders displayed great patience during the year^ of reconstructions 
and losses. The company controls an important railway. 

Charters Towers mines produced 78,911 tons of ore 3rielding £306,899. 
The net results, dividends less assessments, totaled £12,024 for the year. 
The Brilliant Extended paid £18,750 in dividends. The ore deposits of 
this district occur as shoots in formation of the fiissure type, there being a 
tendency to split and unite again. The mining men of Charters Tdwers 
wanted the Queensland government to advance £60,000 and sink a shaft 
4000 ft. to test the field at depth, but after complete enquiry it decided 
not to do so. 

Smdh Audralia. — ^A quiet year was experienced in all branches of 
mining in South Australia during 1913, and until fresh capital is intro- 
duced to give the much needed impetus, there does not appear to be an im- 
mediate prospect of an improvement in the condition of afifairs. Numer- 
ous promising shows are l3ring idle for want of funds to continue pros- 
pecting and development work. Gold mining results were better than 
during the previous year, the result being an improved 3rield. Mining 
in the Northern Territory is still quiet, but more activity is expected now 
that the Commonwealth Government is helping prospectors. The out- 
put of gold in 1912 was £20,150, and that for 1913 will be about a 
similar amount. The director of mines for the area, which covers over 
500,000 square miles, H. I. Jensen, published a report on mining dur- 
ing the year. Disadvantages are bad roads and transport, high cost 
of living and labor, dearth of skilled miners, exhaustion of the alluvial 
fields, picking the eyes out of mines, bad management, water troubles, 
and capital is hard to interest. 

Tasmania. — ^The gold output from this state was 35,500 oz., a decrease 
of 2500 oz. compared with 1912. Of this the Tasmania produced 19,976 
oz. from about 52,000 tons of ore; and Mt. Lyell, 7320 oz. from the smelt- 
ing of about 250,000 tons of copper ore; the balance from other smelting 
operations and a little from alluvial mining. 

The Tasmania mine at Beaconsfield has recently been examined by 



298 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



engineers, and as a result all development is to be stopped, and the avail- 
able ore extracted. This mine is extremely wet and has very large pumps 
at work, and is costly to work from this cause. The mill, cyanide and 
chlorination plants have been treating up to 5100 tons per month. The 
Zeehan district produced about 90,000 tons of ore for metal contents 
worth £270,000. The Tasmanian Smelting Co., at Zeehan, buys ore, 
and handled about 41,000 tons in 1913, and exported 4500 tons of lead, 
520,000 oz. silver, and 7000 oz. gold. Mt. Lyell produced 344,601 oz. 
silver. About 450 men are directly employed in gold and silver mining, 
out of 6200 in all metals. 

Mt. Lyell is back to its old stride again, and during the half-year ended 
September 30, 1913, gave 4050 oz. gold and 187,097 oz. silver from 
153,869 tons of copper-bearing material, the copper being 2735 short 
tons. These precious metals are recovered from ores only averaging from 
0.005 to 0.0275 oz. gold, and 1.33 to 1.96 oz. silver per ton. 

Victoria. — ^This state's mines and dredges produced gold worth 
£1,847,400, a decrease of £192,000 compared with 1912. This was due 
to a general decline in all branches. The old Long Tunnel is practically 
shut down, work being done at 3225 and 3375 ft. on the incline, and 
sinking to 3625 ft. The Cassilis is in a transition stage; the deep leads 
are practically dead; Ballarat is quiet; the dredging, returns have from 
lower, and this form of mining has been the cause of investigations through 
alleged damage to farming land, while Bendigo has been troubled with 
labor disputes, and the yields were lower. 

In the latter center, deep mining has not been profitable, and better 
profits are made from the upper levels. The gold output in 1913 was 
167,970 oz., paying £136,080 in dividends and £94,300 in assessments, 
against 174,901, £114,088, and £154,482, respectively, in 1912. Trib- 
uters worked in 35 mines. Some of the producers are as follows: 



TODB. 



Central Red White and Blue 29,336 

Golden Pyke I 13,909 

Carlisle | 20,986 

Great Northern 9,794 

South New Moon I 16,066 

Virdnia I 19.455 

North Bendigo I 10.004 

Ironbark , 14,677 

New Chum Goldfielda ' 11.408 



Ounces. 



14.890 
10,647 
6.730 
6,206 
6.439 
6.764 
3,970 
5.593 
2,577 



Dividends. 



£38.400 
23.415 
12.6fX) 
9.760 
9.600 
8.775 
7.200 
4.958 
4.000 



Dredging was on somewhat the same scale as in 1912 when 55 bucket- 
dredges raised 16,777,591 cu. yd. averaging 1.7 gr. per yard. These had 
capacities up to 15,000 cu. yd. per week. Twentynsix hydraulic-sluicing 
plants handled 2,445,009 cu. yd. averaging 2.2 gr. per yard. Twelve jet 



GOLD AND SILVER 299 

elevators treated 407,265 cu. yd. for 3 gr. per yard. Since 1900, placer 
mining has treated 185,254,860 cu. yd. for 2.2 gr. per yard. 

Some of the yields in 1913 were as follows: The Porepunkah Dredging 
Co., at Bright, handled 197,100 cu. yd. during the last half of 1913 3rielding 
560 oz. gold. Three 24 cents dividends were paid. The Tongio Dredging 
Co., at Cassilis, treated 127,000 cu. yd. averaging 3.36 gr. per yard. A 
dividend of 24 cents per share was paid. 

The Wallace properties, in the northeast of the state, of the Briseis 
Tin & General Mining Co., a concern operating tin properties in Tas- 
mania, yielded 6492 oz. gold last year. Four dredges were worked, and 
handled about 122,600 cu. yd. per month. The Wandiligong Dredging Co. 
treated 265,893 cu. yd. during the last half-year for £30,200, while the 
Tewksbury Amalgamated in its six months handled 447,792 cu. yd. with 
four boats, yielding 6.30 cents, at a cost of 5.57 cents per yard. The 
profit was £690, while in its early years the company paid good dividends. 
Thirty dredges in the Bright district yielded gold worth £154,000 dur- 
ing the past three months; and paid £8900 in dividends. 

Wetlem Australia. — ^The regular decrease in this state's gold yield 
since 1903 was arrested in 1913, when that of 1,314,044 fine ounces was 
an increase of 21,386 oz. over the previous year. Since 1886, the total 
yield is 27,045,168 fine ounces. There were increases in the Murchison, 
Xorth Coolgardie, Broad Arrow, and Yilgarn fields. In the first-named 
district the mines at Meekatharra are doing fairly well, these being 
equipped with small mills and cyanide plants, treating up to 3600 tons 
per month for £6200, in the case of the Queen of the Hills. The Victori- 
ous, 40 miles north of Kalgoorlie, owned by the Associated Northern 
Blocks, was practically a new producer in 1913, and treated 97,790 tons 
for gold worth £109,947 at a cost of 11 shillings per ton, during the year 
ended September 30, 1913. The Bullfinch added to its stamp-mill, and 
the 20 stamps are now treating 6330 tons for £14,300 per month with 
£9000 profit. The state government is diamond-drilling at Eraser's 
mine, Southern Cross, and the large low-grade ore-bodies may yet be prof- 
itable. Coolgardie is very quiet, the scene of activity being at Burbanks, 
where the Main Lode is the largest mine, but is now temporarily shut 
down. The district showed a decrease during the year. Kalgoorlie 
produces 60 per cent, of the state's output, and the well-known mines, 
namely, the Associated, Great Boulder, Horse-Shoe, Ivanhoe, Kalgurli, 
Lake View & Star, Oroya Links, Perseverance, and South Kalgurli, 
"^ntinued their usual development, ore production, and treatment. No 
?rpat life is now expected from the Associated and Kalgurli, these being 
2100 and 1850 ft. deep respectively. J. Malcolm Maclaren has decided 
that when the ore-bodies leave the quartz-dolerite and enter the calc- 



300 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



schist, there is not much hope for profitable ore. The Ivanhoe shaft is 
down over 3000 ft., and extensive prospecting is to be done. The Horse- 
Shoe has had a better year and is now mining ore at 2780 ft. The Great 
Fingall and Sons of Gwalia, in the northern districts, are both opening in 
a promising way. The former is down 2500 ft., and the latter about that 
depth on the incline. Dividends paid by 18 Western Australian mines in 
1913 totaled £906,637, and all mines £23,898,988 to date. The current 
year should equal that of 1913, but no new districts are being opened. 

The geology of the Kalgoorlie field was thoroughly discussed by J. 
Malcolm Maclaren.^ This is being followed by articles by C. 0. G. Lar- 
combe, whose work the ''Geology of Kalgoorlie'' is a recent publication. 
C. Gibson, a government geologist, also published a treatise on the field. 

A feature of the work being done at Kalgoorlie, is the mining and 
profitable treatment of low-grade oxidized ore in small mines out^de 
of the "Golden Mile." For instance, the Hannan's Reward produced 
27,169 tons averaging $2.46 per ton in 1913. 

The Great Boulder's reserves at the end of 1913 were 615,114 tons 
averaging $14.57 per ton, a decrease of about 37,000 tons, but about the 
same gold content. In 1913, 189,469 tons was treated averaging $13.98 
per ton. The Ivanhoe's reserves to 2420 ft. total 991,417 tons averaging 
$9.24 per ton. The shaft is down about 3000 ft., and a good deal of pio- 
neer prospecting is being done at depth, which at one time was done in the 
Great Boulder, whose shaft has remained at 2800 ft. for some time. 

To the end of 1913 yields from the principal Western Australian mines 
were as follows, according to the Monthly Journal of the Chamber of 
Mines: 



Name. 



Short Tons. 



Yield. 



DiTidendf. 



AsBooUted 

Associated Northern, two mines 

Bullfinch 

Burbank's Main Lode 

Golden Horse-Shoe 

Qolden Ridse 

Great Boulder Perseverance 

Great Boulder Proprietary 

Great Finsall 

IdaH 

Ingliston Consols Extended 

Ivanhoe 

Kalgurli 

Lake View and Oroya Exploration 

Lake View ft Star 

Mararoa 

Oroya Links (dividends include BrownhiU Co.). 

Sand Queen 

Sons of Gwalia 

South Kalffurli 

Yuanmi (dividends include Oroya Black Range) 



1,473.455 

r 366,555 

[ 124.287 

53,427 

154.059 

3,352.110 

196,291 

2.431,064 

2.420,173 

1,851.091 

184,576 

74,858 

2,847.066 

1.273,505 

1,276,817 

720,290 

178.634 

526.738 

51,867 

1.915.726 

1,565,159 

465.697 



3.469.219 

1,728.043 

137,349 

169.389 

341,071 

8,918.249 

423.415 

6,676,192 

8.959.531 

4,615,231 

519.744 

202.218 

7,620.919 

3.454,339 

4.311.167 

851,665 

354,939 

653.428 

158,984 

3,724.868 

2.408.524 

940.636 



£703.833 
726,250 



23.807 

16.494 

3,135.000 

140.209 

1,461.116 

4«219.300 

1,746.875 

75,m 



3,188.750 
1,372.500 
1,502.750 



100,000 
2,189.366 
35.250 
892.863 
260.780 
126.250 



1 Min. 8c%. Pr., CVI. 



GOLD AND SILVER 301 

New Zealand, — All the gold and silver produced in this country is 
exported. In 1912, mines in both islands were affected by strikes, and 
the output was £1,345,131 gold and 801,165 oz. silver. This was from 
the treatment of 335,651 tons of ore, and includes £266,348 from the 87 
dredges at work in the South Island. The past year, 1913, was fairly 
quiet as far as gold mining was concerned, although shareholders and 
employees suffered a good deal, and the yield was almost the same as in 

1912. There were no important discoveries in the Hauraki peninsula in 
the North Island. This area produced bullion worth £860,448 in 1913, 
an increase of £80,313. In 1907 this was £1,421,216. Most of the silver 
produced in New Zealand comes from the Waihi and adjoining districts. 
The principal producers were the Waihi, 184,768 tons for £331,995; 
Waihi Grand Junction, 98,372 tons for £180,119; Talisman, 39,780 tons 
for £215,642; Crown, 15,299 tons for £29,070; and Waihi-Paeroa, 
140,100 tons of tailing from the Ohinemuri river for £42,300. The Waihi 
Co. is developing at 1300 ft. Its new hydro-electric power line, 51 
miles long, is in operation. The Grand Junction is developing fairly well, 
and an additional 20 stamps are being erected. Results at the Talisman 
were good. Deep-level development at 1000 ft., at the old Thames field, 
was disappointing. The total output of the district was £20,450. Coro- 
mandel was also quiet, and produced only £13,031. In the South Island, 
dredging in Otago and the west coast was about normal. The reopening 
of the Ross gravel mine at Westland, a rich old producer, attracted con- 
siderable interest. Water has always been troublesome. The Progress, 
Wealth of Nations, and Blackwater mines at Reefton worked steadily in 

1913, treating up to 2900, 2200, and 4100 tons of ore worth about 24, 30, 
and 37 shillings per ton respectively. Mining costs are high, but treat- 
ment low. 

Canada. — The preliminary report, compiled by John McLeish, on 
the mineral production of Canada in 1913, shows a total production of 
S144,031,047, of which the gold output was $16,216,131, an increase 
of $3,567,337; and the silver output 31,750,618 oz., a decrease of 
456,153 oz. 

The Yukon placer production is estimated at $5,835,554 as against 
^^i576,493 in 1912, the total amount on which royalty was paid during the 
calendar year according to the records of the Department of Interior 
^^eing 352,900 oz. in 1913, and 335,015 oz. in 1912. The British Columbia 
production was $6,136,900, of which the placer production as estimated 
^y the provincial mineralogist was $540,000. Smelter recoveries and 
bullion from milling ores being estimated as $5,596,900. 

The main feature of the year was the large increase from the Porcupine 
district of Ontario. British Columbia and the Yukon also show substan- 



302 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

tial increases, while the estimates for Nova Scotia and Quebec show 
decreases. 

The export of gold-bearing dust nuggets, gold in ore, etc., was valued 
at $12,770,838. Gold in bars, blocks, ingots, etc., were imported to the 
value of $840,435. 

The estimated production of silver was 31,750,618 fine ounces, valued 
at $18,984,012, a decrease of 204,942 oz. and $456,153 from 31,955,560 oz. 
valued at $19,440,165 in 1912. 

Of the 1913 production 28,452,737 oz. was from Ontario, and 3,208,122 
oz. from British Columbia. For British Columbia the figures represent the 
recovery in mill bullion or as silver contained in smelter products, while 
for Ontario the figures represent the silver contained in gold ores milled 
or smelted, and in bullion shipments from Cobalt, to which is added the 
silver contents of the Cobalt ore and concentrate shipped, less 5 per cent. 
allowed for smelter losses. The total shipments of ore and concentrate 
from the mines of Cobalt and the adjacent districts were about 44,106 
tons containing approximately 22,031,564 fine ounces in addition to 
which 7,482,833 fine ounces was shipped as bullion. Of this tonnage 
about half was treated in the camp itself in various reduction works. In 
Quebec the silver was derived from the pyritic ores of the eastern town- 
ships. The exports of silver in ore, etc., as reported by the Customs 
Department, were 37,371^569 oz. valued at $21,441,220. There was 
also an importation of silver in bars, blocks, sheets, etc., valued at 
$840,245. 

British Columbia, — No hesitation has been felt in estimating that the 
yield of gold, placer and lode combined, has been larger than in 1912, 
according to Wm. Fleet Robertson in his annual report. For placer gold, 
a decreased production is expected, taking the province as a whole, of 
about $15,500, the output being $540,000 although the Atlin camp will 
show an increased production over last year; and for lode gold $5,509,526, 
equivalent to an increase of $187,000, has been taken as fairly representing 
the production of this metal, so^ar as indicated by the advices received 
to date. Dealing with these classes of gold mining separately, it may be 
observed : Practically all the placer gold is obtained in the Cariboo and 
Cassian districts, which contributed $190,000 and $320,000 respectively, 
the Atlin division being in the latter. The season here was favorable for 
all concerned. The gravel-washing season was shorter than usual at 
Cariboo. The large plants were not operated in the Quesnel division. 
The Stikine-Laird district is attracting attention, and the Boulder Creek 
Hydraulic Co. did well. There were "rushes" to Silver and Sibolla 
creeks during the year, but apparently they were not justified. There is 
no dredging in the provincei although a boat is being constructed on the 



GOLD AND SILVER 303 

Quesnel river. The estimated lode gold production was as follows: 
Rosaland, 135,300 oz.; Boundary, 103,300 oz.; Nelson, 23,500 oz.; Coast, 
3000 oz.; and Lillooet, 1300 oz. Of the Rossland total, 120,000 oz. 
came from the Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co.'s mines, and 15,000 
02. from Le Roi No. 2. The report of the former company for the 15 
months ended September 30, 1913, shows that 407,124 tons of ore was 
smelted jrielding 186,017 oz. gold and 3,224,408 oz. silver. Gold worth 
$802,330 was recovered from 70,796 tons of ore by the Nickel Plate mill 
at Hedley. Ore reserves total 413,000 tons. Also 40,500 oz. was 
recovered at the Granby Consolidated Co.'s smelter at Grand 
Forks, and 19,300 oz. at the British Columbia Copper Co.'s plant at 
Greenwood. The Portland Canal Tunnel Co. is still driving its long adit; 
but has cut some ore. 

Silver production of the province was about 3,570,000 oz., an increase 
of 437,000 oz. over 1912. This came from Slocan, 1,860,000 oz.; Ains- 
worth, 487,000 oz.; East Kootenay, 413,000 oz.; Boundary, 380,000 oz.; 
and Nelson, 160,000 oz. The Standard mine, in the first-named 
district, produced about 66 per cent, of that output. In the others, the 
properties of the three smelting companies contributed largely. 

Ontario. — Mining in this province in 1913 showed an increase of 9.5 
per cent, over 1912, according to the report of Thomas W. Gibson. The 
gold output was valued at $4,558,518, and the production of silver was 
29,724,931 oz. 

There were 16 producing gold mines in 1913, seven of which were in 
Porcupine and nine elsewhere. The Porcupine mines yielded 207,583 oz. 
of gold, or more than 94 per cent, of the whole production. From the 
other districts the production was as follows: Kirkland Lake and Swas- 
tika 4183 oz.; Long Lake 5879 oz.; Larker Lake 700 oz.; eastern Ontario 
1065 oz.; and northwestern Ontario 1262 oz. Much attention is being 
given to Kirkland Lake. 

The silver production of Cobalt was a little less and in 1912 being 
29,681,975 fine ounces, as against 30,248,589 oz., a decrease of 561,884 oz. 
or 1.85 per cent. High-water mark was apparently reached in 1911 when 
the yield was 31,507,719 oz. The process of decline is proving more 
gradual than did that of increase, the falling off in two years being only 
0.7 per cent. The price of silver last year was lower than in 1912, the 
result was to reduce the return of the mining companies $853,934, the 
value of the output being $16,555,001. To obtain the total yield of 
silver, there should be added to the Cobalt output 42,956 oz., recovered 
from auriferous ores of Porcupine and other gold camps. 

It is now ten years since the silver deposits of Cobalt began to be 



304 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

worked and up to the end of 1913, their total yield has had a value of 
$98,286,116, the output aggregating 185,497,814 oz. 

The shipments of ore and concentrates have ceased to be an index of 
the output of Cobalt, since so large a proportion of the silver is now 
produced in the form of bullion. The shipments for 1913 follow: Ore 
9495 tons, containing 13,668,079 oz.; concentrates 11,017 tons, containiDg 
9,014,633 oz., and bullion 6,999,263 oz. The silver refineries outside 
of Cobalt have been reduced in number by two, the plant owned and 
operated by the Canadian Copper Co. at Copper CliflF having been 
closed, and the works of the Canada Smelting & Refining Co. at Oiilla 
having been burned down. 

At Porcupine, during the 10 months of operation, the Dome produced 
118,230 tons worth $1,047,606, equal to $8.86 per ton. In August it was 
$6.31, and May $13.68 per ton. The annual report of the Hollmger 
showed that 138,291 tons of ore was treated in 1913, yielding $2,471,273. 
Operating expenses were $843,159; dividends, $1,170,000; and surplus, 
$458,113. Ore reserves total 845,309 tons worth $11,604,000, against 
644,540 tons worth $11,271,400 in 1912. Developments have been 
satisfactory at depth, both by mining and drilling. 

The Tough-Oakes mine is at Kirkland Lake. From this property 
101,049 tons of selected ore was shipped, which contained a gross value 
of $46,685 or $462 per ton. In addition 1975 tons of lower grade material 
were put through a small samp-mill and $26,232 in gold recovered, or 
$13.28 per ton. The veins at Kurkland Lake, which are quite narrow, are 
found in Temiskaming conglomerate and graywacke in contact with 
porphyry, and also in the latter. The Tough-Oakes and other claims 
have been acquired by English capitalists and the district is likely to 
be thoroughly tested. 

The usual mining and metallurgical activity was continued at Cobalt. 
Prospecting by hydraulicking was satisfactory at the Nipissing. Its 
main shaft is down 900 ft., the deepest in the district. Kerr Lake was 
drained, and Cobalt Lake is being emptied. These areas should add 
considerably to the reserves of the district. 

The following table shows the estimated production of the principal 
properties in the Cobalt district in 1913 compared with 1912. The total 
for 1913 is estimated for the last month of the year, and in one or two 
instances for the last 2 and 3 months: 



GOLD AND SILVER 305 

Gross ounces. 

Mine. 1913. 1912. 

NifHssinc 4.600.000 4.719,678 

CooisiM 3.550.237 3,703,942 

U Rote 2.623,000 2,920,344 

MeKuUey-Damgh 2.250.000 2.704.868 

Baffalo 2.000.000 1,890.160 

Kerr Uke 2,109.975 1,895,309 

Crown Raeerre 1,833.333 2,714.766 

Cobalt Townaite 1.783.664 1,606,396 

Cobelt Lake 1,200,000 1,123.146 

O'Brien 1.200,000 1,091,631 

Sen. Stverior 1,150,000 

BeaTer 760,142 689,921 

Temakaminc 736,000 1.242,243 

Temiakaming ft Hudson Bay 669,872 957,055 

Treihewey 610,139 620,923 

Penn. Canadian 365,000 

Dividends paid by Cobalt mines in 1913, were as follows, according 
to The Daily Nugget: 



Comimny. 

Beaver 

Buffalo 


1913. 

$ 60,000 

890,000 


To date. 
$ 410,000 
2.627,000 


Cariboo-Cobalt 


26.000 


26,000 


City d Cobalt 




139.321 


Cobalt Central 




192,846 


CnhpLj^ J^\^ ... 


240,000 


240.000 


Cobalt Silver Queen 




316,000 


noh*lt T5>wnsii«. , . . 


600,000 


900.000 


ConiftgM 


1.640,000 


6,720.000 




795,966 


5.483,316 


Foster 




46,774 


HolKi.M.rl 


1.170,000 


1,440,000 


^•"'Ukff 


600.000 


4,920,000 


La Roae Consolidated 


937.500 


4.079.185 


McKinley-Darrach 

Nipifliinc 


1.033,938 

1.800,000 


3.865.262 
10.890.000 


Ricbt of Way 




626.903 


SeneeapSuperior 


309,649 


309.649 


Temiakanuns * Hudson Bay 


162,981 


1.870.341 


T»fniskanitnc 


150.000 


1.384.166 


Tretlievey 


160.000 


1.012.698 


Wettlaufer 


141,669 


637.465 




$10,196,694 




Total 


$46,936,718 


La Roes (shared privately previous to May, 1908) 

Private eovporations (estimated) 




. . 1.204.862 
3.600.000 


Totol 




,.. $61,638,681 



> The Hollinger is at Porcupine. 

Ontario is full of possibilities for gold, silver, and other mining, and 
the accompanying map shows the principal districts of the province. 

Quebec. — The gold output of this province was worth $14,794, against 
$19,924 in 1912. Silver was 36,392 oz. worth $21,791, compared with 
$14,591 in 1912. The figures for gold and silver represent the contents 
of these metals in the copper and sulphur ores of the eastern townships. 
The Beauce placers were not operated during 1913. 

Yukon. — The gold output from placer mining was $5,835,554 against 
$0,576,493 in 1912. This is mainly from the two following companies: 
The Canadian Klondyke Mining Co.'s dredges treated 6,363,515 cu. yd. 
of gravel in the season of 1913, yielding 85,899 oz. gold worth $1,331,000. 
Working expenses totaled $480,000, and the profit was about $750,000. 
Three boats with 16, and one with 7 1/2-cu. ft. buckets, were in operation. 

JO 



306 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



No. 2 worked 268 days, a record for the Yukon and Alaska. They are 
all driven by electric power, generated by water from the Klondike 
river. Another hpBA may be constructed at the upper end of the property 
in 1915. Estimates of this company's gravel deposits show very large 
areas, and the North West Corporation's, the holding company, properties 



10 20 30 40 so 




FxQ. 2. — Principal mining diatricts of Ontario. 



cover more than half of the best-known portions of the Klondike gold field, 
which has already produced nearly £40,000,000, according to A. N. C. 
Treadgold, the managing director. The area is 20,000 acres. Working 
costs are down to 10 cents per cubic yard. The areas contain about 
600,000,000 cu. yd., about half have been proved, 100,000,000 cu. yd. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



307 



averaging 30 cents; and 200,000,000 cu. yd., averaging 20 cents per 
yard. The annual quantity to be treated eventually is 15,000,000 yd. 

The Yukon Gold Co. operates dredges and hydraulic plants near 
Dawson, Klondike, dredges at Iditarod, Alaska, and a boat on the 
American river, California. The report of O. B. Perry for the year 
1913 gives the following information: No. 4 and 6 boats in the Klondike 
were dismantled, and are being rebuilt on other areas. The cost of 
moving them and constructing power lines was $164,484. The eight 
Dawson boats worked from May 1 to October 31, a season of 164 days. 
The average recovery and cost was 65.13 cents and 29,53 cents per cu. 
yd., respectively. Owing to power troubles with the Granville Power 
Co. the boats were idle 20 days or 11 per cent, of the possible time. 
The power contract is to be cancelled, and power will be obtained 
from the Yukon Gold Co.'s own plant. Of the area mined at Daw- 
son 445,624 sq. yd. or 68.4 per cent, was frozen, and had to be thawed by 
steam. The Iditarod dredge worked from May 8 to November 25, a 
season of 203 days. The average recovery and cost was $1.67 and 64.33 
cents per cubic yard respectively. Hydraulicking at Dawson resulted in 
a loss, due to stripping the top gravel before the "pay" could be mined. 
The water supply fell from 524,249 mmers' inches in 1912, to 406,135 in 
1913. The area blocked out and stripped could not be completely mined 
and the gold recovered. About 50 per cent, remains to be cleaned to bed- 
rock, so the gross value is not representative of the area mined, or of the 
gold content of the gravel. The cost was 9.7 cents per cubic yard, and 
duty of the water 6.6. Drought, using water for generating power, and 
a bad break in the ditch system were responsible for unsatisfactory 
hydraulic work. Scattered claims leased to individuals gave a good 
profit. Results may be summarized as follows: 

Royalties paid were $787,278; amortization, $520,886; interest, 
general, $145,373, a total of $1,453,536. A dividend of 6 per cent, was 
paid. The indebtedness to the Guggenheim Exploration Co. was 
reduced by $425,000. The surplus at December 31, 1913, was $489,576. 



Work Done. 



Cu. Yds. Gold Yield. 



Cost. 



Profit. 



0«v»ott dredfiof 

IHvsoa hjdnobokiii^ . 

Iditerod dredging 

Cattforais dredging 



5.133,675 

2.875,952 

496,756 

2,550,271 



$3,843,667 
256.491 
827.420 
176,023 
185.800 



$1,515,872 

278,917 

319.560 

103.849 

33.756 



$1,827,795 
22.426> 

507.860 
72,174 

152,044 



Total. 



$4,789,403 



$2,251,955 



$2,537,449 



' LoM, dm to caoMS explained. 

Mining in this continent in 1913 presented accumulated evidence 
of the important development work of the past few years. This 



308 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

was so, more especially in copper properties, which have shown 
great tonnages of profitable ore. Although enormous quantities of 
gold and silver have been recovered in this coimtry, yet the present 
output is only about 3 1/2 and 6 1/2 per cent, respectively of the 
world's annual yield; but it should increase steadily in the future. 
American and British mining companies were active during the past 
year and investigations were carried on in Peru, Brazil, British Guiana, 
and Colombia. In the first two countries examinations resulted 
unfavorably. South America is one of the few fields for dredging 
possibilities that has not been exhaustively examined. 

Brazil. — The most important gold mining in this republic is at Morro 
Velho mine, at Minas Geraes, and owned by the St. John Del Rey 
Mining Co. of London. The fifty-fifth half-yearly report shows that the 
ore reserves total 1,045,912 tons or 5 1/2 years' supply at 192,000 tons per 
annum. The mine is opened to below 5000 ft. on the incline. The 
labor situation was serious, but is improving by the importation of 
Japanese. The various plants worked well, and the 120-stamp mill 
treated 82,500 tons of ore in 138.3 days, yielding $950,000, with 92.63 
per cent, extraction. The profit was $259,000, and dividends $120,000. 
Investments on the reserve fund were $460,000, and mortgage bonds 
outstanding $134,000. This company also controls extensive deposits 
of iron ore. 

The Diamond King Mining Co. has a dredge working at Mendanba, 
in the Minas Geraes country. Diamonds are also recovered. 

The Ouro Preto Gold Mines of Brazil, operated throughout the year 
and was crushing in the autumn nearly 6000 tons monthly with a yield 
of about $5.88 per ton. The Conquista-Xicao Gold Mines, Ltd., of 
48 Avenida Rio Branco, Rio de Janeiro, installed at Campana, Sao 
Paulo, a 1000-h.p. hydro-electric plant and hydraulic equipment, including 
several giants, three 15-in. centrifugal pumps for sluicing, pipe-lines, 
and about 1 mile of steel sluice-way, using a high-carbon steel plate as a 
wearing plate within the frame of the steel sluiceway. The company 
began sluicing in the autumn of 1913, but up to date no report of the 
results of operations have been received. 

British Guiana, — In this colony, where the gold production has 
declined for several years, more gold was sent out in 1913 than pre- 
viously; due to the numerous small hand operations, which are known 
as "porknockers," and the placers of the Aujuni district. 

The 'Guiana Gold Dredging Co. operates four boats on the Potaro 
river. In 1912-13 the output was $174,570 gold, and a 10 per cent, divi- 
dend was paid. The Minnehaha Dredging Co., on the same river, 
recovered 2472 oz. A new dredge may be built this year. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



309 



Canal Zone. — Placer claims in this district were examined by the 
official geologist, D. F. MacDonald and gave only from traces to 7.5 cents 
per cubic yard. He reported that the territory has practically no value 
for mining purposes. 

CoUmbia. — Mining in Colombia received a great impetus in 1913 
from the remarkably successful operations of the Oroville Dredging Co.'s 
Pato dredge, and from the decision of the Anglo-Colombian Develop- 
ment Co., a Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa subsidiary, to pro- 
ceed with its operation in the San Juan gold-platinum district. The 




Fio. 3. — Colombia. 

definite entrance of two great mining interests in this country, and the 
practically assured success of their operations will give new enterprises 
in this country a cactiet they have lacked for years, and have ahready had 
the effect of directing the attention of other large mining operators to 
the great placer deposits of this country. Colombia is not without lode- 
mining possibilities, but the lack of transportation, except by rivers, will 
prevent for years any general development of the lode mining, whereas 
the country already gives evidence of becoming the world's next great 
placer field. 

Considerable interest was manifested in the dredging operations of 
the Pato dredge, and a boom in the shares followed the announcement 
that recoveries for the first few weeks were above the average from pros- 



310 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

pecting the "tested" area. To November 11 this was 315,212 cu. yd. for 
$205,267 or 65 cents per cubic yard. Previous to reaching this ground, 
473,500 cu. yd. averaged 3.5 cents per yard. The ground dredged for the 
whole of 1913 was about 480,000 cu. yd., yielding $365,000. The esti- 
mated profit to be made from the Pato is £350,000. Other areas may be 
profitably sluiced. The Certigue Dredging Co. worked on the Certigue 
river and handled 22,700 cu. yd. for $7000 in gold and platinum. A 5-ft. 
boat is working profitably on the Pochet property. The American Gold- 
fields Development Co. will erect a dredge in 1914 on the San Juan river 
to recover platinimi. The Pochet dredge operated at a fine profit on the 
east bank of the Nechi river, below Zaragoza. Other properties were 
examined and worked by the Vallecitor Hydraulic, Sambenigno Mines, 
McGuire Bros., Breitung Mines, Rio Grande, Colombian Gold Mines, 
and other companies in many districts. The accompanying map shows 
the northwest part of South America. 

Costa Rica. — The three leading mining properties in Costa Rica, 
the Abangarez, Aguacate, and La Union, had a year of successful de- 
velopment in 1913. La Union, one of the oldest properties in the Re- 
public, was in bonanza ore and it is understood was able, without inter- 
fering withi the mine production, to devote part of its attention to the 
dumps, this material being treated in the cyanide plant. 

The Abangarez Gold Fields Co. on the western slope, reports as fol- 
lows for 1913: Ore treated 69,346 tons, yielding: $579,236, a loss of 
$22,040. Betterment expenses were $72,733. In 1912 the loss was 
$128,683, and betterment expenses $222,781. By May, 1914, there will 
be 60 stamps at work, crushing 12,000 tons per month. The outlook 
for the Aguacate is promising. An ore-body 1500 ft. long has been opened 
between No. 5 and 7 levels, and will average $20 per ton for a width 
of 5 ft. The ore is a honey-combed quartz containing considerable 
manganese dioxide. The mill contains 10 stamps and a leaching plant. 

Drdch Guiana. — The government of this colony recently published the 
gold output for 1913, which amounted to 856,768 gnn. (27,640 oz.), against 
716,487 grm. (23,1 10 oz.) in 1912. About 90 per cent, of this gold was pro- 
duced by hand methods. At present there is one small Chilean mill and 
one small dredge working in the colony. There will be another boat 
operating early in March, 1914. All gold produced in this country must 
pass through the government, which collects 5 per cent, of it. The 
figures given are quite reliable. 

The gold placer mining of the territory was described by J. B. Perci- 
val,* who said that there is at present an excellent opportunity for in- 
vestment of capital in Dutch Guiana. Gold is found in almost every 

I Min. 8ci. Pr., CVI, 688. 



GOLD AND SILVER 311 

part of this country, from the Corantyne river on the west to the Maronic 
on the east. 

An important event in the Guianas was the building of an all-steel 
dredge on the upper reaches of the Rivi^e Approuague by the Compagnie 
francaise de Mataroni; the dredge has bucket of 150 liters (5.3 cu. ft.) 
capacity, and began digging in October; it was started in ground 
estimated to run 1 to 1.3 grm. per cubic meter. 

Ecuador. — The most important mining operation in Ecuador is that 
conducted by the South American Development Co. Its mines are 
situated in the extreme south of the Republic, in the district of Zaruma, 
about 50 miles from the Pacific port of Puerto Bolivar. This gold-mining 
enterprise furnishes employment for about 500 men. During 1913 de- 
velopment was vigorously continued, and the 40-stamp mill and cyanide 
plant were in operation throughout the year. 

Honduras. — ^The principal mining interest in this republic is the New 
York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co., at San Juancito, where the 
company oi>erated its property at increased capacity, owing to improve- 
ments made in 1912. The new mill, comprising twenty 1800-lb. stamps 
and an all-sliming cyanide plant, was started in August, 1912, and has 
worked satisfactorily since that date, the tonnage being gradually in- 
creased until at the end of 1913 about 8500 tons are being handled monthly. 
During the year, mining by the shrinkage system was inaugurated and 
the management installed a number of B.C. 21 IngersoU-Rand stoping 
drills, as it was impracticable to mine by hand the tonnage required by 
the new mill. The production in 1913 probably amounted to 75,000 
tons, and the yield about 10,500 oz. of gold and 1,500,000 oz. of silver. 
The company has had in hand in 1913, a complete geological study of its 
property. 

According to A. D. Akin,^ in the Olancho district of this republic, 
there are good opportunities for placer mining. This has been done for 
many years in a desultory fashion. 

Nicaragua, — ^The Camp Bird, Ltd., has taken an interest in five 
groups of mines in this republic, known as the Bonanza, Mars, the Lone 
Star, Siempre Viva, and Colona. The Bonanza and the Mars have mills 
and plant of 75-ton daily capacity and have, during the past 10 years, 
produced over 200,000 tons of ore at a yield of about $1,920,000. Opera- 
tions, being handicapped by lack of funds and by expensive transporta- 
tion, have only been on a small scale, the light equipment not being 
^sufficient to treat the hard material after exhaustion of the soft surface 
ores. An exhaustive examination of these properties was made, and the 
purchase and further development was recommended. The aggregate 

» Min. &». iV.. CVII. 49. 



312 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

length of known ore-shoots m these groups is 20,500 ft., the average width 
of the veins being about 15 ft., and that there are now in sight above dndn- 
age level approximately 2,400,000 tons of positive and probable ore, all 
of which can be mined by means of open cuts and adit levels, of an average 
grade of $6.66 per ton, from which a profit of $5,000,000 should be ob- 
tained. There is no payment for working the bond and lease of the claims 
for a year, only a rental of $6000 per month. Provided all titles are clear, 
the syndicate must pay $369,000 at the end of the first year, and if all is 
satisfactory the balance of $753,600 is to be paid a year later. 

Near Matagalpa the Oroya Leonesa, Ltd., operated its mine and 
20-stamp mill and cyanide plant. At October 31, 1913, ore reserves 
were 85,744 tons worth $9.80 per ton. During the first half of the year, 
work was interrupted by the customary revolution, and 11,715 tons 
yielded gold worth $72,000. 

Peru. — Much outside interest has been taken in the development of 
the gold industry, although this continues to be unimportant if no regard 
is taken of the gold derived from copper and, to a less degree, from lead 
ores, according to Lester W. Strauss, in the Mining and Scientific Press, 
Activities in vein mining are increasing, although no large properties are 
in operation, while the placers are, as yet, smaller producers. 

The largest producing property is that of the New Chuquitambo 
Gold Mines, Ltd., 6 miles below Cerro de Pasco. The production for 
the year ending November, 1913, was 114.34 kg. (nearly 3700 oz.) of 
bullion (over 900 fine), which represents a recovery of 65 to 70 per cent, 
effected by amalgamation from the treatment of 80 to 100 tons of ore 
per day in the 40-stamp mill; 140 men are employed in the mine and mill. 

The Cotabambas Auraria, at Cochasayhuas, in the Department of 
Apurimac, has increased its production since the cyanide plant for coarse 
sand has been in operation. The present 10-stamp mill, one Huntington 
mill, and two Ferrarris tables, treating 16 tons of sorted ore per day, is to 
be increased with 40 additional stamps and a cyanide plant of adequate 
capacity, so that 100 tons can be milled per 24 hours. 

Another probable increasing producer is the Sociedad Aurifera Anda- 
ray Posco, in the Department of Arequipa. The present plant consists of 
two Lane mills and a new cyanide plant. 

In the Department of Puno, the Santo Domingo mine, of the Inca 
Mining Co., with a past record of £700,000 production, has been optioned 
to an Argentine syndicate for £120,000. 

The production from the alluvial deposits is still small, disregarding 
that resulting from the native washings. The only company that has 
operated continuously and profitably is the CompafLia Aurifera Argentina- 
Peruana, at Viscachani, Department of Puno. In the same province, the 



GOLD AND SILVER 313 

Aporoma Gold fields, Ltd., has not been as successful as was anticipated. 
On account of the lack of water, operations were very limited. About 
£25,000 is needed for an additional ditch line, according to the company's 
statements, that would permit bringing in sufficient water to wash at 
least 10,000 cu. yd. per day. The 42,500 cu. yd. washed, during the 
initial working, showed a recovery of 7.3d. per cubic yard. 

The most important silver property, other than those which ship 
argentiferous copper or lead products or ores, is the Sociedad Explota- 
dora de Caylloma, in the Department of Ajrequipa. A concentrating and 
cyaniding mill, of 100 tons capacity per day, will be erected and ready for 
operation early in 1915. 

Salmdor. — ^The precious-metal production of Salvador in 1913 
amounted to about $800,000 in gold and $300,000 in silver, this output 
being principally from the Butters properties in the departments of La 
Union and Jocorro. At the Butters Salvador Mines, Ltd., the capacity 
of the filter-plant was doubled in 1913, and operations increased generally. 
At the Butters Divisadero Co., at Divisadero, in the department of 
Jocorro, plans were made for increasing the mill capacity, and further 
mine equipment was ordered. The output at the Divisadero mine is 
about 700 tons per day, while that at the Salvador is between 800 and 
900 tons per day. The Butters Potosi Consolidated Mines, Inc., is the 
title of an interesting development operation, where favorable results 
were obtained during the year and it is likely that an equipment will 
be put upon this property. 

Besides the Butters operations, which are the principal ones in 
Salvador, Mackay, Pullinger & Co. placed some small equipment on the 
Eocuentros property in the department of Morazan. Some work was 
done during the year by the Comacaran Gold Mining Co., near Jocorro 
but in the department of San Miguel. Additional equipment was added 
by the Monte Mayor Mining Co. in the department of La Union. 

Venezuela, — ^There is a fair amount of mining activity here, but 
owners find it difficult to get sufficient labor, on account of the miners 
being able to recover gold by panning river gravel and stealing it. 
The class of labor is poor, being chiefly composed of negroes from the 
West Indies. 

The Rio del Oro Co., Ltd., operating El Amparo mine in the Yuruary 
river district in the State of Bolivar, sank its main shaft to the 200-ft. 
level; the production for October was 120 tons, containing 518 oz. 
Mining concessions were granted to Augusto Pinaud for La Victoria and 
El Choco gold mines, in Roscio district, in Bolivar. The South American 
Copper Syndicate of London shipped regularly from its Oroa group of 
mines. 



314 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Europe. — ^There is not a great deal of direct gold and silver mining 
in Europe, save in Russia, which includes Siberia in this section, mostot 
these metals coming from the reduction of lead and copper ores. Some at- 
tention is being directed to the Balkan countries, and the Ottoman Empire, 
since the recent war. The mines of the latter country were described by 
G. Maitland Edwards,^ who stated that, regarding gold mining, the metal 
is not found so frequently as the mineralized state of the country would 
lead one to expect. There are ancient workings in Asia Minor; but 
generally little is being done at present. The Bereozovsk gold deposit 
of the Ural district, Russia, was described by Chester Wells Puringion.^ 

Austria. — The Asgard Mining -Co. was registered February 16, 1909, 
to acquire from J. W. Burkitt, the Mount Roundny gold mines and plant, 
in the communities of Barkowitz, Siboun, Laby, and Zvestoe, Bohemia, 
formerly the property of the Mount Roundny Gold Mines, Ltd. The 
report for the period from July 1, 1912, to June 30, 1913, shows that 
32,125 tons was milled, yielding 718.40 kg. of amalgam and 6997 oz.; 
582 tons of concentrate yielded 1882 oz.; and 15,864 tons of tailing 
cyanided, gave 243 oz. of fine gold. The total yield was 9122 oz. fine 
gold. The average working cost was $4.52 per ton. The ore reserves 
are estimated at 126,620 tons, the maximum average being $17.50 at 
the 250-meter level, and are estimated to contain 52,205 oz. of gold. 
The receipts for gold and silver, including gold in transit, amounted to 
£39,307. The credit balance for the year was £9617. Three dividends 
of 12 ceots per share have been declared. 

France. — The La Lucette mine, at Genest, in the department of May- 
enne, is shut down. It has produced about $550,000 in gold for a number 
of years, also a great deal of antimony. France still has notable gold 
mines, such as La BelliSre, Le Chatel^t, and others, but the passing of 
La Lucette is much to be regretted. 

Great Britain. — Gold mining was restricted to operations on a pros- 
pecting scale, only 170 tons of ore being treated, evidently specimen, 
as the return is estimated at 1200 fine ounces; adding the amount of 
gold contained in copper ore, 144 oz., the total yield is 1344 fine ounces. 
Copper pyrite yielded 334,425 oz. of silver; also 3988 oz. from domestic 
copper ores, 118,540 oz. from domestic lead ores, and 182 oz. from domes- 
tic zinc ores, giving a total production from all sources of 457,135 oz. 

Norway. — The total amount of silver produced at the Kongsberg 
mines during 1913, was 8459 kg. of fine silver and 1137 kg. in ore, valued 
at $183,000. 

Russia (By J. P. Hutchins). — The production of gold for 1913 is 
variously estimated as being worth from $25,000,000 to $30,000,000. 

1 BuU, 111. iMt. Min Met. * BuU. 112. Inst. Min. Met. 



GOLD ANDlSILVER 



315 



Official figures are not yet available. The actual production is probably 
worth over $30,000,000, for a considerable proportion of the total gold 
is won in Eastern Siberia by Chinese, Koreans, and Russian Ehishniki, 
or snipers and tributors. Much of this gold does not pass through the 
government offices, but is surreptitiously taken to China. Thus probably 
one-third of all the gold won in Eastern Siberia, which is 70 per cent, of 
the total Russian production, is not recorded as such. 

More than 16 per cent, of the total gold production of Eastern Siberia 
is produced by one company; the Lena Goldfields, Ltd., operating the 
Lenskoie gravel mines; this is about 11 per cent, of the total gold produced 



1 1 '^> 




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Fxo. 4.— Lena River Goldfields of SiberU. 



in the Russian Empire. During the year ending September 30, 1913, 
revenue amounted to £672,499, made up of £81,270 cash balance from 
the previous term, £378,664 from Lenskoie Gold Mines Co.'s shares sold, 
£ 178,629 from Lenskoie dividend, and, £33,936 from interest andVoyalties. 
The Lena Goldfields paid £266,648 in dividends, etc., and has a cash 
balance at September 30 of £405,851. The company holds 61.20 per 
cent, of the Lenskoie company's stock. The Lenskoie, the operating 
company, mined 820,189 cu. yd. of gravel, yielding 335,348 oz. gold, 
against 549,244 cu. yd. and 260,505 oz. gold in the previous year. The 
total production of the different groups of claims since the commence- 
ment of operations is 4,746,511 oz. gold, as given in the report of Charles 
M. Rolker. Out of 950 drill-holes, 69 average over 7 dwt. per yard. 
Probable reserves are as follows: stream length, 30,275 ft.; gravel con- 
tent, 2,438,424 cu. yd.; total gold content, 946,230 oz.; net profit, 187,003 
oj. Doubtful reserves have a stream length of 15,687 ft., containing 
6S2J22 cu. yd. of gravel and 180,714 oz. gold, on which there would be 
a loss of 24,266 oz. 



316 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Of the total gold won iu the Russian Empire, Eastern Siberia east of 
Lake Baikal, produces about 70 per cent.; Ural Mountains' region about 
16 per cent.; Western Siberia, that is, between the Ural Mountains and 
Lake Baikal, about 12 per cent.; and about 2 per cent, is recovered as a 
by-product in copper refining. Practically all the gold won in Eastern 
Siberia, 30 per cent, of that from the Ural Mountains' region, and about 
55 per cent, of that from Western Siberia, is from placers. These figures 
indicate very well the present insignificance of gold vein mining in Siberia. 
There is not now one large quartz mine in the Russian Empire. 

There is the prospect, however, of there being developed some large 
gold mines in the Altai region. There are many old mines that were 
worked in prehistoric times in the Altai Mountains' r^on for silver 
principally. The occurrence of gold was recognized, but not appreciated, 
and so large bodies of high-grade gold ore were left in the mines. There 
is one large gold mine, the lower 450 ft. of which have been flooded since 
1805. This is now producing ore for a small stamp-mill ; but it is expected 
that it will be equipped with a large mill and modern treatment. There 
are hundreds of thousands of tons of ore containing about 10 dwt. gold 
per ton in the mine and which was not considered profitable by the former 
miners. 

That part of Mongolia which has recently come under Russian influ- 
ence, is being considered and will be investigated during the present year. 
The placers are in part perpetually frozen; there is frozen ground in 
Mongolia in latitude 48** north. 

The Urals gold refineries during 1913 produced 110,000 oz. gold 
worth £399,208. The most productive districts were South Ekaterinburg, 
Orenburg, and North Ekaterinburg. Mining was more active and the 
yield 9072 oz. greater than in 1912. 

The output of silver is on the increase, and the Urals output was about 
600,000 oz., mainly as a by-product from copper and lead ores. The 
leading producer is the Eyshtim Corporation, returning 50 per cent, of 
the silver output of this part of Russia. In other districts, silver is 
principally obtained from mines in the Altai mountains, Siberia. These 
contain silver, copper, lead, zinc and gold. There are two groups, the 
Zmeingorsky and Salari mines. The Nerchinsk silver ores in Eastern 
Siberia yield about 29,000 oz. per annum. Silver works in the Kirghis 
Steppes are primitive. In the Caucasus the Alagir works are owned by 
a Belgian company. 

There were 58 gold mines operated in the Orenburg district of Russia 
in 1912, from which was mined about 170,000 tons of ore yielding approxi- 
mately 43,000 oz. of gold. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



317 



Mbxico 

By E. H. Leslie 

The mineral industry of Mexico during 1913 labored under the handi- 
cap of civil war, banditism, and unrest with all of the accompanying 
impediments. In those out-of-the-way districts of Durango, Chihuahua, 
Coahuila, Sinaloa, Guerrero, Pueblo, Oaxaca, and Zacatecas the results 
of the present civil war were particularly felt due to the lack of transporta- 
tion facilities, shortage of labor, and the continual subjection of properties 
in these districts to the attacks of bandits, who conducted marauding 
operations under revolutionary colors. While very little actual damage 



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FiQ. 6. — Mezioo. 

to mining property resulted, the effect has been the suspension of opera- 
tions, with its attendant loss to share-holders, and a demoralization of 
the mining industry of that country in general. 

The general decline in the gold and silver production during the past 
vear is evidenced by the decline in the exportations which is generally 
eonsidered as a true barometer of production. The statistics of the fiscal 
year ended June 30, last, give an increase in mineral products exported, 
compared with the fiscal year 1911-12, of pesos 3,441,807, but the increase 
ia petroleum exports alone was approximately 10,000,000 pesos, and silver 
coin to the value of 9,806,402 pesos, an increase of over 9,000,000 pesos was 



318 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



sent out of the country. The total of gold exported in the last fiscal year 
was 39,591 ,427 pesos , a decrease of 10,313,687 pesos; andof silver 91,239,- 
652 pesos, an increase of 1,725,298 pesos. Exclusive of the silver coin 
exported, there was a decrease in silver shipments of over 7,000,000 pesos. 
Copper exports totaled 36,522,115 pesos, an increase of 3,020,242 pesos, 
and lead exports 4,907,334 pesos, a decrease of 1,111,811 pesos. The zinc 
shipped had a value of only 536,094 pesos, a decrease of 372,600 pesos, and 
the exports of antimony amounted to 1,575,499 pesos, a decrease of 152,- 
839 pesos. The gold exported in the fiscal year included 868,815 pesos 
in Mexican and foreign gold coin. 

The production of gold and silver since 1900 is given in the following 
table. While exact figures are impossible, the statistics presented are 
approximately correct, and show the general trend of the industry: 

PRODUCTION OF GOLD AND SILVER IN MEXICO. 
(Fiscal yenra endinc June SO.) 



Year. 


Gold. 


Silrer. 


KUograms. 


Pesos. 


KUograms. 


Pesos. 


1000-01 


13.810 
14.706 
14.904 
17,082 
21.305 
27.807 
27.428 
30.305 
83.661 
36.222 
37.112 
86.415 
29.843 


18.413.381 
19,607.067 
10,872,148 
22,775.815 
28.407.318 
86.400.368 
36,563.808 
40.527.185 
44,881.621 
48.205,508 
40.481.956 
48.553.632 
39.591.427 


1.816,605 
1,772.724 
2,028,922 
2,013,383 
1,931.985 
1.849.956 
1.756,704 
2.151.014 
2,291.261 
2,257,863 
2.305.094 
2.493,731 
2.280.000 


74.326.406 


1001-02 


72,530.983 


1002-03 


82.808,783 


1003-04 


82.377.546 


1004-05 


79,047,148 


1005-06 


75.605.605 


1005-07 * 


77,088,827 


1007-08 


85.366.904 


1008-00 


77.076.097 


1000-10 


76,371,884 


1010-11 


80.878,729 


1911-12 


89,638.435 


1912-13 


91.293.652 







NoTS.— 1 kg. ■■ 32.15 OS. 1 Peso ■■$0.50 U. S. currency 



While these figures show an increase for the past fiscal year, the actual 
production shows a decrease as previously stated. The large amount 
of coin exported is largely attributed to the excessive rate of exchange, 
which made the silver in coin worth more than the face value of the coin. 

The smelters have been laboring under difficulties through lack of 
transportation facilities, with the accompanying shortage of fuel and sup- 
plies. The Torreon, Velardefla, and Matehuala smelters were forced to 
close during the first half of the year, and have been unable to resume 
operations. The Chihuahua smelter has been running intermittently, 
while that at Agnascalientes has been running continuously, but at greatly 
reduced capacity. The Town smelter, at San Luis Potosi, was able to 
operate until August, when inability to get coke caused a shut-down for 
2 months, and in December it was again forced to suspend operations. 
At Cananea, the copper company's smelter has been in continuous opera- 



GOLD AND SILVER 319 

tion at varying capacity, although at times the company had difficulties 
in keeping the labor at the plant due to revolutionary enthusiasm. Dur- 
ing the present year, 1914, the smelters that were struggling alone have 
suspended operations, and will abide a more auspicious time for resuming. 

It is impossible with the space afforded in a publication of this nature 
to give anything but a brief resume of actual mining operations as to 
results which are being obtained by the different companies. However, 
a few notes as to what some of the more important producers are doing 
will serve as an index to the general status of the industry. 

Chikuahtia. — ^This state has been the stage for the greater part of the 
revolution, and as a result, its mineral production has been greatly cur- 
tailed. The impossibility of securing supplies and of shipping products 
forced many Chihuahua mines to shut down in 1913. Operations in the 
Santa Eulalia district of Chihuahua were well maintained, considering 
conditions, the ores suppl3ring the Chihuahua smelter. Suspension of 
traffic on the Mexico Northwestern railway stopped shipments from the 
mines of the Cusihuiriachic district. The Alvarado Mining & Milling 
Co. continued operations in the face of great difficulties, and made ship- 
ments of bullion by wagon-train to the border. 

The Mines Co. of America, which operates mines in Chihuahua 
and Sonora, reports as follows concerning the year's results: Develop- 
ment in the Dolores showed good results, and reserves at the end of the 
year were 100,932 tons, assaying $14.18 per ton. Costs were reduced 
by 12 per ton treated. Owing to bandits, the mill was stopped on Sep- 
tember 1, and the mine 3 weeks later. El Rayo was forced to suspend 
work on July 10, but expects to resume shortly. Mining proved the 
extension of the known ore-bodies. Reserves are 54,800 tons of $14.60 
ore. The Creston-Colorada and Grand Central produced 130,664 tons 
of ore worth $810,514. At the beginning of 1914, ore reserves were esti- 
mated as 306,300 tons, averaging $5.33 per ton. The Grand Central 
promises to be a profitable investment. Both mines and plants operated 
con muously during 1913. It is proposed to increase the monthly output 
from 10,000 to 18,000 tons of ore. From the Gloria and Prieta mines 
at La Dura, there were produced 4869 tons. The stoping operations 
c'trried on in these properties have proved the persistence of the veins. 
The Gloria vein, below the 900-ft. level, is showing strong and yielded 
a good grade of ore, while on the 1040-ft. level of the Prieta mine, stoping 
<hows a good tonnage of high-grade ore. Ore reserves are 23,229 tons, 
a^'saying $44.24. Partly on account of the interruption to railway ship- 
ping facilities and partly on account of President Wilson's proclamation 
urging Americans to leave all isolated camps in Mexico, operations were 
^u^nded in September. The property is bx charge of the presidente 



320 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

of the town, and has not been molested in any way. It is the mientioD 
to resume operations upon the re-establishment of railway communicatioD. 
Ore reserves in all the mines are estimated to be 485,261 tons assaying 
$4,888,605, compared with 334,876 tons assaying $3,612,010 at the close 
of the preceding year. The production of the company's mines was 
207,085 tons worth $2,017,057. Revenue was $1,734,626; operating 
profit, $495,987; and net profit, $467,232. The consolidated balance 
sheet of the company shows current assets of $1,539,378, accounts and 
drafts payable and suspense account $392,065. 

The Batopilas Co., which is one of the oldest and largest of the 
state, reports as follows for the year ended December 31, 1913: total 
revenue, 742,568 pesos; expenditure, interest, etc., 582,473 pesos; profit, 
160,095 pesos. There is a surplus of 194,913 pesos, an increase over the 
previous year. Cash totals 58,027 pesos; current liabilities, 46,260 pesos; 
and current assets, 174,372 pesos, i 

The San Toy Mining Co. had a gross income of pesos 317,332 with 
a surplus of 17,428 pesos during the year ended December 31, 1913. 

The Buena Tierra Mining Co. makes the following report to the share- 
holders: Owing to the strife in the republic which has prevailed through- 
out the year, the management has been faced with unexampled diflSculties. 
Railway communication has been suspended; labor has been both inade- 
quate and unruly; the smelter to which the ore is sold was unable to 
operate continuously, and has been shut down since November 1 last. 
The development of the mine has been continued as opportunity offered, 
and has, the circular states, been quite satisfactory. It is estimated 
that the ore reserves at December 31 will equal the amount exposed last 
year — namely, 300,000 tons. For the 10 months ended October 31, 
25,972 tons of ore were shipped to the smelter, realizing a profit over all 
outgoings of £19,800. Adding to this interest received in London, and 
deducting the estimated mine costs for November and December, as well 
as London expenses, provision for income tax, and so forth, there will 
remain approximately a net profit for the year of £16,000. With the 
amount brought in the balance to the credit of profit and loss account is 
about £22,500. 

Coahutla. — This has been the chief coal-producing state of Mexico 
and during the past year due to rebel activities it has been necessary to 
practically abandon the mines. Shipments were stopped with the 
cutting of railroad communication in Coahuila, early in the year, but a 
number of the concerns continued operations for a time and accumulated 
big reserve supplies of coal, which were burned when the mines were 
dynamited by the rebels. The gold and silver production of the state 
was practically nil. 



GOLD AND SILVER 321 

Durango. — This state has been a particularly keen sufferer from revo- 
lutionary activities and mining in the state is practically at a stand- 
still. The Guanacevi district is producing nothing. The Pefioles Co. 
has been forced to practically suspend operations. The Bacis Gold & 
Silver Mining Co.'s property has suspended operations and the stores 
have been confiscated by the rebels. It is hoped that when the railway 
to Tepehuanes is in operation again under rebel control that some of the 
properties will be able to resiune. 

A contact ore-body was discovered in the Guanacevi district, Durango, 
last year, and is proving to be of considerable extent, and produces some 
rich ore. The Desengafio mine produced bullion worth pesos 1,300,000, 
at a cost of pesos 200,000. One lot of 100 tons yielded about pesos 1000 
net per ton. In the Mexico Consolidated and Fortuna, ore has been 
opened. Operations of the rebels considerably hampered development. 
Guanajuato, — The mines of this state have been responsible for a 
large percentage of the production of the past year. 

The Guanajuato Consolidated Mining & Milling Co. reports for the 
quarter ended June 30 last, as fellows: Total value recovered, pesos 
350,246; working expenses including marketing, treatment charges, etc., 
pesos 269,806; profits, pesos 80,440; expended on development pesos 
15,796; balance, pesos 64,643. During the quarter 621 ft. of develop- 
ment work was done. The mill ran a total of 89 days and crushed 
22,871 tons of ore. Concentrates shipped aggregated 353 tons. The 
value of bullion was pesos 184,244, and the value of concentrate pesos 
166,002. 

The properties in the immediate vicinity of the city of Guanajuato 
including the Guanajuato Reduction & Mines Co., the Penguico Mining 
Co., the Humbolt, the Armsted properties, are all in operation. There 
might also be mentioned in the state the Zaragoza, El Profita, San Carlos, 
San Antonio, Padre de Dios, the La Luz properties, and many others. 

Guerrero. — Mining in this state was of a very desultory character, 
the Taxco mines showing but little activity, and those in other parts of 
the state have largely suspended, owing to Zapatista activity. A report 
of the Taxco Mines Co. shows that the company's mines were reopened 
in August, 1912, after being closed down for about 15 months, in conse- 
quence of revolutionary disturbances. The unwatering of the under- 
ground working was satisfactorily accomplished, fresh plans were care- 
fully drawn up, and further development on a small scale was continued 
until May last, when the town of Taxco was again seized by revolutionary 
forces, and work on the property had to be suspended. Fortunately, it 
had been left in charge of a reliable foreman, who succeeded in withdrawing 
the pumpe and housing the machinery. In the meantime arrangements 

31 



322 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

had been made for the manager to go to London to confer with the board 
as to the future policy of the company, and he arrived in May, 1913. 
Acting upon the advice of the manager, the directors gave instructions 
for the sale of the high-grade ore which had been taken out of the mine 
in the course of development, and the ore thus produced has, since the 
close of the financial year, realized £6575. The Reforma mine at Campo 
Morado was examined for the Camp Bird Co.; but, for sundry reasons, 
one of which was the political unrest, it was dropped. 

Hidalgo, — The important producers are of course those of the Pachuca 
district, all of which have been in continuous operation. These proper- 
ties include those of the Real del Monte y Pachuca Co., La Blanca Mining 
. & Milling Co., Santa Gertrudis Mining Co., San Rafael y Anexas Mining 
Co., which is being operated largely on custom ore, San Francisco, and 
other smaller properties. 

The fifth annual meeting of Santa Gertrudis Co. Ltd., was held in 
London on November 19, and results for the year may be tabulated as 
follows: 

Development, feet 17,000 

Ore reserves at June 30, 1913: 

Positive and partly developed, tons 778,000 

Probable, tons 269,000 

Estimated profit from total reserves $4,700,000 

Ore treated, tons 263,554 

Metal recovery: 

Gold, ounces 21,800 

Silver, ounces 4,243,000 

Net profit, depreciation deducted $1,110,000 

Dividends 1,060,000 

Carried forward 38,000 

The property is known to contain, besides the main vein, 11 other 
productive veins, six of which were discovered during the past fiscal year. 
On No. 16 and 17 levels, west of the San Francisco shaft, an ore-shoot 
10 ft. wide and 150 ft. long, with limits undefined, has been opened. 
Development of No. 19 level was finished, showing a shoot of payable 
ore nearly 1635 ft. long, although it is narrower and of lower grade than 
on the level above. Since the end of the year, No. 20 level has been 
reached and driving started in ore. San Francisco No. 2 shaft is down 
1760 ft., and new surface equipment installed, so that it is now convenient 
to produce 25,000 tons of ore per month, October showing 30,000 tons 
with a profit of $105,000. 



GOLD AND SILVER 323 

A cable to London on November 23 stated that, on No. 17 level the 
tiouth crc^s-cut has passed through 21 ft. of $47 ore per metric ton. The 
formation is unusual, and it has not been proved whether the shoot is the 
vein or merely locally mineralized rock. 

The San Rafael y Anexas Co. maintained heavy production during 
the year 1913 and the year's profits are expected to exceed those of 1912, 
which amounted to $1,617,691. La Blanca y Anexas Co.'s ore production 
and milling capacity were increased last year by the acquisition of the 
Cinco Sefiores mines early in the year, on which the company held an 
option. 

The Real del Monte mines worked without interruption and the 
monthly tonnage increased from 36,000 to 50,000 tons, while additions 
to the mills will further increase the output. The ore reserves are 
reported as being larger than ever, and additional ground is being de- 
veloped along with the present eight mines of the company. 

Jalisco. — ^This state has produced silver and gold throughout the year, 
and some important developments have taken place, notably in the 
Hostotipaquillo district. Here a new mill was erected by the Cinco 
Minas Co., and another mill.has been constructed by the Casados Mining 
Co. The reduction plant of the former commenced operations on Janu- 
ary 15, 1914, and the 30 stamps of the mill are now dropping steadily. 
It is expected that the mill will reach a capacity of 300 short tons of ore 
daily within a short time. The machinery for the mill was taken into 
the camp during the last rainy season, but no delay resulted, and an un- 
usual record in construction was made. The plant is one of the best 
so far erected in Mexico. There is a big tonnage of milling ore blocked 
out in the properties and the Cinco Minas Co. will soon rank as one of the 
most important producers in this patt of Mexico. 

The additional equipment at the El Favor mill, erected for the use 
of the Mololoa Mining Co., has been placed in commission. A big ton- 
nage of Mololoa ore will be handled daily. The 20 stamps of the 
original El Favor mill are now crushing an increased tonnage of El Favor 
ore. and in addition some custom milling is being done. Ores from nine 
properties in the Hostotipaquillo district have so far been sent to the 
El Favor mill, and the company is securing a revenue of $10 on every 
ton miUed. El Favor's acceptance of custom ores is promoting develop- 
ment in the Hostotipaquillo district. 

The Amparo Mining Co.^ operating at Et^atlan, had the most pros- 
perous year in the company's history, the earnings being considerably 
in excess of those of 1912. The dividend rate has been raised from 4 to 
5 per cent, per quarter, and the disbursement to stockholders for the year 
will amount to $400,000 as compared with $330,000 for the preceding 



324 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

year. The Magistral-Ameca Copper Co. resumed work at its coiK^n- 
trating plant, and has been shipping concentrate during a great part of 
the year. 

Mexico. — Mining operations in this state have been comparatively 
normal. The Rincon mine has been operated during the year, shipping 
100 tons of high-grade ore per month to the smelter until recently. 
Twenty stamps are working, producing bullion and concentrate. 
There, the parent mine, the El Oro Mining & Railway Co., contmu^ 
productive on a diminishing scale, without any prospect in depth. The 
Esperanza and the Mexico, the two adjacent mines on the same vein 
system, have depreciated greatly in value, despite sundry discoveries 
underground that seemed to postpone the day of exhaustion. The Dos 
Estrellas, on the other side of the hill, has gone the way of most mines 
that are boomed on the Paris bourse. 

The report of the El Oro Mining & Railway Co. for the year ended 
June 30, 1913, shows that ore reserves total 448,053 tons, averaging $8.11 
per ton in gold, and 3 oz. silver. Ore milled amounted to 253,434 tons, 
yielding $2,188,724. The profit, including $117,983 from the railway, 
was $768,000. Dividends were $548,000. The costs totaled $3.44 per 
ton. 

The Mexico Mines of El Oro, during the year ended June 30, 1913, 
produced gold and silver worth $1,669,540 from 158,395 tons of ore. 
Costs were $4.12 per ton. Dividends were $769,000, from a profit of 
$965,000. 

The consulting engineers of the Esperanza Mining Co. give the follow- 
ing estimates of the ore reserves on Dec. 31, 1913: 114,000 dry metric 
tons of ore, which it is estimated will yield a profit of $420,000; and the 
estimated profit to be derived from the re-treatment of the tailing 
dump is $240,000, making total estimated profits of $660,000 United 
States coinage. 

The old stope fillings have thus far realized expectations and if they 
hold out, will materially add to the life of the mine and of the profits. 
The tonnage of these old fillings is large, and their assay are necessarily 
erratic, but the grade of old fillings mined during the last quarter has 
been satisfactory and resulted in a material increase of profits. 

Operations at the Dos Estrellas gold mines, in the Tlalpujahua district 
of Michoacan, for years the most important producer in Mexico, have been 
reduced to a great extent, and according to advices from Tlalpujahua 
more than 1200 men have been dispensed with. Reduced value of the 
ore and increased expenses, including additional taxes and direct contribu- 
tions as a result of present conditions in Mexico, are given as the reasons 
for this step. It is understood that considerable exploration work will be 



GOLD AND SILVER 325 

undertaken. For a number of years the Dos Estrellas mines produced 
approprimately pesos 1,000,000 per month, and half that sum, or pesos 
6,000,000 per year, was in dividends. 

Oazaca. — Mining operations of importance have been largely confined 
to the Taviche district. The San Murtin mine has a good tonnage ready 
for treatment. The San Juan has made a number of shipments and 
mining operations were conducted almost continuously. Considerable 
interest has been aroused lately in the Lolita mine, located in the Taviche 
district. Work has been in progress on the properties for upward of a 
year and during this time large and rich ore-bodies from 200 to 400 ft. 
below the outcroppings have been developed and shipments of very high- 
grade gold and silver ores have been made to the smelters. Forty-six 
mmes are said to be in active operation in the state of Oaxaca, the 
majority of them being in the districts of bctlan, Taviche, and Ejutla. 
Acitivity is noted also in the Tehuantepec and Yautepec districts. 

Sinaloa and Tepic. — These are among the unfortunately situated 
states, which have been subjected to repeated bandit and so-called 
revolutionary outrages, with the result that the mining industry is 
practically at a standstill. The important El Tajo, Panuco, and Guadalupe 
de los Reyes properties are shut down. The La Dicha Mining & Milling 
Co. has ordered a 20-ton concentrating plant for the old Dolores property 
at Ixtlan del Rio in the state of Tepic. 

Sonora, — ^Although this state has been a center for revolutionary 
activity during the past year, the mines have in large part been in opera- 
tion. Save for a month or two in the spring of 1913 most of the properties 
in northern Sonora were working. Those in the southern part of the state, 
especially along the Yaqui river, have had to suspend operations. 

In the north, as well as in some of the central portions of the state, most 
of the substantial companies have been operating without intermission. 
However, upon a few occasions some of the companies had to abandon 
operations for a short time during battles, and bandit redds, as at 
Nacozari, Cananea, and other points. The great producers are located 
in the northern portion of the state, and these have been operating steadily, 
in fact the properties in the northeastern portion of the state have been 
producing more during the past 6 months than at any other previous 
time. The Mines Co. of America has been operating steadily at Minas 
Prietas and La Colorada, but its La Diu'a property was forced to close 
down in the fall, after an effort to continue work, but the inability of 
securing supplies and difficulties without number which faced them almost 
<JAiIy proved too great. - 

Greene-Cananea, Moctezuma Copper Co., and El Tigre, the three 
largest concerns in the northern portion of the statue, have been operating 



326 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

continuously all the year, save for short intervals when battles have 
occurred in their camps. Upon several occasions they were without rail 
facilities, Cananea being without rail communication for over a month, 
but, fortunately, all had large supplies on hand which aided in bridging 
the gap. 

Most of the properties south of Cananea are idle, there being a few 
silver mines operating on a small scale. 

Sonora's gold and silver production for 1913 may be estimated as 
follows: 

Ores, 800,000 pesos gold, 2,500,000 pesos silver; concentrate 2,000 
pesos gold, 300,000 pesos silver; and bullion 2,800,000 pesos, 25,800,- 
000 pesos, a total of 9,225,000 pesos. 

The Lucky Tiger-Combination Gold Mining Co., of Kansas City, 
Missouri, operating a mine and mill at El Tigre, Sonora, has not been 
interfered with by the revolution. The stamp-mill has been crushing 
about 6100 tons of ore, and the cyanide plant treating 7500 tons of tailing 
per month, while crude ore was shipped to smelters in El Paso. A 
monthly profit of about $60,000 is being made. Dividends were paid, 
and bonds retired. Good ore was opened during the year. 

The average monthly silver production of the Cananea Consolidated 
Copper Co. was about 100,000 oz. and about 600 oz. of gold. 

While the present conditions in Mexico are very discouraging, there 
is considerable optimism in the hearts of those who have investments in 
this country in light of the stand which the American people have taken 
in regard to Mexico's internal affairs. With peace restored, which now 
seems likely at no far off time, the mineral industry will resume operations 
on a scale which has never been equalled in the past and Mexico mil again 
assume her place of prominence in the rank of the mineral producing 
nations of the earth. 

Progress in Gold and Silver Milling During 1913 

By C. H. Fulton 

The year 1913 presents nothing that is startlingly new in cyanidation 
and gold and silver milling. On account of the Civil War in Mexico, no 
progress in cyanidation is reported from there. Comparatively few new 
mills have been erected throughout the world, the greatest activity being 
shown in Rhodesia, Africa. Much attention is still being paid to con- 
tinuous agitation and decantation systems in the hope that filters may 
be avoided. In fact, mafiy metallurgists seem to advocate a reversion 
to old methods which have been discarded. This state of mind is prob- 
ably only temporary and although the filter situation is still far from good, 



GOLD AND SILVER 327 

it is hoped that before long most difficulties will be satisfactorily adjusted. 
Most of the literature of the year concerns minor improvements in 
apparatus and methods. The subject of agitation appliances is receiving 
very serious consideration and a number of new devices have been put on 
the market. The most promising of these is the Dorr agitator. 

Milling Practice 

United States.— The Mill of the Gold Road Mines Co.^ is situated at 
Gold Road near Kingman, Ariz. This is an old mill which has been 
frequently remodeled. The method used is to crush in cyanide solution, 
agitate in a Pachuca tank, and in place of filtration employ counter- 
current decantation in Dorr thickeners. The ore has a gangue of quartz 
and calcite, the gold being present in a finely divided free state. The 
amount of sulphides is small. The ore (360 tons per day) is rough crushed 
with lime in a No. 5 Gates g3rratory crusher which discharges into a 1540- 
ton bin. Challenge feeders deliver ore to forty 1050-lb. stamps making 
one hundred four 7 in. drops per minute, and crushing through 4 mesh 
screens in 21b. KCN solution, containing also 2-2.5 lb. CaO per ton, a 
very high alkalinity. The pulp passes to 2 distributing cones, 4-ft. and 
&-ft. diameter re^ectively which discharge to 6 duplex Dorr classifiers. 
The sands are reground in four 5X22 ft. tube mills, in closed circuit with 
the classifiers, the lifting being done by four 10X54 in. Frenier pumps. 
The slime, 86 per cent, of which passes a 150-mesh screen, goes to two 
30X10 ft. Dorr thickeners the overflow solution from which goes to 
clarifying tanks and presses and thence to zinc dust precipitation system A . 
The thickened pulp, dilution ratio 1: 1, passes to three 17X44 ft. Pachuca 
tanks operated as units for agitation. The agitator discharges its pulp to 
a series of Dorr thickeners for the counter-current decantation treatment. 
There are 5 sets of 2 thickeners each for this work. The solution over- 
flow from the first set is pumped to the stock tanks and used as crushing 
soIutioiL The thickened discharge from this set is diluted with barren 
solution, and passes to the second set of thickeners, the overflow from 
which is used to dilute the discharge from the Pachuca tank on its way 
to the first set of thickeners. The thickened discharge from set number 2 
is diluted with barren solution and passes to set number 3. The overflow 
from this passes to zinc dust precipitation, system J?, while the thickened 
pulp 18 diluted with overflow solution from set number 5 and passes to the 
fourth set of thickeners. The overflow from this set joins the inflow into 
set 3, while the thickened pulp is diluted with water and passes to set 
number 5. The overflowfrom this set joins the inflow into number 4 as al- 

*H. A. Megrmir. Sng. Min. Jour., XCVI 3. 



328 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

ready stated, while the thickened pulp is discharged, passing on its way 
through an automatic sampler. It will be noted that barren solution is 
the diluting agent in the first two sets of thickeners, while water Lb used 
in the last three sets. The Bosqui System of zinc dust precipitation is 
used. The mill treats low-grade gold ore and the mill solutions are 
low in metal content. It is an interesting application of the counter- 
current decantation method^ replacing Butters filters. Cyanide consump- 
tion is 0.4 lb. and lime 0.65 lb. per ton of ore. Zinc consumption is 0.4 
lb. per ton of solution precipitated. 

The mill of the Tom Reed Gold Mines Co.* is situated at Oatman, 
Arizona, about 1.5 miles distant from the Gold Roads mine, above de- 
scribed. The ore and system of treatment are similar to that at the Gold 
Road mine, except that a Butters filter is still in use, but will probably be 
displaced by the counter-current decantation system. The capacity of 
the mill is 150 tons per day. The mill of the Vulture Mines Co.' b situated 
about 14 miles southwest of Wickenburg in central Arizona. The ore 
treated is white quartz, containing free gold, and a small amount of pyrite, 
galena and chalcopyrite. The average value is about $20 per ton. The 
mill scheme includes amalgamation, concentration and cyanidation by 
the counter-current decantation system. The accompanying flow sheet, 
Fig. 1, describes the process. 

H. A. Megraw* describes the Central Mill of the North Star Mines 
Co., and the Empire mill, both at Grass Valley, Calif, These mills are 
very much alike and the latter has been described in some detail in a pre- 
vious volume.* The same author* describes the mill of the Black Oak 
Development Co., at Soulsbyville, Tuolumne County, previously de- 
scribed in the Mineral Industry.^ 

A. A. Willoughby* briefly describes the new mill of the Globe Con- 
solidated Mining Co. at Dedrick, Calif. This is a 20-stamp all-slime 
plant, employing a Dorr classifier, one 22X5 ft. tube mill, 4 Dorr 
thickeners and 3 Dorr agitators and an Oliver 16-ft. filter. 

H. A. Megraw* describes milling practice at the Liberty Bell Mine, 
Telluride, Colo., and at the Independence and other mines. Cripple Creek, 
Colo., already referred to in previous volumes of the Mineral Industry ^° 
S. L. Goodale" briefly describes some general features of milling practice 
at Cripple Creek, Colo. 

> MxNEBAL Indubtbt, XX, 341. 

s H. A. Megraw, Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI. 199. 

* H. A Megraw. Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 201. 
*Bng. Min. Jour,, XCV, 983. 

* MiNBRAL Indubtbt. aXI, 387. 
•Bno, Min. Jour., XCV. 1179. 

' Mineral Industbt. XXI. 389 and. Met. Chem. Bng., XI, 640. 

• Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 688. 

• Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 3, 313. 

i> MxNBBAL Industbt, XX, 327 and 325. 
" Min. Sci. Pr., CVII, 297. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



329 



Ore 



Bftttery 
Bolatioa 



Qymtory Ornriier 

L Onuhing throttgh 2 in. Bisg. 
Oonwyor Belt and Tram to Mill. 



XL 



Bfn 



Ohallenge Feedaw 



»• MOO lb. Stampa. 

08- e^ In. Drops «)MMh8oieen 

I Inalde Amnlsnmation 

Dnplez Dorr OlMslfler. 



Overflow 

P' 

8' Ho. 8 Detrter Tabl es 
iL Tallfi 



Underilow 
8- 5 ft. ¥nieeler Grinding Pans 



(DDorr Thickener 
8S z 7^ ft 




Water 



g)Dorr Th 




Oono. 



Thickened 



g) Dorr Thickener 



Pieo pltate Presi 



32x12 ft. 



^ 



Barren Solution Precipitate 



To Tank. 



(DDorr Thickener 

BxMft. V^ 



Overitow 



^y \« X 12 ft. 
rflow ^^ 



Tailings 

DiMhaived 



Fio. 1. — Flow iheet of the Vulture Mines Co. 



330 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



The New Argo Mill, at the mouth of the New House tunnel, Idaho 
Springs, Colorado, is described by S. L. Goodale.* This is a custom mill 
for the treatment of the complex ores of this district. It employs crush- 
ing in cyanide solution, amalgamation, concentration on card tables, mak- 
ing a lead, iron and a copper concentrate, air agitation, and counter-cur- 
rent decantation in Dorr thickeners. The mill has a capacity of about 
135 tons per day. J. C. Kennedy* describes in some detail the mill of the 



On 



Mo. 4 ICoOally Oyrat ory Crasher 



MP ton Bin 
Belt Conveyor 



i 



TO ton Battery Bin 
Oha! 



2 Smpended Challenge Feedera 

yHOSOlb. Stampe 
100>6 in. Dropft. Inside amalgamotlon 
8 Mesh Screens 




4-4 xSe ft. Amaltfam Plates 
^ I Slope 1.73 In. per ft, 

A malga m. Ama lgam Traps 

^ 

Atttomatio Pii»e Sampler 



Fio. 2. — Flow aheet of Big Four Manhattan Mining Co. 

Manhattan Ore Milling Co. at Manhattan, Nev., described in a previous 
volume of the Mineral Industry. H. A. Megraw' describes with much 
interesting detail, the practice at the Nevada Hills mill at Fairview, and 
that at the Nevada Wonder Mill at Wonder, Nev. These mills have been 
described in the Mineral "Industry.* The new mill of the Big Four 
Manhattan Mining Co., at Manhattan, Nev., treats an ore which is a soft 
brown colored calcareous schist containing fine gold which occurs generally 
along the laminations of the schist and in innumerable small cross frac- 
tures. These fractures are filled with calcite which is sometimes replaced 

> Bnff. Min. Jour.. XCVI. 885, 1036. 

I Min. Bno. WorU, XXXVIII. 859; Mznsral Industrt. XXI. 386. 

« Bng. Min. J<mr., XCV. 645, 693. 

« MiNBSAL Indvbtbt XX, 372, 373. 



GOLD AND SILVER 331 

by quartz. Sulphides are practically absent. The mill has a capacity 
of about 100 tons per day, and is interesting from the fact that only 
amalgamation is used. The plate area is very large and in this respect 
it resembles Homestake practice. Fig. 2 gives the flow sheet of the mill. 

A 75-ton tailings plant has been constructed at the Quartette mine^ 
at Searchlight, Nevada. The tailings which contain $5.00 in gold and 
0.75 per cent, copper are charged into an Akins mixer with 6 parts cyanide 
solution, and with 3 lb. lime per ton tailings. The pulp is then classi- 
fied into 40 per cent, sand and 60 per cent, slime in an Akins classifier, 
each product being treated in the usual manner. In the slime treat- 
ment an Akins agitator and a Portland filter are used. The cyanide 
consumption is 2.75 lb. per ton. M. W. von Bernewitz* describes the 
McNamara mill at Tonopah. This mill crushes about 70 tons per day 
of hard Tonopah 20 oz. silver ore, with ten 1400-lb. stamps, making 
ninety-eight 8 in. drops per minute. Number 12 ton-cap slotted screens 
are used, and crushing is done in cyanide solution. The mill uses a 
Dorr classifier, a 5 X 16 ft. tube mill, a Frenier pump, one 12 X 26 ft. 
Dorr thickener, three 15.5 X 25.5 Trent agitators, storage tanks and a 50- 
leaf vacuum filter. The cost of milling is given as $3.30 per ton. H. A. 
Megraw^ describes and discusses the milling practice of the Tonopah 
district with much detail. The following mills are described : the West 
End, Montana-Tonopah, Tonopah Extension^ McNamara, at Tonopah 
and the Tonopah Belmont and the Desert mill at Millers, Nevada. 
The new Belmont mill at Tonopah has not as yet been described. Jay 
A. Carpenter^ describes details of practice and gives costs at the West 
End mill, Tonopah. Jesse Simmons'^ describes briefly the equipment 
of the new mill of the Mogul Min. Co. at Terry, S. D., which replaces 
the one at Pluma recently destroyed by fire. The mill will be a sand- 
and-slime treatment plant, using gyratory crushers, rolls and Chilean 
mills for crushing. The slimes will be treated by counter-current de- 
cantation in Dorr thickeners; no filter is to be used. Other South Dakota 
mills, Wasp No. 2; Golden Reward, Deadwood; Trojan; Bismark; Re- 
liance; Limdberg, Dorr and Wilson, are again described.* 

The practice at the Reliance Mill situated at Trojan, S. D., is as fol- 
lows: The mill feed consists of oxidized and partially oxidized Cambrian 
ore and is crushed in a gyratory crusher, and thirty 1000 lb. stamps. 
These crush in solution, 4 to 4.5 tons per ton of ore, through a 0.023-in. 
slotted screen, and have a capacity of 3| tons per stamp. The pulp 
is passed to a Dorr classifier, the overflow from which is 60 per cent, of 

• Min. 8ei. Pr., XCVI, 063. « Min. 5<n. Pr., XCVI, 182. 
' Emq. Min, Jour., XCV, 413, 456. 603. 634. 767, 912. 1110. 

• Min. Sci. Fr., CVII. 101. • Sno. Min. Jour., XCVI. 489. 
' H. C. PannelM. Met. Chem. Bng., XI. 306, 436 and 600. 

JcfleSimmona. Min. Eng. World, XXXVlII. 11, 1051. 



332 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



the total, while the underflow or sand is 40 per cent. Ninety-seven per 
cent, of the sand remains on a 200-mesh screen, and 80 per cent, of the 
slime passes a 200-mesh screen. The sand is leached in the usual 
manner in five 100- ton vats. The slime is treated by counter-current de- 
cantation and filtration with a Portland filter. The thin slime pulp from 
the classifier flows to a 20-f t. cone and then through four Dorr thickeners in 
the manner shown in Fig. 3. 

The washed slime pulp entering the thickeners has a value of SI to 
$1.50 per ton, and that discharged from the fourth thickener has a value 
of 40 to 80 cents per ton. The diflference is the amount of solution which 
takes place in the thickeners. The value of the pulp (including gold in 



Overflow to pveolpiution 
— < 1 e- 



Overflow 



Overflow 



Overflow 



Btlmee f Oane\ 
trom olaMlfleiV V t. J 




htck Underflow 



Fio. 3. — Slimes flow sheet. Reliance MiU. 

solution) passing to the filter is from $1.40 to $1.60 per ton, the value of 
the gold solution in the mill is from $1.20 to $1.80 per ton. The loss m 
dissolved gold is 5 to 12 cents and the mechanical loss of cyanide is 0.5 
lb. per ton dry slime. While this process is stated to be the counter- 
current decantation system it is evident that since no agitation devices 
are employed to dissolve gold previous to the use of the thickeners, that 
it is not a typical application of this system. The cost of milling is 
given as $1,234 per ton. 

H. A. Megraw^ describes the new mill of the North Washington 
Power and Reduction Co. and that of the SanPoilCons. Co., both near 
Republic, Wash. Many attempts have been made to treat the ores of 
this district, but not until these mills were constructed was success at- 
tained. At the North Washington mill the ore is a close textured blue 
quartz, with some softer white quartz, that contains very finely divided 
gold, and silver probably present as the sulphide. Some copper and 
selenium compounds are present. The average value of ore recently 
milled was $9.50 per ton. An idea of the relative value of the silver 

» Bng. Min, Jour,, XCV, 836. 



GOLD AND SILVER 333 

and gold may be obtained from assays on ore from the Surprise Mine 
which contained, gold 0.51 oz.; silver 5.80 oz.; copper 0.2 per cent. The 
method of milling is outlined in the accompanying flow sheet. Fig. 4. 
The capacity of the mill is about 100 tons per day. The mill scheme 
of the San Foil Mill is similar, except that it uses a Williams' hammer 
trommel mill to crush ore from mine* size down to 0.1875 in. feed for 
the rolls, and employs tube mills directly after rolls, Dorr classifiers. 
Dorr thickener, air agitation tanks (modified Pachuca type) and zinc 
thread precipitation. 

Claud Hafer^ describes the small mill of the Candor Mines Co. 
situated in Montgomery County, North Carolina. The ore is gold quartz 
and 50 tons daily are crushed by a 9 X 15 in. Blake crusher and five 
17504b. stamps. The stamp screen is 0.25-in. mesh. Crushing is done 
in cyanide solution. The pulp passes to a Dorr classifier, the underflow 
from which goes to a 4 X 20 ft. tube mill which returns its product to 
the classifier by a Frenier pump. The slime overflow is thickened in an 
18 X 8 ft. Dorr thickener and then passes to 3 Parral vats (18 X 29 
ft) in series for agitation. The filter used is a Kelly pressure filter No. 
B. Zinc thread precipitation is used. The extraction is 95.5 per cent, and 
the cost of milling is $1.64. 

Canada. — The new Mclntyre-Porcupine mill is described in the 
annual report of the Company.* This 150-ton mill is situated near Porcu- 
pine, Ont. The gold ore is crushed in a 10 X 12 in. Blake crusher and 
a 16 X 36 in. set of roUs, and then passes to a 500-ton storage bin. The 
fine crushing is done in cyanide solution by a 6-ft. Chilean mill— 4 tons 
of 1.25 lb. KCN solution per ton of ore being used. A 6-mesh screen 
ia used. The pulp passes to a Colbath classifier, the underflow from which 
(material -f- 100 mesh) passes to a tube mill and second classifier in 
closed circuit with the Colbath classifier, the lifting being done by a 
Prenier pump. The classifier overflow passes to a 16 X 24 ft. thickener. 
The overflow from this passes to a 12 X 20 ft. clarifying tank and thence 
to zinc shaving precipitation. The thickened pulp is diluted with 
solution and passes to a 16 X 24 ft. agitator operated continuously and 
which discharges to a 20 X 24 ft. thickener. The thickened pulp is 
filtered by a Burt filter, 

C. Ewrl Rodgers' describes the mill of the Motherlode Sheep Creek 
Mining Co., 12 miles from Salmo, British Columbia. The ore is crushed 
by a 10 X 12 in. Blake crusher (1 in. ring) and ten 1250-lb. stamps in 
water. With a li-mesh screen (0.046 in. aperture) the capacity is 70 
tons per day. The stamps make ninety-six 7.5 in. drops per minute. 
The pulp passes to a Dorr duplex classifier the underflow from which is 

» Jtfm. 8d, Pr^ CVI. 728. « Min, Sci. Pr., CVII, 62. • Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI. 529. 



334 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



On 
Storao* Bla 



Bhakingartnley' 

T 



OversLsa Under alf 

10 « 2D in. Blake Oraaher 

Shaking Gri«»ley 



OveraUe 
Mx42 1n.llolli 



4 X 6 ft. Trommel, H x H tn- hole* 

— 7=" '=^~ 

O versige Undewite 

~^r — 



14 z 80 tn. Rolls 



Undenlre 

Z 

.hoi 
Und( 




Fxo. 4. — Flow sheet of North Washinston Power and Reduction Co. 



GOLD AND SILVER 335 

reground in a 5 X 20 ft. tube mill; the tube mill product passes over 2 
amalgamating plates in parallel, one 6 X 17, theotherG X 12ft. The grade 
of the plates is 2.375 in. per foot. From these plates the pulp is returned 
to the classifier by two 10 X 54 in. Frenier pumps. The overflow from 
the classifier passes to a 10 X 30 ft. Dorr thickener the overflow from 
which is used as battery water while the underflow, sp. gr. about 2, is 
sampled automatically, diluted with barren solution and transferred by 
two 3 X 5 in. Aldrich slime pumps to four 8 X 25 ft. Pachuca tanks 
arranged in series for continuous agitation. These tanks discharge by 
the slotted sleeve arrangement to a 25 X 10 ft. Dorr thickener, the 
overflow from which passes to a storage tank and thence through a 
Merrill 12 frame 3 X 3 ft. clarifying press to the Merrill zinc dust 
precipitation system. The thickened pulp from the Dorr thickener 
passes to a 25 X 10 ft. sludge tank with mechanical agitators, 6.5 r.p.m., and 
from here, at a gravity of 1.6 to 1.7 to two 35 frame (34 X 4 ft.) Merrill 
slime presses. The slime is very granular in character. The effluent 
solutions from the presses pass to the zinc dust precipitation. The 
precipitate is acid treated, fluxed and melted in gasoline fired furnaces. 

Mexico. — J. P. Holcombe* describes the San Francisco mill at Pa- 
chuca, Mex. The ore comes from several mines and dumps and contains 
silver chiefly in the form of sulphide. A little galena, blende and 
pyrite are present as well as some manganese minerals. The ore contains 
about 19 oz. Ag and 0.10 oz. Au per metric ton. The flow sheet of the 
mill is given in Fig. 5. The strength of solution in the Pachuca tanks is 
0.4 per cent. KCN, as sodium cyanide, and 2 lb. CaO. Lead acetate is 
used to the extent of 0.66 lb. per ton ore. Cyanide consumption is 1.83 
lb. per ton ore. The filter cycle is 86 minutes. 

H. A. and R. T. Sill* describe the cyaniding of low-grade silver ore 
at the Zambona mill, in Minas Nuevas, Sonora, Mex. 150 tons of silver 
ore of the following composition are treated daily: SiOa, 62.51 per cent..; 
Al/),, 11.39; PeiOa, 5.68; CaO, 6.22; Cu, 0.33; Zn, 0.58; COa, 2.54; 
K,0,6.56; NaaO, 1.41; MgO, 0.64; SO3, 0.02; 60 per cent, of the silver 
is present as argentite and 40 per cent, as chloride. The ore is crushed 
in an 8 X 10 Blake crusher and twenty 1050-lb. stamps crushing in 1.3 to 
1^ lb. cyanide solution, through 12-mesh screens. The pulp flows to a 
5-ft. settling cone, the sand from which is ground in an 8-ft. Hardinge 
tube mill, the product from which joins the overflow which goes to 2 
Dorr classifiers. The classifier overflow passes to two 16-ft. Dorr 
thickeners, while the underflow goes to a 4.5 X 16 ft. Allis*Chalmers 
tuhie mill, the product from which is returned to the classifiers by Frenier 
pumps. The tube mills use native quartz. The thickened pulp from the 

' Trmt. InaL Min. Mtt. BuU., 103 and 104; Eng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1104. 
' I««. JTm. Jamr., XCV, 745, 062. 



336 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 




Fxa. 6. — Flow sheet of San Fnneuoo mill. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



337 



Dorr thickeners goes to a stone storage tank provided with an agitation 
device, and then to three 60 X 12; ft. Pachuca tanks, operated on the 
chaise system. The overflow from the thickeners is used as battery 
solution being mbced for this purpose with barren solution. From the 
Pachuca tanks the pulp passes to two Oliver filters, the solution from 
which passes to zinc dust precipitation. The extraction in the mill 
is divided as follows: 50 per cent, in stamps and tube mills, 15 per cent, in 
Dorr thickeners and 14 per cent, in Pachuca tanks. An ingenious zinc 
dust feeder is described. Solutions from the precipitation press are 
tested by means of sodium sulphide solution. A white precipitate 
indicates excess zinc dust, a brown coloration unprecipitated silv^. It 
is aimed to have a slight brown tinge in the test in order to produce 
precipitate of the highest grade. The cost of milling is $1.78 per ton. 
H. F. Carter^ describes the 250-ton mill of Cia Beneficiadora de Pozos 
at Pozos, Guanajuato, Mex. The mill employs the following machinery: 
Symons gyratory crushers; Symons disc crushers for reduction to 0.6 in.; 
6 Chilean mills, low speed, large runners; Dorr classifiers; Krupp tube 
mills; Deister sand concentrators for tube-mill product; Dorr thickeners; 
Frenier pumps; 6 Pachuca tanks in series and Moore filter. An anony- 
mous author^ describes the Tajo mill near San Sebastian, Jalisco, Mexico. 
The ore is about 90 per cent, quartz, 6 per cent, clay and 1 to 5 per cent. 
sulphides, pyrite, galena, blende, argentite, and chalcopyrite, named in the 
order of amount present. The ore is crushed in Blake crushers and light 
stamps in cyanide solution, and the pulp concentrated on Wilfley tables 
and then classified in a Dorr classifier. The sands are reground in tube 
mills and again concentrated and the pulp returned to the classifiers. The 
overflow from this passes to a collecting tank and then to air agitation 
tanks of special design, on the charge or unit system. A locally designed 
filter will be replaced by Dorr thickeners and an Oliver filter. 

Africa. — Owen Letcher' describes new treatment plants in Rhodesia. 
There are at the present time either ordered, in course of construction or 
just completed, 7 different reduction plants with a combined capacity 
of about 1,068,400 tons per year. The list is as follows: 



Mine. 


Locality. 


Type of Plant. 


Annual 
Capacity. 


Rhftiirv-ii , , . 


Aeroorn, MMhonaland. . . 
Gatoona, Maahonaland. . 
BUnkwater, Maahonaland 

SouthwMt Mataeland.... 
*Jue Jue 


Niflsen stamps 


550,000 


Cftm ft Motor 

PaloMi' 


BaU Mills, Roasters, tube mill, slime plant. 

Nissen stamps, oono. plant. Blast-furnace 

and converters 


180,000 




180,000 


ABtdoDe 


Stamps, roasters and slime plant 

Nissen stamps, tube mill, sand and slime 
plant 


48.000 


jJ3j *^ 


48,000 


iOmberiy Keef 


Qadaema, Maahonaland.. 


86,000 


New FofiiMl Out 


Similar to Cam and Motor 


26,400 









1 Mex. Min. Jour., XVI, 285. * M0x. Mtn. Jowr., XVI, 137. 

*Mi$^ 8cL Fr., CVII, 761, 381; CVI. 509; Min. Mag., VIII, 224; Met, Chem, Bng. XI. 291. 



338 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Ore 
OtIuUm 



Ovenlae 

T 



Vndentatt 




8- 7H Gate* Onwhaw 

Belt Oonveyor 




80onM 

*^ ^^ 

OTerflow Underflow 

SS endOonee 8- S z 5 ft. Tube Ulllii 



Overflow 



5- 85 X U J 



5- 85 X 10 fU Dorr 
Thiekenen 

T' — ^ 

Pulp Solution 



Bends 

[ixed 
Tenf 

8-150Z 



Mixed with 
barren SoloMon 



Popper Platee end Blanket Tebiee 
OentxtfOgal Pnmpe 

1 



8^ ft. Leachlac Tanks 

z s^ 



overflow 



Solution 



Talllnsi 



5- fix 10 ft. Peehnoa 

Tanks. 

in Series 



Storage Tankt 



X 



sas Leaf. Bntte ia Filter 
Slime Tailings 




ipitafea Barren Solntioa 

far Battery nse, eto. 



Fio. 6. — Flow sheet of Shamya i 



GOLD AND SILVER 339 

The largest of theae plants is the Shamva mill at Abercorn, Mashona- 
land, controlled by the Goldfields Rhodesian Development Co. This 
mill is now practically completed. The accompanying Fig. 6 gives the 
flow sheet. G. P. Dickson^ describes the new mUl of the Cam and Motor 
property situated at the Eiffel Flats near Gatoona, Mashonaland. The 
typical ore is a grayish-green compact rock containing quartz and cal- 
cite, iron and arsenical pyrite and some stibnite and graphite. The 
following mineral analysis gives the principal constituents: Quartz and 
silica, 44.33 per cent.; iron pyrite, 2.95; mispickel, 2.15; stibnite, 0.15; 
calcium carbonate, 14.10; magnesium carbonate, 26.10; graphite, traces. 
Efforts to treat the ore in the raw state showed the necessity of adopting 
roasting, and in general the scheme of treatment is similar to that of the 
Golden Cycle mill, at Colorado Springs. The flow sheet of the mill 
is shown in Fig. 7. 

Asia. — H. M. Leslie describes in detail cyanide practice in India.' 
J. D. Hubbard* describes the reduction plant of the Chosen Mining Co. 
in the North Pyeng An Province, Yeng Byen district, Korea. The first 
unit now under construction is to have a capacity of 200 tons; it will con- 
tain a 4K gyratory crusher, twenty 1250-lb. stamps, which are to crush in 
solution, 2 duplex Dorr classifiers, a Trent agitator for dewatering, 
two 5 X 22 ft. tube mills, 5 X 12 ft. amalgam plates, three 12 X 30 
ft. Trent agitators, an 80-leaf Butters filter, and zinc boxes for pre- 
cipitation. 

Australia, — An anonymous* article briefly describes the milling at the 
Crown mine, Karangahake, New Zealand. The recently constructed 
mil] of the Bullfinch Proprietary* in the Yilgarn goldfield of West 
Australia has a capacity of 200 tons. The ore is crushed in a No. 5 
Symons crusher and fifteen 1250-lb. stamps. The pulp is classified in 
cones, the underflow from which is reground in a 4 X 16 ft. tube mill, 
and then passes to an 8-ft. grinding pan to amalgamate the coarse gold, 
after which it is returned to the classifiers by a tailings wheel. The 
classifier overflow passes to two 8 X 25 ft. Forbes thickeners and then 
to two 6 X 25 ft. settling tanks. The overflow solution from these is 
returned for battery use. The thick pulp passes to 4 agitation vats and 
after agitation is filtered in 3 No. 3 Ridgeway filters, each with 800-ft. 
filtering area. Solutions are precipitated by means of zinc thread. 

C. M. Harris* describes the mill of the Victorious mine at Ora Banda, 
West Australia. The gold ore treated has a value of from $4.50 to 6.25 

1 Jfi«. Mag., IX. 132: VIII, 121. « Jfm. 8ei. Pr., CVII, 978. 

« /<mr. Ck€tm, Mtt, Min, 8oe. So, Afr., XIII. 634. » Min, Set. Pr., CVII. 217 
* J#t«. 8€i. Fr.^ CVI. 610. • Min. Mag., VIII. 373. 



342 



MINERAL IKDUSTRY 



tation inapplicable to ores in which the greater part of the gold and silver 
is locked up in sulphides, or to high-^ade ores that require extra strong 
solutions. He would apply the system to low-grade siliceous ores requir- 





On 

soot 


OOfl 

400 


tons 










r i 








Oraahlng 
Machinery 










100 


r 






W Thickener 

No. 1 


S aoDtont 










J 










100 


tons 

r 








A«iUtor 1 






400 tons 


100 


tone 

■ 










1 






X 


Thickener 

No. 2 














Predirftatfoa 






100 


tone 


900 tons 


- 


r 




* V MOton. 


















y 


Thickener 

NO.S 










60 toniF 


. SI 


100 
[)tona Z 


tons 

r 














z 


Thickener 

No. 4 


, 1 














100 


tons 


Wash Water 80 tons 






Filter ^ 
















60 tons 


Solution F. 






lOOtoni 


iSUme (d 


ry) 


^ 



FxQ. 8. — Counter current decantation. 



ing solutions of only moderate strength, and even in this case prof ers t] 
combine filtration by rotary filters with the decantation. While tbo I>o^ 
thickener can discharge pulp with but 40 per cent, moisture, it is qixos-tioij 
able whether it is desirable to have it contain less than 50 per cent;, ixi t;b 



GOLD AND SILVER 343 

continuous decantation system operated on gravity basis on account of 
the difficulty of getting a thorough mixture of the thickened pulp with 
solution in forming the inflow for the next thickener in line. A typical 
system of continuous counter-current decantation as advocated by the 
Dorr Cyanide Machinery Co. is described by Jesse Simmons.^ Fig. 8 
gives the flow sheet. The assumptions made are as follows: 100 tons of 
ore crushed, from which $4 of metal is dissolved per ton. Seventy-five 
per cent, of the solution takes place in the crushing machinery, etc., and 
25 per cent, in the agitator. Pulp from the thickeners contains 1 of 
solution to 1 of solids. Barren solution has a value of 2 cents. Wash- 
ing efficiency of filter is 75 per cent., and discharged tailings contain 
33.3 per cent, moisture. The letters W, X, Y, Z and F, represent 
the value of the solutions in the several thickeners and filter. By calcula- 
tion it can be determined that the value of these solutions is as follows: 
W=S1.3474; X=0.59741; Y = 0.15991; Z=0.14214 and F=0.03563. 

H. C. Parmelee* describes in detail the mill of the Ophir Gold Mines, 
Milling and Pow^r Co., at Ophir, San Juan district, Colorado. This 
mill employs the counter-current decantation system without filtration, 
treating ore containing 18 to $12 in gold and consisting of quartz and 
clay. The mill uses stamps, Hardinge mill. Dorr classifier. Dorr 
agitators and Dorr thickeners. The flow sheet is very similar to that 
given in Fig. 8, except that two Dorr agitators are used in series, and an 
extra thickener replaces the filter. 

Agiiation. — C. F. Spaulding* describes a system of agitation of pulp 
by means of solution. His system consists of employing an agitation 
tank about 20X20 ft. flat bottom, containing a central open cylinder 
lOX 10 ft. provided with baffles, the top of which is above the level of the 
pulp in the tank, and which acts as an inner settling vat. Four 10-in. 
pipes open at the bottom and fitted with an L at the top rise 6 in. above 
the level of the pulp. Into these discharge at the bottom, 1-in. pipes 
carrying barren solution causing them to act as transfer pipes, in the 
manner of the Parral agitator,^ except that this uses air. The pulp flows 
into the vat at some point near the circumference, is agitated by means 
of the lift pipe, with continuous addition of fresh barren solution, while 
nearly clear solution is decanted from the central settling cylinder. This 
solutions passes through a settling tank or press for clarification if neces- 
sary, then to sine precipitation and is returned by centrifugal pump to the 
tank for agitation purposes. Three such sets may be combined in a mill, 
pulp flowing from one agitation tank into the other continuously, the 
pulp from the last going to a settling tank, the overflow from which is re- 

I B«Q^ Min, Jour., XCV. 627. • Min. 3ci. Pr., CVI. 342, 834. OAO. 

« Ar«€. CAmi. Sng„ XI, 26. . « Minbbal Industbt. XXI, 407. 



344 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

turned to the head of the mill for crushing purposes. In treating ores 
that settle with difficulty, it is suggested that vacuum filter leaves, accord- 
ing to G. J. Young, be immersed ip the agitation tank to draw off the ex- 
cess solution for precipitation. Agitation with solution is not a new idea, 
it was practised in the early days in the Black Hills. The method has 
some similarity to the Adair-Usher process formerly used in South Africa.^ 
A number of serious objections may be urged against the method, chief of 
which is the great amount of low-grade solution to be precipitated and the 
fact that agitation and decantation are such radically different operations 
that it is difficult to see how they can be successfully combined. Leon 
P. Hills' describes a system of agitation in Pachuca tanks, by the charge 
system, but combined with a continuous flow of solution through the 
agitators while the pulp is in agitation. The decanted solution is in 
reality a thin pulp and passes to a thickener or settler, the clear solution 
overflow from which is returned to the agitation tanks after precipitation 
if necessary. A modified form of Pachuca tank is proposed for this work, 
which has been described.' J. M. Nicol^ describes a S3rstem of hydraulic 
agitation very similar in principle to that of C. F. Spaulding, just 
described. H. A. Megraw^ discusses slime agitation in general, and 
describes the new Dorr agitator which is meeting with success. This 
agitator has a central shaft carrying two arms with rakes, set at an incline 
toward the center of the bottom of the tank. These arms are hinged to 
the central shaft so that they may be raised when agitation is stopped, and 
again gradually lowered when it is started again. The central shaft is a 
tube, and acts as an air lift. It terminates just below the upper level of 
the tank and discharges into a launder, which distributes the pulp over the 
surface of the tank. The air pipe for operating the lift is inserted through 
the bottom of the tank, there being no step bearing for the central shaft, 
the weight being carried on a truss above the tank. The pulp settling to 
the bottom is forwarded by the rake to the central lift colunm, where it is 
raised by the air, and again distributed over the surface of the tank. The 
agitator tank has a large area and small depth so that low-pressure air 
may be used. The consumption of power is low. It would seem that 
all particles of solids are certain to receive agitation. The agitator 
certainly seems a most rational and simple device. J. A. Carpenter* 
discusses continuous agitation in Trent agitators at the West End mill, 
Tonopah. He classifies agitators as follows: (1) Those using a cone- 
bottomed vat the motive power being (a) compressed air; e.g., the standard 

1 MxNBBAL Indubtbt, XVII, 440. 

< Mex. Min. Jour., xVlI. 327; Min. 8ci. Pr., CVI, 241, 421, 663, 965. 

• MimiRAL Indixstbt. XX, 339. 

« Min. Bng. World, XXXVIII, 1133. 

• Eng. Min. Jour.. XCVI, 1161: Min. Set. Pr., CVII, 193. 

• Min, 8ci. Pr., cVl. 646. 



GOLD AND SILVER 345 

Pachuca and variations from it; (b) solution under pressure; e.g., the 
Patterson hydraulic agitator; (c) mechanical appliance; e.g.y the Hendryx. 
(2) Those using a flat-bottomed vat, the motive power being (a) com- 
pressed air, e.g., the Parall tank; (b) solution under pressure; e.g. 
the Trent agitator; (c) mechanical appliance; e.g., the old arm agitator; 
(d) mechanical appliance and compressed air; e.g., the Dorr agitator. 
The paper discussed at some length and with much detail continuous 
agitation in the Trent agitator. It compares costs between Trent and 
Pachuca agitators. It is not possible to abstract this valuable paper 
satisfactorily in the space available and reference should be made to the 
original article. 

Whitman Symmes^ describes the Symmes agitator. He states that a 
perfect agitator should give either a strong or weak agitation and aeration, 
as the pulp may require. It should have no wearing parts in the pulp 
itself. It should not be subject to interference or injury by the settlement 
or packing of the pulp. All parts should be readily accessible from the 
outside of the vat. The Symmes agitator consists of a flat-bottomed vat 
24X14 ft. containing a number of air lifts (8), flexibly suspended from a 
horizontal revolving arm. This arm is supported on an immovable 
standard at the center of the vat. The revolving arm may be driven from 
below through the standard if this be hollow, or it may be driven from 
above as in the Dorr agitator. The air-lift tubes hang from the re- 
volving arm by means of chains and are so balanced as to remain vertical 
when the arm revolves. The air lifts discharge at about the middle of the 
height of the vat and not at the surface of the pulp. The arm makes 1.5 
r.p.m. Air is supplied to each tube by a hose connected with a pipe 
union above the pulp. In the event that the pulp becomes packed on the 
bottom of the vat, the air lifts will drag and cut their way down through 
it. If power is cut off for a long time the air-lift tubes can be raised by 
means of chains. Compressed air is used at a pressure of from 8 to 12 
lb, and the agitator requires from 60 to 70 cu. ft. of free air per 
minute for ordinary working. Considerable detail is given in the 
original paper. 

D. F. Irvin and V. G. Hills* describe the ability of the Pachuca 
a^tator to start agitating readily after a prolonged shut-down. H. B. 
bright' describes the Wright-Jaentsch slime agitator. The agitator con- 
aistB of a flat-bottomed tank 20 X 4.5 ft. in which is placed a set of lift 
pipes 6 in. diameter fixed on a framework which is revolved from a standard 
at the eenter of the vat. The lift pipes are set at an angle of 45 deg. on 
the framework inclining outward to the periphery of the tank. They 

iit^-5?JP»'-CVII,92.467. 

» Mfe. fla. IV^ CVn. 4M: Mng, Min. Jour., XCVI. 644. 



346 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

are open top and bottom, the bottom opening being turned in the direc- 
tion of rotation. When the framework with its lift pipes is revolved 
so that the outside ends of the pipes have a peripheral speed of 350 ft. 
per minute, the centrifugal force set up causes the pulp to ent^ the lift 
pipe at the bottom and be discharged at the top. The number oi revolu- 
tions per minute is from 6 to 7 and the agitator requires 3 h.p. Twenty- 
three of these agitators are in operation at the Great Boulder Persever- 
ance Mines, Western Australia. A. W. Warwick^ has been granted a 
patent on a new form of pulp agitator. W A. Hendryx' gives the re- 
sults of tests by the Hendryx agitator on Rand ore, both sand and 
slime. Bernard MacDonald' describes improvements on the Parral 
tank. John Gross* describes a small Pachuca agitator which has been 
found satisfactory for laboratory tests on slimes. The Dorr agitator and 
thickener^ consists essentially of the Dorr agitator, ahready described, 
with the addition of a cone baffle surrounding the air lift. This device 
confines the thickened pulp within the baffle cone from which it is con- 
tinuously drawn off by a suction pipe near the top. 

Thidcening and Filtering. — C. A. Banks* describes a dewatering tank 
or thickener for slime. It consists of four conical bottomed tanks each 
17 ft. square with the cones of each pair of tanks connected to a disin- 
tegrator in which the thickened slime discharged from the filter leaves is 
mixed with cyanide solution for transfer to agitators. Each tank con- 
tains fifteen 16X4.5 ft. Moore filter leaves, the total filtering areabeuig 
9000 sq. ft. The dewatering operation is a matter of collecting and 
discharging the slime cakes. The capacity is 700 tons of sUme per day. 
R. Hayden^ describes a centrifugal slime thickener that might be applied 
to cyanidation work. The apparatus is known as the Kuchs-Laist slime 
thickener. H. N. Spicer* discusses the action of baffle plates in tanks for 
slime settling, as an aid in settling, and from the inspection of a considerable 
number of such devices arrives at the conclusion that baffles are hin- 
drances rather than aids. A. G. French* proposes to add glue to slime 
pulp to aid in the rapid settling of slime. A very weak solution of 
gelatin or common glue, 1 part glue to 250 water, is added in small amount 
to the pulp. When sulphates are absent in the slime pulp, sine, iron or 
copper sulphate is added, one part for each part of glue. The slime 
particles are said to become coated with an impervious coating, and to 
settle rapidly. It is questionable whether the method is applicable to 

• Mno. Min. Jour., XCVI. 166; Mtt. CUm. Bng., XI, 292. 
« Min. an, Pr., XCVI. 161. 

» Bnp. Min. Jour., XCVI, 928. 1134, 1183. 

• Mtn. Sei. Pr. C^L. 644. 

• MH. CUm. Enq,. XI. 716. 

• Min. Sci. Ft., CYll, 164. 

' rroiM. Am. InH. Min. Bng., BuU. 80. 1467; Min. Mag., IX, 221 

• Min. ad. Pr., CVL 964. 

• Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI. 307. 



GOLD AND SILVER 347 

cyanidatioQ. G. F. Spaulding^ gives two curves, one for determining 
the percentage of solids in pulp when the specific gravity of the pulp 
and that of the solids is given and the other for determining the number 
of cubic feet of pulp to the ton when the specific gravity of the pulp 
is given. H. N. Spicer* describes in detail the evolution of methods in 
handling slime at the mills in India, New Zealand, Australia, the 
Rand, and Rhodesia. The notes are of much interest and are the result 
of visits to the several districts. A. W. Allen,* the editor^ and R. Ellis' 
discuss the question of colloids and its importance in ore dressing and 
cyanidation. A. W. Warwick* discusses a theory and practice of wash- 
ing metallic values and cyanide from slime cakes. The following 
statements are made: /'The methematical laws governing the washing 
of laboratory precipitates enunciated by Bunsen do not apply to filter 
cakes. Nor do the familiar arithmetical rules used in connection with 
decantation have any diriect bearing except perhaps when considering 
the solution mechanically retained in the leaves. These considera- 
tions arise from the fact that in removing the soluble .values from 
slime cakes the principle of displacement is used rather than the 
laws of continuous or repeated dilution." On this basis a wash 
equal in volume to that of the moisture retained in the cake plus 
the solution in the filter basket, will entirely displace all soluble 
values retained by the unwashed cake, providing the cakes were of uniform 
permeability. In such correctly formed cakes, the wash water would pass 
through like a wall pushing the pregnant solution before it. The only loss 
in this instance is the valuable solution which has actually been absorbed 
by the minute particles of porous lime. In practice a wash equal in 
volume to the moisture in the cake and filter leaves will recover 80 to 85 
per cent, of the dissolved values left in the slime cake. This is an in- 
sufficient recovery, as it should be 98 to 99+ per cent., and a volume of 
wash equal to 1.5 to 2 times that of the retained solution must be used. 
This is too large an amount of water to add to the mill solutions, but if the 
larger part of this wash is barren solution, low in cyanide, and only a part 
water, a high recovery of dissolved metal is made, with a low loss in cyanide, 
and with no disturbance of the solution balance in the mill. These are 
the principles on which the washing of filter cakes is based. In practice 
the completeness of washing depends upon (1) the nature of the slime; (2) 
value of the solution to be recovered; (3) volume of washes employed; (4) 
freedom of cakes from cracks; (5) condition of filter leaves; (6) extent to 

»IIi«.Sa.Plr^CVI.700. 

.%f ^^^*«- ^^HLj ^I* ISl* 230, 316, 408. 461. 481. 

*II»*.Se<.iV.,CVII.87. 
•X«-%<.iV..CVI.209 
• Mw. Enq. World, XXXVIII, MA. 797, 1136. 



348 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

which ' ' blowback " occurs. The speed of washing is governed by the filter 
ing rate^ i.e., the volume of solution passing through each square foot o 
filtering surface per minute. The filtering rate in turn depends upon (1 
thenatiu'e of the slime; (2) thickness of the cake; (3) difference of pressure 
between the two sides of the filtering medium and (4) condition and design 
of filter leaves. Charles Butters^ describes a modified vacuum filter leaf 
and a method of discharging slime cakes from the leaf. A comparatively 
smooth filtering surface is used, and the formed cake is made dryer than 
usual by maintaining a high vacuum for 5 to 10 minutes while the cake is 
suspended in air. This reduces moisture to about 20 per cent., and the 
cake tends to crack at the top, thus beginning a separation of the cake 
from the filter. Vacuum is now shut off and if water is applied at the top 
of the cake, by means of a perforated pipe which is supported above the 
header of each leaf, the slime cake is readily and completely dislodged. 
M. W. von Bernewitz* discusses the concentration of dissolved metal 
at the surface of slime ponds and its recovery at Tonopah, Nev., by 
scraping the surface of the slimes. An editorial* mentions the cleaning of 
filter cloths by means of a sand blast in place of an acid wash. 

The reciprocating type of Ridgeway filter* is used to a considerable 
extent in western Australia. It consists of two rectangular tanks placed 
about 7 ft. apart between which is a vertical shaft carrying two strong 
arms from one side of each of which are suspended 20 filter frames which 
are balanced on the other side by heavy weights. Thb system can be 
made to revolve by worm gearing and the frames may be lowered into the 
pulp or solution. One tank is used for loading the frames and the other 
for washing them. Wm. MacDonald* describes vacuum filtration at the 
Victoria mill of the Waihi Gold Mining Co., New Zealand. A Moore 
type of vacuum filter is in use with a special design of leaf. The interior 
of the leaf is corrugated iron instead of cocoa matting. The filter oper- 
ates on a very siliceous light weight slime. Patents have been granted to 
the Just Process Co.* for a revolving drum filter using silica sponge brick 
as the filtering medium; to T. BreakelU for a rotary vacuum filter; to 
R. P. Akins* for a rotary drum vacuum filter, to H. E. Kier^ for a leaching 
filter tank; to G. J. Young^® for a continuous vacuum filter; to U. A. 
Garred" for a continuous vacuum filter for thickening pulp; to W. Mauss" 
for a centrifugal filtering machine. R. H. Shaw" describes a type of simple 
air lift, that may readily be taken apart for the removal of obstructions' 

\ Min. Set. Pr., CVII. 935. » Met. Chem, Bng., XI, 459. 

\ Mtn.Sei. Pr^ CVL 145. • Mel. Chem. Bng., XI, 345. 

• Met. Chem. Bno., XI, 228, 217. • Met. Chem. Eng., XI. 345. 
\Aitn. 8ei. Pr., CVI, 993. >• MtA. Chem. Eng., XI. 292. 
\i?^^f,i^- ^^' ^«- ^^' -So- Afr., XIV. 67, " Met. Chem. Sng., XI, 667. 
171 : XIII. 637; Min. Set. Pr . CVII. 617. " Sng. Min. Jour., XCVI. 647. 

• Met. Chem. Bng., XI, 169. »• Min. 8ei. Pr., CVII, 861. 



GOLD AND SILVER 349 

M. W. von Bernewitz^ describes methods of handling pulp at Tonopah 
and Goldfield, Nev., by means of three throw plunger pumps, bucket 
elevator, tailings wheel, centrifugal pump and Frenier pumps, giving 
considerable detail. G. J. Davis and C. R. Weidner* publish valuable 
data on the air-lift pump, of interest to cyanide metalliirgists. W. B. 
Rhodes' describes the installation of two air lifts, replacing centrifugal 
pumps at the property of the Compania Minera Jesus Maria y Anexas, 
at San Jose de Gracia, Sinaloa, Mex. These pumps handled a gritty pulp 
to greater advantage than centrifugal pumps. 

Patent Litigation 

The Filier Litigation. — The Moore Filter Co. and the Oliver Continu- 
ous Filter Co. ^ have adjusted differences between themselves. Both filters 
will be sold by each company, sales to be upon a basis of lowest permissible 
first cost with a tonnage royalty graduated according to the richness of the 
ore. The Moore Filter Co. has brought suit against the Talisman Cons. 
Co. in New Zealand and the Lord Nelson Co. in Victoria, for un- 
authorized use of the Moore filter. It is stated' that the Chamber of 
Mines of western Australia has raised a fund to combat the claims of 
the Moore Co. The Moore Filter Co.* brought action against the Butters 
Vacuum Filter Co. in the U. S. District Court for southern New YcMrk to 
prevent the Butters Co. from doing business at its N. Y. office. 
Upon the defendant's showing that no business had been done the case 
was dismissed. The Golden Cycle Mining Co.^ of Colorado, using a 
Butters filter, some time ago made settlement with the Moore Filter Co. 
for use of the vacuum filter and has now been sued by Charles Butters 
for infringement of the Butters patents. The Gold Ore Treatment Co." 
and the London and Hamburg Gold Recovery Co., Ltd., owners of the 
Sulman-Teed and Goepner and Witter bromo-cyanogen patents, brought 
suit against the Golden Horseshoe Estates Co., Ltd., Australia, for m- 
fringement of patents during 1907 and 1908. The court declared the 
Sulman-Teed patent invalid and upheld the Goepner- Witter patent. 
Both sides have appealed to the Privy Council in England against this 
decision. Joseph A. Vincent* owner of patent 781711, granted to Alden 
H. Brown, Feb. 7, 1905, brought suit against the Tonopah Mining Co. 
in 1911 for infringement of patent. The Brown patent makes the foUow- 

> Mi%, Sei, Pr., CVI, 282. 

• Uuiw. of Wi», BuU., 450; Eng. Seriet, Vol. VI. No. 7; Met. Chem. Stiff., XI, 118. 129. 

> Mtx. Miin. Jour., XVII. 348. 

• Min. Bd. Pr.. CVI. 537. 

* • Enff. Min. Jour., XCV. 821. 

• Eng. Min, Jour., XCV, 967. 1018. also 454. 810. 
' Min. Ed, Ft. CVII. 877. 

• Min. 8ci. Ft., CVI. 986, CVII, 407. 

• Min. Ed. Pr., CVII, 292; Eng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 559; Met. Chem. Eng., XI, 541, XII. 219. 



350 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

ing two broad claims. (1) The herein described process for the treatment 
of ore consisting in first pulverizing the ore in the presence of cyanide 
solution; second, subjecting the ore to hydraulic classification by the in- 
troduction of cyanide solution at the bottom of an overflow tank to pro- 
duce an ascending current; third, leaching the ore by the use of cyanide 
solution whereby the finer values of the ore are dissolved; fourth, removing 
the dissolved metallic values in any suitable manner; and finally sub- 
jecting the residue of ore to concentration. (2) A process of treating 
sulphide ore consisting first in subjecting the raw or unroasted ore to the 
action of a cyanide solution whereby the finer metallic values are dis- 
solved, and second, subjecting the ore or tailings to concentration whereby 
the coarser values are recovered. 

The Tonopah Mining Co. uses the cyanide process in the following 
form: rough crushing, stamping in cyanide solution, classifying in cyanide 
solution, sand reground in Huntington mills, product from which joins 
classifier overflow which is concentrated on tables, pulp from tables re- 
classified, and treated as sand by leaching, and slime by agitation and 
filtration. The plaintiffs contended that this process infringed the Brown 
patent. The suit was really based on the more detailed first claim than on 
the broader second claim, the contention of the plaintiffs being that to all 
intent and purposes the regrinding in Huntington mills was leaching, 
ignorii^ the final treatment of sand and slime. The suit was a very im- 
portant one in so far as the upholding of the patent would affect a great 
many milling companies. In October, 1913, the United States District 
Court for Delaware, Judge Edward G. Bradford, decided that the Tonopah 
Mining Co. infringed the patent of Alden H. Brown. However, 
in March, 1914, the United States Circuit Court of Appeals reversed this 
decision, and without passing on the validity of the Brown patent, ruled 
that there was no infringement. 

The Chemistry op Cyanidation 

Morris Green* experimented to determine the effect of oxidissers on 
the solution of gold by cyanide. His conclusions are as follows: (1) 
KsMusOs destroys cyanide, as is well known, and does not aid in the 
solution of gold; (2) K8Fe(CN)6 in water solution is not a solvent for 
gold, but when added to cyanide solution accelerates the solution of the 
gold markedly. From the experimental work performed it is probable 
that the following reaction occurs when ferri-cyanide is added to KCN. 

2K,Fe(CN)e+3KCN+H,0 = 2K4Fe(CN)e+KCNO+2HCN . 

1 Jour. CKem, Met. Min. Soe. So. Afr., XIII, 355. 421. 641; XIV, 65; Eng. Min. Jour., XCV. 1233; 
XCVI. 302. 



GOLD AND SILVER 351 

The destruction of cyanide is very marked, and it is to be noted that 
the use of f erri-cyanide as an oxidizer really produces a reducing agent, 
E4Fe(CN)f in the solution, and hence its use is not desirable. The ac- 
celerating action of K8Fe(CN)6 on the solution of gold is not due to any 
products of the reaction between it and cyanide, according to the author 
but according to J. Moir is due to the action of nascent CN as in the 
bromo-cyanogen reaction. (3) KCNO in water has no solvent action on 
gold. Its presence in cyanide solutions has no influence on the dissolu- 
tion of gold. (4) Excess free oxygen in solutions retards the dissolution 
of gold. This confirms the statement of Julian who holds that oxygen plays 
no primary part in the dissolution of gold by cyanide and that free oxygen 
often exerts a retarding influence. This reopens an old discussion, and the 
evidence presented cannot be considered conclusive. In discussion of 
this paper W. B. Chomley states that under certain conditions when 
oxidizing agents are present NHt is a product of the reaction between 
these and cyanide. This NHt interferes with the determination of KCN 
by AgNOa, and may even indicate the presence of KCN when it is absent. 
This explains the non-solvent action of certain solutions which apparently 
contain cyanide. John Gross^ gives data on the solubility of a natural 
alloy — 60 per cent, gold and 40 per cent, silver, in a 4-lb. KCN solution, 
renewing the solution daily. The particles varied from very fine to 1/16 
in. diameter. At the end of 20 days, 85.23 per cent, were dissolved. J. J. 
Andrejew' states that in 0.25 per cent. KCN solution the rate of solution 
of gold is increased by very dilute ozone, but markedly decreased by more 
concentrated ozone — 3 to 4 per cent. The cause of the decrease is the 
formation of a visible layer of gold oxide. HsOs acts in a similar manner, 
although a large excess of HsOs or a mixture of HsOs and Ot increases the 
rate. In very dilute cyanide solutions (0.01 to 0.05 per cent.) even atmos- 
pheric oxygen will cause a formation of gold oxide and cause the rate of 
solution to decrease. HsOs added in any quantity does not decrease the 
rate of solution of Ag. Ozone alone in KCN solutions has a very slight 
effect on Ag, but in combination with HsOs raises the rate of solution. 
J. J. Denny* describes his "desulphurizing" process for gold-silver ores 
in use at the Nipissing low-grade mill at Cobalt, Can. The essentials 
of the process are (1) extremely fine grinding, so that only 0.5 per cent, 
remain on a 200-mesh screen. (2) A preliminary reducing treatment be- 
fore cyanidation, which consists in crushing the ore in a 0.25-lb. caustic 
^KKla solution, plus 5 lb. lime per ton ore, then passing the pulp through 
a tube mill containing aluminium ingots, then agitating it in stock tanks 
for 10 hours in the presence of pure aluminium plates. From the stock 

I v^0 M£in Jsnif XC3V 740 

>Z«3. JTbc^weluJ.. XIX. 607; Bng. Min. Jour., XCYl, 1226; Min. 8ei. Pr., CVII. 889. 

• JTta. ScL Pt., CVII, 483. 484. 



352 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

tanks the pulp is withdrawn for filtering, the filtered pulp centring 
26 per cent, alkali solution as moisture. (3) Cyanide treatment by agita- 
tion with 0.25 per cent. KCN solution, 2.5 solution to 1 of solids, settled 
and decanted, and then agitated with more solution. The pulp is then 
filtered. (4) Precipitation of solutions by means of aluminium dust. 
An advantage in the use of caustic alkali m the crushing solution is that 
it is necessary in the precipitation by aluminium. The ore treated has 
the following composition: Ag, 0.106 per cent.; Cu, 0.270; As, 1.88; 
Fe, 1.92; S, 0.64; Bi, 0.01, Ni and Co, 0.73; Pb, 0.064; CaO, 9.02; MgO, 
4.33; A1,0,, 10.03; CO,, 11.06; insoluble, 59.84; Hg, trace. In July, 
1913, the mill treated 234 tons per day of 27 oz. ore making an extraction 
of 93.16 per cent. The desulphurizing treatment makes an extra saving 
of 1 to 4 oz. per ton at a cost of 54 cents per ton. The theory of the 
process is that the nascent hydrogen evolved by the action of NaOH on 
Al, thus, 2Al+2NaOH+2HiO = Na,Al,04+6H, acts on complex sil- 
ver minerals, which are in an extremely fine state of division, reducing 
the silver in these to metallic silver, thus, AgiSbSs+6H+6NaOH=3Na5S 
+6HiO+3Ag+Sb. The question, however, is left open for futiire 
investigation. In the experimental work, pure silver minerals were taken 
and ground with quartz to pass a 100-mesh screen. The amount of mineral 
taken was such as to make an ore of about 30 oz. The accompanying 
table gives the results of treating these artificial ores with ordinary cyanide 
solution, with cyanide and lead acetate and by the Denny process. 

SOLUBILITY OF SILVER MINERALS. 


Mineral. 


A. Plain cyanide. 0.26 per oent. 
KCN; 3 parts solution to 1 of ore; 
51b. CaO per ton. 48 hours agi- 
tation. 


B. Plain 'cyanide 
plus lead aoetate. 
Same conditions 
as A. 


C. Desulpburiiios 
and plain cyanide. 
Same conditiocs 
as A. 




Ag. OS. per ton. 


Extraction, 
Per cent. 


Extraction, 
Per cent. 


Extraction. 
Percent. 




27.40 
31.40 
29.97 
26.70 


28.46 
57.90 
19.20 
69.28 


18.24 

32.70 

6.80 

97.97 


88.70 
08.00 
78.60 
80.69 


Prouaute 


Tetrahedrite 


Argentite 





G. H. Clevenger and M. L. Hall^ discuss the application of electrolysi 
to cyanide solutions as an aid in dissolving precious metal and arrive a 
the conclusion that the effect of electrolysis in most cases is an increase* 
consumption of cyanide and the formation of a coating of calcium cai 
bonate on the ore particles which may interfere with extraction. OtW 
interestmg conclusions are arrived at. E. F. Kern* discusses the sand 

1 Min. Sd, Pr., CVII, 927. 
« Min. Set. Pr., CVII, 677. 



GOLD AND SILVER 



353 



subject and arrives at similar conclusions. M. W. von Bernewitz^ and 

V. C. Bennett discuss the use of lead salts in cyanidation giving the mill 

practice in use at many plants. John Watson^ discusses the effect of the 

addition of CaS04 to cyanide solution. He finds a well marked but 

not great destruction of cyanide takes place due to the addition of the 

salt. Magnesium sulphate causes a very decided destruction of cyanide. 

A. W. Allen and J. S. Colbath* discuss the question of the reliability and 

the correctness of the AgNOs titration for mill solutions, and in general 

the chemical determinations in use for solutions control. G. H. Clevenger ^ 

describes a rapid volumetric method for the determination of silver in 

mill solutions. The method is based upon the fact that when a cyanide 

solutbn containing silver is filtered through a thin layer of zinc dust, the 

silver is completely precipitated. The precipitated silver and remaining 

zinc are dissolved in nitric acid, and the silver determined by the Volhard 

volumetric method. Mercury interferes, and metals whose salts are colored, 

as Ni and Co, should not be present. CJopper may be present in amount 

equal to the silver. The method checks well with the fire assay. J. E. 

Saul^ describes a delicate qualitative reaction for gold. If one volume of 

a 0.1 per cent, solution of p-phenylenediamine is added to 10 volumes of a 

0.0001 per cent. AuCla solution a distinct greenish-yellow coloration is 

observed. C. B. Brodigan' describes the Dowsett test for gold in cyanide 

solutions, which, however, seems complicated for a mill test. J. E. 

Clennell' gives valuable notes on the method of analysis of zinc dust, 

amplifying the work on this subject by Sharwood. The accompanying 

table gives analyses of zinc dusts. 



ANALYSIS OF ZINC DUST. 




Constituent 


Sample A. 
Per cent. 


Sample B. 
Per oent. 


Sample C. 
Per cent. 


MnAallr^ rine . 


84.33 
10.70- 
0.50 
0.52 
0.22 
2.04 
0.33 


83.20 
13.38 
2.44 
0.17 
0.05 
0.04 
0.13 


84.71 


ZiBc ozida 


14.13 


U^ ™ 

y^tossxusBi .•....•«..•••'. • 

Inaj.,. . 


1.76 
1.03 
0.06 


Cwbon , 


0.03 


W«» 1 


0.08 



A. M. Merton' describes specifications and tests for zinc dust. C. A. 
Browne* describes the manufacture of NaCN from beet-sugar residues. 

' J/»a. Sd. Pr., evil. 767, 154. 

* Jf«<. Ch^m, Sng., XI, 51; Mxnbbal Iksustbt, XXI, 417; Jour. Chem. Mel. Min. 8oc. So. A^r., 

XIII. 65. 
« Jfia. Sd. Rt., CVII. 448. 582. 
< E%9. Min. Jour.. XCV, 802. 914. 
' TUAnalymt. Xi^XVIII. 54; Min. Bng. World, XXXVIII. 772. 

* Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 806, Trans. Inat. Min. Met., BuU. 101. 1013. 
' £)w. Min. Jour., XCV. 703. 1108; Minbbal Industbt XXI. 421. 

* Uxn. Eng. World, XXXVIII. 1227. 

* Hia. SctiPr.. CVII. 186; Met. CUm. Bng., XI. 600. 

23 



354 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Two factories in Germany produce annually about 5000 tons from this 
source. The South African Engineering Standards Committee^ has 
issued Pamphlet No. 3 which contains information concerning the 
sampling of lime and the determination of available alkalinity. To 
determine alkalinity, a sample from the sampling works, crushed through 
30 mesh and kept in an air-tight bottle, is taken, crushed through a 60- 
mesh screen as quickly as possible and placed in a dry wide-mouthed bottle 
with a tight stopper. Two grams of this sample is agitated continuously 
with one liter of a 2 per cent, canensugar solution for 2 houra Then filter 
and titrate aliquot portions with N/10 acid solution using rosolic acid as 
an indicator. The distilled water used must be made neutral to rosolic 
acid. A. M. Merton' discusses the use of lime in cyanide work and 
gives method for the determination of available lime and tables of the 
solubility of lime in water and in sugar solution. 

Precipitation and Treatment of Precipitates 

E. M. Hamilton and S. F. Kirkpatrick* describe aluminium precipi- 
tation. E. M. Hamilton describes the process in use at the low-grade 
mill of the Nipissing Mines Co., Cobalt, Ont. It was found that when 
treating the complex silver ore by cyanidation, using zinc as a precipi- 
tant, the solutions rapidly deteriorated and lost their dissolving power. 
The cause for this was shown to be the presence together in the solution 
of considerable zinc and arsenic. Aeration and addition of oxidizers 
gave no improvement. An analysis of a mill solution is as follows: KCN 
(free), 0.09 per cent., alkali (protective, in terms of NaOH), 0.13; Zn, 
0.113; KCNS, 0.069; Sb, 0.0025; Cu, 0.021; As, 0.021; Fe, 0.007, Ag, 
0.80 oz. It was therefore decided to avoid the combination of Zn and 
As in solution by the use of aluminium dust. Aluminium precipitation 
was suggested in 1893 by Carl Moldenhaur who obtamed patents on the 
method. The fact that aluminium does not replace gold in the cyanogen 
compound makes it necessary to have caustic alkali present, when the 
following reaction probably occurs, one part Al precipitating 12 pari^ 
Ag. 

(1) 6NaAg(CN),+6NaOH+Al = 6Ag+12NaCN+2Al(OH), 

(2) 2Al(OH)8+2NaOH = Na,Al204+4H,0. 

In practice 1 part Al precipitates 4 parts of Ag and the following 
reaction may perhaps take place. 

(3) 2 NaAg(CN)2 + 4 NaOH + 2 Al = 4 NaCN + 2 Ag + NajAljO* + 4H. 
Former attempts with Al in the form of plates and shavings proved 

i Min. Mag., VIII. 379. 

» Ckem. Eng., Sept., 1913, p. 113; Jour. Chem. Met. Min. Soc. So, A/r., XIV, 321. 

» Eng. Min. Jour,, XCV, 936, 1277. 



GOLD AND SILVER 355 

failures, but the application of aluminium dust in 1908 by S. F. Kirk- 
patrick at the Deloro Mining & Reduction Co/s plant, Ontario, was suc- 
cessful. Precipitation at the Nipissing mines is carried on in a way very 
similar to zinc-dust precipitation by the Merrill system except that extra 
facilities are provided for a violent agitation of solution and dust made 
necessary by the fact that, the dust is wetted with difficulty and always 
tends to rise to the top of the solution even after being submerged. 

As stated NaOH is necessary in the solution, and before precipitation, 
the strength in NaOH is brought up to 2 or 3 lb. per ton. Lime added 
to settle slime must be kept as low as possible to avoid the formation of in- 
soluble calcium aluminate which collects in the filter press. Precipitation 
is very good, usually 98 to 99 per cent, and the consumption of Al is about 
0.32 oz. per oz. of silver. Using a 0.2 per cent, cyanide solution con- 
taining on the average 8.5 oz. per ton the regeneration of cyanide ranges 
from 0.64 to 0.72 lb. per ton of solution. The precipitation product 
ranges from 85 to 92 per cent. Ag, when the lime is carefully controlled. 
The cost of precipitation is stated to compare favorably with the zinc 
dust method. S. F. Kirkpatrick gives additional interesting data. 
J. S. MacArthur* describes the precipitation of cyanide solutions by means 
of zinc wafers, i.e., zinc strips. No. 11 guage, 1.5 in. long and 0.25 in. wide. 
These are used in zinc boxes in a manner similar to zinc thread and are 
stated to give very clean precipitate nearly free from zinc. The method 
has been in operation at the Caveira mine, 70 miles south of Lisbon, 
Portugal. Experiments made with the method at the Waihi mill. New 
Zealand and on the Rang gave very poor precipitation, C. W. Merrill* 
has patented a new method of precipitation (Nos. 1,063,568-69-70) which 
consists in passing precious metal-bearing solution through a tube mill 
in which are placed balls of a brittle alloy of zinc with other metal. The 
mill will be lined either with the same material or with an abrasive, like 
carborundum. W. Symmes and W. E. Trent' have patented a new 
method of zinc- dust precipitation. It consists essentially of a vacuum 
filter upon which a bed of zinc-dust is placed and through which pregnant 
^lution is drawn. H. S. Munroe^ describes zinc dust precipitation at the 
plant of the Black Mountain Mining Co., Cerro [Prieto, Sonora, Mex. 
The article gives interesting detailed data, including cost of precipitation. 
D. F. Irvin* describes the new system of feeding zinc-dust in use at the 
Tigre Mining Co. in Sonora, Mex. A. M. Merton* discusses generally 
the precipitation of solutions by zinc dust and comments on the wide 

'/««r. Ck€m^ Mtl. Min. Soc. 80. Afr., XIII. 310. 640; XIV. 265.; Min. Sex. Pf., CVII. 557. 
8na. Mi9^ J<mr., XCVI. 308. 

* £m. Min. Jour., XCV, 916. 

'Emg. Min, Jour.,XC\, 1066; Minbbal Industbt. XVII, 464. 
» Jim. Sei. Pr., CVI. 861. 

* Min. Eng. World, XXXIX. 429. 



366 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

introduction of the method. Morris Green^ made elaborate and c&reful 
experiments to determine the precipitating effect of graphite and wood 
charcoal on cyanide solutions and arrived at the following conclusions: 
Graphite has no precipitating effect on gold in cyanide solutions; in 
certain cases it may accelerate the solution of gold. That the precipi- 
tating effect of charcoal is greatest in freshly burnt charcoal and is due 
to the occluded gases, chiefly to the CO and to a lesser extent to the hy- 
drogen. That the gases in charcoal are present in two forms, first those 
loosely held in the porous mass and which have but a slight precipitating 
effect and the "occluded" CO and H2 which are the active precipitating 
agents. Their effect is due to the manner of existence in the charcoal 
for CO and Hj by themselves have but little precipitating effect. John 
Gross* gives valuable and interesting experimental data on the re-solution 
of gold and silver during precipitation, for details of which reference 
should be made to the original article. 

T. W. Bouchelle* describes the electrolytic refining of a very low- 
grade bullion obtained from zinc precipitation at the Lone Star Mine, 
Pio Pes district, Nicaragua. The bullion had the following composition: 
Au, 14.6 per cent.; Ag, 10; Zn, 2; Cu, 73.4, It was cast into anodes 
20 X 12 X 0.75 in., which were placed in snug-fitting canvas sacks and sus- 
pended in an electrolyte of CuS04.5H«0, 17.6 per cent.; HsSOf, 5 per 
cent, in water solution kept at 150® F. The cathodes were sheet lead 
and connections parallel. The current density was 50 amp. per square foot 
and the drop of potential across electrodes 2 volts. The silver deposited 
with the copper and the gold residue obtained was 970 fine in gold. 
G. H. Clevenger^ made a study of cyanide precipitates and discusses 
the source of the various metals in the precipitate and the precautions 
necessary to obtain high-grade precipitate, so that it may be smelted 
direct without preliminary treatment and with the minimum amount of 
flux. An interesting table of the composition of 8 different precipitates 
is given. H. A. Megraw, Wheeler and G. H. Clevenger^ discuss the 
question of the shipment of cyanide precipitate to smelters vs. smelting 
them to bullion at the mill. G. H. Clevenger gives definite data showing 
the advantage of smelting into bullion, as obtained at the Virgiaia City, 
Nev., plant of Butters and Co. A. R. Kennef* describes in detail the melt- 
ing furnace for precipitates used at the Rio Plata mill, Guazapares, Chi- 
huahua, Mex. Charcoal is used as a fuel, H. S. Munroe^ describes the 
smelting of precipitate at the Black Mountain Mining Co., Cerro Prieto 
Sonora, Mex. The method used is practically identical with that em- 

1 Jour. Chem. Met. Min. Soc. So. A^r., XIV. 257; XIII, 84. 314. 362. Trans. Intl. Min. Met., 
BuU. 109. 110, 111. 

* Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 911. * Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 386. 863, 961. 

s Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 238. • Bng, Min. Jour., XCV. 567. 

« Bng. Min, Jour., XCV, 278. ^ Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1137. 



GOLD AND SILVER 357 

ployed at the Homestake Min. Co. and described by Sbarwood and 
Clark.^ A. H. Jones* describes the smelting of precipitate at the Belmont 
mill, Tonopah, Nev. Two double-chamber No. 3 Rockwell furnaces 
using fuel oil are employed. The cost is 0.09 cent per ounce bullion. 
An analysis of flue dust from the melting furnace is given. 

Lyon Smith' describes the refining and smelting of precipitate at the 
Pittsburg-Silver Peak MiU, Blair, Nev. The method is similar to the 
Homestake method except that the briquettes are smelted in the blast 
furnace and the bullion cupelled, in place of smelting them down directly 
in the cupelling furnace. H. R. Conklin^ describes the method of han- 
dling cyanide precipitate at the Lluvia de Oro Gold Mine Co., at Lluvia 
de Oro, Chihuahua, Mex. 

The Treatment of Concentrate 

J. W. Hutchinson^ describes the method of treating concentrate, now 
in use in the mill of the Goldfield Cons. Min. Co., Goldfield, Nev. The 
former method was described in a previous volume.* The concentrate 
now undergoes a double treatment, first, agitation with solution in the raw 
state and second, after roasting another agitation with cyanide solution. 
Experiments have conclusively shown that this double treatment yields 
greater recovery than either treatment alone. The concentrate from 78 
Deister tables amounting to 6 per cent, of the weight and containing 67 per 
cent, of the value of the ore, is collected in mechanical agitation tanks, 
previously described, neutralized with lime and transferred to three 
Pachuca tanks by centrifugal pumps and is agitated during 8-hour periods 
in 2 lb. cyanide solution. The manner of treatment in the Pachuca 
tanks IS the same as formerly. Five 8-hour periods of agitation and de- 
cantation remove 80 to 85 per cent, of the gold. The concentrate pulp 
passes to Kelley filter presses, which give a product containing 12 per 
cent, moistm-e, and which has a value of $25 to $30. This is mechanically 
conveyed to the roaster bins, from which a belt conveyor feeds it to two 54 
spindle Edwards duplex furnaces, 112X13 ft. each with a capacity 
of 40 tons per day. The capacity per square foot per day is 55 lb. 
The dust loss is only 1.5 per cent, of the material and of this 1 per cent, 
is again recovered in the dust chamber. This is very low considering the 
fineness of the concentrate, as the accompanying screen analysis will show: 
+ 100 mesh, 9.5 per cent. ; + 150 mesh, 8.5 +200 mesh, 22.5; - 200 mesh, 
59. The greater part of the sulphur is in the fine particles. The analy- 
sis of the concentrate is as follows: Si02, 51.6 per cent.; Fe, 19.90; S, 

• Traiu, InH. Min. Met, BvU 98 (1912). « Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 551, 682. 1001. 

• E9^. Min. Jaw., XCV, 1197. HMin. Sei. Pr., CVI, 170. 204. 386. 

• Emg. Min. Jow., XCV. 680. > Minsbal Indubtbt. XX. 361. 



358 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

18.93; AI2O3, 2.00; CaO, 0.20; MgO, 0.10; Sb, 0.08; Te and Se, 0.46; 
Cu, 0.50. An analysis of the roasted product is as follows : SiOs, 54.6 per 
cent.; FezOs, 32.20; S, as sulphide, 0.15; S, as sulphate, 0.75; AlsOt, 3.00; 
CaO, 0.20; MgO, 0.13; Cu, 0.60; Te and Se, 0.19; Sb, 0.07. Nine gallons 
of crude oil is consumed in roasting a ton of concentrate. From the 
furnaces the roasted product passes to a Baker cooler, and from this, 
with the addition of water, by bucket elevator of special construction 
to three 20X12 ft. combined collecting and agitating tanks. The 
roasted concentrate is delivered to each tank for 24 hours. The 
charge is then settled and decanted and HsSOi added in the 
proportion of 20 lb. per ton concentrate. The charge is then agi- 
tated for 8 hours, water added to fill the tank, and allowed to settle; 
when clear, the wash is decanted and fresh water added. Four washes 
are given in this way, equivalent to 8 tons of wash per ton of concentrate. 
The wash water is treated for the recovery of the copper. The con- 
centrate charge is then neutralized with lime and transferred by centrifu- 
gal pump to one of four Pachuca tanks, 14X25.5 ft. It is agitated 
with a 2-lb. cyanide solution containing 1.2 lb. CaO, in a manner 
similar to that described for the raw material. The pulp then passes to a 
storage tank provided with an agitator, which by a cone feeds a 5X18-ft. 
tube mill, the product from which is returned to the storage tank by a 
bucket elevator. This regrinding is continued for 16 hours. After re- 
grinding the pulp passes to Kelly presses and the tailings are sent to 
waste. The extraction obtained is 98.53 per cent, on raw concentrate 
containing 6.58 oz. Au, and the cost of treatment is $5.68 per ton. The 
article gives valuable detail particularly as regards roasting and costs. 
John Gross^ describes blanket concentration in connection with cyanida- 
tion to avoid the difficulties encountered in amalgamating in cyanide 
solution. 

Miscellaneous 

S. Williams* proposes to amalgamate gold and silver in ores by 
agitating the crushed ore with mercury in a solution of potassium 
sulphate and superphosphate. The addition of the chemicals is said 
to greatly increase the rapidity of amalgamation. In an editorial the 
development of the cyanide process is commented upon,' and reference 
made to the need of a process to successfully treat cupriferous gold ores, 
etc. H. A. Megraw* discusses in a comprehensive way the question of 
the kind of ore amenable to cyanidation. Algernon Del Mar*^ describes 

» Min. 8ei. Pr., CVI. 783. « Bng. Min, Jour,, XCVI, 629. 

» Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 22. » Eng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 769. 

« Bng. Min, Jour., XCV. 1161. 



GOLD AND SILVER 359 

the requirements of small cyanide mills. A. W. Allen and J. B. Stewart^ 
discuss the question of the simplification of gold ore treatment. The 
Gitsham cyanide process^ makes use of cyanide solutions made acid 
with H]S04 thus giving rise to HCN. This solution is percolated through 
the ore, and is then again made alkaline with lime before it is precipitated, 
after which it is again made acid. At the Liberty Bell mine' warm 
cyanide solutions (85** F.) have been employed since April, 1912, with 
beneficial effect on the extraction of both gold and silver. The gain 
in extraction is divided amongst amalgamation concentration, and 
cyanidation, although the greatest gain is made by cyanidation, par- 
ticularly as regards the silver. The gain in concentration is due to 
better settling. By the use of the warm solutions the extraction of the 
gold was raised 0.79 per cent, and that of the silver 10.57 per cent. 
E. H. Smith^ discusses the effect of warming cyanide solutions on the 
precipitation. This subject has been discussed in a previous volume.^ 

J. E. Clark' states that at the King of Arizona mine cyanide solutions 
warmed by exhaust steam give an increased rate of percolation, enabling 
more solution to be used in a given time and resulting in an increased 
saving of 20 to 30 cents per ton. Experiments indicate that the addition 
of oil to cyanide solutions does not cause a consumption of cyanide. H. A. 
Megraw, W. J. Sharwood and others' discuss the important question 
of the manner of determining the percentage of extraction in cyanide 
mills. In many plants this is done by considering the bullion recovered 
plus the content of tailing discharged as making 100 per cent. One 
reason for this is the difiSculty of obtaining a satisfactory heads sample, 
due to the process employed or the natiu-e of the ore. The methods em 
ployed at the Homestake plant are fully outlined by W. J. Sharwood. 
D. F. Irvin' discusses the same subject and describes methods of sampling 
in vogue for ore, sand, slime, concentrate, solution, etc. E. L. Bateman' 
discusses the use of the Caldecott sand filter table on the Rand and gives 
interesting data concerning its use. The table is in use at 8 mines and 
the tonnage handled in this way is 474,400 per month, or about 20 per cent, 
of the total Rand tonnage. A simple pulp distributor,^® consisting of a 
central well the walls of which are perforated by a number of holes equal 
to the number of separate streams of pulp desired is in use at Stratton's 
Independence mill, Victor, Colo. H. P. Flint^* descibes a wire sampler 

' Min, Set. Pr.. CVII, 254. 466. 

• Mim. iiaa., VIII, 04; Min. Bng. World, XXXVIII, 654. 

• Mh. Ck€m. Bng., XI, 98. 

• Kng. Min. Jour,, XCV, 579. 

• MiaBMAI, IlTDUaTBT, XIX, 318. 

• Min. 8ei, Pr., XCV. 150. 

Eng. iiin. /our.. XCV. 1109. 1255; XCVI. 31, 441, 937. 1230; Min. Sci. Pr., CVI, 701. 

• Mi*. Sei. Pr., cVl. 514. 

' MeL Chom. Bng., XI. 672. 

• Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 280. 
' Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 709. 



360 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

for automatically sampling solutions. Justin H. Haynes^ gives a curve 
showing relation between size of pipe and quantity of solution. P. T. 
Morrisby* describes a siphon for cyanide vats. R. B. Elder* describes 
an ingenuous sampler for cyanide solutions, and gives methods of samp- 
ling and plotting data showing the dissolution of gold, strength in 
cyanide, etc., during leaching. W. H. Kritzer* gives directions for first 
aid in cyanide poisoning. The treatment rate schedule of the Argo mill 
at Idaho Springs is given in the reference cited. ^ 

CoBT OF Milling 

Detailed costs of milling have been published for the following 
mines: Consolidated Mercm',^ Utah; Portalnd Gold Mining Co.,^ Colo.; 
Camp Bird Mine,* Colo.; Liberty Bell Mine,' Colo.; Standard Cons. 
Mine,^« Calif.; North Star Mines Co.," Calif.; Pittsburgh-Silver Peak 
Mining Co.,^* Nevada; Montana-Tonopah Mines Co.," Nov.; Tonopah 
Mining Co., ^* Nev. ; Tonopah Extension Mining Co., " Nev. ; Cost of cyanid 
ing at Tonopah,^* Nev., Tonopah Belmont mill," Nev.; Nevada Hills 
Mining Co.,^» Nev.; Goldfield Cons. Co.," Nev.; Treadwell group,-^ 
Alaska; Dome Mines, *^ Canada; HoUinger Mines,** Canada; Nipissing 
Mines Co.,*' Canada; Santa Gertrudis Co.,** Mexico; San Francisco 
Mill,** Pachuca, Mex.; El Tigre Mine,** Mex.; El Oro Mine,*^ Max.; 
Cost at a French Gold Mine;*® Costs on the Rand;** Rand mining and 
milling costs;'® Eldorado Banket Mine,*^ Rhodesia; Oriental Consoli- 
dated,** Korea. 

1 Met. Chem. Bng. XI. 705. 

• Min. Set. Pr., CVI, 963. and Jour. Chem. Met. Min. Soe. So. Afr., XIII. 45. 163, 361. 
*Mtn. Afcv., IX, 300. 

« Min. and Sci. Preaa, CVI, 148. 
» Eng. and Min. Jour., XCVI, 1116. 
•*Sno. Min. Jour., XCV. 23. 
» Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1232. 
« Bng. Min. Jour. XCVI, 1222. 

• Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 1076. 

i» Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 1003. Min. Sci. Pr., CVII, 312. 

" Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 934. 

" Min. Sci. Pr., CVI, 806. 

»« Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 859. 

" Eng. Min. Jour., XCV. 1162; XCVI, 160. 

i» Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 210. 

» Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 720. 

»» Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 1004. 

>• Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 940. 

»• Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI. 124. 125. 161. 

» Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 1278; XCVI .121. Min. Sci. Pr., CVI, 939. 

" Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 217. 

«» Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1102; XCVI. 30, 739. 

«« Eng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1004; 1101; XCVI. 159. 

" Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 1160. 

»• Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1104. 

M Bng. Min.. Jour., XCV. 1203. Min. Sci. Pr., CVI, 702. 

" Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 121. 

«• Bng. Min. Jour., XCV, 1004. 

" Min. Mag., VIII. 174. 

•• Bng. Min. Jour., XCV. 329. 

«» Min. Sci. Pr., CVII, 684. 

" Bng. Min. Jour., XCVI, 1025. 



GRAPHITE 

By Benjamin L. Miller 

Graphite is a black lustrous mineral crystallizing in the rhombohedrai 
division of the hexagonal system according to most mineralogists although 
some observers have claimed that it belongs to the monoclinic system. 
The crystals are six-sided and tabular with striated faces. On account 
of its softness the faces are seldom distinct. When well crystallized in 
flakes it has a black to steel gray metallic luster which is, however, 
practically absent in the fine amorphous material. In certain places it 
occurs in the form of large leaves or blades and less frequently in the form 
of fibers. The color is steel gray to black and the streak black. Its 
hardness is about 1.2 and its specific gravity from 2.09 to 2.23. It has a 
greasy feeling, a perfect basal cleavage, and is opaque. It is easily 
sectile and flexible, but not elastic. Its fusibility is unknown though 
probably above 3000** C. It is combustible at temperatures between 
650** C. and 700** C. Chemically it consists of pure carbon, thus making 
it identical in chemical composition with charcoal and the diamond. 
Impurities are usually present in the natural graphite but these seem to 
occur between the thin laminse and to be purely accidental. Iron oxide, 
combined hydrogen, and clay are the most abundant impurities. 

Graphite is a very stable mineral under atmospheric conditions and 
the soil formed from graphite-bearing rocks always contains flakes or 
smaller particles of the mineral. 

It is common to separate graphite into two classes designated by the 
two tenns "amorphous" and "crystalline." The choice of terms is 
unfortunate for the reason that all graphite is crystalline carbon and is 
sharply separated from amorphous carbon. In practice we generally 
use the term "crystalline graphite" for those varieties that are coarsely 
crystallized and have a high luster, while "amorphous graphite" includes 
the varieties in which the particles are so small as to be indistinguishable 
to the naked eye and the substance has a dull or earthly appearance. 
Microscopic examination of some so-called amorphous graphites has 
shown them to contain very small crystals. The distinction between 
"amorphous" and "crystalline" graphites would thus seem to be merely 
a difference in size of the graphite particles. "Amorphous" graphite 
and "crystalline" graphite are both true graphites and yield graphitic 
acid and consequently, are distinct from amorphous carbon in the form 

361 



362 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

of charcoal, coke, or coal although to the eye no distinction may be possi- 
ble between "amorphous" graphite and amorphous carbon. 

Occurrence op Graphite 

Graphite is one of the few minerals that occurs in nature under widely 
different conditions and is also produced artificially in many ways. It 
is found in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, in var}dng 
amounts. 

Graphite of Sedimentary Rocks. — The statement is frequently made 
that graphite does not occur in unchanged sediments but this is erroneous. 
Emerson^ has described an unmetamorphosed Triassic sandstone in 
Massachusetts that contains ''scales of graphite in considerable number.'^ 
Obviously graphite occurring in such rocks owes its origin to nearby 
metamorphic or igneous rocks in which the graphite was formed. Graph- 
ite being little affected by weathering agents would not be affected chem- 
ically when the containing minerals were decomposed and the rock dis- 
integrated. On account of its softness, however, the graphite flakes 
are usually ground into such fine particles during transportation that they 
escape detection in the sediments, especially when mixed with large 
amounts of other minerals. Perhaps, in places, the black coloring matter 
of sedimentary rocks, usually supposed to be amorphous carbonaceous 
matter is, in reality graphite. Since graphite owes its origin to great heat, 
the graphite occurring in unchanged sedimentary rocks must owe its 
origin to the disintegration of graphitic rocks of igneous or metamorphic 
character so that we do not expect to find graphite deposits of any 
economic importance in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks even 
though later investigations may show its rather widespread presence in 
such materials. 

Graphite of Igneous /2ocA;s.^--There has been much discussion concern- 
ing the presence of graphite in igneous rocks as a primary constituent 
of the magmas and many geologists have assumed that the presence of 
graphite in metamorphic rocks furnished positive proof of the sedimentary* 
origin of such rocks. Such geologists attribute the source of the carbon 
solely to organisms that were entombed in the sedimentary rocks. Others 
have held that the presence of graphite in igneous rocks is purely acci- 
dental and that the carbon has been picked up from surrounding rocks. 
While this may account for some graphite found in igneous rocks it surely 
does not account for all occurrences in these and we must conclude that 
graphite is an igneous as well as a metamorphic mineral. This question 
will be discussed more fully under the head of "Origin of Graphite." 

1 Monograph No. XXIX. U. S. Geol. Surv.. p. 365. 



GRAPHITE 363 

In igneous rocks graphite occurs in meteorites, in nepheline syenite; 
in basalt; and pegmatites. It is usually segregated in such rocks, the 
graphite occurring in comparatively large irr^ular masses of great purity. 
This is especially true of the graphite of the pegmatites. 

Near Seisholtzville; Berks County, Pennsylvania, graphite is found 
associated with magnetite in a basic rock, while in Ovifak, Greenland, 
it is found in basalt in association with native iron. 

Graphite of the Metamorphic Rocks. — In the metamorphic rocks graph- 
ite occurs most abundantly, and with few exceptions, all the workable 
deposits of the world occur in such rocks. Gneisses, schists, quartzites, 
marbles, and slates contain graphite in various places and in variable 
amounts. Besides we find, in certain places, beds or veins of practically 
pure graphite which have probably been formed from beds of coal or 
from veins of asphaltic materials that have undergone metamorphism. 

In the gneisses, schists, quartzites, marbles, and slates, the graphite 
occurs disseminated throughout the rbcks either in the crystalline flake 
form or as amorphous graphite. In most cases the flakes are oriented 
so that the flat faces are parallel, particularly in the schists, quartzites 
and slates. In the case of the marbles and also in some of the gneisses 
the graphite flakes show no orderly arrangement. 

The graphite of the slates is almost invariably amorphous, that of 
the marbles almost always crystalline, while that of the other kinds of 
rocks may be either crystalline or amorphous. 

Where beds of coal have been metamorphosed to graphite by dynamic 
action or by contact with igneous intrusions the graphite preserves many 
of the structural characters of the original material. Such graphite is 
amorphous and is in most cases very pure. 

Veins of graphite occur in fissures and are of various widths. In 
some places veins 6 ft. in width have been reported but seldom do they 
exceed a foot in width and most of them are much smaller. The purest 
graphitje usually comes from veins. Much of the Ceylon graphite, 
which is found in veins, contains 99+ per cent, carbon. The vein graph- 
ite is crystalline and is fibrous, foliated, or bladed but does not occur in 
flakes. 

Origin op Graphite 

Geologists have long discussed the origin of graphite and perhaps 
mwe theories have been proposed to account for this mineral than for 
any other economic product. Even at the present time there is con- 
siderable difference of opinion and there is need of additional experimental 
work before all questions concerning the origin of this widely distributed 
mineral are conclusively answered. 



364 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

It 18 now proved beyond much question that graphite is of organic 
origin in certain places and of inorganic origin in others. The presence 
of graphite in rocks of undoubted igneous origin was not considered 
sufficient proof by some that the carbon was a primary constituent of 
the original magma as it was thought that the carbon might have been 
incorporated in the igneous mass as it passed through carbonaceous 
sediments on its way to the surface. The discovery of graphite in meteor- 
ites, however, in which there is complete lack of evidence of any organic 
material, seems to have convinced most geologists that graphite occurs 
in Nature as a product of inorganic origin as well as of organic origin. 
With this question definitely settled there still remains much discussion 
concerning the origin of particular deposits. Some persons are convinced 
that a considerable portion of the graphite deposits of the world have 
resulted from inorganic compounds while others take the position that 
graphite with such an origin is very rare and represented by but few 
occurrences. 

Uses of Graphite 

The uses of graphite are many and are continually increasing. Few 
people are aware of the great variety of purposes for which it is suited by 
its peculiar physical and chemical properties. 

ItsValue depends upon its resistance to the action of heat and corrosive 
agents, its high conductivity of heat and electricity, the thin character 
of the flakes, their flexibility and softness enabling them to be spread out 
under pressure to form a smooth and almost frictionless surface or a 
black glossy coating, its opaque black color and streak, the ease with 
which the latter may be obtained and its permanent character, and the 
absence of occluded gases such as are usually present in amorphous 
carbon. 

The average person doubtless believes its principal use is in the manu- 
facture of lead pencils, while that is, at present, one of the minor uses. 
Although it is impossible to be specific in stating the proportion of the 
world's supply used for various purposes it seems that the following 
table approximately represents the proportions in which it is consumed 
in various manufactured products. 

Ptfcent. 

Crucibles 65 

Stoye polish 16 

Foundiy facings 10 

Lead pencils 6 

Paint 6 

Lubricants 5 

AU other purposes 6 

Besides the uses specifically mentioned above, graphite is used in the 
manufacture of various refractory articles such as muffles, phosphorizers, 
brazing boxes, stirrers, etc.; in the manufacture of electrical supplies 



GRAPHITE 



365 



such as dynamo and motor brushes and resistance rods, electric light 
carbons, electrodes, rheostats, in dry batteries, etc.; as a covering for 
powder; as a fertilizer filler; for coloring and glazing tea leaves and 
coffee beans; in the manufacture of printer's ink and dye for felt hats; 
as a dressing for belts; for steam packing; in the manufacture of stove 
or boiler cements; in boilers to prevent boiler scale; and in the manufac- 
ture of many other articles most of which are similar to ones mentioned 



Graphite in the United States 

Graphite is widely distributed throughout the United States and yet 
the bulk of product consumed is imported from foreign countries. This 
is due mfdnly to the fact that graphite manufacturers have shown a 
decided preference for Ceylon graphite in the manufacture of crucibles 
and Mexican graphite for pencils. The difficulty of finding markets for 
the product, combined with the difficulties of concentration have been 
effective in retarding the development of the graphite deposits of the 
country. 

The following states contain graphite deposits that have been at least 
prospected. In most cases materials from these states have been 
marketed. These are Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecti- 
cut, Georgia^ Idaho, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, 
New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. 
Besides the above-named states so-called "graphite" has been produced 
in several other states — Arkansas, Ohio, etc. — but in most, if not all 
cases, the product is nothing other than carbonaceous shale. 

STATISTICS OF GRAPHITE IN THE UNITED STATES. 



Yt«. 



Befinad CiyataUiiie OriLpihite. 



PmliictioDH. 



Fotmd9, Vfttu«H 



Import*. 



Foutidji. VftEu«. 



Ccmaumptioii (a). 



Pdimds. V&lua. 



Aaiorphou9 

Graphite 

Productbn. 



Tom, 
3000 lb. 



V&lu«. 



Ukm^km^i^mm 






tmtii. 



'<i«a,«««*«rfi.i 



4,535 jOO 

43fi?JB7 

uao.05« 

4.5SGJ49 

5.(1«9.M»»I 
5^5,132 
4,790.000 
a,S«.77l, 

5,^,727 



1104.122 

lUH7i 
164,247, 
162 332 1 
170,42fl, 
170,afla 
I49.MEJ 
I49.7fl3 
340.104 
2^hSR3 
256 .OSO 
187,689 
2M32fl 



32.268,560 

32.ra9jeo 

40,S57.«10 
32,012.000 
25.350.000 
34,914.011 
50.974,330 
40.903.000 
22,913.71* 
42.532^1 
50,010,500 
41.404.000 
51,286.000 
S7J5S,*00 



11,388,117 

895.010 

1,108^ 

1,207 JOO 

005,581 

983,034 

1,&54.212 

1.777.381} 

762,207 

1,854,450 

1^2,59^2 

I,4fl6j29 

1J09h337 

2,l09,7yi 



%,40t.012 
:J6,997,372 
45,034,424 
35,537,700 
2a,70T,&27 
3fV,175.2fl7 
55,888.81^ 
45,548449 
26,345,763 
48.20^2,750 
55.235,092 
4fl.JfM,000 
54329.771 



tlH553.239 
I,0e7.fl21 
1,332.401 
1,371,947 
1,067,913 
1.153,460 
l,725.(»g 
1,920,937 
876,030 
3,194,553 
2,15^,471 
1.751,779 
],SQ7,020 
2,3G4.JLU 



809 

4.73» 

lfl.591 

10,115 

A) 2 1,953 

ri 10353: 

0120,962 

h) 1,4,13 

6) fi,^^ 

b) 1,407, 

1,223 J 

2,063! 

2,243 [ 



8,040 
311500 
£5,904 
7U84 

102.925 

^,039 

U) 

13^,381 
75,250 
32.238 
39.710 
32.415 
32,ii«i 
aA,428 



(a) Negleetiiig the small ra-«xport of foreicn product, (b) Statistics of the U. S. Geologioal Sur- 
J. L*mely snphitio shale, (e) Not reported. 



366 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Although several of the states named have deposits of graphite that 
appear to be promising, regular production during recent years has been 
confined to Alabama, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Wis- 
consin, with occasional productions reported from other states mentioned 
in the above list. 

Alabama. — During the year the Flaketown Graphite Co. and the 
Quenelda Graphite Co. were in operation. The latter company re- 
built the' mill which was destroyed by fire in 1912 and was able to 
produce a small amount of concentrates during the latter part of the year. 
The milling process is somewhat different from the one employed in the 
old mill. The ore, which is taken from open cuts, is passed through the 
crushers and rolls until it is reduced to a size small enough to pass tlu-ough 
a No. 8 mesh screen. It then goes to the dryer. After being dried the 
smaller particles of sand and the graphite are separated from the coarse 
sand by means of four 48-in. fans. The material is then put through the 
washers which are 7 ft. long, 24 in. wide, and 12 in. deep with a space for 
running water of 6 in. The graphite concentrates which flow off with 
the water are allowed to drain for a day and then passed through a rotary 
dryer in which all particles of wood are burned. It is then sorted into 4 
sizes on a hexagon reel, each size going to a 48-in. French buhrstone 
to grind all grit that may adhere to the flakes. It then goes through 8 
hexagon reels for further sorting and sizing. Although the mill has been in 
use a short time it bids fair to be highly satisfactory. 

Alaska. — Moffitt^ has recently described some of the graphite deposits 
of Seward Peninsula, Alaska, from which the following information is 
obtained. 

Graphitic schists are present in the Nome and Grand Central quad- 
rangles but are of no economic importance. Graphite deposits of con- 
siderable size and promising character are found in the headwater areas 
of Grand Central river and Windy creek and on the north side of the 
Kigluaik Range west of Cobblestone river. 

''A sharp ridge made up of biotite schist striking east and west and 
intruded by dikes and sills of coarse granitic rock or p^matite rises 
on the south from the saddle between the Grand Central and Windy 
creek. Some of the schist is highly graphitic, the graphite appearing as 
abundant small scales on the cleavage surface and much of it not being 
distinguishable on casual examination from flakes of biotite. Locally 
graphite is segregated in beds or much flattened lenticular masses that 
conform in direction with the schist cleavage and reach thicknesses of 
6, 8 or even 18 in. These beds include thin layers of schist contain- 



pp 



1 "Geology of the Nome and Grand Central Quadrangles, Aiaaka." BuU. 533. U. 8. Qeol. Sarrey. 
135-136, 1913. 



GRAPHITE 367 

ing numerous large garnets and much quartz. The raw graphite found 
at this place is heavier than the higher grades of graphite, owing to its 
included quartz." 

*'The sills and dikes of pegmatite cutting the schist also contain 
graphite^ which is associated yrith them in such a way as to suggest a 
close relationship between the inlrusives and the graphite. Graphite 
appears to be an original mineral in the pegmatite as well as to be asso- 
ciated with it in the schist. At one place about 8 in. of solid graphite 
are included between a pegmatite sill and the overlying schist. The 
6t^p slopes of the mountain are strewn with graphite fragments, which, 
owing to the fact that they are much lighter in weight than either the 
8cfaist or the pegmatite, appear mere abundantly on the surface, especially 
in gullies where water has brought about a rough sorting. One block, 
with dimensions of approximately 7 ft., 6 ft., and 30 in., consists of about 
equal thicknesses of schist and apparently almost pure graphite. 

''The graphite-bearing schist extends eastward beyond the east fork 
of Grand Central river and westward across Windy creek and the head 
(A Cobblestone river to the region south of Imuruk Basin, in which the 
graphite is even more extensively developed than in the locality described 
and from which a number of commercial shipments have been made. " 

Califomia. — Although graphite deposits have been reported from 
several parts of California very little has been produced to date. In 
1901-02 a small amount was mined in Sonoma County but the opera- 
tions were soon discontinued. In 1913 about 2500 lb. were produced in 
Calaveras County, which was used in the manufactm-e of paint. It is 
said to have been sold for $20 per ton, thus indicating a rather poor 
quality of material. 

Colorado, — During the year an important discovery of graphite was 
reported from Gunnison County. On Italian mountain three parallel 
veins were found about 50 ft. apart. The middle vein is said to be from 
4 to 6 ft. wide, much of which is pure graphite. The extent of the 
deposit has not been determined. 

Pennsylvania. — ^The graphite production of Pennsylvania was consid- 
erably less in 1913 than in former years. This was due to the fact that 
only 2 mines were operated — Pettinos Brothers' and the old Penn- 
^Ivania Graphite Co's. mine, adjoining properties located in the valley 
of Pickering Creek near Byers, Chester County. The latter prop- 
erty was operated under lease by John H. LiUy. Both companies were 
compelled to cease operations by the burning of their respective mills. 
Pettinos Brothers' mill burned August 2 and the Pennsylvania Graphite 
Company's mill a few months later. The latter has been rebuilt but 
not the former. 



368 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The mills of the American Flake Graphite Ck). near Kimberton and 
the Eynon Graphite Co. near Coventryville have been dismantled. 
Plans for the rebuilding of the latter have been prepared. The other 
graphite properties of the state remained idle during the entire year. 
Plans have been prepared for the re-opening of some of the aban- 
doned mines and for the construction of a new mill. 

New York. — New York continues to occupy the foremost place in 
the production of flake graphite in the United States. This is due to 
the fact that the mine of the Joseph Dixon Crucible Co. at Graphite, 
N. Y., produces an annual yield approximately one-half the total 
production of the whole United States. Most of the graphite mines of the 
state were idle as in former years. 

Rhode Island. — Graphite shales have been worked for many years 
at Cranston, which is a suburb of Providence. The graphite is amorphous 
and contains from 25 to 40 per cent, carbon. The production during 
1913 was small and was used for foundry facings. 

Wisconsin. — Near Junction, Portage County, is a deposit of graphite 
shale which is used in the manufacture of paint and lubricants. The 
Wisconsin Graphite Co. reports improvements in their mines and mills 
by which they have more than doubled their output. 

Artificial or Manufactured Graphite. — ^The International Aeheson 
Graphite Co. of Niagara Falls, N. Y., again reports the largest pro- 
duction of manufactured graphite in their history. The material is 
used for a variety of purposes among which the most important are 
the manufacture of electrodes and lubricants. 

PRODUCTION OF MANUFACTURED GRAPHITE 1899-1913. 

Year. Quantity. y^^^ ^^Sito!*'*"'*' 

1899 405,870 S32,475 8.00 

1900 860,760 68,860 8.00 

1901 2,500,000 119,000 4.76 

1902 2,358,828 110.700 4.69 

1903 2,620,000 178,670 6.82 

1904 3.248,000 217.000 6.70 

1906 4,595.500 313.979 6.83 

1906 4.868,000 312.764 6.42 

1907 6,924,000 483.717 6.97 

1908 7,385,511 502.667 6.80 

1909 6.870,529 467,196 6.80 

1910 13,149.000 945,000 7.19 

1911 10,144,000 664,000 6.54 

1912 12,896,347 830,193 6.44 

1913 13.633.342 973.397 7 . 14 

Graphitb in Foreign Countries 

Graphite is found in almost every region where ancient metamorphic 
sediments occur. Every continent of the globe and almost every country 
of prominence contains deposits of graphite that have been worked at 
one time or another and yet the bulk of the world's production comes from 
a comparatively small number of localities. Besides the United States, 



GRAPHITE 



369 



Canada, Ceylon, Korea, Bavaria, Austria, Italy, Sweden, Norway, and 
Madagascar furnish practically all the graphite of the world with 
only occasional production from the other countries. 

Canada. — ^The graphite production of Canada during 1913 was dis- 
appointing, as most of the companies were idle and the total production 
was less than in 1912. The chief difficulties are in the concentration of 
the graphite flake and the preference of graphite users for Ceylon graphite. 
The principal operators of the year were the Tonkin-Dupont Graphite 
Co. of WUberforce, Ontario and the Black Donald Graphite Co. of Cala- 
boghie. The total production amounted to 2162 tons valued at $90,282. 

Ceylon, — The graphite industry of Ceylon during 1913 was less pros- 
perous than in preceding years, with the result that the production de- 
creased and the price increased to a remarkable degree. European 
importers have been inclined to attribute the cause entirely to local ship- 
pers, according to the American Consul at Colombo. The causes for 
the increased prices seem to be due to the severe floods during the year 
that greatly interfered with the mining operations, the increased diffi- 
culties and consequent expense of mining as the mines increase in depth 
and more water is encountered, and the shortage of labor. 

The following comparative figures, taken from the books of one of the 
largest exporting firms in the island, show the rise in plumbago prices. 



Quality. 



January, 
1912. 



January, 
1913. 



October. 
1913. 



Medium lump 

Superior Ihring dust 

ConunoB aust 

Medium ordinary lump. 

Superior ehip 

Superior ormnary lump. 



Per Ton. 

$85.97 

45.42 

(a) 25.95 

97.32 

94.08 

154.09 



Per Ton. 

$123.27 

68.13 

26.76 

134.63 

131.38 

178.42 



Per Ton. 
$162.20 
113.54 
(6) 66.50 
197.88 
194.64 
235.18 



(a) 58 to 60 per eent. carbon test, (b) 56 to 57 carbon test. 

Uncured plumbago that ordinarily commands about $88 per ton 
now brings $162 to $195. Recently as much as $260 per ton has been 
paid for uncured plumbago. The character of this lot was above the 
ordinary, but after curing 13 cwt of lump is the best that can be got 
out of it, and to show a working margin of profit this must bring at least 
S373 per ton on the market in Colombo, a price that the best lump 
has not yet reached by over $113. 

In the opinion of Colombo shippers the only solution of the difficulty is 
for all mine owners to abandon as far as possible the old methods and old 
machinery and equip their mines with modern machinery. The most 
necessary machine is a mine pump that will pump out 2000 to 3000 gal. 
per hour with an engine of 25 to 35 h.p. to run it. At present there is 

2ft 



370 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

one American pump in the island of a type that gives entire satisfaction. 
It uses 320 ft. of 9-in. piping and pumps 2000 gal. per hour, with an 
English-made Hornsby-Ackroyd 20 h.p. engine. The supply of plum- 
bago near the surface has been practically exhausted throughout the 
plumbago district and the mines in going deeper to get more material 
have naturally encountered more water. Buckets and hand pumps 
and coolie labor have been unable to cope with the inflow. 

Plumbago is the most important mineral export from Ceylon, and 
more than one-half of the total output is taken by the United States. 
The following table shows the destination of the exports during 1912 and 
1913: 

1912. 1913. 

Ctrt. Cwt. 

United States 309.196 292.524 

Germany 161.138 125.691 

United Kingdom 106,964 107,060 

Belgium 57,474 39,579 

AuatraUa 6,681 4,607 

Japan 4,407 2,152 

France 2,403 2,208 

Other countries 3,998 2.123 

651.261 575.944 

Korea (Chosen), — Graphite is found in several places in Korea and 
considerable is exported each year. Most of the material is amorphous, 
although crystalline graphite deposits are also present in several regions. 
In some places the industry is hampered by lack of water during the dry 
seasons and also during the cold season. The most extensive workings 
are in the southern part of Korea near Fusan where preparations are being 
made for a greatly increased production. 

There are many good deposits of graphite in Chosen district north of 
Unsan. The material is hand picked and then transported by ponies or 
bulls a great distance over very rough mountainous roads at considerable 
expense. Notwithstanding these difficulties the deposits are being 
worked in a small way by both Japanese and Korean operators. 

Most of the Korean graphite is exported to foreign countries by way 
of Japan and it is therefore difficult to obtain definite figures of the 
production. 

Madagascar. — The graphite industry of Madagascar showed remark- 
able activity during 1913. During the year 1690 new concessions were 
registered, while there were only 942 at the close of 1912. These were 
distributed as follows: ^^ ^ 

323 in the province of d'Andevorante. 
200 in the province of Vatomandry. 
194 in the province ofVakinankaratra. 
180 in the province of Tamatave. 
175 in the province of Ambodtra. 
168 in the province of Tananarive. 
124 in the province of Fianarantsoa. 
115 in the province of Itasy. 

There are evidently unlimited quantities of graphite in Madagascar, 
but lack of capital and machinery for concentration and refining have 



GRAPHITE 



371 



interfered with the development of the numerous prospects. A market 
also must be found for the material for undoubtedly there is, at the present 
time, considerable prejudice on the part of graphite users against the 
product from any new district. 

It is estimated that 8000 tons were produced during the year, of which 
6314 tons were exported, the balance accumulating as stock material. It 
has been claimed that the best product from Madagascar, containing 
more than 90 per cent, carbon has been sold in Europe and America as 
Ceylon graphite. The lower grades have been sold as Madagascar 
material, the effect being to discredit the entire product from the Island 
of Madagascar. The material is said to sell for $90 and $140 a ton. 

The graphite exports from the island during the past 5 years are as 
follows: 



1009. 
1910. 
1911. 
1912. 
1913. 



Metric Tons. 

19 

. . 545 

... 1247 

. . 2732 

. .. 6314 



Russia, — The graphite production of Kussia, exclusive of Siberia has 
always been insignificant. In 1912 a graphite company acquired a 
graphite deposit near Marionpol in the province of d'lekaterinoslaw. 
It is planned to produce about 100 tons per year. 

Siberia. — Since the exhaustion of the Alibert Mine, little graphite has 
been produced in Siberia. During 1913 a party of English engineers was 
sent to eastern Siberia to prospect for graphite deposits in the Amur 
region, on the Burei river system. Graphite deposits of promising char- 
acter are reported to occur near Cape Litke in the Pacific Ocean (Tchnkot 
Peninsula) and near Eastern Cape in the Primorsk territory. 

WORLD'S PRODUCTION OP GRAPHITE. 
^__ (In metrie tons.) 



Taar. Awtna.1 



B*T- 



1000. 
1901. 
1002. 
10O3. 
1004. 
1005. 
1000. 
1007. 
1008. 
1000. 
1010. 
1011. 
1012. 
1913. 



33.603 
39.903 
39.527 
29.590 
38,020 
34.410 
38,117 
49.425 
44,425 
40.710 
33.131 
41.509 
45.375 
49,456 



Canada. 



9^48 

4.435 

S,023 

3.719 

3,7&4 

4.921 

4,0&5 

4.0113 

4.S44 

(•)4,000 

7.415 

11.298 

12.532 



1.743 

2,004 

903 

660 

410 

491 

405 

525 

227 

783 

1,263 

1.154 

1.873 

1.961 



X 



Ion. 



19,168 
22.707 
25.593 
24.492 
26.478 
31,134 
36.578 
33.027 
26.227 
25.906 
30.008 
27.433 
33.106 
29.277 



India. 



1,859 
2.530 
4.648 
3.448 
2.955 
2.361 
2,642 
2.472 
2,919 
3.182 
4.319 
4.047 
NU. 



Italy. 



9,720 

10,313 

9,210 

7.920 

0.765 

10.572 

10,805 

10.980 

12.914 

11.583 

12.510 

12.621 

13,170 



Japan. 



94 
88 
97 
114 
216 
209 
177 
103 
177 
284 
145 
114 
149 



Mexico, 
(6) 



2.561 

762 

1.434 

1,404 

970 

970 

3.915 

8.202 

1,078 

1.704 

2.332 

2.974 

2.865 

1,057 



Swe- 
den. 



84 
56 
63 
25 
55 
40 
37 
33 
66 
26 
49 
65 
79 
88 



United 

States. 

(0 



1.799 
1.800 
1.895 
2.053 
2.045 
1.933 
2,220 
2,080 
1,557 
5.875 
3.811 
3.280 
3.318 
4,331 



Franco 

and 
Colonies 



300 

320 

1100 

1870 

5600 

(•)7000 



(a)Tbe ficam for 1897, 1809. 1907. 1908. 1912 and 1913 are exports: the enonnous production in 
1808 as reported in offieiai goTemment publications is not reflected in tne exports of that year which 

^_ «^«-^_.^_ ^___ /M Exporti. (e) Crystalline graphite up to 1909. (dO Includes the 

Kor '- « - ' • 



Dted to 24.349 metrie tons. 

prodoetkm of 7520 metrie tons in 



Cores. (•) Estimated. 



SouUi Africa. — ^The Union of South Africa reports an output of 3 
short tons of graphite during 1913. 



GYPSUM 

Bt F. a. Wilder 



Gypsum was mined in the United States in 1913 to the extent of 
2,599,508 short tons, an increase of 98,751 tons over the production of 
1912, according to the United States Geological Survey. The total value 
of gypsum and gjrpsum products produced in 1913 was S6,774,822, 
compared with S6,563,908 in 1912, an increase of $210,914. Gypsum 
sold crude without calcining and used principally as an ingredient in 
Portland cement and paint and as land plaster amounted to 463,136 
short tons, valued at $697,066, which is a good increai^e over the 
business of 1912. About 85 per cent, of the gypsum sold crude in 
1913 was used for Portland cement as an average value of $1.49 a ton. 
The quantity sold for this purpose is steadily increaang. The quantity 
of gypsum sold crude for land plaster has remained nearly stationary 
for four years, but the average price dropped in 1913 from $2.02 to 
$1.75 a ton. 

PRODUCTION OF CRUDE GYPSUM IN THE UNITED 8TATE8.(a) 
(Tons of 2000 lb.) 



1011. 



Tons. 



Value. 



1012. 



Tona. 



Value. 



1013. 



Tone. 



Value. 



Cal.. Nev.. & Ore. 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Michigan 

Now York 

Ohio and Va 

Tex. and Okla 

Utah 

Wvoming 

All other states 



(6)177,816 
354.204 
122.570 
347.206 
472.834 
300,858 
288,278 
id) 

44.087 
155.410 



$650,310 
857,287 
345.203 
573,026 
1.100,506 
1.050,568 
773,753 



116.237 
880,146 



170.140 
411.186 
131.031 
384,207 
506,006 
262.551 
205,037 

(c) 

36,581 
302,020 



$688,247 
845,628 
324,820 
621.547 

1.241,514 
812.388 
825,107 



80.082 
1,314,575 



(e) 
456,031 
110.410 
423.806 
520.627 
(«)254,863 
308,066 
(c) 

30.632 
435.068 



1,157.039 
308.308 
721.325 

1.280,609 
605,149 
675.165 



74,862 
1.620.439 



Total. 



2.323,070 



6,462,035 



2,500,757 



6,563,008 



2,500,508 



6,744,822 



(a) Statistics of the U. S. Geol. Surv. (6) Includes Utah, (e) Included in other States, {d) 
Included in Cal. and Nev. (e) Ohio alone; Virginia included in other states. 

CRUDE GYPSUM MINED IN THE UNITED STATES, (o) 
(Tons of 2000 lb.) 



1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1880. 
1800. 
1801. 



00,000 


1802 


85.000 


1803 


100,000 


1804 


00.000 


1805 


00.000 


1806 


00.405 


1807 


05.250 


1808 


05,000 


1800 


110,000 


1000 


267,760 


1001 


182.005 


1002 


208.126 


1003 



256.250 


1004 


253.615 


1005 


230.312 


1006 


265,503 


1007 


224,254 


1008 


288,082 


1000 


201.638 


1010 


486,235 


1011 


504,462 


1012 


633,701 


1013 


816.478 




1.041.704 





040,017 
,043.202 
540,585 
751,748 
721,820 
252.785 
,370.057 
323.070 
500,757 
590,506 



(a) Statistics of the U. S. Geol. Surv. 



372 



OYPSUM 373 

The building trade generally recognizes two sorts of gypsum plasters — 
cement and wood fiber. 

Cement plaster is intended for use with a considerable admixture of 
sand. The standard specifications adopted 2 years ago by the Plaster 
Manufacturers propose that six 10-quart buckets of good, clean, sharp 
sand be added to the hundred pound bag of plaster, for lath work, and a 
third more sand when the plaster is applied to brick and terra cotta. As a 
matter of fact, even more sand than is permitted by these specifications is 
used in the larger cities where bids are taken on narrow margins^' To 
enable the plaster to carry these steadily increasing percentages of sand, 
the manufacturers have been grinding finer each year, till in 1913 gypsum 
plaster showed only 5 to 10 per cent, of material that would not pass a 
lOO-mesh screen. 

Wood fiber plasters are not sanded as heavily as cement plaster, and 
manufacturers generally urge their use where sand is poor or expensive 
and prefer to see them used neat. About 60 lb. of shredded wood 
take the place of the 4 to 6 lb. of goat hair used in cement plaster. 

The use of wood fiber plaster is increasing faster than that of cement 
plaster, and this is a very satisfactory feature of the industry. Most 
plaster troubles come from the use of too much sand, or the use of sand 
of poor quality, so that many architects encourage their patrons in ac- 
cepting the somewhat higher cost resulting from the smaller yardage 
secured from wood fiber plaster used neat. 

During 1913 there was very little change in calcining methods, only 
three or four companies using rotary or continuous calciners, the remaining 
forty adhering to kettle calcining. ' The product from the rotary calciners, 
however, seems to be meeting the trade requirements satisfactorily, and 
the pioneer mills using rotaries will probably establish so satisfactory a 
reputation for this method that other producers during the next 5 years 
will take advantage of the saving in costs that the system offers. 

In the kettle system of calcining less reliance is placed on the alertness 
of the operator, and self-recording thermometers are in very general use 
to indicate clearly when the material has reached the critical temperature 
of 350** F. (IT?** C), at which it should be drawn off. 

On account of its tending to "ball" or "gum up," the appliances for 
fine grinding so satisfactory for Portland cement have not been a success 
with gypsum plasters. For the same reason certain types of gyratory 
crushers have not given satisfactory results in the coarse crushing of 
gjrpsum. Disintegrators of the hammer or cage type have not met the 
1913 requirements for fine grinding of gypsum plasters, and where used 
they must be followed by regrinders, which are commonly of the buhr or 
emery type. 



374 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

The Raymond Mill has been highly successful in gypsum grinding and 
while a heavy consumer of power, is probably as economical in this 
respect as any system now in use, since this mill delivers in a single 
operation a product of remarkable uniformity, over 90 per cent, of which 
passes a 100-mesh screen. 

The use of automatic bag packers is making slow headway in the 
g3rpsum industry, due to the difficulties growing out of the clogging of the 
fiber that is mixed with the plaster. Sixty pounds of wood fiber in a ton 
of plaster will cause little trouble, but 6 lb. of goat hair cause some annoy- 
ing shutdowns for cleaning out. 

Profits in the gypsum industry in 1913 were unfavorably affected by 
the prevailing high price of jute which went considerably above the 10 
cents per bag which manufacturers comnK>nly charge for the jute con- 
tainer. A special effort was made to push the use of paper bags, but the 
results were hardly perceptible. 

The use of gypsum in Portland cement forms a steadily increasing 
outlet for the crude material. In contracting for crude gypsum, the 
cement mill bases its price on the content of sulphur trioxide, which acts 
as the required retarder for cement. Chemically pure gypsimi contains 
46.5 per cent, sulphur trioxide. It is common to specify 42 per cent, 
in contracts with cement mills, this being an analysis that most gypsum 
mines can consistently maintain, though some material is used as low 
as 40 per cent, in SOg. As gypsum is used as a retarder in cement, its 
uniformity is as essential as its high content in sulphur trioxide. 

Experiments have been tried with other substances, and calcium 
chloride is said to make a satisfactory retarder for Portland 'cement. As 
calcium chloride is produced as a by-product in certain industries in 
amounts far beyond the present market, the supply of this material at 
many points is ample; but it has not been found possible to dry it and 
put it on the market at an average price of $1.50 per ton, which is the 
usual price received at the mine for gjrpsum analyzing 40-42 per cent. 
SO,. 

The use of crude gypsum in the form of land plaster as a fertilizer 
has been declining through many years. Within the last year or two, 
however, there has been something of a revival of the use of land plaster 
and in this movement some of the agricultural experiment stations have 
joined. Excellent bulletins showing the need of restoring sulphur to the 
soil have recently been published by the experiment stations of Kentucky 
and Wisconsin. Land plaster, with its 900 lb. of SOs to the ton, 
and its low cost furnishes the readiest means of restoring sulphur to the 
soil. The placing of sulphur on a like basis with potash and phosphorus 
in the list of plant foods will mean much to the crude gypsum business. 



GYPSUM 375 

At present, probably more land plaster is used in connection with the 
growing of peanuts in a few countries of Eastern Virginia and North Caro- 
lina than is used elsewhere in the entire country. About 20,000 tons of 
this land plaster are ground at Norfolk from anhydrous gypsum brought 
down from Nova Scotia. 

The manufacture of Eeene's cement is making considerable progress 
in the United States and importations of this gypsum product are 
steadily decreasing. 

Gypsunx boards are to some extent taking the place of lath and a 
considerable expansion of the gypsum industry is manifest along this 
line. 

Gypsum blocks are successfully competing with hollow tile, and on 
account of their greater lightness and superior smoothness have many 
advocates. 

Flooring gypsum is not produced in any quantity in America, though 
in Germany it is a well-developed phase of the industry with an annual 
output of 50,000 tons. The properties of flooring gypsum (called in 
Germany, " Estrich ") are wholly diflFerent from those of ordinary gypsum 
mortars. It is slow setting, has hydraulic properties, is nearly as hard 
as Portland cement and being somewhat resilient will outwear Portland 
cement as a flooring material. An interesting discussion of flooring 
gypsum is found in a pamphlet by M. Glasenapp, translated by Dr. W. 
Michaelis, Jr., published by Cement & Engineering News. 

New York (By D. H. Newland). — The gypsum industry as a whole 
was fairly prosperous in 1913. The market for calcined plasters was 
active and called for a larger output on the part of the plants in the 
western district of Monroe and Genesee counties, and there was also 
a good demand for crushed rock from Portknd cement manufacturers. 
A very small proportion of the output was used in groimd form for agri- 
cultural purposes. The total production of rock by the mines and quarries 
in the state amounted to 532,884 short tons, or 5 per cent, more than was 
reported for 1912. There have been no new calcining plants completed 
in the gyx)sum belt, although construction work on such a plant was 
started sometime ago by the Delac Gypsum Products Co. at Mumford. 
The mines and mill of the Akron Gypsum Co., near Akron, Erie County, 
were idle throughout the year, and the property recently passed into the 
hands of the Akron Gypsum Products Corporation, of BuflFalo, who intend 
to reopen the mines during the current season. The mill of the Consoli- 
dated Wheatland Plaster Co., in the Garbutt district was destroyed by 
fire. Within the eastern section of the gypsum belt there was a small 
output of rock which was consumed in Portland cement and agricultural 
plajjter. The largest operator in this region is the Cayuga Gypsum 



376 



MINERAL INDUSTRY 



Co., at Union Springs. The statistics relating to the industry in 1913 
follow: 

PRODUCTION OP GYPSUM IN NEW YORK. 





1912. <a) 


1913. • 




Short Tons. 


Value. 


Short Tons. 


Value. 


Total outputi crude 


606,090 

170.448 

10.498 

274.156 


■'$224,764' 

23.248 

993.662 


632.884 

183.679 

8.621 

306.206 




Sold crude 


266.879 


Ground for land plaster 


17,807 




1.022.457 


Total value i 


$1,241,614 




$1,806,143 









(a) U. S. Geol. Surv. 



Michigan (By. R. A. Smith). — Important commercial deposits of 
g3rpsum are known to occur in rocks belonging to the Upper Mississippian 
and also to the Silurian, especially in those of the Salina. The Mississip- 
pian deposits have been extensively developed near Grand Rapids, Kent 
County; and at Alabaster, Iosco County. The Silurian deposits occur in 
the vicinity of St. Ignace, Mackinac County, but have not been developed. 
Drillings indicate that there are also extensive deposits of gypsum in 
Arenac and southeastern Ogemaw Counties. Gypsum occurs in lenticular 
beds varying in thickness from a fraction of an inch up to 25 ft. In the 
Grand Rapids-Grandville district three beds have been worked— an 
upper 6-ft. usually quarried, a middle 12-ft. both quarried and mined, 
and a lower 22-ft. bed which is mined. In Iosco and Arenac Counties 
there are several beds of workable thickness, ranging from 5 ft. to nearly 
26 ft. A 23-ft. bed is quarried at Alabaster, but the other beds have 
not been developed. 

Oklahoma (By C. W. Shannon). — At present there are twelve 
gypsum mills in the state, located as follows: Two at Watonga, and one 
each at Bickford, Okeene, Southard, Wilson, Ferguson, Okarche, Alva, 
Rush Springs, Eldorado, and McAlester. The United States Gypsum 
Co. has three of these mills, one each at Okarche, Southard and 
Eldorado. The Okarche mill is the oldest mill in the state. The Oriental 
Plaster Co. of Wichita, Kansas, at present leases two mills in 
Oklahoma. These are the mills formerly operated by the Monarch 
Plaster Co. at Watonga, and that of the Southwestern Cement 
Plaster Co. at Okeene. Both gypsum and gypsite are used. 

The American Cement Plaster Co. of Lawrence, Kansas, operates 
a mill at Watonga, and use both the rock form and gypsite at this plant. 
A large part of the plaster manufactured is made into partition blocks. 

The Roman Nose Gypsum Co. operates a plant at Bickford. 



GYPSUM 377 

The rock gypsum is the principal form used. A large part of the output 
is used in the manufacture of partition blocks, and new machinery 
has been installed for the manufacture of these blocks by a continuous 
process is used. 

The Ruby Stucco Plaster Mill is situated 4 miles west of Ferguson. 
The Oklahoma Plaster Co. has a mill at Alva. The material used is 
chiefly a coarsely selinated gypsum. The Oklahoma Gypsum Co. 
operates a mill at Wilson, or Homestead. This is the only mill in 
Oklahoma using the continuous calciner process. This mill is a new one 
and has been in operation only since early in 1913. The Acme Cement 
Plaster Co. has a new mill located about 4 miles west of Rush Springs, 
and g3rpsite is used as raw material. The Elastic Pulp Plaster Co. 
has a mill at at McAlester. This mill is removed a great distance 
from the main gypsum field, but the site selection was made because 
of the nearness of fuel supply, McAlester being in the heart of the coal 
region. Rock gypsum is the main material used, and is shipped from 
the quarry in the western part of the state. 

Oklahoma's supply of g3rpsum is inexhaustible, and is easily accessible, 
and is easily assembled, but since the area is so far removed from the fuel 
supply it is difficult to bring about a very marked use of the Oklahoma 
gypsum. Also the distance of the Oklahoma mills from the large trading 
centers, and the competition of mills more favorably located works a 
hardship on the Oklahoma producers. For a few years following 1900 
the local markets were very active, and the mills being operated at that 
time made a large production with considerable profit. This encouraged 
the building of other mills until by 1910, all the mills in the state, with 
the exception of one or two, had been built. Just about this time the 
period of great building activity following statehood suffered a cessation, 
due to a number of causes. Since that time only a few of the mills have 
been operating to their full capacity, and during the past 2 or 3 years 
several of the miUs have been idle a great part of the time, and the prices 
received for the manufactured product and the raw plaster have been 
vary low. 

Conditions for securing the gypsum in this state are very favorable 
because of the small amoimt of material overlying the principal beds. 

Of the reports which so far have been returned to us for 1913, three 
mills report no production, and three of the largest mills in the state 
report only a little more than half the amount of production and value of 
products for that given for 1912. During 1912 the total amount of crude 
gypeum prepared for the market amounted to 135,074. The quantity 
furnished to Portland cement mills being 12,714 tons; for land plaster 
6628 tons, and the total sold crude 17,334 tons. The mixed wall plaster 



378 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

78,630 tons. As plaster of Paris and other similar products 3820 tons; 
as stucco plaster 3792. 

Colorado (By. R. D. George). — There are two producers of gypsum 
in this state — The Buckhorn Plaster Co., operating at Buckhorn, near 
Loveland, Colo., and The Colorado Portland Cement Co. Both com- 
panies confine their attention mainly to ordinary hard plaster, but both 
have placed on the market a substitute for Keene's cement. The 
figures for the general industry are as follows: 

Total tonnase of gypAum quarried 19,767 tons. 

Total tonnage oalaned 16343 tons. 

Total tonnage of gypsum plaster or hard plaster 13.484 tona 

Total tonnage of gypsum used in Portland cement manufacture 2.924 tons. 

A third company began operation at Ruedi, Colo., some years ago, 
but the product was of an inferior grade, and the plant closed down about 
3 years ago. 

The gypsum now quarried occurs in the Lykins formation, the lower 
part of which is of Permian age, the upper part of which may be of 
Triassic age, but this has not been proved. 

Analyses show that the raw material runs from 92 to 99 per cent. 
hydrous calcium sulphate. In color the gypsum runs from light gray to 
pure white, but occasional bands of dark gray or yellowish gray material 
occur. 

The gypsum resources of the state are very large on both sides of the 
range, and the deposits are apparently all of Permian or of Permo- 
Triassic age. The present industry is confined to the eastern side of the 
range, but it is reported that preparations are being made for active 
operations on the western side of the range during 1914. 

The gypsum companies manufacture a number of specially named 
materials in small quantities, but I was unable to get the amounts 
produced. These include for the Buckhorn Plaster Co., O. K. Plaster 
Paris, Matchless Plaster Paris, Fibred Cement Plaster, and Land Plaster. 

Wyoming (By L. W. Trumbull).— The Acme Cement Plaster Co., 
The Overland Cement Plaster Co., and the Red Buttes EUtrd Plaster Co., 
made a total production of 30,000 tons of Gypsite Cement and 5000 tons 
of Plaster of Paris. 

The only mills are those located near Laramie, Wyoming, and one 
small plant in Park County, Wyoming. No record of the name of the 
last plant mentioned has been foimd. 

Washington (By Henry Landes). — To my knowledge there are no 
deposits of gypsum in Washington. In Tacoma, Washington, there is a 
company named the Pacific Coast Gypsum Co., who import gypsum from 
mines in Alaska and mill the same at their plant in Tacoma. 

Iowa, — The district about Fort Dodge produced all of Iowa's gypsum 



GYPSUM 379 

in 1913 as in former years, though a shaft was sunk to a newly found 
deposit near Ottumwa, and another year may show some production from 
this field. 

The mill of the American Cement Plaster Company burned in 1913, 
and this company is erecting a fireproof plant of large capacity and with 
modem equipment, which will be in operation by July, 1914. 

The gypsum at Ottumwa was discovered at a depth of 500 ft. while 
boring for coal. Considerable anhydrite is present and the fitness of the 
deposit for wall plaster has not yet been demonstrated. Considerable 
water was encoimtered in the shaft though not enough to hinder the 
development of the bed if the quality of the mineral proves satisfactory, 
either for cement mill use, or for calcining. 

List op Gypsum Mills by States 

Arizona. — Arizona Gypsum Plaster Company. (Douglas.) 

California. — ^Acme Cement Plaster Company. (Palmdale, Los 
Angeles.) 

Colorado. — Buckhorn Plaster Company. (Buckhorn.) Colorado 
Portland Cement Company. (Portland.) 

lotoa. — ^American Cement Plaster Company. (Ft. Dodge.) Acme 
Cement Plaster Company. (Ft. Dodge.) Cardiff Gypsum Plaster 
Company. (Ft. Dodge.) Plymouth Gypsum Company. (Ft. Dodge.) 
United States Gypsum Company. (Ft. Dodge.) 

Kansas. — American Cement Plaster Co. (Blue Rapids.) Best 
Bros. Keene's Cement Company. (Medicine Lodge.) United States 
G3rp8um Company. (Blue Rapids, Hope.) 

Michigan. — American Cement Plaster Co. (Grand Rapids.) Grand 
Rapids Plaster Co. (Grand Rapids.) Michigan Gypsum Company. 
Grand Rapids.) United States Gypsum Company. (Grand Rapids, 
Alabaster.) 

Montana. — United States Gypsum Company. (Great Falls.) 

New York. — ^American Gypsum Company. (Arkon.) Cayuga Gyp- 
sum Company. (Union Springs.) Wheatland Plaster Company. 
(Wheatland.) Empire Gypsum Company. (Garbutt, Wheatland.) 
Lycoming Plaster Company. (Garbutt.) National Wall Plaster 
Company. (Oakfield.) United States Gypsum Company. (Oakfield.) 

New Mexico. — Acme Cement Plaster Company. (Acme.) Oriental 
Plaster Company. (Oriental.) Western Clay & Gypsum Company. 
(Ancbo.) 

Ohio. — ^American Gypsum Company. (Port Clinton.) Fishack 
Gypsum Company. (Gjrpsum.) Kelly Plaster Company. (Castalia.) 
United States Gypsum Company. (Gypsum.) 



380 MINERAL INDUSTRY 

Oklahoma. — ^Acme Cement Plaster Company. (Marlowe, Cement, 
Acme.) American Cement Plaster Company. (Watonga.) Oklahoma 
Gypsum Company. (Wilson Station.) Oriental Plaster Company. 
(Watonga, O'Keene, Bickford.) Roman Nose G3rp8um Company. 
(Bickford.) United States Gypsum Company. (Elderado, Okarche.) 

North Dakota. — Dakota Plaster Company. (Black Hawk.) United 
States Gsrpsum Company. (Rapid City.) 

Texa8. — Acme Cement Plaster Company. (Acme.) American Ce- 
ment Plaster Company. (Acme.) Texas Cement Plaster Company. 
(Hamlin.) 

UtcJi. — American Keenes Cement Company. (Sigoiu-d.) Nephi 
Plaster Company. (Nephi.) Jumbo Plaster & Cement Company. 
(Sigourd.) 

Virginia. — Southern Gypsum Company, Inc. (North Holston.) 
United States Gypsum Company. (Plasterco.) 

Washington. — Pacific Coast Gypsum Company. (Tacoma — Mine in 
Alaska.) 

Wyoming. — Acme Cement Plaster Company. (Laramie.) Red 
Buttes Hard Plaster Company. (Red Buttes.) Overland Cement 
Plaster Company. (Laramie.) 

Gypsum in Foreign Countries 

Canada. — Imports of Canadian gypsum are steadily increasing and 
this movement has been favored by the gradual reduction of the duty 
which by the latest tariff legislation was reduced to 10 per cent, advaiorem, 
or about 15 cents per ton on crude gypsum, which is the form in which 
most of the gypsum enters the country. Most of the Canadian gypsum is 
mined in Nova Scotia, for importation to New York, Brooklyn and Chester 
Pennsylvania, where it is calcined for wall plaster. Plants using Nova 
Scotia gypsum are: 

J. B. King & Co., New York City, with plants at New Brighton 
and Roslyn, N. Y. Rock Plaster Mfg. Co., Works on New River, 
N. Y. Keystone Plaster Co.