SB 101 37fi
COIV1IV1 I SSI ONER
JREAU OP- M>f*es v MANUFACTURES AND AGRICULTURE
MAP OF ARKANSAS
Reproduced on a reduced scale from map by Jolin C. Branner
1 end" '& \adlogy Survey Bulletin No. 351, "The Clays of
C i 1 y I I Arkansas," Washington, D. C., 1 907.
xv,UMV,^t vi /. & ..vu. t u.vy ,
\\ UNIVERSITY OF / \/
Cretaceous Productive Coal Undifferentiated UnderiyingBeds
Formation Measures Sandstones of Mississippian Rocks
ECONOMICS & SOCIOLO,
A REVIEW OF OIL AND GAS
DEPT. OF RURAL ECONOMICS
JIM G. FERGUSON
MINES, MANUFACTURES AND AGRICULTURE
STATE OF ARKANSAS
LITTLE ROCK, ARK.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Directory of State and Federal Officials Associated with the Mining
Introduction A Review of the Mineral Resources of the State and
Recommendation for the Revival of the State Geological Survey,
by Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and
Geology and General Topographic Features 11-34
Principal Arkansas Minerals and Their Location by Counties 35-36
Counties of Arkansas and Their Mineral Resources 36-38
Minerals and Economic Products (arranged alphabetically) ^8-108
Analyses of Arkansas and Other Coals 48-49
Directory of Arkansas Coal Mine Operators 49-54
Petroleum and Natural Gas, by N. F. Drake 72-77
What Geologists Say About Oil and Gas Prospects in Different
Counties of Arkansas jflBSB&KK^ ' 77 " 92
Road-Making Materials 95-98
Hot Springs, Arkansas 104-106
Mounds and a Suggested Theory as to Their Origin 107
Magnet Cove, its Rare and Useful Minerals 107
Diamond Cave of Newton County : 108
Soils Surveys in Arkansas, and Materials for the Improvement of.... 154
MINING LAWS, ETC.
Federal Mining Laws, Etc 109-111
State Laws With Reference to Federal Mining Claims 111-112
Laws Creating Arkansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures and Agri-
Law Creating Arkansas Geological Commission . 115-116
Law Governing the Taking of Sand, Gravel, Oil and Coal from River
Beds, etc 116
Law Concerning Water Power Rights 116-118
Act Authorizing Co-operative Soil Survey 118-119
Mine Inspection Law 120-129
Law Creating State Coal Mine Examining Board 130-131
Oil and Gas Conservation Laws .". 132-137
Pipe Line Regulations-
Right of Eminent Domain Given 137
Assessment and Taxation 138
Forh4dding the Ignition of Escaping Gas 138
Law Requiring the Release of Forfeited Leases 139
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS ~ 3
Law Permitting Guardians to Release Mineral Rights of Minors and
Persons of Unsound Mind ........................................................................ 139-140
Synopsis of the State Oil and Gas Inspection Laws .................................... 140-141
Synopsis of the Arkansas Blue Sky Law .................................................... 141-144
Index ..................... '. .................................................................................................. 145-152
Publications of Arkansas Geological Survey ............................................ 147-148
Publications of U. S. Geological Survey on Arkansas ............................ 148-149
Staff of the State Bureau of Mines .................................................................... 4
Portrait of Doctor John C. Branner .......................................................... '.. 6
Branner's Relief Map of Arkansas ............................................... . ..... . ............ 11
Topography of Boston Mountains .................................. '. ....................... '.... ...... 12
Solution Valley in Boone Limestone ............................................................ 14
Cotter Dolomite, East of Beaver ..................... : ................................................ 17
St. Joe Limestone Member ................................................................................ 18
Sandstone in Powell Limestone .................................................................... 19
Unconformity Within Boone Limestone ............................................ . ........... 22
St. Peter Sandstone ............... ............... . ................... : ......................................... 24
Bauxite Mine ............................................................................................ ............. 41
Manganese Mine ................. . .................................................................................. 41
Diamond Reduction Plant, Mufreesboro ........................................................ 55
Blue Granite Quarry, Pulaski County ........................................................ 58
Manganese Mine .................................................................................................. 65
Marble Quarry, Batesville .................................................................................. 67
Novaculite near Glenwood .................................................................................. j 70
Tank Cars Loaded With El Dorado Oil ................................... . ...................... ', 92
Road-building Scene ..................................................... 96
Sandstone Quarry, Lamar .................................................................................. 99
Tripoli Vein near Delight ........................................................................... ..... 103
View of Hot Springs, Arkansas ........................................................................ 104
Zinc Mine, Silver Hollow Bluff, Mar* on County ........................................ 106
Interior Diamond Cave, Newton County ...................................................... ... . 107
Geological Map of Arkansas ........................................................ Inside Front Cover
Relief Map of Arkansas ...................................................................................... 11
Miniatures Showing Distribution of Minerals ............................................ 35
Arkansas Coal Field ............................................................................................ 47
Iron Deposits .......................................................................................................... 61
Manganese Area, Batesville .............................................................................. 66
Illustrating Relative Chances for Oil and Gai ................ 72
Ft. Smith-Poteau Gas Field .............................................................................. 94
Phosphate Area, Northern Arkansas .............................................................. 94
Slate Area . 100
OFFICIAL STAFF ARKANSAS
BUREAU OF MINES
Jim G. Ferguson, Dr. Wm. F. Manglesdorf,
Commissioner and Director. State Chemist.
John C. Small,
Editor of Publications
Dr. N. F. Drake,
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Directory of State Officials Associated
With the Mining Industry
BUREAU OF MINES STAFF
Commissioner and Director, Jim G. Ferguson
Geologist, Dr. N. F. Drake, former State Geologist
Editor of Publications, John C. Small
State Chemist, Dr. Wm. F. Manglesdorf
Assistant State Chemist, G. W. Roark, Jr.
Little Rock, Ark.
State Mine Inspector, Jesse Redyard, Fort Smith.
State Mine Examining Board, Geo. Westwood, Hartford; H. Deman,
Clarksville; R. A. Young, Greenwood; Robt. L. Kendrick, Altus.
State Oil and Gas Inspector (Conservation Agent), J. A. Brake, Fort
Smith and El Dorado.
'State Coal Oil and Gasoline Inspector, Perry H. Chappell, Little Rock.
State Commissioner of Labor and Statistics, T. A. Wilson, Little Rock.
State Geologist, Dr. Gilbert H. Cady, Fayetteville.
State Geological Survey, Thos. C. McRae, Governor, Ex-Officio Chair-
man, Little Rock; John C. Futrall, President of the University of Arkansas,
Fayetteville; Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and
Agriculture, Little Rock.
Blue Sky Enforcement Officer, Chas. McKee, State Bank Commissioner,
College of Engineering, University of Arkansas, W. N. Gladson, Dean.
Attorney General, J. S. Utley, Little Rock, Ark.
UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
George Otis Smith, Director
David White, Chief Geologist
Washington, D. C.
UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES
H. Foster Bain, Director
A. W. Ambrose, Chief Petroleum Technologist
Washington, D. C.
UNITED STATES BUREAU OF SOILS
(Department of Agriculture)
Milton Whitney, Chief of Bureau
Curtis F. Marbut, in charge of Soil Survey
G. W. Bauman, Executive Assistant
Washington, D. C.
DOCTOR JOHN CASPER BRANNER,
Foremost Authority on Arkansas Geology, in Appreciation of Whose
Service to the State this Page is Gratefully Dedicated.
INT RODUC1 'ION
Importance of Arkansas As a Mineral State
ARKANSAS has elbowed Pennsylvania, the parent of petroleum, out of
fourth place in oil production; she produces twice as much
as all the Western Hemisphere; she was first to
earth; she has the largest and best deposits of whetstone^stfehas a superior
grade of smokeless coal; she has the purest deposit-ofchalk in North Amer-
ica; she has the only kno^yn deposit of soapstone west of the Mississippi
river; she has in Magnet/ Cove thd most wonderful aggregation of rare and
curious minerals known ^o^the-^geologist, and at Hot Springs, the hottest
thermal waters in the world.
These facts, backed up by government authorities, are grouped here to
get the attention of those who are unfamiliar with the state's mineral re-
sources and to prepare their minds for a lot of other big things that can be
said about Arkansas' underground wealth, developed and undeveloped. The
world is beginning to take notice of Arkansas, the mysterious stranger in
the mineral world.
More than thirty useful minerals can be mined or quarried in abundance
in Arkansas, and there are a hundred other minerals for which the future
may find some economic use. At the great world fairs where all the states
bring for display specimens of their mineral products, Arkansas demands
more exhibit space than any other state in the Union and surprises the
stranger not only with the great variety of its minerals, but with their su-
The value of the mineral products now aggregates close to $100,000,000
annually, one-half as much as the value of all of our factory products and
one-fourth as much as is derived from all our agricultural activities.
Arkansas stands high as an agricultural state. In many lines of manu-
factures it holds a leading position. It is now coming to be regarded as one
of the important mineral states. It is unique among the states in that it has
three substantial sources of income three bank accounts, as it were.
Oil Leads All the List.
Oil now ranks first in commercial importance on the long list of Arkansas
minerals. The discovery well was brought in at El Dorado on January 10
of last year and within ten months the production had reached 72,000
barrels daily with new wells being completed every week. The value of
Arkansas crude oil, produced in 1921, was $23,344,960. There are 598 pro-
ducing wells and more than 100 other wells being drilled.
Gravity tests of the El Dorado crude oil is 34.30, Baume, and the gas-
oline content is 30.7 per cent. In production Arkansas now ranks fourth
among the states and in the quality of its oil and gas the El Dorado field is
among the most valuable in America, it is claimed.
More than $6,000,000 has been invested in drilling operations and many
millions more in oil and gas leases in the Eldorado field. All of the large
8 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
companies are represented and development is progressing with wonderful
rapidity, every new well adding thousands of dollars to the productive
capacity of the state.
Two Natural Gas Fields.
There are two natural gas fields in Arkansas, the Fort Smith field, which
has been producing gas for twenty years, and the El Dorado field, developed
about one year ago. The Fort Smith field includes portions of Sebastian,
Crawford and Scott counties, and extends into Oklahoma. The present cap-
acity of this field is approximately 250,000,000 cubic feet of gas daily, twen-
ty per cent of which may be used under the state maximum production law.
It is estimated that Fort Smith and its neighboring industries use 10,000-
000 cubic feet a day, leaving a surplus of 40,000,000 cubic feet daily. This
gas is found at depths of from 750 to 3,175 feet. The product is dry, clean and
odorless and under government tests shows a heating record of 1.057 British
In the El Dorado field there are at this writing 32 gas wells, each pro-
ducing from one million to 25,000,000 cubic feet of gas per day. The first
gas well was brought in by the Constantin Company in 1920, and was shortly
followed by the bringing in of the nearby Busey oil well. The wells are all
within a short distance of El Dorado, to which city the gas is piped for do-
mestic and industrial use. The difference between the Fort Smith and the
El Dorado gas is that the Fort Smith gas is dry and does not produce gaso-
line, while the El Dorado gas is wet and has a considerable gasoline
Before the discovery of oil and gas, the leading mineral of the state
was coal and it still is a source of considerable wealth, the production be-
ing 2,000,000 tons a year. The coal-bearing area of the state is 1,584
square miles in extent, reaching from Russellville on the east, through Pope
Johnson, Logan, Yell, Franklin, Crawford, Sebastian and Scott counties
to and beyond the Oklahoma border.
About Clarksville and Russellville in the eastern part of the field, the
product is a high grade semi-anthracite, and in the western part of the field
there is produced a high grade semi-bituminous coal of almost smokeless
ality. It is estimated by mining engineers that there is in sight some
850,000,000 tons of this coal, which at the present rate of mining will last
or 350 years. The heating value of the coal, which lies between 13,700 and
14,700 British thermal units, and its specific gravity (average 1.35), place
it among the best coals in the United States.
First in Bauxite Mining.
Practically all of the bauxite used for the manufacture of aluminum
ware, chemicals and abrasives in the United States and probably 70 per
cent of the world's supply of this important material, is produced from Ar-
kansas mines. The bauxite area lies partly in Pulaski and partly in Saline
county, between Little Rock and Benton. The large reduction plant of the
American Bauxite Company is at Bauxite, Arkansas. The average production
is around 500,000 tons per annum. The ore is mined from open pits, dried
and shipped to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Elizabeth, New Jersey; Niagara
Falls, New York; Detroit, Michigan; St. Louis, Missouri; and other cities,
where it is consumed in the large aluminum and chemical industries. Bauxite
in value ranks third among the major minerals of the state.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 9
Other Minerals Worth While.
Zinc, lead, manganese, iron and copper are metalic minerals found in
Arkansas and at times mined with considerable profit. There has been a
large production of zinc and lead in the northwestern counties of the state
and during the world war the mining of manganese proved to be profitable.
The deposits of iron and copper, while promising, have not been developed
to any considerable extent as yet.
The mining of diamonds has been restricted to a small area in the vicin-
ity of Murfreesboro, Pike county, and the principal operations are carried on
by the Arkansas Diamond Corporation, which company has erected a $300,-
000 reduction plant in the field. Hundreds of pure gems have been recov-
ered from igneous formation which bears all the marks of an extinct
volcano. One of these stones weighed 18 carats in the rough and in quality
compared with the finest of South African diamonds. Pike county has the
only diamond mine in America.
Fuller's Earth and Antimony.
There is a deposit of Fuller's earth between Benton and Hot Springs
which has been worked at several different times and which promises to
add another important mineral to the long list accredited to Arkansas. This
material is used for the clarifying of oil and for medicinal purposes.
Antimony is an anti-friction metal used as an alloy in the manufacture
of babbit and type metal. It is found in Sevier and Howard counties. As-
phalt of a good quality exists in Pike and Howard counties. The most ex-
tensive and the highest grade of chalk known to exist in the United States
is at White Cliffs, Little River county, where a project has been undertaken
to establish a big cement plant.
Clay for the manufacture of brick is present in seventy of the seventy-
five counties of the state. In Hot Spring and Sebastian counties there are
deposits of high grade fire clay. Pottery clay is found in Saline, Pike and
other counties, this including kaolin from which the famous Niloak artware
is made. There is probably no state so rich in clays, both as to quantity
Glass sand of excellent quality is present in large quantities at Guion
Izard county, and near Bryant, in Saline county. Graphite of good quality
is found in four counties of the state. Gypsum, one of the materials
useful in the manufacture of cement, is present in three counties of South-
west Arkansas. Iron pyrites, running 50 per cent sulphur, is found near Hot
Springs. This is one of the materials from which sulphuric acid is made.
Lots of Building Stone.
Building stone is plentiful in Arkansas and constitutes one of the most
important items on the list of minerals. Near Little Rock there is a vast
mountain of the most beautiful gray and pink granite and from the quarries
near Batesville there is produced the splendid marble such as was used In
the construction of the outer walls of the new state capitol. Marbles, lime-
stones and sandstones are found also in other parts of the state.
Novaculite, an oily rock from which whetstones are made, is found In
Southwest Arkansas, giving this state first place in the production of this
class of abrasives. Ochre and other mineral paints are found in different
parts of the state. The only soapstone or talc deposit known to exist west
of the Mississippi river is in Saline county. There is a valuable deposit of
10 /MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
tripoli or infusorial earth at Butterfield, and the same material is reported
as being present in five other counties of the state.
Lignite or cannel coal, which has been tested for oil and gas production
with very favorable results, is present in an area extending northwestward
from Camden. The vein ranges from two to six feet in thickness. It is said
to yield as high as 38 gallons of oil per ton and 11,386 cubic feet of 22.3 candle
power gas. The distillates are used in the manufacture of paint and various
proprietary medicines, being produced by a plant at Chidester.
Phosphate Rock and Slate. -
In the northern part of the state, extending from Batesville probably to
the western line of the state, is a deposit of phosphate rock which next to
the deposits of Florida and Tennessee are probably the most valuable in
the United States. There are deposits elsewhere in the state, but none so
promising as those of North Arkansas. From phosphate rock is made phos-
phoric acid, one of the most valuable materials for the fertilization of soil.
A new process of treating the rock has been devised which promises to
revolutionize the industry of acid phosphate manufacture and open new
markets to Arkansas' abundant stores of phosphate.
Slate of excellent quality and in a variety of colors is found in a belt
extending westward from near Little Rock to the border of the state, being
formerly quarried at Slatington. In the manufacture of composition roofing
there is a demand for crushed slate of certain shades which should create
a new and larger market for Arkansas slates, which have not heretofore
been able to compete in the slate trade with the superior Eastern states.
Several roofing manufacturers are investigating the possibilities of devlop-
ing the slate deposits in Polk and Montgomery counties.
Need of a Permanent Geological Survey
This recitation of the mineral resources of the State but emphasizes
the need of a permanent and active Geological Survey in Arkansas, such
as will give substantial aid to the forces which are seeking to develop the
underground wealth of the State and at the same time safeguard and hus-
band the public's interests in these valuable assets. I am hopeful that the
next Legislature will find it agreeable to make liberal provisions' for the
re-establishment of the Survey, which for the lack of funds has been unable
to conduct any field work for several years.
Dr. John C. Branner, in a letter to me suggests ten big things that
ought to be done on the geology of the State. These are:
1. Bring 1 up to date the work on the coal lands and pub-
lish the report.
2. Report on the petroleum and natural gas resources.
3. Report on the fertilizers.
4. Report on the soils of the state, their origin, distribution
5. Report on the clays, kaolins and fuller's earths.
6. Revise and publish the report on the Lower Coal Measures.
7. Report on the structural materials including- Portland
8. Report on the state water supply including- underground
9. A comprehensive work on the general geology and geo-
logic history of the state.
10. The preparation and publication of a large scale topo-
graphic and geologic map of the state.
Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture.
Little Rock, Ark.
January 3, 1922.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Map of Arkansas.
GEOLOGY AND GENERAL TYPOGRAPHIC
FEATURES OF ARKANSAS.
BY HUGH D. MISER, With Permission of the U. S.
The topographic features of Arkansas reveal considerable diversity and
may be grouped into several natural divisions which are briefly described
The line passing from a point near the northeast corner of the State in a
general southwesterly direction through Little Rock to Arkadelphia, Clark
County, and thence nearly due west through De Queen, Sevier County, di-
vides the State into nearly equal parts or halves. The southeast half of the
State is a comparatively low plain which is a part of a broad belt of country
known as the Gulf Coastal Plain. This plain in Arkansas ranges in elevation
from 100 to 700 feet above sea level, and is divisible into a series of rolling
uplands lying 200 to 700 feet above sea level and a series of nearly level to
gently rolling valleys and lowlands lying 100 to 300 feet above sea level.
Both the uplands and lowlands have a gentle southward slope. Crowleys
Ridge is the most prominent physiographic feature in the northeastern part
of the State. It is one-half to 12 miles wide and extends from Helena, Phil-
lips County, northward into Missouri, though it is cut in two by gaps at
some places. The crest of the ridge is 400 feet above sea level near Helena,
but it gradually rises northward and is 500 feet above sea level In Clay
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 13
Most of the northwest half of the State is comparatively elevated, and is
divided by the Arkansas River Valley into the Ozark region (including the
Boston Mountains) on the north and the Ouachita Mountain region on the
The part of the Ozark region lying north of the Boston Mountains is
known as the Ozark Plateau and occupies a belt, about 40 miles wide, along
the northern border of the State. This belt is made up of two plateaus.
The lowest one of these the Salem Plateau is in Ordovician rocks and
presents an exceedingly rough topography. It forms a triangle whose apex
is near Newport, Jackson County, and whose base lies on the Missouri-Ar-
kansas line from Boone County to the east end of Randolph County, but the
basin-like area in which Berryville, Carroll County, is situated is also a part
of this plateau.
The next higher plateau, known as the Springfield Plateau, is formed
by resistant cherty rocks of Mississippian age, and lies between the above-
indicated triangle and the north-facing escarpment of the Boston Mountains.
It is separated from the lower plateau by a sinuous escarpment which at-
tains a height of 400 feet near Eureka Springs, Carroll County. Much of
this pleateau is a gently rolling country but large parts of it are cut by
numerous canyon-like valleys. Most of its surface stands between 1,000 and
1,500 feet above sea level.
The Boston Mountains overlook the Springfield Plateau from an Ir-
regular north-facing escarpment 500 to 700 feet in height and many outlying
peaks of these mountains stand out on the Springfield Plateau. Most of the
southern slope of the mountains is less precipitous and passes off gradually
into the Arkansas Valley, though at many places it is marked by abrupt de-
scents and is broken by steep-sided canyon-like valleys. This mountainous
region has an average width north and south of about 35 miles, and extends
east and west a distance of approximately 200 miles, from the valley of
Neosho (Grand) River in Oklahoma eastward to the Coastal Plain near
Batesville, Ark. The mountain tops form a greatly dissected tableland,
which rises 2,200 feet above sea level and 1,700 feet or more above the flood
plain of Arkansas River, though a few remnants along the north side stand
2,300 to 2,400 feet above sea level. The mountains are rather rugged and
have steep slopes and sharp projecting spurs separated by narrow ravines,
500 to 1,400 feet deep. The slopes are broken at many places by vertical or
nearly vertical cliffs, which are due to the alternation of hard and soft beds
of rock. Some of the cliffs are more than 100 feet high.
The Arkansas Valley is 30 to 40 miles wide and extends from the vi-
cinity of Little Rock westward into Oklahoma. It is a nearly level plain,
most of which is between 300 and 600 feet above sea level; but rising above
it there are a great many ridges and several mountains with a nearly east-
west trend. Among the mountains are Sugarloaf, Poteau, Petit Jean, Maga-
zine, Whiteoak, and Big Rock mountains and Maumelle Pinnacle. Of these
Magazine Mountain, standing 2,823 feet above sea level and 2,300 feet above
the surrounding country, is the highest and is also the highest mountain in
Arkansas. The statement is made on page 551 of the Encyclopedia Brit-
annica (Eleventh edition 1S10) that this mountain is the "highest point
between the Alleghenies and the Rockies." A still higher point ,as shown
on the Winding Stair topo;. aphic map of the United States Geological Sur-
vey, is the west end of Rich Mountain near Page, Leflore County, Okla-
homa; it is between 2,850 and 2,900 feet above sea level.
The Ouachita Mountain region is 50 to 60 miles wide and extends from
the vicinity of Little Rock westward Into Oklahoma. It is composed of
numerous, nearly east- west ridges, several intermontane basins, and a dis-
sected piedmont plateau, 15 miles wide, along its southern border. The
ridges are narrow and parallel and have steep slopes and sharp straight
even crests. Just west of Little Rock they are low, scarcely exceeding 750
feet above sea level or more than 250 feet above the valleys, but they grad-
ually increase in height to the west and on the western border of the State
near Mena, Polk County, some of the highest ridges attain an elevation of
2,750 to 2,800 feet above sea level or about 1,750 feet above the valleys. The
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 15
intermontane basins are wide valley areas whose upland surfaces range
from about 500 to 1250 feet above sea level, being lowest at the east end
of the region and highest near the west border of -the state, and they are
channeled by both deep and shallow valleys. Mena, in Polk County, Mount
Ida, in Montgomery County and the southern part of the city of Hot Springs
are located in such basins. The piedmont plateau is known as the Athena
plateau, receiving its name from Athens, Howard County. It occupies a belt
of country about 15 miles wide, lying between the Ouachita mountains on the
north and the Coastal Plain on the south, and extending from near Arkadel-
phia, Clark County, westward into Oklahoma. When the plateau is viewed
from the crests of the mountains to the north it appears to be a practically
level plain ending abruptly against the mountains, but when it is crossed
very little level country is found; the rest is greatly dissected by narrow
crooked valleys of southward-flowing trunk streams and by numerous east-
west valleys of small tributary streams. The upland surface of this plateau
ranges from 400 to 1,100 feet above sea level, being lowest at its east end and
along its south side, and highest on the north side in Pike, Howard, and
The several natural divisions of the State differ considerably not only
in their surface features but in the character and age of their rocks.
The exposed rocks of the Ozark region consists chiefly of dolomites,
limestones, cherts, sandstones, and shales, ranging in age from Ordovician
to Pennsylvanian. The rock beds, though lying nearly flat, have a slight
southward dip which is disguised in parts of the region by minor folding and
by a considerable, though not large, number of faults. The youngest forma-
tions of the region occupy the summits of the Boston Mountains and dip
southward from these mountains to the Arkansas Valley.
The rocks in the Ouachita Mountain region are all of sedimentary ori-
gin with the exception of two small areas of igneous rocks and their assoc-
iated dikes. One of these areas is at Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, and
the other at Potash Sulphur Springs, Garland County. The igneous rocks
are nephelite syenites and related types and were intruded into the sedimen-
tary strata late in the Lower Cretaceous epoch or early in the Upper Cre-
taceous epoch. Some of the igneous dikes at and near Klondike, Saline-
County, have been decomposed to a soft earth to a depth of about 200 feet
below the surface, and this earth is being mined and marketed as fuller's-
earth. The sedimentary rocks consist chiefly of cherts, shales, sandstones,
and novaculites; they are 24,000 feet or more thick; and they range in age-
from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. At or near the close of the Pennsylvanian:
epoch they were subjected to intense lateral compression movements which'
have produced numerous parallel, closely compressed, nearly east-west folds:
and a considerable number of faults. As a result of these movements the
strata at most places dip at angles of 40 or more from the horizontal. The
structure of the region, taken as a whole, is that of a vast compound anti-
cline, which is known to geologists as an anticlinorium. The principal anti-
cline extends from near Little Rock to the vicinity of Mena. In general the
oldest strata are exposed near the middle of this anticline and the young-
est northward and southward therefrom, but, on account of the deformation
of the strata by folding and faulting much alternation of older and younger
beds is found everywhere in going in a northward or southward direction
across the region.
The Arkansas Valley lies between the southward monoclinal slope of
the Boston Mountains to the north and the uplift or anticlinorium of the
Ouachita region to the south and is thus a synclinal trough. The rocks of
the valley consist of 24,000 feet or more of sandstones and shales which con
tain workable beds of coal over much of its western part. They are of Penn-
sylvanian age, though some of the oldest rocks exposed on the south side of
the valley are probably of Mississippian age. The strata like those in the
16 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Ouachita Mountain region, were compressed at or near the close of the
Pennsylvanian epoch into east-west folds and have been faulted to some ex-
tent, but the folding has been less intense than that in the Ouachita region.
The anticlines are generally narrower and steeper than the synclines; there
is a tendency for the anticlines to be steeper on their north sides; and the
folding becomes more gentle toward the north. The structure bears a close
relation to the topography, the long, narrow ridges indicating moderately
to highly inclined rocks. Buttelike mountains, such ai Poteau, Sugarloaf,
and Magazine mountains, indicate practically horizontal i^cks in synclinal
The sedimentary strata underlying the surface of the Gulf Coastal Plain
are chiefly clays, marls, sands, and gravels, and are of Lower Cretaceous,
Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary ages. They lie in a nearly hori-
zontal position, though they have a general dip of 100 feet or less to the
mile to the south and southeast. They were deposited upon a fairly smooth
floor of Paleozoic rocks. This floor has been reached in deep wells at Nash-
ville, Howard County, and at other places near the northwestern border of
the Coastal Plain, but over most of the southeast half of the State it has
been so deeply buried that it has not been reached in wells. The Cretaceous
and younger strata overlying it along the east border of the State are more
than 2,500 feet thick and those along the south border are more than 3,000
Intrusive igneous rocks occur in the Coastal Plain on and near Fourche
Mountain, which, is a few miles south of Little Rock, and in small areas near
Bryant and Bauxite in Saline County. They consist of pulaskite ("blue gran-
ite") and nephelite syenite ("gray granite") and several other related var-
ieties of rock. Associated with the igneous rocks and with the adjacent
Tertiary sediments are important deposits of bauxite, the chief ore of alum-
inum. Other igneous rocks, known as peridotite, occur in four small areas
near Murfreesboro, Pike County. The largest of these, so far as known,
contains about 75 acres. Much of the peridotite has been decomposed to
earth and soft rock to a depth of 200 feet or more, and in this earth and
soft rock diamonds have been found. The igneous rocks in the Coastal
Plain, like those in the Ouachita Mountain region, were intruded late in the
Lower Cretaceous epoch or early in the Upper Cretaceous epoch.
The sedimentary rocks of Arkansas have been carefully studied over
much of the State and have been grouped into numerous formations to
which names have been applied. By means of the fossils in them, and by
the determination of the relations of the strata one to the other, they are
assigned to the different geologic systems and series. Some rock formations
in the State contain no fossils, so that their age assignment is dependent en-
tirely upon their relations to overlying and underlying rocks whose ages
have been determined by means of fossils. There are many minor and major
unconformities that break the succession of the rocks; and on account of the
geologic events that produced the unconformities many rock formations thin
out and are absent over large and small areas. The rocks in each of the
natural divisions of the State are briefly described below in the order of
their age, with the oldest first and the youngest last.
Jefferson City dolomite. The Jefferson City dolomite is exposed in the
northeastern part of Marion County and in other counties farther east, and
so far as known is the oldest exposed formation in Northern Arkansas. It
consists of at least 300 or 400 feet of gray dolomite and chert, in which a
few fossils have been found.
Cotter dolomite. The Cotter dolomite, 500 feet or more thick, is exposed
over large areas in many counties in the Northern part of the State, but has
been studied in greater detail west of Baxter County than it has east of that
MINERALS IN ARKANir'S
county. The thickest outcrops are in Northern Boone County and other
counties farther east. Bcrryville, Carroll i .ounty, and Cotter, Baxter County,
from which the formation takes its name, are situated on the dolomite. The
formation consists mainly of two kinds of dolomite a fine-grained earthy,
white to buff or gray variety known as "cotton rock," and a more massive
medium-grained gray variety whose weathered surfaces are rough and dark.
Besides dolomite it contains chert that is sparingly fopsiliferous and also
contains thin layers of sandstone and shale.
Building stone is quarried from the formation n^ar Beaver, Carroll
County. It is compact gray maer.esian limestone or dolomit^, in beds from
2 tb 4 feet thick. The best beds afford durable building stone of pleasing
Cotter Dolomite, East of Beaver. Photo by J. C. Branner.
Powell limestone. The Powell limestone, to 200 feet thick, is widely
exposed in Benton, Carroll, Boone, Marion, Newton, and probably other
counties farther east, but is absent at some places in the counties here
named. It is a fine-grained gray or greenish-gray magnesian limestone,
usually free from fossils, but there are a few thin beds of green shale and at
some places there is . conglomerate at the base. The name of the forma-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
tion was taken from the abandoned station of Powell, a short distance south-
east of Pyatt, Marion County.
Everton limestone. The Everton limestone, to 205 feet thick, is widely
exposed in Benton, Carroll, Madison, Boone, Newton, Marion, and Searcy
counties, and probably others farther east. It is thickest in Boone, Newton,
and Marion counties and thin to the north, west, and east. It takes its name
from Everton, Boone County, where it is well exposed. The upper part of
the formation is 115 feet or less thick and is composed of massive compact
dove-colored limestone and some friable white sandstone, but in Marion
County much of the limestone contains enough magnesium for it to be classed
as a dolomite. The limestone that is free from magnesium is suitable for
making lime. The middle part of the formation is a white friable sandstone
in massive beds and is known as the Kings River sandstone member, re-
ceiving its name from Kings River in Carroll and Madison counties. The
sandstone at places is as much as 40 feet thick and is well suited for the
Thin-Bedded St. Joe Limestone, Member of Boone Limestone.
G. T. Adams.
manufacture of plate and ordinary glass. The lower part of the formation
is a sandy compact dark-drab magnesian limestone, .known as the Sneeds
limestone lentil, and varies in thickness from a feather edge to 50 feet. It
is not as widely distributed as the middle and upper parts of the Everton.
The known exposures are in Marion and Newton counties. The limestone
receives its name from Sneeds Creek, in Newton County, on which it is ex-
St. Peter sandstone. The St. Peter sandstone a formation which is
widely distributed in the upper Mississippi Valley is exposed over large
areas in Carroll County and most of the other counties farther east. It and
the Kings River sandstone member of the Everton limestone are described
in the reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey as "saccharoidal sand-
stone." It is massive and friable, is white or cream colored, and varies in
thickness from a feather edge to 200 feet, being thickest to the south and
east. It is being quarried for glass sand at Guion, Izard County. Outcrops
of this sandstone occur in many of the picturesque bluffs along Buffalo and
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Joachim limestone. The Joachim limestone, to 150 feet thick, is ex-
posed in Newton County and all of the counties between it and Lawrence
County. It thins to the north and west and is therefore thickest in its most
eastern and southern outcrops. It is a drab-colored fine-grained, sparingly
fossiliferous magnesian limestone, and at many places it is sandy and con-
tains thin beds of sandstone which usually occur near the base.
Jasper limestone. The Jasper limestone, to 50 feet thick, is present,
so far as known, only in Newton County. It takes its name from Jasper,
the county seat, near which most of the exposures occur. It is a compact
Sandstone in Powell Limestone. Photo by
K. F. Mather.
bluish-gray, slightly fossiliferous limestone suitable for making lime, and it
affords a beautiful and durable building stone, as is shown by buildings at
Jasper that were constructed with it. A bed of white sandstone, 8 to 20 feet
thick, is at the base and at some places there are thinner beds of similar
sandstone that are interbedded with the limestone.
Plattin limestone. The Plattin limestone, to 240 feet thick, is exposed
over large areas which comprise parts of Sharp, Independence, Izard, Stone,
and Searcy counties, and is thickest in the counties to the east. It is a mas-
sive, even-bedded dove-colored or grayish-blue limestone which is compara-
tively free from fossils and it breaks with a conchoidal fracture. It has been
quarried at places for building stone and for making lime, for which it is
well suited. Certain layers of the limestone are so fine grained as to suggest
20 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
that they are lithographic stone of good quality and considerable prospecting
has been done for such stone but the search for commercial quantities of it
has not been successful. The most promising locality is on West Lafferty
Creek in Izard County.
In practically all of the geologic reports on Arkansas the Plattin lime-
stone has been described as the "Izard limestone," but the "Izard," as it
was defined, included not only the Plattin but also the Joachim limestone,
which has been described above. The Jasper limestone which overlies the
Jpachim limestone in Newton County was also included in the "Izard lime-
stone," but it is absent in Izard County, from which the "Izard limestone"
Kimmswick limestone. The Kimmswick limestone, to 55 feet thick, is
exposed in Independence, Izard, and Stone counties and so far as known is
absent farther west. It is an even-bedded massive light-gray fine-grained
slightly fossiliferous limestone, but at places it is coarse grained and at
some places its uppermost beds are compact and grayish blue, thus resem-
bling the bulk of the Plattin limestone. Thin lenses and nodules of chert
are present at many places but are not sufficiently numerous to prohibit the
use of most of the limestone for making lime for which it is probably suit-
The Kimmswick limestone constituted the lower part of "Polk Bayou
limestone" of many of the geologic reports on Northern Arkansas, whereas
the Fernvale limestone, which overlies the Kimmswick, constituted the upper
part of the "Polk Bayou limestone." In some of the earliest reports the
Kimmswick limestone was included in what was then called the St. Clair
Fernvale limestone. The Fernvale limestone, to 125 feet thick, is
exposed over large areas in Independence, Izard, and Stone counties; small
outcrops occur near St. Joe, Searcy County; and one small outcrop is on
Little Buffalo River, a mile northeast of Jasper. The greatest thickness of
the limestone given above is in Penters Bluff near Penters Bluff station, in
Izard County, but the usual thickness at other places in the Batesville man-
ganese district, in which Penters Bluff occurs, is about 100 feet. This lime-
stone is coarse grained, massive, cross bedded, and fossiliferous, is dark
gray and pinkish gray in color, and would make a valuable building stone.
Deposits of manganese ore occur in the Fernvale limestone and in its resid-
ual clays in the Batesville manganese district, which comprises parts of
Sharp, Izard, and Independence counties, and they have been worked much
of the time since 1849.
The Fernvale limestone was included in the so-called St. Clair limestone
of some of the earlier geologic reports on Northern Arkansas, also in the
so-called "St. Clair marble" of some of the reports, and in the upper part of
the "Polk Bayou limestone" of the more recent reports. It was first identified
by E. O. Ulrich as being the same as the Fernvale limestone of middle Ten-
Cason shale. The Cason shale, to 21 feet thick, is present in com-
paratively smal lareas. The largest of these are in Independence, Izard, and
Stone counties, but small outcrops occur near Duff, Searcy County, and Jas-
per, Newton County. It consists of greenish-gray calcareous shale and smal-
ler amounts of sandstone and phosphate, and besides these it contains man-
ganese and iron minerals. Phosphate is widely distributed in the shale and
has been mined at a few places near the abandoned village of Phosphate in
Independence County. The mines have, however, not been worked for sev-
eral years. At several places in the Batesville district notably the Cason
mine 3 miles north-northeast of Batesville parts of the shale contain a
large enough quantity of manganese oxides for such parts of the shale to be
mixed and shipped as a low-grade manganese ore. The residual clays of the
shale also contain workable quantities of manganese ore. Fossils in the
Cason shale have been found at very few localities.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 21
Brassfield limestone. The Brassfield limestone so far as known is pres-
ent at only a few places; these occur between Duff and Tomahawk, Searcy
County, where it is several feet thick, but fossils that have been derived
from it through weathering occur in residual clays at the Montgomery mine,
5 miles east-northeast of Cushman, Independence County. It is a granular,
light-gray fossiliferous limestone and contains a small amount of gluconite.
This limestone has heretofore been included in the St. Glair limestone, but
its lithology, fossils, and stratigraphic relations show that it is of the same
age as the Brassfield limestone of Kentucky and Tennessee.
St. Clair limestone. The typical St. Clair limestone, to 100 feet thick,
is exposed at many places in Independence, Izard and Stone counties. It is
a coarse-grained pinkish light-gray, highly fossiliferous limestone and much
of it would make a valuable building stone. The greatest thickness, 100
feet, is at the Cason mine.
Lafferty limestone. The Lafferty limestone, to 85 feet thick, is a
thin-bedded compact earthy, sparingly fossiliferous limestone, of which the
upper part is gray in color and the lower part red. The only known oc-
currence is an exposure I 1 /! miles north of Penters Bluff station in Izard
County. The name of the limestone is taken from West Lafferty Creek which
is half a mile east of the exposure.
Penters chert. The Penters chert, to 91 feet thick, is exposed within
two small areas in Independence County, one being near Pfeiffer and tb *
other near Penters Bluff station from which the formation takes its name.
It is a compact gray and bluish chert, though the upper part is dark colored
at places. No fossils have been discovered in the chert uut its lithology anl
stratigraphic relations indicate that it is of the same age as the Camden
chert of west-central Tennessee and the lower part of the Arkansas novacu-
lite of west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The Camden
chert, as shown by fossils, is equivalent in age to at least a part of the
Oriskany group of the Northern Appalachian region.
The Penters chert has heretofore been considered to be a part of the
Boone chert, which Is described later.
Clifty limestone. The only exposure of the Clifty limestone in Northern
Arkansas is on the East Fork of the Little Clifty Creek in the southeast cor-
ner of Benton County. It is a sandy, compact, light bluish-gray fossiliferous
limestone and the greatest thickness that has been observed is 2y 2 feet.
Chattanooga shale. The Chattanooga shale is exposed in Washington,
Benton, Carroll, Madison, Searcy, and Independence counties. It is either
absent or not exposed in the other counties in Northern Arkansas. It is a
coal black clay shale that splits into thin plates and slabs and gives off the
odor of petroleum when struck with a hammer. It is thickest near the west-
ern border of the State, where it attains a thickness of 70 feet. The shale
is generally underlain by a white to brown sandstone, to 75 feet thick,
known as the Sylamore sandstone member, which is also thickest in the
western part of the State. At some places the sandstone contains chert
pebbles and at some places it is phosphatic.
The Chattanooga shale in the reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey
is called "Eureka Shale."
Boone formation. The Boone formation, 250 to 400 feet thick, consists
in the main of a series of cherty fossiliferous limestones and cherts that has
been known as the Boone chert, a name given to the series on account of Its
wide distribution in Boone County. Below these over a large area in the
northern part of the State lies the St. Joe limestone member of the forma-
tion, a well-marked bed of gray or pink crystalline limestone, which Is the
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 23
basal Carboniferous bed. It is easily recognized by its color, texture, and
its marked contrast with the beds that usually underlie it. This limestone
ranges in thickness from a feather edge to 100 feet and forms an almost un-
broken, though very sinuous outcrop from the vicinity of Mountain View,
Stone County, to the State line near Seligman, Mo., and is exposed in all of
the counties between that county and the western boundary of the State.
Where the cherts are interbedded with much limestone they form, on
decay, a fertile soil, such as is found over large areas in Boone, Benton,
Washington, and Madison counties. When comparatively free from lime-
stone beds the soil is generally too meager for agriculture and forms the
"flint hills" of central Independence County, of western Carroll and north-
ern Madison counties and the watersheds north of Marshall and southwest
of Rush Creek, in Marion County, and the hilltops about Elixir Springs,
Boone County, and Doddsville, Marion County.
The Boone formation affords an abundance of fractured loose chert on
the hillslopes, suitable for road building. The limestone in it is used for
building stone and for making 'lime. A quarry at Pfeiffer, Independence
County, is producing a high grade of ornamental limestone.
Moorefield shale. In the vicinity of Batesville there is a bed of shale
lying on the Boone formation. . It is well exposed around Moorfield, from
which it is named. At and near Batesville it varies in thickness from
less than 100 to more than 250 feet. To the west, at Marshall, it is not over
35 feet thick, and evidently it does not extend much farther westward. The
shale has a light grayish or bluish color and is very friable. In places it is
sandy. A fossiliferous limy phase, several feet thick, at its base has been
called "Spring Creek limestone."
Batesville sandstone. The Batesville sandstone, to 200 feet thick, is
so named from the town of Batesville which is built on it. The sandstone is
present along the base of the slopes of the isolated hills and mountains
north of the Boston Mountains escrapment, in Independence, Stone, Searcy,
Newton, Boone, Carroll, Madison, Washington, and Benton counties. It is
thickest in its most eastern exposures. The rock is coarse grained, cream-
colored to brown, often false bedded, and in some places contains beds of
shale interstratified with sandstone. A light sandy soil results from its dis-
integration. It serves as an excellent reservoir, for the wells that penetrate
it usually find in it an abundance of good soft water.
In the part of the State west of Harrison, Boone County, the sandstone
is generally underlain by a limestone, to 50 feet thick, known as the Hinds-
ville limestone member. The greatest areal exposure of the member is
near Hindsville, Madison County, from which it was named. The limestone
is gray, fossiliferous, and oolitic, is interbedded with thin beds of sandstone,
and includes at its base a chert-pebble conglomerate. It is suitable for
building stone and for making lime. The limestone for the columns at the
front entrance of the main building of the University of Arkansas, at Fay-
etteville, was quarried from this limestone on Brush Creek near Hindsville.
Fayetteville shale. The Fayetteville shale, 10 to 400 feet thick, consists
principally of black or dark-gray carboneous shale, at many places thinly
laminated, and in general is thickest to the south. Near its base there is
generally a thin bed of hard, dark gray or blue fossiliferous limestone, while
its middle part commonly grades from a sandy shale to a true sandstone,
and where the sandstone phase predominates this portion of the formation
is distinguished as the Wedington sandstone member. The shale is well de-
veloped in the valley of West Fork of White River near Fayetteville, from
which town it is named, and the Wedington sandstone member is particu-
larly prominent southwest of Fayetteville, in Wedington Mountain, where it
attains a thickness of 150 feet perhaps one-half the total thickness of the
formation there. The softness of the shale causes it to erode so easily that
its outcrop is usually marked by a valley, or by steep slopes. Where ex-
posed, the shale disintegrates readily and forms a black and fertile soil.
The composition of the unweathered shale renders it suitable material for
brick making. The shale beds are- practically constant from the Oklahoma
line to the Gulf Coastal Plain near Batesville, but the sandstone thins out
St. Peter Sandstone, on Buffalo Fork of White River,
One Mile East of Mouth of Cove Creek.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 25
Pitkin limestone. The Pitkin limestone, to 100 feet thick, is widely
distributed over Northern Arkansas, extending along the north side of the
Boston Mountains from Independence County to the western boundary of
the State. It thins out to the north and is generally thickest in its most
southern outcrops. It is exposed along the north face of these mountains
and on many of their outliers and in some places it forms a prominent es-
carpment. It is also exposed on the south side of the Boston Mountains in
Franklin, Johnson, and Newton counties. It is composed of massive gray
fossiliferous limestone, parts of which are probably pure enough for making
lime. In the reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey it is known as the
"Archimedes limestone," because of the presence of Archimedes, an easily
recognized bryozoan, the screwlike stems of which are common on the
weathered surface of the rock.
Morrow group. Under the name Morrow group are included several
beds of limestone, sandstone, and shale, which vary much in thickness, ar-
rangement, and character, and are of but little topographic prominence.
They lie just below the sandstone of the "Millstone grit" of the Arkansas
Geological Survey, and, as a rule, form the middle part of the northern es-
carpment of the Boston Mountains. South of Batesville, near Jamestown,
these beds have a total thickness of about 200 feet, while at places farther
west they are about 400 feet thick.
To the lower part of the group the name Hale formation has been ap-
plied, and to the upper part the name Bloyd shale has been applied. The
Hale formation is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, limestone, and
shale, and is known to vary in thickness from 80 to 300 feet. The Bloyd
shale is composed mainly of black clay shale, but partly of limestone which
occurs in two beds, the upper being known as the Kessler limestone member
and the lower the Brentwood limestone member. The shale is about 200
feet thick in southern Washington County and northern Crawford County,
but from this part of the State it thins to the north and east and is known
to be absent in parts of Madison, Carroll, Boone, and Newton counties.
A coal bed, as much as 14 inches thick occurs in the Bloyd shale In
Washington County and has been worked on a small scale.
Winslow formation. The Winslow formation makes the summit and
southern slopes of the Boston Mountains, except in the deeper ravines
where older rocks have been exposed. Rocks of this formation also occur
on the tops of the outliers immediately north of the Boston Mountains.
The formation consists of beds of sandstone and shale, with a few thin
local layers of limestone. The sandstone beds range in thickness from 3
feet to more than 50 feet. One of these beds, and in places two, near the
base of the formation, are conglomeratic, containing waterworn quartz peb-
bles of small size and form prominent bluffs along the mountain slopes.
These gritty beds at and near the base of the Winslow formation were
described by the Arkansas Geological Survey in the report on Washington
County as the "Millstone grit." The shales, which constitute probably 75
per cent of the formation, are as a rule black and carbonaceous, though less
so than the shales of the Morrow group. Coal occurs within this formation
but only in beds too thin to be profitably worked. The Winslow formation
in the Boston Mountain region extends up to the base of the series of rocks
that contain the workable coal beds in the Arkansas coal field. Its total
thickness in the southern part of the region where it is greatest is estimated
to be more than 1,500 feet.
Ouachita Mountain Region
Collier shale. The Collier shale is exposed in a nearly east-west valley
area, 1 to 3 miles wide and about 15 miles long, lying between Womble and
Mount Ida, Montgomery County. The entire thickness of the formation is
not known as the base is not revealed, but the exposed beds are probably
26 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
at least 500 feet thick. The formation is composed mostly of bluish-black
soft graphic, intensely crumpled clay shale, but contains some bluish-gray
or black limestone and a few thin layers of dark chert. No fossils have
been found in the formation. Very little or none of the limestone is suitable
for making lime, and none of it is suitable for building stone on account of
the fractured condition of the limestone and the occurrence of quartz and
calcite veins in it.
Crystal Mountain sandstone. The Crystal Mountain sandstone, 850 feet
thick, crops out in Montgomery County and produces high rugged ridges
which extend westward from the vicinity of Crystal Springs to a point about
15 miles west of Mount Ida. A group of these ridges south of Mount Ida
is known as the Crystal Mountains and from them the sandstone takes its
name. The formation is composed of coarse-grained massive gray to brown
sandstone but at the base there is a conglomerate with limestone and chert
pebbles that have been derived from the Collier shale. Clusters of quartz
crystals are found in fissures at numerous places and many are sold at Hot
Springs, Garland County, for museum specimens and for use as ornaments.
The sandstone is used as a building stone at Mount Ida.
The formation has not yielded any fossils but, for reasons which can
not be presented in this short paper, it is tentatively assigned to the Ordo-
Mazarn shale. The Mazarn shale, 1,000 feet thick, takes its name from
its occurrence on the headwaters of Mazarn Creek in Montgomery County.
It is exposed at other places in this county and outcrops of it are known to
extend as far east as Blakely Mountain in Garland County. The outcrops
everywhere occur in valleys. The formation consists of shale and of small
amounts of limestone and sandstone. The shale is ribboned, consisting of
alternating black and green layers that split at an angle with the bedding.
Fossil graptolites of Lower Ordovician age have been found at a few places.
Blakely sandstone. The Blakely sandstone, to 500 feet thick, consists
of shale in alternating black and green layers and hard gray sandstone. The
shale constitutes 75 per cent of the whole, but the sandstone, which pro-
duces high ridges, is the prominent feature. The ridges formed by this
sandstone extend in an east-northeastward direction from Womble, Mont-
gomery County, across Garland County, into Saline County. A group of
these ridges in Garland County is known as Blakely Mountain and from it
the sandstone has been named. The formation is absent at most places west
of Womble and at probably all places north of that town. Graptolites of
Lower Ordovician age have been found in shale in the formation in Blakely
Mountain. Quartz crystals are found in fissures in the sandstone but they
are not so numerous as they are in the Crystal Mountain sandstone.
Womble shale The Womble shale, 250 to 1,000 feet thick, is exposed
in wide and narrow valley areas from the vicinity of Big Fork, Polk County,
across Montgomery, Garland, and Saline counties, into Pulaski County. The
name for it is taken from the town of Womble. part of which is situated on
the base of the shale. The formation consists of black graphitic shale, with
thin beds of sandstone near the base and beds of limestone near the top.
The shale near the base is composed of black and green layers that split
at an angle with the bedding and thus show ribboned cleavage surfaces.
Gractolites of Lower Ordovician age are numerous. Some of the limestone
has been used for making lime for local use, near Cedar Glades, Garland
County, and Black Springs, Montgomery County.
Bigfork chert. The Bigfork chert is exposed over large and small areas
between Shady Postoffice, Polk -County, and Pulaski County, and in such
areas it produces numerous low steep-sided knobs. The formation is esti-
mated to be 700 feet thick in Garland County and other counties farther west,
where it has been studied more extensively than elsewhere. It is composed
of thin-bedded gray to black, much shattered chert interbedded with thin
layers of black shale. The fossils that have been found consist manly of
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 27
graptolites. The chert is excellently adapted for road building and is being
used for this purpose at Hot Springs.
Polk Creek shale. The Polk Creek shale, to 200 feet thick, is exposed
on steep rocky slopes and in narrow valleys in close association with the
outcrops of the Bigfork chert, and so far as known is absent in comparatively
small areas. It is a black graphic shale; in parts it is siliceous and in others
clay shale. It has been prospected for roofing slate near Big Fork, Polk
County, and near Washita, Montgomery County. Graptolites are abundant
in the shale.
Blaylock sandstone. The Blaylock sandstone is exposed in a small area
near Bog Springs, Polk County, and in other, though not large areas as far
east as the vicinity of Malvern. Along some of its most southern outcrops
it has an estimated thickness of 1,500 feet, but it thins so rapidly to the
north that it is not present 3 or 4 miles north of the places where it has the
above-estimated thickness. It is composed of fine-grained light-gray to
dark-gray or green compact sandstone and buff to dark shale. Its areas of
outcrop are very rocky, occurring on mountain slopes and in narrow valleys.
One small collection of fossils, consisting entiely of graptolites, has been
obtained at the south base of Blaylock Mountain, in the southwest corner
of Montgomery County.
Missouri Mountain slate. The Missouri Mountain slate. to 300 feet
thick, is exposed on or near high ridges from Polk County east to Pulaski
County, but is absent at places near Mount Ida. It is a red and green clay
slate but at places is dark colored. Thus far it has not yielded any fossils.
It has been extensively prospected for commercial slate at several places
near Hawes and Bear, Garland County, and at many places in Polk and
Montgomery counties, and has been quarried for switchboards at Slatington
in the last-named county.
Arkansas novaculite. The Arkansas novaculite is widely exposed in
Polk County and the other counties between it and Pulaski County. It is
exposed in more or le^s parallel and nearly eastward-trending belts, whose
narrowness is due to the steep dips of the beds. Owing to the narrowness
of these belts and to the greater resistance of the novaculite (a variety of
chert) to weathering than the adjacent strata above and below, its outcrops
stand up as sharp ridges, whereas both the older and younger rocks form
valleys. Many rock ledges occur on the crests of the ridges and in the
The formation is thickest in its southernmost outcrops, where the thick-
ness at many if not at most places is about 900 feet, but it tkins to the north
and is absent at places near Mount Ida, and probably at other places. It has
been studied more extensively in Garland and Hot Spring counties and the
other counties farther west than elsewhere in the State. There it consists
of three lithologic divisions a lower one. made up almost entirely of massive
white novaculite; a middle one, consisting mainly of thin layers of dense
dark-colored novaculite interbedded with shale; and an upper one consist-
ing chiefly of massive, highly calcareous novaculite. These divisions vary
in thickness and character from place to place.
The lower division is commonly from 150 to 300 feet thick, though at
some places the thickness is greater. It is made up almost wholly of typical
novaculite, whose white color and massiveness make it the most conspicuous
part of the formation. In fact, it is this part that usually occupies the crests
of the ridges. The beds are from 2 to 10 feet thick and are commonly even
bedded. The massive novaculite is usually dense, gritty, fine grained, homo-
geneous, highly siliceous, translucent on thin edge's, and white with a bluish
tint, but where unweathered it is bluish gray. It has an uneven to conchoidal
fracture and a waxy luster like that of chaledony. Though the bulk of the
28 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
rock is white, much of it varies in shades of red, gray, green, yellow, and
brown, and in many places it is black. These shades are produced by iron
and manganese oxides and possibly in some places by carbonaceous matter.
The rock contains a little calcite, but exposures of the calcerous stone are
not common and have been found only in stream beds. Joints are numerous
and run in all directions, but the most prominent joints are normal to the
bedding. Many of them are filled by white quartz veins which are usually
so thin as to be inconspicuous. Slickensides along both joints and bedding
planes are common.
The middle part of the formation consists chiefly of interbedded nova-
culite and shale. The novaculite is similar to that in the lower massive part
of the formation, except that the common color is dark gray to black and that
the beds are much thinner, usually between 1 inch and 6 inches thick. A con-
glomerate at the base of this division was observed at a number of places.
It consists of small rounded and subangular pebbles of novaculite in a sandy
and dense flinty matrix. The shale ordinarily observed is black, weathering
to a buff or brown color, but some of it is red.
The upper part of the formation ranges from about 20 to 125 feet in
thickness and is thickest along the southernmost exposures. It consists
chiefly of massive, highly calcareous light-gray to bluish-black novaculite
which is so resistent that at some places where it and the accompanying
beds of the formation are not overturned it produces low ridges or knobs
on the slopes of the higher ridges. Some thin beds of ordinary dense chal-
cedonic novaculite like that so characteristic of the middle and lower parts
of the formation are also included. Fine lamination parallel with the bed-
ding is common. On weathering, the more calcareous rock loses its calcium
carbonate becomes white or cream-colored and porous and soft enough to
receive impressions from the hammer without breaking.
Novaculite from the lower part of the formation is quarried on North
Mountain, Indian Mountain, and near Summit, Garland County, for oil stones
or whetstones. It is also quarried on North Mountain, Garland County, and
near Butterfield, Hot Spring County, for use in concrete. Deposits of tripoli
derived from the novaculite have been prospected near Caddo Gap, Mont-
gomery County and near Langley, Pike County. Manganese oxides occur
in the novaculite and much prospecting for manganese ore has been done
in Pike, Polk and Montgomery counties.
The lower part of the formation is considered to be of Devonian age;
but the middle and upper parts are doubtfully placed in the Devonian sys-
tem, as there is a possibility that these two parts may be of Mississippian
age. The only fossils that have been found in the formation in Arkansas are
conodonts, linguloids, sporangites, and fossil wood, all of which were obtained
from the middle and upper parts of the formation.
Hot Springs sandstone. The Hot Springs sandstone is exposed on high
mountain ridges at and near the city of Hot Springs. It is simply a lenticular
formation, and so far as known is not present except near Hot Springs. The
maximum thickness is 200 feet. The formation is composed of gray hard
quartzitic sandstone, and at the base there is a conglomerate which is as
much as 30 feet thick. The pebbles are of all sizes up to 6 inches in diam-
eter and consist mostly of novaculite.
Stanley shale. The Stanley shale is the surface rock in large and small
areas in Polk, Sevier, Howard, Pike, Montgomery, Clark, Hot Spring, and
Garland counties, in the southern part of Yell County, in the northern part
of Saline County, and in the west-central part of Pulaski County. Some of
the largest areas are intermontane basins like the one in which Mena is sit-
uated and the one in which the southern part of Hot Springs is situated.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS . 29
whereas the other large areas form a part of the Athens plateau which
is south of the Ouachita Mountains. The thickness, as measured near Glen-
wood, Pike County, is 6,000 feet, and it is perhaps equally as great at all
The formation is composed of bluish-black and black fissile clay shale
and fine-grained compact greenish-gray cr bluish-gray sandstone. Several
tuff beds, as much as 85 feet thick, occur near the base in Polk County. The
upper part of the formation in Arkansas has yielded a single collection of
plants including some ferns. Some of the shale at the base has been altered
to slate and this has been prospected for commercial slate in Polk, Mont-
gomery, and Garland counties. Quartz veins in the formation contain lead,
zinc, and antimony minerals near Gillham, Sevier County.
Jackford sandstone. The Jackford sandstone, 5,000 to 6,600 feet thick,
forms broad low nearly east-west ridges on the Athens plateau south of
the Ouachita Mountains. These ridges are forested with yellow pine and
among them are Grindstone Mountain extending westward from the vicin-
ity of Arkadelphia, Clark County, and several ridges that are south of Kirby,
Pike county. Furthermore, the formation is widely exposed in the Ouachita
Mountains themselves. In fact, its outcrops form the highest and some
of the most rugged mountain ridges of the Ouachitas. Some of these are
Black Fork, Rich, Fourche, Mill Creek, and Irons Fork mountains near
Mena, Polk County; Muddy Creek Mountain near Washita, Montgomery
County; and Blue Mountain near Cedar Glades, Garland County. In the
southern exposures of the formation it is composed of massive compact
fine-grained to coarse-grained light-gray sandstone with some mill stone grit,
especially in its basal part, and with a small amount of green shale, whereas
in many of its northern exposures the shale forms the greater part of the
formation and the sandstone a minor part of it. Indeterminable invertebrate
fossils have been found in the millstone grit at the base.
Atoka formation. The Atoka formation is exposed in two narrow east-
west belts between Kirby and Murfreesboro, Pike County, and another belt,
which is probably one of these, follows the south base of Chalybeate Moun-
tain, 5 miles south of Amity, Clark County. The thickness of the formation
in this part of the State is estimated to be 6,000 feet. The Atoka is also ex-
posed in large areas in Scott, Yell, and Perry counties and the west-central
part of Pulaski County. Two of the principal ridges formed by it are Dutch
Creek and Danville mountains. The formation in Yell County is estimated
to be 7,800 feet thick. Here, as elsewhere in the State, it is composed of
hard light-gray to brown sandstone and an equal or greater amount of black
Arkansas Valley Region
Jackfork sandstone. The Jackfork sandstone, as has been previously
stated, is composed of shale and a smaller amount of sandstone in its north-
ernmost outcrops in the Ouachita Mountain region, and it is doubtless repre-
sented by similar strata in some areas on the south side of the Arkansas
Atoka formation. The Atoka formation comprises a considerable part of
the thick series of sandstones and shales that underlie the coal-bearing rocks
in the Arkansas coal field. This series of rocks was referred to in the pub-
lications of the Arkansas Geological Survey as the "Lower or Barren Coal
Measures." The uppermost formation in this series is known as the Atoka
formation and contains beds which are equivalent to part of the Winslow
formation of the Boston Mountains. The Atoka is estimated to be about
7,000 feet thick and is composed of sandstone separated by thick beds of
30 . MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
black clay shale. It has not yielded any fossils in Arkansas. The sandstones
form ridges and the shales underlie valleys and lowlands. Sandstone beds
in the formation supply the gas from the Massard Prairie gas field near Fort
Smith, the Coops Prairie gas field near Mansfield, and the Kibler gas field
near Van Buren.
Hartshorne sandstone. The Hartshorne sandstone lies at the base of
the productive coal-bearing rocks of the Arkansas coal field. It is known
to have a great areal extent, and is found cropping out around the edges
of the coal bearing rocks from the east end of the Arkansas coal field west-
ward into Oklahoma. It is 100 to 300 feet thick, and contains minor beds of
shale in its central and upper parts. An important coal bed known as the
Hartshorne coal rests on the top of the sandstone.
McAlester group. Above the Hartshorne sandstone there is in the pro-
ductive coal-bearing rocks a series of shales and sandstones with a num-
ber of beds of workable coal. The McAlester group is divisible into three
formations (1) a lower, known as the Spadra shale, consisting of three or
more beds of coal and minor strata of sandstone; (2) a middle, called the
Fort Smith formation, composed chiefly of sandstone and shaly sandstone
beds with one or more workable beds of coal; (3) an upper, described as
the Paris shale, consisting partly of beds of sandy shale with some sand-
stone and one or more workable beds of coal. The Spadra shale is 400 1
to 500 feet thick, the Fort Smith formation 375 to 425 feet, and the Paris
shale 600 to 700 feet. Numerous collections of fossil plants have been ob-
tained from the McAlester group.
Savanna formation. Overlying the McAlester group there is in the pro-
ductive coal series a formation consisting of several sandstone members sep-
arated by shales. This is known as the Savanna formation. It occurs in
Arkansas only in the tops and upper slopes of Poteau, Sugarloaf, Short, and 1
Magazine mountains. That part of the Savanna exposed in Arkansas is es-
timated not to exceed 1,000 feet, and constitutes approximately the lower
two-thirds of the entire formation, which is present farther west in Okla-
The rocks of this formation, as well as the other rocks of the produc-
tive coal series, are all more or less folded, so that the shale and sandstone
outcrops depend on the character and direction of these folds and can
therefore be determined only after a study of the structure of the region,
It can be said, however, that the shale outcrops generally lie in the valleys-
parallel to the ridges which are formed by sandstone.
Gulf Coastal Plain
Lower Cretaceous Series
Trinity formation. The Trinity formation is exposed in a belt, a few
miles wide, extending from a point near Delight westward across Pike, How-
ard and Sevier counties and thence into Oklahoma. It has a thickness of
over 600 feet at a locality 2 miles north of Center Point, Howard County^
and probably has a like thickness farther west in Arkansas, but it thins
out near the east border of Pike County. It consists predominantly of
clay but includes subordinate beds of sand, gravel, and limestone. The lime-
stone contains fossil oysters and other shells and occurs in two beds, the
Dierks limestone lentil and the De Queen limestone member, both of which
are exposed in narrow belts. The De Queen limestone, the higher of the
two, is near the middle of the formation. It ranges in thickness from a
feather edge to 72 feet, and its outcrop extends from Plaster Bluff, near
Murfreesboro, westward through De Queen into Oklahoma. It is not pres-
ent east of Plaster Bluff. The Dierks limestone at some places is 50 feet
above the base of the formation and at others is probably 200 feet above
the base. Its thickness ranges from a feather edge to 40 feet. Its outcrop
extends from a locality about 2 miles north of Delight westward to Cossatot
River, where it thins out. The gravel also occurs in two beds that attain
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 31
a thickness of 100 feet. The lower of the two gravels is at the base of the
formation. It is called the Pike gravel member and is exposed in an almost
continuous though irregular belt from the west side of the State to the east
end of the outcrop of the Trinity. The upper gravel, the Ultima Thule gravel
lentil is above the Dierks limestone and is exposed in an irregular belt ex-
tending from Cossatot River westward into Oklahoma. These four lentils
and members and the interbedded sands and clays of the Trinity have a
slight southward dip. Although the Trinity occupies a nearly horizontal po-
sition it rests upon the truncated upturned edges of steeply dipping shales
and sandstones of Carboniferous age, which, however, form a smooth floor
that has only minor irregularities and undulations. A pronounced uncon-
formity therefore occurs at the base of the Trinity.
The above-mentioned gravels are composed mostly of novaculite pebbles.
They are widely distributed and constitute a very large supply of good road
material. Gypsum occurs in the De Queen limestone member and has been
prospected in a small way near Plaster Bluff. Limestone in this member
has been used for rough building stone at De Queen, but neither it nor the
Dierks limestone is pure enough for making lime.
Good land limestone. The Goodland limestone, to 25 feet thick, is a
chalky fossiliferous limestone and is exposed on Little River, near Cerro
Gordo. Little River County. It is not exposed east of that place.
Washita group. The Washita group consists of calcareous clays and
thin beds of limestone and is exposed over a small area in the northwest
corner of Little River County where it has a total thickness of over 250 feet.
Upper Cretaceous Series
Bingen formation. The Bingen formation receives its name from the
village of Bingen, Hempstead County. Its area of outcrop is a belt, narrow
to the east and wide to the west, and extends in a west-southwestward direc-
tion from the vicinity of Clear Spring, Clark County, across Pike, Hemp-
stead, Howard, and Sevier counties. The formation ranges in thickness
from a feather edge to 580 feet, being thickest to the southwest. It is com-
posed of sand, clay, and gravel, and near Tokio and farther east contains
beds to which the name Tokio sand member has been applied. This mem-
ber is in fact the only part of the formation exposed east of Little Missouri
River and is the only part that contains beds of quartz sand.
The gravel in the Bingen occurs in several beds. The southward slop-
ing plateau on which Center Point, Howard County, is located and a similar
plateau west of Locke^burg, Sevier County, owe their preservation and prom-
inence to these gravels. The thickest and also the most widely distributed
bed which is as much as 60 feet thick, is at the base. These different gravel
deposits resemble one another as well as those of the Trinity formation and
are well adapted for road making. They are composed of partly rounded to
well-rounded pebbles usually 1 inch or less in diameter, and most of the
pebbles are novaculite.
Among the other kinds of pebbles there are various types of igneous
rocks, which are similar to or identical with some of the crystalline rocks of
Arkansas. These are found in the basal part of the formation from the
vicinity of Murfreesboro westward.
A greenish cross-bedded arkosic sand composed of kaolinized feldspar
and a less amount of other minerals is widely distributed west and north-
west of Tokio and Highland. Besides the sand just described the for-
mation contains red, light-colored and dark-colored clays and quartz sand
The light-colored clays are in beds reaching a thickness of 5 to 6 feet and
consist of plastic ball clays and nonplastic kaolins. A 5-foot bed of kaolin
in the NE. %SE. % sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 25 W., is reported to be fullers earth.
Some of the clays contain fossil plants.
Brownstown marl. The Brownstown marl is the surface formation in a
belt a few miles wide extending in an east-northeastward direction from the
vicinity of Brownstown, Sevier County, to the vicinity of Hollywood, Clark
County. In the western part of the belt where it is thickest it attains a
thickness of 650 feet. It is a blue or gray calcareous clay containing many
fossil oysters and is characterized by the presence of the large oyster Exo-
32 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
gyra ponderosa, whence it has sometimes been called the "Exogyra ponde-
rosa marl." The soil derived from the formation, when not mixed with sur-
ficial deposits, is black and waxy, but the subsoil is yellow.
Austin ("Annona") chalk. The Austin chalk consists of white chalk,
which at White Cliffs, Sevier County, has a thickness of over 100 feet, but
thins out rapidly to the east, disappearing, entirely before reaching Okolona,
Clark County, where it is composed only of chalky marl. To the west out-
crops are found at Rocky Comfort, Little River County. The chalk was
formerly used in the manufacture of Portland cement at White Cliffs.
Marlbrook marl. The Marlbrook marl consists of blue, chalky, some-
what glauconitic marls, which are impure chalk at some places. The most
extensive outcrops of this formation are along t^e ridge which extends from
Marlbrook, the type locality in Hempstead County, to Saratoga, in southern
Howard County. It forms a stiff, black soil. About 200 to 300 feet above the
base of this formation is a very chalky layer 20 to 50 feet thick, which has
been called the "Saratoga chalk marl" or the "Saratoga formation." It is
exposed in the Marlbrook-Saratoga region at the town of Okolona, where it
is called "cistern rock;" at Dobyville, and on Little and Big Deciper creeks
in Clark County. The thickness of the Marlbrook marl ranges from 750 feet
at Texarkana to 50 feet or less at Arkadelphia.
Nacatoch sand. Above the Marlbrook marl is a series of sandy beds
which are of vast economic importance to a strip of country along the Mis-
souri Pacific Railway between Arkadelphia and Texarkana, since they are the
source of the main water supply of that region. Like the other sandy beds
of the Cretaceous, at the outcrop they are distinguished with difficulty from
the surficial sands that mantle the region. However, the thousands of wells
which have been sunk to this horizon prove conclusively that the outcrop
of this bed produces the belt of sandy land which begins on Yellow Creek
south of Saratoga and extends, with interruptions of greater or less im-
portance, along the main drainage channels, through Washington, De Ann,
Garlandville, Nacatoch Bluff, and Keyton, and finally reaches Ouachita River
at High Bluffs above Arkadelphia.
Nacatoch Bluff, on Little Missouri River, in Clark County, from which
the sand takes its name, reveals one of the most complete exposures occur-
ring along this belt and shows calcareous and quartzitic rocks which, when
encountered in wells, are called "water rocks."
In the western part of this region the sands are rather light in color,
although about Hope they are overlain by a very black sandy layer 3 to 15
feet thick, and have an aggregate thickness of about 100 to 160 feet. Toward
Arkadelphia the sand grows darker and thinner. In the well of the Arkadel-
phia Ice and Fuel Co. it appears to extend from 100 to 160 feet, and is thor^-
fore about 60 feet thick. In a well at Prescott, it is reported to be 176
feet thick. It is apparently 178 feet thick in a well at Bodcaw, Nevada
County, and is at least 185 feet thick in a well near Fulton, Hempstead
Marls encountered in wells at Little Rock, at Cabot, Lonoke County,
and Beebe, White County, contain a fauna corresponding in age to the
fauna of the Nacatoch sand. There are small exposures of beds of Upper
Cretaceous age in the vicinity of Newark, Independence County, and the
meager fauna found in the beds indicate that they are probably of the
same age as the Nacatoch sand.
Arkadelphia clay. The dark laminated clays which overlie the Nacatoch
sand form the "blue dirt" of the well drillers along the line of the Missouri
Pacific Railway from Arkadelphia to Texarkana. These beds contain upper-
most Cretaceous fossils for 100 to 200 feet above the Nacatoch sands, the
fossil-bearing beds being well developed on Yellow Creek 3 to 4 miles north-
west of Fulton, 5 to 6 miles north of Hope, north and northwest of Emmet,
and at Arkadelphia. Thus far no fossils have been found in the upper por-
tion of this formation, which extends without any apparent break to the
Eocene sand beds forming the sandy hills south of the Missouri Pacific Rail-
way. This absence of fossils, together with the fact that the Midway
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 33
(Eocene) formation, though commonly characterized by limestones, con-
tains dark-colored clays, makes the exact determination of the top of the
Cretaceous in this section particularly difficult.
The total thickness of the Arkadelphia clay, excluding the beds which
appear to be stratigraphically Eocene, is from 200 to 300 feet at Arkadelphia,
500 feet at Laneburg, 500 to 600 feet at Hope and Spring Hill, and 500 feet
Eocene deposits, including in ascending order the Midway, Wilcox, Clai-
borne, and Jackson formation, 1,000 feet or more in aggregate thickness,
form the core of Crowley's Ridge; they are exposed in the uplands which
occupy much of south-central Arkansas, south of Little Rock; and they are
exposed in small areas along the western margin of the Coastal Plain from
Little Rock northeastward to the southern part of Independence County.
The formations of Eocene age are more or less similar in character, and
comprise sands, clays, marls, and some limestones and workable beds of
lignite. These beds dip gently to the southeast; they are all more or less
sandy; and but few of them are hard and consolidated. At the lignite mines
of Ouachita County, however, some of the sands are indurated to very com-
pact sandstones, and at some places in Crowley's Ridge they form the hard-
est of quartzites. At and near Piggot in Clay County, Benton in Saline
County, Malvern in Hot Spring County, Fordyce in Dallas County, Lester in
Ouachita County, and other places there are valuable deposits of potter's
clay and fire clay.
Gravels and sands, possible of Pliocene age, occur in Crowley's Ridge and
cover the foothills of Lawrence, Independence, and probably other counties.
A sheet of sedimentary materials, 200 feet or less thick, which consist
of sands, clays, and gravels, cover the Tertiary area of the State and some
of the adjacent Paleozoic rocks and yield large quantities of water which is
extensively used in the culture of rice. The country lying north of Arkansas
River and east of the Paleozoic hills belongs mostly to the Quaternary. The
lowest strata exposed in Crowley's Ridge belong to the Eocene. All the river
bottoms are of recent origin, while the loess, 140 feet or less thick, which
caps Crowley's Ridge and likewise the river terraces and second bottoms of
all the important streams belong to the Pleistocene.
The list of reports given below includes only those that were used in
the preparation of the above chapter on the topography and geology of Ar-
kansas. These represent a very small percentage of the total number of
publications on the geology of the State. A complete bibliography of the
geology of the State by J. C. Branner was published in 1894 in Volume 2
of the Annual Report of the Arkansas Geological Survey for 1891, and a sec-
ond bibliography by him, listing all of the titles up to 1909, was published
by the same Survey.
1891.* Williams, J. F., The igneous rocks of Arkansas: Arkansas Geol. Survey
Ann. Kept, for 1890, vol 2.
1892. Griswold, L. S., Whetstones and the novaculites of Arkansas. Arkansas
Geol. Survey Ann. Kept, for 1890, vol 3.
1893. Hopkins, T. C., Marbles and other limestones: Arkansas Geol. Survey
Ann. Kept, for 1890, vol. 4.
34 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
1900. Branner, J. C., The lead and zinc region of North Arkansas: Arkansas
Geol. Survey Ann. Kept, for 1892, vol. 5.
1904. Adams, G. I., Purdue, A. H., and Burchard, E. F., Zinc and lead deposits
of Northern Arkansas: IT. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 24. (Out of
Ulrich, E. O., Determination and correlation of formations [of Northern
Arkansas]: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Papei 24, pp. 90-113. (Out of
1905. Adams, G. I. and Ulrich, E. O., Description of the Fayetteville quadran-
gle: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Fayetteville folio (No. 119).
1906. Veatch, A. C., Geology and underground water resources of Northern
Louisiana and Southern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 46.
(Out of print.)
1907. Purdue, A. H., Description of the Winslow quadrangle: U. S. Geol.
Survey, Geol. Atlas, Winslow folio (No. 154). (Out of print.)
, Developed phosphate deposits of Northern Arkansas:
U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 315, pp. 463-473. _ (Out of print.)
Collier, A. J., The Arkansas coal field: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 326.
1908. Branner, J. C., The clays of Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 351.
1909. Purdue, A.- H., The slates of Arkansas: Arkansas Geol. Survey.
1913. Eckel, E. C., Portland cement materials and industry in the United
States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 522.
1914. Smith, C. D. Structure of the Fort Smith-Poteau gas field, Arkansas
and Oklahoma: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 541, pp. 23-33. (Out of
1915. Siebenthal, C. E., Origin of the zinc and lead deposits of the Joplin re-
gion, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 606.
Mead, W. J., Occurrence and origin of the bauxite deposits of Arkansas:
Econ. Geology, vol. 10, pp. 28-54.
1916. Stephenson, L. W., and Crider, A. F., Geology and ground waters of
Northeastern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 399.
Purdue, A. H., and Miser, H. D. Description of the Eureka Springs and
Harrison quadrangles: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Eureka
Springs-Harrison folio (No. 202).
1917. Miser, H. D., Manganese deposits of the Caddo Gap and De Queen
quadrangles, Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 660, pp. 59-122.
Schrader, F. C., Stone, R. W., and Sanford, Samuel, Useful minerals of
the United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 624.
1918. Stephenson, L. W., and Miser, H. D., Camp Pike and the adjacent coun-
try; Text on back of topographic map. Little Rock quadrangle,
U. S. Geol. Survey.
Miser, H. D., and Purdue, A. H., Gravel deposits of the Caddo Gap and
De Queen quadrangles, Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 690, pp.
Miser, H. D., Llanoria, the Paleozic Land Area in Louisiana and Texas;
Am. Journal of Science, Vol. II, August, 1921. (Published since the
preparation of the foregoing chapter).
, Asphalt deposits and oil conditions in Southwestern Ar-
kansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 691, pp. 271-292.
Miser, H. D., Diamond-bearing peridotite in Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Sur-
, Manganese ore deposits of the Batesville district, Arkan-
sas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull.
Purdue, A. H., and Miser, H. D., Description of the De Queen and Caddo
Gap quadrangles: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, De Queen-Caddo
.Description of the Hot Springs special quadrangle: U. S.
Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Hot Springs folio.
Ulrich, 'E. O., Description of the Yellville quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Sur-
vey, Geol. Atlas, Yellville folio.
*The numbers in this column are the dates of the publication of the re-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
List of Principal Arkansas Minerals
and Their Location by Counties
Miniature Mineral Maps of Arkansas.
COUNTIES WHERE FOUND
Sevier and Howard.
Pike and Sevier.
Pulaski and Saline.
Pope, Johnson, Logan, Yell, Scott, Franklin,
Crawford and Sebastian.
Carroll, Polk and Pulaski.
Pulaski, Saline, Izard, Jefferson and Greene.
Independence, Carroll and Madison.
Diamonds Fuller's Earth Gas
Gravel Graphite Granite
Petroleum Phosphate Rock
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
COUNTIES WHERE FOUND
Hot Spring, Garland, Montgomery and Wash-
Pike, Howard and Saline.
Lawrence and Sharp.
Dallas, Garland, Hot Spring, Pike, Saline,
Ouachita and Pulaski.
Baxter, Benton, Boone, Carroll, Marion, New-
ton, Searcy and Washington.
Ouachita, Clark, Dallas and Poinsett.
General over North Arkansas.
Independence, Izard, Sharp, Pulaski, Montgom-
ery, Garland, Polk, Saline and Hot Spring.
Boone, Marion, Newton, Searcy, Izard, Carroll,
Independence, Lawrence, Sharp and Washing-
Crawford, Scott, Sebastian, Union and Washing-
Hot Spring, Garland, Montgomery, Pike and
Drew, Clay and Pulaski.
Union and Ouachita.
From Bed of White River and its Tributaries.
Independence, Izard, Stone, Searcy, Baxter,
Marion, Newton, Boone and Carroll.
Pulaski, Saline, Garland, Polk and Montgom-
Saline, Garland, Hot Spring and Montgomery.
Hot Spring, Garland, Ouachita, Montgomery,
Washington and Independence.
Baxter, Benton, Boone, Carroll, Marion, New-
ton, Searcy and Washington.
Counties of Arkansas and Their
The -counties of the State, with their principal minerals, are listed l/e-
low, the capitalized words indicating the more important minerals:
Arkansas County Brick clay.
Ashley County Brick and pottery clay.
Baxter County LEAD, ZINC, limestone, marbles, phosphate rock.
Benton County LEAD, brick clay, limestone.
Boone County LEAD, ZINC, brick clay, limestone, marble, phosphate
Bradley County Brick and pottery clay.
Calhoun County Pottery clay.
Carroll County Iron, LEAD, copper, brick clay, limestone, onyx, phos-
Chicot County Brick clay.
Clark County Marls, brick, tile, fire and pottery clay, lignite, phosphate
Clay County Brick clay.
Cleveland County Brick and pottery clay.
Columbia County Brick and pottery clay.
Conway County Fire and pottery clay.
Craighead County Brick clay.
Crawford County Fire and pottery clay, coal, NATURAL GAS.
Crittenden County Brick clay.
Cross County Brick clay.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 37
Dallas County Fire and pottery clay, kaolin, lignite.
Desha County Brick clay.
Drew County Brick and pottery clay, ochre.
Faulkner County Brick and pottery clay.
Franklin County Hematite, COAL, fire and pottery clay.
Fulton County Limestone, phosphate rock.
Garland County Hematite, iron pyrites, lead, manganese, silver, brick
and fire clay, kaolin, graphite, tripoli, novaculite, slate.
Grant County Pottery clay.
Greene County Brick and pottery clay.
Hempstead County Marls, brick, fire and pottery clay.
Hot Spring County Magnetic iron, lead, manganese, silver, brick and
fire clay, kaolin, NOVACULITE, soapstone, tripoli, garnet.
Howard County Antimony, lead, marls, brick clay.
Independence County MANGANESE, brick and pottery clay, limestone,
MARBLE, PEARLS, PHOSPHATE ROCK, tripoli.
Izard County Lead, manganese, glass sand, limestone, phosphate rock.
Jackson County PEARLS.
Jefferson County Brick and pottery clay, glass sand.
Johnson County Fire and pottery clay, COAL.
Lafayette County Pottery clay.
Lawrence County Iron, brick clay, kaolin, limestone, PEARLS.
Lee County Brick and tile clay.
Lincoln County Brick clay.
Little River County CHALK, clays for cement.
Logan County Iron pyrites, fire and pottery clay, COAL.
Lonoke County Brick clay.
Madison County Limestones, mable.
Marion County LEAD, ZINC, limestone, marble.
Miller County Brick and tile clay.
Mississippi County Brick and tile clay.
Monroe County Brick and tile clay, PEARLS.
Montgomery County Gold (sparingly) ; hematite, lead, manganese, pot-
tery clay, graphite, soapstone, tripoli, novaculite, barytes, SLATE.
Nevada County Brick, tile and pottery clay.
Newton County LEAD, ZINC, limestone, marble.
Ouachita County Fire and pottery clay, kaolin, tripoli, LIGNITE.
Perry County Coal, brick clay, gravel.
Phillips County Brick and tile clay.
Pike County Hematite, manganese, silver, ASPHALT, marls, ball or
paper clay, fire clay, DIAMONDS, KAOLIN, gypsum, lignite.
Poinsett County Brick and tile clay, lignite.
Polk County Copper, iron pyrites, manganese, brick clay, novaculite,
Pope County Brick clay, COAL. ,
Prairie County Brick clay, pearls.
Pulaski County Bauxite, copper, hematite, lead, manganese, silver,
kaolin, brick and pottery clay, GRANITE, ochre, slate.
Randolph County Brick clay, PEARLS.
Saline County BAUXITE, hematite, iron pyrites, manganese, silver,
brick, pottery and fire clay, KAOLIN, FULLERS' EARTH, glass sand, SOAP-
Scott County COAL, NATURAL GAS.
Searcy County Iron pyrites, LEAD, ZINC, brick clay, limestone, marble,
Sebastian County COAL, NATURAL GAS, brick, fire and pottery clay.
Sevier County ANTIMONY, lead, silver, asphalt, marls, brick and
Sharp County Manganese, iron, limestone.
St. Francis County Brick and tile clay.
Stone County Phosphate rock.
Union County Brick and pottery clay, NATURAL GAS, PETROLEUM.
Van Bureh County Building stone.
38 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Washington County Lead, brick clay, limestone, natural gas, oil shale,
White County Brick, fire and tile clay.
Woodruff County Brick and tile clay, PEARLS.
Yell County Brick and pottery clay, COAL.
MINERALS AND ECONOMIC
Magnesium-calcium-iron silicate (Amphibole). Occasional in granitic
rocks. Magnet Cove.
Aluminum-calcium-iron-soda silicate near phyroxene, with alkalies; in
granitic rocks, with labradorite; also enclosed in microline. Magnet Cove.
In pockets in shale, and as "selvage" in quartz seams; Saline County;
Garland County; commonly; generally distributed in other counties.
Fine powdery incrustations on rocks or in crevices; coating of silvery
shale, Montgomery County; in Peacock lode, Logan county.
Finely variegated Montgomery County.
It is very remarkable that in Arkansas, within a small triangular area
of thirty miles square between Washington and Murfreesboro and the White
Cliffs of Little River we have abundant supplies of at least four of these val-
uable kinds of marl, greensand, lime, chalk and gypsum with the reasonable
expectation that another year's investigation would reveal the phosphates.
These facts alone, if properly utilized, will be of greater value to the state
than all the gold dug within the bounds of California has been to that state.
These marls are very siliceous, and the lime and greensand occur in
local horizons or beds. Their chief value, if used for mixing, would be to
loosen and supply phosphoric acid, iron and potash to sandy and sticky clay
lands. * * * The potash in these marls is 3.06 parts in the 100. The lime
can be regulated by selecting the fossiliferous or non-fossiliferous portions.
The chief point of occurrence of these green sands is in the valley of Town
Creek at Washington, Hempstead County, where the greensand occurs in
varying degrees of purity, accompanied or unaccompanied by shell beds,
which are useful in case lime is also needed. The same greensands occur
in Clark County at many places, but as far as the writer's limited observa-
tions extend, in no case, so pure as those at Washington. The sandy surface
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 39
residual soils of these marls, occupying an intermittent and limited strip
from Arkadelphia to Columbus, are, no doubt, the finest soils possible
for fruit trees and especially valuable for growing peaches. In this con-
nection it is interesting to note that they present the same physical condi-
tion and occupy the same geolgoic horizon as the celebrated peach growing
regions of New Jersey.
The lime marls of the middle beds of the upper Cretaceous in Clark,
Hempstead, Southern Howard and Sevier counties are of great variety in
composition, inexhaustible in quantity, and must be a source of great wealth
to the agricultural industries of this part of the state in the future. The
principal geologic horizons of these marls are the beds between Washing-
ton greensands and the White Cliffs chalk, including the Big Deciper, Gry-
phaea vesicularis and Exogyra ponderosa marls, at innumerable places wher-
ever these are the surface formations. The noted Cretaceous black lands
are without exception, the immediate residue, or but slightly transported
debris, of these formations.
The essential ingredients in all of these lime marls are calcium car-
bonate, usually in a chalky state of division, phosphoric acid and potash; the
accessory ingredients, which would be noted in comparison with the soil to
be treated, are sand and clay. Greensand is usually more or less abundant
throughout. In general, these lime marls possess, in addition to all the vir-
tues of greensand marls above described, a large and valuable percentage of
the form of lime known as calcium carbonate.
Iirnnner, John C. Annual Report Ark. Geol. Surv. Vol. II, 1888.
Sodium-aluminum silicate. (Feldspar). Sparingly in granitic rocks.
Hydrous aluminum, silicate. Incrustations in crevices, etc. Magnet Cove.
Iron-aluminum silicate. (See Garnet). Crystals abundant in wash, also
In granitic rocks. Magnet Cove
This, or a closely allied earthy mineral in Tertiary clays; Pulaski, Saline,
Hot Spring, Pike, Sevier and Polk counties, and northward.
Reported by Purdue from Searcy County.
Calcium-magnesium-iron carbonate. In seams, crevices, etc., and in
larger masses, in calcerous rocks; shades into dolomite and calcite. Magnet
Since 1873 antimony has been mined intermittently in Sevier and How-
ard counties, near Antimony and Gillham. This field is believed to extend
westward into Oklahoma.
The rocks of the antimony region are alternating thinly bedded sand-
stones and sandy or muddy shales, of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age.
They are of a light-yellowish or drab color where exposed, and dark gray
to black where unweathered. The rocks have been thrown into very regu-
lar parallel folds running a trifle north of east. The folds are so close that
40 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
in many places the dip of the rocks approaches perpendicularity, and so
regular that the strike of the rocks is sometimes used to tell direction.
The ore bodies occur in thin lenticular masses whose longest dimen-
sion approaches verticality and may reach more than 100 feet. The width
may be from 3 or 4 feet to 20 or even 40 feet; the thickness ranges from a
"feather-edge" to 2% feet.
Hess, F. L,. The Arkansas antimony deposits. Bulletin No. 340, U S Geol.
Surv., Washington, 1908.
Calcium phosphate and chloride (or fluoride). In crystalline rocks, also
associated with dolomites. Magnet Cove.
Part of the common iron garnet is in this form. Magnet Cove.
In beds or masses; Pulaski and Garland counties.
Occasionally as "flos-ferri" in iron ore deposits; distribution general,
though not abundant.
One of the rare minerals found in Magnet Cove, which has attracted
wide attention among students of geology, is Arkansite (Titanic acid or
Brookite). It is in the form of thick black crystals and is much sought after
by collectors of mineral specimens, but has no particular commercial value.
Its characteristics and geological significance is discussed in numerous
papers and publications of a scientific nature.
Shepard, Charles TTpham. On three new mineral species from Arkansas.
American Journal of Science, second series, Vol. LJI. Arkansite, Ozarkite and
Schloromite, New Haven, 1846.
Sparingly in pockets or crevices among shales and intrusive rocks;
Ouachita River, south of Hot Springs; possibly in Montgomery county also.
There are seven asphalt deposits, three of which are in Pike County, and
four in Sevier County, in Southwestern Arkansas, which have been examined.
The asphalt deposits in Pike County are near Pike, Delight, and Mur-
freesboro. The deposits in Sevier County are between Dierks and DeQueen,
near the village of Lebanon.
The asphalt impregnates nearly horizonal beds of loose sand in the
basal part of the Dierks limestone lentil or still lower in the Trinity forma-
tion. The deposits thus consist of asphaltic sand except at one place where
the asphalt impregnates the Pike gravel member at the base of the forma-
tion. The layers containing the asphalt range from an inch to 12 feet in
The asphalt deposit near Pike is the only one from which asphalt has
been shipped in commercial quantity. The asphaltic sand mined at that
locality from 1903 to 1906 by the Arkansas Asphalt Company is said to have
amounted to 4,815 tons, valued at $22,368. It was used in Little Rock in
paving West Markham Street from Main to Cross streets, a distance of 12
blocks, and in paving part of Center Street. A 2-inch surface of the asphalt
was laid upon a 5-inch concrete base, which rested upon clay. Owing to
improper preparation of the asphalt the paving was not entirely satisfactory.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
HOW TWO VALUABLE MINERALS ARE
MINED IN ARKANSAS
Bauxite Mine at Bauxite, Ark.
Manganese Mine, Independence County.
42 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
The asphalt deposit near Delight is thin, the reported thickness being:
3 to 6 feet. If the deposit is later proved to maintain that thickness under
a considerable area, it might be profitably worked, but the overburden is so-
thick, 30 to 35 feet or more, that underground mining would probably be
necessary. The asphalt exposed at the other localities is not thick enough to
be mined and probably is no thicker away from the outcrops.
Miser, Hugh D. and Purdue, A. H. Asphalt deposits and oil conditions in
Southwest Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bulletin 691-J, 1918.
Aluminum-mangesium-calcium-iron silicate (Pyroxene). In basic igneous
rocks. Magnet Cove.
Quartz spangled with scales or other mineral; intercalated with black
shales; Micaceous. Magnet Cove.
Scattering deposits in Pike, Polk, Pulaski, Saline, Garland and Mont-
Incrustation in crevices as result of decomposition of pyrite; probably
some of the red copperas, as at Rabbit Foot mine, Saline County, is this or
the allied mineral, Botryogen.
In beds, much jointed, in axes of uplifts; Pulaski County.
Arkansas' bauxite production has increased so rapidly that since 1910
the State has produced over 80 per cent of the bauxite mined in this country.
In 1915 the output was more than 90 per cent of the total and has continued"
at this rate to the present time.
The only operators of importance in 1920 are the Republic Mining and
Manufacturing Company of Little Rock; the American Bauxite Company of
Bauxite; the Globe Bauxite Company of Chemical Spur; and the Du Pont
Chemical Company of Wilmington, Delaware.
The major part of the production comes from what is known as the
Bauxite District, sometimes called the Bryant District, lying about 18 miles
southwest of the city of Little Rock and covering an area of about 12 square
miles in Bryant township of Saline county. The second and less important
district is known as the Fourche Mountain District, lying immediately south
of the city limits of Little Rock in Pulaski County and embracing an area
somewhat larger than the Bauxite District. The two areas are about 14
Arkansas produced, in 1920, 481,279 long tons, as compared with a total
domestic production of 521,308 tons of the value of $3,247,345.
Estimates of the quantity of bauxite ore obtainable in the Arkansas
field range from 5,000,000 tons, by John T. Fuller, superintendent of the
American Bauxite Company, to 50,000,000 tons, by Dr. Chas. W. Hayes of
the U. S. Geological Survey. It is probable that the amount of ore that -will
be mined will be somewhere between these extremes.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 43
Bauxite Production in Arkansas by Years.
Year Long Tons Year Long Tons
1899 5,043 1910 *115,836
1900 3,44& 1911 *125,448
1901 867 1912 *126,105 Value
1902 4,645 1913 169,871 $ 846,988
1903 25,713 1914 195,247 976,686
1904 25,748 1915 268,796 1,370,489
1905 32,956 1916 375,910 2,011,590
1906 50,267 1917 506,556 2,724,007
1907 * 63,505 1918 562,892 3,133,880
1908 * 37,703 1919 333,490 1,855,159
1909 *106,874 1920 481,279 2,897,892
"Including small productions from Tennessee.
Hayes, C. W. "The Arkansas Bauxite Deposits," 21st Annual Report, U.
S. Geol. Survey., pt. 3, 1901, pp. 435-472.
Mead, W. J. "Occurrence and Origin of the Bauxite Deposits of Arkansas,"
Economic Geology, Vol. 10, No. 1, January, 1915.
Sparingly in granitic rocks.
Manganese sesquioxide and silicate. In veins or intrusions. Magnet
Iron-magnesium carbonate; shading off into ankerite and dolomite, in
similar situations; distribution irregular.
Titanic acid. See Arkansite. (Var.) See Psuedobrookite, occasional
reddish or hair-brown crystals as "float," but Arkansite is most common.
Hydrous magnesium oxide; occasional in masses of serpentine; Saline
Inasmuch as clays occur in almost every part of the state in greater
or less abundance, it is assumed that the location of the chalk, at White
Cliffs, must determine the site of a possible cement factory. A special effort
has therefore been made to ascertain whether the clays at and near the
chalk deposits are available for the production of cement. Little River and
Sevier County clays are intimately associated with the post-tertiary gravels,
and cover large portions, not of Little River and Sevier Counties alone but of
several of the adjoining counties in the Southwestern part of the state.
The proximity of the natural gas field of Southern Arkansas and North-
west Louisiana to the White Cliffs chalk deposits affords an additional ad-
vantage for the utilization of the abundant supply of materials in Southwest
Arkansas for the manufacture of cement.
"Limestone suitable for Portland cement occurs in many counties in the
northwestern part of the state." U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 624.
Branner, John C. On the manufacture of Portland cement. Annual Re-
port of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1888, Vol. II, Little Rock, 1888. Con-
tains tables of analyses of Arkansas chalks and clays.
44 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
"The Cement Materials of Southwest Arkansas." Transactions of the
American Institute of Mining- Engineers, 1897, Vol. XXVII, 5 cuts and map.
Reply to criticism of R. T. Hill, on "The Cement Deposits of Arkansas."
Transactions American Institute of Mining- Engineers, Vol. XXVII, New York,
Eckel, E. C. Portland Cement Resources of Arkansas. Bulletin No. 243,
U. S. Geol. Surv., Washing-ton, 1905.
Fitzhugh, G. D. The Portland cement materials of Southwestern Arkan-
sas. Engineering- Association of the South. Transactions, Vol. XV, 1905.
Hill, Robt. T. Criticism of the paper of J. C. Branner on "Cement De-
posits of Arkansas." Transactions of the American Institute of Mining En-
gineers, Vol. XXVII.
Sevier County, west of Gillham; not mined.
The chalk deposits of the state, so far at least as the Geological Survey
has been able to outline them, are confined to Little River County. It
is highly probable, however, that similar or more or less modified deposits
may be yet found in adjacent counties along the northeastern extension of the
outcrop. The chalk is exposed at and about the village of Rocky Comfort
and at and about White Cliffs Landing on Little River. The most extensive
exposures are those about Rocky Comfort where the chalk and black soil
derived from its decomposition cover an area of about twenty square miles.
The chalk and the chalky limestones extend further north and further east
than they are represented * * * but they are covered in those directions by
superficial post-tertiary deposits of clay, gravel and sands to depths which
would probably render their handling unprofitable. Even, the derived black
soil is itself too thick in many places to admit of removal. The area over
which the chalk is actually exposed and without covering about Rocky
Comfort is estimated to be only about 900 acres.
The value of this chalk is hardly appreciated at the present time.
When we consider that chalk is a very soft rock, and therefore, does not
require grinding as do the compact limestones, and further the greater ease
with which it can be burnt to lime, its superiority over other limestones
may be seen. The fact that this bed is the only one known to exist in the
United States may increase its value. * * These cliffs which long have been
a landmark of the region, are about 150 feet high, perpendicular, and as white
and almost as pure as the celebrated chalk cliffs of Dover, England. * * *
The following analyses show how closely it agrees in composition with the
chalk of Medway, England, which has been so long used in the manufacture
of Portland cement:
Medway, Rocky White
England. Comfort. Cliffs.
Carbonate of Lime 88.50 88.48 90.32
Carbonate of Magnesia Trace
Iron Oxide 1.05 1.25 6.85
Alumina 2.82 1.25 1.30
Alkalies 2.61 None
Silica 5.45 9.77 6.85
Branner, John C. Reports Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. II, 1888, and
Vol. IV, 1890.
Marcou and Belknap. Jura. Neocomian and Chalk of Arkansas. American
Geologist, Vol. IV, pp. 357-367, December, 1889.
Anonymous. Chalk of Southwestern Arkansas. Stone, April, 1902, Vol.
XXIV, New York, 1902.
Tan*, J. A. Chalk of Southwestern Arkansas, with notes on its adaptability
to the manufacture of hydraulic cement. Twenty-second Annual Report of
the U. S. Geol. Surv., Part III, Washington, 1902.
In crystals and disseminated grains in igneous and metamorphie rocks,
some peridotites; Fourche Mountain and northwestwards; Pulaski and
Saline counties; Murfreesboro and in Magnet Cove.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 45
Celestite (Strontium Sulphate)
Howard, Pike, and Sevier counties, as thin layer in lower Cretaceous
In float and in metamorphic rocks. Magnet Cove.
The Tertiary clays are the most important in the state. With their
accompanying sands, marls and organic deposits, they underlie a large part
of the state east and south of the Missouri Pacific Railway, south of Arkan-
sas River. North of this and east of the Paleozoic hills the sediments are
chiefly Quarternary deposits, except Crowley's Ridge, the lowest part of
which is Tertiary.
Limonite hardpan, or buckshot, is found all over the low country for
50 miles or more west of Crowley's Ridge. On the east of the ridge it is but
a narrow fringe along its base below Poinsett county, but north of this county
it spreads over the whole region as a subsoil, in places rising to the surface
and varying in depth from 3 to 7 feet. It extends eastward to the alluvial
bottoms of the St. Francis. Along the Cache River in Greene and Clay coun-
ties much of the land is made up of these slashes or buckshot soil.
In the low. flat lands, commonly known as "slashes," thin beds of
plastic clays are found at places where acidulated waters have leached the
iron from the soil. Some small potteries get their clays from such places.
The supply of available clays of this kind is uncertain, and most of the areas
covered by them are small. Such clays occur in the flat lands of the Creta-
ceous, Tertiary and Quarternary areas of the state, which, are not alluvial
lands, properly speaking.
Sebastian county is among the leading counties of the state in the
development of its clay industries. Clay shales of the coal-bearing rocks are
used in the manufacture of paving bricks
The abundance of excellent raw materials, the proximity of the deposits
to the coal and gas fields and ample transportation facilities have encouraged
development, giving the county high rank in the output of clay products.
Clays For Drain Tiles.
There is no lack of clay in this state available for the manufacture of
good drain tiles. The light-blue clays through the country lying between
Beebe and Kensett and thence to Judsonia, and between Kensett aiid West
Point, in White county, are available for the manufacture of tiles. The clays
about Brinkley, Monroe County, are well adapted to tile making. Along the
western base of Crowley's Ridge in Phillips, Lee and St. Francis counties,
and on both sides of the ridge in Cross, Poinsett, Craighead, Greene and
Clay counties, these clays are abundant and of excellent quality. They
abound also along Bradshaw and Terre Noir creeks in Clark County. In
the counties south and southeast of Little Rock, clays available for tile
making occur both as surface soils in the valleys (not alluvial) and in
the widespread stratified Tertiary beds of the region.
"Fire clays occur under nearly all the beds of lignite wherever they have
been found in Crowley's Ridge. At the base of the great beds on Bolivar
Creek in Poinsett county, are found clays rich in alumina and which might
be of good quality. In Northern Arkansas the Eureka shale is present in
large quantities." Fire brick are manufactured at Malvern and Camclen
from clays of excellent quality.
Kaolins or Pottery Clays
Deposits of kaolin occur at many places and in a variety of formations.
The best known deposits are those of Saline County, near Benton from which
the famous Niloak (a reversed spelling of kaolin) pottery is made. The
beauty and popularity of these wares are due as much to the skill of the
46 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
artists as to the quality of the material from which the pottery is made
though the texture of the clay and its colors are important factors in ceramic
art. No two pieces of this pottery are alike in arrangement of color. Two or
more shades are employed, usually a blue and a brown, in interesting rota-
tion and accidental pattern. No less attractive are the truly artistic designs
by which the clay is shaped into vases, bowls, urns and all manner of nick-
nacks, such as ornament the library table or mantel.
"The kaolins found in Saline county are of three varieties: (1) a com-
pact variety, derived from the feldspathic rocks by decomposition, (2) a piso-
litic variety, found associated more or less intimately with the bauxite
deposits, and (3) a clay-like variety of sedimentary origin, found at Benton."
The report indicates extensive deposits in this locality.
The Pike County kaolin is different in physical characters from any other
kaolin thus far found in the state. * * * The largest area found in any one
body covered about 10 acres. No exposures of feldspathic rock are within
60 miles of the deposit. * * * The greatest depth at which the kaolin was
found was 25 feet.
A white kaolin of fair refractoriness outcrops on the Kilmer land in
Dallas County and a quantity is reported on Sandy Branch in Ouachita Coun-
ty. Of the latter deposit Doctor Branner says: "After the sand is removed
by washing it is available for the manufacture of pottery and also as a re-
fractory material. The quantity seems to be very large." The kaolin depos-
its in Magnet Cove are not considered of commercial importance.
Branner, John C. The clays of Arkansas, Bulletin 351, U. S. Geol. Surv.,
Purdue, A. H. Possibilities of the clay industry of Arkansas, published
by the Arkansas Brickmakers' Association, 1910.
Variety of lime-magnesia, pyroxene (Malacolite) ; in granitic rocks.
There is no record of copper ore production in Arkansas, although
scattering deposits have been discovered in several places and mined on a
small scale, principally in North Arkansas, at one place in Pulaski County
and in Polk County.
Purdue reported the presence of chalcocite of steel-gray or blackish
type from Carroll County, and it is reported that ore is being mined near
Eureka Springs. Chrysocolla is frequently found in cavities at the zinc
mines. Aurichalcite is also common at many of the zinc mines, but always
in small quantities.
The only economic source of copper as yet made manifest is the min-
eral chalcopyrite, or copper pyrites, which is intimately associated with
galena in nearly all of the known occurrences of that mineral. (In Pulaski,
Polk, Howard, Sevier, and Montgomery counties).
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol. V, 1892.
Iron sulphate. (Malenterite), strictly, but blue vitrol (Chalcanthite)
is included popularly; Melanterite appears to be more abundant than
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
I 933W 3i 30 29 28 ' 27 26 25 2* 23
SCALE "N MILES
Areas of known economic
Map of the Arkansas Coal Field.
The coal-bearing area of the state is 1584 square miles in extent. The
field reaches from Russellville on the east through Pope, Johnson, Logan,
Yell, Franklin, Crawford, Sebastian and Scott counties to and beyond the
About Clarksville and Russellville in the eastern part of the field, the
product is a high-grade semi-anthracite and in the western part of the field
is produced a high-grade semi-bituminous coal of almost smokeless quality.
Varying widely in character, the Arkansas coals will prove of their
greatest utility, when the differences of quality are more properly emphasized
in the trade and employed for the specific uses to which each type of fuel is
especially adapted, for a coal that is remarkably well adapted to one purpose
may be ill-fitted for another. The semi-anthracite is preferable for domestic
use, because of its cleanliness, and the semi-bituminous is more suited to
steaming purposes in locomotives or factory furnaces, because of its high-
Extent of the Coal Supply
The Arkansas coal field lies in the valley of the Arkansas River between
the western border of the state and Russellville. It has roughly the shape
of a Roman capital L with its base along the Oklahoma line. It is about
33 miles wide and 60 miles long, but it is only in the eastern and western
parts of this area that the Hartshorne coal is probably thick enough or
sufficiently free from partings to be of economic importance. Still, some
300 to 320 square miles will probably contain coal which may be mined. In
places, the coal is over 8 feet thick, and when clean and of good quality, it
has been mined where no thicker than 18 inches. The Hartshorne seam will
probably average about 3 feet thick, and assuming this thickness over 310
square miles, that part of this bed which lies in Arkansas once contained
something like a billion and a quarter tons of coal. The small amount of
coal above and below the Hartshorne horizon may be nearly equivalent to
that already mined, which was about 46,800,000 tons up to the end of 1919.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
At an average "recovery" of 80 per cent in mining, the state will therefore
yield only about 850,000,000 tons, but at the present rate of mining, this will
last for 350 years. The rate of mining will probably increase.
Heating Value of Arkansas Coal.
The coals in the eastern part of the field have about seven to nine
times as much fixed carbon as volatile combustible matter, and are rated as
semi-anthracite. These are sold for domestic use at but little below the
price of the Pennsylvania anthracite. Those in the western part of the
field contain but three to six, generally five, times as much fixed carbon as
volatile combustible, and the coals are bituminous. They are less smoky
than most bituminous or soft coals.
The heating value of the coal, which lies between 13,700 and 14,700
British thermal units, and its specific gravity (average 1.35) place it among
the best coals in the United States. Its moisture and ash are also low, but
it contains a little more sulphur than other high grade coals.
Representative Analyses of Arkansas Coals
(U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY)
Volatile Matter 9.81
Fixed Carbon 78.82
B. t. u 13702
Volatile Matter 16.66
Fixed Carbon 72.04
B. t. u. . ....14017
Paris Hartford Jenny Lind
Mine Face Samples of Arkansas Coal
The analyses give "as received" values that is, the analysis shows the
character of the sample as it is received at the laboratory in an air-tight
container sealed in the mine.*
Lab. Mois- Vol. Fixed Ash Sulphur B. T. U.
No. ture Matter Carbon
2599 1.99 15.90 75.05 7.06
. 3173 3.21 14.84 72.66 9.29
1045 1.02 17.88 73.61 7.49
.18062 3-55 15.73 65.56 15.16
3505 3.37 24.44 66.40 5.79
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 49
Lester 2647 39.50 25.35 22.57 12.58 .53 5.877
*Analyses are from Pp. 47-51, U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22, 1913, or
from Pp. 29 and 30, U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 123 (18750, 18755, 18062,
Analyses of Coals of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Illinois and Kansas.
Lab. Mois- Vol. Fixed Ash Sulphur B. T. U.
No. ture Matter Carbon
No. 1, Pennsylvania 5954 2.80 1.16 88.21 7.83 0.89 13,298
No. 2. (Pocahontas)
West Virginia Avg. 3.26 13.95 78.33 4.45 0.56 14,950
No. 3, Pennsylvania.... 4352 2.01 33.56 58.11 6.32 1.39 14,441
No. 4, Herrin No. 6
Coal, 111 9.21 34.00 48.08 8.71 1.53 11,825
No. 5, Kans. Coal 23238 25.49 26.07 43.95 4.49 .71 8,788
No. 1 U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22 p. 172.
No. 2 West Virginia Geol. Survey Wyoming, McDowell Counties, 1915,
No. 3 U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22, p. 183.
No. 4 111. State Geol. Survey, Coop. Coal Mining Series Bull. 16, Plate
No. 5 U. S. Bureau of Mines Bull. 123, p. 39.
Directory of Arkansas Coal Mine Operators
Actus Coal Co. Mine No. 1, one and one-quarter miles west of the sta-
tion. Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; slope opening; C.
C. Woodson, general manager. Huntington; C. R. Dewberry, mine foreman,
Big Vein Coal Co., Smedley mine; three and one-half miles northeast
of Hartford; railroad connections, Midland Valley; slope opening; W. E.
West, president and general manager; Roy Smith, foreman.
Back Bone Coal Co., Jones mine; two miles south of Excelsior; shaft
opening; 70 feet deep; railroad connections, Midland Valley; M. K. McCub-
rey, superintendent and general manager, Greenwood.
Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 2; one-half mile north of station,
Huntington; shaft opening; 42 feet deep; railroad connections, Frisco;
Harry Risher, superintendent.
Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 3; three miles west of Huntington;
shaft' opening; 123 feet deep; railroad connections, Frisco; Harry Risher,
superintendent; Ernest Gurth, foreman.
Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 4; one-quarter mile south of station,
Hartford; slope opening; railroad connections, Rock Island; Robert Boyd,
Jr., superintendent; Walter Milan, foreman.
Central Coal & Coke Co., Mine No. 6; three and one-half miles west of
Huntington; shaft opening; 267 feet deep; railroad connections, Frisco;
Harry Risher, superintendent; Joseph Porter, foreman.
Central Coal & Coke Co., Mine No. 10; one-quarter mile west of Hart-
ford; slope opening; railroad connections, Rock Island; Robert Boyd, Jr.,
superintendent; J. W. Fitzjarrell, foreman.
Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 11; three miles northeast of Hart-
ford; shaft opening, 254 feet; railroad connections, Midland Valley; John
McCury, superintendent; Joseph Angerer, foreman.
Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 15; one-half mile northeast of sta-
tion, Hartford; slope opening; railroad connections, Rock Island; Robert
Boyd, Jr., superintendent; John Bates, foreman; William Harkes, general
manager; Keith & Perry Bldg, Kansas City, Mo.
50 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Enterprise Coal Co., mine No. 2 (formerly known as the Ellard mine) ;
one and one-half miles east of Hartford; slope opening; railroad connec-
tions, Midland Valley; W. H. Miellmier, manager.
Enterprise Coal Co., mine No. 1; one and three-quarter miles east of
Hartford, slope opening; railroad connections, Midland Valley; W. H. Miell-
Enterprise Coal Co., mine No. 3. (formerly known as the Dallas mine) ;
one mile east of Hartford, Ark.; slope opening; railroad connections, Mid-
land Valley; W. H. Miellmier, manager.
Excelsior Smokeless Coal Co., mine No. 1; three and one-half miles east
of Hackett; slope opening; railroad connections, Midland Valley and Frisco;
Frank A. Graham, manager.
G. F. Petty Coal Co., Pigeon Hole mine; at Jenny Lind; railroad connec-
tions, Iron Mountain; G. F. Petty, manager.
Greenwood Coal Co., mine No. 2; slope opening; one mile east of Green-
wood; railroad connections; Midland Valley; R. A. Young, superintendent;
Ed Knox, foreman.
Hartford Valley Fuel Co., mine No. 2; shaft opening; 188 feet deep;
one and one-half miles southeast of Hartford; railroad connections, Midland
Valley; John M. Young, general manager, 311 South Olive, Pittsburg, Kan-
sas; J. V. Anderson, foreman, Hartford, Ark.
Hackett Coal Mining Co. (Border Mine); slope opening; one and one-
quarter miles west of Hackett; railroad connections, Midland Valley and
Frisco; D. H. Cadmus, manager.
Hackett-Excelsior Coal Co. (Elder mine); slope opening; three and one-
half miles east of Hackett; railroad connections, Midland Valley and Frisco;
E. D. Bedwell, Manager, Fort Smith; operated by the Harper & Coleman
Coal Co.; W. T. Harper, Foreman, Fort Smith.
Jenny Lind Smokeless Coal Co., mine No. 18; shaft opening; three
miles west of station; Old Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Moun-
tain; W. K. Leyden, manager, 406 Greenwood avenue, Ft. Smith.
Jenny Lind Co-Operative Coal Co., mine No. 2; slope opening; one-half
mile south of old No. 17 of the Western Coal Mining Co.; railroad connec-
tions, Iron Mountain; Chas. Herbert, manager, Bonanza, Ark.
Jim Fork Coal Co.; slope opening; three miles northeast of Hartford;
railroad connections, Midland Valley; John Conroy, manager, Hartford.
Keisher Coal Co., Keisher mine; slope opening; one mile east of old
No. 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Frank Keisher,
Katy Coal Co., Mine No. 6; shaft opening; one and one-quarter miles
northeast of Midland; railroad connections, Midland Valley; H. F. Rogers,
Mama Coal Co., Mine No. 5; slope opening; three-quarters of a mile
southwest of old No. 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain;
Valentine Varvack, manager; Bonanza.
Mama Coal Co., Mine No. 17%; slope opening; three-quarters of mile
southwest of old No. % 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain;
N. M. Henson, manager.
Mama Coal Co., Mine No. 3; slope opening; one mile southwest of old
No. 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Jos. Dufore, man-
New Excelsior Coal Co.; Italy mine; slope opening; two and one-half
miles southeast of Excelsior; railroad connections, Midland Valley; G. M.
Cravens, manager, Greenwood.
Smokeless Coal Co., Mine No. 2; slope opening; located one-half mile
east of Montreal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. C. Woodson, president,
Huntington; Chas. Woodson, foreman, Midland.
Ramsey Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine: one mile southeast of old No. 17;
Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; R. J. Ramsey, manager;
R. F. D. 1, Ft. Smith.
Smokeless Coal Co., Mine No. 1; slope opening three-quarters
of mile east of station; Montreal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. C. Wood-
son, president, Huntington; Charles Woodson, foreman, Midland.
Smokeless Coal Co., Mine No. 3; slope opening; three-quarters mile
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 51
east of station; Montreal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. C. Woodson,
president, Huntington; Chas. Woodson, foreman, Midland.
Simmons Coal Co. (Wild Cat Mine) ; three-quarters mile east of old No.
17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; R. C. Petty, manager,
Smith Coal Co.; slope opening; one mile west of Hackett; railroad
connections, Midland Valley; Richard Smith, manager.
Security Coal Co., Dallas Mine No. 8; slope opening; three-quarters
mile southwest of Midland; railroad connections, Frisco; D. H. Cadmus,
Sun Coal Co.; shaft opening; four miles east of Hackett; railroad con-
nections, Midland Valley and Frisco; D. H. Cadmus, manager.
Turnipseed Coal Co.; slope opening; one mile east of Montreal; rail-
road connections, Frisco; C. C. Turnipseed, manager, Midland.
Western Coal Mining Co., Mine No. 19; slope opening; two miles
northeast of Iron Mountain Station;. Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron
Mountain; A.W. Dickinson, general superintendent; Railway Exchange Bldg.,
St. Louis, Mo.; Milton Dollar, foreman, Jenny Lind.
Woodson-Barr Coal Co., Mine No. 135; slope opening; three miles
east of Bonanza; railroad connections, Frisco; R. J. Barr, manager, 123
Greenwood avenue, Ft. Smith.
Young Coal Co., Golden Goose Mine; slope opening; one-half mile south
of Jenny Lind, Ark.; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; J. W. Young,
Simon Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening; one-quarter mile
northeast of Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Phil Simon,
manager, Jenny Lind, Ark.
Henry Cox Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening one-half mile
southwest of Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Henry Cox,
Joe Smith Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening; three-
quarters mile southwest of Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Moun-
tain; Joe Smith, manager.
W. Vehitting Coal Co.. Strip Mine; one mile east of Jenny Lind; rail-
road connections, Iron Mountain; W. Vehitting, manager.
G. W. Gunn Coal Co., Strip Mine; -one-half mile east of Jenny Lind;
railroad connections, Iron Mountain; G. W. Gunn, manager.
Midland Coal Co., Mine No. 5; Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening; two
miles northeast of Midland; railroad connections, Midland Valley; W. D.
New Corrado Coal Co., Mine No. 1; slope opening; three-quarters
mile east of Arkoal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. E. McKoin, general
manager, Huntington; B. J. Malone, superintendent, Arkoal.
Rush Coal Co., Rabbit mine; pigeon hole; slope opening; two and one-
half miles southeast of Hartford; railroad connections; Midland Valley; W.
H. Rush, manager.
A.lix Coal Co., Superior Mine; slope opening; one and one-half miles
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; James A. Lewis, manager.
Douglas Coal Co., Douglas mine; shaft opening; two miles east of Alix;
railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Ben Douglas, manager.
Haskell Coal Mining Co., Strip mine; three miles north of Branch; rail-
road connections, Arkansas Central; S. C. Awbrey, manager, Ft. Smith, Ark.
Joe Hoeing Coal Co.; slope opening; one and three-quarter miles north-
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Joe Hoeing, manager;
Coal Hill, Ark.
The W. E. B. Coal Co., Strip Mine; two and one-half miles north of
Branch; railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; S. C. Awbrey, manager, Ft.
Semi-Anthracite Coal Mining Co.. Sambo mine; shaft opening one mile
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. C. Parmelee, man-
ager, Coal Hill.
Western Coal Mining Co., mine No. 2: shaft opening; one-half mile west
of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; A. W. Dickinson, general
52 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
superintendent; Railway Exchange Bldg, St. Louis, Mo.; William Eadie,
Western Coal Mining Co., Mine No. 6; shaft opening; one and one-half
miles west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; A. W. Dickin-
son, general superintendent, Railway Exchange Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.; Wil-
liam Eadie, superintendent. Denning.
Denning Coal Co., Pendergrass Mine; shaft opening; two miles west
of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; G. A. Slye, manager,
Denning; \V. H. Lewis, foreman, Alix.
Liberty Coal Co., Liberty mine; slope opening; two and one-half miles
west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Mat Evans and Ham
Leding, operators, Altus.
Harbottle & Bailey Coal Co., Mine No. 10; slope opening; two and one-
half miles west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Harbottle
& Baley, operators, Altus.
Black Diamond Coal Co.. slope opening; two and one-half miles west
of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. Page manager, Altus.
Altus Domestic Coal Co.; slope opening; two and three-quarter miles
west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; operated by D. E.
Kline, J. W. Jackman, W. G. Styles and J. B. Hale, Altus, Ark.
Blue Hill Coal Co., Wallace McKinney mine; shaft opening; three miles
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. C. Parmelee, manager,
George E. Dodson Coal Co., Mine No. 1; shaft opening; one mile south
of Denning yards; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; mine is being re-
opened by Dave Pendergrass, Altus.
George E. Dodson, Coal Co., Mine No. 2; shaft opening; one mile east
of Denning yards; Sam Sampson, manager, Denning, Ark.
Clark-McWilliams Coal Co. (Igo mine); shaft opening at the McWil-
liams Spur; West of Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; T. M.
Clark, manager, Clarksville.
Collier-Dunlap Coal Co. (Tight Wad Mine); shaft opening; one and one-
half miles east of Hartman; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. W.
Collier, manager, Clarksville.
Douglas & Son Coal Co., Blue Goose Mine; shaft opening; one and one-
quarter miles southwest of Coal Hill; railroad connections, Iron Mountain;
Ben Douglas, manager.
Johnson Coal Co., Blue Bird Mine; shaft opening; one mile east of
Boston Spadra Coal Co.; Daley Mine; near Hartman: A. O. Nichols,
general manager, Joplin, Mo.; E. H. Fontain, superintendent, Clarksville, Ark.
Alvin Laster, Sterling Anthracite Coal Co., mine; shaft opening; three
miles south of Clarksville.
Warner Dunlap Coal Co., strip mine; three miles north of Spadra;
Warner Dunlap, manager, Clarksville.
Albro Martin, Coal Co., strip mine; two and one-half miles north of Spa-
dra; Albro Martin, manager, Clarksville.
Rosson-Rowe Coal Co., strip mine; three miles north of Spadra; Sam
Rosson, manager, Clarksville.
Johnson-Cunningham; strip mine; two and one-half miles north of Spa-
dra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; E. H. Johnson, manager, Clarks-
Kemp-Harding Coal Co., Kemp-Harding mine; shaft opening; near Spa-
dra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; J. M. Whitting, manager.
Fafter Coal Co., Fafter Mine; shaft opening; two miles east of Alix;
railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. C. Parmelee, manager, Coal Hill,
Spadra Coal Co., Sunshine mine; shaft opening; near the station. Mon-
tana; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; D. A. McKinney, manager, Clarks-
Smokeless Anthracite Coal Mining Co.; shaft opening: two mil^s west
of Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; J. E. James, manager,
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 5S
Johnson-King Coal Co., Johnson-King Mine; shaft opening; three miles;
north of Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; E. H. Johnson, man-
Lucas Mardis Coal Co., Kneed More Mine; shaft opening; near the-
Sunshine Mine, Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; P. P. Mardis,
Spadra Creek Coal Co., Pig Mine; shaft opening, near the Kneed More
Mine; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; E. J. Mardis, manager, Clarks-
W. A. Hill Coal Co., Hill Mine; shaft opening 40 feet deep; two and one-
half miles east of Denning yards; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; W.
A. Hill, manager, Coal Hill.
C. N. Alexander Coal Co.; shaft opening; two miles south of Scranton;
railroad connections; Missouri Pacific; C. N. Alexander, manager.
Davis Coal Co.; slope opening; six miles northwest of Paris; railroad
connections, Missouri Pacific; W. T. Davis, manager.
Grand Coal Co.; Mine No. 1; shaft opening; three-quarters mHe north-
east of Paris; railroad connections; Missouri Pacific; W. A. Tinsley, man-
Grand Coal Co.; Mine No. 2; slope opening; one mile northeast of
Paris; railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; W. A. Tinsley, manager.
Hendricks Cook-Coal Co.; slope opening; Paris; railroad connections.
Missouri Pacific; C. H. Hendricks, manager.
Watson-Sons Coal Co.; slope opening; one-half mile north of Paris;
railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; Jos. Watson, manager.
James A. Cane Coal Co.; Independent mine; slope opening, at Paris;
railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; James A. Cane, manager.
New Blue Ribbon Coal Co.; slope opening; west of Paris; railroad con-
nections, Missouri Pacific; H. Wann, manager.
Liberty Coal Co.; slope opening; one-half mile northwest of Paris;
railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; Chas. Wahl, Jr., manager, Paris, Ark.
Local Coal Co.; slope opening; Paris; railroad connections, Missouri
New Union Coal Co.; slope opening; two miles west of Paris; railroad
connections, Missouri Pacific; H. S. Forrester, manager.
Ramie Coal Co.; slope opening; one mile northeast of Paris; railroad
connections, Missouri Pacific; J. R. Ramie, manager.
W. H. Coats Coal Co.; slope opening; Paris; railroad connections, Mis-
souri Pacific; W. H. Coats, manager.
Jewel Coal Co. (old Paris Mine) ; shaft opening one and one-half miles
north of Paris; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Chas. A. Gaither, super-
Southern Anthracite Coal Mining Co.; Bernice Mine No. 1; shaft open-
ing, -486 feet deep: three and one-half miles southeast of Ru-sellville; rail-
road connections, Iron Mountain and Dardenelle Branch; J. G. Puterbau^h,
president, McAlester, Oklahoma; E. W. Hogan, superintendent, Russellville.
Southern Anthracite Coal Mining Co.. Mine No. 2; slope onening: three
miles southeast of Russellville; railroad connections, Iron Mountain and*
Dardenelle Branch; J. G. Puterbaugh, president. McAlester, Oklahoma; E. W.
Hogan, superintendent, Russellville.
Chas. Reynolds Coal Co.; slope opening; four miles northwest of Russell-
ville; Chas Reynolds, manager.
Ouita Anthracite Coal Mining Co.; three miles west of Russellville.
Nolen-Heir & Gilbreath Coal Co.; five miles northwest of Russellville;
R. I. Noland, manager, R. F. D. 3, Russellville.
Lewis Coal Co., Ouita Mines Nos. 1-2; shaft openings; three and one-
half miles northwest of Russellville; B. V. Lewis, manager, R. F. D 3 Rus
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Hodge Coal Co.; slope opening; Bates; railroad connections, Waldron
Branch, Kansas City Southern; idle.
Bethel Coal Co.; Heavner Mine; slope opening at Bates; idle.
Harper Coal & Coke Co.; Mine No. 1; at Baley; idle.
Bates Smokeless Coal Co.; Mine No. 2; slope opening; Bates; J. G.
Puterbaugh, president, McAlester, Okla.; idle.
John Owens, Grassy Lake Mine; near Alma; idle.
J. W. Turnsill; two and one-half miles south of Baldwin.
J. R. Stanberry, Baldwin; idle.
H. M. Reed, Baldwin; idle.
W. M. Edwards & Son Coal Co.; Baldwin; idle.
Branner, John C. Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas
for 1888, Vol. III. The geology of the coal regions; a preliminary report upon
a portion of the coal regions of Arkansas, by Arthur Winslow, map, Little
Branner, John C. A preliminary statement of the distribution of coal
over the area examined by the Geological Survey (of Arkansas). Arkansas
-Gazette, Little Rock, Feb. 13, 1889.
Branner, John C. "The Coal Fields of Arkansas." Mineral Resources of
the United States, Washington, 1893.
Collier, Arthur J. The Arkansas coal field. Bulletin No. 316, U. S. Geol.
:Surv., Washington, 1907; also Bulletin No. 326, U. S. Geol. Surv., 1907.
Drake, N. F. A geological reconnaissance of the coal fields of the In-
dian Territory. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol.
XXXVI, with ills, and maps.
Purdue, A. H. Coal Mining in Arkansas. Arkansas Geol. Surv., Part I,
Steel, A. A. Arkansas Geol. Surv., A. H. Purdue, State Geologist, 1912.
Potter,- Wm. B. Semi-bituminous coal of Johnson county with analyses.
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. Ill, 1874,
Production of Coal In Arkansas By Years.
Year Short Tons
1916 ' 1,994,915
Tonnage of Southwestern Inter-
state Coal Operators' Association, esti-
mated at 95 per cent of total produc-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 55
Four areas of peridotite (diamond-bearing rock) near Murfreesboro;.
Pike County, are described in a report by Hugh D. Miser, (Bulletin 540 U)
published by the U. S. Geol v Surv. in 1913. One of these, that near the mouth
of Prairie Creek, has been* known to geologists since 1842. The rock was
not known, however, to be peridotite until 1889, when Branner and Brackett
studied and described the nature of the rock and its geologic relations. It
is said that Dr. Branner spent half a day searching the surface of the small
area for diamond specimens. Not finding any of the precious stones he re-
frained from making a sensational announcement or arousing undue hopes,
but'published his discovery in a conservative report that at the time attracted
the attention of the scientists more for its importance in suggesting the
time and character of the disturbing influences, which about the close of
the Cretaceous sank the greater part of Arkansas beneath the ocean, than
for its value in disclosing a new diamond field. Dr. Branner's extreme cau-
tion, displayed in this matter, was due, no doubt, to his consideration for the
Reduction Plant, Arkansas Diamond Corporation, Murfreesboro, Ark.
public mind which, at about that time, had been disappointed by the failure
to find gold in the same region, following a tremendous excitement and the
loss of many millions of dollars in unwise mining ventures.
The first diamonds were actually found in 1906, seventeen years after the
visit of Doctor Branner to the Prairie Creek district. To John Huddleston,
now of Arkadelphia, belongs the credit of discovering the first diamonds.
These rough stones were sent to a Little Rock jeweler and were later cut
by Tiffany in New York, being pronounced perfect gems, equal in purity to
those of South Africa. Thus the public came to know of the presence of
diamonds in Arkansas. The lands containing the deposits were purchased,
the town of Kimberly was established and mining operations were begun
by several companies.
According to the best information that is available at least 5,000 dia-
monds were found up to the end of 1919. These included, white, brown and
yellow stones and a canary-colored octahedron weighing 17.85 carats and a
clear, flat stone of 11 carats. Only one company has operated in the field
since 1913, and that upon a small scale. However, it is said that sufficient
diamonds have been found to defray the small maintenance expenses.
56 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
The Arkansas Diamond Corporation, in 1920, erected and put in operation
a modern reduction plant on its property near Murfreesboro, this plant hav-
ing equipment necessary to wash 100,000 tons of earth annually.
Branner, John C., and Brackett, Richard X. The Peridotite of Pike County,
Arkansas. Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas, for 1890,
Branner, John C. Some facts and corrections regarding the diamond re-
fion of Arkansas. Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. L.XXXVII, New York,
eb. 13, 1909.
Kunz, Geo. F., and Washington, Henry S. Diamonds in Arkansas. Bi-
monthly Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers No. 20, New
York, 1908. Engineering and Mining Journal, Aug. 10, 1907.
Purdue, A. H. A new discovery of peridotite in Arkansas. Economic
Geology, Vol. Ill, August-September, 1918,
Miser, H. D. New Areas of diamond-bearing peridotite in Arkansas. U.
S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 540.
This variety of calcite less common than rhombohedrons. Magnet Cove.
Ferriferous and cohaltef erous ; Hot Spring, Polk, Scott, and Logan
In coarse crystals in granite rock; also in massive rocks; distribution
general and abundant in regions of metamorphic rocks. Pulaski, Saline,
Garland, Hot Spring, Montgomery, Pike, and Polk counties.
In caves and old mine tunnels in North Arkansas.
Hydrous silicate of Hydro-mica group. (Hydrous lime mica). From
alteration of lolite. Usually in granitic or hornblende rocks. Magnet Cove.
In form of Pealite, etc.; products of hot springs; sand Carbonate mine,
Garland County, near Lawrence; not mined.
Kellogg and McRae mines, Pulaski County, Silver City region, Mont-
gomery County, Sevier County; not mined.
The developed deposits of Fuller's earth in Arkansas occur in an area of
about three square miles which lies between Hot Springs and Benton. The
Missouri Pacific railroad passes through this area about seven miles west
of Benton. * * * These deposits were discovered in 1897, by John Olsen of
Benton. Mr. Olsen at first shipped the crude earth to the Fairbanks Pack-
ing Company, St. Louis, by which it was milled and used. He later erected
at Klondyke station a plant for milling the crude earth. At present the
other operators owning plants within the area are the Fuller's Earth Union
(Ltd.) of London, England; the Fuller's Earth Company, General, of Wil-
ington, Delaware, imd Fred Ressner, of Little Rock.
(A showing of Fuller's Earth is also reported in NE. 14, S. 24, T. 8S.,
R. 25 W.)
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 57
Arkansas was the second largest producer of Puller's earth in the
United States from 1904 to 1907, Florida being first in amount of production.
During 1909, 1910 and 1911, Arkansas was third in output and value, Florida
being in first place and Georgia second. The amount of Fuller's earth pro-
duced in Arkansas in 1909 was 2,314 short tons, valued at $18,313.00; in
1910 it was 2,563 short tons, valued at $29,137.00.
Middleton, Jefferson. Fuller's Earth in 1917, U. S. Geol.,. Surv., Mineral
Resources of the U. S., 1917, Part II.
Branner, John C. The Clays. of Arkansas, Bulletin 351, U. S. Geol. Surv.
Branner, John C. An Early Discovery of Fuller's Earth in Arkansas,
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, New York, 1912.
Miser, H. D. Developed Deposits of Fuller's Earth in Arkansas, Bulletin
530 Q, U. S. Geol. Surv.
Include here Almandite, Andradite, Aplome, Grossularite. See Schorlo-
mite. All occur in "float," also in garnet rock (grossular) and in granitic and
feldspathic rocks. Magnet Cove.
Silica (Opal). See Pealite, Fiorite, Girasol, Siliceous sinter., (Opal). In
heavy deposits covering large areas, but of varying character. See under
special names; Porcelain variety (Girasol) like Yellowstone Park deposits
north of Magnet Cove, at "Spanish Diggings." Magnet Cove.
About ancient hot spring bowls, with tendency to cuboidal jointing.
Since the establishment of glass factories at Fort Smith and Texar-
kana, where these industries have access to natural gas, the cheapest and
best of fuels, a more convenient market is afforded for the valuable glass
sands of the state. It is said that the Fort Smith plant uses 1,000 tons of
sand a month and that the Arkansas sands are preferred, but because of an
inability to get cars for the shorter haul the material at present is brought
from Pacific, Missouri.
The glass sands of the saccharodial sandstone, (St. Peter) quarried at
Guion, Izard County, are probably the purest and most extensive in the state.
This sand is so pure that it is not even stained. Glass sands are found in the
St. Peter sandstone in North Arkansas from Batesville to Fayetteville. It is
quite as good as the best glass sands of Missouri but is of finer grain.
The King's River member of the Everton limestone formation in Carroll
and Madison Counties is recommended as a glass sand.
At Whitlock Spur, near Bryant, Saline County, there is an extensive
deposit of high grade glass sand.
Purdue says: "The novaculite of the Ouachita Mountains probably
would produce glass of fine quality."
A deposit of glass sand is reported in Jefferson County near Pine Bluff.
With reference to the glass sands of Crowley's Ridge, in Greene County,
the following is quoted from the report of the Arkansas Geological Survey,
Vol. II, 1889.
"The sand is white. * * * It would make an excellent bottle glass
sand, or even the cheaper grades of window glass could be made from it.
Its product would be green in color, but less deep than the common green
bottle glass, owing to the small amount, of iron present. With soda and lime
added it would make a fairly good window glass."
Burehard, E. F. Glass Sands of the Middle Mississippi Basin, Bulletin No.
285, U. S. Geol. Surv.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 5fr
For many years there has been a vague, but persistent faith in the
existence of gold in paying quantities in Arkansas. From time to time re-
peated discoveries of this metal have caused much excitement in different
localities. One by one the successive "finds" have proven barren when
thoroughly tested. The little known portions of the mountainous country
have always been regarded curiously and reported discovery in those
regions have received more ready credence, perhaps because of the supposed
existence of granite rocks.
. The various agencies which have been at work in Arkansas have not had
access to any important supply of gold; the processes of deposition have
acted too rapidly to accumulate gold in workable deposits; the auriferous
deposition, if any has taken place, has been spread over such vast areas as
to dilute the whole to a condition of extreme poverty; there has been no-
special accumulations; structural conditions are unfavorable; gold is absent
in situations most favorable for its retention and is invariably absent in the
"float" and the sands and gravels. Nowhere has gold been found in workable
Branner, John C. Annual Report, Ark. Geol. Surv., 1888, Vol. I.
" Granite" (Syenite)
The total area of igneous rock exposed within the boundaries of the
State of Arkansas does not exceed thirteen or fourteen square miles, but
the value of these rocks as building and paving materials gives them great
The eleolite syenites were probably all produced from one magma,
but since they occur in four well-defined areas, and as the rocks which form
these various areas differ greatly in their mineralogic independent groups,
which can hardly be sufficiently correlated with the others to allow of their
all being described together.
These four regions are:
1. The Fourche Mountain or Pulaski County region.
2. The Saline County region.
3. The Magnet Cove region.
4. The Potash Sulphur Springs region.
Outside of these four typical regions there are many dikes of igneous
rock which as far as their petrographic characteristics are concerned might
be associated, as well with one group as with another, and which are, as a
matter of fact, probably directly connected with none of them, although
formed from the same magma from which they all derived their material.
(In additon to the masses described there are four masses of peridotite
near Murfreesboro, Pike County, together with a number of related dikes.
A study of these masses has proved that these igneous rocks of Arkansas
were all probably formed during the land interval separating the upper and
lower Cretaceous periods.)
Branner, John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1890,
Vol. II, The igneous rocks of Arkansas, by J. Francis Williams, Little Rock,
Washington, H. S. The igneous complex of Mag-net Cove, Arkansas. Ab-
stract, Science, March 16, 1900, Vol. XI, Bulletin Geological Society of America,
Vol. XI, Rochester, 1900. Review, American Naturalist, Vol. XXXV, May 1901.
Review, Technology Quarterly, Vol. VII.
Graphite is abundant and pure in many localities in the Trap Mountains
in Hot Spring County. It occurs also in the form of graphitic shale in
Garland and Montgomery counties. Some of this material is of excellent
quality, while some of it occurs in streaks or pockets only, and much is
mixed with earthy matter. The impure varieties are available for paints.
Purdue says: "Possibly the most promising outcrop is in the bed of
Collier Creek at Buttermilk Springs, northeast of Caddo Gap in Montgomery
60 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Drake reports the presence of graphitic Shale at the Dickinson brick
yard in the southern part of Little Rock a gray-black material suitable for
Several thick deposits of gravel are widely distributed along the north
edge of the Gulf Costal Plain. The gravels are of Lower Cretaceous, Upper
Cretaceous and Quarternary age and are composed mainly of pebbles of
novaculite (a variety of chert) derived from the Arkansas novaculite ex-
posed in the Ouachita Mountain region. They are used in making concrete,
in ballasting railroads and in the construction of wagon roads. The Pike
gravel is the thickest and most persistent gravel bed in the area and has a
larger surface distribution than any other. The thickness is rather uni-
form, being in most places between 20 and 50 feet, but it apparently attains
100 feet near Pike. This gravel consists of pebbles usually less than half
an inch in diameter, but it contains many larger ones and also many cobbles
as much as ten inches in diameter. These pebbles have not been used in
tube mills, but they are of such a character that it is believed well selected
pebbles may be suited for this purpose.
The gravel beds of Crowley's Ridge in Northeast Arkansas are of varying
thickness, being deposited on a surface which indicates very considerable
erosion at a period prior to their deposition. The gravels are made up mainly
of a light-colored chert, are generally well rounded or waterworn, rarely
angular and always well polished. When in place they are always rudely
assorted, cross-bedded and mingled with more or less sand. The gravel is
considerably above the general level of the country, reaching often to the
Tery tops of the highest hills. Deposits occur at various points along the
ridge from the Missouri border to Helena.
' In the bed of the Arkansas River throughout its course in Arkansas and
in the beds of many of its tributaries, are gravel bars containing large
-quantities of material suitable for road-building.
On the higher hills about Little Rock and northwest of that city are
quantities of surface gravel. Similar ridges occur in Saline, Grant and
Dallas counties and in other parts of Southwest Arkansas.
Miser, H. D., and Purdue, A. H. Gravel Deposits of the Caddo Gap and
DeQueen Quadrangles, Arkansas, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 690 B.
Branner, John C. Crowley's Ridge, Annual Report Arkansas Geological
Purvey, Vol. II, 1889.
Branner, John C. Road-Making- Materials of Arkansas, Outlines of Ar-
kansas Geology, State Bureau of Mines, Manufacturers and Agriculture, Little
In zinc and lead districts of North Arkansas.
See Garnet. Grossular rock and other non-crystalline or crypto-crystal-
line forms. Magnet Cove.
"The Trinity formation (of Southwest Arkansas) is rich in gvpsum and
gypsiferous marls, the latter too impure for the arts, but, suitable for an agri-
cultural fertilizer or land plaster. At the gypsum bluff, or "Plaster Bluff."
as it is familiarly called, two and one-half miles south of Murfreesboro, in
Pike County, there are strata of pure saccharoidai alabaster, from 6 inches
to 6 feet in thickness, with seams of satin spar. This gypsum is sufficiently
pure to make plaster of paris, as well as fertilizer, and will no doubt be a
source of much wealth to the country some day. The same geologic horizon
as that containing the gypsum beds on Little Missouri River outcrops spar-
ingly at many points along the southern scarp of the Fort Towson road
valley." Report Arkansas Geol. Surv., Vol. II, 1888.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Prof. A. H. Purdue ihentions the presence of gypsum on Messers Creek,
north of Center Point, in Howard County.
Gypsum, or "satin spar," occurs in broad crystals, fibrous and earthy,
in the zinc and lead districts of North Arkansas. This mineral also has
been observed in parts of Saline County where pyrite and limestone are
Hill, Robt. T. The Neozoic Geolog-y of Arkansas, Vol. II, Report, Geological
Survey of Arkansas, 1888.
.Branner, J. C. Report Arkansas Geol. Surv., Vol V, 1892.
Incrustations in black shale; Sloan's well, Black Spring, Montgomery
County; Cox's Alum Springs near Boles, Scott County.
Aluminous magnesia-lime Amphibole. In syenites; Diamond Jo quarry
and other places near and in Magnet Cove.
Altered Perofskite. In crystals, locally, form perofskite, but gray color.
Magnesia-iron-silicate. Some of the labradorite rock, bearing brookite
crystals, has also this mineral. Magnet Cove.
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I i Deposits in
62 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Aluminum-calcium-iron-magnesia silicate. Vesuvianite (Syn.); as ido-
erase rock, sometmes with imbedded crystals. Magnet Cove.
Alumina silicate, with other oases. In metamorphic rocks, rarely in un-
altered condition. See Fahlunite for altered forms. Magnet Cove.
The result of the survey's investigation of the iron deposits of the
state have not met the expectations and hopes of their commercial value,
with which the work was begun. The number of places at which iron de-
posits occur throughout the state is almost endless, but the examination of
these deposits and the chemical analyses of the ores show that most of
them are either too limited in extent, or that they are too low in grade to
admit of their being worked. The deposits of Lawrence and Sharp counties
are the only ones that merit attention, and whether these deposits can be
worked now must depend on economic conditions transportation, markets
Branner, John C. Annual Report, Ark. Geol., Surv., 1892, Vol. I. "The Iron
Deposits of Arkansas," by A. F. Penrose, Jr.
The constantly increasing use of pyrites in the manufacture of sulphuric
acid may make available in the future the deposits which occur on the South
slope of West Mountain, two miles west of Hot Springs, Garland County; in
Southern Polk County and at Golden City, in Logan County.
Pyrite ("fool's gold," "mundic," iron disulphide; sulphur, 53.4; iron,
46.6 per cent; brass yellow, often in cubes, sometimes massive), found in
small quantities at a few of the zinc mines in North Arkansas ; notably hard.
Of various colors, among the ancient hot spring deposits; Montgomery
County; Caddo Gap, Polk County; Eagle Hill.
Micaceous, swells enormously when highly heated; associated with
aegerite-rock, and among other metamorphic rocks, as serpentine; north
of Magnet Cove; Garland and Hot Spring counties; south of Hot Springs;
McAllister's mill, Saline County; Montgomery County.
Lime-soda feldspar; as base of intrusive rocks, in basaltic and other
"Galena (lead sulphide) the principal lead ore mineral has been
mined in limited quantities in Baxter, Benton, Carroll, Boone, Marion, New-,
ton, Washington, and other counties of Northern Arkansas. In Western Ar-
kansas it has been found sparingly and mined occasionally in Garland
County, near Blakely Creek; Hot Spring County, at Point Cedar; Mont-
gomery county, at Rubicon, near Virginia City and at Minnesota, Montezu-
ma, Walnut and Waterloo mines; Pulaski County, Kellogg and McRae
mines; Sevier County, at Bellah mine, in Gulch shaft, New Discovery shaft,
near Conboy and elsewhere. Cerusite (lead carbonate) occurs in Howard,
Montgomery, Newton arid other counties, with galena and coating it in
mines in Northern Arkansas." Bulletin 624, U. S. Geol. Surv., Useful Min-
erals of the United States.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 63
MINE PRODUCTION OF LEAD IN ARKANSAS
Year Short Tons Year Short Tons
. 1914 28
The ores are galena, sphalerite and smithsonite and the concentrates
produced are generally of high grade and free from or very low in iron or
lime. The sphalerite has frequently assayed 2 to 3 per cent above the price
basis of 60 per cent, metallic zinc content. The sphalerite and smithsonite
are shown by analysis to contain appreciable quantities of cadmium, espec-
ially in a yellow variety of smithsonite, known locally as turkey fat, which
shows as high as 0.8 per cent of cadmium.
AVinslow, Arthur. Lead and zinc deposits, Mo. Geol. Surv., VI and VII,
Jefferson City, 1894. (Contains bibliography.)
lirunner, John C. Annual Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol V.
1892. Zinc and Lead.
Extending northwestward from Camden, is a small area of typical brown
subcannel coal, whi-ch has been tested for oil and gas production with very
favorable results. The coal bed has been traced from about 2 miles north-
west of Camden for 13 miles to the northwest and has been opened and
mined in a small way at a number of places. The coal ranges from 3 to 6 feet
Physically the Camden coal, as it comes from the mine is brownish
olack and compact and has a generally uniform even texture and structure.
Occasionally fragments of lignite with clearly marked woody structure may
oe seen. It has an uneven conchoidal fracture. It is soft but not friable,
that is, it may be easily mined with the pick and may be cut with a knife
as readily as compact dry clay, but will not crumble between the fingers.
When cut or scratched with a knife it shows a shiny or oily streak. Upon
being exposed to dry air, the coal contracts and cracks both along the bed-
ding and at right angles to it so that fragments may be broken by the hand,
but the mass does not fall to pieces. The coal is then blacker and harder
than when fresh and the streak or powder is more nearly black. On being
exposed for a short time to the repeated action of rain, dew, and snow,
however, it will disintegrate into small particles.
From this description the coal is evidently of lignite rank, but so far as
tested it appears to give a higher candlepower gas than other lignites.
Chemically, as shown by the analyses it contains from 32 to 38 per cent of
water when fresh. In dry air the moisture will reduce to 9 to 11 per
cent, but this will be reincreased to 20 to 22^ per cent if the coal is sub-
mitted to saturated air. The volatile matter in the fresh coal is 32 to 36
per cent and 44 to 46 per cent in the air-dried coal; and the fixed carbon in
the fresh coal is 17 to 23 per cent in the air-dried coal. The ash remains
from 7.5 to 11 per cent in the fresh coal and sulphur 0.5 per cent or less
in the fresh material.
This coal was tested by the Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory. The aver-
age result of 10 tests, at a temperature of 1,800 to 2,000 degrees F., was a
yield of 11,386 cubic feet of 22.3 candlepower gas.
Tertiary lignites occur in most of the counties of Southern Arkansas.
Probably the deposits nearest approaching in value those of the Camden
district are in Pike and Clark counties, but no use has yet been made of
this fuel. The location of the lignite is more interesting as indicating the
character of the associated clays.
LIGNITE OF CROWLEY'S RIDGE
The lignites of the Crowley's Ridge region are all of Tertiary age. * * *
They occur in the form of outcrops along the streams and in gullies with an
64 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
occasional bed appearing in wells. The thickness of these lignite beds i&
exceedingly variable. Usually they are less than five feet thick, though
the Bolivar Creek beds in Poinsett Gounty are seven feet or more in
thickness. It is also noticeable that the vertical distribution of the several
beds is irregular, some of them occurring high up in the hills, while others
are at their base or below it. So far as traced all these beds are independent
of each other, having been formed at different times, and they are generally
in lenticular shapes, most of which cover but a few acres and many of
them but a few hundred square yards. Their chemical analyses show that
the Bolivar Creek and the Clay County lignites are the best. The poorest
is that found in St. Francis County, T. 4 N. R. 4 E., on Section 26.
Taflf, J. A. Preliminary report on the Camden coal field of Southwestern
Arkansas. Twenty-first Annual Report of the U. S. Geol. Surv., 1899-1900,
Part II, Washington, 1900.
Taff, J. A. The Camden coal fields of Southwestern Arkansas, XXI Annual
Report. U. S. Geol. Surv., Part II, pp. 313-329, 1900.
Branncr, John C. Clays of Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 351, 1908.
A somewhat extended search has been made in Arkansas for a litho-
graphic stone, but thus far the search has been unsuccessful. The nearest
approach to success was at the Warden property on West Lafferty Creek in
Izard County, where a quarry was opened and considerable work done some
years ago. It is reported that some good samples were obtained, which
answered all the required tests, but the work suddenly ceased, as it was
found that the greater part of the stone was worthless for lithographic pur-
poses on account of the fine crystalline particles scattered through it. The
crystalline parts are in some places but single crystals, in others they are
fine, hair-like veins, so small as to be almost invisible to the naked eye.
These crystals splinter or break with ragged edges under the engraver's
tool, thus injuring the stone for fine work.
The layers from which this stone was obtained are from two to four inches
thick with a total thickness of about two feet. They are overlaid bv 20'
feet of Izard limestone and underlaid by over 170 feet of the same rock.
The Izard limestone is a smooth, fine-grained, compact, homogeneous, non-
fosseliferous, evenly bedded limestone, breaking with a conchoidal frac-
ture and is mostly of a dark blue color, varying locally to buff, light and
dark gray, and almost black. It has a specific gravity of 2,7272 corresponding
to a weight of 170.45 pounds per cubic foot. A partial chemical analyses
shows the following:
Insoluable in hydrochloric acid 34
Carbonate of lime (Ca CO3) 98.67
Carbonate of Magnesia (Mg COS) 2.14
Branner, John C. Annual Report Ark. Geol Surv., 1890, Vol. IV.
In spite of the abundance of limestone in Arkansas suitable for lime
burning, the state imports lime instead of exporting it. As the limestone
region of North Arkansas becomes traversed by railways the burning of lime
should become one of the most important industries. There are limestones
in the Tertiary and Cretaceous areas of the central and southwestern por-
tions of the state, yet the Paleozoic limestones of the northern part of the
state are so superior for lime burning that it is to them the state must look
for its lime supply. The chalk beds will, no doubt, become valuable in the
manufacture of Portland cement, but for common lime it cannot compete
with the Paleozoic limestones.
While in North Arkansas there are not less than seven distinct beds of
limestone persistent over large areas, and others of more limited extent, it
is noteworthy that nearly all the lime that has been burnt has come from a
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
single bed the limestone in the Boone Chert. It has a greater areal
extent than any of the other beds, yet others of large extent would make
equally as good lime.
Following is the analysis of limestone from the Boone chert formation
in Independence County:
Carbonate of Lime 98.43
Carbonate of Magnesia 95
Insoluble Residue 28
Without taking into account the proximity to transportation, the dif-
ferent beds of limestone considered solely in the light of their value for
making lime, would rank about as follows:
First, Izard limestone.
Second, Boone chert limestone.
Third, St. Joe marble.
Fourth, St. Clair marble.
Fifth, Archimedes limestone.
Sixth, Pentremital limestone.
Seventh, Magnesian limestone.
It will thus be seen that while limestone is widely distributed in the
state, all that is suitable for building purposes occurs north of the Boston
Mountains, and all the rocks of any considerable importance for lime-burning
occur in the same place. The chalk beds of Southwestern Arkansas are
the only lime deposits south of the Boston Mountains which are likely to
have any great commercial value.
Branner, John C. Value of lime as a fertilizer and discussion of de-
posits at White Cliffs. Arkansas Geol. Surv. of 1888, Vol. II.
Hopkins, T. C. Lime Industry of Arkansas. Annual Report, Arkansas
Geol. Surv., 1890, Vol. IV, Little Rock, 1893.
Means, J. H. Carboniferous limestones on the South side of the Boston
Mountains. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv., of Arkansas for 1890, Vol. IV,
Little Rock, 1893.
Harris, Gilbert D., Assistant Geologist. Annual Report Arkansas Geol.
Surv. for 1892, Vol. II.
Manganese Mining in Independence County.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Manganese ores occur in two different parts of Arkansas, one in the
Batesville region, mostly in Independence and Izard counties, in the north-
eastern part of the state; the other in the southwestern part of the state,
25 O 25 50 75 lOOMiles
Map Showing Batesville Manganese Area, from U. S. Geological Survey
in the region extending from Pulaski County on the east to Polk County and
the Oklahoma border on the west. In the former region considerable
mining has been done; in the latter the amount of work has been limited.
The two regions approach, in their nearest parts, within about 90 miles of
^ach other, the southern extension of the Batesville region being about that
-distance northeast of the manganese area of Pulaski County, while it is over
150 miles northeast of the manganese area of Polk County.
The developed manganese deposits in the Batesville region lie in a belt
20 miles long by 4 to 8 miles wide, which extends westward through Inde-
pendence, Sharp, and Izard counties, in the northeastern part of the state,
but are mainly in Independence county. Maganese is not likely to be found
in every part of this belt, but the deposits, which differ greatly in size, are
extensive. One hundred and eighty mines and prospects, have produced ore.
The ores are manganese oxides, chiefly psilomelane, hausmannite, and
braunite. Wad and manganite also occur in minable quantity and the ores in
places include pyrolusite. Although these minerals may be found separately,
two or more are generally mixed in the same deposit and at a few places they
are associated with ferruginous manganese ores and with small quantities of
brown and red iron oxides. At some places the ferruginous manganese ores
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 67
The high-grade manganese ores generally contain 45 to 52 per cent of
manganese though some of the ore shipped contains as much as 60 per
cent of manganese. Most of the ores contain from 3 to 8 per cent of iron,
0.15 to 0.30 per cent of phosphorus, and 2 to 8 per cent of silicia. Some of
the ore shipped contains more than 0.30 per cent of phosphorus and a very
little contains 0.40 to 0.50 per cent of phosphorus. Most of the ferruginous
manganese ores contain 20 to 40 per cent of manganese, 8 to 20 per cent of
iron, and 5 to 26 per cent of silica. The phosphorus content is about the
same as that of the higher grade ores.
Branner; John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for
1890, Vol. I, Manganese. Its uses, ores and deposits, by R. A. F. Penrose,
Jr. Includes notes on the paleontology of the Batesville region, by Henry S.
Miser, H. D. Manganese deposits of the Gaddo Gap and DeQueen Quadran-
gles, Arkansas, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 660, 1917.
Miser. H. D. Deposits of Manganese ore in Batesville District, Arkansas,
Preliminary Report, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 715-G, 1920.
Magnetic iron ore. In crystalline metamorphic rocks; in a local deposit
at surface and in soil in fragments; magnetic; abundant. Magnet Cove.
Garland County, at Hot Springs, in ledge of rock several feet in thick-
ness; not mined.
The marble region of Arkansas is in the north and northwest part of
the state. It includes Marion, Boone, Benton, and parts of Independence,
Izard, Stone, Baxter, Searcy, Newton, Madison and Washington counties, and
extends north into the State of Missouri. The entire region is north of the
Boston Mountains, and with the exception of portions of Washington and
Benton counties is in the upper White River Valley. It is commonly known
as North Arkansas, the Boston Mountains forming a natural barrier between
it and the remainder of the state on the south, while the flood-plains of the
Black River bound it on the east.
The marbles of Arkansas all belong to the list of colored marbles;
although some of them are very light colored, all are more or less stained
with metallic oxides or with carbonaceous matter. On a stratigraphic basis
all the numerous varieties of marbles in Arkansas are, with very few excep-
tions, included in three classes: The St. Glair; the St. Joe; and the gray
marble of the Boone chert formation. The first of these, the St. Glair
marble, occurs over the eastern and south central part of the area, and is of
Silurian age. The St. Joe and gray marbles, occurring over the entire area,
are at the base of the Lower Carboniferous rocks. The few varieties which
do not occur in any of these classes are the black, yellow, "onyx," and
Marble of red, gray and pink colors outcrop at numerous places along
White River and its tributaries. Black marble occurs near Marshall, Searcy
County, and Jamestown, Independence County.
Comparatively little work has been done to develop the marbles and
bring them into the market. Probably the first piece of marble shipped out
of the state was the one sent to Washington Monument in 1836, the
year in which the state was admitted to the Union. The block, weighing
9.000 pounds, was taken from near Marble City, Newton County, then known
as Beller's Mill. It was obtained by Mr. Beller and Elijah, Samuel and
William Harp. By drilling and wedging they separated the block from a
ledge four feet thick. It was then put on a log wagon and with ten yoke
of cattle these four men took the stone a distance of 60 miles or more over
exceedingly rough and tortuous roads across the Boston Mountains to the
Arkansas River near Clarksville, whence it was shipped by boat.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS . 69
The exterior walls of the new State Capitol at Little Rock were con-
structed of Batesville marble, quarried at Pfeiffer.
Brainier, John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1890,
Vol. IV, Marbles and other limestones, by T. C. Hopkins, Little Rock, 1893.
The building 1 stones of Arkansas, by John C. Branner. Stone, Vol. II,
Indianapolis, October, 1889.
Hopkins, T. C. Topographic features of Arkansas marble. Proceedings
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. XXXIX,
Anonymous. Batesville oolitic marble. Stone, Vol. XXIX, pp. 345-346.
Illustrated, New York, January, 1909.
Lime-iron Garnet, black variety of Andradite; or Aplome; loose crystals
and in rock. Magnet Cove.
In incrustations, etc., rarely pure; Rabbit Foot mine, Saline County.
(Honey Stone). As incrustations on sandstones or coal measures; Scott
-and Franklin counties.
Biotite. Garland County, at Potash Sulphur Springs and Magnet Cove.
Alkaline alumina silicate; triclinic potash-feldspar. Greenish, in granitic
rocks, with aegirites; othoclase or albite, sometimes associated with it. Mag-
Pure white, soft, compact, inflexible, specific gravity, 2.37, Newton County.
(Saltpeter). In dry caverns in limestone regions of North Arkansas.
The Arkansas stone is a true novaculite, satisfying all the necessary
condition regarding homogeneity, grittiness, finely granular structure and
siliceous composition; it is translucent on the edges and has a marked con-
choidal fracture. It occurs associated with shales into which it. grades
through opaque, flinty layers. It is the only true novaculite quarried in
quantity in this country.
Novaculite is very like chert, both in composition and in its behavior
as a road-making material. It occurs only in the hilly region lying south of
the Coal Measures, where it forms the Zigzag Mountains about Hot Springs
and the great Ouachita Mountain system south of the Ouachita River, ex-
tending from Rockport, Hot Spring County, nearly to Oklahoma, west of
Dallas, Polk County.
Branner. John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1890,
Vol. III. Whetstones and the novaculites of Arkansas, by L. S. Griswold,
Little Rock, 1892.
Bfanner, John C. and Derby. O. A. On the origin of certain siliceous
rocks (novaculites). Journal of Geology, 1898, Vol. VI.
Griswold, L.. S. Indian quarries in Arkansas. Proceedings Boston So-
ciety of Natural History, Vol. XXVI, Boston, 1895.
Hull, Edward. Origin of novaculites of Arkansas. Quarterly Journal of
the Geological Society of London, Vol. I, London, 1894.
Rutley, Frank. On the origin of certain novaculites and quartzltes. Quar.
Jour. Geol. Soc., Vol. I, London, 1894. Abstract American Geologist, Vol. XIV.
Sutton, J. J. Oilstones. Third Biennial Report from the Bureau of Mines,
Manufactures and Agriculture of Arkansas for 1893-1894.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Novaculite in Railroad Cut, Near Glenwood.
Ochre of a deep red color occurs abundantly near Wittsburg on Crow-
ley's Ridge. An analysis suggests no valuable use to which this clay could
be put. It is used locally for painting barns.
Deposits of yellow ochre occur near Monticello, Drew County, and Piggott,
Brown ochre, or limonite, occurs in many parts of the state, but it is
usually contaminated with clays. * * * Red ochre, Fourche Mountain and
suburbs of Little Rock, usually impure from admixture with silica and clay.
Brnnner, John C Annual Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol II, 1889.
Titanic oxide. Close to Rutile. See also Brookite. Occurs sparingly
with Brookite, Rutile and Arkansite, also as imbedded crystals in feldspathic
or garnet base Magnet Cove.
"Petroleum occurs in small quantities in the Fayetteville shale of Wash-
ington County. Everything in the general geology of this section points to
the fact that the sandstone in which this oil occurs is cut off along the north
face of the Boston Mountains and that the rocks through the central and
northern parts of the county all lie below it. The rock does not contain
enough oil to thoroughly saturate it." Annual Report of the Arkansas
Geological Survey, Vol. IV, 1888.
"Oil may perhaps be distilled from the Chattanooga shale (of northwest
Arkansas) which is sufficiently bituminous to give off the odor of petroleum
when struck with a hammer, but such distillation will be profitable only after
the prices of petroleum and its products become higher." A. H. Purdue
and H. D. Miser. Eureka Springs-Harrison Folio, No- 202, U. S. Geol. Surv.
Among the shale rocks of Northwestern Arkansas, H. D. Miser of the U. S.
Geol. Survey, includes the Bloyd shale.
Miser, Hush D. and Purdue, A. H. Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions
In Southwestern Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 691 J, 1918.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 71
Triclinic soda-lime feldspar. With orthoclase in metamorphic (granitic)
rocks. Not very abundant, apparently; in syenite, more or less. Magnet
Argonite or Mexican onyx occurs in large quantities in some of the zinc
mines of North Arkansas. Doctor Branner says: "We have seen beautiful
pieces of this rock that would have brought high prices in the market wan-
tonly destroyed, partly because the owners were not aware of its value, and
partly because this is a zinc mine not a stone quarry."
From the report of T. C. Hopkins on the Marbles of Arkansas, the fol-
lowing facts are taken:
"None of the onyx marbles of Arkansas are quite as translucent or as
brightly banded as the finest qualities of Mexican stone, yet much of it is
very handsome, works easily, takes a brilliant polish and will no doubt
command a good price. Further research may show even finer qualities."
Slabs containing several square feet of ''Eureka onyx" have been re-
covered from caves near Eureka Springs and made into paperweights, I \ /
clocks, scarfpins, penholders, etc. Large quantities of stone are exposed in / y
a cave near Dodd City. It occurs in white, cream, red and yellowish browjr
colors. Apparently slabs four or five feet square or even larger could readily
be obtained. It is a beautiful stone.
Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. IV, 1890.
Silicia. In certain ancient hot spring deposits. Magnet Cove.
, Potash feldspar. Pulaski, Saline and Hot Spring counties, in granitic
and allied rocks.
Hydrous aluminum silicate, with calcium and sodium; massive variety
of Thomsonite. In masses like beds or intrusions of uncertain relations.
There are some seams or pockets of a very good quality of barytes in
many places in Montgomery County, between the Broken Rock and Blue
Mountain axes, and generally speaking along the whole length of that belt.
Some of the barytes is white and of high value. Ground shale and impure
graphite which abound in Southwestern Arkansas, especially in Mont-
gomery County, are useful materials as fillers for paints. Red ochre (hema-
tite) and "reddle," or a kind of red chalks, are abundant in many localities
In Southwestern Arkansas. Use might be made of these in paint manu-
facture. The yellow and brown ochreous earths (limonite) may in some
cases be useful for similar purposes. The quantity of such ore, particularly
in Pulaski County, south and west of Little Rock, is enormous and easily
Silicia; variety of Opal, or Fiorite. In crumbling masses, usually with
hard nuclei; constituent of old hot spring throats; sand carbonate mine.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Map of Arkansas, Illustrating Relative Chances for Oil and Gas Drawn by
Dr. N. F. Drake, Geologist for the State Bureau of Mines, and
Former State Geologist.
Petroleum and Natural Gas
By N. F. DRAKE, Former State Geologist of Arkansas.
The accompanying map presents a rough outline showing different areas
into which the State may be divided with reference to different degrees of
fitness for petroleum and natural gas. There is more or less variation within
each of these areas and usually each area, in its geological fortunes, gradu-
ates into the adjoining areas but as a whole each area as mapped forms a
Area VI. The area marked "6" and by vertical lining includes the
Ouachita Mountain system in which the rock beds are severely folded into
numerous anticlinal and synclinial folds extending almost east and west
the whole forming an upward bent fold on an anticlinorium. The tops of
these folds have been eroded so that now the numerous parallel ridges stand
at almost the same elevation. This means that the center of the anticlin-
orium has been eroded more than at the sides so that now we have ex-
posed at the surface along the central portion of the area the oldest rock
beds. Going either northwards or southwards from the central oldest
rocks one passes over successively younger rocks as he approaches the.
border of this area, except that in places severe folding has caused the
complete overturning of some of the beds. In age the rocks of this area
extend from the Cambrian at the base, through the Ordovician, Silurian,
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 73
Devonian and into the Carboniferous at the top. The whole gives a thick-
ness of 15,000 to 20,000 feet of shales, sandstones, and some cherts and
limestones. The whole area is rather highly metamorphosed so that a
large part of the shales are graphitic and often the sandstones have been
changed to quartzites. Much of the original pore spaces in these rocks
have been filled by silica and lime carbonate. Igneous rocks in small
areas, outcrop at a number of places. The severe metamorphism of the
rocks in this area at once condemns' it as a field for oil and gas.
Area V. The area marked "5" in the north central part of the state is
a part of the Ozark Plateau and its exposed rock beds are mainly Ordo-
vician dolomites and sandstones, but overlying these beds in regular order
are Silurian, Devonian and Mississippian beds, the total giving somethng
like 2,000 feet of outcropping rock beds within this area. Limestones,
sandstone and some carbonaceous shale are found in the upper part of
these beds. The rock beds are broken or faulted at many places and
show some gentle folds but in the main the beds lie almost horizontal or
dip slightly to the south. While metamorphic action in this area has not
been severe, it has been considerable so that many of the limestones are
more or less crystaline. In quarrying rocks over the area a little petroleum
has been found in small cavities in some of the limestones and dolomites
at a number of places. This has led some people to suspect that oil in com-
mercial quantities might be found there. It seems very doubtful whether
there is present, at sufficient depth, rock beds capable of giving origin to
oil. The Chattanooga shale along the south and southwest border of the
area is too near the surface for any oil it might have produced to have
been retained in the rocks. The deep seated beds are mainly dolomites
and sandstones Metamorphic action here has almost assuredly been great
enough to have destroyed oil accumulations even had they at one time ex-
isted. Furthermore test wells in this area and in the same rock beds
nearby in Missouri have failed to give encouragement for oil and gas.
Area IV. The area marked "4" on the map includes the south and
southwest border of the Ozark Plateau. Here the rock beds lie almost
horizontal, but in general, have a dip of one to two degrees to the south and
southwest. At places this dip increases to five or six degrees or even
more. Some gentle folding and faulting occurs over the area and heavy
faulting with the downthrow on the south side of the fault planes, occurs
along the south border of the area. As one goes northward over this area
he reaches successively lower and older rock beds. Along the north bor-
der of the area the outcropping rocks are mainly Mississippian while on
the south border they are Pennsylvanian. Wells drilled 300 to 500 feet
deep near the north border, or 500 to 2,000 feet deep near the south border,
would pass into the Silurian or Ordovician limestones, dolomitei and sand-
stones. Over those beds lies the Chattanooga shale, which is usually 25 to
40 feet thick. It is highly carbonaceous and is oil and gas-producing. About
350 feet of chert with some limestone overlies the Chattanooga shale. The
chert in turn is overlain by 200 to 400 feet of highly carbonaceous shale,,
the Fayetteville shale, that is also oil and gas-producing. Oil and gas with-
in this area would naturally be expected to have been derived from those
We have then in this area beds of rock favorable for the production of
oil and gas, porous randstones suitable for reservoir rock and some gentle
folding giving inverted basins that might trap the oil and gas in their up-
ward migrations. In the Northern portion of the area the covering over
the oil-gas producing shales is not sufficient to prevent leakage, but in the
southern portion the covering should be ample.
A well a little over 300 feet deep about five miles northwest of Fay-
etteville, has, for about three years, furnished enough gas fuel for cooking
and heating at a farm house. This gas was struck in sandstone immedi-
ately underlying the Chattanooga shale. Without any reasonable doubt
this gas came from the shale. The covering over the shale is nearly 300
feet of Boone chert which would allow gas to escape to the surface and
be lost while the shale itself is nearly impervious and gas collecting under
the shale would be retained.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
A number of other wells widely distributed over this area have given
small flows of natural gas, but commercial flows have not yet been ob-
tained. It is rather difficult to estimate the degree of alteration or mate-
morphism that exists over the area- The following coal analysis by G. O.
MAP OF FORT SMITH-POTEAU GAS FIELD, ARKANSAS ANC OKLAHOMA.
Burr, of the University of Arkansas, from a sample of coal taken from the
Baldwin mine, situated about seven miles east of Fayetteville, probably
gives a fair average for the condition of the area as a whole:
Volatile Combustible Matter 30.75%
Fixed Carbon 60.30%
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
This analysis gives a carbon ratio for the coal of 66.74% which shows
too high a carbon ratio for commercial pools of oil but still permits gas pools
of value. It is possible that some local places within this area may
have a lower alteration of the rock beds and in that case oil might be
found, but the chances are against the existence of such conditions. The
southern portions of this area with a better covering- over the oil-gas pro-
ducing shales offers good chances for commercial gas where structural con-
ditions are favorable.
Area III. The area marked "3" and by horizontal and vertical lining
is practically all of the area between the Ozark Plateau and the Ouachita
Mountain system. The outcropping rock beds here belong to the Pennsyl-
vanian series and consist of carbonaceous clay shales, sandstones, and in
the western part some workable coal beds. These beds thicken to the
southward, probably being four times as thick in the southern part of the
area as in the northern part. According to Branner the Pennsylvanian
sediments of the state reach a total thickness of 23,780 fleet. The strata
of this area are folded into many folds and the whole series forms a down
warp or synclinorium. As a rule the folds are gentle near the northern
border and increase in intensity southward until in places along and near
the south border some of the beds stand almost or quite vertical. Meta-
morphism or alteration of the rock beds has very much kept pace with the
intensity of folding. As a rule the highest alteration of the rocks is to
the southward and southeastward, but near the heavy faulting, as in the
southern part of Scott County, the metamorphism may be somewhat less.
Coal analyses are not available for the whole field but the following analyses
will give a fair idea of the alteration that has taken place and the way it
Near Bates, Scott Co
U. S. G. S.
Near Fort Smith
u. s. a s.
SOlTT S. a S.
1.52| 84 |U. S. G. S.
2.301 88 IU. S. G. S.
9.40|1.81| 88IU. S. G. S.
Many other analyses covering the same territory might be given but
they would tell the same story. There are no analyses available covering
the eastern or the northern borders of the area but bituminous coals are
known to be in those localities, and they may show a less degree of alter-
ation. It is not likely, however, that they will prove sufficiently high in
volatile matter to give conditions favorable for oil in commercial quanti-
ties. As is well known, this area, in its western part, is already a heavy
producer of gas. It is likely that the producing areas may be extended
farther eastward along the northern part of the field even to the extreme
east border of this area-
Area II. The area marked "2" on the accompanying map is a part of
the gulf coastal plains. The northern part of the. area is Cretaceous and the
Southern Tertiary in age. The Cretaceous rock beds comprise clays and
marls more or less carbonaceous and sandstone, gravel beds, limestone, and
chalk, altogether totaling over 2,000 feet in thickness as shown by out-
crops. The Tertiary beds are about 1,000 feet thick and consist of sands,
clays and marls. Both the Cretaceous and the Tertiary beds dip gently to
the southeastward. Both carry beds containing organic matter and porous
76 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
sandstone beds. Metamorphic action has not altered the beds to a degree
that would destroy oil accumulations. It appears then that the thing most
needed for insuring the existence of oil accumulations here is good struct-
ural features that would entrap the oil in its upward migrations.
The asphalt deposits in Pike and in Sevier counties show oil leakage
along the northern border of the area. This oil must have moved north-
wards up the slopes of the Cretaceous rock beds. So far as known there
.are no folds within this area but it is possible that there may be some
. small folds and furthermore some of the porous beds through which the oil
migrates may, in their upward reaches, either thin out and disappear or
else become close textured so as to entrap the oil as it moves up the slope
-of the rock bed.
These last noted conditions can only be proven by the very expensive
method of drilling test wells. It is safe to say that oil-bearing areas, under
such conditions as exist in this area, must necessarily be small in compari-
son with the barren areas. The wells that have been drilled in and near
this area have indicated a regularity of the dip to the south and southeast
and have given no special encouragement for further prospecting.
Area 1. The area marked "1" comprises nearly all that part of the
state lying east and south of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. This area is
also a part of the gulf coastal p?ains. The outcropping rocks are Tertiary
and Quaternary in age. The Quaternary beds form a thin covering of
alluvial materials lying on the Tertiary beds, along the flood plains of the
river bottoms. The Tertiary beds consist of clays, and marls more or less
carbonaceous and sandstone and some lignite beds. The strata dip gently
toward the southeast. Going eastward over the area one passes over
beds that are successively higher and younger geologically and the series
becomes thicker until in the southeast part of the state these beds are
probably 2,000 feet or more in thickness. Under these beds the Cretaceous
fceds above noted extend apparently without any breaks.
During Tertiary times the Gulf of Mexico extended over this area in
an embayment that reached northward to the southern point of Illinois and
is extended to the east of the Mississippi River into Tennessee and Missis-
sippi about as far as it extends westward from the Mississippi River over
Arkansas. The underlying and older Cretaceous embayment was somewhat
broader, but did not extend quite so far northwards. The embayments gave
good conditions for the accumulation of organic matter of the sea and
neighboring land areas. Over this area also, with the possible exception
of a part of Crowley's Ridge, the rocks have not been altered to a degree
that would injure oil accumulations. The conditions are then favorable
for oil and gas wherever structural conditions exist to catch and ho!d the
oil and gas.
Since the Tertiary rocks are practically all soft and friable they easily
go to pieces where exposed at the surface. So a deep soil usually covers
the underlying beds and -one cannot, except in rare cases, determine from
surface examinations how the underlying rock beds lie. Where the top
exposed beds lie parallel to the underlying beds and the top beds are well
exposed it is a simple process to determine the underground structure so
far as folding is concerned. Over this area the rock beds are usually cov-
ered and often not well marked when exposed and in places the topmost
and the lower beds are not parallel or conformable so it is difficult to de-
termine the structure here.
There is some fairly good evidence of a gentle anticlinal fold extending
northeast by southwest through the central part of Cleveland County
Should this prove to be true the fold may be expected to extend farther to
the northeast and southwest beyond Cleveland County.
While the area marked "1" offers the bpst chances for finding oil in
the State, and while so many of the essential conditions for oil are favor-
able it should be remembered that sediments laid down along a shore line
retreating seaward with a slowly subsiding sea bottom and a rising ad-
joining land area, as was likely the case, would give rise to beds dipping
regularly and not to folds or structural features favorable to entrapping
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 77
oil. Favorable structural areas may therefore be expected to form only a
small part of the total area.
What the Geologists Say About Oil and Gas Prospects in
Different Counties of Arkansas
This county is located in the Coastal Plain region in which the pros-
pects for finding large quantities of oil, particularly if good anticlines or
domes can bo located, are, perhaps, better than in other portions of the
State. Prospect wells have been drilled in several parts of the county, but
no production has been reported. The geology of the region is explained
in U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 391, Geology and Ground Waters of
No detailed oil and gas investigations have been made and the State
has no information concerning the discovery in that area of any commercial
amounts of oil or gas. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect
from an examination of the surface, anticlines or domes in the buried for-
mations, on account of the heavy mantle of deposits of recent geological age.
The geology of the region is explained in Bulletin 429, 1910. "Oil and Gas
in Louisiana and Adjacent States," and in Professional Paper 46, 1906,
published by the IT. S. Geol. Surv.
It is the general opinion that the region of Exposed Paleozoric rocks
in Arkansas, which embraces Baxter County, offers no promise for the
discovering of commercial oil pools because the formations have been too far
compressed and altered. Small deposits of natural gas have been found and
it is probable that additional supplies will be developed at points of favor-
able anticlinal or domal structure.
Detailed descriptions of Benton County are embodied in Geologic Folios
119, 154 and 202. Any commercial amounts of oil encountered in extreme
Northwestern Arkansas will probably be in formations of greater geologic
age than those yielding oil and gas in Oklahoma and Kansas.
In a description of the Eureka Springs and Harrison quadrangles, by
A. H. Purdue and H. D. Miser, published by the U. S. Geological Survey, the
following statement is made. "Considerable money has been spent in North-
ern Arkansas in drilling wells with the hope of finding oil or gas, but neither
has yet been found in commercial quantity north of Crawford and Franklin
counties. Furthermore, the character of the rocks does not indicate that
either oil or gas will be found in commercial quantity in the quadrangles
under discussion or in the adjoining parts of Northern Arkansas and South-
ern Missouri. However, any wells that are put down should be sunk
on the domes. Oil may perhaps be distilled from the Chattanooga shale."
This county is located in the Ozark region, where the formations have
been too far altered and compressed to permit the survival of commercial
oil pools even if oil were once present. Some natural gas has been dis-
covered in Northwest Arkansas and it is possible that additional supplies
will be developed at points of favorable structure. The geology of this
region is mapped and described in Geologic Folio 119 and 202.
The general geological conditions in this county are similar to those in
the southcentral portion of the State, where oil and gas wells have been
78 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
developed. Professional Paper 46 discusses the geology and underground
water resources of this section and a study of the Coastal Plain region,
which embraces Bradley County, would be aided by reference to U. S. Geol.
Surv. Bulletin 429, 1910, "Oil and Gas in Louisiana and Adjacent States."
The Coastal Plain region of Arkansas embracing the eastern and south-
ern parts of the State probably offers greater promise for the discovery of
commercial quantities of oil than other portions of Arkansas. Professional
Paper 46, U. S. Geol. Surv. contains descriptions and a map of the general
geology of Northern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas. Favorable indica-
tions have induced prospectors to drill for oil at different places in the
county, but up to this time there has been no production.
This county has been geologically mapped and described in detail in
Geological Folio 202, covering the Eureka Springs and Harrison quadrangles.
The oil and gas possibilities of the section are briefly discussed. In the
opinion of most oil and gas geologists the formations in this region have
been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial pools
of oil, though natural gas may be found at points of favorable structure. It
is recommended that any wells that may be put down should be sunk on the
domes. Oil may perhaps be distilled from the Chattanooga shale.
No detailed investigations have been made of the geology or structure
of Chicot County, with regard to oil and gas. Information concerning the
geology of this county may be obtained from Professional Paper 46, "Geol-
ogy and Underground Water Resources of Northern Louisiana and Southern
Arkansas," published by the U. S. Geol. Surv. Chicot County is located in
the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for finding commercial
amounts of oil are probably better than in other parts of the State, but there
has been made no detailed examinations of the geologic structure in that area
with a view to determining the oil and gas possibilitis. In fact that
part of Arkansas is so covered by. deposits of recent geologic age that an
investigation of the surface does not make possible the detection of anticlines
or domes favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas in the buried forma-
tion in which oil, if present, would be found. The geological conditions in
Chicot County are similar to those in Southcentral Arkansas where both
oil and gas have been found.
The geology of Clark County is as varied as is its topography. As will
be seen by the Drake Map, a part of this county is included in the most fa-
vorable and a part in the most unfavorable area for the finding of oil and
gas in the State. There is a persistent belief that these minerals are pres-
ent and there has recently been active prospecting in the vicinity of Arkadel-
phia, Gurdon and Whelen Springs.
In the United States Geological Survey Bulletin No. 429, G. D. Harris
has the following to say under the heading, "Oil and Gas in Louisiana, with
a Brief Summary of their Occurrence in Adjacent States."
"As oil and gas occur in Southern Louisiana and Southeastern Texas in
commercial quantities in the vicinity of Saline domes, a few hundred acres
in extent, most of such localities being separated by barren regions scores
of miles wide, it is highly important for future development that the manner
of occurrence of these salines should be carefully studied, so that probably
productive territory may be separated from territory in which the discovery
of oil or gas is unlikely. * * * In the opinion of the writer, all the saline
domes are located along lines of fracture in the deep-lying Mesozoic, and
Palezoic rocks, and in general their location seems to be at the crossing
of such lines. * * * The large amounts of gas and oil found in the
Caddo field, Louisiana, appear to be simply following east and north
slopes of a great uplift, and concentrating or reconcentrating along slight
anticlinal ridges. * * * Hopes may be entertained of finding oil and gas so
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 79
entrapped in wells sunk in various places near the Eocene-Cretaceous con-
tact from Arkadelphia and to beyond San Antonio, Texas."
The area east of Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas, in fact almost all of Clay
County lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the chances for finding
commercial pools of oil at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure
are better than in other parts of the State. There has been considerable
prospecting lately but up to this time no production of either oil or gas is
reported. The geology of this section is explained in Water Supply Paper
399, U. S. Geological Survey.
As this county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks it is the
opinion of geologists that the formations have been too far altered to offer
promise for the discovery of large amounts of oil, though natural gas may
be present at points of favorable structure. The geology of this section
is explained and mapped in Geologic Folio 202.
This county is situated in the Coastal Plain region where conditions
are regarded as being more favorable for the finding of oil and gas than
elsewhere in the State. Dr. John C. Branner and Dr. N. F. Drake, both
former State geologists, have made locations for prospect wells in this
county. Three wells are now being drilled, two on these locations near
Rison and a third near New Edinburg. There is some fairly good evidence of a
gentle anticlinal fold extending northeast by southwest through the central
part of Cleveland County. Dr. Drake says: "A test well might prove suc-
cessful at most any depth between 1000 and 4000 feet or even a greater
depth. All things considered this area appeals to me to offer a fair chance
for success and one that is well worth the taking."
This county lies adjacent to Union County in which is located the new
El Dorado oil and gas field and it is situated immediately north of the
Homer and Haynesville fields in Louisiana, in the Coastal- Plains region
where conditions are more favorable for the finding of oil and gas than any
other part of Arkansas. Several deep wells have been drilled in Columbia
County. The geology of the section is explained and mapped in Professional
Paper 46, published by the U. S. Geological Survey and in a press bulletin
issued by the U. S. Geological Survey on the Eldorado field. Showings of
oil were encountered in the Trinity well, Sec. 26, T. 18 S., R. 18 W., and
in a well just west of Stephens.
From what is known concerning the geology of Conway County it
may b.e said that, while natural gas may be found in paying quantities at
points of favorable anticlinal or doma] structure, it is probable that the
formations have been too much altered and compressed in that part of the
State to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of petroleum.
The late Dr. A. H. Purdue, former State geologist,, expressed the belief
that indications were favorable for the extension of the gas field through
the Arkansas Valley as far east as Little Rock and recommended the drilling
of wells, wherever anticlines occurred in that territory.
The general geology of Northeastern Arkansas has been mapped and
described in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed examin-
ation of the geological and structural conditions with special regard to oil
and gas, and no commercial amounts of oil and gas have yet been found in
this area. Craighead County is located in the Coastal Plain region in
which the prospects for finding large quantities of oil, at points of favorable
anticlinal or domal structure, are probably better than in other portions
of the State.
80 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Much of Crawford County and a part of Franklin County are embraced
in Geologic Folio 154 of the U. S. Geological Survey. Bulletin 541 contains
a short report on the Fort Smith-Poteau gas fields, lying partly in this
region. There are numerous producing gas wells in the Arkansas River
Valley in the southern part of Crawford County. This county lies in the
region of exposed paleozoric rocks, which is not regarded by oil and gas
geologists in general as favorable for the occurrence of large amounts of
oil on account of the advanced stage of alteration of this formation. An
explanation of the failure to find oil in the Western Arkansas gas field is
offered by Dr. David White who estimates that where the fixed carbon
content of the coal is 65% the oils which may formerly have been present
in the same or underlying formations have mostly disappeared and that
where coal shows a carbon ratio of 70% oil will not be found in commercial
quantities though gas pools may be present.
This county lies in the Coastal Plain region where the prospects are
most favorable for the presence of oil and gas but the county is covered by
deposits of recent geologic age; thus it is difficult to detect indications
favorable for the accumulation of these minerals in the buried formation.
The general geology of this section is mapped in Water Supply Paper 399,
"Geology and Ground Waters of Northeastern Arkansas."
If favorable anticlines or domes can be located either on Crowley's
Ridge, or in the valleys on the east and west sides of the ridge, it is probable-
that oil deposits will be found in Cross County as it is a part of the Coastal
Region in which the prospects for discovery of commercial oil pools are
probably better than in other parts of the State. It is difficult to detect in-
dications favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas for the reason that
especially in the valley sections the region is covered by deposits of recent
geologic age. The general geolo-gy of this section is mapped in Water
Supply Paper 399, "Geology and Ground Waters of Northeastern Arkansas.""
Favorable indications have induced the drilling of deep wells at Fordyce
and other points in Dallas County but so far without discovering either oil
or gas in commercial amounts. Thirf county is in the heart of the Coastal
Plain region, which geologists think offers greater promise for the dis-
covery of oil than other portions of the State. The geology of this section
is explained in U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 46, "Geology and
Underground Water Resources of Northern Louisiana and Southern
The counties bordering on the Arkansas River in the eastern part of
the State have not been examined in detail with regard to oil and gas pos-
sibilities, but they are included in the Coastal Plain region of Arkansas in
which the prospects for finding commercial quantities of oil at points of
favorable structure are probably better than in other parts of the State.
U. S. Geological Survey Paper 46 describes the geology and underground
resources of 'Southern Arkansas.
No detailed oil and gas investigations have been made and the State
has no information concerning the discovery in that area of any commercial
amounts of oil and gas. Drew county lies in the Coastal Plain region of
Arkansas, in which the prospects for finding commercial amounts of oil,
If favorable anticlines or domes can be located, are probably better than in
other parts of the State. The general geology of Drew County is mapped"
and described in Professional Paper 46, "The Geology and Underground
Water Resources of Northern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas." It would
be difficult, if not impossible, to detect, from an examination of the surface,.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 81
anticlines or domes in the buried formations, on account of the heavy
mantle of deposits of recent geologic age. Several deep wells are being
drilled on the Monticello Ridge near the city of Monticello.
This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks where, it is
believed, the formations have been too far altered and compressed to be
favorable for the occurrence of commercial oil pools, though natural gas
may be present at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. No
report has been published dealing with oil and gas conditions in this region.
The formations outcropping in this part of the Ozarks are of greater geologic
age than those in which oil and gas have been found in commercial quan-
tities in this country, especially in the Mid-Continent fields. The late Dr.
A. H. Purdue, former State geologist, expressed the belief that indications
were favorable for the extension of the gas field through the Arkansas Valley
as far east as Little Rock and recommended the drilling of wells wherever
anticlines occurred in that territory.
A small part of Franklin County is embraced in Geologic Polio 154, pub-
lished by the U. S. Geological Survey. Although there is a production of
natural gas in the adjoining county of Crawford and a showing of oil has
been reported as being found in shallow wells at Ozark, there has been no
commercial production. This part of the State lies in the region of exposed
paleozoic rocks and is not regarded by oil and gas geologists in general as
favorable for the occurrences of large amounts of oil on account of the ad-
vanced stage of alteration of the formations. Deep wells have been drilled
in different parts of the county, so far, without results. One of these tests
was in a well located anticline where there was thought to be possibilities
of oil in the lower part of the Pennsylvania formation. There is also a
favorable anticline at Jethro in the northern part of the county.
This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks, where, in the
opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too much
altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of oil.
This region is treated geologically in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin
691- J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas."
Garland County is in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, in the
opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too far
altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial pools of oil. There
has been no detailed examination of the geology or structure with regard to
oil and gas possibilities. There is no possibility that either oil in com-
mercial quantities or gas in large pools will be found in the Ouachita Moun-
tain region of west-central Arkansas. The Carboniferous and older rocks
have been so highly tilted and so much fractured and metamorphosed that if
oil or gas were ever present in them the gas and much of the oil would
have made their escape to the surface and the remainder of the oil would
have been distilled to asphalt.
This county lies within the Coastal Plain region where conditions are
more favorable than elsewhere in the State for the accumulation of oil and
natural gas and there is encouragement for prospecting where anticlines and
domes can be located. The geology of this section is explained in Water
Supply Paper 46, published by the U. S. Geological Survey. There has been
no detailed survey for oil and gas and no commercial production of either
mineral has been reported though several deep wells are now being
drilled in the county.
The general geology of Northeastern Arkansas has been mapped and
described in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed examin-
82 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
ation of the geological and structural conditions with special regard to oil
and gas and no commercial amounts of oil and gas have yet been found in
this area. Greene County is located in the Coastal Plain region in which the
prospects for finding large quantities of oil at points of favorable anticlinal
or domal structure, are probably better than in other portions of the State.
This county lies in the Coastal Plain region where the prospects for the
discovery of commercial amounts of oil, especially if anticlines or domes
can be located there, are probably better than in other parts of the State.
A small map showing the geology of Hempstead County is included in
Bulletin 691- J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in Southwestern Arkan-
sas," published by the U. S. Geological Survey. Several deep wells have
lately been drilled into what is regarded as favorable structure in the
vicinity of Hope but there has as yet been no commercial production of
either gas or oil.
The general geology of Hot Spring County has been described and
mapped in Professional Paper 46, "Geology and Underground Water Re-
sources of Northern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas." This county lies
partly in the Coastal Plain region and partly in the area of exposed paleo-
zoic rocks, the first being regarded as favorable and the second unfavorable
for the accumulation of oil and gas. A deep well was drilled near Gifford
but did not encounter either mineral.
The southern part of Howard County lies in the Coastal Plain region
and if local anticlines or domes could be located, ft is possible that com-
mercial quantities of oil may be found there. Bulletin 691-J, published by
the U. S. Geological Survey deals with the asphalt deposits and oil possi-
bilities of this section. The Cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Arkansas
have a southward dip of about 100 feet to the mile and, although they
have been slightly warped, no pronounced anticlines or synclines occur in
Pike, Howard and Sevier counties. Thus if petroleum occurs in the region
south of the asphalt deposits, its accumulation into quantities of possible
commercial importance would probably be controlled by terrace structure,
lanticular character of sands or irregularities in the Cretaceous floor.
Small amounts of natural gas have been encountered in wells in the vi-
cinity of Batesville and it is regarded as probable that favorable structure
embracing Upper Mississippian formations may give gas in commercial
amounts especially on the south side of White River. The formations in
this part of Arkansas, it is believed, have been too far altered to be favor-
able for the occurrence of large quantities of oil. Geological conditions
north and northwest of Batesville are described in Bulletin 715-G, U. S.
Geological Survey. An examination in the vicinity of Batesville was made
by the U. S. Geological Survey several years ago but no report was pub-
lished for the reason that the conditions were not encouraging from the
standpoint of oil prospects, although hardly discouraging with reference to
possible development of natural gas in small supplies. It is the opinion
that the alterations of the rocks in the Batesville district has probably pro-
gressed too far to offer promise for the discovery of commercial oil pools,
though natural gas may be present in paying quantities at points of favorable
structure folds or anticlines.
It is the opinion of geologists that the region of exposed paleozoic rocks
in Arkansas, which embraces Izard County, offers no promise for the dis-
covery of commercial oil pools because the formations have been too far
compressed or altered. 'Small deposits of natural gas have been found and
it is probable that additional supplies will be developed at points of favor-
able anticlinal or domal structure.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 83
Newport, the seat of Jackson County, is located on the border of the
Coastal Plain. To the eastward the conditions are favorable for the dis-
covery of oil. To the westward there are indications of natural gas, but
not of oil in commercial amounts although oil seepages have been en-
countered. The geology of the region is explained in U. S. Geological Sur-
vey Water Supply Paper 399 and the report of a special survey of the
Batesville district, known as U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 716, will
prove of special interest in a study of the oil and gas geology of Jackson
No survey for oil and gas has been made of Jefferson County. This
being a part of the Coastal Plain region it is believed that the presence
of oil and gas may be expected where the structure is favorable. The gen-
eral geology of this section is described in Professional Paper 46, published
by the U. S. Geological Survey. Also in Water Supply Paper 399. Consid-
erable drilling has been done in Jefferson County. In a well sunk several
years ago at Faith, in T. 75, R. 10 W. it is reported that a showing of oil
was encountered at a depth of 2231 feet, but the test was abandoned at a
depth of 2541 feet. On account of the covering of deposits of a recent
geologic age, the detection of local anticlines or domes, favorable for the
accumulation of oil or gas, in the buried formations, is difficult if not im-
possible from an investigation of surface criteria.
Johnson County lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which,
in the opinion of geologists, the formations have been too far altered and
compressed to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of
oil, though natural gas has been found in this region and additional supplies
will probably be developed at points of favorable anticlinal or domal
structure. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletins 326 and 427 deal with the
geology of this region. Gas was reported to have been found at 2260 feet
on the J. W. Pierson farm, five miles northwest of Clarksville (22-10-24), in
Geological conditions especially favor Lafayette County in the matter
of oil and gas development, it being situated contiguous to both the El
Dorado field in Arkansas and the Caddo field in Louisiana and is embraced
in the Coastal Plain region where geologists concede the best chances exist
for finding oil and gas in Arkansas. Several wells have been drilled but
so far there has been no production in this county. The geology of
Lafayette Countly is explained in Professional Paper 46, published by the
U. S. Geological Survey and in Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil
Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas," also published by the Survey, there
is a good deal of information about conditions generally in Southwest
The general geology of this part of Arkansas has been mapped and
described in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no special survey
for oil and gas. The eastern part of Lawrence County is located in the
Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for finding large quantities of
oil at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure, are probably better
than in other portions of the State. Western Lawrence County is in the
area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, in the opinion of most oil and
gas geologists, the formations have been too much altered to offer promise
for the discovery of large amounts of oil, though natural gas may be present
where the structure is favorable.
Owing to the heavy deposits of a recent geologic age it is aiincuic
from a study of the surface conditions to detect favorable locations, in Lee
84 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
County, for the accumulation in the buried structure, of oil and gas in com-
mercial amounts. The whole county lies in the Coastal Plain region where
conditions are regarded as more encouraging than in other parts of the
State. The geology of this district is explained and mapped in U. S.
Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399, "Underground Waters of North-
This section has not been examined in detail with regard to oil and
gas but it lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for finding
commercial quantities of oil at points of favorable structure are probably
better than in other parts of the State. U. S. Geological Survey Paper 4fi
describes the geology and underground resources of Southern Arkansas
Since the geological and strategraphic conditions in Little! River
County are similar to those in the producing oil and gas fields of North-
western Louisiana (and Southern Arkansas) it seems probable that com-
mercial amounts of oil and gas will be found in the county if favorable
anticlines or domes can be located. However, no detailed examinations have
been made to determine the local structural conditions and, in fact, any
such determination would be difficult if not impossible, on account of the
covering of deposits of recent geologic age which conceals the structure
of the underlying formations. The general geologic features of Little River
County are shown in a map included in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin
691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas "
Some information concerning the geology and broad structure of Logan
County is given in Bulletin 326, a report on the Arkansas coal field. Logan
County is embraced in the coal field area of Arkansas, in which in the opinion
of most oil and gas geologists the formations have been too far altered and
compressed to be favorable for the occurrence of oil in commercial amounts,
though natural gas has been found and it is probable that additional supplies
will be developed at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. Deep
wells have recently been drilled near Booneville and Magazine but no
production of oil has been reported.
The geology of this part of Arkansas is discussed quite fully in Water
Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed investigations to determine
the oil and gas prospects. Lonoke County is located in the Coastal Plain
region in which the prospects for the discovery of commercial quantities of
oil, at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure, are probably better
than in other parts of the State. Dr. John C. Branner, former State geologist,
made the location for a prospect oil well which at this writing is being
drilled in the vicinity of England.
Detailed descriptions of the northern half of Madison County are em-
bodied in Geologic Folios 119, 154 and 202. Any commercial amounts of oil
encountered in extreme Northwestern Arkansas will probably be in forma-
tions of greater geologic age than those yielding oil and gas in Oklahoma and
Kansas. In the opinions of most oil and gas geologists the formations in
this region have been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery
of commercial pools of oil, though natural gas may be found at points of
The formations in this section have been too far altered and com-
pressed to permit the survival of commercial oil pools, even if oil once
were present. Some natural gas has been discovered in Northwest Arkansas
and it is possible that additional supplies will be developed at points of fav-
orable structure. The geology of this region is mapped and described in
Geologic Folios 119 and 202.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 85
The geology of Southwestern Arkansas is discussed in U. S. Geological
Survey Bulletins 661-C, 690-B and 691-J. The first bulletin contains some in-
formation regarding the Sabine Uplift including a map showing its location
and partial extent. It also describes the Trinity sand and strata of Eocene
age. Bulletin 691-J discusses the asphalt deposits and oil conditions and
gives information concerning the Trinity formation in Southwestern Arkan-
sas. Numerous wells have been drilled in Miller County without any pro-
duction so far being reported.
This county lies in the valley between two great rivers, the Mississippi
and the St. Francis and the entire surface is covered with many feet of
alluvial soil brought down in recent years from the water sheds of these
streams. It is therefore difficult if not impossible to detect from surface
indications the locations most favorable for the accumulation in the buried
deposits of commercial amounts of oil and gas. The whole county lies in
the Coastal Plain region where conditions are regarded as being more fav-
orable than elsewhere in the State. The geology of Mississippi County is
explained in U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399.
The Coastal Plain region, embracing Monroe County, offers the greatest
promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of oil and there is en-
couragement for the drilling of wells at points where a favorable structure
is to be found. The geology of this section is explained in U. S. Geological
Survey, Professional Paper 46.
This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which in
the opinion of most oil and gas geologists the formations have been too far
altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial pools of oil, though
gas may be found at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. The
geology of this general section is discussed in U. S. Geological Survey Bul-
letin 691-J. There has been no detailed examination of the geology or
structure with regard to oil and gas possibilities.
This county lies in the Coastal Plain region in close proximity to the
producing El Dorado field. The geologic maD shows the area about equally
divided between the Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous formations. The
geologists say that metamorphic action has not altered the beds to a de-
gree that would destroy oil accumulations and in favorable anticlinal and
domal situations it may reasonably be expected that oil and gas would be
found in Nevada County. The geology of the section is explained in U. S.
Geological Survey Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in
Southwestern Arkansas." Several deep wells have been drilled in the
vicinity of Prescott but no production of either oil or gas is reported
at this time.
This county is located in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which
in the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too
far altered to offer promise for the discovery of large amounts of oil, though
natural gas may be present at points of favorable structure. The geology
of this section is explained and mapped in Geologic Folio 202. The out-
croppings in the Ozark region are of greater geologic age than those in which
oil and gas have been found in commercial quantities in this country, especi-
ally in the Mid-Continent field.
This county is in the Coastal Plain region which embraces the eastern
and southern parts of the State, including Union County where oil and gas
have recently been developed. Before the bringing in of the discovery
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
well in El Dorado a showing of oil was reported from the Hunter well
located near Stephens and for a time there was a good deal of activity in
the buying and selling of leases in the neighborhood. It was reported that
one of the large oil syndicates obtained control of the field. There has
since been no new drilling and no oil is being produced at this time. At
Chidester and other places in the county efforts also have been made to
find oil and gas. The geology of the rogion is explained in U. S. Geological
Survey Bulletin 429, 1910, "Oil and Gas in Louisiana and Adjacent States,"
and in Professional Paper 46, 1906, IT. S. Geological Survey.
No examination of the geology and structure of Perry County has been
made with a view to determining the oil and gas possibilities in that area.
The county lies in the region of exposed paleozoic formations in which,
in the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too
much altered to offer promise for the occurrence of commercial oil pools.
It is, however, possible that natural gas may be found if favorable anti-
clines or domes can be located. The fact that several hundred wells drilled
in the paleozoic region of Arkansas have failed to encounter commercial
amounts of oil constitutes important evidence as to the improbability of
finding such deposits there.
This is a typical "bottom land" county on the Mississippi River front
and, except for the tertiary projection known as Crowley's Ridge, the whole
area is covered by sediment brought down in recent times by the great river
and its tributaries. These deposits covering as they do the Quaternary beds
prevent a study of the structure where it would be expected that oil and
gas might accumulate and knowledge will be gained only by the drilling of
prospect wells where conditions seem most favorable. This being a part of
the Coastal Plain region the geologists agree that the indications are as fav-
orable for finding oil and gas in Phillips County as in any other part of the
The geology of this section is mapped and discussed in U. S. Geological
Survey Bulletin 691-J describing the asphalt deposits and oil conditions of
Southwestern Arkansas, embracing Pike County. The presence of asphalt
in Pike and Sevier counties has from time to time attracted the attention of
those interested in oil development and a few wells have been sunk with
the hope of finding oil, but thus far oil has not been found in commercial
quantity. The Trinity formation which covers a part of the county con^
tains petroleum and asphalt at many places in Northern Texas and South-
western Oklahoma. The petroleum yielding the asphalt in Arkansas is be-
lieved to have been derived from the carboniferous rocks underlying the
Trinity formation near the base of which the asphalt is found.
The Cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Arkansas have a southward
dip of about 100 feet to the mile, and although they have been slightly
warped, no pronounced anticlines or synclines occur in Pike, Howard and
Sevier counties. Thus, if petroleum occurs in the region south of the
asphalt deposits, its accumulation into quantities of possible commercial
importance would probably be controlled by terrace structure, lenticular
character of sands, or irregularities in the Cretaceous floor.
This county lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects
for discovering commercial oil pools are probably better than in other parts
of Arkansas. If favorable anticlines or domes can be located it is probable
that oil deposits will be found there. The region is covered by deposits of
recent geologic age, so that it is difficult, if not impossible, from an exam-
ination of the surface, to detect indications favorable for the accumulation of
oil and gas in the buried formation. The general geology of this section is
mapped in Water Supply paper 399, "Geology and Ground Waters of North-
eastern Arkansas." There has recently been considerable prospecting in
the vicinity of Harrisburg, but so far no production is reported.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 87
This county is located in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which,
in the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too
much compressed and too far altered to offer promise for the discovery of
commercial pools of oil, although it is possible that natural gas might be
found at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. The general
geological features of the a^eu are &hown on a map included in Bulletin
691-J, relating to asphalt deposits aud oil conditions in Southwestern
This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks, in which, in the
opinion of geologists, the formations have been too far altered and com-
pressed to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of oil,
though natural gas has been found in the region and additional supplies
will probably be developed at points of favorable anticlinal or domal struct-
ure. U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 326, pertaining to the coal fields
of the State, gives information regarding the geology of this section.
Included in the Coastal Plain region, Prairie county is thought to have
favorable chances for finding oil and gas in commercial quantities, but there
has been no detailed survey with special reference to these minerals and
very little is known as to the location of favorable anticlines or domes.
The general geology of the region is explained in Professional Paper 46,
U. S. Geological Survey, and in Water Supply Paper 399, by the same
survey, the latter dealing with the geology and underground waters of
With the exception of the southeastern corner Pulaski County lies
in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which it is thought that the forma-
tions have been too much altered and compressed to offer promise of the
survival of commercial pools of oil, even if oil was once present. The south-
eastern corner of the county is in the Coastal Plain region in which the
prospects of finding commercial amounts of oil are better than in other
parts of the State but no survey has been made to determine whether the
formations are of sufficient aggregate thickness or have been folded into
domes or anticlines so that they offer conditions favorable for the occurrence
of commercial oil pools. Several deep wells have been drilled without en-
countering either oil or gas. It is believed that the Western Arkansas gas
field may be found to extend eastward as far as Little Rock.
No detailed examination has been made of the geological and structural
features of Northeastern Arkansas, with regard to oil and gas possibilities,
and no commercial amounts of oil have been found in Randolph County.
The general geology of this section has been mapped and described in U. S.
Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399. A portion of the southeastern
part of Randolph County lies in the Coastal Plain region which probably
offers greater promise for the discovery of commercial oil pools than other
portions of the State. The region of exposed paleozoic rocks is regarded as
unfavorable for the accumulation of oil in commercial quantities but it is
possible that natural gas may be found here, where the structure Is
In the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in Arkansas, embracing most of
Saline County, it is probable that the formations have been too greatly com-
pressed and altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts
of oil, though natural gas may be present at points of favorable anticlinal
or domal structure. The geology of this general section is discussed in Bul-
letin 429, U. S. Geological Survey, "Oil and gas in Louisiana and adjacent
States," and Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions of South-
western Arkansas," also published by the Survey.
88 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
A part of this county lies in the natural gas belt of Western Arkansas.
Bulletin 326, which is a report on the Arkansas coal field, describes the
geology of parts of Scott and Yell counties. Bulletin 541 contains a report
of the Fort Smith-Poteau gas field, and describes the geology of the north-
ern part of Scott County. It is the opinion of most oil and gas geologists
that the formations in that part of Arkansas embracing Scott County have
been too far altered by regional metamorphism to offer promise for the dis-
covery of oil in commercial amounts, although it is probable that additional
supplies of natural gas will be found at points of favorable anticlinal or
domal structure. A showing of oil was obtained in a well drilled to a depth
of 2700 feet near Waldron some years ago but the well did not prove a pro-
Information regarding the general geology of Searcy County is given
in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed investigations such
as are essential to any determination of oil or gas prospects in this county.
Searcy County lies in the region of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, ac-
cording to the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have
been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial oil
pools. Natural gas may be found in the region, in anticlines and domes,
where the folding has not been too severe.
The Fort Smith-Poteau gas field has been mapped and describel by the
U. S. Geological Survey in Bulletin 541. If favorable anticlines or domes
can be located in this part of the State it is probable that additional gas
supplies may be developed.
The first gas well was drilled in Arkansas on the Massard Prairie,
south of Fort Smith in 1901. The producing field at present extends north
and south of the Arkansas River, from near Alma on the east to Poteau,
Oklahoma, embracing parts of Crawford, Sebastian and Scoft counties. ' The
production of natural gas in this field from wells drilled in 1919 exceeded
200,000,000 cubic feet a day. One well has a record of 24,000,000 cubic feet
a day and is rated as one of the largest in the Southwest.
Gas is found at depths of from 750 to 3175 feet. There are seven dis-
tinct producing sands, each from 40 to 280 feet thick. The product is dry,
clean and odorless. Under government test this gas shows a heating record
of 1057 British thermal units, which is considerably higher than the tests
made by most gases from the 'Southwestern field.
Five companies are operating in the Arkansas field and pipe lines are
laid from the wells to nearby cities for distribution to more than 100 indus-
tries and thousands of private homes.
The following analysis of natural gas from the Kibler field in Crawford
county is furnished to the department by Mr. Walter D. Van Sickel, general
manager of the Southwestern General Gas Company, Fort Smith, Ark.
Carbon Dioxide 0.14%
Methene , 97.60%
Gross 1070 B. T. U.
Net 971 B. T. U.
As to oil prospects in the Western Arkansas natural gas field, Dr. Drake,
former State geologist, says :
"Metamorphism has for a long time been recognized as a means of de-
stroying oil accumulations. It offers what is apparently the best explana-
tion for not finding oil in the Kibler, Massard Prairie and neighboring gas
fields of Western Arkansas."
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 89
The geological and stratagraphic features of Southwestern Arkansas
are similar to those in the producing oil and gas field of Northwestern
Louisiana (and Southern Arkansas) and if favorable anticlines or domes
can be located in the former region it is probable that commercial amounts
of oil and gas will be found there. No commercial amounts of oil or gas
have yet been found in Sevier County although traces of both have been
encountered. Information concerning oil and gas conditions in this part
of Arkansas are included in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt
Deposits and Gil Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas," whichi says:
"The Cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Arkansas have a southward dip of
about 100 feet to the mile and, although they have been slightly warped,
no pronounced anticlines or synclines occur in Pike, Howard and Sevier
counties. Thus it' petroleum occurs in the region south of the asphalt
deposits its accumulation into quantities of possible commercial importance
would probably be controlled by terrace structure, lenticular character of
sands or irregularity in the cretaceous rock. A flow of gas was obtained
near DeQueen in 1918.
The general geology of Sharp County is shown on a map included in
Water Supply Paper 399, "Geology and Ground Waters of Northwestern
Arkansas." No commercial amounts of oil have been found in that part
of Arkansas and it is the general opinion that the formations have been
too far altered and too greatly compressed to offer promise for the discovery
of oil pools, though natural gas may be found at points of favorable anti-
clinal or domal structure.
Except for Crowley's Ridge, which extends north and south through
the center of St. Francis County, it is difficult to study the geology of this
district and its relation to the development of oil and gas for the reason
that the greater part of the county, east and west of the ridge is overlaid by
deposits of a recent geological age, preventing a study of the buried forma-
tions in which it may be expected that these minerals will be found. The
county is in the Coastal Plain region which is regarded as being favorably
situated for the accumulation of oil and gas. The geology of the district is
explained in U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399.
Geologists seem to agree that the region of exposed paleozoic rocks in
Arkansas, which embraces Stone County, offers no promise for the discovery
of commercial oil pools for the reason that the formations have been too far
compressed and altered. Small deposits of natural gas have been found
and it is probable that additional s applies will be developed at points of
favorable anticlinal or domal structure.
The Eldorado oil and gas field is fully described in a special bulletin
compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey later to be published by the Ar-
kansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture. The following
is taken from -an advance press bulletin issued by the Survey prior to the
completion of the discovery well on Jan. 10, 1921.
"The formations in Southern Arkansas are practically identical with
those that yield oil and gas in Northern Louisiana and the location of the
area, with relation to the Ouachita and Saline uplifts, indicates that there
is in that area favorable anticlinal structure comparable to the anticlines
beneath which the Caddo and Homer pools were formed. Most important
of all, oil and gas have been actually found, the first strike occurring in the
Spring of 1920 in the Constantin Refining Company's well about four
miles southwest of Eldorado, when a flow of gas estimated at from
10,000.000 to 100,000,000 cubic feet a day and a spray of oil was obtained."
Since this time more than 598 producing oil wells and 30 gas wells have
been completed and this development has centered attent'on in Union, Col-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
umbia and Ouachita counties, though LaFayette, Nevada, Bradley and Ash-
ley counties are also regarded as containing favorable areas.
"The surface formations are principally sands, gravels and clays of
Pleistocene age and clays and sandstones of the Claiborne group, of Eocene
age. Many of the clay beds are "gumbo," red to brown in color, with no
evident fissility or bedding that will aid in deciphering the structure. Others
are gray and are platy, with strikingly marked stratification. There are
also a few buff to tan clays, which contain lenses of coarse gravel. The
gray and brown clays and shales at many places contain a large percentage
of microscopically fine sand and behave like sandstones in revealing the
work of currents by cross-bedding, so that what seems to be structural dips
must be carefully examined before they are accepted as such. * * *
"The existence of anticlinal structure is indicated by pronounced dips
that can be seen in the railroad cuts and along roads through the district.
The observable dips are not sufficiently numerous to reveal the extent
and exact outlines of the folds, but careful work will doubtless disclose
other criteria that may be used in outlining them. In some places the dips
are so steep that they are possibly due to slumping or faulting rather than
to folding, and there is undoubtedly some cross-bedding, but even after
these doubtful areas are ruled out of consideration there remain enough
good exposures in which reliable observations can be made to make it
certain that there are anticlinal folds whose flanks dip from one-half to
six degrees. These pronounced dips indicate that the folds will be large,
as sharp dips on small structural features are rare. * * *
'The evidence available indicates that southwestern Arkansas is one
of the most promising undeveloped regions, and it is hoped that prospecting
will proceed until its potentialities are fully revealed."
El Dorado Production in 1921.
In the El Dorado field there are 589 producing wells having in 1921 a
total production of 11,672,480 barrels, of the value of $23,344,960. The de-
velopment by months was as follows:
. . .. 4
July . ..
Total .................. 672 598 32 42 11,672,480
Analysis of El Dorado Crude.
Reported by U. S. Geological Survey, Sample Number 716, State of Ar-
kansas, El Dorado Field, Union County.
Specific gravity, 0.852
Per cent sulphur, 0.83
Baume" gravity, 34.3
Per cent water, 0.1
Saybolt Universal viscosity at 70 F. 57.0
Saybolt Universal viscosity at 100 F. 46.6
Pour test, below 5 F.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Distillation, Bureau of Mines Hempel Method.
Air distillation, Barometer, 749 mm. First drop/ 31* c. (88* F.)
Temp. Pet. Sum Sp. Gr.
C Cut Pet. Cut
Up to 50
50- 75 4.5 4.5 0.680
75-100 4.2 8.7 .701
100-125 7.1 15.8 .722
125-150 6.2 22.0 .746
150-175 5.1 27.1 .772
175-200 3.6 30.7 .795
200-225 3.5 34.2 .810
225-250 4.4 38.6 .823
250-275 5.1 43.7 .833
Vacuum distillation at 40 mm.
Up to 200 5.5 5.5 .853
200-225 6.5 12.0 .860
225-250 5.9 17.9 .874
250-275 5.4 23.3 .890
275-300 4.6 27.9 .903
Carbon residue of residuum 10.3%.
B. Viscos- Test Temp.
Cut ity *F F
Up to 122
Up to 392
Per cent. Sp. Gr. B.
Gasoline and naphtha 30.7 0.735 60.5
Kerosene 13.0 .823 40.1
Gas oil 12.0 .857 33.4
Light lubricating distillate 11.3 .882 28.7
Medium lubricating distillate 4.6 .903 25.0
Formations outcropping in Van Buren County are of greater geological
age than those in which oil and gas have been found in commercial quantities
in this country, especially in the Mid-Continent fields. This county is in the
area of exposed paleozoic rocks where It is the opinion of geologists that
the formations have been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery
of large amounts of oil though natural gas may be present at points of
favorable structure. The geology of this section is explained and mapped
in Geologic Folio 202.
Any commercial amounts of oil encountered in extreme Northwestern
Arkansas will probably be in formations of greater geologic age than those
yielding oil and gas in Oklahoma and Kansas. Detailed descriptions of the
eastern edge of Washington County are embodied in Geologic Folios 119,
154 and 202. A well 300 feet deep located four miles northwest of Fayette-
ville has for several years furnished gas fuel for cooking and heating at a
The occurrence of oil and gas in the vicinity of Fayetteville has led
many to the expectation that something substantial might be realized from
it. But the oil indications are based solely upon the occurrence of petroleum
in small quantities in the Fayetteville shale, and the gas thus far discovered
is evidently from the same source, and likewise of small quantity. Oil may
occur in the rocks of any geological horizon, and the mere fact of its pres-
ence is not, as many suppose, prima facie evidence of the existence of
petroleum in paying quantities. The Fayetteville shale has been pretty
thoroughly explored, and there is no substantial reason for expecting it to
prove a source of oil.
It may be well in this connection to correct an error in regard to the
relation of the structural geology of this part of the State to this il-satur-
92 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
ated rock on Cove Creek. It has been thought that the rocks in the Boston
Mountains dipped north forming a basin in the central or northern part of
Washington County, and that the oil-bearing rocks exposed on Cove Creek
would therefore be found at a considerable depth in Benton County and in
Northern Washington County, and rich in oil. This is a grave mistake. The
general dip of the rocks through the Boston Mountains is to the south,
though there are many local dips in other directions.
Water Supply Paper 399 contains a geologic map of White County and
describes the geology of the southeast half of this county. White County is
located on the border between the area of paleozoic rocks and the Coastal
Plain region. In the former region, it is probable that the formations have
been too far altered and compressed to be favorable for the occurrence of
commercial oil pools though natural gas may be present at points of favor-
able anticlinal or domal structure. The Coastal Plain region probably offers
greater promise than other parts of the State for the discovery of oil in
paying quantities but it is not known whether the formations of the Coastal
Plain in White County are of sufficient thickness in the aggregate to offer
favorable conditions for the occurrence of commercial amounts of oil. Deep
wells have recently been drilled in the vicinity of El Paso and near Judsonia
without success in the efforts to find oil.
This county lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for
finding commercial amounts of oil, if favorable anticlines or domes can be
located, are better than in other parts of the State. However there has been
no investigation of the geological and structural conditions in that county in
sufficient detail to gain any knowledge as to the presence of local anticlines
or domes in the buried formations in which oil and gas, if present, would
Bulletin 351 contains a geologic map of Arkansas and brief descriptions
of the geology of Yell County. The larger number of wells that have been
drilled in the region of exposed paleozoic rocks, some of which are in Yell
County, and their failure to encounter commercial amounts of oil constitutes
important evidence as to the improbability of finding such deposits there,
the geologists think. It is possible that natural gas may be found in this
part of the State where favorable anticlines or domes can be located.
Tanks Loaded with Arkansas Oil in El Dorado Yards.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 93
Precious pearls are procured from the fresh water mollusca of White
and Black Rivers in North Arkansas and occasionally from Little River in
Southwest Arkansas. The Arkansas pearls are of rare quality in color and an
unusually high per centage are perfectly shaped. Frequently gems are found
that bring from $300 to $2,500 each.
The pearl-bearing shells are extensively used in the manufacture of
pearl buttons, being dredged from the bottom of the streams by specially
designed boats manned by expert fishermen. Tons of these mollusca are
marketed annually at Black Rock, Newport, DeValls Bluff and Clarendon,
where there are plants for the production of the pearl buttons of commerce.
Titanic and calcium oxides. In cubes, octahedrons, etc., and fine twin
crystals. Magnet Cove.
The developed phosphate deposits of Arkansas are on Lafferty Creek,
on the western edge of Independence County. The only point at which the
beds are now worked is about three-fourths of a mile east of White River
and the same distance from the White River branch of the Missouri Pacific
Railroad. Although this is the only locality at which the deposits have been
developed, they have a wide east-west extent, reaching from the town of
Hickory Valley, ten miles northeast of Batesville, westward at least as far as
St. Joe, in Searcy County, a distance of more than 80 miles. A phosphate
bed, which is practically horizontal, outcrops in a winding line on- the hill-
sides and in other places between the points mentioned. A phosphoric
horizon can be traced to the westward border of the state, but at no point
west of St. Joe have phosphate rocks, in considerable amount, attracted
the attention of geologists. Thin layers of phosphatic sandstone are found
in the Devonian shales in the western part of Carroll County, on War Eagle
The following analyses of specimens of the rock were made in the
laboratory of the United States Geological Survey:
Phosphoric Calcium Phosphate
Acid (P 2 5 ) (Gas (PCM*)
Four inches from top of bed ................................ 25.86 56.45
Middle of bed ........................................................ 27.24 59.46
Eight inches from bottom of bed ........................ 27.40 59.81
Black phosphate ...................................................... 32.60 71.06
Composite sample .................................................... 29.18 63.70
From lower Ded ........................................................ 13.46 29.38
The whole area over which the phosphate beds occur or are to be
expected, has not been examined, and it is not known, therefore, how much
the materials vary in character and composition. Judging from what is
already known it seems reasonable to suppose that better deposits than
any thus far found may yet be discovered. "The point, however, to which
we would direct especial attention," says Doctor Branner, "is that all of these
rocks, even those running high in iron and aluminia, may be used directly as
fertilizers. This is a fact of the first importance to the owners of phosphate
lands and to the farmers of the South."
Mention has also been made of the occurrence of phosphate nodules in
Clark County at a different geological horizon, but the pebbles have never
been found in sufficient quantities to prove of economic interest.
Branner, John C. and XewNom, J. P. The phosphate rocks of Arkansas.
Bulletin No. 74, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1902; Review, En
gineering- and Mining Journal, Abstract 25.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Phosphate Area of Northern Arkansas.
The phosphate deposits of Arkansas. Transactions of American Institute
of Mining Engineers, 1896, Vol. XXVI, 1896.
Arkansas phosphate rocks. Arkansas Democrat, semi-weekly, Little
Rock, November 3, 1901; Harrison Times, Harrison, Arkansas, January 18, 1902.
Purdue, A. H. Developed phosphate deposits of Northern Arkansas. Bul-
letin No. 315, U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, 1907.
Memminger, C. G. Phosphate rocks in Arkansas. Mineral Industry, Vol.
XI, New York, 1903.
Stone, Ralph W. Phosphate Rock in 1918. U. S. Geol. Surv., Mineral Re-
sources of the United States, 1918.
Waggraman, Wm. H. A report on the natural phosphates of Tennessee,
Kentucky, and Arkansas. Bulletin No. 81, United States Department of Ag-
riculture, Bureau of Soils, Washington, 1912.
Hydrous alkaline silicate; Speckstein (Syn). A group well represented,
but needing more study; in granitic rocks, pseudomorphous after lolite?
Also other species probably pseudomorphous after nephelite and other min-
erals; other members of the pinite group occur here and elsewhere; Finite
schist occurs at junction of quarts with black shale. Magnet Cove.
Potash From Leucite Rock
During the world war F. C. Calkins, of the U. S. Geol. Survey, examined
the deposits of leucite rock in the Magnet Cove district of Arkansas with
special reference to their possible utilization as a source of potash, but with
the cessation of hostilities the European supply again became available and
no development work was undertaken. The leucite rock is one of the many
sources of potash which can be made use of in this country, but the difficulty
of recovering the potash from this material renders it of little economic value
in competition with the richer and more easily obtained potash of Germany
and France on our markets.
Besides diamonds, pearls and quartz crystals, which are treated under
separate headings, the Arkansas list of precious stones includes amethysts,
rare, but found occasionally in Montgomery and Yell counties; turquois or
variscite, found in veins of quartz and in concretionary patches in dolomites
in Montgomery county; garnets, in Magnet Cove; false topaz, Hot Spring
County; sunstone, pink or gray, in Magnet Cove; wavelite, the latter found
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 95
also in Magnet Cove; opal, about the ancient hot springs in Saline and Hot
Spring counties; jasper of various colors, in Montgomery and Polk counties;
and agate, finely variegated, in Montgomery county.
Kunz, Georgre Frederick. Gems and precious stones of North America.
Second edition, New York, 1892. Quartz crystals, pp. 110-111; Novaculite, 122;
lodestone, 192; titanite, 194; Arkansite, 194.
Titanic and iron oxide. An iron bearing mineral, near brookite, is prob-
ably this. Magnet Cove.
In serpentine and steatite; Saline County soapstone district, eastern end.
Also reported by Purdue from Searcy County.
Only the non-aluminous green coccolite has been distinctly recognized,
but other varieties may occur.
Quartz crystals of wonderful lustre and form are found in many parts
of Arkansas, notably in the vicinity of Hot Springs, in the Crystal Mountains,
which it is said has furnished some of the largest and most beautiful quartz
crystals in the world. Cavities in the rocks are beautifully coated with
these sparkling gems, many of them of rare color and shape; some of them
with liquid cavities. They are non-mineral bearing and are valuable chiefly
as curios or ornaments, being known as "Hot Springs Diamonds" because
of their manufacture into trinkets and jewelry for sale as souvenirs to
visitors at Arkansas' famous health resort. Clear, limpid specimens are
found at Delaney in Madison County and in Crystal Mountain, near Womble,
Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. I, 1882, pp. 113, 128, 289.
A peculiar form of kaolinite, to which the name rectorite has been
given, is found in Saline County. This material is tough and leathery,
but it has the smooth soap feel so characteristic of the kaolins and of steatite.
It occurs in association with the Carboniferous sandstones of the region, but
the deposits, so far as is known, are only about a foot thick. Rectorite, as
it comes from the ground, ranges in color from pure white to reddish brown.
The sheets are very flexible but entirely without elasticity. It is infusible
before the blow pipe, but when heated in the flame of a Bunsen burner it
loses water and becomes brittle.
The materials best adapted for road making, and having anything like
a wide distribution in Arkansas, are:
A. Arenaceous shales.
B. Chert, of "flint rock."
The arenaceous shales abound in the Lower Coal Measures of the state
in the region south of the north face of the Boston Mountains, north of the
Fourche and Petit Jean Mountains, and west of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain
and Southern Railway. This region contains sandstones and clay shales as well
as sandy shales, but as a rule the sandy shales are very widespread through it.
One needs to guard against the clay shales in this region, for they are about
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 97
as abundant as the sandy shales, and the two often grade into each other
Chert or flint is one of the hardest of rocks, but it doesn't usually occur
in considerable quantities in its original beds, but is everywhere mixed with
more or less lime, so that beds of pure chert often grade into pure limestones
or marbles. The cherts (in place) in this state are confined to the area lying
north of the Boston Mountains and west of the Iron Mountain Railway. Not
all of this area, however, contains chert beds. There are two horizons at
which it occurs in large quantities the first is that of the Boone chert and
cherty limestone lying at or near the base of the Carboniferous series of
rocks; the second is the great chert bed lying far below the Boone chert,
geologically speaking ,and exposed in the counties through which the upper
White River flows. The Boone chert (in place) begins in Independence
county, just west of the Black River, and near Dota postoffice, about five
miles northeast of Sulphur Rock. It forms a belt of ragged edges from five
to fifteen miles wide, crossing the state from this point past Cushman, Moun-
tain View, Marshall, St. Joe, Harrison and Eureka Springs, and forming the
greater part of the surface of Benton county. Without a large map it is im-
possible to show the precise distribution of this Boone chert through the
Northern part of the state.
Novaculite is very like chert, both in composition and in its behavior
as a road-making material. It occurs, however, only in the hilly region lying
south of the Coal Measures, where it forms the Zigzag Mountains about Hot
Springs and the great Ouachita Mountain system south of the Ouachita
River, extending from Rockport, Hot Spring County, nearly to Oklahoma,
west of Dallas, Polk County. It is from this series of rocks that the famous
Arkansas whetstones come. The novaculite is usually much shattered and
fractured as it lies, and, being for the most part a brittle rock, it may readily
be broken when it is not already small enough to be used without crushing.
Like the chert, it accumulates in vast quantities in the beds of streams and
in narrow valleys, and it is from these local accumulations that the materials
can be had most conveniently for road-making.
Siliceous gravels have always been regarded as one of the best kinds of
road-making materials. They have this considerable advantage over pre-
pared macadam that they require no crushing, and are therefore ch?aper,
while they have been partially sorted by the waters which transported them
to where they are found.
The material composing the Arkansas gravels is principally chert.
It has been washed down the streams flowing into the Arkansas from North-
western Arkansas and Southwestern Missouri, which fact accounts for its
being found all along the Arkansas Valley. Its wide distribution across the
valley is due to the meanderings and channel changes of the Arkansas River
and to the ancient floods of that stream.
Beds of gravel having a similar origin occur along White and Black
Rivers in North Arkansas, and follow the flood plains of those streams.
Just north of Sulphur Rock, in Independence County, the water-worn ma-
terials cap the hills 250 feet above White River. Further up the river these
gravel deposits occur here and there as isolated patches on the slopes of the
inner curves of the large streams, often hieh above the present water level.
Through the eastern part of the state the gravels have a wide and
even distribution in the geologic sense, though for practical purposes
their distribution is local rather than general. Along Crowley's Ridge they
are often found concentrated in vast quantities in the beds of streams that
flow from the ridge, as for example the Little Crow Creek, near Madison,
St. Francis county, where they are convenient to railway transportation and
offer abundant and excellent material for road-building through the eastern
part of the state, where such material is scarce, except in those favored
localities along Crowley's Ridge.
About Little Rock such gravels are mingled with sands and clays that
cover almost all the ground upon which the city is built. In those parts of the
state lying southwest of Little Rock these gravels are of novaculite. and /
were derived from the region of novaculite lying between Little Rock and /
Dallas, in Polk County. Along what was once the old shore line upon/
98 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
which they were worn, and stretching from Little Rock past Benton, Malvern,
Arkadelphia, Murfreesboro, Nashville, Center Point and Lockesburg to
Ultima Thule, these gravels form extensive beds, in places twenty feet or
more in thickness, while to the south of this line they -become gradually
finer and lens abundant until in the extreme southern portion of the state
they occur in patches, and the individual pebbles are of small size. As in
other cases, they are often concentrated along small streams and in narrow
valleys. About Nashville and Center Point, in Howard County, gravels of this
type are widely distributed, making good, natural roads over much of the
higher ground of that and adjoining counties.
For top dressing of turnpikes or road metal any and all materials that
grind up quickly under traffic, forming dust in dry weather or mud in wet
weather, must be regarded as objectionable. Such materials have certain
advantages for first construction in being more easily prepared, and there
is therefore so much more reason for guarding against them. Materials
to be avoided for such purposes are:
1. The argillaceous or clay shales.
3. Syenites or "granites."
4. Clean sandstone.
It will be seen that Arkansas is well supplied with good road materials
except in the alluvial bottom lands in the eastern part of the State, and
even there gravel available for such purposes may often be found in the
stream beds. The road-making materials of the novaculite region and
of the chert region of the north are as good as one can reasonably ask for
indeed, they are about as good as materials in their natural condition can
bo while the gravels of the central and southwestern parts of the state are
excellent and sufficiently abundant. In many parts of the state road-making
materials are so good, so abundant, and so widespread that lack of them
can never be an excuse for bad roads.
(In the lower lands of Southeastern Arkansas there are abundant sup-
plies of gravel on the ridges between the streams of that section. N. F.
Brainier, John C, "Roadbuilding' Materials in Arkansas," outlines of Ar-
kansas Geology, Little Rock, Ark., 1920.
Hugh D. Miser and A. H. Purdue Gravel Deposits of the Caddo Gap and
DeQueen Quadrangles, Arkansas, U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 690 B, 1918.
Griswold, L,. S. Annual report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas for
1890, Vol. II. Whetstones and the Novaculites of Arkansas.
Titanic oxide. In loose crystals and in metamorphic rocks, imbedded.
Abundant in float. Magnet Cove.
The Paleozoic area of Arkansas abounds in sandstone, moit of which is
undeveloped. In the large area of Pennsylvanian rocks, especially in the
Boston Mountains, there is much excellent light-brown sandstone, easily
quarried, and there is considerable quartzite near Hot Springs. Twenty-
four sandstone quarries in eleven counties report production in this state.
/The largest use is for riprap, with concrete, road-making, railroad ballast
/ and building stone following in order. * * * Sandstone quarries are operated
/ at Carrollton, Heber Springs, Morrilton, Ozark, Hot Springs, Guion, Clarks-
I ville, Lamar, Leslie, Ft. Smith, Greenwood, Springdale, Bald Knob, Russell
The largest rock crushing plant in Arkansas is that operated by the
V Big Rock Stone and Construction Company of Little Rock, and its source of
\ supply is the great mountain of solid rock on the north bank of the Arkansas
\River, opposite Little Rock, upon which rests Fort Logan H. Roots.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Sandstone Quarry at Lamar (Cabin Creek Station), Ark.
Calcium-iron silicate and titanite; near Staurolite; crystals, scattered.
Dr. Koenig, of Philadelphia, finds the schloromite reported from this locality
to be titaniferous garnet. Magnet Cove.
Usually massive or in grains; in beds or masses of wide extent. Ten
miles north of Benton; in imbedded patches in quartz, north of Blocher,
Name sometimes used as synonymous with quartz; Pealite is opal, and
occurs in places where ancient hot springs made surface deposits. Magnet
Siliceous Sinter, Silica
Opal or quartz; Pealite is opal, and occurs in places where ancient hot
springs made surface deposits. Magnet Cove.
There are deposits of argentiferous ores in the state, some of which
are deserving of thorough examinations, although none of these have been,
as yet, extensively developed. On the other hand, a considerable amount of
mining work in a small way has been done in situations where there is no
Scale of miles
25 SO 75
Map Showing the Slate Area in Arkansas.
UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS .
DEPT. OF RURAL ECONOMICS & SOCIOLOGY
FAYETTEVILLE, - - ABKANSAt-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 101
possible chance of success, while assays of questionable value have induced
many to excavate in rocks which are even more certain to yield no silver
than to prove barren in gold. * * * What is most needed in the silver areas
is exploration to greater depths; in other words, development.
The mining for silver in Pulaski County has been fitful, and thus far,
not profitable, but, as might be expected in the neighborhood of Little Rock,
the explorations have been somewhat thorough. There are in the county
three districts, the immediate environs of Little Rock, the Kellogg mining
area and the region about the McRae mine. There are two districts in
Saline County where prospecting has been done, but in neither of the areas
have silver ores been actually mined, and there is much uncertainty con-
cerning their occurrence. Unsuccessful prospecting also has been done in
Garland and Hot Spring counties. Extensive operations have been carried
on in Montgomery County, especially about Silver City, but without profit
to the miners.
The silver-bearing deposits in Pike and Howard Counties are not prom-
ising. The product of the Antimony Mines (Sevier County), where they carry
galena, may eventually yield the precious metal, but there is not a high per-
centage of it in the ore that has been mined.
Branner, John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas, 1888,
The slate area of Arkansas covers part of the Ouachita Mountains,
which lie south of the Arkansas River and have a general east-west trend.
The area extends from the vicinity of Little Rock about 100 miles west-
ward nearly to Mena, and has an average width of 15 miles. The rocks
include shales, slates, chert, novaculite (a deposit of extremely fine quartz
grains), sandstone and a little limestone. The entire sedimentary series
is estimated at 11,400 feet in thickness, of which the upper 8,825 feet contains
some commercial slate.
The Missouri Mountain slate has been extensively prospected and is
now quarried at Slatington. It produces both red and green slate, the
former predominating. In some places the cleavage is parallel to the bed-
ding; in others it is oblique. The slate is defective in sonorousness and in
many places shows two sets of slip cleavage.
The different types of slate are described as follows: Black Slate, from
Mena, near Big Fork, pure black, exceedingly fine texture and a remarkably
smooth cleavage surface with a slight lustre. Dark-reddish slate, from
Mena, near Big Fork, comparing favorably in texture with the "red" slate of
New York. Reddish slate, from the Missiouri Mountains, not quite so red
as the New York slate, but finer and softer. Greenish-gray slate from Mena,
resembles the sea-green slate of Vermont. Light greenish slate from Mis-
souri Mountain, fine texture and almost lusterless cleavage surface; prob-
ably too delicate for use as roofing. Very dark bluish-gray slate, from Sec.
25, T, 3 S, R. 29 W, fine texture and a smooth cleavage surface with a
better luster; durable. Light-gray slate with a slightly greenish tinge, from
Sec. 30. T. 35, R. 28 W., fine texture but lusterless, roughish surface. Very
dark-gray spangled slate from quarry of S-W. Slate Mfg. Co., coarse texture
and rough surface. Spangled with minute scales of mica.
Purdue, A. H. The Slates of Arkansas, the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas. 1909.
Dale, T. Nelson. Microscopic analyses of Arkansas slate. Bulletin No.
275, U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, 1906.
Note on Arkansas roofing slates. Bulletin No. 225, U. S. Geol. Surv., Wash-
Bulletin 275 and 430, U. S. Geological Survey.
Silicia. Variety of Quartz; in vein-like portions of beds; apparently
more common in the regions where millstone grit is exposed. Magnet Cove.
102 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
South of Hot Springs road in the northeast quarter of Section 15, 1 N. f
15 W-, (12 miles northeast of Benton) there is a good showing of soapstone
in favorable situation for mining. The deposit deserves to be thoroughly
tested. This material was successfully used by John Olson to line the
furnace doors of a lime kiln, near Alexander, more than 40 years ago. It is
said to be the only deposit of soapstone west of the Mississippi river.
Britnner, John C. Report Arkansas Geol. Surv., Vol. I, 1888.
Tin Sulphide. Tin Pyrites. Suspected, in small quantity, because pyritous
rock shows traces of tin; Silver World mine, Polk County.
In small crystals in the upper opening of the Silver Hollow mines on
the east bank of Buffalo River below the mouth of Rush Creek, at the open-
ing on the bed of iron pyrites on the Keeling place on Tomahawk Creek,
and at a few other places in North Arkansas where small quantities of
pyrites are exposed.
Sunstone, Pink or Gray
Cut for ornaments. Magnet Cove.
This material is reported to be present along the road from Mount Ida
to Black Springs, in Montgomery County. A ledge of talcose shale n also
exposed in the southern half of Section 11, 1 N., 15 W., on the upper Hot
Springs road in Saline County. Talcose shales and talc schists are also
found in beds and pockets with black shale in Magnet Cove.
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol. I, 1888.
In pockets and hot springs deposits; Hot Springs and northward in
Travertine, or Tufa, Calcareous
Deposited by springs and streams, locally; impure and not abundant;
in northern districts where dolomites outcrop; Yell and Garland counties,
also in North Polk County.
An excellent grade of tripoli has been found near Butterfield in Hot
Spring county, but the extent of the deposit is unknown. This occurrence,
according to H. D. Miser, United States Geological Survey, is a weathered
calcareous siliceous rock, simulating the novaculites. The calcite has been
leached out, leaving a pure siliceous residue of fine grain. The novaculite
beds at other localities have also been altered to tripoli, notably at Caddo
Gap, Montgomery County and at Langley, in Pike County.
Deposits of tripoli are reported in Montgomery, Garland, Ouachita, Wash-
ington and Independence counties.
Purdue reported that samples of good "tripoli" had been received from
the vicinity of Farmington in Washington county. The quotation marks
would seem to indicate that the tripoli of commerce and not pure tripoli
There is a great abundance of this material in the zinc region, but
whether or not it has any commercial value is a matter that can be
determined only by experiment.
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol. V, 1892.
Six-Foot Vein of Tripoli, Near Delight, Ark.
Montgomery County, translucent and transparent, emerald, bluish-green
Yellowish green to olive green crystals; not mined. Magnet Cove.
Arkansas is a well watered state. Hundreds of beautiful, fres-f.o ving
springs of excellent water gush from hillsides and valleys in all parts of
the state. In the limestone region north of the Boston Mountains, such
springs are especially abundant, large and beautiful. They are not mineral
waters, properly speaking, but they are more valuable than if th3v were.
Some of these springs are so big that they are utilized for driving mills,
cotton gins and other machinery, and as their discharges are subject to
little or no fluctuations throughout the year, they are free from the dangers
of freshets and the risks of droughts. Such are Lester's Spring, six miles
west, and "Big Spring," six miles northwest of Batesville; another on Mill
Creek, Stone county; one at Marble City, Newton County; another on "ush
Creek, Marion County, and one at Silver Spring, Benton County. At Mam-
moth Spring, in Fulton County, one of the finest water powers in the country
is furnished by an enormous clear water spring.
Besides these truly gigantic springs, no one who travels through North
Arkansas can fail to be impressed by the great number of large and beautiful
springs to be found at every town and village, to say nothing
almost every farm house. Especially worthy of mention
at Big Flat, Lone Rock, Harrison, Bellefonte, Valley Springs,
Yardell, Marble City, Francis Postoffice (Bear Creek Springs),
Whitener and Spring Valley.
Fortunately, the Survey has made a.n analysis of a type of the-e fine
springs that of Valley Springs, Boone County. That analysis shows that
water to contain only 15 grains of mineral matter to the gallon, almost all
of which is. carbonate of lime.
There is also an abundance of springs whose waters are remarkable
for their purity; such are the Crescent Springs at Eureka Springs, Carroll
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 105
County, and Elixir Spring at Elixir, Boone County. These springs contain
less than six grains of mineral matter to the gallon. It should be noted
in regard to these two springs in particular, and the same is no doubt
true of many other springs in that part of the state, that their waters
pass down through the cherts, rocks that have but little easily soluble matter
In them, and this is no doubt the reason of their great purity.
Running across North Arkansas from Batesville to the Oklahoma line,
is a formation spoken of in the Survey's reports as the Batesville sandstone;
it is the coarse, yellowish brown sandstone on which and partly of which
Batesville is built. Several other towns of North Arkansas are built on
this same sandstone; namely, Mountain View, Marshall, St. Joe and Green
Forest. The towns mentioned get their water supply from wells dug in
this Batesville sandstone; the water is soft, cool and abundant.
The Hot Springs of Arkansas
The waters of Hot Springs claim the place of first importance in any
consideration of the medicinally valuable waters of the State. For a great
many years these waters have been used by people from all parts of the
country with results that merit the serious attention of everyone, and strike
the ordinary observer as nothing short of marvelous.
There are 44 hot springs, flowing 1,000,000 gallons a day. The average
temperature of the waters is 135 degrees Fahrenheit. The springs are
owned and controlled by the United States and in 1832 were set apart as a
National Sanitarium for all time, dedicated to the people of the United
States to be forever free from sale or alienation. There are 24 bath houses
connected with the springs, some of these being of palatial architecture and
magnificently equipped. The operation of the baths and charges are regu-
lated by the government through a superintendent of the reservation, ap-
pointed by the Secretary of the Interior. The government has spent large
sums on the building of roads and parkways and otherwise beautifying the
resort, which is visited annually by upward of 100,000 people from many parts
of the world who come here for rest, recreation and treatment. Some of
the world's finest resort hotels are located at Hot Springs and there are
housing facilities for caring for the large number of visitors.
The waters of the hot springs are very pure. On an average the several
spring water contain 12.94 grains of material in solution to the gallon. Of
this material nearly 60 per cent is carbonate of lime, over 21 per cent is
silica, 9 per cent is carbonate of magnesia, while the remainder is chiefly
chloride of sodium (common salt), sulphate of soda (Glauber's salt) and
sulphate of potash. There is but little difference in the composition of the
waters of the various springs. The positive therapeutic qualities of these
waters are due to physical rather than to chemical properties, their virtue
being due to radio activity, which is very marked in some of the springs.
Briefly stated, the use of the Hot Springs waters opens the pores and
channels for the expulsion of the matters injurious to health, arouses
torpid and sluggish secretions, stimulates the circulation, the muscles,
the skin, the nerves, the internal organs, and purifies the blood, removes all
aches and pains, restores the exhausted, revives the debilitated and helps
Uuild up and renew the entire system. They are administered in the treat-
ment of the sick internally and externally, being drunk in large quantities
and applied in all the different forms of baths.
The cold waters of Hot Springs, Arkansas, are justly famed everywhere,
both as medicinal and table waters. It is in the cold waters of Hot Springs
that mineral is most evident and best results are often secured when
they are drank in connection with the baths, especially in affections of
kidney, bladder, stomach and rheumatic conditions. Marvelous relief in the
early stages of Bright's diseases and dropsy are accredited to these waters.
Among the various cold water springs are the Desoto Springs, the
Mountain Valley Springs, the Radio Magnesia Springs, the Arsenic Springs
and the Potash Sulphur Springs.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv.,- Vol I, 1891.
Baltwood, B. B. "Radio-Active Properties of the Waters of Hot Springs,"
American Journal of Science, Vol. CLXX, Aug., 1905.
Purdue, A. H "The Collecting Area of the Waters of Hot Springs, Ark.",
Journal of Geology, Vol. 18, 1910.
Hydrous aluminum phosphate. Common in radiated, spherical and
hemispherical crystaline aggregations, and in similar forms thickly spread
over rock surfaces. Magnet Cove-
The zinc ores of North Arkansas are found for the most part in rocks
of Ordovician age. The ores in the order of their importance, are sphalerite
(zinc sulphide), popularly called "jack," "rosin jack," etc.; smith-
sonite (zinc carbonate), and calamine (zinc silicate). In addition to these,
there are several minerals of zinc that are more or less abundant, but they do
not occur in sufficient quantities to entitle them to be looked upon as
ores. The following conclusions seem to be warranted:
The concentrates produced are generally of high grade and free
from or very low in iron or lime. The sphalerite has frequently asayed 2
to 3 per cent above the price basis of 60 per cent, metallic zinc content.
The sphalerite and smithsonite are shown by analysis to contain rppreciable
quantities of cadmium, especially in a yellow variety of smithsonite, known
locally as turkey fat, which shows as high as 0.8 per cent of cadmium.
Branner, J. C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1892,
Vol. V. The zinc and lead region of North Arkansas, Little Rock, 1900.
Adams, Purdue and Burchard. Zinc and lead deposits of Northern Arkan-
sas. U. S. Geol. Surv., Professional Paper 24. Washington, 1904.
Zinc Mine, Silver Hollow Bluff on Buffalo River, Marion County.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 107
Mounds and a Suggested Theory As To Their Origin.
By BEN F. ALLEN
The origin of mounds of from one rod to two or three rods in diameter
and one to tour feet high, smooth, oval, and practically round, found in flat
or poorly drained places that have been or are now habitually wet, has been
a mystery to which geologists have given much study. It is ths writer's
belief that they are caused by alkalines localizing in spots in soils thus be-
ing rendered less subject to erosions. The resistance of alkaline soils to
erosion is well known, especially lime soils. Thus these spots gradually as-
sume the form of mounds by the washing away of the surrounding soil which
is rendered more susceptible to erosion as the alkalines leach out of it.
It is well known that all alkalines not only obey the laws of affinity
and molecular attraction but have a strong tendency to creep up and out
of any solution and to reach free air, where they crystalize. If present in
sufficient strength in their struggle with the acids, an uprooted tree or a
gopher mound or other bit ot soil protruding above the wet surface is a
convenient place for the alkalines to congregate and escape to the air
and crystalize, and a nucleus for a mound is started. The mounds are
formed only in places that are or have been wet enough dur'ng a good part
of the year and flat enough to facilitate free lateral molecular circulation
of soluble elements.
These mounds are not found in lime or other strongly alkaline soils,
nor are they found in soils strongly acid and extremely weak in alkalines,
because a sufficient variation in solution cannot be produced to cause a
sufficient difference in erosional susceptability. Following this, if a soil
where mounds are now plentiful should become either strongly acid or
strongly lime the mounds would disappear. In places they are disappearing,
owing to the influence of levees, drainage, or irrigation or flooding by hard
or soft water. If the wetness or stillness or stagnation, of the soil solution
is corrected by good drainage they will disappear. But in some places they
are growing, or, the surrounding soil is being washed away, leaving the
mounds more prominent, even in pastures where the tramping of cattle
and other stock would ordinarily be expected to cause the soil to wash
away. They consist of the same soil as that surrounding them of the same
geological level, and contain the same strata, gravel and even stones. Their
internal decomposition is altered perhaps by the slight differences in the
water solution. They are not accretions, but just the opposite they are
residuary. They are soft and mealy on top, for they are better drained
and more alkaline than elsewhere. The facts can easily be demon-
strated by the spade and by litmus tests. These mounds thus become of
little interest to the geologist prospecting for oil or mineral, but they
become of very material interest to the farmer.
Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, has long been known as a locality for
many rare and beautiful as well as useful minerals and there is hardly a
cabinet of minerals in the world that does not contain numerous specimens
from this renowned district. This small area is of great interest not only
to the mineralogists, but to the petrographer both on account of the
of varieties of rocks found there and of the many instances in which
association of the rocks is such that an insight into their genetic relations
may be obtained.
The magnetite of Magnet Cove is in the form of lodestone and will
attract pieces of iron as does an ordinary magnet.
Annual Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. II., 1890, Igneous Rocks,
by J. Francis Williams.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Interior Diamond Cave, Newton County.
Diamond Cave of Newton County
Near Jasper, Newton County, Arkansas, is Diamond Cave, a subter-
ranean wonder place rivaling in grandeur and excelling in beauty the fa-
mous Mammoth Cave of Kentucky. The Arkansas cavern has been ex-
plored for a distance of 20 miles from the entrance, it is claimed, and a route
for tourists covers some eight miles of sight-seeing through forests of
stalagmites and under festoons of gorgeous stalactites, the display of cal-
cite crystals being wonderfully brilliant and fairy-like in the delicacy of
their formations. The existence of the cave has been known for many
years but until the recent completion of an automobile road to Jasper, from
Russellville and Harrison, it was difficult for tourists to reach the cave,
the mouth of which is about four miles from Jasper.
Other Publications of the State Bureau
of Mines, Manufacturers and Agriculture
W Industrial Guide, a Directory of Manufactures.
Large Township, Railroad and Resources Map of Arkansas.
Arkansas Information, for Homeseekers and Investors.
Arkansas Farm and Marketing Bulletin, Monthly.
^Pleasure Resorts in Arkansas, for the Tourist.
Sent Free on Request.
JIM G. FERGUSON, Commissioner,
Little Rock, Ark., U. S. A.
MINERALS I NARKANSAS 109
Federal and State Laws on
Minerals and Mining
Synopsis of United States Mining Laws.
_ -A bulletin may be obtained from the Department of Interior, Wash-
ing-ton, D. C., or the United States Land Office at Little Rock, Camden or Har-
rison, Ark., giving 1 complete instructions concerning- the filing of mining-
claims on government land.
(Chapter VI, Revised Statutes.)
Section 2318. Lands valuable for minerals shall be reserved from
sale, except as otherwise expressly directed by law.
Section 2319. All valuable mineral deposits belonging to the United
States are declared to be free and open to exploration and purchase, by
citiens of the United States and those who have declared their intention to
'become such under regulations prescribed by law, and according to the local
customs or rules of miners in the several mining districts, so far as the
same are applicable and not inconsistent with the laws of the United States.
Section 2320. A mining claim, whether located by one or more per-
sons, may equal, but shall not exceed 1,500 feet in length along the vein or
lode; but no location of a mining claim shall be made until the discovery of
the vein or lode within the limits of the claim located. No claim shall ex-
tend more than 300 feet on each side of the middle of the vein at the
surface, nor shall any claim be limited by any mining regulation to less
than 25 feet on each side of the middle of the vein at the surface. The
end lines of such claims shall be parallel to each other.
Section 2321. Proof of citienship required.
Section 2322. Locators have the exclusive right of possession and
enjoyment of all the surface included within the lines of their locations,
and of all veins, lodes and ledges throughout their entire depth, the top or
apex of which lies inside of such surface lines extending downward verti-
cally, although such veins, lodes or ledges may so far depart from a per-
pendicular in their course downward as to extend outside the vertical side
lines of such surface location. But their right of possesion to such out-
side parts of such veins or ledges shall be confined to such portions thereof
as lie between vertical planes drawn downward as above described, through
the end lines of their locations, so continued in their own direction that
such planes will intersect such exterior parts of such veins or ledges. And
nothing in this section shall authorize the locator or possessor of a vein
or lode which extends in its downward course beyond the vertical lines
of his claim to enter upon the surface of a claim owned or possessed by
Section 2323. Where a tunnel is run for the development of a
vein or lode the owner shall have the right of possession of all veins or
lodes within 3,000 feet from the face of such tunnel on the line thereof, to
the same extent as if discovered from the surface.
Section 2324. Miners of each mining district may make regulations
not in conflict with the State or Federal laws, governing the location, man-
ner of recording, amount of work necessary to hold possession of a mining
claim, subject to the following requirements:
The location must be distinctly marked on the ground so that its
boundaries can be readily traced.
All records of mining claims shall contain the names of the locators,
date of location and description of the claims bv reference to some natural
object or permanent monument as will identify the claim.
On each claim not less than $100 worth of labor shall be performed
or improvements made during each year. Upon a failure to comply with
these conditions the claim or mine shall be open to relocation.
Section 2325. Patents are obtained by filing in the proper land office
110 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
an application, under oath, showing compliance with all regulations, to-
gether with a plat and field notes of the claim, and claimant shall post a
copy of such plat and notice of such application in a conspicuous place
on the land, and shall file an affadavit of at least two persons that such
notice has been duly posted and shall file a copy of the notice in such
land office, and shall thereupon be entitled to a patent for the land.
The register of the land office, upon the filing of such application,
plat, field notes, notices and affadavits, shall publish a notice that such
application has been made, for 60 days in a newspaper published nearest
to such claim; and post such notice in his office for the same period.
The claimant within the sixty days of publication shall file with the
register a certificate of the United States surveyor-general that $500 worth
of labor has been expended or improvements made upon the claim and that
the plat is correct. At the expiration of the sixty days the claimant shall
file his affidavit, showing that the plat and notice have been posted in a
conspicuous place on the claim during the period of publication.
If no adverse claim shall have been filed at the expiration of sixty days
it shall be assumed that the applicant is entitled to a patent upon the
payment to the proper officer of $5 per acre.
Section 2326. How adverse claims may be filed.
Section 2327. Description of mining vein or lode claims.
Section 2328. Pending applications; existing rights.
'Section 2329. Conformity of placer claims to surveys; limit of.
Section 2330. Subdivisions of 10-acre tracts; maximum of placer loca-
Section 2331. Conformity of placer claims to surveys, limitation of
Section 2332. Evidence of possession necessary to establish a right to
Section 2333. Proceedings for patent for placer claim.
Section 2334. Surveyor-general to appoint surveyors of mining claims.
Section 2335. Verification of affadavits.
Section 2336. Where two or more veins intersect or cross each other,
priority of title shall govern, but the subsequent location shall have the
right-of-way through the space of intersection for the purpose of the con-
venient working of the mine.
'Section 2337. Patents for non-mineral lands.
Section 2338. Local legislature of any State may provide rules for
Section 2339. Vested rights to use of water for mining; right of way
Section 2340. Patents, pre-emptions and homesteads subjected to vested
and accrued water rights.
Section 2341. Mineral lands, upon which no valuable mines have been
discovered, may be homesteaded in quantities not to exceed 160 acres, or
purchased for agricultural purposes at $1.25 an acre.
Section 2342. How mineral lands may be set apart as agricultural
Section 2343. President authorized to -establish additional land
Sections 2344-2346. Provisions of this chapter not to affect certain
rights. Mineral lands in certain states excepted. Grant of lands to States
or corporations not to include mineral lands.
FEES OF REGISTERS AND RECEIVERS.
The fees payable to the register and receiver for filing and acting
upon application for mineral land patents are $5 to each officer, to be
paid by the applicant for patent at the time of filing, and the like sum of
$5 is payable to each officer by an adverse claimant at the time of filing his
MINERAL LANDS WITHIN NATIONAL FORESTS
Mineral lands in the National Forest Reserves are subject to location
and entry under the general mining laws in the usual manner.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 111
COAL MINING LEASES
(Public No. 146 66th Congress.)
The secretary of the interior is authorized to divide any of the coal
lands, owned by the United States in Arkansas, into leasing tracts of 40
acres each, or multiples thereof, and in such form as will permit the most
economical mining of coal, but in no case exceeding 2,560 acres in any one
leasing tract, and shall award leases thereon by competitive bidding or by
such other methods as he may by general regulations adopt, to any qualified
Permits may be obtained for prospecting or exploratory work neces-
sary to determine the existence or workability of coal deposits and if the
land contains coal in commercial quantities the permittee shall be entitled
to a lease for all or part of the land in his permit.
Railroads are not permitted to lease any coal deposit except for their
Lessees shall pay to the United States a royalty of not less than five
cents per ton and an annual rental of 25 cents per acre for the first year;
50 cents per acre for the second, third, fourth and fifth year, respectively,
and not less than $1 per acre for each and every year thereafter, except
that such rental for any year shall be credited against the royalties as they
accrue for that year.
The Secretary of the Interior may issue permits to individuals or as-
sociations to prospect for, mine and take for their use but not for sale, coal
from the public lands without payment of royalty, in order to provide for
the supply of strictly local domestic needs for fuel; this privilege shall not
extend to any corporation other than municipalities.
The provisions of this act shall also apply to all deposits of coal, phos-
phate, soduim, oil, oil shale or gas.
For past production 20 per centum and for future production .37^
per centum of the amounts derived from such royalties and rentals shall
be paid to the State wherein the leased lands or deposits are located, said
moneys to be used by such State for the construction and maintenance
of public roads or for the support of public schools or other public educa-
tional institutions as the legislature of the State may direct.
Royalties accruing under any oil or gas lease on demand of the Secre-
tary of the Interior shall be paid in oil or gas.
OIL SHALE LEASES.
(Public No. 146 66th Congress.)
The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to lease any deposits of oil
shale belonging to the United States and the surface of so much of the
public lands containing such deposits or land adjacent thereto, as may be
required for the extraction and reduction of the leased minerals; no lease
shall exceed 5120 acres of land; for the privilege of mining, extracting and
disposing of the oil or other minerals covered by a lease under this section.
The lessees shall pay to the United States 50 cents per acre per annum for
the lands included in the lease and such royalties as shall be specified in
the lease, the rental paid for any one year to be credited against the roy-
alties accruing for that year; to encourage the production of petroleum
products from shales the Secretary may, in his discretion, waive the pay-
ment of any royalty and rental during the first five years of any lease;
not more than one lease shall be granted to any one person, association or
State Law On Recording of Government Mining Claims
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 7326. Notice to be recorded. In every county in this State in
which lands containing mineral still belong to the United States govern-
ment, the recording of mining claim notices of all kinds may be done with
the ex-officio recorders of the various counties in which said lands are sit-
112 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Section 7327. Fees. The fees for recording mining location notices
shall be one dollar for notice, to be paid in United States currency, one-
half of which shall go into the County treasury to the credit of the record
fund. The fees for recording all other mining notices shall be the same as
are now allowed by law for recording deeds.
Section 7328. Record book. The recorder shall procure a suitably
bound book and shall make a plat therein of each mining claim located for
the free use of all miners who may wish to examine the same.
Section 7329. Establishment of claim; limitation. When any owner
or claimant of any mining claim on any of the lands subject to location as
mining claims in this State under the laws of the United States shall have
had possession of such claim for a period of three years and shall have
performed the necessary amount of annual labor or improvement to hold
said claim, as now required by law for said period, the same shall be suf-
ficient to establish his possessory right to the same; provided, that if said
claimant shall have performed the necessary work for any one year during
said period and shall have resumed work at any time before the right
of others intervene, then he shall be entitled to the possessory right to
the same. No person shall maintain an action against such claimant for
the recovery of a mining claim, unless the same shall be commenced within
one year after his right of action shall accrue.
Section 7330. Affidavit of aszessment work. On or before the thirty-
first day of December of any year in which the time expires in which the
assessment work or improvement now required by law to hold the same,
the owner of such claim or in his absence his agent or the party who was
in charge of the work for the claimant, may make and file for record in the
recorder's office in the county in which said claim is situated, an affidavit
in substance as follows:
STATE OF ARKANSAS
, being duly sworn, deposes and says
that at least $ worth of work or improvements were performed or
made upon (here describe claim) situated in mining
district, county of and- State of Arkansas, between the
day of and the day of A. D.,
and that such expenditure was made by or at the expense of
owners of said claim for the purpose of complying with the law.
And said affidavit, when so filed and recorded, shall be prima facie evi-
dence of the -performance of such labor or the making of such improve-
Section 7331. Indexed record. Hereafter it shall be the duty of the
recorder of any county in which mining location notices and proof of labor
performed shall be recorded, to keep a suitably bound plat book properly
arranged, showing all the legal subdivisions affected by such notices, in
which he shall keep a complete index of all such instruments recorded,
showing the number of the book and page on which they are recorded, and
this index shall he kept up to date of recording.
Section 7332. Penalty. Any recorder who shall neglect, refuse or fail
to keep such index as above provided for shall be guilty of a misdemeanor,
and upon conviction shall be fined in any sum not less than $25 nor more
The State has no supervision over Government lands. For
plats and information apply to the U. S. Land Office, Little
Rock, Camden, or Harrison, Ark.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 113
Law Creating Arkansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures
(Digest of Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 7333. Department created. A department is constituted and
established, which shall be known and designated as the "Arkansas Bureau
of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture," and shall be superintended by a
Commissioner to be appointed by the Governor, as hereinafter prescribed.
Section 7334. Appointment election salary reports. The Governor
shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, some suit-
able and competent person Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agri-
culture, who shall be elected as other State officers every two years there-
after, and he shall be paid for his services the sum of eighteen hundred
dollars per annum; said commissioner shall take the oath of office pre-
scribed for other State officers, and shall give bond in the sum of ten
thousand dollars for the faithful performance of his official duties, which
bond shall be examined and approved by the Governor, and he shall make
a biennial report to the Governor of the things pertaining to his office, and
also giving an itemized statement of the disbursement of all moneys appro-
priated and used for the benefit of said bureau.
Section 7335. Powers and duties of Commissioner. The Commissioner
of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall conduct the Bureau of Mines,
Manufactures and Agriculture at the seat of government of this State, in
the Capitol building. He shall have control of all books, papers, documents
and other property which may belong to or be deposited in said bureau in-
cluding specimens of minerals, vegetable and animal products of the State;
keep a record of all State and county agricultural societies, keep and file
all reports which may be made from time to time by such societies, and all
correspondence of the bureau from other persons or societies appertaining
to the general business of husbandry, mining and manufacturing; address
circulars to societies and good practical farmers in various parts of the
State and elsewhere, with a view of eliciting information upon the latest
and best mode of culture of those products, field crops, fruits, .vegetables,
etc.,, adapted to the soil and climate of this State; also on all subjects
connected with field culture, horticulture, stock raising and dairying. He
shall also encourage the formation, of agricultural and horticultural societies
throughout the State and purchase, receive and distribute such rare and
valuable seeds, plants, etc., as it may be in his power to obtain from the
general government and other sources, as may be adapted to the soils and
climate of this State. He shall also encourage the importation of improved
breeds of horses, cattle, sheep, hogs and other live stock, and the introduc- ,
tion of labor-saving implements of husbandry, and diffuse information In
relation to the same. He shall encourage such domestic industry, and house-
hold arts as are calculated to promote the general thrift, welfare and re-
sources of the State. To effect these objects, he shall correspond with the
Department of Agriculture at Washington and representatives of our na-
tional government abroad, and if possible procure valuable contributions of
seeds, plants, etc., from the same.
Section 7336. Further duties. The seeds, plants, etc., received by the
Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall, so far as
practicable, be distributed throughout the State, and placed in the hands
of farmers and others who will agree to cultivate them properly and re-
turn to the commissioner a reasonable portion of the products thereof, with
a statement of the mode of cultivation and such other information as may
be necessary to ascertain their value for general cultivation in this State.
Information in regard to agriculture may be published by him from time
to time in the newspapers of the State, provided it can be done without
expense to the State. He shall cause an analysis to be made of all com-
mercial fertilizers manufactured in or imported into the State, so as to find
the true value thereof, and shall publish the result of such analysis for the
general information of the citizens of this State. The chemical department
of the University shall, as far as practicable, make such analysis.
114 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Section 7337. Mining and mineral lands information as to. The Com-
missioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall keep a record of
all individuals, companies and incorporated companies engaged in mining
and manufacturing in this State, and shall address circulars to all such in-
dividuals, companies and incorporated companies engaged in mining of
<*oal, manganese, silver, lead, copper, or any other minerals, and to all
persons quarrying marble, granite or any other variety of stone in this
State, with view of eliciting as to the extent of deposit, output, cost of
production and facilities for transportation. He shall also address cir-
culars to persons owning mineral lands upon which no mining is being
prosecuted, so as to obtain information as to the locality, character of
mineral, extent of deposit, facilities for working and transportation, and all
other information in regard to the same that may be necessary to arrive
at a correct conclusion as to value.
Section 7338. Statistics distribution of pamphlets. The Commissioner
shall methodically arrange all of the statistics in relation to the agricul-
tural, manufacturing and mineral resources of the State, collected by him
as hereinbefore provided, and which, in his opinion, would furnish useful
information to persons who may wish to immigrate into this State, or to
persons seeking to invest capital, and shall lay the same before the
Governor; and if in his opinion such statistics contain information in re-
gard to the resources of the State calculated to induce immigration and
investment of capital, he shall cause the same to be printed in pamphlet
or circular form, or in both, and as many copies as he may deem necessary;
when printed, the Commissioner shall distribute the same in such manner
as he may think most advantageous to induce immigration and capital into
Section 7339. Deputy commissioner appointment salary. The Com-
missioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall be allowed one
clerk, who shall be deputy commissioner, to assist him in conducting the
Dusiness of said bureau, to be appointed by said Commissioner, in writing;
said deputy shall take the oath of office prescribed by law, which shall be
Indorsed on the appointment and filed in the office of the Secretary of
State. The Commissioner shall be responsible for all acts done or per-
formed by his deputy in the performance of his official duties, and said
deputy shall receive the sum of two hundred dollars per month for his
Section 7340. Collection and arrangements of specimens. The Com-
missioner shall procure from the person having charge of the specimens
of the vegetable, mineral and manufactured products of the State, exhibited
at New Orleans at the World's Industrial and American Exposition, and
place the same in a suitable room in the State Capitol building, or in some
suitable room contiguous thereto, and he shall arrange said specimens
in said room in such manner that they can be seen and examined to the
'best advantage, and shall place on each specimen a label indicating the
particular locality where the same was found or produced. It shall be the
-duty of the commissioner from time to time to add to said collection by
procuring specimens of all valuable minerals found in this State, and all
the vegetable products grown or found therein; articles of a perishable
nature shall be so prepared as to secure their preservation as much as
possible. It shall be the duty of the Commissioner in collecting specimens
to procure information as to the locality where found, quantity, extent
of deposit, facilities for working, transportation and all other facts of im-
portance in connection therewith; and in case of vegetable products, so far
as practicable, obtain all information as- to locality, character of soil,
climate, etc.; and shall attach to each specimen a label showing where
"found or produced, and numbered, and shall enter, in a book, kept for that
purpose, a brief synopsis of the information obtained in regard to each
specimen; said entries to be so numbered and indexed as to afford easy
Section 7341. Traveling expenses. Whenever, in the opinion of the
Commissioner, it is necessary to visit any locality in this State for the
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 115
purpose of procuring correct information in regard to any fact connected
with the mining, manufacturing or agricultural resources of the State, he
shall, with the approval of the Governor, visit such locality, provided not
more than three hundred dollars per annum shall be allowed said Commis-
sioner for such traveling expenses.
Section 7342. Vacancies. The Governor shall fill any vacancy occur-
ing in the office of Commissioner by appointment. Act March 7, 1889.
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 4972. Commission Created State Geologist. A commission
is hereby created, consisting of the Governor of the State, who shall be
ex-officio chairman of the commission, the President of the University of
Arkansas, and the Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture,
to be known as the Geological Commission of Arkansas; said commission
shall serve without compensation from the State, but shall be reimbursed
for actual expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties; and the
Governor of the State is hereby authorized to appoint the professor of
geology in the University of Arkansas as ex-officio State Geologist.
Section 4973. Duties of Commission. It shall be the duty of said com-
mission to direct the State Geologist, in co-operation with the U. S.
Geological Survey, to investigate, or to have investigated, such of the nat-
ural resources of the State, consisting of the available water power of the
streams, the clays of the State as related to their adaptability to the var-
ious purposes for which clays are utilized, the cement materials of the
State, the road materials of the State, and such other minerals and economic
geologic products, as it may be deemed practicable and advisable by said
commission to have investigated, and to prepare or have prepared such
topographic maps as may be deemed advisable; that said commission may
direct said State Geologist to make or have made such investigations as
may be deemed advisable relating to the conservation of such natural
resources as are exhaustable; that said commission may direct said State
Geologist, in co-operation with the U. S. Geological Survey, to make such
investigations as may be deemed advisable relating to the safety of miners
and mine operations and to adopt such measures as may be deemed prac-
ticable to assist mine operators in preventing explosions and give relief
in case explosions occur.
Section 4974. Duty of the State Geologist. It shall be the duty of
said State Geologist to make such reports to said commission as are nec-
essary to a complete understanding of the results obtained from such
investigations as shall be undertaken, and to perform such other duties as
usually belong to the office of State Geologist; the reports (shall) be ac-
companied by such maps, sections and other illustrations as are necessary
to their complete understanding; the cost of publishing said reports shall
be paid out of money appropriated for public printing; the number of
copies of each report shall be 4,000; the members of the General Assembly,
the Geological Commission, and the State Geologist shall each have twenty
copies; that one copy be sent to each of the State Universities of the
country; that one hundred copies be sent to the Department of Geology,
University of Arkansas, for exchange with other State Geological Surveys;
and that the remainder be distributed by the State Geologist, without
charge, upon application and receipt of the necessary postage or expressage.
Section 4975. Assistants. It shall be the duty of said State Geologist,
by and with the approval of said commission, to appoint such trained
geological assistants, engineers and others efficient in the arts and sciences,
as may be necessary to completely carry on the investigations undertaken;
that the said State Geologist, assistants and engineers, are hereby directed
to go into any mine or other place where it is thought necessary by the
said State Geologist to go, in executing the directions of said commission;
that all salaries shall be determined by said commission, and shall be per
<liem and only for the time of actual service.
116 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Section 4976. Co-operative arrangements. The Geological Commission
of Arkansas is authorized to enter into such co-operative arrangements
with the United States Geological Survey, or other Federal bureaus, for
carrying on the work of the Geological Survey of Arkansas, as may be ad-
vantageous to the State.
Section 4977. Expenses. The 'State of Arkansas shall pay such por-
tions of the expenses (field and traveling expenses including salaries) as
may be agreed upon between said commission and the United States
Geological Survey; the full and complete results of said surveys shall be
available for publication in State reports; and the expense of the office
work for the State reports shall be borne by the State.
Section 4978. Moneys, how expended. All moneys shall be expended
under the direction of the commission, upon the certificate of the State
Geologist and the approval of the Governor, which certificate and approval
shall alone authorize the Auditor of State to draw his warrant upon the
treasurer for the amount certified and approved. Provided that in no-
event shall said commission expend a sum exceeding the amount appro-
Sand, Gravel, Oil and Coal Taken From River Beds.
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 6789. Hereafter it shall be unlawful for any person, firm,
corporation or association of persons to take sand or gravel, oil and coal
from the beds or bars of navigable rivers and lakes of this State without
first procuring the consent of the Attorney General of the State. Such con-
sent may be withheld unless such person, firm, company or corporation
shall agree in writing to keep an accurate record and account of all sand
and gravel, oil and coal taken by him or them from said rivers and lakes,
and render to the said Attorney General at the end of each month an
itemized, verified statement of all the numbers of cubic yards of sand and
gravel, and gallons of oil and tons of coal taken out each day during the
month. At the time of making such statement the person, firm, company
or corporation shall pay into the State Treasury two and one-half cents
for each cubic yard of sand and gravel so taken, and one-half cent for each
gallon oil and six cents per ton for coal taken, and if any other valuable
minerals are found in such rivers, any firm, corporation or persons taking
the same out shall make a contract with the Attorney General, stating
the per cent due the State.
Section 6790. Provides penalty of not less than $300 and not more
than $1,000 for non-compliance with above and empowers Attorney General
to bring suit to recover royalties for State.
Section 6791. Applies to commercial users only, no charge to be made
to those who remove sand or gravel, oil and coal for their own personal
or private use.
Section 6792. Funds collected go to general revenue fund.
Section 6793. Any firm, corporation or person may take and remove
gravel and sand from the bed or bars of any navigable river or lake within
the State of Arkansas, when the same are used for road building, without
paying the State of Arkansas any amount whatever for the same, but they
shall keep an account of such removals (Section 6794) and file same with
the Attorney General and a copy with the county judge where such sand
and gravel is taken. If such account is not kept and proper reports made
(Section 6795) parties removing sand and gravel shall be required to pay
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 10458. Belongs to State. All water power in this State sit-
uated for the purpose of producing power for all lawful purposes, is and
the same is hereby declared to be inherent in, and a part of the public
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 117
domain, and shall vest in and be for the use of the State of Arkansas, and
the people thereof, for its and their use and benefit.
Section 10459. Right to Erect Dams. Any person or corporation or-
ganized under the laws of this State, for the purpose of producing power
for any lawful purpose, and who or which owns a natural, practical dam-
site, or who or which has secured from the United States license, permit
or authority to erect a dam upon land on a damsite owned by the United
States, and who or which has procured a charter from this State for the
development and operation of electric power plants from said water pow-
ers, shall have the right to erect a dam across any navigable or non-navi-
gable river in this State at such point, for the purpose of developing such
Section 10460. Survey and Estimate Expense. When said person or
company is ready to begin the construction of his or its dam, it shall file
with the Secretary of State and with the County Clerk of the county or
counties in which the lands pertaining to such water power are situated,
a survey showing the location of his or its principal power damsite, of the
stream above such power damsite and the lands necessary for the develop-
ment of such water power, with an estimate and the engineer's report of
the cost of his or its dam, spillways, power plant and all machinery to be
used in generating such power, to be verified later by report of actual cost
Section 10461. Permit from Corporation Commission. When said per-
son or corporation is ready to proceed with the construction of his or its
dam, he or it shall present to the Corporation Commission of Arkansas his or
its application for a permit to use such power, and upon a hearing of such ap-
plication the said board may grant to such person or corporation a permit to
erect such dam or dams, and use such power, and shall fix a minimum and
maximum compensation per horsepower to be received by such corporation
for the use of the power so generated. Provided, however, any person or
corporation owning or controlling any dam, as herein provided, is required
to construct and keep open a chute over such dam or construction suffi-
cient for the passage of fish, either ascending or descending such river or
Section 10462. Sale of power. Such power shall be for public use, and
shall be sold to private parties desiring it in the order of their application,
and upon equal terms ; and such power shall be furnished by such person or
corporation at his or its principal powerhouse or central station. Such
power may be applied directly by water or through the instrumentality of
electricity or such other agencies as such person or corporation may elect.
Section 10463. Assessment of tax. If any person or corporation tak-
ing or using such power shall elect to use said power exclusively for its own
use in manufacturing or other purposes named in this act, the Corporation
Commission of Arkansas shall assess the tax for taking and using such
power on the basis of power so taken and used, said power to be charged
for as if it had been sold to private consumers.
Section 10464. Damages for injury to land. In case any person or cor-
poration building any dam shall not agree with the owners of any lands
used for the purpose of the dam are flooded thereby, the court shall assess
the damages for the land flooded or taken, and also the consequential
damages to any lands necessary to the use of the lands taken or flooded
and owned by the parties whose lands are taken and flooded.
Section 10465. Tax on gross revenue. The Corporation Commission
of Arkansas shall grant to any person or corporation the right to take and
use such power described in this act under the following terms and con-
ditions: Every person or corporation taking and using said power shall
pay into the treasury of the State of Arkansas for the benefit and use of
the general revenue fund one-fourth of one per cent of its annual gross
revenue as determined by the power generated and sold for a period of
ten years from the time it shall begin operation, and one-half of one
per cent of its annual gross revenue thereafter.
118 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Section 10466. Right of eminent domain. In order to enable such cor-
poration to carry out the purposes of this act, the State's power of emi-
nent domain is hereby conferred upon it, in so far as it is necessary to
enable it to condemn land overflowed above its dam, and to condemn lands.
for right-of-way for viaducts, and for electric transmission of power gen-
erated to points of its utilization. In all cases where such corporation fails
to obtain by agreement with the owner or owners of the property, the
right to overflow such land or lands, or the right-of-way for viaducts and
electric transmission lines, it may apply to the circuit court in the county
or counties in which the property is situated, by petition, to have the dam-
ages for such overflowed land or lands or right-of-way assessed, giving the
owner or owners of such property at least ten days notice in writing of the
time and place where such petition will be heard.
Section 10467. Notice to non-resident owners. If the owner or owners
of said property be nonresidents of the State, such notice shall be given
by publication, as provided in civil cases.
Section 10468. Guardians of minors, etc. In case proceedings are
had against infants, or persons of unsound mind, it shall be the duty of the
court to appoint a guardian ad litem, who shall represent their interests for
Section 10469. Petition description of land. Such petition shall, as
nearly as may be, describe the lands to be overflowed or taken for right-
of-way for viaducts and electric transmission lines, and shall be sworn to.
Section 10470. Jury. It shall be the duty of the court to empanel a
Jury of twelve men, as in other civil cases, to ascertain the amount of
compensation which said corporation shall pay, and the matter shall pro-
ceed and be determined as other civil cases.
Section 10471. Payment of damages. In all cases where damages have
been assessed it shall be the duty of the corporation to deposit with the-
clerk of the court, or to pay to the owners the amount so assessed, and to
pay such costs as may be adjudged against it, within thirty days after such
assessment whereupon it shall be lawful for the said corporation to enter
upon said lands and proceed with the work of developing such water power.
Section 10472. Deposit to cover damages. When the determination of
questions in controversy in such proceedings is likely to retard the pro-
gress of the work, the court, or judge in vacation, shall designate an
amount of money to be deposited by said corporation, subject to the order
of the court, and for the purpose of making said compensation when the
amount thereof shall have been assessed, as aforesaid, and said judge shall
designate the place of said deposit. Whenever such deposit shall be made,
it shall be lawful for the corporation to enter upon such lands and to pro-
ceed with its work prior to the assessment and payment of damages
for the use thereof.
Section 10473. Forfeiture for failure to make deposit. In all cases
where such corporation shall fail to pay or deposit the amount of damages
assessed as aforesaid within thirty days after such demand, it shall forfeit
all rights in the premises.
Section 10474. Commencement and completion of the work. All char-
ters and permits granted under this act shall be void unless construction
shall be begun within two years from the date of the permit, and shall be-
completed within four years from the date of permit.
Co-Operative Soil Survey
(Act 542, General Assembly, 1921)
An Act to provide for co-operative soil survey work between the Federal
Bureau of Soils and the Arkansas State Experiment Station and for
Whereas, the Federal Government makes an annual appropriation to
the Bureau of Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture for Soil
Survey work, and
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS llfr
Whereas, said Bureau has offered and agreed to co-operate with the
State of Arkansas through the State Experiment Station in such work and)
to furnish and pay expenses of men to do such work provided the State cani
furnish an equal number of men to take care of the expenses of soil
analysis and other incidental expenses, and,
Whereas, a thorough scientific soil survey is the basis for further in-
vestigation of soil need, maintenance of fertility, and methods of handling
soils and growing crops, therefore,
BE IT ENACTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE STATE OF
Section 1. That the Director of the State Experiment Station of the
College of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, is hereby authorized to ex-
pend such sums as are hereinafter provided and necessary for the purpose
of conducting a scientific investigation of the soils of the counties of the
State of Arkansas, classifying and locating the different soils, surveying
and mapping such soils, describing, analyzing and examining the same and
otherwise locating the various types and kinds of soil in the counties of
this State and ascertaining their constituent elements of plant food, their
plant food deficiencies and any other information regarding the said soils,
which will be helpful to the agricultural interests of the State and print-
ing, publishing, and distributing reports and soil maps of the areas sur-
veyed and such work may be conducted in co-operation with the Bureau of
Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture and with the several
counties of the State of Arkansas.
Section 2. The Director of the State Experiment Station is hereby-
authorized to employ competent assistants and soil survey men to make-
such surveys, to fix their compensation, to purchase necessary supplies-
and equipment, to pay travel and such other expenses as may be necessary
to carry out the provisions of this Act, including cost of printing, publishing
and distributing report of such soil surveys.
Section 3. The county courts and tax levying boards are hereby
authorized and empowered to make appropriations out of the general revenue
fund of the county for the purpose of co-operating with the State Experiment
Station in carrying out the provisions of this Act.
Section 4. That there is hereby appropriated out of any money in the
General Revenue Fund in the State Treasury the sum of Seven Thousand
Five Hundred ($7500.00) dollars for the fiscal year from July 1st. 1021 to
June 30th, 1922, inclusive, and the sum of Seven Thousand Five Hundred
($7500.00) dollars for the fiscal year from July 1st, 1922, to June 30th, 1923,
inclusive, provided that any balance remaining in the treasury from said
first fiscal year shall be transferred by the treasurer to said second fiscal
year and may be expended during said second fiscal period for the same
Section 5. All acts or parts of acts in conflict with this Act are hereby
Soil surveys have been made of sixteen counties of Arkan-
sas, a list of which will be found at the end of this book. The
reports are distributed through the U. S. Bureau of Soils, Wash-
ington, D. C.
120 MINERAL SIN ARKANSAS
Mine Inspection Law, Governing
Operation of Mines in General
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 7249. Appointment qualifications salary. A mine inspector
shall be appointed by the Governor immediately upon the taking effect of
this act, who shall hold office until the first day of July, 1919, and until
his successor shall have been appointed and qualified, after which the term
of each mine inspector shall begin on the first day of July of every odd
numbered year and shall continue for two years, and until his successor
is appointed and qualified, and all appointments shall be made by the
Governor of the State, and said mine inspector shall not, while holding office,
be connected with or engaged, directly or indirectly, as owner, operator,
agent or director of any coal mine or other mining interest. He shall have
had eight years' actual experience as a practical miner. He shall have an
office, which shall be located in Fort Smith, Ark., and shall safely keep
all records, papers, documents, and other property pertaining to or coming
into his hands by virtue of his office, and deliver same to his successor.
Said mine inspector shall receive as salary for his services the sum of
$2000 per annum.
Section 7250. Bond. The mine inspector, before entering upon the
duties of his office, and within 20 days after his appointment, shall make
and execute a bond to the State of Arkansas, with one or more sufficient
sureties, in the sum of $5000, conditioned upon the faithful performance of
his duties; same to be approved by the Governor. When said bond is so
approved, he shall also take oath of office prescribed by the Constitution;
and in the event that said mine inspector shall fail to make and execute
said bond within the time prescribed by this act, his appointment shall be
declared void, and it is hereby made the duty of the Governor to appoint
and have qualified a proper person in his stead, as contemplated by the
provisions of this act.
Section 7251. Expenses. Said mine inspector shall be allowed all
necessary postage, stationery and other expenses of a similar character
necessary for the transaction of the business of the office; and the said
salary and expenses shall be paid as in the case of other State officers.
In addition to the salary, necessary traveling expenses while in the per-
formance of the duties of the office shall be allowed; but the total expenses,
in addition to salary paid, shall not exceed $1000 per annum.
Section 7252. Inspection and reports. The mine inspector shall devote
his entire time to the duties of the office. It shall be the duty of the mine
inspector to examine all mines as often as necessary, and not less than once
every three months; provided, however, that employes of any mine, as
contemplated by the mining laws of this State, shall have authority to 'call
said mine inspector at any time in cases of emergency for the enforcement
of the mining laws of this State. Inspections shall be made of the works
and machinery used or operated by any mine; also the State and condition
of the mines as to ventilation, circulation and condition of the air, drainage,
and the number of accidents, injuries or deaths occurring in or about the
mine, number of persons employed, and the extent to which the laws
relating to mines and mining are observed; the progress made in improve-
ments for the safety and health sought to be obtained by the provisions of
the mining laws of this State, together with all other such facts and in-
formation of public interest concerning the conditions of mine development
and progress in this State as may be deemed useful and proper- and to keep
a complete record of same, which shall be included in the mine inspector's
annual report to the Governor. Should the mine inspector find any viol-
ations of the mining laws of this State by any owner, lessee or agent in
charge of any mine, notice shall immediately be given to such owner
lessee or agent in charge of such mine of the neglect or violation thereof
and unless the same is, within a reasonable time, rectified, the mine in-
spector shall institute a prosecution under the laws of the State as here-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 121
inafter provided. If the said mine inspector find any matter, thing or
practice in or connected with a mine to be dangerous or defective, which
makes it unsafe for persons employed therein, notice in writing thereof
to the owner, lessee or agent of such dangerous or unsafe condition shall
be given, and the said conditions shall, by the said owner, lessee or agent
be remedied without unnecessary delay. For the purpose of making the
inspection and examination as contemplated by this act, the mine inspector
shall have the right to enter any mine at any reasonable time, by day or
night, but in such manner as shall not necessarily obstruct the workings of
said mine, and the owner, lessee or agent is hereby required to furnish the
means necessary for such entry and inspection. The inspection and ex-
amination, as contemplated by this act, shall extend to all coal mines
where the same are operated by shaft, slope or drift.
Section 7253. Owners to facilitate examinations. The owner, agent
or operator of such mine is required to furnish all necessary facilities for
entering and making such examinations and inspection, and if the owner,
agent or operator aforesaid shall refuse to permit such inspection, or to
furnish the necessary facilities for entering and making such examinations
and inspections the inspector shall file his affidavit, setting forth such re-
fusal before the judge of the circuit court in the county in which said mine
is located, and said judge of said court is granted the power to issue an
order, commanding said owner, agent or operator to appear before said
judge at chambers or before the circuit court to show cause why he
refuses to permit said inspection or furnish the necessary facilities for
entering and making said examinations; and, upon hearing, the judge
of the court shall have the power to fine such agent, owner or operator in
any sum not less than $50.
Section 7254. Complaint duties of judge. If the said inspector shall,
after examination of any mine and the works and machinery pertaining
thereto, find the same worked contrary to the provisions of this act,
or unsafe for the workmen employed therein, the said inspector shall file
a complaint before the judge of the circuit court in vacation or the circuit
court when in session, in the name of the State, without cost or bond, show-
ing wherein the said owner, agent or operator has failed to comply with the
provisions of this act, and the said court or judge, after hearing the cause,
shall, if satisfied the law has not been complied with, restrain or enjoin the
said owner, agent or operator from operating the said mine until the
law is complied with. In all proceedings before the said court or judge, the
owner, agent or operator shall have two days' notice of the intended appli-
cation for restraining order, and the judge of the court shall hear the
complaint on affidavits or other testimony that may be offered in support,
as well as in opposition thereto, and, if sufficient cause appear, the court
or judge in vacation by order shall prohibit the further workings of any
such mine in which persons may not be safely employed or which is
worked contrary to the provisions of this act until the same has been
made safe and the requirements of this act shall have been complied with,
and the court shall award such costs in the matter of said proceedings as
may be just, but any such proceedings so commenced shall be without
prejudice to any other remedy permitted by law for enforcing the provisions
of this act.
D State vs. Southern Anthracite Coal Mining Co., 13 Ark. 593.
Section 7255. Arrests proceedings. The mine inspector is hereby
empowered concurrently with the sheriffs and constables throughout the
State to make (arrests) for any violations of the mining laws of the State,
but he shall make no arrests until after notice has been given as provided
In this act. Where, in the opinion of the mine inspector, there is Im-
minent danger to the life or health of the miners or employees in said mine
said inspector shall at once notify the person in charge of or operating said
mine in which the dangerous condition exists to immediately remove said
danger, and, on failure to remove said dangerous condition without un-
necessary delay, said inspector shall order the mine, or dangerous portion
thereof, cleared of all persons except those necessary to remove or remedy
said dangerous condition. Upon the clearing of any mine of persons em-
122 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
ployed therein, as herein provided, any owner, lessee or agent in charge
of or operating any such mine may apply to the chancery court within the
jurisdiction of said mine for a writ of injunction to enjoin the mine
inspector from continuing the prevention of the operation of said mine.
Whereupon the chancellor of said court, either in term or vacation, shall
at once proceed to hear and determine the case, and if the cause appears
to be sufficient after hearing the parties and their evidence, as in like cases,
the chancellor shall sustain or overrule tha mine inspector.
(Section 7256, Obstructing inspection penalty. Any person who shall
wilfully obstruct or hinder the mine inspector in the discharge of his duties,
and every owner, lessee or agent, or manager of a mine who shall refuse
or neglect to furnish the mine inspector the means necessary for making
entry, inspection, examination or inquiry under the mining laws of this
State, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall
be punished as hereinafter provided. Should the mine inspector wilfully
fail or refuse to perform any of the duties required under the provisions
of the mining laws of this State, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor,
and upon conviction shall be fined in a sum not less than one hundred dol-
lars nor more than one thousand dollars, and, upon a second conviction
for such failure or refusal, shall be removed from office by the Governor,
and his successor appointed within thirty days from the date of such re-
moval. Any owner, or agent, lessee, or other person convicted of the
violation of any of the provisions of the mining laws of this State or failing
in any manner to comply therewith shall be deemed guilty of a mis-
demeanor and upon conviction shall be fined in any sum not less than
fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars except where provisions of
the mining laws otherwise provide penalties. Each day any such violation
or failure shall continue on the part of any owner, agent, lessee, or other
person shall be deemed as a separate offense. Provided, that the provisions of
this act do not apply to coal mines where less than ten men are employed
underground in twenty-four hours.
Section 7257. Duty of prosecuting attorney. It shall be and is hereby
made the duty of the prosecuting attorney in the district wherein the mine
inspector shall arrest or cause to be arrested any person or persons
violating the provisions of the mining laws of the State to at once take
charge of and prosecute the same with reasonable diligence.
Section 7258. Construction. This act shall not repeal any of the
mining laws of the State, except wherein it specifically conflicts, but shall
be cumulative to all mining laws now in force.
Section 7559. Non-performance of duty of inspector. Any inspector
who shall wilfully fail or refuse to perform any of the duties required of
him by the provisions of this act shall be punished by a fine of not less
than one hundred dollars, and, upon third conviction for any such failure
or refusal, he shall be removed from office, and any other person convicted
of a violation of any provision of this act, or failing in any manner to com-
ply therewith, except such provision for which punishment has already
hereinbefore been fixed, shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty-
five dollars; and each day any such violation or failure shall constitute a
separate offense; provided, the provisions of this act do not apply to mines
when less than ten men are employed underground in twenty-four hours.
Section 7260. (Amended). Furnishing map or plans. The owner,
agent or operator of each and every coal mine in this State shall make, or
cause to be made, an accurate and correct map or plan of the entire work-
ings of said mine, and every vein or deposit thereof, showing the general
inclination of the strata together with any material deflections in the said
workings, and the boundary lines of said mine, and deposit a true copy of
said map or plan with the Clerk of the County Court of each County wherein
said mine or any part thereof may be located, and the same shall be so
deposited during the month of January of each and every year hereafter,
and such owner, agent or operator shall file a copy of said map or plan
with the Mine Inspector during the month of January of each year and
shall also keep a copy of same open for inspection at the office of such
owner, agent or operator, and shall furnish said clerk and inspector with a
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 12?.
sworn statement and further map or plan of the progress of the workings
of such mine from the date of the last report to the ending December next
preceding the making of same, and the inspector shall correct his map or
plan in accordance therewith, and when any mine is worked out or abandoned
that fact shall be reported to the inspector without delay, and the map or
plan in the office of the clerk aforesaid shall be corrected and verified to
conform to the facts then existing.
All mine maps or plans aforesaid must show the location of doors
overcast or air bridges, and the direction all air currents are traveling shall
be indicated thereon by arrows. The Clerk of the County Court in which
mines are located, shall file and safely keep all maps and plans of any
mine deposited in his office, and same shall be recorded as maps and
plans of town sites are now recorded. The Mine Inspector shall send
maps and plans of mines in his possession to the Secretary of State for
safekeeping at the end of every two years, during the month of July, and
said mine maps and plans shall be kept in a vault for this special purpose
for the guidance of anyone interested therein.
Section 7261. (Amended). Instruction to make map or plan. That
the owner, agent or operator of any mine neglecting, failing or refusing to>
furnish said Inspector and County Clerk, a statement, map or plan or ad-
dition thereto at the time, and in the manner provided above shall be deem-
ed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be fined in any
sum not less than $100.00 nor more than $500.00 and each day such neglect,,
failure or refusal shall continue shall constitute a separate offense. This
penalty shall be in addition to the rights now conferred upon the Mine In-
spector by law to have said maps or plans made at the expense of the
owner, agent, or operator. This Act shall not be construed as repealing
any law now in effect except where same shall be in direct conflict here-
with, and this act shall be cumulative to existing laws regulating mines.
Section 7262. Escapement shaft. In all mines that are or have been
in operation prior to the first day of January, 1893, and which are worked
by and through a shaft, slope or drift, if there is not already an escape-
ment shaft to each and every such mine or communication between each
and every mine and some other contiguous mine, then there shall be an
escapement shaft or other communication such as shall be approved by
the mine inspector, making at least two distinct means of ingress and:
egress, for all persons employed or permitted to work in such mines. Such
escapement shaft or other communication with a contiguous mine afore-
said shall be constructed in connection with every vein or stratum of coal
in such mine and the time to be allowed for such construction
shall not exceed ninety days from the time this act takes effect,
and such escapment shaft or other communication with contiguous
mines aforesaid shall be constructed in a shorter time than ninety
days, if within the discretion of the inspector it becomes
necessary, and in all cases where the working force of one mine has been
driven up or into the workings of another mine, respective owners of such
mines while operating the same shall keep open a roadway not less than
six feet wide nor less than three feet high, thereby forming a communica-
tion as contemplated by this act, and for the failure to do so shall be subject
to the penalty provided for in Section 7253, for each and every day such
roadway is unnecessarily closed; each and every escapement shaft shall
be separated from the main shaft by such extent of natural strata as shall
secure safety to the men employed in such mines, not less than one hun-
dred feet, in all mines that shall go into operation for the first time after
the first day of January 1893; such an escapement or other communication
with a contiguous mine, as aforesaid, shall be constructed within ninety
days after such mine shall have been put into operation, or within a shorter
time if in the descretion of the inspector it becomes necessary; and it
shall not be lawful for the owner, agent or operator of any such mine as
aforesaid to employ any person to work therein or permit any person to go
therein for the purpose of working except such persons as may be neces-
sary to construct such escapement shaft, unless the requirements of this
section shall first have been complied with. And the term "owner," as
used in this act, shall mean the immediate proprietor, lessee or occupant of
124 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
any mine or any part thereof and the term "agent," shall mean any per-
son having on behalf of the owner, the care or management of any mine or
part thereof; provided, nothing in this section shall be construed to ex-
tend the time allowed by law for constructing escapement shaft.
Section 7263. Ventilation. The owner, agent or operator of every
mine, whether operated by shaft, slope or drift, shall provide and maintain
for every such mine a sufficient amount of ventilation, to be determined by
the inspector, not less than one hundred cubic feet of air per man per
minute, measured at the foot of the downcast, which shall be circulated to
the face of every working place throughout the mine, so that said mine
shall be free from standing gas of whatsoever kind. In all mines where fire
damp is generated every working place where fire damp is known to exist
shall be examined every morning with a safety lamp by a competent
person before any other persons are allowed to enter. The ventilation
required by this section may be produced by any suitable appliance, but in
case a furnace shall be used for ventilating purposes, it shall be built in
such a manner as to prevent the communication of fire to any other part
of the works by lining the upcast with incombustible material for a suf-
ficient distance from said furnace.
Section 7264. Bore-hole. The owner, agent or operator shall provide
that a bore hole shall be kept twenty feet in advance of the face of each
and every working place, and if necessary on both sides when driving
toward an abandoned mine, or a part of a mine suspected of containing
inflammable gases or to be inundated with water.
Section 7265. Means of signalling cages. The owner, agent or opera-
tor of every mine, operated by shaft, shall provide suitable means for the
signalling between the bottom and top thereof; and shall also provide safe
means of hoisting and lowering persons in a cage, covered with boiler
iron, so as to keep safe as far as possible persons descending into or
ascending out of said mine; and such cage shall be furnished with guides
to conduct it through slides through such shaft with sufficient brake on
every drum, to prevent accident in case of the giving out or breaking of
the machinery; and such cage shall be furnished with spring catches, in-
tended and provided, so far as possible, to prevent the consequences of
cable breaking or the loosening or disconnecting of the machinery; and no
props or rails shall be lowered in the cage while men are descending into
or ascending out of said mine; that when men are ascending or descending,
the opposite cage in every case shall be empty.
Section 7266. Age of minors management of cages. No person un-
der the age of fourteen years, or female of any ?,ge, shall be permitted to
enter any mine to work therein; nor shall any boy under the age of sixteen
years, unless he can read and write, be allowed to work in any mine, and
no owner, agent or operator of any mine operated by a shaft or slope shall
place in charge on any engine whereby men are lowered into or hoisted
out of the mines by any but an experienced, competent and sober person,
not under 18 years of age, and no person shall be permitted to ride upon a
loaded cage or wagon used for hoisting purposes in any shaft or slope ex-
cept persons employed for that purpose, and in no case shall more than
eight persons ride in any cage or car at any one time, nor shall any coal
"be hoisted out of any mine while any person or persons are' descending
into such mine, and in no case shall more than one of the same family
ascend or descend into any mine in one cage at one time, nor shall they
be lowered or hoisted more rapidly than 500 feet per, minute.
Section 7267. Gates, bonnets and safety appliances... The owner,
agent or operator shall cause every landing on a level or above the surface
of the ground, and the entrance to each intermediate vein (to be) securely
fenced by gate and a bonnet so prepared to cover and protect such shaft
and the entrances thereto, and the entrance to every abandoned slope,
air or other shaft shall be securely fenced off, and every steam boiler shall
be provided with proper steam gauge, water gauge and safety-valve and
all underground self-acting or engine plains or gangways on which cars
are drawn and persons allowed to travel shall be provided with some
proper means of signaling between stopping places and the end of such
plains or gangways, and sufficient places of refuge at the side of such
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 125
plains or gangways shall be provided at intervals not more than thirty feet
Section 7268. Report of accidents investigations. Whenever loss of
life or serious personal injury shall occur by reason of an explosion or of
any accident whatever in or about any mine, it shall be the duty of the
person having charge of such mine to report the facts thereof without de-
lay to the mine inspector, and, if any person is killed thereby, to notify
the coroner or some justice of the peace of said county, and it shall be
the duty of the inspector to investigate and ascertain the cause of said ex-
plosion, and file a report thereof with the other records of his office; and,
to enable him to make such investigations, he shall have power to compel
attendance of witnesses, and take depositions, administer oaths, and the
cost of the examination shall be paid by the county as costs of coroner's
inquests are now paid, and the failure of the person in charge of the mine
where the accident occurred to give the inspector notice thereof shall be
Section 7269. Right of action for injury. For any injury to persons
or property occasioned by wilful violation of this act, or wilful failure to
comply with any of its provisions, a right of action shall accrue to the
party injured for any direct damages sustained thereby; provided should
death ensue from such an injury, a cause of action shall survive in favor,
first, of the widow and minor children of such deceased; if there be no
widow nor minor children, then to the father if living, then to the mother;
if no mother, then to the brothers and sisters and their descendants.
Section 7270. Injury to appliances penalty. Any miner, workman or
other person who shall knowingly injure any water-gauge, barometer, air
course or brattice, or shall obstruct or throw open any air way, or carry
any lighted lamps or matches into places that are worked by safety lamps
or shall handle or disturb any part of the machinery of the hoisting en-
gine, or open a door to a mine, and not have the same closed again, where-
by danger is produced, either to the mine or those who work therein; 'or
who shall enter any part of the mine against caution, or who shall disobey
an order given in pursuance of this act, or who shall do any wilful act
whereby the lives and health of persons working in the mine, or the
security of the mine, or miners, or the machinery thereof is endangered,
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall
be punished by a fine or imprisonment at the discretion of the court.
Section 7271. Prop timbers. The owner, agent or operator of any
mine shall keep a sufficient amount of timber when required to be used
as props, so that the workmen can at all times be able to properly secure
the said workings from caving in, and it shall be the duty of the owner,
agent or operator to send down all such props when required and deliver
said props to the place where cars are delivered.
Section 7272. Duties of weighman and checkman. The weighman em-
ployed at any mine shall, before entering upon his duties, take and sub-
scribe an oath, or affirmation, before some proper officer, to do justice
between employer and employee, and to weigh the output from the mine
honestly and correctly. The miners engaged in working any mine shall
have the privilege, if they so desire, of selecting, by a majority vote, and
employing, at their own expense, a check weighman, who shall in like man-
ner take an oath, and who shall have like rights, powers, and privileges,
in attending and seeing that the coal is correctly weighed, and who
shall be subject to the same penalties as the regular weighman, and each
of such weighman shall keep account of all coal weighed at the mines, In
a well bound book kept for that purpose. Such oath or affirmation shall be
kept posted in a conspicuous place in the weigh office and every owner, agent
or operator of any coal mine in this state shall keep a correct account of
the output of coal at his mine in a well bound book kept for that purpose,
therein showing the amount of coal mined in each day, in each month and"
In each year, and such account shall be kept in the general office in this
State of such owner, agent or operator .subject at all times to the inspec-
tion of the inspector, and if the mine be leased, subject also to the inspec-
tion of the owner of the mine, his agent or attorney.
Section 7273. Scales and measures. It shall be the duty of every cor-
126 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
poration, company or person engaged in the business of mining and selling
coal by weight or measure, and employing ten or more persons, to procure
and constantly keep on hand at the proper place the necessary scales and
measures and whatever else may be necessary to correctly weigh and
measure the coal mined by such corporation, company or person and it
shall be the duty of the mine inspector to visit each coal mine operated
therein, and where such scales and measures are kept at least once in each
year, and test the correctness of such scales and measures. The owner or
-operator of each coal mine, or any two or more of the miners working there-
in, may, in writing, require his attendance at the place where such scales
and measures are kept at other times in order to test the correctness there-
of, and it shall be his duty to comply with such request as soon as he can
.after receiving such request.
Section 7274. Testing weights. Every agent, owner, lessee or oper-
ator engaged in mining coal in any quantity, where ten or more men are
worked underground, shall furnish and keep on hand for the use of the State
Mine inspector, for inspecting, testing and examining scales, five hundred
pounds of United States testing weights.
Section 7275. Penalty. Any corporation or person violating any of the
provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and
upon conviction thereof shall, for each offense, be fined not less than twen-
ty-five dollars and not more than five hundred dollars; and the officers,
agents or employees of the corporation or company whose duty it was to
do or perform the act, or to cause it to be done and performed, which is the
subject of the indictment, may be indicted jointly with said corporation or
company, and upon conviction thereof be fined in any sum not less than
twenty-five dollars nor more than five hundred dollars.
Section 7276. Coal not screened until weighed exception. It shall be
unlawful for any mine owner, lessee or operator of coal mines in this State,
where ten or more men are employed underground, employing miners at
bushel or ton rates, or other quantity, to pass the output of coal mined by
said miners over any screen or any other device which shall take any part
from the value thereof before same shall have been weighed and duly
credited to the employee sending the same to the surface ,and accounted
for at the legal rate of weights as fixed by the laws of Arkansas, and no
employee within the meaning of this act shall be deemed to have waived
any right accruing to him under this section by any contract he may make
-contrary to the provisions thereof, and any provision, contract, or agree-
ment between the mine owners, lessees or operators thereof, and the miners
employed therein whereby the provisions of this act are waived, modified
or annulled, shall be void and of no effect, and the coal sent to the sur-
face shall be accepted or rejected; and, if accepted, shall be weighed in
accordance with the provisions of this act, and the right of action shall
not be invalidated by reason of any contract or agreement; provided,
that in Cane Creek, River and Logan townships in Logan county, and in
all of Johnson county except Grant township, all the coal mined and paid
for by weight may be paid for on the mine run basis,
or upon the screen coal basis, which shall be a matter
for agreement between the operators and the miners. Provided,
further, that if any coal shall be mined on the screen coal basis it shall pass
over the following kind of screen, to-wit: The screen shall not be more
than four feet wide and not more than twelve feet long, made of steel or
iron bars which shall not be less than five-eighths of an inch in thickness
on the face and not less than five-sixteenths of an inch in thickness on
the bottom and not less than 1% of an inch shall be supported by rests or
cross bars. It shall in no event be placed more than three feet apart.
The screen bars shall be placed upon rests in such a manner
as to prevent spreading and said rests or cross bars shall
be firmly fastened to each side of the chute through which the coal passes.
Said rests or cross bars shall be so arranged as in no case to rise above
the top of the screen bars in such a manner as to retard the speed of the
coal in passing over the screen. Where coal is screened before it is
weighed, it shall be dumped upon bat sheets and passed over the screen as
described above, and there shall be no obstruction on said screens,
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 127
Any owner, agent, lessee or operator of any coal mine in this State
where ten or more men are employed under ground, who shall knowingly
violate any of the provisions of this section, shall be deemed guilty of a
misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less
than two hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each
offense, or, by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than
sixty days nor more than six months, or both such fine and imprisonment;
and each day any mine or mines are operated thereafter shall be a separate
and distinct offense; proceedings to be instituted in any court having com-
Section 7277. Room and pillar plan regulation. The owner, agent,
lessee, or operator of any coal mine in this State, if said mine is worked
on the room and pillar plan, shall cause such work to be prosecuted in
such mine in the following manner, to-wit: Two entries parallel with each
other must be driven for the ingress and egress of the air, and cross cuts
must be made at intervals not to exceed forty feet apart. Where gas ex-
ists they shall be driven thirty feet apart, or a cross cut be made at any
other place ordered by the management to do so. No room shall be turned
inside the last course cut.
Section 7278. Enforcement. The State Mine Inspector shall, after the
passage of this act, give notice in writing to the owner, agent, lessee or
operator in charge of each coal mine worked on the room and pillar plan, to
conform to the requirements hereinbefore set out, and if the same are not
complied with in such mines as work ten or more men underground, the
such owner, agent, lessee, or operator so failing shall be deemed guilty of
a misdemeanor, and, on conviction, be fined not less than ten or more than
fifty dollars for each day in which such mine is operated in violation of
the above requirements.
Section 7279. Daily Inspection. In all mines where a fire boss is em-
ployed, all working places and worked-out places adjacent to the working
places shall be examined, when it can be done, at least once a day by a
competent fire boss, whose duty it shall be to enter a report of existing
conditions of such working places and worked-out places in a well-bound
book, to be kept by him for that purpose, and all dangerous places that are
marked out shall be marked on a blackboard, furnished by the company,
before any other employee enters the mine.
Section 7280. Lard oil for lighting. Nothing but pure lard oil, where
oil is used for lighting purposes, shall be used in any underground works,
except in the main upcast. This section shall not apply to rope riders.
Section 7281. Emergency supplies. There shall be kept in the engine
room, or at some nearby and convenient place, at each mine working ten
or more men underground, a supply of oils, bandages, blankets or covers
for wraps, and a cot or stretcher, for use of and to be used by persons who
may receive injuries in or at said mines, and the owner, agent, lessee, or
operator shall also provide and maintain at some convenient place a con-
veyance in which to take from the mines to their place of abode, persons
who may be thus injured.
Section 7282. Annual report of coal mined. Each and every owner,
agent, lessee, or operator operating a coal mine in this State shall annually,
on the 1st day of July of each year, make a report, under oath, upon
blank forms to be furnished by the State Mine Inspector, of the true
amount of coal mined each and every month for twelve months next pre-
ceeding the making of said report. The said blank forms shall be prepared
by the State Mine Inspector, and contain the necessary headings and
columns to obtain a correct and true statement of all coal of every kind
mined; and this section shall apply to all mines without regard to the num-
ber of men employed.
Section 7283. Penalty. Any owner, agent, lessee, or operator who
shall fail or refuse to file, swear to, and return by the 1st day of July of
each year the said reports, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and
on conviction shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than
one hundred dollars for each day of such failure; and any agent, owner,
lessee, or operator who knowingly swears to a false report, shall be deemed
guilty of perjury, and punished accordingly.
128 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Section 7284. Air currents. All slopes, drifts or shafts, used for hoist-
ing or hauling coal shall be made the intake of air into the mines except
at the opition of the owner or by the direction of the State Mine Inspector,
and that all air that goes into a mine shall be so split that not more than
fifty employees will be working on each split of air, and there shall not be
less than 200 cubic feet of air pass each working face per minute, and it
shall be the duty of the State Mine Inspector to measure the air at all
working places in making his inspection. The machinery and appliances
used for conducting or driving the air into the mines shall be so installed, ar-
ranged and adjusted that said air currents may be easily and speedily
reversed in emergencies.
Section 7285. Miners called out of dangerous mines. Whenever and
wherever a coal mine in this State becomes dangerous from high water or
overflow of streams adjacent thereto, whereby the lives of the miners em-
ployed therein are jeopardized by reason of such high water, it shall be the
duty of the managers of such coal mine to call the miners out of the same,
and forbid their working therein until such danger is past, and failure
to do so is hereby made a high misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof,
shall be fined in any sum not less than five hundred dollars nor more
than five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment not less than six months
nor more than one year.
Section 7286. Failure of lessee to report output. Any person, firm or
corporation, leasing lands in this State under written contracts providing
for a royalty to be paid the lessor for ore deposits or minerals taken out or
off of said land, or any officer, agent or employee of said lessee, who shall
with the intent to defraud the said lessee out of any part of said royalty
fail, neglect or refuse to report the true amount or quantity of ore, deposits
or minerals taken from said lands, or who shall conceal the true amount so
taken, or who shall falsely report the amount so taken, shall be deemed
guilty of a felony, and shall upon conviction, be imprisoned in the peniten-
tiary for not less than one nor more than five years.
WASH HOUSES IN COAL MINES
'Section 7287. Duty to furnish. It shall be the duty of every owner or
lessee, its officers and agents, or other persons having jurisdiction or di-
rection of any coal mine or coal mines employing ten or more persons,
within the State of Arkansas, to provide, within ninety days after the
passage and approval of this act, a suitable building which shall be con-
venient to the principal entrance of such mine or mines, and equipped with
individual lockers or hangers, benches or seats, proper light, heat, hot and
cold water and shower baths, and maintain the same in good order, for the
use and benefit of all persons employed in or about said mine or mines.
Said building shall be so constructed as to give sufficient space for the ac-
commodation of miners or others using the same. The flooring in the wash
room of said building to be made of concrete or cement, but the material
used in flooring in the changing room shall be optional with the owner,
lessee operating or directing the operation of the mine or mines. All
lockers required by this act, when made of steel, shall be not less than
twelve inches in width, twelve inches in depth and sixty inches in height.
When made of lumber, they shall not be less than twelve inches in depth,
twelve inches in width and sixty inches in height, with partitions in center
of wood lockers. Individual hangers shall consist of not less than three
suitable hooks upon which to hang clothing and a receptacle of suitable size
for use in connection therewith, attached to a proper chain or wire rope,
and so suspended as to admit of hanger being raised to such height that
wearing apparel, when hung thereon, will not be less than seven feet above
the floor of said building and of being locked in that position. The lockers
and hangers in each wash house shall be sufficient in number to accommo-
date all employees of said mine or mines and there shall be one shower bath
for each fifteen employees. Said employees shall furnish their own towels,
soap and lock for their lockers or hangers, exercising control over and be
responsible for the property by them left therein; and it shall be the duty
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 12D
of all persons using said wash houses to remove therefrom all cast-off wear-
Section 7288. To be kept clean. Every corporation, company, parim-r-
ship, person or persons who shall construct any building or buildings required
by Section 7287, and shall install such house and wash house facilities
as required therein, shall at all times, during the operation of any mine or
mines, keep same in clean and sanitary condition, but shall not be liable
for the loss or destruction of any property of employees left in any such
building or buildings.
Section 7289. Penalty. Any owner, lessee, its officers or agents, or
other persons failing or refusing to comply with the provisions of this act
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall upon conviction, be
fined not less than $50 nor more than $100; each day's violation shall con-
stitute a separate offense and shall be punished as such.
Section 7290. Injury to appurtenances penalty. It shall be unlawful
for any person to break, injure or destroy any part or appurtenance to any
wash house, or commit any nuisance therein; and any person adjuged
guilty of a violation of this section shall be fined in any sum not less than
$25 nor more than $50.
Section 7291. Separate waoh houses. All coal mines operating in this
State shall by partition, or by other means, in the discretion of the State
Mine Inspector, maintain separate wash houses for whites and blacks.
Section 7292. Duty of inspector. It shall be the duty of the State Mine
Inspector, and he is by this act .authorized to require wash houses already
in existence to be so changed, remodeled and improved as to comply with
the provisions of this act. He shall have general supervision of this law
and its enforcement.
LIEN OF MINERS
Section 7293. Lien on output and machinery. Any person or person*
working in any mines of the State of Arkansas, or in any quarries, either
stone or marble, shall have a lien on the output of any such mines or
quarries for the amount due for such work, and, in addition thereto, his
lien shall attach to all machinery, tools and implements used in such quar-
rying and mining, such liens to be enforced in the manner now provided
or as may hereafter be provided for the enforcement of laborer's liens.
RIGHT TO OPERATE ON RAILWAYS OR TRAMWAYS
Section 7294. Short line roads authorized. A person owning or con-
trolling, by lease or purchase, any copper, lead, zinc, iron, marble, stone,
rock, granite, slate, coal or other mineral lands in this State shall have the
same right to incorporate, own, construct and operate such short lines of
railway or tramway as may be necessary to the successful mining, quarry-
ing and marketing of said coal, marble, stone, rock, granite, slate and other
Section 7295. Eminent domain. All incorporations herein provided for
shall be governed by the laws governing railway incorporations in this
State; and shall have the same right to acquire right-of-way over, under or
through any private or public lands, and shall have and exercise the same
right of eminent domain in acquiring such right-of-way; and shall have the
same authority to construct, own, lease, operate, or sell such lines of railway,
or tramway, as may be necessary to the successful mining and marketing
of such coal and other minerals, owned or controlled by said mining cor-
porations in this State.
Section 7296. Rights as carrier. When so incorporated and*construct-
ed, such short lines of railway and tramway shall be and are hereby en-
titled to all the rights, powers and privileges of a common carrier.
Section 7297. Rights to connections, crossings, etc. All such short
lines of railway, or tramway, shall have the same rights and privileges of
connections, crossings, sidings, switches and transfer, without prejudice
or discrimination, as are extended by custom or granted by law to railroad
corporations in this State.
130 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Section 7298. Passenger equipment not required. All such short lines
of railway, or tramway, not exceeding six miles in length, shall not be
required to maintain passenger equipment, but if, at their option, they
carry passengers, they shall be subject to the laws governing passenger
traffic on railroads in this State.
Coal Mine Examining" Board
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921.)
Section 7317 Examining board. Immediately after the passage of this
act, there shall be appointed by the Governor, a board of four examiners to
serve until July 1, 1921, and thereafter such board of examiners shall be ap-
pointed for a term of four years. Two of said board shall be practical miners,
who have had at least eight years' experience as miners in mines of Arkansas
or elsewhere; two shall be operators of coal mines in the State of Arkansas
or representatives thereof. One additional member of said board shall be
selected by the four members appointed as hereinbefore provided. The
Members of the examining board shall be paid out of the coal mine ex-
aminers' fund, upon vouchers to be approved by the president of said
board, the sum of $6 per day for each day of actual service and their neces-
Section 7318. Organization and duties. Immediately after their ap-
pointment, the examiners shall meet and organize by selecting a chairman
and secretary. The secretary shall keep on file all examination questions
and their answers, and all examination records and papers belonging to
the board. The examining board shall convene upon call of the chairman,
except in case of emergency. Notices shall be published in one newspaper
of general circulation in each county in which there are coal mines, at least
five days before the day of meeting.
Section 7319. Employees to be examined fees. On and after the pas-
sage of this act no fire bosses, hoisting engineers, or mine foremen shall
be employed in any mines in the state of Arkansas, unless they shall have
been examined by the said State Board of Examiners, as hereinafter pro-
And provided, further, that no one shall act as mine instructor or as-
sistant mine instructor of the State of Arkansas, unless they have been
examined by said board of examiners, as hereinafter provided.
Provided, that the mine inspector holding office at the time this act
goes into effect shall have a fee of $10 and be granted a certificate with-
out examination, and the assistant mine inspector holding office at the
time this act goes into effect, shall, on payment of a fee of $7.50, be grant-
ed a certificate without examination.
Provided, that men holding positions of hoisting engineers, or mine
foremen, at the time this act goes into effect, who have had five years'
experience and pay a fee of $5, shall be granted certificates without ex-
Fire bosses, holding positions at the time this act goes into effect, who
have had five years' experience and pay a fee of $3, shall be granted a
certificate without examination. Applicants for examination shall be able
to read and write the English language, and shall satisfy the board of ex-
aminers that they are of good moral character, and not be a user of in-
toxicating liquors, and shall be a citizen of the United States. All appli-
cants shall be thoroughly examined with reference to the duties of the posi-
tions for which they have applied for certificate. Applicants for certificates
as mine foremen shall be at least 25 years old, and shall have had at least
five yearsj experience as practical coal miners, mining engineers or men of
general underground experience. Applicants for certificates as fire bosses
shall have like qualifications and experience in the mines of Arkansas or
elsewhere and shall also have had experience in mines that generate ex-
plosive and noxious gases. Applicants for certificates as mine inspector
shall, before examination, pay to the board a fee of $4, and, if successful a
further fee of $6 for a certificate. Applicants for certificates as assistant
mine inspector shall, before examination, pay to the board a fee of $3 and,
if successful, a further fee of $4.50 for a certificate. Applicants for certi-
MINERALS iN ARKANSAS 131
flcates as mine foremen and hoisting engineers shall, before examination,
pay to the board a fee of $2 and, if successful, a further fee of $3 for a cer-
tificate. Other applicants shall, before examination, pay to the board of
examiners a fee of $1, and, if successful, a further fee of $2 for a certi-
Section 7320. Certificates. The board shall grant certificates after
examination to all applicants wbo have shown themselves familiar with
the duties of the position for which they desire certificates, and are capable
of performing such duties. Provided, that certificates of the first grade
shall be granted only to applicants who by oral or written examinations in
the presence of and relating to explosive gas, have shown themselves
competent to act as mine foremen in mines which generate ex-
plosive and noxious gases, and the certificate shall so state. Provided,
certificates for mine inspector and assistant mine inspector shall be granted
only to applicants who have shown themselves duly qualified, as provided
by the law creating such office, and no appointments shall be made to such
offices unless such appointee shall hold a certificate.
Section 7321. Grade of certificate. Anyone holding a first grade fire-
man's certificate may serve as foreman in any mine and may serve as fire
boss; and anyone holding a second grade mine foreman's certificate may
serve as any of the above, except as fire boss and foreman in mines which
generate explosive or natural gases, and in case of emergency any mine
owner, with the consent of the examining board, may employ any trust-
worthy or experienced man who shall not hold a certificate, for a period of
not more than thirty days as mine foreman or fire boss. *
Section 7322. Forgery or counterfeit of certificate. Any person who
shall forge, alter or counterfeit a certificate, or shall secure or attempt to
secure employment by use of such forged, altered or counterfeit certificate,
or shall falsely represent that he is a holder of a certificate regularly is-
sued him, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
Section 7323. Duplicate certificates. In case of loss or destruction of
certificates, the secretary of the examining board, upon satisfactory proof
of the said loss or destruction, may issue a duplicate thereof on the pay-
ment of the sum of $1.
Section 7324. Revocation of certificates. ..All certificates issued here-
under may be revoked by the board of examiners after hearing upon due
notice to the holder of the certificate, and upon written charges preferred
by the board or by some interested person for violation of this act. Com-
plaint may be filed against the holder of a certificate for intoxication, mental
disabilities, neglect of duty or other sufficient cause; provided, however,
that the holder of the certificate so cancelled shall have the right to appear
before the examining board after the expiration of three months and be re-
examined, if he shall first satisfy the board that the incapacity complained
of shall have ceased to exist.
Section 7325. Penalty. Any owner, operator, lessee or agent of any
coal mine in the state of Arkansas, violating any of the provisions of this
act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall
be fined not less than $10 nor more than $100, or be imprisoned in the
county jail not exceeding one year, or both.
The office of the State Mine Inspector is at Fort Smith,
Ark. The office of the State Bureau of Labor is at Little
132 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Laws For the Conservation of Oil and Gas
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 7299. Duties of owners or operators. The owner or operator
of any well put down for the purpose of exploring for or producing oil or
gas shall, during the course of such drilling, case off all fresh or salt water
from each oil or gas producing sand encountered while drilling, such casing
to be set in the well in such manner as to exclude all water from penetrating
the oil or gas-bearing sand, and should such well be put down through the
first into a lower oil or gas-bearing sand, the same shall be cased in such
manner as to exclude all fresh or salt water, from all oil or gas-bearing sands
encountered during the course of such drilling operation. And, should any well
so drilled produce oil or gas-bearing sand such oil or gas shall be conserved by
either casing or mudding it off, so as to confine it in the gas or. oil-bearing
sand where found; or, if it is to be utilized from different sands in the
same well, it shall be taken through different strings of casing or tubing.
Section 7300. Duty to confine gas. Any person, co-partnership, corpora-
tion, owner, lessee or manager in possession of any well producing natural
gas, in order to prevent said gas from wasting by escape, shall within ten
days after this act takes effect, and thereafter within four days after pen-
etrating the gas-'bearing sand in any well drilled, shut in and confine the
gas in said well until and during such time as the gas therein shall be
utilized for light, fuel or steam power.
'Section 7301. Plugging dry or abandoned wells. All lessees or opera-
tors drilling or operating for crude oil or natural gas within the State of
Arkansas shall immediately, in a practical and workmanlike manner, under
the supervision of the oil or gas inspector, as hereinafter provided, plug
all dry or abandoned oil or gas wells in which oil or gas bearing stratum
has been found, in the following manner: Beginning at the bottom of
the hole, same shall be solidly plugged with a substance consisting of
one-third portion cement and two-thirds portion of sand properly mixed
with water to a point twenty-five feet above top level of the oil or gas-bear-
ing rand. At that point a seasoned, wooden plug two feet in length and
the diameter of the hole, shall be placed. Thereafter the hole shall be
filled up solidly tw T enty-five feet with sand baling and a seasoned wooden
plug, two feet in length and the diameter of the hole shall be so placed and
driven firmly into the sand balings. Should there be more than one oil or
gas-bearing sand in the well, after plugging the bottom sand in the well, as
herein above set out, the well shall be filled with sand balings to within ten
feet of the bottom of the next sand above that last plugged, when this sand
and each succeeding sand shall be plugged in the manner herein above set
out, until all the oil and gas-bearing sands in the well have been plugged as
Section 7302. Right of persons threatened with injury. Whenever any
person is injured or threatened with injury by the neglect to comply with
the provisions of section 7301, it shall be lawful for such persons, after
notice to the owner, lessee or caretaker of the premises upon which
such well is located, to enter upon and fill up and plug such well in the
manner herein provided; and thereupon to recover the expense thereof from
the person or persons whose duty it was to fill up or plug such well in
like manner as debts of such amounts are recoverable, and shall have a
lien upon the fixtures, machinery, and leasehold interest of the owner or
operator of such well for all sums expended in filling up and plugging
such well, and for the costs of the suit, including a reasonable attorney's
fee, to be fixed by the court.
Section 7303. Penalty. Any person, firm or corporation violating
section 7299, 7300 or 7301 shall be subject to a penalty of not less than
one hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars to be recovered
in an action therefore, brought by the prosecuting attorney in the name of
the State, by the court. The proceeds of the penalties collected shall be
turned into the general road fund of the county where incurred, to be used
on the roads, bridges or highways of said county, in the discretion of the
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 133
Section 7304. Log of well drilled filing. It shall be the duty of the
owner of ^any well drilled for gas or oil to keep a careful and accurrate log
of the drilling of such well, such log to show the character and depth of
the formation passed through or encountered in the drilling of such well,
and particularly to show the location and depth of the water-bearing
strata, together with the character of the water encountered from time to
time, and to show at what point such water was shut off, if at all, and if
not, so state in the log; and show the depth at which oil or gas strata is
encountered, and the character of same, and whether all water overflow-
ing or underlying such oil or gas-bearing strata was successfully and per-
manently shut off, so as to prevent the percolation or penetration into
such oil or gas-bearing strata. The said log to be verified by the person in
charge of the drilling attested as correct by the owners of the well, and
shall be filed with the county clerk of the county in. which said well is
located, and preserved by him in the public records. The said log shall
definitely describe the location of the well.
Section 7305. Leaks notice to owner. It is hereby made the duty of
any person discovering any leak in any pipe line for the transportation of
natural gas, or in any machinery, apparatus or device used in the regula-
tion, distribution or transportation thereof, forthwith to notify the owner
of said pipe line or other appliance and also notify the gas inspector
of said leak. It is made the duty of the owner of such pipe line or other
apparatus ffom which gas is escaping, to immediately repair the same. It
is made the duty of the gas inspector, on receiving reliable information
of such leak, or on personal knowledge thereof, to forthwith notify the
owner of said pipe line or appliance of it, and to immediately repair the
same. Should the owner of such pipe line, apparatus, appliance or device
fail to at once repair said leak, or use the utmost diligence to do so, he
shall be subject to a penalty of not less than one hundred dollars nor more
than one thousand dollars and a reasonable attorney's fee to be fixed by
the court for the prosecuting attorney to be recovered in an action
brought by the prosecuting attorney in the name of the State therefor.
The proceeds of penalties collected shall be turned into the general
fund of the county where the leak is located, to be used on the roads,
bridges, or highways of said county, in the discretion of the county court.
Section 7306. Permitting flow of gas penalty. It shall be unlawful
for any person, firm or corporation having possession or control of any gas
well whether as contractor, owner, lessee, or manager, to allow or permit
the flow of natural gas of any such well to flow into the open air without
being confined to such well or pipe, or other safe receptacles, for a longer
period than three days after the gas shall have been struck and produced
of such well. If such well cannot be confined in three days, the peron
controlling the same shall continue with the utmost diligence to confine
it as soon as possible. Failure to comply with this section shall subiect the
person failing so to do to the penalties and proceedure provided in the
next preceding section, which shall be applicable hereto.
Section 7307. Civil liability. In addition to the penalties described in
the preceding section for failure to confine natural gas, any person or cor-
poration lawfully in possession of lands upon which said gas well is situated,
or adioining or adjacent thereto, or in the vicinity of such well, may enter
upon the lands on which such well is situated and take possession of such
well from which said gas is allowed to escape in violation of such section,
after the failure of the party in control thereof for ten hours to use the
utmost diligence to confine the said gas, and pack and tube such well, and
shut in and secure the flow of gas, and maintain civil action i\i any court
of competent jurisdiction in this State against the owner, lessee, agent, or
manager of such well, and each of them, jointly or severally, to recover
the cost and expense of said tubing and packfng, together with attorney's
fees to be taxed as a part of the cost.
Section 7308. Setting fire to escaping gas. It is hereby declared to
be unlawful for any person to set on fire any gas escaping from wells,
broken or leaking mains, valves, pipes or other appliances used by any
person, company or corporation in conveying gas to consumers, or in stor-
ing the same, or to interfere in any manner with wells, pipes, mains, gate-
134 MINERALS. IN ARKANSAS
boxes, valves, stop-cocks or other appliances, or machinery of any per-
son, company or corporation, unless employed by or acting under the au-
thority or direction of the person, company or corporation owning or con-
trolling said wells, mains, pipes, valves, or other appliances, and those
herein mentioned, or legal authority. Anyone found guilty of violation of
this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and confined in the
county jail not less than one day nor more than six months, and fined
Section 7309. Flambeau lights prohibited. The use of natural gas for
illuminating purposes in what are known as "flgmr.eau" lights is wasteful
and extravagant use thereof, and is dangerous to the public good, and it
shall therefore be unlawful for any company, corporation or person to use
natural gas for illuminating purposes in what are known as "flambeau"
lights in cities, towns, highways or elsewhere; provided, this
shall not be so construed to prohibit the use of such gas in
what are known as "jumbo" burners, inclosed in glass globes, or lamps, or
by the use of other burners of similar character, so inclosed as will con-
sume no more gas than "jumbo" burners; provided, further, that this shall
not apply to those engaged in drilling wells while the well is being drilled.
A violation of this section shall subject the person so violating it to the pen-
alties and proceedings provided in Section 7305, which is made applicable
Section 7310. Gas inspector. The office of gas inspector is hereby
created. The gas inspector shall have at least three years' experience in
natural gas drilling operations, and possess technical knowledge of the
properties of natural gas, and of geology so far as it relates to the sub j act
of natural gas. The Governor shall appoint such person as gas inspector
and commission him as such, and shall serve for a term of four years, or
until his successor is appointed and qualified, and he is hereby vested
with the duties and rights and powers hereinafter prescribed.
Section 7311. Notice of drilling penalty. When a company or in-
dividual drilling a well is required to plug it as provided in this act, he is
to notify the gas inspector, who shall supervise the plugging and see that it
conforms to the requirements of this act, and said gas inspector shall
file a written report with the county clerk of the county in which the well
is situated, stating in detail the work done, and he shall receive a fee of
$25 from the company or individual owning the well. Should the company
or individual plugging the well violate the provisions of this act in so do-
ing, or in failing to do or the written directions of the gas inspector, it
shall be subject to a penalty of not less than $100 nor more than $1,000
and the proceedure provided in Section 7305 which is made applicable
Section 7312. Notice of plugging well penalty. When a company or
individual drilling a well is required to plug it as provided in this act, he is
to notify the gas inspector, who shall supervise the plugging and see that
it conforms to the requirements of this act, and said gas inspector shall file
a written report with the county clerk of the county in which the well is
situated, stating in detail the work done, and he shall receive a fee of $25
from the company or individual owning the well. Should the company or
Individual plugging the well violate the provisions of this act in so doing, or
in failing to do, or the written directions of the gas inspector, it shall be
subject to a penalty of not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 and the pro-
cedure provided in Section 7305 which is made applicable hereto.
Section 7313. Gas or oil-bearing sand notice to inspector. Any com-
pany or individual drilling a well shall notify the gas inspector whenever it
reaches gas or oil-bearing sand or strata, whether said sand or strata are
producing or not, and the inspector shall at once visit the well and see
that the provisions of this act in regard to protecting said oil or gas-bar-
ing sands or strata are complied with, and he shall receive a fee of $15 to
be paid by the company, or individual drilling the well for his said serv-
ices; provided the person drilling the well shall not be required to stop
drilling until the inspector arrives. Failure of the individual or company
drilling a well to comply with this act in regard to protecting gas-bearing
or oil-bearing strata or sand, or to obey the written instruction of the gas
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 135
inspector, shall render the company or individual subject to a penalty of
not less than $100 or more than $1,000 and subject to the same proceedure as
provided in Section 7305, which is made applicable hereto.
Section 7314. Duties of inspector penalty. The gas inspector shall
Inspect all gas wells in the process of drilling and all pipe lines in process of
construction, and see there is no wastage of gas, and that said wells and
pipe lines are properly constructed to prevent wastage. If he finds any water
or wastage in well, pipes or other receptacle for gas, he shall at once notify
the owner thereof, or, in his absence, the person in control thereof, of the
eame, with directions to immediately repair same, and failure thereof shall
subject the owner or person in control thereof to a penalty of not less than
$100 or more than $1,000 to be recovered as provided in Section 7305. which
is made applicable thereto. Each person, company or individual, dr lling or
pwning an oil or gas well shall pay an inspector fee of $10 to the gas in-
spector, and any person, firm or corporation constructing or owning a pipe
line shall pay the inspection fee of $10 for each five miles or a fraction
Section 7315. Defense to action for penalty. In any action for penalty
for failure to comply with directions of the gas inspector, the defendant
may be permitted to show that the requirement was unreasonable and
unnecessary, on proof of wlrch the defendant shall be discharged.
Section 7316. Amount of gas to be taken penalty. It shall be unlaw-
ful for any person, firm or corporation owning or operating any natural
gas well, within the State of Arkansas, or selling gas therefrom, directly
or indirectly, to draw from any well so owned or operated, in an amount
exceeding in the aggregate 20 per cent of the open-flow test of the total
volume of gas being produced out of the gas sands and said well; provided,
however, if the rock pressure or volume of any gas producing area can
be proved to have become depleted to such an e>tent that the gas will not
flow of its own volition, and it becomes necessary to pump said gas, or
by other artificial means procure gas from the aforementioned sands, then
the first part of this section shall have no application while such condi-
tion exists. Any person, firm or corporation violating this section shall be
subject to a penalty of $100 for each day or part of day of such violation;
and this penalty may be recovered in an action therefor brought by the
prosecuting attorney in the name of the State, and a fee of one-fourth of
the amount recovered in such action shall be allowed to the prosecuting at-
torney bringing the action, and one-fourth shall be paid to the gas inspec-
tor; the remaining half of the recovery shall be turned into the general
road fund of the county where collected, to be used on the roads, bridges or
highways of said county, in the discretion of the county court.
An Act To Conserve Natural Gas Resources of the State of
(Act 144, General Assembly, 1921.)
Section 1. In order to determine the open flow volume of gas produced
by any well, it shall be the duty of the State Gas Inspector or his duly au-
thorized deputy to test all wells producing gas in the State of Arkansas,
from which gas is being used or marketed, between the 1st day of De-
cember and the 1st day of January in each year, and as often thereafter
as in his judgment it may be necessary for the purpose of determining
the open flow volume and rock pressure of said wells. The State Oil and
Gas Inspector shall be paid a fee of $25.00 a day and his actual expenses
by the person, firm or corporation whose wells are tested by him or his
deputy under the provisions of this section.
Section 2. In determining the open flow volume and rock pressure of
said well, said Gas Inspector shall first close the well for a period of
five minutes, and then take a test, to determine its closed-in pressure. He
shall then immediately open said well and flow it for five minutes, and
then take a test of its open flow volume, with approved instruments and
devices in use for that purpose.
Section 3. Immediately after the said tests are made, the Gas Inspec-
tor shall furnish the person, firm or corporation owning or operating said
136 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
well or wells with a copy of the tests made by him, showing the amount
of gas which said owner or operator may take from each of said wells daily,
and shall file his report of said tests with the county clerk of the county in
which said well or wells are situated, showing the closed-in rock pres-
sure and open flow volume, size of the tubing with which said well or
wells are closed in, and the condition of the well or wells at the time the
test was made; said report to be verified by said Gas Inspector and pre-
served by the County Clerk in the county records.
Section 4. Before making said tests, the Gas Inspector shall give
five days' notice in writing to the person, firm or corporation owning,
operating or controlling said gas well or wells, of the time when said tests
will be made, and the person, firm or corporation owning, operating or
controlling said well or wells, or any other person interested therein, shall
have the right to be present when said test is being made, and shall afford
to said Gas Inspector every means and facility possible for the purpose of
making an accurate test of said well or wells, as provided in this Act.
Section 5. If, in the judgment of the Gas Inspector, it shall be deemed
advisable or necessary to test said wells oftener then set out in Section 1,
he shall have the right to do so, and for th^e purpose of making said tests
and determining the amount of gas taken therefrom, he shall have access
to all wells and to all well records, and all companies, contractors, drillers,
lessees or owners of the land upon which said well or wells are located
shall permit said Gas Inspector or his deputy to come upon any lease or
property owned or controlled by them, and to inspect any and all wells and
the records of said wells, and to have access at all times to all wells and
to any and all records of said wells used, owned or operated by any per-
son, firm or corporation or the lessees or owners of the land upon which
said wells are located.
Section 6. Uniform rules of procedure shall be followed by said Gas
Inspector in making the tests hereinabove set out, so that all wells tested
by him under this Act shall be upon the said basis and under like condi-
tions, to the end that all wells shall show accurately their rock pressure and
volume as closed in at the time said tests are made, and shall be tested
under similar conditions.
Section 7. In addition to the annual test provided for in Section 1,
it shall be the duty of the Gas Inspector, within ten days after the gas
from any well is being used or marketed, to make a test of said wells, as
provided for in Section 2, and to make out and file his report of said test
with the County Clerk of the county in which said well is located, as pro-
vided in said Section 2.
Section 8. When the gas from any well is being used, the flow of
production thereof shall be restrained to twenty per cent of the potential
capacity of said well; that is to say, in any day of twenty-four hours,
the well shall not be permitted to flow or produce more than twenty per
cent, of the open flow capacity of said well, as shown by the last test of
said well made by the Gas Inspector.
Provided that whenever the rock pressure of any well, when tested
as provided in Section 2, is reduced to one hundred pounds, by putting gas
into the pipe line under its own volition or pressure, the provisions of this
Section shall not apply.
Section 9. All gas produced from gas wells drilled in this State, when
sold or used from said well, shall be accurately metered through proper
devices, in order to determine the amount of gas taken from said well, which
said meters shall be read at least once in every forty-eight hours, for the
purpose of determining the amount of gas taken from each well, and such
meter readings shall be subject to the examination of the Gas Inspector or
any other person interested, for the purpose of determining whether or
not the amount of gas being taken from said well is in excess, of twenty
per cent of the dailv open flow of the well as shown by the last test made
of said well by tV>e Gas Inspector, provided that when the rock pressure of
any well falls below one hundred, this section shall not apply.
Section 10. All oil or gas sands, even though unproductive of oil or
gas in the well being drilled, if known to produce oil or gas in any field,
shall be protected by judding off such known oil or gas sand by the use of
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 137
mudladen fluid, or any other effective method, in the discretion of the Gas
Section 11. Whenever a packer or tubing used to shut in the gas in any
well does not effectively shut off the oil, gas or water in the strata in
which they occurred, said well shall be filled outside of the tubing from the
packer to the next producing sand with mudladen fluid of a maximum den-
sity of at least twenty-five per cent and the well shall be equipped with
what is commonly known as a Braden Head or any other device that will
prevent the escape of gas provided that if the next producing sand is not
profitable, then it may be filled as above provided to the top, at the dis-
cretion of the Gas Inspector.
Section 12. Before any person, firm, corporation or contractor shall
commence to drill a well for gas or oil, a separate slush-pit or slump-hole
shall be constructed by the owner, operator or contractor, for reception of
all pumpings or sand-balings taken from the well, in order to have the
same on hand for the purpose of making mud-laden fluid to be used as pro-
vided in Sections 10 and 11.
Section 13. Any person, firm or corporation violating any of the pro-
visions of Sections 8, 9, 10 and 11 of this Act shall be subject to a penalty
of not less than One Hundred Dollars nor more than One Thousand Dollars
for the first conviction for violating the provisions of said sections, and
for the second conviction, to a penalty of not less than Two Hundred Dol-
lars nor more than One Thousand Dollars and for the third conviction, to
a penalty of not less than Five Hundred Dollars or imprisonment in the
county jail for not less than thirty days, or both such penalty and imprison-
The penalties provided for herein to be recovered in an action there-
for, brought by the Prosecuting Attorney in the name of the State, to-
gether with a reasonable attorney's fee for the Prosecuting Attorney to
be fixed by the court, and recovered in the same manner and in the same
The proceeds of penalties collected shall be turned in to the General
Road fund of the county wherein occurred, to be used on the roads, bridges
and highways of said county, in the discretion of the County Court, and
the attorney's fee shall be paid over to such prosecuting attorney.
Section 14. This Act being necessary for the immediate preservation
of the public peace, health and safety, shall take effect and be in force
and effect from and after its passage.
Right of Eminent Domain to Pipe Line Companies
(Act 239 Acts of General Assembly, 1921.)
Section 1. That all pipe line companies operating in this state are
hereby given the right of eminent domain and are declared common car-
riers, except pipe lines operated for conveying natural gas for public utility
service. All gas lines or companies operating within the state who render
a domestic or general service to the public in furnishing and sale of gas
are hereby required to buy or furnish from the lowest or most advantageous
market. Failure to do so shall deprive them of the difference in price be-
tween such market and the one of which purchases are made.
Section 2. That the procedure to be followed in the exercise of the
right shall be the same as prescribed in Section 3992-4003 of Crawford &
Moses' Digest relating to railroad companies, telegraph companies and tele-
(Digest of Arkansas Statutes, 1921.)
Section 3969. Pipe lines right of way. Any corporation organized by
virtue of the laws of this state, for the purpose of developing and produc-
ing mineral oil, or petroleum, or natural gas in this state, and marketing
the same, or transporting or conveying the same by means of pipes from the
point of production to any other point, either to refine or to market such
oil, or to conduct such gas to any point or points to be used for heat or lights,
may construct, operate and maintain a line or lines of pipes for that pur-
pose along and under the public highways and the streets of cities and
towns, or across and under the waters and over any lands of the state and
138 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
on the lands of individuals, and along, under, or parallel with the rights-
of-way of railroads, and the turnpikes of this state; provided, that the
ordinary use of such highways, turnpikes and railroad rights-of-way be not
obstructed thereby, or the navigation of any waters impeded, and that
just compensation be paid to the owners of such lands, railroad rights-of-
way, or turnpike, by reason of the occupation of such lands, railroad rights-
of-way, or turnpikes by said pipe line or lines.
Section 3970. Procedure... In the event any such company shall fail
upon application to individuals, railroads, or turnpike companies to secure
such right-of-way by consent, contract, or agreement, then such corporation
shall have the right to proceed to procure the condemnation of such prop-
erty, lands, rights, privileges, and easements in the manner now provided
by law for taking private property for rights-of-way for railroads as pro-
vided by Sections 3S92-4002, inclusive.
Section 3971. Right to enter and survey. Whenever any such cor-
poration shall desire to construct such pipe line or lines upon or under
the lands of individuals, or right-of-way of any railroad, or any turnpike,
said corporation, by its agents, shall have the right to enter peacefully upon
said lands or rights-of-way and survey, locate and lay out its said pipe
lines thereon, being liable, however, for any damage that may result by
reason of such acts, and shall designate on a plat or map to be made and
filed with the county clerk of the county, the width of the strip of land
needed to be condemned for its purposes, its location and the depth to
which such pipes are to be laid.
Section 3972. Injury to pipes penalty. Any person or persons who
shall injure or molest any such pipe or pipes so used for the transporta-
tion of such oil or gas shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction
be fined in any sum not to exceed two hundred dollars; but, should such
injury be done wilfully, and be of such a character as to cause such pipes
to be so damaged that such oil or gas shall escape and cause damage, either
to the company or individuals, or other corporations, then such person or
persons shall be guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof, shall be fined
not to exceed one thousand dollars and confined in the penitentiary not
more than five years.
Taxation of Pipe Lines
Section 9976. Any person or corporation, wherever organized or In-
corporated, engaged in the business of transmitting oil and gas in pipe lines
through or in this state; or owning pipe or pipe lines for such purposes in
this state, shall be deemed to be a pipe line company. Such companies shall
be assessed for taxation by the Arkansas Tax Commission.
Section 9977. It is made the duty of every * * * pipe line company,
wherever organized or incorporated, and carrying on a business in this
state, on the first Monday in July, any year, to make out and file with the
Arkansas Tax Commission a statement showing in detail the following.
1. A copy of the articles of incorporation, under which the company
is organized and carrying on business; said copy to be filed but once un-
less the Commission should otherwise direct;
2 The amount of capital stock subscribed, whether designated as com-
mon or preferred, or by any other description, showing the par value of each
share and the market value thereof on the first Monday in June of said
3 The face value of all bonds, secured by mortgages on the company's
property, outstanding and the market or actual value of such bonds:
4 The total number of miles of pipe lines owned or operated within
and without this state by any such pipe line company in the transaction of
Section 1806. Foreign pipe line companies doing intrastate business
are required to pay the same fees as are prescribed for such corporations
organized under the laws of this state.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 13*
For Protection of Pipe Lines
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 2480. Setting fire to escaping gas. It is hereby declared to
be unlawful for any person or persons to set on fire any gas escaping from
wells or from broken or leaking mains, pipes, valves, or other appliances,
used by any person, company or corporation in conveying gas to con-
sumers, or to tap any pipe or main for the purpose of taking and stealing
gas therefrom, or to interfere in any manner with wells, pipes, mains,
gate boxes, valves, stopcocks or other appliances, machinery or other
property of any person, company or corporation engaged in furnishing gas
to consumers, unless employed by, and acting under the authority and di-
rection of such person, company or corporation furnishing gas to con-
Section 2481. Extension of gas pipe without permission. It is hereby
declared unlawful for any person, in any manner whatever, to change, ex-
tend or alter, or cause to be changed, extended or altered, any service or
other pipe or attachment of any kind, by or through which natural or
artificial gas is furnished from the gas mains, or pipes' of any person, com-
pany or corporation without first securing * * * written permission to
make such change, extension or alteration.
Requiring Release of Forfeited Leases
(Act 192, General Assembly, 1921)
Section 1. It shall be the duty of every person holding an oil, gas or
other mineral lease for prospecting and exploiting for oil, gas or other
minerals, upon any real estate in the State of Arkansas, upon forfeiting the
right to further prospecting on such lands, by failure to pay any rental, or
to perform any condition imposed on the lessee, or otherwise forfeiting
such rights under said lease, upon notice hereinafter prescribed by the
lessor, to execute a release to the grantor, or otherwise remove any cloud
or incumbrance on the title to such lands by reason of any such forfeited
Section 2. Any owner of lands upon which a lease for the develop-
ment of oil or gas, or other minerals, has been given and the lessee for-
feits his rights at any time to further prospect for such minerals upon
said lands, by reason of a failure to pay periodical rentals or to perform
other conditions that nullify the lease as to lessee's rights therein (may
give) written notice, served in the manner of a legal summons upon the
lessee demanding that said lessee execute and place on record a release
which in effect will remove any cloud existing upon the title of such
lands; upon failure of said lessee to comply with said notice he shall be
liable to the lessor or owner of said lands in damages in whatever sum
the owner of such lands may sustain by reason of said cloud or incum-
brance upon said lands after thirty days from the service of said notice.
Guardians of Wards May Release Mineral Rights.
(Act 174, General Assembly, 1921)
When it shall appear that it would be for the benefit of the ward,
that his or her lands, or any part thereof, be leased for the production of
oil, gas, coal, zinc, lead, copper or other minerals or metals therefrom,
his or her guardian, or curator, may lease the same upon obtaining an order
from the court of probate of the county in which such lands or the greater
part thereof shall be situated.
(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 5872. When a non-resident lunatic or person of unsound mi^id,
incapable of conducting his own affairs, owns real property in this State
and has a guardian or curator in the State where he resides, the court of
probate of the county where such lands or the greater part thereof are (is)
situated may authorize such guardian or curator to lease said lands or any
part thereof for the production of oil or gas upon securing an order from
the probate court and complying with the terms and provisions of this act.
140 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Synopsis of Oil and Gas Inspection Laws.
(Digest Statutes of Arkansas, 1921)
Section 5900. Creates office of inspector of the petroleum oils kero-
sene and gasoline, etc.; offered for sale or sold for illumination, heating
power purposes in Arkansas, for a period of 30 years; to be appointed by
the governor; inspector shall be a resident of the State and shall be ap-
pointed for a term of four years; he shall give a bond in the sum of
$25,000. Said inspector with the approval of the governor shall appoint
not to exceed six deputies whose salaries shall not exceed $100 a month;
these inspectors to be located at convenient places within the State; pro-
vides office clerk at salary not to exceed $1200 a year; salary of inspector
fixed at $3000 a year; deputy inspectors have powers and duties and are
subject to the same penalties as the inspector; bonds required of deputies;
deputies shall make report to the inspector on the first and sixteenth of each
month; showing in detail all the inspections made, the stamps and cer-
tificates on hand, received and issued.
Section 5901. Duty of owner, manufacturer, wholesale dealer or job-
ber, in any of the oils or fluids to inspect the same or cause the same to
be inspected in any quantities, from one barrel to car tank, before the said
oils or fluids are sold, and shall at the time of making the inspection
thereof attach to the car, can, cask or barrel or other vessel containing
said oils, a stamp or stamps sufficient in amount to show the payment of
all fees required by this article; stamps to be cancelled; unlawful to use
cancelled stamps; each vessel shall also bear a certificate stating that the
contents have been inspected. The fire test of all petroleums or kerosene
oils for illuminating purposes shall be equal to a test prescribed in the suc-
Section 5902. 'Inspector shall use Taglibue's or other similar instru-
ments; methods of making tests defined in detail.
Section 5903. None of the substances which ignite or burn at any
temperature less than 150 degrees P. shall be offered for sale or use; pro-
vided however, that it shall be lawful to sell any of the fluids in the form
of vapor or gas, regardless of the degree of the fire test.
Section 5904. Provides methods of testing gasoline oils.
Section 5905. Inspectors and deputies shall make oath.
Section 5906. Fees for inspection; for each barrel or smaller article,
12 cents; in bulk one-eighth of a cent per gallon.
Section 5907. Inspector authorized to rent suitable offices for deputies
Section 5908. Duty of persons bringing oil into the State to provide
inspection before oil is offered for sale and pay the inspection fee by means
of stamps; inspector or deputy, when called upon, shall as soon as prac-
ticable make inspection.
Section 5909. Inspector or deputy have power to make inspection and
test of any oils wherever found, right to administer oaths and to inspect
any and all records having reference to the receiving, forwarding or trans-
portation of any such oils or gasolines; duty to prosecute violations.
Section 5910. State Treasurer shall provide suitable and inimitable
certificates and stamps, in proper form, and upon application deliver
them to the inspector or deputy in quantities necessary to meet the de-
mands, taking a receipt and charging same to the official receiving them;
and the State Treasurer from time to time, as said inspectors make
returns shall cerdit their accounts and keep a true and correct record
of the dealings. The stamps shall be made in denominations, as required,
but not less than 12 cents and not more than $12, each series to be pro-
Section 5911. Inspectors and deputies may be removed for neglect
of duty and held on their bonds for an adjustment of these stamp ac-
counts; also liable under criminal law.
Section 5912. No inspector or deputy shall, while in office be interested
directly or indirectly in the manufacture or sale of oils or gasoline, nor
shall he for the purpose of inspection, take away for his own use or the
use of others, any part or portion of said oils.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 141
Section 5913. Inspectors and deputies shall keep a correct record of
all oils and fluids inspected and of all stamps, certificates and other prop-
erty coming into his hands, and this record shall be open to public inspec-
tion; detailed reports to be made annually to the Governor; all money
collected as inspection fees shall be remitted once each month to ihe State
Section 5914. Governor sliall fill vacancy in office of inspector; in-
spectors to fill vacanc es in offices o? deputies but the term of no deputy
shall extend beyond that of the inspector.
Section 5915. Penalty for persons, firms or corporations who fail to
comply with the provisions of this act.
Section 5916. .When shipments of oil are received the dealer shall at;
once notify the chief inspector or one of his deputies of the quantity and
request inspection. If for any reason a prompt inspection is impossible the
dealer or his agent may subject said products to the test prescribed in
this act and on furnishing the inspector or his deputy an affidavit that said
oils have met the requirements of the test, he shall be entitled to re-
ceive stamps showing the inspection has been made, and when said
stamp is placed en the vessel and cancelled, the oil or gasoline may be
sold the same as if it had been inspected by the oil inspector or his deputy.
Section 5917. Auditor authorized to issue warrants from the fund
created by the fees paid into the treasury under the provisions of this act,
for the payment of salaries and expenses; only expenses allowed, in addi-
tion to office expenses, shall be those necessarily incurred for making
inspections at places other than where the inspector or deputies shall be
Section 5918. Duty of railroads or their agents at place of destination,
to notify State Inspector of arrival and delivery of all car tanks containing
any of the fluids mentioned in this article for inspection, giving the number,
initial and capacity of such car; penalty for non-compliance.
Synopsis of Arkansas Blue Sky Law
(FROM ACT 242, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1915 AND AMENDMENTS.)
AN ACT to prevent fraud in the sale and disposition of contracts, stocks,
bonds, or other securities sold or offered for sale within the State of
Arkansas by any dealer, firm, company, association or corporation, for-
eign or domestic, by requiring an inspection of such contracts, stocks,
bonds, or other securities and an inspection of the business of such per-
sons, firms, companies, associations or corporations, including dealers
and agents, and such regulation and supervision of the business of said
persons, firms, companies, associations or corporations, including dealers
and agents as may be necessary to prevent fraud in the sale within this
Stfcte of any contracts, stocks, bonds, or other securities, and to provide
a penalty for the violation thereof.
Bank Commissioner Executive Officer.
Section 1. State Bank Commissioner delegated with full power to
supervise and enforce the provisions of Act and make such rules and regu-
lations as may be necessary.
Investment Company Defined.
Section 2. Every person, corporation, co-partnership, company or as-
sociation (except those elsewhere exempted), which shall sell or negotiate
for the sale of any contract, stock, bonds or other securities, within the
State, shall be known for the purpose of this Act as a domestic investment
company; if a resident of or organized in any other state, they shall be
known as a foreign investment company.
Exempts Certain Classes of Securities.
Section 3. Provisions shall not apply to securities of the United States,
or any foreign government; or any state or territory thereof, or of any
county, city, township, district, or other public taxing subdivisions of any
state or territory of the United States, or any foreign government; unse-
cured commercial paper; securities of A public or quasi-public corpora-
tions, the issue of which is regulated by the Arkansas Railroad Commission
142 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
or by any public service commission or board of legal authority of any
state or territory of the United States or securities senior thereto; secur-
ities of State or National banks or trust companies; securities of any domes-
tic corporation organized without capital stock, and not for pecuniary
gain, or exclusively for educational, benevolent, charitable, or reformatory
purposes; mortgages upon real or personal property situated in this state
where the entire mortgage is sold and transferred with the note or notes
secured by such mortgage; increase of stock sold and issued to stock-
holders, also stock dividend", securities which are listed in any standard man-
ual of information approved by the said Bank Commissioner; provided, how-
ever that said Bank Commissioner shall have power to call for additional
and further information that contained in such manuals with reference
to any securities listed therein; and may, pending the filing of such In-
formation, suspend the sale of such securities, and also suspend, either
temporarily or permanently, the sale of any securities listed in such man-
uals after a hearing upon notice to the issuer of such securities of said
Bank Commissioner shall find that the sale of such securities would work
a fraud upon the purchaser thereof.
Methods of Applications and Fees.
Section 4. Before selling, offering for sale, taking subscriptions for,
or negotiating for the sale in any manner whatsoever in the state, any con-
tracts, stocks, bonds or other securities of its own issue, every investment
company, domestic or foreign, shall file in the office of the Bank Commis-
sioner a statement showing in full detail the plan upon which it proposes
to transact business, a copy of all contracts, stocks, bonds, or other instru-
ments which it proposes to make with or sell to, its contributors or cus-
tomers, together with a copy of its prospectus, and of the proposed ad-
vertisements of its sale of stocks, bonds or other securities, with name
and location of main office, name and addresses of its officers, and an
itemized account of its financial condition and of its assets and liabilities,
and such other information as the Bank Commissioner may require. If a
co-partnership or unincorporated association, such investment company
shall also file a copy of its articles of co-partnership or association and all
other papers pertaining to its organization. If a corporation organized
under the laws of Arkansas, it shall also file a copy of its articles of in-
corporation, constitution and by-laws and all other papers pertaining to
its organization. If organized under the laws of any other state, territory
or government, incorporated or unincorporated, it shall also file a copy of
the laws under which it exists, and also a copy of its charter and the certifi-
cate showing that it is authorized to transact business there; and also copies
of its constitution and by-laws of all amendments of any of the above men-
tioned instruments which have been made, and of all other papers per-
taining to its organization. It shall also pay a filing fee of one-tenth per
cent upon the face value of the securities for the sale of which application
is made; provided such filing fee shall not be more than $100, nor less
Section 5 Papers shall be verified by oath.
Consent For Service of Process.
Section 6 Every foreign corporation before offering for sale any of
its stocks, bonds, or other securities shall file its irrevocable written con-
sent that suits and actions may be commenced against it in the proper
courts of any county in this state in which a cause of action may arise,
or in which the plaintiff may reside, by the service, of any process of
pleading authorized by the laws of this state.
May Require Additional Information.
Section 7. The said Bank Commissioner shall have power to demand
from any investment company seeking to come under the provisions of
this act any further information necessary to qualify him to pass upon
all questions that may come before him. He may make an examination of
the company's property, business and affairs, at the expense of the ap-
plicant; he may cause an appraisal to be made at the expense of the in-
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 143
vestment company, of the property, including the value of patents, good
will, promotion and intangible assets, and he may fix the amount of stocks,
bonds, or other securities that may be issued by any corporation in pay-
ment for property, patents, good will, promotion and intangible assets
at the value he shall find same to be worth and may require that such
stocks, bonds or other securities so issued for such property, etc.. shall be
deposited in escrow under such terms as he may prescribe. And said Bank
Commissioner may withhold his certificate of authority to sell such stocks,
bonds or other securities if such corporation has issued stocks, etc., for
such purpose in excess of their value as found by said Bank Commissioner,
or if such stocks, bonds or other securities are not deposited in escrow ac-
cording to the terms fixed by the Bank Commissioner, until such stocks,
bonds or other securities issued in payment for property, patents, good
will, promotion and intangible assets in excess of the value so found by
said Bank Commissioner has been surrendered to such corporation and
canceled by it, and until the said stock has been deposited in escrow un-
der the terms prescribed by said Bank Commissioner.
Shall Issue Permit, if Found Not Fraudulent.
Section 8. It shall be the duty of said Bank Commissioner to examine
the statements and documents filed in his office by any investment com-
pany and the reports of any investigation conducted under the direction
of said Bank Commissioner and to hear such applicant and he shall have
power to examine under oath any person interested or connected with
such investment company, and if he finds that the proposed contracts,
stocks, bonds or other securities are fraudulent or of such nature that the
sale thereof would work a fraud upon the purchaser, then the said Bank
Commissioner shall disapprove the sale of such proposed contracts, etc.,
and shall notify such investment company by registered mail .of his find-
ings, and it shall be unlawful for such company to do any further busi-
ness in the way of selling, offering for sale in any manner whatever of
any such contracts, stocks, bonds or other securities in this state. If, how-
ever, such Bank Commissioner shall not find that the proposed, plan of
business, contracts, etc., are fraudulent or are of such nature that the
sale thereof would, in the opinion of said Bank Commissioner work a
fraud upon the purchaser thereof, then he shall approve the sale of same
in the State of Arkansas and issue his certificate in substantially the fol-
"This is to certify that the has this day been given permis-
sion to sell $ of its (stocks, bonds of other securities) within the
State of Arkansas. THE BANK COMMISSIONER DOES NOT RECOM-
MEND THE PURCHASE OF THIS SECURITY. This day of
A. D. 192 . In witness whereof I have hereunto affixed the seal of the
Bank Department. Done at Little Rock this day of -^
A. D. 192 .
(Seal) Bank Commissioner."
The words, "The Bank Commissioner does not recommend the purchase
of this security," shall be printed in type two sizes larger than any other
part of said certificate in which style the certificate must appear if used in
connection with any advertising matter.
Dealer Defined; Regulations Prescribed.
Section 9. Any person, firm, co-partnership, corporation or associa-
tion, whether domestic or foreign, not the issuer, who shall in this state sell
or offer for sale any of the stocks, bonds or other securities issued by any
foreign or domestic investment company except the securities specificaally
exempted in this Act, or who shall, by advertisement or otherwise, pro-
fess or engage in the business of selling or offering for sale such securities,
shall be deemed to be a dealer, and no dealer shall sell or offer for sale any
such securities or profess the business of selling or offering for sale such
securities unless and until he shall have filed a list of the same in the of-
fice of the Bank Commissioner. The term dealer shall not include an owner,
nor issuer, of such securities so owned by him when such sale is not made
144 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
in the course of continued and successive transactions of a similar nature,
nor one who, in a trust capacity created by law, lawfully sells any secur-
ities within such trust.
How Dealer May Be Licensed.
Section 10. Dealer must first register with the Bank Commissioner
and furnish upon oath the following information: Name, residence and
business address; general character of securities; the place where busi-
ness is to be conducted within this state and the names and addresses of
all persons in charge thereof. Said dealer shall pay an inspection fee of
$50. All authorized agents of any dealer shall be registered. The name of
any agent shall be stricken from the register upon written request of the
dealer and additional agents may be registered upon request accompanied
with the fee therefor, provided, that no agent shall act as such until reg-
If the dealer be a foreign corporation, it shall at the time it registers
file a written, duly authenticated appointment of the Bank Commissioner
of this State as its agent in Arkansas upon whom process or pleadings may
be served for and on behalf of the dealer for the purposes mentioned in
Section 6 and such appointment shall be irrevocable.
Upon compliance by such dealer with the provisions of this act the said
Bank Commissioner shall issue to him a certificate of authority which
shall be valid for one year, or until revoked for good cause upon notice to
such dealer as a hearing duly had. If not revoked before the expiration
of one year such certificate may be renewed upon receipt of one inspec-
tion fee of $25.
Registration of Agents.
Section. 11. In addition to the filing fees and the examination fees
there shall be charged a fee of $2 for the registration and authorization of
each agent of any such dealer or investment company, and shall be valid
until March 1, following unless sooner revoked. Fees to be paid into the
State Treasury and applied toward the payment of the expenses of en-
forcing this Act. The expenses of said Bank Commissioner shall not, how-
ever, be limited to the money received by him, but he shall have power to
incur all expenses he finds necessary in enforcing the provisions hereof.
Accounts and Examinations Fees.
Section 12. The general accounts of every investment company shall
be kept in a business-like and intelligent manner, and in sufficient detail
that said Bank Commissioner can ascertain at any time is financial con-
dition and the books of accounts shall at all times during business hours
be open to stockholders and investors in said company, or the said Bank
Commissioner, and all such investment companies shall be subject to ex-
amination at any time in the same manner as is now provided for the
examination of State Banks, and such investment companies other than
building and loan, building, or building and savings associations shall pay
a fee for each such examination not to exceed $10 per day or fraction
thereof that any examiner is absent from the capitol building for the pur-
pose of making such examination, and in addition thereto shall pay the
actual hotel and jtraveling expenses of such authorized examiner from Lit-
tle Rock and return.
The Bank Commissioner shall make at least once a year an examina-
tion of all building and loan, building ,or building and savings, associations
doing business in this state in the manner now provided for state banks,
and such associations shall pay a fee of not to exceed $10 per day plus 10
cents per each one thousand dollars or fraction thereof of its assets, pro-
vided, that in no event the charge for such examination exceed $50, if a
domestic investment company, and that such charge may not exceed $50
plus the necessary hotel and traveling expenses from Little Rock and re-
turn if such association be a foreign corporation. Failure to pay such
fees shall work a forfeiture of the right of such investment company to
sell or offer for sale any of its stocks, bonds or other securities in this
State. The same fees are provided for the preliminary examination of any
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 145
investment company to ascertain whether it shall be permitted to come
under the provisions of this act. If the Bank Commissioner finds that
the 'further sale of stocks, etc., would work a fraud upon the purchaser he
may revoke the license of such company upon notice duly given and a
hearing duly had and may, pending such hearing, suspend the right of
such company to sell its securities.
Unlawful to Do Any Business Until Law Is Complied With.
Section 13. It shall be unlawful for any investment company or dealer
or representative thereof, either directly or indirectly, to sell or cause to
be sold, offer for sale, take subscriptions for, or negotiate for sale in any
manner in this state any contracts, stocks, bonds or Other securities (except
as expressly exempted herein) unless and until said Bank Commissioner
has approved thereof and issued his certificate in accordance with the pro-
visions of this Act, nor shall it be lawful for any such investment company
to transact business on any other plan other than that set forth in the
statement and papers required to be filed by virtue of the provisions of
the Act or the rules of the Bank Commissioner.
Unlawful for any investment company to circulate any advertisement
in regard to its stocks differing in any way from the copy filed with the
Bank Commissioner, and unlawful for any newspaper to advertise the sale
of securities not approved by said Bank Commissioner, or which are not
exempt under the provisions of this Act.
Dealer Shall Not Sell Securities Until Law is Complied With.
Section 14. No dealer shall sell any securities unless such invest-
ment companies have fully complied with the provisions of this Act, nor un-
til said dealer shall have registered, provided, that should any dealer de-
sire to sell the securities of any investment company which has not itself
complied with the provisions of this Act, said dealer shall make applica-
tion for license as hereinbefore provided for applications by investment
companies and shall pay the same fee required to be paid by said invest-
Information Subject to Public Inspection.
Section 15. All information obtained by the Bank Commissioner with
reference to any securities and all records of the Bank Commissioner re-
lating thereto shall be open to examination by the public and it shall be the
duty of the Bank Commissioner to preserve such information and so classify
and arrange it as to facilitate examination and inspection thereof. The
Bank Commissioner may publish information regarding any and all con-
tracts, stocks, bonds or other securities sold or offered for sale in this state
which he deems would be of public interest or advantage.
Does Not Repeal Bank or Insurance Laws.
Section 16. Nothing in this Act repeals or nullifies any law giving the
State Bank Department control over State banks or the Insurance Com-
missioner control over the business of insurance in this state and those en-
Penalty For False Oath.
Section 17. Any person who shall make or cause to be made a false
statement or false entry in any book of any investment company, or who
shall exhibit any false paper for the purpose of deceiving any person au-
thorized to examine into the affairs of said investment company, or shall
make or publish any false statement of the financial condition of said in-
vestment company or false statement relating to the. contracts, stocks,
bonds or other securities shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and
shall be punished as hereinafter provided.
Copy of Records May Be Furnished.
Section 18. The Bank Commissioner shall provide for the furnishing
of those who may apply therefor of any information regarding any invest-
ment company or its affairs, which is on file in its office, and charge there-
146 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
for approximately the cost of preparing such information and 50 cents
for each certificate of authentication, fees to be paid into the State Treas-
ury for the expense of carrying this Act into effect.
Annual Reports Required.
Section 19. Every investment company shall file during the months
of January and July each year a detailed statement in such form and con-
taining such information as the Bank Commissioner may prescribe, show-
ing its condition at the close of business December 31 and June 30, preced-
ing and shall at the same time pay a filing fee therefor of $2.50, provided
that said Bank Commissioner may call for other or additional reports of
any kind at any time and such other or additional reports shall be filed
within 20 days. Building and loan associations shall file only an annual
statement as of December 31.
Penalty For Not Filing Reports.
Section 20. Companies failing to file reports shall be deemed guilty
of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum
not to exceed $1,000 and in addition thereto their authority to do business
in Arkansas may be canceled.
Appeal To Chancery Court.
Section 21. An appeal will always lie to the Chancery Court, upon
petition of any person aggrieved and upon payment of the costs of prepar-
ing such copies of papers and other documents desired by said petitioner
from any final orders of the Bank Commissioner. The granting of an ap-
peal shall not, however, unless so ordered by the court, operate as a stay
General Penalty Prescribed.
Section 22. Any persons who shall violate any of the provisions of
this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction
thereof shall be fined not more than $1,000, or may be imprisoned in the
county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprison-
Constitutionality Confined To Each Section.
Section 23. Should the courts of this state or of the United States
declare any section or provision of this Act unconstitutional or unauthor-
ized, or in conflict with any other section or provision of this Act, then
such declaration shall affect only the section or provision so declared to
be unconstitutional or unauthorized, or if in conflict only such provisions
or parts as are so held, and such holding shall not affect any other section
or part of this Act.
Repeals Laws In Conflict.
Section 24. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith, and par-
ticularly Act 214 of the Legislature of 1913, in its entirety are hereby re-
pealed, and this Act being necessary for the immediate preservation of the
public peace, health and safety, shall be in force from and after its passage.
Approved March 24, 1915.
Amendments to Sections 19 and 20 approved March 26, 1921.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 147
List of Arkansas Geological
FIRST REPORT, 1857-1858.
Geological Reconnaissance of the Northern Counties of Arkansas, by
D. D. Owen.
SECOND REPORT, 1859-1860.
Geological Reconnaissance of the Northern Counties of Arkansas, by
D. D. Owens.
ANNUAL REPORT, 1871-1872.
Geological Reconnaissance of a part of the State of Arkansas by George
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1888
Vol. I Gold and Silver, by Theo. B. Comstock, Pp. xxxi, 320, 2 maps.
Vol. II Mesozoic, by R. T. Hill. Pp. xiv, 319; illustrated; 1 map.
*Vol III Coal (preliminary), by Arthur Winslow, Pp. x, 120; illustrated; 1
*Vol IV Washington County, by F. W. Simonds; Plant List, by J. C. Bran-
ner and F. V. Coville. Pp. xiv, 262; illustrated; 1 map.
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1889
Vol. I Clays, Kaolins and Bauxites. Illustrated; maps. By J. C. Branner;
illustrated, about 300 pages. (Not published).
Vol. II Crowley's Ridge, by R. E. Call. Pp. xix, 283; illustrated; 2 maps.
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1890
Vol. I Manganese, by R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. Pp. xxvii, 642; illustrated; 3
Vol. II Igneous Rocks, by J. Francis Williams. Pp. xv. 457; illustrated;
Vol III Novaculties, by L. S. Griswold. Pp. xx, 443; illustrated; 2 maps.
Vol. IV Marbles, by T. C. Hopkins. Pp. xxiv, 443; illustrated; atlas of
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1891
*Vol. I Mineral Waters, by J. C. Branner. Pp. viii, 144; 1 map.
*Vol. II Miscellaneous Reports: Benton County, by F. W. Simonds and
T. C. Hopkins; Elevations, by J. C. Branner; River Observations,
by J. C. Branner; Magnetic Observations, by J. C. Branner; Mol-
lusca, by F. A. Sampson; Myriapoda, by Charles H. Bollman; Fishes,
by Seth E. Meek; Dallas County, by C. E. Siebenthal; Bibliography
of the Geology of Arkansas, by J. C. Branner. Pp. x, 349; illustrated;
ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1892
*Vol. I Iron Deposits, by R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. Pp. x, 153; 1 map.
Vol. II Tertiary, by Gilbert D. Harris. Pp. xiv, 207; illustrated, 1 map.
148 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Vol. Ill Coal, final report; illustrated; topographic maps and sections.
By Arthur Winslow and others. (Not published).
Vol. IV- Lower Coal Measures; topographic maps, sections and illustrations,
by J. H. Means and Geo. H. Ashley. (Not published).
*Vol. V The Zinc and Lead Deposits, by J. C. Branner. Pp. xiv, 395;
illustrated; atlas of 7 maps.
Relief maps of the State, of the Coal Area and of Magnet Cove were
also made under the Branner survey.
REPORT OF 1909
*The Slates of Arkansas, by A. H. Purdue, State Geologist, with a Biblio-
graphy of the Geology of Arkansas by John C. Branner, former State
REPORT OF 1910
Coal Mining in Arkansas, Part I, by A. A. Steel, professor of mining,
University of Arkansas.
REPORT OF 1911
*Water Powers of Arkansas, a Preliminary Report on White River and
some of its tributaries,, by W. N. Gladson, engineer in charge of Water
Outlines of Arkansas Geology, -Soils and Minerals of the State of Arkan-
sas, by Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, Manufacturers and Agri-
*Minerals in Arkansas, by Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines,
Manufactures and Agriculture.
*Report of a Survey of the El Dorado, Arkansas oil and gas field, by the
United States Geological Survey, published by the State Bureau of Mines,
Manufactures and Agriculture.
The reports marked with a star may be obtained by forwarding the
necessary postage (llcents each) to the State Bureau of Mines, Manufactures
and Agriculture, Little Rock, Ark. Reports the titles to which the star
is not affixed are out of print and unavailable for distribution but many of
them may be found in public and private libraries.
United States Geological Survey Publications on Arkansas
Antimony *Bulletin 340-D
Asphalt, Pike County *Bulletin 213
Southwestern Part Bulletin 691-J
Bauxite *Annual Report 21 III-D
Building Stone, Eureka Springs-Harrison District Geologic Folio 202
Cement Materials *Bulletins 243, 522
Chalk, Southwestern Part *Annual Report 22 III-O
Clays *Bulletins 285-L, 351
Coal *Annual Report 21 II-F, 22 III-I
*Bulletin 316-B, 326
Diamonds *Bulletin 540-11
* Mineral Resources 1906-E
Earthquakes *BultetiiT; Bv494
Fossils, Batesville Sandstone Bulletin 593
Boone Chert .' Bulletin 595
Boone Limestone Bulletin 598
Eocene Professional Paper 91
Moorefield Shale Bulletin 439
Fullers Earth *Bul!etin 530-Q
Gauging Stations Water Supply Paper 437
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 149
Gas, Ft. Smith-Poteau Field *Bulletin 541-B
Geology, Camden Field *Annual Report 21 II-F
Eureka Springs District Geologic Folio 202
Fayetteville District Geologic Folio 119
Ft. Smith-Poteau Field *Bulletin 541-B
Harrison District Geologic Folio 202
Northern part Water Supply Paper, 145, 399
Southern part *Professional Paper 46
Southwestern part Bulletin 691-J
Winslow District *Geologic Folio 154
Gravel Deposits .. Bulletin 690-B
Greensand Bulletin 660-B
Hot Springs , Water Supply Paper 145
Lead, Northern part "Bulletin 213
*Professional Paper 24
Leveling ^ *Annual Report 18-B, 19-B, 20-B, 21-B.
Bulletins *185, *458, 636
Manganese e Bulletins 427, 660-C
Mineral Springs *Water Supply Paper 114
Oil, Southwestern part Bulletin 691-J
Peridotite *Bulletin 540-U
Phosphates, Northern part *Bulletin 315-P
Precious Stones Bulletin *540-U
*Mineral Resources 1906-E; 1913 II J
Slates Bulletins *225, *275, *430-F
Springs Water Supply Paper 102, 110, *114, 145
Traverse *Annual Report 21-B; Bulletins *181, 201, 310, 440, 644-H
Triangulation *Annual Report 18-B, 20-B; *Bulletin 181
Bibliography Water Supply Paper 437
Surface Waters, Gauging Stations Water Supply Paper 437
Quality Water Supply Paper 236
Steam Measurements..Water Supply Paper 131, 173, 209, 267, 287, 307
Underground Waters, Eureka Springs-Harrison
District Geologic Folio 202
Northern part Water Supply Paper 145, 399
Ozark region Water Supply Paper 110, 145
Quality Water Supply Paper 102, 145, 364, 399
Southern part. *Professional Paper 46
Southwestern part Bulletin 691-J
Springs Water Supply Paper 102, 110, 114, 145
Wells Water Supply Paper 102, 114, 145, 149, 364
Winslow District Water Supply Paper 145
Zinc, Northern part *Professional Paper 24; Bulletin 213
*Supply exhausted, but copies may be consulted in public libraries.
Publications for distribution may be obtained from the U. S. Geological
Survey, Washington, D. C.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Map Showing Area of Mineral Fertilizers in Arkansas
SOIL AND SOIL-BUILDING MATERIALS
By N. F. DRAKE
Geologist State Bureau of Mines.
Arkansas is primarily an agricultural state. Her farm and forest
products are first in value of her resources and those products come from
the soil. It is well, therefore, that we give due thought to our soils that
the best results may be realized. The following brief discussion of soils is
given with the hope that some assistance will be rendered in promoting
better usage, tillage, improvement, and preservation of our soils. The fol-
lowing general discussion of the origin, classification, characteristics and
ways of improving soils is given with a view of helping to the best usage
of our limestones, chalks, phosphates and marls for soil improvement. For
this purpose it is thought not worth while for the most part to discuss spe-
cifically local types of soil. Discussion of specific features should follow
careful field and laboratory work such as is being done by the United States
Bureau of Soils. As noted elsewhere in this publication, soil surveys have
been made and are being made that now cover a considerable portion of the
Origin of soil. Soil is finely divided rock material mixed with decayed
vegetable and animal matter. It is continually being formed from rocks and
organic matter by weathering agencies. No matter how hard or what kind
of rock it may be, if exposed to weathering agencies it gradually crumbles
into soil particles wherever exposed. Changing temperature of a rock sur-
face produces alternate expansion and contraction which strains portions
152 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
of the rock to the breaking point. Freezing of water held in the pore spaces
of the rock pries off an outer film and in places larger particles of the rock.
Rocks are soluble in water in varying proportions according to the kind of
rock and the character of the water. Different kinds of minerals enter into
the composition of most rocks and these minerals vary in their rate of ex-
pansion under changing temperatures and they 'also differ in their solubility
so that when the least stable mineral breaks to pieces or is dissolved and
carried away the rest of the rock readily falls to pieces. Plant and animal
matter, broken up largely by bacterial action, leaves dark colored particles
that enter into the mixture of disintegrated rocks in the forming of soils.
Classification of Soils. Soil is, for the most part, composed of sand,
clay, and humus in varying proportions and these ingredients form the
bases of many of the classifications as sandy soil, clayey soil, loamy soil,
etc. A popular classification of soils designates them as heavy or light
soils, which has no reference to weight, but refers to the ease of tilling.
The heavy soils are not easy to till and have a predominance of clay while
the light soils till easily and have a predominance of sand or humus or both.
A classification taking into consideration the more minute physical and
chemical properties gives such divisions as the following: Gravely, sandy,
silty, loamy, humus, calcareous, magnesian, etc. Sandy soils have some-
thing like one-half of their particles large enough to be readily seen as in-
dividual grains by the unaided eye, while only a very small percent of the
individual particles of a clay soil can be readily seen. A loamy soil has
particles intermediate in size between the sandy and clayey soils.
Humus soils are those that contain a high percentage of decaying or-
ganic matter. A calcareous soil is one in which lime carbonate is a dom-
inant feature of the soil, etc.
A classification that takes into consideration the origin of the soil is
often of more value in explaining the nature of the soil. Such a classifica-
tion is the following:
Residual soil. This is formed from the immediate underlying rocks and
is not removed from its place of origin.
Transported soil. This is a soil shifted from its place of origin. As
some divisions of the transported soils we have the following: Colluvial
soil, a soil formed on sloping ground from disintegrated rocks that lay
higher up the slope. Alluvial soil, a soil formed from the sediments dropped
from flood waters overflowing stream valleys. Loess soil, a soil carried
by air currents and deposited as a manteling over certain localities.
For a minute study local place names are often given to specific types
of soils that have a more or less local occurrence. In most any extended
discussion of soils terms used in making different kinds of soil classifica-
tion are needed for a comprehensive discussion.
Texture and character of soil. Examining the soil from the surface
downward we find the topmost part more porous and usually darker in color
than lower portions called the subsoil, but both have very fine grains. As
we examine deeper and deeper portions we reach material that is not en-
tirely disintegrated and finally we reach unaltered rock. In many places
coarse fragments of rock pebbles, and even boulders, are mixed with the
fine soil material, but they are not a part of the soil proper though they
are materials out of which soil is made. In many soils there are crystalized
minerals surrounding and attached to other rock fragments. These crys-
taline minerals have been deposited from over saturated solutions of soil
waters. In clayey soils there is a small quantity of hydrated silica of
alumina which, though it may be in minute quantities, gives a sticky, plas-
tic quality to the clay when moist.
SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONDITIONS INFLUENCING PLANT
Porosity of soil. A soil that is open or porous holds more moisture and
better allows entrance of the air, which are favorable for plant growth.
If the pores are exceedingly small and the soil is compact, capillary action
is strong and the soil moisture is more rapidly carried to the surface and
evaporated to the detriment of plant growth. Lime tends to floculate clay
into larger particles and to cement small particles, making larger grains
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 153
thus rendering the soil more open and easier to till. Cultivation also
loosens the soil and makes it more porous.
Drainage. In low lands where drainage is poor the soil is kept so full
of water that it is sour because of the formation of organic acids; further-
more such soils do not warm readily in springtime because of so much water
and evaporation. Such conditions are unfavorable to most plant growth.
Some of the most important plant foods. While the most important
feature of a soil is that it should be able to hold and give up moisture to
plants as needed it is also of prime importance that the soil should con-
tain materials that the plants need to induce proper growth and maturity.
Such materials as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, lime, potash,
iron, sulphur, and a few others to a lesser extent, are necessary to plant
Oxygen and hydrogen that plants make use of come mainly from water
contained in the soil. These elements make up a considerable part of the
tissue, starch, and sugar of plant growth.
Nitrogen. Nitrogen forms a part of the fragments of decaying plants
and animals that occur in practically all soils. Microscopic life in the soil
converts parts of these fragments into nitric acid, which in turn unites with
lime and potash to form soluble salts that may be taken up by growing
plants. There are other forms of bacteria that live and form nodules on
the roots of clovers, alfalfa, beans and peas and other leguminous plants.
These bacteria gather nitrogen from the air and convert it into nitrates,
thus placing an essential plant food where needed.
Phosphorus. Phosphorus in combined form is found in small quanti-
ties in most all soils but rarely in sufficient quantities to fully meet the
needs or growing plants. Nearly all soils will be highly benefited by the
application of phosphates.
Calcium and magnesium. These elements occur as carbonates in small
quantities in most all soils and abundantly in some soils. Carbon dioxide
and water form a soluble salt of these carbonates which can then be taken
up by the roots of plants. These elements enter, for the most part, into
the making of the seed of plants as is also the case of phosphorus.
Potassium. This is also an essential element of plant food. Most of
its compounds are readily soluble in water so that it easily leaches and is
carried away by rain waters, making it necessary to continually apply
potash to soils for best results. Ashes of land plants are rich in potash.
Sulphur. This element occurs in soils in the form of snlfids usually
of iron, or as sulfates of such materials as calcium, iron, and magnesium.
The sulfates are readily soluble in water.
Iron. This is an important plant food but it is so abundant in soils
that there is no deficiency so far as the needs of plant growth are con-
A number of other elements are also of more or less importance as
plant foods, but for the most part they are in sufficient quantity in soils to
meet the demands of growing plants.
SOME GENERAL TYPES OF ARKANSAS SOILS
It has been explained that soils vary in their characteristics according
to the rocks from which they are derived, the amount of organic matter
they contain, and the manner in which they have originated. Varying pro-
portions of sand, clay, organic and mineral constituents and manner of
origin make an endless variety of soils if minutely classified. For present
needs we shall discuss only some of the larger groups of soils.
Alluvial soils. The alluvial soils of our larger river valleys and flood
plains come from many different kinds of rock and organic matter that is
found over the drainage area of the river. The particles entering into
these soils are fine and thoroughly mixed and are built up to considerable
thickness. These soils are the most fertile of all our soils and they re-
quire but little except proper tillage to make them produce heavily. The
alluvial soils along our smaller water courses are very much like those
just described except that the range of rock beds from which they come is
more limited and the materials do not average quite so fine and the soils
not so deep. While all the alluvial soils are fertile, thev, m a general way,
decrease in fertility as the drainage area from which they are derived be-
154 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Soils of swamp lands and poorly drained areas. These soils have been
formed on the outlying areas of river flood plains and represent the last
sediments to settle from the flood waters, so the sediments are very fine
and largely clay and organic matter. Vegetation growing over these low-
lying areas continually adds to the soil partially decayed vegetable matter.
These soils are sour or acid, but after proper drainage and heavy liming
become very fertile soils.
Residual soils. These form the greater part of our soils. As has been
shown they vary according to the nature of the underlying rock from which
they are derived. In the east, southeast, and west central parts of the
state they are sandy or clayey soils. In northwest and southwest Arkan-
sas they are sandy and clayey soils for the most part but considerable areas
there have highly calcareous soils. The areas in which calcareous soils
occur are shown on the accompanying map as areas that have limestone,
chalk or marl beds.
SOIL IMPROVEMENT BY THE APPLICATION OF LIME, CHALK, MARL
Lime application to soil. Several references have already been made
about certain effects that lime produces on the soil, but we may now review
and group together these effects for a clearer exposition. Lime floculates clay
and cements rock particles into larger grains, thus making the soil more
porous, which condition allows better areation, easier tillage and penetra-
tion for the roots of plants, easier absorption of rain waters, makes the soil
less strong in capillary action thus decreasing loss of soil moisture through
evaporation. Lime fosters nitrate production by making the soil neutral or
alkaline, which condition is favorable for the life and activity of nitrate-pro-
ducing bacteria, especially those forms that live on the roots of clover, alfal-
fa, beans, peas and other leguminous plants. Lime "sweetens" the soil. Most
plants do not thrive well in acid soils and the acid condition may be readily
corrected by applying lime. Moreover, bacteria destructive to nitrates
thrive in acid soils, so the liming prevents the destruction of nitrates.
Liming promotes availability of phosphorus and potash by helping to con-
vert unsoluble salts of those materials into soluble forms. Liming the soil
where fruits are grown makes the fruits sweeter.*
Liming of soils gives greater crop yields, as has been many times dem-
onstrated at various agricultural stations. For example, at the Tennessee
Agricultural Experiment Station* an application of two tons of ground lime-
stone to the acre produced increases in the yield for eight years, as follows:
*Ground limestone and prosperity on the farm, by C. A. Mooers, p. 194.
Crop No. of Crops Increase per A.
Cowpea hay 2 0.92 tons
Wheat 2 6.10 bushels
Clover hay 2 2.29 tons
Cotton 1 . 46. Ibs. (seed cotton)
Corn 1 6.10 bushels
: It has also been shown by different experiments that the beneficial
effects in crop production is cumulative. In other words, the second year
after soil treatment greater increase of the crop will be' noted than was
obtained the first year because the soil for the second year will have a bet-
ter supply of nitrates than it had the first year. It is a common saying that
"A limestone country is a rich country," and the truth of this statement is
readily verified by observation. In the liming of our soils we practically
convert our lands into a limestone soil country.
Forms in which the lime may be applied. Either limestone, dolomite,
or chalk may be used in liming soils and so far as results are concerned
Soils, by Hilgrard, P- 380.
Ground Limestone and Prosperity on the Farm, by C. A. Mooers, p. 194.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 155
there is but little difference; however, it is important that the calcium con-
tent of the soil be kept equal to or a little more than the magnesium con-
tent. Most of our soils, so far as available analyses show, have slightly
more magnesia than calcium, so it is better that our limestone or magnesian
limestone should have a higher content of calcium than magnesium.
For application these materials may be ground or crushed raw rock
(the carbonate forms), or we may use burnt (quick) lime. If the latter
form, it may be applied as air slacked lime, as ground quick lime or pre-
pared hydrated lime. If the haulage is a long one it is sometimes better
to use the quick lime, which is in the form of an oxide and weighs less for
a given amount of available lime. For example in approximate terms two
parts of oxide of lime (quick lime) are equivalent to three of hydrate or
four of carbonate of lime.
If the lime is applied as quick lime, either hydrated or oxide, it is
soon converted to the carbonate form.
Lime is leached from the soil very slowly, so that a single application
of one-half to one ton of burnt lime or twice that amount of ground lime-
stone (carbonate of lime) is sufficient to last for five to ten years for the
average soil. If the soil is strongly acid more than the above named
amounts will be required. A light sandy soil only slightly acid would not
require as much as the heavier soils, for such a soil probably one-half a
ton of lime oxide (quick iime) per acre, applied every five years, would be
all that the soil would require.
In applying the lime to the soil it should be distributed evenly. Thorough
distribution in the soil to the depth of five or six inches is desirable, but
distributed on the surface of freshly plowed ground usually proves satis-
Practically all our soils would be benefited by the application of lime,
but some of the limestone soils of northwest and southwest parts of the
state would need but little, if any. The swamp soils of eastern and south-
eastern Arkansas stand in greater need of liming than any of the other
Available supplies of limeing materials. It is fortunate for the state
that there are such great quantities of limestone, dolomite, and chalk in
the state that are of excellent quality and easily accessible. The dolomite
rock occurs in the northeast part of the area marked limestone bearing on
the accompanying map. For use in the southern counties of the state the
chalk deposits will be for the most part more accessible than the limestone
of the northwestern part of the state.
Marls. The marls of southwestern part of the state are adapted to use
on soils in very much the same way as limestone, only the marls usually con-
tain but forty to fifty per cent of lime carbonate and, so far as available
analyses show, only about two-tenths of one per cent of phosphoric acid.
These marls are easy to mine and handle, but because of low lime content
in comparison to limestone and chalk, will not stand the long haulage that
more concentrated lime bearing rocks will.
Phosphates. Reference has already been made to the importance of
phosphates in the soil for good crop production. From practical experience
as well as theoretical calculations, it is found that nearly all soils are
benefited by the applciation of phosphates. Where the soil is naturally cal-
careous, or where lime has been liberally applied to the soil, it does not
re.quire so much of the phosphates and where iron is abundant in the soil
more phosphates are required. Phosphates may be applied to the soil as
the ground raw phosphate rock or as prepared acid phosphate. The latter
is more readily available as plant food.
So far as present investigations have been made the only source of
commercial phosphate rock in the state is the phosphate beds in the Bates-
ville region shown on the accompanying map.
The phosphates of this area run rather high in iron and the beds that
have a fairly high phosphorus content are not very thick; it is believed,
however, that these deposits will prove of much help in making the soils
of the state of greater productive value.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Area of Surveyed Soils in Arkansas
SOIL SURVEYS BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
The state has made no soil surveys in Arkansas, although considerable
work has been done in soil study and fertilizer experiments under the
direction of the State Experiment Station at Fayetteville. The United
States Bureau of Soils has completed detailed soil surveys in fifteen dif-
ferent areas in as many different counties, has made a general soil recon-
naissance of the Ozark region (north from the Arkansas river and west
from. the main line of the Missouri Pacific railroad) and has surveys in
progress in three other counties. The surveyed area is shown in the accom-
panying map. The list of soil survey bulletins, copies of which may be ob-
tained on request from the U. S. Bureau of Soils, Washington, D. C., follows:
Ashley County, by E. S. Vanatta, B. D. Gilbert, E. B. Watson, and A. H.
Columbia County, by Clarence Lonnsbury and E. B. Deeter, 1910.
Craig-head County, by E. B. Deeter and L. Vincent Davis, 1917.
Conway County, by Jas. L. Burgess and Chas. W. Ely, 1908.
Howard ounty, by M. W. Beck, M. Y. Long-acre, F. A. Hayes and W. T.
Carter, Jr., 1919.
Fayetteville Area, by Henry Wilder and Chas. F. Shaw, 1907.
Hempstead County, by Arthur E. Taylor and W. B. Cook, 1917.
Jefferson County, by B. W. Tillman, G. G. Strickland and others, 1916.
Mississippi County, by E. C. Hall, T. M. Bushnell, L. V. Davis, Wm. T.
Carter, Jr., and A. L. Patrick.
Ozark Region of Missouri and Arkansas, by Curtis F. Marbut, 1914.
Pope County, by Clarence Lonnsbury and E. B. Deeter, 1915.
Prairie County, by Wm. T. Carter, Jr., F. N. Meeker, Howard C. Smith and
E. L. Worthen, 1907.
Yell County, by E. B. Deeter and Clarence Lonnsbury, 1917.
Faulkner County, by E. B. Deeter and H. I. Cohen.
Drew County, by B. W. Tillman.
Perry County, in progress.
Lonoke County, in progress.
Pulaski County, in progress.
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Agarie Mineral 38
Agricultural Marls and Chalk
Cretaceous Marls 38
Chalk or Lime Marls 39
Batesville Sandstone 23
Bibliography of Arkansas
Bigfork Chert 26
Bingen Formation 31
Blakely Sandstone 26
Arkansas Valley Region 29
Aikadelphia Clay 32
Arkansas Novaculite 27
Atoka Formation 29
Augite :... 42
Austin ("Anonna") Chalk 31
Aventurine Quartz 42
Blaylock Sandstone 27
Boone Formation 21
Brassfield Limestone 21
Brownstown Marl 31
See Granite, Marble, Lime-
stone and Sandstone.
Cambrian System 25
Carboniferous System 21-28-29
Cason Shale 20
Cement Materials 43
Chattanooga Shale 21
Cinnamon Stone 45
Clifty Limestone 21
Analyses of Coals 48
List of Coal Operators 49
Coccolite _ 46
Collier Shale 25
Cotter Dolomite 46
Counties of Arkansas and
Their Principal Minerals 36
Cretaceous System 30
Crystal Mountain Sandstone .... 26
Devonian System 21-27
Diamond Cave Newton County 108
Dog-tooth Spar 56
Dolomite .. 56
State Officials Connected
with the Mining Industry 5
Officials of the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey 5
Officials of the U. S. Bureau
of Mines .. 5
Epsom Salt 56
Everton Limestone 18
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Fayetteville Shale 23
Feravale Limestone 20
Fire Clay 45
Florite (Opal) 56
Fullers Earth ... 56
Garnet ... 57
List of Arkansas Publications 147
List of U. S. Geological
Survey Publications 148
Geology and General Topo-
graphic Features 11
Girasol (Opal) 57
Glass Sand 57
Goodland Limestone 30
Graphite ' 59
Granite (Syenite) 59
Gulf Costal Plain SO
Hartshorne Sandstone 29
Hot Springs of Arkansas 105
Hot Springs Sandstone 28
Introduction Importance of
Arkansas as a Mining State 7
Jackfork Sandstone 28-29
Jasper Limestone , 19
Jefferson City Dolomite 16
Joachim Limestone 19
Kimmswick Limestone ... 20
Lafferty Limestone 21
Mining Law, Synopsis of 109
Coal Mining Leases Ill
Oil Shale Leases Ill
Mineral Lands Within Na-
tional Forests 110
Recording of Government
Mining Claims Ill
Creating Bureau of Mines,
Manufactures and Agri-
Creating Arkansas Geologi-
cal Commission 115
Relating to the Taking of
Sand, Gravel and Coal
from River Beds 116
Water Power Rights 116
Providing for Co-operative
Soil Survey 118
Mine Inspection Law 120
Creating Coal Mine Exam-
ing Board 130
For the Conservation of Oil
and Gas 132
Regulation of Pipe Lines 137
Requiring Release of For-
feited Leases 139
Permitting Guardians to
Release Mineral Rights
of Wards 139
Synopsis of Oil and Gas In-
spection Laws 140
Synopsis of Arkansas Blue
Sky Law 141
Leucite Rock 94
Limestone Building (see Marbles)
Limestone for Lime 64
Lithographic Stone 64
Lower Cretaceous Series 30
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Marls (see Agricultural Marls
Nacatoch Sand ...
Mellite (Honey Stone) 69
Mica (Biotite) 69
Minerals, List of by Counties....35-38
Mining Laws 109
Mississippian Series 21-28-29
Missouri Mountain Slate 27
Moorefield Shale 23
Morrow Group 25
Mounds, Theory as to Their
Origin . 107
Nitre ('Saltpeter) 69
Novaculite (Whetstone) 69
Oil (see Petroleum) 72
Oil Shales 70
Opal : 70
Ordovician System 16-26
Orthoclase (Potash Feldspar).. 70
Ozark Region, Geology of 16
Cuachita Mountain Region .... 25
Paint Materials 71
Penters Chert 21
Pennsylvanian System 25-29
Permanent Geological Survey.. 10
Finite ... 94
Polk Creek Shale
Potash (from Leucite Rock)
Quartz Crystals 95
Road Making Materials ... 95
Savanna Formation 30
Silurian System 21-27
Smoky Quartz 101
Soapstone . 102
Rutile . 98
Soils and Soil-Building Ma-
terials in Arkansas 151
Soil Surveys by the Federal
Stanley Shale 28
St. Clair Limestone 21
St. Peter Sandstone 18
Syenite (see Granite) 59
MINERALS IN ARKANSAS
Talc (Shale) 102
Table of Contents 3
Tertiary System 32
Upper Cretaceous Series 31
Topography General Features 11
Trinity Formation 30
Varsicite 103 Vesuvianite
Washita Group 31
Water Resources 103
Water Power Rights 116
Wavellite .. . 106
What the Geologists Say
About Oil and Gas Pros-
pects in Different Counties.... 77
Whetstone (see Novaculite).... 69
Winslow Formation 25
Womble Shale .. 26
T0 DEPARTMENT OF
College of Agriculture,
UNIVERSITY OF 7jL