(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Minerals in Arkansas, including a review of oil and gas conditions"

TN 

24 
A&A+ 



UC-NRLF 



SB 101 37fi 



EXCHANGE 




s 

SAS 





^4/946 



COIV1IV1 I SSI ONER 

JREAU OP- M>f*es v MANUFACTURES AND AGRICULTURE 



Rur 



k CoH 




MAP OF ARKANSAS 

Reproduced on a reduced scale from map by Jolin C. Branner 
1 end" '& \adlogy Survey Bulletin No. 351, "The Clays of 
C i 1 y I I Arkansas," Washington, D. C., 1 907. 



xv,UMV,^t vi /. & ..vu. t u.vy , 

\\ UNIVERSITY OF / \/ 




QUATERNARY 



TERTIARY Cambnan,0rdovician,5ilurian 
and Devonian 



CARBONIFEROUS 

Pennsylvanian Mississippian 



Cretaceous Productive Coal Undifferentiated UnderiyingBeds 
Formation Measures Sandstones of Mississippian Rocks 



UNIVERSITY OF 

ECONOMICS & SOCIOLO, 



MINERA 



IN 




ARKANSAS 




INCLUDING 

A REVIEW OF OIL AND GAS 

CONDITIONS 



UNIVEBSITY OF 

DEPT. OF RURAL ECONOMICS 
FAYETTEVILLE, 




BY 

JIM G. FERGUSON 

COMMISSIONER OF 

MINES, MANUFACTURES AND AGRICULTURE 
STATE OF ARKANSAS 



LITTLE ROCK, ARK. 
1922 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Page 
Directory of State and Federal Officials Associated with the Mining 

Industry 5 

Introduction A Review of the Mineral Resources of the State and 
Recommendation for the Revival of the State Geological Survey, 
by Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and 

Agriculture 7-10 

Geology and General Topographic Features 11-34 

Principal Arkansas Minerals and Their Location by Counties 35-36 

Counties of Arkansas and Their Mineral Resources 36-38 

Minerals and Economic Products (arranged alphabetically) ^8-108 

Analyses of Arkansas and Other Coals 48-49 

Directory of Arkansas Coal Mine Operators 49-54 

Petroleum and Natural Gas, by N. F. Drake 72-77 

What Geologists Say About Oil and Gas Prospects in Different 

Counties of Arkansas jflBSB&KK^ ' 77 " 92 

Road-Making Materials 95-98 

Hot Springs, Arkansas 104-106 

Mounds and a Suggested Theory as to Their Origin 107 

Magnet Cove, its Rare and Useful Minerals 107 

Diamond Cave of Newton County : 108 

Soils Surveys in Arkansas, and Materials for the Improvement of.... 154 

MINING LAWS, ETC. 

Federal Mining Laws, Etc 109-111 

State Laws With Reference to Federal Mining Claims 111-112 

Laws Creating Arkansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures and Agri- 
culture 113-115 

Law Creating Arkansas Geological Commission . 115-116 

Law Governing the Taking of Sand, Gravel, Oil and Coal from River 

Beds, etc 116 

Law Concerning Water Power Rights 116-118 

Act Authorizing Co-operative Soil Survey 118-119 

Mine Inspection Law 120-129 

Law Creating State Coal Mine Examining Board 130-131 

Oil and Gas Conservation Laws .". 132-137 

Pipe Line Regulations- 
Right of Eminent Domain Given 137 

Assessment and Taxation 138 

Forh4dding the Ignition of Escaping Gas 138 

Law Requiring the Release of Forfeited Leases 139 






MINERALS IN ARKANSAS ~ 3 

Ca |- 

Page 
Law Permitting Guardians to Release Mineral Rights of Minors and 

Persons of Unsound Mind ........................................................................ 139-140 

Synopsis of the State Oil and Gas Inspection Laws .................................... 140-141 

Synopsis of the Arkansas Blue Sky Law .................................................... 141-144 

Index ..................... '. .................................................................................................. 145-152 

Publications of Arkansas Geological Survey ............................................ 147-148 

Publications of U. S. Geological Survey on Arkansas ............................ 148-149 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

Staff of the State Bureau of Mines .................................................................... 4 

Portrait of Doctor John C. Branner .......................................................... '.. 6 

Branner's Relief Map of Arkansas ............................................... . ..... . ............ 11 

Topography of Boston Mountains .................................. '. ....................... '.... ...... 12 

Solution Valley in Boone Limestone ............................................................ 14 

Cotter Dolomite, East of Beaver ..................... : ................................................ 17 

St. Joe Limestone Member ................................................................................ 18 

Sandstone in Powell Limestone .................................................................... 19 

Unconformity Within Boone Limestone ............................................ . ........... 22 

St. Peter Sandstone ............... ............... . ................... : ......................................... 24 

Bauxite Mine ............................................................................................ ............. 41 

Manganese Mine ................. . .................................................................................. 41 

Diamond Reduction Plant, Mufreesboro ........................................................ 55 

Blue Granite Quarry, Pulaski County ........................................................ 58 

Manganese Mine .................................................................................................. 65 

Marble Quarry, Batesville .................................................................................. 67 

Novaculite near Glenwood .................................................................................. j 70 

Tank Cars Loaded With El Dorado Oil ................................... . ...................... ', 92 

Road-building Scene ..................................................... 96 

Sandstone Quarry, Lamar .................................................................................. 99 

Tripoli Vein near Delight ........................................................................... ..... 103 

View of Hot Springs, Arkansas ........................................................................ 104 

Zinc Mine, Silver Hollow Bluff, Mar* on County ........................................ 106 

Interior Diamond Cave, Newton County ...................................................... ... . 107 

MAPS 

Geological Map of Arkansas ........................................................ Inside Front Cover 

Relief Map of Arkansas ...................................................................................... 11 

Miniatures Showing Distribution of Minerals ............................................ 35 

Arkansas Coal Field ............................................................................................ 47 

Iron Deposits .......................................................................................................... 61 

Manganese Area, Batesville .............................................................................. 66 

Illustrating Relative Chances for Oil and Gai ................ 72 

Ft. Smith-Poteau Gas Field .............................................................................. 94 

Phosphate Area, Northern Arkansas .............................................................. 94 

Slate Area . 100 



OFFICIAL STAFF ARKANSAS 
BUREAU OF MINES 





Jim G. Ferguson, Dr. Wm. F. Manglesdorf, 

Commissioner and Director. State Chemist. 





John C. Small, 
Editor of Publications 



Dr. N. F. Drake, 
Geologist. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Directory of State Officials Associated 
With the Mining Industry 



BUREAU OF MINES STAFF 

Commissioner and Director, Jim G. Ferguson 
Geologist, Dr. N. F. Drake, former State Geologist 
Editor of Publications, John C. Small 
State Chemist, Dr. Wm. F. Manglesdorf 
Assistant State Chemist, G. W. Roark, Jr. 
Little Rock, Ark. 



State Mine Inspector, Jesse Redyard, Fort Smith. 

State Mine Examining Board, Geo. Westwood, Hartford; H. Deman, 
Clarksville; R. A. Young, Greenwood; Robt. L. Kendrick, Altus. 

State Oil and Gas Inspector (Conservation Agent), J. A. Brake, Fort 
Smith and El Dorado. 

'State Coal Oil and Gasoline Inspector, Perry H. Chappell, Little Rock. 

State Commissioner of Labor and Statistics, T. A. Wilson, Little Rock. 

State Geologist, Dr. Gilbert H. Cady, Fayetteville. 

State Geological Survey, Thos. C. McRae, Governor, Ex-Officio Chair- 
man, Little Rock; John C. Futrall, President of the University of Arkansas, 
Fayetteville; Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and 
Agriculture, Little Rock. 

Blue Sky Enforcement Officer, Chas. McKee, State Bank Commissioner, 
Little Rock. 

College of Engineering, University of Arkansas, W. N. Gladson, Dean. 
Attorney General, J. S. Utley, Little Rock, Ark. 



UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 

(Interior Department) 
George Otis Smith, Director 
David White, Chief Geologist 

Washington, D. C. 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF MINES 

(Interior Department) 
H. Foster Bain, Director 

A. W. Ambrose, Chief Petroleum Technologist 
Washington, D. C. 



UNITED STATES BUREAU OF SOILS 

(Department of Agriculture) 
Milton Whitney, Chief of Bureau 
Curtis F. Marbut, in charge of Soil Survey 
G. W. Bauman, Executive Assistant 

Washington, D. C. 




DOCTOR JOHN CASPER BRANNER, 

Foremost Authority on Arkansas Geology, in Appreciation of Whose 
Service to the State this Page is Gratefully Dedicated. 








1 < 



INT RODUC1 'ION 




Importance of Arkansas As a Mineral State 

ARKANSAS has elbowed Pennsylvania, the parent of petroleum, out of 
fourth place in oil production; she produces twice as much 
as all the Western Hemisphere; she was first to 
earth; she has the largest and best deposits of whetstone^stfehas a superior 
grade of smokeless coal; she has the purest deposit-ofchalk in North Amer- 
ica; she has the only kno^yn deposit of soapstone west of the Mississippi 
river; she has in Magnet/ Cove thd most wonderful aggregation of rare and 
curious minerals known ^o^the-^geologist, and at Hot Springs, the hottest 
thermal waters in the world. 

These facts, backed up by government authorities, are grouped here to 
get the attention of those who are unfamiliar with the state's mineral re- 
sources and to prepare their minds for a lot of other big things that can be 
said about Arkansas' underground wealth, developed and undeveloped. The 
world is beginning to take notice of Arkansas, the mysterious stranger in 
the mineral world. 

More than thirty useful minerals can be mined or quarried in abundance 
in Arkansas, and there are a hundred other minerals for which the future 
may find some economic use. At the great world fairs where all the states 
bring for display specimens of their mineral products, Arkansas demands 
more exhibit space than any other state in the Union and surprises the 
stranger not only with the great variety of its minerals, but with their su- 
perior quality. 

The value of the mineral products now aggregates close to $100,000,000 
annually, one-half as much as the value of all of our factory products and 
one-fourth as much as is derived from all our agricultural activities. 

Arkansas stands high as an agricultural state. In many lines of manu- 
factures it holds a leading position. It is now coming to be regarded as one 
of the important mineral states. It is unique among the states in that it has 
three substantial sources of income three bank accounts, as it were. 

Oil Leads All the List. 

Oil now ranks first in commercial importance on the long list of Arkansas 
minerals. The discovery well was brought in at El Dorado on January 10 
of last year and within ten months the production had reached 72,000 
barrels daily with new wells being completed every week. The value of 
Arkansas crude oil, produced in 1921, was $23,344,960. There are 598 pro- 
ducing wells and more than 100 other wells being drilled. 

Gravity tests of the El Dorado crude oil is 34.30, Baume, and the gas- 
oline content is 30.7 per cent. In production Arkansas now ranks fourth 
among the states and in the quality of its oil and gas the El Dorado field is 
among the most valuable in America, it is claimed. 

More than $6,000,000 has been invested in drilling operations and many 
millions more in oil and gas leases in the Eldorado field. All of the large 




8 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

companies are represented and development is progressing with wonderful 
rapidity, every new well adding thousands of dollars to the productive 
capacity of the state. 

Two Natural Gas Fields. 

There are two natural gas fields in Arkansas, the Fort Smith field, which 
has been producing gas for twenty years, and the El Dorado field, developed 
about one year ago. The Fort Smith field includes portions of Sebastian, 
Crawford and Scott counties, and extends into Oklahoma. The present cap- 
acity of this field is approximately 250,000,000 cubic feet of gas daily, twen- 
ty per cent of which may be used under the state maximum production law. 
It is estimated that Fort Smith and its neighboring industries use 10,000- 
000 cubic feet a day, leaving a surplus of 40,000,000 cubic feet daily. This 
gas is found at depths of from 750 to 3,175 feet. The product is dry, clean and 
odorless and under government tests shows a heating record of 1.057 British 
thermal units. 

In the El Dorado field there are at this writing 32 gas wells, each pro- 
ducing from one million to 25,000,000 cubic feet of gas per day. The first 
gas well was brought in by the Constantin Company in 1920, and was shortly 
followed by the bringing in of the nearby Busey oil well. The wells are all 
within a short distance of El Dorado, to which city the gas is piped for do- 
mestic and industrial use. The difference between the Fort Smith and the 
El Dorado gas is that the Fort Smith gas is dry and does not produce gaso- 
line, while the El Dorado gas is wet and has a considerable gasoline 
content. 

Before the discovery of oil and gas, the leading mineral of the state 
was coal and it still is a source of considerable wealth, the production be- 
ing 2,000,000 tons a year. The coal-bearing area of the state is 1,584 
square miles in extent, reaching from Russellville on the east, through Pope 
Johnson, Logan, Yell, Franklin, Crawford, Sebastian and Scott counties 
to and beyond the Oklahoma border. 

About Clarksville and Russellville in the eastern part of the field, the 
product is a high grade semi-anthracite, and in the western part of the field 
there is produced a high grade semi-bituminous coal of almost smokeless 
ality. It is estimated by mining engineers that there is in sight some 
850,000,000 tons of this coal, which at the present rate of mining will last 
or 350 years. The heating value of the coal, which lies between 13,700 and 
14,700 British thermal units, and its specific gravity (average 1.35), place 
it among the best coals in the United States. 

First in Bauxite Mining. 

Practically all of the bauxite used for the manufacture of aluminum 
ware, chemicals and abrasives in the United States and probably 70 per 
cent of the world's supply of this important material, is produced from Ar- 
kansas mines. The bauxite area lies partly in Pulaski and partly in Saline 
county, between Little Rock and Benton. The large reduction plant of the 
American Bauxite Company is at Bauxite, Arkansas. The average production 
is around 500,000 tons per annum. The ore is mined from open pits, dried 
and shipped to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Elizabeth, New Jersey; Niagara 
Falls, New York; Detroit, Michigan; St. Louis, Missouri; and other cities, 
where it is consumed in the large aluminum and chemical industries. Bauxite 
in value ranks third among the major minerals of the state. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 9 

Other Minerals Worth While. 

Zinc, lead, manganese, iron and copper are metalic minerals found in 
Arkansas and at times mined with considerable profit. There has been a 
large production of zinc and lead in the northwestern counties of the state 
and during the world war the mining of manganese proved to be profitable. 
The deposits of iron and copper, while promising, have not been developed 
to any considerable extent as yet. 

The mining of diamonds has been restricted to a small area in the vicin- 
ity of Murfreesboro, Pike county, and the principal operations are carried on 
by the Arkansas Diamond Corporation, which company has erected a $300,- 
000 reduction plant in the field. Hundreds of pure gems have been recov- 
ered from igneous formation which bears all the marks of an extinct 
volcano. One of these stones weighed 18 carats in the rough and in quality 
compared with the finest of South African diamonds. Pike county has the 
only diamond mine in America. 

Fuller's Earth and Antimony. 

There is a deposit of Fuller's earth between Benton and Hot Springs 
which has been worked at several different times and which promises to 
add another important mineral to the long list accredited to Arkansas. This 
material is used for the clarifying of oil and for medicinal purposes. 

Antimony is an anti-friction metal used as an alloy in the manufacture 
of babbit and type metal. It is found in Sevier and Howard counties. As- 
phalt of a good quality exists in Pike and Howard counties. The most ex- 
tensive and the highest grade of chalk known to exist in the United States 
is at White Cliffs, Little River county, where a project has been undertaken 
to establish a big cement plant. 

Clay for the manufacture of brick is present in seventy of the seventy- 
five counties of the state. In Hot Spring and Sebastian counties there are 
deposits of high grade fire clay. Pottery clay is found in Saline, Pike and 
other counties, this including kaolin from which the famous Niloak artware 
is made. There is probably no state so rich in clays, both as to quantity 
and variety. 

Glass sand of excellent quality is present in large quantities at Guion 
Izard county, and near Bryant, in Saline county. Graphite of good quality 
is found in four counties of the state. Gypsum, one of the materials 
useful in the manufacture of cement, is present in three counties of South- 
west Arkansas. Iron pyrites, running 50 per cent sulphur, is found near Hot 
Springs. This is one of the materials from which sulphuric acid is made. 

Lots of Building Stone. 

Building stone is plentiful in Arkansas and constitutes one of the most 
important items on the list of minerals. Near Little Rock there is a vast 
mountain of the most beautiful gray and pink granite and from the quarries 
near Batesville there is produced the splendid marble such as was used In 
the construction of the outer walls of the new state capitol. Marbles, lime- 
stones and sandstones are found also in other parts of the state. 

Novaculite, an oily rock from which whetstones are made, is found In 
Southwest Arkansas, giving this state first place in the production of this 
class of abrasives. Ochre and other mineral paints are found in different 
parts of the state. The only soapstone or talc deposit known to exist west 
of the Mississippi river is in Saline county. There is a valuable deposit of 



3 

;/ 



10 /MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



tripoli or infusorial earth at Butterfield, and the same material is reported 
as being present in five other counties of the state. 

Lignite or cannel coal, which has been tested for oil and gas production 
with very favorable results, is present in an area extending northwestward 
from Camden. The vein ranges from two to six feet in thickness. It is said 
to yield as high as 38 gallons of oil per ton and 11,386 cubic feet of 22.3 candle 
power gas. The distillates are used in the manufacture of paint and various 
proprietary medicines, being produced by a plant at Chidester. 
Phosphate Rock and Slate. - 

In the northern part of the state, extending from Batesville probably to 
the western line of the state, is a deposit of phosphate rock which next to 
the deposits of Florida and Tennessee are probably the most valuable in 
the United States. There are deposits elsewhere in the state, but none so 
promising as those of North Arkansas. From phosphate rock is made phos- 
phoric acid, one of the most valuable materials for the fertilization of soil. 
A new process of treating the rock has been devised which promises to 
revolutionize the industry of acid phosphate manufacture and open new 
markets to Arkansas' abundant stores of phosphate. 

Slate of excellent quality and in a variety of colors is found in a belt 
extending westward from near Little Rock to the border of the state, being 
formerly quarried at Slatington. In the manufacture of composition roofing 
there is a demand for crushed slate of certain shades which should create 
a new and larger market for Arkansas slates, which have not heretofore 
been able to compete in the slate trade with the superior Eastern states. 
Several roofing manufacturers are investigating the possibilities of devlop- 
ing the slate deposits in Polk and Montgomery counties. 

Need of a Permanent Geological Survey 

This recitation of the mineral resources of the State but emphasizes 
the need of a permanent and active Geological Survey in Arkansas, such 
as will give substantial aid to the forces which are seeking to develop the 
underground wealth of the State and at the same time safeguard and hus- 
band the public's interests in these valuable assets. I am hopeful that the 
next Legislature will find it agreeable to make liberal provisions' for the 
re-establishment of the Survey, which for the lack of funds has been unable 
to conduct any field work for several years. 

Dr. John C. Branner, in a letter to me suggests ten big things that 
ought to be done on the geology of the State. These are: 

1. Bring 1 up to date the work on the coal lands and pub- 
lish the report. 

2. Report on the petroleum and natural gas resources. 

3. Report on the fertilizers. 

4. Report on the soils of the state, their origin, distribution 
and treatment. 

5. Report on the clays, kaolins and fuller's earths. 

6. Revise and publish the report on the Lower Coal Measures. 

7. Report on the structural materials including- Portland 
cement. 

8. Report on the state water supply including- underground 
waters. 

9. A comprehensive work on the general geology and geo- 
logic history of the state. 

10. The preparation and publication of a large scale topo- 
graphic and geologic map of the state. 




Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture. 
Little Rock, Ark. 
January 3, 1922. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



11 




Branner's Relief 
Map of Arkansas. 



GEOLOGY AND GENERAL TYPOGRAPHIC 
FEATURES OF ARKANSAS. 



BY HUGH D. MISER, With Permission of the U. S. 
Geological Survey. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

The topographic features of Arkansas reveal considerable diversity and 
may be grouped into several natural divisions which are briefly described 
below. 

The line passing from a point near the northeast corner of the State in a 
general southwesterly direction through Little Rock to Arkadelphia, Clark 
County, and thence nearly due west through De Queen, Sevier County, di- 
vides the State into nearly equal parts or halves. The southeast half of the 
State is a comparatively low plain which is a part of a broad belt of country 
known as the Gulf Coastal Plain. This plain in Arkansas ranges in elevation 
from 100 to 700 feet above sea level, and is divisible into a series of rolling 
uplands lying 200 to 700 feet above sea level and a series of nearly level to 
gently rolling valleys and lowlands lying 100 to 300 feet above sea level. 
Both the uplands and lowlands have a gentle southward slope. Crowleys 
Ridge is the most prominent physiographic feature in the northeastern part 
of the State. It is one-half to 12 miles wide and extends from Helena, Phil- 
lips County, northward into Missouri, though it is cut in two by gaps at 
some places. The crest of the ridge is 400 feet above sea level near Helena, 
but it gradually rises northward and is 500 feet above sea level In Clay 
County. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 13 

Most of the northwest half of the State is comparatively elevated, and is 
divided by the Arkansas River Valley into the Ozark region (including the 
Boston Mountains) on the north and the Ouachita Mountain region on the 
south. 

The part of the Ozark region lying north of the Boston Mountains is 
known as the Ozark Plateau and occupies a belt, about 40 miles wide, along 
the northern border of the State. This belt is made up of two plateaus. 
The lowest one of these the Salem Plateau is in Ordovician rocks and 
presents an exceedingly rough topography. It forms a triangle whose apex 
is near Newport, Jackson County, and whose base lies on the Missouri-Ar- 
kansas line from Boone County to the east end of Randolph County, but the 
basin-like area in which Berryville, Carroll County, is situated is also a part 
of this plateau. 

The next higher plateau, known as the Springfield Plateau, is formed 
by resistant cherty rocks of Mississippian age, and lies between the above- 
indicated triangle and the north-facing escarpment of the Boston Mountains. 
It is separated from the lower plateau by a sinuous escarpment which at- 
tains a height of 400 feet near Eureka Springs, Carroll County. Much of 
this pleateau is a gently rolling country but large parts of it are cut by 
numerous canyon-like valleys. Most of its surface stands between 1,000 and 
1,500 feet above sea level. 

The Boston Mountains overlook the Springfield Plateau from an Ir- 
regular north-facing escarpment 500 to 700 feet in height and many outlying 
peaks of these mountains stand out on the Springfield Plateau. Most of the 
southern slope of the mountains is less precipitous and passes off gradually 
into the Arkansas Valley, though at many places it is marked by abrupt de- 
scents and is broken by steep-sided canyon-like valleys. This mountainous 
region has an average width north and south of about 35 miles, and extends 
east and west a distance of approximately 200 miles, from the valley of 
Neosho (Grand) River in Oklahoma eastward to the Coastal Plain near 
Batesville, Ark. The mountain tops form a greatly dissected tableland, 
which rises 2,200 feet above sea level and 1,700 feet or more above the flood 
plain of Arkansas River, though a few remnants along the north side stand 
2,300 to 2,400 feet above sea level. The mountains are rather rugged and 
have steep slopes and sharp projecting spurs separated by narrow ravines, 
500 to 1,400 feet deep. The slopes are broken at many places by vertical or 
nearly vertical cliffs, which are due to the alternation of hard and soft beds 
of rock. Some of the cliffs are more than 100 feet high. 

The Arkansas Valley is 30 to 40 miles wide and extends from the vi- 
cinity of Little Rock westward into Oklahoma. It is a nearly level plain, 
most of which is between 300 and 600 feet above sea level; but rising above 
it there are a great many ridges and several mountains with a nearly east- 
west trend. Among the mountains are Sugarloaf, Poteau, Petit Jean, Maga- 
zine, Whiteoak, and Big Rock mountains and Maumelle Pinnacle. Of these 
Magazine Mountain, standing 2,823 feet above sea level and 2,300 feet above 
the surrounding country, is the highest and is also the highest mountain in 
Arkansas. The statement is made on page 551 of the Encyclopedia Brit- 
annica (Eleventh edition 1S10) that this mountain is the "highest point 
between the Alleghenies and the Rockies." A still higher point ,as shown 
on the Winding Stair topo;. aphic map of the United States Geological Sur- 
vey, is the west end of Rich Mountain near Page, Leflore County, Okla- 
homa; it is between 2,850 and 2,900 feet above sea level. 

The Ouachita Mountain region is 50 to 60 miles wide and extends from 
the vicinity of Little Rock westward Into Oklahoma. It is composed of 
numerous, nearly east- west ridges, several intermontane basins, and a dis- 
sected piedmont plateau, 15 miles wide, along its southern border. The 
ridges are narrow and parallel and have steep slopes and sharp straight 
even crests. Just west of Little Rock they are low, scarcely exceeding 750 
feet above sea level or more than 250 feet above the valleys, but they grad- 
ually increase in height to the west and on the western border of the State 
near Mena, Polk County, some of the highest ridges attain an elevation of 
2,750 to 2,800 feet above sea level or about 1,750 feet above the valleys. The 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 15 

intermontane basins are wide valley areas whose upland surfaces range 
from about 500 to 1250 feet above sea level, being lowest at the east end 
of the region and highest near the west border of -the state, and they are 
channeled by both deep and shallow valleys. Mena, in Polk County, Mount 
Ida, in Montgomery County and the southern part of the city of Hot Springs 
are located in such basins. The piedmont plateau is known as the Athena 
plateau, receiving its name from Athens, Howard County. It occupies a belt 
of country about 15 miles wide, lying between the Ouachita mountains on the 
north and the Coastal Plain on the south, and extending from near Arkadel- 
phia, Clark County, westward into Oklahoma. When the plateau is viewed 
from the crests of the mountains to the north it appears to be a practically 
level plain ending abruptly against the mountains, but when it is crossed 
very little level country is found; the rest is greatly dissected by narrow 
crooked valleys of southward-flowing trunk streams and by numerous east- 
west valleys of small tributary streams. The upland surface of this plateau 
ranges from 400 to 1,100 feet above sea level, being lowest at its east end and 
along its south side, and highest on the north side in Pike, Howard, and 
Polk counties. 



Geology 



GENERAL FEATURES. 



The several natural divisions of the State differ considerably not only 
in their surface features but in the character and age of their rocks. 

The exposed rocks of the Ozark region consists chiefly of dolomites, 
limestones, cherts, sandstones, and shales, ranging in age from Ordovician 
to Pennsylvanian. The rock beds, though lying nearly flat, have a slight 
southward dip which is disguised in parts of the region by minor folding and 
by a considerable, though not large, number of faults. The youngest forma- 
tions of the region occupy the summits of the Boston Mountains and dip 
southward from these mountains to the Arkansas Valley. 

The rocks in the Ouachita Mountain region are all of sedimentary ori- 
gin with the exception of two small areas of igneous rocks and their assoc- 
iated dikes. One of these areas is at Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, and 
the other at Potash Sulphur Springs, Garland County. The igneous rocks 
are nephelite syenites and related types and were intruded into the sedimen- 
tary strata late in the Lower Cretaceous epoch or early in the Upper Cre- 
taceous epoch. Some of the igneous dikes at and near Klondike, Saline- 
County, have been decomposed to a soft earth to a depth of about 200 feet 
below the surface, and this earth is being mined and marketed as fuller's- 
earth. The sedimentary rocks consist chiefly of cherts, shales, sandstones, 
and novaculites; they are 24,000 feet or more thick; and they range in age- 
from Cambrian to Pennsylvanian. At or near the close of the Pennsylvanian: 
epoch they were subjected to intense lateral compression movements which' 
have produced numerous parallel, closely compressed, nearly east-west folds: 
and a considerable number of faults. As a result of these movements the 
strata at most places dip at angles of 40 or more from the horizontal. The 
structure of the region, taken as a whole, is that of a vast compound anti- 
cline, which is known to geologists as an anticlinorium. The principal anti- 
cline extends from near Little Rock to the vicinity of Mena. In general the 
oldest strata are exposed near the middle of this anticline and the young- 
est northward and southward therefrom, but, on account of the deformation 
of the strata by folding and faulting much alternation of older and younger 
beds is found everywhere in going in a northward or southward direction 
across the region. 

The Arkansas Valley lies between the southward monoclinal slope of 
the Boston Mountains to the north and the uplift or anticlinorium of the 
Ouachita region to the south and is thus a synclinal trough. The rocks of 
the valley consist of 24,000 feet or more of sandstones and shales which con 
tain workable beds of coal over much of its western part. They are of Penn- 
sylvanian age, though some of the oldest rocks exposed on the south side of 
the valley are probably of Mississippian age. The strata like those in the 



16 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Ouachita Mountain region, were compressed at or near the close of the 
Pennsylvanian epoch into east-west folds and have been faulted to some ex- 
tent, but the folding has been less intense than that in the Ouachita region. 
The anticlines are generally narrower and steeper than the synclines; there 
is a tendency for the anticlines to be steeper on their north sides; and the 
folding becomes more gentle toward the north. The structure bears a close 
relation to the topography, the long, narrow ridges indicating moderately 
to highly inclined rocks. Buttelike mountains, such ai Poteau, Sugarloaf, 
and Magazine mountains, indicate practically horizontal i^cks in synclinal 
basins. 

The sedimentary strata underlying the surface of the Gulf Coastal Plain 
are chiefly clays, marls, sands, and gravels, and are of Lower Cretaceous, 
Upper Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary ages. They lie in a nearly hori- 
zontal position, though they have a general dip of 100 feet or less to the 
mile to the south and southeast. They were deposited upon a fairly smooth 
floor of Paleozoic rocks. This floor has been reached in deep wells at Nash- 
ville, Howard County, and at other places near the northwestern border of 
the Coastal Plain, but over most of the southeast half of the State it has 
been so deeply buried that it has not been reached in wells. The Cretaceous 
and younger strata overlying it along the east border of the State are more 
than 2,500 feet thick and those along the south border are more than 3,000 
feet thick. 

Intrusive igneous rocks occur in the Coastal Plain on and near Fourche 
Mountain, which, is a few miles south of Little Rock, and in small areas near 
Bryant and Bauxite in Saline County. They consist of pulaskite ("blue gran- 
ite") and nephelite syenite ("gray granite") and several other related var- 
ieties of rock. Associated with the igneous rocks and with the adjacent 
Tertiary sediments are important deposits of bauxite, the chief ore of alum- 
inum. Other igneous rocks, known as peridotite, occur in four small areas 
near Murfreesboro, Pike County. The largest of these, so far as known, 
contains about 75 acres. Much of the peridotite has been decomposed to 
earth and soft rock to a depth of 200 feet or more, and in this earth and 
soft rock diamonds have been found. The igneous rocks in the Coastal 
Plain, like those in the Ouachita Mountain region, were intruded late in the 
Lower Cretaceous epoch or early in the Upper Cretaceous epoch. 

The sedimentary rocks of Arkansas have been carefully studied over 
much of the State and have been grouped into numerous formations to 
which names have been applied. By means of the fossils in them, and by 
the determination of the relations of the strata one to the other, they are 
assigned to the different geologic systems and series. Some rock formations 
in the State contain no fossils, so that their age assignment is dependent en- 
tirely upon their relations to overlying and underlying rocks whose ages 
have been determined by means of fossils. There are many minor and major 
unconformities that break the succession of the rocks; and on account of the 
geologic events that produced the unconformities many rock formations thin 
out and are absent over large and small areas. The rocks in each of the 
natural divisions of the State are briefly described below in the order of 
their age, with the oldest first and the youngest last. 



Ozark Region 

ORDOVICIAN SYSTEM. 



Jefferson City dolomite. The Jefferson City dolomite is exposed in the 
northeastern part of Marion County and in other counties farther east, and 
so far as known is the oldest exposed formation in Northern Arkansas. It 
consists of at least 300 or 400 feet of gray dolomite and chert, in which a 
few fossils have been found. 

Cotter dolomite. The Cotter dolomite, 500 feet or more thick, is exposed 
over large areas in many counties in the Northern part of the State, but has 
been studied in greater detail west of Baxter County than it has east of that 



MINERALS IN ARKANir'S 



17 



county. The thickest outcrops are in Northern Boone County and other 
counties farther east. Bcrryville, Carroll i .ounty, and Cotter, Baxter County, 
from which the formation takes its name, are situated on the dolomite. The 
formation consists mainly of two kinds of dolomite a fine-grained earthy, 
white to buff or gray variety known as "cotton rock," and a more massive 
medium-grained gray variety whose weathered surfaces are rough and dark. 
Besides dolomite it contains chert that is sparingly fopsiliferous and also 
contains thin layers of sandstone and shale. 

Building stone is quarried from the formation n^ar Beaver, Carroll 
County. It is compact gray maer.esian limestone or dolomit^, in beds from 
2 tb 4 feet thick. The best beds afford durable building stone of pleasing 
color. 




Cotter Dolomite, East of Beaver. Photo by J. C. Branner. 

Powell limestone. The Powell limestone, to 200 feet thick, is widely 
exposed in Benton, Carroll, Boone, Marion, Newton, and probably other 
counties farther east, but is absent at some places in the counties here 
named. It is a fine-grained gray or greenish-gray magnesian limestone, 
usually free from fossils, but there are a few thin beds of green shale and at 
some places there is . conglomerate at the base. The name of the forma- 



18 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



tion was taken from the abandoned station of Powell, a short distance south- 
east of Pyatt, Marion County. 

Everton limestone. The Everton limestone, to 205 feet thick, is widely 
exposed in Benton, Carroll, Madison, Boone, Newton, Marion, and Searcy 
counties, and probably others farther east. It is thickest in Boone, Newton, 
and Marion counties and thin to the north, west, and east. It takes its name 
from Everton, Boone County, where it is well exposed. The upper part of 
the formation is 115 feet or less thick and is composed of massive compact 
dove-colored limestone and some friable white sandstone, but in Marion 
County much of the limestone contains enough magnesium for it to be classed 
as a dolomite. The limestone that is free from magnesium is suitable for 
making lime. The middle part of the formation is a white friable sandstone 
in massive beds and is known as the Kings River sandstone member, re- 
ceiving its name from Kings River in Carroll and Madison counties. The 
sandstone at places is as much as 40 feet thick and is well suited for the 




Thin-Bedded St. Joe Limestone, Member of Boone Limestone. 

G. T. Adams. 



Photo by 



manufacture of plate and ordinary glass. The lower part of the formation 
is a sandy compact dark-drab magnesian limestone, .known as the Sneeds 
limestone lentil, and varies in thickness from a feather edge to 50 feet. It 
is not as widely distributed as the middle and upper parts of the Everton. 
The known exposures are in Marion and Newton counties. The limestone 
receives its name from Sneeds Creek, in Newton County, on which it is ex- 
posed. 

St. Peter sandstone. The St. Peter sandstone a formation which is 
widely distributed in the upper Mississippi Valley is exposed over large 
areas in Carroll County and most of the other counties farther east. It and 
the Kings River sandstone member of the Everton limestone are described 
in the reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey as "saccharoidal sand- 
stone." It is massive and friable, is white or cream colored, and varies in 
thickness from a feather edge to 200 feet, being thickest to the south and 
east. It is being quarried for glass sand at Guion, Izard County. Outcrops 
of this sandstone occur in many of the picturesque bluffs along Buffalo and 
White Rivers. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



19 



Joachim limestone. The Joachim limestone, to 150 feet thick, is ex- 
posed in Newton County and all of the counties between it and Lawrence 
County. It thins to the north and west and is therefore thickest in its most 
eastern and southern outcrops. It is a drab-colored fine-grained, sparingly 
fossiliferous magnesian limestone, and at many places it is sandy and con- 
tains thin beds of sandstone which usually occur near the base. 

Jasper limestone. The Jasper limestone, to 50 feet thick, is present, 
so far as known, only in Newton County. It takes its name from Jasper, 
the county seat, near which most of the exposures occur. It is a compact 




Sandstone in Powell Limestone. Photo by 
K. F. Mather. 

bluish-gray, slightly fossiliferous limestone suitable for making lime, and it 
affords a beautiful and durable building stone, as is shown by buildings at 
Jasper that were constructed with it. A bed of white sandstone, 8 to 20 feet 
thick, is at the base and at some places there are thinner beds of similar 
sandstone that are interbedded with the limestone. 

Plattin limestone. The Plattin limestone, to 240 feet thick, is exposed 
over large areas which comprise parts of Sharp, Independence, Izard, Stone, 
and Searcy counties, and is thickest in the counties to the east. It is a mas- 
sive, even-bedded dove-colored or grayish-blue limestone which is compara- 
tively free from fossils and it breaks with a conchoidal fracture. It has been 
quarried at places for building stone and for making lime, for which it is 
well suited. Certain layers of the limestone are so fine grained as to suggest 



20 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

that they are lithographic stone of good quality and considerable prospecting 
has been done for such stone but the search for commercial quantities of it 
has not been successful. The most promising locality is on West Lafferty 
Creek in Izard County. 

In practically all of the geologic reports on Arkansas the Plattin lime- 
stone has been described as the "Izard limestone," but the "Izard," as it 
was defined, included not only the Plattin but also the Joachim limestone, 
which has been described above. The Jasper limestone which overlies the 
Jpachim limestone in Newton County was also included in the "Izard lime- 
stone," but it is absent in Izard County, from which the "Izard limestone" 
was named. 

Kimmswick limestone. The Kimmswick limestone, to 55 feet thick, is 
exposed in Independence, Izard, and Stone counties and so far as known is 
absent farther west. It is an even-bedded massive light-gray fine-grained 
slightly fossiliferous limestone, but at places it is coarse grained and at 
some places its uppermost beds are compact and grayish blue, thus resem- 
bling the bulk of the Plattin limestone. Thin lenses and nodules of chert 
are present at many places but are not sufficiently numerous to prohibit the 
use of most of the limestone for making lime for which it is probably suit- 
able. \ 

The Kimmswick limestone constituted the lower part of "Polk Bayou 
limestone" of many of the geologic reports on Northern Arkansas, whereas 
the Fernvale limestone, which overlies the Kimmswick, constituted the upper 
part of the "Polk Bayou limestone." In some of the earliest reports the 
Kimmswick limestone was included in what was then called the St. Clair 
limestone. 

Fernvale limestone. The Fernvale limestone, to 125 feet thick, is 
exposed over large areas in Independence, Izard, and Stone counties; small 
outcrops occur near St. Joe, Searcy County; and one small outcrop is on 
Little Buffalo River, a mile northeast of Jasper. The greatest thickness of 
the limestone given above is in Penters Bluff near Penters Bluff station, in 
Izard County, but the usual thickness at other places in the Batesville man- 
ganese district, in which Penters Bluff occurs, is about 100 feet. This lime- 
stone is coarse grained, massive, cross bedded, and fossiliferous, is dark 
gray and pinkish gray in color, and would make a valuable building stone. 
Deposits of manganese ore occur in the Fernvale limestone and in its resid- 
ual clays in the Batesville manganese district, which comprises parts of 
Sharp, Izard, and Independence counties, and they have been worked much 
of the time since 1849. 

The Fernvale limestone was included in the so-called St. Clair limestone 
of some of the earlier geologic reports on Northern Arkansas, also in the 
so-called "St. Clair marble" of some of the reports, and in the upper part of 
the "Polk Bayou limestone" of the more recent reports. It was first identified 
by E. O. Ulrich as being the same as the Fernvale limestone of middle Ten- 
nessee. 

Cason shale. The Cason shale, to 21 feet thick, is present in com- 
paratively smal lareas. The largest of these are in Independence, Izard, and 
Stone counties, but small outcrops occur near Duff, Searcy County, and Jas- 
per, Newton County. It consists of greenish-gray calcareous shale and smal- 
ler amounts of sandstone and phosphate, and besides these it contains man- 
ganese and iron minerals. Phosphate is widely distributed in the shale and 
has been mined at a few places near the abandoned village of Phosphate in 
Independence County. The mines have, however, not been worked for sev- 
eral years. At several places in the Batesville district notably the Cason 
mine 3 miles north-northeast of Batesville parts of the shale contain a 
large enough quantity of manganese oxides for such parts of the shale to be 
mixed and shipped as a low-grade manganese ore. The residual clays of the 
shale also contain workable quantities of manganese ore. Fossils in the 
Cason shale have been found at very few localities. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 21 

SILURIAN SYSTEM. 

Brassfield limestone. The Brassfield limestone so far as known is pres- 
ent at only a few places; these occur between Duff and Tomahawk, Searcy 
County, where it is several feet thick, but fossils that have been derived 
from it through weathering occur in residual clays at the Montgomery mine, 
5 miles east-northeast of Cushman, Independence County. It is a granular, 
light-gray fossiliferous limestone and contains a small amount of gluconite. 
This limestone has heretofore been included in the St. Glair limestone, but 
its lithology, fossils, and stratigraphic relations show that it is of the same 
age as the Brassfield limestone of Kentucky and Tennessee. 

St. Clair limestone. The typical St. Clair limestone, to 100 feet thick, 
is exposed at many places in Independence, Izard and Stone counties. It is 
a coarse-grained pinkish light-gray, highly fossiliferous limestone and much 
of it would make a valuable building stone. The greatest thickness, 100 
feet, is at the Cason mine. 

Lafferty limestone. The Lafferty limestone, to 85 feet thick, is a 
thin-bedded compact earthy, sparingly fossiliferous limestone, of which the 
upper part is gray in color and the lower part red. The only known oc- 
currence is an exposure I 1 /! miles north of Penters Bluff station in Izard 
County. The name of the limestone is taken from West Lafferty Creek which 
is half a mile east of the exposure. 



DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 

Penters chert. The Penters chert, to 91 feet thick, is exposed within 
two small areas in Independence County, one being near Pfeiffer and tb * 
other near Penters Bluff station from which the formation takes its name. 
It is a compact gray and bluish chert, though the upper part is dark colored 
at places. No fossils have been discovered in the chert uut its lithology anl 
stratigraphic relations indicate that it is of the same age as the Camden 
chert of west-central Tennessee and the lower part of the Arkansas novacu- 
lite of west-central Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. The Camden 
chert, as shown by fossils, is equivalent in age to at least a part of the 
Oriskany group of the Northern Appalachian region. 

The Penters chert has heretofore been considered to be a part of the 
Boone chert, which Is described later. 

Clifty limestone. The only exposure of the Clifty limestone in Northern 
Arkansas is on the East Fork of the Little Clifty Creek in the southeast cor- 
ner of Benton County. It is a sandy, compact, light bluish-gray fossiliferous 
limestone and the greatest thickness that has been observed is 2y 2 feet. 

Chattanooga shale. The Chattanooga shale is exposed in Washington, 
Benton, Carroll, Madison, Searcy, and Independence counties. It is either 
absent or not exposed in the other counties in Northern Arkansas. It is a 
coal black clay shale that splits into thin plates and slabs and gives off the 
odor of petroleum when struck with a hammer. It is thickest near the west- 
ern border of the State, where it attains a thickness of 70 feet. The shale 
is generally underlain by a white to brown sandstone, to 75 feet thick, 
known as the Sylamore sandstone member, which is also thickest in the 
western part of the State. At some places the sandstone contains chert 
pebbles and at some places it is phosphatic. 

The Chattanooga shale in the reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey 
is called "Eureka Shale." 



CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. 

Mississippian Series 

Boone formation. The Boone formation, 250 to 400 feet thick, consists 
in the main of a series of cherty fossiliferous limestones and cherts that has 
been known as the Boone chert, a name given to the series on account of Its 
wide distribution in Boone County. Below these over a large area in the 
northern part of the State lies the St. Joe limestone member of the forma- 
tion, a well-marked bed of gray or pink crystalline limestone, which Is the 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 23 

basal Carboniferous bed. It is easily recognized by its color, texture, and 
its marked contrast with the beds that usually underlie it. This limestone 
ranges in thickness from a feather edge to 100 feet and forms an almost un- 
broken, though very sinuous outcrop from the vicinity of Mountain View, 
Stone County, to the State line near Seligman, Mo., and is exposed in all of 
the counties between that county and the western boundary of the State. 

Where the cherts are interbedded with much limestone they form, on 
decay, a fertile soil, such as is found over large areas in Boone, Benton, 
Washington, and Madison counties. When comparatively free from lime- 
stone beds the soil is generally too meager for agriculture and forms the 
"flint hills" of central Independence County, of western Carroll and north- 
ern Madison counties and the watersheds north of Marshall and southwest 
of Rush Creek, in Marion County, and the hilltops about Elixir Springs, 
Boone County, and Doddsville, Marion County. 

The Boone formation affords an abundance of fractured loose chert on 
the hillslopes, suitable for road building. The limestone in it is used for 
building stone and for making 'lime. A quarry at Pfeiffer, Independence 
County, is producing a high grade of ornamental limestone. 

Moorefield shale. In the vicinity of Batesville there is a bed of shale 
lying on the Boone formation. . It is well exposed around Moorfield, from 
which it is named. At and near Batesville it varies in thickness from 
less than 100 to more than 250 feet. To the west, at Marshall, it is not over 
35 feet thick, and evidently it does not extend much farther westward. The 
shale has a light grayish or bluish color and is very friable. In places it is 
sandy. A fossiliferous limy phase, several feet thick, at its base has been 
called "Spring Creek limestone." 

Batesville sandstone. The Batesville sandstone, to 200 feet thick, is 
so named from the town of Batesville which is built on it. The sandstone is 
present along the base of the slopes of the isolated hills and mountains 
north of the Boston Mountains escrapment, in Independence, Stone, Searcy, 
Newton, Boone, Carroll, Madison, Washington, and Benton counties. It is 
thickest in its most eastern exposures. The rock is coarse grained, cream- 
colored to brown, often false bedded, and in some places contains beds of 
shale interstratified with sandstone. A light sandy soil results from its dis- 
integration. It serves as an excellent reservoir, for the wells that penetrate 
it usually find in it an abundance of good soft water. 

In the part of the State west of Harrison, Boone County, the sandstone 
is generally underlain by a limestone, to 50 feet thick, known as the Hinds- 
ville limestone member. The greatest areal exposure of the member is 
near Hindsville, Madison County, from which it was named. The limestone 
is gray, fossiliferous, and oolitic, is interbedded with thin beds of sandstone, 
and includes at its base a chert-pebble conglomerate. It is suitable for 
building stone and for making lime. The limestone for the columns at the 
front entrance of the main building of the University of Arkansas, at Fay- 
etteville, was quarried from this limestone on Brush Creek near Hindsville. 

Fayetteville shale. The Fayetteville shale, 10 to 400 feet thick, consists 
principally of black or dark-gray carboneous shale, at many places thinly 
laminated, and in general is thickest to the south. Near its base there is 
generally a thin bed of hard, dark gray or blue fossiliferous limestone, while 
its middle part commonly grades from a sandy shale to a true sandstone, 
and where the sandstone phase predominates this portion of the formation 
is distinguished as the Wedington sandstone member. The shale is well de- 
veloped in the valley of West Fork of White River near Fayetteville, from 
which town it is named, and the Wedington sandstone member is particu- 
larly prominent southwest of Fayetteville, in Wedington Mountain, where it 
attains a thickness of 150 feet perhaps one-half the total thickness of the 
formation there. The softness of the shale causes it to erode so easily that 
its outcrop is usually marked by a valley, or by steep slopes. Where ex- 
posed, the shale disintegrates readily and forms a black and fertile soil. 
The composition of the unweathered shale renders it suitable material for 
brick making. The shale beds are- practically constant from the Oklahoma 
line to the Gulf Coastal Plain near Batesville, but the sandstone thins out 
at places. 




St. Peter Sandstone, on Buffalo Fork of White River, 
One Mile East of Mouth of Cove Creek. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 25 

Pitkin limestone. The Pitkin limestone, to 100 feet thick, is widely 
distributed over Northern Arkansas, extending along the north side of the 
Boston Mountains from Independence County to the western boundary of 
the State. It thins out to the north and is generally thickest in its most 
southern outcrops. It is exposed along the north face of these mountains 
and on many of their outliers and in some places it forms a prominent es- 
carpment. It is also exposed on the south side of the Boston Mountains in 
Franklin, Johnson, and Newton counties. It is composed of massive gray 
fossiliferous limestone, parts of which are probably pure enough for making 
lime. In the reports of the Arkansas Geological Survey it is known as the 
"Archimedes limestone," because of the presence of Archimedes, an easily 
recognized bryozoan, the screwlike stems of which are common on the 
weathered surface of the rock. 

Pennsylvania!! Series 

Morrow group. Under the name Morrow group are included several 
beds of limestone, sandstone, and shale, which vary much in thickness, ar- 
rangement, and character, and are of but little topographic prominence. 
They lie just below the sandstone of the "Millstone grit" of the Arkansas 
Geological Survey, and, as a rule, form the middle part of the northern es- 
carpment of the Boston Mountains. South of Batesville, near Jamestown, 
these beds have a total thickness of about 200 feet, while at places farther 
west they are about 400 feet thick. 

To the lower part of the group the name Hale formation has been ap- 
plied, and to the upper part the name Bloyd shale has been applied. The 
Hale formation is composed of conglomerate, sandstone, limestone, and 
shale, and is known to vary in thickness from 80 to 300 feet. The Bloyd 
shale is composed mainly of black clay shale, but partly of limestone which 
occurs in two beds, the upper being known as the Kessler limestone member 
and the lower the Brentwood limestone member. The shale is about 200 
feet thick in southern Washington County and northern Crawford County, 
but from this part of the State it thins to the north and east and is known 
to be absent in parts of Madison, Carroll, Boone, and Newton counties. 

A coal bed, as much as 14 inches thick occurs in the Bloyd shale In 
Washington County and has been worked on a small scale. 

Winslow formation. The Winslow formation makes the summit and 
southern slopes of the Boston Mountains, except in the deeper ravines 
where older rocks have been exposed. Rocks of this formation also occur 
on the tops of the outliers immediately north of the Boston Mountains. 

The formation consists of beds of sandstone and shale, with a few thin 
local layers of limestone. The sandstone beds range in thickness from 3 
feet to more than 50 feet. One of these beds, and in places two, near the 
base of the formation, are conglomeratic, containing waterworn quartz peb- 
bles of small size and form prominent bluffs along the mountain slopes. 
These gritty beds at and near the base of the Winslow formation were 
described by the Arkansas Geological Survey in the report on Washington 
County as the "Millstone grit." The shales, which constitute probably 75 
per cent of the formation, are as a rule black and carbonaceous, though less 
so than the shales of the Morrow group. Coal occurs within this formation 
but only in beds too thin to be profitably worked. The Winslow formation 
in the Boston Mountain region extends up to the base of the series of rocks 
that contain the workable coal beds in the Arkansas coal field. Its total 
thickness in the southern part of the region where it is greatest is estimated 
to be more than 1,500 feet. 



Ouachita Mountain Region 

CAMBRIAN SYSTEM. 

Collier shale. The Collier shale is exposed in a nearly east-west valley 
area, 1 to 3 miles wide and about 15 miles long, lying between Womble and 
Mount Ida, Montgomery County. The entire thickness of the formation is 
not known as the base is not revealed, but the exposed beds are probably 



26 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

at least 500 feet thick. The formation is composed mostly of bluish-black 
soft graphic, intensely crumpled clay shale, but contains some bluish-gray 
or black limestone and a few thin layers of dark chert. No fossils have 
been found in the formation. Very little or none of the limestone is suitable 
for making lime, and none of it is suitable for building stone on account of 
the fractured condition of the limestone and the occurrence of quartz and 
calcite veins in it. 



ORDOVICIAN SYSTEM. 

Crystal Mountain sandstone. The Crystal Mountain sandstone, 850 feet 
thick, crops out in Montgomery County and produces high rugged ridges 
which extend westward from the vicinity of Crystal Springs to a point about 
15 miles west of Mount Ida. A group of these ridges south of Mount Ida 
is known as the Crystal Mountains and from them the sandstone takes its 
name. The formation is composed of coarse-grained massive gray to brown 
sandstone but at the base there is a conglomerate with limestone and chert 
pebbles that have been derived from the Collier shale. Clusters of quartz 
crystals are found in fissures at numerous places and many are sold at Hot 
Springs, Garland County, for museum specimens and for use as ornaments. 
The sandstone is used as a building stone at Mount Ida. 

The formation has not yielded any fossils but, for reasons which can 
not be presented in this short paper, it is tentatively assigned to the Ordo- 
vician system. 

Mazarn shale. The Mazarn shale, 1,000 feet thick, takes its name from 
its occurrence on the headwaters of Mazarn Creek in Montgomery County. 
It is exposed at other places in this county and outcrops of it are known to 
extend as far east as Blakely Mountain in Garland County. The outcrops 
everywhere occur in valleys. The formation consists of shale and of small 
amounts of limestone and sandstone. The shale is ribboned, consisting of 
alternating black and green layers that split at an angle with the bedding. 
Fossil graptolites of Lower Ordovician age have been found at a few places. 

Blakely sandstone. The Blakely sandstone, to 500 feet thick, consists 
of shale in alternating black and green layers and hard gray sandstone. The 
shale constitutes 75 per cent of the whole, but the sandstone, which pro- 
duces high ridges, is the prominent feature. The ridges formed by this 
sandstone extend in an east-northeastward direction from Womble, Mont- 
gomery County, across Garland County, into Saline County. A group of 
these ridges in Garland County is known as Blakely Mountain and from it 
the sandstone has been named. The formation is absent at most places west 
of Womble and at probably all places north of that town. Graptolites of 
Lower Ordovician age have been found in shale in the formation in Blakely 
Mountain. Quartz crystals are found in fissures in the sandstone but they 
are not so numerous as they are in the Crystal Mountain sandstone. 

Womble shale The Womble shale, 250 to 1,000 feet thick, is exposed 
in wide and narrow valley areas from the vicinity of Big Fork, Polk County, 
across Montgomery, Garland, and Saline counties, into Pulaski County. The 
name for it is taken from the town of Womble. part of which is situated on 
the base of the shale. The formation consists of black graphitic shale, with 
thin beds of sandstone near the base and beds of limestone near the top. 
The shale near the base is composed of black and green layers that split 
at an angle with the bedding and thus show ribboned cleavage surfaces. 
Gractolites of Lower Ordovician age are numerous. Some of the limestone 
has been used for making lime for local use, near Cedar Glades, Garland 
County, and Black Springs, Montgomery County. 

Bigfork chert. The Bigfork chert is exposed over large and small areas 
between Shady Postoffice, Polk -County, and Pulaski County, and in such 
areas it produces numerous low steep-sided knobs. The formation is esti- 
mated to be 700 feet thick in Garland County and other counties farther west, 
where it has been studied more extensively than elsewhere. It is composed 
of thin-bedded gray to black, much shattered chert interbedded with thin 
layers of black shale. The fossils that have been found consist manly of 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 27 

graptolites. The chert is excellently adapted for road building and is being 
used for this purpose at Hot Springs. 

Polk Creek shale. The Polk Creek shale, to 200 feet thick, is exposed 
on steep rocky slopes and in narrow valleys in close association with the 
outcrops of the Bigfork chert, and so far as known is absent in comparatively 
small areas. It is a black graphic shale; in parts it is siliceous and in others 
clay shale. It has been prospected for roofing slate near Big Fork, Polk 
County, and near Washita, Montgomery County. Graptolites are abundant 
in the shale. 



SILURIAN SYSTEM. 

Blaylock sandstone. The Blaylock sandstone is exposed in a small area 
near Bog Springs, Polk County, and in other, though not large areas as far 
east as the vicinity of Malvern. Along some of its most southern outcrops 
it has an estimated thickness of 1,500 feet, but it thins so rapidly to the 
north that it is not present 3 or 4 miles north of the places where it has the 
above-estimated thickness. It is composed of fine-grained light-gray to 
dark-gray or green compact sandstone and buff to dark shale. Its areas of 
outcrop are very rocky, occurring on mountain slopes and in narrow valleys. 
One small collection of fossils, consisting entiely of graptolites, has been 
obtained at the south base of Blaylock Mountain, in the southwest corner 
of Montgomery County. 

Missouri Mountain slate. The Missouri Mountain slate. to 300 feet 
thick, is exposed on or near high ridges from Polk County east to Pulaski 
County, but is absent at places near Mount Ida. It is a red and green clay 
slate but at places is dark colored. Thus far it has not yielded any fossils. 
It has been extensively prospected for commercial slate at several places 
near Hawes and Bear, Garland County, and at many places in Polk and 
Montgomery counties, and has been quarried for switchboards at Slatington 
in the last-named county. 



DEVONIAN SYSTEM. 

Arkansas novaculite. The Arkansas novaculite is widely exposed in 
Polk County and the other counties between it and Pulaski County. It is 
exposed in more or le^s parallel and nearly eastward-trending belts, whose 
narrowness is due to the steep dips of the beds. Owing to the narrowness 
of these belts and to the greater resistance of the novaculite (a variety of 
chert) to weathering than the adjacent strata above and below, its outcrops 
stand up as sharp ridges, whereas both the older and younger rocks form 
valleys. Many rock ledges occur on the crests of the ridges and in the 
water gaps. 

The formation is thickest in its southernmost outcrops, where the thick- 
ness at many if not at most places is about 900 feet, but it tkins to the north 
and is absent at places near Mount Ida, and probably at other places. It has 
been studied more extensively in Garland and Hot Spring counties and the 
other counties farther west than elsewhere in the State. There it consists 
of three lithologic divisions a lower one. made up almost entirely of massive 
white novaculite; a middle one, consisting mainly of thin layers of dense 
dark-colored novaculite interbedded with shale; and an upper one consist- 
ing chiefly of massive, highly calcareous novaculite. These divisions vary 
in thickness and character from place to place. 

The lower division is commonly from 150 to 300 feet thick, though at 
some places the thickness is greater. It is made up almost wholly of typical 
novaculite, whose white color and massiveness make it the most conspicuous 
part of the formation. In fact, it is this part that usually occupies the crests 
of the ridges. The beds are from 2 to 10 feet thick and are commonly even 
bedded. The massive novaculite is usually dense, gritty, fine grained, homo- 
geneous, highly siliceous, translucent on thin edge's, and white with a bluish 
tint, but where unweathered it is bluish gray. It has an uneven to conchoidal 
fracture and a waxy luster like that of chaledony. Though the bulk of the 



28 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

rock is white, much of it varies in shades of red, gray, green, yellow, and 
brown, and in many places it is black. These shades are produced by iron 
and manganese oxides and possibly in some places by carbonaceous matter. 
The rock contains a little calcite, but exposures of the calcerous stone are 
not common and have been found only in stream beds. Joints are numerous 
and run in all directions, but the most prominent joints are normal to the 
bedding. Many of them are filled by white quartz veins which are usually 
so thin as to be inconspicuous. Slickensides along both joints and bedding 
planes are common. 

The middle part of the formation consists chiefly of interbedded nova- 
culite and shale. The novaculite is similar to that in the lower massive part 
of the formation, except that the common color is dark gray to black and that 
the beds are much thinner, usually between 1 inch and 6 inches thick. A con- 
glomerate at the base of this division was observed at a number of places. 
It consists of small rounded and subangular pebbles of novaculite in a sandy 
and dense flinty matrix. The shale ordinarily observed is black, weathering 
to a buff or brown color, but some of it is red. 

The upper part of the formation ranges from about 20 to 125 feet in 
thickness and is thickest along the southernmost exposures. It consists 
chiefly of massive, highly calcareous light-gray to bluish-black novaculite 
which is so resistent that at some places where it and the accompanying 
beds of the formation are not overturned it produces low ridges or knobs 
on the slopes of the higher ridges. Some thin beds of ordinary dense chal- 
cedonic novaculite like that so characteristic of the middle and lower parts 
of the formation are also included. Fine lamination parallel with the bed- 
ding is common. On weathering, the more calcareous rock loses its calcium 
carbonate becomes white or cream-colored and porous and soft enough to 
receive impressions from the hammer without breaking. 

Novaculite from the lower part of the formation is quarried on North 
Mountain, Indian Mountain, and near Summit, Garland County, for oil stones 
or whetstones. It is also quarried on North Mountain, Garland County, and 
near Butterfield, Hot Spring County, for use in concrete. Deposits of tripoli 
derived from the novaculite have been prospected near Caddo Gap, Mont- 
gomery County and near Langley, Pike County. Manganese oxides occur 
in the novaculite and much prospecting for manganese ore has been done 
in Pike, Polk and Montgomery counties. 

The lower part of the formation is considered to be of Devonian age; 
but the middle and upper parts are doubtfully placed in the Devonian sys- 
tem, as there is a possibility that these two parts may be of Mississippian 
age. The only fossils that have been found in the formation in Arkansas are 
conodonts, linguloids, sporangites, and fossil wood, all of which were obtained 
from the middle and upper parts of the formation. 



CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. 

Mississippian Series 

Hot Springs sandstone. The Hot Springs sandstone is exposed on high 
mountain ridges at and near the city of Hot Springs. It is simply a lenticular 
formation, and so far as known is not present except near Hot Springs. The 
maximum thickness is 200 feet. The formation is composed of gray hard 
quartzitic sandstone, and at the base there is a conglomerate which is as 
much as 30 feet thick. The pebbles are of all sizes up to 6 inches in diam- 
eter and consist mostly of novaculite. 

Stanley shale. The Stanley shale is the surface rock in large and small 
areas in Polk, Sevier, Howard, Pike, Montgomery, Clark, Hot Spring, and 
Garland counties, in the southern part of Yell County, in the northern part 
of Saline County, and in the west-central part of Pulaski County. Some of 
the largest areas are intermontane basins like the one in which Mena is sit- 
uated and the one in which the southern part of Hot Springs is situated. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS . 29 

whereas the other large areas form a part of the Athens plateau which 
is south of the Ouachita Mountains. The thickness, as measured near Glen- 
wood, Pike County, is 6,000 feet, and it is perhaps equally as great at all 
other places. 

The formation is composed of bluish-black and black fissile clay shale 
and fine-grained compact greenish-gray cr bluish-gray sandstone. Several 
tuff beds, as much as 85 feet thick, occur near the base in Polk County. The 
upper part of the formation in Arkansas has yielded a single collection of 
plants including some ferns. Some of the shale at the base has been altered 
to slate and this has been prospected for commercial slate in Polk, Mont- 
gomery, and Garland counties. Quartz veins in the formation contain lead, 
zinc, and antimony minerals near Gillham, Sevier County. 

Jackford sandstone. The Jackford sandstone, 5,000 to 6,600 feet thick, 
forms broad low nearly east-west ridges on the Athens plateau south of 
the Ouachita Mountains. These ridges are forested with yellow pine and 
among them are Grindstone Mountain extending westward from the vicin- 
ity of Arkadelphia, Clark County, and several ridges that are south of Kirby, 
Pike county. Furthermore, the formation is widely exposed in the Ouachita 
Mountains themselves. In fact, its outcrops form the highest and some 
of the most rugged mountain ridges of the Ouachitas. Some of these are 
Black Fork, Rich, Fourche, Mill Creek, and Irons Fork mountains near 
Mena, Polk County; Muddy Creek Mountain near Washita, Montgomery 
County; and Blue Mountain near Cedar Glades, Garland County. In the 
southern exposures of the formation it is composed of massive compact 
fine-grained to coarse-grained light-gray sandstone with some mill stone grit, 
especially in its basal part, and with a small amount of green shale, whereas 
in many of its northern exposures the shale forms the greater part of the 
formation and the sandstone a minor part of it. Indeterminable invertebrate 
fossils have been found in the millstone grit at the base. 

Pennsylvanian Series 

Atoka formation. The Atoka formation is exposed in two narrow east- 
west belts between Kirby and Murfreesboro, Pike County, and another belt, 
which is probably one of these, follows the south base of Chalybeate Moun- 
tain, 5 miles south of Amity, Clark County. The thickness of the formation 
in this part of the State is estimated to be 6,000 feet. The Atoka is also ex- 
posed in large areas in Scott, Yell, and Perry counties and the west-central 
part of Pulaski County. Two of the principal ridges formed by it are Dutch 
Creek and Danville mountains. The formation in Yell County is estimated 
to be 7,800 feet thick. Here, as elsewhere in the State, it is composed of 
hard light-gray to brown sandstone and an equal or greater amount of black 
clay shale. 



Arkansas Valley Region 

CARBONIFEROUS SYSTEM. 
Mississippian Series 

Jackfork sandstone. The Jackfork sandstone, as has been previously 
stated, is composed of shale and a smaller amount of sandstone in its north- 
ernmost outcrops in the Ouachita Mountain region, and it is doubtless repre- 
sented by similar strata in some areas on the south side of the Arkansas 
Valley. 

Pennsylvanian Series 

Atoka formation. The Atoka formation comprises a considerable part of 
the thick series of sandstones and shales that underlie the coal-bearing rocks 
in the Arkansas coal field. This series of rocks was referred to in the pub- 
lications of the Arkansas Geological Survey as the "Lower or Barren Coal 
Measures." The uppermost formation in this series is known as the Atoka 
formation and contains beds which are equivalent to part of the Winslow 
formation of the Boston Mountains. The Atoka is estimated to be about 
7,000 feet thick and is composed of sandstone separated by thick beds of 



30 . MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

black clay shale. It has not yielded any fossils in Arkansas. The sandstones 
form ridges and the shales underlie valleys and lowlands. Sandstone beds 
in the formation supply the gas from the Massard Prairie gas field near Fort 
Smith, the Coops Prairie gas field near Mansfield, and the Kibler gas field 
near Van Buren. 

Hartshorne sandstone. The Hartshorne sandstone lies at the base of 
the productive coal-bearing rocks of the Arkansas coal field. It is known 
to have a great areal extent, and is found cropping out around the edges 
of the coal bearing rocks from the east end of the Arkansas coal field west- 
ward into Oklahoma. It is 100 to 300 feet thick, and contains minor beds of 
shale in its central and upper parts. An important coal bed known as the 
Hartshorne coal rests on the top of the sandstone. 

McAlester group. Above the Hartshorne sandstone there is in the pro- 
ductive coal-bearing rocks a series of shales and sandstones with a num- 
ber of beds of workable coal. The McAlester group is divisible into three 
formations (1) a lower, known as the Spadra shale, consisting of three or 
more beds of coal and minor strata of sandstone; (2) a middle, called the 
Fort Smith formation, composed chiefly of sandstone and shaly sandstone 
beds with one or more workable beds of coal; (3) an upper, described as 
the Paris shale, consisting partly of beds of sandy shale with some sand- 
stone and one or more workable beds of coal. The Spadra shale is 400 1 
to 500 feet thick, the Fort Smith formation 375 to 425 feet, and the Paris 
shale 600 to 700 feet. Numerous collections of fossil plants have been ob- 
tained from the McAlester group. 

Savanna formation. Overlying the McAlester group there is in the pro- 
ductive coal series a formation consisting of several sandstone members sep- 
arated by shales. This is known as the Savanna formation. It occurs in 
Arkansas only in the tops and upper slopes of Poteau, Sugarloaf, Short, and 1 
Magazine mountains. That part of the Savanna exposed in Arkansas is es- 
timated not to exceed 1,000 feet, and constitutes approximately the lower 
two-thirds of the entire formation, which is present farther west in Okla- 
homa. 

The rocks of this formation, as well as the other rocks of the produc- 
tive coal series, are all more or less folded, so that the shale and sandstone 
outcrops depend on the character and direction of these folds and can 
therefore be determined only after a study of the structure of the region, 
It can be said, however, that the shale outcrops generally lie in the valleys- 
parallel to the ridges which are formed by sandstone. 



Gulf Coastal Plain 



CRETACEOUS SYSTEM. 
Lower Cretaceous Series 

Trinity formation. The Trinity formation is exposed in a belt, a few 
miles wide, extending from a point near Delight westward across Pike, How- 
ard and Sevier counties and thence into Oklahoma. It has a thickness of 
over 600 feet at a locality 2 miles north of Center Point, Howard County^ 
and probably has a like thickness farther west in Arkansas, but it thins 
out near the east border of Pike County. It consists predominantly of 
clay but includes subordinate beds of sand, gravel, and limestone. The lime- 
stone contains fossil oysters and other shells and occurs in two beds, the 
Dierks limestone lentil and the De Queen limestone member, both of which 
are exposed in narrow belts. The De Queen limestone, the higher of the 
two, is near the middle of the formation. It ranges in thickness from a 
feather edge to 72 feet, and its outcrop extends from Plaster Bluff, near 
Murfreesboro, westward through De Queen into Oklahoma. It is not pres- 
ent east of Plaster Bluff. The Dierks limestone at some places is 50 feet 
above the base of the formation and at others is probably 200 feet above 
the base. Its thickness ranges from a feather edge to 40 feet. Its outcrop 
extends from a locality about 2 miles north of Delight westward to Cossatot 
River, where it thins out. The gravel also occurs in two beds that attain 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 31 

a thickness of 100 feet. The lower of the two gravels is at the base of the 
formation. It is called the Pike gravel member and is exposed in an almost 
continuous though irregular belt from the west side of the State to the east 
end of the outcrop of the Trinity. The upper gravel, the Ultima Thule gravel 
lentil is above the Dierks limestone and is exposed in an irregular belt ex- 
tending from Cossatot River westward into Oklahoma. These four lentils 
and members and the interbedded sands and clays of the Trinity have a 
slight southward dip. Although the Trinity occupies a nearly horizontal po- 
sition it rests upon the truncated upturned edges of steeply dipping shales 
and sandstones of Carboniferous age, which, however, form a smooth floor 
that has only minor irregularities and undulations. A pronounced uncon- 
formity therefore occurs at the base of the Trinity. 

The above-mentioned gravels are composed mostly of novaculite pebbles. 
They are widely distributed and constitute a very large supply of good road 
material. Gypsum occurs in the De Queen limestone member and has been 
prospected in a small way near Plaster Bluff. Limestone in this member 
has been used for rough building stone at De Queen, but neither it nor the 
Dierks limestone is pure enough for making lime. 

Good land limestone. The Goodland limestone, to 25 feet thick, is a 
chalky fossiliferous limestone and is exposed on Little River, near Cerro 
Gordo. Little River County. It is not exposed east of that place. 

Washita group. The Washita group consists of calcareous clays and 
thin beds of limestone and is exposed over a small area in the northwest 
corner of Little River County where it has a total thickness of over 250 feet. 

Upper Cretaceous Series 

Bingen formation. The Bingen formation receives its name from the 
village of Bingen, Hempstead County. Its area of outcrop is a belt, narrow 
to the east and wide to the west, and extends in a west-southwestward direc- 
tion from the vicinity of Clear Spring, Clark County, across Pike, Hemp- 
stead, Howard, and Sevier counties. The formation ranges in thickness 
from a feather edge to 580 feet, being thickest to the southwest. It is com- 
posed of sand, clay, and gravel, and near Tokio and farther east contains 
beds to which the name Tokio sand member has been applied. This mem- 
ber is in fact the only part of the formation exposed east of Little Missouri 
River and is the only part that contains beds of quartz sand. 

The gravel in the Bingen occurs in several beds. The southward slop- 
ing plateau on which Center Point, Howard County, is located and a similar 
plateau west of Locke^burg, Sevier County, owe their preservation and prom- 
inence to these gravels. The thickest and also the most widely distributed 
bed which is as much as 60 feet thick, is at the base. These different gravel 
deposits resemble one another as well as those of the Trinity formation and 
are well adapted for road making. They are composed of partly rounded to 
well-rounded pebbles usually 1 inch or less in diameter, and most of the 
pebbles are novaculite. 

Among the other kinds of pebbles there are various types of igneous 
rocks, which are similar to or identical with some of the crystalline rocks of 
Arkansas. These are found in the basal part of the formation from the 
vicinity of Murfreesboro westward. 

A greenish cross-bedded arkosic sand composed of kaolinized feldspar 
and a less amount of other minerals is widely distributed west and north- 
west of Tokio and Highland. Besides the sand just described the for- 
mation contains red, light-colored and dark-colored clays and quartz sand 
The light-colored clays are in beds reaching a thickness of 5 to 6 feet and 
consist of plastic ball clays and nonplastic kaolins. A 5-foot bed of kaolin 
in the NE. %SE. % sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 25 W., is reported to be fullers earth. 
Some of the clays contain fossil plants. 

Brownstown marl. The Brownstown marl is the surface formation in a 
belt a few miles wide extending in an east-northeastward direction from the 
vicinity of Brownstown, Sevier County, to the vicinity of Hollywood, Clark 
County. In the western part of the belt where it is thickest it attains a 
thickness of 650 feet. It is a blue or gray calcareous clay containing many 
fossil oysters and is characterized by the presence of the large oyster Exo- 



32 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

gyra ponderosa, whence it has sometimes been called the "Exogyra ponde- 
rosa marl." The soil derived from the formation, when not mixed with sur- 
ficial deposits, is black and waxy, but the subsoil is yellow. 

Austin ("Annona") chalk. The Austin chalk consists of white chalk, 
which at White Cliffs, Sevier County, has a thickness of over 100 feet, but 
thins out rapidly to the east, disappearing, entirely before reaching Okolona, 
Clark County, where it is composed only of chalky marl. To the west out- 
crops are found at Rocky Comfort, Little River County. The chalk was 
formerly used in the manufacture of Portland cement at White Cliffs. 

Marlbrook marl. The Marlbrook marl consists of blue, chalky, some- 
what glauconitic marls, which are impure chalk at some places. The most 
extensive outcrops of this formation are along t^e ridge which extends from 
Marlbrook, the type locality in Hempstead County, to Saratoga, in southern 
Howard County. It forms a stiff, black soil. About 200 to 300 feet above the 
base of this formation is a very chalky layer 20 to 50 feet thick, which has 
been called the "Saratoga chalk marl" or the "Saratoga formation." It is 
exposed in the Marlbrook-Saratoga region at the town of Okolona, where it 
is called "cistern rock;" at Dobyville, and on Little and Big Deciper creeks 
in Clark County. The thickness of the Marlbrook marl ranges from 750 feet 
at Texarkana to 50 feet or less at Arkadelphia. 

Nacatoch sand. Above the Marlbrook marl is a series of sandy beds 
which are of vast economic importance to a strip of country along the Mis- 
souri Pacific Railway between Arkadelphia and Texarkana, since they are the 
source of the main water supply of that region. Like the other sandy beds 
of the Cretaceous, at the outcrop they are distinguished with difficulty from 
the surficial sands that mantle the region. However, the thousands of wells 
which have been sunk to this horizon prove conclusively that the outcrop 
of this bed produces the belt of sandy land which begins on Yellow Creek 
south of Saratoga and extends, with interruptions of greater or less im- 
portance, along the main drainage channels, through Washington, De Ann, 
Garlandville, Nacatoch Bluff, and Keyton, and finally reaches Ouachita River 
at High Bluffs above Arkadelphia. 

Nacatoch Bluff, on Little Missouri River, in Clark County, from which 
the sand takes its name, reveals one of the most complete exposures occur- 
ring along this belt and shows calcareous and quartzitic rocks which, when 
encountered in wells, are called "water rocks." 

In the western part of this region the sands are rather light in color, 
although about Hope they are overlain by a very black sandy layer 3 to 15 
feet thick, and have an aggregate thickness of about 100 to 160 feet. Toward 
Arkadelphia the sand grows darker and thinner. In the well of the Arkadel- 
phia Ice and Fuel Co. it appears to extend from 100 to 160 feet, and is thor^- 
fore about 60 feet thick. In a well at Prescott, it is reported to be 176 
feet thick. It is apparently 178 feet thick in a well at Bodcaw, Nevada 
County, and is at least 185 feet thick in a well near Fulton, Hempstead 
County. 

Marls encountered in wells at Little Rock, at Cabot, Lonoke County, 
and Beebe, White County, contain a fauna corresponding in age to the 
fauna of the Nacatoch sand. There are small exposures of beds of Upper 
Cretaceous age in the vicinity of Newark, Independence County, and the 
meager fauna found in the beds indicate that they are probably of the 
same age as the Nacatoch sand. 

Arkadelphia clay. The dark laminated clays which overlie the Nacatoch 
sand form the "blue dirt" of the well drillers along the line of the Missouri 
Pacific Railway from Arkadelphia to Texarkana. These beds contain upper- 
most Cretaceous fossils for 100 to 200 feet above the Nacatoch sands, the 
fossil-bearing beds being well developed on Yellow Creek 3 to 4 miles north- 
west of Fulton, 5 to 6 miles north of Hope, north and northwest of Emmet, 
and at Arkadelphia. Thus far no fossils have been found in the upper por- 
tion of this formation, which extends without any apparent break to the 
Eocene sand beds forming the sandy hills south of the Missouri Pacific Rail- 
way. This absence of fossils, together with the fact that the Midway 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 33 

(Eocene) formation, though commonly characterized by limestones, con- 
tains dark-colored clays, makes the exact determination of the top of the 
Cretaceous in this section particularly difficult. 

The total thickness of the Arkadelphia clay, excluding the beds which 
appear to be stratigraphically Eocene, is from 200 to 300 feet at Arkadelphia, 
500 feet at Laneburg, 500 to 600 feet at Hope and Spring Hill, and 500 feet 
at Texarkana. 



TERTIARY SYSTEM. 

Eocene Series 

Eocene deposits, including in ascending order the Midway, Wilcox, Clai- 
borne, and Jackson formation, 1,000 feet or more in aggregate thickness, 
form the core of Crowley's Ridge; they are exposed in the uplands which 
occupy much of south-central Arkansas, south of Little Rock; and they are 
exposed in small areas along the western margin of the Coastal Plain from 
Little Rock northeastward to the southern part of Independence County. 
The formations of Eocene age are more or less similar in character, and 
comprise sands, clays, marls, and some limestones and workable beds of 
lignite. These beds dip gently to the southeast; they are all more or less 
sandy; and but few of them are hard and consolidated. At the lignite mines 
of Ouachita County, however, some of the sands are indurated to very com- 
pact sandstones, and at some places in Crowley's Ridge they form the hard- 
est of quartzites. At and near Piggot in Clay County, Benton in Saline 
County, Malvern in Hot Spring County, Fordyce in Dallas County, Lester in 
Ouachita County, and other places there are valuable deposits of potter's 
clay and fire clay. 

Pliocene Series 

Gravels and sands, possible of Pliocene age, occur in Crowley's Ridge and 
cover the foothills of Lawrence, Independence, and probably other counties. 



QUATERNARY SYSTEM. 

A sheet of sedimentary materials, 200 feet or less thick, which consist 
of sands, clays, and gravels, cover the Tertiary area of the State and some 
of the adjacent Paleozoic rocks and yield large quantities of water which is 
extensively used in the culture of rice. The country lying north of Arkansas 
River and east of the Paleozoic hills belongs mostly to the Quaternary. The 
lowest strata exposed in Crowley's Ridge belong to the Eocene. All the river 
bottoms are of recent origin, while the loess, 140 feet or less thick, which 
caps Crowley's Ridge and likewise the river terraces and second bottoms of 
all the important streams belong to the Pleistocene. 



Bibliography 

The list of reports given below includes only those that were used in 
the preparation of the above chapter on the topography and geology of Ar- 
kansas. These represent a very small percentage of the total number of 
publications on the geology of the State. A complete bibliography of the 
geology of the State by J. C. Branner was published in 1894 in Volume 2 
of the Annual Report of the Arkansas Geological Survey for 1891, and a sec- 
ond bibliography by him, listing all of the titles up to 1909, was published 
by the same Survey. 

REFERENCES. 

1891.* Williams, J. F., The igneous rocks of Arkansas: Arkansas Geol. Survey 
Ann. Kept, for 1890, vol 2. 

1892. Griswold, L. S., Whetstones and the novaculites of Arkansas. Arkansas 

Geol. Survey Ann. Kept, for 1890, vol 3. 

1893. Hopkins, T. C., Marbles and other limestones: Arkansas Geol. Survey 

Ann. Kept, for 1890, vol. 4. 



34 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

1900. Branner, J. C., The lead and zinc region of North Arkansas: Arkansas 
Geol. Survey Ann. Kept, for 1892, vol. 5. 

1904. Adams, G. I., Purdue, A. H., and Burchard, E. F., Zinc and lead deposits 

of Northern Arkansas: IT. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 24. (Out of 
print.) 

Ulrich, E. O., Determination and correlation of formations [of Northern 
Arkansas]: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Papei 24, pp. 90-113. (Out of 
print.) 

1905. Adams, G. I. and Ulrich, E. O., Description of the Fayetteville quadran- 

gle: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Fayetteville folio (No. 119). 

1906. Veatch, A. C., Geology and underground water resources of Northern 

Louisiana and Southern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 46. 
(Out of print.) 

1907. Purdue, A. H., Description of the Winslow quadrangle: U. S. Geol. 

Survey, Geol. Atlas, Winslow folio (No. 154). (Out of print.) 

, Developed phosphate deposits of Northern Arkansas: 

U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 315, pp. 463-473. _ (Out of print.) 

Collier, A. J., The Arkansas coal field: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 326. 

1908. Branner, J. C., The clays of Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 351. 

1909. Purdue, A.- H., The slates of Arkansas: Arkansas Geol. Survey. 

1913. Eckel, E. C., Portland cement materials and industry in the United 

States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 522. 

1914. Smith, C. D. Structure of the Fort Smith-Poteau gas field, Arkansas 

and Oklahoma: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 541, pp. 23-33. (Out of 
print.) 

1915. Siebenthal, C. E., Origin of the zinc and lead deposits of the Joplin re- 

gion, Missouri, Kansas, and Oklahoma: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 606. 
Mead, W. J., Occurrence and origin of the bauxite deposits of Arkansas: 
Econ. Geology, vol. 10, pp. 28-54. 

1916. Stephenson, L. W., and Crider, A. F., Geology and ground waters of 

Northeastern Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Water Supply Paper 399. 
Purdue, A. H., and Miser, H. D. Description of the Eureka Springs and 
Harrison quadrangles: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Eureka 
Springs-Harrison folio (No. 202). 

1917. Miser, H. D., Manganese deposits of the Caddo Gap and De Queen 

quadrangles, Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 660, pp. 59-122. 
Schrader, F. C., Stone, R. W., and Sanford, Samuel, Useful minerals of 
the United States: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 624. 

1918. Stephenson, L. W., and Miser, H. D., Camp Pike and the adjacent coun- 

try; Text on back of topographic map. Little Rock quadrangle, 
U. S. Geol. Survey. 

Miser, H. D., and Purdue, A. H., Gravel deposits of the Caddo Gap and 
De Queen quadrangles, Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 690, pp. 
15-29. 

Miser, H. D., Llanoria, the Paleozic Land Area in Louisiana and Texas; 
Am. Journal of Science, Vol. II, August, 1921. (Published since the 
preparation of the foregoing chapter). 

, Asphalt deposits and oil conditions in Southwestern Ar- 
kansas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 691, pp. 271-292. 

Miser, H. D., Diamond-bearing peridotite in Arkansas: U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey Bull. 

, Manganese ore deposits of the Batesville district, Arkan- 
sas: U. S. Geol. Survey Bull. 

Purdue, A. H., and Miser, H. D., Description of the De Queen and Caddo 
Gap quadrangles: U. S. Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, De Queen-Caddo 
Gap folio. 

.Description of the Hot Springs special quadrangle: U. S. 

Geol. Survey, Geol. Atlas, Hot Springs folio. 

Ulrich, 'E. O., Description of the Yellville quadrangle: U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey, Geol. Atlas, Yellville folio. 



*The numbers in this column are the dates of the publication of the re- 
ports. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



35 



List of Principal Arkansas Minerals 
and Their Location by Counties 



NAME 
Antimony 
Asphalt 
Bauxite 
Chalk 
Clay 
Coal 

Copper 
Diamonds 
Fullers Earth 
Glass Sand 



Miniature Mineral Maps of Arkansas. 

COUNTIES WHERE FOUND 

Sevier and Howard. 

Pike and Sevier. 

Pulaski and Saline. 

Little River. 

General. 

Pope, Johnson, Logan, Yell, Scott, Franklin, 

Crawford and Sebastian. 

Carroll, Polk and Pulaski. 

Pike. 

Saline. 

Pulaski, Saline, Izard, Jefferson and Greene. 

Independence, Carroll and Madison. 



Diamonds Fuller's Earth Gas 



Gravel Graphite Granite 




Petroleum Phosphate Rock 



Silver 



Slate 



Zinc 



36 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



NAME 
Graphite 

Granite 

Gypsum 

Iron 

Iron Pyrites 

Kaolin 

Lead 

Lignite 

Limestone 

Manganese 

Marble 



Natural Gas 
Novaculite (Whetstone) 

Ochre 
Petroleum 
Pearls 
Phosphate Rock 

Slate 

Soapstone 
Tripoli 

Zinc 



COUNTIES WHERE FOUND 
Hot Spring, Garland, Montgomery and Wash- 
ington. 
Pulaski. 

Pike, Howard and Saline. 
Lawrence and Sharp. 
Garland. 

Dallas, Garland, Hot Spring, Pike, Saline, 
Ouachita and Pulaski. 

Baxter, Benton, Boone, Carroll, Marion, New- 
ton, Searcy and Washington. 
Ouachita, Clark, Dallas and Poinsett. 
General over North Arkansas. 
Independence, Izard, Sharp, Pulaski, Montgom- 
ery, Garland, Polk, Saline and Hot Spring. 
Boone, Marion, Newton, Searcy, Izard, Carroll, 
Independence, Lawrence, Sharp and Washing- 
ton. 

Crawford, Scott, Sebastian, Union and Washing- 
ton. 

Hot Spring, Garland, Montgomery, Pike and 
Polk. 

Drew, Clay and Pulaski. 
Union and Ouachita. 

From Bed of White River and its Tributaries. 
Independence, Izard, Stone, Searcy, Baxter, 
Marion, Newton, Boone and Carroll. 
Pulaski, Saline, Garland, Polk and Montgom- 
ery. 

Saline, Garland, Hot Spring and Montgomery. 
Hot Spring, Garland, Ouachita, Montgomery, 
Washington and Independence. 
Baxter, Benton, Boone, Carroll, Marion, New- 
ton, Searcy and Washington. 



Counties of Arkansas and Their 
Mineral Resources 

The -counties of the State, with their principal minerals, are listed l/e- 
low, the capitalized words indicating the more important minerals: 

Arkansas County Brick clay. 

Ashley County Brick and pottery clay. 

Baxter County LEAD, ZINC, limestone, marbles, phosphate rock. 

Benton County LEAD, brick clay, limestone. 

Boone County LEAD, ZINC, brick clay, limestone, marble, phosphate 
rock. 

Bradley County Brick and pottery clay. 

Calhoun County Pottery clay. 

Carroll County Iron, LEAD, copper, brick clay, limestone, onyx, phos- 
phate rock. 

Chicot County Brick clay. 

Clark County Marls, brick, tile, fire and pottery clay, lignite, phosphate 
rock. 

Clay County Brick clay. 

Cleveland County Brick and pottery clay. 

Columbia County Brick and pottery clay. 

Conway County Fire and pottery clay. 

Craighead County Brick clay. 

Crawford County Fire and pottery clay, coal, NATURAL GAS. 

Crittenden County Brick clay. 

Cross County Brick clay. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 37 

Dallas County Fire and pottery clay, kaolin, lignite. 

Desha County Brick clay. 

Drew County Brick and pottery clay, ochre. 

Faulkner County Brick and pottery clay. 

Franklin County Hematite, COAL, fire and pottery clay. 

Fulton County Limestone, phosphate rock. 

Garland County Hematite, iron pyrites, lead, manganese, silver, brick 
and fire clay, kaolin, graphite, tripoli, novaculite, slate. 

Grant County Pottery clay. 

Greene County Brick and pottery clay. 

Hempstead County Marls, brick, fire and pottery clay. 

Hot Spring County Magnetic iron, lead, manganese, silver, brick and 
fire clay, kaolin, NOVACULITE, soapstone, tripoli, garnet. 

Howard County Antimony, lead, marls, brick clay. 

Independence County MANGANESE, brick and pottery clay, limestone, 
MARBLE, PEARLS, PHOSPHATE ROCK, tripoli. 

Izard County Lead, manganese, glass sand, limestone, phosphate rock. 

Jackson County PEARLS. 

Jefferson County Brick and pottery clay, glass sand. 

Johnson County Fire and pottery clay, COAL. 

Lafayette County Pottery clay. 

Lawrence County Iron, brick clay, kaolin, limestone, PEARLS. 

Lee County Brick and tile clay. 

Lincoln County Brick clay. 

Little River County CHALK, clays for cement. 

Logan County Iron pyrites, fire and pottery clay, COAL. 

Lonoke County Brick clay. 

Madison County Limestones, mable. 

Marion County LEAD, ZINC, limestone, marble. 

Miller County Brick and tile clay. 

Mississippi County Brick and tile clay. 

Monroe County Brick and tile clay, PEARLS. 

Montgomery County Gold (sparingly) ; hematite, lead, manganese, pot- 
tery clay, graphite, soapstone, tripoli, novaculite, barytes, SLATE. 

Nevada County Brick, tile and pottery clay. 

Newton County LEAD, ZINC, limestone, marble. 

Ouachita County Fire and pottery clay, kaolin, tripoli, LIGNITE. 

Perry County Coal, brick clay, gravel. 

Phillips County Brick and tile clay. 

Pike County Hematite, manganese, silver, ASPHALT, marls, ball or 
paper clay, fire clay, DIAMONDS, KAOLIN, gypsum, lignite. 

Poinsett County Brick and tile clay, lignite. 

Polk County Copper, iron pyrites, manganese, brick clay, novaculite, 
SLATE. 

Pope County Brick clay, COAL. , 

Prairie County Brick clay, pearls. 

Pulaski County Bauxite, copper, hematite, lead, manganese, silver, 
kaolin, brick and pottery clay, GRANITE, ochre, slate. 

Randolph County Brick clay, PEARLS. 

Saline County BAUXITE, hematite, iron pyrites, manganese, silver, 
brick, pottery and fire clay, KAOLIN, FULLERS' EARTH, glass sand, SOAP- 
STONE. 

Scott County COAL, NATURAL GAS. 

Searcy County Iron pyrites, LEAD, ZINC, brick clay, limestone, marble, 
phosphate rock. 

Sebastian County COAL, NATURAL GAS, brick, fire and pottery clay. 

Sevier County ANTIMONY, lead, silver, asphalt, marls, brick and 
cement clay. 

Sharp County Manganese, iron, limestone. 

St. Francis County Brick and tile clay. 

Stone County Phosphate rock. 

Union County Brick and pottery clay, NATURAL GAS, PETROLEUM. 

Van Bureh County Building stone. 



38 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Washington County Lead, brick clay, limestone, natural gas, oil shale, 
tripoli. 

White County Brick, fire and tile clay. 
Woodruff County Brick and tile clay, PEARLS. 
Yell County Brick and pottery clay, COAL. 



MINERALS AND ECONOMIC 
PRODUCTS 



Arranged Alphabetically 



Actinolite 

Magnesium-calcium-iron silicate (Amphibole). Occasional in granitic 
rocks. Magnet Cove. 



Aegirite 

Aluminum-calcium-iron-soda silicate near phyroxene, with alkalies; in 
granitic rocks, with labradorite; also enclosed in microline. Magnet Cove. 



Agalmatolite 

In pockets in shale, and as "selvage" in quartz seams; Saline County; 
Garland County; commonly; generally distributed in other counties. 



Agaric Mineral 

Fine powdery incrustations on rocks or in crevices; coating of silvery 
shale, Montgomery County; in Peacock lode, Logan county. 



Agate 

Finely variegated Montgomery County. 



Agricultural Marls 

It is very remarkable that in Arkansas, within a small triangular area 
of thirty miles square between Washington and Murfreesboro and the White 
Cliffs of Little River we have abundant supplies of at least four of these val- 
uable kinds of marl, greensand, lime, chalk and gypsum with the reasonable 
expectation that another year's investigation would reveal the phosphates. 
These facts alone, if properly utilized, will be of greater value to the state 
than all the gold dug within the bounds of California has been to that state. 

These marls are very siliceous, and the lime and greensand occur in 
local horizons or beds. Their chief value, if used for mixing, would be to 
loosen and supply phosphoric acid, iron and potash to sandy and sticky clay 
lands. * * * The potash in these marls is 3.06 parts in the 100. The lime 
can be regulated by selecting the fossiliferous or non-fossiliferous portions. 
The chief point of occurrence of these green sands is in the valley of Town 
Creek at Washington, Hempstead County, where the greensand occurs in 
varying degrees of purity, accompanied or unaccompanied by shell beds, 
which are useful in case lime is also needed. The same greensands occur 
in Clark County at many places, but as far as the writer's limited observa- 
tions extend, in no case, so pure as those at Washington. The sandy surface 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 39 

residual soils of these marls, occupying an intermittent and limited strip 
from Arkadelphia to Columbus, are, no doubt, the finest soils possible 
for fruit trees and especially valuable for growing peaches. In this con- 
nection it is interesting to note that they present the same physical condi- 
tion and occupy the same geolgoic horizon as the celebrated peach growing 
regions of New Jersey. 

The lime marls of the middle beds of the upper Cretaceous in Clark, 
Hempstead, Southern Howard and Sevier counties are of great variety in 
composition, inexhaustible in quantity, and must be a source of great wealth 
to the agricultural industries of this part of the state in the future. The 
principal geologic horizons of these marls are the beds between Washing- 
ton greensands and the White Cliffs chalk, including the Big Deciper, Gry- 
phaea vesicularis and Exogyra ponderosa marls, at innumerable places wher- 
ever these are the surface formations. The noted Cretaceous black lands 
are without exception, the immediate residue, or but slightly transported 
debris, of these formations. 

The essential ingredients in all of these lime marls are calcium car- 
bonate, usually in a chalky state of division, phosphoric acid and potash; the 
accessory ingredients, which would be noted in comparison with the soil to 
be treated, are sand and clay. Greensand is usually more or less abundant 
throughout. In general, these lime marls possess, in addition to all the vir- 
tues of greensand marls above described, a large and valuable percentage of 
the form of lime known as calcium carbonate. 

REFERENCES 
Iirnnner, John C. Annual Report Ark. Geol. Surv. Vol. II, 1888. 



Albite 

Sodium-aluminum silicate. (Feldspar). Sparingly in granitic rocks. 
Magnet Cove. 



Allophane 

Hydrous aluminum, silicate. Incrustations in crevices, etc. Magnet Cove. 

Almandite 

Iron-aluminum silicate. (See Garnet). Crystals abundant in wash, also 
In granitic rocks. Magnet Cove 



Aluminite 

This, or a closely allied earthy mineral in Tertiary clays; Pulaski, Saline, 
Hot Spring, Pike, Sevier and Polk counties, and northward. 



Alunogen 

Reported by Purdue from Searcy County. 



Ankerite 

Calcium-magnesium-iron carbonate. In seams, crevices, etc., and in 
larger masses, in calcerous rocks; shades into dolomite and calcite. Magnet 
Cove. 



Antimony 

Since 1873 antimony has been mined intermittently in Sevier and How- 
ard counties, near Antimony and Gillham. This field is believed to extend 
westward into Oklahoma. 

The rocks of the antimony region are alternating thinly bedded sand- 
stones and sandy or muddy shales, of Pennsylvanian and Mississippian age. 
They are of a light-yellowish or drab color where exposed, and dark gray 
to black where unweathered. The rocks have been thrown into very regu- 
lar parallel folds running a trifle north of east. The folds are so close that 



40 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

in many places the dip of the rocks approaches perpendicularity, and so 
regular that the strike of the rocks is sometimes used to tell direction. 

The ore bodies occur in thin lenticular masses whose longest dimen- 
sion approaches verticality and may reach more than 100 feet. The width 
may be from 3 or 4 feet to 20 or even 40 feet; the thickness ranges from a 
"feather-edge" to 2% feet. 

REFERENCES 

Hess, F. L,. The Arkansas antimony deposits. Bulletin No. 340, U S Geol. 
Surv., Washington, 1908. 

Apatite 

Calcium phosphate and chloride (or fluoride). In crystalline rocks, also 
associated with dolomites. Magnet Cove. 



Aplome 

Part of the common iron garnet is in this form. Magnet Cove. 

Aprodite 

In beds or masses; Pulaski and Garland counties. 



Aragonite 

Occasionally as "flos-ferri" in iron ore deposits; distribution general, 
though not abundant. 



Arkansite 

One of the rare minerals found in Magnet Cove, which has attracted 
wide attention among students of geology, is Arkansite (Titanic acid or 
Brookite). It is in the form of thick black crystals and is much sought after 
by collectors of mineral specimens, but has no particular commercial value. 
Its characteristics and geological significance is discussed in numerous 
papers and publications of a scientific nature. 

REFERENCES 

Shepard, Charles TTpham. On three new mineral species from Arkansas. 
American Journal of Science, second series, Vol. LJI. Arkansite, Ozarkite and 
Schloromite, New Haven, 1846. 

Asbolite 

Sparingly in pockets or crevices among shales and intrusive rocks; 
Ouachita River, south of Hot Springs; possibly in Montgomery county also. 



Asphalt 

There are seven asphalt deposits, three of which are in Pike County, and 
four in Sevier County, in Southwestern Arkansas, which have been examined. 
The asphalt deposits in Pike County are near Pike, Delight, and Mur- 
freesboro. The deposits in Sevier County are between Dierks and DeQueen, 
near the village of Lebanon. 

The asphalt impregnates nearly horizonal beds of loose sand in the 
basal part of the Dierks limestone lentil or still lower in the Trinity forma- 
tion. The deposits thus consist of asphaltic sand except at one place where 
the asphalt impregnates the Pike gravel member at the base of the forma- 
tion. The layers containing the asphalt range from an inch to 12 feet in 
thickness. 

The asphalt deposit near Pike is the only one from which asphalt has 
been shipped in commercial quantity. The asphaltic sand mined at that 
locality from 1903 to 1906 by the Arkansas Asphalt Company is said to have 
amounted to 4,815 tons, valued at $22,368. It was used in Little Rock in 
paving West Markham Street from Main to Cross streets, a distance of 12 
blocks, and in paving part of Center Street. A 2-inch surface of the asphalt 
was laid upon a 5-inch concrete base, which rested upon clay. Owing to 
improper preparation of the asphalt the paving was not entirely satisfactory. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



41 



HOW TWO VALUABLE MINERALS ARE 
MINED IN ARKANSAS 




Bauxite Mine at Bauxite, Ark. 




Manganese Mine, Independence County. 



42 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

The asphalt deposit near Delight is thin, the reported thickness being: 
3 to 6 feet. If the deposit is later proved to maintain that thickness under 
a considerable area, it might be profitably worked, but the overburden is so- 
thick, 30 to 35 feet or more, that underground mining would probably be 
necessary. The asphalt exposed at the other localities is not thick enough to 
be mined and probably is no thicker away from the outcrops. 

REFERENCES 

Miser, Hugh D. and Purdue, A. H. Asphalt deposits and oil conditions in 
Southwest Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Surv. Bulletin 691-J, 1918. 



Augite 

Aluminum-mangesium-calcium-iron silicate (Pyroxene). In basic igneous 
rocks. Magnet Cove. 



Aventurine Quartz 

Quartz spangled with scales or other mineral; intercalated with black 
shales; Micaceous. Magnet Cove. 



Barite 

Scattering deposits in Pike, Polk, Pulaski, Saline, Garland and Mont- 
gomery counties. 



Bartholomite 

Incrustation in crevices as result of decomposition of pyrite; probably 
some of the red copperas, as at Rabbit Foot mine, Saline County, is this or 
the allied mineral, Botryogen. 



Basanite 

In beds, much jointed, in axes of uplifts; Pulaski County. 



Bauxite 

Arkansas' bauxite production has increased so rapidly that since 1910 
the State has produced over 80 per cent of the bauxite mined in this country. 
In 1915 the output was more than 90 per cent of the total and has continued" 
at this rate to the present time. 

The only operators of importance in 1920 are the Republic Mining and 
Manufacturing Company of Little Rock; the American Bauxite Company of 
Bauxite; the Globe Bauxite Company of Chemical Spur; and the Du Pont 
Chemical Company of Wilmington, Delaware. 

The major part of the production comes from what is known as the 
Bauxite District, sometimes called the Bryant District, lying about 18 miles 
southwest of the city of Little Rock and covering an area of about 12 square 
miles in Bryant township of Saline county. The second and less important 
district is known as the Fourche Mountain District, lying immediately south 
of the city limits of Little Rock in Pulaski County and embracing an area 
somewhat larger than the Bauxite District. The two areas are about 14 
miles apart. 

Arkansas produced, in 1920, 481,279 long tons, as compared with a total 
domestic production of 521,308 tons of the value of $3,247,345. 

Estimates of the quantity of bauxite ore obtainable in the Arkansas 
field range from 5,000,000 tons, by John T. Fuller, superintendent of the 
American Bauxite Company, to 50,000,000 tons, by Dr. Chas. W. Hayes of 
the U. S. Geological Survey. It is probable that the amount of ore that -will 
be mined will be somewhere between these extremes. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 43 

Bauxite Production in Arkansas by Years. 

Year Long Tons Year Long Tons 

1899 5,043 1910 *115,836 

1900 3,44& 1911 *125,448 

1901 867 1912 *126,105 Value 

1902 4,645 1913 169,871 $ 846,988 

1903 25,713 1914 195,247 976,686 

1904 25,748 1915 268,796 1,370,489 

1905 32,956 1916 375,910 2,011,590 

1906 50,267 1917 506,556 2,724,007 

1907 * 63,505 1918 562,892 3,133,880 

1908 * 37,703 1919 333,490 1,855,159 

1909 *106,874 1920 481,279 2,897,892 

"Including small productions from Tennessee. 

REFERENCES 

Hayes, C. W. "The Arkansas Bauxite Deposits," 21st Annual Report, U. 
S. Geol. Survey., pt. 3, 1901, pp. 435-472. 

Mead, W. J. "Occurrence and Origin of the Bauxite Deposits of Arkansas," 
Economic Geology, Vol. 10, No. 1, January, 1915. 



Biotite 

Sparingly in granitic rocks. 



Braunite 

Manganese sesquioxide and silicate. In veins or intrusions. Magnet 
Cove. 



Breunerite 

Iron-magnesium carbonate; shading off into ankerite and dolomite, in 
similar situations; distribution irregular. 



Brookite 

Titanic acid. See Arkansite. (Var.) See Psuedobrookite, occasional 
reddish or hair-brown crystals as "float," but Arkansite is most common. 
Magnet Cove. 



Brucite 

Hydrous magnesium oxide; occasional in masses of serpentine; Saline 
County. 



Cement Materials 

Inasmuch as clays occur in almost every part of the state in greater 
or less abundance, it is assumed that the location of the chalk, at White 
Cliffs, must determine the site of a possible cement factory. A special effort 
has therefore been made to ascertain whether the clays at and near the 
chalk deposits are available for the production of cement. Little River and 
Sevier County clays are intimately associated with the post-tertiary gravels, 
and cover large portions, not of Little River and Sevier Counties alone but of 
several of the adjoining counties in the Southwestern part of the state. 

The proximity of the natural gas field of Southern Arkansas and North- 
west Louisiana to the White Cliffs chalk deposits affords an additional ad- 
vantage for the utilization of the abundant supply of materials in Southwest 
Arkansas for the manufacture of cement. 

"Limestone suitable for Portland cement occurs in many counties in the 
northwestern part of the state." U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 624. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. On the manufacture of Portland cement. Annual Re- 
port of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1888, Vol. II, Little Rock, 1888. Con- 
tains tables of analyses of Arkansas chalks and clays. 



44 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

"The Cement Materials of Southwest Arkansas." Transactions of the 
American Institute of Mining- Engineers, 1897, Vol. XXVII, 5 cuts and map. 

Reply to criticism of R. T. Hill, on "The Cement Deposits of Arkansas." 
Transactions American Institute of Mining- Engineers, Vol. XXVII, New York, 
1897. 

Eckel, E. C. Portland Cement Resources of Arkansas. Bulletin No. 243, 
U. S. Geol. Surv., Washing-ton, 1905. 

Fitzhugh, G. D. The Portland cement materials of Southwestern Arkan- 
sas. Engineering- Association of the South. Transactions, Vol. XV, 1905. 

Hill, Robt. T. Criticism of the paper of J. C. Branner on "Cement De- 
posits of Arkansas." Transactions of the American Institute of Mining En- 
gineers, Vol. XXVII. 



Chalcopyrite 

Sevier County, west of Gillham; not mined. 

Chalk 

The chalk deposits of the state, so far at least as the Geological Survey 
has been able to outline them, are confined to Little River County. It 
is highly probable, however, that similar or more or less modified deposits 
may be yet found in adjacent counties along the northeastern extension of the 
outcrop. The chalk is exposed at and about the village of Rocky Comfort 
and at and about White Cliffs Landing on Little River. The most extensive 
exposures are those about Rocky Comfort where the chalk and black soil 
derived from its decomposition cover an area of about twenty square miles. 
The chalk and the chalky limestones extend further north and further east 
than they are represented * * * but they are covered in those directions by 
superficial post-tertiary deposits of clay, gravel and sands to depths which 
would probably render their handling unprofitable. Even, the derived black 
soil is itself too thick in many places to admit of removal. The area over 
which the chalk is actually exposed and without covering about Rocky 
Comfort is estimated to be only about 900 acres. 

The value of this chalk is hardly appreciated at the present time. 
When we consider that chalk is a very soft rock, and therefore, does not 
require grinding as do the compact limestones, and further the greater ease 
with which it can be burnt to lime, its superiority over other limestones 
may be seen. The fact that this bed is the only one known to exist in the 
United States may increase its value. * * These cliffs which long have been 
a landmark of the region, are about 150 feet high, perpendicular, and as white 
and almost as pure as the celebrated chalk cliffs of Dover, England. * * * 
The following analyses show how closely it agrees in composition with the 
chalk of Medway, England, which has been so long used in the manufacture 
of Portland cement: 

Medway, Rocky White 

England. Comfort. Cliffs. 

Carbonate of Lime 88.50 88.48 90.32 

Carbonate of Magnesia Trace 

Iron Oxide 1.05 1.25 6.85 

Alumina 2.82 1.25 1.30 

Alkalies 2.61 None 

Silica 5.45 9.77 6.85 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. Reports Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. II, 1888, and 
Vol. IV, 1890. 

Marcou and Belknap. Jura. Neocomian and Chalk of Arkansas. American 
Geologist, Vol. IV, pp. 357-367, December, 1889. 

Anonymous. Chalk of Southwestern Arkansas. Stone, April, 1902, Vol. 
XXIV, New York, 1902. 

Tan*, J. A. Chalk of Southwestern Arkansas, with notes on its adaptability 
to the manufacture of hydraulic cement. Twenty-second Annual Report of 
the U. S. Geol. Surv., Part III, Washington, 1902. 



Chrysolite 

In crystals and disseminated grains in igneous and metamorphie rocks, 
some peridotites; Fourche Mountain and northwestwards; Pulaski and 
Saline counties; Murfreesboro and in Magnet Cove. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 45 

Celestite (Strontium Sulphate) 

Howard, Pike, and Sevier counties, as thin layer in lower Cretaceous 
limestone. 



Cinnamon Stone 

In float and in metamorphic rocks. Magnet Cove. 



Clays 

The Tertiary clays are the most important in the state. With their 
accompanying sands, marls and organic deposits, they underlie a large part 
of the state east and south of the Missouri Pacific Railway, south of Arkan- 
sas River. North of this and east of the Paleozoic hills the sediments are 
chiefly Quarternary deposits, except Crowley's Ridge, the lowest part of 
which is Tertiary. 

Limonite hardpan, or buckshot, is found all over the low country for 
50 miles or more west of Crowley's Ridge. On the east of the ridge it is but 
a narrow fringe along its base below Poinsett county, but north of this county 
it spreads over the whole region as a subsoil, in places rising to the surface 
and varying in depth from 3 to 7 feet. It extends eastward to the alluvial 
bottoms of the St. Francis. Along the Cache River in Greene and Clay coun- 
ties much of the land is made up of these slashes or buckshot soil. 

In the low. flat lands, commonly known as "slashes," thin beds of 
plastic clays are found at places where acidulated waters have leached the 
iron from the soil. Some small potteries get their clays from such places. 
The supply of available clays of this kind is uncertain, and most of the areas 
covered by them are small. Such clays occur in the flat lands of the Creta- 
ceous, Tertiary and Quarternary areas of the state, which, are not alluvial 
lands, properly speaking. 

Sebastian county is among the leading counties of the state in the 
development of its clay industries. Clay shales of the coal-bearing rocks are 
used in the manufacture of paving bricks 

The abundance of excellent raw materials, the proximity of the deposits 
to the coal and gas fields and ample transportation facilities have encouraged 
development, giving the county high rank in the output of clay products. 

Clays For Drain Tiles. 

There is no lack of clay in this state available for the manufacture of 
good drain tiles. The light-blue clays through the country lying between 
Beebe and Kensett and thence to Judsonia, and between Kensett aiid West 
Point, in White county, are available for the manufacture of tiles. The clays 
about Brinkley, Monroe County, are well adapted to tile making. Along the 
western base of Crowley's Ridge in Phillips, Lee and St. Francis counties, 
and on both sides of the ridge in Cross, Poinsett, Craighead, Greene and 
Clay counties, these clays are abundant and of excellent quality. They 
abound also along Bradshaw and Terre Noir creeks in Clark County. In 
the counties south and southeast of Little Rock, clays available for tile 
making occur both as surface soils in the valleys (not alluvial) and in 
the widespread stratified Tertiary beds of the region. 

Fire Clay 

"Fire clays occur under nearly all the beds of lignite wherever they have 
been found in Crowley's Ridge. At the base of the great beds on Bolivar 
Creek in Poinsett county, are found clays rich in alumina and which might 
be of good quality. In Northern Arkansas the Eureka shale is present in 
large quantities." Fire brick are manufactured at Malvern and Camclen 
from clays of excellent quality. 

Kaolins or Pottery Clays 

Deposits of kaolin occur at many places and in a variety of formations. 
The best known deposits are those of Saline County, near Benton from which 
the famous Niloak (a reversed spelling of kaolin) pottery is made. The 
beauty and popularity of these wares are due as much to the skill of the 



46 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

artists as to the quality of the material from which the pottery is made 
though the texture of the clay and its colors are important factors in ceramic 
art. No two pieces of this pottery are alike in arrangement of color. Two or 
more shades are employed, usually a blue and a brown, in interesting rota- 
tion and accidental pattern. No less attractive are the truly artistic designs 
by which the clay is shaped into vases, bowls, urns and all manner of nick- 
nacks, such as ornament the library table or mantel. 

"The kaolins found in Saline county are of three varieties: (1) a com- 
pact variety, derived from the feldspathic rocks by decomposition, (2) a piso- 
litic variety, found associated more or less intimately with the bauxite 
deposits, and (3) a clay-like variety of sedimentary origin, found at Benton." 
The report indicates extensive deposits in this locality. 

The Pike County kaolin is different in physical characters from any other 
kaolin thus far found in the state. * * * The largest area found in any one 
body covered about 10 acres. No exposures of feldspathic rock are within 
60 miles of the deposit. * * * The greatest depth at which the kaolin was 
found was 25 feet. 

A white kaolin of fair refractoriness outcrops on the Kilmer land in 
Dallas County and a quantity is reported on Sandy Branch in Ouachita Coun- 
ty. Of the latter deposit Doctor Branner says: "After the sand is removed 
by washing it is available for the manufacture of pottery and also as a re- 
fractory material. The quantity seems to be very large." The kaolin depos- 
its in Magnet Cove are not considered of commercial importance. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. The clays of Arkansas, Bulletin 351, U. S. Geol. Surv., 
1908. 

Purdue, A. H. Possibilities of the clay industry of Arkansas, published 
by the Arkansas Brickmakers' Association, 1910. 



Coccolite 

Variety of lime-magnesia, pyroxene (Malacolite) ; in granitic rocks. 
Magnet Cove. 



Copper 

There is no record of copper ore production in Arkansas, although 
scattering deposits have been discovered in several places and mined on a 
small scale, principally in North Arkansas, at one place in Pulaski County 
and in Polk County. 

Purdue reported the presence of chalcocite of steel-gray or blackish 
type from Carroll County, and it is reported that ore is being mined near 
Eureka Springs. Chrysocolla is frequently found in cavities at the zinc 
mines. Aurichalcite is also common at many of the zinc mines, but always 
in small quantities. 

The only economic source of copper as yet made manifest is the min- 
eral chalcopyrite, or copper pyrites, which is intimately associated with 
galena in nearly all of the known occurrences of that mineral. (In Pulaski, 
Polk, Howard, Sevier, and Montgomery counties). 

REFERENCES 
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol. V, 1892. 



Copperas 

Iron sulphate. (Malenterite), strictly, but blue vitrol (Chalcanthite) 
is included popularly; Melanterite appears to be more abundant than 
Chalcanthite. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



47 



I 933W 3i 30 29 28 ' 27 26 25 2* 23 




SCALE "N MILES 
30 



Coal hor.zon 



Areas of known economic 
value 



Map of the Arkansas Coal Field. 

Coal 

The coal-bearing area of the state is 1584 square miles in extent. The 
field reaches from Russellville on the east through Pope, Johnson, Logan, 
Yell, Franklin, Crawford, Sebastian and Scott counties to and beyond the 
Oklahoma border. 

About Clarksville and Russellville in the eastern part of the field, the 
product is a high-grade semi-anthracite and in the western part of the field 
is produced a high-grade semi-bituminous coal of almost smokeless quality. 

Varying widely in character, the Arkansas coals will prove of their 
greatest utility, when the differences of quality are more properly emphasized 
in the trade and employed for the specific uses to which each type of fuel is 
especially adapted, for a coal that is remarkably well adapted to one purpose 
may be ill-fitted for another. The semi-anthracite is preferable for domestic 
use, because of its cleanliness, and the semi-bituminous is more suited to 
steaming purposes in locomotives or factory furnaces, because of its high- 
heat-producing qualities. 

Extent of the Coal Supply 

The Arkansas coal field lies in the valley of the Arkansas River between 
the western border of the state and Russellville. It has roughly the shape 
of a Roman capital L with its base along the Oklahoma line. It is about 
33 miles wide and 60 miles long, but it is only in the eastern and western 
parts of this area that the Hartshorne coal is probably thick enough or 
sufficiently free from partings to be of economic importance. Still, some 
300 to 320 square miles will probably contain coal which may be mined. In 
places, the coal is over 8 feet thick, and when clean and of good quality, it 
has been mined where no thicker than 18 inches. The Hartshorne seam will 
probably average about 3 feet thick, and assuming this thickness over 310 
square miles, that part of this bed which lies in Arkansas once contained 
something like a billion and a quarter tons of coal. The small amount of 
coal above and below the Hartshorne horizon may be nearly equivalent to 
that already mined, which was about 46,800,000 tons up to the end of 1919. 



48 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



At an average "recovery" of 80 per cent in mining, the state will therefore 
yield only about 850,000,000 tons, but at the present rate of mining, this will 
last for 350 years. The rate of mining will probably increase. 

Heating Value of Arkansas Coal. 

The coals in the eastern part of the field have about seven to nine 
times as much fixed carbon as volatile combustible matter, and are rated as 
semi-anthracite. These are sold for domestic use at but little below the 
price of the Pennsylvania anthracite. Those in the western part of the 
field contain but three to six, generally five, times as much fixed carbon as 
volatile combustible, and the coals are bituminous. They are less smoky 
than most bituminous or soft coals. 

The heating value of the coal, which lies between 13,700 and 14,700 
British thermal units, and its specific gravity (average 1.35) place it among 
the best coals in the United States. Its moisture and ash are also low, but 
it contains a little more sulphur than other high grade coals. 



Representative Analyses of Arkansas Coals 

(U. S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) 

Russellville 

Moisture 2.07 

Volatile Matter 9.81 

Fixed Carbon 78.82 

Ash 9.30 

Sulphur 1.74 

B. t. u 13702 

Huntington 

Moisture 3.53 

Volatile Matter 16.66 

Fixed Carbon 72.04 

Ash 7.77 

Sulphur 1.29 

B. t. u. . ....14017 



Paris Hartford Jenny Lind 


2.41 


2.89 


1.60 


17.23 


19.29 


17.40 


70.35 


67.34 


73.09 


10.01 


10.48 


7.91 


3.21 


1.10 


1.42 


13523 


13271 


14162 


Bonanza 


Spadra 


Denning 


1.99 


3.12 


3.64 


15.90 


11.39 


15.32 


75.05 


77.03 


73.88 


7.06 


8.46 


7.16 


1.05 


1.84 


2.43 


14087 


13793 


13743 



Mine Face Samples of Arkansas Coal 

The analyses give "as received" values that is, the analysis shows the 
character of the sample as it is received at the laboratory in an air-tight 
container sealed in the mine.* 



SEMI-ANTHRACITE. 

Lab. Mois- Vol. Fixed Ash Sulphur B. T. U. 
No. ture Matter Carbon 



Pope County 
Russellville 
Spadra 



.18755 
...2587 



2.79 
3.12 



11.90 
11.39 



75.24 
77.03 



SEMI-BITUMINOUS 



Franklin County: 
Denning 



Logan County 
Paris . 



104.2 
18746 

. 3174 

18750 



.84 16.46 
3.24 15.19 



2.77 
2.48 



14.69 
17.11 



75.32 
74.01 

73.47 

70.58 



10.07 
8.46 



7.38 
7-56 

9.07 
9.83 



Sebastian County 

Bonanza 

Greenwood 

Huntington 

Hackett . 



Scott County 
Bates .. 



2599 1.99 15.90 75.05 7.06 

. 3173 3.21 14.84 72.66 9.29 

1045 1.02 17.88 73.61 7.49 

.18062 3-55 15.73 65.56 15.16 

BITUMINOUS 

3505 3.37 24.44 66.40 5.79 



2.17 
1.84 



1.91 

2.27 

2.79 
3.29 

1.05 
3.12 
1.10 
1.67 



.87 



13,356 
13.793 



14,645 
13,756 

13,774 

13,496 

14,087 
13,588 
14,434 
12,541 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 49 

LIGNITE 
Ouachita County 

Lester 2647 39.50 25.35 22.57 12.58 .53 5.877 

*Analyses are from Pp. 47-51, U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22, 1913, or 
from Pp. 29 and 30, U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 123 (18750, 18755, 18062, 
18746), 1918. 

Analyses of Coals of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Illinois and Kansas. 

ANTHRACITE 

Lab. Mois- Vol. Fixed Ash Sulphur B. T. U. 
No. ture Matter Carbon 
No. 1, Pennsylvania 5954 2.80 1.16 88.21 7.83 0.89 13,298 

SEMI-BITUMINOUS 
No. 2. (Pocahontas) 

West Virginia Avg. 3.26 13.95 78.33 4.45 0.56 14,950 

BITUMINOUS 

No. 3, Pennsylvania.... 4352 2.01 33.56 58.11 6.32 1.39 14,441 
No. 4, Herrin No. 6 

Coal, 111 9.21 34.00 48.08 8.71 1.53 11,825 

No. 5, Kans. Coal 23238 25.49 26.07 43.95 4.49 .71 8,788 

No. 1 U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22 p. 172. 

No. 2 West Virginia Geol. Survey Wyoming, McDowell Counties, 1915, 
p. 730. 

No. 3 U. S. Bureau of Mines Bulletin 22, p. 183. 

No. 4 111. State Geol. Survey, Coop. Coal Mining Series Bull. 16, Plate 
III, 1917. 

No. 5 U. S. Bureau of Mines Bull. 123, p. 39. 



Directory of Arkansas Coal Mine Operators 

SEBASTIAN COUNTY. 

Actus Coal Co. Mine No. 1, one and one-quarter miles west of the sta- 
tion. Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; slope opening; C. 
C. Woodson, general manager. Huntington; C. R. Dewberry, mine foreman, 
Jenny Lind. 

Big Vein Coal Co., Smedley mine; three and one-half miles northeast 
of Hartford; railroad connections, Midland Valley; slope opening; W. E. 
West, president and general manager; Roy Smith, foreman. 

Back Bone Coal Co., Jones mine; two miles south of Excelsior; shaft 
opening; 70 feet deep; railroad connections, Midland Valley; M. K. McCub- 
rey, superintendent and general manager, Greenwood. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 2; one-half mile north of station, 
Huntington; shaft opening; 42 feet deep; railroad connections, Frisco; 
Harry Risher, superintendent. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 3; three miles west of Huntington; 
shaft' opening; 123 feet deep; railroad connections, Frisco; Harry Risher, 
superintendent; Ernest Gurth, foreman. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 4; one-quarter mile south of station, 
Hartford; slope opening; railroad connections, Rock Island; Robert Boyd, 
Jr., superintendent; Walter Milan, foreman. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., Mine No. 6; three and one-half miles west of 
Huntington; shaft opening; 267 feet deep; railroad connections, Frisco; 
Harry Risher, superintendent; Joseph Porter, foreman. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., Mine No. 10; one-quarter mile west of Hart- 
ford; slope opening; railroad connections, Rock Island; Robert Boyd, Jr., 
superintendent; J. W. Fitzjarrell, foreman. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 11; three miles northeast of Hart- 
ford; shaft opening, 254 feet; railroad connections, Midland Valley; John 
McCury, superintendent; Joseph Angerer, foreman. 

Central Coal & Coke Co., mine No. 15; one-half mile northeast of sta- 
tion, Hartford; slope opening; railroad connections, Rock Island; Robert 
Boyd, Jr., superintendent; John Bates, foreman; William Harkes, general 
manager; Keith & Perry Bldg, Kansas City, Mo. 



50 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Enterprise Coal Co., mine No. 2 (formerly known as the Ellard mine) ; 
one and one-half miles east of Hartford; slope opening; railroad connec- 
tions, Midland Valley; W. H. Miellmier, manager. 

Enterprise Coal Co., mine No. 1; one and three-quarter miles east of 
Hartford, slope opening; railroad connections, Midland Valley; W. H. Miell- 
mier, manager. 

Enterprise Coal Co., mine No. 3. (formerly known as the Dallas mine) ; 
one mile east of Hartford, Ark.; slope opening; railroad connections, Mid- 
land Valley; W. H. Miellmier, manager. 

Excelsior Smokeless Coal Co., mine No. 1; three and one-half miles east 
of Hackett; slope opening; railroad connections, Midland Valley and Frisco; 
Frank A. Graham, manager. 

G. F. Petty Coal Co., Pigeon Hole mine; at Jenny Lind; railroad connec- 
tions, Iron Mountain; G. F. Petty, manager. 

Greenwood Coal Co., mine No. 2; slope opening; one mile east of Green- 
wood; railroad connections; Midland Valley; R. A. Young, superintendent; 
Ed Knox, foreman. 

Hartford Valley Fuel Co., mine No. 2; shaft opening; 188 feet deep; 
one and one-half miles southeast of Hartford; railroad connections, Midland 
Valley; John M. Young, general manager, 311 South Olive, Pittsburg, Kan- 
sas; J. V. Anderson, foreman, Hartford, Ark. 

Hackett Coal Mining Co. (Border Mine); slope opening; one and one- 
quarter miles west of Hackett; railroad connections, Midland Valley and 
Frisco; D. H. Cadmus, manager. 

Hackett-Excelsior Coal Co. (Elder mine); slope opening; three and one- 
half miles east of Hackett; railroad connections, Midland Valley and Frisco; 
E. D. Bedwell, Manager, Fort Smith; operated by the Harper & Coleman 
Coal Co.; W. T. Harper, Foreman, Fort Smith. 

Jenny Lind Smokeless Coal Co., mine No. 18; shaft opening; three 
miles west of station; Old Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Moun- 
tain; W. K. Leyden, manager, 406 Greenwood avenue, Ft. Smith. 

Jenny Lind Co-Operative Coal Co., mine No. 2; slope opening; one-half 
mile south of old No. 17 of the Western Coal Mining Co.; railroad connec- 
tions, Iron Mountain; Chas. Herbert, manager, Bonanza, Ark. 

Jim Fork Coal Co.; slope opening; three miles northeast of Hartford; 
railroad connections, Midland Valley; John Conroy, manager, Hartford. 

Keisher Coal Co., Keisher mine; slope opening; one mile east of old 
No. 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Frank Keisher, 
manager. 

Katy Coal Co., Mine No. 6; shaft opening; one and one-quarter miles 
northeast of Midland; railroad connections, Midland Valley; H. F. Rogers, 
manager. 

Mama Coal Co., Mine No. 5; slope opening; three-quarters of a mile 
southwest of old No. 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; 
Valentine Varvack, manager; Bonanza. 

Mama Coal Co., Mine No. 17%; slope opening; three-quarters of mile 
southwest of old No. % 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; 
N. M. Henson, manager. 

Mama Coal Co., Mine No. 3; slope opening; one mile southwest of old 
No. 17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Jos. Dufore, man- 
ager, Bonanza. 

New Excelsior Coal Co.; Italy mine; slope opening; two and one-half 
miles southeast of Excelsior; railroad connections, Midland Valley; G. M. 
Cravens, manager, Greenwood. 

Smokeless Coal Co., Mine No. 2; slope opening; located one-half mile 
east of Montreal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. C. Woodson, president, 
Huntington; Chas. Woodson, foreman, Midland. 

Ramsey Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine: one mile southeast of old No. 17; 
Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; R. J. Ramsey, manager; 
R. F. D. 1, Ft. Smith. 

Smokeless Coal Co., Mine No. 1; slope opening three-quarters 
of mile east of station; Montreal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. C. Wood- 
son, president, Huntington; Charles Woodson, foreman, Midland. 

Smokeless Coal Co., Mine No. 3; slope opening; three-quarters mile 






MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 51 

east of station; Montreal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. C. Woodson, 
president, Huntington; Chas. Woodson, foreman, Midland. 

Simmons Coal Co. (Wild Cat Mine) ; three-quarters mile east of old No. 
17; Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; R. C. Petty, manager, 
Jenny Lind. 

Smith Coal Co.; slope opening; one mile west of Hackett; railroad 
connections, Midland Valley; Richard Smith, manager. 

Security Coal Co., Dallas Mine No. 8; slope opening; three-quarters 
mile southwest of Midland; railroad connections, Frisco; D. H. Cadmus, 
manager, Hackett. 

Sun Coal Co.; shaft opening; four miles east of Hackett; railroad con- 
nections, Midland Valley and Frisco; D. H. Cadmus, manager. 

Turnipseed Coal Co.; slope opening; one mile east of Montreal; rail- 
road connections, Frisco; C. C. Turnipseed, manager, Midland. 

Western Coal Mining Co., Mine No. 19; slope opening; two miles 
northeast of Iron Mountain Station;. Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron 
Mountain; A.W. Dickinson, general superintendent; Railway Exchange Bldg., 
St. Louis, Mo.; Milton Dollar, foreman, Jenny Lind. 

Woodson-Barr Coal Co., Mine No. 135; slope opening; three miles 
east of Bonanza; railroad connections, Frisco; R. J. Barr, manager, 123 
Greenwood avenue, Ft. Smith. 

Young Coal Co., Golden Goose Mine; slope opening; one-half mile south 
of Jenny Lind, Ark.; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; J. W. Young, 
manager. 

Simon Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening; one-quarter mile 
northeast of Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Phil Simon, 
manager, Jenny Lind, Ark. 

Henry Cox Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening one-half mile 
southwest of Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Henry Cox, 
manager. 

Joe Smith Coal Co., Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening; three- 
quarters mile southwest of Jenny Lind; railroad connections, Iron Moun- 
tain; Joe Smith, manager. 

W. Vehitting Coal Co.. Strip Mine; one mile east of Jenny Lind; rail- 
road connections, Iron Mountain; W. Vehitting, manager. 

G. W. Gunn Coal Co., Strip Mine; -one-half mile east of Jenny Lind; 
railroad connections, Iron Mountain; G. W. Gunn, manager. 

Midland Coal Co., Mine No. 5; Pigeon Hole Mine; slope opening; two 
miles northeast of Midland; railroad connections, Midland Valley; W. D. 
Robinson, manager. 

New Corrado Coal Co., Mine No. 1; slope opening; three-quarters 
mile east of Arkoal; railroad connections, Frisco; C. E. McKoin, general 
manager, Huntington; B. J. Malone, superintendent, Arkoal. 

Rush Coal Co., Rabbit mine; pigeon hole; slope opening; two and one- 
half miles southeast of Hartford; railroad connections; Midland Valley; W. 
H. Rush, manager. 

FRANKLIN COUNTY. 

A.lix Coal Co., Superior Mine; slope opening; one and one-half miles 
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; James A. Lewis, manager. 

Douglas Coal Co., Douglas mine; shaft opening; two miles east of Alix; 
railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Ben Douglas, manager. 

Haskell Coal Mining Co., Strip mine; three miles north of Branch; rail- 
road connections, Arkansas Central; S. C. Awbrey, manager, Ft. Smith, Ark. 

Joe Hoeing Coal Co.; slope opening; one and three-quarter miles north- 
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Joe Hoeing, manager; 
Coal Hill, Ark. 

The W. E. B. Coal Co., Strip Mine; two and one-half miles north of 
Branch; railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; S. C. Awbrey, manager, Ft. 
Smith, Ark. 

Semi-Anthracite Coal Mining Co.. Sambo mine; shaft opening one mile 
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. C. Parmelee, man- 
ager, Coal Hill. 

Western Coal Mining Co., mine No. 2: shaft opening; one-half mile west 
of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; A. W. Dickinson, general 



52 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

superintendent; Railway Exchange Bldg, St. Louis, Mo.; William Eadie, 
superintendent. Denning. 

Western Coal Mining Co., Mine No. 6; shaft opening; one and one-half 
miles west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; A. W. Dickin- 
son, general superintendent, Railway Exchange Bldg., St. Louis, Mo.; Wil- 
liam Eadie, superintendent. Denning. 

Denning Coal Co., Pendergrass Mine; shaft opening; two miles west 
of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; G. A. Slye, manager, 
Denning; \V. H. Lewis, foreman, Alix. 

Liberty Coal Co., Liberty mine; slope opening; two and one-half miles 
west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Mat Evans and Ham 
Leding, operators, Altus. 

Harbottle & Bailey Coal Co., Mine No. 10; slope opening; two and one- 
half miles west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Harbottle 
& Baley, operators, Altus. 

Black Diamond Coal Co.. slope opening; two and one-half miles west 
of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. Page manager, Altus. 

Altus Domestic Coal Co.; slope opening; two and three-quarter miles 
west of Denning; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; operated by D. E. 
Kline, J. W. Jackman, W. G. Styles and J. B. Hale, Altus, Ark. 

JOHNSON COUNTY. 

Blue Hill Coal Co., Wallace McKinney mine; shaft opening; three miles 
east of Alix; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. C. Parmelee, manager, 
Coal Hill. 

George E. Dodson Coal Co., Mine No. 1; shaft opening; one mile south 
of Denning yards; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; mine is being re- 
opened by Dave Pendergrass, Altus. 

George E. Dodson, Coal Co., Mine No. 2; shaft opening; one mile east 
of Denning yards; Sam Sampson, manager, Denning, Ark. 

Clark-McWilliams Coal Co. (Igo mine); shaft opening at the McWil- 
liams Spur; West of Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; T. M. 
Clark, manager, Clarksville. 

Collier-Dunlap Coal Co. (Tight Wad Mine); shaft opening; one and one- 
half miles east of Hartman; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. W. 
Collier, manager, Clarksville. 

Douglas & Son Coal Co., Blue Goose Mine; shaft opening; one and one- 
quarter miles southwest of Coal Hill; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; 
Ben Douglas, manager. 

Johnson Coal Co., Blue Bird Mine; shaft opening; one mile east of 
Hartman, Ark. 

Boston Spadra Coal Co.; Daley Mine; near Hartman: A. O. Nichols, 
general manager, Joplin, Mo.; E. H. Fontain, superintendent, Clarksville, Ark. 

Alvin Laster, Sterling Anthracite Coal Co., mine; shaft opening; three 
miles south of Clarksville. 

Warner Dunlap Coal Co., strip mine; three miles north of Spadra; 
Warner Dunlap, manager, Clarksville. 

Albro Martin, Coal Co., strip mine; two and one-half miles north of Spa- 
dra; Albro Martin, manager, Clarksville. 

Rosson-Rowe Coal Co., strip mine; three miles north of Spadra; Sam 
Rosson, manager, Clarksville. 

Johnson-Cunningham; strip mine; two and one-half miles north of Spa- 
dra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; E. H. Johnson, manager, Clarks- 
ville. 

Kemp-Harding Coal Co., Kemp-Harding mine; shaft opening; near Spa- 
dra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; J. M. Whitting, manager. 

Fafter Coal Co., Fafter Mine; shaft opening; two miles east of Alix; 
railroad connections, Iron Mountain; H. C. Parmelee, manager, Coal Hill, 
Ark. 

Spadra Coal Co., Sunshine mine; shaft opening; near the station. Mon- 
tana; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; D. A. McKinney, manager, Clarks- 
ville. 

Smokeless Anthracite Coal Mining Co.; shaft opening: two mil^s west 
of Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; J. E. James, manager, 
Clarksville. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 5S 

Johnson-King Coal Co., Johnson-King Mine; shaft opening; three miles; 
north of Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; E. H. Johnson, man- 
ager, Clarksville. 

Lucas Mardis Coal Co., Kneed More Mine; shaft opening; near the- 
Sunshine Mine, Spadra; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; P. P. Mardis, 
manager, Clarksville. 

Spadra Creek Coal Co., Pig Mine; shaft opening, near the Kneed More 
Mine; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; E. J. Mardis, manager, Clarks- 
ville. 

W. A. Hill Coal Co., Hill Mine; shaft opening 40 feet deep; two and one- 
half miles east of Denning yards; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; W. 
A. Hill, manager, Coal Hill. 

LOGAN COUNTY. 

C. N. Alexander Coal Co.; shaft opening; two miles south of Scranton; 
railroad connections; Missouri Pacific; C. N. Alexander, manager. 

Davis Coal Co.; slope opening; six miles northwest of Paris; railroad 
connections, Missouri Pacific; W. T. Davis, manager. 

Grand Coal Co.; Mine No. 1; shaft opening; three-quarters mHe north- 
east of Paris; railroad connections; Missouri Pacific; W. A. Tinsley, man- 
ager. 

Grand Coal Co.; Mine No. 2; slope opening; one mile northeast of 
Paris; railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; W. A. Tinsley, manager. 

Hendricks Cook-Coal Co.; slope opening; Paris; railroad connections. 
Missouri Pacific; C. H. Hendricks, manager. 

Watson-Sons Coal Co.; slope opening; one-half mile north of Paris; 
railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; Jos. Watson, manager. 

James A. Cane Coal Co.; Independent mine; slope opening, at Paris; 
railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; James A. Cane, manager. 

New Blue Ribbon Coal Co.; slope opening; west of Paris; railroad con- 
nections, Missouri Pacific; H. Wann, manager. 

Liberty Coal Co.; slope opening; one-half mile northwest of Paris; 
railroad connections, Missouri Pacific; Chas. Wahl, Jr., manager, Paris, Ark. 

Local Coal Co.; slope opening; Paris; railroad connections, Missouri 
Pacific. 

New Union Coal Co.; slope opening; two miles west of Paris; railroad 
connections, Missouri Pacific; H. S. Forrester, manager. 

Ramie Coal Co.; slope opening; one mile northeast of Paris; railroad 
connections, Missouri Pacific; J. R. Ramie, manager. 

W. H. Coats Coal Co.; slope opening; Paris; railroad connections, Mis- 
souri Pacific; W. H. Coats, manager. 

Jewel Coal Co. (old Paris Mine) ; shaft opening one and one-half miles 
north of Paris; railroad connections, Iron Mountain; Chas. A. Gaither, super- 
intendent. 

POPE COUNTY. 

Southern Anthracite Coal Mining Co.; Bernice Mine No. 1; shaft open- 
ing, -486 feet deep: three and one-half miles southeast of Ru-sellville; rail- 
road connections, Iron Mountain and Dardenelle Branch; J. G. Puterbau^h, 
president, McAlester, Oklahoma; E. W. Hogan, superintendent, Russellville. 

Southern Anthracite Coal Mining Co.. Mine No. 2; slope onening: three 
miles southeast of Russellville; railroad connections, Iron Mountain and* 
Dardenelle Branch; J. G. Puterbaugh, president. McAlester, Oklahoma; E. W. 
Hogan, superintendent, Russellville. 

Chas. Reynolds Coal Co.; slope opening; four miles northwest of Russell- 
ville; Chas Reynolds, manager. 

Ouita Anthracite Coal Mining Co.; three miles west of Russellville. 

Nolen-Heir & Gilbreath Coal Co.; five miles northwest of Russellville; 
R. I. Noland, manager, R. F. D. 3, Russellville. 

Lewis Coal Co., Ouita Mines Nos. 1-2; shaft openings; three and one- 
half miles northwest of Russellville; B. V. Lewis, manager, R. F. D 3 Rus 
sellville. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



SCOTT COUNTY. 

Hodge Coal Co.; slope opening; Bates; railroad connections, Waldron 
Branch, Kansas City Southern; idle. 

Bethel Coal Co.; Heavner Mine; slope opening at Bates; idle. 

Harper Coal & Coke Co.; Mine No. 1; at Baley; idle. 

Bates Smokeless Coal Co.; Mine No. 2; slope opening; Bates; J. G. 
Puterbaugh, president, McAlester, Okla.; idle. 

CRAWFORD COUNTY. 
John Owens, Grassy Lake Mine; near Alma; idle. 

WASHINGTON COUNTY. 

J. W. Turnsill; two and one-half miles south of Baldwin. 
J. R. Stanberry, Baldwin; idle. 
H. M. Reed, Baldwin; idle. 
W. M. Edwards & Son Coal Co.; Baldwin; idle. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas 
for 1888, Vol. III. The geology of the coal regions; a preliminary report upon 
a portion of the coal regions of Arkansas, by Arthur Winslow, map, Little 
Rock, 1888. 

Branner, John C. A preliminary statement of the distribution of coal 
over the area examined by the Geological Survey (of Arkansas). Arkansas 
-Gazette, Little Rock, Feb. 13, 1889. 

Branner, John C. "The Coal Fields of Arkansas." Mineral Resources of 
the United States, Washington, 1893. 

Collier, Arthur J. The Arkansas coal field. Bulletin No. 316, U. S. Geol. 
:Surv., Washington, 1907; also Bulletin No. 326, U. S. Geol. Surv., 1907. 

Drake, N. F. A geological reconnaissance of the coal fields of the In- 
dian Territory. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 
XXXVI, with ills, and maps. 

Purdue, A. H. Coal Mining in Arkansas. Arkansas Geol. Surv., Part I, 
1910. 

Steel, A. A. Arkansas Geol. Surv., A. H. Purdue, State Geologist, 1912. 

Potter,- Wm. B. Semi-bituminous coal of Johnson county with analyses. 
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. Ill, 1874, 
Philadelphia, 1875. 



Production of Coal In Arkansas By Years. 



Year 

1840 
1860 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 



Short Tons 

220 

200 

14,778 

20.000 

22,000 

50,000 

75,000 

100,000 

125,000 

129,600 

276,871 

279,584 

399,888 

542,379 

535,558 

574,763 

572,626 

598,322 

675,374 

856,190 

1,205,479 

843,554 

1,447,945 

1,816,136 



Year Short Tons 

1902 1,943,932 

1903 2,229,172 

1904 2,009,451 

1905 1,934,673 

1906 1,864,268 

1907 2,670,438 

1908 2,078,357 

1909 2,377,157 

1910 1,905,958 

1911 2,106,789 

1912 2,100,819 

1913 2,234,107 

1914 1,836,540 

1915 1,652,106 

1916 ' 1,994,915 

1917 2,143,579 

1918 2,227,369 

1919 *1,285,738 

1920 *1,990,263 

1921 *1,253,552 
Tonnage of Southwestern Inter- 
state Coal Operators' Association, esti- 
mated at 95 per cent of total produc- 
tion. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 55 

Diamonds 

Four areas of peridotite (diamond-bearing rock) near Murfreesboro;. 
Pike County, are described in a report by Hugh D. Miser, (Bulletin 540 U) 
published by the U. S. Geol v Surv. in 1913. One of these, that near the mouth 
of Prairie Creek, has been* known to geologists since 1842. The rock was 
not known, however, to be peridotite until 1889, when Branner and Brackett 
studied and described the nature of the rock and its geologic relations. It 
is said that Dr. Branner spent half a day searching the surface of the small 
area for diamond specimens. Not finding any of the precious stones he re- 
frained from making a sensational announcement or arousing undue hopes, 
but'published his discovery in a conservative report that at the time attracted 
the attention of the scientists more for its importance in suggesting the 
time and character of the disturbing influences, which about the close of 
the Cretaceous sank the greater part of Arkansas beneath the ocean, than 
for its value in disclosing a new diamond field. Dr. Branner's extreme cau- 
tion, displayed in this matter, was due, no doubt, to his consideration for the 




Reduction Plant, Arkansas Diamond Corporation, Murfreesboro, Ark. 

public mind which, at about that time, had been disappointed by the failure 
to find gold in the same region, following a tremendous excitement and the 
loss of many millions of dollars in unwise mining ventures. 

The first diamonds were actually found in 1906, seventeen years after the 
visit of Doctor Branner to the Prairie Creek district. To John Huddleston, 
now of Arkadelphia, belongs the credit of discovering the first diamonds. 
These rough stones were sent to a Little Rock jeweler and were later cut 
by Tiffany in New York, being pronounced perfect gems, equal in purity to 
those of South Africa. Thus the public came to know of the presence of 
diamonds in Arkansas. The lands containing the deposits were purchased, 
the town of Kimberly was established and mining operations were begun 
by several companies. 

According to the best information that is available at least 5,000 dia- 
monds were found up to the end of 1919. These included, white, brown and 
yellow stones and a canary-colored octahedron weighing 17.85 carats and a 
clear, flat stone of 11 carats. Only one company has operated in the field 
since 1913, and that upon a small scale. However, it is said that sufficient 
diamonds have been found to defray the small maintenance expenses. 



56 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

The Arkansas Diamond Corporation, in 1920, erected and put in operation 
a modern reduction plant on its property near Murfreesboro, this plant hav- 
ing equipment necessary to wash 100,000 tons of earth annually. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C., and Brackett, Richard X. The Peridotite of Pike County, 
Arkansas. Annual Report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas, for 1890, 
Vol. II. 

Branner, John C. Some facts and corrections regarding the diamond re- 

fion of Arkansas. Engineering and Mining Journal, Vol. L.XXXVII, New York, 
eb. 13, 1909. 

Kunz, Geo. F., and Washington, Henry S. Diamonds in Arkansas. Bi- 
monthly Bulletin of the American Institute of Mining Engineers No. 20, New 
York, 1908. Engineering and Mining Journal, Aug. 10, 1907. 

Purdue, A. H. A new discovery of peridotite in Arkansas. Economic 
Geology, Vol. Ill, August-September, 1918, 

Miser, H. D. New Areas of diamond-bearing peridotite in Arkansas. U. 
S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 540. 



Dag-Tooth Spar 

This variety of calcite less common than rhombohedrons. Magnet Cove. 



Dolomite 

Ferriferous and cohaltef erous ; Hot Spring, Polk, Scott, and Logan 
counties. 



Eleolite 

In coarse crystals in granite rock; also in massive rocks; distribution 
general and abundant in regions of metamorphic rocks. Pulaski, Saline, 
Garland, Hot Spring, Montgomery, Pike, and Polk counties. 



Epsom Salt 

In caves and old mine tunnels in North Arkansas. 



Fahlunite 

Hydrous silicate of Hydro-mica group. (Hydrous lime mica). From 
alteration of lolite. Usually in granitic or hornblende rocks. Magnet Cove. 



Florite (Opal) 

In form of Pealite, etc.; products of hot springs; sand Carbonate mine, 
Saline County. 



Fluospar 

Garland County, near Lawrence; not mined. 



Freibergite 

Kellogg and McRae mines, Pulaski County, Silver City region, Mont- 
gomery County, Sevier County; not mined. 




Fuller's Earth 

The developed deposits of Fuller's earth in Arkansas occur in an area of 
about three square miles which lies between Hot Springs and Benton. The 
Missouri Pacific railroad passes through this area about seven miles west 
of Benton. * * * These deposits were discovered in 1897, by John Olsen of 
Benton. Mr. Olsen at first shipped the crude earth to the Fairbanks Pack- 
ing Company, St. Louis, by which it was milled and used. He later erected 
at Klondyke station a plant for milling the crude earth. At present the 
other operators owning plants within the area are the Fuller's Earth Union 
(Ltd.) of London, England; the Fuller's Earth Company, General, of Wil- 
ington, Delaware, imd Fred Ressner, of Little Rock. 

(A showing of Fuller's Earth is also reported in NE. 14, S. 24, T. 8S., 
R. 25 W.) 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 57 

Arkansas was the second largest producer of Puller's earth in the 
United States from 1904 to 1907, Florida being first in amount of production. 
During 1909, 1910 and 1911, Arkansas was third in output and value, Florida 
being in first place and Georgia second. The amount of Fuller's earth pro- 
duced in Arkansas in 1909 was 2,314 short tons, valued at $18,313.00; in 
1910 it was 2,563 short tons, valued at $29,137.00. 

REFERENCES 

Middleton, Jefferson. Fuller's Earth in 1917, U. S. Geol.,. Surv., Mineral 
Resources of the U. S., 1917, Part II. 

Branner, John C. The Clays. of Arkansas, Bulletin 351, U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Branner, John C. An Early Discovery of Fuller's Earth in Arkansas, 
Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, New York, 1912. 
Miser, H. D. Developed Deposits of Fuller's Earth in Arkansas, Bulletin 
530 Q, U. S. Geol. Surv. 



Garnet 

Include here Almandite, Andradite, Aplome, Grossularite. See Schorlo- 
mite. All occur in "float," also in garnet rock (grossular) and in granitic and 
feldspathic rocks. Magnet Cove. 



Geyserite 

Silica (Opal). See Pealite, Fiorite, Girasol, Siliceous sinter., (Opal). In 
heavy deposits covering large areas, but of varying character. See under 
special names; Porcelain variety (Girasol) like Yellowstone Park deposits 
north of Magnet Cove, at "Spanish Diggings." Magnet Cove. 



Girasol (Opal) 

About ancient hot spring bowls, with tendency to cuboidal jointing. 



Glass Sand 

Since the establishment of glass factories at Fort Smith and Texar- 
kana, where these industries have access to natural gas, the cheapest and 
best of fuels, a more convenient market is afforded for the valuable glass 
sands of the state. It is said that the Fort Smith plant uses 1,000 tons of 
sand a month and that the Arkansas sands are preferred, but because of an 
inability to get cars for the shorter haul the material at present is brought 
from Pacific, Missouri. 

The glass sands of the saccharodial sandstone, (St. Peter) quarried at 
Guion, Izard County, are probably the purest and most extensive in the state. 
This sand is so pure that it is not even stained. Glass sands are found in the 
St. Peter sandstone in North Arkansas from Batesville to Fayetteville. It is 
quite as good as the best glass sands of Missouri but is of finer grain. 

The King's River member of the Everton limestone formation in Carroll 
and Madison Counties is recommended as a glass sand. 

At Whitlock Spur, near Bryant, Saline County, there is an extensive 
deposit of high grade glass sand. 

Purdue says: "The novaculite of the Ouachita Mountains probably 
would produce glass of fine quality." 

A deposit of glass sand is reported in Jefferson County near Pine Bluff. 

With reference to the glass sands of Crowley's Ridge, in Greene County, 
the following is quoted from the report of the Arkansas Geological Survey, 
Vol. II, 1889. 

"The sand is white. * * * It would make an excellent bottle glass 
sand, or even the cheaper grades of window glass could be made from it. 
Its product would be green in color, but less deep than the common green 
bottle glass, owing to the small amount, of iron present. With soda and lime 
added it would make a fairly good window glass." 

REFERENCES 

Burehard, E. F. Glass Sands of the Middle Mississippi Basin, Bulletin No. 
285, U. S. Geol. Surv. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 5fr 

Gold 

For many years there has been a vague, but persistent faith in the 
existence of gold in paying quantities in Arkansas. From time to time re- 
peated discoveries of this metal have caused much excitement in different 
localities. One by one the successive "finds" have proven barren when 
thoroughly tested. The little known portions of the mountainous country 
have always been regarded curiously and reported discovery in those 
regions have received more ready credence, perhaps because of the supposed 
existence of granite rocks. 

. The various agencies which have been at work in Arkansas have not had 
access to any important supply of gold; the processes of deposition have 
acted too rapidly to accumulate gold in workable deposits; the auriferous 
deposition, if any has taken place, has been spread over such vast areas as 
to dilute the whole to a condition of extreme poverty; there has been no- 
special accumulations; structural conditions are unfavorable; gold is absent 
in situations most favorable for its retention and is invariably absent in the 
"float" and the sands and gravels. Nowhere has gold been found in workable 
quantities. J[ 

REFERENCES 
Branner, John C. Annual Report, Ark. Geol. Surv., 1888, Vol. I. 

" Granite" (Syenite) 

The total area of igneous rock exposed within the boundaries of the 
State of Arkansas does not exceed thirteen or fourteen square miles, but 
the value of these rocks as building and paving materials gives them great 
economic importance. 

The eleolite syenites were probably all produced from one magma, 
but since they occur in four well-defined areas, and as the rocks which form 
these various areas differ greatly in their mineralogic independent groups, 
which can hardly be sufficiently correlated with the others to allow of their 
all being described together. 

These four regions are: 

1. The Fourche Mountain or Pulaski County region. 

2. The Saline County region. 

3. The Magnet Cove region. 

4. The Potash Sulphur Springs region. 

Outside of these four typical regions there are many dikes of igneous 
rock which as far as their petrographic characteristics are concerned might 
be associated, as well with one group as with another, and which are, as a 
matter of fact, probably directly connected with none of them, although 
formed from the same magma from which they all derived their material. 

(In additon to the masses described there are four masses of peridotite 
near Murfreesboro, Pike County, together with a number of related dikes. 
A study of these masses has proved that these igneous rocks of Arkansas 
were all probably formed during the land interval separating the upper and 
lower Cretaceous periods.) 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1890, 
Vol. II, The igneous rocks of Arkansas, by J. Francis Williams, Little Rock, 
1891. 

Washington, H. S. The igneous complex of Mag-net Cove, Arkansas. Ab- 
stract, Science, March 16, 1900, Vol. XI, Bulletin Geological Society of America, 
Vol. XI, Rochester, 1900. Review, American Naturalist, Vol. XXXV, May 1901. 
Review, Technology Quarterly, Vol. VII. 



Graphite 

Graphite is abundant and pure in many localities in the Trap Mountains 
in Hot Spring County. It occurs also in the form of graphitic shale in 
Garland and Montgomery counties. Some of this material is of excellent 
quality, while some of it occurs in streaks or pockets only, and much is 
mixed with earthy matter. The impure varieties are available for paints. 

Purdue says: "Possibly the most promising outcrop is in the bed of 
Collier Creek at Buttermilk Springs, northeast of Caddo Gap in Montgomery 
County. 



60 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Drake reports the presence of graphitic Shale at the Dickinson brick 
yard in the southern part of Little Rock a gray-black material suitable for 
paint making. 



Gravel 

Several thick deposits of gravel are widely distributed along the north 
edge of the Gulf Costal Plain. The gravels are of Lower Cretaceous, Upper 
Cretaceous and Quarternary age and are composed mainly of pebbles of 
novaculite (a variety of chert) derived from the Arkansas novaculite ex- 
posed in the Ouachita Mountain region. They are used in making concrete, 
in ballasting railroads and in the construction of wagon roads. The Pike 
gravel is the thickest and most persistent gravel bed in the area and has a 
larger surface distribution than any other. The thickness is rather uni- 
form, being in most places between 20 and 50 feet, but it apparently attains 
100 feet near Pike. This gravel consists of pebbles usually less than half 
an inch in diameter, but it contains many larger ones and also many cobbles 
as much as ten inches in diameter. These pebbles have not been used in 
tube mills, but they are of such a character that it is believed well selected 
pebbles may be suited for this purpose. 

The gravel beds of Crowley's Ridge in Northeast Arkansas are of varying 
thickness, being deposited on a surface which indicates very considerable 
erosion at a period prior to their deposition. The gravels are made up mainly 
of a light-colored chert, are generally well rounded or waterworn, rarely 
angular and always well polished. When in place they are always rudely 
assorted, cross-bedded and mingled with more or less sand. The gravel is 
considerably above the general level of the country, reaching often to the 
Tery tops of the highest hills. Deposits occur at various points along the 
ridge from the Missouri border to Helena. 

' In the bed of the Arkansas River throughout its course in Arkansas and 
in the beds of many of its tributaries, are gravel bars containing large 
-quantities of material suitable for road-building. 

On the higher hills about Little Rock and northwest of that city are 
quantities of surface gravel. Similar ridges occur in Saline, Grant and 
Dallas counties and in other parts of Southwest Arkansas. 

REFERENCES 

Miser, H. D., and Purdue, A. H. Gravel Deposits of the Caddo Gap and 
DeQueen Quadrangles, Arkansas, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 690 B. 

Branner, John C. Crowley's Ridge, Annual Report Arkansas Geological 
Purvey, Vol. II, 1889. 

Branner, John C. Road-Making- Materials of Arkansas, Outlines of Ar- 
kansas Geology, State Bureau of Mines, Manufacturers and Agriculture, Little 
Bock, 1920. 

Greenockite 

In zinc and lead districts of North Arkansas. 



Grossularite 

See Garnet. Grossular rock and other non-crystalline or crypto-crystal- 
line forms. Magnet Cove. 



Gypsum 

"The Trinity formation (of Southwest Arkansas) is rich in gvpsum and 
gypsiferous marls, the latter too impure for the arts, but, suitable for an agri- 
cultural fertilizer or land plaster. At the gypsum bluff, or "Plaster Bluff." 
as it is familiarly called, two and one-half miles south of Murfreesboro, in 
Pike County, there are strata of pure saccharoidai alabaster, from 6 inches 
to 6 feet in thickness, with seams of satin spar. This gypsum is sufficiently 
pure to make plaster of paris, as well as fertilizer, and will no doubt be a 
source of much wealth to the country some day. The same geologic horizon 
as that containing the gypsum beds on Little Missouri River outcrops spar- 
ingly at many points along the southern scarp of the Fort Towson road 
valley." Report Arkansas Geol. Surv., Vol. II, 1888. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



61 



Prof. A. H. Purdue ihentions the presence of gypsum on Messers Creek, 
north of Center Point, in Howard County. 

Gypsum, or "satin spar," occurs in broad crystals, fibrous and earthy, 
in the zinc and lead districts of North Arkansas. This mineral also has 
been observed in parts of Saline County where pyrite and limestone are 
found. 

REFERENCES 

Hill, Robt. T. The Neozoic Geolog-y of Arkansas, Vol. II, Report, Geological 
Survey of Arkansas, 1888. 

.Branner, J. C. Report Arkansas Geol. Surv., Vol V, 1892. 



Halotrichite 

Incrustations in black shale; Sloan's well, Black Spring, Montgomery 
County; Cox's Alum Springs near Boles, Scott County. 



Hornblende 

Aluminous magnesia-lime Amphibole. In syenites; Diamond Jo quarry 
and other places near and in Magnet Cove. 



Hydrotitanite 

Altered Perofskite. In crystals, locally, form perofskite, but gray color. 
Magnet Cove. 



Hypersthene 

Magnesia-iron-silicate. Some of the labradorite rock, bearing brookite 
crystals, has also this mineral. Magnet Cove. 



\ d?w -TH^TT- 

pigi$^^ 

..*t^^WrW < '-.*94>'l(rl|-.-^tf^'.>:'. . Vl. A 1 



p^^c;^- j ST ^ 
Ni^4^ 

,/ ' 



BWS3^^^T7 r ~ V.S^ 

te-^S^v^"' 1 .-^^ 
F^^^^C^0^|^x 



^^^^ r^^ 

'Jaupf ^ / - f^ ^ 

3 ^ COLOMPIA j 011 [ 

~/V I UN.C 




j CAJTV Distribution 

OESH.) o^ lr n Op e 

I i Deposits in 

<^^ Arkansas 



62 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Idocrase 

Aluminum-calcium-iron-magnesia silicate. Vesuvianite (Syn.); as ido- 
erase rock, sometmes with imbedded crystals. Magnet Cove. 

lolite 

Alumina silicate, with other oases. In metamorphic rocks, rarely in un- 
altered condition. See Fahlunite for altered forms. Magnet Cove. 



Iron 

The result of the survey's investigation of the iron deposits of the 
state have not met the expectations and hopes of their commercial value, 
with which the work was begun. The number of places at which iron de- 
posits occur throughout the state is almost endless, but the examination of 
these deposits and the chemical analyses of the ores show that most of 
them are either too limited in extent, or that they are too low in grade to 
admit of their being worked. The deposits of Lawrence and Sharp counties 
are the only ones that merit attention, and whether these deposits can be 
worked now must depend on economic conditions transportation, markets 
and competition. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. Annual Report, Ark. Geol., Surv., 1892, Vol. I. "The Iron 
Deposits of Arkansas," by A. F. Penrose, Jr. 

Iron Pyrites 

The constantly increasing use of pyrites in the manufacture of sulphuric 
acid may make available in the future the deposits which occur on the South 
slope of West Mountain, two miles west of Hot Springs, Garland County; in 
Southern Polk County and at Golden City, in Logan County. 

Pyrite ("fool's gold," "mundic," iron disulphide; sulphur, 53.4; iron, 
46.6 per cent; brass yellow, often in cubes, sometimes massive), found in 
small quantities at a few of the zinc mines in North Arkansas ; notably hard. 



Jasper 

Of various colors, among the ancient hot spring deposits; Montgomery 
County; Caddo Gap, Polk County; Eagle Hill. 

Jefferisite 

Micaceous, swells enormously when highly heated; associated with 
aegerite-rock, and among other metamorphic rocks, as serpentine; north 
of Magnet Cove; Garland and Hot Spring counties; south of Hot Springs; 
McAllister's mill, Saline County; Montgomery County. 



Labradorite 

Lime-soda feldspar; as base of intrusive rocks, in basaltic and other 
basic rocks. 



Lead 

"Galena (lead sulphide) the principal lead ore mineral has been 
mined in limited quantities in Baxter, Benton, Carroll, Boone, Marion, New-, 
ton, Washington, and other counties of Northern Arkansas. In Western Ar- 
kansas it has been found sparingly and mined occasionally in Garland 
County, near Blakely Creek; Hot Spring County, at Point Cedar; Mont- 
gomery county, at Rubicon, near Virginia City and at Minnesota, Montezu- 
ma, Walnut and Waterloo mines; Pulaski County, Kellogg and McRae 
mines; Sevier County, at Bellah mine, in Gulch shaft, New Discovery shaft, 
near Conboy and elsewhere. Cerusite (lead carbonate) occurs in Howard, 
Montgomery, Newton arid other counties, with galena and coating it in 
mines in Northern Arkansas." Bulletin 624, U. S. Geol. Surv., Useful Min- 
erals of the United States. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 63 

MINE PRODUCTION OF LEAD IN ARKANSAS 

Year Short Tons Year Short Tons 



1909 19 

1910 28 

1911 24 
1912 

1913 18 



1915 437 

1916 820 

1917 852 

1918 564 

1919 687 



. 1914 28 

The ores are galena, sphalerite and smithsonite and the concentrates 
produced are generally of high grade and free from or very low in iron or 
lime. The sphalerite has frequently assayed 2 to 3 per cent above the price 
basis of 60 per cent, metallic zinc content. The sphalerite and smithsonite 
are shown by analysis to contain appreciable quantities of cadmium, espec- 
ially in a yellow variety of smithsonite, known locally as turkey fat, which 
shows as high as 0.8 per cent of cadmium. 

REFERENCES 

AVinslow, Arthur. Lead and zinc deposits, Mo. Geol. Surv., VI and VII, 
Jefferson City, 1894. (Contains bibliography.) 

lirunner, John C. Annual Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol V. 
1892. Zinc and Lead. 



Lignite 

Extending northwestward from Camden, is a small area of typical brown 
subcannel coal, whi-ch has been tested for oil and gas production with very 
favorable results. The coal bed has been traced from about 2 miles north- 
west of Camden for 13 miles to the northwest and has been opened and 
mined in a small way at a number of places. The coal ranges from 3 to 6 feet 
in thickness. 

Physically the Camden coal, as it comes from the mine is brownish 
olack and compact and has a generally uniform even texture and structure. 
Occasionally fragments of lignite with clearly marked woody structure may 
oe seen. It has an uneven conchoidal fracture. It is soft but not friable, 
that is, it may be easily mined with the pick and may be cut with a knife 
as readily as compact dry clay, but will not crumble between the fingers. 
When cut or scratched with a knife it shows a shiny or oily streak. Upon 
being exposed to dry air, the coal contracts and cracks both along the bed- 
ding and at right angles to it so that fragments may be broken by the hand, 
but the mass does not fall to pieces. The coal is then blacker and harder 
than when fresh and the streak or powder is more nearly black. On being 
exposed for a short time to the repeated action of rain, dew, and snow, 
however, it will disintegrate into small particles. 

From this description the coal is evidently of lignite rank, but so far as 
tested it appears to give a higher candlepower gas than other lignites. 
Chemically, as shown by the analyses it contains from 32 to 38 per cent of 
water when fresh. In dry air the moisture will reduce to 9 to 11 per 
cent, but this will be reincreased to 20 to 22^ per cent if the coal is sub- 
mitted to saturated air. The volatile matter in the fresh coal is 32 to 36 
per cent and 44 to 46 per cent in the air-dried coal; and the fixed carbon in 
the fresh coal is 17 to 23 per cent in the air-dried coal. The ash remains 
from 7.5 to 11 per cent in the fresh coal and sulphur 0.5 per cent or less 
in the fresh material. 

This coal was tested by the Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory. The aver- 
age result of 10 tests, at a temperature of 1,800 to 2,000 degrees F., was a 
yield of 11,386 cubic feet of 22.3 candlepower gas. 

Tertiary lignites occur in most of the counties of Southern Arkansas. 
Probably the deposits nearest approaching in value those of the Camden 
district are in Pike and Clark counties, but no use has yet been made of 
this fuel. The location of the lignite is more interesting as indicating the 
character of the associated clays. 

LIGNITE OF CROWLEY'S RIDGE 

The lignites of the Crowley's Ridge region are all of Tertiary age. * * * 
They occur in the form of outcrops along the streams and in gullies with an 



64 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

occasional bed appearing in wells. The thickness of these lignite beds i& 
exceedingly variable. Usually they are less than five feet thick, though 
the Bolivar Creek beds in Poinsett Gounty are seven feet or more in 
thickness. It is also noticeable that the vertical distribution of the several 
beds is irregular, some of them occurring high up in the hills, while others 
are at their base or below it. So far as traced all these beds are independent 
of each other, having been formed at different times, and they are generally 
in lenticular shapes, most of which cover but a few acres and many of 
them but a few hundred square yards. Their chemical analyses show that 
the Bolivar Creek and the Clay County lignites are the best. The poorest 
is that found in St. Francis County, T. 4 N. R. 4 E., on Section 26. 

REFERENCES 

Taflf, J. A. Preliminary report on the Camden coal field of Southwestern 
Arkansas. Twenty-first Annual Report of the U. S. Geol. Surv., 1899-1900, 
Part II, Washington, 1900. 

Taff, J. A. The Camden coal fields of Southwestern Arkansas, XXI Annual 
Report. U. S. Geol. Surv., Part II, pp. 313-329, 1900. 

Branncr, John C. Clays of Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bull. 351, 1908. 



Lithographic Stone 

A somewhat extended search has been made in Arkansas for a litho- 
graphic stone, but thus far the search has been unsuccessful. The nearest 
approach to success was at the Warden property on West Lafferty Creek in 
Izard County, where a quarry was opened and considerable work done some 
years ago. It is reported that some good samples were obtained, which 
answered all the required tests, but the work suddenly ceased, as it was 
found that the greater part of the stone was worthless for lithographic pur- 
poses on account of the fine crystalline particles scattered through it. The 
crystalline parts are in some places but single crystals, in others they are 
fine, hair-like veins, so small as to be almost invisible to the naked eye. 
These crystals splinter or break with ragged edges under the engraver's 
tool, thus injuring the stone for fine work. 

The layers from which this stone was obtained are from two to four inches 
thick with a total thickness of about two feet. They are overlaid bv 20' 
feet of Izard limestone and underlaid by over 170 feet of the same rock. 

The Izard limestone is a smooth, fine-grained, compact, homogeneous, non- 
fosseliferous, evenly bedded limestone, breaking with a conchoidal frac- 
ture and is mostly of a dark blue color, varying locally to buff, light and 
dark gray, and almost black. It has a specific gravity of 2,7272 corresponding 
to a weight of 170.45 pounds per cubic foot. A partial chemical analyses 
shows the following: 

Insoluable in hydrochloric acid 34 

Carbonate of lime (Ca CO3) 98.67 

Carbonate of Magnesia (Mg COS) 2.14 

Total 101.15 

REFERENCES 
Branner, John C. Annual Report Ark. Geol Surv., 1890, Vol. IV. 



Limestone 

In spite of the abundance of limestone in Arkansas suitable for lime 
burning, the state imports lime instead of exporting it. As the limestone 
region of North Arkansas becomes traversed by railways the burning of lime 
should become one of the most important industries. There are limestones 
in the Tertiary and Cretaceous areas of the central and southwestern por- 
tions of the state, yet the Paleozoic limestones of the northern part of the 
state are so superior for lime burning that it is to them the state must look 
for its lime supply. The chalk beds will, no doubt, become valuable in the 
manufacture of Portland cement, but for common lime it cannot compete 
with the Paleozoic limestones. 

While in North Arkansas there are not less than seven distinct beds of 
limestone persistent over large areas, and others of more limited extent, it 
is noteworthy that nearly all the lime that has been burnt has come from a 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



65 



single bed the limestone in the Boone Chert. It has a greater areal 
extent than any of the other beds, yet others of large extent would make 
equally as good lime. 

Following is the analysis of limestone from the Boone chert formation 
in Independence County: 

Per. Cent. 

Carbonate of Lime 98.43 

Carbonate of Magnesia 95 

Insoluble Residue 28 

Without taking into account the proximity to transportation, the dif- 
ferent beds of limestone considered solely in the light of their value for 
making lime, would rank about as follows: 

First, Izard limestone. 

Second, Boone chert limestone. 

Third, St. Joe marble. 

Fourth, St. Clair marble. 

Fifth, Archimedes limestone. 

Sixth, Pentremital limestone. 

Seventh, Magnesian limestone. 

It will thus be seen that while limestone is widely distributed in the 
state, all that is suitable for building purposes occurs north of the Boston 
Mountains, and all the rocks of any considerable importance for lime-burning 
occur in the same place. The chalk beds of Southwestern Arkansas are 
the only lime deposits south of the Boston Mountains which are likely to 
have any great commercial value. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. Value of lime as a fertilizer and discussion of de- 
posits at White Cliffs. Arkansas Geol. Surv. of 1888, Vol. II. 

Hopkins, T. C. Lime Industry of Arkansas. Annual Report, Arkansas 
Geol. Surv., 1890, Vol. IV, Little Rock, 1893. 

Means, J. H. Carboniferous limestones on the South side of the Boston 
Mountains. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv., of Arkansas for 1890, Vol. IV, 
Little Rock, 1893. 

Harris, Gilbert D., Assistant Geologist. Annual Report Arkansas Geol. 
Surv. for 1892, Vol. II. 




Manganese Mining in Independence County. 



66 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



Manganese 

Manganese ores occur in two different parts of Arkansas, one in the 
Batesville region, mostly in Independence and Izard counties, in the north- 
eastern part of the state; the other in the southwestern part of the state, 




25 O 25 50 75 lOOMiles 



Map Showing Batesville Manganese Area, from U. S. Geological Survey 

Report. 

in the region extending from Pulaski County on the east to Polk County and 
the Oklahoma border on the west. In the former region considerable 
mining has been done; in the latter the amount of work has been limited. 
The two regions approach, in their nearest parts, within about 90 miles of 
^ach other, the southern extension of the Batesville region being about that 
-distance northeast of the manganese area of Pulaski County, while it is over 
150 miles northeast of the manganese area of Polk County. 

The developed manganese deposits in the Batesville region lie in a belt 
20 miles long by 4 to 8 miles wide, which extends westward through Inde- 
pendence, Sharp, and Izard counties, in the northeastern part of the state, 
but are mainly in Independence county. Maganese is not likely to be found 
in every part of this belt, but the deposits, which differ greatly in size, are 
extensive. One hundred and eighty mines and prospects, have produced ore. 

The ores are manganese oxides, chiefly psilomelane, hausmannite, and 
braunite. Wad and manganite also occur in minable quantity and the ores in 
places include pyrolusite. Although these minerals may be found separately, 
two or more are generally mixed in the same deposit and at a few places they 
are associated with ferruginous manganese ores and with small quantities of 
brown and red iron oxides. At some places the ferruginous manganese ores 
predominate. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 67 

The high-grade manganese ores generally contain 45 to 52 per cent of 
manganese though some of the ore shipped contains as much as 60 per 
cent of manganese. Most of the ores contain from 3 to 8 per cent of iron, 
0.15 to 0.30 per cent of phosphorus, and 2 to 8 per cent of silicia. Some of 
the ore shipped contains more than 0.30 per cent of phosphorus and a very 
little contains 0.40 to 0.50 per cent of phosphorus. Most of the ferruginous 
manganese ores contain 20 to 40 per cent of manganese, 8 to 20 per cent of 
iron, and 5 to 26 per cent of silica. The phosphorus content is about the 
same as that of the higher grade ores. 

REFERENCES 

Branner; John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 
1890, Vol. I, Manganese. Its uses, ores and deposits, by R. A. F. Penrose, 
Jr. Includes notes on the paleontology of the Batesville region, by Henry S. 
Williams. 

Miser, H. D. Manganese deposits of the Gaddo Gap and DeQueen Quadran- 
gles, Arkansas, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 660, 1917. 

Miser. H. D. Deposits of Manganese ore in Batesville District, Arkansas, 
Preliminary Report, U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 715-G, 1920. 



Magnetite 

Magnetic iron ore. In crystalline metamorphic rocks; in a local deposit 
at surface and in soil in fragments; magnetic; abundant. Magnet Cove. 



Malachite 

Garland County, at Hot Springs, in ledge of rock several feet in thick- 
ness; not mined. 



Marbles 

The marble region of Arkansas is in the north and northwest part of 
the state. It includes Marion, Boone, Benton, and parts of Independence, 
Izard, Stone, Baxter, Searcy, Newton, Madison and Washington counties, and 
extends north into the State of Missouri. The entire region is north of the 
Boston Mountains, and with the exception of portions of Washington and 
Benton counties is in the upper White River Valley. It is commonly known 
as North Arkansas, the Boston Mountains forming a natural barrier between 
it and the remainder of the state on the south, while the flood-plains of the 
Black River bound it on the east. 

The marbles of Arkansas all belong to the list of colored marbles; 
although some of them are very light colored, all are more or less stained 
with metallic oxides or with carbonaceous matter. On a stratigraphic basis 
all the numerous varieties of marbles in Arkansas are, with very few excep- 
tions, included in three classes: The St. Glair; the St. Joe; and the gray 
marble of the Boone chert formation. The first of these, the St. Glair 
marble, occurs over the eastern and south central part of the area, and is of 
Silurian age. The St. Joe and gray marbles, occurring over the entire area, 
are at the base of the Lower Carboniferous rocks. The few varieties which 
do not occur in any of these classes are the black, yellow, "onyx," and 
Archimedes marbles. 

Marble of red, gray and pink colors outcrop at numerous places along 
White River and its tributaries. Black marble occurs near Marshall, Searcy 
County, and Jamestown, Independence County. 

Comparatively little work has been done to develop the marbles and 
bring them into the market. Probably the first piece of marble shipped out 
of the state was the one sent to Washington Monument in 1836, the 
year in which the state was admitted to the Union. The block, weighing 
9.000 pounds, was taken from near Marble City, Newton County, then known 
as Beller's Mill. It was obtained by Mr. Beller and Elijah, Samuel and 
William Harp. By drilling and wedging they separated the block from a 
ledge four feet thick. It was then put on a log wagon and with ten yoke 
of cattle these four men took the stone a distance of 60 miles or more over 
exceedingly rough and tortuous roads across the Boston Mountains to the 
Arkansas River near Clarksville, whence it was shipped by boat. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS . 69 

The exterior walls of the new State Capitol at Little Rock were con- 
structed of Batesville marble, quarried at Pfeiffer. 

REFERENCES 

Brainier, John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1890, 
Vol. IV, Marbles and other limestones, by T. C. Hopkins, Little Rock, 1893. 

The building 1 stones of Arkansas, by John C. Branner. Stone, Vol. II, 
Indianapolis, October, 1889. 

Hopkins, T. C. Topographic features of Arkansas marble. Proceedings 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Vol. XXXIX, 
Salem, 1891. 

Anonymous. Batesville oolitic marble. Stone, Vol. XXIX, pp. 345-346. 
Illustrated, New York, January, 1909. 



Melanite 

Lime-iron Garnet, black variety of Andradite; or Aplome; loose crystals 
and in rock. Magnet Cove. 



Melanterite 

In incrustations, etc., rarely pure; Rabbit Foot mine, Saline County. 



Mellite 

(Honey Stone). As incrustations on sandstones or coal measures; Scott 
-and Franklin counties. 



Mica 

Biotite. Garland County, at Potash Sulphur Springs and Magnet Cove. 



Microcline 

Alkaline alumina silicate; triclinic potash-feldspar. Greenish, in granitic 
rocks, with aegirites; othoclase or albite, sometimes associated with it. Mag- 
net Cove 



Newtonite 

Pure white, soft, compact, inflexible, specific gravity, 2.37, Newton County. 



Nitre 

(Saltpeter). In dry caverns in limestone regions of North Arkansas. 



Novaculite (Whetstones) 

The Arkansas stone is a true novaculite, satisfying all the necessary 
condition regarding homogeneity, grittiness, finely granular structure and 
siliceous composition; it is translucent on the edges and has a marked con- 
choidal fracture. It occurs associated with shales into which it. grades 
through opaque, flinty layers. It is the only true novaculite quarried in 
quantity in this country. 

Novaculite is very like chert, both in composition and in its behavior 
as a road-making material. It occurs only in the hilly region lying south of 
the Coal Measures, where it forms the Zigzag Mountains about Hot Springs 
and the great Ouachita Mountain system south of the Ouachita River, ex- 
tending from Rockport, Hot Spring County, nearly to Oklahoma, west of 
Dallas, Polk County. 

REFERENCES 

Branner. John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1890, 
Vol. III. Whetstones and the novaculites of Arkansas, by L. S. Griswold, 
Little Rock, 1892. 

Bfanner, John C. and Derby. O. A. On the origin of certain siliceous 
rocks (novaculites). Journal of Geology, 1898, Vol. VI. 

Griswold, L.. S. Indian quarries in Arkansas. Proceedings Boston So- 
ciety of Natural History, Vol. XXVI, Boston, 1895. 

Hull, Edward. Origin of novaculites of Arkansas. Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society of London, Vol. I, London, 1894. 

Rutley, Frank. On the origin of certain novaculites and quartzltes. Quar. 
Jour. Geol. Soc., Vol. I, London, 1894. Abstract American Geologist, Vol. XIV. 

Sutton, J. J. Oilstones. Third Biennial Report from the Bureau of Mines, 
Manufactures and Agriculture of Arkansas for 1893-1894. 



70 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 




Novaculite in Railroad Cut, Near Glenwood. 



Ochre 

Ochre of a deep red color occurs abundantly near Wittsburg on Crow- 
ley's Ridge. An analysis suggests no valuable use to which this clay could 
be put. It is used locally for painting barns. 

Deposits of yellow ochre occur near Monticello, Drew County, and Piggott, 
Clay County. 

Brown ochre, or limonite, occurs in many parts of the state, but it is 
usually contaminated with clays. * * * Red ochre, Fourche Mountain and 
suburbs of Little Rock, usually impure from admixture with silica and clay. 

REFERENCES 
Brnnner, John C Annual Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol II, 1889. 



Octahedrite 

Titanic oxide. Close to Rutile. See also Brookite. Occurs sparingly 
with Brookite, Rutile and Arkansite, also as imbedded crystals in feldspathic 
or garnet base Magnet Cove. 



Oil Shales. 

"Petroleum occurs in small quantities in the Fayetteville shale of Wash- 
ington County. Everything in the general geology of this section points to 
the fact that the sandstone in which this oil occurs is cut off along the north 
face of the Boston Mountains and that the rocks through the central and 
northern parts of the county all lie below it. The rock does not contain 
enough oil to thoroughly saturate it." Annual Report of the Arkansas 
Geological Survey, Vol. IV, 1888. 

"Oil may perhaps be distilled from the Chattanooga shale (of northwest 
Arkansas) which is sufficiently bituminous to give off the odor of petroleum 
when struck with a hammer, but such distillation will be profitable only after 
the prices of petroleum and its products become higher." A. H. Purdue 
and H. D. Miser. Eureka Springs-Harrison Folio, No- 202, U. S. Geol. Surv. 
Among the shale rocks of Northwestern Arkansas, H. D. Miser of the U. S. 
Geol. Survey, includes the Bloyd shale. 

REFERENCES. 

Miser, Hush D. and Purdue, A. H. Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions 
In Southwestern Arkansas. U. S. Geol. Surv., Bulletin 691 J, 1918. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 71 

Oligoclase 

Triclinic soda-lime feldspar. With orthoclase in metamorphic (granitic) 
rocks. Not very abundant, apparently; in syenite, more or less. Magnet 
Cove. 



Onyx 

Argonite or Mexican onyx occurs in large quantities in some of the zinc 
mines of North Arkansas. Doctor Branner says: "We have seen beautiful 
pieces of this rock that would have brought high prices in the market wan- 
tonly destroyed, partly because the owners were not aware of its value, and 
partly because this is a zinc mine not a stone quarry." 

From the report of T. C. Hopkins on the Marbles of Arkansas, the fol- 
lowing facts are taken: 

"None of the onyx marbles of Arkansas are quite as translucent or as 
brightly banded as the finest qualities of Mexican stone, yet much of it is 
very handsome, works easily, takes a brilliant polish and will no doubt 
command a good price. Further research may show even finer qualities." 

Slabs containing several square feet of ''Eureka onyx" have been re- 
covered from caves near Eureka Springs and made into paperweights, I \ / 
clocks, scarfpins, penholders, etc. Large quantities of stone are exposed in / y 
a cave near Dodd City. It occurs in white, cream, red and yellowish browjr 
colors. Apparently slabs four or five feet square or even larger could readily 
be obtained. It is a beautiful stone. 

REFERENCES 

Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. IV, 1890. 



Opal 

Silicia. In certain ancient hot spring deposits. Magnet Cove. 



Orthoclase 

, Potash feldspar. Pulaski, Saline and Hot Spring counties, in granitic 
and allied rocks. 



Ozarkite 

Hydrous aluminum silicate, with calcium and sodium; massive variety 
of Thomsonite. In masses like beds or intrusions of uncertain relations. 
Magnet Cove. 



Paint Minerals 

There are some seams or pockets of a very good quality of barytes in 
many places in Montgomery County, between the Broken Rock and Blue 
Mountain axes, and generally speaking along the whole length of that belt. 
Some of the barytes is white and of high value. Ground shale and impure 
graphite which abound in Southwestern Arkansas, especially in Mont- 
gomery County, are useful materials as fillers for paints. Red ochre (hema- 
tite) and "reddle," or a kind of red chalks, are abundant in many localities 
In Southwestern Arkansas. Use might be made of these in paint manu- 
facture. The yellow and brown ochreous earths (limonite) may in some 
cases be useful for similar purposes. The quantity of such ore, particularly 
in Pulaski County, south and west of Little Rock, is enormous and easily 
mined. 



Pealite 

Silicia; variety of Opal, or Fiorite. In crumbling masses, usually with 
hard nuclei; constituent of old hot spring throats; sand carbonate mine. 
Magnet Cove. 



72 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 




Map of Arkansas, Illustrating Relative Chances for Oil and Gas Drawn by 

Dr. N. F. Drake, Geologist for the State Bureau of Mines, and 

Former State Geologist. 



Petroleum and Natural Gas 



By N. F. DRAKE, Former State Geologist of Arkansas. 



The accompanying map presents a rough outline showing different areas 
into which the State may be divided with reference to different degrees of 
fitness for petroleum and natural gas. There is more or less variation within 
each of these areas and usually each area, in its geological fortunes, gradu- 
ates into the adjoining areas but as a whole each area as mapped forms a 
distinct group. 

Area VI. The area marked "6" and by vertical lining includes the 
Ouachita Mountain system in which the rock beds are severely folded into 
numerous anticlinal and synclinial folds extending almost east and west 
the whole forming an upward bent fold on an anticlinorium. The tops of 
these folds have been eroded so that now the numerous parallel ridges stand 
at almost the same elevation. This means that the center of the anticlin- 
orium has been eroded more than at the sides so that now we have ex- 
posed at the surface along the central portion of the area the oldest rock 
beds. Going either northwards or southwards from the central oldest 
rocks one passes over successively younger rocks as he approaches the. 
border of this area, except that in places severe folding has caused the 
complete overturning of some of the beds. In age the rocks of this area 
extend from the Cambrian at the base, through the Ordovician, Silurian, 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 73 

Devonian and into the Carboniferous at the top. The whole gives a thick- 
ness of 15,000 to 20,000 feet of shales, sandstones, and some cherts and 
limestones. The whole area is rather highly metamorphosed so that a 
large part of the shales are graphitic and often the sandstones have been 
changed to quartzites. Much of the original pore spaces in these rocks 
have been filled by silica and lime carbonate. Igneous rocks in small 
areas, outcrop at a number of places. The severe metamorphism of the 
rocks in this area at once condemns' it as a field for oil and gas. 

Area V. The area marked "5" in the north central part of the state is 
a part of the Ozark Plateau and its exposed rock beds are mainly Ordo- 
vician dolomites and sandstones, but overlying these beds in regular order 
are Silurian, Devonian and Mississippian beds, the total giving somethng 
like 2,000 feet of outcropping rock beds within this area. Limestones, 
sandstone and some carbonaceous shale are found in the upper part of 
these beds. The rock beds are broken or faulted at many places and 
show some gentle folds but in the main the beds lie almost horizontal or 
dip slightly to the south. While metamorphic action in this area has not 
been severe, it has been considerable so that many of the limestones are 
more or less crystaline. In quarrying rocks over the area a little petroleum 
has been found in small cavities in some of the limestones and dolomites 
at a number of places. This has led some people to suspect that oil in com- 
mercial quantities might be found there. It seems very doubtful whether 
there is present, at sufficient depth, rock beds capable of giving origin to 
oil. The Chattanooga shale along the south and southwest border of the 
area is too near the surface for any oil it might have produced to have 
been retained in the rocks. The deep seated beds are mainly dolomites 
and sandstones Metamorphic action here has almost assuredly been great 
enough to have destroyed oil accumulations even had they at one time ex- 
isted. Furthermore test wells in this area and in the same rock beds 
nearby in Missouri have failed to give encouragement for oil and gas. 

Area IV. The area marked "4" on the map includes the south and 
southwest border of the Ozark Plateau. Here the rock beds lie almost 
horizontal, but in general, have a dip of one to two degrees to the south and 
southwest. At places this dip increases to five or six degrees or even 
more. Some gentle folding and faulting occurs over the area and heavy 
faulting with the downthrow on the south side of the fault planes, occurs 
along the south border of the area. As one goes northward over this area 
he reaches successively lower and older rock beds. Along the north bor- 
der of the area the outcropping rocks are mainly Mississippian while on 
the south border they are Pennsylvanian. Wells drilled 300 to 500 feet 
deep near the north border, or 500 to 2,000 feet deep near the south border, 
would pass into the Silurian or Ordovician limestones, dolomitei and sand- 
stones. Over those beds lies the Chattanooga shale, which is usually 25 to 
40 feet thick. It is highly carbonaceous and is oil and gas-producing. About 
350 feet of chert with some limestone overlies the Chattanooga shale. The 
chert in turn is overlain by 200 to 400 feet of highly carbonaceous shale,, 
the Fayetteville shale, that is also oil and gas-producing. Oil and gas with- 
in this area would naturally be expected to have been derived from those 
shale beds. 

We have then in this area beds of rock favorable for the production of 
oil and gas, porous randstones suitable for reservoir rock and some gentle 
folding giving inverted basins that might trap the oil and gas in their up- 
ward migrations. In the Northern portion of the area the covering over 
the oil-gas producing shales is not sufficient to prevent leakage, but in the 
southern portion the covering should be ample. 

A well a little over 300 feet deep about five miles northwest of Fay- 
etteville, has, for about three years, furnished enough gas fuel for cooking 
and heating at a farm house. This gas was struck in sandstone immedi- 
ately underlying the Chattanooga shale. Without any reasonable doubt 
this gas came from the shale. The covering over the shale is nearly 300 
feet of Boone chert which would allow gas to escape to the surface and 
be lost while the shale itself is nearly impervious and gas collecting under 
the shale would be retained. 



74 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



A number of other wells widely distributed over this area have given 
small flows of natural gas, but commercial flows have not yet been ob- 
tained. It is rather difficult to estimate the degree of alteration or mate- 
morphism that exists over the area- The following coal analysis by G. O. 




MAP OF FORT SMITH-POTEAU GAS FIELD, ARKANSAS ANC OKLAHOMA. 

Burr, of the University of Arkansas, from a sample of coal taken from the 
Baldwin mine, situated about seven miles east of Fayetteville, probably 
gives a fair average for the condition of the area as a whole: 

Moisture 0.87% 

Volatile Combustible Matter 30.75% 

Fixed Carbon 60.30% 

Ash 8.13% 

Sulphur 2.42% 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



75 



This analysis gives a carbon ratio for the coal of 66.74% which shows 
too high a carbon ratio for commercial pools of oil but still permits gas pools 
of value. It is possible that some local places within this area may 
have a lower alteration of the rock beds and in that case oil might be 
found, but the chances are against the existence of such conditions. The 
southern portions of this area with a better covering- over the oil-gas pro- 
ducing shales offers good chances for commercial gas where structural con- 
ditions are favorable. 

Area III. The area marked "3" and by horizontal and vertical lining 
is practically all of the area between the Ozark Plateau and the Ouachita 
Mountain system. The outcropping rock beds here belong to the Pennsyl- 
vanian series and consist of carbonaceous clay shales, sandstones, and in 
the western part some workable coal beds. These beds thicken to the 
southward, probably being four times as thick in the southern part of the 
area as in the northern part. According to Branner the Pennsylvanian 
sediments of the state reach a total thickness of 23,780 fleet. The strata 
of this area are folded into many folds and the whole series forms a down 
warp or synclinorium. As a rule the folds are gentle near the northern 
border and increase in intensity southward until in places along and near 
the south border some of the beds stand almost or quite vertical. Meta- 
morphism or alteration of the rock beds has very much kept pace with the 
intensity of folding. As a rule the highest alteration of the rocks is to 
the southward and southeastward, but near the heavy faulting, as in the 
southern part of Scott County, the metamorphism may be somewhat less. 
Coal analyses are not available for the whole field but the following analyses 
will give a fair idea of the alteration that has taken place and the way it 
is distributed: 































a 


t>> 














& 


T3 


Locality. 


B 


3 


n 




*H 

P 
^ 





a> 

N 




cc 


4J 


a? & 


^ 


ft 


-g 


*c3 







'O c3 


X j 


CO 


53 


3 


a 




* 


MS 


fcO 


< 


O2 


o 


< 


Near Bates, Scott Co 


3 39 


24.44 


66.40 


5.79 


0.87 


73 


U. S. G. S. 


Near Fort Smith 


219 


14.00 


72.15 


11.66 


206 


84] 


u. s. a s. 


Hackett 


85 


14.91 


73.86 


9.03 




83| 


Braokett 


Huntington 


1 0? 


17 88 


73 61 


7 49 


1 10 


SOlTT S. a S. 


Coal Hill 


1 52 


14.76 


76 91 


6.95 


1.52| 84 |U. S. G. S. 


Spadra 


2.15 


10.82 


76.87 


10-16 


2.301 88 IU. S. G. S. 


Near Russellville 


2.33110.16177.67 


9.40|1.81| 88IU. S. G. S. 



Many other analyses covering the same territory might be given but 
they would tell the same story. There are no analyses available covering 
the eastern or the northern borders of the area but bituminous coals are 
known to be in those localities, and they may show a less degree of alter- 
ation. It is not likely, however, that they will prove sufficiently high in 
volatile matter to give conditions favorable for oil in commercial quanti- 
ties. As is well known, this area, in its western part, is already a heavy 
producer of gas. It is likely that the producing areas may be extended 
farther eastward along the northern part of the field even to the extreme 
east border of this area- 

Area II. The area marked "2" on the accompanying map is a part of 
the gulf coastal plains. The northern part of the. area is Cretaceous and the 
Southern Tertiary in age. The Cretaceous rock beds comprise clays and 
marls more or less carbonaceous and sandstone, gravel beds, limestone, and 
chalk, altogether totaling over 2,000 feet in thickness as shown by out- 
crops. The Tertiary beds are about 1,000 feet thick and consist of sands, 
clays and marls. Both the Cretaceous and the Tertiary beds dip gently to 
the southeastward. Both carry beds containing organic matter and porous 



76 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

sandstone beds. Metamorphic action has not altered the beds to a degree 
that would destroy oil accumulations. It appears then that the thing most 
needed for insuring the existence of oil accumulations here is good struct- 
ural features that would entrap the oil in its upward migrations. 

The asphalt deposits in Pike and in Sevier counties show oil leakage 
along the northern border of the area. This oil must have moved north- 
wards up the slopes of the Cretaceous rock beds. So far as known there 
.are no folds within this area but it is possible that there may be some 
. small folds and furthermore some of the porous beds through which the oil 
migrates may, in their upward reaches, either thin out and disappear or 
else become close textured so as to entrap the oil as it moves up the slope 
-of the rock bed. 

These last noted conditions can only be proven by the very expensive 
method of drilling test wells. It is safe to say that oil-bearing areas, under 
such conditions as exist in this area, must necessarily be small in compari- 
son with the barren areas. The wells that have been drilled in and near 
this area have indicated a regularity of the dip to the south and southeast 
and have given no special encouragement for further prospecting. 

Area 1. The area marked "1" comprises nearly all that part of the 
state lying east and south of the Missouri Pacific Railroad. This area is 
also a part of the gulf coastal p?ains. The outcropping rocks are Tertiary 
and Quaternary in age. The Quaternary beds form a thin covering of 
alluvial materials lying on the Tertiary beds, along the flood plains of the 
river bottoms. The Tertiary beds consist of clays, and marls more or less 
carbonaceous and sandstone and some lignite beds. The strata dip gently 
toward the southeast. Going eastward over the area one passes over 
beds that are successively higher and younger geologically and the series 
becomes thicker until in the southeast part of the state these beds are 
probably 2,000 feet or more in thickness. Under these beds the Cretaceous 
fceds above noted extend apparently without any breaks. 

During Tertiary times the Gulf of Mexico extended over this area in 
an embayment that reached northward to the southern point of Illinois and 
is extended to the east of the Mississippi River into Tennessee and Missis- 
sippi about as far as it extends westward from the Mississippi River over 
Arkansas. The underlying and older Cretaceous embayment was somewhat 
broader, but did not extend quite so far northwards. The embayments gave 
good conditions for the accumulation of organic matter of the sea and 
neighboring land areas. Over this area also, with the possible exception 
of a part of Crowley's Ridge, the rocks have not been altered to a degree 
that would injure oil accumulations. The conditions are then favorable 
for oil and gas wherever structural conditions exist to catch and ho!d the 
oil and gas. 

Since the Tertiary rocks are practically all soft and friable they easily 
go to pieces where exposed at the surface. So a deep soil usually covers 
the underlying beds and -one cannot, except in rare cases, determine from 
surface examinations how the underlying rock beds lie. Where the top 
exposed beds lie parallel to the underlying beds and the top beds are well 
exposed it is a simple process to determine the underground structure so 
far as folding is concerned. Over this area the rock beds are usually cov- 
ered and often not well marked when exposed and in places the topmost 
and the lower beds are not parallel or conformable so it is difficult to de- 
termine the structure here. 

There is some fairly good evidence of a gentle anticlinal fold extending 
northeast by southwest through the central part of Cleveland County 
Should this prove to be true the fold may be expected to extend farther to 
the northeast and southwest beyond Cleveland County. 

While the area marked "1" offers the bpst chances for finding oil in 
the State, and while so many of the essential conditions for oil are favor- 
able it should be remembered that sediments laid down along a shore line 
retreating seaward with a slowly subsiding sea bottom and a rising ad- 
joining land area, as was likely the case, would give rise to beds dipping 
regularly and not to folds or structural features favorable to entrapping 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 77 

oil. Favorable structural areas may therefore be expected to form only a 
small part of the total area. 



What the Geologists Say About Oil and Gas Prospects in 
Different Counties of Arkansas 



Arkansas 

This county is located in the Coastal Plain region in which the pros- 
pects for finding large quantities of oil, particularly if good anticlines or 
domes can bo located, are, perhaps, better than in other portions of the 
State. Prospect wells have been drilled in several parts of the county, but 
no production has been reported. The geology of the region is explained 
in U. S. Geol. Surv. Water Supply Paper 391, Geology and Ground Waters of 
Northeastern Arkansas. 

Ashley 

No detailed oil and gas investigations have been made and the State 
has no information concerning the discovery in that area of any commercial 
amounts of oil or gas. It would be difficult, if not impossible, to detect 
from an examination of the surface, anticlines or domes in the buried for- 
mations, on account of the heavy mantle of deposits of recent geological age. 
The geology of the region is explained in Bulletin 429, 1910. "Oil and Gas 
in Louisiana and Adjacent States," and in Professional Paper 46, 1906, 
published by the IT. S. Geol. Surv. 

Baxter 

It is the general opinion that the region of Exposed Paleozoric rocks 
in Arkansas, which embraces Baxter County, offers no promise for the 
discovering of commercial oil pools because the formations have been too far 
compressed and altered. Small deposits of natural gas have been found and 
it is probable that additional supplies will be developed at points of favor- 
able anticlinal or domal structure. 

Benton 

Detailed descriptions of Benton County are embodied in Geologic Folios 
119, 154 and 202. Any commercial amounts of oil encountered in extreme 
Northwestern Arkansas will probably be in formations of greater geologic 
age than those yielding oil and gas in Oklahoma and Kansas. 

In a description of the Eureka Springs and Harrison quadrangles, by 
A. H. Purdue and H. D. Miser, published by the U. S. Geological Survey, the 
following statement is made. "Considerable money has been spent in North- 
ern Arkansas in drilling wells with the hope of finding oil or gas, but neither 
has yet been found in commercial quantity north of Crawford and Franklin 
counties. Furthermore, the character of the rocks does not indicate that 
either oil or gas will be found in commercial quantity in the quadrangles 
under discussion or in the adjoining parts of Northern Arkansas and South- 
ern Missouri. However, any wells that are put down should be sunk 
on the domes. Oil may perhaps be distilled from the Chattanooga shale." 

Boone 

This county is located in the Ozark region, where the formations have 
been too far altered and compressed to permit the survival of commercial 
oil pools even if oil were once present. Some natural gas has been dis- 
covered in Northwest Arkansas and it is possible that additional supplies 
will be developed at points of favorable structure. The geology of this 
region is mapped and described in Geologic Folio 119 and 202. 

Bradley 

The general geological conditions in this county are similar to those in 
the southcentral portion of the State, where oil and gas wells have been 



78 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

developed. Professional Paper 46 discusses the geology and underground 
water resources of this section and a study of the Coastal Plain region, 
which embraces Bradley County, would be aided by reference to U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Bulletin 429, 1910, "Oil and Gas in Louisiana and Adjacent States." 

Calhoun 

The Coastal Plain region of Arkansas embracing the eastern and south- 
ern parts of the State probably offers greater promise for the discovery of 
commercial quantities of oil than other portions of Arkansas. Professional 
Paper 46, U. S. Geol. Surv. contains descriptions and a map of the general 
geology of Northern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas. Favorable indica- 
tions have induced prospectors to drill for oil at different places in the 
county, but up to this time there has been no production. 

Carroll 

This county has been geologically mapped and described in detail in 
Geological Folio 202, covering the Eureka Springs and Harrison quadrangles. 
The oil and gas possibilities of the section are briefly discussed. In the 
opinion of most oil and gas geologists the formations in this region have 
been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial pools 
of oil, though natural gas may be found at points of favorable structure. It 
is recommended that any wells that may be put down should be sunk on the 
domes. Oil may perhaps be distilled from the Chattanooga shale. 

Chicot 

No detailed investigations have been made of the geology or structure 
of Chicot County, with regard to oil and gas. Information concerning the 
geology of this county may be obtained from Professional Paper 46, "Geol- 
ogy and Underground Water Resources of Northern Louisiana and Southern 
Arkansas," published by the U. S. Geol. Surv. Chicot County is located in 
the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for finding commercial 
amounts of oil are probably better than in other parts of the State, but there 
has been made no detailed examinations of the geologic structure in that area 
with a view to determining the oil and gas possibilitis. In fact that 
part of Arkansas is so covered by. deposits of recent geologic age that an 
investigation of the surface does not make possible the detection of anticlines 
or domes favorable to the accumulation of oil and gas in the buried forma- 
tion in which oil, if present, would be found. The geological conditions in 
Chicot County are similar to those in Southcentral Arkansas where both 
oil and gas have been found. 

Clark 

The geology of Clark County is as varied as is its topography. As will 
be seen by the Drake Map, a part of this county is included in the most fa- 
vorable and a part in the most unfavorable area for the finding of oil and 
gas in the State. There is a persistent belief that these minerals are pres- 
ent and there has recently been active prospecting in the vicinity of Arkadel- 
phia, Gurdon and Whelen Springs. 

In the United States Geological Survey Bulletin No. 429, G. D. Harris 
has the following to say under the heading, "Oil and Gas in Louisiana, with 
a Brief Summary of their Occurrence in Adjacent States." 

"As oil and gas occur in Southern Louisiana and Southeastern Texas in 
commercial quantities in the vicinity of Saline domes, a few hundred acres 
in extent, most of such localities being separated by barren regions scores 
of miles wide, it is highly important for future development that the manner 
of occurrence of these salines should be carefully studied, so that probably 
productive territory may be separated from territory in which the discovery 
of oil or gas is unlikely. * * * In the opinion of the writer, all the saline 
domes are located along lines of fracture in the deep-lying Mesozoic, and 
Palezoic rocks, and in general their location seems to be at the crossing 
of such lines. * * * The large amounts of gas and oil found in the 
Caddo field, Louisiana, appear to be simply following east and north 
slopes of a great uplift, and concentrating or reconcentrating along slight 
anticlinal ridges. * * * Hopes may be entertained of finding oil and gas so 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 79 

entrapped in wells sunk in various places near the Eocene-Cretaceous con- 
tact from Arkadelphia and to beyond San Antonio, Texas." 

Clay 

The area east of Crowley's Ridge in Arkansas, in fact almost all of Clay 
County lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the chances for finding 
commercial pools of oil at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure 
are better than in other parts of the State. There has been considerable 
prospecting lately but up to this time no production of either oil or gas is 
reported. The geology of this section is explained in Water Supply Paper 
399, U. S. Geological Survey. 

Cleburne 

As this county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks it is the 
opinion of geologists that the formations have been too far altered to offer 
promise for the discovery of large amounts of oil, though natural gas may 
be present at points of favorable structure. The geology of this section 
is explained and mapped in Geologic Folio 202. 

Cleveland 

This county is situated in the Coastal Plain region where conditions 
are regarded as being more favorable for the finding of oil and gas than 
elsewhere in the State. Dr. John C. Branner and Dr. N. F. Drake, both 
former State geologists, have made locations for prospect wells in this 
county. Three wells are now being drilled, two on these locations near 
Rison and a third near New Edinburg. There is some fairly good evidence of a 
gentle anticlinal fold extending northeast by southwest through the central 
part of Cleveland County. Dr. Drake says: "A test well might prove suc- 
cessful at most any depth between 1000 and 4000 feet or even a greater 
depth. All things considered this area appeals to me to offer a fair chance 
for success and one that is well worth the taking." 

Columbia 

This county lies adjacent to Union County in which is located the new 
El Dorado oil and gas field and it is situated immediately north of the 
Homer and Haynesville fields in Louisiana, in the Coastal- Plains region 
where conditions are more favorable for the finding of oil and gas than any 
other part of Arkansas. Several deep wells have been drilled in Columbia 
County. The geology of the section is explained and mapped in Professional 
Paper 46, published by the U. S. Geological Survey and in a press bulletin 
issued by the U. S. Geological Survey on the Eldorado field. Showings of 
oil were encountered in the Trinity well, Sec. 26, T. 18 S., R. 18 W., and 
in a well just west of Stephens. 

Conway 

From what is known concerning the geology of Conway County it 
may b.e said that, while natural gas may be found in paying quantities at 
points of favorable anticlinal or doma] structure, it is probable that the 
formations have been too much altered and compressed in that part of the 
State to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of petroleum. 

The late Dr. A. H. Purdue, former State geologist,, expressed the belief 
that indications were favorable for the extension of the gas field through 
the Arkansas Valley as far east as Little Rock and recommended the drilling 
of wells, wherever anticlines occurred in that territory. 

Craighead 

The general geology of Northeastern Arkansas has been mapped and 
described in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed examin- 
ation of the geological and structural conditions with special regard to oil 
and gas, and no commercial amounts of oil and gas have yet been found in 
this area. Craighead County is located in the Coastal Plain region in 
which the prospects for finding large quantities of oil, at points of favorable 
anticlinal or domal structure, are probably better than in other portions 
of the State. 



80 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Crawford 

Much of Crawford County and a part of Franklin County are embraced 
in Geologic Folio 154 of the U. S. Geological Survey. Bulletin 541 contains 
a short report on the Fort Smith-Poteau gas fields, lying partly in this 
region. There are numerous producing gas wells in the Arkansas River 
Valley in the southern part of Crawford County. This county lies in the 
region of exposed paleozoric rocks, which is not regarded by oil and gas 
geologists in general as favorable for the occurrence of large amounts of 
oil on account of the advanced stage of alteration of this formation. An 
explanation of the failure to find oil in the Western Arkansas gas field is 
offered by Dr. David White who estimates that where the fixed carbon 
content of the coal is 65% the oils which may formerly have been present 
in the same or underlying formations have mostly disappeared and that 
where coal shows a carbon ratio of 70% oil will not be found in commercial 
quantities though gas pools may be present. 

Crittenden 

This county lies in the Coastal Plain region where the prospects are 
most favorable for the presence of oil and gas but the county is covered by 
deposits of recent geologic age; thus it is difficult to detect indications 
favorable for the accumulation of these minerals in the buried formation. 
The general geology of this section is mapped in Water Supply Paper 399, 
"Geology and Ground Waters of Northeastern Arkansas." 

Cross 

If favorable anticlines or domes can be located either on Crowley's 
Ridge, or in the valleys on the east and west sides of the ridge, it is probable- 
that oil deposits will be found in Cross County as it is a part of the Coastal 
Region in which the prospects for discovery of commercial oil pools are 
probably better than in other parts of the State. It is difficult to detect in- 
dications favorable for the accumulation of oil and gas for the reason that 
especially in the valley sections the region is covered by deposits of recent 
geologic age. The general geolo-gy of this section is mapped in Water 
Supply Paper 399, "Geology and Ground Waters of Northeastern Arkansas."" 

Dallas 

Favorable indications have induced the drilling of deep wells at Fordyce 
and other points in Dallas County but so far without discovering either oil 
or gas in commercial amounts. Thirf county is in the heart of the Coastal 
Plain region, which geologists think offers greater promise for the dis- 
covery of oil than other portions of the State. The geology of this section 
is explained in U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 46, "Geology and 
Underground Water Resources of Northern Louisiana and Southern 
Arkansas." 

Desha 

The counties bordering on the Arkansas River in the eastern part of 
the State have not been examined in detail with regard to oil and gas pos- 
sibilities, but they are included in the Coastal Plain region of Arkansas in 
which the prospects for finding commercial quantities of oil at points of 
favorable structure are probably better than in other parts of the State. 
U. S. Geological Survey Paper 46 describes the geology and underground 
resources of 'Southern Arkansas. 

Drew 

No detailed oil and gas investigations have been made and the State 
has no information concerning the discovery in that area of any commercial 
amounts of oil and gas. Drew county lies in the Coastal Plain region of 
Arkansas, in which the prospects for finding commercial amounts of oil, 
If favorable anticlines or domes can be located, are probably better than in 
other parts of the State. The general geology of Drew County is mapped" 
and described in Professional Paper 46, "The Geology and Underground 
Water Resources of Northern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas." It would 
be difficult, if not impossible, to detect, from an examination of the surface,. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 81 

anticlines or domes in the buried formations, on account of the heavy 
mantle of deposits of recent geologic age. Several deep wells are being 
drilled on the Monticello Ridge near the city of Monticello. 

Faulkner 

This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks where, it is 
believed, the formations have been too far altered and compressed to be 
favorable for the occurrence of commercial oil pools, though natural gas 
may be present at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. No 
report has been published dealing with oil and gas conditions in this region. 
The formations outcropping in this part of the Ozarks are of greater geologic 
age than those in which oil and gas have been found in commercial quan- 
tities in this country, especially in the Mid-Continent fields. The late Dr. 
A. H. Purdue, former State geologist, expressed the belief that indications 
were favorable for the extension of the gas field through the Arkansas Valley 
as far east as Little Rock and recommended the drilling of wells wherever 
anticlines occurred in that territory. 

Franklin 

A small part of Franklin County is embraced in Geologic Polio 154, pub- 
lished by the U. S. Geological Survey. Although there is a production of 
natural gas in the adjoining county of Crawford and a showing of oil has 
been reported as being found in shallow wells at Ozark, there has been no 
commercial production. This part of the State lies in the region of exposed 
paleozoic rocks and is not regarded by oil and gas geologists in general as 
favorable for the occurrences of large amounts of oil on account of the ad- 
vanced stage of alteration of the formations. Deep wells have been drilled 
in different parts of the county, so far, without results. One of these tests 
was in a well located anticline where there was thought to be possibilities 
of oil in the lower part of the Pennsylvania formation. There is also a 
favorable anticline at Jethro in the northern part of the county. 

Fulton 

This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks, where, in the 
opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too much 
altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of oil. 

Garland 

This region is treated geologically in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
691- J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas." 
Garland County is in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, in the 
opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too far 
altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial pools of oil. There 
has been no detailed examination of the geology or structure with regard to 
oil and gas possibilities. There is no possibility that either oil in com- 
mercial quantities or gas in large pools will be found in the Ouachita Moun- 
tain region of west-central Arkansas. The Carboniferous and older rocks 
have been so highly tilted and so much fractured and metamorphosed that if 
oil or gas were ever present in them the gas and much of the oil would 
have made their escape to the surface and the remainder of the oil would 
have been distilled to asphalt. 

Grant 

This county lies within the Coastal Plain region where conditions are 
more favorable than elsewhere in the State for the accumulation of oil and 
natural gas and there is encouragement for prospecting where anticlines and 
domes can be located. The geology of this section is explained in Water 
Supply Paper 46, published by the U. S. Geological Survey. There has been 
no detailed survey for oil and gas and no commercial production of either 
mineral has been reported though several deep wells are now being 
drilled in the county. 

Greene 

The general geology of Northeastern Arkansas has been mapped and 
described in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed examin- 



82 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

ation of the geological and structural conditions with special regard to oil 
and gas and no commercial amounts of oil and gas have yet been found in 
this area. Greene County is located in the Coastal Plain region in which the 
prospects for finding large quantities of oil at points of favorable anticlinal 
or domal structure, are probably better than in other portions of the State. 

Hempstead 

This county lies in the Coastal Plain region where the prospects for the 
discovery of commercial amounts of oil, especially if anticlines or domes 
can be located there, are probably better than in other parts of the State. 
A small map showing the geology of Hempstead County is included in 
Bulletin 691- J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in Southwestern Arkan- 
sas," published by the U. S. Geological Survey. Several deep wells have 
lately been drilled into what is regarded as favorable structure in the 
vicinity of Hope but there has as yet been no commercial production of 
either gas or oil. 

Hot Spring 

The general geology of Hot Spring County has been described and 
mapped in Professional Paper 46, "Geology and Underground Water Re- 
sources of Northern Louisiana and Southern Arkansas." This county lies 
partly in the Coastal Plain region and partly in the area of exposed paleo- 
zoic rocks, the first being regarded as favorable and the second unfavorable 
for the accumulation of oil and gas. A deep well was drilled near Gifford 
but did not encounter either mineral. 

Howard 

The southern part of Howard County lies in the Coastal Plain region 
and if local anticlines or domes could be located, ft is possible that com- 
mercial quantities of oil may be found there. Bulletin 691-J, published by 
the U. S. Geological Survey deals with the asphalt deposits and oil possi- 
bilities of this section. The Cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Arkansas 
have a southward dip of about 100 feet to the mile and, although they 
have been slightly warped, no pronounced anticlines or synclines occur in 
Pike, Howard and Sevier counties. Thus if petroleum occurs in the region 
south of the asphalt deposits, its accumulation into quantities of possible 
commercial importance would probably be controlled by terrace structure, 
lanticular character of sands or irregularities in the Cretaceous floor. 

Independence 

Small amounts of natural gas have been encountered in wells in the vi- 
cinity of Batesville and it is regarded as probable that favorable structure 
embracing Upper Mississippian formations may give gas in commercial 
amounts especially on the south side of White River. The formations in 
this part of Arkansas, it is believed, have been too far altered to be favor- 
able for the occurrence of large quantities of oil. Geological conditions 
north and northwest of Batesville are described in Bulletin 715-G, U. S. 
Geological Survey. An examination in the vicinity of Batesville was made 
by the U. S. Geological Survey several years ago but no report was pub- 
lished for the reason that the conditions were not encouraging from the 
standpoint of oil prospects, although hardly discouraging with reference to 
possible development of natural gas in small supplies. It is the opinion 
that the alterations of the rocks in the Batesville district has probably pro- 
gressed too far to offer promise for the discovery of commercial oil pools, 
though natural gas may be present in paying quantities at points of favorable 
structure folds or anticlines. 

Izard 

It is the opinion of geologists that the region of exposed paleozoic rocks 
in Arkansas, which embraces Izard County, offers no promise for the dis- 
covery of commercial oil pools because the formations have been too far 
compressed or altered. 'Small deposits of natural gas have been found and 
it is probable that additional supplies will be developed at points of favor- 
able anticlinal or domal structure. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 83 

Jackson 

Newport, the seat of Jackson County, is located on the border of the 
Coastal Plain. To the eastward the conditions are favorable for the dis- 
covery of oil. To the westward there are indications of natural gas, but 
not of oil in commercial amounts although oil seepages have been en- 
countered. The geology of the region is explained in U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey Water Supply Paper 399 and the report of a special survey of the 
Batesville district, known as U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 716, will 
prove of special interest in a study of the oil and gas geology of Jackson 
County. 

Jefferson 

No survey for oil and gas has been made of Jefferson County. This 
being a part of the Coastal Plain region it is believed that the presence 
of oil and gas may be expected where the structure is favorable. The gen- 
eral geology of this section is described in Professional Paper 46, published 
by the U. S. Geological Survey. Also in Water Supply Paper 399. Consid- 
erable drilling has been done in Jefferson County. In a well sunk several 
years ago at Faith, in T. 75, R. 10 W. it is reported that a showing of oil 
was encountered at a depth of 2231 feet, but the test was abandoned at a 
depth of 2541 feet. On account of the covering of deposits of a recent 
geologic age, the detection of local anticlines or domes, favorable for the 
accumulation of oil or gas, in the buried formations, is difficult if not im- 
possible from an investigation of surface criteria. 

Johnson 

Johnson County lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, 
in the opinion of geologists, the formations have been too far altered and 
compressed to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of 
oil, though natural gas has been found in this region and additional supplies 
will probably be developed at points of favorable anticlinal or domal 
structure. U. S. Geological Survey Bulletins 326 and 427 deal with the 
geology of this region. Gas was reported to have been found at 2260 feet 
on the J. W. Pierson farm, five miles northwest of Clarksville (22-10-24), in 
November, 1921. 

Lafayette 

Geological conditions especially favor Lafayette County in the matter 
of oil and gas development, it being situated contiguous to both the El 
Dorado field in Arkansas and the Caddo field in Louisiana and is embraced 
in the Coastal Plain region where geologists concede the best chances exist 
for finding oil and gas in Arkansas. Several wells have been drilled but 
so far there has been no production in this county. The geology of 
Lafayette Countly is explained in Professional Paper 46, published by the 
U. S. Geological Survey and in Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil 
Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas," also published by the Survey, there 
is a good deal of information about conditions generally in Southwest 
Arkansas. 

Lawrence 

The general geology of this part of Arkansas has been mapped and 
described in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no special survey 
for oil and gas. The eastern part of Lawrence County is located in the 
Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for finding large quantities of 
oil at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure, are probably better 
than in other portions of the State. Western Lawrence County is in the 
area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, in the opinion of most oil and 
gas geologists, the formations have been too much altered to offer promise 
for the discovery of large amounts of oil, though natural gas may be present 
where the structure is favorable. 

Lee 

Owing to the heavy deposits of a recent geologic age it is aiincuic 
from a study of the surface conditions to detect favorable locations, in Lee 



84 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

County, for the accumulation in the buried structure, of oil and gas in com- 
mercial amounts. The whole county lies in the Coastal Plain region where 
conditions are regarded as more encouraging than in other parts of the 
State. The geology of this district is explained and mapped in U. S. 
Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399, "Underground Waters of North- 
eastern Arkansas. 

Lincoln 

This section has not been examined in detail with regard to oil and 
gas but it lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for finding 
commercial quantities of oil at points of favorable structure are probably 
better than in other parts of the State. U. S. Geological Survey Paper 4fi 
describes the geology and underground resources of Southern Arkansas 

Little River 

Since the geological and strategraphic conditions in Little! River 
County are similar to those in the producing oil and gas fields of North- 
western Louisiana (and Southern Arkansas) it seems probable that com- 
mercial amounts of oil and gas will be found in the county if favorable 
anticlines or domes can be located. However, no detailed examinations have 
been made to determine the local structural conditions and, in fact, any 
such determination would be difficult if not impossible, on account of the 
covering of deposits of recent geologic age which conceals the structure 
of the underlying formations. The general geologic features of Little River 
County are shown in a map included in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 
691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas " 

Logan 

Some information concerning the geology and broad structure of Logan 
County is given in Bulletin 326, a report on the Arkansas coal field. Logan 
County is embraced in the coal field area of Arkansas, in which in the opinion 
of most oil and gas geologists the formations have been too far altered and 
compressed to be favorable for the occurrence of oil in commercial amounts, 
though natural gas has been found and it is probable that additional supplies 
will be developed at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. Deep 
wells have recently been drilled near Booneville and Magazine but no 
production of oil has been reported. 

Lonoke 

The geology of this part of Arkansas is discussed quite fully in Water 
Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed investigations to determine 
the oil and gas prospects. Lonoke County is located in the Coastal Plain 
region in which the prospects for the discovery of commercial quantities of 
oil, at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure, are probably better 
than in other parts of the State. Dr. John C. Branner, former State geologist, 
made the location for a prospect oil well which at this writing is being 
drilled in the vicinity of England. 

Madison 

Detailed descriptions of the northern half of Madison County are em- 
bodied in Geologic Folios 119, 154 and 202. Any commercial amounts of oil 
encountered in extreme Northwestern Arkansas will probably be in forma- 
tions of greater geologic age than those yielding oil and gas in Oklahoma and 
Kansas. In the opinions of most oil and gas geologists the formations in 
this region have been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery 
of commercial pools of oil, though natural gas may be found at points of 
favorable structure. 

Marion 

The formations in this section have been too far altered and com- 
pressed to permit the survival of commercial oil pools, even if oil once 
were present. Some natural gas has been discovered in Northwest Arkansas 
and it is possible that additional supplies will be developed at points of fav- 
orable structure. The geology of this region is mapped and described in 
Geologic Folios 119 and 202. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 85 

Miller 

The geology of Southwestern Arkansas is discussed in U. S. Geological 
Survey Bulletins 661-C, 690-B and 691-J. The first bulletin contains some in- 
formation regarding the Sabine Uplift including a map showing its location 
and partial extent. It also describes the Trinity sand and strata of Eocene 
age. Bulletin 691-J discusses the asphalt deposits and oil conditions and 
gives information concerning the Trinity formation in Southwestern Arkan- 
sas. Numerous wells have been drilled in Miller County without any pro- 
duction so far being reported. 

Mississippi 

This county lies in the valley between two great rivers, the Mississippi 
and the St. Francis and the entire surface is covered with many feet of 
alluvial soil brought down in recent years from the water sheds of these 
streams. It is therefore difficult if not impossible to detect from surface 
indications the locations most favorable for the accumulation in the buried 
deposits of commercial amounts of oil and gas. The whole county lies in 
the Coastal Plain region where conditions are regarded as being more fav- 
orable than elsewhere in the State. The geology of Mississippi County is 
explained in U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399. 

Monroe 

The Coastal Plain region, embracing Monroe County, offers the greatest 
promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of oil and there is en- 
couragement for the drilling of wells at points where a favorable structure 
is to be found. The geology of this section is explained in U. S. Geological 
Survey, Professional Paper 46. 

Montgomery 

This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which in 
the opinion of most oil and gas geologists the formations have been too far 
altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial pools of oil, though 
gas may be found at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. The 
geology of this general section is discussed in U. S. Geological Survey Bul- 
letin 691-J. There has been no detailed examination of the geology or 
structure with regard to oil and gas possibilities. 

Nevada 

This county lies in the Coastal Plain region in close proximity to the 
producing El Dorado field. The geologic maD shows the area about equally 
divided between the Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous formations. The 
geologists say that metamorphic action has not altered the beds to a de- 
gree that would destroy oil accumulations and in favorable anticlinal and 
domal situations it may reasonably be expected that oil and gas would be 
found in Nevada County. The geology of the section is explained in U. S. 
Geological Survey Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions in 
Southwestern Arkansas." Several deep wells have been drilled in the 
vicinity of Prescott but no production of either oil or gas is reported 
at this time. 

Newton 

This county is located in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which 
in the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too 
far altered to offer promise for the discovery of large amounts of oil, though 
natural gas may be present at points of favorable structure. The geology 
of this section is explained and mapped in Geologic Folio 202. The out- 
croppings in the Ozark region are of greater geologic age than those in which 
oil and gas have been found in commercial quantities in this country, especi- 
ally in the Mid-Continent field. 

Ouachita 

This county is in the Coastal Plain region which embraces the eastern 
and southern parts of the State, including Union County where oil and gas 
have recently been developed. Before the bringing in of the discovery 



86 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



well in El Dorado a showing of oil was reported from the Hunter well 
located near Stephens and for a time there was a good deal of activity in 
the buying and selling of leases in the neighborhood. It was reported that 
one of the large oil syndicates obtained control of the field. There has 
since been no new drilling and no oil is being produced at this time. At 
Chidester and other places in the county efforts also have been made to 
find oil and gas. The geology of the rogion is explained in U. S. Geological 
Survey Bulletin 429, 1910, "Oil and Gas in Louisiana and Adjacent States," 
and in Professional Paper 46, 1906, IT. S. Geological Survey. 

Perry 

No examination of the geology and structure of Perry County has been 
made with a view to determining the oil and gas possibilities in that area. 
The county lies in the region of exposed paleozoic formations in which, 
in the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too 
much altered to offer promise for the occurrence of commercial oil pools. 
It is, however, possible that natural gas may be found if favorable anti- 
clines or domes can be located. The fact that several hundred wells drilled 
in the paleozoic region of Arkansas have failed to encounter commercial 
amounts of oil constitutes important evidence as to the improbability of 
finding such deposits there. 

Phillips 

This is a typical "bottom land" county on the Mississippi River front 
and, except for the tertiary projection known as Crowley's Ridge, the whole 
area is covered by sediment brought down in recent times by the great river 
and its tributaries. These deposits covering as they do the Quaternary beds 
prevent a study of the structure where it would be expected that oil and 
gas might accumulate and knowledge will be gained only by the drilling of 
prospect wells where conditions seem most favorable. This being a part of 
the Coastal Plain region the geologists agree that the indications are as fav- 
orable for finding oil and gas in Phillips County as in any other part of the 
State. 

Pike 

The geology of this section is mapped and discussed in U. S. Geological 
Survey Bulletin 691-J describing the asphalt deposits and oil conditions of 
Southwestern Arkansas, embracing Pike County. The presence of asphalt 
in Pike and Sevier counties has from time to time attracted the attention of 
those interested in oil development and a few wells have been sunk with 
the hope of finding oil, but thus far oil has not been found in commercial 
quantity. The Trinity formation which covers a part of the county con^ 
tains petroleum and asphalt at many places in Northern Texas and South- 
western Oklahoma. The petroleum yielding the asphalt in Arkansas is be- 
lieved to have been derived from the carboniferous rocks underlying the 
Trinity formation near the base of which the asphalt is found. 

The Cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Arkansas have a southward 
dip of about 100 feet to the mile, and although they have been slightly 
warped, no pronounced anticlines or synclines occur in Pike, Howard and 
Sevier counties. Thus, if petroleum occurs in the region south of the 
asphalt deposits, its accumulation into quantities of possible commercial 
importance would probably be controlled by terrace structure, lenticular 
character of sands, or irregularities in the Cretaceous floor. 

Poinsett 

This county lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects 
for discovering commercial oil pools are probably better than in other parts 
of Arkansas. If favorable anticlines or domes can be located it is probable 
that oil deposits will be found there. The region is covered by deposits of 
recent geologic age, so that it is difficult, if not impossible, from an exam- 
ination of the surface, to detect indications favorable for the accumulation of 
oil and gas in the buried formation. The general geology of this section is 
mapped in Water Supply paper 399, "Geology and Ground Waters of North- 
eastern Arkansas." There has recently been considerable prospecting in 
the vicinity of Harrisburg, but so far no production is reported. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 87 

Polk 

This county is located in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, 
in the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have been too 
much compressed and too far altered to offer promise for the discovery of 
commercial pools of oil, although it is possible that natural gas might be 
found at points of favorable anticlinal or domal structure. The general 
geological features of the a^eu are &hown on a map included in Bulletin 
691-J, relating to asphalt deposits aud oil conditions in Southwestern 
Arkansas. 

Pope 

This county lies in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks, in which, in the 
opinion of geologists, the formations have been too far altered and com- 
pressed to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts of oil, 
though natural gas has been found in the region and additional supplies 
will probably be developed at points of favorable anticlinal or domal struct- 
ure. U. S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 326, pertaining to the coal fields 
of the State, gives information regarding the geology of this section. 

Prairie 

Included in the Coastal Plain region, Prairie county is thought to have 
favorable chances for finding oil and gas in commercial quantities, but there 
has been no detailed survey with special reference to these minerals and 
very little is known as to the location of favorable anticlines or domes. 
The general geology of the region is explained in Professional Paper 46, 
U. S. Geological Survey, and in Water Supply Paper 399, by the same 
survey, the latter dealing with the geology and underground waters of 
Northeastern Arkansas. 

Pulaski 

With the exception of the southeastern corner Pulaski County lies 
in the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in which it is thought that the forma- 
tions have been too much altered and compressed to offer promise of the 
survival of commercial pools of oil, even if oil was once present. The south- 
eastern corner of the county is in the Coastal Plain region in which the 
prospects of finding commercial amounts of oil are better than in other 
parts of the State but no survey has been made to determine whether the 
formations are of sufficient aggregate thickness or have been folded into 
domes or anticlines so that they offer conditions favorable for the occurrence 
of commercial oil pools. Several deep wells have been drilled without en- 
countering either oil or gas. It is believed that the Western Arkansas gas 
field may be found to extend eastward as far as Little Rock. 

Randolph 

No detailed examination has been made of the geological and structural 
features of Northeastern Arkansas, with regard to oil and gas possibilities, 
and no commercial amounts of oil have been found in Randolph County. 
The general geology of this section has been mapped and described in U. S. 
Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399. A portion of the southeastern 
part of Randolph County lies in the Coastal Plain region which probably 
offers greater promise for the discovery of commercial oil pools than other 
portions of the State. The region of exposed paleozoic rocks is regarded as 
unfavorable for the accumulation of oil in commercial quantities but it is 
possible that natural gas may be found here, where the structure Is 
favorable. 

Saline 

In the area of exposed paleozoic rocks in Arkansas, embracing most of 
Saline County, it is probable that the formations have been too greatly com- 
pressed and altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial amounts 
of oil, though natural gas may be present at points of favorable anticlinal 
or domal structure. The geology of this general section is discussed in Bul- 
letin 429, U. S. Geological Survey, "Oil and gas in Louisiana and adjacent 
States," and Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt Deposits and Oil Conditions of South- 
western Arkansas," also published by the Survey. 



88 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Scott 

A part of this county lies in the natural gas belt of Western Arkansas. 
Bulletin 326, which is a report on the Arkansas coal field, describes the 
geology of parts of Scott and Yell counties. Bulletin 541 contains a report 
of the Fort Smith-Poteau gas field, and describes the geology of the north- 
ern part of Scott County. It is the opinion of most oil and gas geologists 
that the formations in that part of Arkansas embracing Scott County have 
been too far altered by regional metamorphism to offer promise for the dis- 
covery of oil in commercial amounts, although it is probable that additional 
supplies of natural gas will be found at points of favorable anticlinal or 
domal structure. A showing of oil was obtained in a well drilled to a depth 
of 2700 feet near Waldron some years ago but the well did not prove a pro- 
ducer. 

Searcy 

Information regarding the general geology of Searcy County is given 
in Water Supply Paper 399. There has been no detailed investigations such 
as are essential to any determination of oil or gas prospects in this county. 
Searcy County lies in the region of exposed paleozoic rocks in which, ac- 
cording to the opinion of most oil and gas geologists, the formations have 
been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery of commercial oil 
pools. Natural gas may be found in the region, in anticlines and domes, 
where the folding has not been too severe. 

Sebastian 

The Fort Smith-Poteau gas field has been mapped and describel by the 
U. S. Geological Survey in Bulletin 541. If favorable anticlines or domes 
can be located in this part of the State it is probable that additional gas 
supplies may be developed. 

The first gas well was drilled in Arkansas on the Massard Prairie, 
south of Fort Smith in 1901. The producing field at present extends north 
and south of the Arkansas River, from near Alma on the east to Poteau, 
Oklahoma, embracing parts of Crawford, Sebastian and Scoft counties. ' The 
production of natural gas in this field from wells drilled in 1919 exceeded 
200,000,000 cubic feet a day. One well has a record of 24,000,000 cubic feet 
a day and is rated as one of the largest in the Southwest. 

Gas is found at depths of from 750 to 3175 feet. There are seven dis- 
tinct producing sands, each from 40 to 280 feet thick. The product is dry, 
clean and odorless. Under government test this gas shows a heating record 
of 1057 British thermal units, which is considerably higher than the tests 
made by most gases from the 'Southwestern field. 

Five companies are operating in the Arkansas field and pipe lines are 
laid from the wells to nearby cities for distribution to more than 100 indus- 
tries and thousands of private homes. 

The following analysis of natural gas from the Kibler field in Crawford 
county is furnished to the department by Mr. Walter D. Van Sickel, general 
manager of the Southwestern General Gas Company, Fort Smith, Ark. 

Carbon Dioxide 0.14% 

Oxygen 0.06% 

Methene , 97.60% 

Ethane 1.70% 

Residue .50% 



Total 100.00% 

Heating value: 

Gross 1070 B. T. U. 

Net 971 B. T. U. 

As to oil prospects in the Western Arkansas natural gas field, Dr. Drake, 
former State geologist, says : 

"Metamorphism has for a long time been recognized as a means of de- 
stroying oil accumulations. It offers what is apparently the best explana- 
tion for not finding oil in the Kibler, Massard Prairie and neighboring gas 
fields of Western Arkansas." 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 89 

Sevier 

The geological and stratagraphic features of Southwestern Arkansas 
are similar to those in the producing oil and gas field of Northwestern 
Louisiana (and Southern Arkansas) and if favorable anticlines or domes 
can be located in the former region it is probable that commercial amounts 
of oil and gas will be found there. No commercial amounts of oil or gas 
have yet been found in Sevier County although traces of both have been 
encountered. Information concerning oil and gas conditions in this part 
of Arkansas are included in U. S. Geological Survey Bulletin 691-J, "Asphalt 
Deposits and Gil Conditions in Southwestern Arkansas," whichi says: 
"The Cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Arkansas have a southward dip of 
about 100 feet to the mile and, although they have been slightly warped, 
no pronounced anticlines or synclines occur in Pike, Howard and Sevier 
counties. Thus it' petroleum occurs in the region south of the asphalt 
deposits its accumulation into quantities of possible commercial importance 
would probably be controlled by terrace structure, lenticular character of 
sands or irregularity in the cretaceous rock. A flow of gas was obtained 
near DeQueen in 1918. 

Sharp 

The general geology of Sharp County is shown on a map included in 
Water Supply Paper 399, "Geology and Ground Waters of Northwestern 
Arkansas." No commercial amounts of oil have been found in that part 
of Arkansas and it is the general opinion that the formations have been 
too far altered and too greatly compressed to offer promise for the discovery 
of oil pools, though natural gas may be found at points of favorable anti- 
clinal or domal structure. 

St Francis 

Except for Crowley's Ridge, which extends north and south through 
the center of St. Francis County, it is difficult to study the geology of this 
district and its relation to the development of oil and gas for the reason 
that the greater part of the county, east and west of the ridge is overlaid by 
deposits of a recent geological age, preventing a study of the buried forma- 
tions in which it may be expected that these minerals will be found. The 
county is in the Coastal Plain region which is regarded as being favorably 
situated for the accumulation of oil and gas. The geology of the district is 
explained in U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 399. 

Stone 

Geologists seem to agree that the region of exposed paleozoic rocks in 
Arkansas, which embraces Stone County, offers no promise for the discovery 
of commercial oil pools for the reason that the formations have been too far 
compressed and altered. Small deposits of natural gas have been found 
and it is probable that additional s applies will be developed at points of 
favorable anticlinal or domal structure. 

Union. 

The Eldorado oil and gas field is fully described in a special bulletin 
compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey later to be published by the Ar- 
kansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture. The following 
is taken from -an advance press bulletin issued by the Survey prior to the 
completion of the discovery well on Jan. 10, 1921. 

"The formations in Southern Arkansas are practically identical with 
those that yield oil and gas in Northern Louisiana and the location of the 
area, with relation to the Ouachita and Saline uplifts, indicates that there 
is in that area favorable anticlinal structure comparable to the anticlines 
beneath which the Caddo and Homer pools were formed. Most important 
of all, oil and gas have been actually found, the first strike occurring in the 
Spring of 1920 in the Constantin Refining Company's well about four 
miles southwest of Eldorado, when a flow of gas estimated at from 
10,000.000 to 100,000,000 cubic feet a day and a spray of oil was obtained." 

Since this time more than 598 producing oil wells and 30 gas wells have 
been completed and this development has centered attent'on in Union, Col- 



90 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



umbia and Ouachita counties, though LaFayette, Nevada, Bradley and Ash- 
ley counties are also regarded as containing favorable areas. 

"The surface formations are principally sands, gravels and clays of 
Pleistocene age and clays and sandstones of the Claiborne group, of Eocene 
age. Many of the clay beds are "gumbo," red to brown in color, with no 
evident fissility or bedding that will aid in deciphering the structure. Others 
are gray and are platy, with strikingly marked stratification. There are 
also a few buff to tan clays, which contain lenses of coarse gravel. The 
gray and brown clays and shales at many places contain a large percentage 
of microscopically fine sand and behave like sandstones in revealing the 
work of currents by cross-bedding, so that what seems to be structural dips 
must be carefully examined before they are accepted as such. * * * 

"The existence of anticlinal structure is indicated by pronounced dips 
that can be seen in the railroad cuts and along roads through the district. 
The observable dips are not sufficiently numerous to reveal the extent 
and exact outlines of the folds, but careful work will doubtless disclose 
other criteria that may be used in outlining them. In some places the dips 
are so steep that they are possibly due to slumping or faulting rather than 
to folding, and there is undoubtedly some cross-bedding, but even after 
these doubtful areas are ruled out of consideration there remain enough 
good exposures in which reliable observations can be made to make it 
certain that there are anticlinal folds whose flanks dip from one-half to 
six degrees. These pronounced dips indicate that the folds will be large, 
as sharp dips on small structural features are rare. * * * 

'The evidence available indicates that southwestern Arkansas is one 
of the most promising undeveloped regions, and it is hoped that prospecting 
will proceed until its potentialities are fully revealed." 

El Dorado Production in 1921. 

In the El Dorado field there are 589 producing wells having in 1921 a 
total production of 11,672,480 barrels, of the value of $23,344,960. The de- 
velopment by months was as follows: 

WELL RECORD 



January 
February . 


Completed 
9 

. . .. 4 


March 


15 


April 


25 


May 


58 


June 


98 


July . .. 


76 


August 


97 




76 


October 


90 


November .... 


41 


December .. 


83 



Oil 
1 

4 

19 
51 
90 
71 
91 
70 
83 
31 
75 



Gas 
2 

"l 
3 
4 
3 
3 
4 
1 
3 
5 
3 



Dry 


Barrels Sold 


6 


No Sales 




No Sales 


~2 


No Sales 


3 


No Sales 


3 


930,000 


5 


1,168,350 


2 


1,596,500 


2 


1,948,753 


5 


1,437,730 


4 


1,355,847 


5 


1,830,800 


5 


1,404,500 



Total .................. 672 598 32 42 11,672,480 

Analysis of El Dorado Crude. 

Reported by U. S. Geological Survey, Sample Number 716, State of Ar- 
kansas, El Dorado Field, Union County. 

Specific gravity, 0.852 
Per cent sulphur, 0.83 
Baume" gravity, 34.3 
Per cent water, 0.1 

Saybolt Universal viscosity at 70 F. 57.0 
Saybolt Universal viscosity at 100 F. 46.6 
Pour test, below 5 F. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



Distillation, Bureau of Mines Hempel Method. 
Air distillation, Barometer, 749 mm. First drop/ 31* c. (88* F.) 



Temp. Pet. Sum Sp. Gr. 



C Cut Pet. Cut 






Up to 50 






50- 75 4.5 4.5 0.680 


75.9 




75-100 4.2 8.7 .701 


69.7 




100-125 7.1 15.8 .722 


63.9 




125-150 6.2 22.0 .746 


57.7 




150-175 5.1 27.1 .772 


51.3 




175-200 3.6 30.7 .795 


46.1 




200-225 3.5 34.2 .810 


42.8 




225-250 4.4 38.6 .823 


40.1 




250-275 5.1 43.7 .833 


38.1 




Vacuum distillation at 40 mm. 






Up to 200 5.5 5.5 .853 


34.1 


40 


200-225 6.5 12.0 .860 


32.8 


45 


225-250 5.9 17.9 .874 


30.2 


60 


250-275 5.4 23.3 .890 


27.3 


81 


275-300 4.6 27.9 .903 


25.0 


132 


Carbon residue of residuum 10.3%. 



Cloud 

B. Viscos- Test Temp. 
Cut ity *F F 



Up to 122 
122-167 
167-212 
212-257 
257-302 
302-347 
347-392 
392-437 
437-482 
482-527 



18 
30 
52- 
72 
91 



Up to 392 
392-437 
437-482 
482-527 
527-572 



Approximate Summary. 



Per cent. Sp. Gr. B. 

Gasoline and naphtha 30.7 0.735 60.5 

Kerosene 13.0 .823 40.1 

Gas oil 12.0 .857 33.4 

Light lubricating distillate 11.3 .882 28.7 

Medium lubricating distillate 4.6 .903 25.0 

Van Buren 

Formations outcropping in Van Buren County are of greater geological 
age than those in which oil and gas have been found in commercial quantities 
in this country, especially in the Mid-Continent fields. This county is in the 
area of exposed paleozoic rocks where It is the opinion of geologists that 
the formations have been too far altered to offer promise for the discovery 
of large amounts of oil though natural gas may be present at points of 
favorable structure. The geology of this section is explained and mapped 
in Geologic Folio 202. 

Washington 

Any commercial amounts of oil encountered in extreme Northwestern 
Arkansas will probably be in formations of greater geologic age than those 
yielding oil and gas in Oklahoma and Kansas. Detailed descriptions of the 
eastern edge of Washington County are embodied in Geologic Folios 119, 
154 and 202. A well 300 feet deep located four miles northwest of Fayette- 
ville has for several years furnished gas fuel for cooking and heating at a 
farm house. 

The occurrence of oil and gas in the vicinity of Fayetteville has led 
many to the expectation that something substantial might be realized from 
it. But the oil indications are based solely upon the occurrence of petroleum 
in small quantities in the Fayetteville shale, and the gas thus far discovered 
is evidently from the same source, and likewise of small quantity. Oil may 
occur in the rocks of any geological horizon, and the mere fact of its pres- 
ence is not, as many suppose, prima facie evidence of the existence of 
petroleum in paying quantities. The Fayetteville shale has been pretty 
thoroughly explored, and there is no substantial reason for expecting it to 
prove a source of oil. 

It may be well in this connection to correct an error in regard to the 
relation of the structural geology of this part of the State to this il-satur- 



92 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

ated rock on Cove Creek. It has been thought that the rocks in the Boston 
Mountains dipped north forming a basin in the central or northern part of 
Washington County, and that the oil-bearing rocks exposed on Cove Creek 
would therefore be found at a considerable depth in Benton County and in 
Northern Washington County, and rich in oil. This is a grave mistake. The 
general dip of the rocks through the Boston Mountains is to the south, 
though there are many local dips in other directions. 

White 

Water Supply Paper 399 contains a geologic map of White County and 
describes the geology of the southeast half of this county. White County is 
located on the border between the area of paleozoic rocks and the Coastal 
Plain region. In the former region, it is probable that the formations have 
been too far altered and compressed to be favorable for the occurrence of 
commercial oil pools though natural gas may be present at points of favor- 
able anticlinal or domal structure. The Coastal Plain region probably offers 
greater promise than other parts of the State for the discovery of oil in 
paying quantities but it is not known whether the formations of the Coastal 
Plain in White County are of sufficient thickness in the aggregate to offer 
favorable conditions for the occurrence of commercial amounts of oil. Deep 
wells have recently been drilled in the vicinity of El Paso and near Judsonia 
without success in the efforts to find oil. 

Woodruff 

This county lies in the Coastal Plain region in which the prospects for 
finding commercial amounts of oil, if favorable anticlines or domes can be 
located, are better than in other parts of the State. However there has been 
no investigation of the geological and structural conditions in that county in 
sufficient detail to gain any knowledge as to the presence of local anticlines 
or domes in the buried formations in which oil and gas, if present, would 
be encountered. 

Yell 

Bulletin 351 contains a geologic map of Arkansas and brief descriptions 
of the geology of Yell County. The larger number of wells that have been 
drilled in the region of exposed paleozoic rocks, some of which are in Yell 
County, and their failure to encounter commercial amounts of oil constitutes 
important evidence as to the improbability of finding such deposits there, 
the geologists think. It is possible that natural gas may be found in this 
part of the State where favorable anticlines or domes can be located. 




Tanks Loaded with Arkansas Oil in El Dorado Yards. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 93 

Pearls 

Precious pearls are procured from the fresh water mollusca of White 
and Black Rivers in North Arkansas and occasionally from Little River in 
Southwest Arkansas. The Arkansas pearls are of rare quality in color and an 
unusually high per centage are perfectly shaped. Frequently gems are found 
that bring from $300 to $2,500 each. 

The pearl-bearing shells are extensively used in the manufacture of 
pearl buttons, being dredged from the bottom of the streams by specially 
designed boats manned by expert fishermen. Tons of these mollusca are 
marketed annually at Black Rock, Newport, DeValls Bluff and Clarendon, 
where there are plants for the production of the pearl buttons of commerce. 



Perofskite 

Titanic and calcium oxides. In cubes, octahedrons, etc., and fine twin 
crystals. Magnet Cove. 



Phosphates 

The developed phosphate deposits of Arkansas are on Lafferty Creek, 
on the western edge of Independence County. The only point at which the 
beds are now worked is about three-fourths of a mile east of White River 
and the same distance from the White River branch of the Missouri Pacific 
Railroad. Although this is the only locality at which the deposits have been 
developed, they have a wide east-west extent, reaching from the town of 
Hickory Valley, ten miles northeast of Batesville, westward at least as far as 
St. Joe, in Searcy County, a distance of more than 80 miles. A phosphate 
bed, which is practically horizontal, outcrops in a winding line on- the hill- 
sides and in other places between the points mentioned. A phosphoric 
horizon can be traced to the westward border of the state, but at no point 
west of St. Joe have phosphate rocks, in considerable amount, attracted 
the attention of geologists. Thin layers of phosphatic sandstone are found 
in the Devonian shales in the western part of Carroll County, on War Eagle 
Creek. 

The following analyses of specimens of the rock were made in the 
laboratory of the United States Geological Survey: 

Equivalent in 

Phosphoric Calcium Phosphate 
Acid (P 2 5 ) (Gas (PCM*) 
Four inches from top of bed ................................ 25.86 56.45 

Middle of bed ........................................................ 27.24 59.46 

Eight inches from bottom of bed ........................ 27.40 59.81 

Black phosphate ...................................................... 32.60 71.06 

Composite sample .................................................... 29.18 63.70 

From lower Ded ........................................................ 13.46 29.38 

The whole area over which the phosphate beds occur or are to be 
expected, has not been examined, and it is not known, therefore, how much 
the materials vary in character and composition. Judging from what is 
already known it seems reasonable to suppose that better deposits than 
any thus far found may yet be discovered. "The point, however, to which 
we would direct especial attention," says Doctor Branner, "is that all of these 
rocks, even those running high in iron and aluminia, may be used directly as 
fertilizers. This is a fact of the first importance to the owners of phosphate 
lands and to the farmers of the South." 

Mention has also been made of the occurrence of phosphate nodules in 
Clark County at a different geological horizon, but the pebbles have never 
been found in sufficient quantities to prove of economic interest. 

REFERENCES 
Branner, John C. and XewNom, J. P. The phosphate rocks of Arkansas. 



Bulletin No. 74, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, 1902; Review, En 
gineering- and Mining Journal, Abstract 25. 



94 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 




PHOSPHATE DEPOSfTS 

Phosphate Area of Northern Arkansas. 



The phosphate deposits of Arkansas. Transactions of American Institute 
of Mining Engineers, 1896, Vol. XXVI, 1896. 

Arkansas phosphate rocks. Arkansas Democrat, semi-weekly, Little 
Rock, November 3, 1901; Harrison Times, Harrison, Arkansas, January 18, 1902. 

Purdue, A. H. Developed phosphate deposits of Northern Arkansas. Bul- 
letin No. 315, U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, 1907. 

Memminger, C. G. Phosphate rocks in Arkansas. Mineral Industry, Vol. 
XI, New York, 1903. 

Stone, Ralph W. Phosphate Rock in 1918. U. S. Geol. Surv., Mineral Re- 
sources of the United States, 1918. 

Waggraman, Wm. H. A report on the natural phosphates of Tennessee, 
Kentucky, and Arkansas. Bulletin No. 81, United States Department of Ag- 
riculture, Bureau of Soils, Washington, 1912. 



Finite 

Hydrous alkaline silicate; Speckstein (Syn). A group well represented, 
but needing more study; in granitic rocks, pseudomorphous after lolite? 
Also other species probably pseudomorphous after nephelite and other min- 
erals; other members of the pinite group occur here and elsewhere; Finite 
schist occurs at junction of quarts with black shale. Magnet Cove. 



Potash From Leucite Rock 

During the world war F. C. Calkins, of the U. S. Geol. Survey, examined 
the deposits of leucite rock in the Magnet Cove district of Arkansas with 
special reference to their possible utilization as a source of potash, but with 
the cessation of hostilities the European supply again became available and 
no development work was undertaken. The leucite rock is one of the many 
sources of potash which can be made use of in this country, but the difficulty 
of recovering the potash from this material renders it of little economic value 
in competition with the richer and more easily obtained potash of Germany 
and France on our markets. 



Precious Stones 

Besides diamonds, pearls and quartz crystals, which are treated under 
separate headings, the Arkansas list of precious stones includes amethysts, 
rare, but found occasionally in Montgomery and Yell counties; turquois or 
variscite, found in veins of quartz and in concretionary patches in dolomites 
in Montgomery county; garnets, in Magnet Cove; false topaz, Hot Spring 
County; sunstone, pink or gray, in Magnet Cove; wavelite, the latter found 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 95 

also in Magnet Cove; opal, about the ancient hot springs in Saline and Hot 
Spring counties; jasper of various colors, in Montgomery and Polk counties; 
and agate, finely variegated, in Montgomery county. 



REFERENCES 

Kunz, Georgre Frederick. Gems and precious stones of North America. 
Second edition, New York, 1892. Quartz crystals, pp. 110-111; Novaculite, 122; 
lodestone, 192; titanite, 194; Arkansite, 194. 



Pseudobrookite 

Titanic and iron oxide. An iron bearing mineral, near brookite, is prob- 
ably this. Magnet Cove. 



Pyrophyllite 

In serpentine and steatite; Saline County soapstone district, eastern end. 
Also reported by Purdue from Searcy County. 



Pyroxene 

Only the non-aluminous green coccolite has been distinctly recognized, 
but other varieties may occur. 



Quartz Crystals 

Quartz crystals of wonderful lustre and form are found in many parts 
of Arkansas, notably in the vicinity of Hot Springs, in the Crystal Mountains, 
which it is said has furnished some of the largest and most beautiful quartz 
crystals in the world. Cavities in the rocks are beautifully coated with 
these sparkling gems, many of them of rare color and shape; some of them 
with liquid cavities. They are non-mineral bearing and are valuable chiefly 
as curios or ornaments, being known as "Hot Springs Diamonds" because 
of their manufacture into trinkets and jewelry for sale as souvenirs to 
visitors at Arkansas' famous health resort. Clear, limpid specimens are 
found at Delaney in Madison County and in Crystal Mountain, near Womble, 
Montgomery County. 

REFERENCES 

Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. I, 1882, pp. 113, 128, 289. 

Rectorite 

A peculiar form of kaolinite, to which the name rectorite has been 
given, is found in Saline County. This material is tough and leathery, 
but it has the smooth soap feel so characteristic of the kaolins and of steatite. 
It occurs in association with the Carboniferous sandstones of the region, but 
the deposits, so far as is known, are only about a foot thick. Rectorite, as 
it comes from the ground, ranges in color from pure white to reddish brown. 
The sheets are very flexible but entirely without elasticity. It is infusible 
before the blow pipe, but when heated in the flame of a Bunsen burner it 
loses water and becomes brittle. 



Road-Making Materials 

The materials best adapted for road making, and having anything like 
a wide distribution in Arkansas, are: 

A. Arenaceous shales. 

B. Chert, of "flint rock." 

C. Novaculite. 

D. Gravels. 

The arenaceous shales abound in the Lower Coal Measures of the state 
in the region south of the north face of the Boston Mountains, north of the 
Fourche and Petit Jean Mountains, and west of the St. Louis, Iron Mountain 
and Southern Railway. This region contains sandstones and clay shales as well 
as sandy shales, but as a rule the sandy shales are very widespread through it. 
One needs to guard against the clay shales in this region, for they are about 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 97 

as abundant as the sandy shales, and the two often grade into each other 
imperceptibly. 

Chert or flint is one of the hardest of rocks, but it doesn't usually occur 
in considerable quantities in its original beds, but is everywhere mixed with 
more or less lime, so that beds of pure chert often grade into pure limestones 
or marbles. The cherts (in place) in this state are confined to the area lying 
north of the Boston Mountains and west of the Iron Mountain Railway. Not 
all of this area, however, contains chert beds. There are two horizons at 
which it occurs in large quantities the first is that of the Boone chert and 
cherty limestone lying at or near the base of the Carboniferous series of 
rocks; the second is the great chert bed lying far below the Boone chert, 
geologically speaking ,and exposed in the counties through which the upper 
White River flows. The Boone chert (in place) begins in Independence 
county, just west of the Black River, and near Dota postoffice, about five 
miles northeast of Sulphur Rock. It forms a belt of ragged edges from five 
to fifteen miles wide, crossing the state from this point past Cushman, Moun- 
tain View, Marshall, St. Joe, Harrison and Eureka Springs, and forming the 
greater part of the surface of Benton county. Without a large map it is im- 
possible to show the precise distribution of this Boone chert through the 
Northern part of the state. 

Novaculite is very like chert, both in composition and in its behavior 
as a road-making material. It occurs, however, only in the hilly region lying 
south of the Coal Measures, where it forms the Zigzag Mountains about Hot 
Springs and the great Ouachita Mountain system south of the Ouachita 
River, extending from Rockport, Hot Spring County, nearly to Oklahoma, 
west of Dallas, Polk County. It is from this series of rocks that the famous 
Arkansas whetstones come. The novaculite is usually much shattered and 
fractured as it lies, and, being for the most part a brittle rock, it may readily 
be broken when it is not already small enough to be used without crushing. 
Like the chert, it accumulates in vast quantities in the beds of streams and 
in narrow valleys, and it is from these local accumulations that the materials 
can be had most conveniently for road-making. 

Siliceous gravels have always been regarded as one of the best kinds of 
road-making materials. They have this considerable advantage over pre- 
pared macadam that they require no crushing, and are therefore ch?aper, 
while they have been partially sorted by the waters which transported them 
to where they are found. 

The material composing the Arkansas gravels is principally chert. 
It has been washed down the streams flowing into the Arkansas from North- 
western Arkansas and Southwestern Missouri, which fact accounts for its 
being found all along the Arkansas Valley. Its wide distribution across the 
valley is due to the meanderings and channel changes of the Arkansas River 
and to the ancient floods of that stream. 

Beds of gravel having a similar origin occur along White and Black 
Rivers in North Arkansas, and follow the flood plains of those streams. 
Just north of Sulphur Rock, in Independence County, the water-worn ma- 
terials cap the hills 250 feet above White River. Further up the river these 
gravel deposits occur here and there as isolated patches on the slopes of the 
inner curves of the large streams, often hieh above the present water level. 

Through the eastern part of the state the gravels have a wide and 
even distribution in the geologic sense, though for practical purposes 
their distribution is local rather than general. Along Crowley's Ridge they 
are often found concentrated in vast quantities in the beds of streams that 
flow from the ridge, as for example the Little Crow Creek, near Madison, 
St. Francis county, where they are convenient to railway transportation and 
offer abundant and excellent material for road-building through the eastern 
part of the state, where such material is scarce, except in those favored 
localities along Crowley's Ridge. 

About Little Rock such gravels are mingled with sands and clays that 
cover almost all the ground upon which the city is built. In those parts of the 
state lying southwest of Little Rock these gravels are of novaculite. and / 
were derived from the region of novaculite lying between Little Rock and / 
Dallas, in Polk County. Along what was once the old shore line upon/ 



98 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

which they were worn, and stretching from Little Rock past Benton, Malvern, 
Arkadelphia, Murfreesboro, Nashville, Center Point and Lockesburg to 
Ultima Thule, these gravels form extensive beds, in places twenty feet or 
more in thickness, while to the south of this line they -become gradually 
finer and lens abundant until in the extreme southern portion of the state 
they occur in patches, and the individual pebbles are of small size. As in 
other cases, they are often concentrated along small streams and in narrow 
valleys. About Nashville and Center Point, in Howard County, gravels of this 
type are widely distributed, making good, natural roads over much of the 
higher ground of that and adjoining counties. 

For top dressing of turnpikes or road metal any and all materials that 
grind up quickly under traffic, forming dust in dry weather or mud in wet 
weather, must be regarded as objectionable. Such materials have certain 
advantages for first construction in being more easily prepared, and there 
is therefore so much more reason for guarding against them. Materials 
to be avoided for such purposes are: 

1. The argillaceous or clay shales. 

2. Limestones. 

3. Syenites or "granites." 

4. Clean sandstone. 

It will be seen that Arkansas is well supplied with good road materials 
except in the alluvial bottom lands in the eastern part of the State, and 
even there gravel available for such purposes may often be found in the 
stream beds. The road-making materials of the novaculite region and 
of the chert region of the north are as good as one can reasonably ask for 
indeed, they are about as good as materials in their natural condition can 
bo while the gravels of the central and southwestern parts of the state are 
excellent and sufficiently abundant. In many parts of the state road-making 
materials are so good, so abundant, and so widespread that lack of them 
can never be an excuse for bad roads. 

(In the lower lands of Southeastern Arkansas there are abundant sup- 
plies of gravel on the ridges between the streams of that section. N. F. 
Drake.) 

REFERENCES 

Brainier, John C, "Roadbuilding' Materials in Arkansas," outlines of Ar- 
kansas Geology, Little Rock, Ark., 1920. 

Hugh D. Miser and A. H. Purdue Gravel Deposits of the Caddo Gap and 
DeQueen Quadrangles, Arkansas, U. S. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 690 B, 1918. 

Griswold, L,. S. Annual report of the Geological Survey of Arkansas for 
1890, Vol. II. Whetstones and the Novaculites of Arkansas. 



Rutile 

Titanic oxide. In loose crystals and in metamorphic rocks, imbedded. 
Abundant in float. Magnet Cove. 



Sandstone 

The Paleozoic area of Arkansas abounds in sandstone, moit of which is 
undeveloped. In the large area of Pennsylvanian rocks, especially in the 
Boston Mountains, there is much excellent light-brown sandstone, easily 
quarried, and there is considerable quartzite near Hot Springs. Twenty- 
four sandstone quarries in eleven counties report production in this state. 
/The largest use is for riprap, with concrete, road-making, railroad ballast 
/ and building stone following in order. * * * Sandstone quarries are operated 
/ at Carrollton, Heber Springs, Morrilton, Ozark, Hot Springs, Guion, Clarks- 
I ville, Lamar, Leslie, Ft. Smith, Greenwood, Springdale, Bald Knob, Russell 
and Searcy. 

The largest rock crushing plant in Arkansas is that operated by the 
V Big Rock Stone and Construction Company of Little Rock, and its source of 
\ supply is the great mountain of solid rock on the north bank of the Arkansas 
\River, opposite Little Rock, upon which rests Fort Logan H. Roots. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



99 




Sandstone Quarry at Lamar (Cabin Creek Station), Ark. 



Schorlomite 

Calcium-iron silicate and titanite; near Staurolite; crystals, scattered. 
Dr. Koenig, of Philadelphia, finds the schloromite reported from this locality 
to be titaniferous garnet. Magnet Cove. 



Serpentine 

Usually massive or in grains; in beds or masses of wide extent. Ten 
miles north of Benton; in imbedded patches in quartz, north of Blocher, 
Saline County. 



Silex, Silica 

Name sometimes used as synonymous with quartz; Pealite is opal, and 
occurs in places where ancient hot springs made surface deposits. Magnet 
Cove. 



Siliceous Sinter, Silica 

Opal or quartz; Pealite is opal, and occurs in places where ancient hot 
springs made surface deposits. Magnet Cove. 

Silver 

There are deposits of argentiferous ores in the state, some of which 
are deserving of thorough examinations, although none of these have been, 
as yet, extensively developed. On the other hand, a considerable amount of 
mining work in a small way has been done in situations where there is no 




Scale of miles 

25 SO 75 



Map Showing the Slate Area in Arkansas. 



UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS . 

DEPT. OF RURAL ECONOMICS & SOCIOLOGY 
FAYETTEVILLE, - - ABKANSAt- 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 101 

possible chance of success, while assays of questionable value have induced 
many to excavate in rocks which are even more certain to yield no silver 
than to prove barren in gold. * * * What is most needed in the silver areas 
is exploration to greater depths; in other words, development. 

The mining for silver in Pulaski County has been fitful, and thus far, 
not profitable, but, as might be expected in the neighborhood of Little Rock, 
the explorations have been somewhat thorough. There are in the county 
three districts, the immediate environs of Little Rock, the Kellogg mining 
area and the region about the McRae mine. There are two districts in 
Saline County where prospecting has been done, but in neither of the areas 
have silver ores been actually mined, and there is much uncertainty con- 
cerning their occurrence. Unsuccessful prospecting also has been done in 
Garland and Hot Spring counties. Extensive operations have been carried 
on in Montgomery County, especially about Silver City, but without profit 
to the miners. 

The silver-bearing deposits in Pike and Howard Counties are not prom- 
ising. The product of the Antimony Mines (Sevier County), where they carry 
galena, may eventually yield the precious metal, but there is not a high per- 
centage of it in the ore that has been mined. 

REFERENCES 

Branner, John C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas, 1888, 
Vol. I. 



Slate 

The slate area of Arkansas covers part of the Ouachita Mountains, 
which lie south of the Arkansas River and have a general east-west trend. 
The area extends from the vicinity of Little Rock about 100 miles west- 
ward nearly to Mena, and has an average width of 15 miles. The rocks 
include shales, slates, chert, novaculite (a deposit of extremely fine quartz 
grains), sandstone and a little limestone. The entire sedimentary series 
is estimated at 11,400 feet in thickness, of which the upper 8,825 feet contains 
some commercial slate. 

The Missouri Mountain slate has been extensively prospected and is 
now quarried at Slatington. It produces both red and green slate, the 
former predominating. In some places the cleavage is parallel to the bed- 
ding; in others it is oblique. The slate is defective in sonorousness and in 
many places shows two sets of slip cleavage. 

The different types of slate are described as follows: Black Slate, from 
Mena, near Big Fork, pure black, exceedingly fine texture and a remarkably 
smooth cleavage surface with a slight lustre. Dark-reddish slate, from 
Mena, near Big Fork, comparing favorably in texture with the "red" slate of 
New York. Reddish slate, from the Missiouri Mountains, not quite so red 
as the New York slate, but finer and softer. Greenish-gray slate from Mena, 
resembles the sea-green slate of Vermont. Light greenish slate from Mis- 
souri Mountain, fine texture and almost lusterless cleavage surface; prob- 
ably too delicate for use as roofing. Very dark bluish-gray slate, from Sec. 
25, T, 3 S, R. 29 W, fine texture and a smooth cleavage surface with a 
better luster; durable. Light-gray slate with a slightly greenish tinge, from 
Sec. 30. T. 35, R. 28 W., fine texture but lusterless, roughish surface. Very 
dark-gray spangled slate from quarry of S-W. Slate Mfg. Co., coarse texture 
and rough surface. Spangled with minute scales of mica. 

REFERENCES. 

Purdue, A. H. The Slates of Arkansas, the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas. 1909. 

Dale, T. Nelson. Microscopic analyses of Arkansas slate. Bulletin No. 
275, U. S. Geol. Surv., Washington, 1906. 

Note on Arkansas roofing slates. Bulletin No. 225, U. S. Geol. Surv., Wash- 
ington, 1904. 

Bulletin 275 and 430, U. S. Geological Survey. 



Smoky Quartz 

Silicia. Variety of Quartz; in vein-like portions of beds; apparently 
more common in the regions where millstone grit is exposed. Magnet Cove. 



102 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Soapstone 

South of Hot Springs road in the northeast quarter of Section 15, 1 N. f 
15 W-, (12 miles northeast of Benton) there is a good showing of soapstone 
in favorable situation for mining. The deposit deserves to be thoroughly 
tested. This material was successfully used by John Olson to line the 
furnace doors of a lime kiln, near Alexander, more than 40 years ago. It is 
said to be the only deposit of soapstone west of the Mississippi river. 

REFERENCES. 

Britnner, John C. Report Arkansas Geol. Surv., Vol. I, 1888. 

Stannite 

Tin Sulphide. Tin Pyrites. Suspected, in small quantity, because pyritous 
rock shows traces of tin; Silver World mine, Polk County. 



Sulphur 

In small crystals in the upper opening of the Silver Hollow mines on 
the east bank of Buffalo River below the mouth of Rush Creek, at the open- 
ing on the bed of iron pyrites on the Keeling place on Tomahawk Creek, 
and at a few other places in North Arkansas where small quantities of 
pyrites are exposed. 



Sunstone, Pink or Gray 

Cut for ornaments. Magnet Cove. 

Talc Shale 

This material is reported to be present along the road from Mount Ida 
to Black Springs, in Montgomery County. A ledge of talcose shale n also 
exposed in the southern half of Section 11, 1 N., 15 W., on the upper Hot 
Springs road in Saline County. Talcose shales and talc schists are also 
found in beds and pockets with black shale in Magnet Cove. 

REFERENCES. 
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol. I, 1888. 



Thuringite 

In pockets and hot springs deposits; Hot Springs and northward in 
Garland County. 



Travertine, or Tufa, Calcareous 

Deposited by springs and streams, locally; impure and not abundant; 
in northern districts where dolomites outcrop; Yell and Garland counties, 
also in North Polk County. 



Tripoli. 

An excellent grade of tripoli has been found near Butterfield in Hot 
Spring county, but the extent of the deposit is unknown. This occurrence, 
according to H. D. Miser, United States Geological Survey, is a weathered 
calcareous siliceous rock, simulating the novaculites. The calcite has been 
leached out, leaving a pure siliceous residue of fine grain. The novaculite 
beds at other localities have also been altered to tripoli, notably at Caddo 
Gap, Montgomery County and at Langley, in Pike County. 

Deposits of tripoli are reported in Montgomery, Garland, Ouachita, Wash- 
ington and Independence counties. 

Purdue reported that samples of good "tripoli" had been received from 
the vicinity of Farmington in Washington county. The quotation marks 
would seem to indicate that the tripoli of commerce and not pure tripoli 
is meant. 

There is a great abundance of this material in the zinc region, but 
whether or not it has any commercial value is a matter that can be 
determined only by experiment. 

REFERENCES 
Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv., Vol. V, 1892. 



MINERALSIN ARKANSAS 



103 




Six-Foot Vein of Tripoli, Near Delight, Ark. 

Variscite 

Montgomery County, translucent and transparent, emerald, bluish-green 
not mined. 



Vesuvianite 

Yellowish green to olive green crystals; not mined. Magnet Cove. 

Waters 

Arkansas is a well watered state. Hundreds of beautiful, fres-f.o ving 
springs of excellent water gush from hillsides and valleys in all parts of 
the state. In the limestone region north of the Boston Mountains, such 
springs are especially abundant, large and beautiful. They are not mineral 
waters, properly speaking, but they are more valuable than if th3v were. 
Some of these springs are so big that they are utilized for driving mills, 
cotton gins and other machinery, and as their discharges are subject to 
little or no fluctuations throughout the year, they are free from the dangers 
of freshets and the risks of droughts. Such are Lester's Spring, six miles 
west, and "Big Spring," six miles northwest of Batesville; another on Mill 
Creek, Stone county; one at Marble City, Newton County; another on "ush 
Creek, Marion County, and one at Silver Spring, Benton County. At Mam- 
moth Spring, in Fulton County, one of the finest water powers in the country 
is furnished by an enormous clear water spring. 

Besides these truly gigantic springs, no one who travels through North 
Arkansas can fail to be impressed by the great number of large and beautiful 
springs to be found at every town and village, to say nothing 
almost every farm house. Especially worthy of mention 
at Big Flat, Lone Rock, Harrison, Bellefonte, Valley Springs, 
Yardell, Marble City, Francis Postoffice (Bear Creek Springs), 
Whitener and Spring Valley. 

Fortunately, the Survey has made a.n analysis of a type of the-e fine 
springs that of Valley Springs, Boone County. That analysis shows that 
water to contain only 15 grains of mineral matter to the gallon, almost all 
of which is. carbonate of lime. 

There is also an abundance of springs whose waters are remarkable 
for their purity; such are the Crescent Springs at Eureka Springs, Carroll 




MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 105 

County, and Elixir Spring at Elixir, Boone County. These springs contain 
less than six grains of mineral matter to the gallon. It should be noted 
in regard to these two springs in particular, and the same is no doubt 
true of many other springs in that part of the state, that their waters 
pass down through the cherts, rocks that have but little easily soluble matter 
In them, and this is no doubt the reason of their great purity. 

Running across North Arkansas from Batesville to the Oklahoma line, 
is a formation spoken of in the Survey's reports as the Batesville sandstone; 
it is the coarse, yellowish brown sandstone on which and partly of which 
Batesville is built. Several other towns of North Arkansas are built on 
this same sandstone; namely, Mountain View, Marshall, St. Joe and Green 
Forest. The towns mentioned get their water supply from wells dug in 
this Batesville sandstone; the water is soft, cool and abundant. 



The Hot Springs of Arkansas 

The waters of Hot Springs claim the place of first importance in any 
consideration of the medicinally valuable waters of the State. For a great 
many years these waters have been used by people from all parts of the 
country with results that merit the serious attention of everyone, and strike 
the ordinary observer as nothing short of marvelous. 

There are 44 hot springs, flowing 1,000,000 gallons a day. The average 
temperature of the waters is 135 degrees Fahrenheit. The springs are 
owned and controlled by the United States and in 1832 were set apart as a 
National Sanitarium for all time, dedicated to the people of the United 
States to be forever free from sale or alienation. There are 24 bath houses 
connected with the springs, some of these being of palatial architecture and 
magnificently equipped. The operation of the baths and charges are regu- 
lated by the government through a superintendent of the reservation, ap- 
pointed by the Secretary of the Interior. The government has spent large 
sums on the building of roads and parkways and otherwise beautifying the 
resort, which is visited annually by upward of 100,000 people from many parts 
of the world who come here for rest, recreation and treatment. Some of 
the world's finest resort hotels are located at Hot Springs and there are 
housing facilities for caring for the large number of visitors. 

The waters of the hot springs are very pure. On an average the several 
spring water contain 12.94 grains of material in solution to the gallon. Of 
this material nearly 60 per cent is carbonate of lime, over 21 per cent is 
silica, 9 per cent is carbonate of magnesia, while the remainder is chiefly 
chloride of sodium (common salt), sulphate of soda (Glauber's salt) and 
sulphate of potash. There is but little difference in the composition of the 
waters of the various springs. The positive therapeutic qualities of these 
waters are due to physical rather than to chemical properties, their virtue 
being due to radio activity, which is very marked in some of the springs. 

Briefly stated, the use of the Hot Springs waters opens the pores and 
channels for the expulsion of the matters injurious to health, arouses 
torpid and sluggish secretions, stimulates the circulation, the muscles, 
the skin, the nerves, the internal organs, and purifies the blood, removes all 
aches and pains, restores the exhausted, revives the debilitated and helps 
Uuild up and renew the entire system. They are administered in the treat- 
ment of the sick internally and externally, being drunk in large quantities 
and applied in all the different forms of baths. 

The cold waters of Hot Springs, Arkansas, are justly famed everywhere, 
both as medicinal and table waters. It is in the cold waters of Hot Springs 
that mineral is most evident and best results are often secured when 
they are drank in connection with the baths, especially in affections of 
kidney, bladder, stomach and rheumatic conditions. Marvelous relief in the 
early stages of Bright's diseases and dropsy are accredited to these waters. 

Among the various cold water springs are the Desoto Springs, the 
Mountain Valley Springs, the Radio Magnesia Springs, the Arsenic Springs 
and the Potash Sulphur Springs. 



106 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



REFERENCES. 

Branner, John C. Report Ark. Geol. Surv.,- Vol I, 1891. 

Baltwood, B. B. "Radio-Active Properties of the Waters of Hot Springs," 
American Journal of Science, Vol. CLXX, Aug., 1905. 

Purdue, A. H "The Collecting Area of the Waters of Hot Springs, Ark.", 
Journal of Geology, Vol. 18, 1910. 



Wavellite 

Hydrous aluminum phosphate. Common in radiated, spherical and 
hemispherical crystaline aggregations, and in similar forms thickly spread 
over rock surfaces. Magnet Cove- 



Zinc 

The zinc ores of North Arkansas are found for the most part in rocks 
of Ordovician age. The ores in the order of their importance, are sphalerite 
(zinc sulphide), popularly called "jack," "rosin jack," etc.; smith- 
sonite (zinc carbonate), and calamine (zinc silicate). In addition to these, 
there are several minerals of zinc that are more or less abundant, but they do 
not occur in sufficient quantities to entitle them to be looked upon as 
ores. The following conclusions seem to be warranted: 

The concentrates produced are generally of high grade and free 
from or very low in iron or lime. The sphalerite has frequently asayed 2 
to 3 per cent above the price basis of 60 per cent, metallic zinc content. 
The sphalerite and smithsonite are shown by analysis to contain rppreciable 
quantities of cadmium, especially in a yellow variety of smithsonite, known 
locally as turkey fat, which shows as high as 0.8 per cent of cadmium. 

REFERENCES. 

Branner, J. C. Annual Report of the Geol. Surv. of Arkansas for 1892, 
Vol. V. The zinc and lead region of North Arkansas, Little Rock, 1900. 

Adams, Purdue and Burchard. Zinc and lead deposits of Northern Arkan- 
sas. U. S. Geol. Surv., Professional Paper 24. Washington, 1904. 




Zinc Mine, Silver Hollow Bluff on Buffalo River, Marion County. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 107 

Mounds and a Suggested Theory As To Their Origin. 

By BEN F. ALLEN 

The origin of mounds of from one rod to two or three rods in diameter 
and one to tour feet high, smooth, oval, and practically round, found in flat 
or poorly drained places that have been or are now habitually wet, has been 
a mystery to which geologists have given much study. It is ths writer's 
belief that they are caused by alkalines localizing in spots in soils thus be- 
ing rendered less subject to erosions. The resistance of alkaline soils to 
erosion is well known, especially lime soils. Thus these spots gradually as- 
sume the form of mounds by the washing away of the surrounding soil which 
is rendered more susceptible to erosion as the alkalines leach out of it. 

It is well known that all alkalines not only obey the laws of affinity 
and molecular attraction but have a strong tendency to creep up and out 
of any solution and to reach free air, where they crystalize. If present in 
sufficient strength in their struggle with the acids, an uprooted tree or a 
gopher mound or other bit ot soil protruding above the wet surface is a 
convenient place for the alkalines to congregate and escape to the air 
and crystalize, and a nucleus for a mound is started. The mounds are 
formed only in places that are or have been wet enough dur'ng a good part 
of the year and flat enough to facilitate free lateral molecular circulation 
of soluble elements. 

These mounds are not found in lime or other strongly alkaline soils, 
nor are they found in soils strongly acid and extremely weak in alkalines, 
because a sufficient variation in solution cannot be produced to cause a 
sufficient difference in erosional susceptability. Following this, if a soil 
where mounds are now plentiful should become either strongly acid or 
strongly lime the mounds would disappear. In places they are disappearing, 
owing to the influence of levees, drainage, or irrigation or flooding by hard 
or soft water. If the wetness or stillness or stagnation, of the soil solution 
is corrected by good drainage they will disappear. But in some places they 
are growing, or, the surrounding soil is being washed away, leaving the 
mounds more prominent, even in pastures where the tramping of cattle 
and other stock would ordinarily be expected to cause the soil to wash 
away. They consist of the same soil as that surrounding them of the same 
geological level, and contain the same strata, gravel and even stones. Their 
internal decomposition is altered perhaps by the slight differences in the 
water solution. They are not accretions, but just the opposite they are 
residuary. They are soft and mealy on top, for they are better drained 
and more alkaline than elsewhere. The facts can easily be demon- 
strated by the spade and by litmus tests. These mounds thus become of 
little interest to the geologist prospecting for oil or mineral, but they 
become of very material interest to the farmer. 



Magnet Cove. 

Magnet Cove, Hot Spring County, has long been known as a locality for 
many rare and beautiful as well as useful minerals and there is hardly a 
cabinet of minerals in the world that does not contain numerous specimens 
from this renowned district. This small area is of great interest not only 
to the mineralogists, but to the petrographer both on account of the 
of varieties of rocks found there and of the many instances in which 
association of the rocks is such that an insight into their genetic relations 
may be obtained. 

The magnetite of Magnet Cove is in the form of lodestone and will 
attract pieces of iron as does an ordinary magnet. 

REFERENCES. Nf 

Annual Report Arkansas Geological Survey, Vol. II., 1890, Igneous Rocks, 
by J. Francis Williams. 



108 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 




Interior Diamond Cave, Newton County. 



Diamond Cave of Newton County 

Near Jasper, Newton County, Arkansas, is Diamond Cave, a subter- 
ranean wonder place rivaling in grandeur and excelling in beauty the fa- 
mous Mammoth Cave of Kentucky. The Arkansas cavern has been ex- 
plored for a distance of 20 miles from the entrance, it is claimed, and a route 
for tourists covers some eight miles of sight-seeing through forests of 
stalagmites and under festoons of gorgeous stalactites, the display of cal- 
cite crystals being wonderfully brilliant and fairy-like in the delicacy of 
their formations. The existence of the cave has been known for many 
years but until the recent completion of an automobile road to Jasper, from 
Russellville and Harrison, it was difficult for tourists to reach the cave, 
the mouth of which is about four miles from Jasper. 



Other Publications of the State Bureau 
of Mines, Manufacturers and Agriculture 

W Industrial Guide, a Directory of Manufactures. 

Large Township, Railroad and Resources Map of Arkansas. 
Arkansas Information, for Homeseekers and Investors. 
Arkansas Farm and Marketing Bulletin, Monthly. 
^Pleasure Resorts in Arkansas, for the Tourist. 

Sent Free on Request. 

JIM G. FERGUSON, Commissioner, 

Little Rock, Ark., U. S. A. 



MINERALS I NARKANSAS 109 



Federal and State Laws on 
Minerals and Mining 



Synopsis of United States Mining Laws. 

_ -A bulletin may be obtained from the Department of Interior, Wash- 
ing-ton, D. C., or the United States Land Office at Little Rock, Camden or Har- 
rison, Ark., giving 1 complete instructions concerning- the filing of mining- 
claims on government land. 

(Chapter VI, Revised Statutes.) 

Section 2318. Lands valuable for minerals shall be reserved from 
sale, except as otherwise expressly directed by law. 

Section 2319. All valuable mineral deposits belonging to the United 
States are declared to be free and open to exploration and purchase, by 
citiens of the United States and those who have declared their intention to 
'become such under regulations prescribed by law, and according to the local 
customs or rules of miners in the several mining districts, so far as the 
same are applicable and not inconsistent with the laws of the United States. 

Section 2320. A mining claim, whether located by one or more per- 
sons, may equal, but shall not exceed 1,500 feet in length along the vein or 
lode; but no location of a mining claim shall be made until the discovery of 
the vein or lode within the limits of the claim located. No claim shall ex- 
tend more than 300 feet on each side of the middle of the vein at the 
surface, nor shall any claim be limited by any mining regulation to less 
than 25 feet on each side of the middle of the vein at the surface. The 
end lines of such claims shall be parallel to each other. 

Section 2321. Proof of citienship required. 

Section 2322. Locators have the exclusive right of possession and 
enjoyment of all the surface included within the lines of their locations, 
and of all veins, lodes and ledges throughout their entire depth, the top or 
apex of which lies inside of such surface lines extending downward verti- 
cally, although such veins, lodes or ledges may so far depart from a per- 
pendicular in their course downward as to extend outside the vertical side 
lines of such surface location. But their right of possesion to such out- 
side parts of such veins or ledges shall be confined to such portions thereof 
as lie between vertical planes drawn downward as above described, through 
the end lines of their locations, so continued in their own direction that 
such planes will intersect such exterior parts of such veins or ledges. And 
nothing in this section shall authorize the locator or possessor of a vein 
or lode which extends in its downward course beyond the vertical lines 
of his claim to enter upon the surface of a claim owned or possessed by 
another. 

Section 2323. Where a tunnel is run for the development of a 
vein or lode the owner shall have the right of possession of all veins or 
lodes within 3,000 feet from the face of such tunnel on the line thereof, to 
the same extent as if discovered from the surface. 

Section 2324. Miners of each mining district may make regulations 
not in conflict with the State or Federal laws, governing the location, man- 
ner of recording, amount of work necessary to hold possession of a mining 
claim, subject to the following requirements: 

The location must be distinctly marked on the ground so that its 
boundaries can be readily traced. 

All records of mining claims shall contain the names of the locators, 
date of location and description of the claims bv reference to some natural 
object or permanent monument as will identify the claim. 

On each claim not less than $100 worth of labor shall be performed 
or improvements made during each year. Upon a failure to comply with 
these conditions the claim or mine shall be open to relocation. 

Section 2325. Patents are obtained by filing in the proper land office 



110 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

an application, under oath, showing compliance with all regulations, to- 
gether with a plat and field notes of the claim, and claimant shall post a 
copy of such plat and notice of such application in a conspicuous place 
on the land, and shall file an affadavit of at least two persons that such 
notice has been duly posted and shall file a copy of the notice in such 
land office, and shall thereupon be entitled to a patent for the land. 

The register of the land office, upon the filing of such application, 
plat, field notes, notices and affadavits, shall publish a notice that such 
application has been made, for 60 days in a newspaper published nearest 
to such claim; and post such notice in his office for the same period. 

The claimant within the sixty days of publication shall file with the 
register a certificate of the United States surveyor-general that $500 worth 
of labor has been expended or improvements made upon the claim and that 
the plat is correct. At the expiration of the sixty days the claimant shall 
file his affidavit, showing that the plat and notice have been posted in a 
conspicuous place on the claim during the period of publication. 

If no adverse claim shall have been filed at the expiration of sixty days 
it shall be assumed that the applicant is entitled to a patent upon the 
payment to the proper officer of $5 per acre. 

Section 2326. How adverse claims may be filed. 

Section 2327. Description of mining vein or lode claims. 

Section 2328. Pending applications; existing rights. 

'Section 2329. Conformity of placer claims to surveys; limit of. 

Section 2330. Subdivisions of 10-acre tracts; maximum of placer loca- 
tions. 

Section 2331. Conformity of placer claims to surveys, limitation of 
claims. 

Section 2332. Evidence of possession necessary to establish a right to 
a patent. 

Section 2333. Proceedings for patent for placer claim. 

Section 2334. Surveyor-general to appoint surveyors of mining claims. 

Section 2335. Verification of affadavits. 

Section 2336. Where two or more veins intersect or cross each other, 
priority of title shall govern, but the subsequent location shall have the 
right-of-way through the space of intersection for the purpose of the con- 
venient working of the mine. 

'Section 2337. Patents for non-mineral lands. 

Section 2338. Local legislature of any State may provide rules for 
working mines. 

Section 2339. Vested rights to use of water for mining; right of way 
for canals. 

Section 2340. Patents, pre-emptions and homesteads subjected to vested 
and accrued water rights. 

Section 2341. Mineral lands, upon which no valuable mines have been 
discovered, may be homesteaded in quantities not to exceed 160 acres, or 
purchased for agricultural purposes at $1.25 an acre. 

Section 2342. How mineral lands may be set apart as agricultural 
lands. 

Section 2343. President authorized to -establish additional land 
districts. 

Sections 2344-2346. Provisions of this chapter not to affect certain 
rights. Mineral lands in certain states excepted. Grant of lands to States 
or corporations not to include mineral lands. 



FEES OF REGISTERS AND RECEIVERS. 

The fees payable to the register and receiver for filing and acting 
upon application for mineral land patents are $5 to each officer, to be 
paid by the applicant for patent at the time of filing, and the like sum of 
$5 is payable to each officer by an adverse claimant at the time of filing his 
adverse claim. 



MINERAL LANDS WITHIN NATIONAL FORESTS 

Mineral lands in the National Forest Reserves are subject to location 
and entry under the general mining laws in the usual manner. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 111 

COAL MINING LEASES 
(Public No. 146 66th Congress.) 

The secretary of the interior is authorized to divide any of the coal 
lands, owned by the United States in Arkansas, into leasing tracts of 40 
acres each, or multiples thereof, and in such form as will permit the most 
economical mining of coal, but in no case exceeding 2,560 acres in any one 
leasing tract, and shall award leases thereon by competitive bidding or by 
such other methods as he may by general regulations adopt, to any qualified 
applicant. 

Permits may be obtained for prospecting or exploratory work neces- 
sary to determine the existence or workability of coal deposits and if the 
land contains coal in commercial quantities the permittee shall be entitled 
to a lease for all or part of the land in his permit. 

Railroads are not permitted to lease any coal deposit except for their 
own use. 

Lessees shall pay to the United States a royalty of not less than five 
cents per ton and an annual rental of 25 cents per acre for the first year; 
50 cents per acre for the second, third, fourth and fifth year, respectively, 
and not less than $1 per acre for each and every year thereafter, except 
that such rental for any year shall be credited against the royalties as they 
accrue for that year. 

The Secretary of the Interior may issue permits to individuals or as- 
sociations to prospect for, mine and take for their use but not for sale, coal 
from the public lands without payment of royalty, in order to provide for 
the supply of strictly local domestic needs for fuel; this privilege shall not 
extend to any corporation other than municipalities. 

The provisions of this act shall also apply to all deposits of coal, phos- 
phate, soduim, oil, oil shale or gas. 

For past production 20 per centum and for future production .37^ 
per centum of the amounts derived from such royalties and rentals shall 
be paid to the State wherein the leased lands or deposits are located, said 
moneys to be used by such State for the construction and maintenance 
of public roads or for the support of public schools or other public educa- 
tional institutions as the legislature of the State may direct. 

Royalties accruing under any oil or gas lease on demand of the Secre- 
tary of the Interior shall be paid in oil or gas. 



OIL SHALE LEASES. 

(Public No. 146 66th Congress.) 

The Secretary of the Interior is authorized to lease any deposits of oil 
shale belonging to the United States and the surface of so much of the 
public lands containing such deposits or land adjacent thereto, as may be 
required for the extraction and reduction of the leased minerals; no lease 
shall exceed 5120 acres of land; for the privilege of mining, extracting and 
disposing of the oil or other minerals covered by a lease under this section. 
The lessees shall pay to the United States 50 cents per acre per annum for 
the lands included in the lease and such royalties as shall be specified in 
the lease, the rental paid for any one year to be credited against the roy- 
alties accruing for that year; to encourage the production of petroleum 
products from shales the Secretary may, in his discretion, waive the pay- 
ment of any royalty and rental during the first five years of any lease; 
not more than one lease shall be granted to any one person, association or 
corporation. 



State Law On Recording of Government Mining Claims 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 7326. Notice to be recorded. In every county in this State in 
which lands containing mineral still belong to the United States govern- 
ment, the recording of mining claim notices of all kinds may be done with 
the ex-officio recorders of the various counties in which said lands are sit- 
uated. 



112 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Section 7327. Fees. The fees for recording mining location notices 
shall be one dollar for notice, to be paid in United States currency, one- 
half of which shall go into the County treasury to the credit of the record 
fund. The fees for recording all other mining notices shall be the same as 
are now allowed by law for recording deeds. 

Section 7328. Record book. The recorder shall procure a suitably 
bound book and shall make a plat therein of each mining claim located for 
the free use of all miners who may wish to examine the same. 

Section 7329. Establishment of claim; limitation. When any owner 
or claimant of any mining claim on any of the lands subject to location as 
mining claims in this State under the laws of the United States shall have 
had possession of such claim for a period of three years and shall have 
performed the necessary amount of annual labor or improvement to hold 
said claim, as now required by law for said period, the same shall be suf- 
ficient to establish his possessory right to the same; provided, that if said 
claimant shall have performed the necessary work for any one year during 
said period and shall have resumed work at any time before the right 
of others intervene, then he shall be entitled to the possessory right to 
the same. No person shall maintain an action against such claimant for 
the recovery of a mining claim, unless the same shall be commenced within 
one year after his right of action shall accrue. 

Section 7330. Affidavit of aszessment work. On or before the thirty- 
first day of December of any year in which the time expires in which the 
assessment work or improvement now required by law to hold the same, 
the owner of such claim or in his absence his agent or the party who was 
in charge of the work for the claimant, may make and file for record in the 
recorder's office in the county in which said claim is situated, an affidavit 
in substance as follows: 

STATE OF ARKANSAS 

County of 

, being duly sworn, deposes and says 

that at least $ worth of work or improvements were performed or 

made upon (here describe claim) situated in mining 

district, county of and- State of Arkansas, between the 

day of and the day of A. D., 

and that such expenditure was made by or at the expense of 

owners of said claim for the purpose of complying with the law. 

Signature 

Jurat 

And said affidavit, when so filed and recorded, shall be prima facie evi- 
dence of the -performance of such labor or the making of such improve- 
ments. 

Section 7331. Indexed record. Hereafter it shall be the duty of the 
recorder of any county in which mining location notices and proof of labor 
performed shall be recorded, to keep a suitably bound plat book properly 
arranged, showing all the legal subdivisions affected by such notices, in 
which he shall keep a complete index of all such instruments recorded, 
showing the number of the book and page on which they are recorded, and 
this index shall he kept up to date of recording. 

Section 7332. Penalty. Any recorder who shall neglect, refuse or fail 
to keep such index as above provided for shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction shall be fined in any sum not less than $25 nor more 
than $100. 



The State has no supervision over Government lands. For 
plats and information apply to the U. S. Land Office, Little 
Rock, Camden, or Harrison, Ark. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 113 

Law Creating Arkansas Bureau of Mines, Manufactures 
and Agriculture. 

(Digest of Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 7333. Department created. A department is constituted and 
established, which shall be known and designated as the "Arkansas Bureau 
of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture," and shall be superintended by a 
Commissioner to be appointed by the Governor, as hereinafter prescribed. 

Section 7334. Appointment election salary reports. The Governor 
shall appoint, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, some suit- 
able and competent person Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agri- 
culture, who shall be elected as other State officers every two years there- 
after, and he shall be paid for his services the sum of eighteen hundred 
dollars per annum; said commissioner shall take the oath of office pre- 
scribed for other State officers, and shall give bond in the sum of ten 
thousand dollars for the faithful performance of his official duties, which 
bond shall be examined and approved by the Governor, and he shall make 
a biennial report to the Governor of the things pertaining to his office, and 
also giving an itemized statement of the disbursement of all moneys appro- 
priated and used for the benefit of said bureau. 

Section 7335. Powers and duties of Commissioner. The Commissioner 
of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall conduct the Bureau of Mines, 
Manufactures and Agriculture at the seat of government of this State, in 
the Capitol building. He shall have control of all books, papers, documents 
and other property which may belong to or be deposited in said bureau in- 
cluding specimens of minerals, vegetable and animal products of the State; 
keep a record of all State and county agricultural societies, keep and file 
all reports which may be made from time to time by such societies, and all 
correspondence of the bureau from other persons or societies appertaining 
to the general business of husbandry, mining and manufacturing; address 
circulars to societies and good practical farmers in various parts of the 
State and elsewhere, with a view of eliciting information upon the latest 
and best mode of culture of those products, field crops, fruits, .vegetables, 
etc.,, adapted to the soil and climate of this State; also on all subjects 
connected with field culture, horticulture, stock raising and dairying. He 
shall also encourage the formation, of agricultural and horticultural societies 
throughout the State and purchase, receive and distribute such rare and 
valuable seeds, plants, etc., as it may be in his power to obtain from the 
general government and other sources, as may be adapted to the soils and 
climate of this State. He shall also encourage the importation of improved 
breeds of horses, cattle, sheep, hogs and other live stock, and the introduc- , 
tion of labor-saving implements of husbandry, and diffuse information In 
relation to the same. He shall encourage such domestic industry, and house- 
hold arts as are calculated to promote the general thrift, welfare and re- 
sources of the State. To effect these objects, he shall correspond with the 
Department of Agriculture at Washington and representatives of our na- 
tional government abroad, and if possible procure valuable contributions of 
seeds, plants, etc., from the same. 

Section 7336. Further duties. The seeds, plants, etc., received by the 
Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall, so far as 
practicable, be distributed throughout the State, and placed in the hands 
of farmers and others who will agree to cultivate them properly and re- 
turn to the commissioner a reasonable portion of the products thereof, with 
a statement of the mode of cultivation and such other information as may 
be necessary to ascertain their value for general cultivation in this State. 
Information in regard to agriculture may be published by him from time 
to time in the newspapers of the State, provided it can be done without 
expense to the State. He shall cause an analysis to be made of all com- 
mercial fertilizers manufactured in or imported into the State, so as to find 
the true value thereof, and shall publish the result of such analysis for the 
general information of the citizens of this State. The chemical department 
of the University shall, as far as practicable, make such analysis. 



114 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Section 7337. Mining and mineral lands information as to. The Com- 
missioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall keep a record of 
all individuals, companies and incorporated companies engaged in mining 
and manufacturing in this State, and shall address circulars to all such in- 
dividuals, companies and incorporated companies engaged in mining of 
<*oal, manganese, silver, lead, copper, or any other minerals, and to all 
persons quarrying marble, granite or any other variety of stone in this 
State, with view of eliciting as to the extent of deposit, output, cost of 
production and facilities for transportation. He shall also address cir- 
culars to persons owning mineral lands upon which no mining is being 
prosecuted, so as to obtain information as to the locality, character of 
mineral, extent of deposit, facilities for working and transportation, and all 
other information in regard to the same that may be necessary to arrive 
at a correct conclusion as to value. 

Section 7338. Statistics distribution of pamphlets. The Commissioner 
shall methodically arrange all of the statistics in relation to the agricul- 
tural, manufacturing and mineral resources of the State, collected by him 
as hereinbefore provided, and which, in his opinion, would furnish useful 
information to persons who may wish to immigrate into this State, or to 
persons seeking to invest capital, and shall lay the same before the 
Governor; and if in his opinion such statistics contain information in re- 
gard to the resources of the State calculated to induce immigration and 
investment of capital, he shall cause the same to be printed in pamphlet 
or circular form, or in both, and as many copies as he may deem necessary; 
when printed, the Commissioner shall distribute the same in such manner 
as he may think most advantageous to induce immigration and capital into 
this State. 

Section 7339. Deputy commissioner appointment salary. The Com- 
missioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture shall be allowed one 
clerk, who shall be deputy commissioner, to assist him in conducting the 
Dusiness of said bureau, to be appointed by said Commissioner, in writing; 
said deputy shall take the oath of office prescribed by law, which shall be 
Indorsed on the appointment and filed in the office of the Secretary of 
State. The Commissioner shall be responsible for all acts done or per- 
formed by his deputy in the performance of his official duties, and said 
deputy shall receive the sum of two hundred dollars per month for his 
salary. 

Section 7340. Collection and arrangements of specimens. The Com- 
missioner shall procure from the person having charge of the specimens 
of the vegetable, mineral and manufactured products of the State, exhibited 
at New Orleans at the World's Industrial and American Exposition, and 
place the same in a suitable room in the State Capitol building, or in some 
suitable room contiguous thereto, and he shall arrange said specimens 
in said room in such manner that they can be seen and examined to the 
'best advantage, and shall place on each specimen a label indicating the 
particular locality where the same was found or produced. It shall be the 
-duty of the commissioner from time to time to add to said collection by 
procuring specimens of all valuable minerals found in this State, and all 
the vegetable products grown or found therein; articles of a perishable 
nature shall be so prepared as to secure their preservation as much as 
possible. It shall be the duty of the Commissioner in collecting specimens 
to procure information as to the locality where found, quantity, extent 
of deposit, facilities for working, transportation and all other facts of im- 
portance in connection therewith; and in case of vegetable products, so far 
as practicable, obtain all information as- to locality, character of soil, 
climate, etc.; and shall attach to each specimen a label showing where 
"found or produced, and numbered, and shall enter, in a book, kept for that 
purpose, a brief synopsis of the information obtained in regard to each 
specimen; said entries to be so numbered and indexed as to afford easy 
reference. 

Section 7341. Traveling expenses. Whenever, in the opinion of the 
Commissioner, it is necessary to visit any locality in this State for the 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 115 

purpose of procuring correct information in regard to any fact connected 
with the mining, manufacturing or agricultural resources of the State, he 
shall, with the approval of the Governor, visit such locality, provided not 
more than three hundred dollars per annum shall be allowed said Commis- 
sioner for such traveling expenses. 

Section 7342. Vacancies. The Governor shall fill any vacancy occur- 
ing in the office of Commissioner by appointment. Act March 7, 1889. 



Geological Commission 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 4972. Commission Created State Geologist. A commission 
is hereby created, consisting of the Governor of the State, who shall be 
ex-officio chairman of the commission, the President of the University of 
Arkansas, and the Commissioner of Mines, Manufactures and Agriculture, 
to be known as the Geological Commission of Arkansas; said commission 
shall serve without compensation from the State, but shall be reimbursed 
for actual expenses incurred in the discharge of their duties; and the 
Governor of the State is hereby authorized to appoint the professor of 
geology in the University of Arkansas as ex-officio State Geologist. 

Section 4973. Duties of Commission. It shall be the duty of said com- 
mission to direct the State Geologist, in co-operation with the U. S. 
Geological Survey, to investigate, or to have investigated, such of the nat- 
ural resources of the State, consisting of the available water power of the 
streams, the clays of the State as related to their adaptability to the var- 
ious purposes for which clays are utilized, the cement materials of the 
State, the road materials of the State, and such other minerals and economic 
geologic products, as it may be deemed practicable and advisable by said 
commission to have investigated, and to prepare or have prepared such 
topographic maps as may be deemed advisable; that said commission may 
direct said State Geologist to make or have made such investigations as 
may be deemed advisable relating to the conservation of such natural 
resources as are exhaustable; that said commission may direct said State 
Geologist, in co-operation with the U. S. Geological Survey, to make such 
investigations as may be deemed advisable relating to the safety of miners 
and mine operations and to adopt such measures as may be deemed prac- 
ticable to assist mine operators in preventing explosions and give relief 
in case explosions occur. 

Section 4974. Duty of the State Geologist. It shall be the duty of 
said State Geologist to make such reports to said commission as are nec- 
essary to a complete understanding of the results obtained from such 
investigations as shall be undertaken, and to perform such other duties as 
usually belong to the office of State Geologist; the reports (shall) be ac- 
companied by such maps, sections and other illustrations as are necessary 
to their complete understanding; the cost of publishing said reports shall 
be paid out of money appropriated for public printing; the number of 
copies of each report shall be 4,000; the members of the General Assembly, 
the Geological Commission, and the State Geologist shall each have twenty 
copies; that one copy be sent to each of the State Universities of the 
country; that one hundred copies be sent to the Department of Geology, 
University of Arkansas, for exchange with other State Geological Surveys; 
and that the remainder be distributed by the State Geologist, without 
charge, upon application and receipt of the necessary postage or expressage. 

Section 4975. Assistants. It shall be the duty of said State Geologist, 
by and with the approval of said commission, to appoint such trained 
geological assistants, engineers and others efficient in the arts and sciences, 
as may be necessary to completely carry on the investigations undertaken; 
that the said State Geologist, assistants and engineers, are hereby directed 
to go into any mine or other place where it is thought necessary by the 
said State Geologist to go, in executing the directions of said commission; 
that all salaries shall be determined by said commission, and shall be per 
<liem and only for the time of actual service. 



116 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Section 4976. Co-operative arrangements. The Geological Commission 
of Arkansas is authorized to enter into such co-operative arrangements 
with the United States Geological Survey, or other Federal bureaus, for 
carrying on the work of the Geological Survey of Arkansas, as may be ad- 
vantageous to the State. 

Section 4977. Expenses. The 'State of Arkansas shall pay such por- 
tions of the expenses (field and traveling expenses including salaries) as 
may be agreed upon between said commission and the United States 
Geological Survey; the full and complete results of said surveys shall be 
available for publication in State reports; and the expense of the office 
work for the State reports shall be borne by the State. 

Section 4978. Moneys, how expended. All moneys shall be expended 
under the direction of the commission, upon the certificate of the State 
Geologist and the approval of the Governor, which certificate and approval 
shall alone authorize the Auditor of State to draw his warrant upon the 
treasurer for the amount certified and approved. Provided that in no- 
event shall said commission expend a sum exceeding the amount appro- 
priated. 



Sand, Gravel, Oil and Coal Taken From River Beds. 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 6789. Hereafter it shall be unlawful for any person, firm, 
corporation or association of persons to take sand or gravel, oil and coal 
from the beds or bars of navigable rivers and lakes of this State without 
first procuring the consent of the Attorney General of the State. Such con- 
sent may be withheld unless such person, firm, company or corporation 
shall agree in writing to keep an accurate record and account of all sand 
and gravel, oil and coal taken by him or them from said rivers and lakes, 
and render to the said Attorney General at the end of each month an 
itemized, verified statement of all the numbers of cubic yards of sand and 
gravel, and gallons of oil and tons of coal taken out each day during the 
month. At the time of making such statement the person, firm, company 
or corporation shall pay into the State Treasury two and one-half cents 
for each cubic yard of sand and gravel so taken, and one-half cent for each 
gallon oil and six cents per ton for coal taken, and if any other valuable 
minerals are found in such rivers, any firm, corporation or persons taking 
the same out shall make a contract with the Attorney General, stating 
the per cent due the State. 

Section 6790. Provides penalty of not less than $300 and not more 
than $1,000 for non-compliance with above and empowers Attorney General 
to bring suit to recover royalties for State. 

Section 6791. Applies to commercial users only, no charge to be made 
to those who remove sand or gravel, oil and coal for their own personal 
or private use. 

Section 6792. Funds collected go to general revenue fund. 

Section 6793. Any firm, corporation or person may take and remove 
gravel and sand from the bed or bars of any navigable river or lake within 
the State of Arkansas, when the same are used for road building, without 
paying the State of Arkansas any amount whatever for the same, but they 
shall keep an account of such removals (Section 6794) and file same with 
the Attorney General and a copy with the county judge where such sand 
and gravel is taken. If such account is not kept and proper reports made 
(Section 6795) parties removing sand and gravel shall be required to pay 
for same. 



Water Power. 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 10458. Belongs to State. All water power in this State sit- 
uated for the purpose of producing power for all lawful purposes, is and 
the same is hereby declared to be inherent in, and a part of the public 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 117 

domain, and shall vest in and be for the use of the State of Arkansas, and 
the people thereof, for its and their use and benefit. 

Section 10459. Right to Erect Dams. Any person or corporation or- 
ganized under the laws of this State, for the purpose of producing power 
for any lawful purpose, and who or which owns a natural, practical dam- 
site, or who or which has secured from the United States license, permit 
or authority to erect a dam upon land on a damsite owned by the United 
States, and who or which has procured a charter from this State for the 
development and operation of electric power plants from said water pow- 
ers, shall have the right to erect a dam across any navigable or non-navi- 
gable river in this State at such point, for the purpose of developing such 
electric power. 

Section 10460. Survey and Estimate Expense. When said person or 
company is ready to begin the construction of his or its dam, it shall file 
with the Secretary of State and with the County Clerk of the county or 
counties in which the lands pertaining to such water power are situated, 
a survey showing the location of his or its principal power damsite, of the 
stream above such power damsite and the lands necessary for the develop- 
ment of such water power, with an estimate and the engineer's report of 
the cost of his or its dam, spillways, power plant and all machinery to be 
used in generating such power, to be verified later by report of actual cost 
of construction. 

Section 10461. Permit from Corporation Commission. When said per- 
son or corporation is ready to proceed with the construction of his or its 
dam, he or it shall present to the Corporation Commission of Arkansas his or 
its application for a permit to use such power, and upon a hearing of such ap- 
plication the said board may grant to such person or corporation a permit to 
erect such dam or dams, and use such power, and shall fix a minimum and 
maximum compensation per horsepower to be received by such corporation 
for the use of the power so generated. Provided, however, any person or 
corporation owning or controlling any dam, as herein provided, is required 
to construct and keep open a chute over such dam or construction suffi- 
cient for the passage of fish, either ascending or descending such river or 
water course. 

Section 10462. Sale of power. Such power shall be for public use, and 
shall be sold to private parties desiring it in the order of their application, 
and upon equal terms ; and such power shall be furnished by such person or 
corporation at his or its principal powerhouse or central station. Such 
power may be applied directly by water or through the instrumentality of 
electricity or such other agencies as such person or corporation may elect. 

Section 10463. Assessment of tax. If any person or corporation tak- 
ing or using such power shall elect to use said power exclusively for its own 
use in manufacturing or other purposes named in this act, the Corporation 
Commission of Arkansas shall assess the tax for taking and using such 
power on the basis of power so taken and used, said power to be charged 
for as if it had been sold to private consumers. 

Section 10464. Damages for injury to land. In case any person or cor- 
poration building any dam shall not agree with the owners of any lands 
used for the purpose of the dam are flooded thereby, the court shall assess 
the damages for the land flooded or taken, and also the consequential 
damages to any lands necessary to the use of the lands taken or flooded 
and owned by the parties whose lands are taken and flooded. 

Section 10465. Tax on gross revenue. The Corporation Commission 
of Arkansas shall grant to any person or corporation the right to take and 
use such power described in this act under the following terms and con- 
ditions: Every person or corporation taking and using said power shall 
pay into the treasury of the State of Arkansas for the benefit and use of 
the general revenue fund one-fourth of one per cent of its annual gross 
revenue as determined by the power generated and sold for a period of 
ten years from the time it shall begin operation, and one-half of one 
per cent of its annual gross revenue thereafter. 



118 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Section 10466. Right of eminent domain. In order to enable such cor- 
poration to carry out the purposes of this act, the State's power of emi- 
nent domain is hereby conferred upon it, in so far as it is necessary to 
enable it to condemn land overflowed above its dam, and to condemn lands. 
for right-of-way for viaducts, and for electric transmission of power gen- 
erated to points of its utilization. In all cases where such corporation fails 
to obtain by agreement with the owner or owners of the property, the 
right to overflow such land or lands, or the right-of-way for viaducts and 
electric transmission lines, it may apply to the circuit court in the county 
or counties in which the property is situated, by petition, to have the dam- 
ages for such overflowed land or lands or right-of-way assessed, giving the 
owner or owners of such property at least ten days notice in writing of the 
time and place where such petition will be heard. 

Section 10467. Notice to non-resident owners. If the owner or owners 
of said property be nonresidents of the State, such notice shall be given 
by publication, as provided in civil cases. 

Section 10468. Guardians of minors, etc. In case proceedings are 
had against infants, or persons of unsound mind, it shall be the duty of the 
court to appoint a guardian ad litem, who shall represent their interests for 
all purposes. 

Section 10469. Petition description of land. Such petition shall, as 
nearly as may be, describe the lands to be overflowed or taken for right- 
of-way for viaducts and electric transmission lines, and shall be sworn to. 

Section 10470. Jury. It shall be the duty of the court to empanel a 
Jury of twelve men, as in other civil cases, to ascertain the amount of 
compensation which said corporation shall pay, and the matter shall pro- 
ceed and be determined as other civil cases. 

Section 10471. Payment of damages. In all cases where damages have 
been assessed it shall be the duty of the corporation to deposit with the- 
clerk of the court, or to pay to the owners the amount so assessed, and to 
pay such costs as may be adjudged against it, within thirty days after such 
assessment whereupon it shall be lawful for the said corporation to enter 
upon said lands and proceed with the work of developing such water power. 

Section 10472. Deposit to cover damages. When the determination of 
questions in controversy in such proceedings is likely to retard the pro- 
gress of the work, the court, or judge in vacation, shall designate an 
amount of money to be deposited by said corporation, subject to the order 
of the court, and for the purpose of making said compensation when the 
amount thereof shall have been assessed, as aforesaid, and said judge shall 
designate the place of said deposit. Whenever such deposit shall be made, 
it shall be lawful for the corporation to enter upon such lands and to pro- 
ceed with its work prior to the assessment and payment of damages 
for the use thereof. 

Section 10473. Forfeiture for failure to make deposit. In all cases 
where such corporation shall fail to pay or deposit the amount of damages 
assessed as aforesaid within thirty days after such demand, it shall forfeit 
all rights in the premises. 

Section 10474. Commencement and completion of the work. All char- 
ters and permits granted under this act shall be void unless construction 
shall be begun within two years from the date of the permit, and shall be- 
completed within four years from the date of permit. 



Co-Operative Soil Survey 

(Act 542, General Assembly, 1921) 

An Act to provide for co-operative soil survey work between the Federal 
Bureau of Soils and the Arkansas State Experiment Station and for 
other purposes. 
Whereas, the Federal Government makes an annual appropriation to 

the Bureau of Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture for Soil 

Survey work, and 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS llfr 

Whereas, said Bureau has offered and agreed to co-operate with the 
State of Arkansas through the State Experiment Station in such work and) 
to furnish and pay expenses of men to do such work provided the State cani 
furnish an equal number of men to take care of the expenses of soil 
analysis and other incidental expenses, and, 

Whereas, a thorough scientific soil survey is the basis for further in- 
vestigation of soil need, maintenance of fertility, and methods of handling 
soils and growing crops, therefore, 
BE IT ENACTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE STATE OF 

ARKANSAS: 

Section 1. That the Director of the State Experiment Station of the 
College of Agriculture, University of Arkansas, is hereby authorized to ex- 
pend such sums as are hereinafter provided and necessary for the purpose 
of conducting a scientific investigation of the soils of the counties of the 
State of Arkansas, classifying and locating the different soils, surveying 
and mapping such soils, describing, analyzing and examining the same and 
otherwise locating the various types and kinds of soil in the counties of 
this State and ascertaining their constituent elements of plant food, their 
plant food deficiencies and any other information regarding the said soils, 
which will be helpful to the agricultural interests of the State and print- 
ing, publishing, and distributing reports and soil maps of the areas sur- 
veyed and such work may be conducted in co-operation with the Bureau of 
Soils of the United States Department of Agriculture and with the several 
counties of the State of Arkansas. 

Section 2. The Director of the State Experiment Station is hereby- 
authorized to employ competent assistants and soil survey men to make- 
such surveys, to fix their compensation, to purchase necessary supplies- 
and equipment, to pay travel and such other expenses as may be necessary 
to carry out the provisions of this Act, including cost of printing, publishing 
and distributing report of such soil surveys. 

Section 3. The county courts and tax levying boards are hereby 
authorized and empowered to make appropriations out of the general revenue 
fund of the county for the purpose of co-operating with the State Experiment 
Station in carrying out the provisions of this Act. 

Section 4. That there is hereby appropriated out of any money in the 
General Revenue Fund in the State Treasury the sum of Seven Thousand 
Five Hundred ($7500.00) dollars for the fiscal year from July 1st. 1021 to 
June 30th, 1922, inclusive, and the sum of Seven Thousand Five Hundred 
($7500.00) dollars for the fiscal year from July 1st, 1922, to June 30th, 1923, 
inclusive, provided that any balance remaining in the treasury from said 
first fiscal year shall be transferred by the treasurer to said second fiscal 
year and may be expended during said second fiscal period for the same 
purposes. 

Section 5. All acts or parts of acts in conflict with this Act are hereby 
repealed. 



Soil surveys have been made of sixteen counties of Arkan- 
sas, a list of which will be found at the end of this book. The 
reports are distributed through the U. S. Bureau of Soils, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 



120 MINERAL SIN ARKANSAS 

Mine Inspection Law, Governing 
Operation of Mines in General 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 
MINE INSPECTOR 

Section 7249. Appointment qualifications salary. A mine inspector 
shall be appointed by the Governor immediately upon the taking effect of 
this act, who shall hold office until the first day of July, 1919, and until 
his successor shall have been appointed and qualified, after which the term 
of each mine inspector shall begin on the first day of July of every odd 
numbered year and shall continue for two years, and until his successor 
is appointed and qualified, and all appointments shall be made by the 
Governor of the State, and said mine inspector shall not, while holding office, 
be connected with or engaged, directly or indirectly, as owner, operator, 
agent or director of any coal mine or other mining interest. He shall have 
had eight years' actual experience as a practical miner. He shall have an 
office, which shall be located in Fort Smith, Ark., and shall safely keep 
all records, papers, documents, and other property pertaining to or coming 
into his hands by virtue of his office, and deliver same to his successor. 
Said mine inspector shall receive as salary for his services the sum of 
$2000 per annum. 

Section 7250. Bond. The mine inspector, before entering upon the 
duties of his office, and within 20 days after his appointment, shall make 
and execute a bond to the State of Arkansas, with one or more sufficient 
sureties, in the sum of $5000, conditioned upon the faithful performance of 
his duties; same to be approved by the Governor. When said bond is so 
approved, he shall also take oath of office prescribed by the Constitution; 
and in the event that said mine inspector shall fail to make and execute 
said bond within the time prescribed by this act, his appointment shall be 
declared void, and it is hereby made the duty of the Governor to appoint 
and have qualified a proper person in his stead, as contemplated by the 
provisions of this act. 

Section 7251. Expenses. Said mine inspector shall be allowed all 
necessary postage, stationery and other expenses of a similar character 
necessary for the transaction of the business of the office; and the said 
salary and expenses shall be paid as in the case of other State officers. 
In addition to the salary, necessary traveling expenses while in the per- 
formance of the duties of the office shall be allowed; but the total expenses, 
in addition to salary paid, shall not exceed $1000 per annum. 

Section 7252. Inspection and reports. The mine inspector shall devote 
his entire time to the duties of the office. It shall be the duty of the mine 
inspector to examine all mines as often as necessary, and not less than once 
every three months; provided, however, that employes of any mine, as 
contemplated by the mining laws of this State, shall have authority to 'call 
said mine inspector at any time in cases of emergency for the enforcement 
of the mining laws of this State. Inspections shall be made of the works 
and machinery used or operated by any mine; also the State and condition 
of the mines as to ventilation, circulation and condition of the air, drainage, 
and the number of accidents, injuries or deaths occurring in or about the 
mine, number of persons employed, and the extent to which the laws 
relating to mines and mining are observed; the progress made in improve- 
ments for the safety and health sought to be obtained by the provisions of 
the mining laws of this State, together with all other such facts and in- 
formation of public interest concerning the conditions of mine development 
and progress in this State as may be deemed useful and proper- and to keep 
a complete record of same, which shall be included in the mine inspector's 
annual report to the Governor. Should the mine inspector find any viol- 
ations of the mining laws of this State by any owner, lessee or agent in 
charge of any mine, notice shall immediately be given to such owner 
lessee or agent in charge of such mine of the neglect or violation thereof 
and unless the same is, within a reasonable time, rectified, the mine in- 
spector shall institute a prosecution under the laws of the State as here- 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 121 

inafter provided. If the said mine inspector find any matter, thing or 
practice in or connected with a mine to be dangerous or defective, which 
makes it unsafe for persons employed therein, notice in writing thereof 
to the owner, lessee or agent of such dangerous or unsafe condition shall 
be given, and the said conditions shall, by the said owner, lessee or agent 
be remedied without unnecessary delay. For the purpose of making the 
inspection and examination as contemplated by this act, the mine inspector 
shall have the right to enter any mine at any reasonable time, by day or 
night, but in such manner as shall not necessarily obstruct the workings of 
said mine, and the owner, lessee or agent is hereby required to furnish the 
means necessary for such entry and inspection. The inspection and ex- 
amination, as contemplated by this act, shall extend to all coal mines 
where the same are operated by shaft, slope or drift. 

Section 7253. Owners to facilitate examinations. The owner, agent 
or operator of such mine is required to furnish all necessary facilities for 
entering and making such examinations and inspection, and if the owner, 
agent or operator aforesaid shall refuse to permit such inspection, or to 
furnish the necessary facilities for entering and making such examinations 
and inspections the inspector shall file his affidavit, setting forth such re- 
fusal before the judge of the circuit court in the county in which said mine 
is located, and said judge of said court is granted the power to issue an 
order, commanding said owner, agent or operator to appear before said 
judge at chambers or before the circuit court to show cause why he 
refuses to permit said inspection or furnish the necessary facilities for 
entering and making said examinations; and, upon hearing, the judge 
of the court shall have the power to fine such agent, owner or operator in 
any sum not less than $50. 

Section 7254. Complaint duties of judge. If the said inspector shall, 
after examination of any mine and the works and machinery pertaining 
thereto, find the same worked contrary to the provisions of this act, 
or unsafe for the workmen employed therein, the said inspector shall file 
a complaint before the judge of the circuit court in vacation or the circuit 
court when in session, in the name of the State, without cost or bond, show- 
ing wherein the said owner, agent or operator has failed to comply with the 
provisions of this act, and the said court or judge, after hearing the cause, 
shall, if satisfied the law has not been complied with, restrain or enjoin the 
said owner, agent or operator from operating the said mine until the 
law is complied with. In all proceedings before the said court or judge, the 
owner, agent or operator shall have two days' notice of the intended appli- 
cation for restraining order, and the judge of the court shall hear the 
complaint on affidavits or other testimony that may be offered in support, 
as well as in opposition thereto, and, if sufficient cause appear, the court 
or judge in vacation by order shall prohibit the further workings of any 
such mine in which persons may not be safely employed or which is 
worked contrary to the provisions of this act until the same has been 
made safe and the requirements of this act shall have been complied with, 
and the court shall award such costs in the matter of said proceedings as 
may be just, but any such proceedings so commenced shall be without 
prejudice to any other remedy permitted by law for enforcing the provisions 
of this act. 

D State vs. Southern Anthracite Coal Mining Co., 13 Ark. 593. 
Section 7255. Arrests proceedings. The mine inspector is hereby 
empowered concurrently with the sheriffs and constables throughout the 
State to make (arrests) for any violations of the mining laws of the State, 
but he shall make no arrests until after notice has been given as provided 
In this act. Where, in the opinion of the mine inspector, there is Im- 
minent danger to the life or health of the miners or employees in said mine 
said inspector shall at once notify the person in charge of or operating said 
mine in which the dangerous condition exists to immediately remove said 
danger, and, on failure to remove said dangerous condition without un- 
necessary delay, said inspector shall order the mine, or dangerous portion 
thereof, cleared of all persons except those necessary to remove or remedy 
said dangerous condition. Upon the clearing of any mine of persons em- 



122 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

ployed therein, as herein provided, any owner, lessee or agent in charge 
of or operating any such mine may apply to the chancery court within the 
jurisdiction of said mine for a writ of injunction to enjoin the mine 
inspector from continuing the prevention of the operation of said mine. 
Whereupon the chancellor of said court, either in term or vacation, shall 
at once proceed to hear and determine the case, and if the cause appears 
to be sufficient after hearing the parties and their evidence, as in like cases, 
the chancellor shall sustain or overrule tha mine inspector. 

(Section 7256, Obstructing inspection penalty. Any person who shall 
wilfully obstruct or hinder the mine inspector in the discharge of his duties, 
and every owner, lessee or agent, or manager of a mine who shall refuse 
or neglect to furnish the mine inspector the means necessary for making 
entry, inspection, examination or inquiry under the mining laws of this 
State, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall 
be punished as hereinafter provided. Should the mine inspector wilfully 
fail or refuse to perform any of the duties required under the provisions 
of the mining laws of this State, he shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction shall be fined in a sum not less than one hundred dol- 
lars nor more than one thousand dollars, and, upon a second conviction 
for such failure or refusal, shall be removed from office by the Governor, 
and his successor appointed within thirty days from the date of such re- 
moval. Any owner, or agent, lessee, or other person convicted of the 
violation of any of the provisions of the mining laws of this State or failing 
in any manner to comply therewith shall be deemed guilty of a mis- 
demeanor and upon conviction shall be fined in any sum not less than 
fifty dollars nor more than five hundred dollars except where provisions of 
the mining laws otherwise provide penalties. Each day any such violation 
or failure shall continue on the part of any owner, agent, lessee, or other 
person shall be deemed as a separate offense. Provided, that the provisions of 
this act do not apply to coal mines where less than ten men are employed 
underground in twenty-four hours. 

Section 7257. Duty of prosecuting attorney. It shall be and is hereby 
made the duty of the prosecuting attorney in the district wherein the mine 
inspector shall arrest or cause to be arrested any person or persons 
violating the provisions of the mining laws of the State to at once take 
charge of and prosecute the same with reasonable diligence. 

Section 7258. Construction. This act shall not repeal any of the 
mining laws of the State, except wherein it specifically conflicts, but shall 
be cumulative to all mining laws now in force. 

Section 7559. Non-performance of duty of inspector. Any inspector 
who shall wilfully fail or refuse to perform any of the duties required of 
him by the provisions of this act shall be punished by a fine of not less 
than one hundred dollars, and, upon third conviction for any such failure 
or refusal, he shall be removed from office, and any other person convicted 
of a violation of any provision of this act, or failing in any manner to com- 
ply therewith, except such provision for which punishment has already 
hereinbefore been fixed, shall be punished by a fine of not less than twenty- 
five dollars; and each day any such violation or failure shall constitute a 
separate offense; provided, the provisions of this act do not apply to mines 
when less than ten men are employed underground in twenty-four hours. 

Section 7260. (Amended). Furnishing map or plans. The owner, 
agent or operator of each and every coal mine in this State shall make, or 
cause to be made, an accurate and correct map or plan of the entire work- 
ings of said mine, and every vein or deposit thereof, showing the general 
inclination of the strata together with any material deflections in the said 
workings, and the boundary lines of said mine, and deposit a true copy of 
said map or plan with the Clerk of the County Court of each County wherein 
said mine or any part thereof may be located, and the same shall be so 
deposited during the month of January of each and every year hereafter, 
and such owner, agent or operator shall file a copy of said map or plan 
with the Mine Inspector during the month of January of each year and 
shall also keep a copy of same open for inspection at the office of such 
owner, agent or operator, and shall furnish said clerk and inspector with a 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 12?. 

sworn statement and further map or plan of the progress of the workings 
of such mine from the date of the last report to the ending December next 
preceding the making of same, and the inspector shall correct his map or 
plan in accordance therewith, and when any mine is worked out or abandoned 
that fact shall be reported to the inspector without delay, and the map or 
plan in the office of the clerk aforesaid shall be corrected and verified to 
conform to the facts then existing. 

All mine maps or plans aforesaid must show the location of doors 
overcast or air bridges, and the direction all air currents are traveling shall 
be indicated thereon by arrows. The Clerk of the County Court in which 
mines are located, shall file and safely keep all maps and plans of any 
mine deposited in his office, and same shall be recorded as maps and 
plans of town sites are now recorded. The Mine Inspector shall send 
maps and plans of mines in his possession to the Secretary of State for 
safekeeping at the end of every two years, during the month of July, and 
said mine maps and plans shall be kept in a vault for this special purpose 
for the guidance of anyone interested therein. 

Section 7261. (Amended). Instruction to make map or plan. That 
the owner, agent or operator of any mine neglecting, failing or refusing to> 
furnish said Inspector and County Clerk, a statement, map or plan or ad- 
dition thereto at the time, and in the manner provided above shall be deem- 
ed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be fined in any 
sum not less than $100.00 nor more than $500.00 and each day such neglect,, 
failure or refusal shall continue shall constitute a separate offense. This 
penalty shall be in addition to the rights now conferred upon the Mine In- 
spector by law to have said maps or plans made at the expense of the 
owner, agent, or operator. This Act shall not be construed as repealing 
any law now in effect except where same shall be in direct conflict here- 
with, and this act shall be cumulative to existing laws regulating mines. 

Section 7262. Escapement shaft. In all mines that are or have been 
in operation prior to the first day of January, 1893, and which are worked 
by and through a shaft, slope or drift, if there is not already an escape- 
ment shaft to each and every such mine or communication between each 
and every mine and some other contiguous mine, then there shall be an 
escapement shaft or other communication such as shall be approved by 
the mine inspector, making at least two distinct means of ingress and: 
egress, for all persons employed or permitted to work in such mines. Such 
escapement shaft or other communication with a contiguous mine afore- 
said shall be constructed in connection with every vein or stratum of coal 
in such mine and the time to be allowed for such construction 
shall not exceed ninety days from the time this act takes effect, 
and such escapment shaft or other communication with contiguous 
mines aforesaid shall be constructed in a shorter time than ninety 
days, if within the discretion of the inspector it becomes 
necessary, and in all cases where the working force of one mine has been 
driven up or into the workings of another mine, respective owners of such 
mines while operating the same shall keep open a roadway not less than 
six feet wide nor less than three feet high, thereby forming a communica- 
tion as contemplated by this act, and for the failure to do so shall be subject 
to the penalty provided for in Section 7253, for each and every day such 
roadway is unnecessarily closed; each and every escapement shaft shall 
be separated from the main shaft by such extent of natural strata as shall 
secure safety to the men employed in such mines, not less than one hun- 
dred feet, in all mines that shall go into operation for the first time after 
the first day of January 1893; such an escapement or other communication 
with a contiguous mine, as aforesaid, shall be constructed within ninety 
days after such mine shall have been put into operation, or within a shorter 
time if in the descretion of the inspector it becomes necessary; and it 
shall not be lawful for the owner, agent or operator of any such mine as 
aforesaid to employ any person to work therein or permit any person to go 
therein for the purpose of working except such persons as may be neces- 
sary to construct such escapement shaft, unless the requirements of this 
section shall first have been complied with. And the term "owner," as 
used in this act, shall mean the immediate proprietor, lessee or occupant of 



124 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

any mine or any part thereof and the term "agent," shall mean any per- 
son having on behalf of the owner, the care or management of any mine or 
part thereof; provided, nothing in this section shall be construed to ex- 
tend the time allowed by law for constructing escapement shaft. 

Section 7263. Ventilation. The owner, agent or operator of every 
mine, whether operated by shaft, slope or drift, shall provide and maintain 
for every such mine a sufficient amount of ventilation, to be determined by 
the inspector, not less than one hundred cubic feet of air per man per 
minute, measured at the foot of the downcast, which shall be circulated to 
the face of every working place throughout the mine, so that said mine 
shall be free from standing gas of whatsoever kind. In all mines where fire 
damp is generated every working place where fire damp is known to exist 
shall be examined every morning with a safety lamp by a competent 
person before any other persons are allowed to enter. The ventilation 
required by this section may be produced by any suitable appliance, but in 
case a furnace shall be used for ventilating purposes, it shall be built in 
such a manner as to prevent the communication of fire to any other part 
of the works by lining the upcast with incombustible material for a suf- 
ficient distance from said furnace. 

Section 7264. Bore-hole. The owner, agent or operator shall provide 
that a bore hole shall be kept twenty feet in advance of the face of each 
and every working place, and if necessary on both sides when driving 
toward an abandoned mine, or a part of a mine suspected of containing 
inflammable gases or to be inundated with water. 

Section 7265. Means of signalling cages. The owner, agent or opera- 
tor of every mine, operated by shaft, shall provide suitable means for the 
signalling between the bottom and top thereof; and shall also provide safe 
means of hoisting and lowering persons in a cage, covered with boiler 
iron, so as to keep safe as far as possible persons descending into or 
ascending out of said mine; and such cage shall be furnished with guides 
to conduct it through slides through such shaft with sufficient brake on 
every drum, to prevent accident in case of the giving out or breaking of 
the machinery; and such cage shall be furnished with spring catches, in- 
tended and provided, so far as possible, to prevent the consequences of 
cable breaking or the loosening or disconnecting of the machinery; and no 
props or rails shall be lowered in the cage while men are descending into 
or ascending out of said mine; that when men are ascending or descending, 
the opposite cage in every case shall be empty. 

Section 7266. Age of minors management of cages. No person un- 
der the age of fourteen years, or female of any ?,ge, shall be permitted to 
enter any mine to work therein; nor shall any boy under the age of sixteen 
years, unless he can read and write, be allowed to work in any mine, and 
no owner, agent or operator of any mine operated by a shaft or slope shall 
place in charge on any engine whereby men are lowered into or hoisted 
out of the mines by any but an experienced, competent and sober person, 
not under 18 years of age, and no person shall be permitted to ride upon a 
loaded cage or wagon used for hoisting purposes in any shaft or slope ex- 
cept persons employed for that purpose, and in no case shall more than 
eight persons ride in any cage or car at any one time, nor shall any coal 
"be hoisted out of any mine while any person or persons are' descending 
into such mine, and in no case shall more than one of the same family 
ascend or descend into any mine in one cage at one time, nor shall they 
be lowered or hoisted more rapidly than 500 feet per, minute. 

Section 7267. Gates, bonnets and safety appliances... The owner, 
agent or operator shall cause every landing on a level or above the surface 
of the ground, and the entrance to each intermediate vein (to be) securely 
fenced by gate and a bonnet so prepared to cover and protect such shaft 
and the entrances thereto, and the entrance to every abandoned slope, 
air or other shaft shall be securely fenced off, and every steam boiler shall 
be provided with proper steam gauge, water gauge and safety-valve and 
all underground self-acting or engine plains or gangways on which cars 
are drawn and persons allowed to travel shall be provided with some 
proper means of signaling between stopping places and the end of such 
plains or gangways, and sufficient places of refuge at the side of such 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 125 

plains or gangways shall be provided at intervals not more than thirty feet 
apart. 

Section 7268. Report of accidents investigations. Whenever loss of 
life or serious personal injury shall occur by reason of an explosion or of 
any accident whatever in or about any mine, it shall be the duty of the 
person having charge of such mine to report the facts thereof without de- 
lay to the mine inspector, and, if any person is killed thereby, to notify 
the coroner or some justice of the peace of said county, and it shall be 
the duty of the inspector to investigate and ascertain the cause of said ex- 
plosion, and file a report thereof with the other records of his office; and, 
to enable him to make such investigations, he shall have power to compel 
attendance of witnesses, and take depositions, administer oaths, and the 
cost of the examination shall be paid by the county as costs of coroner's 
inquests are now paid, and the failure of the person in charge of the mine 
where the accident occurred to give the inspector notice thereof shall be 
a misdemeanor. 

Section 7269. Right of action for injury. For any injury to persons 
or property occasioned by wilful violation of this act, or wilful failure to 
comply with any of its provisions, a right of action shall accrue to the 
party injured for any direct damages sustained thereby; provided should 
death ensue from such an injury, a cause of action shall survive in favor, 
first, of the widow and minor children of such deceased; if there be no 
widow nor minor children, then to the father if living, then to the mother; 
if no mother, then to the brothers and sisters and their descendants. 

Section 7270. Injury to appliances penalty. Any miner, workman or 
other person who shall knowingly injure any water-gauge, barometer, air 
course or brattice, or shall obstruct or throw open any air way, or carry 
any lighted lamps or matches into places that are worked by safety lamps 
or shall handle or disturb any part of the machinery of the hoisting en- 
gine, or open a door to a mine, and not have the same closed again, where- 
by danger is produced, either to the mine or those who work therein; 'or 
who shall enter any part of the mine against caution, or who shall disobey 
an order given in pursuance of this act, or who shall do any wilful act 
whereby the lives and health of persons working in the mine, or the 
security of the mine, or miners, or the machinery thereof is endangered, 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof, shall 
be punished by a fine or imprisonment at the discretion of the court. 

Section 7271. Prop timbers. The owner, agent or operator of any 
mine shall keep a sufficient amount of timber when required to be used 
as props, so that the workmen can at all times be able to properly secure 
the said workings from caving in, and it shall be the duty of the owner, 
agent or operator to send down all such props when required and deliver 
said props to the place where cars are delivered. 

Section 7272. Duties of weighman and checkman. The weighman em- 
ployed at any mine shall, before entering upon his duties, take and sub- 
scribe an oath, or affirmation, before some proper officer, to do justice 
between employer and employee, and to weigh the output from the mine 
honestly and correctly. The miners engaged in working any mine shall 
have the privilege, if they so desire, of selecting, by a majority vote, and 
employing, at their own expense, a check weighman, who shall in like man- 
ner take an oath, and who shall have like rights, powers, and privileges, 
in attending and seeing that the coal is correctly weighed, and who 
shall be subject to the same penalties as the regular weighman, and each 
of such weighman shall keep account of all coal weighed at the mines, In 
a well bound book kept for that purpose. Such oath or affirmation shall be 
kept posted in a conspicuous place in the weigh office and every owner, agent 
or operator of any coal mine in this state shall keep a correct account of 
the output of coal at his mine in a well bound book kept for that purpose, 
therein showing the amount of coal mined in each day, in each month and" 
In each year, and such account shall be kept in the general office in this 
State of such owner, agent or operator .subject at all times to the inspec- 
tion of the inspector, and if the mine be leased, subject also to the inspec- 
tion of the owner of the mine, his agent or attorney. 

Section 7273. Scales and measures. It shall be the duty of every cor- 



126 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

poration, company or person engaged in the business of mining and selling 
coal by weight or measure, and employing ten or more persons, to procure 
and constantly keep on hand at the proper place the necessary scales and 
measures and whatever else may be necessary to correctly weigh and 
measure the coal mined by such corporation, company or person and it 
shall be the duty of the mine inspector to visit each coal mine operated 
therein, and where such scales and measures are kept at least once in each 
year, and test the correctness of such scales and measures. The owner or 
-operator of each coal mine, or any two or more of the miners working there- 
in, may, in writing, require his attendance at the place where such scales 
and measures are kept at other times in order to test the correctness there- 
of, and it shall be his duty to comply with such request as soon as he can 
.after receiving such request. 

Section 7274. Testing weights. Every agent, owner, lessee or oper- 
ator engaged in mining coal in any quantity, where ten or more men are 
worked underground, shall furnish and keep on hand for the use of the State 
Mine inspector, for inspecting, testing and examining scales, five hundred 
pounds of United States testing weights. 

Section 7275. Penalty. Any corporation or person violating any of the 
provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
upon conviction thereof shall, for each offense, be fined not less than twen- 
ty-five dollars and not more than five hundred dollars; and the officers, 
agents or employees of the corporation or company whose duty it was to 
do or perform the act, or to cause it to be done and performed, which is the 
subject of the indictment, may be indicted jointly with said corporation or 
company, and upon conviction thereof be fined in any sum not less than 
twenty-five dollars nor more than five hundred dollars. 

Section 7276. Coal not screened until weighed exception. It shall be 
unlawful for any mine owner, lessee or operator of coal mines in this State, 
where ten or more men are employed underground, employing miners at 
bushel or ton rates, or other quantity, to pass the output of coal mined by 
said miners over any screen or any other device which shall take any part 
from the value thereof before same shall have been weighed and duly 
credited to the employee sending the same to the surface ,and accounted 
for at the legal rate of weights as fixed by the laws of Arkansas, and no 
employee within the meaning of this act shall be deemed to have waived 
any right accruing to him under this section by any contract he may make 
-contrary to the provisions thereof, and any provision, contract, or agree- 
ment between the mine owners, lessees or operators thereof, and the miners 
employed therein whereby the provisions of this act are waived, modified 
or annulled, shall be void and of no effect, and the coal sent to the sur- 
face shall be accepted or rejected; and, if accepted, shall be weighed in 
accordance with the provisions of this act, and the right of action shall 
not be invalidated by reason of any contract or agreement; provided, 
that in Cane Creek, River and Logan townships in Logan county, and in 
all of Johnson county except Grant township, all the coal mined and paid 
for by weight may be paid for on the mine run basis, 
or upon the screen coal basis, which shall be a matter 
for agreement between the operators and the miners. Provided, 
further, that if any coal shall be mined on the screen coal basis it shall pass 
over the following kind of screen, to-wit: The screen shall not be more 
than four feet wide and not more than twelve feet long, made of steel or 
iron bars which shall not be less than five-eighths of an inch in thickness 
on the face and not less than five-sixteenths of an inch in thickness on 
the bottom and not less than 1% of an inch shall be supported by rests or 
cross bars. It shall in no event be placed more than three feet apart. 
The screen bars shall be placed upon rests in such a manner 
as to prevent spreading and said rests or cross bars shall 
be firmly fastened to each side of the chute through which the coal passes. 
Said rests or cross bars shall be so arranged as in no case to rise above 
the top of the screen bars in such a manner as to retard the speed of the 
coal in passing over the screen. Where coal is screened before it is 
weighed, it shall be dumped upon bat sheets and passed over the screen as 
described above, and there shall be no obstruction on said screens, 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 127 

Any owner, agent, lessee or operator of any coal mine in this State 
where ten or more men are employed under ground, who shall knowingly 
violate any of the provisions of this section, shall be deemed guilty of a 
misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be punished by a fine of not less 
than two hundred dollars nor more than five hundred dollars for each 
offense, or, by imprisonment in the county jail for a period of not less than 
sixty days nor more than six months, or both such fine and imprisonment; 
and each day any mine or mines are operated thereafter shall be a separate 
and distinct offense; proceedings to be instituted in any court having com- 
petent jurisdiction. 

Section 7277. Room and pillar plan regulation. The owner, agent, 
lessee, or operator of any coal mine in this State, if said mine is worked 
on the room and pillar plan, shall cause such work to be prosecuted in 
such mine in the following manner, to-wit: Two entries parallel with each 
other must be driven for the ingress and egress of the air, and cross cuts 
must be made at intervals not to exceed forty feet apart. Where gas ex- 
ists they shall be driven thirty feet apart, or a cross cut be made at any 
other place ordered by the management to do so. No room shall be turned 
inside the last course cut. 

Section 7278. Enforcement. The State Mine Inspector shall, after the 
passage of this act, give notice in writing to the owner, agent, lessee or 
operator in charge of each coal mine worked on the room and pillar plan, to 
conform to the requirements hereinbefore set out, and if the same are not 
complied with in such mines as work ten or more men underground, the 
such owner, agent, lessee, or operator so failing shall be deemed guilty of 
a misdemeanor, and, on conviction, be fined not less than ten or more than 
fifty dollars for each day in which such mine is operated in violation of 
the above requirements. 

Section 7279. Daily Inspection. In all mines where a fire boss is em- 
ployed, all working places and worked-out places adjacent to the working 
places shall be examined, when it can be done, at least once a day by a 
competent fire boss, whose duty it shall be to enter a report of existing 
conditions of such working places and worked-out places in a well-bound 
book, to be kept by him for that purpose, and all dangerous places that are 
marked out shall be marked on a blackboard, furnished by the company, 
before any other employee enters the mine. 

Section 7280. Lard oil for lighting. Nothing but pure lard oil, where 
oil is used for lighting purposes, shall be used in any underground works, 
except in the main upcast. This section shall not apply to rope riders. 

Section 7281. Emergency supplies. There shall be kept in the engine 
room, or at some nearby and convenient place, at each mine working ten 
or more men underground, a supply of oils, bandages, blankets or covers 
for wraps, and a cot or stretcher, for use of and to be used by persons who 
may receive injuries in or at said mines, and the owner, agent, lessee, or 
operator shall also provide and maintain at some convenient place a con- 
veyance in which to take from the mines to their place of abode, persons 
who may be thus injured. 

Section 7282. Annual report of coal mined. Each and every owner, 
agent, lessee, or operator operating a coal mine in this State shall annually, 
on the 1st day of July of each year, make a report, under oath, upon 
blank forms to be furnished by the State Mine Inspector, of the true 
amount of coal mined each and every month for twelve months next pre- 
ceeding the making of said report. The said blank forms shall be prepared 
by the State Mine Inspector, and contain the necessary headings and 
columns to obtain a correct and true statement of all coal of every kind 
mined; and this section shall apply to all mines without regard to the num- 
ber of men employed. 

Section 7283. Penalty. Any owner, agent, lessee, or operator who 
shall fail or refuse to file, swear to, and return by the 1st day of July of 
each year the said reports, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and 
on conviction shall be fined not less than twenty-five dollars nor more than 
one hundred dollars for each day of such failure; and any agent, owner, 
lessee, or operator who knowingly swears to a false report, shall be deemed 
guilty of perjury, and punished accordingly. 



128 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Section 7284. Air currents. All slopes, drifts or shafts, used for hoist- 
ing or hauling coal shall be made the intake of air into the mines except 
at the opition of the owner or by the direction of the State Mine Inspector, 
and that all air that goes into a mine shall be so split that not more than 
fifty employees will be working on each split of air, and there shall not be 
less than 200 cubic feet of air pass each working face per minute, and it 
shall be the duty of the State Mine Inspector to measure the air at all 
working places in making his inspection. The machinery and appliances 
used for conducting or driving the air into the mines shall be so installed, ar- 
ranged and adjusted that said air currents may be easily and speedily 
reversed in emergencies. 

Section 7285. Miners called out of dangerous mines. Whenever and 
wherever a coal mine in this State becomes dangerous from high water or 
overflow of streams adjacent thereto, whereby the lives of the miners em- 
ployed therein are jeopardized by reason of such high water, it shall be the 
duty of the managers of such coal mine to call the miners out of the same, 
and forbid their working therein until such danger is past, and failure 
to do so is hereby made a high misdemeanor, and, upon conviction thereof, 
shall be fined in any sum not less than five hundred dollars nor more 
than five thousand dollars, or by imprisonment not less than six months 
nor more than one year. 

Section 7286. Failure of lessee to report output. Any person, firm or 
corporation, leasing lands in this State under written contracts providing 
for a royalty to be paid the lessor for ore deposits or minerals taken out or 
off of said land, or any officer, agent or employee of said lessee, who shall 
with the intent to defraud the said lessee out of any part of said royalty 
fail, neglect or refuse to report the true amount or quantity of ore, deposits 
or minerals taken from said lands, or who shall conceal the true amount so 
taken, or who shall falsely report the amount so taken, shall be deemed 
guilty of a felony, and shall upon conviction, be imprisoned in the peniten- 
tiary for not less than one nor more than five years. 



WASH HOUSES IN COAL MINES 

'Section 7287. Duty to furnish. It shall be the duty of every owner or 
lessee, its officers and agents, or other persons having jurisdiction or di- 
rection of any coal mine or coal mines employing ten or more persons, 
within the State of Arkansas, to provide, within ninety days after the 
passage and approval of this act, a suitable building which shall be con- 
venient to the principal entrance of such mine or mines, and equipped with 
individual lockers or hangers, benches or seats, proper light, heat, hot and 
cold water and shower baths, and maintain the same in good order, for the 
use and benefit of all persons employed in or about said mine or mines. 
Said building shall be so constructed as to give sufficient space for the ac- 
commodation of miners or others using the same. The flooring in the wash 
room of said building to be made of concrete or cement, but the material 
used in flooring in the changing room shall be optional with the owner, 
lessee operating or directing the operation of the mine or mines. All 
lockers required by this act, when made of steel, shall be not less than 
twelve inches in width, twelve inches in depth and sixty inches in height. 
When made of lumber, they shall not be less than twelve inches in depth, 
twelve inches in width and sixty inches in height, with partitions in center 
of wood lockers. Individual hangers shall consist of not less than three 
suitable hooks upon which to hang clothing and a receptacle of suitable size 
for use in connection therewith, attached to a proper chain or wire rope, 
and so suspended as to admit of hanger being raised to such height that 
wearing apparel, when hung thereon, will not be less than seven feet above 
the floor of said building and of being locked in that position. The lockers 
and hangers in each wash house shall be sufficient in number to accommo- 
date all employees of said mine or mines and there shall be one shower bath 
for each fifteen employees. Said employees shall furnish their own towels, 
soap and lock for their lockers or hangers, exercising control over and be 
responsible for the property by them left therein; and it shall be the duty 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 12D 

of all persons using said wash houses to remove therefrom all cast-off wear- 
ing apparel. 

Section 7288. To be kept clean. Every corporation, company, parim-r- 
ship, person or persons who shall construct any building or buildings required 
by Section 7287, and shall install such house and wash house facilities 
as required therein, shall at all times, during the operation of any mine or 
mines, keep same in clean and sanitary condition, but shall not be liable 
for the loss or destruction of any property of employees left in any such 
building or buildings. 

Section 7289. Penalty. Any owner, lessee, its officers or agents, or 
other persons failing or refusing to comply with the provisions of this act 
shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall upon conviction, be 
fined not less than $50 nor more than $100; each day's violation shall con- 
stitute a separate offense and shall be punished as such. 

Section 7290. Injury to appurtenances penalty. It shall be unlawful 
for any person to break, injure or destroy any part or appurtenance to any 
wash house, or commit any nuisance therein; and any person adjuged 
guilty of a violation of this section shall be fined in any sum not less than 
$25 nor more than $50. 

Section 7291. Separate waoh houses. All coal mines operating in this 
State shall by partition, or by other means, in the discretion of the State 
Mine Inspector, maintain separate wash houses for whites and blacks. 

Section 7292. Duty of inspector. It shall be the duty of the State Mine 
Inspector, and he is by this act .authorized to require wash houses already 
in existence to be so changed, remodeled and improved as to comply with 
the provisions of this act. He shall have general supervision of this law 
and its enforcement. 



LIEN OF MINERS 

Section 7293. Lien on output and machinery. Any person or person* 
working in any mines of the State of Arkansas, or in any quarries, either 
stone or marble, shall have a lien on the output of any such mines or 
quarries for the amount due for such work, and, in addition thereto, his 
lien shall attach to all machinery, tools and implements used in such quar- 
rying and mining, such liens to be enforced in the manner now provided 
or as may hereafter be provided for the enforcement of laborer's liens. 



RIGHT TO OPERATE ON RAILWAYS OR TRAMWAYS 

Section 7294. Short line roads authorized. A person owning or con- 
trolling, by lease or purchase, any copper, lead, zinc, iron, marble, stone, 
rock, granite, slate, coal or other mineral lands in this State shall have the 
same right to incorporate, own, construct and operate such short lines of 
railway or tramway as may be necessary to the successful mining, quarry- 
ing and marketing of said coal, marble, stone, rock, granite, slate and other 
mineral. 

Section 7295. Eminent domain. All incorporations herein provided for 
shall be governed by the laws governing railway incorporations in this 
State; and shall have the same right to acquire right-of-way over, under or 
through any private or public lands, and shall have and exercise the same 
right of eminent domain in acquiring such right-of-way; and shall have the 
same authority to construct, own, lease, operate, or sell such lines of railway, 
or tramway, as may be necessary to the successful mining and marketing 
of such coal and other minerals, owned or controlled by said mining cor- 
porations in this State. 

Section 7296. Rights as carrier. When so incorporated and*construct- 
ed, such short lines of railway and tramway shall be and are hereby en- 
titled to all the rights, powers and privileges of a common carrier. 

Section 7297. Rights to connections, crossings, etc. All such short 
lines of railway, or tramway, shall have the same rights and privileges of 
connections, crossings, sidings, switches and transfer, without prejudice 
or discrimination, as are extended by custom or granted by law to railroad 
corporations in this State. 



130 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Section 7298. Passenger equipment not required. All such short lines 
of railway, or tramway, not exceeding six miles in length, shall not be 
required to maintain passenger equipment, but if, at their option, they 
carry passengers, they shall be subject to the laws governing passenger 
traffic on railroads in this State. 



Coal Mine Examining" Board 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921.) 

Section 7317 Examining board. Immediately after the passage of this 
act, there shall be appointed by the Governor, a board of four examiners to 
serve until July 1, 1921, and thereafter such board of examiners shall be ap- 
pointed for a term of four years. Two of said board shall be practical miners, 
who have had at least eight years' experience as miners in mines of Arkansas 
or elsewhere; two shall be operators of coal mines in the State of Arkansas 
or representatives thereof. One additional member of said board shall be 
selected by the four members appointed as hereinbefore provided. The 
Members of the examining board shall be paid out of the coal mine ex- 
aminers' fund, upon vouchers to be approved by the president of said 
board, the sum of $6 per day for each day of actual service and their neces- 
sary expenses. 

Section 7318. Organization and duties. Immediately after their ap- 
pointment, the examiners shall meet and organize by selecting a chairman 
and secretary. The secretary shall keep on file all examination questions 
and their answers, and all examination records and papers belonging to 
the board. The examining board shall convene upon call of the chairman, 
except in case of emergency. Notices shall be published in one newspaper 
of general circulation in each county in which there are coal mines, at least 
five days before the day of meeting. 

Section 7319. Employees to be examined fees. On and after the pas- 
sage of this act no fire bosses, hoisting engineers, or mine foremen shall 
be employed in any mines in the state of Arkansas, unless they shall have 
been examined by the said State Board of Examiners, as hereinafter pro- 
vided. 

And provided, further, that no one shall act as mine instructor or as- 
sistant mine instructor of the State of Arkansas, unless they have been 
examined by said board of examiners, as hereinafter provided. 

Provided, that the mine inspector holding office at the time this act 
goes into effect shall have a fee of $10 and be granted a certificate with- 
out examination, and the assistant mine inspector holding office at the 
time this act goes into effect, shall, on payment of a fee of $7.50, be grant- 
ed a certificate without examination. 

Provided, that men holding positions of hoisting engineers, or mine 
foremen, at the time this act goes into effect, who have had five years' 
experience and pay a fee of $5, shall be granted certificates without ex- 
amination. 

Fire bosses, holding positions at the time this act goes into effect, who 
have had five years' experience and pay a fee of $3, shall be granted a 
certificate without examination. Applicants for examination shall be able 
to read and write the English language, and shall satisfy the board of ex- 
aminers that they are of good moral character, and not be a user of in- 
toxicating liquors, and shall be a citizen of the United States. All appli- 
cants shall be thoroughly examined with reference to the duties of the posi- 
tions for which they have applied for certificate. Applicants for certificates 
as mine foremen shall be at least 25 years old, and shall have had at least 
five yearsj experience as practical coal miners, mining engineers or men of 
general underground experience. Applicants for certificates as fire bosses 
shall have like qualifications and experience in the mines of Arkansas or 
elsewhere and shall also have had experience in mines that generate ex- 
plosive and noxious gases. Applicants for certificates as mine inspector 
shall, before examination, pay to the board a fee of $4, and, if successful a 
further fee of $6 for a certificate. Applicants for certificates as assistant 
mine inspector shall, before examination, pay to the board a fee of $3 and, 
if successful, a further fee of $4.50 for a certificate. Applicants for certi- 



MINERALS iN ARKANSAS 131 

flcates as mine foremen and hoisting engineers shall, before examination, 
pay to the board a fee of $2 and, if successful, a further fee of $3 for a cer- 
tificate. Other applicants shall, before examination, pay to the board of 
examiners a fee of $1, and, if successful, a further fee of $2 for a certi- 
ficate. 

Section 7320. Certificates. The board shall grant certificates after 
examination to all applicants wbo have shown themselves familiar with 
the duties of the position for which they desire certificates, and are capable 
of performing such duties. Provided, that certificates of the first grade 
shall be granted only to applicants who by oral or written examinations in 
the presence of and relating to explosive gas, have shown themselves 
competent to act as mine foremen in mines which generate ex- 
plosive and noxious gases, and the certificate shall so state. Provided, 
certificates for mine inspector and assistant mine inspector shall be granted 
only to applicants who have shown themselves duly qualified, as provided 
by the law creating such office, and no appointments shall be made to such 
offices unless such appointee shall hold a certificate. 

Section 7321. Grade of certificate. Anyone holding a first grade fire- 
man's certificate may serve as foreman in any mine and may serve as fire 
boss; and anyone holding a second grade mine foreman's certificate may 
serve as any of the above, except as fire boss and foreman in mines which 
generate explosive or natural gases, and in case of emergency any mine 
owner, with the consent of the examining board, may employ any trust- 
worthy or experienced man who shall not hold a certificate, for a period of 
not more than thirty days as mine foreman or fire boss. * 

Section 7322. Forgery or counterfeit of certificate. Any person who 
shall forge, alter or counterfeit a certificate, or shall secure or attempt to 
secure employment by use of such forged, altered or counterfeit certificate, 
or shall falsely represent that he is a holder of a certificate regularly is- 
sued him, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor. 

Section 7323. Duplicate certificates. In case of loss or destruction of 
certificates, the secretary of the examining board, upon satisfactory proof 
of the said loss or destruction, may issue a duplicate thereof on the pay- 
ment of the sum of $1. 

Section 7324. Revocation of certificates. ..All certificates issued here- 
under may be revoked by the board of examiners after hearing upon due 
notice to the holder of the certificate, and upon written charges preferred 
by the board or by some interested person for violation of this act. Com- 
plaint may be filed against the holder of a certificate for intoxication, mental 
disabilities, neglect of duty or other sufficient cause; provided, however, 
that the holder of the certificate so cancelled shall have the right to appear 
before the examining board after the expiration of three months and be re- 
examined, if he shall first satisfy the board that the incapacity complained 
of shall have ceased to exist. 

Section 7325. Penalty. Any owner, operator, lessee or agent of any 
coal mine in the state of Arkansas, violating any of the provisions of this 
act, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall 
be fined not less than $10 nor more than $100, or be imprisoned in the 
county jail not exceeding one year, or both. 



The office of the State Mine Inspector is at Fort Smith, 
Ark. The office of the State Bureau of Labor is at Little 
Rock, Ark. 



132 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Laws For the Conservation of Oil and Gas 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 7299. Duties of owners or operators. The owner or operator 
of any well put down for the purpose of exploring for or producing oil or 
gas shall, during the course of such drilling, case off all fresh or salt water 
from each oil or gas producing sand encountered while drilling, such casing 
to be set in the well in such manner as to exclude all water from penetrating 
the oil or gas-bearing sand, and should such well be put down through the 
first into a lower oil or gas-bearing sand, the same shall be cased in such 
manner as to exclude all fresh or salt water, from all oil or gas-bearing sands 
encountered during the course of such drilling operation. And, should any well 
so drilled produce oil or gas-bearing sand such oil or gas shall be conserved by 
either casing or mudding it off, so as to confine it in the gas or. oil-bearing 
sand where found; or, if it is to be utilized from different sands in the 
same well, it shall be taken through different strings of casing or tubing. 

Section 7300. Duty to confine gas. Any person, co-partnership, corpora- 
tion, owner, lessee or manager in possession of any well producing natural 
gas, in order to prevent said gas from wasting by escape, shall within ten 
days after this act takes effect, and thereafter within four days after pen- 
etrating the gas-'bearing sand in any well drilled, shut in and confine the 
gas in said well until and during such time as the gas therein shall be 
utilized for light, fuel or steam power. 

'Section 7301. Plugging dry or abandoned wells. All lessees or opera- 
tors drilling or operating for crude oil or natural gas within the State of 
Arkansas shall immediately, in a practical and workmanlike manner, under 
the supervision of the oil or gas inspector, as hereinafter provided, plug 
all dry or abandoned oil or gas wells in which oil or gas bearing stratum 
has been found, in the following manner: Beginning at the bottom of 
the hole, same shall be solidly plugged with a substance consisting of 
one-third portion cement and two-thirds portion of sand properly mixed 
with water to a point twenty-five feet above top level of the oil or gas-bear- 
ing rand. At that point a seasoned, wooden plug two feet in length and 
the diameter of the hole, shall be placed. Thereafter the hole shall be 
filled up solidly tw T enty-five feet with sand baling and a seasoned wooden 
plug, two feet in length and the diameter of the hole shall be so placed and 
driven firmly into the sand balings. Should there be more than one oil or 
gas-bearing sand in the well, after plugging the bottom sand in the well, as 
herein above set out, the well shall be filled with sand balings to within ten 
feet of the bottom of the next sand above that last plugged, when this sand 
and each succeeding sand shall be plugged in the manner herein above set 
out, until all the oil and gas-bearing sands in the well have been plugged as 
herein provided. 

Section 7302. Right of persons threatened with injury. Whenever any 
person is injured or threatened with injury by the neglect to comply with 
the provisions of section 7301, it shall be lawful for such persons, after 
notice to the owner, lessee or caretaker of the premises upon which 
such well is located, to enter upon and fill up and plug such well in the 
manner herein provided; and thereupon to recover the expense thereof from 
the person or persons whose duty it was to fill up or plug such well in 
like manner as debts of such amounts are recoverable, and shall have a 
lien upon the fixtures, machinery, and leasehold interest of the owner or 
operator of such well for all sums expended in filling up and plugging 
such well, and for the costs of the suit, including a reasonable attorney's 
fee, to be fixed by the court. 

Section 7303. Penalty. Any person, firm or corporation violating 
section 7299, 7300 or 7301 shall be subject to a penalty of not less than 
one hundred dollars or more than one thousand dollars to be recovered 
in an action therefore, brought by the prosecuting attorney in the name of 
the State, by the court. The proceeds of the penalties collected shall be 
turned into the general road fund of the county where incurred, to be used 
on the roads, bridges or highways of said county, in the discretion of the 
county court. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 133 

Section 7304. Log of well drilled filing. It shall be the duty of the 
owner of ^any well drilled for gas or oil to keep a careful and accurrate log 
of the drilling of such well, such log to show the character and depth of 
the formation passed through or encountered in the drilling of such well, 
and particularly to show the location and depth of the water-bearing 
strata, together with the character of the water encountered from time to 
time, and to show at what point such water was shut off, if at all, and if 
not, so state in the log; and show the depth at which oil or gas strata is 
encountered, and the character of same, and whether all water overflow- 
ing or underlying such oil or gas-bearing strata was successfully and per- 
manently shut off, so as to prevent the percolation or penetration into 
such oil or gas-bearing strata. The said log to be verified by the person in 
charge of the drilling attested as correct by the owners of the well, and 
shall be filed with the county clerk of the county in. which said well is 
located, and preserved by him in the public records. The said log shall 
definitely describe the location of the well. 

Section 7305. Leaks notice to owner. It is hereby made the duty of 
any person discovering any leak in any pipe line for the transportation of 
natural gas, or in any machinery, apparatus or device used in the regula- 
tion, distribution or transportation thereof, forthwith to notify the owner 
of said pipe line or other appliance and also notify the gas inspector 
of said leak. It is made the duty of the owner of such pipe line or other 
apparatus ffom which gas is escaping, to immediately repair the same. It 
is made the duty of the gas inspector, on receiving reliable information 
of such leak, or on personal knowledge thereof, to forthwith notify the 
owner of said pipe line or appliance of it, and to immediately repair the 
same. Should the owner of such pipe line, apparatus, appliance or device 
fail to at once repair said leak, or use the utmost diligence to do so, he 
shall be subject to a penalty of not less than one hundred dollars nor more 
than one thousand dollars and a reasonable attorney's fee to be fixed by 
the court for the prosecuting attorney to be recovered in an action 
brought by the prosecuting attorney in the name of the State therefor. 
The proceeds of penalties collected shall be turned into the general 
fund of the county where the leak is located, to be used on the roads, 
bridges, or highways of said county, in the discretion of the county court. 

Section 7306. Permitting flow of gas penalty. It shall be unlawful 
for any person, firm or corporation having possession or control of any gas 
well whether as contractor, owner, lessee, or manager, to allow or permit 
the flow of natural gas of any such well to flow into the open air without 
being confined to such well or pipe, or other safe receptacles, for a longer 
period than three days after the gas shall have been struck and produced 
of such well. If such well cannot be confined in three days, the peron 
controlling the same shall continue with the utmost diligence to confine 
it as soon as possible. Failure to comply with this section shall subiect the 
person failing so to do to the penalties and proceedure provided in the 
next preceding section, which shall be applicable hereto. 

Section 7307. Civil liability. In addition to the penalties described in 
the preceding section for failure to confine natural gas, any person or cor- 
poration lawfully in possession of lands upon which said gas well is situated, 
or adioining or adjacent thereto, or in the vicinity of such well, may enter 
upon the lands on which such well is situated and take possession of such 
well from which said gas is allowed to escape in violation of such section, 
after the failure of the party in control thereof for ten hours to use the 
utmost diligence to confine the said gas, and pack and tube such well, and 
shut in and secure the flow of gas, and maintain civil action i\i any court 
of competent jurisdiction in this State against the owner, lessee, agent, or 
manager of such well, and each of them, jointly or severally, to recover 
the cost and expense of said tubing and packfng, together with attorney's 
fees to be taxed as a part of the cost. 

Section 7308. Setting fire to escaping gas. It is hereby declared to 
be unlawful for any person to set on fire any gas escaping from wells, 
broken or leaking mains, valves, pipes or other appliances used by any 
person, company or corporation in conveying gas to consumers, or in stor- 
ing the same, or to interfere in any manner with wells, pipes, mains, gate- 



134 MINERALS. IN ARKANSAS 

boxes, valves, stop-cocks or other appliances, or machinery of any per- 
son, company or corporation, unless employed by or acting under the au- 
thority or direction of the person, company or corporation owning or con- 
trolling said wells, mains, pipes, valves, or other appliances, and those 
herein mentioned, or legal authority. Anyone found guilty of violation of 
this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and confined in the 
county jail not less than one day nor more than six months, and fined 
$25.00. 

Section 7309. Flambeau lights prohibited. The use of natural gas for 
illuminating purposes in what are known as "flgmr.eau" lights is wasteful 
and extravagant use thereof, and is dangerous to the public good, and it 
shall therefore be unlawful for any company, corporation or person to use 
natural gas for illuminating purposes in what are known as "flambeau" 
lights in cities, towns, highways or elsewhere; provided, this 
shall not be so construed to prohibit the use of such gas in 
what are known as "jumbo" burners, inclosed in glass globes, or lamps, or 
by the use of other burners of similar character, so inclosed as will con- 
sume no more gas than "jumbo" burners; provided, further, that this shall 
not apply to those engaged in drilling wells while the well is being drilled. 
A violation of this section shall subject the person so violating it to the pen- 
alties and proceedings provided in Section 7305, which is made applicable 
hereto. 

Section 7310. Gas inspector. The office of gas inspector is hereby 
created. The gas inspector shall have at least three years' experience in 
natural gas drilling operations, and possess technical knowledge of the 
properties of natural gas, and of geology so far as it relates to the sub j act 
of natural gas. The Governor shall appoint such person as gas inspector 
and commission him as such, and shall serve for a term of four years, or 
until his successor is appointed and qualified, and he is hereby vested 
with the duties and rights and powers hereinafter prescribed. 

Section 7311. Notice of drilling penalty. When a company or in- 
dividual drilling a well is required to plug it as provided in this act, he is 
to notify the gas inspector, who shall supervise the plugging and see that it 
conforms to the requirements of this act, and said gas inspector shall 
file a written report with the county clerk of the county in which the well 
is situated, stating in detail the work done, and he shall receive a fee of 
$25 from the company or individual owning the well. Should the company 
or individual plugging the well violate the provisions of this act in so do- 
ing, or in failing to do or the written directions of the gas inspector, it 
shall be subject to a penalty of not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 
and the proceedure provided in Section 7305 which is made applicable 
hereto. 

Section 7312. Notice of plugging well penalty. When a company or 
individual drilling a well is required to plug it as provided in this act, he is 
to notify the gas inspector, who shall supervise the plugging and see that 
it conforms to the requirements of this act, and said gas inspector shall file 
a written report with the county clerk of the county in which the well is 
situated, stating in detail the work done, and he shall receive a fee of $25 
from the company or individual owning the well. Should the company or 
Individual plugging the well violate the provisions of this act in so doing, or 
in failing to do, or the written directions of the gas inspector, it shall be 
subject to a penalty of not less than $100 nor more than $1,000 and the pro- 
cedure provided in Section 7305 which is made applicable hereto. 

Section 7313. Gas or oil-bearing sand notice to inspector. Any com- 
pany or individual drilling a well shall notify the gas inspector whenever it 
reaches gas or oil-bearing sand or strata, whether said sand or strata are 
producing or not, and the inspector shall at once visit the well and see 
that the provisions of this act in regard to protecting said oil or gas-bar- 
ing sands or strata are complied with, and he shall receive a fee of $15 to 
be paid by the company, or individual drilling the well for his said serv- 
ices; provided the person drilling the well shall not be required to stop 
drilling until the inspector arrives. Failure of the individual or company 
drilling a well to comply with this act in regard to protecting gas-bearing 
or oil-bearing strata or sand, or to obey the written instruction of the gas 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 135 

inspector, shall render the company or individual subject to a penalty of 
not less than $100 or more than $1,000 and subject to the same proceedure as 
provided in Section 7305, which is made applicable hereto. 

Section 7314. Duties of inspector penalty. The gas inspector shall 
Inspect all gas wells in the process of drilling and all pipe lines in process of 
construction, and see there is no wastage of gas, and that said wells and 
pipe lines are properly constructed to prevent wastage. If he finds any water 
or wastage in well, pipes or other receptacle for gas, he shall at once notify 
the owner thereof, or, in his absence, the person in control thereof, of the 
eame, with directions to immediately repair same, and failure thereof shall 
subject the owner or person in control thereof to a penalty of not less than 
$100 or more than $1,000 to be recovered as provided in Section 7305. which 
is made applicable thereto. Each person, company or individual, dr lling or 
pwning an oil or gas well shall pay an inspector fee of $10 to the gas in- 
spector, and any person, firm or corporation constructing or owning a pipe 
line shall pay the inspection fee of $10 for each five miles or a fraction 
thereof. 

Section 7315. Defense to action for penalty. In any action for penalty 
for failure to comply with directions of the gas inspector, the defendant 
may be permitted to show that the requirement was unreasonable and 
unnecessary, on proof of wlrch the defendant shall be discharged. 

Section 7316. Amount of gas to be taken penalty. It shall be unlaw- 
ful for any person, firm or corporation owning or operating any natural 
gas well, within the State of Arkansas, or selling gas therefrom, directly 
or indirectly, to draw from any well so owned or operated, in an amount 
exceeding in the aggregate 20 per cent of the open-flow test of the total 
volume of gas being produced out of the gas sands and said well; provided, 
however, if the rock pressure or volume of any gas producing area can 
be proved to have become depleted to such an e>tent that the gas will not 
flow of its own volition, and it becomes necessary to pump said gas, or 
by other artificial means procure gas from the aforementioned sands, then 
the first part of this section shall have no application while such condi- 
tion exists. Any person, firm or corporation violating this section shall be 
subject to a penalty of $100 for each day or part of day of such violation; 
and this penalty may be recovered in an action therefor brought by the 
prosecuting attorney in the name of the State, and a fee of one-fourth of 
the amount recovered in such action shall be allowed to the prosecuting at- 
torney bringing the action, and one-fourth shall be paid to the gas inspec- 
tor; the remaining half of the recovery shall be turned into the general 
road fund of the county where collected, to be used on the roads, bridges or 
highways of said county, in the discretion of the county court. 



An Act To Conserve Natural Gas Resources of the State of 

Arkansas. 

(Act 144, General Assembly, 1921.) 

Section 1. In order to determine the open flow volume of gas produced 
by any well, it shall be the duty of the State Gas Inspector or his duly au- 
thorized deputy to test all wells producing gas in the State of Arkansas, 
from which gas is being used or marketed, between the 1st day of De- 
cember and the 1st day of January in each year, and as often thereafter 
as in his judgment it may be necessary for the purpose of determining 
the open flow volume and rock pressure of said wells. The State Oil and 
Gas Inspector shall be paid a fee of $25.00 a day and his actual expenses 
by the person, firm or corporation whose wells are tested by him or his 
deputy under the provisions of this section. 

Section 2. In determining the open flow volume and rock pressure of 
said well, said Gas Inspector shall first close the well for a period of 
five minutes, and then take a test, to determine its closed-in pressure. He 
shall then immediately open said well and flow it for five minutes, and 
then take a test of its open flow volume, with approved instruments and 
devices in use for that purpose. 

Section 3. Immediately after the said tests are made, the Gas Inspec- 
tor shall furnish the person, firm or corporation owning or operating said 



136 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

well or wells with a copy of the tests made by him, showing the amount 
of gas which said owner or operator may take from each of said wells daily, 
and shall file his report of said tests with the county clerk of the county in 
which said well or wells are situated, showing the closed-in rock pres- 
sure and open flow volume, size of the tubing with which said well or 
wells are closed in, and the condition of the well or wells at the time the 
test was made; said report to be verified by said Gas Inspector and pre- 
served by the County Clerk in the county records. 

Section 4. Before making said tests, the Gas Inspector shall give 
five days' notice in writing to the person, firm or corporation owning, 
operating or controlling said gas well or wells, of the time when said tests 
will be made, and the person, firm or corporation owning, operating or 
controlling said well or wells, or any other person interested therein, shall 
have the right to be present when said test is being made, and shall afford 
to said Gas Inspector every means and facility possible for the purpose of 
making an accurate test of said well or wells, as provided in this Act. 

Section 5. If, in the judgment of the Gas Inspector, it shall be deemed 
advisable or necessary to test said wells oftener then set out in Section 1, 
he shall have the right to do so, and for th^e purpose of making said tests 
and determining the amount of gas taken therefrom, he shall have access 
to all wells and to all well records, and all companies, contractors, drillers, 
lessees or owners of the land upon which said well or wells are located 
shall permit said Gas Inspector or his deputy to come upon any lease or 
property owned or controlled by them, and to inspect any and all wells and 
the records of said wells, and to have access at all times to all wells and 
to any and all records of said wells used, owned or operated by any per- 
son, firm or corporation or the lessees or owners of the land upon which 
said wells are located. 

Section 6. Uniform rules of procedure shall be followed by said Gas 
Inspector in making the tests hereinabove set out, so that all wells tested 
by him under this Act shall be upon the said basis and under like condi- 
tions, to the end that all wells shall show accurately their rock pressure and 
volume as closed in at the time said tests are made, and shall be tested 
under similar conditions. 

Section 7. In addition to the annual test provided for in Section 1, 
it shall be the duty of the Gas Inspector, within ten days after the gas 
from any well is being used or marketed, to make a test of said wells, as 
provided for in Section 2, and to make out and file his report of said test 
with the County Clerk of the county in which said well is located, as pro- 
vided in said Section 2. 

Section 8. When the gas from any well is being used, the flow of 
production thereof shall be restrained to twenty per cent of the potential 
capacity of said well; that is to say, in any day of twenty-four hours, 
the well shall not be permitted to flow or produce more than twenty per 
cent, of the open flow capacity of said well, as shown by the last test of 
said well made by the Gas Inspector. 

Provided that whenever the rock pressure of any well, when tested 
as provided in Section 2, is reduced to one hundred pounds, by putting gas 
into the pipe line under its own volition or pressure, the provisions of this 
Section shall not apply. 

Section 9. All gas produced from gas wells drilled in this State, when 
sold or used from said well, shall be accurately metered through proper 
devices, in order to determine the amount of gas taken from said well, which 
said meters shall be read at least once in every forty-eight hours, for the 
purpose of determining the amount of gas taken from each well, and such 
meter readings shall be subject to the examination of the Gas Inspector or 
any other person interested, for the purpose of determining whether or 
not the amount of gas being taken from said well is in excess, of twenty 
per cent of the dailv open flow of the well as shown by the last test made 
of said well by tV>e Gas Inspector, provided that when the rock pressure of 
any well falls below one hundred, this section shall not apply. 

Section 10. All oil or gas sands, even though unproductive of oil or 
gas in the well being drilled, if known to produce oil or gas in any field, 
shall be protected by judding off such known oil or gas sand by the use of 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 137 

mudladen fluid, or any other effective method, in the discretion of the Gas 
Inspector. 

Section 11. Whenever a packer or tubing used to shut in the gas in any 
well does not effectively shut off the oil, gas or water in the strata in 
which they occurred, said well shall be filled outside of the tubing from the 
packer to the next producing sand with mudladen fluid of a maximum den- 
sity of at least twenty-five per cent and the well shall be equipped with 
what is commonly known as a Braden Head or any other device that will 
prevent the escape of gas provided that if the next producing sand is not 
profitable, then it may be filled as above provided to the top, at the dis- 
cretion of the Gas Inspector. 

Section 12. Before any person, firm, corporation or contractor shall 
commence to drill a well for gas or oil, a separate slush-pit or slump-hole 
shall be constructed by the owner, operator or contractor, for reception of 
all pumpings or sand-balings taken from the well, in order to have the 
same on hand for the purpose of making mud-laden fluid to be used as pro- 
vided in Sections 10 and 11. 

Section 13. Any person, firm or corporation violating any of the pro- 
visions of Sections 8, 9, 10 and 11 of this Act shall be subject to a penalty 
of not less than One Hundred Dollars nor more than One Thousand Dollars 
for the first conviction for violating the provisions of said sections, and 
for the second conviction, to a penalty of not less than Two Hundred Dol- 
lars nor more than One Thousand Dollars and for the third conviction, to 
a penalty of not less than Five Hundred Dollars or imprisonment in the 
county jail for not less than thirty days, or both such penalty and imprison- 
ment. 

The penalties provided for herein to be recovered in an action there- 
for, brought by the Prosecuting Attorney in the name of the State, to- 
gether with a reasonable attorney's fee for the Prosecuting Attorney to 
be fixed by the court, and recovered in the same manner and in the same 
action. 

The proceeds of penalties collected shall be turned in to the General 
Road fund of the county wherein occurred, to be used on the roads, bridges 
and highways of said county, in the discretion of the County Court, and 
the attorney's fee shall be paid over to such prosecuting attorney. 

Section 14. This Act being necessary for the immediate preservation 
of the public peace, health and safety, shall take effect and be in force 
and effect from and after its passage. 



Right of Eminent Domain to Pipe Line Companies 

(Act 239 Acts of General Assembly, 1921.) 

Section 1. That all pipe line companies operating in this state are 
hereby given the right of eminent domain and are declared common car- 
riers, except pipe lines operated for conveying natural gas for public utility 
service. All gas lines or companies operating within the state who render 
a domestic or general service to the public in furnishing and sale of gas 
are hereby required to buy or furnish from the lowest or most advantageous 
market. Failure to do so shall deprive them of the difference in price be- 
tween such market and the one of which purchases are made. 

Section 2. That the procedure to be followed in the exercise of the 
right shall be the same as prescribed in Section 3992-4003 of Crawford & 
Moses' Digest relating to railroad companies, telegraph companies and tele- 
phone companies. 

(Digest of Arkansas Statutes, 1921.) 

Section 3969. Pipe lines right of way. Any corporation organized by 
virtue of the laws of this state, for the purpose of developing and produc- 
ing mineral oil, or petroleum, or natural gas in this state, and marketing 
the same, or transporting or conveying the same by means of pipes from the 
point of production to any other point, either to refine or to market such 
oil, or to conduct such gas to any point or points to be used for heat or lights, 
may construct, operate and maintain a line or lines of pipes for that pur- 
pose along and under the public highways and the streets of cities and 
towns, or across and under the waters and over any lands of the state and 



138 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

on the lands of individuals, and along, under, or parallel with the rights- 
of-way of railroads, and the turnpikes of this state; provided, that the 
ordinary use of such highways, turnpikes and railroad rights-of-way be not 
obstructed thereby, or the navigation of any waters impeded, and that 
just compensation be paid to the owners of such lands, railroad rights-of- 
way, or turnpike, by reason of the occupation of such lands, railroad rights- 
of-way, or turnpikes by said pipe line or lines. 

Section 3970. Procedure... In the event any such company shall fail 
upon application to individuals, railroads, or turnpike companies to secure 
such right-of-way by consent, contract, or agreement, then such corporation 
shall have the right to proceed to procure the condemnation of such prop- 
erty, lands, rights, privileges, and easements in the manner now provided 
by law for taking private property for rights-of-way for railroads as pro- 
vided by Sections 3S92-4002, inclusive. 

Section 3971. Right to enter and survey. Whenever any such cor- 
poration shall desire to construct such pipe line or lines upon or under 
the lands of individuals, or right-of-way of any railroad, or any turnpike, 
said corporation, by its agents, shall have the right to enter peacefully upon 
said lands or rights-of-way and survey, locate and lay out its said pipe 
lines thereon, being liable, however, for any damage that may result by 
reason of such acts, and shall designate on a plat or map to be made and 
filed with the county clerk of the county, the width of the strip of land 
needed to be condemned for its purposes, its location and the depth to 
which such pipes are to be laid. 

Section 3972. Injury to pipes penalty. Any person or persons who 
shall injure or molest any such pipe or pipes so used for the transporta- 
tion of such oil or gas shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction 
be fined in any sum not to exceed two hundred dollars; but, should such 
injury be done wilfully, and be of such a character as to cause such pipes 
to be so damaged that such oil or gas shall escape and cause damage, either 
to the company or individuals, or other corporations, then such person or 
persons shall be guilty of felony, and on conviction thereof, shall be fined 
not to exceed one thousand dollars and confined in the penitentiary not 
more than five years. 



Taxation of Pipe Lines 

Section 9976. Any person or corporation, wherever organized or In- 
corporated, engaged in the business of transmitting oil and gas in pipe lines 
through or in this state; or owning pipe or pipe lines for such purposes in 
this state, shall be deemed to be a pipe line company. Such companies shall 
be assessed for taxation by the Arkansas Tax Commission. 

Section 9977. It is made the duty of every * * * pipe line company, 
wherever organized or incorporated, and carrying on a business in this 
state, on the first Monday in July, any year, to make out and file with the 
Arkansas Tax Commission a statement showing in detail the following. 

1. A copy of the articles of incorporation, under which the company 
is organized and carrying on business; said copy to be filed but once un- 
less the Commission should otherwise direct; 

2 The amount of capital stock subscribed, whether designated as com- 
mon or preferred, or by any other description, showing the par value of each 
share and the market value thereof on the first Monday in June of said 
year; 

3 The face value of all bonds, secured by mortgages on the company's 
property, outstanding and the market or actual value of such bonds: 

4 The total number of miles of pipe lines owned or operated within 
and without this state by any such pipe line company in the transaction of 
its business. 

Section 1806. Foreign pipe line companies doing intrastate business 
are required to pay the same fees as are prescribed for such corporations 
organized under the laws of this state. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 13* 

For Protection of Pipe Lines 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 2480. Setting fire to escaping gas. It is hereby declared to 
be unlawful for any person or persons to set on fire any gas escaping from 
wells or from broken or leaking mains, pipes, valves, or other appliances, 
used by any person, company or corporation in conveying gas to con- 
sumers, or to tap any pipe or main for the purpose of taking and stealing 
gas therefrom, or to interfere in any manner with wells, pipes, mains, 
gate boxes, valves, stopcocks or other appliances, machinery or other 
property of any person, company or corporation engaged in furnishing gas 
to consumers, unless employed by, and acting under the authority and di- 
rection of such person, company or corporation furnishing gas to con- 
sumers. 

Section 2481. Extension of gas pipe without permission. It is hereby 
declared unlawful for any person, in any manner whatever, to change, ex- 
tend or alter, or cause to be changed, extended or altered, any service or 
other pipe or attachment of any kind, by or through which natural or 
artificial gas is furnished from the gas mains, or pipes' of any person, com- 
pany or corporation without first securing * * * written permission to 
make such change, extension or alteration. 



Requiring Release of Forfeited Leases 

(Act 192, General Assembly, 1921) 

Section 1. It shall be the duty of every person holding an oil, gas or 
other mineral lease for prospecting and exploiting for oil, gas or other 
minerals, upon any real estate in the State of Arkansas, upon forfeiting the 
right to further prospecting on such lands, by failure to pay any rental, or 
to perform any condition imposed on the lessee, or otherwise forfeiting 
such rights under said lease, upon notice hereinafter prescribed by the 
lessor, to execute a release to the grantor, or otherwise remove any cloud 
or incumbrance on the title to such lands by reason of any such forfeited 
lease. 

Section 2. Any owner of lands upon which a lease for the develop- 
ment of oil or gas, or other minerals, has been given and the lessee for- 
feits his rights at any time to further prospect for such minerals upon 
said lands, by reason of a failure to pay periodical rentals or to perform 
other conditions that nullify the lease as to lessee's rights therein (may 
give) written notice, served in the manner of a legal summons upon the 
lessee demanding that said lessee execute and place on record a release 
which in effect will remove any cloud existing upon the title of such 
lands; upon failure of said lessee to comply with said notice he shall be 
liable to the lessor or owner of said lands in damages in whatever sum 
the owner of such lands may sustain by reason of said cloud or incum- 
brance upon said lands after thirty days from the service of said notice. 



Guardians of Wards May Release Mineral Rights. 

(Act 174, General Assembly, 1921) 

When it shall appear that it would be for the benefit of the ward, 
that his or her lands, or any part thereof, be leased for the production of 
oil, gas, coal, zinc, lead, copper or other minerals or metals therefrom, 
his or her guardian, or curator, may lease the same upon obtaining an order 
from the court of probate of the county in which such lands or the greater 
part thereof shall be situated. 

(Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 5872. When a non-resident lunatic or person of unsound mi^id, 
incapable of conducting his own affairs, owns real property in this State 
and has a guardian or curator in the State where he resides, the court of 
probate of the county where such lands or the greater part thereof are (is) 
situated may authorize such guardian or curator to lease said lands or any 
part thereof for the production of oil or gas upon securing an order from 
the probate court and complying with the terms and provisions of this act. 



140 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Synopsis of Oil and Gas Inspection Laws. 

(Digest Statutes of Arkansas, 1921) 

Section 5900. Creates office of inspector of the petroleum oils kero- 
sene and gasoline, etc.; offered for sale or sold for illumination, heating 
power purposes in Arkansas, for a period of 30 years; to be appointed by 
the governor; inspector shall be a resident of the State and shall be ap- 
pointed for a term of four years; he shall give a bond in the sum of 
$25,000. Said inspector with the approval of the governor shall appoint 
not to exceed six deputies whose salaries shall not exceed $100 a month; 
these inspectors to be located at convenient places within the State; pro- 
vides office clerk at salary not to exceed $1200 a year; salary of inspector 
fixed at $3000 a year; deputy inspectors have powers and duties and are 
subject to the same penalties as the inspector; bonds required of deputies; 
deputies shall make report to the inspector on the first and sixteenth of each 
month; showing in detail all the inspections made, the stamps and cer- 
tificates on hand, received and issued. 

Section 5901. Duty of owner, manufacturer, wholesale dealer or job- 
ber, in any of the oils or fluids to inspect the same or cause the same to 
be inspected in any quantities, from one barrel to car tank, before the said 
oils or fluids are sold, and shall at the time of making the inspection 
thereof attach to the car, can, cask or barrel or other vessel containing 
said oils, a stamp or stamps sufficient in amount to show the payment of 
all fees required by this article; stamps to be cancelled; unlawful to use 
cancelled stamps; each vessel shall also bear a certificate stating that the 
contents have been inspected. The fire test of all petroleums or kerosene 
oils for illuminating purposes shall be equal to a test prescribed in the suc- 
ceeding section. 

Section 5902. 'Inspector shall use Taglibue's or other similar instru- 
ments; methods of making tests defined in detail. 

Section 5903. None of the substances which ignite or burn at any 
temperature less than 150 degrees P. shall be offered for sale or use; pro- 
vided however, that it shall be lawful to sell any of the fluids in the form 
of vapor or gas, regardless of the degree of the fire test. 

Section 5904. Provides methods of testing gasoline oils. 

Section 5905. Inspectors and deputies shall make oath. 

Section 5906. Fees for inspection; for each barrel or smaller article, 
12 cents; in bulk one-eighth of a cent per gallon. 

Section 5907. Inspector authorized to rent suitable offices for deputies 
wherever located. 

Section 5908. Duty of persons bringing oil into the State to provide 
inspection before oil is offered for sale and pay the inspection fee by means 
of stamps; inspector or deputy, when called upon, shall as soon as prac- 
ticable make inspection. 

Section 5909. Inspector or deputy have power to make inspection and 
test of any oils wherever found, right to administer oaths and to inspect 
any and all records having reference to the receiving, forwarding or trans- 
portation of any such oils or gasolines; duty to prosecute violations. 

Section 5910. State Treasurer shall provide suitable and inimitable 
certificates and stamps, in proper form, and upon application deliver 
them to the inspector or deputy in quantities necessary to meet the de- 
mands, taking a receipt and charging same to the official receiving them; 
and the State Treasurer from time to time, as said inspectors make 
returns shall cerdit their accounts and keep a true and correct record 
of the dealings. The stamps shall be made in denominations, as required, 
but not less than 12 cents and not more than $12, each series to be pro- 
gressively numbered. 

Section 5911. Inspectors and deputies may be removed for neglect 
of duty and held on their bonds for an adjustment of these stamp ac- 
counts; also liable under criminal law. 

Section 5912. No inspector or deputy shall, while in office be interested 
directly or indirectly in the manufacture or sale of oils or gasoline, nor 
shall he for the purpose of inspection, take away for his own use or the 
use of others, any part or portion of said oils. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 141 

Section 5913. Inspectors and deputies shall keep a correct record of 
all oils and fluids inspected and of all stamps, certificates and other prop- 
erty coming into his hands, and this record shall be open to public inspec- 
tion; detailed reports to be made annually to the Governor; all money 
collected as inspection fees shall be remitted once each month to ihe State 
Treasurer. 

Section 5914. Governor sliall fill vacancy in office of inspector; in- 
spectors to fill vacanc es in offices o? deputies but the term of no deputy 
shall extend beyond that of the inspector. 

Section 5915. Penalty for persons, firms or corporations who fail to 
comply with the provisions of this act. 

Section 5916. .When shipments of oil are received the dealer shall at; 
once notify the chief inspector or one of his deputies of the quantity and 
request inspection. If for any reason a prompt inspection is impossible the 
dealer or his agent may subject said products to the test prescribed in 
this act and on furnishing the inspector or his deputy an affidavit that said 
oils have met the requirements of the test, he shall be entitled to re- 
ceive stamps showing the inspection has been made, and when said 
stamp is placed en the vessel and cancelled, the oil or gasoline may be 
sold the same as if it had been inspected by the oil inspector or his deputy. 

Section 5917. Auditor authorized to issue warrants from the fund 
created by the fees paid into the treasury under the provisions of this act, 
for the payment of salaries and expenses; only expenses allowed, in addi- 
tion to office expenses, shall be those necessarily incurred for making 
inspections at places other than where the inspector or deputies shall be 
located. 

Section 5918. Duty of railroads or their agents at place of destination, 
to notify State Inspector of arrival and delivery of all car tanks containing 
any of the fluids mentioned in this article for inspection, giving the number, 
initial and capacity of such car; penalty for non-compliance. 



Synopsis of Arkansas Blue Sky Law 

(FROM ACT 242, GENERAL ASSEMBLY, 1915 AND AMENDMENTS.) 
AN ACT to prevent fraud in the sale and disposition of contracts, stocks, 
bonds, or other securities sold or offered for sale within the State of 
Arkansas by any dealer, firm, company, association or corporation, for- 
eign or domestic, by requiring an inspection of such contracts, stocks, 
bonds, or other securities and an inspection of the business of such per- 
sons, firms, companies, associations or corporations, including dealers 
and agents, and such regulation and supervision of the business of said 
persons, firms, companies, associations or corporations, including dealers 
and agents as may be necessary to prevent fraud in the sale within this 
Stfcte of any contracts, stocks, bonds, or other securities, and to provide 
a penalty for the violation thereof. 

Bank Commissioner Executive Officer. 

Section 1. State Bank Commissioner delegated with full power to 
supervise and enforce the provisions of Act and make such rules and regu- 
lations as may be necessary. 

Investment Company Defined. 

Section 2. Every person, corporation, co-partnership, company or as- 
sociation (except those elsewhere exempted), which shall sell or negotiate 
for the sale of any contract, stock, bonds or other securities, within the 
State, shall be known for the purpose of this Act as a domestic investment 
company; if a resident of or organized in any other state, they shall be 
known as a foreign investment company. 

Exempts Certain Classes of Securities. 

Section 3. Provisions shall not apply to securities of the United States, 
or any foreign government; or any state or territory thereof, or of any 
county, city, township, district, or other public taxing subdivisions of any 
state or territory of the United States, or any foreign government; unse- 
cured commercial paper; securities of A public or quasi-public corpora- 
tions, the issue of which is regulated by the Arkansas Railroad Commission 



142 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

or by any public service commission or board of legal authority of any 
state or territory of the United States or securities senior thereto; secur- 
ities of State or National banks or trust companies; securities of any domes- 
tic corporation organized without capital stock, and not for pecuniary 
gain, or exclusively for educational, benevolent, charitable, or reformatory 
purposes; mortgages upon real or personal property situated in this state 
where the entire mortgage is sold and transferred with the note or notes 
secured by such mortgage; increase of stock sold and issued to stock- 
holders, also stock dividend", securities which are listed in any standard man- 
ual of information approved by the said Bank Commissioner; provided, how- 
ever that said Bank Commissioner shall have power to call for additional 
and further information that contained in such manuals with reference 
to any securities listed therein; and may, pending the filing of such In- 
formation, suspend the sale of such securities, and also suspend, either 
temporarily or permanently, the sale of any securities listed in such man- 
uals after a hearing upon notice to the issuer of such securities of said 
Bank Commissioner shall find that the sale of such securities would work 
a fraud upon the purchaser thereof. 

Methods of Applications and Fees. 

Section 4. Before selling, offering for sale, taking subscriptions for, 
or negotiating for the sale in any manner whatsoever in the state, any con- 
tracts, stocks, bonds or other securities of its own issue, every investment 
company, domestic or foreign, shall file in the office of the Bank Commis- 
sioner a statement showing in full detail the plan upon which it proposes 
to transact business, a copy of all contracts, stocks, bonds, or other instru- 
ments which it proposes to make with or sell to, its contributors or cus- 
tomers, together with a copy of its prospectus, and of the proposed ad- 
vertisements of its sale of stocks, bonds or other securities, with name 
and location of main office, name and addresses of its officers, and an 
itemized account of its financial condition and of its assets and liabilities, 
and such other information as the Bank Commissioner may require. If a 
co-partnership or unincorporated association, such investment company 
shall also file a copy of its articles of co-partnership or association and all 
other papers pertaining to its organization. If a corporation organized 
under the laws of Arkansas, it shall also file a copy of its articles of in- 
corporation, constitution and by-laws and all other papers pertaining to 
its organization. If organized under the laws of any other state, territory 
or government, incorporated or unincorporated, it shall also file a copy of 
the laws under which it exists, and also a copy of its charter and the certifi- 
cate showing that it is authorized to transact business there; and also copies 
of its constitution and by-laws of all amendments of any of the above men- 
tioned instruments which have been made, and of all other papers per- 
taining to its organization. It shall also pay a filing fee of one-tenth per 
cent upon the face value of the securities for the sale of which application 
is made; provided such filing fee shall not be more than $100, nor less 
than $10. 

Section 5 Papers shall be verified by oath. 

Consent For Service of Process. 

Section 6 Every foreign corporation before offering for sale any of 
its stocks, bonds, or other securities shall file its irrevocable written con- 
sent that suits and actions may be commenced against it in the proper 
courts of any county in this state in which a cause of action may arise, 
or in which the plaintiff may reside, by the service, of any process of 
pleading authorized by the laws of this state. 

May Require Additional Information. 

Section 7. The said Bank Commissioner shall have power to demand 
from any investment company seeking to come under the provisions of 
this act any further information necessary to qualify him to pass upon 
all questions that may come before him. He may make an examination of 
the company's property, business and affairs, at the expense of the ap- 
plicant; he may cause an appraisal to be made at the expense of the in- 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 143 

vestment company, of the property, including the value of patents, good 
will, promotion and intangible assets, and he may fix the amount of stocks, 
bonds, or other securities that may be issued by any corporation in pay- 
ment for property, patents, good will, promotion and intangible assets 
at the value he shall find same to be worth and may require that such 
stocks, bonds or other securities so issued for such property, etc.. shall be 
deposited in escrow under such terms as he may prescribe. And said Bank 
Commissioner may withhold his certificate of authority to sell such stocks, 
bonds or other securities if such corporation has issued stocks, etc., for 
such purpose in excess of their value as found by said Bank Commissioner, 
or if such stocks, bonds or other securities are not deposited in escrow ac- 
cording to the terms fixed by the Bank Commissioner, until such stocks, 
bonds or other securities issued in payment for property, patents, good 
will, promotion and intangible assets in excess of the value so found by 
said Bank Commissioner has been surrendered to such corporation and 
canceled by it, and until the said stock has been deposited in escrow un- 
der the terms prescribed by said Bank Commissioner. 

Shall Issue Permit, if Found Not Fraudulent. 

Section 8. It shall be the duty of said Bank Commissioner to examine 
the statements and documents filed in his office by any investment com- 
pany and the reports of any investigation conducted under the direction 
of said Bank Commissioner and to hear such applicant and he shall have 
power to examine under oath any person interested or connected with 
such investment company, and if he finds that the proposed contracts, 
stocks, bonds or other securities are fraudulent or of such nature that the 
sale thereof would work a fraud upon the purchaser, then the said Bank 
Commissioner shall disapprove the sale of such proposed contracts, etc., 
and shall notify such investment company by registered mail .of his find- 
ings, and it shall be unlawful for such company to do any further busi- 
ness in the way of selling, offering for sale in any manner whatever of 
any such contracts, stocks, bonds or other securities in this state. If, how- 
ever, such Bank Commissioner shall not find that the proposed, plan of 
business, contracts, etc., are fraudulent or are of such nature that the 
sale thereof would, in the opinion of said Bank Commissioner work a 
fraud upon the purchaser thereof, then he shall approve the sale of same 
in the State of Arkansas and issue his certificate in substantially the fol- 
lowing language: 

"This is to certify that the has this day been given permis- 
sion to sell $ of its (stocks, bonds of other securities) within the 

State of Arkansas. THE BANK COMMISSIONER DOES NOT RECOM- 
MEND THE PURCHASE OF THIS SECURITY. This day of 

A. D. 192 . In witness whereof I have hereunto affixed the seal of the 

Bank Department. Done at Little Rock this day of -^ 

A. D. 192 . 

(Seal) Bank Commissioner." 

The words, "The Bank Commissioner does not recommend the purchase 
of this security," shall be printed in type two sizes larger than any other 
part of said certificate in which style the certificate must appear if used in 
connection with any advertising matter. 

Dealer Defined; Regulations Prescribed. 

Section 9. Any person, firm, co-partnership, corporation or associa- 
tion, whether domestic or foreign, not the issuer, who shall in this state sell 
or offer for sale any of the stocks, bonds or other securities issued by any 
foreign or domestic investment company except the securities specificaally 
exempted in this Act, or who shall, by advertisement or otherwise, pro- 
fess or engage in the business of selling or offering for sale such securities, 
shall be deemed to be a dealer, and no dealer shall sell or offer for sale any 
such securities or profess the business of selling or offering for sale such 
securities unless and until he shall have filed a list of the same in the of- 
fice of the Bank Commissioner. The term dealer shall not include an owner, 
nor issuer, of such securities so owned by him when such sale is not made 



144 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

in the course of continued and successive transactions of a similar nature, 
nor one who, in a trust capacity created by law, lawfully sells any secur- 
ities within such trust. 

How Dealer May Be Licensed. 

Section 10. Dealer must first register with the Bank Commissioner 
and furnish upon oath the following information: Name, residence and 
business address; general character of securities; the place where busi- 
ness is to be conducted within this state and the names and addresses of 
all persons in charge thereof. Said dealer shall pay an inspection fee of 
$50. All authorized agents of any dealer shall be registered. The name of 
any agent shall be stricken from the register upon written request of the 
dealer and additional agents may be registered upon request accompanied 
with the fee therefor, provided, that no agent shall act as such until reg- 
istered. 

If the dealer be a foreign corporation, it shall at the time it registers 
file a written, duly authenticated appointment of the Bank Commissioner 
of this State as its agent in Arkansas upon whom process or pleadings may 
be served for and on behalf of the dealer for the purposes mentioned in 
Section 6 and such appointment shall be irrevocable. 

Upon compliance by such dealer with the provisions of this act the said 
Bank Commissioner shall issue to him a certificate of authority which 
shall be valid for one year, or until revoked for good cause upon notice to 
such dealer as a hearing duly had. If not revoked before the expiration 
of one year such certificate may be renewed upon receipt of one inspec- 
tion fee of $25. 

Registration of Agents. 

Section. 11. In addition to the filing fees and the examination fees 
there shall be charged a fee of $2 for the registration and authorization of 
each agent of any such dealer or investment company, and shall be valid 
until March 1, following unless sooner revoked. Fees to be paid into the 
State Treasury and applied toward the payment of the expenses of en- 
forcing this Act. The expenses of said Bank Commissioner shall not, how- 
ever, be limited to the money received by him, but he shall have power to 
incur all expenses he finds necessary in enforcing the provisions hereof. 

Accounts and Examinations Fees. 

Section 12. The general accounts of every investment company shall 
be kept in a business-like and intelligent manner, and in sufficient detail 
that said Bank Commissioner can ascertain at any time is financial con- 
dition and the books of accounts shall at all times during business hours 
be open to stockholders and investors in said company, or the said Bank 
Commissioner, and all such investment companies shall be subject to ex- 
amination at any time in the same manner as is now provided for the 
examination of State Banks, and such investment companies other than 
building and loan, building, or building and savings associations shall pay 
a fee for each such examination not to exceed $10 per day or fraction 
thereof that any examiner is absent from the capitol building for the pur- 
pose of making such examination, and in addition thereto shall pay the 
actual hotel and jtraveling expenses of such authorized examiner from Lit- 
tle Rock and return. 

The Bank Commissioner shall make at least once a year an examina- 
tion of all building and loan, building ,or building and savings, associations 
doing business in this state in the manner now provided for state banks, 
and such associations shall pay a fee of not to exceed $10 per day plus 10 
cents per each one thousand dollars or fraction thereof of its assets, pro- 
vided, that in no event the charge for such examination exceed $50, if a 
domestic investment company, and that such charge may not exceed $50 
plus the necessary hotel and traveling expenses from Little Rock and re- 
turn if such association be a foreign corporation. Failure to pay such 
fees shall work a forfeiture of the right of such investment company to 
sell or offer for sale any of its stocks, bonds or other securities in this 
State. The same fees are provided for the preliminary examination of any 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 145 

investment company to ascertain whether it shall be permitted to come 
under the provisions of this act. If the Bank Commissioner finds that 
the 'further sale of stocks, etc., would work a fraud upon the purchaser he 
may revoke the license of such company upon notice duly given and a 
hearing duly had and may, pending such hearing, suspend the right of 
such company to sell its securities. 

Unlawful to Do Any Business Until Law Is Complied With. 

Section 13. It shall be unlawful for any investment company or dealer 
or representative thereof, either directly or indirectly, to sell or cause to 
be sold, offer for sale, take subscriptions for, or negotiate for sale in any 
manner in this state any contracts, stocks, bonds or Other securities (except 
as expressly exempted herein) unless and until said Bank Commissioner 
has approved thereof and issued his certificate in accordance with the pro- 
visions of this Act, nor shall it be lawful for any such investment company 
to transact business on any other plan other than that set forth in the 
statement and papers required to be filed by virtue of the provisions of 
the Act or the rules of the Bank Commissioner. 

Unlawful for any investment company to circulate any advertisement 
in regard to its stocks differing in any way from the copy filed with the 
Bank Commissioner, and unlawful for any newspaper to advertise the sale 
of securities not approved by said Bank Commissioner, or which are not 
exempt under the provisions of this Act. 

Dealer Shall Not Sell Securities Until Law is Complied With. 
Section 14. No dealer shall sell any securities unless such invest- 
ment companies have fully complied with the provisions of this Act, nor un- 
til said dealer shall have registered, provided, that should any dealer de- 
sire to sell the securities of any investment company which has not itself 
complied with the provisions of this Act, said dealer shall make applica- 
tion for license as hereinbefore provided for applications by investment 
companies and shall pay the same fee required to be paid by said invest- 
ment companies. 

Information Subject to Public Inspection. 

Section 15. All information obtained by the Bank Commissioner with 
reference to any securities and all records of the Bank Commissioner re- 
lating thereto shall be open to examination by the public and it shall be the 
duty of the Bank Commissioner to preserve such information and so classify 
and arrange it as to facilitate examination and inspection thereof. The 
Bank Commissioner may publish information regarding any and all con- 
tracts, stocks, bonds or other securities sold or offered for sale in this state 
which he deems would be of public interest or advantage. 

Does Not Repeal Bank or Insurance Laws. 

Section 16. Nothing in this Act repeals or nullifies any law giving the 
State Bank Department control over State banks or the Insurance Com- 
missioner control over the business of insurance in this state and those en- 
gaged therein. 

Penalty For False Oath. 

Section 17. Any person who shall make or cause to be made a false 
statement or false entry in any book of any investment company, or who 
shall exhibit any false paper for the purpose of deceiving any person au- 
thorized to examine into the affairs of said investment company, or shall 
make or publish any false statement of the financial condition of said in- 
vestment company or false statement relating to the. contracts, stocks, 
bonds or other securities shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and 
shall be punished as hereinafter provided. 

Copy of Records May Be Furnished. 

Section 18. The Bank Commissioner shall provide for the furnishing 
of those who may apply therefor of any information regarding any invest- 
ment company or its affairs, which is on file in its office, and charge there- 



146 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

for approximately the cost of preparing such information and 50 cents 
for each certificate of authentication, fees to be paid into the State Treas- 
ury for the expense of carrying this Act into effect. 

Annual Reports Required. 

Section 19. Every investment company shall file during the months 
of January and July each year a detailed statement in such form and con- 
taining such information as the Bank Commissioner may prescribe, show- 
ing its condition at the close of business December 31 and June 30, preced- 
ing and shall at the same time pay a filing fee therefor of $2.50, provided 
that said Bank Commissioner may call for other or additional reports of 
any kind at any time and such other or additional reports shall be filed 
within 20 days. Building and loan associations shall file only an annual 
statement as of December 31. 

Penalty For Not Filing Reports. 

Section 20. Companies failing to file reports shall be deemed guilty 
of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be fined in any sum 
not to exceed $1,000 and in addition thereto their authority to do business 
in Arkansas may be canceled. 

Appeal To Chancery Court. 

Section 21. An appeal will always lie to the Chancery Court, upon 
petition of any person aggrieved and upon payment of the costs of prepar- 
ing such copies of papers and other documents desired by said petitioner 
from any final orders of the Bank Commissioner. The granting of an ap- 
peal shall not, however, unless so ordered by the court, operate as a stay 
of proceedings. 

General Penalty Prescribed. 

Section 22. Any persons who shall violate any of the provisions of 
this Act shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction 
thereof shall be fined not more than $1,000, or may be imprisoned in the 
county jail for not more than one year, or by both such fine and imprison- 
ment. 

Constitutionality Confined To Each Section. 

Section 23. Should the courts of this state or of the United States 
declare any section or provision of this Act unconstitutional or unauthor- 
ized, or in conflict with any other section or provision of this Act, then 
such declaration shall affect only the section or provision so declared to 
be unconstitutional or unauthorized, or if in conflict only such provisions 
or parts as are so held, and such holding shall not affect any other section 
or part of this Act. 

Repeals Laws In Conflict. 

Section 24. All laws and parts of laws in conflict herewith, and par- 
ticularly Act 214 of the Legislature of 1913, in its entirety are hereby re- 
pealed, and this Act being necessary for the immediate preservation of the 
public peace, health and safety, shall be in force from and after its passage. 

Approved March 24, 1915. 

Amendments to Sections 19 and 20 approved March 26, 1921. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 147 

List of Arkansas Geological 
Survey Publications 



FIRST REPORT, 1857-1858. 

Geological Reconnaissance of the Northern Counties of Arkansas, by 
D. D. Owen. 

SECOND REPORT, 1859-1860. 

Geological Reconnaissance of the Northern Counties of Arkansas, by 
D. D. Owens. 

ANNUAL REPORT, 1871-1872. 

Geological Reconnaissance of a part of the State of Arkansas by George 
Haddock. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1888 

Vol. I Gold and Silver, by Theo. B. Comstock, Pp. xxxi, 320, 2 maps. 
Vol. II Mesozoic, by R. T. Hill. Pp. xiv, 319; illustrated; 1 map. 
*Vol III Coal (preliminary), by Arthur Winslow, Pp. x, 120; illustrated; 1 

map. 

*Vol IV Washington County, by F. W. Simonds; Plant List, by J. C. Bran- 
ner and F. V. Coville. Pp. xiv, 262; illustrated; 1 map. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1889 

Vol. I Clays, Kaolins and Bauxites. Illustrated; maps. By J. C. Branner; 

illustrated, about 300 pages. (Not published). 
Vol. II Crowley's Ridge, by R. E. Call. Pp. xix, 283; illustrated; 2 maps. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1890 

Vol. I Manganese, by R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. Pp. xxvii, 642; illustrated; 3 

maps. 
Vol. II Igneous Rocks, by J. Francis Williams. Pp. xv. 457; illustrated; 

6 maps. 

Vol III Novaculties, by L. S. Griswold. Pp. xx, 443; illustrated; 2 maps. 
Vol. IV Marbles, by T. C. Hopkins. Pp. xxiv, 443; illustrated; atlas of 
6 maps. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1891 

*Vol. I Mineral Waters, by J. C. Branner. Pp. viii, 144; 1 map. 
*Vol. II Miscellaneous Reports: Benton County, by F. W. Simonds and 
T. C. Hopkins; Elevations, by J. C. Branner; River Observations, 
by J. C. Branner; Magnetic Observations, by J. C. Branner; Mol- 
lusca, by F. A. Sampson; Myriapoda, by Charles H. Bollman; Fishes, 
by Seth E. Meek; Dallas County, by C. E. Siebenthal; Bibliography 
of the Geology of Arkansas, by J. C. Branner. Pp. x, 349; illustrated; 
2 maps. 

ANNUAL REPORT FOR 1892 

*Vol. I Iron Deposits, by R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. Pp. x, 153; 1 map. 
Vol. II Tertiary, by Gilbert D. Harris. Pp. xiv, 207; illustrated, 1 map. 



148 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Vol. Ill Coal, final report; illustrated; topographic maps and sections. 

By Arthur Winslow and others. (Not published). 
Vol. IV- Lower Coal Measures; topographic maps, sections and illustrations, 

by J. H. Means and Geo. H. Ashley. (Not published). 
*Vol. V The Zinc and Lead Deposits, by J. C. Branner. Pp. xiv, 395; 

illustrated; atlas of 7 maps. 

Relief maps of the State, of the Coal Area and of Magnet Cove were 
also made under the Branner survey. 

REPORT OF 1909 

*The Slates of Arkansas, by A. H. Purdue, State Geologist, with a Biblio- 
graphy of the Geology of Arkansas by John C. Branner, former State 
Geologist. 

REPORT OF 1910 

Coal Mining in Arkansas, Part I, by A. A. Steel, professor of mining, 
University of Arkansas. 

REPORT OF 1911 

*Water Powers of Arkansas, a Preliminary Report on White River and 
some of its tributaries,, by W. N. Gladson, engineer in charge of Water 
Power Investigations. 

LATER PUBLICATIONS 

Outlines of Arkansas Geology, -Soils and Minerals of the State of Arkan- 
sas, by Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, Manufacturers and Agri- 
culture. 

*Minerals in Arkansas, by Jim G. Ferguson, Commissioner of Mines, 
Manufactures and Agriculture. 

*Report of a Survey of the El Dorado, Arkansas oil and gas field, by the 
United States Geological Survey, published by the State Bureau of Mines, 
Manufactures and Agriculture. 

The reports marked with a star may be obtained by forwarding the 
necessary postage (llcents each) to the State Bureau of Mines, Manufactures 
and Agriculture, Little Rock, Ark. Reports the titles to which the star 
is not affixed are out of print and unavailable for distribution but many of 
them may be found in public and private libraries. 



United States Geological Survey Publications on Arkansas 

Subject Reference 

Antimony *Bulletin 340-D 

Asphalt, Pike County *Bulletin 213 

Southwestern Part Bulletin 691-J 

Bauxite *Annual Report 21 III-D 

Building Stone, Eureka Springs-Harrison District Geologic Folio 202 

Cement Materials *Bulletins 243, 522 

Chalk, Southwestern Part *Annual Report 22 III-O 

Clays *Bulletins 285-L, 351 

Coal *Annual Report 21 II-F, 22 III-I 

*Bulletin 316-B, 326 

Diamonds *Bulletin 540-11 

* Mineral Resources 1906-E 

Earthquakes *BultetiiT; Bv494 

Fossils, Batesville Sandstone Bulletin 593 

Boone Chert .' Bulletin 595 

Boone Limestone Bulletin 598 

Eocene Professional Paper 91 

Moorefield Shale Bulletin 439 

Fullers Earth *Bul!etin 530-Q 

Gauging Stations Water Supply Paper 437 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 149 

Gas, Ft. Smith-Poteau Field *Bulletin 541-B 

Geology, Camden Field *Annual Report 21 II-F 

Eureka Springs District Geologic Folio 202 

Fayetteville District Geologic Folio 119 

Ft. Smith-Poteau Field *Bulletin 541-B 

Harrison District Geologic Folio 202 

Northern part Water Supply Paper, 145, 399 

Southern part *Professional Paper 46 

Southwestern part Bulletin 691-J 

Winslow District *Geologic Folio 154 

Gravel Deposits .. Bulletin 690-B 

Greensand Bulletin 660-B 

Hot Springs , Water Supply Paper 145 

Lead, Northern part "Bulletin 213 

*Professional Paper 24 

Leveling ^ *Annual Report 18-B, 19-B, 20-B, 21-B. 

Bulletins *185, *458, 636 

Manganese e Bulletins 427, 660-C 

Mineral Springs *Water Supply Paper 114 

Oil, Southwestern part Bulletin 691-J 

Peridotite *Bulletin 540-U 

Phosphates, Northern part *Bulletin 315-P 

Precious Stones Bulletin *540-U 

*Mineral Resources 1906-E; 1913 II J 

Slates Bulletins *225, *275, *430-F 

Springs Water Supply Paper 102, 110, *114, 145 

Traverse *Annual Report 21-B; Bulletins *181, 201, 310, 440, 644-H 

Triangulation *Annual Report 18-B, 20-B; *Bulletin 181 

Water Resources 

Bibliography Water Supply Paper 437 

Surface Waters, Gauging Stations Water Supply Paper 437 

Quality Water Supply Paper 236 

Steam Measurements..Water Supply Paper 131, 173, 209, 267, 287, 307 
Underground Waters, Eureka Springs-Harrison 

District Geologic Folio 202 

Northern part Water Supply Paper 145, 399 

Ozark region Water Supply Paper 110, 145 

Quality Water Supply Paper 102, 145, 364, 399 

Southern part. *Professional Paper 46 

Southwestern part Bulletin 691-J 

Springs Water Supply Paper 102, 110, 114, 145 

Wells Water Supply Paper 102, 114, 145, 149, 364 

Winslow District Water Supply Paper 145 

Zinc, Northern part *Professional Paper 24; Bulletin 213 

*Supply exhausted, but copies may be consulted in public libraries. 
Publications for distribution may be obtained from the U. S. Geological 
Survey, Washington, D. C. 




E 

re 

E 
O 

10 



06 

2 

a. 



D> 

E 

'5 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



151 




Map Showing Area of Mineral Fertilizers in Arkansas 

SOIL AND SOIL-BUILDING MATERIALS 
IN ARKANSAS 



By N. F. DRAKE 
Geologist State Bureau of Mines. 

Arkansas is primarily an agricultural state. Her farm and forest 
products are first in value of her resources and those products come from 
the soil. It is well, therefore, that we give due thought to our soils that 
the best results may be realized. The following brief discussion of soils is 
given with the hope that some assistance will be rendered in promoting 
better usage, tillage, improvement, and preservation of our soils. The fol- 
lowing general discussion of the origin, classification, characteristics and 
ways of improving soils is given with a view of helping to the best usage 
of our limestones, chalks, phosphates and marls for soil improvement. For 
this purpose it is thought not worth while for the most part to discuss spe- 
cifically local types of soil. Discussion of specific features should follow 
careful field and laboratory work such as is being done by the United States 
Bureau of Soils. As noted elsewhere in this publication, soil surveys have 
been made and are being made that now cover a considerable portion of the 
state. 

Origin of soil. Soil is finely divided rock material mixed with decayed 
vegetable and animal matter. It is continually being formed from rocks and 
organic matter by weathering agencies. No matter how hard or what kind 
of rock it may be, if exposed to weathering agencies it gradually crumbles 
into soil particles wherever exposed. Changing temperature of a rock sur- 
face produces alternate expansion and contraction which strains portions 



152 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

of the rock to the breaking point. Freezing of water held in the pore spaces 
of the rock pries off an outer film and in places larger particles of the rock. 
Rocks are soluble in water in varying proportions according to the kind of 
rock and the character of the water. Different kinds of minerals enter into 
the composition of most rocks and these minerals vary in their rate of ex- 
pansion under changing temperatures and they 'also differ in their solubility 
so that when the least stable mineral breaks to pieces or is dissolved and 
carried away the rest of the rock readily falls to pieces. Plant and animal 
matter, broken up largely by bacterial action, leaves dark colored particles 
that enter into the mixture of disintegrated rocks in the forming of soils. 

Classification of Soils. Soil is, for the most part, composed of sand, 
clay, and humus in varying proportions and these ingredients form the 
bases of many of the classifications as sandy soil, clayey soil, loamy soil, 
etc. A popular classification of soils designates them as heavy or light 
soils, which has no reference to weight, but refers to the ease of tilling. 
The heavy soils are not easy to till and have a predominance of clay while 
the light soils till easily and have a predominance of sand or humus or both. 

A classification taking into consideration the more minute physical and 
chemical properties gives such divisions as the following: Gravely, sandy, 
silty, loamy, humus, calcareous, magnesian, etc. Sandy soils have some- 
thing like one-half of their particles large enough to be readily seen as in- 
dividual grains by the unaided eye, while only a very small percent of the 
individual particles of a clay soil can be readily seen. A loamy soil has 
particles intermediate in size between the sandy and clayey soils. 

Humus soils are those that contain a high percentage of decaying or- 
ganic matter. A calcareous soil is one in which lime carbonate is a dom- 
inant feature of the soil, etc. 

A classification that takes into consideration the origin of the soil is 
often of more value in explaining the nature of the soil. Such a classifica- 
tion is the following: 

Residual soil. This is formed from the immediate underlying rocks and 
is not removed from its place of origin. 

Transported soil. This is a soil shifted from its place of origin. As 
some divisions of the transported soils we have the following: Colluvial 
soil, a soil formed on sloping ground from disintegrated rocks that lay 
higher up the slope. Alluvial soil, a soil formed from the sediments dropped 
from flood waters overflowing stream valleys. Loess soil, a soil carried 
by air currents and deposited as a manteling over certain localities. 

For a minute study local place names are often given to specific types 
of soils that have a more or less local occurrence. In most any extended 
discussion of soils terms used in making different kinds of soil classifica- 
tion are needed for a comprehensive discussion. 

Texture and character of soil. Examining the soil from the surface 
downward we find the topmost part more porous and usually darker in color 
than lower portions called the subsoil, but both have very fine grains. As 
we examine deeper and deeper portions we reach material that is not en- 
tirely disintegrated and finally we reach unaltered rock. In many places 
coarse fragments of rock pebbles, and even boulders, are mixed with the 
fine soil material, but they are not a part of the soil proper though they 
are materials out of which soil is made. In many soils there are crystalized 
minerals surrounding and attached to other rock fragments. These crys- 
taline minerals have been deposited from over saturated solutions of soil 
waters. In clayey soils there is a small quantity of hydrated silica of 
alumina which, though it may be in minute quantities, gives a sticky, plas- 
tic quality to the clay when moist. 

SOME PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONDITIONS INFLUENCING PLANT 

GROWTH 

Porosity of soil. A soil that is open or porous holds more moisture and 
better allows entrance of the air, which are favorable for plant growth. 
If the pores are exceedingly small and the soil is compact, capillary action 
is strong and the soil moisture is more rapidly carried to the surface and 
evaporated to the detriment of plant growth. Lime tends to floculate clay 
into larger particles and to cement small particles, making larger grains 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 153 

thus rendering the soil more open and easier to till. Cultivation also 
loosens the soil and makes it more porous. 

Drainage. In low lands where drainage is poor the soil is kept so full 
of water that it is sour because of the formation of organic acids; further- 
more such soils do not warm readily in springtime because of so much water 
and evaporation. Such conditions are unfavorable to most plant growth. 

Some of the most important plant foods. While the most important 
feature of a soil is that it should be able to hold and give up moisture to 
plants as needed it is also of prime importance that the soil should con- 
tain materials that the plants need to induce proper growth and maturity. 
Such materials as oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, lime, potash, 
iron, sulphur, and a few others to a lesser extent, are necessary to plant 
growth. 

Oxygen and hydrogen that plants make use of come mainly from water 
contained in the soil. These elements make up a considerable part of the 
tissue, starch, and sugar of plant growth. 

Nitrogen. Nitrogen forms a part of the fragments of decaying plants 
and animals that occur in practically all soils. Microscopic life in the soil 
converts parts of these fragments into nitric acid, which in turn unites with 
lime and potash to form soluble salts that may be taken up by growing 
plants. There are other forms of bacteria that live and form nodules on 
the roots of clovers, alfalfa, beans and peas and other leguminous plants. 
These bacteria gather nitrogen from the air and convert it into nitrates, 
thus placing an essential plant food where needed. 

Phosphorus. Phosphorus in combined form is found in small quanti- 
ties in most all soils but rarely in sufficient quantities to fully meet the 
needs or growing plants. Nearly all soils will be highly benefited by the 
application of phosphates. 

Calcium and magnesium. These elements occur as carbonates in small 
quantities in most all soils and abundantly in some soils. Carbon dioxide 
and water form a soluble salt of these carbonates which can then be taken 
up by the roots of plants. These elements enter, for the most part, into 
the making of the seed of plants as is also the case of phosphorus. 

Potassium. This is also an essential element of plant food. Most of 
its compounds are readily soluble in water so that it easily leaches and is 
carried away by rain waters, making it necessary to continually apply 
potash to soils for best results. Ashes of land plants are rich in potash. 

Sulphur. This element occurs in soils in the form of snlfids usually 
of iron, or as sulfates of such materials as calcium, iron, and magnesium. 
The sulfates are readily soluble in water. 

Iron. This is an important plant food but it is so abundant in soils 
that there is no deficiency so far as the needs of plant growth are con- 
cerned. 

A number of other elements are also of more or less importance as 
plant foods, but for the most part they are in sufficient quantity in soils to 
meet the demands of growing plants. 

SOME GENERAL TYPES OF ARKANSAS SOILS 

It has been explained that soils vary in their characteristics according 
to the rocks from which they are derived, the amount of organic matter 
they contain, and the manner in which they have originated. Varying pro- 
portions of sand, clay, organic and mineral constituents and manner of 
origin make an endless variety of soils if minutely classified. For present 
needs we shall discuss only some of the larger groups of soils. 

Alluvial soils. The alluvial soils of our larger river valleys and flood 
plains come from many different kinds of rock and organic matter that is 
found over the drainage area of the river. The particles entering into 
these soils are fine and thoroughly mixed and are built up to considerable 
thickness. These soils are the most fertile of all our soils and they re- 
quire but little except proper tillage to make them produce heavily. The 
alluvial soils along our smaller water courses are very much like those 
just described except that the range of rock beds from which they come is 
more limited and the materials do not average quite so fine and the soils 
not so deep. While all the alluvial soils are fertile, thev, m a general way, 
decrease in fertility as the drainage area from which they are derived be- 
comes smaller. 



154 MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 

Soils of swamp lands and poorly drained areas. These soils have been 
formed on the outlying areas of river flood plains and represent the last 
sediments to settle from the flood waters, so the sediments are very fine 
and largely clay and organic matter. Vegetation growing over these low- 
lying areas continually adds to the soil partially decayed vegetable matter. 
These soils are sour or acid, but after proper drainage and heavy liming 
become very fertile soils. 

Residual soils. These form the greater part of our soils. As has been 
shown they vary according to the nature of the underlying rock from which 
they are derived. In the east, southeast, and west central parts of the 
state they are sandy or clayey soils. In northwest and southwest Arkan- 
sas they are sandy and clayey soils for the most part but considerable areas 
there have highly calcareous soils. The areas in which calcareous soils 
occur are shown on the accompanying map as areas that have limestone, 
chalk or marl beds. 

SOIL IMPROVEMENT BY THE APPLICATION OF LIME, CHALK, MARL 

AND PHOSPHATES 

Lime application to soil. Several references have already been made 
about certain effects that lime produces on the soil, but we may now review 
and group together these effects for a clearer exposition. Lime floculates clay 
and cements rock particles into larger grains, thus making the soil more 
porous, which condition allows better areation, easier tillage and penetra- 
tion for the roots of plants, easier absorption of rain waters, makes the soil 
less strong in capillary action thus decreasing loss of soil moisture through 
evaporation. Lime fosters nitrate production by making the soil neutral or 
alkaline, which condition is favorable for the life and activity of nitrate-pro- 
ducing bacteria, especially those forms that live on the roots of clover, alfal- 
fa, beans, peas and other leguminous plants. Lime "sweetens" the soil. Most 
plants do not thrive well in acid soils and the acid condition may be readily 
corrected by applying lime. Moreover, bacteria destructive to nitrates 
thrive in acid soils, so the liming prevents the destruction of nitrates. 
Liming promotes availability of phosphorus and potash by helping to con- 
vert unsoluble salts of those materials into soluble forms. Liming the soil 
where fruits are grown makes the fruits sweeter.* 

Liming of soils gives greater crop yields, as has been many times dem- 
onstrated at various agricultural stations. For example, at the Tennessee 
Agricultural Experiment Station* an application of two tons of ground lime- 
stone to the acre produced increases in the yield for eight years, as follows: 

*Ground limestone and prosperity on the farm, by C. A. Mooers, p. 194. 

Crop No. of Crops Increase per A. 

Cowpea hay 2 0.92 tons 

Wheat 2 6.10 bushels 

Clover hay 2 2.29 tons 

Cotton 1 . 46. Ibs. (seed cotton) 

Corn 1 6.10 bushels 

: It has also been shown by different experiments that the beneficial 
effects in crop production is cumulative. In other words, the second year 
after soil treatment greater increase of the crop will be' noted than was 
obtained the first year because the soil for the second year will have a bet- 
ter supply of nitrates than it had the first year. It is a common saying that 
"A limestone country is a rich country," and the truth of this statement is 
readily verified by observation. In the liming of our soils we practically 
convert our lands into a limestone soil country. 

Forms in which the lime may be applied. Either limestone, dolomite, 
or chalk may be used in liming soils and so far as results are concerned 



Soils, by Hilgrard, P- 380. 



Ground Limestone and Prosperity on the Farm, by C. A. Mooers, p. 194. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 155 

there is but little difference; however, it is important that the calcium con- 
tent of the soil be kept equal to or a little more than the magnesium con- 
tent. Most of our soils, so far as available analyses show, have slightly 
more magnesia than calcium, so it is better that our limestone or magnesian 
limestone should have a higher content of calcium than magnesium. 

For application these materials may be ground or crushed raw rock 
(the carbonate forms), or we may use burnt (quick) lime. If the latter 
form, it may be applied as air slacked lime, as ground quick lime or pre- 
pared hydrated lime. If the haulage is a long one it is sometimes better 
to use the quick lime, which is in the form of an oxide and weighs less for 
a given amount of available lime. For example in approximate terms two 
parts of oxide of lime (quick lime) are equivalent to three of hydrate or 
four of carbonate of lime. 

If the lime is applied as quick lime, either hydrated or oxide, it is 
soon converted to the carbonate form. 

Lime is leached from the soil very slowly, so that a single application 
of one-half to one ton of burnt lime or twice that amount of ground lime- 
stone (carbonate of lime) is sufficient to last for five to ten years for the 
average soil. If the soil is strongly acid more than the above named 
amounts will be required. A light sandy soil only slightly acid would not 
require as much as the heavier soils, for such a soil probably one-half a 
ton of lime oxide (quick iime) per acre, applied every five years, would be 
all that the soil would require. 

In applying the lime to the soil it should be distributed evenly. Thorough 
distribution in the soil to the depth of five or six inches is desirable, but 
distributed on the surface of freshly plowed ground usually proves satis- 
factory. 

Practically all our soils would be benefited by the application of lime, 
but some of the limestone soils of northwest and southwest parts of the 
state would need but little, if any. The swamp soils of eastern and south- 
eastern Arkansas stand in greater need of liming than any of the other 
soils. 

Available supplies of limeing materials. It is fortunate for the state 
that there are such great quantities of limestone, dolomite, and chalk in 
the state that are of excellent quality and easily accessible. The dolomite 
rock occurs in the northeast part of the area marked limestone bearing on 
the accompanying map. For use in the southern counties of the state the 
chalk deposits will be for the most part more accessible than the limestone 
of the northwestern part of the state. 

MARLS 

Marls. The marls of southwestern part of the state are adapted to use 
on soils in very much the same way as limestone, only the marls usually con- 
tain but forty to fifty per cent of lime carbonate and, so far as available 
analyses show, only about two-tenths of one per cent of phosphoric acid. 
These marls are easy to mine and handle, but because of low lime content 
in comparison to limestone and chalk, will not stand the long haulage that 
more concentrated lime bearing rocks will. 

Phosphates. Reference has already been made to the importance of 
phosphates in the soil for good crop production. From practical experience 
as well as theoretical calculations, it is found that nearly all soils are 
benefited by the applciation of phosphates. Where the soil is naturally cal- 
careous, or where lime has been liberally applied to the soil, it does not 
re.quire so much of the phosphates and where iron is abundant in the soil 
more phosphates are required. Phosphates may be applied to the soil as 
the ground raw phosphate rock or as prepared acid phosphate. The latter 
is more readily available as plant food. 

So far as present investigations have been made the only source of 
commercial phosphate rock in the state is the phosphate beds in the Bates- 
ville region shown on the accompanying map. 

The phosphates of this area run rather high in iron and the beds that 
have a fairly high phosphorus content are not very thick; it is believed, 
however, that these deposits will prove of much help in making the soils 
of the state of greater productive value. 



156 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 




Area of Surveyed Soils in Arkansas 



SOIL SURVEYS BY THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT 

The state has made no soil surveys in Arkansas, although considerable 
work has been done in soil study and fertilizer experiments under the 
direction of the State Experiment Station at Fayetteville. The United 
States Bureau of Soils has completed detailed soil surveys in fifteen dif- 
ferent areas in as many different counties, has made a general soil recon- 
naissance of the Ozark region (north from the Arkansas river and west 
from. the main line of the Missouri Pacific railroad) and has surveys in 
progress in three other counties. The surveyed area is shown in the accom- 
panying map. The list of soil survey bulletins, copies of which may be ob- 
tained on request from the U. S. Bureau of Soils, Washington, D. C., follows: 

Ashley County, by E. S. Vanatta, B. D. Gilbert, E. B. Watson, and A. H. 
Meyer, 1914. 

Columbia County, by Clarence Lonnsbury and E. B. Deeter, 1910. 

Craig-head County, by E. B. Deeter and L. Vincent Davis, 1917. 

Conway County, by Jas. L. Burgess and Chas. W. Ely, 1908. 

Howard ounty, by M. W. Beck, M. Y. Long-acre, F. A. Hayes and W. T. 
Carter, Jr., 1919. 

Fayetteville Area, by Henry Wilder and Chas. F. Shaw, 1907. 

Hempstead County, by Arthur E. Taylor and W. B. Cook, 1917. 

Jefferson County, by B. W. Tillman, G. G. Strickland and others, 1916. 

Mississippi County, by E. C. Hall, T. M. Bushnell, L. V. Davis, Wm. T. 
Carter, Jr., and A. L. Patrick. 

Ozark Region of Missouri and Arkansas, by Curtis F. Marbut, 1914. 

Pope County, by Clarence Lonnsbury and E. B. Deeter, 1915. 

Prairie County, by Wm. T. Carter, Jr., F. N. Meeker, Howard C. Smith and 
E. L. Worthen, 1907. 

Stuttgart Area. 

Yell County, by E. B. Deeter and Clarence Lonnsbury, 1917. 

Faulkner County, by E. B. Deeter and H. I. Cohen. 

Drew County, by B. W. Tillman. 

Perry County, in progress. 

Lonoke County, in progress. 

Pulaski County, in progress. 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



157 



INDEX 



Actinolite 38 

Aegirite 38 

Agalmatolite 38 

Agarie Mineral 38 

Agate 38 

Agricultural Marls and Chalk 

Cretaceous Marls 38 

Chalk or Lime Marls 39 

Albite 39 

Allophane 39 

Almandite 39 

Aluminite 39 

Alunogen 39 

Ankerite 39 

Antimony 39 



Barite 42 

Bartholomite 42 

Basanite 42 

Batesville Sandstone 23 

Bauxite 42 

Bibliography of Arkansas 

Geology 33 

Bigfork Chert 26 

Bingen Formation 31 

Biotite 43 

Blakely Sandstone 26 



B 



Apatite 40 

Aplome 40 

Aprodite 40 

Aragonite 40 

Arkansite 40 

Arkansas Valley Region 29 

Aikadelphia Clay 32 

Arkansas Novaculite 27 

Asbolite 40 

Asphalt 40 

Atoka Formation 29 

Augite :... 42 

Austin ("Anonna") Chalk 31 

Aventurine Quartz 42 



Blaylock Sandstone 27 

Boone Formation 21 

Brassfield Limestone 21 

Braunite 43 

Breunerite 43 

Brookite 43 

Brownstown Marl 31 

Brucite 43 

Building Stone 

See Granite, Marble, Lime- 
stone and Sandstone. 



Cambrian System 25 

Carboniferous System 21-28-29 

Cason Shale 20 

Celestite 45 

Cement Materials 43 

Chalcopyrite 44 

Chalk 44 

Chattanooga Shale 21 

Chrysolite 44 

Cinnamon Stone 45 

Clays 45 

Clifty Limestone 21 



Coal 47 

Analyses of Coals 48 

List of Coal Operators 49 

Coccolite _ 46 

Collier Shale 25 

Copper 46 

Copperas 46 

Cotter Dolomite 46 

Counties of Arkansas and 

Their Principal Minerals 36 

Cretaceous System 30 

Crystal Mountain Sandstone .... 26 



Devonian System 21-27 

Diamonds 55 

Diamond Cave Newton County 108 

Dog-tooth Spar 56 

Dolomite .. 56 



Eleolite 

Eocene Series 



56 
32 



E 



Directory 

State Officials Connected 
with the Mining Industry 5 

Officials of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey 5 

Officials of the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines .. 5 



Epsom Salt 56 

Everton Limestone 18 



158 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



Fahlunite 56 

Fayetteville Shale 23 

Feravale Limestone 20 

Fire Clay 45 



Fluospar 56 

Freibergite 56 

Florite (Opal) 56 

Fullers Earth ... 56 



Garnet ... 57 

Gas 72 

Geologic Reports 

List of Arkansas Publications 147 
List of U. S. Geological 

Survey Publications 148 

Geology and General Topo- 
graphic Features 11 

Geyserite 57 

Girasol (Opal) 57 



Glass Sand 57 

Gold 59 

Goodland Limestone 30 

Graphite ' 59 

Granite (Syenite) 59 

Gravel 6C 

Greenockite 60 

Grossularite 60 

Gulf Costal Plain SO 

Gypsum 60 



Halotrichite 61 

Hartshorne Sandstone 29 

Hornblende 61 

Hot Springs of Arkansas 105 



Hot Springs Sandstone 28 

Hydrotitanite 61 

Hypersthene 61 



Introduction Importance of 

Arkansas as a Mining State 7 
Idocrase 61 



lolite 

Iron 

Iron Pyrites 



61 
61 
62 



Jackfork Sandstone 28-29 

Jasper Limestone , 19 

Jasper 62 



Kaolin . 



K 



Jeffersite 62 

Jefferson City Dolomite 16 

Joachim Limestone 19 



Kimmswick Limestone ... 20 



Labradorite 62 

Lafferty Limestone 21 

Laws, Federal 

Mining Law, Synopsis of 109 

Coal Mining Leases Ill 

Oil Shale Leases Ill 

Mineral Lands Within Na- 
tional Forests 110 

Laws, State 

Recording of Government 

Mining Claims Ill 

Creating Bureau of Mines, 
Manufactures and Agri- 
culture 113 

Creating Arkansas Geologi- 
cal Commission 115 

Relating to the Taking of 
Sand, Gravel and Coal 

from River Beds 116 

Water Power Rights 116 

Providing for Co-operative 

Soil Survey 118 



Mine Inspection Law 120 

Creating Coal Mine Exam- 
ing Board 130 

For the Conservation of Oil 

and Gas 132 

Regulation of Pipe Lines 137 

Requiring Release of For- 
feited Leases 139 

Permitting Guardians to 
Release Mineral Rights 

of Wards 139 

Synopsis of Oil and Gas In- 
spection Laws 140 

Synopsis of Arkansas Blue 

Sky Law 141 

Lead 62 

Leucite Rock 94 

Lignite 63 

Limestone Building (see Marbles) 

Limestone for Lime 64 

Lithographic Stone 64 

Lower Cretaceous Series 30 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



159 



M 



Magnet Cove 

Magnetite 

Malachite 

Manganese 

Marbles 

Marlbrook Marl 

Marls (see Agricultural Marls 
and Chalk) 

Mazarn Shale 

McAlester Group 

Melanite 

Melanterite . 



Nacatoch Sand ... 

Natural Gas 

Newtonite . 



107 
64 
64 
64 
68 
31 



26 
29 
69 
69 



32 

72 



N 



Mellite (Honey Stone) 69 

Mica (Biotite) 69 

Microcline 69 

Minerals, List of by Counties....35-38 

Mining Laws 109 

Mississippian Series 21-28-29 

Missouri Mountain Slate 27 

Moorefield Shale 23 

Morrow Group 25 

Mounds, Theory as to Their 
Origin . 107 



Nitre ('Saltpeter) 69 

Novaculite (Whetstone) 69 



Ochre 70 

Ochtahedrite 70 

Oil (see Petroleum) 72 

Oil Shales 70 

Oilstone 69 

Oligoclase 70 

Onyx 70 



Opal : 70 

Ordovician System 16-26 

Orthoclase (Potash Feldspar).. 70 

Ozark Region, Geology of 16 

Ozarkite 70 

Cuachita Mountain Region .... 25 



Paint Materials 71 

Pealite 71 

Pearls 93 

Penters Chert 21 

Perofskite 93 

Pennsylvanian System 25-29 

Permanent Geological Survey.. 10 

Petroleum 72 

Phosphates 93 

Finite ... 94 



Pitkin Limestone 

Plattin Limestone 

Pliocene Series 

Polk Creek Shale 

Potash (from Leucite Rock) 

Powell Limestone 

Precious Stones 

Pseudobrookite 

Pyrophyllite 

Pyroxene 



25 
19 
33 
26 
94 
17 
94 
95 
95 
96 



Quaternary System. 



33 



Quartz Crystals 95 



Rectorite 95 

Road Making Materials ... 95 



Sandstone 98 

Savanna Formation 30 

Schorlomite 99 

Serpentine 99 

Silex 99 

Silurian System 21-27 

Silver 99 

Slate 101 

Smoky Quartz 101 

Soapstone . 102 



s 



Rutile . 98 



Soils 

Soils and Soil-Building Ma- 
terials in Arkansas 151 

Soil Surveys by the Federal 

Government 156 

Stanley Shale 28 

Stannite 102 

St. Clair Limestone 21 

St. Peter Sandstone 18 

Sulphur 102 

Sunstone 102 

Syenite (see Granite) 59 



160 



MINERALS IN ARKANSAS 



Talc (Shale) 102 

Table of Contents 3 

Tertiary System 32 

Thuringite 102 



Upper Cretaceous Series 31 



u 



Topography General Features 11 

Travertine 102 

Trinity Formation 30 

Tripoli 102 



Varsicite 103 Vesuvianite 



103 



Washita Group 31 

Water Resources 103 

Water Power Rights 116 

Wavellite .. . 106 



w 



What the Geologists Say 
About Oil and Gas Pros- 
pects in Different Counties.... 77 
Whetstone (see Novaculite).... 69 

Winslow Formation 25 

Womble Shale .. 26 



Zinc 



106 



JANUARY 1930GV 

T0 DEPARTMENT OF 

ral Economics^ 

and 

Sociology 

College of Agriculture, 
UNIVERSITY OF 7jL 



YCJ00099 



M294837